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Edited by 







'K. - 


P R 1 N T i: it S 

. ". * 


>. ,-.•.' 


\ht ''' EncyclopiEdia of Ships and Shipping " has been compiled to 
furnish information of value to those in any way connected with 
nautical matters. 

In preparing the work, it has been necessary, in order to confine the 
matter to one volume, to make the article as concise as possible, and where 
space has prevented the subject "being dealt with to any great length, 
standard authorities are quoted to enable the reader to obtain further in- 
formation on the subject. This applies particularly to Law and Insurance 
and in most instances th^ leading Admiralty Court cases on the question 

, . .1!'// r.Ai ■ ' ■/ ■/ .1 I .- • <■ 

are quoted. • • ■ • , 

The Editor is grateful to the many gentlemen of distinction who have 
been good enough to assist him with their advice and aid in the com- 
pilation of the work. Among these may be mentioned : 

The Naval Attaches at the Embassies in London, for their kind- 
ness in furnishing information enabling him to include in this 
work particulars of vessels in i the'. various foreign navies. 



J.P., D.L. 



Professor CARL BUSLEY 

M. Lc Marquis dc CHASSELOUP- 


A. K. DICK, Esq. 


Sir ^'. J. DURSTON, K.C.B. 







The Right Hon. LORD GEORGE 

LINTON HOPE, Esq., A.Inst^.A.- 
Admiral Sir JOHN 0MM.\NNEY' 

The Late Colonel Sir HENRY M. 



FRED. T. JANE, Esq. 



Professor ALEX. KENNEDY, LL.D., 



, Esq., M.Inst. N.A. 

W. MARRIOTT. Esq., F.R. Met. Soc. 

i ' MORANT, K.C.B. 

jsU^'DIGliY MURRAY, Bart. 


Engineer Rear-Admiml H. J.ORAM 


Commander ROBINSON. R.N. 


The Rt. Hon. EARL SPENCER, K,6^ 






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A. I'he higbpHt class of merchant ships on Lloyil'^ 
books, subdivided into Ai and Az, after which they 
descend by the vowels. Refet to Lloyd's Roister 
of British and Foreign Shipping. 

A, Wstingnishing letter nn s«i fishinff boats re- 
gistered at Aalborg, Denmark. 

JL Distinguishing letter on sea hsbing boats ic- 
gistcrcd at Aberdeen. Scotland. 

A. Distinguishing letter on sea fishing boat» re- 
gistered at Antwerp, Belgium. 

A^. DUtioguisbing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Alloa, Scotland. 

LB, Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at .\brrystwith, England. 

KM. Able t>ody. Signifying trained seamea, 
Reffy to Able-bodied Seaman. 

Aback. Position of ship's sails when wind bears 
against front surface. 

Abltt. Relatively near the strrn. 

Abalome. A shcll-6sb of the I'*a^l and Wt-stt Pacific 
Coasts. The flesh is dried and eaten, and the shell is 
as mother-of-pearl. 

Abandoo. Srf Abandonnteut. 

Abandofunent generally means a Notice of Aban- 
dcnmciit or I«;tter from the assured notifying to the 
ondennTiter the a!>andonment of the subject in- 
sored. " The* abandonment must be dirtrct and ex- 
press, Ind I think the word Abandon shonid be used 
to make tt eflectual " (Lord EIlenl>oraugh in Par- 
tneter v. To<fhunter, Camp.. 542). It is a positive 
transfer of property from the ai^iircd to the under- 
writer the no6ce is tnlimating his mtention to 
abiandon. As a rule, the umlerwriter declines to 
acce{)t the notice, but his neglect to reply mn«t not 
be taken as hU acceptance {I'rovmcial Insurance 
Company of Cana<ln r. Leduc.L.R.. 6P.C. 224).. No 
particular form has Xxtn prescribed for ti*ntler or 
aolicc of abandonment. It iit not even necessary 
that it should be iu writtnK, although It is nsually »o 
given as documentary evidence oi the lender; hut in 
whatever form it is given one essential is that It 1« 
given unequivocally: no conditions may lie at- 
tached: it must be an abeolnte oHer then and thrrn, 
but it is desirable that it should slate some grounds 
on which tlic tender Is made. The reply of the 
anderwriter if be accqits must Uc similarly nocondi- 
tkmaJ and absolute. Heffr to I>erelict an<l Con- 
structive Total Loss. 

Ab&t«m«at «r Rebate is in commerce an allowance 
or discount made iu consideration of prompt pay- 
ment. The term is also used to express the deduc- 
tion occasionally made by the Customs anthorilictf 
from duties chargeable upon such goods as ara 
damaged or for loss In warehouses. Among ship- 
pen the term rebate is used to denote the amount 
roturnabte for freight [«ud by the .shipper to the ship- 
owner or his agent, when the shipper confines his 
shipments to one line or ring of shipowners. 

Abbe, Professor Cleveland, A.H., Ph.D., LLJ)., 

Proles-sor of Meteorology, United States Weather 
Bureau (b. Now York City. December 3, 1S38). 
Educ. College of the City of New York; University 
of the State of Michigan: Harvard University; Cen- 
tral Nicholas Observatory, Poulkova. near St 
Petersburg. Russia. Instructor of .Mathematics, 
Trinity Parish School. New York, 1857-58. and 
Engineering, .\fichigan State Agricultural College, 
1859; aid in I'.S. Coast Survey, t8<io-64; Direc- 
tor of Cincinnati Observatory. 1868-73; organised 
the weather service under the Secretary of War. 1870- 
g I . now under the Secretary* of Agriculture ; 
started the reform in standards of civil time reckon- 
ing by even hours of longitude from Greenw^ich, 
1875. which IS now widely adopted; conducted the 
Signal Sexvice expedition to observe tlie solar eclipse 
from Pike's Pe.ik, 1878; Meteorologist to the Ex- 
pedition to the West Coast of Africa, 1S89-90: 
.Associate Editor of the American Meteorological 
Journal, 1891-94; editor of the monthly Weather 
Review, 1893; Professor of Meteorology, Columbia 
University, 1885: Lecturer on Meteorology, Johns 
Hopkins University, iSgc;. 

Publications: "The Parallax of Sirius " (rSfifi), 
" The Distribution of tlie Nebul.-c " (1867), " Dorpat 
and Poulkova " {if<fvj). "The Weather Uulletin of 
the Cincinnati Observatory " (1869). " The Ecli|ue 
of August " (iSOo). " How to Use Weather Majtt " 
(1S71), " Historical Note on Weather Telegraphy " 
(1871). " Observations of Coggia's Comet " (1S74), 
"The Aurtm* of Feb. 4th, 1872 "; "The Hurricane of 
August, 1873"; " The Meteor of Dec. 2^th. 1874": 
■' The Signal Service Eclipse Expedition to Pike's 
Peak. 1878"; "Short Mcnioirs on Meli-orology " 
(1878). "Treatise on Melrorniogical Apparatus; and 
McthcKls " (18R7). " Determination of the True 
Amount of Precipitation " (18H9), " Meclianic oi the 
Earth's Atmosphere " (1S91), " Atmospheric Radia- 
tion " (1892). ■' Preparatory Studies for Storm and 
We«thcr Predictions " (1889). " The Marine Nepho- 
soopc " (1893), "The Meteorological Work of the U.S. 



Siffiml Servic« " {1895), " Annus! Summary of Pro- 
gress in TcrTc*triai Physics and Meteorology " {1873- 
89), the article " Meteorology " in "The Times" 
Supplement to the 9th Edition of the Encydop^rdia 
Britannica, " Aims and Methods of State Weather 
Services" (1S99}. "The Altitude of the Aurora" 
(1899). " The Physical Basis of Long-Range Fore- 
casts " (looi). 

Abbtfivifltions are distributed throughout the Kn- 
cycloptfdia of Skifis and Shipping in alphabetical 

A3.0. Railway Time Tables for Cardiff. New- 
port and Swansea. Published monthly. Price id. 
Addri>-'*s; Cardiff. 

Abdul BazQid. Turkish cruiser (1904). 
Len(;th 3jo ft. Bcam42ft. Maximum draught i6ft. 
Displacement 5,377 tons. Complement 302. 
Gwts. A rmottr. 

s— « in. " SteeJ." 

6 — 4 in. a in. Deck. 

a— 3 p<lr. 
2 — 1 pdr. 

Torpedo Tub**. 
3 Above water, 
TM-in screw. Hp. forced 1 3,000 ajs kts. Coftt 
maximum 'J«JO tons. 

Abdul Hediidieh. Turkish armoured cruiser. 
(Phttadelptiia, 1903). 

Length 331ft. Beam 42 ft. Draught 16ft. 
Displacement 3,400 iota. Complement 300. 
Guns. Armour. 

3— 6 in. "Steel." 

8 — 47 in. 4 in. Deck amidships. 

6 — r8 in. 

TorpeJit Tuhei. 

3 Above water. 

Hp. 13,000=: 33 kts. Coal 600 tons. 

fttlium In a direction at right angles to veosel's 


Abel, Sir Froderiok Aogastiu (1S27-1903). Scien- 
tific Chcmisi (b. London). Was on authority oo cx- 
plo'tvejt and improved the manatacture of gvn 
cotton; wiu> pArt-inventor with I'rolcssor Dtwar of 
cordite. Invented an apparatus for determining the 
fla^poinl of petroleum; Professor of ClicmLttry. 
Royal Military Academy, 1851-55; Chemist to Uie 
War Department, 1S54-88: Fint Director Imperial 
Institute. iSfi;. 

Publications; " Gun Cotton " (1S66). " The 
MuJcni Hi"*twry of Gunpowder " (1866), " On Ex- 
plosive Agent) " (1873), " Researches in Explosivc^■■ 
(1875), " Electricity Applie*i to ExploMve Pur- 
poses" (Ifl.'t4j. 

AtirdMO. Sttamship, built in 1883. One of the 
first to be engined with triple expansion engine*, 
wMcf I were designtyl hy Mr. Kirk to work with steam 
•t 12$ lbs. pr«B9ttr». 

Aberdeen, Leitfa end Many Bteamsbip Co., ttd^ 
with their head oflice in Abenleeti. maintain a 
service every Monday from Leith for Aberdeen, 
Buckie. I..ossicmouth, Cromarty, Invcrgordon and 
InvemeSB, making the return journey from Inverness 
every Thursday. 

Earnholm. Jama Crombie. 

Aberdeen Line [Rennie'i). Wu inaugurated in 
1856 with a fleet of sailing ships trading regularly 
between London and Natal. In 1857 steam was 
first tried with the Madagascar, the first steamer 
ou the South African Coast carr^-ing the mails from 
Cape TowTi to Durban. In 1886 the MaiabeU, 
the first steamer in the South African trade to be 
fitted with triple expansion enRincs, was added to the 
fleet The company now maintain a weekly service 
from the West India Dock, Lxmdon^ to Natal, calling 
at Portland and the Canary I&lands (Las Palmas and 
Tcnerifie]. and an East African service inaugurated 
in 1893, which has developed into a fortnightly ser- 
vice between Natal and Quilimane, calling at the 
Portuguese ports of Delagoa Bay, Inhambane and 
Bcira and Chinde. 

Ifafa. Inchanga, Insitufa. 

Iliovo. Jngsli. Inyati, 

Inanda. Inkonka. Inyoni. 

Gross tonnage, 38,000. 

AbecdeeuLiae (Thompiwn's). This company, plj 
ing between London and Australia, via the Cap 
founded in Aberdeen in 1824, lias occupied for thrc 
quarters of a century a prominent position m the 
AiistraHan cargo and passenger trade ; due in the first 
instance to the nms of their noted clippers to 
Melbourne and Sydney. The Aberdcfn, biiUt in 
1881, was the nr3t ocean steamer to demonstrate 
decisively the superior merits of triple capansion 
engines. The total tonnage now only includes one 
sailing vessel ol 3,093 tons, the old clippers having 
been replace<l by modem steamships. The MH- 
liades hold!' the record from London to Melbourne 
via the Cape, hi-r steaming time being 34 days, 
actual time from port to port 35 days. 

Abttdf^H. Marath<ytt. Nineveh. 

Austtalasian. MiUiadsi. Saiamis. 

Damascus. Moravian. Scphocies. 

Gross tonnage. 44.000. 

Aberdeen, Newcastle tnd Hall Steamship Co.. 
Ltd., >vitli tht-'ir head ofltce in Aberdeen, maintain a 
ijcrvio: ol steamers at advertised houre between 
Aberdeen and Hull and Aberdeen and Newcantlc-on- 
Tynci A steamer Ifaves Aberdeen lor Hull every 
Tuesday, retnrning from Hull every Saturday. A 
steamer leaves .Aberdeen for Newcastle every Satur- 
day, and returns from Newcastle every Wednaday. 
Kart of Aberdeen. Norwood. 



AtMrdeeo Stotm NaTintioa OamBanr. with their 
head office in Aberdeen, and their London office at 
Liraehotise, maintain a rcgaUr service ot ittramcra 
between London itmi Aberdeen, sailing evrry Wedneft- 
day and Satarday. The steamers have excellent 
passenger acconunodatioii. 


City of AbardMn. Hogarth. 

City of LondoH. Harlam. 

Abergavcany. East Indiaman. Went asliore on 
the Bill oi Portland. February 6. 1805 ; 300 lives lost. 

Aberratiou. Au apparent change of place, or 
alteration of their mean pot>ition, in the fixed stars, 
caused by the orbital movement ol the earth. Aber- 
ration of planet signifies the space thtYiugh which it 
appears to move during the time which it occupies in 
r***'"E 'roni the planet to us. 

Abl»>Bodied Seaman. (Merchant Shipping Act. 
1894, M>:ttott 126-} A svatnan shall not be entitled 
to the rating of A. 6.. that is to iiay, of able-bodied 
•eauiian, unless he lias scr\*ed at sea for four years 
before tbe mast, but the employment of hshermen in 
decked fishing vessels registered under the hrst part 
of this Act shall only count as sea service up to tbe 
p«rkxl of three years of that employment; and the 
rating of A.B. shall only be granted aiter at least one 
year's sea &er\ice in a trading vessel in addition to 
three or more years' sea service on board of decked 
fishing vessels so registered. 

Service may be proved by certificates oi dtscliarge 
or by certificate of service from the Kegtstrar- 
General of Shipping and Seamen (9.1/,} or other 
satisfactory proof. 

Aboard. Inside or upon a ship, 

Abookir. British ist class cruiser. [Fairfield, 

Length 4:14 ft. Beam 69 ft. Maximum draught 38 ft. 
Diiiplacenient 12,000 tous. Complement 700. 
Gunf. Armour. 

a — 9*3 in., 45 cal. " Kmpp," 

I a— 6 in. 6 in. Belt amidships, 

12 — 12 pdra. 6 in. Barbettes. 

2-~i3 pdr., 8 cwt. 12 in. Conning tower. 

3—3 pdr. 
2 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
3 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 3i.uoo = 3i kts. Coal maxf* 
mnm 1,600 tons. Approximate cost ^749.000, 

This ship-name was introdoced into the Navy in 
1798 with the Aquiton captured at the battle of the 
Nile; she was renamed the Ahouiir. 

Aboat Ship. To turn or tack head to wind. 

Above Board. Over the deck. 

AbOK. Sm Aback. 

Abcek. Rnssian torpedo gnn-boat (1896). 

Length 212 ft. Beam 25 ft. Maximum draught 1 3 It. 

Displacement 5J4 tous. Complement 109. 


2—47 in. 

4—3 pdr. 

2 — I pdr. 

Torpedo Tubei. 

2 Above water. 

Twin screw. Hp. 4,500 » 31 kts. 

Abmizi, Daka of. Prince Luigi Amedoo Giuseppe 
Maria Ferdtoando Francesco, Captain Italian Navy 
andCeographi-r (b. Madrid. Januar>- 29, 187JI). Thiid 
sonof Amcdco, Dukcof .\osta. and cousin to the Kitit^ 
of Italy. jVsccnded Mount St £Ha.\ Alaska. July 
31, 1S97, and determined its altitude and geological 
origin. Commanded an Arctic expedition lo the 
North Pole, 1900; when he and his party reached 
86' 33' N, Htferto Arctic Exploration. 

Publication: "The Ascent of Mount St Elias " 

Abyisal Animala are those which inhabit the 
greatest depths of the ocean. Until the last hall ol 
tbe 19th century, it was comiuuoly supposed that 
only the upper strata and Sliallow water of the ocean 
n'ere inhabited. This was disproved by the ChtilUn- 
ger expedition (^.v.). and it was thought that post^i- 
bly the discovery would lead to the finding of liv- 
ing fossils. This, however, has not been the case lo 
any great extent, as the deep-sea animals show clear 
signs of having been derived from shallow water and 
do not shed any light on the origin of Ufc in the sea. It 
has been proved that Abyssal animals are carnivo- 
rous and depend upon tiic dead organisms which drop 
down from the surface waters. At the great depth 
at which they arc found the water is so cold, and the 
pressure so enornious. that living plants arc ab-sout. 
One striking peculiarity of deep-sea animals is that 
many of them, especially fish, are blind. The 
last volume of the Challenger monographs, entitled 
" Summary of Results," gives a graphic and his- 
torical account of deep-sea dralging. 

Abyssinia. Goion screw steamer. Caught fire 
in mtd-Atlantic. December 18, 1891. Passengers and 
crew rescued by the Spree. 

A.O. Distinguishing letters on sea fiahing boats 
registered at KaroUnensiel, Germany. 

A'e. Account. 

Academies. Naval. Sea Naval Establishmrnhi. 

Acalepba. From the Greek, meaning Nettle; a 
name given to the animals commonly known as jelly- 
fish, sca-blubber, medusa, sea-nettle. 

Acceptance. See Bill of Exchange. 

Aocidant. " Tbe expression ' accident ' in the 
ordinary sense denotes an unlooked-for mishap or 




untoward ertat which is not expected or ili iig,niil." 
and coven cases of inevitable accidents and accidents 
caosed by the Act of God iqj;.). 

An inevitable accident is " that which the party 
char^ed with the offence could not possiblr prevent 
by the exercise of ordinary care, caution and mari- 
time skin." and is a good dcfoice to an action for 

Bysection 42; of the Merchant Shipping Act. iSg4. 
a rtport of any actWent to a British steamship caus- 
ing loss, of \iie or personal injury-, or afiecting the 
seaworthiness or efi&ciency of the thip. must be sent 
by her master to the Board of Trade as soon as pos- 
sit4e after its occnrrence. 

