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ENCYCLOPEDIA PERTHENSIS; 



UNIVERSAL DICTIONARY 



ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE, $c. 



iHTixsiD to ronuiDE 



THE USE OF OTHER BOOKS OF REFERENCE. 



THREE BVNDSED AND SEVENTY PLATES AND MAPS. 

SECOND EDITION, 
IN TWENTY-THREE VOLUMES. 



VOLUME XVII. 



EDINBURGH: ""•'•■ 

MINIM IT JOB* MOW*, AHCHOB CLOH, 

FOR THE PROPRIETORS, 
AKD SOLD BY ALL THE BOOKSELLERS IN THE UNITED EINODOM. 



1816. . Da dvVjQOCJ 



a j, Google 



(1 



ENCYCIiOP^EDJA PERTHE^fSIS. 



FAR ''■■;'".,?. A Jt 

•; parafUlt, >Mtb«f>-*TllOtt IWgnttM bfote, H „ 

e direction, find thy ttratiel, go to hell. Smd.— 



ii.)* pARALLEL. ^.-t*>r****»*>; paraJUei aMtbch^Thott ungrateful brute, tf tboa wttuktt 

r Fr.] i. Extended in the fame directiori, find thy **ratitl, ga to bell. Smd.— 
wdprefCT»itifi slwaystrieftmedifUnce.— piftom ■" ItMe but tr^fckfcah bethy^a™J&/. JV- 



fcrg Ac oroer and theory of catifea, he rjriwi tbtetn -"'[ tij^SaRALLat', . *» geometry. Sen Gjom» 

aMe onto thing* whereto fhey ran parallel, »nd TKT. 

their proper motion* would never meet 'together. (*:}•?** 4t til- Aat4>ino. i Sec N*»u3»TifiS, 

B^i. *. Having tte faThe 1 tendenrj.— When JWrH. ■&». H.j § M— §o*. 

honour rani fatattel with the*Uwi J of God and • ([tv) htHHi. Seniii, that ntuMloo' of the 

our country, it cahoot be loo. 1 tnueh erterifSvd, fptor* wherein the equator cotocide* with the 

AJ£fi*. }• Continuing the refrrribiahce thrWfgfi horlaoo, and the pole* with the Kiith wd n»- 

many particulars-, equal;' like. —The foundation -dip. ■ - >'-' " 

principle of peripatetici fm is exactly pa'rjflfej ta - (*i)*\t(.*UE«,* OF AtTiruol, or Alhucin* 

an acknowledged nothing. Ghnmil/e.—l ftrarl ob- fJklUt are circle* parallel to the boriton, imagined. 

t'rre fomething pat'aiftt to fife Wooing and Wed- to paft through »rery degree and minute of the 

dine fait in the behaviour of perfbni of fignre. ineridi«Ti brtsvwn 'the horizon and zenith, bating 

Ajjifo*.— In the parallel place before quoted, their pole* in the zenith. 

Lr/lty.— -Compare the word* and phratet m 6m • 'ff>) Paa.an.iLi or DitLt nation, in aftro* 

place of an author with the fame in. other place* nomy, are the fame with parallel) of latitude hi 

of the fame author, which are generally called -geography, ■■ 

parallel places. (Vatu. • ((.) PjIUllili ot LtTlTurn, in aftrgnomy, 

(i.) * Pasallel. h. / [from the adjective.] i. areWftt ohcle* of the fpfeere parallel to the eclip- 

Line continuing it* courfe, and fttH remaining ttt «ic, Imagined to ptft through etery degree and 

the time diftance from another Fme. — ■ ' -minute of the col U re*. - ■• 

Who made the fpfder parallel! defrgn, ■•"■■ * Te PAtALCrt. v. «. [from the noun,} f. 

Sure aa De Moivrc, without rule or line ? Pope. -To-ptfece> fo a* always, to keep the fame direction 

3. Line on the globe marking the latitude, t. -wink' another line,— The a«ore» having a middle 
Direction conformable to that of another line.— flmtiofl between- theft continent* and that vaft 

— Linea, that from their parallel decline,' -tnt\ of America/ the needle feemeth equally dif- 

More they proceed, the more they ftitl disjoin, tittered by both, and diverting unto neither, doth 

Garth, parallel 'and place itfelf upon the true meridian. 

4. RefembUnce j conformity continued ttironrgli Brown. '«. To keep m the fame direction; to 
many particulars ; likenef*.— level. — The loyat Aiffererl abroad became fubjec- 

Sbe lights her torch, at their'i to tell* ted to the worft- efleA of banifhmcni, and even 

And fhew the world \b\tparelU. Dtnfiam. there expelled; fa pttruXeUng In their etflgencie* 

'Twixt earthly female* and the moon, the moft immediate objects of that nMowtr* toey. 

All parallth exaftly run. Stbift. RU.-~ '--..■ 

{Comparifon made.— The parallel hotda'intbe . His life \% pmratUiU 

[ainlelandi, a* well a* laSbrioui'neft of the work. Sv'n with the ftrrfke and line of hit great jut 

DttajafPietg. — Comparing'and drawing a parol- tine. Shalt- 

III between his own private charafteis, end %h*t of - 3. To corTefpoDd" to.— That he ftretcned Owlthe 

Mltrr uerfoni. AAGfen. 6. Any thiog cefemhling north orer the empty PiW". beaut to ftrtUlel 

tol,jc:vil run. ^ a ( IooqIc 4l * 



PAR, ( « ), PAR 

tile eipitlfion of David, he ftretched out the (*.) pA.RAr,ncisM, in logic, ilfo implies » eon- 

carth upon the waters. Burnet. a. To be equal tequence drawn from principle* that are fa I ft ; 

to; to rcfemble through many particulars.— In or, though true, are not proved • or when a pro- 
file fire, the deftruftion was fo fwift, fudden, raft pofition it pafled over that fhoiild have been pro- 

and miferable at nothing can parallel in ftory. fed. 

Drydrn. .<. To compare. — I parallefd more than To Paralogize, v. n. To argue fopbiftically. 

once our idea of fubftanca, wirh the Indian phi- 4fa 

lofopher'i he. knew- not- what, which fupported the * PARALOGY, it. f. Falfe reafoo tng.— That 

tortoife. Lake. Metbufeiah was the longed liver of all the poftc- 

* PARALLELISM, n. /. [f-aralhlifme, Fr. riiy of Adam, we quietly believe] but that be 

from parallel.} State of b^ing parallel. — The pa- muft needs be fo, it perhaps below paralogy to 

rallrU/im and due proportionated inclination of the deny. Brown. 

axis of the earth. Mere.— Speaking of the parotic- (i.) * PARALYSIS. r>a t «v,«f ; paralyse, Fr.] 

Bfin of the axis of the earth, I demand, whether A paffy. 

it be better to have the axia of the earth Heady, (a.) Paralysis. See Medicine, Index. 

and perpetually parallel to itfeW, or to have it * PARALYTICAL. ) adj. [from paralyji : pa. 

carelefaly tumble. ihia way aid that way.' Jtaty en * PARALYTJCK. $ rvlgtiqmt, Fr.] Pained ; 

Ite Creation. Inclined to palfj^— ' 

•PARALLELOGRAM, n. /. [nruuif- and Nought fhall it profit, that the charming 

yt'u/i*i parallelograme,Vr.'\ In geometry, a right __ fair, 

lined quadrilateral figure, whofe oppoftte fidea ' Ana> lw ,ftfl>B~woiEof heav'n, drawa near 

are parallel, and equal. Harrii. — The experiment To the cold (baking paralytic* hand, , 

we made in a loadftone of a parallelogram, or Senfelefs of beauty. Prior. 

long figure, wherein only inverting the extremes —If a nerve be cut or ftreightly bound, that goes 
at it came out of the fire, we altered the poles, to any mufcle, that mufcle lhall immediately lofe 
Brauvj.— We may have a clear idea of the area ita motion : which it tbe^afe oiparalgticks. /)«-■ 
of a parallelogram, without Vnowiflg what rela- ham. — The difficulties of breathing and i wallow- 
■ion it bean to the area of a triangle. WatfvLe- ing, without any tumour, after long, di feats, pro - 
g"&. .... ' '. L oe *d commonly from a refolution or paralaticai 

••PARALLELOORAMICAL. adj. [from pa- tfUpoGtion of the parti: Arbuihnat. 
rmlUlaOVm.} Ha ring ri« proyerties of aipartllel- . PARAMABIRO, T or P4p.amai.amha, the 
ogram. \' . PARAMARIBO, J capital of Suuhak, it 

* PARALLELOPIPBLX, *. /, [frwn parvUtlo- fiated on the W|, bank'of the Surinam,' about ig 
fiptde, Fr.] A folid figure contained under fix anile* from tncJep coait, anc" hat a.good harbour, 
parallelogram*,- the oppofttea of. which nveec .■.-*..-, 

and parallel! or it ita pritm, whofe bale tin 

ralletoRram; it ia alwayt triple to a pyramid _ .... . T _.. 

the fame bale and height. Harrii.— Two priimt maris d trees. " It is^the rendezvous of all the Eu- 
alike in (hape I tied fo, that, their axea and oppo. ropean traders. .. .'. . 
lite fides being parallel, they <mmpofcd a paraU- PAftAMATTY, a town of Indoftan, in the 
tlopipei. Newton'* QpthJtA— Malt that hold Carnatic about .ionHwlet W. of toveriporum. 
toad are yellqwift, and of a-wbip-Of parmmm/mprnJ PARA ME CI A, r u natural hiftory, a name g!- 
figure. Woodward. ven to fuch animalcule), at have no'viGble limbs 

. ftARALLELOPIPBOIA. in. the oM minaralo .or. tails, and are' of an irregularly oblong fj. 
iy,a,geo«offlaara, externally, of * determinate gure. 

and regular figure, alwayt found loot* deuc bed, (1.) • PARAMETER. »./■ The htiu rectum 
and separate from tV otter bodies, and in farm of a parabola, it a third proportional to the ab- 
-of an oblique parallelepiped, with iix ptoallelo- firifTa and any ordinate; fo that the fquarc'of the 
$ran> fides and I folid angle) j. eafily fifSle either «rdinate it alwayt equa.1 to the reel angle under 
in an horizontal or perpendicular dirrAion | bt- the parameter and abfciffa : hut in the ellipus 
mgcompouriofnumb»a«ftn)aptate*,and thole and hyperbola, it baa a different proportion. 
very elegantly, and regularly asnUfted bodiea, JkarrU. 

each- of the fame form with the whote ma ft, en- {%,) Paiamhtk*. See Conic Sections, ln- 
cep^lhat.tbey.ar« thinner ifl: twoportkm to tboir Jtx. 

fionaoaUl planet, and «aturaHy. fall into thefc and PARAMO) Lewi) De, a SpaniOi inquifttor, 
no other figures, on being broken with a flight who publtihed at Madrid, in rroS, a curioua 
Wow. work upon the tribunal called Thr Halo Office. He 

(I.) * PARALOGISM n.f. [»*jnx»yi»>«r ; ^o- writet with candour, omiti no fad, but enume- 
■ raloxifme, Fr.] A falfe argument.— That becauJe rates impartially all the viflims of the bloody In- 
they haf e rreta bfeddtr of gall, likethofc weob- quifition. 

ferveiflotbera, they have no gall at all, ia a pom- fi.) * PARAMOUNT, adj. iptr and mam.] 
f%i/m not admittibte.. Are**— Modem writer*, 1. Snperiour ; baring the bigbeft juriidiaion : aa 
making the drachma left than the denarius, others lord paramount, the chief of the feigniory : with 
equal, have been -droeived by a double paralogi/m. to.— Leagues within the ftite are ever pernicious 
Jriw*nr.-H a fyllogifln agree with tb> aulet to monarchies ; for they raife an obligation, pa- 
given for the con ft ruction of it, it it nailed a true rmmuaU (* obligation of fovereigoty. Baton.— The 
afgatmentrif it dtfagree ^ilh tbde rulcsit i>a dogmatift's opinioned affurance 11 paramount to 
por+kpfm, ot-falfe argumaot -BJatlf- argument. GlaaviHe.— If all power be derived 

from, 

w'«"»Google 



et of. vahicb Meequal with a.churchcB,' 1 Jewiffi fynacogues, anil about 
m» whole bale ia a pa- .1400 boufea. _ The ftreeis are^ltralght and oma- 
triple to a pyramid of mented on eaot 1 fide; with orange, lemon, and ta- 



'PA =R 



PAR ( ' 8 ) 

from Adam* 6r divine inftftution, this ia a right they draw figure* according to their art. PAHifi' 
antecedent art! paramount to all government. -—Our "forefather-, obfemqg the coutfe of the 
Ls<kc. — Mankind, teeing t be apoftlea poflVffed'of fun, and marking certain mutations to happen 
x power plainly paramount to the powers of all in hi*" progrefi through the zodiac* ftt them 
the known beings, whether anjrehr or dairnons, down in their parapegrm or aftron o micalicanon %. 
could not queftion their being infplred by God. Brown. ' 

Weft. %. Eminent; of the higheft order.— John ft.) • PARAPET.- »./. [parapet, Br. parapeHo, 
a Chamber was hanged upon a gibbet railed, a -Italian.] A 'wall fareaft- high.— There- was a wall 
Rage higher in the midft of a fquare gallows, as -a or parapet, of teeth fet in our mouth to reft rail] the 
traitor par, i mount. Bacon. petulancy of t>ur words. Ben Jan/on. 

dO •Paramount. »./ The chief.— (s.) -Parap>t. in fortification, an elevation of 

' In order came the grand infernal peers, 
'Midft them their mighty paramount. Milton. 
().) Paramount, in Engtiff) law, the " high- 
clt lord of the fee of lands, of tenements, and he- 
reditaments." As there may be a lord inefne _..._. 
where lands arc held of an inferior lord,- who holds Fikir«itmni, 
them of a fuperier under tertain fervicei ; fo this 
superior lord is lord paramount. Alfo the king is 
the chief lord, or lord paramount of all the-iandt 
iu the kingdom. Car- Lit. I. 

* PARAMOUR. ». / [par and amour, Fr.] I. 
A lover or wooer. — • 

A lovely bevy of fair ladies fat, 
Courted of many a jolly paramour, 
The which them did in modeflwife amate. 

Spenfir. 
No feafoo then for her 
To wanton with the fun, tier lufty paramour. 



earth defigned for covering the foldier* from t be 

enemy's cannon or fmall (hot. Sec Fortific.v 

tioh. - ■ 

PARAPHERNA. See PaaavHEKMAMa. 

PARAPHERNAL, adj. Of or belonging to the 

.... ..>,....*.. » the wife** peculiar proper- 

- (i.) * PARAPHERNALIA. «./. [Latin, fa. 
rapbentaux, Fr.] Goods in the wife's difpofiu. 

(a.) Paa.arniiiiUi.iA, in the civil law, -See 
Law, Part in, Chop. 1, SeB. V, ■§ gi 

( i. )• PARAPHIMOSIS. «./ [TMfH.fimr.fipa. 
fapbimeji, Fr.) A difealc when the pneputium 
qannot be drawn over the glam. 

(v) Paraphimosis. See Paraphimosis. 

PARAPHONIA. See Mbdicine, Index. 

(i.) ' PARAPHRASE. n.f. t««*r c«»w ; pan- 
phrafc, Fr.] A loofe interpretation ; anexplan*. 



*. A miftreft. It il obfolete i 
though oof inelegant or unmufical. 
Shall I believe 

That unfubftatrtial death is amorous, 

And that the lean abhorred mqnfter keep* 

Thee here in dark to be his paramour t Shah. 

(i.)PARANA, a large riser of Brazil, which 
rife! in about Lat. ig° S. runs a long coorfe, and 
joins the Paraguay, in Lat. 38° S. Sec Pa a a- 
guat, N° a. 

(a.) Parana, a province of Brazil! in Para- 
guay, fo named from the above river. 1 See Pa- 
raguay, N° i. St Anne is the capital. 

PARANTES, a town of France, rnthe-nepart-' 
mem of the Landee; 33 mile* N. of Tarua. 

(1.) •PARANYMPH. «./. [«.(« arid «m* 



Milton, Hon in many word*-— All the law* of nations were 
both fenfes, bat a paraphrafe upon this Sanding *"" 



_ rectitude of 
nature^ Soutb.-^-ln parapbraft, or trail flat ion with 
latitude, the author** word* are not fo ftrictly fol- 
lowed ashia fertfr. Drjdem. ' 

(>.) A Paaaphrais 11 an explanation of fome 
paffkg* in clearer and mare ample terms. 

* To PlRAPHtAiif v. a. \parapbrafer, Fr, 
mtfiVfBfth] To interpret with laxity of ezpreffion : 
to tntnOate loofely.— We are put to coottrue and 
paraphrafe our own words. StiUingfieet. 

What need* we paraphrafe on what we-mean I 

We were at worft bat wanton j he'a obfeonc. 

Brgdem, 

—Where tran nation ia hrrpraAioaUe, they may 
' tfi. — But it ia intolerable, that, under a 



the bride ti 



_ . , . , pretence' of parophrqjmx and-tranBatiog, a way 

Fr.] 1. A brideman ; one who leads fliontd be f offered of treating authors to a man ifeft 



> her marriage. 

The Timoian bride 
Had not fofoon preferr'd ' 

Thy paranjmph, .... 

s. One who countenance* or fnpportt another.— 
Sin hath got a paranjmpb and a Iblicilor, a war- 
rant and an advocate. Taylor. 
(1.) Paranvmph, among the ancient*, the per- 



drtadvantlge. Feltoa. 

* PARAPHRA8T. n. f. {parapbrofte, French f 
**f"»f«v«.l A las interpreter ; one who explain* 
in many wuda.— The fitted for public audience- 
are fuch, a* following a middle courie between 
the rigour of literal tranflators and the liberty of 
pampirajtiy do, with great fliortnefi and plain-. 
nefa deliver the meaning. Hooker .—Too Chaldean 



fon who waited on the bridegroom, and directed parapbraft render* Oerah by Meath. Arbutbnot. 

the nuptial folemnitiet; called a»b fronuim, and ■ * PARAPHRASTIC AL. > adj. Itromfana- 

aufprx, becar.fr the cereqapniet began by taking ■ * PARAPHRASTICKj J P^"/'-\ Lax in in- 

aulpicia. A* the paranymph officiated only in terptetation t notliturali not verbal. > 

tbe part of the bridegroom, a woman called pro- (i.)*PARAPHRBN1TIS. n.f. t««f» and *>f »»- 

hub a officiated on the part of the bride, t>i ( parapbrnejle, ¥tebeh.]-~ParapbrtMitri is an 

* PARAPEGM. n.f. {wKemrwy/un **f" r *r—'r"'] inflammation of the diaphragm.. Tue iynaptonia. 

A brazen table fixed to a pillar, on Which law* area violent- fever, a'nofi exquitite pain, irxreared 

and proclamation* were ancientry engraved :«lfo upon inspiration, by-whfcbit i*diftinguith*dfrom 

a table let up publicly,' containing an account of a,pleiirify,' in which the greMeft pain iion cxpira- 

the riling and fetting of ftar*, eclipfes of the-fdn tion. Areuiknot.. .,'.., 

and moon, the feafont of the year, &c. whence (1.) Pa rap m kin it i*. See DiariMApM, and 

jnrolugers give this name to tbe tables or which Medicim e, Index. 

-Aj„ d .GoolW*- 

1 



•PfA.lt " ( ,4 ) t, A R 

PARAPrBlOSyNE, a^word ufcd by medical lag a kind of prwfti.it leaR minilfer*, of the rod* 

writen to denote a delirium, or u alienation of in the lame manner u the epulodM were it Rome, 

mind in inert, or from whatever other caufe. They took care of the facred . com, or the ami 

PARAPHYM0S1S, a diibrder of the pent*, deftiaed for. the fervice of the lemplei and the 

wherein the prepuce i* fliruiik, and withdrawn god*, .vis, tacrilices, feafta, &c. They had even 

behind the giant, fo at not to be capable of being .the latcndance brer Ctcriocei ; and too* care that 

brought to cover the fame ( which gefterally hap- ther were duly performed. At Athens there wii 

pen* in venereal diforden. See Msdicih* and a kind of college of as parafites ; each people of 

•uHGtitv, Indatts. ' Attica furaiihing one, who was alwaya chofoi 

PARAPLEGIA. fee Mawciss, /*&». out of the belt families. Polybiua addt, that i 

OO * PARAQUETQ- * /• A link parrot. parafite was alfo as honoorable title among the 

(».) PaaaQUETO. SeeFiiTTACUS.' ancieot Gaull, and was given- to their poets. But 

PARARA. n.f. an Anglo- America a word, ufed of late it haa been ufeil as a term of reproach. 

In the Northern United States, forwhat iacalledin (s-JpAaas-ms, or Pasasitic*l Plants, in 

the Southern Statra, a 8*VANH»n,i.<r.an estenfivc botany, fuch plants as ait produced out of the 

rich plain, without trees, but covered with graft, trunk or branches of other plants, from whence 

Some of theft are 40 mile* broad, and feverai they recti** their, nourilhment, and will not grow 

hundred miles long ; and exhibit fine prolpt fls. - on the ground. Such. are the mifletoe, &c 

<i.)* PARASANO. n.f.[finrafioiga-] A Per- • PARASITICAL. J adj. [farafitiqm, French; 

Ban meafurc of length,— Since the mind ia not . • PARASlTlCK. J from parajiu.) Flattering 1 

able to Annie the idea of «iy fpaca without parts, wheedling. — The bifbop received fin all thanks fnr 

inllead thereof it. makes ufe of the common me*, his parajitUk prefentation, BatotoU/,— Some para- 

fores, which, by familiar ute, ia each country, jfrici preachers have dared to call thole martyrs, 

have imprinted thcm<el*ea..on the memory ( aa who died fighting again ft me. King Ckarlti. 

inches and feet, or' cubits and parafann. Loth*. ' * PARASOL. * / A final] canopy or umbrella 

(a.) Tit PiaaiAHG ia an ancient meafare, dif- carried over the bead to fhelter from rain and the 

feringat different times, and in onflerentplacesj heat of the fun. Bi8. 

being ufu..l|y 30, fometimes 40, -and fometimes PARASTATiE, in anatomy. SeeAwiTOMV, 

50 ftadie, or furiongs. The word, aacording to N° 111. 

Iktleton, bat its rife tram. parish angaria, 3- <*> * PAR ASYNEXIS. n.f. In the civil law, a con- 

, the fpace a poft-ntan ride*.. from o«c ftaiion* ant* venticle or unlawful meeting. Di8. 

garb, to another. ' PARATALASSIA. See PaiMoe.ii. 

PARA3AOLI, a town of Indoftan, in Jyeaa- PARAY, a town of France, in the dep. of the 

guri it miles NNE..of Jffpou, aijdSs W. of Saone and Loire, near the Boutbince t 6 miles W. 

Agra. ..,/.. of Cbarolles, and i6\ ESE. of Bourbon Lsncy. 

PARASCENIUM, iq tVlf Grecian apd, Roman . * To PARBOIL, v. a. farbomMtr, French.} 

theatre*, was a place behind the (ccaea whither Tohalfboil; to boil impart. — Parboil two Urge 

the adort withdrew .tttdref* and undrtf* them- capon* upon aloft fire. Baevt.— 

fclvet. The Romans more 'frequently, called it Prom the fea into the (hip we turn, 

PotTSCBNivM. See.THa.ATRs. , , Like parbaiPd wretches, on the coals to bum. 

PARASELENE, in natural phi lotbphy, a mock' Donne. 

moon ; a meteor ox phcaomeDon encompaffiog Like the (cum ftarved men did draw 

Or adjacent to the moon, in form of a luminous From parboil' d Qioet and boon. Domu. 

ring ; wherein are observed fometimes one and. * * PARBREAK. «. /. [from the verb.] Vomit, 

and feme timet two or more image* of the moon. ■ Obfolete.— , , 

PARASEMON, [n^wj^n,] among the Greek*, ■ Her filthy parbrtoi all the place denied has. 

was the figure carved on the prow of toe [hip* to Spee/tr. 

diftingniOi them from each other. This figure, * 3"s Paribus:, v. a. [breii<r, Dutch.] To 

was 'generally that of s bull) lion, or other am- vomit. Obfolete. 

Dial; fometimes the reprefentatioo of a moon- PARBUNCLE. *. / in a fhip, a rope aunoft 

tain, tree. Bower, &c. * like a pair of flings ; it is feized both ends roge- 

PAR ARIA, a country lying B. of Media. ther, and then put aim-oft double about any heavy 

(r.) • PARASITE. ■*-/> [pirqjiu,$r,para/ita, thing that i* to be hoiited in or out of the (hip: 

Latin.] One that frequent* rich -tables, and can* having t he-hook of the runner hitched into it, to 

his welcome by flattery, , boift it up by.' 

He isa flatterer, PAJRC^r iq heathen mythology, godefTe* who 

A parajte, a keeper' baek of death. Shot, were Aippoled to preude over the accidents and 

MoB fmiling) fmootb, dctefted par*JHa 4 , events, and fo determine the, date, or period of 

Courteous deftroycrs, aflIb(o wolves. Shai. human life- The Pares; were three, Clot no, 

—Drag enes, when mice came about him, as he Lack bsis, and ATaoros. They ipon the thread 

was eating* laid, I fee that even, Dinfcne* nan. of men's lives ^ Clotho held the tiifulT and drew 

nOteih. parajhei. Sarmi-^r the [bread ; Laehefis twirled Hit fpijidle, and fpun 

Thosh with trembling fear, , it 1. and Atoopo* cut it. The ancients reprefent 

Or. like afawning fmtt)/tit,iOhtj'd. MUom- the Parcss diver* way*: Lucian, in the inapt- of 

The people fwent not for their king's delight, three poor old women, having large locks of wool, 

1" enrich a pimp, or raise a paraJUt. Drgdtn. mixed with daffodils on their head*. Others re- 

(a.) PAjtAsiT*, among the nncsent Greeks, was present Clotho in a long robe of .divers colours, 

cigioallya very reputable title; the parafite* be- wearing s crown upon her head adorned with fe- 

,„,,. a , Google "* 



P: A It < $ ) P A ;K 

ten ftara, Laeocfia in a tobc befot with flat*, and holdimi or occWpyina; of Utfd bTrncMperfbiii>r» 

Atrcpoa, cbd is bUcfc, The aotitbU ifrragihed imdHifa, or by joint tenant*, olherwife called co- 

tbat the 'Pare* mfcd white wool for B long- sod ,jWce»er*. Catrtf. 

happy life, and black- tor a (bortaad nribnuMk -ft.)" r*PARC«.»-«. [from nfiwd», fayaju- 

ooe. See NiCiiJitY„J 4. mhi from ftrnqm, fnya&bn*"-; ntitherot Iftnn 

PAKCA8, a town of Turkey, in Walaabia. .feem -fatlancd with their conjecture : pertiapa from 

PARCAY, a town of France, in the dep. of pww/rar, burnt, lofrrn*, toparcbi peThapetrora 

Mrnne and Loire DamiteaSB. of Bauge, and i 3 t aentfmwnt, tbeeffeetof fire upon -parchment «- 

NE Of 'SauTiiur. ■ ■ iog ahdoft proverbiali; To bum Ibghtiy aild At- 

P biLCE, l*o town* of France'.- 1 ; ro the dcp. rWriciaUy i to fcorCh t tb dry up.— 

of lilcand Vilaine; + mile* B. of Pongettea; a, in _ "J , Hath thy fiery heai\foaa*cta thine cntraUt, 

that ot Saiu,-anulM S. rfflablf, and it *W. of - That not a-tear can fiUf ■, . .. sm. 

Hatter ,-•■■>■.* - ■ ' Did he fo often lodge in open field 

* PARCEL, a./ [parttlle, French) partititla, : hi waiter" 1 cold, and tumnur'* parching beat, 
Lat.)"!** fnw)k.bjan>Mc. a. A part *f the whole; To conquer Prance ? . - ****. 
part taken aen«n«tcrt<-* ■ ! ■ »■ Torrid neat, ' 

Women, Silrrna, had tne? ranrkM him ' . And repauri aa the Libyan air adult, 

In fmrrtit, aa I dad,- would ltaw gone near - Began to*>n*tbat temp'ratc chine. Miltv*. 

To fall in lore with him. Shak. I'mftupify'd with barrow, pa*, relief 

1 drew from her a prayer of earoeft heart, ' Of teart; *ar*£Vup and witherM with my grief. : 

That I would all my pilgimage teb4*| ■ ■ ■>■> iitydtn. 

Whereof by fared* the had fometfcrag beard, ' -+-Withoot tbta circular motion of our earth, one 

But not elinanctively. • Ska*, nenrifpoere would he condemned to perpetual 

An inventory tbna importing cuid and darktiefs, the other continually roaked 

The fereral fmttii of bia {date. S&tk, •mAfmtbtd by the fun-bcatna. fey,— 

— With what taorcoukl fact a great man have Thegrontid below npareb'd, the hear'nt » 

begged fneb a pmrttl of the crown land* i Dave - ■ bote m fry. . Drbien. 

*bm.—\ hare known ponnen* airei to parlieohH- Fall fifty y«M 

p*rfoua, any one of which, if drrided into {huffier I hare endurM the biting wlitttf'a blafl, 

parttU, and diftribtrtefl to-tQOft who di fling nlfh Andthefeterer heattof^artiiwgftttnmcr. Rtnoc. 

themferrea, by wit or learning, weatM - anfwer twr -"The fUn grawi pmttbtd and dry. Bturtmorr.-*- 

end. Swift.— T*a Jars*- experiment fueceedt an A man diftreffed with ruirft In the panted placet 

tmofm-ftUai the white of anegg. Aritfkmet.— of the wildenlefi, fraKftitu <n«ry pit, but find* no 

"" " "'" "■■--- ■ ■■■- water, lbigrri. 

(a.)* To Patctf. v. it. Tft be feonihttJ.— 

for the produflion of than) ofalonn, befidea A* We-*«re better p*M m-Afrlch fui, 

"arioua&aea of iuflaidaadgkfbuUr fartili. Ntw Than in the pride and fait (corn of hit eye's. 

Ism. 4. A number of perfe»»4 In-coBtempt.— Shak. 

Thtaytjuibful^fttf —Many corn* will dry and fartti into barley. 

Wnc*!ebatch'lortBaridatroybe(h»wtogLfli«i. Jbrtiaxr. 

j . Any ntuabcr.or Quantity t io contempt .—U 11- - PARCHIM, a town of Mccktenburgfa, dfi t lie ' 

lefatltey cook),by»*«r«/<rf fair wordt had pre- Eloa, which diridea ttldW the New and Old 

tcnt«,entutgetbattfntaia-aonfM«raey,t*#rewa* town*, each of which haa a«mtMh. It fit fitf- 

00 good to be done. COhmngt. fered feterat tlroea by Ire. The- popolafiofi ii 

* To PaacaL. *. *. (front Ike noun.] 1. To about 3000. 'It it ae milei SB. of Schwertn, and 
drrida into portion*.— If they' allot and farce/ oat 55 B. of Lauenbnrg. Lon. 1 1 . 0. E< Latv J j. 34. N. 
fereral perfiaioti* to fereral deitiea, do they not, (l.)* PARCHMENT, rn.fi [parthentm, Fr.j^r- 
by thia, aSert contradUliooa, making deity only gamma, Lab.] Skins dreffed lor the writer. A-. 
to ftnh a aaeanne perfeA i Semk.— mnsg trade tt, the fitina of fheep are called psreb- 

Thofe gboftly kings wMtd faMt OM toy ment, tbdfe of calrea-relliim.— la not thic a 1a> 

powV, mentabk thing, that the ft in of an innocent limb' 

And all tbafitneftof my (and detour. Drydtrt. fhonld be made farrhnttnt 1 that parchment, being 

». To make ap into a naft. — What a Wounding fcribbted o'er, Ibotild undca man { 3/>ai.~ In the 

fhame, that mine own fcrtant fboohj aaivr/the coffin, that had ibe book*, tbeywtTclonntl ae fieflt 

fumofmydlfgraceabyllddltlbnofbUenTyt Sbak. a» it newly written in parchment. Bdcth.— 

PARCELLEBj John, > 1Mb entmeM Flemifh - Weihnnkhke^»rr*»ojr in conluniing H»me. 

PaaciLLat, Jufiu*, Jpamtera of the i?th • ■ • Drydat. 

century, father and fo*, who excelled in painting (1.) Pjkchmsnt, the fkina of fheep or goatt 

iea-piocca. " . , . p^pj,.^ zfcx fm-j, a Banner n t0 render it pro- 

(a.) "PARCENER. H.f. [It* chmeorJo laV.l per for writing upon, cohering bojku, &c. The 

Wben«mdk*poflef}ed of an eftatr, arid having word comes from the Latin PaacaMENA, the ah-" 

iaue oady dinehtera, «r hit fi««i be hfi heirs, fo cient name of tin* manufacture, winch it faifl iti' 1 

that Ike uaada otfceod to tbofc dtvghler* or *f- bare been taken from thecity of Persx-mo*; ttl' 

lerai tncfeaw called purtrnrrj, tbdare>bat aahhe Bumenea, the king of which, itt tnvrntton ia ufnak 

heir. DM. ' ly afcribed ; though, in reality, that princrapprarf 

<a4 Pxxcmta. See-Covitctttlic. rather to-ha*c been the Improrer than the htventbr 

"PARCBNBJty.n./.'tfromfur/anfti-, Fr.) A of parebnient. Fiir ibePerfiaysaf old, accotthfig 

1 ' "tO 



PAR ( 6 ) FAR 

*o Drorlonra, wrote all their record* on (kin* ; and PARCOW, a towiiof Poland, in Labln. 

the ancient Ionian*, u we are told by Herodotae, (i.) * PARB. | «./ [fardmi^araalU, I.at.j 

madeufeof meep- feint aixigott.utJaa in writing, (t.)*PARDALE. j The leopard; in poetry, 

miujr age* before Eumenei'i time. Nor need we any- of the footled beaft*^— 

doubt tbat fucb tkins were prepared and drefled The pardaU fwiffe and. the tvgercruel. Spmf. 

for that purpofe, after* manner not unlikettitt of At pard to bind, or ftep-dame tobei fro. 

wit parchment ; though probably not fo artificial- Shut. 

.ly.—Tbe manufacrare of parchment it begun by * A match-Tor pardi in flight, in grappling tor 

-the fkinuer, andfinilbed bytbe parebment-maker. the bear. 'Drjdat. 

The Asia being dripped of ita wool, and placed (*.) Fmmli,) in aooiogy Scc-Felii, N" 

In the time pit,, at described nnder Shammy, the PARDAIiS J XXill. 

tkinner ftretchea it on afrarae, andjwrea offVthe PARDHlTZ,atoWn of Bohemia, ioChmdim ; 

flew with an iron Jnftrumeot ; that done, it ft with a manufacture of fwordt, knifes, Sec. 5; 

rooifteued with a tag ; and powdered chalk being unlet E. of Prague. I.'i'V 

forced over it, the & inner takes a Urge pumice . PARD1EH, Ienatiu* Gafton, an ingoaiout and 

itooe, flat at bottom, and rub* over the (kin, and learned French Jefuit, born.at Pari* in 163ft. -He 

thna (court off the flew % he then goct over it a- wat profrflbro* rhetoric, and taught polite litera- 

gaiu with the iron inftrument, moiftem it as .be- ture tor feveral veart. He alfo wrote feretal piece* 

tore, and ruba it again with the pumice- none in prate and verfe, with peculiar delicacy. At 



without any chalk underneath : this fmootht and length he devoted himfelf entirelyto mathematici 
fbfttna the fiefh-ude very confiderably. He then and natural pbilofbphy. He died.io 1673, of an 
drain* it again,* by pkfing over.it the iron inH.ru> h^tajeajadnbrder contracted by preaching to the 



ed, by fcraping on? the moilture, be in the fame Hi* Kkrrneottof Geometry are well known. A 
manner pallet the iron over the wool or hair- fide; tranflation of them ha* gone through feveral edi- 
tlien ftretche* it tight on a frame, and fcrapet the "«wi. In 167*1, he-had a ditpute with Sir Ifaac 
fldh-fide again : this finifhet ita draining ; and the Newton reflecting hi* Theory of Light and Co- 
more it 1. drained, the whiter it becomea. The lour*. Se« J'iiiff. Vramf. 1671, 
fltinner now throw* on more chalk, fweeping it PARDO, a town of Spun, in New Caftile. 
over with apiece of lamb-tkin that ha* toe wool (■•) * PARDON, n-f. [pardaa, St. from the 
oa ; and ton imootha it fiill farther. It it now verb.] a.' Fotgiveneit of an offender, t. For- 
left to dry, and when dried, taken of the frame giveueftof aori[ne.-i-«H« that pleaftto great men, 
by cutting it all round. The fkin taut far- pre uuui get paedmt for. iniquity. £&&&. *>. ay. -A 
pared by the fltinner, i* taken out of bit band* by flight pamphlet, about - the. elerrienta-of arcnitec- 
the parchment- maker, who firt, while it ia dry, ture, hath torn entertained with fame pardon 1- 
ptretit on ayawwrr, (which it « calf-flun areteh- mong my friend*. Wottan.'— 
ed in a frame), with a fbarpcr inftrpment than But infinite \a pardon i* my judge. MtitaM. 

that ufed by the fltinner j and working with the What better can we do, than proftrale tail 

arm from the top to the bottom of the fkin, take*. Before boa reverent, and, there confeft 
away about one half of itt thicknefa. The fkin Humbly our faultt, and e«nw*.bag} Milton. 
thus equally pared on the Ado-fide, It again ren. Indulgence!, ditpeuie*,pardani, bull*. 

dered lmnotlj by being tubbed with the pumice- The fport of wind*. Milton. 

ftone, on a bench cowed wtthafack ftuffedwith 3- Remiflioii of penalty. a> Forgiveoefa received, 
flocka ; which leaves the parchment in a condition — A man may be fate at to tut condition, but, in 
fit for writing upon. The paring* thua taken off the) mean time, dark and doubtful at to hit ap- 
the leather, are ujfed in making Glub, Size, &C. prehtaiuoaa; fecure in bit •pardon, bat muerable 
See thefe article*. What it called mm*, it only m the ignorance of it. Seaih. J. Warrant -of for- 
parebment made ot fkint of abortives, or at moft giveneft, or exemption from punilbrneut. — * 
lqcking calve*. Thi* has a much finer grain, and The battle done, and they within our power, 

il whiter and fmoother than parchment ; but it Shall Meyer fee hit pardon. Shalt. King tear 
prepared in, the fame manner, except its not being; (»0 P*aoon, in criminal law, it the remitting 
paffed through the lime-pit. an offence committed again ft the king. Hia power 

• PAaCHHIHT-ltaKBa. *. f. [parchment and of pardoning wu raid by: our Saxon anccftor* 
main-.} He who dreffe* parchment. to be derived a lege fu* dignitatis.: and it i* de- 

PARCHWITZ, a town of Silefia, in Ligoitz 1. dared in parliament, by fiat. 17 Hen. VIII. c 94. 
containing two Lutheran churches, a Roman ca- that, no othnr per fon hath power to pardon or re- 
tholic chapel, and a cloth manufactory ; lomuea mit any trealbo or feloaict whatfoeveri but tbat 
SE. of Lignit*. . f ' the king hath the whole and fole power thereof 

PARC1HUX, Anthony Da, an eminent French united and knittothe imperial crown oftbinrealm. 
autbematician, bom at Uaet, In 1703. He wat In dernocmcjei there it no power of pardoning, 
a member of the Academiet of Science! of Pari*, The king may pardon all offence* merely againft 
Sweden and Berlin ; and wat appointed Cenlnr . the crown ot the public; excepting, i.That, to 
Royal. He twbbmed a correct and methodical prefcrve thelibeny of thefohjrct,.ibeconaioiuing 
Trtatift on Re8ilmtar and Spixrical Trigommtttrj/. any .man to pniorj out of thereaun,itby.tneJwaV«i 
Be died in 1769. <wyw act, 31 Car. 11. c. a. made iprammirc, un- 

. PARCOI, or ) a lake of Thibet, 35 mile*, in pardonable even to. the king.. Nor, a. can the king 
PARCOUL, j circumference. Lon. ifo.lL E.. pardoi^wacrepriTaieju^iceis.priocipttlycooctrr.- 
Ferro, Lat. 4J< 11. N. ed in the rn-ofecntion of offenders : Noa patejl rex 

gratia*. , 



PAR ( 7 ) PAR 

tra ti mm ft utr*-m m i»fari*ttAm»oalmnm. There. pmrJmtbk, by how much the exigendei of fodo* 

fore, i* appeahvof. all kirjda (which are the fait, ing, or the difficulty of doing othereiJe, i* greater. 

not of the king, hut of the party injured), the pro. Jfc«em— A blind mm fitting hi the chimney cor- 

fctutor mjy rdcsfc) but the king cannot parrioo, ner ttfardtmabU enough, but Fitting at the brslrn, 

Neither can he pardon accenmmiraiawee, while be it intolerable. South.— What Englift reader*, 

it rrmaiee umedri-fled, or fo M to prevent- an a- unacquainted with Greek or Latin, will believe 

batement of -it ; though afterward* he may remit me f when we confefi we derive all that npordm- 

Ihe fine: oecaufe though the profeeution iivefted aUc in ui from ancient fountain!? Dtytl-m. 

in the king to avoid the multiplicity of fuita, yet •PABDONARLENES8.«./[rroru^wi=) M &t.] 

(during it* continuance) thU ofieoce Javour* more Veaiakrefi; fufceptibihty ot.parden.--St Jobn'a 

of theoatureof a *r*><i«tajury to each individual word ia, all fin i* tranfgreflion of the law; St 

in the neighbourhood, than of a ptMit wrong, PauPa, the wage* of fin ia death: put theft two 

Neither, laftly, can the king pardon in offence a- together, and this conceit of the natural fordot- 

gaioft a popular or penal ftatnte, after inform*. ailtntfiol fin vauiihee away. Hall. 

boa brought; far thereby the informer bath ao • PARDONABLY, mav. {from fanhtahie.} 

quired a prlnte property in bja-patl/o* the penal- Venially; excufably. — I may judge when I write 

ty. TJiere ia alio, a reftnetion of a peculiar U< more or lrik*uraW»«%. Jlryje*, 

ture, that »ffea«the.p(erog*tiyepf-fmrtoniBy,itt "PARDONER. M./..tfrcA.*ar*Eae.] i. On 

cale of parliamentary impeacamtnt»,-Yb.:that the who forgive* another.— ■„ 

king's pardon cWMt be pleaded to am/ fitch hn- Thi* i» his pardon, pnrcbaa'd by fuch fin, . 

peaebment, lba*tp impede the inwiiry, acdftifp . For>ii*hiahthe*ariM(r himfelf iato. Siai. 

the profceution of great and notevmwiinltnderti ■- One of the fellows that carried about the pope"* 

In the reign of Charlca IL when the, I. at" Danby indutgenciex, and fold them to fuch as would buy 

pleaded tbe king'* pardon, the common*, voted, them, agaraft whom Lather incenfcd the people 

** That-a pardooianot pleaflablein btwtrfan.iin, of Germany. Cevitl. 

pcachmenL" Aod.it waa eaafted by the aft of PARDOS, or Pew rs war, a town of Africa, 

fettlcment, ia £ aj ; W. HI, £ a, " That nop**- in Ante, on the Gold Coeft. 

donunder.thejr«ataealotj£nglairifrtaUb«plca(V PARDU8, in jtooiogy See Fan*. N° XXrjr. 

able to an impeachment by the comiwawa m par. (i.)PARE, Ambrofr, an eminent French fnr- 

liament," But, after the, impeachment. hat been geon, of the 16th century, born at Laval in Maine. 

folemnly beard and determinech, it.ia not under- He vatturgeon to fereral kiugaof France., Being 

flood that Uit king'* royal grace it fartberrcftrahv- a proteftaat, be would have been involved in the 

ed or abridged r for, after- the- impeaehment and maffacre of St Bartholomew'* day, bad not Charlca 

attainder of the? fix rebel lord* ia. 171a, three of IX. kimwlf fhut bun up in hit chamber, faying 

them were from- time tov.time reprieved by the "a man fo ufeful to all the world, ought not to 

crown; and «,lei*th received the iing'a moft perifhinfuch ajnarwer." Hediedat an advan. 

gradoua pardon,- foe-effect of facb,-pardon by ccd age, in 1590. 

the king, i»fc> make the offender a new man [ to <a.)Pana, or Paaana, David, D.D. a cele- 

acquit him of aU.aorporal iitaattiea and forfeit ure> brated: protectant divine, born in ic«8, atPmncoI. 

' * •' IB offence foi * " """ " -'■■■-"— - 



o that offence for- which he ebtaia* hit teem, m Bleu*. He ftudied at Hermfhurg under 

pardon 1 and EM fo moch to reftorebiefoemer, a* the learned Cbriftopbev Schilling- afterward* at 

to give him new credit and capacity . Baa nothing Heidelberg, under Zacb. Urfia ■ waa much pa- 

canreftore or purify the blood wheiroatee corrup- tronrsed by Albert Kindler ; and Priuce Cafimir j 

ted, if the pardon be not allowed till after attain- wat admitted minifter ot Scllettenbacb, in ijyii 



der, but thebigh and tranfeeodent power of par. afterward* of Hemfiiach, in Worm*, where, ia 
b'ament. Yet -if a perion attainted receive* the 1574, be married the Afar of John Stibeliu* ■ ha 
fcii%'«pardoo,aadaftaward*barita.ic4t,thMibn 1577* he became vinifter of Ogerfheim ; and in 



may be heir to- hi* father; becaufe the father be- 1584, prorefforin the college of Heidelburg. 

ing made a new man, might trahfant new inberi- ajox.be wajadmittedD.D.andin i6o»,uieceed- 

table blood ; though, had be been bom before the ed Tcffanutai rn-creflbr of divinity. Hepablun> 

pardon, he could never have inherited at ail ed, i. the German Bible, with ootet, at Neuftadt, 

• To pAenoN. v. a. [farJemmr, Fr.] i.Toex- In 1589] k. a commentary on the Epiftle to the 

cufc an pffender.— . Roman* { 3. fereral tratt* againft Bellannio and 

When t beheld yon in aiicU, the Jefuita; with other polemical pieces; and died 

An enemy to Rome, I parAm'4 you. Drgdim. atftrreanum, in 163s. 

%. To forgive a crime.— I will aowa all their (j.) Pan, Philip, fon of the preceding, waa 

intrmJtin. Jtrtm.— borfi at Uemlbach, in 15 76; ftudied at Neuftadt 

Forgnrenefa to the injured doea beloog, and Heidelberg ; became eminent for graaunatical 

But they ne'er ferie* who cummk the wrong, erudition ; and under the patronage of the eleAor 

Jarjabw. palatine.vifitedtheuniverfitietofBaClin i;99,and 

3. To remit a penalty. — Geneva in (600. He became redor of Neuftadt 

IaorJaa thee thy life before tbonalk it. Skat, college in itfia; principal of that of Hanau in 

4- ParJem mt, it a word of civil denial, or flight 164J I publifted hi* father'* life and exegetical 

apology. — Sir, fardm raw, It hi a letter from my work* in 164} ; feveral tract* on grammar j with 

brother, Sbai. commentariea on the Scripture*, and other theo- 



•eingei 



PARDONABLE, adj. [ferdanobU, Fr. from logical work*. 

ion.]. Veoial; rkcufabic— That which we do, U,)pAaB, Daniel, Ion of Philip, wu alfo emu 



evil, it notwithftanding by fo nmch more ncot far claffica! learoing, and particularly for hi* 



* A K ( 9 ) VS. M n 

eUU la th« Greek- language. »e pn«i(*ei many yrft—ftah, «fcdrtw<*W i— I W*%l> him 

learned piacw) partioulBrly fdnlBiia** Hera and hi* liberty; yet hi* attachment iv1rt<bae,iJrr. .wae 

teaoder, with note* ; - McSt/kaon Atticio*,*-Stirt\ fotrroflg.tim hrvontmotd with him tiUhfaldearh. 

Won from Greek Authors, &a. Be anav-a^jrihoM Hi* portrait* are equal to thofe-of Vtlafqaex. He 

ad by robbers ia 1645* ''- : ■ *■ '•> *■* In-ttMifid do. ' ' <J "» " 

* T«Pd«i. v.a. (TW» word it reafbnably d*> - FABEIRA ruu, in 'the materia medlca, a, 

dnced by Stimin- from the FrrMb phraic, pour-it* kind of oblong and targoroot brought from Unfit, 

tngfa, to dreft the horiea hoote when they are 4-lt u certainly a diuretic of my w«M "character, 

fliaved by ibH farrier t t&u* we Gift fatd, part yonr and baa doaa treat ferric* ra nephritic cefta. In 

aaih t and from fliar.ee traaefeeTcaY the word to plcueifie* and qarofie*, it baa been attended with 

general ufe.] To cutoff entremitle* of the fur. than flieoala than atmpt any medicine we know 



faoa } to cat away brittle and Uttla; to diai raMh . offtngly. ■ 

If part be ufed before the thing dioiinilbed, it U PARELGON, n „ „ . v . 

followed immediately by its aocufatirc ; if it pre* which a word" or ff liable i* added to the end of 



codes the thing taken. away, or agree* in the paf. another. 
B>e voice with the thing taken away, at a aomi. TARJtLLA, ■■ town of Franc*,' iatbe'dep. of 

natite, it then require* a particle, a* away, aft— ike Dam, tad iste county of Can* rale, in the ci- 

The ereed of AthaMfiu*. and that acredhymft of derant PMsanhtefc ; jf taitw S8W. of hrea, and 

glory, than which nothing doth found more baa* 10N. ofTnnioV" "• - — ",•'' ""*' " ", " 

veniy in the Car* of faithfel men, are nowieackou- - PAKIM»JOI.B?a'./.tnrti**oHc I a figure where- 

ed a» fuperffattiea, which we mufti* any aaAajm ia fotimbrtn 'refining to Ma futrjMt w.lofrrted ia 

Mvjay. Hto*tr.— .., <--f > . rhermdiCo'^f Hy*rtod. Alt the difference between 

- -I hareriot alone .-.::,_'".-■ the pkrem bite and r-aaBNTHEits, according to 

Employ'd jfe-u where high. profit* might «an» <Voluns* 'Nyithit the former relates to- the fubjaS 

home; -w«:i :? in hanif,- 1 wacreaa'&e tatter ts rai*tgttto«J 

. But*#r'rf«fty aMfcnt barings r*bn#j*»>(.-'t ft.) PARENCHYMA; '*.■/: {.„ r yx^*i * 

My bounties npon-vou. StmJr. KVnM'VJHi Ibint* of porous; AbftanoV|iti J^krfficV, a part 

~t»maman,whemfort»neh**hc*netfd(awttWi'd. tbracgh .*hiob' tfci Wood U *r»M«d forita better 

— Tr» too late to jam hefJiirttB nowyBW*.^* , fomentation snd prtfeftiwr !*»':■ " 

The lioa,'moeU with pity, dici endure,-- ' " > ■ (s.)-Pirt.iu¥MV«U,' in anatomy,''!* a term in- 



' T«B«vehiH>rin«ely'P»w«all ; *or'rf««»*ar. "CM*, erodiiced b^Er»ftn>atir»i fhjnrfythg alt' that feb. 
—The king began totore a Ihtte tlie-paifciegtrof Aaooe->wH*«h it oonaaried in themrerftfcM betarist 
tbecfrrgy. Bacm'i Henry VIU— -*->-f- . • toe bttajaVacdklroi 1 ttlevifcera, which fie imagined 



Heaort* his appte, that -will- claanlyimed.-.': I* be«KM)iw?la«rd and eoaeratad Wood. 

' '.'..in •Mmlmtt. ■ tjt) ParKaavtinaa Ot'fUlitj Grewappliea 

— WHoe»er'wlH-'piw<akVrf..G«lte.i^raji"mot toiaterm to tW pUhor onra. «r tbat iuaer part 

firft look into hi* own, hemuft ptai qf .whatfoeiaer of a frrrifp* plant, through which t*e piice i» fup- 

i«aSi>fs. T«y»i— All tb« WourlaiiuHaoefe'p^^ flofeaj tebadiftrlwBtad. 1 bVe Jr^ax-ri. 1 

n>TheM«K..»yni^~Theni |t poaticali-parta, , • P^gflaWa*Ya*ATO*J8.?MV [from ««nw- 

%*)eh are deTceipttoiW and:image*j .mawt to ba«A- * WHIiNffHYMOUS. J tbrm«.} tVetating 

+*d**uay. Drt)fy.-±-"Trie (word, a* fcjaraa<]ustlr «o laaajaVecwbyaaa 1 rpongy^^Ten thdUCind feeds 

tlrawn by in, lo can iffcwae fifcly be^eitbcd, rfith»e*iht Jput'a^OTlgae tianrly- ma** the bnlk 

tm the power of the great troabbtr of bbr peace of a peppenaorr.i Now the cwra and true body 

be ft> far fareJ and reduced, at thu^weDHy he ^'aaahaead,tlrea*aw»t*ywwr*»< andngneoua part* 

under no spprehen Fiona. Jtter&Mrys*- .•■ -..< of ■ both irwderatetf -multi pi led;" afrbrd rco.ooo 

- 'TwertwellifmewoulJ/iflrt-her.aaha. fitf. mlikwiaof firmed atoma In the rpaceof apepper- 

PAREANUM, a village of Germany at« Hei- own.-Ow*,,— Thole part*, formerty reckoned par- 

delbarg, WherWDr Pare relided and.diBo-i ... (wr«Tmeeocurare now foand to be bundle* ot a- 

PAKSCAI.A, a fertile prorince of the ifk af -ceodlntffy fmatTthreada. Gbptt.- - 

Lmcimi, pontalnlng miflwriollin goldwiii preciaoe •.PARXMSMS. «./. {naumr.] Perruafion t 

'Jtmeat wllb afcWe yoo« inhabttamfcJ ■'.' .1 . exhortation, BIS. ■ 

PARECH1 A, t fowv-in the iRe of Jcaros, huilt * TARBNETICK. [i«, B ,«?«.c] Hortatory. 

oa the Bte of the ancient Piroa, and defended by (i.) PARENT, Anthony, aa Dr Watkin* caHa 

arort. TheEiwopatocoaful* rafdetfttfe ' him, 01 Unfair*, according to othera* a mathema- 

PAREDES, 3 towns of Spain J r. In Atnriaa, tieian,' born m P.iria, io i6«6. H*Ihowed anear- 

aj mile* NW. of Ortedo: a: in' LeobitJ miles lypropeafitytp mathcmxtlca, At 14 bewaaput 

WW. ot Lewtt. 3. in KcwCattite, trail** N. of under a mailer, who taught rhetoric at Chartre*. 

Seguenca. Here he faw a dodecaedron, upon-erery race ot 

' " PAREGORICK, aJj. [n r y t ,n.f:'\ Having which wat delineated a fun-diai, except the low- 

the power in medicine to comfort^ inolhry and eft. Struck with the curiofity of thefe dial*, he 

alTuagaa>iJia. attempted drawing one himfelf. He then nnder- 

PAREUORIES, a./ in pbarmacy T medicine* took » write a- Treatife upon Onomvtits, and a 

that afRiage pain, otherwife called AuohyiJ aa. book of Geometry. Hie friend* then fent for him 

PARE JA, John, an eminent painter, bora in to Pari* to fthdy the law ; but thefe (Indies were 

the W. Indies, and originally a Hare to Diego no fooner finifhed then be returned to mathema. 

Velafquez, a celebrated painter. He acquired the lice. He then' tootpupiUi and fortification faa- 

art by Undying it piivately, wtthout'faia mafter'a ving attracted particular notioe, he turned bin 

knowledge. Philip IV. one day rifiiiog Velaf. Mteotion to it, and made two campnign* with the 

' -d.c n** " 



P A % (. P ), PAR 

marquis of Align, by which he inftructed bimlrlf fuitabln to the fortune of the parent, the lord 
in viewing fortified placet; of which tie draw a chancellor, on complaint, may maki fuch order 
number of plana. M. de Billettes, being admitted therein aa he (hall Ire proper. The Englifh law 
intheacademyof fdeocesatPamin 1A99, as their baa made no provirion to prevent the diflnheriting 
mechanician, nominated for hit difciple Parent, of children by will ; leaving every man's property 
who excelled chiefly in this branch. Though bli in hi* own diipofal, upon a principle of liberty in 
abilities were acknowledged, yet hi* impetuofity thii as well aa every other action. »s. Proteltion ii 
of temper provoked oppofition \ and he rote no alio a natural duty, but rather permitted than en- 
higher than afliftant member for geometry. He joined by any municipal law*. A parent may 
enjoyed this promotion but a fhort time ;' for he maintain and uphold bit children in their h w-fuits, 
waa taken off by the faiall-pox the tame year, without, being guilty of the legal crime of rruin- 
1716, aged jo. He waa author of many piece*, taining quarrel*. A parent may alio juftify an *f-- 
chiefly .on mechanic* and geometry. fault and battery in defence of the perfon 1 of hit 

(i.J * Paahnt. n.f. [fiarmi, Fr. paremi, Lat.] children ; nay, where a man's- fon was beaten T>y 

A fathei or mother,— Ali true virtue! are to ho- another boy, and the father went near a mile to 

oour true religion aa their parent. Hooter.— His find him, and there revenged hia fan's quarrel by 

cuftom waa, tofpend an hour before evening prayer beating the other boy, of which beating re aftrr- 

■n catechifing; whereat the parents and older iort ward* uu fortunately died; it waa not, held to be 

were wont to be pre fent. Fell. — murder, but maatlaughter merely. 3. To give 

Asapublick#nmtf of the date, eUkjnn tntdmauien fui table to their fiatipn in life 

Hyjuftice.andthycnme.reqaireathyfateJSrvi. is a duty pointed out .by reafon, and of far the 

Real care in vain and native tore greater! importance of any. Yet. the municipal 

la the. true parent' 1 panting breaft had ftrove. lawa of mod countriea fecm to be defective in thin 

Prior, point, "by not, conft raining the parent to bellow a 

(3.) PnelHT is a terniof relation applicable to .proper Education upon his children. The rich 

thole from whom we immediately derive our be- indeed are left. at their own option, whether they 

■ng. See Moral Philosophy, Partll. Se8. HI. will breed np their children to be. ornaments or 

§ III. To this article belongs an inquiry into, diigraces to their family. Yet, in one cafe, that 

r. The legal duties of parent) to their legitimate of religion, they are under peculiar, reflection* ( 

children, -a. Their power over them, for it is provided, that if any perfon fend* any 

{#,-) Pareut*, duties of, TO chh.oi.hk, child under his government beyond the Tea*, ei- 

I. The dntiea of parents to legitimate children coo- tber (o prevent ha good education in England, or 

fift in their maatrnancty praieShn, and edtuatm*. in order to enter into, or refule in, any Popifh 

j. The doty of parents to provide for the mats- college, or to be intruded, perfuaded, or ftrength- 

tmcHce of their children i* a principle of natural enCd in the Popifh religion | in fuch cafe, befidea 

law; the municipal laws "of all well-regulated ftates the d liabilities incurred by the child fo fent, the 

hive taken care to enforce tfiisdutyi though Pre- parent on perfon fending mall forfeit tool, which 

vidence haedoncit more effectually than any lawa, iha.ll- go to the fole ufe and benefit of him that 

by implanting in the bread of every parent that {hall djfeever the offence. And if any parent, or 

natural s-«r>«, or infuperable degree of affection, other, fhall fend or convey any perfun beyond fea, 

which not even the deformity of perfon or mind, to enter into, or be refident in, or trained up in, 

not even the wicked nefs, ingratitude, and rebel- any priory, abbey, nunnery-, Popifh univerfity, 

lion of children, oan totally fuppref* or extinguifh. coliege, or fohool, or houfe of Jefuits or priefts, 

The civil law not only obliges the parent to pro- or in any -private Popifh family, in order to be in. 

vide maintenance for hi* child, but will not futfcr ftructed, perfuaded, or confirmed, in the Popifh 

a parent at his, death totally to diQnbertt hiacbild, religion; or fhall contribute any thing toward! 

without eapreisiy giving hia reafon for fa doing ; their maintenance when abroad, by any pretext 

and there a*e 14 fuch reafbn* reckoned np, which whatever j the perfon both fending and fent (hall 

may juftify fuch diunber'tfon. If the parent al- be di fabled to fue in law or equity,, or to be exe* 

leged no reafon, or- a bad, or a falfe one, the child cutor or ad mini ft ra tor to any perfon, or to enjoy 

might let the will afide, by fuggefting, that the any legacy or deed of gift) or to bear any office 

parent bad loft the ufe of bis reafon when he made in the realm, and fhall forfeit all hit-goods and 

the ixa/pmeui teftament. Our own lawa have aifo chattel* and hkewife all hia real eftatc for life. 

made proviBon for this natural duty. Itiaaprin- See Noncomfqs.hists. 

ctpte of law, that there is an obligation- on every - (j,) Pakekt*, rowan or, ovik cbh-okew. 
man to provide for thofr. defcended from his loir*. II, The power of parent* over their children i* de- 
Rut no perfon is bound to provide a maintenance rived from the former confi deration, their duty; 
for bis'iffue, nnlefs where the children are jmpo- this authority . being given them, partly to enable 
tent and enable to work, either through infancy, t he-parent more effectually fo perform his duty, 
dtfeafe, or accident 1 and then is only obliged to . and partly a* a recompenfe for hi* care and trou> 
find them with neceuaries, the penalty on refufel We in the faithful difcharge of it,. The ancient 
being 00 more than aoa, a-montb. Any Popifh Roman law* gave the father a power of life and 
parent refuting to allow hia Proteftant chud a St- death over his children ( upon this principle, that 
ting maintenance, with a view to compel him to he who gave had alfo the power of taking away, 
change bis religion* the lord chancellor mall, by But the rigour of thefe law* was foftened by fub- 
order of court, conltrain him to do what ia juft fequcht eonftitotion*: fa that we find a father 
and reafbnabie, Jf Jewifh parent* refufe to allow banlllied by tl|C emperor Adrian for killing bis fort, 
their Proteftant children a fitting maintenance, tbouuA he had committed a very heinous crime ; 

Vot. XVII. Part I. , JL ( urx.n 



,P A .8. ( jLO ) ,t .A..R 

upon. this 'maxim, that patrijjateffas in pietatt . to the around, and pen thqfc houfes that fland? 
(frirf, nwi r0 otrtcifate, crmjlJlete? , 'ftTii ftfll 'they "flnr-i^ and- fet up momlments and memorials of 
maintain 1 ed To the laft a very large' antf apfblute \ -im?*! torrid deed. See Chiedsen, Filial PilrT, 
authority: for a fon could notsequire' anypro- ■ P**-ewt*l Atpkctiok, &c. 
perty of bis ow» during tHe life of his father; hit '■'■ : * PARENTAGE'. ». / [parentage, Fr. from 
all his aeqnifilions belonged to the, father, or at -parent.] '_Eitraftion; birth; condition with re- 
leall the profits of them, for hisTrfe. The power "fpefl to the rank of parents.— - 
of a parent by the Englifh law is much more mo- -A gentleman of noMe p a'cnta^r. Sbak. 

derate, but flill fuffirient tofceep the child In • ''-Though men efteem thee low 'of parentage, 
order and obedience. He may lawfully correct ' ; Tlryfather i» th* eternal king. Milton. 

his child, being under age, in a reafonable man- -•:. ■• '■ Tohisleveego, 

rier* for (his is for the benefit of his education, • Andfrom-himfrlf your parentage may know. 
The ronfent of the parent to the' marriage of h»s ■ ' ' Dryden. 

child under age ia absolutely neceflary 5 -for with- — We And him not only boaftinj* of his parentage, 
out it the contract is void. A father has no other ;as art IfraeHte at large, but particularizing his dc- 
power-over h.fs fan's eftate than aa hit truftee or fcentfrom Brnjxmitt.' jOtetoury. 
guardian ; for though he-may receive the profits (1.5 * PARENTAL, adj. [from parent.] Be- 
during the child's minority, yet he mult account '-coming parents; pertaining' to parents.— It dvet- 
fbrthem when he comes of age. He may indeed thriiws the careful court! and parental provlfion 
have the bejefit of his children's labour while of nature. Bnxwn.— Thefe eg^; hatched by the 
they livfrwith him, and are maintained by him j warmth of the fun into Htfle wnrtns. feed without 
hut thialtflomore-than' he is entitled tdfrOTB Bis" •'any' need of parental "care. Derbam.— YHWig la- 
jrpprenticea or fervants. The legal power of a dies otrwhom^ew/u/'coiitroul fitn heavily, give 
father (for a mother, as fucb, "is entitled to no a man of mtftgue ronrn to think .that 'they 1 want 
power, but only to reverence and fefpeel} over'tHe ■ to be parents. Clarijfa. 

perfons of his children crates at the age of. i»' ; " '(iXIUtT-tfTAL AfTftYron, the endearing at- 
fbr they are then enfranchiTed' by arriving at years tacnment of parents to their chfltiren, including 
of diferetion, or that point which the law has In if love,'s defire of do}ng good t4 tkofe who, by 
eftablifhed when the empire oF (he father of other .'an'aS (if; our own, depend upon 'us for ail that 
guardian gives place to the empire of resibn. ~fhpy etojoy. ' Nature eveti excites this affection in 
"ftt, till that age arrives, thik empirc'of tbe'father brutes: but' in them it continues 'only fo long as 
continues even after hia death ; for he may by Kla It' H' hetefTary for'the prefervation of-their off- 
will appoint a guardian to hia children. : He rtiay -fpring; for when thefe are able to provide for 
alfo delegate part of his parental authority, during *WemfeWe*,'k ceafes,and the relation is forgotten, 
his life, to the tutor or (hhool-mifter ofhia child; -in matt) however, though it leflVns, or at lead be- 

1 who is then in hen parentis, and has fitch a por- '^wires tefi nnxious, as the dependence of Ihe child 
tion of the power of the pafept committed t*-Ns 'becomes- lefs, it never entirely ceafes, except in 
charge, viz. that of reftraint and cotfeftion, as tbme'vew inftances of extreme depravity ; and, 
may he neceflary 'to anfwe'r'the pitrpofes for which dndeedi it is one of the great* ft comforts of life, 
he is employed. The power of a parent in £bina even' when all dependence has ceafed.- Aa parental 
b very great ; fot a father, while living, ■ has the 'kindnefa is the inoft Ample and natural expanfion 
power of ah abfolute defpotic tyrant/ and after of ■ fehMove, fo there are innumerable inflances of 
his death is worlhirjped as a god. Let a fori- be- -it to alt countries, favspe and civilised. ' 
come: ever To rich, and a fatnereveKopoor, there ■■■ PAKENTALIA, in antkjuitft funeral obfe- 
is no fiiiirriiflion, no point of e-bedieMc, that the -wnie^j er IKe laft duties paid by children to their 
latter cannot demand,, or'thar the former can 'rJeceafed pttrentB. 

reftrTe. The father it abfolute Taaffer, not only . '. *-PAHENTATION. n.f. [from farenn, Lat.] 
of his ton's eftat?, but alfo of his concubines and 1 Something done or laid In honour' ot the dead. 
.-htldten, whom, whenever they'ditpleaJe him, tie • -.{..J * PARENTHESIS, n.f. {pareMbeJe, Fr. 
may fell to ftrangers. If a father accutes his fon -=..«, ■«, and ti&b«..] A fentence fo included in an- 
befoii? a mandarine, there needs: no proof of bis ' other Sentence, al that it may be taken out, wit h- 
' guilt ; for they cannot believe -that any father can out injuring the lonfe of that which indole* it: 
be fo unnatural aa to bring a falfe aocufation being commonly marked thus, ( )■ — In vain Is my 

- agatnfl fits own 'Sin 1 . 1 But fhonfi a fon be fo in- perfon ncepted by a parenthrfij of words, when 
folent as to mock his father, or arrive at fuclva -fornany ara armed againft me With fwordl. K. 
Iiiich-of wkkednefs as to ftr-ike him, all the pro- (Xarleii — He is feldom mentioned, without a dt- 
tince where thi* fhameful ae>-of viotaoce iscoui- -rogatory farmtbrfii, in any author. Brwaux.— 

' fitted b'alarmed - it-even-- becomes the comttru Thou (halt be feen, 

of the whole empire', the emperor himi'eif judges Though with fome ftiort parenthr/i between, 
rhe criminal. -All the mandarines near the -plate . High on the throne of wit. Drydtn. 

h re turned out of their softs, efpeoially thofeof — Doh*t fttffer every occafional thought to carry 
the town where he lived, for having been fo ne- you away into a long pnrenih/fii. <W*tti.~ 
gtigtnt in their iflftruflions; ahdalltheneighboura , (a.) PytaaiTrHEBis ia defined by others, cer- 
ire reprimanded- for neglecting, by former punifh. tain intercalary words mferted in a difcourfc, 
ment9, to put a (lop to'the wickedneft of the trri- ■ which interrupt the fenfr, but fcem neceflary for 
minal before it arrived to fucb HagltioBfnell. As ftie'bffttfr nnderf landing of the fubject. But this 
to the unhappy wretch himfetf,' they cut hhn into is not a definition of theparenthehs, but of the 
a tfaoufand piece;, bum his bones, level his honfe Sentences included in it. Df Johnfon's, j 1. is 
* . . „ ' flriaiy 

, ;qt; od .Google 



... p ; a'-.e; ... ,c ii'..)\ ... i^^i? : 

ftriftly accurate.. The pareatbefes are often mif-' • ■OfEaglilh talc the coaif^r fort Is called pji/ler 

applied by authors and printers, by being made', or parget ; the EiierTpaad.. , . „, . _., . . 

to indole words at fhe.enil' of a fciUence,. when*, (a.) PiRGETJ in mineralogy, a' name given to ' 

they are quite ADueceflary, add ftill ■ iriore, when^ feveral kind* of Eypfuuvor plafter fttiflc.. 

they are .made to iacioftt etaufes without" which. ' * TVPaaGet,' v. a. Ifio'm the noun] Toplaf-, 

the fenterice it incomplete. .., ter; to cover with' plafter.— While we thus paint. 

•PARENThETICAL. «dj, Lfrom^rrai&A.), and^rxr/ouf.owndtfo/miriea, wecanno(.alJow' 

PenajB.o B ti.a,parenthefi|. ,, ■". ' '■ any the Igaft imperfection, of another** to juaain 

PARENTIUM, an ancient fra-port. town .'of, uhaitecl<d. 'C^vermeni.'o/ lie TcngU. J. , , .. 

Itria; (P/i* iij. c. 19 ) nop, called , . .. >PAKGETER. *'jC [from WirtJ .Aplaf- 

PAKfiNZO, airnalibut nrongtowivinjaria,; tere'r. ' ' ;, „ , 

with a bifhop'i fret and a gpod harbour ; fcated- F'&RG&TTNGtpari.n.f.in building.Uufcdfor 

on the gulf of Venice,^ mileaNNW.of Rovlgno r J the pi a fieri hg of wall j, and 'fomefimes for plafter 

andfij E. of Venice. It- fubmitted totheYeae- itfelf. Pargeting fa of various kinds: as,.l. White, 

turn in 1107. .Lon. 13. j<j.E. Lai. 4$'. ! 14". N.'.' We and hair-rnortar" laid on, bare wall*....*- Q»- 

• PAHER. *•£ [frornpaw,] An inftruriient to" bare lathi, aim partitioning and plain, cieli ng_ 

cut away Uwfviface.— ;, ",' ' ^.'."Renewing the inftde's of the walla, or doubling. 

A bjono and a >anrr, tibe fole of a boot/ ' pardon VaUi. 4. "RQUgh-cafting on hia'ttilaiha^ 

To pare away grafle, and to nife ub the root." f. Plafte'ring ouhrick-wprk with fini to tog. mortar,' 

■ ■■ ■ •' 'Ttiffer^ ihVfirfiUUon of'ftone-worfc; aod,,tbe, lie upcaL 

'PARERay,n./{« f «and,> f >-«..iI'Som C tr ! ingj heart-laths. " ' , . . ;."..," 

unimportant; fomcthing done bythej by.^Scrip^ ' PARHAM7 a town of Antigua, j.milea.W.of. 

tunc being ferious, and corqrnon/ly omitting fiich St Jbhh'V. , 

farrrgidt, it will be unreafonabfe to cot ' ■,.--. 

lau^htn. .&- W «. .' -. ..' , ,. ... l: .,..,.,.. r „.,...,.,, r ,. r ... 

PARESJ& inrn*dicine/ap.ilfy of the bladder', drnty'that fhuie^jn God, for thofe dim reprefen-, 

wbereistae urineu either fuppnued or dirchargeri, tattorfB 01, it .tpat wefod'oat.on in, the creature, 

"•oUiBtarHyi . -■■ .- . ' .,".{ , is ,49 abfijrd, aa .iLwere.fW'a Petflan to. offer his 
■PA^TONEUM,innnrj^ali^y,an*«tn/Qiind>' %fifice tptftjrfyfBfii}, jntleacVof adoring the tun. 



ot jomrs. 

rtlocfcfun'— TA.iiejflecJ^'qiat Juprer/ie .refplen 



«a the ftt^resot} Egypt,, CffiWsV anil Crete, .ufci. Mf«. ,, ,■.-... 

hy the .anc^Btjs in, pajntjng. .It. bad if «, parnp, V fi.; P«.'a,nf.i-iQsi,,or.3 l [froni ,«(?,Bq>r,and 
either from a. pari of Eftypt, near which it) waf " PARHEUMM,..' ' .J/aaJ. in natural phi 



gathned, or from a townjjp.that tingrJom, where, rfh'y, is arriijrteqrm form o^ a bright light, appe; 
it wu uiually fold. -Vitruviut iapt. the firfl dpi- iflg on one (iiie of the fua. Appearances of' this 
won, and-Volaternneof the laft. . Of .late it. v,-xt, bind have been, mentioned bp'tb. by the ancients 
thought |o bje loft ; but it * ftill common', orj, th*, and moderns, Ariftotle pbferves, that in general 
Htoreaof (soft of the iQaiarL) of, the Arcnipejaso^ they are fees only .when the fun ia near *t fie hofi- 
tioinah not obferved.or regarded; aijd^» tru,[y a, ion, though' he takes 'nut ice 'of two that were 
very heayy a.nd.tougb clay, oF* fine white colour,, fee'uin BcdpnOTul 1 frbrn'mornieg till avetiingi and 
found in rn a ffeCof different fizes, generally a»" folV Pliny' has reUed'the times' When fuch phenomena 
atthefofotr Clays withintheftrata; and, bj^^ling, were obferved at'Home. Gaflendi fays, that in 
^■out on the beach in this ftate.it gathers up, t^e. 163J and 1636'he often faw one indck fun.' Two 
land, fmall iheiks and other fallhjefte* we aJjfMf, were obferved by M. De lalfire in 1689; and the 
find abotit it, Jt is .(itely tt)eje, are ftratji of it. &""! number by Caffini in 169J, Mr Grey 'in 
fine and j»«re in the cliffy there,. and that ite'/ea >7oo, and Dr HalTey in"i;oi : but the molt ceie- 
wifcMoffmaffeBofthem.ip'fiorro$andhigh tid^s,. blrated appearanefesV of , this kind were feen aV 
which are what we fi#d. '■ ' .. ' '. Rome by Schefne"r, By Mufch'enbroecb at TJttecht*. 

PARPA1T, Francis, a French dramatic writer,' a nd by Heveliue'at Seditri., By the two former," 
bam at Pari a in tQ.gtr., He. wrote a rrageJy en_, 4'rnotk funs, we're obferved, and by the latter 7, 
titled Atrtc, and a,. comedy caljed iPanargcj. but Parhelia are 'app'arently.Qf the fame Sje with thef. 
hit greateft. wofk 3 was/a Gvxrjtf tiijtorg */ fiL %. ftough nut always of .the .fame brightnefs; 
Frock Theatre, /rpna ^ta,prigin.toihi8 own time,! nw eytn of jhjj fijjicjliajiej and when'a numfxr 
i» 15 vols. tamo. ,.He[dieid in. 1*53, aged jj.' . , appear^ at orjcej Jhere. is fame difTerence jn.both.' 

PAKFREiiJuho, the.oldeft, dramatic writer of , rtlpefla amonj,Mhenij , Externally they. are tyiged 
Eugtastl, but of whom' nothing is recorded, e^- witn Colours, like tJie'rainoow ; and Wgny have a 
cept that lie wrote,! juece, entitled) Cendienm ■ '°0g fiery [ail oppoli.te 'to^the.fu'n, but rjaler'to- 
iVj,#r tbe.iiUing.qJ 'the Ch{lit^»of I/rfdi, fi^jf-\ wards the extremity. Tarhclia arc generally ac- 
la Ji >51* ; refiaihliihed in. Wrp, J^wkics'sCoU : cotnpanled with coropas, fome of wbic'fi arc', 
lection of, OH Plays, in 1733. , , tinged with rainbow cdlonrs, but others are \V hiii*. ' 

PARGA,a*sougfea-pctrit6wn iuthelateVe-., [See IUlo.) 'Th'ey differ : ui number' aii'd ii»e; 
Mian Albania, »6 niilea . W[; of Art a, oppoiite but all agree in Vcadth, w,hichie that df Ihe'ap- 
Corfu ;,tqhaqited by Greek^ and Albanians. Log. ■ parent 'diameter of 'the Turi. A. very' large, white 
»5-47-E. ;La*.t3o.ag.'ji(;. -'" * circle> parallel 'to (|ie hojizon,' generally paffes 

.{■0 • PARGET- 1,7- iPlafle'r.laid upon roofs through all the patliiilia j.ajul, if it were entire, « 
='inonj». — ,* , .,. .'. V,"wpitjn go through! the .centre of the fun. jSome. 

GohJ W/*a IhefargeU and the eieljng bright, . I times there ?re arCs' of letTcr'.circlcs concentric to 

1W ihine alt fcaly with great plates of go|d. ,'t this, tuacnlng (no/e coloured circles which fii.r-. 
: ' * %Bjiir.""ratiiid" the 'fun, " They 'ate alfo tinged with 00- 

ffi»it-'ed::vVjt." louri. 



B A, R ( 11. ) PAR 

lours,. atyl contain other parhelia. There art Slfo perfect j and though it was open from D to F, 
faid » have been other -circlet obliquely rttuated yet tbofe ends were perpetually endeavouring to 
with refoect to all thefe. The order of tiw'co- unite; and fomerirhes they did fo. T be outer of 
lours in theft circles is the fame as in the rain- thefe Tings wa; much fainter, fo arfcarcHy to be 
bow.; hut 00 the infide, with refpect to tfieVuo, 1 difcer'nioTe. It had,however, a variety ofcotoors, 
they are rei'. as is ajfo obfcryed to many haloes, but waa very ineonftant. The third circle, KLMN, 
Parhelia haveneen vifiWr far I, %; 3, and 4 hours was wry large, and all over white, ps'lTine through 
together; and in North America they are laid to toe middle of the fun, and everywhere parallel to 
conlrnuWirtnc day ft, and to be vifibte from fun- the horizon. At Gift this circle was entire ; but 
rife to- funfet. When the parhelia di Appear, it towards the end of the appearance it wis weak 
fomeiirrtes rahw, or fnow tarfs iri'the form 'of ob- and ragged, fo as hardly to be perceived from M 
long IpieulsE, as Hiraldj, Weidler, Kiagl/and tDWaidsN. In the interjection of this circle, and 
others have bbferved j'arid becaule the air, in N. the outward iris'GKl, there broke out two par- 
America abounds with fuch frozen fpicu'a;, which belia, or mock funs, N and.K, not quite perfect ; 
arc even vffible to the eye; according to Ellin and. K bemg rather weak, bni N ft one brighter and 
Middietori, fuch panicles have been thought tone ftronger. The brightneta of ihe middle of them 
the caufe of all coronas and parhelia. Mr Wales was fomething like that of the fun } hut towarda 
ftys, that, at Churchill in Hudfon's Bay, the the edges they were ringed with colours ltiethofe 
riflrg oT"the fun is always preceded by two long of the rainbow ; and" they wer* uneven and rag. 
dreams' of red light, one on each fide of him, and ged. The parhelion N was a little wavering; and 
about *e*drftaorfrom him. ' Tbefe rife as the fent out a fpiked tail, NP, of a'colour fomewhat 
iun rifes, ,and as they grow longer begirt to, bend Aery, the length of which was continually 
towards each other, till they meet directly over. Changing. The parhelia at L and Min the hori- 
tbefun, julr as he rifes, forming there a kind of zontal ring were not fo bright as the former; but 
parhelion or mock fas. Tbefe two ftreams of were rounder, and white, like the circle in which 
Jightj he fays, feem to have their fourc* in' two they, were placed. The parhelion N difrpTJeared 
other parhelia, which rife with the true fun ;' and before K; And while M grew fainter, K grew 
in winter, when. the 'fun never rife* above the bats brighter, and vantwed the hrft of all. The order 
or fog, which' hefays is conftantly found near the of the colours in the circles DEF, GKN, was the 
horizon, all ihefe accompany him the whole day, 'ftme as tn the common haloes, namely, red-next 
and fet with him. Once or twice he faw a 4th rile fon ; and the diameter of the inner circle was 
parhelion directly under the 'fun; tun" this is not aHb about 41°; which is the ofual fixe of a halo, 
common. Thefc faa« Being conftant, are very The Rev Dr Hamilton font the, following account 
• valuable, and may throw great.hght onthethcory of parhelia fcen at Cookftown to the Royal Irift 
of thefc' remarkable phenomena. Sometimes Academy : — " WednelVJay, Sept. 14th, sylj, as 1 
parhelia appoar in a different manner; as when was preparing to obferre the fun palling through 
three funs have been' fcen in the fame vertical the meridian, before the Brit limb touched the 
circle, well defined, and touching one another, centre wire, it was obfeured by a_dark wetl- 
The true fun nasin the middle, and the loweft defined cloud, about io° in ' diameter.' Upon 
touched the horizon ; and they fet one after the' going to the door of the tranfit room, to fee if it 
other. This appearance was fcen by Maleziew was likely foon to pafs off the dtflt of the fun, I 
in 1711. Other appearances fimilar to this are obfcrved the following phenomena: From the 
recited by M. Mufcheobroeck. Sometimes the weftern edge of the cloud iffued a luminous arc 
ion has rifen or fet with a luminous tail project- parallel to the horizon, perfectly well defined, 
ing from' bim, of the fame breadth, with his dia- extending exactly to the northern meridian r, it 
meter, and perpendicular to the horizon. Such was about 30" broad, white, and ended in a 
an appearance was fcen h# Caffini in 1679 and Hunted termination. On it were two parhelia ; 
1691, by De U Hire in rroi t and by Mr Ellis in the neareft to the fun difplaying the prifmatic 
Hudfon's Bay. As M. Feuilee was walking on the colours; the remow one white 5 and both ill de- 
ba'nle of the river La Plata, he law the fun rifing fined.' In a more tlrr* the cloud had paled off, 
over the river, with a luminous tail projecting and mowed the luminous' alriiicantar, reaching 
downwards, which continued till he, was fix de- perfect to the true' fun: While things were thus 
grees high. Pax is el fins, or rnock moons, have ntuated, I meafurcd with an accurate fextant the 
alfo been fcen, accompanied with,' tails and. co- dtftancca oF the parhelia: I found the coloured 
loured circles, like thoft which accompany the one %i°, 'the remoter one 90 , from the true fun. 
parhelia. An account of feveral, and a particu- juft as I had done this, a new arid prifmatic 'circle 
lar defcription of a fine appearance of this kind, furrounded the fun, immediately within the prif- 
may be fcen in Mufcbenbroeck. The Roman matic parhelion. And now another coloured pw- 
phenoTAenoh, .obfcrved by Schemer, is famous- on helrori appeared on the eaftern board. . The fex- 
accoUnt of Its having been the firft appearance of tant, with its face up and down, exactly meafured 
the kind that engaged the attention of philofo- this and the former at the original dHrauce of 
phera. It is reprefcnted irt Pi. CCLXIX- fig- I. »6° i the luminous atmicantar (till remaining per. 
in which A is the place of the'obferver, B his zc- feet. In about 10 or i* minutes, wbittfh haxy 
nith, C the true fun, AB a plane paffing through clouds came an, and obfeured all thefc urjcotn- 
fhe obferver'a eye, the true fun; antl tbe zenith, mon appearances. I dtd no* obferve that the at- 
.About the fun C, there appeared two concentric' mofpherical phenomena before or after were at 
rings, not complete, but diverfified with colours., all uncommon. The wind a light breesteat SSW. 
The leffor of them, DEF, wa* fuller, and more Bar, 19,6 riniur'^ Thermometer 55. infg- a.SM 

reprcfentt 

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Haiol'dSDC. 
Furnace ior FaHes . . . 




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PA R, ( 13 ) . PA, R. 

reprefenta the footh' meridian | NM the north others will have it' to have been Co called from 
meridian { PP the prifoiatje. circle, with two prif. Aftoraerttns Parin's, a famous fratuary, who en- 
ma tic firas or parhelia, it ib a . diftance on each nob led tt by cutting' -a ftatuc of Venus in it. 
fide the true fun j V> f the white parhelion, at 90 s PAHIAN1, the mhsbitants u( PakIum. 
drtiance from the- true fun) LA the luminous al- PA MAS, or Pi ash AS, a tribe of Hindoos, -fo 
rnicantar ; and HQ. toe horizon. Various hypo- peculiarly 3egi»ded' beyond ill others, that they 
thefea have been named by trprlofpphera M "4c- ifve by themrerves in the out-flcirts of towns: 
count for this phenomenon, particularly by M, and, in the country, build their houfea apart 
Mariotte, pefcartes, am* Huygens. Ndne of from the villages, or ritier have villages of their 
thern, however, are ftlisfactory: but readers who own, fttrnifhed with wells; for they dare not 
with to become acquainted with, them may con-' forth water from thofe which other families make 
fult Hnygens's difrertatrorr on. this fubjeor, in nfe of ; and,- left thefe latter fhould inadvertently 
Smith's Optics, book 1. ch. ir. ftjufchenbroeck's go ; to-dtie of theirs, they are obliged to fritter 
Introduction, $c.'*oli si. p, 1038, He. 410. ; but the bones of dead cattle about tbeir wells, that 
cff>eciairy Dr PrfefHey's Hiftory «f Virion, Light, they maybe known. They dare not in cities 
and Colour-, -vol. ii, p. 6't j, *;«. '! pais through the ftreers where the Brarriini livea 

(r.)PARlA, or Naw Andalusia, s country nor fct foot in [he villages where ibey dwell [ nbr 

of Terra Finn* in. S. America ; bounded on the ester ■ temple,' either of their god Wiftoow br 

N. by the North Sea; E. by Surinam ; S. by .Efwara ; becaufe they are held impure They 

Guiana, aodW. by New Granada and the Oa- eel 'their bread' by lowing, diggjng, and rtuildihg 

raccas. See *.wnALrjsia,"NBWi Cumona is the" the walls of mud h'oufesf molt Si the* inhabited 

capital. See Cum Ma.-', by the common people being ratted by theft Pa. 

(a.)P*»ia, adirtria of S. America, in La Plata,'- rias ; who do al? fuch kindt of dirty' work as 

beginning 110 miles WW:of thecity-of La Plataf g*er people will not meddle with. Nor is their 

and extending lao miles'. The climate ' ii cold, met'rniich'more cleanly ; for they eat Cows, hor> 

and the foil barren ; but it has Bhrer mines, and fes, fowls, or Other carrion, which die Ot thtm- 

aboandi Witbtattle. Iti cheek is moch efteerted, fetves. One wou|d fcarec imagine, that contend 

and exported through all the provinces of Peru, ' tiaes r^' precedency Thou Id ever occur among 

(r.) PARIAN, adj. ' Of or from Paaos.- a people who have reuouno dalf clean lineCs, and, 

(1.] Puns Chronicle. See A*unoimjts' like (wine, wallow in fitth ; and'who are held in' 

MaislsJ, f'i— 3. Under that article, we have foch utter contempt by the ret of the Hindoos; 

given aw foil a view ot the arguments for and yet pride has divided the Paria* into two claffesi- 

rtnft the atrtheiiticrty of the Parian ChrorriclK as the. Grit, are frmply called Paaras, the other 

fubject firetned'tu require, or M the nature of S em run. The employment of'theft laffia to 

our work would admit. Such of onr readers, go about felling- leather; which they drefs; aHo 

however, as wrfft for further information' on this . td make bridles, and fome of them ferve fbr fbl- 

fubjetft, (which re equally intereftftig to the fcho- dien. The Parias, who reckon thernfelves the 

lar and to the antnjnariari,) we nrttft refer to Ro- better family, will not eat in^the boufes of the . 

bertfon's attack, and to- Gouge's learned and Jn- Scriperes; who reuft pay them refpecr, by Hftrp g 

dicions vindication of their authenticity, pnblith. their bands akrft, and sanding 'upright before 

ed ia Arzbxelegm for tySo. The extent of his them. The Seriperes, when they marry, "Cannot 

lei nine, and the foKdity of his arguments, ap- fet np a pandal, a kind of garland) before their 

pear, upon the whole, to outweigh the objections ' doors, tjiade with more than three flakes ortreel| 

of his fenfible and phuubte opponent. Hewlett's erfe the whole city would be' in motion. They 

book upon the fame Ode of the uuefttoois alfo are, in fact," Haves; for-wben any per (on of au- 

ingenioua. tbnritv dies in tne families of the Komitis, Sitfis, 

(3.) Paxiak MflKHLi; t*. the natural Wftory of Palis, farriers, or gt>H fori t lis, and the rehrtionit in- 

tbe ancients, the white marble ufed then, and to chne to give forac elothea to the Scriperes, their 

this day, for carving frames, &c, and called by beards 'muft be fhaven ; agd when the corpfi- it 

us at this time stituait k aisib. Too many carried out of town to be burned or interred, ' 

of the later ' writers bare confounded all the they mult do that office j for which each receives, 

white marbles under the name of the Parian j a piece of filler, worth j« fous. Tbete Scriperes 

and among the workmen, this and ajl the other are called at Sural Hulahh.n; that is, in the 

white marbles nave the common name of alabaf- Perhan language, tat ails, or eaten at large. No- 

iers; & that it is in general forgot teh among thing can offend an Hindoo more" than to be call- 

them, that there is fach a thing as alabafter dif- ed an Hatik-hor: yet thefe poor people fubmtt 

ferent from marble ; which, however, ia truly toe to all this drudrery and contempt without repi- 

cale. Aim oft all the world aho have confounded ning. They ate very Aupid, and ignorant, and : 

the Carrara marMe with- this, though they are even vicious, from their wretched way of life: 

really very different ; the Carrara kind being of the Bramini and nobility (bun tbem as if they 

a finer ftruelure and clearer white than the Pari- had the plague, and look on the meeting a Paria 

an; but left bright and fpiendid, harder to cut, as the grcateii misfoitune. To conn- near one of 

and not capable of fo glittering 3 Doiifb. The them is a fin, to touch them a facrilege.' If a 

trne Parian marble has nfnally foniewbat of a Paria were dying, it is infamy to vifit him, or to 

faint bhjifh tinge among the white, and often has give him the lean affiltance, even in the utmoft 

brae veins in different parts of it. It is fnppoled diftrefs. * A Bramln who touches a Paria, imme- 

by fome to have had its name from the ifland Pa- diately wafhes himfeif from the inpurity. Even 

ros, (See PAaos,) where it was firit found ; but tbeir uiadow and breath being reckoned contagi- 



, ., b'a'" e! ..'..,,. (^.iV,)'.- K, E^flf'-. . 

ov* they are 'obliged tp live, on, t^e saflUtwoft -ijARJLU. /See-PA^sa .. . ., 

their towns, that, the weftei)y winds w.bi^ji re'BQ . PAMJLLA, or.Sunia Pari] [a, 'a. town, of Peru, in 
in ihia country nvy ketR. back ;h*^ brtatji^i ,Apd Lima, M (he .ejajjta, neat the coafcVjo miles S. of 
a Brantin may kill one ofjejhffe; unhappyicrea- Tr.uxjlloj flflH.Wi .«??■ °I XinW, Loa. 77. jo. 
hues, if he doe*, net avoid. itihy gettiAp.out-flt ^. ,.I*t t ,8j,j6. S. u - 1 -..-.' ■ 

bit way : Jn. fhort, they think, .iVoi.ffpro^tedi .J'.ytlJ.QVA.'ajowa of.Huffia.in Itkuift. 
by-God, and believe the fouk of the d*moW,fp- .«f5: p ABffl» C*4ci£*** province of Peru, 
tar. into the Paria*»tO be punimedior, ; t4)eir,cjimfl«t, 3,, o£,Qbamanga ij(crnic.-in cort..and fruit*, and 
Yet the miflion have. found among, lhefe4rpgi,fif, atfojjnding wltEi catile^aa.well-a* with. gold and 
tb< people wiy active, zealous c*teeh,ifls,,;Kjio,.lig' fiiJW K.W^ .llij'r- :■>•" ?•■*/•"■' 
their labours have .»ery much- contributed to the. ,„(*.) P«».tN4,-jCoc*s» .a- prewince of Lima, 7* 
coaterpon of their countrymen,, .particularlg.po,^. rrnh^ Jong ; *'.bicli.alfo.,aboju^d» y.jth gold and 
Rajanatken, a Pari*, foltlier, who,,pf aHlhe mfe-, filyer mines, Baft ure*, cattje,, fieni, and fruit*, 
nor miffionarie*, baa djjtingu jibed binifelf mofl' ^* P^jitNG. «l. i [fronv^r*.] jTnat which It 
bj his labours and fufTcrings, . ( , -j' pared ofi any thing: thejiOdj— V/igmity, brceda 

PARJCHIA. SeePA»03, N°.,». .; :". : ',,„' oums, much likc-acheefej and c^iif^mn Hfelf to 
, PARIDRONG, a town of Thibet. Lon.,8£. . t£c,veryj/an V .. S^i— . .■» ,; ,, , ■'• 
34- E- Lat. 18. u. N. Tabis-guuft tho' up M| fpariiijj, '.. 

PAWED, a town of France, in the dep, of the, .'..He.eatiimfclf the rind a/nl parnfS--, ' P<4*- 
Meui'e; 6 miles SSE. of Eftaing, ,and 11 E. of —In May.,, after ra»o r -pare,"off .the fcirface'of the 
Verdun.- , .„■ earth,' arid with the panngi, j^ife yy'ur hills.higb, 

PARl£SOVATZ,a tt-wn ofqepatia^ " and enlarge, their breadth., Aferf'. /ty&i " 

•PARIETAL. «•>>'. [from fariii, Latin.] Cob- ' PARiPB,*.town.cf-Br»^ in Bahi*.' 
ftituting the fides or wall's.— The. 1 9 wer part, of] '(i.J PARIS, iniatrulous hiftojy. the, (on of Bri- 
Uw*»«r«(W,and upper part of l%,temponutoni* v a$n,k«jB of Troy, by.Heculw.a^nam'ea. Altx- 
were rracinrvd. Sharp. | v " ' - Au^.^iHc-npaa decreed, „evcD. beiore. his" biitb, 

PARIETAL1A Ossa. iSee ^jiato'm v. j' 1 i, a . to bee**™ U»e,ruin,»f . biar country [ and. when fab 

PARIETARIA< ■P^LM,T.o»y ,pVth$, lyALi.;* mother, jn lite Sift month* ot,ber pregnancy, had 
a genua of. the.,pK»o;cU:ord^r»,Jbelpjging i iq't^e ; defused ihafifhcJbou.UibrJDgfartb atotcbwhjcb 
palyfiami<ac1afsofpiaats) and in the natural me-; woiiidMet 6/n fn.het'paiaiiftTthtro^bla'yeiB fore- 
tbod rapVng. under the j|dqideri.ifcair»if. The told tLe ca|antitie«; which . were.- to be cj^peifted 
ca) y 1, of the hermaphrodite is.ru^U-iud'.; there V- ftomjie.jpipruiienqe af, ksr,.fpjure foojaju^ wbich 
no- corolla i there are 4 ftarqiJja) «*ie' tfyfe jnandv if«uJ4 «nd,aa rt«,ruii):frf, .'l'[oy.,.-Pr»mi b «p pre- 
one feed. Superior, and elpngafed>.. TJie' female ve^^o^raat.acala^ity, .^r.dejed bu Dave Arcbe- 
calys ri quadtifid; there "is no corollai 'twrjirp" lau^t«4fuyo.y. (lie chil(l-ai (bun. as he. was born. 
. there any ftamina. . There. is one ftyli.fc pnd one, Xbe.fla,ve,Hvlx.^WPfed *"• ■*j iild on.jnountlda, 
feed fuperipr and. «longatad. .*fhcrc are fix fpc^' wbere (h|a ftiepji^da of the, puce found bimi an j 
cics, of which, the " '. j.,,-,, .-V .._,_^.. „^ e^ut^tflfJ^Juffl.^a-tbeir qwn.r Some Uy,a fie-btar 

PatiETAM* officinalis is uiejim rjjediclnG,i fuckledbi^^.Tliough tduaaiedAmoog .(hepberda 
Thi» baa a creeping, root.'. The lialk^raws erect, and pea&atst hjigave verjeariy proofa of courige 
is rough to the touch, aodadhellva. The leave,*,', and- ipfcejjidjtj;! and from, bis care in protecting 
are alternate, elliptical, lariceoljU,,»eiried,.ap4,j., tbe , ,8^M,of,pnouiM. J*la trfliu. the rapacity pf the ^ 
little rough. The flowers grow,-? ut,yejt, lha lab;, wJW-. ijc4f(s T ^_was named JlUxaBiltr, a helper/ 
of the leaves, in ftffile, branched. yerticillafe,xlu(,.. of men. ..He, gained the efteem.of all the Hicp- 
ters, of a grecoifh cnlour tinged wtth'red, , TV 1 herds, and his manly deportment recommended 
anthers have a great degree .of.feniibiiky;,. for,, if. Urn ,to, (Sri one, any^nph of lda,-whopi he marri- 
imtated wi(h the point of a pin, they fly, from , erl, grid with whom; he lived with the moll ptr- 
the calyx with elaftio force, and. throw out .'their feci tenderneft. Their conjugal. peace, was, bow- 
powder. The plant nas' a cooling and diuretic . ev«„.of. no long duration,. At the. marriage of 
quality. Three ounces of the juice taken inter- Peleusani) Thetis, Ats, the goddefs of difcord, 
nally, or .a fomentation externally applied, have, whp bae\ not. been, invited to partake of the. tnter- 
been found ferviceable in the (trangury. The, ta^rpen^, flowed her difplc*fure, by throwing; 
plant laid upon heap* of cotton, infefted with*,' into, the aflembly of the gflda *vbp were at the 
weevil*, u faid to drive' away,,thufe deftructive' celebration of the nuptials, a gulden apple, on 
infects. • which weic written the word*, Lit Wbt given to. 

* PAR1ETARY, n. /. [faritftu^i Fr.]. An t&fturrjl. All the,*oddcfi>s,c|aimeVl it as their 
herb. Aiaf. own;' the contention at firft .became general; but 

PARIETES, in, anatomy, a teroj ufed,'for'the ' ai.'laft only three, Juno. V«iii(, and, Minerv^ 
inclofurei or membrane* that (top up'or clofe the ■ wifned to dilpute their /efpeflive right, to beauty. 
hollow part* of the body ; efpecially thole of the The gods, unwilling to become arbiters in an jjf- 
heart, the thorax, &c. The parietet of the two fail ib delicate in it* nature, appointed Paris' tg. 
ventricle* of the heart are of unequal ftrength . adjudge, the prize. The gcjd^elJijs appeared be- 
and thicknefs ; the left exceeding the right, he- . fore their judge with/nit .covering or ornament, 
caufc of it* office, which i* to force J be blood, and each endeavou(ed.,by promifc* to. influence 
through all parts of the body j whereat the right his judgment., Junp pronuied him a kingdom;, 
only drive* it through the lung*. Minerva, wifdotn a^d.militar.yiglory ; and Venus 

PAR1GNE, a town of France, in the depart- tbefairett wocnan in the world lor hit wife. [O- 
ment of the Sarte : 9 mile* SE. of Mans. rid. R/roid 17. v. 11S.] After be had beard their 



Uglt 



.P- A R f( 15 J. ■ J? ■ A R 

Wnl claitnt and promifca, Paris adjudged the feet .of CE none, „w hom be had bafdy abandoned, 

pria to Venus, and gave" heV tV gofdetf apple. artoVwho had foretold him that he would iblidt 

Tail decifion drew upon the judge and Msj rami- her afliftanee in his dying moments. He expired 
It the nrfenttnent of the" two other" godeflea. ' before he came into the prefence of (Enone, who 

Soon after, Priam propsfed a cohtefl "araortg his threw herfetf upon his body, and dabbed herielf 

foot and other princes, arfcTproiniled 16 reward to the heart.' According to others, Paris did not 

the conqueror with one of the' fineft bulls of immediately go to Troy when he left the I\-lp- 

monnt Ida. His emi Caries were fent tb procure ponnefus, but he was driven on the coafts of 

tie animal, and it was foond in' the'pofTeffion bf Egypt, where Proteus, the king of the country, 

Paris, who reluctantly yieftfed It.' But "he Went detained bim.'. He died about n38 B. C. See 

to Troy and entered thelitis of trie combatants. 'Tro*. '•_.'•'. 

He was received with applaufe, and obhincd the (j,)PiRisi Matthew, one of the bell EngliOi 
t&ory over his rival*, Neftor the"Btt ef'Nelctls, ' hlftoriarrs, from William the Conqueror to the 
Cyenui fon of Heptane, PotiTeV Helen US, and latter end of Hie reign of Henry III. Letand, bis 
Cfiphobut, tins of Priam. He TnWwITe Obtained original biographer, informs us,' that he was ■ 
a foperiority over Hector himfelf ; J w bo, "eii raged mnnfc of St Alban's, and that he was fent by Pope 
to fee himfelf conquered by an uflltmlWi Ktanger, Innocent to reform themonts. of the convent at 
porTied bim clofely ; and Piris MuMl have fallen Holm In Norway. Bp. Bale adds, that, on account 
a rifliw to hi* rage, had bettar'fleo'ld'ffe altar ■ df his extraordinary gifts,, he was much, efteemed 
of Jupiter. This facfed retreitt 'preferrcM' "his by Henry HI. who' ordered bim to write the hif- 
tne;andCa(Tandra, the daughter of Priam, Thuek ' tory of :b,)S reign, poller makes him a native of 
iriiatbe firoitarciy of the retourti'of 'Parlit'wlth CambrtdEefhjre, and fays, he was fent by the', 
tbcfe of her brothers, Inquired hflbtrfh and Hit pope to vi fit the monks in the diocefe of Nor. 
age. Prom thefr ctrcumftances the dtfeovered wicb. Paris died in the monaltery of St Al ban's 
that be was her brother, and as filth Introduced ■ in itjg- He was a man of extraordinary know* 
him to her rather and to her brother*. • Priam ledge for the 13th century j of an excellent mc- 
acknowtedged Paris as his fon, and all jeatoufy ral character, and, as an hiftorian, of Itrict inte- 
Ctafed amoig tbe brothers. Paris did not long grity. His worths are, 1. Hifioria ah Adoma ad 
remain inactive ; be equipped a fleet, as if will. Canquefiam Anelia. lib. i. M. S. col. C. C. Cantab. 
in; to redeem Heftbne his father's filter, -whom c. ix. Mod of this book is tranferibed by Mat- 
Hercules had carried away, and obliged to marry thew of Weftminfter into the firft part of Ms 
Ttbmon the fon of JEaeus. This was the pre- Fhri/tgium. a. Hifioria major, feu nrum Aaglica- 
tended motive of his voyage, but the caufes were narum hifioria a Cn/.' Conquefiorit ad-ventu ad an- 
tar di ff erent. Helen was the faireft woman of man 43 Henrici III. Sec, feveral times printed. 3. 
tbeage, and Venusbad prosiifed hertohrm." He Vux duurum Offarum, Mtrcut regain, S. Albani 
therefore went to Sparta,- tbe rcfidence of Helen, fundalorum. "4. Oefia si akbotum S. Aliani. j, 
who bad married Menelaua. He was received Additam/nta cbrhnicGrum ad bijt. mdjiirem ; ptint- 
with great refpect ; but he abufed the faofpitaKty ed. 6. Hifioria minor, Jive epitome maforii bifiarU; 
of Menelaus, and while tbe hufband was abfent MS. Bolides many other things in "MS. 
to Crete, perfaaded Helen to elope with bim, and (3.) Paris, in geography, the capital of France; 
to By to Afia. Priam received her without diffi- is fituated on the rirer Seine, in the department 
catty, at bis filter was then detained in a foreign of Paris, and ci-devant ifle of France, being one 
country, and as he wiftied to mow himfelf as Aof. of the targelt and fineft cities in Europe, It de- 
tiic as potable to the Greeks. This affair was rived its modern name from the ancient Parish i 
foan productive of serious confequences. When and is fuppofed to have had the Latin name of 
Meoelaus had married Helen, all 'htr fuitors had Lutetia, from lulum, mud, the place where it 
bonnd tbemftlve* by a folcmn oath to defend her how Hands having been anciently very marlhy 
from every violence 1 and -therefore he reminded and muddy. Ever flnce tbe reign of Hugh Capet, 
them of their engapensebti, and called, upori them that is, for above 800 years, this city hath been 
to recover her. Upon this -all Greece took up theufual rcfidence of tbeking* of France; it is of 
anus; Agamemnon was chofen general of the a circular form, and, including the fuburbs, about 
rombioed forces, and a regular War was begun, it Englifli miles, in circumference. Tbe number 
rant, meanwhile, who had refuted Helen to the or its inhabitants is cqmputed at above 800,000 ; 
petition* and embafBes of the Greeks, aimed hta- that of its ftreets above 1000; and that of its 
f-tf, with hi* brothers and (ubjocls* tooppofethe houfes upwards of 14.000, eiclufivc of the public 
enemy ; bat be fonsht with little courage, and ftrucrures of all forts. Its greateft defect fs the 
at the very fight of Menelaui, whom be had'fo want of good water. The ftreets are narrow, but 
recently injured, hit conrage vanifhed, and he re* 'well built, paved) and lighted. The number of 
bred from the army. In a' combat with Mene- churches, hofpitals, ' market-places, fountains, 
lans, Pari* maft have perifbed, had not Venus in- gates, and bridges, in this city is very great j be- 
terfered. He wounded, however, in another bat- fides the National Institute, which fupplies 
lie, Machaon, Euryphilus, and Diomedes; and, the place of the ci-devant academies, public lib- 
Kcording to fbme, he killed with an arrow the" raries, fitc. and above 100 hotels, fome of 't bent 
peat Achilles. The death of Paris is differently very (lately. That part called tbe City; lies in 
related : fome fay be was mortally wounded by the centre, and confiils of three iBands formed by 
ose of tbe poisoned arrow* of Phitoetetes ; and the Seine, -pre. the iQes of Palais, Notre Dame, 
tan when he found himfelf languid by hi* 'and Louviers. It is the principal of the three 
■mods, be ordered himfelf to be carried to the parts into which tbe city is divided, and contain* 

the 



V A *. C l«, ) t A ■* 

the Following remarkable (tinctures: t. Several by Francta L at the battle ofPavia. Here alfo all 
bridge*; of which fome are of wood, sod 'others the ci-devant royal academic* held their meet- 
of (lone, arid have moft of them a row of houfe* inc*. (See Academy, N°I, 3.5 II,- 3. 5 ^ VIII, 3; 
6b each Tide. The chief of thefeare the Pom- Xul, g,.i i,i».) tt.. la felpii H/yei. built by 
neuf and Ponl-royal : the firft confifts of u arch- Card. Richelieu, [n 1636. It cootatned pictures 
ea, ja-hich. properly f peaking, make two bridge!, to the value of fourmillwn* of Jimes, which were 
the one leading from the fuburbi of St Germain purchafed by Richelieu, and of which a part be- 
ta the city, and the other from thence to that longed to Chriftinp, queen of Sweden. i». The 
part called £1 FiUe i there la a carriage-way in the Thtalieriei,' fo cajled from « .tile or brick-tiki 
middle 30 feet broad, and foot walki on eaeb which Rood there formerly. Behind it are plea- 
fide, raifed two feet high ; and in the centre flood, fant garden*, adorned with one walk*, planted 

. before the revolution, a brafaftatueof king Henry with ever- greens, &C- with beautiful parterre*. 3 

IV. on horfeback} but it «aa deftroyed during fine fountains, and a canal. Behind the Thuilte- 

tbe anti-monarchical mania, in 1791- On this ries, on the bank of the river, are pltafarjt walks, 

bridge is alfo the building called 7jj Samaritaint, cotnpofed of. 4 rowaofbnfty elnn, to which vait 

from a group of figures upon it rcprefen ting our crowds »f people refort, as well a* to tbc garden*. 

Saviour and the Samaritan woman) {landing near In the palace i* a fpactoni and magnificent the** 

- Jacob's well. Here is a pomp to raife the water, tre ; and hard >y ft are the £ly6an fields, and die 
which through feveral pipe* fupplies the quarter church of St Roche- 13. La Piatt Jt Lint It 
of the Louvre, and fome other part* of the town. Grand, a very beautiful fqtiare\ in the centre of 
The Pant-royal which lead* to the Tfcu ill tries, which waaanequeftrian ftatueof that king, which 
was built by order of Lewi* XIV. in the room of was alio denjbtimed by the democrates. 14. The 
a wooden bridge that wa* carried away by the Place, or Squirt 4ei VtBoiret. which ia round, and 
current in 16S4. 1. The cathedral of Notre Dame, contained a fratue ofXcwi* XIV. of gilt brafs, e- 
or «ur L^dy, being dedicated to the Holy Virgin, reeled to hhn by the duke of Fuilbde, with this in- 
whicb is a Urge (lately Grthic ftrudure, raid to faiption, rmimmemli. ij.TUt fj-devarjt Royal 
have been founded by king Chilrleric, and built Library in the Rqe Vivien, which contained 04,000 
In the form of a crofs. Here, befides other great printed book*, lojooo MSS. and a prodigious col- 
perfcmagei, are interred the cardinal* de Rett aiid ledion of copperplate* and medtilf. 16. Tnepa- 
N nail let. From the two fquaretowcr* belonging liih church of St Eoftace, which (land*, in the 
to it, i* a noble profpecr. of the city and neigh- quarter To named. 1 j. The gate of -St Dennis ; 
bowing country. Here i* a vaft quantity of gold and 1 %. The gate of St Martin, both of which 
and tilver plate, rich tapeftrfj 4tc. and fotmerly were erected in fotm of triumphal arches, in ho- 
therc were to canons. Near it flood the fjalaceof . nourof LewitXIV. loiLaGrrvM an open place, 
the Abp, in which in the advocate*' library. 3. where public rejoicings were celebrated* and, roa- 
Tbe priory and parifli church of St Bartholomew; It-factors executed, ad. The Hotel de Vilk, a large 
.' the left of which fi the moll beautiful in all this building of Gothic architect!) re, adorned with co- 
part of the eitv, and Hand* near the Palais. 4. lutnns of the Corinthian order. 11. The arlenal 
The Palait, which give* name to an ifland, and . in the quarter of St Paul, confining of many fpa- 
in which the parliament, with many other courts, ciout building*.; among which are a founders, 
were formerly held. There is a beautiful chapel and a houfe for making faltpetre. Here is a muf- 
beloriging to the Palais : in which it alio the pri- quetoon of two barrel*! which it ia faid will pierce 
ton, or jail, called La CeKciergeru. «. The Hotel a thick board at the diftaoca.nf fit mile*; and 
ptiett, the mod ancient and brgeft hofpkal in Pa- for difcerning an object, at .thatdiftimee, haaatc- 
ait, in which 8000 fick and infirm poor are taken lefcope fixed to the barrel. " »».. The TtUffU, a 
care of. 6. The hofpital of St Catherine', where comnundery of the knight* of Mulfa, which givet 
poor women and maiden* are entertained three name to a quarter ; and, during thfccourfe of the 
day*. 7. The Grand Chatelet. 8. Fort 1'Evequc, revolution,' ha* bees ufed a* a ftate prifon, inflead 
in which is the mint and a prifon, near theftreet of the FUsrittj which was deft roiyed July ■*, 
La Ferroniere, in which Henry IV. wa* dabbed by 1784; but, like the Hydra's head, hi* been fue- 
Ravailliac. 9. St Germain 1'Auseirois. 10. The ceeded by numberkf* other Baftilea- 13. The ci- 
Louvre, an ancient royal palace, of which a part (levant La Mai/an prtftgk act Jtfuiltt, irt the 
wa* rebuilt by Lewi* XIV. On one of it* gate* quarter of St Anthony, in the church of which 
il the following infcription, Dim Mum impleat the heart* of Lewi* 3CI II. .and XIV. are preferved, 
orbtm i the meaning, of which it, " May it laft each in a cajket of gold, fdpported by two angels 
till the owner of it bath extended his fway of many Giver, and a* big as the life, hovering 
over the whole world :" which impliea what with expanded wing*. In the* fame quarter was 
the French kings have conftantlr aimed at; a fine looking-giaf* man tifactare, where above joo 
as well as what Bonaparte, the fctf cooftituted perfon* were employed in polrfliing plates call at 
emperor of France, ftill aim* at. This palace St Gobin. In that' part of the city called the 
i* joined to the Thuilicrie* by a gallery. In which U*i-n*rfii#, the principal place* are, 1. The utri- 
are ilo models of fortrcfie*, fome btuated in verfity, which wat firft founded by Charles the 
France, and fome in other countries, executed Great, a. The Gobelin*, a houfe were a great 
with the utmoft accuracy. Here it, or at leaft number of ingenious artifti, in t»riou* manufac- 
was, before the revolution a valuable collection tare* and handicrafts, were employed by the go- 
of painting*, the mint, together with a prodigious vcrnmem. The meat curious tapeftry of alt forts 
quantity of rich tapestry hangings, and a col lee- wa* made here. j. The General Hofpital, a moft 
tion of ancient arm*, among which are thole worn noble foundation for the poor of the female fex, 

•« .Google' «" 



P A A , C 17 ) PAR 

where yooo objects were taken care of and pro- ■ (6.) Pa Kit, attlfland on the coaft of S. Carolina' 
tided far. 4. The ct-devant Royal Phyfic Oar- {7.7 Paris, a thriving townfhip of New York, 

den, in which ate an immenfe variety df plants and in Herkemer county, 6 miles W. of Wliiteflown. 

trm. 5. The abbey of St Victor, in which U a It tin a congregational church, an academy called 

public library, containing fame very ancient and Hamilton, and, in 1796, contained 3459 ritj-. 

fcarce books, feveral curious MSS. and a prodl- lens, of whom 564 w ere electors. Iron ore ia' 

glous collection of maps and copperplates. 6. found near it. 

The College of Phy Brians. 7. The Little Chafe- (8.) * Paris, ti.f. (owniftu».] An herb. Ai*r. 
let, an old fortrefa, ufed aa a prifon. I. The Roe (9.) Paris, lu botany, Herb Paris, o- 'ravs> 
St Jacques. n.The Royal College, and that of love, a genusof the trigynia order._ O elonc.inf; to 
Lewis the Great. 10. The Abbey of St Gene- the oftandria ela.fi of plant*; at"J i„ the natural 
vieve, in which ia the marble monument of ling method ranking under the I'/th order, Sarmente? 
Clotis, the mrine of St Genevieve, a large library, re*. The calyx is tetrar l ,,jH ol , s . ihere are four 
with a cabinet of antiquities and natural curiofi- petals, narrow in proportion ; the berry ctiadri- , 
ties. 11. The ci-devant Royal Otfervatory, a Jocular. TCerc is *^ut one fperies, growhnr natu- 
re oft ftaiety edifice, built on the higheft part of rally in woods rjnd fhady placet both in Scotland 
thecily. 11. The Academy of Snrftery.lnflitut- and EnpUnd." It hath a fmgle naked ftem, green- 
ed in 1731. 13. The Convent of Franctfcant, in ifti bloffoir, () and bluifh black berries.— The leaves 
the quarter of St Andrew, where there were re- and heroes arrefaid topartake oftheproperliesof 
mains of the palace of Julian the Apofkate, In opium j and the jnice of the- berries k ufeful in 
which Ctiildebert, and fame other king* of the 'ir, (Urn motions of the eyes. Lirrr.trus l.-tve, that 
Franks, afterwards refided. 14- The Theatre-, the 1 root will vomit .« weH as ipecacuanha, but- 
ij.The Convent of Carthufiani, in the .trotter tnuft be taken itidonblethe quantity. Goats and 
of Luxemburg, containing fine psifttiDa^v. 16. flieep eat the plant } cows, horfes, and (wine, re- 
The ci-devant palace of LuKemboTgi or Orleans, ftrfe it. Though 1 this' plant has been reckoned 
a magnificent firuflure, containing fine paintings poifCnons, being ranked 'among the aconites; yet 
by Rubena, with a noble garden. 17. The Ab- late author* attribute quite other properties to it, 
bey of St Germain dea Prez, which .contained a pfteemtmj it » counter-poifan, -and good in malig- 
very valuable library, the MSS. alone making -nant and peftilenrial fevers. ' 
8000 volumes ; alfo a cabinet of antiquities. 18. (to ) Paris HsbU, Of AMERICA, or OT CA- 
The Hotel detbmliJei, erected by Lewis XlV. in Kada. ' See Trillium. 

which lame and fupera filiated officers and faldiers (n.) Paris, MassacKe of. Sec France, { 

were maintained. Thefe buildings take up 17 41, 41.' > 

acres. Ttie chapel is very magnificent. Hard by (n.) Parts, Plaster of. See Plaster. 

' " " "" ' (i.)* PARISH, at./. [porwWi, lowLatini/a- 

rejffi, pr. of the Greek «r«uB t i. t.'ieeelomt 

. , ttmventtu, attain tut, fatra vicinia] The partial- 

165 SE. of London, 6aj. NW1 of Vienna, and lar charge of a frcular pried. Every church is 

630 NE: of Madrid. Lon. a. tj. £, Lat. 48. either cathedral, conventual, or parochial: ca- 

50. N. * ' ' thedral is that where there is a bifhop feated, fo 

(a-) Pahs, a department of France, contain, called a cathedral : conventual eon lifts of regular 

'mg the capital (N° 3.) with its fubnrbs, and a Clerks, profeffing fame order of religion, or of a 

circuit of about 3 miles around it. ' dean and chapter, or other college of fpirttusl 

(5.) Pints, a mountain in the ille of Anglefey, men: parochial is that which'is inftrfuted far faf- 
on the coaft 'of North Wales, which abounds in mg divine fervice, and adminiftering the holy ft- 
enpper are, the bed of which is above 40'fect crament to the people dwelling within a eerttlh 
thick. The leffees of this mine annually raife cempafs of ground near unto it. Our realm was 
from 6000 to 7000 tons of merchantable ore, and firft divided into parijhei by Honoriua, archbifhop 
daily employ above 40 furnaces in fmelting it. of Canterbury, in the year 63S. Ceviel. — Darin fas 
This ore contains a great quantity cf fujphur, came piping and dancing, the merrieft man id a 
which no ft be feparated by ri-aiting before it can parijh. Sidney. — By the Catholick church is rieant 
be Hmwd into copper. Part of the vitriolic acid no more than the common church, mto which all 
ia difperfed into the air by the fire ; another part fuck perfons as belonged' to that parijh, in which 
attacks and duToltcs fucb a quantity of the cop- it was 4juitt, were wont to congregate. Pearftm. 
per, that the water in which the rosfted ore is The tythes, his farijh freely paid, he took; 
wafhed (by* means df oM iron immerfed in it ac- But never fu*d, or cur*d with bell or book. 
cording to the German method} produces great ' Dryien, 
quantities of fine copper, fo that the proprietors (i.l * Parish. a3j. I. Belonging to the pa- 
have obtained in one year near 100 tons of the riih ; having the care of the parifh. — 
copper precipitated from this water. If this wa- Ajtarj4priefl was of the pilgrim train- DryJ. 
ter were afterwards evaporated, it would yield Not pari/h clerk, who call the pfalms fo clear, 
gr:en vitriol or vitriolated iron, at nearly the rate 1 Gay. 
of 100 tona of vitriol for each ico tons of iron " — The office of the church .is performed by the 
at leaft ; which, at the rate of 3I. Sterling peY porjfk prieft, at the time of his interment, jfyliffi. 
ton, might produce very good profit to the un- — A man, after his natural.' death, was not eapa- 
dmakers, if any fhuuld fettle fucb a manufacture Me of the leaft parijh office. Mart. Strib.—Tt.c 
there. . parilh- allows nee to poor people iB «ry feHom a 

Vol. XVn. Part I. C' ' comfortable 

'DflHiednyGodgle 



PAR ( is ) PAR 

comfortable main ten a net. Lata. a. -Maintained den reckons 9*84 patifhes in England ;-l*d Gharos 

by the parifti.— The ghoft and the paiijk girl are beriayne makes 9913. They are, now generally 

entire new characters. Gap. reckoned about 10.000, ■ ■■■ 

(.1-3 Parish is otherwife defined the precinct of PaH.rsH-Ct.lKK, n. f. is a compound fufficieutly 
a parochial church, or a circuit of ground in ha- .authorifed, but it move- properly written in twt 
bited by people who belong to one church, and mardi by Mr Gay. (See Pahish, § i;l In every 
are under the particular charge of its min liter. .pariOi in England, the parfon hath a parifli-clerk 
Tlit word came* from eu(**«!, bahiuMfn ; of wit- under him, who is the loweft ufficer of the church. 
f« near* and Mm hmfc. Du Cange obferves, that Thefe were formerly clerks in orderp, and their 
the name <r«f*i*«was.ancie.ntly given to the whole buQneft at fiift was tb officiate at the altar; for 
territory of a bifhop, and derive* it from neigb- which they had 3 competent maintenance by o£- 
bcturhoad; becaufc the primitive Chriftians, not fermgs; but they are now laymen, and have cer- 
danng to aflemble opsnly in cities,, were forced to tain fees with the parfim on chrifrcnings, mar- 
meet fecretly in neighbour houfcs. In the ancient riag», burials, &c. betides wages far their main- 
church,,! here was one large edifice in each city for .tenancy. The law looks upon them ae office™ 
the people to meet in ; and this t bey called para- ,for life; and they are cholen by tlie^ minifter of 
duo, parijh. But the ligniGcaticvn of the word .the parilb, unlets Utere is a cuftom for the parifh- 
waa afterwards enlarged, and meant a diocefe, or toners or churchwardens to cbpofe them; in 
the jurifdiQion of a bjfhop, confuting of feveral which cafe the canon cannot. abrogate ..fuebcuf- 
churches. Du Pin obferves, that country pariflt- .torn 4 and when cholen it ia to be fignified, and 
es had not their origin before the alh century} .they are to be fworo into their office by thearch- 
but ibofc of cities are more ancient. -Alexandria deacon, for which the court of king's beach wiU 
is iaid to- have been divided into parilhcs- In the grant a mandamus. 

early ages of Chriftianity in this ifland, parifhes " PARISHIONER, n.f. [farej^m, ft, .from 

were unknown, 0; at lead GgriiRed the fame that parijh.] One that belongs to the parilh. — I praife 

a diocefe now does. There was then no appro- the Lord for you, and fo may my parijhisntrs ; 

priation of eccleliaftical dues to any particular for their tons are well tutored by you. Snot. — 
church ; but every man was. at liberty to contri- Hail bilbop Valentine ; whole day this is, 

bute bis tithes to any pried or church he pleated, . All the air is thy diocefe ; 
but be was obliged to do it to foene; or if he And all the'ehirping cboriflers 
made ho fpecial appropriation, they were paid to And other bird* are thy parijhimtrs. JJomr. 

the bifhop, to diftribute them among the clergy, —In the greater out-parifhes, many of the £*- 

and for other pious purpofes. Sir Henry Hobart ripuaturs, through neglect, do perifh. Grawu.— 

maintains that parilhes were firft erected by the I have dcpofited thirty marks, to be diftribuied 

council of Lateran, held A. D. n 79. But Mr among the poor pari/Houm, AdAsfon. 
Selden proves, that the clergy lived in common PARISI, ancient Britons, who inhabited the 

without .any divifion of parifhes, long after the countries now called Durham, Wcfimartlaxd, and 

time mentioned by Camden, (A. D. 636.) and it Cvmbirland. 'J.ndtrfan'i Royal Genial. 
appears from the Saxon laws, that parities were PARISIAN, adj. Of. or belonging to Paris, 

in being long before the council Of Lateran in 1179. ' PARISIANS, the peopleof Paris. See France, 

The dillinftion of pariihel occurs in the laws of § $*', and Revolution, -, . 
king Edgar, about 970. It items pretty clear and (1.) PARISH, an ancient peopleof Gallia Ccl 

certain, Cays judge Biackftone (Com. Vol. I p. rn, I tica, Who inhabited the country about the Srqua- 

th.at.lbe boundaries of paiifhet were firft afecrtain- na.and Marona, fince called the iOe of France. 
cd by tbofe of a manor or manors; becaufe it ve- (1.) Paaisu, an ancient peopleof Britain, who 

ry fcidom happens that a manor extends itftlf o- .hati the. Brigantcsoo the N. and W. the German 

ver more than one parilh, though, there are often fea on the E. and the Coritani on the S. ; from 

many manors in one parilh. The lords, be adds, whom they were feparated by the Humber. They 

as Chriftianity fpread, began to build churches inhabited the diSriA now called Holderhesse, 

upon their awn demefnes or wafles, to accommo- in Yorkfhire. 

date their tenants ifl one or two adjoining lord- PAR1SIORUM civitas. SccLutetia. 
fiiips ; and that they might have divine fervice (i.l PARISOT, John Patroclui, a French »ri- 

regularly performed therein, obliged all tbeir te- ter of the 17th century, who publifhed a work 

nants to appropriate their tithes, to the mainte- entitled La Foi devoilte, par la Rai/om, which in- 

nance of the one officiating minifter, inftead of ceufed the French clergy fo much, that they oh- 

Icavtog them at liberty to diftribute them among tained.an order for its fupprelfion. 
the clergy of the diocefe in general; and this (a.)PAUEoT, a town of France, in the dep. of 

trait of land, the tithes of which were fo appro- Aveiron ; io| miles SW. of Villefranch, and si 

priated, formed a diftinfl parifb ; and this ac- W. ofSauveterre. . 

counts for the frequent intermixture of the parilh- PARIBUS, a river hf Paononia, which runs in- 

es one with another. For if a lord had a parcel to the Danube. Strait. 

of land detached from the main of his eftate, but PAR1TEE Hotun, a town of Chinefe Tartary, 

■not fufficiest to form a parJfli of itleff, it wa* na- 44 j miles ENE. of Peking. Loo. 143. a. E. Ferro. 

tural for him. to endow his newly erected church Lat. 4*. 18. N. 

with, thi tithes .of foch lands. Extra-parochial " * PAR1TOUR. *./. [from apparitor.] A beadle; 

waites and jr.arfli lands, when improved and drain* a fummoner of the courts of civil law.— You fliall 

ed, are by jj- Geo. II. cap. 37. to be afTefTed to all be fummoned by an hoft of paritaurt ; you fliall 

parochial rates in be parilh next adjoining. Cam- be feoteuced in the fpiritual court. Drvdrn. 

•PARITY. 

