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Including Eluctdations of the moft important Topics relative to Religion, Morals, Mankers, 

and the Oeconomy of Life : 


A Description of all die Countries, Cities, principal Mountains, Sea;, Rivers, tSjc. 

tliroughout the World; 

A General History, ylnchit and Modern, of the different Empires, Kingdoms, and States ; 


An Account of the Lives of the moft Eminent Perfcns in every Nation, 
from the earlieft ages down to the prefent times. 

Com)iileii from the writings of the bcfl; Authors, in fevcral languages; the moft approved Dlilionaries, a< well of gcneril fcienec as of its 

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INVOCtl niSC.i^T, t-T ylMFNT A/A' \/;.V/,UK IFKI^I. 

P H I L y/ D L I. P 1/ I y! .■ 


M . D C r. \ C V I I I . 

[Copy-Right fcciircd according to Ln:.'] 







BARBAR.US (Francis), a noble Venetian, was a 
man of great fame in the 15th century, not only for 
earning, but likewife for a fkilful addrefs in the ma- 
nagement of public aifairs. He is author of a book Di 
Ri Uxoria, and fome fpeeches. 

Barbarus (Hermolaus), grandfon of the preceding, 
one of the moll; learned men in the ijth century. The 
public employments he was entrufted with early, did 
not prevent him from cultivating polite learning with 
great application. As he was very Ikilful in the Greek, 
he undertook the moft difficult tranflations, and began 
with a famous paraphr.ife upon Ariflotlc. He then 
attempicd Diofcoridcs, whofe text he corredlcd, gave 
a tranflation of him, and added a commentary. But 
of all his works, there is none which has gained himfo 
much reputation as that which he made upon Pliny ; 
he corrctted in him above 5000 palFages, and occa- 
I'lonally rcflored 300 in Pomponius Mela. Pope In- 
nocent VIII. to whom he was ambalfador, conferred 
the patriarchate of Aquileia iipon him. He was fo 
imprudent as to accept of it without waiting for the 
confent of his fuperiors ; though he could not be ig- 
norant that the republic of Venice had made laws to 
forbid all the minifters they fent to the court of Rome 
to accept any benefice. His fuperiors were inflexible ; 
and not being able to gain any thing upon them either 
by his flattery or his father's interell, the father died 
of grief, and the Ton foon followed him. 

Barbarus (Daniel), of the fame family with the 
preceding, was patriarch of Aquileia, and famous for 
his learning. He was ambaliador from Venice to 
England ; and was one of the fathers of the council of 
Trent, where he afted with great zeal for the interefl 
of the pope. He wrote, i. A commentary upon Vi- 
truvius. 2. Catena Crttconim Patru?/i in quinquagin- 
ta Pfalvios Latine verfa. 3. La Prattica della Per- 
fpifiiva. He died in i5^'9, at 41 years of age. 

BARDARY, a kingdom of Africa, including the 
flaies of Algiers, Morocco, Tripoli, and Tunis ; (fee 
thofc articles). This country contains almoll the whole 
1 of what the Romans pollened of the continent of A- 
£xtem,&c. frica, excepting Egypt. It ftrctchcs itfclf in length 
from call to weft, beginning at the fouthern limits of 
Egypt, to the ftraits of Gibraltar, full 35 degrees of 
longitude, and from ihcnce to Santa Cruz, the lumofl 
wcilern edge of it, about 6 more, in all 41 degrees; 
fo that the utmofl length of Barbary from cart to weft 
is CKPiputed at about 7J9 German leagues. On the 
fouih, indeed, it is coiilincd within much narrower 
bounds, extending no farther than from 27 to ;;;;. de- 
grees of north latitude ; lb tjiat its utmofl brcadih from 
Vol. III. 


north to fouth, does not exceed 128 German miles. Barbsry. 
More particularly, Barbary begins on the weft of the *— — v— ^ 
famed mount Atlas, called by the Arabs Ay Duacal, 
or Al Duacal, inclofmg the ancient kingdoms of Suez 
and Dela, now provinces of Morocco; thence ftretch- 
ing north-eaftward along the Atlantic to the pillars of 
Hercules at Cape Kinifterre, then along the coaft of the 
Mediterranean, it is at lall bounded by the city of A- 
lexandria in Egypt. j 

Concerning the origin of the name Barbary, there Whence 
are many conjeftures. According to fome, the Ro-'nanit'J' 
mans, after they had conquered this large country, 
gave it that name out of contempt and dillike to the 
barbarous manners of the natives, according to their 
cuftoni of calling all other people but thcmfclves£«r- 
barians. Marmol, on the contrary, derives the word 
Barbary from Berber, a name which the Arabs gave 
to its ancient inhabitants, and which they retain to 
this day in many pans of the country, efpecially along 
the great ridge of the mountains of Atlas ; and whicli 
name was given them on account of the barrennefs of 
their country. According to Leo Africanus, the name 
of Barbary was given by the Arabs on account of the 
ftrange language of the natives, which appeared to 
them more like a murmur or grumbling of fome brute 
animals than articulate founds. Others, however, de- 
rive it from the Arabic word bar, lignifying a defart, 
twice repeated ; which was given by one Ifric, or A- 
fricus, a king of Arabia, from whom the whole conti- 
nent of Africa is pretended to have taken its name. 
According to them, this king being driven out of his 
own dominions, and cloftly purfued by his enemies, fome 
of his retinue called out to him Bar, bar ; that is, Ta 
the defart, to the defart ; from which the country was 
afterwards called Barbary. j 

Among the Romans this country was divided intoSubjeatu 
the provinces of Mauritania, Africa Propria, &c. and the Ro- 
they continued abfolute mafters of it from the time of ni»n«. 
Julius Cxiix till the year of Chrift 428. At that time 
Bonifacius the Roman governor of thefe provinces, 
having through the treachery of ^lius been forced 10 ^ 
revolt, called in to his aliiftance Gcnfcric king of the r-onifaciuj 
Vandals, wiio had been fome time fettled in Spain. calU in the 
The terms offered, according to Procopius, were, ihat Vaudils. 
Genferic lliould have two-thirds, and Bonifacius one- 
third of Africa, provided they could maintain them- 
fclvcs againft the Roman power; and to .iccompliflitbis 
they were 10 afllft each other to the utmoft. — This prc- 
pofal was inflantly complied with, and Gcnfcric fct fail 
from Spain iu May 428, with an army of 80,000 men, 
according to fome, or only 24,000 according to o- 
A (hers, 







to perfuatic 
thfiu tn rc- 


Itlng of the 

Peace con- 
cluded with 
the Van- 


thers, togciher with ilicir wives, chiKlren, sndall their 
ctfci5ts. lii ilic nuaa time, liowcvtr, the em|irefs Pl.i- 
ciJia having ililcovered the true ciiifc of lioiiitaciiis's 
revolt, wrote a moll kind and obli;;iiig letter to hiin, 
in wliich Ihe airirtd him oi her favour and proteclioii 
for the future, exhorting him to return to his diuy,aiid 
txcri his ufual zeal for the welfare of the empire, by 
driving out tlie Barbarians whom the malice of his 
{•neniiis had obliged him to call ni lor his own fafety 
and prcfervaiion. 

Bonilacius readily complied with this rcqiicll, and 
oiTercd the Vandals conlidcrable Aims if they would 
retire out of Africa and return to Spain. But Genfc- 
ric already maftcr of the greatell part of the country, 
(iril returneil a fcotling aiifwcr, and then, falling uiiex- 
peOlcdly on hiui cut molt of his men in pieces, and 
obliged Bonifacius himfelf to fly to Hippo, which place 
he inverted in May 450. The ficge lalkd lill the 
month of July tiic following year; when the \'andals 
were forced by a famine that began to rage in liieir 
camp, to drop the cntcrprize and retire. Soon after, 
Bonifacius having received two reinforcements, one 
from Rome, and the other, under the condiu't of the 
celebrated Afy;\r, from Conflaniinople, a refokuion 
was taken by the Roman generals to offer the enemy 
battle. The Vandals readily accepting the challenge, a 
bloody engagement cnfucd, in which the Romans were 
utterly defeated, a prodigious number of them taken, 
and the red obliged to llieltcr themfelves among the 
rocks and mountains. Afpar, who commanded the 
eaftcrn troops, efcaped with dilRculty to Conftanti- 
nople, and Bonifacius was recalled to Italy. Upon 
ihcir departure, the Vandals over-ran all Africa, com- 
mitting every where the mod terrible ravages; which 
ftruck the inhabitants of Hippo with fuch terror, thpt 
they abandoned their city, which was firft plundered, 
and then fet on fire by the viftorious enemy ; fo that 
Cirtha and Carthage were now the only flrong places 
poirciTed by the Romans. 

In 435, Genfcric, probably being afraid of an at- 
tack by tlic united forces of the eaftern and weflern 
empires, concluded a peace with the Romans, who 
yielded to him part of Numidia, the province of Pro- 
confularis, and likewife Byzacenc ; for which, accord- 
ing to Profpcr, he was to pay a yearly tribute to the 
emperor of the eaft. Genfcric delivered up his fon 
Huincric bv way of hoftage, but fo great was the 
confidence which the Romans placed in this Barbarian, 
that fonie time after they fent him back his fon. Of 
this they foon had rcafon to repent, for in 439, the 
Romans being engaged in a war with the Goths in 
Gaul, Genferic laid hold of that opportunity to fcize 
upon the city of Carthage ; by which he confulerably 
enlarged his .African dominions. \'alentinian, the Ro- 
man emperor, however, maintained as long as he lived, 
die two Mauritanias, with Tripolitana, Tingitana, and 
that part of Numidia where Cirtha flood. 

On the taking of Carthage, Genferic made it the 
feat of his empire ; and in 440 made a defcent on the 
illand of Sicily, where he ravaged the open country, 
and even laid fiege to Palermo. Not being able, how- 
ever, to reduce that place, he foon returned to Africa 
with an immenfe booty, and a valf number of captives. 
Being now become formidable to both empires, Theo- 
dolius emperor of the eaft refolvcd to aOiil \'alentinian 

againfi fo powerful an enemy. Accordingly, he fitted Earbary. 

out a fleet coulifting of 1 100 large fltips ; and putting ' ■^ ' 

on board of it the tiower of his army, under the con- 
duct of Arcoviudas, Aiililus, and Gcrmanus, he or- 
dered them to land in Africa, and, joining the wclteru 
forces there, to drive Genfcric out of ihe countries he 
had fei/.ed. But Genferic in the mean time pretending 
a delire to be reconciled with l)oth empires, amufed 
the Roman general with propofals of peace, lill the 
feafon for adion was over: and, next year, Theodo- 
fius being obliged to recall his forces to oppofe ihe 
Huns, Valentinian found it neceflary to conclude a 
peace with the Vandals ; and this he could obtain on 
no other terms than yielding to them the quiet poflel- 
fion o( the countries they had fcized. 

So powerful was Genferic now become, or rather 
fo low was the Roman empire by this time reduced, 
that in 45 5, he he took and plundered the city ol Rome 
itfelf, as fully related under ihc article Rome; and, 
after his return to Africa, made himfdf mailer of the 
remaining countries held by the Romans in that part . 
of the world. Hereupon Avitiis, who had fuccecded Makes 
X'aleniinian in the empire, difpatched amball'adors 10 himfilfmi- 
Genferic, putting him in mind of the treaty he had '^•^'■"f ^" 
concluded with the empire in 442; and threatening, if l^"m»» 
he did not obfcrve the articles at that time agreed up- ''"'^' "'" 
on, to make war upon him not only with his own for- 
ces, but with thofc of his allies the Vifigoths, who 
were ready to pafs over into Africa. To this Genferic 
was fo far from paying any regard, that he immediate- jg 
ly put to fca with a fleet of 60 fliips ; but being at- Defcattdliy 
tacked by the Roman fleet under Ricimer, he was ui- Ricimcr 
telly defeated, and forced to lly back into Africa : he "'"' Maj*- 
returned, however, foon after with a more powerful ''""us. 
Hcet, committing great ravages on the coaft ol Italy; 
but in a fecond expedition he was not ittcnded with lb 
good fucccfs; the Romans falling unexpcfledly upon 
his men while bulled in pUmdring the country, put 
great numbers of them to the fword, and among the 
refl the brother-in-law of Genferic himfelf. Not con- 
tent with this fniall advantage, Majorianus, at that 
time emperor, refolved to pals over into Africa, and 
attempt the recovery of that country. For this pur- 
pofe he made great preparations; but his fleet being 
furprifed and defeated by the Vandals, through the 
treachery, it is laid, of fomc of his commanders, the 
cntcrprile mifcarried. 

Notwithllanding this misfortune, however, Majo- 
rianus perlifled in his rcfoluiion; and would in all like- 
lihood have accompliflied his purpofe, had not he him- 
felf been murdered foon after by Ricimer. After his 
death, Genferic committed what ravages he pleafed in 
the poor remains of the weflern empire, and even made 
defcents on Peloponneftis, and the iflauds belonging to jj 
the emperor of Conllantinople. To avenge this affront, Genferic 
Leo made vafl preparations for the invafion of Africa, defeats the 
infomuch, that, according to Procopius, he laid out '='''"'n cm- 
I ;o,ooo pounds weight of gold in the equipment of his P^'''"' ' 
army and navy. The forces employed on this occafion 
were fujHrient for expelling the Vandals, had thty 
been much more powerful than they were ; but the 
command being given to Bafilifcus a covetous and am- 
bitious man, the fleet was utterly defeated through his 
treachery, and all the vafl preparationscametonoihing. 
By this laft defeat the power of the Vandals in Africa 





Hunneric i 
bloody ty- 

HIi terrible 
* Soe Ai iui 

tkpofcil by 

invades A- 

BAR [ , 

was fully eRabliilied, anJ Gcnfcric made liimfclf raaflcr 

of Sicily, as well as of all the oilier id.inds between 

Italy and Africa, without oppolition from tlic wcdcrn 

.emperors, whofc power was entirely taken away in the 

-year 476. 

Tims was the Vandalic monarchy in Barbary founded 
by Geuferic, between the years 42S and 468. Ifwc 
take a view of that prince's government in his new do- 
minions, it prcfents no very agreeable profpcct. Being 
himfelf an abfoluie babarian in the Ihictefl fcni'e of the 
word, and an ntter rtrani;er to every ufeful art, he did 
not fail to Ihow his own prowefs by liie dellruCfion of 
all the monuments of Roman greatncfs which were (o 
numerous in the country he had conquered. Accord- 
ingly, inftead of improving his country, he laid it 
walle, by demolilhing all the Itatcly ftniftures boih 
public and private, and all other valuable and fump- 
tiious works with which thofc proud conquerors had 
adorned this part of their dominions. So that, what 
ever monuments the Romans had been at fuch an im- 
inenfe expencc to erect, in order to eternize their own 
glory, the barbarous Vandals were now at no lefs pains 
to reduce into heaps of ruins. Kelides this kind of 
devaflation, Genferic made his domonions a fcene of 
blood and llan;;hter, by perfecuting the orthodox 
Chriftians ; being himfelf, as well as moll of his coun- 
trymen, a zealous Arian ; and for this his long 
reign is chiefly remarkable. He died in 477, after a 
reign of 60 years ; and was fucceeded by his fon Hun- 

The new king proved yet a greater tyrant than his 
father, perfecuting the orthodox with the uimolt fury; 
and, during his lliort reign of fevcn years and an half 
destroyed more of them than Genferic had done in all 
his life time. He is faid to have died in the fame man- 
ner as the herefiarch Arius*; before which time his 
Helh had been rotting upon his bones, and cj-awling 
with worms, fo that he looked more like a dead car- 
cafe than a living man. Concerning his fuccellbrs Gu- 
lamniid, Thrafamund, and Hildcric, we find nothing 
remarkable, except that liicy fomelinies perfccuted, 
and fometimts were favorable to, the orthodox; and 
by his favour for them the lad king was ruined. For, 
having unadvifrdly pubiilhed, in the beginning of his 
reign, a manifcllo, wherein he repealed all the ai5ts of 
hi-s predccelfors againll the orthodox, a rebellion was 
the immediate confequence. At the head of the male- 
contents was one Gilimer, or Gildemar, a prince of 
the blood-royul, who by degrees became fo powerful, 
as to depofe Hilderic in the fevemh year of his reign ; 
after which he canfed the unhappy monarch with all 
liisfamily tobcclofelyconfinrd, and was himfelf crown- 
ed kiiig of the Vandals at Carihasre. 

Giiimer proved a greater tyrant than any that had 
g.^iic before him. H; not only crucllv perfccuted the 
orrho.lox, but horrib'y opjirrli'ed all the rel', fo^ihit 
he wa; held in univerfal ibhorrcnce in\ delegation 
when iheGreck emperor Jiltiniin pioic>.'ted an invafioii 
of .^.iVica. This expedition of Jullinian's is faid to 
have been occafione J by an of Laetus an 
African bilhop, who had been murden d fonic time be- 
fore, but now commaideil the emperor to attempt the 
reovrry of Africa, aid alFured him of fuccefs. Ac- 
cordingly, this, or fome other motive, prevailed upon 
Jiiftiaiaa fo far, that, not*itbilaiiding his being at that 



time engaged in a war with Perda, he fent a power- Barbary.- 

ful rieel and army to Africa, under the command of " — ' 

the celebrated general Bclifaritis, who was for that 
reafon recalled from Perfia. 

So much was Gilimer, all this time, taken up with 
his own pleafurcs, or with opprclfing his fubje(Jls, that 
he knew lit;le or nothing of the formidable prepara- 
tions that were making againrt him. On the arrival of 
Belil'arius, however, he was conftrained to put himfelf 
into a pollurc of defence. The management of his 
army he committed to his two brothers Gundimer and 
Gelamund, who accordingly attacked the Romans at 
the head of a numerous force. The engagement was iS 
long and bloody ; but at laft the Vandals were defeated, Dcfeamhe 
and the two princes llain. Giiimer, grown dcfperate ^'*°<^*'»' 
at this news, fallied out at the head of his corps dc rc- 
ferve, with full p.irpofe to renew the attack with the 
utmolt vigour ; but by his own indilcretion loft a fair 
opportunity of defeating the Romans. For no fooner 
did they perceive Gilimer hallening after them at the 
head of a frelh army, than they betook themfelves to 
flight ; and the greateil p.'.rt were difperfcd in fuch a 
manner, that, had the king followed them dole, they 
mull have been totally cut off. Inftead of this, how- 
ever. Humbling unfortunately on the body of one of his 
fliin brothers, the fight of it made him lofe all thoughts 
about the enemy; and inllead of purfuing them, he 
fpent part of his time in idle lamentations, and pan in 
burying the corpfe with fuitable pomp and dignity. 
By this means Belifarius had an opportunity of rally- 
ing liis men ; which he did fo etfedually, that, coming 
unexpcv?ledly upon Gilimer, he cafily gained a new and 
complete vit'lory over him. jj 

Tliis defeat was followed by the lofs of Carthage, Takes C»r- 
which the barbarians hnd been at no pains to put into 'hage. 
a pollure of delciicc. Alter which Giiimer, having in 
vain endeavoured toobrain afilllance from the MoorsanJ 
Goths; was obliged to rccal his brother Tzafon from 
Sardinia. The meeting between the two brother was 
very mournful; bin they foon came to a refulution of 
making one defpcrate attempt to regain the loll king- 
dom, or at leaft recover their captives out of the hands 
of the enemy. The confequence of this refolution was 
another engagement, in which Tzalbn was killed with 
800 of his choiccll men, while the Romans luft no 
more than 50; alter which Belifarius moving fudden- 
ly forward at the head of all his army, fell upon th« 
camp of the Vandals. This Gilimer was no fooocr ap- 
prifed of, than, wiihout ftaying to give any more orders 
to the reft of his army, he fled towards Numidia in the 
ntmoft conftcrnation. His tliglit was not immediate- 
ly known among his troops; but when it was, fuch an 
iiniverfal confiifioii enfued, that they abandoned their 
camp to the Romans, who had now nothing to do but 
pl.iiidcr it ; and not content with this, iluy mafTaercd 
all the men found in it, carrying away the women cap- 
tives. 20 

Thus a total end was put to the power of ihe Van- And pun 
dais in Barbary, and the Romans once more became »"<•"'* »' 
mailers of ihiscouniry. The Vandal inhabitams were '.*"^^'^'"."t' 
permiited 10 remain as they were, on condition of ex- ^| 
changing the herefy of Arius for the orthodox faith. 
As for Gilimer, he tied wiih the utmoft rxprdiiion to 
Medainus, a town iltuated on- the lop of the Pappuau 
mountain, and alinoll inaccelTible by reafon of it» 
A a height 

lie niocar- 


[ 4 ] 


txircme di' 

Parbary. height and rafn^cdiiefs. The licge of this place was 

" ' coinmitied lo Pharas, an ollictr of" great experience, 

who iiaviog ihiit up all avenues to ihc town, llic un- 
happy Gilimcr was reduced to the {;rcateft llraiis for 
want of provifions. I'haras being foon apprifed of the 
diftrcfs he was in, wrote him a moll friendly and pa- 
thetic letter, earncllly exhorting him to put an end to 
tlie diftrefs of liimfclfaiid his friends by a furrendcr. 
This Gilimcr declined ; bat at the fame time concluded 
his anfwev with a moll fiibmiinvr rcqutft, that I'haras 
woiild fo far piiy liis great diftrcfs as to fend him a loaf 
of bread, a fponge, and a luic. Tliis flrange reiiueft 
greatly fiirprifed Pliaras ; but at lad it was explained 
by the mcirrnger, who told him that the king had not 
tafted any baked bread fmce his arrival on that moun- 
tain, and earneflly longed to eat a morfel of it before 
he died : the fponge he wanted to allay a tumour that 
was fallen on one of his eyes ; and the lute, on which 
he had learned to play, was to alTiIl him in fctting fomc 
elegiac vtrfcs lie had compofed on the fubjciJl of his 
misfortunes to a fuitable tune. At this nioarnful re- 
port Pharas could not refrain from tears, and imme- 
diately difpatchcd the nieffcDger with the things he 

Gilimcr had fpcnt near three winter months on the 
fummit of this inhofpitable mountain, his mifcry har- 
dening him ilill more againll the thoughts of furren- 
dering, when a melancholy fcene in his own family at 
once reconciled him to it. This was a bloody ftruggle 
between two boys, one of them his filler's Ion, about 
a flat bit of dough, laid on the coals ; which the one 
fcizeJ upon, burning hot as it was, and clapped it in- 
to his mouth ; bin the other by dint of blows forced it 
otu, and eat it from him. This quarrel, which might 
have ended fatally had not Gilimcr interpufcd, made fo 
deep an imprclRon upon him, that he immediately dif- 
patched a melfcnger to Pharas, acquainting him that 
he was willing to furrendcr himfclf and all his effcifls 
upon the conditions he had offered, as foon as he was 
alfurcd that they were embraced by Bclifarius. Pha- 
ras loll no lime to get them ratified and fcnt back to 
]iim ; after which he was conduced to Belifarius, who 
gave him a very kind reception. Gilimer was after- 
wards brought before Jullinian in golden chains, whom 
he bcfought in the moll fubmillive manner to fpare his 
life. This was readily granted by the emperor; who 
treated by alfo allowed him a handfome yearly penfion to live up- 
Juiliniau, on as a private gentleman. But his mind and heart 
were too much unfettled and broken to enjoy the fweets 
of a private flaie ; fo thatGilimer, opprelTed with grief, 
died in the year 534, the firfl of his captivity, and five 
years after he had been raifcd to the throne. 

Barbary being thus again reduced under the power 
4- of the Romans, its hiftory falls to be taken notice of 
Barhary under that of Rome. In the khalifat ol Omar, this 
fubducd by country was reduced by the Saracens, as we have al- 
thc Sara- j-eady related under the article Arabia. It continued 
""'■ fubject to the Lhalifs of Arabia and Bagdad till the 

reign of Harun A\ Ralhid, who having appointed I- 
brahim Elm A^lab governor of the wellcrn parts of 
his empire, that prttVd took the opportunity, firll 
of alfuming greater powers to himfelf than had been 
granted by the khalif, and then creeling a princi- 
pality altogether independent of the khalifs. The 
race of Aglab coaiiiiued to enjoy their new princjpa- 


city of the 

lily peaceably till the year of tlie Hegira 297 or :98, Barbary. 

during which time thty made fevcral defctnts on the ' '^~~' 

idand of Sicily, ami conquered part of it. About this 
time, however, one Obeidallah rebelled againll the 
houfe of Aglab, and aliiimcd the title of khalif of 
Kiiiin<an (the ancient Cyrcne, and rcfidencc of liic 
Aglabiie princes). To give the greater weight to his 
pretenfions he alfo took the furname of Al Mohdi, or 
Al Mahedi, the direfhr. According to iome, alio, he 
pretended to be defcended in a right line from Ali Ebn 
Abu Talcb, and Fatema the daughterof Mahomet ; for 
which reafon, fay they, the Arabs called him and his 
defcendants t'ateiiiitii. He likewifc encouraged him- 
felf and his followers by a traditional prophecy of Ma- 
homet, that at the end of 300 years the fun Ihould rife 15 
out of the weft. Having at length driven the Agla- Driven out 
bites into Egypt, where tliey became known by t'"^ Ij^^ilH"^* 
name of ]\Iagrchiai!s, he extended his dominions in ^.' ' '^. 
Africa and Sicily, making Kairwan the place of hisy^jj^uf 
rcfidencc. s6 

In the 300th year of the Hegira, ITabbafah, one Hisgeneral 
of Al Mohdi's generals, overthrew the khalif Al Mokh- Habbafah 
tadcr's forces in the neighbourhood of Barca, and""^'^"^* 
made himfclf mafter of that city. After which he re- ^''^^' 
ductd Alexandria itfelf ; and was making great pro- 
grefs in the conqucfl of the whole country, when Al 
Mokhiadcr difpatchcd againfl him his two generals 
Takin and Al Kafcm, with an army of 100,000 men. 
Mabbaf.ih being informed that the khalifs troops were 
in moiiiui, advanced at the liead of his army to give 
them battle, and at lafl came up with them in an illand 
called by the Arabs Aid Al Khmnfiii. Here he at- 
tacked them with incredible bravery, notwithftanding 
their force was much fupcrior to his ; but the approach 
of night obliged both generals to found a retreat. — 
The aftion therefore was by no means deciiive, tho' ex- 
tremely bloody, thekhalif'sgcncralshavinglofl 20,000, 
and Habbafah 10,000. The latter, liowever, duril not 
renew the tight next morning; but iloleoffin ilie night, 
and returned home, fothat AlMokhtadtr in cfTcifl gained 
a viflory. In the 502d year of the Hegira, however, 
Habbafah returned, polleired himfelf of Alexandria a 
fecond time, defeated a body of the khalifs forces, 
and killed 7000 of ihein upon the fpot. What fur- 
ther progrcfs he made at that time we are not certain- ^^ 
ly told ; but in tlie 307th year of the Hegira, Abul As does al« 
Kafcm, fon to the Fatemite khalif Al Mohdi, again fo his ion 
entered Egypt with an army of 100,000 men. At firft •'^''"' ^** 
he met with extraordinary fuccefs, and over-ran a con- • 
fiderable part of that fine country. He made himfelf 
mailer of Alexandria, Al Tayum, Al Baknafa, and the 
iflc of Al Alhmaryin, penetrating even to Al Jizah, 
where the khalifs army under the command of Munes 
was polled in order to oppofe him. In this country he 
found means to maintain himfelf till the 308th year jg 
of the Hegira. This year, however, he was entirely who is ut- 
dcfeaied by Munes, who made himfelf mailer of all his tcrly de- 
baggage, as well as of the plunder he had acquired ; featcd by 
and this blow obliged him to fly to Kairwan with the M"i>«*-j 
fliattcrcd remains of his army, where he remained with- 
out making any further attempt on Egypt. 

Al Mohdi, reigned 24 years ; and was fucceeded by 
his fon Abul Kafem abovemeniiontd, who then took 
the furname of /fl Kayeiii Mokdi. During liis reign 
we read of nothing remarkable, except the revolt of 


13 A R 

[ 5 ] 

B A R 


Al Manfur 

Earbary. one Yezid El)n Condat, a man of mean cxtraiflion, 
but who, haviiij; been raifcd to ilie dignity ordiancel- 
lor, found means to raife fuch a flrong party, tliat the 
khalif was obliged to ihut himfclf up iu tlie calUe of 
Mohedia. Y'eziil, being then at the head of a power- 
ful army, foon reduced the capital of Kairwan, the 
cities of Al Ilakkada and Tunis, and feveral other 
fortreiics. He was no lefs fuccefsful in defeating a 
conlldcrable number of troops which Al Kayem had 
raifcd and fent againft; him ; after which he cloftly be- 
fieged the khalif himfelf in die caftle where he had flwt 
himfelfup. The ficge continued feven months: du- 
ring which time the place was reduced to fuch Araits, 
that the khalif mull either have furrendered it or been 
ftarved, when deaili put an end to his anxiety in the 
12th year of his reigti, and 334th of the Hegira. 

Al Kayem was fuccceded by his fon Illimael, who 
immediately took upon himfclf the title o( yj/ Miujfur. 
This khalif thought proper to conceal the death of his 
father till he had made the preparations neceflary for 
reducing the rebels. In this he was fo fuccefsful, that 
he obliged Yezid to raife the fiege of Mohedia the fame 
year; and in the following gave him two great ovcr- 
tlirows, obliging him to Ihut himfelf up in the forirefs 
of Kothama, or Gutama, where he bcficgcd him in his 
turn. Yezid defended the place a long tiine wiili de- 
fperate bravery ; but finding the garrifon at lafl obliged 
to capitulate, he made fliift to efcape privately. Al 
Manfur immediately difpatclied a body offerees in pur- 
fiiit of him ; w"ho overtook, and brought him back in 
fetters; but not till after a vigorous defence, in which 
Y'czid received feveral dangerous wounds, of which he 
died in prifon. After his death, Al Manfur caufed his 
boily to be flayed and his fkin fhillcd and expofed to 
public view. Of Al Manfur's exploits in Sicily an ac- 
count is given under that article. Nothing farther re- 
markable happened in his African dominions; and lie 
died after a reign of feven years and 16 days in the 
34tfl of the Hegira. 

Al Manfur was fucceejed by his fon Abu Zamin 
Moad, who alfumcd the lurname of Al I\ht:z L^duiil- 
lah. He proved a very warlike prince, and maintained 
a bloody contefl with Abdalrahman, khalif of Anda- 
lufia : for a particular account of wliich fee the article 
Spain. In the 347th year of the Hegira, beginning 
March 25th, 95S, Al Moez fent a powerful army to tlie 
weftern extremity of Africa, under the command ofAbul 
Hafan Jawhar, one of his flaves, whom he had advan- 
ced to the dignity of Vizir. Jawhar lirll advanced to 
a city called Tahart, which he befieged for fome time 
inciFctTiiially. From thence he marched to Fez, and 
made the proper difpolitions for attacking that city. 
But finding that Ahmed Beer, the Emir of the 
place, was refolvcd to defend it to the lafl, he thought 
proper 10 abandon the enierprize. However, having 
iraverfed all the iraft between that capital and the At- 
lantic ocean, he again fit down before Fez, and took 
33 it by dorm the following year. 
He con- But the grean Q atciiiivement performed by this 

<iucr9 £- khalif was his couqiiell of Egypt, and ilic removal of the 
pyi"- khalifat to that country. This compiefl, though long 

projcftcd, he did not attempt till the year of the He- 
gira ^j8. Having then made all nectlTary preparations 
for it, he conimitied ihc care of that expedition to a 
faithful and cxpciienccd gcucral called Ciafar, or Jua' 


Death of 

Al Moez 



f^r; but in the mean time, this entcrprizc did not di- Barbary, 
vert Al Moez from the care of his oilier conqucfts, II 

particularly thofe of Sicily and Sardinia : to the lafl , 
of which he failed in the year of the Hegira 361, con- 
tinuing a whole year in it, and leaving the care of his 
African dominions to an experienced ofliccr named 
Yufif Ben Zeiri. He failed thence the following year 
for Tripoli in Barbary, where he had not llaid long 
before he received the agreeable news that his general 
had made himfelf mailer of Alexandria. He lofl no 
time, but immediately embarked for it, leaving the 
government of his old African dominions in the hands 
of his trufly fervant Yufef abovementioned, and arri- 
ving fafcly at that port was received with all the demon- And uanf- 
flrations of joy. Here he began to lay the foundations fcrithcfcat 
of his new Egyptian dynafty, which was to put a final "f g"vcrii- 
end to the old one of Kairwan after it Lad continued "''"' "" 
about 65 years. '''"' ""^ 

Al Moez preferved all his old dominions of Kair- ^' 
wan or Africa Proper. But the ambition or avarice of 
the governors whom he appointed fufTcred them to run 
quickly to a ihamefnl decay ; particularly the new and 
opulent metropolis of Mohedia, on which immenfe fimis 
had been lavilhed, as well as labour and care, fo as 10 
render it not only one of the richeft and flateliefl, bnt 
one of the Arongefl, cities in thev\orld : fothat we may 
truly fay, the wealth and fplendour of this once famed, 
though Ihort-lived (late, took their final leave of it with 
the departure of the khalif Al Moez, feeing the whole 
maritime traft from the Egyptian confines to the Straits 
of Gibraltar hath (Ince become the nefl of the moll 
odious piratical crew that can be imagined. 

Under the article Algiers we have given a fliori ac- 
count of the erciftion of a new kingdom in Barbary by 
Texefien ; which, however, is there no farther continued 
than is nccelfary for the proper underilanding the hi- 
ftory of that country. A general hiflory might here 
be given of the whole country of Barbary ; but as 
that would neceflarily occafion repetitions under the 
articles Morocco, Tripoli, Tunis, &c. we mufl 
refer to thofe articles for the hiflorical part, as well as 
for an account of the climate, inhabitants, &c. 

BARBATELLI (Bernardino), otherwife called 
Pochetti, a painterof hiflory, fruit, animals, and flowers, 
was born at Florence in IJ42. He was the difcip'c 
of Ridolfo Gliirlandaio at Florence ; from whofcfchool 
he went to Rome, and fludicd there wiili fuch uncom- 
mon adiduity, that he was frequently fo abflraifled, 
and fo ablblutely cngroffcd by the obje«.ts of his con- 
templations, as to forget the neceffary rcfrelhmcnts of 
flecp and food. He was excellent in painting every 
fjifcies of animals, fruit, or flowers ; and in thofe fub- 
jcds not only imitated, but equalled nature. His 
touch was free, light, and delicate, and the colouring 
of his objckls inexprcliibly true ; and, belide liis merit 
in his moll ufual ityle of painting, the hiftorical Aib- 
jccls which he dcfigned from facrcd or profane authors 
were much elltemed and admired. He died in 161 2. 

BARBE, orB.^RB. Sec B.arp. 

Barbe, in the military art. To fire in barbe, means 
to fire the cannon over the parapet, inftead of firing 
through tiie embrafurcs: in which cafe, the parapet 
niuft not be above three feet and a lialf high. 

Barbk, or Barpe, is an old word, denoting tl;e 
armour of the horfcs of the ancicm knights and foldiers, 


B A R 

[ 6 ] 


who were «ccoi\trcil at all pu.ins. It is fa'ul to liavc 
been an armour of iron and Icaihtr, wherewith the 
neck, brcall anil thotililcrs ot the horfe were covered. 

B.vKBE (St), a town of New Bifcay in Mexico, near 
which are rich filvtr mines. W. Long. 109. 55. N. 
Lat. 26. o. 

BARHKD, in a general feufc, bearded like a fifli- 
hook fct with birbs ; alfo Ihavcd ortrinimtd. 

Barreo aiii Cnjled, in heraldry, an appellation 
given to the combs and (jills of a cock, when particn- 
larizcJ for being of a ditfercnt tindiire from the body. 

hharbiti crtfi, is a crofs the extremities whereof 
are like the barbed irons ufcd for (Iriking of fifli. 

BARBEL, in ichil.ology. See Cytfini's. 

BAKBF.LICOTvt', an ancient feci of Gnoftics, 
fpokcn of by Theodorct. Their do<;irines were ab- 
fiird, and their ceremonies too abominable to be re- 

BARBER, one who makes a trade of Ihaving or 
trimming the beards of other men for money. An- 
ciently, a lute or viol, or fomefiich nmlical inllnimcnt, 
was part of the fiirniiiive of a barber's fliop, which was 
ufcd tlicn to be freqiicntcd by pcrfons above the onli- 
nary level of the people, who refortcd tothe barberci- 
thcr for the cure of wonnds, or to undergo fon\e chi- 
rurgical operations, or, as it was then called, 10 be 
irimm::d, a word that fignified cither lliaviiig or cutting 
and culling the hair; thefe, together wiih Icitin"; blood, 
were the ancient occupations of the barber-furgcon. 
As to the other important branch of furgery, the fel- 
ting of fraftured limbs, that was praiflifed by another 
cUfs of men, called bone-Jilhrs, of whom there are 
hardly any now remaining. The mufical inllruments 
in his Ihop were for the entertainment of waiting cuf- 
tomers ; aad anfwered the end of a newfpapcr, with 
which at this day thofe who wait for their turn at the 
barber's amufe themfelves. For the origin of the bar- 
ber's p'J:, fee the article Appellation. 

BARBERINI (Krancis), one of the moft excellent 
poets of his age, was born at Barberino, in Tufcany, 
in the year 1264. As his mother was of Florence, he 
fettled in that city ; where his profelFion of the law, 
but cfpecially the beauty of his poetry, raifed him a 
very confiderablc character. The greatefl part of his 
works are loft ; but that which is intitled the Prccefyts 
<>/ Loi't, which is a moral poem calculated to inftruft 
thofc in their duty who have a regard for glory, vir- 
tue, and eternity, has had a better fate. It was pub- 
lilhcd at Rome, adorned with beautiful figures, in 
1640, by Frederic Ubaldini : he prefixed the author's 
lite ; and, as there are in the poem many words which 
are grown obfolcte, he added a glofTary 10 explain 
them, which illiiflratcs the fcnfc by the authority of 
contemporary poets. 

BARBERINO, a town of Tufcany in Italy, ll- 
tuated at the foot of the Apennine mountains, in E. 
Long. 12. I J. N. Lat. 4?. 40. 

BARBERRY, in botany. SceBERDERis. 
B.ARBESUL (anc. p;ro^r.), a town and river of 
Jioeiica, an 1 a colony in the rcfort of the Conventus 
Gaditanns in Spain : now Marit//a in Grenada. 

B.'iRBET, in natural hiflory, a name given by M. 
Reaumur, and other of the French writers, to a pecu- 
liar fptcies of the worms which feed on the puccrons 
or aphides. See Aphis. 


BARBETS, the name of the inhabitants of fcveral Barbett. 
valleys in Piedmont, particularly thofe ot Lucern, An- II 
grona, Peruf.i, and St Martin. 

BARBEYRAt (John), was born in Beficrs in ~ 
Lower l.angucdoc in 1674. He was made profedbrof 
law and hiliory at Laufanne in 1 710 ; which he enjoy- 
ed for frvcn years, and during that time was three 
times rcilor : in 1717, he was profeflbrof public and 
private law at Croningen. Kc traiiHatcd iiito French 
the two celebrated works of Pufi'endorf, his Lttv of 
Nature and Natiom, and his Dutia tj a Mar. and a 
Citizen ; to both which he wrote excellent notes, and 
to the former an iniroduc^tory preface. He tranllated 
aUb Grotius's treatifc De Juro Belli ac Facis, with 
large and excellent notes ; and fcveral of Tillutfon's 
fernion's. He wrote a work entitled Trailc dc Jtu, 
2 vols. 8vo. 

BARBEZIEUX, a town of Sainionge in France, 
with the title of a marqnifate. It haih a m:inufa^urc 
of linen cloth ; and lies in AV. Long. o. j. N. Lat. 4J. 


BARBICAN, orBARBACAN. See Barracan. 

BARBIERI (Giovanni Franccfco), otherwife call- 
ed, CucrciiiO da Cento, an eminent hillorical painter, 
was born at Cento, a village not tar Irom Bologna, in 
1590. At firft he was the difciple ol Benedetto Gcn- 
nari j but he afterwards ftudied for fome time in the 
fchool of the Caracci, though he did not adopt ihe 
manner of that famous academy. He fcemed to pre- 
fer the (lylc of Caravaggio to that of Guido or Alba- 
no, imagining it impoflible to imitate nature truly, 
without the allift.ince of IhoHg lights and llrong Iha- 
dows ; and from that principle, his light was admitted 
into his painting room from above. In cficCf, by the 
oppolitton of his ftrong lights and fliadows, he gave 
fuch force to his picflmes, that few, txccpt thofe of 
Caravaggio, can fland near them, and not Icein feeble 
in tiieir effec-l : however, that manner is cenfurcd as 
not being like nature, becaufe it makes objeiJls appear 
as if they were fecn by candle light, or by the bright- 
nefs of a fim-beam, which alone can jullify the dcep- 
iiefs of his fliadowing. The principal atteniionofGu- 
crcino feems to have been fixed on arriving at perfec- 
tion in colouring ; he faw the altoni/hing t ffccfs pro- 
duced by the colouring of the celebrated Venetian 
mailers ; and obfervcd, that notwithllanding any im- 
perfc(^lions in regard to grace, corret'hiefs, or elegance, 
the works of ihofc maf'ers were the objcfts of univerfal 
admiration. From which obfervation, he feems to 
have devoted his whole Ihidy to excel in colotiring ; as 
if he were convinced, that few are qualified to difcerii 
the elevation of thought, which conflitiites the excel- 
lence of a compofition ; few may be touched with the 
grandeur or beauty of the defign, or perhaps have a ca- 
pacity to examine even the corredncfs of any part of a 
painting; and yet every eye, and even every imperfect 
judge of a pidurc, may be fenlibly affeiMcd by the 
force and beauty of the colouring. His taflc of defign 
was natural, eafy, and often grand, but without any 
extraordinary fliare of elevation, corrednefs, or ele- 
gance. The airs of his heads often want dignity, and 
his local colours want truth. However, there is great 
union and harmony in his colours, although his carna- 
tions arc not very frcfli ; and in all his works there isa 
powerful and exprcfiivc imiiaiion of life, which will 



[ 7 3 


Strlneri for ever render iTicm eftimalile. Towards the decline 
8 ot' bis life, he obferved that the clearer and lirighier 
_^'''"- ftylc of Giiido and Albano had aitr,ii^k'd the admira- 
tion of all Europe ; and thercCore he altered his man- 
ner, even a^aiiifl his own judtjnient. Bn he apolo- 
gized for that coiuhicl, by dcclarinc;, that in iiis former 
time lie painted for fame, and to plcafe the judicious ; 
and he now painted to pleafe tlic ig\iorai'.t, and enrich 
himfclf. Jk- died in i666. — The moft capital perfor- 
mance of Guercino, is the hillory of S. Pctronilla, \^ hich 
is confidercd as one of the ornaments of S. Peter's at 

Barbieri (Paolo Antonio), da Cento, painter of 
Ifill life and animals, was the brother of Guercino, and 
born at Cento in 1596. He chofe for his fiilijerts 
fruit, tiowcrs, infecls, and animals; which he painted 
after nature with a lively lint of colour, great icnder- 
Eefs of pencil, and a (Irong charaftcr of truth and life. 
He died in 1640. 

BARBITOS, orBARBiTOM, an ancient inflrument 
of miilic, mounted with three, others fay feven, ftrings; 
much ufed by Sappho, and Alcxus, whence it is alfo 
denorainated Lejbiium. 

BARBLES, or Barbs, in farriery, the knots or 
fupcrfliious ilefli that grow up in the channels of a 
horfe's mouth ; that is, in the intervals that fcparate the 
bars, and lie under the tongue. Thefe, which are alfo 
called barb.-s, obtain in black cattle as well as horfrs, 
and obftruct their eating. For the cure, tliey caft the 
bead, take out his tongue, and clip off the barbies with 
a pair of fcillars, or cut them with a (harp knife ; others 
choofe to burn them off with a hot iron. 

HARBOUR (John), archdeacon of Aberdeen, was 
cftecmed an elegant poet in the rcigu of David I. He 
wrote the hiflory of Robert the Bruce, in an heroic 
poem, which is ftill extant, and which contains many 
fa ^^s and anecdotes omitted by other hiftorians. The 
latefl edition of this book is that of Glafgow, Svo, 
printed in the year 1672. It is intitled, " The afls 
and life of the moft viftorions conqueror Robert Bruce 
king of Scotland ; wherein alfo are contained the mar- 
tial deeds of the valiant princes Edward Bruce, Sir 
James Douglafs, Earl Thomas Randal, Walter Stew- 
ard, and fundry others." In one p.ifTigc, he calls it a 
romance ; but that word was then of good reputation : 
every body kiwws that the ' Roniaunt of j-omaunts' 
has been innocently applied to true hiftory ; as well as 
the ' Ballad of ballads' to a facred fong. 

BARBUDA, owe of the Briiilh Caribbee idands, 
about 20 miles long and 12 broad. It is lowland, but 
fruittul and pretty populous. The inhabitants addiC:^ 
themfelvcs to htilbanJry, and find always a ready mar- 
ket for their corn and cattle in the fugar illands. Bar- 
buda is the property of the Codringion family, who 
have great nuuibers of negroes here as well as in Bar- 
badoes. It lies in W. Long. 61. 5. N. Lai. 18. 5. 

B.^RCA, a large country of Africa, lying on the 
coafts of the Mcciiicrranean fca, between the kingdoms 
of EiXP' Slid Tripoli, cxiendinjj itfrlf in length from 
eaft to wefl .'"rom the 59th to the 46ih degree of eaft 
longitude, and in breadth from nonh to fouih about 
30 leagues, as is generally fuppofcd. It is for the moll 
part, efpeciilly in the middle, a dry fandy defart ; on 
which account the Arabs call it Sahart, or Ctyait 
Barkit, that is, the defart or road of whirlwinds or 

hurricanes. It labours almoft every where under a 
great fcarciiy of witer; and except in the neighLour- 
liood of towns and villages, where the ground produces 
fomc Iniill quantities of grain, fuch as millet, and lomc 
maize, the reft is in a manner quite barren and uncul- 
tivated, or to fpeak more properly, unculiivable : and 
even of that fmall quantity which thole few fpois pro- 
duce, the poor inhabiiauis are obligeu ;;> exchange 
fomc part with their indigent neighbours, lor datf?, 
flieep, and camels, which they flaiid in greater need of 
tlian they, by rcafon of their great fcarcity of grafs 
and other proper food ; for want of which, ihofe that 
are brought to them fcldom thrive or live long. In this 
country flood the famed temple of Jupiter Amnion; 
and iiotwithllanding the pleafantnefs of the fpot where 
it flood, this pan of the country is faid to have been 
the moft dangerous of any, being furrounded with fucli 
quick and burning lands as are very detrimental to tra- 
vellers ; not only as they fink under their feet, but be- 
ing light, and heated by the rays ■» the fun, are eafily 
raifed by every breath of wind ; which, il it chance to 
be in their faces, alinoll burns their eyes out, and ftiffles 
them for want of breadth ; or if vehement, often over- 
whelms whole caravans. Againft this temple Cambyfcs 
king of Pcrfia difpatched an army of 50,000 men. 
They let out from Thebes in upper Egypt, and under 
the condufl: of proper guides reached the city of Oafis 
feven days journey from that place : but what was their 
fate afterwards is uncertain ; for they never returned 
either to Egypt or to their own couniry. The Am- 
monians informed Herodotus, that, after the army 
had entered the fandy defart which lies bryoi:d Oafis, 
a violent wind began to blow from the fouih ai the 
time of their dinner, and r.;il'ed the fand to fuch a de- 
gree, that the whole army was overwhelmed and bu- 
ried alive. 

Concerning the government or commerce of this 
country we know nothing certain. Moft probably the 
maritime towns are under ihc protection of the Porte : 
but whether under the baflia of Egypt or Tripoli, vr 
whttlier they have formed theinfclves into independent 
ftates like thofe of Algiers and Tunis, we cannot lay ; 
only we arc told that the inhabitants of the inariiime 
towns arc more civilized than thofe that dwell in the 
inland parts. The firft profefs Mahonieiainfm, and 
have imbibed fome notions of hunianiiy and juftice ; 
whilft the latter, who have neither religion nor any 
lign of vvorlliip among ihem, arc altogcihtr favage and 
bruiiih. They are a ibrt of .Gratis, and like ihem live 
eniirely upon theft and plunder. By this trait, 
which before wasa continued defart, waslirft inhabited. 
At their firft coming in, they fritlcd themfelvcs in one 
of the bell places of the country ; but as tlicy multi- 
plied, and had frequent wars with one another, the 
ftrongeft drove the weakeft out of the heft fpols, and 
fent them to wander in the defart parts, where tliey live 
in the moft niii'crable manner, their country Isardly af- 
fording one (ingle nccelfary of lite. Hence il is 
they are faid to be the uglieft of all the Arabs : their 
bodies having Icarcely any thing but fkin and bone, 
their faces meagre, wiih fierce ravenous l<K)ks : lltcir 
garb, which is commonly what ihry take from the paf- 
fcngers who go through thtfe pans, latiered with long 
wearing ; while the pooreft of iheiii have fcarcc a rag 
10 covti" their naktdiicfs. They arc moft expert aii.i 




[ « ] 


Bircalon, rcfoliite robbcr?, that being their chief employment 
Bircdona. and livcliliood ; but liic trivcllers in ihcfe pans are fo 
^ *'~~^/'cw, that tlie Barcans arc often ucccditatcd to make 
clilUnt exciirfions into Niiniidia, Libya, and other 
ftniihern countries. Thofc that fall into their hands 
are made to drink plenty of warm milk : then they 
hang them up by the feet, and fliake thcin, in order to 
make them vomit up any money they think tlicy have 
fwallowed ; after which, they drip tliem of all their 
clothes, even to the lall rag : but with all this inhu- 
manity, they commonly fp.ire their life, which is more 
than the other African robbers do. Yet notwithftand- 
ing every artifice they canufc, the Barcansare lb poor, 
that they commonly let, pledge, or even fell, tiieir 
children to the Sicilians and others from wiiom they 
have their corn, efpecially before they let out on any 
long cxcurfion. 

BARCALON, an appellation given to the prime 
miniflcr of the king of Siam. The barcalon has in his 
department every '^ling relating to commerce, both at 
home and abroad. He is likewife fiiperintendam of 
the king's magazines. 

BARCELONA, a handfome, rich, and ftrong city 
of Spain, in the province of Catalonia, of which it is 
the capital. This city was originally founded by Ha- 
milcar Barcas, and from him called Baichio. It was 
reduced by the Romans, and continued fubjci^l to them 
till the kingdom of Spain was over-run by the Goths 
and Vandals, and afterwards by the Saracens or Moors. 
In the beginning of the 9th century, Barcelona was in 
tlic Iiands of the Moors, and under the government of 
one Z-ade. This governor having more than once abu- 
fcd theclemeiicy of Charlemagne, at lafl irritated Lewis 
king of Aquitain, and fon to Charles, to fuch a degree, 
that he gave orders to his generals to inveft the city, 
and not 10 rife from before it till they had put 2Lade 
into his hands. The Moor made a mofl obflinate re- 
liflance, fo that the fiege lafted many months : at laft, 
finding it impollible to prefcrvc the city much longer, 
and being dcllitute of allhopcsof relief, he determined, 
or rather was compelled by the inhabitants, to go to the 
Chridian camp and implore the emperor's mercy ; but 
here he was no fooncr arrived than he was arrcfted and 
fent prifoner to Charlemagne, who condemned him to 
perpetual banifliment. The people gaining nothing by 
this expedient, continued to hold out for fix weeks 
longer, when the king of Aquitain liiinfelf took the 
command of the fiege. To him they made a propofal, 
that if he would allow them to march out and go 
where they pleafed, they would furreiidcr the place. 
Lewis having agreed to this, made his public entry in- 
to Barcelona, where he formed a dcfign of extending 
his father's dominions as far as the Ebro; but being 
recalled before he could put his defign in execution, 
he appointed one Bera count of Barcelona. The city 
continued fubjeft to him and his fuccellbrs, who flill 
enjoyed the title of counts of Barccloriu, from the year 
802 to 1 151 ; during which time we find nothing re- 
markable, except that the city was once taken by the 
Moors, bjt foon after retaken by the alfiftance of 
Lewis IV. king of France. In 1131 it was united to 
the crown of Arragon by the marriage of Don Ray- 
mond V. count of Barcelona with the daughter of Don 
Ramiro the Monk, king of Arragon. In 1465 the 
Caialonians revolted againft Don Juan II. king of Ar- 

ragon, out of hatred to his queen Donni Juanni ; the nircelom 
confcquenceof which was, that Barcelona was beficged '— ^/— 
by that monarch in 1471. Various efforts were made 
by Lewis XI. of France and the duke of Lorraiu in 
order to raife the fiege, but without efJedt. Things 
at length were brought to the utmoft extremity, when 
the king offered to pardon them all, without the fniall- 
cft punilhment either in perfon or property, provided 
they would fubmit : but thefe terms they rejcdlcd, 
chiefly through the influence of the count de Pailhars, 
who had been pardoned the year before. The army, 
on the other hand, was very earnell in being led on to 
the aflault, in hopes of plunder. The king, however, 
wrote a letter to the citizens, dated the 6th of OQ.0- 
ber, in terms as aifei^ionate as if he had been writing 
10 hischildrcn, bewailingthc miferiesthey had brought 
on themfelves, and concluding with a proiellation that 
they, and not he, mud be anfwerablc for the confe- 
quenccs. Upon this, at the ptrfuafion of a prieft who 
had a reputation for fanility, they fent deputies to the 
king, and made a capitulation on the i7ih of the fame 
month. In this the king acknowledged they had 
taken up arms on jull motives ; and forgave evciy body 
except Pailhars, who was, however, fuffered toefcape. 
On the 22d of Odober the king made his entry into 
the city, andconlirmcd all their ancient privileges. In 
1697, Barcelona was taken by the French, after a 
bloody fiege of 52 days ; and the lofs of this city had 
a coniiderable effed in difpofing the Spaniards to agree 
to the treaty of Ryfwick. In Queen Anne's time it 
was taken by the allies under the Earl of Peterborough ; 
but being aftcrsvards fliamefully denied ainflance by the 
Englilli niinillry, was obliged to fubmit to Philip II. 
by whom the whole province was deprived of its an- 
cient privileges ; for a particular account of which, fee 
the article Spain. 

Barcelona is fituated by the fea-fide, of a form be- 
tween a fquare and an oval ; it is furrounded with a 
good brick wall, round which is another, with 14 ba- 
flions, horn-works, ramparts, and ditches ; the ram- 
parts arc high, broad, and fpacious, infomuch that 
100 coaches may be fcen every evening driving thereon 
for plcafurc. The city is divided into two parts, the 
Old and the New, which are feparated from each other 
by a wall and a large ditch ; the flreets are handfome, 
well paved with large flones, wide, and very clean. Ii; 
is the relidcnce of a viceroy, is a bifliop's fee, has a 
fine nniverfity, a mint, a good port, and is adorned 
with handfome buildings. Here is a court of inqui- 
fition, which the inhabitants look upon as an advantage. 
The remarkable buildings are the cathedral, which is 
large, handfome, and adorned with two high towers, 
the church of the Virgin ISIary, the palace of the bilhop, 
that of the inquifition, and fcvcral religious houfes : 
add to thefe the palace of the viceroy ; the arfenal, 
which contains arms for icoo men ; the exchange, 
where the merchants meet ; the terfana, where they 
build the galleys ; and the palace where the nobility 
of the country meet, called La Cafa de la Deputation. 
This lad isbuilt with fine hrge free ftone, and adorned 
with columns of marble : there is in it a large hall, 
with a gilt cieling and a handfome portico, wherein 
perfons may either walk or fit ; the hall is adorned 
with the portraits of all the counts of Barcelona, 
There are fcveral fine fqnarcs, particularly that of St 



[ 9 ] 



Barcclo- Micliael, into which all the great ftreets run. Tlie 
nctia port is wide, fpacious, deep, and fafe ; dil'endcd on 
the one lidc by a greit mole, and the other Iheher- 
, cd from the wcfl wind by two mointains that advance 
into the fea, and form a kind of'pro;iiontory : the mole 
is 7J0 paces long, with a quay, at tiic end of which 
is a light-houfc and a fmall fort. One of the moun- 
tains, called MoHht Joy, is very high, and riles in the 
middle of the plain near the city : it is covered with 
gardens, vineyards, f;roves of trees, and has a ftrong 
fort for the defence of the city : this monntain, being 
a rock, yields an inexhanftibie qiiirry of fine hard free 
ftone. Barcelona is a place of great trade, on account 
of the convcniency of its harboDr ; and it has a n;anu- 
faflnrc of knives greatly cftcemed in Spain, as alfo of 
blankets. Here are alfo fcveral <;lafs-hoiifes. The in- 
habitants are dilij^ent, and equally fit for labour and 
trade ; they are alfo very civil to flrangers. The wo- 
men are well fliaped, and as handfome as any in Spain ; 
they are brifk and lively in their converfaiion, and more 
free and nnrertrained in their behaviour than in other 
parts of Spain. E. Long. 2. J. N. Lat. 41. 26. 

BARCELONETTA, a town of France in the 
government of Dauphiny, and capital of the valley of 
its own natne. It belonged to the Duke of Savoy, and 
was ceded to France by the treaty of Utrecht in 1712. 
E. Long. 6. 40. N. Lat. 44. 26. 

BARCELOR, a town of Afia, in the Eaft Indies, 
on the coaft of Malabar. It is a Dutch faflory, where 
they carry on a confiderable trade in pepper. E. Long. 
74. ij. N. Lat. 13. 45. 

BARCELOS, a town of Portugal, with the title 
of a duchy. It is fcatcd on the river Cavado, over 
which there is a handfome bridge. W. Long. 7. o. 
N. Lat. 41. 20. 

BARCINO (anc. geog.), a town of the Terra-' 
conenfis in Spain, and capital of the Laletani. Now 
Barcei.on.i, See that article. 

BARCLAY (Alexander), a learned monk in tlie 
reign of Henry V^III. Where he was born, though 
of no great importance, was neverihclcfs a matter of 
virulent conteniion among his former biographers. 
Bale, who was his cotemporary, is of opinion he was 
born in Somcrfetlhire. There is indeed a village of 
his name, and a numerous family, in that county. Pits 
thinks he was born in Devonfliire. Mackenzie is po- 
fitive he was a Scotchman ; but without proof, unlcfs 
wc admit as fuch his name Atexauder. He was, how- 
ever, educated in Oriel college Oxford. After leaving 
the univcrfity he went abroad, and continued fonic 
time in France, Italy, and Germany, where he acquired 
a competent knowledge of the languages of thole coun- 
tries, as appears from fevcral tranOations of books, 
which he afterwards publiflied. On his return to Eng- 
land, he was made chaplain to bis patron the bifliop 
of Tyne, who likevvJife appointed him a pricft of St 
Mary, at the college of Oitcry in Devonfliire, found- 
ed by Grandifon bilhop of Exeter. After the death 
of his patron, he became a Benedifline monk of Ely. 
On the dllToUition of that monaftrry, lie iirft obtained 
the vicarage of St Matthew at Wokcy in Sonierfct- 
fhire ; and, in 1549, being then do^'tor of divinity, 
was prefented to the vicarage of Much Badew in Ef- 
fcx. In 15J2 he was appointed rcflor of .'Vllhallows, 
Lombard-ftrcct, which he lived to enjoy but a very 
Vol. IIL 

fliort time. He died at Croydon ia Surrey in Jjnc 
1552. He is generally allowed to have improved the 
Englifh language, and to have been one of the politcft 
writers of his time. He compofed fevcral original 
works ; but was chiefly remarkable for his tranllations 
from the Latin, Italian, French, and German langua- 
ges. His verlion from Salluft of the war of Jugurtha 
is accurate, and not %vithout elegance. His lives of 
fevcral faints, in heroic vcrfc, are ftill unpublilhcd. 
His St:!ltif(!ro ttavis, or The J})ip of j\'jh, is the moft 
fnignlar of his performances. It was printed by Ri- 
chard Pynfon at Lnndon 1509 in folio; and contains 
a variety of wooden plates, which are worthy the in- 
fpeftion of the curious. 

Barclay (William), a learned civilian, was born 
in Aberdeenfliire in the year 1541. He fpcnt the 
early part of his life, and much of his fortune, at the 
court of Mary Qjiecn of Scots, from whofe favour he 
had rcafon to expeft preferment. In 1573 he went 
over to France, and at Bourges commenced fludcnt of 
civil law under the famous Cujacius. He continued 
fonie years in that feminary, v. here he took a dodor's 
degree ; and was foon after appointed profclfor of civil 
law in the univerfity of Pont-a-MoufFon, then firft 
founded by the Duke of Lorraine. That prince after- 
wards made him counfcllor of Hate and niafler of re- 
quells. Barclay, in the year 1581, married Ann dc 
^Iallaville, a French lady, by whom he had a fon, who 
became a celebrated author, and of whom the reader 
will find an account in the next article. This youth 
the Jcfuits would gladly have received into their fo- 
ciety. His father refufed his confent, and for that 
realbn tiiefe difciples of Jcfus foon contrived to ruin 
him with the duke his patron. Barclay now embark- 
ed for Britain, where King James I. offered him con- 
fiderable preferment, provided he would become a 
member of ihe church of England : but, not choofing 
to comply, he returned to France in 1604 ; and, foon 
after his arrival, was appointed profelFor of civil law 
in the univerfity of Angers, where he died the year 
following, and was buried in the Francifan church. 
He was cfteenied a learned civilian ; and wrote elabo- 
rately in defence of the divine right of kings, in an- 
fwer to Buchanan and others. The titles of his works 
are, i. De ngr.o et regali polefttite, &c. 2. Conivicn- 
tarius in tit. parid^ffan/m de relmi creditis, et de jure, 
jiirando. ^. De potejlate pap^r, SiC. 4. Pnrinetia in 
vitam Agricol^e. 

B.^RCLAY (John), fon of the former, was, as we 
have abovementioncd, lb great a favo-.irite of the Je- 
fuits, that they ufed all their efTorts to engage him in 
their focieiy. His father would not confent, and car- 
ried his fon with him into England, who was already 
an author, for he had publiflied A annii'mtaiy i/pon the 
Thcbais ofStaii:<.<, and a Latin poem on the coronation 
of King Jaines, and the firfl part of £///'/*i,'/;/y/o, 1603. 
He returned to France with his father ; and after his 
father's death went to Paris, and foon after came back 
to London : he was there in 1606. He publilhcd The 
Hiflory of the Ctin-pcvder F/ot, a pamphlet of fix 
leaves, printed at Amllcrdani. He publilhcd at Lon- 
don in 1610 An Apology fcr the Ef/phcrrrtio, and his 
father's trcatifeZ)c/o//f/rt/f/a^.r. And at Paris, 1613, 
lie publilhed a book iniitled Pietas, in anfwrr 10 Car- 
dinal Bcllarmin, who had written againll William Bar- 
B clay. 



B A R [ i< 

Parclaf, clay's book concerning the power of the Pope. Two 
Barco- years after lie publiflied Icon /inimonim. He was iii- 
, viced to Rome by Pope Paul V. and received a great 
deal of civility from Cardinal Hcll.irmin, iliougii he 
had written againll him. He died at Rome in i6ji, 
while his Argtnii was printing at Paris. This cele- 
brated work has fincc gone through a great number of 
editions, and has been tranllated into moll languages. 
M. de Peirefe, who had the care of the firft edition, 
caiifed the effigies ot the author to be pl.iccJ before the 
book ; and the following diilich, written by Grotins, 
was put luider it : 

Cciiti Caliiioiiius, Cullm itntalrluis, hie efi, 
Ronavi R'jviai:o qui doat ore loqui. 

Barclay (Robert), one of the moll eminent among 
the Qiiakers, the fon of Colonel David Barclay, dc- 
icendcd of the ancient family of Barclays, was born at 
Edinburgh in 1648. He was educated under an micle 
at Paris, where the Papifls ufcdall their efforts to draw 
him over to their religion. He joined the Qiiakers in 
1669, and dillingiiilhed himfelf by his zeal and abili- 
ties in defence of their doftrincs. In i676hepub- 
lilhed in Latin at Amfterdam his Apology j or the ilua- 
hers i which is the moll celebrated of his works, and 
cfteemcd the ftandard of the doflrine of the Quakers. 
The Th^Jli Thiohgic.r, which were the foundation of 
this work, and addrclicd to the clergy of what fort fo- 
ever, were publiflied before the writingof the Apology, 
and printed m Latin, French, High-Dutch, Low- 
Dutch, and Knglifli. The dedication of his Apology to 
King Charles II. is very remarkable for the uncom- 
mon franknefs and funplicity with which it is written. 
Amongll many other extraordinary paffages, we meet 
with the following: " There is no king in the world 
who can fo experimentally lellify of God's providence 
and goodnefs ; neither is there any who rules fo many 
free people, fomany trueChriflians ; which thing ren- 
ders thy government more honourable, thylelt more 
conl'iderablc, than the acceflion of many nations filled 
with flavifli and fuperllitious fouls. Thou haft tafted 
of profpcrity and adverfity ; thou knowell what it is to 
be baniiTied thy native country, to be over-ruled as well 
as to rule and fit upon the throne ; and being oppreifcd, 
thou haft reafon to know how hateful the oppreflbr is 
both to God and man : if, after all thofe warnings and 
advertifements, thou doft not turn unto the Lord with 
all thy heart, but forget him who remembered thee in 
thy diftrefs, and give up thyfclf 10 follow luft and va- 
nity, fiirely great will be thy condemnation." — He 
travelled with the famous Mr William Penn through 
the greateft part of England, Holland, and Germany, 
and was every where received with the higheftrefpeifi; 
for though both his converfation and behaviour were 
fuitable to his principles, yet there was fuch livelinefs 
and fpirit in his difcourfe, and fuch fereniiy and chcer- 
fulncfs in his deportment, as rendered liim extremely 
agreeable to all forts of people. When he returned to 
his native country he fpent the remainder of his life in 
a quiet and retired manner. He died at his own houfe 
at Ury on the 3d of Oftober 1690, in the 42d year of 
his ao;e. 

B.ARCOCHEBAS, or rather Barcoch ab, a Jewifli 
impoftor, whofe real name was Akiba ; but he took 
that of Barcochab, which fignifics the Son of a Star ; 



in allufion to the prophecy of Balaam, " There fl.all 
a liar arife out of Jacob." He proclaimed himftlf the 
Mclliah ; and talking of nothing but wars, viLlorits, 
and triumphs, made his countrymen rife againll the 
Romans, by which means he was the author of 
innumerabie diforders : he ravaged many places, took 
a great number of fortrelFes, and nialTacrcd an infi- 
nite multitude of people, particularly the Chrifti.ins. 
The emperor fent troops to Rufus, governor of Jn- 
dea, to fupprcis the feditioii. Rufus, iu obedience, cx- 
ereifed a thoufand cruelties, but could not finilh his at- 
tempt. The emperor was therefore obliged to fend 
Julius Scverus, the greateft general of that time ; 
who attained his end without a direifl battle : lie fell 
on ibein feparately ; cut off their provilions ; and ac 
laft the whole eonteft was reiluced to the liege of Bit- 
ter, in the 1 8th yearof Hadrian. The impoftor pcrilhed 
there. This war coll the Romans a great deal of blood. 
BARD, a word denoting one who was a poet by 
his genius and proftllion ; and, " who fung of the bat- 
tles of heroes, or the heaving breafts of love." OJfian'i 
rocvu, I. 37. 

The curiolity of man is great with rcfpcifl to the 
tranfactions of his own fpccies ; .ind when fuch tranf- 
adions are dcfcribed in verfe, accompanied with mulic, 
the performance is enclianting. An ear, a voice, (kill 
in inftrumemal mufic, and, above all, a p0etic.1l genius, 
are requifite to e.\ccl in that complicated art. As fuch 
talents are rare, the few that poifeired them were high- 
ly ellcemcd ; and hence the profelfion of a bard, 
which, bcfide natural talents, required more culture 
and cxercife than any other known art. Bards were 
capital perfons at every feftival and at every folemnity. 
Their fongs, which, by recording the atchievements 
of kings and heroes, animated every hearer, muft have 
been the entertainment of every warlike nation. We 
liave Heliod's authority, tiiat in his time bards were as 
common as potters or joiners, and as liable to envy. 
Demodocus is mentioned by Homer as a celebrated 
bard ; and Phemius, another bdrd, is introduced by 
him deprecating the wrath of Ulyfles in the following 
words : 

" O King ! to mercy be thy foul inclin'd, 

" And fpare the poets ever-gentle kind : 

" A deed like this thy future fame would wrong, 

" For dear to gods and men is facred fong. 

" Self-taught I ling J by heav'n, and heav'n alonCj 

" The genuine feeds of poefy are fown ; 

" And (wliat the gods bellow) the lofty lay, 

" To gods alone, and godlike worth, we pay. 

" Save then the poet, and thyfelf reward ; 

" 'Tis thine to merit, mine is to record." 

Odyssey, viii. 
Cicero reports, that at Roman feftivals, anciently, the 
virtues and exploits of their great men were fung. The 
fame cullom prevailed in Peru and Mexico, as we learn 
from Garcilalfo and other authors. We have for our 
authority Father Gobien, that even the inhabitants of 
the Marian illands have bards, who are greatly admi- 
red, becaufe in their fongs are celebrated the feats of 
their anceftors. 

But in no part of the world did the profcfllon of 
bard appear with fuch lufture as in Gaul, in Britain, and 
in Ireland. Wherever the Cekae or Gauls are nicn- 




Sk. V. 


[ II ] 


Shir'i Dif- 

to OJpan'i 
Vol. II. 
p. 306. 

• L\h. XV. 
c. 9. 


11. XI. 

Vol. 1. 

tinneil by ancient writers, we feldom fail to hear of 
liieir dniids and tlitir bards; the indiliuion of whicli 
two orders, was the capital diflinJlion of iheir manners 
and policy. The iin)ids were their philofoplicrs and 
priefts ; the bards, their poets and recorders of heroic 
actions ; and both thcfc orders of men ftem to have 
fiibfilkd among ihcni, as chief members of ihc flate, 
from time immemorial. The Celtas poircflcd, from 
very remote ages, a formed fyflem of difcipliiie and 
manners, which appears to have had a deep and lalling 
intluence. Ammiamis Marccllimis * gives them this 
exprefs teftimony, ihat there rioiiriflicd among them 
the (tudy of the mod landable arts ; introduced by the 
bards, whofe office it was to fmg in heroic vcrl'e the 
gallant aL^ions of illiiflrioiis men ; and by the druids, 
who lived together in colleges or fociciies, after the 
Pythagorean manner, and philofophizing upon the 
highefl fubjcits, aflcrted the immonality of the hii- 
nau foul. Though Julius Cxfar, in his account of 
Gaul, does not exprcfsly mention the bards ; yet it is 
plain, that, under tlie title of Z)r.v/(/j, he comprehends 
that whole college or order ; of which the bards, who, 
it is probable, were the difciples of the druids, un- 
doubtedly made a part. It delcrves remark, that, ac- 
cording to his account the druidical inflitution firft 
took rife in Britain, and palfed from thence into 
Gaul ; fo that they who afpired to be thorougli ma- 
fters of that learning were wont to rcfort to Britain. 
He adds too, that fuch as were to be initiated among 
the druids, were obliged to commit to their memory a 
great number of verfts, iufomuch tiiat fome employed 
20 years in this coiirfe of ediiciiiou ; and that they 
did not think it lawful to record ihefe poems in wri- 
ting, but facrcdly handed them down by tradition from 
race to race. 

So ftrong was the attachment of the Celtic nations 
to their poetry and their bards, that amidlt all the 
clianges of their government and manners, even long 
after the order of the druids was extinct, and the na- 
tional religion altered, the bards continued to flourilh ; 
rot as a fet of flrolling fongfters, like the Greek 'A0//01 
tix rhapfoelijls, in Homer's time, but as an order of 
men highly refpefted in the ftate, and fupported by a 
put)lic cllablilhment. We find them, according to the 
teftimonies of Strabo and Diodorus, before the age of 
Auguftus Casfar ; and vv'e find them remaining under 
the fame name, and excrcifmg the fame funi5lions as of 
old, in Ireland, and in the north of Scotland, almoft 
down to our own times. It is well known, that, in 
both thefe countries, every reguius or chief had his 
own bard, who was confidercd as an officer of rank iu 
his court. 

Of the honour in which the bards were held, many 
inliances occur in Olliun's poems. On all important 
occal'ions, they were the ambalTadors between contend- 
ing chiefs ; and their perfonswere held ficred. "Cair- 
bor feared to flretch his fword to the bards, though 
his foul was dark. Loofe the bards (Paid his brother 
Cathmor), they are the fonsof other limes. Their 
voice Hiall be heard in other ages, when the kings of 
Temora have failed." — The bards, as well as the 
druids, were exempted from taxes and military fcrvi- 
ccs, even iu times of the greaiell danger ; and when 
they attended their patrons in the field, to record and 
celebrate their great actions, they had a guard afligncd 

them for their proteftion. At all feftivals and public 
alfcmblies they were feated near the perfon of the king ' 
or chieftain, and fometimes even above the greatelt 
nobility and chief oiliccrs of the court. Nor was the 
l>rolelIion of the bards lefs lucrative than it was ho- 
nourable. For, betides the valuable prefenis which 
they occafionally received from their patrons when 
they gave them uncommon pleafurc by their perfor- 
mances, they had ellates in land alloted for their fup- 
port. Nay, fo great was the veneration which the 
princes of thcfc times entertained for the perfons of 
their poets, and fo highly were they charmed and de- 
lighted with their tuneful (trains, that they fometimes 
pardone<l even their capital crimes for a fong. 

W'c may very rcafonably fuppofe, that a profelTion 
that was at ci/cc fo honourable and advantageous, and 
enjoyed fo many flattering diftindions and defirablc 
immunities, would not be dcferted. It was indeed very 
much crowded ; and the accounts which we have of the 
numbers of the bards in fome countries, particularly in 
Ireland, are hardly credible. We often read, in the 
poems of Olltan, of a hundred bards belonging to one 
prince, finging and playing in concert for his enter- 
tainment. Kvery chief bard, who was called j^llah 
Redan, or do8or in poetry, was allowed to have 30 
bards of inferior note conflantly about his perfon ; and 
every bard of the fecond rank was allowed a retinue of 
15 poetical difciples. 

Tiiough the ancient Britons of the fouibern parts 
of this illand had originally the fame tafte and genius 
for poetry with thofe of the north, yet none of their 
poetical compofitions of this period have been prcfer- 
ved. Nor have we any rcafon to be furprizcd at liiis. 
For after the provincial Britons had fubmitted quietly 
to the Roman government, yicbled up their arms, and 
had loft their free and martial fpirit, they could take 
little plcafure in hearin;^ or repeating the fongs of their 
bards in honour of the glorious atchievmrnts of their 
brave anceftors. The Romans too, if they did r.ot 
pradife the fame barbarous policy which was long af- 
ter pradifcd by Edward I. of putting the bards to 
death, would at lealf difcourage them, and difcounte- 
nancc the repetition of their poems, for very obvious 
reafoi'.s. Thcfc fons of the fong being thns pcrfe- 
cuted by their conquerors, and neglected by their 
countrymen, either abandoned ihcir country or their 
profcffion ; and their fongs being no longer heard, 
were foon forgotten. 

It is probable that the ancient Britons, as well as 
many other nations of antiquity, had no idea of poems 
that were made only to be repeated, and not 10 be fung 
to the found of mufiral inrtruments. In the firfl ftagcs 
of fociety in all countries, the two filler aris of po- 
etry and mulicfeem to have been always united ; every 
poet was a mulician, and fung his own vcrfcs to the 
found of fomcmufical inftrumcnt. This, we are diredly 
told by two writers of undoubted credit, was the cafe 
in G.iul, and confcqnenily in Britain, in this period. 
" The bards (fays Diodorus Siculus •) fung their 
poems to the found of an inltrumcnt not unlike a lyre." 
" The bards, (according to Ammianus Marcellinusf, 
as above hinted), celebrated the brave adions of i!)u- 
ftrious men in heroic poems, which they fung to the 
fwcet founds of the lyre."' This account of thefe 
Greek and Latin writers is co.ntirmcd by the gcne- 
B 2 ral 


• Lib. V. 
fea. JJ. 

t Xi*. «V. 
c. 9. 






t Vol. II 

ubi fupra. 

ral ftraiu, and by many particular pallages, of iLc 
poems of Olliaii. " Beneatli his own tree, at inter- 
vals, eacli bjrd fat dotvn with his harp. They raifcd 
the long, and touched the Uring, each to the chief he 
loved |." 

The invention of writing made aconfiderable change 
in the bard-protclHon. It is now an agreed point, that 
no poetry is fit to be accompanied with miilic, but 
what is iinipie: a complicated tliought or defcription 
requires the ntnioll alteniion, and leaves none lor the 
niulic ; or, if it divide the attrniion, it makes but a 
faint imprelfion §. The fuiiplc operas of i)iiinault 
bear away the palm from every thing of the kind com- 
pofed by Boiieau or Racine. But when a language, 
in its progrefs to maturity, is enriched with variety of 
phrafcs fit to cxprcfs the moll elevated iLoughts, men 
of genius afpircd to the higiier flrains ot poetry, lea- 
ving mulic and long to the bards : which dillinguilh- 
cd the profellion of a poet from that ot a bard. Ho- 
mer, in a lax fenfe, may be termed a bard ; for in that 
ciiarailer he Iholled from feall to feall. But he was 
not a bard in the original fcnfe : he, indeed, recited 
his poems to crowded audiences; but his poems are 
too complex for niulic, and he probably did not fmg 
them, nor accompany them wiih the lyre. The Tro- 
vadores of Provence were bards in the original fenfe, 
and made a capital figure in the days of ignorance, 
when few could read and fewer write. In later times, 
the fongs of the bards were taken down in writing, 
which gave every one accefs to them without a bard ; 
and the profellion funk by drgrtes into oblivion. A- 
niong the Highlanders of Scotland, reading and wri- 
ting in their own tongue is not commcm even at prc- 
fent ; and that circumllance fupporicd long the bard- 
profelfion among them, after being forgot among the 
neighbouring nations. 

BARDAN.A, orBL'RDOCK. Sec Arctium. 

B.^RDARlOT^i!, in antiquity, were a kind of 
ancient guard attending the Greek emperors, armed 
with rods, wherewith they kept ofF the people from 
crowding too near the prince when on horfiback. Their 
captain, or commander, was denominated pritaivcrgius. 
— The word was probably formed horn the barJtc, or 
houdngs on their horfes. 

B.-\RDAS, the brother of the emprefs Theodora, 
and uncle of the famous Photiiis, is faid to have had 
no other gooil quality befides that of loving the fcien- 
ces and polite literature, which he cflablilhed in the 
Eallern empire ; for he was treacherous, cruel, arid 
ambitious. .In the year 8j6, he ailadinated Thcoc- 
tilles, general of the Emperor Michael's forces, and 
obtained his poll. At length he caufed the difgrace 
ef the Emprefs Theodora : and St Ignatius, patriarch 
of Conllaniinoplc, reproaching him for his vices, he 
had him depofed in 858, in order to make room for 
Photius. Bardas was affaffinated by Balllius the Mace- 
donian in 866. 

B.^RDED, in heraldry, is nfed in fpcaking of a 
Iiorfe that is caparifoned. He bears fable, a cazal'nr 
d'ltr, thehorfe barded, argent. 

BARDESANISTS, a fcdt of ancient heretics, 
thus denominated from their leader Bardcfancs, a Sy- 
rian of Edeila in Me fopotamia. Bardcfmcs, born in 
ihc middleof the fecond century, became eminent, af- 
ter hisconverlion to Chriflianity, for his zeal againll 

2 ] BAR 

heretics ; againft whom, we arc informed by St Jc- Bardcwict 
ronie and Eufebius, he wrote a PMiltitude of books: yet II 
had the misfortune to fall, hiiiifclf, into the errors ^Bargain. 
of Valcniinus, to which he added fome others of his 
own. He taught, that the anions of men depend 
altogether on fate, and thai God hiinfelf is fubjcct to 
nectlliiy. His followers went further, and denied the 
relurrcction of the body, and the incarnation and death 
of our Saviour ; holding that thefe were only apparent 
or phantallical. 

IJARDEWICK, a town of Germany, in the circle 
of Lower Saxony and duchy of Lunciiberg ; formerly 
a very large place j but being ruined in ii?9, by the 
Duke of Sa.xony has never yet recovered iifelf. It is 
fcaied on the river Ilmenau, in E. Long. 10. 6. N. 
Lat. 5;!. ifi. 

BARUT, a Arong and rich town of Germany, in 
the duchy of Ponicrania, with a caflle and fp.icious 
harbour. It is fubjcA to the Swedes; and is fituatcd 
near the Baltic Sea, in E. Long. 13. 20. >J. Lat. 
54- 25. 

BARE, in a general fenfe, llgnifics ;.c/ ccvtrcd. 
Hence we fay bare-headed, bare-ioottd, &c. 

The Roman women, in limes of public diflrcfs and 
mourning, went harc-hcadcd, with ihtir hair loofe. — 
Among both Greeks, Romans, and Barbarians, we 
find a feall caWh^ Nudlpedaiia. — The Ab}ffiiiiansnever 
enter their churches, not the palaces of kings and great 
men, but bare-jooted. 

Bark-FodI Canniiitcs and /l:/gtijl'ii:is, are religions 
of the order of St Carmcl and St .Auftin, who live un- 
der a fti id obfervancc, and go without llioes, like the 
capuchins. There are alfo bare-foot fathers of mercy. 
Formerly there were bare-foot dominicans, and even 
barefoot nuns of the orderof St Auguftin. 

BAREITH, a town of Germany in Franconia, in 
the margravate of Culenibuch, with a famous college 
belonging to the margrave of Brandenburg B.ireiih. 
E. Long. II. 50. N. Lat. 50. o. 

BARENT (Diteric), an excellent painter, was 
born at Amilerdam, and was the fon of a very indu- 
ftrious painter. He ft'udied in Italy, and became the 
favourite difcip'e of Titian, wiili whom he lived a long 
time; but at lenuth returned to Amilerdam, where he 
perfnrniedmany extraordinary pieces. He died in 1582, 
aged 4S. 

B.ARFLEUR, a town of France, in Normandy, on 
the continent. It was ruined, and had its harbour fill- 
ed up by the Englilh in 1546. The Cape of that name 
is 12 miles eafl of Cherburg, and near it part of the 
French fltct was dcllroyed in 1692. W. Long. 1. 6. 
N. Lat. 49. 40. 

BARGAIN AND Sale, a fpecies of conveyance in 
the Englifli law. It is a kind of a real contract, 
whereby the bargainer for fome pecuniary corlidcration 
bargains and fells, that is, conira(5ts to convey, the 
land of the bargainee ; and becomes by fu(h bargain a 
trullee for, or fcizcd 10 the ufe of, the bargainee ; and 
tlien the ftatute of ufcs completes the purchafe: or, as 
it hath been well cxprelfed, the bargain firll veils the 
nfc, and then the ftatute veils the poiTtflion. But as 
it was foreften that conveyances, thus made, would 
want all thofe bencilis of notoriety which the obi 
common-law aHurance.N were calcuiattd logive ; 10 pre- 
veu: therefore clandcllinc conveyances of freeholds, it 



[ 13 1 


was cnact.'d in the fame fcllion of parliament by ftatute 
27 Hen. VIII. c. 16. that fich bargains and fales 
Ihould not enure to pafs a freciioldj unlcis the fame be 
made by indenture, and enrolled witliin li.x months in 
one of the courts in VVellniinller-hall, or with the cujlns 
rotulormit of the county. C'landeltine bargains and 
fales of cliattel intcrclh, or leafes for years, were 
thought not worth regarding, as fuch intcreils were 
very precarious till about fix years before; which alfo 
occafioned them to be overlooked in framing the fla- 
tute of ufes: and therefore fuch bargains and fales are 
not dire(Jled to be enrolled. But how iinpoffible is it 
to forefec, and provide againft, all the confequences of 
innovations ! This omilhon has given rife to the fpecies 
of conveyance by lease and release. 

BARGE [Bargie, Dutch), a vcllcl or boat of (late, 
fnrnilhed wiili elegant apartments, canopies, and cu- 
ihions; equipped with a band of rowers, and decorated 
with flags and llreamers; tlicy are generally ufcd for 
procedions on the water, by noblemen, officers of flatc, 
or magillrates of great cities. Of this fort, too, we 
niay naturally fuppofe the famous barge or galley of 
Cleopatra, which, according to Shakefpear, 

- Like a burnilh'd throne 

Burnt on the water : the poop was beaten gold : 

Pin'plc her fails ; and fo pcrfimicd, that 

The winds were love-lick with them: the oars were filvcr 

Which to the tune of Ihucs kept time, and made 

The water which they beat to follow falter. 

As amorous of their flrokes 

-At the helm 

A fccming mermaid Ifeer'd : the filken tackles 
Swell'd with tlie touches of thofe tlower-foft hands 
That yarely 'form'd tlieir office. 

There are likewife other barges of a fmaller kind for 
the ulc of admirals and captains of (hips ot war. Thcfe 
are of a lighter frame, and may be ealily hoifted into 
and out of the (hips to which llicy occafionally belong. 

Barge is alfo the name of a tiat-bottomed velfcl of 
burden, for lading and difcharging lliips, and removing 
their cargoes from place to place in a harbour. 

B.-iRGE-Couplcs, in architefture, a beam mortifed in- 
to another, toRrengthcn the building. 

BARCF.-Courfe, with bricklayers, a term ufcd for 
that part of the tiling wiiich prujcds over without the 
principal rafters, in all forts of buildings where there 
is cither a gable or a kirkiii-hcad. 

BARGHMASTER, Barmer, ov'Bar-Master, 
in the royal mines, thelleward or judgeof the bannotc. 
— The bar-mafler is to keep two great courts of bar- 
mote yearly ; and every week a fniall one, as occafion 

li.'\RGHMOTE, or Barmote, a court, which 
takes cognizances of caufes and difputes between min- 
ers. — By the cudom of the mines, no perfon is tofue 
any miner for ore-debt, or for ore, or for any ground 
in variance, but only in the court of barmote, on pe- 
nalty of forfeiting the debt, and paying the charges at 

BART, a very hanJfome and rich town ofltaly, in 
the kingdom of Naples; the capital of Terra di Bari, 
and an archbiiliop's fee. It is well fortified, is feated 
on the gulph of Venice, and had formerly a good har- 

bour, but it was deftroyed by the Venetians. E. Lonj;. 
17. 40. N. Lat. 41. 31. 

Bari, or Terra di Bari, a territory of Italy, in " 
the kingdom of Naples, of which the abovcmentjoned 
city is the capital. It is bounded on the north by the 
Capitanata, on the norih-ealf by the Ulterior Princi- 
pato, on the fouth by the Bafilicata, on the foiuh-eall 
by the Terra dc Otranto, and on the north-eall by the 
gulph of Venice. It has no confiderablc river except 
the Off'anto, which fcparates it from the Capitanata. 
The air is temperate ; and the foil produces plenty of 
corn, fruit, and faff'ron : but there are a great many 
ferpents, and fpider's called taraiitutc.s. See Aranea. 
The principal towns are Bari the cnpiial, Frani, An- 
dria, Bavo, Bilonto, Convtrfano, Mono]ioli, I'olignia- 
no, Barletta, and Malfetto. The two tirll are archi- 
epifcopal, and all the reft epifeopal. 

BARILLA, or Barilii a, the name of a plant culti- 
vated in Spain for its alhes, from which the pureft 
kinds of mineral alkali are obtained. 

There are four plants, which in the early part of 
their growth, bear fo ilrong a refemblance to each other 
as would deceive any but the farmers and nice obferv- 
ers. Thele four are, barilla, gazul, (or, as fomc call 
it, algaziit), f(,za, -iwi J'alicornia or faliccr. They arc 
all burnt to allies ; but applied to different ufes, as 
being polfcfled of ditferent qualities. Some of the ro- 
guilh farmers mix more or lefs of the three lall with 
the firft ; and it requires a complete knowledge of the 
colour, tade, and fmell of the alhes to be able to dc- 
teifl their knavery. 

Barilla is fown afrefli every year. Its greateft 
height above ground is lour inches: each root pudges 
out a vafl: nun.ber of little flalks, which again are fub- 
divided into fmaller fprigs refenibling faniphire ; and 
all together form a large fpreading tufted bnlh. The 
colour is bright green; as the plant advances towards 
maturity, this colour vanilhes away till it comes at laft 
to a dull green tinged with brown. 

Gazul bears the greatefl alKnity to barilla, both in 
quality and appearance: the principal difference con- 
iills in its growing on a Hill drier falter earth, con- 
fequently it is impregnated with a flronger fait. It 
does not rife above two inches out of the ground, 
fpreading out iino little tults. Its fprigs are much 
flatter and more pidpy than thofe of barilla, and arc 
ilill more like faniphire. It is fown but once in three, 
four, or five years, according to the nature of the foil. 

Soza, when of the fame (Ize, has the fame appear- 
ance as gazul ; but in time grows much larger, as its 
natural foil is a ftrong lalt marlh, where it is to be 
found in large tufts ot fprigs, treble the fize of barilla, 
and of a bright green colour, which it retains to the 

Salicor has a flalk of a deep green colour inclining 
to red, which lart becomes by degrees the colour o£ 
the whole plant. From the beginning it grows up- 
right, and much refemblcs a bufh of young rofeniary. 
Its natural foil is on the declivities or hills near the 
fall marlhes, or on theedgesof the fuiall drains 
nels cut by the hufliandmcn for the purpofc of watering 
the fields: before it has acquired its lull growth, it is 
very like the birilh of ihofc feafons in which the 
ground has been dunged before fowinj;. In thofe 




[ H ] 

B A R 



years of manurino;, barilla, contrary lo its ufual na- 
ture, coines lip with a tinge o( red ; and when burnt 
, falls far ftiort of its wonted goodncfs, being Litter, 
more impregnated with falts than it Ihould be, and rail- 
ing a bliller if applied for a few mimiies to the tongne. 
Barilla contains Itfs fait than the others ; when burnt. 

cold : plants are cncompaflcd with a bark replete wiili 
fatty juices, by means whereof the cold is kept out, 
and in winter-time the fpiculae of ice prevented from 
fixing and freezing the juices in the vcll'cls : whence it 
is, that fomc fort oi trees rimaiii ever-green the year 
round, by reafon their barks contain more oil thon can 


it runs into a mafs refcmbling a fpongy ftone, with a be fpent and exhaled by the fun, &c. 

faint cafl of blue. 

Gazul, after burning comes as near barilla in its 
outward appearance as it docs while growing in its ve- 
getable form ; but, if broken, the infide is of a deeper 
and more glolFy blue. Soza and falicor arc darker, 
and almort black within, of a heavier confiflcnce, with 
very little or no figns of fpongincfs. 

All thcfe alhcs contain a Aroiig alkali; but barilla 
the bed and purelt, though not in the greatcll quan- 
tity. Upon this prinaiple, it is fiitell for making glafs 
and bleaching linen; the others are nfed in making 
ibap. Each of ihrm would whiten linen; but all, 
except barilla, would burn it. A good crop of l)i- 
rilla impoverilhcs the land to fuch a degree, that it can- 
not bear good barilla a fecond time, being quite cx- 
haulled. For this reafon the richer farmers lay ma- 
nure upon the ground, and let it lie fallow for a fea- 
fon ; at the end of which it is fown afrclli without any 
danger, as the weeds that have fprung up in the year 
of reft have carried otf all the pernicious effeds of the 
dung. A proper fuccedion of crops is thus fccured 
by manuring and fallowing the ditiercnt parts of the 
farm, each in their turn. The poorer tribe of cultiva- 
tors cannot purfuc the fame method for want of capi- 
tal ; and arc therefore under the ncceflity of fowing 
their lands immeiiiaiely after manuring, which yields 
them a profit jull fulFicient to aiford a prefent fcanty 
fvibfillcncc, though the quality and price of their bu- 
riUi be but triliing. 

The method ufcd in making barilla is the fame as 
that followed in Britain in burning kelp. The plant 
as foon as ripe is plucked up and laid in heaps, then 
fet on fire. The fait juices run out below into an 
hole in the ground, where they run into a vitrified 
lump, which is left about a fortnight to cool. An acre 
may give about a tun. 

BARING OK TREES, in agriculture, the taking 
away foine of the earth about the roots, that the win- 
ter-rain and fnow-watcr may penetrate fartlier into the 
roots. Tiiis is frequently praftifed in the autumn. 

BARJOLS, a fmall populous town of Provence, in 
France. E. Long. 5. 23. N. Lat. 4?. 35. 

BARIUM, ( anc. geog. ) a town of Apulia on the 
Adriatic ; (o called from the founders, who being ex- 
pelled from the ill.ind Bara, built this town. It is now 
called Bari ; fee that article. 

BARK, in the anatomy of plants, the exterior part 
of trees, correfponding to ilie Ikin of an animal. Kor 
i;s organization, texture, &c. fee the article Plants. 

As animals are fnrnillicd with a panniculus adipo- 
fus, ufually replete with fat, which invefls and covers 
all the flclhy parts, and fcreens thent from external 

The bark has its peculiar difcafes, and is infcifled 
with infcds peculiar to it. — It appears from the expe- 
riments of M. Bufibn, that trees llrippcd of their bark 
the whole length of their ftems, die in about three or 
four years. But it is very remarkable, that trees thus 
flripped in the time of the fap, and furtiircd to die, 
afford limber heavier, more uniformly dcnfe, ftronger, 
and fitter for fervice, than if the trees had been cut 
down in their healthy flate. Something of a like 
nature has been obfervcd by Vitruvius and Evelyn. 

The ancients wrote their books on bark, efpecially 
of the alh and lime-tree, not on the exterior, but on 
he inner and finer bark called f^hil^ra. 

There arc a great many kinds of barks in ufc in the 
feveral arts. Some in agriculture, and in tanning lea- 
ther, as the oak-bark (a); fomc in phyfic, as the 
nninquina or Jcfuit's bark, mace, &c. ; others in dye- 
ing, as the bark of alder, and walnut-trees ; others in 
fpiccry, as cinnamon, caflla lignea, Sec; and others 
for divers ufcs, as the bark of the cork-tree, &c. 

In the Eafl Indies, they prepare the bark of a cer- 
tain tree fo as to fpin like hemp. Alter it has been 
beat and fteeped in water, they extratS long threads 
from it, which are fomcthing between filkand common 
thread ; being neither fo fott nor fo glolly as filk, nor 
fo rough and hard as hemp. They mix filk with it itl 
fomc fluffs ; and thtfc are called nillncs, and ckcrqu:- 

Of the bark of a fpecies of mulberry-tree the Ja- 
pancft make their paper. See Morus. 

In the ifland of O-Taheite, the natives make their 
cloth, which is of three kinds, of the bark of three dif» 
ferent trees ; the paper-mulberry above-mentioned, tlie 
bread-fruit-tree, and the cocoa-tree. That made of the 
mulberry is the finefl and whitert, and worn chiefly by 
the principal people. It is manufadurcd in the fol- 
lowing manner. When the trees are of a proper fize*, 
they are drawn up, andilripped of tlieir branches; af- 
ter which, the roots and tops are cut off: the bark of 
thefc rods being then llit up longitudinally, is eafily 
drawn off ; and, when a proper quantity has been pro- 
cured, it is carried down to fome running water, ill 
which it is dcpofited to foak, and ftcured from float- 
ing away by heavy Hones : when it is fuppofed to be 
fiifficiently foftened, the women fcrvanis go down to 
the brook, and, flripping thcmfelvcs, fit down in the 
water, to feparate the inner bark from the green part 
on the outfide : to do this, they place the under fide up- 
on a flat finooih board, and with a kind of Ihcll fcraj!e 
it very carefully, dipping it continually in the water 
till nothing remains but the fine fibres of the inner 
coat. Being thus prepared iu the afternoon, they arc 


(a) The bark of the oak has been long uOd in tanning leather, and even thought cfTcntial to that operation : 
but a different fubitance has been lately difcovered, which anfwers the purpofc lull as well, and may be pro- 
cured at a much cheaper rate ; we mean oak faw-duft, or the chips of oak reduced to powder. This valuable 
fecret was purchafcd by the fociety for the encouragement of arts, &c. ^ 


[ 15 ] 


Bark, fprcad oiii upon plantain leaves in the evening ; they 
"~v^-^ are placed in kni;ths of about nor 12 yards, one by 
the lidc of another, lill they are about a foot broad, 
and two or three layers arc alfo laid one upon the o- 
thcr : care is taken that the cloth (lull be in ail parts 
of an equal tliicknefs, fo that if the bark happens to be 
thinner in any one part of one layer than the 
reft, a piece that is fotiiewhat thicker is picked out to 
be laid over in the next. In this (late it remains lill 
the morning, when great part of the water whicli it 
contained when it was laid out is cither drained offor 
evaporated, and tlic fcveral fibres adliere together, fo 
as that the whole may be raifed from the ground in 
one piece. It is then taken away, and laid upon the 
fmooth fide of a long piece of wood prepared for tlie 
piirpolc, and beaten by the women fervants. The in- 
llrument ufed for this purpofe is a fquarc wooden club, 
liaving each of its four fides or faces marked, length- 
ways, witli fmall grooves, or Airrows, of different de- 
grees of linenefs ; thofe on one fide being of a width 
and depth fufficient to receive a fmall pack-thread, and 
the others iincr in a regular gradation, fo that the la/l 
are not more than equal to fewing filk. Tliey beat ic 
Crft Willi the coarfeil fide of this mallet, keeping time 
like our fmitiis; it fpreads very fafl under the llrokes, 
chiefly however in the breadth, and the grooves in the 
mallet mark it with the appearance of threads; it is 
fncccllivcly beaten with the other fides, lall with the 
fined, and is then fit for ufe. Of this cloth there are 
feveral forts, of diff(:rent degrees of finenefs, in pro- 
portion as it is more or lefs beaten. The other cloth al- 
fo differs in proportion as it is beaten ; but they differ 
from each other in confequencc of the ditferent mate- 
rials of which they are made. The bark of the bread- 
fruit is not taken lill the trees are conlidcrably longer 
and thicker thanihofe of the mulberry ; the proccfs af- 
terwards is the fame. — Of tlie bark, too, of a tree which 
Hihifcui, they call poerott*, they manufaflure excellent matting ; 
tiliaau: of both 3 courfe fort which fcrvcs them to llecp upon, and 
a finer to wear in wet weather. Of the lame bark they 
alfo make ropes and lines, from the thickncfsof an inch 
to the fize of a fmall pack-thread. 

Bark, or Jnfuit's Bark, is a name given by way of 
eminence to the qnintjiiina, or cinchona. See Cin- 

Bark, in navigation, a general name given to fmall 
fliips ; it is however peculiarly appropriated by feamen 
to thofe which carry three mails without a niizcn top- 
fail. Our northern mariners, who are trained in the 
coal-trade, apply this diflinftion to a broad-flerned 
ihip which carries no ornamental figure on the flcrn or 

Water-BARKS, are little veffels ufed in Holland for 
the carriage of frclh water to places where it is want- 
ing, as well as for the fetching fea-watcr to make fait 
of. They have a deck, and arc filled with water up lo 
the deck. 

D ARK-Binding, a diftempcr incident to trees ; cured 
by Hitting the bark, or cutting along the grain, 

BARn-Galliiig, is when the trees are galled with 
tliorns, &c. It is cured by binding clay on the galled 

B iRK-Loii(^ui, or Barca Longa, a fmall low (harp- 
built, but very long, vcfl'el withont a deck. It goes 
with fails and oars, and is very common in Spain. 


BARKHAMSTEAD, or Bfrh amstf-at, a town r.-rltham- 
of llenfordlliirc in Kngland ; formerly of more note flead 
than at prcfcnt. It had lormerly a llrong cjlllc built I' 
by the Normans, bui it has been long fince dcmolilhcd. ^"^ '^V- . 
W. Long. o. 35. N. Lat. 45. 49. "^ ^ ' 

BARKING, a town of £li'ex in England, feated 
on tile river Roding, not far from tlic Thames, in a 
very unwholefome air. It has been chiefly noted for a 
large monaltery, now in ruins ; there being nothino- 
lelt (tandiug but a fmall p:iri of the walls, and a gate*^ 
houfe. E.' Long. O. 13. N. Lat. Jl. ;o. 

Barkjsc oj Trees, the peeling ofFihc rind or bark. 
This mull be done, in our climate, in (he month of 
May, bccaufe at that time the (^ip of the tree feparaies 
the bark from the wood. It would be very difficult 
to jierform it at any other time of the year, unlefs the 
feafon was extremely wet and rainy; for heat and dry- 
nels arc a very great hindrance fo it. 

By the French laws, all dealers are forbid to bark 
their wood while growing, on the penalty of soolivres. 
This law was the rcfult of ignorance ; it being now 
found, that barking of trees, and letting thein die, in- 
creafes the flrength of timber. 

BARKLEY, a town of Glouccfterniire in England, 
feated on a branch of the river Severn. It was for- 
merly of fonie note for a nunnery, and has Hill the title 
of a barony. W. Long. 2. 30. N. Lat. 51. 40. 

BARKWAY, a town of Hertforddiire in Eng- 
land, on the great road from London to York. W. 
Long. o. 5. N. Lat. 52. 

BARL.EUS (G.Upar), profelTor of philofophy ai: 
Ai-illerdam, and one of tlie befl Latin pocis of the 
17th century. There was fcarce any thing great that 
happpencd in the world wliile he lived, but he made a 
pompous elegy upon it, when reafons of (late were no 
obllacle (o it. He was a great defender of Arminius; 
and Ihowed his abiliiies in hiilory by his relation of 
what paifcd in Brafil daring the government of count 
Mauriceof Nalfan, publilhed 1647. He died the year 

B.ARLERIA, Snap-Dragon : A genus of the 
angiofpennia order, belonging to the didynamia clafs 
of plants ; and in the natural method ranking under 
the 40th order, Pcrfomitjr. The calyx is quadripar- 
tite ; two of the (lamina are much lefs than liie reft ; 
the caplule is quadrangular, bilocular, bivalved, claftic, 
and without claws ; and the feeds are two. There arc 
ten fpecies ; all natives of the warm parts of America, 
and therefore require to be kept in a (love and treated 
like other tender exotics. They poifefs no great beau- 
ty nor any remarkable property ; but are kept for the 
fake of variety. 

BARLETTA, a handfomc and ftrong town of 
Italy, in the kingdom of Naples, and in the Terra di 
Bari, with a billiop's fee. It is fituaied on the gulph 
of Venice, in E. Long. 16. 32. N. Lat. 41. 30. 

BARLEY, in botany. Sec Hordevm ; and A- 
CRICULTCRE, n° 139. 

The principal ufe of barley among us is for making 
beer ; in order to which it is tirft malted. Sec the ar- 
ticle Beer. 

The Spaniards, among whom malt liqi:ors arc little 
known, feed their horfcs with barley as we do with 
oats. In Scotland, barley is a common ingredient in 
l>ro[h$ ; and [be coiifumpt of it for that purpofe is 



[ i6 ] 



very conlKlcraMe, barley-brotk being a difli as frfiinent 
there as iliat of fhuf) in Kraiicc. 

Pearl Bmlh', and Frcrch Barlei : barky freed of 
the Iiulk by a mill ; the dillinrtion between the two 
being, ihat the pearl barley is reduced to the fiAc of 
fmall (liot, all but the very heart of the grain being 
ground away. 

B iRiEr-Ji''attr, is a decoiflion of either of ihefc, re- 
pined foft and lubricating, of frequent nfe in phyfic. 
This well-known dccod^ion is a very ufeful drink in 
many difonlcrs j and is rtcoinmcnded, witlf nitre, by 
fome authors of reputation, in (low fevers. 

BARLEr-Corn is ufcd to denote a long meafure, con- 
taining in length the third part of an inch, and in 
breadth the eight. The French carpenters alfo iifc 
barley-corn, grain d'orge, as equivalent to a line, or 
the twelfih part of an inch. 

BARLEY-Coni {grain (l'orge),\s alfo ufcd in building, 
for a liiile cavity between the mouldings of joiners 
work, fcrving lo fepaiaie or keep ihcm aliindcr ; thus 
called becanfc made with a kind of plane of the fame 

BARLOW (William), bidiop of Chichcncr, de- 
fccnded of an ancient family in Wales, was born in the 
county of Eirex. In his youth he favoured the n for- 
mation ; and travelled to Germany to be inilrurtcd by 
Luther, and other preachers of the new doflrine. 
How long he continued a Proteftant is uncertain: but 
from his letter lo king Henry VllL quoted below, it 
appears that he wrote fcvcral books againft the church 
of Home. However, he was a regular canon in the 
Augtidine monartery of St Outh in ihe county of Ef- 
fcx, and Ihidicd fome time at Oxford with the brothers 
of that order, where he took the degree of doi^T:or in 
divinity. He was then made prior of the convent at 
Billiani in Berklhirc ; and afterwards fuccecded lo the 
fevcral priories of Blackmorc, Typtree, Lcga, Brom- 
hole, and Haverford-wefl. On the dilloUuion of ab- 
beys, he refigned not only with a good grace, but per- 
fuadcd feveral other abbots to follow his example. 
King Henry was fo plcafed with his ready obedience 
on this occafion, that he fent him, in 1535, on an 
cmbalfy to Scotland ; in the fame year, made him bi- 
Jhop of St Afaph ; in two months after, tranflated him 
to the fee of St David's, and in 1547 to that of Bath 
and Wells. During this time, our good bifliop, as 
appears from the following epiftlc to the king, was, or 
pretended to be, a ftaunch Papift ; it was written in 
1533. " Prayfc be to God, who of his infynytc 
" goodnefs and mercy ineflymable hath brought nie 
" out of darkncfs into liglit, and from deadly igno- 
" ranee into the quick knowledge of the inuh. From 
" the whiche, through the fiend's inftigation and falfc 

" pcrfiiafion, I have greatly fwerved. In (o much 

" that I have made certayn bokes, and have foifrcd 
" them lobe cmprinted, as the trctifc of the b:irjall 
" cf the via[f:, S:c. In tliefc ireii'.'ts 1 perceive and 
" acknowledge my ftlf gricvoufly to have erred, namc- 
" ly againft the bleffed facrament of the aliarc ; dif- 
" allowing the niafle and denying purgatory, with 
" flanderous infamy of (he pope aiui my lord cardinal, 
" and outrageous raylying againft the clergy ; which 
" I have forfakcn and utterly renounced — .'\lks par- 
" don. IVilliam Baylni" However, when Ed v.-ard VI. 


came 10 the crown, he was again a Proieflant ; and for Bartow. 

that reafon, on queen Mary's acceflion, was deprived ' ^ — 

of his b~ilhoprick, and fent pril'onrr to the Hcti, where 
he continued fome linie. At length he found means 
to efcape, and imnicdiately joined the other Engtilli 
Protcftants in Germany. When queen Elizabeth af- 
ccnded the throne, our prel.ite was raifed to the fee of 
Chichefter, and foon after iriade tirft prebendary of the 
collegiate church of WcftminfUr. He died in 1 568, 
and was buried in the cathedral at Chicheltcr. He 
had five daughters, each of which married a bifhop. 
He wrote, l. ThihuryalDfthema^'i. 2. The climb- 
ing up of jrycrs and icligiouj fcrjlns foitred ivith fi- 
gures. 3. Chrijiian hotiiilict. 4. jj bcok i/pon Cof>no- 
grapby. 5. The godly and pious injiitution of a Chrif- 
tian 7i!an,covimonty calhd thebifljof s book .-and fcveritl 
other works. Heisfaidtobc the tranllaior of the A- 
pociypha as far as the book of Wifdom. His Iciticrs 
to M. Parker arc in manufcript in Corpus Chrifti col- 
lege Cambridge, Mifc. i. 44$. 

Barlow (William), a mathematician and divine, 
the fon of the bifliop of Chichefter, was born in Pem- 
brokefhire whilft his father was bifliop of St David's. 
In 1560, he was entered commoner of Baliol college in 
Oxford ; and in IJ63, took a degree in arts, which 
having completed by determination, he left the uni- 
vcrfity and went to lea ; but in what capacity is un- 
certain : hewever, he acquired confiderablc knowledge 
in the art of navigation. About the year 1573, he 
entered into orders ; and became prebendary of Win- 
chefter, and reftor of Eafton near that city. In 1588, 
he was made prebendary of Litchfield, which he ex- 
changed for the place of trcafurcr of that church. Some 
years after, he was made chaplain to prince Henry, 
the Ton of king James I.; and in 1614, archdeacon of 
Salifbury. He was the firft writer on the nature and 
properties of the magnet. Barlow died in the year 
i(')25, and was buried in the church at Eafton. His 
works are, l. The navigator's fupply, containing many 
things of principal importance belonging to navigation, 
and life oj diverfe i/ijlnanents framed chief y for that 
purpofe. Lond. 1597, 410. Dedicated to Robert Earl of 
Ellex. 2. Magnetical advcrtifements, or diverfe per- 
tinent ohfervations and approved experiments concerning 
the nature and properties of the loadjlone, Lond. 1616, 
410. 3. A brief difcovery of the idle aniviadverfions of 
Mark Ridley, M. D. upon a treatife entitled Magne- 
tical advert'ifcments. Lond. 1618, 4to. 

Barlow (Thomas), born in 1607, was ajipoinled 
fellow of Qiieen's college in Oxford in 1633 ; and two 
years after was chofen reader of mciaphy fics to the uni- 
verfity. He was keeper of the Bodleian library, and 
in 1657 was chofen provoft of Oiieen's college. After 
the rertoration of king Charles II. he was nominated 
one of the commiflioners for rcftoring the members un- 
juftly expelled in 1648. He wrote at that time The 
cafe of Toleration in matters of Rdigjon, tolSlrR. Boyle. 
In 187?, he was made bifliop of Lincoln. After the 
popilli plot, he publiflied feveral ira(?ls againft the Ro- 
man-catholic religion; in which he fliows an uncom- 
mon extent of learning, and Ikill in polemical divinity. 
Ncverthclcfs, when the Duke of York was proclaimed 
king, he took all opportunities of exprefllng his affec- 
tion toward him ; but after the revolution he as readily 



[ 17 1 


• Srt Alt. 

t A'l/iy, lib, 
xviii. c. 7, 

voted chat the king had abdicated his kingdom ; and 
was very vigorous in excluding tliofc of the clergy who 
rcfulcd the o.ilhs, from their benefices. 

Mr Granger obfcrves, that " this learned prelate, 
who.n nature dehgncd for a, and who afted in 
conformity with the beat of nature, was perhaps as 
great a mafter of the learned languages, and of the 
works of the celebrated authors who have written in 
thpfc languages, as any man of iiis age. The grcateft 
part of his writings, of wliich Mr Wood has given us 
a catalogue, are againft Popery ; and his condudt for 
fomc time, like that of other Calvinifts, appeared to 
be in direct oppofition to the Church of Rome. But 
after James ai'cended the throne, he fccmed to approach 
much nearer to Popery than he ever did before. He 
fent the king an addrefs of thanks for his declaration 
for liberty of confcience, and is faid to have written 
rcafons for reading that declaration. His compliances 
were much the fame after the revolution. His mo- 
deration, to call it by the fofteft name, was very great; 
indeed fo great as to bring the firmnefs of his charac- 
ter in quellion. cafuiftry, which was his mofl 
dirtinguiilied talent, not only reconciles feeming con- 
tradictions, but has alfo been known to admit contra- 
di(5tions themfelves. He was, abltraftcd from this lax- 
icy of principles, a very great and worthy man." He 
died at Buckden, in Huntingdoniliire, on the 8th of 
O^iober 1691, in the 85th year of his age. 

Barlow (Francis), and Englifli painter, was horn 
in Lincolnfliire. On his coming to London, he was 
placed with one Shepherd, a limner; but his ge- 
nius led him chiefly to drawing of birds, filh, and o- 
ther animals. There are fix books of animals from 
his drawings, and he painted fome ciclings v/ith birds 
for noblemen and gentlemen in the country. — His 
etchings are Humerous : his illuflration of Efop is his 
greatert work. He died in 1702. — There is fome- 
thing pleafmg in the compofition and manner of this 
mafter, though neither is excellent. His drawing 
too is very indifferent ; nor does he charaifberize any 
animal juflly. His birds in general are better than his 

BARM, the fame with yeft. See Yest. — Barm 
is faid to have been firfl ufed by the Celtae in the 
coaipofition of bread. About the time of Agricola's 
entrance into Lancafliirc, a new fore of loaf had been 
introduced at Rome ; which was formed only of wa- 
ter and flour, and much eftecmed for its lightnefs : 
and it was called the w.iter cakt from its liniple com- 
pofition, and the Part/iian roll from its original inven- 
tors. But even this was not comparable to the French 
or SpaniOi bread for its lightnefs. The iifc of curmi*, 
and the knowledge of brewing, had acquainted the 
Celtes with an ingredient for their bread, which was 
much better calculated to render it light and pleafant, 
than the leaven, the eggs, the milk, or the wine and 
honey, of other nations. This was the fj'ume which 
arofe on the furfacc of their curw in fermentation, and 
which the Welch denominate burjn, and wciJarw. The 
Cchcs of Gaul, of Spain, and mofl probably therefore 
of South-Britain, had long ufed it ; and their bread 
was, in confcqucncc of this, fuperior in I'ghtnefs to 
that of any other nation in the world f . See the ar- 
ticles Bakin'g and Bread. 

BARM.'^S, an Kail Indiaii people, who, in 151 J, 
Vol. III. 


poffelTed all the coaft extending from Bengal to Pegu. Barn, 
It appears alfo, that they were formerly mailers of A- Barnabas 
va, the dominions of which extended as far as China; ' * 
and of confcqucncc the Barmas were mailers of moll 
of the northern part of the peninfula beyond the Gan- 
ges. Their dominions, however, were afterwards re- 
duced to very narrow bounds, and their king became 
tributary to him of Pegu ; but by degrees they not on- 
ly recovered their former empire, but conquered the 
kingdoms of Pegu, Siam, and fcveral others. By the 
latert accounts, their kingdom extends from the pro- 
vince of Yun-nan in China, about 800 miles in length 
from north to fouth, and 350 in breadth from eaft to 
weft. See the article Pegu. 

BARN, in hulbandry, a covered place or houfe, 
with air-holes in the f:des, for laying up any fort of 
grain, hav, or ftraw. 

5/BAPlNABAS's Day, a Chriaian fellival, cele- 
brated on the nth of June. — St Barnabas was born at 
Cyprus, and defccnded of the tribe of Levi, whofe 
Jewilh anceftors are thought to have retired thither to 
fecurc thcmfelves from violence during the troublcfomc 
times in Judca. His proper name was Jo/?; ; to which, 
after his converfion to ChriltiSnity, tlie apoflles added 
that of Bartiabai, fignifying either the fan of prophecy, 
or the foil ofconfolation; the tirllrcfpefting his eminent 
prophetic gifts, the other his great charity in felling 
his eftate for the comfort and relief of the poor Chrif- 
tians. He was educated at Jerufalem, under the great 
Jewifli doflor Gamaliel ; which might probably lay 
the foundation of that intimate fricndlhip which was 
afterwards contrai51ed between this apollle and St 
Paul. The time of his converfion is uncertain ; but he 
is generally efteemed one of the feventy difciples cho- 
fen by our Saviour himfelf. 

At Antioch, St Paul and St Barnabas had a conteft, 
which ended in their feparaiion ; but what follow- 
ed it with refpecl to St Barnabas, is not related in 
the A{}s of the ApoJIlei. Some hy, he went into Ita- 
ly, and founded a church at Milan. At Salamis, wc 
are told, he fulTered martyrdom; whither fome Jt-ws, 
being come out of Syria, fct upon him, as he was dif- 
puting in the fynagogue, and ftoned him to death. 
He was buried by his kinfman Mark, whom he had 
taken with him, in a cave near that city. There- 
mains of his body are faid to have been difcovered in 
the reign of the emperor Zeno, together with a copy 
of St Matthew's gofpcl, written with his own hand, 
and laying on his breaft. 

St Biitx iris's Epijile, an apocryphal work afcribed 
to St Barnabas, and frequently cited by St Clement of 
Alexandria and Origen. — It firli piiblilhcd in 
Greek, from a copy of father Hugh Menard a Benc- 
didiiic monk. An ancient vcrfion of it was found in 
a manufcript of the abbey of Coebey, near a thoufand 
years old. Voffius publilhed it, in the year 1656, to- 
gether with the cpililcs of St Ignatius. 

St B 4R\-iH.4'i's Gofpcl, another apocryphal work, 
afcribed to St Barnabas the apollle, wherein the hiftory 
of Jefus Chrift is related in a manner very different 
from tlio account given us by the four Kvangclifls. 
Tlic Mahometans have this gofpcl in Arabic, and it 
correffiiids very well with ihofe traditions wh'rli Ma- 
homet followed in his Koran. It wis, probably, a 
frogcry of fomc nominal Chriftians j and afterwards 
C aUered 


[ 18 ] 


Barnil>ite8 altered ani interpDlatcJ by the Mahometans, the better 
n to ferve their purpofc. 
Birncs. UARNABITES, a religious orJer, founded in the 
"^ " ' i6th century by three Italian gentlemen, who had been 
advilcJ by a famous preacher of thofe days to read 
carefully the epiftles of St Paul. Hence they were 
called c/i-iks of St I'anI ; and Baniabitts, bccaufe they 
performed their rirll exercife in a chiircli of St Barna- 
bas at Milan. Their habit is bl.ick ; and their office 
is to inftriiift, catechifc, and ferve in million. 

BARN.ACLE, in ornithology, a fpccits of goofe. 
Sec Akas. 

BARN.ACLES, in farriery, an inftrument compofed 
of two branches joined at one end with a hinge, to put 
npun horfcs nofes when they will not Hand quietly to 
be lliod, blooded, or dreflcd. 

BARN'ADESIA, in botany ; a genus of the polyga- 
niia arqualis order, belonging to the fyngcnclla clafs of 
plants; the charadcrs of which arc : The corolla is ra- 
diated; the calyx is naked, imbricated, and pungent ; 
the pappus of tlie rays feathery, of the di(k brillly and 
retrofrafted. There is but one fpecics, the fpinofa, a 
native of America. 

BARNARD, orBERNARD (John), the fon of John 
Barnard, gent, was born at Caftor in Lincolnlliire, and 
educated at Cambridge. After fcvcral preferments, he 
was made a prebendary of the church of Lincoln. He 
wrote Cerfiira Clurior, againft fcandalous miniikrs not 
fit 10 be reftorcd to church livings; the Life of Dr 
Heylyn ; and a few other works. He died at Newark, 
Augu'ft 17, 168;;. 

B 4X.SARD-Citftl;, feaied on the river Tees in the 
county of Durham, is a town and barony belonging to 
Vane earl of Darlington. It is inilitferenily large, and 
has a manufacture of Stockings. W. Long. i. 45. N. 
Lat. J4. :;?. 

BARNES (Jofhua), profefTor of the Greek language 
at Cambridge, in the beginning of the i6th century. 
He was chofcn queen's profclfor of Greek in 1695, a 
language he wrote and fpoke with the utmoft facility. 
His firfl publication was a whimlical irart, inlitled, 
Geraiiia, or anew ciifcovcry of the little fort oj people 
Hilled Pygmies. After that appeared his Life of Ed- 
ivard III. in which he introduces his hero making 
long and elaborate fpeeches. — In the year 1700, when 
he publifhed many of his works, Mrs Mafon, of Hcni- 
iningford, in Huntingdonlhire, a widow lady of be- 
tween 40 and 50, with a jointure of L.200 per aunmn, 
who had been for fome time a great admirer of him, 
came to Cambridge, and dcfired leave to fettle L. 100 
a-year upon him after her death ; which lie politely 
rcfufcd, unlefs flie would likewife condefcend to make 
him happy with her pcrfon, which was not very enga- 
ging. The lady was too obliging to rcfufe any thing 
to Jolhua, for whom Ihe faid, "the fun flood llill ;" 
and they were accordingly married. Mr Barnes wrote 
feveral other books befidcs thofe abovenientioned, par- 
ticularly. Sacred poemi ; The hife of Oliver Crovi'iuell, 
ihe Tyrant ; feveral draviatic pieces ; yl poetical Para- 
phrafe on the Hijhry of Ejlher, in Creek verfe, W'ith a 
Latin irandaiion. Sec. ; and he publiflied editions of 
Euripides, Anacreoii, and Homer's Iliad and Odyffcy, 
with iwtes and a Latin tranllation. He wrote with 
greater eafe in Greek than even in Englifli, and yet is 
generally allowed not to have nndcrftood the delicacies 
of that language. He w?c of fuch a luinianc difpoli- 

tion, and fo unacquainted with the world, that he gave DarnaTtlit 
his only coat to a vagrant begging at his door. This I! . 
e.sccllc'nt man died on the 3d of AuguH 1712, in the . '"^"'' . 
j8ih year of his age. 

B.-MINAVELDF (John d'Olden), the celebrated 
Dutch (latefman, and one of the founders of the civil 
liberty of Holland. His patriotic zeal inducing him 
to limit the authority of Maurice prince of Orange 
the fecond fladtliolder of Holland, the partizans of that 
prince falfely acculcd him of a deiign to deliver his 
country into the hands of the Spanilh monarch. On 
this abfurd charge he was tried by 26 comniillaries de- 
puted from the feven provinces, condemned, and be- 
headed in 1619. His fons William and Rene, with 
a view of revenging theirfather's death, formed acon- 
fpiracy againft the iladtholder, which was difcovered. 
William fled : but Rene was taken and condemned to 
die ; which fatal circumftance has immortalized the 
memory of his mother, of whom the following anecdote 
is recorded. She folicited a pardon for Rene ; upon 
which Maurice exprelfed his furprife that fiie fliould do 
that for her fon which ihe had refiifed for her hulband. 
To this remark, Ihe replied with indignation, " I 
would not a(k a pardon for my huiband, bccaufe he was 
innocent. I folicii it for my fon, becaufe he is guilty." 