This section also a|^ies to all foreign steamships 
carrying passengers between places in the United 

By section 728 inspectors may be appointed by the 
Board of Trade (^.v.) (or the purpose of reporting on 
the causes and nature of any accident or damage to 
any ship. 

Refer to Collisions at Sea, Employers' Liability, 
Limitation of LiabiUty, Seamen. 

AffiHmt bmrasM. Se£ Insnzance. 

Aaeonmifliilkti Tulilrr. Flight of steps over ship's 

AffffHmt. Going upon. A phrase for bnocaneer- 

AocoUBtMt CtaocnL An officer in the English 
Court of Chancery who receives and disburses all 
moneys paid into theConrt. This office was abolished 
in 1872, the duties being transferred to the Paymas- 

Aoconntant Offieen (Navy). S« Paymaster 


AoeoL A term used by seamen, indicating the end 
of a deep bay. 

Aecgmolated Tempcnbm. This is the combined 
amount and duration of the excess or defect of the 
air teniperature above or below the base temperature 
of 42". It is considered that the temperatnre above 
that value is mainly effectual in starting and main- 
taining the growth, and in completing the ripening 
of agricultural crops. 

Accnninl&tor, Hydmlic. Devised by Lord Arm- 
strong, consists o£ a vertical cylinder and heavily 
weighted ram, fed at a constant rate from the 
hydraulic pump, giving a pressure of 700 lbs. to the 
square inch. In this way an artificial head of water 
IS obtained. Any superfluous water escapes from 
the top of the cylinder, as when the piston reaches its 
highest point it automatically stops the pump. The 
differential accumulator is one in which forced pres- 
sure may be obtained by means of changing the area 
of the piston surface, or by the use of several different 

ia the cteam aocamnlatar tbe potOB iDd fonns the 

nam ci the brdraalic cyhndfr. 

Tbeairaccanralatar" A r msuu iig " g ooe in which 
fhe ram woihs agaiost coraprcsed air in a chamber. 
instead of agjainst wcigfats. 

Accnmnlators, electric, are batteries or rcserratis 
for the armmnlation of dectiic energy. 

Ste Robittvoa, " Hydranlic Pcrner and Hydranbc 

Aettgkmt (C, H J is a colourless p o is o M oos 
gas, discovered by Bertdot. 1862, and famnght proBift- 
nently into ccKnmerdal use by Wilsco's dzscovcry 
(1SS8) erf the modem method of preparing «-ifVi»im 

On analysts it contains — Caibon 92*3 
Hydrogen 77 

It occurs in small quantities in coal gas, and to a 
greater extent in oil gas. It is laiigely manofactnrcd 
for commercial purposes, and is usually made by 
bringing water into contact with caldnm cartHde, 
which is manufactured by heatiog a mixture of lime 
and hard metallnrgical coke, of the highest degree of 
parity, in an dectric fnmace. It is now larigely 
mannfoctured in America and Europe and is osoally 
supplied to consumers in air-tight dmms. Not more 
than 28 lbs. may be stored in Great Britain or in any 
of the British Colonies, by any one person, without 
an ?«Titiai licence; and must be stored in a place 
specially built, and a certain distance away from 
other buildings. The package in which it is con- 
tained must be hermetically sealed, as it rapidly 
absorbs mmsture, thus deteriorating in quality, and 
liberating a gas which is dangerous. It is liable to 
qxintaneous explosion when in a liquid state, and it 
is illegal to manufacture or keep it in this form. The 
gas when burning is intensely white, and it is said to 
resemble sunlight more nearly than any other artifi- 
cial illuminant. The highly illuminating and in- 
trinsical brightness of the flame makes it a v^y 
suitable illuminant for lighthouses. 

It has been used in England, United States. Ger- 
many. Argentine and China for lighthouse and 
beacon illumination. On the German and Dutch 
coasts oil gas mixed with about 20% of acet>-lene has 
been used with excellent results, as it increases the 
illuminating intensity about 100% ; but it is very ex- 
pensive. The cost of lighting by acet^'lene is about 
the same as lighting by coal gas at 5s. per 1,000 feet. 
See Lewes' " Acetylene," 1900; Dormer, " L' Ace- 
tylene et ses applications." Paris, 1896. Foralistof 
the papers and memoirs on acet>'lene, see Ludwig's 
" Fuhrer calcium carbid — und Acetylene — Litera- 
tur." Berlin. 1889. 

rtimnin. Spanish torpedo-boat. (Chiswick, 
1885O Length, ii7ft.;beam, 12 f t. ; draught, 6 ft. ; 
displacement, 63 tons ; ccmiplement, 20 ; arma- 
ment, 2 machine, 2 tubes; Hp., 660 = 20 kts. ; coal, 
25 tcms. 

Aehe, OooDi d* (1700-75). French admiral. Was 
accounted rcAponHible for the capturr b)' the Britiah 
of th« French possessions on the Malabar and Coro- 
mandcrl Coasts of India. 

Aoheloos. Greek Run-boat. Of do fiifbtiog value. 

Acbenbacfa. A. (b. 1 3 1 5 ] . German painter. Leader 
of ihf Imprt-ssionist movement in German painting. 
particularly sca-scapcs. Principal works: "Foun- 
dering of the 5.S. President" (1S42), " Hardanger 
Fjord ■' (1843). " Ponlint Marshes " (1846), " Fisb 
Market in Ostend '* (1866). " Flooding of the t-onrer 
Rhine " (1S76). 

Aehemtf. A star of the first magnitude in the 
coostellation Eridairas, commonly known aa the 
" Spring of the river," 

AcheroD. French armoured gun-boat. (Cher- 
bourg. 1S37.) 

Lmgth iSi ft. Beam. 40 ft. Draught 1 1 ft. 
Displacemeat 1,700 tons. Complement loi. 
Gum. Armvttr. 

I — 10 S in. " Compound." 

j— .3-9 in. 9 in. Belt amidships. 

2 — 3*8 in. S in. Big gun shields. 

Hp. i.70OKi3kts. Coal maximum, 300 tons. 

Adifllw. British ist class cruiser. (Elswkk. 

Length 480 ft, Beam 73 ft. M.iximnm draught 37 ft. 
Displacement i3,5;o tons. Complement 650. 

6 — 9-2 in.. 50ca]. 
4—75 in. 
2-1—3 pdr. 
8 — Pompoms. 

A rmour. 
" ICrupp," 

6 in. Belt amidships. 
6 m. Barbettes. 

6 iu. Turrets. 

7 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
3 Submerged. 

fwin screw. Up, 23,500 = 22*33 kts. Coal maxi 
mum 2,000 tons. Approximate cost ^1.150,000. 

Thifi ship-name was introduced into the Nav>' m 
1744. and is associated with the capture of the 
Ftvoc^ RaisonnahU, 1758; bombardment of Havre, 
1759; capture of the French ComU de Florentine, 
1759; reduction of Bellei.-ite, [761; capture of the 
French AchiUe at the battle of the " Glorious First 
of June." T794; battle of Trafalgar, 1805. 

Ac-hisar. Turkish iDrpcdo-boat. (Sestri Poa 
cnte, xtfcxx.) Length. i6;ft.; beam. 18 ft.; draught, 
4I ft.: displacement, 165 tons; complement. iB; 
armament. 2 I'pdr.. 3 tubca; Kp.. 2.300^337 kts.; 
coal. 23 tons. 

Aoker. One tide swelling above another. 

AAnMBi Fresh water pirates. 

Adand. Vioe-Admiral, Sir WOUam AUaon Dyka. 
3n«J Ut., cr, ittyo; C.V.O. 1^3 [h. Oxford 1^47). 
Entered H.M.S. fift7.iHKtti as cadet, ift6i ; promoted. 

lieutenant 1B68. commander 1879, captain 1885. 
Attached to the Chilian army m the war between 
Chili an<l Peru; commanded the first brigade in the 
march Irom Pasco Muvin, and was present at the 
Battle of Chorrilos and Miraflores; mentioned in 
despatch!^ (Medal and two clasps}. Deputy Com- 
missioner of Western Pacific, 1S83; A.D.C to the 
Queen, [896. Captain nf Dockyard Reserve at 
Devonport, 1807-99; Rear-Adniiral. r-H^y; Second-in* 
Command of Channel Si^uadroa, 1901-03; Superin- 
tendent of Gibniltar Dockyard, igo2-04; Vicc- 
Admirat, 1904. 

Aoock-Bin. Set Cock-bill. 

Acorn. \ small piece of wood, conical in form, 
Axed on the mast-head above the vane to prevent it 

being detached when wind is violent. 

Acre, Battle ol. On November 3. 1840. the 
allied fleet under Sir Robert Stopfurd stormed and 
captured Acre (Syria) after a bombardment of a few 
hoars, the £eyptian!i losing upwards of 2.000 killed 
and wounded and 3,000 prisonent. the British loss 
being tritling. 

Actien Gesellschaft "Neptune,** Rostock. This yard 
was founder! m 1S51 |jy .Mr. A. 'rigchbein. It is situa- 
ted on the Warnow, on the coast of Mecklenburg, 
and covers an area of about 25 acres. It possess*?* rivo 
sUps together Willi machine and engine >hops neces- 
sary for the hirilding and fitting out of steamers up 
to 10.000 tons. Between iSgS and 1905 vessels 
s^gTcgAling 150,000 net register tons and K2.000 
L Hp. were turned out. The yard giv« employ- 
ment to about 1.800 men. 

AcUnaria. Sea anemones which possess some 
slight powt-T of locomotion. 

Actinaat Any vessel or torpedo propelled by 

self-contained power which, through the medium of 
a ray. can be steered on or beneath the surface of the 
water by a distant operator. 

Actinometer. .\n instrument for measuring the 
intcdity o: solar radiation. 

Aotiom, Battle of. On Septemtter 2, 3 1 b.c. Octavian 
completely defeated the fleet of Anthony and Cleo- 
patra and gamed control of the whole Koman 

Actlnoeoa. Hollow-bodied animals, including sea 
oncmonca, corals, and allied forms. Their charac- 
teristic is that tlie life hiatorj' is simple, and docs not 
include the jelly fish stage. The mouth va usually 
surrounded by tentacles; digestive filaments are 
prestnt. and the stinging cells are often well de- 

Active. West Indiaman. Lost in Margate Roads, 
January |o, 1803. 

Act of Ood, An. or vis major, is one which results 
from " such a direct and violent and sudden and 
irresistible act of nature as could not be foreseen, or 



if Fores<«i. piv\t'nl«] by ordinsry skill, pnidence or 
diligence." It Is one o( ihe excepted perils (oMud in 
all bills oC lulling and cbart«r parties, and in con- 
tracts with common carriers. In contracts taken 
(jenefttlly. noD-performaiicc is excused, if perfor- 
mancu becomes tm|>osijiblc owing to nn Act of Cod. 
AU lo&s or damage occasioned by an Act of God is due 
to inevitable accidtmt, and the party who, apart 
from such mevitable accident, would be? liable far the 
Idas or dantafje so occasiont'd, cannot in such circum- 
stances bo made responsible; but not every inevi- 
table a«idtmt is an Act of God. 

Aetna! Citpture. In British Prize Courts tb« achial 
caiJior is tin: iiliip tu which the prize strikes her flay, 
and may include many othcru besides those who take 
part, f.g.. a boat's crew despatched on a dificrcnt 
errand. Joint captors are tliosc who, not being 
themselves actual taptorK, have assisted by convey- 
ing encouragemmt to them or intimidation to the 
enemy. " In the law of prize the presumption is 
always in favour of actual captors an against those 
who claim to be joint captors. ITnder certain dr- 
ciimstanceA the claims of joint capture are ad- 
mitted *' e.g., by co-operation, association or bond 
of union, " bnt the Prize Court has again and again 
declared its resolution not to extend ttic operation 
of that doctrine." Actual capture may, therefore, be 
taken to be tlie rule which will alwa>-s be enforced in 
the adjudication of naval prize, excc^^t In cases in 
which the application of comitructivc capture is well 
recognized and established. Rejtr to Prize of War. 

A.-<m. Abbreviation for Alto-cumulns as adopted 
by the International Mclcorologica3 Committee and 
oMcd in the Intcmaiioual Cloud Atlas, 

AJP. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Ardrossan. Scotland. 

AJ). AnnoDomioL The year of our Lord. 

Adalbert, Prince, of Pnusia (1811-73]. Uncle of 
l-'ricdrich Wilhclm IV. Took a special interest in 
the fonnation of the German Navy, and in 1854 
was made admiral. 

Publications : " Ans meinem Rcisetagbuch, 
1842-43" (1S47); "nrnkschriftubcrdieBildungcincr 
deutschen l-'Iotte *' (1848). 

AdamastoT. Small Portugiiese cruiser. (Ltg- 
hom, 1896.) 

Length 343 ft. Beam 35 ft. Maximum draught 16 ft. 
Displacement 1.750 tons. Complement 237. 
Guns. Armour. 

2 — 6 in.. " Steel." 

4 — 47 in. 1) in. Deck. 

4 — 6 pdr. 2| in. Conning tower. 

4 — Machine. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
3 Above wat^T bow and broadside. 
Twin screw. Hp. natiiral 3,000= 16 kts., forced 
4,000 s 18 kts. Coal maximum 420 tons. 

AOaittS. Edgar Tarry (b. December 8, iSs^). 
Avsociulcof Institution of Naval Archttect2i.[^,R.A.S., 
F. R. Meteorologicai Society. Fellow Commoner 
Itowiiing College, Cambridge. Observer for Koyal 
Meteorological Society. Hon. Sec. Camtnidge Uni-f 
versity Cruising Club. 

AflmrHi Jaixa Coucti (1819-92). Britiab astrono- 
mer. Gained a Siza at St John's College, Cambridge, 
1839, and graduated H.A. in 1843; ^"^^ Senior 
Wrangler and first Smith'& prizeman of his year, and 
elected a Fellow of his College in 1843. It is due to 
his investigations that the cause ol the irrcgutartties 
of the planvt Uranus wcrr (determined — due to the 
action of au undiscovered planet — which he de- 
tected and proved was unrecorded in liie map; this 
new planet receiving the name of " Neptune." Its 
mathematical production wo^ not only an unsur- 
passed intellectual feat, but proved also that New- 
ton's Law of Gravitation prevailed even to the 
utmost bounds of the iiolar itystem. In 1845 the 
honour of Knighthood was ofiered to him on the 
occasion of Queen Victoria's \'i!sit to Cambridge, but 
then, as on subsequent occaiiion*^, he declined it. In 
1866 the Royal Astronomical Society awarded him 
their gold medal. He worked for many years ar- 
ranging and cataloguing Newton's unpubhshed 
mathematical writings presented to the University 
of Cambridge by Lord Portsmouth. In 1881 he was 
offered the post of Astronomer Royal, wliich he 
dechned, preferring to resume his teaching and re- 
search at Cambridge University. He died, Janu- 
ary 21, 1S92, at Cambridge Observatory alter a 
long illness, and -wsis buried at 5t Giles' Cemetery. 
In May, 1895, ^ pottrait meOaltiou by Albert Bruce 
Joy was placed in Westminster Abbey near the 
grave of Newton, and joinliig the memorials of 
Darwin and Jocle, a fitting tribute to this illustrious 

Publications: " The Scientific papers of John 
Adams " (1896), " Lectures on the Lnnar Theory." 

Adams, John. Organiser of a prospcrcus and 
peaceful miniature colony in the Pitcaim l^tlands, 
after the mutiny of H.M.S. HouHty {q.v.). Hjsreal 
name was Alexander Smith. Hs/cr to Naval 

Adams, William. English navigator (b, GtUing- 
bam, near Chatham. 1575). He was tlie first Eng- 
lishman to take up his residence in Japan, ami Livc<I 
there from i6(X) till his death in 1620. 

Adamioiu Alexander [b. Glasgow). Educ. Secular 
School, Glasgow. Apprenticed i86t to the Kngineer- 
ing Works of Messrs Randolph and Elder; he be- 
came Naval Architect there and continued with tliis 
firm, which is now known as " The Fairfield Ship- 
building Company," till 1883, when he joined tlie 
firm of Messrs Palmer and Co., of Jarrow. as Ship- 
yard Manager. Later he joined the firm of Messrs 
Armstrong, Mitchell and Co. He left thi:i firm in 






tSfiS to take the Management oi the ShipyanJ De- 
partment ol the NavaJ Coastruction and Armamrnts 
Co.. Ltd.. Barrow- iD-FurncsA. and in i8<)t became 
Managing Director of the-se Works. In 1897 thia 
boftiness w»b porchast'd by Messrs Vickcrs, Son* and 
Maxim, who still retained his services, until he re- 
tired from active business in 1900. During hLs 
career he had to do with the building of some 480 
vessels, representing almost every conceivable type; 
50 of these were wnr-vcMels mostly for the British 
Government, beginning with H.M. composite gun- 
boat Midge built in i863, and ending with H.M. 
battleahip Vf-ngeance. 1900. 

Adamgon. Jurnw (b. Stirlingshire, Januarys, 1850). 
Served bi't apprenticeship at Falkirk and Glasgow, 
and then went to sea as junior cngturer, and after 
obtaining the necessary certificates returned to 
draift-ing office work. Was appointed Assistant En- 
gineer to the British India Steam Navigation Com- 
pany. Ltd., and subsequently became tlicir Superin- 
tendent Engineer at the Royal Albert Docks. While 
in Glasgow he devoted considerable time to the 
Gla^ow Foundry Boys' Sociftj-. Is Organising and 
Hon. Secretary of the Institution of Marine En- 
gineers. Member of the Institution of Engineers 
and Shipbnildcrs of Scotland. 

Publications: "The Marine Engineer" (1898), 
" Scaborac Traffic " (1900), *' Our Fuel Supply " 
(190J), " Technical Education " (1904). 

Adanaon, William. CKXt. 1897. [b. Glasgow, 
tSjiJ). Educated privately. A merchant of the 
Straits Settlements and for many years resided at 
Singapore. Is chairman of the Straits Settlements 
Association and a director of the P. and O. Steam 
Kavigalion Company, and was decorated for public 
aervicD in connection with the Colony. 