. " , ;qit ,od google 



FAR { 19 ) PAR' 

* PrVrMTT. nf.lparite, Fr. panto/, LMirr^J is determined" in any of them, it 11 a total difparV- 

^qMllty t refcWtlauce.— We ma; here jtiltly Us ing. Park* as well as chafes are fubject to tire, 

the dilhoocfty and fbam^fuine fs of the mouth*, common law, and are not governed by the foreft 

who 'hive* Upbraided us with the opinion of'a'cer- law. 

tarn ttrrki) -parity of -nrwffrtff.— Tbdt Chrift W (3.) Pake, at connected with, gardening. See 

his »pe*W ever commanded tcKet up fuch ■ pa- Firm, J IV, 1 — 4: and Gardening, J II, t— 

riff of preibyfers, and in loch a way at ttiotfc 4. The molt perfect compolition of a place-that 

Scots ortdcavour, 1 chink ie tint very difpul able, can be imagined, confide of a garden opening in- 

tSttg OnrrVi.J Survey the total let of animal*, to a part, with a fhort walk through the latter 

JtaJ we may, in their legs or organs of progreffion, to a farm, and way* along ita glade* to ridings in 

Obferve'HR equality orlengtb and purify of ntrme- the country ; but to the farm and the ridings .the 

ration. Br«v>m.— Tbofe 'accidental occurrence*, park ii no morethana pafT.ige; andits woottsand 

which' tfxtiteti Sotntt-e ■ to the difcovfcry of fuch ita building! are but circumstances in "' 



. n:ght fall In with that man that is its fcenea can be communicated only to the gar- 

«f at perfect parity whh Socrate*. Rale.— Their den. The affinity of the two fubjefl* is-io clofe, 

agreement in edcntial character*, make* rather that it would-be difficult to draw the exact line 

an idPWity tHn a parity. ■Glaa-villf.'- Women of reparation between them. Gardens have late- 

cuuld hM 'rive in thai parity and equality of er- ly encroached both in extent and in ftyle on the 

pettfe with their bunMndey as-now they do. character of apark; but (till there are fcenrs in 

Gratmt^— By an mfl forifv-et reafon, we may the one which are out of Teach of the other. The 

argue, 'if a man hat nofenuVof thofe kindnefles faiall fequeftered fpots which are agreeable in a 

that pafe upon him, from one like him fclf^ whom garden, would be trivial in a park; and the fpa- 
be few and knows, how much tela (ball hia heart . clou* lawns, which are among the nobleft features 

beafeeed with a gratefuV fenfe of bis favours, of the latter, would in the former fatigue, by their 

whom he converffcs with only by imperfect (pecu- want of variety ;' even fuch as, being of a mode- 

lationa, by the difeuurfes of rcifon, dr the difco- rate extent, tiny, be admitted into either, will 

veries of faith ? South. feem bare add Hiked if not broken, in the one, 

PAK1UM, in ancient geography, a noble city and lofe much of their gteatnefs if broken, in the 

of My tii ivlinor, with a port on the Propontis; other. The proportion of a pari to the whole, i* 

called Adr.<j!ia by Homer, according to Pliny; a meafure of its dimenfiona: it often determines 

but Strata diftingui met them: according to others, the proper Hze" for an object, as well as the fpace 

it is the Paestoj ot Homer. It was the birth- fit to be allotted to a fcene; and regulates the 

place of Neoptolemus, girnamed* GhJJb^tafh«s ftyle which ought to be affigned to either. But 

(Strobe,,) Here Hood a Cupid, equal in exquifire whatever diftinction* the extent may oecafion be- 

workroanfhip to the-Cmdian Venus. It is- now tweena park and a - garden, a ftate of highly cul- 

called Cmmanar. 1 rivaled nature is confident with each of their cha- 

(1.) * PARK. »./ [ptarrur, Sax. parr, Fr.J A rafters ; and may in both be of the <«rfle kind, 

piece of ground inetofed and ftored with wild though m differed degrees. The excellencies both 

beafta of chafe, which a man may have by pre- of a park and a garden are happily blended, at 

fcriptioja or the king's grant. Manwood, -in- nit Hagley, near Stmivbridge in Wiwcelterihire, the 

foreft-law, defines it tftua : a park is h place for feat of Lord Lyttel ton, where the fcenea are equal- 

privilege for wild beafti of venery, and alfb for ly elegant and noble. It is feated in the midft of 

other wild beafti that are hearts of the foreft and a pleafant and fertile country, between the Clent 

of the chafe: andVtbott wild beafti are to have a and Witchberry hills, 

firm peace and protection there, fo that no man (a.) Pass op Aktillbht. See ARTibXHtr, 

may hujat or chafe them within the park, -without N°j, §3. "' "f ■ 

licenfe of the owner: -a park i« of another nature, '"('.} Pakpt OF' Provisions, in miHtaty atfarK, 

than either a chafe or a warren; for * park m«R the place where thefotlers pitch their- tent in the 

beinclofed, and may not tie open } if it dors, it ii reaj, and fell their pro* ifi on s to thefoldiers. Like- 

a good cau&of fciaure into the king's hands: and wrfe that place where the bread -waggon a are drawn 

the owner cannot hare action againft fuch afhunt up, and where the txoopa receive their amnwnltion- 

in hi* park, if it lies open, Cotvei. — Vr> have parii bread, being the ftore of the army. ■ ■ ■ * 

and inclofures of all forts of beafti and bird* wlneh 1 * To ParKu v. a. [from tbe noun.] To nelofe 

we nfe not only for view or rarcnefs, but likewife uin a park. — « • ' 

for diffcctiona and trial*.. Bacon. ■ A How are we^or*V, and bounded r*» a pale, 

(o-)Pa.«*.. SccChaie and Fouest. Nomiv A little herd of England's tim'rou* deer, 

can erect a park without hcente under the broad - Uaz'd with a yelping kennel of French curs. Shah, 

feal; for the common law does not encourage mat- PAKKANY, a town of Hungary, at the conhuK 

ter of pleafure, which brings no profit to the com- of the Danube and the Gran; % miles N. of Gran, 

mtnwealih. But there may be a parkin reputation and 14 E. of OMWtn. 

erected without any lawful warrant) and the own- (1.) PARKER, Henry, Lord Morley, a^noble 

er may bring hi* action againft perron 1 killing bis author, who flourlihed in the reign of Henry Villi 

deer. To a park, 3 thing* are- retraired. 1. A and wrote fereral works, a lift of which may be 

grant thereof. 1. Inclofures by pale, wall, or teen in Mr Waipde's (or Lord Orford's) Cata- 

aedge. 3. Beaft* of a park;' fuch as the buck, togue of Royal and Noble Authors, vol. 1. He 

doe, &c. And where a Li the deer are dettroyed, was one of the barons, who figned the memorable 

nlhaUno more be counted a" park; foT'a park letter to Pope Clement Vll. threatening him 

confift* of vert) venHoo, and incloTure: and if it with tbe lots of bis fuptemacy in Eugland, ualefa 



PAR (.ID 3 P A -A 

%e proceeded to difpatcb the king's divorce xxjemt printed, bat without a same, whid) feriJjje- learn- 

<£. Catharine, «I Wood (o JUiiiiutp thcra to a»jabfcu™ poet of 

. (a.) f «kei, Matthew, the »d Proteftant arch- the name of Keep**,. : 

bifhop of Canterbury, was bom at Norwich in - (3<)-P*s*b*,, John, an eminent, Uwier of the 
ijq*, the 19th of Henry VJL His father, who 17th century, who. pwtifefed at, Northampton 
waa in trade, died when h* win 14 *Mr»oUll W ai»oiit.*6eu» fW v^e^c*va» in #0* oftheTem- 
bii muther tank care of bit education, and »t the pie), ai Loudon ( and, being afterward* agaioft 
*geof 17 fent him to Corpus- Chnfti college iu the king, 'waemadca jnember ef|< toe .hjgh .court 
Cambridge) where, in 1513, he took his degree of of ju&ice ki 1649, where be gave fewrjwe.agaioft 
'A. li. In 1517 he was ordained, created A. M. the three lord*, Capei, Holland, and Hamilton, 
and choien fellow. In 1*33 or 1534 he wm made who were beheaded. During Cromwell-'a JtfUr- 
chaplain to Q. Anne Boieyne, who obtained far paiion, he was made an -affiftaut committee. ra»o 
bim the deanery of Stoke-Clare in Suffolk, where far hit county. In iojo he publifhed a book in 
he founded a grammar fchool, . After her death defence of the new government), aft a c,oflu»orv- 
Henry made bim his own chaplain) and in tJ4I wealth, without a king or hoUl'e of renin *" 
prebeodery of Elf. In 1544, be wa* elected nu*V June-it;;, when Cromwell waa declared protec- 
tor of C'upuB-Chriiti college, and in 15;] -view, lor, he. iu appointed a. com mi ffi oner for lerno- 
chancellor 01 ihe univerfity. In 1547 he left the "uig-obflruciioasal Worcefter-houftioihe Strand, 
deanery of Stoke, by the diUblutioo of that col- near London, and was fworn'ferjcBut at law next 
lege ; and married the daughter-of Robert Ha*le> day. In Jan, 1 6;n,. he waa appointed one of the 
( ft one, a Noifoik gentleman. In 1551 he wa* no- baron* of the exchequer by the Rump Parliament ; 
minned by Ed ward VI. dean -of -Lincoln, which but, upon a compbint, waa difplaccd. Howe*er, 
enabled him to live in great affluence: hut Mary he wab again regularly made (erjeaut at law, na 
I. waa hardly leated on the throne before be was the recommendation of Chancellor H yde» at the 
deprived of every thing, and obliged to 'live in Brft call after the reftoratipn. 
oblburity, often changing his place of abode to i*0 Paukkr, Samuel, D. D. an Englifti clergy- 
av.iid the fate of the other reformer*. Q- Elisa, man, Ion of the preceding, who, by temporizing, 
beth Succeeded in i;eS 1 and in 1559 Dr Parker, became Bp. of Oxford. He wa* born Sept, 1640, 
from indigence and obfcunty, was .at once ratfed at Nontramptoo, and. educated among the Pu- 
to the fee of Canterbury; an lionoor which he titans in Northampton ; whence, being fit for the 
neither foliated nor dented. He wal-confecratcd univerfity, he was fent tu Wadham college in 
Dec'. 17, ijjd, in Lambeth chapel, and not in a Oxford, and admitted in 1619 under a preihy- 
tavern as the Rom an ids pretended, by the four terian tutor. ■ Here be led a ftrifi and religious 
furviviog reformed bilhopa, viz.> WiHUm Badow, life, and waa elteemed one of the moft precioun 
formerly of Bath, now elect of CJnchefter; John young "*" in. the univerfity. He took the degree 
Scong, formerly of Chrchefter, now elect of Here- of A. B. Feb. 18, 1659-60. Upon the reft oration, 
ford; Miles Coverdalt-, formerly ot Exeter 1 and he hcfltated what fide to take; but continuing 
JohnHodgkin, fuffragan of Bedford, all deprived publicly to fpeakagainftepifeopacy, he wa* muck 
.in Mary's time. In thiatugh ftation he acted with dlfcountetianced by the new wardenDrBlandford, 
ipirji and propriety. He vifited bin cathedral and "ho had been appointed to that office upon the 
diocefc in ijAo, ij6j, 1570, and 1573. Here- dawn of the reiteration 10 i6jo. Upon thiabe 
paired and beautified his palaces at Lambeth and removed to Trinity-college, where, by the advio* 
Canterbury 1 at anexpenfeoiabove i4ooi.fterllng, of Dr Ralph Ruth well,- then a fenior fellow of 
which is at leaft equal to ten tianm the fern.now. that Jociety, be wasrefcued from the prejudices 
He gave, (rveral of the moft m**Mi incest entertain- of hi* education, winch- he publicly avowed in 
mem* which are on record, aod regaled not only Pf'nti He then became a sealou* A nti -puritan, 
the rich, but led pienteoufly the; poor. Queen a od iftr many year* atted the part of what wa* 
Eliaabaih.was prevent a| one of Ibefe, He found' then called « true /*• e/ av* tburcfi. In thin tent- 
ed feverai fcholarfhjps in Corpus^Cbrifti college hx per haning taken the degree of M, A. in 1663, he 
■Cambridge, and gave large prefWitnof plate to that entered into holy order*, went to London, and 
and other college* in this univerfiiy. He gave 100 became chaplain to a nobleman ; continuing to 
volumes to the public library. He like wife found' difplay hi* wit upon hi* old friends the preiuyte- 
■ed a free fchool at Rochdale in Lancalhfre. He riana, Independent*, &c. In 1665, be pubtifbed 
took care to have the fee* rilled with pious and lone philolbphtcal Jvlfaya, .and wat eletted S. R. 
learned men ) and, coofidOing the great want of S. Thefe Eflays he dedicated to Sheldon, Abp. of 
bibles in many place*, be, with the affiSance of Canterbury, who became hia patron ; and in 1667 
.other learned men, unproved the Englifh trardla- made him hi* chaplain. Being thna in the road to 
tion, had it. printed on a large paper, and difper- preferment, he left Oxford, and refided at Lam- 
-fed through the kingdom. This worthy prelate beth,. under his patron | who} in 1670, made him 
died in 1175, aged j*. and waa buried in his own archdeacon of Canterbury. In Nov. 1670, be 
.chape 1 at Laeibetb. He waa pi oen without affec- joined the tninof William prince of Orange, who 
' tation J»r aufterity, cheerful and contented in the vifited Cambridge, and had the degree of D. D. 
midfl. of adverfiiy, moderate in the height of pow- conferred upon him there. In Nov. 167a, be wa* 
er, and beneficent beyond example: He wrote inilalled a prebendary of Canterbnry ; and waa 
fereral books ; and publifhed four of our belt hif. made rector of Icknant and Chatham in Kent by 
toriant ; MattMno efWtjtmnJkr, Matthew Paris, the arebbifhop. He wa* very obfequiou* to the 
Jjfirt J-if' tf King Jtfeed, and THa. Walfingbam. court during the reign of Charle* H. and upon the 
tie alfo ujuulaied the Pfalter. Xhi*»erfion waa acceffion of James 11. he continued tbe fame fer- 

vile 

Dot.zeciOyVjOOQlC 
t 



P A E ( 21 ) PAR 

vile coranlaifasce ; and (ami. reaped (he fcuita of ParaJi/w Ttrnjhitu i i. e. ParkuUbtti Terref- ■ 

it is the brfhopric of QsEord, to -which he wai trial P*radifr. 

apfwmtedbyjamei-ll.m 1686, being allowed to PARKINSONIA, fo called in ■ honour of the 
bold the aTcb-deaooory of Canterbury imeommea. Engufh bceanift ParUafan i a genus of the mono- 
da*. -Hi mn llheWias made a privy coonftHor, gynia order, belonging to the decandria clafa of 
and, by a royal mandamus, prefideirt 0* M.igdiisa ptantti and in the natural method it raota under 
College hi Oxford. 1 Thefe favours, hnW.fi ver, were the 33d) order, Lamentaica. . The calyx is quia- 
the price of am religion, which be fci up tod not to quefid | there are e petal 1, all oval except tie low- 
Jknftcc to hit ambition. His authority in hia.dio- ett, which ii rcniform; there is do ftyiei the le- 
ceiewaeeery MguScMt. Aiiaft,fslh«glnuicon- gumen momlifonh, or like firing bt'ads. We 
tempt, trouble of mind threw him into a difienv know but one fpecics, which is very common in 
per, of which he died, unpatented, at AUgdeten theSpaniih Weft Indies, and has lately.bcen intra- 
College, Much 10, 16B7. He lent, however, a duced into the Englilh fettlemenw, fact he beauty 
Diicourfe to James, perfnading him. lo> embrace and fweetucft of jttfrowers. In the countries where 
the Pnotestem refigiotr, with a letter to the fame it grows naturally, it rifes to a tree of *q or more 
purpete, which wm printed at London in itoo, feet, high-, and bears long Gender buiichei of yellow 
ato. He wrote feverat pieces, in all Which Bur- tiewers, which hate a moft agreeable Tweet fcect. 
rwtalkrw* that there wa»anenterMininglivd«nei»t XlA* PARKLEAVBS. *./. An herb. Jin/. 
though u neither grave 00Y correct." (i-)P*eE-LXA.rxs. See HyrsitlcuM, N° 1. 

(.[. a.) PiUtii. Samuel, fan of the preceding ; FARKSTEIN, a town of Bavaria, in Saltzbacb ; 

was an eicellret fcholar, and of Hngular modefty. 16 miles N. of Nabburg, and 17 NE. of Safcu. 

He married a bookfeller'a daughter at Oxford, bach. 1 

where he Tended with a nuraenous family; Jo.fup. PARLASCA, a town .of Italy, in the dep. of 

port which, he putjlifhed fome books, with a too. Olonay uiftria and late duchy of Milan, on the 

deft ruttHtatiau of iu fatter. One of his font ia B- bank of the Lake Como, , in 

bow, or wo* lately, a beofcfcller at Oxford. * PARLE, «./. [from parler r ~Et.} Conrerfction^ 

{7.) * Paasita. «./. [from fori.] A parfckeept- talk 1 oral treaty ■ oral dtfcuffiontif any thing,—' 

er. Aiaf. Of all the gentlemen, ■ 

Paaeat't Bay, a bay on the SE. coaft of Ja> That every day wither/* encounter me, ■ 

OUtca, ( . . Ia thy opinion, which it worthies love? Shai. 

(l>7Puui'i I»L*iir>, joiflaodof the United Our trumpet call'd yoo to tliit general pswlr. 

States, on the coaft of Dbiiie, it) Lincote cowaty, . ■ SM. 

irparated by a narrow ftratt from Arrofiek ifUod The bilhop, by a parte, ia, with a mow 

on the N. it is named from John Parker, who Of combination, cunningly betray/d. Daniel. 

puichafcd it from the natives in iojo | and post I bate thiiporlti 'tie tame'; if we mult meet, 

of it ia ftiil pofleffed by bis defcendantl. Give me my arms. Mame'i Ami. Sirp-mtaber. 

(a.) Paaataa'a Islamo, an iflaod on the Chefa- (1.) • PARLEY, o. f. [from the verb.] Oral 

peak, pear the coaft of Maryland, 15 raitea S. of treaty 1 talk; conference ; diacuffioa byword of 

Annapolis* mouth.— Seek rather by parley to recover them, 

PaeaiK'a- Rivlft, a rivet of Maffaehnlcttst than by the fword. Sid.— 

which rifea ha Effex county, and, after mnoing fe- ■ Wait, by my will, we Ifaall admit no pmUj 1 

vera! mahee* fall 1 into the Sound between Plumb A rottew caw abide* no handling. Shot.' 

Iftaod and the main land. It in nayigable about Strtomou tparlef, we-witflark with him. 

» miles frotn it* month, wherea bridge) bttilt in Sbai, 

■Til, craafca-it, 870 feat hong, and *6 broad, —Let n» refolve. never to p erlej with nur lults. 

Eonhlting of ftone pier*, with eight wooden CeJaaj.-rPitrltg and holding intnlugence with 

atcbea. ■ guilt in, the mofl trivial things, he prononnced aa 

PAR&OATE; a fea port town of Cbefliire, on treafon to ourielfes, as well as nnto Go*. -Fell — 

the NE. coenrof the Dee, at iti mouth, ra miles 'Twaa beyond parbf when the ficge was laid. 

HW. at Chefter, and ioj NNW. of London. Drgd. 

PARKHOatST, John, a leaned divine and taxi- ' We yield tn parley, but are ftorm'd In vain, 

eographer, born at London) and educated. at Dryd. 

CUreHall, Cambridge; of which- he was admit- Yet when fume better fa»ed youth 

ted fellow in 1751, and took his degrees of A. B. Shall with hia am'raus p*rtty move the*,. 

and A. M. He fettled at Epfom in Surry 1 was Reflect one moment on his truth, 

the intimate friend of Bp. Hone, and like bhaii Wha« dying, thus perfifts toloee tfaee> Pritr, 

adopted theopiiconioiHntchiofoii. He pubKIh. (».) A P»*lev, in war,.iia conference with. an 

ed, 1. A Greek and Englifa Lexicon, eto. %. A enemy. Hencey to beat or found a parley, is to 

Hebrew and Englifh. Lexicon, 4tOa j both of which give a figaud for hold lag fucb> a conference by 

are very ufeful; 3. An Anfwer to Dr Prieftlyon beat of drum, .or found of trmnpet, 

the pre-exubnen of Chrift. He died in 1797, # TVPAStaar. v r n. lfrom pai'Ur, Frwtb.} To 

PARKINSON, John, an eminent Englilh bota. treat by word' of mouth, t to talk 1 to difcuiV any 

nift, born in 1567. He was the nrft wbonnglyde- thing orally. It is much ufed in war for a meeM 

fctibed aod figured the fubjtcts of the flower gar- inyof eneaiiea to talk— A Turk dalited the c»p- 

4en. His Tbtatrum Bttanieum contained a more tain to fend fotne, with whom-they-might more 

copious biftory of medicinal plant* than, aay for- conveniently pwlej. gnetie'i Hi/k — Ho parley with 

nrr publication ; but the title of hit firft work in- her a white, as' Imagining (he would advUit him to 

eluded a pun upon hit namet via. ParmMin Sal* proccedt Brtmr. 

.1 (1.) 



PAR (24) PAR 

(i.)* PARLIAMENT, a. /.[pnrliam-Htum, low And after their union, the Mirrodr informs- m 

Latin i parltmtnt, French.] In England ii the af- thit King Alfred ordained for a perpetual- ullage, 

tfembly of the king and three e (late* of the realm j that theft council! (hotild meet twice in the year, 

namely, the lords fpiritual, the lords temporal, or nftener, if need be, to treat of the government 

and commons, for the debating of marten tondb- of God's people ; haw they uouM keep tbemfelves 

ing the com moo wealth, especially the making and from fia, mould live in quiet, and fhould receive 

correcting of laws; which aflembly or court is, right." -The fubfequent Saxon andDaniui mo- 

of all others, the higheft, and of greater! aatnori- narchs held frequent councils of this 'fort, as ap- 

ty. Cewd.'— pear* 'from their codes of laws; the titles wbete- 

. The king is Med to Loudon, of uuully Ipeak them to be enacted, either by the 

To call a prefeut court of parliament. Skai. king, with the advice of Kwiaetttna gemote, iaH*c 

Far be the thought of this from Henry's Jmtia)luttta,qajeEdgaritire*eti^iiMfaf,mntton/m' 

heart, runt.mjktuit ■■ or to be euaceed bythoftfages with 

To make a fluunblea of the parliament houfe. the advice of the king t as Hat fitnt judkia ewe 

S&at. fnpientet, tonfiHo regis Btbrl/baii, rnjtinierunt ; or, 

-—The true ufc of parliament is very excellent, laftly, to be. enacted by tbcto both together, as 

, Bacon.— I thought the right way of parliaments Ha funt nt/lltuliomn quae rex iidmmuhu tt epi/eofd 

the moB life for my crown. King CharUt.—Tbete Jni, aim fafitntibai fids, imtknehmt. Tbefe gnat 

are mob readers : If Virgil and Martial Rood for councils were alfo uccauonally held under the firft 

parliament men, we know who would carry it. prince* of the Norman line. Gianni, who wrote 

Jirud. .. in the reign of Henry II. fpeaking of the part icu- 

(i.j The PAaLiiMENT is the grand aflembly br amount of an amercement in the flierifP* court; 

of the three Aatc* of this kingdom, fummoned to- (ays, it never yet had been afcertained by the ge- 

gether by the king's authority, to cenfider of mat- neral affiu or aflembly, but was left to the cuf- 

tera relating to the public welfare, particularly to torn of particular counties. Here the general af- 

cnad and repeal laws. fizeisfpoken of. as a meeting well known, audita 

(j.) Pailiamint, antiquity OF. Theorig* ftatutefr or deciuont.are put in a manifeft coutra- 

nal or lirft inltitution of parliament lies fo far hid- diltinction to enftom, or the common law. And 

den in the dark ages of antiquity, that the tracing in Edward III.'s tube, an act of parliament, made 

of it out is equally difficult and uncertain. The in the reign of William I. was pleaded in the cafe 

word/sr'io'anf is. comparatively, of modemdate; of the abbey of St Edmund's-bury, and judicially 

derived from the French, purler, and figjifying allowed by thecoutt. Henoe it indifputably ap. 

the plate where they met and fpetr, or conferred to- pears, that parliaments, or general councils, are 

gctber. It was firit applied to general aflembiiet of coeval with the kingdom itfelf. How tbofe par- 

tbe ftatea under Lewis VII. in France, about the hnauents were canftrtutedaodcompofod, has been 

middle of the nth century. But it is certain, matter of great difpnte among our learned aati- 

tbat, long before the Norman conqn eft, all mat. quarUns; whether the commons were Aimmon- 

ten of importance were debated and fettled in the ed.At all; or, at what period they began to form 

great councils of the realm t a practice which a diftinct aflembly. But waving thefe controver- 

fecms to have been univerfal among the northern Sea, it is generally agreed, that, in the. main, the 

nations, particularly the Germans \ and carried by confutation of parliament, as it now Hands, was 

them into all the countries of Europe, which they marked out fo long ago nti the ijthyear of- King 

over-ranat thediffolndon of the Roman empire. John, A. D. mj, in thenxeat charter granted by 

Relics of this conftitution, under various modifi- that prince) wherein he prcmrifes to fummou ill 

cations and change*, are ftill to be met with in the arch-bifbops, bifiiops, abbots,: earls, and greater 

diets of Poland, Germany, and Sweden, and for- barons, perfonally; and all other tenants in chief 

merly in the aflembly of the ftates in France : for under the crown, by the fheriff and bailiffaj to 

what was there lately called the parliament, was meet at a certain place, -with 40 days notice, to 

only the fupreme court of juftiee, .confiding" of the aflms aids and feutnges when oeceflary. (See 

peers, certain dignified eccleuaftics, and judges; Mian a CHA»TA.)And (his conftitution has fub- 

which waa neither in practice, nor iuppofed.to be fitted In fad at lead from 1166, 49 Henry III. 

U theory, a general council of the realm. there being ftill extant writs of that date, to Aim- 

(«0 PaKLiAMsnT, antiquity or m Eng- mdn" knights, citizens, and burgefles, to parlia. 
laud. In England, this general council bath been meat. . We proceed, therefore, toinquire, where- 
held itninemorially, under the federal names of mi- in cqnDfts this conftitution of parliament,, as it 
(htifynaik, or great council ;'n6ehel female, or great now Hands, and baa flood, for at leaft 500 years 1 
meeting t and mocc frequently witte if a GiMora, 1. Aato the manner and time of its aflembling: 
or, the meeting of aii/emea. It was alfo ftyled in 4. Its conitituent parti : 3. The laws and cufloma 
Latin, cummune concilium regnt, magmun concilium relating to parliament:^. The methods of pro- 
regie, curia magna, anventiu magnatnm -net prote- oeeding ; and of making Jtatutus, in both houfe* ; 
run. rtfffnfffTi-rirtri. antl fnmrtimi rnmsasfiiVr ng And,;. The manner of the parliament's adjoura- 
ni<Angiie. We have io&aocH of its meeting to inent, prorogatioo, and dinolution, 
order the affairi of the kingdom, to make new (5.) Paii-usibiit, Asiembling of. I. The 
laws, and to amend the old, or, si Fleta estpreue* parliament is regularly fommoned by the king's 
it, mmit injmriie emerfis nova, toaj&iutrt remedia, fo writ or letter, iffued out of chancery by advice of 
early as the reign of Ina king of the Weft Saxons, the privy council, at leaft 40 days before it befius 
Offa king of the Mercians, and Etbelbm king of to lit. It is a branch of the royal prerogative, that 
Kent* in the feveral kingdom's of tlte heptarchy, ao. par liamen t can be convened by its own autno. 

Dflrtzedny^OOgle 



PAR ( 23 ) PAR 

rity, or by .the authority of any, except the Ling when they actually came together. -And, in fiicfr 

alone. Andtbis-premgative it founded upon very a cafe at the palpable vacancy of a tlrrone, it fol- 

good reafon. For, fuppofing it had a right to lows ex nece&tatt ret, that the form of the royal 

meet fpontaneoufly, without being called together, writ* muft be laid afide, ot herwife no parliament 

it it imputable to conceive that ail the members can ever meet again. Fop let ua put another pof» 

of each of the houfei would agree unanimoully fib le Cafe, and fuppofe, for the fake of argument, 

upon the proper time and place of meeting; and if that the Whole royal line (honk) at any lime fail, 

hal! of the members met, and half abfented them- and become extinct, which would indifputably 

felves, who ihall determine which ia really the vacate the throne : in- this fituation it fremi rea. 

legiflative body, the pari aflernbledj or that which (enable to prefume, that the bodyef the nation, 

ftayi away? It- il therefore nepeflary that the confiding of lord • and com moat, would hare a 

parliament Ihould be called together at a deter- right to meet and fettle the government ; other* 

minate time aad places and highly becoming its wife there muft.be no government at all. And 

dignity and independence, that it ihould be called upon thia and no other principle did the conven- 

tugether by. none but one of its own conilituent lion, in 1688 affemble. The vacancy <if the throne 

part): and, of .the three conftitueat parts, thia waa precedent to their meeting without any royal 

efface can only appertain to the king ; *i he ia a fummons, not a confeqnence of it. They did not 

fingle perfon. woofe will may be uniform and aJTembla, without writ, and then make the throne 

Heady; the firft perfon in the nation being fupe- vacant; but the throne being previoufly vacant by 

rior to both houfei in dignity, and the only branch the king'* abdication, they tffembled without writ, 

of the legislature that baa a fepa'rate eiiftenee, and *• they muft do if they affembled at all. Had the 

is capable of performing any aft at a time when throne been full, their meeting would not have 

no parliament ia in being. Nor il it any eiccp- been regular ; but, aa it wai empty, fuch meeting; 

tiou to thit rule, that by fome modern ftatu tea, became abfolutely neceffary. And accordingly 

on the demife of a king or queen, if there be then it is declared by ftatute, a W. & M. ft. i. c. i. 

no parliament in being, the laft parliament revive!, that thia convention waa really the -two fannfei of 

and it to fit again for fix months, unlefa diflblved parliament, notwithflanding the want of writs, or 

by the fucceftor ; for this revived parliament muft other defects of form. 80 that, notwitbftanding 

have been originally fummoned by the crown. It thefe two capital exception!, which were juftifi- 

it true, that the convention parliament which re- able only on a principle of neceflity (and each of 

ftored.King Chattel IL met ijbove a month before which, by the way, induced a revolution in the 

his return ; the lor da .by their own authority, and government], the rule laid down ii in general ccr- 

thc commons in .pucfuance of writs iffued in the tain, that. the king only can convoke a parliament. 

name of the keeper! of the liberty of England by And this, by tbe ancient (Unites of the realm, be 

authority of parliament ? and that the faid parlia- is bound to do V every year, or oftener if need be." 

tnent fat till the 09th of December, full j months Not that he.it, or ever was, obliged by thefe rta- 

after the reftoration, and enacted many lawt, fe- tutca to call a- new parliament every year ; but 

veralof which are ftiU. in force. Butthii was for only to permit a parliament annually for the redrefa 

the ncceffity. of tbe thing, which fuperfedei all of grievances, and difpatch of btifnitfs, ,/ need be. 

law ; for if they had not fo met, it wai morally Tlicfc laft wordi are fo loofe and vague, that fuch 

impofiible that the kingdom ihould have been fet- of our monarch*, ai were inclined to govern with- 

tied in peace. And the firft '.thing, done after tbe out parliament!, neglected tbe convoking them, 

king'i return was to pafi an act declaring thia to fame timet for a very confiderable period, under 

be a good parliament,, notwitbftanding the defect pretence that there .was no need of them. But, to 

of the king's writ: fo that, ai the royal preroga- remedy this, by (laf. 16 Car. II. c. 1. it 11 enaded, 

live waa chiefly wounded by their fo meeting, and that tbe fitting and holding of parliaments ihall 

as the king himfelf, who alone had a right to ob- not be intermitted above 5 yeart at the molt, And 

Jea, contented to wave the objection, thia cannot by ftat. 1 W. & M. ft. a,.c. a. it it declared to be 

be drawn into an exampje in prejudice of the one of the rights of the people, that for redrefs of 

right* of the crown. Befldej, it wai at that time all grievance!, and for the amending, ftrcngthen- 

a great doubt among the la wy en, whether even ing, and preferving the laws, parliament! ought 

thit healing act made, it a good parliament, and to be held frequently. . And tbii indefinite fre- 

beid by very many b the negative j though it quency ia again reduced to a certainty try ftat fi 

fremi to banc been too nice a fcruple. And yet, w, & M. c. 9. which eqactt, » the ftatute of 

out of abundant caution, it was thought neceffary Charles II. had done before, that the new parlia- 

to confirm its acts in the next parliament by ftat. meat fhall be called within 3 years after thedeter- 

1 j Car. II. c. j. & c. 14- It ia likewifr true, at mination of the former. 

tbe time of tbe Revolution, A. D. i6BS, the (6.) Pabuameht, constituent riais of. 

lordi and commons, by their own authority, and II. Thefe arc the king's majefty, fitting there in 

»|fon the fummonsnf the prince nf Orange (after- hii royal political capacity, and the three eftatea 

wards King William III.), met in a convention, of tbe Malm ; the lords fpiritual, the lords tem- 

and therein dafpofed of the crown and kingdom, poral (who lit together with the king in one houfeji 

But this afTembling waa upon a like principle of and the commons, who fit by themfelve* in ano- 

Deceffitr aa at tbe Reftoration ; (hat la, upon a full ther. And the king and thefe three eftatei toge- 

convictioa that King Jamea II. had abdicated the ther form the great corporation or body politic of 

government, and that the throne waa thereby va- tbe kingdom, of which the king is faid to be caput, 

cant : which foppofttion of the individual mem- prinvpium, ttfaai. For upon their coming toge- 

ben wai con firmed by their concurrent refclulion, ther the king meets them, either in perfon or by 



reprefeutatioi 



PAR ( 84 ) PAR 

representation, without which there can be no tbe legiflative, and the fote executive rragHMte. 

tegirwingof a parlfrtrwrrt; andhealfohasaloue, Like three diftinft powers in mechanics, tbey 

the power of dilfolving ttfem.- It is highly necef- jointly impel tlir machine of government In a di- 

fary for preferring the balance of the coil Hi tut ion, reflion different from what either, acting by itself, 

that the executive power fhould he a branch, would hare done; but at the fame time in a di- 

though not the whole, of the legtflature.' The refiioR partaking of each, Irid formed out of all ; 

{total union, of them, we bsve ten, would be pro- a direction which conShufes the true line of the 

ductive of tyranny 1 the tat.il disjunction of them, liberty and happinefo of the community. See the 

for the prefect, would m theend produce the articles King, Lords, and Oi'MMfiNS. 
fame rtleftK, by cauQd(t that Union sgainft which (7.) Parliament, lAwS,' customs, AKf> 

it feems to provide. Tbe legiflature would foon rbwti or. The power arid janffrictian of parlia- 

become tyrannical, by makingcon*iimalencroafi- ment, fays Sir Edward Coke, it.'fb tranfemricnt 

meats, and gradually aiTuming-io-itielf the rights and abfctyte'j that it cannot becdnfrned either for 

of.the executive power. Thusthe long parliament caufes or perfona wlfhin any bounds: And of this 

of Charted, while it aeled in a Confti Ultima] man- high corlft he adds, it may be trtiiy (aid. Si ami- 

bar, with the ruyal; concurrence, vedrefftd many qmtattmJ^tBci,'Jlvetii/liJitiraJJiiiWmlattm,eftb* 

heavy grhtvancea, and- eftablrfhecV many falutary ..-./*j.. . r ;.,.iiaa:.._ .b.-+.^m — 1. >..<■. 
laws. But 'when the two houfes ■uuuied the „. 

powercf l^gtftatlon, in eaclufVon of the royal au- confirming, enlarging, reft raining, abrogating, re- 

thority, (bey foofl after affirmed like wife (he -reins pealing,' reviving, 'and expounding of laws, con- 

of 'aldrainifttatton t and, in confequence-pf theft eerrting matters of all pouiple denofhirlatidtis, ee> 

uoiCed powers, overturned both church and Rate, eletfaftieal or temporal, civil, military; "maritime, 

and eftattittfed a worfe oppreffion than any they or crifnfnal ; this being the~pl*ce where that abfo- 

prerended to remedy. To hinder therefore any lute deTpotic power, which jntift 'hi »H govern- 

fuch encroacttmeRrs, thekingishimfelf a part of merjts'rellde tbmewhere, is entrtffjdd by th> con- 

the pari iiment ; ami as this is the reafon of bis ftitutioa of thefe kingdom's. 'ATT mrfehiefi and 

being To, very properly, therefore, the-ihafe of le- grievances, operations and remedies, that tmnf- 

giflatioa which tbe conftitution has placed in tbe cerid the ordinary courfe of the laws, 'are 'within 

crown, corrfifts In Uie power of rejecting rathfcf the reach of this extraordinary tribunal. It can 

than refolving ; this being fumcient- to anfwer the regulate or riew-modet thefticceflionrBthrtrowr, 

end propofed. For' we may apply to the royal as was done in the reigns nflfenfy Vflt. and Wil- 

argeiive, in this inftance, what Cicero obferves liam HT. It tan alter Hit eftabrifhed ; religion erf 

of the n*gattr*«f the Roman tribunes, that tbe the land ; as was done m a variety of inftances in 

crown has not any power of doing wrong, bat the refgns ofKlng Henry VIII, and hjsfhree chil- 

merely of preventing wrong -from being done. dren. It can change and create affifli even the 

Tbe crowodannot 'begin of itferf.any alterations conftitution tof the kingdom and of .parliaments 

In the prefent eltablilhed law; but it may ap- fhernfetvcsj as wasdone by theafl of union, and 

prove or difapprove of the alterations fuggefted thefcferalrfatntesfbrtriertjiiatand feptennrsl elec- 

and contented toby the two 'houses: The legif- tions. ft can, in fhort, do every thing that is not 

lature therefore cannot' abridge ■the' executive Batnrarly impoflrblej; and therefore fome have not 

power of any rights which it -now : has by law, fcrupted to carl its^'power, by a figure ratber too 

without its ownconfent-jTrace the law mnft per- bold:, the trrpirpntfticr of par Itomtnt. Trlie it is, 

petually ftand as it now does, unlelt all the powers that what the parliament doth, no authority upon 

will agree to aher it. And herein' indeed cohfiTt* earth can undo. So that it is a matter moft ef- 

the Irue excellence of tl« Briritn-'feoverameut, that fential to the liberties of this kingdom) that fuch 

all the parts -of it form a mutual cheek upon each members be delegated to 'this important troft as 

other, hi the tegiflaQire, the people are a cfaeck we moft eminent for their probity, their fortitude, 

upon tbe nobility, 1 and the nobility a chick upon and 'knowledge j for It was a known apophthegm 

the people, by the mntaal privilege of rejecting of the frreat lord treafurer Burleigh, " Triat Eng- 

what the other has refolved ; while the krtig is a tand could never be rumrd but by a parliament ;™ 

check upon both,' which preferves the executive Knd; as Sir Matthew' Hale _fabferves, this being tire 

power from encroaehtDents. And this very exe- nigbeft and rreateft eoqrt,' over which nohe other 

outlve power is again checked and kept within can have jnnfdiftipn in'the kingdom, if by any 

due bounds by tbe two ho tifes, 'through tbe prl- means a tnifgovemment fhoiild anywHe fall upon 

vilege they have «f inquiring into, 'impeaching, it, the fuhjeAs of this kingdom are left without 

and punifhing thecdnduc) (hot indeed of the king, «H mariner of remedy. Mr Locke, and other theo- 

which would deftroy his eonfUtutional' indeperid* retical writers, have held, that '■ there rrrriaios 

eitce; but whirfi is mofe beneficial to the'puhjicj ftitl inherent in the people a fupreme power' to 

of his evil and pernicious councilors. Thus every remove or alter the legiflature, when they find the 

branch of our civil polity fupports and' hi flip- legillaturc act contrary to the truft repofed in 

ported, regulates and ia regulated, by the reft t them ; for when fuch uuil is abufed, h is thereby 

fop the two hou'fes naturally dra Whig in fwo di» forfeited! and devolves to thofe who gave it, 

redtionsef oppofite intereft, and the 'prerogative But however juft this conclufion may be in theory, 

in another ft ill different from them uoth, they w.e cannot adopt It, nor argue from it, under any 

1 mutually keep each other from exceeding their difpenfation of government at prefent' actually 

proper limits; while the whole is prevented from exilHng. For' this devolution of power to the 

Separation, and artificially connected together, by people at'large includes in it a diffolution of the 

the mixed nature of the- crown, wbich-is a part of whole form of government efiablllhed by th.it 

people; 



. P- A. R < 25 ) TAR 

people; reduces all the members to their original mit the fubordiaate court* of law to examine the 

fiate of equality; and by annihilating thefovereign merits' of either cafe. But the maxima upon 

power, repeals all po&tive law* whatfoever before which they proceed, together with the method of 

enacted. No human laws, will, therefore, Tup- proceeding, reft entirely in the bread of the par- 

pofe a cafe, which at once muA deftroy all law, liament itfelf ; and are not defined and afeertained 

and compel men to build afreJh upon a new faun- by any particular Hated laws. The privileges of 

elation ; nor will they make provifion for fo def- parliament are likewife very large and indefinite ; 

perate an event, is mil ft render all legal pro virions and therefore, when, in 31ft Hen. VI, the hi.ufe 

ineffectual. So long therefore, as the Englifhcon- of lords propounded a question to the judge* coo- 

ft it utton lafls, we may venture to affirm, that the cernirig them, the chief ju ft ice, Sir John Forte fene, 

power of parliament ia abfolute, and without coo- in the name of his brethren, declared, " That 

trout. To prevent the mifchiefs that might arife, they ought not to make* anfwer to that qucAiou ; 

by placing this attentive authority in hands either for it hath not been ufed aforetime, that the jut 

incapable or improper to manage it, it if provided tices fhould in any wife determine the privileged of 

by the cuftom and law of parliament, that no one the high court of parliament ; for it is fo high and 

mall fit or vote in either houfe, unlets be be 11 mighty in its nature, that it may make law ; and 

years of age. This is atfb exprefsly declared by that which ii law, it may make no law : and the 

fta^j. and g. W.II1. c. 15 ; yet with regard to the determination and knowledge uf that privilege be- 

bouie of common*, doubtt have aiifen from fome longs to the lords of parliament, and npt to the 

contradictory adjudications, whether or not a juftices.** Privilege of parliament was principally 

minor was incapacitated from fitting in that houfe. eftabliflied, in order to protect its members not 

It is alfo enacted .by (tat. 7. Jac. I. c. 6. that no only from being rooleftcd by their fellow- fobjefla, 

member be permitted to enter the houfe of com- but alfo more efpecially from being opprefied by 

mom till he bath taken the oath of allegiance be> .the power of the crown. If, therefore, all the 

fore the lord fteward or his deputy : and by 30 privileges of parliament were once to be fet down 

Car. II. ft. a. and 1. Geo. I. c. 13. that no member and afcertained, and no privilege to be allowed 

"hall vote or fit in either houfe, till he bath, in the bnt what was fo defined and determined, it were 

prefcticeoflhehoufe.takentbeoatb-of allegiance, eafy for the executive power to devife fome new 

Supremacy, and abjuration, and fubferibed and cafe, not within the line of privilege, and under 

repeated the declaration againft tranfubftantiatitm, pretence thereof to barafs any refractory member, 

and invocation of taints, and the facrtfice'of the and violate the freedom of parliament. The dig* 

mafs. Aliens, unlet, naturalized* were likewife ntty and independence of the two houfe* are 

by the law of parliament, incapable to ferve there- therefore in a great meafuro preferred by keeping 

in : and now it is enacted, by ftat. is. and 13. their privileges indefinite. Some, however, of 

W. HI. c. 1. that no alien, even though be be the more notorious pritilcgea of the member of 

naturalized, lhall be capable of being a member either houfe, are, privilege of fpeech, of perfon, 

of either houfe of parliament. And there are not of their domeftic*, and of their land* and goods, 

only tbefe Sending incapacities, but if any perfon As to the firlti privilege of fpeech, it is declared 

ia made a peer by the king, or elected to ferve in by the ftatute iW.tH, fiat. s. c. ». as one of 

the houfe of commons by the people, yet may the liberties of the people, " That the freedom of 

the rejpedive houfe*, upon complaint of any fpeech, and debates, and proceeding* in parlia- 

crirae in fech perfon, and proof thereof, adjudge ment, ought not to be impeached or queltioned 

him difabled and incapable to fit as a member : in any court or place out of parliament." And 

and this by the law and cuftom of parliament. thi» freedom of fpeech i* particularly demanded . f 

For a* every court of juftice hath laws and cuf- the king in perfon, by the fpeaker of the houfe 1 f 

toma for it* direction, fome the civil and canon, common", at the opening of every new parlu- 



fome the common law, other* their own peculiar ment. So likewife are the other privilege!, 

and cuftom*; fo the high court of part ia- perfon, fervanta, lands, and goods; which are 



ment bath alio its own peculiar law, called the immunities as ancieut as. Edward the Cbnfeflbri 

' ' parliaminti ; a law which Sir in whole laws we find this precept. Ad fynodoi 

ferve*, is at omni&ui quxrendo, a ■ucnitntilrui, Jt** Jummcnili fitl, Jpuf fer ft quid 



lex tt loafutTuda parliaminti ; a law which Sir in whole laws we find this precept. Ad fynodoi 
Edward Coke obfenes, is at omnibtu quxrendo, a ■ucnitntiku, fiv fummtnili }nt, jpus fer ft quid 
1 ignerata, a pQucis logaiia. It will not there- agendum habutrmt, fit fumma fax ,- and lo, too. 



fore be expected that we mould enter into the exa- in the old Gothic conftitutions, £xteadtlur hit pax 

ruination of this law with minutcnefs; fince, as tt fteuritat ad qvatuardtcim din, convocalo rtgat 

the fame learned author affuree us, it it. much firtatv. This included formerly not only privilege 

better to be learned out of the rolls of parliament from illegal violence, but alto from legal arrelts 

and other records, and by precedent* and cod. and feizures by procefi from the court* of law. 

tin ua I experience, than can be exprefled by any And Bill to affault by violence a member of either 

one man. The whole of the law and cuftom of houfe, or hi* menial fervantt, is a high contempt 

parliament ha* its original from this one maxim, of parliament, and there puniihed with the ut- 

" That whatever matter arifes concerning either raoft feveiity, It has likewife peculiar penalties 

houfe of parliament, ought to be examined, dif- annexed to it in the court* of law, by ftat. 3 Hen, 

cuffed, and adjudged in that houfe to which it re* IV. c. 6. and 11 Hen. VI. C. 1 1. Neither can 

latei, and not elfewhere." Hence, for inftance, any member of either houfe be arretted and taken 

the lords will not Puffer the common* to interfere into cuftody without a breach of the privilege of 

m fettling the election of a peer of Scotland ; the parliament. But all other privileges which do 

commons will not allow the lords to judge of the rogate from the common law are now at. an end* 

•lection of a burgelj ; nor will either houfe per- feve only as to the freedom of the member's 

Vol. XVn. Pa«t I. -, D ' ( perfon ; 



PAR (26) PAR 

perfon ; which in a peer [by the privilege of peer- information of the imprifonment or detention of 

age) is for ever facred and inviolable ; and in a any member, with the reafon for which he it it- 

commoner (by the privilege of parliament) for «o tain eel ; a practice that is daily ufed upon the 

days after every prorogation, and 40 daya before fiighteft military accufations, preparatory to a trial 

the next appointed meeting ; which is now in by a court-martial j and which is recognized by 

. effect as long as the parliament fubfius, it leldom the feveral temporary ftatute* tor fufpending the 

being prorogued for more than So days at a time, habras corpus aft ; whereby it is provided, that no 

As to all other privileges which obftruct the or- member of either houfe mall be retained, tin the 

tf nary court of juftice, they were reftramed by matter of which he Hands fufpecied be firft cotn- 

the ftatutes 11 W. III. c. 3. j and 3 Ann, c. 18. municated to the houfe of which he is a member, 

and 11 Geo, II. c. 14. and are now totally abo- and the confent of the faid houfe obtained for his 

flftied by ftatute to Geo. III. c. jo; which en- commitment or detaining. But yet the u&gehas 

afts„that any fuit may at any time be brought a- uniformly been, ever fince the Revolution, that the 

gain ft any peer or member of parliament, their communication has been fubfequent to the arrelt. 

fervants, or any other perfon entitled to pivilege See Kino, Lo«.ds, and Commons. 

of parliament; which fhall not be impeached or (8.) Parliament, method of making lake 

delayed by pretence of any fuch privilege, except in. IV, The method of proceeding, in enacting 

that the perfon of a member of the houfe of com- laws, is much the fame in both houfes. But for this, 

nrons (hall not thereby befubjected to any arreft we refer the reader to the article Bill, § 10— fit 

or imps ifonment. Like wife, for the benefit of com- and fhall only obferre in this place, that, for dif- 

KKrce, it is provided by ftatute 4 Geo. III. c. 33, patch of buKncfs, each houfe of parliament has its 

that any trader, having privilege of parliament, fpeaker. The eceaker of the houfe of lords, 

may be ferved with legal procefs for any juft debt whofe office it is to pre&de there, and manage the 

(to the amount of 100I.]: and unlets he makes fa- formality of bulinefa, is the lord chancellor, or 

ttsfaftion within two months, it fhall be deemed keeper of the king's greaj foal, or any other 

' an aft of bankruptcy ; and that commiflion of appointed by the king's commiflion ; and if none 

bankruptcy may be iffucd againft fuch privileged be fo appointed, the houfe of lords (it is laid) may 

traders in like manner as againft any other. The , elect. The fpeaker of the houfe of commons is 

only way by which courts of juftice could an- ehofen by the houfe'; but muft be approved by 

eiently take cognizance of privilege of parliament, the king. And herein the ufage of the two houfes 

was by writ of privilege, in the nature of fupcr/r- differs, that the fpcaket of the houfe of commons 

tkai, to deliver the party out of cuftudy when cannot give his opinion 6r argue any queftion in 

arretted in a civil fuit. For when a letter was writ- the houfe ; but the fpeaker of the houfe of lords, 

ten by the fpeaker to the judges, to flay proceed- if a lord of parliament, may. Id each houfe the 

inga againft a privileged perfon, they rejected it aft of the majority binds the whole j and this roa- 

as contrary to their oath of office. But hnee the jority is declared by votes openly and publicly 

. ftatutc 14 WML III. c. 3. which enacts, that no given ; not, asrbrmerly, at Venice, and many other 
privileged perfon fhall be fiibjeft to arreft or im- fenatoria! affemblies, privately, or by ballot. This 
prifynment, it hath been held, that fuch arreft is latter method may be ferviceable, to prevent in- 
irregular ah initio, and that the party may be dif- triguei and unconftitutional combinations ; but it 
charged upon motion, h is to be obferved, that impoffible to be praftifed with us, at leaft in the 
there is no precedent of any fuch writ of privi- houfe of commons, where every member's con- 
Jege, but only in civil fuits 1 and that the ftatute duct is fuhjeft to the future cenfufe of his confti- 
ofi-Jac. fc c. 13. and that of King William, which tuents, and therefore mould be openly fubmitted 
remedy fome inconveniences arifing from privi- to their infpection, 

lege of parliament, fpeak only of civil actions, (9.) Parliament, method ob troroguiNC, 

And, therefore, the- claim of privilege hath been SDtovaNiSG, AND dusoltisg. V. i. An AD- 

ufually guarded with an exception as to the cafe Journmkn r is no more than ■ continuance of the 

ef indictable Crimea; or, as it bath been frequent- leffion from one day to another, as the word fig- 

lv exprefled, oftreafbn, felony, and breach of the nifies ; and this is done by the authority of each 

peace. Whereby ft feems to have been under- houfe feparately every day ; and fometimea for a 

flood, that no privilege was, allowable to the mem- fortnight Or a month together, as at Cut ift mas or 

ben, their families, or fervants, in any trim* Eafter, or upon other particular occafions. But 

wh;i tfuevcr ; for all crimes are treated by the law the adjournment of one houfe is no adjournment 

m being niilra pattm damhi rtgis. And inftances of the other. It has alfo been ufual, when his 

Kave not been wanting, wherein privileged perfons Majefty hath fignilied his pleafure, that both or 

hare been convicted of mifdemcaoors, and com- either of the houfes ihould adjourn themfelves to 

mirted, or proiecuted to outlawry, even in the a certain day, to obey the king's pleafure fo fig. 

middle of a felDon ; which proceeding has after- nified, and to adjourn accordingly. Otherwile, 

wardr received the fanftion and approbation of befides the indecorum of a refufal, a prorogation 

parliament. To- which may be added, that about would affuredly follow; which, would often be 

.10 years ago, the cafe of writing- and publifhing very inconvenient to both public and private bufi- 

ftditioui libels, was refblved by both houfes not nefs. For prorogation puts an end to the feffion ; 

to be entitled to privilege ; and that the reafong and then fuch bills as are only begun, and not per- 

wpon which that cafe proceeded, extended equal- fected, mufl be refumed dt nova (if at all) in a i'ub- 

ly to every indictable offence. So that the chief, fequent feflibn ; whereas, after an adjournment, 

if not the only privilege of parliament, in fuch all things continue in the fame ftate as at the time 

«*faa, Q»m« to be the right of receiving immediate of adjournment made, and may be proceed on 

without 
, ; ,„ca, L.OOglC 



PAR (27) PAR, 

without my frefh commencement, ii. A phoio- folution formerly happened immediately upon the 
cation it the continuance of the parliament from death of the reigning fovereign : for he being con- 
one fcfGon to another ; as an adjournment it > fidered in law as the head of (he parliament, 
continuation of the feffion from day today. Thia {caput, frimipium, et finu), that failing, the whole 
is done by the royal authority, exprefied either body was held to be extinct. But the calling a 
by the lord chancellor in bia Majefty't pretence, new parliament immediately on the inauguration 
or by commiffion from the crown, or frequently of the fucceflbr being found inconvenient, and 
by proclamation. Both Louies are iteceiTarily dangers being apprehended from having no parlia- 
prorngued at the fame time; it not being a pro- ment in being in cafe of a difputed fucceflion, it 
rogation of the houfe of lords or common g, but was enacted by the Salutes 7 and 8 W. HI. c. Ic. 
of the parliament. The fefTion ia never under- and 6 Ann. c. 7, that the parliament in being fhall 
ltood to beat an end until a prorogation; though, continue for fix months after the death of any 
unlefs fome aft be palled, or fome judgment given king or queen, tinlefa fooner prorogued or Jii- 
in parliament, it is in truth no feffion at all. And folved by the fucceBbr; that if the parliament be, 
formerly the ufage was, for the king to give tbe at the time of. the king's death, feparated by ad- 
royal alfent to all fuch bill's as he approved at the journment or prorogation, it fhall not with (landing 
end of every feffion, and then to prorogue the par- alfemble immediately : and that if no parliament 
liament, though fome times only for a day or two; is then in being, the members of the laft parliament 
after which all bufinefs then depending in the fhall alfemble, and be again a parliament. 3. 
houfe J was not to be begun again. Whicb cuf- Laftly, a parliament, may be diffolved or expire 
torn obtained fo Itrongly, that it once became a by length of time. For if either the legiflatire 
qneftioo. Whether giving tbe royal alfent to a body were perpetual, or might laft for the life of 
fingte bill did not of cuurfe put an end 10 (he fef- the prince who convened them, as formerly, and 
lion -' And though it was then refolved in the ne- were fo to be fupp'lied, by occalionally filling the 
gatlve, yet the notion was fo deeply rooted, that vacancies with new representatives j in thefe cafes 
th? ftatute 1 Oar. I. c. j. was pared to declare, if it were once corrupted, the evil would be palt 
that the king's aJTent to that and fome other acts all remedy ; but when different bodies fuccecd 
Ihould not put an end to tbe feffioh ;' and even fo each other, if the people feecaufe.to disapprove 
late as the reign of Charles II. we find a provifo of the prefent, they may rectify its faults in the 
frequently tacked to a bill, that his Majelty'a af- next, A legiflative affembly alio, which ia.fure 
fent thereto fbould not determine the feffion of to be feparated, again, (whereby its member* will 
parliament. But it now'feems to be allowed, that themfelves become private men, and fubjeft to 
a prorogation mult be exprefsly made, in order the full extent of. the laws whicb. they have eri- 
to determine the feffion. And if at the time of acted for others), will think themfelves bound, in 
an actual rebellion, or imminent danger of inva- intercft as well as duty, to make only fuch laws 
Gon, tbe parliament fhall be feparated by adjourn- as are good. The utmott extent of time that the 
merit or prorogation, the king is empowered to fame parliament was allowed to Gt, by the ftatute 
call them together by proclamation, with 14 days .6 W. and M. c. 1, was three yean: after tbe ex- 
notice of the time appointed for their reafiem- piration of which, reckoning from the return of 
blirtg. ivi. A dissolution ia the civil death of tbe firft uiramons, the parliament was to have no 
the parliament ; and this may be effected three longer continuance. But by flat. ■ Geo. I. ft. i. 
ways : 1. By the king's will, expreffed either in c. 38. (in order, profefTedly, to prevent the great 
perfon or by reprefen tation. For as the king has and continued expences of frequent elections, and 
the fo!e right of convening the parliament, fo alfo the violent heats and anirnolities confequeot there- 
it is a branch of the royal prerogative, that he upon, and for the peace and fecurity of the go- 
may (whenever he pleafes) prorogue the parlia- veroment then juft recovering from the late re- 
ment for a time, or put a final period to itsexift- bellion), this term was prolonged to fiven years; 
ence. If nothing had a right to prorogue or dif- and, what alone is an inftance of the vaft authori- 
folve a parliament but itfelf, it might becqme per- ty of parliament, the very fame houfe that waa 
petual. And this would be extremely dangerous, chofen for (href years, enacted its own continu- 
if at any time it fhould attempt to encroach upon ance for feven. So that, as our conftitution naw % 
the executive power; as wa,s fatally experienced (lands, (he parliament muft expire, or die a na- 
by the unfortunate kipg Charles I. ; who, having tural death, at .the end of every feventh year, .if 
unadvifedly palled an act to continue, the parlia- not fooner diffolved by the royal prerogative, 
ment then in being till fuch time as it fhould (10.) Parliament, peculiar forms obsbr- 
pleafe to difToIve itfelf, at laft fell a facrifice to ved in. In the houfe of lords, (he princes of 
that inordinate power which he himfclf had con- tbe blood fit by themfelves on the fides of the 
foiled to give them. It is therefore extremely throne ; at the wall, on the king's right band, 
neceffary, that (he crown fhould be empowered the two archbilbops fit by themfelves on a form. , 
to regulate the duration of thefe aucmblies, under Below them, the bifhops of London, Durham* 
the limitations which the Engtilh conftitution has and Win^heftcr, and all the other bifhops, fit ao 
prefcribed ; fo that, on the one band, they may cording to tbe priority of their confecration. On 
frequently and regularly come together for thedif- the king's left hand the lord treafurer, lord prefi- 
patch of bnGm-fs and redrefs of grievances, and dent, and lord ptivy-feal, fit upon forms above all 
may not, on the other, even with the confent of dukes, except the royal blood ; then the dukes, 
the crown, be continued to an inconvenient or un- marquifles, and earls, according to (heir creation, 
conftitutiona! length. 1. A parliament may be Acrofs the room are wooMacks, continued frcm 
diffolred bv the demifc of the crown. This dif. an ancient cuilom j and the chancellor, or keeper 

No©* :Coo w« 



PAR < 28 ) PAR 

being of courfe the fpeakcr of the honfe of lord*, by no meant an execution of fuch as are already 

fits on the fir* wool fact before the throne, with ti being. But an impeachment before the lords 

the great feat or mace lying by him ; below thefe by the coramoni of Great Britain, in parliament, 

are forms for the vifcounts and barons. On the 1b a profecution of the already known and efla- 

other wool fscks are feirted the judges, matters in fclifhed law, and has been frequently put in prac- 

cbancery, and king's council, who are only to lice ( Ijeing * prefentment to the moft high and 

8 We their advice In points of law: but they all ftpreme court of criminal jurifdifiion by the melt 
and up till the king gives them leave to fit. ». folemn grand inquelt of the whole kingdom. A 
The commons fit promifcuoufly ; only the fpeak-' commoner cannot, however, be impeached be- 
er hai a chair at the upper end of the houfe, and fore the lords for any capital offence, but only 
the clerk and his affiftant fit at the table near for any high mifJemeauora ) a peer may be ira- 
him. When a member of the houfe of commons peached for any crime. And they ufually (in cafe 
fpeak*, he Hands up uncovered, and directs hie of any impeachment of a peer for trtafonjaddrefi 
fpeech to the fpeaker only. If what he fays be the crown to appoint a lord high ftewarcf, for the 
anfwered by another, he ii not allowed to reply greater dignity and regularity of theirptocctdiogs; 
the fame day, unlcfs perfonal reflections have been which high Reward was formerly elected by the 
call upon him : bat when the commons, in order peers themfelves, though he was generally com- 
to have a greater freedom of debate, have refol- miftjoned by the king f but it bath of late yean 
*ed themfelves into a committee of-the whole been flrenuoufly maintained, that the appoint- 
houfe, every member may fpeak to a queftion as ment of a high Reward in fuch cafes is not indit 
cftcn as he thinks Decenary. In the houfe of penfably neceOary, but that the houfe may pro- 
lords they vote, beginning at the puifne, or loweft ceed without one. The articles of impeachment 
baton, and fo up orderly to the higheft, every are a kind of bills of indictment, found by the 
one anfwering, Content or Not content. In the houfe of commons, and afterwards tried by the 
hoafe of common!, they vote by jtas and nays i lords ; who are in cafes of mifdemcanors confi- 
and if ii be dubious which are the greater rum- dercd, not only as their own peers, but at the 
;ber, the houfe divides. If the queftion be about peers of the whole nation. This is a cuftotn de- 
bringing any tiling into the houfe, the jeai go rived to us from the ConlUtulioo of the ancient 
out ; but if it be about any thing the houfe alrea- Germans ; who in their great councils fomi-tltr.es 
dy has, the nags go out. In all divifions the tried capital accusations relating to the public: 
fpeaker appoints 4 tellers, two of each opinion. Licet ajmd concilium ateujart quoquc, et jj/crimtn 
In a committee of the whole houfe, they divide capitis mtendm. And it has a peculiar propriety 
.by changing fides, the jeas taking the right and in the Englifh conftitution ; which has much in- 
the nays the left of tbe chair ; and then there are proved upon the ancient model imported hither 
but two tellers. " Ifabillpafl one houfe, and the from tbe continent. Fur though in' general the 
other demur to it, a coTtterenee is demanded in union of the legiflative and judicial powers ought 
the painted chamber, where certain members are to be moft carefully avoided, yet it may happen 
deputed from each houfe; and here the lords fit that a fubject, intrulled with the admin Miration of 
.covered, and the commons Hand bare, and de- public affairs, may infringe the rights of the peo- 
bate the cafe. If they difagrre, the affair is null ; pie, and be guilty of fuch crimes as the ordinary 
and if they agree, this, with the other bills that magiftrate either dare* not or cannot pur iff), Of 
■have palled both lioufes, 'is brought flown to the tbefe the reprefeatatives of the people, or houfe 
-kiog in the houfe of lords, who cornea thither of commons, cannot properly judge ; becaufe 
clothed in his royal robes ; before him the clerk their conltituents are the parties injured, and can 
of the parliament reads the title of each bill, and therefore only impeach. But before what court 

,33 he reads, the clerk of the crown pronounces fball this impeachment be tried i Not before the 

the royal alien t or diflent. If it be a public bill, ordinary tribunals, which would naturally be 

the royal artent is given in thefe words, Lt rcy It fwayed by the authority of fo powerful an accu. 

vent. The king will have ft fo ; if private, Sort fer. Reafoo therefore will fugged, that this 

/.■it cum me ilejliijirc, Let the requeft be complied branch of the legillature, which reprefents the 

With ; if the king refufe* the bill, (he anfwer is people, muft bring its charge before the other 

Lt ray Savifira, Tbe king will think of it ; and branch, which confifts of the nobility, who have 

if it be a money-bill, the anfweris, Le rag rtmercie neither the Tame rtiterelts, nor the fame paiiioui, 

fa /ojaitx fu/etj, acc/pie lair benevoltncc, et avjji It as popular aflcmMieJ. Thisisavaft fuperiority 
vent; The Ring thanks hfi loyal ("objects, accepts ' which the conftitution of this island enjoys 

their benevolence, and therefore grants his con- over thofe of the Grecian or Roman republics ; 

fait. - where tbe people were at the fame time both 

(11.) Parliament, thi High Court or, it judges and atexjers. It is proper that the nobility 

the fupreme court in the kingdom, not only for mould judge, to infure juftice to the accufed ; at 

the making, but alfo f>r the execution, of laws. It is proper that the people fhould accufe, to in- 

by the trial of great and enormous offenders, whe- fure juftice to tbe commonwealth. And therefore! 

ther lords or commoners, in the method of parlia- among other extraordinary circumftances attend' 

mentary impeachment. As for acts of parliament ing the authority of this court, there is one of > 

to attaint particular perfons of treafon or felony, very lingular nature, which was infilled on bj 

or to inflict pains and penalties, beyond or con- the houfe of commons, in the cafe of the earl 01 

" trary to the common law, to fare a fpecial pur- Danby in the reign of Charles H. and is now 

,pofe, we fpeak not of them; befog to all intents enacted by ftatute u & 13 W. III. c 1. that nt 

and purpoRts new laws, made pro r* wis, and pardon under the great fcal fliali be pleadable K 

• D,i„d»,Googlc 



FA* < n ) PAR 

an hnpncrMnent by the common* of Great Bii- fit and vote. i. The clergy ; one of which bud jr 
tain in parliament. Such it the nature of a Britifh li elected from every rural deanery often parifliesj ■ 
parliament, and in theory at kaft we fhuuld pre- who, with the bifhops and fiiperintendants amount 
fume it were nearly perfect | but force of our fel- to about a oo. j, The burghers, elected by itit ma- 
kiw -country men, more iealou( perhaps than wile, giflrates aadVouncil of every corporation aa their 
fee- prodigious fault* in it, fucb indeed as they ripreferita lives ; of whom there are four for Stock- 
think raiift inevitably prove fatal. The confe- holm, and two for every other town, amounting hi 
quence of tbii perfuafion ban been a loud and in- the whole to about ijo. a.Thepeafantechpfen by 
ceffant call for parliamentary reform. That a- the peafanta out of every diArict, who choofe one 
bufe* aught to be reformed, it certain, and that of their own rank, and nut a gentleman to re- 
few inftitutions are. lb perfect as not to need prefent them ; tbefe amount to about 150. All 
amendment, ii a fact equally indifputahle. We theft generally, meet at Stockholm: and after tbe 
fhall even foppofe, that there are many abufe* in Aate-afrairs have been rcprefented to them from 
our parliament which would require to be amend- tbe throne, they feparate and fit in four feveral 
ed; but granting all thia and fome thing more if it chamber* or boufea, in each of which affairs are 
were neceflary, we would recommend in tbe carried on by majority of votes j and every cham- 
meaa time to the ferioua cnnGderation of thofe ber has a negative in the paffing. any law. 
who can themfelvei the FrUnJs of the People, (1.) • PARLIAMENT ARt". adj. [from par&a- 
whole finccrity in their profeflioos it would be went-} Enacted by parliament ; pertaining to par- 
unpolite to queftiou, tbe example of France, tiament.— To the three £rQ titles of the two bou- 
and that they would allow it, to be a warning to fes, or hues, and conqppfi, were added two more? 
Britain. France wanted reform indeed, and that the authorities parliamentary and papal. Baton.— 
which waa firft propofed had, the countenance of Jlany things, that obtain at common law, had 
of tbe cooleft and tbe heft of men \ but the confe- their original by parliamentary acts Male.— Credit. 
quences hare been dreadful ; and bftead of efla- »to run ten millions in debt, without parliamentary 
biifhing li/srtv and equality, have ended in frcuriry,! think to be dangerous and illegal. Swift. 
the mot abfolute and uncontrolled desiotis-m, (»,) Pa»i,1*P»MTAH rEfos/m sili,. SeeEac- 
ever eftablifhed in any nation} now rendered 1m- labd. j 113. 
perialzt\<3 hereditary in the bonji of Bonaparte. ■ * PARLOUR. "■/■ [parloir, Fr. parlmorie, I Hi.'] 

(i».: FaaLiAMisNT) thk late French. The t, A room in monafteriia, where the relisii.ua meet 
ci-devant Pa/tjanuenti of France were fovereign and couverfe. a. A room in boufes on tbe firft 
court* eftabltibed by tbe king, finally to determine floor! elegantly furniffaed for reception or enter- 
all diiputea between particular perfons, and to Uimncpt.— Can we juilge it a thing ferm.ly for a 
pronounce ob appeal* from fcntencea given by in- man to go about the building of an hojuie to the 
ferior judges. — There were ten of tbefe parlia- God of heaven, with no other appearance than if 
menu in France, of which that of Pari* wu tbe his end were Jo rear tip a kitchen or ^parlour fof 
chief, its privilege* and jurifdiction being of tbe his own ufe 1 Hooker*-^ 
createtr. extent. It confifted of eight chambers, Back again fair Alma led them right, 
where caufes of audience were pleaded - r the And toon into a goodly psrhur brought. Spetif. 
chamber of written law 1 the chamber of counfel; ---It would be infinitely more fhamefirl, in the 
the TourncUe criminelle* for judging criminal af- drefs of tbe kitchen, to receive the entertain me DM 
fain; the Tournelle civile, in aid of the grand of the^arW- South. 

c hamb er 1 and three chambers of inquefta, where Roof and fides were like a parlour made. Dryd. 

procefles were adjudged in writing 1 betide* The, <rft, forgive my yerfe if too dtffufe, 

tliefe, there was alfo the chamber of voca- Pcrform'd tbe kitchen's and the parlour's ufe. 

tiocu, and tbofe of requeAs. In 1771 the king Harte. 

thought fit to branch the Parliament of Pari* into * PARLOUS, adj. [This might feem to come 

fix different parliaments, under the denomination from purler, Fr. to fpeak ; but Junius derives it, I 

of fuperior court*, each parliament ba«iog Gmtlar think, rightly, from perilous, in which fenfe it an- - 

juruftictioB. Under their fecond race of kings, fwer* to the Latiu imp <-obut.\ Keen; fprightly ; 

thia parliament, like that of England, was the waggifh.— 

king'* council, it gave audience to arobaftadon, One muA be trufled, and he thought her fit, 

and coofulted of tbe affair* of war and govern- A* pairing prudent, and a parlous wit. li'yden. 

men*. The king, like our»„at that time prefided • PARI OUSN ESS. *./. [from parlous.] Quick- 

in them, without bring at all mafter of their refo- ncfi ; keennrfs of temper. 

lutions. But in after time* their authority was (1.) PARMA, a duchy or province of Italy, 

abridged j at tbe 1 kings referved the decjiion of bounded on the N. by the Po ; on the NE. by the 

the grand affair* of the public to their own coun- late Mantuan, now the department ot the Mmrio, 

cils; leaving none but private one* to tbe parlia. in the kingdom of Italy ; on tbe E. by the ci-de- 

mentc. The parliament of Pari* alfo enjoyed the vant duchy of Mo'lena, now tbe dep. ot Panaro, 

privileges of verifying and regiftering {he king's on the S. by Tufcany, and on- the W. by the 

arret* or edicts, without which. thofe edict* were duchy of Placentia. In the midtl of all the fur- 

of little or 00 value. rounding change*, thia ducky has undergone no 

(13.) Pailjameht, the Swedi* if, confiflt of change in it* political conAitution, government or 

four eftates, with the king at their head. Tbefe geographical divifion, though. Inch were threat- 

eftates are, t. The nobility and representatives of ened ; but the duke made peace with the Fit rich 

tbe gentry; with whom the colonels, lieutenant- republic en the ajth Oct. 1706. The air is very 

colonels, majors and captaias of every regiment, wholefome, on which account the inhabitants live 

, ; „,ca,G00glc 



PAR ( )g ) P All 

to a great age. The foil to very Fertile in corrii with his fan.' Plutarch remarks, that Parmenio 

' Vine, oil, and hemp ; the paftures feed a great gained many victories without Alexander, but A- 

numher of cattle, and the cheefe ii in very high lexander not one without Parmenio. 

efteem. Here are confiderable mines of copper PARMENTIER, John, a celebrated French na- 

and Giver, and plenty of truffles. See Pakmesan, vigator, born at Dieppe, in 1494- He wan the Gift 

N° 1. pilot who conducted veffels to Brazil, and the firft 

(1.) Parma, an ancient, rich) populous, and Frenchman who difcoTered the Indies ae far aa 

handfomc city of Italy capital of the above duchy, Sumatra. He was a. good aftronomer, and laid 

with a 'citadel, a bifhoa-'s fee, and an univeifity. down fcveral excellent maps. He died at Suma- 

It has a magnificent cathedral," and the largeft tra, in 1330. 

opera-houfe in Europe, which has feats for 11,000 . (1.) PARMESAN, the duchy of Pat ma, in its 

fpeaators) but ai it required * raft number of moftextenfivefenfe;lncludinguotonlythecityarid 

candies, which occafioned great expenfa, they duchy of Parma Proper, (fee Parma N° i. 4 a.) 

have contrived another which has room for 1000 but alfo thofeof GuaftallaandPlaccntia. (See Pla- 

fpectatori. The dome and the church of St John centia.) It extends 40 miles from N. to S. and 

are painted by the famous Corregio, who was a from 3a to 48, from E.to W. This country once 

native. Charles HI. king of the two Sicilies, car* formed a fmall republic ; but afterwards fell fuc- 

Tied away the library to Naples, which contained ceffively tinder the popes, the emperors, the duke* 

18,000 volumes, and a very valuable cabinet of of Milan; and the French, upon whofe expuMton 

curiofities, as alfo the rich collection of medals, out of Italy, it was re-united to the Papal domi- 

•ThL- citadel, which is very near the city, is built uions. In ijaj, Paul III. gave it to his natural 

in the fame tafte as that at Antwerp. In 1734, fon, Peter Aloyfiire Farnefe; from whom the 

there 'was a bloody battle fought here; and in princes of that family defended. Of thefe the 

1741, hy the treaty of Aix-la-Chapetle, the duchies rooft celebrated was prince Alexander. (See Alex- 

of Parma, Placentia, and Guaftalla, were given to* ander, N° ja.) The princeCs Elizabeth Famefe, 

Philip, brother to Charles above mentioned. The daughter of duke Edward, being married to K. 

principal ftreett meet in the centre, and form a Philip V. of Spainj in 1714, became heirefs of 

handfome fquare. The new palace is built on the Parma, In r j*o, on the death of her uide Prince 

fite of the old. It has 3 collegiate and 30 pariflt Francis; and her fon Philip fucceeded in 17*8- 

churches, betide* the cathedral of St John. Ill (t.) Parmtgsam,^. Of or belonging to Parma. 

chief manufacture is filk Hockings, and fome other (3.) Parmesan Cheese, a fort of cheefe much 

- articles in filk. It waa famous for printing, and efteemed among the Italians') fo named from the 

the books printed by Bodoni are remarkably beau. ■ duchy of Parma where it it made,"arld whence ft 

tiful. Parma, from its firft foundation By the an- it conveyed to various parts of Europe. The 

cient Etrurian's, has never changed its name. The cows from whofe milk this cheefe Is made yield a 

population is cftimated by HrMartyn, at 37,000; great quantity of it. Of this cheefe there are 3 

by Berengcr at 439000. It is 31 miles SW. of forts; thefromoggio ii forma, about two palms 

Mantua: 60 SE. of Milan, and 60 SE. of Cremona, in diameter, and 7 or 8' inches thick; and Ibe for- 

, Lon. 10. 30. E. Lat. 44- 4 7- N. maggh di ribiolt and ii rihlini, which are not fo 

(3.) Pabma, a river of Italy, which rifes in the large. It it of a faffron colour; and the belt is 

8. part of the duchy, (N* 1.) near Etruria ; di- kept 3 or 4 years. See Cheese, § 4. 

vides the city of Parma, (N° a.) into three parts, PARM1GIANO, a celebrated painter, wbofe 

which were connected by two bridges' over thefe true name waa Francis Mazzuou ; but be waa 

branches ; and falls into the Po, near Viadna, named Parmigiano, from Parma, where be was 

(4) Parma. See Parmesan, N° i. born, in IJ04. He was educated under his two 

• PARMAC1TTY, n.f. Comiptedly for /per- uncles, and was aa eminent painter when but 16 

mttceti. Jin/wsrth. years of age. He was famous all over Italy at 19; 

PARMANI, or ) the ancient inhabitant a -of and at 13 performed fuch wonders, that when the 

PARMANENSES.JParma. general of Charles V. took Rome by ftorm.forne 

PARMEN1DES, an ancient Greek pbilofopher, of the foldiers, having. In licking the town, broke 

born in Elis, about A. A, C. 303. He ftudied into his apartments, found Dim intent upon bis 



under Xenophanea, or Anaximander. He taught work, and were inftantty fo ftruck with the beau- 
that there were only two elements, fire and earth; ty of his pieces, that inftead of involving hi 
and that the Grit generation of men was produced the plunder and deftruction in which they 



from the fun. Along with thefe and other abfur- then employed, they refolved to protect h 

dities, he taught fome philofophical truths: He all manner of violence ; which they actually per- 

firft difcovered that the earth ia round, but he formed. His works are diftiuguHhed by the 

placed it, like Ptolemy, in the centre of the Solar beauty of the colouring, invention, and drawing. 

Syftem. He put his fyftem into verfe; and Frag- His figures are fpirited and graceful, particularly 

mentsof it were collected by Henry Stephanut, and with refpedt to attitude, and dreffes. He alfo ex- 

publifhed under the title of De P#fi PMlo/cpiiica. celled in muhc, in which lie much delighted. His 

PARMENIO, a celebrated and popular gene- paintings in oil- are few, but held in high efteem, 

rat, in the army of Alexander the Great, who long at are alfo his drawings and etchings. He was 

enjoyed that prince's confidence, and waa more the firft that practifeil etching in Italy. At Rome 

attached to his perfon aa a man than as a mo- he was employed by pope Clement VII. who was 

natCh. Yet in a moment of fufpicion, excited by highly pleafed with bis performances, and reward- 

falfe information, Alexander ordered this faithful cd him liberally. In the Houghton collection of 

friend to be put to death, in bis joth year, along pictures, now in iroifefbon of the emperor of Rnf- 

lia, 



PAR (, 31 J P A K 

lis, it one of his beft pictures, representing Chtifl !o.' Their frantic orgies were performed yearly, * 
laid in the frpulchre, for which he it laid to have Wheler and his company afcended Pai-naffus from 
been knighted by the duke of Parma. Hil priii- Delphi, fome on horfes, by a track between the 
cipal work! are at Parma, where he died poor in Stadium and the clefts of the mountain. Stain 
Ij4o- were cut in tbe rock, with a (traight channel, per- 
PARMILLIEU, a town of France, in the dep. hapa a water-duct. — In a long hour, after many 
of the I fere, a 4. miles ENE. of Lyons, traverfes, they gained the top, and entering a plain, 
PARNASSIA, gTafa of Parnaffus, in botany, a turned to the right, towards the fummita of Ca- 
genus of the tctragynia order, belonging to the ftalia, which are divided by deep precipices. 
pentandria clafs of plants. The calyx isquinque- From this eminence they had a fine profpect of the 
partite ; thrre are five petals, and as many nefla- gulf of Corinth, and of the coaft ; mount Cirphis 
ria, heart- fh aped, and ciliated with globular topi ; appearing beneath them as a plain, bounded on 
the capfule quadrivalved. There U but one fpe- the E. by the bay of Afprofoitia, and on the W. 
cics, having a ftalk about a foot high, angular, by that of Salons. Tbey returned to the way 
and often a little twilled, bearing a iingle white they bad quitted, and croffed a hill, covered 
Sower at top. The flowers are very beautifully with pines and fnow. On their left was a lake, 
ftreaked with yellow ; fo that though it is a com- and beyond it a peak, exceedingly high, white 
uton plant, growing naturally in moid pafturct, it with fnow. Tbey travelled to the foot of it 
is frequently admitted into gardens. through a valley, 4 or 5 miles in compafs ; and 
PARNASSO, in modern geography, a moun- retted by a plentiful fountain called Dro/tuiige, the 
tain of European Turkey, in Liyadia, 8 miles N. ftream boiling up a foot in diameter, and nearly 
of Livadia j much celebrated by the poets, under as much above the furface of the ground. It runs 
its ancient name into tbe lake, about a quarter of a mile to the 8E. 
PARNASSUS, in ancient geography, a moun- They did not difcdveT Corycium, or proceed far- 
tain of Phocis, near Delphi, and the mounts Ci- theron; but keeping the lake on their right, came 
thstron and Helicon, with two tops; theonecalled again to the brink of the mountain, and defcended 
CirrJU, facred to Apollo; apd the other Nifa, fa- by a deep and dangerous track roRacovi, a village 
cred to Bacchus. It was covered with bay trees, 4 or j miles E. of Delphi. It was the opinion of 
and originally called Laraafui, from Deucalion's Wheler, that no mountain in Greece was higher 
Umax or ark, thither conveyed by the flood ; after than Pamafliis j that it was not inferior to mount 
tbe flood, farnaffiu, from Hsr Natws, changing Ceois among the Alp* \ and that, if detached, it 
the A into f, the bill of divination or augury 1 tbe would be (ecu at a greater diftance than even 
otacleof Delphi Handing at its foot. (Strain. Pind. mount Alhos. The fummita are perpetually in- 
jure. J*v- Slept. Ptuceriu.) Dr Chandler, who ri. creating, every new fait of fnow adding to tbe pc- 
filed it, thus defcribes it» in lii* Travels in Greece; rennial heap, while the fun has power only to 
" ParnafTui was the weftern boundary of Pbocia, thaw tbe fuperficiee. Caftalis Pleiftus and innu- 
and ft retching M. from about Delphi toward the merable fpringa are fed, fome invifibty, from tbe 
CEtasan mountains, feparated the weftern Locri lakes and refervoira, which, without thefe drains 
from those who ponefled the fea-coaft before Eu- and fubterraneous vents, would fwell, efpecially 
bcea. It waa a place of refuge to the Delphian s after heavy rain and the melting of fnow, fo as to 
in timet of danger. In the deluge whicb happened fill tbe valleys, and nm over the tops of the- rocks 
under Deucalion, the natives were fared on it. down upon Delphi, fprcaditig wide an inundation, 
On the invafion by Xerxes, fome tranfported their fimilar, as has been furmifed, to the Deucalioneau 
families to Achaia, but many concealed them in- deluge." 

this mountain, and in Corycium, a grotto of the PARNE, a town of France, in the department 

nymphs. All Panuffaa was renowned for fane- of Mayenne ; 6 miles SE. of Laval. 

tity, but Corycium waa the moft noted among the * PARNEL. n. / [The diminutive of 'pttranilla.\ 

hallowed carta and places. * On the way to tbe A punk ; a Out. Obfolcte. Stmnr, 

fummita of ParuaffusgfayaPaufanias, 6oftadii.be- PARNELL, Dr Thomas, a very ingenious dl- 

yond Delphi, is a brazen image 1 and thence the vine and poet, born at Dublin in 1679, He waa 

afcent to Corycium is eafier for a man 00 foot than educated at Trinity College, and in 1700 took his 

for mules and horfes. Of all tbe caves in which degree of H. A. In 1706, be came -to England, , 

I hare been, this appeared to me tbe beft worth and was much refpected by Gay, Swift, Arbutb- 

feeing. On the coaft*, and by the tea-fide, are not. Sec. He was. archdeacon of Clogber, and tbe 

more than can be numbered j but fome are very intimate friend of Mr Pope ; who pubtifbed hia 

famous both in Greece and in other countries. Hermit and other works, with recommendatory 

The Coryciau cave exceeds in magnitude thote-I verfes prefixed. He died in 1718, aged 39. . 

have mentioned, and for the moft part may be . PARNES, a mountain of Africa, abounding iu 

pafled through without a light. It is fufficietitly vines. Stat. Theb. v. 610. 

high, and has water, fome fpringing up, and yet PARNESSUS,a mountain of Afia, nearBsdrr- 

uiore from the roof, which petrifies j fo that the ana. JXonrfi. Per. 717. 

bottom of the whole cave is covered with fparry PARNI, an ancient nation of Scytbia, who in- 

icicles. The inhabitants of ParnalTus efteem it fa- vaded Parthia. Strata, xi. < . 

cred to the Corydan nympbs, and to Pan.— From PARNOT, a. town of France, in the dep. of ■ 

the cave to reach the futnmit of the mountain is Upper Marne } 5 miles NW. of Boutbonue. 

difficult even to a man on foot. The fummita are * PAROCHIAL, adj. {paracbialii, from far*- 

above the clouds, and tbe women called Thyadei chia, low Lat.] Belonging to a pariih The mar- 

niddcaoo them in tbe ritea of Bacchus and Apol- ried ftatc of pqrscbkii paftors hatb given them th 

opportunity 



PAR (32) PAR 

* opportunity of fetting a more exael and univerfal tor or fytlabfe, fewal things are alluded to. It 

pattern of holy living, to the people committed ia called in Latin agpaminatio. DiS, 

to their charge. Attn burg, (».) Parohomasi* fignifies alfo a pun. See 

PAROD1CAL Degrkss, in an equation, a 'Oratory, J ji8. 

term ufed to denote the federal regular terms in a (i.) • PARONYCHIA. n.f. \*«t>uii X m ; *<ir»- 

quadratic, cubic, biquadratic, &c. equation, when nyckU, Fr.] A preternatural fwelling or fore tin- 

t he indices of tbe power* afcend or defcend or- der the root of the nail in one's finger i. a felon ; 

derly in an arithmetical progrefiion. Thus*' + at a whitlow. DiS. 

** 4- n«= ia a cubic equation, where no tennis (a.) Paronychia, the Whitlow", in furgery, 

wanting, but having all its.parodic degrees j tbe is an abfiteftu tbe end of tbe fingers. According 

indices of the terms regularly descending thus, as it is fituated more or left deep, it it differently 

3, a, i, o. denominated, and divided into rpeciei. It begins 

.((.)• PARODY, a. f- iparodu, Fr. **ftim.] A with a flow heavy pain, attended with a flight 

kind of writing, in which the words of an author sulfation, without fwelHng, redneft, or brat s but 

or bis thoughts are taken, and, by a flight change, Foon the pain, heat, and throbbing, are intnler* 

adapted to fame new purpufe. — The imitations of able ; the part grows large and red, the adjoin* 

i the ancients are added together with fome of the ing fingers and the whole hand (Well np ; in fome 

parodus and allufions to the moft excellent of the cafes, a kind of red and inflated (treat: may be 

moderns. Pope's Dtmtiad. • obferved, which, beginning at the affected part, is 

(*.) Parody is a;fo ufed for a popular maxim, contitfued almoft to tbe elbow ; nor is it unufual 

adage, or proverb. for the patient to complain of a very (harp pain 

(j.) Parody, in poetry, ($ i.) confifts in ap- under the moulder, and fometimes the whole arm 

plying the verfes written on one fubject, by way is exceffively inflamed and fwelled ; the patient 

Of ridicule, to another; or in turning a ferioua cannot Deep, the fever, &c. increafing; and fome- 

work into a burlefque, by affecting to obferve as times delirium or convuilions follow, i. When it 

near aa pofnble the lama rhymes, words, and ca- is ieated in the (kin or fat, in the hack or the fore 

deuces. The parody was tiril fet on foot by tbe part of the finger, or under or near tbe nail, the 

Greeks, from whom we borrofv the name, ft pain is fevere, but ends well.' a. When the peri, 

comes near to what fome of our late writers call odeum ia inflamed or corroded,' the pain ia tor- 

Travisty. Others have more accurately diftan- meriting. 3. When the nervous coati of the flexor 

guiihed between a parody and burlefque; and tendons of the fingers, or nerrea near them, are 

they obferve, that the change of ■ fingle word may seized, tbe worft fymptom* attend, If the fiift 

parody a verfe, or of a fingle letter a word. Thus, kind fuppuratea, it mull be opened, .and treated 

ia tbektft cafe, Catoexpofed the iuconftant dtfpo- aaabfcetTes in general; but the belt method of 

Utiou of Marcus Fulvius Nobilior, by changing treating the other two fpeciea ia, on the firfl, or 

Nobilior into Mobilior. Another kind of parody at furtheft the iecoild day, to cut the part where 

con till a in the mere application of fome known the pain is feated quite to tbe bone : if this ope- 

verfc, or part of a verfe, of a writer, without ration is longer deferred, a fuppuration wit come 

making any change in it, with a view to expofe it: on 1 k which cafe fuppuration Ibould be fpcedSly 

A 4ih in fiance is that of writing verfea in thetafte promoted, and as early adifcharge given to the 

and Ayle of authors little approved. Tbe rules matter as poSfible. As the pain is fo conQderable 

of parody regard the choice of a fubjeft, and the as to occafion a fever, and- force times convulfions, 

manner of treating it. The fubjecr mould be * the tin*, tbeb. may be added to the fuppurating 

known and celebrated work : as to the manner) applications, and alfo given in a draught at bed 

it mould be by au exact imitation, and an inter- time. The ad fprcte* proves very rroublefome, 

mixture of good natural pleafantry. and fomettmct ends in a caries of the fubjaceot 

* To Pa»odx.t.<j. [parodier, Fr. from parody. \ bone. Tbe 3d fpecies » very tedious in the cure. 

To copy by way of parody,— I barb translated, and ufually ths phalanx on which it is feated is 

or rather parodied, a poem of Horace, in which I deliroyed . 

introduce you advifing me. Pop*. " PARONYMOUS. adj. [r.^n.jut 1 Refem- 

BAK.O-HOTUH, a towa of Chinefe Tartary, bling another word)— Shew your critical learning 

a US miles NME. of Peking. Loo. 136. 33. !• Ferro. in tbe etymology of terms, the fynorrymoua and 

Lat. 44. a. N. the paronpnaus or kindred names. Watti. ' 

(a.) * PAROLE, n.f. [parole, French.] Word PAROPAMISUS, in ancient geography, 3 ridge 

E>»en asaualTuiaecc;proraife giveri-byaprifoner of mountains and an extenfive territory id the N, 

not to go away.— of India, which took Alexander the Great and his 

Love's votaries enthral each other's fool, army 10 days to croft it. (See Macedom, § 14) 

"fill botb of them live but upon parole. It is now called-the Indian Caaca/ks, and part of • 

Ctemvelatd. it Sleaj Girdle. ' 

—4 bare a fcruple whether you can keep your PAROPUS, a towa of Sicily, on' the N. coaft ; 

parole, if you become a pruouer- to tlie- iailiet. ■ now called Coflfimo. Polyb. \. 14. 

Swift. ' , # (t.) 'PAROQUET, n.f. [pttrroqurt,. tx perro- 

(*-) Parole means alfo a- word given '-out qmt, Fr.] A f mall fpecies of parrot. — The great, 

every day in. ordure, by the commanding officer, red, and blue, are parrots ; the middlemoft called 

both in camp and. garrilbn, in order to know' popinjays; and the \ttter, paroquets. Grne. — 

friends from enemies. I would nor give 1 my paroquet 

(a.) * PARONOMASIA, n.f. [m^w/wrm J A For all the doves that ever Hew. Prior. 

rhetoricaJ figure, ui which, bjr Ma* change of a Jet- {v.) Pl*«4UlT. See Psittacus. 

WROREIA. 



PAR (33) PAR 

PAROREIA, hi indent geography : i. Atown to yield to Sytta, Lncnllui, jind Pompey, this 

of Thrace, heir mount Hcmusi (Lro. 30. C. ind the other i (lands of the Archipelago fire-mi t- 

•7.) *■ A. town of EWopooBdbi : 3* A diftnft of ted to the Romans, who red need the, n to a pro- 

Phrygta. Strain »ii. vince with Lydia, Phrygia, and Curia. The Ruf- 

(i-JPAROS, in ancient geography, an iOand of Han* made thia place their grand arfenal ; iheir 

the Mgom fea, one of the Ctdades, 38 mtte* ponder magazines, md fevers! other, buildings, 

from Deloij anciently calledPacTTE and Mrnba? *™ ftili Sanding) and the iBand it indebted to 

*Ko DnmtMas, Zacynthui, Uyria, Hylefetl, and Gi- them for improving the convenience for water, 

Jaraw. ft was the country of Arcmlootma, the and for the trade which the cafh they expended 

Iambic poet, and famous for Eta white marble, introduced among the inhabitants. It Met near to 

called htbmta, becaufe dog with lamps. The Waxia. 

name of Gabamia ia derived, according to Steptta- (*■) Pa«.o», the metropolis of the above ifland 
nut, from oue Cabornus, who informed Certs of ia ftyfed by Stephanos a potent city, and one of 
toe rape of her daughter Proferpirie } or, accord- the large* in the Archipelago. The prefent city of 
tag to Hdychins from the Cauaroi, the prieftt of Paro*, now PaHcHia, isbuilt upon itstuins; the 
Cerea, To called by the Parians. The name of Mi- country abounding with valuable monuments ■>! 
■oa ia borrowed from Minos king of Crete, wb* amiqirity. The wry walls are built with columns, 
fabdncd this, as he did moft of the other iflands* architraves,, pedcftals, mingled with pieces of an- 
of the JEttetm Tea, . It wis called Pares, Which elent marble of a furprifing magnitude, which 
name it retain to thia day, from Paro* the foe of #ere once employed in more noble edifices. Pa- 
Parrhafiug, or of Jifun the Argonaut. Paras, a c- roe was indeed formerly famous for its marble, 
cording to Pliny, is y\ miles from Naios, and H which was of an extraordinary whitenefo, and in 
from Delos, Some modern travellers win have it filch requeft among the ancients that the beft fta- 
to be 80, otltert only jo miles in compafi. Pliny rparira ufed no other. The celebrated ftatnaries 
&y* it ia half a* large as Naxos, that hi, 36 miles PMiius and Praxiteles were born in it ; and the 
in cotapala. Dr Brookes fays, it is 10 miles long, authenticity of its marble chronicle is now tfta- 
aud 8 broad. It was a rich and powerful iflmd, blilhed. See Akundbliak Marbles ; and Pa- 
being reckoned the moll wealthy of the Cyclades. Hah Cbiohiclb. The city lies withe W. coaft. . 
{Pit*}/, Nepv, torai. Nitamr, Flrg. Her. Oaid.f Hm. 3j. 44- E. Lat. 37-'8. N. 
It is provided with feveral capacious and fare Haf- " (1) " PAROTID, adj. [parotide, Fr. **rA>t 
poors, and was anciently much retorted to by «*^« and ■«.] Salivary : fo named becaufe near 
trader*. It was, according to TnucTtfidet, on- ■ *e ear*.— Beafts and birds, having one common 
gina! I y peopled by the Phoenician s, who were the ofe of fptttal, are fnrnilhed with the paratid glands, 
firft maftert of the fea. Afterwards the Cattails which 1 help to ftipply the Month with it. Grew. 
fettled here. Thucydides fays, the Carians were " (i.)Paaorin HLanDs, orthe 
driven out by the Cretans under Minos; but PAROTIDES, See ANATOMr, Index. 
Diodoru* writes, that the Carians- did not fatltf * PAROTIS. n.f. fmtjtAf,] A tumouftn the 
here till after the Trojan war, when they found glandules behind and about the Mrs, generally 
the Cretan* in the ifland. Stephanos thlnfcs that called the emunftofies of the brain ; though, in. 
the Cretan*, mixed with Come Arcadians, were deed, they are the external fountains of the la- 
the only oeopte that ever poueffcd this Uland. lira of the mouth. Wljeman, 

Minos himfelf, Pliny fays, tended tome time m • PARQXYSM. n. f. \w*fJt*i*t j parcxyfme, 

thia iiVaad, and received here the news of the Pr.J A fit ( periodifcal exacerbation of a difeafe. 

death of his ton Androgeut, who was kitted in - J *l fancied to myfelf a kind of eafc, in the change 

Attica after he had dirtnlguilhed mTnfelf at the of Ibxpafoxljfm. Drfdeit. — AmoroDs girls, through 

ptbtic games. The Parians were choTefl from the ftfry of an hyfterlc panxypn, are caft into i 

among all the Greeks by the Mitefians to com'- trance fbr an hour. tJarv/y.— The greater diftaneC 

pofe the differences which had rent that ftatfe In- of time there is between the paroxyfms, the fever 

to factions. They acquitted themrelves with great is h*fs dangerous, but more obftinate. Arbulliaai. 
prudence, and reformed the government. They PARPAfLLOTSt a name given to ffie Cilvi* 

afitted Darius in his esrsedition <againlr Greece' di/Win Prance. SeeCAtrtirisM. 
with a eoflfiderable fquadron j but 'after Ihb vie- PARQUIMANS, a county of N. Carolina, in 

tory ottamed by Mrltiadea at Marathon, thf y were Eden ton 'dill rift, bounded on the N. by Virginia, 

redarxd to great (traits by that gtneraU How- EJ by the Pafqiiotarife, 3. by Albemarle Sound* 

ever, aftsr Mocking tip the city for is dfys, 'he and W. by Chowan county. In 1795, it contain- 

watobu^dto quit the enterprise, and return to ed 3560 cititcens, and 1^78 Daves. A county-' 

Athens with dltgrace. After the battlt of Safer-- court is held at the Court-houfe the sd Monday 

mis,ToomhrtaksrabjeftedParoaand'itioftofthe ofFebrniry, May; Auguft, and November. 
neighbouring iflaodS to Athens, eMftihg large {i.)PARR, Catharine, was the eldelt daughtef 

ram* fret* them for having favoured tbe Per- df Sir TRonlas Parr of Kendall. She was firft' 

mas. K appear* from the famous monument of married to Jofcn Hevil,Lord Litymer; after whdte, 

Adula*, wtiieh Cofrhos of ■Egypt iras defcribed death (he fo captivated K. Henry VIII. that he 

fHh great mactnefs, thai Parol arid the other rarftd her to the throne. The royal nuptials were 

Crctade* were* once fubjeA to the Ptoletnrea of foletnnriied at Hampton Court on the 11th of Jo- 

Eeypt. Hoivever, Para* fell again under tbe ly 1134. Being; refigioully difpofed, (he was, in 

power of the Athenians, who continued tnaf- the e.irly part of her life, a zealous' ohferver of 

»ri of it till they were driven out by Mltflri- the Romi(h rftes and ceremonies j' but, in the 

utet the Great. But that prince being obliged dawning of foe Reformation, (he became as zea- 

fou XVII. Part I, Djfeedoi *** 



PAR ( 34 ) , P A *. 

lous a promoter of the Lutheran dodrlne; yet only on the interior furface were found foine Sqt«' 
with fuch prudence and circumfpection ■$ her pe- out or feroua ibfceflTes, whereof one wis our the 
rilous fitu.ition required. In fuch danger wii fhe bignefs of a ben's egg, with a yellowilh water 
at one time, thatthekingbadacroally Bgnedawsr- in it, having made a roundilh cavity, imprtf- 
rant for committing her to the lower. She bad art led on that kidney ; whence forms thought it 
enough to reft ore hcrfelf to hit good grace*. The came that) a little before hi* death, ■ fupprefuon 
king died in January 154}, juft 35 yea" after hi* of urine had befallen him j though otheri were 
-marriage with his 3d Catharine ; who in a Qiort of opinion, that nil urine wai fupprefled upon the 
time wai again efpoufed to Sir Thomas Seymour regurgitation of all the ferofity into Ml lings. 
lord-admiral of England : for in September 1548 Not the lealt appearance there waa of any Sony 
fhe died in childbed. The hi dorian » of this pe- matter, either in the kidneys or bladder. Hit 
riod generally infinnate, that fhe waa poifoned by boweli were alfo found, a little whitilli without. 
her hufbanrl, to make way for hii marriage with His fpleen very little, hardly equalling the blgnefi 
the lady Elisabeth. That Catharine Parr waa of one kidney. In fliott, all hii inward parti ip- 
beautiful, is beyond a doubt ; that flie wai pious peamd fo healthy, that if he bad not changed bio 
ard learned, is evident from her writings ; ana that diet and air, he might perhaps hate lived a good 
her prudence and fagacity were not inferior to while longer. The caufc of hii death wn imputed 
her other accomplifhrnenti, may* be concluded chiefly to the change of food and air t forairnuch 
from her holdine up th«? liafiion of a capricious ai corning out of a clear, tbin, and free air, he 
tyrant as a fhield .-icainft Iter enemies; and that came into the thick air of London; and, jfteri 
at the latter cnil of bis <iw'n, when hia. paffions con ft ant plain and homely country diet, he was 
were enfeebled by age, and bis peevilh aufterity taken into a fplendid family, where he fed high, 
increafed by difeafc She wrote, 1. Queen Ca- and drank plentifully of the beft wines, where- 
tbarine Pan's U mental ion of a (inner, bewailing upon the natural fundtions of the parts of bis bc- 
the ignorance of her blind life ; Lond. ! wo, 1548, dy were overcharged, hia lungs obftructed, and 
IC63. a. Prayers or meditations, wherein the the h^bit of the whole body quite difordered; 
tnynd is (lined patiently to fuflre all afflictions upon which there could not but enfuc a diffolu- 
here, to fet at nought the vain profperitee of thit tion. Hit brain was found, entire, and firm ; and 
world, and always to long for the everlaftynge though he had Dot the ufc of bis eye*, nor much 
feticitee. -Collected out of holy workei, by the of hit memory, federal years before he died, yet 
moft virtuous and gracious princefle, Katharine, be bad bil bearing and apprebeu'Boo very well; 
queene of En^lande, France, and Ireland e. Printed and waa able, even to the 130th year of his age, 
by J. Waytand, ij43,4to, — 1361, ismo. 3. Other to do any hufbandman'i work, even threfliwe 
Meditations, Prayers, Letters, Sec. unpublished. of corn." The following fummary of his life it 
(OParr, Tliomaa, or Old Parr, a remarkable from Otdyi'i MS. notea on Fuller's Worthies: 
Englilhman t who lived in the reigns of ten kings " Old Parr waa born 1483 ; lived at borne until 
and queen c. He was the ion of John Parr, a huf- 1500, set. 17, when he went out to fervice. i;iS, 
bandman of Winnligton, in the parifh of Alder- set. 31, returned home from his matter. 15a*, art. 
bury, Salop. Following the profeflioo of hia fa- 39, fpeot four yean on the remainder of hii fa- 
ther, he laboured hard, and lived on coarfe fare, tlier's leafe. 1343, xt. 60, ended the firft leafe he 
Being taken up to London by the E. of Arundel,' renewed of Mr Lewis Porter. 1563, set. 80, our- 
tho journey proved fata) to him. Owing to the al- ried Jane, daughter of John Taylor, a maiden; 
teration in his diet, to the change of the air, and by whom he bad a Ton and a daughter, wbc 
his general mode of life, he lived but a very fbort both died very young. 1364, stt. 81, ended the 
time; though one Robert Samber fays, in bis fecund leafe which he renewed of Mr John Por 
work, entitled Lang Livers, that Parr lived 16 ter. ij8j, set. ica, ended the third leafe hi 
years after bis prelentation to Charles II. He hsd renewed of Mr Hugh Porter. ic88, set. 105 
waa buried in Weftminfter Abbey. After his did penance in Aldcrbury church for lying wit) 
death his body was opened ; and an account was Katharine Milton, and getting her with child 
drawn up by the celebrated Da Habvhv, of 1595, set, us, he buried his wife Jane, after the; 
which the following U an extract : " He had a had lived 31 years together. 1605, act. isa 
Urge bread, not fungous, but (licking to. his ribs, having lived 10 years a widower, he. mania 
and diftended with blood ; a lividnefs in lis face, Jane, widow of Anthony Adda, daughter a 
as he bad a difficulty of breathing a little before John Loyd of Gilfells, in Montgomery (hire, wbi 
his death, and a long lafting warmth in his arm- furvived him. 1635, set. 15* and 9 months, h 
pits and breaft after it ; which Bgn, together with died; after they had lived together 30 yean 
others, were lb evident in his body as tbey ufeto and after 30 years poffeflion of his laft leafe." 
be on thole that die by fuffocation. His heart - (I.) PARRA, in geography, a town of Pei&f 
was great, thick, "fibrous, and fat; the blood in in Segefta, 60 miles N. of Zareng. 
-the heart blackilh and -diluted ; the cartilage! of (II.) Pair a, in nrn it oology, a genus of bin 
the fternum not more bony than in others, but belonging to the order of. grails ; the character 
6exile and foft. His vifcera were found and of which are: The bill is tapering and a litt 
ftrong, efpecially the ftomach ; and he ufed to eat obtufc; the ndftriti are oval, and fituatedintt 
often by night and day, though contented with middle of the bill ; the forehead is covered wil 
old cheefe, milk, coarfe bread, fmall beer, and flelhy caruncles, which are lobated 1, the wings a 
whey ; and, which is more remarkable, that be fmall, and fpinous. There are 5 fpecies : 
eat at midnight a little before be died. His kid- (1.) Parra Chavaria is about the fizeof 
nevs were covered with fat, and pretty found ; dung-bill cock, and (lands a foot and a half frot 

. Dqrtzedny^OOgle 



PAR ( S5 ) PAR 

the ground. The bill is of a dirty white colouri French ehirurgien. The flcih is accounted pretty 

the upper mandible fimilar to that, in a dung-hill good. 

cock; the noftrils are oblong, pervious: on both 4. Parr a Sf megali.a, ii abont the fame fize 1 
fides, at the bale of the bill, ii a red membrane, with the Dominica, N° a. Ita bill it alfo yellow 
which extends to the templet. The irides are tipped with black; the forehead it covered with 
brown. On the hind head, are about ts blackifh a yellow dung the chin and throat are black ; the 
feathers, 3 inches long, forming a creft, and hang- head and upper parts of the body and lelTer wing 
ing downwards. The reft of the neck it covered covers the grey-brown. The lower part of the- 
with a thick black down. The body is brown, belly, and the upper and under tail-coverts are 
and the wings and tail inclined to black. On the dirty white. At the bend of the wing, is a black 
bend of the wingt, are s or 3 fpurs half an inch' fpur. It inhabits Senegal, and thence derives ill 
Jong. The belly it a light black. Thethightare name. The negroetcall them UettUctt, the French- 
half bare of feather!. The legt are very long, and the fqaalieri, becaufc, at we are told, as foon at 
of a yellow red colour. The toes arc fo long at they fee a man they fcrcam and fly off. They 
to entangle one another in walking. " This always fly in pairs. 

fpecies (fays Mr Latham, in hisSynoptu) inhabits 5. Pars* Variabilis, the fovr-vnngid water' 
the lakes, &c. near the river Gnu, about 30 ben, is about 9 inches long. The bill it about 1* 
leagues from Carlhagena, in S. America, and inches in length, and in colour orange-yellow, 
feeds on vegetables. Its gait is folemn and flow ; On the forehead is a flap of red fltin ; the crown 
but it flies eafily and fwiftly. I( cannot run, un- of the head is brown, Marked with. foots of a dark- 
left affiled by the wingt at. the fame time.. When er colour ; the hind part of the neck is innch the 
any part of the fkin it touched by the hand,- a' fame, but of a deeper dye. The fides of thr- 
crackling is felt, though it is very downy beneath head, throat, fore part of the neck, breaft, belly, 
the feathers \ and, indeed, this down adhere! fo thighs, and. under tail coverts are white, with a 
clofely as to enable the bird at times to fwim. few red fpots on the fides of the belly and bale of 
The voice is clear and loud, but far from agree- the thighs. On the fore part of the wing it 3 ye! - 
able. Tbe natives, who keep poultry in great low fpur, &c. The legs are fumilhed with long 
numbers, have one of thefe tame, whicbgoetalong toes, as in all the others, the colour of which is 
with tbe Bock about tbe neighbourhood to feed bluilh am. Mr Latham fays, that one which came 
during the day, when this faithful Ibepherd dei under bis infpection from Cayenne was rather 
fends them agaicfc birds of prey; being able, by fmaller. It bad the upper parts much paler j over 
means of the fpuri on the wings, to drive off the eye was a ftieak of white pafling no further, 
birds as big as the carrion vulture, and even that and unaccompanied by a black one. ' The hind 
bird itfelf. If is fo far of tbe greateit ufe, at it part of the neck wat dulky black. It had" only 
never deferts the charge committed to its care, tbe rudiment of a fpnr ; and the red caruncle on 
bringing them all home fafe at night. It is fo the forehead wat left, and laid back on the fore- 
tame as to fuffer itfelf to be handled by a grown head. From thefe differences, this learned omi- 
perfon, but wilt not permit children to attempt thologift conceives it to have differed either in fcx 
the fame.— For the above account, we are indebt- or age from the other. This fpecies inhabits 
ed to Linnzus, who feeml to be the only one who BraGI, and is faid to be pretty common about 
has given any account of this wonderful bird." Carthagena and in South America. 

». Parka Dominica, is abont the fize of the PARRAMATTA, a town of New S. Wales, 

lapwing. The bill it yellow, as are alfo tbe head fettled by Britifh convicts, at the harbour of Port 

and Upper parts ; the under are of a yellowifh Jackfon, 11 miles W. of Sydney Cove, between 

white bordering or rofe colour. The legt are Rofc-hill and the landing place. In 1791, about 

alfo yellow. This fpecies inhabits feveral of the 1000 acres of the adjacent grounds were in culti- 

warmer parts of America and St Domingo. vat ion ; and tbe foil is good. Lon. iji. 39, E. 

3. Pab.ra Jacaha, the J}ur-<w'wgrd vtattr-hin, Lat. 3 j. 50. S. 
it about the fize of the water rait. The bill it in PARRECEV, a town of France, in the dep. of 

length about an inch and a quarter, of an orange Jura; j^m.S.ufDole.and^ NNE.of Chauffin. 
colour ; and on the forehead is a membranous flap, PARRELS, n.f. in a fhip, are frames made of 

half an inch long and nearly as broad. On each trunks, ribs, and ropes, which, having both their 

fide of the head alio is another of the fame, about ends fattened to the yards, are fo contrived at to go 

a quarter of an inch broad, and both together they round about the mail, that tbeyards by their means . 

furroond the bale of the bill. The head, throat, may go up and down upon the matt- Thefe alfo, 

neck, breaft, and under parts, are black; and with the breaftropea, faften the yards to the mafia. 
fometimes tbe belly is mixed with white, Sec. f ARRET, orPsDatn, a river of Somerfetfhire, 

This fpecies inhabit Brafil, Guiana, and Suri- which rifes in the S. part 'of that county, on the 

nam; bat are equally common at St Domingo, borders of Dorfetlhire. Near Langport it is joined 

where they frequent the marfhy places, fidet by the Ordered, augmented by tbe Ivel ; and, a- 

of ponds, and ft ream a, and , wade quite up to bout four miles from this junction, it it joined by 

tbe thighs in the water. They are alfo gene, the Tone or Thone, a pretty large river, riling 

rally feen in pairs, and when feparated call each among the halls in the weftern parts of this coun- 

other continually till they join again. They are try. About two milet below the junction of the 

very fby, arid moft common in the rainy feafont Tone, the Parret receives another confiderable 

in May and November. They are at tlf timet ftreard; and thus augmented, it pafTet by the 

very noify ; their cry iharp and ihrill, and may town of Bridgewater, and falls into the Briftol 

be beard a great way off. This is called by the channel in Bridge *iter Bay. 

,?,?,„ G,. <'-> p » R - 



PA* ( 36 ) P A B 

(l.) FARRHASITJS, t famous ancient painter baftards. And upon fome filch reafon at this mufl 
of Ephefus, or, as fome fay, of Athens : he flau- (ve account for the omiffion of an exemplary pu- 
lifbed about the time of Socrates, according to nifhment for this crime in the Englifh law, which 
Xenophon. It is faid, that be was excelled by treats it no otherwife than as Pimple murder, un- 
Tiinaqthcs, but excelled Zeoxis. His fubjcfls lei's tbe child was alfo the fervant of the patent. 
were very licentious. For, though the breach of natural relation is un- 

(i.) Parrhasius, Janua, a famous grammarian obferved, yet tbe breach of civil orecckfjarlic coo- 
in Italy, who was bom at Coienza, in Naples, in sections, when coupled with murder, denominates 
H jo. He was intended for tbe law, tbe profef- it a new offence ; no left than a fpecies of trcafon, 
fion of bis anceftors; but he preferred claflical called, par-ua proditio, or petit trcafmt which, 
learning. Hi* real name was John Paul Par'ifiut ; however, is nothing elfe but an aggravated de- 
but according [a the humour of tbe grammarians gree of murder ; although, on account of the vio- 
of that age, he called himfelf Janus Parrbafius. lation of private allegiance, it is ftigmatized as an 
Be taught at Milan with much reputation, being inferior fpecies of trcafon. And thus, in tbe an- 
admired for a graceful delivery, in which he chief- cient Gothic conftitutioa, we find the breach, both 
ly excelled other profefiurE. — He vyent to Rome of natural. and civil relations, ranked in the fame 
when Alexander VI. was pope ; but left it when data with crimes againft. the ftate and fovereign. 
in danger of being involved in the misfortunes of PARRICIDIOUS. See Parricidal. 
Cajetau and Savello, with whom he had fome cor- PARROAH.a town of Ceylon, jomilea WSW. 
refpondence. Soon after, he was appointed pro- of Trinkomaly. 

teflbr of rhetoric at Milan ; but prefuining to cen. PARROCEL, the name of 3 eminent French 
file: the teachers there as arrant hlocihtudi, they painters. 1. Jofeph was born at Brignolos,in ifiag; 
accufed him of a criminal convert with his fcho- liudicd at Paris, and in Ita:y under Bourguignon ; 
lars, which obliged him to leave Milan. He went became eminent for painting battles, though he had 
to Vicenza, where he obtained, a larger faJary ; never fecn an army ; was elected a, mem her of the 
and be held this profeflorfhip till the Venetian academy of painting ; and died at Paris in 1 704. 
dales were laid waftebythe troops of the League) 1- Charles, his ton and pupil, became alio fo emi- 
Upon which he returned to his native country, nent, that he was appointed to paint the conqutits 
By the recommendation of John Latcaria, he was of Lewis XV. Ift died at Paris in 1731, aged 63. 
called to Rome by Leo X. who appointed hira Peter, born at Avignon, nephew to Jofeph, waa 
profrubr of polite literature. But, exhaufted by alio his pupil, and performed many capital works 
bis itudies and labours, he became fo afflicted with at St Germain, &c. His cbief piece is at Mar- 
the gout, that he was obliged to return to Cala- feille*. He died in 1739, aged 75. 
bria, where he fell into a fever, and died. There 0) * PARROT. «./. [perrcquet, French.] A 
are fever*] books afcribed to him; paiticularly particoloured bird, of the fpecies of the hooked 
■ Commentaries on Horace and Ovid. bill, remarkable for the exact imitation of the 

PARRIJES1A. See Oratory, § » 33 . human voice. See Parooust.— 

* PARRICIDAL, PA RRICIDIO'US. adj. [from Some will ever more peep through their eyes, 

parrUida, Lai.] Relating to parricide ; commit- And laugh Ike parrots at a bag-piper. Sbat. 
ting parricide. — He is now paid in bis own way, Who taught the parroU human notes to try » 

the parriiidieui animal, and the punifhment of JJryden. 

murthereis is upon him. Brown. (a.) Parrot. See PtiTTACUS. 

(i.)» PARRICIDE. *./. [iarrkide, French; PARR-TOWN, a town of Nova Scotia. 
parwida- Latin.] 1. One who deftroys bis fa- PARRY, Richard, D.D. a learned Englifh di- 
ther. — vine, educated at Oxford, where he graduated in 
I told him the revenging goda '7J7- He was rector of Wichampton, and mini- 
'Gainft/w/viri^w did all their thunder bend. Shot, fter of Market Harborough, where he died in 1780. 
a. One who deftroys or invades any to whom he He wrote many ufeful religious trcatifea. 
owes particular reverence, as his country or pa- * To Parry, v. a. [partr, French.] To put by 
iron. 3. [Parricide, Fr. parricidium, Lat.] The thrufU j to fence.— A man of courage, who can- 
murder of a father; murder of one to whom re- not fence, and will put all upon one thrnlt, and 
Terence is due. — Although be was a prince in mi- not Hand parrying, has the odds againft a mo- 
lilary virtue approved, and likewiie a good law- derate fencer. Lode.— 

maker ; yet his cruelties and parricides weighed With learned fkill, now pufh, now parry, 

'down his virtue*. Baron.— Prom Darii to Bocardo vary. Prior. 

He will by parrUide fecure the throne. Dryd. PARSBERG, a town of Bavaria, in Newburg ; 
(1.} Parricide, (j 1. Def. 3.) is the murder of miles NNE. of Dietfurt, and 18 NW. of Ratif- 
onc s parents or children. By the Roman law, it bon. 

w^« puniflied in a fevcrer manner than any other PARSCHINA, a town of China, in Tobolsk ; 
kind of homicide. After being fcourged, the de- 560 miles SE. of Turuchanfk. Lon. ia*. 40. E. 
Imquenta were fewed up in a leathern fack, with a Ferro. Lat. 60. 40, N. 

live nog, a cock, a viper, and an ape, and fo caft PARSCHW1TZ, a town of SileGa, in Leig- 
into tbe tea.. Solon, it is true, in hi| laws, made nitz ; y miles SSE. of Luben, and g NE. of Leig- 
none againft parricide; apprehending it impoflible nitz. 

that one fhoud be guilty, of fo unatural a barb*- • To PARCE.*.«. [from pars, Latin.] Tore- 
rity. And the Perfiani, according to Herodotus, folve a fenteoce into the ckments or parts of 
entertained the fame notion, when they adjudged fpecch. Itisa word only ufed in grammar fchools. 
all Dcrfons who killed their reputed parents to be —Let him cooftrue the letter into Englifh, and 

par/e 
i;qit7edny Vjt)O l ?k 



PAR (37) PAR: 

jarft it ovrr perfectly- AJchamt Sthodaiaficr.— changeable green, and bunches of par/tuft and 

Let fcholara reduce the wordt to their original, to turnips in hi* right hud. Ptackam m BtaxonMg. 

the firll cafe of nouns, or Grit ntnfe of verbs, and (*■) Pis.su ep, in botany. See Pastinaca. 

give an account of their formations and changes, . (3.) PatsHS*, Cow's. SeeHsaACLtuM. 

their fyntar aud dependencies, which is called (4.) Passnet, Prickly. See Ecuihortto- 

parjiog. Watu m the Mind. 1 a. 

PAKSHORE, a town of Wore efterfli ire, j miles (5.) Paksnef, Water. See SlUH. 

from Woreefter, and 10* from London, on the N. (■■} * PARSON, if. j. [Derived either from 

fide of the Avon, near its junction with the Bow, pcr/ena, becaufe the far/in omnium perjbaamia 

being a coufideraUe thoroughfare in the lower ecclefia fuftinet ; or from parathiamu, the pariih 

road from Worcefter to London. A religious prielr.] 1. The prieft of a parilb ; one that has a 

houfe was founded here in 604, a fnull pan of parochial charge or cure of ibuft. — Abhot was 

Which now remains, and is nfed as tec parilb preferred by king James to the bilhoptkk of Co- 

church of Holy Croft, the whole of which contain- veotry and Litchfield, before he had been parfrn, 

ed above 10 acre*. 1>e abbey church was ajo vicar, or curate of any pariih church. Clarendon. 

feet long, and no broad. The pariih of Par/hor* %. A clergyman.— 

is of great extent, and bath within its limits many Sometimes comes fhe with a tithe-pig's tail, 

manors and chapekies. At prefect it bastwo pa- Tickling the fmrfm as he lies adeep. Skat. 

ruhes. Holy Croft and St Andrew. In Holy Crofs 3. It it applied to the teachers of the prefbyteri- 

cburch are feveral very antique monuments. IU ana. 

chief manufacture is (lockings. It contains about (a-) A Parbok is otie that bath fall pouefSon 

300 honies, and has markets on Tuefday and of all the rights of a parochial church. He in 

Saturday; fairs Eafter Tuefday, June aothj and called parfon, per/ana, becaufe by big perfon the 

Tuefday before Nov. ill. church is reprefented j and be iainhimfelf a body 

* PARSIMONIOUS, adj. [from farfimm^JS corporate, to protect and defend the rights of 
Covetous; frugal; fparlng. It is fometimes of a the church (which be perfenatcs) by a perpetual 
good, fometimes of a bad fenfe. — A prodigal king fucceflion. He is fometimes called the rtSar or 
is oearer a tyrant, than a parjimomout. Bacon.- A governor of the church ; but the appellation of 
long parfimaniatu war will drain us of more men far/en is the mot legal and moft honourable title 
and money. Addifo*<— that a pariih prieft can enjoy ; becaule fuch a 

ParfimniaMj age and rigid wifdom. Raw. one, (Sir Edward Coke obfervca), and he only, ii 

» PARSIMONIOUSLY, adv. [from parjsm*- kid'wmni Jev pcr/uum tcclejlx genre. A parfon 

•Mar.] Covetcmfly; frugally; fparingly. — Our an- hat, during his life, the freehold in bimfelf of the 

ceitoi'safted^*fj4'nio(ao^, becaufe they only fpent parfenage houfe, the glebe, ohe tithes, and other 

their own treafure for the good of their pofterily. duea But thefe are fometimes appropriated; that 

Swift. it, the benefice it perpetually annexed to fame 

* PARSIMONIOUSNESS. »./. [from ParjSmo, fpiritual corporation, either fule or aggregate, 
amu.j A difpoGtioo to fpare and fave. being the patron, of the lining ; whom the law 

* PARSIMONY, a./, [for/ammo, Latin.] Fru- efteems equally capable of providing for the fer- 
gality; covetoufbefs i niggardlinefi ; laving tern- vice of the church aa any. Tingle private clergy, 
per.]— The wayH to enrich are many : purfimony is man. (See ArrROFtiATion, jj x.) The appro- 
one of the beft, and yet it not innocent. Bacon, pirating corporations, or religious houfea, were 
— Thefe people, by their extreme parfimoitjt Coon wont to depute ens of their own body to per- 
erow into wealth from the fmalleft beginnings, form divine fervice, and adminifter the facramenta 
Swift. in thofe pariihes of which the fociety was thin 

PARSING, n./. See To Paasa. the parson. This officiating minifter was in rea- 
(1.) * PARSLEY, m. J. IptrJJ, Fr. opium, Lst. lity no more than a, curate, deputy, or vicegerent 
perfli, Weifh.J An herb.— A wench married in she of the appropriaior, and therefore called- wirsntu, 
afternoon, at (he want to the garden ioi perjiej to vicaa.. His ftipend was at the difcretioa of the 
fluff a rabbit. Sbai. appropriator, who was, however* bound of core- 
Green beds of per/ley near the river grow. moo right to find fomebody, out Mi dc temporalis 
Dr$de». *aw, eptftept dtJfiritMalibtu* dtheat rejpaadcrc. But 
— -Sernpfoiiia dog Titus out of the paryitj-bcd, aa thit was done in fo fcaodalous a manner, and the 
they nied to tell cbildreu, and thereby becaine hit parifhea fu fibred fo much by the neglect of the 
mother. Lodt. appropriaior 9, that the legiflature wat forced to 
(a.) Paksi^t, in botany. See Afium. , . ioierpofe : and accordingly it is enacted, by flat. 
(j.JPAasLSY, Bastard. See Caucalis. 15 Ric II. c 6. that in all appropriations of 
it-) Pusliy, Bastakd Stonb. See Sisox. churches the dlocefao bifhop (lull ordain (in pre 
(j.) Parsley, Coax. SeeSisow.N 3 3. portion to the value of the church) a competent 
(6.) PAAShar, Fool's. See ^t« vsa. fum to be diftributed among the poor pariOiio- 
(7-) Pauley, Macedomiah. SeeBunoN. ners annually ; and that the vicarage iball be fur- 
18.) Pa*s(,IY, Milk. See Sblihun. ficiently endowed. The pariih frequently fnffer- 
(9.) Pa*»lby> Mountain. Sec Athaman- ed, not only by the want of divine fervice, but 
ta. alfo by with-holding thofe alma for which, among. 
(10.) PaaSLlr Pilar. See ArHANBt. other purpofes, the payment of tithes wat origi- 
(i.)*I'ARSNF.P. n. /. [pqfiinaca, Latin.] A oally impofed : and therefore in this ac>a penfion 
plant.— November is drawn in a garment of it directed to be diftributed among the poor para* 

chiaos, 



PAR (38; PAR 

ehiant, as well .is a fufhcient ftipend to the vicar. Firft, with regard to hit perTon ; » if he be i t»f- 
But he, being liablfe to be removed at the plea- tard, an outlaw, an excommunicate, as alien, un- 
fitre of the appropriator, wa* not likely to. infill der age, or ibe like. Next, with regard to his 
too rigidly on the legal fufficiency of the ftipend j faith or moral* i at for any particular hcrcfy, or 
and therefore, by flat. 4. Hen. IV. c. n. it is or- vice that is mahmtia/ei but if the bifhop alleges 
dained, that the vicar (hall be a frcular perfon, only in generals, as that he \» JcU/metiau imrJr- 
not a member of any religious houfe ; that be ratal, or objects a fault that it malum fntibiuan 
(hall be vicar perpetual, not removable at the ca- merely, at haunting taverns, praying at unlawful 
price of the monaftery ; and that he (hould be games, or the like, it is not good caufe of rrfuial. 
canonically inftituted and inducted, and be fuffi- Or, laftly, the clerk may be unfit to difcharge the 
ciently endowed, at the difcrction of the ordina- paftoral office for want of learning. In any of 
ry, for thefe three erprefs purpofe*, to do divine which cafes, the bifhop may rrfftfe the clerk. In 
fervice, to inform the people, and to keep hofpi- cafe the refufal it for berefy, fcbtftn, inability of 
tality.' Theendowmenta,in confequence of thefe learning, or other matter of ecclefiaftical cogniz- 
ftatutes, have ufually been by a portion of the ance, there the bifhop mult give notice to the pa- 
glebe or land belonging to the parfonage, and a tron of fuch hit caufe of refufal, who being ufn- 
particuUr fliare of the tithes, which the appro- ally a layman, it not fuppoled to have knowledge 
priators fonnd it mod troublefbmc to collect, and of it; eife be cannot prefent by lapfe; but if the 
which are therefore generally called' petty or /malt caufe be temporal, there he it not bound to give 
tithesi the greater, or perdial tithes, being ftill notice. If an aflion at law be brought by the 
referred to their own life. But one and the fame patron agaioft the bifhop for refuting hit clerk, 
rule wa* not obferred in the endowment of all the bifhop mutt affign the caufe., If the cafe be 
vtcaraget. Hence fome are more liberally, and of a temporal nature, and the fact admitted, (for 
fome more fcantily, endowed: and hence the inftance, outlawry), thejodgeBpftheking'tcaurti 
tithes of many things, as wood in particular, are muft determine its validity, or whether it be luf. 
in Tome parifnet rectorial, and in fome vicarial ficient caufe of refufal : but if the fact be denied, 
tithes. The diftinclion, therefore, of a partem and it muft be determined by a jury. If the caufe be 
vicar, is thia : The parfon has for the molt part of a fpiritual nature, (at herefy, particularly al- 
tbe whole right to all the ecclefjaftical dues in his teged) the fact, if denied, (hall alio be detercnin- 
parifb ; but a vicar hai generally an appropriator ed by a jury : and if the fad be admitted or 
over him, entitled to the beft part of the profits, found, the court, upon confutation and advice of 
to whom he it in effect perpetual curate) with a learned divines, fhall decide its fufliciency. If the 
Handing felary. Though in fome placet the vica- caufe be want of learning, the bifhop need not 
rage hat been confiderably augmented by a large fpecify in what point* the clerk is deficient, but 
(hare of the great tithes ; which augmentations only allege that he- it deficient ; for flat, 9. Edw. 
were greatly affl fled by ftaf. %, Car. II. c. S.enac- II. ft. 1. c. 13. it exprefs, that the examination of 
ted in favour of poor vicars and curates, which tbe fitnefs of a perfon prefented to a benefice be- 
rendered fuch temporary augmentations [when longs to the ecclcfiaftical judge. But becatifcit 
made by the appropriates) perpetual. The me- would be nugatory in thia cafe to demand tbe 
thod of becoming a parfon or vicar ia much the reaibn of refufal from the ordinary, if the patron 
fame. To both there are 4 rcquifites neceHary ; were bound to abide by his determination, who 
holy orders, presentation, inftitution, and Indue- has already pronounced hia clerk unfit; there. 
tion. By common law, a deacon, of any age, fore, if tbe bifhop returns tbe cleric to be mouu 
might be inftituted and inducted to a parfonage /vfitiau in literature, the court fhall write to the 
or vicarage; but it was ordained, by flat. 13. Eld. metropolitan to re-examine him, and certify his 
c. 1*. that no perfon under 33 year* of age, and qualifications; which certificate of the archbifhop 
In deacon's orders, fliould be prefented to any is final. If tbe bifhop hath no -objections, but 
benefice with cure ; and if be were not ordained admits the patron'* prefentation, the clerk fo ad- 
prieft within one year after bit induction,- he milted it next to be inftituted by him ; which it 
fhould be Mb faSa deprived : and now, by flat, a kind of inveftiture of the fpiritual part of tbe 
13 and 14 Car. II. c. 4. no perfon it capable to be 1 benefice; for by inftitution, the care of the (bull 
admitted to any benefice, unlefs he bath been firft of the parifh is committed to the charge of the 
ordained a prieft ; and then he is, in the language clerk. When a vicar it inftituted, be (befidct tbe 
of the law, a clerk in orders. But if he obtain ufual forme] takes, if required by the bifhop, an 
orders, or a licence to preach, by money or corrupt oath of perpetual refideuce ; for the maxim of 
practice*) (which feem to be the true, though law is, that •viiarhu turn babtl vkartmt ; andas 
not the common, notion of simony), the perfon tbe non-rrfidencc of the appropriaton was the 
giving fuch orders forfeits 40I. and tbe perfon re* caufe of the perpetual eftablifhment bt vicarages, 
ceiving, 10I. and it incapable of any ecclcfiaftical tbe law judge* it very improper for them to de- 
preferment for 7 years after. Any clerk may be feat the end of (heir csnftitution, and by abfence 
prefented to a parfonage or vicarage ; that is, the to create tbe very mifchief which tbey were ap- 
patron, to whom the advowfon of the church be- pointed to remedy; especially ax, if any profits 
longs, may offer hit clerk to the bifhop of the di- are to arife from putting m a curate am}- living at 
ocefe to be inftituted. But when be it prefented, a diftincc from the parifh, tbe appropriator, who 
the bifbop may refufe him upon many accounts, is the real parfon, hat undoubtedly the elder title 
As, 1. If tbe patron ia excommunicated, and re- to them. When tbe ordinary ia alio tbe patron, 
main* in contempt 40 dayt; or, 1. If the clerk »nd confers the living, tbe prefentation and infti- 
be unfit: which nnfitnejj is of fcveral kinds, ration are one and tbe fame act, and axe called t 

viUtm 

i 



PAR ( 39 ) PAR 

nHatim ta a benefit. By inftiturirm or collation clerk. 4. By refignation. But thia h of no avail 
Uk church is full, fa that there can be no frefh till accepted by the ordinary, into whole hands 
pcefentation till another vacancy, at leafr in the -the refignation mnft be made. j . By deprivation, 
cafe of a common patron ; but the church it not either by canonical cenftirca, or in pursuance of 
fall agaiuft the king till induction : nay, even if a divert penal Salutes, which declare the benefice 
clerk ii inuitoted upon the king*! prefentation, void, for fome nonfcafancc or neglect, or clfe 
the crown may revoke it before induction, and fome malefeafance or crime ; aa for fimony ; for 
present another clerk. Upon inftitution alfo, the maintaining any doctrine in derogation of the 
cleric may enter on the parfonage boufe and glebe, king's Supremacy, or of the 39 article*) or of the 
and take the tithes ; but he cannot grant or let book of common prayer ; for neglecting, after in- 
. them, or bring an action for them, till induction, ftkution, to read the liturgy and articles in the 
See Ihductiok, & 3. For the rights of a parfon church, or make the declarations igainft Popery, 
or vicar, in his tithe* and ecclefiaftkal duet, Ice or take the abjuration oath ; for tiling any Other 
Tithbs. Aa to bit duties, they are fo numerous, form of prayer than the liturgy «f the church of 
that it is impracticable to recite them here with England ; or for absenting himfelf 60 davs in one 
any tolerable coocifeneb or accuracy ; but the year from a benefice belonging to a Popifh pa- 
reader who has occafion may confult B. Gib/bn'i tron, to which the clerk was prefented by either 
Cmiex, John/en' j Clergyman' j fade Mccmm, and of the univerfiries : in all which, and fimilar cafes, 
Bum's Eccltjiaftical Law. We (hall therefore only the benefice is ip/o/aHo void, without any formal 
juft mention the article of reGdence, upon the fentence of deprivation. 

fuppoBtion of which the law doth ftyle every pa. (1.) * PARSONAGE. »./. [from far/an.) The 
roctiial minifter an incumbent. By flat, si Henry ■ benefice of a parifh. — I have given him the par- 
VIII. c. 13, perfont willingly absenting therofelvea foliage of the parifh. Addifon. 
from their benefices, for one month together, or (a.) A Parsohagi ii a rectory, or parifh 
two mouths in the year, incur a penalty of jl. to church, endowed with a glebe, houfe, lands, 
the king, and jl. to any perfon that will Cue for tithes, Sec. 'for the maintenance of a minifter, 
the fame ; except chaplains to the king, or others, with cure of fouls within fnch parifh. See Pan- 
therein mentioned, daring their attendance in the sow, J a. 

boufebold of fuch at retain them ; and alfo ex- (1.) PARSONS, James, M. J>. and P. R. S. a 

cept all beads of houfe?, magistrates, and profef- late eminent and learned phyocian, born at Baro- 

fora in univerficiea, and all ftudenta under 40 years ftaple, Devonshire, in 1705. He was the 9th Ion 

of age refiding there, bona fide, for ftudy. Legal of Col. Parfoni, and was educated at Dublin, 

refidence is not only in the parifh, but alio in the whence he went to Paris, and improved himfelf 

parfonage houfe; for it hath been referred, that under Aftruc, Letnery, Hunaud, LeCat.Bouldue, 

the ftatnte intended refidence, not only for ferving and Juffieu. He graduated at Rheims, in 1736; 

the cure and for hofpitality, but alfo for main- came to London, and was made F. R. 8, in 1 740. 

taining the houfe, that tbe fucceuor alfo may He was alfo a member of the Antiquarian, Medi- 

keep hofpitality there. There it hut one way cal, and Agricultural Societies. In 1751, be was 

whereby one may become a parfon or vicar; bnt admitted a' licentiate of the College of Physicians, 

there arc many by which one may oeafe to be fo. and appointed phyfician to St Giles's infirmary. 

1. By death. 2. By ceffion, in taking another He alfo afSfted Dr James Douglas in anatomy. 

benefice-; for by fiat. 11 Hen. VIII. c. 13, if any He died in 1770. He waa ranch eftttmed by tbe 

one having a benefice of 81. per annum, -or up- literati at home, and had an extenftve Correfpon- 

wards, iA tbe king's books (according to the pre- dence with thofe abroad. Hit publications are 

lent valuation), accepts any other, tbe firft fball numerous and valuable. Of thefe we Shall paly 

be adjudged void, unlefs he obtaina a difpenfa- mention bit " Remain e/Jophel ; thing Hifiqritol 
tion ; which no one it entitled to have but the _ Buqmriei inta the affinity and origin efibe European 

chaplain! of the king and others therein men- Langaagei." Its object is to prove tbe antiquity 

tkmed, tbe brethren and font of lords and knights, of tbe firft inhabitants of thefe iflands, at defcended 

and doctors and bachelors of divinity and law, from Gomer and Magog, above 1000 years before 

admitted by the univerfitiea of thit realm. And . Christ, and tbe affinity of their languages with 

a vacancy thus made for want of a dispensation, fome others. 

is called ceffion. 3. By contention \ for, when a (».) Parsons, Robert, an eminent writer of the 

clerk is promoted to a bUhopric, all his other church of Rome, born at Nether Stowey, near 

preferments are void tbe inftant that4* is confe- Bridgewater, in 1546, and educated at Baliol 

crated. But there is a method, by the favour of college, Oxford, whore be diftinguiBied himfelf 

the crown, of holding fuch livings m fmmtemdam, aa a zealous Proteftant and an acute dlfputant j 

Commends, or eccltjia comtnendaia, is a living coin- but being charged by the fociety with incoflti- 

mended by the crown to the care of a clerk, to nency and embezzling tbe college money, he. 

bold till a proper paftor Is provided for it. This went to Flanders, and declared himfelf a Catho- 

may be temporary for one, two, or three years, lie; After travelling to Several other places, be 

or perpetual, being a kind-<of difpenfation, to effected the eftablifhment of the Englifh Seminary 

avoid the vacancy of the living, and it called a at Rome, and procured father Allen to be cbofen 

aimmendam rttiaere. There is alfo a commandant rector of it. He himfelf was appointed the bead 

reripere, which it to take a benefice de novo in tbe of tbe million to England, to dethrone Q. Eliza- 

bifhoo's own gift, or the gift of fome other pa- beth, and extirpate tbe Protectant religion. He 

tron contenting to the fame 1 and this it the fame accordingly came over in 1380, and took fome 

10 him as institution and induction are to another bold ltcpa for that purpofe, in which be con- 



PAR (40) PAS. 

eealed liitafelf with great art, travelling about the Had I hem woo, I had defaVd your blame ; 

country to gentlemen's faonfes, rtifguifcd in the But Aire my fart «m nothing but the (name, 
habit, fomctimr* of a foldier, tometiavea of a gen- Dryden. 

tleman. and at other times like a onimfter or an 6. Proportional quantity.—' 
apparitor j but father Campiaa being feized and Tnt before allaid 

committed to prifbu,. our author doped, and With twenty farts in water. Chapman. 

went to Rome, where he wu made rector of the ;. Share) concern.— Porarmucfa » the children 

Engtifh feminary. He bad long entertained the are partaken of fleflt and blood, be ahntook *art 



moll (anguine hopes of converting to the PopUh of the fame. Hebrews ii. 14.— Sheha laid, we 
fahh the yunug king of Soot*, which, he —--■■-—-' ~ — 

fidered aa the molt effectual meant of bringing 



fahh the young king of Soot*, which he con- no/an-rm David, s Sam. xs. r.~The ungodly 

K ..—J -^JK*-"" ■■■ <:*-..:-.: , .. 



fidered aa the moll effectual meant of bringing over made a covenant with death, beoufe they are 

his fubjecl* to the tame rebgtoua principle*; but worthy to take fart wkh it. tVi/Jem i. 1*.— Aga- 

finding this impofSble, he pubrilhed i» 1 504 hit menutoa provoke* Apollo, whom ha was willing 

celebrated book, under the aatae of. Duiemaa, to to appeau afterward! at the coft of Achillea, who 

overthrow Jamei't title to t be crown of England, had no part in hit fault. Poft. S. Side | party { 

He died at Rome m 1610, and wu buried in the iniereftj faction: to take part, re to act in favour 

chapel of the Engliflt college. He alio wrote, of another.— 

j. A Defence of the Catholic Hierarchy, a. The Michael Caffiot 

Liturgy of pke Sacrament of the Mats. j. A Me- When I hare fpokeu of you dilprainogly, 

mortal for the Reformation ; and ftvcral ether Hath ta' en your part. &Bmi» 

tract*. He ftrengtba his own, and who hit fart did 

PaaJONSFiBLO, a town of the. United Statea, take. Danat- 

in Maine, York county, oa tbe New Hampihire ' Deftiny may take thy part, 

line, r it miles N.of Button. It bad 6 a citizens And may tby fears fulfil. Dotmt. 

in 17, j. Some other pow'r 

Fa a sons-Town, a town of N. Carolina, 3 o Might bare afph-M, and me, though mean, 

miles NB. of Satiibury. Drawn to his fart. MUte*. 

(1.) * PART. n.f. [fart, Lat.] r. Something — Natural ambition might take part with reefon 

lefs than the where | a portion % a quantity taken and their in t a eft to encourage Imitation. Glan~ 

from a larger ■quantity*— 1 voir.-— 

Helen's cieeki, but not her heart, Awl make whole kingdoms take her brother's 

Atlanta's, better-purr. Skit. fart. Walter. 
—The people ftpod..at. the nether ..pari of the The arm-taut wait* upon the heart, 
mount. ■ £Wi«. 1 - j This law wanted not parts of So quick to rake the bully's font 
prudent and deep fcrefigbt. Baton. -+"n*- citv- • That met twaugh warm, decider more flow j 
zene were, for' the niol fart flair* .Or taken-. That t'other necutea the blow. Prior. 
KmlUs.— «. Something relating or belonging.— For Set- 
Henry had divided ' mane's part, the would have been glad of the 

The perfon of trim felt into four fmrl s.- Damrk fall, which aaada bar bear the tweet burden of 

—Theft Conclude that to happen often,: whack PhilMiot, but that (he feared 4he might receive 

happaacth but forontireea i that never, which fame. hurt. Safe**— For my tar* f would enter- 

bnppejtetn but feWom ; and Hutjthrar*,' which tarn the legend 1 of my Imo with quiet hours. 

riappeueth for tbc raoA fart. Breton.— He had War.'- - 

very g/w* parts of breeding, being: -a very great For yew parr, it not appear* to me, 

fcnoUrin the political parts of Iwrniogjt-eriw- That you mould have an inch of any ground 

jfarv— When . four Judgment tne&tftoa* ftrungBr, To build a grief upon. Sbak. 

it wiH be ueceOhry to exmiiKtpart.irf fart* —For my parr, 1 have no Jervire end in my la- 

toofc work* which have gtverr reputation. 4* the boon Waitaa.-- For my fart, I rirlak there in no- 

makers. Dry dm* — thing toJecret that (hall not be brought to light. 

Of beareoly ^art, and a«» of earthly Hoed) Burneti it. .Particular office or character. — The 

A mortal woman raising witrragod.. Drpatn. rmcUmaticet pert, which is in ah 1 tangible bodies, 

— Our ideas' of ex ten (ion and number, do- they and hath fame affinity with the air, perrbrmeth 

aot aervtain a fearct relation of theearrtj/ larie. the farts of the air. Matm.— Wheat the people 

a. Member.— He fully poffefiod tbe revelation, he. did ihcirpdrt, fuch inorafe ot maiae. Htylyrt, — 

had received from God t all the parti were formed, Acuitfe not 'nature, fbc hath date her fart ; 

hi bit mind, into one harmonious body. Laths. Do thou but Shine. Hilton. 