BARNET, a town partly in Middlefcx, and partly in 
Hertford lliire. It is a great thorough-fare, and the market 
is very remarkable for hogs. 

BARNSLEY, or Bi.ack Barnslev, a town of the 
weft riding of Yorklliirc, fcated on the fide of a hill, 
and five furlongs in length. W. Long. i. 20. N. Lat. 
53- 55- 

BARNSTABLE, a fea-port town of Devonlliire, 
feated on the river Tau, over which there is a good 
bridge. Itis a corporation town, and fends two members 
to Parliament. W. L. 4. 5. N. Lat. {I. 15. 

BARO, orBAKON (Peter), profellor of divinity in 
the univerlity of Cambridge, in the i6th century, was 
born at Eftampes in P'rance, and educated in the uni- 
verfity of Bourges, where he was admitted a licentiate 
in the law ; but being of the Proteftant religion, he 
was obliged to leave his native country to avoid perfe- 
cution ; and withdrawing into England, waskindly en- 
tertained by Lord Burleigh. He afterwards fettled at 
Cambridge ; and by the reconinien<lation of his noble 
patron, was, in 1574, chofen lady Margaret's profcflbr 
there. For loine years he quietly enjoyed his profef- 
forfliip ; but there was at laft raifcd a reftlcfs faftion 
againft him, by his ojipofing the doftrine ofabfolutc 
predcftinaiion ; which rendered his place fo iineafy to 
him, that he chofe to leave the univerliiy, and to fettle 
in London. He wrote, l. In Jonan: Prophetam Pr<r- 
leilionis, xxxix. 2. De Pra-flantia b Dignitate Divinie 
Legis : and other pieces. He died in London, about 
the year 1600. 

BAROCCI (Frederic), a celebrated painter, was 
born at Urbino, where the genius of Raphael infpired 
him. In iiis early youth he travelled to Rome ; where 
he painted feveral things in frcfco. He then returned 
to Urbino; and giving himfclf up to intenfe ftndy, 
acquired a great name in painting. His genius parti- 
cularly led him to religious fubjefts. At his leifure 
hours, he etched a few prints from his own dcfigns ; 
which are highly finiilicii, and executed with great 
foftnefs and delicacy. The Salutation is his capital 
perforniauce in that v;sy : of which we feldom meet 



[ 19 ] 




of the ba- 

and im- 
proved by 

with any imprefllons, bin thofc taken from the retouched 
plate, which are very harlli. He died at Urbino in 
; 1612, aged 84. 

BAROCHE, a town of Cambaya, in ilic domi- 
nions of the Great Mog;iil; it is walled round, and was 
formerly a place of great trade. It is now inhabited 
by weavers and fiich mechanics as manufaJlure cotton 
cloth. Here they have the bed cotton in the world, 
and of confcqiience the bell baltas are manufaflured in 
this place. The Englifli and Dutch had formerly fac- 
tories here, wliich are now abandoned. E. Long. 72. j. 
N. Lat. 22. I J. 

BAROCO, in logic, a term given to the fourth 
mode of the fecond tigure of fyllogifms. A fyllogifm 
in baroco has tlic firft propofition univerfal and affirma- 
tive, but the fecond and third particular and negative, 
and the middle term is the predicate in the two lirll 
propofitions. For example, 

Nullus homo non cjl bipes : 
Non omne animal ej\ bipes : 
Non omne animal ejl htj/io. 

BAROMETER (from /Sao©, tueight, and /usTfCf 
meafurc), an inflrument for meafuriug the weight of 
the atmofpherc, and of ufe in forteiling the changes of 
the weather, and alio for meafuring the height of 
mountains, &c. 

The common barometer confifls of a glafs tube her- 
metically fealed at one end, and tilled with quickfdver 
well defecated and purged of its air. The linger being 
then placed on the open end, in immediate contaft with 
the mercury, fo as not to admit the leafl particle of 
air, the tube is inverted, and the lower end plunged 
into a bafon of the fame prepared mercury ; then upon 
removing the finger, the mercury in the tube will join 
that in the bafon, and the mercurial column in the tube 
will fublide to the hciglit of 29 or 30 inches, according 
to the flate of the atmofphere at that time. This is the 
principle on which all barometers are conftruded. Of 
their invention, the different kinds of them, and the 
theories by which their phenomena are folved, we fhall 
proceed to give an hiftorical account. 

In the beginning of the lafl century, when the doc- 
trine of a plenum was in vogue, philofophers were of 
opinion, that the afcent of water in pumps was owing 
to the abhorrence of a vacuuiii ; and that by means of 
fuiJlion, fluids might be raifed to any height whatever. 
But Galilaeo, who flourillied about that time, difcovcred 
that water coidd not afccnd in a pump unlcfs the fucker 
reached within 35 feet of its furface in the well. From 
hence he concluded, that not the power of fuc^iim, but 
the prclFure of the atmofpherc, was the caufe of the af- 
cent of water in pumj'S ; that a column of water 33 
feet h'» h was a counttrpoife to one of air of an equal 
l>afc, whofe height extended to the top of the atmo- 
fphere ; and that tor iliis reafon the water would not 
follow the fucker any tanhcr. From this Torricelli, 
Galilaio's difciple took tlie hint ; and conllilcred, ihat 
if a column of water of about 33 feet in height was 
eqiiil in weight 10 one of air having tl:c fame bale, a 
column of mercury no longer than about 29', inches 
would be fo too, bccaufc mercury being about 14 times 
heavier than water, a column of mercury muftbei^ 
times llioncr than one of water equally heavy. Ac- 
cordingly, having filled a j;lafs tube with mercury, and 

inverted it into a bafon of the fame, he found the irer- Barometer 

cury in the tube to defcend till it flood about 29:^" ' 

inches above the furface of that in the bafon. 3 

Notwiihftanding this clear proof of the prefliirc ofStiarcchy- 
the atmofphere, however, the alienors of a plenum lcflP"'^■c^i^ "f 
no means untried to folve the phenomena of the Tor-^'""'" 
riccllian experiment by fome other hypotlicfis. The 
nioft ridiculous folution,and which at the fame time gave 
the adverfe party the greatcll difficulty to overthrow it, 
was that of Linus. He contended, that in the upper 
part of the tube, there is a film, oncpe ofjnercury, ex- 
tended through the feeming vacuity ; and that, by this 
rope, the rcfl of the mercury was fiifpended, and kept 
from falling into the bafon. Even this fo abfurd hy-E«peri- 
pothefis he pretended to confirm by the ftllowing ex-mcnuin 
periments. Take, fays he, a fmall tube, open at both<^""fi""»- 
ends, fuppofe about 20 inches long ; fill this tube with''"" "^ "• 
mercury, flopping the lower orifice with your thumb : 
Then clofing the upper end with your finger, and im- 
merging the lower in Ilagnant mercury, you iliall per- 
ceive, upon the removal of your thmnb, a manifelt 
fuiftion of your finger into the tube ; and the tube and 
mercury will both flick fo clofe to it, that you may carry 
them about the room. Therefore, fays he, (he inter- 
nal cylinder of mercury in ihe tube is not held up by 
the preponderate air without ; foriffo, whence comes 
foflronga fusion, and fo firm an adhefionof the tube 
to the finger .' — The fame effeft follows, though the 
tube be not quite filled with mercury ; for if a little 
fpaceofair is left at the top, after the tube is im- 
mergcd in the flagnaiit mercury, there will be a confi- 
dcrable fuiJlion as before. , 

Thefe experiments, which are themfelves clear proofiRcfuteJ. 
of the prelliire of the air, fiipporied for fome time the 
juniatlur hypothelis, as it was called of Linus. But 
when it was difcovcred, that if the was carried to the 
top of an high mountain the mercury flood lower than 
on the plain, and that if removed into the vacuum of 
an air-pump it fell out altogether, the hypothtfis of 6 
Linus was rejefted by everybody. — There are, how-Remark- 
ever, two experiments which create a conllJerable d ii -»'•'« "P«"- 
ficulty. One is mentioned by Mr Huygens, viz. thai"'""''^ 
if a glafs tube 75 inches long, or perhaps longer, is ' ^^' . 
filled with mercury well purged of lis air, and ilien in- 
verted, the whole wiil remain fufpended ; whereas, ac- 
cording to the Torricellian experiment, it ouglii to fub- 
lide immediately to the height of 29 or 50 inches. It 
is true indeed, tliat,u]ion fluking the tube, the mercury 
prefcnily fublidcs to thai height ; but why it lliould re- 
main fufpended at all, more than twice the height to 
which it can be raifed by the preiTure of the moll denfc 
atmofphere, feems not eafily accounted for ; and ac- 
cordingly, in the Philofophical TranfatTioiis, we find. ^ '. j. 
attempts to account for it by the preflure of a n:edium,p^j| ^^^ ' 
more fubtile tlian the common air, and capable of per- counted for 
vading both the mercury and glafs. \Se find there In the I'hi- 
alfo another very furprifing faift of the fame kind men- lofophical 
tioncd ; viz. that a pretty large tube under 29 inches'.''*"'^"" 
in length, filled with mercury, and inverted into a ba- """'■ 
fon of the fame, will rcm.iin full, though there be a 
fmall hole in the top. This, too, is there accounted 
for by the prcfliire of a medmm more fubtile than com- g 
mon air; but by no means in a fatisfaclory manner. MrMr Row- 
Rowning, who mentions the phenomenon of the 75 inch "'"g'sfolu- 

tuiic, accounts for it in the lollou ing manner. 
C 2 





Baromrter.caufe of this plienomenonfeems to be, that by the great 

" " ' weight of fo long a column of mercuiy, it was prcfTcd 

into lb clofc a coiuaifl with ilic glals in puuring in, that, 
by the mutual attrafticni of cohclion between the mer- 
cury and the glafs, the whole column was Villained af- 
, r 2 ■. tcr tiic tube was inverted." — Here, however, we imift 
n uHicicnt gj^fj^ve, that this foUition feems equally unfaiisfadory 
with that of the fubtile medium already mentioned ; bc- 
caufe it is only one end of the column which fuftains 
fo great a picllurc from the weight of the mercury ; and 
therefore, though five or iix inches of the upper part of 
the tube, where the preiVure had been llrongeft, might 
thus remain fvdl of mercury, ytt the refl ought to fail 
down. Bcfidcs, it is only the outfidc of the mercurial 
column that is in contaft with the glafs, and confc- 
quently thcfe parts only ought to be attrai.1ed. There- 
fore, even granting the prcllure to be equally violent, 
on the inverliou of the tube, all the way from 29 to 75 
inches, yet the glafs ought to beonlyas it were filvercd 
over by a very thin film of mercury, while the middle 
parts of the column ought to fall out by reafou of their 
10 lluidity. 
Another The Other experiment hinted at, is with regard to 

experiment fiphons ; which though it belongs more properly to the 
•with fi- article Hydrostatics, yet fcemsnccell'ary to be men- 
phous. tioned here. It is this ; That a liphon, once fet a run- 
ning, will continue to do lb though fet under the re- 
ceiver of an air-pump and the aircxhaulkd in the mod 
pcrfeft manner ; or if a liphon is tilled, and then fet 
under a receiver and the air exhaudcd, if by any con- 
trivance the end of the lower leg is opened, it will im- 
inediately begin to run, ami difcharge the water of any 
velfel in which the o:her leg is placed, as [hough it was 
in the open air. The caufe of this phenomenon, as 
well as the former, feems very ditficult to be invefli- 
.'lolutif.n by gated. In Chambers's Didionary, under the word 
Mr Cham- Siphon, we have a IbUuion foraething limilar to the fu- 
fctrs. nicular hypothecs of Linus abovcmcntioned ; namely, 

that " tluids in fiphons fttm as it were to form one con- 
tinued body ; fo that the heavier part, defcending, like 
a chain pulls the lighter after it." This might be 
,j deemed a fulHcient explication, if the fiphon was only 
Iniufncient to empty the water it at firft contains in ilftlf : but 
when wc confider that the water in the veird, which 
much exceeds the quantity contained in the (Iphon, 
is likewife evacuated, Mr Chambers's hypoihcfis can 
by no means be admitted ; hecaufc this would be like 
the lighter part of a chain pulling the heavier after it. 
Concerning the caufe of thcfe fjngular phenomena, 
we can only offer the following conjefture. The ex- 
iltcnce of a medium much more fubiile than air, and 
which pervades the vacuum of an air-pump v.ith the 
utmoft facility, is now futliciently afccriaintd in the 
phenomena of elcftriciiy. It is alfo well known, that 
this liuid furrounds the whole earth to an indeterminate 
height. If therefore this fluid cither is tlie power of 
gravity itfelf, or is afted upon by that power, it muft 
necefllirily prefs upon all terreftrial bodies in a man- 
jier fitnilar to the preifurc of the atmofphere. If then 
we could from any vefTcl entirely exclude this fubtile 
fluid, and form an eUarical vacuum, as well as wc can 
do an aerial one by means of the air-pump, we would 
in that cafe fee fluids as evidently raifed by the prc.Ture 
ef the eleiJfric matter, as we now fee them raifed by 
that of the air. But iho' this be done, we are 


frcjm the 
aiflion of 

20 ] BAR 

affiired that there arc certain fiibAances, of which glafs rarcmcter. 
is one, through which the eleiJlric matter cannot pais *~~^-'~~' 
but with diihculty. We arc likwife certain, that tlio' 
the eleflric matter palfes through the pores of water, 
metals, &c. with very great facility, yet it ftill mult 
meet with fomc relillancc from their folid and impene- 
trable parts, which cannot be pervaded by any materia) 
fubftancc. We know alfo, that all fubflaiiccs do na- 
turally contain a certain quantity of this cleflric mat- 
ter, which they are not always ready 10 part v\ iih ; and 
when by any means the fluid they contain is fet in mo- 
tion, they are then faid to be cldlrificd. Now, though 
we arc certain, that the friftion of glafs by mercury 
does fet in motion the elcftric fluid contained in the 
mercury or in the glafs ; yet when the tube is filled 
with the metallic fluid, whatever quantity has been 
extricated either from the glafs or mercury during 
the time of filling, will be reabforbed by the me- 
tal and conveyed 10 the earth during the time of in- 
verlion ; and confeqnently tlie mercurial tube, when 
inverted, will not be elcdrilicd, but both glals and 
mercury will be in their natural llate. Here, then, the 
prcfllire of the eleftrical fluid is kept off' in fomc mea- 
furc from the upper part of the mercury by the glafs, 
which it cannot penetrate eafily at Icaft. To the 
mercury in the bafon it has free accefs, and therefore 
prtli'cs more upon the lower than the upper part ; the 
conftquence of which is a fufpenfion of the mercury. 
It is true, this fluid very ealily penetrates the metallic 
matter ; but it muft be confulcrcd, that the eledric fluid 
itfelf is in fomc meafure entangled in the particles of 
the quickfilvtr, and cannot be extricated without mo- 
tion. As foon therefore as the tube is fhaken, fomc 
l>art of the eleftricity is extricated, and the mercury 
begins to defccnd The fubtilty of the nudiimi isfuch, 
that no fooner has it begun to extricate itfelf, than, by 
the motion of the metal downwards, it ilhies forth in 
great quantities, fo as to become vilible, like a blue 
flame, in the dark. The equilibrium is therefore de- 
ftroyed in an inftant, as it would be were we to admit 
air to the top of the barometer ; nay, in a more effec- 
tual manner. For if a fmall quantity of air was ad- 
milted to tlie top of a barometer, the mercury would 
only defccnd in proportion to the quantity of air ad- 
mitted ; but here, no fooner is a quantity of elciftric 
matter admitted, than it procures admiHion for a va ft 
deal more, and confcquently the mercury dcfcendswith 
accelerated velocity. — On this principle the afcent of 
water in the liphon while iv. vaait is fo ealily accounted 
for, that we need not take up time in explaining it far- 
ther. — But why an inverted glafs tube fliould remain 
full of mercury when it has a hole either great or fmall 
in the top, is more difficult to be accounted for, and 
requires this farther circumftance to be taker: •'.to con- 
fideration, viz. that though all folid bodies will, by * 

the aflion of gravity, or by any other impulfe, eafdy 
approach very near to one another, yet they cannot be 
brought into abfolute contaifb without a very confider- 
able force, much greater than is fulKcicnt to overcome 
their gravity ; and thus it appears from fome experi- 
ments, that the links of a chain are by no means in 
contaft with one another, till the chain has a confider- 
able weight appended to it. This may be the cafe 
w'ith the tube in queflion. The air by its gravity de- 
fcciids upon it; and is ready to enter the final) hole in the 



[ 21 ] 




ufcd for 
cating the 


Its pheno- 
mena as a 
jrhfs by 
Mr Patrick 


top ; but, by a repnlfive power from the glals, its ac- 
tion is prevented, fo tliat the mercury cannot fill. 

It was, however, t'oine time after the Torricellian ex- 
periment had been made, and even after it had been 
univerfally agreed tliat the fufpenfion of the mercury 
was owing to the weight of the atniofplierc, before it 
was difcovered that this preffiirc of the air wasilitf'crent 
at difftrent times though the tube was kept in the 
fame place. But the variations of altitude in the mer- 
curial column were too obvious to remain long unob- 
ferved ; and accordingly philofophers foon became care- 
ful enough to mark llieni. When this was done, it 
was impoliUile to avoid obferving alfo, that the changes 
in the height of the mercury were accompanied, or 
very quickly fuceeeded, by clianges in the weather. 
Hence the inftrumcnt obtained the name of the ■lytw- 
thcr-glafs, and was generally made ufc of with a view 
ro the foreknowledge of the weather. In this charac- 
ter, its principal phenomena are as follow. 

1. The rifnig of the mercury prefiges, in general, fair 
weather; and its falling, foul weather, as rain, fnow, 
high winds, and llorms. 

2. In very hot weather, the falling of the mercury 
forefliows thunder. 

3. In winter, the riling prefages frofl ; and in froHy 
weather, if the mercury falls three or four divilions, 
there will certainly follow a thaw. But in a continued 
froit, i( the mercury riles, it will fnow. 

4. When foul weather happens foon after the falling 
of the mercury, cxpeel but little of it; and, on tlie 
contrary, exped; but little fair weather when it proves 
fair ilwrtly after the mercury has rifcn. 

5. In foul weather, when the mercury rifes much and 
high, and fo continues for two or three days before the 
foul whether is quite over, then expeft a continuance 
of fair weather to follow. 

6. In fair weather, when the mercury falls much and 
low, and thus continues for two or three days before 
the rain comes; then cxpcft a great deal of wet, and 
probably high winds. 

7. The unfettled motion of the mercury denotes un- 
certain and changeable weather. 

8. Yon arc not {<i (Iridlly to obferve the words en- 
graved on the plates (though in general it will agree 
with them), as the mcrcury'sr;7/'-^andy<7////;_f. For if it 
flands at much rant and then rifes up to chaiigeabl:, it 
prcfages fair weatlicr; though not to continue fo long 
as if the mercury had rifcn higher: and fo, on the con- 
trary, if the mercury flood ^\ fair, and falls to change- 
able, it prcfages foul weather ; though not fo much of 
it as if it had funk lower. 

Thefe are the obl'ervations of Mr Patrick, on wliich 
Mr Rowning makes the following remark. " From 
thefe obfcrvations it appears, That it is not fo much 
the height of the mercury in the tube that indicates 
the weather, as the motion of it up and down : where- 
fore, in order to pais a right judgment of what weather 
is to be expelled, we ought to know whether the mer- 
cury is aflually riling or falling; to which end the fol- 
lowing rules are of life. 

" I. If the furface of the mercury is convex, fland- 
ing higher in the middle of the tube than at the (ides, 
it is generally a lign that the mercury is then rifing. 

" 2. If the furface is concave, it is thcufmkiag; 


Thefe phc- 
and frigid 
• HiUf. 
N° JSO. 

" ?•.''_ it is plain, the mercury is llacionary, or ra- Baromeic.-. 

ther, if it is a little covcx : for mercury being put into "^ ' 

a glafs tube, efpccially a fmall one, will naturally have 
Its furlace a liiile convex, btcaufe the panicles of mer- 
cury atlracl one another more forcibly than they arc 
attracted by glafs. Further, 

" 4. If the glafs is fmall, lliake the tube ; and if 
the air is giown heavier, the nitrcury will rife about 
half the tent of an inch higher than it ifood before ; 
if it is grown lighter it will link as much. This pro- 
ceeds from the mercury's flicking to the fides of the 
tube, which prevents the free motion of it till it is dif- 
cngagcd by the (liock : and therefore, when an ob- 
fcrvation is to be made withfuch a tube, it ought al- 
ways to be ihaken firfl ; for fometimesthe mercury will 
not vary of its own accord, till the weather it ought 
to have indicated is prefent." 

Here we muft obl'erve, that the abovementioned phe- 
nomena are peculiar to places lying at a confidtrablc di- 
Ilance from the equator ; for, in the torrid zoue, the mer- 
cury in the barometer feldom cither rifes or falls much. 
In Jamaica, it is obfcrvcd by Sir William Beellon*, that 
the mercury in the morning conftantly Hood at one de- 
gree below changeable, and at noon funk to one degree 
above rain ; fo that the whole fcale of variation there 
was only ,', of an inch. At St Helena, too, where 
Dr Hallcy made his obfervations, lie found the mer- 
cury to remain wholly ftationary whatever weather hap- 
pened. Of thefe phenomena, their caufes, and why 
the barometer indicates an approaching change of wea- 
ther, the Dodor gives us the following account. 

" I. In calm weather, when the air is inclined to 
rain, the mercury is commonly low. 

" 2. In fercne, good, and fettled weather, the mer- 
cury is generally high. 

" 5. Upon very great winds, though they be not 
accompanied with rain, the mercury links lowcft of all, 
with relation to the point of thecompafs the wind blows 

" 4. Cietena paribus, the greateft heights of the 
mercury are found upon caflerly, or north-eaflerly, 

" 5. In calm frofty weather, the mercury generally 
Hands high. 

" 7. After very great ftorms of wind, when the mer- 
cury has been very low, it generally riles again very fart. 

" 7. The more northerly places Iiave greater altera- 
tions of the bsrometer than the more fouthcrly. 

" 8. Within the tropics, and near them, thofe ac- 
counts we have had from others, and my own obferva- 
tions at St Helena, make very little or no variation of 
the height of the mercury in all weathers. 

" Hence I conceive, that the principal caufe of the 
rife and fall of the mercury is from the variable winds 
which are found in the temperate zone, and whofe great 
inconltancy in England is notorious. 

" A fecond caufe is, the imcertain exhalation and 
precipitation of the vapours lodging in the air, where- 
by it comes to be at one time much more crowded than 
at another, and confequeiitly heavier ; but this latter 
depends in a great meafure upon the former. Now, 
from thefe principles I lliall endeavour to explicate the 
feveral phenomena of theluromeicr, taking them in the 
fame order 1 have laid them down. Thus, 

•' I. The mercury's being low inclines it to rain, 



na of the 
folved by 
Dr HaUey. 


Barometer, becaiife the air being light, the vapours are no longer 

•*— ~ ' fiipportcd thereby, being become Iptcitically heavier 

tiian the mcdinin wherein tliey rtoatcd ; fo ihat they 
dcfccnd towards the earth, and, in their tall, meeting 
wich other aqueous panicles, thty incorporate toge- 
ther, and form little drops of rain : but the mercury's 
being at one time lower than another, is the cffcd of 
two contrary winds blowing from the place where the 
barometer rtands ; whereby the air of that place is car- 
ried both ways from it, aiidconfcquently the incumbent 
cylinder of air is diminilhed, and accordingly the mer- 
cury links : Az, for inftance, if in the German ocean it 
fliould blow a gale of wefterly wind, and, at the fame 
time, an ealterly wind in the IrilhSea; or, if in France 
it Ihould blow a northerly wind, and in Scotland a 
fouiherly; it mull be granted, that that part of the 
atmofphere impendant over England would thereby be 
exliauiU-d and attenuated, and the mercury would fub- 
fidc, and the vapours which before floated in ihefe pans 
of the air of equal gravity with thcmfelvcs would fink 
to the earth. 

" 2. The greater height of the barometer is occa- 
fioned by two contrary winds blowing towards the 
place of obfervation, whereby the air of other places 
is brought thither and accumulated ; fo that the incum- 
bent cylinder of air being increafcd both in height and 
weight, the mercury prelfed thereby mu(t needs fland 
high, as long as the wind continues fo to blow; and 
then the air being fpecifically heavier, the vapours are 
better kept fufpended, fo that they have no inclination 
to precipitate and fall down in drops, which is the rea- 
fon ofihefercncgood weathcrwhich attends the greater 
heights of the mercury. 

" 3. The mercury links the loweft of all by the very 
rapid motion of the air in florms of wind. For the 
traftor region of the earth's furface, wherein the winds 
rage, not extending all round the globe, that flagnant 
air which is left behind, as likcwifc that on the lides, 
cannot come in fo fad as to fupply the evacuation made 
by ib fwift a current ; fo that the air innit necelTarily 
be attenuated when and where the faid winds continue 
to blow, and that more or Icfs according to their vio- 
lence : add to which, that the horizontal motion of the 
air being fo q.iick as it is, may in all probability lake 
off fome part of the perpendicular prtfliire thereof; 
and the great agitation of its panicles is the reafon 
why the vapoars are dilFipated, and do not condcnfe 
into drops fo as to form rain, othcrwife the natural con- 
fequence of the air's rarefaction. 

" 4. The mercury flr.nds higliefl upon the eaftcrly 
and north-caflerly wind ; becaufc in the great Atlantic 
ocean, on this fide the 5Jih degree of north latitude, 
the winds are almort; all wefterly or fouth-wefterly ; 
fo that whenever here the wind comes up at eaft and 
north-eaft, it is fare to be checked by a contrary gale 
as foon as it reaches the ocean ; wherefore, according 
to our fecond remark, the air mufl needs be heaped 
over this idand, and confcqucntly the mercury muft 
Hand high as often as thcfe winds blow. This holds 
true intliisconntry ; bit it is not a general rale for others, 
where the winds are under diflcrent circumftances: 
and I have fometimes feen the mercury here as low as 
29 inches upon an eafterly wind ; but then it blew cx- 
reedingty hard, and fo comes to be accounted for by 
what was ubferved in tJie third remark. 

[ 22 ] BAR 

" J. In calm frofty weather the mercury generally Barometer, 
ftands high ; bccaufe (as 1 conceive) it fcldom freezes ^'^ ' 
but when the wind comes out of the northern and north- 
eaftern quarters, or at leaft iiiilcfs thofc winds blow 
at no great diftance otf". For the north part of Ger- 
many, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, and all that trait 
from whence north-eaftern wind comes, arc fubjcit to 
almoil continual froft all the winter: and thereby the 
lower air is very much condenfed, and in that ftatc is 
brought hiihcrward by thofe winds, and being accu- 
mulated by the oppolition of the weflerly wind blow- 
ing in the ocean, the mercury miift needs be prcllcd 
to a more than ordinary height ; and as a concurring 
caufe, the llniiikiiigof the lower pans of the air into 
lell'er room by cold, muft needs caufe a dcfcent of the 
upper parts of the atmofphere, to reduce the cavity 
made by this coutraiSion to an equilibrium. 

" 6. After great llorms, when the mercury has been 
very low, it generally rifes again very fall: I once ob- 
ferved it to rife one incli and an half in lefs than fix 
hours after a long continued florm of fouth-wcll wind. 
The reafon is, becaufe the air being very much rare- 
fied by the great evacuations which fuch continued 
florms make thereof, the neighbouring air rnns in 
the more fwiftly to bring it to an equilibrium; as 
we fee water runs the faflcr for having a greater de- 

" 7. The variations are greater in the more north- 
erly places, as at Stockholm greater than at Paris 
(compared by M.Pafchal) ; becaufc the more northerly 
parts have uliially greater ftorms of wind than the more 
fouthcrly, whereby the mercury fliould link lower iu 
that extreme; and then the northerly winds bringing 
in the more denfe and ponderous air frcmi the neigli.- 
bourliood of the pole, and that again being checked 
by a fouthcrly wind at no great diftance, and fo heaped, 
muft of necclfiiy make the mercury in fucli cafe ftand 
higher in the other extreme. 

" 8. Laftly, this remark, that there is little or no 
variation near the equiiiodial, docs above all otlicrs 
confirm the hypothdis of the variable winds being the 
caufe of thefe variations of the height of the mercury; 
for in the places above named there is always an eafy 
gale of wind blowing nearly upon the fame point, vix. 
E. N. E. at Barbadocs, and E. S. E. at St Helena; 
fo that there being no contrary currents of air to ex- 
hault or accumulate it, the atmofphere continues much 
in the fame ftate : however, upon hurricanes, the 
moft violent of florms, the mercury has been obferv- 
ed \cry low ; but this is but once in two or three 
years, and it foon recovers its fettled ftate, about 29V 



This theory we find controverted in Chambers's obicaiom 
Cyclopsedia, udder the word BarOiMEter. TliebyMr 
principal objections are, " That if the wind wasihefolc Chamber*, 
agent in railing or deprefTing the mercury, the altera- 
tions of its height in the barometer would be only re- 
lative or topical ; there would fiill he the fame quanti- 
ty fupportcd at feveral places taken colleflivcly : thus 
what a tube at London loft, another at Paris, Pifa, or 
Zurich, &c. would gain. But the contrary is found 
to be the cafe; for, from all the obfcivaiions hitherto 
made, the barometers in fcvcral dillani parts of thp 
globe rife and fall together. This is a very furprillng 
fadt; and dcferves to be well examined. Again, fettiug 



[ 23 ] 



of Mr 


of Mr 



afide all other objections, it is inipofTible, on Dr Hal- 
ley's hypotliefis, to explain the mercury's fall before, 
and rile .ifter, rain. For fuppofc two contrary winds 
fwecping tlic air from over London : We know that 
few if any of tlic winds reach above a mile high ; all 
therefore tlicy can do will be 10 cut otf a certain pare 
of the column of air over London : if the confcqiiencc 
of this be the falloftiie mercury, yet there is no ap- 
parent realbn forilie rains following it. The vnpoiirs 
indeed may be let lower ; bin it will only be lill [hey 
come into an air of the fame fpecihc gravity with thcm- 
fclves, and there they JUck as before. Laflly it 
is inipoffiblc according 10 the laws of fluids, that the 
air above any place could be exhaulled by the blow- 
ing of two contrary winds from it : for, fuppofe a 
nonh-eall and fouth-wtll wind both blow from Lon- 
don at tiie fame time, there will be two oihers at the 
fame time blowing towards it from oppolitc points, 
■viz. a N. W. and S. E. one, which will every moment 
rcllorc the equilibrium, fo that it can never be loft in 
any confiderable degree at lead." 

Mr Leibnitz accounted for the finking of the mer- 
cury before rain upon another principle, viz. That as 
a body fpccitically lighter than a fluid, while it is I'u- 
fpended by it, adds more weight to that fluid than 
when, by being reduced in its bulk, it becomes I'pe- 
cifically heavier, and dcfccnds ; fo the vapour, after 
it is reduced into the form of clouds, and dcfcends, 
adds lefs weight to the air than before ; and therefore 
the mercury falls. To which it is anfwered, i. That 
when a body defcends in a fluid, its motion in a very 
little time becomes uniform, or nearly fo, a farther 
acceleration of it being prevented by the relillancc of 
tlie fluid ; and then, by the third law of nature, it 
forces the fltiid downwards with a force equal to that 
whereby it tends to be farther accelerated, that is, 
with a force equal 10 its whole weight. 2. The mer- 
cury by its dcfcent foretells rain a much longer time 
before it comes, than the vapour after it is condenfed 
into clouds can be fuppofed to take up in falling. 
3. Suppofmg that as many vapours as fall in rain du- 
ring a whole year were at once to be condenfed into 
clouds, and even quite ceafe to gravitate upon the air, 
its gravity would fcare be diminilhed thereby fo much 
as is equivalent to the deftent of two inches of mer- 
cury in the barometer. Befides, in many places be- 
tween the tropics, the rains fall at certain feafons in 
very great quantities, and yet the barometer (hows 
theVe very little or no alteration in the weight of the 

Mr Chambers gives an hypothells fomewhat finiilar 
to that of Leibnitz: but as it is liable to the objedions 
juil now mentioned, efpecially the laft, we forbear to 
give any particular account of it ; and fliall attempt, 
npon other principles, to give a fatisfadory folution 
of this phenomenon. 

The necelTary preliminaries to our hypoihcfis are, 
I. That vapour is formed by an intimate union between 
the element of fire and that of water, by which the fire 
or heat is fo totally enveloped, and its aClion fo entirely 
fufpended by the watery panicles, that it not only lofes 
itspropertiesof giving light and of burning, but becomes 
incapable of afFeding the mofl fcnfible thermometer ; 
in which cafe, it is faid by Dr Black, the author of 
ibis theory, lo be in a latent Hate. For ih« proofs of 


this, fee the articles Evaporation, Cold, Co.nci- Barcmcter. 

LATIOK, &c. 2. If the atmofphere is affeded by any " ^' ' 

unufual degree of heat, it thence becomes incapable of 
fupporting fo long a column of mcrciny as before, 
for which reafon that in the barometer finks. This 
appears from the obfcrvations of Sir \\'illiam Bcclton 
already mentioned ; and likewife from thole of Dc Luc, 
which (hall be afterwards taken notice of. 

Thefe axioms being eflablirticd, it thence follows, 
that as vapour is formed by an union of (ire with water, 
or if we plcafe to call it an ilcfihc attraction between 
them, or folution of the water in the fire, it is impof- 
lible that the vapour can be condenfed until this union, 
atiraflion, or folution, be at an end. The beginning 
of the condcnfation of the vapour then, or the firll 
fymptoms of an approaching rain, mull be the fepara- 
tion of the fire which lies hid in the vapour. This 
may be at firft flow and partial, or it may be fuddcn 
and violent : in the firft cafe, the rain will come on 
flowly, and after a confiderable interval ; and in the 
other, it will be very quick, and in great quantity. 
But Dr Black hath proved, that when fire quits its 
latent ftaic, however long it may have lain dormant 
and infciUiblc, it always aflumcs its proper qualities 
again, and atfeds the theruiomcter as though it had 
never been abforbed. The confequcnce of this mufl 
be, that in proportion as the latent heat is difcharged 
from the vapour, it mult fcnfibly affeft thofe pans of 
the atmofphere into which it is difcharged ; and in pro- 
portion to the heat communicated to ihefe, they will 
become fpecifically lighter, ami the mercury fink of 
courfe. Neither are we to imagine that the quamity 
of heat difcharged by the vapour is inconfiderable ; 
for Dr Black hath Ihown, that when any quantity of 
water, a pound for inflance, is condenfed from the 
vapour of a common ftill, as much heat iscommunicateil 
to the head and refrigeratory as would have been fuf- 
ficicnt to heat the pound of water red hot, could ic 
have borne tliat degree of fcnfible heat. 

The caufes by which this feparaiion between the 
fire and water is, or may be, effected, come to be con- 
fidered under the articles Rain, Condensation, Va- 
pour, &c. Here we have only to obferve, that as the 
feparation may be gradual and llow, the barometer may 
indicate rain for a confiderable time before it happens : 
or if the fenfibte heat communicated from the vapour 
to the atmofphere fliall be abforbed by the colder 
parts, or by any unknown means carried otf, or pre- 
vented from aficding the fpecific gravity of the air, 
the barometer will not bf atfcded ; and yet the water 
being deprived of tlie heat necelfary to fiiftain it, mult 
dcfcend in rain ; and thus it is found that the indica- 
tions of the barometer do not always hold true. Hence 
alfo it appears, that tho' ihe fpecific gravity of the air 
is diminiflied, unlefs that diminution proceeds from a 
difcharge of the latent heat contained in the vapours, 
no rain will follow ; and thus tlic finking of the baro- 
meter may prognofticatc wind as well as rain, or lome- 
limes nothing at all. 

The difHculiy, however, on this hypothefis, is 10 ac 
count for the barometer being llationary in all weathers 
between the tropics; whereas it ought 10 move up and 
down there as well as here, only more fuddcnly, as the 
changes of weather there are more fuddeii than here. 
Bui it mull be confiJcred, thai in ihefe climates, duriiii: 


Barometer, th 

BAR [24 

e day-time, i!ie jftioii of the fiia's rays is fo violci^t, 

lat what is giincJ by the dilchargc of latent Meat 
from tlie vapour, is lod by the iiucrpolitioii of the 
clo'.ids betwixt the fun and earth, or by the j^rcat eva- 
poraiion \*4iich is conltantly going on; and in the 
iii^'ht, the coU! of the aimoi'phcre is fo much jiicrca- 
fcd", that it abforbs the heat as fall as the vapi^ur dif- 
charpts it, fo that no fcnfible clfect can be productJ'i 
for in warm climates, though the day is cxcelllvcly 
iiot, the night is oblcrvcd to be valUy colder in pro- 
ixjrtion than it is witli us. This, however, docs iiot 
prevent the barometer from being affciflcd by Other 
caiifcs, as well as with us ; for Dr IJillcy obfcrves, that 
in the time of hurricanes it finks very low. The taulc 
of this is inoll probably a great commotion in the elec- 
tric fluid, by which the air is internally agitated, and 
its power of gravitatioiiyin part fupended. — A cihfir- 
maiion of the abovfc hypoihelis, however, is takeafrom 
the different heights at which the incrcury arrives in 
ditierent climates. The baromctcr-rangc, for infblncc, 
at the latitude of 45° is the grcatefl of all ; beeiufc 
here the evaporation and condenfation of the vapours 
are both very confiJerabie, at the f.ime time that the 
latent heat difcharged cannot be abforbcd fo fuddcnly 
as in the torrid zone, the dilference betwixt the length 
of the days and nights being greater, and confcquently 
the nights warmer in fummer and colder in winter. 
Farther to the northward the range is lefs, and in the 
latitude of 60° only two inches, by reafon of the great- 
er cold and length of the days and nights ; whence the 
quantity of vapour condenfeJ, or of latent heat dkpcl- 
Icd, becomes proportionably lefs. 

Having thus given an account of the feveral phe- 
nomena of the barometer confidered as a weaiher- 
barometcrs glafs, and likewife endeavoured to account for them in 
defcnbcd. ^[^g ^^^-^ faiisfa^oiy manner, we now proceed to give 
a particular defcription of the barometers moll com- 
monly made ufe of, with various fchemes for their im- 
provement, V;"'^ • 

PlateXCH. Fig. 1. reprefents the common barometer, fuch 
as was invented by Torricelli, and fuch as wc have 
already given a general defcription of. A B repre- 
fents a tube of glafs, a quarter of an inch in dia- 
meter, and 34 inches long, hernieiically fealed at A. 
This tube being fuppofcd to be filled with mercury, is 
then inverted into the bafon CD ; upon which the mer- 
cury in the tube falls down to GH, fomcwhat above 
28 inches, while that in the bafon rifes to CF. The 
loweil ftation of the mercury in England is found 
to be 28 inches, and the higheft ;i. From ihc furface 
of the mercury CF, therefore, 28 inches arc to be mea- 
fured on the tube AB, which fuppofc to reach to the 
point K. This point, therefore, is the lowcll of the 
fcale of variation, and in the common barometers is 
marked floi my. In like manner, ihe higheft point of 
the fcale of variation I, is placed 31 inches above EF ; 
and is marked very dry op one fide for the fummer, and 
'.■ery h.ird frojt on the other for the winter. The 
next half incli below is u4arked/t/ fair on the ohe fide, 
andy^/ froft on the other. At ?o inches frotn CF is 
marked the word fair on one fide, and fr^fi on the 
Mther. Half an inch bdlow that, is wrote the svord 
changeahlt, which anfwers both for and winter. 
At 29 inches is rain oil the one (ide, ZV'A; fnrj-m on the 
other, and at 2'?^ arc the words /«vc/' rfin on the one 



kinds of 


lide»a;i,d i.tuch fnnnt 4n the other. Each of ihefe large Eirometv. 

divifions is iifualty lubdivided into ten ; and there is a ' " ' 

fuiall llidiiig index fitted to the infhrumcnt, by wliich 
the afcent or dcfccnt of the mercury to any number of 
divifions is poinicd out. Each of tliefe tenths is fome- 
times divided into tsn more, or hunaredthi of an inch, 
by means of* Aiding Ilip ot I'l-ls with a r'ernifr fcale 
on it, which fliall be hrrcaltrr tlclcribed aiid'xxpraincd. 
This kind of barometer is tl;c moll comcion, and per- 
haps the mofl ufeful ami accurate, of any" thai has yet 
been invented, from the following circuniflancfj that 
the natural limplicity of its cgnftru6lion, in preference 
to others hereafter dcfcribeci, docsi not admit of any 
kind of rcfiflance 10 the free inotiot of the column of 
mercury in the tube. The fralc'of variation being 
only three inches, and it being naturally wiihcd todif- 
covcr more minute variations than can thus be peitciv- 
ed, feveral improvements have been thought of. \ 

The improvement moll generally adopted is the dia- 
gonal barometer reprefcnted fig. 2.;.in which the'fcale 
of variation, inflead of three inches, may be maUc as 
many feet, by bending the tube fo as to make the up- 
per part of it the diagonal of a patallelogram of vrhich 
the iliortell iidc is the three-inch fcale of variation of 
the common barometer. This, however, has a very 
great inconvenience : for not only is the friftion of the 
mercury upon the glafs fo much increafed that the 
height doth not vary with every flight change of air ; 
but the column of mercury is apt to break in the tube, 
and part of it to be left behind, upon any conlidciablc 
dcfccnt. j§ 

Fig. 3. is the rcclangular barometer; \»hcre /B§ re- 
prefents a pretty wide cylinder of glafs, from which 
proceeds the tube CDF bent into a ri^ht angle at D. 
Suppofe now the cylinder AC to be four times larger 
than the tube CD, fo that every inch of the cylinder 
from C to A fliould be equal in capacity to four inches 
of the tube pD. The whole being ihcn filled with 
mercury, and inverted, the mercury will fublide from 
A to B, at the fame time that it cannot run out at the 
open orifice F, bccaufe the air preflcs in that way. If 
any alteration then happens in the weight of the air, 
fitppofe fuch as would be fufficient to raife the mer- 
cury an inch from B towards A, it is evident that 
this could not be done without the mercury in the ho- 
rizontal leg retiring four inches from E towards D ; 
and thus the fcale of variatiotj coynied on the horizon- 
tal leg would be 12 inches. But the inconvrenicHC^ 
of fridion are much greater here than in the diagonal 
barometer ; and bcfides, by theleafl accident the mer- 
cury is apt to be driven out at the open orifice F. 

The pendant barometer (fig.- 4.) confifts of a fingle 
tube, fufpended by a Aring faftened to tlie end A. 
This tube is of a conical or tapering figure, the end 
A being fomewhat lefs than the end B. It is herme- 
tically fealed at A, and filled with mercury : then will 
the mdrcury fink to its common ftation, and admit of 
a length of altitude CD, equal to that in the common 
barometers. But from the conical bore of tnc tube, 
, the mercury will dcfcend as the air grows lighter, till it 
reaches its lowcft altitude, when the mercury will ftand 
from the lower part of the tube B tq E, fo that BK 
will be equal to 23 inches: confeqoently the mercury 
will, in fuch a tube, move from A to E, or 52 inches, 
if the tube be five feet, or 'jo inches; and therefore 


A K () M i: ri.;ii 

Flatt- XC'Il 

3 A R 

[ 25 ] 


Barometer, the fcule AE is here al>ovi ten times greater than in 
" ^ [he common biiromtier: biu the fault ot' ihis barome- 
ter is, tilt tube being of a very fmall bore, the 
fritlioii will be coiilidcrablc, and prevent iis moving 
freely; and if the tube is made of a wider bore, the 
mercury will be apt to fall out. 

Fig. J. is an invention of Mr Rovvning, by which 
the fcalc of variation may be incnaled to any length, 
or even become iniinitc. ABC is a compound tube 
hermetically (baled at A, and open at C, empty from 
A to D, filled with mercury from thence to M, and 
from thence to E with water. Let GBII be a hori- 
zontal line; then it is plain from the nature of the 
fiphon, that all the compound duid contained in the 
part from H to G, will be always //; .i-^.v/Z/i/vi* with 
iil'elf, be the weight of the air what it will, bccaufe 
the prcirure at H and G nn:!l be equal. Whence it 
is evident, that the column of mercury DH is in 
teijii'ilibiii witli the column of water GE, and a column 
of air taken conjointly, and will therefore vary with 
the fum of the variations of thefe. That the variation 
in this barometer may be infinite, will appear from the 
following computation. Let the proportion between 
the bores of the tube AF and FC be fucb, that when 
HD, the difFcrence of the legs wherein the mercury 
is contained, is augmented one inc!i,GE, the diticrencc 
of ilic legs wherein the water is contained, fliall be di- 
minished 14: then, as much as the prcirure of the mer- 
cury isaugmeiircd, that of the water will be diminilhed, 
and fo the preliiu'c of both talvCn together will remain 
as it was ; and confcqnently, after it has begun to rife, 
it will have the fame tendency to rife on, without ever 
coming to an eq-iilibrium v.'ith llie air. 

Fig. 6. reprefcnts Dr Hook's wheel-b-irometer. Here 
AC.OG is a glafs [iibe, having a large round head at 
A, and turned up at the lower end F. Upon the fur- 
face of the mercury in the bent leg is an iron ball G, 
with a firing going over a pulley CD. To the other 
end of the firing is faftened a fmaller ball H, which as 
the mercury rifes in the leg FG, turns tlie index KL 
from N towards M, on tlic graduated circle MNOP; 
as it rifes in the other leg, the index is carried the con- 
trary way by tlic dcfcent of the heavier ball G, along 
with the mercury. The friftion of this inacbiiie, how- 
ever, unlefsit is made with very great accuracy, ren- 
ders it ulclcfs. 

Fig. 7. is another barometer, invented byMrllowning, 
in wiiich alfo tlie fcalc may be infinite. ABCD is a 
cylindrical vcITel, filled with a fiuid to the height \V, 
rn which is iininerged the barometer SP conlifling ef 
the following pans: The principal one is tbc glafs 
tube TP (reprefented fcparately at tp), whofc upper 
«nd T is hermetically icilcd: this end does not appear 
lothe eye, being received into the lower end of a tin 
pipe GH, which in its other end G receives a cylin- 
dric rod or tube ST, and thus fixes it to the tube TP. 
This rod ST may be taken off, in order to put in its 
Head a larger or a lefl'cr as occalion requires. S is a 
flar at the top of the rod ST ; and ferves as an index 
liy pointing to the graduated fcalc LA, which is fi.xcd 
to the Cover of the veficl AIJCD. MN is a large cy- 
lindrical lube made of tin (reprefented frparatcly at 
I'lii), which receives in its cavity the fmaller part of the 
tu!)e TP, and is well cemented to it at b<nh ends, that 
Vol.. III. 

none of the fluid may get in. The tube TP, with this Baromrter. 

apparatus, being filled with mercury, and plunged into ' ^ ' 

the bafon MP, which haiij^s by two or more wires iipcn 
the lower end of the tube MN, mull be fo poifed as 10 
float in the liquor contained in the velTel ABCD ; and 
then the whole machine rifes when the atmofphere be- 
comes lighter, &nA via ver/a. Let itnow be fuppofcd, 
that the fluid made ufc of is water; that the given 
variation in the weight of the atmofphere is fuch, tliat 
by prcfling upon the furface of the wctcr at \V, the 
furfacc of the mercury at X may be raifcd an inch 
higher {meafuring from its furfacc at P) than before ; 
and that the breadth of the cavity of the tube at X, 
and of the bafon at P, are fuch, that by tiiis afccnt of 
the mercury, there may be a cubic inch of it in the 
cavity X more than before, and confcquenily in the 
bafon a cubic inch Icfs. Now, upon this fuppofition, 
there will be a cubic inch of water in the baibn ir.orc 
than there was before ; becaufc the water will fucceed 
tlie mercury, to fill up its place. Upon this account 
the wholemachine will be rendered heavier than before 
by the weight of a cubic inch of water, and therefore 
will fink, according to the laws of hydroflatics, till 
a cubic inch of that part of the rod WS, which was 
above the furface of the water at W, comes under ir. 
Then, if we fuppofc this rod fo fmall, that a cubic 
inch of it Ihall be 14 inches in length, the whole ma- 
chine will fink 14 inches lower into ikc fluid than be- 
fore; and confcquently the furface of the mercury iti 
the bafon will be prclfed, more than it before, by 
a column of water 14 inches high. But the preluire of 
14 inchcsof water is equivalent to one of mercury ; this 
additional prelRire will make the mercury afcend at X 
as much as the fuppofed variation in the weight of the 
air did at firlh This afccnt will give room for a 
fccond cubic inch of water to enter the bafon ; the ma- 
chine will therefore be again rendered fo much heavier, 
and will fubfide 14 inches farther, and fo on it: ivfii.!- 
lu?ii. If the rod was fo fmall ihst more than fourteen 
inches of it were required to make a cubic inch, the 
variation of this machine would benrgaiive wiihrcfpeft 
to the common barometer; and iiulcadofccmingneartr 
to an tqnilibrium v.ith the air by its afcent or dcfcent, 
it would continually recede farther from it : but iflels 
tlian 14 inches of rod were required to n;akc a culic 
inch, the fcalc of variation would be finite, and might 
be made in any proportion to the common one. Neither 
this nor the other infinite barometer have ever been 
tried, fo that how far they would anfwer the porpofcs 
of a barometer is as yet unknown. 

Fig. 8. reprefcnts another contrivance for enlarging 
the icalc of the barometer to any fize. — AB is the 
tube of a common barometer open at B and fealed at 
A, fufpcndcd at the end of the lever which moves o.t 
the fidcrum K. — CD is a fixed glafs tube, which ferves 
in place of the cirtcrn. This lall tube muft be fo 
wide as to allow the tube AB to play up and down 
within it. — AB being filled with mercury, is nearly 
counterbah'nced by the Imgcnd of the lever. When 
the atmofpliere becomes liphicr, the mercury defcends 
in the long tube, and the firface of the merciirj' rifing 
in the ciAern [niflies up the tube AB, which at the 
fame time becoming lighter, the lever preponderates, 
and points out the mofl minute variation'. Here too 
D ikc 


[ 26 ] 


Barometer, the friflioii occafions inconveniences ; but this may be 
■■^ — "^ 'in fome mcafnre rcmeilied by a Imall fliake of the ap- 
paratus at at each infpeflion. 

In the Philolophical Tranfaflions, Mr Cafwcll gives 
the following account of a barometer, which is re- 
commendcJ by Mr Chambers as the inoll exad hither- 
to invented. " Let ABCD (Fig. 9.) reprcfent a bucket 
of water, in which is the barometer c r e z s w, 
which confifts of a body c r s m, and a tube e zy 0: 
the body and tube are both concave cylinders commu- 
nicating with one another, and made ol' tin: the bot- 
tom of the tube z y, has a lead weight to link it fo 
that the top of ilie body may jull fwini even with the 
I'urface of the water by the addition of fom-e grain 
weights on the top. Tlie water, when the inllrument 
is forced with its mouth downwards, gets up into the 
tube to tlic height .)■ //. There is added on (he top a 
fmall concave cylinder, which I call the/'//'<?, to dil- 
tinguilh it from the bottom fmall cylinder which I 
call the tubi. This pipe is to fullain the inlbument 
from finking to the bottom: f// </ is a wire ; vis, de, 
are two threads oblique to the furface of the water, 
which threads perform the office of diagonals ; for that 
while the inftrumcnt fiuks more or Icfsby the attrac- 
tion of the gravity of the air, there, where the liuface 
of the water cms the thread, is formed a fmall bubble : 
which bubble afccnds up the thread, as the mercury in 
the common barometer afcends." 

The dimenfions of this inftrumcnt given there are, 
21 inches for the circumference of the body, the alti- 
tude 4, each bafc having a convexity of 6:, inches. The in- 
ner circumference of the tube is5. 14 inthes,and its length 
4; ; fo that the whole body and ttibc will contain al- 
moft 11 quarts. The circumference of the pipe, that the 
machine may not go to the bottom on every fmall al- 
teration of the gravity of the air, is 2.14 inches; ac- 
cording to which dimenfions, he calculates that it will 
require 44 grains to fmk the body to the bottom, al- 
lowing it only four inches to defcend ; at the fame 
lime that it is evident, that the fewer grains that are 
required to fink it to this depth, the more nice the 
barometer will be. He alfo calculates, that when 
the mercury in the common barometer is 30; inches 
liigh, the body with a weight of 44 grains on its 
top will be kept ;''/ iequ'tlih'to with the water; but 
when the mercury ftands at 28 inches, only 19 grains 
can be fupported : and lailly, by computing the lengths 
of the diagonal threads, &c. he finds, that his iullni- 
ment is 1200 times more exaft than the common ba- 
rometer. The following arc his obfcrvations on the 
life of it. 

" I. While the mercury of the common barometer 
IS often known to be flationary 24 hours together, the 
bubble of the new barometer is rarely found to liand 
flill one minute. 

" 2. Snppofe the air's gravity incrcafing, and ac- 
cordin'dly the bubble afcending ; during the time that 
it afcends 20 inches, it will have many Ihort defcents 
of the quantity of half an inch, one, two, three, or 
more inches; each of which being over, it will afcend 
again. TheferetrocelPions arc frequent, and of all va- 
rieties in quantity and duration ; fo that there is no 
judn-ing of the general courfe of the bubble by a linglc 
"inftieftion, though you fee it moving; but by waiting a 
little lime. 


Mr Cif- 
■wcll's ob- 
with his 


" ■}. A fmall blaftof wind will make the bubble Baromctei;. 

defcend ; a blall that cannot be heard in a chamber of ^""^■^ ' 

the town will fenlibly force the bubble downward. 
The blafts of wind fenfible abroad, caufc many of the 
abovementioned rctroceliions or accelerations in the 
general courfe ; as I found by carrying my barometer 
to a place where the wind was pcrcejnible. 

" 4. Clouds make the bubble defcend. A fmall 
cloud approaching the zenith, works more than a 
great cloud near the horizon. In cloudy weather, 
the bubble defcending, a break of the clouds (or 
clear place) approaching to the zenith, has made the 
bubble to afcend : and after that bre.nk had palled 
the zenith a conlidcrable fpace, the bubble again dc- 

" 5. All clouds (except one) hitherto by nic ob- 
ferved, have made the bubble to defcend. But the o- 
ther day, the wind being north, and the courfe of 
the bubble defcending, 1 law to the windward a large 
thick cloud near the horizon, and the bubble Hill 
defcendcd : but as the cloud drew near the zenith, it 
turned the way of the bubble, making it to afcend ; 
and the bubble continued afcending till the cloud was 
all palTed, after which it refumcd its former defcent. 
It was a cloud that yielded a cold fhower of fmall 

Thefe arc the mod remarkable contrivances for the 
improvement of the common barometer : and indeed 
we mull agree with Mr Chambers, that the laft, on 
account of its being fo exceedingly fcnliblc, and like- 
wife eafy of conflruCflion and portable, fecms to de- 
fcrve attention much more than the others, which are 
always the more unexad, and the lefs calily moved, 
according to the enlargement of their fcale ; whereas ^(> 
this is fccmingly fubjett to no fuch inconvenience. It Marine ba- 
is evident, however, that none of thefe could be uftd '■"""^'"' I^T 
at fea, on account of the nnlleady motion of the (liip : ^"^^ Hook, 
for which rcafon Dr Hook thought of conflrii^ting a 
barometer upon other principles. 

His contrivance was no other tlian two thermome- 
ters. The one was the common fpirit-of-wine thermo- 
meter, which is affcded only by the warmth of the 
air: the other, which ai5ls by the expanfion of a 
bubble of air included, is afTeJled not only by the ex- 
ternal warmth, but by the various weight of the atmo- 
fphere. Therefore, keeping tlie fpirit thermometer as 
a flandard, tlie exccfs of the afccnt or defcent of the 
other above it would point out the increafe or decreafc 47 
of the fpecific gravity of the atmofphcre. Tliis in- Rccoin- 
flrument is recommended by Dr Hallcy, who fpeaks "i'^"'^'^'' •>? 
of it as follows. " It has been obferved by fome, ^' "='"^J' 
that, in long keeping this inflrument, the air in- 
cluded either finds a means to efcape, or dcpolits 
fome vapours mixed with it, or elfe for fome other 
caufe becomes lefs elaftic, whereby in procefs of time 
it gives the height of the mercury fomcwhat greater ' 

than it ought: but this, if it thoiild happen in foire 
of them, liinders not the ufcfulnefs thereof, for that it 
may at any time very eallly be corrected by experi- 
ment, and ilierifiug and falling thereof are the things 
chiefly remarkable in it, the juft height being barely a 

*' I had one of thcfc barometers with me in my late 
fouthern voyage, and it never failed to prognollicate 
and give early aoiice of al) the bad weather wc had, 



[ 27 ] 



Barometer, fo that I depended thereon, and midc provillon accor- 

' >/— ' dingly ; and from my own experience I conclude, that 

a more ufcful contrivance hath not for this long time 
,g been offered for the benefit of navigation." 
Chamber ^'ig- 10- rcprefents a kind of Ghavibir Barometer, 
barnmetor or a complete inftriiment forobferving in a fixed place, 
by MrW'il- fiicii as a room, 5cc. the changes in the atniofphcrc. 
liara Jones. ]t jg conftrutted by Mr W. Jones optician, London; 
and confilb of barometer (/, tiiermomcter <ri7, and hy- 
grometer c, all in one mahogany frame. One advan- 
tage of this inftrument is, that either the thermo- 
meter or hygrometer may be taken from the frame, 
and occafionally made ufe of in another place if re- 
quired. The thermometer is feparaied ijy only un- 
fcrewing two fcrcws a, a ; and the hygrometer, by 
unfcrewing a brafs pin at the back of the frame, not 
feen in this figure. The index of the hygrometer is 
at any time fet, by only moving with your finger the 
brafs wheel feen at c ; the two lliJing indexes of the 
barometer and thermometer are moved by a rack-work 
motion, fet in ailion by the key g placed in the holes 
h and /. The divifionsof the barometer plate b are in 
tenths of an inch, from 28 to 31 inches ; thefc again 
fnbdividcd into h:indredthshY means of the vinitcrj'cale 
placed oppofitely on a (liding Hip of brafs finiilar to 
the common barometers, mod of which are now made 
with this vernier. On this vernier arcten equal parti, 
19 or divifions ; (fee A, fig. 11. which for the fake of per- 
Mcthod of fpicuity isdrawn larger). AUofthefe togctherare equal 
ufiBg the j|,(i to eleven of thofe on the fcaleof inches ; that is, to 
eleven tenths. By this artifice the height of tlie mer- 
cury at E is evident by infpeclion only, to the one 
hundredth part of an inch. To underlland this, no- 
thing more is necedary than to confidcr, that one tenth 
part of a tenth of ait inch is the one hundredth part of 
an inch. Now every tenth of an inch in the fcale B 
il divided into ten equal parts by the (lip or -jernier A : 
for fince ten divifions on that exceed ten on the fcale 
by one divifion, that is, by one tenth of an inch ; there- 
fore one divifion on the vernier will exceed one divifion 
on the fcale by one-tenth part ; and two divifions on 
the vernier will exceed two on the fcale by t'^oo 
tenths, and fo on : Therefore every divifion on the 
vernier will exceed the fame number of divifions on 
the fcale ijr fo many tenths of a tenth, or l>y fo nia/iy 
hundredth parts of an inch. Therefore the ten equal 
divifions of an inch on the fcale B, mnft be looked 
upon as fo many ten hundredth parts of an inch, and 
numbered thus, 10. 20. 30. 40, &c. parts of an inch ; 
then (he vernier gives the unit to each ten, thus : Set 
the index C very nicely to tlit top of the firfacc of the 
mercury E ; and if at the fame time the beginning 
of the divifions at C coincide with a line of divifion 
in the fcale B, then it fiiows the altitude of the mercu- 
ry in inches and tenths of an inch cxaJlly. But fippofc 
llic index line C of the vmier falls bel-jean two divi- 
fions or tenths on the fcale B, then there will be a 
coincidence of lines in both at that nnnibcr of the ver- 
nier, which thows how many tenth pans of that tenth 
the inde.K of the vernier has palfed the laft decimal di- 
vifion of the fcale. Thus, for example, fippofc the 
index of the vernier were 10 point fomewherc between 
the fixth and feventh tenth above 50 on the (cale : 
then if, by looking down the vernier, yon obfervc the 

coincidence at mimber 8, it fliows that the altitude of narometer. 

the mercury is 30 inches and 68 parts of a hundredth "^ — ^ ' 

of another inch; or fimply thus, ;o.6S inches. 

The fcrew at fig. 10. fervcs to prefs tiie mercury 
quite up into the tube, when required to be much mo- 
ved or carried about, thereby rendering the barometer 
of the kind called portable. To the lower extremity 
of the tube (fee fig. 14.) is cemented a woodcnitfcr- 
voir A, with a kind of leathern bag at bottom, the 
whole containing the mercury, but not quite full : and 
though the external air cannot get into the bag tofuf- 
pend the mercury in the tube, by preffing on its fur- 
face, as in the common one ; yet it has thefdme cfTcft 
by prefiing on the outfidc of the bag ; which bcingflex- 
ible, yields to the prcliure, and keeps the mercury 
fiifpended in the tube to its proper height. Through 
the under part of the frame paliirs the fcrew /, with a 
fiat round plate at its end ; by turning of this fcrew, 
the bag may be fo comprefl'cd as to force the mercury 
up to the top of the tube, which keeps it fleady, and 
hinders the tube from breaking by the mercury dafh- 
ing againit the top when carried about, which it is o- 
thcrwife apt to do. 

A new kind of marine barometer hath lately been Marine ba- 
invented by Mr Nairne. It dificrs from the common ronuter hy 
one in having the bore of the tube fmall for about two MrNair"'- 
feet in its lower part ; but above that height it is en- 
larged to the common fize. Through the fmall part 
of the inflrument the mercury is prevented from afcend- 
ing too haflily by the motion of the fliip ; and the mo- 
tion of the mercury in the upper wide part is confe- 
quently Icllcned. Much is found to depend on the pro- 
per fufpenfion of this inilrument ; and Mr Nairne has 
fince found, by experiment, the point from which it 
may be fufpended lo .is not to be affected by the motion 
of the tliip. .J 

Another marine barometer has been invented by one By Pafle- 
Palfcmente, a French artifl. It is only a common one mente. 
having the middle of the tube twilled into a fpiral con- 
fifting of two revolutions. By this contrivance, the im- 
pulfes which the mercury receives from the motions of 
the (hip are dtilroyed by being tranfmitted in contrary 
direftions. ,, 

We muft now fpeak of the barometer in its fecond Barometer 

character, namely, as an inilrument for mcafiiring ac- arp''«<''° 

celfible altitudes. This mctliod was firll propofcd by •'"^ mcnf"- 

M. Pafcal; and fuccecding philofophcrs have been at 'f'""!. 

,- 1 1 ■ r -1 • I . altitude*, 

no Imall pains to alcertaiH the proportion between the 

finking of the mercury and the hciglit to which it is 
carried. For this purpofe, however, a new improve- 
ment in the barometer became iiecelliry, viz. the ma- 
king of it ealjly portable from one place to another, 
without danger of its being broken by the motion of 
the mercury in the tube ; which was effected by the 
contrivance already mentioned. ■jj 

Among the number of portable barometers we may Statical b» 
perhaps reckon what Mr Hoylc called \\\s Statical Bz-^"^""- 
romctcr. It confilUd of a glafs bubble, about the fize 
of a large orange, and blown very thin, fo as to weigh 
only 70 grains. This being counierpoifed by brafs 
weights in a pair of fcales that would turn with the 
30tii part of a grain, was found to ail as a barometer. 
The reafon of this was, that the fiirfacc of the bubble 
was oppofed 10 a vallly larger ponitui ol air than that 
Da of 


[ 28 ] 

A R 

liy the 
found of a 

globules of air begin to move vifibly towards tht top. Esromettr- 

The boiling at lall commences; and it is cafy to make ' ^ ' 

it take place from one end to the other, by caufing tiie 
ft'veral parts of the tube fiiccefTivcly pafs with rajiiJiiy 
through the flame. Ky this operation the mercury is 
freed from all aerial particles, particularly ihofe which 
line the infidc of the tube, and which cannot cafily be 
got clear ol by any other method. When this lafl ilra- 
tum of air is difcharged, the tube may be afterwards 
emptied, and lillcd even with cold mercury, when it 
will be found nearly as free of air as before. The mer- 
cury in the tube thus prepared by a determinate quan- 
tity of heat, will rife hightr than thofe in the common 
fort, and the barometers will more nearly corrcfpond 
with each other ; whereas there will be a ditt'erencc of 
fix or eight lines in the afcciit of mercury in the com- 
mon barometers. Inltruments of this kind rife uni- 
formly in a heated room, whilft thofe of the common 
kind defccnd in dificrcnt proportions. On cooling the 
room, the former delcond uniformly, while the latter 
defccnd unequally, by rcafon of the unequal proportions 
of air in them. -g 

The next caufe of variation was a difference of tern- Variation 
perature. To difcover the cffc\.Ts'of heat on the mer-ofthe 
cury, fcveral barometers were chofcn that for a long ''tight of 
time had been perfcilly confonant in their motions. "'« """"j- 
One of thtfc was placed in an apartment by itfclf, to "^ y ueAt. 
mark the change in the external air, if any ihould hap- 
pen. The rcll were fituated in another apartment, 
along with three thermometers, graduated according 

iJiromc'.er. of tlic brafs Weight, and confequeiitly liable to be 
' " ' arteftcd by the various fpecilic gravity of the atmo- 

fpherc : thus, when the air became fpccifically light, 

the bubble defcendcd, and vice verfa ; and thus, he 

fays, he could have perceived variations of the atmo- 

fpiierc no greater than would have been fufhcient to 

raifc or lower tiie mercury in the common barometer 
34 an eighth part of an inch. 
Method of To thefc we may add an account of a new and very 
nicaruring fmgular barometer mentioned by M. Lazowfki in his 
the changes tojir through Switzerland. "A Cure, Ihortfighted, 
'i!..*.i,'L*"^ who nevcrthclefs amufcd himfelf w ith firing at a mark, 

thought of ftrctching a wire in fuch a manner as to 

draw the mark to him, in order to fee how he had 

aimed. He obferved, that the wire fometimcs found- 
ed as if it had been ofcillatory ; and that this happen- 
ed when a change was about to enfue in the atmo- 

fpherc; fo that he came to prcdi>5l with confidcrable 

accuracy when there was to be rain or tine weather. 

On making further experiments, it was obferved, that 

this wire was more exad, and its founds more diIlini.H, 

when extended in the plane of the meridian than in 

other pofitions. The founds were more or lefs foft, 

and more or Icfs continued, according to the changes 

of weather that were to follow ; though the matter 

was not reduced to any accuracy, and probably is not 

capable of much. Fine weather, however, was faid to 

l)c announced by the founds of counter tenor, and rain 

by tiiofe ofliafs. M. Volia was faid to have mounted 

I J chords at Pavia, in order to bring this method to 

fome perfection ; but there arc as yet no accounts of to the fcale of M. de Rcatnur, and exaflly corre 

his fuccefs. fpondent with one another. The point at which the 

Diflicultics The portable barometer, as already obferved, has mercury flood when the experiment began, was care- 
in meafur- long been in ufe for the menfaration of acceflible alti- fully noted, and alio the prccife hciglii of the thcrmo- 
ing heights t„j(;s; and, in fmall heights, was found to be more meters. The latter apartment then was gradually 
hy the ba- ^^aift than a trigonometrical calculation, the mercury heated ; and with fo much uniformity, that the thcr- 
rometer. dffcending at the rate of about one inch for 800 feet mometcrs continued ftill to agree. M'hen the heat iiaJ 

ofhcio-htto which it wascarricd : but, in great heights, been augmented as nnich as pofTible, tlie altitudes both 

the moll unaccountable differences were found between 

the calculation of the moft accurate obfcrvers ; fo that 

the fame mountain would fometiines have been made 

thoufands of feet higher by one pcrfon than another ; 

nay, by the fame perfon at diffirrent times. All ihefc 

anomalies M. de Luc of Geneva undertook to account 

for, and to remove ; and in this undertaking he per- 

fiftf d with incredible patience for 20 years. The re- 

fult of his labour is as follows. 

The firft caufe of irregularity obferved was a fault 

in the barometer itfclf. M. de Luc found, that two 

barometers, though perfeftly alike in their appearance, 

did not correfpond in their aftion. This was owing 

to air contained in the tube. The air was expelled by 

boiling the mercury in them ; after which, the motions 
Mercurr of both became perfeftly confonant. That the tubes 

how boiled may bear boiling, they mufl not be very thick, the boiling or below freezing water, accompanies his port 

in the tubes tliicknefs of the glafs not above half aline, and the able barometer and thermometer. — Soaecurate, belays, 

with the i!i:inic-ter of the bore ought to be from two and an half did long praftice make him in barometrical obtcrva- 

ttfetls. to three lines. The operation is performed in the fol- tions, that he could diftinguifli a variation of ,% of a 

lowing manner ; A chafing-difli with burning coals is line in the height of the mercury. He allows oi no 

placed on a table ; the tube hermetically fcaled at one incUnaiion of the tube, or other means to augment ihc 

end, is inverted, and filled with mercury within two fcale, as all thefe methods diminifii the accuracy of the 

inches of the top; the tube is gradually brought near inflrument. Two obfcrvations arc always required tc 

the fire, moving it obliquely up and down, that the mcafurc the altitude of a mountain: one wiih a baro- 

whole length of it may be heated; and advancing it meter left on the plain, and another on the fummit r 

nearer and nearer, till it is aftually in die flame, the and boili muH be accompanitd witi a thermometer. 



hy M. De 


of the barometers and tiiermometers w-erc again accu- 
rately marked, to afcertain the differences that cor- 
refponded to one another. This experiment was re- 
peated feveral times with next to no variation ; and 
from the barometer in the firft apartment it appeared, 
that no fenfible alteration bad taken place in the ex- 
ternal air. Hence AL de Luc found, that an incrcafc 
of heat fnfficient to raife the thermometer from the 
point of melting ice to that of boiling water, aug- 
ments the height of the mercury in the barometer prt- 
cifely fix lines ; and therefore, dividing the diflancc 
between thefe two points on the thermonietcr into 96 
equal pans, there will be ,'-th of a line to add to, or 
fubtraA from, the height of the mercury in the baro- 
meter, for every degree of variation o( the thermome- 
ter fo graduated. A fcaleof thiskind, continued above 


[ 29 3 


Isromctcr. His portable barometer coiififls of two tubes, one 
' "^ ' of ;!4 French inches in lengiii ; and from the top, for 
M De ''"'^ l<="S'h, perfedly flraight ; but below this, it is 
Lnc'spori- bent roiuid, fo that the lower end turns np for a fliort 
ablebaro- fpacc parallel to the ftraiglu part. On this open end 
>»etcr, is fixed a cock, and on the upper fide of this cock is 
placed another tube, of the fame diameter with the 
former, tight inches in length, open at both ends, and 
comnuinicatinE; with the long tube, through the cock. 
When the barometer is carried from one place to ano- 
ther, it is inverted very llowly, to hinder any air get- 
ting in; the quicklilvcr retires into the long tube on 
which the key of the cock is turned ; and to prefervc 
the cock from too ^reat prclFure of the mercury, the 
barometer is conveyed about in this inverted poflurc. 
When an obfcrvation is to be made, the cock is firft 
opened ; the tube is then turned upright, very llowly, 
to prevent, as much as pofiible, all the vibration of the 
mercury, which difturbs the obfervation ; and, accord- 
ing to the weight of the atmotphcre, the mercury falls 
in the longer branch, and rifcs up through the cock, in- 
to the (horter. 

The wliolc of the cock is made of ivory, except the 
key. The exircmilits of the tubes arc wrapped round 
with the membrane employed by the gold-beaters, 
done over with filli-gUie, in order to fix ilicm tight, 
the one in the lower, and the other in the upjier, tnii 
of the perpendicular canal of the cock. The part of 
the key that moves within the cock is of cork, and tiie 
outward part or the handle is of ivory. The cork is 
fallened firmly to the ivory by means of a broad thin 
plate of (Icel, whicli cuts both the ivory and cork, 
lengthwifc, through the centre, and reaches inward to 
the hole of the key. This plate alfotounteracls the flexi- 
bility of the cork and makes it obey the motion of the 
lundle, notwiiiiltandiug it is very conlidtrably coni- 
jireli'cd by the ivory, to render it tight. That this coui- 
prelhon may not abridge the diameter of the liole of ilic 
key, it ijlined with a thin hollow ivory cylinder, of the 
fame diameter with the tubes. 

On the upper end of the (horter tube is fi.xcd, in the 
intervals of obfcrvation, a kind of funnel, with a fmall 
hole in it, which is Ihut with an ivory ftopplc. The 
ufe of it is to keep the tube clean ; to replace the mer- 
cury that may have made its way through the cock in 
confcquencc of any dilatation ; and likcwife to replace 
the mercury taken out of the fhortcr tube ; after fliut- 
ting the cock, on finilhiug an obfcrvation ; bccaufe, 
when the mercury is left expofcd to the air, it couirads 
a dark pellicle on its firface , that fuHics both itfcif and 
the tube. The Ihorier tube fliouK! be wiped from time 
to time, by a little brudi of fpony^e fixed on the end of 
a wire. 

The barometer, thus conflnii?led, is placed in a long 
box of fir, the two ends of which are lined on the in- 
fidc with cuthions of cotton covered with leather. 
Tliis box may be carried on a man's back, like a qui- 
ver, cither walking or riding ; and llmuld have a cover 
of wax-cloth, to defend it againd raiu. It ihould be 
krpt at fomc diflauce from the body of the man, and 
be protefted from the fun by an imibrella, when near the 
the place of obfcrvation, to prevent its being atfefted 
by any undue degree of heat. The barometer thould, 
larihcr^ be attended with a plummet, to dcttiuuue the 

perpendicular pofiticn of it ; and a tripod, to ftipi>cn ii Barounwr. 
firm in that pofition at the time of obfcrvation. *" — • ' 

The fcale of the barometer begins on tht long lube, 
at a point on a level with the upper end of the (liort one ; 
and rifes, in the natural order of the numbers, to 21 
inches. Below the above point, the leak is transferred 
to the (liort tube ; and dcfccuds on it, in the natural 
order of the numbers, to 7 inches. The whole Icngtli 
of the fcale is 28 French inches ; and fincc, as the 
mercury falls in the one tube, it mufl rife in the other, 
the total altitude will always be found by adding that 
part of the fcale, which the mercury occupies in the long 
tube, to that part of it which the mercury does nut 
occupy in the (hort one. In eftimating, however, the 
total fall or rife on the long tube, every fpace nuifl he 
reckoned twice; beoaufe, of barometers of this con- 
ftruc-tion, half the real variation only appears in one of 
the branches. 

Near the middle of the greater tube is placed the 
thermometer abovementioned, for afcertaiiiing the cor- 
rcL^f ions to be made on the altitude of the mercury in 
confcquence of any change in the temperature of the 
air. It is placed about the middle of the barometer, 
that it may partake as much as pofiible of its mean 
heat. The ball is nearly of the fame diameter with 
the tube of the barometer, that the dilatations or con- 
dciifations of the fluids they contain may more exactly 
cnrrcfpond. The fcale is divided into 96 parts ; be- 
tween the points of boiling water and melting ice, and 
the term of o is placed one eighth part of this interval 
above the lower point ; fo that there are 12 degrees 
below, and 84 above it. The reafon for placing o here 
is, that as 27 French inches are about the mean height 
of the barometer, fo the 12th degree above freezing h 
nearly the mean altitude of the thermometer. Hence, 
by taking thefe two points, the one for the mean alti- 
tude, and the other for the mean heat, there will be 
fewer corrections necelfary to reduce all obfcrvationsto 
the fame flate, than if any higher or lower points had 
been fixed upon. 

If then the barometer remains at 27 inches, and the 
thermometer at o. there arc no corret'lions whatever to 
he made. But if, while the barometer continues at 27 
inches, the thermometer Ihall rife any number of de- 
grees above o, fo many lixteenths of a line mufl be 
fubtrafted fnmi the 27 inches, to obtain the true height 
of the barometer produced by the weight of the at- 
mofphtre, and to reduce this obfcrvation to the flate 
of the common temperature. If, on the other hand, 
the thermometer fliallfallany number of degrees below 
o, while the barometer llillitandsai 27 inches, fo many 
fixteenths mnll be added tu thai height, to obtain the 
true altitude. 

Nothing is more fimple than thefe correftions, wlien 
the barometer is at or near 27 inches of height. If, 
however, it fall feveral inches below this point, as the 
portable barometer very frequently muft, the dilata- 
tions will no longer keep pace with the degrees of heat, 
after tlie rate of ,'j of a line for every degree of ibe 
thermometer; becaufe the columns of mercury bfii;g 
Ihortentd, the quantity of fluid to be dilated will be di- 
minilhed. The truth is, tlie quantity of the dilaia- 
lioiss for the fame degree of heat is juil as much dimi- 
luflud as the column is Ibortencd. If, liicD, it fl'all 



[ 30 ] 

Usrometer. nrd be fmind convenient to reckon the iHlatations by 

■ — " ' lixteenthsof a line, iliefc fixtcentlis muft be counted on 

it fcalc, of wliicli the lirgrees dull be as much lonj;cr 
tlian the lics^rccsof the tirll fcale, as the Ihoncncil co- 
lumn of mtrciiry is Icfs than 27 inches, tlic licij;ht to 
Mhich the ieni!,th of the (itgrtcs of the firll fcalc was 
adapted. For indanct, let the mercury defccnd to i;:, 
inches, half the mean column, and let the thermome- 
ter afcend 10 dep;rees above the mean hew ; 10 fix- 
tecnihs (liould be deduced from the mean column, for 
this temperature, accordiui; to the rule; but 10 half- 
llxteenths only, or 5 whole llxteemhs, mull be fubtrac- 
ted from the column of i;:, inches, becaufc the fum 
-of its dilatations will be half that of the former, the 
quantities of fluid being to one another in that propor- 

It would caufe confiderable embarralTnient if the fix- 
leenths of corretlion were always to be fnbdivided into 
lefs fraflions, proporlioiial to every half inch of dc- 
fcent of the barometer ; and the fame end is obtained 
in a very eafy manner, by reckoning the correiflionson 
different fcales of the fame length, but of which the 
degrees are longer according as the columns of the 
barometer are Ihorter. For example, the degrees of 
correction on the fcale applicable to the column of 
i;^ inches, will be double in length what the fame 
degrees are for the column of 17 inches; and of 
courfc the number of corrcdions will be reduced like- 
wile one half, which we have fcen by the rule they 
ought to be. 

The author conflrufted, on a piece of vellum, fcales 
with thefe properties, for'no lefs than 23 columns of 
mercury, being all thofe between iS inches and 29 in- 
clufive, counting from half inch to half inch; within 
which extremes, every praiJlical cafe will be compre- 
hended. He wrapped this vellum on a fmall hollow 
cylinder, including a fpring, like a fpring-curtain, and 
fixed it on the right fide of the thermometer. The vel- 
lum is made to pals from right to left, behind the 
tube of the thermometer, and to graze along its fur- 
face. The obfcrver, to find the corrections to be 
made, pulls out the vellum till the fc;ile correfponding 
to the obferved altitude of the barometer comes to 
touch the thermometer, and on that fcalc he counts 
them. The vellum is then let go, and the fcrcw gcn- 
40 tly furls it up. 
ilis opera- The author having now, as he imagined, completely 
tionsonthe fjnidied the inftruments necelTary for the accurate mcn- 
moiintain fi,ration of heights ; proceeded to eftablilli, by expe- 
o a eve. ].jjj,gf,[^ jy,g altitudes correfponding to the different de- 
fcents of the mercury. Much had been written, and 
many rules had been given, on this fubjcft, by dirtcrent 
eminent philofophers, fince the days of P.ifcal, who 
firfl broached it : but thefe difagreed fo much with one 
another, and prefented fo little good reafun why any 
one of them ihould be preferred, that no conclufion 
could with confidence be deduced from them. It be- 
came requifitc, therefore, to lay them all afide, and to 
endeavour to difcoverby praftice what could not be af- 
certained by theory. Salevc, a mountain near Geneva, 
was cliofen for the fceiie of thefe operations. This 
monntain is near 3000 Frencli feet high. The height 
of it was twice meafurcd by levelling, and the refult 
of the menfuraiiais diifcred only loi inches ; though 
there intervened fix months between them, and the 


total altitude was fo confiderable. On this mountain Earomctcr. 

were chofen no lefs than i J dificrent flations, rifing af- ' >' ' 

ter the rate of 200 feet, one above another, as nearly 
as the ground would admit. At thefe flations, it was 
propofed to make fuch a number of obfervations as 
might be A good foundation either for eliablilhiiig a 
new rule of proportion between the heights of places 
and the dcfcents of the mercury, or for preferring lomc 
one of thofe formerly difcovcrcd. 41 

Little progrefs was made in this plan, when a phe- Stmngc «- 
nomenon, altogether uncxpct^ed, prefented itfelf. The 'i"""''" "f 
barometer being obferved, at one of the flations, twice ''"^ '>^ro- 
iii one day, was found to (land Iiighcr in the latter ob- "1^^",^^ 
fervation than in the former. This alteration gavCtin,esuf 
little furprife, becaufe it was natur.illy imputed to a the day. 
change of the weight of the aimofphcre, which would 
affcft the barometer on the plain in the fame manner. 
But it produced a degree of aftonilhmcnt, when on 
examining the ftatc of the latter, it was found, inflcad 
of correfponding with the motions of the former, to 
have held an oppofite courfe, and to have fallen while 
the other role. This difference could not proceed from 
any inaccuracy in the obfervations, which had been 
taken with all imaginable care ; and it was fo confi- 
derable as to deflroy all hopes of fucccfs, fliould the 
caufe not be detefted and compenfatcd. 

The experiment was repeated feveral times, at in- 
tervals, that no material rircumflance might efcapc no- 
tice. An obfcrver on the mountain, and another on 
the plain, took their rcfpeflive llations at the rifing of 
the fun, and continued to mark an obfcrvation, every 
quarter of an hour, till it let. It was found, that the 
lower barometer gradually dcfccnded for the tirfl three 
quarters of the day ; after which it reafcended, till iu 
the evening it flood at nearly the fame height as in the 
morning. While the higher barometer afcendtd for the 
firfl three fourths of the day ; and then defcended, fo as 
to regain likewife, about fun-fet, the altitude of the 
morning. 42 

The following theory feems to account in a fatis- Accounted 
faftory manner for this phenomenon. When the fun fof- 
rifes above the horizon of any place, his beams pene- 
trate the whole of the fcftion of the atmofphcre of 
which that horizon is the bafe. They fall, however, 
very obliquely on the greater part of it, communicate 
little heat to it, and confequently produce little dila- 
tation of its air. As the fun advances, the rays be- 
come more direct, and the heat and rarefai5lion of courfe 
increafe. But the greatefl heat of the day is not felt 
even when the rays are mofl direft, and the fun is in 
the meridian. It increafes while the place receives 
more rays than it lofes, which it will do for a confider- 
able time after mid-day ; in like manner as the tide 
attains not its highcfl altitude till the moon has ad- 
vanced 3 confiderable way to the wefl of the meridian. 
The heat of the atmofphcre is greatefl at the furface of 
tlie earth, and feems not to afcend to any great di- 
flance above it. The dilatations, for this rcafon, of 
the air, produced by the fiin, will be found chiefly, if 
not folely, near the earth. A motion mufl take place, 
in all directions, of the adjacent air, to allow the 
heated air to expand iifelf. The heated columns ex- 
tending themfelves vertically, will become longer, and 
at the fame time fpecifically lighter, in confequence of 
the rarefaction of iheir inferior pans. The motion of 



[ 3^ ] 


Barometer, air, till it riles into wind, is not rapid : thefe Icngth- 
-"— V— ^ cued columns, therefore, will take fome time to dilii- 
pate their lummits amouj; the adjacent Icfs rarefied co- 
lumns that are not fo Jiigh ; at lea/l, they will not do 
l^his as faft as their length is incrcafcd by the rarefac- 
tion of their bafcs. 

The reader, we prefume, anticipates the application 
of this thiory to ilic foliuion of the phciioiiicnon in 
quellion. The barometer on the plain begins to fall 
a little aficr morning, bccaufe the colmiin of air that 
fupports it becomes fpecifically lighter on account of 
the rarcf.iiflion ariling from the heat of the fun. It 
continues to fall for the iirll three quarters of the day ; 
becaufe, during that time, the heat, and confcqucntly 
the rarefaction, are gradually iucreafing. Itrifcs again, 
• after this period: bccaufe tlie cold, and of courfc the 
condenfa'iion, coming on, the fpecitic gravity is aug- 
mented by the rulhing in of the adjacent air. The c- 
quilibrium is reilored, and the mercury returns to the 
altitude of the morning. 

The barometer on the eminence rifes after morning, 
and continues to do ib for three-fourths of the day, 
for two rcafons. The dcnfity of the columns of air 
is grcatcfl near the earth, and decrcafes as the diftance 
from it increafcs. The higher, for this reafon, we 
afcend in the atmofphere, we meet with air fpecilically 
lighter. But by the rarefaction of the bafe of the co- 
lumn that fupports the mercury of the barometer on 
the eminence, the denfer parts of that column are raifed 
higher than naturally they would be if left to the o- 
peration of their own gravity. On this account, the 
higher barometer is prefl'ed with a weight, nearly as 
great as it would fuftain, were it brought down, in 
the atmofphere, to the natural place of that denfer air 
now raifed above it by the prolongation of the bafe of 
the column. The other reafon is, that as the rarefac- 
tion docs not take place at any great diflaiice from the 
earth, little change is produced in the fpccific gravity 
of the portion of the column that preflcs on the higher 
barometer, and the fummit of that column diffipates 
itfclf more llowly than it increafcs. Thus, we fee 
how this barometer mud afcend during the firA three 
fourths of the day, and purfue a courfc the rcvcrfc 
of that on the plain. The condenfaiions returning af- 
ter this time, the denfer air fubfides, the equilibrium 
takes place, and die mercury dcfcends to its firfl poli- 
4,1 tion. 
Render an- This phenomenon prompted the idea of a fecond pair 
other pair of thermometers, to raeafurc the mean heat of the co- 
of thcrmo. i;inin of air intercepted between the b.irometers. Thefe 
meters ne- tiici-momctcrs are extremely delicate and fcnfible. The 
*' '"^' tubes arc the fined capillary, the glafs very thin, and 
the diameters of the balls only three lines. The balls 
arc infulaied, or detached from the fcales, which arc 
fixed to the tubes only, by ligatures of fine brafs-wire 
covered with filk. The air, by this contrivance, has 
free communication with the balls on all fides ; and, if 
the direct; rays of the fun be intercepted at fome di- 
Aance by a bit of paper, or even the leaf of a tree, the 
thermometers will quickly mark the true temperature 
^^ of the air. 
Method of The reader, perhaps, will a(k here, Could not this 
computing end have bctn gained by the firft pair of thermonie- 
thc alti- (jj-s ? Bjit ^yj mad rcqucll him to fufpcnd his judg- 
tudes. jncnt, till we have cxolaiacd the theory of computing 

the altitudes from the dcfcents of the mercury. He liarometer. 

will then find the fcales of thefe thermometers fo dif- "^ '■ ' 

fercnt, that nciiherof them could, much incon- 
vcnif ncy, ferve the purpofc of the other. 

The altitudes arc computed by logarithms. A table 
of logarithms contains two ftrics of numbers, running 
parallel to one another. The firll has its terms in geo- 
metrical progreliion, and the ftcond its terms in arith- 
metical. The natural numbers i, a, 3, 4, &c. form 
the firrt feries ; which, though in arithmetical progref- 
fion when Handing detached, are in geometrical in 
regard of the fecond feries ; whofc terms arc in arith- 
metical progrefllon, and are called /(;^'rtr;//;;.i, becaufc 
they exprefs the dillance of their correfpondent terms 
of the geometrical progreffion from the beginning of 
the feries. 

To apply this table to the prefent purpofc : let hs 
fiippofe the whole atmofphere divided into concentric 
fpherical fcftions, whofe common centre is that (ji the 
earth. Suppofe alfo all ihefe fciJllons of equil thick 
nefs, namely, 12.497 toifcs, which is found 10 br the 
thicknefs of the lowed feclion, and bal,<nces a line of 
mercury, when the barometer llands at 34fi!nesor 
29 inches. Add, then, all thefe fcdions tog( thf.'; and 
we diall have the total altitude of liie atmolp'.iCre ex- 
prciled in an arithmetical progreflion, whofc common 
diflerence is 12 497 toifes. Confcquentlv, in ihisvicw^ 
the heights are proportioned to the logarithms. 

It remains only to find the dcfcents of the mercury, 
which meafurcs the weights of the rcfpe(flive fcdions,. 
in geometrical proportion, in order to judify the ap- 
plication of the logarithmic table to the computation 
of the altitudes. Now, it is cafy to prove, in a very 
fatisfadory manner, that ihemean denfnics of thefe fcc- 
tions, which arc in proportion of their weights, muft 
be in geometrical progreffion, when the altitudes arc 
in arithmetical ; confcqucntly, it is with great propriety 
and convenience that the logarithms are em ployed in 
the computation of the altitudes correlponding to the 
dcfcents of the mercury. For, to find the vertical di- 
flancc between two barometers, at ditfercnt heights, no 
more is ncccil'ary than to look, in a tabic of logarithms, 
for the numbers that exprefs in lines, or fixtecnihs of a 
line, the altitudes of the two columns of mercury, and 
take the logarithms of thefe numbers, whofe dW'erencc 
will give this didance accurately, in thoulandth parts of 
a toile. Multiply the toifes by 6, which will furnifh 
the altitudes in French feet. 

The author made about foo different obfervations at 
the feveral dations on the mountain of Saleve, which 
both fiiggeded and verified the computation by loga- 
rithms. Many, however, of thefe obfervations, pro- 
duced conclufions that deviated confiderahly from the 
refults of the actual menfuration, on account of the dif- 
ferent temperatures in which they were taken. It was 
the defigii of the fecond pair of thermometers 10 point 
out the corrections of thefe deviations. In fettling the 
fcales neceliary for this end, the fird objecl was, 10 
mark the temperature of all the obfervations where 
the log.iriihms gave the altitudes exadly, or nearly e- 
qual to what they were found to be by leviiling. This 
temperature correfpondcd to 16,' on the fcalc of Reau- 
mur, and to 70 on that of Fahrenucit, and as it was fixed 
the term o. The next dep was, to determine the cor- 
rcftions of ihe hci^iis thai became nccclfary, accard- 

B A R 

C 3i ] 


D#om;t«r. ingas ihe ftate of the air was warmer or colder than 

"^ ' tlic fixcJ point. With this view, all the remaining ob- 

fervations were colledcd, and compared wilii tiie dif- 
ferent temperatures in which they were taken ; and 
from an attentive examination of thcfe circumftances, 
it was difcnvsred, that tor every 21 j feet of heij;lit fiir- 
jiiihcd by the toTaiithms, one foot of correi.'^lioii nnill 
be added or fiibtraifled, for every decree of the ther- 
mometer, according as it ftood above or helow the 
term o. 

The fcale of Reaiimiir did not conveniently exprcfs 
this corre(5lioii of i to 315. The author witlied to adopt 
the ratio of i to 1000, in forming a new fcale for thnt 
piirpofc ; but the divilions would have been too final!. 
He employed, therefore, that of i to jco : becaiifc, 
by doubling the degrees of the higher tiicrniometer a- 
bove or below o; or, which amounted nearly to the 
fame thing, by doubling the mean heat of the column 
of air in taking the fum of the degrees of both thermo- 
meters, there refultcd the ratio of i to loco. The new 
fcale, then, was divided by the following proportion : 
As 21 j, the laft term of the ratio found by Reaumur's 
fcale, is to joo, the la(l term of the ratio to be applied 
on the new fcale ; fo is 80, the parts between the fixed 
points of the lirll fcale, to 1R6, the number of parts be- 
tween the fame points on the fecond. And as 80 is id 
1S6 ; fo is 16;, the point on Reaumur's fcale at which 
the logarithms give the altitudes without corrcflion, 
to 39, the point at which they give them on the new 
fcale. The term o is placed at this point, 39 at melt- 
ing ice, and 147 at that of boiling water. To reduce 
all obfervations to the fame temperature by this fcale, 
nothing more is necefTary than to multiply the heights 
found from the logarithms, by the fum of the degrees 
ot'both thermometers above or below o, and to divide 
the product by 1000. The quotient niuft be added to, 
or fubtrafled from, the logarithmic height, according 
as the temperature is pofuive or negative. 

As a fpccimen of the author's method, we rtiall now 
prefent our readers with the refult of his operations at 
the 15 llations on Saleve. In one column are marked 
the heights found by levelling, and oppofite to them 
the fame heights found by the barometer ; to the latter 
are prefixed the number of obfervations of which they 
are the mean. 








From this table we prefumc the reader will be in- 


rf this nie 
thod of 


;s by 

Numbers of 

Heights by 












































2351, V 




2583; J 






3 74It 




clined to entertain the nioft favourable opinion of the I'arowetcr. 

abilities and indullry of Mr de Lue. Notwithftand- * >C — ' 

iiig llie aiujicing pains, however, which he has taken to y^^^^y, „;„„ 
remove every inaccuracy in the barometer, it did not of'thc'm'ol'l 
remain eniirrly free from erior; nor in many inftanccsimrrovcd 
have the obfervations made by different perfons cxartly baiumettr 
correfponded. Conliderable improvenunts have been 7'' invtoi. 
fuggeft ed by Col. Roy and Sir George Shuckburgh, ?ic. *•*' 
(fee ////.T/rf///. vol.67.and68.) ; and put in execuiioir, 
with improvements, by Mr Ramfden, and other inge- 
nious inrtromcnt-niakers in London. Tlie following 
is a dcfcription of a very portable one conftrndcd by 
Mr Williaui Jones of Holborn, which, from its prin- 
ciple, compreliends every advantage that M. de Luc's 
inllniineut poircli'ts ; in many particulars is exempted 
from the errors to which his is liable ; and isnotliibjcdl 
to be deranged by carriage or other motion. 

Kig. 12. is a rcprel'eniaiion of the inllrument as iii- 
clofed in its mahogany cafe by means of three metallic 
rings t b [• : This cafe is in the form of an hollow cone 
divided into three arms or legs from a to c, and is f» 
carved in the intide as to contain Readily the body of 
the barometer: The arms, when fcparated, form three 
firm legs or luppons for the barometer when making 
obfervations (lee fig. 13.): The inlhnment is fufpendcd 
at the part g of the cafe, by a kind of improved gim- 
bals ; and therefrom, witli its own weight, is fufficient- 
ly lleady in expofcd weather. In that part of the frame 
ulicrc the barometer tube is fccn(i7 e ), there is 1 long 
flit or opening made, fo that the altitude of the mer- 
cury may be feen againft the light, and the vernier 
piece a brought down to coincide with the edge of the 
mercury to the greatefl polhble cxa(^tnefs. %Vhen the 
inflrunient is placed on its fupport, the fcrcw f'\% to be 
let down in or, ier that the mercury may fubfidc to its 
proper height ; and alfo a peg at /> niufl li>eloofcned,n> 
give admillion to the aiflion of the external air upon 
the mercury contained in the box b. The adjuflmenc 
or mode of obferving what is called the zero, or o, 
tiivifion of the column of mercury, is by the mercury 
being feen in the tranfparcnt part of the bo,x b ; the 
iufide of which is a glafs lube or refcrvoir for the 
mercury, and an edged piece of metal fixed on 
the external part of the box. The mercury is to 
be brought into contact with the edge by turning the 
fcrew /' towards the right or left as neceflary. The 
vernier piece at a that determines the altitnde of the 
column of mercury, is to be brought down by the hand 
to a near coiuaft, and then accurately adjufled by turn- 
ing the fcrcw h at top of the inflrument. This baro- 
meter has ulually two different forts of fcales inferted 
on it : that on the right at rt^, is a fcale of French inches 
from 19 to 31, meafured from the furfacc or zero of 
the mercury in the box b below, divided into I2lh parts 
or lines, and each line fubdivided by the vernier into 
ten parts, fo that the height of the column of mercury 
may be afcertained to the 120th part of a French inch. 
The fcale which is on the other lide, or left of obfirrva- 
tion, is of thefamelengtl) ; but divided into Englilh inch- 
es, each of which is fubdivided into 20ths of an inch, 
and the vernier fubdivides each 20th into 2{ parts ; fo 
that the height of the mercury is hereby afcertained to 
the joodth part of an Englifli inch (viz. 2oX2J=:50o). 
But this vernier is figured tloubl: for the conveniency 
of calculation, viz. The firll j divifions are marked to, 



[ 33 ] 


Barometer, the 20 marked 40, and tlie 2 j marked JO : then each 
"~~"v— ' exatl divilion is reckoned as the two thonfandths of an 
inch, which amounts to the fame ; for ^'.j is the fame 
in value as -r »'.,-„■ of an inch. A thsrmoi/ieter is always 
attached to ilic haroinctcr, and indeed is iiuiir,)C!irably 
neccflary: it is fattened to the body at c, cojntcrfunk 
bcneatli ihc furface of the frame, which makes it Icfs 
liable to be broken: the degrees of the thermometer 
arc marked on two fcales, one on each fide, viz. thnfc 
of Fahrenheit and Reaumur, fcales generally known ; 
the freezing point of the former being at 32 and the 
latter at o. On the right-hand fide of thcfe two fcales 
there is a third, called a fcale of correfihii ; it is pla- 
ced oppofitely to that of Fahrenheit, with the words 
aJJ iaifithraH : it ferves as a necelfary correftion to 
the obferved altitude of the mercury at any given tem- 
perature of the air fiiown by the thermometer. There 
are feveral other valuable pieces of mechanifm about 
the inftrumenc that cannot clearly be reprefented in 
the figure ; but what has already been faid, \vc pre- 
fume, is fufficient for the reader's general informatin. 
For the manner of making the necelfary obfervations, 
and calculaiing the necelfary particulars deducible there- 
from, a full information may be obtained from M. De 
Luc, Recherchcs fur tes M'ldijicnthns de r Atmofphire, 
and the Philofophical Tranfaftions vol. 67. and6S. be- 
fore cited. 

It may be necelfary to add here, that by very fmall 
additional contrivances to this inftrumeut, Mr Jones 
renders it equally ufeful for making obfervations at fea 
with any marim barometer that has hitherto been in- 

This article may not be irt-proprrlv concluded by an 
• Mj^rl- obfervation of Mr Magellan*, relative ro the principal 
Un'i edithn caufe of error in barometrical meafurements. This he 
tfCnn- flates to be owing to the inattention of obfervers to the 
faJt I M'- j'picific gravity of the mercury with which their barome- 
ters were made. If two barometers were both at 30 
inches high, and equally circumtlanced in every other 
refpeifl, excepting only their fpecific gravity of the 
quickfilvcr : fo that one be fdled with the tirll kind I 
have tried, viz. whole fpecific gravity was =15,62 
and the other =: 1 5,45. In this cafe, and in all pro- 
babiliiy, many of ibis kind have ofien occurred, the er- 
ror mull have been no Icfs than 3:7 feet ; becaufc the 
heights of the mercurial coUimns in each barometer 
mull be in the inverfe ratio of their fpecilic gravities : 
viz. 13,4; :: 1352 : : 30 : 30,379. 
Now the logarithm of 30=4771.21 
ditto of 30,379=4825.73 

the difference is = 54.52 
which difference Ihows, that there are 54. J2 fathoms 
between one place and another, or 327 feet ; though 
in reality both places are on the fame level. 

" But if the fpecific gravity of the mercury, in the 
two barometers, were as the two above alhulcd to of 
Bergman and Fourcroy ; viz. one of 14,110, and the 
other of 13,000, which may happen to be the cafe, as 
liie heavieft is commonly reputed ihc purell mercury ; 
on this fuppofition the error mud have amounted to 
35,576 toiics, or above 2134 feet and a half ; becaufc 
13,000 : 14,1 10 : : 50 : 32,561. 


notes on 

Now the logarithm of 3c=477i,2i 
and that of 32,561=5126,97 

the difference is = 355,76 ; which l1;ows that 
tlie error ilioiild amount to fo many fathoms, or 
3134,5 icft. 

YiAKO'H, a pcrfon who holds a barony. The ori- 
gin and jirimary import of this term is much contelfed. 

Menage derives it from theLatiii Wo, which we find 
ufed in the pure age of that language for vir, z Jlant or 
valiant man ; whence, according to this author, it was, 
that ihofc placed next the king in battles were called ^<j- 
lones, as being the bravcll men in the anr.y ; and as 
princes frequently rewarded ihc bravery and tidtliiy of 
tliolc about them with fees, the word came to be ul'cd 
for any noble pcrfon who holdba fee imnicdiaidy of the 
king. Ifidore, and after him Camden, t.ikc the word, 
iu its original ferfe, lolignii'y ivierccnarj foldUr. Mcf- 
fieurs of ihe Port Royal derive it from ^«fc{, Mjiight 
or authority. Cicero iifcs the word baro for a llupid 
brutal man ; and the old Germans make mention of 
buffeting a baron, i. e. a villain ; as the Italians flill 
life the word barons to (ignify a beggar. M. de Marca 
derives baron from the German bar, tnan, or fre:ir;an ; 
others derive it from the old Gaulilh, Celtic, and He- 
brew languages ; but the mofl probable opinion is, 
that it comes from the Spanilh varo, a jiout, noble per- 
fot: ; whence wives ufed to call their hulbands, and 
princes their tenants, barons. In the Salic law, as well 
as the laws of the Lombards, the word baron llgnifies 
a man in the general ; and the old glolfary of Philo- 
menes tranllaies baron by «r«f, mar.. 

Baron is more particularly ufed, in England, for a 
loril or peer of the lowcfl clafs ; or a degree of nobi- 
lity next below that of a vifcount, and above that of 
a knight or a baronet. In ancient records the word 
baron included all the nobility of England, becaufe re- 
gularly all noblemen were barons, though tliey had alfo 
a higher dignity. But it hath fomctimes happened, 
that, when an ancient baron hath been railed to a new 
degree of peerage, in the courfe of a few generations 
the tv.-o titles have defctnded differently ; one perhaps 
to the male dcfceiidanls, the other to the heirs general ; 
whereby the earldom or other fupcrior title hath fub- 
fifled without a barony : and there are alfo modern in- 
fiances, where earls and vifcounts have been created 
without annexing a barony to their other honors : lo 
that now the rule doth not hold uuivcrfally that all 
peers arc barons. 

The original and antiquity of barons has occa- 
fioned great inquiries among the Englilh antiqua- 
rians. The moll probable cpinion is fuppofed 10 
be, that they were the fame with the prifeiit lords 
of manors ; to which tlic name of «//;/ ^</ro« (which 
is the lord's court, and incident to every manor) gives 
fomc countenance. It is faid the original name ot this 
dignity in England was vavajfovr, which by the Saxons 
was changed into r^</«.--, and by the Nornians.into ^a- 
Ton. It may be coUeiled from King John's tiugna 
charta, that originally all lords ol niaiiors, or barons, 
had feats in the great council or parliamcnl : but fiich 
is the deiicicncy of public records, ijiat the tirll precept 
to be found is of no higher date than the 49:11 year 
of King Henry III.; which, although ii was if- 
K filed 



L 34 J 


Baron, fncil out in the king's name, was neitlier by his au- 

— ^ ' tiiority nor by his dircflion : for, not only the king 

himfclf, but his f<n\ Prince EJwanl, and mofl of the 
nobility who Rood loyal to him, were then prifoncrs in 
the hands of the rebellious barons ; having been fo 
made in the month of May preceding, at the battle of 
Lewes, and fo continued until the niemorable battle 
of Evcllum, which happened in Augull the year fol- 
lowing ; when, by the happy efcapc of Prince Edward, 
he refciied the king and his adherents out of the hands 
of Simon Mountfort Earl of Leicefter. It cannot be 
doubted but that feveral parliaments were held by 
King Henry III. and King Edward I. ; yet no record 
is to be found giving any account thereof (except the 
5th of King Edward I.), until the 22d year of the 
reign of the laft mentioned king. 

Before the 49th of Hen. III. the ancient parliaments 
confilted of the archbilhops, billiops, abbots, carls, and 
barons. Of thefc barons there were two forts: tht grsatir 
iaroris, or the king's chief tenants, who held ot him //; 
capiti by barony ; and the /efir barons, wkohcld of the 
iirfl by military fervice hi capitc. The former had fum- 
jnons to parliament by feveral writs ; and the latter 
{i.e. all thofe who were poflefled of thirteen knights 
fees and a quarter) had a general fumnions from the 
iheritTin each county. Thus things continued till the 
49th of Henry III. But then, inllead of keeping to 
the old form, the prevailing powers thought fit to fura- 
mon, not all, but only thole of the greater barons who 
were of their party ; and, inftead of the leller barons 
■who came with large retinues, to fend their precepts 
to the flicriff of each county, to caufe two knights in 
every (hire to be chofen, and one or two burgcifes for 
each borough, to reprefcnt the body of the people re- 
fiding in thofe counties and boroughs ; which gave rife 
10 the reparation into two houfcs of parliament. By 
degrees the title came to be confined to the greater 
barons, or lords of parliament only ; and there were 
no other barons among the peerage but fuch as were 
fummoned by writ, in refpeft of the tenure of their 
lands or baronies, till Richard II. firft made it a mere 
title of honour, by conferring it on divers perfons by 
his letters patent. Sec further Law, Part 111. N^clviii. 

12, 13, M- 

When a baron is called up to the houfe of peers by 
writ of fummoiis, the writ is in the king's name, and 
he is direflcd 10 come to the parliament appointed to 
be held at a certain time and place, and there to treat 
and advife with his majefty, the prelates, and nobility, 
about the weighty affairs of the nation. The ceremo- 
ny of the admiirion of a baron into the houfe of peers 
is thus : He is brought into the houfe between two 
barons, who condua him up to the Lord Chancellor, 
his patent or writ of fumnions being carried by a king 
at arms, who prefentsjt kneeling to the Lord Chan- 
cellor, who reads it, ?nd then congratulates him mi 
his becoming a member of the houfe of peers, and in- 
verts him with his parliamentary robe. The patent 
is then delivered to the clerk of the parliament, and the 
o-aths are adminillcrcd to the new peer, who is then 
condufted to iiis feat on the barons bench. Some ba- 
rons hold their feats by tenure. The firll who was 
railed to this dignity by patent was John de Beau- 
champ of Holt C'afllc, created Baron of Kiddcrmin- 
flerin Worcertcrfnire, to him and his heirs-male, by 
King Richard II. in the J lib year of bis reign. He 

invelUd him with a mantle and cap. The ceronaiion- B«r««s, 
robes of a baron arc the fame as an earl's, except that Baron. 
he has only two rows of f|>ois on each fhoulder. In ' 
like manner, his parliamentary robes have but two 
guards of white fur, with rows of gold lace. In other 
rcfpcds they are the fame as other peers. King Charles 
II. granted a coronet to tiie barons. It has fix pearls, 
fet at equal diftanccs on the chaplct. His cap is the 
fame as a vifcount's. His flylc is Rigi:t Honnurabic ; 
and he is flyled by the king or queen, Right TruJIf 
and Well Beliivcd. 

Baross by aiicinit tenure were thofe who held by 
certain territories of the king, who ftill referved the 
tenure in chief to himfelf. We alfo read of barons by 
teviforat tenure ; who are fuch as hold honours, caflles, 
manors, as heads of tlieir barony, that is by grand fcr- 
geanty ; by which tenure they were anciently fum- 
moned to parliament. But at prefent a baron by tenure 
is no lord of parliament, till he be called thither by writ. 
The barons by tenure after the conqucft, were di- 
vided into tnajores and minores, and were fummoned ac- 
cordingly to parliament ; the tnajores or greaterbarons, 
by immediate writ from the king ; the minores, or lef- 
fer barons, by general writ from thehigh flieriff, at the 
king's command. 

Anciently they diflinguiflted the greater barons from 
the Icfs, by attributing high, and even fovereign jurif- 
dii5lion, to the former, and only inferior jurifdiflion 0- 
ver fmaller matters to the latter. 

Baross of the Exchequer, the four judges to whom 
the adminiftration of juflice is committed, in caufes be- 
tween the king and his fubjeds relating to matters 
concerning the revenue. They were formerly barons of 
the realm, but of late are generally perfons learned in 
the laws. Their office is alfo to look into the accounts 
of the king, for which reafon they have auditors under 
them. See Excheq_uer. 

Baroxs of the Cinque-ports are membersof the houfe '- 
of commons, t\c&ca by the five ports, two for each 
port. Sec tlic article Cinq^ue-ports. 

Biros and Fenie, in the Englilh law, a term ufed 
for hufband and wife, in relation to each other : and 
they are deemed but one perfon ; fo that a wife cannot 
be witncfs for or againrt herhulband, nor he for or a- 
gainll his wife, except in cafes of high treafon. 

Baros aiid Feme, in heraldry, is when the coats of 
arms of a man and his wife are borne par pale in the fame 
efcutchcon, the man's being always on the dtxier fide, 
and the woman's on the finifter; but here the woman 
is fuppofed not an heirefs, for then her coat mud be 
borne by the hulband on an efcutcheoH of pretence. 

BARON (Robert), a dramatic author, who lived 
during the reign of Charles I. and the proteflorftiip of 
Oliver Cromwell. He received the earlier pans of his 
education at Cambridge, after which he becanic a 
member of the honourable fociciy of Gray's-Inn. Du- 
ring his relidcnce at the univerliiy, he wrote a novel 
called the Cyprian /Icadeviy, in which he introduced 
the two firft of the dramatic pieces mentioned btlow. 
The third of ihem is a much more regular and pcrtti^ 
play, and was probably written when the author had 
attained a riper age. The names of ihem are, i.Dio- 
nnu Dona, a maique. 2. Cripus and Hcgio, a j)arto- 
ral. 3. Mirza, a tragedy. Mr Baron had a great 
intimacy with the celebrated Mr James Howell, the 
great traveller^ in whofe colk(5lions of Letters* there • voI. ur. 

B A R 

[ 35 ] 


is one to this gentleman, who was at tliat time at Pa- 
ris. To Mr Howell in p.irticiilar, and lo all the hdics 
anil gentlewomen in Knglaad in general, he has dedi- 
cated his romance. 

Baron (Micli-icl), an excellent comedian of Paris, 
was the fon of' Michael Baron another comedian, who 
was a native of Illbiidun. He wrote fome poems, and 
feveral theatrical pieces, which are printed togciher in 
I vols i2ino. lie died at Paris In 1729, aged 77. 

BARONET, in England, a dignity or degree of ho- 
nour next beneath a baron, and above a knight ; having 
precedency of all knights excepting thofe of (he garter, 
and being the only knighthood that is hereditary. 

The dignity of baronet is given by patent, and is 
the loweft degree of honour that is hereditary. The 
order was founded by king James I. at the fuggeflion 
of Sir Robert Cotton, in i6tr, when 200 baronets 
were created at once ; to which number it was intend- 
ed they (lioiild always be retrained : but it is now en- 
larged at the king's plcafure, without limitation. 

They had feveral conliderable privileges given them, 
with an habatdavi to tliem and their heirs male. They 
were allowed to charge their coat with the arms of 
Ulflcr, which are, in a field argent, a finifler hand, 
gules; and that upon condition of their defending 
the province of Ulrter in Ireland againfl the rebels, 
who then haralfed it extremely : to which end they 
were each to raifc and keep up 30 foldiers at their own 
expencc for three years together, or to pay into the 
exchequer a funi fufiicient to do it; which, at 8 d. per 
day per head, was 109 j. So that, including fees, 
ihc cxpence of this dignity may be about L. 1200 fter- 
ling. To be qualified for it, one mull be a gentleman 
born, and have a clear eftate of L.xooo per afmur/i. 

Baronets take place according to the dates of their 
patents; by the terms of which no honour is to be 
creded between barons and baronets The title Sir is 
granted them by a peculiar claufe in their patents, tho* 
they be not dubbed knights: but both a baronet, and 
his eldeft fon, being of full age, may claim knighthood. 
— The firfl baronet who was created was Sir Nicholas 
Bacon of Redgrave in Suffolk, whofe fucceflbris there- 
fore flilcd Primi/i Baronetorum Anglix. 

Barosets oj Scotland, called alfo Baronets of Nova - 
Scotia. The order of knights-baronets was alfo de- 
signed to be eftabliflied in Scotland in the year 1621, 
by King James I. for the plantation and cultivation of 
rhe province of Nova-Scotia in America; but it was 
not aftually.infliti ted till the year 1625 by his fon 
Charles I. when the firft pcrfon dignified with this title 
was Sir Robert Gordon of Gordonftone, a younger fon 
of the Earl of Sutherland. The king granted a cer- 
tain portion of land in Acadia or New Scotland, to 
etch of them, which they v/ere to hold of Sir William 
Alexander (afterwards Earl of Stirling), for their en- 
couragement who (hould hazard their lives for the good 
and increafe of that plantation, with precedency to 
ihem, and their heirs-male for ever, before all knights 
called equites aurati, and all leffer barons called Imrds, 
and all other gentlemen, except Sir William Alexander 
his majefty's lieutenant in Nova Scoiia, his heirs, their 
wives and children: that the title of Sir lliould be pre- 
fixed to their Chridian name, and Baror::t added lo 
their furname ; and that their own and their eldeft fons 
wives fltoiild enjoy the title of Lady, Madam, oxDe7!!r, 

—His majefty was fodefirous of adding ercry mark of Eironeti, 
dignity to this his favourite order, that, four years after Bironi. 

its inftitution, he ilTued a royal warrant, granting them ^' " ' 

the privilege of wearing an orange ribbon and a medal; 
whieh laft was prefented to each of them by the king 
himfelf, according to the words of the warrant. All 
the privileges of the order, particularly this of wearing 
tlie medal, were confirmed at the king's requcft by 
the convention of eflates in the year 1630 ; and in or- 
der to cllablilh them on the mod folid foundation, 
they were again confirmed by an ».S\. of the parliament 
of Scotland in the year 1633. This mark of diftinc- 
tion fell to the ground with all the other honours of 
Scotland during the ufurpation of the long parliament 
and of Oliver Cromwell. It contitnied in general, 
though not total, difufe, after the Reftoration. There 
have been former meetings of the order to revive the 
ufe of it, one in the year 1 721, and another in J 734. 
Thefe meetings proved incficctual, becaufc the proper 
fleps towards its revival were not taken; but, under 
the prefent monarch George III. fuch meafures were 
concerted in the year 1775 as have efl^edually elta- 
blidicd this honourable dignity. 

Darokf.ts oJ Ireland. Tiiis order was likewife in- 
(lituted by King James I. in the l8th year of his reign, 
for the fame purpoic and with the fame privileges within 
the kingdom of Ireland, as he had conferred on the like 
order in England ; for which the Irilh baronets paid 
the fame fees into the trcafury of Ireland. The firft of 
that kingdom who was advanced to this hereditary dig- 
nity was Sir Francis Blundell, then fecretary for the 
affairs of Ireland. Since his time, feveral have bccu 
created, no number being limited. 

BARONI (Leonora), a celebrated finger and com- 
pofcr, was born at Naples, but fpcnt the greateft part 
of her life at Rome. She was daughter of Adrian* 
Barnni of Mantua, Baroncfs of Pian-careita ; a lady alfo 
diftinguifhed for her mufical talents, and for her beauty 
firnamed the fair. Leonora had Icfs beauty than her 
mother; but excelled herin her profound (kill inmufic, 
the finenefs of her voice, and the charmrngnefs of her 
manner. She is laid by Mr Bayle to have been one of 
the finell fingers in the world. She was, as well as her 
mother, celebrated by the wits, who flrove to excel 
each other in recording her praifcs; and in 1639 there 
was publiflied at Bracciano, a colledion of Latin, Greek, 
Italian, Spanilh, and French poems made upon her, 
under this title, Applaufi foetid alle Clcrie delta 
Signora Leonora Baroni. Among the Latin poems of 
Milton are no fewer than three iniilled j^d Leonoram 
Roni.c canentem, wherein this lady is celebrated for 
her fmging, with an allufion to her mother's exquifite 
performance on the lute. A fine eulogium on thisac- 
complidied woman is contained in a difcourfe on the 
Mufic of the Italians, printed with the life of Mal- 
herbc, and fome other treatifes at Paris, i 772, in i2mo. 
This difcourle was compofed by Mr Mau^ars prior of 
St Peter dc Mac, the king's interpreter of the Englifh 
language, and belides fo famous a performer on the viol, 
that the kingof Spain, and feveral othcrloverrign princes 
of Europe defired to hear him. The charai.1cr given by 
this perfnn of Leonora Banmi is as follows : " She is 
endowed with fine parts ; flie has a \-cty good juilg- 
mert to dilling.iilh good from bad mufic; (lie under- 
flands it perf«elly well; and even comi^fes, which 
K 2 makes 


( 36 ] 


Baronius, makes her abfolute miftrefs of what (he fings, and gives 
Barony, her the moll exact pronunciation and exprcllion of tlic 
*" ^— ^ fcnfc of her words. She docs not pretend to beauty, 
neither is Ihc difagreeable, or a coquet. She lings with 
a bold and generous modelly, and an agreeable gra- 
vity J her voice reaches a large compafs of notes, and 
is exart, loud, and harmonious ; Ihc foftens and raifcs 
it without flraining or making grimaces. Her raptures 
and lighs arc not lafcivious ; her looks having nothing 
impudent, nor docs Ihe tranfgrefs a virgin niodcfty in 
her gcftures. In paHing from one key to anotlicr, liic 
lliows fomctimcs the divifions of the enharmonic and 
chromatic kind with fo much art and fweetncfs, tliat 
every body is ravilhcd with that fine and ditlicult me- 
thod of linginfT. She has no need of any pcrfon to af- 
I'lrt her with a theorbo or viol, one of which is ncccf- 
fary to make her linging co;iiplcte ; for flie plays pcr- 
fedly well hcrfclf on both thcfe iullruments. In (hoii, 
I have had the good fortune to hear her iing i'evcral 
times above ?o different airs, with fccond and third 
ftanzas compofed by herfelf. I niuft not forget 10 tell 
you, that one day ihe did me the particular favour to 
ling with her mother and her lilU-r. Ilcr mother played 
upon the hue, her filler upon the liarp, and herfelf up- 
on the theorbo. This concert, compofed of three hue 
voices, and of three different inllruments, fo powerfully 
tranfported my fenfcs, and threw me into fuch rap- 
tures, that I forgot my mortality, and thought myftif 
already among the angels enjoying the felicity of the 

BARONIUS (Caefar), a pious and learned cardi- 
nal, was born at Sore in xjjR. He fludied at Rome, 
and put himfclf under the difciplinc of St Philip dcNe- 
ri. In 159?, he was made general of the congregation 
o( the Oratory by ibe reli;!;uation of tlic founder Philip 
dc Ncri. Pope Clement VIII. made him his confclfor, 
and created him a cardinal in 1596. He was after- 
wards made librarian to the Vatican ; and died in 1605, 
at 68 years of age. He wrote feveral works, tlie prin- 
cipal of w^hich is his y^/irhi/ is Ecclejiajlia, from A.D. i 
10 1198, in 12 vols folio; which has been abridged by 
feveral perfons, particularly by Henry Sponda;us, Bzo- 
vins, and Ludovico Aurelio. 

BARONY, Baronia, or Baraiiagiuvi, the lord- 
.(liip or fee of a baron, cither temporal or fpiritual : In 
which fcnfe barony amounts to the fame with what is 
olhcrwife called honour. 

A barony may be confidered as a lordiliip held by 
fomefervice in chief of the king, coinciding with wliat 
isothcrwife c.\\\tdt grand fcrgcanty. Baronies, in iheir 
tirfl creation, n^ovcd from the king himfelf, ihe chief 
lord of ihc whole realm, and could be holdeii imme- 
diately of no other lord. For example, the king en- 
Icoffcd a man of a great fcigncurie in land, 10 hold to 
the pcrfon enfeoffed and his heirs, of the king and his 
•heirs, by baronial fcrvice ; to wit, by the fervice of 
10, 40, 60 knights, or of fuch other number of 
knights, either more or fewer, as the king by his en- 
feoffment limited or appointed. — In the ages next after 
llie Conqueft, when a great lord was enfeoffed by the 
king of a large fcigncurie, fuch feigneurie was called a 
barony, bu' more particularly an honour; as, the honour 
of Glouceflerfliire, the honour of Wallingford, the ho- 
nour of Lancafter, the honour of Riclimond, and the 
like. There were in England certain honours, which 

were often called by the Norman or other foreign names; 
that is to fay, fomctimes by the Englilh and fomciimes 
by the foreign name. This happened when the fame 
pcrfon was lord of an honoiir in Normandy, or foinc 
other foreign country, and alfo of an honour in Eng- 
land. For example, William de Forz, dc Force, or 
dc Fortibus, was lord of the honour of Albemarle in 
Normandy ; he was alfo lord of two honours in F,ng- 
land ; to wit, the honour of Holderntl's, and the ho- 
nour of Skipton in Cravenc. Thtfc lionours in Eng- 
land were fomctimes called by the Norman name, the 
honour of Albemarle, or the honour of ihe Karl of 
Albemarle. In like manner, the Earl of Britannic was 
lord of the honour of Britannic in France, and alfo of 
the honour of Richmond in England : the honour of 
Riciimond was fomciimes called by the foreign name, 
the honour of Britannic, or the honom- of the Earl of 
Britannie. This ferveth to explain the terms *' honour 
of Albemarle in England," honor j^ihcniarli.t, or covii- 
tis Aibimartia: in Angtia ; honor Britann'nr, or comilh 
Britannia in Anglia, " the honour of Britannic," or 
" the Earl of Britannic in England." Not that Al- 
bemarle or Britannie were in England, but that the 
fame pcrfon rcfpctlively was lord of each of the f.iid 
himours abroad, and each of the laid honours in Eng- 
land. The baronies belonging to bilhops arc by 
fome called regalia, as being luld folely on the king's 
liberality. Thcfe do not confill in one barony alone, 
but in many; iot tot erant iaroni^, quot viajora pra- 

A barony, according to Braflon, is a right indivi- 
fible. Wherefore, if an inheritance be to be divided 
among coparceners, though fome c.ipiial mcfuiages 
may be divided, yet if the capital mcffuage be tlic head 
ot a county or barony, it may not be parcelled ; and 
the rcafon is, led by this divifion many of the rights 
of comities and baronies by deortcs come to nothing, 
to the prejudice of the realm, which is laid to be com- 
pofed of counties and baronies. 