AJ^X. Abbreviation for AicIe-dc-Camp (^.f .}. 

Addar. U.S. submarine (Elizal>eth Port, 1901.) 
Length. 63 ft.; beam, lift.; di^placemeiit. tzo tons; 
complement, ;: lorpetlo tubes, 1; Hp., 160 = 8 kts. 
above water, j below. 

Address. 5» Post Office. 

daar. Cort Sivartaen (1632-75). Danish ad- 
(b. Brevig, Norway), .^t the age of 15 be 
became a cadet in the Dutch fleet, and took part in 
the famous battle of the Downs (1639). under Tromp. 
In 1 64s he was promoted captain in the service ol the 
Venetian Kepnbhc, and achieved a most brilliant 
victor)- at Uic DardancUt^ in May, 1645, ^i^hcD, with 
hi» own vessel alone, he broke through a line of 37 
Turki^di ships, sinking i $. burning others and causing 
a loja to the enemy of 5,000 men. Reluming to 
Copenhagen in 1663, was made an admiral and in 
1666 Admiral-General. On November 5, 1675, 
while in command nf the Fleet he died of plague. 

^f>toM* 8t6tmstalV Componr, with their hrail 
pAoes at Adelaide, have a fleet of zo rxcrUent 

steamers which maintain sailings from Adelaidr for 
.\ustralian coast porta. ,\ steamer leaves .\dclaide 
at scheduled times for Albany and Frcmnntlc. 
transhipping at that port for Espcrancr, Geraldton 
and all north-west ports to Wjmdham. A service is 
maintained from Adelaide to Melbourne. Sydney, 
Newcastle. BrL^bane, Maryborough. Kockbampton. 
Makay, Townsvillc and Cairns. A service twice a 
week from .Adelaide to Si>encer GiiU. calling at the 
principal ports en route. 


Adelaide. InHantirichn. S'arloo. 

AUinga. Kadina. Ouraka, 

Barrier. Kolya. Tarcoola, 

Butlarra. ATtntaro. H'iltyama. 

Cvlae. Atoonta. Winfield. 

Dilkera. Nnrdoo. Wollourra. 

Grantala. Yongala. 

Adlabatie. The relation of the changes which 
occur in the pressure, volume and temperature of a 
mass of gas, which is subject tu the condition that it 
neither parts -u-ith, nor receiveti, heat during the 

Aditutmeat is ascertaining the exact amount of 
indemnity which the a«ured is entitled to rerHve 
under the policy; embodying the particulars in a 
statement, fixing not only the exact amount bat the 
proportion of the indemnitj* to be recovered from 
each underwriter. The compiler of this statement 
is called an Average Adjuster (q.v.). 

Refer to Average. 

Adier. Anstro-Hungarian deittroyer. (Yarrow, 
18H6.) Length, 13s ft.; beam, 13 ft.: maximum 
draught, 6ft.; displacement. 95 tons; complpmrnt, 
16; armament, t nord,, 2 tubes; Hp., 900 — 32 kts.; 
coal maicimum, 28 tons. 

Adler. Russian torpedo-boat. (Elbing, 1890.] 
I.rMgih, 152 ft; beam. 17 ft.; draught, 7 ft.; displace- 
ment,i30tDns; complement, 40; armament, j i-pdr., 
3 tubea; Hp,, 3,200^27 kts.; coaJ maximum, 

50 tons. 

AdmeUa. Steamer plying between Melbourne 
and Adelaide, struck ou a reef August 6, 1859. 
when 73 persons perished. 

Admiral, AlU in early records was an oflficcr of 
State enUu«tcd by the Crown with safe-guarding the 
was, and all matters arising at sea whidi required 
official invt-sttgation and were not within the juris- 
diction of any county, were referre<l to him for deci- 
sion. Early in the fourteenth century there seem to 
have been three admirals. controUmg three districts, 
viz. (t) the Cinque Ports {q.v). and all ports from 
Dover to Cornwall; {2) from \}\t Thames to Berwick, 
and (3) the Irish Sc,t coast. The first Lord High 
Admiral was appointed in 1360, whose Court, in the 
reign of Edward III., was hrmly e»taUishrd and 
began to assert prominent jurisdiction. In mor«f 




modern times as Judge of the Admiralty Coart, ap- 
potntiKl by the Cn>wn, deprived the I-ord Uigh 
Admiral of his judicial pou'crs, ami in 1632 his ad- 
tuinislTdtivc functions were first exercised by Com- 
niiMluncri, conuncmly known as the Lnrtls of the 
Admiralty (ij.v.). The present pawen and duties of 
admirals arc dchncd by the N'aval Di5cipHnc Act 
(f.t>.), 1S66, and the Admiralty regulations. Refer 
to King's Regulations. 

Admiral. The Lord High, ot Eaidand. This office 

was first created m 14'ih, and vc'^tcd m John, Earl of 
Somerset. It was created for the purpose of taking 
over the legislation, administration and protection 
nl the Mcicantile Marine, whicli had ptcviouAly been 
governed liy a I«xly of mercantile A<lmiraU, who. 
owmg to tho feeble manner in which the fleet bad 
been administered, came into existence to undertake 
the safe -guarding of tlic seas. In 1632 the office vns 
put into ccmimisston. and its [xiwcn have, with one 
or two short intervals, been rvcr Mnce vestcil in the 
Admiralty authorities, now known ofTicially ait Com- 
missionen, for I'Kccuting the ofhce of Lord High 
Admiral of the I'nited Kingdom of Great Britain 
and Ireland. 

Admiral Gralff. Rassian coast defence battle- 
ship, ift/o. Of no fighting value. 

Admiral KoxniloU. Small Russian cntiser. (la 
Seyne. iSS;.) 

Length 351ft. Beam 48ft. Maximum draught soft. 
Pisplaccment 5,S8o lons. Complement ,17s. 
CuHS. Armour. 

14— 6 in. "Sleel." 

6 — jpdr. 2 1 in. Deck. 

6 — I pdr. 
5—1 pdr., BoaL 

Tofpedo Tubes. 
6 AboVB water. 
Twinscrew. Hp.natursl. 7,$oo» I7'$kts,. forced*> 1S-5 kts. Coal maximum 1,100 tons. 

Adninl Emsilow. RuBsian coast 
battleship (1S70). Of no fighting value. 


Admiral Lazereft. Russian coast defence bat- 
tleship {iH/r.) ( li no fightinR value. 

Admiral Blakarow. Ku^^sian ormonred cruiser. 
(La Scyne. I9<»6.) 

Length 443 '*- Beam 75 (t. r>ra«ght33U. 
Displacement 7,000 tons. ComplcmCTit 500. 
Gtint. A rwiyur. 

2 — 8 in. " Knipp.'* 

8 — 6 in. 7 in. Belt, amtdshipf!. 

30— rs pdr. 6 in. Gun shields. 

Tofptio Tubts. 
2 Submerged. 
Hp., 16,500=321 kts. Coal maximum i.noo Urns. 

Admiral Moonom. L. and N.W.K. steiuncr. Sunk 
by eoUttifm uilh the Santa Clara near Hi-ilylicad; 
4 lives lost. 

Admiral KaklrimolL Russian armoured cmiwr 
(1U8;). Sunk hv the Japanese at the battle of 
Tsuiihima. May 37-39. 1905. 

Admiral of the Fleet is an honorary distinction 
giving no command, but merely an increase of half- 
pay. The title was first created in 1851, when Sir 
Thomas Byam Martin, G.C.B., and Sir George 
Cockbum. G.C.B.. were named .\dmirals of the Fleet, 
the latter receiving tlie honour for his long and 
highly distinguished services. Should an Admiral 
of the Fleet serve afloat, he is authorised to carry the 
union flag at the main- top-gallant- mast head. In 
1874 the number of Admirals of the Fleet waa in- 
crcaserl to three; at the present time there are two 
honorary Admirals of the Fleet, His Imperial 
Majesty, William II., Emperor of Germany, King of 
Prussia. G.C.V.O.. and hLs Majesty King of Sweden; 
and four Admirals of the Fleet; Sir James Hlphin- 
stone, K.C.B., Sir Chnrles Frederick Hotham, 
G.C.B,, G.C.V.O.. Right Mon. Lord Walter Talbot 
Kerr, C.CJB.. Sir Edward Hobart Seymour. G.C.B.. 

Admiral OmhETOV. Ruwn.-^n coast service bat- 
tleship. [New Admiralty, 1893.) Suuk by the Japa- 
nese .It the battle of Tsushima. May 27-29, 1905. 

Admiral Seaiavlii. See MisHima, Ra«»ian coast 
service battleship. Captured by the Japanese at 
the battle of Tsushima, May 27*29, 1905. 

Admiral SpiridOtt. RuMian coast defence bat- 
tleship (187U). Of no fighting value. 

Admiral Tchitohagofl. Rns^ian coast defence 

baitlesliip (iS/O). Oi no hghting value. 

Admiralty, ThCi i" that F.xecutive Department of 
the State which presides over the Royal Na\*al and 
Marine foruA of the Kingdom. 

The Board, tJie members of which are commonly 
known as the I^cds of the .\dmiralty, consult of the 
First Lon3. the First and 5>econd Naval Lords, the 
N'aval Controller, the Junior Naval Lord, the Civil 
1 .ord. .1 rarliamrntarj* and I-'mancial Secretary, and a 
Permanent Secretary. I'he boiiineas of the Board is 
divided into four branches: {i) Personnel of the Nax-y, 
organisatiOQ and marine defence; (2) naval con- 
struction, dockyards, ordnance and stores ; [35 
works and personnel of Ci\'il Departments; U1 

Tlie following is a list of l-ord High Admirals and 
First l^rd* of the Admiralty. friMU the time of 
Charles 1. to the present date: 

t6Ao. Jamea Duke of York. 

1673. King Charles the Second. 

1673. Prince Rupert. 

167'), Sir Henry CapcU, Kt. 

l6ao. Daniel Find), Lsq. 

i6At. Daniel Lord Finch. 

K184. Daniel F^arl of Nottingham. 

1684, JamecDttkeof York (and at James II,). 




, Arthur Herbert, Esq. 

. Thomas Earl of Penibroke and Moatgomery. 

, Charles Lord Coruwallis. 

. Anthony VUcount Falkland. 

, EUwrard Kuss^^l. Esq. 

, Edward Uart of Oxiord, 

, John EacI of Bridgcwati-r. 

, Thomas Earl of Pembroke aud Montgomery. 

GuoTgc Prince of Denmark. 

Thomas Earl of Pembroke and Montgomery. 

Edward Earl of Oxford. 

Sir Jolm Leake, KC 

Thomas Earl of Straflord. 

Edward Earl ol Oxfurd. 

James Earl of Berkeley. 

Lord Viscount Tonington. 

Sir Charles Wager, Kt. 

Daniel Ear) of Wincbelsea and Nottingham. 

John Duke of Bedford. 

John Earl of Sandwich, 

George Lord Anson. 

Richard Earl Temple. 

Daniel Eart of Wincbelsea and Nottingham. 

George Lord Anson. 

George Dank Earl of l{aUfax. 

George Grenville, Esq. 

John Earl of Sandwich. 

John Earl of Egmont, 

Sir Charles Saunders. KB. 

Sir Edward Hawkc. KB. 

John Earl of Sandwich. 

Hon. Augustus Kejipel. 

AngDStus Vt«:ount Keppc). 

Richard Viscount Howe. 

Au^stns Viscount Keppel. 

Richard Viscount Howe. 

John Earl of Chatham. 

George John Earl SpenctT. 

John Earl of St. Vinrent. KB 

Henry Lord Viscount Melville. 

Charles Lord Bartram. 

Charles Gray. Esq. 

Thomas Grenville, Eaq. 

Henry Lord Mulgravc. 

Right Hon. Charles Yorke. 

Kight Hon. Kobert Viscount Melville. 

H.R.H. William Henry Duke of Clarence. 

Right Hon. Robert Viscount Melville, K.T. 

Right Hon. Sir Janita R. G. Graham, Bart. 

Right Hon. George Baron Auckland. 

Thomas Philip Earl dc Grey. 

Right Hon. George Baron Auckland. 

Gilbert Earl of Minto, G.C.B. 

Thomas Earl of If addingtoa. 

Right Hon. Edward Eart of Eltcnborough. 

Right Hon George Eart of Auckland (died 
January i, 1849). 

Right Hon. Sir Fruici.i T. Baring, Bart. 

Algernon Percy Duke of N ortbumbcrland, K.G. 

Right Hoo. Sir Jame^ JK. G. Graham, Bart. 

Right Hon. Sir Charles Wood, Bart, 

1555. Right Hon. Sir John Pakington, Bare 
1859. Edward A. St. Maur Duhu uf Suinerset. K.G, 

1866. Right Hon. Sir J. S. Pakmgton, Bart.. G.C.B. 

1867. Right Hon. Henry Thomas Lowr>' Cofry. 

1868. Right Han. Hugh CuJUng Eardiey Childen. 
i8;i. Right Hon. George Joaclum Goscbvn. 
1874. RightHun.Gcorge Ward Hunt 

1877. Right Hon. Henry Smith. 

1880. Earl uf Northbrook. 

1885. Lord George Hamtltoo. 

1886. The Marquis of Kiiwit. K.G. 

1556. Lord George HamiUon. 
i893. Earl Spencer, K.G. 

1895. Right Hon. G. T. Goschen. 

1900. Earl ot Selbome. 

1903. Right Hon. Earl Caudor. 

1906, Lord Tweedmouth. 

Admiralty Actions arc cither in rem — 1.«., against the 

prcjjftty out uf which the claim has arisen; or tit 
petsonam — ijs., directly ;Lgainst the person from whom 
relief is claimed. l^Vocccdings in rem are pc-culiar to 
Admiralty, and arc only available when tlie r#s is 
within ttic jurisdiction of the Court. This form of 
action applies to ca.HeB where a maritime lien (q.v.) 
is sought to be enforced or where owner seeks to 
obtain possession of ship {q.v.). Actions in persannm 
are similar to ordinary actions tried in other divisions 
of the High Court, and are adopted where the rgs is 
out of the jurisdiction and consequently cannot be 
arre-stetl. Where an action has once been com- 
menced in either of Ihi-sc forms, it caimut afterwards 
be changed, and a judgment obtained in a personal 
action cannot be enforced by (n'oueedings in rem, but 
vrhere there is a remedy both i« personam and in 
rem. a person who has resorted to one may, if hr does 
not thereby get lull satisfaction, rtsort to the other. 
Refer to Admiralty Division; .Admiralty hegistry; 
Arrest of Ship; Heatraint on Ship; Bail; Prelimi- 
nary Act; Ta-xation; Trial. 

Admiralty Advocate. The Admiralty Advocate, 
originally the Advocate of the Lord High Admiral, 
was an officer of the Crown in the Court ol Admiralty 
whose duty it was to represent the Crown in its office 
of Admiralty. His presunt duties consist chiefly in 
advising on all legal matters, and on affairs connected 
with the military duties of the Lord High Admiral, 
During the last reign the ofTiCcs of Admiralty Advo- 
cate and Judge Advocate of tha Fleet (f.v.) wera 

Admiralty Bafl takes the form of a bond executed 
by two sureties who thus agree to submit thoniselves 
to the juii&dictioD of llic Court, and is the security 
given to prevent detention o{ a ship through arrest 
by the Court in Admiralty proctM-din^js i« rem. How- 
ever great the claim, the amount of bail need not 
exceed the value of the ship, which may be an amount 
either agreed upon, or ascertained by appraisement 
\q,v.), and ii bail has been givun i<iT a »uni greater 




than the value of the us, it is only liable to the ex- 
tent ol that value, and il c)tc«sive bail is demamled 
tfae pUiuiiil will havf to pay the costs and expenses 
incurred by the defendant in giving bail. Where the 
award exceeds the nmotint of hail the tialancc can be 
rcctA-en-d in an action in personam, but where tlie 
amount ol bail is leM than the value ol the fts, the 
property is liable to rearrest. 

Bail may be Uikefi befort; Ihe Admiralty Regis- 
trar, or tiefore any District Registrar or Commis- 
sioner to adniinisttr oaths in the Supreme Court. In 
every ca.w the sureties, who nuist not be partner*. 
must justify. Rffcr to Kcstnuiit on Ship; Admiralty 

Admiralty Cbarti when issued by Messrs. J. D. 
Fulltr. i.}i; Mini3(U-s, London, L., have received all 
necessary turrL-ction-. to tlate ol issue; when orderiji(f, 
the number of the chart will be found in the lower 
right blind comer and this sbotUd be quoted. 

Admiralty Court. See Admiralty High Court. 

Admiralty Court ol the Oinqae Forts, The^ exercises 
witJiiii its local l>oun<1ti, a iiiriMliLtion analofjouB to 
the mheiL-nt jurisdiction of the High Court of 
Admiralty. 'J'hat is to say, it has power to di-al with 
cases of torts committed on tbe high seas, suits for 
salvage, poase^on, hypothecation and seamen's 
wages. It alK> boon casc» on appeal from tlie County 
Courts and from tbe Ctn<^ue Ports Salvage Com- 
miaeionecs. Its practice and procedure, except in so 
far as they are aficcted by the Cinque Ports Court of 
Admiralty Uules 1891, are siniilai to those of the 
High Court, and appt-.als lie to the Privy CounciL 
The bo'oudaiies of its jurisdictioD are from Red Clifl 
near Seaiord to witbin ; miles of Cape Grisnez in 
Fiance, tlience round the Overfall shoal, passing to 
tbe east of the Galloper Sand till its north cad bears 
W.N.W. time) from the G&llopcr, thence in a direct 
line acro^ tlie Middle Thwart shoal to Maw Tower, 
and thence, following the course of the shore, to Shore 
Beacon in Ksscx. 