3. Particular; diftioct fpeeioi.-— Enfebia. brings 11. Character. •npwpriated in a play .— 

them up to all kind* of labour that are. proper Tbattwet 

for women, aa tewing, kaetliag, ipirmmg, and Wis aptly titled, and naturally performed, 

all other farts of houfewifrry. JLatu. 4, Irtgre- Shak, 

dienl in a mingled mafs. — Many irregular and — Have you the lion's part written 1 Give it me, 

degenerate parts, by tbc defective 'economy of for I amDowof ftudy. Shak. — Wemuft notchufe 

nature, continue complicated with the .blood, which part we that! act ; It coaoerna ut only to 

Bkeinure. 5. That wlikb, in divilion, rail* to ■ be careful that we do it well. Taylor, ia. Butu 

each.— nef* t duty. — Let them be to furniflwd and in- 

Go not without tby wife, but let me bear ftructed for the military part, at they may defend 

My part of danger. Drgmsm. themfelve*. Bacon. 13. Action ; conduct.— 

Thi* 

• Dfl-t^edcyGoOgle 



P A R < 41 > PAR 

This part of bis (a.) Past, Physicai,!* thatTwliidl, though it 

Conjoins with my difrafe. Sic*, enter the cotnpofition of a whole, may yet be 

14. Relation reciprocal. — Inquire not Whether the- confider-ed apart, and under its own diftimS idea i 

("icumeoti confer (race by their own excellency) in which feofe, a continuum is (aid M confift at 

btcauie they, wfco affirm they do, require fo much parts. Phyhcal parti, again, are of two kinds, 

duly on our parti, as they alfo do, who attribute hornogenemu and heterogeneous J tie firft are 

the effect to our moral difpoGt ion. Taylor. — The tbofc of the fame denomination with fproe ether f 

fcripture tells ui the term* of this covenant, of the fecond of a different one. (See Hohogbms- 

God's pari and our"*, namely, that he will be out, &c>) Part*, again, are diftmgoifhed into 

■ our God, and we (hall be hi* people. Titlatjbn. — fobjeflive, efTential, and integrant. The fchool- 

It might be deem'd, on our hiftofian's part, • men were alfo the author* of this divifion. 

Or too much negligence, or want of art, (j.) Parti of Sr-EECH, fa grammar, are all 

If he forgot the vail magnificence the forts of words which can enter the cwmpofi- 

Of royal Tbefeus. ' Drydtn. tion of a dlfcowrfe. SeeGaAMITAt, under EuG- 

ij. h pad part ; in HI fart : as well done; »* ill luh Language. Mr Home Taoke's attempt 

done.— God accepteth it in good fart, at the bauds to reduce the number of the Parts of Speech to* 

of faithful men. Hooker. 16. [In the plural.] three, Nouns, Peris, and Ad4xrbs t is no real im- 

Qualities ; powers ; faculties, or accomplifl) merits, provement in Grammar. 

—Who fa courteous, noble, liberal, but he that (i,)*f(PaT.».«. a.Todividei to (tare; 

hath the example before bis eyes of Amptualus ? to distribute. — All that believed, fold their goods, 

where are all hcroica] parti, but in Amphialus J and parted them to all men. ABt ii. *s-~ 

Sidtttp. — Such licentious parti tend, for the mod Jove himfetf no left content won d be 

part, to the hurt of the Englifh. Sfeqfer. — To part his throne, and (hare bis heav'n wrtb- 

I conjure thee, by all the parti of man, thee. t\f*' 

Which honour does acknowledge. Shale 1. To feparate ; to difunite. — Nought but death 

— Solooion was a prince adorned with Rich parti (hall part thee and me. Ruth i. 17.— 

ofmind, and exalted by fuch a concur rend; of all All the world, h 

rfperoos erents to make him magnificent. As 'twere the busWs of mankind to part at, 

tn. — The Indian princes dilcover fine parti Is arm'd againft my love. Drfdeit/ 

and excellent endowments, without improvement, 3. To break into piecm.— >Vrt it in pieces, and 

Felion.— Any employment of our talents, whether pour oil thereon. tcvitictu, u. 6. a. To keep a- ' 

af out partt, our time or money, that is not ftrlct- funder. — 

ly according to the will of God, are as great sb- In the narrow feat that fart 

furditiet and failings. Lav 17. [In the plural] The French and Englifh, there miftarried 

Quarters j regions ; diftrlAs.— Mo man was, hi A veilel of our country. . Stat. 

our parti, fpoken of, but he, for his manhood. 5. To feparate combatants.— 

Siday.— When he had gone over thofe parts, he King John did By, an hour or two before 

camemto Greece. A3s is. 1— Tbeftapblingnigbtdidfmrour wearypowera. 

All parti refbund with tumults, plaints, and Sbak- 

fears ; Jove did both holts furvey, 

And grifly death, in fundry flupes, appears. Aud, when he pleas 'd to thunder,^/-/ Ibe fia,y. 

Drydea. Walter. 

\%. for tie mojl part. Commonly ; oftener than (,. To fecefu.— 

otherwife. — Of a plain and honefr. nature, fir tbt The liver minds his own affair, 

taajtpart, they were found to be. Bet/lm.— And partt and (trains the rital jnicet. Prior. 

( ».) * Past. adv. Partly ; in feme mea- (».) * To Past. t>. n. 1. To be feparated.™ 

lure.— Powerful hands will not part 

For the fair klndnefs you have fliewed me, EaSIy from pofleflion won with arms. 

And fart being prompted, by your prefect Jdiltm. 

trouble, 'Twas for him much eafier to fubdue 

1'H lend you Cometh ing. Sbak. Thofe foes he fought with, than to part from 

(j.) Faxt, Aliquant, is a quantity which, you. Dtyden. 

being repeated any number of times, becomes al- 3, To quit each other. — 

ways either greater or lefs than the whole. Thus He wrung Baflanio's hand, and fo they parted* 

j is an aliquant part of 1 7, and 9 an aliquant part Shai. 

of 10, Sic. . The aliquant part is refolvable into — This was the deGgn of a people, that were at 

aliquot parts. Thus 15, an aliquant part of ao» liberty lo parr afupder, but Uefircd to keep in one 

is refblvabte into 10$ ■ and 5 a fourth part of the body. Locke.— 

fame. What .' part, for ever part f unkind Ifmena I 

(4.) Past, Aliquot, is a quantity Which, be- Smith. 

leg repeated any number of time-, becomes equal —If it pleafes God to reftore me to my health. I 

to an integer. Thus 6 is an aliquot part ofaa, (hail make a third journey ; if not, we mult part, 

Bid 5 as aliquot part of 30, &c. " *■-■"■ " ' " '" ■ ""■ 

(j.)Part, LoSical, isadniEnnfor which w, „ 

are indebted to the fthoolmen. ft refers to fome Ere 1 could 

Sniverfal as its whole ; "m which fcole die fpecies Give him that partiag kifs, which I had fct 

>re part* of a genus, and indlvidnale are pai ti of Betnixt two charming words, somes in my Fa- 

thefpecies. .- tber. Siai. 

Vol. XVD. Past I. 



.P A R ( 4$ ) PTi.K 

Nuptial bow'j- 1 by me adorn'J, from tliee right.— The attorney of the. dachy ofLancafter 

How trial! I pan, and whither wander? Milieu, partakes partly oft judge, and partly ^ an attpr- 

-'-TKey farted from'him pith tears in their eyes', ney teoeral. .&«»• j. To. be admitted to : not 

Swift, ft. To have [hire.— As his part is that to he excluded,— ' ; 

goetn down to the battle, to (hall his part be that ' .You may partake. of any thing we fay j' 

tarrieth by the fluff; they {hall part alike, lfL- ' We fpeak no Ireafem Shut. 

5. [ftirtir, Fr.} To go away j to fet out.— ' ' 4- To combine j .tq.unite.in fomc barf defign- A 

So parted they ; the angel up to heaven " juridical ferife.— A&iLprevents factions and par- 

Frorn the thick (hade, and Adam to his bow'r. takings. To it keeps thf rule and adminiftratiou of 

Milan, the lawn uniform! Halt . . 

Thyfather ' " a [».)'* To Partake. *% «-. .1. To lliarr j to 

Entbrac'd toe, parting for th" Etrurian land. ' have part in.— ' 

Drjden, By and by, thy jbuforo iliall partake 

6. T* Pait viStb. To quit; torcEgo; tolofej The fecrets of my heart. Shak. 
to be feparatcd from. — , , * LA her wijb thee partake, what thou haft 

For her lake, I do rear up her hoy; heard. Milton. 

And for her fake, I will not part with him. Let ev'ry one partake the genera) joy. 

S/ioi. ■'" " ... , ,.' Dryd.n. 

—An affectionate wife, when in fear of parting »■ To admit to part ; to extend participation l°. 

with her beloved hufband, heartily denied of Obfolete. — . 

God bis hTeorfdriety. T.iytor. My friend, bight PhPemon. I did partake 

_ Celia, for thy fake, I part Of all my lcv<Variu all my ptivity. Sprnfer. 

With Sll'that grew to nfcar my heart. Wtitlrr. Your exultation porta fc to every one. Sbak. 

Thou marble bew'tt ere long to part ivitb * Partaker, a. /Ifrom pariah.] !■ A part- 

' breath, Her in pofTelfions ; a fharer pf any thing; an af- 

And houfea rear'lt, unmindful of thy death. tociate with : commonly with of before the thing 

Sandys, fartaken,— They whom earneft leta hinder from 

— Lixiviate falte, though, by piercing the bodies being partaken of the whole, have yet, through 

of vegetables, they difpofe them to part readily length of divine'feryice opportunity for accefs un- 

tvitb their tincture, yet fome tinctures they do to fome reafonable part thereof. Hooter. 

not only draw out, bnt like wife alter. Boyle. — ' Didft thou 

The ideas of hunger and warmth are fome of the ' . Make us partakers of a little gain, 

firlt that children have, and which they fcarce That now our lofs might be ten times as much .' 

ever part with. Locke.— What a defpi cable figure , Sbak. 

mutt mock patriots make, who venture to be With fuch me muft return at fettihg light, 

banged Kir the ruin of thofe civil rights, which Tho' not partaker, witnefs of their night. 

their anceftors rather than part with, chofe t6 be Prior. 

cut to pieces in the field of battle? Addifoa.— —His bittereft enemies were partaitrs efhiakind- 

Tbe good things of this world fo delight in, as nefs. Caiamy. 1. Sometimes with fa before the 

remember, that we are to part with them. Alter- thing partaken : perhaps of is bell before a thing, 

bury. — As for riches and power, our Saviour and fa before an action. — . ■ ■ 

plainly determines, that the beft way to make Wifh mtpartaker in thy happinefs, " 

them blefljngs 11 to part witb them. Swift. ' When thou do'It meet good bap. Sbab. 

* PARTABLE. adj. [from part.] llivifible ; —We would not have been partaken with them 
fuch as may be parted.— : His hot love was portable in the blood of the prophets. Mut. x^iii. jo. 3. 
among three other of his miitreffes. Camden's Re- Accomplice ; aflbciate. — Thou cenfentedft, and 
mains. bait been partaker with adulterers. Pfelm I. 10. — 

* PARTAGE. a. / [portage, Fr.] Divifion ; He drew with him complice* and partakers. Ba- 
* act of fharing or parting. A word merely French, tan. 

— This parttge of things, in an equality of pri- PARTEEN, a town of Ireland, in Clare) Man- 

vate polTWfions, men have made practicable out Iter, pieafantly feated on the Shannon. 

of the bounds of fociety without compaA, only PARTENAY. See Parthknay, N°4- 

by putting a value on gold and filvcr. Locke. PARTENI, a river of Alialic Turkey, which 

(t.)* To PARTAKE, w. n. Preterite, I partook.' runs into the Black Sea, near AmaGch, in Nato- 

iiciple paffive, partaken, [part and take.) I. lis. 

_ _ have fhare of any thing j to take (hare with : PARTENKERCH, or J a town of Bavaria, in 

itr is commonly ufed with of before the thing PAKTENK1RK, j Freyfmg, 6 miles S. of 

fltared. Locti ufe.i ft with fa.— Weilhaim, and 40 S W. of Munich. Lou. 1 1. c. 

Partake and ufe my kingdom at yoor own. E. Lat 47. 36. N. 

Dryden, * PARTE R. n./ [from part.] One thatparls 

—How far brutes partake n this faculty, is not or feparates.— The farter of the fray waa nigtjt, 

eafy to determine. Locke. — Truth and falfehood which, with her black arms, pulled their malicious 

hare no other trial but reafon and proof, which fights one from the other. Sidney. 

they made ufe of to make therafelves knowing, (i.) • PARTERRE, n./. [parterre, *Fr.] A 

and fo mult others too that will partake in their level divifion of ground, that, for the molt part* 

knowledge. Locke. 9. To participate ; to have faces the fouth and beft front of an hbufe, and ia 

Comething of the property, nature, claim,, or furniflied with greens autl flowers. lHiller.~-Tlmc 

■ are 

•• ■ ■D,i„d»,Googlc 



*? 



P A-. S ( 48 ) P .A", K ii; . ., 

are a many kinds of gardening ai of poetry ; PARTHENH, ojtipensuf, ancient Sparta, who 

yonr makers of ? arierrts and flower garde/)* arc owed their exiftence to ..a. lingular ci re urn (lance. 

epip*mroatifteand/onri|et,eeM. SpeSainr.— : " . During the MefTenian war, the Spartans had been 

The vaft farttrrtt a thoufand hands fhall* ten years ablent from their, city ; and '! they had 

make. .... . . Pope, bound tbemfelvea by a Iblcmn oath not to, return 

(a.) PAa.TEB.alS, in gardening, are of two till they had fubdued Meflenia. The magutratel 
kinds; the plain, and partir res i<f tmbroiderj. as well as tUo luowiai of Sparta were alarmed at 
Plain parterres are molt valuable in England » be- the danger of fuch long abfcnee depopulating the 
caufe of the firronet's of the Englifh graft, turf, country. A law was therefore enacted* that all 
which ii fuperior to that, of apy other part of the the young men, ■ wha had not . taken the oath) . 
world: and the parterres .of embroidery are cut fhould have tree acceft to the unmarried women, 
into (hell and fcroll work, with alleys between The fruit* of this promifcuous intercoiirf.- were 
them. An oblong, or long fqnare is accounted named n« ( i(H.i, Panhcmi, i. e. Sent of Kirgini. 
the moft proper figure for a parterre ; and a par* When they grew up, knowing they had no tegi- 
tore fhould indeed be always twice as long ash timate fathers, andof courfe, no inheritance, 
is broad, becaufe according to the law* of per- they confpired with the. Helots, to malfacre ttc 
fpeflire, a long fquare always finks to a fquare ; other citizens, and feiie their poCeffiona. The 
and an exaft fquare always appears lefs than it cohfpiracy was difcovcred, but the Spartans,, ip- 
really is. As to\he breadth of a parterre, it is to dead of puniQjing. them, permitted them, to .emi- 
be proportion able to the front pf. the houfe [but graje to Italy, .where under their leader; Phai-ah- 
Mi than loo ferjt in breadth. Is. too little. There tus, they fettled in Magna Grsscja, am -built 
fhould be on each fide the.pajterre, a terrace walk Taientum; A. A. C. 107—Jtfia, ui. .^, Stmfiq, 
railed for a view, and the Bat of the parterre be- i. Pauf. p.tui. ... r _ ...... 

t ween the terraces fhould never be more than 300 PAR THElsftCXN, a mountain of Pdoppnrieful, 

feet at the utmoft in breadth ; and about 140 feet N. of Tegea. Paujw- , )■ . 

in width, with twice and a half that in length, "ii; '"PXRTHENmH,. in botany. Bastard Feyu- 
efleemed 3 very good fize.and proportion. , ' ,- ■ fewJ or Kiu-hoa of the.Chineuh a genus of the 

PARTHA, or Baana, a river of Upper Saxo- pentanrtria order, belonging to the monoecia ciafo. 
ny, which riles 4 miles S. of Grimma, and runs of plants ; and in the. natural method ranking un- 
into the Pleffe, near LeipSc. ■ dcr the 49th order, .Compofiu. The male calyx 

PABTHAMASIRIS, a king of Armenia and is common and pentaphvflou*,; the florets of the 
Parthia, who was taken pr if oner by TrajanJ ' See dill monopetalous ; the female has j florets of the. 
Parthia, § 9, . ra ^ ju3f Cill;h w ith .two male florets behind it: the 

PARTHANASPATES.a . king of Parthia,' intermediate female fuperior ; the feed is -naked. 
crowned by Trajan. SeepAKTHtA, J 10. It has beeo much neglected in Europe, having on 

PARTHAON, in fabulous hiltory, the fon of account of its ftnell been baniQiedfrom our par- 
Keptnoe, or of Agenor and Epicafte; and father terres. It is therefore .indebted for its culture to 
of Ogheus, Sterope, &c. 'by his wife Eury'fe. , the ditlinguiihed rank it holds among the Cbinefe 

ft.) PARTHENAY, John'Ds, Idrd of Soubife,, flowers, Theftili of the florifts, and their conta- 
in eminent French commander, born in iji'i', nuai care, have brought this plant to fi> great p«r. 
He commanded the troops in Ital y in I5J01 And, feJStion,, that Europeans Icarcely know.it. The 
fupported'the protefHnt caufe. till his death,, in. elegance and ligntaefsof Its branches, the beaut t- 
ij66. He left one daughter. fteN°3. ful indentation of its leaves, the fplendaur arid du- 

(i.)Parthbhay, AimeDa, a lady of great gc- ration of its flower*, feem indeed to juftjftihe 
nius and 'learning, and' a" proficient in .Latin and Jiorimania of the-Chinefe for this plant They 
Creek. She married Anthony De Pons, count of have, by their* attention ta it* culture, procured 
Mirennes, and was one of the brightpft ornaments, more than 300 fpecjes or varieties of it :. every year 
of the Court of Ferrari. She was a Calvinift, ' produces a new one. A lift W the names or all 

ij.)P*RTHENiiv, Catharine. De, niece to the thefc would be tedious: we fliall only 6y, that 
precr-ding, and lady of Souhife ^ was married in id its flowers are united all the poflibie combina- 
i;68, to the' Baron De Pons, arid in ijjj to tions^Jihapeaaud colours. Ita leaves are. 00 lefs 
Rene Vifc. Rohan ; by wtqrn fhe had the famous various : fume are.ibju, others thick ;..fome very 
D. of Rdhan, who fo bravely defended the Pro-' fmall, and'fame large. and broad; fome Indented 
trltant caufe during the civil wars under. Lewis like thole of the oak, jwhile others referable thofe 
XIII. She publifhcd poems, comedies, and trage-. of the cherry tree ; fome may be feen in the form 
dies. Her daughter Catharine' was emiiienf'for of tins, and others lerrated on the margin, and 
virtue, and married the D. of Deux Posts. She tapering towards the point*. Partbenkim i* 
died iff 1607 ; and her mother in 1631. ' " propagated in China by feed*, and by fuckers, 

(4.) PartMEnAT, if geography, a town of grans, and Dipt. When the BorilJs have a fine 
France, in the dtp. of the Two Sevres, and late plant, they fuffer the feeds to riper), .and about 
prov. of Poitou. It his a great trade in Corn and' the ead of autumn fow them in well prepa- 
cattle, and contains about jljo'o Citizens. In Aug. , red earth. Some keep them 'in ibis manner, 
*793i the republicans Were defeated by the ray-' during winter, others : fow .them in fpricg. Pro.' 
alilts near it. It is feafedort thfThoue, 17 miles, videil they are wa.ered after the winter, they 
S. of Thouarscli NKE'; df ,NioH, and 34 W. of. fhoot forth, and crow rapidly. After the parthe- 
Poitiers. Lon. o. tg.'W^Xat. 47. 36. N. ..' niu'm is flowered, -all its branches are cut three 

FARTHER) AS, a river of Greece, in Pelopou- ' inches from the root, the earth i* boed around; 
nefut, which runs paft Elis, Pga/an. vi. c. 21. and a little dung it mixed with it ; and when the 

: c> 



jab, < « ) PAR 

fotd becomes fcvere, tfie plant ii coveted with lire, or Gamifaie, Parthyene, pbonuse, Ajticeoei 
^w, or an inverted pot. Thofetfratarem vafe* an* Tahiene. Tne ancient geographers amine- 
jjrp franfported to tfc green-hoofe, where tBey J rate many cities in this counrey. Ptolemy rec- 
atie pocoveml and watered, and rhey Pioot forth kon* 35 targe cities ; and it certainly mult have 
n number of Demi ; of there fotne florrfre leaf* on- been Very populous, lirtce we bare account* of 
)y two or three, others poll up the flail, tngether ioco villages, betides a number of citie* in this 
with the whole root, and divide it into tereraT rriftrict being deftroyed by earthquake*. JU ca- 
ll ortio.-iii; which they trarrfplairt etfewhere. Sbme pfrar waj named Htcatomfafo, from the ch-ctira- 
!&ni two flips of different colours, in each of fiance of its having loo gate*. It wa* a noble 
which,' toward* the bottom, they nuke a long and magnificent placet a °d according to Tome, it 
notch, srmoft to the pith, and afterwarAtfe them ftilt remain* under the oatnc of Ispahan, the ca- 
rogrther with packthread, that tbey may remam pita] of tie prefect PeHjan empire, 
i^lofely united t by thefe means they obtain beau- {3,) Pa*_thia, HufoaY or, tili thi dkath 
£iful flowers, variegated- with whatever colour* Or Aasaces. Parthia ia by feme fuppofed to 
ihey .cfioofe. Parthennmt requires a good expo- havebeen firft peopled by thepHETM or Pathki, 
Aire, mid frefh rnoift air (hat circulate* freejv: often mentioned in fcripture, and will have the 
Unco tout op ctoferyi it foon bnguifhes. The Parthrana to be defended from Pathroscm the 
,earrh. jtf _ wfrtch it ia planted ought to be rich, fon of Mifraim. Bnt however true this may be 
jrjoiir, and; IbafltJ, and prepared with great care, with regard to the ancient inhabitants, yet it ii 
l r or refre^rrrg ir, rhe Chirjefc ufeenry rain or riser certain, that tbofr Parthian s who were fo famous 
water • afl( l hi bring they mix with this water the in hiftory, defcended from the Scythian*, though 
^creDiehtsrf fifk.woTms.orthednngof poultry }. from what tribe we are not certainly informed. 
At fiiiwnw rtey leave the feather* of duefct or Thebiftoryof the ancient Parthian* it totally loft, 
fowl* to infujf In it for feverat days, after having All we know ii, that they were firft fubjeC to the 
(brawn mrbh "a little fa ft pet re ; bnt in autumn Medea, afterwards to the Pecans, and laflly to 
thgy miK with the water a g rearer or f mailer quag* Alexander the Great. After his death the pro- 
rity 0? dried excrement reduced to powder, ac- vince fell to Seleucua Nicator, and was held by 
..■orSing as the pfctnt appears more or left vigorous, him and hia fucceffore till the reign of Antiochus 
jjuricg tfae great heats of fummer, they water it Theos, about A. A. C. a-jo. At' Lliis time the 
/nornrng and evening ; bnt they nroiften the leave* Parthian* revottea", and' chofe one Artacea for 
^rhVj- ip the morning: they alftt pbee ntiaTt frag- tfceir king. The immediate caufe of tbi* revolt 
,-ncnts of brick round jts root; toprevetit the wa-' waa the tewduefs of AgaibrjcUre, to whom Antio- 
,ier from prefflng dowrr the ejrth-too runcrr. By etna had committed the care of all lite province 
fadh nJimlte care, the patient ■Chimfe b*»e pro- beyond the Euphrates. Thia man made ail iifa- 
tdred Trout a WilU atitfafmoftflinliirtg plant, fo mous attempt on TirTdates,' a youth of great beiu- 
peautrrVl and* otfrjrrferomr flowers. The molt com- ty ; which fo enraged hi* brother Arfacea, that he 
tnoo fbecies art,' excited hia countrymen to revolt ; and before An- 

il r*AsTK!N[CMHTrTERn?hroRrs; and tlochui bad leifufe to atte:id to the rebellion, it 

i. P^grsBBioV IftKtetiro'lllHt. became too powerful to" be erufhed. Seleucui 

f iO,PARTjifiNttre; an aheitirf Greix writer, Callinicus, the fucccvTor of Antic-ehua TVot, at- 
ivln>(l' 1 age rs uncertain; bnt'hia romance Dc A~ tpmpled to reduce Arf^ces ; but the "latter having 
iritttbrjii JJftSiBtabm, hrextBht ) and was publilh-' had fo much time to ftrenglhen himfelf, defeated 
/id'Hr, rirfioat Bafil, in rj3r. and drove him out of the country. Seleucua faoo 

(i.)Pa«TiiBHios, ?n geography, a mountain of after undertook another expedition agaioftAifa- 
Arcadis,' where Telephu* had a temple, and on ce», but was ftill more unfortunate j being not aa- 
ivHlcn Atlbuttia wa* espofed. Pauf. vtii. 54. JE- \j defeated in a great battle, but taken prifoner j 
&m 13, ■ and be died in' captivity. The day on which Ar. 

'iit 4.) P»*Tir«*HT! ; t.aTfverofPapblagonla;' face* gained this victory was ever after ooferved 
jrhich rona through Birtrj-ni.1, and farts into the among the Parthians as an extraordinary feflival, 
$uxfa* '9ca, neat SefaTnnjB," {HeroAl.) j. A Arfaces being thu* Folly eltaplifhed in hia new 
flyer of^uropeao Sarmaua, kingdom, reduced Hyrcauia and fome Other pro- 

PAStHENOPJ^US, Are foo of Meleaget and vince* under bis power ;aod was at laft killed in 
Ata'anta; one of the 7 cbierswbo accompanied a batik agaiuft Ariarathes IV. king of Cappado- 
4ih-iltus in'bis expedition agaioft Thebes. ■ ' ci>- ; 

[r.lPARTHENOPE, oneoVtheSiaEus; ' (4.JPARTHI*, bist'oit op, tili. thedf*th 
'fi.JpAJtrMEsori, auandientnarneofNit'LiEi;; 1 ej AmtIochus Xldetss, ahd tiAOGHTta oj> 
fo called from f"c JJJrtnV Who is laid to bave Hi* armt. Arfacei I. wai fucceeded by hit fou 
.founded ft. Arfacc* fl. who, entering Medea, made'hirtue!f 

(r.' v fARTfCA, a relebraied empire of anti- mailer of that country, while Antiochuathe Great 
fjjrityj hcuudea on the V. by Media ; N, by Hyr- was engaged in a war with Antiochus Euergetct 
psri ■.. Ii. by Aria, J. by Carmania the def.-rt ; fur- kfcg of Egypt. Antiochus, however, was no 
rHasitA on pfKry'frde by mountain", which ftiU fooncr difengaged from that war, than be march- 
(>!*vp 35 a' boundary, though its uaoit is now ed- w,itb all his t'prces 'again rl Arfaces, and at firft 
fltingi'tt io-EtracoV U*rj and to diftinguiih it drove him quite out of Media. But he foon re. 
;'.rum CrialtLa, j,o that of Ixac A&emi, turned with an army of 100,000 fjiot and lOjeoej 

- (t.) Partku, aaci^HT pivisiDKs or. By borfe, with which he put a (top to the further 
Pwl.smy it is dryidtd into $ diftricts, vi^. fiirflifl- protjreft of Antigchui \ add a treaty waa foon af- 

Digitjedoy\jOOQlC 

O A 



to concluded, iawWch.it wM-«n^4# A*- Qwdw- TlM>wbDl*Ho«i««n|pii«hadbM»#. 
ticei (houUl reiaain miftn «f P«ftunjd i^jfca- vtJed betwwW Cfjuw, «»m, ttr) Graffa*; and 
nil, upon O»dttioo ofhis afliftine Him in hiswar*. the ■tjtom ptcrince* bad fallen t» the lot of 
with othej- tutiaos. Arfeces II- ww fucceedml by Vnffuf, No footw* 'was he- iaue&td with ttua 
hi* Ian PKapatiua, who reigned tj years, arid left dignif, the» be Ksarkred to «M*y l be war into 
three font, Pbrahalefl, Mithridates, and Artaba, Parttia, to eurbh bJaViielii with-the t>oih) of that 
rut. Pl»r«b»t«, the ejdeft, liicceeded U Um people, wbo wen then very wealthy. Some «i 
ihrtwc, aodredaced under hia fubjectlon the Mar- toe tribute* oopoifd him, a* She Parthiiw bad 
di, who had never been conquered by any bat rtiigiff-ffly, obferved. the. treaty ) bu* GnuTua ha> 
Alexander toe Great. Afier aim, bit brother Mi- vine, by the affiftaoceof Pompev, carried ewer ' 
ihiidates was in veiled with the regal, dignity. Us abing before bip„ left: Rome w the soar j j ft. C. 
reduced the BaSrians, Medea, Ferrjans. Eh/me- andpwfued bU.njareb to.ikwnAifiunv where be 
an*, and owr-ran all the eait, penetrating befoad immediately embarked bis troops, though the 
the boundaries of Alexander 1 !) curnjutfU. Denie- wind blew very hjgh ;.and |f^.r a difficult paffatje, 
trius Nkator, who then reigned in Syria, endea- where be ioft mawy of M* #»¥•• be peached tbe- 
voured to recover thefe provinces, bub his army ports of tlalatiaj From Gahrtia, Cr*IJu* haftewed 
was entirely deftroyed, andhimfclftakenpriCbiier, to Syria, and pajpjiig through Jndea* plundered 
and kept captive till hie death j after which Mi- tbc tsrnple-at Jerufakra., tie then marched with 
thridates made hinuetf roafter of Babylonia and great, expedition to the Eeptirat.ee, which he erof- 
MdbpoUmia, fo that he now corairunded. all the fed on a bridge of boatt: and, entering the Par- 
provinces between the Euphrates and the Ganges, thian dominiqns, began hofiiluiee, A* the enemy 
Mitbridates died in the $7th jieaiof hie reign, and had not ejrpected an invafion, they went quite un- 
let: the throne to f.ia Ion Phrabatea If who was> prepared for refiftancet 5"d therefore CraiTua 
fcarce fettled in his kingdom when Antiochus %{. over-ran ail Mefopotamia t and if he bad taken 
detea marched <tg jiuft him at the head oi-a. nuiat- advantage of the cqslferqaiMqn which (he Parthiane 
Tout array, wider pretence of delivering his orb- were in, pijgbt have alfo ieduc*d Babylonia.: But 
ther Demetrius, whu was ft ill in captivity. Phra- inftead of. this, early tnaututM, he repaffed the 
hates was defeated in three pitched battle* t in Euphrates! leaving only 7000 foot and 1000 borfc 
confeqnenceof whiph, beloftalUhecauMiicacoa. fo garrifuo the placet he bad reduced \ and put* 
nucred by his father* and was reduced within the ting his army into/winter quarter*) in Syria- gave 
limits of the ancient Parthian kingdom. Antio- hitnietf tn&aUy op to hia favourite pamon of amaf- 
chus did ant, however, -long enjoy hi* good for- $ng money. Early in Cpring, ho drew bis forces 
tunc; for his army, on account of their nutcber, nut. of tkeir water quarter*, in order to purfue 
jmounting to no fewer than 400,000, being .obli- the 'war -with wgewt hut during the winter, Oro- 
K-d to feparate to fuch diftances »a .pre varied dea had colieacrfa. very numerous array, and was 
t licm, in cafe of any fudden attack, trom joirMnc well prepared to oppofe bim. Before he entered 
together, the inhabitants, whom they bad moft upon action, howeter, the Parthian monarch lent 
cruelly opprdii'd, taking advantage of thia iepa- ambauadora to Craffus, to expoftulate with him 
ration, cooipired with the Parthians to deftioy 00 hiai»ju(lJc*»i attacking an ally of the Roman 
tiiem. This was accordingly executed ; and. the empire \ but rCraiTus only returned for anfwer, 
valt army of Antiochus, with the monarch him- that " they fhould have bi» anfwer at Seleucia." 
itlf, were Daughtered in one da/, fcarce a fingle Orodes, finding that a war was not to be atoid- 
perfon efcaping to carry the news to Syria. ., ed, divided his army into two bodies. One be 
is.) Pat.TrtiA, uistoky of, TiLLTttf s*ath coniAaoded in perfoi, aud marched towards Ar- 
<•• Ceassus Jusioa. Phrahater, elated with menia, in order to oppofe the king of thatcoun- 
his fuccefs, propofed to invade Syria; but in the try, who had railed a con&dmable army toaffift 
meantime, bappegir^g'to q'uarrol with tbc Scy- the Rqman*. The Other be fcnt into Mcfopota- 
thiaai-brt was by tliero cut off with hia wht>)e at- mia,.nnd«r. Svheh*.t, a moft experienced general, 
my, and waa fveceeded by bis uncle Aitabanu* ; by wbofc- conduct, all the cities which Crafltia 
who enjoyed his dignity but a very fhort time* had reduced were quivbty retaken. On this, 
being, a few days after bis acceffioe, killed in feme Roman foldiers, who m^de their efeape, and 
another' battle with the Scythians, lie was fuc- fled to the camp of CraDus, tilled the mindsof hie 
eeeded by Pacorni I. who entered into an alliance army with terror at tbc acconnta of the number, 
with the Roman*; and he by Phrabates Iff. This power, and ftrcngth of the enemy. They told 
monarch took under his protectjon Tigranes- the their fellom-foldien, that the Parthian* wetcverf 
ibnofTignnea (he Great, king of Armenia, 'cave numerous, bra**, and well, difciplioed ; that it 
him bin daughter iff marriage, .and invaded the was impoffible to overtake them when they Bed. 
kingdom, with a defigp to place the fon on the orefcapttbem when they purlued t, that tbieir de- 
throne of Armenia ; bat on the approach of Pom- fenfire weapons were proof againft tbe Romait 
py he retired, and Toon after renewed tbe treaty darts, apd their oflenGse. weapons fo lharp, that 
with the Romans. Phrahaten v/it murdered by no buckler was proof igajnft them, flee CratTua 
his fons Mi thridates and Oaones ;. and foon after Uximi upon all thia only as the efrefii of cowar- 
tbe former was put to death by his brother, who dice- but the foldiers, and ereu many of the ofeS- 
thus became fole mailer of the Parthian empire, ceri, were fo djfheartened. that CaiBus, the lame 
In bis reign happened the memorable war with who afterwards cooipired agamft Ciefar, aad moft 
the Romans under Craflus. This was occanoned,' of the legionary tribunes, advifed CratTu* to fuf- 
>■* by any breach of treaty on the fide of the pend hia march, and connder better of the enter- 
Patttiiaiis, but through tlic Auffieful avarice of Piif? before he proceeded' farther in it. But 

Craflu. 



* A R ( V 1 PAR 

, y permVd in ht»*rbrmV«nW* pre 

tioa.brii^mcow^A'bjrmeVTTfvfttorAtttbuni meruus st'wai represented, b* changed this dif- 



efiffot pblcfoately-permVrJ in hiPforrherrcfolii- prouintW tftaflfce Parthian' forces were not fa mi .. 



tang of'Arrnerlia, who' broogftt- with Mof^dodf pofifidn, 'tod drew up hi; troop* In a frjuite, 
horfei Stfd pt-e^fedlo fend rc.oodcniraffirrsy arid" whtffh fltM'MWy way, and bad on each fide it 
Scoob fodf, wli'eneW he fhotitd fland'ih ufced of c&uMFm ftixtt: ■ Near e ach cofcort .he placed a 
them. At the flow time, he aflvrftfl ftfmtoM to tTOopttf horfe-to fupport them, that liicy might 
March hia army tbtobgh the plaftii'of MefbpOta-' charge with the greater fceurity and boUncfi. 
nil, but to take bis route b»er"tBfc motirit dirts of Thus the wjmle army looked more like one phi- 
Armenia, a* in every refped rnueb fafer. This ft- lanx than troops drawn up in manipuli, with (pa- 
lutary advice 1 , however, wm rejected, and CralTus cei between them, after the Roman manner. The 
entered MefbpOtamia "with an 'army of aboutf general Wmfelf commanded in the centre, his fan 
4o,ooh men." The Romans had'ho fooner croCTed- in the left Wing, and Caffiui in the right. In this 
the Euphrates, thatf Cafflus advifed CrafTus to ad- order they advanced to the banki oF tia Balijiu, 
Vance to fottie of thoft towns in which the garrifons the fight of -which waa very pleafi ng to the foldiers, 
yet remained, to halt and refrefh Ms troops: or to who were much barafled with drought and hut. 
march along the EnphrateB'to Selendia; and thui Hoft of the officer! were for encamping on the 
to present the PartUiant from furrdunding hunt at banks of (his river, to give the troops' time to re- 
the fame time, that he would beplentrffirty flip- frefh theinfelves ; but CrafTus, hurried on by the 
plied with provi [ions. "Of this advice CrafTus ap- inconfiderate ardour of his fori, only allowed the 
proved, but was diffuaded by Abganti king of legions' to take a meal Handing, and before this 
EeletTa, whom the Romans took for anally,but who could be done 'by all, he ordered them toadvance, 
was in reality a traitor Cent by Surenas'to tiring a- not fldWly, and halting now and then after the 
bout their deftrnction. Under this fail blefs guide, Roman manner, bnt as fait as they conld more, 
the Romans entered a vaft green plain divided by till they came in fight of the enemy, who, con- 
many rivulets. Their march proved at ftrlt very nary to their expectation, did not appear either 
ttfy, bat the farther they advanced, tht worfe the fo numerous or fo terrible at they had been re- 
roads became, Infomnch that they were at laft ob- prefented ;. but this was a ftntagem of Surenas, 
liged 10 climb »p rocky mountains, Which brought who had concealed hip men in convenient places, 
them to a dry and fantiy plain, where they could ordering them to cover their arm's, left their brig ht- 
nrither find food'nor water. Abgarusthen began 1 nefs (hould betray them, and, ftarting up at the 
to he lufpecred by the tribunes and other officers, ftrft Ggnal, to attack the enemy on all fides. The 
who earnestly Intreated CrafTus not to follow him ftntagem bad the defired efft'et ; for Surenas do 
any longer, but to retreat 'to the- ■mountain!'; at footier g'are the fignal, than the Parthians, riling 
the fame time an exprefs BrAtetf'from Artabitiue, as it "werrout-of the ground, with dreadful cries, 
acquainting the Roman general' that Orodet had and a mod frightful noife, advanced againft the 
invaded his dominions with a great arotyv and Romans, who were greatly furprifed and diitaay- 
rhat he was obliged- to keep his troops at home,- ed at that fight ; and much more fo, when the 
to defend hrsown-dominioiis. The fame meffen* Paftb'ians,' throwing dffthe covering of tbeir arms, 
ger advifed CrafTus to avoid-by all' mean* the bar- appeared in fhining cliirafles, and helmets of bur - 
ren plains, Where bis army would eertainly perilh muted fteel, finely mounted on horfea. covered at! 
with hunger and frttgne, and to approach Arme- over with armour of the fame metal. At their 
nia, that they might join then- forces againft the head-appeared young Surenas, inarichdrefs, who 
common enemy.- But' CrafTus, inftead of hearken- was the firlt who charged the enemy, endeavour, 
ing either to" the advice of the king or his own of- ihg, with his piemen',, to break through the firlt 
ficers, -firlt flew into a violent panic* with the ranks of the Roman army ; but finding it too clofe 
raefrcngers Of Artabaros, and then told bis troops, ana* impenetrable, the cohorts fupporting each 
that ttiey were -not to expect tire delights of Cam- other, he fell back, and retiree! iti a teeming con- 
paniaitUhemofcremotepartsof the world. Thus fufion: but the Romans; were much furprifed 
they continued their march crofs a debit) the ve- wfieh'tbey-Taw Ihemfelves fuddenlyfurrouoded on 
ry light Of which was fufficient to throw them -in- ail fides, .and galled with continual fhowers of ar- 
todefpairj for they could not perceive the leaft rows. CrafTus ordered his light-armed foot and 
tree, plant,' or brook* not fo much as a -Tingle archers to advance, and charge the enemy; but 
blade of graft i nothing all around them but huge they werefoon'repulfed, and forced to cover them- 
heaps df burning land. The Romans had fcarcely felves behind the heavy armed foot. Then the 
got through this defert, when word was brought Parthian horfc, advancing near the Romans, dif 
them' by uieip-fitOUts,' that "i numerous Army of charged flioweis of arrows upon them, which die 
Parttiwns wBSO'dvdhClhg fill! fpeedtO attack them ; great execution," the legionaries ; bcing 'drawn u[ 
for AbnarasV tlnd»t ; pretence of gdiflg out on par- m fuch clofe order that it was hnpoffible for tbi 
ties, hfii otterl'ttJrierWd with SufemW, rtd" con- enemy to mift fheir aim. Al' their arrows wereo 
certed'tncafLireBU'ifll Hitn for deftro"ylng 'the Ro- an extraordinary weight, and difcharged will 
man army.- Upon- this' -dd vide, which occadoned incredible .force and impetuofity, nothing wa 
great confufton m the camp, the Rdtrians being proof againft them. , The two wings advanced i' 
qfflte exhauAed'Wlth their -long match,- CraETus good order ttf repulfe them, But to no effect; fo 
chaw up, his men ifi"bt»'alia,'fon»Winp-' it firft the tbe Parthians fhot their arrows with as great dex 
advice of Caffius,' wfld was for extending' the i if- terity when their backs were turned, as when the; 
fantry as wide as poflible, 'tfiat they might take faced' the enemy; fo' I hat, the Romans, whet he 
up the more ground,' and'tltuSi prevent the enemy they kept tbeir ground, or purfued the flying c 
from fiirround ing' them ; but Abgarua afluring the nemy, were equally annoyed with their fatal ai 



t, A R ( 47 ). B! A RT 

row8.TbeRoiii3M 1 ii»longaethef liidauyhopei fougjit, though, greatly hataSed with heat and 

that the Parthian*, after having fpent their -ar. tbirfti which titer were not accflftomed . to bear, 

rows, would either betake thcmfelvca to flight* or till, raoft of their borfe* were killea* and their 

engage theoii hand to hand, ftood their ground porcpiander dangeroufiy WDttndciL i .They then 

with great refelutioo. anil intrepidity ; but when thought it advifabfe to retine lo their infantry, 

they obierved that there were many camel's -in which they go former joined) than the Parthiana 

their rear loaded with arrow*, and that thole who invefted them anew, making a molt dreadful ha* 

emptied tiieir quivera wheeled about to fill them veckof tbem.wjtblheir arrow In thi* defcerate 

iulw, they began to lofe courage, and to corn- condition, CraCUa, tpying a. riling ground/at .a 

plain of their general for fullering, them thus to final 1 diftaace, led the rerfiaini of hie detachment 

fUodftill, and (eryednly as a butt to the enemy '• thither,, wiib. a defign to defend .uimfelf in the) 

arrows. Hereupon Craffus ordered bis fen to ad- -bell manner, he could, till fucceujs fhould be fent 

ranee, and to attack the enemy with 1300 Uwfe. hiro from, hi* rather. The .■Parthian* purfued 

500 archers, and 8 cohorts. But tbc;p3rthiaas no him; and having furrounded biraiu blsjiewipoit, 

tooner (aw this choice body (far it wat'the flower continued iluwering arrows,, upon :hw men, rill 

of the army) marching u'pagaiuft them, than I hey aooft of them -were either killed tut diutbled, with" 

wheeled about, and betopk tbemfelvea, according out being able.to.jnakeufcof their arms, at give 

to tiieir cultom, to flight Hereupon young 'tint- theenemy p*oef*,of their valeur., Young Ciaiiua 

iii J, crying out, Thtyjfeitfirttti, pufhed on full bad two Greek* with him, who, bad fettled in the 

lpeed after tr^m, not doubting but he flio.ijl^ gain city of.Cairhe. Their* touched- with companion 

a complete victory (• but, when .be; was at,', a : great ft feejng fa .brave, a nu reduced to fectr ftraitl, 

diftaace from the main bqdy, of ti? ^oman army, preifed-bitn to. retire with .them to the city of 

lit perceived his miftake; for thofe' who, Wforo lfehne*, which had declared for the Romans 1 but 

had fled, facing about, charged lum With inpre- the yoiing Roman, rejected their pronofel, faying, 

dible fur. jr. _ Voung Craffus orderrJflbi* troop* to that he would iatb«r din a thoufand tintea than ' 

hah, hoping that the' enemy, upon teeing their abandon fa tpzny valiant men, who fecrificed 

fmjll number, would^ not be afraid to -come' to a their lives for his. fake* -He then embraced and 

c'ofc fight; but herein' he- wat.likewite greatly difmifled them, giving them leave Go. retire and 

disappointed ;' for the Parthian*, contenting them* thrft for therafel ve»- Al for himfelf, having now. ' 

(elves to oppofe'hia front with their heavy-armed loft all hopes .of being relieved, and feeing moft of 

boric, fnrrounded nim on all fide*, and, keeping his men and, friend* lulled around him, he gave 

at a diOancc, difcharged inccfiani ihoweraof ar. way to bjl grief | and, not being, able to make ufe 

row* upon the unfortunate Romans, thus' fer-' of hi»,arrm, .which was (hot through with a large 

rounded and pent up. ' The Parthian- cavalry, in barbed Wtow, he. .prefeoted bis fide (d one of hit 

wheeling about, raifed To thick aiJuiij-.thit-the attendants,; ant) ordered bini to put an end to nil 

Romans could lcarce fee one another, far fefs the unhappy Ai/c, ;.Wia example was followed by Ceu- 

enemy. In a (hort time, the place where they forina a feriatpr, by .Megabaccus an., experienced 

ftood waa covered with dead bodies. Some of and brave officer, and by mpf of the nobility wha 

the unhappy Romans finding their entrails torn, ferved under, bim: joo foldiers were..takeO prU 

and many overcome by. the exquifite torments fonefe, and tie Felt cut in pieces. .. ... 

they fuffered, rolled themfefve* in.. the, fend and . (&-) Pae.thi.4j history OP, till the death 

expired. Others endeavouring to leaf out, by ps -Crassus 'Ssmio*. The Parthian*, having 

force the bearded points. of the arrQW*,ionly in- thus cur, off or taken the whole detachment -com- 

creafed their pain. Moft of .them died in this m»|jdeCj'by.young Craffus, marched without delay 

manner ; and thofe wbo outlived tlfeircompaaiont agaipft, bja fathef, who, upon the firft advice that 

were no more In a condition to a&i ,ftjf„wfiea the eqemy (fed/before, hia fen, and were' clofely 

young Cnfliia exhorted then) to .march .no, to the purfefxt by b^at, bad taken. heart, the more be- 

eoemy, feme Jhowed him their, woutnled.fcfdiea* eaufe,.0i<)fe who. bad remained tt> make head 

others their bands nailed to their bucklers, and; agajufj bim feewed to abate much of their ardour. 

kme their feet pierced through and pinned to. tin the great eft. part of them having marched with 

ground; fb that Itwaseuually impoffible for.them. the.refl ngao|S.;bJ|i fen. Wherefore, having eu- 

10 attack the en,eniy or defend Ihemfetye^. . The; coinaged hi 1 troop*, be bad retired to a fmall biH 

young comrx^ac^th^reforetl^a^ii^i.hUiqfantry, m.his.rearj to wait there till his fen returned 

to the mercy, of the enemy, advanced at the head from itbe. pur. feit. Young CraOus bad difpatched 

of the caiairy," agaiuft . their, heavy-armed horfe, frequent .expreues to hisfetber, to acquaint him 

The thoulXHd:Gaul*.whombe had brought, with with the danger he was in; but they bad fallen 

him from. ihe. well, .charged the , enemy . with into the enemy's hands, and been by them put to 

incredible boldnef* and vigour; ,b^t their, lances the fword : only.tbe laft, who bad efcaped with 

did little execution on men armed with -cuiraflca, great difficulty, arrived fefe, and informed him- 

md horfe* covered with tried armour i however, that, bis fen wa* loft if he did not fend him an im- 

they behaved with great refelution; for. fame mediate and powerful reinforcement. Toi« news 

of them taking bold of the enemy's fpear*, and threw Craffus into the 11 1 moft confternadon ; but 

doling with them, threw them off their corfea qn the define be had of bring hi* fen, and fo -many. 

the ground, where they Jay without being able to brave Romans who were under hie- command, 

ftir, by the- grot weight of. .their armour ; others made, him immediately decamp, and march to. 

diunountiotr, crept under the enemy's,, borfe*, their, affi, (lance. He wa* not gone far before he, 

Wd t bruiting their fwoid* into their bellies, nude was met by the Partbians, wbo, with loud (houta, 

ihno throw their, riden. Thu* the brave Caul* and fengt of vittory, gave, at a diftaace, the un- 
happy 



V A* R' (r 48 ) # j£ ft 

Iwe^yratuavawjtlceef his mirAjrtBce. Theyhaa' eoaje&rrring, ' from the termer m which the m- 

cut«tf youug.Cwffiir'a ho*), and, kmhc fixed known perfon hadgtven bim that mteffigeiicr, 

te ob the point of a luce, were advancing full that fane wMbftUK bad befallen Craffu*,'immc- 

fpecd to fin Ow-*h»tntherv Al they drew near, ttiMrfy ordered hi* gartffdn to ftattd tottreirarnn, 

Cratiiu ww fttuck with the dftnat fight, but bo and,- marching out, met CnSb*, and Condvfted 

bared like »n hero ( to be bad the preieneeof him and hit arm* ftjto'the city: for the Par* 

mind to tale hia grief, and to cry ant to the dtf> thiani, though informed of his Bight, did not 

inayed trosjp*, *< TM* initfortancia entirelymior} offer to pnrfue him; but. when ftwat day, they 

the loft of one man cannot affeft the victory ! entered the Roman camp, and having pat all the 

Let at oblige, let ui fight JDte Roman* i If you wounded, to the number of 4000, tothefword, 



have any conapafflatt far a father who- ha* toft a difperfcd their cavalry all over tbe plain, m par- ' 
fan who** valour you adUured, let it appear fat firit of the fugitive*. One of Crafiua'a tiente- 

A Parg* 

[he mail 
bit troops; but their ecwrage was quite fens* cohorts, mlRed til way, and was overtaken by 
u appeared from *ke mart and lauguifbmg (bout tbe enemy j it Whofe approach he withdrew to * 



your rage a 
Mrutriaaa.' 



our you athtu . 

I pefcrttment afutnt tbcfe intuiting nanta, named rargmtthu, having feparated in the 

i Thaw Craflu* Stove to reanimate night from tlte main body of the army, with ftrnr 

cohorts, n 



' which they raited, aecunfing to cuftom, before BeJ rt bogr i ng hill, where be defended himfeif j 

AeitWoa. Wheuibefigualwaaghun, the l'ar- with great valour, tiH all hi* men were killed, «- 

miaa*, awrpmg to their *M wayuf fighting, uW> cept io, who made their way through the enemy . 

charged clouda of arrow* m the legionarie*, with- fword m band, and lot Ore to Cairn* : but j 

out dmwrng near tbemj wfalek dkt taefa dreadf ri Varguhtehi* himfeif was killed. IB tbe mean ! 

eaxeutioa, that many of tbe Reman*, to avoid that Surenaj, art knowing whether CrtSua and ' 

the arrow*, which ecoaioued • long and painful Caffius hsdretired toCarrhar, or chofen a different 

death, threw th<mfHvrt in <Wp«Ui on the enemy's route; id order to be informed of the troth, dif- 1 

heavy-armed borfa, teektug from- then- fpeara u patched a merTrtiger, wtro fpofce tbe Roman Ian- 

more fpeedy death. Tbua tbe Parthian* cootf guage, to the dry of Carrtue, etrjoimng him to 

awed plying tbeai iooeffaatly with their arrow* approach the walls and acquaint Crafnn himfeif. 

till night, wken they left the field of battle, cry or Caffiut, Out the Parthian general wai inclined ; 

iag oat, that they wouM allow tbe father one to enter into a treaty with them, and demanded j 

night to lament the death of fail for.. Tbia waa a a conference. Both the proconibl and hia qineftor 

aaeianeboiy night to the Romans, Orkflut kept Caffioi ipoke from tbe wait* with the meflenger ; 

hjmfetf concealed from the fofcS *«, lying not fll and accepting tbe propoial -with great joy, de- | 

tbe generafa tent, but in the open air, and on -the fired that tbe time and place for an interview ; 

bare ground, with hit bead wrapped Dp m bit might be immediately agreed upon. The meT- 

military cloak ; and wai, in that forlorn coudr* ftuger whbdTew, oronining to return quickly 

tkm, fay* Plutarch, a great examplei to aVfrul- with an an f wer from Sorenta; but that general no : 

Er, of tbe irrftabiHty of fortunet to the wife, a fooner undejftood that Craffna and Caffin* were in 

II greater, of tbe perhicJotti affect* of avarice, Carrbe, than he marched thither with fail whole 

temerity, aad ambition. Octetta*, one of bit army ; and having raveled the place, acquainted 

lieutenant*, and Catnuv, endeavoured to raife the Roman*, thst if they expcAfd any favourable 

btmupand cMlbUt him t but, feeing htm quite tenua, theymuft deliver ap Ciallb* and Caffins 

flank under hi* nfllicHon, and deaf to all eonrtort, to him in chain*. Hereupon a council of the 

they fvnroaoned a council of war, cmnpofcd of all chief officer* being fununoned, it waa tbought 

the chief officeri; wherein it waa toabimouBy e i pedfe n t to retire from Can-bE that very night, 

■efoived, that they Ihodkr decamp before : day. and ftek for another afyium. It waa of the ut- 

hroak, and retire to Cairfee, vrhtch waahrMhy a moft iorportance that none of tbe inhibit ant a of 

Roman garriTon. Agreeably to Art refOHrtibn, Carrhse ftouH be acquainted with their defign till 

**"~r began their march aa foon a* the eoancil hu execution | but Craffui, whoft conduaw— '- 

; which produced dreadful outcries ftrtuated, imparted the whole matter in conli 

t fick arid wounded, who, perceivmg to one Andromachu*, choofing him for hia guide, 

' " " ' ■ ■' "■-•■— of a ■-"■■— "■■ 

. r .... ., .. us 1: 

.. but their criei did not ft.op the ouatnted 8urenaa with thedefigo of theRomans) 

aaanun of the ot here, which indeed waa very flow, pramifing at the fame time, a* the Fanhiana did 

te give tbe ftraggleru time to couie up. There not engage ha the night, to manage matters To, 

were only 300 Kgbt horfe, under the command of that tfiey fhould not get out of Mi reach befoie 

dne Kgnatina,,whopurftied their march without day-break. Pnrfuant to Ml promife, he red them 

fioppiitjr. Theft arriving at Carrbc about mid- through many windings and turning*, till he 

night, Xgnatiua calling to tbe ccnthwh on the brought them into deep marffiy ground*, vrhere 

Walla, deflred them to acquaint Coponina> gover- the infantry were op to the kneei ia mire. Then 

nor of tbe place, tbatCrafitii had fought a great Caftrol, rufpecting that their guide had led them 

battle with tbe Parthian* t and, without retting into thofe boga with no good defign, refafcd to 

then know who be vat, continued hi* march to foiknr him any kmgerj and, returning to Carrtise, 

the bridge of Zeugma, which he paifed, and took hia route towards Syria, which be reached 

thus Owed hia troop* % but wit much Mawred with 500 faorfe. Ocravmi, with yooo men under 

far abandoning hia general. However, the met- bis command, being conduftea by tru&y guides 

(age- he feat to Copouiua waa of tome te mp or a ry gained the mountain! called' by Plutarch and Ap- 

tenio* to CrafTus ; for that commander, wifcly pfau Stmaei, and tbete intrenched timfHf before 

„a g T„ ,.„., 



btoac up; which produced dreadfuT outcriea fetuated, imparted the whole matter in confidence 

among the fick and wounded, who, perceiving to one Andromachu*, choofing him for hi* guide, 

that they were to be abandoned to the mercy of and relying on the fidelity of a man whom he 

the enemy, filled the camp with their complaint* fcarce knew. Andromachu) immediately — 



break 



PAH ( 49 ) PAR 

bveaaJof .day. As for CrafTus, he was fti.Il en- two meflengert, was furprifed to fte hfmfelf pre- 
tangled in the roarOws, when Surenag, at the ri- vented by Surenli In prrfon, when he leaft etpec- 
fing of the fun, overtook him! and inverted him ' ted it. The Parthian general, perceiving, as' he 
with hit cavalry. The proconful !i»d with him approached Craflb*, that he was on foot, cried 
4 cohort*, and a fmill body of horfe; and with out, in a teeming furprife, " What dr/I ftef a 
Ibefe he gained, in fpite of all opposition, the Roman general pn foot, and we on horfeback * 
fumroit of another hill wllbln I» furlong* of Oc- Lei an horfe be brought for- him on mediately," 
taviuo; who, feeing the danger that threatened " You need not be furprifed (replied Craffiiil; tre' 
hi* genera), Hew to hi* afliftance, (irft with a are come only to an interview, each after the e(if- 
fmall number of hi* men, but waafoon followed by torn of his country." " Very well (anfwered 3u- 
atl tbe reft, who, quitted their port, though very renas), there lhall be henceforth a tailing piice 
fafe, and, charging the Parthtans with great fury, between king Orodea and the people of Rome : 
difengaged Craflus, and obliged the enemy to but we mud fign- the articles of it on the bank* of 
abandon toe hill. Upon the retreat of the enemy, the P.u ph rates ; for you Romans do not always 
they formed therafeives into an hollow fquare; remember your conventions." ' CrafTus would 
and placing CrafTus in the middle, made a kind have fcnt for an horfe ; but a very (lately one, 
of rampart round him with their buckler*, refo- «>* a golden bit, and richly cap an Toned, was 
lately protefting, that none of the enemy's arrows brought to i him by a Parthian; which Surerias 
(liould touch their general's body, till they were prefenting to him, " Accept this horfe from my . 
all killed fighting in his. defence. Surenas, loth bands (faid he), which I give -you in the name of ' 
to let fo fine a prey efcape, furrounded the hill, my matter king Orodes." He had fcarce uttered ' 
as it" he defigned to make a new attack : but find- tbefe word*, when forae of tbe king's officer*, 
ing his Parthian* very backward, and not doubt- taking Craflu* by the middle, fet him upon the 
lag but the Romans, when night came on, would horfe, which they began to whip with great vie- 
purfue their march, and get out of hi* reach, he lence before them in order to mfte bim quicken 
had recoorfe again to artifice; and declared be- I"* pace. Octaviua, offended at this Man, took 
fore (one prifoners, whom he foon after fet at Ine horfe by the bridle; Petroniut, and the few 
liberty, that he was inclined to treat with the pro- Romans who were preterit, feconded him, and 
coiiful of a peace; and that it was better to come flocking all round CrafTua, flopped hit horfe. Tbe 
to reconciliation with Rome, than to fow the Parthian* endeavoured to repulfe them, and clear 
feed of an eternal war, by (bedding the blood of the way for the proconful ; whereupon they began 
one of her generals. Agreeably to this declara- to juftle and path one another with great tumult 
lion, Surenas advanced toward* the hill where anddifbrder. At lad, Octavius, drawing hit (Word. 
tbe Romans were polled, attended Only by fame killed one of the king's groom* ; but at to* Ante 
of his officers, and, with his bow unbent, and open time another, coming behfnd Oftavhrj, with a 
arms, invited CraiTua to tn interview. So fad- blow laid him dead at hit feet. Both partita 
den a change fceraed very fufpicious to the pro- fought with great refolution, tbe Panhiatn ttrtt- 
conful; who therefore declined the interview, ing to carry off CrafTus, and the Reman* to refcue 
tilt he was forced, by bis own foldiera, to intraft' bim out of their hand s. In this fcirfflo rooft Of 
hi* life with an enemy wnolfc treachery they had the Romans who cam* to tbe ctiAftreoc* ttete 
all experienced; for the legionaries, docking killed } and among the reft CrafTus bnnfdf, b*t 
round him, not only abufed him in an outra- whether by a Roman or a Parthian is uncertain. 
geOus manner, but even menaced him if he did Upon his death, the reft of the army either finren- 
not accept of the propotals made hitn by the Par- dered to the enemy, or,difperflng in thenlgbt, were 
tbian general. Seeing, therefore, that hi* troops purfued, and put to the fword. - The Romans 
were ready to mutiny, he began to advance, with- loft in this campaign at lead jo,ooo men j Of whom 
out arms or guards, towards the enemy, after ao.ooo were killed, and ro.ooo taken prlfonert. 
having called the gods and hia officer* to witnefs (7O Pa«THU, history op, TIM. Tke dsatM 
the violence hiatmopn offered him; and intreated of Orudis. When the battle of Carrtfa; was 
all who were prefenr, but erpecially Octaviua and' fought, king-Orodes wa* in "Armenia, where he < 
Petroniut, two of the chief commanders, for the had made peace with Artaba7.ua. While tbe two 
honour of Rome, fheir common mother, not to king* were folemnizing their new alliance wfth ex- 
mention, after his death, the Ibameful hetiaviour penfive and public feafts, Syllacet, a Parthian offl- 
nf the Roman legionaries. Oftavius and Petroni. ccr, whom Surenas had lent with the news of his 
us could not refolve to let him go atone ; but at- late victory, and the head of Craflue as a proof of 
tended him down the hill, as did likewite Tome 'it, arrived in the capital of Armenia. The tranfc 
legionaries, keeping at a diftance. Craffus was ports of joy which Otodes felt at this fight, and 
met at the foot of the hill by two Greeks j who, tbefe newa, arc not to be cxprefled ; and tbe lords 
diunoonting from their horfea, fainted bim with of both kingdoms, who attended their foveteignt, 
great refpecT; and deGred him, in the Greek raifed loud and repeated fhouta 0* joy. Syflacea 
tongue, to fend fome of hi* attendants, who was ordered to give a more particular and dlftinct 
might fatisfy him, that Surenaa, and thofc who account of that memorable action ; which when 
■ ere with him, came without arma. Hereupon he had done, Orodes commanded Melted gotd tb 
Craffua Tent two brother* of the Rofeian family ; be poured into CraflWs mouth ; reproaching 
hut Surenaa, having caufed them to be feized, ad- him thereby with avarice, which had been always 
vancrf lo tbe foot of the' hill, mounted on a fine his predominant piffle*. Surenas did not long 
•orfr, and attended by the chief officers of Ms enj-.iy -the pleasure of Ml victory; for Orodes, jea- 
■mv. CraAi*. who -waited for tbe r«orn of Ms -tous of bis power arm authority aatoog -the -Par- 
Vol. XVII. Past I. G tkoant, 

Dflt.edny^OOgUr* 



PAR (SO 1 ') PAR 

thlans, foon after caufed him to be put to death, cut off all the reft of the royal family, Botfpvxrng 
Pscoru*, tne king's favourite /on, was put at the even his aim eldeft fon, left the difcoajented Par- 
head of the array; and, agreeable to hit father's, thians Ihould place hirri) a? he was already of age, 
directions, invaded Syri^ : but he wis driven out on tbe throne. 

with great lofa by Cicero and Caffius, the only (S.)I'akthi4, history qf.tjli. "the defeat 
■ general who furvived (he death of CrafTua. After ikd retreat of M,. Antony. Many of the 
this v»e find no mention of the Parthians, till the chief lords of Parthia, being intimidated by the 
time of thecivil war between Cscfar and Pompey, cruelty of Phrahaws, retired into foreign coun 
when the latter fent ambaffadors to folicit hie- tries; and among thefe was one Mopotfes, a per- 
cour again ft hie rival. This Orodes waa willing . fon of great diftjnflion, as well as fkill and expe- 
to grant, upon condition that Syria w.is delivered- ■rience in war.'. This man, having (ltd to Antony, 
Up. to hint j but as Pompey would not content to foon gained hie confidence, and *aa by him eafiiy 
fuch a propofal, the fuccoun were not only deni- prevailed upon ro engage in a war agaiiifi bis conn- 
ed, but, after tbe battle of Pharfalia, he put Lnci. trymen. But Phrahates, juftly dreading the con- 
us Hirtius in irons, whom Pompey had again fent fequencrs of fuch a perfon's defedion. fcnt a (b- 
to alk affiftance, or at leaft to defirc leave to Ihel- lemn pmbafly to invite him borne on fuch terms 
.ter hunfelf in the Parthian dominions. Cxfar is as be Ihould think fit to accept : which greatly 
laid to have meditated a war ag.imfl the Parthi- provoked Antony ; .though be did not hinder him 
arts, which in all probability would have proved from returning, left others Ihould thereby be dif- 
fatal -to them. Ilia' death delivered them from courage*) from coming over, to him. He there- 
this danter. But, no" long after, the eaftern pro- fore difr.iffed -him with great civility, fending 
vincet, being grievoufly oppreffed by Mark An to- ambaffadors at ihe fame lime to Phrahates to treat 
ny, rofe up in arms; and, having killed the tax- of a peace. Thus he hoped to divert the Par- 
gatiir-rers, invited the Parthiarts to join them, and tfli.in monarch's attention from, making thene- 
drivc out the Romans. They very readily accep- ciliary preparations for war, and that he fhould 
ted the invitation, and eroffed the Euphrates with be able to fall ugon him ir^the fpring when he was 
a powerful iraiy, under the command of Pacorm in no condition to make refinance. But herein 
andLabienus a Roman general of Pompey's party, he was greatly difappointed; for. an bis arrival at 
At firft they met with great fuccefs, over-ran all the Euphrates, which he intended to pafs, and en- 
Aiia Minor, and reduced all the countries as far ter the Parthian dominions on that Qdo, he found 
as the Hellefpont and JEgean Sea, fubduing like- all the paffes lb well guarded, that Jie thought 
wife Phoenicia, Syria, and even Judara. They did proper to enter Media, with a defign firft to re- 
nsrtJiowever long enjoy their new conquelts: for duee that country, and then to enter Parthia. 
being dated with their victories, and defpifing the This plan had been fuggefted io him by Artaba- 
eneray, they engaged Ventidius, Antony's lieute- MS ling of Armenia, who in the end betrayed him; 
nant, before Labienua had time to join them, and fm- inftead of conducting the army the ftraigbt 
were utterly defeased. This fu difheartened La- way from Zeugma on the Euphrates, to theAr- 
bienus's army, that they all abandoned him; and axes which parted^'dia from Armeni»,and which 
be bimfelf, being .thus obliged to wander from wasaboiit joomileadiftantfromtheplace whence 
place to place in difguife, was at laft taken and he firft let out, ArtabaZus led them over rocks and 
pQt to death at Cyprus. Ventidius purfuing his mountains fo far about) that the army marched 
advantage, gained fcveral other victories ; and at above iaoo miles before they reached the borders 
laft entirely defeated the Parthian army under Pa- of Media, where they intended to .begin the war. 
eoras cutting almoft the whole of thern in pieces. Thus they were not only greatly fatigued, but 
atld the prince bimfelf among the reft. He did had not fufficient time, the year being far fpent, 
not,. however, purfue this laft victory as he might to put in execution the defign on which Ibey had 
have done; being afraid of giving umbrage to An- come. However, as Antony was impatient to get 
tony, who bad already become jealous of the great back to Cleopatra, he left behind him molt of the 
honour gained by bis lieutenant. He therefore baggage of the army, and 300 waggons loaded 
contented himfelf with reducing thofe places in with battering rams and other military engines for 
Syria and Phoenicia which the Parthians had ta- lieges; appointing Statianus, one of his lieuten- 
ken in the beginning of the war, until Antony ar- ants, with a body of 10,000 men, lo guard them, 
rived to take the command of the army upon him- and to bring them, by dower marches, after the 
felf. Orodee was almoft diffracted with grief, on army. With the reft of the forces he marched 
receiving the dreadful newsof the loft of his army more than 300 miles before the reft, without al- 
and the death of bis favourite fon. However, lowing his men any refpite till he arrived at Pra- 
when time had reftoredthe ufc of his faculties, he afpa or Phrabata, tbe capital of Media, which he 
appointed Phrahates, tbe eldeft, but the moft immediately inverted. But the Parthians, well 
wicked, of all his children, to fucceed him in tbe knowing that he could not make any progress 
kingdom,, admitting him at the fame time to a without his military machines, pafTed by bis army, 
fltare of the' fovereign authority with himfelf. in order to attack Slatianusi which they did with 
The confcquence of this was, that Phrahates very fuch fuccefs, that the body commanded by bin) 
foon attempted to poifonhia father with hemlock, were all to a man cut off, and all their military en. 
But this, contrary to expectation, proving a cure ernes taken, among which was a battering ram to 
for the dropfy, whiel) an excefs of grief had .feet long. Antony, notwithftanding this, difafter, 
brought upon the king, the unnatural fun hat) him continued the fiege of Praafpai but was daily ha- 
iiifled in bed ; and fron after not only murdered raffed by failles of the garruon from within, and 
-allihiiBvsfttattiEen^wliowere 30 in number, but the enemy's army without. At laft he began to 
„. ' 1 thint 



P A R ( 51 ) PA R 

thhtk of ■ retreat, when bisprorifion* were almoft which he did with fitch vigour, that the emperor. 
exhaufted, finding it impntubie to become mailer after having feveral timet attempted to ford that 
of the city. But aa be waa to march 300 mile* river, and been always repulfcd with great (hugb- 
through the enemy 'i country! he thought proper ter, was obliged to caufe boat* to be built on the 
fi rft to fend ■mbafladon to the Parthian monarch, neighbouring mountains, which be privately coo- 
acquainting him that the Roman* were willing to veyed from thence on carriages to the water fide i 
allow him a peace, provided he would reftore the and having,- in the night time, formed a bridge 
ftandarda and' prifoner* taken at Carrtir. Phra- with them, he pafled bit army the next day ; but 
hates received the ambafladon, fitting on a golden not without great lots and danger, the Parthian* 
throne; and, after-having bitterly inveighed againlt baraffing his men the whole time with inceffant 
the avarice and unbounded ambition of the Ko- Blowers of arrow*, which did great execution, 
mans, told them that he would not part with the Having gained the oppofite bank, be advanced 
ftandarda and prifoner*; but that if Antony boldly into Affyria, the Parthian* flying every- 
would immediately raife the iege of Praafpa, he where before him, and made tranfcll matter of 
would fuffer him to retire unmokfted. Antony Aibela. Thence he purfued hi* march ; fubdu- 
wbo waa reduced to great ftraitt, no foonei re- ing, with incredible rapidity, countries where the 
ceived tbit ardwerthan he broke up the liege, and- Roman ftandard had never been difpiayed before, 
marched toward* Armenia. However, Phrahate* . Babylonia voluntarily fubmitted to him. The 
waa not lb good al his word ; for the Romans city of Babylon waa, after a vigorous refinance* 
were attacked by the enemy no fewer than 18... taken by llurm ; by which means be became mat 
times on their inarch, and were thrice in the ut- ' ter of 'all Cbaidca and Affyria, the two ricbeft 
molt danger of being cut off. A famine alio ra- provinces of the Parthian empire. From Baby- 
ged in the Roman army ; upon which they be- Ion he marched to Ctefiphon, the metropolis of 
gan to debit to the enemy ; and indeed Antony the Parthian monarchy ; which be befieged and 
would probably have been left by himfelf, had at laA reduced. But a* to the particular* of thefe 
not the Parthian*, in a, very cruel a* well a* im- great, conqucft*, we are quite iu the dark : this. 
politic manner, murdered all thofe who fled to expedition, however glorious to the Roman name, 
them in fight of the reft. At lafl, after having loft being rather hinted at than defcribed, by the wri- 
31,000 men, and being reduced to fuch defpair tcrs of thole time*. 

that he was with difficulty prevented from laying (10.) PAxthia, histoky of, til*, the ax- 
violent hand* on himfelf, be reached the river A- miction of the wholk country byTxajan. 
raxes ; when hi* men, finding therafelvc* out of While Trajan was thus making war in the heart 
the reach of the enemy, fell down on the ground, of the enemy's country, Cofioes, having recruited 
and tiffed ft with tear* of joy. hie army, marched into Mefopotamia, with a de- 

(9.) Paxthia, history OF, Till THE re- fign to recover (hat country, and cut off all com- 
DUCTiOM OF its capital BY Trajan. Antony munication between the Roman army and Syria, 
was no fooner gone, than the tings of Media and On his arrival in that province, the inhabitant* 
hrtbuquarrelledahrNit,theboutytheyh.-idtakcn; flocked to him from all parts; and moft of the 
and after variant contcfts, Phrahate* reduced all cities, 'driving out the garrifons left by Trajan, 
Media and Armenia. After this, being elated with opened their gate* to him. Hereupon the em- 
Lis conquefts, be opprtlled bit fubjects in fuch a pcror detached Lucius and Mittimus, two of hi* 
cruel and tyrannical manner, that a civil war took chief commanders, into Mefopotamia, to keep 
place ; in which the competitors were alternately- fuch cities in awe a* had not revolted, and to 
driven, out and reftoied, till A. D. 30, when one open a communication with Syria. Haximus was 
Vologefcs, the fon of Gortaaet, a former king met by Cofroea; and having ventured a battle, his 
became peaceable poffeiTor of the thi one. He car- army was entirely defeated, and himfelf killed, 
rii-il on Come wars apuinft the Romans, but with But Lucius being joined by Euridus and Clanus, 
very indifferent fuoceia, and at left gladiy confent- two otker commanders fent by Trajan with frefh 
ed to a renewal of the ancient treaties with that f'upplics, gained confiderable advantages over the 
powerful people. From this time the Parthian enemy, and retook tfie cities of Nifibis and Seleu- 
Uiitory afford* nothing remarkable till the reign cia, which had revolted. And now Trajan fee- 
of the emperor Trajau ; when the Parthian king, ing himfelf polfefTed of alt the beft and molt fruit- 
Ccsaoss, infringed the treaty with Rome, by ful provinces of the Parthian empire, but at the 
driving out the king of Armenia. Upon this Tra-' fame time being well apprized that be could not 
j*ji, who was glad of any pretence to quarrel wi'.h without a vnft expenfe, maintain his conquefts, 
the Parthian*, immediately liaftencd into Armc- nor keep in fubjeciion fo fierce and w rlike a peo- 
nia. JHi* mural there was fo fudden and tincx- p'e> at fuch a diftance from Italy, refolvcd to fet 
peered, that be reduced aim oft the whole country ov " them a king of his own choofing, who (houid 
without oppofition ; and took prifoner Parthama- huJd the crown of him and his fucceffors, and ac- 
ini*, the king whom the Partbians had fat up. knowledge tbem. u hi* lord* and fovereign*. 
After this be entered Mefopotamia, took the city With this view he repaired to Ctefiphon) and 
of Nifibis, and reduced to a Roman province the having there aflemblcd the chief men of the nn- 
wbole of that wealthy country. Early in the lion, be crowned one of the royal family, named 
fptmg of 'the following year, Trajan, who had Parthanasfatki, king of Parthia, obliging all 
kept his winter quarters in Syria, took the field who were prefect to pay bim tAeir allegiance. 
again ; but waa warmly oppofed by Cofroe*. He He chofe Panbanafpat.es, becaufe t ft a t prince bad 
found bim encamped on the banks of the Eu- joined bim at hi* firft entering the Pa rthian domi- 
pbrate*! with a defign 10 difpuie bi* paflagol nions, conducted bim with great .fidelity, and 

G a Itaown 



PA R ( 52 ) PAH 

flicuvsi OB all occjfions an extraordinary attach' (let of Paritim and Arnuxintt, M if be bad an- 

rneM to the Romans. Thus the Parthian* were quired tbrm ic the midft ofrhis pieafures and de- 

at but fubdued, and their kingdom made tributa- banchcrics. After the molt and death of Caluuc, 

ry Ot»Rome. , Antoninus the Philofuphev repaired into Syria to 

(»i.)PA«THia, HiinttOF, TOtTsCOBQDarr fetik the affair* of that province. -On hia arrival 

»r Cisit us. The Parthiani did not long continue there, be was met by ambaffadora from Vovogcfcs ; 

jnthis ftateof fubjeclion : for they noiooncrheardof who, bavin* recovered ntoft of the provinces fub- 

■TrajatTs death, which h a ppened fltortly after, than, dued by Caftius, and being mwilling either to 

ra fcu ng up arms, they drove Parthsoal'pates from part with them orcngasjc in a new<war,folicited 

ili* throne t and recalling Cofroca, who had retired the emperor to confirm him in the poffcfikm of 

into the country of the Hyrcanians, openly tevott- them, protniling to hold them of him, aodtosc- 

edfromKome- Adrian, who wai.thrn commander knowledge the (overetgnty of Home. To tbefc 

j 11 chief of all the force* in the carl, and fbon after terms Antoninus readily agreed, and • peace »ai 

acknowledged emperor by the army, did not care, accordingly concluded between the two empties; 

though be was at that time in Syria with a nume- ■ which Vologefe* did not long enjoy, being foort 

f otis army, to engage in a new war with the Par- alter carried off by a diftemper, and not murdered 

Jthiana ; but contented himff If with preferring the by his own fubjetls, as wr read in ConttaaOiiiui 

ancient limits of the empire, without any amfaiti- Blanslles, who calls him Btkgtfit. Upon bis, deal 9, 

pus profpecti of further cooquefls. Therefore, in Volopelcs III. the (on of his brother Sanalruccs, 

(he beginning of his reign, he abandoned thofe and grandfon of Cofroca, was,raifed to the throne. , 

proviuces beyond tbe Euphrates which Trajan had Hefided with Niger againft the emperor Sew rus; 

ponquercd ; withdrew the Roman garrifbns from who t hereupon having fettied nutter* at borne, 

Mefopotamis ; and, for tbe greater fafety of other marched with all hia forces againft him ; and ail- 

6 feces, made the Euphrates the boundary of and vaneibg to the city of Cteftpbon, whither he had 

irrier in tbofe parts, polling bis legions along the retired, laid dofe fiege to that metropolis. Volo- 

bMfca <rf that riTjer. Cofroes died after a long getes made a most gallant defence i but tbe city, 

joigd, and waa lucceeded by his eldeft fon Volo- after a long fiege, and much bloodshed on bath 

gefes II; m whole reign the Alani breaking into fides, waa at length taken by afiault. Tbe king's 

Media, then fubjeft to the Partbiaas, committed treafores, with bis wive* and children, fell into tbe 

fbert f£fe*ldeva&at*ana; bnt were prevailed upon, emperor's bands; bnt Vologefea him felt bad the 

with rich prefcoti fetit them by Vologefea, toaban- good hack to make hisefcape; which wanagmi 

don (hat Kingdom, and return home. Upon their difappoiatment to Stverus, who immediately iiu- 

firtrnt, Volagefes, baring no enemy to contend patched an caprefs to acquaint tbe fciiHle with The ' 

.with at heme, tell uncxpe&edly upon Armenia; fuccefs that had attended him in bis expedition *- 

^irrprifcd the legions there ; and hating cut them gamft the only nation that wistben formidable to 

all hi pieces to a man, entered Syria ; defeated Rome. 

vrith great (laughter Atilins Coroeiianus, governor (13.) Pa ith i A, ma-roiiY OF, to its coa o.u e st 

.of that province; and advanced without oppofi- bv tmi Persians. Be bad awfooner eroded the . 

fiati to the neighbourhood of Antioch; putting Euphrates, than Volo-^ika recovered all tbe pro- 

everywhere tbe Romans, and thole who favoured vinces, except Mesopotamia; which be bad redu- 

thera, to the 1'word. Hereupon tbe emperor Ve- ced. Tbefe expeditions were chargeable to the 

rjss, by the advice of bis colleague Antoninus fur- Romans, and coft them much blood, without 

flamed tbe fhilofopher, leaving Rome, haftcned reaping any advantages from them; for as they 

into 'Syria j and -havjog driven the Partbiaas out of had not fulficient forces to keep in awe the pro- 

that province, ordered Statins Prifcns to invade vinces they had fubducd, the inhabitants, greatly 

Armenia, and Caflius, with Mcrtiua Vcrus, to en- attached to the family of Ariaces, never failed lo 

ter the Pijlhian territories, and carry tbe war in- return to their ancient obedience as fbon aa the 

to the enemy's country. Pritcus made himfelF Roman armies were withdrawn. Vologefes was 

roster of Artaxata ; and in one campaign drove foon after engaged in a war (till more trouhlcfomc 

tbe Parthian*, though not without great lofs on and definitive, with his brother Artabanos, who, 

his Qde, quite out of Armenia. Calliiis, on the encouraged by (mm of the dlfcomented nobles, 

other hand, having in Several encounters defeated attempted to rob him of tbe crown, and place it 

fcjogefet, though he had an army of joOjOoo men on bis own head. Vologeft* earned Several viflo- 

under his command, reduced, in four years time, ries oyer his brother and lebtijioos Subjects ; but 

.ill tbofe provinces which had formerly fubniitted died before he could reft ore the empire to its for, 

to Trajan, took Seleucis, burnt and plundered mer tranquillity. Artabanus, who had a nume- 

fhr famous cities of Babyhin and Ciefiphon, with rous army at bis devotion, did not meet with any 

f he ftatety palace* of the Parthian monarch*, and oppofition in fetzing tbe throne! vacant by tt.e 

^trnt-'k terror' into the moft remote provinces of death of his brother, though Tir id ales had a bet- 

rhat great empire. On his return, he loft above ter title to it, as being his eldeft brother. He had 

balf the number of Ma forces by tackoefs and fa- fwtce fettled the affairs of bis kingdom, when the 

mine; fo that, after all, the Romans, asSpaitianus Ivmperor Caracalla, deli rous to fignab^e himtclf, 

obfrrves, bad no great realbn to boatt of their as k-vcr.il of his predecetfors bad done, by some 

; ivories and corquctts. memorable exploit againft the Parthiani, Tent a fo- 

{n.JPaKTfliA, hisiokv eb, ToiTEj:oKQues7 lemn embaffy to him, defiring bis daughter in 

pi SEVCabjE. However, Verqk, wbo bad never marriage. Artabanoa, overjoyed at this propofal, 

jlirred daring the whole time of the war from which he thought would be attended with a laft- 

Atffioc* Hd Daphne, took opoa bun the lofty tj- rag peace between the tiro empires, received tbe 

D„i„a»,l J OOg 



PAR ( -53.) PAR 

ambaffader* with ill poffible mark* of honour, faid- tobswe lifted three day*. At length- the Par- 

and readily- complied with their, rcqueft. Scon tbinw -though they behaved with the utmofr br*- 

af!er,Caracalia fcnt a fecond epibafly to acquaint vwy, and fought like men in defpair, were forced 

the king that he was doming to foieronize t Iw uup- -to yield to the Perfume, who were commanded 

t i.il* -, whereupon Artabanus went to meet him at- by a more experienced leader. Molt of their 

tended wilh the chief of bis nobility and hie belt troops were cut offin the flight) nod the king bin> 

troops, nH unarmed, and in moft pompous ha- ftlf was taken prifoiiLT, ami foon after put to death 

bits: bat rteis peaceable train no fanner approach- by Aitanrxea's order. The Parthian*, having loft 

eti the Romnafmy, thai the-foldins on a fignal in thit fatal engagement both their king and their 

given them, falling upon the king's retinue, made' army, were forced to fubmit to the conqueror, 

a aioft tenibJullaughwroTtbeunnmial multitude, and become vaffall to a nation which bad been 

Artabanus hunietf cfoauing with great difficulty, fubject to them for 4J5 years. 

The treacherous Cancans, having earned by this PARTHIAN- adj. Of or belonging to Parthia. 

exploit great booty, and, as he thought, no lefs PARTHIANS, the people of Parthia. For an 

glory, wrote a long nnd eoafiing letter to the fe- account uf the manners, cuitctna, Ac. of the an- 

11 ire, afliimed the title of Panbkui for this piece cient Parthian fc fee Petal*. 

oi treachery ; as he had before that of Gcrmamcuj, yRAHTHICUS, a title ablurdiy affunwd by the 

for murdering, in like maimer, fomc of the Ger- emperors Verus and Caracatla, upon their pretend* . 

many liability. Artabanui, rcfolving to make the edcohqueft of Parthia. See Pit t hi*, 4 7. 13. 

Romatrspay uearfortberr. inhuman alid barbarous PARTHINI, an ancient people of sJlyrkum. 

treachery, raifed the moft numerous army that Li-vg xxix. 11 1 slw, 30. Swlon. Aug. 19- 

had ever been known in Parthia, cioffed the Eu- PART13 YENE, a province of Parthia, Ptol. 

phraies, and entered Syria, putting all to fire and PARTI, Paam, Party, or Phmd, fart. 

IWord. But Cmcalla being murdered before this adj. in heraldry, is applied to a fhield or efcut- . 

invalion, Mkitbub, who had fucceeded him, met cheon, denoting .it divided or marked out into 

the Parthian* at the head-of a mighty army, com- partition*. Tbiis, 

poled of many legions, and all the auxiliaries of 1. Paari pbe behd beite*, is when the cut 

the ftatte* of Afia. The two armies no fooner comes from the. upper comer of the shield on the 

came in fight of each other, than they engaged right hand, and delocnda. athwart to tbe oppofue 

with tbe OttHoft fury. The battle continued, two lower corner. 

days; both Romans and Parthian* figbiifig to ob. 3, Paktj fm HUB sraima, is when tbe cut, 

ftiruWry, that Might only parted them, without coming from the upper left corner defends acrols 

any apparent advantage. on either fide; .though to the oppofrOt' lower one. 

uothrerwed when night had putanendtothecon- 3. Pasti pe*. fess, is when tbe cut is acrofs 

left, crying, riaory, HOvrg. The field of battle the middle from fide to Jad«> 

was covered all over with dead bodies, there be- 4. Pabti ptm pale, it when the fhield is di- 

ing already above 40,000 killed, including both vided perpendicularly into two halves. All tbefe 

Romans and 'Part hians : nevertheless Artabanus partitions according to M- de la Cokimbierc, 

was hcanl to fay, that the battle was only begun, have their origin from the cut* and bruit* that 

and that be would continue it till either the Par- have appeared on ihields after engagement* ; and, 

rhians or Romans wore all to a man cut in piece*., being proof* of the dangers to which the bearer* 

But Macrinue, hcrefj well apprifed that the king had been eipofed, they gained them efteem : for 

came highly enraged againfl Caracal la in particu- which reafoti they were transmitted to posterity, 

lar, and dreading the contequencea which would and became arms and mark* of honour to their fu- 

attend tbe deftruclion of bis army, lent an herald ture families, 

to Artabanus, acquainting trim with the death of * PARTIAL- adj. {partial, French.] 1. Inclin- 

Caracalla, and propofing an alliance between the ed antecedently to favour one party in a caufe, or 

two empires. Tucking, nnderftaudlbg, that bis one fide of the queftion more than the other.— Ye 

great enemy 'Was dead, readily embraced tbe pro- have not kept my way* but have been partial in 

pofait of peace andiamity, upon COtfdttOO that, all the law. Ua/.ii. 9. — Self-love will make men par- 

the prrTonere wbotiad beet) taken by the treachery tial to themftlvosaiiil friends. I.tth- a. Inclined 

of Caracal I a, Mould be immediately reflorrd, and. to favour without reifon ; with ta brforp the p»rt 

a lirge film of money paid turn to defray the ex.. favoured.— Thu* king* heretofore who (bowed 

penfec of the war. TDcfc articles being perform- tbemfelves partiml to a party, had the farvice oojy 

rd- without delay, Artabanus returned into Par- of tbe wort) part of their people. -D^vtaamt.— . 

this, and ftfocrmu* to Antioch. Aa Aitabanus Authors are partial la their wit, 'tis true, 

loft on this uccafk* tbe dower of hi* army, Ar 7 But are not£ttlick« totbeirjudgnenttoo: ^"qpe. 

tuerxei, a Perfian of mean defcent, but of great —In theft, one may be Queerer to a reafonabte 

courage and expefience in war, revolting from tbe friend, than to a fond and partial parent. Ptpe. 

Partbians, prevailed on hi* countrymen to join j. Aflbclhig only, one partf fubufting.euiy in a 

him, and attempt the recovery of the fovereigo part} not general 1 not univerfal ; not- total.— If 

power, which he mid they had been -unjuftiy de- we compare Ihefa^ari'ioJ difTolutiout of the earth 

prived of, firft by the MacodoniaBS, and after, withaa univerfii dilTolution.wetnsyaseafily eon- 

u-ardtby the PartblMs their 1SE.1l 9. Artainioiw ccive an univerfal delugcfroman uraTerfflldiffulu- 

nnon tbe news of thil revolt, marched with tbe tion,-«i-a partial -iiAM^e hom a partial. Jbtruei-—* 

whole frrength of biahrngdorp tofupprnfe rtj but The weajceningof a thing is only a/mrAu/deftruc. 

iving met by Artakecxcs at the head of a aa left tion of it. South.— 

powerful army, a bloody battle enfued, which is Ml partial evil, univerfaJ good. Papt. 



PAR ( 54 ) PAR 

(i.) * PARTIALITY. n.f. [partiaiite, Fr.rrom God, when.ueaVn and earth be did cmte, 

partial.] Unequal ftate of the judgment and favour Form'd man, who fhould g/ 1 both farttdpatr. 

of one above the other, without, 'juft reafon.— Denham. 

Then would the Irifh party cry out partiality-, and —Thole bodies, which are onder a light, which 

complain he is not ufed ai a fubject. Spenfer.— it extended and diftributed equally through all, 

' Partiality ieproperly the underftanding's judging fhou\d participate of etch othera coloura. liryden. 

according to the inclination of the will and affec- 5 . To have part of iometbing common with an- 

tions, and not according to the exact troth of other. — Thefpecieaof aodiblet (eesu la fartiafete 

things, or the meiite of the caufe. South. — Aithere more with local motion, like percuffaona made 

is a partiality to opinions which il apt to mifiead upon the air. Baton. 

the uoderftanding ; fo there ia alio a partiality to (a.) * To Pa»ticif*ts. v. a. To partake; 

ftudies, which is prejudicial to knowledge. Locke, to receive part of ; to (bare.— Neither can we 

(a.) Parti At itv. Sec PaajuDiCE, and Self- participate hiui without bia pretence. Hooker,— The 

partiality. French feldom atchieved any honourable afli 

■ To PARTIALI2E. v. a. [parlializer, Fr. without Scottifh handa, who therefore are tofnr- 

from partial.] To make partial. A word, per- ticipate the glory with them. Camden's Btmaini^— 

baps, peculiar to Shakejpcare, and not unworthy Fellowihip 

ot general ufc.— Sncb as I feck, fit to participate 

Such neighbour nearnefs to our facred blood All rational delight. Milin- 

Should nothing priv'leg* him, nor partialis * PARTICIPATION. *./ [participation, Fr. 

TV unftooping firmnefs of my upright foul. from participate.] 1. The ftate of fhariug fome- 

Sbai. thing in common.— Id fociety, this good ot mntn- 

• PARTIALLY, adv. [from partial.} 1. With al participation i; fo much larger. Heaker^-Tata 
unjuft favour or diGtke. 1. In part; not totally, fpjritsare fo married in conjunction with the per- 
— That Hole into a total verity, which was but lidpatim of fociety, that they flock together in 
partially true in its covert fenfe. Brown.— The content. Sbai. Henry IV.— A joint coronation of 
menage he brought opened a clear profpeci of himftlf and nil queen might give any countenance 
eternal fixation, which had been but obtcnrely of participation of title. Bacon. *. The ad ornate 
and partially figured in the fhadows of the law. of receiving or having part of fomething.— All 
Sogers, things (eek the higheft, and covet more or Iris the 

• PARTIB1LITY. n.f. [from partible.] Divi. participation of God bfmfeif. /f™fcr.- Thole dei- 
fibitrty ; feparability. ties are fo by participation, and fubordjnate to the 

•PARTIBLE.^/, [from part.'] Divifible; fe- fupreme. SUUingfieit- What au honour, that 

parable.— Make the moulds partible, glued or ce- God ihould admit us into fuch a blefled partkipa- 

mented together, that you may open them, when thn of himfelf ? . Jltierburj.' Convince them, Cut 

you take out the fruit. Bacon. — The fame body, brutes have the leaft participation of thought, and 

in one circumftance, is more weighty, and, in an- they retract. Bentley. — Ypurgejiius (bould mount 

other, ia more partible. Digby on the Soul, above that mill, in which Us participation and 

• PARTICIPABLE. adj. [from participate.] neighbourhood with earth long involved it. Pope. 
Such as may be fhared or partaken.— Plato, by 3. Diltributiori ; divifion into ihares. — It futbtrth 
hit ideas, means only the divine eflenee with tbia not, that the country bath wherewith to tut'tain 
connotation, as it is varioully imitable or partici- even more than live upon it, if means he want- 
pable by created being;. NorriisMifcdlunies. ing whereby to drive convenient participation of 

" PARTICIPANT, adj. {participant, Fr. from the general ftore into a great number or well-de- 

participate.] Sharing; having fhare or part ; with fervert. Jtaleign. 1 

of.— He publifhed his proclamation, offering par- « PARTICIPIAL.^. [partidpalis.LaX.] Hav. 

don to all iiicli as had taken aims, or been parti- ing the nature of a participle. ■ . 

opant of any attempts again ft him. Bacon. — The * PARTICIPIALLY. adv. Ifrom participle.} 

prince taw he ihould confer with one participant of In the fenffc or manner of a participle. 

more than monkifh fpeculationi. mtton^-\f an* (1.) * PARTICIPLE, n. f. partieipium, Latin.) 

part of my body be'fo mortified that 11 become* like r.. A word partaking at once the qualities of a 

a rotten branch of a tree, it putrihea, and is not noun and verb,— A participle il a particular fort of 

^att;rf£fi«(s/"influencedemedfrom my foul. Hale, adjective, farmed from a wo, and together with 

(1.) * To PARTICIPATE, v. n. Ipartiiipo, it! fignincation of action, pa/lion* or fame other 

Lai. p articiper, Fr.] 1. To partake ; to have (hare, manner of exiftence, figmfying the time thereof. 

The other inftruments Clarke's Lot. Grant, a. Any thing that partiei- 

Dklfee, and hear, devife, inftruA, walk, feel, pates*of different things. Not. ufed, — Tne^orri- 

And mutually participate. Sbai. ciflei or con fincra between plants and living crea* 

». With of. — An aged citizen brought forth all tures, are fuch aa arc fixed, though they have a 

bis proviflons, and did, that at he did communU motion in their parts; fuch as, oyflera and cockles, 

cate unto them his ftore, fo would he participate Bacon. 

of\W\X want*. Hayaiard. 3. With ins— ii.) • PARTICLE. n.f. [partkule, Fr. fartUula, 

Hit delivery, and the joy thereon, Lat.] 1. Any final! portion of a great lubftance. 

In both which we, as next, participate. Milton, —From any of the other lureaionable demands, 

4. To have part of more ' things than one.— Few the houfes bad not gfven their commiflioners au- 

creatures participate of .the nature of plants and thority in the leaft particle to recede. Clarendon. 

metals both. Bacon.— —There il not one grain in the univerfe, nor fo 

much 



PAR ( 55 ,) PAR 

mach ia any one particle of it, that mankind may diet are by the attraction of gravity. See At- 
flet be either the better or the worfe for, accord- tiactiok and Cohesion. 
iiig a* 'tis applied. L'Bfirangt. — (3.) Particls, in grammar, {§ 1. drf. 1.) is a 
With particle! of heavenly fire, denomination for all thofc word* that unite or 
The Ood of nature did his foal infpire. Drjd. disjoin othen ; or that exprefs the modes or man- 
Curious win, ners of word* or things, ft comprehends all 
With rapture, with aftoni foment, reflect ' thofc parts of fpeech divided by grammarians 
On the final! fiie of atoms which unite into Articlbs, Adverbs, Prepositions, In- 
To mate the finalleft partitle of light. Black™, terjections, and CONJUNCTIONS. See the fe 
—It is Ddt'impolBble, but that mlcrofcopei may articles. ' 

at length be improved to the d'ftovery of the (4.) Partici.*, in theology, is ufcd m the La- ' 

particles of bodies, on which their colours depend, tin church for the crumbs or little pieces of conie- 

Wrw/o«.— crated bread, called in the Greek church rupttt. 

Bleft with more •ftrficsu of heav'nly flame. The Greeks hare a particular ceremony, caHed 

-—'■-■ Granville, rar mplu. of tbe particles, wherein certain crumb* 

1. A word unvaried by inflection. — 'THl Arianifm of bread, not ccnfecrated,' are offered up in ho- 

had made it a mattef of fharpnefs andifubtiJity of nonr of the Virgin, St John the Baptift, and fere- 

wit to be a found balkting chrifttari, men-were rai other faints. They alfo.give them the name. 

not curious what, fylfable* or particlei of fpeech of »for». f „, obietim. Gabriel archbifbop of Phila- 

tbey ufed. Kvahtr.— The Latin* varies the fignifi- delphia wrote a treatile exprefs **{< rut ptfJtn, 

cation of verbs and nouns^ not as the modem- whereto he endeavours to fhow the antiquity of 

languages, by fanTclci prefixed, but by changing this ceremony, in that it ii mentioned in the li. 

the but fyttsbtes. Locfc.— Particle 1 are the words turgies of St Cbryfoftom and Ba&l. There has 

whereby the- mind fignifie* what connection it been much controverfy on this head between the 

gives to the feveral affirmations and negations reformed and catholic divines. Aubertin and 

that it unites in "one continued reafouing ornar- Bloudel explain a paflage in the theory of Ger- 

ration. Leeti. — Irr the Hebrew tongue there is a manus patriarch of Conftantinople, where be 

particle crnififlint: of but one fingl* letter, of which mention* the ceremony of the particles as in ufe 

there are reckoned above fifty feveral fignlBca. to his time, in favour of the former; Meffieurs 

tions. Locke. .,■■■< e Fort Royal conteft the explanation ; but M. 

(a.) A Particle, in phyfiology; (( t. dtf. 1.) Simon, in bis note* on Gabriel of Philadelphia, 

is the minute part of a body, an' atiemhlage of endeavour* to fhow that the paflage itfelf is an in- 

which conftitutes alt natural bodies. In the new terpolation, not being found in the ancient copies 

philofophy particle is- often ufed in the fame fenfe of Germanus, and confrquently that the difpute 

with atom in the ancient Epicurean philofophy, i( very ill grounded. 

and coKftrscLG in the latter. Some writers, . (;■) Paktictlis, Orgihic, are thofe fmall 
however, diftinguiih them ; making particle an af- - moving bodies which are imperceptible without 
femb'age or composition of two or more primi- the help of glades; for befides thofe animals which 
tiveand phyfically indivifible corpufclet or atoms; . are perceptible to the fight, fomenaturalifts reckon 
and corpufde or little -body', an alFemblage pr this exceedingly fmall Specie* as a fcparate clafs, if 
mafs of feveral particles or fecondary corpufcles. not of ' 'animals properly fo called, at leafi of mo- 
The diftincrion, however, h of little 1 moment; ring bodies, which are found in the femen of inl- 
and, a* to moil purpofe* of phyfic, particle may mils, and which cannot be feen without the help 
beunderitoodasfynonymouswithcorpofcle. Par- ' of the microfhope. Id confequeuce of thefc ob. 
tides are then the elements of bodies 1 it is the fervations, different fyftems of generation have 
various arrangement and feature of thefe. with been piopofed, concerning the foermatic worms 
the difference of the cohefion, Sfc. that conftitnte of the male and the eggs of the female. (See A- 
the various kinds of bodies, bard, fort, liquid, matoht, Index.) In- Bu&Wa Natural Hiftory, 
dry, heavy, light, &c. The fmalleft particles or vol. %■ feveral experiments are related, tending to 
corpufcles cohere with tbe ftrongeft attractions, fhow that thofe moving bodies which we difco- 
and always compofe bigger particles of weaker ver by the herp of glafles in. the male femen are 
cohefion; and many of thefe' cohering compofe not real animals, but organic, .lively, active, knd 
bigger particles whole vigour is Itill weaker ; and indeftruitible molecules, which poifefa the pro- 
tbn* on for divers fuccefSons, till the arogrcflion pertyof becoming a new organized body finoilar 
ends hi toe biggeft particles, whereon the opera- to that from which they were extracted. Buf- 
tions in ehemiftry, and the colour* of natural bo- fon found fuch bodies in the female a* well a* in 
diet, depend, and which, by cohering, compofe tbe male femen ; and he fuppofes that the mo- 
bodies of fenfible bulk*. Tbe cohefion of tbe par- ving bodies which he obfcrved with the micro- 
tides of matter, according to the Epicureans, fcope in infufions of the germs of plants are like- 
was effected by hooked atoms ; the Ariftotelians wife vegetable organic molecule*. Needham, 
thought it managed by reft, Uiatis, by nothing Wrifberg, SpaUanzani, and feveral other writer* 
at alt. But Sir Ifaac Newton fhows it is done by on the animal economy, have pnrfued the fame 
mean* of a. certain power, whereby the particles tract vritb M. de Buffon. Some fuppofe that 
mutually attraft or tend towards each other, thefe organic molecule* in tbe femen anfwerno 
which is flill . perhaps 'giving a fact without tbe purpofe but to excite tbe venereal defire: but 
caufc. By this attraction of the parriclea, he fuch an opinion cannot be well founded ; for eu- 
ftow» that moft of the phenomena of the lefTer nucha who have no feminal liquor, are neverthe- 
bodics are af&ered, a« thofc of the bearenly bo- Ms f Lib j eft to venereal defire. With refpect to 

D.gitjedoyCjOOQle the 



:P A R (56) P' A. R 

the beautiful experiments which have been made . His seneraMov\i kirn - !■ 

with the micro fc ope en organic moleoilesj M. ■ In a ntoft-daar particular. Sixi.i. 

Bonnet, that learned and excellent ofeferver of — We are likcwife M give thanks far temporal 
nature, remarks, that they feero to carry us to the bleflings, whether Inch at cMceXH llie-puhlick, or 
fartheft verge of the frnnble creation, did not rca- ehfe fuch an concern our pertituiar.' DMybf Man. 
fad teach us that the finalleft vifibte globule of 4. Private character 1 Ragle feu"? (late of an indi- 
leminal liquor, is the commencement of another vid jsI.-^- . . 

univcrfe, which, from its infinite fmsUnefs, is For kit particular, 1*11 recent bin gladly; 

beyond the reach of our bed microfaopes- Ani. Bat not orle follower, Siat. 

mahul/i, properly fo called, mull not be confound- 5 . A minute detail of things .fiogiy 'enumerated. 
etl with the wonderful organic particles of Buffbn. — The reader faa«a-/Ki/ , /««/*rof the hooks, where- 
See Animalcule. ..- ■ in this law .was written. Aylifc- .6. St Particular. 

it.) * PARTICULAR, .adj. [particalirr, Fr.] Peculiarly ; diftiticily.— Invention it called a raufe, 
1. Relating to tingle paribus; not genera I. —He, as authors afcribe "to each of them in particular, the 
well with .general oratidna, u particular dealing fciencei which they have invented. Druden — 
with men of moft credit, made them lee (raw ne- Aod rf we will take them, as they were directed, 
cefiary it was. Sidney.— c\t well for particular ap- m particular to" her, or in her, as- thejr reprcfenta. 
plication to fpecial occafioas, a* atfo m other live, to all other women, they wHl, at moft, con- 
■ manifold refpectB, infinite treasures of wifdom are oem the female fet only. Lm*e.-~ This fa parti** 
abundantly to be found in the holy ftripture. lar happen! to theianga; BUuhntrw. 
Better. %. Individual ; one diftinct from others. * PARTICULARITY, n.f. [partieulariii, Fr. 
— -Whetefoever one plant draweth fuch a tmnti- from particular.] 1. Diftinct notice or enomera- 
nular joice out of the earth, aB it qualifietn. the tioiir—So did the boldnela of tbeir affirmation ac- 
earth, fo as that juice, which remaineth it fit for company the greatnefa of what they did affirm, 
the other plant; there the nighbourbood doth even drlcendiiig to particularities, what kingdoms 
good. Bacon. — This ii true of actions coofidered he iliould overcome. Sidney. ■■ a. Singfeneffe ; indi. 
in their general nature or kind, but not consider- viduaKty % (ingle *& ; fingie- cafe. — Knowledge 
1 ed in their particular individual, inftances. South., imprinted in' the mindi of all men, upon which 
— Artifta, who propofe only the imitation of fucb conclulions grow, jn particularity, the choice nf 

Xrijfu/ar perftm, without election of ideas, hare good and evil Hooter. 3. Petty account; private 
1 been reproached for that omiflion. Dryden. incident.— To- fee tn* titles that were molt agnc- 

3. Noting properties or thlnga peculiar.— Of this able to fuch an emperor, the flatteries that he lay 
prince there it little particular memory. Bacon, open to, with the like- particularities only to be 

4. Attentive to things tingle and diftinct.— I have met with on medals, arecertainly not a little pica- 
been particular in examining the reafan of chil- ring. Aidtfen. 4. Something belonging to tingle 
dren's inheriting the property of thfir father)., perfona. — 

Locke. 5. Single; not general) um among many. Let the general trumpet blow bit Waft, 

— Rather performing hit geneeal .commandment, Pai-tieulariiici and patty founds 
which had ever been, to embrace virtue, than any To ceafe. Shell. Hrxry VI. 

new particular, Iftnxag out of palSon. Sidney. < 6. 5. Something peculiar.— I f»w an oM heathen altar, 
Odd; havingfaiicthingthatemiiientlydiftii^ruifhci with tiiie particularity, that it waa hollowed like .1 
him from other*. Tbit is commonly ufed in. a diQi at one end. Addilon an Italy.— Re applied 
fenfe of contempt. hitnfclf to the coquette's heart ; there occurred 

(a.) * PiRTicutla. u.J. t. A fmgle inftasicej many particularities in this dilleftion. Aidifm. 
a Angle poutt^-I tnuft referre fome particidan, * T« PARTICULARIZE. «. a. {partkalari/er, 
which it is not lawful for me to renal. Bacon. — Fr. from particular.} To went ion diftinctly; to 
What is nni*erfal muft needs proceed from fame detail ; to fliew minutely. — The leannefs that 
univerfal conftant principle 1 the fame in all par- anlfcts us, is an inventory to particularize their | 
ticulars, which can be natbing elfe but human abundance. Skalcefp. Goriel. — He not only botfts 
llllim. 1 Seuti,'— Having the idea of an dephaat or of his parentage as an Ifraetite, but partitnlariaet ' 
an angle in my naiad, the firft and natural enquiry bis defcent from Benjamin. AUcrttoy. 
i*4 whether fuch a thing does, exift '. and this * PARTICULARLY. <i*v. [from particular.} j 
knowledge is only of .particulars. Laeiz^nThe i.Diftincily; Tingly 1 ! not universally. — Providence, 
matter, could hardly fit on his aerie for laughing, that universally calls its eye over all the creation, 
all the whileike was giving me the particulars of is yet pirated more particularly to fatten it up™ 
this ftory. JJA/fn.— Vefpafiao he rcfembied in fome. Scat/i. a-Inanextraordinarydegree^— This 
many particulars. Swift, a. Individual 1 private exact propriety of Virgil, I particularly regarded 
perfon.—It is the grrateft tntereft of particulars, as a great part of his character. Orgies* — With 
to advance the good of the community. L'Bf- the Sower and the leaf 1 was fo particularly plea- 
trana: 3. Private iuterett.— Our wifdom muft ted, that I commend it to the reader. Oryien. 
Be fuch, at doth not propoie to itfelf r> i*n our * Tc PARTICULATE, v. a. [from *artit,dar.\ 
own particmiqr, the partial and immoderate defire To make mention fingiy. Obfolete. — I may not 
whereof polfontth wherefoeTeT it taketh place; partkukite of Alexander, Hales, the irrefragable 
hut the pubiick and common good. Hooker. — doctor. Cantdrn's Remain. 

They apply their minds even with hearty affee- II.) PARTING, it / in metallurgy. See Ma. 
tion and real, at the lead, unto those branches of TAlluhot, Part II, Sc&. IV ; and Part HI. 
pnblic prayer wherein tbeir own particular, is (II.) PattMUG, b chemlftry,. an operation by 
moved. HssAo-.— which |oW nod filter. ate ftexrattd tcosn each . 

Digit jedoyVjOOQIC oiher s 



PAR ,( J 7) PAR. 

other. As thefe two metals refift equally well the ing the hut, no further mark, of folution appear* 

sftion of fine and of lead, theymuft therefore be the aquafortis charged with Slver it to'be.deeant- 

feptnled by other, methods. This reparation rf. Frefh nitrous acid ii to be poured ioto th« 

could not be effected if they were not fciluble by matrafa, ftronger than theformer, and in left quau- 

itiffcrert menftruums. Nitrous acid, marine acid, tity. which mud be boiled on the refiduous mail 

and fulphur, which cannot diUblve gold, attach and decanted as the former. Aquafortis rnuft 

fiber rery Cafiiy ; and therefore' thefe three agents even be boiled a 3d time on the remaining gold; 

furnijh methods of feparating Btver from gold, or that all the fitrer may be certainly diffolved. . The 

of the operation called parting. Parting by ra*» gold is then, to be wafhed with boiling water, 

from acid is the moft convenient, and therefore This gold is very pure if the operation has been 

mod uftd, and wen almoft the only one employ- performed with dne attention. It is called gild »f 

en by goldfmiths and coiners.- Wherefore it ii farting. No addition of filver is required, if the 

called amply parting* Ttat made with the ma- quantity of fi|ver of the mat ia evidently' much 

line acid, ia only made by. cementation, and ia more confiderable than that of the gold : perrons . 

known by the name of tonUntrated parting. Lad- who have not proof needle* and other apparatus 

Jr. parting by fulphur is made by fufion, which Jo determine the proportion of the allay, may add 

the chemifta call the dry way, and it therefore; to the gold an .indeterminate quantity of filver, 

called dry parting. ■ '■ \,-'< obferving that this quantity be rather too great than 

1. Paktihg by aoriATOiTia. Although part- too final I, and fo confiderable *as to render the 

ing by aquafortis be eafy, it cannot be Tery exacts maf* nearly as white: 31 filver ; for a large quantity 

unlefs we attend to fouie effential drcumftances. of filver ii rather favourable than hurtful to the 

1. The gold and filver rnuft be in a proper proper^ operation; It has no other inconvenience than an 

lion; for if the gold be in. too great quantity, the ufeleft expenfe, as the larger the quantity is of 

filver will be covered and guarded by it from the filver, the more aquafortis rnuft be-empioyetf. W« 

sction of the acid. Therefore, when the efTavetl ought to attend to this fact, that the enioui of 

do not know the proportion of thefe two rnetals in gold is fcarcely perceptible to a mafa two, 3d* nf 

the maft to be operated upon, they difco-rer r| by which are Miser and one 3d is > gold ( this colon* 

the following method t.Ttiey baat a certain num. then mult be much left perceptible when the gold 

berof needles compofetl of gold and fibjersllayeU ia only one 4th part, or Ma, of the whole mxfr. 

together rfl graduated proportion, and the 1 allay If the quantity of gold.exceed* that of the filver, 

of .each. needle is. kiiowirbyamarkiuptiuil. Thefe the mafs may be expoled to the action of aqua- 

arccafied^rou/sm^ij^.. When.refliyrrs want to regia, which would be a kind of invtr/e parting, 

koowe»jfrthepropc»*ior>of igold and raver in a becaufe the gold is diflblved in that taenftfuum, 

maft, they rub this mafs upr* a toucbftone, fo as and the filver is not, but rather reduced to a lima 

l,o leave a mark upon it, : They then makemarkt cornea, which remains in form of a ■precipitate 

upon the toucbftone viAfomenf the necdaea) the after the operation. But this method ia feldom or 

colour of which they think comeunearerV to that never practifed; for the filver is not f»accur»tely 

of the mafs. BycompaetQg the marks of Uielb feparsted from the goldbyaqua-regia.asthegold 

needles with the mark of the mafs, thty difcover is from the filver by aquafortil.- The gold, after 

nearly the proportion of the gold and filver in the the parting by aquafortis, is much more eafily 

maft. If this trial (flows, that in any given mafs collected when it Temarns in fmall maffes than 

the filver is not to lb? gold as three to «ne, this when it ia reduced to powder. When the maf* 

mafs is improper for the operation of partmfr by has been regularly quartti, that is, when it. con- 

aquafortit. In fhia cafe, the quantity of fitter tains three parts of filver and one part of gold, 

neceflary to make an allay of that proportion moft we mult employ, partkularry forthefirft foluttoo, 

be added. This operation is Called quart at inwi an aquafortis. fo weakened that heat i« required to 

probably becaufe it reduces the gohi to a fourth affift the folution of the filver j by which means. 

part of the whole maft. II. That the parting may the folution itiuode gently ; and the gold which 

be exact, the nitrous acid or aquafortis employed remain* preferras the form- of the fmall maffes bw 

mail be very pure, and eCpecially frceifrom mix- fore, the; dilution. If the aquafortis employed 

:ure of vitriolic and marine acids. For if this be wene ftronger, the parti of the gold would bedif- 

iiot attended to, a quantity of -filver proportion- united and reduced to the form of a powdetv from 

able to thefc two foreign acid* will be- feparated the activity, with . which the folution would be 

during the folution; and this portion of filver, made. We may indeed part by aquafortis a maf* 

reduced by thefe actda to vitriol of filver -and- to eontajning twopartrof fever to one part of gold: 

luna cornea, will remain, mingled with the gold, but then the aquafortis mnft be ftronger ( and if 

which confequenlly. will not be -entirely purified the folution be not too much battened, the gold 

by the operation. When the metallic mafs ia 0*0. wilt more eafily remain in mafle* after the- opera- 

perly allayed, it is to be reduced to plates, railed tion. It) both cafes, the gold will be found to be 

up fpirally, called corntti a or .to grains. Theft tarilifhed and blackened. Its parts have noadhe- 

arc taberjot into a matrafs, and upon them J finn together, becaufe the filver diflblved from it 

quantity of aquafortis iifo be poured, the weight has kftmany interfticea ; and the cornels orgrsrins' 

ofwhicb is totharof theftlveras threerto ttaoi of this gfcld wiHheettGly broken, iniltfi tbey be 

sad attbenitTOUi acid enrploycd foe this opnnr- handled recv carefully- ' To give tbeih more foltJ 

two isTather weak, the folution- in affifted, efpo; dity,; they -ate fcrjenlty put into a teft under n 

ciilly at firft, by the beat ofaiaBii bath, in which muffle and made ted hot; during which operation 

the.natrafaia to be placed. When, not withstand* they contract cofinderably $'and their parta are 

Vol, XVU. Pmt I, , - ■ 1 ■.:.-, « '" approx- 

liqit .od, Google 



FA* i 58 ) PAR 

latsjd. Thefe- phrceG of pold are tk«/ notifo Srdfig.as.tt»adt vtolentiy. fftSe ai_uafortl» 

] to be rendered much more fiilid, fa. .that be very ffrtmg, howeverpure,iandif [he lefleliht 

(hey may be handled without being broken. By Will. doled, * fmaU. quantity. of 'the gold will be | 

this operation alfo the gold rrtfumeaita colour and dtflbWed aloag with (he (Slyer, which ia to he 

Itiftre.; and as it generally baa the-figm* of can- guarded againft. Litlle. teat ought t* be applied 

fleta, it i« called ^ftWnimrnrti, or grain gold. 'Eli. at the begMHiingvIiba liquar beingiapt, to fwcllsnrf 

lay era .avoid meltir-g ity aa they choofe to prefenre rife ewer tie vefTel;. but when the' acid it nearly 

litis foiim, which (hows that it- baa been paiWdi 1atitrated,.the lioatnuiy.befafeiy increafed. Whin 

The goidiantf filver tana operated upon -ong tit to the fdlution ceafrtr which may beksown by I he 

have been prcvvonlly refined byfcadj and-, freed dHcfflitiiubnce.lrftheelierrtfcrrce; oremifiion of 

flora all allay of. other metallic mattery fo that air-lrabblei, the liquor is td.be pound oft If any 

the gold which remains (hould be as pure hs it grain* appear. entiiBj-Inuifc aquafortis tnuft he 

gullible. However, ai tilt* is the only metal which added, that ait tb&fitatfftna^bcdrTfohedJ 'tftht 

refills (lie laiflion of aqaafortie, it might he purified operation has been performed, (lowly, the femain- 

hy parting from ill other. metallic fubftanenvbat ing gold wiir.haax rhfttbrlbrrn of drftinfl tosITm, 

this ta-not generally done., for frveral reafoaa. J*hie* areto: receive ablidrryand .colour fey fire,; 

Piril. be-caule the refining by lead ia niore etpedit es above djretflwJ, .if- the-operaticm hash*™ per- 

tbtrcaad cravetlirntfirrithrfepirationaf tSegold formed hafHIy, the gold will haye the appearance 

from the imperfect metals; idb/.beeaufe thefflnrrl of -arbiacfcfnuii or powder,-.' which, after > or I ; 

when afterwards feparated frorh the aquafortir, p-aminga-withpWTiwaxctt'rBaft be melted. The i 

is pure ■ fafliy, becaufe, ai reoft tarperfect metatt liker. may be/rectfaeced try precipitating It from | 

do not remain completely and -eritinely diflbrred the aqpaforri* by.ftaatl ptitel of "copper ;rhroivn 

in Dttooili acid, the gold \vcold be found- after the atong- with the .famine inta-gnii* vcflela. "A«- 

partiitgJTJroxd with the part of thefe Vetera which der able- heat ia required M accelerate th it precipa- 1 

ir precipitated. The. gnld'a-entaMring- afterrtiW Htion. DtLew™ Uys, be-has" obferwd, thatwhtli 

parting rortghl to be well warned, to eteanfe it. t*e:anuafortlB nai perfectly- fatn rated wilh fiber, 

froraauy of the folurfonjrf .filesr which might iadi f d precipitation WAKoqcaiioTied by platet of cop- 1 

here to- it; and for thiai purpbaWrfttrlrd water ptvtill arhopTir o«:bT aquafortis waalddad t* 

oBgntto-beufcdvOr-at .lsaft,watc.;«ie purity, of UscJiqtiearJJahd then-tbe baecqtitatiwif ibeaari' sbiI 

which his been jfccrtairnd by its 'not -forming :a continiittd ravuftnL • The ptec%>i fated Ulter "BB* ! 

precipitate with a.foiutioD.of filvw.-hecsufc-rodi fee vWII WHfrmrI^rfc*M^wOrt!r, and iufett with 

a precipitate would alter the purity of the .ggjd. fame ritre^ tru-jufortP^h iritis tal^eflajfr »«t ru- 

The.fiK-rJ-riiffoNed ia the BouafcntiBHiay be fcpa. ptepiir paHade^W^teHw il y^aarticne *»;tte fOnr.l 

rated; eiifter.-by dill illation, in which cafe all -the From, the K)bjlaamafi«]ia)rJ«n!ll nq»*fti(*(». a N» 

Bquafbitia-is-rrcoTerea «ry, puno,- and fit for anw pigment, callain-pirtjiiTEai, la'ptitiiiied bv preci- 

thrr-paiting: ur it. may lie 'precipMated *y feme piBatioilwrthrUa*ing;i ]%*rn CJttm. liHi. 

fubftarjce which has a:.-greJuea- .afHaity taan tbii ■ n nPa«irrnor«rMQBMt*T*Tiorj. ' CoKCta- 

metal whh, nitttatu. acid. Copper ia jgeneaally *bat*d Tirarrntt H-perfartoed by eementstiori, 

employed- for this.purpofe at toe mint.. .-TJw'fa* and it D fed when thetfuSntlty-nf (fbld i» fa ptn 

lufion of (river JB-rput. into copper vefleh. 'The ia proportion to rtfo-ftWef.-t hat rt tianniit befrp s - 

•qaafoTtii-dirSgrresthexopprr.andthefBTerpret rated -br^c,uai"art*t;..-iSce Ct Mrnr, § %.) This 

dpkater. When the fitter malLpreopHnteeV the Operation ia done ia Ithe , follwWiB^ marfiwr. A 

new (o-lurkm h decantnd, -whieh it tbeo a foldiiort cotnent-ukpiil preoared.-cofapored of four nam rt" 

of copper.- -The 'precipitate is to be well wafted; britka.p^mdered-andlifted, af'brat part of gtW" 

and may be melted fnt6 an. ingot. It ia called yrtriotcjloiiTilciI^iU^ becemas red, tfnd of "" 

*atta4JUmv 'WherttWaiiiyerhaa.been.'abtainod part trf t»«tnji«J.'lfalt»: The-wtiole ia »erf accn- 

iVmbri mats -v.rii.-b. fiad been refined by .lead, and Ktelyi miaed: logetberjaud <a '(tarn pafte \s made of 

wfteont bw been -well wafhed: from, the' folutkti ir by mtaftenhrg' it tviii a little water or-urineJ 

of. copper, it -ia vdry parei Mr Cramer; obfervet This c*mcnt fsvattcd- itmetif raynt; becanfe it k 

jofily, in K-& T-netife on BJbyinif, that howeVerac. emplojied to-punfy gtrid, which wai ftyled by al- 

cutately the .operation m parting ba» .been pct> chemifts ike king qfmttniu The gold to be re- 

torrried, a fmall portion of frlrer. alwaya rdnUnaa meiited is to be rednced to thin phttes, asthina? 

united, with the gold, if the parting ha» been made fnrall pwces-of tnoecy.'. At the bottom of the cm- 

by aqoafortrij oraftnall portion of the gold ret cible. or comentiirg-poua ifrntunv.of cement, ot 

mafmunried with thettiferj-if the parting haa fchd4bicfcn*la ofafitgen ieco.be put, which iitej 

been made by aqua-regia : and be elfimatcs thul be.coMred-wilbptatcaof gold ; upon thrfe ano-i 

fihail -aflay'tobe from. a sooth -ta a icdth part ( ther ftratumof cndeMiatehe.laid,andthenmore 

Which quantity may be confidcreri- aa oothii^ for plates of gold, till trie cruerBle i» filled -with thesf 

ordinary purpofc*, but may become ienfiblc in ac, hltemate ftrata .of.idetneat and of gold. Th( 

cuiale-ohemical experimenrt. (CAriw. Di8.). The whole ii then to.becoiered witha lid, which i 

mala of pild and fil»er to be quatteu otrght pre. tohe luted with a tniltture of day aittl land. Tin 

wiouny-tobeerarjBlHted-^which may ho done b^ putin-tohe placed iu a furnace or oren, ant 

taeltwig-itin actucible^ aodpourmniliotoalarge heated by tbrgreea-tiU k immoderately red, whicf 

«ffel faUofoold water, whiJeat tbe&metimea heatta to jbe. continued during •ahoctra, TN 

rapid areolar motion ia girea tp the water by heat mult. not be fo great aa to melt the pole 

quichiy fiirring it rormd witlt a flick or broom. The pot U than left, ft, cool; aad the Jfoid h to bt 

Theaquafortiaotigbt.to be foitrong ai to beca. carefUtly .firparated .frotfl the^cernent, and boiled 

pable of acling fenlibty m filvcr when cold, bat at different timet in 1 largemuanflt j<ot -pure w* 

D,i„d W Googlc " 



PAR (59) PAR 

ter. This gold U to be (flayed upon a toucbftoue method of fcparatiiig afmall portion ofgoldibam. 
or otberwife ; and if k be foua.d pot fufficiently a large one of filver, appears to be ,by fulphbr, 
purified! it js to be cemented a fecontl time in the which unites with and icoiinei the Giver without 
fame manner. The fulphuric acid of the bricks affecting the gold ; but as fulphurated filver docs 
and of the calcined vitriol di (engages the acid of nqt flow-thin enough to fnffer the fmall particle* 
the common fait during (hit cementation; and of gold diffufed through it to reunite and fettle at 
this lilt acid diftblvet the film allayed with the the bottom, Corns addition is necefTary for collect- 
gold, and separates it br that means. — This expe- ing and carrying them down. In order. to the 
riment prove*, that although the muriatic acid, commixture with, the fulphur, jo or 6a lb. of the 
while it U liquid, cannot attack lilvcr, it is never- mixed metal, or as much as a large crucible will 
Ihelcb a powerful (blvent of thai metal. But for receive, are melted, at. once, and reduced into 
this purpofe it muft be applied to the tilver in the grains, by. taking out the fluid matter 1 with a 
ftale of vapoun, extremely concentrated, and af- fmall crucible made red-hot, and pouring it into, 
filled with a confiderable beat. All thefectrcum- cold. water ftirred with a rapid, circular .motion, 
ftances are united in the concentrated parting. From f to j of the granulated metal, according 
This experiment proves a)fp, that notwithftandmg as it ii richer or poorer in gold, is referved, and 
ait tbefe circumftauccs, which favour the action the reft well mingled with \ of powdered. fulphur, 
of the muriatic acid, it i« incapable of dilfolving Tbe grains enveloped with the fulphur are again 
gold. Laftly, the muriatic acid in thia ftatc more put into the crucible, and the fire kept gentle for 
effectually diflblves tbe filver (ban the nitrous acid fame time, that the Giver, before it melt*, may be 
does in the parting hy aqyafqrtii, fine* thia ope- thoroughly penetrated by the fulphur: if the fire 
ration fiicceeds well when tbe Giver ia in lb fmall be haftily urged, great part of the fulphur. will be 
a proportion at that it would be protected from diffipated, without afling upon the metjd. If tq 
the action of the nitrous acid in the ordinary part- fulphurated River. in fufion. pure filver be added, 
ing. Inftead of fea-falt, nitre may be ufed with the latter falls to the bottom, and. forms there a 
equal fuccefs; becaufetbe nitrous acjd is then put diftinct fluid not mifcible with tho other. The 
in a Sate to attack tbe filver, notwithstanding tbe particles of gold, having no affinity with tbe fuU 
quantity of gold which covert, it. phurated Giver, join tbemfelves to the pure Giver, 
3- I'axTisG by Fusion, or Dry Parting, is wherever they come in contact with it*, and are 
performed fey fulphur, which has (be property of thus transferred from tbe former into the latter, 
uniting eafi I f with filver, while it does not attack more or lefa perfectly, according as tbe pure lilver 
gold. This method of feparating tbefe two. me- was more or lefs thoroughly diffufed through the 
laU would be tbe cheapeft, the moil expeditious mixed. It is for thil ufe that a part of the gratui. 
and convenient of any, if the fulphur could diffolve lated metal was referved. The fulphurated maul 
the filver, and ieparate it from the go|d as well being brought into perfect, fufion, and kept melted 
and as eafily at nitrous acid does : but, on the for near an hour in a clofe covered crucible, one 
contrary, we are obliged to employ a particular third of the referved grains is thrown in ; and at 
treatment, aod a kind of concentration, to begin foon as this is melted, the whole is well fiirrcd, 
the union of tbe fulphur allayed with gold. Then that the frefb Giver may be diflributed through 
repeated and troublefome fufions muft be made, tbe mixed to colled the gold from it. The ftir- 
in each of which we are obliged to add different ring it performed with a woodeb rod ; an iron 
intermediate tubftances, and particularly the me- one would be corroded by the fulphur, fo as to 
tala which have the ttrongeft affinity with fulphur, deprive the mixed of its due quantity of .fulphur, 
to aflift the precipitation, which in that cafe does and likewife render the fubfequent! purification of 
not give I regulus of pure gold, but a gold ftill the filver more troublefome. Tbe fufion being . 
allayed with roach filver, and even with a part of continued an hour longer, another third of tbe 
tne precipitating metals ; fo that, to complete the unfiilphurated grains is added, and an hour after 
operation) cupetlation is neceflary, and alio pan- thia the remainder; after which tbe fufion is fur- 
ing by aquafortis. It is therefore evident, (bat ther continued for fame time, the matter being 
this operation ought not to be made but when the ftirred at leaft every half hour from the beginning 
quantity of filver with which the gold it allayed to the end, and the crucible kept clufely covered 
if Co great, that the quantity of gold which might in the intervals. Tbe fulphurated filver appears 
be obtained by the ordinary parting is not futli- in liv.on- of a dark brown colour ; after it bat 
i_ient to pay theiexpenfes; and that it is only pro- been kept melted for a certain time, a part of the 
per for concentrating a larger quantity of gold in fulphur having efcaped from the top, tbe furtaca 
a (rnaUer quantity of filver. At thia dry parting is becomes white, and foroe bright drops of filver, 
troublefome, and even, expen&ve, it ought not to about the fiee of peafe, are perceived on it, 
be undertaken but on. a confiderable quantity of When thia happens, which is commonly in about 
filver allayed with gold. Accordingly Cramer, three boura after tbe lad addition of the referved 
S.iulyttt-r, Scbiinder, and all good cbemifta and grains, fooner or later, according at the crucible 
artiftt who have proceffes for the dry parting, re- has been more or lefs clufely covered, and the 
cumracod its ufe only in fucb cafea. As thia ope- matter continued, for otherwife more and more 
ration for extracting a fmall quantity of gold from of the lilver, thus loficg its fulphur, would fub- 
a large quantity of filver is, notwithltanding its in- fide, and mingle with the part at tbe bottom its 
conveniences, approved by Schlatter, Shelter, and which tbe gold is collected [ the who'e is poured 
other authors, and praotifed in HarU, we fhall out into an iron mortar greafed and duly heat- 
add what Or Lewis, in his Wjlory of Gold, hat ed ; or if the quantity h too large to be fafely 
laid upon, the (object. The molt advantageous lifted at once, a part is fi>ft taken out from the 



rally n 



PAR ( 60 ) PAR 

top with a (mail crocible, and the reft poured in- which they wrap round the tower part of the vef* ! 

to the mortar. The gold diffufcd at firlt through fel, leaving 1 the upper part uncovered, that they 

the whole mafs, it now found collected into a part may fee the prngrefs'of the operation ; and over ! 

of it at the bottom, amounting only to about as this cloth they apply a compoiUion of clay and : 

much as was referved unfulphurated. This part hair. Scblutter advifes to put the parting-glalTes 

may be-feparated from the fulphurated filver containing fome water,' and fupported by trcvets, 

above it by a chitfel and hammer; ormoreper- with fire under them. When the heat com muni- | 

feclly, the furfaee of the lower mafc being gene- cated by the water is too great,' it may be- dimi- j 

igged and unequal, by placing the whole nimedby adding cold water; which mult be done 

tth its bottom upward* in a crucible: the very carefully by pouring againft the fide* of the i 

fulphurated part quickly melts, leaving unmelted pan, to prevent too ludden an application of cold 

that yhi'ch contains the gold, which may thus be to the parting-glafs. The intention of thin con- 

completely feparated from the other. The ful- trWance is, that the contents of the glalTes, if 

. pha rated filver is efiayed by keeping a portion of thefe Ihould break, may be received by toe copper 
Ft in fufion in an open crucible till the fujphur is vefTel. Into a glafs ij inches high, and 10 or u 
diftipated, and then diffblving it in aqua fortis. uiches wide at bottom, placed in a copper pan n 
If it Ihould (till be found to contain any gold, it is inches wide at bottom, I j inches wide at top, and 
to be melted again ; as much more unfulphurated 10 inches' high, he ufually put about 8a oz. of me- 
fllver is to be added as was employed in each of Ul, with twice as much aquafortis, 
the former injeflions, and the fufion continued (i.) * PARTISAN, n. /. [pertuifan, French.] 
about an hour and a half. The gold thus collet:- 4. A kind of pike or halberd. — 
ted into a part of the filver may be further con- Let us 
centrated into a fmatler part, by granulating the Make him with our pikes and parti/ani 
nafs and repealing the whole procefs. Hie ope- A grave. Shaiefpeare's Hamlet. 
ration may be again and again repeated, till fo Shall I ftrike at it with my fartifan? Shoi. 
much of the filver is feparated that the remainder a. [From parti, French.] An adherent to a fac. 
may be parted without much expence. This pro- tion. — Some of thefe parti/ant concluded, the 
cefs, according to M. Schlutter, is praAifed at government had hired men to be bound and 
Rammefberg in Lower Hart/.. ■ The prevailing pinioned. Ad&fm. — I would be glad any parti- 
metal in the ore of R.immclfberg is lead: the fan would help me to a tolerable reat'on, that, be- 
quantity of lead is at moft «o lb. on a quintal of caufe Clodius and Curio agree with roe in a few 
100 lb. of the ore. The lead worked oil on a left Dngutar notions, 1 muft blindly follow them in 
or concave hearth, yields about ito grains of alt. Suiifl. 3. The commander of a party de- 
filver, and the filver contains only a 384th part of t ached from the main body upon fome fudden 
gold ; yet this little quantity of gold, amounting exeurlion. 4. A commanders leading ttaft". A'mf. 
scarcely to a third of a grain in a hundred weight (a.) A Partisan, in the art of war, ($ 1. drf. 
of this ore, is thus collected with profit. The 30 >S a perfoo dexterous in commanding a party ; 
author above mentioned confines this method of who, knowing the country well, is employed in get- 
feparattpn to fuch filver as is poor in gold, and ling intelligence, or furprifing the enemy 6 convoy, 
reckons parting with aquafortis more advantage- &c. It aho means an officer lent out with the com- 
pos, where the gold amounts to above a 64th of mand of a body of light troops. This corps fli ou Id 
the filver 1 he advifrs alfo not to attempt concen- he compofed of infantry, light-horfe, and buffers, 
trating the goB too far, as a portion of it will al- PARTISTAGNQ* a town In the province- of 
ways be taken up again by the filver. Mr Sehef- Friuli. 

fer, however, relates, (in the Svieii/b Memoirs for * PARTITION, n. /. \partiihn. Ft. fartitiai 

:-!.%!}. that he has by this method brought the Latin.] 1, The act of dividing} a fate of being! 

gold to perfect finenefs ; and that he has tikewife divided. — 

collected all the gold which the filver contained ; Like to a double cherry, teeming parted, | 

the filver of the laft operations, which had taken But yet an union in partition. Sbat, 

up a portion of the gold, being* referved to be 1. Divilion; feparation; dillinciion. — We have, 

worked over again with afrefh quantity of gold- "in this refpeft, our churches divided by certain^*,,-. 

■ holding filver. The fulphurated filver is purified iiiitmi, although not 16 many in number as theirs, 

by continuing it in fufion for fnme time with a Hooker.— 

large furface exp'ofed to the air ; the fulphur gra- Can we not 

dually exhales and leaves the filver entire. Partition make, with fpectacles fo precious, 

Part ing-Glassts, n. /. Glafs veflels ufed ■ 'Twixt fair and foul f Sbat. Cjmbriine 

for parting gold and lilver. They have the form We fli all be winnowed with fo rough a wind! 

of truncated cones, the bottom being commonly That ev'n our corn (hall feem as light as chaff, 

' about 7 inches wide, the aperture about one or two And good from bad find no fortius*. Shut 

inches wide,' and the height about is inches. — The day, month, and far, meafured by tfie-.n 

Thefe' veficls ought to have been well annealed, are ufed as ftandard meafnres, as likely others an 

nnd- chofen free from flaws ; -as one of the chief bitrarily deduced from them by partition or colteci 

inconveniences attending the operation is, that tion. Haider en Time. 3- Part divided from tin 

'he glallei are apt to craca- by expofure to cold, reft; fsparate part, — 

and even when touched by the hand. Some ope- Lodg'u in a fmall partition. Mi/tori 

Titan feeure their glsffes by a coating. For this 4. That by which difterent parts are feparated 

pnrpofe they fpread a mixture of quick lime. Naked — It doth not follow, that God doth' teach us r . 