BARRA, or B.IRA, illand of. SccBara. 

Barr.a, in commerce, a long meafure ufed in Por- 
tugal, and fome parts of Spain, to meafure woollen 
cloths, linen cloths, and fcrgts. There are three forts; 
the bjrra of Valencia, i; of which make 12J yards 
Engliih mcnfn-c; the barra of C'aliile, 7 of which make 
6^ yards, and the barra of Arragon, ^ofwhichmake 
2 J yards Engliih. 

' B.ARRABA, (dcfart of) ; a traft of land in Sibe- 
ria, lying between the rivers Irtis and Oby, in the pro- 
vince of Tobollk. It is uninhabited, bin not thro' any 
deficiency of the foil ; for th;u is excellent for tillage, 
and part of it might alfo be laid out in meadows anti 
paflurcs. It is intcrfperfcd with a great number of lakes, 
which abound with a fpccies of carp called by the neigh- 
bouring people karaivfchin , and the country produces 
great numbers of elks, deer, foxes, ermine and iquirrels. 
Between the Irtisand Oby are fome rich copper-mines ; 
particularly on a mountain called pilioiDa, from the 
pifia or white firs that grow upon it. Every hundred 
v/eight of the ore found her yields 12 pounds of pure- 
copper; and there is no occafion for digging deep in 
order to conie at it. Mofl of thefe ores, belidcs being 
very rich in copper, yield a great deal of filvcr, which 
affords fo much gold as makes rich returns for ihc trou- 
ble and cxpcnce of exuadii:g it.. 


[ 37 ] 




BAPiRACAN, ill commerce, a fort of fluff", not dia- 
pered, fonicthing like camblets, but of a coaricr grain. 
, It is ufed to make cloaks, founouts, and fuch other gar- 
ments, to keep off tlie rain. — The cities where the moll 
barracans are made in France are VAlencicnncs, Lille, 
Abbeville, Amiens, and Roan. Thole of Valenciennes 
are the mofl valued : they arc all of wool, both the 
warp and tlie woof. 

I3BRRACIDA, in ichthyology, a fpccics of pik«. 
See Ksox. 

BARRACKS, or Baracks, pl.iccs for fokliers to 
lodgein,cfpeciaUy in i^arrifons.— Barracks, when damp, 
arc greatly prejudicial to the health of the foldicrs 
lodged in them; occalioning dyfcnterits, intermiiiing 
fevers, coughs, rlieuniatic pains, &c. For which rca- 
fon, quancr-niafters ought to be careful in examining 
every barrack oflercd by the magiftrstes of a place; 
rcjtding all ground-floors in houfts that have either 
been uiiiuhabiied, or have any figns of moilUire. 

BARRATOR, or B.^rretor, in law, a pcrfon 
guilty of barretry. Sc_e Barretry. 

Lambert derives the word I'ansicr from the Latin 
ialairo, "a vile knave;" but the proper derivation 
is from the Frencli barraieur, l. e. " deceiver ;" and 
this agrees with the defcripiion of a common barretor 
in my Lord Cokes' report, z-'iz. that he is a com- 
mon mover and maintainer of fuits in diflurbance of 
the peace, and in taking and detaining the polFedlon 
of houfes and lands or goods by falfe inventions, &c. 
And therefore it was adjudged that the indiclment a- 
gainfl him ought to be in thefe words, viz. That lie is 
ioinmun'ts v.\tli:fa&or, caluiiiv.iator et Jhutnalor litiuM 
et difcordiaiiii/! int-.r vic'mos fuos, et pacts regii pcrtur- 
bator, &c. And (here it is faid that a common barre- 
ter is the mofl dangerous opprelfor in the law, for he 
opprelTeth the innocent by colour of law, which was 
made to protect ihem from opprelfion. 

BARRATRY, inlaw. See Barretry. 

Barratry, in a lliipmailcr, is his cheating tlie 
owners. If goods delivered on lliip-board are em- 
bezzled, all tlie mariners ought to contribute to the 
fatisfaflion of the party that loft his goods, by the 
maritime law : and the caufc is to be tried in the ad- 
miralty. In a cafe where a lliip was injured againll the 
barratry of the mafter, &c. and the jury found that 
the (hip was loft by the fraud and negligence of the 
mafter, the court agreed, that the fraud was barratry, 
though not named in the covenant; but that negligence 
was not. 

BARRAUX, a fortrefs of Daupliiny belonging to 
France. It ftands in the valley of Grclivaudan, and 
was built by a Duke of Savoy in 1597. The French 
took it in 1598, and have kept it ever Hncc. It is 
feated on the river Ifcr, in E. Long. 4. 45. N. Lat. 
4J. o. 

BARRAY, one of the Hebrides, or Weftcrn illcs 
of Scotland, fituatcd in W. Long. 6. 30. N. Lat. 
56. J,-. 

BARRE (Louis Francois Jofcph de h), of Toi;r- 
nay, author of fcvcral works primed at Paris. A- 
iiiongft others, hupsr. Orioitale, Ricueit da j^L-daillcs 
dis empsreurs, " Memoirs for the ihcliiftory of France, 
&c." He died in 1738. 

BARREL, in commerce, a round veflcl, extending 
m9rc in length than in breadth, made of wood, in 

B A R 

It ftr\cs for liolding fcvtral fens 

form of a iiiiie ti.n. 
of merchandize. 

Barrel is alfo a mcafure of liquids. The Eng- 
lifii barrel, v. ine-mcafure, contains the eighth part i-f 
a tun, the fourth part of a pipe, and one half of a hoff- 
hcail ; that is to lay, it contains 31 !, gallons : a barril, 
bccr-meafure, contains 36 gallons; and, alc-mcafurr, 
32 gallons. The barrel of beer, viregar, cr liquor, 
preparing for vinegar, ought 10 contain 34 gallons, ac- 
cording to the llandard of the ale-quart. 

Barrel alfo denotes a certain weight cf fevcral 
merchandizes, which differs according to the fcvcral 
commodities. A barrel of Ellcx butter weighs ico 
pounds ; and SufJblk butter, 256 pounds. Tiic barrel 
of herrings ought to contain 32 gallons winc-mcafurc, 
which amount to about 28 gallons old llandard, 
containing about loco herrings. The barrel of falmoii 
muft contain 42 gallons; the barrel of cds the fame. 
The barrel of Ibap mull weigh 256 lb. 

Barrel in mechanics, a term given by watch- 
makers to the cylinder about which the fpring is 
wrapped; and by gun-fmiths to ihc cylindrical tube 
of a gun, piftol, &c. through which the ball is dil- 

Barrel, in anatomy, a pretty large cavity behind 
the tympanum of the tar, about four or five lines deep, 
and five or fix wide. 

Fire Barrels. See FiRE-S/>ip. 
Th:/nderi)!g Barrels, in the military art, are filled 
with bombs, grenades, and other tire-works to Le roll- 
ed down a breach. 

BARRENNESS, the fame with ftcriliiy. SccSte- 

BARRETRY, in law, is the oflence of frequently 
exciting and llirring up fuits and quarrels between his 
Majefty's fubjecls, cither at law or othcrwifc. The 
punilhment for this offence, in a common perfon, is by 
fine and imprifonmcni : but if the offender (as is too 
frequently the cafe) belongs to the profefTion of tlic 
law, a barretor who is thus able as well as willing 10 
do mifchief ought alfo to be difabled from pra(5lifnig 
for the future. And indeed it is ena<5led by ftatutc 
12 Geo. I. c. 29. that if any one, who hath been 
convielcd of forgery, peijiny, fubornaiion of per- 
jury, or common barretry, fliall praflife as an attor- 
ney, folicitor, or agent, in any fuit ; the court, ujx)n 
complaint, fliail examine it in a fummary way ; and, if 
proved, Ihall diredl the oflcndcr to be tranfponcd for 
fevcn years. Hereunto alfo may be referred another 
otiencc, of equal malignity and audacioufntfs; that of 
fuing another in the name of a fiditious plaintiff, ei- 
ther one not in being at all, or one who is ignorant of 
tile fuit. This offence, if committed in any of tlie 
king's fuperior courts, is left, as a higli contempt, to 
be punilheci at their difcrclion : but in courts of a 
lower degree, where the crime is equally pernicious^ 
but ilie authority of the judges not equally cxtcnlive, it 
is direifted by llatute 8 Etiz. c. 2. to be punilhcd by fix 
months i.nprifonment, and treble damages to the par- 
ty injured. 

B.'\RRIC.ADE, or Bakricado, a military term 
for a fence formed in h.iftc with veliels, balkcis of 
earth, trees, pallifades, or the like, to prefcrvc an ar- 
my from the fliot or alFault of ihc enemy. — Tlic moll 
ufual materials for barricades couGIl of pales or Ilakes» 




C 38 ] 

B A R 


BarricaJ* croiTei wiih batooiis, and flioii with iron at tlic I'eet, 
II. ufiially fet up in pallagcs or breaches. 

Barricade, in naval aichiiciftiirc, a ftrong wooden 
' rail, I'lipportcd by lUnchions, cxtt^nding acrofs the 
tbrcmoft part of the qiiarter-dcck. In a vcfl'tl ot war, 
the vacant fpaccs between the (iancliions arc commonly 
filled with rope -mats, cork, or pieces of old cable ; 
and the upper part, which contains a double rope- 
netting above the rail, is fluffed with full hammocks 
to intercept the motion, and prevent the execution of 
fniall-lliot in time of battle. 

BARRIER, in fortification, a kind of fence made 
at a pallape, retrenchment, &c. to Hop up the entry 
thereof. It is compofed of great flakes, about four or 
five feet high, placed at the'dilhncc of eight or ten feet 
from one another, with tranfums.orovenhwart rafters, 
to flop cither horfe and foot, that would enter or rulh 
in with violence : in the middle is a moveable bar of 
wood, that opens or (huts at plcafure. A barrier is 
commonly fet up in a void fpace, between the citadel 
and the town, in half moons, &c. 

Barriers, fignifies that which the French call jeit 
ties barrel, i. e. palaftra ; a martial cxtrcife of men 
armed and fighting together with iliort fwords, within 
certain bars or rails which feparated ihein from the 
fpedators : it is now generally difufed. 

BARRING A Vein, in farriery, an operation per- 
formed upon the veins of a horfe's legs, and other parts 
of his body, with intent to flop the courfe, and leflcn 
thequantity, of the malignant humours that prevail there. 


BAHRINGTONIA, in botany; a genus of the 
polyandria order, belonging to the monadelphia clafs 
of plants, the charafters of which are : one female, the 
calyx dephyllous above ; with a drupa, which it crowns; 
and the feed is a quadrilocular luit. There is but one 
fpccies known, the fpcciofa, a native of China and Ota- 

BARRISTER, in England, is a counfellor learned in 
the law, admitted to plead at the bar, and there to take 
upon him theprotcftion and defence of clients. They are 
termed jtirifconfulti ; and in other countries called //- 
centiati in jiin : and anciently barriflers at law were 
called appriiiticii of the law, in Latin appre?iticii juris 
nobiliores. The time before they ought to be called 
to the bar, by the ancient orders, was eight years, 
now reduced to five ; and the cxcrcifcs done by them 
(if they were not called c.v grntia) were twelve grand 
moots performed in the inns of Chancery in the time 
of the grand readings, and 24 petty moots in the 
terra times, before the readers of the refpeftive inns : 
and a barrifter newly called is to attend the fix (or 
four) ne.Kl long vacations the exercife of the houfe, viz. 
in Lent and Summer, and is thereupon for thofe three 
(or two) years flyled a vacation barrifter. Alfo .hey 
arc called titter barriflers, i. c. pleaders otifter the bar, 
ro diftinguifli them from benchers, or thofe that have 
been readers, who are fometimes admitted to plead 

within the bar, as the king, queen, or prince's coun- 
fcl arc. 

BARRITUS is a word of German original, adopt- 
ted by the Romans to fignity the general ihout ufuaily 
given by the foldicrs of their armies on their firfl en- 
counter after the dajfiann or alarm. This cuflom, 
however, of fctting up a general flioui was not pecu- 
liar to the Romans, but prevailed amongfl the Tro- 
jans according to Komer, amongfl the Germans, the 
Gauls, Macedonians, and Perfians. See Ci.assicum. 

BARROS (John), a celebrated Portuguefe hiflo- 
rian, born at V'ifco, in 1497. He was educated at 
the court of king Emanuel, among the princes of the 
blood, and made a great progrcfs in Greek and Latin. 
The Infant John, to whom he attached hinifelf, and 
became preceptor, having fucceedtd the king his fa- 
ther in 1521,, Barros obtained a place in this. prince's 
houfrhold ; and in 1522, was made governor of St 
George del Mina, on the coaft of Guinea. Three 
years after, the king having recalled him to court, 
made him treafurer of the Indies, and this port infpired 
him with the thought of writing this hiftory ; for which 
piirpofe he retired to Pompas, where he died, in 1570. 
His hiflory of Alia and the Indies is divided into de- 
cades ; the firfl of which he publilhcd in 1552, the 
fccond in IJ53, and the third in 1563 ; but the 
fourth decade was not piibliflied till the year l6rj, 
when it appeared by order of King Philip III. who 
had the manufcript purchafcd of the heirs of John Bar- 
ros. Several authors have continued it, fo that we 
have at prefent 12 decades. He left many other 
works; fome of which have been printed, and others 
remain in manufcript. 

BARROW (Ifaac), an eminent mathematician and 
divine, of the lafl century, was the fon of Mr Thomas 
Barrow a linen draper in London, where he was born, 
in 1630. He was at firfl placed at the charter-houfe 
fchool, for two or three years ; where his behaviour af- 
forded but little hopes of fucccfs in the profclfion of 
a fcholar, he being fond of fighting, and promoting 
it among liis fchool-fellows : but being removed from 
thence, his difpolition took a happier turn ; and ha- 
ving foon made a great progrefs in learning, he was 
admitted a penfioner of Peter Houfe in Cambridge. 
He now applied himfelf with great diligence to the 
ftudy of all parts of literature, cfpecially to that of 
natural philofophy. He afterwards turned his thoughts 
to the profeffion of phylic, and made a confiderablc 
progrcfs in anatomy, botany, and chemiflry ; after 
this he fludied chronology, aflronomy, and geometry. 
He then travelled into France and Italy, and in a 
voyage from Leghorn to Smyrna, gave a proof of 
his bravery ; for the fhip being attacked by an Al- 
gerinc pirate, he fiaid upon deck, and with the gresc- 
efl intrepidity fought, till the pirate, perceiving the 
flout refiftance the Ihip made, fheered off and left 
lier (a). 

At Smyrna he met with a mofl kind reception from 


(a) There is another anecdote told of him, which not only fliowed his intrepidity, but an uncommon good- 
nefs of difpofition, in circumftances where an ordinary lliareof it wiild have been prohaly extinguidied. He 
was once in a gentleman's houfe in the country, where the necelfary was at the end of a long garden, and 
tonfequently at a great diftancc from the room where he lodged : as he was going to it before day, for 



[ 39 J 

B A R 

Sarrew. Mr Brecon, the Englilh conful, upon whole death he 
'~~—^^——' afterwards wrote a Latin elegy. Kroin ihcnce he pro- 
ceeded to Conftantinople, wlicre he received the like 
civilities from Sir Thomas Bendifli the Englilh anibaf- 
fador, and Sir Jonathon Dawes, with whom lie after- 
wards prefcrved an intimate fiiendlhip. At Conflami- 
noplc he read over the wt«»ks of Si Chryfollom, once 
bi/hop of that fee, whom he preferred to all the other 
fathers. When he had been in Turkey fomewhat 
more than a year, he returned to Venice. From 
thence he came home in 1659, through Germany and 
Holland ; and was epifcopally ordained by bilhop 
Brownrig. In 1660, he was chofen to the Greek 
profeflbrfliip at Cambridge. When he entered upon 
this province, he intended to have read upon the tra- 
gedies of Sophocles ; but he altered his intention, and 
made choice of Arirtotle's rhetoric. Thcfc ledurcs 
having been lent to a friend who never returned them, 
arc irrecoverably loft. July the i6ih 1662, he was 
clefted profelfor of geometry in Grelham college, by 
the recommendation of Dr Wilkins, mailer of Trinity- 
college, and afterwards bilhop of Chefter. Upon the 
20th of May 1663 he was elected a fellow of the 
Royal Society, in the firfl choice made by tlie council 
after their charter. The fame year the executors of 
Mr Lucas having, according to his appointment, 
founded a mathematical ledure at Cambridge, they 
fixed upon Mr Barrow for the lirfl profellbr ; and though 
his two profelforlhips were not inconliftent with each 
other, he chofe to relign that of Grelham college, 
which he did May the 20th 1664. In 1609 he re- 
figned his mathematical chair to his learned friend 
Mr Ifaac Newton, being now determined to give up 
the Iludy of inathemaiics for that of divinity. Upon 
quitting his profeflbrlhip, he was only a fellow of 
Trinity college, till his uncle gave him a fmall line- 
cure in Wales, and Dr Seth Ward bilhop of Salif- 
bury conferred upon him a prebend in his church. 
In the year 1670 he was created dottor in divinity by 
mandate ; and, upon the promotion of Dr I'earlbn 
mafter of Trinity college to the fee of Chcfttr, he was 
appointed to fucceed him by the king's patent bear- 
ing date the ijih of February 1672. When the king 
advanced him to this dignity, he was plcafed to fay, 
" he had given it to the bell fcholar in England." 
His majelly did not i'peak from report, but from his 
own knowledge : the doilor being then his chaplain, 
he ufcd often to convcrfe with him, and in his humour- 
ous way, to call him an " unfair preacher," bccaufe 
he exhaufted every fubjc(5k, and Icti no room for others 
to come after him. In 1675 he was chofen vice-chan- 
cellor to the univerfity. — The doctor's works are very 
numerous, and fuch as do honour to the Englilli nation. 
They are, i. Euclid's Elements. 2. Euclid's Data. 

3. Optical Lcfturcs, read in the public fchool of Cam- 
bridge. /). Thirieen Geometrical Ltdurcs. 5. The 
Works of Archimedes, the four Books of Appoloni- 
us's Conic Seftions, and Theodofuis's Spherics explain- 
ed in a new Method. 6. A Leaure, in which Archi- 
medes's Theorems of ihc Sphere and Cylinder are in- 
veftigaied and briefly demonftrated. 7. Mathematical 
Leftures, read in the public fchools of the nniverliiy of 
Cambridge : the above were all printed in Latin ; and 
as to his Englilh works, they are printed together in 
four volumes folio.— " The name of Dr Barrow (fays 
the reverend and learned Mr Granger) will ever be il- 
luftrious for a ftrengih of mind and a compafs of know- 
ledge that did honour to his country. He was unri- 
valled in mathematical learning, and efpecially in the 
fublimc geometry ; in which he has been excelled only 
by one man, and that man was his pupil the great Sir 
Ifaac Newton. The fame genius that fcenicd to be 
born only to bring hidden truths to light, to rife to 
the heights or del'ccnd to the depths of fcience, would 
fometiraes amufe itfelf in the flowery paths of poetry, 
and he compofed vcrfes both in Greek and Latin. 
He at length gave himfelf up entirely to divinity ; and 
particularly to the moll ufclul part of it, that which 
has a tendency to m;<ke men wifer and better. He 
has, in his excellent fcrmons on the Creed, folved every 
difficulty and removed every obllacle that oppofed itfelf 
to our taith, and made divine revelation as clear as the 
(lemonllrations in his own Euclid. In his fcrmons he 
Jvnew not how to leave off writing till he had exhaufted 
hisfubjeft; and his admirable Difcourfe on the Duty 
and Reward of Bounty to the poor, took him up three 
hours and an half in preaching. This excellent per- 
fon, who was a bright example of Chriftian virtue, as 
well as a prodigy of learning, died on the 4rh of May 
1677, in the 47ih year of his age ;" and was interred 
in Weftminftcr Abbey, where a monument, adorned 
with his buft, was foon after credlcd, by the contribu- 
tion of his friends. 

BARROWS, in ancient topograpiiy, artificial hil- 
locs or mounts, met with in many pans of the world, 
intended as repoliiories for the dead, and formed ei- 
ther of ftones heaped up, or of earth. For the foimer, 
more generally known by the name of cjinu, fee 
Cairns. — Of the latter Dr Plott takes notice of two 
foris in Oxfordlliire : one placed on the military ways ; 
the other in the flelds, meadows, or woods ; the firft 
fort doubtlefs of Roman ereflion, the other more pro- 
bably eretted by the Britons or Danes. We have an 
examination of the Barrows in Cornwall by Dr Wil- 
liams, in the Phil. Tranf. N° 4j8. from whole ob- 
fervations we find that they are compofed of foitign or 
adventitious earth ; that is, fuch as docs not rife on the 
place, but is fetched from fonie diftance. — Monuments 



lie was a very early rifer, a fierce maftifl", who ufed to be chained np all day, and let loofc at night for the 
fecuntyofihe houfi , perceivings llrangc pcrfon in the garden at that unfeafonabic lime, fet upon him with 
great fury. The Docior catchcd him by ihe throat, threw him, and lay upon him ; and whilll he kept liira 
do^vn, confulered whii he lliould do in that exigence : once he had a mind to kill him ; but he altered this 
rtfoluiion, upon reco:le<.Hing that this would be unjuft, fmcc the dog did only his duty, and he hiuilcif 
was in fault for rambling out of his room before it was light. At lengih he called out fo loud, that he waj 
heard by fomc of the houfe, who cam« prefcntly out, and freed the Dodor aud the do£ trom the daiijcr ihey 
were both in, i 

BAR [40 

Eitrows. of iliis kinJ are .lUu very frequent in Scotland. On ilig- 

^ '^ K''\? ""° ''"^ barrows, iiriis have been foiuul in fome 

ol'ihcin, niaile ofcalcincil cartii, anJ containing burnt 
bones and alhrs ; in others, flone cliclls ci>r.l.iiiiin;j 
bores entire ; in otlicrs, bones nciilicr loiigcd in chcfis 
nor dcpofitcd in nrns. Tlitfe tnniiili are round, not 
preatly elevated, and };cnerally at tlieir balls !urroundcd 
Willi a I'ofs. 'J'Jiey arc of dili'crcnt lizcs; in proportion, 
it is fippofed, 10 the greatnefs, rank, and power, of the 
dcceafcil perfon. The links or fands of Skail, in Sand- 
wich, one of the Orkneys, aboinid in round barrows. 
Some arc formed of carih alone, others of ilonc cover- 
ed with earth. In the former was found a cofHn, 
made of fix Jlat Aones. They are too fliort to receive 
a body at full length : the fkeletons found in them lie 
with the knees prelfed to the bread, and the legs 
doubled along the thighs. A bag, made of ruflies, has 
been found at the feet of fome of thcfc ikeletons, con- 
taining the bones, niofl probably, of another of the fa- 
mily. In one were to be feen multitudes of fmall 
beetles j and as fimilar infeds have been difcovcred in 
the bag which inclofed the facrtd Uis, we may fup- 
pofe that the Egyptians, and the nation to whom 
thefe tuMul't did belong, might have had the fame fu- 
jier/liiion refpciHing tliein. On fome of the corpfes 
interred in this illand, the mode of burning was obfcr- 
ved. The allies, dcpofitcd in an urn which was co- 
vered on the top with a flat Hone, have been found in 
the cell of one of the barrows. This coflin or cell was 
placed on the ground, then covered with a heap of 
ftones, and that again cafed with earth and fods. Both 
barrow and contents evince them to be of a different 
age from the former. Thefe tumuli were in the na- 
ture of family vaults : in them have been found two 
tiers of coffins. It is probable, that on the death of 
any one of the family, the tumulus was opened, and 
the body interred near its kindred bones. 

Ancient Greece and Latium concurred in the 
fame practice with the natives of this illand. Patro- 
clus among the Greeks, and Hei51or among the Tro- 
jans, received but the fame funeral honours with the 
Caledonian heroes ; and the aflies of Dercennus the 
Laurcntine monarch had the fame fim])le protecflion. 
The urn and pall of tlie Trojan warrior might perhaps 
be more fuperb than thofe of a Britilh leader : the ri- 
fing monument of each had the common materials from 
our mother earth. 

The fnowy bones his friends and brothers place. 
With tears collefled, in a golden vafe. 
The golden vafe in purple palls they roU'd 
Of foftell texture and inwrought with gold. 
Lad o'er the urn the facred earth they fpread, 
And rais'd a tomb, memorial of the dead. 

Pope's Homer's Iliad, xxiv. 1 003. 

Or, as it is more flrongly exprefled by the fame ele- 
gant tranflator, in the account of the funeral of Pa- 
troclus ; 

High in the inidfl they heap the fwclling bed 

Of rifiiigearth, memorial of the dead. Jb. xxiii.519. 

The Grecian harrows, however, do not fecm to have 
been all equally fimple. The barrow of Alyattes, fa- 
ther of Crocfus king of Lydia, is defcribed by Hero- 
dotus as a mofl fuperb monument inferior only to the 



works of tlic Egyptians and Babylonians. It was a B»rrow». 
vali mound of earth heaped on a bafcment of large * " ' 
ftoncsby three clalfcs of the people ; one of which was 
compofcd of girls, who were proflitutes. Alyattes 
died, after a long reign, in the year 563 before the Kra. Abo\e a century intervened, but the 
hillorian relates, that to his <»me live Hones (nfoi t:riiiii:i 
ox jU-Le') on which letters were engraved, had remained 
on the top, recording what each clafs had performed ; 
and from the meafurement it had appeared, that the 
greater portion was done by the girls. Sirabo like- 
wife has mentioned it as a huge mound raifc<l on a lofty 
bafeinent by the multiiude of the city. The circum- 
ference was fix fladia or three quarters of a mile ; the 
lieight two plelhra or two hundred feet ; and the width 
thirteen plethra. It was cuflomary among the Greeks 
to place on barrows either the image of fome animal 
or jlfl'T, commonly round pillars with infcriptions. 
The famous barrow of the Athenians in the plain of 
Marathon, defcribed by Paufauias, is an inflance of the 
latter ufage. An ancient monument in Italy by the 
Appian way, called without reafon the fepulchre of the 
Curiatii, has the fame number of tennint as remained 
on the barrow of Alyattes : the bafeinent, which is 
fquare, fupporiing five round pyramids — Of the bar- 
row of Alyattes the apparent magnitude is defcribed 
by travellers as now much diininilhcd, and the bottom 
rendered widerand Itfsdiftind than before, by the gra- 
dual increafe of the foil below. It ftands in the midfl 
of others by the lake Gyg«us ; where the burying- 
place of the Lydian princes was fituated. The bar- 
rows are of various fizes, the fmaller made perhaps for 
children of the younger branches of the royal family. 
Four or five are diflinguilhed by their fuperior magni- 
tude, and are vifible as hills at a great dillance. That 
of Alyattes is greatly fupcreminent. The lake it is 
likely furnilhed the foil. All of them are covered 
with green turf; and all retain their conical form 
without any finking in of the top. 

Barrows, or fimilar tumuli, are alfo found in great 
numbers in America. Thefe are of different fizcs, ac- 
cording to Mr Jefferfon's * account ; fome of them con- * Neiti tn 
flruftcd of earth, and Ibme of loofe floncs. That they '*' St^inf 
were repofitories of the dead has been obvious to all ; ^''X'"'") 
but on what particular occafion conflriK^ed, was mat- ''' '■' 
ter of doubt. Some have thought they covered the 
bones of thofe who have fallen in battles fought on the 
fpot of interment. Some afcribed [hem to the cuflom 
faid to prevail among the Indians, of collcfling at cer- 
tain periods the bones of all their dead, wherefoever de- 
pofitcd at the time of death. Others again fuppofed 
them the general fepulchres for towns, conjectured to 
have been on or near thefe grounds ; and this opinion 
was fiipported by the quality of the lands in which they 
are found (thofe conftruifled of earth being generally 
in the foftelt and mod fertile meadow-grounds on river 
fides), and by a tradition faid to be handed down from 
the aboriginal Indians, that when tlicy fettled in a 
town, the fird perfon who died was placed eretfl, and 
earth put about him, fo as to cover and fiippori him ; 
that when another died, a narrow paffige was dug to 
the fird, the ftcond reclined againd him, and ihe cover 
of earth replaced, and fo on. " There being one of 
thefe barrows in my neighbourhood (fays Mr Jttfcrfon), 
I wiihed to fatisfy myftlf whether any, and Vihich of 



[ 41 ] 


Birrow. tliefe opinions were jufl. For this purpofc I dcter- 

* ■' 'ininel to open and examine it thoroiigiily. It was fi- 

tii.ited on the low >;roiinds of the Rivanna, about two 
miles above its principal forlc, and o|>porite to fonie 
hills, on which had been an Indian town. It was of a 
fphcroidical form, of about 40 feet diameter at ihe bale, 
and had been of about 12 feet altitude, though now 
reduced by the plough to feven and a half, having been 
under cultivation about a dozen years. Before this it 
was covered with trees of twelve inches diameter, and 
round the bafc was an excavation of five feet depth and 
width, from whence the earth had been taken of which 
the hillock was formed. 1 firll dug fuperficially in fe- 
vcral parts of it, and came to coUedlions of human 
bones, at different depths, from fix inches to three feet 
below the furface. Thefe were laying in the ntmoll 
confufion, fome vertical, fome oblique, fome fiorizon- 
tal, and directed to every point of the compafs, entan- 
gled, and held together in chillers by the earth. Bones 
of the moll diflant parts were found together ; as, for 
iuftance, the fmall bones of the foot in the hollow of 
a fkull, many (kulls would fometimes be in contaft, ly- 
ing on the face, on the fide, on the back, top or bot- 
tom, fo as on the whole to give the idea of bones emj>- 
tied promifcnoudy from a bag or bafkct, and covered 
over with earth, without any attention to their order. 
The bones of which the grcatell numbei's remained, 
were (kulls, jaw-bones, teeth, the bones of the arms, 
thighs, legs, feet, and hands. A few ribs remained, 
fome vertebra: of the neck and fpiiie, without their pro- 
ceflfes, and one inflance only of the bone which ferves 
as a bafe to the vertebral column. The fkuUs were fo 
tender, that they generally fell to pieces on being 
touched. The other bones were Aronger. There 
were fome teeth which were juilged to be finallcr than 
thofe of an adult ; a fkull which, on a llight vciw, ap- 
peared to be that of an infant, but it fell to pieces on 
iaeing taken out, fo as to prevent fatisfatlory examina- 
tion ; a rib, and a fragment of the undcr-jaw of a per- 
fon about half grown; another rib of an infant ; and 
part of the jaw of a child, which had not yet cut its 
teeth. This lafl furnidiing the niofl decifive proof of 
the burial of children here, I was particular in my at- 
tention to it. It was part of the right half of [he un- 
der jaw. The procelfes by which it was articulated to 
the temporal bones were entire ; and the bone itfelf 
firm to where it had been broken olf, which, as nearly 
as I could judge, was about the place of the eye-tooth. 
Its upper edge, wherein would have been the fockets 
of the teeth, was perfedly fmoDth. Meafuring it 
with that of an adult, by placing their hinder procef- 
fcs together, its broken end extended to the penulti- 
mate grinder of the adult. This bone was white, all 
the others of a fand colour. The bones of infants be- 
ing foft, they probably decay fooncr, which might be 
the caufe fo few were found here. I proceeded then 
to make a perpendicular cut through the body of the 
barrow, that I might examine its internal llmflure. 
This pafTcd about three feet from its centre, was open- 
ed to the former furface of the earth, and was wide 
enough for a man to walk iliroiigh and examine its 
fides. At the bottom, that is, on the level of the 
circumjacent plain, I found bones: above ihefe a few 
Hones, brought from a clift'a quarter of a mile ofT, and 
Vol. 111. 

from the river one-cigth of a mile off; then a large 
interval of earth, then a Aratuin of bones, and fo on. 
At one end of the feftion were four ftrata of bones 
plainly diftinguifliable ; at the other, three ; the Arata 
in one part not ranging with thofe in another. The 
bones nearefl the furface were leafl decayed. No holes 
were difcovered in any of them, as if made with bul- 
lets, arrows, or oilier wcajions. I conjcftured that 
in this barrow might have been a thonfand fkeletons. 
Every one will readily feize the circnmnances above 
related, which inilitate againft the opinion that it co- 
vered the bones only of pcrfons fallen in battle ; and 
againfl the tradition alfo which would make it the com- 
mon fepulchre of a town, in which the bodies were 
placed upright, and touching each other. Appear- 
ances certainly indicate that it has derived both ori- 
gin and growth from the accuftomary coUecflion of 
bones, and depofition of ilicm together; that the firft 
colledlion had been depolited on the commmon fur- 
face of the eanh ; a few flones put over it, and then 
a covering of earili ; that the fecond had been laid on 
this, Iiad covered more or Icfs of it in proportion to 
the number of bones, and was then alfo covered witU 
earth, and fo on. The following are the particular 
circumrtances which give it this afpcft. i. The num- 
ber of bones. 2. Their confufed polition. 5. Their 
being in different Arata. 4. The llrata in one part 
having no correfpondence with thofe in another, y. 
The different Aaics of decay in thefe Arata, which fecia 
to indicate a difference in the time of inhumation. 6. 
The exiAence of infant bones among them. But on 
v.'hatevcr occalion they may have been made, they 
are of confidcrable notoriety among the Indians : for 
a party paffing, about thirty years ago, through the 
part of the country where this barrow is, went through 
the woods direffly to it, without any inArudlions or 
enquiry ; and having flaid about it fome time, with 
exprefiions which were conArued to be thofe of fur- 
row, they returned to the high road, which they had 
left about half a dozen miles to pay this vifit, and pur- 
fued tlieir journey. There is another barrow, much 
refcnibling this in the low grounds of the South 
branch of Shenandoah, where it is crolTed by the road 
leading from the Rock-filh gap to Staunton. Both 
of thefe have, within thefe dozen years, been cleared 
of their trees and put under cultivation, are much re- 
duced in their height, and fpread in width, by the 
plough, and will probably difappear in time. There 
is another on a hill in the blue ridge of mountains, a 
few miles north of Wood's gap, which is made up of 
fmall Aoncs thrown together. This has been opened 
and found to contain human bones as the others do. 
There are alfo many others in other pans of the 

R.'iRROW,inthcfalt-works,are wicker-cafes,almoftin 
the lliapeofa fugar-loaf, wherein the fait is put to drain. 

BURRULET, in heraldry, the fourth part of the 
bar, or the one half of the clofct : an ufual bearing in 

BARRULY, in heraldry, is when the field is di- 
vlded bar-ways, that is, acrofs from fide to fide, into 
fcveral parts. 

BARRY (Girald), commonly called Cir.j/Jui Cum- 

I-r.-nfif, i.e. Ciiii/J (/flfu/a, an hiAorian and ecclc- 

K fiaAic 

BAR I 4a ] BAR 

Barry, fiaflic in the reigns of Henry II. and Richard I. was day he read the firft book lo a great cencoiirfe of peo- 

— " ' born at the catlk of Mainarper, near Pembroke, A. D. pic, and afterwards entertained all the poor ol the ' 

1 146. By his moiher he wasdefccnded from tlic prin- town ; on the fccond day he read the ftcond book, and 

CCS of South Wales ; and liis father, William Barry, entertained all the do^^ors and chief fcholars ; and, on 

was one of the chief men of that principality. Being the third day, lie read the third book, and entertained 

a yotinfff r brother, and intended for the church, he was the younger fcholars, foldicrs, and burgelles. " A nioft 

fcnt to St Davfd's, and educated in the family of his glorious fpciJtacle ! (fays he) which revived the ancient 



uncle, who was bilhop of that fee. He acknowledges, 
in his hillory of his own life and adions, that in his 
early youth he was too playful ; but being fevcrcly re- 
proached for it by his preceptors, he became a very 
liard ftudent,and greatly excelled all his fchool-ftUows 
in learning. When he was about 30 years of age, he 
was feni, A. D. 1 166, for his further improvement, to 
the univerllty of Paris , where hecontinued three years, 
and became, according to his own account, a moll ex- 
cellent rhetorician ; which rendered him very famous. 
On his return into Britain, he entered iutoholy orders, 
and obtained feveral benefices both in Kngland and 
Wales. Obferving, with much concern, that his coun- 

times of the poets, and of which no example had been 
feen in England." He attended Baldwin archbilliop 
of Canterbury, in his progrefs through Wales, A. D. 
1186, in preaching a croifadc for the recovery of the 
Holy Land ; in which, he tells us, he was far more 
fuccefsful than the primate ; and particularly, that the 
people were prodigioudy aflcdcd with his Latin fer- 
nions, which tiiey did not underftand, melting into 
tears, and coming in crowds to take the crofs. Al- 
though Henry II. as our author allures us, entertained 
the higheil opinion of his virtues and abilities ; yet he 
never would advance him to any higher dignity in ihc 
church, on account of his relation 10 the jirinccs and 

trymen, the Welch, were very backwardin payingihc great men of Wales. But on the accciiion ol Richard 1. 

tithes of wool and chcel'e, which he afraid would 
involve them in eternal dauination, he applied to Rich- 
ard archbilliop of Canterbury, and was appointed his 
legate in Wales for rectifying that dilordcr, and for o- 
tlier purpofes. He executed this commillion with great 
fpirit ; excommunicating all, without dillinCtion, who 
refufed to fave their fouls by furrciulering the tithes 
of their chccfc and wool. Not fatisfied with enriching, 
he alio attempted to reform, the clergy, and dilated the 
archdeacon of Brechin to the archbilliop, for the un- 
pardonable criincof matrimony ; and the poor old man, 
refuling to put away his WNl'e, was deprived of his arch- 
deaconry ; which was beftowed upon our zealous le- 
■vitc. In difcharging the duties of this new olEce, he 
acted with great vigour, which involved him in many 
qiarrels; but, if we may believe himfelf, he was al- 
ways in the right, and always viftorious. His uncle, 
the bidiop of St David's, dying A. D. 1176, he was 
cleCled his fuccelfor by the chapter : but this eleftion 
having been made without the perminion, and contrary 
to the inclination of Henry II. our author prudently 
declined to infill upon it, and went again to Paris to 
profecute his ftudies, particularly in the civil and canon 
law, and theology. He fpcaks with great raptures of 
the prodigious fame lie ac<]uired by his eloquent decla- 
mations in the fchools, and of the crowded audiences 
who attended them, who were at a Id's to know whe- 
ther the fwcetnefs of his voice, the beauty of his lan- 
guage, or the irreiirtiblc force of his arguments, were 
VAoil to be admired. Having fpent aboct four years at 
Paris, he returned to St David's; where he found c- 
vcry thing in confulion ; and the bifliop being expelled 
by the people, he was appointed adminiflrator by the 
archbidiop of Canterbury, ai:d governed the diocefe in 
that capacity to A. D. 1 184, when the bilhop was reflo- 
red. About the fame time he was called to court by 
Henry II. appointed one of his chaplains, and fcut 
into IrelmJ .A. D. 1185, with prince John. By this 
prince he was offered the united bilhoprics of Kerius 
and Leighlin ; but declined them, and employed his 
lime in collefting materials for liis Topography, of Ire- 
land, and his Hillory of the conqiieft of that ilUnid. 
Having iiiiilhed his Topography, wliicli coiifilled c>f 
three books, he publifiied it at Oxford, A. D. 11R7, 
iii the following manner, in three d.iys. On the liril 

(A. D. 1 189), his prolpciils of preferment became bet- 
ter : for he was fent for by that Prince into V\ ales to 
prefcrvc the peace of that country, and was even joined 
in commiirion with William Longclianq'', bilhop of 
Ely, as one of the regents of the kingdom. He did 
not, however, improve this favourable opporttniity ; 
refuling the bifliopric of Bangor in A. D. 1 1 90, and 
that of Landaff the year after, having fixed liis heart 
on the fee ol St David's, the bifhop of which was very 
old and infirm. In A. D. 1192, the flaie of public 
affairs, and the courfc ofintereitat court, became fo 
unfavourable to our author's views, that he determin- 
ed to retire. At firft he refolvc<l to return to Paris to 
profecute his (Indies; but meeting with fome difhcul- 
tics in this, he went to Lincoln, where Milliani dc 
Monte read leftures in theology with great applaufe. 
Here he fpent about fix years in the fiudy of divinity, 
and in compofing feveral works. 'I'lie fee of St Da- 
vid's, which had long been the great objeft of his am- 
bition, became vacant, A. D. 1198, and brought hint 
again upon the flage. He was unanimoully elected by 
the chapter ; but met with fo powerful an adverfary in 
Hubert archbilhcp of Canterbury (who oppofed his 
promotion with great violence) that it involved him in 
a liiigaiion which laftcd live years, colt Jiim three 
journeys to Rome, at a great expencc, and in which 
he was at lafl defeated, A. D. 1203. Soon after this 
he retired from the world, and fpent the lafl 17 years 
of his life in a Iludioiis privacy, compofing many 
books, of which we have a very corrct^t catalogue in 
the Biograj)liia Britannica. That Girald of \V ales 
was a man of uncommon ailiviiy, genius, and learning, 
is undeniable ; but thcfc and his other good qualities 
were much tarnilhed by liis infuficrable vanity, whieli 
mufl have been very offenfivc to his contemporaries, as 
it is hiehly difgufiing 10 his readers. 

BARRY, in heraldry, is when an efcntchcon is di- 
vided bur-ways, that is, acrofs from fide to fide, into 
an even numberof partitions, confillingof two or more 
tinJlures, interchangeably difpofed : it is to be exprelU-d 
in the blazon by the word burr), and the numberof pie- 
ces mull be fpecified ; butif tbedivillons be odd, the field 
niufl be firll named, and the number of barscxprell'cd. 

BARiir-Bcndy'xi when an efcutcheon is divided cven- 
ly, bar and bend-ways, by lints diawn trar.f.crfe and 



t 43 3 


Barfalli diagonal, interchangeably var^iing the tindurcs of 
H . which it confills. 
^Barfjiiti. ^ BARm-Pily is when 2 coat is divided byfeveral lines 
drawn obliqijcly from liJc to fide, where they form 
acute angles. 

BARSA (anc. gcoT.) an ifland on the coafl of 
France, in the Englilli channel, Itinerary: Bappoo! 
according tofomc; but according toothers, Bardpy. 

BARSALLl, a kingdom of Africa, bordering on 
the river Gambia, inhabited by a tribe of negroes called 
"jaloffs. The government of this kingdom is a moll 
defpotic monarchy; all people being obliged to pro- 
flratc themfclves on the earth when any of the royal 
family makes his appearance. In time of war, every 
foldier has his fliare of the booty, and the king but a 
certain proportion, which is moderate, confidering that 
if he pleafed he might keep the whole. The kingdom 
is divided into a number of provinces, over which go- 
vernors called bm/ieys are appointed by the king. Thcfe 
bumeys are abfiilute within their jiirifdiflions ; but they 
feldom carry their prerogative lb far as to incur the 
dillikeof the people, which would quickly prove fatal 
to them. The Mahometan religion isprofelfed by the 
king and his court, though little regard is paid to that 
part of the impoftors creed which forbids the ufe of 
wine ; for the king cannot live without brandy, nor is 
he ever more devout than when he is drunk. When his 
majefty is in want of brandy, or other necelTaries, he 
fends to beg of the governor of James-fort that he will 
difpatch a boat with the merchandize he has occafjon 
for; and to purchafe this he plunders the neighbour- 
ing towns, and feizes a certain number of his fubjeds, 
whom he fells for Haves to the Europeans in exchange 
for their commodities. This is his method of fupply- 
ing himfelf if he happens to be at peace with his 
neighbours; for which reafon the people are never fo 
happy as when at war; and hence tliey purfue war 
with great vigour, and continne it with obflinacy. — 
The general drefs of the people is a kind of loofe calii- 
toe furplicc, that hangs down below the knee ; which 
they fometimes plait about the waiftin a very agreeable 
manner. They wear a great number of gold trinkets 
in their hair, ears, nofcs, and round their necks, arms, 
and legs; but the women efpecially are fond of thefe 
ornaments. The king of Barfalli, whom Moore faw 
in 17?2, had a prodigious number of women: but 
when he went abroad lie was feldom attended by more 
than two, who feemed to be drclfcd out in the whole 
lincry and jewels of the fcraglio. He had likewifc a 
number of brethren; but it was feldom that he deigned 
to fpeak to them : if he ever did them that honour, 
they were forced to him with the fame refpecl as 
other fubjeifls, and fall proflrate on the earth the mo- 
ment they came into his prtfence, notwiihllanding 
they were the prefumptive heirs of the crown. It is 
indeed ufual for the king's children to difpute the right 
of fuccelhon with his brethren, and the longefl fword 
generally carries away the prize. 

BARSANTI (Krancifco), .in eminent mufical per- 
former and compofer, was born at Lucca abom the 
year 1690. He fliulicd the civil law in the univcrliiy 
of Padua ; but, after a lliort (lay there, chofe niufic 
for his profeffion. Accordingly he put himfelf inider 
the tuition of fome of the ablcll mailers in Italy ; and 
having attained to a confidcrablc degree of proticicncy 
•iathe Icicncc of pradical compofition, took a rcfolu- 

tion to fettle in England, and came thither with Ge- r«rtti. 
miniani, who svas alfo a Luccefc, in the year 1714. tartar. 
He was a good performer on the hautboy, ?nd alfo ' *'""' 
on the flute; in the former capacity he found employ- 
ment in the opera band, and in the latter derived 
confidcrablc auv.intagcs by teaching. He pnblifl^cd 
with a iieciicaliontothe carl of Burlington, fix folos for 
a flute with a thurough-bafs, and afterwards fix folog 
for a German flute and a bafs. He alfo made into 
fonatas, for two violins and a bafs, the lirll lix lolos of 
Geir.iniani. He continued many yeais a performer at 
tlie opera-houfc : a; length, rtflctling that there was a 
profpecl of advantage lor one of his proiclTion in Scot- 
land, he went thither; and, with greater truth than 
the fame is aliened of David Rizzo, may be faid to 
have meliorated the mufic of that country, by collec- 
ting and making bafles to a great number of the mofl 
popular Scots tunes. About the year 1 750, Barfanii 
returned to England ; but, being advanced in years, 
he was glad to be taken into the opera band as a per- 
former on the tenor violin ; and in the fiimnier fcafon 
into that of Vauxhall. At this time he publillied 13 
concertos for violins; and, (lionly after, Sei Antifone, 
in which lie endeavoured to imitate the ftyle ol Pa- 
leflrina, and the old compofcrs of motets: but from 
thefe publications fo little profit refidtcd, that, to- 
wards the end of his life, the induflry and (Tconomy 
of an excellent wife, whom he had married in Scot- 
land, and the fludies and labours of a daughter, whom 
he had qualified for the piofellionof alingcr, but who is 
now anatlrcfs atCovcnt-Garden, were hischieffupport. 

BARTAS (William de Salulle du), a French poet, 
who lived in the i6th century. He was employed by 
Heniy IV. of France, in England, Denmark, andScot> 
land ; and commanded a troop of horfc in Gafcony, 
under the marechal de Martignan. He was a Calvi- 
nift ; and died in 1590, aged 46. He wrote a great 
number of poems ; the moll famous of which are, i.Thc 
Week, or the Creation of the World, in fcven books, 
2. The Poem of Judith; and, 3. The Battle of Ivry, 
gained by Henry IV. in IJ90. Du Bartas wrote in 
a bombaft Ifyle. 

BARTAR, or Truck, is the exchanging of one 
commodity for another. Tlie word comes from th« 
Spanilh ^<irrt/6r, to deceive or circii invent iii bargaining, 
perhaps bccaufe thofe who deal this way ufually en- 
deavour to one another. 

To tranfaft properly, the price of one of the com- 
modities, and an equivalent quantity of the other, mult 
be found either by praiilicc, or by the rule of three. 

Qut-jl. I. How many pounds of cotton, at 9 J. per 
lb. mull be given in bartar for 13C. 5 Q. 141b. of 
pepper, at 2I. i6s. per C. ? 

FirJL Find the price or value of the commodity 
whofe quantity is given as follows : 


i^.. Il>. L. s. 


3 14 at 2 16 









2 a 


14 lb. 


L.iS 17 

F a 



[ 44 ] 


Secondly, Find how much cotton, at 9d. ptr 
381. 17s. will piirchafc as under: 


If 9 




■ 38 



C. H 

Anf. 1036 lb.— ^ I 

If the above (iiieftion be wrought decimally, tlic 
operation may ftand as follows: 
C L C. 

If i' : 2.8 :: 13-87$ 

1 1 1 000 


.0375)38.8500(1036 = 9 
37.5- •• 

I J»f. 




The value or price of the goods received and deli- 
vered in bartar being always equal, it is obvious that 
the prodiid of the quantities received and delivered, 
multiplied in their rcfpeiJlive rates, will be equal. 

Hence arifes a rule which may be ufed with advan- 
tage in working feveral queftions; namely, Multiply 
the given quantity and rate of the one commodity, and 
the produft divided by the rate of the other commodity 
quotes the quantity fought; or divided by the quantity 
quotes the rate. 

QJ^efl. 2. How many yards of linen, at 4s. per 
yard, lliould I have in bartar for 120 yards of velvet, 
at ijs. 6d. ? 

Tds. Sixf). Six/). Ids, 

320 X 31 = 3720, and 8)3720(459 y/«/ 

BARTH, or Bart (John), a brave filherman of 
Dunkirk, who rofe to the rank of an admiral ; and is 
celebrated for his fignal valour and naval exploits, in 
the annals of France. He died in 1702, aged 51. 

BARTHIUS (Gafpar), a very learned and copious 
•writer, born at Cuftrin in Brandenburgh, the 22d of 
June 1576. Mr Baillet has inferted him in his £■«- 
fans Celsbres ; where he tells us, that at 12 years of age 
he tranflated David's Pfalms into Latin verfe of every 
meafjre. and publilhed feveral Latin Poems. Upon the 
death of his father (who was profefTor of civil law at 
Franc fort, counfcllor to the eleflor of Bandenburg, 
and his chancellor at Cuflrin), he was fent to Gotha, 
then to Eifenach, and afterwards, according to cufloni, 
went through all the different univerfities in Germany. 
AVhcn he had finillied his ftuJics, he began his travels ; 
he vifitcd Italy, France, Spain, England, and Holland, 
improving himfelf by the converfation and works of 
the learned in every country. He fludled the modern 

as well as ancient languages, and his tranflations from Eartholiroi 
the Spanifli and French fliow that he was not content ' ^' ' 
with a fuperficial knowledge. Upon his return 10 Ger- 
many, he took up his relidcnce at Leipfic, where he led 
a retired life, his palTion for fludy having made him re- 
nounce all fort of employment. He wrote a vaft num- 
ber of books; the princpal of which are, 1. Hxi Ad- 
verfaria, a large volume in folio; the fecond and third 
volumes of which he left in manufcript. 2. A Tranf- 
lation of /tncas Gazaeus. 3. A lage volume of Notes 
upon Claudian, in 4to. 4. Three large volumes up- 
on Statins, &c. He died at Leipfic, in 1658, aged 


BARTHOLINUS (Cafpar), a learned phyficiati 
and anatomift in the 17th century, wasbornat Malmoc, 
a town in the province of Schonen, which then be- 
longed to Denmark. At three years of age he had 
fuch a quick capacity, that in 14 days he learned to 
read; and in his 13th year he compofed Greek and 
Latin orations, and pronounced them in public. When 
he was about 18 he went to the univerfity at Copen- 
hagen, and afterwards lludied at Roflock and Wirtem- 
berg. He next fet out upon his travels ; during which 
he neglected no opportunity of improving himfelf at 
the different univerfities to which he came, and every 
where receiving marks of refpeft. He was in 1613 
chofen profcli'or of phyfic in that univerfity, which he 
enjoyed 11 years; when, falling into a dangerous ill- 
ncfs, he made a vow, that if it it fliould pleafe God to 
rellorc him, he would folcly apply himfelf to the ftiidy 
of divinity. He recovered, and kept his word ; and 
icon after obtained the profellbrfliip of divinity, and 
the canonry of Rofchild. He died on the 13th of 
July 1629, after having written feveral fmall works, 
chiefly on metaphyfics, logic, and rhetoric, 

Barthoi.inus (Thomas), a celebrated phyfician, 
fon of the former, was born at Copenhagen, in 
1616. After (ludying fome years in his own country, 
he in 1637 went to Leyden, where he fludied phyfic 
during three years. He then travelled into France; 
and refidcd two years ai Paris and Montpelicr, in or- 
der to improve himfelf under the famous phylicians of 
thofe univerfities. Afterwards going to Italy, he con- 
tinued three years at Padua; and at length went to 
Bafil, where he obtained the degree of doctor of phi- 
lofophy. Soon after, he returned to Copenhagen; 
where in 1647 he was appointed proleifor of the ma- 
thematics ; and next year was nominated to the ana- 
tomical chair, an employment better fuitcd to his ge- 
nius and inclination ; which he difcharged with great 
afTiduity for 13 years, and diftinguifhed liimfclf by ma- 
king feveral difcoveries with refpeft to the latlcal veins 
and lymphatic veJels. His clofc application, however, 
having rendered his conflituiion very infirm, he, in 
1661, refigned his chair; but the king of Denmark 
allowed him the title of honorary frofejfor. He now 
retired to a little eflate he had purchafed at Hagcfted, 
near Copenhagen, where he hoped to have fpcni the 
remainder of his days in peace and tranquillity ; but 
his hnufe being bin-nt in 1650, his library, with all his 
books and manufcripts was deftroyed. In confidera- 
tion of this lofs the king appointed him his phylician, 
with a handfome falary, and exemi'tcd his land from 
all taxes; the univerfity of Copenhagen alfo appointed 
him their librarian; and, in 1675, the king did him 




[ 45 ] 


St Bartho- the honour to give him a feat in the grand council of 

lomew's Denmark. He wroie, i. J/iatomia Cafpari Bartholi- 

^^'1 ni Parentis novii Ohf:rvatio>iibus frimnni lociipUtata, 

_ , 8vo. 2. De Monftris in Natrira ir Mcd:cina, /jto. 

. q. De Armillis V eterum, prgfertimD ancrun Schedion , 

8vo. ; and ftveral oihfr works. This great man died 

on the 4th of December, i68o. 

St BARTHOLOMEW'S day, a fcftival of the 
Chrifliaii church, celebrated on the 24th of Aiigiift. 
St Banholoincw was one of the twelve Apollles ; and 
is eflfcmcd to be (he fame as Nathaiiatl, one of the 
firll difciplcs that came to Chrift. 

It is thought this apolUe travelled as far as India, 
to propagate the gofpcl ; for Kiifcbiiis relates, that a 
famous philol'opher and Chriflian, named Pantietra, 
deliring to imitate the apoflolical zeal in propagating 
the faitli, and travelling for that piirpofe as far as In- 
dia, found there, among thole who yet retained the 
knowledge of Chrill, the gofpel of St Matthew, writ- 
ten, as the tradition afl'erts, hy St Bartholomew, one 
of the twelve apolUes, when he preaclied the gofpel in 
that country. From thence he returned to the more 
northern and weflern parts of Afia, and preaclied to the 
people of Hierapolis ; then in Lycaonia ; and ladly at 
Albania, a city upon the Cafpian Sea ; where his en- 
deavours to reclaim the people from idolatry were 
crowned with martyrdom, he being (according to fome 
writers) llea'd alive, and crucified with his head down- 
wards. — There is mention made of a Gofpel of St Bar- 
tholomew, in the preface to Origen's Homilies on St 
Luke, and in the preface to St Jerome's commentary 
on St Matthew : but it is generally looked upon as 
fpurious, and is placed by pope Gelafius among the 
apocryphal books. 

Bartholomew (St), one of the Caribbec iflands 
belonging to the French, who fent a colony thither in 
164S. It is about 24 miles in compafs, and has a 
good haven. W. Long. 62. ij. N. Lat. 18. 6. 

BARTHOLOMITKS, a religious order founded 
at Genoa in the year 1307; but the monks leading 
very irregular lives, the order was fupprclll-d by j'ope 
Innocent X. in i6jo, and their eftVfts were confifca- 
ted. In the church of the monaftery of this order at 
Genoa is preferred the image which it is pretended 
Chrifl fent to king Abgarus. See Abgarus. 

BARTOLOCCI (Julius), a learned monk, and 
profelTor of Hebrew at Rome, was born at Celeno, in 
1613; and diflinguilhcd himfclf by writing an ex- 
cellent Hebrew and Latin catalogue of the Hebrew 
writers and writings, in 4 vols folio, a continuation of 
which was performed by luibonati his difciple. He 
died in 1687. 

BARTOLOMEO (Francifco), a celebrated pain- 
ter, born at Savignano, a village 10 miles from Flo- 
rence, in the year 1462, was the difciple of Cofimo 
RolTelli, but was n\uch more beholden to the works of 
Lconardi da Vinci for his extraordinary (kill in paint- 
ing. He was well verted in the fundamentals of defign. 
Raphael, after quitting the fchool of Perngiuo, ap- 
plied to this mafl«r ; and inider him lludied the rules 
nf perfpeftive, with the art of managiiii; and uniting 
his colours. In the year 1500, he tiMncd Dominican 
friar ; and fome lime after was fent by his fupcriors to 
the convent of St Mtrtin, in Florence. He painted 
both portraits and hiftories ; but his fcriipulous con- 

fcience would hardly ever foffer him to draw naked fi- 
gurcs, though nobody underftood them better. He 
died in 151 7, aged 48. 

BARTON, a town of Lincolndiire, feated on the 
river Himiber, where there is a confidcrablc ferry to 
pafs over into Yorkihire. W. Long. o. 10. N. Lat. 

Si- 40. 

BARTSIA, PAINTED CUP : A genus of the an- 
giofpermia order, belonging to the didynamia clafs of 
plants ; and in the natural method ranking under the 
40th order, Perfonata. The calyx is bilbous, emargi- 
nated and coloured ; the corolla lefs coloured than the 
calyx, with its upper lip longer than the under one. 
The vifcofa or marlhy, called alfo yeHo-w 7)jar/h eye- 
bright, was found by Mr Lightfoot in bogs and mar/liy 
places about Loch-Goyl, near Loch-Long in the di- 
flrift of Cowal in Argylelliire. The plant is about 
tenor twelve inches high, with an ereel rtalk downy 
and uubranched: the leaves are feflile,fpear-fliaped, and 
a little vii'cuus ; the Howers are yellow, and the plant 
dries black. It is likewifc found in marlhy places in 
Cornwall in England. The Alpina, or mountain eye- 
bright cow-wheat, hath heart-fhaped leaves placed op- 
polite, and bluntly ferrated, w'ith purple bloffoms in 
leafy fpikes. It is likewife a native of Britain, and is 
found near rivulets in hilly coumries. Sheep and goats 
cat it. There are two other fpecics. 

BARUCH (the prophecy of), one of the apocry- 
phal books, fubjoined to the canon of the Old Tella- 
ment. Baruch was the fon of Neriah, who was the dif- 
ciple and amanuenlis of the propliet Jeremiah. It has 
been reckoned part of Jeremiah's prophecy, and is of- 
ten cited by the ancient faihcrs as fuch. Jofcphus tells 
us, Baruch was defcendcd of a noble family ; and it is 
faid in the book itfelf, that he wrote this prophecy at 
Babylon ; but at w hat time is uncertain. It is difficult 
to determine in what language this prophecy was ori- 
ginally written. There are extant three copies of it; 
one in Greek, the other two in Syriac ; but which of 
thefe, or whether any one of them, be the original^ is 

BARULF.S, in church-hiftory, certain heretics, 
who held, that the Son of God had only a phantom of 
a body ; that fouls were created before the world, and 
that they lived all at one time. 

BARUTH, an ancient town of Turkey in Syria, 
with a Chridian church of the Nertorian perfuafion. 
It is fituated in a fine fertile foil, but is inconfidcrablc 
now to what it was formerly. E. Long. 34. 20. N. 
Lat. 33. 30. 

Barut h, an Indian meafure, containing i 7 gantans; 
It ought to weigh about three pounds and an half Eng- 
lifli avoirdupois. 

BARYTONUM, in the Greek grammar, denotes 
a verb, which having no accent marked on the lart fyl- 
lable, a grave accent is to be undtrftood. In Italian 
mufic, barucna anfwcrs to our common pitch of bafs. 

BAS CHEVALIER. See Bachelor. 

B AS- Re Inf. See B l-iSO- Relievo. 

Bas (James Philip le) a modern French engraver, 
bv whom we have foine excellent prints. His great 
force ffcms to lie inlandfcapcs and fmall figures, which 
he executed in a fupcrior manner. His ftyle of en- 
graving is extremely neat ; but yet he proves the free- 
dom of the etching, and harmonizxs the whole with 


B A S 

[ 46 3 

B A S 

Name, ie 



tive analy- 
fis of bafal- 
tes and la- 

Siliceous earth 







Bifjltei. the ^iiver and dry point. We have alio a variety of 

•^~—' prciiy vignettes by this artift. He flouriiluii about the 

middle ot tiie prclVnt century ; but \vc have no account 
of the time of his birth or death. 

B.ASALTES, (from l>afa/, " iron," or ,3«ir«>,,?«, 
diligiiiter cxamino), in natural hillory, an heavy, hard 
ftonc, chiefly bhck or green, confilUng of prifmatic 
cryftals, the number of whofe Ikles is uncertain. The 
Euglilh miners call it cjc/f/i" ; the German /t/'Ofr/. Its 
fpccific gravity is to that of water as 3000 or upwards 
to 1000. It freipiently contains iron; and confifts 
either of particles of an indeterminate figure, or of a 
fparry, ftriatcd, or (ibrous texture. It lias a ilinty 
harducfs, is infoUibIc by acids, and is fufibie by fire. 
The following is an analylis of fome bafjltcs by Mr 
Bergman ; and as the refemblance of it to lava will be 
frequently mentioned in the fuccccding part of this ar- 
ticle, we fliall here contrail this analyfis with that of 
lava by the fame author. 

Bafahcs, 100 parts con- Lava, 100 parts contains 

Siliceous earth Jo 

Argillaceous ij 

Calcareous 8 

Magnclia 2 

Iron 25 

The mofl remarkable property of this fubftance is 
its figure, being never found in flrata, like other marbles, 
but always Handing up in the form of regular angular 
columns, compofed of a number of joints, one placed 
upon, and nicely fitted to another, as if formed by the 
hands of a (kilful workman. See Plate XCII. fig. 1 5. 

Bafulies was originally found in columns in Ethio- 
pia, and fragments of it in the river Tmolus, and 
fome other places. We now have it frequently, both 
in columns and fmall pieces, in Spain, Ruffia, Poland, 
near Drefden, and in Silefia ; but the noblefl ftore in 
the world feems to be that c.ilUd the Giant's Caufe- 
way in Ireland, and StafFa, one of the wcflern ifles of 
Scotland*. Great quantities of bafaltes are likewifc 
found in the neighbourhood of Mount j^tna in Sicily, 
of Hecla in Iceland, and of the volcano in the ifland 
of Bourbon. Thefe are the only three ai5live volcanoes 
in whofe neighbourliood it is to be met with ; but it is 
alfo found in the extinguilhed volcanoes in Italy, though 
not in the neighbourhood of Vefuvius. 

In Ireland the bafaltes rifes far up the country, runs 
into the fsa, crolfcs at the bottom, and riles again on 
the oppofite land. In Staffa the whole end of the 
island is fupported by natural ranges of pillars, moflly 
above jo feet high, flanding in natural colonnades, 
according as the bays and points of land have formed 
themfelves, upon a firm bafis of folid unformed rock. 
Above thefe, the ftratum, which reaches to the foil or 
furface of the illand, varies in thickncfs, as the ifland 
itfclf is formed into hills or valleys, each hill, wliich 
hangs over the valleys below, forming an ample pedi- 
ment. Some of thefe, above 60 feet in thicknefs from 
the bafe to the point, are formed by the Hoping of the 
hill on eaeh fide, almoft into the Ihape of thofc ufed in 

The pillars of the Giant's Cafcway have been very 
particularly defcribed and examined. The moll ac- 
curate account of them is to be met v.ith in a work 



and Staffa. 

Of the 
in Ireland. 

intiilcd, " Letters concerning the northern coaft of Bafalte*. 

the county of Antrim ;" from which the foUowingpar- *" — '^ ' 

ticidaisrel.iiive to the prtfcnt fubjefl are exiraded. , 

" I. The pillars of the Cafeway are fmall, not very Particular 
much exceeding i foot in brcadiii and 30 in length j account of 
Iharply defined, neat in their articulation, viih con- '''' P'""'- 
cave or convex terminations to each point. In many 
of the capes and hills they are of a larger fize ; more ri. Xcill. 
impcrfeci and irregular in their figure and articidation, f'g- 1- 
liaving bficn flat terminations to their joints. At 
Fairhead they arc of a gigantic magnitude, foinctimes 
exceeding j feet in breadth and too in length ; often- 
times apparently dellitute of joints altogctlier. Thro' 
many parts of the country, this fpccies of ftone is en- 
tirely rude and unformed, fcparatiiig in loofc blocks ; 
in which ftate it refembles the flonc known in Sweden 
by the name of trai^pe. 

" 2. The pillars of the Giant's Caufeway Hand on 
the level of the beach ; from whence they may be tra- 
ced through all degrees of elevation to the fummitof the 
highcfl grounds in the neighbourhood. 

" 5. At the Caufeway, and in mofl other places, 
they fland perpendicular to the horizon. In fome of 
the capes, and particularly near Ufliet harbour, in the 
Ille of Baghery, they lie in an oblique pofition. At 
Doon point in the fame illand, and along the Balintoy 
fliore, they form variety of regular curves. 

" 4. The (lone is black, clofe, and uniform ; the 
varieties of colour are blue, reddilh, and grey ; and of 
all kinds of grain, from extreme finenefs to thecoarfc 
granulated appearance of a ftone which refembles im- 
perfcifl granite, abounding in cryftalsof fchorl chiefly 
black, though fometimes of various colours. 

" J. Though the ftone of the Giant's Caufeway be 
in general compaft and homogeneous ; ytt it is re- 
markable, that the upper joint of each pillar, where 
it can be afcertaincd with any certainty, is always 
rudely formed and cclhdar. The grofs pillars alfo in 
the capes and mountains frequently abound in thefe 
air-holes through all their parts, which fometimes con- 
tain fine clay, and other apparently foreign bodies : 
and the irregular bafaltes beginning where the pillars 
ceafe, or lying over them, is in general extremely 
lioney-combed ; containing in its cells cryftalsof zeol- 
ite, little morfels of fine brown clay, fometimes very 
pure fteatite, and in in a few inftances bits of agate." g 

Sir Jofeph Banks obferves, that the bending pillars Account of 
of Stana differ confiderably from thofc of the Giant's thofe in 
Caufeway. In StafTa, they lie down on their fides, Stafia, 
each forming the fegment of a circle ; and in one 
place, a fmall mafs of them very much refembles the 
ribs of a fliip. Thofe of the Giant's Caufeway which 
he faw, ran along the face of a high cliff, bent ftrangely 
in the middle, as if unable, at their firft formation, 
while in a foft ftate, to fupport the mafs of incumbent 

The rocks of the Cyclops, in the neighbourhood of Recks of 
Altna, exhibit very magnificent bafaltic pillars. A theCyclops 
general view of them is given on Plate XCII. fig. 2. defcribed. 
where a, b, c, are the three principal rocks; e is thccx- 
tremiiy of an illand, one half of which is compofed of la- 
va, on abafcof bafaltes, of nouncommon nature ; above 
which there is a cruft of pozzolana, combined with a 
certain white calcareous matter, which is pretty hard 
and compadl j and which, as it is compofed by the ac- 

B A S 

I 47 ] 

B A S 



BsTaltce on 
the pro- 
montory of 
the Cartel 
d'laci dc- 

(ion of die air, appears like a piece of knotty, porous, 
wooJ. The rock, at fome former pcrioi), became i'o 
hard as to fplit ; and the clefts were then filled up with 
a very hard and porous matter like fcoria:. This mat- 
ter afterwards acquiring new liardncfs, alfu fplit, lea- 
ving large interfliccs, which in their turn have been 
filled up with a fpecics of compound yellow matter. 
The ilhnd was formerly inhabited ; and there Hill re- 
mains a flight of fleps leading irom tl-.e Ihore to the 
ruins of foinc houfes which appear to have been hewn 
in the rock. 

The rock i has the ftraiglitell and mod regular co- 
lumns of any. It is rcprefcnted difliuftly in Plate XCl V. 
tig. I. and iikcwife a general view of ir and d, with the 
foot of /Etna leading to Catanea. Thcfe bafaltic co- 
lumns, at hrfl view, feem to refeinble thofc of the Gi- 
ant's Caufeway, and oiherscommonly met with : but on 
a nearer infpeflion, we find a remarkable difTcrcnce ; 
being allembled in groups of five oriix about one, which 
fcrves as their common centre. They arc of various 
fizes and forms ; fome fquarc, others hexagonal, hep- 
taiTonal, or otlogonal. One half of this rock is coin- 
pufcd of perpendicular columns ; the other of another 
f])ecies of balaltes difpofed in inclined, and almoll rec- 
tilinear, layers. Thel'c arc in contaft with the co- 
lumns, and are as chifcly connefted with them as they 
are with one another. The layers are longer at the 
bafe than towards the top of the rock. It is further to 
be remarked, that mofl of thefc layers are fubdivided 
as they rife upwards ; fo that towards thefe upper ex- 
iremitics, one layer prefents to the eye fometimes one, 
fometimes two, and ibmeiimes three, divilions. The 
frao-ments of bafaltes taken off from thefe layers arc of 
a rhomboidal figure, becaufe the layers break oblique- 

Thcfe layers, though inclined towards the bafc, be- 
come almoil perpendicular towards the upper part of 
the rock, where they appear united in a point, and 
overtop mofl of the viiible and elevated parts of the prif- 
matic columns. Thcfe columns terminate in I'uch a 
manner as to form a kind of flair-cafe. Theywippcar 
even to rife under a fpccies of clay with which they are 
covered at one extremity, till they reunite therafclvcs 
with the point which is formed by the molt elevated 
parts of the layers of bafaltes befide them. 

This extraneous matter with which ihefe columns 
are covered, and of which the fummit of this pyramid 
confifts, appears to be of the fame fpccies with the 
former, coinpofing the upper part of the iiland already 

The bafaltes of that ifland has one particularity, viz. 
that it is full of fmall cryftals of about the (Izc of 
peas. Thefe appear no lefs beautiful than rock-cryital ; 
but they are much foftcr, and yield even to the aflion 
of the air. We fee here large fragmenis of bafaltes 
which were formerly full of cryftals, but dcrtroyed by 
time. They are now not unlike a fponge, from the 
great number of holes wliich appear all over their fur- 
face. Thofc i)icces of bafaltes which contain mofl of 
ihefe cryrtals are not fo hard as thofc which contain 
fewer of tluin. 

The promontory of Cartel d'laci, which terminates 
the bifis of ylsini, is ainiod entirely compofed of ba- 
faltes, but of a kind very difitrcnt from the former. It 
conlifls of a great number of cylinders from the diamc- 

meter of fix inches to that of twenty feet. Some of 
thefc are folid, others hollow like cannon ; fbme ex- 
tended in layers, otjurs iimilar to carrots of tobacco 
coniifling of a number of pieces fqneczcd together. 
Some of thcfe cylinders are llraight, others curved into 
a variety of forms. Some lock like globes irclofed in 
the rocks ; and in the fra^lures of thefc globes we per- 
ceive the flrata of which they are compofed. 

Fig. 2. reprefents the bafaltes at the foot of this 
promontory on the fouth fide. The little mounts 
into whicli it appears to be colkdled, are fometimes 
only one French foot in diameter, fometimes fix. They 
are compofed of fmall prifms or needles, or of cubic 
trapezoids, and confift of amaticr diftinguiflicd by the 
name of dirty lava. It is made of upof pozzolana, con- 
folidatcd by a certain liquid, which while it has com- 
municated folidity to the pozzolana, has at the fame 
time fufiered that fubflance to flirink confiderably, in 
fuch a manner as to leave large chinks between the pie- 
ces of bafaltes, which are thus formed by the opera- 
tion of the liquid on the pozzolana. It appears alfo to 
have infinuated itfelf into the clay with which the pro- 
montory is covered ; wliich has become hard in its 
turn, and which has alio fplit into chinks that appear 
to contain a kind of hard matter. 

Thefe defcriptions and figures will ferve to give an 
idea of the appearance of the bafaltes, which is now 
genernlly accounted a kind of marble. Wallerius con- 
siders it as a fpecics of the corneous or horn rock ; and 
Cronfledt enumerates it among thofe fubflances which 
h.e. c\\\\i,gar7:st earths. The largefl block of this flone 
that ever was fcen, was placed, according to Pliny, by 
Vel'palian ill the temple of peace. It reprefented the 
figure ot Nilus, with i6 children playing about it, de- 
noting as many cubits of the rife of the river. The 
Aatuc of Memnon, in the temple of Scrapis at Thebes, 
which founded at the rifmg of the fun, was alfo made 
of the fame material, if we may believe this author. 
Moll of the Egyptian figures are likewife made of ba- 
faltes. Some of the ancients call it Lapis Lydius, 
from Lydia, where it feems it was formerly found In 
greatefl abundance. The moderns denominate it the 
touch- ji one, as being ufed for the trial of gold and lil- 

Various fubflances are found intermixed with ba- 
faltes ; of which Mr Hamilton, in the letters above- 
mentioned, enumerates the following. i. Exten- 
five layers of red ochre, varying in all degrees 
from a dull ferruginous colour to a bright red, au- 
fwcring very well for coarfe painting. 2. Veins of 
iron ore, fometimes very rich, commonly of a very 
brown or reddiih caft, at other times of a blue colour. 
5. Steatites, generally of a greenilh foapy appearance, 
more rarely of a pure white, and raifing an impirfeft 
faponaccous froth when agitated with water. 4. Zeo- 
lite, of a bright and pure white colour; in niali'es, va- 
rying in weight from a grain to a pound ; generally 
difpofed in cavities of tlie cellular bafaltes ; often af- 
fcdiiig a cryflallizaiion, in whicli the fibres proceed as 
ray? from a centre ; and in fome inlianccs have a beau- 
tiful fpaiiglcd appearance, refenibling that of ihiflie- 
down. The moll remarkable property of this fub- 
liaiicc is, that with any of the mineral acids, but tfpc- 
cially with that of nitre, it forms a gelatinous mixture 
in the courfe of a few hours. 5. Pcptrino Hone, a 




ufed in dif- 
ferent an- 
cient work* 

mixed witk 

B A S 

[ 48 ] 

B A S 



Of '.lie na- 
ture of ba- 


ton's (late 
of the ar- 

friable matrix of indurated clay and iron, ftiiddcd with 
little bits of zeolite or other fub/tjnces ; and wliich is 
often of a rcdililh burnt colour. 6. Pumisc Hone 
of a black colour, containing iioa not entirely dcpiilo- 
gifticaied, but ftill afting on the magneiical needle. 

Thel'e lublUnces arc met with among the bafaltcs 
of the Giant's Caufeway in Ireland. In other places 
its attendants may perhaps vary according to circum- 
flanccs. The bafaltes itfelf has been confidercd by 
fome as a cryftallization from water ; but others ftrc- 
nuoudy maintain that it is only a fpccies of lava, and 
in defence of thefe opinions very conliderable difputes 
have been carried on. The following is a (lateof tiie 
arguments on both fides from Mr Hamilton's trcatifc 
already mentioned. 

In fupport of the volcanic origin of the bafaltes it been argued, 

1. That it agrees almoft entirely with lava in its ele- 
mentary principles, in its grain, the fpecits of the fo- 
reign bodies it includes, and all the diverfitics of its 

2. The iron of the bafaltes is found to he in a me- 
tallic ftate, capable of afting on the magnttical needle, 
which is alfo the cafe with that found in conipatSt, 

5. The bafaltes is fufible per fi ; a property which it 
has in common with lavas. 

4. The bafaltes is a foreign fiibftance fujicrinduced 
on the original limcifonc-foil of the country, in a ftate 
of foftnefs capable of allowing the Hints to penetrate 
confidcrably within its lower finacc. 

y. Thofe cx-tcnlivc beds of red ochre which abound 
among our bafaltes are fuppofcd to be an iron earth 
reduced to this (laie by the powerful aftion of heat ; 
for Uich a change may be produced on iron in our com- 
mon furnaces, provided tlicre be a fufficient afflux of 
frelli air ; and the bif.ilus iiklf, in ficli circuiullauces, 
is e>Uily reducible to an imp irc ochre. This is alfo 
found to take place in the living volcanoes, particular- 
ly within their craters ; and is therefore fiippofed to af- 
ford a prcfumptive argument of ihc aftion of lire in 
the neighbourhood of bafaltes. 

6. Though zeolite is not yet proved to be the aAual 
produftion of a volcano, yet its prcfence is alw.iys fup- 
pofed 10 give countenance to tliis hypothcfis ; becaufc 
zeolite is found in countries where the ai.^ion of liib- 
terraneous tire is ftill vifible, and where there is reafon 
to believe that the whole foil has been ravaged by that 
principle. Thus it abounds in Iceland, where the 
Hauies of Hecla y«t continue to blaze ; and in the illc 
of Bourbon, where there is ftill a volcano in force. 
It is therefore fuppofed to arife from the decompolition 
(if the products of a volcano, where the fires have been 
long extinA. 

7. Cryftals of fchorl appear in great plenty among 
many kinds of our bafiltes ; and thefe, though not 
abfointcly limited to volcanic cnuutries, yet being found 
in great abundance among the Italian lavas, in circum- 
flanccs exactly correfpomiiug to thofe of our bafaltcs, 
are thought to fupply a good probable argument in the 
prefcnt cafe. 

8. The peperino ftone is thought to be undoubted- 
ly of a volcanic origin. It has frequently the burnt 
and fpongy appearance of many of the volcanic pro- 

dui5ls ; and that of the Giant's Caufeway agrees cxaA- Dafaltei. 

ly with the pepdrino of Iceland and Bourbon. ' ^— ^ 

9. Piuzolaue earth is met wiih amoug the bafaltes 
of Krancc ; and there is very little reafon lo doubt that 
our bafaltcs, if pulverifed, wnuld agree with it in every 
refpCvt i that is, it would produce a fine fliarp pow- 
der, containing the fame elementary parts, and proba- 
bly agreeing with it in its valuable ufes as a cement. 
This earth is alfo found in the Canary iflands, which 
are thought to have other marks of fire : it is met with 
in all volcanifed parts of Italy, and is never found 
excepting where ilicre are other evident marks of 

10. Pumice ftone is nniverfally allowed to be produ- 
ced by fire, and indeed bears the refcmblance of a cin- 
der fo obvioully, that one mull be inftantly convinced 
of its original. This is alfo found among the bafaltes 
of Ireland. 

11. There arc three living volcanoes, within whofe 
neighbourhood the bafaltes and moft of its ufual at- 
tendant Ibffils have been obferved, viz. /Etna in Sicily, 
Hecla in Iceland, and the idand of Bonrbon on the 
coalt of Africa. To which it may be added, that it 
is found ihrougliout all the volcaniltd parts of Italy, 
though not any where immediately in the neighbour- 13 
llood of Vefuvius. Sir William Hamilton, however. Of the 
informs us, that in the year 1779 ^"^ " P'cked up fome hafa'te* 
fragments of large and regular cryftals of clofe-grained ['"^^7' "."' 
lava or bafalt ; the diameter of which, when the prifms ^ e u^"" 
are complete, M\ighl have been eight or nine inches." 

He obferves, that Vefuvius does not exhibit any lavas 
regularly cryltallized, and forming what are called 
Gia/tti Ciii'feivnys, except a lava tliat ran into the ita, 
near Torre del Graeco, in the year 1631, which has a 
fniall degree of fuch an appearance. As the fragrocuts 
of bafaltes which he found on this mountain, however, 
had been evidmil) ihrov.n out of the crater in their 
jiropcr form, he puts the qucllion, " May not lavas 
be mor« ready to cryft.llize within the bowels of a vol- 
rtno than after their emiirion ? And may not many 
of the Giants Canfeways already difcovcred be the nu- 
clei of volcanic mountains, whofe lighter and lefs folid 
parts may have been worn away by the hand of time ? 
Mr Faujais de St Fond gives an example of bafalt co- 
lumns placed deep within the crater of an extinguiflicd 

12. It is well afcrrtained by experience, (hat there 
are vaft beds of pyrites difpcrfed through the interior 
parts of the earth at all depths ; and ii is alfo a certain 
faft, that this compound fubltaiice may be decom- 
pounded by the accidental affufion of water, in fuch a 
manner as to birome hot, and at laft to burn with great 
fury. This accenilon of pyrites is by many fuppofcd 
to be the true origin of the volcanic fire ; and an ar- 
gument for this is, that the prefcnt volcanoes do pour 
forth great quantities of the component pans of py- .f-jr 
rites, p.iniculirly filph'.'r, iron, and clay. Now, a- 
mong the fuptrinduced fubftances of the comity of 
Antrim, and the l^tmc may probably be faid of every 
other bafaltic country, it is certain that the quauiiiy- 
of iron and clay difTufed through almoft every fpecics 
of fodil, amounts to more than one half of the whole 
material ; fo that two of the principal elements of the 
pyrites are iiiU found there, reduced in many inflances 


li \SALTES f //// / 


0</ J 

B A S 

[ 49 ] 

13 A S 



Glafs fome- 
tiincs ap- 
pears in the 
form of 

tn a flag or fcoria. The third principle, viz. the ful- the regularity of a Giant's Caufcway, fuch as might be r.:Oltf». 

phiir, cannot be expefted to remain ; becaufc Ailphnr fuppuled to rtfiilt from the cryltalli/.aiion of a bed of ' 

is totally cournmed by combuiUon ; and what might mtltcd lava, where reft and a gradual refrigeration con- 

pcrhaps cfcape and be fubiimcd would no doubt have tribuied to render the phenoiuenun as pcrfcft as pof- 

ilnce pcrilhcd by deconipofition, in confcquence of be- lible. jo 

ing expofcd to the air. To thefe arguments flated by Mr Hamilton we fliall Mr Fcr- 

13. Another argument, which to Sir William Hamil- add another from Mr Kcrber; viz. That at the time he ^"'' "'8"- 

' ~ mtntfrcin 

the crvflaj 

tonappcarsvcryconvincing, is, that glafs fometinics takes went from Rome to Ollia they were paving the road 
on the appearances of prifiss, or cryftaliizcs in cooling, with a fpecies of black lava. In fome cf the broken 

which run 
into the fca 
bave a ten- 
dency to 
run into 

in oppofi- 
tion to the 


He received fomc fpecimcns of this kind from Mr Par- pieces he obfervcd little empty holes, of the bignefs of bia"i ''"1 
kcrofFltet-ftrect, who informed him that a quantity of a walnut, incruftaicd all around their fides by wiiite or 
his glafs had been rendered imferviccable by taking fiich amethyftine fcmipcllucid, pointed, or truncated pyra- 
a form. Some of thefe were in lamim* which may niidal cryftallizations, entirely refcmbiing the agate 
be cafily feparated, and others refcmblc bafaitic co- nodules or gcodcs, which arc commonly filled with 
lumns in miniature, having regular faces. " Many of quartz ci7ft-iiliza[ions. There was no crack or fiU'urc 
the rocks of lava in the illand of Ponzi (fays he) are, in the ambient compact lava ; the cryftal rticrls were 
with rcfpcft to their contigurations, flrikingly like the pretty hard, and might rather be called quartz. Some 
fpecimeub of Mr Parker's glafs aboveiiicniioned ; none line browniih duft lay in ilie reft of the holes, as impal- 
being very regularly formed balaltcs, b;it all having a pablc and light as alhes. He tells us alfo, t'hat in the 
tendency towards it. Mr Parker could not account greateft part of the Paduan, Veronefc, and Viceniiue 
for the accident that occafioned his glafs to take the lavas, we meet with an infinite quantity of white po- 
bafahic form; but I have remarked, both in Naples lygonal Iherl cry ftallizations, whofe figure is as regular, 
and Sicily, that fuch lavas as have run into the fea are and Kill more polygonal than the bafaltes. j, 

either formed into regular bafaltes, or have a great Thefe may be confulered as the principal arguments Mr t'rp- 
tendency towards fuch a form. The lavas of Mount in favour of the volcanic theory of bafaltes. On (he man's tlie- 
A;tna, which ran into the fea near Jacic, are perleft other hand, the late celebrated Mr Bergman exprcffesOT' 
bafaltes ; and a lava that ran into the fea from Vefu- himftlf to the following purpofe. 

" Ten years ago it was a general opii.ion, that the 
furface of the earth, together with the mountains, had 
been produced by moifture. ]t is true that fome de- 
clared fire to be the firlt original caufc, but the greater 
number paid iiitlc attention to this opinion. Now, 
on the contrary, the opinion that fubttrrancoiis fire had 
been the principal agent gains ground daily ; and every 
thing is fuppofcd to have been melted, even to the 20 
granite. My own opinion is, that both the fire and Both fire 
water have contributed their fliare in this operation ; "<• *Y""' 
though in fuch a proportion, that the force of the for- '^""•"'""c 
mer extends much farther than the latter ; and, on the mI"™ 
this argument. According to them, the bafaltes has contrary, that the fire has only worked in fomc parts * "' 
been formed nnder the earth iifclf, and within the of the furface of the earth. It cannot be doubted 
bowelsof thefe very mountains ; where it could never that there has been fome conne(Jtion betwixt the ba- 
liave been expofed to view until, by length of time or faltic pillars and fubterrancous fire ; as they are found 
fomc violent ihock of nature, the incumbent mafs mull in places where the marks of fire are yet vilible ; and 
have undergone a very conliderable alteration, fuch as as they are even found mixed with lava, tophus, and 
fliould go near to dcftroy every exterior volcanic fea- ether fubftances produced by fire. jr 

ture. In fupport of this it may alfo be (nj)ferved, that " As far as we know, nature makes life of three Of the me- 
thc promontories of Antrim do bear evident marks of methods to produce regular forms in the mineral king- '''"'^' •'y. 
fome very violent convuUion, which has left them in dom. i. That of cryftallizaiion or precipitation;*'"''""'" 

2. The crufting or fettling of the external furface of a Jl^'j^^" 
liquid mafs while it is cooling ; and, 5. The burfting nrturaUy 
of a moift fubftance while it is drying. fanned. 

" The firlt method is the moll common ; but to all 
appearance, nature has not made iifc of it in ilie pre- 
fent cafe. Cryftals are fcldom or never found in any 
quantity running in the fame direflion ; but either in- 
clining from one another, or, what is ftill more com- 

vius, near Torre del Grxco in 1631, has an evident 
tendency to the bafahic form." 

In oppofition to thefe arguments it is urged, 
that in many of the countries where bafaltes moll 
abound, there are none of the characflcriftics of vol- 
canic mountains. They alfert, therefore, that the ba- 
faltes is a foilil, very exienlivcly fprcad over the fur- 
face of the earth ; and that, where it is found in the 
neighbourhood of volcanic mountains, we ought to 
fuppofc thefe to be accidcntly ia\(tu' cw a bafahic 
foil rather than to have created it. But the advocates 
for the volcanic fyftem are not much embarafled with 

their prefent fituation ; and that the illand of Rag 
herry, and fome of the weflern illes of Scotland, do 
really appear like the furviving fragments of a country, 
great part of which might have been buried in the ocean. 
It is further added, that though the exterior volcanic 
chara;.'kr be in great meafure loft in the bafaitic coun- 
tries yet this negative evidence can be of little weight, 
when we confider, that the few inftances where the 

features have been prcferved afford a fuflicicntaiifwer 10 mon, placed towards one another in (loping dircv.'lions. 
this objeftion. Thus the Montagne de le Coupe in They are alfo generally feparaied a liiilc from one ano- 
Francc ftill bears the marks of its having been former- ther wiien they arc regular. The nature of tlie thing 
ly a volcano : and this mountain is oblerved to Hand requires this, becaufe the feveral particles of which ilic 
on a bafe of bafahic pillars, not difpofed in the tumul- cryftals are compofed mull have the liberty of obeying 
tuary heap into which they mull have been thrown by that power which affects their conftitmion. The ba- 
the furious action of a volcanic eruption, tearing up faltic columns, on the contrary, whofc height is fre- 
the nnural foil of the country ; but arranged in all quently from 30 to 40 feet, arc placed parallel to one 
Vol. III. G another 

B A S 

[ 50 ] 

B A S 

Bafalies. another in conlkieiab'.e iiiiiiibcrs, and fo dole together 
^ ^' ' that the point of a knife can hardly be introduced be- 
tween them. Befidcs, in inofl places, each pillar is 
divided into feveral parts or joints, which fcein to be 
placed on one another. And indeed it is not uncom- 
mon for cryllals to be formed above one another in 
dirtcreiit layers, while the folveni has been vilibly di- 
minifiicd at dificrtnt times: but then the upper cryftals 
never fit fo cxaftly upon one another as to produce 
connciiled prifms of the fame length or depth in all 
the llrata taken togetlier ; but each Aratiim, feparatcly 
taken, produces its own cryllals. 

" Precipitation, botli in the wet and dry way, re- 
quires that the particles Ihoiild he free enough to ar- 
range thcmfelvcs in a certain order ; and as this is not 
practicable in a large melted mafs, no cryftallizations 
appear, excepting on its furface or in its cavities. Add 
10 this, that the bafaltes in a frefh frailurc do not lliow 
a plain fmooih hirfacc under the microfcope ; but ap- 
pear fometimcs like u;rains of different magnitude, and 
at other times refcmble fine rays ruiming in different 
directions, which docs not correfpond with the inter- 
nal llrudhire of cryflals. 

"Hence the opinion of bafaltes being formed by 
cryftallizition either in the wet or dry method muft 
become Icfs probable; but it mufl not be omitted, tliat 
the fp.irs exhibit a kind of cryftallization, which at iirfl 
light refembles a heap of bafaltes, but upon a cloler 
examination a very great ditTcrrnce is to be found. 
The foriTi of the fpar is every where alike, but the 
bafaltes ditfcr from one another in lizc and the num- 
ber of their liJes. Tlic former, when broken, conlills 
of many fmall unequal cubes ; but the bafalt does not 
feparate in regular parts, S:c. S;c. 

" Nature's fccond method of producing regular 
forms is that of crulting the outer furface of a melted 
inafs. By a fudden refrigeration, nature, to effedl 
this purpofe, makes ufc of polyhedrons and irregular 
forms. If we fuppofe a coiifidcrable bed which is 
made fluid by tire, and fpread over a plain, it evident- 
ly appears, that the furface muft firlt of all lofe the 
degree of heat requilitc for melting, and begin to con- 
geal. But the cold rcquiiite for this purpofe likewife 
contrafts the uppcrmod congealed flratum into a nar- 
rower fpace ; and confequently caufcs it to feparate 
from the remaining liquid mafs, as the fide expofed to 
tlie air is already too fliff to give way. In this man- 
lier a ftratuni is produced, running in a parallel direc- 
tion with the whole mafs ; others arc Aill produced by 
the fame caufe in proportion as the refrigeration pene- 
trates deeper. Hence we may very plainly fee how a 
bed may be divided into flrata. In the fame manner 
the refrigeration advances on the fides ; which confe- 
qiieni'v divides the flrata into polyhedrous pillars, 
which can hardly ever be exactly fquare, as thefhongeft 
rcfriTeraiion into the inner parts of the mafs advances 
almill ill a diagonal line from the corners. If we add 
to this, that a large mafs cannot be equal through its 
compofition, nor every where liquid in the fame de- 
gree, it will he eafy to difcover tlie caufe of feveral ir- 
regularities, if the depth of the bed be very conlider- 
able in proportion to its breadth, prifniatic pillars 
witliont crofs divifions will be forined at Itall length- 
wife from the uppcrmoll furface downwards. 

" The tliird way is perfectly liniilar to the prcce- 

How the 
have been 
formed, ac- 
cording to 
this theory. 

Reafons for 
that the ba- 
faltes has 
not been 

ding in its efi'eft ; but it is different from it by the Bafaltefc 

mals being foakcd in water, and by the burfling of it """''^ ' 

afiindcr, being the cffeft of the contraflion while it is 
drying. If we fuppofe fuch a bed to be fpread over a 
level fpace, the drying advances in the fame manner 
as the refrigeration in the former cafr. This fepara- 
lion into flrata properly happens when a confiderable 
quantity of clay enters into ilie whole compofition, bc- 
caufe the clay dccreafcs more than any other kind of 
earth in drying. 

" It is molt probable, therefore, that iht pillars 
have been produced out of the bafaliic fubflsncc while 
it was yet loft, or at Icafl not too hard to be foftened 
by exhalations. If we therefore fi.ppofc a bed to be 
fpread over a place where a volcano begins to work, it 
is evident that a great quantity of the water alv.ays 
prcfcnt on fuch occafions mull be driven upwards in 
exhalations or vapours ; which, it is well known, pof- 
fcfs a penetrating, foftening power, by means of which 
they produce their firfl tUcii : but when they are in- 
crcafed to a fufficicnt quantity, they force this tough 
moifl liibflance upwards ; which then gradually falls, 
and during this lime burfls in the manner above dc- 

" The reafons for this fuppofition arc as follows : 
I. Wc do not find the internal fubftance of the bafaltes 
melted or vitrified ; which, however, foon happens by 
fulion ; and for which only a very fmall degree of fire 
is requilitc. It is of confcqucnce very hard to explain 
how this fiibflancc could have been fo fluid iliat no 
traces of bubbles appear in it ; and yet, when broken, 
fctm dull and uneven. Lava is feldoni vitrified with~ 
in ; but the great number of bubbles and pores \\ liicli 
are found in the whole mafs, are more than fufHcient 
proofs, that it has not been pcrfeflly melted to its 
imalleft parts, but has only been brought to be near 
fluid. Secondly, the bafaltes fo much refcmble the finer 
trapp, both in their grain and original compofition, 
that they can hardly be diflinguiflied in fmall frag- 

Mr Kirwan is of opinion, that the bafaltes owe their 
origin both to fire and water: they feem to liavc been 
at firfl a lava ; but this, while immerfcd in water, was 
fo diffufcd or dilfolved in it with the afTiflance of hear, 
as to cryflalliz.e when cold, or coulcfce into regular 
forms. That bafaltes is not the cffc(?t of mere fufion 
he concludes from compairing its form with its texture. 
Its form, if produced by fufion, ought to be the effect 
of having flowed very thin ; but in that cafe its texture 
fiiould be glalTy : whereas it is merely earthy and de- 
void of cavities. Hence we may nnderfland how it 
comes to pafs that lava perfcflly vitrified, and even 
water, have been found inclofcd in bafaltes. 2^ 

Mr Houel in his Voyage Piflnrefijue, is at confidcr- MrHou- 
able pains to account for the origin of the different el's theory, 
fpecies of bafaltes he met with in the neighbourhood 
of Altna. "Some modern writers (fays he) attribute 
the configuration of the bafaltes to the fudden cooling 
of the lava in confcquencc of the cfJ'efts produced up- 
on it by the coldnefs of fea-water, when it reaches the 
fea in a flate of fufion. They fuppofe that the fhock, 
which it then receives, is the caufe of thofe different 
configurations which this fubftance affumes; ihe moll 
remarkable of which have been already mentioned. 
This aflcrtion, however, fcems to be ill founded. By 



Mr Kir- 
wan's opi» 


13 A S 

[ 51 ] 

B A S 

tafatwi. confiJeriTij;; the bafaUic rock, ilie fird of the cyclops 
^' • V ' rcprefcnted in tlie plate, wc find that the pile is not 
io its originaUhte, andtliat the ferits i)f cohimiis is at 
prcfcnt incomplete. It is very probable, that the fpe- 
cies of clay found there, and which is exirancousto the 
bafakes, has by Tome means taken poircllion uf its place ; 
and it likcwifc appears, that not one of the bafakes here 
defcribed is entire. 

" It fcenis incredible, however, that a niafs of mat- 
ter reduced by lire to a llate of liqiictad:ion, and flow- 
ing into the fca, Iliotild be fnddenly changed into regu- 
lar figures by the iliock of coming into contaifl with 
cold water: and that all the figures which are thus 
formed Ihould be difpofcd in the fame manner with 
regard to one another. For if wc fuppofe that the 
waier made its way into the cavity of the lava at the 
inftant when it retreated backwards, then migiit the 
fame quantity of water penetrate into the mofl remoie 
parts of the mafs ; and by that means prolong ihc ca- 
vity which it had begun to form when it firif entered 
the mafs. The vi'atcr then being lodged within this 
burning mafs, and being in a Aate of dilatation, would 
have expelled whatever oppofed it, and fwelled the 
whole mafs in fuch a manner as to form much larger 
interftices than thofe which appear between the bafal- 
tic columns ; fince thefe are every where in clofe con- 
tad with one another. Refides, how could the fuddcn 
cooling of the lava divide the upper part and fides of 
fuch an enormous mafs as exadly as if they had been 
cafl in a mould made on purpofe ? 

" It remains alfo for thofe who adopt the hypothtfis 
JH queflion to explain how the fhock occafioncd by the 
cold water fliould make itfelffck beyond a certain depth : 
fmcc the very firft moment it comes into conraft with 
the liquid lava, it mud ceafc to be cold ; for the lava 
cannot but communicate to it a greater degree of heat 
than it communicates of cold in return, as the water 
is more cafily penetrable by the burning lava than the 
mafs of lava by the furrounding water. But further, 
if at the firft moment after the lava enters the water 
it were cooled and contracted, the water would foon 
prevent, by the contradion of its whole furface, any 
continuation of the cffcA which it had firft occa- 

" This fcems to be the great difficuky : for how is 
it tluis poffible for the water to extend its influence to 
the centre of any very conliderable mafs ; and even 
fuppoling it to ac^ at the centre, how could it be able to 
fix the common centre of all the ditlcrcnt columns ? 

" Let us next confider what a degree of ebullition 
mnft take place in the water when it receives fuch a 
vail quantity of lava heated not only more inicnfcly 
than common fire, but than red hot iron ! Though that 
mafs, 100 fathoms in diameter, were to proceed from 
the bottom of the fca ; or though it were immcrfcd in 
it, the degree of ebullition would ftill be the fame ; 
and it isdilHcuk to conceive what ihockcan be occaiion- 
edby a cold which does noi cxift, onamafs which burns, 
or caufcs to boil, whatever comes near it. 

" One peculiarity attending the bafakes is, that it 

remains fixed in the rccefs which it has once occupied. 

Auoilier, not If-fs eifrntial, is its power of dividing it- 

\. See fclf in the midrt of any one of its hardcft parts f, and 

I'lXCIII. to form isvo diftind pieces, one of which is always cou- 


cave, and the other convex ; a divifion which feems the Eafaltci. 
moft fingulir curiofi(y of the whole. "^ 

" A third peculiarity might i'till be found in the in- 
terior part ofthcfccolumns, if we were lomcctwith any 
that had fufl'ercd more by the lapfc of time than iboe 
already dcf.ribed ; but it is impolliblc for all this to 
be tffccfcd by water. How can water, which is every 
where the faaic, and which may be expelled always to 
produce the Jaivx efft(51s, produce fueh a variety oti ba- 
ialies by mere conia<5l ? 

" The Cdufc of all thtfc varieties, therefore, fcems 
to be this, that thefe lavas are originally compolcd of 
matcvi ds txtrcmdy difFercntin their natures, and from 
which fuch a varieiy of eifeds naiurally proceed. The 
fame fpecies of matter, when acbiattd by the fame 
canfe, will conftantly produce the fame t Heels. This 
variety of ctfetls therefore is much lefs owing to the 
inliucnce of the water, than to the variety of materials 
of which thofe lavas arc compofed ; and thefe are com- 
bined in dilferent forms and quantities, according tothe 
nature and quantity of the various mater. alswhicii have 
been reduced by the volcano to a ftate of fullon. 

" The forms of the bafakes therefore proceed from 
two caufcs. Oneof ihcni, viz. the cooling, belongs indif- 
ferently to every fpecies, independent of its meeting with 
water. The other is the diverfiiy of the quantities and 
of the materials of which the lava is compofed. From 
thefe caufcs alone proceed all the beauties and varieties 
which are beheld with admiration in this clafs of bo- 
dies. Thefe take place, from the moll irregular frac- 
tures in the lava, to thofe which difplay the grcateft 
exadnefs and fymmetry. Every new erupted lava dif- 
fers from thole which preceded it, and from iliofe 
which will follow. In the various principles of thefe 
lavas wc muft feck for the caufcs of thofe cavities dif- 
covcrable in the bafakes, and for the caufes which 
produce thofe bafakes, at the time when the matter of 
which it is compofed contracted itfelf, and confolida- 
ted all its parts. In the ae^ of condcnfation, it ap- 
pears to have formed various loci, around which we 
may diftinguilh the line which feis boundstothe power 
of each of them; and this is the line which marks the 
fpaccs intervening between the different pieces ; be- 
caufe all of them are poll'clfcd of the fame atiradivc 
force. The fire emitted by the lava, at the lime the 
bafakes is formed, produces upon it ihc fame tffeJl 
that is produced by the evaporation of the acqucous 
moifture from thofe bodies where water forms a p,irt 
of the original conftitution ; which bodies harden in 
proportion as they become dry, by reafon of the ap- 
proach of their conlliiuent parts to one another. The 
abftradion of fire produces the fame tifid uj>on ba- 
fakes, by fufFering its component parts to come into 
clofer union. 

" A new proof of this theory is dcducibic from the 
form of the bafiltes reprefcnted Plate XCIV. fig. 2. 
The interrtices there are pretty numerous; btcaufe the 
lava being of that fpecies denominated Jirty, and ron- 
liftingof pans, moft of which hive but little folidiiy, 
they have left much larger (paces between them at their 
contrae'lion. From this want of folJiiy we may per- 
ceive how much the bafiliic mafs loft of the fire by 
which it was dilated while in (late of fufion. 

" The void fpaccs left by the contradioii of the ba- 
G 2 faltcs^ 

B A S 

[ 5 

Bsfaltet fihcs, are filled with a fpongy matter, which by dry- 
II iiig has alio kit lar^c interlliccs ; and thefc have bct:i\ 
Eafanfchik jjjjj^^j j„ (ht-j,- mm with a kind of yellow matter limiiar 
^ " ' to that which covers the promontory of Callcl d'laci. 

" Whatever variety of forms wc meet with among 
the bafakes, and whatever divifions and fubdivifions 
may be obfervable among thefc varieties, they are 
owing, I. To the minutenefs, 2. To the homogeneous 
nature, or, 3. To the diverfiiy among the particles 
which compofe the bafaltcs. Among the varieties al- 
ready enumerated, wc find redifh, earthy, foft and po- 
rous fiibllances, together with the zeolite cryllals. Wc 
fee others extremely hard and compadl, very finely 
grained, and contaitiing likcwife fchoerl and zeolite 
cryflals. Others are very hard and denfc, which ap- 
pear to be a mixture of fmall grey and white bodies ; 
andof each of thefe colours many different fiiades, from 
light to darker, containing alfo zeolite cryftals. Lail- 
ly^ we find fomc confining of a matter fimilar to clay, 
mixed with round black fand. 

" It may be obieftcd, that the late eruptions of 
/T.tna aftbrd no bafaltcs, nor have they any divifions 
limibr to thofe abovcineniioned. B'!t to this wc may 
reply, that if they afford neither fiich bafakes, nor 
fuch regular divifions, the realbn is, that neither their 
(piantity, nor tiie ingredients of which they arc com- 
l>ofcd, are fuch as are neceffary for the produirlion of 
bafakes : and for a proof of this we may refer to lavas 
of the mod remote antiquity, which have no more re- 
femblancc to bafakes than ihofc that are more mo- 

" Laflly, an argument, to which no plaufible reply 
can be made, that the bafakes are not formed by fca- 
water, is, that in the year 1669, the lava of mount 
/Etna ran into the fea for two leagues and a half, 
without having the leaft appearance ol being converted 
into bafakes." 

BASAN, or Bashan, (anc. geog.), a territory be- 
yond Jordan, mentioned in fcripture. By Jofephus, 
Eufebius, and Jerom, it is called BMiin,ca. On the en- 
tering of the Ifraelitcs into the land of Canaan, the 
whole of the country beyond Jordan, from that of the 
Moabites, or Arabia, as far as mount Hermon and Le- 
banon, was divided into two kingdoms, viz. that of 
Sihon king of the Amorites, and of Og king of Ba- 
fan or Bafljan; the former to the fouth and the lat- 
ter to the north. The kingdom of Sihon extended 
from the river Arnon and the country of Moab, to the 
river Jabbok ; which running in an oblique courfe from 
the eaft, was at the fame time the boundary of the Am- 
monites, as appears from Numb. xxi. 24. and Dent, 
ii. 37. and iii. 16. The kingdom of Sihon fell to the 
lot of the Reubenites and Gadites, and Bafan to the 
half-tribe of Maneffeh. To this was annexed a part 
of the hilly country of Gilead, and the diflrift of Ar- 
gob ; yet fo that Bafan continued to be the principal 
and greateft part : but, after the Babylonilh captivity, 
Bafan was fubdivided: fo that only a pari was called 
Bfitama or Bafan, another Trahomtis, a third Au- 
runitis or Jturxa, and fome part alio Caulor.'itus ; but 
to fettle the limits of each of tliefe parts is a thing now 
impolfible. — B.tihan was acountry famous for itspaltures 
and breed of large cattle. 

BASARTSCHIK, a confiderable town of Ro- 
mania in Turkey of Europe. It is pretty well built. 

2 ] B A S 

and hath clean and broad fkrcets; has a great trade ; 
and is fituated on the river Meritz, in E. Long. 24. 30. 
N. Lat. 41. 49. 

BASAUUCO, in commerce, a fmall bafe coin in 
the tall Indies, being made only of very bad tin. 
There are, however, two forts of this coin, a good 
and a bad ; the bad is one lixth in value lower than the 
good . 

BASE, in geometry, ilic lnwcft fide of the pert- 
meter of a figure : Thus, the bafe of a triangle may 
be faid of any of its lidcs, but more properly of the 
lowefl, or that which is parallel to the horizon. In 
re(5langlcd triangles, the bafe is properly tliat fide op- 
pofite to the right angle. 

Ba^e */ a Solid t'igura, the lowed fide, or that on 
which it ihmds. 

Base of «r C«nie Sefiion, a right line in the hyperbo- 
la and parabola, arifing from the common interftdion 
of the fccant plain and the bafe of the cone. 

Base, in architecture, is ufcd for any body which 
bears another, but particularly for the lower part of a 
column and pedeftal. — The ancients, in the early times 
of architecture, ufed no bafes. The Doric columns 
in the temple of Minerva at Athens have none, but 
Hand immediately upon the floor of the porch. Co- 
lumns afterwards came to befupported on fquare pieces 
called {ilintks, and after that on pcdeftals. When we 
fee a column, of whatfocver order, on a pcdcltal, the 
bafe is that put which comes between the top of the 
pedeftal and the bottom of the (liaft of the column ; 
when tlurc is no pedeftal, it is the part between the 
bottom of the column and the plinth : fome have in- 
cluded the plinth as a part of the bafe ; but it is pro- 
perly the piece on which the bafe ftands, as the ctdumn 
ilands upon that. — The pedeftal alio has its bafe as 
well as the column, and the pilaftcr. The bafe of co- 
lumns is differently formed in the differentorders ; but 
in general it is compofed of certain fpires or circles, and 
was thence in early times calird the fpire of a column. 
Thefe circles were in this cafe fuppofcd to reprefentthc 
folds of a fnake as it lies rolled up , but they are pro- 
perly the reprcfentations of fevcral larger and fmaller 
rings or circles of iron, with which the trunk of trees 
which were the ancient columns were furrounded to 
prevent their burfting : thefe were rude and irregular, 
but the fculptor who imitated them in ftonc foiidcl the 
way to make them elegant. 

Base, in fortification, the exterior fide of the po- 
lygon, or that imaginary line which is drawn from the 
flanked angle of a baftion to the angle oppofitc to it. 

Base, in gunnery, the leaft fort of ordnance, the 
diameter of whofc bore is II inch, weight 200 pound, 
length 4 feet, load 5 pound, (hot i; pound weight, and 
diameter i; inch. 

Base, in chemiftry. See Basis. 
Base, in law. Bafe eflate, fuch as bafe tehants 
have in their hands. Bafe tenure, the holding liy yil- 
lenage, or other cuftomary fervices ; as diftingnilhed 
from the higher tenures i« capitt, or by military fer- 
vice. Bafe fee, is to hold in fee at the will of the lord, 
as diftingukhed from foccage tenure. Bafi court, any 
court not of record. 

BASELLA, CLIMBING kichtsh&ve from Ma/a- 
bar : A genus of the trigynia order, belonging to the 
pentandria clafs of plants ; and in tke natural method 


-Basal, TJ5S. 


Plate XC1\^. 


Mil I.I A ' 


B A S 

raiikin» under the 12th order Holoracea, 
is wanting ; the corolla is feven-clcfr, with the two 
oppolite divilions broader, and at laft berried ; there is 
one feed. 

Spichs. I. The rnbra, with red leaves and finiple 
footllalks, has thick, ftroiig, fucculent ftalks and leaves, 
which arc of a deep purple colour. The plant will 
climb to the height of ten or twelve feet, provided it 
is kept in a flove ; but in the open air it will not grow 
fo large in Britain j nor will the feeds come to per- 
fection in the open air, unlefs in very warm fcafons. 
The flowers of this plant have no great beauty, but it 
is cultivated on account of the odd appearance of its 
Italks and leaves There is a variety of this with green 
llalks and leaves, and the flowers of a whitilh green 
colour tipped with purple. 2. The alba, with oval 
waved leaves. This fort hath flaccid leaves, and fmaller 
flowers and fruit than the firft. The plants will climb 
to a coMfulcrablc height, and fend forth a great n'.iin- 
ber of br.'.nchts ; fo they (liould be trained up to a 
trellis, or faflened to the back of the flove, othcrwife 
they Mill twifl themfclvcs about whatever plants fland 
near them, which will make a very difagreeablc appear- 

Culture. Thefe plants arc propagated from feeds, 
which Ihould be fown on a moderate hot-bed in the 
fpring ; and when the plants arc fit to remove, they 
flionld be each planted in a feparalcpot, and plunged in- 
to the tan-bed, where they are to be treated like other 
tender exotics. They may be alfo propagated from 
cuttings ; but as they rife fo cafily from the feeds, the 
latter method is feldom pradifed. 

UJ'ei. The berries of the firft fpccies are faid to be 
nfed for ftaining callicocs in India. Mr Miller alfures 
us, that he has feen a very beaiuiful colour drawn from 
them, but which did not contiime long when iifed in 
painting. He is of opinion, however, tliat a method 
of fixing the colour might be invented, in which cafe 
the plant would be very ufcful. — This, wc apprehend, 
might be accomplillied by means of folution of tin in 
aqua regia, which hath a furprifing effcd both in 
brightening and giving durability to other vegetable 

BASEMENT, in architcfture. See Architec- 
ture, N" 70. 71. 

BASHARIANS, a feft of Mahometans, being a 
branch or fubdivifion of the Mota/.alites. The Balha- 
rians are thofc who maintain the tenets of Balliar Ebn 
Motamer, a principal man amnngthe Motazalitcs, who 
varied, in fome points, from the general tenets of the 
fcift, as carrying man's free agency to a great length, 
and even to the making him independent. 

BASHAW, a Turkilh governor of a province, city, 
or other dillrift. 

A bartiaw is made with the folemnity of carrying a 
flag or banner before him, accompanied with niiilic 
and fongs, by the miri^ilcm, an officer on purpofc for 
the invelliiure of balhaws. B.i/Ijutv, ufed abfotutfly, 
denotes the prime vizir ; the red of the denomination 
being dilliiig.iilhed by the addition of the province, 
city, or the like, which they have the command of ; 
as the balhaw of Egypt, b( Falefiine, &s. The ba- 
fliaws are the emperor's fpongcs. We find loud com- 
plaintsamong Chriftiansof their avarice and extortions. 
As they buy their govcriuuciiis, every thing is venal 

[ 5Z ] 

The calyx with them. 

B A S 

When glutted with wealth, the cir.peicr 
frequently makes them a prefcnt of a bow flring, and 
becomes heir to all their fpoils. 

The appellation baJJiaw is given by way of couricfy 
toalmoU every perfon of any figure at the grand fig- 
nior's court. 

BASIL (St) the Great, one of the mofl learned 
and eloquent doiJlors of the church, was born at Cx- 
farea, in Cappadocia, about the year 528 ; and went 
to finilh hislludies at Athens, whtre he eontr.ided a 
ftriift friend (hip with St Gregory iSazianzen. He re- 
turned to his native country in 35J, where he taught 
rhetoric. Some time after, he travelled into Syria, E- 
gypt, and Lybia, to vifit the monalkries of thefe coun- 
tries ; and the monaftic life fo much fuited his difpo- 
fition, that upon his return home he refolvcd to follow 
it, and he was the firft inflitutor thereof in Pontus and 
Cappadocia. His reputation became fo great, that, 
upon the death of Eufcbius bifliop of Caefarca, in 370, 
he was cliofcn his fucceflbr. It was with fome dilfi- 
culty that he accepted of this dignity; and no foouer 
was he raifed to it, than the emperor Valens began to 
perfecute him becaufe he rcfufed to embrace the doc- 
trine of the Arians. Being at length let alone, he be- 
gan to life his utmoft endeavours to bring alxjut a re- 
union betwixt the caflcrn and weftern churches, who 
were then much divided about fome points of faith, and 
in reg.ird to Meletius and Paulinus two bifliops of An- 
tiochia. But all his efforts were incffeiTual, this dif- 
putc not being terminated till nine months after lijs 
death. Balil had a Ihare in all thedifputes which hap- 
pened in his time in the cafl in regard 10 the dodrinc 
of the church ; and died the ift of January, "p. — 
There have been fevcral editions of his worksin Greek 
and Latin. Thebcft is that of Father Carnier, printed 
in Greek and Latin, in three volumes folio. St Balil's 
ftyle is pure and elegant, hisexprcllions are grand and 
fublime, and his thoughts noble and full ol majefty. 
Erafmus places him among the greateft orators of an- 

Basil, a Canton of Switzerland, which joined the 
confederacy in 1501. It is bounded on the fouth by 
the canton of Soloihurn ; on the north by part of the 
margravate of Baden Doiirlach, and the territory of 
Rheinfelden ; on theeaft by Krickilial ; and on the weft 
by part of Solothurn, the diocefe of Bafil, and the 
Sundgare ; being upwards of 20 miles in length, and 
about 18 in breadth. It is entirely proicftant ; and 
contains 27 parillies, and fcven bailiwies. The lower 
parts cf it are fruitful in corn and wine, and a'fo fit fcr 
pafturc; but the mountains are extremely barren. Here 
are many medicinal fprings and baths, and the air is 
wholcfome and lenipcraie. Both men and women for 
the moft part wear the French drefs ; but the langtiage 
commonly fpoken is the High Dutch, tho' the French 
alfo is much ufed. The government is ariftocraiical ; 
and its revenues arifc chiefly from fecularized abbeys, 
and imports on goods carried through the country, to 
and from France, Italy, and Germany. Befidcs the 
military eflabiilhment of the city of Balil, there arc two 
provincial regiments, conlifting e.ich of ten companies, 
and a troop of dragoons. — The places of niofl note arc 
Bafd the capital, W'allenburg, St Jacob, Neue-Haui, 

BisiL, the capital of the canton of tliat name, is 


B A S 

[ 54 ] 

B A S 

Eufil. the Inrgeft city in all Swit/.erlaml, having 220 flrecis, 
— " ' and fix inarkct-i'laces or fijuarcs. Its ciivironsarc ex- 
ceeding beautiful, conlilliiig of a tine level trad of litlds 
and meadows. The city is divided into two pans by 
the Rhine, over which there is a handfonie bridi;e. It 
is thought by Ibme to have rifcn on the ruins of the old 
Augulla Rauracoruin. For its name of Bujilia it is 
indebted to Julian the Apoftatc, who would have it fo 
called in honour of his mother Bafilina. It is fortified 
with walls, moats, towers, and baflions, and con- 
tains fevcral churches, bcfides the cathedral, which is 
an old Gothic (trudnre ; a commandery of the order 
of St John, and another of the Teutonic order ; a pub- 
lic gi-anary and arfenal ; a ftately town-houfe, in 
which is an exquifite piece of tl)e futfcrings of Chrift, 
by Holbein, and a ftatue of Munatius Plancus, a Ro- 
man general, who, about 50 years before Chrift, built 
the ancient city of Auguila Rauracorum ; an univcrfity, 
which was founded in 14S9, and has a curious phyfic- 
garden, library, and mufcum ; agymnafaun: aftately 
palace, belonging to the margrave of Baden-Dourlach ; 
befidcs a chamber of curiofitics, fevcral hofpitals, &c. 
In the arfenal is Ihown the armour in wiiich Charles the 
Bald loft his life, with the furniture of his horfe, ami 
the kettle-drums and trumpets of his army. On the 
flair-cafe of the council-houfe, is a pie'^ure of the lad 
judgment, in which, though drawn before the refor- 
mation, popes, cardinals, monks, and priells, are rc- 
prefented in the torments of hell. Over againft the 
French church, on a long covered wall, is painted the 
dance of death; where the king of terrors is reprcfcnted 
as mixing with all ranks and ages, and complimenting 
them, in German verfes, on their arrival at the grave. 
St Peter's fquare, planted with elm and lime-trees, 
makes a pleafant walk ; but a fpot regularly planted 
with trees, clofe by the river, and near the minder, 
makes flill a finer, as commanding a mofl beautiful 
and extenfive profpect. The celebrated Erafuins died 
herein 15;^, in the 70th year of his age, and was 
buried in the great church. He left his library and 
cabineni of rarities to one Amberbach, a learneil law- 
yer of this city, of whole heirs ihey were purchafcd by 
the univerfity. Befides this cabinet, there are fevcral 
other curious private ones. The clocks of tliis city go 
an hour fafler than elfewhcrc, except at Conftance ; a 
circumllancc which fome afcribe to the famous councils 
held there, when it was thought the beft expedient to 
bring the fathers earlier to the aiTembly, for the quicker 
difpatch of bufniefs ; but others fay, that, in Bafil, it 
was owing to an alfault being defeated by that means. 
About 400 years ago, according to the flory, the city 
was threatened with an aflault by furprife. The ene- 
my was to begin the attack when the large clock of 
the tower at one end of the bridge fhould flrike one 
after midnight. The ariilt who had the care of the 
clock, being informed that this was the expedfd lig- 
nal, caufcd the clock to be altered, and it llruck two 
inilead of one ; fo the enemy thinking they were an 
hour too late, gave up the attempt : and in commemo- 
ration of this deliverance, all the clocks in Bafil have 
ever fince (Inick two at one o'clock, and fo on. In 
cafe this account of the inatter (hould not be fitisfaelo- 
ry, they fliow, by way of confirmation, ahead, which 
is placed near this patriotic clock, with the face 

turned to the road by which the enemy was to have toCl. 
entered. This fame head lolls out its tongue every ^~-^^~ 
minute, in the moll ini'ulting manner polfiblc. This 
was originally a piece ol mechanical wit of the famous 
clockmakcr's who laved the town. He framed it in 
derifionof the enemy, whom he had fo dcxteroully de- 
ceived. It has been repaired, renewed, and enabled 
to thruft out his tongue every minute for thefc fuur 
hundred years, by the care of the magillraics, who 
think fo excellent a joke cannot be too often repeated. 
Trade ftill riourilhes here, efpecially in filk, ribbons, 
and wines; and thepolice isundercxcellentregulations. 
Mod of the offices arc bellowed by lot among well qua- 
lified perfons. No perfon, without the city, mull wear 
lace of gold or filvcr. All young women are prohibited 
from wearing filks; and the nearcfl relations only arc 
to be invited to a marriage feafl. For thegovcrinncnt 
of the city there are feveral councils or colleges, and 
officers. Of the lafl, the two burgomallers, and two 
wardens of trades, are the chief. The great council 
is conipofcd of the reprefcntatives of the feveral com- 
panies of the greater and Icfl'cr city. Bafil was the fee 
ofabiffiop till the Reformation; but though there is 
one that llill bears the title, he has now no jiirifdidion 
here, and lives at Porentru, near the Upper Alface. 
The two BuxtortFs, father and fon, and the famous 
painter Holbein, were natives of this place. The coun- 
cil held here, in i43t, fat in the vellry of the cathe- 

Basil, in botany. SeeOcvMi'M. 
Basil, among joiners, the doping edge of a chilTel, 
or of the iron of a plane, to work on foft wood: they 
ufually make the bafil 12 degrees, and for hard wood 
18 ; it being remarked, that the more acute the bafil 
is, the better the inftrumcnt cuts; and the more ob- 
tufe, the flronger, and fitter it is for fervice. 