Admiralty Oirisioo. The, is a division of the High 
Court of Justice established in its present form by 
tlie Judicature Acts. iS;^ and 1S75, and is governed 
by the Rules of the Supreme Court, 1S83, The Bench 
is compo^wd of two Judges, one of whom, as Presi- 
dent of the Probate, Divorce and Admiralty Divi- 
sion, is a member ol tlie Court of AppcaL For causes 
within the exclusive jurisdiction of the Admiralty 
Divihion see. High Court of Admiralty. The Ad- 
miralty Division bos the name powers of tronsfex and 
consolidation ol attions as otiicr divisions of the 
High Court, and ha:^ concurrent jurisdiction with the 
Inicrior Courts of Admiralty, whose jurisdiction is 
limited by the amount of claim or value of the pro- 
perty against which it is to be enforced, or by local 
bounds. Rtlef to Admiralty Action; Admiralty 

Admiraltr Droits, once the perquisites of the Lord 

High Admiral, now belong to the Sovereign in his 
othce of Admiralty, lliey consist of all propert\', 
including ships, boats, cargoes, found derelict ou the 
high seas, and of things flotsam, jetsam, and lagan. 
not granted to a subject, t.g,, lords of manors. Tlio I 
jurisdiction as tu all these things ia now xTSted in tlie { 
Admiralty Division, Unclaimed derelict property, ' 
subject to the salvor's reward, goes to the Crown, , 
forming part of the casual revenues of tlic Crown, and ^ 
is carried to the consolidated fund, hut proiierty) 
found within territorial waters is dealt with by the 1 
Hereiver of Wreck {q.v.) under the Merchant Ship- 
plug .\ct, 1894. 

Admiralty Flag, The. 5m Na\'al Ceremonies, 

Admiralty, High Court of, was originally the Courti 
of tlie Lord High Admiral. Its juri»jictioa was two- 1 
fold: (t) As a Pnze Court it dealt with captures au(H 
seizures of vessels and goods in times of wur. (^) .\a'] 
an Instance Court it had crtmioal junsdiction ovetl 
all offences committed 00 the high seas, not trJublvl 
by the Common Law Con^^. and. until it»6b. ad*] 
ministered discipline in the Navy. The cxclusjv«| 
civil jurisdiction of the Instance Court was at fuvt\ 
Umited to private mjuries to private rights arising at I 
sea, i.e.. to contracts of a marine nature and to tortf i 
to property committed on tlie high seas ur with Ui«| 
jurivliction of Admiralty. By modem statutes ita| 
powers were extended to include salvage to life and 
property, bottomry, necessaries, supplies to foreigaJ 
ships, possession of ships, collision or damage Uf J 
peisons or property, towage, wage^, pilotage. dts^J 
burwments by master, mortgage, title, ov^nor«^hipl 
and management of ships, and. in 1S61, concurrcntlyj 
with the Chancery Court, Limitation of Liability 
suits. In 1S35 tlic criminal jurisdiction wa.i Irui^] 
fcrri'd to the Central Criminal Court, and by th^l 
Judicature Acts, 1873 and 1S75 the civil jurisdictio*! 
passed the Admiralty Divisini (q.v.) of the liigbj 

Admiralty Jorisdiotioii is co-exten&ive with the 
general juriitdiction of the High Court, but reaches 
still further in that it extends over all British ships 
in all parts of the world, and has power to deal with 
all transactions of every description between British 
subjects and those of all other nations in rclatirm to 
marine matters, mercantile or otherwise. Its juris- 
diction extends over all ofleoccs committed on the 
high seas, whether triable at the Common La.w 
Courts or not. At the present time this criminal 
jtirisdJction l>i exercised by the Central Criminal 
Court, whereof tTie Judge of the Admiralty Court is 
a member; and ail offences within the jurisdiction o 
Admiralty are triable within the county whcrem the 
offender is arrested. Refer to Admiralty Action; 
Admiralty Division. 

Admimlty EnoL A geographical mi]!r, 6.080 feet 
= 1.013^ lathoms — 115 mile statute-. Haftt^to 




Admlnttr Ugbt Uit Published annually at the 
beginning of each year, an<l appendices are i-ssued 
every two months, giving Uie altarations that have 
taken place. 

Admiralty Registry. The Ailmiralty Coart does 
not go into dctaib in matters relating to the assess- 
ment of damages or matters of account, but refers 
them cither to the Registrar aJonr, or to the Regis- 
trar awiAted by merchants who are appointed by 
him and have experience in shipping and mercantile 
affairs. The bearing of the reference is governed by 
Order $6 of the rules of the Supreme Court. Wit- 
ncssvs may be examined and eviilt-nco given by 
affidavit. At the close of the proceedings the Re- 
gistrar makes his report, shou-lng the items allowed 
aLnd disallowed. Objections to the report are brotigbt 
before tlic Court by petition in objection or by 

Adria Boyal Hnnparian Sea Havigatiao Company, 
with their head ofliC'"t at Fiurae, have a fleet of ex- 
cellent steamers engaged in passenger and cargo 
tra<le to Italy ami the Mediterranean ports. Steam- 
ers sail regularly from Fiume and Trieste, to 
Venice. Bari, Messina, Catania, Malta. Tunis, .Mgiers. 
Gibraltar. Tangiers ami Malaga. A steamer sails 
daily (Mondays L-xceptcdl from Malta to Syracuse. 
Steamtrnt leave Fmme and Trieste regularly for 
Malta. Catania, Messina, Palermo. Naples, Genoa, 
Nice. Marseilles. Barcelona and \'alencia. 

Adriatlo Sea (Adriaticum Mere of the Ancients) 
is that arm of the Mediterranean which scp>arates 
Italy from Trieste. Croatia, Dalmatia and Albania. 
It extends from 40° to 45* 50' N. Lat. in a N.W. 
direction. Its greatest length is 460 m., its general 
breadth about 90 m.. and its depth varies, at the 
south being as much as ^(in fathoms, shoaling to 4 
fathoms in shitrc and from 22 to 26 fathoms in the 
centre of the north part. Tho colour is sreen. dar- 
ker than that of the Mi-diterrancan, and its saltncss 
is greater than the ocean. The ebb and flow of tbc 
tkles are incon!>idi-rable. A current runs up the E. 
ami down the W. coasts. The prevalence of sudden 
squalls from the N.E. and S.E. renders it? naviga- 
tion, particularly for sailing vessels, hazardous, espe- 
cially in winter. The chief industry is fishing, and 
the chiel jwris arc Brindisi. .\acona and Venice; 
Tritstc, Pola and Fiume; Corfu; Zante. Vostisza. 
fVtrasand Kalaniala. 

S« " Highlands and Islands of tlic .\driatic," by 
.\. A. Paton {1849): " Shorra of the Adriatic." by 
Viscountesii Strangford {1S64) ; Faber's " Fisheries of 
the Adriitic " {1883,) 

Adrift Mowing at random. 

Ad Talorem. According lo value. 

! Valorem Duty !■« duty or cu.stnms paid on cer 
goutly accyfftinjf to thfif valuf in con trad istinc- 
tlrm to duty prtid accordlnn to weight, number, or 
measure. The trm» is als<i used of stamp duties 
«rhicl). in many cues, are jtajrablt! under the Stamp 

Act, 1891. according to the value of die subject 
matter of the particular instrument or writing, e^., 
the stamp d«t>' on Charter- Parties and Bills of 

Advance. In 1855 Dr. Kane, with this Uttte 
brig of I so tons, undertook to lead an American ex- 
pedition up Smith Sound. They were stopped by ice 
78" 45' X., only 17 miles from the entrance; and the 
vcHsel was subsequently abandoned. liafer to Arctic 

Advance Rote is a document i.<isiied by a Ship- 
owner or hi^ agi'nt, undertaking to pay to a seaman 
or his order a sum of money not exceeding one 
month's wages, within a certain cumber of days 
after be has sailed in the ship. This restriction as to 
the amount advanced does not apply to seamen en- 
gaged at a foreign port. 

Save as aforesaid any agreement to pay money to. 
or on bebali of. a scatnan conditionally on his going to 
sea from any port in tho Huited Kingdom is void, 
and no money paid under any such agreement shall 
be deducted from wages. .\n .Allotment Note is an 
agreement by which a seaman authorises a ship- 
owner to pay over to his near n-latives or a .savings 
bank any part (not exceeding one-half) of hit wages 
during liis absence. . Payment under such a note, 
which must be made in a form approved by the 
Board of Trade, sliall begin at the expiration of one 
month, or, if the allotment is in favour of a sav- 
ings t}ank. of three months, from the date of the 
agreement with the crew, or at nich later date as 
may he fixed by the agreement. 

AdvaiLoes. These generally are expenses incurred 
in connection with a vessel putting into an iuterme 
diate port of refuge and there incurring certain ex 
peases which arc usually paid by the sliip's agent 00 
behalf of all interests and arc payable by c:irgo .and 
freight in certain proporrions on Adjustment. There 
Ls. therefore, an insurable interest to the payer of these 
expenses from the port of refuge to destination 
(Lowndes on the Law of Marine Insurance, s. 33). 
The expensee are usually insured as " Average Dia- 

Adventtire. British scout. (EL-nvick, 1904.) 
Length 370 ft. Beam 38 ft. Maximum draught i jj ft. 
Displacement 2,750 tons. Complement 268. 
GuHs. Armour. 

10 — ispdr. t} in. Deck. 

8 — Pompoms, 

Torpedo Tubet, 

2 Submerged. 

Twin sciew. Hp. 17,000=25 kts. Coal maximum 

3P0 tons. Approximate cost ;£ 

This ship-name is associated with Blake's action 

with Tmmpotl l>ovcr. 105 j; the batik- oH the Vnrlh 

Foreland, 1652: Bardeur and La Mo|f;ue, lOg?; cip- 

lurc of Brlletsle. ijOi ; Cook's second voyag* of *'»*• 

covery, tfj3. 




Mffee. An attvice note U the instmction asoally 
|[ivcn by one- merchant to another, inlorininf; him 
with partjciitars of date or sight, the sum pa>-ablp 
and the pa)'cc, and relates especially to the drawinj{ 
of t>iIlA and the forwardinj; of goods. 

Ajmnii, Japaocs^ armoured cruiser. (St. N'a- 
lairc. looi.) 
Lcnf;th43i ft. Beam 59 ft. Maximum draiiRht 25 ft. 
Displacement 9.436 toos, Complement tft^z. 
Gum. Armour. 

4—8 in. *• Harvey Steel.'* 

13 — 6 in. 7 in. Belt amidships. 

■ a — 3 in. 6 in. Barbettes. 

B — 1'8 in. 6 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
4 Submerged. 
I Above water. 
Hp, 17,000 = 20 k,ts. Coal maximum i.jootons. 

AX. Oistingaishing letters on sea fislUng boaU 
registered at Emden. Germany, 

BL Uoyd's daseUicatioD for wood shipa when 
canying perishable goods on short voyages. 

iEgean Sea. The north-east part of the Mediterra- 
nean Scii now more commonly known as the Grecian 
Archipelago. Bounded on the north by Turkey, 
west by Greece and east by Asia Minor. Its waters 
are studded with islands and its shores greatly in- 

Siaan Steam RaTigatioo Company, with Uie hc»d 

ofbces at Constantinople, pos.'^f^s aflfetof iriBteam- 
ers which maintaiu a service to meet the passenger 
and cargo demands of the Mcditerraaean. A weekly 
service w maintained from Constantinople to Mity- 
lene. Smyrna, Chios and Pirxas; another service 
to Gythiiim, Oilamac, Patrce, Corcyr.-*, St SHmntc. 
AoloQa, nnd Trieste; another service to the I>ar- 
daneltrs. Thewialcmica and Bulus; another Rcrvice to 
Bama. Sulina. Tuulsta, Oaltzium. and Balia; and 
four other services to local ports. 

AUsondria, Crrir. Panormos. 

Braila. HtracUa. /'. MityUnm. 

CAioi. NaplfS. Smyrna. 


S)|flr. Norwegian giin-t>oat, (Hortea, 1893.) 

Length loS ft. Beam 29 ft. Maximum draught 8 ft. 

Displacement 387 tons. Complement 4J, 


I— Sj in. 

\—f7 in. 

J -10 in. 

Hp. 4joa9kts. 

Sgir. The Giant Sea-god of the Norse Sagas. 

£fir. German coast »cr\-icR bnttleahip (1891;). 
Length 354ft Beam 4<] It. M.t\iniiimdr7)ught iSft. 
Displacement 4,150 tons. Complenicflt 397. 

3—^*4 in. 
ro— 15J pdr. 
6— r pdr. 
4 — Machine, 



Q in. Belt, 

8 in. Barbettes. 

7 in. Conning tower. 

To'Pedo TiiA«f. 
3 Submerged bow and broadside, 
I Above water stem. 
Twin screw. Hp. 3,100= 154 kts. Coal maximum 

380 tons. 

^tOBpotamos. Battle ot Fought 405 b.c. when the 
Spartans under N^rsander defeated the Athenian 

iEseu. Transport lo«t off Newfoundland Octo- 
ber 33, 1805. when 340 perished. 

iBoloi (Gr. Fleet). In heathen m\'thnlogy the god 
of the winds. In the " Odeiwcy " he is mfntiouc<l .is 
the Ruler of the -Cohan (Lipari) Islands, to whom 
Jupiter had given the superintendence and distribu> 
tion of the winds ; and he was supposed to have kapt 
them immured in a cave. 

Soklf. British 3rd class cniiser (i8gi). 
Length jno ft. Beam .<.( (t. Maximum draught 18 ft. 
Displacement 3.400 isms. Complement 173. 
Guns, Avmour. 

2—6 In. " SteeL" 

6 — 47 in. 3 in. Deck. 

8 — 5 pdr. 3 in. Conning tower. 

1—3 pdr. 
4 — ^ Machine. 

Tatpgdo Tubes (14 to.). 
4 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. natural 7.000= 15-5 kts.. forced 
9,000 » 30 kts. Coal maximum 53; tons. 
Approximate cost ^300.000. 
This ship-name is associated with EUiot's defeat 
of Tburot, 1760: capture of .Mortuique. 1809; bom- 
bardment of Sveaborg. 1855. 

JEnn. Swedish coast defence battleship. 
(Ckitlicnbuig. I (fcti.) 

Length jS; ft. Beam 40 ft. Draught 16 ft. 
Displacement 3,600 tons. Cnmplemrnt ajo. 
Guns. Armour. 

3— 8"3 in. " Krupp." 

6—5-9 in- 7 in. Belt amidships. 

so — 3-3 in. 7 in. Turrets. 

3 — {'4 in. 5 in. Gmning tower. 

TotptJn Tubes. 
2 Submerged. 
Hp. 6,500 = 1 7 kts. Coal maximum 1.900 tons. 

Aerodinosoope. A weather indicator by which the 
variation of the barometer and the direction of the 
wind may be signalled. 

AerolilM (Gr. aiT'Stones) are stone or metallic 
masses falling from tlie sky, known as Tire-baUs, fall- 
ing or shooting stars, meteoric stones, thunderbolts, 
etc. Sofiaraf those meteors are almost entirelv stone. 




^Vvers A mixture of stone and iron. In 1493 one (ell 

^nsisheim in Alsace, weighing 370 lbs. Gassendi, 

'. saw one fall in IVovence, which weighed 

In i6ao one fell in the Punjab, and was 

a aword for Jcliangir, one of the Indian 

>obabl]r tlic largest on record is that 

'ril and is &aid to weigh over 6 tons. 

fc^ "h the earth in groups, or showers, 

^^^ -Handy, [803: at New Concord, 

^^^%. irmaala. Punjab, i860. The 

^^^ -nbach. estimates that at 

^^^ ■« fall cvcr>' year. 

^^^^ oDomy "; Brit. Assoc 

^^^^^ -x's " An lutroduc- 

^^^ Booney's "Story 

leoric Hypothesis " 

. Hydrostatics, 

An instmnient consisting of a 
■ Lomoter, both bulbs cnntaincd in a 
i..iirnT, and anr of them in the focus, 
''■■-" :rii 1 liy Ixslio in 1S17. for the purpose of 
::if.'03iiring changes of temiieratiire. By this instru- 
ment, even slight vanations of temperature due to 
changes in the condition of the sky can be esti- 

Alflo^ Sir Edmund (1733-88). Admiral, 

British Navy. In command of the Brdfnrd, which 
took a prominent part in the engaf;ement off Cape St. 
Vincent (17S0). For services rendered in the West 
Indies under Rodney {q.v.) and Hood t^.v.) (1783- 
84), he was created a baronet and promoted to 
tbe rank of Rear-Admiral. 

Alloodatoro. Obsolete Italian battlwihip. Of 
DO fighting value; now used as torpedo dcpAt in 

Affreightment i^ a contract for the carriage of 
goods by v-a, crprcsscd in a charter-party (q.v.) or 
bDl of lading (q.v.) Apart from express exceptions 
in the contract, or statutory limitations {us Dan- 
geroas Goods: Limitation of liability), a ahip' 
owner is under Itic same liabihtim for the safe carriape 
of goods as a"common carrier" — i.e., be is responsible 
for loss or damage to goods in his charge, unless 
caused by an Act of God, the King's enemies, some 
lobarat vice in the goods, improper packing, or 
jettisoo {q.v.) ; and only in these cases is he protected 
if he ba« taken reasonable care to avoid the danger, 
and if the ship is fitted to receive the goods and sea- 
K-orthy. and has not improperly deviated from ber 
nsnaJ conne. The liability of a " common carrier " 
commences as soon as goods arc delivered to him or 
his agent, and ceases upon actual delivery to the 
consignee, or upon failure by the con<iignFe (o fetch 
the goods after notice of arrival. Where, however, a 
pdot is employed b>' compulsion of law and owmg to 
his negligence a calli.Mon occurs whereby goods car- 
ried m the ship are damaged, the shipowner cannot 
be held liable. Words in such contracts " axe to be 

understood in their plain, ordinary and papular 
sense unless they have generally, m respect to ihu 
subject matter, as by a known usage of trade, or 
the Ultc. acquired a. peculiar sense." Tiic law ap- 
plicable to contracts of afireightmmt, nnlfss ollier- 
wise spcciAcd, is the law of tbe flag under which the 
ship sails. 

Afioat. Supported by water. A term used for 
being 011 board ship. 

Afirici. British jst class battleship. (Clialhiini. 

Length 455 ft. Beam 78 ft. Mean draught 26 ft. 
Displacement 16.350 tons. Complement 777. 
G-UHS. Armour. 

4 — 13 in. " Krupp.'* 

4— 4>'3 in. 9 in. Belt amidships . 