Vim lice t and whites of eggs, upon linen cloth, ereft between us and the m a partition wall of rf if 

fcre-ncl 

D„i„d»,^oogle 



PAR ( 61 ) PAR 

ference. Baekr. — Make partitions of wood in a Would make tbegreat'ft king double to be part- 

hoglbeid, with bale* in them, and mark the ilif- . nerd. 

ference of their (band from that of an hogluead With tomboys. Sbaie/peare. 

without Suchfanitkiu. Bacon.— (I.)* PARTNERSHIP, n. /. [from farther,] 

• Partition, firm and fare/ I. Joint huereft or property. — 
The water* underneath from thofe above He doea poiTerfion keep, 

Dividing. Miltoa'i Paradife Loft. And is too wife to hazard partner/kip. Dryden. 

— Endofurc* our radical have made in the church, a. The union of two or more in the fame trade. 

become a great partition wall to keep other* out —Til a ueceflary rule in alliance*, partnerjbips, 

of it. Decay a/Piety. — At one end of it, it a great and all manner of civil dealings, to have a Ariel 

partition, dcligncd far an opera- jtddifon. — The regard to the difpoGtioo of thole ire have to do 

partituu between good and evil ii broken down, withal. L'EJtrangc. 

SLagcn, j. Part where reparation is made, — (If.) Partnership is a contract among two or 

The mound wa* newly made, no fight could more perfona, to carry on a certain bufinefs, at 

pals their joint espence, and lhare the gain or loft 

Betwiit the a\ct partitie*i of tucgrafc. Dryd. which ariies from it. Of this there are four 

* To Partition, v. <*. To divide into diftinft kind*. 

part*. — Tbefe fidt* are uniform without, though i. Partnership m Companies ihcorpo- 

fcverally partitioned within. Satan. . kited b v Authority. A royal charter is ne- 

* PAftTLET. b. /. A name given to a hen ; ceflary to enable a company to hold lands, to 
the original fignification being a ruff or band, or have a common feal, and enjoy the other pri- 
coveriug for the neck. Hanmer.— vilege* of a corporation A charier ii tbmctimea 

Thoudotard,tbonartwomantired)unroofted procured, in-order to limit the' rijk of partners: 

By thy dame par tit t here. Shake/peart, tor, in every private company, the partner* are 

Tird wit* pinn'd rufft, and fan*, and partlet liable for the debts, without limitation ; in cor- 

ftripa. Hall, panted focietiea, they are only liable for their 

Damn partlet was the fovereign of his heart; ihares in the flock of the fociety. The incorpo- 

He feather' d her. Dryden' i Fables, ration of fbcietiei fometimea ie authorifed by aft 

* PARTLY, adv. [from pan.] in fame mea- of parliament ; but this high authority is not ne- 
furej ia (bate degree j in part. — That part) which, celfary, unlef* for conferring exclu live privileges, 
iincc the coming of Chrift, partly hath embraced, a. Partnership ik Companies, where tub: 
■md partly fliall hereafter embrace the Chriftian re- business is conducted bv officers. There 
Ugion, we term the church of Chrift. Hooter.— are many companies of this kind in Britain, chief. 
They thought it reaibnable to do all poflible ho- ly eltablilhed for purpofei which require a larger 
nour to their memories; partly that others might capital than private merchants can command. 
be encouraged to the fame patience and fortitude, The laws witb refpect to thefe companies, when 
indpartly that virtue, even in this world, might not confirmed by public authority, are the fame 
not lofe it*, reward. Kclfon*— The inhabitants of as the following, but the article* of their agree- 
Naples have been always very notorious for lead* ment ufaally very different. The capital is coude- 
ing a life of lazinefs and plealure, which I take to fcended on, and divided into a certain number of 
arifeout of the wonderful plenty of their country, (hares, whereof each partner may hold one or ' 
that dock not make labour fo necefiary to them, more, but ii generally reltrifled to a certain num. 
and partly out of the temper of their climate, that ber. Any partner may transfer his lhare; and 
relaxes the fibres. Addijms en Italy. the company muft admit his affignee as a partner. 

* PARTNER, n. /. [from pari.] i. Partaker; The death of the partners has no effect on the 
lharer ; one who has part in any thing ; ailbci- company. No partner can act perfonally in the 
ate.-— affairs of the company; but the execution of their ' 

Hy noble partner, bufiaefs 11 intruded to officers, for whom they are 

You greet witb prefeot guee. Shai. Macbeth, refponlible ; and, when the partners are numer- 

— Thole of the race of Sent were bo partners in ous, the fuperintendency of the officers i* com. 

the unbelieving wort of the tower. Raleigh.— mitted to directors cbofen aiyiually, or at Other 

To undergo appointed limes, by the partner*. 

Myfetf the total crime ; or to accufe 3, Pactnekihif, in occasional joint 

My other fell, the partner-of my life. Milton, trade, ia where two. or more merchants agree 

— Sapor, king of Rerfia, bad an heaven of glafs, to employ a certain fum in trade, and divide the 

which fitting in hi* eftate, he trod upon, calling gain or toftv lb foori as the adventure is brought 

hiiufdf brother to the fun and moon, and partner to an ifTue- This bind of contract being gene- 

with the liars. JPrae&aM. — The foul continues in rally private, the parties concerned are not li> 

her action, till her partner is again qualified to able for -each other. 'If one of them purchafe 

bear ber company. Add-on- 1. One who dances good* on truft, the furnifher, who grants the 

with another. — ' credit through confidence in him alone, has no 

Lead in your ladies every one.; fweet partner, recourfe, in cafe of bis insolvency, againtr. the 

I muft not yet forfake you. Sbak. Henry VIII. other partners. They are only anfwerable for , 

* To Farther, v. a.- [from the noun.) To the lhare of the adventure that belongs to the in- 
juin ; to atlbciate with a partner.— . folvent partner. If it be propofed to carry the 

A lady who adventure farther than originally agreed on, any 

So fair, and faftca'd to an emprey, partner may withdraw big intereu ; and if it can- 

' ' not 

, Dot.zecioyVjOOQlC 

, ■ O 



PAR <Sa> PAR 

not be fepWMea from the other*, tliay Infill that nagentent of their outftaoding affair!) and (hi 

the whole (hall be brought to an iflue. money. arising from them it divided tuoong the 

4. PutTxiRSHir in standing CoMjAniKs partners, ot their rep reftnt stives, when it it reco- 

is. generally eflaUiihed by written contrad be- vered. But as thil may pratrad the final usttk- 

tween the parties, where the ftock, the firm, the ment of the company'! aSairtto a very iuconvc- 

duration, the dtvition of the gain or lofs, and nient length, other method! ate fometunea uTed 

Other circumitanccs, are inferted. , All the part- to bring them to a conclufion, either in coufe- 

oers are generally authorised to fign by the firm quence of the original. contract, or by agreement 

of the company, though this privile^ may be at the timeof difibliition. If 1 partner withdraws, 

confined to ibmji of them by particular agreement, be continue! refponfible. for hia farmer partner* 

The firm ought only to be Tubfcribcd at the till it be publicly known that he hath done lb. 

place where the copartnery « eft bdTi Hied. If a A deed of reparation ;regi ft ered at a public office, 

partner has occafion, when ablest, to write a and announced, in the Gazette, ii GinlcMat pte- 

letter relating to their affairs, he fubferibes hit fumpt km of. fudi notoriety. ... ' 

own. name on account of the company. When _ (1.) PARTON, [Gael. i. t. the bill Jap,] a pa- 

tbc fame partner! carry on. buSneis M different rilh of Scotland, in Kirkcudbright lb ire, 5 milca 

placet, they generally choofe different firm! for fquare, about 13. miles from -the fea. .The air ii 

each. The fignature of each partner is generally ialubrious i^lhe fnrface hilly ; the foil light and 

lent to new corrcfp on dents ; and when a part- Candy; oats, bailey, and potatoes are the chief 

ner ia admitted, although there be no< alteration crop*, About 400 acre! are. under oats. It it 

in the firm, bit fignature is tranfmitted, with an watered bf the-. Dee, the Ken, and 7 fmall lake*, 

intjmation of the chatige in the copartnery to all abounding with tcouts. . The population in 1790, 

their correfpon dealt. Hbufes, that have been long was 409; increafc 13, fioce iiVjj : number of 

cftabbibed, often retain the old firm, though aH hottes, lao ; Iheep, 3000;' goat!, 60; and black, 

the original paitnera be dead oc withdrawn. No cattle 1000- Thete are rttlios, of a Druidical 

partner is liable to make good the loft arihng circle, and 1 artificial mounts. 
from his judging wrong in a cafe where he had (*.)Paktom, a village, in. the above parifta, with 

authority to act. If he exceeds hia power, and a church, half a mile from the conBni of the 

the event prove unfucceisful,. he mult bear the Dee and the Kert. 

lofs ; .but if it prove fuccefsful, the gain belong! (3.) Parto*. a lee port of England, in Cum- 

to the company: yet if he acquaint! the company beriand, 3 miles N. of Whitehaven, 
immediately of what he has done, they muft er- * PARTOOK. Preterite of partake. 
ther acouiefce therein, or leave him the chance of (1.) * PARTRIDGE, *./. [jtrarix, Fr. pertns, 

gain, at well as the rifk of lofs. All debts con. Welfh ; pcrJix, Lat.] A bird of game,— The king 

trifled under the firm of' the company are bind- is come out to feek a flea, at when one doth hunt 

ing on the whole partners, though the money a paMrilgi in the mountains. 1 Sot*, xivi. so. 
was borrowed by one of them for hia private nfe, (3.) Fartrjdgb, is omitbology. See Tkt- 

without the content of the reft. And if a partner rao. The placet partridges delight iji moft arc 1 

exceeds bit power, the other* are nevertbetefs corn fields, efpceially whilft the com grows, for 

obliged to implement his engagements; though under that eovertoey fhelter and breed; and they I 

they may render bim refponiible for hit miibe- are frequented by them when the corn is cut 

haviour. Although the fums to be advanced by down for the grain. In the furrows, amoogft the 

the partners be limited by the contract, if there clots, branches, and long graft, they hide both j 

be a neceflity for railing more money, to anTwer tbemfelves and covey!, which are fomctimes 10 

emergencies or pay ihedebts of tbe company, the in nnmber, nay 30, in a covey. When winter it 

partners mult fumilh what is neeeliary io prtipov- arrived, and the ftubble fields are ploogbed up, 

tioa to their [hares. A debt to a company is not or over-foiled with cattle, partridge! refort into I 

cancelled by the private debts of the partner; the upland meadows,' and lodge in the dead-grals, 

and when a partner becomes info! tent, the com- or tog under bedgety amongft mole-bills, or un- 

panyis not bound for bis debt! beyond the ex* der-tbe roote of trees; fbmetime! they retort to j 

tent of hia (hare. The debts of the company are coppices and under-wooda, efpceially it any corn- j 

preferable, ou tbe company's- effects, to tbe pri- field! are adjacent, or where there is grown broom, | 

vate debts of tbe partners. Partnerlhip is gene- brattles, fern, See. In hameft, when every field is ; 

rally diflblved by the death of a partner? yet, full of men .and cattle, in tbe day they are found 

when there are more partners thao two, it. may, in fallow field! adjoining to corn fields, where ; 

by-agreement, fublilt among tbe furvjvdra. Kume- they lie lurfcing till evening. or morning, and feed 

times it is fUpulated, that, in cafe of the death among the Ibeaves of corn. This bird contributes 

of a partner, his place fhall be luppliod by his la much to the pieafures of tbe.table, that many 

loo, or fome other perfoncondetcendedom The expedients were formerly raufeto take them dlive. 

contract ouyht to 1'pecify the time and mannapin Having deceived the timid creature! by an happy 

which the l'urviving partners lhaii rechoni with imitation of their notes, it was-eafy to entice 

The t-xecutoii of tbe ileceafcd for his Ihare of the ahem ibu> the faare; but their dcttruction it now 

ftock, and/ a ..reafonable time allowed for that aunoft entirely referved for the murderous foot 

purnofe.. When a pnrtnerlhip is difliilvtd, there of the.. {port usW. The- partridges of Abyflioia 

are olteo outllaodiug' debts that cannot be reco are laid to be as. large at caponi. ■■ 
ve«.-d for-a loog'time, and effects that cannot ea- PART RID GEB1ELD, .* fownihip of Ma(Ta- 

lily be difpoleu of. The partnerlhip, though dil- chufetts, in.Berklhire county^ Uii milea W. of 

lutki'd in uIIilt refpeAs, Itill fublills lor tbe ma- Hoflon : containing 1041 citizens, in 179c. 

•PARTURIENT. 
, ;q ,ued^0^lT ! 



PA*. <tf3> PA* 

•PARTURIENT. adj. [paHurir*!, Latin.] A- I* lie as if he niiw drunk. JMol.— The rrnaama- 

tourtd bring With, tion o# the /wrr* to be.curcd is not needful to con- 

(r.)« PARTURITION, n. /..(from fmrturit, turi for it may be done withont (he knowing* of 

Latin. J ■ The ftaae of Ving about, to bring forth, tbe*4rfy wounded. Afcm,— There is nothing U-ft 

— Cotifinnation of partt it required, not only un- to be done by the offended party, but to mum to 

Id the pserio us condition* of birth, but alfo:unto charity. Taylor. — Though there i» a real-diflef- 

the partarkhit or very birth. Brtum, ence tetWOen one man and another, yet t he forty, 

(a.) PatTUftlTiOit a rather the act of bringing who has the advantage, ufiwlly magnifies the me- 

forrh, or being delivered, of young. See Mid- quality. Collier. S. A detachment of foldierri 

wipekt. as. be commanded the party fent thither. 

(i.) * PARTY, a./. I »•*«', Fr."] i. A number . (».) P**tV, «**/. Of orbdongiog to a party ; 
of perfons oatfiedanted by fimilajhy of defigns joined with a party. The authorities above-ijuot- 
or opinion* m oppafitJoa to other*; a faAion.-r- ed by Dr Johnson, (§ t, itf. *■) of " forty 
ft 'ben any of theft com batantt ft rips bis term* of patches, pdftq writers; party • rage, and party dif- 
•-*■■-"»- * «■-•> *»•'-»■ »■:— • champion for patci," arc plainly example* of the oJjraitu upon, 
....... ... i ---jghi ii t to have been ad tlueed-as examples 



asobiguity, 1 ,ibJI think him 
truth, and not the flarre of vara glory or zparty, 
Zor4r:—Tbi* account of ^)r«y patches will ap- 
pear rtnurnbabte t* *hofe, was live at a dttaboe 
from the fashionable -world. AMfiat.i-Party wri- 
ters arc fo fornble.df the fecret virtue of , an in- 

asMtV, that they, uerer meiitfcn .the q-*n_at pillage, » take ptifoners, and 
fcngtb. SprBalor^Th'upartg rage in InBMbaW. 
rr femes lo aggrajratc animofities that reign a- 
if them. Adii) "tm.-r- As bo never leads the " ~ 



tif the w*mfK&jr&ttnv. 

(j.) PA*f V,'1ip a military' fente, (f I, drf. 3.) 
a fmall number of then, horfr, -or foot, ietM upeo 
any kind of duty t at intfc an enemy 's>conntry tb 

fiillaee, let take ptifoners, and to oblige the a aaa a . 
r-y to come under contribution. Parties are often 
fetit odLtO view the road*' and w'aya, get'infettf. 
pence, feek forage; to reconnoitre, or amufe tfae 
TeiGrtioa into tbenoknee, and rage of porty&t- enemy upon 1 match; they are- ilfo freoueatly 
pntes, I'tiftened to him, with pleafure. Tatler^r- fent upon the flAHkC nf an' amtiy or regiment, to < 
Bitinon tantween thofe:of the, fime ^wMjji.eapofe* dHcovrr the tflertiy If near, and prevent furprife or 
thein to-lamb; *Deiniea..ft^w.TrrTlie: moA violehtj atnbufcade. '*■ ■ 7 ■ 

»flr/7-™eii;are.fuch,Lj^ri« the conduct of: their (4.) pAHTV, in heraldry. See Parti- 
rives, .have difcovered ,le»ft rVnfe»f,religiftn or • Pasty- col okisriD. adj. [(Jury, and calamity 
Morality. Szsifr. is^Qneof t»«» IttipuMa.— fWhen Having direrffty of colours.— 
yun arr hcariog a n>aj»ri''beiwoei!^crft»:aml'p«rlj>, ' The iulfomeewe*. ■ 

if pinched- witti'the efcelicfc, you; imske. facta Irfce Then conceiving, dirt, in yeaning timet 
tntnumera,- and-'dtftaifs' the cMtroverfy moreea. - Fall fwr-ty- cokiw d lamb s. Si>ak. Mercb.ofYm. 



linjrled by your hearing : all tie p*ac_'you -make 
is/'iheircaufe, iatllling-both ^Brfu-/.knfl«res. Ebmt. 
—The cause o* both .fartki fhall come before 
the judge*. .Efc3^w}uaii9.-*lf'a bifhop lie a ^ortr 
to a .fait . and excommanicatt* bis adrarfary ; 
fudi escommorncadon ,lhall not -bar his- actver. 
firy from nfa aclioaai vfjlige. 3. Doe concerned 
in any affair.— 1 11' . . 

FreeM- and etutwMUwraV lot a party » 
The ddujei-af the Uufi ■ ■■ Shot. 

I <to fufoeft thfaitrtm 
To bea/artyinlhia iagury. 
«. Side; perfeni engaged agaraft each otherv 
The peace bothpartiei want ia like to bifti 



Sbat. 



c.Canfe; Bdt/— .. 

JBgkr cane ia, <t» make their party [rood. Btji. 
6. A fdeft aflearbry.— - raan 

I'llhjyra^arif at the Bedford-head. . J>opr. otta perfrm , 
—If the clergy would a little ttudy the arts of *. * PatTv-wavi.. 
cinivcrfatkio, they ijrtight be welcome at every 
party. Swift. i> PaKicUlar per&n ; a perfon dif- 
tinct from, or oppofed to another- — Shewaa Sop- 
ped with a -number of trees, fo tbickly placed to- 
gether, that Ate 1 was afraid the flrouM, with rufh- 
ing throuttb, flop the- fpeech of the lamentable 



-The leopard 1 wan valuing hirnlelf upon the lilitrt 
of-his*«r/»-*«/«iirerffkiti. ZjBjrrange, — 

Both gin with gold, and clad in 'paHj-im- 

loured cloth. ■' Dryde*. 

-Cfinftrain'd him in a bird) and made him fly 
With party-nlem-' J plumes athatterirlgpie. 

—I looked with as much pleafure upon the little 
party-colptmi aiTembly, at upon a bed of tulips. 
Sprinter.— 

■ Nee is it bard to beautify each mauth 

With files of -a«v>.M/sar'J frufl*."- PUS**. 
Four knaves in garb fuccinrt, a truRy band, 

And partg-talovrtd troops, a (hiding' train, 

Braw forth acombat on the velvet plain. Pope. 

• Pa»ty-Jurt. n.f. [In law! AjtUyln foine 
trials, half foretgnera arid half nativtW. . 

n.f. [party *nd «iM,] A ftiftl. 



/ t party and mail.') Wall 
that feparates one houfe from the next.— 'Tis ab 
ill cuftom among bricklayers to work op a whole 
ftory of the partywalL, before they work up the 
fronts. Mo*. 
(t.) PARU, in Ichthyology, a very lingular A- 
" ' broad, flat f and « 



party. SidiMyj— The miniSer of juftice mar, for very thick, and ul'u ally of about 5 or 6 inches 

publick example, virtuoufiy will the execution of long, and more than 4 broad. It baa fix fins, one 

that party Whole pardosi another, for coufanguini- large attd long, one on the back, and another 00 

tv't fake, aa vtrtuouQy may defire. Hooker*— tf the the belly behind the anus ; each of there reaches 

jury found, that the party Qain was of BnglHh to the tail, and has towards the end a long firing 

race, it bid been adjudged felony. Davici. — or cord, made of a tingle filament, that on the 

a//*' - ™ ■•-■■■■ 



e partg bind the Bill* & baa ilfc two fins of two fingers 
breadth 



PAR (64) PAH. 

breadth, long and one broad; and- two others on no»n of the head a' fine blue; from tie feillto 

the belly, which are very narrow ; its- head is the eyea is a black line ; the forehead and cheek, 

fiiull, and its mouth elevated and (null, and fur- white; the back of a yeBowifh green ; the lower 

uifhed with fmall teeth ; it) fcales are of a mode- fide of the body yellow ; the wing* and tail bine, 

rate frie, and are half black- and half yellow, fa that the former marked tranfverfety with a white bar; 

the liih appear! of a black colour, variegated the. legs of a lead colour. They frequent, gardens; 

with yellow half moons ; its gills, and the begin- and do great injury to fruit trees, by bruiting tbe 

ding of ita fins, are alfo yellow ; and it baa, on tender buds in fearcb of the infects which lie un- 

ear.b fide near the bead, a yellow fpot ; it it eat- der them. They breed in hole* of wait*, and lay 

able. n or 14 egg*. 

(i.) Paru, in geography, a fort of Brazil, in ' 3. Parus candatus, lit long-tailed titmovfe, is 

Para, on the N. banks of the Amazon. Lou. 53. about 5} inches long, and 7 inches broad. The bill 

jo.VVi Lat.f. jo. S. is black, very thick and convex, differing from all 

PARVICH, an ifland near Dalmatia, and one other* of this gena*. The top of the head, from 

of the beft peopled and moil con lid era ble of thofe the bill to the hind part, is white, miied with a 

which are under the jurifdidionnf Sebenico. It few dark grey feathers : this bed of white, is cu- 

contains a great number of hfhennen, and perfona tirely surrounded with a broad ftroke i>f Mack ; 

who follow, agriculture. It contains many Ro- which, riling on each fide of the upper mandible, 

man antiquities, which fhow that it was a Roman pafles over each eye, unites at the hind part of the 

. ilation. It Teems to be among the! number of head, and continues along the middle of the bade 

thole iflaodl whioh PHny calls Crladuflc; which is to the rump. The feathers on each fide of this 

ffuppoied to be an inverfion of J|e*.iaJ.(, which black ftroke are of 1 purplifh red, warethofe ini- 

.mttn* iii-famdinx or noijj. It is not large* but it mediately incumbent on the tail. Tbe tail is the 

-it extremely fertile* Every product fucceedt in longed, in proportion to tbe bulk, ofany Britifh 

perfection there; particularly vines, olives, mul- bird, being in length three inches, the form not 

berry trees, and -fruits. The afpect of Ibis ifland unlike that of a magpie, confining of n feathers 

is very pleafaat at a diltance. -The name Parvich of unequal lengths, the mfddlemofr tbe langeft, 

is derived from its being the firji ifland met with thofe on each fide growing gradually fhorter. 

on going out of the harbour of Stbenicoi for the Thefe birds are often fern palling through our gar- 

Illyrie word parvi figmfies >■_/!. - dens, going- from one tree to another, as rf in ibeir 

' PAKV1CHIO, an ifland on tbe coaft of Dalma- road to fume otherplaee, never nuking any halt. 

tia, S. of Veh'a, one of the Quarmaro illands. It They make their nefts with great, elegance, of an 

has a harbour called Duhaz.. ■ ova! fhapc, and about eight inehea -deep, having 

PPARV1S. n. /. [Fr.] A churcb-or church- near the upper end a hole for admifuon. Theex- 

porch: applied to the mooting* or law-difpute* temal mati- rials are moffes and hchent corioufly 

among young (tudents in the inns of courts, and Interwoven with wool. On the infide it is very 

alfo to that dtfpulation at Oxford, called iifeuta- warmly lined with- 1 thick bed of feathers. The 

.lis inparvu. Bailey. female lays from 10 to f? egg*. The young fol- 

• PAHV1TUDE. n. / [from parvn, Latin.] low their parent 1 the whole winter; and, rrom the 
Littleoefs; minuteiwfs. Not utrd,- The little ones flimnefs of their bodies, and great length of tail, 
of fdrititudt cannot reach to the fame floor with appear, while flying, like as many darts cutting tbe 
them. GhimilU. air. See Plate CCLXVIII. 

* PARVTTY. ■./ (from parvm, Lat.] Little. 4. Parus cwuirttv 9, tbtrrtJMtitmeuft, weighs 
nefs.j minutenefs. Not ufed,— What are thefe, for ij pennyweight; the bill is black with a fpot of 
finenefs and pamitj, to thofe minute animalcula the fame colour above it ; all tbe upper part of 
difcovered in pepper- water i Raj- the body grey; the neck and under parts are 

PARULIDES, in furgery, tumours and inflam- white, with a faint tincture of red, which is deep- 

nations of the gums, commonly called gum iefli. eft juft below the wings. Tbe legs are of a lead 

They are to be treated with difcutiems like other .colour. It erects its crown feathers into a creft. 

ioflaramatory tumours. They inhabit the warm parts of North America ; 

PARUS, the Titmouse, in ornithology, a ge- .'and frequent foreu- trees feeding upon- infca*. 
nua belonging to the order of pa Seres. Tbe bill t. Paxus major, the great tkmmtfi, baa the 

is very entire, covered at tbe bafis with hairs; toe head and throat black, the cheeks white, the 

'tongue ii, truncated and hairy. There arc 14 back green; the belly ycllowifli green, divided 

fpectei 1 of which the mod remarkable are thefe : in tbe middle by a line, of black- which extend* to 

1. Parcs Biarmicus, tbe bearded titmoufe, has the -sent ; the rump a bluifh grey, tbe legs of a 

a ftiorU ftrong, and very convex bill, of box co- lead colour, the toes divided to the very origin, 

lour ; tbe head of a fine grey ;. the chin and throat and the back toe very large and ftrong. This fpe- 

-whitc ; tbe middle of the bread Beth-coloured ; des fometimea vifit our gardens ; but for tbe moft 

the fides and thighs of a pale orange; the hind part inhabit woods where they build in hollow 

part of the neck and back of orange bay ; the tail trees, laying about ten eggs. They feed on infects, 

is two inches and three quarters long; the legs of which they find in the nark of trees. Id fpring- 

a deep fliining black. The female wants tbe flefh- they do a great deal of mifchief by picking off the 

colour on tbe bread, and a triangular tuff of black tender buds of the fruit trees. Like woodpeck- 

feathera 00 each fide the bill which adorn the male, era they are perpetually running up and down 

.- .■.._,:__„_„.., -. -ft Of food. ""■' •■---•■ — 



They are found in marfhy places. (he bodies of treeain queft of food. This fpecies 

1. Parus qmtlulivs, the blue titixmfciizierj has three diet " 
beautiful bird. Tbe bill it fhort *ud dufty ; the in February. 



*■*««% 



PAS ( 65 ) r 'A "S 

6. PilCJ FlnnuiOl, tke rbuiz, or J mall (jO'Pas Tie Calais', or StkAits Of CltArJ. 
fiimtafi. It la often found in Lithuania. Mr See Caeais, N° 4. ; alfo Dover, N° 9. 

Cok, in hit Travel! through Poland, gives the PASAICK, a large river of New Jcrtey, which 
following account of thil little animal. " The rifes in Morris county, ryns ri miles SB. then 
wondrous ftrachtre of its pendent ne* induced me turns NE. and receive) "a large fappty df waters 
to pre an engraving of both that and the birds from the rivers Romopack, King wood, and Pe- 
themCHTet. (See Plate »68.) They are the fmalleft gunnock ; then rurmirnj NE. paries by the town 
fpecies of titmice. The head la »f a pale bluifh of Patterfon, over the Little and Great Falls; af- 
sfli colour; the fore part of the neck and the ter which it runs feyeral miles 5E. and. 8. and 
breaft, tinged, with red; the belly white; wings fall* into Newark bay, where its mouth is. 400 
black; back and rump of a yellowilh ruft co- yards broad. 1 It is navigable 10 miles, up to the 
lour; quill feathers cinereous, with the exterior Great Falls, where it is 40 yard* broad, and falls 
fide* whitej the tail ruft- coloured. The male over a rock So feet perpendicular. iVre is a 
ii Angularly diftinguifhed from the female by a bridge over this river 40 feet long. ' 
pair of black pointed whifkers. Its neft is in PASAKAMEN1TZ, a town of Bohemia, In 
the lhape of a long purfe, which it forms with Chnidim: 8 miles WNW. of Potitzka. 
amazing art, by interweaving down, gofl"amer, PASANGA, an ifland in the E. Indian Ocean ; 
and minute fibres, in a clofe and compact manner, near the W. coaft of Sumatra. Lat. y. to. S. 
and then lining the mfide with down alone, fo PASARQADA, a town of Perfia, near Cara- 
as to nuke a fnug and warm lodge for its young mania, founded by Cyrus the Great, on the fput 
brood. The entrance is at the fide, fmall, and where he conquered Aftyages. The kings of 
round, with its edge more ftrongly marked than Perfia were afterwards crowned in it, Straio, Ij. 
the reft of this curious fabric: the bird, attm- Plm. viii, 16. Herod. 1, lit. 
tire to the prefervation of its eggs or little ones PASARGADJB, one of the nobleft families of 
from noxious animals, fufpends it at the leffer ancient Perfia. The Achewbfides were a tribe 
end to the extremity of the flender twigs of a of it. 

willow or fome other tree, over a river. Con- [i.l PA3CAGOOLA, or7atownof WeftTld. 
trary to the cuftom of titmice, it lays only fonr (t.j PASCAGOtTLA, J" da - ^n- ". 3$. 
or five eggs: poflibly Providence hath ordained W. Lat. 30. 30. N. 

this fcanttnefs of egg* to the remiz, becaufe by (1.) Pascagoula, a river, of CeOrgia, which , 
the Angular inftincf. imparted to it, it is enabled rues through W. Florida, partes the above town, 
tofecureits young much more effectually from to which it gives name, and fall* into the Gulf qf 
deftrocTiou, than the other fpecies, which are very . Mexico, by fevcral mouths, which occupy a fpace 
proline." of near 4 mites ; which a one continued bed df 

7. Pakus^irCiUMhUj, the yetivw rump, is oyfter (hells. It Is navigable above ijo miles, 
found in Virginia ; and ia diftingniffied by a yel- ((.) PASCAL, Stephen, a French gentleman,' of 
low fpot on its rump. All the reft "f the feathers an ancient family, bofn in ijflg. fie was prep- 
are brown, with a (light tincture of green. They dent 0^ the court of aids in Auvergne ; be was a 
run about the bodies of trees, and feed on infects, vety learned man, an able mathematician, and t 
which they pick from the crevicci of the bark. friend of Defcartes. Having an extra on 'nr- y 

PARUTA, Paul, a noble Venetian, born in tendernefa for his only fon, he quitted his office 

1540; diftinguifhed for his learning, and know- "in his province, and went and frttled at Paris in 

ledge as a ftatefman. He filled feveral high offi- 1631, that he might be quite at leifure for tie 

ces ; was sent on feveral embaflles ; was appoint- inftruction of him ; and Blaife never had any 

ed governor of Brefcia, and procurator of St mailer but his father. 

Mark; in all which, he fltowed great abilities and (a.) Pascal, Blaife, one of the greateft genj. 

probity. He wrote, 1. Nutes upon Tacitua: *. ufes, and belt writers France haa produced, waa 

Political- Difcourfcs: 3 . A Trcatife of the Perfec- born at Clermont in Auvergne, in- 1613. From 

tion of the Political Life: 4. A Hiftory of Venice, his infancy he gave proofs' 0? a very extraordinary 

from r JJ3 to 157s, with the War of Cyprus; all capacity. Hia father had kept| ail mathematical 

in Italian. He died in 1598. boohs out of his wayj left they fheuld interrupt 

PAR WAN, a town of Cabul, 63 miles NW. of his'fltidy pf the languages; but, by intuition 

Cabul. aloce, he advanced confU!erably in the kuow- 

PARWTS, a town of Tirol, 18 miles WNW. letlge of mathematics, without knowing a (ingle 

of Infpruck. term. He underflood Euclid's Elements as foon 

PARYSATIS, an infamous Perfian Queen, wife as he calt his eyea upon them. At 16 years of 

of Darius Notbus, and mother of Artaxerxes age, he wrote A Treatifi of Came StBleni, which 

Mncmon and Cyrus the younger. Her partiality was accounted, by the molt learned, a mighty 

for Cyrus led her to commit the greatcft injuftice effort of genius. At 19, he contrived an admirable 

and barbarities; and flie poifoned Statira, the arithmetical machine, which would have done 

Wifeof Artaxerexes. See Persia. ' credit to any man verfed in fctence. About thil 

(1.) * PAS. n.f, [French.! Precedence; right time his health became impaired, and he was in 

of going foremnft.— When (he came into any full confequence obliged to fufipend hia labours for 4 

afTembly, flie would riot yield the^w to the belt years. In bis 33d year, having feen Torricelli's 

of them; Arbutbnot. experiment refpecting a vacuum and the weiglit 

(1.) Pas, in geography, a town of France, in of the air, he turned his thoughts towards thefe 
the dep. of the Straits of Calais ; 6 miles E. of objects ; and he publifhed the refult of a variety 

D-ulcru, and 1 ■■{ SW. of Aim. of experiments, in two fmall treatifce, the one 

Voi. XVII. Pj»t L , ,.I Wtitltd 



PAS (66 ) PAS 

untitled, A Dijertatioa on the Equilibrium tf Li- PASIPHAB, in fabulous biftory, daughter of 
anon ,- and the other. An Bffay. a* the Weight af Apollo, by Prrfeia, and wife of Minos king of 
the Atmafpbtri. Thefe labours procured him fo Crete, and mnther of the MinqtuOT. StvDjtDi- 
much reputation, that the great eft mathematician a ms,. N° 1, Minos II, and Minotaur. 
and philofophers of the age confulted him about PASITANO, a Tea port town of Naplca, on 
fuch difficulties as they could not folre. But big the bay of Salerno, a few miles W. of Amilii; 
career, though brilliant,. Was ordained to be but famous for being the birth place of Flavin* Bern- 
ihort. His health declined fu rapidly, that he was bo, or Gioia, tbe inventor of the Mariner's Cop- 
obliged to renounce all fevere itudy, and betook pais. Set Bfm so, 'N° i. 
himfelf to devotion, which he carried to fuch a PASITHEA. one of tbc three Grace), 
miftaken degree, at to inflict on himfelf the mult PASI TIGRIS, a name of the Tresis. 
fevere tortures. He died at Paris 16G1. aged 39 PASKA, a town of Africa, in the kingdom of 
years. Bcfidea the works above mentioned, he Fonia, where the kini; keeps a garrifon. Ins fur- 
wrote Lettre'i Prwmtialci, fatirizing the Jefuits, rottnded n-ith 6 rows of pilifadoes. 
and fame religious pieces. His works were col- PAS MAN, an illand near the coaft of D.iima- 
lccled by BoiTu, in 5 vol*. Stvo. -. tia.; iS miles long, and 3 broad; containing 7 
PASCATAQUA. See Pi scat AQUA, villages, a convent mils centre. »nd a monsfterr 
[1.) * PASCr-IAL.a^. [pa/cal, French; pafiba- on its E. point. Jt abounds with vittee and 
lis, Latin ] t. Relating to the paflbver. *. Re- olives, and the people have oil and wine, &c. in 
lating to Eafter. plenty, 
(*.) Pasch*l. SeePAasoVEA and Eastea. PASOMDSO. a lake of Thibet, 48 miles "> 
PASCOMAYO, a fea port town of Peru, in circumference. Lob. iis. 10. E. Ferro. Lat. so. 
the 'province of Sana, aod bifbopric t)f Truxillo. 4*. N. 

PASCUAR, orPAsrjuaao, a town of Mexico, PASOR, Matthias, a learned German divine 

in Mechoicsn; 18 miles SW. of Mechoacan. of the 17th century, born at Herborne, in Weft- 

PAS-EP-A, the chief of the Lamas, particu- phalia. Ho became profeffor of divinity at Cto- 

larly eminent for having invented characters for ningen, and afterwards of mathematics at Heidel- 

trie Moguls. He was much eftecmed by the Chi- burg. On the itwafion of the Palatinate, lie came 

nefe. There is {till at Pekin a mau or temple! over to England, and read lecture* at Oxford, on 

built in honour of Paf-ep-s in the time of the Hebrew and mathematics*, and was afterwards 

Mogul emperors. He died in 1179. appointed profeffor of oriental languages in that 

PASF.WALK, a town of Poraerania, on the univerfity. He died in j6j8. ■ 

tTcker, by which it exports good*; belonging to PASPALUM, in botany, agenusof tbedigynia 

Pruflia. It has iron works, and lies 31 miles W. order, belonging to tbetriandria clafs of plant*; 

Of Old Stettin, and 66 SSE. of Stralfund. Lon. < and in the natural method ranking muter the 4<h 

" *" " " order, Oramina. 



31. 43. E. Feno. Lai. $3. 17. N. 

* PASH. ■./. [fax, Spanifh, a kifo.] A face. 



Hattmer.— 

■ Thou want'ft a rough pajh. Sbal. fruits. 

"* To Pas h. v. a. [feefat, Dutch.] To ftrike ; (1.) Pa jp ay a, a town in the above province, 

tocrufh.— * iso miles from the city of Plata- 

1*11 f>a/k him o'er the face. Shai. PASQ.UA, a town of Mexico, in New Galicil, 

Thy cunning engines have with labour rais'd at the mouth of a river, on the N. Pacific Ocean ; 

' My heavy haneer, like a mighty weight, * j miles SE. of Cape Corieqtas, And 310 W. ol 

To fall and fiajh thee dead. Dryden. Mexico J 

PASIGRAPHY, b./ [from n«, all or whole, PASQUARO. -See Pascuaa. 

and ytata, to write,!. " the art of writing on any PASQUATAQUA. See PiscATAQoA. 

fubject fo as to be underitood by all nations.'' (t.) * PASQUE-FLOWER, a. /. [jmlfatiik. 

Schemes of Uhiveasal Character.*, to aitfwer Lat.] A flower. Mill. 

this pnrpofc have been propofed by different in- (».) Pasqu S-FLOwet. See Abkhoux, $ II, 

feoious men • (See Character, J II, i. N° 5.) HI. 

ut the practicability, of introducing fuch charac- PASQUETANK. See Pasquotanx. 

ters to univerfal ule, is generally doubted. "In (i,) PASQU1ER, Stephen, a learned French 

France," (fays the learned Dr Gleig,) " where lawyer, poet and hiftorian, born at Paris in ijiK- 

every thing is admired thatis new, and every va- He became an advocate in parliament, afterward* 

gary of a pretended philofopher thought practi- cotinfellor, and at laft advocate general, under 

cable, a propofal has been made to introduce one Henry III. all of which be filled with Abilities aid 

univerfal language into the world, conftructed by reputation. His works, which were pttbliflted 

a few metaphyQcians on the laws of human together, confift of Letters, Inquiries, Poems, 

thought. And to this language, in its written Portraits, Epigrams, Epitaphs, &c. His poem, 

form, is to be given the name of Pajfigrapbt" entitled Pace, occafio-ned by bis abfcrving a Ilea 

(So the Dr fpells it.) " Such readers as think on the breaft of the learned Catherine De Roches, 

this idle dream worthy their attention, (which is made no fmall noife. He died at Paris, Aug. 31. 

far from being the cafe with us,) wilf find Tome 1615, aged 87. 

ingenious thoughts on the hiftoty of a Philofo- (a— 4-) Pasquisr, Theodore, Nicolas, and 

phical Language, in the ad vol. of Nickalfon'i Guy, fons of the preceeding, were alio eminent 

Joarmai tf Natural Pbilofopbj, && Enc. Brit, for learning. Theodore was colleague and fuc- 

ceiTor to his father as advocate- general ; Guy was 

->.a,iI auditor 



PAS 



auditor of accounts, and Nicolas wai matter of 
raquefli. He publilhed Letters, containing dif- 
conrte* upon the occurrences in France, in the 
reigns of Henry IV. and Lewi* XIII. 

PASQUIL. See Pasquinade, $ I. 

PASQUIMANS. See Pakquimaks. 

(i.) PASQU1N, a mutilated ftatueat 'Rarnt, in a 
comer of the palace of the Urlini. Its takes its 
name from a cooler of that city, called Pafqai*, 
fjnioui for his fneer* and gibes, and who divert- 
ed himfelf by palling hia jokes on all that went 
through that ftreet. After hit death, as tbey were 
digging up the pavement before his door) thar 
found in the earth the ftatue of an ancient gladi- 
ator, well cut, but maimed and half fpoiled : this 
they let up in the place where it wag found, and 
by common content named it Pafqai*. Since 
that time all fatirc* are attributed to that figure ; 
and are either put into ita mouth, or pafted upon 
it, a> if they were written byPafqui 



C m > 



PAS 



.When evil deedi have their permiffive^/i, ■ 
And not the punilhtnent. ' Shai. 

Give quiet pafi 
Through your dominions. Shai. 

If ever fate would fign mj pafi, delaid 
It Should be now no mote. Chapman. ' 

— A gentleman had a pafi to go beyond the feat. 
Clare*. 4. An order by which vagrant* or impo- 
tent perlbni are fent to their place of abode. $. 
Pud ; thruft io fencing. — 

'Tit dangerous whan the bafer nature cornea 
Between the pafi and fell iflcenied point! 
Of mighty oppolitet. Shai. 

—The king hath laid, that in ■ dozen pajjri be- 
tween- you and htm, he (hall not exceed you three 
hits. Shai.— 

With Teeming innocence the crowd begtiil'd.j 

But nude the defperate p ajfis, when he ftnil'd. 

Diyden. 

State; condition.— To what a pafi are our 



and tbefe are addreffed by Patquin 10 Marforio, minds brought, that, from the right line of vir- 

another ftatue at Rome. When Marforio la attack, tue, are wryed to thefe crooked Ihifta ! Sidney.— 

id, Palquin defends him ; and when Pafquin is at- After King Henry united the role*, they laboured 

ticked, Marforio affiltt him in hia turn; that is, the to reduce both Englifh and Irifh, which work, to 

people makelhe (latum fpcakjuft what they pleafe. what pafi and perfection it was brought, in queen 

(iO* Pasquin, PiSQOiL. ) n. f. [from pafi Elizabeth's reign, hath been declared. Daviet't 

(1.)* PASQUINADE. J quote, a ftatue -at State of Ireland.— 

Rome, to which they affix any lampoon or paper Thou did'ft to this faffs, my affections more, 

of latirical obfervation.] A lampoon. — He never Chapman. 

vilutd any pa/quill that were dropped up and — I am now brought to fuch pafii that I can fee 

down HavftL— The pafquili, lampoons, and rli- nothing at all. L'Efirangt.— Matters have been 

Ms, we meet with. now. a- Jays, are a fort of play- brought to this pafi, that if one among a man's 

ing with the four and twenty tetters, without tons had any hlcmifli, he laid him afide for the 

lenfe, truth, or wit. Toiler. _ miniftry. South. 

dO j** Pasquinade i* a fatiricAl libel fattened (1 ) A Pass, in a military fenfe, is a (trait and 

to the' ftatue of Pabquin : thefe are commonly difficult paffage, which fhuta up the entrance into 
fliort, ■ witty, and pointed; and from hence the 



tarn has been applied to all lampoons of the 
fame caft. 

Ii.) PASQUOTANK, a county of N. Carolina, 
in Eden ton diftrict ; bounded on (he N. by Cum- communicated to the 
den, E. by Currituck, 8. by Albemarle Sound, mouth to mouth. 
and W. by Parqnimans county. In 1795, it con- 
tained 3874 citizens, and 1613 (laves. A county 
court is held at the court -houfr the ill Monday 
in March, June, September, and December . 

(a.) Pasquotank, a river of N. Carolina, 
which rife* in Great Difraal Swamp, and running 
Sill S. by W. and then SE. panes Hertford, and 
ulls into Albemarle Sound. 

( 1 .) * PASS, n./, [from the verb.} 1 . A narrow 



(3.) Pass. See Passado, £ 1. 
UOPass Parole, in military j flairs, a com- 
mand given at the head of an army, and thence 
by paffing it from 



(l.)*To Pass. v. nv [pafer, French; paffus, 
a Hep, Latin.] 1. To go ; to move from .one 
place to another; to be progrrBive. Commonly 
with fome particle.— 

Tell him bis long trouble \t faffing 
Out of this world. Sbai. 

— If I have found favour in thy fight, pafi not 
avuaj from tby fervant. Gcntjii.—- WhHe my glory 
ffijfetb by, I will pnt thee in a clift of the rock, 
and will cover thee, while I pafi by. Exodta xxxiii. 
The ftraight pafi was damm'd %%.— Tbua will I cut off him .that pajjeth out, and 

With dead men. Sbai. him that returneth. Ezeiiel uxv. 7.— This heap 

— It would be eafy to defend the pojjes into the and this pillar be witnefs, that I will not pafi over 
whole country, that the king's army Ihould never to thee, and that thou (ball not pafi over it and 
be able to enter. Ciar — Truth is a ftrong hold, this pillar unto me for harm. Genefii xxxi. j*<— 
and diligence is properly the underftanding'e lay- An idea of motion not faffing on, is no better than 
in? liege to it ; fo that it muft be perpetually ob- an idea of motion at reft. Leeie.— 
ferviag all the avennea and pa£h> to it. South. 3. -He felt their fleeces as they pafi' A along. Ptpt. 

Paffage ; road. — The Tynans had no pafi to the — If the caufe be viOble, we flop at the inftra- 
Red Sea. but through the territory ot Solomon, ment, and feldom pafi m to him that directed it. 
Raleigh. — Woke'i Prep, fir Death. 1. To go ; to make 

Pity tempts the pafi. - Dryden. away. — 

> A permilaou to go or come any where. — They Her face, her hindcwere torn 

ftall protect all that come in, and fend them to With faffing throagh the brakes, 
the lord deputy, with their fife conduit or pafi, 3. To make a change from one thing to another, 
m be at hi* ditpontion. Spenfer.-~ —Others, diffatiified with what they have, and 

It " ,,| .not 



PAS- ( «» ). PAS. 

not triifling to thofe innocent vrape of getting Well we may not p aft upen mVttfe, 

mure, fall to others, indwj from juft to unjuit. Without the form of juftice. jlW. 

Temple. 4. To vanifh j la be lo^.-f- ao. To be fupremety excellent^— 

Beauty's a charm, but foon toe charm will Sir HwBibKkttftfig worth, 

pafi. y Bryden. The manner how he Allied forth. UattmvoaJ. 

5. To be fpcnt j to go away progre (lively.— The 11. To thruft ; to ra.ike a pufli ia fencing. — 

time, when the thing exifted, is the idea of.that To fcetbee fight, to fee-thee/*/* thy piir-flo. 

fjjace of duration, which puffed between fome fix- Sbek 

cd period and the being of that thing. Lech.— They Ufh, they foin, they pafi, they flrive to 

Orte who fixes hit thoughts very intently on one bore 

thing, fo as to take but little notice of the fuccef- Their corflets. Drjdtx. 

lion of ideas that pafi in his mind, whilll he is aa. To omit. — 

taken up with that earned contemplation, lets flip She would not play, yet rouft not pafi. 
our of his account a good part of that duration, Prior. 
«ad thinks that time fhorter than it is. Luke, i. 13. To go through the alimentary duct.— Sub- 
To be at an end ; to be over. — fiancee hard cannot be difJblved, but they will 
Eager Romans, ere all rhefVrete fafi, paj'i ; but fuch whofe tenacity exceeds the pow- 
Did let too foon the facred, eagle fly. Dryaen. era of digeftion, will neither pafs nor be con virt- 
7. To die j to pafs from the prefent life to ano- ed into aliment. Artutkiat. «4- To be in * to- 
ther Hate. — , lerable ftate,— A middling fort of man was left 
The pangs of death do make him grin; well enough to pafi by his father. L'Kfiran^e. 
Diftitrb him not, let him pafi peaceably. Sbai. it.. To Pass away. To be loft ; to glide on .— 
S. To be changed by regular gradation.— Intiam- Defining the foul to be a fubftance that a. way* 
mitions are tranflated from other pjartt to the thinks, can ferve but to make many men fuipect, 
lungs ; a pleurify ealily pofftth into a peripneu- that they have no fouls at all, fir.ee they find a 
rneny. Arbutbnai. 9. To go beyond bounds, good part of their livee pafs away without thiuk- 
Obfolete.— Why this paps, Mr Ford :— you are ing. Lecke. 16. To Pass away. To vanifh. 
not to go loofe any longer. SAai. 10. To be in (a.) • To Pass. v. a. 1. To go beyond. — As 
any Hate. — I will caufe yon to pofi under the rod. it is advantageable to a phyfician to be called to 
Ezetiel, XX. 37. II. To be enacted.— Many of the cure of a declining difeaies; foit is for a com- 
the nobility (poke in parliament againft thole msnder to fupprefs a fedition which bag pajfed 
things which were molt grateful to bis majelly, the height, tiayviard. a. To go through: as, 
and which ftill/MriEif. Clarendon.— Neither of thefc the hort'e pa§cd the river. 3. To fpend; to live 
hillihavc yet paged the houfe of Commune. Swift, through.— Were 1 not allured he was removed 
it.. To be effected ; to exift. Unlefs this may be to advantage, I ihoutd pafs my time extremely ill 
thought a noun with the article fuppreffed, and without him. Collier. — 

be explained thus : it came to the pafs that. — I You know in what deluding joys we pafi 

have heard it enquired, bow it might be brought The night that was by heav'n decreed our laft. 

topafl that the church fiiould everywhere have Hrydem, 

able preachers. Hooker. — When the cafe required — We have examples of (uch,Mpafi moft of tbeir 

di Simulation, if they ufe it, it came to pafs that nights without dreaming. Lock*. — 

the former opinion of their good faith made them The people, free from cares, ferene and gay, 

almoft invifi ble. Bonn. 13. To gain reception ; Pafs all their mild untroubled hours away, 

tcv become current; as, Ihia oioueywill not pafi. - , Mdifon. 

—That trick, faid (lie, will not pafi twice. Audi. — A lady, who had paffed the winter at Loudon 

bras. — Though frauds may pafs upon men, they with her hufband, entered tlte congregation. Ad- 

are as open a* the light to him that fearches the d\ftm. 4. To impart to any thing the power of 

heart. L'Bfirangt.— Their excellencies will not moving.— Dr Thurfton thinks the principal ulc of 

pafs for fuch ia the opinion of the learned. Drjd. infpiration to be, to move, or pafi the blood from 

— Falfe eloquence pqffitb only where true is not the right to the left ventricle or the heart. Der- 

ufiderftood. Ft/ton. — The groffeft fuppofitions bam. 5. To carry haflily.— I had only time to 

pafi upon them. Swift. 14- To be praclifed art- pafi my eye over the medals, Addifoa. 6, To 

fialiy or fuccefsfully, — transfer to another proprietor. — 

This practice bath mofl fbrewdly pafi upon He that will pafi his land, 

thee. Shal-. As I have mine, may fet his band 

15, To be regarded as good or ill.— This won't Aodjicart unto this deed. Herbert, 

pafi for a fault in him, till 'tis proved one in us. 7. To flrain ; to percolate.— They fpeak or f e . 

AtUrbury. 16. To occur; to be. t ran failed. — If vering wine from water, faffing it through ivy 

we would judge of the nature of fpirits, we mult wood. Baton. B. To vent ; to pronounce. — How 

ham recoork: to our own confeioufntfs of what many thoufands take opon them to pafi their 

pnfit within our own mind. H'att. 17- To Ijl- cenfures. on the pcrfonal actiuni of Other*! Watts, 

(! one. —provided that no indirect act pafi upon —They will commend the work in general, but 

thno to defile them. Tayhr. it. To heed ; to pafi fo many fly remarks upon it afterwards, ai 

regard. Not In ufe.— Ijiall deftroy all their cold praifea. Watts. 9. To 

As for tbefe ulken-coatcd Haves, I^kr/i not. utiur cvremOBiovfly. Many of the lords, and 

i'A*v. fume of the commons, pejfid foote compliment 1 

if. To- determine ficallys to judge capita)i](.'— to, the two lords. Clarendon. 10. To utter fo. 

lemnly 

, ; ,„ca, Google 



T AS (.. G9' ) : F £ S' 

J™»6iy M jadieisfltw&sl *" no***"* tt*re. injury to+fireK pmfa tf ticre in Atmce. Bumw. 
prudeac, rlttardt, and pious, 10 fekrett war **n 14. To Pass over. To omit-; to let go unre- 
ways, than to pafi fnkebae an other ttten. JAwt- garded.— 

"hj'^Hc ?d> hto ptttnTrfe, and was as good at Better to fafi him o'rr, thm to relate 

bit word. L'Egraxg*. 11. 'iattuJiftnit ( to pro- > Thecaufe I have jour might; (ire to hate. 
on to gowW«lie* fc^U over 5000 hotfc and Orywett. 

fuat by tfewfcndgr.. GItmIm, la. T«t put an — ft dew not belong to Ail place to have that 
end to.« 1 point -debated) nor win it hinder our purfutt to 

Ifctswgfat fafi ft a+tr in (Hence. #%«,<;— The poet f*ffei it 

We'll ittfi toe hwwefs privaterr. Shot, ever «a baftirj- at be' can. Drvkn.— Tlic queen 

13. T* Mrpat* 5 to tied— aiketi him who he wai 1 but he fajfei o-oer tail 

She, «ms* tweet than any bird on bough, without any reply. Sraemr. 

Would oftentimes among!) them bear a part, PASSA, a town of P.-rli.r, in Parfiftan. 

And fbriVetosw/1, a» (he could weS enough, • PASSABLE, adj. {pajfiblt. Ft. from fimfi.} 

Their naifccroolicte by her fkitfulart. Sptnfcr. 1, FoHTble to be patted or travelled through or 

—Whom dolt thou fafi in beauty 1 fizntir/iixii. over. — His body is a paffMe carcafc, if be- be not _ 

19.— hurt. S*o*.— Anttochua departed in all hafte, ' 

I* my royal fnbject 1 pafi thee, J. Jmfi*. weening in bis pride to make the land navigable, 

Tie aocckur and all bis heirs, and the fra paffable by font. 1 War. ». Support - 

Though they in number fafi theftarsof heav'n, able ( tolerable ; allowable — They are crafty, and 

Are fliU bat one. Hemes, of a paffable reach of Under ft an ding. Hevtel. — 

14- To omit j to neglect ; whether to do or 10 Lay by*Vireil i my verfton wiH appear a faffabk 

mention. — beauty when the original mufe is abfent. Drjdett. 

If you fondly pafi our proffer'd offer, — White and red, well mingled on the face, make 

'T» uot the rounder of your old fce'd walls what was before but paffable appear beautiful. 

Can hide you. Sbak. Dryden. 3. Capable of admiffion or reception. — 

Pirate you that I may pafi thii doing. Shuk. In counterfeits) it is with men as with falfe money; 

I fafi the wars that Fputted lynxes make one piece is more or Ms paffable than another. 

With .their fierce rivals. Dryden. UEjirange.— Could they have made the (lander 

I pafi their warlike pomp, their proud array, fajfable, we mould have beard farther. Collier. 

Drjien. 4. Popular; well received. This is a feme lefa 

ij. To tranfeend; to t ran fgrefs— They Awl pafi ulna!.— Where there is no eminent odds in fuffi. 

taoie bownde, and did return tince that time, ciency, it 'is better to tale with the more paffable. 

Burnt t, 16. To admit ; to allow. — The money than with the more able. Baton. — A man of the 

o» every one that paffeth the account) let the priefls ' one faction, which is moft paffable with the other, 

take. » Kings *ii. 4. — commonly grveth beft way. Bacon. 

I'll fafi them ail upon account. Rudibrat. PASSACAILLE. See Music, § 951. 
17. To enaa a law.— How does that man know, ft.) PA8SADE, in fencing. See Passado. 
uut the decree may be already faffed again 11 him ! (1.) f assade, n.f. in the manege, ts a turn or 
Sataiu — courfe of a botfe backwards or Forwards 00 the 

Among the laws that fafi'd, h was decreed, fame fpot of ground. Hence there are feveral 
That cooquer'd Thebes from bondage mould forts of paffades, according to the different ways 
be freed. Dryden. of turning, in order to part or return upon the 

—Could the fame parliament which addretfed fame tread, which is called ttytng the paffadti as 
with lb much zeal an J carnefhicfs againft this the paffjulc of one time, the pa Hade of five times, 
evil, pafi it into a law.' Swift-— His majefty's mi- and the raifed or high paffades, i ' — ' " u "" 
aiders propoled'the cood of the nation, when demtvolts are made into curvets, 
they advifed the faffing this patent. Swift. 18. mansfiip. 
To impole fraudulently.— (i.) • PASSADO. n. /. [Italian.] A pufh ; a 

Tb* indulgent mother did her care employ, thrufl A di:ellift, a gentleman of the very firft 

And pafi' J it on her bufband for a boy. boufe ; ah ! the mortal faffhdo. Shut. ' 

Drjden. (a.) Passado, Piss, or Pass aob, in fencing) 
19. To ptaflrfe- artrnlty ] to make fucceed. — an advance or leap forward upon the enemy. Of 
After that discovery there is no p offing the fame thefe there are feveral kinds ; a» pafles within) 
trick upon the mice. VEJhaage. ao. To fend above, beneath, to the right, the left, and paffes 
from one place to another : as, fafi that beggar under the line, &c. The meafure of the pafi is 
to hjs own parifft. «i, Ta Pass atoao. To when the fwords are fo near as that they may 
1'pcnd ; to wafte. — The father waketb for the touch one another. 

daughter) left &e fafi away the flower of her age. (j.) * PASSAGE, n.f. Ifaffage, French.] I. 
Ectltu. *li"i. 9. »». To Pass Ay. To excufej to Aft of puffing ; travel; courte; journey.— The 
forgivei-^God may fafi -by ingle finnera in this ftory of fnch a poffagt was true. Kdeigh.— 
world. TUIot/an. >j. 1'a Pass by. To neglect \ So (halt tbou beft prepar'd endure 

to dilregMd.— How fat ought this enterprise to Tby mortal pafige when it comes. Militnt. 
wait upon thefe other matters, to be mingled —AH have liberty to take filh, which (hey do by 
with them, or ta fafi by them 1 Baean.— It con- (landing in the water by the boles, and fo inrer- 
dnce* mnch to our content, if we fafi by thofe cepting their fajage, take great plenty of them. 
things which happen to our trouble. Tajtar.— Bnww.— Live like thofe who Inok upon tnern- 
Certain paflagei of Scripture we cannot, without felvce as being only on their faffage through this 

1 oo^fe 6 **- 



PAS ( * 10 ) PAS 

Hate. Atteriurv.— Though the pafig* be trouble. 9. Management camlua.— Upon' con IWwatwn 

ibme, yet it it ft cure. Wake— of the conduct and pajfage of affairs in former 

In fouls prcpar'd, thejw^e ii a breath timet, the ftate of England ought to be cleared of 

From time t' eternity, from lite to death. an imputation call upon it. Dottier. 10 P.t> of 

' Harte. a book ; tingle place in a writing. EnJnat. F< 

a. Road ; way.— That feemeth the beft courfe, A critick who haa no tafte nor learning, felc: m 

which bath mot fafagu out of it. itama.— The Tcntiirea tepraifeany MfGwrio an aunW who 1st 

land enterprise or Panama was grounded Upon a noi hem before well received by the pablick. 

falfe account, that the pa/faget towards it were Aidifim. — Aa to the cantos, 41 r tit- pajfagt} are as 

no better fortified than Drake bad left them, fabulous as the viGon at the beginning Pep/.— 
Bacon. — How commentators each dtx'L paffage Ihuti, 

la there yet no other way. beGdes And hold their farthing candle to the Tun ! 

Thefe painful pajfagt i> how we may come Tavag. 

To death, and mix with our connatural dull I ' (»-) Pass age, Fort, a town avid fort of Ja- 

Miiten, maica, between Port-Royal and Spanifh Town, 7 

Agaioft which open'd from beneath miles SE. of the latter, at the mouth of the Cobre. 

A pajfage down to tu' earth, a pajfagt wide. It ha* a britk trade, and about 400 noufea. 

Milton. (3.) Passage, Ore at, one of the Viauiw 

—To bleed to death waaoneof themoftdefirable iflinds, 7 miles long and a broad; 1 a miles E. of 

pajfaga out of this world. Fell,— When the pajfage Porto Rico. 

■s open, land will be turned moft to great cattle t U-) Passage, Little, another of the Virgin 

when (hut, to Iheep. Temple. — The Perfian army ifljnda, near the above. 

bad advanced into the firaight pajfagti of Cilicia. (j.) Passage, Hoith-East. See North- 

Souib.— Eait,S 3 . 

The pajfagt made by many a winding way, (6.) Pa ss ace, North-Wiit. See Nort«- 

Reach'd e'en the room in which the tyrant lay. West, § 3. 

Drydtn. (7.) Patriot, Right or, in commerce, it a 

He plies him with redoubled ftrokes ; duty exacted by fome princes, either by land or 

Wheels as he wheels^ and with bis pointed fea, in certain clofc and narrow places in their 

dart territories, on all veffela and carriages, and even 

Explores the neareft pajfage to his heart. fomctime* on peifons or paffengers, coming in or 

- DryJtm. going out of ports, &c. Tbe moll celebrated 

—The genius told me there was no pajfagt to pafiage of tbii kind in Europe is the. Sound ; the 

them, except through tbe gates of death, Adaifoa. dues for pa fling which (trail belong to the king 

—I have often flopped all the paflagtj, to prevent of Denmark, and are paid at Eifinore or Cronen- 

the ants going to their own neft. Addifan. — When burg. 

the gravel is feparated from the kidney, oily fub- PASSAGES, a fea-port town of Spain, in Gui- 
dances relax the pojfagti. Arbuthnot. 3. Entrance pufcoa, with a good harbour, fheltered by moun- 
orciit; liberty to pa?*.— tains; 3 miles F„ of St Sebaftian, and 60 E. of 
What, are my doors oppos'd againft my/a/- fiilboa. In 1710, it was taken by tbe French. 
fegtf Shah. Lon. a.'a-W. La!. 43. si. N. 

Make my pajfagt free PASSA1S, a town of Franco, in the department 

For lov'd Dulichius. Chapman, of the Orne ; 6 miles SW. of Do m front. 

4. The ftate of decay. Not in ufe.— PASSA1X. See Pasaick. 

Would fome part of my young years PASSAMAN, a town of Sumatra, on the W. 

Might but redeem the pajfagt of your age 1 coaft, near the equator. 

Shah. PASS AMA £UO DDY, a town of the United 

j. Intellectual admittance [ mental acceptance, — Slates, in Maine, Wafhingtoo county, on a bay 

I expect it will have a fairer pajfage than among fo named at tbe mouth of the Santa Croix ; 37E 

thole deeply imbued with other principles, Digbj. miles from Bolton, and 716 from Philadelphia. 

6. Occurrence ; hap. — PASSANT, part. aij. in heraldry, a term ap- 

Jt is no act of common pajfagt, but plied to a lion or other animal in a fhield, appear - 

A ft rain of rarenefi. Shot, ing to walk leifurely : for moft beafts, except lions, 

7. Unfctlled ftate ; aptnefi by condition or na- the tnppant is frequently ufed jnltcad of pojfant, 
ture to change the place of abode.— Traders in PASSAO, a cape of Peru, under the equator. 
Ireland are but factors; the caule mult be rather Lon. 73. 50. W. 

an ill opinion of (ecurity than of gain: the lad PASSARA, a town of Borneo, on the W. coaft t 

entices the poorer traders, young beginners, or fo miles SW. of Borneo. 
thole of pajfage; but without the firft, tbe rich PASSARAT. See PatSERAT. 
will never iettle in the country. TempU.— (t.) PASSARO, a town of Sicily, in tbe Valley 

A bird otpajfige! loft as foon as found. of Noto; 13 miles SW. of Noto, and 3b S. of 

J'opt. Syracufe. 

8. Incident ; tranfaftion. — This bufinefs, at it is (a.) Passaeo, a cape of Greece, in Janna, be- 
a'yery high pajfage of date, fo it is worthy of fe- tween tbe Gulfs of Armira and Zeton. 

rious con Fi deration. Hapioard.— (1.) PASSARON, in ancient geography, a town 

Tbou doeft iu thy pajfaga of life of Epirus, where, after facrificing to Jupiter, tbe 

Make me believe that tnou art only mark'd kings [wore to govern according to law, and the 

For the hot vengeance of beav'n. SAai. people to obey and defend the country. 

(a.) Passarom, 

D„i„d»,^odgtc 



PAS (71) PAS 

(*.) PuiiUM, a town of European Turkey, pofed it to the fight of all pajntgtri, and conceaJ- 

mtbeMorea; 18 mile* 8, of Argot. etlhimfdf tofaearthecenfuTeof hiefaults. Dryden. 

PAS8AROWAN. See Passasuaii. a- One woo birei in any vehicle the liberty of 

PASSAJtOWITZ, w town of European Tor- travelling.— The diligent pilot in a dangerous ton- 

key m Servta, near the Moravia ; famous for being peft doth not attend to the unftitful words of .■> pa/- 

the (bene of a peace made in 1718, between fetutr. Sidney. 

Charles VI and Achmet 171; It lies 33 mile* E9E. (>.) * Paimnhii. falcon, n.f. A kind of, mi- 

of Belgrade, and 44 W.of Orfova. gratory hawk. Aoijkoorib.' 

(i.)PA6SARUAN,or>akingdomoflheE.io- PASSENHEIM, a town of Pruffia in Ober- 

(1.) PASSARVAN, ) diet in the ifle of Java, land, built in the 14th century. It has often fuf- 

(1.) Paiiasv an, the capital of the above king- fered by fire, war, and peftilence. It is 70 miles 

dnm, lies on the N. coaft of the ifle of Java, 40 3. of Knmgiberg. 

miles W. of Paciarncan. Iti chief trade is in cot- PASSEPIED. See Music, § ail. 

too. Lon.ir ( . 15, E. Lat.7.o.S.. (t.)* PASSER- ■./ Ihomfifi.] Onewhopaf- 

(1.) PAS5AU, a ci-devant bifhopric and princi- fei ; one that is upon the mad. — Under you ride 

paltty of Germany, in the circle of Bavaria, lying the home and foreign fhhpping in 16 near a dif. 

between Lower Bavaria, Auftria, and Bohemia ; ran*, that, without troubling the P"Jf"; or bor- 

about 10 miles long. It ia now feCularized, and rowing Stentor'a voice, you, may confer with any 

under the complete controul of France, though in the town. Ctrew. — 

we know not to what fovereigu or ftate it ia no- ' Like a matron, butcberM by her ions, 

minallv attached.. • And caft befide fome common way, a fpeciacle 

It,'. Passau, an ancient, bandfomr, and cele- . Of horror and affright to paffirt by, 
brated city of Germany, capital of the above ter- Our groaning country bled at every vein, 
riloty, is feated on the Danube, at its conflux, Rotoe. 
with the Inn and the Tits, where it has a fort. It (a.) Passat, in geography, a river of Germany, 
confifts of 3 towns, befide* the fuburba, which baa which mm into, the Adige, near Meran in Tirol. 
an old caftle. Tbcfe towns are, r; Passat? Pto- PA SSG RAT,: John, * celebrated pfofcffor of 
ria, between the Danube and the Inn s %. Juki- eloquence in the royal college of Paris, and one of 
iranr; and 3. Ihjhdt or Ilstadt. See thefc the politeft writer* of his time, wMbomatTroyes, 
articles. The houfes are weU built and the ca- in Champagne, in t j 34. Heftudied the law under 
tbedral i* reckoned the fined in Germany. Where the famwss* Cujacius at Bourges, where he be- 
it is not furreunded by water, it is fortified by came profeflor of eloquence io 157a. Hewaaan 
trails, ramparts, and ditches. It sva*. under the indefatigable ftndent, yet to an .extraordinary era- 
power of the Roman* till A. D. 475, when it was dition he joined an uncommon politenefs of man- 
taken by the Afemanni ; after which it fell under tiers and pleafuntry. „ He gained the efteem of ■ 
the dominion of "the Franks, and then under the Charles IX. Henry 111. and all the men of wit and 
duke* of Bavaria. Otbo III. made it a bifhoprtc learning in his time. He died in 1601," and left 
in 999. Jt ia famous for the treaty, called the re- feveral admired works behind him. 
ligian pemef, niade in i J5 i. It lies 8a miles ENE. PAS6ERE8, an order of birds, in the daft 
of Munich, and 110 E. of Vienna. Los. 13. 34. E. Ave*. See OaMiTHOtoOY, and Zom-ogt. 
Lat. 48. 10. N. (1.) PASSER!," John Baptift, a learned anti- 
PAS8AVANT, 3 towns of Fraucei 1. in the query and philologer, born at Gubio in Uibino, 
dep, of the Doubs, 4 miles S. of B*ume, and 134 in 1694- ■■ Having entered into orders, be became 
ENE. of Befancon : 1. in that of Marne, 6 mile* apoAolic protonatory and vicar general of Pefara. 
S.of St Meoehould; 3, in that of Mayne and He publifhed- many book*, particularly PiBw* 
Loire, 6 mile* £SE. of Vibier*, and ij SW. of EtrafMrum in Fafadii, ntmc primum in mum mJ- 
Saumur. U8*, expiuatianiMu tt difftrtatiombtti UlvAratm. 
* PASSED. 'Preterite and participle of pa/i. Ram*, 1767, 3 torn. fol. Being overturned in hia 
—Why fayeft thou my judment i* poffrd over carriage, be received a bruife of which he died in 
from my God i Ifaiab t\. 17.— He affirmed, that 1780. 

no good law foff.d fince king William's accefnon, ■ (1.) Piitiat, John Baptift, a painter and poet 

except the act for preferring the game. Aidifm. of Italy, born in 1609. He was a difciple of Do- 

—The defcriprioo of a life puffed away in vanity minichino, but bad more merit aa an author than 

ind among the fliadows of pomp, may be foon a* a painter. He wrote the Lives of the Paintm, 

finely drawn in the fame place. Addifon. Sculptors and ArehittSi, of hi* own time. He died 

PASSENBERG, atownof Iftria, 9 miles NNE. at Rome, in 1679, aged 70. 

of Pedena. (3.) Pasaiai, Jofeph, nephew of the preceding, 

(i.) * PASSENGER, n. /. [paffager, French.] under whom he ftudied, afterward* became the 

1. A traveller j one who is upon the road j a way- difciple of Charie* Maratti. He chiefly excelled 

f*nr*— in portraits. . He died in 1714, aged 60. 

All the way, the wanton damfel round PASSER1NA, in botany, Sraaaow-woaT, a 

New mirth, her pa/Jengrr to entertain. Sftnfer. genus of the mooogyuia order, belonging to the 

My mates, that make their wills their law, octaadria claft of plant* j and in the natural mo 

Have fume unhappy foffnitir in chafe. Spat, thod ranking under the 31ft order FtpreeuU. 

The nodding horror of whofe fhady brow* PASSERINE Oaoaa. See Ounitkologt. 

Threat athe forlorn and wafra'ring pajingtr. PASSERO, Caps, a cape of Sicily, anciently 

Milmu. called Packimts, the moft foutherty point of the 

—A pelles, when he had finidied any work, ex* iflasd. It is not a peninfula, but a barren ifland 



PAS ( 72 •) P A :S 

■boot * mile mad, tepatted from Sidy by a Hh aermert, haakg at it* feafe five korizontif 

Arait half a mile broad. It ami a fort to protect fpreading filaments, crowned wtth i nu awfc f t yd- 

the adjacent country from the Barbary pirates. low anthare, and that moveahoutevery way ;aod 

la itjj, admiral Sir George Irr«f, defeated a from the hd* of the garnwn arife Mine Bender 

8*>ani(h fqoadkon off this cape. Loa. ij. 11.S. spreading ftyieS* terminated by headed nigral* : 

Lat 36.35. N. .tho grera afterward* gradually become* a large 

PAS9EROK, ■ river of PrnRa,sjbichrun*kito .anal fiefhy fruit, ripening to a yeJloartflV colour — 

the Frifch-haff, below Brasafberg. Thefe wonderful flowers art only of one day'sdu. 

• PASSlMUTYi a. £ [pafiliJbi, Fr. from ration, generaHy opening about tl or la o*clock, 
pefliblt.] Quality of receiving itnprdloo* from and frequently in hot funny weather burit open 
external agents. — The laft doubt, tonchirig the with elafticity, and continue fuHy expanded alt 
fusibility of the matter of the heaven, u drawn that day ( and the next they gradually dofc, af- 
front the eclipfe* of the fan and moon. Haketvill. fuming a decayed -like appearance, and never open 
■ * PASSIBLE, adj. I pojjtbh, Br. pafii*i, Lat .] any more : (he evening put* a period to their «- 
Sufceptive of impreffioni frou* external agent*- itence, but they are focceeded by new ones daily 
— Tbeodorrt difptrteth that God cannot be lafd oa the lame plant.— Thii plant and flower* are 
to fuffcr ; but be thereby meaneth.Chritt'a divine held in great veneration in fnme foreign Cat hobe 
nature egainft Aporh'uriua, which held even deity countries, where the refigiou* make the leaves. 



itfelfpn/Wfr. Hooter. tea drlis, and different parti of the flower, to repre- 

• PASSlBLENESSv^/ [tram pafibk. - ] Qua- fent the mftruments at oar brefled Savtoor'a paf- 

Gty of receiving tmpnriBoua from external agent*. Ron ; hence the xatt* puffijiora. 

— It drew after it the berefy of the pafiUenJb af ». PaasiVLORA i»c*i«ITA, the taiarnattd, or 

the deity. Brermood. ■■ . JUJk^olourod, A«Jmk fqfim flavor, hath a firong 

PASSIENITS, Pauluj, a Roman knight nephew perennial root ; Bonder, herbaceous ftalka, rifint, 

of the poet Proptrtnn, wbofrelegiac poetry he upon fnpporvfour or five feet high j leaven com- 

imitated. Me atfo attempted Lyric poetry with poled of three (awed lobes, each leaf attended by 

fueeefs, in which he foil owed' Horace. PSn. tp. a twining tendril ; and at the axilla* long (lender 

t, a. ptduacBli, terminated each byoaewhitifh Rower, 

PASSIFLORA, the PjUSIow-vlowi* ; a ge- having a greetrifh calyx, and a reddifh or purple 

nut of the peritandria order, belonging to the gy- radiated nectarium, fin-rounding the column of 

aandriaclafiof plantBi and in the natural method the fhictln cation, which fucsred to a large, round, 

ranking under the 34th order, Cmarhname. The Befhyftuit, ripening to a beautiful orange colour. 

calyx it peirtapbyNoui ; there are' 5 petals; the —The flower* of thii fpecie* are atfo very beauti- 

nectarium a crown: the berry it pcdicillated. fat, though of' Riert duration, opening in the 

There are near 30 different fpecie*;' all natives of morning, and night put* a period to their beauty; 

warm foreign countries, only one of which it fiif- but they are fticceeded by a daily fupply of new 

ficiently hardy to (beceed well in the open ground ones. — The frnrt of this fort is atfo very oruamen- 

here; all the -other* requiring the 1 ihelter of a tal, ai ripening to a fine reddifh orange colour; 

greeu-houie or ftove, but chiefly the latter. The but tliefc rarely attain perfection here, unlefa thi 

mofl remarkable arc, plants art placed in the ftove ; Therefore, when 

l.PlsltriOKACJUKULrA,thaMuecVnye<Lcoiri- there is fuch accommodation, It highly merits that 

tnon pBlmated pa ffi on -flower, hath long, flendor, indulgence, where it will exhibit both flow*** ard 

fhrubby, purprrfh -green ftalks, branchy, and at green 'and ripe fruit; all at the fame time in k 

oendingrupon fupport by their etafpen, 30 or 40 beautiful manner. 

fcet high j with one targe pofanated leaf at each j. Paibifloil* .vkspektimo the ba?j-v>i*s 

joint, and at the utiHaa large fbvetdinjr Bowers, s^sajtvuxr, hath nender,ftriated, branchy ftalkc 

with whitifh-gnren petals, and a blueradiated nee- large, bilobate, or twn-lobcd learet, the b.-ifc 

tarnim) fticceeded by a large, oval, yeltowiAi roundtfli and glandular, the lebes acute, wid.'.y 

fruit. It flower a- from Jury, until Oorober', the divaricated like a bat'l wmgi, arid dotted uriirr- 

Bowera are very large,confpicuoui,andtheir.cotn- neath 1 and miliary flowers, having white petii 

pofition is exceedingly carious and- beautiful, and ray 1. The leaves of thra fpecieg bare a finpu- 

They come out at the axilla* on peduneuti about lar appearance, the two lobe* being expanded fii. 

three inches mug, which they terminate, each or (even inche* wide, referablmg the wings of a 

flower having, juft clofe onder the cah/x, a three- bat upon flight 1 hence the name vijpertilio, — All 

tobed invorocrum-likc appendage; afire tobed ca- the fpucies in this country ere of a tender qualitv, 

lyx, and a five-petalous corolla, the fixe, figure, except the flrft, whkh fucceeds very well in the 

ard colour of the catyx, 4c. the petals arranging full ground, in a warm fltuation; only their yoonc: 

alternately with the calidkal lobes; the whole, m- branches are fomctimea killed in very fevere win. 

eluding the invotucrum, calyx, and corolla, make ten ; but plenty of new one* generally rife apaki 

juft 1.1 lobe* and petals, all expanded flat : and in fpring following: the others denominated jAkt 
within the corolla la the nectarium r compofed of. iindi, nut always be retained in that repo>htory. 

a multitude of thread-like fibres, of a blue and PASS1GNANO, or > a town of Italy, in the 

pnrp!e colour, difpofed in circular rays roand the PASS1GNIANO J pope'* dominions, and 

column of the fructification ; the outer ray is the province of Peragrano, 00 the N. coaft of the lake 

loageft, Bat, and fpmding on the petal* ; the in- Perugia ; t miles SE. of Cortona, and si T\'\V. of 

BKr is fliort, erecl, and narrows toward* the Perugia. Lon. ta. j. E. Lat. 43* to, N. 

centre: in the middle is an erect cyKndric dub- PASS1CRAPHY. See PAaicaarHY. 

fhaped column or pillar, crowned with the round. PASSINSIXI, Laurence, an eminent biftorical 

D.git.jedoy\jOOQl painter, 



PAS tH) PAS. 

painbrri bora In 16*9, at Balof n* ; inwhtcbcity jvEagernefs,— Abate a little of that violent faffion 
there are iosne of hi* capita! pieces. Hadied in fpr fine" clothes, fo predominant in foockx.-diiufl. 
lym ; agedfi. 8. Emphatically, the laft,fufferiug. of the Re~ 
'PASSING, participial adj. [from ^yj.] i. Sn- deemer of 1 the world.— He (hewed himfelf alive af- 
preine; furpafllog. others t eminent.— ter bii pa/jinn, by many infallible proof's, .rfflj i. 3. 
No Srengih of arms ihsll win this noble fort, (1.) Passion is a word, of which, as Dr Reid 
Or ihake this puiflant wilt ; fuch faffing might obferves, the meaning is not preciiiily aiccrtained, 
Have- fpell* and charm*, if they be faid aright, either, in common difcourfe or in the writings of 
Fairfax. pail ofop hers. In its original import, it denote! 
•%. It Unfed adverbially to enforce tbe meaning of every fating of the mind occafioned by an'extrin- 
SBintuer word. Exceeding. — fie caufej but it is generally ufed to fig p if y fame 
Oberon H faffing fell and wroth. Sirai. agitation of mind, oppofed to that (tale of tran- 
Pagmg many know it. Chapman, quillity in which. a man is mod mailer of himfelf. 
M>ny m each region faffing fair. Mi/ton. That it was thai ufed by the Greeks and Romans, 
6he was not only faffing fair, i* evident from Cicero's rendering »j6«r, the word 
But wak 'withal difcreet and debonair. Dryden. by which the philofophers of Greece eipreffed it, 
We learnt our liege <*ttpaffing well. Cay. by pcrturiatio m Latin. In thisfenfeof the word, 
* pAitiHOil ll. n. / [faffing and fatf,] The paflion cannot be itfelf a diJlinS and independent 
bell which rings at tbe hour of departure, to ob- principle of action ; but only an Questional degree 
tain prayers for the paffing foul : it is often ufed of vehemence given to thofe difpolitions, delires, 
for the ben which rings immediately after death, and affections, which are at all times pre feist to 
Prayer* attend the mind of man ; and that this is it * proper fenfe, 
To heaven in troops at a good rota's faffingbeU. wc need no other proof, than that paflion has al- 
iens, ways been conceived to bear analogy to a fturm 
A talk of tumult, and a breath at lea, or to a tempeft in the air. With refpect to 
WouM ferve him a* \kpaffingicll to death. the number of pauloos of which the mind is ful- 
' Daniel. oeptiWe, different opinions have been held by dif- 
ferent authors. Le firun, 'a French writer on 

_ Swift, painting, jaftlyconfidering the expriflion of the 

(1.) * PASSION, n.f. [puffier:, Fr, puffin, Latin.] paffions as a, very important as well as difficult 
1. Any affect can fed by external agency.— A body branch of his art, has enumerated no fewvr than 
at reft affords ns no idea of any acKvo-power to twenty, of which tbe figns may be exprclHd by 
Diove, and when fet in motion, it is rather a pafi the pencil on canvaft. . See Drawing, Sett. XI ; 
fien than an action in it. Locke, a. Sufceptibirity Plate CXIX. and CXX.) That there are fo n.auy 
of effect from external action.— The diff.-rences.irf different nates of aind producing different tileS* 
monldable and .not mouldable, fcifiibte and not which are viable on the features and the geft urea, 
fdffible, add many other fiqffimt of matter are pie- and that tbofe features and goftnres ought to be 
beian motions. Satan. 3. Violent commotion of diligently ftueUed by the artift, are truths which 
the mind.— cannot be denied ; but it is abfurd to confider all 
All the other foffient Bret to sir. SAaA. thefe different ftates of mind an pajftmi, fioce/rws- 
Every poffion fully drive* quiiUtj is one ef them, which is the reverfe of pal- 
To make itfelf in thee fair and admired. Skak. .Hon.. 

I «m doubtful, left (3.) PAStlOMB AHA SMOTIONS, fJIFFElSMCE 

Yon break into Cbme merry paffioa. Skak. HTW1IN. See Emotion, § 1. 

In loving than do'ftMArfl, in poffien not; (4.)PAssiOHS,COKTR.ovsasvnESPECTiiiGTHS 

Wherein true leve confift* not. Millbn. origin op the. A querboa of confiderable irn- 

Cruelhis eye, but enft portance in the philolophy of tbe human mind, 

Signs of remorfe and faffirm, to behold has been ducuued at no (nail length, by ftveral 

The fellows of his crime condemn'd. Milten, eminent authon, whether the different pafGons 

Poffion'j too fierce tobein fettora bound, Dryd. be each a degree of an original and innate difpofi- 

— All the art of rhetoric, betide* order sad per- tion, diftintt from thofe difpoutions which arc re- 

fpiciiity, only moves the fnffiani, and thereby mif- fpeSively the foundations of the other painons, 

reads the judgment. Locke. 4. Anger. — Tbe word or only different modifications of one or two ge. 

foffimt figmfte* the receiving any action in a large neral difpontton* common to the wboleracer The 

pbilofophical fenfe ; in a more limited philofophi- former opinion is held by all who build their fyfc 

eal fenfe, H fignifies any of tbe affections of hn- tern of meUphyuc* Upon a number of diftinct in. 

man nature ; a* love, fear, joy, forrow j but tbe temal fenfe* ; and the latter by thofe, who, with 

common people confine it only to anger. Wattt. Locke and Hartley, refolve what is commonly 

j. Zeal; ardour.— Where ftatefmen are ruled by called inJlinB into an early affocialion of ideas. 

ficrlon and mtereft, they can have nofaffitnfor (See Instinct and Mitaphviics.) Tbisquef- 

the glory of their country. Addifbn. 6. Love.— tion alfo involves in it the arguments refpecting 

Yon adU'd her father: you confefs'dydu drew the diuntereftednefs of our melt benevolent pai- 

A mighty argument to prove your paflion for fions. But as it would fwell this article beyond ( 

the daughter. ' Dryden and Lte'i OedJpki. all doe bound* to give even an abridged view of 

Re, to grateme more, the argument* on both fides, we fhj.ll refer the 

Publicly own'd his faffion for Ameftrii. Sane, reader to' the writings of Meffrs Locke and Hart- 

Think what a pajSm Tuch a form muft hF.ve. ley. Lord Karnes, Reid's Inquiry into tbe Human 

Granville, Mind, and Dr Sayer'j Diiquifitiona MeUphyfical 

Vol. XVII. Part I. , K t,)(.)oliW>* 

: o 



PAS ( 14 ) P A 8 

and Literary, where they will find the quefUoo ia Urblnov in t«a. He was educated tt the Cfe. ! 

.amply rHfcuffed. mentine college in Rome, where he formed a rich 

(c.l Passions, external signs of. See Phy- library with 8 collearon of rare MSS. He went 

sioqnokt?.' ' to Paris in ijoS, where he was much M^MOed by 

(6.) Passions, in medicine, are ranted among the literati, particularly by Montfaucon. He was 

Ihe non-naturals. Joy, anger, andfear, are the employed in variouo negotiations. He was at the 

principal ; but all of them, when violent, produce congrefc at Utrechtin 171* ;at Bafil in 1714; and i 

very fi-nfibte effects on tbe health. There aremore at Soleure in 17151 of which he publiflied an ac- 

Inftances on record of people being killed by fud- count, entitled ASa Legathnu Helvetic*. He wa» 

denjoy than by fiidden grief, made Abp. rfEpbefua, by Innocent III, and pro- . 

(7.) Passions, In painting, are the external ex- nounced the funeral oration on Pnnce Eugene 

preffions of the different difpofitions of the mind; He died in 1761; and waaa great patron of men ; 

particularly by their effect* on the fpatnres. See of letters. 

Bxawing, &S. X. and XI ; and Plate) no and is.) * Pass ion -flows*, n.f. Izrandtlla, Lat.l 

no: and Painting, SroWII!. A flower. MUler. 

• To Passion. v . n. [pa/Soncr, Fr. from the (».)PASBioN-ru-w*R. SeePAsaiFLoaA. I 
noun.} To be extremely agitated; toexprefsgreat (r.) *Pj,ssio»-wbeic. «./. The week immedi- 
commotion of nrind. Obfolete.— ately preceding Eafter, named in commemoration 

' 'Twaa Ariadne po&onmr of our Saviour's crucifixion. j 

ForToefens' perjury and unjuft flight. Shak, (>.)Pl«Sion-WBSK. The ThurBay of thw 

* PASSIONATE, adj [pajtone, Fr.] 1. Moved week is called Maunday Tburfday ; the Friday, 
fjf paffion ; feeling or exrjrrfljng great commotion Good Friday; and the Saturday, the Great Sabbath. 
of mind.— Follow the'light of found and lineere fi.) * PASSIVE, adj. [pajtf, Ei.fafivms, Lat.] : 
judgment, without either cloud of prejudice or x. Receiving impreflion from fome external agent. 
milt of paginate affeaion. Hooter.— Thucydides High above the ground 

obferves, that men are ranch more pajjianatc for Their march was, and the fMjftv air upbore 
injuftlce than for violence. Clarend— -In hirt pray- Their nimble tread. Mitten. 

era, as bis attention was fi« and Heady, fo was it —The active information of the lutellefl, filling 

inflamed with paffimale fervors. Fell.— Good an- the pajive wception of the will, grew actuate into 

eels looked upon this (hip of Noah's with a pa/, a third and diftinct perfeftion of praaice. South, 

fimate concern for its fafety. Burnet.— Men, upon —As the mind is wholly paffiw in the reception 

the near approach of death, have been rouzed up" of all its hmple ideas, fo it exerts feveral acta of 

into fuch a lively fenfe of their guilt, fuch a paf- its own, whereby, out of its firnple "deaa, the o- 

JSonatc degree of concern and remorfe, that, if ten ther ia formed. Lode. — The w inerd* is a poffi-uc 

thoufand ghofts had appeared to them, they fcarce principle by which bodies perBft in their motion 

couW have had a fuller conviction of their danger, or.reft, receive motion in proportion to the force 

Atterburj. ». Eafily moved to anger.— Homer's impreuing it, and reult at much as they are refift- 

Achille* is haughty and pajponate, impatient of ed. Ntwton't Gptia. a- Unreafting ; not oppo- 

nny reftraint. Prior. fing. — 
•ToPassionati. <v.a. [from paffion^ Anold Not thofe alone, whos»>wowoher laws, 

■word. Obfolete. ». To affra with paffion But who, weak rebels, more advance her cattle. 

Great pleafure mix'd with pitiful regard, Pope. 



That godly king and queen did fajCiuti. 3. Suffering; not aaing. 4. (In grammar.} A verb 

Whillt they his pitiful adventures heard. Spettf. paffive is tbat which fjgnifiei paHton or the effect 

3. To exprefs-patfimiaiely.— of »aion : aa doctor, I am Uugbt. Clark I Lea. Gr. 



Thy niefle and I want hands, (».)Passivb Obidiencb, the duty enjoined by 

And cannot fajjionau our tenfold grief. Sbat. the fcripturea of fubmiffion to tie powers that be. '. 

* PASSIONATELY, adv. [from pa/Sonatt.] 1. The abfordity which commonly attaches to the , 

Wi-h paffipn; with defire, love or hatred ; with phrafe/M^iv oi«/iottt originates from the miftakeii 

great commotion of mind.— Whoever pajjionatth loyalty of the adherents of the houfc of Stuart, 

tovets any thing he has not, has loft bis hold, who, to aggravate the illegality of the revolution, 

f.'Efiramge.—lf forrow exprefTes itfelf never fo were wont to reprefcnt James II. as fupreme over 

loudly utiiipajfionatilj, and difcharges itfelf in never both honfea of parliament, and of courfc over all ; 

*) many tears, yet it will no more purge a man's law. We fhali only oblervc, that there ia a great 1 

heart, than the wattling of his hands can cleanfe difference between aSive and pajfiie obedience ; 

the rottennefs of his bones. South — I made Mele- and tbat many who confidcr themfelves as bound | 

finda, in oppofition to Nourmahal, a woman paf- on noatcemt whatever to rtfij the fupreme power, 

Jiotattlj loving of her hufband. Drydtn. %. An- would yet fiafer death rather than do an immoral 

grily. — They lay the blame on the poor little ones, aflion in obedience to any law of earthly origin, 

(otnetlmel pafiwatily enougli, to divert it from (3.)PAas"ivlpRAV6S,amongtbemr^Av»i,j, 

themfelves. Lotkt. is a total fufptnfion or ligature of the intellectual 

•PASSIONATEN1SS. *./ [from pot&onaU^ faculties; in virtue whereof, the foul remains of | 

r. State of being fobjea to paffion. t. Vehemence itfelf, and as to its own power, impotent with re- 

of mind.— To love with fome pnjfiotwtentfi the gard to the producing of any effefla. ■Tbepaffive 

perfon fou would marry, ia not only allowable Kate, according to Fenelon,. isonly paffive in the j 

but expedient. Boyle. fame fenfe as contemplation is, 1". e. it does not er- 

PASSIONEI, Dominic, a learned Roman car- dude peaceable, difinterefted afls, but only un- 1 

. ".rial, born ofan illuftrious family, at Jo flam br one quiet ones, or fuch as tend to our own interett. 1 



PAS ( 75 ) PAS 

In the paffire ftate, the foal has not properly any ike Hebrew calendar, and iti other ccnfeqnencMr 

Jrtiiity, any feofation, of it* own : it it a mere wirhall tbe peculiar ceremonies obferved in the 

infinite fcaibuity'of tbe loul, to which the feebleft, celebration of it. are particularly related in tbe 

ioipulfc of grace gives motion. xiith chap, of Eiodns. With regard to the 

(4.) PAastna Titlbj ia.Seots.law. See Law, bread, fee BMAst f »j. The abligatioo of keep* 

Pari HI. Chop. II, StO. XX, $ it— 36. ing.the paJTover wa. fo ftrict, that whoever ne- 

(5.) Passive verb, in grammar, the verb- or gleffed to do it, wa condemned to death, 

word that cxprefTes futfcrinp, or tbe effect of (Numb. uc. 13.) But those who had any lawful 

action, which, in the learned languages, hat a pe- impediment, as a journey, ficknefs, or any un- 

culiar termination ; as amor, doctor, &c. in Latin ; c lean nefs, voluntary or involuntary r thofe that 

thatiaanr isaddedto thea£uveamo,-bcra--and, had been prefent at a. funeral, or by any other 

in tbe Greek, the inflection is made by changing accident had been defiled! were to defer the cefr- 

-into.^tfi; aaivi'H, ru»7=^», &c. But, in the mo- oration of the pa Hover t HI the ad month of the 

dem languages, the paffirc inflexion is performed ecclenaftical year, or to the 14th day of the month 

by auxiliary verba, joined to the participle of tbe Jiax, wbicb anfwera to April and May, (See r 

paS tenfe ; as, / am ft at fed, in Latin lander, and Cm*. Xxk. 1, a, Ike.) • The modern Jew* obicrve 

in Greek nr««*f)ui| or, 1 am loved, in Latin amor, in general tbe tame ceremonies that were practiiM 

and in Greek <«V"m«'. Thus it appears, that the by their anceftora, in the celebration of the paiT- 

aniiliary verb an, ferves to form the paffivesof over. Ota tbe 14th of Nifan, tbe firft-born fa ft in 

Eoglith verba : and the fame holds of the French ; memory of God's Suiting the firft-bom of tbe 

as Jefiiii love, I am praifid ; f ai etc lout, I bavc Egyptian*. Tbe morning prayers are tbe fame 

ben proifid, &c. See Gaammar, under Engush with tbofe laid on other feftivals. Theytakethe 

Language, particularly p. 691. roll of tbe pentateucb out of tbe chert, and read ' 

'PASSIVELY, adv- [fiom fajjivt.] 1. With at far at the end of the lath chapter of Esodut, and 

apaffive nature. — what is contained in the 18th chapter of Numbers, 

Tho' fome irt paffiiteli/ inclin'd, . relating to tbe paffover. Tbe matron of the fa. 

Tbe greater part degenerate from their kind. mily then i'prcads a table, and feu on it two un- 

Drjdm. leavened, cake*, and two pieces of the lamb, a 

1. Without agency . — A man may not only pajrve- QiouWer boiled and another roafted. To this 

lj and involuntarily be rejected, but alio may, by they add fome-taiall nthea, because of the levi- 

m *& at his own, c&ttoul or Ttjeftbimklf. Pear/am. athan; a hard egg, becaufe of the ziZ; fome 

• PASSIVENESS. u.J. [from paj/ive.] 1. QUali- meal, becaufc of the behemoth, (thefe three ani- 
ty of receiving impreflioo from rxternal agents, malt being appointed for tbe feaft of the eletft iu 
i.Pafibtlityi power of fufftring,— We (hall lofe toe other life)) and peas and nuts for the children, 
our paffi-vtr.efi with our being, and be a* incapable to provoke their curioiity to affc the reafon of 
of iuflrring aa heaven can make us. Decay of Piety, this ceremony. They likewife oied a kind of 
3. Patience; calmnefs. — Gravity and paffiwufi in muftard, which has the appearance of mortar, to> 
children is not from difcretion, but phlegm. Fell. rep re lent their making bricks in Egypt. Toe fa- 

* PASSIVITY. n.f. [from pa/five.] PafCvenef*. tber of the family fits down with hit children and 
Ad innovated word.-— -There being no mean be- flaves, becaufe on this day all are free. He takes 
tween penetrability and impenetrability, between bitter herbs, and dip* them in the muftard, then 
pBJjroitj and aftivity, thefe being contrary and op> eats them, and dillribntes to the reft. Then they 
polite, tbe infinite rarefaction of tbe one quality eat of the lamb, tbe institution of which is at 
u the pofitioo of im contrary. Gbeyiu'i Pbit. Prin. that time recited by the mailer of the family, 

(i.)PASSO, or)a. town in Dalmatia, in the The whole repaft.il attended with hymn* and 

Pa-so di Hax, J territory of Sign, feated on prayers. They pray for the prince under whofe 

the Cettina, on tha fite of tbe ancient town of dominion they live, according to Jeremiah's ad- 

£quwn. vice. (xaix. 7. See. Feast, § III, N° m The fame 

(a.) Passo di Moia, a town of Naples, in tber thing* are repeated tbe two following day* ; and 

province of Capitanata) 17 mile* WSW. of Yiefta. tbo feilival is concluded by the ceremony habdala. 

PASSOLA, and) two fpccWof dried grape*. (See Ha bd a la.) This ceremony hi performed at 

PASSOL1NA, 5 See Llpari, N° 1. the cloCng of the Sabbafb-day, when the matter 

(!.)• PASSOVER. «./. fyq/iand ever.] 1. A of the boufe prononnces certain benediftions, 

feaft inftituted among the Jew* in memory of accompanied with certain formalities, requeuing 

tbe time when God, fmiiing the firft born of the that every thing may fucceed well the week fol- 

Hgrptiana, pa/fid over the habitations of the He. lowing. After gcungout of tbe fynagogue, they 

brew*. — The Jews pojj'over was at hand, and (hen eat leavened bread for the lalt time. (Lee of 

Jefus went up. John ii. 13.— Tbe Lord's pajjhvtr, Hodena, p. iii. c 3. and tbe Rabbin*.) While 

commonly called Eafter, was ordered by the the temple was ftanding, they brought their lambs 

common law to be celebrated every year on 9 thither, and facrificed them, offering the blood to 

Sunday. Aylijfe. 1. The faerifice killed.— Take the pried, who poured it out at tbe foot of the 

itamb and till the pajfovtr. Exvdui. aii. 11. altar. The paObver was typically predictive of 

(1.) The Pasiovea .was called pafcha by the Chrift (1 Cor. v. 7.) Many cnooeoufjy imagine, 

old Greeks and Romans ; not we prefume from that the pallbver wa* inftituted in memory of tbe 

n>^«, I/uJir, as Cbryfoftom, Irenacus, and Ter- Ifraelites palling tbe Red Sea ;"though it is certain 

tuilian, fuppofe, but from the Hebrew word tbe feaft wa* held, and had its name, before fh« 

prfaph, pajfagt, Uap. The inftitulmi of this fo- Kraelites took a ftep of their way out of Egypt, 

kmn femval, the icafon of ii, lite alteration of and confequently bveral day* before their paffing 



PAS ( 76 ) PAS 

the Red Sea. Betides the paffoTrr celebrated on, lord -chancellor, wttb any of the Juftkesof either 

the 14th of the firft month, there was a fccood the king's bench or common pleat, nuy cauft full 

paflbver held on the rjtajof the id month after reftiiution and amends to be made to the party 

the ''qninoiv inftituted by God in favour of tra. injured. ,Pafquier fiys, that paffpon *W» intro- 

vfl I era and fick perfon % who could not attend at disced for pop par Met. -Balzlic . menlioai a very 

the firft, nor be at Jenifaiem on the day. The bonoutable pafiport given byauemperor tqapbi. 

Greeks, and even feme of -the catholic doctors, lofopher in tbefetcrma : " If there be any one on 

from the 1.31b, 1 Bill, and ijtb chapter* of St John, land or lea hardy enough to moieft Potamon, let 

conclude that Jeflis anticipated tbe day marked bim confider whether be be Arong enough to wage 

for tliepaflbver in the law; hot the authority of war with Carfar." 

three evangeliftsferrnatof^ncethecontrary. See (3-) Passroar is tiled likewifc for a licence 

Whitby's DiQeitationonthisfutrjeA. inanappen- granted by a prince for the importing or export' 

din to the fourteenth chapter of St Mark. P. tng merchandise*, moveable*, &c. without payiBg 

Lamy iiippofes that our Lord did not attend at the duties. Merchants procure fuch pauponsfor 

the paflbver the laft year of hit life) which fenti- certain kindi of commodities; and they are al- 

ment baa drawn upon him abundance of oppofeT*. ways given toambafladoM and mi n liters for their 

F. Hardouin afferts, that tlie Galilean* oelebrated baggage, equipage, &c. 

the paflbver on one day, and the Jews on another. (4) PAtsroa/r i* alfo a licence obtained for tbe 

■ (1.) " PASSPORT. n..f. [pajport, Pr.) Per- importing or exporting of merchandizes deenKti 

million of parTage.— Fain fhe would bare given a contraband, and declared fuch by tariffs, &c. ai 

fecret pajfyort to her affection. Sidxry.— gold, Giver, precious (tones, ammunition of war. 

Giving his reafun pajfpart for to pa& ' Sorfea, com, wool, &c, upon paying dune*. 

Whither it would. - SurWr. PASSUMPSICK, a river of Vermont, which 

Let bim depart 5 his pafiport than be made. rife* in Orange County, runt 34 mile* S. and 

S/iat. then turns SB. and falls into the Connecticut. 

—Having ufed extreme caution in granting paff. PASSUS, among the ancient Romans, a mea- 

perti to Ireland, be conceived that paper not to funs of length, being about four feet ten inches, 

nave been delivered. Clar, — The gofpel hai then 01 the 1000th part of a Roman mile. . Tbe word 

only a free admiflion into the silent of tbe under- properly fig nines the (pace betwixt the feet of a 

Handing, when It bringaa pnfipart from a rightly man walking at an ordinary rate. SecMsastias, 

difpofed will. South.— N° VII, «- s, iv- 

He fhows the pnffport which he brought PASSV, a town of France, in the department 

along ; of Paris,' and diftricr. of St Denis, near Paris. 

HiApa/fport is hit innocence and grace. Drjdtn. PASSYUNK, a townflup of Pennfylvania, in 

At our meeting in another world ; Philadelphia country. 

lor thou baft drunk thy pafiport om of this. (1.) * PAST, patt'uipal adj. .{from pafi.] I. 

Drjdtn. Not prefent ; not to come. — 
. Fortune fur a pafiport gave turn wealth. Pafi, and to come, lean heft ; things prefect 
Hart*. worft. Sbak. 
(1.) A Passport, or Pass, is a licence or —For fevers! months pafi, paper* have been writ- 
writing obtained from a government granting per- ten upon the beft publick principle, the love of 
million and a fafe conduct, to pafa through the our country. Swift.-- 
country without moleftation : Alio a permiffion This not alone ha* flioue on agee pafi, 
granted by any (late to navigate in fome particu- But lights the prefent, and (hail warm the laft. 
lar fea, without moleftatioij. If contain* tbe Pefe. 
name of thevcfiel, and that of the matter, tog*- ». Spent; gone through; undergone.— 
tber with her tonntge and the number of her A life-of glorious labours^?. Pope. 
crew, certifying that fhe belongs to the fubject* of (a.) * Past. n.J. Elliptical ly ufed for paft 
a particular ftate, and requiringill perfons at peace time.— 

with that (late to fuller her to proceed on her voy. The pafi is all by death poQeft. Ftnttm. 

age without 'interruption. The violation of paff- (3.) • Past, p'rtpafition. t. Beyond the time.— 

porta expreftly granted by the king, or by bis am- Sarah was delivered of a child, when fhe was pafi 

baftadon, to the fubjefts of a foreign power in age. HeS. ai. II. a. No longer capable of. — Fer- 

time of mutual war, or committing acts of hofti- vent prayers he made, when he was efteemed pqfi 

lity apainft fuch aa are in amity, league, or truce fenfe. Hajward.— 

with us, who are here under a general implied ■ Pafi Lope of conquer!, *twa* his later! care, 

fafe conduct! are breaches of the public faith. Like falling CfeEtr, decently to die. Drjden 

without which there can be no intercourfe or —Many men have bot yet finned tbctnfelves pej, 

commerce between one nation and another; and all fenfe or feeling, but have fome regret*. CaUuxj 

fuch offences may, according to the writers upon 3. Beyond; out of reach of.—* 

the law of nations, be a proper ground of a na- We mult not 

ttonat war. And it isenaftedby flat. 31 Hen. VI. Proftitute our pafi-can malady. Sbak 

c. a-ftill in force, that if any of the king's fubjefla What's gone, and what** pafi help, 

attempt or offend upon the fea, or in any port Should be pafi grief. Shut 

wi£uiR the king's obeyfance, or agamft any ftran- —That France and Spain were taught the vtfe o 

ger in amity, league, or truce, or under fafe-con- fhipping by the Greeksand Phceniciana is a thing 

drift, and efpecialry by attacking his perfon, or pafi queftioning. Hrjlyn. — Love, when once faj 

'illnghim, or robbing him of his goods; tbe government, i a coulequeotly paflhuam. L'JSfir.- 

DflrtzeduyGOCMle H « 



PAS * 77 ) PAS 

Her Eft (he might tew bad \ bat the defpair or counterfeiting of osms in glafs, » » n art of 

Of faring hit, had put it^qyr her care. Drjiat. qanoderable importance. Gsmb made of paftes 

I'm flupify'd with ferrow,*w/? relief. VryJen. ant no wsy inferior to the native ft ones, when 

— That tbe bare receiving a futn Oiould fink a cve&illy mode and veil polilhed, io brighinef. or 

nun into a fertile ftaje, \tpafi my . compreheiilion. tranltwence.'ciK mot their hardnef*. 
Uwr^ That he mean), paternal power, in >qd (j.) Easier, oixexai. t.ui.sa ro» ninno. 

donM.Z^ob. a.rftyqndifurtteitbaiw— Wnwill Theft arc, I. That all the veflels in which they 

gaby the king"* bjghwxy, until am be jHd.tby are made be firmly luted, and the lute left to dry 

borders. Ntmben xxj. *%• $• Above; more than, before they are put into the fire. %. That fr.cn 

—The. northern Irifh Scot* have bowl not puft veCG-Js be chofen for tie work as will bear the fire 

three quarters of* yard long- Spt^fir- — The fame. well. ■ 3. That the powder be prepared on a por> 

foundation wamot-deep, not pttf forjy foot from phyty ftone ; not in a metal mortar, which would 

the gr6ur)4. Bom*.;, communicate ■ tinge .to them. 4. That the juft 

PASTARO, atowntrf Italy, in the dflp..o£the proportion to tbe quantity of the fevcral ingre- 

Lario, diiUict.,md lite duchy of Coiuoj.foated on dienU be nicely obftrved. J. That the materials 

tbe E. banh of Lake Conwy W- of lotrobie. be all well mixed ; and, if not Sufficiently baked 

(1) * PASTE, it./, [ttfe, French.] 1. Any tbe fit ft. time, be committed to the fire again* 

thins mixed up fo ai to be WO— and t en acious ; without breaking the pot ; for if thii be not 00- 

luch at Bono- and water for bread or pies; or va- fervedt they will be full of b'liftera ,and air brad- 

rioui kinds of earth mingled for the potter.— Ba- den. - 6, That a iraall vacuity be always left at 

ctpt vnu could bray (jhriftendoraJn a,mortari and tbe top of the pot, to give room to the fweluug 

mould it into a new pejle, there ia no pofiibility of the ingredient*. To make parte of extreme 

of an holy war. Jkitat.— bardneft, and capable of all tbe colours of tbe 

With particlei of heavenly fire gem*, with great luftre and beauty,— Take of 

The God of nature did bjajbtd infpire; prepared cryftal 10 lb., fait of pulverine 6 lb., 

Which wife Prometheus temper'd into Mb, fulphnr of lead a lb. j mix all theft well into a 

And, ttuxt with living ftreanw, the gndlihr-innge fine powder : make- the whole with common wa- 

caft. Brjitn. ter into a hard pafte, and make this pan* into 

When tbe gods moulded up tlieaajfrof man, fmaU cakes of about 3 ox. eacb, with a bole in 

Soma of tbe dongb was left upon their bands, their middle ; dry them in tbe fun, and afterwards 

Drfiou calcine them in the ftraitcft part, of a potter's fur- 

— He has the white ft hand that ever you law, and nace. After this, powder them, and levigate, 

riife. pa/h better than any woman. Spc8attr. them, to a perfect finenefi on a porphyry ftone, 

1. Fiour and water boiled together ft as to make and let this powder, in pot* in a gnus furnace to 

acement. 5. Artificial mixture, in imitation of purify for 3 days ; then caft the whole into wo- 

precious ftonea. ter, and afterwards return it into the furnace, 

(a.) Fasti, in cookery, a toft compc-filion of where let it ftand 15 days, in which time all foul. 

low, wrought up with proper Uuidi, at water, nefs and Wider* will diftppear, and tbe pafte will 

milk, or the like, to ferrc for cafes or coffins, greatly referable the natural jewels. To give this 

therein to bake meats, fruits, &c. It is the bans (he colour of the emeraldj add to it brafs thrice 

or foundation of pyes, tarts, patties, pafties, and ealcined; for. a lea-green, brafs. fim ply calcined to 

other works of paltry. It is alfo ufed in conftc- a redacts % for a fappbire, add zafter, with man- 

tkxiary, 8cc for a preparation of fpme fruit, ganeft ; and for a topai, manganefe and tartar. 

made by beating the pulp thereof with tome fluid All tbe gems are thus imitated in this, by the 

or other admixture, into a fbft pappy confidence, fame, way of working as themaking of coloured 

(preading it into a difh, and drying it with fngar, glafles 1 and this it ft hard, that they very much 

till it becomes as pliable as an ordinary pafte. It approach the natural genu. The colour of alt ' 

is ufed occafionally alfo for making the crafts and the counterfeit gems made of the fevaral paftes 

bottoms of pyes, && Thus, with proper admix- may be made deeper or lighter according to the 

tares, are made almond paftes, apple paftes, apri- work for which the ftonea arc deflated } and it it 

cM paftes, cherry, currant, lemon, plum, peach, a ncceffary general -rule, that f mall ftone* for rings, 

and pear paftes. &c. rtonirc .a deeper, colour, and large ones a 

(3.) Pasts is Itkewifc nfed for a preparation of paler. Befides the Colours made from manganefe, 

wbesten flour, boiled up and incorporated with verdegris, and gaffer, which are the ingredient* 

water, ufed by various artificers, as upbolftererj, commonly ufed, there are other very fine ones 

faddfcrs, bookbinders, &c inftead of glue or fine, which care and ikill may prepare. A very fine red 

to faften or cement their cloth, leathers, papers, may be made from gold( and one not much Infe- 

&c. When pafte is ufed by bookbinders, or for rior to that from iron j a very fine green from 

paper hangings to- rooms, they mix a ath, ith, or btafe or copper { a Iky-colour from filver, and a 

6th of the weight of the flour of powdered nrfin , roach finer one from the granates of Bohemia, 

and where it is wanted Kill more ten jciouv gum An excellent way of making the pafte to imitate 

arabic or any kind of, fire may be added. Pafte the coloured gem* is this : Take a quantity of 
may be prcftrved, by duTolvrng a little fublirpatr,- fugarof lead; fet it inland, in a gla&body well 
in the proportion of a dram to a quart, in the luted from tbe neck downward*; leave the mouth 

water employed for making it, which will prevent of the gtafs open, and continue the fire a* hours; 

not only rata and mice, but any other kind of ver- then take out the felt, and if it be not red but 

■to, and infect*, from preying upon it. yellowiui, powder it fine, and retnrn it into the 

(«0 Pasti», iu the glafo trade, or the imitation veftel, ana keep jl. in the/sud-hcat i* hours more, 

D,«,=dS,Googfe ,B 



PAS C 78 ) * FAS 

till it becomes a* red as cinnabar. The Are muft dried with fiilpbur, and one fcrople of zaiTer. 
not be made lb ftrong aa to melt it, for then all Proceed as before. Emerald. Take of the fade 
tbe procefe is fpoiled. Four diflilled vinegar on compofition with the laft o lb., 3 oz. of copper 
this calcined fait, and feparate tbe folution from precipitated from aquafortis, -and 1 drams of 
tbe dregs ■, let the decanted liquor Hand fix days precipitated iron. See Glass-making, SeB. 
in an earthen veflel, to give time for tbe finer fe- XIV. § 1 j. Garnet. Take s lb. of tbe conapon- 
diment tofubfide; biter this liquor, and evapo- lion under Glass-making, 3 lb, of tbe g laft of 
rate it in a glafa body, and there will remain ■ antimony, and? drams of m'lngancfe. For vine* 
rnoft pure fart of lead ; dry this well, then diffblvc gar garnet, take of tbe compofttioo for pafte* 
it in fair water) let the fofation (tand fix days in above defcribed in § $, two pounds; one pound 
a glazed pan ; let k fubfide ( then filter the clear of glafa of antimony, and half an ounce of 
folution, and evaporate it to a yet more pure white iron, Highly: calcined f mix the iron with tbe un- 
and fweet fait ; repeat this operation- three times ; colqured pafte, and fufe then [ then add the 
put the now perfectly pore aajt into agutfs nflM* glafa Of antimony powdered, arid continue then 
let it in a fand fruit- fur faVeial days, and it will in the beat till the whole is Incorporated. Gold, 
be calcined to a fine impalpable powder of a lively a* fultyetfaiB. : Takeof the compolitipo for pafte, 
red. Take -all tbe ingredients aa in the cotmnon 10 Ib.i and i\ oz.--of iron ftrongiy calcined; 
compofition of the'palleaof the* acMMl- colours, proceeding 'aa with rtie others. See alfo Glass- 
only, infteadof red lead, ufe this powder ( and MAirao, SeH.'XIV. £ n. Bteppnrpte. Take of 
the produce will well reward the trouble of the either of the cornpofitiona for parte 10 lb* of man- 
operation. A pafte proper for receiving colours garftft tone ounce, and of naffer half an ounce, 
may be readily made by pounding and mixing SiAj. Take I lb. of either of the conjpofitioot for 
6 lb. of white fend clean led, 3 lb. of red lead,- a lb. pafte, and % drams of precipitation of gold by 
of purified pearl-afh.es, and 1 lb. of nitre. A fbfter. tin; powder the pafte and grind tbe calx of gold 
pane may be made in the fame manner, of 6 lb. with it in a glafa, flint, or agate mortar, and then 
of white fand cleaafed % red lead, and purified fufe them together. A cheaper ruby pafte may 
pearl-afhea, of each 3 lb. 1 1 lb. of nitre, half a be made witlt half a pound of either of tbe above 
pound of borax, and 3 oz. of aricnic For com- compnfitions, half a pound of plait of antimony, 
mon ufe, a pound of common fait may be fubfti- and one dram and a half of the calx of Bold ; 
tuted for the borax. This glafa will be very fbft, proceeding as before. See Glass-making, iitf. 
and will not bear much wear If employed for rings XIV. § ig. Sapphire. Take of the compilation 
bucklo/orfach imitations of Hones as are expoftd for pafte jo lb., of sailer 3 drams and 1 fcraple, 
to much rubbing.; but for ear-rings, ornaments and of the calx Gaffii 1 dram. Powder and fufe 
worn on the breaft, and tbofe little ufed, it may them. Or the fame may be done, by mixing 
laft a considerable time. . with the pafte \ of ita weight of fmalt. Tepax. 
(0.) Pastes, method of colouring. To Take of the competitions under Glass-making 
give pa'ftea different colours, the procefs is as fol- (S>fl. XIV,' ( so.) lo-lb. omitting the faftpetre ; 
lows.— For Ametbyfl. Take 10 lb. of either of tbe and an equal quarrrlty of the Gald-ecloami hard 
compalitions defcribed under Glass-making, Glass. Powder and fufe them. Tnrqmtjr. Take 
SeS. XIV. one ounce and a half of manganefe, of the compofition for blue pafte already defcribed 
and one dram of zafter; powder and fufe them 10 lb., of calcined bone, bom, or ivory, half a 
together. Black. Take 10 lb. of either of the pound. Powder and fufe them. Opaque ntJiitt. 
comnoGtioni juft referred to, one ounce of zafier. Take of the compofitioo for pane 10 tb. and 1 lb. 
6 drams of manganefe, and 5 dr. of iron highly of calcined horn, ivory, or bone ; and proceed as 
calcined; and proceed as before. Blur. Take before. Scimtranjparent white, Uic opal. See 
of the fame compofition 10 lb., bf zaffer 6 dr., and Glass-making, SeS. XIV. $ 15. 
of manganefe 1 dr. ; and proceed aa with the fore* (7,) Pastes, method of mixing, in the 
going. Ciry/hiite. Take of either of the compo- form or Doublets. Let tbe cryftal or glafs be 
fitiona for pafte above defcribed, prepared with- firft cut by tbe lapidaries in the manner ot a bril- 
out faltpetre, 10 lb., and of calcined iron 5 drams ; liant, except that, in this cafe, the figure muft be 
and purfue the fame procrfsai with tbe reft. Red compofed from two feparate ftonee, or pans of 
Cornelian. Take of tbe compnfitions mentioned ftonea, formed in the manner of tbe upper and 
under Glass-making, Se8. XIV. a lb., of glafa under parti of a brilliant, if it was divided in an 
of antimony 1 lb., of the calcined vitriol called horizontal direction, a little lower than the mid- 
fcarlet ocbr* % lb-, and of manganefe one dram. die. After the two platea of the intended none 
Fufe the glafs of antimony and manganefe with are thus cut, and fitted fo exactly that no divifion 
the compofitioo ; then powder them, and mix can appear when they are laid together, the 
them with tbe other, by grinding them together, upper part muft be polifhed ready for letting ; 
and fufe them with a gentle heat. White Cornelian, and then the colour muft he pot betwixt tbe two 
Take of the compofitioo juft referred to 9 lb., platea by this method. Take of Venice or Cjr- 
of yellow ochre well wafhed a drama, and of prus turpentine two Temples; and add to it one 
calcined bones 1 oz. . Mix them, and fufe them fcruple of the grains of anaftkh chofeo perfectly 
with a gentle heat. Diamond. Take of the white pure, freefromfoulnelo,andprevioufly powdered. 
land tint, of red lead 4 lax, of pearl -aJhea purified Melt them together in a until lilver or bras) fpoon 
3 lb., of nitre 1 lb , of 'arfenic j ox., and of manga- ladle, or Other ■ veffet, and put to them gradn- 
nefe one fcruple. Powder and fufe them. Eagle ally any of the coloured fubftances belew men- 
marine. Take ro lb. of the compofition under tioned, being firft well powdered ) ftirring them 
Glass-making, . j OS, of copper highly cal- together aa the colour is put in, that tbey may 

be 



P A3S .( 79 ) PAS 

©= trwroughlyiommixed. Wirni thai/the doub- the different calces of lead are all adapted to pro- 
lets to the fame degree or h«t as the melted mix- dttce the -fame effect in vitrification ; yet M. Fon- 
ture; and paint the upper surface of the lower tafrieo prefers lead in fcalee, and next to that mi- 
part, and put the upper one tnftantly Upon it, tu'wi* as being the moft conftantly pure; Sift 
prtfling them to each other, but taking care that through' a filt neve the preparations or lead to be 
tbey may be conjoined in the TOow'perfectly even ufed in the vitrification) to feparate the gruffer 
manner. When the cement Wr paint ia quite cold parts; at alfn the lead in a metallic ftate when 
and let, the redundant parti of'iry which has been white lead in fcales ia employed. The bale of 

E relied out of the joint of the two pieces,' mould factitious gemi is calx of lead and roct-cryftal. 
C gentry (craped off the Tide, till there be no ap- Pure fand, flint, and the tranfparent pebble* of 
pcarance of any colour on the outride of the doub- river*, are Jubilances equally fit to make glafs: but 
lets: and they mould then be ikitfully fet ; obfer- aa it is firft neceflary to break rnaffe* of cryftal, 
ring to cany the mounting over the joint, that dories, or pebbles, into (mailer parts ; fo by this 
the upper piece may be well fecured from fepa- - operation particles of iron or copper are freqtient- 
raiing from the under one. The colour of the ly introduced, and to tbefe duft or greafy matter. 
kuby may be bed imitated,' by mixing a fourth are alio apt to adhere. Our author therefore be- 
part of carmine with forac of the fined crimfon gini by putting the pounded cryftal or pebbles ill- 
lake that can be procured. The s»p*hi«e may to a crucible, which be places in a degree of heat 
be counterfeited by very bright Phiffian blue, capable of making the ma fc red-hot ; he thenpours 
mixed with a little of the above, mentioned crim- ithrtD a wooden bowl filled with very clear water j 
Ton lake, to give it a caft of the -purple. The and fhakrng the bowl from time to time, the fmall 
Pruffian blue fhould not be very dee p-coloured, portiOnsnfcoalsfurmfhedbytheextrancouabodies 
or but little ofit fhoald he ufcd: for otherwife, it fwim orMhe furface of the water, and the vitriB- 
wil! give a black made that will 'be injurious to able earth/with the iron, &c. refls on the bottom, 
the luftrc of-the doublet*. The kmirald may He then -decant* the waters a,lc1 having dried the 
be counterfeited by distilled verdigris, -with a maft, pounds it, fift* the powder through the tineft 
little powdered aloes. Bat the mixture fhould filk rjeve ; then digefti the powder 4 or 5 hours 
not be ftrongly heated, nor kept long over the with muriatic acid, (haking fhc mixture every 
fire after the verdigris ia'added : for the colour hour. After having decanted the acid from the 
will be fbon impaired by it. Thertfemblancc of wtrifiabte earth, be waffles the latter until the wa- 
the garnet may be made by dragon's blood; ter no longer reddens the tinctureof tumfol. The 
which, if it cannot be procured of fufficient earth, being dried, is pafJrd through a (ilk neve, 
bright reft, may be helped by a very fmall quan- and is their lit for ufe. Nitre, fait of tartar, and 
tity of carmine. TneanrarHYST may be imita- borax, are the three fpecka of falls that enter with 
ted by the mixture of fbme Pruffian blue with quartz and the calces of lead into M. Fontameu's 
the crimfon lake ; but the proportions, can only vitrification*. The fucceft depends much on the 
be well regulated by direction, as different parcel* accurate proportion of the uibftances made ufe of 
of the lakeand PrufTian bluevary extremely!^ the to form the cryftal which ferve* as a bate. After 
degree of Brength of the tolonr. TheycflowTo- having tried a great variety of receipts, our author 
tazas may be c Ooaieife h ed try mixing the pow- recommends the following: 1. Take two parts 
dered aloe* with a- little dragon's blood, or by and a half of lead in (tales, one part and a half of 
good Spanrih anottot but the colour muft be rock-eryftal or prepared nintt,.half a part of nitre, 
very fparingly ufed, or the tinge will be too ftrong a* much borax, and a quarter part of glafs of arfc. 
for the appearance of that atone. . The en it to- nic. Thefe being well pulverized and mixed to- 
urs, hyacinth, vinegar garnet, eagle marines ' Bether are-put into a Heffian crucible, and itib- 
and other fuch weaker or more diluted .coin ur*l milted tot the fire. When the mixture is well 
may be formed in the fame manner, bylofboing melted, pour it into cold water)' then melt it 
the proportion* of the colours, or by compound; again a id and a 3d time ; taking care after each 
hag them together correfpondently to the hue of melting to throw it into frefh cold water, and to 
the Hone to be imitated; to which end it is proper feparate from it the lead that may be revived, 
to have an original ftfmr, or an exact imitation of The fame' crucible mould not be ufcd a ad time, 
one, at band when the mixture I* made, in order a* the glafs of lead ia apt to penetrate it, and lofe 
to the more certain adapting the colour* to the the content*. Cover The crucible well, to prevent 
effect defJred : and when thefe precautions are ta- any coals getting into it, which would fpoil the 
ken, and the operation well conducted, it is prac- competition, a. Take two parts and a half of 
ticable to bring the doublet* to fo near a rcftm- white cerufe, one part of prepared flints, half a 
Hance of the true ft ones, that even the beft judges part of fait of tartar, and a quarter part of calci- 
canrjot diftmgmfh them, when well fet, without ned borax: melt the mixture in a Heflian crucible* 
a peculiar manner of infpectiont via. by behol- and then poor it into cold water; then melt it 
ding them betwixt the eye and light, in fneb pofi- again, and waih it a ad and a 3d time, the fame 
two, drat the light may pafs through the upper precautions being obferved. 3. Take two parts 
put and corner* of the ftone ; when It will eafily minium, one part rock cryftal, half a part of niire, 
he perceived that there is 00 colour in the body and a* much bit of tartar: this mixture being 
of the ftone-. melted, muft be treated ai the former. 4. Take 
(8.) Pastes, M. Fohtanisu's method of three pans of calcined borax, one part of preps - 
■UlraCTHlBASiaop. M.Fontanieuof the Royal red rock -cryftal, and one part of tail of tartar ; 
Academy of Science* at Paris, propofed the fol- tbefe being well mixed and melted together, mult 
bwing procefJes, which were approved. Although be poured into warm water ; the water being de- 
canted 



PAS. < 80 ) ,!P/.A S 

canted and the mat) dried, 20 equal qu3ttity of and .theprestptate. walked one* or twice, h dried 
minium mull be added to it [ it it then fe» be oieJt- till it become* a brown powder. a. Pour into a 
ed and named feveral timet as directed above, vefiel of .fine tin with, a thick bottom 4 oz- of the 
5. That called by our author the Mo^au^.U^i, folution of goldaithieemwutesaficiadJ Wo pint* 
and which he conGdera atone of tbe floeft cryftal- of diftilled watctv > Iiet tbia mixture Hand in the 
line compofitiont hitherto known, it thus uompo- tin veffel 7 hows, -taking care to Air it every bom 
led: Take three part t of filed alkali of tartar, 1 witii a glafi tube^ afterwards pour it into a com- 
part of rock-cryftal of flint pulverised: the mix- -calgfafi jug^and-add toit a pint of Dew urine; the 
ture to be well baked together, and then left to minrral piirple ii foon precipitated, and then ii to 
cool. It ii afterwards poured into a crucible, of be warned and dried. 3. Diftil in a slab cornute 
hot water to diflblvethe fritt } tbe u>Hitioo of the placed, lo a bath of afhes, fume gold diffolved in 
fritt it then received into a ftone T ware pan, land -aqua regit, made with three partt nitron* and one 
aquafortis added gradually till it no longer efijtf- ■part muriatic acid t when tbe acid it palled over 
vefcee: tbia water being decanted*, the fritt mull and the gold contained in tbe cornute appears dry, 
be warned in warm water till it bat no longer any leave the Tenet to cool, then pom- into it fome 

' ttfte : tbe fritt is then dried, and mixed with new aqua regit, and proceed to diftil at before, 
one part and a half of fine ecrufc or white lead Replace the aqua regia twice upon the gold, and 
in fcalea; and this mixture muft be Weil teviga- diftil tbe fame. After thefe four operation a, ponr 
ted with a little diftilled water. To «ne part .by .little and tittle into the cornute fome oil of tar- 
and a half of tbit powder dried add an ounce Ux per drSjmm, which willoccafion a brifkefler 
of calcined borax: let the whole be well (noted vefceneei when tbit eeafea, diftil tbe mixture til) 
in a marble mortar, then melted and poured into it become* dry, ; and then put fome warm water 
cold water. Thefe Fufiont and lotions having into the cornute.' Shake the whole and poor it 
been repeated, and the mixture dried and powder- : in to. a ■ cucurbit, when, a precipitate it depofited, 
ed, a tlth part of nitre muft be added,, and then tbecednurof-which it forrJerimes brown andfome- 
meited for tbe laft time ; when a very tine cryftal time»yellow : After hating warned thia precipt- 
wilt.be found in the crucible, ft. For; very fine tate.dry it. Thia mineral purple it much fuperi. 
white ftenes: take 8 oz. of cerufe, 3 oz, of rook- ■fir to the fukegoing, 'two grafuof it only were 
cryftal pulverized, * oz. of borax finery powdered, fuffictent to an .dunce of tbe bafc, whaft it requi- 
and half a grain of manganefe; -having melted red of. the other two a »otb part of the bafe. He 
and wafhed tbit mixture as above,; it produces a found a means of exalting the colour of tbe pre- 
very fine white cryftal. ■ , cipitate of Caffius, by putlingtoit afixthpartuf i(t 
(9.) Pastes, H. FostAhiev's^bocim rot. weight' of gh)f» of antimony finely powdered, and 
Colouring. On the preparation of the calces of of nitre: in the ■proportion of a dram to S oz. of 
rnetaaj depends tbe vividnefi of the colours, n, the bafe. 6, .From Silver.- The calx of filter, 
From Geld. To obtain tbe mineral purple named being vitrified, produce* a yeUowifb grey colour. 
fretipitate rtf Cajfrmi t- Diffblvefomepwegoldin £*hia oaia entaa only into the compofilion of the 
aqua regia.. prepared with 3 parls ; ot precipitated ydlgw artificial diamond and the opal. H. Fon- 
nitrout acid and one .part of, muriatic acid t-io tacrim Introduces it into the bafe. in the form of 
bafi en the diflblu lion, tbe matrafafhouldibcplaeed Ims< cornea. To.- prepare- it, difibh* the filver in 
in a land -bath. IM» this poor aiohitionjrftihin ptecrpitnted'ratrout acid,: arai.i afterwards pour 
aquafegia. The mixtufebeooinetturbid,andtbe into it a fufotion jot? tea-Tak: a white precipitate 
gold is precipitated with' a .portion of ■the tin, in ft obtained t'Wxdcb, being warned and dried, rneiU 
the form of a reddiftt powder? which*«rfteT being very readily Jn the lire, and it icon yotatilrzed, 
walhed and dried, it-called preapitatrqf£m£nur~ jf not mixed with verifiable matter*. To make 
TheaqiiaregiaemproTedtodiObrtelhetouiacom- JhsynfloW. diamond. »j grain* of (hit I una cornea 
pofed of j partsnitroutacidandone.pnrt.of mo- are pdLtoati ounce of the bafe: tbedofeof filver 
riaticacld: to 8 oz. of tbia aqua regia a re. added may be diminilhed according to tbe made of yci- 
16 ox. of diftilled water. Soanelenvel-of ■Malacca low thatoue wifhet to procurer t, From Ctfptr. 
tin, about the fixe and taicknefi of anxpeeue.are The calx of copper impart* to white, gum the 
then pot into thit diluted aqua regia, till it will tmeft peencotonr; but if thia metal be. not ex. 
didblve no more of them. : which operation re- acf ly in a tUte of calx, it produces a brownifh 
quires commonly 1% or 14 days ; though it might red colour. Mataitam blue, verdigris, and the re- 
be haftened by beating .the tin fti II thinner, and htrue of its eriftibatton, are the different prepara- 
then rolling it into the form in* a hollow cylinder, tiona of copper which our author employt to 
or turning it round into fpira) convolutions. To to make the artificial emeralds, d, From Iron. ' 
prepare more readily tbe precipitate of Caffiua, M. Although it hat been rfferted, that the calces of 
Fontanteu putt mto a large jng eight ounce* of fo. iron introduce 1 very fine tranipareot red colour 
lotion of tin, to .which lie add* lour pints of.dittil- into white glafu, M. Fontanieu could only obtain 
led water: he afterward* poura into this metallic from it a pale red, a little opaque. The calx of 
lye fome folution of gold, drop by drop, taking iron that he employed was m tbe proportion of 
care to ftir the whole with aglafitube: When the the aoth part of the bafe. There arc feveral ways 
mixture becomes of a deep purple colour, becoa- of preparing the calx of iron called cronu Martu 
fes dropping the folution of gold; sndtobaften or ftffrm of Mars. One may ufe the fcaienof iron 

■ the precipitation of the mineral purple, pours into fonQd upon the bars of the furnacea, which ferve 

the mixture a pint of frefh urine. Six or feven to diftil aquafortis. By digefting filings of fteel 

hours after, the precipitation it collected at the with diftilled vinegar, then evaporating and repla- 

bottom of the vetTel : the fluid it then decanted ; ring the vinegar 10 or is timet upon thefe filings, 

D,,„a»,Google •* 



PAS ( 81 i PAS 

iaA drying them alternately, a calx of iron id ob- nefe proper tft' fumiQi a red colour, and name* U 

tjined, which mutt be fifted through a filk fieve, fufibit ttumgantp. Take of manganefe of Pie*' 

and then calcined. The cats of iron thus obtain, moot one pound ; torrify and pulverize it ; then 

ed by the vinegar, introduced a green colour in- mix It with a pound, of nitre, and calcine the mix- 

dining to a yellow. By the following pfocefa a lure daring 14 boun; afterwards warn it rcpeaf- 

faffronof Man of the fined red colour it obtained: edlyin warm water, tiM the water of the lyei has 

Let an ounce of iron filings be, difibived in ui- no longer any Caftc ; dry tie manganefe, and mix 

truus acid in a glafs cornute, and diftilled over a with it an -equal weight of fal .aaimoniac \ levigate 

find-bath to dryueta. After having replaced the tbii mixture on a Dab of porphyry with oil of vi- 

acid or the dry calx, and re-di (tilting it a id and iriol diluted with water to the ftrengtfe of vine- 

3d time, it it then edulcorated' with fpirit of wine, gar. Dry the' mixture, and introduce it into a 

and afterward* wafted with diftilled water.' t, cornute; diftil by a graduated fire I arid when the 

From the Magnet. Calcine the magnet before it fal ammoniac hi fublimcd, Weigh it, and add to 

be introduced into the vitrifications : Oaring ton- the mixture an equal quantity. Then diftil Kid 

rined the magnet two hours, it muft be wafted fublime at before, and repeat the operation fix 

aid dried. It is only employed in the compofi- t,imes t at each time mix the fal ammoniac and 

tion of the opal. /, From Cobalt* The calx of ca~ the manganefe upon the porphyry with diluted 

bait is only proper to introduce a blue colour into oil of vitriol. At Tournhault in Bohemia, there 

glafs ; but this metal is rarely free from iron and fi fold a fnflbie giab of a yellow colour, very like 

bifmuth, and therefore it is fiift Decenary to fepa- that of the topaz of Brazil, which, when expofed 

rate them from it; This is done by calcining the to a degree of fire in a cupel fufficient to redden 



ore of cobalt to dliengage the ariemc i afterwards it, becomes of a very fine ruby colour, itoore o 
the calx muft be diftilled in a cornute with fal left deep according to the degree of fire to which 
ammoniac, and the iron and the bifmuth are fob- it has been expoled. Oar author aflayed this 



limed with the fait. The ditt illation muft be re- glafj, and found it to contain a great deal of 
pealed with the fill ammoniac till this fait is no but was not able todifcover any gold in k. 
loiger coloured yellow. The cobalt which re- (10.) Pasts*, M.FoXtauiid's hpi.es, xi- 
mains in the cornute is then calcined in a potfherd,- sfsctino the Fill, Firawaci, AND COHFOSI- 
aad becomes a very pare calx : which being in- now* fox. There are three degrees of heat very 
troduced into the bale, ■ in the proportion of a different in their energy The lire kept op in the 
900th part, gives it a very fine blue colour, the wind-furnaces in the laboratories of cbemiftl, is 
iatenfity of which may be fncreafed at drfcretfon left active than that whofc effect is accelerated by 
by the addition of calx of cobalt. To prepare the means of beuowa f and a fire fupported by 
ilaii enamel refembling that which is called biaci wood, and kept up during 60 hour* without in- 
agati of Iceland \ melt together ijlb. of one of terruptioo, produces lingular effect in vitrifies^ 
the bales, a ox. of the caht of cobalt, a oz. of era- tion, and renders the glafs (bier and lets alterable. 
tat Martii, prepared with vinegar, and a oz. of When recourfe iff had to the forge, in order to 
mangaaefe. g. From Tin. The caht of tin is not operate a vitrification, it is neceflary to torn a- 
, vitrifi able alone, it renders opake the glafs 'with bout th^ Crucible from time to time, that the mafa 
which rt la melted, and forms white enarnet. For may melt equally. Some coal alto mould be re- 
ikis purpofe, calcine the putty of tin ; then warn placed, in proportion as it eotifume* towards the, 
and dry it, and fift it through a filk fieve. Take noxel of the bellows ; tor without this precaution, 
6 lb. Of the ad bafe, the fame quantity of the cal- we ftionld ron the rifle of cooling the crucible op. 
cincd potty of tin, and 48 grains of manganefe. pofite to the flame, and* probably of cracking it, 
t, From Antimony. If the antfmony he in a ftate when all the melted mats running among the coals 
of abfofutecalx.fiichasthediaphoreticantimony, would be totally loft. Though tbfs is the readieft 
it is no longer titrifiable, and may be fubfttiuted way of meltixg, it Ihonld not be employed oat of 
for calx of tin to make white enamel. M. 1'on- choicer for the cnieibte often breaks, or coal* 
lauieu introduces the glad of antimony in the get into it, and reduce the calx of lead to a me* 
eonipofition of artificial topazes. For the orlert- .tallic ftate. The wind furnace, is either iquare or 
lal tafiax, be take* 14 ox. of the Grit bale* and five round. - A fmall cake of baked clay or brick, of 
drachm* of the glab of antimony. To imitate the thicknefaof an inch, isplaeed upon t*egme; 
the topan of Saxony, he adds to each ouhce of the and upon this cake is placed the crucible,, fur- 
bafe five grains of the glafs of antimony. For the rounded With coals* The degree of heat pro- 
tofaii of BrosM, he take* 14 oz. of the firft bale, duced by this furnace i* much left than that of 
and one ounce 14 grains of glafo of antimony, and the forge: but to fucceed in the vitrification, M. 
8 grains of l\K precipitate ef Cojjius. i. From Man- Font. mien recommend* a furnace defcribed by 
gantfe. This mineral, employed in a fmall quan- Kuackel, which, with fome necetTary, alterations, 
tity, render* the glafs whiter j a larger quantity i* reprefented on Plate CCLXIX. The interior 
producer! very fine violet colour, and a ftill lar- part i* fo difpofcd, that We may place crucibles 
ger dole of it renders the glafs black and opake. 'at three different heights j and the name of cham- 
There are two way* of preparing manganefe j r. iert is given to thole ftep* upon wbicb tho cru- 
The mot Ample connfis in expofing itlo a red ciblca are placed. Fig. 1. is a plan of the kiln at 
beat, and then quenching it with diftilled vinegar; the flrft chamber, and/s;. a. a plan of the kiln 
it i* afterward* dried anil" powdered, to paf* it where the fire is placed. Fig. 3. exhibit* the ele- 
through a filk fieve. a. Haodiquer de Blancour vation ; A the afh pit ; i* the door to put in the 
•efrribes the td manner of preparing the manga- wood; t lb* door of the firft. chamber : D the 

Vouxvn.p*«Ti. • . * t *kw 



F A S (, S3 ) P A S 

door of the fecond chamber ; E the third chain- by their caufihg only a tingle refraclion of tfcr 

Beti F the flue or chimney] GG iron boap* which rays of light ; and, to many cafe* by 'heir fptti- 

fiirround the kiln to ftrengthen it. Fig. 4, is a fee- ' fie gravity, which exceeds 1*76 m ill prec una 

tion of the kiln : H the afh-pit with it* air-hole ; genu of the firft order, a* the diamond, ruby, up. 