BASILEUS, /3«!J■;^fl;5, a title affiinied by the empe- 
rors of Conftaniinople, exclufive of all other princes, 
to whom they give the title rex, " king." The fame 
quality was afterwards given by them to the kings of 
Bulgaria, and to Charlemagne, from the fuccrflbrs of 
which lafl they endeavoured to wrefl it back again. 

The title bajileus has been fince allumed by other 
kings, particularly the kings of England, Ego EJgar 
totius Anglia: lafdeus cotifinnavi. Hence alfo the 
queen of England was intitled Baflea and Baflijfa. 

BASILIAN MONKS ; Religious of the order of 
St Bafil. That faint, having retired into a defart, in 
the province of Pontus, founded a monaftery for the 
convenience of himfelf and his numerous followers: and 
for the better regulation of this new focicty, he drew 
up in writing the orders and rides he would have them 
follow. This new order foon fpread all over the eaft ; 
nor was it long before it palled into the wed. The rule 
of St Bafil was approved by pope Liberius, the fame 
year in which it was written and publiflied ; and after- 
wards by feveral other popes ; and, in thefe lad ages, 
by pope Gregory XIll. who approved the abridge- 
ment made of it by cardinal Bellarion, in the pontifi- 
cate of Eugenius IV. — Some authors pretend, that St 
Bafil, before he died, faw himftlf the fpiritual father 
of more than go, ceo nonks, in the eaft only. But 
this order, which flourilhed fo greatly for more thaa 
three centuries, was afterwards coufidersibly diiuinilhed 


B A S [5 

Bafiilic. by herefy, fcUifm, and a ciiange of empire. The 
" » ' grcatcft ftorm it ftlt, was in the reign of Conftaniinc 
Copronymus ; who perfeciited liie monks of St Bafil, 
imprifoning fome, and banifning others ; infomnch that 
the monalteries were abandoned and fpoiled of all tlicir 

The hirtorians of this order tells us, that it has pro- 
duced l8o5bilhops; and beatified, or acknowlcdued as 
faints, ;?oio abbots, 11,805 martyrs, and an infinite 
number of confcfTors and virgins. They likcv.ife place 
among the religious of the order of St Balil 14 popes, 
fome cardinals, and a very great number of patriarchs, 
archbilhops, and bilhops. This order likewife boads 
of feveral emperors and emprcfles, kings and queens, 
princes and priucelTcs, who have embraced its rule. 

This order was introduced in the weA in 1057 ; and 
was reformed in 1569, by pope Gregory Xlll. who 
united the religious of this order in Italy, Spain, and 
Sicily, into one congregation ; of which the monaflery 
of St Saviour at Mcflina is the chief, and enjoys pre- 
eminence over the reft. Each community has its par- 
ticular rule, befides the rule of St Bafil, which is very 
general, and prcfcribes little more than the common 
duties of a Chriftian life. 

BASILIC, or Basilica, in the ancient architec- 
ture, denotes a kind of public hall or Court of judica- 
ture, where tlic princes or magirtrates fat to adminifter 
juflice. The word is originally Greek, Qxui^m*, q. a. 
royal haiife, palace. 

The bafilics coufifled of a great hall, wiih ailes, 
porticos, tribunes, and tribunals. The bankers loo 
liad one part of the bafilica allotted for their rclidence. 
The fcholars alfo went thither to make their declama- 
tions, according to the teflimony of Qjiintillian. In 
after-times the denomination hufilka was alfo given to 
other buildings of public ulir, astown-houfes, exchanges, 
burfes, and the like. Tlic Roman bnflica: were cover- 
ed, by which they were diflinguillied from the /en?, 
which were public places open to the air. The firfl 
bafilica was built at Rome by Cato the elder, whence 
it was called PorcM ; the fecond was called Opim'ta; 
the third was that of Paulus, built with a great ex- 
pence, and with much magnificence, whence it was 
called by fome reg'ila Paiili ,- another was built by Ju- 
lius Cxfar, called hafilka Julia ,- of which Viiruvius 
tells us he had the direftion. There were oihersalfo, 
to the number of eighteen or twenty. The bafdka 
Julia not only ferved for the hearing of caufes, but 
for the reception and audience of foreign ambafiiidors. 
It was fupported by an hundred marble pillars in four 
rows, and enriched with decorations of gold and pre- 
cious flones. In it were 15 tribunals or jiidgment 
feats, where the prastors fat to difpatch caufe.s. 

Basilic is alfo ufe<l, in ecclcfiaftioal writers, a 
church. In which frnfe, this name frciiucntly occurs 
in St Ambrofe, St Autlin, St Jcrom. Sidoniiis Apol- 
linari*, and oilier writers of the fourih and fifth cen- 
luries. It is thought that the name wr.s iluis applied, 
from many of the ancient churches having been formed 
of the Roman hills mentioned in the preceding article. 
In reality, on the convrrfion of Conflantine, many of 
the ancient halUiar were given to the cliiirrh, and 
lurned to another ufe, viz. for Chriflian afl'cniblics to 
meet in, as m.iy be collc<.*ted from that palfage in Aufo- 
nius, where f^)caliing to the emperor Giaiian, lie tells 


B A S 

him, the baflicr, which heretofore Wire went to be l.inilc 
filled with men of Inilinefs, were now thronged will) II 

votaries praying for his fafety. By which he mufl needs li^f'l'di-n'-, that the Roman halls or courts were mrncd into ^ " ' 
ChiilUan churches: and hence, we conceive, the name 
bafdicx came to be a general name for churches in alter 

Basilic is chiefly applied, in modern times, 10 
churches of royal foundation ; as tliofe of St John dc 
Lateran, and St Peter ot the Vatican at Rome, found- 
ed by the emperor Conllantine. 

Basil I cs were alfo little chapels built by tlic ancient 
Franks over the tombs of their great men, fo called, 
asrefembling the figure of thefacred /'«/7/c.r orc'uirch- 
es. Perfons of inferior condition had only tuii.b.r or 
porticuli eredled over them. By an article in ijic 
Salic law, he that robbed a tuiuba or forticulus, was to 
be fined fifteen foUdi; but he that robbed a bafilica, 
i\\iny Jclidi. 

Basilics, in literary hiflory, a name fuppofed to 
have been given by the emperor Leo to a colltflion of 
laws in honour of his father Bafilius Macedo, who be- 
gan it in the year 867, and in the execution chiefly 
made ufe of Sabbaihius Protofpaiharius, who carried the 
work as far as 40 books. Leo added 20 books more, 
and publiflied the work in 880. The whole, 50 years 
after, was corrected and improved by Conftantin Por- 
phyrogenitus, fim of Leo ; whence many have held him 
the author of the bafilica. Six books of the bafilica 
were tranllated into Latin in 1557, by Gentian Her- 
veius. An edition of the Greek bafilics, with a Latin 
verfion, lias been fincc publiihed at Paris, in l6.)7, by 
Annib. Fabroitus, in 7 volumes. There ftill want 19 
books, which are fuppofed to be loft. Fabrottus has 
endeavoured tofupply in fome meafurc thcdefcd from 
the fynopis of the bafilica, and the glolTes ; of which 
feveral had been made under the fiiccceding emperors, 
and contained the whole Juftinian law, excepting the 
fuperfluitics, in a new and more conlifteut order, toge- 
ther with the later conftitutions of the emperors polle- 
rior to Juftinian. 

BASILICA, in anatomy, the interior branch of 
the axillary vtin, running the whole length of ihc 

BASILICATA, a territory of Italy, bounded on 
the north by the Otranto, Bari, and Capitanaiaj on 
the weft by the Principaio, and a fmall part of the 
Tufcan fea ; on the fouth by Calabria ; and on the call 
by the gulph ot Taranro. It is watered by feveral ri- 
vers : but it is almoft all occupied by the Apcnnine 
mountains, it is neither very populous nor fertile ; how- 
ever it produces enough to maintain its inhabitants, 
and has a fmall quantity of coiion. The principal 
towns are Circnza the capital, Mcfi, Turfi, Rapollo, 
Muro, Lavcllo, Tracarico, Monte Pclofc, and Vmcfo, 
which ire sll cpilcopal fees. 

BASII.ICI, a denomination given in the Greek em- 
pire to iliofe who carried the emperor's orders .-.nd 

BASILICON, in pharmacy, a name given 10 fe- 
veral conipofiiions 10 be found in ancient medicinal 
writers. At prefcnt it is confineil to three officinal 
ointments, didinguiflied by the epithets black, yellow, 
and green. See Phar.macv. 

BASILIDIANS, ancicut heretics, the followers of 
2 Ba- 


B A S 

Barilippum Bifiliiles, an Egyiuian, who lived near the beginning 
of thi; fccond cemiiry. He was cJiicatcd in the Gno- 
flic Ichool, over which Simon M.igns prefnicii ; with 
whom he aijrecJ that Chriil was a man in appearance, 
th.u his body was a pliantom, and that he gave his 
form to Simon the Cyrcniaii, who was criicitied in Iiis 
llcaJ. We learn from Eiilcbins, that this herefiarch 
wrote 24 books upon the gofpcl, and that he forged 
fcveral prophets ; to two of which he gave the names 
Bart.tia and Barcoph. We have ftill the fragment of 
a Bafilidian gofpel. His difciples fiippofcd there were 
particular vinucs in names; and taught with Pytha- 
gorasand Plato, that nameswcre not formed by chance, 
but naturally iignitied fomething. — Bafilides, to imi- 
tate Pythagoras, made his difciples keep lilcnce for five 

In general, the Bafilidians held much the fame opi- 
nions with the Valeiitinians, another branch of the 
GnoUic family. They alferted, that all the actions of 
in;n are necelFary ; that faith is a natural gift, to which 
men are forcibly determined, and (houKl therefore be 
favtd tliough their lives were ever fo irregular. Ircnseus 
and oslicrs'aliure us, they afted confillently with their 
principle ; committing ail manner of villanies and im- 
puriiies, in confidence of their mtural election. They 
had a particular hierarchy of divine pcrfons, or .^^ons. 
Under the name Ahraxas, they are faid to have wor- 
ihippcd the fupreme God, from whom as a principle, 
all other thingsprocceded. There are feveral gems Hill 
fubfilling, infcribfd with the name Abraxas, which were 
iifcd by the Bafilidians as anudets againft difeafes and 
evil fpirits. See Abrasax and Abrax. 

B.^SILIPPUM (anc. gcog.), a town of Bcetica in 
Spain ; now Cant'stl.ina, a citadel of Andalufia, above 
Seville on the Guadalquivir. 

BASILISCUS, in zoology, the trivial name of a 
fpccies of lacerta. SccLacfrta. 

BASILISK, a fabidous kind of ftrpent, faid to kill 
by its breath or light only. Galen fays, that it is of 
a colour inclining to yellow ; and that it has three little 
eminences upon its head, fpeckltd witli whitilli fpots, 
which have the appearance of a fort of crown. Ailian 
fays, that its poifon is fo penetrating, as to kill the 
largcfl ferpents with its vapour only ; and that if it but 
bite the end of any man's (lick, it kills him. It drives 
away all other ferpents by the noife of its biffing. 
Pliny fays, it kills thofe who look upon it. — The ge- 
neration of the bafililk is not lefs marvellous, being faid 
to be produced from a cock's egi;, brooded on by a 
ferpent. Thefc, and other things equally ridiculous, 
arc related by Matihioliis, Galen, Diofcorides, Pliny, 
and Erafiftratus. Hirchmayer and Vander Wiel have 
given the hiftory of the balililk, and deteditcd the folly 
and impofturc of the traditions concerning it. — In fome 
apothecaries flwps there are little dead ferpents fliown, 
whish are faid to he bafilifks. But thcfe feem rather 
to be a kind of fmall bird, almoft like a cock, but with- 
out feathers : its head is lofty, its wings are almoft 
like a bat's its eyes large, and it neck is very Ihort. 
As to thofe which arc (hown and fold at Venice, and 
in other places, they are nothing but little thornbacks 
artificially put into a form like that of a young cock, 
by llretching out their fins, and contriving them with 
a little head and hollow eyes : and this, Calmet fays, he 

56 ] B A S 

has in reality obferved in a fuppofed bafililk, «t sin 
apothecary's Ihop at Paris, and in another at the Je- 
fdiis of Pont-a-Moudon. 

Basilisk, in military affairs, a large piece of ord- 
nance, thus denominated from its refembUncc to the 
fuppofed ferpent of that name. The bafdilk dirows 
an iron ball of 200 pound weight. It was much talked 
of in the time of Sulyman emperor of the Turks, in 
the wars of Hungary ; but ieems now out of ufc. 
Paulus Jovius relates the terrible (laughter made by a 
finglc ball from one of thefe balililks in a Spanilh fiiip ; 
after penetrating the boards and planks in the Ihip's 
head, it killed above ;o men. Maffeus ("peaks of bi- 
fililks made of brafs, wliich were drawn each by icx) 
yoke of oxen. — Modern writers alfo give the name ka. 
jilijk to a much (mailer and fizeable piece of ordnance, 
which the Dutch make 15 feet long, and the Krci:th 
only 10. It carries 48 poinids. 

B.'\SILIUS, furnamed the fllacedcuian emperor 
of the Greeks. He was a coniinou foldier, and of an 
ob((:ure I'amily in Macedonia, and yet railed himfclf to 
tiie throne ; for having pleafed the emperor Michael by 
his addrcfs in the nianagcmcnt of his horfes, he became 
his lirll equerry, and then his great Chamberlain. He 
at length allainnatcd the famous Bardas, and was af- 
fociated to the empire in 849. He held the eighth 
general council at Conftantinople ; dcpoledihc patriarch 
Phoiius, but in S5S rcllorcd him to the patriarchate ; 
and declared againfl tlic popes, who refufed to admit 
him into their communion. He was dreaded by his 
enemies the Saracens, whom he frtqucntly vanquiflicd ; 
and loved by his fubjects, for his jullice and clemency. 
He died in 8S6. Under his reign the Ruffians em- 
braced Chridianiiy, and the doclrinc of the Greek 
church. He ought not to be confounded with Balilius 
the Young, who fucceeded Zemifces in 975, and after 
a reign of jo years died in 1025. 

BASINGSTOKE, a corporation-town of Hamp- 
(liire in England, and a great thoroughfare on the 
weflcrn road. It is feaied on a fmall brook, in W. 
Long. I. 10. N. Lat. 51. 20. 

BASIOGLOSSUS, a mufclc'arifing from the bafc 
of the OS hyoidcs. Sec Anatomy, Tai/e of the 

BASIS, or bafe, in geometry. See Base. 

Basis, or Bafc, in clicniiflry, any body which is 
ditlblved by another body, which it receives ant! tixes, 
and with which it forms a compound, inay be called 
the bafii of that compound. Thus, for example, tlie 
bafes of neutral falls are the alkaline, earthy, and me- 
tallic matters which are faturated by the feveial acids, 
and form with them thcfe neutral falts. In this fenfc 
it is that thefe falts arc called /aZ/j w;M ««;//))' 
biifcs, falts with alkaline bafcs, falts with metallic bafes : 
alfo the appellations bafis of alum, bafs of nitre, bafs 
ofClatiber'sfalt, bafs of vitriol, &c. fignify the argil- 
laceous earth, which, with the vitriolic acid, forms 
alum ; the vegetable alkali, which, with the nitrons 
acid, forms nitre ; and mineral alkali, which, with the 
vitriolic acid, forms Ghubcr's fait ; and the metal 
which, with the vitriolic acid, forms a vitriol ; becaufe 
thefc fubllanccs arc fuppofed to be fixed, unaclive, and 
only yielding to the action of the acids, which they 
fix, and to which they give a body and conliflence. 


B A S 


Basis, among phyficians, denotes the principal in- 
gredients in compound medicines. 

BASKERVILLE (Jolui), an eminent artill, efpc- 
cialiy in lettcr-foiindiiig and printing, of the prefcnt 
century. He was born in 1706 at Woverley in Wor- 
ccfterlhire, and was licir to an cflaie of about L. 60 
a-year ; the wliolc of wliich income he allowed to his 
parents till their deaths. In his early years he con- 
ceived a love for fine writing, and cutting in Hone ; 
and being brought up to no particular profeflion, he 
commenced wriiing-maller in Birmingham when about 
20 years of age. The improvements in ditl'trcnt ma- 
nufactures there foon drew his attention, and he ap- 
plied to the japan bufmefs, which lie carried on for a 
long time with dilVmguilhed excellence and fucccfs. 
In 1750 he applied himfclf to letter-founding, the 
bringing of which to pertcftion coil him much labour 
and expence. In a few years he proceeded to print- 
ing; and his iirfb work was an edition of Virgil on 
royal quarto, which now fells for three guineas. In 
a ihort time he obtained leave from the univerfity of 
Cambridge to print a Bible, in royal folio, and edi- 
tions of the Common Prayer in three Iizcs ; for whicli 
he paid a large fum to the univerlity. He afterwards 
printed Horace, Terence, Catullus, Lucretius, Juve- 
nal, Sallull, and Florus, in royal quarto; Virgil in 
odlavo ; and fevcral books in duodecimo. He pub- 
liflied likewife fume of the Englidi clalFics. The befl 
tellimonies of the merit of thefe performances are ihem- 
felves; and Mr Bafkcrvillc'snamc is dcfervedly ranked 
among thofe who, in modern times, have brought the 
art of printing to its greatell perfeClion. Not meet- 
ing, however, with that encouragement from the book- 
fellers which he expeifled, he fct up a letter-foundery 
for fale a little before his death. He died without il- 
fue in July 1785. 

BASKET, an uienfil made of twigs interwoven 
together, in order to hold fruit, e«w, Uc. As a 
nieafure, it denotes an uncertain quantity ; as, a bafket 
of medlars is two bufliels, of afafcetida from 20 to 50 
pound weight. The ancient Britons were noted for 
their ingenuity in making balkets, which they export- 
ed in large quantities. Thefc balkets were of very 
elegant workmanlhip, and bore a high price ; and arc 
mentioned by Juvcnai among the extravagant cxpcnfive 
furniture of the lloman tables in his time. 

MJt el biifcaudas et iitilli efcarin. 

Add balkets, and a thoufand other didies. 

That thefe balkets were manufa(5lurcd in Britain, wc 
learn from the following epigram ol Martial : 

Barbara de pifiis z'tni hafcauda Britaniiis, 
SiJ me jam mavtilt d'icere Roma fuam. 

A balkct I, by painted Britons wrought. 
And now to Rome's imperial city brought. 

B 4iKErs of Earth, in the military art, called by the 
French coriei/fcs, are fmall balkels ufcd in lirgcs, on 
the parapet of a trench, being filled with canh. They 
arc about a foot and a half his^h, about a foot and a 
half in diameter at the top, and 8 or 10 inches at bot- 
tom ; fo that, being fct together, there is a fort of ini- 
brafures left at their bottoms, through which the fol- 
diers fire, without cxpofing thcmfclvcs. 
Vol. III. 

57 ] B A S 

BASK£X-FiJli, a fpecies of Sea-Star. See Aste- Xiftct 
RIAS. y 

BASKET-Salt, that made from falt-fprings, being E^fi^ig*- 
purer, whiter, andcompofed of finer grains, than the '~~^' 
common brine-falt. See Salt. * 

BASKINGsHARK, or Svs-FiJhoftheJriJh. See 

B.^SNAGE (James), a learned and accomplilhed 
author, and paltor of the Walloon church at the 
Hague, was born at Roan in Normandy, Augufl 8. 
165:5. He was the fon of Henry Bafnage, one of the 
ablefl advocates in the parliament of Normandy. At 
17 years of age, after he had made himfclf mailer of 
the Greek and Latin authors, as well as the Englifli, 
Spanifli, and Italian languages, he went to Geneva, 
where he began his divinity ftudies under Mcflrezat, 
Turreiin and Tronchin ; and finillied them at Sedan, 
under the profeflijrs Juricu and Le Blanc de Beaulieu. 
He then returned to Roan, where he was received as 
rainifter, September 1676, in which capacity he re- 
mained till the year 168 j, when, the cxcrcife of the 
Proteftant religion being fupprelftd at Roan, he ob- 
tained leave of the king to retire to Holland. He 
fettled ai Rotterdam; and was a niinifter penfionary 
there till 1691, when he was chofen pallor ot the Wal- 
loon church of that city. In 1709, Ptnlionary Hcin- 
fius got him choftn one of the pallors of the Walloon 
cliurch at the Hague, intending not only to employ 
him in religious but in llaic affairs. He was employed 
in a fccrc-t negociation with mardial d'Uxelles, pUnipo- 
tcntiary of France at the Congrcfs of Utrtciit ; and he 
executed it with fo much fucccfs, tliat he was after- 
wards enirulled with ftveral imporiani commiliions, all 
which he difchargei! in fuch a manner as to gain a 
great charader for his abilities and addrefs ; a cele- 
brated modern writer has therefore laid of him, that he 
was filter to be minillcrof Hate than of a parifli. The 
abbe du Bois, who was at the Hague in 1716, as am- 
balfador plcnipotcntiry from his moll Chriftian niaje- 
fly, to negociate a defenfive alliance between France, 
England, and the Stales-General, was ordered by tlie 
Duke of Orleans, regent of France, to apply himfclf 
to M. Bafnage, and to follow his advice: they accord- 
ingly aded in concert, and the alliance was concluded 
in January 1717. He kept an cpillolary corrcfpon- 
dcnce withfeveral princes, noblemen of high rank, and 
niinifters of Hate, both Caiholic and Proiellant, and 
with a great many learned men in France, Italy, Ger- 
many, and England. The Catholics cllcen:ed him i;o 
lefs than the Proleftants; and the works he wrote, 
wiiich arc moftly in French, fpread his reputation al- 
mod all over Europe: among thefe arc, I. Tiie Hillo- 
ry of the Religion of the Reformed Churches. 2. Jew- 
ilh Antiquities. 5. The Hillory of the Old and New 
Tcflament ; and many others. He died September 
22. 172;. 

Basnage (Henry) Sieur de Bcauval, fecond fon to 
Henry Bain ige, and brother to Jiniesmculiontd inthc 
lall article. He applied liiuilllf to the lludy of the 
law, and was adiuitied advocate in ihe parliament of 
of Roan, in the year 1679. He did not follow the bar 
immediately upon his admiirion ; hut went to Valencia, 
where he lludied under M. de Marvillc. Upon his re- 
turn from thence, he praclifcd with great reputation till 
the year 16S7, when the revocation of the cdift of 
H Nants 

13 A S 

[ 58 ] 

B A S 

Nantz obliged him to fly to Holland, where he com- 
pofcd the grcateft part of his works, and died there 
the 29th of March, 1710. His chief work is Hijioire 
des ouvragis da Sfavans. Rottcrd. 24 vol. in duode- 
cimo. This work was begun in the month of Septem- 
ber 1687, and continued till June 1709. When he ar- 
rived in Holland, Mr Baylc, through indifpolition, 
had been obliged to drophis Ao//t'f//t/ de In Rijyuhliqtie 
dis Lcttns, which induced Mr Bafnagc to undertake 
a wc>rk of the fame kind under a diti'crcni title. 

BASON, in hydratdics, a rtfcrvoir of water, ufed 
for various purpot'cs : thus we fay, Thi baj'on of a jet 
d'eau, the bafon ofa fountain, and likcwife thi bafoii of 
a port nx harbour. 

Bason, in Jewifh antiquities, the laver of the taber- 
nacle, made of the brafs looking-glalfes belonging to 
thofc devout women that watched and flood ceniincls 
at the door of the tabernacle. 

Bason, or Z)//?', among glafs-grinders. Thtfc ar- 
tificers ufc various kinds of bafons, of copper, iron, 
&c. and of various forms, fomc deeper, others ihal- 
lower, according to the focus of the glallcs tiiat are to 
be ground. In ihcfe bafons it is that convex glalfcs 
are formed, as concave ones are formed on fpheres or 

Glafles are worked in bafons two ways. — In tlie 
lu-(l, the bafon is fitted to the arbor or tree of a hth, 
and the glafs (fixed wiili cement to a handle of wood) 
prefcnted and held fa(l in the riglit hand within the 
bafon, while the proper motion is given by the foot 
of the bafon. In the other, the bafon is fixed to a 
Jfand or block, and the glafs with its wooden handle 
moved. The moveable bafons are very fmall, fcldom 
exceeding five or fix inches in diameter ; the otliers 
are larger, fometimcs above ten feet diameter. After 
the glafs has been ground in the bafon, it is brought 
fmoother with greafe and emery ; and polilhcd iirll 
with tripoti, and finiflied with paper cemented to the 
bottom of the bafon. 

Bason, among hatters, is a large round (liell or 
cafe, ordinarily of iron, placed over a furnace ; where- 
in the matter of tlie hat is moulded into form. The 
hatters have alfo bafons for the brims of hats, ufually 
of lead, having an aperture in the middle, of a dia- 
meter fufKcient for the largefl block to go through. 

B.ASQUES, a fmall territory of France, towards 
the Pyrenean mountains. It comprehends Labour, 
Lower Navarre, and the diftriif of Soule. 

BASS, the lowcft in the four pans of mufic: of 
uncertain etymology ; whether from the Greek word 
;?aT/c, a foundation ; or from the Italian adjcdive bajfo, 
jignifying " low." Of ail the parts it is the moft im- 
portant, and it is upon this that the chords proper 
to couftiiute a particular harmony are determined. 
Hence the maxim among niuficians, that when ihe 
bafs is properly formed, the harmony can fcarcely be 

BalTes are of different kinds. Of which in their 

Thoroiigh-BA-^s is the harmony made by the bafs- 
viols, or theorbos, continuing to play botli while the 
voices fing, and the other inflruinents pcrforui their 
parts, and alfo filling up the intervals when any of the 
other parts flop. It is played by figures marked over 
the notes, on the organ, fpiiiet, harpfichord. Sec. and 


frequently fimply and without figures on the bafs-viol 
and b;ilfoon. 

Cou/itir Bass is a fecond or double bafs, where there " •^ — ' 

are fcveral in the fame concert. 

Bass-1 lol, a mulkal inllriimcnt of the like form 
with that of a violin, but much larger. It is llruck 
with a bow, as that is; has the fame number of Itriiigs; 
and has eight Hops, which are fubdivided into fcini- 
ftops: Its iound is grave, and has a much nobler etictc 
in a concert than that of the violin. 

Bass (iile of), a rock, about a mile in circumfe- 
rence, in the mouth of the Kritli of Korth, at a Imall 
diflance from the town 01 North Berwick, in Kali Lo- 
thian. It is llccp and inaccellible on all fides, except 
to the fouth-wed ; and even there it is with great dif- 
ficulty that a lingle man can climb up with the help of 
a rope or ladder. It \ias formerly kept as a ganifon. 
A party of King James's adherents furprifed it at the 
llevolution, and it was thelalf place in the three king- 
doms that fubmitted to the new government; upon 
which, its fortifications were ordered to be iiegleded. 
In f.immer, this remarkable rock, which rifes to a great 
height above the water, in form of a cone, is quite co- 
vered with fea-fowl which come hither to breed. The 
chief of thel'e are the folon geefef, which arrive in •(■ See/'</i 
June, and retire in September. It alfo contains a Imall canui. 
warren of rabbits, and affords palture for a few iheep. 
The force of the tides have now ainioll worn a hole 
quite through this rock. W. Long. 2. 15. N. Lat. 
56. 3. 

B.-^SSAN (Giacomo de Pont), or le Bassan, a cele- 
brated Venetian painter, was born ini5lo. His fub- 
jeds were generally peal'ants and villagers, bufyat their 
ditferent rural occupations, according to the various 
feafons of the year ; cattle, landfcapes, and liiilorical 
dcfigus; and in all thofc fubjcds the figures were well 
defigned, and the animals and landfcapes have an agree- 
able refemblaiict of llniple nature. His compolitions 
cannot boall of much elegance or grandeur of tallc, 
not even thofe which are hillorical ; but they have 
abundance of force and traih. His local colours are 
very well olifcrvcd, his carnations are frefli and bril- 
liant, and the chiaro-fcuro and pcrfpeflivc well under- 
flood. His touch is free and fpiritcd ; and the diilan- 
ces in his landfcapes are always true, if not fomctimes 
too dark in the nearer parts. His works are fpread 
all over Europe: many of them were purchafed by 
Titian ; and there are feveral in the French king's ca- 
binet, the royal palace, and the Hotel de Touloufe. 
They are more readily known than thofe of moll other 
painters; from the fimilitude of characters and counte- 
nances in the figures and animals; from the ta/le in 
the buildings, utenfils, and draperies, and, befide, 
from a violet or purple tint that predominates in every 
one of his pi-Jlures. But the genuine pictures of his 
hand are not fo eafily afcertained ; becaufe he frequent- 
ly repeated the fame defign, and his fons were moflly 
employed in copying the works of their father, which 
he ibnietimcs retouched. As he lived to be very old, 
he finilhcd a great number of pi(?hires; yet noiwilh- 
(landing his application and years, the real pictures of 
Giacomo are not commonly met with. Many of thofe 
which are called originals by purchafcrs as well as 
dealers, being at bcfl no more than copies by the fons 
of Balian, who were far inferior 10 him ; or perhaps 


DAS [ s 

Baffaiii, by Tome painter of flill meaner abilities. But ihc true 
Baffantin. picl:iires of Giacomo always bear a confiderable price 
' ' 'if they happen lo be undamaged. He died in 1592, 
aj^eJ 82 — Krsiicis and Lcander, his Tons, diftiiigtiilh- 
ed themfclves in the fame art; but inheriting a fpecies 
of lunacy from their mother, both came to an untimely 

BASSANI (Giovanni Battilla), maeftro di cap- 
pella of the cathedral church of Bologna about the 
middle of the la!t century, was a very voluminous com- 
pofer of mudc, having given tothe world no fewer than 
51 different works. He is equally celebrated both as 
a compofer for the church and for concerts ; and was 
befides a celebrated performer on the violin, and, as it 
is laid, taught Corclli on that inllrument. His compo- 
fitions conlill of malles, pfaluis, motels with inltru- 
mental pans, and fonatas for violins: his fifth opera in 
particuhr, containing 12 fonatas for two violins and a 
bafs, is much eflcenied ; it is written in a ftylc wonder- 
fully grave and pathetic, and abounds with evidences of 
great learning and fine invention. The firll and third 
operas of Corelli are apparently formed after the model 
of this work. Badani was one of the iirfl who com- 
pofed motets for a iingle voice, with acconi]'animents 
of violins ; a practice wliich is liable to objeflion, as it 
allimilatc s cluirch-mufic too nearly to that of the cham- 
ber ; and of his folo-motets it mull be confelTcd that 
tluy differ in ffyle but little from opera airs and can- 
tatas : two operas of them, viz. the eight and thir- 
teenth, were primed in London by Pcarfon above 50 
years ago, with the title o( Hannoiiia Fejliva. 

BASSANTIN (James), a Scotch aftronomer, fon 
of the Laird of Bail'jntin iu Mcrs, was born in the reign 
of James IV. He was educated at the univerlity of 
Glalgow, travelled through Germany and Italy, and 
then fixed his abode in the uuiverfuy of Paris, where 
he taught mathematics with great applaufe. Having 
acquired fome fortune in this occupation in 1562, he 
returned to Scotland, were he died in the year 156S. 
From his writings, he ajipcars to have been no con- 
temptible aflronomcr, cunlidering the times; but, like 
moll of the mathematicians ot that age, he was not a 
little addi(5tcd to judicial allrology. Sir James Melvil, 
in his Memoirs, fays that his brother Sir Robert, when 
he was exerting bis abilities to reconcile the twoquceus 
Elizabeth and I\Iary, met with one Baifantin, a man 
learned in the high fcicnces, who told bini, " that all 
his travel would be in vain ; for, faid he, they will tic- 
ver meet together ; and next, there will never be any 
thing but dill'embling and fecret haired for a while, and 
at length captivity and utter wreck to our queen from 
England." He added, " that the kingdom of Eng- 
land at length ihall fall, of right, to the crown of Scot- 
land : but it fliall coll many bloody battles ; and the 
Spaniards Ihall be helpers, and take a part to themfclves 
for their labour." Sir James Melvil is an author of 
credit ; therefore it is probable that our allrologcr ven- 
tured to utter his prediction : but, as it proved true 
only in part, either he mifuu IrrflooJ ihc flars, or they 
deceived t!ie allrologer. — His works are, I. AJIrouo- 
viiii J.uobi Bitjfa/il:/;i Scoti, opus al/oLiliJIimuiii, &c. tcr 
cdilum Latine el C alike. Gene v. 1599, '"'• This is 
the title given it by Tornaeliu';, who tranllated it into 
Latin from the French, in which language it was liril 
Ifublilllcd. 2. Paraphrafe de /' /4JlroJa!>e, avec tiii am- 

9 ] 

B A 8 

plificathii dc i'i'fugc di I' Aflrolabt. Lyons i;5J. Paris, 
161 7, 8vo. 3. Matheniiittc. gctiiihliaca. 4. Jrith- 
vietka. J. Mufica ficundum Platouem. 6. D: inn- ^ 
theft in genere, 

BA5>SE, or Bass, a town of the French Nctiicr- 
lands, in tlic county of Flanders, on the confines of Ar- 
tois, remarkable on account of the many ficgcs it has 
fuitained : but its forlificaiions arc now demolilhed. It 
is feated on a canal which runs as far as Deule. Y.. 
Long. 3. o. N. Lat. jo. J3. 

Basse Tim, part of the illand of St Chriftopher's, 
one of the Carribbec iliands, formerly occupied by the 
F'rench, but ceded to Great Britain by the treaty of 
Utrecht in i 713. 

BASSET, or Basette, a game with cards, faij 
to have been invented by a noble Venetian, for which 
he was banilhcd. It was firll introduced into France 
by Signior Jufliniani, ambalTador of Venice, in 1674. 
Severe laws were made againft it by Louis XIV. to 
elude which they difguifed balFet under the name of 
pour ir coiitre, that is, " lor and againft," which oc- 
calioncd new arrets and prohibitions of parliament. 
The parties concerned in it are, a dealer or banker ; 
his allillant, who fiipervifes the lofmg cards; and the 
punter, or any one who plays againll the banker. 

Bclides thefe, there are other terms ufed in this 
game ; as, i. The J'njfi or fucc, which is the firfl card 
turned up ly the taillcur belonging to the pack, by 
which he gains half the value of the money laid down 
on every card of that fort by the punters. 2. The 
conch, or firll money which every punter puts on each 
card; each perfon that plays having a book of 13 fe- 
veral cards before him, on which he may lay his mo- 
ny, more or lefs, at difcretion. 3. The paroli , 
which is, when a punter having won the firll flake, 
and having a mind to purfue his good fortune, crooks 
the corner of his card, and lets his prize lie, aimingat 
a fift it U va. 4. The Pici[fi ; when having won the 
firll Hake, the punter is willing to venture more money 
on the fame card. y. Tht pay ; when the punter ha- 
ving won the firll Hake, be it a fliilling, half-crown, 
guinea, or whatever he laid down on his card, and not 
caring to hazard the paroli, leaves oft", or goes thi pay : 
in which cafe, if the card turn up wrong, he lofes no- 
thing, having won the couch before ; wlicrcas, if it 
turn right, he by this adventure wins double the mo- 
ney llakcd. 6. The alpiiw ; much the fame with 
parolia, and ufed when a couch is won by turning up 
or crooking the corner of the winning card. i>ipt 
It Ic va, the firfl great chance or prize, when the pun- 
ter, having won the couch, makes a paroli, and goes 
on to a fecond chance ; fo that if his winning card turns 
up again, it comes to fept et L- va, which is fcvcn 
times as much as he laid down on his card. S. Q^iinze 
et le va is the next higher prize, when the punter lia- 
ving won the former, is refolved to pulh his fortune, 
and lay his money a fecond time on the fame card by 
crooking another corner ; in which cafe, if it comes 
up, he wins fifteen times the money he laid down. 

9. Trei't et le va is the next higher prize, when ibc 
punter, crooking the fourth cornerof his winning card, 
if it turn up, wins 3; limes the money lie firfl (laked. 

10. Soixant et le va is the highcA prize, and intiilts 
the winner to 67 times his firll money ; which, if ic 
wtic confiderable, flands s chance to break the bank : 

11 2 but 



B A S 

[ 60 ] 

B A S 

UalTet, but the bank ftands many chances firft of breaking 
DalTetinj. the punter. This cannot be won but by the taillcur's 
* '■' ' dealing the cards over again. 

The rules of the game of bafTct are as follow : i. The 
banker holds a pack of 52 cards, and having fluiffltd 
them, he turns the whole pack at once, fo as to dif- 
cover the lafl card ; after which he lays down all the 
cards by couples. 2. The punter has his book of 13 
cards in his hand, from the king to the ace ; out of 
thefe he takes one card, or more, at pleafure, upon 
which he lays a rtakc. ^. The punter may, at his 
choice, either lay down his ftake before the pack is 
turned, or immediately after it is turned, or alter any 
number of couples are down. 4. Sjppoling the pun- 
ter to lay down his (lake after the pack is turned, and 
calling I, 2, ■}, 4, 5, &c. the places of thofe cards 
which follow the card in view, cither immediately after 
the pack is turned, or after any number of couples are 
drawn. Then, 5. If the card upon which the punter 
has laid a rtake conns out in any even place, except 
the firlt, he wins a ftake equal to his own. 6. If the 
card upon which the punier has laid a ftake comes out 
in any even place, except the fccond, he lolcs hisAake. 

7. If the card of the punter comes out in the firll place, 
lie neither wins nor lofcs, but takes his own Aake again. 

8. If the card of the punier comes out in the fccond 
place, he does not lofe his whole flake, but only one 
Iialf ; and this is the cafe in which the punter is faid to 
be facuL 9. When the punter choofes to come in 
after any number of couples arc down, if his card hap- 
pens to be put once in the pack and is the lad of all, 
there is an excepiion from the general rule ; for though 
ir comes out in an odd place, which (liould entitle him 
to win a ftake equal to his own, yet he neither wins 
nor lofes from that circuraftance, but takes back his 
own ftake. 

This game has been the objedt of mathematical cal- 
culations. M. de Moivre folves this problem : to cfti- 
juate at ballet the lofs of the punrer under any circum- 
llance of cards remaining in the ftock when he lays his 
flake, and of any number of times that his card is re- 
peated in the ftock. From this folution he has formed 
.T table (bowing the fcveral lolfes of the punter in what- 
foever circumllances he may happen to be. From this 
table it appears, i. That the fewer the cards are in 
tlie ftock, the greater is the lofs of the punter. 2. That 
the leaft lofs of tlie punter, nnder the fame circuinftan- 
ces of cards remaining in the ftock, is when his card 
is but twice in it ; the next greater when but three 
times ; ftill greater when four times ; and the grcateft 
when but once. The gain of the banker upon ail the 
money adventured at baflel is ijs. ^d. per cinit. 

Basset (Peter), a gentleman of a good family, 
was chamberlain, or geniieman of the privy-chamber, 
10 King Henry V. a conftant attendant on that brave 
prince, and an eye-witnefs of his moll glorious ai.1ions 
both at home and abroad ; all which he particularly de- 
fcribedin avolume intitled, T/<e AHi of King Henry I'. 
which remains in MS. in the college of heralds. 

BASSETING, in the coal mines, denotes the rife 
of the vein of coal towards the furface of the earth, till 
it come within two or three feet of the furface itfclf. 
This is alfo called by the workmen crop'wg ; and ftands 
oppofed to dipping, which is the dcfcent of the vein to 

fuch a depth that it is rarely, if ever, followed to the 

B.ASSIA ; a genus of the monogynia order, belong- 
ing to the dodecandria clafs of plains ; the chaiafltrs of 
which are : The calyx is quadriphyllous ; the corolla 
oftolid, with the tube inflaitd ; the llaniina are 16 ; 
and ihe drupe is quinqucfpennous. There is but one 
fpccics, ihc longifolia, a native of Malabar. 

B,-\SSOrei iEvo,(>r Bass-re 1 I Er ; apieceof fculp- 
ture, where the figures or images do not protiibcraie, 
jet, or ftand out, lar above the plane on which they 
are formed. — Whatever figures or rcprefentations arc 
thus cui, Ihmpcd, or oiherwife wrought, fo that not 
the entire body, but only part of it, is raifed above the 
plane, are laid to be done in rtlief, or relievo ,- and when 
that work is low, ftat, and but little raifed, it is oallcJ 
It'.o relief. When a piece of fculptnre, a coin, or a me- 
dal, has its figure raifed fo as to be well diftinguilhed, 
it is called bold, and wc fay its relief is jlroiig. 

BASSOON, a mulical inftrumcnt of the wind forr, 
blown with a reed, furnilhcd with n holes, andufcd as 
a bafs in a concert of hautboys, flutes, S:c. — To render 
this inftrumcnt more portable, it is divided into two 
parts, whence it is alfo called a jagot. Its diameter at 
bottom is nine inches, and its holes arc Hopped like 
thefc of a large flute. 

BASSORA, Balsora, or Bafrah, a city between 
Arabia and Pcrlia, fituatcd in the cxiremity of the 
defarts of Irak, a little to the weft of the Tigris, in 
about 57° caft longitude, and ^o" north latitude. It 
was built by the command of the khalif Omar, in 
the 15th year of the Hegira, for the fake of carrying 
on more conimodioully an extenfivc commerce between 
the Syrians, Arabians, Perlians, and Indians. It is at 
prcfciu a very famous empory of the Eaft; and ftands 
upon a thick ftony foil, as the word hafra imports, a- 
bout a day and a half's journey from one of the inouihs 
of the Tigris, where it empties ilfelf into the Pcrfian 
Gulf, denominated likewife from this town the Bay nf 
Bufra. The circumjacent trad is looked ujion by the 
Arabs to be one of the nioft delightful fpots in Afia, 
and even as one of the moft beautiful gardens in ihc 
world ; however, the hot winds that frequently blow 
there are very iroublefonie to travellers, and fometimes 
overwhelm ihem with fand driven by the force of thefe 
winds out of the neighbouring defarts. The city is in- 
habited by Jacobites, Neftorians, Jews, Mahometans, 
and Chaldean Chriftians, commonly called Chrijiiam of 
St John, which laft are pretty numerous here. 

The Abbe Raynal values the merchandilc annually 
brought to Baflbra at L. 525,000 : of which the Eng- 
lilh furnilh L. 175,000 ; the Dutch L. 87,500; and the 
Moors, Banians, Armenians, and Arabs, furnilh the 
remainder. " The cargoes of thefe nations (fays he) 
conlift of rice; fugar; plain, ftriped,and flowered mnf- 
lins from Bengal ; fpices from Ceylon and the Molucca 
illands ; coarfe, white, and blue cottons from Coro- 
mandcl ; cardamum, pepper, fandcrs-wood, from Ma- 
labar; gold and fdver ftufFs, turbans, fhawls, indigo, 
from Surat; pearls from Baharen, and coffee from Mo- 
cha ; iron, lead, and woollen cloth, from Europe. O- 
ther articles of lefs confequence are imported from dif- 
ferent places. Some of thefe commodities are fliipped 
on board fmall Arabian vcfTels; but the greater part is 





B A S 

[ 6i ] 

B A S 

Daffora, brought by European (hips, which have the advantage 
Baftard. of a confidcrablc freight. 

" ^— ' " This nierchandife is fold for ready money ; and 
palfcs through the hands of the Greeks, Jews, and Ar- 
menians. The Banians are employed in changing the 
coin current at Ballbra, for that which is of higher va- 
lue in India. 

" The different commodities coUefted at BaiTora are 
diftribiJtcd into three channels. One of half them goes 
to Perlia, whether they are conveyed by the caravans ; 
there being no navigjble river in the whole empire. 
The chief confumption is in the northern provinces, 
which have not been fo much ravaged as thole of the 
fouth. Both of them formerly made their payments in 
precious (lones, wliich were become common by the 
plunder of India. They had afterwards recourfe to 
copper utcniils, which had been exceedingly nuiliiplicd 
from the great abundance of copper mines. Atlalt they 
gave gold and iilver in exchange, which had been con- 
cealed during a long fcene of tyranny, and arc conii- 
nually dug out of the bowels of the earth. If they do 
not allow time for the trees that produce gum, and 
have been cut to make frelh Ihoots ; if they neglceT: to 
multiply the breed of goats which afford fuch fine wool ; 
and if the lilks, which are hardly fujFicient to fupply the 
few nianufadurcs remaining in Fcrlia, continue to be 
fo fcarce ; in a word, if this empire does not rile again 
from its alhes ; the mines will be exhanlled, and this 
fource of commerce mull be given up." 

BASTARD, a natural child, or one begotten and 
born out of lawful wedlock. 
ShtlJIoni The civil and canon laws do not allow a child to re- 
Zsmmtnt. main a ballard, if the parents afterwards intermarry : 
and herein they diftcr moll materially from our law ; 
which though not fo ftriifl as to require that the child 
fliall be begotten, yet makes it an indifpenfablc condition 
that it fliall be bom, after lawful wedlock. And the 
reafon of our hw is furely much fupcrior to that of the 
Roman, if we confider the principal end and dcllgn of 
eftabiilhing the contract of marriage, taken in a civil 
light; abilraifledly from any religious view, which has 
nothing to do with the legitimacy or illegitimacy of 
the children. The main end and defign of marriage, 
therefore, being to afcertain and fix upon fomc certain 
perfon, to whom the care, the protedion, the main- 
tenance, and the education of the children, Ihould be- 
long ; this end is undoubtedly bciter anfwered by le- 
gitimating all ilfuc born after wedlock, than by legiti- 
mating all ilTue of the fan^c parties, even born bclorc 
wedlock, fo as wedlock afterwards enfucs : i. Becaule 
of the very great uncertainty there will generally be, 
in the proof that the ifllic was really begotten by the 
fame man ; whereas, by confining the proof to the 
birth, and not to the begetting, our law has rendered 
it perfedly certain, what child is Icgilimaic, and who 
is to take care of the child. 2. Becaufe by the Ro- 
wan law a child may be continued a baftard, or made 
Icgiiimatc, at the option of the father and mother, by 
a marriage ex pojl fafh ; thereby opening a door to 
many frauds and partialities, which by our law are pre- 
vented. 3. Becaufe by tliofe laws a man may remain 
a baftard till 40 years of age, ami then become legiti- 
mate by the fubftquent marriage of his parents; where- 
by the main end of marriage, the proteftion of infants, 
is totally fruftratcd, 4. Becaufe tliis rule of the Ro- 

man law admits of no limitation as to the lime, ornain- BaftarJ. 
ber, ol baftards to be fo Icgiiimated : but a dozen of *■ — ^ — 
ihera may, 20 years after their birth, by the fubfcquen; 
marriage of their parents, be admitted to all the privi- 
leges of legitimate children. This is plainly a great 
dilcouragcment to the matrimonial flate ; to which one 
main inducement is ufually not only thedefire of having 
children, but alfo the delirc of procreating lawful heirs. 
Whereas our conflituiion guards againft this indecency, 
and at the fame time give fufficicnt allowance to the 
frailties of human nature. For if a child be begotten 
while the parents are fingle, and they will endcavonr 
to make an early reparation for the offence, by marry- 
ing within a few months after, our law is fo indulgent 
as not to balhrdize the child, if it be born, though not 
begotten, in lawful wedlock ; for this is an incident that 
can happen but once ; fince all future children will be 
begotteii, as well as born, within the rules of honour 
and civil fociety. 

From wliat has been faid it appears, that all children 
born before matrimony are ballards by our law : and 
fo it is of all children born fo long after the death of 
the hulband, that, by the ufual courfe of gedaiion, 
they could not be begotten by him. But this being 
a matter of fome uncertainty, the law is not exaft as 
to a few days. But if a man dies, and his widow fooii 
after marries again, and a child is born within fuch a 
time as that by the courfe of nature it might have been 
the child of either hufband : in this cafe, he is faid to be 
more than ordinarily legitimate ; for he may, whenhe 
arrives to years of djfcretion, choofc which of the fa- 
thers he pleafcs. To prevent this, among other incon- 
veniences, the civil law ordained that no widow ihould 
marry i/if'ia aiinnvi iiidus \ a rule which obtained fo 
early as to the reign of Augiiftus, if not of Romulus : 
and the fame conflituiion was probably handed dowa 
to our early ancellors from the Romans, during ihtir 
Aay in this ilbnd ; for we find it eftablilhcd under the 
Saxon and Danifh governments. 

As ballards may be born before the coverture or 
marriage-flate is begun, or afterii is determined, Ibal- 
fo children born during wedlock, may in Ibme circum- 
flanccs be baflards. As if the hulband be out of the 
kingdom of England (or as the law loofely phrafes it, 
extra qnatnor ?r:ar'!a) for above nine months, fo that no 
accefs to his wife can be prefumed, her iilue dm'inglhat 
period, fliall be baflards. But generally during the 
coverture, accefs of the hufband ijiall be prefimitd, uii- 
lefs the contrary fhall be Oiown ; which is fuch a nega- 
tive as can only be jiroved by fliowing him to be elfc- 
where ; for the general rule \i, pncfumittir fro lcgiti),:a- 
t'lone. In a divorce a metifa et thoro, if the wife breeds 
children, they are ballards ; for the law will prcfumc 
the hulband and wife conformable to the fcntcncc of 
reparation, unlefs accefs be proved : bnt in a voluntary 
feparation by agreement, the law will fii)<pofc accefs, 
unlefs the ncgaiivc be fl;own. So alfo, if there is an ap- 
parent impollibiliiy of procreation on the part of the 
luifband, as if lie be only eight years old, or the like, 
there the ifTue of the wife Ihall be ballard. Likcwife, 
in cafe of divorce in the fpiritual court a vinculo vm- 
trimoiiii, all the ilfue born dmiug ihe coverture arc 
ballards ; becaufe fuch divorce is always ii]X)n fome 
caufe that rendered the marriage unlawful and null 
from ihc beginning. 


B A S [ 62 ] B A S 

UiaarJ. Aj \oiheJuO ofpircnts to their baftard children, the fee. A hallard was alfo, in ftridnefs, incapable Baftard. 

' ' by our law, it is inincipally that of maiiiienaiice. For of holy orders ; and though that were difpenftd with, ' 

ihuiij^h ballards arc not looked upon as chiKlreii to any 

civil piirpofcs; yei the tics of nature, ofuliicli mainte- 
nance is one, arc not fo eafily dillblvcd : and ihry hold 
indeed as to many other intentions ; as particularly 
that a man fliall not marry his ballard lilUr or daiigli 

yet he was utterly difqiialified from holding any digni- 
ty in the church ; but this doifhrine fecnisnow obfolete; 
and in all other refpcfts, there is no dilliot'lion be- 
tween a ballard and anotlier man. And really any o- 
ther diftinc'liun but that of not inheriting, which civil 

ter. The method in which the En2;lilh law provides policy renders neceliary, would, with regard to the in- 

mainienance for them is as follows: When a woman is nocent otispringof hisparcnt'scrinies, be odious,nnjult, 

delivered, or declares herfelf with child, of a ballard, and cruel to the lall degree , and yet the civil law, fo 

and will by oath btiorc a juflice of the peace charge boalled of for its c<iuitable decilions, made ballards in 

any perfon having got her with child, the juUicc fliall fome cafes incapable even of a gift from their parents, 

caufe Inch perfon to be apprehended, and commit him A baftard may, lallly, be made legitimate, and capa- 

till he gives fccurity, eitlier to maintain the child, or blc of inheriting, by the tranfcendant power of an aft 

appear at the next quarter fcllions to difputc and try of parliament, and not otherwife : as was done in the 

thefaiJl. But if the woman dies, or is married, before cafe of John of Gaunt's ballard children^ by a ilatuic 

delivery, or mifcarrics, or proves not to have been with of Richard II. 

child, the perfon lliall be difcliarged : otherwife the I'cf- As to the I'umfljmciit for having baflard children : 

fions, or two julliccs out of felfions, upon original ap- By the flatute 18 KHz. c. 3. two jaflices may tske or- 

plication to them, may take order for the keeping of der for the punifhment of the mother and nputcd fa- 

the ballard, by charging the mother or the reputed fa- ther : but what that puniflimcnt ihall be, is not therein 

ihcr with ihe payment of money or oilier fuftentution afcertained : though the cote mporary expofilion was, 

for that purpofe. And if fiich putative father, or lewd that a corporeal puniflinient was intended. By Ilatute 

mother, run away from the parilh, the overfeersby di- 7 Jac. I. c. 4. a fpecific punilhnient [y'iz. commitment 

reOilion of two jullices may feizc their rent, goods, and to the lioufc of corrciflion) is inthfted on the woman 

chattels, in order to bring up the faid baflard child, only. But in both cafes, it feems that the penalty can 

Yet fuch is the humanity of our laws, that no woman only be inflidled, if the baflard becomes chargeabic to 

can be compullively quekioned concerning the father the parilli ; for otherwife the very maintenance of the- 

of her child till one month after her delivery: which child is confidcrcd as a degree of punilhnient. By the 

indulgence is however very frequently a hardlliip upon lall mentioned llatuie the juftices may commit the ino- 

parillics, by giving the parents opportunity 10 efcape. ther to the houfe of corrcO^ion, there to be punillicd 

As to the rights and incapacities which appertain to and fct on work for one year ; and in cafe of a fccond 

a baflard : The former are very few, being only fuch as offence, til! Ihe find fureties never to offend again. 

he can acq:iire ; for he can inherit nothing, beinglook- He that gets a baflard in the hundred of Middleton 

cd upon as the fon of nobody, and fomctimes called in Kent, forfeits all his goods and chattels to the 

filiits ituUius, bmci\mts fitii/s populi. Yet he may gain king*. 

a firnamc by reputation, though he has none by inhe- If a baflard be got under the umbrage of a certain 

ritance. All other children have their primary fettle- oak in Knollwood in Staffbrdfliire, belonging to ilic 

mcnt in their father's parilh ; but a ballard in the parilh manor of Tcrlcy-caftle, no puniflimcnt can be inflifl- 

whcre born, for heliath no faihcr. However, in cafe ed, nor can the lord nor the bifliop take cognizance 


of fraud, as if a woman eiiher be fent by order of juf- 
tices, or comes to beg as a vagrant, to a parifli which 
flie does not belong to, and drops her bailard there ; 
the baflard ihall, in the firft cafe, be fettled in the pa- 


It is enaftcd by flatute 21 Jac. I. c. 27. that if any 
woman be delivered of a child, which if born alive 
fliould by law be a baflard ; and endeavours privately 
rilh from whence Ihe was illegally removed ; or in the to conceal its death, by burying the child or the like ; 
latter cafe, in the mother's own parilh, if the mother the mother fo offending fliall fuft'er dcaih, as in the cafe 
be apprehended for her vagrancy. Baflards alio, born of murder, unlefs llie can prove by one wiincfs at leaft, 
in any licenfed hofpital for pregnant women, are fettled that the child was aflually born dead. This law, which 
in the pariflies to which the mothers belong. — The /;;- favours pretty flrongly of feverity, in making the con- 
C3pac!ty of a baflard conlifls principally in this, that he cealmcnt of the deatli almoft conclulive evidence of 
cannot be heir to any one ; for be'm^ nr///i»s Ji/iuj, he the child's being murdered by the mother, is ne- 
is therefore of kin to nobody, and has noanccftorfrom verthclefs to be alfo met with in the ciiminal codes 
whom any inheritable blood can be derived: Therefore of many other nations of Europe; as the Danes, 
if there be no other claimant upon an inheritance than the Swedes, and the French : but it has of late 
fuch illegitimate child, it fliall efcheai to the lord. And years been ufual with us, upon trials for this offence, 
as baflards cannot be heirs themfelvcs, fo neither can to require fome fort of prefumptive evidence that the 
they have any heirs ihofe of their own bodies. I'or child was born alive, before the other conflrained prc- 
as all collateral kindred conlifls in being derived from fumptiun (that the child, whofe death iscoiicealcd, was 
the fame common aiiccflor, and as a baflard has no le- therefore killed by its parent) is admitted to conviift 
gal anccflors, he can have no collateral kindred ; and the prifoncr. 

t P/fl. Kai. 
HiJ}. Staff. 
p. 279. 

confcquenily can have no legal heirs, but fucli as claim 
by a lineal defcent from himfelf. And tliercfore, if a 
baflard purchafes land, and dies feiled thereof without 
iJue, and intcflaie, the land fliall cfchtat to the lord of 

Concerning baflards in Scotland, fee Law, Part III. 
N°cl.\.xxii J, 4, and clxxii. 3:?. 

Bastard, in rcl'pci.^ of artillery, is applied to thofe 
pieces which are of an unufual or illcgiiiinate make or 


ii A S 

[ 63 ] 

B A S 


f Du Cange, 
GloJ. Lot. 


proportion. Tliefe are of two kinds, long and fhort, 
according as ihedefett is on tiie redundant or defc.5live 
, Tide. Tlie long b.Ulards again, are either common or 
uncommon. To the common liind belong the double 
culverin extraordinary, half culverin extraordinary, 
quarter culverin txtr.ordinary, falcon extraordinary, 
&c. The ordinary baftard culverin carries a ball of 
eight pounds. 

Bastards are alfo an appellation given to a kind 
of faction or troop of banditti who role in Guicnne 
about tlie bcj;inning of the fourteenth century, and 
joining with forae Knglilh parties, ravaged the coun- 
try, and i'et fire to the city of Xaintes. — IMczeray fup- 
pofcs them to have conlifted of the natural Ions of the 
nobility ofGuienne, who being excluded the right of 
inheriting from their fathers, put thcmfelves at tlie 
head "of robbers and plunderers to maintain thera- 

BASTARD Flower-fence. See Adenantheka. — 
The dowers of this plant bruifcd and llecped in breall- 
milk are a gentle anodyne ; for which parpofe they are 
often given in the Well-Indies to quiet very young 
children. The leaves are tiled inflead of fena in Bar- 
badoes and the Leeward Illands. In Jamaica, the plant 
is called y^i^. 

Bastard- Hemp. See Datisca. 

Bastard- Rocket, Dyers-iueed, or Wild Wood. See 

Bastard Star-of-Bethelem. See Albuca. 

BASTARD-Scarlet is a name given to red dyed with 
bale-madder, as coming neareft the bow-dye, or new 

BASTARDY is a defeft of birth objefted to one 
born out of wedlock. P^uftathius will have balfards 
among the Greeks to have been in equal favour with 
legitimate children, as low as the Trojan war ; but the 
courfe of antiquity feems againfl him. Potter and o- 
others fliow, that there never was a time when ballardy 
was not in difgrace, 

In the time of William the Conqueror, however, ba- 
flardy feems not to have implied any reproach, if we 
may judge from the circumltanccof that monarch him- 
felf not fcrupling to afllime the appellation of ballard. 
His epifllc to Alan count of Bretagnc begins, Ego Willi- 
elitiHS cognoinento haJlard!is-\. 

Bastardy, in relation to its trial in law, is diflin- 
guilhed into general and fpecial. Ceiteral baflardy is a 
certificate from the biQiop of the diocefe, to the king's 
juflices, after inquiry made, whether the party is a baf- 
tard or not, uponfome queftion of inheritance. Ballardy 
fl>ec'tal is a fait commenced in the king's courts, againll 
a perfon that calls another ballard. 

/Irnii of Bktardi- lliould be crolTed with a bar, 
fillet, or traverfe,from the left to the right. They were 
not formerly allowed to carry the arms of their father, 
and therefore they invented arms for themfelves ; and 
this is Hill done by the natural ions of a king. 

Right of Bast ARor, Droit deb^tardi/s, in the French 
laws, is a right, in virtue whereof the effects of bailards 
dying intcilate devolve to the king or the lord. 

BASTARN-^, or Easterns, a people of German 
original, manners, and l.tnguas>;e ; who extended them- 
felves a great way to the eall of .'ic Villula, the eafl 
boundary of Germany, among the Sarmatx, as far as 

the mouth of the Ifter and the Euxine ; and were divi- BaAarni<« 
dcd into feveral nations. ;| 

BASTARNIOE alpes, (anc. geog.), mountains , ^•''^''^- . 
extending between Poland, Hungary, and Tranfylva- "'~~' 
nia, called alfo the Carpaies, and now the Carpathian 

BAST! (anc. geog.), a town of the province of 
Bxiica Spain, lituatcd to the weft of the Campus Spar- 
tarius. Now Baza in Granada. 

BASTIA, a fca-port town of Albania m Turkey 
in Europe, over againfl the idand of Corfu, at the 
mouth of the river Calamu. E. Long. 10. 35. M.Lat. 
39. 40. 

Bastia, the capital of the illand of Corfica in the 
Mediterranean. It has a good harbour ; and is feated 
on the eallcrn part of the coaft, in E. Long. 9. 42. N. 
Lat. 42. ?5- 

BASTILE, denotes a fmall antique callle, fortified 
with turrets. Such was the baflile of Paris, which feems 
the only caftle that retained tlie name : it was begun 
to be built in 1369 by order of Charles V. and was 
fiuilhcd in 1383 under the reign of his fuccelfor. — Its 
chief ufe was for the cuflody of llate-prifoners; or, more 
properly fpeaking, for the clandefline purpofes of un- 
feeling dcfpotifm. 

" The lieutenant-general of the police of Paris is 
the fub-delegate of the ininiftry for the department 
of the Baflile. He has under him a titular conimif- 
fary, who is called the commilfary of the Ballilc. He 
has a fixed I'alary for drawing up what are called inflruc- 
tions, but he does not this excluiively. He has no in- 
fpccfion nor fundion but in cafes where he receives 
orders ; the rcafon of which is, that all that is done in 
this callle is arbitrary. 

" Every prifoner on coming to the Baflile has an in- 
ventory made of every thing about him. His trunks, 
cloaihs, linen, and pockets are fearched, to difcover 
whether there be any papers in them relative to the 
matter for which he is apprehended. It is not nfual 
to fearch perfons of a certain rank ; but they are a(k- 
ed for their knives, razors, fcilFars, watches, canes, jew- 
els, and money. After this examination, the prifoner 
is conduced into an apartment, where he is locked np 
with three doors. They who have no fervants make 
their own bed and fire. The hour of dining is eleven, 
and of flipping fix. 

" At the beginning of their confinement, they have 
neither books, ink or paper j they go neither to mafs, 
nor on the walks ; they are not allowed to write to 
any one, not even to the lieutenant of tlie police, on 
whom all depends, and of whom pcrmilllon mufl firfl 
be alkcd by means of the major, who fcldom refufes. 
At firfl they go 10 mafs only every other Sunday. 
When a perfon has obtained leave to write to the lieu- 
tenant of the police, he may alk his permillion to write 
to his family, and to receive their anfwers ; to have 
with him his fervant or an attendant, &c. which re- 
quefts are either granted or refufcd according to cir- 
cnmflanccs. Nothing can be obtained but through this 

" The officers of the flafTiake the charge of conveying 
the lettersof the prifomrs to the police. They are fcnt 
regularly at noon and at night : but if they defirc it, their 
letters arc fcnt at any hour by exprelTcs^ who are paiJ 


B A S 

64 ] 

B A S 

Biftile. out of the money of iliofe who arc confined. The an- 
' fwers arc always addrcircd to tlic major, who commu- 
nicates thein to the prifoncr. If no notice is taken of 
any reqacft contained in the letter of the prifuner, it 
is a refiifal. The attendants whonj they appoint fi>r 
tiiofc who arc not allowed their own fcrvanis, or who 
have none of their own, arc commonly inv.ilid foldicrs. 
Thefc people lie near the prilbncrs, and wait upon 
them. A perfon ought always to be upon his guard 
witli thefc men, as well as with the turnkeys; for all 
his words arc noticed, and carried to the officers, who 
report them to the police: it is thus they ftudy the 
characters of the prifoners. In this callle, all is niy- 
flery, trick, anilice, fnare, and treachery. The offi- 
cers, attendants, turnkeys, and valets, often attempt 
10 draw a man on to fpcak againft the government, and 
then inform of all. 

" Sometimes a prifoner obtains permiffion of having 
books, his watch, knife, and razors, and even paper 
and ink. He may a(k to fee tlic lieutenant of the po- 
lice when he comes to the Baflile. This officer com- 
monly caufes prifoners to be brou;;ht doA'n fonie days 
after their arrival. Sometimes he goes to vifit ihcin in 
their chambers; efpccially the ladies. 

" Wiicn the lieutenant of the police fees a prifoner, 
the convcrfition turns upon the caufe of his conhne- 
nient. He fomciimes alks for written and llgned de- 
clarations. In general, as much circumfpeclion flunild 
be ufed in thcfe conferences as in the examination it- 
fclf, fincc nothing that a ptrfon may have faid or writ- 
ten is forgotten. 

" When a prifoner wants to tranfniitany thing to the 
lieutenant of the police, it is always by means of the 
major. Notts may be fent to this officer by the turn- 
keys. A perfon is never antieipiited in any thing — 
he miift afk for every thing ; even for permillion to be 
fnaved. This office is performed by the fiirgeon ; who 
alfo furnilhcs fick or inJifpofed prifoners with fugar, 
coffee, tea, chocolate, confeftions, and the nccclfary 

"The time for walking is an hour a-day ; fumeiimes 
an hour in the morning and an hour in the evening, in 
the great court. 

" A prifoner may be interrogated a few days after his 
entrance into the Ballile, but frequently this is not 
done till after fomc weeks. Sometimes he is previouf- 
ly informed of the day when this is to be done : often 
]ie is only acquainted with it the moment he is brought 
down to the council-chamber. This commilHon of 
interrogatory is executed by the lieutenant of the po- 
lice, a counfcllor of ftate, a mailer of requefls, a eoun- 
fellor or a commiffioner of the Chatelet. When the 
lieutenant of the police does not hiuifclf interrogate, he 
nfually comes at the end of the examination. 

" Thefc commiffioners are purely paffive beings. Fre- 
quently they attempt to frighten a prifoner; they lay 
fnares for him, and employ the meaneft artifices to get 
a confeffion from him. They pretend proofs, exhibit 
papers without fufFering him to read them ; alTcrting 
that tliey are inflruments of unavoidable conviflinn. 
Their interrogatories arc always vague. They turn 
not only on the prifoner's words and aifbions, but on his 
moll fecret thoughts, andonthe difcourfe and condufl of 
perfons of his acquaintance, whom it is wiflicd to bring 
uato queflion. 

" The examiners tell a prifoner that his life is at 
ftake ; that this day his fate depends upon himftlf ; 
that it he will make a fair declaration, they are autho- 
rifcd to promife him a fpecdy releafe ; but if he re- 
fufes to confefs, he will be given up to a fpecial rom- 
inilHon ; that ihty are in poileffion of decifivc docu- 
ments, of authentic proofs, more than fufficient to ruin 
him ; that his accomplices have difcovered all ; that 
the government has unknown refourccs, of which he 
can have no fufpicion. They fatigue pritoners by va- 
ried and infinitely multiplied interrogatories. Ac- 
ci-M'ding to the perfons. they employ promifcs, carclTes, 
and menaces. Sometimes they ufc infulis, and treat 
the unhappy fufflrers with an infolence that fills up the 
meafurc of that tyranny of which ihcy are the bafe ia- 

" If the prifoner makes the required confeffion, the 
commillioners then tell him that they have no precifc 
authority for his enlargement, but that they have every 
rcafon to cxpccl it; that they are going to folicit it, 
&c. The prifoner's confeffions, far from bettering 
his condition, give occalion to new interrogatories, 
often lengthen his confinement, draw in the perfons 
with whom he has had connections, and expofe him- 
felf to new vexations. 

" Although there are rules foralloccafions, yet every 
thing is fuiijci^l to exceptions arifing from influence, 
recommendations, proteClion, intrigue, &c. becaufe the 
firfl I'rinciplc in this place is arbitrary will. Very fre- 
quently, perfons confined on the fame account are 
treated very differently, according as their recommen- 
dations are more or Icfs conliderable. 

" There is a library, founded by a foreign prifoner 
who died in the Baflile in the beginning of the prefent 
century. Some prifoners obtain leave to go to it ; others, 
to have the books carried to ihcir chambers. 

" The falfcll things are told the prifoners with an 
air of fincerity and concern. " It is very unfortunate 
that the king has been prejudiced ag.iinll you. His 
majcfty cannot hear your name mentioned without be- 
ing irritated. The iftair for which you have loll your 
liberty is only a pretext — they had deligns againft you 
before — you have powerful enemies." Theledifcourfes 
are the etiquette of the place. 

" It would be in vain for a prifoner to afk leave to 
write to the king — he can never obtain it. 

" The perpetual and moll infupportable torment of 
this cruel and odious inquifition, are vague, indetermi- 
nate, falfe, or equivocal promifes, inexhaiiftible and 
conftantly deceitful hopes of a fpecdy releafe, exhorta- 
tions to patience, and blind conjedlures, of which the 
lieutenant of the police and officers arc very lavilh. 

" To cover the odium of the barbarities exercifed 
here, and llacken the zeal of relations or patrons, the 
moll abfurd andcontradiclory flanders againft a prifoner 
arc frequently publilhed. The true caufes of imprifon- 
ment, and real obflacles to releafe, are concealed. 
Thefc refourccs, which are infinitely varied, are inex- 

" When a prifoner who is known and protefted has 
entirely lofl his health, and his life is thought in dantrer, 
he is always fent out. The miniflry do not choofe 
that perfons well knov.'n ffiould die in the Baflile. If 
a prifoner docs die there, he is interred in the parifh 
of St Paul, under the name of a domeflic ; and this 



B A S 

[ 6s ] 

B A S 

•laftiie. falaty is wrkteu in the regiftcr of deaths, in order to 
' ^~~~' deceive pofterity. There is another rcgifter in which 
the true names of the deceafed arc entered; biit it is 
not without great difficulty that extrafts can be pro- 
cured from it. The commiflary of the Baftile nuifl; 
firfb be inlormcd of the ufe the family intends to make 
cf the extrafl." 

In 1674 the baggage of Loviis chevalier de Rohan, 
grand huntrman of France, having been taken and 
rummaged in a fkirniifli, fome letters were found v;hicli 
caiifcd a fufpicion that he had treated with the Englilh 
for the iurrender of Havre de Grace. He was arrcft- 
cd and put into the Baftile. The Sieur de la Tuan- 
derie, his agent, concealed himfelf. The proof was 
not fufficient. A commiffion was named to proceed 
againft the accufcd for treafon. La Tuanderie was 
difcovcred at Rouen: an attempt was made to arrcfl 
him ; but he fired on the aflailants, and obliged them to 
kill Iiim on the fpot. Perfons attached to the chevalier 
•de Rohan went every evening round the Baflilc, crying 
through a fpcaking trumpet, " La Tuanderie is dead, 
«nd has faid nothing:" but the chevalier did not hear 
them. The commilhoners, not being able to get any 
thing from him, told him, " that the king knew all, 
that they had proofs, but only willied for his own con- 
fcffion, and that they were authoriied to promife him 
pardonif he would declare the truth." The chevalier, 
too credulous, confeiied the whole. Then the perfi- 
dious commilhoners changed their language. They 
faid, " that with rcfpeft to the pardon, they could 
not anfwer for it; but that they had hopes of obtain- 
ing it, and would go and folicit it." This they trou- 
bled thenifelves little about, and condemned the cri- 
minal to lofe his head. He was conduced on a plat- 
form to the fcafTold, by means of a gallery raifed to 
the height of the window of the armoury in the arfe- 
nal, which looks towards the little fquare at the end of 
the Rue des Tournelles. He was beheaded on Novem- 
ber 27. 1674. 

The Jefuits of the college of Clermont, in the 
Rue St Jc.cqita Paris, having this fame year (1674) 
invited the king (Louis XIV.) to honour with his 
prefence a tragedy to be performed by their fcholars, 
that prince accepted the invitation. Thefe able cour- 
tiers took care to infert in the piece fevcral flrokes of 
flattery, with which tjie monarch, greedy of fuch in- 
ccnfc, was greatly pleafcd. When the reffor of the 
college was conducing the king home, a nobleman in 
the train applauded the fuccefs of the tragedy. Louis 
faid, " Do you wonder at it .' this is my college." The 
Jefuits did not lofe a word of this. The \e.\-y fame 
night they got engraved in large golden letters on 
l)lack marble, Collegium LoJovici Magni, inlltad of 
the former infcription which was placed beneath the 
name of jefus on the principal gate of the college 
(Collegium Clara?iio!itaiiu?u Socictatis Jtpis); and in 
the morning the new infcription was put up in place 
of the old one. A young fcholar of quality, aged i ;, 
•who was witnefs to the zeal of the reverend fathers. 
Blade the two following verfes which he polled up at 
Eight on the college gate : 

Abfluitt hiiic Jtfum, pofuitque iiifignia regis 
hiipia gens : alium iion colit ilia Deiim. 

The Jefuits did not 
Vol. in. 

fail to cry out facrilcgc ; the 

young author was difcovercd, taken up, and put into nMU. 

the Baftile. The implacable fociety caufed him, as a ' 

mMltr of favour, 10 be condemned to perpetual im- 
prifonment ; and he was transferred to tlie citadel of 
the ille Sainte Marguerite. Several ycai-s after, he was 
brought back to the Baftile. In 1705 he had been a 
prifoner 31 years. Having become heir to all his fa- 
mily, who poireifed great property, the Jefiiit Riquc- 
let, then confellbr of the Baftile, remonftrated to his 
brethren on the necefhty of rcftoring the prifoner to 
liberty. The golden fl'.ower which forced the tower 
of Danae had the fame effect on the caftlc of the 
Baftile. The Jefuits made a merit with the prifoner 
of the proteflion they granted him; and this man of 
rank, whofe family would have become cxtinfl with- 
out the aid of the fociety, did not fail to give thcni cx- 
tenfivc proofs of his gratitude. 

Nowhere elfe on earth, perhaps, has human mifery, 
by human means, been rendered fo lafting, fo com- 
plete, or fo remcdilefs. This the fuilowii;g cafe iv.avr 
JufHce to evince ; the particulars of which arc tnnf- 
lated from that elegant and energetic wriur M. Mer- 
cier. The heinous ofTcnce which merited an inipr'fon- 
ment furpafling torture and rendering death a bklKng, 
tliough for obvious reafons not fpecified by our author, 
is known from other fources to have confifted in fonic 
unguarded exprclFions implying difrefpedt concerning 
the late Gallic monarch Louis XV. 

" Upon the accellion of Louis XVI. to the throne, 
the minifters now in oflice, and moved by humanity, 
begun their adniiniftration with an aft of clemency 
and juftice; they infpecfled the regifters of the Baftile, 
and fet many prifoncrs at liberty. Among thofe there 
was an old man who had groaned in confinement for 
47 years between four thick and cold ftoiic-walls. Har- 
dened by adverfity, which ftrengthens both the mind 
and the conftitution, when they are not overpowered 
by it, he had rcfifted the horrors of his long imprifon- 
nient with an invincible and manly fpirit. His locks 
Vvihitc, thin, and fcattcred, had almoft acquired the 
rigidity of iron; whilfl his body, environed for fo long 
a time by a coffin of Hone, had borrowed from it a 
firm and conipaft habir. The narrow door of his 
tomb, turning upon its grating hinges, opened not 
as ufaal by halves ; and an unknown voice announced 
his liberty, and bade him depart. Believing this to be 
a dream, he heiitated ; but at length role up and walked 
forth with trembling fteps, amazed at the fpacc he tra- 
vcrfed : The flairs of the prifon, the iialls, the court, 
fcemed to him vafl, immenfe, and alniofl without 
bounds. He flopped from time to time, and gszcd 
around like a bewildered traveller: His vifion was with 
difficulty reconciled to the clear light of day : He con- 
templated the heavens as a new objcvrl: His eyes re- 
mained fixed, and he could not even weep. Stupificd 
with the newly acquired power of changing his poli- 
tion, his limbs, like his tongue, rcfufed in fpitc of 
his efforts, to perform their office ; at length he got 
through the formidable gate. 

" When he felt the motion of the carriage prepared 
to tranfport him to his former liabiiaiion, he fcrcamed 
out, and uttered Ibnie inarticulate founds ; and as he 
could not bear tliis new movement, he was obliged to 
defccnd, fupporttd by a benevolent arm, he fouglic 
out the ftrcet where he had formerly rclidcd : he found 
I it. 

B A S 

[ 66 ] 

B A S 


it, but no trace of his houfc remained ; one of the 
pi'iblic edirtces occupied the fpot where it had flood. 
He now faw nothing that brought to his recollection, 
either that pariicidar quarter, the city itfclf, or the 
objects with which he had lormerly been acqiiainitd. 
The hollies of his ncareft ncigiiboiirs, wiiich were 
frelh in his memory, had alFumed a new appearance. 
Ill vain were his looks direftcd to all the objects around 
him; he could difcover noihing of which he had the 
imallcft remembrance. Terrified, he ftopped and fetch- 
ed a deep figh. To him, what did it import that the 
city was peopled with living creatures? None of llicm 
•were alive to him ; he was unknown to all the world, 
and he knew nobody : And whilll he wept, he re- 
gretted his dungeon. 

" At the name of the Baltile, which he often pro- 
nounced and even claimed as an afyUim, and the light 
of his clothes that marked a former age, tiie crowd 
gathered round him : curiolity, blended wiih pity, 
excited their aticntion. The mofl aged a(ked him ma- 
ny queftions, but had no remembrance of the circum- 
llances he recapitulated. At length accident brought 
in his way an ancient domcftic, now a (uperannuated 
porter, who, confined to his lodge for i J years, had 
barely furticicnt flrength to open the gate : — Even he 
did not know tlic mailer he had ferved j but informed 
him that grief and misl'ortune had brought his wife to 
the grave 30 years before, that his children were gone 
abroad to dillant climes, and that of all his relations 
and friends none now remained. This recital was 
made with the indifference wliich people difcover for 
events long palfed, and almolt forgot. The miferable 
man groaned, and groaned alone. The crowd around, 
offering only unknown features to his view made him 
feel the excefs of his calamities even more than he 
would have done in the dreadful folitude that h chad 

" Overcome with forrow, he prcfen ted hitnfclf before 
the miniller to whofe humanity he owed that liberty 
which was now a burden 10 him. Bowing down, he 
faiii, " Reftore me again to that prifon from which 
you have taken me : 1 cannot furvive the lofs of my 
nearefl relations ; of my friends ; and, in one word, of 
a whole generation : Is it poinble in the fame moment 
to be informed of this univerfal dcftru;.'lion, and not to 
will] for death ? This general mortality, which to 
the reft of mankind comes llowly and by degrees, has 
to me been inftuntaneous, the operation of a moment. 
Whilft fecludcd from fociety, I lived with myfelf only ; 
but here I can neither live with myfelf nor with this 
new race, to whom my anguilh and defpair appear on- 
ly as a dream. There is nothing terrible in dying ; 
but it is dreadful indeed to be the lafl." The mini- 
fter was melted ; he caufcd the old domeflic to attend 
this unfortunate perfon, as only he could talk to him 
of his family. This difcourfe was the fingle confola- 
tion that he received : for he fliunned all intercnurfe 
vith a new race, born fince he had been exiled from 
the world ; and he palFed his time in the mid!t of Pa- 
ris in ihc fame folitude as he had done whilft confined 
in a dungeon lor almofl half a century. But the cha- 
grin and uioriification of meeting no perfon who could 
lay to him. We were formerly known to one another, 
loon put an end to his exLlencc." This formidable 


engine of Defpot'ic Cruelty was demoliflied in 1789. Baftimea. 
Sec France. tos 

BASTIMKNTOS, the name of fome fmall iflands 
near Terra Kirma in Souih-,'\merica, at the the mouth 
of the bay of Nombrc de Dios. 

BASTINADO. Sec Bastonado. 

BASTION, in the modern fortification, a huge 
mafs of earth, faced ufually with lods, fomelimes with 
brick, and rarely with Hone, Handing out from a ram- 
part whereof it is a principal part, and is what, in the 
ancient fortification, was called a ^///u'^;^. 

Solid B.4yT/o.\s, are thofc that have the void fpacc 
within them filled up entirely, and railed of an equal 
height with the rampart. 

I oiil (iiiil Hollow Bastions, are thofe that arc only 
furrounded with a rampart and parapet, having the 
fpace within void and empty, where the ground is fo 
low, that, if the rampart be taken, no retrenchment can 
be made in the centre, but what will lie under the fire 
of the belieged. 

Flat Bastiox, is a baftion made in the middle of the 
curtain, when it is too long to be defended by the 
baflion in its extremes. 

Cut Bastjon, is that whofe point is cut off, and in- 
flcad thereof has a re-entering angle, or an angle in- 
wards, with two points outwards; and is ufed either 
when without fuch a contrivance the angle would be 
too acute, or when virater or fome other impediment 
hinders the carrying on the baflion to its full extent. 

Compofed Bastion, is when two lides of the interior 
polygon are very unequal, which makes the gorges alfo 

Dcformtd Bastion, is when the irregularity of the 
lines and angles makes the baflion out of fliape ; as when 
it wants one of its demigorgcs, one fide of the interior 
polygon being too fliort. 

Dcvii Bastion, is compofcd of one face only, and 
but one flank, and a demigorge. 

Double Bastion, is that w liich is raifed on the plane 
of another baflion. 

Regular Bastion, is that which has its true propor- 
tion of faces, flanks, and gorges. 

Bastion oJ France, a fortrefs on the coafl of Bar- 
bary, belonging to the French. 

BASTITANI (anc. geog.), a people of the pro- 
vince of Bgctica in Spain. See Bff tica. 

BASTOIGNE, a fmall town of the Netherlands, in 
the duchy of Luxemburgh. E. Long. 6. o. N.Lat. jo. 10. 

BASTON, in law, one of the fcrvants to the war- 
den of the Flcet-prifon, whoattended the king's courts, 
for taking into eultody fuch as are committed by the court. 

Baston, or Batoon, in architcdlure, a moulding in 
the bale of a column, called alfo a tore. See Plate 
40. fig. ^ 

Baston, Baton, or Batunc. This word is French, 
and lignifiesa flafFor cudgel: it fliould be fpclt Bdto?i; 
but is, by mofl Englilh writers, corruptly fpelt as 
above. It is only borne in Englilh coats of arms, as 
a badge of illegitimacy ; but French heralds intro- 
duce it in arms as a difference or markof confanguinity. 

BASTON (Robert), a Carmelite monk, after- 
wards prior of the convent of that order, at Scarbo- 
rough, and alfo poet laureat and public orator at Ox- 
ford, flourifhed in the fourteenth century. King Ed- 
ward I.. 


[ 67 ] 



Saftouado Ward I. in his expedition into Scotland in 1304, took 
Robert Baibn with him, in order to celebrate his 
vidlories over the Scots ; but our poet being taken pri- 
foncr, was obliged to change his note, and fing the 
fucceffes of Robert Bruce. He wrote feveral books 
in Latin, on the Wars of Scotland, the Luxury of 
Priefts, Synodical Sermons, Sec. ; and alfo a volume of 
tragedies and comedies, in Englifli. He died about 
the year 1310. 

BASTONADO, Bastonade, the punilhment of 
beating or drubbing a criminal with a Hick. The word 
is formed of the French bajhn, a " llick" or " lUff." 
The ballonade was a punilhment ufed among the 
ancient Greeks, Romans, and Jews, and ftill obtains 
among the Turks. The Romans called it fujli^atio, 
fuftiuvi admonitio, or fujlibus c<xdi ; whicii dillercd from 
the fiagetlatio, as the former was done with a flick, the 
latter with a rod, or fcourge. The fufligation was a 
lighter punifliment, and infliiShed on freemen ; the fla- 
gellation a fevercr, and referved for llaves. It was alfo 
called tympanum, becaufe the patient here was beat with 
flicks, like a drum. — The punilhment is much in ufe in 
the call to this day. The method there praiJlifed is 
thus : the criminal being laid on his belly, his feet are 
raifcd, and tied to a Hake, held fall by officers for the 
purpofe ; in which pollure he is beaten by a cudgel on 
the foles of his feet, back, chine, &c. to the number of 
100 or more blows. 

BASTWICK (Dr John), born at Writtle in Elfex, 
in 1593 ; praftifed phyfic at Colchelter ; but being a 
man of warm imagination, and a good Latin fcholar, 
applied himfelf to writing books againfl popery. A- 
bout the year 1653, he printed in Holland a Latin 
treaiife \mn\cA, Elenchus religionis PapiJIicr, with /7<j- 
gellum pont'tficis et epifcoporum Latialium, in which the 
Englifh prelates thiuking themfelvcs alfo aimed at, he 
was tincd L. 1000 in the high commiffion court, excom- 
municated, prohibited praftifing phylic, his books or- 
dered to be burnt, and himfelf to remain in prifon 
nntil he made a recantation. Inllead of recanting, he 
wrote in prifon, Apologeticm ad prafulss Anglicanos , 
and another book called. The Litany ,- wherein he fe- 
vercly exclaimed againfl the proceedings of that court, 
and taxed the bilhops with an inclination towards 
popery. Prynne and Burton coming under the lafli of 
the flar-chamber court at the fame time, they were all 
ccnfured as fcandalous feditioas perfons, condemned to 
a fine of L. 5000 each, to be pilloried, to lofe their 
ears, and to perpetual imprifonment in three remote 
parts of the kingdom. The parliament in 1640 reverfcd 
thcfe proceedings ; and ordered Dr Ballwick a repara- 
tion of L. 5000 out of the eflates of the commiflioncrs 
and lords who had profecuted him, which the enfuing 
confufions prevented his receiving : however, his wife 
had, in 1644, an allowance ordered for her and her 
hulliand's maintenance. What became of him after- 
ward is not known. 

BAT, in 7,oology, See Vespertilio. 

BAT-Fo-:'jling, a method of catching birds in the 
night, by iightini; fome flraw, or torches, near ilie 
place where they ire at r»o(l ; for upon beating them 
up, ihty fly to the flame, where, being amazed, they 
are eafily caught in nets, or beat down with buflies 
fixed to the end of poles, &c. 

Bat, Bate, or Baiz, a fmall copper coin, mixed Bat 
with a little fdver, current in feveral cities of Germa- II 
ny : it is worth four crutzers. It is alfo a coin in l^^'^"^"™" 
Switzerland, current at five livres, or 100 fols, French ' "' ' 

BATABLE, or Debatable, crounp, that land 
which lay between Scotland and England, when the 
kingdoms were diHinrt, to which both nations pre- 
tended a right. 

BATACALA, a fmall kingdom on the coaft of 
Malabar in the Ealt Indies. It had a very large town 
of the fame name ; but there is nothing now left, ex- 
cept II or 12 fmall pagods covered with copper and 
Hone. The country produces a good deal of pepper : 
the Englilh formerly had a factory here; but were all 
nialTacred by the natives, becaufe one of their bull-dcgg 
had killed a coufecrated cow. 

Batacala, a fortified town and caflle on the call 
coall of the illand of Ceylon in the Eall Indies. The 
Dutch drove away the Portuguefc, and poflefled thera- 
felvesofpart of the adjacent country. E. Long. 81. 
3. N. Lat. 7- 55- 

BATANISTS, or Batenites. See Batenites. 

BATASEK, a town of lower Hungary, fcatcd oa 
the Danube, in E. Long. 19. 50. N. Lat. 46. 30. 

BATAVA, {Cajlra underlluod), a citadel of Vin- 
delicia, fo called from the Cohors Batava, in garrifoa 
under the commander in Rhastia : now F a^fau ,- being 
firll called Bataii, from the Batavi ; then Ba[fau, and 
Pajfau ; fituated in Bavaria at the confluence of the 
Danube, Inn, and Ills. See Pass a u. 

BATAVIA, the capital of the Dutch fettleraents 
in the Eall Indies; a city of the kingdom of Bantam 
in the illand of Java. See Java. 

BATAVORUM insula, the illand of the Bata- 
vians, (anc. geog.). Of this illand Tacitus gives the 
following defcription. " The Rhine flowing in one 
channel, or only broken by fmall illands, is divided at 
its entering Batavia, as it were into two rivers. One 
continues its courfe through Germany, retaining the 
fame name, and violent current, till it falls into the 
ocean. The other walhing the coafl of Gaul, with a 
broader and more gentle Ilrcam, is called by the inhabi- 
tants Vahalis ; whicli name it foon changes for that of 
Mofa by the immenl'e mouth of which river it dif- 
charges itfelf into the fame ocean." According 10 
Tacitus, therefore, the illand of the Batavians was 
bounded by the ocean, the Rhine, and the Vahalis, 
now the iVale. Csefar extends it to the Mofa, or 
Meufe ; but Pliny agrees with Tacitus. However, this 
illand was of greater extent in Tacitus's tiuic than in 
Cxfar's ; Dmfus, the father of Germanicus, having by 
a new canal conveyed the waters of the Rhine into 
the ocean a confu'crable way north of the former mouth 
of that river. The Baiavi were a branch of the Caiti, 
who in a domeflic fcdition, being expelled their coun- 
try, occupied the exiremiiy of the coall of Gaul, at 
that time uninhabited, together with this illand fiiuaicd 
among flioals. Their name 5j/'V:; tliey carried «iih 
them from Germany; there being fome towns in the 
territory of the Catti called Battenhirg, and Bitten- 
hauf.n. The bravery of the Batavi, cfpecially the 
ho-fc, procured them not only great honour from the 
Romans, being called their brcihers and jriends ; but 
I 3 an 


[ 68 ] 

B A 1' 

Baia»orum an txeiuption from taxes, being obliged only to furnifli 
men and aims. The modern name of this illand is 
Bctu, or But.ivj. 

BiTAvoRVM Ol>pidum (anc. geog.), a town in the 
jd.ind of the Batavi, mentioned by Tacitus, without 
any particular name ; wliich has given rife to fevcral 
fiirmiles about it, fomc fuppodng it to be Nimtgiieti, 
but Cliivcrius, Batavadnnim or Batmiburg, both with- 
out the illanJ ; which fituaiion renders both thcfc pla- 
ces inadminible, fincc Tacitus places this namtlefs 
town within the illand. 

IJATCHKLOR. Sec Bachelor. 
BATE (George), an eminent piiyfician, born at 
Maid's Morton, near Buckingham, in the year 1608. 
In 1639 he obtained a licence, and for fome years 
pradifed in and about Oxford : his practice was chicrty 
ainongft the putritans, who at that time confidereJ hiin 
as one of their party. In 1657, he took his degree 
ofdoi.^orin phyfic, and became very eminent in his 
yrofeffion, fo that when king Cliarlcs kept bis court at 
Oxford, he was his principal When the 
king's afiairs declined, Dr Bite removed to London, 
where he accommodated hinifelf i'o well to the times, 
that ht became pliyl'ician to the Charlcr-houle, fellow 
of the college of phy(icians, and afterwards principal 
phylician to Oliver Cromwell. Upon the rcfloration, lie 
got into favour with the royal party, was made princi- 
pal phyfician to the king, and fcUov, of the Royal Soci- 
ety ; and this, we arc told, was owing to a report raifed 
on purpofc by his friends, according to Mr Wood, that 
he gave the protedlor a dole which liafteiud his death. 
Dr Bate wrote in Latin an account of the late commo- 
lions in England, and fome other pieces. He died 
at his houfe in Hation-garden, and was buried at 
Kingllon upon Thames in Surry. — There was another 
George Bate, who wrote a work intiilcd, " The Lives, 
>\t1ions, and Execution, of the prime aftors and prin- 
cipal Contrivers of that horrid Murthcr of our late 
pious and lacred king Charles I." 

B.ATENITES, a feet of apoftates from Mahome- 
tanifm difperfed through the Eaft, who profelfed the 
fame abominable praftices with the Il'uiaelians and 
Karmatians. The word properly llgnifies ej'oteric, or 
people of inward or hidden light. 

BATES (William), D. D. an eminent pre/byierian 
divine, born in November 162 j. He was admitted in 
Emanuel college, Cambridge, and from thence removed 
10 King's college in 1644. He was one of the com- 
millioncrs, at the conference in the Savoy, for review- 
ing the public liturgy, and was concerned in drawing 
up the exceptions againft the common Prayer : how- 
ever, foon after the rcRoration, he was appointed chap- 
lain to king Charles IL and became minifltr cf St 
Dunllan's in the well, but was deprived of that bemfice 
for nonconformity. Dr Bates bore a good and amiable 
character J and was honoured with the frifudfliip of 
the lord keeper Bridgman, the lord chancellor Finch, 
the carl of Nottingham, and archbifliop Tillotfon. He 
■was offered, at the refloraiion, the deanery of Litch- 
licld ; which he refufcd. He publi/hed Select Lives of 
jUuftrlous and pious perfons, in Latin ; .ind fmcc his 
death all his works, except his StlcJt Lives, have been 
printed in one volume in folio. He died in J ily 14. 
J699, in the 74th year of his age. 
BATH, a city of Somerfciihire iji England, fcaied 

in W. Long. 2. 30. N. Lat. ji. 27. All the drfterent 
names that this city has borne in different ages and *~ 
languages have been taken from its medicinal waters, 
as the uSara ^if/Aa, or " hot waters," of Ptolemy ; the 
y/y.vrf- Solis, or " watersof the fun," of Antoninus; the 
Cacr Bad'.ii, and Cacr Ennnnt, i. e. " the city of baths," 
and " the city of ointment," of the Britons ; and the 
Ackvianck(ficr, i. e. " the city of valetudinarians," of 
the Saxons. The baths confill of the King's bath, the 
Qiieen's-baih, the Crofs-bath, the Hot-bath, the Le- 
per's bath, and the duke of Kingllon's-baih. This 
place was of old a rcfort only for cripples and difeafed 
perfons ; but now it is more frequented by the found 
for plcafm-c than by the fick for htalih. The waters are 
very plcafant to the tafte ; and impregnated with a vi- 
triolic principle, yielding, upon evaporation, a little 
neutral fait and a calcarious earth and iron. They 
arc very efficacious in flrengthening the bowels and 
ftomach, bracing the relaxed fibres, and invigorating 
the circulation. In bilious complaints they are counted 
fpccific ; and prove ferviccable in molt nervous, para- 
lytic, rheumatic, and gouty, complaints. At the King's 
bath is a handfome pump-room, where the gentlemen 
and ladies go in a morning to drink the waters ; and 
there is a band of mufic that plays all the time. In 
the Crofs-bath is a monument of marble, reprefenting 
the defccnt of the Holy Ghofl attended by angels, 
erected by the earl of Mclfort (who was fecretary of 
ftate for Scotland) when king James II. met his queen 
here. The King's-Bath is a large bafon of 65 fees: 
10 inches by 40 feet 10 inches, containing 346 tuns 
2 hogllicads and 36 gallons of water when filled to 
its ufual height. In the middle is a wooden building 
with niches and feats for the accommodation of the 
bathers. There are alfo iron rings all round for them 
to hold by ; and guides, both male and female, to at- 
tend them in the bath. The perfon intending to bathe 
puts on, at his own lodgings, a bathing drcfs of brown 
canvas hired for the purpofe ; and is carried in a clofe 
chair, of a particular make, to one of the flips which 
open into the bath. There he defcends by fleps into 
the w-ater, where he is attended by a guide. Having 
ftaid his dated time in the bath, he afcends again into 
the flip, where he puts off his bathing-drefs, and being 
wrapt up in blankets, is carried heme to bed, where 
he lies for fome time to encourage perfpiration. The 
King's-bath is overlooked by the company in the pump- 
room ; and adjoining to it are places furnilhed with 
pumps to pour the hot ftreamsonany particular part 
of the body. The Oiieen's-bath communicates with 
the King's, from which it is filled ; therefore the water 
of it is not fo hot, being at a greater diflance from ths 
fource. As the heat is here more moderate, the bathers 
defccnd firfl into the Oueen's bath, and advance gra- 
dually 10 the centre of tl:e other. In the year 1755, 
the abbey-houfe, or priory, belonging to the duke of 
Kingflon, was taken down, in order to creft a n.or* 
commodious pile of building ; and in digging for the 
foimdation, the workmen difcovcred, about twenty ftet 
below the furface of the earth, the remains of Roman 
baths and fudatories conflniflcd upon an elegant plan, 
with floors fufpended on pillars, and furrounded with 
tubulated bricks, for the conveyaitce of heat and va- 
pour. Thefe were fupplicd by a fpring of hot water, 
of the fame properties and temperature with thofe of 




[ 69 ] 


Bath, the King's-batli ; and the fewer was foiiud flill entire, 
'>' ' that conveyed the wade water into the river. The 
duke, having cleared the fpring and the fewer, has e- 
refted feveral convenient baths and fadatories on the 
Jpot, wliere invalids may be accommodated at all hours, 
by night as well as by day. The two feafons are the 
fpring and fall ; bnt thofe who take the waters purely 
for their health do not regard the feafons, bnt drink 
them all the year round. There are a number of gen- 
teel fedan chairs, which carry people to any dillance, 
not exceeding half a mile, for fix pence. Thecompany 
alfemble in the afternoon alternately, at two ilately 
rooms, to converfe together, or play at cards. At a 
very pretty new thi :re near the parades, plays are 
ai5ted every other night ; and there are balls twice a- 
week ; for which and the rooms, and books at the li- 
braries, the gentry generally fubfcribc. The city is 
furroundcd with hills on all fides, except a little open- 
ing to the eaft and weft, through which the Avon runs. 
This river, which has been made navigable to Briftol 
by aft of parliament, wallics the city on the eaft and 
fouth fides, and there is an elegant bridge over it. 
This city had formerly had a flight wall, of which 
feme part flill remains, as well as one or two of its 
gates; but almolt all the new buildings, and much the 
greateft and finefl part of the city, is without tiie walls, 
particularly the fine fquare called Qj^teen' s-fquarc, in 
the middle of which is a fmall garden, with gravel 
walks, and an obelifk in the centre. But the grtatcfl 
ornament at Bath is the circus : it is of a circular 
form confilling of houfes built on an uniform plan, 
with three openings at equal diftances to the fouth, 
eaft, and well, leading into as many Itreets. The 
fronts of the houfes, which are all three flories higli, 
are adorned with tliree rows of columns in pairs, of the 
Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian orders, the frizc is em- 
bellilhed with fculpiure. The whole has an air of mag- 
nificence, which cannot fail to llrike the moft indifferent 
fpe«5lator. In the centre of the area is a refervoir, or 
bafon, filled by two or three fpringsrifing in the neigh- 
bouring hills ; whence the llreeis in this diltriift are 
fupplied with water. On the fouth fide of the town 
are the north and fouth parades, two noble walks, 
paved with hewn flone, raifed upon arches, facing each 
an elegant row of houfes on one fide, and having a (tone 
baluftrade on the other. Thefe, with the two llrects 
that join them, were planned and executed by one 
Mr Wood, an able architett, who likewife built tlic 
fquare and projeded the circus. The two public 
rooms ftand betwixt the north parade and Orange- 
grove ; \vhich lafl is a fquare planted with trees, ha- 
ving in tlie middle a flone obclilk, infcribed in Latin 
to the late prince of Orange, who recovered his health 
in conftquence of drinking the Bathwaters, and gave 
his name to this part of the town. Several new (trects 
and rows have of late years been built on the north- 
fide of Bath, in the neigiibourhood of the fcpiare, fuch 
as Gay-llrcet, Milfom-llrect, Edgar-row, Harlequin- 
row, Bladud's-buiMings, King's-mcad-flreet, and 
Brock-ftrect. Their advantages for building here are 
very great, having cxcellrnt free-ltone, liinc(tone, and 
flate, in the neighbourhood. One fort of their liinc is 
as white as fnow. Tlie guild-hall of Bath Hands in 
the market-place, and is faid 10 be built on a plan of 
Inigo Jones, which however, exhibits nothing worthy 
of that great architcd : btfiiics, one cuJ of ii has bccii 

rebuilt in a different fly le. The hall is ornamented with 
iomc potraits of the late prince of Wales and other re- ' 
markable perfonagcs : but the greateft curiofity of the 
place is a Minerva's head in bronze, a real antique, dug 
up in Stall-llreet, in the year 1725. Bath bcafts a 
noble infirmary, or general hofpital, for the reception 
of the lick and lame from all pans of the three kino-- 
donis. It extends 100 feet in front, and 90 in depth, 
being capable of receiving 150 patients. Here was 
anciently a monaitery, of which the prcfcnt cathedral 
was the church. It is a venemble pile ; ilie principal 
front of which is adorned with angels afcending and 
defcending. There are three other churches in Baili, 
and feveral chapels and mecting-houfes. Betides the 
infirmary, there are feveral other hofpituls, alins- 
houfes, and charity fchools. The corporation conllQs 
of a mayor; eight aldermen, of whom two are julliccs 
of the peace : and 24 common-council men. The 
city is extremely well provided with ftage-coaches, 
poft-coaches, chaifcs, machines, and waggons. Bath 
is the general hofpital of the nation, and a great num- 
ber of invalids find benefit from the waters : but as the 
city lies in a bottom furrounded by very high hills, the 
air is conftantly fiircharged with damps; and indeed 
this place is more fubject to rain than any other part in 
England. The markets are remarkably well fupplied 
with provifions of all kinds at reafonable rates, parti- 
cularly filh and poultry. They alfo afford excellent 
mutton fed upon Lanfdown, one of the higheft hills 
that overlook the city. This down, remarkable for its 
pure air, extends about three miles ; and at the extre- 
mity of it there is a flone monument, with an infcrip- 
tion, ereded to the memory of Sir Beville Granville, 
who was here killed in a battle which he fought with 
the parliament's army in the reign of Charles I. Bath 
fends two members to parliament. The earldom of 
Bath was beftowed on William Piiltney in the end of 
Sir Robert Walpole'sadininiftration as a reward for his 
patriotifm, but is now^ extind for want of heirs-male. 

Bath isjoined with ^^^clls to form a bifhopric, called 
the diocefe of Bath and Wells. The bifliop's feat is at 
Wells, whofe cathedral church was built by Ina, king 
of the WeA Saxons in 704, and by him dedicated to 
St Andrew. Several other of the ^^'cft-S3Xon kings 
endowed it, and was ercded into a bilhopricjn 905, 
during the reign of king Edward the Elder. The 
prefent church was begun by Robert the i8th bifliop 
of this fee, and completed by his immediate fuccclfor. 
John de Villula, the i6ih bilhop, having purchafcd the 
city of Bath for 500 merks of king Henry I. trans- 
ferred his feat to that city in 1088. From this, dif- 
putes arofe between the monks of Bath and the canons 
of Wells, about the election of a bilhop ; but they were 
at laft compromifed by Robert the iSth bilhop, who 
decreed, that from henceforward the bifliop Ihould be 
fly led tVom both places, and that the precedency (lioiild 
be given to Bath ; that in the vacancy of the fee, the 
bifluip fliould be ciccled by a certain number of dele- 
gates from both churches; and that he fl'.ould be in- 
ilalled in tliera both ; both of them to conftitutc the 
bifliop's chapter ; and all his grants and patents to be 
confirmed in both. So it ftood till the reformaiion. 
But in the ;?5th of king Henry Vlll. an aft of Par- 
liament paffcd for the dean and chap:cr of Wells to 
m;ike one (ole chapitr for the bilhop. This dioccfc 
hath jiddcd to the church of Rome one cardinal, and 



BAT [7 

B«th. to the civil ftate of England fix lord chancellors, five 
— '^~~' lor.l ircafiirers, one lord privy fcal, one lord prclident 
ol Wales, and principal Iccrctary of flate. The dio- 
ccfc contains the wliole county of Somerfct, except a 
few churches in the city of Brillol : the number of pa- 
rilhes amounting to 388, and the churches and cha- 
pels to 503. Of the parilhes 160 arc impropriate. It 
is valued in the king's books at L.535: i : 3, and 
computed lobe worth annually L. 2200. The clergy's 
tenth is L. 353 : li : o;. To the cathedral belong a 
bilhop, a dean, three archdeacons, a chancellor, a trea- 
furer, a fub-dcan, tiuy-nine prebendaries, four pricll- 
vicars, eight lay-vicars, an organill, fix clioridcrs, and 
other oJRcers. 

Knighti of thi B iTH, a military order in England, 
concerning the origin of which antiquaries dilftr in 
their accounts. The moft probable deduction fcems 
to be the following. 

The knighthood of the Bath is fuppofcd to have 
been pradifcd by the ancient Franks, the inhabitants 
of Lower Germany, with whom it is highly probable 
the Saxons, who invaded England, had the fame com- 
mon defcent, and, with oihcr cudoms, upon their fet- 
tling here, introduced the fame method of knighthood. 
Thcfc ancient Franks, when they conferred knight- 
hood, obferved, amongll other folemn rites, bathing be- 
fore they performed their vigils ; which cuftom con- 
tinues to be pracUfcd in England : they were from 
thence denominated Knights oj the Bath. 

In the reign of Henry IV. there was a degree of 
knighthood fpccilied under the cxprcfs appcllaiion of 
tr: Bath. Thai king, on the day of his coronation 
in ihe lower of London, conferred the fame upon 46 
cfquircs, who had watched all the night before, and 
had bathed themfelves. From that time it was cuilo- 
niary with the kings to confer this dignity preceding 
their coronations, the coronations of their queens, the 
birih and marriage of the royal ilfuc, and theirfirfl ad- 
vancement 10 honours, upon their dcfigned expeditions 
againlt their foreign enemies, upon inftallations of 
knights of the ganer, and when fonie grand anniver- 
fary fcftivals were celebrated. The lad knights of 
the Bath fo made were at the coronation of King 
Charles II. in i66i ; after which the order was neg- 
lected until the year 172 J, whenGeorgel. was pleaf- 
cd to revive it, and to order a book of (latutcs for the 
government of the order. By tliis the number of 
knights is fixed to 38, viz. the Sovereign, and 37 

The apparel of a knight of the Bath is a red furcoat, 
lined and edged with white, girded about with a white 
girdle, without any ornament thereon ; the mantle 
is of the fame colour and lining, made fafl about the 
neck with a lace of white lilk, having a pair of white 
gloves tied therein, with taifels of filk and gold at 
the end ; which mantles are adorned upon the left 
(houlders with the enlign of the order, being three im- 
perial crowns, £.r, furroundcd with the ancient motto 
of this knighthood, Tr'ia junila in uiio, wrought up- 
on a circle gules, with a glory or rays ifluing from the 
centre, and under it the lace of white lilk hereto- 
fore worn by the knights of the Bath. They have 
red breeches and flockings, and have white hats, with 
a plume of white feathers thereon. The king allowed 
the chapel of King Henry VII. to be the chapel of 

o ] BAT 

the order, and ordered that each knight's banner, with 
plates of his arms and (lyles, fliould be placed over their *■ 
feveral llalls, in like manner as the knightsof the Gar- 
ter in St George Chapel in the caflle of Windfor ; 
and he allowed them fupporters to their arms. His 
lloyal Highnefs Prince William, fecond fon to the 
Prince of Wales, on this occalion, was made the firll 
knight-companion, and his Grace the Dtike of Mon- 
tagu grand mailer of the order, the dean of Wcllmin- 
Aer (for the time being) dean of the order; the other 
officers of which are, Bath king of arms, a genealo- 
gilf , rcgifter and fccretary, gentleman ullier, and nief- 

B.iTH, Balneum, a convenient receptacle of water 
for perfons to walh or plunge in, either for health or 
I'lcafure. — Baths are diflinguilhed into hot and cold ; 
and ihefe again are either natural or artificial. The 
natural hot baths arc formed of the water of hot 
fprings, of which there are many in different pans of 
the world ; efpecially in thofe couuirits where there 
are or iiave evidently been volcanoes. The artificial 
hot baths confill either of water or of fome other tiiiid 
made hot by an. The cold bath conlills of water, 
cither frcfli or fait, in its natural degree of heat ; or it 
may be made colder by art, as by a mixture of nitre, 
fal ammoniac, &c. The chief hot baths in England 
are thofe of Bath and B illul, in Somerfetlhire ; and 
thofe others of Buxion and Matlock, in Dtrbylliire ; 
which latter, however, are rather warm or tepid than 
hot. The uie of ihel'e baths is found beneficial in dif- 
eafcs of the head, as pulfies, &c. in cuticidar difcafcs, 
as Icprofics, &c. obflniiriions and conllipations of the 
bowels, the fcurvy and Hone, and in moll dilcafe.s of 
women and children. The baths have peiiormed many 
cures, and are commonly ufed as a lall remedy in ob- 
llinate chronic difcafcs; where they fuccced well, if 
they agree with the confiitution of the patient : but 
whether they will agree or not, cannot be known 
without trial. 

As to the origin of thofe hot waters, of which the na- 
tural hot baths are formed, we are very much in the 
dark. All that can be afErnied with certainty is, that 
where there are volcanoes, tlierc alfo there are hot 
fprings in great abundance ; but how the heat of the vol- 
car.o Ihould be conilantly coninumic. ted to the waters 
of a fpring for m-any ages, during a great part of which 
the volcano itfcU has lain in a dormant llatc, feenis 
alinofl br-yond the reach of invclligation. Another 
thing that creates a great difiitulty is, that the fire 
of a volcano mufl certainly lie very deep in the earth, 
and niofl probably fliifis from place to place ; but the 
waters ol a fpring mull always iifue from a place fitua- 
ted lower than the origiii of the fpring iilVlf. Bcfidcs, 
thu.igh we ihould fuppofe the water to come from the 
top of a volcano itfclf, and confcqucntly boiling hot, 
it could not be fuppofed to percolate far through cold 
earth, without loliug all the heat it acquired from the 
volcano. From fome obfervations, however, it certainly 
does appear, that there are fome fpotson the earth which 
have a power of producing heat within themfelves, 
indepenilent of any thing foreign; and that water is fo 
far from being able to deflroy this power, .h'lr it fecms 
rather to promote and continue it. \Vc know that 
water hath this cffcof upon a mixture of iron filings 
and fulphur ; but whatever quantities of finiilar fub- 




[ V ] 


r»th. ftances wc may fuppofe to be contained in the earth, 
— V ' we miifl; alfo fuppofe to be dellroyed by one great con- 
flagration foon after they have begun to aft upon each 
other, fo that by their means no lalling heat in waters 
could be produced. Dr Stiikely indeed would folve 
this, and fcveral other phenomena, by making the 
fire and fmoke of volcanoes the efFefts of eleftri- 
city : bat here fufEcient proof is wanting ; for elec- 
tricity, even in its mod powerful flate, is not very apt 
to fet bodies on fire. The thought, however, del'ervcs 
attention ; for if electricity is capable of fttting a vol- 
cano on fire, it is undoubtedly capable of producing 
folfaterras where it meets with proper materials, and 
from them fprings of any degree of heat. 

The cold batli is found one of the moft univerfal 
and innocent remedies yet difcovcred, though ftill its 
ufe is not to be adopted without precautions. 

Baths in vapour, the fume or fleam of fome de- 
coilion is received upon the body to promote a per- 
fpiration. — Thefc are alio by fome called Balnea La- 

Vapour baths are, when the patient is not plunged 
into wliat is prepared for the bath, but only receives 
its fteam upon thole parts of his body which require 
it : as in fome diftempers of the fundament and womb, 
where the patient liis and receives the fumes of fome 
proper fomentation, &c. To thcfe may be added the 
bagnio ; where people are made to fweat by tlie heat 
of a room, and pouring on of hot water ; after which 
they generally go into a hot bath or bagnio. 

A peculiar fort of vapoiir-bath was much ufed by 
the ancient Mexicans, and is llill in ufe among the pre- 
fent Indians their dcfcendants. According to tlie 
Abbe Clavigero, thefe baths are built of raw bricks, 
and their form is fimilar to that of ovens for baking 
bread : but wiih this ditference, that the pavement of 
the bath is a little convex, and lower than the furface 
of the earth ; whereas that of moll ovens is plain, and 
a little elevated for the accommodation of the baker. 
The greatefl diameter of a bath is about tight feet, 
and its greatefl height lix. The entrance, like tlie 
mouth of an oven, is wide enough to allow a man to 
creep eafdy in. In the place oppollte to the entrance 
there is a furnace of Hone or raw bricks, with its mouth 
outwards to receive the lire, and a hole above it to 
carry off the fmoke. The part which imitcs the fur- 
nace to the bath, and whicii is about two feet and a 
half fquare, is lluit with a certain dry Hone of a porous 
texture. In the upper part of the vault there is an air- 
hole, like that lo the furnace. This is theufual llructure 
of the temazcalli ; but there are others that are witiiout 
vault or furnace, mere little fquare chambers, yet well 
covered and defended from the air. — When any perfon 
goes to bathe, he firfl lays a mat within the temazcalli, 
a pitcher of water, and a buncii of herbs or leaves ot 
maize. He then caufes a firt to be made in the fur- 
nace, which is kept burning uiuil th- rtones which join 
the tsath an.l furuice are quite hot. The perfon who 
is to ufe the baih enters comaionly naked, and gene- 
rally accompanied for the like of inconvenience, or on 
account ol infirmity, by one of his domeftics. As 
foan as he enters, he fli'its the entrance clofe, but 
leaves the air-hoii ii top for a liulc time open, to let 
out any fmoke which may have been introdticed thro' 
ihc chinks ol the Hone ; when it is all out he likcwifc 

flops up the air-hole. He then throws water upon the 
hot flones, from which immediately arifes a thick fleam * 
to the top of the temazcalli. While the fick pcrlbn 
lies upon the mat, the domellic drives the vapour 
downwards, and gently beats the fick perfon, parti- 
cularly on the ailing part, with the bunch of herbs, 
which are dipped for a little while in the water of the 
pitcher, which has then become a little warm. Tlic 
fick perfon falls immediately into a foft and copious 
fweat, which isincreafed or diminilhed at picafure, ac- 
cording as the cafe requires. When the evacuation 
defired is obtained, ilie vapour is let off, the entrance 
is cleared, and the fick perfon clothes himfelf, or is 
tranfported on the mat to his chamber ; as the entrance 
to the bath is ui'ually within fome chamber of his ha- 
bitation. — This fort of bath, called te^tiazcatli by the 
natives, has been regularly ufed in fevcral diforders, 
particularly in fevers occafioned by collivenefs. The 
Indian women ufe it commonly after childbirth, and 
alfo thofe perfons who have been Hung or wounded by 
any poifonous animal. It is undoubtedly a powerful 
remedy for all thofe who have occafion to carry off 
grofs humours ; and certainly it would be moll nfeful 
in Italy, where the rheuinatifm is fo frequent and af- 
fliifling. When a very copious fweat is dcfired, the 
fick perfon is railed up and held in the vapour ; as he 
fweats the more the nearer he is to it. The temaz- 
calli is fo common, that in every place inhabited by 
the Indians there are many of them. 

B -tTHS [Dry), are thofe made of afhes, fait, fimd, 
fhreds of leather, and the like. — The ancients had di- 
vers ways of fweating by a dry heat ; as by the means 
of a hot fand, flove-rooms, or artificial bagnios, ar:d 
certain natural hot rteims of the earth, received under 
a proper arch, or Jiot-houfe, as wc learn from C'clfiis. 
They alfo had another kind of bath by infolaiion, 
where the body was expofed to ilie fun for fome time, 
in order to draw forih the fuperrtuous moillurc Iroin 
the inward pans ; and to this day it is a prarticc in 
fome nations to cover the body over with horfe-dung, 
efpeoially in chronical difeafcs, to digcll and breathe 
out the humor that caufes ihe dillemper. In Ibme 
places they make a kind of Hovcs of turf, wherein 
the fick are fluit up lo bathe or fweat. 

The fame name is fometimcs alfo given to another 
kind of bath, made of kindled coals, or burning fpirit 
of wine ; the patient being placed in a convenient clofe 
chair for the reception of the fume, which riles and 
provokes fweat in a plentiful manner : care is here ta- 
ken 10 keep the head out, and to ftcure rcfpiraiion. 
This bath has been found very etfiftual in removing 
old obllinate pains in the limbs, and venereal com- 
plaints ; and will often complete a cure left uiipcr- 
formcd by falivation. 

Some auihors fpcak of blooily baths, balnea fanguU 
nolcntn, prepared tfpecially of the blood of infants, 
anciently fuppofcd to be a kind of fpccific for the 

Baths (Metalline) ,thok of water impregnated 
with ihe/coria- of metals. The mod common and ufe- 
ful of this kind are thofe prepared with ihe Jicri.r of 
iron, which abound \v\\h the earthy, falinc, and fulphu- 
reous fubllance of the metal ; and thcfe arc of excellent 
fcrvicc for llrengthening and bracing up the part lo 
which they are applied, and recovering weak and de- 


BAT [72 

n«th. cayed limbs 5 rtoppiiig various kinds of blecJing ; and 

— ' rcllorini; the nicnilr.uil and licmorriioidal Hiix wlicic 

obllnictcd i iiiromuch, thai tluy may well be lublti- 
tuicd Cor the natural iron baths. 

Adjacent to the Imcltine; huts where mciali arc rim 
from their ore, are to be tomid larj;c iiuaniilies of the 
(lag cif copper, antimony, and cobalt, which aboiuul- 
ini^with iiilphiir, vitriolic fait, and an earthy principle, 
make iVrviceablc baihs for llrengthtning the lull tone 
of the fibres, and relaxing them when they arc too 
IWd'. Thefe baths have likcwile a delcrlivc and clcan- 
fing virtue ; fo that with prudence, and due regard to 
circmnllanccs, they may be iifcd on many occalions. 
The way of making thefe anilicial baths is, either to 
take tiie Hags as they come hot from the furnace, or 
clfc to heat them afrcih, and throw ihcin into hot wa. 
ttr ; which is afterwards to be nfcd either in the way 
of bath, or fomentation, occafionally. There are other 
artilicial baths, prepared of alum and quicklime, by 
boiling them together in line rain-water. Such baths 
are highly ferviceablc in paralytic diforders and weak- 
11c fs of the limbs. 

The pepper bath, or pcffcr walTcr, on the Alps, is 
one of the mud celebrated in Europe, and has been the 
fubitJf of treatifes exprefs, behdes what has been faid 
of it occafionally by bcheuchzer and others. It \vas 
firll difcovercd in the year 1240, and is of the periodi- 
cal kind. The water breaks forth in a dreadful place, 
fcarce accelliblc to the fun-beams, or indeed to men, 
unlefs of the greatell boldncfs, and fuch as arc not in 
the lead fubjeifl to dizzinefs. Thefe baths have this 
lingulurity above all others, that they commonly break 
fordi in May, and that with a fort of irapetuofiiy, 
bringing with tliem beech-leaves, crabs, or other wood- 
fruit : and that their courfe defills in September or 
Oaober. Schcuclizcr profelTes himfelf of opinion, 
that thefe waters are not impregnated with any mine- 
rals, or if they do contain any, that their virtues in 
curing dillenipers and preferving health do not proceed 
from them. They are exceeding clear, dellitute of 
colour, talle, or fnull. 

Baths, {Balnea), in architecture, denote large 
pompous buildings among the ancients, ereded lor the 
fake of bathing. Baths made a part of the ancient 
gywnafia, though they were frequented iiiore for the 
fake of pleafure than health. 

The mofk magnificent baths were thofe of Titus, 
Paulus i^:milius, and Dioclefian, of which there are 
fome ruins rtill remaining. It is faid that at Rome 
there were 856 public baths. Fabricius adds, that 
the cxcetlive luxury of the Romans appeared in no- 
thing more vifible than in tiieir baths. Seneca com- 
plains, that the baths of plebeians were filled from 
filver pumps ; and that the frcedmcn trod on gems. 
Macrobius tells us of one Sergius Oratus, a voluptuary, 
who had pendant baths hanging in the air. 

According to Dion, Mxcenas was the firll who made 
a bath at Rome : yet there are indances of public 
baths prior to this ; but they were of cold water, Imall, 
and poorly decorated. Agrippa, in his sdilatc, built 
160 places for bathing, where the citizens might be 
accommodated, either with hot or <:q\&, gratis, hi- 
ter this example, Nero, Vcfpafian, Titus, Domitjan, 
Sevenis, Gordian, Aurelian, Maximian, Dioclefian, 
and moll of the emperors who lludied to gain the af- 



feftions of ih» people, erc(5led baths laid with the 
richell marble, ami wrought according to the rules of 
the mod delicate architecture. The rich had ba:hs at 
home, and frequently very magnificent ones, efpeeiaU 
]y after the time that the praclicc of pillaging the 
provinces had begun ; but they only ufed them on ex- 
traordinary occalions. The great men, and even em- 
perors themfelves, fomctimes bathed in public with 
the reft of the people. Alexander Sevcrus was the 
firll who allowed the public baths to be opened ill the 
night-time during the heats of liimmer. 

The Greek baths were ufually annexed xa paleflra 
or g}i/j>iafia, of which they were confidercd as a part. 
1 hcfe baths confided of feven dilfercnt apartments, 
ufually fcparated from each other, and intermixed with 
other buildings belonging to the other forts of exer- 
cifcs. Thefe were, firft, the cold bath, //-/f/Wa lavatio ; 
2dly, The eluothejiiim, or room where they were anoint- 
ed with oil ; jdly. The frigiJariuM, or cooling room ; 
4lhly, The proptiigtton, or entrance of the hypocauflum, 
or Hove ; 5thly, The vaulted room for fweating in, or 
vapour-bath, called coiicav:crnta fudai'w, or tepidarium ; 
6thly, The laconkiim, or dry Hove ; y'lly, The hot 
bath, called callida lavatio. 

As for the baths fcparate from the palcflrtt, they 
appear to have been ufiially double, one for men, the 
other for women ; but fo near, that the fame furnace 
heated both. The middle part was pollened by a large 
bafon that received water by feveral pipes, and was 
furroundcd by a baluftrade, behind which there was 
an area for the reception of thofe who waited to ufe 
the bath. They were vaulted over, and only received 
light from the top. 