10— 6 in. 13 in. Barbettes. 

14 — 12 pdr, 13 in. Conning tower. 

U— 5 pdr. 
2 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
4 Submerged broadside. 
I Submerged stern. 
Twin screw, tip. 18,000= 18*3 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum tons. Approximate cost ^1,500.000. 

A ship of this name was with Hughes against De 
SufTren in the East Indies oS Cuddalore, 1783: 
Nelson at Trafiilgar, 1^05. 

AfHm" Steanubip Comptay, now under the 
management o! Messrs. Elder, Dempster and Co., 
was the earhest African Line and was founded in 
183a. This company received its charter in iBsa 
with an annual subsidy of ^30.000 for a monthly 
mail and passenger Mrvice, which it has maintained 
ever since. The pioneer boats of this company, the 
Forerunner, Faith. Hope and Charity, rendered valu- 
able service during the Crimean War. 

Steamers leave Liverpool regularly on the Opobo 
service for Tcnerlfle. Grand Canary, Gorce, Da^ax, 
Rufisque, Bathumt, Sierra Ijjone. Monrovia, Grand 
BaMa, Cape Palmas, Axim. Sekondi, Cape Coast 
Castle. Accra, Addnh, Kotonnn, Bonny. New Cala- 
bar. Bakana, Buguma. Degama, Abonema. Opobo, 
and Egwanga; on Lhe Lagos Exprc^ Service for 
Grand Canary, Sierra Leone. Axim, Sekondi, Cape 
Coast Castle, Accra, Lagos Road, Forcsdos (for 
Lagos) and Burucu; on tbe South Coast Express 
Service for Sierra Leone, Axim, Sekondi. Cape Coast 
Casllc, Accra, Lagos Roods, Forcados, Bonny, Cala- 
bar, Cameroons. St Thoma. Landana. Cabenda, 
R-inana, San Antonio, Noqui, Boma, Maradi, 
Muculla. Amhnzctte, Musscra, Kinscmbo. Ambrixo 
l.oanda (i( inducement offen), Lobito Bay and 
Bcnguela, also to Fernando Pn. Rio dc:l Ray. Vic- 
toria, Plantation, Kribe. Batanga, Bata. Eloby, 
I/kaka, Botica, Baboon, Cape Lopez. Setta Camma, 
Nyanga, Mayumba, Qnillo and Loaugo; on the 
Brass Service for Madeira. Tcneri0e, Grand Colony, 
Conakry, Sierra Leone, Lahou. Grand Bassa, 




Aasinev, Axim, Sckondi, Cape Colony, Saltpond. 
Accra, Lagos Roads, Brass, Akassa, Forcados, Warri, 
Benin and Sapele: and on Uic Windward Service for 
Tont-nffe, La Palma. Sierra Leone, Sherbro, Cape 
Mount. Sinoc. Tabon. Drcwin. Sa«saadrn. Half Jack, 
Adda (Ivory Coast). Half Assinic, Bayin. Attnaboe, 
Axim, Dixcovc, Adjnah, Sekondi, Chama, Elmina, 
Cape Colony. Anamboc, Mumford, Apam, Winne- 
bah, Bairacoc, Accra, Pram Pram, Quittoh, Lome, 
Little Popo and Whydah. 

AMdL Briti^ ocean-going torpedo-boat de- 
stroyer. (Armstrong, 1905.) Length, 250 ft.; beam, 
95 ft.; maximnm draught, 7 ft. ; displacement, 790 
tons; complement. 60; armament, 3 la-pdr., 
3 tubes; Hp.. i4,ocn = 33 kts.; coal maximum. 
180 tons. 

Aft. See Atwft. 

Alter-Dock House. Sea Deck House. 

Alter-Olow. The radiance or glow seen in the 
western sky for a longer period than usual aftcj the 
sun has set. 

A.O, or T.T. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing 
lioats re^isured at Tarbrrt (Lochlyne), Scotland. 

Avsmemaon. Briti^iti t st class battleship. 
(Bcardmore, 190G.} 

Length 410 ft. Beam jg ft. Mean draught 27 ft. 
Displaocment 16.600 tons. Complement 865. 
Guttf. Armour. 

4 — la in. " Krupp." 

10 — 9'3 io. 13 in. Belt amidships, 

18 — 3*5 in. 14 in. Barbettes. 

6—i pdr. 12 in, Connuig towei. 

6 Pompoms. 
2 Maxims. 

Tor/>etio Tubes (iRin. 04M.). 
4 Submerged broadside. 
I Submerged stem. 
Twin screw. Hp. 20,000= 18-5 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 2,000 tona. Approximate cost ;£ 1,500.000. 

This ship name is associated with Rodney's vic- 
tory, l7S2;TouIon, J793: Bastia, i794;Calvcy, \794,'. 
llenoa, 1795; Hyircs. 1795; C^opcnliagcn , iHui ; 
CaJder's victory off Fcrrol, 1805; Trafalgar. 18:15; 
Seb.«topol, 1854. 

Agatha. Packet lost near Meroel, A[»il 7. 1808, 
when Lord Koyston and many others were drowned. 

Agency Havts. See Havas. 

Agent >>«■ Broker. 

Agile. French sea-going destroyer. (La Seyne. 1889.) 

Length, 139 ft. ; beam, 14 It.; maximum draught, 7 ft.; 
(lisplacemiiut, 121 tons; conipletncnt, 6; aima- 
iitcnt, 3 3-pdr., 2 tubes; Hp., 1.100 = 26 kta.; coal^ 

maximimt. 35 tons. 

Agincourt. British ist class cruiser (10,690 
tons, 12 kts). Launched i368. 

Agio. The premium borne by a better sort of 
money above an inferior. 

Agordat. Italian gun-boat 0899). 
L«?ngth ^87 ft. Beam 30 ft. Maximum draught id ft. 
Displacement 1,313 tons. Complement 154. 
Guns. Armour. 

12 — 12 pdr, "Steel." 

1 in. Deck. 
Torpedo Tubtt. 
2 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. 8.000 033 kts. Coal niMiiiaJ 
160 tons. 

AgTonnd. Stranded; situation of vessel whose 

bottom touches the ground. 

Agne. See Malaria. 

Russian armoured 

cruiser (Seba-stopol, 



Length 439 ft. Beam 5.1 It. Dranght 20 ft. 
Displacement 6,645 tons. Complement 340. 
Guns. Armour. 

12 — 5 in, " Krupp." 

1 2 — 3 in. 3 in. Deck amidships. 

6 Maxims. 5 in. Barbettes. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
2 Submerged. 
Hp. 1 9,500 = 23 kts. Coal t , 100 tons. 

A.H. Distingutstung letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Arbroatli. Scotland. 



Immediately before the ship in the course 

Aboy. Se< Ho. 

Ahull. V.licn a ship is under bare poles, driving by 
wind and sea, stem foremost. 

A.I. Distinguishing letters on se,i fishing boats 
registered at Akrcyri, Iceland, Denmark. 

A.L Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Juist, (Germany. 

Aide-4d-0amp. A staB oHicer who carries and 
circulate* the commanding Dlliccr's orders. In the 
Navy flag-lieutenant to an attmiral, or in action the 
quarter-deck midshipman to a captain. 

Aigrette. Trench sea-going submarine. (Toulon, 
1903.] Length, iiS It.; beam. 12J it.; draught, 
8J ft.; displacement, xy:. tons; complement, 20; 
torpedo tabes. i-r77 in.; Hp., aoo=» lO'S kts. above 
water. S below. 

Aionme. I ta liao torpedo-boat. (Odera, 1 906. ) 
Length, 16; ft.; beam, 17ft. ; draught, 4 ft.; displace- 
ment, 200 tons; complemcut, .10; ar^tament, 3 
3-pdr., 3 tubes; twin screw; Hp., 3.oou»aj kts. 
coal , 40 tons. 

Air Bladder. One of the most characteristic organs 
of fishes; present in most, though not in alt fish. It 




consistB of n hollow sac. formed of leveral tunics con- 
taining gas, situated iu tbc abdominal cavity, out- 
side the peritonear sac. Like the hmgs of air- 
brcathing vertebrates, it rises as an outgrowth froiu 
tlie nlimentary canal, and mny either retain thin 
action throughout life, as in the herring, or become 
entirely shut off from the gut, as in the haddtxk. 
Bemg compressible, its special luncticMi consists iu 
altering tht: specific gravity of the fi&h, or in changing 
the centre of gravity. Isinglass, or tlsh glue, in its 
raw state, is the air bladder, swim bladder or »ound, 
of various species of A&h. 

Airy. Bir Oeorg« Biddell (1801-92). British 
Astronomer Royal (b. Alnwick). Educ, Hereford 
Grammar School and Colchester. In i8x j graduated 
Senior Wrangler, first Smith's Prizeman. Tnnity 
College. CambridK^' ^^^ three years later was ap- 
pointed Lucasion Professor of Mathematics; and 
AstroQomer Royal, June iS, 1635. Hi.'i Adiniuistru- 
tion at Greenwich extended over a period of 46 
years, daring which time he reorganised the whole 
management; created a Magnetic department in 
1S38; a Spectroscopic department in 1868. The 
solar eclipses of 1842, 1851 and i860 were obi>erved 
by him in Italy, Swollen and Spain re!i]>ecLively; 
organised the transit of Venus Expedition, 1854. In 
1872 he was made K.C.B., and in the same year was 
nominated a CSrand Cross in the Imperial Order of 
the Rose of Brazil; he also held the Appreciation 
Order for the M^tc; I>eloni;e0 to tlie Legion of 
Honour of France, and the Legion of the North Star 
of Sweden and Norway. A complete list of hia 
printed papers, about 518, will be found in his auto* 
biography, edited by bis son. and published in 

Aitodorg. Russian torpedo-boat (Odessa. 
1S91.) Length. 136 ft.; beam. 13 it.; draught. 8J| ft. ; 
displacement. Si tons; complement, 13: armament. 
2 i-pdr., 2 tubes; Hp., 1,100 ==21 kta.; coal, 17 

AJftx. Steamer, sunk by collision witli the Itunde- 
burg. August 9, 1892; 35 lives lost. 

AJUL 74 gnns. On February 14, 1807, this 
veasel was destroyed by fire, ofl the Island of 
Tesiedos, when 350 perished. 

A^ Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
igg iB t e red at Andfjord, Hc^and. 

Ak»d«mischer Sflclw-Vereia. Est 1886. Com- 
modore. A. von Appcn; Vice*Commodore. W. Hahn; 
Rear-Commodore, Paul lliUraann; Treasurer, Walter 
Otto; Secretary. Hans Bokland; Konigticbe Tech- 
niscfae Hochschule, Chariot tcnburg, Berlin. En- 
trance fee, som. ; annual sabscriptiQn, 1 joro. 

AkicL J.ip.inese gun-txiat. (Yoka^uka. iSgi.) 

Length 164 It Beam 27 ft Maximum draught 10 ft. 

Displacement 615 tons. Complement 130. 

1—8-3 in. 
1— 5'9 in. 

2 — I pdr. 
Hp. 7,(xiaK 13 kts. Coal 120 tons. 

Akuhl, Japanese cruiser. (Japan. i8v7l 
I^'ngth 305 ft. Beam4i ft. Maximum draught tt\ ft. 
Displacement 2,700 tons, Complomi-nt 275. 
Guns. AvHiouf. 

2— 6 in. " SteeL" 

6—47 In, 2 in. Peck. 

12 — 3 pdr, 4^ in, Cuii shields. 

Torpedo Tuba. 
2 .\bove water. 
Twm screw. Hp. 8,500 = 20 kts. Coal maximum 

600 tons. 

AkAtsnltt. Japanese torpcdu-boat destroyer. 
(Yarrow, igoi.) Displacement, lof) ions; comple- 
ment, 55; maximum draught, 8^ It; armament, 
I rs-pdr.. 5 6-pdr.; tubes, 2 18-in.; Hp.. 6,000 = 
31 kts.; coal, 95 tons. 

Akebona Japanese torpedo-boat destroyer 
(Yarrow, 1899.) Displacement, 306 tons.; comple- 
ment, 55 ; maximum draught, S| ft; armament, 
I i2-pdr., 5 6-pdr. tubes; 2 18-in.; Hp.; 6,ooo«' 
31 kts.; coal, gt; Ions. 

Akitsashima. Old Japanese cruiser. (Japan, 

Length 302 ft Beam 43 ft Maximum draught iS ft 

Displacement 3,150 tons. Complement 330. 

Guns. Armouf. 

4 — (3 in. " Steel," 

6 — 47 in, 3 in. Deck. 

10—3 pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
4 A1>ove water. 
Twin screw. Hp. farced 8,400 = 19 kts. Coal nor- 
mal joo tons. 

Akola. Russian submarine (1905). Length. 77 ft.; 
displacement, 175 tons; speed. 7 kts. 

AX. Distinguisliing letters oa sea Oshing boats 
registered at Ameland, Holland. 

A.L. Distingui-shiug letters on sea fblung boats 
registered at Leer, Germany. 

AUbama. U.S. ist class battleship. (Cramp's, 

Length 368 ft Beam 72 ft Mean draught 23 ft 
Displacement 1 1,565 tons. Complemrut 490. 

Guns. Atmour. 

4— 13 in.. 35 cal. " Harvcy-nickcl." 

14 — 6 in. 16 in. Belt amidships. 

6—6 pdr, 16 in. Tuircts. 

4—1 pdr. 10 in. Conning tower. 

4 Colts. 
2 Field guns (3 in.). 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
4 Above water (ArmooreJ). 



Assineo, Axim. Sc-kondi. Cape Colony, Saltpond, 
Accra. Lajos Roads, Brass, Akassa. Forcados, Warri, 
Benin and Sapele; and on the Windward Service for 
Tcinriffc. I-a Palma, Sierra Leone, Sherbro, Cape 
Mount. Sinoo. Tabou, Drewin, Sansandra, Half Jack, 
Adda (Ivory Coast), Half Assinie, Bayin, Attuaboe. 
Axim, Dixcove, Adjuah, Sekondi, Chama, Elmina, 
Cape Colony, Anamboc, Mumford. Apam, Winnc- 
bah, Barracoe, Accra. Pram Pram. Quittah, Loir 
Little Popo and Whydah. 

Atridi. British ocean-going torpedo-bo: 
stroycr. (Armstrong, 1905.) Length, 350 ft 
25 ft.; maximum draught, 7ft;diBplacf 
ten;;: complement, 60; amument. 
3 tubes; Hp.. 14.000 = 33 kts.; co 
I So tons. 

Aft. 5» Abaft. 

After-DeA Knim. 5m Deck 

Alteimiov. The radiar 
western sky for a longer p 

sun has set. 




La.aclX Disti- 
boats registered at 'I 

(Beardmoce, in 
Length 410 f^ 

. - iiniil 
An intiT- 

/.rit Br.iain at 

.■.- :.:".>.■'« int; rules 
?::i:i* J^nd Great 
■.■.*<".vtf*- i"*d other 

.V -■■'»; 


^:1 to use due 

.ji .-1::. oTKjmg or equip- 

...,■ ,-: Any vessel it has 

.. .-.J-i'"! i»> carry on war 

. ,■.-.■: :-* At peace, and also 

. •.-■.■. Its jurisdiction of such 

. .:'.-.iT K'Uigerent to use its 

.^.^, .;..^.i:5. or for the purpose of 

.J .-.c; -mJ {?) t** exercise due 

^--.< wiihia its jurisdiction, to 

.-. -. o: ;>.o Abo\-e obligations. 

■. ^iospjtch boat (1,700 tons, 

. ss * . river turret armoured guu- 

:V.-.::i .*i=ft. Maximum draught 5 ft. 
.,.-—.■•,11 ;*^ t*3iis. Complement 43. 
^^ Armour. 

■ :n. " steel." 

- M.u-hnie. 4j »»• Belt amidships. 

4^ in. Gun shields. 
Hp., iSo=7kts. 

H«nUUldo de. Spanish Xavigator, per- 
. , V . .".uuvted with the Spanish expedition to the 
,". (.V.iioniia. of which he was leader. He 
[^i iivMn Spam. May 9. IS40. and on arrival in 



ireful and exact survey of the 

,irst European to explore the 

■ ■ first to provt- that California 

I an i.-<la,nd, and on his return 

constructed a map of Cali- 

10 M. Dutllot de Mofras, 

•in use ut tin- present day. 

■• Miin-boat (1S92). 
'I:iximuin draught l2Ht. 
Complement S5, 

■■n<. Speed I7kts. 

.. ■ ikstroyer. (St. Na- 

: II.; beam, 15 It.; draught, 

■!iii. i(jy tons; complement, 30; 

J 5-pdr., 4 tubes; twin bcrew ; Hp„ 

j'.j kts.; coal, 40 tons. 

Alaska Steanuhip Company, with their head oflices 

at Seattle, Washington, U.S..\., have a fleet of four 
steamers, which maintain a service twice a week be- 
tween Seattle and Skegway, calling en route at 
Ketchikan, \Yrangel, Douglas, Juneau, Haines. 
Dirigo. Dolphin. Farrallon, 


Albacore. A fish of the Scomberidc family, found 
in shoals in the ocean ; it is from 5 to 6 ft. in length 
with an average weight of about 100 lbs, 

Albany. U.S. cruiser. (Elswick, 1898.) Pur- 
chased from Brazil. 

Length 330ft. Beam 43 ft. Maximum draught tS ft. 
Displacement 3,450 tons. Complement 300. 
Guns. A rmour. 

6 — 6 in. " Harvey-nickel." 

4 — 5 in. 3 in. Deck. 

10 —6 pdr. 4 in. Gun shields. 

4—1 pdr. 
4 Colts. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
2 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. forced 7,500 = 20-25 ^^^- Coal 
maximum 700 tons. 

Albatross (Diomedea). A genus of aquatic birds, 
closely allied to the petrels and gulls, belonging to 
the family of long-winged birds. The name especially 
applied to D. cxulans, one of the largest birds capable 
of sustaining flight, and best known as the common 
or wandering albatross. It occurs in all parts of the 
Southern Ocean, and in the seas that wash the coast 
of Asia, and is occasionally fuund in the North 
Pacific, especially during the breeding season. The 
colour of the bird is a dusky wliite, the back being 
streaked transversely with black or brown bands, 
and the wings darker than the rest of the body. The 



^leak is tsrge, stroDK and sharp-^ged. the upper 

adiblt! terminating in a large hook; the wings are 

~w and very long. The feet have do hind toe. 