I the chamber for the fire, with an air-bole; phire, Sic. 

K the firft Chamber for the crucibles; L the fe- (11.) Pastes, reyitid a*t of m..iihg, ik 

cond chamber} M the dome; N the chimney | imitation or amtjqui oims. TNie bat brea 

00 air-holes. The degree. of heat cannot be it different times a method practifed bypartkn- 
cqual in the 3 chambers. The chamber K ii that lar prrfona of taking the imprcffions and Ggurn 
where the heat it greeted, afterwards in that of of antique gems, wiib their en graving*, i D giadof 
L, and 1aftly,in that of M. -Begin by placing the colour of the original gem. This has always 
the crucibles according to their Die, in thefe been efteeraeii a very valuable art, and greatly 
different chamber* ; by which mean* the beft preferable to the ordinary method of doing it on 
effefl in vitrification is produced. To conduct- fealing-wax or brimftone; but this art, being a if- 
the lire well, only three billets of white wood cret in the hand* of particular prrfona, who got 
fhould be put into the furnace at a time for the their bread by it, died with them, and every new 
firft ao hours, four billet* at a time for the next artift was obliged to re-iovent the method; ti'l 
ao hours, and fix billets for the lalt jo hours: in at length Mr Hcanberg,- having difcovered it in 
all 60 hours. The furnace is then left to cool, great perfection, gave the whole procef* to the 
Bare being taken to ftop the air-hole* with fume World to be no more loft ; and Jince that time it 
Intel and, in about 48 hours after, when the has been praflifed in France and other place*, 
kiln is quite cold, the crucible i* to be with- Mr Horn berg waa favoured in bis attempt* with 
drawn. CowrodTibitt. 1. For the whit! dia- all the engraved, gem* of the king's cabinet ; and 
moid: Take the bafe of Mayence. This cry da! took fuch elegant, imprriuoas, and made fuch ea- 
ts very pure, and hat no colour*, a. For tb._tW- act refemblancei of the original), and that in glsf- 
k*u diamond; to ao ounce of the 4th bale, add fe» fo artfully tinged to the colour of the grmi 
for colour «j grains of luna cornea, or 10 grain* themfetoes, that the niceft judges were deceived | 
of glab of antimony. 3. For tbenwroW.' i.Tojj in them, and often took them for the true antique 
oz. of either of* he bale*, -add for colour one dr. Bones. Thefe counterfeit gemtalfo ferve, as well 
of mountain-blue and iixgr.of glafaof antimony 1 as the original one, to make more cepiea from; 
or,' a. To 1 oz. of the id bafe. add aogr. of g'afa fa that there ianoend of the numbers that maybe 
of antimony and 3 gr. of calx of cobalt. 4- For the made from one ; and there is this farther advan- 
fapphire i To 14 ox. of the Mayence bale, add 1 tage, that the copy may be made perfect, though 

, dr. 64 gr. of the calx of cobalt. 5. For the arm- the original fhould not be fo, but ihould bare fnf- 
thjft; To 14 oz. of the Mayence bafe, add 4 dr. of tained fome damage. The chief care in the ope- 
-prepared manganefe and 4 gr. of precipitate of ration is to take the impreffion of the gem in a 
Caffiue. 6. For the Arrr/.' To 14 oz. of the 3d very fine earth, and to pref* down upon this a 
bafe, add 06 gr. of glafa of antimony and 4 gr. of piece of proper glafs, foftened or half melt- 
calx of cobalt, t For the black agate : To 14 or. ed at the fire, fo that the figures of the impref- 
of either of the bafe*, add a oz. of the mixture fion made in the- earth may be nicely and per- 
directed above tn par./.. 8. For the opal: To 1.' fecily expreffed upon the glaft. In general, the 
oz. of the 3d bale, add 10 gr. of luna cornea, a whole procefi much referable* that of the corn- 
gr. of magnet, and 16 gr. of abfbrbent earth. 9. mon founder* ; although in this nice founder? 
For the oriental topaz : To 14 ox. 'of the firft or .there ii a number of difficulties which would not 
. third bafe, add j dr. of glafs of antimony. 10. at all affect the common founder. For bit pur- 
For the fcjwiB 0/ Sarin;.- To i40z. of the fame bafe, pole, every earth will ferve that is fine enough to 
add fit dr. of the glafs of antimony. 11. For the receive the imprefTions, and tough enough not to 
/o^ze/£™*//.-Toa40Z.ofthejdor3dbafr.',add crack in the drying : thefe all ferve for their wit, 

1 oz. 14 gr. of the glal* of antimony, and 8 gr. of becaufe the metals which they caft are of a na- 
precipitate of Caffius. 1* For the iyacintb : To ture incapable of mixing with earth,, or receiving 
34 oz. of the bafe made with rock-cryftal, add a it into them, even if both are melted together, fo 
dr. 48 gr. of glafs of antimony, 13. For the ci- that the metal always eafily and perfeflly fcpa- 
tytal ruby: I. To ifroz. of the Mayence bafe, add rates itfelf from the mould ; but i( is very difficult 
a mixture of a dr. 48 gr. of the precipitate of Caf- in the caft* of glafs. They are compofed of a 
fiua, the lame quantity of crocus Marti* prepared matter which differ* in nothing from that ot the 
in aquafortis, the fame of golden fulpbur of anti- mould, but that it has been run into this form by 
mouy and of fufibte manganefe, with a oz. of mi- the force of fire, and the other ha* not yet been 
ncral cryftal ; or, 1. To so oz. of the bafe made fo run, but is on any occafion ready to be fo run, 
with Hint, add half an ounce of fuftble manga- and will mix itfelf infeparably with the glafs in a 
nefs and »oz. of mineral cryftal. 14. For the 4w . large fire; consequently, if there be not great care 
lafirubt/: >r. To i*OX.'of the Mayence bafe, add ufed, a* well in the choice of the glafs aa in the 
the above colouring powder, but dimifhed J manner of ufing it, when the whole is finifhed, 
part 1 or, 1. To ao oz. of the bafe made with then: will be found great difficulty in the feparai- 
flirits, add the fame colouring powder, but with ing the glafo from the mould, and often this can- 
4 4ths lefs of the manganefe. The jfo8ffiokt gema not be done without wholly deftroying the im- 
ard eafily diftinguifhed from the natural, by their preffion. AHeartbarun more or lefs eafily in the 
toftaefa and fuiibihtyj by their fallibility in acids; fire aa they are more or left mixed with (aline par- 

■ ticlea 



PAS CM) PAS 

tide*. A* all lilts make earths ran into flak, and cible being then turned bottom upwards, -it will 
■s it it necefTary to ufe an earth on thia occafioa Gftll oat, and the impiefSon will remain very beau- 
for the making a mould, it being alfb necefTary to tifully on the tripela. If the fidei of the cavity 
the perfection of the experiment, that tbil earth have been injured in t be falling out of the done, 
ihonld not melt or run, fome earth mull be got they may be repaired s and the crucible nmltihen 
which naturally contains very little (alt. Of all' be let, for the pafte to dry, in a place Where it 
the earth* which Mr Horn berg examined, none will not be incommoded by the duft, The red 
proved fo much divefted of (alt n, or io fit for the tripoli being the more common and the cheaper 
purpofe, as the common Tat pom, or Tunii, kind, ia here made to nil the crucible only to fare 
ufed to polim glaft and flonea. Of this earth there the other, which alone ii the fubftance fit for ta- 
are'two common kinds; the one reddifta, and king the imp reffion. When the ftoncii taken out, 
compofcd of fevera! 'flakes or ft rata i the other yel- it muft be examined, to fee whether any thing be 
lowhn, and of a fitnpie ftruAure. Theft arc both lodged in any part of the engraving, becaufe if 
to be bad in fljopa. The latter ii from the 1>- there be any of the tripela left there, there wiH 
vant i toe former it found in England, France, certainly be fo much wanting in the hsprenion. 
and many other places. Thia tripela muft bechc- When the crucible and pafte are dry, a piece of 
fen (bft and fmooth to the touch, and not mined glafi muft be cbo(en of a proper colour, and cut 
with fandv or other extraneous matter. The yet- to a fine proper for the figure; thia muft be laid 
lowifh kind, commonly called Venetian tripoli, ia over the mould, bntinmeba manner that .it doe* 
the beft. It receives the impreffioiis very beaut i- DM touch the figure*, otberwife it Would fpoil 
fully; and never mixes with the gl*fi in tbe ope- them. The crucible ia then to be brought near 
ration, which the red kind fometime* doe*. Mr the furnace by degree*, and gradually heated till 
Homberg ufually employed both kind* at once in it cannot be touched without burning the finger*; 
the following manner :firft, powder a quantity of then it ia to be placed in the furnace under a muf. 
tbe red tripela in an iron mortar, and fitting it tie, furrounded with charcoal. Several of thefe 
through a fin* 6eve, fetit by for ufe; then (crape finall crucible* may be placed under one muffle; 
with a knife a quantity of the yellow tripela into and when they are properly difpofcrt, tbe aperture 
a fort of powder, and afterward* rub it till very of the muffle fhould have a large piece of burning 
fine in a glafa mortar with a glaft peftle. The charcoal put to it, and then the operator it to 
finer tbit powder is, tbe finer will be the impref- watch the procefs, and fee when tbe glifs begin* 
lion, and the more accurately perfect the caft. to look bright ; thia ia the fignal of ita being fit to 
The artificer might naturally fuppofe, that tbe receive the iai predion.' Tbe crucible is then to 
beft method <o obtain a perfect fine powder of be taken out of tbe fir* ; and the hot glafs muft be 
this earth, would be wafhing it in water ; but, preffed down upon the mould with an iron inilru- 
he muft be cautioned againft this. There is natu- merit, to make it receive tbe regular jmprcilion : 
rally in thia yeHowifli tripela a fort of unftuofity, as foon as thii is done, the crucible is. to be let at 
which, when it ia formed into a mould, keeps ita the fideof the furnace out of the way of the wind, 
granule* together, and give* the whole an uniform that it may cool gradually without breaking. 
gloffy furface: now the wattling the powder take* When it is cold, the. glafa ia to be taken out, and 
away this unflttolity ; and though it render* it it* edges (hould be grated round with pincers, 
much finer, it make* it leave a granulated furface, which will prevent it* flying afterward*, which ia 
not this (booth one, io the mould ; and this muft an accident that fometime* happens when thi* 
render tbe furface of the caft lef* fmooth. When caution baa been omitted, efpccially when tbe 
the two tripela* are feparately powdered, the red glafs is naturally tender. The different coloured 
kind muft be mixed with fo much water as will glafic* are of different degrees of hardnels, ac- 
bring it to the confidence of pafte, fo that it may cording to their competition ; but tbe bardeft to 
be moulded like a lump of dough between the melt are always tbe beft for this purpofe, and thi* 
finger*; this pafte muft be pnt into a fmall cru- ia known by a few trials. If it be dcfired to copy 
cible of a Oat fbape, and about half an inch or a ftone in relief which is naturally in erenx, or to 
a little more in depth, and of fuch a breadth at take one in crcux which is naturally io relief, there. 
the furface aa it a little moretban that of tbe (tone needs no more than to take an impreffion firft in 
whofe imprefbon i* to be. taken. The crucible ia wax or fulpbur, and to mould that upon the pafte 
to be nicely filled with this pafte lightly preffed of tripela inftead of the ftone itfelf i then proceed- 
down into it, and the furface of the pafte muft be ing in the manner before directed, the procefs will 
Brewed over with the fine powder of tbe yellow blvetbedefired freed*. A more fimple and eafy 
tripela not wetted/ When this it done, the (tone, method than the above ia by taking the caft* in 
of which the imprcfli.ni t* to be taken, muft be gypfum, or platter of Paris, aa it it commonly cal- 
laid upon the furface, and preffed evenly down led. For tbit purpofe, the gypfum muft be fine- 
into the pafte with a, finger and thumb, fo aa to ly pulverifed, and then mixed with clear water to 
make it give a ftmng and perfect impreffion j the tbe confidence of thick cream. Thia ia poured 
tripela it thro to be preffed nicely even to it* fide* upon the face of the gem or leal of which the im- 
with the finger*, or with an ivory knife. The predion ia wanted, and which muft be previoufly 
floue muft be thus left a few moments, for the moiftened with oil to facilitate the feparation of 
tomktity of the pafte to moiften the dry powder of the caft; and to confine the liquid planer, it ia 
&e yellow tripela which ia ftrewed over it; then only necefTary to pin a Dip of oiled paper round 
the ftone H to be carefully raifed bjr the point of the fides of the leal, by way of a cape or rim. 
iKedle fixed in a handle of wood j and the cru. When the plaflcr il dry, it ia to be taken off, and 

La i«* 

DflfednyGoOgle. 



£ 



► AS («4) PAS 

fet before the month oF the furnace) to free it en- not cultivated is an nttenfive manner till tlw 1*. 

tirely frommoifture ; when it is fit to be ufed as ginning of , the iBtta century, when M. Hoir.herg 

a matrix in the lame way as-that formed with the reftored it It toil be h bid to hate been greatly 

tripel'a earths. Only no crucible- or other recep- affifled and encouraged by the then duke of Or- 

tacle is at all neceflary ; the carts being formed lean* regent of France, who amuled hirofelf with 

like fo many fmall cikes half an inch thick, and that celebrated chemift, is taking off imprrffioni 

thus put into the furnace with the bits of glads in pafte from the king of France's, hii owi, sod 

upon them. The glafs, after coming to the pro- other collections of gem*. According to the 

Eer heat, it prefled down upon the mouM wui an Breach Eucyclopedifts, M. Clachaot the elder, an 

on fpaUila to receive tbe defired impreffwiu, the engrarer of forne note, who died at Pari» in 1781, 

preffure requifite being more or left according to learned thia art from hii royal bighneis, to uhofe 

the file of the ftone. This method hae been tang houfehold, hia father 01 he, teems to hare belonged. 

Rraaifed very Xuccefsfully, and with no mull com. Had. Felajx next cultivated this art. Sbe had 

iment, by Mr Deucbar of Edinburgh. Tbe only bean taught by her father, wbo, in quality cfgar- 

fefpeci In which it ii interior to )hc other more (on de chambre to the regent, bad often siffifted in 

operofe and expetifive methods, confift* in the the laboratory of hia matter, where be acquired 

chance of air-bubbles 'arifmg in pouring on the this knowledge. Her collection couftfta of ilea 

lafteri which chance, however, is left in propor- articles. Baron Stofcb, a Pruftuu, wbo travelled 

on to tbe finenefs of tbe gypfum employed, over Europe in queft of original engraved Bones 

When air-bubbles occur, the'eafts may be tatd and iropreffions or ancient gems, for the' elegant 

((fide, as it ii fo eafy to renew them. The appli- work which he published and Pieart engraved, 

cation of paries to multiply and prefcrve the im- entitled Grmm* amtiy** cotorat*. was well ac. 

preffions of camaieur and intaglios, is an object quainted with this art. He bad taught it to bit 

very interefiing to artitta and tp antiquaries, as (errant Chriftian Deho, wEh> fettled at Rome, 

well as to men of learning and tafte in the fine arts, where be made and fold his well known fulphur 

This art, though only lately refloied in any degree impreffions and paftes. He had collected 1500 

of perfection, is of very confiderable antiquity, articles. Dolce has' arranged them in a fcirotific 

The great prices which the ancients paid for the order, and given a defcriptivc catalogue of them. 

elegant gems engraved by the celebrated Greek. It was chiefly from Dchns collection that the tatte 

artifta, co.uld not but early vugscll to them the for sulphurs and paftes has become fo unmrtal. 

idea of multiplying their numbers, bf taking off They are great Objects of fiudy,and often require 

their imprefiions in Was, in fulphur, in platter, or much learning to explain them. They have un- 

in clay ; but more particularly in coloured glafs, queftionably ferved to extend and improve the art 

or that vitrified fubftance commonly called pajtt, of engraving on ftones ; and bare been of infinite 

. As the impreffions on pafte are durable, and imi- ufe to painters, to ftatuaries, and to other art ills, 

rate the colours and brilliancy of the original ai well as to, men of claflical learning and fine 

ItoneB, they ferve tbe fame purpofes as the gems tafte. It is very difficult to take off impreffions, 

themftUea. This art was therefore pra&ifed, not and perfectly to imitate various coloured canieoa. 

only by the Greets, but by all the nations whe It cannot be properly done in wax, fulphur, plaf- 

cultivated Grecian tafte. Marty oflhe fincft gems rer, or glafs of one colour only. The difficulties 

of antiquity are now loft, and their imprefiions anting from their fize and form, and from tbe va- 

are to be found only on ancient paftes. Great rious nature of tbe different forts of glafs, which 

therefore is the value oF thefe paftes. Numerous do not well unite into different ftrsta, are very uu- 

collections of them have been formed by the curt- meroua ; nor could the completed fuccefe iu this 

ous. Inftanrts of thia are found in the Florentine chemical and mechanical branch of the art, pro- 

Mufeuin, -in Stofch's work on ancient gems duce a tolerable cameo. Imprefliona or imitations, 

with infcriptionB, in Winckelman's defcription of if unaflifted by the tool of tbe engraver, do not 

Stofch's cabinet, and in the noble collection of fucceed : becaufe the undercutting and deep work 

Mr Charles Townley in London. The art of of mod of the originals, require to be filled up with 

taking impreflions of gems feems not to have been clay or wax, that the moulds may come-off fafe 

altogether loft even in the Gothic ages ; for Hera- without injuring them. Hence the impreflions 

elms, who probably lived in the 9th century, and from thefe moulds coma off hard, and deftimte of 

■ wrote a book De coJpribuj tt artibui Romanorum, delicacy, fharpnefs, and precllion of outline, tit) 

teaches in very plain terms bow to make them, tbe 'underworking of the moulder is cut away. 

Indeed, fome of the few who then poffelTed this But Mr Keitfenftein at Rome, by his genius, pcr- 

art taking advantage of tbe ignorance of the ievtrance, and the alMance of able artifts, has 

times,-, fold paftes for the original gem*. This the overcome thefe difficulties \ and has had the fatia. 

famous emerald of the abbey of Reicbnsw near faction of fuccecding, 'and producing variegated 

Conftance, although a prefent made by Charle- cameos which can hardly be diftinguifhed from 

rnagnc, is now found to be a piece of glaft. And- the originals. MrLipparf of Drefdeu.an ingenious 

thus the celebrated emerald vale in the cathedral' glar.ier, and an entbufuft in the fine arts, praciifee 

of Genoa <S likewtfe found to be a pafte. The thia branch not unfuccefcfully ; but not findioj; 

OenoL-fe jiot this vafe at the tilting of Cefarea, in fufficicrrt encouragement for hia paftes of c» 

sioii as an equivalent for a large fum of money j loured glab, or perhaps from local difficulties 

nor was any.impofition then Qifpeeted, for in 13 19 in making them well and cheap, be abandon, 

they pawned it for dm marc* of gold. But this cd this art. He fubftituted in its place impref 

ingenious art, revived indeed in Italy, in the time lions of 6ne white aUbader or of felenite plaf 

«i Laurence De Medici*, and Pope Leo JJ. was ter. Such impicfliout, when carefully foaked ii 

• Dqrtzedny^OOgle 



* A S ( 85 ) PAS 

i Motion of white Caftile (bap, then dried, and paries "rat* executed hi agreeably and chiefly 
nibbed over with s fnft brufh, take a v/ery agree- tranl'parent , colours ; coat an attention being be- . 
tblepolilb. They fbow the work peibapa to bet- flowed to prefeive the outlines, extremities, attri- 
ter advantage than red or wnneiulpaiut do; t»at butes, and infcriptiona. It was the learned Mr 
rhey are uoVtb durable, and are liable- to be de- Rafpctfront which this account is taken) wbo ar- 
faced by rubbing. Of there impreSons Mr Lip- ranged this great colled ion, and made out the de- 
partpub lifted 3 dhTereut collections, each of theaa fcriptivc catalogue. Hi* arrangement if nearly tire 
containing 1000 article* t and to the merit of ha- &ne with that of the late Abbe Winckdmaun,in 
ting increased the number of Mad. Felora and hit defcription of the genis which belonged to 
ChriftiaB Dehn'a collections, which are all infert- Baron Stofch. But as modem works were inferr- 
ed in bis, he added that of employing two learn, edin tbia collection, be roBodhnecefiary to make 
Ml German* to arrange and defcribe them. The a few alteration*, and .added fome divifions to 
tiHt iooo were arranged and defcrtbed by the late thole of M. Winckelmann, aa will appear from 
Prof. Chrtft at Leipfic, and the ad and 3d 1000 by the following confpectus. I. Ancient Art and • 
Prof. Heine at Goettingto. Nordid Mr Lippart Engravings. Egyptian afleroglypbics, facred ani- 
Ropberei bat, to nuke the ftudy of antiauity nutis, divinities, priefts. Bafilidian, GnoSic, and 
more easy and acceptable to artiAe, he fete&ed out other ulifmana. Sec Oriental and barbarous an- 
of the- whole collection of 3000, a fattier one of cient and modern engravings. Greek and Roman 
1000 of tb* heft and moft inftniflite fflbjefla, -of originals, copies, and imitation s"( the Etrufcan are 
which be bimfelf drew up and published a defcrip- •iafied with the.Greek wo/ks). A, Mythology or 
tion in German. But of all the srtjfts who have fabulous age. Gods, interior divinities, religious 
taken impreffionsot engraved gewiaio (ulphurand ceremonies. B, Heroic age before the liege of 
in pafle, ooonefernv to have carried that art t* Troy. Ci Siege nf Troy. D r Hiftoric age. Of l 
fuch perfection aa Mr Jamer Taffie* a native of Carthage, Greece, Rome, fubjects unknown. E, 
GUfgow, who hasreftded in- London fince 11M. Fabulous animal* and chimeras. P, Vafes and 
HV» knowledge hi various branches of the fine art*, urns, II. Modern Arrand Engravings. A, Reli- 
paiticularly in that of drawing, natusatty led blm giou* fabjc&s. B, Portraits of kings and fovcr 
to it. The elegant portraits which he models in reigns. C, Portraits of illuftrioua men in alpha- 
wax, and afterward* montda and carta id paftc, betical order. O, Portraits unknown. E, Devices 
which entirely referable cameos, are well known and emblems. F, Cyphers, arms, fnnportera, and 
to the public. Mr Taffie, profiling of all the for- medley of modern hi It or y. 

ffler publications of this 'Sort, and By expenfe, hi- * To PasrG. ». o. [po/lrr, Fr. from the noun.] 
dufiry, and accefs to Many cabinets itr England To fattun with parte. — By p.'JIing the vowels and 
and other kingdoms to which former art! ft a had confab ant* on the fides of dice,' his eldell fonpiay- 
not obtained admhTion, ha* now in created bit coU eeVhimielf into fpelling. Lode. — Young creatures 
i:ct ion of impreflions of ancient and modern gems have learned their letter* and fyllables, by having 
to the number of above 15,000 article*. It is the them pafied upon Htt-Je Baf tablets. Wiittt. 
greater! Collection 01" thii kind that ever nifted ; ' ().) * PasTIBOlaD. n.f. [pafie and board 1 
and ferves far all thepurpofes of artifts, antrqua- Mafles made anciently by parting one peper on 
riesjfcholars,menof tafte, and pbilofopnert. The another: now made fometimes by macerating pa- 
great demand for his partes was perhaps owing per and carting it in moulds, fometimes by pound- 
in the beginning to the London jewellers, who in- Ing old cordage, and calling it in form*.— Tintoret 
troduced them into falhion, by letting them in made chambers of board and pafitboard, propor- 
rlngs, feali, bracelets, necklaces, avid other trin- tinned to his models. Drydfn. — I would not make 
kets. The reputation of tht* collection having myfelf merry even with a piece of pafttboari, that 
reached the emprefs of Ruffia, flie ordered a com- i* inverted with a public character. Addifen. ■ 
plete let % which being accordingly executed in (a.) * Pasteboard, adj. Made of parteboard". 
the beft and moft durable manner, were arranged '—Put (ilk worms on whited brown paper into a 
in elegant cabinets, and placed in the apartments pajhboard bos. Mortimer. 
of her fiiperb palace at Czarfco Zelo. MrTaffie, (3.) Piste bo* to is chiefly nfed for binding: 
in executing this comtniffioii, availed himfelf of all books, making letter- cafes, &c See' Piria- 
the advantagea which the improved ftate of che- mskihg, SrB. II, $ 5. 
miftry, the various ornamental arts,and the know- (1.) * PASTEL, n.f 
ledge of the age, afforded. The impreflions were (1.) Pistbl. See P 
taken in a beautiful white enamel compofitiOn, (r.") * PA3TERN. n.f. [pajhron, Vt.) 1. That 
which is not fubject to (brink or form air-bladders j part of the teg of a horfe between the joint nest 
shich emits fire when ftruek with fteel, and takes the foot and the hoof. — I will not change my 
a tine polifh; and which (hows every ftroke and horfe with any that treads 00 four pujltnu. SAah 
touch of the art 1ft in higher perfection than any tUnry V- - 

other ftibftance. When the colours, mixed eolouri, , Upright lie walks bnpqflcrna fira and ftrarght. 
and nature of the reflective originals, could be af- Drydm. 

certained, they were imitated as completely at art -—Being heavy, he fhould not tread (tiff, but have 

can imitate- them; infomuch that many of the a pejiirn made him, to. break the force of his 

pate intaglios and cameos in this collection are welgftt. Grew. a. The legs of an human creature 

i"uch faithful imitations, that artlfls themfetves in ctJtttempf.— 

have owned they could hardly he diftfngoifhed Softrait (he walk'd, and on' her pajtcrns high. 

<rom the Originals. And when the colour and na- Tirydcn. 

! .un* of the Rem* could not be anttieoticHed, the (1.) Pastfrn, in the manege, SeePaaaiERr, 

—Google'"'- 



f A S ( Sfl ) PAS 

, ?art I, Sea. I. Tbii part fhould be fliott, cfpe- introduced br this author is the common exerrifir 

•Tally in middle-fixed horfei; becaufe long pat of every fchool-boy. The perfnrnwnce was in a 

tcroi are weak, and cannot fo well endure travel- field; where tbe retort of the moft fubftautial and 

iog. couiiderablr citizen*, to give encouragement 'nd 

(3;) Paitbm Joint, the joint next a horfi countenanoe to ibis Kit of agility, wa« fpleodid 

foot. . . and nnmtrwi, The intention of this aroufemeM 

(1.)" PASTIL, n.f. [paJH!Im,lM.poJiille, Ft.] was to make toe juvenile race active. nimble, and 

A rot) of pafte. — To draw with dry colour*, nuke vigorous f which qualities were requifite whenever 

long fafiiltt by grinding red lead with ftrong wort, their affiftince (houid be wanted in the protection 

and fo roll them up like pencils. Beacbawt. of their country. Tbe next fpecie* of ptftime had 

( j.) Pastil, or Pastel, among painter*, is a a fimilar tendency, although it was only coca- 

pafte made of different colours ground up with fight ihg, held annually in (be afternoon of 

gum-water, to make Cxayok*. See Paimtihg, Sbrove-Tuefday j for tbe arnaxing fpirit aud cou- 

. Part II, Sea. V, $ If. rage displayed by thefe animals tended to infpirr 



(3.) Pastil, in pharmacy, is a dry compofition the youth of a warlike nation with a heroic diirc- 
af fweet-rmelliog refins, aromatic woods, &c gard of life itfelf, when put in competition with 
iometimes burnt to clear and fcent the air of a honour and patriotifa. Another fpecies ef manly 



chamber. exerctfe was truly martial, and intended ti 

(i.l» PASTIME- «./ [pafe+nd time.] Sport) tbe advonturertfor martial difcipline. It is related 

amuiement ; diverfioo.— It was more requifite for by Fitx-8t*phen thus : " Every Friday in Lent, a 

Zelmane'a hurt to reft, than fit up at tbofe^fo««. company oryoung men comes into the field on 

Sidney.— ' borfebach, attended and conducted by the beft 

I'll be as patient as a gentle dream, -ioriemen : then march forth the Ions of the citi- 

Aod raake.a po/Ume of each weary Sep. Sbai. xens, and other young men, with difanncd lances 

Pa/lime pafling excellent. Shat. and fhields; and there praflile feats of war. Many 

Find pafiime, and bear rule, Milton, caortiera likewife, when tbe king is near tbe fpot, 

—A man, much addicted to luxury, recreation and attendant! upon noblemen, do repair to tbcfe 

and pajlimt, mould never pretend to devote him- exerciies} and while the hope of victory does inr- 

fetf entirely to the fciences. Watts. Same their minds, they {how by good proof how/ 

(»-)Pastimei of feme kind feem to be abfo- fcrviceable they would be in martial affairs." This 

lutely neceffary, and to none more than to tbe evidently is of Roman defcent, and immediately 

man of ftudy j for the moft vigorous mind cannot brings to our recollection tbe Ludui Troj*, iiippo- 

bear to be always bent. Conftant application to fed to be toe invention, as it was the common ex- 

onepurfuit, if it deeply engage tbe attention, is ercile, of Alcaniui. The common people, in that 

apt to unhinge the mind, and to generate mad- age oi rnafcuiine manners, made every arnufement 

nefijof which the Don Quixote of Cervantes, sod where ftrength was exerted the fuhjecl matter of 

.the aflronomer of Johnlon, are two admirably inft ruction and improvement; inftructed to exert 

conceived inftancea; confirmed by too-many facts their bodily ftrength in tbe maintenance of their 

in real-life. See Pascal, Swift, &c But though country's rights ( and their minds improved, by 

paftime i* neceffary to relieve the mind, it indi- fuch exertion, into every manly* and generous 

catet great frivolity when made the bufincfe of principle. In tbe vacant intervals of induftry and 

life j and yet the rich and the great, who are tot labour, commonly called the My-daji, indolence 

obliged to labour for the means of fubfiftence, too and inactivity, which now mark this portion of 

often rove from paftime to paftime with as coo- time, were found only in thole who were diftem- 

ftant affiduity as the mechanic toils for his family, pc red with age or infirmity. Fitz-Stephen fays, 

or a> the philofepncr devotes himfelf to fcience. " In Eafter hoiydays they fight battles upon tbe 

When thole paftimes tend to give elafticity to the water. A fhield is banged upon a pole, fixed in 

mind or Itrengih to the body, fuch conduct is not the middle of the Bream. A boat is prepared 

only allowable, but praite-worthy ; but when tbey without oars, to be borne along by tbe violence 

produce effect* tile reverie of thefe, it is both hurt- of the water | and in the fore part thereof ftandetti 

ful and criminal. The gaming-table, the mafque- a young man, ready to give charge upon tbe fliield 

rade, the midnight affembly of any fort, moft of with bit lance. If .fo be that he break his lanoe 

neceffity enfeeble both tbe body and the mind 1 againft the fliield, and doth not fall, he is thought 

and yet fuch are tbe falhionable amufementa of to have performed a worthy deed. If without 

the prefent day, to which many a belle snd many breaking his lance he run* ftrongly againft the 

a beau facrifke their beauty, their health, their fliield, down he fa] let h into the water; for the 

quiet, and their virtue. Far different were the boat is violently forced with the tide: but on each 



nexercifes. From ancient records, it appears, tbey may. : In tbe bolydays~all tbe fummer the 

that thefporti, amufemetlts, pleaftires, and recre- youths are exercifed in leaping, dancing, fhooting-, 

ations, of our anceftori, as defcribed by Fits, wreftliug, cafting the ftooe, and practifing their 

Stephen, added ftrength and agility to the wheels fliirlds; and tbe maidens trip with their timbrels, 

of ftate mechaaifro, white they had a direct. ten- and dancers long as they can.wcll lee. In winter, 

dency towards utility. For moft of thefe ancient every holyday before dinner, the boars prepared 

' recreations are refolvable into the public defence for brawn are let to fight, or elfe bull* or bears 

of the ftate againft tbe attacks of a foreign enemy, are baited." Such were the laudable puriuits to 

The pliyat ball, derived from tbe Romans, ia firft which leifure waa devoted by our forefathers, fo 

fat 

Dcrtzedny^OOgle 



;PAS C87) r A S 

far tack *■ -iijo. Their immediate fuccelTor* confiding offsverat pair* of phm*, which areorv 
breathed the Cune fpirit. In 1491, the 6th year. long, fw-rated, veined, and toward* the bafe ap- 
of Henry III. certain raaftera in cxercifes of thh pea* unformed on the opptvlide: the flowers are 
kind made a public profcffion of their iaftruct ioni fmall, of a yellowifh colour,' andr terminate the 
and difcipline, whfch.they imparted to thofc who ftesn and branches in flat umbel) [the general 
were deftroua of attaining excellence and .victory and partial umbels are composed of many radii j 
in thefe honourable achievements.' About thh the general and partial iirvolucra are commonly 
pt'riod, perfonsofnok and family introduced the both wanting; all the floret* are fertile, and 
play of TiHHit ; and creeled courts or oblong have an uniform appearance r. the petal* are j, 
edifices for the performance of it. About 1IJ3, lanee-flwped, and carted inwards; the j filament* 
the 38th of Henry III. tbeQumraw was a Tport are fprcading, curved, longer than the petal*, and 
much in fafhion in almoft every part of the king- funrffhed with roundifh antberar; tbc g ermen it 
dom. This contrivance connfted of an upright placed below the corolla, fbppurting two refiexed 
pod firmly fixed in the ground) upon the top of ftyles, which are firppUed with blant ftigraataj 
w u 'ii-h was-a croft piece of wood, moveable upon the fruit i* elliptical, compretTcd, divided- into two 
afpwdle;oneendof which was broad, like the flat part*- containing two fiat feeds, encomnuTed with 
pare of an halberd, white at tbe other end was a Tjafrow border. (See Piatt CCLX1X.) It is "a 
bung a bag of fand. The exercile wat performed native of the footh of Europe, and flower* in Jane 
on horfeback. The malterly performance was, and July. This fpecies of parfnep wai cultivated 
when, upon the bread pert being ftnrek with a in 1731 by Mr P. Miller, who obferves, that ita 
lance, which fometime* broke it, the afiaitant rode " root* are large, fvreevand accounted very nou- 
fwiftly on, 16 as to avoid being (truck on the back rilhing," therefore recommended tor cultivation 
by the bag of fand, which turned round inftantly iri .kitchen-garden*. ( Jt bean the cold of oar cli- 
upod the ftroke given, with a very fwtft motion, mate very well, and commonly maturate*' ita 
He who executed thh) fiat in the moft dexterous feed*; and ita juice here miotfcft* font of thole 
manoerwatdectared victor.andthepriieta which qualities which are discovered ' in the officinal 
be became entitled was a peacock. Bat if, upon opaponax; but it it only in the warm region* of 
the aim taken, the contender roifcarried hrftrrfcing the eaft, and where this plant i* a native, that ita 
at the broad Ede, hie impotency of Ikill became juice concretes into this gummy refiaoua drug, 
the ridicule and contempt of the fpeetatora, Dr Opoponaxis obtained by mean* of inctfions made 
Plort, io bia Nat. Hijl if Orrfordjh. tells us, that at the bottom of the ftalk of the plant, Whence 
this paftime was in practice in his time at Ded- the juice gradually exude*; and by undergoing 
dingtoo. He and Matthew Paris-give finrrlar, ac- fpontaneou) concretion, arThme* the appearance 
counts. But all the manly paftimes feem to have under which we have ft imported from Turkey 
given place to one indeed no left manly, which and the Eaft Indies. It readily mingles with water) 
wasAnCHBar. This had a continuance- to the by tritnre, into a milky liquor, which on ftaud- 
reign of Charles I. It appears from 33 Hen. VIII. ing depofits a portion of refinoua matter, and be- 
that by the imrufion of other pernicious games, comes .yellowim: to rectified fpirit it yields a- 
archery had been for a long time difuled ; to re- gold-coloured tincture, which taftei and fmells 
vise which a ftatute was made. Towards the be- ftrongly of opoponax. Water diftilted from it it 
ginning of James I.'* reign, military prowefs feema impregnated sritb its fmell, but no eueotial oH i* 
to have founded a retreat. He, to gratify the im- obtained on committing moderate quantities to 
portunity of the common people, and at the fame the operation. See Or-or-ox as. 
time to obviate bis own fears upon a refusal, pub- .- a. Pastixaca * at i va, gardtn farfap, is an 
lilted a book of (ports, in which the people had exceeding fioeefculent root It is propagated by 
been (bine time before indulged on Stanley even- fcrd» fawn in Fcb.or March, in a rich mellow foil, 
ings, but which had been lately prohibited. Theft which rnnft be deep dug, that the roots may be 
fports confifted of dancing, ringing, wreftling, able to run deep without hmderance. It Is cam- 
church ales, and other profanations of that day. mon to low carrots at the fame time, upon the 
Charles, hi* fucceffbr, wifely, in the very entrance same ground with the parfneps ; and if the car- 
of his reign, aboliihed thefe fports, which was no rots are defigned to be drawn young, there it no 
doubt proper, and fhowed the di ft ingui fried piety harm in it. - The parfneps, when they are grown ' 
of this urdortnnate monarch. But in this age like- up a little, muft be thinned to a foot diftant, and 
wife ended the manly fports of Britons, and no- kept clear of weeds. They are finer! tailed juft 
thing was introduced that could compenuUe for at the feafbn when the leave* are decayed : and 
uk lots. fuch as are defirous to eat them in fpring fhould 

PASTTNACA. the Panswrr, a genus of the have them taken up in autnmn, and preferred in 
digynia order, belonging to the pentandria clafa of fand. When the feeds are to be faved, fome very 
plants ; and in the natural method ranking under ftrong and fine plants fhould be left 4 feet diftant ; 
the 45th. order. Umbellate.- The fruit is an ellip- and towards t!ie end of Aug. orbeginningof Sept. 
tical com prefted plane ; the petals are involuted the feeds will be ripe 1 they muft then be gathered, 
and entire. There are only two fpecies : and dried on a coarse cloth. They fhould at- 

r. Pastixaca Panax. Dr Woodville, io his ways be fown the fpring following t for they do 
Medical Botany, give* the following account of this not kaep welt. Hints have been given, and expe-' 
•egetable: The root is perennial, thick, rlefhy, riments made, by agricultural focieties, respecting 
tapering like the garden parfnep} the ftalk is parfneps, to raife them for winter food to cattle, 
ftrong, branched, rough towards the bottom, and It has long been a cuftom in tome parts of Brit- 
nfes 7 or 8 feet iaberfht; the leaves are pinnated, tany, to 1W parfnep) in the open field for t£c 



PAS ( 88 ) t k S 

food of eattle ; uweuc informed by the ttanf. practice, in which fpeakert take upon them the" 

action* of a foeiety ieftiutted to .that proline* character of fljepherde; in idyij ■ bacolick. — 

(Vol* I.} for (he (MOnp anrnt of the econaau- Pafiaral ia an imitation of the action of a fliep- 

cal and MtaffefaJ; inlerefbi «f their cnuatry. herd ; the form of ihu imitation ■ dratnatick or 

" It is of Brest laip w HW! ■ ( fty- they) lhat part nanalt»e, or anted of both; the fable ample; the 

Bepi, ihoald be universally cultivated -, becaufe ma»iier« not too'poHje, nor too ruftick. Pope.— , 

they afford an excellent and .w^olefotne f*Ou for The belt actor* in the world, for tragedy, co- 

IH kind* of cattle during wiiter, and may be afcd medy,bVtrrj,ptyhraf. Shot- — There ought to he 

to great advantage to fatten them. Hog! km the lame difference between fajlvatt aod elegies, 

no other food in all that feafbn, and our bullock* aa between the life of the country and the court : 

and- oxeo thrive well upon it. Cowa fed with the latter fhouM be fmootb, clean, tender, and 

parfhepa give more milk than with any. Other paffioaatet the tliouphts may be bold, more gay, 

winter fodder, and- that milk yiei* better t*itt«r aad more elevated than in pojlaral. Wotjks 

than the milk of ctwi noorimed with My. otfuW (j.) PjUtokai. Ijfk may be confidered in 

fubftincc. Horfim fitttrv. with thil food ; though three different view*: either fucti as it now aflu- 

Come preteniV that it render* ttrero kfamettaefaMse) ally ia, when the fate of fhepherd* i* reduced to 

and hurts their leg* and eye*. Cattle est* tfaefc be a mew, fcrvile, and laborious Rate ; when 

root* raw, at flrft diced length wife ; and when their employ men ti are become disagreeable, and 

they begin not to rrijfh them, they are cut in their idea* grot* and low: or fucb u we may 

piece*, put into a targe copper, pcefled down fuppofe. it once to have been in toe more early 

there, and boiled with only fo mneh water a* fill* and Smple age*, when it war a life of eafe and 

up the chafeae between them... They then eat abundance ; when the wealth of men confuted 

tiem very greodtvf, and continue to. like them." etrietrf in flock* and herd*, and the fhepherd, 

PA9TO, or St Joan ni Puts, a town of though, unrefined in hi* manner*, wat refpeAable 

Terr* Firm*, in Pop* van ; fcated.in a valley, wn. in hi a ftate : or, lafily, fucb aa it never was, and 

tend by ferer*t riW* ; 80' mite* NNBi of Quito, never, can in reality be, when, to the eafo, iono- 

accorduig to Mr Crnttwell j bait Dr Brookes cence, and fimplkity of the early age*, we at- 

makea it in* mile* N. of it, and 1*0 S. of Po- tempt to add the polifhed tatte and cultivated 

payaa. Loo. 76. 55. W. LaC.t. eo. N. manner* of modern time*. Of thefe three ftates, 

PASTOPHORI, among the ancients, pricft* the nrft-iatno grofa and mean, the laft too refined 

whole office it was to carry the image*, along and unnatural, to he- made tae'groond-work of 

with the fariae* of the god*, at fbleran feftivala, paftoral poetry. Either of thefe extreme* ia a rock 

when they were to pray fp» rain, fair weather, or upon which the poet will fplit, if he approach too 

the tike.. The Greeks h*d a college of. thia order near it. We (ball be dilgofted if be give ns too 

of priefis in Sylla'a time. much of the fervile employment! and low idea* 

PASTOPHORU, the cella or apartment* near of actual peafiurta, a* Theocritus ia cenftired for 

the tempi**, where the pafiopbori lived. There having fomrtimet done ; and if, like tome of-the 

were fevcral lodging room* for toe-pried* of a Preach and Italian writer* of paxtoral*, he maker 

fimHar kind in the temple of Jerulafem. hit ftepherda difcourfe a* if they were courtier* 

• PASTOR. «./ [frnjlor, Latin ) p*Jlew, Fr.] and feholara, he then retain* the name only, but 

I. A fhrpnerdf— want* the fpirit of paftural poetry. 

The pipe on which th' Afcrano aajftr play'd. (4.} Paitoial Mvtic. See Mr; tic, Utroi. 

.. * DtyJan. § ij. 

The anjaV fbear* their hoary beard*. Iirgd. (5.) PasTotai-Pot txy. See Pomr, Part II. 

a. Aclergyman who ha* thecare of a flock ; one Seit- IV. 

who baa foul* to feed nrith found doctrine,— The PASTRANA,' a town of Spain, in New Caf- 

ptfinr makcth fuitt of the people, and they with tile, 10 mile* SSE. of Guadalaxara, and 3a E. of 

one voice Icftiry a general afient thefeento. Hooter. Madrid ( between the Tajo and Tajuna. I,on. 

—Toe nrft branch of the great work belonging to a. 46. W. Lat. 40. i&. -N. 

a pajhr of the church, waa to teach. ScztA.— AU (1.) * PASTRY, n. /. {fnjliffaru, Fr. from 

biihopi are paflw-i of the common flock. Ltjley. pajle.) 1. The act of making pie*. — 

—Neither wa« the expedient then found out of Let never frelh machine* your pojtrj try. 

maintaining feparate fv/hrt out of private purfea. Eng. 

Swift. a* Pie* or baked pad*—- 

PASTORA. See PaiTaao. The feed cake, xbe fa/triu and tfae-funnenty 

(i.)«PASTORAL. u J/.l* 0j # raa/,Latin;^o/- .pot. Twjrr. 

tend, French.] 1. Rural; ruftiok ; befeeming Beafti of chafe, or fowl* of game, 

(lieplicrds ; imitating Ibepherd*. — In tbofe pa0c- In pa/trj built, or from the (pit, or boil'd. Jffik. 

ml paftimes, a great many day* were fent to fbl- 3. The place where paltry it made.-^ 

low their flying predecenor*. 'sidnrg. 3. Relating They call for date* and quince* in the frfirj. 

to the care of foul*. — Their lord and matter taught ' Shak. 

concerning the fa/ieral care he had over hi* own (1.) Pastit i* 11«t branch of cookery which 

'flock. Hooker. — The bifhgj* of Sahfbury recom- it cfaieRy taken np in making pie*, paftiet, cakes, 

nendeth the tenth btn-e of Junenalin hit^fdrw/ tec. See Pa art, f %. Dr Cullen obfervee, that 

letter. DryJtn. pafte i* very hard and indigeftible without but- 

.(».) * PAsroaaL. jt./T A poem in which any ter; aad even with it, i* apt to produce beart- 

aetion or paffion is reprafeated by it* effects upon bum and aeefcency. Pvrbaps this it incteaf.>d 

a .country life : or, according to the corawoo by the burned batter, froth a certain fenfibility 



PAS ( *9 1 PAS 

irithfrromacb, which occafions all enipyreumatic ring it, and dividing it into fmalf field* of foot 
oili lo be long retained, and fo turn rancefcetrt five, fix, eight, or ttn, acre* each, planting tim- 
aod acid. ber trees in the hedge-rowa, which will fcreerr the 

*P*st*t-Cook. n.J. \paftrg and teoi.] One grafa from the dry pinching windiof March, which 
whole trade is to nuke and fell things baked in will prevent the graft from growing in large op* 
pafte. — I wi(h you knew what my bufband hai land* ; fo that if April prove* a dry month, the 

Said to the pajiry cocit and confeftiancrt. Ar* land produce* very little hay j whereas in the 
ttovef. Sheltered field*, the graft will begin to grow early 

* PASTURABLE, adj. [from pajun.] Fit for in March, and will cover the ground, and pre. 

paflure. ' vent the fun from parching the root* of the graft, 

•PASTURAGE, n. J. \fafiurage, French.] i. whereby it will keep growing, fo as to affords 

The bufineft of feeding cattle.— All men would tolerable crop, if the fprlng mould prove dry. Bat 

fail to pajlarair, and none to hufbandry. Spenfir. in fencing of land the inclofure muft not be road* 

s. Land* grazed by cattle. — The riches of the . too finall, efpeciaily where the hedge-row* arc 

country confided chiefly b flock* and fajluragf. planted with tree* ; becaufe, when the tree* are 

Addifo*. 3. The ufe of paft ore.— Cattle fatted advanced to a conliderabie height, they will fpread 

by good pujluragc, after violent motion, die fud- -, over the land ; and where they are clo&, will ren- 

denly. Arbalkaal. der the graft four ; fo' that inftead of being of an 

(i.) •PASTURE, n. /. [pa/ttre, 'French.] i. 'advantage, it will greatly injure the pafture. The 

Fooff; the aft of feeding. — Unco the confervation "neit improvement of upjand pafture it, to make 

■■-■-■ - - , Gr&und 1 : tbe turf good, Where, eitber'from the badnef* .of 

"the foil, or want of proper care, the graf* hath beett 

deflroyed by ruthes', bufhes, or mote hrH*. Where 

Fall of the pajturt, jumps along by him. Sboi. the fur/ace of the land is clayey and cold, it may 

—When there was'net' room for their berdt to be improved by paring it off, and burning it ; but 

feed together, they, by content, feparated and' en- if it i* an hot fandyland, then chalk,. iunCj marie, 

larged their pajiurt. Latie.—-' or clay, are very proper manure* to lay upon it ; 

On nature'* common, Far a* they can lee ' bdt this fltonld.be laid in pretty good quantities, 

Or wing, they range vadpajturt. Tbtmfan- ' otherwife it will be of little fervice lo the land, 

j. Human culture; education. Not ufcd*— .. • ■ If the ground is oner -run with bofte* , or ruihe*. ir 

From the 'SiftjuAww of our infant age, - will be of great advantage, to ttie land to grub 

To elder care* and mail's feverer page. Dryiin. them up toward* the latter part of fummer, and, 

(lr) PAITORB) or) is' that referved for feeding after they are dried, to bum the,<n, and fprcad the 

pAsrtm Latin, J cattle. Pafture land is of afhe* over the grpuhdjuJt before the autumnal 

fuch advantage to hufbandry, that many prefer it fain*; ai'wbich time, t^.fpif ace" <3f the landfhbuld 

even to com Jand, becaufc of the fmalf 'hazard "be levelled, and fowii with, grafy-fced, which will 

and labour that attend* ii;and a* it lay* the come up in a. Omit. tuns, and make good .graft 

foundation formoft of (he profit that ■* expeSed the' .foflowing. fprjog. ftp alfo, when the land is 

from the arable land, becaufe'of the manure af- full of mole-biO*, theft would be pared off, and 

forded bV*the cattle which 'areJM'u^on.it, Paf. either burnt fpr .the *Jbej,or fprea^ immediately 




, ._ «cr quantity of "tniii maju8ed. r At.W.i)l be of 

tayth'arj.fne'Jatter, and jvill not. require manu- 'trie* turf In the month* of February aijd Marqh 
ring of cTreffirig lo -often : but then the bay pro- 'with an, heavy w.aod roller; always obferviog t.o 
ducetf on" the' upli»d i» much .preferable to the .do itiin.moift. weather, that the roller, may mate 
other; as.i* aljb the. 'njeat which iifedin the up- an imprefflon; thit.wUJ .render the fiiiface level, 
land more valued .than that'wliieh ib' fatted in rich and .make it arjuch .caGer to mow tbe^jrafs than 
meadows; Oib'ugh" trie latter Will make the' fa'tujr 'when the ground Ik* in hill*; and will a^fo c-mje 
and Jarger cattle, ai'i* feeh by'thole wbich'a'te the turfUo ihlckeflVia a* to bare what,the people 
brought from the loV.rich landt.in Lined hOiire. ' iifuall pterin ■^WJnaM), Thegraftlikewifewill 
But where peorjle are nice In their meat, t&oy be theJ*eeteT.for fii* nufbandry, and it will be 
will give a much larger price f« fuch aa hath . a great helpioJejiarwecda, Another improve- 
been fed on the dow.pt, or in , fbort upland paf- . rnent of ujiland, pajfljlree. ja, the feeding of them ; 
ture, than for tbe other, which w much larger, for.wbeye thi*,^a,nbi^)riaLfed, the land miift be 
rkildes this, dry paftures have all advantage over manured at leaAjv^ry^dj'ear; and where a far- 
the meadows, that they may be fed all the, win- rnrr haih.much arable, land in hi* poffefTion, be 
ter, and are not fo fubjeft to poach, in wet wA- will not care to part with bis manure to the p*f- 
ther; aor will there befomauy weed* produced; ture. Therefore every fanner CbouUa endeavour 
which are great advantage*, and in a great mea- to proportion hi* pafture to hi* arable land, efpe- 
fn« recompenfe for the unallnefs of the crop, dally where manure is fcarce, otherwife he will 
We have already mentioned lhe advantage* of fpan find his error | for the pafture i* the founds- 
meadow land; (See M^jnow:) therefore Jhall tiorj of all, the profit which may arife from the 
here only mention fome method* for improving arable land. Whenever the upland pafture* are 
of uplattd pafture. mended by Oianure, theio ibould be a regard bad 

(30Pl*TUR*i*jirj l j*arHoni of improving, to the naturaof the foil, and a proper fort of ma- 
TheBrftimprovementofuulandpaI!arei»,by fen. r.ure appfied; a*, for inftance, all hot fandy land 

Toi~XVU. Put I. . M ImU 



F.-A..S ,( 90 ) FAS 

mould have a cold manure] neat's dung and good heart to fupply the graft with nonrifhsictn, 

fwine'sdung are very proper for fuch lands ; but 'that the rootf may branch out after the corn is 

for'cold lands, horfe dung.aflics.'and other warm gone, there cannot be any corifiderable crop of 

manures, are proper. And when thefe are ap- clover | and as their ryots are biennial, many of 

. plied, it (liquid be (I6ne in autumn, before the the ftrongeft pint's wfll'p'erim foon after they are 

rains have (baked the ground, and rendered it too cut ; and the weafe. plants, which had made'but 

fbft.tp cart dn ; and 'it fliuuia be cart-fuHy* fpread, little progrtjfs before, will be the principal part of 

..breaking all the clods as fmajl an pofllble, and tfie crtip for the Succeeding year; which is many 

and then harrowed with bufh'ev to let it down times not worth Banding-. - -Therefore, when 

ti) the roots of the grafs, lybcn the maniire'is ground is laid" do" n fur grafs, fbcre mould be no 

laid on at this feaTon, tfi'e raiiis in winter will wafh jerop of sny fcirrrt (its with th< frtfdsj or at left 

.down the (aits, fo that the following fprirg the \'r.J crop flioulit be lown very thin', and the land 

grafi will receive the advantage of ' it; There ' mould be' weirploughed and cleaned from needs, 

(liquid alfo be great care "taken to deflroy the ' other wife the weedl will come up Cifl, and grow 

weeds inthe pafture every fpri.tuj ajld aUtumn : fo ftrorig 3s to'ovcdiear" the grafs, and if they are 

for, where this is not prafltfM,' the. weeds will '"not pulfed up," wilt entirely fpoil it. ' " 

ripen their feeds, which will fpiead o\er the " TV.) Pa sti'r'h'L'ahd,' season AWtJ aKtDS prc- 

ground, and thereby fill it wilh fuch; a.Adft'.of "Ma" tot iowisfiTfj*. The beft-feaTon 10 fow the 

.. weeda.as will foon oyer bear. the gr,ifs, jindldenioy grafs. feeds- upon- dry land, wheri no otfier crop it 

it; and it will be very difficult to root them. o(it *Towi)'with"tnrrri,'!haBoilt the | middle of Septera- 

afterwards; efpecially ragwort,, and 'fuch "Other "bet; or lodnef'iF'there is an appearance df rain: 

. .weeds a* have down adhering to their feeds.. The "fdfthe groiind'Beihff then'' warm,' if tB ere happen 

..'grades, .(own., in thefe upland pafiUrel feldorn'de- Come good mower* of .pin after the feed is iown, 

generate, if the' land 15 tolerably" good : Whereas .the. grift will foon makers appearance, and get 

the low meadows, wtlich We ftvetflowed'lo win- fiifficient roptipg iji the ground before winter: fo 

ter,,fn a .few ycars""Tuff] tO'%" harlh ruihy grafs, 'will not be ihdane'cr'bVTi'aving the "roots tnmed 

though the upland wlll'continlie a fine Tweet grafs out of the ground oy_frdtt, efpecially' if the ground 

for many years without renewing, T,here is 'do is well rolled before 'tfie froft comes'tin, .which 

.part of hufbandry of WnicH tlre'fafroers are in ge- wifl preft rt downt 'a'tid fix the earth'fclori-'to ibe 

neral more .ignorant than that of the pafture: molt roots. Where tfils h'atb not been prajftifed, the 

_ of them ftippofe, that u'heh oTd'rjafture' is plowed frorfhai'. often" |£joter*d, the 'ground '(©"rnuc'ri,' as 

' rjp, it can never bebrotlgoftb havt'a good fward to !*t in the air tpthe roots of Ih'e grafa, and done 

again ; fo their common tntfflttdWnl an aging their it grtat damage: and this has been brought as an 

land" after ploughing, is td'ftjw with their crop of . objccTidn, to the aij'iurnnal' lowing' of grafs; BBt it 

"barley tome grafs feeds as they' call 'them j that is, wfll be Found to Jiave no "weight If' thy 'alxivedi- 

either'the red clpyer, l y«*tclT Trfey intend to ftartd rectlbti E4 pvaftfled; nor is' there : ' i af "Hazard ai 

two" years after the corHlsiatten bfF the gr6urifl, towing" the graft"at/HhLs'reafon, 'but thaTt of dry 

or rye-grafi mii'ed wrtJHtrefblt i but as atftnefe weather after th!*Tee*s are fown ; 'fhr If the gtafs 

are at moft but' biennhl.p)anii;whdft radtj^de- eddies up well, anj-th'e ground ii'weH rolled in 

' cay foon after their Mi^ar*' perfected, "fo 1 .' the the'ifrld of bcloterV of 'the begmntrig'.of . Wo veni- 

ground, bjving no crap Won ft?1s agaW plotfifi- 'bet, aT-d 'jeyeaiy)"'a5^n;the begirinltig of Jflarcb, 

ed for corn: and this is-'tHeKmrtaltrvoond wHifcli the Vwant v.nl tt'clogjV joined at bottom, arid a 

tfie'lirids 'af4 employed in by.the t«(ter fott if "^6od''erpA of fiay'.rnay'.bee('pefled the rarne!'fiim- 

fsrmers. But whatever maVnavirbftri tht'prac- ; mW BuS where 'the grpuri'd canhofofc prepared 

tice of th'rfe people, it is pAaiflrf'poflftjIe fo (ay 'for foWBg at J t>.^''t^ffln l , it riiay be performed in 

down tartal(*hic1i hare beerrifi riflagl*'witTi ; Krjiff, "the middle \V end ot March; accfyrdiKft »s lb* 

in fuch a rnanneT as" thafthe"f*ar* fhall'be'as ^»{(k h earryor liiiej for.'iii backward lpring? 

jbdd, if not better, than any natural graft; arfd "and In culd Unty we havegftert Towed-the graft In 

of as long duration. But thisia neve* to be rt- "Ihe'Wdtlltof'Aiiril'wtth fufccefl; but thfre is dan 

'pefted'fn the enrnmoh method of lbwfng a crop 'gcr.Vn'ib'wing' late, 1 of dry weather, and eftii-cialji 

of cirn' witfi the graft feeds; for, whenever tufa if thetand Is'lighfariddr^; fofwehartfeparbani 

, has' been praffifed, ft the corn ftaa rucceedeo* well, tlmei the'wTiole'Turfafc'e of the ground teflnove; 

the graft'has' been very poor-and weak; To that jf by (trong'wih'd'i if ttlaffeafon j fo that the feed 

th'e Tand has not' been verygoocl, the", grafs has have been driven TO Beaps't6 one fide of (he ftc'.J 

lcarcely been worth favirijiifdF the following year Therefore, - whenever the.'ftHi are Town J»te ii 

it has prod need but littie'hay^and the year after the fpring, it Will:be 'ptbper to roll the j^rouni 

the crop is worth little, *rVher to mow or feed, well' foon after' the 'ftWi are Town, to let tie th 

Nor can it be expected to-be otberwifej fer _ the furfacc, arid prevtht its being removed. Tii 

ground cannot nouriih two crops ; and if there fortl of feeds which. are the belt for this purpoii 

were no deficiency in the land, yet tbe corn, be- are; the beft fort of npland H hay feeds, taken trot 

ing tbe firft and molt vigorous of growth, will the cleaned paftures^ where there are no b,t 

keep the grafs from making any confidence pro- weeds ; if this feed. H fl'fted to clean ft from n\t 

grefs; fo that the plant* will be extremely weak, .bifti, three bumelswill.be Sufficient to fow an aci 

and but very thin, many of them which come up of land. Toe other fort is the trifitrum praten 

in the fpring being deftroyed by the corn; for album, commonly; called while Dutch i&i-r, , i 

whenever there are roots of corn, it cannot be svbtir bontyjiakU grafs. "Of this feed Sib. will I 

expected there fhoold be any grafs.' Therefore enough for-one acre. The graft feed (hcmlcl t 

jhe Kraft muft be tbinj and if the land is no» in fown firit, and then the Doich ckner-feed may \ 

' . Dpt.eciDyGOOglt • ftcr Wa« 



pas (' 91' ) r A\ T 

srtfrMrdi fawn i but they mould not be mixed, tumn, at hath been before directed. Thitfpiefc 
beatife the clover feeds being the heavier! will of hufbandry in rarely praelifed b y farmers ; bat 
fill to tie bottom, and confequently the ground thofe, who do, find their account in it, for it if of 
wi.l be npemially fown. When the feedi are gre at benefit to the gra fa. Another thing would 
come up, if tbe land fhould produce many weeds, alfo be carefully performed, which is, to cut up 
tbcfc iho'jld be drawn out before they grow fa docks, dandelion, knapweed, and all fuch weeds,' 
all U to overbear the graft; for where this baa by their roots, every fp ring and autumn ; thi^will 
dot neglected, the weed* hue taken fuch pot iiKrearethequamityoFgoodcraf9,andprefervetoe 
Mod of the ground as to keep down tbe grata, padures in beauty. Dreffing of thefe psflures every 
and fUne j[ ; and when thefe weeds hare been jd year if alfo a poor! piece of hufbindry ; for 
;Wfftd to remain until they have (bed their feeds, otherwtfe it cannot be expected the ground fhould 
the bad bll been fb plentifully flocked with them continue to produce good crops. Belideu 'his, it 
11 entirely to deftroy tbe graft; therefore it is a will be Decenary to change the feafoni. of mow. 
principal care in htiibaudry, never to fuffer weeds ing, and not to mow the fame ground every year, 
tcpowon tbe land. If the ground is rolled two ' but to mow one feafon and Feed the nexl : for 
cr tbrec timet at proper diftancea after the grata where the ground Is every year mow, it mult he 
ij np, h wOt prefi down the graft, and can re it to conftantly drefled,aa are moft of the graft grounds 
wte t thicker bottom : for, as the Dutch clover near London, otherwife the ground will be Toon 
•ill put out rooti from every joint of the bran- ' exhaufted. 

cbei rticb are near tbe ground, To, by prefling (r.) * To Pastukh. v, a. [from the noun'.} To 
do*a of the ftalkt, tbe roots will mat fo clofely place in a pari tire. 

foeMbei, u to form a fward fo thick at to cover (».)• To Pasruai.w. ». [from the noun.] To 
tk "bole furface of the ground, and form a green graze on the ground.— 

aptt, and will better refill the drought. For if Thofe rare and folitary ; thefe in .flock a' 

*t eumioe the common paftures in fummer,4n Pa/hiring at once. Milton. 

art of which there are patches of this white ho- *PASTY. «./. [paJle.Tr.] A pie of croft raifed 
crriacrle graft growing naturally, we fhall find without a dlfli. — 

ue& patches to be the only verdure remaining in Of the pane a coffin will I rear, 

tie fields. And tbis tbe farmer* in general ac- And make two pafi'm of your fhameful heads, 
nawtrtge, it the Tweeted feed for all fortt of Shot. ' 

Httkj r« they never thought of propagating it — If ye pinch me like a fcfij, I can fay no more, 
irfcdfc norhaa this been long practiced in Eng- Stat.— 

had. as tbe white clover it an abiding plant, fo If you'll fright an alderman and mayor, 

it pi certainly the very bed fort to fow, where Within apafy lodge a living hare. King. 

pitaes ire laid down to remain; for at the hay- Not quite a madman, though a paftj fell, 

Wj whicb are taken from the beft pafture* wdl And much too wife to walk into a well. Pope. ' 
btcompofed of various fortt of grafs, fome of (i.) * PAT. mJJ. [from fas, Dutch, Skinner.) 
vfcch nay be but annual, and others biennial ; fo. Fit ; convenient ; exactly fuitable either as to time 
•to thefe go off, there will be many and large or place. This it a low word, and fhould not be 
Ptdwof ground letVbjjre and naked, ffrhercis ufed but in burlefque writings.— Pat, pat ; and 
M a Efficient quantity of the white clover to here't a marveilcrus convenient place for our re- 
Wad orer and cover the land. Therefore a good hearfal. Snot. MUf. Night's Dream.— 
trad cm never be expected where this is not NWw I might do it fat, now be is praying. 

'"n ; for in mofl of the natural paftures, we find Sbef- ' 

'wputu make* no fmall (hare of the fward ; and They never faw two things to pat, 

i: 3 njmlly good for wet and dry land, growing In allrrfpects, as this and that. ' HuMbrai. 

fflnniir upon gravel and clay in moft parts of — Zumglius dreamed of a text, which he round 
tagJaod; *hicn it a plain indication bow eafily very fat to bit doctrine of the Eucharift. Atterh.—- 
te plant may be cultivated to great advantage in He was forely-pnt to'tattbeeud of a verfe, 

TvLt"* iiad tm " DU 8 °Bt 'hi* kingdom. Becaufe he could find no word to come fat in, 
*<"• me true eaufe why the land which bat . . *w#>. 

Wt m tillage is not brought to a good turf again, [».) • Pat. »-/■ IfiatteiVt. is afoot, and thence 
■■ the ufual method of bolbandry, is, from, the fat may be a blow with the fbot.l i. A light 
!*»Kt not diflmguifhing which graffct are au- quick' blow; a tap.-*The lead noifelt enough to 

Uroni thofe which are perennial; for if annual difturb tbe operation of bis brain) the am of a 

UriiialgtalTeEarefown. thefe will r>f courfe fhuttle-eock, or the creaking of ajact will do rt. 

- decay ; f that, nnlefa where fome of their Collier, i. Small rump of matter beat into Ihape 
Will may have ripened and fallen, nothing can be with tbe baud. 

fr™* rheland but what will naturally come * To Pat. v. a. {From tbe .noun.}' To ftril* 
Ja. Therefore this, with tbe covetous method of lightly; to tap.— Children prove, whether tbey 
•^ down tbe ground with a crop of corn, hat can rub upon tbe breaft with one band, and fat ' 
mifionrd the general failure of increafing the upon the forehead with another, and fttaightwaytJ 
Mare in many part* of Britain, where it is now tbey fat with both. Baton's Nat. JIp<— 

M more valuable than any arable land. After Gay fats my (boulder, and you vanquiih quite. 

* jTDBnd has been fown m tbe manner before P°?+ 

if d ^^Bbl to a good fward, the way • PATACHE. «./. A froall fliip. Ah/wort^ 

'■F'cfcrveit good is, by conftantly rolling the * PATACOON. n. / A Spanifh conn w.a 
.-■mo iritb abtavy roller, every fpring and au- four ihillines and eigh' nence EDgliftj. Am^i-erfb, 



r A r r 92 ) pat 

PAT-SCI, in mythology, images of goda which ron's return, fqund that tie taileft nan araonj 

tliePbceniciaos carried on the urowa of their gal- ttero meafured only 6 feet 7 inches nigh j fcmil 

lies. Herodotus, lib. W. Cilia them riliH*H. The were within an inch or two as fall j but the ardi- 

word it Ph'asnician, and derived from t*MuL i. e. nary fize wai from j feet 10, to 6 feet. AM agree. 

tilulm a title) or marl of dignity. Set Bochart'i however, that the hair it black, and barih like 

Chahaan, lib. ii. cap. 3. Hut. Scaligcr doea not bridles ; that they- are of a dark copper colour ; 

Jgree. Morin derive! it from a-ifinv', vieniey, th\»' fhat their feat Urea are rather harfdfome than ugly; 

animal having been an object of frdrfhip among' that they clothe themfelrea with (kins; that they 

the Egyptians, and hence might have beer) honour' paint themfelves varioufly ; and there 11 reafon to 

ed by their neighbour!. Mr Elftier haa obferved, fufpeft, that by that Variety they dfftinguifh their 

that Herodotus docs not call the pattti gods ; but' tribes. One remarkable' obfervation made by pur 

that Ihey obtained this dignity : frorri the liberality voyagers is, that the Patagoniana could repeat 

oTHeiyehiuB and Suida*, and other ancient leii-' whole fentencea after oiir nun, more diltitiflly 

■ cog ra pliers, who place them at the (fern of fhipe ; than aim oft any European foreigner of what nl- 

whereas Herodotus placed them at the prow, tion Toever. Another very remarkable particular 

Ccatiger, Bochart, ?nd Selden, have taken ibme is, that tbey bad none of the charafleri of a ftro. 

pains about this fubjefl. Mr Morin has alfo given cious people; there was no offenfive weapons 

.us a learned differtation on this head io the Me- among tbem, except the fciraitar, and a kind of 

mmris it C4<ad. dtt ittfiripi. 'rt Btllti Lttim, fling, which theyufe in hunting, con fi fling of two 

tow. i. ; but Mr Either thinks it wants evidence, round (tones of about a pound weight each, con- 

PATAGONIA, a country of South America, netted together by a thong. There (tones wens 

comprehending all that country from Chili and fattened to the extremities of the thong ; and, 

Paraguay fd the utmoft extremity of S. America ; when tbey threw them, they heTd one ftonein.the 

that is, from 35° almoft to 54° of latitude : being- hand, and fwung the other about the head. 
furrouiklcd by Chili, Paraguay, the South and Patagonians, the nativea of I'atagosia. 
North Seat, and the Straits of Magellan, which PAT AGONS, a nation of Patagonia, 
ftparale it from Terra del Fuegm and extend about PATAGONULA, in botany ; a genus of the 

116 leagues in length from fea to fea, but only monogynia order, and pentandria ciafc of plants; 

from half a league to 3 or a in breadth. This in the natural method, ranking in the 41ft order, 

country had the name of Terr* Magellanic a, 4/ptri/o/Ur. Th& characters are there: the cup is 

from Magellan. See Magellan a. The lofty; an extremely froall oeriaothium, divided into five 

mountains of Andes, which are covered with " fegments, and remains after the flower ia fallen ; 1 

Snow a great part of the year, eroding the conn- the flower cooSfta of a fingle petal, with almoft 

try from N. to S- the air ia much colder than in no tube, the margin of which is divided into five : 

the N. under the fame latitude. Towards the tT, acute oval fegments; the (lamina are five filaments ! 

it ia covered with wood, but 00 the S. not a (ingle of the length of the flower ; the anthers fimplc ; 

tree fit for any mechanical purpofe is lobe feen: the gcrmen of the piltil ia oval and pointed ; the 

yet there is good pafture, and incredible numbers flyle ia (lender and (lightly bifid, its ramifications 

of wild horned cattle and horfca. : The E. coaft is arc alfo bifid ; this ia of the fame length with the 

rnoftly low land, with few or do good harbours; ftamina, and remains when the flower ia fallen ; 

one of the beft ia Port St Julian. Patagonia ia in- the (ligmata arc liraple ; the fruit is an oval and 

habited by a variety of Indian tribes ; aa the Pa- -pointed espfule, Handing on a large cup, made up 

Tag OK a, from which the country takes its name,- of five long fegments emarginated or rimuied 

ibtPertyai, the Cojfarii, Stc. of whom we know round their edges ; the feeds of this plant are yet 

veryKttie. From the accounts of Com. Byron unknown; but the conftructioa of the cup, in 

and bis crew, and the tcQimonics of other naviga- which the capfiile Hands, is alone a fufrkicr.t dil- 

tora, fome of them are of a gigantic ftature, tinclion for this genus. There is but one fpecies. 
«qd clothed with (kins; others go almolt quite PA TATA, a town of Hungary, 7m. TCJ.of Cdloza. 
naked, notwitbftafldjng the inclemency of the cli- PATAU, a town of Hungary, oh the Latorexa, 

mate. Some of them alfo, who live about the »; m. SE. of Cafchca, and 44 WS W. of Muncacz. 
St.-aits, "are perfect favages:- but tfiofe with whom PATALA, or ) in ancient geography, an ifland 
Com. Byrao and his people con vetfed, were gentle PAT ALE, j and fea port at the mouth of 

Biid humane. They live, oh 6£h and game, and the Indus. Plm. ii, 73. Curt. If. 7. 
what the earth produces fpoatancoufly. On the (i.) PATAN, a kingdom of Afia, in lhe Eaft 

Coafti of Patagonia lie a great number of iflands. Indies, and peninfula of Malacca, on the E. coaft, 

du the .weft coafts are the ifluidi.Madrc de Dies, between tbe ; kingdoma of Siaro and Paha. The 

Santa, Trinidad, Santa Cruz, the ifles of the Chu- inhabitants are partly Mahometans and partly 

nians and Huillans, the Sarmientoa, and many Gcntooa ; but they are very voluptuous. The air 

other* 5 ,to the number of 80 in all. Of tbofe on is wholefome, though very hot ; and they have no 

thy a. coaft, the njulr cm:Qdcrah;eareTEa.KA.D£L . feafons but the winter and fummer. The former 

Foaqot.and Staten Labd. See tliefe articles, is more properly the rainy featon ; and happens in 

A'valtdpalbasbeeufaid refpefling the ftature of our Nov. Dec. and Jan. The woods arc full of 

tlie Pauguiiianti by people of different nations, elephants and wild animals. Some voyagers pre- 

and ou various dctaGnns. Mr Charles Clarke, tend that this country is governed by a queen, 

^Jj" was onboard Byron's fhip in 176*, fays that who never marries, but may have aa many gal- 

fume of them .ire errtaiiriy nintfert, it" they do not lants as ihc ple«fes. They trade with the Cliiiufe. 
exceed it. Captain Wallii on the other band, t*.} Patau, the capital of the .above kingdom, 

U'lis wCLf put io the StwiaofMa^ciluiid.'ter By- has a goixj harbour, and is one of the ftiongtft 

* Cities 

• • " , ; „,ca, l^OOglC 



PAT ( 93 ) PAT 

chin in .that country. It is very little known. We go to gain a Ihtii: patch of groaad, 
Lou, ibovo-'E/ lax. "a*, jc N:"" J "■" That hath in it no profit but the name. SAai. 
PATAPASCOjor'Ja navigable river dfMary- j. A paltry fellow. Obfolete.— 
PATAP3CO, . JUnd, which rife* in York Whit apy'dninny's this? thou fcurvy #att* S 
county, Perrfiftlvania, and after ruling S. anct . SAai. 
SE. rails irvto^fiefipeak Bay 1 , 3 m.S. of Saftirnorc. » ft Patch, v. ft. [pudtzer, nanifh ; pezztre, 
PATARA,ifie«pIts!ofLycia,£.ofthtrQouth Italian.] i. To cover with a piece fewed on. — 
of tM.Xan'ttiul ;■ forflou* for a temple and oracle They would think them&lvcsmiferahleinapaftre- 
of Aptflhx \Wvijy Mela.") t Or' the fix wWttr* months, ed coat, and yet their minds appear in a pie-bald 
Apollo ga« aiifjfers at.Fataraj sttt for the 'fix livery of coarfe patches and borrowed fhreds. 
furhmer at DefOS : {rir£tt,'ServtuJ':)tYxte are the LaUe. a. To decorate the face with fmall fpet* 
Ltd* Sirfclof JThfji. Thetbwtr-.wirafitiiatedlna of black (jit,— Id the middle boxes, were feveral 
pcnidfOta,-eailBd Lj^hitit.Ctei/mfii'\Si^Hamt.) ladieswho patched both fides of their face*. SpeB. 
See Act*,'«ti/i: ''" : '"'': '" " 1 We.begg'd her but to faith her fine, 
PA-TA-rtffi-Oi 6Y) a fiirrtmeoF Apollo, from She never.hit one proper place. &ua/x. 
PA-TA-RiDS,: "JPirAiiil'fcK tt-vy. 3. To mend clutnfily ; to mend foai that the ori- 
PATA3;'6r£a*d«oWBlwa, iriie/oniainouBpro- ginal ftrength or beauty ii foft.— 
•dncC-of Peter, IriTWtilToirtmarlalile for ita gold' • Any thin* mended, is but patth'd. Shai. 
Sii.ies. - Pflj<4apoidbMildmg,nQtarjewcreate..Di7ii. 
PATA*# a"^wirNjf*ttW, irffearto. ' " ■ —Broken Ittobi, common prudence feed, ua to 
PATHTrNT. iJfe^nfcMl'WlioIrlnrt'bf Pat-A- the fjirgeon* to piece and patch up, V Ej^anf. 
rum, cfrftwu'A';' of wtierrf J-rvY.Was (he moft 4. To hjake ,up of fflwds 6r difinrent pieces. 
fammii.' '•'•"' '"■ ' ' , "" '.' ." "'" : Sometime* witfi" put crophatical.— If we leek to 
PATAVINITY, b./ mkonc-etDjieW a beculi- judge of thofe times, which the foriptuKS fet ua 
arity of trVy'Vlpcrjdn; FrpTo Pata'uhiti, the place clown without error, by the reigns ctf the Aflyrian 
of" Ois natrfity V tint wherein this pafctvinlty con- princes, we IhaH hut jMfva 141 the .liar y at advea- 
fiflt, they are bV tio ttreant agreed. See Livitis, ture. Raleigb'i Hi/fvty.— 
N° 1. in att prohatiifey. It it one of tfiofc deli- His glorious end was a patched work of &te, 
cades that are Irft in i dead lartgoage. Dari. Ill farted with a (oft effeminate lift. Drgdm. 
Georg. fcTorhof'Jjllfclflbecla't'reatire T)t Pstavini- —There is that vilible fymmetryjn a human body, 
tat: Livtana, at Kid; in itlSj, wherein hej eiplaint ao gives an intrinfick evidence, that it was not 
the urbamtyaTidTJeregrimry oftheLatifl tongue.' formed iocceflively and patehed tip by piece-meal. 
PATAVJRCA, a town of -Pern," in Guanney,' Settle;/.— Enlarging an author's fenfe, and build- 
between Paita and Linra ; 67 idik'S-N. d! Lima. ing fancies of our Own upon hit foundation, we 
PATAVfUM, a'town of GallfVTrarlfpadana,' may call paraphrafing ; but more properly chan- 
on the left or N. bank of tile. Metftraeas Minor ; ging, adding, patching, piecing. Fehsn. 
founded by Anterior, the Trojan: {Mela, Hrgil, *TATCHER. n.J. from paid.] One that patch- 
Seneea.) Now caHcd'PAWa; ■-■■■'•'• etj a botcher. 

PATAY, a 'town of France, in the dep. of the • TATCHERY. n.f. Efrom patch ^ Botthery ; 

Loiret, and late prov. of Ofrleannois; remarkable bungling work. Porgery. A wonl : n,ot in ufc— 

for the defeat of the EngjifS in 1*19, where Joan You hear him cogg, fee him diflemble, 

ov Arc did wonders. It Is t% mdet NNW. of Know hislgrofs padrierj, love bim, and feed him, 

Orleans, and 18 N. of Beaugcucy" *Lon. t.+j.E. Yet remain aflur'd that he's a made-up villain. 

Lat. 48. 5. W- . ' Stai. 

PAT'AZ.ot-pATAs. SeeP4T>s. * Patchwo»x. n./. [patch and worti] Work 

(i.J * PATCH, n.f. [ptxza, itai.J j. A piece made by fewlng fmall pieces of different colour* 

fewed on to cover a hole.— interchangeably together. — When my cloatbs were 

Patchet fet upon a little oreach, fi.ilfhed, they looked like patchwork. Swift.-— 

Difcredit more in hiding of the flaw, Whoever only reads to transcribe fhiniog remarks, 

Than did the Qaw'beforrr KtoasfopatcA'd. Shai. without entering into the geniua and fpirit of the 

If the fhoc berlpt, or ^arf.tfi put j author, will be apt to be milled out of the regu- 

He*l wounded! fee the plaifter on bis foot. lar way of thinking; and all the product of .allthia 

Drjdcn. will be found a rnauifeft incoherent piece of p aicb- 

*. A piece mferted tn mofaiek or variegated Work, tuark. Swifts- 

— They faffer their tninds'to appear in a pie-bald Foreign her air, her robe's difcordaut pride 

Kvcry of cenrte patcbu and borrowed fhred. Locke. In patchwork flutt'ring. Pcpe. 

3. A fmall fpot of black filk put on the face. — To paub-tuork learn'd quotation* are allied, 

Madam nature wean blackpu/W/fj too. C!em. Both feive to make our poverty our pride. 

If to every common funeral, Toung. 

^yonreyearnartyT'd.fucligTacewerealtow'd, (i.)'PATE. n.f. [This is derived by Simnei- 

Your face wou'd wear not patches, but a cloud, from ute, Ft.] The head. Now commonly ufed 

Saekling. in contempt or ridicule, but anciently in ferioui 

— Their -patches were placed in different fituatioris, language.— 

at party fignah to diftinguilh friends from foei. Here fake thy lover's token on thy^ow. Sptmf. 

jUdifin.— - • Svcuftomt and covetous paieit 

Thrice frorn my nrernblittg hand the patch-box By gapes and opening of gate*. Tit/fir. 

fell t Pfipe, He it a traitor, fet bim to the tower, 

4- A Snail particle ; a puce! of land,— . AncVcropaway that bilious pate of his. Shai. 

w«"»Go.og!e 



PAT ( g« ) . ¥ A T 

Steal by fine and level is an excellent paft of ire croffed by other Jtreaki nearly parallel to the 

fate. ' 5A«*. circumference ; it is of the ufuaj colour, and its 

That brokerthat dill breaksihe^ifcoffaith, eye is perforated. Pig.6. This It white, fhaped 

That daily break-vow. Sbai. fomething like an handbell, and has within a pro-. 

This nun's a flatterer. The learned pate tuberance refembling a - clapper. Fig. j. it a ft* 

Ducki to the golden fool. Sbai. ven-Eded limpet,' divided at each angle by ridges 

Thank your gentler fate, from the fumrnH^ which form a fur on a while 

' That, for a bruis d or broken fate, . ground, variegated with black foots, Fig. 8. is a 

Has freed yon from thofr knobs that grow fmall ribbed (bell, of a brown colour and rough ; 

. Much banter on the married brow. Hvdibras. it has a chamber, and a beak- filh ion ed eye, pla- 

— Many .will rather cfaufe to negleil their duty, ced at one of it's extremities. Pig. 9. is the fiueft 

titan to get a broken pate In the church's fervice. fhell of this fpecies : It* fize, the fine roother-of. 

Souti.— If any young novice happen* into, the pearl colour on the inffde, and the beauty of its 

neigh boat-hood of "flatterers, prefect] y they are red fpots without, which have the appearance of 

plying'hisfullpurfeandcmpty^nfr wi&addrcQea tortoife-meIt| -Bive.it the preeminence 'over all 

ftjitable to his vanity. South. others. It is called fheTtkei/i-Jhelliuiiler.. Fabius 

(*.) Pate, in fortification, a kind of platform, Columns diftinguifhes .a fpecies. of the lepas" or 

refrmbUng what ii cilled an bo'fe'ijkae. limpets: 

(3O Pats, in geography, in ittand of France, in 1. Pat ell* *,%rt% a«lli or atlviitkis, is' 

the Gtronde, near Blaye, . a tWkV tbeti, nregnjarljr oral,' of an afh colour, 

• PATED, aJj [from pate.] Having,* pate, marked, with radii arid stones eroding each other, 
Kis.ufcd only in ctfmpofltibn: it \opg-pettd or and perforated 'at fne top by an aperture Which 
cunning; {haiiow-patrZ 'or foolifh. . fervea the fifh for a vent. ■, - 

' PATEE, «./.'or Pattek, in heraldry, a croft,- 1. Patella lepas majoi., or exotica, comet 

fmall in the centre,- and widening to the extremi- from Spain 1 the "(bell is bird, thick, and ribbed in 

tics, which are very broad. angles, and the rim is den lieu rated. 7 ■ 

• PATKFACTION. n. /. [patefaHh, Latin.] 3. Patella lipah IRSALis, fo called sib be- 
Aft or Hate of opening. Ainfuiorib. irig thought 6t for a iwg's table, . is'of a mother. 

1 FATEHUCA, a town of Mexico, near a filver of pearl colour within, and is ribbed and perfora- 

rttine. 'Loo. 99. 55- E. Lat. ai. o. N. ~ ted in many places: thefe ihells have been found ! 

PATELI, or' Pdtala, a town of Thibet,' to on the back of the (ea-tortoife, or turtle, and on 

"Laffaj near a mountain, on which is feated the a large pinna marina. 

temple or palace of the Grand Lama. [Sec Lama, 4 , Patella lepas vulgaris, very common 

N° 1.) Jt is 3 miles E. of tafia, and ass NNW. at Naples, is of an oval figure and afh-colour. 

ofGhergong. (HI.) Patella, in '^oology, or entomology, 

(I.) PATELLA, the Rnek- pan. See An atomy, iralfoa name given by, Lifter and others to a little 

index. hulk or fhell, found on the. bark of the cherry, 

(II.)Patella, in zoology, the LiMFET.agenUs plum, rafe, and other trees, containing an animal 
of'infefls belonging to the order of vermeateftacea ; within, and ufeful in colouring. Thefe patella: 
the animal is erf the fn ail kind. The (hells are of are of the form of globes, except when they ad- 
that clafs which is called wirva/vej ; they have no here to the tree, and are for the molt part of a 
cnnlaur, and are in the form of little pointed cones, (hiring chefnut colour, The bulk it-felf ftrikes a 
Tbey are always attached to fome hatd body, very fine crimfon colour on paper, and within it 
Tfteir fummit is fometimes acute, fometimes is found a white maggot which is of no value: 
obtufe, flatted, turned back, or perforated. The this, in time, hatches into a very fmall but beau- 
rock or other hard body to which 'hey are always tiful bee. The fize of this bee is about half that 
(bund adhering, fervesasakindoffecandor.under of an ant. They have. a fling like beet, and three 
fhell to prciervc them from injury ; and for this fpots in a triangle on the forehead, fuppofed to be 
realbn Aldrovandus and Rondelet have claffed eyes. They are black, and have a large round 
them among the bivalves ; but in this error they whitifh or pale yellow foot on the, back. The 
have not been followed. The difUnfcui.fb.ing upper pair of wings are "laded and fpotted, but 
mark or charafleriftic of the lepas is' to have but the under pair are clear. It might be worth while 
one convex fhell, which adheres by its rim to a to try whether the colour they yield. might, oot be 
rock, or fome other bard fubftancK There are ufeful. The deeped coloured hulks afford the 
36 fpecies of this genus, which are principally fined and deeped purple: they mud be ufed white 
dlftinguifhed by peculiarities in their rhells. The the animal in them is in the maggot form; for , 
limpet,' fig. 1, Plate CCLX. has large yellow fur- when it is changed into the bee (late the fhell is 
rows and ridges from the bentrt to the eifcom- dry and colourlefs. Lifter, who Grft obfbrveKl 
ference, which is indented; the eye is, perfectly thefe patella:, went fo far on comparing them 
white, and lhaped like a nipple. Pig..*. Is per-, with the common kermes, as to affert that they 
fectly fmooth, but radiated with brown ftrtaks, were of the fame nature with that production z 
and perforated in the fummit. fig. 3. is ribbed, but bis account of their being the workmanfhip 
and indented at the circumference; .its Coat is of a bee, to preferve ber young maggot In, is not 
fpotted with. brown, in a zig-zag form, and its agreeable to the true hiftor; of the kermes ; for 
eye is of a ruby colour. Pig. 4. is a fmall brown that is an infect of a very peculiar kind. It is 
iliell, the ribs or Briar of which are armed with poffible that thefe patella: may be tbe fame genua 
fmall white points: Fig. 3. is (triated with radii, of animal a with the kermes, but. then it, produces.' 
reaching from the eye to the circumference, which its young within this fhell or hulk., which in no 

' ' DptzedoyGoOQle •**• 



J%1- IATI114. »'g.5. 



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PAT ( 95 ) PAT 

Clher than the flan of the body- of the mother Some fay lie was ■ confiant officer and perpetual 
animal; but as there are many fiiea wbofe worm* chief of that body; and other* fuppofe him to 
or maggot* are lodged in the bodie* of other hare been a temporary raiaifter, defied' upon 
animals, perhaps thit little bee ma* lay its egg in . account of making . peace or denouncing war, 
the body, of, the proper infeit, and the. maggot which were both done by him, See Fecial**. 
hatched from that egg, may eat up the proper (7.) Path., St, a town of France, in the dtp. 
progeny, and, undergoing its own. natural changes of the Sarte, 3 mile* S. of Alepcon, 
there, iflue out at length in form of the bee. This (1.) PATERA, in antiquity [from Potto, Lat, 
may hare been the cafe in fome few which Dr to be open,] a large open goblet or veffei, ufed by 
Lifter examined 1 and he may have,.been milled by the Romans in their facrificea; wherein they 
this to fuppofe it tbe natural change of the infect, offered tbeir.oonfecrated meat* to the god*, and 

(IV.) Patblla FtaA, the wild limpet, a name .wherewith they made libations. See Libatiow, 
very improperly applied by Raodililiu*. and Al- t and Sacrifice. On medals the patera is feen In 
droyand to, tbe aorei marine, or ewteb*- venerit, the hands of feveral deities ; and often in tbofe of 
which Ctrtainlj are not of the patella kind. princes, to mark th? faqejdotal authority joined 

•PATE,**.*./ ItMfJM^LatJ., Ajdate. Not . with the imperial, Sco, .P.. Joubprt observe*, that 

inufc— . , ,[. .. betides the paten, there, is frequently an altar 

. ., ...1'yhefloorofheav'a . upon which the patera feiems t,o. be. pouring it* 

In thick inlaid with pauiq or bright gold. S/iai. contents. Tbe patera wa* of gold, Giver, marble, 

PA TENOBE, a. town of Ceylon, near the E. braft, glafi, or earth 1 .and they ufed to mclofe it 
coalt, a8,wile9,£.pf Candy. . in urns-with the afheiof thcrjeceafed) aft* it had 

(l.) * PATENT, adj. {jxumi, LaL pateti, Pr.] f erred for the libation of the wipe and liquor* at 
i. Open to theperufal of all: at letter* patent. — .the funeral. The patera, it an ornanient>ip archi- 
In Ireland, where the. king difpofe* of.buAopricka teflure, frequently feen in the Dorip. freeze, anal 
merely hy.hii letter!, patent, without any Coflgi . the tympana of arche* ; and they; are, tppntimea 
d'Elire. J-ejlj. 1. Something appropriated by let- .ufed by ttjemfelvo*, to oroament ,a,fpacc. In that 
tera patent.— Madder, in hmg Charles the firft'* .cafe, it.i^commou to .bang a fckg,of. .hufka qr 
timea, vu uiadta.paioi/conimodity.AfDri.Hii/f. .drapery over tbern : ( fometinies, they are much. 
-ti,)*PaxjtHT,n>£ iwritcorrferruigfomeex- enriched with foliage, and . bj,v^ matt/or ahead 
clutive right or privilege. — If you. are fo food over .in the centre. ; . ._'.,. 

htr iniquity, give her a patent to offtc^. E/tai, — , (a.) Patera, the modem name, of Patara. . 
So .willXgarow.io live, fo die, ".,. - PATERCULUS, CaUis Veluioii, an ancient 

Ere I will yield my virgin patent up, , i Skai. Roman hi ftoriao, who flodriihed in the reign of 
—We ace centred a* obftinale, in not complying -Tiberius -C a: far, was born A.'U. C. 7*5. Hi* an- 
wiih;a rqyal.#tfntf.' Swift. VI:"'.'; ; C*ftow were -iHuftrious for ram-il and offices. ■ Hi* 

(jOPateut LEAF,, in botany, a leaf thajjfauds 'grand-fether eftnoufedlhe.paffy of Tiberius Nero, 
almoft at right angle* with the ftallt.... the emperor'* father; .but'betog oldapd infirm, 

U0P*TB.Nr. letters. See Littb*, § I. andaot able to accompany. Nerp wbfiO he retired 

* PATENTEE. *,/ [from fateat.} ,Qnewho from Naples, he killed hirofelf. His .father was a 
has a patent.— If hi* tenant and p>t'*Ut £ifpofe of foldier of rank, and fo was Pater cuius. He was* 
his gift, without hi* kingly content, , \he L lands <ailitary tribune when Caius Csetar, a gandfpn of 
fhall revert to the king. B#cen.~in .the/pa^rjjt AuguAua, had an interview with the king. of the 
granted to lord Dartrnooth, ;he JiCurities-obliged Parthian*, in an iOand of-, the Euphrates, in.7j> 
the patentee to receive hi* monpy back upon every He. commanded , the .cavalry in Germany, uoder 
demand. Swift. Tjberiu* i.a"4 accompanied that prince for 9 year* 

PATEQUEMADE,. a town in the iflaod of fucceflively in all hia expeditions, . He received; 
Cuba; 10 miles E. of Villa dei Principe. - honourable reward* from him ; but was preferred 

(1.) PATER, [Lat- '- '■ : Patb« ri .i* rarioufly to to higher dignity, than the prstotftiip. 'The 
a fed. See fa, 6; and Patb.es." , ."-'-> praifc* he be'ftows upon Sejairns make it probable 

(1.) PfTBfi Paul, a learned Hungarian, born that- he, was a. friend of this favourite, and was 
at MeqerfJpT^ in i6j6j ; agd driven" from -.nil involved in his ruin- His death ii, placed by Hr 
country, when young, on account- of hia being a DodwjH io-A-U-.C. 284, wben'h^wBainhiscoth 
proteftant. The duke rjf WolFenbuitel made him year. He. wrote an Abridgment 0/ tie Reman 
his liararian, and he becafne profcITor. of ,niathe- Hifteij in. two books, in which many particular* 
nut iu in fhe college of Dantaic-^ wjoere he died are related, that are nowhere eUe to be found j 
in 1714. Re publifhed many work* oq literature fvhich.make it the more valuable. 'It waa .firft 
and philofophy. . .publithed.frora ths MS. of Joirhac,by Rhenanu^ 

(3,) Pater, in geography. 'See PtDta. ..; ,»t Bafil io!-i5*«i afterwards byUp&uHtLeyderi 

(4.]. * Pater Nostxr.. a. /, ..[Latin.]- The in 15SJ-, by : Gerard Voflius UIU639 ; oy Boeclerua 
Lord'aprayer, ■!"..' at 3n-Biburg in 1041 ; by ThRfmsandotherB; jpd, 

(5.)Pat»« HoaTEa.in geograpbr, Ul4n.ds.qf (aflly, by Peter Burman at Leyden, »jjf>. injSro. 
Afu,in the Earl Indian fea,.fo called becaufe of To the Oxford edition in 1693, Svo, were prefix.- 
the great number of rocks, which ftijor*. 'have «d tbe .Almoin PelleiaiutA . Mr Dodweii, which 
likened to the bead* with which the :P4pifte..te)I (linw a great knowledge of an(iqnity. Lipfiua 
their pater nofter. They abound in corn, and cenAtre* himfeverely for hi* praiGng Tiberius.r 
fruit*, and are very populous. PATER N A, a.town, of Spain, in New CaAjle ; 

(6.) Pater rATkATU*, the firft and principal 3 mile* E. of Akarap, ; ;, .-,■• 
pmba in the college k af heralds called Ftmiei. * PATERNAL. «i#J/«emw|i.ai^frw/,Fr.] 

i; g ,t7edn>C i. Fatherly t 



TAT f 96 ) P A t 

t. Fatherly; fciving the relation of a Bather j per- and after ftrnggHag with much dlftreTs, was ip. 

taiaing to a father,-— pointed Irbtatian to tbe marquis of Larrfdowri. ' 

IdiTotaim all my yafrr-Mf care, • He died tt)th 09'. 180*. He wrote and pnbliihed, 

Propinquity and property of Wood, K. tear. I, A dtjfeftathnbh theequeflrian Jjpn a/tit George 

—Grace figfrifies the paternal favour of God to ami affix Garter ; by Dr Pertingall, i'jjj : i. Tbe 

hit etect children; Hammond. — Admonition! fra- travels of Caiat junior, 1767: 3. jaiuriana, w 

tenul or paternal of hit fellow Cbriftiaoi. H«m- n Aw* afferapj; *. Tbe Templar, a weeklypapo: 

«W»i — ■ • and, 5. Speculation* m law and Itvtojtri. But 

Tliey ^fcBd Sielr dajn in joy unbliHfi'd ; and what rendered him chiefly famous was his latent ! 

dweH at drawing up catalogues. Toe catalogues which 

Long time id peace, by famines and tribes, tie made of many valuable libraries, being truk 

Under paternal mle. Milton's Par. toft, rai/btmer, fcfl at high price*. 

«.. Hereditary) received in fucceffion from one's (j^PATBKStm.ingcography. See Patters of. 

father^- (r.) • PATH. n.f.\patk, SaxonJ Way; roadj 

Men plough with 6*eri of their own track. In conveflation it 11 nfed of a narrow way 

Their final! ^rtfrttfl/fielrJ-of com. Drydirt. to be psffed 00 foot; but hi foiwm language 

-—He held his paternal eft«te from >tbe bounty of means any paflage. — For darknefs, where la the 

-tiie conqULTOr. firyden.— ■■ ■ ■ • place thereof, — that thou fh cold ft know the t»;bt 

Retreat betimes to thehdule thereof t /oixrxriii. 1x1.— ' 

To thy paternal feat, the Sabine 'field. MAifon. Ol) the glad earth the golden age renew, 

■ PATERNE, St, a town of France, in the de- Andthygrcatfathn J ieflrf.tohcay'iipu/Coe:J3r|iJ. 

part ment of M orbihan, and diftria of VanneS. Tfie'dewy^nfftf of meadows -we- wil! Mead. 

■ PATERNIAN, flT.-Btown of Germany, in Ca- .-.,<■;. . ^lyi*. 

tmtbia i t, miles £8tv. of Spit ai. ■ —There it but one toad by whjch to'dimb tip, 

* PATERNITY, b./. {from fatthHsi'Ltt. pa- and they- hare a very ferete Uw'agtanjr any that 

ttrnlfi, Pr.l 'Faflteruirp ; the relation of a father, enters tbe town by another fatb. Adbifon en halj. 

—Tbe world, while it had fcattrty ofpeople, un- (i.) PAT»','ln rwhanics; VthtTcotrrreor tract | 

-■■-■■■■■ ■-■* ■ — ■ J marked out or run over by a body-in rnojron. 
' ' '" " L "" " ' tb Pla -■-- 



(3,}'«VrHS or ths MoomaVd- Kahkts. 

..... ._. r _ y . ,je Asf kom omv, Index. *' ;■• ■- 

the divine paternity, ai Bilbop Pearlon (1.) PATHETIC. ail, relating la the paffion?. 



very Jeniihlc impreffiom. Arbutfomt.~ This origi- See Astromomy, Index. 

nation in the divine paternity, as Bilbop Pearlon (1.) PATHETIC. ail, relating la th 

apeak*, bath anoiently been looked open as the It cornea from the Greek, tatty papist 



•flertlon of the unity. Wattriani. See Passiojt. 

PATERNO, a town of BkBly, mthe«lleyof t».TP»THiTic; or 1 inttffflb.fomethingvery 

Demsna, buitt on the ruin 1 of the ancient rTybla; ( a .) PAXHETICAL, J rriofTng.oreapreflite.or 

Ij mites W. Of -Catania, gee Mtaia, t^-i. pafflomrte ;' capable of eseit'rng pliy, companion, 

" (iO PATERSDN, the for. AiexandeY, a Scot- anger, or other palEons. The chromatic gam, 

<Wh clergyman of nncomtnon abilities, born at with its greater aadleQerfemitbnet, either afceod- 

fikkjtnyre, in tbe parifh of TrailBat, now annexed ■ hig or defceMhng, la very proper Jor the pathetic ;. 

*o tnat of Tinwald, is DmWfries-fliite, about 1660. af is alfo an artful rnanagement of difcords ■ with 

tie not only ftiggeited the plan of tbe Bank 0* -a Variety of motions, now briiki'riow tangwihinj, 

tUiat.i»v, butpropofcd a nationaiobjeft^f frill now-Twifl, now flow. 

gnater impdrtanoetbOreBt9ntato,'lMd it'been (j.) *PAttrt*iCAA.PATWB'rtc»r. iutntolhutj 

carried into execution, by rtle^fcttfemetit of' • patheityici French^ < Aflbctingtbe paffions; paf- 

ScoRllh colony at iDarien: The hiftory of that nonatej moving. — ■...-.' 

fettiement, the luminous ideas concerned by Pa- ' His pace' tba't Baaetfo] of wit 1 

terfon, the fliatrrefil oppofition it met wit*t frorh ^ 'Tis atoll pat helical. ' . Sbtti 

m mean fplrit Of commercial jeaiouff, tnA tbe ^HoW fdtbeiiek h That e*.rx»ftulartbri of job] 

confeouent deftroAlou of tte infant colony/'widi when, fpr the trial'df liis'patictioe', bewasmade 

Sir John Dauyrnple** judicioui remarks on thfc tolook'ijpbh WmttlFrr, ithTi deploraSft c'onditicn ( 

Whole idfcmous'tt-atifaaion.areinferte* under *e *^*r/3r.-"-Til(ly cntifidercd the rfrTpofrtrons of s 

article DaailM, N"I. S I »— 5. 4*be *ev. James fiacere and lefs- mercurial nation, by dwelling or 

Lanrie, minlftes of Tfcwald, toys, Paterfon wis thtpatietrci r&rt. Steift*— 

Hot an se^ureScotchman, ai a certain" writer ftyleo WKIe;tbUB^a;fow>* to the prince fie fpoke, 

hrsD) be more than once leprefeiiteo" Duoifrieo, ' From the brave -yonth the ftreanjlng- paliioii 

*0. mtheScoteh" parliament. The ftrRe houfc ■ -broke.- ■■ '<■ - »' P<pt, 

f« Nit* to hlrgrimd-oepbew, Dr JAmesMoun- • PATHETICAIxy. adv. [from ' patheticnl. 

, firft phyfician forsUnyyeatito'the empress In fuch'a manner asmay ftrike the ^affions.— 

Rnffia. The widow, wboaowenJoyBtlieftrm, Th'eCe.reafoha, to petl.-etitaHg urged -and To mimiva 

i« After to Dr Jona Rodgerton, wbafacceeded Dr bly raiftd by the profopoposia of natnte- fpeakinj 

Moutriey as firft pbyScian to the emprCfs, Sir to" her-ebFIdrrti with fomnch aQtbority, defei,! 

J.SmcUir's Stat. «fcn Vol. I. p, i6j. the' psirrs I have taken. Drjdtn. '•' 

(»0 PATa«wif,-Samnet, was bom in lj%*. * PATHETIC ALNESS, n.'f. [from pathti.-a!\ 

His father died when he was very young, and bh QhaHty'of being pathetidi; Quality of moving th' 

gi»rdian4'ailing>helofthisfonsAe. Being maimed, pafliohs. 

and not having been brought up to sny profeffion, (1.) PATH-HEAD, a cimfiderarib village n 

be chafe that of a bookfcHer, in which he was Scotland, in FiMhire, and pariln of Dy lari" j V, 

ajcfweoftful. He tbe* .commenced audrioneer, of, but adjacent to'Kirkaidy-j tortg-famous for it 

nunufaduti 



PAT (97) PAT 

KtimbOnreof nail*. It it named from ila fltua- — In the way of rightrxrouiefs is Eft* and fa iftt 
tion, «t the head of ■ Asep afcent called the Pali, patb4naj thereof there it no death, Prov. xii. 
on the fide of a hill facing the Frith of Forth. It a8.— 



U divided into Path-dead Proper, or Dmiieer, and 
Sinclair**. The litterbai been moftly builf within 
thefe 50 ream. The total population of both, in 
179*1 waa soSg ; iocreafc nnce 17.15, 9* a - The 
number of houfe> ni jaoj and families (Si. 
The nail manufacture ftill brings in above 1000I. 



a. year. Wearing and other manufactures are ilfo able; tolerable. DiS, 



When in the middle pathway bafts tlio* 
fnake.f 
O lead me, guard me from the full ry boars. 

Can, 
PATI. See PatTa, and Patti, , 

~ PAT1BLE. adj. [from potior. Lit.} Suffer- 



carried on ; and a fair for woollen and linen cloths 
u held in Augnft. 

(a ) Path-hiad, a village of Mid-Xothian, a 
mile S. of Dalkeith. 

• PATHLESS, adj. [from path.] Untrodden; 
sot marked with path*. — 

Aft. thou the citizeni of patblefi wood*. 
What cut the air with wings £ Sandfi. 

Like one that bad been led aftray 
Through the heav'ns wide patbkfi way. Milton. 

In fortune') empire blindly tbut we go, 
Aod wander after paikltft deftiny. Dridtn. 

Through miffs obfcure, Ihe wings her tedious 

And from the fummit of a patbUfi coaft 

Sees infinite, and in that fight is toft. Pri"*- 

(1.) • PATHOGNOMONICS adj. [*«*' 



.] Suchflgniofa 



difeafc 



ai are inseparable, defigning tbeefTenceor real na- bour. 

fno n f > Atr-—r~ _ ««» r_— _..?L. at:..L. .■v-.r 1 



PAT1BULARY. A0. [patibukirc, Fr.froraM. 
iituJum, Latin.] Belonging to the gallows. Aid. 

(1.) « PATIENCE. «./. [•srir**, French; 
patientia, Latin.] 1. The power of fuffcring j calm 
endurance of pain or labour. — 

Devotion, patience, courage, fortitude ; 
I have no rehfh of them. Shot. 

— Chrrftian fortitude and patience have their op- 
portunity in times of affliction and persecution, 
Spratt*— 

Patience of toil, and love of virtue fail*. 

rVssr. 
1. The quality of expecting long without rage 
orditcomenti lotog-funering*— NecefTary ^u*n»/ 
in feching the Lord i< better than be that lead. 
eth bii life without a guide. Bcdsu. xa. 3*.— 
Have patient* with tne, and I will pay thee all. 
Matthew. j. Perfeverance j continuance of U- 



ture of a difeafe ; not fymptomatick. Qidaij. 
He hat the true patbognomoitki Cgn of love, jea- 
loufy. ArhutbaaU 

(1.) Pathognomonic SlON 



He learnt with patience, and with ttcekaef* 
taught. Hart 1. 

a. The quality of bearing offence* without re- 
See Medicine, venge or anger. — 

Hit rage wat kindled, and hit patience gone. 
Bam. 



* PATHOLOGICAL, adj. [pathol«pane, Fr, 
from pathology.] Relating to the tokens or difco- j. Sufferance \ permiffion.— By their patience, tlio 
vercbfe effects of a diftemper. apoftlen preached at well when they wrote, a* 

* PATHOLOGIST. *. /. [«»«• and *.>.«.} when they fpakc the gofpel. Beaier. 6V An herb. 
One who treats of pathology. A fpecies of dock .•^-Patience, an herb, makes a 

(1 .) * PATHOLOGY, n. J. !■■■»•> and- \>>» j good boiled fallad. Mortimer, 

patholagititr.] That part of medicine which relates (».) Patience it that calm and nnrnffled tetn- 

10 the diftempm, with their differences, caufes, per with which a good man bears the evils of 

and eSeits, incident to the human body. Qoimep. life, from a conviction that they are at leaft per- 

(1.) Pathology. See Mapicim. nutted, if not feat, by the beft of Beings, who 

PATHOS, [Or. Has*,] literally fignifiet pat makes all things work together for good to thofa 

ion, and in poetry is applied to the eaprenlon of who love and fear him, 

paffion. (j.) Patiikci, in botany (6 1. def. 6.1 Sen, 

PATHRL See Paathia, f 3. Rusitr, N° 4. 

PATHKOS, a city and canton of Egypt, which (4.) Patience, in geography, an iuaod near 

"■e prophets Jeremiah and Eaekiel meotinni Jar. Rhode Wand, in Narraganfet Bay, SE. of War. 

" ' "* wick Neck] a miles loogi and 1 broad. 

(1 .) • PATIENT, adfdfatiewt, Fr. pollens, Lat.J 
1. Having thequalitr of enouring : with (/"before 
the thing endured.— To this 1 outward ftrnflure 



. IJ. Elek. nil. 14. xxx. 14. 
■certain of itt fituation. Pliny and Ptolemy call- 
it Phaturu j and it appears to have been in 

Upper Egypt. Ifaiah (xii. a.) calls it PathiM) — „ 

and it i. the country of the Pathrufim, the pofte* was joined ftreugth of con ft itu tion, patient of 
tity of Mir.raim, mentioned by Mofes, Gen. x. 14. fevereft toil and hardfhip. /W/.— Wheat, which 

V-..V..I .u.„. ». :. t : :„ •». is the beft fort of grain, of which the pureft bread 

it made, is ^afiraf •/heat a^dcold. Raj. 9. Calm 
Under pain or affliction.-^- 

Be patient, and II will flay. Shot. 

Gntv'd, but unmov'd, and patient of your 
fcorn, 
I die. Drpden. 



Ezektel threatens them with an entire ruin. The 
Jews retired thither, notwithstanding the remon- 
ftnuicef of Jeremiah ; but Ifaiah foretold their re- 
turn. 

PATHRTJSIM, ■ Ion of MUtraim, fuppofed to 
be the progenitor of the Partbiani. SeePAaTnu, 

, * PATHWAY. *./. {path and we/.] A road j 3. Not revengeful againft injurwa. 4. No?e-fify 

in totnnioo acceptation, a narrow way to be palled provoked.— -Be ftaiwm .toward all men. ■ Thejf.t. 

» toot — . 14. j. Perfrvcring] calmly diligent. — Whatever 

Alas, that love, wbofe view is mnffled Alii, I have done is due to fatient thought. Nnvtat. 

Should without eves fee paihiaajt to t)l| ill. i'iah 6. Not bafty 1 not vkioufly eager or impetuous.-— 

Toi» XVU. Put I, W i ^"OOgTqK* 



P i A. T ( S& ) PAT 

Not patient t° fltpecr. 'the turn* of fate,. appeared after bis death, have rendered hi* nam? 

They open'tf camps'. *'" . .Priori ■ famous. ' 

{».) * Patirmt. a. /: {-patient, Pr.} i That (3.) Patin, Charles, M. D. the fon of Guy, 

which receive* impreflions from external ajrents. made a treat figure in the world, and excelled in 

— Malice is a paflion fo impetuous and precipi- the knowledge of medals. He was born in Paris 

tate, that it often involves the agent and the pa- in i$ 33 . He ftudied phyfic, took hi| degrees, 

tietit.Gov- of t/tt Tongue — and praflifed with great fuccefa. In i6j6,.he 

Toproper^Kieo/f hekind agents brings. wss - appointed profeffbr of phyfic in Padua; arid 

Creech.- in 1679 was created a knight of St Mirk. He 

—When a fmith with a hammer strikes a piece- died in that city in 1694. His works are nume- 

of iron, the iron is the patient or the fubject of roo's. His wife too, and his daughters, were au- 

paflion, in a philofophical fenfc, becaufc it ic* t hart lies. 

wires the operation of the agent. WatU. a. A (3.1 Patin, OrJn. / JSrpgo, or the green 
perfon difeafed. It is commonly tiled of the re- (1 j PATINA, J rutt of copper, fo much var- 
iation between the lick and the phylician. — You ed by antiquarians, as an evidence of tbe genuine- 
deal with me like a pliyfician, that feeing his^o- : nefsof ancient copper coins. SecCHKMisr*?- Is- 
tient in a peftiknt fever, fhonld chide infiead of titx; and Copper, § XII. In (lead of corroding , 
adminiftering help. Sidney.— Through ignorance the metal, as the ruft of iror does, patina is the 
of the difeafe, inffead of good, he worketh hurt, beft preservative of ancient copper coins. It ii 
and out of one' evil throwelh the patient intc produced by age alone. 

many miferiej. Spen/er. — AphyCcian 11 fes various (a.) Patina, in painting, is applied to a Gmi- 
metlrods for the recovery of Tick perfona.; and lar change, which takes place upon ancient paint- 
though all of them are tji fag ree able, his patients ings. See Painting, Parfl, Se3. V. 
are never angry. AM/m. 3. It is fometimes, but • PATINE. n. /. {patina, Lat.l The cover of 
rarely, ufed abfolutely for a fick perfon.— a chalice. Ainf. 
■ The poor petit*? will asfooh bofnnnrt PATIV1LCA, a town of Pern, in Santa. 

On the hard matrefa. Dryien. PATIZITHES, one of the PerGan Magi, whofe 

— It is wonderful to obferve, how inappre hen live brother" having a ftrong refetnblance to Smerdis, 

ihefe patients are of their difeafe. Blaeimore. ' the ;d fon«of Cyrus the Great, he raifed him to 

* fa Patieht. it. a. [patienter, Fr.] TJo com- the throne on the death oF Cambyfes, pretending 
pofe one's (elf j to behave with patience. Obfo- that he was prince Smerdis. SccPsrsia. Hen- 
lefe.— dot.iii, ft 61. 

Patient yootfelf, madam, and pardon me. PATKUL, John Reinhold, Count, a brave and ; 

Shak. accompli flied nobleman, born in Livonia. He wis 1 

* Patiehtlv. adv. [from patient.] 1. With- employed to reprefent the grievances of that pri>- | 
out rage under pain or affliction, — - vince to Charles XL of Sweden ; which he did I 

Lament not, Eve, but patiently rclign with fuch intrepidity and freedom, that the king 
What juftly thou haft loft. Milton, profeflcd to efteem him for it. But, being in re- 
Ned is in the gout, ality highly inc en frd" again II him, he cauftd him 
Lies rack'd with pain, and you without; to be profecuted for high treafon; when he waj 
How patiently you hear him groan ! condemned to lofe his right hand and his head. 
How glad the cafe is not your own ! Swift. Patkul, however, efcaped, and entered into tbe 
a. Without vicious impetuofity ; with calm dill- fervice of Peter the Great ; but, while acting u 
gence.— That which they grant, we gladly accept the Czar's ambaflador to Auguftus, K. of Poland, . 
-at their hands, and wifh that patiently they would .whom he had formerly ferved, was molt ungrate- 
examine how little eaufe they have to i!eny that fully delivered up a prifoner, by that monarch, to 
which as yet they grant not. Hooier. — Cpuld men Charles XII. ; who caufed bitn to he broken alive 
but once be perfuaded patiently to attend to the on the wheel, with every circumftance of igno- 
diftates of their own minds, religion would gain rainy and aggravated cruelty, on the 30th Sept. 
more profelytes. Calamy. I7°7- 

FATIGUMO n.f. (a corruption of the words • PATLY. adv. [from fat., Commodioufly ; 

pate dc gvhnanttej, a fort of pafte or cakeo much fitly. 

ufed on the continent, as an agreeable and ufeful (t.) PATMOS, in ancient geography, one of 

remedy for catarrhal definitions, and fuppofed by the Sporades, 30 miles in compafs, according to 

Dr Pi-rcival to conftft of gum arable combined Dionyfius and Pliny. It was rendered famous 

with fiigar and the whites of eggs. But it is Taid by the exile of St John, and the Revelation fhow- 

that the powdered fubftance of the marihmallow ed him there. Molt of interpreters think St John 

is the chief ingredient of the competition. The wrote them in the fame place during bis exile. 

■Dr recommends it a* an antidote againfr Hint- "Pattnos liesfeetween the ifland of Icaria and the 

CER. His receipt is this: " Fine fugar 4 ox. promontory of Miletus. I' is now called Path;, 

gum-arabic, 1 ox. role water, half an ounce; PaB'mo, Patmai, or Palmafa. La circuit is about 

white of eggs, q.i. 30 miles. It belongs to the Turks: It is confi- 

(l.)PATIN, Guy, profeffbr, of phyfic in the derable for its harbours; hut the inhabitants have 

royal college of Paris, was born in 1601. He been obliged by the pirates to quit the capitsi, 

made his way into the world merely by the force and retire to a bill on which St John's convent 

of his genius, being at firft corrector of a printing (lands. This convent is a citadel confining of 

houfe. He died in 1671* and bis fetters, which seven! irregular toners, and is a fubftantial build- 



PAT I 99 ) P*'A ; T' 

itig fated on a very deep rock. The ifland is fcattered citizens, arid mads it a Roman colony > 
v;ry barren, and without wood j but abounds fettling a portion of the troops which obtained 
witii partridges, rabbits, quails, turtles, pigeons, the victory of Aclium, *ilti othrr inhabitants 
and fnipes. Their com does not amount to snoo from theadjacent places. Patrse reflourifhed and ■ 
ban-els in a year. In, the whole ifland there are enjoyed dominion over Nanpaftus. CE.imhea, and 
farce 300 men; but there are above 10 women feveral cities of Achaia. In the timeof Paufanias, 
to one man. To -the memory of St John il an it was adorned with temples and porticoes, a 
hermitage on the ride of a mountain, where there theatre, and an ocCum which was fuperior to any 
is a chapel not above 8 paces long, and 5. broad, in Greece, but that of Atticus Hcrodcs at Athens. 

(i.)Patmos, the capital of the above ifland. In the lower part of the city was a temple of 
It has a harbour, and fbme monafteries of Greek Bacchus iEfymnetca, in which was an image 
Monks. Lon. 16. 14- E. Lat. 37.^4. N. preferved in a cheft, and conveyed from Troy by ' 

PATNA, a town of Indoltan, in the dominions Eurypylus. By the pott were temples ; and by 
of the Great Mogul, N. of Bengal, where the the fea, one of Ceres, with a pleafant grove and 
Eaglilh have factories for lalt'petre, borax, and a prophetic fountain oi" w.trring •vctauly in i!fter- 
taw filk. It is the capital of Bahar, a depend en- mining the event of any illnefs. Afterfuppiica- 
cy of Bengal, and is Gtuated in a pleafant coun- ting the goeidefs with incenfe, the fick perton ap. 
'Ti 400 miles E. of Agra. Ir is 7 miles long, on peared, dead or living, in a mirror fufpended fo 
the banks of the Ganges, and about half a mile as to touch the furface of the water. In the ri- 
broad. Hr Rennd gives Itrong reafuns for fup- tadel of Pair* was a temple of Diana Laphria, 
piling it to be the ancient Palibothra. The with her ft atue ih the habit of a huntrefs, of ivory 
town is large and populous, but the Routes are .and gold,, given by Augultus Ctefar, when he laid - 
diltant from each other. Lou. 85.40- £, Lat. 'walk* C&ly.don and the cities of JEtolia to people 
4J- ij. N. Nicopolis. The PatrenfUns honoured her with 

PATOECI. See Patjeci. a yearly feftival, which is deferibed by Paufanias 

PAT O MA, a river of Rufiia, which runs into who was a fpeftator. . Theyformed a circle round 
the Lena; ioLon. 134. 10. E. of Ferro, Lat. 59. the attar with pieces of green wood, each lb 
SI- N. cubits long, and within heaped dry fuel. The 

PATOMACK, a large river of North America, folemnuy began with a moft magnificent procef- 
in Virginia, which rifes in the Alleghany mono- Son, which was clofed by the virgin prieftefs in 
uins, frparates Virginia from Maryland, and falls a chariot drawn by (tags. On the following .day. 
into Chefapeak bay. It is about 7 miles broad, the city and private perfous offered at the altar 
and is navigable for near 100 miles. ■ fruits, 'and birds, and alt kinds of victims, wild 

PATONCE, or Potence, a. / in heraldry, is ■ boars, flags, deer, young wolves, and beads full 
a crofs, flory at the ends; from which it differs grown; after which, the Are was kindled; It. was 
only in this, that the ends, in [lead of turning down not remembered that any wound had ever been 
like a fleur-de-lis, are extended fomewhat in the received at this ceremony, though the fpeftacle 
puree form. Sec Flory. and facrifice were as dangerous as lavage. The 

PATONG, a town of China, of the 3d rank, number of women at Patrae was double that of 
in Hou-quang, on the Yang-tie; 15 miles WNW. the men. They were employed chiefly in' a ms- 
ofKoue. ■ nufafture of flax which grew in Elis, -weaving 

PATQ.UASHAGAMA, a lake of Canada; 4,50 garments, and attire for the head." 
miles W. of Quebec. PATRANA. See Pastrana. 

PATRffi, acity of Achaia, at thetfW. ofPe- PATlt.iS, an ancient and flouriffitng town of 
bponnefus, anciently called Arot, (t was vifited European Turkey, in the Morea, capital of a 
byDr Chandler, who gives the Following account duchy, with a Greek archbifhop's fee. It is 
of it, " It bat been often attacked by enemies, pretty large and populous; and the Jews, who 
tifcen, and pillaged. It is a conudcrable town, are one 3d part of the inhabitants, have four ly- 
at a diftance from the fea, .fituated on the fide of nagognes. There are feveral handfome fflotques 
a hill, which has its fummit crowned wi*h a rui- and Greek, churches. The Jews carry on a great 
nous caftle.' This made a brave defence in'1447 trade in filk, leather, honey, wax, and Cheefe. 
ajainft Sultan Marat, and held out until the peace There are cyprefs trees of a prodigious height, 
w"s concluded, which Erft rendered the Morea and excellent pomegranates, chrons, and 1 oranges, 
tributary to the Turks. A dry 'flat before it was It has been feveral times taken and retaken, and 
o=cc the port, which has been choked with mud. is now in the bands of the Turks. It is feated in 
It has now, as in the time of Strabo, only an in. ton. ai 45- E. Lat. 38. 17. N. 
different road forveuels. It is a place of fome PATRES Cokschptj.' See Cohscai»t and 
trade, and is inhabited by Jews, Turks, and Senator. 

Creeks. The latter have feveral churches. One PATRIA, a town and lake of Naples, in 1*. 
i( dedicated to St Andrew, who fuffcred martyr- vora ; 13 miles NW. of Naples, 
dom there. Jt had been recently repaired. The (1.) • PATRIARCH. •./ \j*triarc&e, French) 
fit by the fea is fuppofed that of the temple of fatriarcha, Latin;] I. One who governs by pa- 
Ceres; by it is a fountain. The air is bad, and ternal right ; the father and ruler of a family .-- 
the country round about over-run with the glu- So fpeak the patriarch of mankind. Miltim. 

cprbixa or liquorice. Patrx ailiftcd the JEtoll- The monarch oak, the fatriarti of the trees, 

ant when invaded by the Gauls under Brennns ; Shoots tiling up. DrjJnt. 

nit afterwards wa* reduced to extreme poverty, ». A bifhop fuperior to arehbifhops, — The patri- 
'■9A almoft Abandoned. Auguftus reunited the atchi for 100 years had been of one honfe. Ka- 



PA*. { 100 ) PAT 

l/igtr— Whtn fecular primates wfre heretofore triarchi govern all the churches. There wn to- 
given, the ecclt Radical laws have ordered patri- (ides many independent chiefs of diocefes, who, 
mrcbt and ecclefiaflicai primates to be placed, far from owning tbe jurifdi&ion of the grind pa- 
jiyltfft. triarchy called themfelves patriarchs t fbch ai 
(i.;Pii'KiAȣHj i one of thofe firft fathers that of Aquileia; nor was Carthage em fubjeft 
(*0 Patbj**C«a, J who lived towards the be- to the patriarch of Alexandria. Mofhrim ima- 
*t inning of the World, and who became famous gines that tbe bilhops, who enjoyed a certain de- 
ny their long lines of defendants. Abraham, gree of pre-eminence oxer the reft of their order, 
J&ac, and Jacob, and bis iafons, are tbe patri- were diftinguiftted by thejewiih title of patriarchs 
auxhaof theOldTeftamcnt; Adam, Beth, Enoch, In tbe fourth century. The authority of the pa. 
&c. were antediluvian patriarchs. See Ant edi- triarchi gradually increafed, tilj, about the cfofe 
lUTuas. The authority of patriarchal govern- of the fifth century, all affairs of moment within 
went exifted in tbe fathers of families, and their .their patriarchate came before them. .They con. 
firft-born after them, exercifing all kinds of cede- fecrated bifhop* ; affembled yearly in council tbe 
fiaftical and civil authority in their refpeflive clergy of their refpeAtve difirias; pronounced a 
houff holds ; and to this government, which lifted decifive judgment in thofe cafe* where 2ccu.fa.1icm 
till the time of tbe Ifraelites dwelling in Egypt, were brought sgainft bifhopG ; and appointed vi- 
fome hare afcribed at) absolute and defpotic pow- can or deputies, clothed with tbeir authority, for 
«r, extending even to the punUhrnent by death. the prefer vation of order in the remote province!. 
(3.) Patriarchs, among Chriftians, are eccle- In moit, nothing was done without confulting 
fiaftical dignitaries, or bi.ibops, fo called from their them ; and tbeir decreet were executed with the 
paternal authority in the church. The power of fame refpeA as thofe of the princes. But the au- 
jJatriarcbs was not the fame in all, but differed thority of the patriarchs was not acknowledged 
according to tbecuftooisof countries, or the plea- through all the provinces. Several di Uriels, both 
lure of Megs and councils. .Thus the patriarch in tbe eaftern and weftern empire*, were exempt. 
of Confiauttnople grew to be. a patriarch over the ed from their jurifdicUon. The Latin church bad 
patriarchs of Ephcfui and Csfarea, and was call- no patriarch* till the 6th century ; and the char' 
*A Iht acumtrtical a&duidvtrfal patriarch ; and the chesofGaul, Britain, Sec. were never Aibject to 
patriarch of Alexandria had Tome prerogatives the authority of any patriarch. There was no pri- 
which.no other patriarch but bimfelf enjoyed, fuch macy, no arcbate nor patriarchate, owned here; 
»s the rightofconrecrating and approving every fin- hut thtf bifliops, vrith the metropolitans, govern- 
gle bilhop jioder bia jurifdiclion. The patriarchate ed the church in common. Du Cange fays, tbat , 
Has been ever etleemed the fupreme .dignity in tbe fome abbots have born the title of patriarchs. 
church : the biflaop had only under him the terri- (4.) Patuahchs, Jewish, a dignity, refpect- 
tory of the city of which be was bifhop ; the me- ing the origin of which there is a variety of opi- 
frppolitaji fu per in tended a province, and hid for nions. The learned authors of the univerfa! Hil- 
tuiTraaanB tbe bifliop of his province j the primate tory think, that the firft appearance and tnftitution 
was the chief of what was then called a diocese, of thofe patriarch* happened under Nerva the fuc- 
jind had feveral metropolitans under him j and the , ceflbr of Domitian. It feems probable that tbe pa- 
pattiarch had under bim feveral diocefes, rompo- triarchi were of the Aaronic crLcvitical race; tbe 
Cog one exarchate, and the primates themfelves tribe of Judah being at that time too much de- 
were under bim. Ufher, Pad, De Marca, and pre fled, and too obnoxious to the Romans to be 
Morinus, attribute the eflabliihnjent of the grand able to aflume any external power. But of what- 
patriarchates to the apoflles themfelves } who, in evcrtribetheywerctheiraurhoritycan'ietobevery 
tbeir opinion, pitched on the three principal cities con fider able. Their principal bufmefs was to in- 
in tbe three parts of the known world ; siz. Rome ftrucx the people; and for this purpofe they infti- 
in ^urope, Antioch in Afia, and Alexandria in tuled fchools in feveral cities. And having gained 
Africa; and thus formed a trinity of patriarchs, great reputation for their extraordinary learning. 
Others maintain that the name patriarch was un- zeal, and piety, they might, in time, not only bring 
known at the lime of the council of Nice; and a great con courfe of other Jews from other parts, 
that long afterwards patriarchs and primates were as from Egypt and other weftern provinces of their 
coufounded together, as being all equally chiefs difperfion, but likewife prove the mcana of their 
of diocese*, and fuperior to metropolitans, who patriarchal authority being acknowledged there. 
were only chiefs of provinces. Hence Socrates From them they ventured at length to levy a kind 
fires the title patriarch to all the chiefs of dig- of tribute, to defray the charges of their dignity, 
cefes, and reckons Jen of them. It does not ap- and of tbe Apsjloli, or Lrgali, under them, whole 
pear tbaf tbe dignity of patriarch, was appropri- buGneb it was to carry their orders and decifiona 
sited to the five grand fees of Rome, ConDahli- through the other provinces of their difperGon, 
DOpie, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem, till and to fee them punctually executed by all, that 
. after the council of Chalcedon in 4 j r ; for when fome Oladow of union might be kept up among 
the council of Nice regulated the limits and pre- the weflern Jews. They likewife nominated the 
r oga tines of the three patriarchs of Rome, An* doctors who were to prefide over their fchools 
tiocb, and Alexandria, it did not give them the and academies ; and there were in procefs of time 
title of patriarchs, though it allowed them the fly led cbiifi and prhcri, in order to raifc the cre- 
prc-enunerice and privileges thereof. Nor is the dit of thai dignity, or to imply the great regard 
t^tia. patriartk found in the decree of the council which their difciple* were to pay to tbern. Tbefe 
<of Chalcedon, whereby tbe 5th place is aJTigned chief* became at length rival* of the patriarchs ; 
S (OCbiiui'p of Jen^lrrajcordidthcfc fivepj, attdforncof Uiem poffeffed boUi dignities at once ; 

DgitzeciOyVjOJOQlC 



PA T < 101 ) PAT 

an ufarpation which caufed not only prat con- in their dominioni. In hit day* fjourifhed Samuel 
fuGon amongft them, but, oftentimes violent and the Left, woo coropofed a prayer fall of toe bhV 
bloody conteftt. However, the Je with Rabbi* tcrcft curfes tgainft heretics, by which they mean 
hive trumped up a much older en for this patri. the Chriftian* ; and which are ftill in Die. Gama- 
archal dignity, and have given us 3 fucceflion of lie! was no left an enemy to them ; and yet botli 
them down to the fifth century, in which ft wai have been challenged, the former at the celebrated 
ibolifhed. According to them, the Brft patriarch matter of our great apoftle, the other at hit dif. 
waa. Hillel, fumamed the fafylowm, becaufe he ciple in hii unconverted dale. Simon II. hit fon 
waa lent for from Babylon to Jerusalem about and fucceffor, wai the fiift martyr who died du. 
aoc years before the ruin of their capital, or 30 ring tbe fiege of Jerusalem. The people fo re- 
before the birth of Chrift, to decide a difpute gretted hit death) that an order waa given, iujbead 
about tbe keeping of Eafter, which on that year of 10 bumpers of wine, which were ufualiy drank 
fell out op the §abbath dayi and It waa on ac- at the funeral of a faint, to drink 13 at bit, on to 
count at bit wife decifion that he wai railed to count of hit martyrdom. Thefe are the patriarch*, 
that dignity, which continued in bit family till who, the Rabbit tell ut, preceded the deftroc- 
tbc fifth century, He waa likewiie looked upon tiou of the temple t and we need 00 farther can. 
at a fecond Moles, becaule be lived like him 40 filiation of thi* pretended, dignity, than the fiJeneo 
years in obfrurity, 40 more in great reputation for of tbe facred hiltorians, who not only make bo* 
learning and (auftrty, and 40 more in pofi'cflion of the leaf) mention of it, hut allure us all aloci that 
this patriarchal dignity. They make him little in- they were the high-prieft* who prefided » the 
fcrior to that lawgiver in other of bit excellencies, fantjedrim ; and before whom all cafe* relating to 
aa well at ia the great authority be gained over the Jewifh religion were brought and decided. It 
the whole Jewiih nation. The wonder if, how wai the high-prieft who condemned our Saviour 
Herod the Great, who waa & jealous of bit pow- and St Stephen) who forbad the apoftle* to preach 
er, could fuffer a ftranger to be railed to fuch a in Chrift'* name; and who lata* judge on St Paul, 
height of it, barely for having decided a difpute The fame may be urged from Jojephua, who nuift - 
□f little importance. Hillel waa fnccceded by hit hare known and mentioned this pretended vigni- 
fon Simeon, whom many Chriftian* pretend to ty, if any fuch there had been ; and yet ia fo far 
have been the venerable old perfon of that name, from taking the leaft notice of it, that he placet 
who received tbe divine infant in hia arms. The tbe pontiffs alone at the bead of all the Jewifh af- 
Jews give him but a very obfcure patriarchate t fairs; and namet the high.prieft Apanut at having 
though the Chriftian author* make bim chief of , the care and direction af tbe war againft the Ro- 
the fanhedrim; and Epipbaniua fays, (hat the mans 1— which it an evident proof that there, were 
prieftly tribe bated bim. fo much for giving fo then no fuch patriarchs in being. If there had 
ample a tcAimony to the divine child, that they been any fuch remarkable fneceffion, the Talmu- 
denied bim common burial. But it it hardly ere- dins would hare preferred it ; whereat, neither 
dibie, that St Luke mould have ia camJe&ly paffed they, nor any of the ancient author* of the Jew- 
over hit two-fold dignity, if he had been really ifh church, make any mention of it; but only 
pouefled of them. He was fucceeded by Jocban- fame of their doctors, who have written a coc- 
ao, not in right of defcent, but of hi* extraordi- fideraUe time after them, to whom little credit 
nary merit) which tbe Rabbi* defcribe in term* can be given, a* there are fuch nnfurmonn table 
of tbe rnoft extravagant hyperboles. He enjoyed con trad iftiont between them, as no author* either 
hit dignity but two years, or at rnoft j years, and Jewiih or Chriftian have been able to reconcile. 
is faid to have foretold to Tims, that he wa» or- Their fneceffion, according to tbofe rabbles, 
dained todeftroy the templet on which account' ft and 9 at follow*: r. Hillel the Babylonian, a, Sj- 
they pretend that general gave hint leave to re- roeon the fon of Hillel. j. Gamaliel the foo of 
move the fanhedrim to Japbiie. The Jewiih wri- Simeon. 4. Simeon II. the fon of Gamaliel, t . Ot- 
ter* add, that he erefted an academy there, which maliel II. the fon of Simeon II. 6. Simeon IM. the 
fubfifted till the death of Akiba; was the feat of fon of Gamaliel II. j. Jndsh the Jon of Simeon III, 
the patriarch ; and conhfted of 300 fchool* ; and 8- Gamaliel IU. the fon of Judah, 9. Jndah II. the 
another at Lydda, near Japbne, and where tbe fon of Gamaliel III. 10. Hillel It. fon of Jndah 
famed St -George i* buried. He lived no years II. n. Judah III. fon of Hillel II. I*. Hillel 
and being afked, wliat he bad done to prolong HI. fon of Judah HI. 13. Gamaliel IV. Ion of 
hia life! be gave thiianfwer( « I have takes care Hillel III. But Gantt Tzemach David hath re- 
io celebrate all feftivali: and my mother even fold duced them to to. On the whole, it cannot be 
my head ornaments to buy wine to make me doubted but that their firft rife waa in Nerva'a 
merry ou fuch days; and left me at her death 300 time, however much Jewiih pride may bare 
' hogiheadtof it, \o fanSify tbe SaUaib!" — The prompted them to affert their origin to have been. 
doctor* that Sourifhed in hit time were no left more ancient than it really was. They have alfo 
considerable, particularly the famed Rabbi Cbani- exaggerated their power beyond all bounds, for 
na of whom the Bath Col. waa beard to fay, that the purpofe of repelling the arguments of Crjrif- 
tbe world waa preferred for tbe fake of him j and tiana. In time however, ibey certainly Impofed 
R, aNicodemut, who, they pretend, flopped the upon tbe people) and what poweratbey did poi- 
courfcof the fun, like Jofhua.. He waa fucceeded ' fefa (which the Romans only allowed to he to rebV 
by Gamaliel, a man of unfuffertble pride ; and ginu* matters, or in fuch at were connected with, 
yet of fo unirerfal authority over all the Jews, not religion) they exercised with great rigour. Their 
only in the weft, but over the whole world, that pecuniary demands became very exorbitant 1 and 
«Se «rj monarcht .fullered big laws tb be obeyed waa the caufe of their mppreffion in the year 4*9, 

(1.) • PATRIARCHAL 



PAT ( 103 ) ' AT 

(*.) "• PATRIARCHAL, adj. [patriarchal, Fr. of the fenate, but becaufe they were tbe fathers of 

from patriarch.] i. Belonging to patriarch*) filch the republic or of the empire. This dignity in I 

as wa* poflelfed or enjoyed by patriarchs.— time became the higheft of the empire. Juftbian 

Such drowfy fedentary foul* have they, call* it fummant dignitatem. In ctfefi, the patri- 

Who would to patriarchal years live on. Karris, ciana feem to have bad the precedence of tbe ran- , 

— Nitnrod enjoyed this patriarchal power ; but fularcs,mi to have taken place before them in the 

he agaiuft right enlarged his empire. Locke, a. fenate j though F. Fiber alTerta the contrary. | 

Belonging tarnersrchicatpatriarchs. — Archbifliops What confound* the queftion is, that the two dig- 

or metropolitans in France are immediately fub- nitiet often met in the fame perfan ; becaufe the 

jeft to the pope's jurifdiflion ; and, in other pla- patriciate was only conferred on thofe who bad 

ce*>'tbey are immediately fubject to the patriar- gone through the firft offices of the empire, or had I 

eAfl/feee.' Ayliffc. • been confuli. pope Adrian made Charlemagne 

(*.) Patri srchal CROSS) in heraldry, is that take the title of patrician before he alTumed the 

where tbe (haft is twice crofted ; the lower arms quality of emperor ; and other popes have given 

being lower than the upper ones the title to other kings and prince*. I 

* PATRIARCHATE. \ n. /. [patriarchal, Fr. [*.) Patricias! was alfo a tiUe of honour often 

* PATRIARCHSHIP: J fr"m patriarch.] A bi- conferred on men of the firft quality in England, 
fhopric fuperior to arebbifhopric*. — The queft ions in the time of the Anglo Saxon kings. See Thau r. 
ate -as ancient as tbe differences between Rome {5.) Patrician Deities, Pavaicti Dn, in i 
and any other of the old patriarchate!. Sdden.— mythology, were Janus, Saturn, the Genius, Flu- j 
Prelacies may be Named the greater benefice* j at to, Bacchus, tbe Sun, the Moon, and the Earth. j 
that of the pontificate, a patriarchjbip and arch- [6.) Patricians, in ecclenarrical writers, were 
bilrropric. Ayliffi. ancient feAaries, wbodifturbed the peace of the 

* PATRIARCHY, n.f. JurifdiclioD of a' patri- church in tbe beginning of the third century; thus j 
arch'; patriarchate.— Calabria pertained to the pa- called from their founder Patri Ci us, preceptor ' 
triarch of Conftantinople, as appeareth in the no- of a Marcionite called Sjmmachtu. Hii diftin- 
vel of Leo Sophus, touching the precedence of gutfhing tenet was, that the fubftancc of the flefh 
metropolitans belonging to that patria nby. Brcrc- i* not the work of God, but that of the devil ; on 
vjtod. ■ which account his adherent* bore an' implacable 

PATRICA, a town of Italy, in the territory of hatred to their own flefh j which fometitnes car- 
the Church, and Campagna of Rome, towards the ried them fo far a* to kill themtelvee. They were 
fea-co,ift, 8 miles E. of Oftia, and 1 3 S. of Rome, alfo called Tatiahites, and made a branch of 
About a mile from it is a hill called Menu it Li- tbeENCKATiTA 

•vana, which'fome have thought to be tbe file of PATRIC1I Dei. See Patrician, j 5. 
the ancient Larinium, founded by jEntan. • PATRICIUS. SmPatkician, § 6: and Pat- i 

(1.) * PATRICIAN, adj. [patricha, Vr.patri* ilCK, Wj. 
timt, Lat.] Senatorial; nobles not plebeian.— (1.) PATRICK, Peter.a native of TbefTalonica, : 

Th* infolting tyrant prancing o er the field, who wasfent by the etnp. Juftinian.I. ambaffador 
Hi* horfes hoofs wet with patrician blood, ' to AmalafvJntha, Q. of theGoths, A.D.534; and ! 
Addifcm. in ^oJoChofroes, K. of Perna, to conclude a i 
(1.) * Patrician. a./. A nobleman.— , peace. On Ms return be was appointed mayor 

Noble patricianj, patrons of my right;'' " of the palace. ' He. wrote a work entitled, Tit 
Defend thejufticcofmycanfewith arms. Shot, ftijlory of Amiajfadars, part of which ia extant, 
YoU'll find Gracchus, itam patrician grown and wu publifhed in tbe Collision ofSjzantine 
A fttwet and the fcandal of the town. t>ryd. - Hi/lorians', in 1G48, folio. 
—Your daughter* are all married to wealthy fa- (a.) Patrick,. Siriion, D. D. a very learned 
tririani. Swift. ' ' Engllfh bifhop, born at Gainfborourgh' in Lin- 

. (3.) Patricias, 'was a title given, among the colnfliire in i6a6. In 164* he was admitted into i 
ancient Romans, to the defcendart n of the too or Queen's college,' Cambridge, and entered into 
aoo firft fenators chofen by Romulus; and by him holy orders. After being for fome time chaplain 
called patru, fathen. Romulus ertablifrred' thts to Sir Walter, St John, and vtcar of Batterfea, in 
order after the example of the Athenians ; who Surry, he Was made rector of St Paul's, Covenf- 
were divided into two claftes, viz. the lu^/j.Jarr, garden, London. ' In 1678 he was made dean of 
patricioi,inAt'!ioTnwut,popuIarcj. Patricians, there Peterborough where he was much beloved. Du- 
fore, were originally the nobility ; in oppofition ring the reign of K. James II. he boldly preached 
to the Plebeians. Tbey were the only perfons and wrote afjainft tbe church of Rome. In i68*j ' 
whom Romulus allowed to afpire to tbe majiftra- he was appointed Bp. of Chichefter, and was em- 
cy ; and tbey esertifed all the function* of the ployed with othcrsof the new bifhops to fettle the 
prieflhood trtl A.U.C. 495. But the cognisance affairs of tbe church to Ireland, In 169 1 .be was 
and character of tnefe ancient families being al- tranflated to. the fee of Ely: He died in 170;, 
moft loft by a long courfe of years, and frequent after having publifhed various works ; among 
changes in the empire, ■»■ new kind of patrician* which tbe moft diftuiauifhed are, Paraphrafes and 
were, afterwards let on foot, who had no preten- Commentaries on the Holy Scriptures, 3 vols. fo!. 
fions from birth, but whofe title depended entire-- a. Tracts againft popery; 3. Sermons; 4. Hiftory 
ly on the emperor'* favour, This new patriciate, of the Church of Peterborough. 
Zozimus tells us, was erected by Conftantine, who (3.) Patrick, St, the apoftle of Ireland, and 
conferred the quality on bis councilors, not be- ' id bifhop of that country. He was born April 
caufe they were defended froraiiic ancient fathers 1 th A. D. 3 73, of a good family, at Kirk-Patrick, 

-Dqrtzed :■ Ogfc «« I 



PAT . ( 108 ) PAT 

tar Dumbarton, now in Scotland, but then com- and alio for appointing Prince Edward, and fere" 

' prchended under Britain, — His baptifmal name, ral of the prime nobility of Ireland, knights cora- 

Sureai/i, fignifiea, in the Britifh language, valiant panionl of the laid illuftrious order.' 

ia war. On fome inroad of certain exiles from Patrick's El, or Isle. See Battersea. 