In the Roman baths, the firfl part that appeared 
was a large bafon, called xoM-^fiiSf* in Greek, and 7in- 
tatio or pifcira m Latin. In the middle was the hy- 
pocaujluiii, which had a row of four apartments on each 
lidc, called balncari : thefe were the flove, the bath, 
cold bath, and tepidariuw. The two doves, called 
tacoT.icum and tcpidariujii, were circular and joined to- 
gether. Their floor was hollow and fufpended, in or- 
der to receive the heat of a large furnace, v.'hich was 
communicated to the doves through the vacuities of 
their floor. This furnace alfo heated another room 
called vafariiim, in which were three large brazen vef- 
fels called riiilliaria, refpeftively containing hot, warm, 
and cold water ; which were fo difpofed, that the wa- 
ter might be made to pals by fyphons and pipes out of 
one or other of them into the bath, in order to adjuft 
its temperature. The defcription is given by Vitruvi- 
us. At three in the afternoon, which is what Pliny 
cMs hora odava et ?to!ia, the Romans all repaired to 
the baths, either the public or the private ones : this 
was called the i'rith huur, kora balnei, which in winter 
was at nine, in dimmer at eight. The public baths 
were all opened by the found of a bell, and always at 
the fame hour. Thofe who came too late, flood a 
chance for bathing in cold water. 

They began with liot water; after which, as the 
pores were now opened, and might give room for too 
plentiful a perfpiration, they though it nccefiary for 
their health to clofe them again, cither with the cold 
bath, or at lead with a fprinkling of cold water. Du- 
ring the bath, the body was fcraped with a kind of 
knives, or fmall ilrigils, fuch as are dill found in the 




BattN ^cabinets of the curious. After bathing fiiccecdcd 
>'""' unftion and perfuming, from -which they went Ireih to 

The Romans, when they found tlieir Aomachs over- 
charged with meat, went to the bath, as we learn from 
Juvenal, who inveighs againft thofe who, having gorg- 
ed themfelves with eating, were forced to go into the 
baths to give themfelves relief. They found alfu that a 
bath was good to refrelh themfelves after fonie conll- 
^ derablc fatigue or travel, as Celfus tells us; which 
makes Plautus fay, that all the baths in this world 
were not fufEcient to remove the wcarinefs he felt. 
After Pompey's time, the iiumour of bathing was car- 
ried to great excefs, by which many were ruined, fe- 
veral having brought themfelves to fuch a pilch, that 
they could not bear food without bathing hrfl. The 
emperor Titus is faid to have loft his life thereby. 
Hence Pliny inveighs feverely againll thofe pliyUcians 
who held, that hot baths digelkd the food. The em- 
peror Hadrian firft laid a reftraint on the immoderate 
humour of bathing, by a public edidt, prohibiting all 
perfons to bathe before the eighth hour. 

Baths of Agrljypa (therms ^grippime,) were built 
of brick, but painted in enamel : thofe of Nero, thirjux 
Neroniana, were not only furniflied with frefh water, 
but even had the fea brought into them : thofe of Ca- 
racalla were adorned with 200 marble columns, and 
furnilhcd with 1600 feats of the fame matter. Lip- 
fius alfures us they were fo large, that 1800 perfons 
might conveniently bathe in them at the fame time. 
But the baths of Dioclefun, thermx Dioch-far:a, fur- 
paflcd all the rclt in magnificence. One hundred and 
lorty thoufand men were employed many years in 
building them. Great part of tlicfe, as well as thofe 
of Caracalla, are flill flanding ; and with the vafl; high 
arches, the beautiful and 11;ately pillars, the extraordi- 
nary plenty of foreign marble, the curious vaulting of 
the roofs, the prodigious number of fpacious apart- 
ments, and a thoufand other ornaments, make one of 
the greateft curiolitics of modern Rome. 

Bath, in chcmiftry. Several matters employed to 
tranfmit heit are called baths ; but the fubftinccs mofl 
frequently ufed by chemifls for this purpofcs, are water 
»nd fand. When water is employed, it is called £<?/- 
neum Maria, or ■water hath ; which is very much ufed, 
very convenient for many operations, and may be em- 
ployed fuccefsfully for all degrees of heat inicrior to 
that of boiling water. As water, when expofcd to 
fire in any velfel from which it can evaporate, does 
only receive a determinate degree of heat, which al- 
ways remains the fauic when once it has arrived 10 the 
Iwiling heat, it follows that by the water bath, a de- 
gree of heat always efiual may be trjnfmiticd with 
certainty. Farther, this degree of heat being inca- 
pable of burning, or of communicating an empyrcu- 
matic qiulity to matters fufceptible of it, the water 
bath has alfo the advantage of not e xpofiug fubllanccs 
to this inconvenience. When velfcls in which diltilla- 
tions aid digeflious are made, arc placed in fand, then 
a fand bath is formed. This intermediate fubOancr of 
find is very convenient to moderate the too great ac- 
tivity of the naked tire, and to tranfmit any degree of 
heat, from the v/eake(l to a red heat. As this bath 
is aiioniled with lefs trouble, and requires icfs appara- 
tus thin the witcr bath, it is much ufed iti Isborato- 

[ 73 ] 


nes. Nothing is requifite for the fand bath, hut an 
earthen or iron vcflcl filled with fine fand, which is 
fitted into a turnace, and capable of containing the 
cucurbits, retorts, matralTcs or other veffels coBiaining 
the matter to be operated upon. 

Bath, in metallurgy, is ufed to (Ignify the fufion 
of metallic matter in certain operations. In refining 
or cupelling, for example, the metals arc faid to be in 
bath when they are melted. When gold is purified 
by antimony, this femi-meial melted, is called by fomc 
the iatA of gold ; alchcmifls, who coufidcr gold as the 
king of metals, call antimony the hath cj th<: kh:g only ; 
bccaufe in fact gold only can refiil the aaion of anti- 

Bath, in Hebrew antiquity, a meafure of capacity, 
containing the fourth part of an omcr, or fevcn gallons 
and lour pints, as a meafure for things liquid ; or three 
pecks and three pints, as a meafure for things dry. 

Bath-KoI, the daughter of a voice. So the Jews 
call one of their oracles, which is frequently nicniioncd 
in their books, cfpccially the Talmud ; being a tanta- 
flical way of divination invented by the Jc-ws them- 
felves, though called by them a revelation from God's 
will, which he made to his chofcn people, after all ver- 
bal prophecies had ceafed in Ifracl. It was in fad a 
method of divination fimilar to the fortes virgUiarier of 
the Heathens. For as, with them, the firft words they 
happened to dip into, in the works of that poet, were 
a kind of oracle whereby ilicy predidcd future events; 
fo, with the Jews, wJien they appealed to Bath-kol, the 
firft words thty beard from any man's mouih were looked 
upon as a voice from heaven, directing them in the 
matter they enquired about. The Chridians were not 
quite free from this fuperftition, making the fame ufc 
of the book of the Scriptures as the Pagans did of the 
works ot Virgil. It was pravriilcd by Hcraclius, em- 
peror of the Kaft, in the beginning ol the fevcnih cen- 
tury : for, being at war with Cholroes king of Pcrfia, 
and in doubt, after a fuccefsful campaign, where to 
take up his winter quarters, he confnltcii the book of 
the Scriptures in this way of divination, and was de- 
termined thereby. In France, it was the practice for 
feveral ages to ufc this kind ol di\injii(ui at the confc- 
cration of a biihop, in order to difcovcr his life, man- 
ners, and future behaviour. This ufage came into 
England with the Norman conqucil; for wc are told, 
that at the cnnfccration of William the fecond Nor- 
man bifliop of the diocefe of Norwich, the words which 
iirlt occurred on dipping into the iiible were. Not thit 
V2an, but Barabhus : loon after M hich, William died, 
and Herbert de Lozinga, chief fimony-brokcr to King 
William Rufus, fucccrded him ; at whofe confecraiion 
ti;e words at which the Bible opened were the fame 
which Jefus fpoke to J.idas the traitor; Fritnd, U'bcrt' 
fori- art thou care ? This circumftance fo aficCfcd Her- 
bert, that it brought him to a ihorougli repentance of 
his crime ; in expiation of whicli lie built the cathedral 
church or Norwich, the firft ftonc of which he laid iu 
the year 1096. 

BATHA, Bath, ox Bachia, a town of Hungary, 
and capital of a county of the fame name, fcated on the 
Danube. E. Long. 20. 40. N. Lat. 46. 40. 

BATHING, the aft of ufing or applying a bath ; 
that is of immcrging the body, or part of it, in water, 
or other fluid 

K Bathing 


C 74 ] 


fiihln-. Bathing is a praaice of great antiquity. The Greeks, 

" ' as early as the heroic age, arc laid to have bathed them- 

felves ill the fea, in rivers, &c. We even find mention 
in Homer, of hot baths in the Trojan times; but thefc 
fccni to have been very rare, and only ulcd on extraor 

though they are not a^eed as to the manner in which Kathiny. 
they operate on the human body. See Meeicine- *"~"^' ' 

Bathing among the Turks, as among the ancients, 
makes a part of diet and luxury ; and in every town. 

dinary occalions. Athcnjeus fpeaks of hot baths as and even village, there is a public baih. Indeed, the 

unnufual even in his age. In reality, public baths ap- 
pear to have been dil'couragcd, and even prohibited, by 
the ancient Greeks, who were contented to walh thera- 
felvcs at home in a lort of bathing-tubs. The method 
of bathing among the ancient Greeks was, by heating 
water in a large veli'cl with three feet, and thence pour- 
inc it on the head and Ihouldcrs of the peribn feated in 
tlie tub for that purpofc, who at coming out was anoint- 
ed with oil 

ncccflity of clcanlinefs, in a climate where one pcr- 
fpires fo copiouily, has rendered baihing indilpcn- 
fablc; the comfort it produces prtfrrvcs the ufc ot it ; 
and Mahomet, who knew its utility, has reduced it 
to a precept. Of tiiele baths, and the manner of bath- 
ing particularly at Cairo, the following account is giveu 
by M. Savary in his Letters on tgypt. 

" The lirlt apartment one finds in going to the bath, 
is a larjrc hill, which rifes in the form of a rotunda. 

The Romans were alio long before they came into It is opi ii at the top, to give a free circulation to the 

the ufc of baths; the very name of which, thcrwo', air. A fpacious cllrade, or railed floor, covered with 

Ihows they borrowed it from the Greeks. As the an- a carpet, and divided into compartments, goes around 

cient Romans were chiefly employed in .agriculture, it, on which one lays one's clothes. In the middle of 

their cudom was every evening after work to walh the building, a jet-d'cau fpouis out from a bafon, and 

their arms and legs, they might lit down to fup- agreeably entertains the eye. When you are nndreffed, 

per with more decency : for it is to be obfcrvcd, the you tie a napkin round your loins, take a pair of fan- 

iife of linen was then unknown ; and the people oi that dais, and cnicr into a narrow palVage, where you be- 

aee went with their arms and legs bare, and coufe- gin to be fcniible of the heat. The door Units to; 

quently expofed to dull and tilth. But this was not all ; and, at 20 paces off, you open a fecond, and go alonjj 

for every ninth day, when they repaired to the city, a pallage, which torms a right angle with the former, 

either to the nundiu.e or to attend at the ademblirs of Here the heat increafcs. They who arc afraid of fud- 

the people, they bathed all over in the Tiber, or Ibme dcniy cxpoling thtmfelves to a llrogcr*ltgrce of ir, 

other river which happened to be neareft them. This flop in a ma; bit hall, in the way to the bath properly 

feemsto have been all the bathing knoivn till the time fo called. The bath is a fpacious and vaulted apanmenr, 

of Pompey, when the cuflom began of bathing tilery paved and lined with marble, around which there are 


The Celtic natior.s were not without the ufc of bath- 
ing : the ancient Germans bathed every day in warm 
water in winter, and in fummcr in cold. In Kngland, 
the famous bath in Somcrfetlhirc is laid by fome to have 
been in ufe 800 years before Chrift. Of this, how- 
ever, it mull be owned, we have but very llender evi- 
dence : but Dr Mufgrave makes it probable that it 

lour clofc-is. The vapour incellantly riling from a foun- 
tain and cittern of hot water, mixes itfelf with the 
burning perfumes. Thcfe, however, are never burnt 
except the peilbns who are in the bath dclire it. They 
mix with the fteam of the water, and produces a molt 
agreeable eflect. 

" The bathers arc notimprifonedhcre, as in Europe, 
in a fort of tub, where one is never at one's cafe. Ex- 

was a place of conliderablerefort in Geta's time ; there tended on a cloth fpread out, the head fupported by a 

being Hill the remains of a ftatue erected to that gene- fmall culhion, they flretch themfelves freely in every 

ral, in gratitude for ibme benefav.tions he bad con- pollure, wliile they are wrapped up in a cloud of odori- 

ferrcd upon it. ferous vapours, which penetrate into all their pores. 

Altho.igh bathing, among the ancients, made, as After repoling there fome time, until there is a gentle 

it were, a part of diet, and was ufed as familiarly as moifturc over the whole body, a fervant comes, prellcs 

eating or deep; yet it was in high efteein among their you gently, turns you over, and when the limbs are 

phylieians for the cure of difeafcs, as appears from become fupple and tiexiblc he makes all the jointscrack 

Strabo, Pliny, Hippocrates, and Oribafias; whence without any diihculty. He malies* and feems to knead 

frequent exhortations to walliing in the fea, and plunt;- the flelli without making you feel the fmallefl pain. 

iug into cold water. The tint inflance of cold bath- This operation finillied, he puts on a fluff" glove, and 

ing, as a medicine, isMclampus'sbatbing thedaughters rubs you a long time. During this operation, he de- 

of the king of Argos; and the firft inllance of warm taches from the body of the patient, which is running 

bi'h'ng is Medea's ufc of it, who was laid to boil with fweat, a fort of fniall Icales, and removes even 

people alive, becaufc Pelias king of ThelFaly died in 
a warm bath under her hands. The cold bath was 
ufed with fuccefs by Antoninus Mnfa, phylician to the 
emperor Augullus, for the recovery of that prince; 

tlie imperceptible dirt that flops the pores. The Ikin 
becomes foft and fmooth like fatin. He then condn(51s 
you into a clofet, pours the lather of perfumed foap 
upon yoar head, and wiihilraws. The ancients did 

• " Mafs" 
comes from 
the Ataliic 
\erb mafsy 
which fig- 

a delicate 

but fell into negle'fl after the death of Marccllus, who more lionour to their guells, and treated them in a 

was thought to have been dtllroycd by the improper more voluptuous manner. Whilft Tclcmachus was at 

ufe of it. It was again bro.ight into rcquetl towards the court of Neflor, ' the beautiful Polycafla, the 

the clofc of the reign of Nero, by means of a phyfv handfomcfl of the daughters of the king of Pylos, led 

cian at Marfrillcs named Churm'n ; but (hiring the ig- the fon of Ulylfes to the bath ; wafhcd him v^iih her 

tiorance of the fuccceding ages, the practice was again own hands; and, nfur anointing his body wiili precious 

baniihcd for a long time. — Both hot and cold biihing oils, covered him witii rich habits and a fpltiidid cloak.* 

are now prcfcribed in many cafes by the phyikians, PililUatiis aaid Telcmachiis were Hot worfe treated in 




Batlimg. tlie palace of Menelaus. ' Wlien they had admired 

" " its beaties, they were conJiitled to bafons of marble, 

where a bath was prepired : Beautiful female llavcs 

wa(he<l them ; and, after anointing ihcm with oil, co- 

Tcred them wiili rich tunics and fipcrbpelliccs.' 

" The clofct to whicli one is conducieJ is furnilhcd 
with a ciflern and two cocks ; one for cold and the 
other for hot water. There ymivvalh yourlclf. Soon 
after the fcrvant retnrns with a depilatory pomaiiim, 
■which in an inftant makes the hair fall oli' the places it 
is applied to. Both men and women make general nfc 
of it in Egypt. It is compofcd of a minetal called 
rufma, which is of a deep brown. The Egyptians 
burn it lightly, knead it with waier, mixing it with 
half the quantity of Aaked lime. Tliis greyilh palle 
applied to the hair, makes it fall off in two or three 
minutes, without giving the llightert pain. 

"After being well wallied and purified, you arc wrap- 
ped up in hot linen, and follow the guide through 
the windings that lead to the outer apartment. This 
jnfcnfible tranfuion from heat to cold prevents one from 
fuffering any inconvenience from it. On arriving at 
the eflrade, you find a bed prepared for you ; and 
fcarcely are you laid down before a child comes to prefs 
every part of your body with his delicate fingers, in 
order to dry you thoroughly. You change linen a fe- 
cond time, and the child gently grates the callofity of 
your feet with pimiice flone. He then brings you a 
pipe and Moka coffee. 

" Coming out of a ftove where one was furroundedby 
a hot and moift fog, where the fweat gullied from every 
limb, and tranfported into a fpacious apartment open 
to the external air, the brcafl dilates, and one breathes 
with voluptuoufnefs. Perfectly mailed, and as it were 
regenerated, one experiences an univerfal comfort. The 
blood circulates with freedom ; and one feels as if difen- 
gaged from an enormous weight, together with a fup- 
plenefs and lightnefs to which one has been hitherto a 
Granger. A lively fentiment of exillcnce diffufes itfelf 
to the very extremities of the body. Whillt it is loft 
in delicate fenfations, the foul, fympathifmg with the 
tlelight, enjoys the moft agreeable ideas. The ima- 
gination, wandering over the univerfe, which it em- 
bellilhes, fees on every fide the moft enchanting pic- 
tures, every where the image of happinefs. If life be 
nothing but the fuccelhon of our ideas, the rapidity 
with which they then recur to the memory, the vigour 
with which the mind runs over the extended chain of 
them, would induce a belief that in the two hours of 
that delicious calm that fuccecds the bath, one has lived 
a number of years." 

Such arc the baths, the nfe of which were fo ftrong- 
ly recommended by the ancients, and which are ftill 
the delight of the Egyptians. It is by means of (hem 
that they prevent or difpet rheumatifms, catarrhs, and 
fuch cutaneous diforders as are produced by want of 
pcrfpiration. Hence likewife they find a radical cure 
for that fatal evil which attacks the Iburcts of genera- 
tion, the remedy for which is fo dangerous in Europe. 
By the fame reionrce they get rid ol' that uncomfort- 
able feeling fo common to all nations who do not pay 
fo much attention to the cleanlinefs of their bodies. — 
Mr Tourncfort, indeed, who had ufed fteam baths at 
C'onftantinople, where there is lc(s refinement in them 
than at Cairo, is of opinion thai they injure the brcaft. 




But, according to Mr Savary, this is an error which 
further experience would have correaed. There arc 
no people who nuke more frequent ule of them than 
the Egyptians, and there is no country where there 
arc Itwcr afthraatic people. The allhii.a is Icarcely 
known there. 

The women are paflionatcly fond of ihefe baths. 
They frequent them at leaft once a-\vctk, and i.>ke 
wiih them Haves properly qualified for the purjole. 
More luxurious ihan the men, after lu-.dergoing the 
ul'ual prepnrations, ihey walh their bo.iics, and ^ibovc 
all their heads, with roft-waier. It is there that fe- 
male head drellers form their lona black hair into trcfl"es, 
which they mix with precious ellenctsinftcad of powder 
and pomatum. It is there that i!-'y blacken .he edge 
of their eye-lids, and h ngtheii iheir cye-br.Avs with co- 
lic!, a preparation of tin i^urnt with gall-nuts ; i:is there 
they ftain the finger and toe nails ->iih the leaves of 
henue, a Ihriib common in Egypt, and which gives 
them a golden colour. The linen and clothing they 
make nfe of are palled through the fwect /learn of the 
wood of aloes ; and when ihc work of the toilet is at 
an end, they remain in the outer apartment, and jaft 
the day in entcrtainnienis. Females enicrtaln them 
with voluptuous fongs and dances, or tell them talcs of 

BATHURST (Ralph), M. D. an eminent phy- 
fician, poet and divine, born in the year 1620. He 
ftudied divinty in Trinity college, Oxford ; but the 
times of confufion coining en, he changed the courfc 
of his ftudics, and applied himfclf to phyfic. He '.00k 
a doctor's degree in that faculty ; in which he rofe to 
fuch eminence, that he w^as, in the lime of the ufurpa- 
tion, appointed phyfician to the ftate. Upon the re- 
ftoraiion, he quitted his profeffion of phyfic ; was elec- 
ted a fellow of the Royal Society, and prefident of his 
college; and having entered into holy orders, he was 
made chaplain to the king, and afterwards dean of 
Wells. Soon after, he ferved the office of vice-chancel- 
lor of Oxford, and was nominated by King William 
and Qiieen Mary to the fee of Briftol which he refufed 
to accept. His learning and talents were various. He 
was an orator, a philofophcr, and a poet: he poircircd 
an inexhauftible fund ofwit, and was a facetious com- 
panion at 80 years of age. Ridicule was the weapon 
with which he ufed to correft the delinquents of his 
college : and he was fo abfoluie a maftcr of it, that he 
had it always at hand. His poetical pieces in the Mr:- 
f.e Anglicauit are excellent in their kind. He wrote 
feveral poems, both in Englifli and Latin ; ai;d died 
June 14. 1704, in the £4111 year of his age. 

Bathurst (Allen), Earl of Bathurft, one of thclaft 
worthies of Qiiecn Anne's reign, that Ihining period 
of triumphs, lafte, genius, and elegance, was born in 
the year 1684. His ftudies and his education were 
equally conducive to the brilliant figure he was dcjljncd 
to make in focial life and in the fenate, as a polite fcho- 
lar, a patriot, and a Uatefman. Thefc talents he had 
an opportunity to difplay as early as the year 1705; 
when, at the requeft of his father Sir Benjamin Ba- 
thurft, and ihe folicitation of ihc conftitucnis of Ciren- 
cheftcr, he ferved in parliament for that borough, his 
native foil, with reputation and inicgriiy. I!c diftin- 
guiihed himfclf particularly in the ftrugglcs and de- 
bates rclati\c to the union between the tuo kingdoms, 
K 2 firnil/ 

BAT [ 

flmth»rl». firmly fiipponing this meafure, calculated to ftrengihen 

' ■' ' the vij;our of government by uniting its force. Tiumgh 

he was contented to ad a i'ubordinate charader in liie 
great oppolition planned by Mr Harlcy and Mr St 
John, his intimate friends, to fap the credit ot the 
Duke of Marlliorough and his adherents, he was of in- 
finite fcrvicc to his party in arraigning, with fpirit and 
eloquence, the conducl of the General and the Earl of 
Godolphin. who had long governed the Qiicen, and 
iaviilicd the ircafures of ihc nation on comiucfts more 
fplcndid than fcrviceable. The lofs of the battle of 
Almanza fecondcd his efforts to difpel the intoxica- 
tion of former liicccircs. His perlonal regard for Lord 
Somcrs, prefidcnt of the council, was never altered, 
though they were of different opinions in politics ; and 
when he was divelled of his office, Mr Bathurfl afted 
with fuch tendcrnefs and delicacy, as to prcfcrvc the 
eftecm of Lord Sonitrs in a private flatiou. In couli- 
deration of his zeal and fcrviccs, the Qjieen advanced 
hira, in I 71 1, to the dignity of a peer, by the title of 
Baron Baihurll, of Baltlcfden, in Bcdfordlhirc. 

His Lordlhip continued to fpeak his fcntiments with 
an undaunted freedom in the upper houfe ; and llcpt 
forth as a formidable opponent to the court-meafures 
in the reign of George I. and during Sir Robert Wal- 
polc's adminillration. The acrimony of the profccu- 
tion carried on againft the Karl of Oxford, Lord Bo- 
lingbroke, and the duke of Ormond, ftimulated his in- 
dignation and his eloquence againft fuch vindidive pro- 
ceedings ; and he obferved, "that the king of afadiou 
was but the fovercign of half his fubjeds." 

The fouih-fea fchcme having infcdcd the whole na- 
tion with a fpiiit of avaricious cnterprize, the people 
awaked from their delirium, and an iniinite number of 
families was involved in ruin. Lord Bathurfl publicly 
impeached the dircdors, whofe arts liad enabled them 
by thcfe vain cxpedations to amafs furprifing fortunes : 
he reprefcnted that the national honour was concerned 
in dripping them of their ill acquired wealth ; and moved 
for having all the diredors of the fouth-fea company 
puniflied by a forfeiture of their eflates, for fuch a no- 
Torious ad of fordid knavery. 

When the bill was brought into the houfe of Lords 
a^ainlt Dr Atterbury billiop of Rochefter, that learned 
prelate, who joined to the graces of llyle and elocution 
all the elegance of a jud delivery; among the many 
friends the billiop's eloquence, politencfs, and inge- 
nuity had procured him, was Lord Baihurft. He fpoke 
againft the bill with great vehemence and propriety ; 
ebfcrving, " that if fuch extraordinary proceedings 
were countenanced, lie law nothing remaining for him 
and others to do, but to retire to ihcir couniry-houfes, 
and there, if pofliWe, quietly enjoy their eftates with- 
in their own families, llnce the leall correfpondcnce, or 
intercepted letter, might be made criminal." Then 
turning to the biffiops, he faid, " he could hardly 
account for the inveterate hatred and malice fomc 
perfons bore the ingenious bilhop of Rochefter, un- 
lefs it was that they were infatuated like the wild 
Americans, who fondly believe they inherit not only 
the fpoils, but even the abilities, of the man they dc- 
ftroy." He was one of the Lords who entered his pro- 
teft againft the bill. 

His Lordlhip was entirely averfe to continental con- 
aedions ; and animadverted fcverely upon the monarch 

76 ] BAT 

whofe thoughts were turned to foreign concerns »nd 
alliance which could never be ufeful ; complaining of " 
the immenfe funis laviiltcd in fubfidies to needy and ra- 
pacious princes. 

Tlie diredors of the charitable corporation having 
embezzled joo,oool. of the proprietors capital, Lord 
Bathurft declared, in the Houle of Lords, his abhor- 
rence of [hismoft iniquitous I'cene of fraud ; afferting, 
thai not one Ihilling of the money was ever applied to 
the proper fcrvice, but became the reward of avarice 
and venality. 

His lordlhip concurred, with all his power, in the 
oppofiiion 10 bir Robert Walpole, who now tottered 
on ihe brink of ruin. This miniftcr, after obftinatc 
ftrugglcs, having been forced to refign all liis employ- 
nicnis. Lord Bathurft was fworn of the privy council, 
and made captain of the gentlemen penlioncrs, which 
port he rcligncd in i 744. He was appointed treafurer 
to the prcfcnt king, then Prince of Wales, in I7J7, 
and continued in the lift of privy-counfellors at his ac- 
celiion to the throne ; but, on account of his great age, 
be chofc to enjoy otinni cum dignitaie. 

Lord Bathurft's integrity gained him the eftcem evea 
of liis opponents ; and his humanity and benevolence, 
the affeilion of all that knew him more intimately. 
He added to his public virtues all the good breeding, 
puliiencfs, and elegance, of focial iulercourfe. Dr. 
Frciud, Corgreve, Vanbrugh, Swift, Prior, Rowe, 
Addilon, Pope, Arbuthnot, Gay, and moft men of 
genius in his own time, cultivated his friendlliip, and 
were proud of his corrclpondence. 

Pope, in liis Epiftle to him on the Ufc of Riches t 
thus addreifcshim : 


The fenfe to value riches, with the art: 

T' enjoy them, and the virtue to impart ; 

To balance fortune by ajuftexpcnce. 

Join wiih ceconomy magnificence ; 

With fplendor, charity ; with plenty, health : 

O teach us, Bathurft, yet unfpoil'd by wealth ! 

Thai fccret rare, between th' extremes to move. 

Of mad good-nature, and of mean felf-love. 

And Sterne, in his letters to Elizs, thus fpeaks of 
him : " This nobleman is an old friend of mine ; ho 
was always ihe protedor of men of wit and genius ; 
and has had thofe of the laft century always at his table. 
The manner in which his notice began of me, was as 
fingular as it was polite. — He came up to me one day 
as I was at the Princefs of Wales's court, ' I want 
to know you, Mr. Sterne ; but it is fit you fliould 
know alfo who it is that wilhes this plealbre : you have 
heard (continued he) of an old Lord Bathurft, of 
whom your Popes and Swifts have fung and fpoken foi 
much : I have lived my life with geniufes of that caft, 
but have furvived them ; and defpairing ever to find 
their equals, it is fome years fince I have clofed my ac- 
counts, and Ihut up my books, with thoughts of ne- 
ver opening themagain : but you have kindled a defire 
in mc of opening ihem once more before 1 die, which 
I now do ; fo go home, and dine with me.' This 
nobleman, I fay, is a prodigy : for at 85 he has all the 
wit and prompincfs of a man of 30 ; a difpofiiion to be 
pleafcd, and a power to pleafe others beyond what- 
ever I knew ! added to which, a man of learning, cour- 
tcfy, and feeling." 







His Lordlliip, in the latter part of his life, prefervcd 
his natural checrfuliicfs and vivacity, always acceflible, 
hofpitable, and beneficent. Lately he delighted in 
rural amtifements ; and enjoyed, with a philofophical 
fatisfadion, the (hade of the lofty trees he had planted 
himfclf. Till within a month of his death he conflantly 
rode out on horfeback two hours before dinner, and 
conftanily drank his bottle of claret or Madeira after 
dinner. He ufed to declare, in a jocofe manner, he 
never could think of adopting Dr Cadogan's method, 
as Dr Cheyne had alTured him, 50 years ago, he would 
never live feven years longer uulefs he abriged him- 
felf of his wine. Purfuant to this maxim, his Lord- 
ihip having, forae years ago, invited feveral of his 
friends to fpcnd a few cheerful days with him ac 
his feat at Cirencefter, and being one evening very 
loth to part with them; on his fon the late chan- 
cellor's objecting to their fitting up any longer, and 
adding that health and long life were bell fccured by 
regularity, he fuffcred him to retire : but, as foon as 
he was gone, the cheerful father faid, " Come, my 
good friends, fince the old gentleman is gone to bed, I 
think wc may venture to crack another bottle." 

His Lordlhip was advanced to the dignity of Earl 
in 1772 ; and lived to fee the above nobleman, his el- 
defl fon, feveral years Lord High chancellor of Great 
Britain, and promoted to the peerage in 1771 by the 
title of Baron Aplley. Lord Baihurft married Ca- 
therine daughter of Sir Peter Aplley, by whom he 
had two other fons, and five daughters. His death 
happened, after a few days illnefs, at his leat near Ci- 
renceiler, in the 91ft year of his age, and on the i6th 
of September 1775. 

BATHYLLUS and Pvlades, inventors of panto- 
mime entertainments on the flage. Baihyllusfuccetdcd 
in reprefenting comedy ; Pylades, in tragedy. The art 
confifted in expreding the pafTions by gellures, atti- 
tudes, and dumb Ihew ; not, as in modern times, in 
machineiy, and the fooleries of Harlequin. They 
flouriflied at Rome, under Augullus, about A. D. 10. 
Each of them kept fcholars, who perpetuated their 
maflcr's name: for the followers of Bathyllus, who ex- 
celled in the comic part, called thenifclvcs Bathylli ; 
and thofe of Pylades, who excelled in the tragic, called 
themfelves Pyladx. 

BATILLUS, a mufical inftrum.eni made of metal, 
in the form of a flaff, furnifhed with metalline rings, 
which being llruck, yielded a kind of harnionical 
founds ; ufed by the Armenians in their church-fcr- 

BATIS ; a genus of the tetrandria order, belong- 
ing to the diaecia clafs of plants, the charav?lers of 
which are : Of the male, the amentum is four ways 
imbricated, and both the calyx and corolla are want- 
ing : of the female, the amentum is ovate, the involu- 
crum diphyllous ; calyx and corolla wanting; the ftig- 
ma is bilobate and felfile j the berries condunatc and 
fourfeeded. There is but one fpecies, the mantima, 
a native of Jamaica. 

BATISTE, in commerce, a fine white kind of li- 
nen cloth, manufaftured in F'landers and Picardy. 

There are three kinds of batillc ; the firfl very thin ; 
the fecond lefs thin ; and the third much thicker, cal- 
led Holland latijhj as coming very near the goodnefs 
«f Hollands^ 

The chief ufc of Batifte is for neck-cloths, head- Baimaa 

cloths, fiirplices, &c. || 

BATMAN, in commerce, a kind of weight i]fed at l^attaJia. 
Smyrna, containing fix okesof 400 drams each, which *"^ 
amount to 16 pounds 6 ounces and 15 drams of Engliih 

BATMANSON, (John), prior of the Carihofian 
monaflery, or Chartcr-houfe in the fuburbs of Lon- 
don. He was fonie time a fludent at Oxford, but it 
does not appear that he took any degree in that uni- 
verfity. He was intimately acquainted with Edward 
Lee arclibilhop of York, at whofe requefl he wrote 
againfl Erafmus and Luther. He died in the year 
1531, and was buried in the chapel belonging to the 
charter-houfe. According to Bale, he was a proud 
forward perfon ; and he fays that Erafmus, in one of 
liis letters to the bithop of Winchelter, calls him an 
ignorant fellow. Pits, on the contrary, gives him the 
charader of a man of fiugular genius, zeal, piety, and 
learning. He wrote, \.Anhiiadvcr fanes in annaatioitcs 
Erajvii 111 Nov. Teftamenliim. 1. A trcatife agaiiiji 
fovie of Luthcr'i works. Thefe two he afterwards re- 
traced. 3. CoJiimentaria in proverbia Solomonis. 4. In 
cantica canticorum. 5. De unica Magdatcna. 6. In- 
jlitutiones novicioruvi. 7. De conttmptu viundi. 8. De 
Chrifio duodeiini. 9. On the words, Mifilis eft, &;c. 

BATON, or Baston. See Baston. 

BATRACHOMYOMACHIA, the battle of the 
frogs and the mice, the title of a fine burlefi^ue poem 
generally afcribed to Homer. The fubjciJl of the work 
is the death of Pfycharpax, a moiifc, fon to Toxartcs, 
who being mounted on tlie back of Phyfignathus, a 
frog, on a voyage to her palace, to which Ihe had in- 
vited him, was feizcd with fear when he faw liimfclf 
in the middle of the pond, fo that he tumbled offand 
was drowned. Phyfignathus being fufpei?tcd to have 
Ihakcn him off with dtfign, the mice demanded fatis- 
faclion, and unanimouliy declared war agiinft the frogs. 

BATT^il, (anc. gcog.), a people of Germany, for- 
merly inhabitants of whaj is now called Hijfe. Being 
dilTatisfied with their fituation there, they fettled on 
theilland formed by the Vahalis and Rhine, which 
from them took the name of Batavia, or Batavcrum 
hifuta. Their government was a mixture of monarchy, 
arillocracy, and democracy. Their chief was, pro- 
perly fpeaking, nothing more than a principal citizen, 
whofe bulinefs was rather to advife than to command. 
The principal men who exerciftd jurifdidion, and com- 
manded the troops, in their rcfjiedive diltrifts, were 
chofen, as well as the kings, in an alfembly of the peo- 
ple. A hundred perfons fcUcted from among the peo- 
ple prclided over every county, and at'fed as chiefs in 
the different hamlets. The whole nation was, in fome 
meafure, an army always in readinefs. Each family 
compofed a body of militia, which fcrved under a cap- 
tain of their own choofing. See Batavorum Infula. 

BATTALIA, an army ranged in order of battle, 
or ready for engagement. The word fcenis formed 
from the Latin ajtualia, fomeiimes alfo written hata- 
lia, denoting a fort of military or gladiatorial exercife, 
as fighting with foils, or tilting at a poll. In this 
fcnfc, we meet with the depth of a battalia; to march 
in battalia, with the baggage in the middle ; to brc.nk 
the battalia, &c. In tlie Roman battalia, the hjllau 
made the front. BAT- 

B A T' 





BATTALION, a fmall body of infantry, ranged 
in form ofbaiilc, and ready to engage. 

A batialion iiluiliy contains from 500 to 800 men ; the number it confilb of is not dcirrmined. They 
arc armed with firelocks, fwords and bayonets ; and 
divided into 15 companies, one of which is genadicrs 
They are iifnaily drawn up three men deep. Some re- 
giments conlill of but one battalion, others arc divided 
into four or five. 

BATTATAS, the Indian name of the potatoe. 
See Convolvulus. 

BATTEL, a town of Siiffox, five miles north-weft 
of Hillings, fitiiated in E. Long. o. 35. N. Lat. 50. 
55. It was formerly called Epiton ; and is the place 
where William the Conqneror vanquilhed Harold king 
of England on Oaobcr 14th 1066. William, in me- 
mory of this virtory, creded an abbey, which he cal- 
led BmcI Abbey ; and if a criminal conld bnt reach 
this abbey, he was difmilTed from thence, and was af- 
terwards in no danger for his paft faults. The abbey 
was a large and noble ftnicliire, as may be judged by 
the gateway which is ftill entire, as well as from the 
other remains. This place is noted for making gnn- 
pouder equal to that of Dantzick ; and the belt goes 
by the name of of Battel gunpowder. 

Battel, in law, or Trial by wager of Battel, a fpe- 
cies of trial of great antiquity, but now much difufcd. 
It feems to have owed its original to the military fpi- 
rit of our anceflcrs, joined to a fuperllitious frame of 
mind ; it being in the nature of an appeal to Provi- 
dence, under an apprehcnlion and hope (however pre- 
fumptuous and unwarrantable), that heaven would give 
the victory to him who had the right. The decifion of 
fuits, by this appeal to the God of battels, is by foine 
faid to have been invented by the Burgundi, one of the 
northern or German clans that planted themfclves in 
Gaul. And it is true, that the firft written iiijunftion 
of indiciary combats that we meet with, is in the laws 
ofGundebald, A. D. 501, which are preferved in the 
Burgundian code. Yet it does not fcem to have been 
merely a local cuflom of this or that particular tribe, 
but to have been the common ufage of all thofc war- 
like people from the earliell times. And it may alfo 
feem, from a paiTage in Velleius Paterculus, that the 
Germans, when firft they became known to the Ro- 
mans, were wont to decide all contefts of right by the 
fword ; for when Q^iintilius Varus endeavoured to in- 
troduce among them the Roman laws and method of 
trial, it Was looked upon (fays the hiftorian) as a «o- 
vitas iricognittc difiipliine, tit fo lit a nriais decerni jure 
termtnarentHr. And among the ancient Goths in Svve- 
den we find the praflice of judiciary duels cftablillicd 
upon much the fame footing as they formerly were in 
our own country. 

This trial was introduced in England among other 
Norman cuftoms by William the Conqueror : but was 
only ufed in three cafes, one military, one criminal, and 
the third civil. The tirll in the court-martial, or court 
of chivalry and honour; the fecond in appeals of fe- 
lony ; and the thir'l upon ilTue joined in a writ of right, 
the lad and moft folemn decifion of real property. For 
in writsofrightthej«j/ro/'r/£/«//j, which isfrcquenily 
a matter of ditHculty, is in queftion ; but other real ac- 
tions being merely queftions of thejwj /(///j'/fo;;//, which 
are ufually more plain and obvious, our anccAors did 

not in them appeal to the decifion of Providence. An- Battl«i 
other pretext (or allowing it, upon thefe final writs of """"^ 
right, was alfo for the fake of fuch claimants as might 
have the true right, but yet by the death of witncllcs 
or other defect of evidence be unable to prove it to a 
jury. But the moll curious rcafon of all is given in the 
Mirror, that it is allowable upon warrant of ihe combat 
bet'.vcen David for ihc people of Ifrael of the one party, 
and Goliah for the Philillines of the other party : a 
rcafon which Pcpe Nicholas I. very fcrioully decides 
to be inconclufive. Of battel, therefore, on a writ of 
right we lliall firft fpeak : and although the writ of 
right itftlf, and of courfe this trial thereof, be at prc- 
icnt difufed ; yet, as it is law at this day, it may be 
matter of curiofity, at leaft, to inquire into the forms 
of this proceeding, as we may gather them from an- 
cient authors. 

I. The laft trial by battel that was waged in the 
court of common pleas at Wcftminfter (though there 
was afterwards one in the court of cliivalry in i6;i, 
and another in the county palatine of Durham in 1638) 
was in the 13th year of Qiicen Elizabeth, A. D. 1571, 
as reported by Sir James Dyer ; and was held in Tot- 
hill-fields, Weftminfter, " non fine jiuigiia juris confuU 
tornm fcrturbatioite," faith Sir Henry Spelman, who 
was himfelf a witnefs of the ceremony. The fonn, a» 
appears from the authors before cited, is as follows : 

When the tenant in a writ of right pleads the ge- 
neral ilHie, viz. that he hath more right to hold than 
the demandant haili to recover ; and offers to prove it 
by the body of his champion, which tender is accepted 
by the demandant ; the tenant in the firft place mnft 
produce his champion, who, by throwing down his 
glove as a gage or pledge, thus wages or ftipulates bat- 
tel with the champion of the demandant; who, by ta- 
king up the gage or glove, ftipulates on his part to ac- 
cept the challenge. The reafon why it is waged by 
champions, and not by the parties themfelves, in civil 
aftions, is bccaufe, if any party to the fuit dies, the 
fuit muft abate and be at an e»d for the prefent ; and 
therefore no judgment could be given for the lands in 
qucftion, if either of the parties were flain in battel : 
and alfo that no perfon might claim an exemption from 
this trial, as was allowed in criminal cafes, where the 
battel was waged in perfon. 

A piece of ground is then in due time fet our, of 60 
feet fquare, inclofed with lifts, and on one fide a court 
ereiJted for the judges of the court of common pleas, 
who attend there in their fcarlet robes ; and alfo a bar 
is prepared for the learned ferjeants at law. When the 
court fits, which ought to be by funrifing, proclama- 
tion is made for the panics and their champions ; who 
arc introduced by twoknights, and are drefTed in a coat 
of armour, with red fandals, barelegged from the knee 
downwards, bareheaded, and with bare arms to the 
elbows. The weapons allowed them are only batons, 
or ftaves, of an ell long, and a four-cornered leather 
target ; fo that death very feldom enfucd this civil com- 
bat. In the court military, indeed, they fought with 
fword and lance, according to Spelman and Rulh- 
worth ; aslikewifein France, only villeins fought with 
the buckler and baton, gentlemen arined at all points. 
And upon this, and other circumftances, the prefident 
Montefquieu hath with great ingenuity not only dedu- 
ced the impious cuftom of private duels upon imagi- 



[ 79 ] 


Battel, nary peints of lionour, but hath alio traced the heroic 
'^-^y—-' madnefs of knight-errantry from the fame original of 
judicial combats. But to proceed : 

When the champions, thus armed with batons, ar- 
rive within the lifts or place of comb it, the champion 
of the tenant then takes his adverfary by the hand, and 
makes oath that the tenements in difpute are not the 
right of the demandant ; and the champion of the de- 
mandant, then taking the other by the hand, fwears in 
the fame manner that they are ; fo that each champion 
is, or ought to be, thoroughly pcrfiiaded of the truth 
of the cauie he fights for. Next an oath againfl for- 
cery and enchantment is to be taken by both the cham- 
pions, in this or a fimilar form : " Hear this, ye ja- 
fticcs, that I have this day neither eat, drank, nor have 
upon me neiiher bone, ftone, ne grafs ; nor any in- 
chantmenr, forcery, or withcraft, whereby the law of 
God may be abafed, or the law of the devil exalted. 
So help me God and his faints." 

The battel is thus begun, and the combatants arc 
bound to fight till the flars appear in the evening: and, 
if the champion of the tenant can defend himfelf till 
the flars appear, the tenant ihall prevail in his caufe ; 
for it is futRcient for him to maintain his ground, and 
make it a drawn battle, he being already in poffeffion ; 
but, if viftory declares itfelf for either party, for him 
is judgment finally given. This viiJlory may arife from 
the death of either of the champions : which indeed 
hath rarely happened ; the whole ceremony, to fay the 
truth, bearing a near refemblance to certain rural ath- 
letic diverfions, which are probably derived from this 
original. Or viitory is obtained if cither champion 
proves recreant, that is, yields, and pronounces the 
horrible word of craven ; a word of difgracc and ob- 
loquy, rather than of any determinate meaning. But 
a horrible word it indeed is to the vanquilhed cham- 
pion ; fmce, as a punifiimcnt to him for forfeiting the 
land of his principal by pronouncing that Ihameful 
word, he is condemned as a recreant, avuttere llbcram 
legem, that is, to become infamous, and not to be ac- 
counted liber et legalis homo ; being fuppofed by the 
event to be proved forfworn, and therefore never to 
be put upon a jury, or admitted as a witnefs in any 

This is the form of a trial by battel ; a trial which 
the tenant, or defendant in a writ of right, has it in his 
cleftion at this day to demand; and which was the only 
decifion of fuch writ of right after the conqucft, till 
Henry II. by confent of parliament introduced the 
grand ajjifc, a peculiar fpecies of trial by jury, in con- 
currence therewith ; giving the tenant his choice of 
either the one or the other. Which example, of dif- 
countenancing thefe judicial combats, was imitated 
about a century afterwards in France, by an cdift of 
Louis the Pious, A. D. 1260, and foon after by the 
reft: of Europe. The eftabliihment of this alternative, 
Glanvil, chief judice to Henry II. and probably his 
advifcr herein, confiders as a moft noble improvement, 
as in fad it was, of the law. 
Jec .<*/- 2. In appeals * of felony, the trial by battel may be 
'''• demanded, at the cleiflion of the appellee, in either an 

appeal or an approvement ; and it is carried on with 
equal fokmnity as tliat on a writ of right ; but with 
this diflerence, tliat there each parry hires a champion, 
but here they mufl fight in their proper perfons. And 

therefore, if the appellant or approver be a woman, a I'aKel, 
pneft, an infant, or of the age of 60, or lame, or blind Bstten. 

he or Ihe may counterplead or refufe the wager of bat- ' ' 

tel ; and compel the appellee to put himfelf upon the 
country. Alfo peers of the realm, bringing an appeal, 
Ihall not be challenged to wage battel, on account of 
the dignity of their perfons ; nor the citizens of Lon- 
don, by fpecial charter, becaufe fighting fcems foreign 
to their education and employment. So likewifc, if 
the crime be notorious ; as if the thief be taken with 
the mainour, or the nmrderer in the room with a bloody 
knife, the appellant may refufe the tender of battel 
from the appellee ; and it is nnreafonable an innocent 
man (liould ftake his life againft one who is already 

The form and manner of waging battel upon ap. 
peals are much the fame as upon a writ of right ; only 
the oaths of the two combatants are vaftly more ftri- 
king and folemn. The appellee,when appealed of fe- 
lony, pleads not guilty ; and throws down his glove, and 
declares he will defend the fame by his body : the ap- 
pellant takes up the glove ; and replies that he is ready 
to make good the appeal, body for body. And there- 
upon, the appellee taking the book in his right hand, 
and in his left the right hand of his antagonift, fwears 
to this efFedt : Hoc audi, komo, quern per 7nanu7n tc^ 
neo, &c. " Hear this, O man, whom I hold by the 
hand, who callefl thyfelf John by the name of bap- 
tifm, that I, who call myfelf 77i(j;,va/ by the name of 
baptifm, did not fclonioully murder thy father, Wil- 
liam by name, nor am any way guilty of the faid fe- 
lony. So help me God, and the faints ; and this I will 
defend againft thee by my body, as this court fliall 
award." To which the appellant replies, holding the 
Bible and his antagonift's hand in the fame manner as 
the other : " Hear this, O man, whom 1 hold by the 
hand, who calleft thyfelf Thomas by the name of bap- 
tifm, that thou art perjured ; and therefore perjured, 
becaufe that thou fclonioully didft murder my father, 
William by name. So help me God, and the faints : 
and this I will prove againft thee by my body, as this 
court fliall award." The battel is then to be fought, 
with the fame weapons, viz. batons, the fame folem- 
nity, and the fame oaths againft amulets and forcery, 
that are ufed in the civil combat : and if the appellee be 
fo far vanquiflied that he cannot or will not fight any 
longer, he ihall be adjudged to be hanged immediate- 
ly ; and then, as well as if he be killed in battel. Pro- 
vidence is deemed to have determined in favour of the 
truth, and his blood ihall be attainted. But if lie kills 
the appellant, or can maintain the fight from funrifing 
till the ftars appear in the evening, he (hall be acquit- 
ed. So alfo, if the appellant becomes recreant, and 
pronounces the horrible word craven, he iliall lofe his 
libcram legem, and became infamous; and the appellee 
(hall recover his damages, and alfo be for ever quit, not 
only of the appeal, but of all iiidiftments likcwife for 
the fame ofTence. 

BATTEN, a name tliat workmen give to a fcanr- 
ling of wooden ftntr, from two to four inches broad, and 
about one inch thick ; the length is pretty confidcrablc, 
but undetermined. — This term is chiefly "fed in fpeak- 
ing of doors and windows of fhops, &c. which are not 
framed of whole deal, &c. with ftiles, rails, and pan- 
ncls like waiufcot ; but arc made to appear as if they 




were by means of thcfe battens braililcd on the pUiii 
board roaiui ilic edges, and lomciiuics crois them, and 
up and down. 

IJATTENUURG, a town of Datch CucUcrland, 
fcated on the north banks ot the Mcufe, alnioll oppoliie 
to Ravenllcin. E. Long. J. 3J. N. Lac. 50. 55- 

BATTERING, the attacking a place, work, or 
the like, with heavy artillery. 

To batter in breach, is to play furioiifly on a work, 
as the angle of a half-moon, in order to demolilh and 
make a gape thcrciii. In this they ohkrve never to 
fire a piece at the top, but all at the bottom, from 
three to fix feet from the ground. 

The battery of a camp is ufually furroiwulcd witli a 
trench, and pLillil'.iJoes at the bottom, with two re- 
doubts on the wings, or certain places of aims, capable 
of covering tlie troops which are appointed for their 
defence. See Battery., in antiquity, a military engine 
iifed to batter and beat down the walls of places bc- 
iiegcd. It is faid to have been invented by Artcinanes 
of Clazomene, a Greek architcd who tionrilhed 441 
B. C. — The machine is thus dclcribed by Jofephus : 
It is a vail beam, like the mart of a (liip, llrcngthencd 
St the one end with a head of iron, fomcthing rcfem- 
bling that of a ram, whence it took its name. This 
was hung by the middle with ropes to another beam, 
which lay acrofs two poflsi and hanging thus cijually 
balanced, it was by a great number of men drawn 
backwards and pallicd forwards, llriking the wall with 
its iron head. But this engine did moil execution 
when it was mounted on wheels, which is faid to have 
been lirft done at the fiege of Byzantium under Philip 
of Maccdon. 

Plutarch informs us, that Marc Anthony, in tlK 
Parthian war, made ule a ram fourfcorc lett long: 
and Vitruvius tells us, that they were fometimes 106, 
and fometimes 120, Icet in length ; and to tliis perliaps 
the force and (Irength of the engine was in a great 
lueafure owing. The ram was managed at one time 
by a whole century of foldiers ; and they being fpent 
were fecondcd by ar.otlier century, fo that it played 
continually without any intcrniiiilon. 

Platfc XCV. fig. I. rcprcfcnts the battering-ram 
fafpendcd. 2. Thc.rara. 3. The form of its head, 
faltcned to the enormous beam by three or four bands 
of iron, four feet in breadth. At the extremity of 
each of thcfe bands (4) was a chain (j|Jof the fame 
metal, the end of which was fallened to a hook (6), 
and at the other extremity of each of th'efc chains was 
a cable firmly bound to the laft link. Thefc cables 
ran the whole length of the beam to the end of the 
ram (7), where they were all bound together as f^/l 
as polFible with fmall ropes. To the end of tli^fc 
cables another was fixed, compofcd of feveral Afong 
cords platted together to a ctrtain Iciigth, anj'then 
running linglc (8). At each of thcfc'fevcral men 
were placed, to balince anil work the maciiinc. 10. 
The chain or cable by wi*ich it hung to the crols beam 
(ti), fixed on the top of the frame. 12. TJic bafe 
of the machine. — The unfufpended ram differed from 
ihis only in the manner of working it ; for iiidead of 
being fling by a chain or cable, it moved on fmall 
wheels on- another large beam. 

B.tri!-' ■ '' ■'vf, in heraldry, a bearing or coat 


[ 80 ] BAT 

of arms refcmbling the military engine of the fame Battorf. 
name. «— »— ^ 

BATTERY, in the military art, a parapet tlirowii 
up to cover the gunners and men employed about the 
giing from the enemy's lliot. This parapet is cut into 
cmbraillircs, for the cannon to fire through. The height 
of tiic cmbrailures on the infidc is about three feet ; 
but they go Hoping lower to the outfidc. Their wide- 
nefs ii two or three feet, but open to fix or fevcn on the 
outfidc. The mafs of earth that is betwixt two em- 
braffiircs, is called the r/arJo/i. The platform of a bat- 
tery is a door of planks and litcpcrs, to keep the whet" 
of the guns from linking into the earth ; and is always 
made iloping towards the cmbralliires, both to hinder 
liie reverfe, and to facilitate the bringing back of the 

B,-iTTF.iQ- of Mortars differs from a battery of 
guns ; for it is funk into the ground, and has no em- 

Cro/i- Batteries, are two batteries which play a- 
thwart one another ujjon the fame ohjed, forming there 
an angle, and beating with more violence and deftmc- 
tion ; becaufe what one bullet iliakes, the other beats 
down. ' 

Batteio funk or buried, is when its platform isfunk 
or let down into the ground, fo that there mult be 
trenches cut in the earth, againll the muzzles of the 
guns, for them to lire out at, and to lerve for cmbraf- 

BATTERr cf Enfilade, is one that fcours or fweepj 
the whole length of a ftraight line. 

BATTERr in Echarpi is that which plays obliquely. 
Battkhx de Reverfe, that which plays upon the 
enemy's back. 

Camerade Batteki- is when feveral guns play at tlie 
fame time upon one place. 

Battery, inlaw, is the unlawful beating of ano- 
ther. The leafl toticiiing of another's perfoii wilfully, 
or in anger, is a battery, for the law cannot draw the 
line between different degrees of violence, and there- 
fore totally prohibits the tirft and lowed ftage of it ; 
every man's perfoii being facred, and no other having 
a right to middle with it, in any tlie Jlighteft manner. 
And tlierefore, upon a fnnilar principle, the Cornelian 
law dc injurii prohibited pulfation as well as verbera- 
tioi! ; diilinguilhing verbcration, which was accompa- 
nied with pain, from pulfation which vviis attended Tiith 
none. But battery is in fome cafes jultifiablc or law- 
ful ; as where one who hath authority, a parent or 
mailer, gives moderate correlation to his child, his fcho- 
. lar, or his apprentice. So alfo on the principle of 
fclf-defencc : for if one flrikes me firll, or even only 
BlTaults me, I may llrike in my own defence ; and if 
fued for it, may plead fon ajfault dcm:fne, or that ic 
was the plaintifi^s own original alfault iliat occalioncd 
it. So likewife in defence of my goods or poifeflion, 
if a man endeavours to deprive me of them, I may 
juftify laying hands upon him to prevent him ; and i,i 
cafe he pcrhlls with violence, I may proceed to beat 
him away. Thus too in the exercifc of an oiEce, as 
that of church warden or beadle, a man may lay hands 
upon another to turn him out of church, and prevent 
his difturbing the congregation. And if fued for this 
or the like battery, he may fet forth the whole cafe, 
and plead that he laid hands upon him gently, inollitir 


Plate XCV. 

/, /'n/}^.,ir /^ttf' 


[ «i ] 

B A T 

Battida, mantis hnpofuit, for this piirpofe. On account of thefe 

^ Uattle. ^ caiifes of juAification, battery is detincd to be the uu- 

' lawful beating of another ; for which the rcmtdy is, 

as for alfault, by adlion of trepafs vi ct a/mis ; wherein 

thejury wJU give adequate damages. 

BATTISTA (Franco) a celebrated painter, born 
at Venice, was one of the difciplcs of Michael Angclo, 
whofe manner he followed fo clofely, that, in the cor- 
reftnefs of his oiit-lines, he furpallcd mofl of the niaf- 
tcrs of his time. His paintings are pretty numerous, 
and difperfed all over Italy and other parts of Europe ; 
but Iiis colouring being very dry, they are not much 
more efteemed than the prints etched by his hand. He 
died in ij6r. 

BATTLE, a general eng.igemcnt between two ar- 
mies, in a country fufiiciently open for llirm toentoiin- 
ter in front and at the fame time (fee War). The 
word is alfo written battel, battel!, and battnil. It is 
formed from the French batallU, of the Latin verb 
batuere, to foicc or sxercifc iiiith arms ; whence batu- 
alia and bataCin, which properly denoted the action or 
cxercife of ihol'e who learned to fence, and who were 
hence alfo denominated baf^iatons. 

The ancients never joined battle without much ce- 
remony and preparation ; as taking auguries, ofi'cring 
facritice, haranguing ihe foldiers, giving the word or 
atejfera, &c. The fignals of battle were, founding 
the cltiffiaivi or general charge, and difplaying a peculiar 
flag called by Plutarch a Purple robe. To which may 
be added, lingingpgeans, railing military iliouts, andthe 
like. A Roman legion, ranged in order of battle, 
confilled oi hafliiti, placed in the front ; oi piincipes, 
who were all old experienced foldiers, placed behind 
the former; and of /War//, heavy armed with large 
bucklers, behind l\\t prhu'tpes. The /'a//////' were rank- 
ed clofe ; the ranks af iheprh/cipes were much opener, 
fo that tliey could receive the hujiati -, and thole of the 
triatii opener ftill, infomuch that they could receive 
both the principes and the hafutti within them, wiih- 
out any diforder. and ftill .'^acing the enemy. When 
therefore the luifliit! found thetnfclves unable to Hand 
the enemy's charge, they retired gently within the 
principes, where joining with them, they renewed the 
combat. If ihefe found themfclves too weak to fuftaiii 
the enemy, both retired among the triarii, where ral- 
lying, they formed a new corps, and charged with more 
vigour than ever. If thefe failed, the batilc was loll ; 
the Romans had no farther refource. The moderns 
are unacquainted with this method of infening or cm- 
battling one company into another ; without whicli 
the former cannot be well fuccoured or defended, and 
their places taken by others ; which was a thing the 
Romans praclifed wiili great cxachiefs. For the ve- 
lites, and in later times the archers and dingers, were 
not drawn up in this regular manner, but either difpo- 
fed of before the front of the haflati, or fcattered up 
and down among the void fpaccs of the bajlati, or 
fomctimcs placed in two bodies in the wings. Thefe 
always began the combat, Ikirmilliing in flying par- 
ties with the foremoft troops of the enemy. If they were 
repulfed, which was nfually the cafe, they fell back to 
the Hanks of the army, or retir-d agiin in the rctr. 
When they retired, the kif/ati advanced to iheciiarge. 
As to the cava'ry, it was ported at the two corners of 
the army, like the wings ou a body ; and fought fomc- 
Vol. III. 

limes on foot, fometitnes on hcrfcback. The auxiliary 
forces compofed the two points ot the battle, and co- ' 
vercd the whole body of the Romans. — Other lefs 
ufual forms of battle among the Romans were the 
ctiiieus, or wedge ; globus or round form ; forj'ex, or 
pair of flieers ; turris, or an oblong fqnarc figure ; 
ferra, or faw. The Greeks were inferior to the Ro- 
mans in marihalling their armies for battle, as thev 
drew up their whole army in front, and truded the 
fuccefs of the day to a fingle force. They had three 
forms of battle for the horfc, viz, the fquarc, the 
wedge, and the rhombus or diamond form. The firfl 
held bcft for tlie defcniivc ; the latter for the offcnfivc; 
the wedge being preferred as bringing nioft hands to 

The Greeks notified the places of their battles and 
vidorics by adding the wordNixi, ; whence Nicomedia, 
Micopulis, TliciTiilonica, &c. The ancient Britons did 
the like, by adding the word Alais ; whence Maiffe- 
veth, Mahnaifbury, &c. The Englilh by the word 
Field. — Tlie Romans had their particular days, called 
praUarci dies, wherein alone it was lawful to join bat- 
tle ; and others wherein i( was unlawful, called dies atri. 
The Athenians, by the ancient laws of their countrv, 
were not to draw out their forces for battle till after 
the feventh day of the month : And Lucian relates of 
the Lacedemonians, that by the lawsof Lycurgiis, they 
were not to fight before full moon. Among the Ger- 
mans, it was reputed an impiety to fight in the wane 
of the moon ; and Csefar tells us, tluu Ariovi/lus was 
beaten by him, becaufc, contrary to the laws of his 
country, he had fought whtn the moon was in her 
wane. The German loldi<rs were intimidated with the 
apprehenfion, and afforded Carfaran cafy vii5lory : acii 
cot!iniil[a,ivipeJttos reHgiD?:c hojlesvicit. It is well known 
that Jcrufalem was taken by Ponipcy in an attack on 
the fabbaih-day, when by the Jewilh fupcrflitious no- 
tions, they were not allowed to fight, or even to defend 
thenifelves. The Romans did not carry their fuperfti- 
lion fo far : their atri dies were only obfcrved in relpeft 
of attacking ; no day was too holy for them to defend 
thcmfelvcsin. Among the ancients, we find frequent 
inrtances of battles in the night ; it was by the moon- 
light that Ponipey beat Mithridates, and Scipio Afdru- 
bal and Syphax. 

1 he firli pitched battle, of which we have any dif- 
tinft account, is that between Cio?fus and Cyrus, 
defcribed by Xenophon, concerning which we have 
a dill'ertaiion exprcfsly ly M. Frerei, wherein fcveral 
points of the ancient taiflics arc well explained. In 
the modern war, we find few pitched or fct battles : 
the chief view of the great commanders of laic days is 
rather to harafs or llarveilicc ucmy by (Vcquciit alarms, 
cutting off his provifions, carrying off liis baggage, 
feizing his pofts, &c. than lo join illiie with hint, and 
put tlie whole on the event of one day ; a battle gene- 
rally deciding the fate of a campaign, fonietinus of 
a whole war. ITcnce it is a rule, never to venture a 
general battle, nnlefs either you fight to advantage, or 
be forced to it. Joining or giving battle fliould always 
be by dcfisrn : a general thould never fuller himfelf lo 
be forced to fight. All the nieafures, movements, cn- 
campnnius, he makes, are to lead to the execution of 
his great defign, which is to fight to advantage, till by 
forae mirtakc of the enemy, he at length find the fa- 
L voiirable 



L 82 ] 



Btttle-«xe, vourablc opporiunity. It is in this that a fuperior ge- 
nius will at length prevail over an inferior : in the 
, coiirfe of a campaign, he will take a number of advan- 
tages over him, which together arc equivalent to a bat- 
tle, the event of which is ever doubtful. 

B*rTi.E-j^xi, an ancient military weapon. Axes 
■were a principal part of the offcn(ivc armour of the 
Celtje. At the iicge of the Roman Capitol by the 
Gauls under Brennus, we find one of the mofl diflin- 
guillied of their warriors armed with a battle-axe. And 
Ammiannus Marcelliniis, many centuries alterwards, 
defcribing a body of Cauls, furnillus them all with 
battle-axes and fwords. Some of thefe weapons have 
been found in the fcpulchres of the Britons, on the 
downs of Wiltfiiire, and in the north of Scotland. 
Within thifc four or five centuries the Irifli went con- 
llantly armed wiih an axe. At the battle of Bannock- 
burn, king Robert Bruce clave an Englilh champion 
down to the chine at one blow with a battle-axe. The 
axe of Lochaber hath remained a formidable implement 
of deflruflion in the hands of the Higlilanders, even 
nearly to the prcfcnt period ; and it is Hill ufcd by the 
city-guard of Kdinburgh in quelling mobs, &c. 

BATTLEMENTS, in architcfture, are indentures 
or notches in the top of a wall or other building, in 
the form of embrallui-es, for the fake of looking through 

RATTOLOGY, in grammar, a fuperfluous repeti- 
tion of fome words or things. 

BATTON, in merchandifc, aname given to certain 
j)iecfs of wood or deal for flooring or other purpufcs. 

BATTORY, a name given by the Hans Towns to 
their niag;)zines or fadoiies abroad. The cliiel ot 
thefe battories are thole at Archangel, Novogrod, Btrgh- 
men, Lilbon, Venice, and Antwerp. 

BATUA, BuTUA, BnthoijOrBiithocce (anc.gcog.), 
a town of Dalmatia fituated on the Adriatic ; now B:i- 
ioLi ; which fee. 

B.-^TTUS, an order of penitents at Avignon and in 
Provence, whofc piety carries them to exercife fevere 
difciplinc upon themlclvcs both in public and private. 

BATZ, a copper coin mixed with fome filver, and 
current at difTcreut rates, according to the alloy, in 
Is'uremburg, Bafil, Fribourg, Lucerne, and otlier cities 
of Germany and Switzerland. 

BAVARIA, a duchy and formerly elcclorate of Ger- 
many. This duchy was once a kingdom, which ex- 
tended from the mountains of F'ranconia to the fron- 
tiers of Hungary and the Adriatic Gulph. It compre- 
hended the countries of Tirol, Carinthia, Carniola, 
Stiria, Auflria, and other flates, which are now fallen 
to different pi inces. At prefent it is bounded on the 
eafl by Bohemia and Aulhia, on the well by Suabia, 
on the north by Franconia, and on the fouth by Tirol. 
But the Duke of Bavaria is not abfolute mafterofall 
this country; for within its hounds are iituated many 
free cities, among which is Raiifbon, and feveral lord- 
fliips both ecclcliaflical and fecular. It is divided into 
Upper and Lower Bavaria ; and thefe two provinces 
conlift of 13 counties, which formerly fulFiced to make 
a dueliy, according to the laws of Franconia. The 
country is watered by five navigable rivers, bclidcs fe- 
veral fmalltr ones, and 16 lakes. — It contains 3 5 cities, 
of which Munich is the capital ; 94 towns ; 720 callles ; 
4700 villages; eight great abbeys; and 75 doillcrs or 

monalkrics, bcfidcs thofe of the ineiidicants. — It is di- Bavarii. 
vidcd into four great bailliages called goviir:7>:ei!ts, ■*— ^'— 
Thefe are Munich, Landfliut, Straubing, and Burk- 
haufcii. The principal cities arc Ingolfiadt, Donawcrt, 
Landfberg, Freiburg, Siraubingen, Wilfhaufen, Waf- 
lerberg, Eling, Rain, Sec. 

Belides ihcl'e two provinces, the Duke of Bavaria. 
poiTcircs the upper palatinate of Weflphalia, which has 
been iniitcd to Bavaria, and comprehends feveral coun- 
ties, cities, towns, and villages. On the other fide of 
this province is Chamb, the chief city of the county of 
the fame name, btlongiiig likewile to the Duke of Ba- 
varia. He alio pollclies the landgraviatc of Leitch- 
tenbcrg, which fell to him by the ileath of Maximilian 
Adam, in confcqucncc of family pads made between 
the houlc of Bavaria and that of Leitchtcnbcrg for their 
mutual fucccilion. In 1567, the county ol Kaag fell 
to the Duke of Bavaria by the death of Ladillaus the 
lall count of that name. There are Fikcwife family 
pads of mutual fucccirion cflaWilhed betwixt the houfc 
of Bavaria and the Palatine of the Rhine. — The inha- 
bitants of this country are ilrong and laborious, cxerci- 
fingthcmfelves in fliooting with rifled mulketsatamark, 
in order to render themfcl^es more expert in war. 

The houfe of Bavaria is univerfally allowed to be 
one of the mod ancient in Germany. The Counts of 
Scheyren, whofecaAlc at prefent is a cloifter, gave them 
the name. At that place are lliown the tombs of more 
than 26 lords of Scheyren. The Emperor Otho I. c- 
flablilhcd as counts-palatine of Bavaria and landgraves 
of Scheyren, Arnolph, and Herman, fonsofArnulph 
brother to the Duke of Bcrchtold of Carinthia, mar- 
quis of the county upon the Ens. After the death of 
Bcrchtold, the fame emperor, inftead of giving Bava- 
ria to his fon, gave it to Duke Henry his brother, who 
had married Judith liiitr to Arnolph and Herman. 
This Duke Henry of Bavaria had by his marriage 
Henry Hczillon, who was fucccedcdby his foil Henry, 
afterwards choftn emperor by the name of Henry II. 
This emperor having no children by Saint Cunegond 
his wife, Bavaria pafled again to the family of Franco- 
nia, and afterwards to that of Suabia under Henry IV. 
W'ho poflelTcd it till th.c year 1071, when this lall em- 
peror gave that county to Count Wolf, or Guclph, of 
Ravenfljurg in Suabia. To this Guelph, who died in 
the illand of Cyprus, fucceedcd Guel)ih II. and to him 
his brother Duke Henry IX. who was fucceedcd by his 
fon Henry the Proud. This laft had married the only 
daughter of the emperor Lotharius, and after the death 
of his father-in-law became alfo Duke of Saxony ; but 
refufmg to deliver up the imperial ornaments of his fa- 
ther-in-law to the emperor Conrad III. Duke of Sua- 
bia, or to acknowledge him for emperor, he was put to 
the ban of the empire, and loA his flates. After the 
death of Henry, Conrrid made his brother Leopold 
Marquis of Auflria and Duke o( Bavaria ; who, dying 
without iffue, was fucceedcd by his brother Henry XI. 
whom the Emperor Frederic I. made Duke of Auflria, 
joining together the two counties above and below the 
Ens, and declaring them free and independent of the 
government of Bavaria. The fame emperor gave Ba- 
varia thus difmc.iibercd, with Saxony, to Henry the 
Lion, fon of Henry the Proud. But Henry the Lion 
afterwards Icfnig the favour of this emperor, was put 
to ihc ban of the empire; and lofl aU his poIfcfTions 


B A U 

[ S3 ] 

B A tJ 

except Brunfwick and Lunenburg, which ftill remain 
to hisdefcendanis. In 1180, the dnchyof Bavaria was 
given by the emperor to Otho the Landgrave of Wit- 
telfbiich, cotint-palatine of the houfc of Bavaria. In 
the time of this Otho, the callle of Schcyrcn was 
changed into a inonadcry, in which the Duke was bu- 
ried. From hiiu are defcended the two great families 
that remain to this day in Germany, viz. the connts- 
palatiite of the Rliine, and till lately elcflors of Bava- 
ria. The elcftor of Bavaria is now extinft, and finik 
in the eleflor-palatin'e ; foihat there are now only eight 
inftead of nine eleftoral princes in Germany. 

BAVAY, a fmall town of the province of Hainault, 
in French Flanders ; which has been often ruined by 
the wars of the Low Countries. E. Long. 3. 45. 
N. Lat. JO. 2J. 

BAUCIS, in fabulous hiftory, an old woman who 
lived with Philemon her hufband in a cottage in Phry- 
gia. Jupiter and Mercury, travelling over that country, 
were well received by them, after having been refiifed 
entertainment by every body elfe. To punilli the peo- 
ple for their inhumanity, thefc gods laid the country 
wafle with water; but took Baucis and Philemon with 
them to the top of a mountain, where they faw the 
deluge, and their own little hut above the waters, 
turned into a temple. Having a wifh granted them, 
they defired to officiate in this temple as pried and 
priellefs, and alfo that they might die both together; 
which was granted thera. 

BAUCONIA (anc. geog.), a town of the Van- 
giones in Gallia Belgica : nine miles from Mogontia- 
cum, and eleven from Barbiiomagum ; and therefore 
fuppofed to be Oppenhehn, a town in the palatinate of 
the Rhine, and fituated on that river. 

BAUDELOT (Charles C«far), a learned advocate 
in the parliament of Paris, dillinguiflied himfelf by his 
ikill in ancient monuments, and was received into the 
Academy of Belles Lettres in 1 705. He wrote a Trea- 
tife on the Advantages of Travelling; many Letters 
and DiiFcrtations on Medals, &c. ; and died in 1722, 
aged 74. 

BAUDIER (Michael), a gentleman of Languedoc, 
lived in the reign of Louis XIII. and publiflied feveral 
books, which procured him the charaifler of a copious 
and laborious author; among which are, i. An Inven- 
tory of the General Hiftory of the Turks. 2. The 
Hiilory of the Seraglio. 3. That of the Religion of 
the Turks. 4. That of the Court of the King of Chi- 
na. J. The Life of Cardinal Ximenes, &c. 

BAUDIUS (Dominic), proftlfor of hiftory in the 
univerfity of Leyden, born at Lille the 8th of Auguft 
Ij6l. He began his (Indies at Aix la Chapelle, and 
continued them at Leyden. He removed from thence 
to Geneva, where he ftudied divinity. After refiding 
here fome time, he returned to Ghent, and from thence 
to Leyden, where he applied to the civil law, and was 
admitted doftor of law in June 15SJ. Soon after his 
admillion, he accompanied the ambafTadors from the 
States to England ; and during his rrlidcnce here be- 
came acquainted with feveral perfons of diftimlion, 
particidarly the famous Sir Philip Sidney. He was 
admitted advocate at the Hague the 5ih of January 
1587; but being foon tired of the bar, went to travel 
in France, where he remained 10 years, lie was much 
«fteemed iji that kingdom, and gained many friends 

there. Achilles de Harlai, firfl prefident of the par- Bavdobrlga 
liament of Paris, got him to be admitted advocate of ] 
the parliament of Paris, in the year 1592. In 1602, B'"li'ni»- 
he went to England with Chrillophcr dc Harlai, the ' "^ ' 
rrelldcni's fon, who was fent ambafladono ihe court of 
London, by Henry the Great. This fame year Bau- 
dius having been named profcllbr of eloquence at Ley- 
den, went and fclilcd in that univerfity. Hereadlec- 
tures on hiftory after the death of Morula, and was per- 
mitted alfo to do the fame on the civil law. In 1611 
the States conferred upon him the office of hiftoriogra- 
pher in conjunaion with Mearfius; and in confcquencc 
thereof he wrote The Hiftory of the Truce. Baudius 
is an elegant profe writer, as appears from his Letters^ 
many of which were publilhcd after his death. He 
was alfo an excellent Latin poet. The firft edition of 
his poems was printed in the year 1587: they confift 
of vcrfcs of all the dilfercnt meafures. He publillicd fe- 
parately a book of iambics in 1591, dedicated to Car- 
dinal Bourbon. Some of his poems he dedicated to 
the King of England ; others to the Prince of Wales, 
in the edition of 1607, and went over to England to 
prefent them. He died at Leyden in 161 3. 

BAUDOBPUGA (anc. geog.), a town of the Tre- 
viri in Germany; now Boffait, in the electorate of 
Triers. Sec BorrART. 

BAUDRAND (Michael Anthony), a celebrated 
geographer, born at Paris July iSth, 1633. He tra- 
velled into feveral countries; and then applied himfelf 
to the revifal of Ferrarius's Geographical Dictionary, 
which he enlarged by one half. He wrote, i. Notes 
to Papirius MalTo's dcfcription of the rivers of France. 
2. A Geographical and Hiftorical Dictionary. 3. Chrif- 
tian Geography, or an Account of the Arbiil.oprics 
and Biflioprics of the whole World ; and made feveral 
maps. He died at Paris May 29th 1700. 

BAUHIN (John), a great botanift, was born about 
the middle of the i6th century. He took his doftor's 
degree in phyfic in 1562, and afterwards became prin- 
cipal phyfician to Frederick Duke of Wirtemberg. 
The moft confiderable of his works ishis Univcrfal Hif- 
tory of Plants. 

Bauhin (Cafpar or Gafpar), younger brother to 
the preceding, was born at Bafil, 1550 ; and diftin- 
giiidied himfelf by his fkill in anatomy and botany. In 
1580, he was chofen hrll profcllor of thefe fcienccs at 
Bafil; and in 1614, was made (irft profelTor of phyfic 
and firft phyfician of that city, which he held till his 
death, which happened in 1623, at the age of 63. He 
wrote, I. Anatomical Inftitutions; 2. PioJromusThca- 
Iri Botarirci; and other works. 

B.AUGE, a drugget mamifadlured in Burgundy, 
with thread fptin thick and coarfe wool. 

Bauge, a fmall town of Anjou in France, feated on 
the river Coefnon. E. Long. o. lo. N. Lat. 47. ;o. 

Bauge, a town of Brefle in France, with the title 
of a marquifate. It is pleafanily fitnated on a fruitful 
hill. E. Long. 4. J4. N. Lat. 46.20. 

BAUHINIA, MOUNTAIN ebony: A genus of ilie 
nionogynia order, belonging to the decindria cLifs of 
plants; and in the natural method ranking umjcr the 
33d order, /.5;//tv;r<?f«'rf-. The calyx is qiiinque fid and 
deciduous : the petals are oblong, expanded, and clawed, 
tiieftipcrior one more iliftant, all iiifcncJ en the calyx; 
the capfilc is a legumcn. 

L 2 Sfecicit 

B A U 

[ 84 ] 

B A U 

Eauhinii, Sffcitj. I. The aciilcata, with a prickly flalk, is 
Cjvini. very common in Jiimaica ami otiicr Aine rican I'ugar- 
flaiuis, wiiere it riles to the licigln of 16 or 18 feet, 
wiih a crooked Ilcm, and divides iiuo many irregular 
branches armed with Ifronglhorifpines, ganiilhcd with 
coinpound winged leaves, each having two or three 
pair of lobes ending with an odd one, which are ob- 
lique, blunt, and indeiiicd at the top. The Ilalks are 
terminated by fevcral long fpikcs of yellow flowers, 
wliich are fuccecdcd by bordered pods about tliree 
inches long, containing two or three fwellinir feeds. 
Thefc pods arc gluiinous, and have a ftrong ballamic 
fccnt, as have alfo the leaves wiicti brnifed. It is called 
in America the /;/tv//-/riv, from its ftrong odour fome- 
what rcfcmbling the common favin. 2. The tomen- 
tofa, with heart-lhaped leaves, is a native of Campea- 
cliy ; and rifes to the height of 12 or 14 feet, with a 
fniooth rtem dividing into many branches, garnillied 
with heart-ihapcd leaves, having two fmooth-poinied 
lobes. The extremity of every branch is terminated 
by a long fpikc of yellow flowers, fo that when thefc 
trees arc in flower they make a tine appearance. 3. The 
acuminata, with oval leaves, is a native of both the 
Indies ; and rifes with fcveral pretty ftrong, upright, 
fmooth flems, fending out many (lender branches, gar- 
iiiflied with oval leaves deejily divided into two lobes. 
The flowers come out at the extremiiiesofthe branches, 
three or four in a loofe bunch ; fome of the petals are 
red, or ftripcd with while, but others are plain upon 
the fame branch ; the ftamina and ftyle arc white, and 
Hand out beyond the petals. Thefc flowers are fuc- 
ccedcd by long pods of a dark brown colour, each 
containing five or lix roundilh comprclFcd feeds. The 
wood of this tree is very hard, and veined with black; 
whence its mmc o( i/iountai/i eionj. 3. The variegata, 
with heart-fhaped leaves, and lobes joining together ; 
this is likewife a native of both the Indies. It rifes 
with a flrong flem upwards of 20 feet high, dividing 
into many flrong branches, garniOied with heart-fhaped 
leaves, having obtufe lobes which clofe together. The 
flowers are large, and grow in loofe panicles at the ex- 
tremity of the branches. They are of a purplifh red 
colour marked with white, and have a yellow bottom. 
The llowers have a very agreeable fcent, and arc fuc- 
cecdcd by comprclled pods about lix inches long, and 
three quarters of an inch broad, containing three or 
four contprelfed feeds in each. 5. The divaricata, with 
oval leaves whofc lobes fprcad difl^erent ways. This 
grows naturally in great plenty on the north fide of the 
illand of Jamaica. It is a low flirub, feldom rifing 
more than five or fix feet high, but divides into fevcral 
branches gavniihed with oval leaves dividing into two 
lobes that fpread out from each other. The flowers 
grow in loofe panicles at the end of the branches, have 
a white colour, and a very agreeable fcent. The flowers 
appear the greaiefl part of the fummcr, fo the plant is 
one of the greatcfl beauties of the hot-hoiife. The 
flowers are iuccecded by taper pods about four inches 
long, each containing tour or five roundilh comprclfed 
feeds of a dark colour. Belides thefe, five other fpecies 
of bauhinia are enumerated, but the above are the moft 
remarkable. All the fpecies of this plant are propa- 
gated by feeds, which muft be town on hot-beds, and 
ihc plants reared in a bark-flove. 

BAVINS, in war^ brulh faggots, made with ilie 

brulh at length. See Fascines; and hinE-snir, 
note V. 

UAUM, in botany. See Melissa. 

BAUME (St), a mountain of Provence in France, 
between Marfcilles and Toulon. Here Mary Magda- 
len is laid 10 have died, on which account it is much 

B.WMh-lcj-Noii£s, a town of Franchc Comte, with 
a rich nunnery, feaicd on the river Doux, in E. Long. 
6. 20. N. Lai. 47. 12. Five miles from this town is 
a remarkable cavern, whole entrance is 10 paces wide ; 
and after dcfcending 300 paces, the gate of a grotto is 
iVen, twice as large as that of a city. The grotto is 
55 p:ices deep, 60 wide, and is covered with a kind of 
a vaulted roof, from which water continually drops. 
There is alfo afmall brook, laid to be frozen in fummtr, 
but not in winter ; and at the bottom are floncs ibat 
cxaflly refenible candied citron-peel. When the pea- 
lants perceive a mili riling out of this cave, they affirm 
that it will certainly rain the next day. 

BAUMEN, or Bauman, a cave of Lower Saxony, 
in Germany, about a mile from Wermigerode, and 18' 
from Collar. The entrance is through a rock ; and fo 
narrow, that not above one perfon can pafs at a time- 
There are feveral paths in it, which the peafants have 
turned up, in fearching for the bones of animals which 
they fell for unicorn's horns. Some think this cave 
reaches as far as Collar ; but be this as it will, the Ikc- 
Icions of men have been found in it, who are fuppofcd 
to iiave been lolt in the turnings and windings. 

B.'^UR (William), an eminent Flemiflt painter, was. 
born at Strafbnrg, and was the difciple of Brendel. 
He was fome time at Rome, where liis (Indies were 
wholly employed about architedfurc and landfcapes, 
which prevented his Iludying the antique. He painted 
fmall figures in diflcmper on vellum. He etched with 
great fpirit. His largell works are in the hiflorical 
way. He has given us many of the lieges and bat- 
tles, which walled Flanders in the i6th century. They 
may be exaifl, and probably they are; but they are 
rather plans than pictures; and have liitic to recom- 
mend them but hifloric truth, and the freedom of the 
execution. His bell prints arc fome charaders he has 
given us of different nations, in which the peculiarities 
of each are very well preferved. His Ovid is a poor 
performance. He died at Vienna in 1640. 

BAUSK, or Bautko, a fmall but important town 
in the duchy of Courland, on the frontiers of Poland, 
with a flrong caftle built on a rock. It was taken by. 
the Swedes in 162 J, and by ihe Ruffians in 1705, af- 
ter a bloody battle between them and the Swedes. 
It is feaicd on the river Mufa, in E. Long. 24. 44.. 
N. Lat. 56 30. 

BAUTRY, or Bawtrt, a town in the Well Riding 
of Yorkfliire, on the road from London to York. If 
has long been noted for inillflones and grindftones 
brought hither by the river Idle, on which it is feated.. 
W. Long. I. o. N. Lat. 53. 27. 

BAUTZEN, or Budissek, a conlidcrable town 
ofCermany, and capital of Upper Lufatia, fubjet^ to. 
the elcftor of Saxony, with a flrong citadel. The 
Protcflants, as well as.Papifts have here the free excr- 
cifc of their religion. E. Long. 14. 42. N. Lat.. 
51. to. 

BAUX, a town of Provence in France, with the 


B A X 

[ 85 J 

B A X 

title of a raarqiiifiite, fcated on a rock, at the top of 
wliicli is a ftrong caftle. E. Long. 5. o. N. Lat. 
43. 42. 

BAWD, a pcrfon who keeps a place of proflitution, 
or makes a trade of debauching women, and procnring 
or conduftini; criminal intrigues. Some think the 
word is derived from the old French baude, hold or 
impudent ; though Verflegan has a conjecture which 
would carry it higher, viz. from bathe anciently W'ritten 
bade. In which fcnfe ^dw^/originally imported no more 
than bath-holder, as if bagnios had anciently been the 
chief fccnes of fuch proflitiuion. 

The Romans had their male as well as female 
bawds; the former denominated tctmnes and proagogi, 
amongas panders ; the latter, /:n^. Donatus, fpeak- 
ing of the habits of the ancient charaiflers in comedy, 
i'ays, Le/10 pal'ih vari coloris iititur. Bat the ancient 
lenones, it is to be obfcrvcd, furniflied boys as well as 
girls for venereal fervice. Another I'ort of thcfe mer- 
chants or dealers in human flelh, were caXXci'mi^mgones, 
by the Greeks caJ'fix.a.'rti-Kdi, who fold eunuchs, ilaves, 
&c. IJy a lawofConftantine, bawds were to be punifli- 
cd by pouring melted lead down their throats. See the 
next article. 

BAji'DT-Houfe, a houfe of ill fame, to which lewd 
perfons of both fexes rcfort, and there have criminal 

The keeping a bawdy-houfe is a common nuifauce, 
not only on account that it endangers the public peace 
by drawing together debauched and idle perfons, and 
promoting quarrels, but likewife for its tendency to 
corrupt the manners of the people. And therefore 
perfons convifted of keepintr bawdy-houfcs, are pu- 
liifliablc by fine and imprifonment ; alfo liable to ftaiid 
in the pillory, and to fuch other punillimcnt as the 
court at their difcretion fliall infliC:!:. Perfons reforting 
fo a bawdy-houfe are likewife punilhable, and they 
may be bound to their good behaviour. — It was always 
held infamous to keep a bawdy-houfe; yet fome of 
our hiftorians mention bawdy-houfcs publicly allowed 
here in former times till the reign of Henry VUI. 
and affign the number to be 18 thus allowed on the 
bank-fidc in Southwark. Sec Stews and Bro- 

Bawdy-houfes are liccnfed in Holland, and pay a 
confiderable tax to ihe (late. 

BAWLING, among the fportfmcn, is fpoke of the 
dogs when they are too bufy before they find the fcent 

BAXTER (Richard), an eminent divine among 
the nonconformifls, was born at Rowton in Shrop- 
fhirc, November 12. 1615; and diftinguilhtd himfclf 
by his exemplary life, his pacific and moderate prin- 
ciples, and his numerous writings. He was remark- 
able for his piety even when he was very young. Up- 
on the opening of the long parliament, he was chofen 
■vicar of Kiddcrminller. In the heat of the civil wars 
he withdrew from that town to Coventry, and preach- 
ed to the garrifon and inhabitants. When Oliver 
Cromwell was made proteftor, he would by no means 
comply with his meafnres, though he jircachcd once 
before him. He came to London ju(t before the de- 
pofing of Richard CromvTell, and preached before the 
parliament the day before they voted the return of 
king Charles II. who upon his rcftoratioa appointed 

him one of his chaplains in ordinary. He aHifted at 
the conference in the Savoy,as oncof the commiffioners 
for ffating the fundamentals in religion, and then drew 
np a reformed liturgy. He was ottered the billioprick 
of Hereford ; which he refufed ; aficcHing no higher 
preferment than the liberty of continuing minifttrof 
Kidderminfler ; which he could not obtain, for he 
was not permitted to preach there above twice or 
thrice after the rcftoration. VVhcrcupon he returned 
to London, and preached occalionally about the city, 
till the art of uuiformiiy took place. In 1662, Mr 
Baxter was married to Margaret Charleton, daughter 
to Francis Charleton, Efq. of (he county of Salop, 
who was cfleemed one of the beft jufliccs of the peace 
in that county. She was a woman of great piety, and 
entered thoroughly into her hufband's views concern- 
ing religion. During the plague in 1665 he retired 
into Buckinghamlhire ; but afterward returned to Ac- 
ton, where he flaid till the art againft conventicles ex- 
pired ; and then his audience was fo large that he 
wanted room. Upon this he was committed to pri- 
fon ; but procuring an habeas corpus, he was difchar- 
ged. After the indulgence in 1672, he returned to 
London ; and in 1682 he was feized for coming with- 
in live miles of a corporation. In 1684 he was feized 
again ; and in the reign of king James II. was com- 
miited prifoner to the king's bench, and tried before 
the lord chief jullice Jeftcries for his Paraphrafe on the 
New Teflament, which was called a feaiidalous /edi- 
tions book againft the government. He continued 
in prifon two years ; from whence he was at lall dif- 
charged, and had his fine remitted by the king. He 
died December the 8ih 1691; he was buried in 

Mr. Sylvefter fays, that Mr Baxter's " perfon was 
tall and llendcr, and fiotipc d much ; his countenance 
compofed and grave, Ibmcwhat inclining to fmilc. He 
had a piercing eye, a very articulate fpeech, and de- 
portment rather plain than complimental." There is 
an original portrait of him ar Dr \N'illiams's library, 
founded for the ufe of proleftant DilFenting Miniffcrs, 
in Redcrofs-itreer. Mr Sylvcflcr alio fays-, that "he 
had a great command over his ihoughts. He had that 
happy faculty, fo as to anfwer the charartcr that was 
given of him by a learned man dilie iiting from liim, af- 
ter difcourfe with him ; which was, that he could fay 
what he would, and he could prove what he /aid. He 
was moft intent upon the neceiFary things. Rational 
learning he mofl valued, and was a very extraordinary 
maflerof. And as to his expreffive faculty, he fpake 
properly, plainly, pertinently, and pathetically. He 
could fpeak fuitably, both to mens capacities and fo 
the things infilled ou. He was a perfon wonderful at 
extemporaie preaching." But his common prartice 
appears to have been to preach with notes ; thoujjh he 
faid, " That he thought it very needful for a minifter 
10 have a body of divinity in his head." He was ho- 
noured with the friendfhip of fome of the greaieft and 
beft men in the kingdom (as the Karl of Lauderdale, 
the Earl of Balcarras, Lord Chief Jnftice Hales, Dr 
Tillotfon, &c. and held correfpondcnce with feme of 
the moft eminent foreign divines. — He wrote above 120 
books, and Iiad above 60 written againfl him. The for- 
mer, however, it fliould feem,werc greatly preferable 
to the latter ; lince Dr Bairow^ an excellent judge, 



B A X 

[ 86 ] 

B A X 

Baxter, fays, tliat " his praftical writings were never mended, 

'^ ' his controverlial feldom confuted. 

Mr Granger's character of him is too ftriking to 
be omitied. " Richard Baxter was a man famous for 
weakncfs of hojy and llrengtii of mind ; for liaving 
the ftrongeft fcnfc of religion himfelf, and exciting a 
fenfe of it in the thoiightlcls and profligate j for preach- 
ing more fcrmons, engaging in more controverlies, and 
writing more books, than any other Nonconfonnift of 
his age. He fpoke, difpiiied, and wrote with eafe ; 
and difcovercd the fame intrepidity wlicn he reproved 
Cromwell and expoftulatcd with Charles II. as when 
lie preached to a congregation of mechanics. His 
zeal for religion was extraordinary ; but it fccms never 
to have prompted him to faction, or carried him to cn- 
thuliafm. This champion of the Prefbyterians was 
the common butt of men of every other religion, and 
of thofe who were of no religion at all. But this had 
very little effcifl upon him : his prefence and his iirni- 
nefs of mind on no occafion forfook him. He was 
jufl the fame man before he went into a prifon, while 
he was in it, and when he came out of it ; and he 
maintained an uniformity of charadler to the lafl gafp 
of his life. His enemies have placed him in hell i but 
every man who has not ten times the bigotry that Mr 
Baxter himfelf had, mufl conclude that he is in a bet- 
ter place. This is a very faint and imperfeft ikctch 
of Mr. Baxter's character : men of his fize are not to 
be drawn in miniature. His portrait, in full propor- 
tion, is in his Narraiive of hu own Life and Times ; 
which though a rhapfody, corapofed in the manner of 
a diary, contains a great variety of memorable things, 
and is itfelf, as far as it goes, a Hiflory of Noncon- 
formity." — Among his moft famous works were, i. 
The Saints Evcrlafting Reft. 2. Call to the Uncon- 
verted, of which 20,000 were fold in one year; and 
it was tranllated not only into all the European lan- 
guages, but into the Indian tongue. 3. Poor Man's 
Kamily Book. 4. Dying Thoughts : and, 5. A Pa- 
raphrafc on the New Teftament. His prat^ical works 
Lave been printed in four volumes folio. 

Baxter (William), nephew and heir to the former, 
was an eminent fchoolmaller and critic. He was born 
»t Lanlugany in Shroplliire, in the year 1650 ; and it 
is remarkable, that at the age of 18, when he firft went 
to fchool, he knew not one letter nor nnderftood one 
word of any language but Welth ; but he fo well im- 
proved his time, that he became a perfoH of great and 
extenlive knowledge. His genius led him chiefly to 
the ftudy of antiquities and philology, in which he 
compofcd fevcral books. The firfl he publidicd was a 
Grammar, in 1679, intilled De Analogia feu Arte 
Latin.T Liitgiut Covimmtariolus. He alio pablilhed a 
new and correft edition of Anacreon, with Notes ; an 
edition of Horace ; a Dictionary of the Brililh anti- 
quities, in Latin ; and feveral other books. He was 
a great mafler of the ancient Britilli and Irilh tongues, 
was particularly fkilled in the Latin and Greek, and 
ia the northern and eaflern languages. He died May 
31. 1723, after being above 20 years mafler of Mer- 
cer's School in London. 

Baxter (Andrew), a very ingenious metaphyfical 
writer, was born in 1686 or 1687, at Old Abcrbeen 
(where his father was a raerciiant), and educated in 
King's College there. His principal employment was 

that of a private inter to young gentlemen ; and «- 
mong others of his pupils were Lord Grey, Lord Blan- * 
tyre, and Mr. Hay of Drnmmelzier. About 1724 he 
married the daughter of a clergyman in the fliire of 
Berwick. A few years after he publiflied in 410, " An 
Inquiry into the Nature of the human Soul, wherein 
its immateriality is evinced from the principles of rea- 
fon and phiilolbphy ;" without date. In 1 741 he went 
abroad with Mr Hay, and refided fome years at U- 
trecht ; having there alfo Lord Blantyre under his care. 
He made cxcurfions from tiiencc into Flanders, France, 
and Germany ; his wife and family refiding, in the 
mean time, chiefly at Berwick-upon-Tweed. He re- 
turned to Scotland in 1747, and refided till his death 
at Whittingham, in the fliire of Eafl Lothian. He 
drew up, for the ufe of his pupils and his fon, a piece 
iutitled Matho : jive, Cofmotheoria puerilis, Dialogus. 
hi quo prinja elementa de mundi ordiiie et ornatu propo- 
huntur, ire. This was afterwards greatly enlarged, 
and publiflied in Englifli, in two volumes, 8vo. In 
1750 was publiflied, " An Appendix to his Inquiry 
into the Nature of the human Soul ;" wherein he en- 
deavours to remove fome difficulties which had been 
ftarted againft his notions of the vis inertia of matter 
by Maclaurin, in liis " Account of Sir Ifaac New- 
ton's Philolbphical Difcoveries." To this piece Mr 
Baxter prefixed a dedication to Mr. John Wilkes, with 
whom he had commenced an acquaintance abroad. He 
died this year, April the 23d, after fufFering for fome 
months under a complication of diforders, of which tlic 
gout was the chief. He left a wife, three daughters, 
and one fon, Mr Alexander Baxter ; from which lafl 
the authors of Biographia Britannica received, as they 
inform us, fundry particulars of his life. 

His learning and abilities are fufficiently difpliyed iti 
his writings. He was extremely fludious, and fome- 
times fat up whole nights in reading and writing. His 
temper at the fame lime was very cheerful, and he 
was a friend to innocent merriment. It is informed 
by his fon, that he entered with much good humour 
into the converfation and pleafures of young people, 
when they were of an innocent nature : and that he 
prefided, all the time of his abode at Utrecht, at the 
ordinary which was frequented by all ihe young Eng- 
lifli gentlemen there, with much gaiety and politenefs, 
and in fuch a manner as gave nniverfal fatisfaftion. 
He alfo frequented the molt polite aflerablies in that 
city, and his company and converfation were parti- 
cularly acceptable to the ladies. So that Mr Baxter 
appears to have ftndied the graces, though without 
reglefting more valuable acquifitions and accomplifli- 
ments. He was at once the fcholar and the gentle- 
man. In converfation he was modefl, and not apt to 
make much fhow of the extenfive knowledge of which 
he was pofleflled. In the difcharge of the feveral fe- 
cial and relative duties of life, his condu>Jt was exem- 
plary. He had the mofl reverential fcntiments of the 
Deity, of whofe prefence and immediate fupport he 
had always a flrong impreiRon upon his mind; and 
the general tenor of his life appears to have been con- 
formable to the rules of virtue. Mr Baxter paid a 
flrift attention to oeconomy, though lie dreflcd elegant- 
ly, and was not parfimonious in his other expenees. 
It is known alfo, that there were feveral occafions on 
which he acted with remarkable difintcrcAednefs ; and 




[ 87 ] 


Baxter fo far was he from conning pref'crmciu, that lie has 
II repeatedly declined confiderable ort'crs of that kind 
~^J[]™^ which were made him, if he woLild have taken orders 
in the church of England. The French, German, and 
Dutch languages were fpoken by him with much eafe, 
and the Italian tolerably ; and he wrote and read them 
all, together wiih the Spanilh. His friends and cor- 
refpondents were numerous and refpei5lable ; and a- 
niong them are particularly mentioned Mr Pointz, pre- 
ceptor to the laic Duke of Cumberland, and Dr War- 
burton, bifliop of Gloucefter. He was a man alio of 
great benevolence and candour ; which appears mofl 
llrikingly from this, inafmuch as though Mr Wilkes 
]ud made himfclf fo very obnoxious (o the Scottilh na- 
tion in general, yet Mr Baxter kept up wiih him an 
afteclionatc correfpondence to the lalf, even after he 
was imable to write with his own hand. He left ma- 
ny manufcripts behind him ; he would gladly have fi- 
niflied his work upon the human foul : " I own," fays 
Jie, in a letter to Mr Wilkes, " if it had been the will 
of heaven, I would gladly have lived till I had put in 
order the fccond part of the Enquiry, (liowing the im- 
raortality of the human foul ; but Infinite Wifdom 
cannot be miftaken in calling me fooner. Our blind- 
nefs makes us form wiOies." It was, indeed, what he 
confidcred it, his capital work : a fecond edition of it 
was publilhed in two volumes 8vo in 1737, and a third 
in 1 74J. In another letter, fpcaking of his endeavours 
to eflablilh the particular providence of the Diety, and 
to iliow his incedant inliuence and aftion on all the 
parts of matter, through the wideuniverfe, from the 
inav^ivity of this dead fubllance ; cxprefles his hope, 
that when the prefcnt pariy-zcal fubfidts a little, 
men will come more eafdy in to own luch a plain 
truth. " His prediiftion," the editors of the Biogra- 
phia Britannica obferve, "hath not yet been accom- 
plilhcd. Several eminent names feem rather difpoled 
to increafe than to leflcn the powers of matter ; and 
they have exprefsly maintained that the foul of man is 
material. However, other names equally eminent have 
aliened the ellential diftinftion between the mind and 
the body. Perhaps, in the revolutions of ojiinion, the 
doftrine of immateriality may again obtain ilie general 
fufFrage of metaphyseal and philofophical inquiry. 

BAY, in geography, an arm of the fea Ihooting up 
into the land, and terminating in a nook. It is a kind 
of lefler gulph bigger than a creek, and is larger in its 
middle within than at its entrance. The largell and 
moil noted bays in the world arc thofe of Bifcay, Ben- 
gal, Hudfon's, Panama, &c. 

Bay denotes likewife a pond-head made to keep in 
flore of water for driving the wheels of ihe furnace or 
hammer belonging to an iron-mill, by the flream that 
comes thence through a flood-gate called the pen-jlock. 

BAX-Coloiir denotes a fort of red inclining to chef- 
nut, chiefly ufcd in fpeaking of horlcs. In this fcnfe, 
the word bay is formed from the Latin bains, or badiuSy 
and (hat from the Greek /Sai©.,, 3. palm branch ; fothat 
baditis or bay properly denotes cokr fhrnicens. Hence 
alfo among the ancients, ihofe now called bay horfcs, 
were denominated equi pahnati. Wc have divers forts 
and degrees of bays ; a« a light bay, a dapple bay, &c. 
All b;iy horfcs are faid to have black manes ; which 
dilliiigiiilhcs ihem from forrcls, which have rtd or white 

Bay, among huntfmen, is when the dogs have 
earthed a vermin, or brought a deer, boar, or the like, 
to turn head agaiult them. In this cafe, not only the 
deer, but the dogs, are faid to bay. It is dangerous 
going in to a hart at bay, efpecially at rutting-time ; 
for then they are fierceft. There are bays at land, and 
others in the water. 

BAV-Tree. See Laurus. 

BAY-Salt. See Salt. 

BAYA, or Baja, a town of Lower Hungary, in 
the county of Bath, fituated near the Danube. E. 
Long. 19. 30. N. Lat. 46. 25;. 

BAYARD (Peter du Terrail de), efleemed by bis 
contemporaries, the model of foldiersand men of ho- 
nour, and denominated The knight without fear and 
without reproach, was defcended from an ancient and 
noble family in Dauphine. He was with Charles VIII. 
at the conqucfl of the kingdom of Naples ; where he 
gave remarkable proofs of his valour, efpecially at the 
battle of Fornoue. He was dangeroully wounded at 
the taking of the city of Brefcia ; and there reflored to 
the daughters of his Jiofl 2000 pilloles, which their 
mother had dire<5lcd them to give liim in order to pre- 
vent the houfe from being plundered ; an adion that 
has been celebrated by many hiflorians. At his return 
to France, he was made lieutenant-general of Dauphine. 
He fought by the fide of Francis I. at the battle of 
Marignan ; and that prince afterwards infiftcdon being 
knighted by his hand, after the manner of the ancient 
knights. The chevalier Bayard defended Meziers du- 
ring fix weeks, againfl Charles V.'s army. In 1524, 
at the retreat of Rebec f (the general Bonivet having 
been wounded and obliged to quit the field), the con- 
duct of the rear was committed to the chevalier Bayard, 
who, though fo much a llranger to the arts of a court 
that he never rofe to the chief command, was always 
called, in times of real danger, to the pofls of greatefl: 
difhculty and importance. He put himfclf at the head 
of the men at arms ; and animating them by his prefcnce 
and example to fuflain the whole ftock of the enemy's 
troops, he gained time for the reft of his countrymen 
to make good their retreat. But in this fervicc he re- 
ceived a wound which he immediately perceived to be 
mortal ; and being unable to continue any longer on 
horfeback, he ordered one of his attendants to place 
him under a tree, with his face towards the enemy ; 
then fixing his eyes on the guard of his fword, which 
he held up infttad of a crofs, he addrcllbd his prayers 
to God ; and in this poftnre, which became his cha- 
rat^er both as a foldicr and as a Chriftian, he calmly 
waited the approach of deatli. Bourbon, who led the 
forcmolt of the enemy's troops, found him in this fi- 
tuation, and exprelFed regret and pity at the fight. 
" Pity not me," cried the high-fpirited chevalier, 
" I die as a m.ui of honour ought, in the difchaige of 
" my duty : they indeed are objefls of pity, who fight 
" againfl ihcii king, their country, and their oath." 
The marquis <lc Pcfcara, palling foon at'tcr, maiiifcfled 
his admiration of B.iyard's virtue, as well as his forrow 
for his fate, with the generofity of a gallant enemy ; 
and finding that lie could not be removed with fal'ciy 
from that fpot, ordered a lent to be pitched ilitrc, and 
appointed proper pcrfor.s to attend him. He died, 
iiotwithflanding their care, as his anceflors for fcveral 
generations bad -done, in the field of battle. Pcfcara 


t H,f. ./ 

Cbarlci r. 

Book iii. 


[ SB ] 


DsycM, ordered his body to be embalmed, and feiu to his rtla- 
Baj-le. lions ; and fuch was (he rclpcft paid to military merit 
^~^'"~~' in that age, that the duke of Savoy commanded it to 
be received with royal honours in all the cities of his 
dominions: in Dauphine, Bayard's native country, the 
people of all ranks came out in j folemn procelhon to 
meet it. 

BAYEUX, a confiJcrable town of France in Nor- 
mandy, and capital of Bcllin, with a rich billiop's fee. 
The cathedral church is accounted the finefl in that 
province ; and its front and three high lUcples are faid 
to be the beft in France. VV. Long. o. 33. N. Lat. 
^9. 16. 

BAYLE (Peter), author of the Hillorical and Cri- 
tical Didionary, born November 18. 1657, at 
Carla, a village in the couniy of Koix, in France, 
where his father John Baylc was a Protellant miniller. 
In 1666, he went to the Protellant univcrliiy at Puy- 
laureus, where he lluviicd with the grcaielt applica- 
tion, and in 1669, removed to the univcrfity of Toii- 
loufe, whether the Protcllants at that lime frequently 
fent their children to fludy under the Jcfuiis : but 
here, to the great grief of his father, he embraced the 
llomirti religion; however, being foon ftndble of his 
error, he left that univcrfity, and went to fludy at Ge- 
neva. After which he was chofen profelfor of philofo- 
phy at Sedan : but that pnuefkant univcrfity being fup- 
prclicd by Lewis XIV. in l63i, he was obliged to 
leave the city ; and was foon after chofen proicllor of 
phdofophy and hiflory at Rotterdam, with a falary of 
about L. 45 a-year. Tlie year following he publilhed 
hisLelterconcerningComeis. And Father Maiinboarg 
having publilhed about this liiv.c his Hillory of Cal- 
vinifm, wherein he endeavours to draw upon the Pro- 
teltants tlie contempt and refentment of the Catholics, 
Mr Bayle wrote a piece to confute his hiflory. The 
reputation which he had now acquired, induced the 
States of Friezland, in 16S4, to offer him a prtfellbr- 
fliip in their univcrfity ; but he wrote them a letter of 
thanks, and dtclincd the otter. This fame year he 
began to publilh his Nauvella de la repubUqm da let- 

In 1686, he was drawn into a difpute in relation to 
the famous Chriflina queen of Sweden. In his Journal 
for April, he took notice of a primed letter, fuppofed 
to have been written by her Swedilh majefly to the che- 
valier de Tcrlon, wherein Ihe condemns ihe perfecution 
of the Proteflants in France. He infericd the letter it- 
fclf in his Journal for May ; and in that of Jane follow- 
ing he fays, " What we hinted at in our lafl month, 
is continued to us from day to day, that Chriflina is 
the real author of tlie letter concerning the perfecu- 
tions in France, which is afcribed to her : it is a re- 
mainder of Proteflaniiftn." Mr ISayle received an a- 
nonymous letter ; the author of which fays, that he 
wrote to him of his own accord, being in duty bound 
to it as a fervant of the queen. He coni|'lains that 
Mr Bayle, fpeaking of her majefly, called her only 
ChriJIiiia, without any title ; he linds alfo great fault 
with his callin:; the letter " a remainder of Protellan- 
lifm." He blameshim likewil'c for itiferting the words 
" I am," in the conclufion of the letter. " Thefe 
words (fays this anonymoiiS •.vrifcr) are not her maje- 
fty's; a queen, as Ihe is, cannot employ thefe words 
but with regard to a very few perfons, and Mr de Tcr- 

lon is not of that number." Mr Bayle wrote a vindi- 
cation of himfelf as to thefe particulars, with which the 
author of the anonymous letter declared himfcK fitis- 
fied, excepting what related to " ihe remainder of 
Proieflantifm." He would not admit of the defence 
with regard to that exprclfion ; and in another letter, 
advifed him to retrart that cxprellion. He adds in a 
poflfcript. " You mention, in your Journal of Auguft, 
a fccond letter of the queen, which you fcruple to pub- 
litli. Her majefly would be glad 10 ice that letter; and 
yon will do a thing agreeable to her if you would fend 
it to lur. Yon might take this opportunity of wriiing 
to her majefly. This council may be of fome ufe to 
you ; do not negleit it." Mr Bayle look the hint, and 
wrote a letter to her majefly, dated the 14th of Novem- 
ber 1686; to which the queen, on the 14th of Decem- 
ber, wrote the following anfwer : — " Mr Bayle, I have 
received your cxcul'cs ; and am willing you Ihould 
know by this letter, that I am faiishcd with them. I 
am obliged 10 the zeal of the pcrfon who gave you oc- 
cafion of writing to me : for I am very glad to know 
you. Yon exprefs fo much rcfpeiSt a;id affetflion for 
me, that I pardon yon fmcercly ; and I would have 
you know, that nothing gave mc offence but that re- 
7i!aiiid.T of ProtefluutiflU, of which you accufed me. I 
am very delicate on that head, becaufe nobody can 
fufpcft me of it, without lellening my glory, and inju- 
ring me in the mofl fenfiblc manner. You would do 
well if you Ihould even acquaint the public with the 
mirtake yon have made, and with your regret for it. 
This is all that remains to be done by yon, in order to 
defcrve my being entirely fatisfied with you. As to 
the letter which you have fent me, it is mine without 
doubt ; and fmce you tell me that it is printed, you 
will do me a plealure if you fend mc fome copies of it. 
As I fear noihing in France, fo neither do I fear any 
thing at Rome. My fortune, my blood, and even my 
life, are entirely devoted to the fervice of the church ; 
but I flatter nobody, and will never fpeak any thing 
but the truth. I am obliged to thofe who have been 
pleafed to publifli my letter, for I do not at all difguife 
my fcntimeius. I thank God, 1 hey are too noble and 
too honourable to be difowned. However, it is not 
true that this letter was written to one of my miniflers. 
As 1 have evciy where enemies and perfons who envy 
me, fo in all places I have friends and fervants ; and 
I have polUbly as many in France, notwithflanding of 
the court, as any w'hcrc in tlie world. This is purely 
the truth, and you may regulate yonrfcif accordingly. 
But yon lliall not get off (o cheap as you imagine. I 
will enjoin )ou a penance; which is, that you wiil 
henceforth take the trouble of fending me all curious 
books that lliall be publilhed in Latin, French, Spa- 
nilli, or Italian, on whatever fubjed or fcience, pro- 
vided they are worthy of being looked into ; I do not 
even except romance or fatires ; and above all, it there 
are any books of chemiflry, I defire you may fend 
them to me as foon as poffible. Do not forget likewil'c 
to lend me your Journal. I fliall order that yon be 
paid for whatever you lay out, do but fend mc an ac- 
count of it. This will be the mofl agreeable and mofl 
important fervice ihat can be done me. May God pro- 
fper you. Christin'a Alexandra." 

It now only remained that Mr Bayle Ihould acquaint 

the public with the miflakc he Jiad made, in order to 

< merit 



[ ^9 3 

B A Y 

Ptijle- mrrit that piiucefs's entire taiisfaCtion ; and this lie 

' ' did in the beginaing of his Joiinul ot" ihe month of 

Jaiuury, 1687. 

The perfeciuion which the Proteilants at this lime 
f.ifFereJ in France attcded Mr Ha) Ic extremely. He 
made occalionally lome rcliections on their f.itferings in 
his Journal , and he wrore a pamphlet alio on the fub- 
jcdc. Some time aUervvards lie publiilied his Curtmen- 
taire Philofophiqns upon ihefe words, " Compel them 
to come in :" but the great appUc.ttiou he gave to this 
and his other works, threw him into a i'.t ot' lickncfs, 
which obliged him 10 difcoiitinne his Literary Journal. 
Being advifcd 10 try a change of air, he left Kotter- 
dam on tlie Stli of Auguft, and went to Clevcs ; wliciice 
after liaving continued fome lime, he removed to Aix 
la Chapelle, and from thence returned to Rotterdam on 
t!ie i8th of October, la the year 1690, the famous 
book, intitled, Avis atix Refngicz, &c. made its ap- 
pearance. Mr Jnricn, who took IVIr iiayle for the au- 
thor thereof, wrote a pieee againll it ; and he preiixed 
an advice to the public, wherein he calls Mr Baylc a 
profane perfon, and a traitor engaged in a coiifjiirary 
againll the lUte. As foon as Mr Bayle had read tins 
libel againfl him, he went to the grand Sellout of Rot- 
terdam, and oSered to go to prifoo, provided hisaccu- 
fer would accompany him, and imdergo the puniflinient 
he defcrved if the accufaiion was found nujulL He 
publilhed alfo an anfwer to Mr Jurieu's charge ; and as 
his reptitation, nay his very life, was at llake in cafe 
the accuiation of treafon was proved, he therefore 
thought hinifclf not obliged to keep any terms with 
bis accufer, and attacked him with the ntmolt feverity. 
Mr Jurieu loll all patience : he applied himfelf to the 
magiltratcs of Amlhrdam ; who advifed him to are- 
con.nliation wi;h Mr Bayle, and enjoined them not to 
pnblilh any thing agaiuft each other till it was examined 
by Mr Boyer, the penfuner of Rotterdam. But not- 
withllanding this prohibition, Mr Juricu attacked Mr 
B.iyle again with fo inuch palfion, that he forced him 
to write a new vindication of himfelf. 

In November 1690, Mr de Beanval advertifcd in 
Ilis Journal. y^ fchevie for a CrJkal DiEiiouary . This 
was the work of Mr Bayle. The articles of the three 
iirll letters of the alphabet were already prepared ; but 
a difpute happening betwixt him and Mr de Beauval, 
obliged him for fome time to lay aiide the work. Nor 
did he refume it till May 169:, when he publilhed his 
fchemc: but the public not approving of his plan, he 
threw it into a diiTerent form ; and the tirll volume was 
publilhed in Aagulh 169J, and the fccond in October 
following. The'work was extremely well received by 
the public; but it engaged him in irefh difputes, par- 
ticularly with Mr Juricu and the abbe Rcnaudot. Mr 
Juricu publilhed a piece, wherein he endeavoured to en- 
j;age the ecclcriallical affcmblies to condemn the dic- 
tionary ; he prefentcd it to the fenatc fitting at 15elft, 
but they took no notice of the affair. The confidory 
of Rotterdam granted Mr Bayle a hearing ; and after 
iiaving heard his aniwcrs to their remarks on his dic- 
tionary, declared thcmfelves fatishcd, and advifed him 
to communicate this to the public. I\tr Juricu made 
.mother attempt with the confiftory in 1698 ; and fo 
tar he prevailed with them, that ilicy exhorted Mr 
Hayle to be more cautious with regard to his princi- 
ples in the fecond edition of his diiHioiiary ; wliich was 
Vol. III. 

publilhed in 1702, with many additions and improve- 

Mr Bayle was a n-.oft laborious and indefatigable 
writer. In one of his letters 10 Maizcux, he fays, 
lliat fince his 2o;h year he hardly rcmenibcrs to liavc 
had any Icifure. His inttnfe application contributed 
perliaps to impair liis conflitution, (or it foon btgan u> 
decline. He had a decay of the lungs, which weak- 
ened him conliderabiy ; and as this was a diflcmper 
which had cut off fevcral of his family, he judged it to 
be mortal, and would take no remedies, lie died the 
2S^th of December 1706, after iic liad been v.'riting the 
greateft part of the day. He wrote i'cvtral books be- 
fidts what we have nieniioncd, many of wliicii were in 
his own defence againit attacks he had received from 
the abbe Renaudot, Mr Clerk, M. Jaqnclot, and others. 
Among the productions which do honour to the age 
of Louis XIV. Mr Voltaire has not omitted the Cri- 
tical Dirtionary of our author: " It is the firft work 
of the kind (he fays) in which a man may learn to 
think." He cenfures indeed tlinfe articles which con- 
tain only a detail of miniue fafts, as unworthy either 
of Bayle, an underftanding reader, or pofterity. " In 
placing him (continues the fame author) amongfl the 
writers who do honour to the age of Louis XIV. 
notwiihftanding his being a refugee in Holland, I 
only contorui to the decree ot the parliament ci Tho- 
louie, which, when it declared his u ill valid in France, 
notwithlianding the rigour of the laws, cxprefsiy 
faid, that fuel) a man coiJd not be coiilid(i;d as a fo- 

BAYLY (Lewis), author of that moft memorable 
book, intitled Tl.c J rafi/ce of Fictj. He was born ac 
Catrmanhen in Wales, educated at Oxford, made nii- 
niflerof Evefliam in Woreellcrlhire about 161 1, be- 
came chaplain to king James, and promoted le the 
fee of Bangor in 1616. His book is dedicated to the 
high and mighty prince, Charles prince of Wales ; and 
the author tells his highnefs, that " he had endeavoured 
to extraft out of the chaos of endlc Is controverfies the 
old praftice of true piety, which ilourilhrd before tjiefc 
controverfies were hatched." The delign was good ; 
and the reception this book has met with may be 
l;nown from the number of its editions, that in 8vo, 
1754, being the iifty-ninth. This prelate died in 

BAYON, a town of France, in I.orrain, feared on 
the liver MofcUe. E. Long. 14. 42. N. Lai. 48. jo. 

Bayon, or Biiyoiia, a town of Galicia, in Spain, 
frated on a fmall gulph of (he Atlantic ocean, about 
12 miles from Tuy. It has a very commodious har- 
bour, and the country alioui it is fertile. W. Long. 
9. -^o. N. Lat. 45. ?. 

BA'iONET, in the military art, a ll:ort broad 
dagger, formerly with a round handle fitted for the 
bore of a (helock, to be fixed there after the foldicr 
had fired ; but they arc now made with iron liandies 
and rings, that go over the muzzle of the firelock, and 
arefcrcwcdfafl, fo that the foldicr fires with his bayonet 
on the muzzle of his piece, and is ready to aft againll 
the horfc. Tliis ufc of the Iwyonri fallcned on the 
muzzle of the firelock was a great improvement, firft 
introduced by ihe French, and to which, according to 
M. Folard, they owed a great part of their viflorics in 
the lall centuiy ; and to the neglect of this in the next 
M fuc- 


[ 90 ] 


Bayonne, faccccdiiig war, and inifting to their fire, the fame au- 
Hay. thor attributes mod of the loires they fiiftained. At 
^^~^^~~^ the liege of Malta, a weapon called piia ignca was con- 
trived to oppofe the bayonets, being in loine mealure 
the converfe thereof; as the latter conlills of a dagger 
added to a tire-arm, the former conlillcd of a lire-arm 
added to a pihim or pike. 

Of late the bayonet has come into very general iifc ; 
and battles have been won by it without hring a lliot. 
This way of lighting was cliicriy rcrtorcd by the late 
king of Prulha, who made his troops rufli forward at 
once with bayonets on the enemy. 

BAYONNE, a city of Gafcony, in France ; fcated 
near the mouth of the river Adour, whicli forms a 
good harbour. It is moderately large, and of great 
importance. It is divided into three pans. The great 
town is on this lide llie river Nive : the little town is 
between ihc Nive and tlie Adour ; and the fuburbs of 
Saint El'prit is beyond this lafl river. Both the former 
arc furroiinded with an old wall and a dry ditch, and 
there is a fmall callle in each. That of Great Bsyonnc 
is flanked wiih four round towers, and is the place 
where the governor rclidcs. The new cafilc is flanked 
with four towers, in the form of baflions. Tiie firit 
inclofure is covered with another, compofed of eight 
baftions, with a great horn-work, and half-moon ; all 
which are enconipaircd with a ditch, and a covered 
way. There is a communication between the city and 
the fuburbs by a bridge, and the fuburbs is well forti- 
fied. The citadel is ieated beyond the Adour, on the 
iidc of the fuburbs abovcmeiuioiicd. The public build- 
ings have nothing remarkable ; it is the only city in the 
kingdom that has the advantage of two rivers, wherein 
the tide ebbs and flows. The river Nive is deeper than 
the.'idoiir, but lefs rapid, by which means lliips come 
up into the middle of the city. There are two bridges 
over this river, by which the old and new town com- 
municate with each other. The trade of this town is 
the more coiiliderable, on account of its neighbourhood 
to Spain, and the great quantity of wines which are 
brought hither from the adjacent country. The Dutch 
carry ofFa great number of pipes in e-xchange for fpi- 
ces and other commodities, whicli they bring thither. 
The inhabitants have the privilege of guarding two of 
their three gates, and the third is kept by the king. 
W. Long. I. 20. N. Lit. 43. 20. 

BAYS, in commerce, a fort of open woollen ftufT, 
h»ving a long nap, fouietimcs frizcd, and (bmeiimes 
not. Tills llutf'is without wale ; and is wrought in a 
loom with two treddlcs, like flannel. It is chiefly ma- 
nafathired at Coklicfler and Bnckin in EiJcx, wliere 
there is a hall called the Dutch-bay hjll or raw-hall. 
This manufacture was firll introduced into England, 
with tliat of fays, farges, &c. by the Flemings ; 
who being perfccuted by the duke of Alva fur their 
leligion, fled thither about the flfih of Queen Eliza- 
beth's reign ; and had afterwards peculiar privileges 
granted them by ac^ of parliament i 2 Charles II. 1660, 
which the bays makers in the above places dill enjoy. — 
The exportation of bays was formerly much more con- 
iiderablc than at prefent when the French have learned 
to imitate them. However, the Englilh bays are dill 
jent in great quantities to Spain and, and 
even to luly. Their chief ufc is for drclTing the 
monks and nuns, and for linings, efpecially in ihc ar- 

my. The looking-glafs makers alfo life liiem behind Bazidnii 
their glaflcs, to prefervc the tin or quickfilver ; and II 
the cafcmakers, to line their cafes. The breadth of ^J^clclliure.^ 
bays is commonly a yard and a lialf, a yard and three 
quarters, or two yards, by 42 to 48 in length. Thofe 
of a yard and three quarters are nioft proper for the 
Spanilh trade. 

BAZ.ADOIS, a province of Guiennc in F'rance, 
which makes part of Lower Gafcony. It is a barren 
heathy country. Its capital is Bazas. 

BAZAR, or Basar, a denomination among the 
Turks and Perlians, given to a kind of exchanges, or 
places where their lineft fluffs and other waves are 
ibid. Tliele are alio called bczijllm. The word bazar 
fecms of Arabic orign, where it denotes fale, or ex- 
change of goods. Some of the eaflcrn bazars are 
open, like the market-places in Europe, and ferve lor 
the i'amc ufes, more particularly for the fale of the 
bulky and lefs valuable commodities. Others are co- 
vered with lofty ceilings, or even domes, pierced togive 
light ; and it is in thcfe the jewellers, goldfmiths, and 
other dealers in the richer wares, have their lliops. 
The bazar or maidan of Ifpahan is one of the finell 
places in Pcrlia, and even furpafles all the exciiangcs 
in Europe ; yet, notwithftanding its niagniticcnce, it 
is excelled by the bazar of Tauris, which is the largeft 
that is known, having feveral times held 50,000 men 
ranged in order of battle. At Conltantinople, there 
is the old and the new bazar, which art large fqnare 
buildings, covered with domes, and fufiaincd by archc.i 
and pilallrcs ; the former chiefly for arms, harnciies, 
and the like ; the latter for goldfmiths, jewellers, fur- 
riers, and all fons of manufaolurers. 