* three anterior toes are completely webbed. 

*i small lish and on animal refuse tliat float:* 

It is a true sea bird, following ships (or 

-s. and rarely found on land, except 

'ing season. The early explorers con- 

, -X of the bird a good omen, and the 

Ita " who shot with hi*t cro» bow 

^^k iar to the readcre of Coleridge *s 

^^ Mariner." 

'orpcdo - txKkt destroyer. 

327 ft.; beaiD» 21 ft.; 

t, 360 tons; comple- 

, 5 6-pdr.; 2 tubes; 

. 'oal, icx:i tons. 

.,..iol>oat. (Odero, 1906.) 

'r ii-i draught. 7 ft. ; dUplace- 

LHl^'nent. 30; amiatnent. 3 3-pdr.. 

■■ , Hp.j,ooo = 25kLs. ;coaI,40tons. 

' AtMo. An astronomical term used Lo signify the 
ipraportion of incident light reflected by a non- 
'landiiDUB surface. 

Albemarte. British ist class battleship. (Chat- 
ham, 1901.) 
,Length429ft. Beam 75 ft. Maximam draught 37 ft. 

r>Lsplacement 14.000 tons. Complement 750. 
I GuHS. Armour. 

4 — 12 in. " Kmpp." 

I 12 — 6 in. 7 in. Belt amidships. 

I 12 — ispdr. 1 1 in. Barbettes. 

6 — 3 pdr. 1 2 in. Conning tower. 

I 3 Maxims. 

I , Totpfdo Tubes { 1 8 in. ) . 

i» - 4 Submerged. 

r Twin screw. Hp. 18,000= 19 lets. Cool maxi- 
itnnm 2,000 tons. Approximate cost /i,ooo,ooD. 

This ship-oame was introduced into the Navy 
about i08$, and is associated with the battle of 
Beachy Head. 1690; Bailleur and La Hogue 1693. 

Albemarle. Su Kcppel Monk. 

Albert, Priooe ol Xonaco. Su Moaaco. Albert, 
Prince of. 

Albert Yacht Clab, BoyaL See Koyal Albert 
Yacht Club. 

Albion. British 1st ctasi battleship. (Thames 
l,W., I%98.) 

' Length 4t8 ft. Beam 74 ft. Maximum draught 26 ft. 
^^J)isplacetnent 13.9SO tons. Complement 750. 
^H Guns, Armour, 

^^ 4— u in., 35 caL " Harvey-nickel." 

I 12 — 6in. 6 m. Belt amidships. 

' 10 — 12 pdr. 13 in, Barbettes. 

D 6 — 3 pdr. 12 in. Cuniiiog tower. 

I 2 Maxims. 

Tovptda Tuhts (i3 in.). ^ 

4 Submerged. 

Twin screw. Hp. tJ.jOOss l8-2$ kts. Cool mA»- 

mnm 2, 300 tons. Ajjproximate cost /900.CXXI. 

This ship-name is associated with Byron's action 
oti Grauada, ^77^'. Rodney's action with deGuichen, 
1780; bombardment of Algiers, 1816; Navarino. 
1S37: bomtiardmcnt of Sebastopol, 1854. 

AlbuQuerque, Alfonso D^ (i4$5-i5is) (b. Alexan- 
dria). Sumameil the "Great" and the " Portxi- 
gue^e Mari." He wan the means of upholding and 
extending the power of I'ortiigal in India and the 
East from 1503 —when he set out on his first expedi- 
tion — till 1515, when the island of Ormus yielded to 
Iitra without resistance, and remained in j>ossession 
of the I'ortuguese until \^22. Me captured Goa in 
1 5 10. Malacca 1511. and sutxlued the Malabar Coast, 
Ceylon, and other ports of the East. He died at sea, 
Dtxciitl>er 15. 1515, imd his body was buiiod at Goii. 
in tht; Church of '* Our Lady." 

Alcester, Frederick Beaoctaamp Paget Seymour, 

Baron (rgt^-95}. British Admiral. Kotcrrd the 
Navy ifij.(, and served in the Meditrrxanran and 
Pacific. Promoted Commander 1H47, and Ciptain 
1854. Was captain of the Peiorous on the .Austra- 
lian station, and commanded the Naval Brigade in 
New Zealand during the Maori war (l86(>-6{). for 
which he was made a C.B. In 1870 he became a 
Kear-Admiral. and Lord of the Admiralty (1872- 
74), and 1S76 was made a Vice-Admiral and 
Commander-in-Chief of the Mediterranean fleet; on 
May 24, i8St, he was made G.C.B., and one year 
later promoted to the rank of Admiral. In July. 
1883, he commanded at the Bombardment of Alex- 
andria, for which service he was raised to the 
peerage of Baron Alcester, of Alcester, and had a 
ParUamenlao' grant of /sf.cxw. 

Akioae. Italian torpedo-boat. (Odero. 1906.) 
Length, 165 ft. ; beam, 17 ft.; draught, ; ft.; displace- 
ment, 200 tons ; complemcut. 30; annament, 3 3-pdr., 
3 tubes ; Hp., 3,000 = 25 kts, ; coal, 40 tons. 

Aloock, Ktajor Alfred WOUam, O.LS. i.>o3. M.D.. 
LL.D,, F.B.S., (b. June 23. 1859). Superintendent 
of the Indian Museum and Professor of Zoology in 
the Medical College, Calcutta. Educ. Mill Hill, West- 
minster, Blackheath. Aberdeen Univcntity. Joined 
the Indian Medical Service (1H85); Surgeon-Natural- 
ist to the Marine Survey of India on board the 
R,I.M,S. Investigator (1888-93). 

Publications: " Naturalist in Indian Seas " (1903). 

Aldebaran. the lucida of Taurus, a wetl-known 
nautical star, commonly called BuU's-eye. 

Aldeburgb Taoht Chib. Est. 1898. Commodore. 
A. II, E. Wood; Vicc'Cominodorc. S. Garrett; Rear- 
Commodore. Percy Clark; Honomry Treasurer. 
W. H. T, T. PowcU; Secretary. Ernest S. Rogers; 
AlbebuTgh-on-Sea. Annual Subscription, £1 is. 

Alden, John (:s99-i686}. Oda of the Pilgrim 
Fathers, who sailed in the Uayflo^er. Has been 




Twin screw. Hp. forced 10.000= i6 kts. Coal 
maxinium 1.450 tons. Approximate cost /951J.000. 

Al^hfcwiM Celetrateii Confederate cruiser, origi- 
naljy known ai " No. 290." her number in the 
van! of the builders, Messrs. I.aird, of Birkenhead. 
She was a steam vc^sscl of i ,000 tons, launched Ma 
If. :^oj, with engines of 3t.>o Hp., giving a speed 
aLi.'j£ :: kta. During judicial inquiries after 
cr.jr^ictvr. undc-r pretext of making a trial tri: 
s^.:f--.>oJ out to sea, July 2g. the day bef< 
Bnr-sh Government telegraphed to dct:. 
Under the command of Captain Scmmt.' 
great damage to American mercantile si: 
tween the banks of Newfoundland and 
and succetsjed in destroj'ing the HatU 
vesstrl euijaged in the blockade of C^ 
was eventually dtstro}-ed by the ! 
Ktanargf, ofi Cherboui:g, June to 
Alabama Case. 

/t^ibi"ia Cue. The Alal 
launched at Birkenhead in i.*^ 
tended for a Confederate c 
attention of the Bhtiah G< 
her, she was allowed to t. 
havoc to property of t 
sunk by the Kmmar^i 
national tribunal, w1 
assessed the damage ' 
over lijooajoao. 

In the treaty <- 
were agreed upr> 
Britain to be ol ^ 
nations who ai 

A neutral 
fliiigence K-j , 
ping wit: 





Ir. '-^99 ii^ 

.,v. : aiti.r'.vari;= 

.: .-.::.' Victrcy of 

-;■ -.v!:-'v. to^ gn-at 

J. :-.:•. -^--^nt j ,0. 

- ■*:'■. Ceil iCfj ton*. 

^■.^•.>jl v:.j.u steamer belonging 
^ ' :v-.;"i irom Cadiz to Havana, 

. _.- ors::J Canar)-, :n nf:arly 
•. .i'.v.:t a mile on shore. She 
■.. ^ ■ >>. ^-^-i coin valued at tioo,OC«c. 
.. j.viT. recovered from th:3 wreck 
v.;---^" -'• ^ »^^pth of 160 ii. 
;.> 4J«i4a«f4«. ^V= AlliU.-icrque. 
»V AltCQOerqae. Portuguese cor\-vtte- 

"" " , ^.; ;;. Bean ?j ft. Draught .;o ft. 
^. ■-.■:-.: '..'■•i tons. Complemtnt 1S3. 
2 — 6 in. 
c — i"i in. 
Z—2-- in. 
■.; . ; ;;<«= :: i:t^. '-ci'. normal 140. 

Cal= *lbart( Duke 01 Edinburgh and Duke 

■ Goti-A :5.n-iyOo). Second son 

■ Qur-.n, Victoria (b. Windsor 

Hntcred the Na%->- 1356, 

■. .r.^^passed his examination 

■. Liitcvl to the Euryaius. 

• ". vJ-5; Captain 1S60, be- 

::'.n-.and of the Galatia. 

- ; ■ . he was created 

^^Ier, and given an 

iz.. ii6j, be started 

/-i Gibraltar, the 

'. .-\us:ralia, od which he 

...-.i; it wasOD 

./.I'j.'ading a public 

:l. tti- iick with a re- 

.i-Lunately not dangerous. 

. .. Luji. :iD<a on his return was pro- 

.■..:: jl, anJ :n :^^^ Vic i'- Admiral, and 

: .iiLjn iS Adn-.irai oi the Fleet, June 3, 

li-, coiiic-.anded t:.e Channel Fleet (1S33- 

_ , :;.L- Mcdittrrar.ean Fleet ,:SS*:i.j, ; and was 

i,unimander-;n-Ch:el at D-.voapcrt ^:S^-y3). In 

.\i:au=t, 15-*?, he succt-eJtd his uncle, Ernest II, as 

reigning L'uke of Saxe-Col-ure auJ Gothj. He was 

succeeded by his nephew, the Duke of Albany. 

Alfred the Great. Youngest son of Etheiwulf, King 
o: the West Saxons .i.>. Wantage. B(.-rkshire, S49. a.i>-]. 
When quite youni: he greatly iii?tinguished himself 
in assistmg his brother Htheired against the Danes, 
particularly at Ashdou-n. ana on the death 01 
Ethelred, he was unanii=,ou=:y elected King ^^71). 
When only tweaty-two years of .ige he concluded a 
Treaty of Peace with the Danes, who withdrew to 
London, and his supremacy was acknowledged 
through the whole country, so'.:tb o^ the Thames, 
and the greater part of Mercia. He practically 
founded the British Navy, and the naval victory 
which he gained over Danish rovers ^£75), is the nist 
on record won by Englishmen. Alfred was the means 
of putting the country into a comr'ete state of de< 
fence, old fortircatiocs were rep.iireJ. and new ones 
raised in suitable li>:al:nes; the deet was brought 
into a state of eScic-ncy. He greatly encouraged 
commerce, and took a keen interest in geographical 
study, founded schools, encouraged hterature, im- 
proved the ser\"lce of the Church; asd his de\'Otion 
to learning and his exertion in the cause of ednca- 
r.on. are among the most agreeable features of his 
re:^!!. He died on October 2~, :yCi, at the age of 53. 
and was buried at Winchester, the ancient capital of 

His principal works are as follows: " Manual or 
Handbook," of which no copy is knonii to exist; 
" Laws " \Sec Wilkin's "" Leges Anglo-Saxonicz " 
(1721}, and Thorpe's " Ancient Laws and Institutes 
of E:'.::l3r.J. ", :?j.-\ Tr:r.slit::;ns into Old 
En^';^r. .\^.i;l^'-^^Xl. :i: o: t;;c ii.\l»wir..: . '" Bvde's 
Ecv'.- ;;:!.:?: ic^". H:sior\-. edited Iv Whcloc, Cam- 


brld9» (r643*44), and by Smith. Cambridge (1733). 

The Universal History of Orosiiis," editeil by 

qw, London, 1S57. " The Omsnlatioiis of 

Tphy." by Boethitts. edited by Fox. London 

Gregory's " Pastoral Care," edited by 

•he Early English Text Society. London 

QbK RoyaL 5m Royal AUred 

1 the AoatiDg substances on 

. iir uul Steamship Com- 

.it Algcciras. inaiDtain a 

alway Pier, Gibraltar, and the 

. , Ai^t-Liias. in conaectioo with all trains 

J I. besides making E«vefal other local runs. 

klly every two hoan of the day, 


Aline. Christina. Elvira. 


Gross tonnage 1,400. 

Algsr. Old Frcoch cmiscr (iSSg). 
Length 346 ft. Ikam 45 ft. Maximum draught 23 ft. 
Displacement 4.300 tons. Complement 407. 
GuH*. Armour. 

4—6-4 in. 4 in. Deck. 

6—5-5 ^n- 4 is. Gun shields. 

2 — 9 pdr. 
e— 3pdr. 
10 — 1 pdr. 

Torpedo Ti^s. 
4 Above water. 
Twin Bcrcw. Hp. = 19 kls. (Small 6ghtmg 

Algeriaa. French submarine. (Chobourg, 1901.) 
Length. 1 1 8 ft. : beam. 9 ft. ; draught, $ ft. ; displace- 
ment, 146 tons; complement, 9; Hp., 330^8 kts. 

AlcoL A variable star in Perseus, which goes 
through its changes in a lilllc undrr throe days. 

Alcooift. Canadian steamer, foundered in Lake 
Superior. November 7, 1885 ; 45 lives lo^t. 

JUea, Aa, is one who owes allegiance to a fori^ign 
State. By Engli^ taw rvery one bom in British 
tenitory i» a British subject, and every one bom out- 
side British territory is an alien, except children of a 
British father. A child bom in British territory of 
alien parents is a natnra)-1>orn British sabject. but 
clrildren of a British mother and foreign father are 
abeas, unlens bom in British Oomimons. A Bnti»h 
subject becoming naturalticd in a foreign country 
e«aws to be a British subject. A British woman 
marrying an alien becomes an alien. The sutus of 
aliens in r*reat Britain is regulated by the Natura- 
lization Act (1S70), by which Real and Personal 
property of every descriptioa may be taken, ac- 

quired, held, and disposed of by aa alien in tha aunc 

manner in all respects as by a natural-bom British 
subject, but (Section 14) nothing in tlits Act shall 
qnalify an alien to be the owner of a British ship. 

Alien Immigration i& now controlled by the Aliens 
Act, 19U5. The expression " immigration " mean* 
an alien steerage passenger who is to be landed in the 
United Kingdom, other tlum one who is proceeding 
within a reasonable time to some destination out of 
the United Kingdum, or (in certain cases) j»assengcrs 
holding prepaid through tickets to some such destin-v 
tjon. , The Act provides for tbe landinR o( alien 
immigrants at such ports only as arc provided with 
an Immigration officer, wbo sliall control their land- 
ing and refuM (subject to appeal to the Port Immi- 
grant Board) certain classes of immigrants described 
by the ,\ct as " undesirables." The Act further 
provides for the cxpul&iou of aliens resideat in the 
United Kingdom, who, through some crime or other 
C8U6e. have become " undesirable.*' Ship-owners and 
masters of ships are laid under certain ob!ig;ations 
with regard to the carrying of alien immigrants, and 
may be convicted for contravention of the Act. An 
alien immigrant i:* nut excluded from tlie (Tnitcd 
Kingdom solely on the ground that he is a political 

AtinctoQ, Admiral Arthnr EQldebraod. Kntrrrd 
Navy 1852; served in t\u-- Baltic and Black Seas 
during the Russian War; present at the night attack 
on the sea fortifications of Scbastopol. at the capture 
of Kcrtch and Kinbum; at the fall of Seba^topol 
(Balbc. Crimean and Turkish medals. Sebasto* 
pol clasp) : Senior Lieutenant of liinatdo on the 
North American Station during United States Civil 
War; received the Ro^-al Humane Society's silver 
medal for jumping overboard with all his clothes on 
and sa\-ing the life of Privat J. Brovm, who at- 
temptetl suicide by tlirowing himself overboard in 
the Bay of Biscay, May id6i. Lieutenant Com- 
mander of Britomatt nil Lake Erie during Fenian 
Riots 1866-^; Comnu^nilrr o( Boxer ou Weat Coast 
of Africa; took an active part to the destructiun ol 
various piratical villages during the Niger Expeili- 
tion, 1S77; mentioned in despatches; Aasistant to 
Admiral Superintendent of Naval Reserves, March 
1892-04; Captain's Good Service Pension 1893-94; 
Second m Command Channel Squadron 1895-96; 
Second -iu -Command of Chanut-l I-'leet at the Navy 
Tactical Exerciaes 1895. 

A.L.K. Distinguishing k-ttvr^ on sea fishing boats 
regtstnrcd at .Mkmaar. Holland. 

Allan. Robert W. (b. 1853). Scotch marine painter. 
Studied m Paris, 1875-1880, one of the pioneers of 
the modrm Glasgow School. 

Sir Ha^ ( 1610-63) (b. Salteoati, Ayr- 
shire). Was one ol the projectors of the Canadian 
Pacific Railway Company, and in 1871 was kniglitc-d 
for services rendered to this enterprise 




Allan Line, wa.s oiigiDally founded as the Moo- 
trcAl Ocean Steamship Co., formed by the Allan 
Brotbcrs. who had been connected with Canada as 
sailing-ship owners ftincc 1830. The company began 
a niail service between Liverpool, Quebec and 
Montrcai in April, 1856, and have smcc coatinued to 
nici't and promote the {K)«la]. commercial and immi- 
grational requirements of the vast Dominion of 
Canada. In tbc course of its career it has absorbed 
the fleet of the old State Line of Gla:^ow, and the 
greater part of the fleet of the Royal Exchange 
Shipping Company, and of the Hill Line. From the 
time of the Crimean War, down to the South African 
campaign, the company's vessels have been em- 
ployed as tran.*iparts, on occasions of national emer- 
gency. The finest vessels of the company are run In 
the mail service from Liver]>ool to the St l-awrence 
ports in the summer, to I-falifax and St John's (X.B.) 
during the winter season, when the river is closed. 
The Virginian, the first turbine propelled Atlantic 
steamer, l>eat all records in August 1905, between 
Moville and Rimoui^ki, the actual steaming time be- 
tween ports being ; days 31 hours. The vessel being 
ont of sight of land only 3 days 21 hours. The 
Tunisian, crossing from Liverpool to Quebec, has 
done the land to land passage in 4 days 4^ horns, and 
the Victorian in 4 days 1 liour. 
Bavarian. LaurttUian. PretoHan. 