Ireland, be was taken prifoner, and carried into Patrick's Isle, St, an ifland of Ireland, OB 

that kingdom, where he continued ux yean in the the coaft of Dublin, oppofite Balruddeiy. 

fcrvice of Milcho, who bad bought him, when (i.l Patrick's, St, a town of Ireland, in the 

Patrick acquired the new name of Cotiraig. or county of Waterfbrd, and province of Munfter. 

Ceathnr-Tigk, i. e. fiur familiei . In this time he (»•) Patsick's, St, a town of Georgia, capital 

made himleJf mailer of the Inlh language, and at of Camden county, feated on the Great Sat ilia, 

lad made hi* efcape, and return^! home on board 3s miles above its mouth. , , 

afhip. About two years after, he formed a de- Patrick's Well, St, a town of Ireland,, in 

Ggn of converting the Irifb, either in ednfequence the county of Limerick, and province of Munfter. 

of a dream, or of what he had obferved during PATRIMONII, a town of Cornea, 4 mile*. 

bis acquaintance with them. To qualify himfelf W. of Baftia. 

for this, be travelled to the continent, where he "PATRIMONIAL. a<ij.[pat r imo'tial,)>r. from 

continued jj years, purfuirig his ftudie» under hit patrimony'] Puffefled by inheritance, — The ex- 
mother's uncle, St Martin, bifhop of Tours, who - pence of the duke of Ormond'a own great pain 

bad ordained him deacon; abd after his death with mania I eftate, that came over at that time, is of no 

St German, bifhop of Anxerre, who ordained him fmall confederation in the Sock of thia kingdom. 

prieft, and gave bim hit jd name, Mown or Magi- Temple.- — 

mm. Pope Celeftine confecrated bim bifhop, and Their patrimonial (loth the Spaniards keep. 

gave him bis m oft familiar name, Patricias, eipref- , Drjden. 

five of bis honourable defcent, and to give luftre * PATRIMONIALLY. adv. [from patrimo- 

and weight to the commiffion which he now nial.] By inheritance. — Good princes have not 

charged him witb to cdnvert the Irifb. Palladius only made a diftincVion between what was their 

had been there a year before him, but with little own patrimotaalij, as the civil law books.term it, 

fuccefssthe faints Kieran, Ailbe, Declan, and Ibar and what the Hate had an intereft in. Da-venant. 

were there before them both. But the great office PATRIMONIO, or St Peter's Patrimony, 

of apoftle of Ireland was referved for Patrick, who a province of Italy, in the Pope's dominions ; fo 

landed in the country of the Evolein,or.at Wick- called, ' becaufe it was granted by the emperor 

low, A. D. 441. His firft convert was Sinell, the Con leant he to fupport a church which be built 

8th in defcent from Cor mac king of Leinfter. He in honour of St Peter, and for the ufe of the 

then proceeded to Dublin, and thence to Ulfter, Pope. It it bounded on the N. by Orvietano and 

■where he founded a church (afterwards the famous part of Umbria 1 E, by Sabina and Campagna di 

abbey of Saul, in the county of Down), remark- Roma: ; S W. by the Mediterranean ; and NW. by 

able for its petition, and being made out of abarn. the duchy of CaAro. It is about 43 miles long. 

After labouring j years indefatigably in his great and ji broad ; and it fertile in corn and fruit. It 

- work, he returned to Britain, which he delivered . alfo produces great quantities of alum. Viterbo 

from the berefies of Pelagius and Arius ; engaged is the capital : the other chief cities are Boflena, 

several eminent perfona toafuft him ; vifjted the Caltellana, Civita Vecchia, and Monte Fiafcone. 

7fJe of Man, which he converted in 440, when the This territory is now (iSu) fubjeft to France, 

bifhopric was founded ; and A. D. 44B, returned by a decree of Bonaparte. 

to the fee of Armagh, which he hsd founded in (1.) * PATRIMONY. n./. [patrimoaiuni, Lat. 

445 ; and in 13 years more completed theconver- patrimonii, Fr.] An eftate poiTciTed by inherit- 

(ion of the whole JQaud. After giving an account aoce.— loci of urea they would not forbid, for that 

of hit commifEon at Rome, be once more returned had been to forbid the improvement of thspotri- 

to Ireland, and fpent the remainder of his life many of the kingdom. Bacon.— 

between the mona ft tries of Armagh and, Saul, fu- So might the heir, whofe father hath, in play, 

perintending and enforcing the doftrine and dif- Wafted a thoufand pounds of ancient rent, 

cipline which he had cftablilhed. After having By painful earning of one groat a-day, 

eflablHhed fchools, or an academy, be died at Saul Hope to reftore the patrimony fpent. Davits. 

abbey, aged no, March 17, A. D. 493, and was -Pofteriiy Sands curs'd ; fair patrimony 

buried at Down afterwards, in the fame grave That I mult leave ye, form. Milton. 

with St Bridget and St Columb. His genuine works For this redemption, all my patrimony 

were cotfrcted and printed by Sir James Ware, I am ready to forego and quit, Milton. 

sej6. His immediate fucceffor in this fee was St Their mips like w a (ted pet rimanie 4 ihew. 

Binen or Begnus. Drjdin. 

(4.) Patrick, St, okdrr or, an inftitution which Toe fbepherd laft appear;, 

took place in Ireland in 1783. On the ctb of Feb. And with him all his patrimony bears. DryiUn. 

1 78 ;, the king ordered letters patent to "be pailed (a.) Patrimony has been alfo applied tocburch 

under the great feal of the kingdom of Ireland, for efUtes or revenues; in which feufe authors fay, 

creating a fociety Or brotherhood, to be called the patrimony of the church of Rimini, Milan, &c. 

Anighti of 'tbe iiiujlrioas order 0} St Patrick, of which The church of Rome had patrimonies in France, 

bis majefty, his heirs, and fucceflbrs, fhall perpe- Africa, Sicily, and many other countries. To 

tually be fovereigns, and his majefty's lieutenant, create the greater refpect to the eftatea belonging 

general and general governor of Ireland, &c. for to the church, it was ufusl to give their patri. 

the time being, (ball officiate as gtand-maltera; monies the names of the faints, they held in the 

hrgheft 



i«ft; » 



PAT ( 104 ) ? A T 

highest tenehtron : thai the eftate of the church (*.) Patxtzi, Francis, a Teamed Italian, turn 

of Ravenna was called the patrbnonj of St Apolli. in 1530, at Chcrfo, in Iftria ; who taught' philo. 

u; that of Milan, the patrimony 0/ 5/ jfm- fophy at Rome, Ferrara, and Padua, with great 

. ; and the eftatea of the Roman church were reputation. Me was an opponent of tbe Pwipa- 

valled tile patrimony of St Peter hi Abrtaue, the tetict. He wrote many works ; but his ParalkU 

■patrimony ef St Peter in Sicily, and the like. Miiitari, or Parallel of the ancient Militarj- Art 

(3.) Patkimonv ot St Petes. See Patri- with the modern, Rome, 1594, fol, is efteemed hit 

Homo. moft capital piece. He died in 1597, aged 67. 

PATRINGTOW, ■ town of Yorkfhire, near * To PATROCINATE. *>. a. IfatneUor, Lat. 
the mouth of the Humber, ancient ly called Pas- ^utrofwr, old French.] To paUtwife j to. pro- 
toiium. It is feated at the place where the Ro- teft ; to defend. Di9. 

nan road Tom the Picts wall ended. It hat a PATROCLES, an ancient author, mentioned 
market on Saturday { and liea 18 miles ESE. of by Strabo, 'who wrote a Hiftory of the World. 
Hull, 50 SB. of York, and lg» N. of London. PATROCLI, an ifland on the coaft of Attica. 
loo. 0.8. E. Lat.jj. 49. N. Pau/irn. iv, C. 5. 

(i.> * PATRIOT. n.f t. One whole ruling FATROCLCTS, a Grecian chief at the Trojan 
paffioo is the love of hit Country.— , war. He was the fon of Menojtiua king of Opus, 

Patriots who for facred freedom Rood. Tkkff. by Stbenele, Philomela, or Polymela. The killing 
The firm patriot there, of Clyfonymue, thefon of Ampbidamat, by acci- 

' Who made the welfare of mankind his care, dent, in his youth, made him My from Opus. He 
Shall kqow be conquer'd. AdMfin. went to the court of Peietts king of Phthia ; wai 

Here tear* fha!l flow from > more gen'rous cordially received, and contracted the mod inti- 
caufe, mate friendOirp with Achillea, the" king's fon. 

Such tears as ftmVwft fired for dymglawi. Pope. When the Greeks went to the Trojan war, Pa- 
st. It [s fometimet ufed for a tactions difturber of troclut went with them, at tbe exprefs defirt of 
the government. his father, and embarked with ten fhips from 

J a.) PatxioTs, emikmt. For nvftancea of Phthis. He was the conftant companion of Acbil- 
nent ancient patriots, fee AxitTlDEs, Am- let} lodged in the fame tent; and when he refuted 
Tosums, BeotqI, Ciscienatos, Cocao j, to appear in the field of battle, on account of 
Dsciut Mot, Efakixosdas, FiWriciOs, Ly- Agamemnon's injuftice, Patroetus imitated his 
ctraoos, Pelopidas, Timoleoh, Ac. For mo- example, and hit abfence was the caufe of much 
dern examples, lee Till, Wa.i-i.1CB, and Wash- loft to the Greeks. At laft Neftor prevailed upon 
laoTOK. him to return to the war, and Achillea permitted 

PATRIOTIC, adj. Actuated by tire tore of him to appear in his armour. The bravery of 
one's country ; belonging to a patriot, or patriot- Patroclut, with the terror which tbe fight of the 
ifm. arms of Achilles inferred,- foon routed the Tro- 

(i.)»PATRIOTISM,»./. [tromswftwt.] Lore jans, and obliged them to (ly to the city. He 
of one's country ; real for one's country. would have broken down the walls ; but Apollo 

(a.) Pathotis*. Numbertefs inftancet of the oppofed him ; and Hector, at the initiation of 
moft exalted patriotic* are recorded, in the hifto- that god, diftriounted from bit chariot to attack 
ties of ancient Greece and Rome. -But no event, him at he attempted to ftrip a Trojan whom he 
lb ancient or modern hiftory, ever did or can ex- bad (lain. This engagement wai obftinate ; but 
oeed that well authenticated fact that occurred m Patroctus was at length overpowered by Hector, 
t»47, at the fieg* of Calais. See Calais, N° i. -with the aid of Apollo. His body waa at laft re- 
Nor hat our own country been deficient in exam- covered, and carried to tbe Grecian camp, where 
pies of the moft diHnterefted patriotrfin. We Achilles received it with the l&udeft lamentations, 
{nil! only refer to Wallace. Hit funerals were obferved with the greater* fo. 

PATR1PABSIANT, ) a feet of Chrtftiant, who temnity. Achilles facrificed near the burning pile 

PATRIPASSIAN9, j appeared about the end twelve young Trojans, four of his boric*, and two 
of the ad century, fo called from their afcribing of his dogs; and the whole was concluded by the 
jwffion or fullering tothe Father; for theyafferted exhibition of funeral games, in which the con- 
the unity of God in Inch a manner as to deftroy querent were liberally rewarded by Achilles. 
ail diftinftion of perfons, and to make the Father Achilles, laying aiide his refentment aga'mft Aga- 
and Sou precifely the fame; in which they were memnon, entered the field to avenge the fall of fail 
followed by toe Sabellian* and others. The an* friend ; and his anger was gratified only by the 
, thor of this bereft was Praxsas, a philofopher , Daughter of Hector, who had kindled hia wrath 
of Phrygia. Swedesbourg and hit follower* feem. by appearing at tbe head of the Trojan armies in 
to bold the fame faith. the armour taken from Patroclua. The patrony- 

PATRIX, Peter, a French poet, born at Caen mic of ASoridet it applied to Patroctus, becaub 
in ijlj. Several of his poems are on religious Actor was father to Mencetius. 

Kbjectsi but one of them, entitled fir Dnmm, (1.) * PATROL, n. /. IpatroiaUe, patoiullt, ok! 
* been often tranflated and imitated. He died French.] 1. The act of going the rounds in a gar 
at Pari* in 1673, aged St. rifon, to obferre that orders are kept. at. Thoi< 

(1.) PA TRIZI, Francis, bjfhop of Gayette, an that go the rounds— 

Italian author of the ijth century. He wrote Send forth the faring virtue) round tbe land 

Srveral works, befidet Ten Dialogue! in Italian, In bright patrol. Tbmmfvn 

on the maimer of writing and ftudying hiftory, ( 3.) Tie Pateol, in war (§ I. iff. *->, gene 

' ; o!» arc much tftesned, He. died in 1494- rtllycaoftftatrf j « 6 meB, detached froop. at bod; 



PAT (105) PAT 

»n guard, lad commanded by a ferjeaflt. They children wheu taken in war | to contribute fa the 

go every hour of the night! from the beating of portions of ibcir daughters; and to defray, in part* 

the tattoo until the reveille: they walk in the the charges of their public employments.' They 

ftreets in garrifbns, all over the camp in the field, were nevrr.to sccufe each other, or take contrary 

to prevent difordert, or any number of people fides j and if either of them was confided of hav- 

from aiTrmbling together; they are to fee the lights ing violated this law, the crime wii equal to that 

in the foldiers barrack* put out, and to take up of treaibn, and any one was allowed to kill the of- 

all the foldiers they find out of their quarters, fender with impunity. This patronage was a tie 

Sometimes patrols confift of an officer and 30 or at effectual as any COnfanguinky or alliance, and 

40 men, as well infantry as cavalry ; but then the had a wonderful effect towards maintaining union 

enemy It generally near at band, and confcquently and concord among the people for the fpace of 

the danger greater. 600 years ; during which time we find no di0en* . 

* To Patkol, ij. n. [patrotdlier, Fr.] To- go lion* nor jealoufies between the patrons and their 

the rounds in a camp orgarrifon. — clients, even in the times of the republic, when the 

Thefe outguardsof the mind are fent abroad, populace frequently mutinied againft ibafe who 

And ftill patrolling beat the neigbb'ring road. . were mod powerful in the city. 

Blackmore, ' (4.) Patson, in the church of Rome, (J j, def. 

(1.) * PATRON, n. f. [patron, Fr. patromi, 1.1 a faint whofe name a pcrfon bears, or under 

Lath.] 1. One pvho countenances, fopports or whofe protection he is put, and whom be take! 

protects. Commonly a wretch who fupports with particular care to invoke ; or a faint in whofe name 

kifolencc, and is paid with flattery. a church or otd,er is founded. 

I'll plead for you, as for my^afrsn. Shot. fc.) Patron, in, the canon or common law, 

Ne'er let me pah in filence Dorfet's name; (J 1, Jef.t.yis a perfon who, having the advow. 

Ne'er ceafe to mention the continu'd debt, fon of a parlkjnage, vicarage, or the like fpiritual 

Which the great patron only would forget. promotion, bulongmg to his manor, hath on that 

Prior, account the gift and difpofition of the benefice, 

a. A guardian faint.— and may prefect to it whenever it becomes vacant. 

Thou aunougft tbofc faints, whom thou do'ft The patron's right of difpofing of a benefice ori- 

fee, ginally arifes either from the patron or his ancef. 

Shalt be. a faint, and thine own nation's friend tors, &c. being the founders or builders of the 

And patron. Sfcnftr, church ; from their having given lands for the 

—St Michael is mentioned as the patron of the maintenance thereof; or from the church's being 

Jews, and is now taken by the Chriftians. Dryd. built on their ground ; and frequently from all 

3. Advocate; defender; vindicator.- -We are no three together. See Par son AGS, § 1. 

patront of thole things. Hooker. — Whether the (6.) Patron, in geography, or Pnttren, » town 

minds of men have naturally imprinted on them of Syria, on the fea coaft, ao utiles SW. of Tripc- 
the ideaa of extenfion and number, I leave to thoffc. Ii. It is faid to have been, founded by K. Itoba- 

who are the patroru of Innate principles. Locke, [us, the ally of Ahab, K. of Ifrael ; and was anci- 

4- One who has donation of ecclefiaftical prefer- ently called Botryi or Botryum. See BOTtrt. 

menu— £r.)*PATRONAjGE. n. / [from patron.] 1. 

Par more the^/roJMthan theclerks inflame: Support; protection. — Lady, bow falls it out, 

Patront of fenfe afraid, but not of vice. Wrfity. that you, in whom all virtue fliines, will take the 

(1.) Patkon, among the ancient Romans, was patronage of fortune, the only rebellious handmaid 

an appellation given to a mailer who had freed again!! virtue i Sidney. — 

his Have. As ioou as (he relation of mailer expi- Here's patronage, and here our heart defcriei 
red, that of patron began : for the Romans, in What breaks its bonds. Creech. 
jiving their (laves their freedom., did not defpoil 1. Guardianfhip of faints. — Among the Roman 
thrmfelves of all rights and privileges in them; the Catholicks every velTcl is recommended to the As- 
ia* ftill fubjected them to considerable fervices nonage of fume particular faint. AdJifin. 3. Do- 
and duties towards their patrons, the neglect of nation of a benefice ; right of conferring a bene- 
which was very feverely puniihed. • fke. 

().) Patroh was alfo a name, which the an- (a.) Patronage, [Lat. patronatm] or Adyow* 

cienl Roman* gave to fome great man, under so»,(} 1. def. 3. J is a fort of incorporeal heredita- 

whofe protection they ufually put tbemfelves; men t, confift ing in the right of fsasEWTATIOtl to 

paying htm all kinds of honour and refpect, and a church or ecclefiaftic.il benefice. Ad vow fon, 

denominating themfelves his clients ; while the advocatia, fig nines the taking into protection 1 

patron, an his fide, granted them his credit and and therefore a fynonymous with 'patronage, and 

protection. They were therefore mutually at- he who has the rifibtof advowfon iscalled thePa- 

tacbed and mutually obliged to each o'thcr ) and tron of the churtb. For when lords of manors 

thus, in confequence of reciproca Ities, all thofe firft built churches on their own demefnes, and 

Editions, jealoufies, and animofuies, which arc appointed the tithes of thofe manors to be paid 

kmetiraei the effect of a difference of rank, were to the officiating minifters, which before were 

pi iJently avoided : for it was the duty of the pa- given to the clergy in common, the jord who thns 

son to advife his clients in points of law, to ma- built a church, and endowed it with a glebe or 

£3£: their fuits, to take care of them as of his own land, had, of common right, a power annexed of 

liiiJren, and fecure their peace and happinefs, nominating fuch minifter as he pleafed (provided 

Fr* c!k-nts were to afiift their patrons with mo- he were canonically qualified) to officiate in that 

«ej on feveraf ttccafioni ; to ranforn them or their church of which be was the founder, endower. 

Vol. XVII. Paw L ©.giizec /VjQP 



PAT f lOfl ) , P A T 

mamtair.er, and patron. AdvowfotM are 1 either father or anceltore as Tjdides, tbefonof Tydens 

advowfona appendant, or advowfons ingraft They —It ought to be rendered the Ton, Teetoaidcs 

are alfo either prefentatrce, roitatmi, or dorraliw, being a patr*nyini<&. Broome. 

See Advowsow. As the law now (lands, if the (a.) Patsomvmics, amt>ng grammarian*, are 

true patron once vini bis privilege of donation, derived, I. From ihb nam* of the father,; as Aft- | 

and prefents to the blfhop.'wd hi* clerk h admit. Jet, i. e. Achilles the fon of Peleus. i. From the 

ted and militated, the advowfun becomes for etcr mother ; aa Philfridn, *'. '■ Chiron the foci of Phi- 

pfefentative, and mall never become donatiue thy lyra. 3. From the grandfather on the father rfidt-j 

more. For thefe exceptions to general rules and aa uSaafa, i. * Achilles the grand fonof JEacus. 

common right are ever looked upon by the Inw 4- From the Krandf since by the mothers fide; as 

hr an unfavourable view, and conftmed as ftriclly Atlantiain, i. r. Mercury the. |randfon of Alia*. 

a? poflible. If therefore the patron, in whom And, 5. From Hie kings and founders of natrons; 

men peculiar right reMes, does one- give-up that a> Romnlidx, i. 1. the Romans, from their founder 

rieht, tbe Uw, which loves uniformity, will inter- king Romulus. Tlic terminations ot Greek and , 

pret rt to be done with an intention of givin« it Latin patronymics are chieBy four, vii. dei, of | 

up for ever; and will therefore reduce it to the which we have examples above i at, as Thamxan. 

ttandardoftfherecelefiaftical livings. See* Law, ifai, i e. Iris, thedauiher of Ihaumasj u, as At. j 

Part HI. Chap. I. SWr.:iv. B j-io. kntb. i.e. Eieerra the daughter of Altai { and ite, 

• (1.) Patronage, Arks of, in neraJdry, are as Nefiie the daughter of Nereus. Ofthefeter- \ 

thole on the top-of which are Tome marks of fuhjec- minstions, in ismafculine; «nd«, ij^and ■/, fe- 

tionanddependencertfius the citv of Paris lately minine: its antf'w are of the firft dedenfion, at I 

bore the Heur-de-lis in chief to Ihow her fnhjec- and 1/ of the third. The Ruffians, in their j 

tfon to the king ; and the cardlnltWon the top of tibial mode of addreft, never prefia any title or 

their anhs, bear thofe of the pope, who gave them appellation of refpect to their names ; but perfons 

the hat, to fliow that they are his creatores. ■ of all ranks, even thofe of the.hrit diujgdion, call 

. '• TV Patronage.*-, a, ifrom the noun.] To each other by their Chriftian names, to whjch 

patrbnife; toprotefl. A bad word. — ■ they add a patronymic. Thefe patronymics are 

Dar"fl thou maintain the former words tboB formed in fome cafes by adding rath (the fame 

fpak'ft ?■■■■■■■■ - as our Fitz, as Fitiherbert, or the fon of Herbert) j 

Yes, fir, as well as you dan patronage to the Chriftian name of the father] in others by , 

' The envious barking of your faucy tongue. O/or Ef; the former is applied only to perfons I 

Shak. of condition, the latter to thofe of inferior rank. ] 

An out-law in a caftle keeps, Thus, Ivan I-oattvoittb, Ivan Ivtmtf. is Ivan the 

And ufes it to patronage his theft. Sh,>6. fon of Ivan, or John the fon of John ; Peter Alexi- 

*PATRONALd#. (from ^rn**r.Lat.] Pro- vicli, Peter AUxkf, Peter the fon Of Alexis. The ! 

testing ;fnpporting; guarding! defending; doing female patronymic is Efra, Ofna, at Owma at I 

the office of a patron. — Tbe name of the city Sophia Atrxeefiiaar Akxtovma, Sophia the daugh- 

being difcovered unto their enemies, their penates ter of Alexin; Maria Ivanofita or frumcxwita, 

and AurraRa/godBmightbecalledfoTthbychamis. Mary the daughter of John, 

Brown's Fttlg. Err. PATROS, a country mentioned by Jeremiah 

•PATRONESS.*./ [feminine of patron ; fa. andEzekiel, appears from the content to mean a . 

Jrssw.Lat.]" 1. A female that defends, coaotenan- part of Egypt. Bocchart thinks it denotes the 

CM, orfupports.— Higher Egypt: the Septuaghnt tranflate it the 

Of dofe efcapes the aged patrtntfi, country of Pattvre, Ph'ny mentions Nomai Piotu. j 

1 Blacker than erft, her fable truntle fpread. ritet in the Thebaic ; and Ptolemy, PaUtjru, pro- 

Tyhen withtwotruftymaidsingreatdiftrefj, bahly the metropolis. From the Hehrcw ajapel- 

, Both from mine uncle and my realm I fled. lation Patroi, comes the gentilitiou* name Path- 

Fahfux. RvsiM, Mcfi-s. 

—All things mould be guided by her direction, PATROUS, [n«r { «r,] aJrnameof Jupiter- 

as the fovereign patrone/t and protedrefs of the PATRU, Oliver, a couiifellor id parliament, 

enterprife. Baton.— and dean of the French Academy, boro at Parm 

Berriend me, night, belt patrantfi of grief. in 1604. He had an excellent faculty both of! 

MliHan. fpeaking and writing. Upon his admifuon irtlw 

—He petition'd b'n pafrmefr, who gaw him far the French academy in 1640, he made an oration 

anfwer, that providence had afflgned every bird of thanks, which gava rife to thecuftom of ad-, 

its proportion, UEftrange.— It was takeo into the m ilTory fpeeches. He died very poor, on the i«th 

ptote&\oD of my patronefes at coait. Swift. *■* Jan. 168 1. The prodigious exaflnefs with which 

female guardian faint. ' he nniihed every thing he wrote, did not permit 

•rBPATR0OT3E.».*.[from#«rr«]TopK>. him to publifil much. His mifcellaneons worts 

trft; to fupport; to defend; to countenance.— were printed at Paris in 167c, 4;to; the 3d edition, 

Jfa clergyman be loofe and fcandalous, he muft in 171s, ato, was augmented with feveral pieces.; 

not be patrtmijed nor winked at. Baton.— All ten- Theyfcor.fift of Pleadings, Oration*. Letters, Lives, 

dcmen.of confeience agamR good lawn, is hy- of fome of his Friends, Remarks upon tbe French, 

Soerifv, and paironifti by none but men of defign. Language, 5tc. 

a«A.— Ihavebeenelteemedand«o(r, n j/Wbythe PATbCHKAU, a town pf Silefia, in NeifTe ; 9 

grandfather, the father, and the (on. Drrjien. miles 8. of Munfterberg, and 13 W. of NeifTe. 

(i.>* PATRON YMICK.j*./«« f .» |H « v ,>«- PATTA, or PaTi, an ifland near theco=ft of 

tnimiaue,Ft.] Name eaprcffiflf the name of the Africa, about 10 raikrs incircumferencc,chiefty: 

sciDyVjOOQIt mha-i 



PAT (107 ) t- A T 

inhibited by Arabians, with whom the Englifh, PATTEN6BN, a town of Lower Saxony, i" 

Portuguefc.luid Indians, trade for ivory and naves. Caleuberg, 6 miles S. of Hanover. 

It lies in the month of a river of the fame name j * To PATTER. ■». ». [from pane, Fr.tberoot,! 

io Loo. 4i. jo. E. Lat. i. <o- S. To make a nolle like the quick fteps of many 

PATTAN, Lii.it, a city of India, in Nepal, feet.— . • , 

See Nepal. ' Pattering hail comes pouring on the main. 

PATTANS, Patani, or Afghahs, a very 'Drjdau 

warlike race of men, who had beeo fubjefteof the The Healing ftower is fcarce to palter beard, 

vift empire of Bochara. They revolted under Toom/b*. 

their governor Abftagi, in the lolh century! and PATTERAH, a riter of Ada,' which riles in 

laid the foundation of the empire of Ghizni or Thibet; and runi into the Ganges, oa the borders 

Gsena. (SeeGazNa.) In the Diflett at ion prefixed of Indoftan. 

to vol. III. of Dow'i Hiftory, we have this ac- PATTERDALE, a valley of Weftmcreland, 

count of the Pattang. * They are divided into Dear the Uitea. 

diftind communities, each of Which is governed * PATTERN, n.f.lpatrm, Tr.patroen, Dutch.] 

by a prince, who ii considered by his fubjeds as J. The original pcopofed to imitation] the arche- 

the chief of their blood, as well as their fovereign. type; that. which is to be copied; an exemplar. 

They obey him without reluctance, a i they derive —The churches of old mould be patterns for us 

credit to their family by his greataefs. They to follow. Hoahr.-~- 

atteud him in all his wars with the attachment J will be the patter" of all patience. Shah. 

which children have to a parent f and bis govern- A pattern to all princes living with her. Shalt- 

raent, though fevere, partakes more of the rigid —The example and pattern of the church of 

difciphne of a general than the caprice of a defpot. Rome. Clarendon.— 

Rude, like the face of their country, and fierce Loft not the honour you have early won, 

and wild as the. ftorms which cover their woun- Bui fiscd the blamelefs pattern of a Ion. Uryd. 

tains, they are addi&ed to incurfions and depre- — Meafure the excellency, of a virtuous miiid j 

predations, and delight In battle and plunder, not as it is the copy, but the pattern of regal. 

United firmly to their friends in war, to their power. Crew. — Pattern to ruk by are to be . 

enemies faithtefs and erne), they place juftice in Ibught-for. Davenant- — This pattern would be 
force, and conceal treachery under the name of' our guide. ' jfr/rriHry.— Cbriftianity commaridsus 

addrefs." The empire which took its rife from to act. after a, nobler pattern, than the virtue* 

the revolt of the Pat tans, tinder a fncceffion of even of the moft perfect men. Ragtrte— 

warlike princes rofe to a furpriQng magnitude. Take pattern by our filler ftar, 

In the beginning of [he mh century, it extended Delude at once and bids our fight. Savift. 

from Ifpahan to Bengal, and from the mouths of *■ A fpecimen ; a part ihowa as a fample of the 

the Indus to the banks of the jaxertes, which «ft«— A gentleman fends to my (hop for a pattern 

comprehends at Icaft half of the continent of Alia, of fluff; if he like it, he compares the pattern 

In the beginning of the iSth century, they had with the whole piece! and probably we bargain. 

fpread themfelves Over the adjoining province of Swift. 3. An inftance; an example.— What God 

Kandahar; and fuch was the imbecility of the did command, touching Canaan, concerneto not 

I'trFian empire at that time, that many other pro-, us, othertvife than only as a fearful pattern of bis 

rinces and tributary (tales were alfo induced to joft difplcafure againft finful nations. Hooter. 4. 

revolt. When the king or fhah of that time, Any thing cut in paper to direct the cutting of 

whole name was Httffem, oppofed the growing doth. 

power of this warlike people, he was totally * To Pattxrh.*. a. [patromur, Pr. from the' 

defeated, and Ifpahan was belieged and obliged noun.] 1. To make an imitation of iomething ( 

to furrender, after having fuffered dreadful cala- to copy. — , 

mities, to an army confining of only 30,000 men. Ay, fucb a place there is, where we did hunt. 

In coniequmce of this, they brought .bout a re- Patti rn'd by that the poet here defcribes. Stai. 

volution in Perfia, and fubj'ccted it to themfelves, *■ To ferve as an example to. be followed. Neither 

This fovcreignty, however, [they only held for ienfe is now much in ufe.— 

1 yeats and 11 days, having fa 1 ton ■ lacriBce to When I that cenfure him do fo offend, 

the enterprifing fpirit of Kouli Khan, or Nadir Let mine own judgment pattern out uiy death, . 

Shah. See Persia. And nothing come in partial. SMak. 

PATTAPOOW-WiHKPEe, a lake of North PATTERSON, a town of New Jerfey, in 

America. Lon. 96. o. W. Lat. j4, to. N. Bergen county, leated near the Great Falls of the 

(1.) * PATTEN, n. /. [pati*, Fr") A ftioe of Palate, 19 miles NE. of Morriftown, 10 N. of 

wood with an iron ring, worn tinder the common Newark, and 100 N. by E. of Philadelphia. Lot. 

(hoc by women, to keep them from the dirt. — o. II. £. of that city. Lai. 40. ta. N. 

Their (hoes and pattens are fronted and piked ' (1.) PATTI, PaTi,or PiAT«,afea porttown 

more than a ringer long. Camdtu. and bifhop's fee of Sicily, in Deniona, on the N. 

Good houfe wives coaft, on the Gulf of Patti; built on the ruins 

Safe through the wet on clinking pattern tread. cl " Tindaro, by Earl Roger, after he had con> 

Gap. quered the Saracens. It is 3a miles W. of Meffina, 

(t.) * Patten of a pill ak. «. /. Its bite, and 40 N. of Catania. Lon. ij. 11. E. Lat. 3I. 

Aptfsvartb. • II. N. 

* PATTfitt'MAXER. n,f. iiaiten and mater.] He (». 3.} Patti, a rivet of Sicily, which mnsinto 

last makes pattens, -th: tea, and forms the bay or Golf of Patti. 

«» PATT1ARY, 



P A V 



( 108 ) 



f A V 



TATHARY, a town of Indoftao, in Oudc; $j prince* with their mantles, and by the ladiet wstk 

miles ENE. of Agra, arid 55 NW. of C;ipoga. their gown-tails trailing on the ground. It ra ' 

PATTISON, William, an Englifh poet, born called the grand ball, from the folemnity with ; 

at PeafmarfH, in SufFex, in ijo6. and educated which it wan performed. To moderate its gravity, ! 

St Appleby, and Sidney Cojlegc, Cambridge. He .it wa» ufual to introduce lev era I floutiihes, paf- 

aflerwards when to London, where hefubfiftcd fides, capers, Sec. by way of cpiToiies. Its tabla- | 

by his pen, and was entcrtajned by the celebrated ture or fcorc ia given at large by Thoinot Arbean 

Mr Curl, bookfellcr, in whole houfe he died of in-hii Orchcfographia. 

the f mall- pox, in 1717. His poems, which have PAUCAR-COLLA,a province of BuenoeAyrej, 

merit, were pobliihed in «.w>li. gvo, 1718. abounding with fheep, and filwr mine*. Puna il 

PATTMES, a town of Bavaria, 8 mile* N. of tbe capita). 

Aich.i, and o ESE. of Rain. .Paucar-Tamba, a prov. of Peru, E.of C.ifco, ! 

PATTUN, or Pwttah, a city of lndoftan in about 71 miles long, fertile in com and fruit, 

Guzerat, Capital of a circar fo named, 4 S miles * PAUCILOQUY. *./. [pauciloquhan, Latin.) 



.K. of Amedabad, and 131. SW. of Oudipou 
Lon. 17. 30-. E. Lat. 43. 4$. N« 

PATU, Claudius Peter, a French dratnatift, 
born at Paris, in 1719. Id 1 734, be publifhed a 
Comedy, entitled Adieux du Gam, which had a 



Sparing and rare fpeech. DiH. 

• PAUCITY. [ pauritas, from fauti, Latin.] I 
t. Fewncf* ; fmallnefs o! .lumber,— The multi- | 
tude of parifhe*, and paucity of fchools. Heoler. 

In fucb flender corpufdts as thofe of colour. 



great run. He came to England, and tranflated may eaftly be conceived a grealeV paucity of pi 0- 

■leveral Eoglifti comedies with -great talte and tubetant corpufcles. Boyle. — Socrates wellunder- 

accuracy. He went with M. Paliflbt to Geneva, flood what he faid touching the rarity and paucity 

to fee Voltaire, who received him with great of friends. V grange, a. Smallnefs of quantity. 

kindnefs. He afterwards went to Naples and —This paucity of blood ia agreeable to maty 

Rome, but died of a confumption in 175 7, foon other animals : aa lizards, frogs, and Other fillies. 
after hit return to Paris, aged 18. 



(r.) PATOCKET, a village of Rhode ifland, 

4 miles NE. of Providence. It has fever al 
manufactures. 

(*.)Patc<ci:et, otBi,ackstobe. See Black- 
itohi, N° j. ' 

PATULCIUS, a firname of Janus, from Pateo, 
to open, becaufe his temple was always open in war. 

PATUXEN, or} a navigable river of Mary- 

PATUXENT, j land, which " 
fource of the Patapfco; and rur, 
fide of Chefapeak Bay, between Drum and Hog't 
ifland, 30 miles S. of Annapolis. . 

(t.)PATJ, a town of France, in thedep. of the 
Lower Pyrenees, ci-devant province of Gafcciny, 
and lata territory of Bearne, with a caftle. Ic 
was tbe birth place of Henry IV. It ftands on 
tbe brow of a rock which hangs over the Gate. 
Several of the ancient fovereigns of Navarre 
tended and died in the cattle. Pau is a handlbme 
city, and well built. Its population is eftimaterj 
at 6000; but the rev. C. Cuittwcll make* Jt 
l*,ooo> It is 97 mile* S. of Bourdeaux. 



PAUCTION, Alexis John Peter, a learned ma- 
thematician, born near Luff in, in 173a. His prin- | 
cipal work was his Mttnlagie, firft publifhed in : 
1780, which contain* a collection of the meafures 
of all countries. The aftronomer Laiande affiled 
him in the foreign department. This excellent 
work contain* -alfo Calculations of the ancient 
meafures, with differtation* on population, agri- 
the culture, &c. He alfo publifbed A Tbrary of U* 
to the W. Latot of Nature, in 1 jSi. wherein he attempts 10 
refute tbe fyflerns of Newton and Nollet. He 
died in 1799. 

• T» PAVE. v. a. Ifiavio, lM. paver, Fr.J I. 
To lay with brick or ft one; to flour with ft one.-- 

Should fbe kneel down, 
' Her brother"* ghofthis^tmJ bed would break, | 
And take her hence in borrour. $bat. , 

— Let not tbe court be paved. Bacon. — 
I fee a city of more precious mould, 
With filver pav'd and all divine with gold. ; 
Drjdtx. 
—The ftreets are paixd with brick or freeltone. 
Addijan. a. To make a paflage eafy. — It might 1 



o. 4. W. Lat. «, it. N. ... 

(a.) Pair, or Phuw,' Cornelius Df, a late open and paw a prepared way to bis 

celebrated German author, wjo wrote Rerlierebei Bona. 

FbilqfepbiqueJ for le> Amtricaim } and Hmilar • PAVEMENT, n. f. [povimentum,- Latin." 

ph'ilofophical refearches refpeciing the ancient Stones or bricks laid on the ground ; ft ode floor 

Egyptians and Greeks. He was maternal uncle floor is tiled of Aonc, but pavement- never o 

to the celebrated Anacharfis Clobtz, See Clqqt^. wood. — 

He died in June 1 799. The marble pavement clofes, he is enter'd 



f Into hiii radiant roof. Shat. Cymbc'.ir. 

. A broad and ample road, whole dull is paid. 

And pavement Oars feen in the galaxy. Milion', 

-Tbe long laborious pavement here he treads.: 

Addijir} 



(3.) Pad, St, a town of Spain, in Catalonia, 
11 miles NW. of Gerana. - 

(1.)* PAVAN. Pavin. «./ A kind of light 

tripping tiance. •Aivfiwrth. .:■ 

' (*.)PAVAiM,ttr ) a grave dance ufedamont; the 

PAVANE, " ( Spaniards, and borrowed, from — Tbe foundation of Roman ways was made <.i 

them; wbetein the per formers made, a kind of rough ft one joined together with cement. ; upon 

*litiH 6rCul' before eac'h other, like that of paw, this was laid' another layer, confining of imall 

a peacock ; from whence the name ia derived, ft ones and cement, to plane tbe inequalities oi 

The pavantf was formerly in K r eat repute j and the lower ftratum, in winch the ft one* of tbe upj 

wn» danced hy gentlemen- wit b car> and fwonl ; per 'pavement were fixed ; for there can be no voj 

r>r thofe of the long robe in their gowns, by durable pavtnvnt, but a d*oub!p one. jfrbuibm.t. 1 

•-■: * *PAVliK; 

, ;qit .od,^OOglL 



V t- f ( 109 ) ' t A V 

* PATER,' Patim, n. /. [from pave] One king in the Held, to demand in wh?t part of \he 

Who hyi iv:th ttones. — camp he refided, that they might avoid firing 

FdTtbeettlcftardf^awrthumpBthegTOund. upon the Royal pavilion. Addifim. 

Gay. The glowing fury fpringt, 

PAVtREL, a town of EfTex. It has a fair on Once more invades thegu!rjydome,andfliroud* 

Whii-Turfday. ' It* bright paviiioni in a veil of clouds. Pcjw. 

PAVESAN, > or Path, a ci devant duchy of (».) Pavilion, in architecture, fignifies i kind 

PAVF.SE, 5 Italy) now included in tbe dc- of turret or building, ufually infulated, and con- 

pjnment of Olona, of which it forms the ad tained under a Angle roof) fometimea fq a ire, and 

diflrict. ft w'aa bounded on the N. by the Mi- fometimea in form of a dome : tbue called from 

lanefe, E. by tbe Lodefan and Piaccntin ; S. by the refemblance of its roof to a tent. Pavilion! 

the Genoefe territory ; and W. by tbe Lumellin are fometimea alfo projecting pieees, in the front 

and Tortonefe. of a building, marking the middle thereof; forne- 

PAVETTA, in botany, a genus of the mono- time* the pavilion flankt a comer, in which cafe it 

gTnia order, belonging to the fetrandria clafs of is called an angular paviUrm. The Louvre it flank- 

plants ; and in the natural method ranking under ed with four pavilion* : the pavilion* are ufually 

tbe 47th order, Stellat*. Tbe corolla is mo- higher than the reft of the building. There are 

n ipetilom and funnel- ih aped above : the ftigma pavilions built in gardens, commonly called fum- 

ciTTfd ; the berry difpermous. mer-boufej, pUa/ure-kouJis, Sec, Some catties or 

(1.) PA VIA, an ancient and celebrated city of forts confift only of a tingle pavilion. 
Inly, in the department of Olona, diftrift of (j.) Pavilion, in heraldry, denotes a covering 
Pivia, ci-devant duchy of Milan, and late capital in form of a tent, which invefr* or wrapt up the 
of the Pavefan. It was anciently called Tici- armories of divert kings and (bvereigiti, depencT- 
hum, from Ht Bttntfon on that river, 2nd lie* 10 ing only on God and their fword. The pavilion 
mill's S. of Milan. It was formerly the capital of cunfltts of two parti ; the top, which ii the cba- 
tte Lombard kingdom, and is Hilt remarkable far pcau, or coronet 1 and tbe curtain, which makea 
tte broadnefs of itt ftreets, the«be-tuty and rich- tbe maritle. None but fovereign monarch*, ac- 
nrfs of tta churches, and for its univerfity, foun- cording to the old French heralds, may bear the 
ded by Charlemagne, and for feveral other literary pavilion entire, and in all its parts. Thole who 
MitulioriH. Its bifbop's fee was once the richeft are elective, or have any dependence, fay the he- 
rn Italy; but the city is gone to decay, it* trade raids, mull take off the head, and retain nothing 
being ruined. The church and convent of tbe but tbe curtains. 

Cmbunans are inexpreflihly noble, the court of {4-) Pavilion, in military affairs, fignific* a tent 

the latter being ooe of the (inert in the world, and railed on polls, t* lodge wider in tbe fummer- 

furrounded by a portico fuppnrted by pillars, a time. 

mile in circumference. It is defended by ftrong (j.) Pavkion is alfo fometimea applied to 

walls, large ditches, good ramparts, excellent baf- flags, colours, enfigm, ftand.irds, banners, fire. * 

lions, and a bridge over tbe river Teflioo. In tbe (6.) Pavilions, among jewellers, the under* 

centre of the town it a ftrong cattle, where the fides and corners of tbe brilliants, lying between 

duke of Milan was wont to re tide. There are the girdle arid the collet. 

raaay magnificent caftles, and fome colleges. It * To Paviliom. <d. a. [from tbe noun.] .1. To 

vis taken by the duke of Savoy tn 1 706 ; by thi furnilh with tents.— 

French in 1733 ; by the French and Spaniards in Jacob and Mahanaim law 

1745; bat retaken by the Auftrians in 1745. It' The field pavilian'd with his guardian* bright. 

w taken by the French republicans under Gen. Milton. 

LaThes, hi June 1800 ; with 100 cannon, 8000 %• To be Iheltered by a tent.— ' 

muieu, aooo barrels of gun-powder and a mil- With hit hatt'nlng flocks the careful fwain 

hon of cartridges. It it 17 mile* 9'. of Milan, and. Abides fa-Mien' d on the grafly plain. 

71 W. of Mantua. Lou. a. 15. E. Lat. 4 j. 10. N. PAV1LLAC, 3 town of France, in the dep. of 

!».] Pivia, a diftrict of Italy, in the dep. of the Gironde, rot ,nile * SE - of Leiparre, and 14 N. of 

Otona, comprehending the ci-devant Pavise. Bonrdeani. 

At the general Genius, taken on the rjih May, PA VILLON, Stephen, a French lawyer, bom 

itor, h contained 119,105 cilieenl, Pavia <N* at Paris, in i6j». He was advocate general to the 

1.) it the capital. Parliament of Met 2, and' waa admitted a member 

(3.) Pavia, a late duchy of Italy. See PavE se. of the French Academy, and of thole of Infcrip- 

PAVlE, a town of France, in the dep. of tbe tiont and Utiles Lettrrs. lie bad a pen Don of 

Gtri ; 3 miles S. of Aucb. aooo livret from Lewis XIV ; and died in 1715, 

PAVIER. See Paver. ■ aged 73. 

U) * PAVILION. »./. [pavilion, ?r J] A tent; PA V ILLY, a town of Prance, In the dep. of 

a temporary or moveable houfe.— Flower* being Lower Seine j 9 miles NW, of Rouwi, and 9 ENE. 

n^wlci the trees, the trees were to them a pavilion, ofCaudebec. **- 

"d the Bowers to the tree* a mofeieal floor. Sid.irj. - PAVIM. 9m Pavah, N° ». 

She did lie PAVING, n. /. tbe caoffruction of ground* 

In her pavilion, cloth of gold, of tifTne. Shat. flont't, ftreett, or higbwayt, in'fucn'ainannerthat 

He, only he, beav'n't blew pavilion fpreads, ' they tnty be conveniently walked upon. In Bri- 

Aud oa tbe ocean'a dancing billow* treads. ' tain,' the 'pavement of the grand Areets, &c. are 

■ Sa*dji. ufually of flint, or rubble-ftMe; courts, (tables, 

—It was bfual for the enemy, when' there wat a kitchens, halls, church**, art paved* with tiles, 



hick". 



* A V^ ( no ) PAU 

bride*, flict,orfire-ftonej fotnetirnei wttb a kind tb* ifland* of Gnernfey and Jerfey: theyirewrf 

of fcee-ftoue and rag-none. In fane ftreett, «. *.. durable indeed the moft fo of my ftooe ufed for 
of Venice, tbe pavement is of brick : church** ' thi* pnrpofe. They are ufed of various fiiet, bat 

fametimes are paved with marble, and fometime* thole which are from fix to nine inchej deep ire 

with mofaic work, a* the church of St Mark at efteenacd the moft lerviceablc. When they are 

Venice. In France, the public roads, street*, about 3 inches deep, they are denominated bolitrs 

coury, Sec, are all paved with gm or gritt, a kind or ivwkri ; tbefe are ufed for paving eowt-jirdi, 

of free-ftooe. In Amfterdam and the chief citie* and other place* not accuftomed to receive car- 

of Holland, they call their brick pavemeat tbe riagei with, heavy weight* ; when laid in geornttri- 

iurg Ixr-maJUr'i fanrmtnt, to diHinjuifh it from eal naurei, they have a very pleafing appearance, 

the ftone or Bint pavement, which ufually take* 7- PAvi»iG,Po»Ti.ANn,i*done with tone from 

up the middle trf-tie ftreet, and which fcrve* for the ifland of Portland j fometime* ornamented 

carnage* 1 , the brick which border* it being def- with black marble dot*. 

tjn»d for 'be paffa^e of people on toot. Pave- 8. Pavmc, J , o*»sc«,'for footway*, i* in ge- 

menu of free ftone, flint, and flag*, in ftreet*, &c. neral got in large furface* about •^incbet thick; 

are laid dry,, i, «. in abed of land; tbofc of court*, the blue fort i* the bardeft and the belt of thir 

ftablec,gruitBd-rpocas,lcc. arekid in* mortar of kind of paving. See N* jj. 

lime and (and; or in lime and cement, efpeciafly 9. Pavimg, Rats, wa* much ufed in London, 

if there be vault* or cellar* underneath. Some but i* very inferior tolbcpebblca; itisdiig iatfc 

mafons, after laying a floor dry, efbecially of brick, vicinity of Maidft one in Kent, from which it hu 

foread ■ thin mortar over it 1 {weeping it back- the name of Kenti/i rag-Jann there are (quartd 

ward* and forward* to fill up the joint*. The ftone* of tbia material tor paving ■ coach- tracti and 

feveral kind* of pavement arc a* various a* tbe footway*. 

niatetialetf whichtbryarectttnpofed, and whence 10. Pavimg, Rtkgat*, or ms-troiii, it 

they derive the name by which they are diftin- ufed for hearth*, llovct, ovens, and fnch placer u 

guiftied; at, * are liable to great heat, which doe* not afJeS the 

1. Pa.vi.HO, Granith. Granite i* a hard ma- lone if kept dry. 

terra), abounding in Scotland, of a reddith colour, 11. Paving, Squarid, for diftinfiion by feme 

very fuperior to the blue wbynn quarry, and at called Scotch paving, becaufe the firft of the kind, 

prefent much ufed in London. SeeGaAniTE. paved in tbe manner that ha* been and continues 

». Pavincr, GuEanssr, i> the beft, and very to be paved, came from Scotland 5 thefirftwiti 

much in ufe ; it is the fame ftone with the pebble, clear clofe ftone, called biiu v/Jij/na, which isnoir 

(fee 14° 6.) but broken with iron hammers, and diluted, becaufe it bat been round inferior to 

iquared to any tlimenfinni required, of a prifmoi- other* Gncc introduced. See § I, a, 4, 7, >> 10, . 

dical figure, fet with it* final left bate downwards. M> Ij, 

The whole of the foregoing paving flionlrt be bed- !»■ Paving, Swedland, it a black Date iaf 

ied aad paved in fmall graveL in Leiccftcrfbire, and loot* well for paving hall** 

5. Paving, Knob, i* dine with large gravel- or in party-coloured paving. 

Bone*, for porticoes, garden-feats, ice. rg. Pavino, with Bate*:*, r. Flmf triti fa- 

«. Paving, Marble, ii moftly variegated with vmg, i* done with brick laid in. faud, mortar, or 

different marbles, fometime* inlaid in mofaic. groute, a* when liquid lime i* poured into the 

5. Paving op Churches, &c. i* often per- joints. %. Briik-m-idge failing, done with brick 

formed with Hone* of feveral colours; chieily laid edge-wife in the lame manner. 3. Bricks are 

black and white, and of feveral forms, but chiefly alfo laid flat or edge-wife in herring-bone. a. 

fquarc* and lozenges, artfully difpofed. Indeed, Bricks are alfo fometime* let endwife in fad, 

there needs no great variety of colour* to make a mortar, or groute. y Paving is alfo performed 

furprifing diverfity of figure* and arrangement*, with paving bricks. 

M. Truchet, in the Memoir* of the French Aca- 14, Pavmo with Nxwciitlb Flags, « 
demy, hat fhown by tbe rule* of combination, ftone* about two feet fquarc, and 1^ or two incbci 
that two iquare ftone*, divided diagonally into thick; they anfwer very well for paving out- 
two colours, may be joined together chequer wife offices: tbey are fomewbat like tbe Yorkihrre. 
64 different way*: which appear* furprifing ij.P*vivcwiTHPoajecJt riTCHana; (quart 
enough} fmce two. tetter* or figures can only he (tones ufed in footway*; tbey are brought from 
combined two way*. Tbe reafon », that letters the ifland of Purbeck, and alfo frequently ufed in 
only change their fituation with regard to the firft court-yard*} they are iu general from fix to lea 
and fecond, tbe top and bottom remaining the inches fquarc. and about five inches deep, 
fame; but in the arrangement of tbefe ftonct, 16. Paving with Tilsi, &c. 1. With ten 
each admit* of four feveral 6 tuitions, in each inch tile*: 1. With foot tile*: 3. With clinker* 
w!iH^ofttie.otberfauareniaybechaiigcd i6?irtics, for liable* and outer office*: 4. With the bone* 
which gives 64 combinations. (See Changs, § a.) of anirnajs, for gardens, kc 

Indeed, from a farther examination of 1 bete 64 17- Pavikg, Yotxsmtk. Yorkfbire affords** 

com brna: ions, be found-there wen only jt.dflfe- exceeding good material for foot-ways, and it it' 

rent figure*, each figure being repeated twice in got of almoft any dimenfion*, of the fame thick- 

tbe tame utuatiea, though in a different cornbiea- ncft at the Purbeck. This (tone will not admit 

tioo; fo that the two only differed from each- other tbe wet to oaf* through it, nor it it affeded bf 

by the tranfoofition of.the dart and light part*. the froft. 

- . 6. Paving, Pinna, I* done with ftoue* col- PAUKATUCK, a river of tbe United State*, 

reeled from tbe fearbcaeb, jnoftly brought from which forms part of tbe line of drrifion between 

.gi.ie ... ^ 



■ r a u (in > p a u 

OtaMOicQt and Rhode Iflarjd, and fall* iutoStoo- wealth, of dignity, of power, in Jbdnuu tbottio 

ingtoa harbour, whom be went were indigent nan, oppreffrd, tsd 

(i.) PAUL, formerly named Saul, wm of the kept from all mean of improving their fortune*. 

tribe of Benjamin. ■ native of Tarfus in Cihcia, a The certain confluence, therefore-, of bu taking 

Phirifte by profeiBkm ; firft a pet fecutcr of the the part of Chriftianity was the lott not only of 

ehurdi, and afterward* a difctple of Jefua Chrift, all that be poQefled, hut of all hdpetof acouirmg 

and apottle of the Gentile", It is thought he wai more t whereas, by ccirtmuiug to perfecote the 

born about two years berate oar Saviour, Usuno- Chrift ians, he bad hopes, rifiug atenoft to a cereaio* 

fing that be lived 68 yean, m !■ mentioned In a ty, of making hi* fortune by tbe favour of thofe 

homily in the Rath volume of St Chrvlbftom'a who wer c .at the head of the jWiaai taae, towhona 

works. He WMaRoman citilcn, becaufe Aiifuf- nothing could fa mueh recommend him m the 'teal 

tm had given the freedo m of the city to all the which he bad (bow* in that perfecutJon, Ai to 

freemen- of Taifus, in coaldetauion of their firm credit or reputation, coujd the fchoiar of -Gtrroa- 

adhereoce to biaemere&a, Hta parent* fent him hel hope to gain cither by becoming » teacher in 

early to Jeruulem, where be ftudied the law at a college of fiafcenmn 1 Could be flatter hwbfplri 

tliefeetof Garaebel. a fame u* doctor. He made that the doarlne* which he taught would, ermet 

very great /progress in his ftu dies, and -hi* rife was in or out of Judoa, datum honour, wbenhekmrw 

always bUmetea* before men i Vang very xeatooa that " they weae to the Jew* a Mumbling Uodb, 

for the whole obfervatiear of the law of Moan, and to the Greek* fbolilhaef. ."' WM it then the 

But hi* -seal ojuried him too far; he perfecuted Jove of pdwer that induced biin to moke this great 

the church, and when the protomartyf It Stephen change i Power I over whom I over a flock of 

was ftoned, Saul wag not onry contenting to bis fb ecu whom hchimfelf bad affifted to deftney, sots 

death, but be even took care -of the clothe* of whom very Shepherd bad lately been murdered! 

thofe that ftoned him. Thi* happened A. D. 33, Perhaps it waa with the view of gratifying frtme 

a fhort time after our Saviour'* death. After the licentious paffion, under the authority of cfac new 

death of St Stephen, Sanl ftowed the utmoft vio- religion, mat be commenced a Micber of that r». 

lenee io-dJAvewag toe Chriftians ; andhaving got i(gion t Thta cannot be alleged; for hi* writing 

credential* from the bigh-prielt Caiaphaa, and the breathe nothing but the ftricren morality, emedU 

eWertof the Je wa, to the chief Jew* of Damafout, ence to nlegrarates, order, and government, with, 

with power -to bring to Jerufalem ill the Ctirif- the utmoft abhorrence of all iionntiounief*, idle* 

tian* he fhontd ind there, he went away full of neh, or loofe behaviour, uuder the cloak of adfe ' 

threats, and brnthing nothing but blood. But aa gioq. We nowhere find in h» warke, that faints 

he was upon the reau, and drawing near to Da- are above moral ordinance*! that dominion fa 

mifcua, all on a fudden, about noon, he perceived founded in grace} that monarchy ia defpotiiw 

agreat tight to come from heaven, Which encom- wbioh ought to be aboflfiW ; that the fortune* of 

Defied him and all thofe that were with him. Thi» the rich ought to be divided' among the poor; 

Iplendor threw them on the ground : and Saul that there ia Ho difference iu moral act ion a ; that 

heard a voice laying to him, " Sanl, Saul, wby any impnlfc* of the mind are to direfl u* Jgatelt 

oerfecutcft tbou me?" Hi* anfwer, wrfli his blind- the light of our rcafon and the laws of nature ; or 

nef*, hia core, and the -other fnrpriftng circutn- any of thefe wicked tenet* by wtuaii tbe peace df 

fbncea that followed, and iffued in hh converfiou, fociety ha* been often diflnrbed, and the rule* of 

are recorded in the 9th chapter of the Afti. But morality often broken, by men pretending to act 

tbe converfiou of fuch a man, at fucb a tiros, and under the ianction of divine revelation. Hem ' 

by fuch tnean*,furn)ftie* one of the mofi complete no dtfti net ions like the impoftor of Arabia it 

proof* that have ever been given of tbe divine ori- voor of bimWf ; nor don any part of hi* life, 

gin of our holy religion. That Saul, from being either before or after hia converlion to Chriftianiry, 

a zcalons pcriecntor of the difdples of Chrift, be- bear any mark of a libertine dilpoQtiou. Aa a- 

came all at once a dii&ple himfelf, i* a fad which mong the Jew*, fo among tbe Chriftian*, bis eon- 

cannot be controverted without overturning the veifatton and manner* were tibinelefi*— It hae 

credit of all biliary. Ho muft therefore have been been fbmetimea objected to the other apoftle*, by 

converted in tbe miraculnu* manner in which he thofe who were aefblved not lo credit their teftc 

hirnfclf bid he was, and of-courfe the Chriftian mony, that, having been deeply engaged with 

religion be- a divine revelation, or he muft have Jei'us during hi* life, tbey were obliged, for Ih* 

been either an impoftor, an enthufiaft, or a dupe fupport of their own credit, and from having goM 

to the fraud of other*. There i* not another al- loo far to return, lo continue the fame profdfione 

tentative poffibte. If he *^ai an importer, who after hia death ; bat this can by no meant be faidt 

declared what he knew to be falic, he muft have of St Paul. On tbe contrary, 'whatever force 

been induced to nor that part by fome motive: there may be in that way of leafotihig, it ait tends 

ISceMiaiCLS.) But theonly conceivable motive* to convince u*, that 3t Paul muft natumllg have 

for religion* impoft ore are, the hopes of advancing continued a Jew, and an enemy. to Cbrlft Jrfus, 

one's temporal inteteft, credit, or power ; or the If tbej were engaged on one fide, be was as ftrong- 

profped of gratifying fome paffioo or appetite un- ly engaged on the other, jf fllame withheld them 

der the authority of the new religion. That none from changing fides, much more ongbt it to have 

of thefe could be St Paul's motive, for pFofefTing Mopped bim ; wbo, from hia fuperior education, 

the faith of Cfarift crucified, i* plain from the (late muft have been vaftly mora fcuBble to that kind 

of Judatfm and CJiriflianity at the period of hi* of fhame, than the mean and illiterate fifbermeo of 

forfaking the torowr and embracing the Utter Galilee. The only other difference waa, that tbej, 

faith. Thofe whom be left were tbe difpofert of by quitting their staffer after his death, might 



P A U (.Hi ) PA tr 

have preferred themfekei ; whereas be, by quit- out of that light, which were not heard by the reft 
tins; the Jew*, and taking up the croft of Chrift, of the company ? Could they make him blind lof 
certainly brought on hi* own deftruction. As St three day* after that virion, and" then make fcaltt, 
Paul wu not an impoftor, fo ft; is plain be was not fall off from hi* eye*, and iwftorr him to fight by 
an cntbufiaft. Heat of temper, melancholy, igno- a word '. Or coukl they make him and thofe who 
ranee, and vanity, are the ingredient* of which travelled with him believe, that all thefe thing* 
cettbtmafm if eompofed ; but from all thefe. ex* had happened, if they had not happened : Mod 
cant the finft, the apoftle appears to ban been mqucftiomblr no frand wa* equal to all thin. 
whotlyfrec. That he had great fervour of zeal,* Since then St Paul wu neither an impoftor, 
(nth when a Jew and when a Chriftian, m main* nor an enthnGaft, nor deceived by the fraud of 
taining what he thought to be ri^ht, cannot be de- other*, it follow* that bis- converien wa* mira- - 
nied; bnt hewtt at alt time* fo much rdafler of cu Ions, and that the Chr'rftiat religion is a divine 
hi* temper, a*, in matters of indifference, to " be- revelation. See Lord Lvtti.eto»'g OhftnMieni 
come all thing* to all men/' with the- mo& pliant tm tbe Convtrfim affLt PaeJ; a- treatife to which it 
cxmaetceofion, bending his notion* and manner* hat been truly laid, that infidelity ha* never been 
to theirs, at far at hit duty to God would permit; able to fabricate a fpecloua arifwer, and of which 
a conduct compatible neither with the ftiffnet* of thia i* a very fbort and imperfect abridgement.-- 
a bigot, not with the violent impulfea of fanatical The efcape of St Pari from Damafcus, where the 
delufion. That hewaa hot melancholy, it. plain jew* had influenced the governor to feize him j 
from hit conduct in embracing every method bit meeting at Jerusalem with the disciples, who 
which prudence could iuggeft to efcape danger were (till afraid of him j the plot of the Jew* to 
and ihun persecution, when he could do it with, kiu him i bit journey to Cstfarea, and thence to 
out betraying tbe duty of bin office Or the honour Tariut, where he continued from A. Dl'Jy to 431 
trf bit God. A melancholy enthufiaft court* per- hi* jonmey thence with Barnabas *o Antioch, and 
fecotion ; and when he cannot obtain it, afflict* from that city to Jerufalem, with fupplies to the 
bimfelf wkb abfurd penance*: but tbe halinefa of difciple* during tbe famine, A. D. 44' when be 
8t Paul con fifted only in the nmplicity of a godly met with tbe prophet*, Simeon, Locius, ttud Ma- 
life, and in -the unwearied performance of hi* •- naen, and when be ii fuppofed to bate bad hi* in- 
poftolkal dvtie*. That he wat ignorant, no man effable vifion of heaven, (» Cor.iii."»-4.); bia jonr- 
will allege who i* not grofely ignorant himfelfi for ney with Barnabaa to Cypntat the oppnntian of 
be appear* to have been mafter, not only of tbe Barjefusj his blindoefi ; tbe convcrfvm of Scrgiu. 
Jewifh learning, but alfo of the Greek pfujofopby, Panlus, A. D.4J ; tbe change of Saul's name into 
abd to have been very convcrfant even with the Paul; his jonmey to Perga, and preaching in the 
Greek poet*. That he wa* not credulous, i* plain fynogoguet there, as well a* Antioch, Iconium, 
from hit having refilled the evidence of all the mi- Lyftra, and Derbe;. themiraetes he wrought and 
racle* performed on earth by Chrift, at well at perfecutions he fuffered at theft places ; hi* reco- 
tbofe that were afterward* wrought by the-apof' very after being ffoned, andYuppofed dead ; tbe 
tie* 1 to the fame of which, at be lived at Jerufa- diMenfion about ctrcumcifion at Ant iooh ; hit mil". 
fan, he could not poffibly have been a ftr.nger. fion with Barnabas to Jerufalem for the opinion 
And that he wat a* free from vanity a* any man of tbe other apoftle* on tbi* fubjeA, with their de- 
that ever lived, may be gathered from all that we ciiion ; hi* cenfure of St Peter fur bis difumulation : 
fee in hi* writings, or know of hi* life. He repte- his reparation from Barnabas, and junction with 
few* himlelf at theleaft of the apoaUct, and not Silas; their journey tbrongh Lycaonia, Phyrgia, 
meet to be called an apoftle. He fay* that he i* the Galatia, Myiia, Troa*, to Macedonia; their im- 
cUef of Bnner* ; and he prefer*, in the ftrongeft prifonment, 4c. at Philippt ; the conveiDon of 
term*, universal benevolence to faith, prophecy, Lydia and tbe jailor, and their f pirited, export uta - 
miracle*, and all tbe gift! and grace* with which be tion with the tnagiftrates ; their journey through 
could be endowed. I* thia the language of vanity Arapbipolis and Appol Ionia, to TbefTalonica and 
orenthuftalm? Did ever fanatic prefer virtue to hi* Berea; the tumults .railed by the Jew* again It 
own religion* opinions, to illumination* of the them in thefe cities;. Paul's voyage to Athens, A. 
[pint, and even to the merit of martyrdom i Ha- D. 51* hit ditputcs there with the phMofophers ; 
vtog.thus mown that St Paul was neither an iro- -hit defence before tbe Areopagus; the con ver fion 
softer nor an enthufiaft, it remains only to be-in- ofDionyfiusandDamari*; his journey to Corinth, 
quired, whether he *aa deceived by the fraud of where be continued 8 months; and whence, or 
others: but thia inquiry needs not be long, for from Athens, be wrote bis two epiftlea to the 
who was to deceive him ? A few illiterate oilier- Thefia Ionian* ; hia accufation before Gallio, and 
men of Galilee? It waa morally impofiible forfuch acquittal; his voyage to Ephefut, -Cat fares, and 
, men to conceive the thought of turning the molt Jerufalem; bie journey through Antioch, Galatia, 
enlightened of their opponents, and tbe cruelteft of Phyrgia, and the liighu*- provinces of Afia ; his re. 
their persecutors, into an apoftle, and to do this turn to Epbefus, where be continued 3 years, 
by fraud, in the very inftant of his greateft fury from A. D. 54. to 57 ; wrote bis cpiftlc to the 
againft tbem and their Lord. But could they have Galatians, and performed many miracles, and 
been fo -extravagant at to conceive fuch a thought, where he fays, lie alfo fought with beajti; but 
•It wat fkjfitaiij impoffible for tbem to execute it whether he did this literally in the amphitheatre. 
in tbe manner in which we find hit converGon to in confequence of a fentence of the heathen ma. 
have been effected. Could they produce a light gift rates, or whether tbe Mtprtftion is only a ve- 
in tbe air, which at mid-day was brighter than tapborical allufion to the fcuffle he bad with De*. 
tbe fun I Gould iter make Saul hear wsrdi from metritis »nd. the filver-fmith*, commentators are 



pau (us)' f a tr 

not agreed : His journey after this to Philippi hi and put in prifon. It was in this laft place of ci*" 
Macedonia along with Timothy, whence he wrote finement, that he wrote hi* id Epiftle to Timothy/ 
bis two epi files to the Corinthians; thence to which Chryfoftom look* upon it the apoflle'a laA 
Achaia, Corinth, Aflbs, Mitylene, Miletus, Coo», teftamant. See TiMOTRY and Titus. Thil great 
Rhodes, Patara, Tyre, Ptolemais, and Catfarea; apoftle at laft confummated his martyrdom, the) 
where he met with Philip the eiangelift, and the 19th of June, A. D. £6, by having his head cut 
prophet Agabusi who foretold bis future fuffer- 0% at a place called the Salvia* Wattrs. He was* 
inga j His journey thence to Jerufalem, where by buried on the way of Oltium, and a magnificent 
the advice of St James, he took the vow of a Na- church wat built over hia tomb; which i* Sill it* 
ZAtiTB i the riot raifed in the temple again!) him exiftence. Calmel'i DiB. &c. 
by the Jews; bis refcue from their fury by Lyfias; (lOPAttl-, firft bifhop of NarSonne, or Ss.tau 
bis unjuft treatment by Ananias the high prieft ; u* Paulus the proconftil, converted and made? ' 
the dmfion between the Pbarifees and Sadducee* bifliop by St Paul, was defcended from one at 
rafpeeling him ; Ihe'bloody vow of the Jewifh af- the bed famine* of Rome, ft is (aid the apoftlff 
rafflo* to murder him; his tranfmiffion to Felix by called hiinfclf Paul from' hia name. The Spa- 
I.fTia, hi* accufation by Tertullus, and his aiii- n iards venerate him as their apoftte ; and fay he 
mated defence ; the injuflice of Felix ; Paul's fpi- died a martyr at Narbonne. 
rited oration before Feftu* and Agiipva ; its ef- (3) P*ui I. Pope of Rom-, focceeded his href* 
fed apoD the latter; Paul's appeal to Catfar, and ther Stephen II. A. D. 737; governed with great 
Confeouent voyage from Adramyttium over the moderation, and died in 767. 

l~ea» of Cilicia and Pamphylia, to Myri, and thence (4.) Pau l II. Pope, a noble Venetian", was ne- . 
to Crete; the Rorm of 14 days; the fliip wreck phew of Pope Eugene IV. who made him a eardw 
00 the coaft of Malta, with all the interfiling par- nal in 1440. He was elected Pope m (4(41 and 
ticulars attending it ; the cure of Publius, &c died in 1471, aged J4. - 

Paul** re-embarkation and voyage to Syracufe, (5.) Paul III. Pope, whofe original name wa» 
Rliegium, and Puteoli, with bis final arrival at Aleaander parnefe, was born in 146?, and elect- 
Rome, and reception there by bis countrymen, are ed pope i.i 1534. He eftablilhed the incfuifitioo, 
all fully recorded by St Luke, in the Aft) of the approved of the Society of the Jefuits, and acted 
Apoftlea, from chap. ix. to zxviii. Paul dwelt with great violence again!) Henry Vlil. of Bug. 
for two whole years at Rome, from A. D. 61. to land. The famous council of Trent was held in 
63, in a hired lodging ; where he received all that his reign. He died in 1540, aged 8»* 
caTiietohim.preacuingtheretigionof JefusChrilt, (6.}PaulIV. Pope, whofe original name w*« 
without interruption. Hi* captivity contributed John Peter Caraff.i, was bom in 1475. He was at 
greatly to the advancement of religion: for he learned man, and wrote on the Creed and other 
converted (everal perfons even of the emperor's fubjeets; but was very violent againft the reform^ 
court. (Philip, i. ia— 18. and iv. «».) The Chrif- er*. He was elected pope in ijjj, when he wa# 
tiana at Philippi, hearing that St Paul was a pri. to, and died in 1559, aged 84- 
foner at Rome, fent Bpapbroditus tp him, with (7.) Paul V. Pope, was born in I c; %at Romea 
money, to affilt him in their name. (Phil. ii. »j.) was firft clerk of the chamber, and afterward* 
Epaphroditu* fell lick at Rome ; and when he nuncio to Clement VIII. in Spain, who made him 
went back to Macedonia, the apoftle fent by him a cardinal. lie was elected pope on the ifith May 
his Epiftle to the Philippians. It is not known by .601, after Leo XI. The ancient quarrel between! ' 
*hat means St Paul wa» delivered from his prifon, the fecular aad eccleuafttcal jurifdiftioos, which 
but it ia certain that he was fet at liberty) after formerly had occafioned much bloodlhcd, revived! 
having been two year* » prifoner at Rome. He in bis reign. The fenate of Venice had condemned . 
wrote alio, during tfai* imprisonment, hi* Epiftles- by twd decree*, I. The new foundations -of mo- 
to Philemon and the Coloffians. He was ft ill in naileries made without their concurrence. 1. Thar 
Rome, or at leal) in Italy, when be wrote his E- alienation of the ettatea both ecclefiaftical and fc- 
piftletothe Hebrews. He travelled over Italy; cular. The firft decree pafled in 160.3, and the 
and, according to fome of the fathers, paffed into ad in 1605. About this time a canon and abbot, 
Spain; then into Judea; went to Ephefus, and acceded of rapine and murder, were arrelled by 
there left Timothy; (Heb. xiii, .4. and r Tim. i. 3.) order of the fenate, and delivered over to the fe- 
preached in Crete, and there fixed Tit 01, to cut- cular court; which gave offence to the court of 
tirate thechurch in that place. Probably he might Rome. Clement VIII. took no notice of the af- 
alfo vifit the Philippians t (Phil. i. 93, 16. and ii, lair ; but Paul V. wbo'bad managed the Genoele 
94.) arid it i* believed, that it was from Macedo- upon a Gmilar occafion, hoped that the Venetian* 
niatbathe wrote the Firft Epiftle to Timothy.— would be equally pliant. But the Rune main. 
Some time after, he wrote to Titus, whom he tained that they held their power to mate laws- 
had left at Crete; defiring him to come to Nico- of God only ; and therefore refu&d to revoke 
polia, whence, probably he fent thia letter, ■ The their decrees, and deliver up the eeclefta&tcal pri- 
Tear following, that ia A. D. 6j, he went into A- loners to the nuncio, Paul, provoked at this be- 
Ea, and came to Treat, (a Tim. iv. 13.) Thence haviolrr, excommunicated the doge and fenate j 
be went to vifit Timothy it Ephefus, and from and threatened to put the whole Dale under an in* 
thattoMilerua.(tTim.iv, 40.J Laftly, he went terdlfl, if fatisfaflion was not given hjm within 
lu Rome: and St Chryfoftom lays, that it was re- 34 hours. The lenale protclted againft this me* . 
ported, that having converted a-cup-tearer and a nace, and forbad the publication of it in their do- 
eoncubine of Nero, this fo provoked the Empe- minions. A number of pamphlets were publHh- 
tar. that he caufed St Paul to be apprehended, ed on both fide*. The Capuchins, Thealint, and 
Vol. 2VU. P«r J, -g m od Je&itt, 



P A V ( 114 ) P A U 

jefuitl, were the only religious order* who ob- was buried with great pomp it the public charge, 

tried the interdict. The fenate (hipped them all and ■ magnificent monument wao erected to hit 

off for -Rome, and bamfhed the Jefuits for ever, memory. 

Meantimf Paul w^f preparing to make the refrac* (9.) Paul, Mark. See Paulo. 
tory republic fiibmit to his tyranny by force of (ic.) Paul of Samofata. See PAULVf, N°4. i 
arms. He levied troopS againft the .Venetians; (ri.) Paul, late emperor of Riiflia, the (on of I 
but he foon found his defign baulked, as the canfe the unfortunate Peter III. by Catherine II. was j 
of the Venetians appeared to be the common horn Oct. 1, 1754 ; and married Oft. id 1773. to j 
caufe of all princes. He had recourfri therefore) Wilhelmina, daughter of Lewis, landgrave of 
to Henry IV. to fettle the differences j who foon HelTe-Darmfladt, who died in childbed April 30th I 
"brought about a reconciliation. His ambaffadors 1776! without leaving iflue. "He next married, I 
at Rome snd Venice began the negnciation, and Oft. 7, 1776, Sophia Ailgtifta Doro'hea, daugh- I 
Card, de Joyenfe finiflwd it in 1607. Paul was ter of Pr. Charles of Wirtemberg, by whom M \ 
ftronglv iolicitedto make ibe immmulatc anrepthn had Alexander, the prefent emperor, Conftantinc, j 
cftke boiy •virgin an article of faith, but he only Alexandra, Helen, and Anne. He took an active 
prohibited the contrary doftrine to be publicly part in the late war ; but was murdered on lie 
taught. He afterwards cmbeilifhed Rome, and 33d March, 1801- See Russia. 
collected the works of the mod eminent painters (n.) Paul, in fea language, is a fliort bar of 
and engravers. Rome ia indebted to him for its wood ur iron, fried dole to the capftern or wind- 
molt beautiful fountains, efpecially that where the las of a (hip, to prevent thofe engines from rolling 
water fpouts out from an antique vafc taken from back or giving way, when they are employed to 
the hot baths of ViTpafian, and the aqua Pacta, heave in the cable, or otherwise charged with any 
an ancient work of Auguftus, reftored by Paul V. great effort. 

He brought water into it by an aqueduct 35 miles (13.) Paul, in geography, a town of Yorkfhire, 

long. He completed the frontifpiece of St Peter, fested on- the Humber, S, of Headoo. 

and the magnificent pslace of Mount Cavallo. (14,) Paul, St, a province of S. America, in 

He alfo reftored and repaired feveral ancient mo- .Brazil, which is a kind of independent republic; 

numents. His pontificate was honoured with fe- originally colonized, in 1570, by a fet of barditti 

veral ill urinous embaffies. The kings of Japan, of feveral nations, who were tranfported Iron; 

Congo, and other Indian princeH, fent ambaffadors Portugal ; and the country being furroondtd by 

to him. He fent mifiionaries, and founded bifhop- thick forefts and inacceffible mountains they foon 

rics in thefc countries. Hr fhowed the fame at- threw off all dependence on the mother country. 

tention to the Maronites and other eaftem Chrif- However they now pay a fmall tribute of gold to 

tians. He alfo fent legates to different orthodox Portugal. The climate is excellent. 

princes. He dien" a8th Jan, i6ai, aged 69 ; after (15.) Paul, St, the capital of the above re- 

liaving confirmed the French Oratory, the Urfii- public, was built in 1570; and lies 11 miles from 

lines, the Order of Charity, and fome other infti- the coaft, and tioW. of Janeiro. Lon. 45. j»- W. 

tutions. He enjoined all the religious in the pro- Lat, at, ij. S. 

fecution_of their ftudies to have regular profeffors fjfi.) Paul, St, a town in the ifle of Bour- 

for Latin, Greek, Hebrew, and Arabic. bon. 

(80 Paul, Father, whore name, before he en. {17.) Paul, St, an iiland in the Indian Ocean. 

tered into the monaftic life was Peter Sarpi, was Lon. a,, a. E. Lat, 37. 51. S. 

bom at Vienna, Aug. 14, tjji. His father was a (18 ) Paul, St, an iiland in the Oulf of St j 

merchant, who died leaving his family unprovid- Lawrence ; 9 miles NE. «f Cape Breton, 

ed for, but his uncommon abilities under the tui- (19.) Paul, St, a town of Malta; 6 miles NW. 

tion of a maternal uncle rendered* him matter of of Malta. 

languages and fcienre at a very early age. At 14 ' (»o.)Paul,St| Cavh, or Grotto of, a place 

be took the habit of the order of the ScrvHca, and in the ifiand of Malta, where St Paul and his com- 

at 11 was made a pried. Aftcf pafling fucceflive- pany took fhelter from the rains, when the riper 

ty through the dignities of his order, he was cho- fattened on his arm. Upon this fpbt there is a: 

fen provincial for Venice at 16 years of age ; and church built by the famed Alof de Vtguacoart, 

difcharged this poft with fucb honour, that in grand-mailer of the order, in 1606, a Tery hand-l 

1579 nc wasappointed, with two others, to draw fome fmall ftrufture. 

np new regulations and ftatutes. This he execu- (ai— »j.) Paul, St, is alfb the name of 5 towns] 
ted with great fucceft; arid when his office of in the over-grown, and now imperial French re- 
provincial was expired, be retired to the ftudy of public ; viz. a, in the dep. of Mont Blanc, late] 
experimental pbilofophy and anatomy, in which Savoy, and ci-devant duchy of Chablaia, on the] 
he is (aid to Dave made feme nieful difcoveries. lake of Geneva, 10 miles B. of Tonan ; a. in that 
In the difpute between the pope and the fenate of of the Gard, 10 miles NE. ofUzes: 3. in that of 
Venice (fee Paul ▼.), his controvert] a 1 writings the Straits of Calais, and lateprov. of Artois, 16 
irritated the papal court fo highly, that they hired miles from Arras; Lon. a. 30. E. Lat. 50. 94. NJ 
airaifinatonmrdcrhim.bnt heefcaped With feve're 4. in that of Tarn, 9 miles NW. of Caune : 5. iri 
wounds. This-, and other attempts upon his life-, that of Upper Vienne ; 6 mjjes S. of St. Leonard, 
obliged him to confine himfelf to his convent, and 9 SE. of Limoges. It alfo makes part of the 
where he engaged in Writing the H&arg tftht Com- name of other 6 French towns : viz. 
cil of Treat, on which, and other works of left (a6.1 Paul, St, de Fenouilledfu, in the 
confequence, he fpent the remaining part of his dep. of the Eaftem Pyrenees, according to Crnttl 
life, lie died on Saturday tb«l4th]an.tisi3. He well, buC Brookes places it in t!iat of Gard, and 

■ , - lafl 

, ;qit .od ,,^ooglc 



, fr A U ( 115 ) PAD 

lite pro*, of LanguHoc, on the Egli, incog the a council, he abjured his errors, to avoid depofl- 

mountaina; ja ' miles N. of Montpellier. Lon. lion; but foon alter relumed t hem, ami was de- 

3. ;l. E. Lat. 44. 7. N. pofed by another council in 169. — He may be 

{17.) Paul, St, oe Toksot, in the dep. of the con fide mi a* the father of the modern Socbians ; 

Arriege; «l miles NNB. of Tarafcon, and 11 and his errors are fen-rely condemned by the 

SSW. of Mircpoix. council of Nice, whore creed differs a little from 

(iK.i Paul, St, ih Joiest, in the department that n'owufed, under the fame name, in (he church 

of Rhone and Loire, 18 mile* SSW. of Lyons. of England. 

(19.) Paul, St, le's Romans, in the depart- PAULICIANS, a branch of the ancient Mani- 

raent of Drome, and diftriA of Romans; 4$ miles chees, fo called from their founder, ,1.* Paulus, 

NE. of Romans. an Armenian, in the 7th century ; who, with nil 

(jo.) Paul, St, les Vehces, In the dep. of brother John, both of SamoDiia, formed this 

the Var, and ci-de«ant pro*, of Provence; 7 miles feift: though others are of opinion that they 

W. of Nice, 9 ENE. of Grade, and 430 SE. of were thus called from another Paul us, an Ar- 

Paris. Lon. 7. 13. E. Lat. 41- 43- N. menian by birth, who lived in the reign 01 Ju'ti- 

( j 1.) Paul, St, Teois Chateau*, in the dep. ntanll. In the 7th century, a zealot called Con-, 

of Drome, and lateprov. of Dauphiny ; is miles ftantine revived this drooping feat, which was 

S. of Montelimart, and 13$ N- of Orange. . ready to expire under the feverity of the imperial 

(1-) PAULA, a learned Roman lady, who flou- edicts. The Paulicians, however, by their num- 

rilhed in the 4th century. She was defcended bers, and the countenance of the emperor Niee- 

from the Scipios and the Gracchi, and added to pborus, became formidable to all the Eaft But 

the brighter! qualities of the mind the virtues of the cruel rage of perfecution, which liad for lime 

Chriitiaoity. Sac was well verfed in the Hebrew rears been fufpended, broke forth with redoubled 

Scriptures, and wis the intimate friend of St Je- violence in the reigns of Michael Curopalatej and 

rnme. She died A. D- 407. Leo the Armenian, who inflicted capital punifh- 

(1.) Paula, in geography, a town of Italy, in meat on fuch of' the Paulictane as refilled to re- 

tne dep. of the Croftblo, and ci-devant duchy of turn into the bofom of the church. Under the 

Reggio. ' - emprefs Theodora, tutorefs of the emperor Mi- 

(3.) Padi.a, a, town of Naples, in Calabria Ci- chael, in 845, feveral of them were put to death, 

tra, near the coaft } 11 miles NW. of Cofenza, and more retired among the Saracens; but they 

Lon. 16. 9. £. Lat. 39. 14. N. were neither all exterminated tor banifhed. Upon 

(4.) Paula,St, an ifland ofRuffia.it] the Frozen this they entered into a league with the Saracens $ 

Ocean. Lon. lit. o. E. Ferro. Lat. 76. 54. N. and choofing for their chief an officer of the 

PAVLA, a fort of Ruflia, in Caucafus. greateft refutation and valour, whole name was 

PAULAR, a town of Spain, in Old Caftile; it Carbau, they declared againft the Greeks a war. 

miles ESE. of Segovia. which was carried on for jo yean with the great- 

PAULEYS, a town of S. Carolina, 8 miles S. eft vehemence and fury. During thefe common 

of Kingfton. s lions, fome Paulicians, towardi. the conclnDon of 

PAULHAC, a town of France, in the dep. of this century, fpread abroad their do&rioes among 

the Carnal ; 10 -miles W. of St Flour. ' the Bulgarians : many of them, either from zeal, 

PAULHAN, a town of France, in the dep. of or to avoid perfecution, retired, about the clofe 

Herau!t ; 9 miles N. of peaenas, of the nth century, from Bulgaria and Thrace, 

PAULHIAC, a town of France, in the dep. of and formed fettlements in other countries. Their 

Lot and Garonne ; ' 6 miles SSE. of Villereal. fir (I migration was into Italy ; whence they fent 

PAULI, Simon, phyGcian to Frederick III. colonies into moft of the other provinces of. £11- 

king of Denmark. He publifhed Flora hanica : rope, and formed gradually a confiderable num.- 

and a treatitr on the ufe and abufe of tobacco ber of religious affemblies, who adhered to their 

and tea. He died in 1681, aged 77. doctrine, and who were afterwards perfecuted 

PAULIAGUET, a town of France, in the dep. with the utmoft vehemence by the Roman DOtU 

of Upper Loire; 7$ miles SE. of Brioude, and 18 tiffs. In Italy they were called Patarini, I torn 

NW. of Puy. Pataria, in Milan, where they held their affem- 

PAULIANISTJE, ) a feci of heretics, fo called bliea ; and Gathari or Gaxari, from Gazaria, or 

PAULIANISTS, {from their founder, P*u- the LefTer Tartary. In France they were called 

lus Samosatehus, a native of Samofata, elect- Albigtnfct, though their faitU differed widely from 

ed patriarch of Antioch in ifii. His doctrine that of the Albigenfes whom Proteftant writers 

amounted to this: that the Son and the Holy generally vindicate. (See Albigchsis.) The 

Ghoft eaift in God in the fame manner as reafon firft religious afferobly the Paulicians formed in ' 

and activity do in man; that Cbrift was born a Europe, was at Orleans, in 1017, in the reign of 

mere man; but that the reafon or wifdom of the Robert, when many of them were burnt alive. 

Father descended into him, and by him wrought The ancient Paulicians, according to Pnotius, 

miracles upon earth, and in Articled the nations; expreffed the utmoft abhorrence of Manes and 

and, filially, that, on account of this union of the his doctrine. The Greek writers comprife their 

Divine Word with the man Tefus, Chrift might, errors under the fix following particulars. 1. 

though improperly, be called God. He did not They denied that this inferior and vifible world ii 

baptize in the name of the Father and the Son, the production of the Supreme Being j and they 

ecc. 1 for which reafon the council of Nice or. diftinguifh the Creator of the world and mi hu- 

drred thole baptized by him to be re-baptized, man bodies from the moft high God who dwells 

Being condemned bv Dionyfiui Alexandrinui in in the heavens t and hence iorae think that they 

P* wore 



V A U ( 115 y T A U 

t**rt a branch of the Gnofiic* rather than (it" the ban, whtre-he converted the Brigantet, Camdci 

JMariichzatm. 9. They refufed to worfhip the mentions a croft at Dcwfborough, which had 

Virgin Mary. 3. They refufed to celebrate the been erected to him, with thii infcription, Paatimu 

Inflitution of the Lord's fupper. 4. They refufed bit prtdieavil et celebrai/it. York wa« lb (null 

to follow the practice of the Greeks, who paid about this time, that there was not fo much a, 1 

40 the pretended wood of the croft a fort of reli- final! church in<iti in which K. Edwin cuuld be 

gioiiB homage, j. They rejected the books of baptized, Conftautius made it a bilhopric. Pope ■ 

■ (he Old Teftamenl ; and looked upon the writers Honoring made it a metropolitan lee. Paulinus 

pf that facred hiftory as inipired by the Creator baptized in the river Swale, in one day, 10,000 

pf this world, and not by the fupreme God. 6. men, befidea women and. children, on the fiift 

They excluded prrfbyteu and elders from all part comer fion of the Saxons to Chrillramty ; bctiies 

jn the adminiftration of the church. many at Halyftone. At Walftone, in Northuni- 

PAUL1EN, St, a town of France, in the dep* berland, be baptized Segfcert,- king of the Eaft 

pf Upper Loire} 6 miles NNW, of Puy, and si Saxons. Bede fays, ** Paulinas coming with the 

pE. of Brioude. king and queen to the royal manor called *W-G<- 

PAUL1N, a town of France, in the dep. of the irin. (now Yeterih), ftaid there 36 days villi 

Tarn) 11 miles JE. of Alby. them, employed in the duties of catechizing, in. 

(1.) PAULINA, a Roman lady, wife of Satur- ftruering, and baptizing the people iu the neigh- 

ninus, governor of Syria, in the reign of the empe- bouring river Glen," He adds, that " he pleached 

rot Tiberius. Her conjugal peace was dilturbed, the word in the province of Lindiffi, and cun- 

and violence was offered to her virtue, by a young verted the governor of the city of Lindocollina, 

anan named Mundus, who fell in love with her, whole name was Blecca, with all his family. In 

and had caufed ber to come to the temple nf Tfis this city he built a ftone church of exquifile 

by means of the priefts of that goddrfs, who de- workmanfhip, whole roof being ruined, only the 

glared that Anubvi wilhed to communicate to her wails are now Banding." He aifb founded a col- 

fbtuething of moment. Saturninus complained legiate church of prtbends near Southwell, in 

to the emperor of the violence which had been Nottinghsmfhire, dedicated to the Virgin Maty, 

offered to hi* wife; and the temple of Ilis was when he baptized the Coritani in the Trent. 
(Overturned, and Mundus banilhed, Sec. PAULINZELLE, a town of Upper Saxony, in 

(i.)Pauliha, wife of the phijofupher Seneca. Schwartzhurg ; S miles W. of Rudolftaih, and : 

She attempted to kill herfelf when Nero had or- so N. of Coburg. 

ilered her huiband to die. The emperor, however, PADLMIER, James, Dl Grektesmekii., an | 

er'.-vented her 1 and Ihe lived fome few years eminent French author, bom in Augf , in 15S7. ; 

pfter, in the areateft. melancholy. He went early into the army, but quitted it (or j 

.FAULlNGSTOWN.atbwniriipofNewYortr, literature, fettled at Caen, and wa* the firft pro- 
in Duchefs county, 00 the W. bank of the Con- . moter of its academy, He publifhrd various 1 

sie&icut. Id 1790, it contained 41B8 citizens, learned works ; particularly Obftr-vaiionej i" opti- 

and 44 Oaves ; and in 1796 it had j6o qualified >"oi AuSsiei Grtcoii Lug. Bat. 410, 1668. He I 

plectors. died at Caen iu ifiyo, aged 83. 

PAULINIA, iu botany, a genus of the trigynia PAULM Y, a town of France, in the depart- ! 

(Order, belonging to the uctandria clafs of plants 1 ment of Indre and Loire; la miles SW. of 

pnd in. the natural method ranking under the a.td Locbes. 

order, JrihUotx. Its characters are tbefe: the PAULO, Mart, a celebrated traveller, Was Itm 

power has a permanent empalement, compofed of Nicholas Paulo, a Venetian, who went with 

pf 4 final! oval leaves ; it has 4 oblong oval petals, his brother Matthew, about 1*5 j, to Conftami- 

twice the fixe of the empalement, and' 8 (hart nople, in the reign of Baldwin II. In the couite! 

(lamina with a turbinated geftnen, having 3 Ibott of their mercantile travels, having; been favour, 

(lender ilyles, crowned by Spreading fligmas ; the ably received at the court of Kublai, grand khan 

jgermen turns to a large three cornered capfule t>f the Tartars, they returned thither with two! 

■with 3 cells, each containing one almoft oval Led. miflionaries from Rome, and young Mark. This: 

Linnaeus reckons 7, and Miller 9 fpecies, native* young man, having learned (he different dia'efls 

of the Weft Indies. of Tar tar y, was employed in cml-aflies which] 

PAULIN'S KILL, a riyer of New Jerfey, gave him the opportunity of travelling Tartary,| 

which is navigable for ("mail vefiels 15 miles to China, and other eaftera countries. At lengthy 

Su Bex county. , after, a reltdence of 17 years at the court of the 

(i.) PAULINUS, bifhop of Nola, was bom. at grand khan, the three Venetians returned to their 

Bdurdeaux, about A-D, j jj. He 1 was confill of own country, in 119;, with imnftnfe fortunes. A 

Rome, and married Theralia, who converted him fhort time after his return, >lark ferving his couti-i 

to Chriilianity.. He was made bifhop of Nola, try at fea againft the Genoefe, his galley, in a 

where be continued till it was taken and facked great naval engagement, was funk, and hiroicl 

by the Goths, in 410. He wrote Ltlten and taken prifoner, and cairied into Genoa. He rei 

poemj with elegance, and died in 431. tnained there many years in confinement ; ant] 

(1.) Pauuvus, an Englifh biOiup, who Hon. compofed the hiflory of his own and bis father'i 

rillii-d in thc.eailr part of ilie 7th century. He voyages, under this title, DflUmaratiigl'e dei mend\ 

iva* tlie apoftle of Yorkiliirc, aiid the firlt arch- da lui -uidule, Szc. : primed firft at Venice, in 8vo 

bifhop of York, about A. D. 6*6. He built a 1496. In the writings of Mark Paulo, there ;in 

tr.hurfh at AlmonWv, and dedicated it to St AU fome things true, and others highly incredible. ' 

PAULOGKAD 

DsnzeciOyVjOOQlC 

■ 



t A v (i 

PADLOGRAD, a town of Riflfia, in E-katert 
noD-if ; a mile* E- of EkaterinoUlif'. Lpn. 53. 40, 
E. Ferro. Lat. 47. «.'N. 

Ps.ulo ft-sT futuruV, a teefe in the Greek 
tabs, ufed to exprefs a period a link' after tbc fit- 
lure. There is nothing analogous to this in the 
Latin or .my other language. 

PADLOV, a town of Ruffia, so milea S. of 
Narva. 

PAULOVA. a town oF Ruffia, in Irkutlk. 

PAULOVSK, a town of Ruffia, inVoronez,on 
the Don ; 68 miles SE. of Voronez. Lon. 58. o. 
E. Ferro. Lat. 50. ao. N. 

PAULOTSKAIA, a town of Ruffia, in Ekate- 
rincflaf, on the Dnieper ; 31 miles £. of Ekateri- 
iioflaf. 

Paul's Bat, St, a bay on the W. eoaft of 
Newfoundland ; 10 miles N. of Bonne Bay. 

PAUL8BURGH, a townlhip of New Hamp- 
shire, in Grafton county, near the bead waters of 
the Amonoofuckr 

Paul's Islands, St, an rfland in the Strait be-' 
tween Newfoundland and Cape Breton ; »j milea 
NE . of North Cape. Lon. 60. a- W. Lat. 47. 
30. N. 

Paul's Point, 1 cape on the E. coaft of Bar* 
badocs ; half a mile 5. of Cuckold'* Point. 

(*J Paul's St, a townlhip and parifh of S. 
Carolina, in Cbarleftpwn diftrid ; containing only 
a?6 citizens, and 31J7 (laves, in T79J. 

(1.) Paul's, St, the moft foutheily of tbeTeari 
Iflands, in the Gulf of Panama. 

(1.) PAULU9, the founder- of the Pavlioahs. 
See that article. 

(1) Paulus, JEmilius. See JEmilius Pau- 
ivs, 

{3.) Paulus Hook, a fortified poft of New 
Jerfur, on North River, where it is aooo yards 
broad, oppolite New York, where the Americans' 
were defeated in 1779 hy the Dritifh. See Ame- 
rica, § 31. 

(4) Paulos Samosatekus, the founder of 
the feet of Pauliahisti. (See that article.} 
Zenobia, Q. of Palmyra, had a great efteem for 
him, on account oF bis eloquence ; and he is faid 
to have new-modelled Chnftianity, and framed 
his herefy, chiefly with a view to make a convert 
of her; but foe Ruck to her prejudices in favour 
of Judaifm. 

(j.) Paulus, Sekciu j. See Paul, N° *. 

* PAUNCH, n.f. [fianfi, French ; panga, Spa- 
nifh: pantrx, Latin.] The belly; the region Of 
the guts.— Demades, the orator, wai talkative, 
and would eat hard ; Antipater would fay of him, 
that he was tike a facrifice, that nothing was left 
of it but the tongue and the paunch. Bacon.— 

Pleading Matbo born abroad for air. 
With bis &t paumb fills bis new-fafhion'd chair. 
Drjdat. 

* Tb Paukck. v. a. [from the noun]. To 
pierce or rip the belly; to exeuterate ; to take 
out the paunch ; to evifcerate. — 

Batter hia ikull, at paunch htm witha ftake. 

Shot. 

Chiron attack'd Talthyhins with fuch might, 

One pufs had pameb'd the huge bydropkk 

knifl*. Garth 



IT J * A V 

P.tUNGARTENBERG, a tpwn of Germany 
inAiiftrja; 6 mileaSW. ofGrcio. 

(I.) Pavo, b aftronomy, the Peac otk, a eonfW- 
lation in the foutberti hemifphere, unknown to the 
ancients, and not vifible in our latitude. It con- 
fids of 14 liars, of which the names and Etuationa 
are u follows: 



The eye of the 

peacock 
In the breaft 
In the right wing 
In the middle 
In the root of the 



tail, 



third 

fifth 
fiitb 

fevctfth 



In the left foot 



9 41 1 



41 u (I 3J 9 $ 

19 ]>I4 

17 10 4« 6 
jB J4 14 5 

3 I 6 *. 



41 18 
<8 6 
jo 49 



See Astronomy, § {49. 

(II.) Pavo, in ichthyology. See Peacock fish. 

IJ1J.) Pato, the Peacock, in ornithology; a 
genus belonging to the order of gallinx. The 
head is covered with feathers which bend_ back- 
wards ; the feathers of the tail are tot long, and 
beautifully variegated with eyes of different co- 
lours. Latham enumerates 8 fpecies : 
. 1. P/.vo aldus, the white peacock, is, as its 
name imports, entirely white, not excepting even 
the eyes of the train, which it is neverthelefs eafy 
to trace out. This variety is, in Latham's opinion, 
more common in England than el fe where. He 
met with two iiiflancts of the females of .this fpe- 
cies having the external inarms of the plumage of 
the male. 

1. Pavel BicALCAEATua is larger than the com- 
mon pheafant. The bill is black, but from the 
noftrils to the lip of the upper mandible red. 
The irides are yellow. The feathers on the 
crown of the bead are fufficienily long to form a 
creft, of a brown dull colour. The fpace between 
the bill and eyes is naked, with a few fcattered 
hairs : the fides of the head are white ; the neck 
h bright brown, filiated acrofs with dufky brown ; 
the upper parts of the b^ck, fcapulars, and win); 
coverts, are dull brown, Jotted with paler brown 
and ycllowifh ; be fides which, each feather is 
marked near the end with a roundifh large fpot 
of a gilded purple colour, changing into blue and 

Eten in different lights; the lower part of the 
ck and rump are dotted with white: all the 
under parts are brown, United tranfverfely with 
black : the quills are duiky ; the Secondaries are 
marked with the lame fpot as the reft of the wing : 
tbe upper tail coverts are longer than the tail, 
and each marked at the end with a fpot like the 
s win E 

Dcj-tzednyCOOgle 



. T A V" ^ 118 3 P A V 

Wing feathers, each of which la furrounded, firft lag, though to fome birdi a rudiment of one it 
with a circle of black, and ultimately with an feci). In fome male birds, ill the wing coverts 
orange one ; the legs and claws are brown, and on and (capulars are of a fine deep blue gtcen, very 
the back part of each leg are two fpura, one glofly ; but the outer edge of the wing and quiiia 
above the other. The female it a third (mailer are of the common colour. Tbefe birds, nu* ia 
than the male. The 4iead, neck, and under parts common in Europe, are of caflern origin. They 
•re brown ; -the head -linootb : the upper parti are found wild in the ifJands of Ceylon and Java 
are aifo brown, and the feather* marked with a in the Esfl Indies ; and at St Helena, Barbuda, 
dull blue fpot, furrounded wiih dirty orange: the and other Weft India iOands. They are not na- 
feathert .which cover (tie tail are fimilar; bat tural to China ; but they are found in many placet 
marked at the end with an obfeure dull oval fpot of Alia and Africa. They are, however, nowhere 
of bloe : the hgt have no fpura. This fpecies it fo large or fo fine as in India, in the oeighbour- 
of Chinefe origin, and fome of them have been hood of the Ganges, whence they haic fprcari in- 
brought from China to England alive, and hare to all parts, increaung in a wild Kate in the warm- 
been for fome time in the pofleOion of Dr James cr climes ) but requiring care in the colder regions. 
Monro. The male i> now in the Lever ian Mu- In ours, this fpecies does not come to its full 
team, ho the fineft prcfervation. Soonerat bb- plumage till the 3d year. The female lays j or 6 
ferves, that the bird from whence hi* defcription greyifh white eggs ; in hoi climates so, the fize 
wat taken had two fpurt on one leg, and three on of thofe of a turkey. Tbefe, if let alone, fhe lays 
the other. . This muft furely be a lufiu nntur* ; in fome fecret pL<ce, at a diftance from the mini 
especially at he fays, it it the fame at that in refbrt, to prevent their being broken by the male, 
Atw-pl-67. , which he it apt to do if he find them. The time 
3. Pavo CaiSTATUt) the n mmon peacock nf of fitting ia from 37 to 30 days. The young may 
Englnn authors, has a compreficd crcft and foli- be fed with curd, chopped leeks, barley -meal, 
tary fpurt.— It it about the fixe of a turkey ; the Sec. moiftened ) and are fond of gra (hoppers, and 
length from the top of the bill to the end of the fome other infefte. In j or 6 months they will 
tail being 3 feet 8 inches. The bill ia nearly two feed at the old ones, on wheat and barley, with. 
inches long, and ia of a brown colour. Theiridea what elfe they can pick up in the circuit of their 
. are yellow. On the crown there is a fort of creft, confinement. They feem to prefer the moft ek- 
compofed of 14 feathers, which are not webbed, vated placet to rooft on during night; fiich at 
except at the ends, which are gilded green. The high trees, tops of houfes, and the like. Their 
{hafts are of awhitifh colour ; and the head, neck, cry is loud and inharmonious; a perfed contrail 
and bread, are of a green gold colour. Over the to their external beauty. They are caught in Id. 
eye there ia a ftreak of white, and beneath there dia, by carrying lights to the trees where they 
ia the fame. The back and rump are of a green rooft, and having panted reprefentationa of (he 
gold colour, glofTed over with copper: thefeatbers bird prefemed to them at the fame time; when 
are diftinct, and lie over each other like (hells, they put out the neck to look at the figure, the 
Above the tail, fpringa an inimitable fet of long fportfman flips a noofe over the bead, aod fecures 
beautiful feathers, adorned with a variegated eye hfr game. In moft ages they have been eReemed 
at the end of each ; tbefe reach considerably be- a faluiary food. Hortenfius gave the example at 
yond the tail ; and the longeft of them in many Rrme, where it was carried to the higher! luxury, 
birds are four feet and a half long. This bean i- and fold dear : and a young pea-cock is thought a 
ful train, or tail at it is improperly called, may dainty even in the prefect times. The life of 
be expanded quite to a perpendicular upwards at thel'e birds is reckoned by fome at about 15 years; 
the will of the bird. The true tail it bid beneath by others 100. So beautiful a fpecies of birds as 
this group of feathers, and coniifts of iS grey the peacock, could not long remain unknown: fo 
brown feather's, one foot and a half long, marked early as. the days of Solomon, we find, among the 
on the fides with rufous grey: the (capulars and articles imported in bis Tarfhilb navies, apes and 
Teller wing coverts are redddh cream-colour, va- peacocks. JEttta relates, that they were brought 
negated with black: Jhe middle coverts deep into Greece from fome barbarous country; and 
blue, glofled with green gold : the greateft and that they were held in fuch high efteem, that a 
haftard wing rufous: the quilts arc alio rufous; male and female were valued at Athena at 1000 
fome of them variegated with rufous, blackifh, drachma;, or 31I. ja. rod. At Samos they were 
and green: the belly and vent are greenifli black: prrftrved abuut the temple of Juno, being facrcd 
the thighs yellowifh : the legs (lout ; thofe of the to thai godded ; and Gelltus, in his AoSti Attic*, 
•noli furnifhed with a ftrong fpur three quarters c. 16. commends the excellency of the Samian 
of an inch in length; the colour of them grey peacocks*. When Alexander was in India, be 
brown. The female is rather lefs than the male, found vaft numbers of wild ones on the banks of 
The train is very fhort, being much fhorter than the Hyarotis; and was foftruck with their bejury, 
the train, and fcarcely longer than its coverts; as to appoint a fevcre punifhment 00 any perfon 
neither are the feathers furnifhed with eyes. The that killed them. Peacocks crcft t, in ancient 
creft on the bead is fimilar to that on the head of times, were among the ornaments of the kings of 
the male: the fides of the bead have a greater England. Ernald de Aclent was fined to king 
portion of white : the throat and neck are green : John in 140 paltrier, with (ack-buts, Imams, gilt 
the reft of the body and wings are cinereous fpurt, and peacocks crrtts, fuch as would be lor 
brown: the breaft is fringed with white: the bill hi' cr.dx. S c Plate CCLXX. 
is the fame : the iridet are lead-Coloured: the legs 4. Pavo Muticus, is about the fize of the 
are at in the male ; but the fpur is generally want, crefted peacock ; but the bill it larger and afh- 

i;.h :.i . L_iVM coloured! 



P A. V ( 119 ) P A O 

coloured ; the irides are yellow, and round the deity. Virgil place* him in the ectrxnctof hell, 

eyes is red ; oq the top of the head it an upright in company with difeafeo, old age, Sec. Mn. vi. 

creft « inches long, and ihaped fomewhat like an 173. Ovid place! him in the retinae of Tifipaoue, 

ear of conr. The colour 11 green mixed with blue, one of the furies, Vtf. iv. 485. 

The top of the neck and head are greenun, mark- * PAUPER, n. f. [Latin.] A poor perfon j 

ed with fpots of blue, which have a ftreak of white one who receive* alma. 

down the middle of each : tbe back is greenim PATJRJEDASTYLE, in the old mineralogy, 

blue ; the breaft it blue and green gold mixed : a genua of perfect cryftals with double pyramids, 

thebelly, fide*, and thighs are alb-colour, marked and no intermediate column, competed of ia 

with black fpots, itrealed with white on the belly; planes, or two bcxangnUr pyramids, joined bale 

the wing coverti and fecendariea are not unlike to bafe. 

the back: the greater quills are green, tranfverfely PAUSA, a town of Upper Saxony, in Vogt- 

bsiTed with black line*, but growing yellowilh to- laud ; 13 miles NNW, of Plauen, and 71 WSW. 

wards the ends, where they are black 1 tbe upper of Drefden. 

tail coverts are fewer than thofe of the common PAUSANIA, in Grecian antiquity, a feftival in 

peacock, bnt much longer than tbe tail ; they are which were (blcmn games, wherein nobody cou- 

chefhut brown, with white (hafts, and have at tended but free-born Spartans ; in honour of Pan* 

the end of each a large foot gilded in tbe middle, taniai the Spartan general, SmPausanias, N° 1. 

then blue, and furrounded with green : tbje legs (i.) PAUSANIAS, a Spartan king and general. 

are afli-coloured, and not fu mi fried with fpura, or who Ggnalifed himfelf at the battle of Platsea 

they have been overlooked bytbofc who havefeen againft the Perfiau*. The Greeks, fenfible of his 

them. Tbe female ia (mailer than the male \ and Cervices, rewarded his merit with a tenth of the 

has tbe belly quite black, and the upper tail co- (poils taken from the Periling. He was afterwards 

verts much (hotter : the tail in green, edged with appointed to command the Spartan armies, and 

blue, and white (hafts. It inhabits Japan, and is be extended bis conquefts in Alia ; but the haugh- 

only known to Europe by a painting lent by the tinefs of his behaviour created him many enemies;, 

emperor of Japan to the Pope. and the Athenians foan obtained 9 fuperiority in 

5. Pavo Tibetanus, is about the Gze of a the affairs of Greece.— Pa ufinias, diuatisfied with 
pintado, being about two feet and nearly two inch- his countrymen, offered to betray Greece to the 
eskrag- The bill is above an inch and a half long, Perfians if he received in marriage, as the reward 
and cinereous: tbe irtdes are yellow: the head, of his perfidy, the daughter of their king. Hia 
neck, and under parts, are a(h-co]oured, marked intrigues were difcovered by a young man who 
with blackifb lines: the wing covert, back, and was intruded with his letters to Perfia, and who 
rump, are grey, with final! white dots; betides refiifed to go, 00 recollecting that fucb as had 
which, on the wing covert and back, are large been employed in that office before had never 
round fpota of a fine blue, changing in different returned. The letters were given to the Epbori 
lights to violet and green gold : the quills and up- of Sparta, and the perfidy of Paufanta* was thus 
per tail coverts are alfo grey, marked with black- difcovered. Hefted for tatetylo a temple of Mirier- 
ilh lines ; the quills have two round blue (pots on va ; and as the bnctity of the place fcreened him 
each, like thofe of the coverti ; on the outer web*, from the violence of hi a purfuers, the (acred build- 
■nd on each tail feather, there are four of the ins was furrounded with heaps of (tones, the Gift 
fame, two on each fide the web; the middle co- of which was carried there by tbe indignant mo- 
verts are the longeft, the others Iborten by de- ther of tbe unhappy man. He was ftarved t*> 
greet: the legs are grey, fumifhed with two fpura death in the temple, and died about A. A* C. 474, 
behind, like thefpeciesN"-.. : the claws are black- There was a feftival inftituted to bis honour, and 
ilh. This fpecies inhabits the kingdom of Thibet, an oration fpokeniu his praife, in which his action* 
Tbe Chinefe give it the name of Chin-tcbim-KJii. were celebrated, particularly the battle of Platte*, 

6. Pavo Vakistus, tbe •variegated peacock, is and the death of Mardonius. See Fausahia. 

a mixed breed between the common and white (a.) Pausahlas, a learned Greek biftonan and 

peacock ; and of courfe varies very confiderably orator, in tbe ad century, under Antoninus tbe 

in colour. philofophcr. He was the difciple of Herodea 

PAVOASAN, or \ a town of Africa, in the Atticua ; he lived for a long time in Greece ; and 

PAVOASSAN, 5 iflaod ° f St Thomas, be- afterwards went to Rome, where he died at a 

longing to Portugal, the refidence of the gover- great age. Re wrote an excellent defcription of 

nor and the bilhop ; with a fort and a good bar- Greece, in ten books ; in which we find, not only 

hour It lie* under the equator. Lou. S. 30. W. tbe fituation of places, but the antiquities of 

PA VON A, a town of Italy, in the department Greece, and every thing molt curious and worth* 

of Hella, diftrict of Brefcla, and late province of of knowledge. Abbe Gedoin ha* given a French 

Br* fciauo. tranOatiou of it, in * vol*. 4to. 

PAYOR, Metus, or Timor, Pear, a Roman (3.) Pausakias, tbe murderer of Philip II. of 

deity, whose worihip was introduced by Tullus Macedon. See Macidom, j 9, , 

Hoftilius, who, in a panic, vowed a fhrine to liiin, ' (1.) * PAUSE. n.f. [paufi, Fr. Mbi Latin; 

and one to Pallok, Palaiefi ; and therefore tbey «>•.] 1. A Hop; a place or timeoi intermiilion. 

are found on tbe coins of that- family. The — Neithercould we ever come to any #**£, where- 

Ephori of Sparta erected a temple to Fear, near on to reft our aflurance this way.. HooJrtr. 

their tribunal, to ftrike an awe into thofe who ' This gentleman 

approached it. c ear was like wife worihippedat . Steps in toCaffio, and iirtreatalusjw^. SAaK 

Corinth, The poets did not forget this imaginary Some paufi and refpite only I require. Xknb. 

—The 

i: nt.-r-rt ::, V^lt.)l,)y IL 

• o 



P A U ( 120 ) PAW 

.— The^punlfmrieTit muft always be rigoronlly Virgil, overgrown with rvy, and orerfhaded by 

wafted, ind'the Wows by paufu laid on till they an ancient laurel tree. 

Teach the flrmd. Lotkt. — PAUSILYPUS, the ancient name of Picsi- 

Whilft thofe exalted to-primeval light, urro. 

Only perceive fame little paa/e of joy*. Prior. PAUTUCKEE. SeeBLACKiTovt, N° i. 

What povfe from woe, what hopes of com- PAUTZKB, a town of W. Pruffia, in Pome 

fort briny relia ; at miles NW. of Dantzick. It wa» taken 

The names of wife or great ? Prior, by the Danes, in 1464, after a long fiege; byibe 

— Our difcourfel* nut kept upinconverfarion,but Swedea in tfllfi ; and by the Poll-*, in 16*;. Ix>n. 

fajla into more fai/fii and intervals than in our 18. 41- E. Lat. 45. 44- «« 

neighbouring countries. SptSator. 3. Sufpenfe ; PAUXIS, a fort of Brazil, in Para, on the N. 

doubt,— bank of the Amazon, Lon, 40. j(. W. Lat. 1. 

I fhrad in panfi where I (hail firft begin . Sbai. 30. S. 

3. Break ; paragraph ; apparent reparation of the PAUZANNE, St, a town of France, in the 

parti of a difcourfe. — He writes with warmth, dep. of Lower Loire 1 11 miles SW. of Nantes. 

Which ufuafly neglefts method, and thofe parti- PAUZEN, a town of Bohemia, in BolciUwj 

lion* and paufu which men educated in the io miles E. of Jung-Bunzel. 

fchoola obferve. Lode. 4. Place of fofpending PADZK. SeePaurzKE. 

the voice marked m writing ttnu — . 5. A flop •PAW. *./. [pawn, Welfh.] . 1. The foot of 

or intermifSon in mnfick. bcaft of prey.— 

(1.) A Piosa a a ceflation in (peaking, ringing. One chofe hia ground, 

playing, or the like. One ufe of pointing in Whence rnfhing be might fureft feia* them 

grammar, ia to make proper paufes. There is a both, 

paufein the middle of each verfej in an bemiftlch, Grip'd In each*a<ui. Mittens Par. Ufi- 

called a rtft or rtpoft. See Poitlt, and Rkai>- — The bear goes backward into his den that the 

ibtg. hunter rather miftakes than Ends the way of his 

* To Pause, v.*. t.Towaitt to (top; not pain. Holjiay. — The bee and ferpeat know their 
to proceed; to forbear' for a time, ufed both of flings, and the bear the ufe of his yaw. Mart 
fpeecb and action.— againjt Albei/m.—ll lions had been brought up to 

Tarry ; pgu/i a day or two. Sbak. painting, where you have one lion under the feet 

While I -pau/t, ferve m your harmony. Shalt, of a man, you (hould have had twenty men under 

Paujfnj a while, thus to herfelf fhe uius'd. the paw of a lion. L'EJtrange. 

Milton. Both their pawn are faftcn'd OD the prey. 

Here th' archangel patu'd, Jirydm, 

' Between a world deftrayM and world reftor'd. 9, Hand. In contempt.— 

MUcm, Be civil to the wretch imploring, 

1. To deliberate.— And lay your pains upon bim without roaring. 

Other offenders we will pau/i Upon. Shan. Oryim. 

— Solyman paujitg a little upon the matter, fuf- (1.) * To Paw. v. a. [from the noun.} To draw 

fered himfelf to be intreated. Kaolki. 3. To be the fore foot along the ground. — 

intermitted. — The fiery courier. 

The pealing organ, and thepaufiag choir, Pricks up his ears, and trembling with delight 

And the Uft words, that dull to duft conveyed I Shifts place, and pavi, and hopes tbeproroit'd 

TuktL fight. Drfitn. 

* PAUSER. n.f. [fravi pavft.] He who paufes ; * Tlrimpatient courier pants in every vein, 
be who deliberates.— ' And pawing, feems to beat the diftani plain. 

The eapedi tion of my violent love Pope- 

Outruns the pattfer, reafoo. Macbeth. — Once,afieryhorfe,^a«(a < pwith hishoof,flruck 

PAUSIAS, a famous ancient painter, the in- a bole in mv handkerchief. S-wifi. 

ventor of Encaustic Painting, was a native (».) * To Paw. i>, a. 1. To ftrike with a draws 

of Sicyon. He was a difciple of Pamphilus, and (broke of the fore foot.— 

flouriuied about A. A. C. is 1 - He drew a beau- Hia hot courier paw'd th' Hungarian plain. 

tiful picture Of his miftrefs Olycere, for which TUtel. 

Lucullas gave two talents. The Sicyonlans being a. To handle roughly. 3. To fawn; to flatter. 

obliged to fell his pictures to clear an enormous 'Amfwortb. 

debt, they were all purcbafed by M. Scaurus, the ( 1.) To P»w, v. a. in the manege. A borfe ii 

Roman. faid to paw the ground, when, bis leg being 

PAnSILIPPCacdebratedmountainofNaplea, either tired or painful, he does not reft it up 

5 milts, from PuzzDii, famous for iti grotto, or 00 the ground, and fears to hurt himself as in 

rat her 'its fdb terraneous paffage through It, near walks. 

a mile long, about 10 feet broad, and from 30 to * PAWED. aJj. [from /*w.] t. Having pant 

A0 In height." The gentry generally drive through 3. Broad footed. 

tt With torches ; but the country people find their PAWING, a town of Eaft Friezland, near thi 

way with flttle difficulty, by the light which en- Ems ; 3 miles S. of Emden. 

tcrs at each end j and by two holes pierced through PAWLET, a townlhip of Vermont, in Ration. 

the mountain from the top, near the middle of county, containing i*j8 citizens, in 1797. 

the paflage. On this mountain is the tomb of (i.j'WWN.n./l^nJ, Dutch ;^a«, Fiwch 

/ 



PAW ( 121 ) * A Y 

i. Something given to pledge ai a fecnrity for Territory, on the banks of the river St Jofepb. 
money borrowed, or prpmjfe made. — They have aoo warriors. They ceded to tho 

Her oath for lore, her huniiur'a paiim. SAak. United States a trait of 6 miles fqtiare. 
— As for mortgaging and. pawning, men will not ' PAX, the goddefe of Peace, among the an.-, 
take pawm without life ; or they will look for dents. The Athenians erected a flatue of her. 
the forfeiture. Bacon.— His Wry word will coun- reprefenting her as-holding Plutus, the god of 
trrvatl the bond or pawn of mother. fiavtel.— • -wealth, m her lap. They alfo firft erected an al- 
Here's the very heart, and font, and life-blood of tarto'her, after- Cimon's -vielory over the Perli- 
Gomez; faimu in abundance, till the next bribe ans ; (Fht.) or after -that of Timothe us ove r tho 
helps their hulbands to redeem them. brjJtmt a. Spartans. (Nrpos.) The Romans reprefented her 
The (fate of being pledged,— with an olive branch in the one hand, and tho 

Sweet "ifv, my honour is ;itpaitm. Shut-, horn of plenty in the other. See-peacx, JS (. 
Redeem from broking -patan the Uemifh'd ■ PAXARO, >or Paxaro Nioro, an rtland, 
crown. Shv'ki PAXAROS.J or clutter of iflands, near the 

3. A common man at chefs.— < - coaft of California, in the N. Pacific Ocean'. Lon. 

Here I a/duvi admire, 110. 4j.W. Lat. 19. 30. to 30. 18, S. 

That -Rill advancing higher, ' PAXiMADES, an ifland near the 3. coaft of 

At top of all became Candia. Lon. 4*. 19. E. Ferro, Lat.34.j4N. 

Another thing antl name. Cmetey. " (r.) PAXTON, a village of Scotland, in Bef. 

{».) Paws' is derived n pugnn, qaia r/t qua pig- wickihire, on the Tweed, ioHutton parrfh ; con- 
mri dantar, pagnervel manvtradantar. The party taining 171 inhabitants in 1791. 
that pawns goods hath a general property in (*'.) Pattoh, a towrrfhlp' of Maffachufetts, In 
them ; thev cannot'be forfeited by the party that Worcefler county ;' 8 mites W. of Worctfler; 
hath them in pawn for any offence of his, nor be' and 59 SW. of Bolton:' It had jj3 citizens in 
taken in execution for his debt ; neither may they 179J. 

otherwrfe be put in execution till the debt for (3.)Paxto»,Lowbx,> twotownteipsoFPenn- 
which tbey are pawned is fatisfied. If the pawn U.IPsxton.Ufur, J fylvania, in Dauphin 
is laid np, and the raw hxb' robbed,- be is not an- County. 

fwetable; though if the pawnee ufe the thing, at PAXU, an iffand in the Mediterranean, 1a 
a jewel, watcb. Sec. that will not be the worfe for miles in circumference, with a' good harbour; 
wearing, which he may do, it it at his peril ; and yet uninhabited on account of the pirates. It ia 
if he is robbed) he is anfwerable to the owner, as 8 miles SE. of Corfu. Lon. jS.j. El Ferro. Lat. 
tneufinjr occifioned the lofa, &c. If the pawn 30. 91, V, 

ia of fuch a nature that.tbe keeping is sreharge to ♦■RAY. ••'/. [frota theverb.) Wages; hire; 
the pawnee, aa a cow or a horfe, &d he may money given in return for fervice.— 
milk the one, and ride the other, and this (hnl\ Come oh, brave fbldiera, doubt not of the 

go in recompense for his keeping. Things which day; 

will grow the worfe by ufing, as apparel, &c. he And, that once gotten, doubt not of Urge pay. 
may not ufe. ' Stai. 

* To Pawn. <p. a. [from the noun.] To pledge; —There is neither pay nor plunder to be got. 
to give in pledge. It- is now feldc-ra tifed but of Viyirangc.— Money, infield of coming over for 
pledges given for money.— thc^a^ of the army, has been tranfmitted thither 

1 J bold it cowardice for the pay of thole, forces called from thence. 

To reft mifrniftful, where a noble heart Temple.— - 

Hath pawti'd an open hand in fign of love. Here only merit conftant pay receives. Ptpt. 

' ' SAat. * To Par. ». a. [pater, Fr, apagar, Spanim ; 

—Let's lead him on with a fine baited delay, 'till paeare, Lat.] t. To difeharge a debt: It is ap. 

be hath pavm'd his horfes. Sbat. Merry Wives.— plied to debts of duty, as well as debts of com- 

I dare fatyn down my life for him, that he hath merce. — 

writ this to feci my affection to yoor honour. Shak. You have done enough, and have perfbrmM 

Will you thus break your faith ?— ' "A famt<1ike furrow ; and indeed paid down 

Ipavm'd you none. SAat. More penitence, than done trefpafs. Stat. 

I'll pawn the little blood which I have left, Your fan has paid a fold ier** debt. Shot. 

To ft ve the innocent. SAat. -"-Sbe does what fhe will, fay what we will, take 

'Tis dear remembrance of -that fatal glance; ' ill, pay all. SbaJt. 

For which he'late"! fpaiun'd his heart. . Waller. The king and prince 

She who Wore had mortgagM ber eftate, ' Then^oW their affrlngB. Drydm. 

And paiwn'd the la(t remaining piece of plate. —An hundred talents of filver did the children of 

htyden. Atnmon fay. a Cbran. Xxvii. 5. — This day have] 

—One part of the nation is pawned to the other, paid my vows, Proverbi, vii, 14. 1. It is oppu. 

Smifi. — - ' ** fed toiorro«u. — The wicked borroweth, and pay- 

* PavirBkOKEK. n.f. {pawn and broker.] One eth not again! Pfalmi. 3. To difmifs one to whom 
who Xt£t$T money Upon pledge.— Tbofe money- any thing ^ is due with his money : as, ho had paid 
fcriicners fcorn to have been little better than our his labourers. 4. To atone ? to make amends 
pawniroter'i. Arbathnol. by fullering : with far before the caul'e of pay- 

PAWftEE. n. f. One who lends on pawns. ■' ment.— 

PAWTEWATAMIES, a nation of N.Ame: If this prove true, they' WpajfaSt. Shak. 

ririn Indians, -who reftde in the North -Weft ern DoltlPriiinethnia, whetfe unumM rlelire 

Yol. XVII. Pakt I. Q Rivall'd 



P A Y ( 122 ) PAZ 

Rivall'd the Tun with his ownTieav'nly fire, 3. A rt 
Now doom'd the Scythian vulture's endlefs 

prey, 
Se vercl y payt for animating clay. Re/common. 
—Men 01 parts, who were to aft accordion to An ordinary groom in for fuch payment. Shut. 
therefult of their debate* and often toy fir their —He that would underftand the falfebood and 
mi (lakes with their beads, found thole fcholaftick deceit of fin thoroughly, muft compare its pro- 
forms of little life to difcover truth. Locke. 5. To mifes and h&payments together. — 4. Chaftifcment; 
beat— I follow'd me clofe, and, with a. thought, found bcaiinv. Aia/v-ortb. 
feven of the eleven I paid. Sbak.— • (i.) PAYNE, Nevii, an Englifh dramatic wri- 
Forty things more, my friends, which yon ter, who nnuriihed under Charles II. Hepub- 
know true, lilhrd 3 plays, vifc. 1. The Fatal Jealoufy ; atra- 
For which, nr /wy me quickly, or I'll ^07 you. gedy; 410,1673- 1. The Morning Ramble, or, 
Ben. Jan/an. the Town Humours ; a comedy ; 410, 1673- 3- 
6. To reward; to recompenfe.— The fiege Of Con&anlinople ; a tragedy, 4:0, 
She I love, or laughs at all my pain, 16?;. 
Or know* her worth too well, and pays me (i.)P4YNS,Roger,a Lite eminent Englifh book. 
with difdain. Drydea, binder, the firft of his profefGon, who introduced 
?. To give the equivalent for any thing bought, a ftyle of binding that united elegance with dura- 
— Riches are got by containing left of foreign bility. The ornaments ufed by him were appro- 
commodities, than what by commodities or la- printed to the fubjecl. His mafler-piece was an 
hour it paid- far. Locke.-— ll i» very poffible for a Mfcbflm, the decoration) of which were fuperb 
■Ban that lives by cheating, to be very punctual beyond defcription. The binding' of this wntk 
in patinpfot what he buys. Law. coil Earl Spencer Jffttt* guineas. He died in 179;* I 

* PAYABLE, adj. [paieile, Fr. from pay.] I. •Vatkim. 