BAZAS, a town of Guicnne in France, capital of 
tlie Bazadois, with a bilhop's fee. It is built on a 
rock, in W. Long. o. 30. N. Lat. 44. 20. 

B.'^ZAT, or Baza, in commerce, a long, fine, fpun 
cotton, which comes from Jerufakm, whence it is alfo 
called Jenifalcm-c'jttoti. 

BAZGENDGES, in natural hiftory, the name of a 
fubflance ufed by the Turks and other eallern nations 
in their fcarlet-dying. They mix it for this purpofe 
with cochineal and tartar ; the proportions being two 
ounces of the bazgendges ro one ounce of cochineal. 
Thefe are generally eflccmed a fort of fruit, and are 
produced on certain trees in Syria and other places; 
and it is ufuaily fuppofed, that the fcarcity and dearnefs 
of them is the only thing that makes them not u.'cd in 
Europe. But tlie bazgendges fcem to be no other than 
the horns of the turpentine-tree in the caftern parts of 
the world ; and it is not only in Syria that they are 
found, but China alfo affords them. Many things of 
this kind were fent over to Mr Geeffroy at Paris ffora 
China as the fubftances ufed in the fcarkt-dying of 
that country, and they all proved wholly the fame wiih 
the Syrian andTurkifli bazgendges, and with the com- 
mon turpentine horns. The leniifk, or maflic-lree is 
alfo frequently found producing many horns of a like 
kind V. iih thefe, and of the fame origin, all being owing 
to the pucerons, which make their way into the leaves 
to breed their young there. 

BDELLIUM, a gummy rcfinous juice, producc(^ 
by a tree in the Eall Indies, of which we have no fa- 
lisf.i(ftory account. It is brought into Europe both 
from tlie Eall Indies aud Arabia. I: is in pieces cf 


B E A 

[ 9' ] 

H E A 

vol. I. p. 

different fizes and figures, externally of a dark rcdJifh 
brown, fomcwbat like myrrh ; internally it is clear, 
and not unlike to glue ; to the talle it is llightly bittcr- 
idi and p'Higent ; its odour is very agreeable. If held 
ill the mouth, it foon becomes folt and tenacious, 
flicking to the teeth. Laid on a red-hot iron, it rcdi- 
!y catches ilanic, and biu'ns with a cracking nolle, 
and in proportion to its goodnefs it is more or lefs 
fragrant. Near half of its fnblhnce diilblvcs either in 
water or in fpirit of wine ; but the tindiire made with 
fpirit is foincwhat llrongcr, and by much more agree- 
able. Vinegar, or verjuice, dillblves it wholly. The 
fnnple gum is a better medicine than any preparation 
from it. It is one of tlie wcakell; of the deobllruent 
gums, but it is ufed as a pectoral and an emmcna- 

BEACHY-HEAD, a promontory on tlie coaft of Suf- 
fex, between Haftings and Shoreham, where the French 
defeated the Englilh and the Dutch fleet in 1690. 

BEACON, a fignal for the better fccuring countries 
from foreign invafions. Sec Signal. 

On certain eminent places of the country are placed 
long poles ereft, whereon are fallened pitch-barrels to 
be fired by night, and fmoke made by day, to give no- 
tice in a few hours to the whole country of an ap- 
proaching invafion. Thefe are commonly called b^a- 
com ; whence alfo comes bjacoiiag:;. — We find beacons 
familiarly in. ufc among the primitive Britons and 
Wellern Highlanders. The beficged capital ofone of 
the northern illes in the third century aiiluaHy lighted 
np a fire upon a tower; and Fingal inllanily knew 
" the green flame edged with fmoke" to be a token 
of attack and diflrefs*. And there are to this day 
feveral cairns or heaps of floncs upon the heights along 
the coafts of the Harries, on which the inhabitants nfed 
to burn heath as the fignal of an approaching enemy. 

Beacons are alio marks and ligns ereded on the 
coafls, for guiding and preferving veflcls at fea, by 
night as well as by day. 

The crectionof beacons, light-honfcs, andfca-marks, 
is 1 branch of the royal prerogative in England. The king 
hath the exclufive power, by commilFion nnder his great 
feal, to caufe them to be ereAed in fit and convenient 
places, as well upon the lands of the fubjectas upon the 
demefnes of the crown : which power is ulually veiled by 
letters patent in the office of lord high admiral. And 
by ftatute 8 Eliz. c. 1%. the corporation of the triniiy- 
houfe are empowered to fet up any beacons or fca- 
marks wherever they fliall think them necelTary ; and 
if the owner of the land or any other perlbn (hall de- 
flroy them, or Ihall take down any llcepic, tree, or other 
known lea-mark, he Miall forfeit tool, or, in cafe of in- 
ability to pay it, Ihall be ipfo faHo outlawed. 

BEACONAGE, money paid towards Uhe mainte- 
nance of a beacon. See Beacon. — The word is deriv- 
ed from the Saxon bcaconian, to nod, or Ihow by lign ; 
hence alio the word beacon. 

BEACONSFIELD, a town of Buckinghamfliire in 
Englanil, .("eated on a hill in the road between London 
and Oxford. It has feveral good inns, though notabove 
100 houfcs. \V. Long. o. 2J. N. Lat. 51. ;;6. 

BEAD, a fm all globule or ball ufed in necklaces; 
and made of ditftrent materials, as pearl, flcel, garnet, 
coral, diamond, amber, crydal, palles, glalfes, 8:c. — 
The R juianills make great nl'c oi beads in rchcarling 

their Ave- Marias and Patir-ncjften ; and the like 
ufage is found among the dcrvifes and other religious " 
ihroughout the Eafi, as well Mahometan as Heathen. 
The ancient Druids appear alfo to have had their beads, 
many of which arc flill louiid ; at leall, if ihcconieclure 
of an ingenious author may be admitted, who takes 
thofe antique glafs globules, having a fnake painted 
round them, and called adJu-biads, or fnake-buttons, 
to have been the beads of our ancient Druids. Sec 

Beads, are alfo nfed in fpeaking of thofe giafs glo- 
bules vended to the lavages on the coaft ot Africa ; 
thus denominated, becaufc they arc ftrnng together for 
the convenience of traiilc. 

The common black glafs of which beads are made 
for necklaces, ice. is coloured with magancfe only : 
one part of maganefe is fufficient to give a black colour 
to near twenty of glafs. 

Bead, in architetHure, around moulding, commonly 
made upon the edge of apiece of ftufi", in theCoiiriihian 
and Roman orders, cut or carved in Ihort eniboiimcnts, 
like beads in necklaces. 

BEAD-Mc'.ken, called by the French patcrnoflriers, 
are thofe employed in the making, ftringing, and fell- 
ing of beads. At Paris there are three companies of 
patcrnoftriers, orbead makers; one whomake themof 
glafs or cryflal ; another in wood and horn; and the 
third in amber, coral, jet, &c. 

BE-iD-Prorjf, a term nfed by our diftillers to exprefs 
that fort of proof of the ftandard flrcngth of fpirituous 
liquors, which confifts in their having, when Ihaken in 
a phial, or poured from on high into a glafs, a crown 
of babbles, which ftand on the furface fomc time after. 
This is efteemed a proof that the fpirit confifls of equal 
parts of rectified fpirits and phlegm. This is a fal- 
lacious rule as to tlic degree of flrcngth in the goods; 
becaufe any thing that will increafe the tenacity of the 
fpirit, will give it this proof, though it be nnder the 
due flrengtli. Our maltdillillers fpoil the greater 
part of their goods, by leaving too much of the flink- 
ing oil of the malt in their fpirit, in order to give it this 
proof when foniewhat nnder the flandard flrcngth. 
But this is a great deceit on the purchafcrs of uiali fpi- 
rits, as they liavc them by this means not only weaker 
than they ought to be, butfiinking with an oil that they 
are not eafily cleared of afterwards. On the other 
hand, the dealers in brandy, who ufually have the art 
of fophifticating it to a great nicety, arc in the right 
when they buy it by the ftrongefl bead-proof, as the 
grand mark of the bell ; for being a proof of the brandy 
containing a large quantity of its oil, it is, at the fame 
tiine, a token of its high flavour, and of its being ca- 
pable of bearing a very large addition of the common 
fpirits of our own protluce, without betraying their fla- 
vour, or lollng its own. We value the French brandy 
for the quantity of this clTential oil of the grape which 
it contains ; and that with good reafon, as it is with us 
principally ufed for drinking as an agreeable flavoured 
corJial : but the French thcmfelves, when ihey want it 
for any curious purpofes, are as careful in the rcdifi- 
cationsofit, and take as much pains to dear it from 
[his oil, as we do to fret our malt fpirit from that nau- 
feo IS and fetid oil which it originally contains. 

Bk-io-Rc//, among Papids, a lift of fueh perfons, for 

the reil of whofc (bids they arc obliged to repeat a ccr- 

.M 3 tain 


B E A 

[ 92 ] 

B E A 

tain number of pra/ers, which they count by means of 
iheir beads. 

Dmn-Tree. SccMblia. 

BKADLE, (from the SJXon hyJil, nieffeiiger), a 
crier or nieirengcr of a conn, who cites perloiis to ap- 
pear and anfsver. Called alfn a or apparitor. 
— Hiadl: is alfj an otikcr at an iinivcrfjiy, whofe chief 
biifintfs is to walk before the inafters with a mace, at 
all public procellions. — There arc alio church-hmdUs, 
whole office is well known. 

BEAGLES, a I'mall fort of hounds or hunting dogs. 
Beagles are of divers kinds ; A%\\\(:Jotithini beagle, fonie- 
ihing lefsand Ihorter, but thicker, than thedccp-inoiith- 
cd hound ; the or cat beagle, fmallcr, 
and a liner lh;ipe"ihan the fouthern, and a harder run- 
ner. From the two, by crolUng the (trains, is bred a 
third fort held preferable to either. To thcfe may be 
added a fliU fiiialler fort of beafjlts, fcarce bigi;cr than 
lap-dogs, which make pretty diverlion in hunting the 
coney, or even (mall hare in dry weather ; but other- 
wife miferviccable, by reafon of their fize. 

BEAK, the bill or nib ofabird. SccOrnitho- 


Br.Ai, or Beak-head, of a fliip, that part without 
the Ihip, before the fore-caftlc, wliich is faikned to the 
Ilcnt, and is fupported by the main knee. 

The beak, called by the Greeks .«eo?>n, by the La- 
tins roftrnui, was an important part in the ancient (hips 
of war, which were hence denominated naves rojlrata;. 
The beak was made of wood ; but fortified with brafs, 
and fadened to the prow, ferving to annoy the enemies 
vePil-ls. Its invention is attributed to Piikus an Italian. 
The firll beaks were made long and hi;rli ; but after- 
wards a Corinthian, named Arijio, contrived to make 
them Ihort and ftrong, and placed ib low, as to pierce 
the enemies velTels under water. By the help of thcfe 
great havock was made by the Syracufians in the A- 
ihenian llect. 

BEAKED, in heraldry, a term ufcd to exprefs the 
beak or hill of a bird. When the beak and legs of a 
fowl are of a ditU'rcnt tindure fr<)m the body, wc fay 
beaked and jntmbercd of fuch a thifliire. 

BEALE (Mary), particularly dillinguilhed by her 
Ikill in painting, was the daughter of Mr Craddock, 
minillcr of Waliham upon Thames, and learned the 
rudiments of her art from Sir Peter Lcly. She painted 
in oil, water-colours, and crayons, and had much bufi- 
nefs ; her portraits were in the Italian ftylc, which fhc 
acquired by copying pictures and drawing from Sir Pe- 
ter Lely's and ihc royal collefbions. Her mailer, fays 
Mr Walpole, was fnppofed to have had a tender attach- 
ment to her ; but as he was rcferved in communicating 
to her all the rcfources of his pencil, it probably was a 
gallant rather than a fucccfst'ul one. Dr Woodfall 
wrote feveral pieces to her honour, imder the name of 
Belefia. Mrs Beale died in Pall-mall, on the 28th of 
Dec. 1697, aged 65. Her paintings have much na- 
ture, but the colouring is fliff and heavy. 

BEALT, BEAtTH, or Bnilth, a town of Breck- 
nock(hire in South Wales, pleafantly fcated on the ri- 
ver Wye. It confifts of about 100 houfes, whofe inha- 
bitants have a trade in (lockings. W. Long. 4. 10. N. 
Lat. 52. 4. 

BEAM, in architcdlnre, the largefl; piece of wood 
in a building, which lies crofs the walls, and fervcs to 

ftipjiott the principal rafters of the roof, and into which 
the feet of thcfe rafters are framed. No building has 
Ids than two of thcfe beams, viz. one at each end ; and 
into thefc the girdcrsof the garret roof are alio framed. 
The proportion of beams in or near London, are fixed 
by llitutc, as follows : a beam 15 feet long, mud be 7 
inches on one lids its fquarc, and j on the oihtr ; if it 
be 16 feet long, one lide niulf be 8 inches, the other 
6, and fo proportionably to their lengths. In the coun- 
try, where wood is more plenty, they ufually make 
their beams ftrongcr. 

/J/-.VA/.5 of a Jhip are the great main crofs-timbers 
which liold the lidesof the ihip from falling together, 
and which alio fupport the decks and orlops : the main 
beam is next the main mail, and from it they arc rec- 
koned by Hrll, fccond, third beam, &c. the greatelt 
beam of all is called the tnid/hip beam. 

Br.AM-Covtfafi, an inftrument confiflingof a fqiiare 
wooden or brafs beam, having Hiding fockets, that carry 
flecl or pencil points ; they arc ufcd for dcfcribing large 
circles, where the common conipafTcs are ufclcls. 

Beam-BlRD, or Petty-chaps. See Motacilj.a. 

Beam alfo denotes the lath, or iron of a pair of fcales; 
fonutimes the whole apparatus for weighing of goods \i 
fo called : hence the faying, it weighs fo much at the 

Bkam of a Plough, that in which all the parts of 
the plough-tail are fixed. Sec Agriculture, n" 85. 

Beam, or Roller, among weavers, a long and thick 
wooden cylinder, placed lengrhwifc on the back part 
of the loom of thofc who work with a fhuttlc. That 
cylinder, on which the ihitf'isToUed as it is \\ caved, is 
alfo called the beaviov roller, and is placed on the fore- 
part of the loom. 

BEAMINSTER, a town of Dorfetlhire in England, 
fcated on the river Bert, in W.Long. 2. 50. N. Lat. 52. 


BEAN, in botany. SeeViciA. 

The ancients made ufe of beans in gathering the 
votes of the people, and for the cledion of magif- 
trates. A white bean fignified abfolutimi, and a black 
one condemnation. Beans had a myftcrious ufe in the 
tewnralia and farentalia ; where the mailer of the fa- 
mily, after walliing, was to throw a fort of black beans 
over his head, ilill repeating the words, " I redeem 
myfelfand family by thefe beans." Ovid* gives a .jr^yf m, - 
lively delcription of the whole ceremony in verfe. — v. 4jj. 
Abdinence from beans was enjoinedby Pythagoras, one 
of whofe iymhoH\s, xvay-t-Ti u-ri-^fT^ai ahjiine a jabis. 
The Egyptian prierts held it a crime to look at beans, 
judging the very light unclean. Thefa?iien dialis was 
not permitted even tomention the name. The precept 
of Pythagoras has been varioully interpreted : fomc 
underilood it of forbearing to meddle in trials and ver- 
dicts, which were then by throwing beans intoanurn : 
others, building on the equivoque of the word iivmu(Q^ 
which equally lignifies a leaji and a human tejiicte, ex- 
plain it by abltaining from venery. Clemens Alexan- 
drinus grounds the abllinence from beans on this, that 
they render women barren ; which is confirmed by 
Theophraftus, who extends the etfeft even to plants. 
Cicero fuggells another reafon for this abftinence, viz. 
that beans are great enemies to tranquillity of mind. 
For a reafon of this kind it is, that Amphiaraus is faid 


B E A [9 

to luve abftaiiied from beans, even bcfori Pythagoras, 
that he uiijjht enjoy a clearer diviiiatioa by dreams. 
Bean's, as tood for horfcs. See Farriery, J i. 6. 

BEAN-Capif. See ZyGOPII Yl. LUM. 

Beas-CoJ, a fm.Ul filhing veflel, or pilot-boat, com- 
mon on the fc*-coafts and in the rivers of Ponngal. It 
iscxtremcly lliarp forward, having its ftcni bent inward 
above into a great curve • the ftcm is alfo plaitd on the 
fore-lide with iron, into which a number of bolts are 
driven, to fortify it, and refill the firoke of another 
vcflcl, which may fsll athwart-baufe. It is commonly 
navigated with a large lateen fail, which extends over 
the whole length of the deck, and is accordingly well 
fitted to ply to windward. 

Be-ih'-Flour, called by the Romans lome?ituju, was 
of fome repute among the, ancient ladies as a coi"- 
metic, wherewitli to fmooth the Ikin, and take away 
wrinkles., in natural hiflory, the name given by 
authors to a very beautiful tiy, of a pale purple colour, 
frequently found on bean-flowers. It is produced from 
the worm or maggot called by authors m'tda. 

Beax-Coo/c, in ornithology. See Anas. 

Kidiiey-BEAS. Sec Phaseolvs. 

Ma/acca-BsAXS, or Anac/irdiii, the frnit of a tree 
growing in Malabar and other parts of the Kali-Indies, 
fuppofed by feme to be the Avicennia io?>/eiitofa ; 
by others, the Bontia gertni>ia>'j. The fruit is of a 
Ihining black coloir, of the ihape of a heart riatiencd, 
about an inch long, terminating at one end in an oi>- 
tufc point, and adhering by the other to a wrinkled 
ilalk : it contains within two fiiells a kernel of a Avecl- 
iih tafte : betwixt the (hells is lodged a thick and acrid 

The medicinal virucs of anacardia have been great- 
ly difputed. Many have attributed to tliem the (acui- 
ty of comforting the brain and nerves, fortifying the 
memory, and quickening the inielle-'-l : and hrnre a 
confection made from them has been dignified with ihe 
title of confiftio fijpie?itu?n; others think it better de- 
fcrves the name of ce/ift^io ft.', and mention in- 
ftanccs of its continued ufe having rendered people ma- 
niac il. But the kernels of anicardiiim is not ditfcreut 
in quality from tiiat of almonds. The ill ctTeds attri- 
buted to this fruit belong only to the juice contained 
betwixt the Ihells, whofe acrimony is fo great, that 
it is faid to be applied by the Indians as a canllic. 
This juice is recommended cxicrnally for tetters, 
freckles, and other cutaneous deformities; which it re- 
moves only by exulccr.iiing or excoriating the part, lb 
that a new fkin comes underneath. 

BEAR, in zoology. See Uksus. 

Sea-BEAR. See PnocA. 

Bear, in aflrononiy. See Ursa. 

Order of ihi Bear, was a military order in Switzer- 
land, creeled by the Emperor Frederick II. in 121;!, 
by way of acknowledgment for the fervice the Swifs 
had done him, and in (avour of the al)bcy of St Gaul. 
To the collar of the order hung a medal, on which was 
reprefented a bear railed on an eminence ol earth. 

BEAR'i-Bre:ch, in botany. SceAcANrnus. 

Be ir' ! FUJh w'ii, much eftecmcd by the ancients: 
even at this d.iy, the paw of a bear falted and fiiioked 
is fcrved np at the table of princes. 

Bear's Creafc was formerly eftcemed a fovereign re- 


13 E A 

medy againft cold difordcrs, efpecially rhcaniatifms. 
It is now much ufed in drcffing ladies and gentlcmens 


Beik's Skin makes 3 fur in great efleeni, and on 
which depends aconfiderablcariiclcof commerce, being 
ufed in liotifings, on coach-boxes, &.c. In fome coun- 
tries, clothes are made of it, more efpecially bags 
wherein to keep the feet warm in fevere colds. Of the 
Ikins of bears cubs are made gloves, muffs, and 1 he like. 

BEARALSTON, a poor town of Devonlhire, which 
however, is a borough by prcfcription, and fends two 
members to parliament. 

BEARD, ihe hair growing on the chin and adja- 
cent parts of the face, chiedy of adults and males. 

Various have been the ceremonies andcuflomsof mcfl 
nations in regard of the beard. The Tartars, out of 
a religious principle, waged a long and bloody war 
with the Perfians, declaring them infidels, merely be- 
caufe they would not cut thtir whiikers after the riic 
of Tartary : and we find, that a confiderable branch 
of the religion of the ancients confifted in the manatie- 
r.ient of their beard. The Greeks wore their beards 
till the time of Alexander the Great; that prince hav- 
ing ordered the Macedonians 10 be fliaved, for fear it 
(hould give a handle to their enemies. According to 
Pliny, the Romans did not begin to ihavc till the year 
of R^ome 4JJ, when P. Ticinius brought over a ftock 
of barbers from Sicily. — Perfons of quality liad their 
children fliaved the firft time by others of the lame or 
greater quality, who, by this meanj, became god- 
father or adopted father of the children- Anciently, 
iudecil, a pcrfon became god-faihfr of the child by 
barely touching his beard: thus hiilorians relate, that 
one of the articles of the treaty between Alaric and 
Clovis was, that Alaric fliould touch the beard of Clovij 
to become his god-faiher. 

As to ecclelialHcs, the difciplinc has been very dif- 
ferent on the article of beanls : foiiietimes they have 
been enjoined to wear them, from a notion of too much 
effeminacy in Ihaving, and that a long beard was more 
fuitable to the ecclefiallical gravity; and fcmetimcs 
again they were forbid it, as imagining pride to lurk 
beneath a venerable beard. The Greek and Roman 
churches have been long together by the ears about 
their beards: fince the lime of their feparaiion, the 
Romanifts fecm to have given more into the praefice 01 
Ihaving, by way of oppolition to tiie Greeks ; and have 
even made fome cxpreis conlHtuiioiiSi/c- radendh burkis. 
The Greeks, on the contrary, efpoufc very zealoully 
the caufe of long beards, and arc extremely fcandalized 
at the beardlcls images ot faints in theRoman churches. 
By the llatutes of fume n-on:i(lcries it appears, thai the 
l;!y-monks were to let iheir beards grow, and ihcpriefts 
among them to Ihave ; and that the beards of all that 
were received intothe monaftcrics, were blelled with a 
great deal of ceremony. There arc Aill extant the 
prayers ufed in the folemnity of confccraiing the beard 
to God, when an ecclefiaftic was fliaven. 

Le Comte obferves, that the Chincfe aScSt long 
beards extravagantly ; but nature has balked them, and 
only given tiiem very little ones, which, however, ihey 
cultivate with infinite care: the Europeans arcftrange- 
ly envied by them on this account, and eftecmed the 
grcatell men in the world. Chryfoilom obfcrvts, that 
the kings of Pcrfia had ilicir beards wove or jiiaitcd 10- 


B E A 

[ 94 3 

B E A 

Bear(«. gciher wicli {jold thread ; and fomc of the firft kings of 
— ^ ■ Fr.iuce iiad ilicir beards knotted and buuojitd wiih 


Among the Turks, it is more inf.imons for any 
one to have his beard cut off', than among us to be 
publicly wliipt or branded with a hot iron. There 
are abundance in that coiunry, who would pre- 
itr death to this kind of piinilhnicnt. The Arabs 
make the prcfcrvaiion of their beards a capital point 
of religion, becaufc Maliomet never cut his. Hence the 
razor is never drawn over the Grand Signior's face. 
ThcPerfians, who clip thcni, and (have above the jaw, 
arc repined heretics. It is likewife a mark of autho- 
rity and liberty among them, as well as among the 
Turks. They who ferve in the feraglio, have ihcir 
beards lliaven, as a fign of their fervitude. They do 
notfiiffer it to grow till the fultan has fct them al liber- 
ty, which is bellowed as a reward upon them, and is 
always accompanied with fome employment. 

The moll celebrated ancient writers, and fevcral 
modern ones, have fpoken honoural)Iy of the fine 
beards of antiquity. Homer fpeaks liighly of the 
white beard of Neflor and that of old lung Priam. 
Virgil dcfcribcs Mezenliiis's to ns, which was fo thick 
and long as to cover all his bread ; Chryfippus praifes 
the noble beard of Timothy, a famous player on the 
flute. Pliny the younger tells us of the white beard 
of Euphrates, a Syrian pliilofopher ; and he takes plca- 
fure in relating the rcfpe^t mixed with i'"car with which 
it infpired the people. Plutarch fpeaks of the long 
white beard of an old Lacorii-ui,who, being alked why 
hr. let it grow fo, replieil, 'Th ihat, feeing coininually 
7iiy •white beard, 1 may do nathing miivorthj oj iti white- 
nefs. Strabo relates, that the Indian philofophers, the 
GymnofophiRs, were particularly attentive to make the 
length of their be.irJs contribute to captivate the vene- 
ration of the people. Diodorus, after him, gives a 
very particular and circumrtantial hiftory of the beards 
of the Indians. Juvenal does not forget that of An- 
tilochus the fon of Neflor. Fenelon, in defcribing a 
priefl of Apollo in all his magnificence, tells us, that 
he had a white beard down to his girdle. But Per- 
fius feems to outdo all thefe authors : this poet was 
fo convinced that a beard was the fymbol of wifdom, 
that he thought he could not bellow a greater enco- 
mium on the divine Socrates, than by calling him the 
bearded mafler, ULig/Jlruw iarhatum. 

While the Gauls were under their fovercignty, 
none but the nobles and Chriftian priefis were per- 
mitted to wear long beards. The Franks having 
made themfclves maftcrs of Ganl, alfumed the fame 
authority as the Romans : the bondfmen were ex- 
prel'sly ordered to fliave their chins; and this law 
continued in force until the entire aboliflnncnt of fer- 
vitude in France. So likewife, in the time of the firll 
race of kings, a long beard was a flgn of nobility and 
freedom. The kings, as being the highell; nobles' 
in their kingdom, were emulous likewife to have the 
largelt beard: Eginard, fecretary to Charlcmain, 
fpeaking of the lad kings of the firll race, fays, they 
came to the affcmblies in the Field of Mars in a car- 
riage drawn by oxen, and fat on the throne with their 
hair dilhevelled, and a very long beard, crii:e [rofufo, 
barbafuimijfajfbliorefiderent, etfpcciern diii::iiiaiitis ef- 

To touch any one's beard, or cut ofF a bit of it, 
was, among the firfl French, the iroll facred pledge of* 
protection and confidence. For a long time all letters 
that came from the ibvtrcign had, f.r greater fanftion, 
three hairs of his beard in the leal. Tlicre is lUU in 
bcinif a charter of ii2i, which concludes with the 
following words; Q^/od nt ralin/i tt jlahile frefeverst in 
pojieriivi, pi-tifentti fcrij'to figilli Jiut rdbur afpofiii cum 
tribui piiis barbae ine^. 

Several great men have honoured themfclves with 
the fiirname of Bearded. The emperor Conflantine 
is dillinguilhed by the epithet of rt;^c?;^//f, which fig- 
nilies the Bearded. In the time ol the Crufades, \vc 
find there was a Geffrey the Bearded: Baldwin IV". 
Earl of Flanders, was furnained Handfune-Beard; and 
in the illuilrious houfe of Montmorcnci, there was a 
famous Bouchard, who took a pride in the furnamc of 
Bearded: he was alfo the declared enemy of the 
monks, without doubt, becaufe of their being Ihaved. 

In the tenth century, wc find, that King Robert 
(of France) the rival of Charles the Simple, was not 
more famous for his exploits than for his long white 
beard. In order that it might be more confpicuous to 
the foldiers when he was in the field, he iifcd to let it 
hang down outfidc his cuirafs: this venerable fight en- 
couraged the troops in battle, and ferved to rally theni 
when they were defeated. 

A celebrated painter in Germany, called 'John Mayo, 
had fuch a large beard that he was nicknamed 'John 
the Bearded : it was fo long that he W'ore it faftened 
to his girdle; and though he was a very tall man, ic 
would hang upon the ground when he flood upright. 
He took the greatefl care of this extraordinary beard i 
fometimes he woidd untie it before the EmperorCharlcs 
V. who took great pleafure to fee the wind make it fly 
againfl the faces of the lords of his court. 

In England, the famous chancellor Thomas More, 
one of the greatefl men of his time, being on the point 
of falling a viclim to court intrigues, was able, when 
on the fatal fcafFold, to procure refpeft to his beard in 
prefcncc of all the people, and faved it, as one may 
fay from the fatal flroke which he could not efcape 
himfelf. When he had laid his head on the block, h« 
perceived that his beard was likely to be hurt by the 
axe of the executioner; on which he took it aw-ay, 
faying. My beard has 7iot been guilty oJ treafon ; it 
would be an injiifiice to ftinijh it. 

But let us turn our eyes to a more flattering ob- 
jeft, and admire tlie beard of the bcfl of kings, the 
ever precious beard of the great Henry IV. of France, 
which diffafed over the countenance of that prince ■*, 
majeflic fweetncfs and amiable opcnnefs, a beard ever 
dear to poflerity, and which fliould ferve as a model 
for that of every great king; as the beard of his il- 
luilrious ininifler Ilwuld for that of every minifter. 
But what dependence is there to be put on the flabi- 
lity of the things of this world ? By an event as fatal 
as unforefeen, the beard, which vras arrived at its hightft 
degree of glory, all of a fudden loll its favour, and was 
at length entirely profcribed. The unexpedcd deatii 
of Henry the Great, and the youth of his fucccllbr, 
were the folc caufe of it. 

Louis XHI. mounted the throne of his glorious 
anceflors without a beard. Every one concluded im- 
mediately, that the courtiers, feeing their young king 



B E A 

[ 95 ] 

B E A 

Beard, wiili .1 fmooili cliiii, Would look upon thtir own as too 
— ^"""'roigh. The conjefturc proved right; for tliey \>rc- 
fciitly reduced their beards to whilkcrs, and a Inial tiil'c 
of hair under the nether lip. 

The people at lirfl would not follow this dangerous 
cx-implc. The Duke of Sully never would ailopt this 
efFeminate cuftom. This man, great both as a gene- 
ral and a minifler, was likewifc lb in his retirement : 
he had the courage to keep his long beard, and to ap- 
pear with it at the court of Louis XIII. where he 
was called to givchis advice in an affair of importance. 
The yoimg crop-bearded courtiers laughed at the light 
of his grave look and old-falhoned phiz. The duke, 
nettled at the affront put on his fine beard, faid to the 
king, " Sir, when your father, of glorious memory 
did me the honour to confiilt me on his great and im- 
portant aff^iirs, the firfb thing he did was to fendavvay all 
the butioons and ffage-danccrs of his coin't." 

The Czar I'etcr, who had fo many claims to the 
fnrnamc of Great, feeins to have been but little wor- 
thy of it on this occafion. He had the boldnefs to 
lay a tax on the beards of his fubjetls. He ordered 
that the noblemen and gentlemen, tradtfmen and ar- 
tefans (the priefts and peafants exce])ted), fiiould pay 
100 rubles to be able to retain their beards ; tliat the 
lower clafs of people lliould pay a copeck for the fame 
liberty : and he cilabliflied clerks at the gates of the 
different towns to collcft thefc duties. Such a new 
and lingular impofl troubled the vafl empire of Ruffia. 
Both religion and manners were thought in danger. 
Complaints were heard from all parts; they even went 
fo far as to write libels againft the fovtreign ; but he 
was indexible, and at that time powerful. Even the 
fatal fccnes of St Bartholomew were renewed againlf 
ihefe unfortunate beards, and the niofl unlawful vio- 
lences were publicly exercifed. The razor and fcilfars 
were every where made ufe of. A great number to 
avoid thefe crnel extremities obeyed with rcluiftant 
fighs. Some of them carefully prefervcd the fad trim- 
mings of their chins: and, in order to be never fcpara- 
tcd from thefe dear locks, ordered that they fliould be 
placed with them in their coffins. 

Example, more powerful than authority, produced 
in Spain what it had not been able to bring about in 
Ruflia, without great diliiculty. Philip V. afcended 
tlie throne with alhaved chin. The courtiers imitated 
the prince, and the people, in turn, the courtiers. 
However, though this revoluiion was brought about 
without violence and by degrees, it caufcd much la- 
mentation and murmuring ; the gravity of the Spaniards 
lofl by the change. The favourite eulfom of a nation 
can never be altered without incurring difpleafure. 
They have this old faying in Spain : Dcfde que >io hay 
harba, no hay vias alma. " Since wc have lofl our 
beards, we have loll our fouls" 

Among the European nations that have been mofl 
curions in beards and whifkers, wc inuft didinguifli 
Spain. This grave romantic nation has always regard- 
ed the beard as the ornament which Ihould be mofl 
prized ; and the Spaniards have often made llic lofs of 
honour conlill in that of their whilkers. The Fortu- 
gucfc, whofc national charader is much the f.ime, arc 
not the leaf! behind them in that rclpciff. In the nign 
of Catherine <^iccn of Portugal^ the brave John de 

Cuflro had jnft taken in India the caftlc of Dica : vie- 
torious, but in want of every thing, he found himfclf ' 
obliged to alk the inhabiiants of Goa to lend him a 
thonfand piltoles lur the nuinienancc of his ilect; and, 
as a fcemiiy for that fum, he fent them one of his 
whifkers, telling them, <' All the gold in the world 
cannot equal the value of this natural ornament of my 
valour ; and I depofue it in your hands as a fecurity 
for the money." The whole town was penetrated 
with this heroifm, and every one intcrcflcd himftlf a- 
bout this invaluable whjfktr : even the women were 
flelirous to give marks of their zeal for fo brave a man : 
fcveral fold their bracelets to incrcafe the fwin afked 
for ; and the inhabitants of Goa fent him immediately 
both the money and his whilker. A number of other 
examples of this kind might be produced, which do as 
much honour to vvilkcrs as to the good faith of ibofc 

In Louis XIII. 's reign, whifkers attained the highcll 
degree of favour, at the expence of the expiring 
beards. In thofe days of gallantry, not yet cmpoifon- 
cd by wit, they became the favourite occupation of 
lovers. A fine black whifker, elegantly turned up, 
was a very powerful mark of dignity with the fair fex, 
Whillvcrs were flill in fafliion in the beginning of 
Louis XIV. 's reign. This king, and all the great 
men of his reign, took a pride in wearing them. They 
were the ornament of Turcnnc, Condc, Colbert, Cor- 
ncille, Moliere, &c. It was then no uncommon thing 
for a favorite lover to have his whilkers turned up, 
combed, and pomatumed, by his millrefs ; and, for 
this purpofe, a man of falhion took care to be always 
provided with every little neceliary article, efpecial'ly 
whilker- wax. It was highly llattering to a lady to have 
it in her power to praife the beauty of her lover's whif- 
kers ; which, far from being difgufling, gave his per- 
fon an air of vivacity : fcveral even thought them an 
incitement to love. It fcems the levity of the Krench 
made them undergo fcveral changes both in form and 
name : there wen Spaiiijh,Ttirkijh, guard-dagger, Sec. 
whifkers ; in fliorr, roya/ ones, which were the lall 
worn ; their fmallnefs proclaimed their approaching fall. 

C(/iifeeralioii of the Beard was a ceremony among 
the Roman youth, who, when they were Ikaved the 
firfl time, kept a day of rejoicing, and were particu- 
larly careful to pu' the hair of ihtir beard into a Ijlver 
or gold box, and make an offering of it to fomc god, 
particularly to Jupiter Capitolinus, as was done by 
Nero, according to Suetonius. 

Kifuig the Beard. The Turkifli wives kifs their 
hulbands beards, and children their fathers, as often .as 
they come to falnte them. The men kifs one another's 
beards reciprocally on both fides, when they fahitc ia 
the flreets, or come off' from any journey. 

The FaJ}}io>i of the Beard has varied in difTcrent 
ages and countries ; fome cultivating and entertaining 
one part of it, fome another. Thus the Hebrews wc;ir 
a beard on their chin; but not on the upper-lip or 
cheeks. Mofcs forbids them to cut ofT entirely the 
angle or extremity of their beard ; that is, to manage 
it after the Egyptian falhion, who left only a little tuft 
of beard at the extremity of their chin ; whereas the 
Jews to this ilay lutier a little fillet of liair to grow 
from ilic lower ciul of ihcir caa's lo iLcir chins, wlicrc, 


B E A 

[ 96 ] 

B E A 

Bcatd. as well as on ihcir lowcr-lij's, their beards are in a pretty 

— ^ ' long li.Liicli. Tiic Jews, in time of monniiiit;, ne- 

glcclcd to trim their beards, that is, to cut off what 
;;rc\v fiipcrfl'JMS on the KpjKT-lips and cheeks. In 
time of grief and great alillclion they alfo plucked off 
the hair of their bcsrds. 

Anointing the Bearh wilh iing'icnts is an ancient 
praftice both among the Jews and Romans, and Hill 
continues in nfe among inc Turks ; where one of the 
principal cerciuonics obfcrvcd in ferions vifits is to 
throw fwcet-fcented \v;iicr on the beard of the vi(i- 
tant, and to perfume it afterwards with aloes wood, 
which fticks to this nioilUire, and gives it an agreeable 
fmell, &c. In middle-age writers wc meet with adlei:- 
tare barb.un, ufcd lor and combing it, to 
render it foft and flexible. The Turks, when they 
comb their beards, hold a h.mdkerchicl on their knees, 
and gaihcr very cjrefully the hairs that fall : and when 
they hive got together a ccriaiii quantity, they lold 
them lip in paper,' and carry them to the place where 
thev bury the dead. 

Beird cf a Carn.t, the rays which the comet emits 
towards that part of the heaven to which its proper mo- 
tion feems to direjf it ; in which the beard of a co:nft 
is diftinguifhcd from the tail, which is underliood of the 
rays emitted towards that p;>rt Irom whence its motion 
feems 10 carry it. 

Iir.4RD of a Ho"fe, that part underneath the lower 
in.iiidible oil the outfidcand above ihechin, which bcii/s 
the curb. It is alfo callid the ckuck. It rtiould have but 
little llclh nponit, without any chops, hardncfs, orf-\cl- 
linn- ; and be neither io>) high raifed nor too tlat, biit 
fiich as the curb may rtfl in itsright place. 

Beard of a M'lfiL-, oyder, or the like, denotes an 
alfemblageof threads or h.iirs, by which thoft animals 
fallen thcmfclves to Hones. Tiic hairs of this bcarJ 
terminate in a flat fpongy fubftance, which being ap- 
plied to the furface of a" (lone, flicks thereto, like the 
wet leather ufcd by boys. 

BE.iRDS,iu the hillory of infeels, are two fmall,ob- 
loncr, rtclliy bodies, plncedjuil above the trunk, as in 
the gnats, and in the moths and butterflies. 

BEAllDED, denotes a perfon or thing with a beard, 
or foiiie refemblaiice thereof. The faces on ancient 
Greek and Roman medals are generally bearded. Some 
are denominated pogomiti, as having long beards, c-. g. 
the Parthian kings. Others have only a lanugo about 
the chin, as the Srleucid family. Adrian was the f:rfl 
of the Roman emperors who nourilhed his beard: 
hence all imperial medals before him arc b:ardlefs ; af- 
ter him, bearded. 

Bearded Wovtsn have been all obferved to want the 
menftrualdilcharge ; and fevcral inllanccs are given by 
Hippocrates, and other phyfleians, of grown women, 
ffpccially widows, in wiioui the menfes coming to flop, 
beards appeared. Kufebius Niercmbcrgius mentions a 
woman who had a beard rcachino; to her navel. 

Of women remarkably bearded we have fevcral in- 
ftances. In the cabinet of curiofities of Stutgard in 
Germany, there is the portrait of a woman called Baite! 
Cra:tje, whofechinis covered with a very large beard. 
She was drawn in 15S7, at which time Ihe was but 
2; years of age. There is likcwife in the fame cabi- 
net another portrait of her when (he was more advan- 
ced in life, biitlikewife with a beard. — It is faid, that 

the Duke of Saxony had the portrait of .i poor Swifs 
woman taken, remarkable for her long bnlhy beard ; '' 
and ihofe who were at tijc carnival at Venice in 1726, 
f.i'.v a female dancer aflonilh the fpe^lators not more by 
her talenrs thin by her chin covered with a black bufliy 
beard. — Charles XII. hud in his army a female grena- 
dier: it was neither courage nor a beard that llie want- 
ed to be a man. She was taken at the battle of Ful- 
towa, and carried to Peter/burg, where flie was pre- 
Icnicd to the Czar in 1724 : her beard mealbrcd a 
yard and a half. — Wcrcad in the Trevou-x Didionary, 
that there was a woman fecii at Paris, who had not 
only a bulhy beard on her face, but her body likeM'ife 
covered all over with hair. Among a number of other 
examples of tliis nature, that of Margaret, the go- 
vcrncls of the Netherlands, is very remarkable. She 
had a very long (liif beard, which Ihc prided herfelf 
on ; and being pcrfuadcd that it contributed to give 
her an air of majelly, ihc took care not to lofc a hair 
of it. This Margaret was a very great woman. — It 
is faid, tliat the Lombard women, when they were at 
war, made thenifclves beards with the hair of their 
heads, which liiey ingcnioully arranged on their checks, 
in order that the tneniy, deceived ly the likcnefs 
might take them for men. It is alferted, alter Suidas, 
tliut in a flmilar cafelhc Athenian women did as much, 
Thefe women were more men than the modcrnjemmy- 
Jellamys. — About a century ago, the French ladies 
ajopted the mode of drcliiiig their huir in fuch a man- 
ner that curls hung down their checks as far as their 
bofom. Thefe curls went by the name of u</:ijkirs. 
Tills cuflom undoubtedly was not invented, after the 
example of the Lombr.rd women, to fright the men. 
Neither is it with intention to carry on a very bloody 
war, that in our time they atieded to bring for- 
ward the hair of the temple on iftc cheeks. The dif- 
covery feems to have been a fortunate one: it gives 
them a tempting roguidi look. 

BEAREllS, in heraldry. Sec SurroR ters. 
BEARING, in navigation, an arch of the horizon 
intercepted between the nearefl meridian and any rii- 
llincl object, either dii'covrrcd by the eye, or rcfuliing 
from the llnical projwrtion ; as in the firll cafe, at 
4 P. M. Cape Sp.ido, in the ille of Candia, bore S. by 
W. by the compafs. In the fecond, the longitudes 
and latitudes of any two places being given, and confc- 
qucntly the diiFcrence of latitude and longitude between 
them, the bearing from one to the other is difcovcrcJ 
by the following analogy : 

As the meridional difference of latiindc 

Is 10 the ciilcrcnce of longitude ; 

So is radius 

To the tangent bearing. 
Bearing is alfo the litiiation of any di([ant object, 
eflimated from fome part of the ihip according to her 
polilion. In this fenfc, an objc<5l fo difcover*d niuil 
be cither ahead, aflern, abreafl, on the bow, or on the 
quarter. Thefe bearings, therefore, which may be 
called 7/'f(/'a«rcrt/, arc on the beam, before the beam, 
abaft the beam, on the bow, on the quarter, ahead, 
or aftcni. If the fhip fails with a fide-wind, it alters 
the names of futh bearings in fome meafurc, fincc -i 
diltant oUjecl on the beam is then faid to be to !eev;ard 
or to windward; on the Icc-quarter or bow, and on 
the wcaiher-qaaneror bow. 



B E A [ 97 ] 

When a Iliip fails play, and troilet 

B E A 

Bearing, in the fea-language 
towards the (Lore, before the wind, flic is faid to bear 
ill with the land or harbour. To let the Ihip fail more 
before the wind, is to bear up. To put her right be- 
fore the wind, is to b'lar toutiti. A Ihip that keeps off 
from the land, is faid to bear off. M hen a fliip that 
was to windward comes under a fltip's lltrn, and fo 
gives her the wind, flicis faid tobcar undtr her tec, &c. 
There is another fcnfc of this word, in reference to the 
burden of a fliip ; for they fay a fliip bears, when, 
having loo llender or lean a quarter, llie will fink too 
deep into the water with an ovcrlight freight, and 
thereby can carry but a fniall quantity of goods. 

Bearings, in heraldry, a term ufed to exprefs a 
coat of arms, or the figures of armories by which the 
nobility and gentry arc diflingnilhcd from the vulgar 
»nd from one another. See Heraldry. 

BEAiii\c-Claws, among cock-fighters, denote the 
foremofl: toes, on which the bird goes; and if they be 
hurt or gravelled, he cannotfight. 

Bearing of a Stag, is ufed in refpeft of the ftate of 
ills head, or the croohes which he bears on his horns. 
If you be a(ked what a ftag bears, you are only to rec- 
kon the croches, and never to exprels an odd number : 
as, if he have four croches on his near hm-n and five 
on his far, you mull fay he bears ten ; a farfc right on 
his near horn : if but four on the near horn and lix on 
the far horn, you muft fay he bears twelve ; a double 
falfe right on the near horn. 

BEARN, a province of France, bounded on the eafh 
by Bigorre, on tlie fouth by the mountains of Arragon, 
on the weft by Soulc and part of Navarre, and on the 
Borth by Gafcony and /\rma<rnac. It lies at the loot of 
the Pyrensean mountains, being about i6 leagues in 
length and 12 in breadth. In general it is but a barren 
country ; ytt the plains yield coniidcrablc quantities of 
flax, and a good quantity of Indian conxcaWcA wailloc. 
The mountains are rich in mines of iron, cupper, and 
lead ; fome of them alfo are covered with vines, and o- 
thcrs with pine trees ; and they give rife to Itveral 
mineral fprings, and two confiderablc rivers, the one 
cMtil ihe Cave of Oleron, and the other the 6'<;:)c- ^/^ 
Beam. Some wine is exported from this country ; 
and the Spaniards buy up great numbers ol the horfcs 
and cattle, together with moll of their linen, of which 
there is a confiderablc manufaftory. The principal 
places arc Pau, Lefcar, Ortcz, Novarrcins, Sallies, 
and Oleron. 

BEAST, in a general fenfe, an appellation given to 
all four-footed animals, fit cither for food, labour, or 

Beasts of Burden, in a commercial fenfe, all four- 
fooled animals which fcrve 10 carry merchandizes on 
their backs. The beafls generally ufed for this pur- 
pofc, are elephants, dromedaries, caiiiils, horfcs, mules, 
alfes, and the (lieep of Mexico and Peru. 

Beasts of the Ch.ife arc five. viz. the buck, the doe, 
the fox, the roe, and the martin. 

Beasts and Fowls (.f the IVarren, arc the hare, the 
€oncy, the pheafaiit, and partridge. 

Beasts of the Forefl are the hart, hind, hare, boar, 
and wolf. 

Bfast, among gameflers, a game at cards, played 
in this manner: The bed cards arc the king, queen, 
•Sec. whereof they make three heaps, the king, the 
Vol. III. 

Three, four, or fivf, may play ; 
and to every one is dealt five cards. However, before 
the play begins, every one Hakes to the three heaps. 
He that wins mod tricks, takes up the heap called liic 
play ; he that hath the king, takes up the heap fo 
called ; and he that hath three of any fort, that is, three 
fours, three fives, three fixes, £cc. takes up the troi- 
let heap. 

BEAT, in general fignification, fignifies to chaf- 
tife, (Irike, knock, or vauquifli. 

This word has fevcral other fignifications in the ma- 
nufaftures, and in the arts and trades. Sometimes it 
fignifies to forge and hammer ; in which fenfe fmiths 
and farriers fay, to beat iron. Sometimes it means to 
pound, to reduce into powder : Thus wc fay, 10 beat 
drugs, to beat pepptr, to beat fpices ; that is to fay, to 
pulverize them. 

Beat, in fencing, denotes a blow or Urokc given 
with the fword. There are two kinds of beats ; the 
firll performed with the foible of a man's fword on the 
foible of his adverfary's, which in the fchocls is com- 
monly called buterie, from the Krench batre, and is 
chiefly ufed in a purfuit, to make an open upon the ad- 
verfary. The ficoiid and bell kind ol beat is perform- 
ed with the fort of a man's fword upon the foible of 
his adverfary's, not with a fj)ring, as in binding, but 
with a jerk or dry beat ; and is therefore mod proper 
for the parades without or within the fword, becaufc 
of the rebound a man's fword has thereby from his ad- 
verfary's, whereby he procures to liirafclf the better 
and furcr opportunity ol rifpolling. 

Beat, in the manege. A horfe is faid /o ^^<i/ /^^ 
dujl, \\ hen at each flrokc or motion he docs not take 
in ground or way enough with his fore-legs.— He is 
more particularly faid to beat the dull at terra a terra, 
when he does not take in ground enough with his 
Ihoulders, making his lliokes or motions too Hiort, as 
if he made them all in one place. He beats the dufi 
at curvits, when he does thun too prccipitanily and 
too low. Wt beats upon a ivaik, when he walks too 
fliori, and thus rids but little ground, whether it be in 
flraight lines, rounds, or palliiigs. 

Beat of Dunu, in the military art, is to give notice 
by beat of ihum of a I'udden danger; or, that fcailered 
foldiers may repair to their arms and quarters, is to 
beat an alarm, or to arms. Alfo to lignify, by different 
manners of founding a drum, that the foldiers are to fall 
on the enemy ; to rtireat before, in, or after, an at- 
tack ; to move or march from one place to another ; to 
permit the foldiers to come out of their quarters at break 
of day ; to order 10 repair to their colours, &c. ; is to 
beat a charge, a retreat, a march, &c. 

Beat (Si), a town ol France, in the comity of Coni- 
minges, at the confluenceof the Garonne and tlie Pique. 
It is feated between two mountains which are clofc 
to the town on each fide. All the houfes arc built with 
marble, becaufc they have no other materials. W. 
Long. I. 6. N. Lat. 42. jo. 

BEATER is applied, in matters of commerce, to 
divers forts of workmen, uhole bufmcfs is 10 haniuier 
or Haticn certain matters, particularly metals. 

Cold-BtATERs, arc artifans, who, by beating gold 
and lilver with a hammeron a marble in nioulds of vel- 
lum and bullocks guts, reduce ihem 10 thin leaves fit 
for gilding, or fiUcring of copper, iron, ftccl, wood, 
N fcc. 

B E A 


iic. Gold-beaters differ from flatters of gold or filver ; 
as the former bring their metal iiitoleavcs by the ham- 
mer, whereas the latter only tlatteii it by prcffiiig it 
through a mill preparatory to beating. 

There are alfo Tir:-Bi: -iters employed inthelook- 
ing-glafs trade, whofe bnfnicfs is to beat tin on large 
blocks of marble till it be reduced to thin leaves fit to 
be applied with quicklilver behind looking-glallcs. Sec 
Foliating, CoLn-bcating. 

BEATIFICATION, an aft by which the pope de- 
clares a perfon beatified or blcllcd after his dcatli. It 
is the firll ftep towards canonization, or raifing any 
one to the honour and dignity of a faint. No perfon 
can be beatified till 50 years after his or her dcatli. 
All certificates or attellations of virtues and miracles, 
the necclfary qaalificuions for faintlhip, are examined 
by the congregation of rites. This examination often 
continues for fevcral years; after whicli his holincfs 
decrees the beatification. The corps and relics of the 
future faint are from thenceforth expofed to the vene- 
ration of all good Chriflians : his images are crowned 
with rays, and a particular office is fet apart for liim ; 
but his body and relics are not carried in proceffion : 
indulgences likcwife, and remillion of fins, are granted 
on the day of his beatification ; which though not fo 
pompous as that of canonization, is however very fplen- 

BE.'^TING, or Pulsation, in medicine, the reci- 
procal agitation or palpitation of the heart or pulfe. 

Beatikg Flax or Hemp, is an operation in the dref- 
fing of ihcfe matters, contrived to render them more 
foft and pliant. — When hemp has been faiiigled a fe- 
condtime, and the hurdslaid by, they take the flrikes, 
and dividing them into dozens and half dozens, make 
them up into large thick rolls, which being broached 
on long ftrikes, are fet in the chimney corner to dry ; 
after which they lay them in a round trough made tor 
the purpofe, and there with beetles beat them well till 
they handle both without and within as pliant as pof- 
fible, wiiho\u any hardnefs or roughnefs to be felt : 
that done, they take them from the trough, open and 
divide the ftrikes as before; and if any be found not 
fufficiently beaten, they roll them up and beat them o- 
ver as before. 

Beating hemp is a puniihncnt in.liiled on loofe or 
diforderly perlons. 

Beating, in book-bindin2:, denotes the knocking 
a book in quires on a marble block, with a heavy 
broad-faced hammer, after folding, and before binding 
or llitching it. On the beating it properly, the ele- 
gance and excellence of the binding, and the cafy open- 
ing of the book, principally depends. 

Beating, in the paper-works, llgnifics the healing 
of paper on a ftone wiiii a heavy hammer, with a large 
fmooth head and fhort handle, in order to render it 
more fmooth and uniform, and fit for writing. 

Beat/.xg the Willi!, was a practice in life in the an- 
cient method of trial by combat. If either of the 
combatants did not appear in the field at the lime ap- 
pointed, the other was to beat the wind, or make (o 
msny fiouriflies with his weapon ; by which he was in- 
titled to all the advantages of a conqueror. 

Beating the Hands or Feet, by way ctf praife or ap- 
probation. Sec Applause. 

Beating Time, in mufic^ a mcihod of meafiiring 

98 ] B E A 

and marking the time for performers in concert, by a Beatinf. 
motion of the hand and foot up or down fucccflivcly 
and in equal times. Knowing the true time of a crot- 
chet, and fuppofing the meafure aftually fubdivided 
into four crotchets, and the half meafure into two, the 
hand or foot being up, if we put it down with the very 
beginning of the firll note or crotchet, and then raifc 
it with the third, and then down with the beginning 
of the next meafure ; this is called heating the tme ; 
and, by pradice, a habit is acquired ot making ihis 
motion very eq\ial. Each down and up is fometimcs 
called a thne or menfiire. The general rule is, to con- 
trive the divifion of the meafure fo, that every down 
and up of the beating fiiall end with a particular note, 
on which very much depends the diflinitntfs, and, as 
it were, the fenfe of the melody. Hence the begin- 
ning of every time or beating in the meafure is reckon- 
ed the accented jiart thereof. 

Beating time is denoted, in tlie Italian inufic, by 
the term a battuta, which is ufiially put after what 
they call recitativo, where little or no time is obfcrved, 
to denote, that here they are to begin again to mark 
or beat the time exadly. 

The Romans aimed at fomewhat of harmony in the 
ilrokes of their oars ; and had an officer called port'ifc:;- 
i:ii in each galley, whofe bufiiiefs was to beat time 10 
the rowers, fometimes by a pole or mallet, and fome- 
times by his voice alone. 

The ancients marked ihe rhyme in theirmnficalcoin- 
pofitions ; but to make it more ubfcrvable in tile prac- 
tice, they beat the meafure or time, and this in differ- 
ent manners. The moft ufual conffled in a moiion of 
the foot, which was raifed from, and ftnick alternate- 
ly againft, the ground, according to the modern me- 
thod. Doing this was commonly the province of the 
mafter of the mufic, who was thence called ^sirc;^of@u 
and xofucf«j©„, becaufc placed in the middle of iheclioir 
ofmulicians, and in an elevated fituaiion, to be fecn 
and heard more eafily by the whole company. Thefc 
bearers of meafure were alfo called by the Greeks 
wtcTtxTi-Toi and -rnii-ifiini, becaufe of ihe noife of their 
feet ; and (nv-rtvafio;, becaufe of the uniformity or mo- 
notony of the rhyme. The Latins denominated theni/^- 
(iarii, palarii, and feJ/cr//arii. To make the beats or 
flrokesmore audible, their feet were generally fliod with 
a fort of fandals either of wood or iron, called by the 
Greeks xfuvnl^nt^ nfci/Taxa, xpsi-Tara, and by the Latins 
peclicHla,fcahellii,arfcabilla, becaufe like to little ftools 
or foot-Itools. Sometimes they beat upon fonorous foo^- 
flools, with the foot (hod with a wooden or iron fole. 
They beat the meafure not only with the foot, bur alfo 
with the right hand, all the finge'swhereof they join- 
ed together, tofirikcinto the holloivofthelcft. Hewho 
thus marked the rhythm, was called -ini^nuduBor. The 
ancients alfo beat time or meafure with HicUs, as oyfler- 
ihells and bones of animals, which they llruck againfl 
one anither, much as the moderns now ufe cafiancis, 
and the like inflrnnu-nts. This the Greeks called «f»^- 
Cafia^ii-i, as is noted by Hefycliius. The fcholiafl oa 
Ariflophanes fpeaks much to the fame purpofe. Other 
noify inftniments, as drums, cymbals, citterns, &c. 
were alfo ufed on the fame occallon. They beat the 
meafure generally in two equal or unequal times ; at 
lead, this holds of the ufual rhythm of a piece of mufic, 
marked cither by the noife of fandals, or the flapping 


B E A 

[ 99 ] 

B E A 

BevtiBg. of tlie hands. But tlie other rhythmic inftruments 
II laft mentioned, and which were ufcd principally to ex- 
. "''"""'".• cite and animate the dancers, marked the cadence 
after another manner; that is, the number of their 
pcrcutTions equalled, or even fometiiiics CiirpafTcd, that 
of the dilftrciit founds which compofcd the air or long 

Beating, with hunters, a term iifed of a (lag, 
which runs tirft one v/ay and then another. He is 
then faid to bsal up and lio'Mii. — The noife made by co- 
nies in rutting time is alfo called bsat'tng or tapftiig. 

Beating in navigation, the oppr.ition of malting a 
progrcfs .It lea againft the diredion of the wind, in a 
zig-zag line, or traverfe, like that in which we afcend 
afleephill. SceTACKiNC. 

BEATITUDE, imports the fupreme good, or the 
highcll degree of happincfs human nature is fafceptil)!e 
of; or the inoft perfeft if ate of a rational being, where- 
in the foul has attained to the utmoft excellency and 
dignity it is framed for. In which fenfe, it amounts 
to the fame with what we otherwife call bh-jfednefs and 
fovsreign fiiicity ; by the Greeks, «i//«i/<o»/«; and by the 
Latins, funnnu7n boniim, beati'.udo, and bcatitas. 

Beatitude, among divines, denoting the beatific 
vifion, or the fruition of God in a future life to all e- 

Beatitude is alfo ufcd in fpcaking of the tliefes 
contained in Chrill's fermon on tiic mount, whereby he 
pronounces bleffed the poor in fpirit, thofc tliat mourn, 
the meek, 5cc. 

BEATON, (David), archbiihopof St Andrew's, and 
a cardinal of Rome, in the early part of the i6th cen- 
tury, was born in 1494. Pope Paul III. raifed him to 
the degree of a cardinal in December i5;!8; and 
being employed by James V. in negociating his mar- 
riages with the court of France, he was there confc- 
cratcd bidiop of Mirepoix. Soon after his inflalment 
as .irchbilhop of St Andrew's, he promoted a furious 
perfecntion of the reformers in Scotland; when the 
king's death put a flop, for a time, to his arbitrary 
proceedings, he being then excluded from affairs of 
government, andconfined. He raifed however foftrong 
a party, that upon the coronation of the young queen 
Mary, he was admitted of the council, made chancel- 
lor, and procured commifllon as legate a latere from the 
court of Rome. He now began to renew his perfe- 
cntion of heretics; and among the reft, of the famous 
Proteftant preacher, Mr George Wilhart, whole futfer- 
ings at the ftake the cardinal vicwcil from his window 
with apparent exultation It is pretended, that Wilh- 
art at his death foretold the murder of Beaton ; which 
indeed happened Ihortly after, he being aflafliuateil in 
his chamber, May 29ih, 1547- He was a haughty 
bigotted churchman, and thought feveriiy the proper 
method of fupprelfing hercfy ; he had great talents, 
and vices that were no lefs confpicuous. See Scot- 

BEATORUM insula (anc. geog.), feven days 
journey to the weft of Thcbie, a dillritl of the Komos 
Oilites ; called an ijland, bccaufc furroundcd with fand, 
like an ilhnd in the fca, (Uli'ian) ; ytt .-".founding in 
all the nccellaries of life, though cnconipalfed u it!) vail 
fandy dcfarts, (Strabu) : which fome fiippofe 10 be 
a third Oalis, in the Regio Ammoniaca; and the 
icitc of the temple of Amnion anfwers to tiie .ibove 

dcfcription, as appears from the writers on Alexander's 
expedition thiihcr. h was a place of relegation or 
banifhment for real or pretended criminals from which 
there was no efcape, (Ulpian). 

BEATS, in a watch or clock, arc the flrokes made 
by the fangs or pallets of the fpindlc of the balance, 
or of the pads in a royal pendulum. 

BEAUCAIRE, a town of Languedoc in France, 
fituated on the banks of the river Rhone, iu E. Long. 
5. 49- N- Lat. 43. 39. 

BEAUCE, a province of France, lying between 
the ille of France, Blafois, and Orleannois. It is fo 
very fertile in wheat, that is called die Craiiary of 
Paris. Chartrcs is the principal town. 

BEAVP^R, in zoology. Sec Castor. 

Bf.^i'ER-Skhis, in commerce. Of thefe, merchants 
diftinguilh three forts; the new, the dry, and ilic fat. 

The new beaver, which is alfo called the 'd'/:ite bra- 
ver, or JMufcovy beaver, becaufe it is commonly kept 
to be fcnc into Mufcovy, is that which the favagcs 
catch in their winter hunting. It is the beft, and the 
moll proper for making line furs, becaufe it has loft 
Honc of its hairs by Iliedding. 

The dry beaver, which is fometimcs called lean hia- 
ver, comes from the funimer hunting, which is the 
time when thefe animals lofe part of ihcir hair. Tho* 
this fort of beaver be much inferior to the former, yet 
it may alfo be employed in furs ; but it is chiefly u(<;d 
in the manufaiJlurc of hats. The French call \\.fuvi- 
jner cajlor or leaver. 

The fat beaver is that wiiichhas contracted acertain 
grofs and oily humour, from the fwcat which exhales 
from the bodies of the favages, who wear it for fome 
time. Though this fort be better than the dry beaver, 
yet it is ufed only in the making of hats. 

Belides hats and furs, in which the beaver's hair is 
commonly ufed, they attempted in France, in the year 
1699, to make other manufaftures of it : and accord- 
ingly they made cloths, flannels, flockings, &c. parilj 
of beaver's hair, and partly of Segovia wool. This 
manufactory, which wasfet up at Paris, in St Anthony's 
fuburhs, fiiccctded at firft pretty well ; and according 
to the genius of the French, the novelty of the thing 
brought into fome repute the llufl's, flockings, glovts, 
and cloth made of beaver's hair. But they went out 
of fafliion on a fudden, becaufe it was found by ex- 
perience, that they were of a very bad wear, and bc- 
fidts that the colours faded very nuich : when they had 
been wet, they became dry and hard, like felt, which 
occafioned the niifcarriage of the mannfadory for that 

When the hair has been cut off from the beavers 
Ikins, to be ufed in the niannfatfluring of hats, ihofc 
Ikins are Hill employed by fcvcral workmen ; namely, 
by the trunk-makers, to cover trunks and boxes; by the 
flioemakcrs, 10 put into llippers ; and by turners, to 
make fievrs for lifting grain and feeds. 

BEAUFORT, a town of Anjou in France, with 
a calllc, near the river Amhion. It contains two p.i- 
ri(l\es, and a convent of Recolets, and yet has not ico 
houfcf. W. Lung.o. 3. N. Lat. 47. 26. 

Bhauvokt, gives title of Duke in England to the 
noble family of Somcrfci, w ho arc lineally dcfcended 
from John of Gauiu duke of Lancaltcr, whofc duclicfs 
rclldcd in this tnvn. 



B E A 

[ 100 ] 

B E A 



Beautort, a ftrong town of Savoy in Italy, on the 
river Oron. E. Lono;. 6. 48. N. I. at. 45. 40. 

BEAUGENCY, a town of the Orleannois in France, 
fcattci on the river Loire, in £. Long. i. 46. N. Lat. 

47. 4S. 

BEAUJEU, a town of France in Bcaujolois, wiili 
an old caltlc. It is feated on the river Ardieres, at the 
foot of a mountain, in E. Long. 4. 40. N. Lat. 46. 9. 

BEAUJOLOIS, a diftrict of France, bounded on 
the foiith by Lionnois proper, on the welt by Forez, 
en the north by Burgundy, and on the welt by the 
principality of Donibes. It is 2J milts in length, and 
20 in breadth : Villr Franche is the capital town. 

BEAULIEU (Si-ballian dc Pontault de), a cele- 
brated French engineer, and field marflial under Louis 
XIV. He publilhed plans of all the military expedi- 
tions of his mailer, with military lectures annexed. 
He died in 167.1. 

BEAUMARIS, a market-town of Anglcfey, in 
North Wales, which fends one member to parliament. 
W.Long. 4. 15. N. Lat. 53. 2 J. 

It is, aj tiie name implies, pleafantly feated on a low 
land, at the water's edge ; is neat and well built, and 
one Itrcet is very handfome. Edward I. created the 
place; for after founding the caflles of Caernarvon 
and Conway, he difcovercd that it was necelFary to 
put another curb on the Welch. He therefore built i 
fortrefs here in 1295; and fixed on a mariliy fpot, 
near the chapel of St Meugan, fuch as gave him 
opportunity of forming a great fofs round the caftle, 
and of tilling it with water from the fea. He alio cut 
a canal, in order to permit velTcls to difcharge their 
lading beneath the walls: and as a proof of the ex- 
iitence of fuch a convcnicncy, there were within this 
century iron rings affixed to them, for the purpofe of 
mooring the ihips or boats. The marih was in early 
times of far greater extent than at prefcnt, and covered 
with fine bulrulhes. The lirll governor was Sir Wil- 
liam Pickmore, a Gafcon knight, appointed by Ed- 
ward I. There was a conftable of the calUe, and a 
captain of the town. The firft had an annual fee of 
forty pounds, the lafl of twelve pounds three fliillings 
and four pencoj and the porter of the gate of Beau- 
maris had nine pounds two fhillings and fix pence. 
Twenty-four foldiei-s were allowed for the guard of the 
caltle and town, at fourpcncc a-day to each. The 
conltable of the caflle was always captain of the town, 
except in one inflance : in the 36th of Henry VI. Sir 
John Botelcr held the (irfl office, and Thomas Norreys 
the other. The caflle was extremely burthcnfome to 
the country: quarrels were frequent between the gar- 
rifon and the country people. In the time of Henry 
VI. a bloody fray happened, in which David ap Evan 
ap Howcl of Llwydiarth, and many others were llain. 
From the time of Sir Rowland Villcville, a/ins Brit- 
tayne, reputed bafe fon of Henry VII. and conflablc 
of the caftle, the garrifon was withdrawn till the year 
1642, when Thomas Chcadlc, deputy to the earl of 
Dorfet, then conftable, put into it men and ammunition. 
In 1645, Thomas Bulkeley, Efq. fosin after created 
Lord Bulkeley, f.icceeded: his fon Colonel Richard 
Bulkeley, and feveral gentlemen of the country, 
held it for the king till June 1647, when it furren- 
ilered on honourable terms to general Mytton, who 
made captain Evans his deputy governor. In 1653, 

the annual cxpcncc of the garrifon was fcventcen hun- Beaumaris 
drcd and three pounds. Edward I. when he built the I^ciumcnt, 
town, furroundcd it with w'ails, made it a corporation, "* ^ 
and endowed it with great privileges, and lands to a 
confiderable value. He removed the ancient freehol- 
ders by exchange of property into other countries. 
Kenllys, near the town was the feat of Gwcrydd ap 
Rhys Goch, one of fifteen tribes, and of his poUtriiy 
till this period, when Edward removed them to Boddlc 
Wyddan in Flintihire, and bellowed their ancient pa- 
trimony on the corporation. It fends one member to 
parliament. Its firll reprclenlaiive was Maurice Grif- 
tydd, who fat in the feventh year of Edward VL 
There is very good anchorage for lliips in the bay 
which lies before the town ; atid has feven fathom wa- 
ter even at the lowelt ebb. Veflcls often find ftcuriiy 
here in hard gales. The town has no trade of any 
kind, yet has it cuftomhoufc for the the cafual reception 
of goods. The ferry lies near the town, and is paf- 
fablc at low-water. It was granted by charter 10 the 
corporation in the 4th of Q^ieen Elizabeth. There is 
an order from Edward II. to Robert Power, chamber- 
lain of North Wales, to infpeft into the flate of the 
boat, which was then out repair; and in cafe it was 
feafiblc, to caufe it to be made fit for ufe, at the ex- 
pence of the baileywick ; but if the boat proved palt 
repair, a new one was to be built, and the cxpencc al- 
lowed by the king. It appears, that the people of 
Beaumaris payed annually for the privilege of a ferry 
thirty fliillings into the exchequer; but by this order 
it feems that the king was to find the boat. After 
palling the channel, the diftance over the fands toAbec 
in Caernarvonlhire, the point the pall'cnger generally 
makes for, is four miles. The fands arc called 7'/v7i./i6 
Tclava/i, and Wylofaen, or ihc place of weeping, from 
the Ihrieks and lamentations of the inhabitants when ic 
was overwhelmed by the fea, in the days of Helig ap 
Clunog. The church is dependent on Llaiidegvan, 
which is in the gift of lord Bulkeley. The former is 
called the chape/ of the bleffed Virgin ; yet in ancient 
writings one aile is called St Mary's chapel, and another 
that of St Nicholas. 

BEAUMONT (Sir John), the elder brother of 
Mr Francis Beaumont, the fatrous dramatic poet, was 
born in the year 1582, and in 1626 had the dignity of 
a baronet conferred upon him by King Charles I. In 
his youth he applied himfelf to the Mufcs with good 
fuccefs ; and wrote The Crown of Thorns, a poem, 
in eight books : a mifcellany, intitled, Bof-wortk field: 
TranOations from the Latin Poets : and feveral poems 
on religious and political fubjec^s; as, On the Fcflivals; 
On the Blefled Trinity ; A Dialogue between the 
World, a Pilgrim, and Virtue ; Of the miferable State 
of Man; Of Sicknefs, &c. He died in 1628. His 
poetic genius was celebrated by Ben Johnfon, Michael 
Drayton, and others. 

Beaumoxt and Fletcher, two celebrated Englifh 
dramatic writers, whoflourirtiedin the reign of James I, 
and fo clofely conncdled both as authors and as friends, 
that it has been judged not improper to give them un- 
der one article. 

Air Francis Beaumont was defcendcd from an an- 
cient family of his name at Grace-dicu in Lcicefler- 
Ihire, where he was born about the year 1585 or 15S6, 
in the jcign of Oiieen Elizabeth. His grandfather,. 


B E A 

[ lOI ] 

B E A 

Beaumont. John Beaumont, was maftcr of the rolls, and his faihcr 
^~~^^~—' i^'rancis Beaumont one of the jiiJgfS of the common 
pleas. He was educated at Cambridge, and afterwards 
admitted of the Inner Temple. It is not, however, 
apparent that he made any great proficiency in the law, 
that being a ifudy probably too dry and nncntertaining 
to be attended lo by a man of his fertile and fprigluly 
genins. And indeed, we fliould fcarccly be fiirprifed 
to find that he had given no application to any lludy 
but poetry, nor attended on any court but that of the 
Mnfcs: brtt on the contrary, our admiration might fix 
itfelf in the oppofite extreme, and fill iis with alloniih- 
mcnt at the extreme adidiiity of his genius and rapidity 
of his pen, when we look back on the vohiminoufnefs 
of his works, and then inquire into the lime allowed 
hint for them; works that might well have taken up 
a long life to have executed. For although, out of j^ 
plays which are collei^tea'' together as die labours of 
thcfc united authors, Mr Beaumont was concerned in 
much the greateft part of them, yet he did not live lo 
complete his ;oth year, the king of terrors fummoning 
him away in the beginning of March, 1615, on the 9th 
day of which he was interred in the entrance of St Be- 
liedift's chapel in Wcllniinfter-Abbey. There is no 
infcription on his tomb : But there are two epitaphs to 
his memory ; one by his elder brother Sir John Beau- 
mont : 

On death, thy murderer, this revenge I take; 
I llighthis terrors, aiidjuft qucftion make, 
Which of us two the belt precedence have. 
Mine to this wreichcd world, thine to the grave ? 
Thou fliould'Il have followed me ; but death, to blame, 
Mifcounted years, and nuafur'd age by fame. 
So dearly halt thou bought thy precious lints ; 
Their praife grew fwifily, fo thy life declines. 
Thy nuife, the hearer's queen, the readers love, 
All cars,all hearts ( but death's) could pleafe and move. 

Bofivorth Field, p. 164. 

The other is by Bifliop Corbet. (Poems, p. 68.) 

He that hath fuch acutenefsand fnch wit. 
As would afk ten good heads to hufband it: 
He that can write fo well, thai no man dare 
Refnme it for the befl ; let him beware : 
Beaumont is dead , by whofe fulc death appears, 
Wit's a difeafe confunics men in few years. 

He left a daughter, Frances Beaumont, who died in 
Leiceflerlhire fmce the year 1700. She had in her 
pofTclfion fcveral poems of her father's writing; but 
they were lolt at fcain her voyage from Ireland, where 
file had lived for fome time in the Duke of Ormond's 

Mr John Fletcher was not more meanly defcended 
than his poetical colleague ; his father, the reverend 
Dr Fletcher, having been iirlf madebilhopof Briltol 
by queen Elizabeth, and afterwards by ihe fame mo- 
narch, in the year 1595, trandaied to ilic rich and ho- 
nourable fee of London. Our poet was born in IS7(>; 
and was, as well as his friciul, cducatcil at Cambridge, 
where he made a great proliciency in his ftudies, and 
^as accounted a very good fciiolar. His natural vi- 
vacity of w it, for which he was remarkable, foon ren- 
ilcred him adcvolec (oihe miifts ; and hisclofe attention 
to (heir fervicc, and fortunate conucdion with a genius 



equal 10 his own, foon raifed him to one of the higheft BciMr.oiit. 

places m the temple of poetical fame. As he was born " « ' 

near ten years before ^;r Beaumont, fo did he alfofur- 
vive him by an equal nunber of years ; the general ca- 
lamity of a plague, which happened in the year 162J, 
involving him in its great dcllrudion, he being at that 
time 49 years of age. 

During the joint lives of ihefc two great poets, it 
appears that they wrote noihing ft parate ly, txccj.iing 
one liiile piece by each, \\hich fttmtd of too trivial a 
nature for either torequirealhltance in,f/c.The Faith- 
ful Shepherd, a puftoral, by Fletcher; and The Mafqu 
of Gray's-lnn Gentlemen, by Beaumont. Yd wha 
(liare each had in liie writitig or deligning of ilic pieces 
thus compofcd by ihem jointly, there is no lofFibility 
of determining. It is however generally allowed, that 
Fletcher's peculiar talent was -wit and Beaumont's, 
though much the younger man, judg/nent. Nav, fo 
extraordinary was the latter property m Mr Beaumont, 
that it is recorded of ihe great Ben Johnlon, who fecms 
moreover to have had a I'ufEcitnt degree of fell-opinion 
of his own abilities, that he coiillantly, fo long as this 
gentleman lived, fibmitted his own writings to his 
ccnfurc, and, as it is thought, availed himftlf of liis 
judgment at lead in the correding, if not even in the 
contriving all his plots. It is ]>robable, therefore, that 
the forming the plots and contriving the condud of 
the fable, ihe writing of the more ferious and paihctic 
parts, and lopping the redundant branchesof Fletcher's 
wit, whofe luxuriance, we are told, frequently flood in 
need of cafligation, might be in general Beaumont's 
portion in the work ; while Fletcher, whofe converfa- 
lion with the beau vioiide (which indeed both of ilitni 
from their births and flations in life liad been ever ac- 
ciiltomed to), added to ihe volatile and lively turn he 
pollclfcd, rendered him pcrfedly mailer of dialogue and 
polite language, might execute the deligns formed by 
the other, and railc the fuperftruclure of thofc lively 
and Ipirited fcenes which Beaumont had only laid the 
foundation of; and in this he wasfo fucccfsful, that 
though his wit and raillery were extremely keen and 
poignant, yet they were at the fame time fo perfedly 
genteel, that they ufeil rather to pleafe than difgull 
the very perfons on whom they feemed lo reJled. Yet 
that Fletcher was not entirely excluded from a fl)arc 
in the condud of the drama, may be gathered from a 
flory related by Wiiillanley, viz. that our two bards 
having coiicened the rough draught of a tragedy over 
a bottle of wine at a lavcrn, Fkchcr laid, he would 
undertake to kill the king, which words being ovcr- 
lieard by the waiter who had not happened 10 have 
been wiinefs to the context of iheir converfation, he 
lodged an information of ireafon againll them. But 
on their explanation oi' it only to mean the deftrudion 
of a theatrical monarch, their loyalty moreover being 
unquellioned, iheatlair ended in ajelt. 

On the whole, the works of theft authors have un- 
doubtedly very threat merit^uid fome of their pieces 
defervedly Hand on the lill of the prefcnt ornanienisof 
the theatre. The plots are ingenious, iDtcrcftiiif , and 
well managed ; the charat'fersUrongly marked ; and the 
dialogue fpiighily and natural : yet there is in the lailcr 
a co.irfciuTs which is not fuitablc to the poiitcnels of 
the prefent age: and a foudnefs of repartee, which fre- 
(lucnily runs into obfcenity ; and whicli wc may fnp- 


B E A 


Beaumont pofe was tlie vice of that time, fince even the delicate 
li Sh.ikefpeare himlclf is not entirely free from it. But 
Beauf obrg. ^^ [[j^.c^ abhors have more of that kind of wit than the 
" ' laft-mcniioned writer, it is not to be wondered if their 
works were, in the licentious reign of Charles 11. pre- 
ferred to his. Now, however, to the honour of the 
prcfcnt taftcbeit fpokcn, the tables arc entirely tnrned ; 
and while Shakefpcarc's immortal works arc our con- 
(lant and daily fare, thofe of Beaumont and Fletcher, 
though delicate in their kind, are only occafionally 
fervcd op; and even then great pains are taken to clear 
them of that ///>«.'/, which the hant gout of their coiuem- 
poraries conlidcred as thcirl'iipremeflrclil'i, but which 
the more undepraved tafleof ours has beenjullly taught 
to look on, as what it really is, no mure than a corrupt 
and nnwholefome taint. 

Some of tiicir plays were printed in quarto during 
the lives of the authors; and in the year 1645 there 
was publiihed in folio a collcdion of fuch plays as had 
not been printed before, amounting to between 30 and 
40. This collcftion was publiihed by Mr Shirley, af- 
ter the Ihutting up of the theatres, and dedicated to 
the Earl of Pembroke by ten of llie moft famous afbors. 
In 1679 there was an edition of all thrir plays publiihed 
in folio; another edition in 1711 by Mr Tonfon in fe- 
ven volumes 8vo, and the laft in 1751. 

Beau.mont, a town of the Netherlands, in Hain- 
ault, on the confines of the territory of Liege. It was 
ceded to t!ie French in 1684, and taken in 1691 by the 
Englifli. who blew up the caille. It is fituaicd between 
the rivers Micfe and Sambre, in E. Long. 4. i. N. 
Lat. 50. 12. 

Beaumont le Roger, a town of Upper Normandy 
ill France. E. Long. o. j6. N. Lat. 49. 2. 

Beaumont le Vicoj/ipte, a town of Maine in France. 
E. Long. o. 10. N. Lat. 48. 12. 

Beaumont fur Oife, a town in the Ifle of France, 
feated on the declivity of a hill, with a bridge over the 
river Oife. E. Long. 2. 29. N. Lat. 49. 9. 

BEAUNE, a handfome town of France, in Bur- 
gundy, remarkable for its excellent wine, and for an 
iiofpital founded here in 1443. Its collegiate church 
is alfo one of the fineft in France: the great altar is 
adorned with a table enriched with jewels; and its or- 
igans are placed on a piece of architecture which is the 
admiration of the curious. E. Long. 4. 50. N. Lat. 

47. 2. 

BEAUSOBRE (Ifaac de), a very learned Proteft- 
ant writer, of French original, was born at Niort in 
1659. He Vi'as forced into Holland to avoid the ex- 
ecution of a fentenceupon him, which condemned him 
to make l\\t amende honourable ; and this for having 
broken the royal fijnft, which was put upon the door 
of a church of the Reformed, to prevent the public 
profeflion of their religion. He went to Berlin in 
1694; was made chaplain to the king of Pruflia, and 
coiinfellor of the royal confiftory. He died in 1738, 
aged 79, after having publiihed feveral works; as, 
I. D.-fsufe de la Do&rine del Rcformes. 2. A Tranf- 
lation of the New Tefbament and Notes, jointly with 
M. Lenfant, much cfteemed by the Reformed. ;. 
Di{prtat!o,-jfi/r les Alar/iites de Bohenie ; a curious work. 
4. HiJIoire Critiijue de Mtinlchec et du Manicheifnie, 
2 torn, in 4to. This has been deemed by philofophers 
«u intcrefting queflion, and nobody has developed it 

102 3 B E A 

better than this author. 5. Several diffcrtrtions in tlie Beatiif; 
Bd'liclheqiie Britaitiiiquc. — Mr Bcaufobre had flrong *— ~v— ' 
fenfc with profound erudition, and was one of the belt 
writcrsamong the Reformed ; hepreached as he wrote, 
and he did both with warmth and fpirit. 

BEAUTY, in its native fignification, is appropri- 
ated to objeds of fight. Objeds of the other ftnfts 
may be aiirceable, luch as the founds of mufical inftru- 
meuts, the fmooihnefs and I'oftncfs of fome furfaces ; 
but the agrccablencfs called beauty belongs toobjeds of 

Objcfts of fight are more complex than thofe of any 
other fcnfe : in the fimpleft, we perceive colour, figure, 
length, breadth, thickncfs. A tree is compofcd of a 
trunk, branches, and leaves ; it has colour, figure, fize, 
and foinetimes motion : by means of each of thcfe par- 
ticulars, feparately confidcred, it appears beautiful; 
but a complex perception of the whole greatly aug- 
ments the beauty of the objcft. The human body is 
a compofition of numbcrlcfs beauties arifing from the 
parts and qualities of the object, various colours, vari- 
ous motions, figures, fize, S:c. all united in one com- 
plex objefl, and flrikiiig the eye with combined force. 
Hence it is, that beauty, a quality fo remarkable in 
vifiblc objefts, lends its name to every thing that is 
eminently agreeable. Thus, by a figure of fpcech, we 
fay, a beauti Jul found, a beautiful thought, a beautiful 
dtfcovery, &c. 

Confidering attentively the beauty of vifible objcdls, EUmmtseJ' 
two kinds are difcovercd. The firll may be termed CrUiiifm. 
intrhific beauty, becaufe it is difcovered in a fmgle ob- 
jeft, without relation to any other: the other may be 
termed relative, being founded on the relation of ob- 
jefts. Intrinfic beauty is a perception of fenfe merely ; 
for to perceive the beauty of a i'preading oak, or of a 
flowing river, no more is required but fingly an 'aft of 
vifion. Relative beauty is accompanied with an a<5t of 
nnderflanding and reflection: for we perceive not the 
relative beauty of a fine inftrument or engine until we 
learn its nfe and defli nation. In a word, intrinfic 
beauty is ultimate ; and relative beauty is that of means 
relating to fome good end or purpofe. Thefe difi^ercnt 
beauties agree in one capital circumflance, that both 
are equally perceived as belonging to the object ; which 
will be readily admitted with refpeft to intrinfic beauty, 
but is not fo obvious with refpeft to the other. The 
utility of the plough, for example may make it an objcft 
of admiration or of dcfire ; but why would utility make 
it beautiful ? A natural propenfity of the human mind 
will explain this difficulty : By an eafy tranfition of 
ideas, the beauty of the efi'ect is transferred to the caufe, 
and is perceived as one of the qualities of the caufe. 
Thus a fiibjecT; void of intrinllc beauty appears beauti- 
ful by its utility; a dwelling-houfe void of all regu- 
larity is however beautiful in tlie view of convenience ; 
and the want of fymmetry in a tree will not prevent 
its appearing beautiful, if it be known to produce 
good fruit. 

When thefe two beauties concur in any object, it 
appears delightful. Every member of the human body 
polfeflii's both in a high degree. 

The beauty of utility, being accurately proportioned 
to the degree of utility, requires no illuflration : But 
intrinfic beauty, being more complex, cannot be handled 
diftinftly without being analyfed. If a tree be beau- 

B E A [I 

Beauty, tiful by means of its colour, figure, motion, fizc, &c. 

' ^ ' it is ill reality polleircd of fo many different beauties. 

The beauty of colour is ton familiar to need explana- 
tion. The beauty of iiguie is more : for exdinplc, 
viewing any body as a whole, the beauty of its tij;urc 
arifes from regularity and iimpliciiy ; viewing the parts 
with relation to each other, niiiformiiy, proportion, 
and order, contribute to its beauty. The beauties of 
grandeur and motion are conlidcred feparatcly. See 
Grandeur and Motion. 

We lliall here make a few obfervations onlimplicity, 
which may be of ufe in examining the beauty of fingle 
objefts. A multitude of objetts crowding into the 
mind at once, dilturb the attention, .tnd pals without 
making any lafting iniprcflion : In the fame manner, 
even a fuigle object conlilting of a multiplicity of parts, 
equals not, in ftrength of inipreflion, a more limple ob- 
jcd comprehended in one view. Thisjullities finipli- 
city in works of art, as oppofed to complicated circum- 
ilances and crowded ornaments. 

It would be endlcfs to enumerate the efFefts that are 
produced by the various combinations of the principles 
of beauty. A few examples will be fufhcicnt to give 
the reader fome idea of this fubjecf. A circle and a 
fquare are each perfectly regular : a fquare, however, 
is Id's beautiful than a circle ; and the reafon is, that 
the attention is divided among the fides and angles of 
a fquare ; whereas the circumference of a circle, being 
a fingle object, makes one entire impreffion : And thus 
fimplicity contributes to beauty. For the fame reafon 
a fquare is more beautiful than a hexagon or ot'lagon. 
A fquare is likewife more beautiful than a parallelo- 
gram, becaufe it is more regular and uniform. But 
this holds with refped to intrinlic beauty only : for in 
many inAances, as in the doors and windows of a 
dwciling-houfe, utility turns tlie fcales on the fide of 
the parallelogram. 

Again, a parallelogram depends, for its beauty, on 
the proportion of its fides : A great inequality of its 
fides annihilates its beauty : Approximation toward 
equality hath the fame cfieA ; for proportion there de- 
generates into imptrfeft uniformity, and the figure ap- 
pears an uniuccefbful attempt toward a fquare. And 
hence proportion contributes to beauty. 

An equilateral triangle yields not to a fquare in re- 
gularity nor in uniformity of parts, and it is more fini- 
ple. But an equilateral triangle is Icfs beautiful than 
a fquare; which muft be owing to inferiority of order 
in the pofition of its parts; the order arifing from the 
equal inclination of the fides of fuch an angle is more 
obfcnre than the parallclifm of the fides of a fquare. 
And hence order contributes to beauty not Icfs than fim- 
plicity, regularity, or proportion. 

Uniformity is lingular in one circtiniftance, that it 
is apt to dilgiift by excels. A number of things dcf- 
tined for the fame iifc, as windows, chairs, &c. can- 
not be too uniform. But a fcrupulous uniformiiy of 
parts in a large garden or field is far from being agree- 

In all the works of nature fimplicity makes a capital 
figure. It alfo makes a figure in works of art : Pro- 
fufe ornament in painting, gardening, or architctlurc, 
as well as in drcfsorin langiiace, fliows a mean or cor- 
rupted tafle. Simplicity in behaviour and manners has 
.iu inchanting effccft, and never fails to gain our affcc- 

03 ] 

B E A 


Very different are the artificial manners of iro- 
tinies. A gradual prog'refs from fimplicity to 
coinplix forms and profufc ornament, (cems to be the 
(ate of all the fine arts ; rcfembling behaviour, which 
from original candour and fimplicity has degenerated 
into duplicity of heart and artilicial' refinemcniE. At 
prefent, literary } roduflions arc crowded with words, 
epithets, figures : In mufic, (cniimcni is negltfttd for 
the luxury of harmony, and for difficult movement. 

With regard to the final caiifc of beauty, one thing 
is evident, that our relilh of regularity, imiformiiy, 
proportion, order, and fimplicity, contributes greatly 
to enhance the beauty of the objefls thai furround us, 
and of courfe tends 10 our happinefs. We may be 
confirmed in this thought, upon rctlcfting, that our 
taftc for thefe particulars is not accidental, but unilorm 
and univcrfal, making a branch of our nature. At the 
fame time, regularity, uniformiiy, order, and fimplicity, 
contribute each of them to readincfs of apprchcniion, 
and enable us to form more dillirft ideas of objedls 
than can be done where thefe particulars arc wanting. 
In fome iniiances, as in animals, proportion is evidently 
connedled with utility, and is the more agreeable on 
that account. 

Beauty, in many inftances, promotes induflry ; and 
as it is frequently connected with utility, it proves an 
additional incitement to enrich our fields and improve 
our manufactures. Thefe, how.ever, are but llight 
effects, compared with the connections that arc formed 
among individuals in fociety by means of beauty. 
The qualifications of the head and heart are undoubt- 
edly the molt folid and moft permanent foundations of 
fuch connections: But as external beauty lies more in 
view, and is more obvious to the bulk of mankind, 
than the qualities now mentioned, the fenfe of beauty 
has a more extcnfive influence in forming thefe con- 
nexions. At any rate, it concurs in an eminent de- 
gree with mental qualifications, in producing focialin- 
tercourfe, mutual good-will, and confequenily mutual 
aid and fupport, w hich are the life of locieiy : it muft 
not however be overlooked, that the fenfe of beauty 
does not tend to advance the iiiterefts of fociety, but 
when in a due mean with rcfprft to flrength. Love, 
in particular, arifing from a fenfe of beauty, lofcs, 
when exceffivc, its fecial charafler : the appetite for 
gratification, prevailing over affection for the beloved 
objeft, is ungovernable, and tends violently to its end, 
rcgardlefs of the mifcry that muft follow. Love, in 
this Itaie, is no longer a fweet agreeable pallion : it 
becomes painful, like hunger or ihirfl ; and producelh 
no happinefs, but in the inflant of fruition. This 
fuggelts an important lellbn, that moderation in our 
delires and appetites, which fits us for doing our duty, 
contributes at the fame iin;e the moft to happinels ; 
even focial j'alfions, when moderate, are mere pleafant 
than when they fwtU beyond proper bounds. 

Hiniiaii cr lirfoiinl Beavti, only llightly touched 
upon in the preceding article, merits more particular 
difcuffion ; and may be coiiliderrd under ilufe four 
heads : Colour, Form, Expreflion, and Grace ; the two 
former being, as it were, the Body, the two latter the 
Soul, of beauty. 

I. Colour. Although this be the loweft of all the 
conllitucnt parts of beauty, yet it is vulgarly the moll 
ftriking, and the moft obfervcd. iVr which there is 


B E A 

[ 104 ] 

B E A 

Beauty- a very obvious reafon to be given ; that " every body 
' ^ ' can Ice, and very few can jinlgc ;"■ the btaiuies of co- 
lour requiring niiicli lei's otjiijgnicni thaucitiicr of tiic 
otlicr three. 

As to the colour of the body in general, the mod 
bcauiiful pcrh.ips that ever was imagined, was that 
wliich Apcllcs exprelltd in his famous Venus ; and 
wliich, lliough the picture iticif be loll, Cicero has in 
fonie degree prcftrved to us, in his excellent de- 
fcription of it. It was (as we learn from liim) a fine 
red, beautifully intermixed and incorporated with 
white ; and ditTufcd, in its due proportions, through 
each part of the bujy. Such are the dcfcripiions ot 
a moll beautiful (kin, in feveral of the Roman poets ; 
and fuch often is the colouring of Titian, and particu- 
larly in his llecping Venus, or whatever other beauty 
that charming piece was meant to reprclenr. 

The reafon why tlicic colours plcafe fo much, is 
not only tiieir natural livelinefs, nor the much greater 
charms they obtain from their being properly blended 
together, but is alfo owing in fome degree to the idea 
lliey carry with them of good health ; without which 
all beauty grows anguid and Icfs engaging ; and with 
which it always recovers an additional life and luftre. 

As to the colour of tjie face in particular, a great 
deal of beauty is owing (bcfide the caufes already men- 
tioned) to variety ; that being defigned by nature for 
the greatell concourfe of different colours, of any part 
in the hiiman body. Colours pleafe by oppofnion ; 
and it is in the face that they are the mofl diverlilied, 
and the mofl oppofed. 

It is an obfervatian apparenly whimfical, but per- 
haps not unjuft, that the fame thing which makes a 
•line evening, makes a fine face; that is, as to the par- 
ticular pare of beauty now under conl'ideration. 

The beauty of an evening Iky, about the fetting of 
the fun, is owing to the variety of colours that are 
fcattered along the face of the heavens. It is the fine 
red clouds, intermixed with white, and fometimcs dark- 
er ones, with the azure bottom appearing here and 
there between them, whicli make all that beautiful 
compofition that delights the eye fo much, and gives 
fuch a ferene pleafurc to tlie heart. In the fame man- 
ner, if you conhder fome beautiful faces, you may ob- 
ferve, that it is much the fame variety of colours which 
gives them that plcafing look ; which is fo apt to at- 
traft the eye, and but too often to engage the heart. 
For all this fort of beauty is refolvablc into a proper 
variation of flelh colour and red, with the clear blue- 
nefs of the veins pleaiingly intermixed about the temples 
and the going olF of the cheeks, and fct ofi' by the 
fuades of full eye-brows; and of the hair, when it falls 
in a proper manner round the face. 

It is for much the fame reafon that the befl land- 
fcape-painters have been generally obfervcd to choofe 
the autumnal part of the year for their pieces, rather 


than the fprlng. They prefer the variety of fliadcs Beawy. 
and colours, though in their decline, to all their Ircfli- " 
ncfs and verdure in their infancy ; and think all the 
charms and livelinefs evtn of the fprii.g, more than 
conipiiif.ittd by the choice, oppoliiion, ajid richncfs of 
colours, that appear aliuoll on every tree in the au- 

Though one's judgment is apt to Ik guided by par- 
ticular atiachmcnis (and that more perlups in this par: 
of beauty than any other), yet the geuer..l pcrfuulion 
fccms well founded, that a complete brown beauty is 
really preferable to a perfect fairone; iht bright brown 
giving a lultre to all the other colours, a vivacity to the 
eyes, and a richuels to the whole look, which one 
fecks in vain in the whitell and moll tranfparent fkins. 
Raphael's moll charming Madonna is a brunette 
beauty ; and his earlier Madonnas (or ihofe of his 
middle flylc) are generally of a lighter and lefs plealing 
complexion. All the bell artills in the noblell age of 
painting, about Leo the tenth's time, ufed this deeper 
and richer kind of colouring; and perhaps one might 
add, that the glaring lights introduced by Guido, went 
a great way towards the dcclcnfion of that art; as the 
enfeebling of the colours by Carlo Marat (or his fol- 
lowers) hath fuice almofl completed the fall of it in 

Under this article colour, it fecms doubtful whether 
fome things ought not to be comprehended which are 
not perhaps commonly meant by that name : As that 
appearing foftnefs or lilkinefs of fome fkins j that (a) 
Magdalen look in fome fine faces, after weeping ; that 
brightnefs, as well as tint, of the hair ; that lullre of 
health that fliines forth upon the features; that lumi- 
noufnefs that appears in fome eyes, and that fluid fire, 
or gliflering, in others: Some of which are of a na- 
ture lb much fuperior to the common beauties of co- 
lour, that they make it doubtful whether they llioulj 
not have been ranked under a higher clafs, and refer- 
ved for the expretlion of the pafEons. They arc, how- 
ever, mentioned here ; becaufe even the mofl doubtful 
of them appear to belong partly to this head, as well as 
partly to the other. 

2. Form. This takes in the turn of each part, as 
well as the fyrametry of the whole body, even to 
the turn of an eye-brow, or the falling of the hair. 
Perhaps too, the attitude, while fixed, ought to be 
reckoned under this article : By which is not only 
meant the poflure of the perfon, bat the poUtion of 
each part ; as the turning of the neck, the exiending 
of the hand, the placing of a foot ; and fo on to the 
mofl minute particulars. 

The general caufe of beauty in the form or fliape in 
both fexes is a proportion, or an union ajid harmony, 
in all parts of the body. 

I'he dillinguiflied charafler of beauty in the female 
form, is delicacy and foftnefs ; and in the male, either 


(a) The look here meant is mofl frequently exprefTed by the bed painters in their Magdalens ; in which, if 
there were no tears on the face, you would fee, by the hiuiiid rednefs of the fkin, that flie had been weeping 
extremely. There is a very flrong inflance of this in a Magdalen by Le Brun, in one of the churches at Paris; 
and feveral by Titian, in Italy ; the very beft of wliich is at the Barberino palace at Venice. In fpeaking of 
which, Rofalba hardly went too far, when flie faid, " It wept all over ;" or (in the very words Ihc ufed) " Elle 
pleurc jufqa' aux bouts de doigts." 

D E A 

[ 10 

Beauty, apparent flrength or agilit)'. The fiiic.1 exeinplars 
■ [bat can be fccn fur the t'oriiicr, is the Venus of Me- 
dici ; and for ilic two latter, the Ilcrculcs t'arnefc and 
the Apollo Belvedere. 

There is one ihing Indeed in the lafl of ihcfc figures 
which exceeds ihc bounds of our prcfcnt inquiry ; 
what an Iialiaii artid called II fovra utiiano ; and what 
we may call the iranfccndent, or cclcllial. It is fomc- 
ihing diflinfl from all human beauty, and of a nature 
greatly fuperior to it ; fomething that fccms like an 
air of divinity : Which is cxprcllcd, or at Itall is to be 
irnced out, in but very few works of the anifls ; and 
of which fcarce any of ihe poets liavc caught any ray 
in their defcriptions (or perhaps even in their ima- 
gination), except Homer and Virgil, among the an- 
cients; and Shakefpcare and Milton among the mo- 

The beauty of tlie mere human form is much fupe- 
rior to that of colour; and it may be partly foriiiis rca- 
fon, that when one is obfcrving tlic hnclt works of the 
artilb at Rome (where there is ilill the noblell coilec- 
lionofany in the world), one feels the mind more 
Aruck and more cliarmcd with the capital flatucs, than 
with the piiSlures of the greatcit mailers. 

One ot the old Roman poets, in fpeaking of a very 
handfome man, who was candidate for tiie prize in 
fomc of the public games, fays, that he was much tx- 
pected and much admired by all the fptdators at his 
iirll appearance ; but that, when helhrngofTliis robes, 
and difcovcred the whole beauty of his fliape altoge- 
ther, it was fo fuperior, that it quite txtinguilhed the 
Vol. 111. 

TM. vi. 

^ ] 13 E A 

beauties iliey Iiad before fo much admired in his fa-e. 
Much the fame clTlft may be (e!t inviewnig the Vcnns 
of Mcdici. 11 yo;i obferve the face only, it appears 
extremely beautiful ; but if you conlider all the other 
elegancies of her make, the bcauiy of her face becorats 
Icfs llriking, and is almolt loll in luch a muhipliciiy of 

Whoever would learn what makes the beauty of each 
part of the human body, may find it laid down pretty 
much at large, by (c) FclibU-n ; or may fludy it wiiii 
more p.lcafure tohinifcif, in the tincll piflurcs and ih- 
tucs; for in life we commonly fee but a fmail part of 
the human body, molt of it being either difguifcd or 
altered by what we call drcfs. 

In fait wc do not only thus, in a great mcafure, 
hide bcauiy ; but even injure, and kill it, by fome pans 
of drcfs. A child is no looncr born into the world, 
than it is bound up, aluioll as (irmly as an old Egyp- 
tian mummy, in fcveral folds of linen. It is in vaiii 
for him to give all the ligns of diftrcfs that nature has 
put in his power, to fliow how much he fuffcrs whilft 
they are thus imprifoniiig his limbs; or all the llgns 
of joy, every time ihcy arc let at liberty. In a fc\r 
minutes, the old witch who prefidcs over his infirmeft 
days, falls to lormeniing him alrclh, and winds him uji 
again in his dellincd confinement. When hecomtsio 
be drclt like a man, he has ligaiures applied to his 
arms, legs, and middle ; in Ihon, all over him ; to pre- 
vent the natural ciiculaiion of his blood, and make 
him lefs a>5live and healthy : and if it be a child of the 
tender fex, Ilic nmll be bound yet more firaitly a- 
O bout 


(c) In his Entrelicni, vol. ii. p. 14 — 4J. The chief of what he fays there, on ihe beauiy of the different 
parts of the female form, is as follows : That the head Ihould be well rounded ; and look raihcr inclining to 
Imall than large. The forehead, white, fmooih, and open (not with (he hair growing down too deep uponit); 
neither tlat nor prominent, but like the head, well rounded ; and rather fmall in proportion than large. The 
bair, either bright, black, or brown ; not thin, but full and waving ; and if it falls in moderate curls the bet- 
ter. The black is particularly ufeful for letting off the whitenefs of the neck and Ikin. The eyes, black, chef- 
nut, or blue ; clear, bright, and lively : and rather large in proportion than finall. The eye-brows, well 
diviiled, rather full than thin, feinicircular, and broader in the middle than at the ends; ofa neat turn, but 
not formal. The cheeks fliould not be wide ; fliould have a degree of pkimpneU, with the red and wlrie nncly 
blended together ; and ihould look firm and loft. The ear fliould be rather fmall than large ; well loldrd, and 
with an agreeable tinge of red. The nofe fliould be placed fo as to divide ilie face into two eq lal parts ; Ihould 
be of a moderate fize, llrait, and wcll-fquared ; though fomelimes a little riling in the nofe, which is but jull 
perceivable, may give a very graceful look to it. The mouth ihould be fmall ; and the lips not of equal ihick- 
nefs : They fnould be well turned, fmall rather than grofs ; foft, even to tlie eye ; and with a living red in 
ihem, A truly pretty mouth is like a rofe-bud that is beginning to blow. The leeih flio.ild be middle-nzid, 
white, well ranged, and even. Tlie chin of a moderate fize ; white, foft, and agreeably rounded. The 
neck (hould be white, ihaiglit, and ofa foft, cafy, and flexible make, rather long than ihort ; lefs above, and en- 
crcafiug gently toward the flioulders : The whitenefs and delicacy of its (kin (hould be continued, or rather go 
nn improving to the bnfom. The fkin in general Ihould be white, properly tinged with red ; ■ with an apparent 
foftnefs, and a look of thriving health in it. The flioulders fliould be while, gently fprcad, and with a much 
foftcr appearance of fircngth than in ihofe of men. The arm fliould be white, round, firm, and foft; ar.J 
more particularly fo from the elbow to the hands. The hand fhonld unite infenfibly with the arm ; juft as it docs 
in the llatuc of ilie Venus of Medici. They Ihculd be long and delicate, and even the joints and nervous parts 
of them (hould be without either any hardnefs or drynefs. The fingers fliould be fine, long, round, and foft ; 
fmall, and Icacning towards the tips of them : And the nails long, rounded at the ends, and pellucid. The 
bofvn fliould be white and charming ; and the breads equal in roundncfs, whitenefs, and firnniefs ; neither too 
much elevated nor too much dcpreflcd ; rifing gently, and very diftinftly frparatnl ; in one word, jurt like ihofe 
ofilie Venus of Medici. The (ides (hould be long, and the hips «idcr than the Ihouldeis; and (hould turn nfT 
as they do in the fame Venus ; and go down rounding and Icflcning gradually 10 the knee. The knee fl'^ould b« 
even, and well rounded : the legs (traight, but varied by a proper rounding of ihc more fieiliy part of ibeai ; 
andiiic feet finely turned, white, and little. 

B E A 

[ io6 ] 

B E A 

Ecauty. bout tlic waill and ftomach, to acquire a difproponioii 
' ' X ' that nature never meant in licr Ihape. 

Tlie two other conllitucnt pans of beauty, are cx- 
preflion and grace ; the former of which is common to 
all perfons and faces , and the latter is to be met sviih 
in very few. 

3. Exprcfflcn. By this is meant the expreflion of 
the pafiicns ; tiie turns and changes of the mind, fo 
far as they are made vifiblc to the eye by our looks or 

Though the mind appears principally in the face 
and attitudes of the head ; yet every partalmoft of the 
human body, on fome occalion or oihcr, may become 
txprefllve. Thus the languifliing hanging ol the arm, 
or the vchcmfnt exertion of it ; the pain exprclfcd by 
the fingers of one of the fons in the famous groupe of 
Laocoon, and in the toes of the dying gladiator. But 
this again is often loft among us by our drei's ; and in- 
deed is of thelefs concern, bccaufe the exprelfion of the 
palTions paifes chiefly in the face, which we (by good 
luck) have not as yet concealed. 

The parts of the face in which the paffions mofl 
frequently make their appearance, are the eyes and 
mouth i but from the eyes, they difTufe thcmfclvts 
very flrongly about tlie eye-brows; as, in the other 
cafe, they appear often in the parts all round the 

Philofophers may difpute as much as they pleafe a- 
bout the feat of the foul; but wherever it refides, we 
are fure that it fpcaks in the eyes. Perhaps it is injur- 
ing the eye-brows, to make ihemonly dependents on 
the eye; for they, efpecially in lively faces, have, as 
it were, a language of their own ; and are extremely 
varied, according to the different fentiments and paf- 
fions of the mind. 

DeiTrec of difpleafurc ra:iy be often difeerned in a la- 
dy's eye-brow, I hough file have addrefs enough not to 
let it appear iu her eyes ; and at other times may be 
difcovered fo much of her thoughts, in ihe line jult a- 
bove her eye-brows, that (he would probably be amaz- 
ed how any body could tell what paffed in her mind, 
and (as flic tlu)u;-ht) uiidifcovered by her face, fo par- 
ticularly and diftiniily. 

Homer makes the eye-brows the feat of (d) majefly, 
Virgil of (e) dejeelion, Horace of (k) modelly, and 
Juvenal of (c) pride; and it is not certain whether 
every one of the pallions be not afligncd, by one or 0- 
thcrof the poets, to the fame part. 

Having hitherto fpoken only of the pafTions in ge- Bciuty. 

ncral, we will now confidcr a little which of them add * ^ 

to beauty, and which of them take from it. 

We may fay, in general, that all the tender and 
kind pallions add to beauty ; and all the cruel and un- 
kind ones add to deformity : And it is on this account 
that good nature may very julily befaid to be " the bcft 
feature even in the fineft face." 

Mr Pope has included the principal pafTionofeach 
fort in two very pretty lines : 

Love, liojie, and joy, fair pleafure's fmiling train ; 
Hate, fear, and grief, the family of pain. 

The former of which naturally give an additional luflrc 
and enlivening to beauty ; as the latter arc too apt to 
iiing a gloom and cloud over ir. 

Yet in thefc, and all the other padions, moderation 
ought perhaps to be eonfidercd in a great meafure ihc 
rule of their beauty, almofl as far as moderation in ac- 
tions is the rule of virtue. Thus an excclFive joy may 
be too boillcrous in the face to be pleafing ; and a de- 
gree of grief, in fome faces, and on fome occafions, 
may be extremely beautiful. Some degrees of anger, 
fliame, furpiife, fear, and concern are beautiful ; but 
all exccfs is hurtful, and all excefsugly. Dulncfs, au- 
fterity, impudence, pride, afieelaiion, malice, and en- 
vy, are always ugly. 

The fined union of pafTions that can perhaps be ob- 
fcrvcd in any face, conlifts of a jufl mixure of modcfly, 
fcnfdiility, and fv.ceinefs ; each of which when taken 
fuigly is very plealing : but when they are all blended 
together, in fuch a manner as either to enliven or cor- 
ri ft each other, they give almofl as much atiraQion 
as the paflions are capable of adding to a very pretty 

The prevailing palTion in the Venus of Medici is 
modelly : It is exprcfl by each of her hands, in her 
looks, and in the turn of her head. And by the way, 
it may be queftioned, whether one of the chief rcafons 
why fide-faces jileafe one more than full ones, be not 
from tiie former having more of the air of modcfly than 
tl-,e latter. This atleaff is certain, that the beft artifts 
ultially chcofetogivc a fide-face ratlier than a fall one : 
in which attitude, the turn of the neck too has more 
beauty, and the paffions more activity and force. Thus, 
as to hatred and affeftion in particular, the look that 
was formerly fuppofed to carry an infeftion with ir 
from malignant eyes, was a flanting regard ; like that 


AjxCftio-iai J' Ufa ^atiTai iwiffrdrafm «v«ktoc 

It was from this paffagc that Phidias bovrovvcu all the ideas of that majefly which he had cxprefTed fo flongly 

in his famous ftatues of the Jupiter Olympus ; and Horace, probably, his Cunfta fupcrcilio movcntis- 

Lip. iii. OJ. 1. 8. 

(e) Froiis lata parum, ct dejeJlo lumina vultu. VirgU, JE?i. vi. 863. 
(r) Deme fupercilio nubcm ; plerumque modcftus 

Occupat obfcuri fpeciem. Horai. lib. i. £piR. 18. 95. 

(g) Malo Venufinam, quam te, Cornelia, mater 
Graccliorum ; fi cum magnis virtutibus affcrs 

Grande lupercilium, et numcras in dote triumphos. Juvenal, Sat. vi. 16S. 
It is here that the Romans ufcd the \\qi^ fi^crciiiojin (as we do from it the wovd fulercilions) for proud and 
arrogant perfons. 

B E A 

BcMity. which Milton gives to Satan, when he is viewing the 

■ — ' happinefs of our firll parents in paradilc ; and the faf- 

cination, or ftroke of love, is moll ufualiy convcycil, at 
firft, in a lide-glance. 

It is owing to the great force of pleafingnefs which 
attends all the kinder pallions, " that lovers do not 
only fccm, but arc really, more bcaniiln! to each other 
than they are to the relt of the world ;" hccaiife when 
they are together, the mod pleallng palTions arc more 
frequently exerted in each of their faces than they are 
in eiilier before the refl of the world. TJiercisthcn 
(»s a certain French writer very well exprcflcs it) "A 
foul n;)on their countenances," which does not appear 
W'hcn they arc abfcnt from each other ; or even when 
they arc together convcrfing with other perfons, that 
are indifferent to them, or rather lay a rellraint upon 
their features. 

The fupcriority wliich the beauty of the paflions 
has over the two parts of beauty firfl mentioned, 
will probably be now pretty evident: or if this fliould 
appear Hill problematical to any one, let them conlider 
a little the following particulars, of wliich every body 
mud have met with feveral inflances in their lifetime. 
That there is a great deal of difference in the fame 
face, according as the perfon is in a better or worfe 
humour, or in a greater or Icfs degree of livclinefs: 
That the belt complexion, the fined features, and the 
exaclell fliape, without any thing of tlie mind ex- 
prelFed on the face, arc as infipid and nnrnoving as the 
waxen figure of the tine Duchefs of Richmond in 
Wcftminder-Abbey : That the fined eyes in the world, 
with an excefs of malice or rage in them, will grow 
as fliocking as they arc in that fine face of Medufaon 
the famous fcal in the Strozzi family at Rome : That 
a face witliout any good features in it, and with a very 
indifferent complexion, fliall have a very taking air ; 
from the fenfibility of the eyes, the general good-hu- 
moured turn of the look, and pcrliaps a little agree- 
able fmile about the mouth. And ilicfe three things 
perhaps would go a great way towards accounting for 
the Ji ni fcj't quoi, or that inexplicable pleafingnefs of 
the face (as they choofe to call it), which is fo often 
talked of and fo little underdood ; as the greater part, 
and perhaps all the red of it, would fall under the lad 
article, that of grace. 

Thus it appears that the palTions can give beauty 
without the adidancc of colour or form ; and take it 
aw.ay where they have united the mod drongly to give 
it. And hence the fupcriority of this part of beauty 
to the other two. 

This, by the way, may htip us to account for the 
iudncfs of what Pliny alFerts in fpeaking oi the famous 
daiue of Laocoon and histwofons: lie fays, it was 
the fined piece of art in Rome ; and t^ be preferred 
to all the other datnes and pidures, of whicli they had 
fa noble a collcftion in his time. It had no beauties 
of colours to vie with the paintings and other datucs 
there ; as the Apollo Belvedere and the Venus of Mc- 
cici, in particular, were as finely proportioned as the 
Laocoon •■ But this had much greater variety of ex- 
prellion even than thole tine ones ; and it nuid be on 
ihat account alone that it could have been preferable 
to ilicni and all the reil. 

Before quitting this head, two things before men- 

[ 107 ] B E A 

tioned dcfcrve to be repeated : That the chief rule of 
the beauty of the palTions is moderation ; and that the ' 
part in which they appear mod dron,'ly is the eyes. 
It is there that love holds all his tcndrrtd language: 
It is there that virtue commands, mode fty charms, joy 
enlivens, forrow engages, and inclination fires the 
hearts of the beholders : It is there that even fear, and 
anger, and confufion, can be charnjir.g. But all thtfc, 
to be charming, m. ill be kept viihin their due bounds 
and liuiits; for too fullen an a'praranccof virtue, a 
violent and profiitute fwell oi palKon, a rndic and over- 
whelming niodedy, a deep fadnefs, or 100 wild and 
impetuous a joy, become all ei;hcr opprcCivc or dif- 

4. The lad finifhing and noblcll part of bcai;ty is 
Grace; which every body is accudomcd to Ipcak of as 
a thing inexplicable; and in a great meafarc perhaps 
it is fo. We know that the foul is, but we Icarce know 
W'hat it is : every judge of beauty can point out grace ; 
but no one feems even yet to have fixed upon a defini- 
tion for it. 

Grace often depends on fome very little incidents 
in a fine face; and in action it confids more in the 
manner of doing things than in the things thcmfclves. 
It is perpetually varying its appearance, and is there- 
fore nuich more diflicult to be confidcred than in any 
thing fixed and deady. While you look upon one, 
it deals from under the eye of thcobferver; and is 
focceeded perhaps by another that flits away as foon 
and as imperceptibly. It is on this account that grace 
is better to be diidicd in Corregio's, Guide's, and Ra- 
phael's pi(5liires, than in real life. 

But though one cannot punflually fay what grace is, 
we may point out the parts and things in which it is 
mod apt to appear. 

The chief dwelling-place of grace is al>out tlic 
nioutlt; though at times it may vilit every limb or 
part of the body. But the mouth is the chief feat of 
grace, as much as the chief feat for the beauty of ihc 
pafTions is in the eyes. Thus, when the French ufe 
the cxprefnon of unc bouchc fort gracictife, they mean 
it properly of grace; bat when they fay dcsycuxtres 
graciciix, it then falls to the iLarc of the paflions ; and 
it means kind or favourable. 

In a very graceful face, by which we do not fo much 
mean a niajedic as a foft and pleailng one, there is 
now and then (for no part of beauty is either fo en- 
gaging or lb uncommon) a certain dclicioufnefs that 
almoft always lives about the moiiih, in fomcthing not 
quite enough to be called a fmile, but ratlier an ap- 
proach toward one, w'hich varies gently about the dif- 
ferent lines there like a little fiutlcring Cupid, .ind )>cr- 
haps fomctimes difcovers a little dimple, that after juft 
lightening upon yon difappcars and appears again by 

The grace of attitudes may belong to the pofiiioii 
of each part, es well as to the carriage or difix)litioii 
of the whole body: but how much more it belongs to 
the head than to any other part may be feen in the 
pieces of jhc mod celebrated p.Tinfers ; and pariicular- 
ly in lliofe of Guido, who has been Mtlicr too lavifli 
in bcdowing this beauty on almod all bis fine women ; 
whereas nature I'.as given ii in Id iiigh a degree but to 
very few. 

O 2 The 



Dt art! A- 
rttindit ii. 

5 70. 

(!, 2. S. 

B E A [ lo 

The turns of the luck are extremely capable uf 
grace, and arc very cafy to be oljfcrvcd, ilioiigh very 
difficult to be accoiir.icd tor. 

Hoiv much of this grace may belong to the arms 
and feet, as well .is the neck and head, may be fcen 
in dancing. But it is no: only in genteel mouons tliat 
a very pretty woman will be jjracclul ; and Ovid (who 
was fo great a mailer in all the parts of beauty) had 
very good rcafoii for faying, Tliat when Venus, to 
jilcafe her gallant, imitated the hobbling gait of her 
Imlbind, her very lamencfs had a great deal of preiii- 
ncfs and grace in it. 

" Every motion of a graceful woman (fays another 
writer of the fame age) is full of grace." She de- 
figns nothing by it perhaps, and may even not be fcn- 
lible of ithcrfclf; and indeed Ihe lliould not be fo too 
much; for the momctit that any gellure or aition ap- 
pears to be afiefted, it ceafcs to be graceful. 

Horace and Virgil fcem to extend grace fo far as to 
the flowing of the hair, and TibuUus even to the drefs 
of his miftrefs ; but tiu-n he aiUi^ns it more to her man- 
ner of putting on and appearing in whatever Ihe wears 
than to the d'refs itfclf. It is true, there is another 
wicked poet (Ovid) who has faid (v;ith much lefs 
decency) " that drefs is the better half of the wo- 
man :" 

Pan 7!ti/!iiiia cfl ipfa fuella fu'i. Ovid. 

There are two very diftindt (and, as it were, oppo- 
fite) forts of grace; the majellic and the familiar. 
The former belongs chiefly to the very fine women, 
and the latter to the very /'rf//> ones: That is more 
commanding, and thh the more delightful and engag- 
ing. The Grecian painters and fculptors ufed to ex- 
prefs the former moll llrongly in the looks and atti- 
tudes of their Miuervas, and the latter in thofc of 

Xenophon, in his Choice of Hercules (or at leaft 
the excellent tranllator of that pifce) has made jull 
the fame diflinaion in tiie perfonages of wifdom and 
pleafure; the former of which he defcribes as moving 
on to that young hero with the majeftic fort of grace ; 
and the latter with the familiar: 

Graceful, yet each with different grace they move ; 
This ftriking facred awe, that fofter winning love. 

No poet feeras to have nnderflood this part of 
beauty fo well as Milton. He fpeaks of thtfe two 
forts of grace very dillimflly; and gives the ma- 
jeftic to his Adam, and both the familiar and majeftic 
to Eve; but the latter in a lefs degree than tlic for- 

Two of the far nobler fhape, erefl and tall. 
Godlike creft, with native honour clad, 
In naked majefty, fecm'd lords of all ; 
And worthy feem'd. For in ihtir looks divine 
The image of their glorious maker fjionc : 
Truth, wifdom, fanrtitude ftvere and pure : 
Severe, but in true filial freedom plac'd ; 
Whence true authority in men : Though both. 
Not equal, as their fex not equal, fecm'd. 
For contemplation he, and valour, form'd ; 
\ox foftnefs llie, and fweet attraflivc grace. 

Milton's Par. Un, B. iv. 298. 

8 ] B E A 

-I cfpied ihce, fair indeed and tall. 


Under 3 plantain; yet methought lefs fair. 
Let's winning foft, lefs amiably mild. 

Thin that fmooth watery imajje. 

(£:'f, oj Adajii a>id herj'clj) Jh. ver. 480. 

. Her hcav'nly form 

Angelic, but more foft and feminine; 

Her graceful innocence ; her ev'ry air 

Of gcfturc, or leaft aflion. B. ix. 461. 

Grace was in all her ftcps : Heav'n in her eye ; 

In every gefturc, dignity and love. B. viii. 489. 

Speaking, or inute, all comelincfs and grace 
Attends thee ; and each word, each motion fortns. 

Ih. 223. 

Though grace is fo difKcult to be accounted for in 
general, yet there are two particular things which 
fcem to hold nniverfally in relation to it. 

The firft is, " That there is no grace without mo- 
tion," that is, without fome genteel or pleating mo- 
tion, cither of the whole body or of fome limb, or at 
leall of fome feature. And it may be hence that Lord 
B.icon calls grace by the natnc of decent motion ; juft iVurh. 
as if they were equivalent terms: " In beauty, that vol. iii- 
of favour is more than that of colour; and that ofP-J"* 
gracious and decent motion, more than (hat of fa- 

Virgil in one place points out the majefty of Juno, jC/i. i. ^^. 
and in another the graceful air of Apollo, by only iv. i47- 
faying that they move ; and polhbly he means no niorc 
when he makes the motion of Venus the principal ^,.1.406. 
thing by which /Eneas difcovers her under all hcrdif- 
guife; though the commentators, as ufual, would fain 
find out a more dark and myfterious meaning for it. 

All tile heft llatues are reprefcnted as in fome aflion 
or motion; and the moft graceful ftatue in the world 
(the Apollo Belvedere) is To much fo, that when one 
faces it at a little dillance, one is almoft apt 10 imagine 
that he is aftually going to move on toward you. 

All graceful heads, even in the portraits of the bed 
painters, are in motion; and very ftrongly on thofe of 
Guido in particular ; which are ail either eafting their 
looks up towards heaven, or down towards the ground, 
or fiJc-way, as regarding fome objedl. A head that 
is quite nnaftive, and flung flat upon the canvas (like 
the faces on medals after the fall of the Roman em- 
pire, or the Gothic heads before the revival of the 
arts), will be fo far from havin^kny grace, that it will 
not even have any life in it. 

The fecond obfervation is, " that there can be no 
grace with impropriety ;" or, in other w-ords, that 
nothing can be graceful that is not adapted 10 the 
charaflers of the perfon. 