Brasilian, Livonian. Kosarian. 

Butn^n A ytran. Mimgiilian. Satdinian. 

Carihat^ninn. Mnntf Vidran. Samaiian. 

CorfitH. .VfinifrffdH. Sihfftan. 

Corinthian. Outanan. Sictlittn. 

Hibernian. Otcadian. Tunisian. 

Hungarian. Parisian. Victorian. 

Ionian. Pomeranian. Virginian. 

Gross tonnage 147,000, 

Allans on- Winn, Rowland George AUansoo, Civil 
lin^meer (b. London. January' 10, il$55)- Educated 
Weslnunslcr, Trin. Coll., Cam. Mathematical Tripos, 
1878; engaged in 1-oresliore Protection Works in 
England and Ireland; completed the Benmula- 
Srinagar Rond. 1896. 

Publications: " Foreshore Frotcclioii " (1899), 
" L^tilisatlon of Tidal and Wave Action." " Ccm- 
slrnctive Power of the Sea." " Youghal Foreshore 
Protection Worlts," " Protection and Improvement 
of FoTfrshurc by tbc Utilisation of Tidal and Wave 
Action," " The Lea as a Constructive .\gent," 
awarded Silvt-r Mtilal Royal Scottish Society of .^rts, 
Kton; Silver Me<laU InMitution of Civil Fngine^ri of 
Ireland, 190J. 190J. 

All Bands. The whole of tbc ship's company. 

Alliance Marine and General Assurance Company, 
Limited. E&tabh^licd m 1^24. and originally 

authorised by a «i>cci:»1 Act of Parliament; in rSSi it 
was incorporated ax a liraitcd company ander Com- 

panies Act; in 1S93, on the object^s of the company 
being revised to meet the requirements of modem 
conditions, the words " and General " were ordered 
to be added to its description. Its present capital is 
^l.OQO.000 in 10,000 ^100 shares. £2^ paid, i.e., 
^350,000 paid up. Of tlus, ^'50.000 was, in 1876, 
written off. Since that date a reserve has been 
accumulated of j^ 

The directors of tlie company are : Rt. Hon. Lord 
Rothschild, C.C.V.O. (President); Rt. Hon. Lord 
Batteraca; A, V. Duuloj) Beat; James Fletcher; Hon. 
WilUam H. Goschen; Max Hecht; C. Shirrcfi Hilton; 
W. Douro Hoarc; Alfred H. Huth; Alex. Lawric; 
Francis A. Lucas. M.P.; Kcnry Pryor Powell; Marl- 
t>orough Robert Pryor; Hon. L. Walter RotlischiM, 
M.P.; Hon. N. Charles Rotlwcliild; Sir Marcus 
Samuel, Bart.; H. Mclvill Simons; Harry Alexander 
Trotter. .Auditors: Benjamin L. Cohen. M.P., 
Charles L. Nichols. F.C.A.; Underwriter. Edward W. 
Nicholls; Secretary, Douglas Owen. Offices: Capel 
Court, London. 

AlUg»tor Fish (Podotbecus Acipcnsennus). Found 
in the Strait of Fuca, Puget Sound, and other inlets 
along the nnrth-cast coast of the Pacitic. The fish i» 
about a foot in length, with a compressed tapering 

Anigaior R«ef LighthooMt Florida, is one of the 
Tineiit iron sea-sw<^pt lighthouse structures in the 
world. It is 155J^ ft. in height, standing on the 
Florida Reef in ; ft. of water. In construction it 
closely resembles the Fowcy Rocks tower. 

AUin* Itoar-Admiral Sir Thonuu (1613-8;) (b. 
Lowestoft). W;ls in command of a t^hip of the Prince 
Rvpert Squadron (1649-50). In 1665, whca in 
command of a small Hect, successfully engaged a 
Dutch convoy off Cadiz, and in the following year 
served in the first battle of the North Foreland and 
the St James's fight. In 1670 he became ControJIer 
of tlie Nnv)-, and in 167S Commander-in-Chief in the 

All in the Wind. When vcmcI's head is too close to 
wind. Sails not drawing. 

All Secme. Australian ship, wrecked in a gale 
in the Pacific, Febniary 11, 1864; 30 lives were lost. 

Allavton is land claimed from the sea by the wash- 
ing up of evirth and sand. Refer to Foreshoret 
Riparian I^aws. 

AQaTiam. The getdogical lemi for soil or land, 
nude up oi the settlement deposited by running 
water. It may be (i) restricted to all stream depo- 
sits, such as sand, mud, shingle, gravel, boulders, 
etc.. or (2) include all kinds of recent deposits, such 
as dune, formations along the sea-shore, turf, coral 
eefs. etc The principal level tracks are the deltas or 
the delloid formations, at the mouths of large nvets. 
The delta, of the Nile is one of the best marked speci- 




meos. The Iblissmippi has urried the solid matter it 
holds in sospcn^uon, far into the Golf of Mexico. 

Aims. Steamer, grounded on a roof near Aden. 
about 35 miles irotn Mocha, June la, 1859. and be- 
came a total loss. 

Alnutnu. A record of the days, feasts, and celes- 
tial phcQumcnA of the year. The most iiulhoritjitivc 
almanac in Great Britain i.s the Nautical Aln^.inac 
(f.p.); itfi iniormation is indispensable in nax'igation 
and astronomy. 

la Franco the corresponding almanac is the 
" CoQuai&sancc dcs Tt-mpB." ' piibli-ihcd by the Bureau 
dea Longitudrs; in Germany the " B<;rlincr Astrono- 
misclie^t Jahrhuch"; and in the United St-ntes the 
** American Ephemeris anti Nautical Almanac." 

The ■' Almanach de Gotha," printed in both 
French and German, is a marvpUoas work of over 
one thousand pages of statistical informatioo. 

Almu. Rus!i1an znd class cnilser. {St Peters- 
bar^. 1903) 

Length 33s ft. Beam 43 ft- Draught 18 ft. 
Displacement 3.285 tons. Complement 430. 
Guns. Armour. 

6 — 47 m. " Steel," 

8—: -8 in. 3 m. Deck. 

a — 1'4 in. 5 in. Gun shields. 

Torpedo TubfS, 
6 Above water, 
p. 7.500 3 19 kts. Coal maximam 700 tons. 

Almlnuite Brown. .Argentine battleship. (I.Aird. 
fftBo.) Reconstructed La Si-ync, 1S97. 
Length 340 ft. Beam 50 ft. Maximum draught 22 ft. 
Displaccmpnt, 4,267 tons. Complement, 380. 
CuHS. Armour. 

ID— 6 in. " Compound." 

4 — yj in. 9 in. Btlt amidships. 

S — 3 pdr. 7 in. Biilkhpads. 

8 in. Central battery. 
Torpedo Tubes. 
3 Above water. 
[Twin screv. Hp. 4.500 = 14 kts. Coal maximum 
50 tons. 

Alminnte Coohraao. Uld ChUian battleship, 
3.500 tons. At present used for harbour defence. 
Of little fighting value. 

Almirante CondeU. Chilian torpedo gun-boat. 
(, ia<M'.) Reconstructed igoo. 
Lengthjjoft. Buam 37 tl. Maximum diaught ta ft. 
Pispiaccmi'iit 750 tons. 
Gunt. Armour. 

J — 14 pdr. I in. Amidsliips. 

4 — 3 pdr. 1 in. Bulklicad. 

2 Catlings. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
5 Above water. 

Twin screw. 
100 tons. 

Hp. 4.OOQ w 30 kts. Coal maximum 

Almirante Lynch. ChiUan torpedo gim-boat. (Bir- 
kenhead, 1890.} Reconstructed lyjo. 
Length 230 ft. Beam 27 ft. Maximum draught 1 3 it. 
Displacement 750 tons. 
Guns. Afinour. 

3— 14 pdr, 1 in. Amidships. "" 

4— 3 pdr. I in. Bulkheads. 

2 Catlings. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
5 Above water. 
Twin i4crew. Hp. 4.000 = 20 kts. Cool maximum 
100 tons. 

Alnunuate 'Biggins. Chilian armoured cruiser. 
(Elswick, 1898.) 

Length 41 1 ft. Beam 63 ft. Draught 22 ft. 
Displacement 8,500 tons. Complement 520. 
GuKS. Armottr. 

4—8 in. " Steel." 

10 — 6 in. 7 in. Belt amidships, 

4 — 4'7 in. 7 in. Gun Shields. 

10 — 13 pdr. 

Torpedo Tuhet. 
2 Submerged. 

2 Above water. 

Hp. 16,000=21*5 kts. Coal maximum 1.260 tons. 

Almirante Simpson. Chilian torpedo gun-boat. 
(, iSg6,} 

length 340 ft. Beam 27 (t. Maximum draught 1 3 ft. 
Displaocment 800 tons. 
CuHs. Armour. 

2 — 47 in. " Harvey." 

4 — 3 P<ii"- 1 ifl. Belt BmicLships, 

2 Maxims. 4^ in. Gun Shields. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.), 

3 AIjovc water. 

Twin screw. Hp, 4,500 = 31 kts. Coal maximum 
100 tons. 

Almirante Tamandan. Brazilian cruiser. {Km de 
Janeiro. iSgrj,) 

Length 294 ft. Beam 46 ft. Maximum draught 20 ft. 
Displacement 4,537 tons. Complement 450. 
Gvns. Armour. 

10 — 6 in. "StcH." 

a— 4*7 in T^ in Deck 

8 Nordenfelts. 3 In. Casemates. 

3 in. Conning tower. 
Twin screw. Hp. natural 6,500= irt ktK., forced 
7,500 ~ 17 kts. Coal maximam 750 tons. 

Aloft. Above: anywhere about higher yards, 
masn. nnd rigging of ships. 

AloQXside. By the side of a ship, 

AlooL .Vt a distance. Word used for " keep 
your lufl " when sailing to the wind. 




Alow. French submutae. (Touloo, 1905.) Length. 
77 It.; beam, 7 ft,; draught, S ft.; displacement. 68 
tons: complement.;: Hp..6o = 8kts. 

Alow. Synonymous with below; as opposed to 

Alphios. r.rrrk gun wjaei. (Blackwall. 1885.) 

Ij^nqth 1 30 (t. Beam 24 ft. 

Maximum draught ta ft. 

DtspUccmrat 430 tons. Complement 8a 


3—37 in- 

5 Mftxims. 

Hp. 400 = 10 kts. Coal 50 tons. 

Alt. Alternating (near a tighl). Abbreviation 

a&loptt.-<l on the Charts iuucd by the Hydrographtc 

Office. Admiralty. 

Altelr. The bright nautical star AquthcL. 

Altarizmath. See Azimuth. 

AlUtnde. A term applied to the angular distance 
of a celestial object from the horizon. Observations 
of altitude are made at sea with the sextant, (or the 
purpose of working out problems csst-ntial to naviga- 
tion, such as finding the latitude and rating the 
clironoraeters. Jirfer to Sextant. 

Altmoath Sailing Olab. Established 1873- Com- 
modore : A. W. Kirk ; ViccComniodore and Honorary 
Treasurer: J. Banks Cran; Honorary Secretary; 
T. B. Dean. The Dunes. Warren Road. Blundellsan<l. 
Liverpool. Entrance fee, £1 is. Annual subscrip- 
tion, tos. 

Alt(>*Cunialiis. 5^/ Clouds. 

Alton, Pranou Cooke, CB. {1902). Fleet Pay- 
master; acted as Secretary to Admiral Seymour in 
China. 1807. 

Alto-8trtta». See Clouds. 

Aluminium i-^ a metallic sul»taoce. tirst separate<l 
from the chlori<lc by Wohlcr in i8r8. In 1854 Clare 
D'ville succifdril in improving the mode of produc- 
tion, but it was not until i8H|i that a really practical 
electrical method of jtrodiiction wa* patented by 
MiasTV Cowls, this bctn^ finally supplanted by tlte 
Hprault-Hall method. Ite formula is .\i. 37>, and 
although not found free, is one of the most abundant 
elements in nature, Tho former process of manufac- 
ture consisted in heating to a red heat a miAlure of 
th«^ double chloride of aluminium and liodium, but it 
is now almost exclusively obtained by the electro- 
lyiris of a solution of the puiihcd oxide in mouHon 
cryolite. It is a white metal resembling silver in 
appearance, takes a fine polish, writhoul odour and 
taste, highly malleable at ion*" to 150° c. and may 
be beaten and mlird into Uiin sheets, or drawn into 
fine \rire, Has a high specific heat and a low v|«?cific 
gravit>', conducts beat and electricity b» well as 
silver. It dots not oxidise in air; is not acted upon 
by sulphuretted hydrogen or sulphide of ammonium, 
and preserves its lustre where silver would tarnish 

or blacken. It is soluble in hydrochloride acid, and | 
solutions of cauAtic potash and soda. When alloyed i 
with copper it becomes a highly important metal, j 
and is largely used for mounting sextants and otherl 
astronomical in&trumcnts. and for making balancsl 
beama. Owing to its UghtneS!), toughness and] 
strength, it is extensively used for boat building;] 
for torpedo boats, balloon fitting, bicycles, tele- 
graphy and telephony as conductors; and also used 
as a substitute for stone in Uthography. It in manu- 
factured largely at works be^e the Niagara Falls, 
the Falls of Schaflhaunen and the Falls 01 Foyers tn 
Invemess-ahire. See Borcher's " Electric smelting," ] 
Bloimt's "Electric Chemistry" (1901). Richard'a 
" Aluminium " {3rd edition), 189G. 

Alvarsdo, Pedro de (b. Badajox, 1495)- One of th«| 
Spanish leaders in the discovery and conquest of] 
America. In February 1519 he accompanied ] 
Hernando Cortex in the conquests of Mexico, and iq,| 
1 533 in the conquest of Guatemala, of which pLica ' 
he was subsequently appointed Governor. He died 
at Guatf^mala in 1541. 

Alnrado, U.S. gun-boat, captured from Spain 
during the Spanish American War. Of little fighting 

Always AUoat. These words, (reqaently found in 
Chancr-Parues, mean that the vessel, to which they 1 
refer, shall load or discharge her cargo always afloati 
at a place which is safe (or tier to lie in when fully 
loaded. The questions usually artMUg are: (1) Has 
there been a breach of contract, and {2) who is 
bear Ibc expense of additional transport? Where byl 
charter-party a vessel was to load at a certain dock,.] 
and could have loaded there, but her master shifted 
her to prevent being delayed from sailing by the tak- 
ing-otf of the tides, his owners hart to pay lighterage. 
Wliere a slup was to discharge at A always afioat, 1 
and the master put into and discharged at B the 
nearest iwfc port tliat his vessel could lie in atwnyi 
afioal. he was held justified in mi dofng. On the other 
hand, where a vosvl was to go to a certain port and 
rlischarge always afloat, and the charterer seeing 
the impossibility of gettiog a full ship to the quay. , 
offered to lighten hrr. her master was held wrong ia| 

AJL Distinguishing letters on soa fishing boats 
registered at Am^itcrdam. Uollaiul. 

ft.111. The abbreviation for ante-mehdian. 

Amf^ia All at oncc, suddenly, generally used tor 
anything that i> moved by tacklc-fall. 

Amalfl. Italian armoured cruiser (igo6). 
Length439ft. Beam 69 ft. Mean draught 2 j ft. 
Displacement 9,830 tons. 
Guns. A rwwttf . 

4 — 10 in.. 45 cal. " Temi." 

8 — 8 in. 8 in. Brit amid^ps. 

Many smaller. 7 in- Harbettca. 

7 in. Conning tower. 


Torpedo Ttibet. 

3 Submerged. 

Twin screw. Hp. iS.ocos^a-; kta. 

AwifHft Steamer, wrecked January ii, t866. 
The carjfo tost was valued at £joo,ooo. 

Amanda. On- September 26. 1841, this vessel 
was lost oti Metis, when sg passengers and t2 of the 
crewwcre lost. 

Amattnr. One who practises sport lor mt^rc plea- 
suie. OS opposed to profes&tona] : in rowing the 
amateur is such, in the strictest sense of the word. 

Amason. H.M. .screw sloop, ia colhsiun with 
screw Bteamer Otprey. near Portland, July 10, 1866; 
both ships went down. 

Amaioo. Set Royal Mail Steam Packet Com- 

Amasoa. W, India mail steamer, on ber maiden 
voyage Irom Southampton, waa burnt at sea about 
TiO miles S.W.S. of Scilly. Jauuar>- 4. 1855. Out ol 
160 persons on board, only 5>) were saved. 

Amamie. French subsidised merchant ship 
{1S9C). Messageries Maritimcs [q.v.). Dimensions, 
443 X 50 X 3<^ ft.; gross tounagc 6^240. Hp. 
7,100= 18 kts. 

Amazone. German armoured cruiser. (Krupp, 

Length 338 fi. Beam 39 ft. maximum draught 17ft. 
Displacement 2,650 tons. Complement 249. 

10 — 4-1 in, 
14—1 pdr. 
4 Machine. 

Torpedo Tvbes. 
2 Submerged. 
Twm screw. Hp. 8,500 = 21 kts. Coal maximum 
560 tons. 

Ambasiador. Steamer, sunk in collision with 
the George Mansion, an American ship, iu lat. 58° 
e'N. long, 73' 27'E. December 25. 1876; 33 lives lost. 

AalMIMdan. Sw Embassies. 

Amber, A bard resinous vegetable sulwtance, of a 
bright yellow colour, and tranalucent. It occurs 
chic6y on the southern shores of the Baltic, and 
those of Sicily, where it is thrown up by the sea. 