Sue; to be pairL— The marriage. money the PAYO, St, I town of Portugal, in Trasloa 

prmceft- brought was payable ten days after the Monies, 18 miles W. of Miranda de Duero. 

folemnization. Bacon.— The farmer rates or com- PAYRABA, a town of Brazil, in theNorthera 

pound'' the fums of moiley p ayaile to her majelty, diriGon. 

for the alienation of lands, made without or by (1.) FAYS, Renatus Ll, a French poet, born at 

licence. Bacon, 1. Such as there is power to pay. Kantz, in 1636. He was comptroller-general of 

—Thanks are a tribute payable by the pooreft. impnftt, in Provence. He publilhed.amifccllany, 

South- in profc and verfe, entitled, Amities, Amours, tt 

* Payday. n.J. {pay and ia J~s Da 7 m which Amourette*. 

debts are, to be difcharged, or wages paid—- La- (».) Pavs, or Pail. See Pais. 

bourers pay away all their wages, and lire upon * To PAYSE. i>. n. [Ufed by Spenfer, for poi/e-] 

truft till nes> payday. Locke. To balance. — 

PAYENGAUT, or C01MBETORI, a difirici Ne w.ia it ifland then, ne was itfayi'd 

of lndoftan, in Myfnre, on the Malabar coaft. Amid the ocean wave?. Spraftr. 

See CoiMBiTTOM, N" I, and Mvaou, K° 1. • PAYSER. *./. Ifarfiajfcr.] One that weighs. 

and 1. —To manage this coinage, porters bear the tin, 

* PAYER, jr. / [pokur, Fr- from fay.] One payers weigh it. Carew. 
that pays. PAYTA. See Paita. 

PAYERNE, a town of Switzerland, in Berne; (1.) PAZ, or La Paz, a province and aich- 

2* miles SW, of Berne. bifhopric of Peru, in Buenos Ayres or Chat yens, 

PAY JAN, a town of Peru, in Truxillo. full of mountains, which are fuppofed to abound 

(r.) PAYMAGO, a fortrefs of Portugal, in EC- with gold; for a crag of one of them, called 1/- 

tremadura, on the Tea coaft 4I miles SSE. of Pe- limani, being broken off forue years ago, by a flaflt 

piche. of lightning, fuch a quantity of gold was found 

(.a.) Pavmaco, a town of Spain, in Seville, on among the fragments, that it was fold ' for fomc 

the frontiers of Portugal, jj miles N. of Ay a- time after at 8 dollars per ounce. But the tops 

monre. of thefe mountains being conftantly covered with 

" PAYMASTER. *. /. [fay and mq/hr.] One (now and ice, no attempt has bees made to opes 

who it to pay ; one from whom wages or reward a- mine. In 1730, an Indian, while bathing in I 

is received — Howfoever they may bear fail for a river, near the city, found a piece of gold fr 

time, yet are they. lb fure paymaficri in the end, large, that the Marquis of Caftel Fuerte ga*e hirr 

that few nave held out their lives fafeiy. Raj- r 3, 000 dollars for it, and lent it to the king o 

ward- -If we deftre that God fhould approve ut, Spain. 

it is a fign we do bit work, and exped him our (a.) Paz, the capital of the above province, i 

pavna/ter. Taylor, feated among the mountains, on the fide of a val 

•PAYMENT, n. f. [from pay.] 1. The a& ley, 36 miles from the Cordilleras, through wbid 

of paying.— No man- envicth the payment of a a large river Bows, which often brings, flown gol< 

debt. Bacon, a. The thing given in-difcharge of from the mountains. This city contains a cathc 

debt or promife,— drat, 4 churches, a college,' an hofpital, fevers 

Thy httfiVand convents, and about 10,000 inhabitants. It lie 

Craves on other tribute at thy hands 180 miles N. of Plata, and jjo SE. of Cufix 

. But love, fair looks, and true obedience ; Lon. 64. 30. W. Lat. 15. 59. S. 

Too little payment for fb great a debt, Siak, PAZCTJ ARC 

DflrtrednyGoOgle 



PEA ( 123 ) 'PEA 

PAZCUARO, or ) a lake of Mexico, on the . in believing. Ram. rr. 13.— Religion Utt&t i» 
FAZQUARO, 5 E - ba,,lt of which the city rather to fecure inward peace than outward eafe. 

iifoic-d. See Mexico, N'i. 1, 15. ' Tilhtfin. 8- Silence; fttpprt (lion of thethoughts 

PAZZANO, a town of Naples, in Calabria • 'Twill 'obi— 1 peace! ' 

Ultra, io miles E. of Grrace. No, I win fpeak as liberal as tbe air. SAai. 

PAZZY, a town of European Turkey in Ro- —He afited in fenrn one of the examinates, who, 
mania, near Gallipoli, with a bilhop'u fee. Lun. ' was a freed servant of Scrinoriianul ; I pray) Sir, 
16- 59- £• Lai- 40. .13. N. it' Scnbonianus had been emperor, what would 

(1 ) PE, or Pede Scala, a town in the Vicen- you have done i he anTwered, I would hate ftood 
lino, one of Lhe Setie Communi. behind his chair and held my peace. Baton. 

(a.) Pt, St, a town of France, in the dep. of She laid ; and held her peace. Dryden. 

fhe. Uppei Pyrenees, 7 miles N. of Argcllez, and 9. [In law.] That general fecurity and qniet which 
6 W. >t L.iurde. ' the king warrants to his fubjects, and of which 

(:.]* PEA. n.f. [pifiun, Latin j pi/a, Saxon; he therefore avenges the violation ; every forcible 
pais, Freiich.j A pea haih a papilionaceous flow* injury is a breath of the king's ;yn«. 
er, and out of this empatcment nfes the pointal, (a ) *Pe*ce. inttrjettion. A word commanding 
which tit-comes a long pod full of roundini feeds ; lilence. — Peace ! fear, thou oomefr too late, whea- 
the ftalks are fiftulaus and weak, and feem to per- already* the Brin irtnken. Sidney.— 
forate the leaves by which they are embraced; ' Hark! p**rt!; 

the other leaves grow by pairs along the mid rib. It was the owl that Ihriek'd. Shah, 

ending in a tendril. The fpecies are 16 : I. The Peace! goad read** do not weep ; 

greater garden pea, with white Bowers and fruit. - Peace! tbe lover* aienflrep. Crajhabu. 

3. Uulfpor pea. 3. Dwarf pea. 4. French dwarf But peacr .' I muft not quarrel with the wiM 
pea. j. Pea with an efcufent huifc. 6. Sickle Of Mglieft difpenfation. - Mi/tan. 

pea. 7. Common white pea. 8. Green 1 ounci- Silt-net, ye troubled waves, and, thou deep, 

vai pea. (f.TJrey pea. 10. Maple rouncival pea. peace.' ' ' 

11. Rjfe pea. ti. Spanifh moretto pea. 13. Said then th'.uainlfic word. l&iltan. 

Marrowfat or Dutch admiral pea. 14. Union pea. I prythee peace ! 

15. Sea pea. 16. Pig pea. 'Miller. Perhaps fue ChinkBthey are too new of blood. 

(1.) PEA, in botany. See Pi SUM.' Drjdea. . 

(3.) Pea Chick. SeeCiCE*. " {3.) 'Peace, in geography, an iiland nuar the 

{4-) P^a. Everlasting, See Lath yrds.N coaft of Nova Scotia v a little to tbe S. of.Mira- 
JJ, $ 1. ' " chi Point, 

(.5.) P&A, Hha*t. SeeCAEBiOSFEEHiiM. " (4.) Peace, a river of N. America, »iliich".rdfr» 

(6.) Pea, Hiath, See Otoiius. into Slave River, to miles N. of Lake Ataapef- 

' pEA,PiCEon. See Cvtisus, K° I, f "a".- .Htm, 

**-' Sweet-Scenteb. See Lathy mi, (t.) Peace, Temple of, a celebrated temple 
. it Rome, which WKneonfuined hy fire A..D. r^r; 

(g.) Pal, Tangier. See Lathyeus, N°n, produced,' aa fome-writera fcppofe, by -a flight 
$3. , -earthquake, for no thunder wa* heard At the 

(10.) Pea, Winged. See Lotus, N° I, § 6. time. Dio Caflhis, however, fuppofes that it be- 
ll.) * PEACE. n.ft [pair, French ; pax, tat.] gan in the adjoining houfea. Be that as k will, 
1. Refpite from war.— Preferve us in peace; (0 the temple, with all the furraunding buildings, 
preferve as in peace, that war may be always odi- were reduced t« afhet. That magnificent ftruc- 
ous. Hoiydoye— ture bad been railed by Vrfpafian jftefthe de- 

AJ1 the noithern world lies huui'd in ptace. ftruction of JernUeoa, And enriched with the, 
, Addi/on. fpoils and ornaments of the .temple at the Jews, 

1. Quiet from fuits or difturbances.— The king Tbe ancients fpeaic of it a* one of the mult U.tely 
commanded that Sherboro fhouid hold his land buildings in Rome.- There men of learning uied 
in peace. Da-vies. 3. Reft from any commotion, to bold their auemblies, and lodge their writings, 
4. Stitnefa from riots or tumults.— aatnany others depofited their jewels, and wbat- 

Ketp frame upon your lives. Sbai. ever elfe they eiteemed of great value. It was 

— AU affembled here in arms againft God's peace like* ife made ufe of as a kind of magazine for the 
and the king's. Shot.— Shallow, you have your- fpices brought by the Roman merchant* out of 
felf been a greater fighter, though now a man of ■ Egypt and Arabia ; To 'that many rich perfona 
peace. Shai. 1. Reconciliation of differences.— werereduced to beggary, all their valuable efft-cts 
—Let him uiake peace with me. Ifaiab xxvii. 5. and treafluea being «oatnmed in one night, with 
6. A ftate not hoftile.— If f have rewarded evil the temple. 

unto him that was at peace with me, let tbe eoe- * PEACEABLE, adj. Lfrom peace.} I, Free from 
my perfecute my foul. PJaim vii. 4.— There be war; free from rumuTt. — The reformation of E»g- 
two falfe peaces or unities, Bason. 7. Reft; quiet; land was introduced in ipeaetaUc manner by the 
content ; freedom from terrour ; heavenly reft.— fupreme power in parliament. Swift. %. Quiets 
Well, peace be with .him, that bath made-us undiilurbed.— The laws were tint intended tot 
heavy! the reformation of abufes aa& -peaceahie corctinu- 



(7- ) PS*. 

(8.) Pea, 
M° II, f %. 



—Peace be with US, left we be heavier 1 Shak. ance of the fubject. Sp enfer. — 
—Peace be unto thee, fear not. Judg, vi. 23. — IJe,-Philo, untouch'd on my peaceable D*lt 

Qz 



The God of hope fill you with all joy and pt ace ^"TSfc 






PEA (1*4) PEA 

3. Kot.f iaknt ; not blood;.— The Chaldeans fiat. a. colour like 1 peach. — One Mr Caper cones lo 

-tered both Ciclarancl Pompey with long livrs and jail at the fuit of Mr Throcpile the mercer, for 

a hippy lud feaceaiie death ; both which fell .nut fome four fuili pf peach-taloured fittin, which now 

extremely contrary. Halt, 4. Not quarrel fome; peaches him a beggar. Sbai. Meaf.far Mtcf, 

not turbulent.— The molt -peaceable way for you. * Pbachick. n.f. [pea and cbiei.] The chicken 

if you do take a thief, is to let him fliew himfeJf. 0/ a.pcacock. — Does the fnivdling peacbiek think 

Shai.— Theft men ire peaceable. Gentfixziuy.it. to make a cuckold of mc? Southern. 

* PEACEABLENESS. n.f. [from peaceable.] (1.) * "PEACOCK. »./ [pawn, Saion; ^™,- 
Quietnefs; difpoutiqn to peace.— Plant in us ail Lat.] Of this word the etymology is not known 1 . 
thofeprccienis fruits of piety, juftice, and charity, perhaps it is pcai cock, from the tuft of feather* 
and peactab'jufi. Hammond. oo its head ; the peak of women being an ancient I 

* PEACEABLY, adv. [from pcaxcaije,] I., ornament ; if it be not rather a corruption of beau- 
Without war ; without tumult.— , me, Fr. from the more (hiking Tultrtof itsfpanr.. 1 

It ihould to her remain, . led tf»ir.] A fowl eminent for the beauty of hit I 

Who peaceably the lame long titne did weld, fcUbera, and particularly of hit tail.: — 

Spenfir. Let frantic Talbot triumph for a while; 

». Without tumult* ot commotion. — The balance And, like a peacock,, fweep along his tail. Shot. 

of power was provided for, elfe Piliftrat«}» could ■ — The birds that are haideft to be drawn, are the 

nevgr bavegoTcrued Co ptitceailj. Swift. 3. With- tame birds [ as cock, turkey-cock, and peaixb. 

,ont difturbance. — Peafham. — 

rji(rurbhimnot»let,hioipafi^eofeoi/y.^H*. The peacock, not at thy command, affumea 

* PEACEFUL. aij. \fem mdJulL] 1. Quiet; ..His glorious train. "Sandys. 
notifcwar; a poetical word.— ... The /wkiu*'j phimei thy tackle mult not fail. 

.Peaceful Italy invcriv'd in arms. Dryfai. . ., , , " Oav- 

«.■ Pacific; mild.— (a.) F,eicaci, in ornithology. .SeeVaVo.lS 

As one difarm'd, his anger all he loft; flL . ,, 

.And thus with peaceful words uprmVd hei loon. . [j.JPsacoc* Fish, in ichthyology, Phmaani 

Milton, rwj&h gf, , tqudaJifultati. The body is of variola 

The peaceful power that. govern*: love, aOrf/</. colours; the (in of the anus has jj Breaks, and 

g. Undifturbcd ; ft ill ; Secure. — its tail Is in the form of a crefcerit. The head is 

- . Sutceediogox>narchsh«Brd the fubjecti cries, without fcales; it is brown upon the upper pirt, 

. Kbrlawdifpreae'dthe/ifjvrf'sJcottagcrrfe./'iifiB. yellow above the ejes, and of a River' colour on 

* PEACEFULLY, adj. [from peaceful ~\ 1. the fides. The back is round, and adorned with 
Without war ( ,s. Quietly j without diRvrbance. beautiful blue- Breaks- in a ferpentine form; and 

.Our laved earth, wbwesfeqctfiiiiy we flep't. the belly bright as litwr. . The fins of the breaft 

Dryde*. are ro*nd| and, like thpffl of the belly, have a yel- 

•3. Mildly; gently. |pw ground with a amy border; that of the back 

. * PEAC£¥m.N¥&&.n,.S.-fit*mf*cu'ful-] Quiet j is of a violet colour ; that of the anus ii flraw co- 

fteedoanfrom war ordifttmteasao.. ,k]ured; and, laftlyj that of the tail is yellow on 

■ * Ke tea MA ibk. n.f- {peace and mater.] One the fides, red towards the middle, and bordered 

(Who reconciles difference*^- - with 1 deep blue-. Its length it not known. 

Healed are the pemtmaitrt* ■■ ■ - Sbtii. Thrreisa variety of this'ftfb found only in the 

■ " H :, Think «•■ ,-,. J /Indian teas, and therefore called the Indian Pea- 

"flUte me pTofett, jmatcmmhttt 'ftiaidl and fer- tockjifbi which is thus defcribed in the language 

■■ '"tarns. .1 . , ... ,. ... - Sbai. ofLinnxuS; Povo pinna caudals Jbrcfpqta -■ fpirtit 

f»rPBACE-OF»s*ina. «.,/.. [#*o« and offer.] dorfaiibui 14: oeelle cecrtdee pone ocuiei. It has the 

lAratmg the Jews, a.facriliae Jifcjiit offered to Cod fin of its tail forked ; 14 fharp points or prickles 

•ftre atonement and reconciliation for a crime or on the back, with a round blue ftreak- behind the 

•nfence. — A facrifice at. pcttcc offering offer without 'eyes. The body of this fifh'is of an elliptical form ; 

■tolfimiihv - . Lea,, iii. £....'.. >he head.is covered with fcales to the tip of the 

* PaactrAKTED. ddj'ifluue wd-parttd'] -Dif- fnout; the two jaws arc armed with long anil \ 
•miffed from the world in, peace— ' ih atp teeth ; the ball of the eye is black, and the 

Wc mould prophaae the. fenice of the dead, , ins of a white colour with, a mixtute of green. 

To fing a requiem, i»:rf lU*b,«ft to, her At the infertion of the fin's cf the belly ia found a ; 

Aa to ptacrpirted falls. . -Shot. HurJn. bony fubuaiice. The head, back, and fides, are i 

1 (l.) * V£ACH. n.f.{pefdx, Pr. malum perfitum, -of a yellow colour, more or lefs deep, and cover- | 

Lat.] A, tree and fruit.— in.his.lefi hand a hmdful ed with lines or ftreaks of fkyblue. Thefc colours 

of millet, withal carrying a cornucqpijr. of xipc are fo agreeably mixed, that they refemble theck- 

ftaihet, pears, and pomegranates, Praciam.— . gance of the peacock's tail. 

The iunny wall,. , PEAGE, a town of France, in the dep. of 

s Prefents the downy ptatb. Tbetyfbn'i Avium*. Drome, on the S. bank oflfere, oppofite Romans. 

- {^Pbacu. See AUKOMbOf, J 3. 4- - (1-)* PEAHEN, n.f. l> f nand bmjpava, Lat.] 

■■■ (.?.)Pbach Wolf's, a IpecierofSoLANUH. The female of the peacock. 

* ToVkacii.v. n. L Corrupted from impeach.'] (a.) Pbaheh. See Pa to, N" III; 

To accufe of fome crime.—I £1 you talk of pearly, . £ 1 .) * PEAK, n.f- \feae. Salon ; ^ijne ; >»r, Fr.] 

•t"i\ peatb6.i&, and fee whoftoath will be believed. 1. The top of a hill or eminence.— 

JDfid. Thy CBer feek, 

* PcACh-colourei). adj. [peach and tolw-] Of Or on Meander's bank or Latmo*' ptah. Prior 

-. ' i;qit-'cdiiyVjOOQK J ' 



PEA- < 19$ ) P. E A 

«. Any thing acuminated. 3. The riling fore part on* journey, Captain Sturmy was lazed With a 

of a headidrcfj. , , Violent hca.d-a.cb, which, after continuing four 

(1.) Peak, a mountain of Irelaiid, in Cork, days, terminated in a fever, of which be died in a 

Muiiftet; iii *hi^ there are fnveratfiibterraneous fhort time, , , . 

caverns, wherein a great number of human ikele- (j.) Pea,k or Tiheiiffe. See Teheri ffe. 

tons were difcotered in tjs's- (6-) Peak, St G^okcse's, or Pico. See A* 

(j.) Peak Bay, a bay on the S. coaft of zor.es. 
Jamaica. '.t,on, 76. jS. W." Lat. ij. 59. M. ■ (7-) P«*K'< HoiBu and Pooj.'s Hole, called 
(4.) Ptnf of Derbyshire, a chain of eery alfo the Drvifi A— ft, two remarkable horizontal 
high mountains in Derby, j^mous for the mines fprJBgsUBdwmr«ntafnj; tbe,one,r|ear Call etown, 
they contain, and for their leroaikiblc cavern?, the other JJifl by Button. l{i<y feero to havecwed. 
The m {7ft, rem V table of the,fe are Pool's-hole and. their origin to the fprings which have their current 
£lden-hole>,..The former is a care at the ford of through them.; when the water had forced ill nay 
a high hill called :(Jojtmp/t, '. fu narrow at J he en- througblbe horizontal jjfliireV of the ft rata, and 
trance that naPeBgers ace obliged tp creep on all- bad cartied the lopfe earth, away with it, the 
four* 1 but it footi opens to .3 coDfiderable hright, ' loofc ftones muft fall down of courfe : and where 
extending to above a quarter of a mile, with a the ftraia had few or no fiffures, they remained 
roof foincwbit retemblrng that of an ancient ca> entire; aridfo formed the fc very irregular arches, 
thedraC " By the petrifying water continually which are now fo. much wondered at. The. wa- 
droppiag in many, parti of the. cave, are formed a ter which paJTea through Foal's Hole it impreg- 
variety of curious, figures, and reprefeutationa of nated .with particles of lime Gone, and hat in- 
tbc works both of nature ana art. There is a co- crufted the whole cavern in fucb, a manner that It 
hunn here as clear asalabafter, Which.is called Tie appears aa on* folid rock. , . 
Queen of Scon Pillar, becaufe Q. Mary is laid to ' (8.),J>.Uxi qf.Otte«, the higheft pasts of the 
have proceeded -thus far wiealhe. vifited the ta- Bj.u'e jH'oii Stains, in JJ., America. They arc 
Tern. After Hiding down the rack a little way, 4000 feet above the. /ea level... 
is found the dreary cavity turned upwards. -.£ol- ' * To Peak. v. n. [^gHnto,„fipaniflj, MtfJt, pec* 
lowing its coarfc, and climbtng from crag to crag, hapaJe«ir- but I believe this word has fone other 
the traveller arrrres.at a-great height, till the rock, derivation; we fay a. withered man has,a,.(haip 
clofing over his head on all fides, puts an end. to faq); .Ealltajf dyipg, is laid to havea tiqfc ajj&arp 
any further fubtenaneaUB journey. Juft at turn- ajapci- from this qbferva.tion, a Cckly man la 
ing to defcend', the attention is caught by a chafrn. T>id to peak or grow acuminated, froni pique.} 1. 
in which 11 feen a candle glimmering .at .a yaft To look Cckly. — 
depth underneath. The guides fay, that the . Weary iVnnights, nine tunes cine, 
light is at a place near Mary Queen of. ' Scots, pil- Shalt he dwindle, prat, and pine. Skat. Mart, 
Tar, and no left than. go yards below. It appears 9. To make' a mean figure ; to fueak.— j 
frightfully deep indeed to look down J- but per- '. I, a dull and muddy mettled rafcal, peat, 
tiapadoein'otmeafure any thing like what it is (aid Like Jehu a drcamsj unprcgnant of my caufe. 
to do. Ifajiftoliafiredby the Queen of Scoto ," SJiat. 
.pillar, it would make a report as loud as a cannon. — The feating cornuto ber biiiband, dwelling in 
Near tbe extremity there a a hollow in the roof, a continual latum of jealoufyi comes in the in- 
called ttte'ljIeeJU'i Egei in which if a candle is ftant of pur encounter. Sbai. 
placed, it will repreusnt a ftar in the firmament to ', * PEM- a./ [Perhaps from ptlh, ptlltrt, tgm- 
tbofe who are' below. At a little dittance from ■ fiaiw.] i. 'A/ucceffion of loud founds: as, of bells, 
this rave is a imall clear ftream confiding of hot thunder, cannon, loud inftrvm ants.— They were 
and cold witer, fo pear each other, that the fin- falutad by the way, with a fait' peal of artillery 
ger and thumb of the fame band may be put, tbe from the' tower. 8dywarJ.—1i iuali be the. laft 
one into tbe hot water and the other into the cold, "peal to call the Judgments of God upon men. B*. 
Fid co-hole, is ^ dreadful chafm in the fide of a tfln'i.fjfaji .—Woods of oranges will fmcll into 
mountain; which,, belfbie the end of the 17th cen> ibe fea .perhaps *□ miles j but .what is that, finec 
'ury,,wat thought to be altogether unfathomable, a ptai ot" ordnance will,do, as much? Saion.— \ 
(See EtD»M-H«t-E.) In J600 Captain Stiirany, A jual ft|all rouff their deep. Milt. Par. Reg. 
defcepded by ropes fixed at the top of an old lead- Vannililhy with a peal of .words, O weakneU! 
ore pit, 4 fathoms a&noft perpendicular, and from Gave jap my fort of fitenc'elo a woman. Mill. 
thence 3 fathoms more obliquely, between a, great .PeaU of fhuutsthatieucl the.he.ir'ne. Drjdett. ' 
rocks. At the bottom of this he found an en- Oh I for a peal of thunder,, that would make 
trance into a very fpacioun cavern, whence be de- Earth, fea, add air, and. heaven, and i_',<to 
fcended along with a miner for %$ fathoms per- . tremble! . Ad&jm. 
pendicular. At laft they came to a great water, 3. It .is once ufed by Sbaiefpeare tor a low dull 
which be found to be ao fathoms broad and 8 iioife, but improperly.— 
deep. As they .walked by the fide of this water, Ere to black Hecate's fummons 
they obferved a hollow in the rock fome feet The fhard bom beetle with his drowfy hums, 
above them. The miner went iuto tfcis place, Hath rung night's yawning peal, there lhall be 
which was tbe mouth of another cavern j and done- 

walked for about 70 paces in it. The floor of . A deed of dreadful note. . Shak. Uaci. 

thefe caverns is a kind of white (tone eaajnelied (1.) * To Peai. v, n. [from tbe noun,] To play 

with lead ore, and the roofs are eocrulted'wiih folemnly and loud.— 

mining (par. On bis return from this fubtenane- Let \^ pealing organ blow, 



PEA < 186 ) P E-A* 

. 7"o 'be full-voic'd quire below, Milton. 63. The winter citron ptar} it ii alfo called the 

The pealing organ, and the panGng choir. mufk orange pear in fome places. 64. The win- 

TicM. • tec rootlet. 65. The gate pear; tfcif was difco. 
(j.)*.7«PsAL v «. a. 1. Tnafla.il with noifc.— wred in the province of PoiSou, where 11 was 
Nor was his ear Mspeal'd much efteemed. 66. Bergamoite Bugi; itisalfb 

With noifca loud and ruinoui. Milton, called the Eafter burgamot. 67. The wintei ban | 

*. To ftir with fome agitation : as, to peal the pot, chretico ptar. 68. Catillac or Cadillac. 69. La | 
ia when it boils to Air the liquor. therein with a paftourelle. 70. The double flowering pear. p. 
ladle. Am/. ; St Martial ; it ii alfo called the angelic pear' 71. 

(l.)PEAN, in heraldry, ia when the field of a The wilding of Chaomontejle. 73. Carmelite. 
'■Coat ofarmg is fable, and tbs powdering* Of . 74. The union pear j;. Theaurate. 76. The I 

(1.) Peas. See Pjeaw. fine prefent j it ia alfo called St Satnpfon. 7;. j 

PEAFS, William, a dramatic writer, in the Le rouffelet de Rbeima. 78. The Cummer them 
reign of Charles I. He ftudied at Eton, and wrote ptar. 79. The egg pear t fo called from the fi. 
a piece entitled. Lave in its Extafj, or the large gnre of it* fruit, which is lhaped like an. egg. 80. - 
Prerogative .' 4to, 1649. The orange tulip pear. 81. La tnanfuette. Si. 

(1.) * PEAR. n./. [poire, French; pjrum, X.it.] The German mufcat. 83. The Holland burga- 
The fpecies are 84 : I. Little mufk par, common- mot. 84. The pear "f Naples, Miller— They 
ly called the fupreme. a. The Chio pear, com. would whip me with their fine wits, till I were at 
rnon.ty called the little baftard mufk pear. '*.' creft fallen as a dried pear. Shot; Merch. qf Venice. 
The hailing ptar, commonly galled the green chif-' — Auguft fhail bear the form of a young man, of 
fel. 4. Tbe red mufcadelle ; it ii alfo called the a cholerie afpeft, upon his arm a bafket of pears, 
faireft. j. The little mufcat. 6. The jargonelle.' plums, and apples. Peach.— 
7, The WkttMbr pear. 8. The orange rauft. 9. Thejuicy^Mr 

Great Blanket, ro. The little blanket p e ar. it. Lies in a foft profnfion fcatter'd round. Tbamf. 
Long .(talked blanket'tVar. 11. The fkin/efa j>eor. (i.)PEAa, in botany. See Putts. 
13. The mufk robin pear. 14. The mufk drone (3.) Pen, Alligator. ) o_ T ._„. 7^0 . ; 
pear. 13. The green orange fear. 16. Caffolette. (3.) Pbar, Avocado. J . ™ \ 1 

17. The Magdalene ptar. 18. Tbe great o- (4.) Pear, Bachelor's, a fpecies of Soli- | 
nioo Ptar. 19 The Auguft mufcat. so. The rum, 

role ptar. '_ at. The perfumed pear. aa. The (3.) Pear., Garlics. See Ciateva, N°*. 
Tummer bon Chretien, or good chriftian. 13. (6J Pear, Prickly, a fpecies of Cactus. 
Saiviati. »4- Rofr water pear. »(. The cboaky PEARCE, Dt Zachary, Bp." Qf Rochefter, was 
pear. a6. The rufTelet ptar. 17. Tbe prince's the for.' of a difliller in High Holborn. He was 
pear, at- The great mouth water pear. 19. born In 1090, and educated at Weltminfter, where I 
Summer "burgamot. 30. Tbe Autumn burgaqiot. he was diltinguiftied by bis merit, and elected one 
31/ The Sivifa burgamot. 31. The red butter of the king's fcholars. In 1710, when be was 10 
pear. 33. The dean's pear. 34. The I6ng green years old, he was elected to Trinity College Cam- 
pear ; it is called the Autumn month water bridge. During the firft year* of bis reCdence at 
fear, 3$. The white and grey monlieur John, the univerGty, he wrote EDays, fome of which are ; 
36. The flowered mufcat. 37. The vine pear, inferred in the Guardian and SpeHator. In 171S, | 
;8. RoufTeline pear. 39. Tbe knave's fear. 40. he publifhed his edition of Cicero de Oralort, and, 
The green fugar ptar. 41, The marquis's pear, luckily dedicated it to Lord Cbtef-Jultice Parker j 
41. The burnt cat'; it is alfo called the Virgin of (afterwards Earl of Macclesfield), to whom be I 
Xantonee. 43. Le Befidery ; it is fo called from was a ftranger. This laid the foundation of his | 
Heri, whfchisaforeft in Bretagne between Bennes future fortune; for Lord Parker recommended 
and N ant z, where this pear was found. 44. him to Dr Bentley, matter of Trinity, to be made , 
The crafane, or burgamot crafane ; it is alfo cat- one of the fellows. In 1717, Mr Pearce was cr- 
ied the Rat butter pear. 43. The lanfSt:, or dad- darned at tbe age of 47 ; In 1718, Lord Parker 
pbin pear. ,46. The dry martin. 47. The villain was appointed chancellor, and Invited Mr Pearce 
of Anjou ; it_is alfo called the tulip pear and the to ' live with him as chaplain. In 1719, he was 
gipat orange. 48. The large ftalked pear. 49- inftituted rector of Stapleford Abbots, in EiTex; 
The Atnadot ptar. 30. Little lard pear. 51. in 1720, of St Bartholomew, worth 40ol/tr 01- 
Thegood'ijcwisjtsr. 51. Tlie Colmar pean it man: In i;n, he was preferred to St Martin's in, 
it alfo caller] the manna -pear, add the late bur- tbe Fields. In, 1713, he married Mils Adams, the 
gamot. 33. The winter long green pear, or the daughter of a difliller, with a confiderable fortune, 
' landry wilding. 54. La Virgoule, or La virgo- who lived with him in the htgheft connubial hap- 
leufe. 33. Poire d'Ambrettc; this is fo called pinefi. Mr Pearce foon attracted tbe notice and 
from its mnlky flavour, which refenibles the fmell efteem of pcrfojs in the higher! Rations and of! 
of The fweet fultan flower, which ia called Am- the greateft abilities. In 1724, the degree of DJ>. 
brette in Prance. j6. The winter thorn pear, was conferred on him by Abp. Wake. The fame 
57. The St Germain gear, or the unknown of la year he dedicated to the earl of Macclesfield his. 
Fare ; it being firft difcovered upon the hanks of edition of Ltrngntm on tbe Sublime, with a new La- 
a river called by that name in the Parifh of St tin verfton and notes. - When the church of St 
Germain. 38. The St Auguftine. 39. The Spa- Martin's was rebuilt, Dr Pearce preached a fern 
niih bon chr£tien. > 60. The pound pear. 61. mon at the confecration, which be printed, and 
The wilding of CafToy, a foreft in Brittany, where accompanied with an Ejfaj on tbe origin and pro-*. 
it wai difcovered. 6s. Tbe lord Martin pear. grtfiefTcmplei, traced from the rude Hones which 

),git.ied ■■■ LjOQQIC W«e. 



4- ! , 



PEA ( 127 ) PEA 

"wetc firft ufed for altars to the noble ftructura of one or two calls of tbia will take baits enough for 

Solomon, which he confide™ aa the .firft temple the day without any farther trouble. When the 

completely covered. Dr Pearce was appointed bait is a frog, the hook ii to be fattened to the 

(lean of Winchefter in 1759; and in 1744 he w'aa upper part of the leg. The beft place for the fifiV 

eleAed prolocutor of the lower boufe of couvoca- lug for pearch is in the turn or the water near 

tion for Canterbury. He was confecrated Bp. of fomc gravelly fcour. ■ A place of this kind being 

Bangor," Feb. is, 1748. Upon the death of Bp. pitched upon, it fhoiild be baited over-night with 

Wilcockl he was promoted to the fee oi Rochefter lobworms chopped to pieces; and in the morning, 

and deanery of Weftmmfter in ijj6. In 1768 he on going to it, the depth is to be regularly 

refigned the deanery; in 1773 he loft his lady; plumbed, and then- the hook is to be baited with 

and, after taf months of. lingering decay, he died the worm or other bait ; and as it drags along, the 

at Little Ealing, June 19, 17741 aged Ej. This pearch win foon feize upon it. 
eminent prelate djllinguifbed himfelf in every part (3-) Peak C h GLus.akindof glue, of remarkable 

of his 'ite by the virtues proper, to hie ftation. ftrengjthandpurity.madefromthefkinaofpearches. 
His literary abilities, and application to facredand * Pearch-Stone. n.J. [from pearch aodjkme.} 

philological learning, appear by bis works; the A fort of Hone, 

principal of which are, i. A letter to the clergy of Peak-Glass, or rather Gla/i Peart is fynony- 

the church of fti^lxnd, on occaupn of thefip. of mous with Glass Drops, or Glass Teaks, 

Rochelter's commitment to the Tower ; ad edit. Prince Robert's Drops. See Rupert's Dbops. 
Ijss, 4. Miracles of Jefui vindicated, 1727. and (1.) * PEARL, e./. [ferle,Tr. perta, Spanifh: 

1718. 3, A review of the text of Hilton, 1733. fuppofed by Salmqfiui to came from Jpkerula, 

4. Two letters again ft Dr Middleton, occafjoned Latin.] r. Pearls, though efteemed of the number 

by the Doctor's letter to Waterland, on the publi- of gems by our jewellers, are but a diftemper in 

cation of his treatife, entitled. Scripture Vindicated; the creature that produces them: the Gib in which 

3d edit. 173a. And, 3. Gncebisdeatb, Acommen< pearls are molt frequently found is the Zaft Indian 

tary with notes on the four Evangelifts and the berbes or *ear/ oyfter: others are found to pro- 

Acts of the Apoftles, with a new tranOalion of duce pearls ; as the common oyfter, the mnfele, 

St Paul'ifirft Epiftle to the Corinthians, with a pa- and various other kinds; but the Indian pearls are 

raphrafe and notes, have been publilhcd, with bis fupcrior to all. Some pearls have been known of 

life prefixed, from original MSS. in 1 vols 4to. tbe Gze of a pigeon's egg: as they increafe in fize, 

ti.) * PEARCH. a./ {prrtica, Lat.] 1. A long they are lets frequent and more valued. Thetrue 

pole fur various ufes. *. Akindoffifh. * fbape of the pcarlii a perfefl round ; but fome of 

(1.) Pearch, in ichthyology. See Perca. a confidcrable fize are of the fhape of a pear, and 

The pearch affords good fport for the angler, fern for ear-ring 0, Hill.— A /ear/-julep was made 

The beft time for their biting is when the (bring of a diftilled milk. Wifeman. — 
is over, and before tbe beats of fummer come on. Flowers purfled, blue and white, 

At this time they are very greedy; and the angler, Like fapphire, peat I, in rich embroidery. Sbuk. 

with good management, may take at one ftand- — Cataracts ^mrf-coloured, and thole of the co- 

i.ig all that are in the hole, be they ever fo many, lour of burniibed iron, are efteemed proper to 

The proper baits are minnows or young frogs ; but endure the needle. Sharp. 3. [Poetically.], Any 

the worm called the brandling, well fcoured, is tiling round and clear, as a drop.— , 

alfo excellent at all times of the year. When the Dropping liquid pearl, 

pearch bites, he would always have a great deal Before the cruel queen, the lady and tbe girl 
of time allowed bim to fwabow tbe bait. The Upon their tender knees beggM mercy. Draft. 
pearch will bite all day if the weather be cloudy; (a.) * Pearl, n. / [albugo, Lat.] A white 

but the beft time is from 8 to to A. H. and from fpeck or film growing on the eye. Jin/. 
3 to 6 P. H. Tbe pearch is very abftemioua in (3.) Pearl, in geography, an illand in the Gulf . 

winter, and will feldom bite in this feafbn : if be of Mexico, near the mouth of the MifliGppi ; 7 

does at all, it is in the middle of the day; at miles long and 4 broad. 

which time indeed all fifli bite beft. If tbe bait be (4-) Pbaxl, another illand of the W. Indies, in 

a minnow, which is the bait that affords moft di- Lon. 79. 13, W. Lat. 14. 53. N. 
verfion to the angler, it muft be fattened to the (j.)pEAKL,ariverofW.FIorida, wbicbrunsinto 

hook aHye, by putting the hook through the up. Lake Pontchartrain, 13m.ENB.of New Orleans, 
per lip or back-fin ; it muft be kept at about mid- (6.) Pbaxl, a river of Georgia, which riles in 

water, and the float muft be a quill and a cork, the W. part' of the Chaftaw country, runa S. into 

that tbe minnow alone may not be able to fink it. the Gulf of Mexico, into which it falls by feveral 

The line muft beoffilk, andftrong; arid the hook mouths, attheE. end of tbe Regolets- Itisna- 

armed with a l'mall and fine wire, that if a pike vigable for above ito miles. 
iiould take tbe bait, as is not unfrequently tbe (7.) A Pearl (j 1. drf.j..), in natural hiftory, 

cafe, he may be taken. The way to carry the is a hard, white, fhihjng body, ufually roundifh, ' 

minnows or fmall gudgeons alive for baits is this: found in a teftaceousjifhrefembling an oyfter. (See 

a tin pot is to be provided, with boles in the lid. My a, N° a.) Pearls are analogous lo the beaoara 

and tilled with water ; and tbe fifb being put in and other ft on y concretions in feveral animals of 

this, the water is to be changed once in a quarter other kinds. The fiOi in which' thefe are ufually 

of an hour by tbe holes, without taking off the lid produced is the Eaft Indian pearl-byfter. BefidcV 

at any time, except when tbe bait is to be taken this fhell, there are many others that are found 

out. A fmall caftingnet, made for thefe little hfh, to produce'- pearisj as the cbromoii oyfter, the 

flwuld be taken out with the pcarch-tackle ; and mutcle, and feveral others, the pearls of which are, 

oE'er. 



P E A < 188 ) t E A . 

frften very good ; but thofeof the true Indian &r- which have a thick calcareous emit on them, to 

■ieri, or pearl oyfter, ire in genetalfuperior to all. which Serpd*; Tubaii marini, CriflbgolB, Madre- 

The finall or feed peariB,'a!fo called ounce pearls, forts, MiUifurei, Spongie, and other zoophyte*, 

from their being fold by the ounce and not by adhere, Commonly contain the bed pearls ; the 

tale, are vaftly the 'moft numerous and com- fmooth ones etthernone or very fttiall ones. 
mon. We have Scotch'pearls frequently a a big m (o.) Pe arts, DrfraRiw-r colours, kinds, and 

a tittle tare, fome as big as a large pea, and foroe 'vclub of: The emefursof jpeaTU' are diflerent 

few of the fize of a horfe-bean ; but" thefe are according to the (beila in. which they are found. 

ufually of a- bad ftlape, and of little value in pro- There anr 3 knurs of bivalve (hells chiefly fought 

portion to their weight. Philip II: of Spain had after by the pearl fi fliers. The ill ia a kind of 

a pearl perfeerin its fhape and colour, and of the mufcle chiefly found in the N. end of the Red Sea. 

fiit of a pigeon's egg. Their colour ought to be It produces pearls' of a' fine (1: ape and" excellent 

a pure white]. and that not a dead and lifetefs, luftre, but 'feldoth of that very fine colour which 

but a clear and brilliant one:' the; run ft he per- enhances their price. The id kind, called Pinna, 

feftrytreefrOtasTf/foulrtefil, fpot, orftainj and is broad and fejnicircular at the top, and fharpat 

their furfaces . rouft, be naturally fmootir and thehitige.thenutfideroughanilred.theiiiliiif lined 

gwfly ; for thej btfttg'thdr natural "polifh with with mother of pearl. It produces pearls having 

them, 'which art is not able to improve. All the reddrflt'cafl of the inner (ft efl of the pinna, 

pearls are formed of the' matter' of the (belt, and Trailed <w«&r 0/ peart 1 which con Amu (He opinion 

conflftof ammrberOf coats 'fpreatl with perfect of Reaumur, that the pearls are formed from the 

regularity one ovetf another, 'in the manner of the glutinous fluid which makes the flrft rudiments of 

feveraleoats of an onion, or,llke the Ibveral ftrata the fhett ; and this kind of pearl is found to be 

of the nones found in' the bladders or ftomachs more red as it is Formefl nearer the broad part of 

of animals, only much thinner. the Ihell, which is redder than the other end. 

(8.) Pearl Fish. See Mya, N° *. "Very The 3d fort of (hell refembles rhe oyfter, and 

little fs 1 known of the natural hiftory of the pearl produces pearls of extreme whitene'fs. The value 

filh. Mr Brace fays, that, as far as he has ob- of thefe commodities depends upon their fizc, re- 

ferved, (hey are all Buck upright in the mud by ad gularity of form, whether round or not, weight, 

extremity : the mufcle' by one end, the pinna by fmoofhneft, colour, and the different fhades of 

the f mall (harp point, and the third by the hinge that colour. * The pear) (ifliers lay, that when 

or fquare part which projefls from the round, the fhell is fm both and-' perfect, they never ex- 

*Td (hallow and clear ItreamB (fays Mr Bruce), I peer to ftnd any pearls, but always do fb when it 

have feeu' fmall furrows or tracks upon the fandy haa begun to be deformed and diflorted. Hence 

bottom, by which you could trace the muffle from It would feem, that as the filh turned older, the 

its lad ltation ; and theie not ftraight, but de- veffels containing, the juice for forming the (hell, 

viating Into traverfes and triangles, like the courfe and keeping It in its vigdur, grew weak and rup- 

of a (hip in a contrary wind laid Sown upon a tored 1 a mt Thence, from this juice accumulating 

map, probably in purfuit of food. The [general in the Bfh, the pearl was formed, and the fhe'l 

belief is, that the mufcle is'cortftantly'ftatiortary brought to decay, as filppofed by Mr Reaumur, 

in a'ftate of repofe, and cannot transfer itfeff from If this be the cafe", it ought to be known by the 

place to place. This it a vulgar prejudice, and form of thefhell whether^ he pearl is large or fmall; 

one of tbofe facts tbar are mlftHkerifor want of and" thus the - fmaller ones being thrown back into 

fufficient pains or opportunity to make more cri- the lea, a conflant crop of large pearls might be 

tical obfervatioiui. Others, finding the llrft opi- obtained. Pearls were anciently rated at very ex. 

nion a faife one, and that they are endowed with, travagant prices. Servilia, the 'mother of Marcus 

power of changing place like other-animals, have, Brutus, prefetited one to Csefai-of the value of 

upon the fame foundation, gone into the con- jcoool. of our money ; and Cleopatra diffblvcd 

trary extreme, ib far as to attribute fwlftnefs to one worth 150,000'. in vinegar, which, the drank 

them, a property furely incotlfiftent with their at a Cupper with Mark Antony | 
being Baed roTocks." Our author mfortmrus, (io-) Pearls, Fcsheriss of. Tbereare many 

that the mufcles found in the fait fprlngs of Nu- rivers, great and fmall, in Eaftern Tartary, cun- 

bia likewife travel far from home, and are fume, fiderablc for pearl filhery; hut thefe pearls, though 

times furprifed, by the ccaQng of the rains, at a much eftcemed by the Tartars, would be little 

greater dtltance front their beds than they have valued by Europeans, on account of their defects 

ftrength and moifture to carry them. He allures in fhape and colour. The emperor Kang-hi had 

ns, tint none of the pcarl-filh are eatable; and feveral chaplets or firings of thefe pearls, each 

that they are th*only filh he faw in the Red Sea containing 100, which were very large, and exactly 

that cannot be eaten. But ho attempt towards matched. There are many rivulets in Livonia 

motion or change of fjlaee his ever teen obferved which produce pesrls alntoft equal in fixes ar.d 

m the pearl-fllh of Pirthlhire! The pearl -fifli has clearncfe to the oriental ones. Tfiere a»'fe*er;.: 

been hitherto con fid erea ai an qfiutiaXte-MrTt- fifheries both on the E. and W. cdafts"6f Africa ; 

tus); but a' lite.' author, who p.iid'jjreat at ten- the mod considerable of which He round forr.c 

tiort to the pearl flraerT af"Ce^-ldrT,'^en!fcs"thij, fmall iflands, over-againft the kingdom' 'of Sof a!a ;. 

and fays' it bas'tfo refcmb'lahce to" the auMia.*"He but the people thus employed, infteadof expotio J 

Cjppofes it a diftincl' jehus. The pearls' are only the oyftcrs to the warmth of the fun, which woul.: 

found in'tlie'fuft'partoftneanTtria'Von both fides Pnduce them to open, lay them upon the embers ; 

of the mouth". From the lhefls a judgment may By which ahfurd method, tbofe pearls, which! 

*i"" formed, whether they contain pearls. Thofe they catch fc'oritract a dt:ll kind of reJnels,' v^hicn 
, Digit jedoy\jOOQlC roba 



PEA, ( 139 ) ; .,> £ A' 

robi them of their natural lufire ss well as of their tion, fiimctitfies perceive large-fliarks, from which 

value. Pearl-fiil) in g it perforn\ed by l8e women as all their addrefs <n muddying the water, &c, will 

well aa the men ; both being equally expert. In the not always fave them, but they unhappily be- 

fea of California alfo there areveryrich pearl- Rfli- come their prey; and of -all the dangers of trie 

tries. The moft efleemed pearls are thofe of Aha fifliery. this is one of the created and mbft ufuat. 

aoil the E. coaft of Africa. In the kingdom of (See Panama, N° i.) The heft divert will not 

Madura there are many pearl fifheries. (See Tu- keep under water above two minutes, according 

tukurih.) In Japan likewife there are found to M. Le Beck, though others abfnrdly; affirm, 

pearls of great price. Pearls are met with in all that they wilt continue half an hour." When they 

partaof the Red Sea, in the Indian Ocean, on the find themfelves flraitencd, they pull the rope to 

low part of the coaft of Arabia Felix named Ba- which the bag is fattened, and hold /alt by it w it'll 

bar**, adjoining to the PerGan Gulf. They are both hands: when thofe in the bark, taking the 

likewife found on the low coaft about Gunibroom figual, heave them up into the air, and unload 

E. of the Perfian Gulf; and many of the fineft them of their filh ; which is fometimes joo oyf. 

kind are met with on the coaft of Ceylon. They ters, and fometimes not above 50. Some of the 

are moft plentiful in the Babaren, between the divert need a Ihcrt 'refpite to recover breath ; 

coaft of Arabia Felix and Grmue, whence they others jump in again inftantly, continuing thtt 

are tranfported to Aleppo, then fent to Leghorn, violent exercife for fevera! hoars. On the fhore 

and then circulated through Europe. Linnseus they unload their barks, and lay their oyfters in 

difcoverftl a method of putting the pearl mufcles a vaft cumber]of little pits dug in the farrd, 4 or j 

into a ftate of producing pearls at his plcafurc. (See feet fquare, railing heaps of fand over them to the 

My a, N° a.) In Scotland, efpecially to the height of a man ; and in tbis condition they ate 

northward, inall rivers running from lakes, there left till the rain, wind, and fun, have obliged 

are found mufcles that have pearls of more than them to open, which foon kills them : upon. this 

ordinary merit, though {eldotn of large fixe. In the Belli rots and dries, and the pearls, thus dif- 

thia country there was a very great h"fhery of engaged, fall into the pit on their taking out 

pearls, got out of the frcfh- water mufcles.. (See the (hells. After clearing \he pits of the grofler 

Mya, N° a.) From 1761 to 1764, io,ocol. worth filth, they lift the land fevera! times in order to 

were lent to London, and fold from ioa. to il. find the pearl : but, whatevercare they take, they 

16s. per ounce; One pearl was taken there that always lofe a great number. After cleaning.ard 

weighed 33 grains. But this fifliery is at prefent drying the pearls, they are palled through a kind 

cxhaufted, from the avarice of the undertakers: of fieve, according to their fiEet; the fmalleft are 

it once extended as f.ir as Loch-Tay. then fold by weight njiedptarh, and the reft put 

(n.) Pearls, manner of fishing for, in up to auction, and fold to the higheft bidder. 
tchb East Indies.— There are two feafons for (11.) Pearls, method of fishing for, i*t 
peart-filbing : the firft is in March and April, and Perthshire. The rev. Dr James Robertfdn, in, 
Ibelaftin Aug. and Sept.; and the more rain there his Stat iftical Account of Callander, defcribes the 
fall* in the year, the more plentiful are thefe fifli- pearl fifliery as praAifed in this county, a; (cil- 
eries. At the beginning of the feafon there are lows : " They hre fifbed with a kind of fpeat, 
fometimes ijo barks on the banks; the larger confining of a long (haft, and (hod at the point 
barks have two divers, and the fmaller one. Aa with two iron fpoons, having their months invert - 
foon as the barks arrive at the place where the ed: their handles are long and elaftic, and joined 
filh lie, and have call anchor,-each diver binds a at the extremity, which is formed into a (ocket, 
(tone, fix inches thick and a foot long, under his to receive the (haft; With this machine in hit 
body ; which ferves him at a ballaft, prevents hia band, by way of ftaff, the ffther, being often up 
being driven away by the motion of the water, to the chin in- water, gropes with his" feet for the 
and enable* him to walk more fteadily under the mufcles, which arc fixed in the mnd arid fand by 
waves. They alfo tie another very heavy (tone one end, and preffes down the iron fpoons upon 
to one foot, by which they are very fpeeddy fent their point; fo -th.it by the fpring in the handles, 
to the bottom of the fea ; and as the oyfters are they open to receive rhe mufcle, hold it faft, and 
ufually firmly fattened to the rocks, they arm their pull it up to the furface tif the water. He has a 
hands' with leather mittens, to prevent their be- pouch or bag of net-work hanging by his fide, to 
ing wounded in polling them violently off ; but carry the mufcles- till he come a-ftiore, where 
this talk fome perform with an iron rake. Each they are opened. .The operation is much eafiei 
diver carries down with him a large net in the in (hallow water.'" Slut. Aft. XI, 399. - 
manner of a sack, tied to his beck by a long cord, (13.) Pbaklst! method of making Aarrn- 
the other end-of which is fattened to the fide of cut.; Attempts have been made to take out ' 
the bark. This net is to hold the oyfters gather- ftains from pearls, and to render the foul opaque- 
ed from- the rock, and the cord is to pull up tbe -coloured onet equal in luftre to the oriental. A- 
diver wben bis' bag is full, or when he wants air. bundance of proceflcs are givefi for tfiis, purpoffc 
In this equipage he foffietiroes precipitates hlrn- in books of fecrets and Travels ; but they are very 
fe!f 6t> feet un.Ter water; and sshe basnothne t« .far from aofwering what is expected from thsm. 
lofe, be no fooner arrives at the bottom, than he Pearls may be cleaned indeed from auy external 
begins to run from fide to Ifcie, tearing' up all the 'fou Indies by walhing and rubbing tliem with a 
oyiL-rsbe meets with, and* cramming them into HUlc Venice foap and watm'w'ater.orvriih'gi-ound 
his budget. -At whatever depth the divers are, vice and fait, with ftaMifi and pow der-bfuc, plaf- 
the light is fo great, that theyreahiy fee whatever «rr of Paris, corah white vitrbl and t::ttar. r-jt- 
patTes in the lea; and, to their great coufteroa- ler-boue, pumice-Hone, and other fimilav :■ 
Vet. XVII. Put I, ' , r R, , d C,00*?fo--' : 



PEA, C 1» ) PEA 

fjanceaihut a flam that reaches deep into the Tub- getable*: and he concludes from them, r. H Ttiif, | 

.fiance of pearl* it impoflible to be taken out. in general, weeds yteld much more ante*, and ihrii 

Nor can a number of fmall pearls be united into a afhes muai more fait, than wood*; and that, 

Ou& fimilar to an entire natural ore, aa fume pre- cr frqueritty, ai to falta of the vegetable alkali 

-tend. There are, however, method* of making kind, neither American, Triefte, tior the northern 

axtlfidat pearls, in fitch a manner »• to be with coun'riri, poflefs any advantage over n». i.Tbat 

difficulty drftiniiutihed from the beft oriental, of all weed?, fnmirary procure* nun fait, and 

The ingredient ufed for this purpofe wan long next' to it wormwood ; but if we attend onlyto 

kept a fecreti but it il now discovered to be a the quantity of fab in a given weie,ht of allies, me 

fine filver-like fubflatice found upon the under afr.es of wormwood contain moft. TrjfiHtm ftri- 

fide of the fcales of the Hay or blrak-fifh. The man alfo produces more afhes and fait than fern." 

icalet, taken off in the ureal manner, are wafhed See Potash., 
• and rubbed with frefh parcel* of fair water, and • PEA R.I ED. adj. [from pearl.'] Adorned « 

the federal liquors fu fie red to fettle,- the water let with pearls. — 
being then poured off, the pearly matter remains ' The water nymphs 

at thi' bottom, of th> confidence of nil, called by Held up their pearltd wring, and took her in. 
the French tjfmct ft/runt. A little of thia ia KIM. 

dropped into a hollow bead of btuifli piaffe, and * Pkahlryfd. adj. [far/ and eye.] Having a 

(haken about fo a* to line the i'ternal furfaci- ; fpeck in the eye. 

after which the cavity is filled up with wax, to * Pfarlgrsss. Peiklplant. Peaelwoit. 

five folidi'y and weight. P-'arl made in t'ia n. f Plant!, Aixfiiiorib. •• 

trunrer are diltinguifhable from the natural only Pfarl Islands, a clutter of Wand* in Panama 

by their haeing fewer blemiuY-a. B*y, lfi mile* from the city of Paiiaini: fonam- 

Pe ill-ash, a kind of fixed alkaline fait, pre- ed from their coaft* abounding with pearls. (See 

pared chieRy in America. Germany, Ruflia. and Paimma. N° t.) They are low, and abound 

Poland, by melting the fait" out of the allies, of with wood, water, fruits, fowl*, and hoets and 

burnt wood ; and having reduced them again to have feveral good harbour*. The northern melt 

drynefe, evaporating the moiflure, and calcining is Pncben, the fnithernmoft St. Paui'i. Lon. Si. 

them for a confederal. Ir time in a furnace mode- 45 W Lat. 7. to. N. 

lately hot. Thegoodnefs of pearl afhe* mutt be Pearl, moth r*. or, the fhell, not of the pearl 

di ft ingui fried by the uniform and white appear- oyfter, hut of the mjtihu marfurllifrnu. See Mr- 

ance of them : they are nevertheless fuhjeel to a Tiiui, N° 6. The mother-of pearl manufactory 

.Common adulteration, not eafy to ■be diftinpuifh- is bronght to the gri-ateft perfection at Jerufakrn. 
ed by the metre appearance, which it done by the The moft beautiful Ibell of this kind il that of the 
addition of common fait. In order to find out Pinna; but it ia too brittle to be employed in any 
thi* fraud) take a final] quantity of the fufpeft- large piece* of workmanfhip ; whence that kind 
ed. (alt : and after it bai been foftene.l by lying named Jora it moft ufually employed ; and great 
in the air, put it over the fire in a (hovel ; if it quantities of this are daily brought from the Red 
contains any common bit, a crackling; and a kind Sea to Jemfalem. Of tbefe, all the fine works, 
of flight explofion will take place as the fait the crucifixes, the wafer-boxes, and the bead*, are 
grows hot. Pearl-afbei are much ufed in the made, which are fent to the Spanilh dominions in 
manufacture of glafs, and require no preparation, the New World, and produce a return incompav 
ancept where very great trar.fpartncy i* required, rably greater than the ftaple of the greateft manu- 
al m the cafe of looking- glafs, and the belt kind tadory in the Old. 

uf window- glafs- For thia purpofe diffblve them Pearl. plant, &C See Peailgkasj. 
m four times their weight of boiling water : when * PEARLY, adj. [from pearl.] 1. Abounding 

they are duTolved, let the folution be put into a with pearls; containing pearls.— 
clean tub, and fuffered to remain there 14 hour* Some in their pearl; (hells at eafe, attend. 

or more. Let the clear part of the fluid be then MiltaM, 

decanted off from the fedinreirt, and put back in- >. Refembling pearl*. — 

to the iron pot in which the folution wa* made 1 Which when (be heard, fall frarly floods 

in thia let the water be evaporated till the fait! be J in her eyes might view. Draylca. 

left perfectly dry. Keep thofe that are not dc- Plain* adorn'd with pearl; dew. Drydta. 

ugned for immediate ufe in ftone jars, well (ecu- For what the day devours, the nightly dew 

red from moifture and air. Hr Kirwan, who hat Shall to the morn hi pearl; drops renew. Drji. 

tried a courfe of experiments on the alkaline fub- — ■ Another waainvefted with aptarlj (hell. Woadeo. 
ftancea ufed in bleaching, &c (fee Iri/b Tramf, for (1.) • PEARMAIN. n.f. An app\t.~Pearman 

■789), telta us, that in 100 part* of the Dmtzick it an excellent and well known fruit. Mortimer. 
peart-afn, the vegetable alkali amounted to Come- (1.) Pusmai*. See Praua, N° 4. 
what above oj. Hi* pearl-afh he prepares by cal- PEARSON, John, a learned Englifb bifhopi 

dniog a ley of vegetable afhea dried into a (alt to born at Snoring, in 1.613. He waa educated at 

whitcnefs. In this operation, he Uj a, " partial- -Eton and Cambridge; entered into orders in 16.19-; 

, tar care mould be taken that it fhonld not melt, and wa* made prebendary of Netherhaven in the 

aa the extractive matter would not be thoroughly church of Sarum. In 1640, he wa* appointed 

confumedt, and the alkali would form fuch an chaplain to the lord keeper Finch, and by him 

union with the earthy parts aa could not eafilybe presented to Torrlngtan in Suffolk. In 16 to hi 

diffolved." Me ha* alro given table* of the quan- was made minifter of St Clement'*, Eaft-cbeap, 

titica of afhea aod fait obt*iocd from diflSarcBt wj- London, About 1660 he pubuued at Louder 



oog!( 



* E A ( ISI ) PEA 

An tupoftita t>f ike Ottd, in folio ; ilfo, The lodged, and enjoy plenty of wholelbme food, bf 

Golden Remains of Mr jOhu Hales of Stun; with, winch they acquire great bodily ft rength. The 

a preface, ml cb^niter, drawn with great ele* pea fan ti of Finland are more civilised than the 

ganct. In ij6o ty wai piefented, by Juxon, Bp. Ruffians, and differ widely from them in look** 

of London, to the re&ory of St Chiiftopher'a in drefe, and manners. Thole of Sweden are ittll 

thai city } created D. D. at Cambridge; inftalled more improved. They are more honelt, in Better 

prebendary of Ely j archdeacon ol Surry ; and condition, and poffefe more of the convenience* 

nude matter of Jefus college in Cambridge. Match of life, both in food and torn Hurt, than that o»- 

sjth t46i, be was appointed- Margaret profcHbr Fo' and and Buflia. Before the late revolution!* 

or divinity, and in 16S1, one of the commilEonera the pealantt of Holland and Switx?rt >nd were all 

for the review of the liturgy. April lath 1661, in a very tolerable condition ; not fubject to ihst 

he waa admitted mailer of Trinity college ia undiluted cootrotll of a hireling matter, they 
Cambridge ; and, in Auguft, refigned bit rectory ■ ' were freemen, and enjoyed in their tevrral Ration* 

ofStCnriftopher'iandprebendolSarum. Ini667i the MeSa/i uf freedom. In Bohemia, Hur.gary, 

be wat admitted F. R. 3. In 1671, he publtfhed at and a great part of Germany, tiiey are legally 

Cambridge, in ato, Fixdiei* Epiftalamm S.Ljmatii, Have*, and fuffer all the miferiei attending fuch a 

in anfwtr to M. Daiile ; to wnich it fnbjumed, condition, la Spain and Italy, they are little 

Ifaaci P<$i epiftotm du* advtrfui Davidem Hhndil- better. In France, their fitnation waa inch ai to 

lam. Pearfoo wai appointed fncceffor to Bp. Wil- warrant the firft Revolution, and indeed theft, 

kins In the fee of Chefter, Feb, 9th 1671-]. In and a few other* of the lower rank*, fetm now to 

i63a,bia Annates Cjpriania,ji-vt trcitam anntrum, be the only ga.ia.erf by it. 

aukut S. Cyprian, inter Cbrtfiianei ■oerfaiai eft, hif. ■* PEASANTRY, m. /. Peaiantli ruftiakl; 

tafia cknmUegica, was pubiifbed at Oxford, with country people. — 

Pell's edition of that Father*! work*. He died at How much low ptafimtry would then be 



Chefter, July 16th 1686. gleaned 

0-7* PEAaiRKE. n,f. [fear and int.] The From the true 
tree that bean pear*.— The peart ret criiicks will —The peafixtrj in France, under a much heavier 



have to borrow nil name of n,, fire. Bacon, prefl'urc of want and poverty than the day-la- 

(>.) Psab-is.ee. See Ptkitsv N° 1. bourns of England of the reformed religion, un- 

PEAS. See Psasbukst, and Piatks. derftood It much better than thofe of a higher 

(1.) " PEASANT. (*./. [pai/ant, Fr.l A hind; condition among ui. Locke. 

ooe wbofe buGnefa is rural labour. — He boldelh Psai-BbidCIe. See P baths. 

hunfelfa gentleman, and fcorneth to work, wbich, Peas-Burs, a fmall river in Berwick- mire; 

he faith, is the life of a/M/iwr/ or churl. Spen/er.— which runs through a ravine into the fea, between 

I had rather coin ray bean, tban wring Berwick and Dunbar. ScePBATKS. 

From the hard hands of fcafanu their vile trafh. * Piajcorj. P« ash £1.1.. «■/. \fta codza&JbtH.] 

Sbiii.fpturt. The hulk that contain* peai. — 

—The poor peafantj in the Alpine countries, di- Thou art a meal'd p/ajcod. Shak, 

tertifed tbcmfevea in the Geld*. Braum'-i Travth. —I faw a .green caterpillar at big ai a fmall 

—'Tit difficult for a ptejant bred up in the on- prmftod. Wal/lan. — 

fcuritici of a cottage, to fancy in hii mind the on- Ktpeafcodi once I pluck' d, I chare" d to fee 

fcer. fplcndours of a court. South.— The citizen* One that wai clofely ftll'd with three time* 

bring loco men, with which they could make three. Oay. 

head agauuft 11,000 ptafeau.. dddifi*. (i.l* PEASE. »./ [Pm, when it ia mentioned 

(i.) PtA*»MTs, being, in genera), fecluded a* a fingle body, makes ftatt but when fpoken 

from ibe meant and op pott unit let of luxury aud of collectively, aa food- or a fpecies, it ia call* 

licrutioufncfa, are an order of men among whom ed patfi, anciently pea/on, pif", Saxnn t peii, 

3 philolopher would look for innocence and fim- French j pi/a, Italian; pijvn, Latin.] Food of 

phcity of manners. And, indeed, the peafautry of peafe.-— , 

Great Britain Aiil retain thtfe virtue! in a coufi- Sowe pta/m and bean! in the wane of the 

dcrable degree. But in many other countries, moon. Tufa: 

they are -neither fo virtuooa nor.fo happy. In —P:qfe, deprived of any aromatic part'*, are mi«d 

mott countries, and in molt ages of the world, and demulcent j but, being full of aerial panicle*, 

noce the conclufion of the patriarchal age, they are flatulent, jtrtmimtt. 

ha*e been treated as Civet, and their morals of (a) Plas e, in botany. See Pisvat. 

confequence neglected and corrupted. E*en in (1.) * PEAT. >./. A Ipccies of turf ufcd for 

the celebrated tU\e of ancient Sparta, they were fire.— Turf and feal, and cow&eardi are cheap , 

fubjected to a degree of Qavery, almorl, if not al- fuels, and laft long. Boron- -Carew, in his furvejr 

together, as intolerable, at the worft that has been of Cornwall, mentions nuts found in ftraf-eartb 

riprcfented of the African Oaves in the W. In- two miles Eaftof St Michael's mount. Waodw. 

tie*. t 3ee Helots.) And in the greater part (i.)*pE4T.a./.tfroa)*rrif,Fr.| A little fond- 

«f modern Europe, they arc itill confidered aa ling; a darling; a dear play thing. It is now 

Haves, add their perfons transferred as property, commonly called pel.— 

h? the great landed proprietors, along with the foil. A pretty feal ! Shot. 

Mr Coxe to bit Travih in Ruffia, gives a molt nor- The wench a pretty peat. Dam*. 

rible picture of their ignorance and degeneracy in £3.) Pi at, (j 1.) is a well known inflammable 

nurau, by inccftuoaa marriages, Sec They are, fubftaoce, ufed in many parts of the world as fuel, 

toweiex, he lays, well clothed, comfortably There are two fpecfcs ; ~— " — •"-"™"> »•"■«■— 



PEA < 132 ) PEA 

mt Wack peat, fotrnd in moorifh groonds in fecot- in-law to Dr Prieftl*y, makes life of pvt-turf in 

>trid, ! Holland, and. Germany-. When frrfbi it ia bit' large iYnelting furnaces. I h.ivr (era ip the 

of 4 vifcid confidence, but hardens - by GtpoEure- peflefliun uf Mr S. More, fecretary to the Society 

totheaii. .It conlitfi, aecording'to Kirwan, of of Aria, a kind of Hack taHoVVxtnfted by th? 

tjay mi*F d-. with calcareous earth and pyrites.;., faid Mr Wilkinfon from ipit -OlJ. ' It was cay 

fometimes alfo it contains ■conmwa fait. While foft, and nearly of the fame confluence with but- 

foft, it ie farmed into oblong pieces for fuel, after ter, .It humt»ery rapidly, with a ftoky Hir.ir, 

the pyritaceous . and (tony matters are feparated. in the fire; but the fmell was very diraerecah'c. 

By diiti "alios, it yield* water, add, oil, and like that of pit-tut f."" The great esute of the 

volatile alkali \ the a(fies cuot.iinieg a fmalt pro- difference! of peat mult likely arifes from the di: : - 

portion of fixed alkali;' and being either white or, fsrent mineral admixture?. Soma forts of ';eat 

red, accor.diug to the. proportion of pyrites con- yield, in burning, a very difagreeable faetl, which 

tuned in the .fubftance. Th#:.oil obtained from, extendi -to a great diltar.ee ; whiflt others are in- 

ptat, has a very pungent tafte; nnd an empyrcu- often five. Some burn into prey or white, and 

rqatic mull, lets fetjd than that of. animal tub- , others into red ferruginous allies. The afhea 

fiances, tnorefo than that .of mineral bitumen it yield, on elixation, a final) quantity of alkaline 

itrcongeals in the cold intD a pitchy inauvwhich. (ait, with fometirr.es one, and fametfmes another 

liquefies in a fma'1 beat; it readily catches fire fait of the neutral kind. The fmoke of peats does 
fr4jrn a Cindis, but burns lefts vehemently than . not preferve or harden flefli-lihc that of wood; 

otter oili.aodinawedjjtciypoes out upon remov- and the. foot into which it oonder.fes is more 

inei the, eslet&al flame : it diffolvea almult totally ditpofed to liquefy in moift weather. 

in rectified fpirit of ijne into a dark biowniih red .(a.) Peat ashes, property burnt forammure, 

liquor/ ». Thje ad. fpecies.- is. found, near, .New- are noble improvers both of corn and graft land: 

bury in Berkfhire. In the Pbilaf. Trmnf. for 1757, but the fubft-nce from which they Ihould be 

vts.hiws the fclk>n'n>g.,riCEf!unt. of this fpecies : got, it an under- lira turn of the peat, where the 

Peat is a composition of the bra tit hot, twig a, fibres and roots of the car: hi- Sec are well decay- 

lewe*,, and roots, of, trees, with 'graft,, ftraw, ed. Indeed the very bed are procured from the 

plartts,. and weeds, which, having rain long in loiuelt ttratum of all. "This will yield a large 

water,. U formed. into a mafsSo Gift at to lie cut quantity of- very ibong afhes, in colour (w!:ca 
through, with a ifiarp fparie. .The cbiour ia a '. hrft burnt) like verttiilfdn, and in tafte very tilt 

blaekith brown, and it is ufed in mauy places for and pungent. Great care and caution ihould be 

firing. There. is a ftratumof this peat on each ufcd in burning theft afbea, and alfo in p:cferv- 

6de the Kennet, near Newbury in. Berks, which ing them afterwards. The method of burnirg 

is from about a' quarter to half a mile wide, and thorn is much' t lie fame a; burning charcoal. The 

many miles long. The depth below the furface peat mult be collected into a large heap, nod w- 

. of the ground, it from one foot to S. Great num. vered fu at not to flame out, hut fuffcred to roi>- 
bew nf eutire.trees are found lying irregularly in fume ffowly, till the whole fubllance is burnt to 
the true peat. They are chiefly oaks, alders, an afh. The allies thus burnt are held in mull 
willows, and firs, and. appear. to have been torn efteem ; but the peat-a flics burnt in common 
up by the roots: many ho rfea. heads, and hones firing, are in many places ufed for the fame pur- 
of feveral kinds of deer, the horns of the antelope, poles, and fold at the fame prices. Peat afhes arc 
the head* and tulkfl of boars, and the heads of excellent in fweeteung four n-.cadow land, de- 
beavers', are alfo found. . in, u. Not many year* (troying rufliea, and other bad kinds of graft, and 
ago, an urn of a light brown colour, large enough in their (lead producing great quantities of nalu- 
to hold about a gallon, was Found in the peal-pit ral grafs. They burn great qrtantities of peat- 
in Specn moor, near fuwpusjf) at abput 10 feet alhes in fome parts of Berkfhire and LiTftcaihirc, 
from the river, and ftruiJMt below, the level of and eftecm them one of the bcfl'dreffinrjiifor their 
the. neighbouring, ground, julk over the fpot fpfing cropf. The fulprtureou.*\ind falir;e pani- 
wberc Iht urn was found, art artificial. bill'^Ri icles with which the alhoa abound, have a moft 
tailed about I feet high; and si this hill confuted hjppy cfFecf in promoting vegetation ; and, if nied 
both of peat and' earth, it Is' evident that the with ilifcrction, the increafe prccuted by them is 

' peat was older than the urn. From the fides of truly wonderful. All alhes are of-a hot, fiery, 

the, river, feverai femicircular ridges are drawn caufiic nature : they mu ft therefore be ufed with 

round the hill, with trenches. between tbem. The caution. VVrtfc rcfffccT to pep.t-aihca, aln;oft the 

urn was broken to (hi vers by the peat-diggers only danger proceeds from laying them on in too 

who found it, fo that it could not be critically great quantities at improper feafons. Ncthing 

examined. With peat alfo, may -be claJTed that can be belter than they are for drefijnglow damp 
fubJUnce called in England Jione-tirfi which har- -meadows, laying to the quantity of from it to 

deus after its first espofure to the air, but after- id Winchcfter bufhels on an acre: it ia beft to 

wards crumbles down. The cthci common lurf fow them by hand, as they will then be more re- 

confta* only of mould inter™ ;-en with the roots gularly fpread. This fliould be done in January 

oF- vegetable* ; bat w.'wji thefe roots are of the or Februai y at lateft, that the allies may be wafh- 

. bulbcws kind, or ia' large proportion, they form ed in towards the' roots of ;he graft by tie firlt 

the worft kind of,turf. * Although it may ap. -rainsthat fall'in fpring. if they werefpread more 

pejrincrediMe[f.iysM. Migeilan,) it is neverthe- forward in the year, and a fpeedy rain fliould not 

left a real fact, tliat, hi England, pit tnrf i» ad- fucceed, being hot in their nature, they would be 

vaotageouOy einproyod in Lancafhue to I melt the apt to born up the grafs, in (lead of doing it any 

iron ore of that county. Mr Wttbinfon, brother- fervice. The damper ud Riflei the fait, the more 

peat. 



PEA ( 133 ), ¥> E B 

peit-athes fhould be taidonit; but ingraft lands it as,.barU?y. Peat-aftics approach, in titir effecto, 
the quantity fiionld never exceed' 3D V Wir;chcller on the fevejal crops on which, they are laid, to 
bHnVivimJ °" llghl w.irm lands Irfs tl)an half; cpal. jpoti but two thirds of the quantity that is 
that quantity 'is fully fufficient. On wheat crops, ujed of, foot will be fufficient of the afhea, at 
thtfe allies .ire' of the.* greateft flfrtice, but they they are in a much Itr.onger degree impregnated, 
muft be bid on With the utmort difcretion. Were, with.a, vegetative power; and lliey are befides in 
they to V fprarf ih'any quantity bi-'fjre winter, mpfl glaces ealier procured in quantities) and 
after tb^ fowing the corn, ttn'y would mate the at a cheaper rate. Ppatafhes are almott a gene- 
wheat too rflnt, au-J do more harm than b -ood j rat ma-mre fuited to erefy foil. On cold clay 
were the fp>e 'ding this manure, on/the. contrary, they warrr^.the4-»Oi.wmpact -particles, difpofe it 
deferred till tyring, the corn' couM no: polfibly to ferment; c/umbli^aniJ. of courfe fertilize, and, 
duiiig the winter fe'afon, be bcnefrlcd by it. The . in fine, not only' atlfft it. in difcloGng and dif. 
bc.iining ofNovembcr, before the hard ffofts fet" penfiruj,ics greM vegetative powers, but alfo bring 
in, fi-vini to he the proper leafonfjr tliispnrpolb; to it,? aid a coAfidcrable proportion of. ready pre- 
aod it is nereffary to fow on every acre of heavy pared aliment fay. pJantH. On. tight land*, thelft 
ciiy-y wheat land, about eight Winchefter.bu- afheshave.a iii^rcrit, nBe&j here the pore* are 
fiie'lsof thefealhes- on lighter warmer lands in /too large to. be a|feijj.ea, or farther feparated by 
wncat, four wilt be luficient for this feafon. The the falts or Tulpbur contained in them ; but, bier 
Wint.'r dreffinj: is thought by practical 'farmers to . in^clo.fely. attached to the fiu-faces of the large , 
hf of great fervke : trifling as the quantity may particles of which this earth is generally com. 
{.tat, it warm, the root of the pla:its, brings it' pofed, this, manure difpofe* them, by moans of. 
moderately forward; prefcrves its verdure, and its falls, to attract the incisure contained in the- 
drfp^fes it to g« into a growing ftare ttafir;; fine air; by this operation, the . plants which grow 
wealher after Chriftroas. Afjogt the end of Pe- on thefe porous foils, are prevented' from being 
bra iry,' or the beginning of March, on heavy lands Worthed up and burnt ; and if they want more 
ia wheat, another dreffmg if alhva, by fow-:::g of nporifornent . than the land, is capable of afToeds 
them on every acre'! bufh.'ls more, w:li do much ing, this ia readily and abundantly. fuppiied by 
good j on Ir^ht lands, in ihis id tlrrtfiftp, fix bu- this ufeiul. manure. Jn large farms, if is very 
Cic.i may be allowed'. Tfitfe aftus laid on in the , ufual.to fee all the home rjelda, rich and well, 
fprrig'.are of the great?ft frrvic.-, without any mendsd by the yarddung, &c. whereas the more 
probability of d.anei-r : if-rain falls'within ,1 fcw diftjnf lands are generally poor, impoverilhed, 
dtyi after the dreiling is laid on, it is wsfhed in; ai:d.o.ut of heart, tor want of.proper manure be- 
an.l has a happy effect on the foccccdin-j crop, ing applied in time. 

co-operating with the manure t hit was laid on"if? (j.)Ft*r t-Aw, in geography, a hill of Scot* 
November j if, on the contrary, dry' weather for ' land, in Sdtirkluire | 'a miifsNVV, of Selkirk. It 
a long continuance fuccceds, the firlt winier dref- is 169'i let t ahove the fea level. 
finphai itf foil eflefl, and tne quantity laid on in TtA'l'US, Peas, or Pease, a »aft chafm, or 
the fpring is in fact fo fault,, that there is very rsjrhic ot' Scotland,, in Bcnvicfclhire, in the parifh 
llttre probability of its burning or hurting the oi'C'jctburnfp.ith, U-tween Berwick and Dun- 
crop. Tnis excellent, manure ii alfo of great ufe bar, through, which the ri»u|et Peas, otPias- 
in the turnip hufbandryi' particularly as it much burn, runs. i An elegant bridge of 4 arches was 
e mtribatcs to ptefrrve the young crop from be- built over it in 17S6, luppofedto be the bigbelt 
iijg devoured by the fly. But one of the princi- in Britain, as it h 100 feet perpendicular above 
pal advantages derived from thefe allies is the the old road, and nj feet above the water. It is 
very great ferrlce they are of to every kind of ar- 300 feet long, and ij feet wide; and the parapet 
lltkbl palfurc. Saintfoin receives great benefit walls are 6 feet hlglb Stat. Att. XIH, 130. 
from this manure, aDd fo does clover, rye-grafs, PEATRA, a town of European Turkey, in 
-nd trefoil, provided it is lard oil with discretion ; Holdaya| 16 miles SSW. of Niemecz, 
the proper fcafon is about February! The quan- PF.AUCJElt, in anatupiy, a name given 1iy 
tity muft be regulated by the nature of the crop Window, in his treat ife on the Head, and by 
and foil ; but It ought (carccty in any mlt.ince :o fome of Hie French writers, to the rhufcle called 
exceed thirty Winch e.1er buduls. Clover, with by Albinus tetitfmtu colli,- and by others dttra- 
■he hefpof this manure, grows with great Imuri- bent quadrittiu, and gvnijratv geM*. aantoriHi to 
atice, infomucb that there have often been two called tne part of this which arifes from the cheek 
lirge crops of hay from the fame field in a year, mvftultit ri/ariaj nevus; and fpmccall the whole 
and good autumn feed afterwards. They have platyfrna mjaidu. 

an excellent effect on tares or vetches: to peafe PEAULE, a town of France.! in the department 

they fet-rn to be huitful. The effects of this ma- of Morbthafl ; 7 miles S.' of Roehefort, and t\ 

nurc will be vifiblc at leaft three years, nor does NW. of Roche Bernard. • 

it leave the land in an impovcrillied Hate, when (1.) * PiiBRLE. Pebblestone, n.J. \j>*belfta- 
i!* virtues are esttisuded and fpent. Peat-aihes. no, Saxon.] A Hone diltinfl from flint*, being not. 

ate not, however, fo certain a manure for barley in layers, but in one homogeneous mafs, though 

and oats as for winter cprn: for a) thefc arc quick fomctimes of many colours.' Popularly a fmali 

growers, and occupy tilt land but a few months, ftone.— The purling noife it made upon the^eW^r- 

this warm manure is often apt tp pufh the,0> for- ' Jlonti it ran o\st. Sidatfi. — 
ward t6o fall, and make tbem run too; much to Ttic bilhop.and the dufeeof Glo'fter'i men, 

coarfcftraw, yielding only a lean i ram atu re grain. Ha^e fi'u'd their pockets full of ftbbltftimu. 
Oats, however, art cot fd apt to be damaged by .... Sbok. 

D fln zed Conger 



FEB ( 134 ) P E B 

— Suddenly a file of boys delivered fuch a (hover they hare ben brought broken, u we find them, 

of ptbiki^oate (hoot, that I was fain to draw mine from fume other place, or rife that the piece* 

honour in. SAai.— You may Tee ptbblit gathered broken from them mult at fome time or Other 

together, and a cruit of cement between them, at bave been carried from, this place to fotne other 

hard ae the pebbles. Bacon. — diftant one. Several of thefe broken pebble* 

As children gath'ring pcbblei on the (bore. have their edge* and corner* fo (harp and even, 

Milts*, that it feeras evident tbey never can have been 

Fountain* o'er the pcbblei cbid your flay. . tolled about or removed fince the fracture wa* 
Drjitn. made ; and other* have their fide* and corner* & 
—Another body, that hath only the refembUnce rounded, blunted, and worn away, that they 
of an ordinary pcbbU, (ball yield a metallic and fecm to bave been roughly moved and rolled 
valuable matter. IVttoiku. about among other bard bodied either with great 
(*.) Pebbles, in mineralogy, are a genu* of violence, or for a very long continuance; fince 
fulfils, diltmguifhed from the flint* and horaocroi fuch hard bodies could not have been reduced to 
by their having a variety of colours. These are the condition in which we now fee them without 
defined to be (tones compdfed of a cryftalline long frifiion. It may be fappofed by Tome, that 
matter debafed by earths of various kind* in the thefe (tones never were broken, but bave been 
fame fpecies, and then fubject 'to veins, clouds, naturally formed of tbia lhapc; but it will-be ea- 
arid other- variegations, ufuaity formed by iqcnif- lily feen, by any one who accurately furvcys their 
tation round a central nucleus, but fometiiiies the veins or coat*, which furrtiunded the nucleus, like 
effect of a Ample concretion ; and veitied like the the annual circle* of a tree, (hat they muft have 
agate*, by the difpofition which the motion of been originally entire | and this will be the more 
the fluid they were formed in gave their different- plain, if they are compared with a Rone broken 
ly coloured fubftanccs. The variety of pebble* by art. Such pebbles a* are found in l\rat*, near 
i* fo great, that an hafty defcriber would be apt the furface of the earth, are much more brittle 
to make almoft a* many f pecies a* he faw fpeci- than thofe which lie in deeper ftrata j and the 
mens. A careful examination will teach us, how- more cleat and tranfparent the land is which is 
ever, to di&inguilh them into a certain number of found among pebbles, the more beautiful the neb- 
cfleotially different fpecies, to which all the reft bles are generally obferved to be. The ufe of 
may be referred as accidental varieties. - When thefe ftones, and their difpofitiou in the earth, are 
we 6nd the fame colour*, or thofe refulttng from fubjects worthy of in ve (ligation. The furface of 
, a mixture of the fame, fuch as nature frequently the earth is compofed of vegetable mould, made 
makes in a number of ftones, we (hall ealily find up of different earths mixed with the putrid re- 
that thefe are, all of trie fame (pedes, though of main* of animal and vegetable bodies, and of the 
different appearances ; and that whether the mat- proper texture and compage* for conducting the 
ter be difpofed in one or two, or ao cruft*, laid moiftureto the root* of tree* and plants. Under 
regularly round a nucleus; or thrown irregular- this are laid the fands and pebbles which fervc as 
ly, without a nucleus, into irregular lines ; or a fort of drain to carry oft the redundant moif- 
laftly, if blended into an uniform mafa. Thefe ture deeper into the earth, where it may be ready 
are the three ftate* in which every pebble is to fupply the place of what is conftantly rifing in 
found ; for if it has been naturally and regularly exhalations ; and left the ftrata of fand fliould be 
formed by incruftaiion round ■ certain nucleus, too thick, it is common to find thin ones of clay 
we find that always the fame in the fame (pedes, between, which ferve to put a flop to the defcent 
and the crofts not lets regular and certain. If the of the moifture, and keep it from palling off too 
whole has been more haftily formed, and the re- foon ; and left thefe thin ftrata of clay fhould 
fult only of one fimple concretion, if that has yield and give way, and by their fbftnefi when 
happened while its different fubfta nee* were all wetted give leave to the particle* of land to blend 
moid and thin, they have blended together, and themfelve* with, and even force their way through 
made a mixed mafs of the joint colour of them them, there ate found in many places tbiu coat* 
all. But if they bave been fomething harder of a poor iron ore, placed regularly above and be- 
when this bas happened, and too far concreted to low the clay ; and by thefe meant not only ftrength- 
diffufe wholly among one another, they are found ening and fupporting the' clay, but effectually keep- 
thrown together into irregular veins. Thefe are ind the fand from making its way into it. Such 
the natural differences of all the pebbles; and is the fubftance of the diftinction*, arrangements, 
having regard to thefe in the feveral variegations, and remarks, of former mineratogift* on tt.U genu* 
■11 the known pebbles may be reduced to 34 fpe- of foffils, But in the new and accurate fyftem of 
cie*. In all the ftrata of pebbles, there, are con- mineralogy drawn up by Dr Thomfon, instead of 
ftantly found fome which are broken, and of forming tgrmu, c-onuftuip of 34 fpecies, pebble* 
which the pieces lie very near one another ; but only form a or j varieties arranged under the fpe- 
as bodies of foci) bardnef* could not be broken cies Chalcedony and Jajptr. See MiHsaaLoey, 
without Tome confiderable violence, their prefent Part II, Chap. IV, Clafi I, Or J. I. Go. VI. Sf, 7. 
fituation feetns to indicate that tbey have Suffered var. 1. and S*-. 8. -oar. 1. 
that great. violence in or near the places where (3.) Pebble*, Egyptian. See Minexalogv, 
tbey now lie. Besides thefe, we often meet with Hid. 

other* which have as piainly had pieces broken (4.) Pi ft B lis, medical abuse or. There 

off from them, though thofe piece* are nowhere are many of opinion, that the f wallowing of peb- 

to be found ; whence it feenu equally plain, that bles is beneficial to health, in helping the ftomach 

whatever bus been the caufe of their fracture, to digeft itt food. But the fionacb of man ii 

/ *,-,,-, formed 

D,„d », Google *""* 



PEC ( 135 ) PEG 

formed fo, that it can never requite thofe iffift- PECHANTRE, Nicholas, a Erench poet, the 

ancei to the comminution of food. On the con- Ton of a furgeon at Toulcufe, where he waa bom 

trary, h mult be hurt by fuch extraneous and in- in 1038. He wrote poema in Latin and French* 

m'jreftible fubftances aa pebbles; and there are for which be waa thrice crowned by the Academy 

inftsncw on record in which they hare undouht- its Jiux Floraux. He alfo wrote a tragedy en- 

tdly done much mHchief. titled Gita, which was acted at Pari* in 1687* 

({.) PiiblIS, Scottish. See Mw KaALOtiY, with great applaufe. He died in 170!. 

U above. PECHBLENDE, u. / the black ore of Uran!- 

* Pint! CKTST&L. n. /. This fort, called nm. See Mineralogy, Part IT, Chap. VII, Clafi 
by the lapidaries prUk-trjrial, ii in fhape irregu- TV, Order XIX, Ctm. I, Sp 1 : and Pari III, Cb. 
gir. Wmtonrd. IV.J XIX. 

* PEBBLED. a#. [from pebble] Sprinkled or PECHEM, in the materia medica, a name given 
by the modem Greek writers to the root called 

a pebbled fhore. fcfcw by Avicenna and Serapioo, Many have 

1 TbomJbH. been at alnfs to know what thiiroot pechem wasj 

Psbble-stowb. See PlBBLI, fi 1. but the virlnea afcribcd to it arc the fame with 

* PEBBLY, adj. [from pebble] Full of pebble*, thofe of the behem of the Arabian! ; its defcrip- 
The ftiUjt gravel next, Them/an. tion ia the fame, and the divifion of it into white 

PEC, a town of France, in the department of and red it alfo the lame. The word pechem ia 

Paris 1 j mi lei W. of Paris. formed of hebem by changing the b into a f, and 

PECAQtJE, Sr, a town of Mexico, in Xalifco. the afpirate into ^ or nl, which are both common. 

PECART, in zoology. See Su 1, N° 4- Myrepfus,- who treats of this root, fays the lame 

* PECCABILITY, n.f. [from potable.] State thing that the Arabian Avicenna fays of behem, 
of being fubjefi to fin.— The common peccability namely, that It was the fragments of a woody 
of mankind is urged to induce commi ft ration to- - root much corrugated and wrinkled on the for- 
wards the offenders. Decay ef Piety.— face, owing to its being fo moift whilft frelb, that 

* PECCABLE, adj. JtVom petce, Latin.] Liable it always (hrunk greatly in the drying. 
to fin, PECHER. See Pa ana. 

* PECCADILLO, n. f. [Span, pteeadille, Fr.] PECHIA, a town of European Turkey, in Ser- 
A petty fault ; a flight crime ; a venial offence.— via, on the Drino, 35 miles NE. of Ragufa, and 
Thofe little vices, which we call follies and the 111 WSW. of Nrfla, 

defects of the human under Handing, or at moft PECHMEJA, John, a learned French writer, 

the peccadillo! of life. Dryden.— 'Tis low ebb with born at Villa Franca. His Eulogy, on the great . 

his accufers, when fuch ptxtaJSlIai as thefe are put Colbert received the approbation of the French 

in to (Well the charge. AtterbtB-y. Academy in 1773. He died in 1785. 

PECCAIS, a town of France, in the dep. of PE-CHOUI. a town of China, in Cbcn-fi. 

Gard, with fait- wurks near it a 3 'miles SE. of PECHYAGRA, a name given by author* to 

Aignes Modes'. the gout affecting the elbow. 

* PECCANCY. n.f. [from ptuant;\ Bad quali- PECHYS, a name ufed by tome anatomical 
ty. — The difeafe took iti origibal merely from the writers for the elbow, 

difeAeaion of the part, and not from the peccancy PECHYTYRBE, an epithet ufed by fame me* 

of the humours. Wifiman. dical writers for the fcurvy. 

(it) * PECCANT, adj. ipiccant, Fr. peccant, (i.J PECK, Francis, was born at Stamford, in 

Lat.] 1. Guilty ; criminal.— Lincoln/hire, May 4, 1691, and educated at Cam- 

My judgments, how with mankind I proceed; bridge where he took the degrees of B. and M, A. 

As how with peccant angels late they faw. Milt. He was appointed rector of Godeby, near Melton 

— Such a peccant creature fhould difapprove and in Letcefterfhire- He waa the author of many 

repeat of every violation of the rules of jull and works,; viz. 1. A poem, entitled Sghi cm the Death 

honeft. SoatiS. a. HI difpofedi corrupt) bad; of- of queen Anne t 1714. a. TO TVOX'ArrON) or an 

fenfire to the body; injurious to health. It is Excrcife on the Creation, and an Hymn to the 

chiefly ufed in medical writers. — Creator of the World ; written in the words of 

Purge the petcont humours that abound. Drjd. the text, to (how the Beauty and the Sublimity of 
—Such an have the bile peccant or deficient art re- the Holy Scriptures, 1716, 8vo. H 3. In 17*1, be- 
lieved by bitters, ■tfrbutb. 3. Wrong ; bad j de* ing then curate of King's Clifton in Northampton' 
fictent 1 unformal.— Nor is the party cited bound fhire, he iffued propofals for printing the Hiftory 
to appear, if the citation be peccant in form or and Antiquities of bis native town, which waa 
matter. Aj&ffc, puMifhed in 1717, in folio, under the title of 

(a.) PlCCAHT, in medicine, an epithet given to " Acedenda tertia Angticana ; or the Antiquarian 

the hnmoura of thebody, when they offend either Annals of Stamford in Lincoln, Rutland, and 

in quantity or quality, i.e. when they are either Northampton (hires | containing the Hiftory of the 

morbid, or in too great abundance. Moft difeifes Univerfity, Monafteries, Guilds, Churches, Cha- 

arife from peccant humours, which are either to pell, Hofpitalt, and Schools there, &c. inferibed 

he corrected by alteratives and fpecifics, or elfe to to Joho Duke of Rutland. 4. The Hiftory of the 

be evacuated. But this is diipujed by the advo- Stanford bull-running. 5. "Queries concerning 

cites for the New Syftem of Medicine. the Natural Hiftory and Antiquities of Lekefter- 

PECETO, a town of France, in the dep. of the (hire and Rutland," in 1719 and 1730; but the 

Po, and fate provi nce of Cbieri, in the Piedmon- work, though his progrefi in it was very ennfider- 

tefc; a miles SW. of Cbieri. able, never made its appearance. 6- In 1731, he 

published 

, ;q ,ued^OOg1C 



* 4 C ,,..x 'it 

pubtiuied"Voi,,T. of " DcjiJtrata Cat'afa f r or,>a 
Collection "of Divers tcarce and curious Pieces re- 
lating chiefly to Matters of Enfilifh Hinory; con- 
fifting of choice tracts, nurnoirsj letters', &c. fran- 
fcribc-d, many of'them, fronytfie original), aiiil 
the reft from divers ancient MS. copies, or the MS. 
collations of fundi>y famous antiqiiirira, Jtc. -with 
"riolen, contents, and acrirriplete intjex/ This vol. 
was dedicated to Lord William Masoerst ancf was 
followed, in 1735, by a id vol. dedicated to Dr 
Reynolds Bp. of Lincoln. 7. A'cpinpJrte cata- 
logue of all the difcourfea written both for and 
again ft popery in the time of K. ■J.-rmes'II. con- 
taining an account of 45; books and pamphlets: 
&c. 410, 173J. S. Nineteen Letters of t4ie rev, 
Henry Hammond, D. D. to Mr Peter Stainnough 
and Dr Nathaniel Angela, on curious fubjeiti. 
Sec. 1739. 9* Memo'irB of the Life and Acl : ons 
of Oliver Cromwell, as delivered in three panegy- 
rics of him written in Latin; fuppbl'edby Mr John 
Milton; with an Englifh vernon;, illuft rated with 
> large historical preface and notes, &c. 1749, 
4to. 10. New Memoirs of the Life and poetical 
Works of Mr John Milton ; with 1. An examina- 
tion of Milton s ftyie ; a. Explanatory -and criti- 
cal notes on Milton and' Shakefpeare. 3. Bap- 
tiftes; a facred dramatic poem in defence of liber- 
ty, written in Latin by George Buchanan, trans- 
lated by Mr Jobn Milton, and firft psblifhed in 
1641, by order of the houfe of common!. 4. The 
Parallel, or Abp. Laud and Card. Wolfey compa- 
red, a Virion by Milton. 5. The Legend of Srr 
Jficholaa Throckmorton, Lot. chief butler of Eng- 
land, who died atf poifon, anno 1$ 70, an hiftori- 
cal poem, by his nephew Sir Thomas Throckmor- 
ton, Int. 6. Herod the great, by the editor. 7. 
The RefurreAion a poem in imitation of Milton. 
I. A Difcourfe on the Harmony of the Spheres, 
ty Milton ; with prefaces and notes, 1740, -4 to. 
He died Aug. tjth 1743, aged Si. . 
(a.) * Pick. n.f. [from^e«o, or perhaps from 
t, a vefTel. Skinntr.] 1, The fourth part of a 



) 



t> E fc 



Cf 



ifhel.- 

Burn our veflels, like a new 
Seal'd feck or bufbel, for being true. Hudibmt. 
— To every hill of afhes, fome put a pfek of un- 
Backed lime. Mart. H*j»,— 

He drove about bis turnips in a cart ;. 
And from the fame machine fold peeks of peafe- 
King, 
t. Proverbially. [In low language.] A great deal. 
Her Anger was To final!, the ring 
Would not' ftay on which they did bring ; 
1 It was too wide a peck. Suckling. 

* To Pec*. *. a. \kecquer, Ft. picken, Dutch,] 
j. To Arike with the beak as a bird. a.-Tp.pick 
up food with the beak,— 

She, when he wilk'dj went pecking by. his 
' .fide. . , . Drjdtn. 

> — Can any thing be mere furprUing, that to con- 
sider Cicero obferving, with a religious attention, 
after .what maimer the chickens peeked the grains 
of com thrown tex'them } jtdJifw j. To ftrike 
fcitb. any pointed inftrument. — With a pick-ax of 
iron about. 16 inches long, fharpened at the one 
end to^«.f, and Qat- headed at the other. Cartvi's 
, Survey. 41 To ftrlkej to make blows. — Twocoo- 
ttary factions, both inveterate enemies of our 



church, which they are perpetually peeking i«! 

itrtkiflp at with the fame malice. Soak.— Maakird 

lie pecking at one another, till they aie lorn to 

pitf-ej. L'Efirange. . 5. The fallowing paffaee ii 

perhaos more properly written topick. to thrive; 

Gel up o' th' rail, I'll peek you o'er the pales 

elfe. Sbei. 

PECKELSHEIM, atown of Germany, in Pj. 

derborn ; 15 miles SE. of Paderborn. 

* PECKER. ». / [from peek.] |. One that 
,peckK 4. A kiml of bird : as thewaod^trfrr.— 
The titmoufe and the peckers hungry brood, tirji. 

(r.)-PECKHAM, a town of Sorry, in tbeparifh 

of Cambirwell ; between Camberwell and Dept- 

ford 1 which hat a noted fair on the atft Auguft. 

-f/».)PBCKtfiM, East, or Great-, >a towns 

(3.) Peck hah, West, or Little j J of Kent, 
near W. Mailing. , 

• PECKLED. adj. [corrupted from JpeckUL] 
Spotted; varied with fpots.— Some are peeklei, 
fome grpenjfh.' Woti. Angler. 

PECKWELL, Henry, D. D. a divine of the 
church of England, bom in 1747. He. was chap- 
lain to the marchioneft of Lothian, and rector of 
Bloxbam in Lincoln (litre ; but attached hrmfelf to 
the Carviniflic or Whitefield's methodifts, among 
whom he wis very popular. He patronifed the 
Humane Society, and the Society for relief of per- 
fons imprifoned for fmali debts. He ftudied phi- 
fie, and founded a Society for vifitirp the nek it 
their own houfes ; but fell a facrifce to bis phi- 
lanthropy, by wounding himfelf in the hand, 
while opening the body 'of a patient who had died 
of a putrid fever. The part mortified, and be 
died Aug. 18, 1787. lie printed feveral ferfnans. 

PECORA, in zasloey, the fifth order of the 
clafi mammalia, in the Linnean fyftem. See Zoo- 

PECQUENCOURT, a town of France, in the 
dtp. of 1 he North, and ci-devait prov. of Hainault, 
on theScarpe; j miles E. of Douay. Loo. 3. it. 
E. L»t. eo, 13. N. 

(i0 PECQUET, Anthony, a celebrated Freud 
phiiofopber, born in 1704- He was appointed 
grand mailer of the water-works and forrfti of 
Rouen. His writings on pbilofnphy, politics, an! 
morala are numerous- His Spirit • of Lawi ami of 
Political Maxirnj and his Tkeaghts on Man are 
moft efteemed. He died In. 1 J61. 

(a.) Pscquit, John, a celebrated phvficiaH 
born in Dieppe. He was phyfician in ordinary to 
the celebrated Fouquet, v. horn he entertained with 
experiments in natural ph il« fa p,hy. He scanned 
immortal honour by the diftfmery of a'laAcal vfiO' 
which conveys .the chyle to the heart ■. and which 
from him is called le Refcrvair de Pettptet. Thai 
difeotfery was afrefh proof of the truth of thecir- 
culati(m_of tfce blood 1 th*uf h it was oppofed by 
many of the Irarned, particularly the famous Kio* 
lau, who wrote a treat ire againft the author of it, 
with this title': Advtrfus Pecqaetum tt Peeonethinn. 
Pecquet '4 work& arc, 1. Experimnita n*w stsito- 
mica; Paris, 16J4. a- A Diffcrtat rati, De Titer*- 
eii Lu3tii : Adifterdasn, 1061. He was a man of 
a livelv and active genius. He recommend eil, « 
a remedy fen all dii'eafw, the ufe of brandy. 1 his 
remedy, however, contributed tr>,fhot{en his cwn 
day*. He died at Paris, in 1674- 

PECTEN, 



PEC (13*7) PEC 

PECTEN, UicSc*t.u>r, ■ genu* of uiell-nfh. peaens fail on the furface of the water) and 6e> 

The character* are thefe : Tbeaniraal is a tethysj fides, if they are attacked by a foe, they let down- 

the (hell bivalve and unequal) the hinge toothlefr, the membrane which nature hat provided them 

having a fmatl orated hollow. This fhell-nih it far a fail, and drop to the bottom. " Behold (fay* 

one of the i'pinners, having the power of fpinning Barbut) the fplcndour of the pe&mea, which rival 

threadt like the miifcle*; but they are much (hotter the glowing colour* of the papilionaceous tribe^ 

and coarfer than thofe of that fiih, fo that they can aa numerous as they are beautiful; flirting from? 

never be wrought into any kind of work like the place to place, and may well be called the papi- 

longer and finer thread! of the pinna marina. The liones of the ocean. What fuperior qualities doe* 

ufc of the thread* which are fpun upon the fcal- not the peclen enjoy above the osThs* sdulis, 

lop i* to fix the creature to any folid body near it! which, conftantly coufineii to its native bed, feetnt 

fhell. All thefe proceed, aa in the roufclc, from wholly deflined to afford food to other crcatureir 

one common trunk. It ii an evident proof, that not having any mean* of defence but Ha fhelfy 

the fi/h ha* a power of fixing itfelf at pleafure to caftle, which i* often attacked and ftormed by its 

any folid body by mean* of thefe threads, that af- numerous enemies ? This creature i* not only ttfe- 

ter dorms the fcallopa are often found toffbd upon fill to man a* a dainty food, but the fhell, being 

rocks where there were none the day before; and levigated into a fubtile powder, is employed aa an 

yet thefe are fixed by their threads, a* well as thofe abibrbent in heart-barn* and other like complaint ■ 

which had remained ever fo long in their place, arifing from acidities in the firft paffage* | the 

They form their threads in the fame manner with hollow fhell* arc generally made choice of, as con- 

themufcle; only their organ for fpinning isfhorter, taining more than the thinner fiat one*, of the fine 

and hat a wider hollow, whence the threadt are white earth, in proportion to the onter rough coat, 

neceflarily thicker and fliorter. (See Mytilui, which laft it found to be cenfideiabry impreg- 

N° 4.) Mr Barbut divide* the genu* o*t*.ea nated with fea-falt." The grand mark of diftino- 

into 4 families ; which be thus name*, according Hon between the peflens and oyfter feems to be 

to their charade™ : 1. The winged equilateral the locomotive faculty. It waa long foppofed that 

pectena; a. The pecten* that have one ear in- the oyfter poflefled no power of motion, that it 

wardly, fpringing by being ciliated ; 3. The pectena always remained in the place in which nature or 

that have their valve* more gibbous on one fide accident had placed it, and that it* life differed 

than 00 the other; 4. The rough ones, com- little from that of vegetable*. Experience, how- 

monly called oysters. Of the locomotive power* ever, ha* taught u* to reject thefe premature coo- 

of the pecten, we have already treated under the clufiona. What Abbe Dicquemarc baa obferved 

article AM (Hat Mono*. Sec MOTION, § a. — with refpeift to thitcircumtlanceia worth quoting. 

The pcflens, fuch at the fate p/Bta, the ducal man. (See Motioh, $ 1.) " Palling one day (fay* he) 

ilc peSeit, the twitted, and other*, feem to be in along the fea-ihore, 1 obferved an oyfter lying in * 

general inhabitant* of the Indian feaa ; fome of fliallow place, and ejecting wkh con fid era hie force 

them frequent thole of Africa and the South Sea*, a quantity of water. It immediately occurred to 

The name piBcn feems to have been given to thefe me, that, if this happened at a fufficient depth, 

animals, from the longitudinal ftriae witb which (he refinance of the water won Id have forced the 

their furface ta covered, which referable fomewhat oyfter from it* place. To be fatisfied of this, I 

the teeth of a comb; and hence alfo the Greek took feveral middle- filed oy ft er» with a light ftiell, 

name wrc. By the general character of thia fhell* and placed them on a fmooth horizontal furface) 

it evidently include* cockle* at well at fcallopa, in a fuScient quantity of pure fea-water. Some ■ 

which are the pecten » without ears, and having hour* clapfed, and the night came do before any 

lefs flat or elated fbcMa. Cocklet are called by all thing remarkable appeared ; but next day I found 

authors by a name which it only a diminutive of one of the oyfter* in a place and fituation different 

ptSta, mctonculus. Tbe having eara indeed from that in which 1 had left it ; and as nothing 

ia the common mark of diftioction between the could have difeompofed it, I could not doubt but 

pectens and tbe cocklet, which laft ufually bare that it had moved by itt own power*. I conti- 

nooe ; yet the genera are not diftinct, a* fome nued, however, to attend my charge ; but, aa if 

have imagined ; for there are (hell* univerfally they meant to conceal their fecret, the oyfter* 

allowed to be pectena or fcallopa which have no alway* operated in my abfencc. At laft, at I waa 

ear*, and others a* univerfally allowed to be pec- exploriog the coaft of Lower Normandy, I per- 

tuncles or cockle* which have. Hence then ap- ceived in an oyfter-bed one of them changing 

pear* tbe error of Lifter, who made them two place pretty quickly. On my return, therefore, 

diftinct genera, and gave the eara and the equal to Havre, 1 made new difpofition* to dtfeorer the 

convexity of both (hells at tbe great cbaraderiftic* meant by which the motion* of oyftert are per. 

of them ; which, though they be good marks to formed, and I fticcecdcd. Thia animal eject* the 

diftinguifh tbe fpecies by, are fir from being fo water by that part of tbe fhell which ia diametri- 

nnalterabte a* to found different genera upon, cally oppofite to the hinge [ it can alfo throw it 

Barbut ranks the pecteni under the genua oftrea ; out at the fides, at each extremity of the binge, 

but be fays, that though the generic character of or even from the whole opening at once. Foe 

the binge agrees in both, the animal inhibiting the thia purpoCe it can vary the action of its internal 

pectena ia very different from that of tbe oyfter; mectlanifm; hut the foft parts are not the only or- 

for which reafon Linnxut hat difided tbe genus gam that perform this function *, in certain cafe* 

into fections. The pectena by fome are efteemed the (hells affift in forcing out the water. When 

as delicious a food as the oyfter. They differ very an oyfter thus fuddenly, forcibly, and repeatedly 

miterially. in a variety of circumftances. The fquiitt forth a quantity of water, ft repulfei thofe 

Voi_XVU,Pai,tI. ; 8 ( .of 

1 ^ 



PEC C 138 J F It C 

of hi anemic* that endeavour to inftnnate them- tircumftancMt "' defend* iifclf by mean* adequate 

ftivet within the (hells while they are open : but and complicated ; it repair* ill loflrt : and it can 

this is effectual only againft its weakeft foea-; for be made to change, in habits. Oyftefa newly 

there are fome fo formidable by their frrtngth or taken from pLicn which the fea had never left, ie- 

their addrefe, that a great number of oyttera perifh confideraitlv open tbeir {belli, loft: the water they 

in thia way. The animal, therefore, endeavour* contain, and die in a few days: but thofe that 

with aH it* force to repel them : it doe* mote, it have been taken from the fame place, and thrown 

retreata backward*, or ftarta afide in a lateral di- into bed* or Trfrrvotrs from wbkh the fea occa- 

taction. All of them, however, are not placed in fionally retires, where tbey are incommoded by 

tjjrcumftanas favourable for tbefe motions. They the rays of the fun, or by the cold, or where they 

are often frtuated in the iTevice* of rocks, between are expofbd to ihe injuries of man, learn to keep 

flonet, or among other oy fieri", Tome in fjnii, and themfi-lves clt'fc when they are abandoned by the 

fame in mud; fothat their ftrength, or powers of water, and' live a much longer time." See Os- 

mution, are exerted in vain. It is proba'ile, how- the a. The molt remarkable fpecies is the 

ever, that they have the faculty nf operating their Pectkh Maximos, or great fcallop, being the 

own relief from thefc circumftance*) and that they fame with what B.\rbut alitihe Jut al-mentJt pfBnt. 

may be accidentally affilted by other bodies. It It haa 14 rays, very prominent and broad, and 

muff, however, be acknowledged, that the means filiated both above and below. They are rugged 

of relief cannot be numerous or confkterable in and imbricated wilh fcalea. They grow to a large 

fuch as are attached to other oyftrrs, to a body' fixe, and are found in beds by tfcemfctves; are 

heavier than themselves, or to a rock ; but fucb dredged no, and barrelled for fide. The ancient* 

situations are the moft uncommon in theoyil-r- f»y that ihry have a power of removing themfrlvcs 

beds that I am acquainted with on tlie French from place to place by van fprinpt or leap*. The 

coafts in the Channel. Perhaps, indeed, a very ftfti waa 11 fed both by the Greeks and Latins as a 

angular or heavy (bell may be fufheient to render food. When dreffed with pepper and cummin, it 

as oyfter immoveable. This is undoubtedly the wa* taken medicinally. The fcatlop wa* com- 

cafe with .fuch of them as nave been obliged by monly worn by pilgrims on their hat, or the cape 

worms, or other more formidable enemies, lb to of their coat, as a rnatk that they had rrofled the 

iacreafe their fhells as to make them thick and nn- fea hi tbeir way to the Holy Land, or feme diftant 

wield y. An oyfter that haa never been attached objrdl of devotion. 

»3y foitfelf by any part of the margin of either * PECTINAL. n.f. [from tVAaj. Lit. a comb.] 

of' it* valves, and that margin will become the — Plain and cartilaginous fifties, at prBineh, or 

middle, or nearly fo, if the oyfter is young. I fwliai have their bones made laterally like a comb, 

have feen them operate upon their ftwlls in fo Brawn. 

many different ways, and. with fuch admirable * PECTINATED, adj. [Irom ftBtn.) Standing 

con t riv a nce, when thofe fhells hare been pierced from each other like the teeth of a comb. — To fit 

by their enemies (among whom I muft be ranked}, crofs-letrg'd, or with our finger* ptSiaairJ, U ac- 

tbat 1 do not think it at all impoffible for them to counted bad. Bnv-n's Vulgar Errtvri. 

quit the place to which they are attached. It * PECTINATION, a. /. The Hate of being 

will eafily be imagined bow delicate and difficult pectinated.— TI.e complication or pcB'mation of 

fuch oMervstfon* and experiments muft be, con- the fingers waa an hieroglyphic of impediment. 

ftderkig the fenfibility of the animal, the delicacy Brcvoit't Fulgar Errouri. 

of its organ*, the transparency of the matter that PECTI3, in botany, a genu* of the polygamia 

fnrms the layers of its fhells, the opacity of the fBperfhia order, belonging (o tbe fyngenefta clafa 

Ibelsa themfelve*, the vici (Etudes of the fea, and of plants ; and in the natural method ranking in 

the fratbns, See. But it was of ufe to fitew, that, the 49th order, Cemfofittc. 

cent u ry to the opinion generally entertained by (1.) * PECTORAL, adj. [from pt8»'alh, Lat.] 

tbe learned, as well at by Rfbrrmen, oyftert are Belonging to the bread. — Being troubled with a 

endowed with a locomotive faculty, and by what cough, ptSatah were prefcribed. Wsjemau. 

mean* that faculty is exerted. Thofe which firft (a.) * Pkctoral. *./. [pifforalt, Lat. peBtral, 

showed me theft* motions were brought from the Fr.l A bread-plate. 

eaaAs of Bretagne, put into a bed at La Hague, &.) P*ctobal, a facerdotal reftmeitt, worn by 

then at Courieulle, whence they were carried to tbe Jewifh high-prieft. The Jew* caH it Hktfiktm, 

Havre) and asalj theietranfportatkina were made the Greeks >•>»>, the Latins ratitnmie tndfrSwa/r, 

in a dry carriage, the oyffera could not -bo in per- and in our vernon of the Bible it is called breaj)-. 

fedt vigour'. Thefe animals have much more fen fa- plate. It waa about a fpan fquare. See Bai ast- 

tion and more induftry than is generally attributed plate, and Plate Xi-VI. fig- t. 

to them, Thofe authors are not fo enlightened .(*■) Pectgb.al. an epithet for medicines good 

a* they imagine, who reprefent the oyfter aa an h> difrafes of the bread and lung*. 

animal deprived of feafaiion, as an intermediate PECTOKALE.abrcaftplateofthmbrafs, aboot 

being between animals and vegetables, aa a plant, 1* ' fingers fquare, worn by the poorer foldieri 

and even in fome refpeer* at inferior to a plant, in fhe Roman army, who were rated under icoo 

It ia thus that the oylter ha* been made a founda-' drachma;. See LoaiCA. 

thin for many an abfurd hypothefts with refpect PECTORALIS. See Anatomy:, § 107. 

to the nature of animals. The oyfter is confeious PKCTUNCULUS, the cockle. See PtcTtn. 

of its exiftence, and confeious alto that fomethmg (i.l" PECULATE. In./. [e*WoK«,Latra; 

eatifts exterior to itfelf It choofes, it njtSs ; it (t.) 'PECULATION. Jprntotr.Er^ Robbery 

varies it* operations with judgment, according t» of the publiek ; theft of publiek money. 

* (a.) PucutaTion, 

D,.,« lw t J 8BglE 



<P 8 C ( 1J9 ) P E D 

(i.)PxCUXatiqh, or PMVUTIi in civil law, merly to the Pope, but now by the flat, »j H. 

the crime of embezzling the public money, by a VIII. c. 19. to the king in chancery. 

perfbn intrafted with the receipt, maiMgemrnt, or * PECULIARITY, n.f. [from peculiar.] Par. 

cuttody thereof, Tbli term i* alto nfed by civili- ticularity ; fomething found only in' one. — If in 

an* for a theft, whether the thing be public, fifcal, author pnfTefled any diftingnifhed. marks of llyle 

facred, or religions. or peadiaritj of thinking, there would remain fa 

* PECULATOR, [■j&nw/afw, Latin.] Robber hit leaft fuccefafu! writing* fcme few .* ikeui 

of tbepnblick. whereby to difcovex him. Swift. 

(r.)* PECULIAR, adj. IpetaOarii, from *ers- * PECULIARLY, adv. l\.otn peculiar.'} S. 
&dk, Lat.^eru/r, Fr.} 1. Appropriate; belonging Particularly! fingly.— That \s peculiarly the efleft 
to any one with exclofron of others. — I agree- with oftbe fun's variation. Woodward %. In a man- 
Sir Wiltram Temple, that the word humour it Tier not common to others, — Thin Tivy boaftc 
peculiar to oar Englrfh tongue ; but not that the this beaft peculiarly her own. Drayton. — When 
thing itftlf is Aerator to the Eng Mlh, becaafe the thin, danger inereafcd, he then thought fit to pray 
contrary may be found in many Spanifh, Italian, peculiarly for dim. Fell. 

and French produAion*. Swift- %■ Not common ( 1.) PECULIUM, In law, the flock or eflate 

to other things —The only facred hymni they are which a perfon, in the power of another, whether 

that chriftianity hath peculiar unto itfelf. Haeitr.— male or female, either at hit or her flat e,' may 

One petmliar nation to felett acquire by his induftry. Roman (laves frequently 

Prom all the reft. '- ' -Mitten. '-amaffed c'oniideTsbfe films in thiB way. Tin word 

—Space and duration being idea* that haw fome- properly fignifie* trie advanced price wbioh a Have 

thins; very abftrufe -mA ■ peculiar in their nature, could get for his m'aRer'* cattle, ft c. above the 
the comparing tbem or*' wflh adother may'be of • price fixed upon them by hit matter, which wai 

nfe- for their illuftratwn. Lath. 3. Particular; the nave's own property. 

ringle. To join m^frwith peculiar, though found (1.) Pbculium, in the Romifh church, denote* 

in Dryden, is impnoper. — " • thegooda which each religion* refer*** and pof- 

I neither fear, nor will pTorokethe war; feflet to himfelf. 

My fate Is June-'* moft ptcmllm* care. Brgden. * PECUNIARY: adj. [peeuniarmi,fiom Pretoria, 

(a.) * PecuUa*. h. / 1. The property} the Latin, peeuniaire, Fr.J j. Relating to money.— 

exclufive property.— ' Their impofturra delude not only unto fttt akt rp 

By tincture or refection, they augment ' defraudations, but the irreparable deceit of death. 

Their fmall peculiar. Mitten) Pat. Left. Brawn, a. Confining of money.— Pain of infamy 

— Revenge il Jo absolutely the peculiar of Heaven, is a feverer punilbment upon ingenuous natures 

that no confederation whatever can empower even than a pecuniary raulft. Burnt. — The injured per- 

the beft men to aflume the execution of it. South, fun might take a ptettniary mulct by way nf atonc- 

». Something abfcinded" front (he ordinary jurif- ment. Broome. 

diction. — Certain pecaTiari there are, fome apper- • PED. n.f. [commonly pronounced pad.] 1. 

taining to the dignities of the cathedral church at A fmall packfaddle. A fed is much ihorter than 

Fion. Cartvj.— Some peculiar* exempt from tho a pannel: and is raifed before and behind, and 

jurifdiclionof the biibopn. L'fley. ferves for fmall burdens^- 

($.) Pecu Linn, in the canon law, (( 2. def. 1.) A pannel and wanty, packfaddfc knd fed. Tqfi 

fjgnifiei a particular parifh or church that has a. A batket; a hamper.— A haft is a wicker pat, 

jurtfiiction within itfclf for granting probate* of wherein they ufe to carry fift, Speu/er. 

wilts and admin iftra lions, extropt from the ordi- PEDACE, .1 town- of Naples, in Calabria Citraj 

nary or bithop'a court. The king's chapel is a <\ miles S. of Cofenza. 

royal peculiar, exempt from all fpiritual jeriHic- * PEDAGOGICAL, adj. ffrorn pedagagittf\ 

tion, and referred to the vifitation and immediate Suiting or belonging to a fcboolm after, 

government of the king himfelf. Thereia like- (r.)" PEDAGOGUE, n.f. {pedtgogui, Latm, 

wife [be archhiibop'i pecoliar ; for it is an ancient wttJxyarn, «n and>^"'] One who teaches boysj 

privilege of the fee of Canterbury, that wherever a fchoolmafter.) a pedant.— • 

any manor* or advowfons belong to it, the* forth- Vew pedagogues but curie the barren chair, 

with become exempt from the ordinary, and are Lrke him who hang'd himfelf. Dryden. 

reputed peculiars: there are 57 fitch peculiars in (>.) A PrbAGOQ-uK, or PXDACOGna, 1* an 

the fee of Canterbury. Befides thefe, there are inftruftor in grammar and other arts. The word 

fome peculiars belonging to deans, chapters, and is formed from the Greek **ilm ayayc, puertmm 

prebendaries, which are only exempted from the duller, I. e. a leader efboyi. M. Flenry obferves, 

jttriUictlon of tbt archdeacon : thefe are derived that the Greeks gave thia name to Haves appoint- 

from the bifhop, who may viltt them, and to ed to attend their children, lead tbem, and teach 

whom there lies a* appeal. tbem to walk, &c. The Romans gave the fame 

(4.) Peculiars, Coh»tof, Ii a branch of, and denomination to the (laves who were intruded 

annexed to, the court of arches. It has a jurif- with the care and tnftrnction of their children, 

dtrtioo over alt thofe pnrifhe* difperfed though * To Pedagogue, v- a. [xnitaymyn, from toe 

the province of Canterbury in the mkfft'of other noun.] To teach with rupercilioufnefa. — 

dMcefet. which are exempt from the ordinary's This may confine their younger ftiles, 

juri{dict ion, and fueject to the metropolitan only. Whom Drydcn pe dogog an at Will's. Pritr. 

All ecclefiafiical caufes, anfing within thefe pecu- * PEDAGOGY, n.f. iwrnlmyeym.] Prepara- 

liar or exempt jurrfdictione, are originally cognic- tory difcipline. — The old fabbath appertained to 

able by this court; from which an appeal lay foe. the fedogigj and rudiments of the law. Whitt.— 

D#Ado,C *• 



1» E D (140) PftD 

fn«ime tie rcafon of mw ripening to fuch a pitch, ced and pedantick, weoughttoconnderrfow it 3p- 

•■ to be above the pedagogy of Mores' • rod and the pearcd in the time the poet writ. Addijon. — The 

difcipline of types, God thought fit to difplay the obfcurity il brought ov-r them by ignorance and 

tubltance without the ihadow. Souib. age, made yet more obfeure by their pedantic: I 

<i.)* PEDAL, it./, [pedolu, Lat.] Belonging elueulatora. Felttn.— A fpiritof contradiclion isfo 

to a foot. Di'fl. pedaatick and hateful, that a man fhould watch 

(i,)* Pedal*. »./. {pedalis, lM..pedalei, Fr.] agaiaft every iofUaee of it. /Ci/Jj.— We now bc- 

The luge pipes' of an organ ( fo called becaufc lieve the Corpernican lyftem ; yet wefhall fiillufe 

played upon and ftopt with the foot. DiS. the popular terma of fan-rile and' fan-let, and not 

(3!) Pedals are made fquare, and of wood) introduce a new pedantiek defcription of -them 

they are ufually 13 in number.. They are of mo- from the motion of tbitoMh. Bentlej. 

dern inwetion. and frrve ta carry the found* of * PEDANTICALLY, ad*, [from ptdanficcl.] 

an octave deeper than the reft. See Oug* h, ■ With awkward oftentatioo ot literature. — The 

PEDALiUM, in botany, a genus of the angi- earl of Rofcommon has excellently rendered it ; 

ofpermia order, belonging to the didynamia clafa too faithfully it, indeed, pedantically. Dryden. 

of plaotit and, in the natural, method, ranking . (1.) * PEDANTRY. «./- [ptmanterie, French.] 

under the »8th order, Lurid*. ■ Awkward often tali on of needlefs learning. — 'Tit 

* PEDANEUS. adj. [pedancu, Latin.] Going a practice that favours much of pedantry. Bream. 
<M foot. DiS. — Horace baa enticed me into this pedantry of 

(i.)» PEDANT. n.f. {pedant, French.) 1. A .^quotation. Cornel.— It ia in Latin, if 1 may be a!- 

ieboolmafter<— . lowed the pedantry of annotation, non per/uadebii, 

A pedant that keeps a fchooi i' the 'church. . et'umji perjiiaferis. jiddi/oa.— The young' nouility 

i. Shak. arefwt.forfearofcon.raainganyairsof/rdWrv 

The boy who fcarce baa paid iiii entrance by a college education! Swift. 

down it.) Pedantry, or Psoantism, the quality 

To hie proud pedant, or declio'd a noun. Drjd. or manner of a pedant. See Pedant. To fwetl 

*. A man vain oflow knowledge; a man awkward- up little and low things, to make a vain fbow of 

iy oftentatiou* of his literature .-'-The pedant can faience, to heap up. Greek and Latin without 

hear nothing but in favour of the conceits he is judgment, to tear ttiofe to piece* who differ from 

amorous of. Glaaville. — The preface has fo much us about a pafTage in Suetonius or other ancient 

of the pedant, and fo little of the conversation of authors, or in the etymology of a word, to Air 

men in it, that J fhall pafs it over. Addijan.— up all the world againft a man for. not atlmrrii g 

In learning let a nymph delight ; Cicero enough, to be interened for the reputation 

The pedaatgetta milircft by't. Prior, of an ancient asif be were our next of kin, is what 

Burfuit of fame with pedant* Gil* our fchools. we properly call pedantry. Nor i* that fpecies of 

Tetatg. modem pedantry lefs ridiculous, however, com- 

(-».) Pedant, is alfo ufed for a rough, unpolifh- man, which lead* Engliih authors to make an of. 
mA man of letter*, who make* an impertinent ufe tentatiou* difplay of their proficiency in the modern 
xjf the fciefices, and abound* in unfeafunable cri- languages, by introducing French phrafes, and 
ticifms and obtervationa. Madam Dacier defines quotations from French, Spanifli.or Italian writers ; 
a, pedant, ■ perron who has more reading than and by writing Jean, Louis, Carlos, Pedro, Sec. 
good fenfe. See Pedantry. Pedants are ever inftead of Join, Levi), Charles, Peter, &c. See 
armed with quibble* and fyllogifms, breathe Do- Ci-devant, and Louis. See alfo Dr John fan's 
thing but deputation and chicanery, and purfue juft cenfure of fuch pedantry and affectation, under 
a proportion to the laft limits of logic. Male- English Language, page 674-5, &C. 
jbranche defcribe* a pedant as a man full 0/ falfe PEDAR1ANS, in Roman antiquity. Dr Mid- 
erudition, who makes a parade of bis knowledge, dleton thus accounts for the origin of the word, 
and is ever quoting feme Greek or Latin author, He fays, that though themagiflratesof Koine bad 
or bunting back to a remote etymology. Lord a right to a place and vote in the fenate both du- 
Chefterfifld juftiy and (uccefsfully ridiculed this ring their effice and after it, and before tbey were 
fpecies of pedantry, but fet. the example which put upon the roll by the ceni-vs, yet they bad 
Jias been fince very much followed, of what tnay not probably a right to fpeak or debate there ou 
be Jiiled modern pedantry, by conftantly interlard- any qjeition, at lea ft in the earlier ages of the re- 
jiig his letters and other works with French, public. For this fcems to have been the original 
jSpanifbtandltalianquotMions. Si Evremonl fays, diftinclion between them and the ancient fenatore, 
that to piiui the folly of a pedant, we mull re- a* it is plainly intimated in the formule of the con- 
prefent him as turning all convention to fome falar edict fent abroad to fumtnon the ferrate, 
one fcience or fubjeel he is bed acquainted with, which was addrelled to all lenators, and to all 
There are pedat.la of all conditions, and all rubes, thofe who had a right to vote in the fenate. From 
Wiequefort (ays, an ambaflador always attentive tbjs diliindi ion, thofe who had only a right to vote. 
to formalities and decorum* is nothing die but a were called in ridicule ptdarian ; becaufe they fig. 
political pedant. ni£ed their votes by their feet, not their tongues, 

* PEDANTICK. } adj. [pedantefaue, Fr. from and, upon every divifjon of the fenate, went ovci 

* PEDANT1CAL. > pfdant.i Awkwardly of- to the, fide of thofe whofc opinion they approved 
teotatiousof learning.— Mr Cheeke had eloquence It wa* in allufion to this old cuftom, which feesui 
jo the Latin and Greek tongues; but lor other to have been wholly dropt in the latter ages 01 
lufheiencits peJanticlt enough. Hajv/ard.—Vfhen the republic, that the mute part of the fenate con 
0f fee any thing .in an old fatytift that look* for- tjnucd Jlill Jo be culled by the name pcdariari, 4 • 

- D„„d»,t J OOg!£ 



•J E D ( 141 ) P E D 

Cicero informs ua, who, in giving an account 10 Wingedjgomgonfoot.— Menconceivetheytwrer 
Alliens of a certain debate and decree of the (e> lie down) and enjoy not the pofition of reft or- 
nate upon it, fays that it was made with the eager dained unto all pedefirisus animals, Brtnun. 
and general concurrence of the pedarians, though PEDIACT, or ) in Grecian antiquity. Thecity 
agamft the authority of all the' confulats. PEDLEANS, J of Athens was anciently divid- 
I'EDATUKA, in Roman antiquity, a fpaee or cd into 3 different parts) one on the defcent of 
proportion mt a certain number of feet fet out. an hill ; another on the fea-fhore ; and a third in 
This word often occurs in writers on military af- a plain between the other two. The inhabitants 
fairs : as in Hygir.ua de Caftrametfltione, mtmine- of the middle region were called TXttaui, PcdUans, 
rimuj itatpic ad compvlationem cokartis rquiiatx mil- formed from Wi», plain or fiat, or, ai Ariftotle 
liarix ftdaturom ad 1360 dari debere ; which is will have it. Pediaeit thofe of the hill, Diatriaiu i 
thus explained : The pedatura, or fpace allowed and thofe of the Ihore, Paraliaas Thefe quarters 
for a cobori tqaitata or provincial cohort, confilt- ufnally compofed fo many different factious. Pi- 
ing of both borfe and foot, could not be the fame fiftratus made ufcof the Pedifeans againft the Dia- 
a* the pedatura of an uniform body of infantry, criani. In the time of Solon, when a form of go- 
of the fame number, but muft exceed it by 360 vernment was to be chofen, the Diacrlana chofc 
feet, for the proportion of the room of one norfe- it democratic ; the Pedizans demanded an arilto- 
miB to one foot foldier he afiigos as two and a cracy, and the Paralians a inixed government, 
balf to one. • (».) PEDICLE, n.f. [from (edit, Lat. pedierfe, 

* To PEDDLE. «. n. To be buff about trifles. Fr.j The footftalk, that by which a leaf or fruit 
Aixf. -it is commonly written piddU: as, what is fixed to the tree.— The caufe of the holding 
pidMinf w*ik is here! preen, fa' the clofe compact fubftance of their 

(1.) PEDEE, Gseat, a large navigable river leaves and tWirfer: Bacon. 

of S. Carolina, which nleH in N. Carolina, in the (i^'Pedicli. See Botamv, j Si, 1. 