The graces of a little lively beauty would become 
ungraceful in a charafler of majefty; as the majeftic 
airs of an emprefs would quite deflroy the prettinefs 
of the former. The vivacity that adds a grace to 
beauty in youth would give an additional deformity to 
old age ; and the very fame airs which would be 
charming on fome occafions may be quite fhocking 
when extremely niiftimed or extremely n-ifplaecd. 

The infep.jrable union of propriety and grace feems 
to h:ive been the general fenfe of mankind, as we may 
gutfsfrom the languages of fcveral nations ; in which 


B E A [I 

iMiitf. fome words that anfwer lo our proper or Ifcoiniii}^, arc 

' " 'uled inililFereiitly tor bcaiuif'ul or graceful. Thus, 

among the Greeks, ilic words npi»r« aiui K«)ior, and 

among the Romans j>utchnim and dtcens, or dccormn, 

are uled indifrtrently for one another. 

It appears wrong, however, to think (as fome have 
done) that grace coiilifts entirely in propriety ; bccauCe 
propriety is a thing cafy enough to be undcrHooJ, and 
grace (after all wc can fay about it) very difficult. 
Propriety, therefore, and grace are no more one and 
the fame thing than grace and motion arc. It is true, 
it cannot fubfill without either : but then there fcems 
tobc fomethng elfe, which cannot be explained, that 
goes to the couipofiiion, and which polfibly may give 
its grcateft force and pleafmgnefs. 

AVhatevcr are the caules of it, this is certain, that 
grace is the chief of all the conflitucnt parts of beau- 
ty ; and fo much fo, that it feenis to be llic only one 
which is abfoUuely and univerfally admired : All the 
relt arc only relative. One likes a brunette beauty 
better than a fair one ; I may love a little wotiian, and 
you a large one, beil ; a perfon of a mild temper will 
be fond of the gentler jiailions in the face, and one 
ot a bolder caft may chool'e to have more vivacity and 
more vigorous paflions exprelfed there : But grace is 
found in few, and is pleafing to all. Grace, like poe- 
try, mud be born with a perfon, and is never wholly 
to be acquired by art. The moll cclcbratei! of all the 
ancient painters was Apellcs ; and the molt celebrated 
of all the modern Raphael: And it is remarkable, 
that the diftinguilhing charader of each of them 
was grace. Indeed, that alone coidd have given them 
fo high a pre-eminence over all their other competi- 

Grace has nothing to do with the lowcll part of 
beauty or colour ; very little with ll'.ape, and very 
much with ihc pallions ; for it is flic who gives their 
higlicd zert, and the mofl delicious part of their plea- 
fmgnefs to the exprclfioiis of each of them. 

All the other parts of beauty are plealnig in foinc 
degree, but grace is plcallngnefs iilelf. And ihe old 
Romans in general fecm to have had this notion of 
it, as may be inferred from the original import of the 
names which they ufed for this part of beauty: Cra- 
tin from grains, or "pleafuig;" and (/tear Ironi di:- 
fi7is, or " becoming." 

The Greeks as well as the Romans mufl have been 
of this opinion ; when in fettlitig ilicir mythology, tlicy 
made the graces the conflant attendants of Venus or 
the caufe of love. In faft, there is nothing caufcs love 
fo genenlly and fo irrefiftibly as grace. It is like the 
Cellus of the faine goddefs, which was fuppofed to com- 
prehend every thing that was winning and engaging 
in it; and bcfidc all, to oblige the heart to love by a 
fccret and inexplicable force like that of fome magic 

She faid, with awe divine, the qaccn of love 
ObcyM the filler and the wite ot Jove : 
And from her fragrant brca/l the zone rnbrac'd, 
With various (kill and high embroidery grac'd. 
In this was every an, and every chann, 
To win the wifeft, and the coldcft wann : 
Fond love, the gentle vow, ilic gay dcfirr, 
Th« kiiul deceit^ the Hill reviving tire. 

>9 ] 

B E A 

Pcrfuafivc fpccch, and more peifuafive fighs, 
Silence that fpoke, and eloquence of eyes. 
This on her hand the Cyprian goddefs laid ; 
Take this, and with it all thy willi, (lie faid : 
With nnilcs (he took the cha'rm ; and fmiliiig prtft 
The pow'rful Ceftus to her fi;owy breaft. 

Pop:, 11. xiv. 256. 
Although people in general are more capable of 
judging right of beauty, at leaft in fome parts of it, 
than they are of mofl other things; yet there are a 
great many caufes apt to millead the generality in their 
judgments of beauty. Thus, if the affcaion is entirely 
engaged by atiy one objefl, a man is apt to allow all 
pcrtedions to that perfon, and very little in comparifon 
to any body elfe ; or if they ever commend others high- 
ly, it is for fome circumftance in wliich they bear fon.c 
lefcmblance to their favourite object. 

Again, people aie very often milled in their judgments, 
by a limilittide either of their own temper or perfonagc 
in others. It is hence that a perfon of a mild temper 
is more apt 10 be jOeafed with the gentler palfions in 
t!ic face of his millrefs ; and one of a very lively turn 
would clioofe more of fpirit and vivacity in liis ; that 
little people are inclined to preftr pretty women, and 
larger people majetlic ones; and fo on in a great varie- 
ty of inllances. This m.-.y be called falling in love 
with ourfelves at fecond hand; and felf-love (whatever 
other love may be) is fomctimes fo falfc-fighted, that 
it may make the mod plain, and even the moft difa- 
greeable things, fecm beautitui and plealing. 

Sometimes an idea of ufefulnefs may give a turn to 
our ideas of beauty ; as the very fame things are reck- 
oned beauties in a coach-horfe which would be fo many 
blcniilhes in a race-horfc. 

fiutthe greaieft and n;oA general mi (leader of our 
judgments, in relation 10 beauty, is cuflom, or the dif- 
ferent national tafies for beauty, which turn chiefly on 
the two lower parts of it, colour and form. 

It was from the molt common fliajie of his country- 
women, that Rubens, in hispiitures, delights fo much 
in pliinipnefs ; not to give it a worl^c name. When- 
ever he was to reprefeiit the moll bcamiful women, he 
is furc to give them a good lliare of corpulence. Jt 
fecms as if nobody could be a beauty with him under 
two hundred weight. His very graces arc all fat. 

But this may go much farther than mere bulk ; it 
will reach even to very great del'ormiiies ; which fomc- 
times grow into beauties, where they are habituil 
and general. A ctrtain EnL'linniian (who was a par- 
ticularly h,uidfo:ne mill) in his travelling over llic 
Alps, was detained by a fever in one of thole villages, 
where every grown perfon has that fort of fwellings in 
the neck which they call goitres ; and of which tome 
are very near as bi^ as their heads. The firil Sunday 
that he was able, he went to ihtir cluircli (for he was 
a Roman catholic) to return thanks 10 licaven for liis 
recovery. A man of fo good .■» figure, and fo well 
drefl, hail probably never before been witiiin the walls 
of that chcpel. tvery body's eyes were fixed upon 
him ; and as they went out, they cried out loud 
enough for him to hear them, " O how completely 
handlomc woidd that man be, if he had but igi'itrc ! 
In l()me of the luofl military nations of Africa, no 
mau is reckoned banJfoinc that has not £ve cr f.x fears 



B E A 

[ MO ] 

B E B 

beauty, in his face. Tiiis ciiflom might pofril)ly at iirA be in- 

' •^ — ' trodiicci! anion;;; ihem toniakc ihcm Icfs afraid of wounds 

in that pare in bank: but however iliat was, ii grew 
at lart 10 liavc fo great a (liarc in their idea of beauty, 
(hat they now cut and llafii the faces of their poor lit- 
tle infants, in order to j^ivc tiiciii ihofe f^raccs, when 
they arc grown up, wliich are fo neceilary to win the 
heartsof their miflreires ; and which, with the alhll- 
ance of fome jewels or iii;;ots of gold in ilicir notes, 
ears, and lips, nuill certainly be irrel'iltible to the la- 
dies of that coiintry. 

The covering each check all over wiili a burning fort 
of red colour, has long been looked upon in a neigh- 
bouring country to be as iiccciTary to render alinelady's 
face completely beautiful, as thefc fears arc for the 
beaux in Africa. 

Tiie natural complexion of the Italian ladies is of a 
higher glow than ours ufualiyare; and yit Mr Addi- 
fon is very juft, in making a Numidiancall the ladies 
of the fame country pate, unripened, beauties. 

The glowing dames of Zama's royal court 
Have faces HuQit with more exalted charms: 
The fun, that rolls his chariot o'er their heads, 
Works up more fire and colour in their cheeks : 
Were you with thefc, my prince, you'd foou forget 
The pale, unripen'd beauties of the north ! 

Syphax to Juba; in Cati, Act i. Scene 4. 

The prince of Anamahoo, who had been fo long and 
lately fo much ufed to the European complexion, yet 
faid of a certain lady a little before he left London, 
" That Ihe would be the moft charming woman in the 
world if Ihe was but a negro." 

In an account of fome of the farthcfl travels that 
any Europeans have made up the river Gambia, we 
are informed, that when they came to fome villages 
where probably no Europeans had ever been before, 
the women ran frightened and fcreaming frum them, 
on taking them to be devils, merely on account of the 
whitenefs of their complexion. 

We cannot avoid obferving, however, that heaven is 
very good and merciful to mankind, even in making us 
capable of all this variety of miflakes. If every perfon 
judged cxa^^ly right of beauty, every man that was in 
love in fuch a diflrii!!:, would be in love witli the fame 
woman. The fuperior beauty of each hamlet would 
be the objeA of the lute and malice of all the refl of 
her own fex in it, and the caufe of diflenfion and mur- 
ders among all of the other. If this would hold in 
one town, it would hold for the fame reafons in every 
other town or diftrift ; and of courfe there would be 
nothing more wanting than this univerfal right judge- 
ment of beauty, to render the whole world one conti- 
nued fccne of blood and mifery. 

But now that fancy has perhaps more to do with 
beauty tlian judgment, there is an infinity of taftes, 
and confeqaently an infinity of beauty ; for to the 
mind of the lover, fuppolcd beauty is full as good as 
real. Every body may now choofc out what Jiappcns 
to hit his own turn and call. This increales the ex- 
tent of beauty vaflly, and makes it in a manner univer- 
fal : for there are but few people in comparifon tliat 
are truly beautiful ; but every body may be beautiful 
in the imagination of fome one or other. Some may 
delight thcmfelvcs in a blackfkin, and others in a white ; 

fome in a gentle natural rofincfs of complexion, ethers Beauty, 
in a liigh exalted artificial red ; fome nations in waills II 
difproponionably large, and another in waifts as difpro- . "'y'^"' 
poriionably finall. In ihort, the mofl oppofite things 
imaginable may each be looked upon as beautiful in 
whole different countries, or by difi'crcnt people in the 
fame country. 

W"e ihonld perhaps make a diflimftion Iiere again, as 
to the two former parts of beauty and the two latter. 
Fancy has nmch more to do in the articles of form and 
colour than in thole of the p.nilions and grace. The 
good pallions, as they are vilible on the face, are ap- 
parent goodnefs , and that mufl be generally amiable : 
and true grace, wherever it appears to any degree, 
one Ihould think mull be pleafing to every human crea- 
ture ; or perhaps this may never appear in the women 
of any nation, where the men are grown fo favnge and 
brutal as to have loft all taftc for it. 

Yet even as to grace itfelf, under the notion of 
plcalingnefs, it inay become almoft univerfal, and be 
as fubjeft to the dominion of fancy as any of the lefs 
fignificant parts of beauty. A parent can fee geHteel- 
ncfs in the moll aukward child perhaps that ever was 
born ; and a perfon who is truly in love, will be pleafed 
with every motion and air of the perfon beloved ; which 
is the mofl diftinguifliing character that belongs to 
grace. It is true, this is all a miftaken grace ; but as to 
that particular perfon, it has all the cfi'cds of the true. 

Beauty, in architefturc, painting, and other arts, 
is the harmony and julhicfs of the whole coinpofitioii 
taken together. 

BEAUVAIS, an epifcopal city in the Ifle of France, 
and capital of the Beauvoilis. The cathedral church is 
dedicated to St Peter, and is much admired for its fine 
architefture. It contains a great number of relics, and 
a library of curious books. There are feveral other 
churches, among which is one dedicated to St Stephen, 
remarkable for its curious windows. The town was in- 
efFetlually befieged by the Englifli in 1445, and by the 
Duke of Burgundy with an army of 80,000 men. In 
this laft liege the women fignalized ihemlelvcs under 
the conduft of Jeane Hachette, who fet up a ftandard 
yet preferved in the church of the Jacobins. TlieDuke 
was obliged to raife the fiege ; and in memory of the 
womens exploits, they walk firft in procellion on the 
lothofjuly, the anniverfary of their deliverance. The 
inhabitants carry on a good trade in beautiful tapeflry. 
Beauvais is lituated on the river Therin, in E. Long. 
2. 15. N. Lat. 49. 26. 

Beauvais, a town of France in Upper Langucdoc, 
feated on the river Tefcou. E. Long. I. 43. N. Lat. 

BEAUVIN, a city of Burgundy in F'rancc, in E. 
Long. 4. JO. N. Lat. 47. 

BEAU VOIR fur Mer, a maritime town of Poiiffon, 
in France, with the title of Marquifate. W. Long. i. 
5. N. Lat. 46. 4;. 

BEAUVOISIS, a territory of France, formerly part 
of Picardy, but now of the Illeof Fj-ance. Beauvais is 
the capital. 

BEBELINGUEN, a town of Germany, in the 
duchy of Wirtemburg, feated on a lake from which 
proceeds the river Worm. E. Long. 9. 8. N. Lat. 
48. 4J. 

BEBRYCIA, (anc. gcofr.^ and ancient of 


B E C 

[ III ] 

B E C 

Buhyiiia, fj called from tlic Bcbryces its inliabitanis. 
The Bcbryces were afierwards driven out by the Thra- 
cians, viz. the Bithyni and Thyiii ; from whom, in 
procefs of time, the coantry took the name of £/'//>- 
itia. Sec Bithynia. 

BEC, a town of Krance, in Normandy, feated pn a 
tongue of land, at the continence of two rivers, in E. 
Long. o. 52. N. Lat. 48. 45. 

Br^CAIi, orBEKAH, a Jewilli coin, bcinj; half a 
fhekel. In Dr Arbuthnot's table of redjclions, the 
bckah amounts to 15; ul. in Dr Pridcau.\'s computa- 
tion to IS. 6d. Every Ifraeliic paid an hundred bekahs 
a head annually for the fupport of the temple. 

BECALM, in a general fenfe, fignilies to appeafe, 
to allay. 

Becalm, in the fea language. A (hip is faid to be 
becalmed, when there is not a breath of wind to till the 

BECAXOR, a town of India, in Ada, feated on 
the river Gangies, in E. Long. 83. 5. N. Lat. 27. 40. 

BECCABUNGA, brooklime ; the trivial name of 
a fpecies of veronica. See Veronica. 

BECCLES, a large town of Suffolk in England, 
in E. Long. i. 30. N. Lat. 52. 38. 

BECHER (John Joachim), a celebrated chemift, 
was born at Spires, in 1645. He was connecftcd with 
the mod learned men in Europe ; and the emperor, the 
cleftors of Mentz and Bavaria, and other pcrfons of 
high rank, furnilhed him with the meansof makingex- 
perimcnt.-; in mathematics, natural philofophy, medicine, 
andchemilliy. As his thoughts were very judicious and 
uncommon with rclpci^ to ccconoray and to incrcafing 
the revenues of a llaie, he was invited to Vienna, where 
he contributed greatly to the ertablifliment of feveral 
manufadures, a chamber of commerce, and an India 
company ; but the jealoufy of fomc of the minifters oc- 
cafioned his difgracc and ruin. He was not lei's un- 
happy at Mentz, Munich, and Wurtzburg; which de- 
termined him to go to Haerlcm, v. lierc he invented a 
machine for working a great quantity of filk in a little 
time, and with few hands : but new misfortunes made 
him come to England, and he died at London in 168 j. 
He wrote many works ; t!ie principal of which are, 
I . Pbyftca SubterraKea, which was reprinted at Leiplic in 
1703, and in 1739, in Oi5lavo, with a fmall trcatife, by 
E. Stahl, intiiled Specime?: Bichirianum. 2. Expcri- 
viiiitumchymicu7n novum, 8vo. 3. Charalier pro No- 
iitia Liiiguarum univerfali. 4. Iiiftiliitiones Chyviicx, 
fill Maiiududio ad Philofophiam Hcrmttkavi, 410. 
5. IiiJIituiioiies Chjmica prodrojiur, l2mo. 6. Exp:- 
r'lmentujn jiovum ac cuiiofum de Alincra arenaiia p:i- 
fitiiit, &c. 

BECHIN, a town of Bohemia, in a circle of tl e 
fame name. It was taken and burnt by General li •- 
qaoi in 1619. It is feated on the river Laufnics, \.\ 
E. Long. 15. 12. N. Lat. 49. 14. 

BECK, or Beke, a word which imports a : .1 
ftreani of water ill'uing from fomc burn or f; . .;. 
Hence Bell becks, little brooks in the rough ani: v, ild 
mountains about Richmond near Lancafliirc, fo ; lied 
on account of their ghaftlincfs and depth. 

Beck is chiefly ufcd among us in the compoi i.a of 
names of places originally fituated on rivulets : iicncc 
Walbcck, Bournbcck, &c. The Germans uft hick in 
die fame manner. 

BECK, (D.ivid) an eminent portrait-painter, 
born at Arnhcim in Gicldcrland in 1621, and became 
a dilciple of Vandyck ; from whom he acquired a line ' 
manner of penciling, and that fwtct llylc of colouring 
which is peculiar to that great niaftcr and to all the 
difciplcs trained up under his direction. He pfrtfUtd 
beli.ies, that freedom of hand, and rcadincfs, or rather 
rapidity of execution, for which Vandyck was fo re- 
markably famous; and King Charles I. when he ob- 
fervcd the expeditious manner of Beck's painting, was 
fo cxcecdinglyfurprifed, that he told Beck, it was his 
opinion, he could paint if he was riding port. He was 
appointed portrait-painter and chamberlain to Qiiecu 
Chriftina of Sweden ; and by her recommendation, 
moft of the illuilrious perfons in Europe fat to him for 
their pianrcs. He was agreeable, hanulomc, and po- 
lite, and lived in the highefl favour with his royal nii- 
flrefs : but, having an earneft dcfire to vifit his friends 
in Holland, and leaving the court of Sweden ranch 
againfl the Qiieen's inclination, fhc apprehended that 
he iiitcndcd never to return ; and, as he died foon af- 
ter at the Hague, it was fufpeded that he waspoifon- 
ed. This happened in 1656, when he was aged only 
35 years. — A very fmgular adventure happened to this 
painter as he travelled through Germany, wliich feems 
not unworthy of being recited. He was fuddcnly and 
violently taken ill at the inn where he lodged, and was 
laid out as a corpfe, feeming to all appearance quite 
dead. His valets exprelTed the flrongcU marks of grief 
for the lofs of their mailer, and while they fat behdc 
his bed, they drank very freely, by way of confolatioii. 
At lafl one of them, who grew much intoxicated, faid 
to his companions, our mailer was fond of his glafs 
while he was alive, and out of gratitude let us give him 
a glafs now he is dead. As the reft of the fcrvants af- 
fented to the propolal, he raifed up the bead of his 
mafter and endeavoured to pour fomc of the liquor into 
his mouth. By the fragrance of the wine, or probably 
by a fmall quantity that imperceptibly got down his 
throat, Beck opened his eyes; and the fervant being 
exceflively drunk, and forgetting that ])is mailer was 
confidercd as dead, compelled him to fwallow what 
wine remained in the glafs. The painter gradually re- 
vived, and by proper management and care recovered 
perfectly, and efcaped a premature interment — How 
highly the works of this mailer were efteemed, may 
appear from the many marks of dillinflion and honour 
which were Ihown him ; for he received from different 
princes, as an acknowledgment of his lingular merit, 
nine gold chains, and feveral medals of gold of a large 

BECKET (Thomas)i lord chancellor of England, 
archbilliop of Canterbury in the 12th century. The 
Ilory of his birth is as extraordinary as that of his life. 
It is related, that his father Gilbert Bcckct, fomc time 
(heriti of London, went on a pilgrimage to Icrufalcin, 
where being fiirprifcd and cnllaved by a party of Sa- 
racens, his mailer's daughter fell in love with him; and 
that when he made his cfcapc, flic followed him to Lon- 
don. So fmgular an inllancc of heroic affctTion Ilruck 
him; and after confulting with fomc bifl'.ops, he bap- 
tized her by the name of MuilJti, and married her j 
from which marriage proceeded the haughty Thomas 
Bcckct. Being raiLd to the archbiihopric, he began 



B E C 

[ 112 ] 

B E C 

BccVet. the great difpiue between the crown siiJ tlie miirc, 

' 1'— ' and lideil with the pope: at which King Henry II. 

was greatly offended ; and calling an allcinbly ot the 
billiops at Wcftminfter, offered lix articles againft papal 
eiioroachmenis, which he urged Beckct to aiient to. 
Becket, at the importunities of fcvcral lords, ilgncd 
them ; but relapling, he was ordered to be tried as a 
traitor ; upon which he fled into Flanders. The king 
banilhed all his relations, am! Becket exconimunicattd 
all his oppofcrs. At laft, after feven years, by the in» 
tercellion of the French king and the pope, he return- 
ed ; but refufcd to abl'olvc thcfc billiops and others he 
had excommunicated : whereupon the king grew enra- 
ged ; and is reported to have dropped tliele expreliions : 
'■■ That he was an unhappy prince, who maintained a 
;^reat number of lazy iiiligniticant pcrfons about him, 
none of whom had gratitude or Ipirit enough to re- 
venge him on a fingle infolent prelate who gave him To 
much dillurbancc." Thcfo words of the king put 
four gentlemen of his court on forming a dclign againft 
the archbilliop's liic, which they executed in the ca- 
lliedral cluirch of Canterbury, on the 29th of Decem- 
ber 1 171. They endeavoured 10 drag him out of the 
church ; but linding they could not do this without 
difficulty, killed him there. The ali'ilfins being afraid 
they had gone too far, durll not return to the king's 
court at Normandy, but retired to Knareiburgh in 
Yo.klhire ; where every body avoided their company, 
hardly any pcrfon even chooling to eat or drink with 
them. They at length took a voyage to Rome, and 
being admitted to penance by pope Alexander III. 
they went to Jerufalem ; where, according to the pope's 
order, they fpcnt their lives in penitential auiteriiies, 
and died in the Black Mountain. They were buried at 
Jerufalem, without the church door belonging to the 
Templars. King Henry was, or afftftcd to be, 
much difliirbed at the the news of Bccket's death, and 
difpatchcd an cmbally to Rome to clear himfclf 
from the imputation of being the caufe of it. Im- 
mediately all divine offices ceaied in the church of Can- 
terbury, and this for a year, excepting nine days; at the 
end of which, by order of the pope, it was reconfccra- 
tcd. Two years after, Becket was canonized ; and 
the fo'lowing year, Henry returning to England, went 
to Canterbury, where he did penance as a tcilimony of 
Ills regret for the murder of Becket. When he came 
within iighf of the church where the archbifhop was 
buried, he aliglited off his horfe, and walked barefoot, 
in the liabit of a pilgrim, till he came to Beckct's 
romb; where, after he had proflrated himfclf and pray- 
ed for a conliderable time, he fubmiited to be Icour- 
ged by the monks, and paifeJ all that day and night 
without any rcfrclhment, and kneeling upon the bare 
Hone. In 1221 Beckel's body was taken np, 50 years 
after his murder, in the prefencc of king Henry III. 
and a great concourfe of the nobility and others, and 
depo(ited in a rich Ihrine, eredcd at the expence of 
Stephen Langton arclibiihopof Canterbury, which was 
foon vifited front all parts, and enriched with the moft 
coflly gifts and offerings ; and the miracles riid to be 
wrought at his tomb were fo numerous, that Gervafe 
of Canterbury tells ns, there were two large volumes 
of them kept in that church. The monks ufed to 
raife his body every year ; and the day on which this 
ceremony was performed, which was called the day of 

his Iran/iaticn, was a general holiday: every joih year Becket, 
there was celebrated a jubilee to his honour, which l-'C'king- 
lafted tj days: plenary indulgences were then granted . '"'"• 
10 all that vifited his tomb; and pilgrims have 
been regillcrcd at a time in Canterbury. Tlic devo- 
tion towards him had q\iiie effaced in that town the 
adoration of the Deity ; nay, even that of the Virgin. 
At God's altar, for inftance, there were offered in one 
year 3 I. 2s. 6d. at the Virgin's, 63I. js. 6d. at St Tho- 
mas's, 832I. i2s. 3d. But next year the difpropor- 
tion was Hill greater: there was not a penny oHcrcd at 
God's altar; the Virgin's gained only 4 1. is. 8d. but 
St Thomas had got for his Ihare 9141. 6s. 3d. Louis 

VII. of France had made a pilgrimage to this niira. 
ciilous tomb, and had bellowed on the flirine a jewel 
which was ellecmcd the rishcllin Chriftendom. Henry 

VIII. to whom it may eafily be imagined how ob- 
noxious a faint of this charader behoved to appear, 
and how much contrary to all bis projeds for degra- 
ding the authority of the court of Rome, not only pil- 
laged the rich Ihrinc dedicated to St Thomas, but 
made the faint himfelf be cited to appear in court, and 
be tried and condemned as a traitor : he ordered his 
name to be ilruck out of the calender ; the olhce for 
his feflival to be expunged from all breviaries; and his 
bones to be burnt, and the alhes thrown in the air. 
From Mr Thomas Warton wc learn, that Becket was 
the fubjeft of poetical legends. The Lives of the Saints 
in verlc, in Bennct's library (Numb. CLXV.), contain 
his martyrdom and tranllation. This manufcript is 
fuppofed to be of the 14th century. The fame inge- 
nious writer informs us, from Peter de Blois, that the 
palace of Becket was perpetually filled with bifhops 
highly accomplilhed in literature, v\ ho pafTcd their time 
there in reading, difputing, and deciding important 
qiicffions of the ftate. " Tticfe prelates, though men 
ot the world, were a fociety of fcholars ; yet very dif- 
ferent from thofe who frequented the univeriiiies, in 
which nothing was taught but words and fyllables, un- 
profitable fubilcticsjclemeniary fpeculations, and trifling 
diftindions. De Blois was himlelf eminently learned, 
and one of the moll dillinguiihed ornaments of Bcck- 
et's attendants. Wc know that John of Salifbury, his 
intimate friend, the companion of his exile, and the 
writer of his life, was fcarcely exceeded by any man of 
his tiinc lor his knowledge in philological and polite 

BECKINGHAM (Charles), an Englifli dramatic 
writer, was the fon of a linen-draper in London, and 
born in 1699. He was educated at that great nurfery 
of le:'.rniug Merchant-Taylor's fchool, under the learned 
Dr Smith, where he made a very great proficiency in 
all his ftudics, and gave the ftrongefl leflimonials of 
very extraordinary abilities. In poetry more particu- 
larly he very early difcovered an uncommon genius, two 
dramatic pieces of his writing being reprefented on the 
flage before he had completed his 20th year : and 
thofe not fuch as required the leall indulgence or al- 
lowance on account of his years ; but fuch as bore evi» 
deuce to a boldnefs of fcntiment, an accuracy of dic- 
tion, an ingenuity of conduct, and a maturity of judge- 
ment, which would have done honour to a much more 
ripened age. The titles of his plays, both of which 
are tragedies, are, i. Hairy IV. cf fni?ue. 2. Scipio 
yjfricanus. At the rcprcftntatiou of the laft mentioned 



Ifijlory of 

lib. viii. 
c. 4S. and 
;cvi. c. 36. 

piece, wliicli indeed was the firft lie wrote, li!s fcliool- 
mjlkr Dr Smith, as a peculiar mark of diltindioii and 
reg.ird to the merit ot his pupil, gave all his boys a 
holiday on the afternoon of the autlior's benefit, in or- 
der to affurd an opportunity to fuch of them as pleafcd 
to pay their compliments to their fchool-fcllow on 
that oecalion. Belidcs thefe dramatic pieces, he wrote 
fcveral other poems : but his genius was not permitted 
any vct-y long period to expand itfclf in ; for he died 
on the 18th of February 1730, in the 33d year of his 

BECKUM, a town of the biiliopric of Munftcr, in 
Germany, feated at the fource of the river Veric, in E, 
Long. 8. i3. N. Lat. ji. 46. 

BECSANCIL, anciently Bithynia, a province of 
Natolia in Afia ; bounded on the north by tlie Black 
Sea ; on the well, by the Sea of Marmora ; on the foiuh, 
by Natolia Proper ; and on the eall, by the province of 
Bolli. The principal town is Burfa. 

BECTASSE, an order or feet of religious among the 
Turks, denominated from their founder Betiajh, 
preacher to Sultan Amurath. All the janizaries be- 
longing to the Porte are of the religion of Kedtalic, be- 
ing even faid to have derived their origin from the 
founder of this feC^. The habit of the Bo-^alfc is 
white : on their heads they wear white caps of fcveral 
pieces, with turbans of wool twifled rope falhion. They 
obferve conflanily the hour of prayer, which they per- 
form in their own allemblies, and make frequent de- 
clarations of the unity of God. 

BED, a convenience for flretchiug and compollng 
the body on, for eafe. reft, or llecp, conlifliiig general- 
ly of feathers inclofed in a ticken cafe. 'I'here are va- 
rieties of beds, as a (landing-bed, a fcttee-bcd, a tent- 
bed, a truckle-bed, &c. 

It was univerfilly the practice, in the firft ages, for 
mankind to lleep upon fkins of beafts. It was origi- 
nally the cuftom of the Greeks and Romans. It was 
particularly the cuftom of the ancient Britons before the 
Roman invafion ; and thefe fkins were fpread on the 
Hoor of their apartments. Afterwards they were chan- 
ged for loofc rullies and heather, as the Welch a hvf 
years ago lay on the former, and the Highlanders of 
Scotland lleep on the latter to this prefent moment. In 
procefs of time the Romans fuggelled to the interior 
Britons the ufe, and the introduction of agriculture 
fupplied them with the means, of the neater convcni- 
cncy of Itraw beds. The beds of the • Roman gentry 
at this period were generally filled with feathers, and 
thofe of the inns with the foft down of reeds. But for 
many ages the beds of the Italians had been eoiiltanily 
compofcd of flraw; it ftiU formed thofe of the foldicrs 
and oflicers at the conqucll of Laneafhire ; and from 
both, the Britilh learnt their ufe. But it appears 
to have been taken up only by the gentlemen, as the 
common Welch had their beds thinly ftutf'ed with ruflies 
as late as the conclufion of the i2ih century ; and with 
the gentlemen it continued may ages afterwards. 
Straw was ufed even in the Royal Chambers of Eng- 
land as late as the clofe of the i 3th. Moll of the pea- 
fants about Manchefler lie on chaff at prefent, as do 
likcwife the common people all over Scotland : In the 
Highlands heath .alfo is very generally ufed as bedding 
even by the gentry ; and the repofc on a heath bed has 
been celebrated by travellers as a peculiar luxury, lii- 


[ »T3 ] 


perior to that yielded by down : In France and Italy, Ked. 

flraw beds remain general to this day. But after the ' 

above period, beds were no longer fufTcrcd to reft up- 
on the ground. The better mode, that had anciently 
prevailed in the eall, and long before been iniroductd 
into Italy, was adopted in Britain ; and they were now 
mounted on pedellalsj-. This, however, was equally tCen.iUx. 
confined 10 ihegentlemen. The bed ftill continued on 
the floor among the common people. Andthegrofs 
cuftom, that had prevailed from the beginning, was 
retained by the lower Britons to the lafl ; and tliefe 
ground-beds were laid along the walls of their houfe.i, 
and formed one common dormitory for all the members 
of the family. The falhion continued univerfally among 
the inferiorranksofthe Welch within thefe fourorfivc 
ages, and with the more uucivilized part of the High- 
landers down to our own times. And even at no great 
dillance from Manchellcr, in ihe neighbouring Buxton, 
and wiiliin ihcfc 60 or 70 years, the perfons that re- 
paired to the bath are all faid to have lltpt in one lono- 
ciiainber together ; the upper part being allotted to the 
ladies, and the lower to the gentlemen, and only par- 
titioned from each otlicr by a curtain. 

Diiihig-BEDjhfitatricliniaris, or difcubilorius, that 
whereon the ancients lay at nuals. The dining or dif- 
cubitory beds were four or live feet high. Three of 
thefe beds were ordinarily ranged by a fquare table 
(wl.«jnce both the table and the room where they cat 
were called trklhi'nnii) in fuch a manner, that one of 
the lides of the table remained open and acceflible to 
the waiters. Eacii bed woidd hold three or four, rarely 
five perfons. Thefe beds were unknown before the fe- 
cond Punic war: the Romans, till then, fat down to 
eat on plain wooden benches, in imitation of the heroes 
of Homer, or, as Varro cxprellcs it, after the manner 
of the Lacedemonians and Cretans, Scipio Africanus 
firft nude an innovation : he had brought from Car- 
thage fome of thefe little beds called punicani, or ar- 
chaici ; being of a wood common enough, very low, 
fluffed only with flraw or hay, and covered with goats 
or llieeps (kins, htrdinis pellihiu Jhati. In reality, there 
was no great difierence, as to delicacy, between thtl'c 
new beds and the ancient benches ; but the cuftom of 
frequent bathing, which began then to obtain, by foft- 
ening and relaxing the body, put men on trying to reft 
theml'elves more commodioufly by lying along than by 
fitting down. For the ladies, it did not feem at firft 
conliftent with their modefly to adopt the mode of ly- 
ing ; accordingly they kept to the old cuftom all the 
time of the commonw calth ; but, from the lirfl Cxfars, 
they cat on their beds. For the youth, who had no: 
yet pat on the toga virilis, they were long kept to the 
ancient difcipline. AVhen they were admiiicd to table, 
they only fat on the edge of the beils of their nearcft 
relations. Never, fays Suetonius, did the young Cx- 
fars, Caius and Lucius, eat at the table ofAuguflus; 
but they were fet in two loco, or, as Tacitus cxprcflcs 
it, ad ledi fulcra. F'rom the greateft limpliciiy, the 
Romans by degrees carried their dining-bcds to the 
mofl furpriling magnificence. Pliny alfures us, it was 
no new thing to fee them covered over with plates of 
filver, adorned with the foltell mats, and the richcft 
counterpanes. Lampridius, fpeaking of Hdiogabulus, 
fays, he had beds of folid lilvcr, folido argiutt hahiut 
kilos <r tricliniarn, ir cuticu lares. W'c may add, 
P ibic 


[ " 


that Pompey, in his third trimnph, brought in beds of 
gold. — The Romans had alio beds whereon ihey Au- 
' died, and beds whereon the dead were carried to the 
funeral pile. 

Bed- Moulding, in architeifliire, a term ufcd for 
thole members of a cornichc which arc placed below 
the coronet ; and now iilhally confiAs of an ogee, a 
lift, a large boultine, and another lift luultr the co- 

iJ/.o ofjnpce, in the French cufloms, a throne up- 
on which the king is fcatcd when he goes to the parliu- 
jnent. The king never holds a bed of juflice unlefs for 
aiTairs that concern the flatc, and then all the officers 
of parliament are clothed in fcarlet robes. 

Bed of the Ctiiriage of a Cnat Gun, a thick plank, 
that lies under the piece ; being, as it were, the body 
of the carriage. 

Bed, in mafonry, a courfe or range offloncs ; and 
the joint of the bed is the mortar between two flones, 
placed over each other. 

Bed, in gardening, fquare or oblong pieces of 
ground in a garden, raifed a little above the level 
of the adjoining ground, and wherein they fow feeds 
or plant roots. 

Hoi-Bed. See Hor-Bcd. 

Lords if the BED-Chainber, in the Britifli court, are 
12 noblemen who attend in their turns, each a monih ; 
during which time they lie in the king's bcd-chambtr, 
and wait on him when he dines in private. Their fa- 
lary is \oqo\. per ani'.nni. 

BEDA, commonly called I'encrnl-le Bede, one of the 
jnolt ancient Englifli hiftorians, was horn in ihey ear 672, 
in tlie neighbourhood of Wcremouib, in the bilhojiric 
of Durham. He was educated by the abbot Benedid: 
in themonaftery of St Peter, near the moatli of the ri- 
ver Wyre. At the age of 19 he ordained deacon, 
2nd pried in the year 702. About this time he was 
invited to Rome by Pope Sergius ; but there is no fuf- 
ticient reafon to believe that he accepted the invitation. 
In the year 7_;i he publinicd his Kcclcfiadical Hiliory ; 
z work of fo much merit, notwithllanding the legenda- 
ry tales it contains, that it were alone fufficicnt to im- 
mortalize ihc author. He died in the year 735 of a lin- 
gering confuniptiun, probably occafioned by a feden- 
tary life, and a long uninterrupted application to ftu- 
dy and literary compofitions, of which he left an in- 
credible number. He was buried in the church of his 
ronvem at Jarrow ; but his bones were afterwards re- 
moved to Durham, and there dcpofiied in the fame 
cofEn with thofc of St Cuthbert. Bede was undoubt- 
edly a fmjular phenomenon in an ignorant and illiterate 
age. His learning, for the times, was extenfive, his 
application incredible, his piety exemplary, and his 
inodefty exceffive. He was univerfally admired, con- 
fulted, and efteeincd, during his life; and his writings 
are defcrvedly confidered as the foundation of Englifli 
tcclellaftical hiftory. His language is neither elegant 
nor pure, but perfpicuous and eafy. — All his works are 
in Latin. The firft general collection of them ap- 
peared at Paris in 1544, in three volumes in folio. 
They were printed again at the fame place, in i J54, in 
eight volumes. They were alfo publilhed in the fame 
fize and number of volumes at Bafil in I56'-!, reprinted 
at Cologne in 1612, and at the fame place in 16SS. 
Bcfidcs this general colleftion, there are fcvcralof his 

4 ] BED 

compofitions, which have been printed fcparatcly, or 
amongft the collections of the writings of jincient au- 
thors ; and there arc fcveral manufcripts afcribed to , 
him, which are prefcrvcd in the diffisrent libraries in 
Oxford and Cambridge. 

]1EDALL, a town in the north riding ofYork- 
fliirc. Through this town paffes a Roman caufeway 
to Richinonil, Barnard-caAle, &c. The parts adja- 
cent are noted for hunting and road horfts. W. Long. 
31. o. N. Lat. 54. 30. 

BEDARIEUX, orBEC D'ARiEUX,a town of Lan- 
guedoc in France, fcated in the river Obc, in K. Long. 
3. 24. N. Lat. 43. 29. 

BEDEL. Sec Beadle. 

Bedei., a fmall town in the north riding of York- 
fhire, featcd oh a little brook, in W. Long. i. 50. N. 
Lat. 54. 30. 

BEDELL (Dr William), a learned prelate, born 
in Eflcx in liio. He went with Sir Henry Woiton 
the Englifli anibalfador to the republic of Venice, as 
his chaplain, in 1604 ; and continuing eight years in 
that city, contracted an intimate acquaintance with the 
famous father Paul, of whom he learned Italian fowell 
as to tranllaie the Englifli Common-Prayer Book into 
that language : in return he drew up an Englilh gram- 
mar for Father Paul, who declared he had learned more 
from him in all parts of divinity than from any one 
bclide. He was accordingly much concerned when 
Bedell left Venice ; and at his departure prefented hitn 
with his pifture, the MS. of his Hiflury of the Coun- 
cil of Trent, his Hiliory of the InterJid and Liquih- 
tion, with other literary donations. In 1629, he ob- 
tained the bilhopric of Kilmoreand Adragh in Ireland ; 
and finding llicle dioceles in great diiordcr, applied 
himfelf vigoroully to reform the abufes there. He 
was no perfecutor of Papills, but laboured with great 
fuccefs to convert the better fort of the Popifli clergy : 
he procured an Irifli iranflation of the common-prayer 
Book, which he caufcd to be read in his cathedral 
every Sunday ; and the NewTeftament having beca 
tranllaied by Archbifliop Daniel, he procured one of 
the Old Tellament ; which he having been prevented 
from printing himfelf, was afterwards executed at the 
expence of the great Mr Robert Boyle. He publilhed, 
in 1624, a controvcrfial book againfl the Roman-ca- 
tholics, which he dedicated to Charles pruice of Wales j, 
and aflilled the archbilhop of Spalatro in fiuifliing his 
famous work De Repuhlica Eccltfadica. — When the 
bloody rebellion broke out in Ireland in 0(5t. 164T, the 
billiop at firfl did not feel tlie violence of its cfTeiJts ; for 
the very rebels had conceived a great veneration for 
him, and they declared he fliould be the lall Englifli- 
man they would drive out of Ireland. His was the 
only lioiife in the county of Cavan that was unviola- 
ted, and it was filltd with the people who fled to him 
for Ihelter. About the middle of December, however, 
the rebels, purfuant to orders received from their coun- 
cil of flate at Kilkenny, required him to difmifs the 
people that were with him ; which he refufed to do,, 
declaring he would fliare the fame fate with the rcfl. 
Upon this they feized him, his two fons, and Mr 
Clogy who had married his daiighter-in-Iaw, and car- 
ried them prifoners to the caftle of Cloughbcughicr, 
furrcunded bv a deep water, \\ here they pat them all, 
except the bilhop, in kons ; after fomc time, however, 





[ 115 ] 


tliis part of their feverity was abstcd. After being 
confined for about three weclcs, the bifliop and his two 
fons, and Ml- Clogy, were exchanged for forae of the 
principal rebels: but the biihop died foon after, on the 
7th of February 1641, his death being chiefly occa- 
fioncd by his late iiiiprifonment, and-the weight of 
forrows which lay upon his mind. Tlie Irilh did him 
unufual honours at his burial ; for the chief of the re- 
bels gathered their forces together, and with them ac- 
compained his body to the church-yard. 

BEDER, a ftrong town of Afia, in the dominions of 
the Great Mogul. E. Long. 9J. 10. N. Lat. 16. 50. 

BEDFORD, the county town of Bcdfordlhirc in 
England, feated on both fides of the River Oufe, over 
which there is a llone bridge ; in \V. Long. o. 20. N. 
Lat. J2. 6. It is an ancient town, and plcafanily fi- 
tuated, but not very large nor well built ; though the 
buildings are much improved of late, and the river made 
navigable. It fends two members to parliament, and 
gives title of d:/ki to the noble family of Riiflcl. At 
this place the Britons were overthrown in a great bat- 
tle in 572, by Cuthwulf the Saxon king ; and here was 
a Itrong callle, built in the time of the Normans by 
Pagan dc Beaucliamp, the third Baron of Bedford. 
It was reduced by King Stephen after a long fiegc ; 
and afterwards taken by King John, after a liege of 
60 days, from Fulcode Brent, whorebelled againll his 
fovereign, notwithftanding he had taken this caftle be- 
fore from the barons, an J had it beftowed upon him by 
the king. The town is a very ancient corporation, and 
has long fent members to parliament. It is governed 
at prcfent by a mayor, recorder, two bailiffs, twelve 
aldermen, two chamberlains, a town clerk, and three 
ferjeants. The neighbouring country is very fruitful 
in wheat, great quantities of which arc carried from 
hence to Hitchen and Hertford markets, fold, ground, 
and conveyed to London. The town has five churches, 
a free fchool, and feveral hofpitals, and enjoys a good 
trade in corn by the way of Lynn. When the river 
is fwelled by rains, efpccially in winter, it is ufual in 
Cambridgelliire to fay, t/^ bitiliff of BeJford iscoi/iing ; 
meaning, that it is going to lay their fens under 

BEDFORDSHIRE is a fmall inland county. When 
tlie Romans landed in Britain, jj years before Chrilt, 
it was included in the dillrict inhabited by the 
Catieuchlani, whofe chief or governor Caflibclinns 
headed the forces of the whole illand againft Cjefar, and 
the year following was totally defeated. In 310 the 
emperor Conftantine divided Britain into five Roman 
provinces, when this county was included in the third 
divifion, called Flavia C.rfnrLnfis ; in which ftate it 
continued 426 years, wheuthe Romans quittcil Briiain. 
At the ellablillimcnt of the kin;5dom of Mtrcia (one 
of the divifions of the Saxon hcptarcliy) it was confi- 
dcred as part of that kingdom ; and fo continued from 
$82 to 827, when with the other petty kingdoms of 
the idand it became fubjecl to the Well Saxons under 
Egbert, and the whole was named England. In 889, 
Alfred licld the fovertignty, when England was divided 
into countries, hundreds, and tythings, and Bcdfordlhirc 
tjrft received its prcfent name. It is in the Norfolk 
circuit, the province of Canterbury, and bilhopric of 
Lincoln. Its form is oval, being about 33 miles long, 
\6 broad, and nearly 73 in circumference ; containing 

an area of about 313 fquarc miles, or 2'''0,ooo fq.iare Kcdford- 
acres. It fupplies 400 men to the national militia. ">"«• 
It contains r24parilhes, j8 vicarages, and to market- , ^''■''"g- 
towns, viz. Bedford, Anipihill, Bigglcfwade, Dun- " 
ftable, Leighton, Beandefart, Luion, Potton, Shch^ord, 
Tuddingion, and Woburn, and 55 villages. The in- 
habitants by computation are 67,350, and it has 7,294 
houfcs that pay taxes. It is divided into nine hund- 
dreds, fends two members to parliament, and pays 
feven parts of ji 3 of the land-tax. Its principal river, 
the Oufe, is navigable to Bedford : and divides the 
county into two parts, of which that to the fouth is 
the mod confidcrable. In its courfc, which is very 
meandering, it receives feveral fmall flrcams ; the prin- 
cipal one is die Ivel, which takes its rife in the fouth- 
ern parr of the county. The air is healthy, and the 
foil in a deep clay. The north lidc of the Oufe 
is fruitful and woody, but the fomh fide is Icfs fertile ; 
yet producing great quantity of wheat and barley, ex- 
cellent in [heir kind, and woad for djcrs. The foil 
yields plenty of fullers-earth for the woollen manufac- 
tory. The chief manufadurcs of the county are thread, 
lace, and draw ware. In this county there are many 
remains of Roman, Saxon, and Norman antiquities ; 
but few Roman llaiions, viz. Sandy near Potton, and 
the Magiovinum of Antoninus, by others fupirafed to 
be the ancient Salcn«, containing 30 acres, where 
many urns, coins, &c. have been dug up. Another at 
Madiniiig-bowre, or Maiden-bower, one mile from 
Duurtable, containing about nine acres, which Camden 
iuppofcs to have been a Roman ftation, from the coini 
of the emperors having been frequently dug up there, 
and calls it Mngintinn. Leighton Beandefart is fup- 
pofcd to have been a Roman camp, and another is at 
Arlefey near Shefford, and a Roman amphitheatre may 
bg traced near Bradford Magna. The Roman road, 
Icknield-lh-eet, crolVcs this county, entering at Leigh- 
ton Beaudcfart, from whence it paifesDiinftable, where 
it inclines northward over Wardon-hills to Baldock in 
Hertfordihirc. The Watling-Hrcet enters this county 
ftear Lutton from St Albans, pall'es a little north of 
Diinftablc, where it cro.Tes the Icknicld-flrect, and 
from thence to Stoney Siraford in Buckinghamlhire. 
A Roman road alfo enters near Potton, palTes on to 
Sandy, and from thence to Bedford, where it croifes 
the Oufe, and proceeds to Newport Pagnell in Buck- 
inghamlhire. The following antiquities in this county 
are worthy of notice : Bedford I?iidgc and Priory ; 
Chickfand Abbey near Shefford ; Dunllablc Priory 
near Luton ; Eaton Park Iloufc, or Eaton Bray ; 
Five Knolls near Dunllablc ; Ncwnham Priory near 
Bedford ; Nonhill Clu.rch, (hrce miles from Bij^nlcf- 
wadc ; Suntmeris Tower near Lmon ; Wardon Abbey 
near Shefford ; Woburn Abbey ; Woodhill Caftle, or 
Oddhill Caftle, near Harcwood, 

BEDLOE (William), who alfumed the title of 
Cciptain, was an infamous advcniiircr of low birth, who 
had travelled over a great part of Europe under diftir- 
cnt names and difguifcs, and had parted among feveral 
ignorant perfons lor a man of rank and foriuuc. En- 
couraged by the fuccefs of Oats, he turned evidence, 
gave an account of Godfey's murdrr, and added many 
circnmllanccs to the narrative of tlic former. Thcfe vil- 
lains had the boldiicfs 10 accufc the ytitcn of entering 
into a confpiracy againll the King's life. A reward or 

P 3 

500 L 


[ ii6 ] 


Bcdotilnt. joo 1. was voted to Bei^loe by tlie Commons. He is 
* >'— ' fiiJ to have iirertcd the reality of the plot on Ills death- 
bed : but it abounds with abliirdity, contradidioii, and 
perjury ; and iViU remains one of the grcaieft problems 
in iheBritilh annals. lie died at Brillol aoih Auguft 
i63o. Giles Jacob informs us, that he was author of 
i play called Th^ F.xcomiiitinic.7t;d rriiia, or the Fatfc 
RelUi, 1679. The printer of ic having, without the 
author's knowledge, added a fecond title, and called it 
77v PopiJJ) Plot in a Ploy, greatly excited the curiolity 
of the pi;blic, who were however much difappointed 
when they found the plan of the piece to be founded 
on a quite dificrcnt (lory. Anth. a Wood will not al- 
low the Captain the merit of tliis play ; but allcrts that 
it was written partly, if not entirely, by one Tho. Wal- 
ter, M. A. of Jefus College Oxford. 

BEDOUINS, or Bedouis, a modern name of the 
wild Arabs, whether in Afia or Africa. When fpeak- 
ing of the Arabs, we Ihoald diftingiiifli whether they 
are cultivators or pallors ; for this difference in their 
mode of life occafions fo great a one in their manners 
anil genius, that they become aimed foreign nations 
with refped to each other. In the former cafe, leading 
a fcdentary life, attached to the fame foil, and fnbjcft 
to regular governments, the focial ilate in which they 
live, very nearly refembles our own. Such arc the 
inhabitants of ilie Yemen ; and fucli alfo are the de- 
fcendants of thofe ancient conquerors, who have either 
entirely, or in part, given inhabitants to Syria, Egypt, 
and the Barbary flatcs. In tlie fecond inllancc, ha- 
ving only a tranfient interefl in the foil, perpetually 
removing their tents from one place to another, and 
nndtr fubjcction to no laws, their mode of cxiflence is 
neither that of poliihed nations nor of favages ; and 
therefore more particularly merits our attention. Such 
are the Bedouins, or inhabitants of the vafl: dcfarts 
which extend from the confines of Perfia to Morocco. 
Tho' divided into independent communities or tribes, 
not unfrequently hoflile to eacl\ other, they may flill 
be coiifidered as forming one nation. The refeniblance 
of their language is a inanifell token of this relation- 
Ihip. The only difference that exills between them is, 
that the African tribes are of a lefs ancient origin, 
being pofterior to the conquefl of thefe countries by 
the khalifs or fucceflbrs of Mahomet ; while the tribes 
of the defart of Arabia, properly fo called, have de- 
fended by an uninterrupted fucceffion from the remo- 
teft ages. To tliefe the orientals arc accuftomed to 
appropriate the name of yimbs, as being the moft an- 
cient and the pureft race. The term Balaoui is added 
as a fynonimous expreflion, fignifying, " inhabitant of 
the Defart." 

It is not without reafon that the inhabitants of the 
defart boaft of being the pureft and the bed; preferved 
race of all the Arab tribes: for never have they been 
conquered, nor have they mixed with any other people 
by making conqueds; for thofe by which the general 
name of Arabs has been rendered famous, really be- 
long only to the tribes of the Hedjas and the Yemen. 
Thofe who dwelt in the interior of the country, never 
emigrated at the time of the revolution effcfted by Ma- 
homet ; or if ihey did take any part in it, it was con- 
fined to a few individuals, detached by motives of am- 
bition. Thus we find the prophet in his Koran conti- 
nually dyling the Arabs of the defart ruieh and infidels i 

nor has fo great a length of time produced any very Bedouin*, 
confiderablc change. We may allert they have in ' " ' 
every rtfpcft retained their primitive independence and 
fimplicity. See Arabia, \\° 186. 

The wandering life of thefe people arifes from the 
very nature of their defarts. To paint to himfelf thefe 
dclarts (fays M. Volney), the reader mud imagine a 
Iky almod perpetually intiamcd, and without clouds, 
iramenfc and boundlefs plains, without houfcs, trees, 
rivulets, or hills, where the eye frequently meets no- 
thing but an extcniive and uniform horizon like the 
fea, though in fome places the ground is uneven and 
ilony. Almod invariably naked on every fide, the 
earth prefcnts nothing but a few wild plants thinly 
fcattered, and thickets, whofe fnlitnde is rarely didur- 
bcd but by antelopes, hares, locuds, and rats. Such is 
the nature of nearly the whole country, which extends 
fix hundred leagues in length and tlirec hundred in 
breadth, and drctches from Aleppo to the Arabian fea, 
and from Egypt to the Pcrlian gnlph. It mud not, 
however, be imagined that the foil in fo great an ex- 
tent is every where the fame ; it varies conliderably in 
different places. On the frontiers of Syria, for exam- 
ple, the eanli is in general fat and cultivable, nay even 
fruitful. Jt is the fame alfo on the banks of the Eu- 
phrates : but in the internal parts of the country, and 
towards the fouth, it becomes white and chalky, as in 
the parallel of Damafcus ; rocky, as in the Tih and the 
Hcjaz; and a pure fand, as to tlie eadward of the Ye- 
men. Tliis variety in the qualities of the foil is pro- 
dnftive of fomc minute differences in the condition of 
the Bedouins. ?"or inftance, in the more dtrile coun- 
tries, that is, thofe which produce but few plants, the 
tribes are feeble and very didant ; which is the cafe in 
the defart of Suez, that of the Red Sea, and the inte- 
rior of the great defart called the Na]d. When the 
foil is more fruitful, as between Damalcus and the Eu- 
phrates, the tribes are more numerous and lefs remote 
from each other; and, laflly, in the cultivable didrifts, 
fuch as the Pachalics of Aleppo, the Hauran, and the 
neighbourhood of Gaza, the camps are frequent and 
contiguous. In the former indances, the Bedouins 
are purely padors, and fubfid only on the produce of 
their herds, and on a few dates and fiefli meat, which 
they eat either frefli or dried in the fun and reduced to 
a powder. In the latter, they fow fome land, and add 
cheefc, barley, and even rice, to their flelh and milk 

In thofe didrifls where the foil is dony and fandy, 
as in the Tih, theHejaz, and the Najd, the rains make 
the feeds of the wild plants (hoot, and revive the thick- 
ets, ranunculi, wormwood, and kali. They caufe 
mardies in the lower grounds, which produce reeds and 
grafs ; and the plain adiimes a tolerable degree of ver- 
dure. This is the fealbn of abundance both for the 
herds and their madcrs ; but on the return of the 
heats, every thing is parched up, and the earth con- 
verted into a grey and fine dud, prefents nothing but 
dry deins as hard as wood, on which neither horfes, 
oxen, nor even goats, can feed. In this date the de- 
fart would become uninhabitable, and mud be totally 
abandoned, had not nature formed an animal no lefs 
hardy and frugal than the foil is derile and ungratefnl. 
No creature feems fo peculiarly fitted to the cliinsie in 
which it cxifls. Dcfigning the camel to dwell in a 



[ 117 ) 


Bedomnn. coiintiy where he can find little nourifhmcnt. Nature 

' V ' (fays M. Volney) has been fparing of her niatcrwls in 

ihc whole of his formation. She has not heflowed on 
him the plump rtc-fliiuefs of the ox, horfc, or elephant; 
but limiting herfclf to what is fUiftly necc (liiry, flic 
has given him a fmall head without cars at the end of 
a long neck without flclli. She has taken from his 
legs and thighs every raufclc not immediately rcqui- 
fitc for motion ; and in Ihort, has bellowed on his 
withered body only the vcifcls and tendons ncceflary 
to conneifl its frame together. She has furnillicd him 
with a (trongjaw, that he may grind the hardcll ali- 
ments ; but Icrt he (Iwiild confunic to much, flic lias 
/Iraittned his ftoraach, and obliged him to chew the 
cud. She has lined his foot with a lump of flcfli, 
which Aiding in the mud, and being no way adapted 
to climbing, fits him only for a dry, level, and fandy 
foil like that of Arabia: ihe has evidently deP.ined him 
likewife 10 flavery, by rcfuhng him every fort of de- 
fence againft his enemies. Dcftitute of the horns of 
the bull, the hoof of the horfc, the tooth of the ele- 
phant, and the fwiftnefs of the ftag, how can the ca- 
mel refill or avoid the attacks of the lion, the tiger, or 
even the wolf.' To prcferve the fpecies, therefore, na- 
ture has concealed him in the depth of the vafl dcfarts, 
where the want of vegetables can attraft no game, and 
whence the want of game repels every voracious ani- 
mal. Tyranny mull have expelled man from the ha- 
bitable parts of the earth before the camel could have 
loll hii liberty. Become domelkic, lie has rendered 
habitable the mod barren foil the world contains. He 
alone fupplics all hismafler's wants. The milk of the 
camel nouriihes the family of the Arab under the va- 
ried forms of curd, cheefc, and butter ; and they often 
feed upon his flclh. Slippers and harnefs are made of 
his fliin, tents and clothing of his hair. Heavy bur- 
dens are trinfported by his means ; and when the 
earth denies forage to the horfe, fi> valuable to the Be- 
douin, the Ihc camel fupplics that deficiency by her milk 
at no other cod, for lo many advantages, than a few 
ftalks of brambles or wormwood and pouudcd date ker- 
nels. So great is the importance of the camel to the 
dcfart, that were it deprived of that ufeful animal, it 
mud infallibly lofe every inhabitant. 

Such is the fituatiou in which nature has placed the 
Bedouins, to make of them a race of men equally fiii- 
gular in their phyfical and moral charader. This lln- 
gularity is fo ftriking, that even their neighbours the 
Syrians regard them as extraordinary beings ; efpecially 
thofc tribes which dwell in the depth of the dcfarts, 
fuch as the Anaza, Kaibar, Tai, and others, which 
never approach the towns. When in the lime of Shaik 
Dahrr, fomc of their horfcmen came as far as Acre, 
they excited the fame curiolity there as a vilit from the 
favjges of America would in Europe. Every boily 
viewed with firprile thefe men, who were more dimi- 
nutive, meagre, and fwarthy, than any of the known 
Bedouins. Their withered legs were only compofed 
of tendons, and had no calves. Their bellies fcemcd to 
cling to their backs, andtheir hair was frizzled almoft 
as much as that of the negroes. They on the other hand 
were no Icfs alloniflied at every thing they faw ; they 
could neither conceive how the lioufcs and minarets 
cotild (land ered, nor how men ventured 10 dwell be- 
neath them, and always iu the fame fpoi; but above 

all, they were in an ecftacy on beholding the fea, nor Bedoui.-i*. 
could they comprehend what that defart of water could *— v— ^ 

We may imagine that the Arabs of the frontiers are 
not fuch novices ; there arc even feveral fmall tribes of 
them, who living in the inidft of the country, as in the 
valley of Bckaa, that of the Jordan, and in Palefline, 
approach nearer 10 the condition of the peafanis ; but 
thefe are defpifed by the others, who look upon them 
as baftard Arabs and Rayas, or flaves of the Turks. 

In general, the Bedouins are fmall, meagre, and ' 

tawny ; more fo, however, in the heart of the defart 
than on the frontiers of the cultivated country ; but 
they are always of a darker hue than the neighbouring 
pcafants. They alfo differ among themfdvcs in the 
fame camp; and M. Volney remarked, that the ftiaiks, 
that is, the rich, and their attendants, were always 
taller and more corpulent than the common cUfs. 
He has feen fomc of them above five feet five and fix 
inches high ; thoigh in general they do not (he fays) 
exceed five feet two inches. This diflcrencc can only 
be attributed to their food, with which the former are 
fupplied more abundantly than the latter : And the ctfcifls 
of this are equally evident in the Arabian and Turkmen 
camels; for thefe latter, dwelling in countries rich in 
forage, are become a fpecits more roluill andfltlhy than 
the former. It may likewife be ailirmed, that the 
lower clafs of Bedouins live in a ftate of habitual 
wretchcdnefsand famine. It will appear almoll incre- 
dible to us, but it is an undoubted fatl, that the quan- 
tity of food ufually confumed by the greateft part of 
them docs not exceed fix ounces a d.ay. This abfli- 
ncnce is moll remirkable among the tribes of the Najd 
and the Hcdjaz. Six or feven dates foakcd in melted 
butter, a little fwcet milk or curds, ferve a man a 
whole day; and he cllcems himftlf happy when he can 
add a fmall quantity of coarfc flouror a'littlc ball of rice. 
Mcatisreferved forihegrcatellfeftivals : and ihry never 
kill a kid but for a marriage ora funeral. A few wealthy 
and generous fliiiks alone can kill young camels, and 
cat baked rice with their viduals. In times of dearth, 
the vulgar, always half famiflied, do not difdain the 
mod wretched kinds of food ; and cat locuds, rats, 
lizards, and ferpents broiled on briars. Hence arc 
they fuch plunderers of the cultivated lands and rob- 
bers on the high-roads : hence alfo their delicate con- 
Aitutiou and their diminutive and meagre bodies, which 
are rather adive than vigorous. It may be worth 
while to remark, that their evacuations of every kind, 
even pcrfpiration, are extremely fmall ; their blood is 
fo dellitute of fcrolity, that nothing but the greatelt 
heat can prcferve its fluidity. This, however, docs 
not prevent them from being tolerably healthy in other 
refpefts ; for maladies are lefs frequent among them 
than among the inhabitants of the cultivated country. 

From thefe fads we arc by no means jullified in 
concluding that the frugality of the Bedouins is a vir- 
tue purely of choice, or even of climate. The ex- 
treme heat in which they live unquedionably facilitates 
their abdinence, by dcdroyiiig that aitivity which 
cold gives to the ftomach. Their being habituated 
alfo to Co fparing a diet, by hindering the dilatation 
of the domacli, becomes donbilefs a means of their 
fupporting fuch abdcmioufncfs ; but the chief and pri- 
mary motive of this habit is with thein. aj with the 
' rcTt 


[ 118 ] 


Botouiin. reft of mankind, ihc neceirity of the circumftances in 

" " ' which ihty arc placed, whether from the nntiire of the 

foil, as has been before cxplaincJ, or that llatc of fo- 
ciety in which they live, and which remains now to be 

It has been already remarked, that the Bedouin 
Arabs, are divided into tribes, which conllitute fo 
many diftincl nations. Each of ihcfc tribes appro- 
priates to itfclf a traft of land forming its domain ; in 
this they do not dittcr from cidtivatinj; nations, except 
that their territory requires a greater extent, in or- 
der to furnidi fiibfiftencc for their herds throughout 
the year. Each tribe is coilei5lcd in one or more 
camp's, which arc difperfed through the country, and 
which make a fucccllivc progrefs over the whole, in 
proportion as it is exhaulted by the cattle ; hence it 
is, that within a great extent a few fpois only arc in- 
habited, which vary from one day to another ; but as 
the entire fpace is necelfary for the annual fubfiflence 
of the tribe, whoever encroaches on it is deemed a 
violator of property ; this is with them the law of na- 
tions. If, therefore, a tribe, or any of its fubjeds, 
enter itpon a foreign territory, they are treated as ene- 
mies and robbers, and a war breaks out. Now, as all 
the tribes have affinities with each other by alliances of 
blood or conventions, leagues arc formed, which ren- 
der thefe wars more or lefs general. The manner of 
proceeding on fuch occafions is very fimple. The of- 
fence made known, they mount their horfcs and feck 
the enemy ; when they meet, ihey enter into a parley, 
and the matter is frequently made up ; if not, they at- 
tack either in fmall bodies, or man to man. They 
encounter each other at full fpced with fixed lances, 
which they fometimesdari,notwithftanding their length, 
at the flying enemy : the victory is rarely contefled ; 
it is decided by the firfl Ihock, and the vanquiflied take 
to flight full gallop over the naked plain of the defart. 
Kight generally favours their efcape from the conque- 
ror. The tribe which has loft the battle llrikes its 
tents, removes to a diftancc by forced marches, and 
fceks an afylum among its allies. The enemy, fatisfied 
with their fuccefs, drive their herds farther on, and 
the fugitives foon after return to their former fituation. 
But the ilaughtcr made in thefe engagements frequent- 
ly fows the feeds of hatreds which perpetuate thefe 
diffcnfions. The interefl of the common fafety has 
for ages eftabliflied a law among them, which decrees 
that the blood of every man who is (lain mufl; be a- 
vengcd by that of his murderer. This vengeance is 
called Tar, or retaliation ; and the right of cxafting 
it devolves on the nearefl of kin to the deceafed. So 
nice are the Arabs on this point of honour, that if 
any one neglcfts to feek his retaliation he is difgraced 
for ever. He therefore watches every opportunity of 
revenge ; if his enemy perillies from any other caufe, 
Aill he is not fatisticd, and his vengeance is diretiled 
againd the nearefl relation. Thefe animofuics arc 
tranfmitted as an inheritance from father to cliildrcn, 
and never ceafe but by the extinftion of one of the 
families, unltfs they agree to facritice the criminal, or* 
pirchafe the blood for a ftated price, in money or in 
flocks. Without this fatisfaclion, there is neither peace 
nor truce, nor alliances, between them, nor fometimes 
even between whole tribes : Thcrs is blood bstiveen us, 
fiy they on every occafion; and this expr.ciRon is an 

infurmonntable barrier. Such accidents being necefla- Bedouin* 

rily numerous in a long courfe of time, the greater part " '^ ' 
of the tribes have ancient quarrels, and live in an ha- 
bitual llatc ol' war ; which, added to ih«ir u ay of life, 
rcnJrrs the Bedouins a military people, though they 
liave made no great progrefs in war as an art. 

TJieir camps are formed in a kind of irregular circle, 
compofed of a fingle row of tents, with greater or Icfs 
intervals. Thefe tents, made of goat or camels hair, 
are black or brown, in which they differ from thofc of 
the Turkmen, which arc white. They are ftrctchcd 
on three or four pickets, only five or fix feet high, 
which gives them a very flat appearance ; at a diftance 
one of thefe camps feems only like a number of black 
fpots ; but the piercing eye of the Bedouin is not to be 
deceived. liach tent inhabited by a family is divided 
by a curtain into two apartments, one of which is ap- 
propriated to the women. The empty fpace within 
the large circle fcrves to fold their cattle every c- 
vening. They never have any intrenchinests ; their 
only advanced guards and patroles arc dogs; their 
horfes remain fuddled and ready to mount on the firfl 
alarm ; but as their is neither order nor regularity, 
thefe camps, always eafy to furprife, afford no defence 
in cafe of an attack : accidents, therefore, very fre- 
quently happen, and cattle are carried off every day ; 
a fpecies of marauding warin which the Arabs are very 

The tribes which live in the vicinity of the Turks 
are flill more accuflomed to attacks and alarms ; for 
thefe flrangers, arrogating to themfelves, in right of 
conquefl:, the property of the whole country, treat 
the Arabs as rebel vaflals, or as turbulent and dange- 
rous enemies. On this principle, they never ceafe to 
wage fecrct or open war againft them. The pachas 
finely every occafion to harafs them. Sometimes they 
contefl with them a territory which they had let them, 
and at others demand a tribute which they never agreed 
to pay. Should a family of fliaiks be divided by in- 
terefl or ambition, they alternately fuccour each party, 
and conclude by the deflruftion of both. P'requently 
too they poifon or aflaffinatc thofe chiefs whofe cou- 
rage or abilities they dread, though they fliould even 
be their allies. The Arabs, on their fide, regarding 
the Turks as ufurpers and treacherous enemies, watch 
every opportunity to do them injury. Unfortunately, 
their vengeance falls oftener on the innocent than the 
guilty. The harmlcfs peafant generally fufFcrs for the 
offences of the foldier. On the flighteft alarm, the 
Arabs cut their harvefls, carry ofT their flocks, and 
intercept their communication and commerce. The 
peafants call them thieves, and with reafon ; but the 
Bedouins claim the right of war, and perhaps they al- 
fo are not in the wrong. However this may be, thefe 
depredations occafion a mifiuiderflanding between the 
Bedouins and the inhabitants of the cultivated country, 
which renders them mutual enemies. 

Such is the external fituation of the Arabs. It is 
ftibjeiJl to great viciffitudes, according to the good or 
bad conduct of their chiefs. Sometimes a feeble iribe 
raifes and aggrandizes itfelf, whilfl another, which was 
powerful, falls into decay, or perhaps is entirely an- 
nihilated ; not that all its members perifii, but they in- 
corporate themfelves with fome other ; and this is the 
confcqucuce of the internal confliiution of the tribes. 



r-cdonini. Each tribe is compofed of one or more principal fa- 

V ^ — ^ jnilieSj the members of wiiich bear the title of lliaiks, 

/. c. chiefs or lords. Thefc families have a great re- 
fcmblance to the patricians of Rome and the nobles of 
modern Kinope. One of the fliaiks has ihc fuprcmc 
command over the others. He is the general of their 
little army ; and fometimes airiimcs the title of emir, 
which lignifies commander and prince. Tiie more 
relations, children, and allies, he has, the greater is 
his Ihength and power. To thefe he adds particular 
adherents, whom he lludioully attaches to him, by 
fiipplying all their wants. But befides this, a number 
of fmall families, who, not being ftrong enough to live 
independent, Hand in need of protedion and alliances, 
range thcmfclves under the banners of this chief. Sncli 
an union is called kabila, or tribe. Thefc tribes are 
diftinguilhed from each other by the name of their re- 
fpeftive chiefs, or by that of the ruling family ; and 
when they fpeak of any of the individuals who com- 
pofe them, they call tliem the chtldrai of fiich a chief, 
though they may not be all really of his blood, and 
lie himfclf may have been long fince dead. Thus they 
fay, Bern Tcv:ii:, Oulad lai, the children of Temin 
and of Tai. This mode of exprelfion is even applied, 
by metaphor, to the names of countries : the ufual 
phrafe for denoting its inhabitants being to call them 
the children offtich a place. Thus the Arabs fay, Oit- 
lad Mafr, the Egyptians ; Oulad Sham, the Syrians : 
they would alfo fay, Oulad Fraiifa, the French ; Ou- 
lad Mojkou, the Ruffians ; a remark which is not unim- 
portant to ancient hillory. 

The government of this fociety is at once republi- 
can, ariltocratical, and even defpotic, without exactly 
corrcfponding with any of thefc forms. It is republi- 
can, inafmuch as the people have a great influence in 
all aifairs, and as nothing can be tranfatled without 
the confent of a majority. It is ariltocratical, becaufc 
the families of the ihaiks pollefs fome of the preroga- 
tives which every where accompany power ; and, ladly, 
itisdefpotic, becaufe the principalfliaik has an indefinite 
and almoft abfolutc authority, which, when he hap- 
pens to be a man of credit and influence, lie may even 
abufe ; but the flate of thefc tribes confines even this 
abufe to very narrow limits: for if a chief Ihould com- 
mit an a;5i of injuflicc ; if, for example, he ihould kill 
an Arab, it would be almoft impodible for him to e- 
fcapc puniihment ; the refentment of the offended par- 
ly would pay no refpcft to his dignity ; rhe law ot re- 
taliation would be put in force ; and, lliould he not 
pay the blood, he would be infallibly alTairinated, which, 
from the limple and private life the Ihaiks lead in their 
camps, would be no diihcult thing to elfcft. If he 
haraffes his fibjedls by fcverity, they abandon him and 
go over ti< another tribe. His own relations take ad- 
vantage of his mifcondu(5l to dcpufe him and advance 
themfclves to his ftation. He can have no refourcc in 
foreign troops ; his fubjedts eommuniraic too ealily 
with each other to render it jwAiblc for him to divide 
their interclls and form a faftion in his favour. Bc- 
lidcs, how is he to pay tbcni, fincc he receives no kind 
of taxes from the tribe ; the wealth of the greater 
part of his fubjcfls being limited to abfohite neceflaries, 
and his own confined to very moderate polTcflions, and 
ihofc too loaded wiih great cxpencts ? 

TIic principal Ikiik iii every tribe, iit faft, defrays 

[ 119 ] 


the charges of all who arrive at or learc ike camp. BeJouini. 

He receives the vifits of the allies, and of every perfon " ^ ' 

who has bufincfs with them. Adjoining to his tent 
is a large pavilion for the reception of all Itrangers and 
paifengers. There arc held frequent allcmblies of the 
fliaiks and principal men, to determine on encampments 
and removals ; on peace and war ; on the difierence* 
with the Turkifii governors and the villages ; and the 
litigations and quarrels of individuals. To this crowd, 
which enters fucccffitely, he mull give coffee, bread 
baked on the allies, rice, and fomeiimcs roafted kid or 
camel ; in a word, he muft keep open table ; and it is 
the more important to him to be generous, as this ge- 
ncrofity is clofely connected with matters of the grcat- 
efl confcqucnce. On the exercife of this depend his 
credit and his power. The faniiflied Arab ranks the 
liberality which feeds him before every virtue : nor is 
this prejudice without foundation ; for experience has 
proved that covetous chiefs never were men of enlarged 
views : hence the proverb, as juft as it is brief, A clofe 
fijl, a ;iarrc.iu heart. To provide for thefe cxpences, 
the fhaik has nothing but his herds, a few fpots of 
cultivated ground, the profits of his plunder, and the 
tribute he levies on the high-roads ; the total of which 
is very inconfiderable. The Ihaik with whom M. Vol- 
ney refided in the country of Gaza, about the end of 
1784, palled for one of the moft powerful of ihofc 
diftri(5ls ; yet it did not appear to our author that his 
expenditure was greater than that of an opulent far- 
mer. His perfonal eflc(5ls, conllfting in a few pelilfes, 
carpets, arms horfes, and camels, could not be elli- 
mated at more than 5o,ooolivrcs (a little above L.2000 
fieri.) ; and it rauft be obfervcd, that in this calculatioa 
four marcs of the breed of racers arc valued at 6000 li- 
vres (L. 250), and each camel at L. 10 Sterling. We 
mufl not therefore, when we fpeak of the Bedouins, 
aiRx to the words Pri/ice and Lord the ideas they 
ufually convey ; we fliould come nearer the truth by 
comparing them to fubftantial farmers in mountainous 
countries, whofe fimplicity they refemble in their drefs 
as well as in their domeflic life and manners. A fliaik 
who has the command of 500 horfc does not dildain 
to faddle and bridle his own, nor to give him barley 
and chopped flraw. In his tent, his wife makes the 
coffee, kneads the dough, and fuperintends the dref- 
fing of the viftuals. His daughters and kinfwomcn 
walli the linen, and go with pitchers on their head and 
veils over their faces to draw water from the fountain. 
Thefe manners agree precifely with the defcriptions i.n 
Homer and the hiftory of Abraham in Gcnells. But 
it muft be owned that it is diihcult to form a juft idea 
of them without having ourfelves been cyc-wiincfTcs. 

The fimplicity, or perhaps more properly the po- 
verty, of the lower clafs of the Bedouins is proportion- 
ate to that of their chiefs. All the wealth of a fami- 
ly confifts of moveables ; of which the following is a 
pretty exael inventory : A few male and female ca- 
mels ! fome goats and poultry ; a mare and her bridle 
and faddle ; a tent ; a lance 16 feet long ; a crooked 
fabrc ; a nifty muiket witli a flint or matchlock ; a 
pipe ; a portable mill ; a pot for cooking ; a leathern 
bucket ; a fmall coffee roafter ; a mat ; fome clothes ; 
a mantle of black wool ; and a few glafs or filvcrrings, 
which the women wear ujvm their legs and arms. If 
uonc of thefc arc wajuing their furniiure is complete. 



[ lio ] 


Eetonini. But wlut tlic poor man ftands moll in need of, and 

' "^ ' what he takes moll plcalure in, is his mare ; ibr this 

animal is his principal liipport. With his mare the 
Ucdoiiin makes his excorliuns againll hoflilc tribes, or 
fecks phindcr in the country and on the high-ways. 
The mare is preferred to the horfe, bccaiifc lite is 
more docile, and yields milk, which on occafion fa- 
lisfies the thirft and even the hunger of her mader. 

Thus confined to the moil abfolutc nccclliiics of life, 
the Arabs have as little induftry as their wants are few ; 
all their arts confill in weaving their chimfy tents and 
in making mats and butter. Their whole commcrco 
only extends to the exchanging camels, kids, (lallions, 
and milk; for arms, clothing, a little rice or corn, and 
money, which they bury. They are totally ignorant 
of all fcience; .nnd have not even any idea of allrono- 
jny, geometry, or medicine. They have not a lingle 
l)i)ok J and nothing is fo uncommon among the Shaiks 
as to know how to read. All their literature conlifls 
in reciting tales and hillories in the manner of the Ara- 
bian Nights Entertainments. They have a peculiar 
paflion for fuch llories, and employ in them almort. all 
their leifure, of which they have a great deal. In the 
evening they feat iheinfclves on the ground, at the 
tUrelliold of the tents, or under cover, if it be cold ; 
and there, ranged in a circle round a little fire of dung, 
their pipes in their mouths, and their legs croifed, they 
fit a while in fdcnt meditation, till on a fuddcn one of 
them breaks forth with, 0/ici; upon a time, — and con- 
tinues to recite the adventures of fome young Shaik 
and female Bedouin : he relates in what manner the 
youth firft got a fccret glimpfe of his millrefs ; and 
how he became dtfperately cnanioiirtd of her: he mi- 
nutely dcfcribes the lovely fair; boafts her black eyes, 
as large and loft as thofc of the gazelle ; her languid 
and empaflioned looks, her arched eye-brows, refein- 
bliiig two bows of ebony ; her waifl ftraight and fupple 
as a lance : he forgets not her flcps, light as thofe of 
ihtyoungfillj ; nor her eye-lalhcs, blackened with kohi; 
nor her lips painted blue ; nor her nails, tinged with 
the golden coloured henna ; nor her breafts, relcmbling 
two pomegranates ; nor her words, fwcec as honey. 
He recounts the fufferings of the young lover, fo wa- 
Jled ■mhhdcfirs and pajfion, that h'u body no longer yields 
any jliad'jv}. At length, after detailing his various 
atteiTipts to fee his miftrefs, the obllacles of the pa- 
rents, the invafions of the enemy, the captivity of the 
two lovers, &c. he terminates, to the latisfacition of the 
audience, by refloring them, united and happy, to the 
paternal tent, and by receiving the tribute paid to his 
eloquence, in the Ma cha allah (an exclamation of 
praife, equivalent lo admirably ■well!) he has merited. 
The Bedouins have likewife their love fongs, which 
have more fentiinent and nature in them than thofe of 
the Turks and inhabitants of the towns ; doubtlefs, 
becaufe the former, whofe manners are chafle, know 
what love is; while the latter, abandoned to debauch- 
ery, are acquainted only with enjoyment. 

When we confider how much the condition of the 
Bedouins, efptcially in the depths of the defart, re- 
fciubles in many refpefts that of the favages of Ame- 
rica, wc fliall be inclined to wonvler why they have not 
the fame ferocity ; why, though they fo otten expe- 
rience the extreiTiiiy of hunger, the praJbice of devour- 
ing human flefh was never heard of among them ; and 

why, in lliort, their manners are fo much more fociable BedoniidL 

and mild. The following rcafons arc propofcd by " •■' ' 

M. V'olncy as the true foluiion of this difficidty. 

It fcems at firft view (he oblcrvcs), that America, 
being rich in pafturage, lakes, and forefts, is more 
adapted to the paftoral mode of life than to any other. 
But if wc confider that tUefe forefts, by aflbrding aa 
eafy refuge to animals, protetl them more furely from 
the power of man, wc may conclude that the favagc 
has been induced to become a hunter inftcad of a Ihep- 
hcrd, by the nature of the country. In this ftate, all 
his habits have concurred to give liim a ferocity of 
charadcr. The great fatigues of the chace have har- 
dened his body; Ircquentand extreme hunger, follow- 
ed by a fudden abmidancc of game, has rendered him 
voracious. The habit of (hedding blood, and tearing 
his prey, has fainiliarifed him to the iight of death 
and fufferings. Tormented by hunger, he has defired 
flclh ; and finding it eafy to obtain that of his fellow- 
creature, he could not long hefitate to kill him to fa- 
tisfy the cravings of his appetite. The firft experi- 
ment made, this cruelty degenerates into a habit ; he 
becomes a cannibal, fanguinary and airocious ; and his 
mind acquires all the infenfibiliiy of his body. 

The iiiuatioii of the Arab is very difiercnr. Amid 
his vaft naked plains, without water and without fo- 
refts, he has not been able, for want of game or fi(h, 
to become cither a hunter or a fifherman. The camel 
has determined him to a paftoral life, the manners of 
which have inriucnccd his wliole charai5ler. Finding 
at hand a light, but conftant and fufEcient nourifli- 
ment, he has acquired the habit of frugality. Content 
with his milk and his dates, he has not defired fttili ; 
he ha.s Ihed no blood : his hands are not accuftomcd 
to llauglitcr, nor his ears to the cries of futt'ering crea- 
tures ; he has preferved a liumane and fcnfible heart. 

No fooncr did the lavage flicpherd become acqunin- 
ed with the ufe of the horfe, than his manner of life 
nuift confiderably change. The facility of paffing 
rapidly over cxtcnfive trads of country, rendered him 
a wanderer. He was greedy from want, and b^catnc 
a robber from greedinefs ; and fuch is in facL his pre- 
fcnt charaeler. A plunderer, rather than a warrior, 
the Arab polfelTes no fanguinary courage ; he attacks 
only to defpoil ; and if he meets with rcfiftancc, never 
thinks a finall booty is to be put in competition with 
his life. To irritate him, you nuift flied his blood ; in 
which cafe he is found to be as obftinate in his ven- 
geance as he was cautious in avoiding danger. 

The Bedouins have often been reproached with this 
fpirit of rapine ; but without wilhing to defend it, we 
may obferve that one circumftance has not been fuffi- 
ciently attended to, which is, that it only takes place 
towards reputed eneinies, and is confequently founded 
on the acknowledged laws of almoft all nations. A- 
mong themfelves they are remarkable for a good faith, 
a difintereftednefs, a generofiiy, which would do ho- 
nour to the moft civilized people. What is there more 
noble than that right of afylum fo refpeded among 
all the tribes ? A ftranger, nay even an enemy, touch- 
es the tent of the Bedouin, and from that inftant his 
perfons becomes inviolable. It would be reckoned a 
difgraceful mcannefs, an indelible Ihamc, to fatisfy 
even a jull vengeance at the expencc of hofpitality. 
Has the Bedouin confented to eat bread and fait witli 



[ 121 ] 



BcJonlni. his gueft, nothing in the world can induce him to 
II betray him. The power of the Sultan himfelf would 
_^ not be able to force a refugee from the proteiSion of 
a tribe, but by its total extermination. The Kedouin, 
fo rapacious without his camp, has no fooner fct his 
foot within it, than he becomes liberal and generous. 
What little he polTcllcs he is ever ready to divide. He 
has even the delicacy not to wait till it is allied : when 
he takes his rcpaft, he atfeifls to feat himfelf at the 
door of his tent, in order to invite tlie palfengers; his 
gcncrofity is fo fincere, that he does not look upon it 
as a merit, but merely as a duty, and he therefore 
readily takes the fame liberty with otliers. To ob- 
fervc the manner in which the Arabs conduct them- 
felves towards each other, one would imagine that they 
polTclfed all their goods in common. Neverthelels 
they arc no flrangcrs to property ; but it has none of 
that felfiflinefs which the increafe of the imaginary 
wants of luxury has given it among poiilhed nations. 
Deprived of a multitude of enjoyments which nature 
has lavilhed upon other countries, they are Icfs cxpof- 
ed to temptations which might corrupt and debafc 
them. It is more difficult for their Shaiks to form a 
faiflion to cnllave and impoverilh the body of the na- 
tion. Each individual, capable of fupplying all his 
wants, is better able to preferve his character and in- 
dependence ; and private property becomes at once the 
fuiindation and bulwark of public liberty. 

This liberty extends even to matters of religion. 
We obferve a remarkable dift'erence between the Arabs 
of the towns and thofe of the defart ; fince, while the 
former crouch under the double yoke of political and 
religious defpotifm, the latter live in a llate of perfect 
freedom from both : it is true, that on the frontiers of 
the Turks, the Bedouins, from policy, preferve the 
appearance of Mahometanifm ; but fo relaxed is their 
obfervance of its ceremonies, and fo little fervour has 
ihcir devotion, that they are generally conlidered as 
infidels, vi'ho have neither law nor prophets. They 
even make no dithculty in faying that the religion of 
Mahomet was not made for them: "For (add they) 
how fliall we make ablutions who have no water ? How 
can we beftow alms who are not rich ? Why Ihould we 
fad in the Ramadan, fince the whole year with us is 
one continual fall ? and what neceffity is there for us 
to make the pilgrimage to Mecca, if God be prcfent 
everywhere?" In Ihort, every man afts and thinks 
as he pleafes, and the moll pcrfed toleration is clla- 
bliflied among them. 

BEDRIACUM, (anc. geog.), a village of Italy, 
fituated, according to Tacitus, between Verona and 
Cremona, but nearer the latter than the former. From 
the accouin given by that hillorian, Cluvcrius conjec- 
tures that the ancient Bedriacum llood in the place 
where the city of Caneto now (lands. This village 
was remarkable for the defeat of the emperor Galba by 
Oiho, and afterwards of Otlio by ViicUius. 

BEDWIN-MAGNA, a village rive miles fouth of 
Hungcrford in Bcrkfliire in England. It has neither 
market nor fair; but is a borough by prefcripiion, and 
fends two members to parliament. It is faid to have 
been a confidcrable pUce in il'.e lime of the Saxons, 
and that the traces of its fortifications arc Hill extant. 

BEE, in natural hillory, a genus of infcCls, the cha- 
raftcrs of which are given under the Latin or Lin- 

naean name Apis. The priucipal fpecies are there si- Be*. 

fo defcribed ; excepting the mellifica, or domeflic ho- *" — "■ ' 

ney-bee, the hillory and management of which was 
referred to this article. i 

This fpecies is furniilied with downy hairs j has a Dcfcrip- 
dufky-coloured brealt, andbrownilh belly ; the tibix of ''"" of the 
the hind-legs arc ciliated, and trar.fverlely Areaked on *'"°'5''''"' 
the infide. Each foot terminates in two hooks, with 
their points oppolite to cacb other; in the middle 
of thcfc hooks there is a lit;'.c thin appendix, which 
when unfolded, enables the infeifts to fallen thcnifclves 
toglafs or the mod poiilhed bodies. Thispart they like- 
wife employ for tranfmiiting the fmallcll particles of 
crude wax which they find upon flowers to the cavity 
in their thigh, hereafter defcribed. The queen and 
drones, who never collect wax in this manner, have no 
fuch cavity. This fpeciesis alfofurniihed with a probof- 
cis or trunk, which ferves to cxtraft the honey from 
flowers ; and has, belldes, a real mouth fituated in 
the forepart of the head, with which it is able to feed 
on the farina of flowers, from which afterwards is 
made wax. The belly is divided into fix rings or joints; 
which fometimes flioricn the body, by flipping the 
one over the other. In the infide of the belly there 
is a fmall bladder or refervoir, in which the honey is 
collected, after having palfed through the probofcis and 
a narrow pipe which runs through the head and bread. 
This bladder, when lull of honey, is about the fize of 
a fmall pea. » 

The ding, which is fituated at the extremity of the Its ftinj, 
belly, is a very curious weapon ; and when examined 
by the microiirope, appears of a iurpriling drudiirc. 
It has a hiirney (heath or fcabbard, which includes two 
bearded dans. This (heath ends in a (liarp point, near 
the extremity of which a (lit opens, through which, at 
the time of dinging, the t\\o bearded darts are pro- 
truded beyond the end of the flirath : one of ibefe is a 
little longer than the other, and fixes its beard fird ; and 
the other indantly following, they penetrate alternate- 
ly deeper and deeper, taking hold of the flelh with 
their beards or hooks, till the whole (ling is buried 
in the flelh; and then a venomous juice is injecled 
through the fame dieath, from a little bag at the root 
of the ding. Hence the wound occalions an acute pain 
and fwellingof ihe p^rt, which omctimes continues (cve- 
ral days. Tlufe cficds are bed remedied by enlarging 
the wound diredtly, to give it fome difcharge. This 
poifon feems to owe its niifchievous eflicacy to certain 
pungent falls. Let a bee be provoked to drike itk Iting 
agaiiid a plate of glals, and ibtrc will be a drop of the 
poifon difcharged and left upon the glals. This being 
placed under a double microfcopc, as the liquor evajx)- 
rates, the falis will be feen lo concrete, forming oblong, 
pointed, clear cry dais.— Mr Derhain coimied on the 
iting of a wafp eight beards on the lidc of each dart, 
fomewhat like the beards of fi(h-ho(iks ; and the (amc 
number is to be counted on the dans of the bee's 
fling. When thefe beards arc druck deep in the flelh, 
if the wounded pcrfon llaris, or dilcompofes the bee 
before it can dilengage iheni, the ding is left liehind 
dicking in the wound : but if he have patience to 
dand quiet, the creature brings the hooks down clofe 
to the fides of ihc darts, and withdraws the weapon j 
in which cafe, the wound is always much Icfs paintul. 
The danger of being dung by bees may be in a great 
Q_ mcafurc 


diijl Com- 
Vol. IV. 

Queeu bee. 

BEE [ 

meafure prevented by a quiet compofcd behaviour. A 
thoufaud bees will fly and buzz about a perfon without 
hurling him, if he Hand perfectly Hill, and forbear 
dillurbing them even when nearhisface ; in which cafe 
he may obferve them for hours together without dan- 
ger: but if he molells or beats them away, he ufualiy 
» S« i/m- fufiers for it. It has been lately aihrmed*, that a 
iurgbM:- perfon is in pcrfcd fafety in the midll of myriads of 
bees, if be but carefully keep liis mouth lluit, and 
breathe gently through the nollrils only ; the human 
breath, it would fccm, being peculiarly oifenlivc to 
their delicate organs : and merely with this precau- 
tion, it is faiJ, the very hives may be turned up, and 
even part of the comb cut out, while the bees are at 

I. Oeconomy, Instincts, &c. uy^/jif Hone y- Bee. 
We may confidcr a hive of bees as a well peopled 
city, in which are commonly found trom 15,000 to 
18,000 inhabitants. This city is in itfclf a monarchy ; 
compofcd of a queen ; of males, which are the drones ; 
and of worki/ig hecs, which have been fuppoled and 
called neuters. The combs, which arc of pure wax, 
ferve as their magazine of llorcs, and for the nurling 
places of their young offspring. There is between the 
combs a fpace futHcicnt for two bees to march abreafl, 
without fmbarralFing each other ; and in fome parts it 
is more fpacious. There are alfo holes, or narrow 
paffcs, which crofs the combs tranfverfely, and are in- 
tended to Ihortcn the way when the bees pais from 
one comb to anoiher. 

The QuEE.v is alfo diflinguiflied from the other 
bees, by the forui of her body ; Ihe is longer and larg- 
er than ihcy are, and her wings are much Ihortcr than 
theirs in proportion to her body ; for the wings of the 
other bees cover their whole body, whereas thofe of 
the queen hardly reach beyond her middle, or end at 
about the third ring of her belly. Her hinder parts 
are more taper than thofe of the oiher bees, terminat- 
ing Iharper. Her belly and legs are of a deep yellow, 
much refembling the pureft gold. She is unwieldy in 
her flight, a reafon for her feldom flying but when flic 
leaves the parent-liive 10 go and fettle a colony. All 
the bees form her retinue, and like dutiful I'ubjcdts, re- 
pair to the place (he choofcs. She is armed with a vi- 
gorous fling. Lefs pallionate however than her fub- 
jefts, ftie only ufes her fling when long provoked, or 
when in conteft tor imperial fway. Never more than 
one remains in a hive, and that is the conqueror. 
A hive of bees cannot fubiill without a queen, as 
mcntnf her (ijg alone produces their numerous poftcrity ; and on 
fubji:a». j]jJ2 account their fidelity and attachment to their fo- 

5 vereign is admirable. 
Mr Wild- Mr. Wildman, by his dexterity in the management 
man's feats of bees, fome years .^go, furprifcd the whole kingdom, 
by means jjg ^^^ caufe a fwarni to light where he pleafcs, al- 
niofl inflantancoully ; he can order tliem to fettle on his 
Lead, then remove them to his hand ; command them 
to depart and fettle on a window, table, &c. at plca- 
i'ure. We fliall fubjoin his method of performing thefe 
feats, in his own words: 

" Long experience has taught me, that as foon as I 
turn up a hive, and give it fome taps on the fides and 
bottom, the queen immediately appears, to know the 
caufe of this alarm; but foon retires again among her 
people. Being accuflomcd to fee her fo ofien, I readily 
perceive Iier at firll glance; and long pradicc has en- 


of the 

122 ] BEE 

abled me to ftize her inftantly, with a tcndernefs that Be e, 
does not in the leafl endanger her perfon. This is of " 
the utmoft importance ; for the leaft injury done to her 
brings immediate dcftru>ition to the hive, if you have 
not a fparc queen to put in her place, as I have too of- 
ten experienced in my tirfl attempts. When polleired 
of her, I can without injury to her, or exciting that 
degree of refentmcnt that may tempt her to (ling me, 
flip her into my other hand, and, returning the hive to 
its place, hold her there, till the beesmifling her, are all 
on wing, and in the utmofl coiifuflon. When the bees 
are thus dillrclFed, Iplace thequeen whcrc-cverlwould 
liave the bees to fettle. The moment a few of them 
difcover her, they give notice to thofe near tliem, and 
thofe to llie rcll ; the knowledge of which icon be- 
comes fo general, that in a few minutes ihcy all collcft 
themfclvcs round her; ajid are fo happy in having re- 
covered this fole fupport of their Itate, that ihey will 
long remain quiet in their fituation. Nay, the fcent of 
her body is fo attraiflivc of them, that the flightell 
touch of her, along any place or fubftance, will attach 
the bees to ir, and induce them to purfue any path flie 
takes." This was the only witchcraft uled by Mr 
Wildman, and is that alone which is prat'tifed by others 
who have flnce made limilar exhibitions. In fliorf, 
fcize on the quetn, and you arc fure of leading all the 
bees of a hive to any place you pleafe. 6 

When a queen dies by any accident, the bees of her Confe- 
hive immediately ceal'e working, conflinic their own q»f"<^^* "^ 
honey, fly about their own and other hivts at unufual h'^"' oe""» 
hours when other bees are at reft, and pine away if net ''' 
foon flqiplied with another fovercign. Her lofs is pro- 
claimed by a clear and interrupted humming. This 
iign Ihould be a warning to the owner of the bees, to 
take wliat honey remains in the hive, or to procure 
them another queen. In this laft cafe, the flock in- 
fiantly revives; plcafure and adiviiy are apparent 
through the whole hive ; the prelencc of the fovercign 
rcftores vigour and exertion, and her voice commands 
univerfal refpcdt and obedience : of fuch importance is 
the queen to the exiftence and profperiiy of the other 
members of this community. 

The diflcdtion of the queen-bee Ciows evidently that 
flic lays many thoufand eggs. It is computed that 
the ovaria of a queen-bee contains more than 5000 eggs 
at one time ; and therefore it is not diiEcult to con- 
ceive that a qucen-bce may produce 10,000 or 12,000 
bees, or even more, in the fpace of two months. f 

The common Drones are fmailer than the queen, Of the 
and larger than the working bees; and in flying they drones, 
make a greater noife. The difleftion of the drone 
gives us as great proof of its being the male, as that of 
the queen does of her being female. In this creature 
there is no appearance of ovaries or eggs, nor any thing 
of the flrudure of the common working bees, but the 
whole abdomen is filled with tranfparent velTcls, winding 
about in various finuolitics, and containing a white or 
milky fluid. This is pl.iinly analogous 10 that fluid in the 
males of other animals, which is deflincd to render the 
eggs of the female prolific; and this whole apparatus of- 
veitcls, w-hich much rcfcmble the inrnings and wind- 
ings of the feminal vefl'cls in other animafs, is plainly 
intended only for the preparation and retention of this 
matter, till the deflincd time of its being emiiled. On 
fqucczing the hinder pans, alfo, may be forced out the 
pcnisj a Cmall and flcndcr flciliy body, contained be- 


[ 123 ] 


B«. tween the horns of a fomewhat harder fiibftancf , which 
'join at tjieir bafe, but gradually part afunder as they 
arc continued in length. Thcfc parts, found In all 
the drones, and none of them in any other bees 
except thefe, feem to prove very cviJcnily the dif- 
i'crence of fex. If a hive is opened in the begin- 
ning of fpring, not a finglc drone will btr found in 
it ; from tlie middle of May till the end of June, hun- 
dreds of them will be found, commonly from 200 or 
?oo to 1000; and froui thence to the fullowing fpring 
it would be in vain to feck for them. They go not 
out till II in the morning, and return before iix in the 
evening. But their expeditions arc not thofe of in- 
duftry. They have no fling, their roftrum and feet 
are not adapted for coUeding wax and honey, nor in- 
deed are they obliged to labour. Tliey only hover 
upon flowers to cxtraft the fwcets, and all their 
thoughts are pleafure. Their office is, to impregnate 
the eggs of the queen after they are depofitcd in the 
cells. And while their prefence is thus neccllary, ihey 
are fufFered to enjoy the fweets of love and life; but 
as foon as they become ufclefs in the hive, the work- 
ing bees declare the nioft cruel war againft tlicm, and 
make terrible (laughter of them. This war affcrts not 
only the bees already in life, but even the eggs and mag- 
gots ; for the law which has pronounced the deflruc- 
tion of the males has no exception, it extends equally 
to thofe which do not yet breathe and to thofe which 
do; the hive is cleared of every egg, maggot, or 
nymph ; the whole is torn away and carried off. Af- 
ter the feafon proper for increafmg the number of bees 
is part, and when they (hould attend only to the fup- 
plying of iheir magazines fufficienily with winter-flores, 
every vcftige of the drones is deflroyed, 10 make room 
for honey. Whenever thefe drones are obfcrved to re- 
main in a hive late in the autumn, it is held to be a bad 
fign of the flate of the hive. 

But bcfides thefe larger drones, Maraldi and Reau- 
mur had long ago difcovcrcd that there were others of 
a Iclfcr fize, not exceeding that of the common work- 
ing bees. This faft, however, was not fully afcer- 
taincd before the late experiments of Mr Dcbraw, to be 
afterwards mentioned. It is well known, as has been 
already noticed, that the large drones never appear in 
the hive before the middle of April ; that they are 
all dead before the end of Auguft, when the principal 
breeding feafon terminates ; and that iliey are dcilroycd, 
together with all their worms or nyniphs.hy the work- 
ing bees, probably by order of the q lecn, to fave ho- 
ney : yet it is equally certain, that the bees begin 
to lirecd early in the fpring, fometimes in February, if 
the weather is mild ; and that many broods are com- 
pleted before thele drones appear. Bui if drones of a 
fmaller fizc are fufFered to remain, which in a time of 
fcarcity confume lefs honey than the others, ihefe will 
anfwer the purpofe of fupplying the early broods, and 
the larger drones are produced againft a time of greater 
plenty. Some obfervcrs allirm, that the fmaller diones 
arc all dead before the end of May, when the larger 
fpecics appear and fuperfede iheir ufc. Thcfc circuni- 
liances accord with the fuggcftion of Abbe Le I'luche 
in his Spedacli dc la Nature, That a fmall number of 
drones are refervcd to fupply the neceirnies of the cii- 
fuing year; and that thefe drones are very little., if at 
all, larger than the common bees. 

The Working Bees corapofe the greaieft body of Bee. 
the ft;.ite. Columella informs us, that the ancients dif- .^r"^- — r' 
tinguilhcd feveral kinds of ihem. He joins in o- ?^ \*^, 
pinion with Virgil, who approves of thofe which arc '"^ "'" 
fmall, oblong, fmooih, bright and Ihining, of a gentle 
and mild diljjofition : "for," continues he, by how 
much the larger and rounder the bee is, by lo much 
the worfe it is ; but if it be fierce and cruel, it is the 
worft of all. The angry difpoliiion of bees of a bet- 
ter eluraftcr is eafily foftcned by the frequent inter- 
courfeof thofe who take care of (hem, for they grow 
more tame when they are often handled." The expe- 
rience of ages has now eftablilhcd the fort of bees wJiich 
have been found to aufwer bcft the purpofcs of keeping 

The working bees have the care of the hive, collefl 
the wax and honey, fabricate and work up the wax, 
build the cells, feed the young, keep the hive clean, 
drive from thence ftrangers, and employ themfelvcs in 
all other concerns relating to the hive. 

The working bee has twoflomachs ; oneof which con- 
tains the lioncy, and a fecond in which is contained the 
crude wax. The working bees have no pans analo- 
gous to the ovaria of the queen, or that refemble the 
male organs of the drones. Hence they have gene- 
rally been fiippofed to be neutral or of neither fex. 
But a difTcrent dodrine has lately been cflabliflied ; 
which there will be occafion to notice in the fequel. 

The lling is very ncceflary for a working bee, both 
as an offenfive and as a deftnfivc weapon : for their ho- 
ney and wax excite the envy of many greedy and lazy 
infers ; and they have alfo to defend themfelvcs againft 
enemies, who are fonder of eating them than their 
honey. There is likcvi-ife a time when the drones mufl 
be facrificed and exterminated for the good of the fo- 
ciety; and as they are larger and flrongcr than the 
working bees, thefe lafl would have a very unequal 
match, were it not for this poifonons fling. , 

There happen alfo among bees, either of the fame Of their 
or different hives, moft deadly feuds, in which their battles. 
flings are their chief weapons. In thefe conicfls, great 
fkill may be difcerned in iheir manner of pointing the 
fting between the fcaly rings which cover their bodies, 
or 10 fome other ealily vulnerable part. The bee which 
iirft gains the advantage remains the conqueror: iho" 
the vii.'lory cofts the vidor his life, if he has left his 
fling in the body of ihc enemy ; for, with the fling, 
Jo much of his body is torn out, that death inevi- 
tably follows. Bees have very levere conflifls when 
whole hives engage in a pitched battle, and many arc 
llain on both fule s. Their lighting and plundering one 
another ought chiefly to be im]iutcd, as Mr Thorley 
obferves, cither to their pcrfcd abhorrence of (loth anJ 
idlencfs, or to their iufatiahle ihirll for honey; for 
when in fpring and auimnn, the weather is fair, but 
no honey can be collcCled from plants, and is to be 
found only in the hives of otlier bees, they will ven- 
ture i!icir lives to get it there. 

Dr Warder alligns another caufc of their fighting ; 
M'hich is, the ncceirny that ilic bees are reduced to 
when their hive has been plundered, at a feafon 
when it is too late for them to repair the lofs by any 
iri.lullry in the fields. 

Sometimes one of the queens is killed in l>ai[Ie. In 

this cafe, the bees of both hives unite as loon as her 

0^2 death 


Their la- 


or the 


death is generally known among them. All chen be- 
' come one people ; ihe vantiniQicd go offwiih the rob- 
bers richly UJcn with their own fpoijs, and rciiini 
every day with ihtir new alTociatcs to pillage their old 
lubitation. This caufes a throng, uniiliial tor the lea- 
Ton, at the door of tlie hive thry arc phindcriiig ; and 
if the owner lifts it up at night, wjicn all arc gone 
home, he will find it empty of inhabitants; though 
there perhaps will remain in it fome honey, which he 
takes as his property. 

When two (warms take flight at the fame time, they 
fomctimes quarrel, and great numbers are deflioytd 
on botli lides, till one of the queens is llain. This 
ends the contcfl, and the bees of both fides unite under 
the furviving fovcreign. 

M'hen the bees begin to work in their hives, ihey 
divide themfelves into four companies : one of which 
roves in the fields in fearch of materials; another em- 
ploys itlclf in laying out the bottoms and partitions of 
their cells; a third is employed in making the iiifide 
fmooth from the corners and angles; and the fourth 
company brinj^s food for the reft, or relieves tliofe who 
return with their rel'pcftive burdens. But they are not 
kept conftant to one employment ; they often change 
the talks alfigned them : thole that have been at work, 
being permitted to jjo abroad ; and tbofe that have 
been in the fields already, take their places. They 
feem even to have figns, by which they underftand each 
other: for when any of liiem want food, it bends down 
its trunk to the bee from <vhom it is expetJled, which 
then opens its honey-bag, and lets fome drops fall in- 
to the other's mouth, which is at -that time opened to 
receive it. Their diligence and labour is fo great, that, 
in a day's time, they are able to make cells which lie 
upon each other numerous enough to contain 3000 

In the plan and formation of thcfe cells they difco- 
vera moft wonderful fagacity. In conftrucling habita- 
tions within a limited compafs,an arcliiteft would have 
three objeifls in view ; firfl to ufe the fmalleft quantity, 
that can be of materials; next, to give the edifice 
the greatefl capacity on a determined fpace ; and third- 
ly, to employ the fpot in fuch a manner that none of 
it may be loft. On examination, it will be found that 
the bees have obtained all thefe advantages in the hex- 
agonal form of their cells : for, firft, there is an (Eco- 
nomy of wax, as the circumference of one cell makes 
part of the circumferences of thofe contiguous to it ; 
fecondly, the ccconomy of the fpot, as thefe cells which 
join to one another leave no void between them ; and 
thirdly, the greateft capacity or fpacc ; as, of all the 
figures which can be contiguous, that with fix fides 
gives the largeft area. This thriftincfs prompts them 
to make the partitions of their cells thin ; yet they are 
conftrudled fo as that the folidity may compenfaie for 
the fcantinefs of materials. The parts moft liable to 
injury arc the entrance of the cells. Thefe the bees 
take care to ftrengihen, by adding quite round the 
circumference of the apertures a. fillet of wax, by which 
means this mouth is three or four times thicker than 
the fides: and they are ftrengthened at the bottom by 
the angle formed by the bottom of three cells falling 
in the middle of an oppofite cell. The combs lie pa- 
rallel to each other; and there is left between ever/ 

24 ] 


one of them a fpace which fcrves as a Arcei, broad e- Be*. 

nough for two bees to pafs by each other. There are " >■'""' 

liules which go quite through the combs, and fcrve as 
lanes for the bees to jiafs from one comb to another 
wiilioiit being obliged to go a great way about. When 
ihty bigin their combs, lh:y form at the top oi the 
hive a root or Itay to the whole edifice, which is to 
liang from it. Though they generally lay the foun- 
dations of the combs fo that there (hall be no more 
between them than what is AifHcient for two bees to 
pafs, yet they fomctimes place thofe beginnings of two 
combs too far afundcr ; and, in this cafe, in onJcr to fiU 
up part of the void (pace ariling (rom that bad difpo- 
filion, tliey carry their combs on obliquely, to make 
them gradually approach each other. This void fpace 
isfomeiimes foconlidciable, that the bees build in it an 
intermediate comb, which they terminate as Coon as the 
original combs have only their due diftances. As the 
combs would be apt, when full, to overcome by their 
Weight all the fecurity which the bees can give them 
againft falling; they who prepare hives, fet in them, 
crollwife, fticks which ftrve as props to the combs, 
and fave the bees a great deal of labour. It is notcafy 
to difcover the particular manner of their working ; 
for, notwiihftanding the many contrivances ufcd for this 
purpofc, there are fuch numbers in continual motion, 
and fiicceed one another with fuch rapidity, that no- 
thing but confufion appears to the fight. Some of iliem, 
however, have been obfcrved carrying pieces of wax in 
their talons, and running to the places where they arc 
at work upon the combs. Thefe they faften to the 
work by means of the fame talons. Each bee is cm- 
ployed but a very (hort time in this way : but there is 
fo great a number of them that go on in a conftant 
fucceffion, that the coinb increalcs very perceptibly. 
Belides thefe, there are others that run about beating 
the work with their wings and the hinder part of their 
body, probably with a view to make it more lirm and 

Whilft part of the bees are occupied in forming the 
cells, others are employed in pertecling and polilhing 
thofe that arc new modelled. This operation is per- 
formed by their talons, taking off every thing that is 
rough and uneven. Thefe polifhers are not fo delliltory 
in their operations as thofe that make the cells; they 
work long and diligently, never intermitting their la- 
bo ir, excepting to carry out of the cell the particles 
of wax which they take off in polilhing. Thefe par- 
ticles are not allowed to be loft ; others are ready to 
receive them from the polillicrs, and to employ them 
in fome other part of the work. . 

The balls which we fee attached to the legs of bees of their 
returning to the hives, are not wax, but a powdercol- building- 
levied from the ftaminaof flowers, not yet brought to materials, 
the ftate of wax. The fubftance of thefe balls heated ^"^ P™^*" 
in any velFel, does not melt as wax would do, but be- °^ 
comes dry, and hardens : it may even be reduced to a 
coal. If thrown into water, it will fiiik ; whereas wax 
fwims. To reduce this crude fubftance into wax, it 
muft firft be digeftcd in the body of the bee. 

Every bee, when it leaves the hive to colleft tliis 
precious ftore, enters into the cup of the flower, par- 
ticularly fnch as feem charged with the greateft quan- 
tities of this yellow farina. As the animal's body is 



[ 125 ] 




*. The fre- 

covered over with hair, it rolls itfelf within the flower, 
■' and quickly becomes quite covered with the diift,whicli 
it foon after bnilhes otf with iis two hind legs, and 
kneads into two little balls. In the thighs of the hind- 
legs there are two cavities, edged with hair ; and into 
thefe, as into a bafkct, the animal Hicks its pellets. 
Tims employed, the bee flits from flower to riowtr, 
increafing its llore, and adding to its Hock of wax, 
until the ball upon each thigh becomes as big as a grain 
of pepper ; by this time having got a fudicient load, 
it returns, making the bcfl of its way to the hive. 

After the bees have brought home this crude Hib- 
flance, they eat it by degrees ; or, at other times, 
three or four bees come and eafe the loaded bee, by 
eating each of them a Ihare, the loaded bee giving tliem 
a liint fo to do. Hunger is not the motive of iheir 
thus eating the balls of waxy matter, efpecially when 
a fwarm is firft hived ; but it is their defirc to provide a 
fpeedy fupply of real wax for making the combs. At 
other times, when there is no immediate want of wax, 
the bees lay this matter up in repofitories, to keep it 
in ftore. 

When this waxy matter is fwallowcd, it is, by the 
digeflivc powers of the bee, converted into real wax, 
which the bees again difgorgc as they work it up into 
combs ; for it is only while thus (oft and pliant from 
the ilomach that they can fabricate it properly. That 
the wax thus employed is taken from thcir.'lomachs, 
appears from their making a confidcrable quantity of 
comb foon after they arc hived, and even on any tree or 
ihrub where they have rcfted bat a Ihort while before 
their being hived, tliough no balls were vilil'le on their 
legs, excepting thofe of a few wliich may be jiifl re- 
turned from the ticld. This is farther coniiniied by 
what happened in a fwarm newly hived : for two days 
together from the lime of their quitting their former 
home it rained conllantly, infoinuch that not one bee 
was able to (lir oiu during that time ; yet at the end 
of the two days they had made a comb 15 or 16 inches 
long, and thick in proportion. 

The crude wax, when brought home by tlie bees, is 
often of as different colours as are the flowers from 
which it is col leded : but the new combs are always of a 
white colour, which is afterwards changed only by the 
impurities arifing from the Aeam, 5;c. of the bees. 

Bees coUeft crude wax alio for food; for if this was 
not the cafe, there would be no want of wax after the 
combs are made : but they arc oliferved, even in old 
hives, to return in great numbers loaded with fuch mat- 
ter, which is dcpolited in particular cells, and is known 
by the name of ba-brcaii. We may gucfs that they 
confiime a great deal of this fubllance in food by the 
quantity colle^!■"led ; which, by computation, may in fomc 
hives, amount to an hundred weight in a feafon, whilft 
the real wax in fuch an hive docs not perhaps exceed 
two pounds. 

It is well known that the habitation of bees oaght 
to be very clofe ; and what their hives want from the 
negligt nee or nn(kiltulnefs of man, thefe animals fup- 
ply by their own induftry ; fo that it is tlieir principal 
care, when firll hived, to ftop up all the crannies. Kor 
this purpofc they make ufc of a rcllnous gum, which is 
more tenacious than wax, and differs greatly from it. 
This the ancients called />r(//c///. It will grow confidcr- 

ably hard in the hive, though it will in fome meafurc Bte. 

foften by heat ; and is often found different in confill- ^^ ' 

ence, colour, and fmcll. It has generally an agreeable 
aromatic odour when it is warmed ; and by fome it is 
conlidcred as a nioft grateful perfume. WJicn the 
bees begin to work with it, it is fofi; but it acquires a 
iirmcr confidence every day, till at length it ail'umes 
a brOwn colour, and becomes nnich harder than wax. 
The bees carry it on tlicir hinder legs ; and fome think 
it is met with on the birch, the willow, and poplar. 
However it is procured, it is certain that they plalier 
the inlide of their hives wi;h this compofuion. 14 

Honey is originally a juice digcfted in plants, which 3- The if 
fweais through their pores, and chiefly in thcirflowcrs, "<>• 
or is contained in refcrvoirs in which nature ftores it. 
The bees fomctimes penetrate into thefe l^ores, and at 
other times And the liquor exfudcd. This they collcft 
in their fiomachs ; fo that, when loaded with it, they 
feem, to an inattentive eye, to come home without any 
booty at all. 

Befides the liquor already mentioned, which is ob- 
tained from the flowers of plants, another fubflancc, 
called hoiicy-dciu *, has been difcovered, of which the ' Seethe 
bees are equally fond. Of this fubltancc there are two^""''"^'' •^•' 
kinds, both deriving their origin from vegetables, the""?'"''''""' 
in Very different ways. 

The firlf kind, the only one known to hufbandmen, 
and which pallls for a dew that falls on trees, is no o- 
ther than a mild fwect juice, which having circulated 
through the vcffclsof vegetables, is frparatid in proper 
rcfervoirs in the flowers, or on the leaves, where it is 
properly called the hcmy-di.'w : fomctimes it is depoliieJ 
in the pith, as in the fugar-cane ; and, at other times, 
in the juice of pulpy fummer-fruiis when ripe. Such 
is the origin of the manna which is collected on the afli 
and maple of Calabria and Briaufon, where it flows in 
great plenty from the leaves and trunks of thefe trees, 
and thickens into the form in which it is ufually ftcn. 
The fecond kind of honey-dew, which is the chief 
rcfource of bees after the fpring- flowers and dew by 
tranfpiration on leaves arc pail, owes its origin to a 
(mail mean infcft f , the excrement thrown out by which f Sec th« 
makes a part ot the moll delicate honey we ever tafie. articles /l- 

From whatever fource the bees have collcflcd their/*" ""'* 
honey, the inlfant they return home, they feck cells in ■"•"O"'''*^ 
which they may difgorge and depolite their loads. 
They have two fort of llores : one of which conlifls of 
honey laid up for the winter ; and the other of honey 
intended for accidental ufc in eafe of bad weather, and 
for fuch bees as do not go abroad in fcarch of it. Their 
method of fecuring each of thefe is different. They 
have in each cell a thicker fubftancc, which is placed 
over the honey, to prevent its running out of the cell ; 
and that fubflance is raifcd gradually as the cell is fill- 
ed, till the bees, finding thai the cell cainiot contain any 
more, clofe it with a covering of wax, not to be opened 
till times of want, or during the winter. j^ 

It has been already obfervtd, that the cells are in- of the 
tended for other purpofes bclides being places o( florc manner In 
for honey. One of the chief iifcs is, their being nur- which bce» 
ferics for the young. The cells for thofe w hieh are to *"'"<'* 
be working bees, arc commonly half an inch deep ; 
thofe for drones, three (piarirrsof an inch ; and thofe 
which arc intended for keeping of huncy only, ftill 



[ 126 ] 


Ee*. deeper. Tiiis accounts for the inequalities obferved in 

— " ' the fiirface o!' combs. 

The ciiicen-l)ce is generally concealed in the mod fe- 
cret pan of tlic hivr, and is never vilible l>iu when llic 
lays her eggs in fuch combs as are cxjiofcd to liglit. 
When Ihc docs apptar, (lie is always attended l>y tenor 
a dozen of the common fort, who form a )<ind of re- 
tinue, and follow her wherever Ihe goes with a fedatc 
and grave tread. Before flic lays her eggs, (he exa- 
mines the cells where flie defigns to lay them ; and if 
Ihe finds that they contain ncitlicr honey, wax, nor 
any embryo, Ihc introdnces the pollerior part of her 
liody into a cell, and fixes to the bottom of it a fmall 
white cg^, which is compofcd of a thin white mem- 
brane, full of a whiiilh liquor. In this manner flic 
goes on, till flie fills as many cells as flic has eggs to 
lay, which are generally many thoufands. Sometimes 
more than one egg has been dcpolited in the fame cell ; 
when this is the cafe, the working bees remove the fu- 
pernumcrary eggs, and leave only one in each cell. 
On the firft or fecond day after the egg is lodged in 
the cell, the drone bee injects a fmall quantity of whi- 
tiOi liquid, which in about a day is abforbed by the 
egg. On the third or fourth day is produced a worm 
or maggot ; which, when it is grown fo as to touch 
the oppofite angle, coils itfclf up in the ihape of a fe- 
micirclc, and floats in a proper liquid, whereby it is 
nouriflied and enlarged in its dimenlions. This liquor 
is of a whitifli colour, of the thicknefs of cream, and of 
an infipid tafte like flour and water. Naturalifls are 
not agreed as to the origin and qualities of this liquid. 
Some have fuppofed, that it conlifis of fome generative 
matter, iiijefled by the working bees into each cell, in 
order to give fecundity to the egg ; but the moft pro- 
bable opinion is, that it is the fame with what fomc 
writers have called the bee-bread ; and that it is a 
mixture of water with the juices of plants and flowers 
colleded merely for the nutrition of ihe young, vvhilfl 
they are in their weak and helplefs fl;ate. Whatever 
be the nature of this aliment, it is certain that the 
common working bees are very induftrious in fupply- 
ing the worms with a fuflicient quantity of it. The 
worm is fed by the working bees for about eight days, 
till one end touches the other in the form of a ring ; and 
when it begins to feel itfelf uneafy in its firll poflure, 
it ceafes to eat, and begins to unroll itfclf, thrufling 
that end forward towards the mouth of the cell which 
is to be the head. The attendant bees, obfcrving thefc 
fymptoms of approaching transformation, defift from 
their labours in carrying proper food, and employ them- 
felves in faflening up the top of the cell with a lid of 
wax, formed in concentric circles, and by their natu- 
ral heat in chcrifliing the brood and haflening the 
birth. In this concealed Hate the vi'orm extends itfclf 
at full lengih, and prepares a web of a fort of filk, in 
the manner of the filk-worm. This vi'cb forms a com- 
plete lining for the cell, and affords a convenient recep- 
tacle for the transformation of the worm into a nymph 
or chryfalis. Some naturalifls fuppofe, that as each 
cell is deftincd to the fucecflive breeding of feveral 
worms, the v.'hole web, which is compofed of many 
crulls or doubles, is in reality a collection of as many 
webs as there have been worms. 1\I. Maraldi appre- 
hends, that this lining is formed of the fkin of the 
worm thrown off at its entrance into the nymph Hate : 

but it is urged, that if the cells are opened when newly 
covered by the bees, the worm within will be found in *" 
its own form, and dctcfted in the aft of Ipinning its 
web; and by means of glafTes it will be found com- 
pofcd of fine threads regularly wo\en together, like 
ihofe of other fpinning animals. In ilie Ipace of 18 
or 20 days the whole procefs of transfonr.ation is fi- 
niflied, and the btc endeavours to difchargc itfclf from 
confintnunt by forcing an aperture with its teeth 
through the covering of the cell. The paflage is gra- 
dually dilated ; fo that one horn firll appears, then the 
head, and afterwards the whole body. This is ufually 
the work of three hours, and fometimcs of half a day. 
The bee, after it has difengaged itfclf, Hands on the 
furface of the comb, till it has acquired its natural com- 
plexion, and full maturity and flrcngth, fo as to bc- 
coiTic fit for labour. The reft of the bees gather round 
it in this Hate, congratulate its birth, and offer it ho- 
ney out of their own mouths. The exuviae and feat- 
tered pieces of wax which arc left in the cell arc re- 
moved by the working bees ; and the matrix is n» 
fooiiercleanfed and fit for new fecundation, but the queen 
depofites another egg in it ; infomuch that, Mr Maraldi 
fays, he has feen five bees produced in the fame cell 
in thefpace of three months. The young bees are ea- 
fily diftinguiflied from the others by their colour: they 
are grey, inflead of the yellowifli brown of the com- 
mon bees. The reafon of this is, that their body is 
black, and the hairs that grow upon it are white, from 
the mixture of which leen together refults a grey ; 
but this colour forms itfelf into a brownifli yellow by 
degrees, the rings of the body becoming more brown 
and the hairs more yellow. 

The eggs from which drones are to proceed, are, as 
already obferved, laid in larger cells than thofc of the 
working bees. The coverings of thefe cells, when the 
drones are in the nymph ftate, are convex or fwelling 
outward, whilfl the cells of the working bees are flat. 
This, with the privilege of leading idleeifeminatelives, 
and not working for the public flock, is what diflin- 
guiflies the drones. 