Appalachian mountains, where it is called Y*D- * PEDICULAR, adj. [peiUularis, Latin, prdi- 

KIM, thence it runs £. 50 miles to Mount Ararat, eidairc, Fr.] Having the phtbirians or loufy dif- 

thence 8. by E. into 6. Carolina, whertit is joined temper. Ainfiuarth. 

by the Ware*, the Little Pedee, Lynch's River, PEDICULAR1S, in botany, Rattle Coxcomb, or 

Black River, &c. and mils into the Atlantic, 6 : Ltaji-wert, a genua of the angiofpermia order be'- 

railea below Georgetown, longing to the Cidynamia ctafs of plants ; and in the 

{%.) Pedee, Little, a river of S. Carolina, Datura! method ranting under (be 40th order, Per- 

formed of (everal head waters, that rife in N. Ca- fomat*. 

rohna) and after crufTing the divifional line, runs PF.DICULUS, the Louse, in entomology, a 

due S. till it falls into the great Pedee, 3a miles genus of infects belonging to the order of aptera. 

above its mouth and. 16 m: below Queen borough, k has fix feet, two eyes, and a fort of Iting in the 

PEDBMONTE, a town of Naples in Lavora ; mouth ; the feelers are as long as the thorax ; and 

10 miles NNE. of Capua. the belly is depreffed and fublobated. It is an 

I'EDENA, a town and bifhop'a fee in Iftria ; oviparous animal. They are not peculiar to man 

as miles SSE. of Triefte and of Cabii de Iftria; alone, but infeft Other animals, as quadrupeds 

and 64 NE. of Rovigno. Loo. 14. 30. E. ■ Lat. and birds, and even fifties and vegetables ; but 

4j. 34. N. thefe are of peculiar fpeciea on each animal, ac- 

PEDERASTS, the fame with Sodomites. cording to the particular nature of each, fome of 

* PEDERERO. n. /. [pedrere, Spaniih, from which are 'different from thofe which infeft the 
firdra, a ftone with which they charged it.] A human body. Nay, even infects are in felted with 
fmall cannon managed by a fwivel. It is fre- vermin which feed on and torment them. Several 
(jueotiy writ ten. paterero. kinds of beetles are fubjed to lice) but parti cu- 

PEDERNEE, a town of France, in the dep. of larly that kind called the loufy btitly. The lice on 

the North Coafts; *\ miles NW. of Guingamp, this 1 are very numerous, and will not be (hook 

and io| SW. of Lanuioo.. off. The earwig is often infefted with lice, juft 

PEDERNEIRA, a fea port town of Portugal, at tie fetting on of its head ; thefe are white, and 

in Eftretnadura, on the W. coalt ; containing fhining like mites, but they are much fmaller; 

about 1300 inhabit acta ; iS miles SW.of Leyria, they are round- backed, Hat- bellied, and hate long 

and 18 NE. of Penkhe. Loo. ■9. 40. E. Ferro. legs, particularly the foremoft pair. Snails of all 

Lat. 39. 3*- N. kinds, but especially the large naked forts, are 

(..)* PEDESTAL, n.f. \pUdefial, Fr.] The very fubjeft to lice; which are continually teen. 

lower member of a pillar 1 the bans of a ftatue.— running about them, and devouring them. Num- 

The poet bawls, bers of little red lice, with a very fmall head, 

And fhakeg the ftatuss and the pedifiah. Dryd. and In fhape refembling 1 tortoife, are often feen 

— The fore part of the ptdcfial waa curiouily em- about the legs of fpiders, and they never leave the 

boiled with a triumph. Adiifim. — animal while be lives ; but if he is killed, they al~ 

Softiff.fomute! fome ftatue would you fwear mod inftantly forfake him. A fpeciea of whitifh 

Slept from it's pe4efialx.it take the air. Pope, lice are found on humble bees; they are alfo 

{1.} Pedestal. See Aa chit icturb, Index; found upon ants; and fifties are not left fubject 

and Column. to them than other animals. Kircher tell us, 

PEDESTRIAN, adj. Travelling on foot. See that he found lice alfo on flies. The loufe which 

Abe next article. infefts the human body makes a very curious ap> 

•PEDESTRIOUS.^/. ipidcjlnt,lMia.} Not pearance through a microfcope. It has fuch a 

trsnfparent 

oogle, ■ 



f £ D X M» ) P E D 

],ran£pareni (ball or Aid, that we areable to dif- fpot, in or om which ihe white bladder teem* 
■cover more of what pafTes within it* body than in to He. This motion of the fyftolc and diaftole 
moft other living creatures, it has naturally three -J* belt feen- when the creature begins to grow 
di virions, the head, the breaft, and the uil part, weak ; and on pricking the -white bladder! which 
. In the head appear two fine black eyei, with a feemt to be the heart, the creature infantry diet, 
ham that h^s five joints, and is fuiTounded with 'The lower dark fpot is fuppofed to be the exert- 
hairs Sanding .before each eye j and from the end ment in' the gut. Lice have been fuppofed to be 
iQf the nofe or fnout there is a pointed projecting hermaphrodites: but this is errooeons; for Mr 
part, w.hVh Jeeves as a fheath or cafe to a piercer Lieu wenbeeckobfcr red, that the males baveltiog] 
>r fucker, which the creature tbrufts into the (kin Li their tails, which the female* bare not.. Aid 



to. draw out the blood and humours which are its he fuppofe* the fmarting pain « 

■deftiued food ; for it has qo month that opens tures fometimes give, to be owing to their fting- 

i[i the common way. This piercer or fucker is ing with thefe Rings when made tmeafy by pref- 

judged to be '700 time* fmal|er thap a hair, and fiire or otberwife. He lays, that he felt tittle or 

. ia contained in another cafe within the firft, and no pain from their fuckers, thongii fix of them 

can be drawn in or thruft out at plea lure. The were feeding on hi* hand at once. To know the 

breaft is very .beautifully marked in the middle; true Inftory and manner of breeding of thefe erea- 

the flt in is Banfpareni, and full of little. pits ; and tu*te, *J. Lieu wen hneck put two female lice 

from the under part of it proceed fix legs, each into a black flocking, which he wore night and 

■having five joints, and their fltin all the way re- day. ; He found, on examination, that in fix days 

fcmblii-.g fbagreeu, except at the end, where it is .'one of thenj bad laid above jo egg*; and, upon 

' fmootber. Each leg is terminated by two claws, diffecring it, he found as many yet remaining in 

which are hooked, and are of an unequal length the ovary : whence be con etudes that in 1 a days 

and fixe. Thefe.it if fes as we. , would a thumb it would hare laid too eggs. Thefe eggs natn- 

. and middje. finger j and there are bain between . rally batch in fix days, and would then probably 

thefe claw* as well as all over the leg*. On the have produced jo male*, and ■* many female*: 

back part of the tail there may bedifcoveredfoDjc and tbefe females coming to their full growth is 

ring-like divjfions, and a fort of mark* which ig days, might each of them be fnppofcd after 

look like the Arose* of a rod On the. human fkin; la days more to lay .100 egg*) which eggs, in 

the belly looks like fhagreen, aad toward* the fix day* more, might produce a young brood of 

lower end K i* very clear, and full of pit* ; at the . jooo ; fo that in eight week*, one woft may fee 

extremity of the tail there are two fern (circular JO qo of it* own defendants. Siguier Rhedi, wbo 

parti all covered with hairs, which ftrve to con- ha* more attentively obferved thefe animals than 

teal the anus. When the loufe moves it* legs, the any other author, hss given feveral engravings of 

motion of the mufcles, which all unite in an oblong the different fpecies of lie* found on different ani- 

dark fpot in the middle of the breaft, may be dif- mala. Men, he obferve*. art fobjeex to two 

linguiffied perfectly, and fonkay the motion of the kinds; the common louse and the crab-loiife. He 

mufqleBof the bead when itmoietiu horn*. We obferve* alio, that tbe fixe/of the lice i* not at all 

may likewife fee the various ramification* of the proportioned to that of the animal which they 

^eins and arteries, which are white, with tbe pulfe in fed ; fmce the ftarling&tathean as large a* the 

regularly beating in the arteries. But the moft fwau. Some kinds of conftitution* are more 

furprifing of all the fight* is the. periftaltic motion apt to breed lice than others; and in feme 

of the gut*, which iicontinued all the way from placet of different degree* of Atat, they ate cer- 

Ihe ftoipach down to the anus. ]f one of thefe tain to be deftroyed upon people who in other 

creatures, when hungry, be placed on the back climate* are over -run with them. Cteanliaefe 

of the hand, it will thruft it* fucker into the fkin, is doubtlefg the grand fecrat by which to keep 

and the bjoud which it fucks may be feen patting dear from lice, sfpecialfy when we wear wooi- 

irj a fine ftream to tbe fore part of the head ; len clothes : It is alfo necefTary where there ia 

Where, falling into a roundilh cavity, it pane* any danger, XO take nountning, fucculent food, 

again in a fine ftream to another circular rccep- and to ufe whoiefome drink ; to rub with garlic 

. tadc in the middle of the head ; thence it runs and muftard, to laba treacle inwardly, aH6 failed, 

through a fmall veffel to the breaft, and then to and acid food, to bathe, and to foment the body 

a gut which reaches to the hinder part of the with a demftiM of lupines, or of gall nuts ; but 

body, .where, in a curve, it turn* again a little up- the mod effectual remedies are fiifphur and 10- 

ward; in the breaft apd gut tbe blood ia mowed bacco, mercurial ointment, black pepper, and vi. 

without inter million, with a great force* efpe- negar. Monkey'e and fame Hottestots, we are 

cially jo the gut, where it occafiona fuel: a con- told, eat lice; andare thence denominated rHiHi- 

traction of the gut a* i* very furprifing. In the ftWBAaa*. On the coaft of the Ked Sea it ia 

upper part of tbe crooked afcending gut above- .reported, that these is a nation, of fmall ftature 

mentioned, the propelled bjood ftands till, and and of a black colour, who ufr locuibt for tbe 

fcorob.-to undergo a reparation, forrfe of it becom- gyanleft pant of their food, prepared only witb 

ing clear and waterilh, while other, black parti- talt. On fuck food thefe men live till 40, aad 

eles are pulbed forward to the anus. If a loufe than die of a pedicular or loufy dlfeafe. A kind 

is placed on it* back, two bloody darkilh fpot* of winged lice devour them, their body putrefies, 

appear ? the larger in the middle of the body, the and they die in exeat torment. It is alfo a fec3 

letter towards the tail ; the motion* of wbkh are that the negroet on the weft coaft of Africa take 

followed by the puliation of the dark bloody great delight in nate^ng their women clear tbeii 

bodici 

DflrtzednyGoOgle 



FED: ( 149 > FEB 

bodies of Ike, and thoft hmer devour t»»tti with ftagtiated or moved firmly In thaw, At' frfM 

grcedimfii as faft a* they And them. In ancient conducing to -the reibhrtlon rf rjfeftruaictts, they 

medicine lice were efieeaned aperient, febrifuge, may be oonfidercd as fhortand faft fevers; and" 

and proper for curing a pale complexion. Tbe inuring then we imitate nature, which by a'ferw 

natural repugnance to. ibcft ugly creature* (lay* often carried of an oWtrufttng can* of a enrol 

Lemery) perhapa contributed more to baoifli the nicsl ailment BoretH, Boerhaave, and Hoffman, 

fever than the remedy kfctf. In tbe jaundice five arc all of opinion-, that the warm pedrtirtiutn aWV 

or fix were fwailowed in a loft egg. In the fup- by driving a large quantity of blood 1 into the patW 

pirffion of urine, which hBppSiw ftettaently' to immersed. But arguments nruft give>Way to ftcU 

children at their birth, a living loufe is introduced the experiments related in the Medical Efflry*t 

into the urethra, which, by the tickling which it feeavto prove to * demonstration, that the warm' 

occauoniin the canal, forcea the fpfcinctcr tore- prdilurium aris by ratifying fhc b!eod. A warm' 

lax, and permit* the urine to DMA A one pro- pediluviuin, when rightly tenrperedj rutty be nft# 

duces the fame effect. Farrier* hate alfo a cuftorri Si a fate cordial, by which Circulation 1 can b* rou- 

{fcya M. Bourgeois) of introducing one or two led, or a gentle fever raited } with - this advantage- 

lice into the urethra of, horfea when- they are over the cordial* and bdoHnn, that the eflocT of 

feized with a retention of urine, a difeafe pretty them may be taken off at pteafur*. 

common among them. But, according to tha (j.) # PEDIMENT. «. /. [feilli, Lai'.} In ai". 

Continoatiiisi of tbe Materia Medica, toufsthe chitcfture,anon)atrjeaitthatCTdWDatheor4onnan- 

pedicttlar medicine with the greateft advantage, cm, finiihes the fronts of buildings, and (crves a* 

one would need to be in Africa, wtsafe thoft) in- a decoration over gates; windows and niches : it 

fecit are carefully (ought after and fttailowed a hi ordinarily of a-triangsrtar fort*, but fbme*inie*< 

a ddicioaa movfel. The great dlftrnAlon between makes the arch of a circle. Dig. 

thofe which inftft mankind hi into the bead add: M PtOiMtWT. Sec A#cW?tC1Vk£\ Hit*. 

body toufc The former ia hard and high Co- PflDlNAKJ-DOkC»M, a town of lodoftao, in< 

loored, and the latter left compacr awl utore of" Myfore. 

afben colour. If it were potnftl* M giro, a rsa- ' PED1R, a' town of fkUMtA, oflllfe Vh, no**, 

fon why fome families of the fame fpeciea (tick* belonging to the king of Acheew, 40 mUek E. of 

to tbe hood ana others to tha clothes, Stc. it Astbeen, ton, o6< jo: B. Lat. 5. a*. N. 

would alfc* is all probabitfty, be poffiftle to under- ( 1 .) * PEDLER. n. /. [a fettj dealer; a contra* J 

ftand tare nature of many contagiosa difcafH. Hon produced by frequent ufc.] One wbo'tfa- 

(i.}*PKOf09EB-.n./.{f*finAA^e\-Sti«iiey.] rcls the country vrtth (mall commodities.— 

Genealogy) lineage; account of detbnat.— 1 anv o AiM SB a poor poller Re did wend, 

no herald to enquire of men's p*Jigr& Sidney.— Bearing a truffe of trifles at- hi* back. 3fe*f. 

Ifoo tc 11 a pedigree —H ■ you would hear the fttlkr at the door, you 

Of threetcore and two years. Sbai. wnuld never dance again after a tabor' and plpeV 

— Alteration* of- 6 mimes; which in former apes Stok.^— 

have been very co»mo-i, have obscured tbe truth He it wit's pedler, an* retail* hff wares 

of our feSgntt. Gaorttn.— At wakes and wafiaits, Meetings, market*; fairs. 

To the oM beroea hence waa giv'n Sink. 

A p rSg r ee which reached to heaven. Waiter. Had fly DlffTes at the ftol 

— The Jews preferved the ftdigreel of thetr feve- Of Troy brought thee hi* prdUr** pact. CItatel. 

ral tribe*, with a aoore fcrupulou* exaflntfe than —A narrow education may beget among fome of 

any other nation. Alttrbury. ■ the clergy in poflefuon fach contempt for sit in- 

(a.) Paoioaei. See Cok»angoisity, Di- novatort, a* merchant* have fix fetters. 8toift.-~ 

kswt, GB»"»ioor, and Ihbhhtahc*, § 3.. Atlaa waa lb exceeding' ftrong, 

PED1LU VIUM, BiTMixa of- thb Peit. He bore the fisiw upon his bad, 
Tbe nfef of warm bathing in general, and of tbe Joft a* a ftdltr does hta pack. Steffi. 
pediiuvium in particular, are fo little underftood, (a.) Pkdi.br* or Pbtjl-ar, a travelling fool-tra- 
that they are often prepoftercofly ufed, and fonw- der. See HawKia. In Britain (and formerly in' 
times as injudicioufly abftained from. Warm ba- Franco) the pedlar* are defprierl ; but it is other- 
thing ia of no fervice where there is an irrefolnfale- wife in other countries. In Spanifh America,' the' 
oMTuerktt, though, by it* taking off from a bufinefs it' fo profHable, ihtt it it thongM by 
fpafm in general, it may feem to give a moment's' no means drfhonourable (■ and there are many 
eafe : nor does it d*»r from the difiant parti, but gentlemen in OM Spain, who, when their cif- 
oftcn hurt* by puAiing againft matter that will oumltanoe* are declining, fend their font to the 
not yield with a ftrong er impetus of circulation Indjea to retrieve then- fortunes in this way. A1- 
tbaa the- ftrefchetr and difeated veflel can bear: moft all the commodities of Europe are dlftrimi- 
fo that where there is any folpicion of forrrhuSf ted through the' feurheru continent of America by 
warm bathing of any fort fhonld never be ufed. ptdtan. They ootie from Panama to Paita by 
On the other hand. Where oHflructions are not of fea; and- in- tbe road from the port laft fnentioh- 
kaig funding, and the impacted matter is u«t db- ed, rfiey fflske Peura their firft voyage to Lima. 
tinaie, warnr baths may bvo* great ufe to reforve Sonri take the road through Caxamalla ; 'othort 
tarm quickly. In leorM colds, with flight hum- through Trusillo, along- the fnore from Lima. 
oral peripneumoiriett tbey are frequently an im- They take then- paffage baoE to Panama by fea, 
mediate cant. This they effect by increafing the and perhaps take with them- a little cargo of brsrl- 
force of the circulation, open iog the fltirj, and dy. At Panama tbey aga^ftoek>tberntelves with- 
driring freely through the lungs that Icntoi which European goods, returning by fea to Paita, where 



PUD ( 144 ) PER. 

they ire put on (here ; there they hire mules and . (6.).Pk«o Point, a ope of Jamaica, on the 

load them, the Indian* going with them in order N. coaft. Lon. 78. is. W. Lat. 18. iS. N. 

to lead them back. Their travelling expencea are (7.) Pidbo, Port St, a lea port town of Bis. ; 

next to noth ing 1 for the Indians are brought 61, on the SE. coaft, at the month of the Plata. 

under fuch fubjeiiion,' that they find lodging for (S.)Pidro, St, ode of theMa^fiUHSAsiilandt. 

them, and provender for their mulct, frequently Loo. 138. .; I. W. Lat, 9. 58. S. 

thinking it an honour done them for their guefts (9.) Pss&o, St, a town of Cuba, 31 milei SW. 

to accept of this for nothing, unlefl the ftrangcr of Bayamo. 

now and then, out of generofity or compailion, (10.) Pebeo, St, a town of E.Florida, 44 milei 

make* a (mall recompcnle. *In Poland, where ESE. of St Mark. 

there are few or no manufacture*, almoft all 'the (n, 11.) Pedplo, St, a town and river of Mexi- 

mercbandifc is carried on by pedlar*, woo are co, in Tlafcala. 

laid to be generally Scotfmen, and who, in the (13, 14.) Pedro, St, a town* of Pern; 1 in 

reign of Charles II. are (aid to have amounted to TruwHo, near the coaft of the South Sea ; j- in 

no fewer than .53,000. Lambeyqne, on the Pacafbaayo, moftly inhabited 

* PEDLERY. adj. [from pcdUr.) Ware* fold by Indiana. 

by pedlert. — The fufterings of thole of any rank (1 j.) Psdko, St, an ifland of Spain, SE. of Ca- 

are trifles in comparifon of what all thole are diz. 

. who travel with fifli, poultry, pedhrg ware to fell. (i£.) Pedko, St, db Sul, a town of Portugal, 

Swift. in Beira 1 104 mile* NW. of Vifeu. 

* PEDLING. adj. Petty dealing ; fuch as ped- (17.) PlDKO, St Da Tabekna, a town of J 
lert-have. — Tb\* pedJing profit I may refigo. Decay Spain, in Arragon | is miles N. of Ainfa; 

»f Piety. PEDROAOS, a town of Portugal, in Alentejo; 

PEDN Boat, Poiht, a cape of Cornwall, on 9 miles SW. of Houra. 

the S. coaft ; 6 miles SE. of Lizard Point. Lon. PEDROGAON, a town of Portugal, in Eta- j 

i, 8. W. Lat jo. 6. N. madura : a; miles NE. of Tbomar. 

(i.)*PFJ)OBAPTISM.B./L™J*cand0»J(r l i«.l PEDROSA. a town of Spain, in Old Caftilt; 

Infant baptifm. DiB. 5 miles SE. of Najera. 

(1.) Pbdobaptism. See Baptism, § 6, j, 9, PEDUNCLE, in botany. See IIotan y, Indtx. 

10. (1.) PEEBLES, or Twebddalb, a county of | 

* PEDOBAPTIST. n.fi [mi* and frwJimr.] Scotland, it miles long and 1 8 broad ; bounded 
One that holds or praciile* infant baptifm. ontheE.by,EttrickForreft,S.byArinandale,W.tiT 

PEDOMETER, or Podombtek, [from CTt , Clydefdale, and N. by Mid Lothian. It is a hillj 

fej,fiet, and fty', mraftm,) a mechanical inftru. country, weJl watered by the Tweed, the Yarrow, : 

meat, in form of a watch, confiding of ration* and a great number of fmaller ftreama thai fcrti- 

wheel* with teeth, catching in one another, all lize the valleys, which produce good crops of 

difpofed in the fame plane; which, by mean* of oats, barley, and wheat. All the rivers abound 

a chain or firing fattened to a man't foot, or to the with trout* and falmon. About the middle of ttiit 

wheel of a chariot, advance a notch each ftep, or county i* the mountain of Braidalb, from the top 

each revolution of the wheel ; fo that the number of which the lea may be fecn on each fide of the 

being marked on the edge of each wheel, one ifland. Tweedale abound* with limestone and i 

may number the paces, or meaftue exactly the freeftooe. The hill* are generally as green a* the ! 

ditttuce from one place to another. There are clowns in SulFex, and feed innumerable flocks of 

fouieofthem which mark the time on a dial-plate, black-faced fheep, that yield great quantities of 

and are in every refpeQ much like a watch, and excellent wool. The country ia well waded with 

are accordingly worn in the pocket like a watch, wood* and plantation*, abound* with all the no- ' 

See Perambulator, and ftW« a66. ceflarie* of life, and is adorned with many fine 

PEDRA, an ifland near the coaft of Portugal ; feats and populous villages. The earls of March 

4 mile* S. of Oporto bay. Lon. to. 10. E. Perro. were hereditary fherifTs of Tweedale. In the 

Lat. 41. 6. N. church-yard of Drumelzier, belonging to an an- 

PEDRAZA, a town of Spain, in Old Caftile, dent branch of the Hay family, the famous Mer. 

famous for being the birth place of the emperor tin is laid to be buried. There was an old trwli- 

Trajan, according to Mr Cm tt well ; but others tional prophecy, that the two kingdoms fhould be 

lay he was born in Italic*, now Seville. It united when the water* of the Tweed and the 

has an ancient caftle, in which the dauphin Fran- Panfel fhould meet at his grave. This meeting 

cis and Henry, fon* of Francis I. werp confined happened by an inundation at the acccflion of 

4 year*. It i* si miles NE, of Segovia. James VI. to the crown of England, 

PEDRED. See Pabrbt. (*.) Peebles, a parilh in the above county, 10 

(r.) PEDRO, Don. See P«t«,N° 13. mile* long from N. to S. and S i broad fran. E. 

,(1.) PsDko Bat, a bay on the S. coaft of Ja- to W. containing iS, 110 acres. The Tweed run* 

Lon. 77-4'. W. Lat. 17. 53. N; through it from E. to W,and divides it into near- 

, Psdbo Bluff, a cape on the above bay. ly two-equal parts. The furface confifts of vcr- 

*} Pedro Muno/, a town of Spain, in New dant hills and excellent pufture; the climate is 

_ . le t 4I miles S. of Huete. healthy ; the foil is clay and fand, and produces 

(5.) PiOBo Point, the mnft northern cape of excellent crops of barley, oats, peafe, turnips, 

Ceylon, opppGte Point Calymere on the continent potatoes, &c. The population in 179s was 1910: 

of India. Lon. So. ay. E. Lat. 9. 51. N. increafe as, finer 175s '. The cumber of borfes 

was 



JJ.IP.D, 

Utile; 41 



r i i ( 145 ) -pee 

wt« iooj of fheep, Booo; and- black caltte, ;oo. (3.1 * Peel. a. /. [pellis, bat. peliue, French]} 

There are relics of * diftrncl Roman Cafira Stativa The Ikin or thin rind of any thing. 

at Lyne, 4 miles W. of the town, 500 feet f quire, {41) * Peel. a. /■ \patlle, French.] A broad 

with % ditches and 3 ramparts comprehending a- thin board with a long handle, tried by bakers to 

bout 7 acres. Relics of' 4 Brttifh camps are aire pnt their bread in and out of the oven. 

extant, 3 miles S. of the Roman, with many others * ToPin. v. a. [peter, Fr. from pslth, Lat.] 

at greater diftances, as well at of watch towers, 1. To decorticate ; to flay — 

Ac. , The fkilful mephcrd peel' A rat ceratn wands 

(3.) Peebles, [from the j>r£*rV>~jbotrndmt; near And ftuck them up before the fulfumc ewes, 

it,] an ancient royal borough in the centre of the . Stat. 

above parifh, on the Tweed, over which it has «. [fiotn filler, ft. to rob.] To plunder. According 

an elegant done bridge of j arches. In ancient to analogy this fhould be writtin fill. — - 
time* itm often a place of royal refider.ee. K. Who once joft and temp'nne t; ir"-' d well, 

James I. is faid to have written hh poem, est 1 tied But goverri'd ill the nation! under yoke, 
Peebles to the Play, in it; in which he defcribes , Feeling their province*.. Hilton. 

the diverftomi ufually held in* it at the great annual To feel the chiefs, the people to devour ; 

feftivaT, at Beltien. Peebles confilti of a new and Thele, traitor, are thy talents. Dryde*. 

old town, and has of late been much improved in PEELE, Francis, a dramatic writer who tiou- 

traildkigs, trade and manufactures. It 19 famous rifhed in tltc reign of Q. Elisabeth. He wal both 

for carpets and ferges. It hat a, weekly market in Dwvonfhire; 'Audita at Oxford in 1J73- j and* 

for corn and cattle, and fairs in Jan. March, Map, took, his degree of M. A. in 1579. He was a good 

Jnly, Asg. Sept. Oct. Nov. and Dec It it 10 paftoral poet, and fail plays were acted, fays 

miles S. oT Edinburgh, and *oWSW. of Berwick. Wood, with great applaofe. 
Lon. 3. ©. W. Lat. [j. 38, N. "PEELER:*./ Lfroro »•«/-] 1. One who ftripa 

(4.; Peebles, a fmall river in the above parifh, or Bays. 1. A robber ; a plundertr*— 
which rant through the N. part of the town into Yet ores with her flicking a fetter it fiiund. 

the Tweed, called alio Bddle/hne water. 5T*JjP*w^. 

(1.) PEEK, n. /. in the lea-language, a word — 1A1 'til a feeler of laird, fow it upon lands that 

ofed in various fenfet. The anchor is laid to be are rank. Mortimer. 

a>peek, whm the (hip being about to weigh comes PEEM, a town cf Huhleio, 9 m. W.'of Eutyn. 
over her anchor in fbch a manner that the cable PEENANG, an. iflaiM in the E. Indian Ocean, 

bangs perpendicularly between the haufe and the in-lbe Straits of Malacca ; 30 miles in circumfer- 

anchor. " To brave a-feek, it to bring the peek fo encc. Lon. 98. 40. E. J-at. 5, 3*. N. 
that the anchor may hang a-peek. A fhip is laid PEENE, a river of Germany, which (eparatet 

in ride a-peek, when, lying with her main and fore- Sweden from PrulSan Pomerania, and falls into 

yards hoifled np, one end of her yards if brought the Baltic, a little W. of the Me of Ufedom : in 

down to the fhrouds, and the other raifed up on Lon. 31. is. E. Ferrn, Lat. 54. 10- N. 
end: which is chiefly done when fee lies in rivers, PEENEMUNDE Schani, a town and fort of 

left other Ihips falling fonl of the yards mould Saxony, in tne Ifte of Ufedom, near the mouth of 

break them. Riding a treed peek, denotes much the Peene. In 171J1 it was taken by the Pruf- 

tfae fame, excepting that the yards are only raifed fianis in 1757 by the Swedes | in 175s retaken by 

to half the height. the Pruffiam and its harbour destroyed ( but foon 

(».) Ps ik it atfO Ufcl for a room in the hold, after retaken by the Swedes. It is 6 miles N. of 

extending from the bitts forwards to the ftetn: in Wolgaft. For Lon. and Lat. fee Peeki. 
this room men of war keep their powder, and " PEEP. ■./ J. Firft appearance : as, at the 

merchant-men their victuals. feef and firft break of day. a. A fly look. — Would 

Peek's Kill, a village of New York, 50 miles not one think, the almanackinakcr wal crept out 

N. of New York, where Tome magazines of the of his grave to tike t'other feef at the ftflrs r SvAfi. 
Americans were deftroyed by the Britifh troops, ■ * To Peef. v. n. [This word hat no etymology, 

in 1777. See America, # 18. except that of Skinner, who derives It from ophefi. 

( 1.) PEEL, in geography, a fmall ifland, on t*e fen, Dutch, to lift up s and of Ca/auhm, who dc 

W. co.ift of the tile of Man. It is naturally very rivet it from nriswtari >/pji perhaps it may come 

Arong, but was rendered much more fo, by Tho- from fip,fifio, Latin, to cry ai young birds ; when 

mas Earl of Derby, who encoropaffed it with a the chickens firft broke the (hell and cried, they 

wall, towers, and other fortifications ; fo that in were faid to begirt to fip or feef; arid the word 

thofe days it was impregnable, A fmall garrlfon that expreffed the act of crying, was by miftake 

it ftill kept in it. It has an ancient cathedral, de- applied to the ad of appearing that wal at the 

dicatcd to St Germ run, the frrlt bifhop of Man ; fame time : this is offered till femething better 

betides the bifhop's palace, and other relics of may be found.) i. To make the Grit appearance, 
antiquity. It has alfo a fort with feveral cannons. Seeing at laft herfelf from danger rid. 

It it nowxrbiefiy ufed is a prifon -for all offenders Peeps forth and foon renews her native pride. 
again* ecclctiamcal laws, and is called St Gtr~ Sfenfer. 

man' 1 Prifon from the cathedral. Lon. 4. 40. W. The true blood which petfi forth fairly 

Lat. 54. 13. N. through it, 

(s.l Ptlt., a town of the ifle of Man, formerly Do plainly give you out an unftain'd ihepberd. 
called Holm Town, feparatcd from the above Shale 

rilaad, by a narrow channel, from 7 to 10 fa- From this league. 

thorns deep. It is 14 miles W, of Douglas. Peef'J barms that menae'd him. Shah. 

Vox. XVIL Paet L f , ,,, I can 



PEE { U6 ) PEE 

lean fee hia pride Oh! whatiaman, great maker of mankind? 

J»«?' through each part of him. Shot. That thou adom'ft him with fo bright i mind, 

The tirrrrou* maiden bloflbms on each bough Mik'A him a king, and er'n an angel's peer. 

Perfi forth from their fii ft blurtiei. Crajhow. Davits. 

She makes th* obedient ghofts peep trembling a. One equal in excellence or endowments, — 

through the ground. Ko/cammcn. All thefe did wife Ulyffes lead, in counfel 

Earth, but not snce, her vifage rears, petr to Jove. Cbapna*. 

And peeps upon thefeai. Drjdm. In fong he never had hii^rer. Drydtn. 

Fair as the face of nature did appear, 3. Companion ; fellow. — 

' When flowers fitHfeep'J. Drydtit, He all bit pern in beauty did furpafs. Spcfer. 

—-Priming and letteri bad juft peeped abroad in In the dance* with what fpight 

the world. Atterbury.^ Though but the very OF your peers you were beheld, 

white end of the fprout prep out in the outward That at every motion fwell'd. Ben Jwjim. 

part of the couch, break it open. Mortimer.— Who bear the bows were knights in Ar- 

Hills peep o'er hilli, and Alp* on Alp* arife. thur'i reign. 

Pope. Twelve they, and twehre the pttri of Cbarle- 

Moft fouls but peep out once an age. Pope. magnc. DryJtt. 

*. To look fiiir-, cfofely or curionSy ; to look 4. A nobleman a* diftinfl from a commoner ; of 

through any crevice.— ' - nobility we have five degree*, #ho are all tiever- 

Whoiathefatucwbicbjit ma- wladowpeeptr* theiefs called peers, becaufe their effect ial privi- 

Spmftr. Jcgea are the fa me.— 

Come thick night t I fee thee compart with thy kingdom's pent, 

That my keen knife fee not the wound it make* ; That fpeak my falutatious. Shai. 

Hot heaven perp through, the blanket of the dark, King Henry's peers and chief nobility 

To cry hold. Sbai. Deftroy'd themfelres. Skat. 

Some that will evermore pup thro' their eye*. Whatever, be your birth, yon're Cure to be 

And laugh like parrot* at a bag-piper. Sbak. A peer of the firft magnitude U> me. Dry/ten. 

•r-Afool will peep in at thedoor. Kcchf, xii. 13.— (a.) Peek wa* anciently applied tothevallals 

Lattice- window* give the fpy or tenants of the fame lord, who were called pern, 

Room hut to peep with half an eye. Cleave!, becaufe they were all equal in condition, and 

All doors are ihut, no iervant peeps abroad. obliged to ferve and attend him In hi* court*; 

Drydea, and peer* im fiefs, becaufe they all held fiefs of 

The darling Barnes itept is Drjiien. the lame lord. The term peers ia now applied U 

The feat her' d people look down to peep on thofe who are iropannelled in an in quell upon a 

me, . DryJe*. pcrfon, for convicting or acquitting him of any of. 

■— Thofc remote and vaft bodies were formed not fence laid to bit charge : and the rcafon why the 

merely to be ptept at through . an optick glafs, jury is fo called, is becaufe, by the common law 

Seniisj.— and cuftom of this kingdom, every perfon is to be 

Omy mufe.juft difiancekeepi . tried by his peers or equals; a lord by the kwdi, i 

Thou art a maid, and raufi not peep.. Prior, and a commoner by commoners. See JutT. I 

lu vain hit little children, peeping out (5.) Pes*. OF THI iulm, a noble lord who . 

Into the mingling ftorm, demand their (ire. ha* a feat and vote in the Houfe of Loan* or 1 

Thorn/on, Peers. Theft lord* are called peers, becaufe ' 

* PEEPER, n.f. Young chicken* juft breaking ■ though there i* a diftinclion of degrees in our no- 
the well.— , bility, yet in public action* they are equal, at in 

Snail* the prft court and (refers crown the their votes in parliament, and in trying any noble. 

meal. BramfiuU. man or other perfon impeached by the commons. 

* Peephoi,*. Its. /.{peep, *t«\ bole.] Hole &c. See Parliament, j 6— it. 

* Pieplnghole. J through which one may (6.) Peers, House or, or House of Lords, 
look without being difcovcred. — The fox fpied forms one of the three eirates of Parliament. See 
Mm through a peepir.g/iete he bad found out. ' LOftps, § 1, II, and Parliament, § 6—11. In 1 
I. 'Eft 'range.— judicative capacity, the houfe of peers i* the fa- 

fly the peephalet in his cteft, preme court of the kingdom, having at prefent no 

Ii it not virtually confeft, original jurifdiction over caufef, but only upon 

That (here bis eye* took dirt-ant aim? Prfar. appeals and writ* of error; toreflify any injuftiee 

(1.) PEER, in geography, a ci-devant county or miftate of the law committed by the courts 

(if Germany, in the late bifhoprick of Liege, now below. To this authority they fucceeded of courfe, 

gnnexed to the- French empire, and included io upon the diOblutioo of the Aula Rigia. For 

the department of the Ourte, a* the barons of parliament were con ft it urn t mem- 

(a.) Peer, a town of France, late capital of the hers of that court, and the reft of its jurifdiction 

Above county, now in the dep, of Ourte, 30 miles was dealt out to other tribunals, over which the 

W. of Liege, and 30 NE. of Lou vain. great officers who accompanied thofe barons were 

(3.} * Pf t a. n.f. Ipoir, French.] 1. Equal ; one refpectively delegated to prefide, it followed, that 

pi liie f.ime rank. 1 — the right of receiving appeals, and fuperintend- 

Hl^ peers upon this evidence ing all other jiirifdiclion*, Bill remained in that 

Have found him guilty of high treafon. Shak. noble afiembly, from which every Other grea: 

•■- Amongft a man's peers, a ntmj Hull he lure of court waa derived. They arc therefore in allcafc* 

familiarity. Baton.— the iaft retort, from whole Judgment no farther 

Dfl.t.edOyCOOgle. 



PEE ( 147 ; r. E o 

appeal ii permitted ; but every fabordinate tri- Apparent queen, unvcil'd her peerlefi fight . ■ 

bona! muft conform to their determination. See - -, ■ . Miltoti 

Lo«ns, Nobility, &c. Such mufick wortbicft were to blaze 

{7.) Piers, Scottish. See Scottish Pi bkh The peerlefi right of her immortal praife. 

(8.) Panai, thb ci-devaht FaiNcif, were 1* Milian, 
great lord a of that kingdom, of whom 6 were With, fuch 8 peerlefi roajefty the Sands, 
dukes and 6 counts; and of thefe 6 were eccle- ..As in that day (he took the crown: Drjden* 
fiaftics and 6 laymen : thus the Abp. of Rheim* * PEERLESSNESS. n. f. (from peerlefi.) [Inl- 
and the Bp. of Lion and Langres, were dukes verfal fuperiority. 

and peers; and the Bps. of Chalon 00 the Mawj PEER.PUNCHAL, mountains of Aba, which) 

Noyonsi and Beauvais, were counts and peers, form (he S. boundary of Cachemir. 

The dukes of Burgundy, Normandy, and Aqni- PEER-WARTH, a town of Oermany, in Auf- 

tain, were lay peers and dnkes 1 and the coonts - tria, 13 miles S. of Ips. 

of Flanders, Champain, and Tooloufe, lay peers PEESE. Sec Pbm, and Pectus. . 

and counts. Thefe peers affiled at the corona- * PEEVISH. adf. [This word Junius, with 

tion of kings, either id perfon or by their repre- more reafon than be commonly difcovera, fnp- 

fentatives, where each performed the functions pofes to be formed by corruption from perverfej 

attached to his refpective dignity j but as the Sx Skinner rather derives it from bteifh, as we fay 

lay peerages were all united to the crown, except ixafhifb.] 1. Petulant; watpiflt; eg&ly offended; ir- 

tbat of the counts of Flanders, fix lords of the brlr ritable; irafcible; foon angry; perrcrfe; morofej 

quality were cbotcn to reprefent them: but the querulous; foil of expreflion* of difcoutent ; hard 

ecclefiaftlcal peer* generally added in perfon. topteafe.— 

The title of peer was afterwards bellowed on She i%pe*vifk, fallen, fraward. Shut. 

every lord wbofe eftate was erected into a peer- Being wrong'd as we are by Xbi»pee*i/h town, 



_ j the number of which, as it depended en- Turn thou the mouth of thy artillery, 
trreiy on the king, was uncertain. 'As we will oofs, sgainft thefe faucy walla. Shak, 

* To Pee*, -b. n. {By contraction from appear.] —Neither will it be fatire arptnjfi invective to 
1. To come juft in fight— affirm, that inSdelity and vice are not much dimi- 

Haaour peereth in the meaneft habit. Sbak. niflied. Swift, a. Eipreffing dtfeontent, or fret- 
Yet many of your horsemen pur. Shot, fulnef*.— - 

Ev*n tbrangb the hollow eyes of death For what can breed more ptemfk iaeongrui- 

I fpy lift peering. Skat. ties, 

See bow bis gorget pan above his gown. Than man to yield to female lamentations I 

Bm^M. Sidney. 

1. To look narrowly ; to peep.— I will not prefiime 

Now for a clod-like hare in form they peer. Sid. To fend fuel) pirvifh tokens to a king. Sbak. 

Hell itfdf will pafs away, — Thofe deferve to be doubly laughed at, that are 

And leave her dolorous mauftons to the peering peevi/b and angry for nothing. L'BJirange. 

day. Milt™. " PEEVISHLY, aiiv. [from fee-tifh.] Angrily 1 

Peering iff maps for ports. Shai. qireruloully ; morofely. — He was fo peevi/bly opi- 

* PEERAGE. n.f. [pain, Fr. from par.] 1. fHonative and proud, that he would' neither alls 
The dignity of a peer. — nor bear the advice of any. HayvMrd. 

Parage is a withered flower- Swift. * PEEVISHNESS. «./. [from peevlfk.] IrafcU ' 

s. The body of peers.— The peerage and com- bility; queruloufnefs ; fretfulnefc j perverienefs. 

Burnt are excluded from parliament. Dryien. —Some mifcarriages in government might efcapc ' 

* PEERDOM. n.f. [from peer.} Peerage. Ainf. through the puvj/knrfi of others. it. CAariti.~lZ 
(1.) * PBSRESS. n.f. [female of peer*] .The will bean unpardonable, as well as cfaildifh pee- 

lady of a peer ; a woman ennobled. — vifhnefi, if we andervalnc the advantages of our 

Peerefi and butler (hare alike the boa. Pope, knowledge. Lotto.— 
(a.) A PtEtESi may be noble by defcent, From paffion then you may be freed, 

creation, or marriage. If a peerefs by defcent or Whefipecvj/hne/i and iplcen fucceed. Swift. 
creation marries a perfon under the degree of (<-) PtFFER, a fmall river of Scotland, in E, 

nobility, file (till continues noble: but if (he. ob- Lothian, which rifta in the parifh of Atbelltanfbrd, 

tains that dignity only by marriage, (he lofes it and falls into the Frith of Forth near Aberlady. 
on her afterwards marrying a commoner; yet by (1.) Pifves-Wassek. See Bath, j 111. U° 9. 
courtefy fbe generally retains the title of her nobt- * PEG. n.f. [pegghe, Teutonick.] 1. A piece of 

lit)'- A counters or Wonefe may not be arretted wood driven into a hole, which docs the office of 

far debt or trefpafs; far though, in refpect of an fron nail.— Solid bodiesforelhew rain; at boxes 

their fex, they cannot fit in parliament, they are and pegi of wood, when they draw and wind hard, 

severthelels peers of the realm, and fhall be tried Bacon.— The teeth are about thirty in each jaw ; 

by their peers, &c all of [hem claviculares at peg teeth. Orew'i Mu- 

* PEERLESS, adj. [from peer.] Unequalled ; /rem.— If he be cholerkk, we fhall treat bim like 
having no peer- — his little friend, and hang him upon a peg till he 

We Hand up peerlefi. Shai. comes to himfelf. Addifon.—Thc pegs and nails in 

Her peerlefi feat tire, joined with her birth, ' a great building, though they are but little valued 

Approves her fit for none but for a king. Shat. in Ihemfelver, are abfolutely necelfary to keep the 

ISse moon, whole frame together. Sptdator. — A finer petti- 

XiGng in cloudy tmtjefly, at length < coat can neither male you richer, more virtuous 

Ta or 

, ;qit ,ed^OOglL 



r e g ( ms y peg- 

' 1 1 i. m Aftoriu. 

1 the firing* ire on the W. bank a/ ihe Prjvia, 7 miles NW. of 

firatned — Oviedo ; 9. in Cordova, on the Guadalqniver, 3* 

Yon ire well taned now ; but I'll let down mile* SW. of Cordon. 

Thc^**; that make ibis rnulick. Skak. Othello. Peo«,iEAnpfc, 1 town* of Spain: 1. in Leon, 

3. TV Mb js'Pbg Jnuwr; todeprefs; tofink: 30 mile»SE. of Salamanca: 1. in Old Caflile, it 

perhaps from relaxing the cordi of muueal inftru- miles W. of Ofini, and 30 SW. of Olmetio. Loo, 

4. B. W. Ijt.40s9.N- 



Remember how in arms and politicks. 
We ftill nave worfted at! your holy tricks, 
Trepaan'd four party with intrigue. 
And .took .your grandees dowstiptg. Hudib- 
41 The nickname of Margaret. 
" To Peg, «■ *. To fallen with a peg.— 

I will rend an oak, 

And ptg thee in hi* knotty entrails. Sbak. ' 

•—Taking the flioots of the psft fprirrjr, -and peg- 

3»tg them down in very rich earth, by aha* time 

twetaemonth they will be ready to remove. Svt- 



PEGNITZ, a river of Franconia, which runt | 
into the iWnitz. a miles W. of Nuremberg. 
. PEGNON »f Vim, a SpanilTi iottreft of 
Africa, .on the N..coafl of Morocco, built in 1.508, 
by Peter of Navarre; taken by the Moors in 15**; 
and retaken by *he Spaniards in r*fi 4 . It i» 40 
miles R of Onmera, and 68 W. of Mel ilia. 

PEONONOMECO, » tqwn of Afia, in Bur- I 
fltab, 66 milet SW. of Ava, and 18S ENE. of Ar- 

(1. i.l PEGU, or > a very cocfiderable kingdom 
> of AfM, beyond the Ganges. 



PEGANUM, in botany, Wild Syu an .Rue, The country properly f« called is bul about jjo 

a genua of the monogynii order, belonging to the mile* Ion;; from N. to S. and a* macb in btea-ltb 

dbdecandria claf* of plants t and in the natural from E. to W. It is fituated on the E. ride of 

method ranking under the 16th order, Muitffli- the bay of Bengal, nearly opponte Bo Ansa, and 

jw- . to the NE. of the coafi of Coromandel. It is 

- PEGAJHDES, a name of the Mufei, from Pe- bounded on the N. hy the kingdom* of Arrakan 

o a sirs. ' . and Ava ; E. by the Upper arid Lower Siam ; S. 

(1.) PEGASUS, among the poets, a horfc ima- by Siam and the tea ; and W. by the tea Mid part 

glned to. have wing*, and fabled to have fprung of Arrakan. 

from the blood of Medusa ; being that whereon ,{».> Pec us, climate, soil, produce, and 

Belterophon was fabled to be mounted when he MiHFuuor. The air of Pi-gut is very healthy, 

engaged the' Chimera. See Chimera, N° 3. He and prefeotly recovers fick ft rangers. The foil 

was alfo mounted by Perseus when be JeArew ed alfo is very rich and fertile- in corn, rice, .fruit, and 

the leamofifter that was to devour Andromeda, root* ; being enriched by the inundations of the 

(Ovid.) The opening of the fountain Hippocrene river Pegu, which arealmoft incredible, extending 

on mount Helicon it afcribed to a blow of Pe- above jo.leagBfS beyond its channel. It product! 

gains V hoof. He was feigned to 'have Sown alfo good timber of feveral kinds. The country 

away to heaven, where he became a conftellation, abounds with elephant*, buffaloes, goat>, hogs. 

Hence and otjier animal*, particularly garnet and detr is 

( 1. ) PiCAsvt, in aftronomy, the name of a Jo plenty in September and October, thai one may 

eonftellation of the northern hemifphere, in form Jar bought for three or four pence; they are very 

..e . ay in g horfc SeeAtTaoKOatr, j J48. flefhy, but have no fat. Theje is ftore of good 

iwn of Upper Saxony, in Leipfic, .poultry 1 the cocks are jaftly large, and the hens 

o miles SSW. of Leipfic, and jt -very beautiful. A* for n(h, there are many forts, 
and .well tailed. In Pegu are found mines, not 

town of RufSa, in Pskov. .only of gold, .iron, tin, and lead, or rather a kind 

ir PsonaCova, a town of Por- of copper, or mixture of copper and lead, but alfo 

1 _..!„„ wo -c ,._:_!_.._ ? ... ^ diamond*, and fapphiies. The — *"' " 



PBG\U, 
en the Elder ; 1 
W. ofDreMen. 

PEGEKSK, a 

OO PEGNA, 
lupl, in $Vira ; j\ miles NE. of Coimbra. 

(a.) Peoka pa Fkancia, a town of Spain, in 
Leon J *4 miles SSE. of C. Rodrigo, and j j SSW, 
of Salamanca. 

(3.) Pegs*. Macoh, a town of Portugal, in 
Aeira, on the border* of Spain i with a cattle, 3 
churches, a convent, an ho [pi til, and about 330c) 
inhabitants j loj miles SW. of Affayatea, 30 -NE. --—> 
of Caftel firanca, and 40 NW.of Alcantara. Lon. Sirian, 
«, 3*. W. Lat. 3 g. 50. N. (3.) Pfr.vr, Governmekt of. Id the govem- 

(4 ) PtON a Mavrjn, or Major, a town of merit of this country, defpotifm prevails in its full 
Spain, in Gallicia; ti milea ESE. of Lugo. extent, and defpotilm, too of the very worft kind; 

Peonafiel, a town of Spain, in Old Callile, at for the inhabitants are under the abfolute power 
the foot of a mountain ; famous for its palace, of a ftt of petty tyrants, who are thcmfelvea no- 
caftle, fortifications, and checfes, which are thing more Ih.in "(laves to the king of Ava. As 
reckoned the licit in Spain. Jt is feared on ihe they have little or no emolument, except what 
Douro, 15 miles SE. of Valladolid. Lon. 4.0. W. they can laife by extortion, it isexercifcd in the 
Lat. 41. 41. N. molt un'imited manner. They Lite cognizance 

Peouafiema, a town of Portugal, on the W. of all difpuurs between individual* that come to 
coaft, at the mouth of the MongoJa ; 9 miles S. their ear*, without their «aje being laid bifore 
«f Eeniche,. tbtEw by either of tale' parties j and tin whatever 

Ode 



the belt in the world ; but the diamond* are 
lmall, ano only found in the craw* of poultry and 
pheafani*. Bciiiies, only one family has the pri- 
vilege of felling them ; and none dare open the 
ground to dig for them. The rubies are found 
in a mi untain in the province of Kablan, or Ka- 
pelan, between the city of Pegue and the port of 



p K o ( ua ) P % 9 

fide the caiife ii rktersnioed, .tier* ii ■ neveribU. lions, Md iW)»We to whhSand <f? matt I nownri 
tog charge brongbt in againft both, for justice, as offered tciiui of capitulation- Tiie bsfieger* would 
theyexpief* it; and this price of juitice it often jtdoift Of ao tramp; wjpon which the diftieied 
three or lour times greater th»n the value of the kins applied toabe'.pQttugotifc. and offered very 
matter in agitation. advantageous *eraw, Fh«h C«WP would hav* 
(«.) Peoub, hut4WV of. The kingdom of aceeptad, but hi* oAgva MW not peimit-Uim. 
Pegne i* bid to bare been founded about moo TAe u**Wiy king of Mactavnn bad now no 
tear* ago. Its firftimg was afeaKun. ^oncero- other rrtfo lire* Urt tofet Ate to tbe/nty, make a 
id; srhomanrfi>L*rucK*Tar».ir«kDawDothiog.tiU My, a»4 .4us ^cwojwaUy- witb .tb« lev men fac bad 
tliedifcoTRiyof.the£aftindir«bf thePotiujuie* with him.; but .even t»<e be was di&ppoiuled ; 
b the beginning of the intb .century. In ici« for by Abe deieru'on of 4000 of Us troops, the 
thcihraceofprgne waapctfefledfcyflre^agsiati. enemy were apprifed*w*j» deign, and prca-enttd 
*'ilhwho€nAjitiioriyCorrea,thefortuguefcWDbiir. it. ThufLtetrayed.ibe car>tuMed .wjtb »V eWtna 
ftdor, concluded a p*ace «i 1*19. This- monarch king for m'sown life and the live* of bi* wife and 
was poffefled of a icr,y large andricb empire, nine children, with learn to. end bar day* iff rttbwwM. 
kingdom* beW fabjed to him, w.bofc jevermeR All this »ra* readily granted, but without fcny in- 
amounted to thnet MUioM.trf gold, in 1539b* tentioo of pejformaiiec. The city was. plundered 
vru o-i unified. Among other prince* who were an* burntjby- which above 60,000 petfua t p*«ticrf, 
hit tributaries was Para (landara, king of the Bar- whale at many mote were earned Mo naaerr.: 
mas. Tihe&pecpleinbabuedtbebighilaniscalled «coo cannon were found in the piacc too&jo 
Psmgawira*, to ihe N. of Pegue. Their prince qatntaUef pepper, sedan equa^pjuantky.of other 
ra obliged to Atftun tie king of Pegue with tjxcrf. lie day after ,tbte detntdjev, ai .gibbers 
30.030 Barmas, to labour in hip. misea and other, were efadted on uUH adjoining to.the city a- on 
public works. As the king iifed often to go and .which the queen, her children, and ladies, went 
fa how hit week* went forward, and in toefejoun. casecuted, by tumping them jip alive by the feet 
ney» took along with bun none out hi* women, The iking, with 50 of bi* chief lords, wan eat 
the B^mai formed a defign of robbing the ladies into theiea,.widi atones abourt their necks. Tola 
of their jewels; and the next time the king visited xnanAxotis cruelty fo provoked ihe tyrant** ao*> 
the works, they murdered him, ftrjpped the ladies, diera, skat they amutinied, bat he-found mnans t* 
and Bed to their own country. By thi» enormity pacify *u«m j «6er which he proceeded taiwbexr 
all Peaue was thrown into coofunon j.but, inftead from, .the capital of another kingdom. Bon he 
of revenging the death of their kJng, the people increafed hiiaony to eocvwo men. 'i'be qitees, 
divided CTery where into fafiioiKi fo that Dacha by whom itwai governed, osfcred to fufarou tone 
Rupi, the lawful heir to the craws, wa* unable b» am rnfal ; but nothing would fatisfy toe Barana 
maintain bis authority. Of theft coiamotioos the monarch left than her tforrender at difcretion, > and 
king of the Barmas taking ihe advantage, inuded potting all her treaftire iato hilhaadst This ibe, 
the country with an army of more than a miUien who knew bis perfidy, refuted to do) : on whir* 
of foot* and jooo owphant* ; befides a great fleet the city waa fiercely aaautted, but greatly-to the 
which be lent down the river Ava toward* Pegue, disadvantage of the Banna*, wboiaft'nearxxwop 
the capital, .whilene bimfetf marched thither bj men. At hut, however, h was betrayed to Man- 
land. Juft at this time Ferdinand de Mirajea se> dan, who behaved with bis nfnal cruelty : soon 
rrard at Pegne from Goa, with a large galleon children wereBaia ;.tbequeen walflripped naked, 
richly laden on account of the king of Portugal, publicly whipped, and then tortured,'tiRihedieJi 
A* foon aa Dacha Rupi heard of hi* coming, he the yonng- king wot tied to her dead body, and 
lent to aflt bi* affittance againlt the enemy, This , both together caR Into a river, as were alfo goo 
be obtained by great presents and promJfea; and other people of quality. Whiletbe tyrant was etn- 
MirjW, letting out in a galliot, joined the king's ployed in fortifying the city, theprinceof Ava had 
Ihipt. Had the numbers been nearly equal, the Ailed down the river Qneytor with 400 rowing 
fuperior skill of Miralet would undoubtedly have vefleli, having 30,000 foldiers on board ; but bear- 
gained the victory ; but the fleet of the Banna* ing of the queen'* ditafter, he ftopped at Meletay, 
covered the whole river, while that of Dacha Rupi a ftrdng fortref* about 11 leagnei north of Prom, 
could fearer be obfecred. Htralel did every thing where V waited to be joined by bit father, the 
that man conk) do, and even held out alone after king of Ava, with 80,000 men. On this newJ 
tbeoaliveahaddrfertedhimj hut at lafl, oppreOcd MaudarKfentbiifofer-brbtherCbaumrgrera along 
and overwhelmed with numbers, he Was' killed, the river Gde with 300,000 men, -while he himfejf 
with all hi* men. Thus Para MandaM became followed with 100,000 more. The prince in this 
matter of all Pegu ; after which he attacked the emergency burnt his barttit, forming a vangnardof 
tributary kioguom*.< In 1544 he befirged Marts- the nuri'irr* t and, putting his fmall army in Ike 
ran, the capital of a kingdom of the fame name, heft pnlilion he could, eapecled the enemy. A 
then very great and ftonfifliingt The land farces moft der^rrare engagement enfued, in which only 
which he bronglit agaiirft it confined of 700,000 800 of the prince's army were left, and 115,000 
men, while .by lea be attacked it with a. fleet of out of 100,000 Barmaa who oppofed him were 
1 700 fail, too of which were .large galley, and in killed. The 800 Aran* retired into the foit : but 
ihem 700 PotiBgnefr, commanded by fohnCiyero, Mandara coming up foon after, attacked the for- 
a valiant aftd eaperienccd nfficer. The 6egr,bow- trefs for 7 day*, when the 800, find bg themfelvca 
ever, continued 7 mcatfti^ during, which time the unable to holdout, rufhed but.in a dark and rainy 
Eirmasloft iao^oo rnen pftut at lafl the brnesed night, to fell' their live* at aa dear a rate-as pott 
ting, finding himfrif Aiaiiencd for want of .provi- fible. Tin's- UH. effort was io estremely violent, 

that 

D,«,«. w ^oogte- 



P £ ,0 ( J50 ) PEG 

that they broke through the enemy's troops in fe- tavan. Ron he was informed that ShemiDdbd 
Veral placet, and even preffed to hard on the king bad potted 500,000 men in different places, to to- 
bimfeif that he was forced to jump into the rWer. tercept hia psffage ; and 50,000 of his belt troopi 
However, they were at raft all cut off, after they defcrted. After 14 daya flay, be departed from 
had deftroyed 13,000 of their enemies. Mandara Martavan, and met Shemindoo at the brad of 
having thus become natter of the fort, commanded 600,000 men. A delpertte engagement followed, 
it to be immediately repaired; acid farted tip the nt which Shemindoo «u entirely defeated, witfi 
river or the port of Ava, about a league from the the loft of 300,000 men. Of tbe Barma troops 
capita], where he burnt between iooO and 3006 were Sain 60,000; among whom were aBoPortu- 
veflel*, and loft in tbe enterp>rife about 8006 men. guefe. The morning after this victory,' the tyrant 
The city hfelf he did not think proper to invert, marched to tbe city; the mhabJMntB of which fur- 
ls it bad been newly fortified, wai defended by rendered, on condition of having their Uvea and 
a numerous garrifon, and an army of 80,000 men effects fpared. The kingdom being thus again 
was advancing to itf relief. -Tbe king alfo, ap- brought under his fubjection, be proceeded to pa* 
prehenfive of Mandara'* power, had implored the nifh the principal perforce concerned in the rebel- 
protection of the emperor of Siam ; offering to lion : their beads he cut off, and conhTcated their 
become bis tributary if he would affift him With eftates, which amounted to no left than ten mil- 
hie force* in recovering the city of Prom. To thia bona of gold. Others fay, that be put all without 
the emperor readily affected 1 00 which Mandara distinction to the fword, excepting 11,000, who 
lent ambafladors to the fovcreigo of a large terri- took ihelter in Snarez's boufe. The plunder waa 
tory adjacent, requeuing bin to divert the empc- incredible, Suarez alone getting three millions, 
ror fiora bis purpofe. On tbe ambaffador* return, All tbefe cruelties, however, did not fecure the 
ft appeared that the treaty had taken effect; but allegiance of the tyrant's fubjeots: for in left than 
aa the feafon waa not yet arrived for invading Ava, three mootha tbe city of Martavan revolted; and 
Chanmigrem waa feat aritkicMoa men to reduce the governor not only declared for Shemindoo, 
Sebadi, the capital of a fmall kingdom about 150 hut murdered 3000 Barmai. Mandara then fum- 
leagues NE. of Pegue. He, however, failed in hia moned all the lorda of the kingdom to meet him 
attempt J and afterwards was furprifed by the with their force, within 15 days, at a place called 
enemy, and put to flight. In the mean time, the Mauehau, near his capital, whither hehimWf went 
empire of Siam fell into great diffractions; the with 500 men, to wait their arrival. But in the 
king, together with the heir to the crown, were mean time he received intelligence that ihefhemin 
murdered by the queen, who had fallen in love or governor of Zatan, a'cily of feme confrquenee, 
with an officer, whom fhe married after her huf- had fubmitted to Sbemindoo, and alfo lent him a 
band's death. However, both of them were foon large fum of gold. Tbe fbemin waa immediately 
after killed at aa entertainment [ and the crown lent for ; but he, fufpecting Mandara's defign, ex- 
waa given to a natural brother of tbe late king, cufed bimfelf by pretending ficknefs ; after which 
but a coward and a tyrant.* On thil Mandara be drew together aboilt6oo men; andbaviog with 
collected an army of 800,600 men, with ao,oooele- tbefe privately advanced to the place where the 
phants. In thia army were loqo Fortnguefe, com- king waa, he killed him, with hia attendants. The 
tmanded by one James Suarez, who had a penfion guards in tbe court being alarmed with the noife, 
of 100,000 ducat) a-year from the king of Pegu, a fkirmifh enfued with the fhemin's men, in which 
with tbe title of bis brother, and governor of the about 800 were (lain on both fides, moft of them 
.kingdom. With this formidable army he let out Barmas. The fbemin then retreated to a place 
an April ijaS. His firft achievement waa the called Pgnttl t whither the people of the country, 
taking of a fortreft on the borders of the enemy's hearing of the death of Mandara, who waa oni- 
country; before which, being feveral timet re- verfally hated, reforted to him: When he bad af- 

Eulfrd,and having loft joooof hia men, he revenged fembled about 500c men, be returned to feek the 

imfelf by putting all the women to the fword. troops which the late king had with him ; and 

He next beSeged the capital; but though the Gege killed all he found difperfed in feveral places. 

■continued j months, the affailanti were conftantly With the Barmas were flain 80 out of 300 Portu- 

repuHed with great loft. A mount of earth waa guefe. The remainder furrendered, with Suarez 

then raifed, on which were placed 40 pieces of their leader, and were fpared, on condition of their 

cannon, ready to batter it anew, when, in Oc- remaining in the fervice of the fhemin. The fhe- 

tnoer, advice was received of a rebellion haying min, now finding htatorccadailyincreafc, affurued 

broken out in Pegue. The perfon who headed the the title of ana;; and, to render himfelf the more 

rebels was Shoripam Shay, a relation of the former popular, gave out that he would totally estermi- 

mourch, flain 11 years before. He waa a religious natc tbe Barmai. But one of thole who were with 

perfon, and efteemed a faint, A « he was a preacher, Mandara, when he was murdered, efcaped the 

he made a fermon, iu which he fet forth the ty- general [laughter, and, fwimming ever the river, 

ranny of the Barmas in fucb a manner, that he informed Chaotnigrem of the king's death. -He 

was immediately taken out of the pulpit, and pro- had with him 180,000 men, all natives of Pegu, 

claimed king by the people, who, as a token of excepting 30^00 Barmas. Pretending that he had 

sovereignty, gave him the title of Sbemindoo. His received orders to put-garrifons into feveral places, 

firft act was to cut in pieces 15,000 Barmas, and Chaumigrem difpatcbed all the natives into differ- 

irrzeon the treafure; and in three weeks all the ent parts] and thus got aid of thofe whom he had 

ftrong holds of Pegue fell into his hands. On this moft caufe. to fear. rHeikhen turned back upon 

news, Mandara immediately raifed the liege in the capital; feized the; king's treafure, with all 

which he was engaged, and in 17 days got to Mar- the arms and ammunition ; fet fire tc the maga- 
zines, 
D„i„d»,( J 00§lc 



PEC ( 151 ) P E G 

tines, arfenala, palace. fome of whofe apartments modefty. The Peguert may be ranked among tin 

w« ceiled with gold, and moo rowing veflell molt fuperftitious of all mankind-! They maintain 

which were on the river. Then deltroying alt the and worlbip crocodile* ; and will drink nothing 

artillery, he fled with the 30,000 Bar mas to hit but the waters of the ditcbei where thofe moo* 

own reuntry, being purfued in vain by the natives ftroua animals harbour, and by whom they arc 

ofPegue. Thiii the fliemin of Zattn was left in often devoured. They have five principal festivals 

quiet poiTVffiiin of the kingdom i but, by his re- in the year^ called Japani, which they celebrate 

ated acts of tyranny and cruelty, he fodirgufted with extraordinary magnificence. In one of them 

fubjeAs, that many fled to foreign countries, the king and queen make a pilgrimage about 1 



E 



while others went over to Shemindoo. In the leagues from the city, riding on. a triumphal car, 

mean time, James Suarez, the Portuguefe, loft fb richly adorned with jewel), that it may be (aid 

his life, by attempting to raviih a young woman they carry about with them the value of a kisig- 

of diftuvction; the ftemin being unable to protect dom. This prince is extremely rich | and has m 

him, and obliged to give him uptoibemob, who the chapel of his palace idols or inestimable value, 

(toned him to death. Tile ihemin himfelf did not fomeof them being of roafly gold and filler, and 

long fnrvite him ; for, being grown Intolerable by adorned with all forts of precious (tones. The ta- . 

his opprefEons, molt of bit followers abandoned lapoint, or pricfts, hare no poflefljons; but fucli 

bim, and he was befieged in bis capital by She- is the refpeel paid them by the people, that they 

mindoo with an army of 100,000 men, and foon are never known to want. They preach to them 

alter Sain in a felly :fo that Shemindoo now feem- every Monday not to commit murder; to take 

ed to be fully eftabliihed on the throne. But in from no pertbn any thing belonging to bim ; to 

the mean time, Cbaumigrcm, hearing (hat Pegu do no hurt; to give no offence} to avoid impuri- 

was very ill provided with the. means of defence, ty and fijperlt ition j but above all, not to worlbip 

invaded the kingdom with an army of 300,000 the devil: but these .flifcourfes have no effect in 

men. Shemindoo met him with three times their the lalt refpect. The people, attached to mani- , 

Dumber; but bit men, being all natives of Pegue, cheifm, believe that all good comes from God; 

were inferior in Arength to the enemy. The con- that the devil it the author of ail the evil that hap- 

fcquence was, that Shemindoo was defeated with pens to men ; and that therefore they ought to 

prodigious daughter, and Chaumigrem proclaim- worQiip him, thai he may not afflict them. This 

ed king of Pegue. Shortly after, Shemindoo him- it a common notion .among the Indian idolaters, 

felf was taken; and, having been treated with the The; inhabitants of Pegue are accufed by fome au- 

ntmoft cruelty, was beheaded. Chaumigrem was thors of being fl evenly in their houlea, and natty 

a very great conqueror, but not at all inferior in in their diet, on account of their feafoning their 

cruelty to his predecefTors. He reduced tbe em- victuals with fidol,a competition made of (linking 

pireof Sum and Arrakan, and died in ijgj ; be- fifc. reduced to a conGftcncy like muftard, fo nau- 

ing fucceeded by his fon Pranjimie, then about feoua and ofFenDve, that none but themfelvea can 

50 years of age. When this prince afcended the endure tbe.fmeU of it. Balbi lays, he could fooner 

throne, the kingdom of Pegu was in its grcateft bear the fcent of ftioking carrion ; and yet with 

height of grandeur ; but by his tyranny and obfti- this they fealbn their rice, and other foups, inftead 

nacy, he loft all that his father had gained. He of oil of butter. As they have no wheat in this 

died in 1.599, and after his death, the kingdom of country, their bread it rice made into cakes. 

Pegu became fubject to Arrakan. For fame time Their common drink is water, oraliquordiftilled 

paft, it has been tributary to the more powerful from cocoa-nut water. They are a minted and 

kingdom of Ava; the fovereigns of which country warlike people; open, generous, and hofpttable; 

have hitherto been extremely cautious of permit- and have neither the indolence nor thejealoufy of 

ting Europeans to obtain any fettlement among molt other caftern nations. The men here, as iu 

them. From the lateft accounts, however, wa moll eaftera countries, buy their wives, or pay 

learn, that the prefent monarch of Pegue, who is their parents a dowry for them. They offer their 

atfo fovcrcign of Aracan, Ava, Laos, and Siam, daughters to ftrangers, and hire them out for a 

liai entirely altered the barbarous fyttem of his time: fome fay tftey hire out their wives in the 

predeceflbrt; and has turned his attention topo- feme manner. Thefe marriages for a time, are 

pulation and Jzvcrovement, rather than to con- well regulated, and often prove very beneficial to 

oueft and exlenfiorl->a£empire. He defires to con. the occafional hufband. Molt of the foreigner! 

ciliate the Peguera byTfeldnefi, and has acquired who trade hither, marry a wife for the time of 

much popularity among them, by caufing their their flay. In cafe of a reparation, the father it 

ancient capital to be rebuilt. He hasalfo abrogated obliged to take care of the boys, and the mother 

fcvcral penal ftatotes againft them ; caufed juftice of the girls. No woman is looked upon the Worfe, 

to be ad mini Acred impartially, and no diftindtion but rather the better, for having had fcverxl Eu- 

to be made between a Burman and a Peguer, but ropean huibands : nay we arc told, that 00 perfoo 

that the latter it ftjll excluded from public offices offafljion in Pegu, from thegentleman to the king, 

of truft and power. In a word, he has given every will, marry a maiden, till fome perfon has bad the 

encouragement to the defendants of the former firft night's lodging with her. In Pegue, theinbe- 

inhabitanta, at well as to new fet tiers, to return ritance of all land is in tbe king : he is likewifc tbe 

and repeople their deferted city. heir of all bis fubjeft) who die without ifiiie; but 

(5.) Pboub, inhabitants, customs, han- in cafe they have children, two thirds go to them, - 

HEX*, &c. OF. The inhabitants are of an olive, and the reft to the king. 

.it rather a tawny complexion. Tbe women are (6.) Pegue, religion or the people op. 

handed by fome traveller) as having (hook off all The religion of the Peguert it the lame at bottom, 

- ,Q> <"* 



PES ( 15* ) F E G" 

wlfll flirt which prevail* over the reft 6F India and defended by' a pte'co of ordnance, and cmtinel* 
Thibet v OnTy vari« fotWewhat in different cOun- The houfea are all made of mate, boards, and 
fries, according to the humour of intereft of the bamboos] and have earthen pots full of wat'r on 
prtefla. They ft Sid the exiAence of one: futfreme their roofs, to ertingrjifh accidental firee. Build- 
pod.rf Who* they male no image) but they ing with Hones or bricks it prohibited, left the 
h*Tc many InMof created gods, whofc images people mould fortify the city and throw off the 
are fet irp in (tie templet for the laity to worfhip. Bfrman yoke. It has the hill* of Martaban on 
When a period BI1t lick, we are tola (hat they " the E. with the SHang winding along the plains t 
ajeneraHT Mike ■ tow to the devil, from whom and has a fine profpefH of nature, in her rude but 
fttey believe air evil come*. Then a feaffbtd it piAurefque Irate, for above 40 mites to the NNW. 
bunt, and victuals are (bread oft tbl top of It to where it is bounded by the Galadztl hills. Loo. 
foMee Gild Nick) and render -him propitious. 96. 41. E. Lat. i(. 5. N. 

Tlrls read it accompanied with lighted candtel - (rV.)PaauE, a river in the above empire, which 
and rbuGc r and the whole is managed by an mi- rifet in the Galadzet hills ; which are chiefly re. 
dertaker called the Aewts fatbet-. markable for the nohome effluvia of their at mof- 

(1.) Pecos, retiswe or. The'king of Pegue's phere. It often overflows its bank*, ft falls into 
revenues afife chiefly from the rent of lands, of the Ava, near its mouth, in the bay of Bengal, 
which he is tile file proprietor. Another branch PEGtfERS, the natives of Fiatra. (See J I, j.) 
bf it, are the duties paid for the commodities irfi- They are alfo called Taliek s. 
em-ted or exported. In a word, beia judged the (1.) PEGUNNOGK, a river of New Jerfcy, 
richer! monarch hi the worla, next to thfc emperor which rifes in Suflex county, and rum into the 

df China. . ' PasatCK. 

(S.')Psent, TRADE OF. The commodities ex- ■ (*.) PeGiriwoCE, a iown of New Jerfcy, hi 
porred from this conn try, ate gold, filve>, rubies, Sullen county, between the Pegunnock, and the 
itiuft!, benjamin; long'-prpper, tint lead, copper-, Rockawiy. 

lacks, orgunvlac, whereof they make hard wax; PEttlNTrUM, in ancient geography; accord- 
Hce-wtne; arid fome (bgar-canesrof* which 1 they ing to Ptolemy, or Pf'ountix, as Piny has it, 
would have plenty, but that the elephants eat a town or citadel of Dalmatia, on the Adriatic, 
them. Under the name Sf ruto'ei, the PegUert appnfite to the iHand Brattia, 5 miles off, and 40 
cotriprlfe topaz", fjpphlres.'km'ethyfl^ ana other E. of Salonae. According to Fortis, a mountain, a 
ltonts; which they difringoifh by faying the' Blue, large hollow, and fubmarine fprings are feen here. 
Hie? violet, and the yellow rtbiet. The true rulr* PE-HINOj a town of China, in Chan-tong. 
It red, tranfparcrrt, orfparkling, inclining rtear the PEHI., a town of Aoftriaj 6 m. W. of Weill. 
fVirftte td The violet df th> ahiejhyfl. Cotton PE-HO, a town of China, in Chen -fi. 
dotha frijm Bengal and Cn'romsiidel, with fome PEI, % towns of China : 1, in Kiang-nan, of the 
ffripped files, are belt for the Pegue market ; and 3d rank, 40 miles NW. of Pefu: a. In Se-tchue>i, 
filverbf any ftirtwrll gn off there: for tt\i king, of the ad rank, on the Kincha; jjo miles 8W. q£ 
|il rttdrn rttt his #ieht artd a half ptr cent, duty on ' Pekiri. Lor,, 114.47. E- Perro. Lat. 19. 50. N. 
rt, alldws the merchants- to melt it- 'down; and pub PET-CHAN, a town of China, in Se-tchuen. 
What coprjer' alloy they pleafe in.it. They weir PEICHELSTEIN, a town of Germany, in the 
hone of our Ettrapear. com modi tie* in P^gn bat flouhty of Tyrol 1 5 miles SSW. of Rrntten. 
riats add ribbons'. The gentry will give extravl- PE1LLAC, a town of France, in the depart, 
gam prices for fine beaver hats, which they wear ment of the MoTbihan ; € miles E, of Rochfort. 
wlthoQta'tty cocks.' They are no left fond of rib- PEILSTAfN, a town of Germany, in Anftria ; 
boris flowered with gold and filver, which they 4 miles 9. of Aigen. 

Wear round their bits. PEINA,a town of Lower Saiony, in Hildefbeioi, 

(II.) Pegue, the ancient capital of the above on the Fufe, with a fort and garifon. It with- 
empire, wasohe of the molt fplendid, large, and flood- a fiege in ij»j. In 1711, it was taken by 
popiiioas cities in all Aria, before it was deftroyed the eleBor of Bhinfwick. It is 15 miles NNE. of 
by the Barmaris or Birmans. (Seef 4 ) It wis a Hildefheim, and ai E. of Hanover. 
rjtiadVangle, each fidemeafuring i\ miles, andfur- PEINE, a town of Brunfwick, ftnUOni for a 
rounded by a brick wall, and a ditch of Go yards battle fought near it in 1 j jj, wherein Maurice 
broad. The wall had balllotia 300 yds,' alundrr; eleAor of Saxony, and the margrave of Brandeii- 
was 1; feet high, and 40 broad at the bottom, burg, were both killed.- It is j? mires W. of 
The king's palace was built of wood, but like a Bruhlwick. Lon. to. 19. E. Lat. 51. ««. N. 
fort, with walls and ditches; and it was not only Peine fost It DURE, (Lat. fans fortUtt dura,} 
gilded alt oVer, but its battlements were covi red hgnifies a fpecial punilhment inflicted on thofe 
With places of foHd gold'. Tbis ffne city was to- who, being arraigned of felony, refute to put 
tally deHroyed - , and every' building in it razed, in Ihemfelves orMhe. ordinary trial, but Rubbornl? 
I7f f, except the pagodat. The great pagoda of flahd niutej it is vulgarly called frtffiag A death. 
SHOtMaDOO hH6 been fS nee repaired. See ArtaaiOnMenT. 

(III.) Pegue; the prefent capital of Pegue, id PEIPUS, or Tchudsioi, atargelakeof Ruffia, 
built on the fame pUn, and on part of the lite of Between Peterfburg and Riga ; about 64 miles 
the bid city. It Is a fqunre, but each fide does long, and from 8 10 14 broad. It communicate* 
' not meafure above -half a mile. It is fenced round witfi lake Werrzerwe, and, by the Narova, which 
by a ftockade 11 feet high. Tne'pHneipal nreet ifTues from it, with the Gulf of Finland. Lon. 
runs fr6m E, to W. interleflcd by two fmsller from 44. 48. to 4J- 44- E- Ferro. Lat. jg°to-j9, 
Jtrcelfl at right angles. At each end of it is a gate, 10. N. 

PEIRAJI, 
' . " i ; „,ca, l^OOgk 



I'M C )» ) * * S 

BETRAH, S.town of Malacca, on the IV. coaft, PElSHCUSH, n . /. another Bengal word, Far a 

ioo miles NW. of Malacca. Lat. 3 .4©.N. ' - pwfenti alfoa Bne,.df ■tribute.' "■•>•* 

PEIRCE, James, an eminent difTentLng mini- FEISHORB, orPiSKbua, a cjty of IndoRMi, 

Iter, was born at WSppiog, in Lw.ilon, in 16641 in Cahul, belonging to the K. of Candahar ;' jo 

and »m educated at Utrecht and" Leyden ; after mile* NW. of Attoct. Lon. 69. 4J-' E.\"La6 

which he foent fome time, at Oxford, for the be- 3». 44 • N. " 

nefit of the Bodleian library, He then for two PElSKRElTCHAlBi or Prsxowici, a 'toM 

years preached the Sunday evenings lecture at the of SilrSa in Oppeln ;' 30' miles SE.of OppVln. "' 

meetiog-houfe in M i If a- La nr, London, and then . PEJTZ, a town of BraWdniburg otar irtit} 

fettled at Cambridge. Jo 1713 he wis removed minesi' ao mile* E9fc of Luben F and 30 S9W. 6E 

to a congregation at Exeter, where he continued Tranckf-irt on the Oder. ' " " r "" "■" 

tillijilsiAenhewaaejecWdibrpefuGnitofign PEKIN, in zoology." 'See Mustela,' N 3 j: - 1 

the Calviniftic articlei of faith. Cpon this a nevy PEKIN, or | the Capital qf CUBfl' wKere the 

meeting waaopeoedat Exeter'.of which Bilr Pii-rce ' PEKING,' jrmperbr generafly reliuVs, It ft 

continued minifter till hii death, in 17*6. ' He Glutted in a very fertile plain,. »o leagues from 

waa ■ man of the (tricuft virtue, exemplary.pieij, the great wall. Thii namp/ which minifies tb*j 

and great learning. He wrote, 1. Extrriiaih "]/$■ fferlh/'mteurt, tfiiven to it ,to 'dillingulfU irTfosl 

bsfepkica de fiemtrmtrid Anaxagarta. 3. Thirteen the city Nan Xi'no, * tbe/ontto-o'Mw-r. The erff- 

Sieces on the Cootroverfy between the Qhurch of fjeror. formerly refided ill thrjittter, but' 'the . Tar- 
ngland and the Diffcntera. j, Ten piece* on the '.l?n, t re [t left, and warlike people, obliged thti 
Controverly about the Ejectment, at Exeter. 4. prince to remove ois cb'utt Hi The northern, prS- 
Six pieces on the Doctrine of the Trinity. 5. A vincei, that he might hlot^ eftcclually rebel thfe 
Paraphrafe and Noteson theEpiftleaof StPauJlo inciu-noni of thole baroatfaritV bV oppoflrijj (fc 
the Coloffiani, Philippiaus, and Hebrews. 6. An them, a numerous militia wh W Kb e generally kee&s 
Eflay in favour of giving the Eucbariu to Childiea. around bis perfon. It is an'Mac} fouare, and df- 
7. Fourteen Sermon*. , videtf into two parts j namely, tnat Which con- 
PEIRESC, Nicolas Claude Fabri, an eminent .taut* the emperor'a palate;' Which'fi in the Vic £ 
antiquarian, born in ijSo, was defcended from an city, or, as it is caTteS, the Tartar's 'dtjr, Ijedulfe 
ancient and noble family, feated originally at PlQ U is' inhabited by Tartars ever pnee they conquer- 
to Italy. At ten years of age, he was lent to A- ed this empire' 1 tbe-other, called the Oti'City,!* 
vignon, where he fpent five years in the Jciuiti inhabited by the Chinefel " Th'e circuit of both 
college, in the Audy of the languages. In ijaji tbefe together is ji CbineuY'lys, each'bf which 
he removed to Aix, and entered upon phi lofopoy. contains 140 geometrical paces; being, without 
In 15-96, be waa tent to Gnilh hit courfe under the the fuburbs, full Git leagues in'circnrnference, ac- 
Jefuits at Toumoo, where he turned hi* attention cording to the moll accurate meanirement made 
to cofmography. Being recalled by his uncle, in by order of the emperor. The population is gg. 
i£97> he returned to Aix, and entered there upon oerally eltimated at i>ooqipoai but others ftatere 
tbe ftudy of the law. In 1598 he went again to at double that number.', GroGer telle us, ** thit 
Avignon, to carry on his courfc of law under one the height and enonnoui thic,koel* of the walls of 
Peter David ) who wa* alio well fltilled in and. tbe Tartar atj excite .adniifatiob t f. a hbriemefa 
quities. He returned in ifioa, to Aix, at the might eafUy ride abreaft upon them | , they hart 
earneft requvft of his uncle, who rcfigned to him fpaciods tower* r.ai(ed at intervab, a bow-ft)ot 
hii feMtotMl dignity, for which the degree of LL. diftant from one another, and large enough to 
D. waa J oecefiary qualification. Peirelc. therefore, contain bodies of referye in cafe of necefulv,. The 
took that degree, Jan. 18. 1604. In 46 iS. new** city h.as.9 gates, which are lofty and . well archV 
Dominated by Lewis XIII. abbot of SWdU Maria .ed. Over them are large pavl I ion-roofed towers 
AqneitrienGs. He died the 14th of June 1637, in divided into nine ftorie*, each having fereral.JU 
his j jth year. His works' are, 1. hifiana pre- penures or purt-boies: the lower ftory form* a 
viatic GaiiU Narimenfij ; ». NMIitm cjujJrpi . large .hall for the ufe of the Toldiers and officers 
pruviitcU famitlaruBi Origina, it fepiimttm Pa- who quit guard, and thofe appointed to relic Ve 
brUUi 3. Caximtnta/ii renan amwuafpttntBria dig- thna. Before each gate a fpace is' left of more 
*anmJw*tattplUnimi 4. L&r J* tudkrii na- than 360 Teet | this is ikjpd cjf plact of armStui. 
tur* tftriiml J- Matbrmalicm ti ofimunu* va- clofedny a femicirctilsr wall equal in height and 
ria; 6. Olifcrvationci maUumuiicx ; 7 Epiftatx'ad thickneis to thai unrounding the ctty.' The great 
S.P.UrbanwnWU. cardinal/* Barhtrinaj. &c. ; road,, which ends here, U commanded by a pavj. 
7. Am born antiqw Gr*ci et Laliiti d* fvndt!ri&*i et lion rppfed tower, like ' the firft, in fuch manner 
nunfurti; 9. EuJog'm ti epitophia ; i«- In/criftimKi tbal^ as the cannon of the former can batter the 



GeitJogia dcmui Atifinack i Bottles of the city, thofe of the latter can fweep 

m bibliotft. rcg t 13. Patmats toe adjacent country. The ftreets of Pekin are 

Nummi Gallici, Saxomci, Briianmti, ftra'igJU, about lao feet wide, a full league jjs. 



1 tibliatft. rcg t 13. Pocwiata the adLacent country. The ftreets of Pekin 
ay 14. Nwmmi GalHd, Saxomti, Briianmti, ftra'igJU, about lao feet wide, a full leagut 
; 15. LiHgM* Orimtahi, tiehrsa, Samarilaaa, length', and bordered with (hops. The governor 



Arabica, EgtptuuM, tt Indicts libnrum \ harum fa- of Pekin, who is a Mantchew Tartar, is ftylad 

giiamm ; 16. Otjerveiitmri in varhs auBvrtf. Gdvtrav of tit > Nine Gam, Hi* jurisdiction ex. 

PEJSDORF, a town of Bohemia, in Konigiqg- tends not only over the foldiers, but alfo over the 

rat* : 14 mile* NE. of Git (chin. people, in every thing that concerns tbe police. 

PEISHCHAR, «./. a word ufed in Bengal fori No police can be more aitivei and ft is furprifinc 

principal perfon in a public office. to fee, among an infinite number of Tartan an3 

VoL.XVa.PUT L ; ." U Oline*« 



ff.iL,. i is4 ) r e K 

Cbinefr mixed" together, the' great eft tranquillity neither tapeftry, hiftres, nor painluigs. The 

prevail. ; The wslls arc 50 cubits high. The malls throne, which is in the middle of the hall, confrffi 

pi the Miperora palace, including that and the Of a pretty high alcove, esreedingly neat. It hat 

f;ardens» ate about two miles long. "Although' no infeription but the character thing, which tht 

foyt Orolier) the Cbioefe architecture hat no re- author) of this relation have interpreted by (he 

iemhlance to that of Europe, the imperial palace word kohl but it has not always thiifignificatiofl; 

of Pekin does not fail tp ftrike beboldert by Us forit anfwers fometimes better to the Latin word 

extent, graudeur, and, the rcgulaj difpofition of eximius, or the Englifh word) tuctlltnt, ftrftd, 

jt» apartments, and bytheiiogular flruflure of its mr,S wife: Urwi the platform oppofitc to thi» 

pavilion -roofi ornament e4 at each comer with a ball Hand large vefTeh of bronze, in which rncenfe 

deved plat- hand,,-! he lower extremity of which ll burnt when any ceremony is performing. There 

ft turn eo. .upwards. T-hefe roofs are' covered with are alfo chandeliers fhaped like birds and painted 

parniflied tUet of to beautiful a, yellow colour, different colours, at well as the wax-candks that 

that, «t a dillance, they makeasfplenduf an ap- are lighted op In them. This platform is estfn- 

peariace'aa if tbey were, gilded. Below the up- ded towards the north, and has on it two leflcr 

per roof there it another of equal brilliancy, which balls i 'one of them is a rotunda that glitters with 

pang* Japing from the wall,Tupported by ajpeat vavnlfh, and it lighted by a number of windows. 

number of beams, daubed over with green vamifli, It is here that the emperor changes bis drefs be- 

■nd tntenfperfed with gilt figures. This id roof, fore or after any ceremony. The other is a u> 

with the projeclioA of the firft, forms a kind of loon, the door of which opens to the north ; 

frown to the whole edifice. The palace is a fmall through this door the emperor mutt pafs, when 

iditUnee from' the "S. gatt'of the' Tartan city, ne goes from his apartment to receive on hit 

The entrance to it-it through a fpacious court, tp throne the homage of the nobility | he is then car- 

which there it a defcent by a marbFe ftaircafe, or. ried in a chair, by officers dreflVd in long red robes 

namerited with two large copper lions, and' aba- bordered with (ilk, and caps ornamented with 

Jo (trade of white marble. This bitu (trade runs plumes of feathers. It would be difficult to give 

jo the form of a horfe-fhbe, along the banks of a an exact defcriptlon of the interior apartments 

(ivulet, that winds acrofs the palace with a fer- which properly form the palace of the emperor, 

^entine .courier the bridges' over which are of and are let apart for the ufe of. hit family. Few 

marble. At (hebottom of ibis firft court arifet a are permitted to enter them but women and 

/acadc with three doors; that in the middle it for eunuchs." The templet and the towers of this 

t he emperor only ; the mandarins and noblet pafs city are fo numerous, that it it difficult to count 

through tbofe, on each fide. Thefe doors conduct tbetn. ProviQonsof all kinds are exceeding plen- 

fo a yl court, which is the Jargefi of the palace: tiful, they being, at well as the mcrchandifcs, 

jt is about joo'fcet'long, and jo broad. An im- brought from other parts by meant of canals cut ! 

•ntnft gallery runs round it, in which are magi- from the rivers, and always crowded with veffeft 

jBines, containing riqh effefls, which belong to the of different files, at .well as from the adjacent 

jemperer.a* bit private property -,. for the public country. An earthquake which happened here in 

freafure it entr ailed to 3 foyereign 'tribunal called J 731 buried above 100,000 perfont in the mine of 

JlolfW. TDe flfft of Ihefe magazines if filled the houfei. The famous Obfervatoty, which is 

with plate aud veJTelt of different metals ; the »d partly defcribed in its order, (See Omssivatok v, 

jcootaios jhf finift kiod» of furs; the id, drelres «• 9.1 Hands in a court of a moderate extent, and 

.lined with fable, ermine, minever, and foxes ffclns, is built in the form of a fquare tower, contiguous 

which the emperor fometimes gives in prefents to to the city wall on the infide, and raifed to or 11 

pit officers; the »th is the depository of jewels, feet above fts bulwark. The afcent up to the tap 

pieces of curious marble, and pearls fifhed up in is by a very narrow ftaircsfe; and on the platform 

Tartary ; the jth, confuting of two ftdriet, is full above were placed all the old inflrunienta, which, 

of wartlrobci and trunks,' which contain the (ilk though but few, took up the whole room, till 

fluffs ufed by the emperor and his family; the Father Verbieft introduced bit new apparatus. 

reft are filled with bows, arrows, and other pieces which he difpofed in a more convenient order. 

of armour taken from the enemy or prefenred by Thefe are large, well caft and embetlifhed ; and 

.different pripeca .The royal hall, called Tehhi/iieH, were the ntatnrfa of the diviftons anfwerable to 

'or the Halt of the Grand Union, is irf this ad the work, and the telefcopet fattened to them ae- 

court. It la buijt upon 1 terrace about tt feet in cording to the new method, they would be equal 

".bright, incrufted .with, whitf marble, and 'ama- to thofe of Europe; but the Chinefe artificers 

mented with bat u (trades of excellent wbrkpian- were either loo negligent, or incapable of follow- 

/hip. Before thjs hall all the mandarins range -ing bit directions. The old inftrumeota were, by 

themfl'ltet, when they go, on certain days, to order of the emperor Kan -hi, fet afide at ufelett 

renew their homage, and perform thiSfe" cert- and laid in (he ball near the tower, where they 

monies that are appointed by the laws of 'the 1 era- may be feen through a crofl birred window, all 

'Jll? Th ' 9 '" II '■* alfnD[t ffl uare < afld abcuj 130 covered with ruft. In tbit famed obfervatory 

feet in Jengih, The ceiling is carvrd, vamlfhed there are j mathematiciant employed night and 

preen, and loaded with gift dragons.- TTiepillart day, each in a proper apartment on the top of the 

which fiipport the roof within are fit feet in clr- tower, to ubferve all that paflei over their beads: 

; cumfereric- .towards the bafe, and are created with one of them it gazing towards the zenith, and the 
* kind ofmaftichvarnifhedred; the floor is partly ' others towards the four points of the compafu, 

covered with coalfe carpets, after the Turkifh that nothing may efcape their notice. Their ob- 

' manner; .bitf Mw p>«)lt hive no kind of ornament, fervatipnt extend pot only to the motiont of the 

f peavenly 

DofedUy^OOg 



P E I ( i5fi ) - P E X 

heavenly btdte*, but to fire, meteor*, winds, r*in, They are aJfo collected by Giroennf, and p*fc» 
thunder, bail, Annus, and other phenomena of lilhed in Append, op. Mercatoris, p. j'/j. Coiv.' 

the atmofpheret and thefe are carefully entered .(a.) Pet-acius I. pope of Some. Was born 111 

In their journal!, and an account of them it koine, and elected pope in 5*4. He endeavour* 

brought every morning to tbe furveyor of the ma- ed.to reform the clergy ; and when Rome wa* 

(hematics, and regiftcrcdm hU office." Log. 116, hefieged by (he Goths, obtained many conceffiont 

41. E. Lit. 39. c 4 . N. from Totila, in favour of the cjtizen*, He died 

PELAGIA, ST,a town ofNaplet, inOtrantoi in e«o. 
3 mile* NW. of Tarento, , £.) Pila«i(iI IT, Pope,' faeceeded Benedict IV 
PELAGIANS, a ChriftUn fed who appeared in J7I. He laboured much to reconcile thy 
about the jth, or end of the 4th century. They bifhops of Ifiria and Venice Wthe Roman fee, 
maintained the following doctrine*, i. That Adam but without fuccefs, and Iw oppofedJpJyvPar.rr- 
waa by nature mortal, and, whether be bad fin- arch of Conftaotinopte, He died of the plague in 
ned or not, would certainly nave died. a. Th.at jgo. " '.''.. 
the coufcquericea of Adam'* fin were confined to PELAGNIST, an ifhod in the Grecian. ArchT- 
hi* own perfon. 3. That new bora infants are pelago ; I miles in circuit. Lon. 41. j8. E. Ferrd'. 
in the fame in nation with Adam before the fail. Lat. 39. 30. N. 

4. That the law qualified men for the kingdom PELAGONiA,a'di*ifi'ofi of Macedonia. 

of heaven, and was founded upon equal prom ife* PELAGOSA, an ifland in the Adriatic, near 

with the gofpcL j. That the general refurrefiion Dalmatia, which, together with fevefal rocks that 

of the dead does not follow in virtue of our 5a- appear above water, near it, are (he remain* of 'an 

viour** refurroction. 6. That the grace of God is ancient volcano. M. Fortia (in , big traVih how- 

given according to Aur merits, j. That this grace Dalmatia), fayt, " The Java which form* tie 

is not granted for the performance of every moral fuhftance of this ijland, I* perfectly like the lav*, 

ad; tbe liberty of the will, and information in ofYefuviua. If a naturalift fhonld land there, and" 

points of duty, being fufficieut, &c. The found- viiit on pwpofe the higheft parts of the ID and 

er of this fed was perhaps we might then know whether it ha* beea 

(i.)PFXAGIUS,a native of Great Britain; but thrown up by a fobmarine volcano, as tbe ifland 

whether of England, Scotland, or Wale*, it nn- near Santcrim wa* in our age ; or if we ought to , 

certain. Dr Henry fayt, he wa* born In N. believe it the top of fome ancient volcanic mqnu- 

Wale*, Nov. 13, 3(4 ; and that bit real name tain, of which the roots and fides have beea co» 

*a* Morgan, of which Pelagius it a translation, yered by the waters which divided Africa' from 

He wa* educated in the mona&ery of Banchor, in Spain, forming the ftrait* of Gibraltar ( an inva- 

Wales, of which he became a monk, and after* Son that no one can doubt of who has examined 

wards abbot. In the early part of hi* life, he the bottom, and fhores of our lea. The Liffaa 

went over to France, and thence to Rome, where Filhennen fay, that PeUgofa U fybjcfl to frequent 

be promulgated opinions' different from thole of and violent earthquakes} and the afpeft of tba 

tbe church. Hi* moral* being irreproachable, he ifland proves, at Grft light, that h hat fuflered 

gained many difciple* 1 and trie herefy made fo many revolutions} for it is rugged, rumens, and 

rapid a prog-eta, that it became neceflary for the fubvened." It is 16 miles SW. at Agofia, and 

pope to exert his power. . Pelagius, to avoid the 30 from tbe Diomede iflea. 

danger, in 409, paffed over to Sicily, attended by PELAIAH, a Levite, one 6f the chiefs of thofe 

hi* friend and pupil Celeftius. In 411 they land- who returned from captivity, and who figned tbe 

ed in Africa, continued fome time at Hippo, and covenant that Nchemiah renewed with the Lard. 

were prefent at the famous conference between Nth. viii. 7. x. 10. 

tbe Catbolics and Donatift*. held at Carthage in PELASGI, > a very ancient people of 

41*. From thence they travelled to Egypt } and PELASGIANS, j Greece, originally of Arca- 

from Egypt, in 41 j, to Pslefline, where they were dia, according to Hefted; fo named from Pil**- 

graciouOy received by John, Bp. of Jerufalein. In cut, their firft king, though others derive the 

tbe fame year Pelagius wat cited to appear before name from uu^t/vt, a ftork, on account of their 

a council of 17 bUbops, held at DiofpoHa. They wandering planner of life. (Strata.) They fir! 

were fatisfied with hi* creed, and abfplved him inhabited Atac-Li*, in Pelopoonefus, which from 

of herefy. Tbe African bi (hops, however, being theni wat called Pelisgia. Thence, about A. 

difpleafed with their proceeding*, appealed to A. C. 1883, they emigrated into Mmonia, and 

the Roman pontiff: be Grft approved, and after- were afterward) dlfperfed into various pans of 

ward* condemned, the opinion* of Pelagius, who, Greece 1 particularly EpirUs, Crete, Lemnot, Let- 

with hi* pupil Celeftiu*. wat publicly excommu- bo*, and Argot, Some of ibero fettled in Magna 

nicatedt and all the bifhop* who refuted to fub- Gratia, in Italy: other* occupied a third part of 

ferine the condemnation of the Pelagian herefy, TbefTaly, hence called FUAI61DT Is. In Ihort, 

were , immediately deprived. What became of they fpread through fo many, parti of Greece, 

him after this period, is unknown 1 but it is pro. that the poets gave their name to the Greeks in 

bable that he retired to Bauchor, and died abbot general, and name tbe whole country from them. 

of that monaftery. He wrote, 1. Expafitionum in ' flomtr. Hffiod. 

tpijl. Patditat, lib. aiv. s. Bpijtla id Dtmttria- [1.) FlitASGIA..' a narae given to GsEicr, 
2cm Je tnrgutitate. 3. Explaiiatiwu fymbeli ad .froni the Psi-ajgi. (Sea tbe laft article.) 
Damnum. 4. EpflaU ad vUuam dux. 5. De ff- t»t JJ Pk«-*>0'*, I. (he ancient name of tif- 
beroarhitrfa. iVfe and many other fragment* hoi; fo called from the Psljsgi. ( Diodtrm Sl- 
ut fcattervd among tbe wutli of St Jerome. <n/-u, PUm/J. 1. Tbe ancient name 01 Pilo- 
r t7a" " fomaiu*,. 

D fl ,..edny^OfJgie 



4> fe.l,. < is« ) i i I 



ratttitiiii, ffb& tiutovs, a native of the B*bel; ad", Joktan, the brother of Peleg, had al- 

country.' 'Mn&fci Otimafctriiu, ipbcrto. ready rj fan* it the time of thi* dinjxrfion, which 

£4, |.)pKi,Aidi* *'*■ alio an ancient name' of happened after the contulion of Babel (Gen. 3. 

ISp/irua and PelopOTnefti*. ' ' 16— 10..) Meg befog born in the 34th year of 

' .TELaSGICUM, the north waTI of Athenl ; fe Jber iGeii. xi. 16 ), it It impoflible that Joktan 

called frurri t[ic builders, U*Pila»oi. (PavfktUt*. Ihbbld have had fiich a nntnber of children at the 

Pliny). There wai art execration profi.-unced on birth of Pfleg. It feema therefore probable, that 

any that 'ploold build botifea under thi* wait; he wai not born at the timeof the df fperfion. To 

jWcayftf the PrUIgt, *.hile dwelling there, entered this ma; be anfwered, that Motes baa there etiu- 

into a coofpiracjf agiitifl lie Athenian*. Tbuctf meratetf the name* of the 13 font of joktan by 

'tH4a, way of anticipation, though t hey were not horn 

PELAjJGrOTJE. Se*p[.U*Ot. "' till I good While after the eonfulion at Babel; 

PELASG10TTS,at«ird-pahdfTheDaly; fitu- but a) they pofiefTed a very large country, it wai 

■ted .between , Pitria and . Macedonia, on the 1& Toper "to take notice of them, among the other 

and wYThe'ualioiisntf the 3- and Magnena on u^cendant* of Noah, who dividid the province* 

the' It Strait, Ptfsf." of the earl among themfelven. HoweV'.r thi* may 

PELASGUS, in fabubua hiftory, A, fon of J11- hare been, at. the »$e of 30, Petcii begat Rev ; and 

niter arid ISfiobe, who reigned in Sicyon, and from be died at the age of 135. 

whom' bit fubjeOa, tbe'rVaaol, derived Weir PFXEGRrNO, apromontory on the N. coafl 

name. '/,',,... of Sicily; * mites W. Of Palermo; fairmia for 

PELAT^irree-b^'citizWa.amongtheAthe- ificAvern, chtireft, and rellta of St Rofolia, who 

liana* who by poverty were reduced :o the necef- 8ied In It. 

Iity 6F ferving for wagei. ' During their fervitude, PELENGON, or GrltngB*, a town of Perfia, 

they had no vote in the management of public af- in Lariftan ; 66 mile* M-:. if Sar. 

- fair*, aa having no eitate to qualify them 1 but this PELETH1TES, and Cherethitei, men fa- 

renrictioh wai removed, whenever they bad re- mooi in the reign Of K. David. They were the 

leafed themfelve* from their fr- vile fltuation, which moft valiant men in the army of that prince, and 

jbty were, allowed to do when Stole to flip port bad the guard of hin perf->n. See 1 Sam. xv. 18. 

ttn.-mft.lvci. tohjle they continued fervant*; they %t. 7. Patrick's Cemrn. Paal'i Amot.Uid ttelanj't 

bad alfo aright to change their matters. They Oft ' 0/ David. 

v&t called wmettmet Thit*. PELETHRANlt, a name given to the La fi- 

' [xlPELATIAH, Ion of Hananiah, and rather THA, either from their town of Pslii hkokvum, 

oF I/hi. of the tribe of Simeon. He fubdued the or from their leader Pelsthidhios. To them 

Amclekjtea upon the mountain of Seir. 1. Chron, mankind are indebted for the invention of the bit 

iv. 4a* with which they tamed their horfe*. 

(a.) Pit,*.tiaif, the Toh ofBenaiah,' a prince of PELETHRONIUM, a town of Theflaly, fn a 

Ihe Jew*, who lived iri the time of Zedekiah king flowery part of mount Pi.uos ; fo named from 

Sf JudaB, and odpoteil the wholefome advice Ptliai and if**, Jtewrn. (Nitatider.) Lucan 

given by Jeremiah, to fuomit to king Nebuchad- fay* the Centaurs were nativei of that place; to 

nezzar. (See JeiSta). Ynvili. ij— 10. and EZeV. whom Virgil affigns mount Otbryi. See Cin- 

Xi, L— 4-> Ezekiel'a vlfioni white he waa a cap- tivri, § 3. LariTHX, and Liririm*. 

live in" Mefu'polainia, againfl Petatiab, Jaazantah,, PELETHRONIUS, a leader of the Lapi tha*. 

and 13 oilier prince* who joined with thetn, it re- PELEU9, in fabulous hiftory, a king of Tbefla- 

borded in Ezek. xi. 5 — 13, with the immediate )y, fon of JEacua and Endeis, the daughter of 

death of Pelatiab, while EzcKltl Wai delivering Chiron. He was the only mortal man who ever 

hi* prophecy. ,. , married an immortal. He waa concerned in the 

PELE, two aucieflt town* of Theffaly ; the one murder of hi* brother Phocua, and waa therefore 

jubjeer to Eurypylue, toe other to, Achillea; both obliged to leave his father's dominions. He fled 

"eitmfl. Filed* Waa' the gtrttllitioua name, to the court of Eurytu* the fon of Actor, who 

Step/). reigned at Phthia ; or, according to Ovid, to 

PELEE. an ifland of Trance, in the dep. Of the Ceyx king of Tracbinia. He wai purified of hit 

Worth ; 3 milei NE.,of ChtthVrg. .murder by Eurytu*, who gave him bit daughtei 

PELEG, fon Of Ehet, the jtb in defcent from Antigone in marriage. At Pcleui and Eurytu! 

Noah, was Born in A. M. i?jj. He was nainfd went to the chace of the Cilydonian boar, the 

Ft/eg, which fignifiei Jhtifion, becaufe in his time faiher-tn law wai accidentally killed by an arrow 

the earth began to be ifiwA«*(Gen. x, aj.xt. 16 j 'which hi* fon -in -law had aimed attbebeaft. Thi: 

Whether. Noah. had ^U" 'o divide' the earth obliged him to banilh himl'elf from Phthia, ant 

among hit defcendanti, fomefeara before the be went to lolchoi, where he was purified of thi 

Vddirig of Babel 1 oraMeg came imp the world Komicide by Acsftus the king of the country 

'the fame year Ufat'Babfcl wai begun, and at tbc Hi* Kfidence at lolchoa was Ihort : Aftyd^iRi.i 

nfuGori.of language* ; or whether Eber, by k the wife of Acaftu*, fell in love with him ; bu 

frit of prophecy, gave hit Too the narrJe of Pf when flie found bim infcufible to her paffion, fin 

before the tower of Babel wa* begun, i* not accufed him of attempts upon her virtue. Th< 

ccrlain. That which her* perplexe* the iMer- king partly believed the accufKiOn; but not will 

prefers id firfl, that P,-ky came into the world ing to violate the law* of hofpitathy, by puttini 

not above 100 year* liter the deluge. But it bim lodrath.heordered hi* officer* to conduti hit) 

Oiould G em, that the number of men wa* not to mount Pelion, and there tie him ;o a tree, an. 

then taffcjnflt tar fi«S> ftp uiitlertakjog at that Of leave him to the wild bcafti. The ordem of A 



H 



* X t ( 1st ) F= fit 

edrgtwin obeyed | Hot Jupiter knowing the in- leaves. Afl their implement* Btetils, wttponi 

uonim of tlii (nmndtbn Pdeut, ordered Vulcan of war, and eanoen, are much of the feme kind 

to ftt hha at liberty. Pelrus.tben xneurbJed hU whb.tlu.re In the South Sea iffands. In-thei* 

fritndi to punifh Acaftus: He took lolcho*. marriages they allow a plurality of wives, though* 

dnne the king from hit poffefflons, and put to hi general not more than two! 

death the wicked Aftydamia. On the death of • PELP. n.f. [In low Latin, feijra, not known J 

Anyone, Men* Made love to Tretis, bat the Whence derived! fi*fr,\n Norman, h frippery. J 

(added Bed from- him; and the more effectually Money ! iiches.—- , 

la rude bis purfuit, the affirmed the ft ape of a The thought of 1 thi* doth paft all Worldr/ 

turd, i tree, or a tvgrefi. Pflebr offered % fieri- pttf. ' StJnry. 

ncHothegodSi ami frntev* nrfotrhed him, that, ' I'redti thee, rafh and heedleTsof tliyftlf, 

to obtain Thetis, he muA furprife her wjiile (he To trouble my UR feat and heap* of prncfou* 

wa afltrp in her grotto, near the fhotw oF TYiet pttf. ' Spenfer. 

lily. This advice «n followed, and Thetia, uri- Not prafiflent of pelf a* maoy iflanda are. 

able to efcnpe, at laft confented to marry hirti. Drajtaf. 

Tieir nuptials were celebrate 1 With extraordioa- Immortal Rods, I crave xmfdft 

It folemniry, a'l the god* attending and making I pray for no man tint myfelf. SktAl 

Urn valuable preferrtt. Ate, toe goddefs of He called his money hi ; 

IHc-rd, wU the only one who Was not invited, Dot the prevailing Ion of ft(f 

and ft: ■.-unifhed thin neglect by throwing an ap. Soon fplit trim on the former fbrlFt 

pf into the midft of the affemblv, with this in- He put it out again. VrtiM't Eeract. 

fcriplion. mm- fulehrhri. (See sTakis, N° i.J To the poo* if he refuVd h\$pe{f. 

7V celebrated Achilles was the fruit of this mar- .HeuVd them foil ai kindly ai bimterF, Swur. 

riage, whole education was early cmrulted to hU (i.)PELHAM, a tow-thip of Maffachuffetra, 

Kit grandfather Chiron, and afterwards to lh Hamplhire county, tj miiei W. of Boflon. It 

oenrt, the fbn of Anryntor, (See Achilles.) had io4o cftiaensln 179*. 

Ilidiath was the fonrce of great grief to Pelcusi 61.1 PblhaH, a townfttip 1 of Hew- Himpfhirej 

hot Thrtis, to comfort her hufbaod, prntnifed JnTtuckm^ham county, on the S.ftneHne, oft the 

bin i-jmortality, and ordered him to retire into banks of Beater riser, 36 ttilea N. of Bofroh. If 

the erottoi of the tfland of Lence, where be had 791 cititeh* in Hoj. 

Sionld fee and convert with the manct of his fon. (3 1 PtLHaM, a townlhip of New York, In Wl 

P:leai bad a daughter called Patydora, by Antl- Cheftet county ; containing 190 crtl*efl« and a; 

gone-' Cfeeinra m 179J. 

PELEWl5LA»»i,adufteroffinanifJand»,flta- PELlADES. the daughtertdf PKliai were Al* 

itrd between lat. 5 and a°N.and Ion. rj" and tj6* ceRe, Plfiriice, Pelopea, and Hrppotbr^to whom 

I. The natives are all of a deep copper colour", Hyginusadds Medufa. Their mot her*i name waa 

going perfectly naked. They are of a middling tti- Afiaxibla, the daughter of Bias and Phiiomar-he, 

ture, rery ftraigrrt, mufcnlar, and well formed ; the tbugbterof Amphion. After their parricide^ 

hot their tegl, from a little above (beir ancfes to [See PaiiAi.) the Pehades fled to thecourt of Ad- 

the middle of their thifhi are tattooed fo very tnefuk, where Acaftua, the fon-in.law«f Pellatt 

tsict, ai to appear dyed of a far deeper colour- pDrtoed them, and took their protector prifoner. 

!ian the reft of their (kin. Their hah- is of a fine The Peliades died, affd were boried in Arcadia, 

hhek, long, and rolled up behind, in a fimpfe man- PELIAS, In fabnlous hiftory, the twm-brotbef 

iw, dofe to thf back of their heada, which appear of Nat-avi, waafdn of Neptnoeby Tyro, damjh* 

both neat and becoming 1 but few of them hav^ ter of Salmoneut. Their birth waa concealed by 

beirdi, it being the general 'cuftom to pi nek them their mother, who wifhed their father to be igno- 

mthy the roots. The iOand Coorooraa, of tvhicn rantof her incontinence. They were expofed m 

relew ft the capita!, produces plantains, banaV the wood(,"but werepreferved byfhepherds( and 

™»i 3evil!e orange* and lemons, but neither of Pdiks received his name from a fpot of the colour 

tte» in any conflderable quantity. None Of the of Uad in his f*r». Some time alter Tyro married 

iludi which the Engtifh vifited had any kind of Cretheds, fon of JSohi*, king of folchok, and be- 

P'it A) to birds, they had plenty of common came mother of three children, of whom &{bri 

rock and hens, which, though riot da medicated 1 , was the eldeft. Peh'as vHfted hit mother, and wit 

^running aboot near their houfes and plants,- received in her family 1 ; and after thetieajti of Cr» 

OffiB] and what appears extremely ffrifnitsr if, theui. he unjuftly feixed the kingdom, which Vt- 

tt.t the natives bad never made any nfe of them, longed to the children of Tyro by Crethen-s. To 

h 1 ! oorpeople told theni they were excellent eat- ftrengthen bifttfelf in hi* ufbrpatlon, Pcltas con- 

kg. Phjeons they accoant a great ditto ty ; bni folted the Ortclej and when he was told tohe- 

■ofe bat thofe of a certain dignity were permit- ware of one of the defcendants of JEolns, who 

Wto eat of them. The Country is very roourl- fhould come to hi* court with one' foot (hod and 

tiiujiis ; but the valleys are .xtetiflve and oeatf- the other bare, be privately removed the ton of 

tifat, sffording many delightful profpefts. Tht JEfin; and declared tnat he was dead. Thefe prs> 

Miifcs are raifed about 3 feet from the ground, ttufion proved vain. Jason, the fon of JEfoh, 

Kwn flonej which appear as if hewn from the who had been educated by Chiron, returned to 

^ujiry. The interior part of them is without anv lolehos, when come to year* of maturity ; s/ntf 

ij'tfion, the whole forming one greit room, which having loft one of tri,s (hoes in Croffitrg the Anatl- 

*« in a ridge like our barns, the outfitje being mi or the Evenus, Pelin perceived that this wn 

*!j'*hed thick and cleft with bamboo* or -palm the perfon whom he had -Or much drewted. «t 

waa 



P ?! I. ( 158 ) ' ,f .€ X 

was unwilling to aft with violence t*a ftraoger, (i— j.)PtUBAH Iklavd, j fmaU ifland* : *!/. 

who had excited the admiration of the people, i. on (be NK. coaft of Antigua ; LoB.it. 34. W. 

Sit when Jafon arrived at his place with his Lat. 17, 14. N. "a, on the SW- coaft of Antigua: 

end*, and boldly demanded the kingdom, Pdias Lon. 61. «, W. Lat. 17. 10. N. 3. near the SW. 

bid) that he would voluntarily refign the crown coaft of W. Florida. Lon. Si. *. W. Lat. jo. 

to him, if he would go to Colchis to avenge the 14. N. 

death of Phrysus, the fon of Atbamas, whom (4,} Pelican Islands, a clufter of iHiodi, 

JEetes bad cruelly murdered ; adding, that the near the coaft of W. Florida. Lon. 88. jj. W. 

expedition would be attended with the greater! Lat. »o. 48. N. 

glory, and that nothing but the infirmities of age (j.) Pelican Islands, a clufter of iflandi oa 

had prevented himfelf from punUhing the iflaffin. the S. coaft of Jamaica, W. of Port-Royal bar- 

This patriotic propo&lwat accepted by the young bour. 

hero, and his intended expedition was made known (1.) Pelican Key, G*ea.t, an i Hand near the 

all over Greece. . (See A»gomauts, Jason, and S. coaft of Jamaica. Lon. 76. 48. W. Lit. 17. 

Midi*..) According to Ovid, JEfon was ftill liv- 49- N. 

ing when the Argonauts returned, and was reftored (a.) Pemcau Ksy, Littli, an Uland near the 

to youth by the magic of Medea. This change in S. coaft of Jamaica, lying ;N. of Great Pelican Key. 

the vigour and theconftitutionof JEfon aftooHhed PEL1CANUS, in ornithology, a genua belong. 

all the inhabitants of lolchoa ; and the daughters ing to the order of anieres. The bill it (Iraight, 

of Pellaa, exprefled their deflre to fee their father's without teeth, and crooked at the point; the face 

infirmities vanilh by tbe lame powerful magic, is naked, and the feet are pa! mated. Mr Latham 

Medea, who wiibed to avenge the injuries which enumerates no lefi than 30 different fpecieh of tbit 

ner hufband Jafon had received from Pettis, raif- genus befides varieties. The moft remarkable are 

ed the defires of the Peliades, by cutting an old ibefe ; 

ram to pieces, and boiling the fleih in a cauldron, t. Paucawus io.uii.vt, or the Man-OF-war. 

and then turning it into a fine young lamb. After bird, is in tbe body about tbe fixe of a large 

they had. feeo this fuccefsful experiment, .the fowl) in length j feet, and in breadth 14. Tbe 

Peliades cut their father's body to pieces, after bill is (lender, 5 inches long, and much curved at 

, they had drawn all the blood from his veins, on the point i the colour is dulky j from the bafe 

the aflurance that Medea would replenifh them a reddifh dark-coloured flrin fpreads on each fide 

by her wonderful poweV. The limbs were, inline- of the head, taking in the eyes: from tbe under 

diately put into a cauldron of boiling water; but mandible bangs a large membranaceous bag at- 

Medea fufiered the fleih to be totally confumed, tacbed fome way down the throat, as in tbe peli- 

aod refutrd to give tbe promiTed affiftaoce, and can, and applied to the lame u£» ; the colour of 

the bones of, Pelias did not even receive a bu 7 this is a fine deep red, fprinkled on the fides wilh 
rial. .a few faltered feathers: the whole plumage is 

(1.)* PELICAN. B./.[pt}Uarms,\ow1M.pe!U- browniih black, except tbe wing coverts, which 
can, Fr.] There are two forts of pslicaiti 1 one lives have a rufous tinge: the tail is long, and much 
■upon water and feeds upon fifh; the other keeps forked; the outer feathers are 18 inches or mare 
in deferts, and feeds upon ferpentt and other rep- in length ; the middle ones from (even to eight : 
diet : the pttitm has a peculiar teuderneut for its the legs are final), all the toes are webbed tog e- 
youug t it generally places its neft upon a craggy ther, and the webs are deeply indented ; the co- 
rock : the ftlitan is luppofed to admit its young lour of them is dulky red. The female differs in 
to fuck blood from its bread. Calmit.— wanting the membranaceous pooch under the 
^wastbis neb begot thole *c&<ta daughters. »chin; and in having the belly white: in other 
, , SAai. things it like the male. The frigate pelican, or 
—■The feStan bath a beak broad and flat, like tbe man-of-war bird, is chiefly, if not wholly, met 
Dice of apothecaries. BaievAU a* Prjru- with between the tropica, and ever out at fea, 

(a.) Pelican, in ornithology. Sec Pklica- being only feeo on the wing:. It it ufual with 

■us. other birds, when fatigued with flying, to reft on 

(j.)PiliCAm, in chemiftry, is a glafs alembic the furface of the water; but nature, from the 

confifting of one piece It bas a tubulated capi- exceeding length of wing. ordained .to this, hat 

tal, from which two oppoGte and crooked beaks made the riling therefrom utterly impofiiiile; 

pals out, and enter, again at the belly of the cu- though perhaps this is no defect, as it fcarcely 

curbit. This veflel has been contrived for a con- fecois to require much reft ; at from the length of 

tinual diftillation and eohobation, which chemifts vmg, and its apparent eafy gliding motion Crouch 

call circulation. The volatile parts of fubftances Tike that of the kite), it appears capable of fuf- 

put.into this veflel rile into the capita!, and are Mining very long flights j for it is often feeo 'above 

obliged to return through the crooked beaks into too, and fometimes above 200, leagues from land. 

the cucurbit ; and this without interruption, or It alio attacks gulls and other birds which have 

luting and unlutuig tbe veffels. Although the caught a filh, when it obliges thefh to difgorge it, 

Pljcan terns to be a very convenient inftrument, and /hen feixes it before it falls into tbe water. 

is now little ufed ; either beoaufe tbe modem They make nefts oa trees, and on the rocks. 

cberuifts have not fp much patience as the ancient They lay one or two eggs of a fielh-calour msrk- 

sberoifts bad for making long experiments ; or ed with crimfon foots. The young birds are co- 

becaufe they find that two matrefTes, the mouth vered with greyifn white down : the legs are of 

of one of which is inferted in. the mouth .of the the fame colour, and tbe oil! it white. Tom- is 

•titer produce! ttie lame efleO. a variety of this fpede*, which is le&» meafunog 



G 



r E L jr 156 ) P" E 1 

only two fcii pine' inches in length': the extent that extends unitef the chin, and forms a fort of 

from wing to. wing it five feet and a half. The pouch ; a loofe (tin of the fame colour reaches 

bill is five inches lpng, and fed) the hafe of it, from the upper mandible round the eyes and 

and ban fpace ro^ild the eye,' ire of the fame CO- angles of the mouth; the head and neck are of a 

lour ; the noftrlfr are fufficiemly apparent, and footy blacknefi, but under the chin of the male 

appear near tbebafet the fliape of the bill is as in the feathers are white; and the head in that lex 

the larger, one; the* bead, hind part of the net\., ia adorned with a fh'ort, loofe, pendant creft : in 

and upper part* of the body and wings, are ferru- fome, both the creft and bind part of the head 

gin om b'rown j the throat,' forepart of the neck, arc ftrcaked with white. The cowls of the 

and bre aft) are white ; the'tail is greatly forked as wings, the fcapuiara, and the back, are of a deep 

in the other j the legs are of a dirty yellow. Some green, edged with black) and gloried with blue ; 

fuppofe that the greajer arid letter frigates are the the quill-feathers and tail dufky ; the legs are 

feme birds, fn different periods of age. fhort, ftrong, and black; the middle claw fernu 

*. Pilicahus BassaWus, the gawnet, or ted on theinfide; the irides are of a light afh-co- 

solaA Gqoss, weighs feven pounds; the length lour. Ttiefe birds occupy the higheft parts of 

is three feet. one inch; the breadth fix feet two the cliffs that impend over the fea: they make 

inches. The "bill is fix inches long, ftraight almoft their nefts of flicks, fea-tang, graft, Sec. and lay 6 

to the point, where it inclines down ; and the or j white eggs of an oblong form. Iq winter 

fide* are irregularly jagged, that it may hold its they difperfe along the thorn, and vilit the frefh 

ey with more fecurity : "about 'an inch from the waters, where they make great havoc among the 

,fe of the upper mandible ia a fharp procefs fifh. They are remarkably voracious, hating a 

pointing forward ; it has no fioftrils ; but in their molt fudden digeftion, promoted by the vail quan- 

place a long furrow, that reaches almoft to the tity of Tmall worms that fill their mteftines. The 

end of the bill: trie Whole' is of a dirty white, tin- corvorant bas the rankeft and moft difagreeaMe 

ged with afh'-colonr. The tongue is very fmall, fmell of any bird, even when alive. Its form if 

and placet! low in the month ; a naked fkin of a difagreeable ; its voice hoarfe and croaking, and 

fine bine furrounds the eyes, which are of a pale it* qualities bale. The Chinefe make great uft 

yellow, "and 'are full of vivacity : this bird is re- of tbefe birds, or a congenerous fort, in timing ; 

nurfcable for the quicknefi of its fight. Martin not for amufemem, but profit.' See' Chineii, 

tells us, that falan is derived from an Irifh word § 6. 

expreflWepf that quality. From the corner of ■ 4. Pilicandi gs.actji.us, the shag, called in 

the mouth is a narrow flip of black bare fkin, that the north of England the crane, is much inferior 

extends to the h'md part of the head; beneath the in liae to the corvorant: the length is a; inchest 

chin it another, that, like the pouch of the peli- the breadth 3 feet fix ; tbe weight 33 H>. The 

can, is dilatable," and of flze fufficient to contain bill is four inches long, and more /lender than 

6 entire herrings; which in the breeding fcaibn it .that of the preceding : the head it adorned with 

carries at once ta its mate or young. The young a treft two inches long, pointing backward j tbe 

birds, during the Grft year, differ greatly in colour whole plumage of tbe upper part of this bird is of 

from the old ones ; being of a dufky hue, fpeck- a fine and very fhining green ; tbe edge of tbe 

led with numerous: triangular white fpots ; and at feathers a purplifb black ; but the lower part of 

that time refemble In colours the fpeckled diver, the back, the head, and neck, wholly green; tbe 

Each bird, fflrft uodifturbed, would only lay one belly is dufky; the tail of a dufky hue, tinged 

egg in the year; but if that be taken away, they with green [ tbe legs are black, and like t hole of 

will lay another; if that is alfo taken, then a third; tbe corvorant. Both tbefe kinds agree in their 

but never more that feafon. Their egg is white, manners, and breed in the fame places ; and what 

and rather left than that of the common goofri is very ftrange in web-footed birds, will perch and 

the neft -is large, and formed of anything the bird build in trees: both fwim with their head quite 

finds floating on the water, fuch as grafs, fea- erect, and are very difficult to be {hot ; for, like 

plants, (havings. Sec. Thefe birds frequent the' Me the grebes and divers, as foon at they fee the fiafh 

of Allfa, in the Frith of Clyde) the rocks adjacent of tbe gun, they pop under water, and never rife 

10 St Kilda; the Stalks of 3ouhfkerry, near the but at a conSderable diftance. 

Orkneys; the Skch'g lues, off the coaftt of Kerry, j.pEt-iCAMUSOSiQCaoTALDt, or tbe pelican ef 

Ireland; and the Bafi Me, tn the Frith of Forth: j^Sa, Africa, and America; though Linnarus thinks 

the multitudes that inhabit tbefe placet are pro- that the pelican of America may be a diilmct va- 

digious. Tbefe birds are well known on moft of rfety. This creators, in Africa, is much larger in 

tbe coaftt of England, but not by the name of the body than a fwan, and fomewhat of tbe fame 

tbe Solan gtefe. In Cornwall and in Ireland they fhage and colour. Its four toes are all webbed 

are called gonneti ; by the Welfn, b>a; We are together ; and its neck in fome meafure refemble* 

uncertain whether the gannet breeds in any other that of a fwan : but tbe Angularity, in which it 

parti of Europe betides our own iilarids ; except, 'differs from all Other birds, is in the bill and the 

as MrRayfurpeAMhefula(defcribrdinC]uftus*s great pouch underneath. This enormous bill ia 

Exotics, which breeds in Feroe -IBcs) be the fame r j inches from the point to the opening of the 

bird. ' ' mouth, which ia a good way back behind the eyes, 

3. Piucahos CAkbo, the corvokant, fome- See Plate i;o. At the bale the bill is fomewhat 

timet exceeds 7 lb. in weight ; the length 3 feet greenifh, but varies towards the end, where it 

4 ; tbe extent 4 feet 1 ; the bill dufky, 1 inches Books downwards. The under chap is dill more 

long, defbtute of noftrua; the bafe of the lower extraordinary; for to the lower edges of it bang a 

nwdibte.'ia corned with a naked yd low fkin, bag, retching the whole length of the bill to the 



r n * « i» ? • IM 

*rok,<wtoch is bid to V capable of eon! lining ij- colour lite .the neck of a turkey. He .tfit, tilt 
QUBttt of water, .This bag the bind baa a power father Francis dcpavia informed hint, that on bit 



Jprtf.by opening the bill, and putting one's band lirds, with long beaks, necks, and feet, which, 

dew-a into the bag, it may bediftended at plea- whenever they beard ibe found of an Inftnimoit, 

firrfc TheJkin of which it ii firmed will then be began immediately to dance and* leap about th* 

(ten of a Uujfti afh colour, with many fibrei aud riven, where they always refide', and whereof 

veins running over ita filrfape. It is not covered they were great lovers t this, be f id, be took t 

with feather*, but with a Ihort downy fubftance great pleafure to contemplate, and continued often 

is Empoth and as loft a- rutin, andia attached all upon the banks of the rivets to obferve. 

along to the under edge* of the chap, n fixed 6 Pklicanui Fuiivj, or thc^rea(ii»ij,c*ll- 

backward to the neck, of the bird by proper liga- ed by Linnaeus Ptlicami faffam fiufiu, frequents 

jneots, and reaches near half way down. When the rivers and fea coafts of. Florida, purfuing. and 

th'ii baa i» empty,, it is not ten; but wben devouring fifties. M< Cttelby informs us, that be 

the bird haa filhed wjjbfuccefs, it ts then incre- hajfeveral. times found them dilabled, andfomt- 

dibjp to what an extent, tt U often fcen dilated, time* dead, on the fhore ; whence he, thinks that 

for the fivil thing the pelican does in fifhing ia to they meet with fharka of; other voracious fifties, 

ill up the bag j aud then it return* to digeft its which deftroy them. The bin! is about, the fixe 

burden at leifiire. When the bill is opened to iu of ■ goofe ; the bead and neck remarkab'y pn.mi- 

wideft extent, a person may run his bead into the nent ; the back of a bipwn colour; the belly. thiOcv 

bird's mouth, and conceal It in hit monftroiis white;" the feet Iwatk, aod jlvaped like thofcof a 

fiopch, thus adapted for very fingular purpofet. corvorant j the bead elegantly fpotted with white] 

Tortre affirms, that it will. bide as many fifh as the wings extend fix feet when fpread. Both this 

will ferve 60 hungry men for a meal. This pelicap fpeciet and the Suva have a joint in the upper 

was once, alto known in Europe, particularly >p mandible of the bill, by which they can uife it 

iRuflia 1 hjit it feems, f.o have defcrted our coafts. confiderably from the lower one without opening 

■ThU is the bird of which lb many fabulous ac- the mouth. 

.counts have been propagated ; fuch as its feeding j.Pelicands tut a, /*?*#••*, is fotnewhat left 

it» young with its own blood, and its carrying a than a goofe 1 the talis of the bill yellow, and of 

provifion of water for them in its great refer voir bare feathers ; the.eyes of a 1 ght grey colour j the 

4H the defer*. But the abfurdity of the firfl ac- lower part of tbe bill of a light brown,' Three- 

fount aniWrs itfelf; and as for the Utter, the pat- lours of. the bedy are brown and white i but It- 

Jican ufes its bag for very different purpofea than ried To in different individuals, that tbey cannot 

-that of filling it with water. CLivigero, in bin Hif- be defcribed by tbem. Their wings are very long : 

tory of lylesico, fay*, that " there are two fpecies, their legs and feet pale yellow, leaped like thofe 

«r rather .varieties, of this bird in Mexico (the of corvorant a. They frequent the Bdbaroa iuandi, 

oneiiaving afmodth bill, tbe other a notched one." where they breed all months iri tbe year, laying 

The , pelican, tsa/l Libat, has ftrong wings, fur- t, t, or j eggs, on tbe bare rijek. While young, 

uiflied with thick plumage of an afh .colour, as are they ate covered with a * bite down, and continue 

tbe reft of tbe feathers over the whole body. Its lb till they are altnoft ready to fly. They feed on 

.eyes are very finallj wben compared with the fixe fill), but have a very trouhlefume enemy in the 

of its head ; there jsafadnefs in ita countenance, man of-war bird, which Jives on lhe-ft>oi}» obtain- 

and its whole air it melancholy. It it flow of ed from other fea-birds,.partiaularly th,e booby, 

flight ; and when it riles to fly, performs it with 'Such leaders as defire further information refpc ft- 

difficulty and labour s but when it peieeivet a fifh ing this numerous genus, may cQofult JZilwriFj 

futficientiy near the furface, it dart t down upon it 'Buhrg of Birds ; Natural Hifiory of Jarnaica; 

with the fwiftnefr of an arrow i felzet it .with un- Mam. dt P Aei.ioni* Sagale 4" Seitntti, dejm 

.^rrino; certainty, and ftoias it up in the pouch. It i6ft6 jufqua 1699, l^rn. 3. p. 186 ; WdJiigkbg; 

repofov. for the night, and often fpends a great ' Ptww' 1 Smi/h and ArSk Zuoiogj ; and Latham '1 

• part 01 the day, fitting, in difmal fderonity, and, Synupju of Jiirii ; the laft of whi(b it the fulleft ' 

as it would feem, half afleep, on a tree. The fame and 1,0ft fcierrtifical of any we haye.yet feen. 

.indolence attends them even in preparing for in- . PELICAHO, a town of Naples 111 Ba&licata,; 

cubatiodt and defending their young when ex- lonul^sENE. of Turfi. t 

eluded. Tbe native Americans kill vaft numbers t PEL1DES, a patronymic of Achillea and Pyf 

not to eat, for they are not fit even for the ban- rhu<, as defcended of Peleus. 

fjuet of a favage, but to convert their larpe bagj PELIGKI, an ancient nation of Italy, who 

into .purfes and tobacco pouches. Some authon dwelt near the Sabines and the r htarG. Their chief 

jay the pelican lives.60 or 70 years. . Ctpt. Keel- towns were Cortinium ahd'Suuno. Liv. viii. 6. 

ing, in hit voyage to Sierra Lsone, fays the' peli- ao. Strata, j. , . 

cant there are as largeaafwant,of a white colour, PEL1KANY, a town of Lithuania, in Wilna; 

with exceeding long bills; and M. Thevenot, in ra miles SSW. of BraHaw. 

his Trarels to tbe Levant, obfervea that tbe peli- PEL1M, a town, lake, and river of Ruflia, in 

cans about fome part. of the Nile near the Red Tobcilk. The river runs into the lake, which it 

Sea fwim by the bauk fide like gecfe, in fuch great j6 miles in circumference. Lan.ti. j6.J£,-Ferro. 

numbers that they cannot be counted. F. Morrolta, Xat. 59- 10. N. 

in his voyage to C ngo, fays pelicaot are often PEL1NG, an iQand of Ada, in the Yellow Sea, 

met with in tbe road to Singa, and are all over near the Co$ft of Corra ; 10 aiilet longjand 4 broad. 

black, except op their breafi, ,wlucb it of a flefli Lou. 14*. 14. E. Eeiro. Lat-jB.**.^; _ rl 



ur ( i?i ) mil 

P1LINHA, or > an ancient town ef Macedat Palact. {BfiUtenku.) Mw, the gentilitioua. naoas 

pEaNN^uM ( i^K. , &r«i ,iii.^»*«i, ( U rf«.th?i^tE:Wju.. , M t ift; •. : : :~7; 

10, and ii. ■ «. ' (a.) Pel la, a town of th'c'Decapoffs on the 

PELION, or > a mount aio'of. ThefJaly, neariQT, other .fids the Jordan ; abounding in w^iej. f.Afa 

PELipS, J fa, bailing "oyer, the Sinus J?b. "P'raO built fiy the Micedoniaiie,.($<r4iaa.i} Lr.'bj^ 

lafgicas, orpegificusj iu tan covered with pih'esi Sf^tucus, '(tuftfhuty anciently "eSIEai £'"{«# 

the fides, with oaks, and, sold qjh. ('OiiuL.'Sit; tftepljanus »"(• Afawsa, (Strabo;) 35 'ro. ME 

Mela. mrs^Bv. Ovid, &n. r. Flat.) -From this bf Qwalk., t-P/o/.) ■ Thither thq Chriftians, Jul 

mountain Wit cut the ipear,,o'f .ichiiiesj called! ne* before the.fit-ge of Jerufalem by Titus', were dir 

ffsj, whichnonebuthiipMfcjnldwield.^mM-;} yinely admoniflied fo fly. (AVfinu.J Ii.'ffM the 

Di cearchu a, Ari title's fcholar,, found this nioun- utmoft boundary of the Per«a, or Trtnyufdaii 

tain t»io paces higher than ajijoi£crn£Thefraly_. country,, pn the N. Jdfepbus. ' ■ .-.." '."* 

[PJJMp.J Pefiiu,iadJ'elieciu,t))eep\^ieU. pu. Cav -' (&) Pfc&LAi.io modern geography', - , a town' 0/ 

iW. • '"..".„ RuoifianV-cpn6vx9rtheN«va"and.TQluft: ao ■ 

PELIOU.atownofCbinainQuanB-ii. .,..., njjbySE. of Peterfburg, . . '- .. -. " . _ 

P£USE,»ri»erOfthe*Freadi eBipint^in.the 1 KELL^US.'a title of Alexander.. . ";r %.,.-, 

ci-devant Piedmontef* ; which rife* in Mount La ,. FEL-L.ANE, a to^h of La'conia. P#^ uVfiv 

Croix, pafjes by Lucerne; and runs iatokthe Chi. '.. TELLE.' See P^LLAi'SI" 1. .,j .', .. .r.',j **"» 

fone, one mite.S. of Vigone.. ',.- ' TtT- ■ , PpLpiftlN, Simon : Tafcph, alearneSTrenci 

PELISSA, a town and county of "Lqayer Hun- w'rixer,.'b.um at Verf#ii:- '-si 'in- Kifit.'^He'eiiteredJ 

sjary. The town is feared near the Danube:, ic Into ,t hi order' of SerVfcesi and wrote bnlyaribiat 

niUa M n m.j. » .0 *■»'¥.. '._ _ _ «/ c.v:,n. r. :. 'A.''*~if..t -it j J.:- - »;' 



miles N. ofBuda, Lon. if, »o. E. Lat, 47.40. JJ. fubje#s, funie.ic'np'tura], olheia dramitic, poeti. 

PELISSANE, a town of France,, in. the. dtp. 6»l. &c. W-ijoi;' he 'obtained, the, Academy's 

of tbeMwjt^s'of the Rhone*. 3 ajilesE, of Salon*, fpUtr.tiX hia 8#J%tt Lewis ?jy. oh' tKe'fuccelj 

.... WpVli 
LIM, iton of. M ... . _._,„..,.., 

PELL, John, p- D. an eminent mathematician, I»J, aged ( 8 



— ™.^-jjy,.^. .^.uu^j^ucnu, .mipuT, pn^.tor his EsHjtleto Lewis Xiy. 011 the luce e& 

and 15 WWW. of Aix. "..,., of hia Anna.. ^'jHofaa airqTbme, cnmetJieaAnd 

PELISSON.. 6]ee Pellisou. - pperas.. By the ^nf(uence>f,Ma^l^inj;^v» t ,^t 

PELltf Hia town of Macedonia, i/^ ji. 40.. waa ttanfla'lei( 1,9 1 tjje order oflCluny. .Hediedia 

""LL. Jopn, p. D. an eminent mathemaligan, JJ«, aged 81. 'i.,'., ', jL l .^' ". „, ,' 

incientl Family in Linoolnlhire, ^ rn M Souih- PELLEGRINI,' Ahihony, an'eminent Wltqrical 

wyke in Sufles, March, 1, 1610, land educated, at painter, born, M (1 Padn»» rin j^M-i-He' fl»d^d,at 

Cambndge, where he took hie degree of M. A. in Venice under Paul Pagan J Tie!IJ. of ManchftC- 

16.50. ' In 1619, he drew up tho LhjcrtfUou and ter brought him ovja >o. EnglaniL W^ere he per* 

Vfi of the Quadrant. In J643, he waachoinaPrnf, formed iflveral capital worVa/or tpe DobiltU;. J?e 

of matheroan'ci at Amflerdam. in '16415, ihe Pr, diedini7 4 r. ' ' " '' '' " , -,.. 

of OrSTigt appointed bim profeffor of that at Ate- i A) PE LLEGRINO, TibakU. pi.Tbeobild, an 

da. He returned- to England in. 16544 and, in eminent Italian painter and Icblptpr, born at Bo. 

1654, wat Ttnt by Oii*cr Cromwell,, as agntt to logna, l:i ijii. He wai employed by CharletV. 

the protcftaot Swift Cantons. He refided at Zu- to ornament. the £fourial^ for which he was re- 

rich 4 yeara, with,, the title of Jiitgaiui, aud re- warded, with 100,000 crdwni and toe tKfe^of 

turned tyl June, 1658. . After j the. n^oca^on, marfluia. He died in ijai, aged -)o, ,- tm/fl ''.. 

which heoontiibuted to promote,, he entered into (a.) PjU.tOi.Dtp of Modena,.an emine(it'lta- 

ordcra;. waa created D. D. ordained deacon in lian painUr, born in that city. In ijlt- H e ^' 



reclor of Laingdon, ,ht Ell'ea, inalij. died under Raphael, and. was employ ejj 
' - ' " ■' " '' "■ died of a' 



He publifhcd a worVon Aigehra, and ort the joth painting* of the Vatican. He died -of a wouirf 

of Euclid, with olier tract*. He died at London, received in the Itreet in attempting .tb'rafcue hi* 

Dec. ii, iiif, fon,.who bad committed murder. . ! '■•:'.'' 

ii.J PELL A, in ancient .gpojtraphy, a town of (3) Pell^grino, Si:, a town io Illria^a milcf 

Macedonia. on the confines j>( ljnja.lb,ia. {Ptaltmj.) SSE. of Umago.. ,, , 

Utroiioiu* allots it to Boitiaja, a maritime diftrict [*■) PELLKGaiiip.'ST. a' town (if France, in 

on the SinuaThernwicua. .It w,aa Ihe.toya] reh- Corfica, »i miles SSfi. 0/ gaftia". 

dence, fituated on an eminence, on the SW..en- I'ELLEGRUE, a town of France, LVtne &e- 

companed with usnafTable niaiil»(-'t fumtner and parinicnt of the Gironrfc, jo miles E. of Bou^> 

winter: in which, ne« the town, a citadel J ike JeallX. , „ , .... 

an iOanil rofe, placed on a bank or dam, a pro- PELLENBEIfK, a town of France, ui the dep. 

digioua* work, both fuppi>rting the wall and k- of the Dyie, and ci-devant prpv. of Auftriao Bra* 

curing it from hurt by the CUCW) fluent ..water, but: 3 mile* EjOf Loiiyau). Near it the French 

At a diftancc, it fcemed clofc to the town, but waa republicans were defeated by the ttoopioftbe 

feparated from it by the Ludias, running by the allies, ou the aid March 1793, w ^° *^* '*'* °^ 

walla, and juined to.it by a bridge; taaftadia acoo men. - 

from the tea, the Ludias being fo tar navigable. PELLENDORF, two town* oF.Auftria; 1. 

{Liv. Strab.) Mela calls it Pglle. it, wa« the ten milea W. of Zifterdorf t 2. eight miles SB. of 

birth-place of Philip, who enlarged it ; and after- Vienna. 

wardi of Alexander | {.Strata Mela.) and continued PELLENEL, an ancient town of Achaia, iq 

to be the royal reftdence down to Perfeoa. \Livy-) Peloponnefui, W. of Sicyou, famous for its wool. 

It is called PilU CWwua, by Pliny, awl Colmia Slrat. viii. Pauf. vii. tf.. 

Julia jtugu/t* upon coin. It afterwards declined, PliLLENlNKEN, a town of PrnflUn Lithua- 

aod had but tew and mean inhabitants. {Ludau.) nia i 9 miles ME. of jiufterburg. 

It is