The bees depart from their nfual flyle of building 
when they arc to raifc cells for bringing up fuch maggotg 
as arc deflined to become queens. Thefe are of alongifli 
oblong form, having one end bigger than the other, 
with their exterior furface full of little cavities. Wax, 
which is employed with fo geometrical a thriftinefs in 
the railing of hexagonal cells, is expended with pro- 
fufion in the cell which is to be the cradle of a royal 
maggot. They fometimes fix it in the middle, and at 
other times on one fide of a comb. Several common 
cells are facrificed to ferve as a bafis and fupport to it. 
It is placed almoft perpendicular to the common cells, 
the largefl end being uppermoft. The lower end is 
open till the feafon for clofing it comes, or till the mag- 
got is ready for transformation. It would be difficult 
to conceive how a tender maggot can remain in a cell 
turned bottom upmofl, if we did not find it buried in 
a fubflance fcarccly fluid, and if it was not in itfelf, at 
firft, fmall and light enough to be fufpended in this 
clammy paflc. As it grows it fills all the upper and 
larger part of the cell. As foon as the young queen 
conies out of her cell, that cell is deftroyed, and its 
place is fupplied by common cells ; but as the founda- 
tion of the royal cell is left, tliis part of the comb is 




[ 127 ] 


3«e. found thicker than any other. There are fcveral fuch 
"~~^'~~' cells prepared : for if there was only one reared in 
each hive, the fwarms might ofitn want a condiidrefs. 
Many accidents may alfo dcftroy the little maggot be- 
fore it becomes a bee. It is therefore ncccilary ihjt a 
number of fuch cells Ihjuld be provided ; and accord- 
ingly there arc oblcrved feveral young queens in the 
bcginniiig of the fuinnicr, more than one of which of- 
ten takes flight when a fwarin departs. 

A young queen is in a comliiiou to lead a fwarm 
from a hive in which flie was born in four or five days 
after Ihc has appeared in it with wings. The bees of 
a. fwarm arc in a great hurry when they know that 
their queen is ready to lay. In this cafe, they give to 
their new cells but part of the depth they are tu have, 
and defer the fiuilliing of them till they have traced 
the number of cells rcquilitc for the prcfent time. The 
cells firil made arc intended only for working bees ; 
, thefe being the moll neccllary. 
Of their When the hive is become too much crowded by the 

fwanning. addition of the young brood, apart of the bees think 
of finding thcmfclvcs a more commodious habitation, 
and with that view lingle out the mofl forward of the 
young queens. A new (warm is therefore conflantly 
compofed of ore queen at Icaft, and of feveral thoufand 
working bees, as well as fouie hundreds of drones. 
The working bees are fonie old, fomc young. 

Scarce has the colony arrived at its new habita- 
tion, when the workiugbees labour with the uimoft di- 
ligence to procure materials for fond and building. 
Their principal aim is not only to have cells in which 
they may depolit their honey : a llrongcr motive feems 
to animate them. They fecm to know that their queen 
is in hafle to lay her eggs. Their indufli^y is fuch, that 
in twenty-four hours they will have made combs twen- 
ty inches long, and wide in proportion. They make 
more wax during the firfl fonnight, if the fcafon is fa- 
vourable, tlian they do during all tiie rcfl of the year. 
Other bees are at the fame time bn(y in flopping all the 
holes and crevices they find in their new hive, in order 
to guard againft the entrance of infcds which covet 
their honey, their wax, or themfclvcs : and alfo to 
exclude the cold air, for it is indifpenfably nccelfary 
that they be lodged warm. 

When the bees lirft fettle in fwarming, indeed when 
tliey at any time refb themfelves, there is fomething 
very particular in their method of taking their rcpofc. 
It is done by colletling themfclvcs in a heap, and hang- 
ing to each other by their feet. They fomctimes ex- 
tend thefe heaps to a confiderable length. It would 
fecm probable to us, that bees from whicli the others 
liang mufl have a conliderable weight fufpcnded to 
them. All that can be faid is, that the bees mufl 
find this to be a fituation agreeable to themfelves. They 
may perhaps have a method of dillcnding themfclvcs 
with air, thereby to lelien their fpccific gravity ; in the 
fame manner as fiflies do, in order to alter their gravity 
compared with water. 

When a fwarm divides into two or more bands, 
which fettle fcjiarately, this divifion is a Aire fign that 
there are two or more queens among them. One of 
thefe cluders is generally larger than the other. The 
bees of the fmallcr duller, or chillers, detach them- 
felves by little and little, till at lafl the whole, together 
with the qiiecn or queens, unite with the larger chiller. 

As foon as the bees are fettled, tlie fjpemumcraiy E«. 

queen, or queens, mull be facriliccd to ifac peace and *■ ' 

tranquillity of the hive. This execution generally 
raifcs a confiderable commotion in the hive ; and feve- 
ral other bees, as well as the queen or queens, lofc 
their lives. Their bodies may be obferved on the 
ground, near the hive. The queen that is chofen is of 
a more reddilh colour than thofe which are dcftroycd : 
fo that fruiifulnefs fccms to be a great motive of pre- 
ference in bees ; for the nearer ihcy are to the time of 
laying their eggs, the bigger, larger, and more Ihi- 
ning are their bodies. The method of hiving thefe 
fwarms will be explained hereafter. ,, 

Beiidcs the capital inllincls above mentioned, bees Other in- 
are policli'cd of others, fomc of which are equally ne- ftini9s. 
ceifary for their prefervation and happinefs. — They 
anxioully provide againll the entrance of infers into 
the hive, by gluing up with wax the fmallcll holes 
in the ikep. Some Aand as centinels at the mouth of 
the hive, to prevent infefts of any kind from getting in. 
But if a ihail, or other large infecl fliould get in, not- 
withflanding all refiAance, they lling it to death ; and 
then cover it over with a coat of propolis, to prevent 
the bad fmell or maggots which might proceed front 
the putrefadion of fuch a large animal. — Bees fcem 
to be warned of the appearance of bad weather by 
fome particular feeling. It fomctimes happens, even 
when they are very allidiious and bufy, that they on a 
fudden ceafe from their work ; not a fingle one ftirs 
out; and thofe that are abroad liurry home in fucli 
prodigious crowds, that the doors of their habitations 
are too fmall to admit them. On this occallon, look 
up (o the fky, and you will foon difcover fomc of ihofc 
black clouds which denote impending rain. ^V■heIhe^ 
they fee the clouds gathering for it, as fome imagine, 
or whether (as is much more probable) ihcy feel fomc 
other effefts of it upon their bodies, is not' yet deter- 
mined; biitit is alledged, that no bee is ever caught 
even in what we call a fudden fliower, unlefs it have 
been a very great diflance from the hive, or have 
been before injured by fome accident, or be lickly and 
unable to fly fo fall as the rell. — Cold is a great enemy 
to them. To defend themfelves againfl its efTefls du- 
ring a liard winter, they crowd together in the middle 
of the hive, and buzz aboHt, and thereby excite a 
warmth whish is often perceptible by laying the hand 
upon the glafs-windows of the hive. — They feem to 
imdcrfland one another by the motions of their wings : 
When the queen wants to quit the hive, fliegivesa 
little buzz ; and all the others immediately follow her 
example, and retire along with her. ,g 

As to the age of bees, the large drones live but a Age oib«» 
little while, being deftroyed without mercy by the 
working bees, probably tofave honey, as already noticed. 
But of the other fort lately difcovered, no larger than 
the working bees, and not eafily to be diftinguilhed from 
them, the age has not yet been afcertained. Writers 
arc not agreed as 10 the age of the working bees. 
Some maintain that they are annual, and others Yuppofc 
that they live many years. .Many of ihem, it is well 
known, die annually of hard labour ; and though they 
may bepreferved by fuccelhon in hives or colonics for 
feveral years, the moft accurate obfervers are of opinion 
that ihtir 'age is but a year, or at the longcll no more 
than two fuinmcrs. 



[128 ] 



the fex aud 
tion of bees 

' Barlut, 
Genera of 
JnfeSis, p. 



Concerning the fcx and fecundation of bees, various 
experiments have been mailc ol laic years, by which 
new light been thrown upon ilie lulijcci, and Itve- 
ral liillicukies which eni'j.irraii'cd tlie proctU of j;cnc- 
ration among thcfe curious iufcii^s Iccm to have been re- 

Swainmcrdain, and after him Maraldi, difcovered in 
the ftrudure of the drones foinc refeuiblancc to the 
nialeorgansofgeneraiii)n,asl).tsalready been dclcribcd; 
and from ihcnce concluded that they were die males: 
but neither of thofe accurate and indullrious obfcrvtrs 
could dcteift them in the acl of copulation. Swamnier- 
dam, therefore, entertained a notion, that the female 
or queen-bee was fecundated without copulation ; that 
it was futficicnt for her to be near the males ; and that 
her cQlgs were impregnated by a kind of vivifying aura 
exhaled from the body of the males, and abforbed by 
the female. However, M. Reaumur thought that he 
hail difcovered the adual copulation of the drones with 
the female bee, and he has very minutely difcribcd the 
procefs of it. A very ingenious naturalifl* of the 
prefent day, without taking any notice of recent dif- 
coveries, feems to have given into the fame idea. 
" The olfice of the males or drones (fiys he) is to 
render the queen pregnant. One hngle female fliould 
in the miJlt of fcvcn or ciglit luiudred miles, one 
would think, be inceifantly aliaileil. But nature has 
provided againll that inconvenience, by making 
them of a conftitution extremely frigid. The fe- 
male choofcs out one that plcafes her ; (lie is obliged 
to make the firll advances, and excite him to love by 
her carefles. But this favour proves fatal to him : 
fcarce has he ceafed from amorous dalliance, but he is 
feen to perilh. The pleafiirc of thefe obfcrvaiions 
may be taken, by putting a female with fcveral males 
into a bottle." 

Others again, as M. Schirach and M. HattonT, re- 
jecfl the drones as bearing no Ihare at all in the bulinefs 
of propagation, and aflcrt the queen-bee to be felf- 
prolitic. But for what purpofe then (liould wife na- 
ture have furnilhed the drones with that large quantity 
of feminal liquor ; to what ufc fo large an ajiparatus of 
fecundating organs fo well dcfcribed by Reaumur and 
Maraldi ? The fact is, that the above gentlemen have 
founded their opinion upon obfervations that hives arc 
peopled at a time of the year whew (as they fuppofed) 
there are no drones in being. But we have already 
noticed, that nature has provided drones of ditfc- 
rent fizes for the purpofe of impregnation, adapted to 
different times, occafions, and circumflauces : And 
the miftake of Mcifrs Schirach and Hattorff feems to 
have proceeded from their milfing the large-fized 
drones, and not being acquainted with or not adverting 
to the other fort fo hardly diflinguilhablc from the work- 
ing bees. 

LaAly, many of the ancients as well as moderns 
have fippofcd that the eggs of the female bee are not 
impregnated vi'ith the male fperm, while in the bodyof 
the creature, but th it they are depofited unimprenna- 
ted in the cells ; and that the male afterwards ejects 
the male fperm on them as they lie in the cells, in t!ie 
fame manner as the generation of filhes is fuppofed to 
be performed by the males impregnating the fpawn af- 
ter it is caft out by the females. M. Maraldi f long 
lince conjedured that this might be the cafe ; and he 


was confirmed in his opinion, by obfcrving a liquid 
whiiilh fubllance furrounding each egg at the bottom of 
the cell a little while after it has been laid, and that a 
great number of eggs, which were not encompallcd by 
this liquor, remained barren in the cell. 

This method of impregnation has been lately efta- 
blilhcd beyond all coniraditlion by the obfervaiions of 
Mr Dtbraw of Cambridge*. Having put Ibme bees 
into glafs-hives with a large number Ol drones, he ob- 
fcrvcd on the firll or fecoiid day (always before the 
third) front the time in which the eggs were placed 
in the cells, which the queen generally lays on the 
fourth or fifth day after they are put into the hive, 
that a great number of bees fallencd thcmfelves to one 
another, and fornieil a kind of curtain I'rom the top to 
the bottom of the hive, probably in order to conceal 
the procefs of generation. Mr Debraw, however, 
could foon perceive icveral bees, whofe lize lie was not 
able to diltinguilh, infcriing the poltcrior part of their 
bodies each into a cell, and finking into it ; after a 
little while they retired, and he could fee with the na- 
ked eye a fmall quantity of whitiih liquor left in the 
angle of the bafe of each cell, containing an egg ; this 
liquor was lefs liquid than honey, and had no fweet 

In order to prove ftirther that the eggs are fecun- 
dated by the males, and that their prefcnce is necellary 
at the time of breaking, Mr Debraw made the follow- 
ing experiments. They conlill in leaving in a hive the 
queen, with only the common or working bees, without 
any drones, to fee whether the eggs Ihc laid would be 
prolific. To this end, he took a fwarm, and Ihook all 
the bees into a tub of water, leaving them there till 
they were quite fcnfelefs : by which means he could 
diltinguilh the drones, without any danger of being 
iUing : Leaving thefe out, therefore, he rcitored the 
queen and working-bees, to their former Hate, by 
fpreading them on a brown paper in the Inn ; after 
this he replaced them in a glafs hive, where they foon 
began to work as ufiial. The queen laid eggs, which, 
to his great furprifc, were impregnated ; for he ima- 
gined he had leparated all the drones or males, and 
therefore omitted watching them ; at the end of twenty 
days he found feveral of his eggs had, in the ulhal 
courfc of changes, produced bees, while fome had wi- 
thered away, and others viere covered with honey. 
Hence he inferred, that fome of the males had efcaped 
his notice, and impregnated part of the eggs. To 
convince himfelf of this, he took away all the brood 
comb that was in the hive, in order to oblige the bees 
to provide a frelh quantity, being determined to watch 
narrowly their motions after new eggs fliould be laid 
in the cells. On the fecond day after the eggs were 
pliced in the cells, he perceived the fame operation 
that was mentioned before, namely, that of the bees 
hanging down in the form of a curtain, while others 
thrufl the poHcrior part of tl'.e body into the cells. He 
then introduced his hand into the hive, and broke ofT 
a piece of the comb, in which there were two of thefe 
infftls : he found in neither of them any fling (a cir- 
ciuufiance ptculiar to the drones) ; upim ditfeclion, 
with the allillance of a microfcope, he difcovered the 
four cylindrical bodies which contain the glutinous li- 
quor, of a whitifh colour, as obftrved by Maraldi in 
the large drones. He was ihciefore now under a ne- 



•Plil. Tr» 
vol.6 7. part 
i. art. 3. 


Mr De- 
braw 's ex* 
and difco 


[ 129 ] 



neccflity ofrepeatlng his experiments, in dcftroyingthc 
males, and even diofc which might be fufpeiSed to be 

He once more immerfed the fame bees in water; and 
when they appeared in a fcnfclefs flatc, he gently pref- 
fed every one, in order to diflinguilh thofc armed with 
ilingsfrom thofe which had none, and wliich of conric 
he ilippofed to be males : of thtfe lafl he found fiUy- 
fcven, and replaced the fwarm in a glafs hive, wlitre 
they immediately applied again to the work of making 
cells ; and on the fourth or fifth day, very early in the 
morning, he had the pleafure to fee the qiicen-bre de- 
pofit her eggs in thole cells: he continued watching 
moll part of the cnfuing days, but could difcovcr no- 
thing of what he had fccn before. 

The eggs after the fourth day, inftead of changing 
in the manner of caterpillaA, were found in the fame 
flate they were the firfl day, except that fonie were 
covered with honey. A fingular event happened the 
next day about noon : all the bees left their own hive, 
and attempted to get into a neighbouring hive, pro- 
bably in fearch of males; but the queen was found 
dead, having been killed in the engagement. 

To be further faiisfied, Mr Dcbraw took the brood- 
comb, which had not been imprt-gnaicii, and divided 
it into two parts : one he placed under a glafs bell, 
2s'° I. with honey-comb for the bees fooel, taking 
care to leave a queen, but no drones, among the bees 
confined in it; the other piece of brood-comb he plac- 
ed under another glafs bell, ]S'° 2. with a few drones, 
a queen, and a proportionable number of common 
bees. The rcfult was, that in the glafs N" i. there 
was no impregnation, the eggs remained in the fame 
flate they were in when put into the glafs ; and on giv- 
ing the bees their liberty on the the I'cvcnth day, they 
all flew away, as was found to be the cafe in tlic for- 
mer experiment: whereas in the glafs N° 2. the very 
day after the bees had been put into it, the eggs were 
impregnated by the drones, the bees did not leave their 
hives on receiving their liberty, the eggs at the ufual 
time underwent the necclfary transformations, and a 
numerous young colony was produced. 

Naturalifts have obfervcd, that the queen bees are 
produced in a manner peculiar to ihemfelvcs, and dif- 
ferent from the drones and working bees. Some have 
fuppufed, that the eggs laid by the queen in a hive, 
and deftined for the produdion of Oiieen bees, are of a 
peculiar kind : but though this is not the cafe, as 
M. Schirach has lately difcovercd, yet there are parti- 
cular cells appropriated for this purpofe. Thefc cells 
arc generally near the edges, and at the boiiom of the 
combs, and fomeiimcs on the fides of a honey-comb: 
they are of an oblong orbicular form, and very (hong; 
and are more or Icfs numerous in different hives as oc- 
cafion fccms to require. It has been alfo fuppofcd, 
that the matter with which they arc nourillird is of a 
dililrcut kind and quality from that employed for the 
nourilhment of the other bees; liiat which has been 
coUcdcd out of the royal cells being of a gummy glu- 
tinous nature, of a deep tranCparent red, and dilFolving 
in tile fire rather tlian crumbling 50 powder. 

It has been generally fuppofed, that the queen-bee 
is the only female contained in the hive; and that the 
4'^ "' working bees are neutral, or of neither fcx. But 

M. Schirach* ^"^^ ^:^t^^^v /•ftnliliniri! n .lifffTf-n 

Vol.. HI. 

'HiJI. Nat. 
Je la Hytne 

has lately eftabliQied a different doc- 

trine, which has been alfo confirmed by the later cb- 
fervations of Mr Dcbraw f. According 10 Mr Schi. 
rach, all the working or common bees arc females in 
difguifc; and the queen-bee lays only two kinds of 
eggs, viz. thofc which arc 10 produce the drones, and 
thofc from which the working bets arc to proceed: 
and from any one or more of thtlc, one or more queens 
ijiay be produced; fo that every worm of the latter or 
common kind, which has been hatched about three 
days, is capable, under certain circumflanccs, of be- 
coming the queen, or mother of a hive. In proof of 
this dodrinc, new and fingular as it may feelu, he al- 
leges anumber of fatisfaflory and dccifive experiments, 
which have iincc been verified by thofe of Mr Debraw. 
In the early months of the fpriiig, and in any preceding 
month, even fo late as November, he cut oft from an old 
hive, a piece of that part of the comb which contains 
the eggs of the working Lees ; taking care, however, 
that it contained likewife worms which had been hatch- 
ed about three days. He fixed this in an empty hive, 
or box, together with a portion of honey-comb, &c. 
or, in other words, with a fufficicncy of food and build- 
ing materials, or wax, for the iife of the intended co- 
lony. He then put into, and confined within, the 
fame box, a fufJicient number of common working 
bees, taken from the fame or any other hive. As foon 
as the members of this fmall community found them- 
felves deprived of their liberty, and without a queen, 
a dreadful uproar cnfued, whicli Qoniinued generally, 
with fome fliort intervals of lilence, for the Ipace of 
about twenty-four hours; during which time it is 10 
be fuppofed they were alternately meditating and hold- 
ing council on the future fupport of the new republic. 
On the final cefTation of this tumult, the general and 
almofl conllant rcfult was, that they betook iliemfelves 
to work ; firll proceeding to the conflrudlion of a 
royal cell, and then taking the proper mcafurts for 
hatching and feeding the brood inclofcd with them. 
Sometimes even on the ftcond day the foundations of 
one or more royal cells were to be perceived ; the view 
of which furniihcd certain indications that they had 
clefted one of the inclofcd worms to the fovcreignty. 

The operation has been hitherto condiicltd in the 
houfe. This new colony may now be fafely irufled in 
the garden, if the weather be warm, and have the li- 
berty allowed them of pafTing out of the box ; of which 
they inflantly. avail themfclves, and are feen in a fliort 
time almofl totally to defcrt their new habitation. In 
about two hours, however, they begin to re-enter it. 
We (liould not ncglct^ 10 obfervc, that if they fliould 
\it placed near the old hive, from which they were tak- 
en, they will very often attempt to enter it, but arc 
as conftantly rcpulicd by their former companions and 
brethren. It is prudent, therefore, to place ihem at 
a diflancc from the mother ftate, in order 10 avoid the 
inconveniences of a civil war. The final rcfult of the 
experiment is, that the colony of working bees tiius 
fliut up, with a morfcl of common brood, not only 
hatch it, but are found, at the end of eighteen or 
twenty days, to have produced from thence one or two 
queens; which have apparently proceeded from worms 
of the common fort, pitched upon by them for that 
j'urpofc ; and which, under other circumn.inces, that 
is, if they had remained in the old hive, there is rca- 
fon to foppofc would have been changed into coni- 
R 11; 01'. 


t i^il. 
7rarf. vol. 

67. pait i. 

Mr Schi- 
rach's dif- 
covcri a. 


[ 130 ] 


Bee. mon working bees. In the prefent indancc, the com- 
— ''~~' mon worm appears to be converted by them into a 
q.iccn-bce, merely bccaiife ;he hive was in want of one. 
Hence we may jiillly infer, that tlic kingdom of the 
bees is not, if the expreflTion may be ufcd, a. jure divino 
or hereditary monarchy, but an eleclive kingdom ; in 
which the choice of their future ruler is made by the 
body of the people, while llie is yet in the cradle, or 
in embryo; and who arc determined by motives of 
preference whicli will perhaps forever elude the pene- 
tration of the moft fagacious naturalills. 

The conctufions drawn by M. Schirach, from expe- 
riments of the preceding kind, often repeated by him- 
fclf and others with the fame fnccefs, are, that all the 
common or working bees were originally of the female 
fex; but that when they had undergone their laft mc- 
tamorphofis, they arc condemned to a Hate of perpe- 
tual virginity, and the organs of generation are oblite- 
rated ; merely bccaufe they have not been lodged, fed, 
and brought up in a particular manner, while they were 
in the worm (late. He fuppofes that the worm, dc- 
figned by the community to be a queen, or mother, 
owes its metamorphofis into a queen, partly to the ex- 
traordinary lize of its cell, and its peculiar pofition in 
it; but principally to a certain appropriate nourilh- 
ment found there, and carefully adminiflered to it by 
tlie working bees while it was in the worm flate ; by 
which, and poflibly other means unknown, the devc- 
lopement and extenlion of the germ of the female or- 
gans, previoufly exifting in the embryo, is effected; 
.and thofe differences in its form and li^e are produced, 
which afierwards fo remarkably diftinguifli it from the 
common working beet. 

This difcovery is capable of being applied towards 
forming artificial fwarms, or new colonies of bees, by 
which means their number might be increafed, and 
their produce in honey and wax proportionably aug- 

Explanation o/Plate XCVI. Fig. i. is the queen- 
bee. 2. Is the drone. 3. Is the working bee. 4. 
Rcprcfents the bees lianging to each other by the feet, 
which is the method of taking their repofe. 5. The 
probofcis or trunk, which is one of the principal or- 
gans of the bees, wherewith they gather the honey 
and take their nourifliment. 6. One of the hind-legs 
of a working bee, loaded with wax. 7. a comb, in 
which the working bees are bred. The cells are the 
fmalleil of any. Two of them have the young bees 
inclofcd. A royal cell is fufpended on one fide. 8. A 
comb in which the drones are bred, being larger than 
the former ; the young drones being included in fcve- 
ral nf them ; with tv.-o royal cells fufpended on the 
fide. 9. A Similar comb, in which the royal cell is 
fixed in the middle of the comb ; and feveral common 
cells are facrificed to ferve as a balls and fupport to it. 
In general, the royal cells arc fufpended on the fide 
of a comb, as in fig. 7, 8. To the fide of fig. 9. 
two royal cells are begun, when they refemble pretty 
much the cup in which an acorn lies. The other 
royal cells have the young queens included in them. 
Fig. 10 exhibits the fling and all its parts. The fling 
iscompofed of a flieath or cafe, and two flianks, united 
to each other, and terminating in a fharp point, fo as 
to look like a fingle part, b^ The poifonous bag. 

c. The tube that ferves to convey the poifon from its 
bag to the thickcft part of the fling's flieath. id, The ' 
two Ihanks of the fling, mutually conveying to eacli 
other, cc. The flicath of the fling, jf, The tluckell 
end of the flieaih, where the tube opens into it, by 
which it receives the infc(5ls poifon. g, The extreme 
point of the fting, formed by the two flianks of tliac 
organ, that are in this place clofcly united, hh, The 
beards with which the fhanks of the iling are armed 
at their extremities. /', The tube that ferves to fecretc 
the poifon, which it difchaiges into the poifon-bag. 
kk, The two blind extremities of the faid tube. ////, 
Two pair of cartilages, of different forms, which are 
for the moA part of a deep black, and articulated a- 
mong themfclves, and with the flianks of ihc fling. 
mvi, Two other cartilages lefs confpicuous than the 
former, with one pair of which they are articulated. 
Thcfc two cartilages m m, arc almoft entirely of a 
meinbranaceous fubflance. n >i 11 n 11 n n ;;, Eight places 
in which theforegoingcartilagcs are articulated among 
thcmfelves, and with the flianks of the fling dd. 000 0, 
Four mufclcs fcrving to move the fling difierent ways, 
by the alhftance of the fame cartilages, pf, Two 
mufcles, which draw the flianks of the fling into its 
fheath. ^ q, Two appendages of the fling which arc 
moved along with it, and feem to anfwer no other pur- 
pofe but that of ornament. — Fig. 11. The ovary. — 
Fig. 12. Six eggs drawn after nature, and placed on 
their ends: Thefe eggs are oblong, very ficndcr, but 
fomewhst tliicker on the upper parts. — Fig. 13. An 
egg viewed with a microfcope : it refembles the fkin 
of a fifli, divefled of its fcale, but Hill retaining the 
mark of their infcrtion. — Fig. 14. Worms of bees 
of different fizes, drawn after nature, a, A worm 
newly hatched, i c d e, Four worms that received 
more nourifliment, and are more grown, fg, Two 
worms ftill bigger than the former, having had more 
time to make ufe of the nourilhment provided for 
them. They are here reprefcntcd as they lie doubled 
in their cells. /■, A worm placed on its belly, fo as to 
fiiow on its back a black line, inclining to a light blue 
or grey. This line denotes the flomach, which ap- 
pears in this place through the tranfparent pans that 
lie over it. i, A worm lying on its back, and begin- 
ning to draw in the hinder part of its body, and move 
its head. — Fig. 15. A full-grown worm viewed with a 
microfcope. aa, lis 14 annular incifions or divifions. 
h, The head and eyes, &c. ccc, Ten breathing- 
holes. — Fig. 16. The worm forming its web. a a, The 
fides of the cell that contain it. i, The bottom of 
the cell, c, The entrance or door of the cell. The 
worm is liere reprefented as making its web in the pro- 
pereii manner to ihut up this entrance. — Fig. 17. Worm 
taken out of the web in which it had inclofed iifelf, 
and jufl; ready to cad its fkin. — Fig. 18. A cell con- 
taining the worm changed into a nymph, and per- 
fectly lined with the faid worm's web. Likewife the 
faid web entire, with the nymph contained in it, as 
they appear on opening the cell, aa, The fides of 
the cell, lined with the worm's web. i, The mouth 
of the cell, pcrfeitly clofed by the web. c, The 
bottom of the cell, d, The web entire, as it appears 
on opening the cell, which it greatly refembles inform. 
e, The upper part of the web, of a convex form. This 




[ 131 ] 




Of the api- 

part lliows its filaments pretty diftin(5lly. f, The in- 
clofed nymph appearing through the tranfparent fides 
of the web. g. The bottom of the web, anfwering 
to that of the wax-cell. — Kig. 19. Worm changed to 
a nymph, of its natural fize and form, yet fo as to ex- 
hibit its limbs, which arc folded up in a moll wonder- 
ful manner. — Fig. 20. The nymph of the bee viewed 
with the microicopc, difplaying in a dillini5t manner 
all the parts of the inclofed infecSl, and the beautiful 
manner in which they are laid up. a. The head, 
bloated with humours, b b, The eyes, projecling 
confiderably. cc, The horns, orantense. d, The 
lip. e e, The teeth, or jaw-bones, ff, The lirll 
pair of joints belonging to the probol'cis. h, The pro- 
bofcis itfclf. i }, The firft pair of legs, k k. Two 
tranfparent flifF little parts, lying againfl the low- 
clt joints of the firfl pair of legs. Thefc little parts 
arc not to be found as they remain in the fl;in it 
flieds on quitting the nymph flate. //, The fecond 
pair of legs. 7n m, The wings. « «, The blade- 
bones. 0, The lad pair of legs. />/, The abdomi- 
nal rings, q, [g) The hinder part of the body. The 
fling projedls a little in this place, r. Two little parts 
accompanying the fling. /, The anus. — Kig. 21. a, 
A cell full of bees-bread, placed in layers, i, Little 
grains, of which the fiid fnbftance, viewed with the 
microfcopc, appears toconfiil. 

II. Oft/je M.iyACEMEST of Bees, and moft approved 
Inventions for faying their Lives while we take their 
Honey and Wax. 

I. Of the Apiary, and Hivis. Columella direifls 
that the apiary face the fonth, and be fituated in a 
place neither too hot nor too much cxpofcd to the 
cold : that it be in a valley, in order that the loaded 
bees may with the greater cafe defccnd to their homes : 
that it be near the manlion-houfe , on account of the 
conveniency of watching them ; but fo fituated as not 
to be expofed to noifome fmcUs, or to the din of men 
or cattle ; that it be furroundcd with a wall, which 
however (liould not rife above three feet high : that, if 
polTible, a running flream be near them : or, if that 
cannot be, that w-ater be brought near them in troughs, 
with pebbles or fraall flones in the water, for the bees 
to reft on while they drink ; or that the water be con- 
fined within gently declining banks, in order that the 
bees may have fafe accefs to it ; they not being able to 
produce either combs, honey, or food for their mag- 
gots, without water : that the neighbourhood of ri- 
vers or bafons of water with high l)anks be avoided, 
becaufc winds may whirl the bees into them, and they 
cannot cafily get on fliore from thence to dry ihcm- 
felves ; and that the garden in which the apiary Hands 
be well furniflicd with fuch plants as afford the bees 
plenty of good paflure. The trees in this garden 
Ihould be of the dwarf kind, and their heads bufl)y, 
in order that the fwarms which fettle on them may be 
the more cafily hived. 

The proprietor fliould be particularly attentive that 
the bees havealfo in iheirneighbourhood fuch plants as 
yield them plenty of food. Columella enumerates ma- 
ny of thefc fitted to a warm climate : among ihcm he 
mentions thyme, the oak, the pine, the fweet-finelling 
cedar, and all fruit-trees. Experience has taught us, 
that furze, broom, rauftard, closer, heath, &c. arc 

excellent for this purpofe. Pliny recommends broom, Bre. 

in particular, as a plant cxccediHgly grateful and very ' " 

profitable to bees. 23 

With regard to hives, thofe made of ftraw are gene- Of hive*, 
rally preferred, on fcvcral accounts : they are not liable 
to be over-heated by the rays of the fun ; they keep out 
cold better than wood or any other materials ; and the 
cheapncfs renders the purchafe of them eafy. As the 
ingenious Mr Wildman's hives are reckoned to be of a 
preferable conflruiflion to any other, we fliall give an 
account of them in his own words. 

" My hives (fays he) arc feven inches in height 
and ten in width. The fides are upright, fo that the 
top and bottom are of the fame diameter. A hive 
holds nearly a peck. In the upper row of ftraw there 
is a hoop of about half an inch in breadth ; to which are 
nailed five bars of deal, full a quarter of an inch in 
thickncfs and an inch and quarter wide, and half an 
inch afunder from one another ; a narrow fliort bar is 
nailed at each fide, half an inch dillant from the bars 
next them, in order to fill up the remaining parts of 
the circle, ; fo that there arc in all feven bars of deal, 
to which the bees fix their combs. The fpace of half 
an inch between the bars allows a fuflicient and eafy 
pafiage for the bees from one comb to another. In or- 
der to give great ftcadinefs to the combs, ib that, up- 
on moving the hive, the combs may not fall off, or in- 
cline out of their dircftion, a flick Ihould be run thro* 
the middle of the hive, in a direction directly acrofs 
the bars, or at right angles witii them. When the 
hives are made, a piece of wood (liould be worked in- 
to the lower row of ftraw, long enough to allow a door 
for the bees, of four inches in length, and half an inch 
in height. 

" The proprietor of the bees Ihould provide himfclf 
with feveral flat covers of ftraw, worked of the fame 
thicknefs as the hives, and a foot in diameter, that fo 
it may be of the fame width as the outfide of the hives. 
Before the cover is applied to the hive, a piece of clean 
paper, of the fize of the top of the hive, Ihould be 
laid over it ; and a coat of cow dung, which is the Icaft 
apt to crack of any cement eafily to be obtained, (hould 
be laid all round the circumference of the hive. Let 
the cover be laid upon this, and made faft to the hive 
with a packing.needle and pack-thread, fo that neither 
cold nor vermin may enter. 

" Each hive fliould Hand fingle on a piece of deal, 
or other wood, fomewhat larger than the bottom of the 
hive : That part of the ftand which is at the mouth of 
the hive fliould project fome inches, for the bees to reft 
on when they return from the field. This ftand Ihould 
be fupported upon a fingle poft, two and a half feet 
high ; to which it fliould be fcrewed very ftcurcly, that 
high winds, or other accidents, may not blow down 
both ftand and hive. A quantity of foot mixed with 
barley chafl^ ihould be ftrewed on the ground round the 
jKjft; which will effcdually prevent ants, flugs, and 
other vermin, from rifing up to the hive. The foot 
and chaff fliould from time to time be renewed as it 
is blown or waflicd away; though, as it is flicltered 
by the ftand, it remains a confidcrablc time, cfpecially 
if care be taken that no weeds rife through it. '\\'eeds, 
indeed, fliould not be permitted to rife near the hive ; 
for they may give fheltcr 10 vermin which maybe hurt- 
ful to the bees. 

3 R '• The 


[ »32 ] 



— <f^ 

Of the pro- 
per iealon 
for purcha- 
finji hives 
of bees. 

Of hiving 

" The (lands for bees fliould be four yards afunder; 
or, if the apia'ry will not admit of {•i much, as far a- 
funder as may be, that the bees of one hive may not 
interfere with ihoicof another hive, as is fomeiimcsthc 
cafe when the hives arc near one another or oi\ the 
f.inie ftanJ ; for the bees, railhiking iheir own hiyes, 
light fomctimes at the wrong door, and a fray enfnes, 
in which one, or more may lofe their lives. 

" The perfon who intends to ereiit an apiary Qiould 
pnrchafe a prqper number of hives at tlic latter part of 
the year, when they are cheapcft. The hives (liould 
be full of combs, and well llorcd with bees. The piir- 
chafcr fhould cxamiue the combs, in order to know the 
age of the hives. The combs of that t'cafon are white, 
thofc of the former year are of a durkilh yellow ; and 
where the gombs are black, the hives Ihonld be rejeifled, 
becaufe old hives are nioU liable to vermin and other 
accidents. " 

" If the number of hives wanted were not purchafed 
in the autumn, it will be neceffary to remedy this nc- 
gleift at'ter the feverity of the cold is pafl: in the fpring. 
At this feafon, bees wliich are in ijood condition will 
get into the fields e;irly in the morning, return loaded, 
enter boldly, and do not come oat of the hive in bad 
weather ; for wlien iliey do, this indicates they are in 
great want of proviiions. They are alert on the Icall 
diflnrbance, and by the loudnefs of their humming we 
judge of their ihength. They preferve their hives free 
from all tilth, and are ready to defend it againd every 
enemy that approaches. 

" The fummer is an improper time for buying bees, 
becaiife the heat of the weather foftens the wax, and 
thereby renders the combs liable to break, if they are 
not very well fccured. The honey, too, being then thin- 
ner than at other times, is more apt to run out of the 
cells ; which is attended with a double difadvantage, 
namely, the lofs of the honey, and the daubingof the 
bees, whereby many of them may be dcftroycd. A 
llrfland rtrong fwarm may indeed be purchafed ; and, 
if leave caa be obtained, permitted to iland in the fame 
garden till the autumn; but, if leave is not obtained, 
it may be carried away in the night after it has been 

" I fuppofe, that, in the (locks purchafed, the bees 
are in hives of the old condruflion. The only di- 
rciftion here neceflary is, that the firft fwarm from 
thefe flocks Ihould be put into one of my hives ; and 
that another of my hives (hould in a few days be put 
under the old (lock, in order to prevent^ij^warraing 
again." " ■ 

2. Of Hiving. Bees, as has been already obferved, 
never fwarm till the hive be too much crowded by the 
young brood. They firll begin to fwarm in May, or 
in the end of April, but earlier or later according to 
the warmth of the feafon.-. They feldom fwarm before 
ten in the morning, and feldom later than three in the 
afternoon. We may know when they are about to 
fwarm, by clillers of them hanging on the outfide of 
tlie hive, and by the drones appearing abroad more 
than ufual : But themofl certain fign is, when the bees 
refrain from flying into the fields, though the feafon be 
inviting. . Juft before they take liight, there is an un- 
common filence in the hive ; after this, as foon as one 
takes flight, they all follow. Before the fubfequent 
fwarmings, there is a great noifc in the hive, which 

is fuppofcd to be occafioned by a conted wlieiher the Bee. 

yonng or the old queen (hould go out. When the bees * •* ' 

of a fwarm (ly too high, they are made to dcfeend 
lower, by throwing handfuls of fand or duft among 

ich they probably miftake for *»in. For the * 
I Tof^j it is ufual to beat on a kettle or frying- 

pan : i'his practice may have taken its rife from ob- 
ftrving that thunder or any great noife prompts fuch 
\>tcs as are in the fields to return home. 

As foon as the fwarm is fettled, the bees which 
compofc it (hould be got into a hive with all convenient 
fpccd, to prevent their taking wing again. If they 
fettle on a fmall branch of a tret, eafy to come at, it 
may be cut off and laid upon a cloth ; the hive being 
ready immediately to put over them. If the branch 
cannot be conveniently cur, the bees may be fwept from 
ofFit into a hive. Lodge but the queen into the hive, 
and the reft will foon follow. If the bees mufl be con- 
fiderably difturbed in order to get them into a hive, 
the mol'l advif.ible way is to let them remain in the place 
where they have pitched till the evening, when there 
is lefs danger of their taking wing. If it be obferved 
that they (till hover about the place they fird alighted 
upon, the branches there may be rubbed with rue, or 
cider-leaves, or any other thing didadeful to them, to 
prevent their returning to it. 

The hive employed on this occafion fiiould be clean- 
ed with the utniod care, and its infide be rubbed very 
hard with a coarfe cloth, to get off the loofe draws, 
or other impurities, which might cod them a great ""v^ 
deal of time and labour to gnaw away. It may tlien be ^^ 

rubbed with fragrant herbs or flowers, the fmell of 
which is agreeable to the bees ; or with honey. 
. The hive Ihould not be immediately fet on the dool 
where it is to remain ; but fliould be kept near the place 
at which the bees fettled, till the evening, led fome 
drag2.1ers (hould be lofl. It ihoitld be (haded cither 
with boughs or with a cloth, that the too great heat of 
the fim may not annoy the bees. 

We fometimes Ice a (warm of bees, after having left 
their hive, and even alighted upon a tree, return to 
their firll abode. This never happens but when the 
young queen did not come forth with them, for want 
of drength, or perhaps courage to trud to her wings for 
the firll time ; or pollibly from a confcioufnefs of her 
not being impregnated. ,5 

; When a fwarm is too few in number for a hive, an- of unitine 
other may be added. The ufual method of thus unit- fwarm*. 
ing fwarms is very eafy. Spread a.cloth at night upon 
the ground clofe to the hive in which the two cads 
or fwarms are to be united; lay a dick acrofs this 
cloth ; then fetch the hive with the new fwarm, fee 
it over the dick, give a fmart droke on the top of the 
hive, and all tlie bees will drop down upon the cloth 
in a cinder. This done, throw afide the empty hive, 
take the other from off the dool, and fet this lad over 
the bees, who will foon afcend into it, mix with thofe 
already there, and become one and the' fame family. 
Others indead of driking the bees down upon the 
cloth, place with its bottom upmoft the hive in which 
the united fwarms are to live, and drike the bees of 
the otherhivedowninto it. Theformerof thefe liives 
is then rcftored to its natural fituation, and the bees of 
both hives foon unite. If fome bees dill adhere to the 
Other hive, they may be brulhed off on the cloth, and 


• yi'a. f 

' (A>/. 2 tyiy/.,'J 

Platf XCVl 



'\'^^ ^ ■^ 





a wtz- 

rx^. ^. 


^'y 9/ 

oo o o oo 
**0o «oo°o 

n<^. /p 




'V^/ f9 




/^/ ,^ 


• >'/y /(7 

r >^«'. :.>'/'> 

.x^ ./V/;-<" 


3 Ofi 


[ ^33 ] 



Pee hunt- 
ing in A- 

they will foon join their brethren. Or one may take 
■^ the following method, which gives lefs difturbance to 
the bees. Set with its mouth iipmoft the hive into 
which the young fwarm has been put, and fct upon it 
the other hive. The bees in the lower hive, finding 
themfelves in an inverted fituation, will foon afcend in- 
to the upper. 

Though ail writers acknowledge, that one of the 
queens is conllantly (lain on thefc occalions, and gene- 
rally a conlidcrablc number of the working bees j yet 
none of them. Columella excepted, has propofcd the 
eafy remedy f killing the queen of the latter call or 
fwarm befo the union is made ; a means by which 
the lives of working bees may be prtfcrved. This 
may be do/ itlier by ;ntoxicating them and then 
picking her c ., or by fcarching her out when thebecs 
are beaten down upon the cloth ; for this being done 
in the night, to prevent the battle which might other- 
wife cnfuc, there will be no great dilliculty in finding 

A large fwarm may weigh eight pounds, and fo 
gradually lefs, to one pound : confequently a very good 
one may weigh tive or fix pounds. All fuch as weigh 
lefs than four pounds faoiild be llrengthened, by uni- 
ting to each of them a lefs numerous fwarm. Tliefize 
of the hive llioul i be proportioned to the number of 
the bees ; and, a. a general rule, it ihotilJ be rather 
under than over fized, bccaufc bees require to be kept 
warmer than a large hive will admit of. 

In the Litters from a>i ^msrican Farmer, we have 
the following entertaining account of the fwarming of 
bees, their flight into the woods, and the method of 
difcovcring them there. A little experience renders it 
eafy to predial; the time of their fwarming : but the 
" difficult point is, when on the wing, to know whe- 
ther they want to go to the woods or not. If they have 
prcvioudy pitched in fome hollow trees, it is not the 
allurements of fait and water, of fennel, hickory 
leaves, &c. nor the finell box, that can induce tbem 
to flay. They will prefer thofe rude, rough, habita- 
tions, to the bed polilhed mahogany hive. When that 
is the cafe with mine, I feldom thwart their inclinations. 
It is in freedom that they work. Were I to confine 
them, they would dwindle away and quit their labour. 
In fuch cxcurlions we only part for a while. I am 
generally fure to find them again the following fall. 
This elopement of theirs only adils to my rccrcaiions. 
I know how to deceive even their luperlative inltincf. 
Nor do I fear lofmgthcm, iho)c;h 18 miles from my 
houfe, and lodged in the moll lofiy trees in the moll 
impervious of our forclls. Alter I have done lowing, 
by way of recreation I prepare for a week's jaunt in 
the woods, not to hunt cither the deer or the bears, 
as my neighbours do, but to catch the more harmlefs 
bees. I cannot boafl that this chace is fo noble or fo 
famous among men: but I find it lefs fatiguing, and 
full as profitable ; and the lall conlidcraiion is tlie on- 
ly o'le that moves me. I take with me my dog, as 
a companion, for he is ufclcfs as to this game ; my 
gun, for no man ought to enter the woods without 
one J my blanket, fome j)rovifions, fome wax, vermilion, 
honey, and a fmall pocket compafs. With thefc im- 
plements I proceed to fuch wnods as arc at a confide- 
rable diftancc from any fctiknunis. Icarciully examine 
whether they abound with large trees ; if fo, I make 

a fmall fire, on fome flat ftones, in a convenient place. Bte. 

On the fire I put fome wax : clofc by the fire, on a- *" ' 

nother flone, I drop honey in diflinft drops, which I 
furround with fmall quantities of vermilion, laid on the 
/'.one ; and then I retire carefully to watch whether 
any bees appear. If there are any in that neighbour- 
hood, I rcll afllired that the fmell of the burnt wax 
will unavoidably attract ihem. They v. ill foon find 
out the honey, for they are fond of preying on that 
which is not their own ; and, in their approach, ihcy 
will neceflarily tinge themfelves with fome particles of 
vermilion, w hich will adhere long to their bodies. I 
next fix my compals, to find out their courfc ; which 
they keep invariably llraight, when they are returning 
home loaded. )^y the alliftance of my watch, I ob- 
ferve how long thofc arc returning which are marked 
with vermilion. Thus poU'clfcd of the courfe, and, 
in fome meafure, of the diltance, which Icancaiily 
guefs at, I follow the firfl, and feldom fail of coming 
to the tree where thofc republics are lodged. I then 
mark it ; and thus, with patience, I have found out 
fometimes 11 fwarms in a fcafon ; and ii is incor.cii- 
vable what a quantity of honey iliffe trees will fonit- 
tims afford. It entirely depends on the fize of the 
hollow, as the bees never rell nor fwarm till it is re- 
plenidied ; for, like men, it is only the want of room 
that induces ihem to quit the maternal hive. Next I 
proceed to fome of the nearell ftttlcments, where I 
procure proper aillflancc to cut down the trees, get all 
my prey fecured, and then return home with my prize. 
The firft bees I ever procured were thus found in the 
woods by mere accident ; for, at that time, 1 had no 
kind of (kilt in this mclhod of tracing ihtm. The bo- 
dy of the tree being perfct^ly found, they hid lodged 
themfelves in the hollow of one of its principal limbs, 
which I carefully fawed off, and, with a good deal of 
labour and induAry, brought it home, where I fixed it 
up in the fame pofition in which I found it growing. 
This was in April. I had five fwarms that year, and 
they have been ever fince very profperous. This bu- 
finefs generally takes up a week of my lime every fall, 
and t(i me it is a wxek of folitary eafe and relax- 
tion." ' j8 

3. OfPnjtingthcAbodcofBics. Great improve- Shifting 
ments may certainly be made in the cITeniial article of^)";*"" 
providing plenty of pafiure for bees, whenever ihislbb- '" ''"'='• 
ject fliall be more carefully attended to than has ],;. •''P*""r** 
therto been. A rich corn country is well known to be 
a barren defart to ihem during the moft confidcrablc 
part of the year ; and therefore ihe praflice of other 
nations, in Ihifting the places of abode of their bees, 
well deferves our imitation. 

Columella informs us, that, as few places are fo hap- Z<i.u(.>.i4 
pily fituaied as to afiiird the bets j'ropcr pafiure both in 
the beginning of the fcafon and alio in the autumn, it 
was the advice of Cclfus, that, after the vernal pa- 
ftures are confumed, the bees (Iiould be tranfported 10 
places abounding with autumnal flowers ; as was prac- 
tifed by conveying the bees from Achaia to Attica, 
from Enbora and the Cyclad ilbnds 10 Scyrus ; and 
alfo in Sicily, where they were brought to Hybla from 
other parts of the illand. 

We find by Pliny, that this was likewife the prac- ■t'*"'- 
lice of Italy in his time. "As foon," fays he, "as''**" 
the fpring-food for bees lias failed iu the villeys near 




Bee. our towns, the hives of bees arc put into boats, and 
*~~^'~~^ carried up againft the ftrcam of the river, in the night, 
in fcarch of belter pafturc. The bees go out in the 
morning in queft of provifions, and return regularly lo 
their hives in the boats, with the rtores tliey have co!- 
Icclcd. This method is continued, till the linking of 
the boats to a certain depth in tlie water lliows that 
the hives arc fufRcienily full ; and they arc then car- 
ried back to their former homes, where their honey 
is taken out of iheni." And this is flill the praftice of 
the Italians who live near the banks of the Po, (the 
river which Pliny inllanccd particularly in the abovc- 
ijiioted paliage). 
Ko/. II. M. ^Iaillc[ relates, in his curious Defcription of E- 

p. 24. gypt, that, " fpite of the ignorance and rulliciiy which 
have got pollelllon of that country, there yet remain 
in it fcveral footllcps of the inJullry and ikill of the 
ancient Egyptians. One of their moll admirable con- 
trivances is, their fending their bees annually into di- 
flant countries, in order to procure them fuflenance 
there, at the time when they could not find any at home; 
and their aftcrw.uds bringing them back, like Ihep- 
herds who lliould travel with iheir flocks, and make 
them feed as they go. It was obferved by the ancient 
inhabitants of Lower Egypt, that all plants blodbmed, 
and the fruits of the canli ripened, above fix week ear- 
lier in Upper Egypt thanv.iih theni. They applied this 
remark to their bees ; ami the means then made ufe of 
by them, to enable thcfc ufcfully induftrious infeils to 
reap advantage from the more forward flaie of nature 
there, were cxaftly tlie fame as are now praelifed, for 
the likcpurpofc, in that country. About the end of Oc- 
tober, all fuch inhibitanis of the Lower Egypt as have 
hives of bees, embark them on the Nile, and convey 
them uji that river quite into Upper Egypt ; obi'cr- 
ving to time it fo that they arrive there jull when the 
inundation is withdrawn, the lands have been fown, 
and the flowers begin to bud. The hives thusfent arc 
marked and numbered by their reipettivc owners, and 
placed pyramidically in boats prepared for the purpofe. 
After they have remained fomc days at their farthefl 
ftation, and are fuppofcd to have gathered all the wax 
and honey they could find in the fields within two or 
three leagues around ; their condudors convey them 
in the fame boars two or three leagues lower down, 
and there leave the laborious infects fo long lime as is 
neccfTary for them to colledl all the riches of this fpot. 
Thus, the nearer they come to the place of iheir more 
permanent abode, they find the produflionsof the earth, 
and the pianis which afford ihem food, forward in pro- 
portion. In fine, about the beginning of February, 
afler having travelled through the whole lenglh of E- 
gypt, gathering all ihc rich produce of the delightful 
banks of the Nile, tliey arrive at the mouth of that ri- 
ver, towards the ocean ; from whence they fetout, and 
from whence they are now returned to their feveral 
homes; for care is taken to keep an exaft regillerof 
every diflrift from whence the hives were fent in the 
beginning of the feafon, of their numbers, of the names 
of the perlbns who fent them, and likcwii'e of the mark 
or number of the boat in which they were placed." 

In many pans of France, floating bee-houfes are 
very common. They have on board one barge, three- 
fcore or an hundred bee-hives, well defended from the 

'34 ] BEE 

inclemency of an accidental ftorm. M'iih thefc the 
owners fuficr thcmfclvcs to float gently dow n the river, ^ 
the bees continually choofing their flowery pafl;ure a- 
long the banks of the flream ; and iluisa fingle-floating 
bcc-houfe yields the proprietor a confiderable income. 

They havealfoa method of tranfporting their bees by 
land, well worth imitation. Thcirfirftcareis, toexaminc 
thofe hives fome of whofe honey-combs might be broken 
or feparaied by the joltingof the vehicle; they are made 
faft one totheoiher, andagainft the fides of the hive,by 
means of fmall flicks, which may be difpofed ditiercnt- 
ly as occafion will point out. This being done, every 
liive is fet upon a packing-cloth, or fomething like it, 
the threads of which arc very wide : the fides of this 
cloth are then turned up and laid on the outfide of 
each hive, in which flate they are tied together with 
a piece of fmall pack-thread wound feveral times round 
the hive. As many hives as a cart built for that pur- 
pofe will hold, arc afterwards placed in this vehicle. 
The hives are fet two and two, the whole length of the 
cart. Over thcfe are placed others ; which make, as 
it were, a fecond ftory or bed of hives. Thofe which 
are llored with combs fliould always be turned topfy- 
turvy. It is for the fake of their combs, and to fix 
them the better, that they are difpofed in this manner ; 
for fuch as have but a fmall quantity of combs in them 
are placed in their natural fiiuation. Care is taken in 
this ftowagc not to let one hive flop up another, it 
being eflentially necelTary for the bees to have air; and 
it is for [his reafon they arc wrapped up in a coarfc 
cloth, the threads of which w-ere wove very wide, in 
order that the air may have a free paflage, and lefl(:n 
the heat which thcfe infers raife in their hives, efpeci- 
ally when they move about very tumuliuoiifly, as often 
happens in thefe cans. Thofe ufed for this purpofe in 
Yevre, hold from ;o to 4S hives. As foon as all arc 
thus flowed, the caravan fets out. If the feafon is ful- 
iry, they travel only in the night ; but a proper ad- 
vantage is made of cool days. Thefe caravans do 
not go faft. The horfes muft not be permitted even 
to trot : they arc led flowly, and through the fmooth- 
cft roads. When there are not combs in the hives fuf- 
ficient to fupport the bees during their journey, the 
owner takes the earliefl opportunity of reiling them 
wherever they can collecl: wax. The hives are taken 
out of the cart, then fet upon the ground, and after re- 
moving the cloth from over them, the bees go forth in 
fearch of food. The firft field they come toferves them 
as an inn. In the evening, as foon as they are all re- 
turned, the hives are fluit up ; and being placed again 
in the cart, they proceed in their journey. When the 
caravan is arrived at the journey's end, the hives are 
diflributcd in the gardens, or in the fields adjacent to 
the houfes of different peafants, who, for a very fmall 
reward, undertake to look af'tcr them. Thus it is that, 
in filch fpots as do not abound in flowers at all feafons, 
means are found to fupply the bees with food during 
the whole year. 

Thefe infl;ances of the great advantages which 
attend Ihifting of bees in fearch of pafture, afford 
an excellent lelFon : they direfl panictdarly the in- 
habitants of the rich vales, where the harvefl for 
bees ends early, to remove their flocks to places 
which abound in thofe flowers which continue in 






ment of 
bees in 

Tom. I. 
f- AiS- 

bloom during a confiderablc part of aiunmii, and yield- 
' ing great plenty of food toljccs. Thofc in the neigh- 
bourhood of hills and moiMitiins will fave the bees 
a great deal of labour, by taking alfo ihe advantage of 
fliifting their places of abode. 

4. Officiliiig and dcfuidiiig Bies in Wh:tcr. Provi- 
dence has ordained, that infefts which feed on leaves, 
flowers, and green fucciilent plants, arc in an infenfiblc 
or torpid flate from the time that the winter's cold has 
deprived them of the intansof fiihliltence. Thvistlubtcs 
during the winter arc in fo lethargic a ftate, that little 
food fiipports them : but as the weather is very change- 
able, and every warm or funny day revives them, and 
prompts them to return to exercifc, food becomes ne- 
cellary on thefc occalions. 

Many hives of bees, which are thought to die of cold 
in the winter, in truth die of famine ; where a rainy 
fummer has hindered the bees from laying in a fufficieiit 
flore of provifions. The hives lliould therefore be care- 
fully examined in the autumn, and Ihould then weigh 
at leaft 18 pounds. 

Columella defcribes an annual diftemper which feizes 
bees in the fpring, when the fpurge blolfoms, and the 
elm difclofes its feeds ; for that, being allured by the 
firlt flowers, they feed fo greedily upon them, that they 
furfeit thcnifclvcs, and die of aloofenefs, if they arc not 
fpcedily relieved. 

The authors of the Maifoii Rufliqu; impute this pur- 
ging to the bees feeding on pure honey, which docs not 
form a food fufficiently fubllaniial for thetn, nnlefs they 
have bee-bread to eat at the fame time ; and advife gi- 
ving them a honey comb taken from another hive, the 
cells of which are filled with crude wax or bee-bread. 

There is flill, however, a want of exp-rimcnis to af- 
certain both the time and the manner in which bees 
lliould be fed. The common practice is to feed them 
in the autumn, giving them as much honey as will bring 
the whole weight of the hive to near 20 pounds. To 
this end, the honey is diluted with water, and then put 
into an empty comb, fplit reeds, or, as Columella di- 
rcifts, upon clean wool, which the bees will fuck per- 
fectly dry. But the dilution with water makes the ho- 
ney apt to be candied, and honey in that ftate is preju- 
dicial to bees. 

The following direftions given in the Maifon Ru- 
ftiqui fcem to be very judicious. Replenidi the weak 
hives in September with fuch a portion of combs full 
of honey taken from other hives as Ihall be judged tobc 
a fufEcient fupply for them. In order to do this, turn 
up the weak hive, after taking the precaution of de- 
fending yourfelf with the fmokc of rags, cut out the 
empty combs, and put the full ones in their place ; where 
fccure them with pieces of wood run a-crofs, in fuch 
manner that they may not fall down when the hive is 
returned 10 its place. The bees will foon fix them more 
efFcclually. If this method be thought too trouble- 
fome, fct under the hive a plate of liquid honey, nn- 
nii.ved with water, with flrawshid acrofs it, and over 
thefc a paper pierced full holes, through which the 
bees will fuck the honey without daubing ihemfclvcs. 
This (liould be done in cloudy or rainy weather, when 
the bees (lir leaft abroad ; and the hive fliould be co- 
vered, to proteft the bees from robbers, who might be 
allured to it by the fnicU of the honey. 

Another circumflancc which may render it very nc- 

[ US ] 



ceflary to feed the bees is, when feveral days of bad 
weather enfue immediately after they have fwarmcd ; 
for then, being dcftiiutc of every fupply beyond what 
they carried with them, thty may be in great danger 
of ftarving. In iliis cafe, hi.ncy Ihould be given them 
in proportion to the duration of the bad weather. 

The degree of cold which bees can endure has not 
been afcenained. We find ihat they live in the cold 
parts of RufTia, and often in hollow trees, without any 
care being taken of them. Their hives are frequently 
made of the bark of trees, which does not afford them 
much protci'iion from cold. Mr White, therefore, ju- 
dicioudy obferves, that bees which ftand on the north 
fide of a building whofe height intercepts the fun's 
beams all the winter, will waite lefs of their provifions 
(alnioft by half) than others which ftand in the fun : 
for coming feldom forth, they cat little ; and yet in 
the fpring are as forward to work and fwarm as thofc 
which had twice as much honey in the autumn before. 
The owner fhould, however, examine their ftate in the 
winter; and if he finds, that, inftcad of being cluftercd 
between the combs, they fall down in numbers on the 
ftool or bottom of the hive, the hive ihould be carried 
to a warmer place, where they will foon recover. He 
ninll be cautious in returning them again to the cold, 
left the honey be candied. 

Where the winters are extremely fcvcre, the authors 
of the Maifon R:tj\iq:i: advife to lay on the bottom of 
an old cafk the depth of half a foot of very dry cariii, 
powdered, and pre lied down hard, and to fet on this the 
ftool with the hive ; then, to prcferve a comnuinicaiion 
with the air, which is abfolutcly nccclfary, to cut a hole 
in the cafk, oppofite to the mouth of the hive, and pkcc 
a piece of reed, or of alder made hollow, from the mouth 
of the hive to the hole in the cafk ; and after this to 
cover the hive with more of the fame dry earth. If 
there be any room to fear that the bees will not have a 
fufliciency of food, a plate with honey, covered as be- 
fore directed, may be put under the hive. If the num- 
ber of hives be great, boxes may be made of deals nail- 
ed together, deep enough to contain the hives when 
covered with dry earth. The bees will ilius remain all 
the winter free from any danger from coltl, hunger, or 

J. Of taking the Uunn and Wax. In this country it Method* of 
is ufual, in feizing th.e ftorcs of thefc little animals, to ««kii>g the 
rob them alfo of their lives. The common method'"'"'''"'"^ 
is. That when thofc which arc doomed for flaughter Com'J^o,', 
have been marked out (which is generally done in „,t(hod in 
September), a hole is dug near the hive, and a ftiek, this coun- 
at the end of which is a rag that has been dipped try. 
in melted brimftonc, being fluck in that hole, the 
rag is fct on fire, the hive is immediately fct ovtr it, 
and the eartli is inftantly thrown up all round, fo 
than none of the fmoke can efcape. In a quarter of 
an hour, all the bees arc fcemingly dead ; and they will 
foon after be irrecoverably fo, by being buried in the 
earth that is returned back into the hole. By this laft 
means it is that they are abfohiiely killed : for it has 
been found by experiment, that all the bees which have 
been af^CL^ed only by the fume of the brimftonc, reco- 
ver again, excepting fuch as liavc been fingcd or hurt 
by the flame. Hence it is evident that the fume of 
brimftonc might be ufed for intoxicating the bees, wiili 
fonic few prccauiions. The hcavicft and the lightcil 



I!/-)/ vtnlM BEE [ 1 

T-et hives are alike treated in this manner : the fornicr, be- 

* ^^ ' ciufc tlicy yiclil ihc moil prolk, wiih an immcdiaie re- 

liirii; andtiic litter, Ix-caiilV they woulJ not be able 
to fiuvivc tiic winter. Thole hives which weigh fro^i 
1 ) to 20 pounds are thought to be the titcll for 

More humane iid judiaions methods were praftifed 
fVide C»/«- by the ancients f; and tlic following limfije method is 
«F<'//<7,/;i.ix. it this day pradHfcd at (Irccct, degenerate as it is. 
'■^S- *"^ " Mount Hyincthus is ccUbratcd for the bell lioney in 
Runi"'' ^" Greece. This monmiin was not lefs famous in times 
/ii iii"'. i6. part for bees and aJi iiJlt h<mey ; the ancients b<;lie- 
31 vJng that bees were lini brcdlicre, and that all other 
Grctk mc- bees were but colonies from this mountain ; w Inch if fo, 
tliodof (ha- ^vc allured ourfelvcs it niufl be from this part of 
ringth, 1,1). j]|j. ,„o„„[ji,, ijjat the colonies were fcnt ; both becaufe 
J27"sjc^'l'c honey here made is the bell, and that here they 
»'/«/.,/ never dcllroy the bees. It is of a good conliftence, of 
5'o;/r//.-v :-:tt a fair gold-colour, and the liimc quantity fwcetens more 
Grrctr, water than the like quapiity of any other doth. 1 no 
p. 411. fooner knew that they never dclhoy or impair \he (lock 
of bees in taking away their honey, but I was inquili-. 
tivc to iinderftand their method of ordering the beft ; 
which hcin;;an art fo worthy the knowledge of the cu- 
rious, I Ihall not think it bLhdc the purpofe, to relate 
what I faw, and w-as infoni-.tJ of to that eftcJl by fuch 
as had (kill in that place. 

" Tlic hives tlicy keep tluir bees in are made of wil- 
lows or olicrs, falhioned like oi;r common diiil-bafkcts, 
wide at top and narrow at the bottom, and plallercd 
with clay or loam within and withont. They are fct 
PI. XCVII as in fig. l. with the wide end iippernioft. The tops 
are covered with broad flat flicks, which are alio pla- 
flercd over with clay ; and, to fccure them from the 
weather, they cover them with a tuft of flravv, as we 
do. Along each of thefe flicks, the bees faflen their 
combs ; fo that a comb may be taken out whole, with- 
out the Icafl bruiliiig, and with the greatell eafc ima- 
ginable. To incrcafe them in fpring-time, that is in 
March or April, until the beginning of May, they di- 
.^ vide them ; firft feparating the flicks on which the 
combs and bees are faftcntd, from one another, wiih a 
knife : lb, taking out the firft comb and bees together 
on each fide, they put them into another baiket, in the 
fame order as they were taken out, until they have e- 
qually divided them. After this, when they arc both 
again accommodated with flicks and plaftcr, they fct 
the new bafket in the place of the old one, and the old 
one in fome new place. And all this they do in the 
middle of the day, at fuch time as the grcatcft part of 
tiie bees are abroad ; who at their coming home, with- 
out much difficulty by this means divide themfclves e- 
qually. This device hinders them from fwarming and 
flying away. In Auguft, they take out their honey. 
This they do in the day-time alfo, while they ai'e a- 
broad ; the bees being thereby, fay they, diflurbed 
leafl: at which time they take otit the combs laden 
with honey, as before ; that is, beginning at each out- 
iidc, and fo taking away, until they have Icftonly fuch 
a quantity of combs, in the middle, as they jndgc will 
be fufllcient to maintain the bees in winter; fwceping 
thofe bees that are on the combs into the bafket again, 
and then covering it wiih new flicks and plafter." 

The Greek method above related was introduced in- 
to France in i ^54, as wc arc informed by M. dc Reau- 



a6 , :j BEE 

nmr and Du Ilamel, iJi the Memoirs of the Royal A- 

cademy for that year, p. 331. ' ' 

Attempts have been made in our own country, to 
attain the defnable end of getting ihe honey and wax 
V. iiliout deflroying the bees; the moft approved of 
which wc fliall now relate as concifely as poUiblc. 

Mr Thorky, in his Inquiry the A.Uure, Order, MrThor- 
<. J Ci-vcrmmut cf Bus, thinks colonics preferable to ley's oMer- 
1) ;vcs, for the follow ing rcafons : ''•'//, The more cer- vati»ns,&c, 
tain prefervation of very many ihoufands to ihcfe ufe- 
ful creatures ; fcc07:diy, Their gi eater flrength (v\hicli 
conlills in numbers), and confequtnily their greater 
fafcty from robbers ; thirdly, Their greater wealt^<a- 
rifing from the united labours of the greater nuiMB|r. 
He tells us, that he has in fome fummers taken tl^o 
boxes filled with honey from one colotiy ; and yet fof- 
ficient florc has been left for their maintenance duritig 
the winter , each bo.\ weighing 40 pounds. Add to 
thefe advantages, the plcafurc of viewing them, with 
the greatell fafeiy, at all fcafons, even in their biifK-fl 
time of gathering, and their requiring a much lefs ai- 
tmd.iiice ill fwarming tiine. The bees thus managed 
are alio more effectually fecured from wet and cold, 
from mice and otlur vermin. 

I!is boxes are made of deal, which, being fpongy, 
fucks up the breath of the bees fooner than a more fo- 
lid wood would do. Yellow draui-4«al thoroughly fca- 
Ibncd is the befl. V 

-, being nearer to a. fphcre, is belter than 
a I'l 111 ; for as the bees, in winter, lie in a round 

bo(i\' near the centre of the hive, a due heat is then 
conveyed to all tiic cut-pans, and the honey is kept 
from candying. 

The dimenlions which Mr Thorley, after many years 
experience, recommends for the boxes, arc ten inches 
depth, and 12 or 14 inches breadth in the infide. He 
lias tried boxes containing a bufliel or more, Imt found 
them not to aniwer the dciign like thofe of a leflcr fizc. 
The larger are much longer in filling ; fo that ft is later 
ere you come to reap the fruits of the labour of the 
bees: nor is the honey there fo good and fine, the ef- 
fluvia even cf their own bodies tainting it. 

The befl and purtft honey is that which is gathered 
in the firfl five or fix weeks : and in boxes cf lefs di- 
mcnfions you may take in a month or little more, pro- 
vided the fealbu be lavourablc, a box full of the finell 

The top of the box fliould be made of an entire board 
a full inch thick after it has been plained ; and it Ihould 
projeiJl on all fides at leaft an inch beyond the dimen- 
lions of ihe box. In the middle of this top there mufl 
be a hole five inches fqiiare, for a communication be- 
tween the boxes ; and this hole fliouid be covered with 
a Aiding Quitter, of deal or elut/ running eafdy in - 
groove over the back window. TJic eight panpel;-, 
lone inches deep, and three quarters of an inch tjiick 
v.lien planed, arc to be let into the top lb far it to 
keep them in iheir pioper places ;.fp be fecured at the 
corners with plates of brafs, and t6 be cramped with 
Wires at the bottom to keep them firm ; for ihe heat 
in fuuimer will try their flrength. There flould be a 
glaCs-window behind, fixed in a frame, with a tliin 
d^al-covcr, iwo fmall brafs hinges, and a bnitoii to 
fatten it. This window will befufficient for infpetling 
the.progrefs of the bees. Two ^ ' " iks^ one ci:i 
1- * eacli 

B K K. 

Plate XC\ U 

M.t,A^»^ *< ^^ rt//>r##*ir Aw^ ' 


mtiit of 
bees in co- 
lonies, and 

Ece. each fide, are necclTary to lift iij) the box : thcfc flionld 
^ ' be fixed iti with two thin plates of iron, near three in- 
ches long, fo as to turn np and down, and put three 
inches below the top-board, which is nailed clofe down 
with fprigs to tlie other parts of the box. 

'I'hofc who choofe a frame within, to which the bees 
may fallen thi,ir combs, need only life a conpie of deal 
/ticks of an inch fqiiarc, placed acrofs tlie box, and 
fiipported by two pins of brafs ; one an inch and half 
below the top, and the other two inches below it ; 
by which means the combs will quickly find a rclh 
0;ic thing more, wiiich pcrfe(fls the work, is, a pai"- 
fige, fonr or five inches long, and lefsthan half an inch 
deep for the bees to go in and out at the bottom of 
the box. 

I. In keeping bees in colonics, an houfc is ncceffary, 

or at lead a Ihade ; without which the weather, efpc- 

cially the heat of the fun, would foon rend the boxes 

meth.'^l of to pieces. , , , 

takingtlieir Your houfc may be made of any boards you pleafe, 

lioncy and but deal is the bclL Of whatever fort the materials 

wax. are, the houfe mull be painted, to fccure it from the 


The length of this houfe, we will fiippofe for fix co- 
lonies, Ihould be full 12 feet and a half, and each co- 
lony fliould ftand a foot diflance from the other. It 
flioiild be three feet and a half high, to admit four 
boxes one upon another ; but if only three boxes are 
employed, two feet eight inches will be fufficient. Its 
breadth in the infidc IhouUl be two feet. The four 
corner-ports Ihould be made of oak, and well fixed in 
the ground, that no (lormy winds may overturn it ; and 
all the rails fliouKl be of oak, fupponcd by fcvcral iip- 
riglits of the fame, before and beiiind, that they may 
not yield or fink under 6, 7, or Sco weight, or up- 
wards. The floor of the houfc (about two feet from 
the groinid) Ihoulil be ilrong and fmootli, that the 
lowed box may (land clofe to it. 

Tiiis rioor may be made with boards or planks of 
deal tiie full length of the bce-houfe ; or, which is pre- 
ferable, with a. board or plank to each colony, of two 
feet four inches long, and fixed down to the rails ; and 
that pare which appears at the front of the houfe may 
be cut into a femicircle, as a proper alighting place 
for the bees. Plane it to the llopc, that the wet may 
fall oif. When this fioor to a fingle colony wants 10 
be repaired, it may eafily be removed, and another be 
placed in its room, without dillurbing the other colo- 
nics, or touching any other part of the rioor. 

Upon this floor, at equal dilUnces, all your colonics 
mull be placed, againft a door or pallagc cut in ihe 
front of the houfe. 

Only obfcrve farther, to prevent any falfc ficp, tiiat 
35 the top-board of the box (being a full inch broader 
than the other part) will not permit the two mouths 
to toijclhcr, yon mull cut a liiird in a piece of 
deal of a fulficicnt breadth, and place it between the 
oiher two, fo clofe, that not a bee may get liiat way 
into the houfc. And fixing ihe laid piece of deal down 
to the door with two lath-nails, you will find after- 
wards to be of fcrvice, when you have occalion ciihcr 
to raifc a colony, or take 3. box of iioney, and may 
prove a means of preventing a great deal of trouble and 

The houfe being in this forwardncfs, yon may cover 
Vol. III. 

[ 137 3 


it to your own mind, with boards, fine dates, or tiles. 
But contrive their pofiiion fo as to carry off the wet, 
and keep out the cold, rain, fnow, or whatever might 
any way hurt and prejudice them. 

The back-doors may be made of half-inch deal, two 
of liiem to (hut clofe la a rabbet, cut in an upright pil- 
lar, which may be fo contrived, as 10 lake in and out, 
by a moriifc in the bottom rail, and a notch in the in- 
fide of the upper rail, and failened wiih a flrong hafp. 
Place the pillars in the fpaces between the colonies. 

Concluding your houfc made after this model, with- 
out front doors, a weaihcr-board will be very ncceffary 
to carry the water off from the places where the btcs 
fettle and reft. 

Good painting will be a great prcfirvative. Forget 
not to paint the mouths of your colonits v.ith different 
colours, as red, white, blue, ycllov>, &c. in form of a 
hall-moon, or fquarc, that liic bees may the better 
know ihcir own home. Such diverfity will be a direc- 
tion to them. 

Thus your bees are kept warm in the coldcd winter ; 
and in the hotted fiuiimcr greatly refrellicd by the cool 
air, the back-doors being let open, without any air- 
holes made in the boxes. 

Dr Warder obfcrves, that in June, July, and An- 
gud, when the colonies come to be very full, and the 
Weather proves very hot, the appearance of a fliowcr 
drives the bees home in fuch crowds that prelTing to 
get in, they dop the palTage fo clofe, that ihofe with- 
in are almod fiirti)catcd for want of air ; which makes 
the lad fo uncafy, that they arc like mad things. In 
this extremity, he has lifted the whole colony up a lit- 
tle on one fide ; and by thus giving them air, has foon 
quieted them. He has known ihem, he fays, come 
pouring out, on fiich an occafion, in number fufRcicnt 
to have filled at once two or three quarts ; as if they 
had been going to fwarm. To prtvtnt this iriconvc- 
nicnce, he advifcs cutting a hole two inches fquarc in 
about the middle of one of the hinder panncls of each 
box. Over this hole, rail, in the iiifide of the box, a 
piece of tin-plate punched full of holes fo finall that a 
bee cannot creep through them ; and h.ive over it, on 
the outlide, a very thin llider, made to run in grooves ; 
fo that, when it is thrud home, all may be clofe and 
\\arm ; and when it is opened, in very hot w-cathcr, the 
air may pal's through the holts, and prevent the f^flo- 
cating heat. Or holes may be bored in the panncls 
tiicmfclves, on fucli an cmergencv, in a colony already 

Such a thorough paffagc for the air may be conve- 
nient in extreme heat, which is fomctimcs fo great as 
to make the honey run out of the combs. The Me- 
moirs of the truly laudable Berne Society, for the year 
1764, give us a particular inll.Tnce of this, when they 
fay, that, in 1761, many in Swilferland were obliged 
to fmolher ihcir bees, when they faw the honey and 
wax trickling down ; not knowing any other remedy 
for the lolTes ihey daily fiifiaincd. Some lliadcd their 
hives from the fun, or covered them with clothes wet 
feveral times a-day, and watered the ground all »- 

The bed lime to plant the colonics is, either in 

fpring with new docks full of bees, or in fimincr with 

fwarms. If fwarnis arc nfed, procure if poliible two 

of the fame day : hive ihem ciihcr in two boxes or in 

S a 



[ 138 ] 


Bee. a hive and a box: at night, place them in thebcc-lioiifc, 
^"v^— ' one over the other ; aiiJ with a knife and a little lime 
and hair, flop clofe the mouth of the liive or upper 
box, fo that not a bee may be able to go in or out but 
at the front-door. This done, you will in a week or 
ten days with plcafure fee tlie combs appear in the 
boxes ; but if it be an hive, nothing can be feen till the 
bees have wrought down in tlic box. Never plant a 
colony with a finglc fwarm, as Mr Thorlcy fays he has 
fomctimcs done, but with liule fucccfs. 

When the fccond box, or the box under the liivc, 
appears full of bees and combs, it is time to raifc your 
colony. This Ihould be done in the duikof the even- 
in;;, and in the following manner. 

Place your empty box, with ihc Aiding iliuticr 
drawn back, behind the huufc, near the colony that is 
to be railed, and at nearly the liciglit of the floor : 
lifting up the colony with what expedition you can, 
let tlie empty box be pat in the place where it is to 
Hand, and the colony uj'on it ; and lluit up the mouth 
of the then upper box with lime and hair, as before di- 

colony, with one end faflened to the landing-place, 
and knock them out upon it : they will foon crawl up ^ 
the cloth, and join their fellows, who will gladly re- 
ceive them. 

Mr Thorley next gives an account of liis narcotic, 
and of the manner of uling it. 

The method which he has purfued with great fuc- 
ccfs for many years, and which he recommends to the 
public as the moll ttfcdual for prcferving bees in com- 
mon iiives, is incorporation, or uniting two flocks into 
one, by the help of a peculiar fume or opiate, which 
will put them entirely in your power (or a time to di- 
vide and difpofe of at plcafme. But as that dominion 
over llicm will be of ihort duration, you mull be expe- 
ditious in this bufinrfs. 

The queen is immediately to be fcarclicd for, and 
killed. Hives uhich have fwarnud twice, and are con- 
i'ciiucnlly reduced in their numbers, are the titteli to 
be joined together, as this will greatly ftrtngtlicn and 
improve ihcin. If a hive which you would t.ike is 
both rich in honey and full of bees, it is but dividing 
the bees into two parts, and putting them into two 


When, by the help of the windows in the back of boxes inflcad of one. Kxamine whether the flock to 

the boxes, you find the middle box full of combs, and which you intend to join the bees of another, have ho- 

a quantity of honey fealed up in it, the lowefl box half ncy enough in it to maintain the bees of both : it Ihould 

full of combs, and few bees in the uppermofl box, pro- weigh full 20 pounds. 

ceed thus. The narcotic, or flupifying fume, is made with the 

About live o'clock in the afternoon, drive clofe with poigns viaxivius or fuivcruleiitia, the large mulhroom, 

a mallet the lliding Ihutter under the hive or box that commonly known by the name of bunt, juickjij} , or 

is to be taken from the colony. If the combs are new, frog-chiefi. It is as big as a man's head, or bigger: 

the flintier may be forced home without a mallet ; but when ripe ; it is of a brown colour, turns to powder. 

be fure it be clofe, that no bees may afccnd into the 
hive or box to be removed. After this, lliut clofe the 
doors of your houfe, and leave the bees thus cut off 
from the reft of their comp.mions, for the fpace of half 
an hour or more. In this fpace of time, having loft 
their queen, they will till themfclves with honey, and 
be impatient to be fet at liberty. 

If, in this interval, you examine the box or boxes 
beneath, and obferve all to be quiet in them, you may 
be confident that the queen is there, atid in fafcty. 
Hcreujjoii rail'e the back part of the hive or box fb far, 
by a piece of wood flipped under it, as to give the pri- 
Ibncrs room to come out, and they will return to their 
fellows: then lifting the box from off tlie colony, and 
turning its bottom upinoll, cover it with a cloth all 
night ; and the next morning, when this cloth is re- 
moved, the bees that have remained in it will return to 
ihc colony. Thus you have a hive or box of honey, 
and all your bees fate. 

If the bees do not all come out in this manner, Dr 
Warder's method may be followed, efpecially if it be 
with a hive. It is to place the hive with the fmall end 
downward in a pail, jieck, or fiower-pot, fo as to make 
it fland firm; then to take an empty hive, and fet it 
upon the former, and to draw a cloih tight round the 
joining of the tv.'o hives, fo that none of the bees may 
be able to get out: after this, to flrike the full hive 
fo fmartly as todiAurb the bees that are in it, but with 
I'uch pauies between the Ihokcs as to allow thtm time 
toafcend into the empty hive, which muft be held fail 
whiUl this is doing, left it fall off by the Ihaking of 
the other. When you perceive by the noife of the 
bees in the upper hive, that they are got into this lafl, 
carry it to a cloth fpread for this purpofe before the 

and is exceeding light. Put one of thefe pucks into a 
large paper, pvefs it therein to two-thirds or near half 
the bulk of its lonner fize, and tie it np very dole ; 
then put it itito an oven fome tiine after the houfehold 
bread has bteti drawn, and let it remain there all night: 
when it is dry enough to hold fire, it is fit for tile. The 
mantier of ufing it is thus : 

Cut otfa piece of the puck, as large as a hen's egg, 
and fix it in the end of a finall flick liit for thatpurpufe, 
and Iharpened at the other end ; which place (o that the 
puck may hang near the n-.iddle of an empty hive. 
This hive muft be fet with the mouth upward, in a pail 
or bucket which Ihonld bold it Heady, near the flock 
you intend to take. This done, fet fire to the puck, 
and immediately place the flock of bees over it, tying 
a clotli round the hives, that no fmoke may come 
forth. In a minute's time, or little more, you will 
hear the bees fall like drops of bail into the empty hive. 
You may then beat the top of the full hive gently with 
your hand, to get out as many of them as you can : 
after this, loofaig the cloth, lift the hive off to a table, 
knock it times againfl the table, fevcral more 
bees will tumble out, and perhaps the queen among 
them. She often is one of the laft that falls. If fhc 
is not there, fearch for her among the main body i:i 
the empty hive, fpreading them lor this purpofe on a 

You muft proceed in the fame manner with the other 
hive, with the bees of which thefe arc to be united. 
One of the queens being fecurcd, you muft put the 
bees of both hives together, mingle them thoroughly, 
and drop them among the combs of the hive whicii 
they are intended to inhabit. When they arc all in, 
cover it with a packing or other cuzrfe cloth which will 



[ 139 ] 


Dee. admit air, and let them remain fliut up all that night 

' ■' ' and the next day. You will foon be fcnfible that they 

are awaked from this Qee]). 

The fecond night after their union, in the dufk of 
the evening, gently remove the cloth from off the month 
of the hive (t.tlcing care of yoiirfclf), and tiic bees will 
immediately fally forth with a great noife ; but being 
too late, they will foon return : then inl'criing two 
pieces of tobicco-pipes to let in air, keep them confined 
for three or four days, after which the door may be left 

The bell time for uniting bees is, after their young 
brood are all out, and before they begin to lodge in 
the empty cells. As to the hour of the day, he ad- 
vifes young praiflitioncrs to Jo it early in the afternoon, 
in order that having the longer light, they may the 
more ealily find out the queen. He never knew fuch 
combined flocks conquered by robbers. They will ci- 
ther fwarm in the fummcr, or yield an hive full of 
Glaf^hives ^^'' N- Thornlcy, fon of iheabovemeniioned clergy- 
man, has added to the edition which he has given of his 
father's book, a poRfcript, purporting, that perfons 
who choofe to keep bees in glafs-hives may, after un- 
covering the hole at the top of a flat-topped llraw-hive, 
or box, place the glafs over it f) clofe that no bee can 
go in or out but at the bottom of the hive or box. 
The glafs-hive mull be covered with an empty hive or 
with a cloth, that too much liglit may not prevent the 
bees from working. As foon us tlicy have filled the 
flraw-hive or box, they will bcgiu to work up into the 
glafs-hive. He tells us, that he hiuifelf has had one of 
thefe glafs-hives filled by the bees in 0.0 days in a fine 
feafon ; and tint it contained 58 poinds of fine honey. 
When the glafs is completely filled, (lide a tin-plate 
between it and the hive or box, fo as to cover the paf- 
fage, and in half an hour the glafs may be taken ofT 
with fafety. What few bees remain in it, will readily 
go to their companions. He has added a glafs win- 
dow to his llraw-hives, in order to fee what progrefs 
bees make ; which is of fome importance, efpecially if 
one hive is to be taken away whilll the feafon Itill con- 
tinues favourable for theircolleclingof honey : for when 
the combs are filled with honey, the cells are fealed up, 
and the bees forfake them, and relide mollly in the 
liive in which their works are chiefly carried on. Ob- 
fcrving alfo that thebees were apttotxtend theircombs 
thro' the palFagc of communication in the upper hive, 
whether glafs or other, which rendered it nccellary to 
divide the comb when the upper hive was taken away, 
he now puts in that paliage a wire fcrccn or netting, 
the meflies of which are large enough for a loaded bee 
to go eafily through them. This prevents the joining 
of the copibs from one box to the other, and confc- 
quently obviates the nccc(!iiy of cutting them, and of 
fpilling fome of the honey, which running down among 
W. XCVII. a crowd of bees, ufed before to incommode them much; 
it being difficult for them to clear their wings of it. 
Fig. 2. is a drawing of one of his colonics. 
Of bees in -• ''''" reverend Mr White informs us, that his 
boxes and fondncfs .''or thefe little animals foon put upon liim cn- 
mcth.Klof deavouring if poffiblc to fave them from //v and ^rw;- 
' taking their y? 3/; :• ; that he thought he li.'.d reafon lobe content 10 
honey and ilurc their labours for the prcfcntj and great rcafou to 

rejoice if he could at any time preferve their lives, to 
work for him another year ; and that the main drift ^ 
of his obfcrvations and experiments has therefore been, 
to difcover an eafy and cheap method, fuited to the 
abilities of the common people, of taking away fo 
much honey as can be fpared, without deltruying or 
flarving the bees; and by the famemcar.s to encourage 
feafonablc fwarnis. 

In his direeTions how to make the bee-boxes of hii 
inventing, he tells us, fpcaking of the manner of con- 
flrut'liug a fingle one, that it maybe made of deal or any 
other wcll-feafoned boards which are not apt to warp or 
fplit. The boards Ihould be near an inch thick ; the fi- 
gure of the box fquare, and its height and breadth nine 
inches and five eighths, every way, meafuring within. 
With thefe dimenfions it will contain near a peck and 
an half. The front part mufl have a door cut in the 
middle of the bottom-edge, three inches wide and near 
half an inch in height, which will give free liberty to 
the bees to pafs through, yet not be large enough for 
their enemy the moufe to enter. In the back-part you 
mud cut a hole with a rabbet in it, in which you are to 
fi.x a pane of the clcarell and btfl crown-ghfs, about 
five inches in length and three in breadth, and tafien it 
with putty ; let the top of the glafs be placed as high 
as the roof within-fidc, that you may fee the upper 
part of the combs, where the bees with ihcir riches are 
mofily placed. You will by this means be biitcr able 
to judge of their ftate and flrcngih, than if your 
glai's was fixed in the middle. The glafs mull be co- 
vered with a thin piece of board, by way of fliutter, 
which may be made to hang by a firing, or turn up- 
on a nail, or Hide fidewjys between two mouldings. 
Such as arc defirous of feeing more of the bees works, 
may make the glafs as large as the box will admit 
without weakening it too much ; or they may add a. 
pane of glafs on the top, which mull likcwifc be cover- 
ed with a fliutter, faftcned down with pegs, to prevent 

The fide of the box which is to be joined to another 
box of the fame form and dimenfions, as it will not be 
expofed to the internal air, may be made of a piece of 
flit deal not half an inch thick. This he calls the /ide 
of coiiinnitiUation, becaufe it is not to be wholly inclo- 
fed : a fpace is to be left at the bottom the whole 
breadth of the box, and a little more than an inch ia 
height : and a hole or palfagc is to be made at top, 
three inches long, ami more than half an inch wide. 
Through ihefe the bees are to have a coninninication 
from one box tothc other. The lower communication 
being on the floor, our labourers, with ihcir burdens, 
may readily and eafily afccnd into either of the boxes. 
The upper comuuinication is only intended as a pailigc 
between the boxes, rcfembling the little holes or nar- 
row paffcs which may be obfcrved in the combs form- 
ed by our fugacious architedls, to lave time and Ihortcn 
the way when ihcy havcoccafion to pafsfrom one comb 
to another ; juft as in populous cities, ilicrc arc narrow 
lanes and alleys palling tranlVerlcly from one large 
llrcct to another. 

In the next place you are to provide a loofc board, 

half an inch thick, and large enough to cover the fide 

where yon have made the communications. Yon are 

likcwifc to have in readincfs fcvcral little iron Aaples, 

S3 an 



[ I 




15«1. an inch and a half long, wiih the two points or ends 

— •- ' bended down more tli-m half an inch. The ufe of 

ihtfc will be fecn prcfently. 

YoLi have now only to lix two Hicks crolling the box 
from lide to Tide, and croliliiLi, each oilier, to be a Hay 
to the combs; one about three inches from the bot- 
tom, the other the fame dillance from the top ; and 
when you have painted the whole, to make it more du- 
rable, your box is iinilhcd. 

The judicious bcc-ma(Ur will here obfervc, that the 
form of the box now dcfcribcd is as plain as poliible 
for it to be. It is little nioic than live iquare pieces of 
board nailed together; fo that a poor cottager who has 
but ingenuity enough to faw a board into the given 
dimenlTons, and to drive a nail, may make his own 
boxes well enough, without the help or expence of a 

No direftions are necelTary for makingthe other box, 
which mull be of the fame form and dimcnfions. The 
two boxes dilTtr from eacli other only in this, that the 
lide of comuiunication of the one muft be on your right 
hand ; of the other, on your left. Fig. 3. reprefents 
two of tlicfc boxes, with thtir openings of communica- 
lion, ready to join to each oiher. 

^!r White's manner of hiving a fwarm into one or 
both of ihcfe boxes is thus : 

You arc to take the loofc board, and faflcn it to one 
of the boxes, fo as to Hop the communications. This 
may be done by three of the (taples belore mentioned ; 
one on the top of the box near the front; the two o- 
thers on the back, near the top and near the botiom. 
Let one end of the ll.iple be ihnill into a gimlet-hole 
made in the box, fo that the other end may go as tight 
as can be over the lool'e board, to keep it from llipping 
when it is handled. The next morning, after the 
bees liave been hived in this box, the other box fliould 
be added, and the loofc board ihould be taken awiiy. 
This will prevent a great deal of labour to the bees, 
and fo'.ne 10 the proprietor. 

Be caret'ul to fallen the Ihutler fo clofe to the glafs, 
th;it no light may enter through it ; for the bees fccm 
to look upon fucli light as a hole or breach in iheir 
houfe, and on that account may rot fo well like their 
new habiration. But the principal thing lobe obfcrv- 
cd at this time is, to cover the box as foon as the bees 
are hived, with a linen cloth thrown clofcly over il, or 
with green boughs to proiert it from the piercing heat 
of the fun. Boxes will admit tlie much fonner 
than ftraw-hives ; and if the bees liiid their houfe too 
hot for ihcm, they will be wife eno-igh to have it. If 
the i\varm be larger than nfual, inlleadof faflening the 
loofe bou'il to one box, you may join two boxes toge- 
ther with three (laples, leaving the communication open 
from one to the other, and then hive your bees into 
both. In all other refpecls they are to be hived in 
boxes after the fame maimer as in common hives. 

The door of the fecond box fnould be careful'y flop- 
ped up, and be kept conllaiuly cloftd, in order that 
the bees may not have an entrance bu. through the firil 

When the boxes are fet in the places where they are 
to remain, they mull be fcreeued from the fummer's 
fun, bccaufe the wood will otherwife he heated to a 
greater degree tlian eith( r tiic bees or their works can 
bear; and they ihould likewife be fcreened from the 

winttr's fun, becaufc the warmth of this will draw the 
bees from that lethargic Hate which is natural to them, ^ 
as well as many other infefls in the winter fcafon. For 
this purpofe, and alfo to flieller the boxes from rain, 
our ingenious young clergyman has contrived the fol- 
lowing frame. 

Fig. 4. Reprefents the front of a frame for twelve 
colonies. /7, a, are two cells of oak lying fiat on the 
ground, more than four feci long. In tlicle cells are lixcd 
four odken polls, about the thickiufs of fuch as are ufcd 
for drying linen. The two polls b, b, in the front, arc 
about fix leet two inches above the cells: the other 
two. Handing botkw.rd, five feci eij;ht inches. You 
are next to nail fomc boards of flit deal horizontally 
from one of I he fore poHs to the olher, to f-rreen |hc 
bees from the fun. Let thefe bojrtis be feven feet 
fcven inches in lengtli, and nailed to the inllde of the 
poHs; and be well leafoncd, that they may not flirink 
or gape in ihe joints, c.c. Are iwo fpiints ol deal, 
10 keep the boards even, and Hrengthen them. 

Fig. 5. reprefents the back of the frame, d, d, d, d. 
Arc four Hrong boards cf ihe fame length with th(r 
frame on which you arc to place the boxes. Let the 
upper fide of them be very fmooth and even, that the 
boxes may Hand true upon them; or it may be Hill 
more advifable to place under every pair of boxes a 
fmooth thin board, as long as the boxes, and about a 
quarier of an inch wider. The bees will foon faftcn 
llie boxes to ihis board in fnch manner that you may 
move or weigh the boxes and board together, without 
breaking the wax or refill, which for many reaf(nis 
oui^ln to be avoided. Thefe floors niuH be fiippuried 
by pieces of wood or bearers, which are nailed from 
poll to poll at each end. They arc likcwife to be well 
nailed to the frame, to keep them from finking with 
the weight of the boxes. /'Reprefents the roof, which 
projeds backward about feven or eight inches bevond 
the boxes to flielter them from rain. You have now 
only to cut niches or holes in the frame, over againft 
each mouth or entrance into the boxes at h, h, h, in 
fig. 4. Let thefe niches be near four inches long ; and 
under eacji you nuiH nail a fmall piece of wood for the 
bees to alight upon. The morning or evening fun will 
fliine upon one or both ends of ilie frame, let its afpefk 
be what it will : but yon may prevent its over-lieaiing 
the boxes, by a loofe boanl fet up between the poHs, 
and kept in by two or three pegs. 

The fame gentleman, with great humanity, o'jfervcs, no true lover of bees i ver lighted the fatal match 
without much concern , and that it is evidently more 
to our advantage, to fpare the lives of our bees, and 
be content with part of iheir Horts, than to kill and 
take pfrellion of the whole. 

Abont the latter end of AnguH, fays he, by a little 
infpe<5liou liirough your glalfes, you may eafily difco- 
ver which of your colonies you may lay under comri- 
bulion. Such as b.ive filled a box and an half with 
their wsrks, will pretty readily yield you the half box. 
lint you are not to depend upon the quanciiy of combs 
without examining how they are Hored with honey. 
The bees (lioiild, according !o him, have eight or nine 
pounds lei't liiem, by way of wages for their fummer's 

The mod proper lime for this bufinefs is the middle 
of the day ; and as }ou Haiid behind the frame, yen 




[ 141 ] 


Bte. will need no armour, cxccjn a pair of gloves. The 
— ^—'operation itfclf is very liniplc, aiitl calily performed, 
thus: open the mouth of the box you intend to take; 
then with a thin knife cut tiiri).i^h the rclin with 
which t!ie bees have joined the boxti to each other, till 
you find that yoii hive fcparated thcni ; and after this, 
thruft a iheet of tin jjcnily in l)ct\vccn the boxes. The 
commiiiiication being hereby (topped, the bees in the 
fiiilcll box, where it is moU likely the queen is, will be 
a little dilbirbtd at the operation ; but thofe in the o- 
ther box where we f ippofe the queen is not, will rini 
10 and fro in the iitmoll hurry and confufion, and 
fend forth a mournful cry, calily diilinguiilied from 
their other notes. They will iiiiie out at tiic newly 
opened door ; not in a body mS when they fwarm, nor 
with Inch calm and checrfid activity as when they go 
forth to their labours; but by one or two at a tune, 
with a wild fliuier and vilible rigc and diforder. Tins, 
however, is foon over : for as loon as they get abroad 
and fpy their fellows, tlif-y Hy to ihcm inltanily and 
join them at the n)ouih of the other box. By this 
means, in an hour or two, for they go out llowly, you 
will have a box of pure honey, without leaving a bee 
in it to niolell you : and likewifc without dead bees, 
which, when you birn them, are often mixed with 
your ho:iey, and both wade and damage it. 

Mr White acknowledges, that he has fometimes 
found this method fail, when the mouth of the box to 
be taken away has not been conftantly and carcfidly 
clofed : The bees wilt in tliis cafe get acquainted with 
it as an entrance; and when you open the mouth in 
order 10 their leaving this bo.N, many of them will be 
apt to return, and the communication being Hopped, 
will in a fliort time carry away all the honey from 
this to the other box; fo much do they abhor a fepa- 
raiiori. When this hapjiens, he has recourfe to the 
following expedient, which he thiuks infallible. He 
takes a piece of deal, a little larger than will cover the 
moinh of the box, and cut in it a fquirc nich fome- 
what more than Iialf an inch wide. In this nich he 
hangs a little trap-door, made of a thin piece of tin, 
turning upon a pin, willi another pin crolling the nich 
a little lower fo as to prevent the hanging door from 
opening both ways. This being placed clofe 10 the 
mouth, the bees which want to get out will eafiiy thruft 
open the door outwards, but cannot open it the other 
way to get in again; fo mull, and will readily, m:ike 
to the other box, leaving this in about ihefpacc of two 
horns, with all its ftorc, juftly due to the tender hearted 
bce-mafler as a ranfora lor their lives. 

What led Mr White to prefer collateral boxes to 
thofc before in nfe, was, to ufc his own wonls, his 
" companion for the poor bees, who, after traverling 
the fields, return home weary and heavy laden, and 
muft perhaps depofit their burden up two pair of llairs, 
or in the garret. The lower room, it is likely, is not 
yet furniihcd with flairs: for, as is well known, our 
little ariichti5ts lay the foundation of their ftrufturcs 
at the top, and build downwird. In this c;ife, the 
weary little labourer is to drag her load up the fides 
of liie wills : and when (lie has done this, (he will tra- 
vel many times backward and forward, as I have fre- 
quently fern, along ihe loof, before (lie finds the dcmr 
<\r pillage into the Iccond ftory ; and here again (lie is 
perplexed willi a like puzzling labyrinth, before (he 

gets into the third. What a wafte is here cf that Bcei. 

precious time which our bees value fo much, snd which ' " ' 

they employ fo wed ! and what an cxpencc of ftrength 
and fpirits, on which their fuppori and fuflcnancc de- 
pend ! In the collateral boxes, the rooms are all on 
the ground-floor ; and btcaufe I know my bees arc 
wife enough to value convenience more than Hate, I 
have made them of fuch a moderate, though decent, 
height, that the bees have mucii Kfs way to climb to 
the top of them than they have to the crownof a com- 
mon hive." ., 

Mr Wildman's hives have been already defcribed Of the me- 
(n" 23, 24.) A good fwarm will loon fill one of ihefe nagement 
hives, and therefore another hive may be put under it °f ''''"^* '" 
the next morning. The larger fpacc allow ed the bees ^'^ )\''.''' 
will excite their indullry in filling them with combs. ■"*" '"''" 
The queen will lay fome eggs in the upper hive ; butfo 
foon as the lower hive is filled with combs, (he will lay 
moft of iliem in it. In little more than three weeks, 
all the eggs laid in the upper hive will be turned into 
bees; and if the feafon is favourable, their cells will 
be foon filled with honey. 

As loou as they want room, a third hive diould be 
placed under the two former; and in a few days after 
the end of three weeks from the time the fwarm was 
put into tlie hive, the top hive may be taken away at 
noon of a fair day ; and if any bees remain in it, carry 
it to a little diiiance from the (land, and turning its 
bottom up, and flriking it on the (ides, the bees wiTi be 
alarmed, take wing, and join their companions in the 
ftcond and third hives. If it is found that the bees arc 
very unwilling to quit it, it is probable that the queen 
remains among them. In this cafe, the bees muft be 
treated in the manner that fliall be diretted when wc 
defcribe Mr W ildinan's method of taking the honey 
and the wax. The upper hive now taken away (hoiilJ 
be put in a cool place, in which no vermin, mice, &c. 
can come at the combs, or other damage can happen to 
them, and be thus prefervcd in refcrve. 

When the hives feem to be again crowded, and the 
upper hive is well (iorcd or tilled with honey, a fourth 
hive ihould be placed under the third, and the upper 
hive be taken od' the next fair day at noon, and treated 
as already directed. As the honey made during the 
fuiriraer is the bed, and as it is ncedlefs to keep many 
full hives in ffore, the honey may be taken outof the 
combs of this fecond hive for nfe. 

If the ftalbn is very favourable, the bees may ftill fill 
a third hive. In this cafe, a fifth hive miift be put under 
the fouith, and the third taken away as before. The 
bees will then fill the fourth for their w inter (tore. 

As the honey of the firft hive is better than the ho- 
ney collefled fo late as that in the third, the honey may 
be taken out of the of the tirft, and the third 
may be prtferved with the fame care as diredcd for 

In the month of September, the lop hive (hould be 
exaniiucd: if lull, it will be a fufficicni provilion for 
the winter; but if bght, that is, not containing 20 
pounds of honey, the more the better, then, in the 
month of October, the fifth hive (liould be taken away, 
and the hive kept in referve (hould be put upon the re- 
maining one, to liipply llie bees with abundant provi- 
llons for the winter. Nor need the owner grudge them 
this ample llurc; for ihcy are laithlul ilc wards, and 



[ 142 J 


Bee. will be pr.>;'ortionably richer and more forwanl ill the to tht empty one. Repeat the Arokes rather quick 

" ■ ■■■ ' ' than (Iroiig round the iiivc, till all the bees arc got 

out ot it, which in general will be in abcmfivc minutes. 
It is to be obfcrved, that ihe fuller the hive is of' bees, 
the fooncr they will have left it. As foon as a num- 
ber of iheni have got iiuo the empty hive, it flionld 
be raifcd a little from the full one, that the bees ni.ay 
not continue to run from the one to the other, but ra- 
ther keep afcending upon one another. 

So foon as all the bees are out of the full liivc, the 
hive in which the bees are ip.ufl be placed on the fland 
from which the other hive was taken, in order to re- 
ceive the abl'ent bees as they return from the fields. 

If this is done early in the feafon, the operator 
fhould examine the royal cells, that any of them that 

' fi>ring anil lummcr, when he will reap an abundant 
profit. The fifth hive which was taken away fhould 
be carefully prcferved duiing the winter, that it may 
be reflorcd 10 the fame Hock of bees, when an addi- 
tional hive is wanted next fummer; or the firll fwarm 
that comes off" may be put into it. The comlis in it, 
if kept free from filth and vermin, will lave much labour, 
and they will at once go to the collcding of honey. 

It is ahnoft needlefs to obfervc, tliat when the hives 
are changed, a cover, as already dircdlcd, (fee n" 23.) 
fhould be put upon every upper hive ; and that when a 
lower hive becomes an upper hive, the door of it Ihould 
be (hut up, that fo their only pallage out fliall be by 
the lower hive ; for otherwife tlie tjueen would be apt 

to lay eggs in both iiidifcriminately. The whole of have young in them may be faved, as well as the combs 

the above detail of the management of one hive may -•'---'- ' - - ' '-- '•■-'• 1— ' ■ 

be extended to any number: it may be proper to keep 
a regifter to each fet ; becaufe, in relloring hives to the 
bees, they may be better pleafed at receiving their own 
labours than that of other flocks. 

If in the autumn the owner has fome weak hives, 
which have neither provifion nor numbers fufticient for 
the winter, it is advifable to join the bees to richer 
hives : for the greater number of bees will be a mutual 
advantage to one another during the winter, and ac- 
celerate their labours much in thefpring. For this pur- 
pofe, carry a poor and a richer hive into a room, a lit- 
tle before night : then force the bees out of both hives 
into two fcparate empty hives, in a manner that lliall 
be hereafter directed : Ihake upon a cloth the bees out 
of the hive which contains the fewcfl ; fearch for the 
queen ; and as foon as you have fecured her with a fuf- 
iicient retinue, bring the other hive which contains the 

which have young bees in them, which fliould on no 
account be touched, though by fparing them a good 
deal of honey be left behind. Then take out the other 
combs with a long, broad, and pliable knife, fuch as 
the apothecaries make iife of. The lliould be 
cut from the fides and crown as clean as pofllble, to 
fave tlie future labour of the bees, who nnifl lick up 
the honey fpilt, and remove every remains of wax ; and 
then the fides of the hive fliould be fcraped with a tabic 
fpoon, to clear away what was left by the knife. Dur- 
ing the whole of this operation, the hive Ihould be 
placed inclined to the fide froni which the combs arc 
taken, that the honey which is fpilt may not daub the 
remaining combs. If fome combs were unavoidably 
taken away, in which there are young bees, the parts 
of the comb in which they are fliould be returned in- 
to the hive, and fecured by flicks in the bcft manner 
pofllble. Place the hive thcnfor fome time upright, that 

greater number, and place it on the cloth on which any remaining honey may drain out. If the combs arc 

the other bees are, with a fupport under one fide, and built in a direftion oppofite to the entrance, or at right 

with a fpoon lliovel the bees under it. They will foon angles with it, the combs which are the furthefl from 

afcend ; and, while under this imprelTion of fear, will the entrance are to be preferred ; becaufe there they 

nnite peaceably with the other bees ; whereas, had they are befl flored with honey, and have the fewefl young 

been added to thcbecs of the richer hive, while in pof- bees in them. 

feflion of their caflle, many of the new-comers muft Having thus finiflied taking the wax and honey, the 

have paid with their lives for their intrufinn. next bulinefs is to return the bees to their old hive; 

It appears from the account of the management of and for this purpofe place a table covered with a clean 

bees in Mr Wildman's hives, that there is very little cloth near the fland, and giving the hive in which the 

His method 
of taking 
the honey 
and wax. 

art wanting to caufc tlie bees to quit the hives which 
are taken away, unlefs a queen happens by chance to 
be among them. In that cafe, the fame means may be 
ufcd as are neceflTary when we would rob one of the 
common hives of part of their wealth. The method is 
as follows : 

Remove the hive from which you would take the 
wax and honey into a room, into which admit but 

bees are a fudden lliakc, at the fame time (Iriking it 
pretty forcibly, the bees will be Ihaken on the cloth. 
Put their own hive over them immediately, raifed a 
little on one fide, that the bees may the more eafily en- 
ter ; and when all are entered, place it on the ftand as 
before. If the hive in which the bees are be turned 
bottom nppermoft, and their own hive be placed over 
it, the bees will immediately afcend into it, efpecially 

little light, that it may at firfl appear to the bees as if the lower hive is ftruck on the fides to alarm 

if it was late in the evening. Gently invert the hive, them. 

placing it between the frames of a chair or other fteady As the chief objeft of the bees during the fpring 

fupport, and cover it with an empty hive, keeping that and beginning of the fummer is the propagation of their 

fide of the empty hive railed a little, which is next the kind, honey during that time is not collefted in fuch 

window, to give the bees fufiieient light to get up in- quantity as it is afterwards : and on this account it is 

to It. White you hold the empty hive fleadiiy fiip- 
ported on ihe edge of the full hive, between your fide 
and your left arm, keep flriking with the other hand 
all round the full hive from top to bottom, in the man- 
ner of beating a drum, fo that the bees may be fright- 
ened by the continued noife from all quarters; and 
itfeey will in coufequence mount out of ihe full hive in- 

fcarrely worth v^hilc to rob a hive before the latter end 
of June ; nor is it fafe to do it after the middle of 
July, lell rainy vvcatlier may prevent their refloiing 
the combs they have loll, and laying in a flock of ho- 
ney fufficienl for the winter, unlefs there is a chance 
of carrying them to a rich pafture. 

Bee is alfo ufcd figuratively to denote fweeincfs, in- 




[ H3 ] 


diiftry, &c. Thus Xenophon is called ihc Attic bee, 
on account of the great iwcetnefs of his Ityle. Anto- 
nius got the cienomination Jlle/iffa or Bee, on account of 
his colictlion of common-places. — Leo AUatius gave 
the appellation (t/>.-s tiil/a>i,e to the ilhirtrious men at 
Rome from the year 1630 to the year 1632. 

BEE's-Biead. See Bee, n" 12 par. ////. 

BEE-Eater, in zoology. See Merops. 

BEK-Flower. Sec Or hr vs. 

BEE-Clue, called by the ancients /tc/'sZ/'j, is a fuft, 
nncl'ions, glutinous matter, employed by bees to ce- 
ment the combs co the hives, and to dole up the cells. 
See Bee, n° 13. 

BEE-Hhis, See Bee, n" 19, 34, 3<). 

BEbXH-TREE, in botany. SccKagus. 

Beeui-MuJI, the fruit of the beech-tree, faid 10 be 
good tor faitcnint; hogs, deer, &c. — It has fometimes, 
even to men, proved an nfeful fubllitutc for bread. 
Chios is faid to have endured a memorable liege by 
means of it. 

Beech-O'iI, an oil drawn by expreflion from the mad 
of the beech-tree, after it has been Ihelled and pounded. 
This oil is very common in Picardy, and ufcd there 
and in other parts of France inftead of butter ; but 
mod of thofe who take a great deal of it complain of 
pains and a heavincfs in the ftomnch. 
Left, on BEEK, the rielh of black-cattle prepared for food, 
lat. Med. According to Dr Cullen f , beef, though of a more 
firm texture and lei's folnble than mutton, is equally al- 
kalcfcent, perfpirable, and nutritious : and if in the 
fouthern countries it is not cltecmed fo, it is on account 
of its imperfcdion there. 

BEELE, a kind of pick-axe, ufed by the miners 
for fcparating the ores from the rocks in which they 
lie : this inllrumcnt is called a tubbtr by the miners of 

BEER, is a fpirituous liquor made front any farina- 
ceous grain, but generally from barley. It is, pro- 
perly fpeaking, the wine of barley. The meals of any 
of thefe grains being extraifted by a fuflicient quantity 
of water, and remaining at rell in a degree of heat re- 
quillte for the fpirituous fermentation, naturally under- 
go this fermentation, and are changed into a vinous 
liquor. But as all thefe matters render the water mu- 
cilaginous, fermentation proceeds flowly and imper- 
fcftly in fuch liquors. On the otlier fide, if the quan- 
tity of farinaceous matter be fo diminilhed that its ex- 
traft or dtcoiStion may have a convenient degree of 
fluidity, this liquor will be imprcgnatcil with fo fniall 
a quantity of fermentable matter, that the beer or 
wine of the grain will be too weak, and have too liiilc 

Thefe inconveniences arc remedied by preliminary 
operations which ilie grain is made to undergo. — Thefe 
preparations confift in deeping it in cold water, that it 
may foak and fwell to a certain degree ; and in laying 
it in a heap with a fuiiablc degree of heat, by means 
of which, and of the imbibed moiihire, a gcrminatinn 
begins, which is to be doppcd by a quick dryiwg, as 
foon as the bud Ihows itfclf. To accelerate iliis drying, 
and render it more complete, the grain is llighily 
roaded, by making it pafs down an inclined canal fuf- 
ficienily heated. This germination, and this flight 
loading, changes confiderably the nature of the muci- 
laginous fermentable matter of the {^raiii. The germi- 

nation attenuates much, and in fome meafure totally 
dedroys, thevifcofity of the mucilage ; and it does this, 
when not carried 100 far, without depriving the grain 
of any of its difpofiiion to ferment. On the contrary, 
it changes the grain into a faccharinc fubdancc, as may 
be perceived by malhing grains beginning to germi- 
nate. The flight roading contributes alfo to attenuate 
the mucilaginous fermentable matter of the grain. 
When the grain is thus prepared, it is fit to be ground, 
and to impregnate water with much of its fubdancc 
without forming a glue or vifcous mafs. The grain 
thus prepared is called malt. This malt is then to be 
ground ; and all its fubdance, which is fermentable and 
loluble in water, is to be extricated by means of hot 
water. This extraa or infufion is fufliciently evapo- 
rated by boiling in caldrons ; and fome plant of an a- 
grifiablc bitiernefs, fuch as hops, is at that lime added, 
to heighten the tade of the beer, and to render it ca- 
pable of being longer prcferved. Ladly, this liquor is 
put into calks, and allowed to ferment ; nature per- 
forms the red of (he work, and is only to be affided 
by the other mod favourable circumdanccs for the fpi- 
rituous fermentation. Sec Fermentation. 

Foreigners have framed divers conjcelures to account 
for the excellency of the Britifli beer, and its fuperio- 
riiy to that of other countries, even of Bremen, Mona, 
and Rodoch. It has been pretended the brewers 
throw dead dogs flea'd into their wort, and boiled ihem 
till the rielh is all conl'umed. Others, more equitable, 
attribute tlie excellency of the beer to the quality of 
the malt and water, and the Ikill of the brewers in 
preparing it. 

So:,r beer may be redored divers ways ; as by fait 
made of the alhes of barley-draw, put into the veflol 
and dirred ; or by three or four handfuls of beech- 
alhes thrown into the veilel, and dirred ; or, where the 
liquor is not very four, by a little put into a bag, with- 
out dirring : chalk calcined, oyder fliells, egg-lhells 
burnt, fea-lhclls, crab eyes, alkalized coral, &c. do 
the fame, as they imbibe the acidity, and unite with it 
into a fwcetnefs. — Beer, it is faid, may be kept fro.-n 
turning four in dimmer, by hanging into the veflel a 
bag containing a new laid egg, pricked full of little 
pin-holes, fome laurel-berries, and a few barley-grains; 
or by a new-laid egg and walntit-tree leaves. Glauber 
commends his fal mirabile and fixed nitre, put in a 
linen, and hung on the top of the calk fo as to 
reach the liipior, not only for recovering four beer, but 
prcfcrving and ilrcngthening it. 

Laurel-berries, their Ikiu being peeled off, will keep 
beer from deadm-fs ; and beer already dead may be re- 
dored by impregnating it with fixed air. 

Beer tajtir.g of the cajk may be freed from it by put- 
ting .1 handful of wheat in a bag, and hanging it in the 

BEEROTH, a village of Judea, fituated at the 
foot of Mount Galuon, fcven miles from ^tlia or Jc- 
rufalcm, on the road to Nicopolis (Jerome). 

BEER-SHEBA (Mofes), a cuy to the fouih of 
the tribe of Judah, adjoining to Idumea (Jofcphus). 
See Bersabe. 

BEESTINGS, or Breastincs, a term ufcd by 
country-people for the fird milk taken from a cow af- 
ter calving. — The beedings are of a thick confidence, 
and yellow colour, fccming impregnated with fulphur. 



[ 144 ] 


Beet Dr Morgan imagines ihcm pfculiarly fitrcd and intend- 
1" cd l>y naciirc to clcanfc the youiif; animal from the rc- 
lU^l' ^ fhtg- crcmenis gatlurcd in its floniscii and intcftincs during 
^ " its long lialiitation //; r//cr9. The like quality and vir- 
tue he I'lipjiDfcs in womcnslird niili< after dcl'ivery ; and 
hence infers the ncccflity of the mother's fickiing her 
own child, rather than committing it to a nurfc whofc 
tirft milk is gone. 

BEKT, in botany. Sec Beta. 

BEETLE, in the hillory of infers. See Scara- 
bs us, 

Beetle alfo denotes a wooden inflnimcnt for dri- 
ving piles, &c. It is likewifc called i/lam/>er, and by 
piviors a niuituer. 

BEEVES, a general name for oxen. Sec Bos. 

BEKORT, a fmall biu Arong town of France, and 
capital of Sunigaw in Alface. It was ceded to France 
by the treaty of Weflphalia in 164S. There are not 
above 100 hoiifcs in this town, but it is important on 
account of the great road by this place from Franche 
Compte. The fortifications were greatly augmented 
by Lonis XIV. It is feated at the foot of a mountain. 
E. Long. 6. 2. N. Lat. 47. ?8. 

BEG, or Bey, in the Tnrkilli affairs. See Bey. 

Beg is more particularly applied to the lord of a 
banner, called alfo in the fame language faiigiak-beg. 
A beg has the command of a certain number of the 
fpahis, or horfe, maintained by the province under 
the denomination of timaiiot!. All the begs of a pro- 
vince obey one governor-general called b:glcr-bcg, or 
hcykr-bcg, q. d. lord of lords, or of the beys of the 

Begs, or Bechs, of Egypt, denote twelve generals, 
who have the command of the militia or (landing for- 
ces of the kingdom ; and are to fecurc tlie country froni 
the infults of Arabs, as well as to protert the pilgrims 
in their annual expeditions to Mecca. The begs, feve- 
ral of whom are defcended from the ancient raceof the 
Manialukes, arc very rich and powerful, maintaining 
each 500 fighting men fortheir own guard, and thefer- 
vicc of their court. On difcontenis, they have fre- 
quently rifcn in rebellion. They are often at variance 
with the balhaw, whom they have more than once 
phmJered and imprifoned. 

BEGA (Cornelius), painter of landfcape, cattle, 
and converfations, was born at Haerlem in 1620, and 
was the difciple of Adrian Oftade. Failing into a 
diilipated way of life, he was diliiiherited by his fa- 
ther : for which rcafon he cad off his father's name, 
which was Begyn, and afT.imed that of Bega ; his 
early pictures being marked with the former, and his 
latter works with the other. He had a fine pencil, 
and a delicate manner of handling his colours, fo as 
to give them a look of ncatnefs and iranfparence ; and 
his performances are fo much eHccnied in the Low 
Countries as to be placed among the works of the bell 
artifts. He took the plague from a woman with whom 
he was deeply enamoured ; and he Ihowed fo much 
fnicerity of affeflion, that, notwithilanding the expo- 
ftnlations of all his friends and phyficians, he would 
attend her to the latcll moments of her life, and died 
a few days after, aged 44. 

BEGHARDS. See Beguards. 

BEGLER.BEG, a governor of one of the princi- 
pal governments in the Turkilh empire, and next in 

dignity of the grand Tiz.ier. To every bcblcrbeg tl.e Utguardt, 
grand fignior gives three enfigns or ftaves, trimmed Bcguiuei. 
with a horfc-tail ; 10 diflinguUh them from the ba ' ''~~' 
fliaws, who have but two ; and from llmplc begs, or 
fangiac begs, who have but one. 

The province or government of beglerbeg is called 
b:gl.rbcglik, or biglicibiglik. Thcfe arc two forts; 
the firft called bajicl hcgterbeglik, \\h ch have a certain 
rent afligncd out of the cities, countries, and liguiorics 
allotted to the piincipality ; the fecond called fuUaua 
bcgterkeglik, for maintenance of which is annexed a fa- 
lary or rent, coUtclcd by the grand lignior's olHcers 
will) the ireafure. of the empire. The l)cglerbcgs of the 
firll fort are in number 22, viz. thofe of Anatolia, Ca- 
ramania, Diarbekir, Damafcus, Aleppo, Tripoli, Tre- 
bizond, Biida, Tcmifwar, &c. The beglerhegs of the 
fecond fort are in number fix, viz. thofe of Cairo, Ba- 
bylon, &c. Five of the bcglerbcgs have the title of 
viziers, viz. thofe of Anatolia, Babjlon, Cairo, Ro- 
mania, and Buda. 

The bcglerbcgs appear with great ftate, and a large 
retinue, cfpecially in the camp, being obliged to bring 
a foldier for every 5000 afpers of rent which they en- 
joy. Thofe of Romania brought io,oco cffeclive men 
into the field. 

The bcglerbcgs arc become almofl independent, and 
have under their jurifdiclion fcvcral fangiacs or parti- 
cular governments, and begs, agas, and other officers 
who obey them. 

BEGUARDS, or Beghards, religious of the 
third order of St Francis in Flanders. They were c- 
flablilhed at Antwerp in the year 1228, and took St 
Begghc for their paironefs, whence they had their name. 
From their firll inflitution they employed themfelvcs 
in making linen cloth, each fupporting himfclf by his 
own labour, and united only by the bonds of charity, 
without having any particular rule. But, when Pope 
Nicholas IV. had confirmed that of the third order of St 
Francis in 12S9, they embraced it the year following. 
They were greatly favoured by the Dukes of Brabant, 
particularly John II. and John III. who exempted 
them from all contributions and taxes. In the year 
1425, they began to live in common, and made folcnin 
vows in 1467, after having taken the habit of the Ter- 
ciaries (or religious of the third order of St Francis) 
of Liege. At lafl, in 1472 they became fubjeit to 
the general of the congregation of Zeppercn in the 
diocefe of Liege, to which they were luiited by Pope 
Sixtus IV. As the convent of Antwerp is lince be- 
come very confiderable, the name ai Beguards has been 
given to all the other religions of the fame congrega- 
tion. But, in 1650, Pope Innocent X. having fup- 
prefled the general of the congregation of Zeppercn, 
all tlie convents of the third order of St Francis, in 
the diocefes of Liege, Malincs, and Antw'erp, were 
fubmitted to the vifitation, jurifdiftion, and corredlion, 
of the general of Italy, and creeled into a province, 
under the title of the province of Flanders. This pro- 
vince has at prefent 10 or 12 convents, the principal 
of which are thofe of Antwerp, BrulTels, Maeflrici)t, 
and Louvain. 

BEGUINES, a congregation of religious or nuns 
founded either by St Begghc, founder likcwife of the 
Beguards, or by Lambert le Begue ; of whom the 
former died about the end of the fcventh century, the 


B E H 

C 145 ] 

B E H 

Begulncs, latter about the end of the I2th. They were eftahlidied 
IJcheading. firfl at Liege, and afterwards at Neville, in 1207 ; and 
"^ >'— — ' from this lall fcttlemcrt fprang the great number of 
Begiiinages, which are fpread over all Flanders, and 
which have palfed from Flanders into Germany. In 
the latter country, fonieof thefe religious fell into ex- 
travagant errors, perfuading themfclves that it was pof- 
lible, in the prefcnt life, to arrive at the highclt per- 
fection, even to impeccability, and a clear view of 
God ; in (hort, to fo eminent a degree of contemplation, 
that there was no necelTuy, after this, either to obfcrve 
the fafts of the church, or fubmit to the dircclion and 
laws of mortal men. The council of Vienna, in 1113, 
condemned thefe errors, and aboliflied the order of 
Beguines; permitting, neverihclefs,thofe among them, 
who continued in the true faith, to live in chafliiy and 
penitence, cither with or without vows. It is by fa- 
vour of this latter claufe, that there flill fublifl (b many 
communities of Beguines in Flanders j who, Inice the 
council of Vienna, have condut'lcd thcmfelves with Co 
much wifdom and piety, the Pope John XXII. by his 
decretal, which explains that of his prcdeceifor made 
in the council of V^ienna, took them under his protec- 
tion ; and Boniface VIII. in another, exempted them 
from the fecular tribunal, and put them under the ju- 
rifdiclion of the bilhops. 

There is fcarcc a town in the Low-Countries, in 
which there is not a fociety of Beguines; and, not- 
withflanding the change of religion at Amfterdam, 
there is a very flourilliing one in that cily. Thefe fo- 
cicties confid of feveral houfes placed together in one 
inclofure, with one or more churches, according to 
the number of Beguines. There is in every houfe a