Ambargris is a sohd, fatty, inflamniabk aub&tance, 
with ruddy, marble-Uke veins running through it — 
probably a biliary secretion — derived from the in- 
testines of the spermaceti whale. It is generally 
foood floating in the sea, on the sea-coast, or in the 
sand tipoa the shore. It is usually met with in the 
Atlantic Ocean, on the coasts of Braxil and Mada- 
gascar, China. Japan, and the Molucca Islands, bnt 
more particularly the Bahama Islands. It is exten- 
sively used in the manufacture of perfumery, and its 
price for «DCh use varies from iss. to 355. per ounce. 


Its genuineness is easily tested by its solubility in 
hot alcohol: itt fragrant odour and uniform fatly 
consistence, on being penetrated by b hot wire. 

Amelia. Steamer- When on a voyage from 
Lorutuii to Liverpool was lost on the Heme Sand, 
February 26, fS4T. 

" Krupp." 
3 in. Deck. 
3 m. Conning tower. 

Amelia Thompson. 
33. i843. 

Ship lost near Madras, May 

America Cap. The drcurostancca which led to the 
otfer ol thtf uow historic trophy are as follows: 

The America, a sch<M:inrc yacht of 170 ton:!, was 
built for a New York s^tidicule by George Steers, 
muLh on the lines of an American piJol boat. Her 
nominal owner. Commodore Stevens, brought her to 
Cowcs. where, owing to bis rather bombastic chal- 
lenges, he was uuabte to arrange any match for some 
time. FinaJly. aftnr numeroun abortive attempts 
at bringing about a race, the Koyal Vacht Squadron 
decided to offer a silver cup, valued at i.ouo guineas, 
for a race round the Isle of Wight, open to " aJl the 

The famous trophy which was won by the Atruhea 
on August 21, i8$i, was nt4, as frequently stated, a 
Queen's Cup. 1'he I^oyaJ price could onW be raced 
for by yachts belooglug to members of the Koyal 
Yacht Squadron, and thus, of course, tlie visiton 
were not qualified to t-nlcr. The America left New 
York on June 31. 1851, and arrived at Havre on 
July II, the voyage to Havre having been accom- 
pUslifd in twenty days and fivi; hours, which must 
ht considered remarkably gotKl time when it is taken 
into account that she was becalmed four days. The 
Amsrica's average running was about 7^ kts. Her 
best run for twenty -four hours u-as 384 kts, and ber 
worst 33 kts. The dimensions of the America were 
as follows-. 94 ft. in length, on deck from stem tO 
stem; 83 ft. on the water line; her keel 8 ft. and 
beam 23 ft. amidships. She drew 11 ft. of water in 
sailing trim, and her measurement was 170 tons. 
Her spars were respectively 79^11, and 8 1 ft. long, 
with a rake of nearly three inches to the foot. Her 
main gafi was 26 ft. long, and her main boom 58 ft. 
She carried a lug foresail, with foregafi of 24 ft. long, 
and the length of her bowsju'it u-us 32 ft. She cat* 
ried eight men licforo the mast, besides the captain, 
hrst and second mates and carpenter. 

The race for the trophy was soiled on August 22, 
1851, tlie course being- "round the Isle of Wi){ht, 
inside Norman's buoy and Sandhead buoy, and 
ontmde the Nab." The following yachts were 
pntered ; they were anchored in a double line. No 
time allowed (or tonnage : 

y'acM. Rig. Tom. 0»n*ri. 

Beatrice schooner 161 Sir W. P. Carew. 

Votantg cutter 48 Mr. J. L. Craigie. 

Arrow cutter 84 Mr. T. Chamberlayne. 

Wyvem schooner 205 Duke of Marlborough. 

Jam schooner 75 Mr. A. Hill. 


nil»«M sdwDtr ItiO Mr. R. Stepbemoa. 

Ci^ii &Mw« yhoflWir 160 Sr H. B. Hogtca. 

4farai Cim« 193 Mr. J. Wdd. 

JUmm cirttvr S2 Lcc<dA.Pa«ct. 

Jm»iim iJw o mf 170 Mr. j.CStepbeas, etc 

BrOKWl Khooncr 19> Mr. J. H. Aktr^. 


ll^£tLtml* schooner So Ur. R H. Jones. 
h'nuk cutter 60 Mr. W. Corting. 

S$tlU cutter 65 Mr. R. Franklin. 

£cli/i« cutter 50 Mr. H. S. Frarm. 

f/rwawrfr schooner 127 Major kUrtyn. 
4 WDM cnttcr 4 Mr. T. Lc Merchant. 

At tbr preparatory gun v>t^s fiTe<\ from the 
dob- house butter)-, and the yachu were mjOq &lteetc«J 
tfom deck to topmast with doudii oi canvaii; high 
gatt top-saiU and balloon jib« being greatly to vogue. 
The Titania and the SuUa did not ictart, and the 
Ftmmndf did not take her stAtioo (the Utter wu 
twice winner in 1850 and once in 1851). Thus only 
Uteen started, of which seven wen schooners, in- 
cluding the BriUiamt (three- roasted schooner), and 
eight were cutters. At ten o'clock the signal gnn 
ior &aiUng was hred. and before the smoke had uell 
cleared away the whole oi the beautiful licet wiu 
under way. moving steadily to the east with the tide 
and a gentle breexe. The Gip*y Quttn, with aJJ her 
canvas set and in the strength of the tide, took the 
lead after starting, with the Beaificf next, and then, 
with little difference in order, the VolaiOe. Constancy. 
Arrow, and a Dock ol others. The America went 
easily for some time, and then began ta creep up on 
them, passing some of the cutters to windward. In a 
quarter of an hour she had left them aU behind, ex- 
cept the Omstantt, Bt^Uric^ and Cipsy Queen, which 
were well together, and went akmg smartly with the 
light breexe. OS No Man's Land Buoy the yachts 
wer« timed : 

yacht, H. At. S. 

VotanU II 7 o 

Frtah ..11 8 SO 

A ufora . . . . ..11 8 30 

<^*psy Queen 11 8 45 

America . . . . . , 11 9 o 

Beatrice .. .. 11 9 15 

Alarm , . ,. , . 1 1 9 20 

Arrow .. .. .. II 10 o 

Bacchante . . 11 10 i; 

The other six were struggling away in the rear, and 
the Wywrn soon afterwards hauled her wind and 
went back towards Cowea. At this point the wind 
blew somewhat Bteadily. and the America began to 
show a touch of her quality. Whenever the breeze 
took the line of her hull, all her sails set as Bat as a 
drumhead, and without any careering or staggering 
she " wulkcd along " pn;4t cutter and schooner, and 
when off Brading had left every ve»^.'l uf the 
squadron bchitul her — a mere ruck — with the ex- 
ception of Votante. which she overtook at 1 1 .30. As 

tberc was 00 wind the time ooocttmctl in getting op 
Cram Hur^ Castle to the wiuang flag was very ooo- 
siilerable. The America arrived Ant at A.37. tbe 
Aurora at 8^$, the BaccMan/e at 9.30, tbe EcUpte at 
945, itit BntUaHt at i.^o. Tbe rest were not tnnedi. 
Thus the A mcfiea made good aH her pcofesaious, 
Metfca. Stephens were presenteil by. the Royal Yacht 
Sqnadrao with the weU woa cup. 

The winners conveyed it try deed of gift to tbe 
New' York Yacht Gub, to be held by that Club 
against all cballengeis as an international trophy. 
In 1870 and 1871 Britain cballeni^ with tbe 
Cambria and Livonim, both of which were ddieated. 
Canada challenged in 167$ and t88i, and met with a 
siinilar fate. Further Bntish challengers in ibS; and 
1887 were unsucoesaful. In 18^} Lord Lhinravi 
challenged with VtUkyrie tl.. but was onabk to carry 
ofl the cup. In 1895 he challenged again, and won 
the lirst race against the American Dffsiuter. The 
second race fell to the Dtfemder, and on this occasion 
Lord Uuoraven attributed his defeat to the crowded 
state of the course. In the tiuiU race his yacht 
mrrely crossed tlie line, in ordi-r to give the .\nusrican 
yacht a start, and Xhtfo withdrew from the contest. 
N'o further challengers were forthcoming until i84>8, 
when Sir Thomas Lipton challenged, and in the 
foltoumg year sent over the Shamrock to compete 
against the American CuluttAia, Tbe contest took 
place October iS99> outside Sandy Hook, and 
although a series of 6ve races had been arranged, it 
was only necessary to sail three, the Columbia win- 
ning tbe &r^ by 1 1 minutes; finishing alone in the 
second. Owing to the Shamrock 1o:iiug her tup-mast; 
and the third by ux minutes 34 seconds. In 1900 
he again challenged, and a new vessel, the Shamrock 
II.. was sent out in the following year, but he was 
again beaten by tbe Columbia, that \-c£seI winning 
three races consecutively, the first by about 300 
yards, the second by a little over a minute. In 1903 
he challenged again with Shamrock ///..and this time 
sailed against the .\merican Retianu. Although his 
boat showed wonderful qualities in the light and 
fluky airs characteristic of these waters at the season 
in which the races look place, he again failed to win 
a single race. 

AmeriOA Mara. Japanese Government Liner 
(1898). Dimensions, 423 x 5' X 29 ft.; grtkis ton* 
aage6.307. Hp.. io,ooo« 17 kts. 

American and Colonial Weekly. E.stablishcd 190a. 
PubUshed (Wi'dnestlay). Price 3/?. Address: 14 
Coventry SUeet. W.C, and 38 King William 
Street, E.C. 

AmericuArenge Clause. 5m Clauses. 

American Line. ihc International Navigation 
Company, thL- proprietaiy otgauisation from which 
this Line wa& develupLxl, was incorjtoratcd in 
Pennsylvania in 1S71. In it>73 a fortnightly service 
of steamers was established between Antwerp and 







PhiladelpMa, under the Belgian Hag. known as the 
Red Star Ijnc, and the American Line was founded 
in 1880. bringrap a weekly stTvicr l)ct'wt'ca New York 
and Antwerp, this expansion being followed, in 1886. 
by acqniring the Inman Line. In 1893 the Inman 
and International, as the lone was then called, be- 
came the American Une, and their steamers ex- 
changed Liverpool for Southampton as their port of 
call. Weekly New York Mail Lines are run to and 
Irom Antwerp and Southampton, steamers ninntng 
bet w een Antwerp and New York call at Dover. A 
Line is also maintained between Philadelphia and 
Liverpool, as well as Antwerp. 

fiawrford. Pkiladeiphia. 

KenxingtoH. St Paul. 

Mffion. St Louis. 

New York. Southwark. 

NoottOaniL WuUtnJand. 

Gross tonnage. 170,943. 

Amerigo TespQOoL Old Italian cruiser (t8Si), 
Displacement 3,050 tons, Complrmrnt 280. 
Oum. Armour. 

6—4-7 in- " Steel.*' 

4 — 6 pflr. 1^ in. Deck. 

6 — I p*lr. 

Totf>aif> Tvhfs. 

2 Above water. 

Hp. 4.000= 12 kta. Coal 500 tons. 

Amerigo Vespooei- 5^«' Vespucci AmeriRO. 

Amflthyst liritish 3rd class cruiser. (Elswick. 

Length yfra ft. Beam 40 ft Mean draught 14 ft. 

_ Displacement 3,ofxi ton?.. Complement 396. 
Guns. Armour. 

12-410. "Steel." 

8 — 3 pdr. 3 in. Deck. 


Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
2 Above water. 
Twin screw. Turbine. Hp. 9,800 = 2175 kts. 
Coal Riaxlmam 500 tons. 
Approximate cost ^340,000. 
This ship-name was introduced into the Navy in 
1793. when the Ffrle. captured at Toulon, was re- 
named .-tm^Myti; it is also associated with the cap- 
ture of thr French ThftU, 180S. 

Amidships. Middle of the ship. 

Aminl Anbe. rrcnch 1st class cruiser. (St- 
NaiaiTe, 19^3.) 

Length 460 ft. Beam 63 ft. Maximum dranglit 26 ft 
Displacement 10.000 tons. 
Guns. Armoitt. 

J— 7-6in.,40cal. " Krupp." 

0.— 4S'4 in. 6\ in. Belt amid-shipa. 

6—4 in. 8 in. Turrets. 

lit — } pdr. 8 in. Conning tower. 

2 — 9 pdr, Boat gnnii. 

T>vpe4f< Tuhes (177 in.). 

3 Submerged. 

2 Above water. 
I Above water (stern). 
Three screws. Hp. 20.500=21 kts. Coa! maxt- 
mnm t,590ton3. Approximate cost /873.000, 

Amind Bandin. Frencli znd class battleship 
{1S83). Reconstructed 1901. 

Length 331 ft. Beam 69 ft. Maximum draught 29 ff- 
Displacement 12.150 tons. Complement A25. 
Gums. Armour. 

I — 14s in. " Steel." 

4 — 6'4 in. 16 in. Belt amidships. 

8 — S"5 ^"^ *^ '°- Barbettes. 

18 — 3 pdr. 1 2 in. Big gun shields. 

Toipedo Tuhu (177 in.). 
6 .\bove water. 
Twin screw. Hp. natural 5,000=14 kts., forced 
9,700 » 16 kts. Coal maximum 800 tons. 

AmJral Cbamer. French and class cniis«r. 
(Rocbeiort, 1893.) 

Length jtii ft. Beam 46 ft. Maximum draught 3o ft. 
Displacement 4.750 tons. Complement 370. 

Guns. Armour. 

i — 7-6in., 45 cal. " Creusot steel." 

6 — 5'5 in. 4 in. Belt amidships. 

6 — 9 pdr. 4 in. Turrets. 

4 — 3 pdr, 4 in. Conning lower. 

Torpedo Tubes (177 in.). 
4 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. ^.yoct .^ 18-5 kts. Coal normal 
406 tons. Approximate cost 1^350,000. 

Amiral Trihomrt. French turret battleship. 
(L'Orient, 1896.) 

Length 293 ft. Beam 58 ft. Draught 24 ft. 
Displacement 6,600 tons. Complement 337, 
Guns. Armour, 

3 — 12 in, " Compound." 

S^3*9U). 18 in. Belt, 

to — I '8 in. 18 in. Gun stiiekls. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
4 Above water, 
Hp. S, !;no ^m 1 5 kt5. Coal maximum 800 tons. 

Anumragtio di St Boo. Old Italian battleship. 
(Venice, 1897.) 

Length 344 ft. Beam 69 ft. Maximum draught, a6 ft. 
Displacement 9.600 ton.**. Complement 542. 
Guru. Armour. 

4 — 10 in. " Harvey-nickel." 

S — 6 in. 10 in. Belt amidships. 

R — 47 in. 10 in. Barliettes. 

8 — 6 pdr. 6 in. Conning tower. 

13—1 pdr. 

Totpedf Tuhe^ <tR in.). 

4 Submerged. 

Twin scrrw. Hp. natural 9.000 e 16 kts., forced 
1 3.500 s 18 kt». Coal Maximum 1,000 ton*. 
Approximate cost ^700,000. 




Amok. A Malay term, sigtufyiog slaughter or 
sudden frenzy, which seizes aa individual. In the 
Malay States, as well as in India and Burma, as soon 
as a man is known to have " run amok," every effort 
is made to capture him, as until they are slain, or fall 
from exliausiion, any one whom they meet would 
probably be murdered. 

Amphitrite. Ship, with female convicts to 
New SuuUi Wales, lost on Boulogne Sands, August 
30. 1833 ; ont of 131 persons, only three were saved. 

Amphitrite. British ist class crniser. (VicVers, 

Length 450 ft. Beam (5q ft. Maximum draughts; ft. 
Displacement 11,000 tons. Complement 677. 
Guns. Armour. 

16 — 6 in. "Harvey." 

1 3 — 13 pdr. 4 in. Belt amidships. 

2 — 12 pdr., 8 cwt. ii in. Conning tower, 
12— 3 pdr. 
2 Maxims. 

Totpedo Tubas (18 in.). 
3 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. i8,ofx)^2o 3 kts. Coal raaxi- 
mam 2,000 tons. Approximate cost /< 

This ship-name It associated wnth Hood's occupa- 
tion of Toulon. 1743. 

Amphitrlt«. U.S. monitor (18S3). 
Length 3fSo ft. Beam 56 It. Maximum draught 16 it. 
Displacement 3,990 tons. Complement 160. 
Guns. Armour. 

4 — 10 in. "'Iron." 

3 — 4 In. 9 in. Bett amidships. 

z — 6 pdr. la in. Barbettes. 

3 — 3 pdr. 8 in. Conning tower. 

2 — I pdr. 
2 Machine. 
Twin screw. Hp. 1.600= 10-5 kts. Coal roaxi 
mnm 330 tons. 

Amplitude. The Itorizontai distance or amount of 
deviation lowaids the North or South of a heavenly 
body, from the true Ea-tt at risinK. to the true West 
at scttinR. For fixed stars it is constant ; for the sun 
and the planets, it varies with the declination. Its 
measure is an angle intercepted between the prime 
vertical, and the vertical circle passing through the 

AmBterdam Canftl. In 18135 the merchants of 
Amstrnlani. rcahziiig that it was imperative thoy 
shouM have better cijnununication with the North 
Sea than that afforded by the North Holland Ship 
Canal, formed a company for the purpose of con- 
structing a canal from Amsterdam, in nearly a direct 
line to the North Sea, through the Lake Y aud Wykec 
Meer, a distance of i<^iJi miles. The canal commences 
at a made harbour, which is formed by two piers. 
built of concrete blocks, founded on a deposit of 
rough basalt, and passes through a broad bett of 
nnd-hilla, which protect the whole o( this part of the 

coast to Holland from the in-roods of the sia, through 
the village of Valsen, and then enters the Wyker 
Mccr. a wide track of tide covered land. From there, 
through tlie promontory of Buitcnhuizen. which 
separates Wyker Mccr from Lake Y ; the rest of the 
course being through Lake Y as far as Amsterdam, 
There are two sets of locks, one set at each end ; the 
North Sea locks at a distance- of about three-quarters 
of a mile from ttie North Sea Hartxiur, and the 
Zaider Zee locks on the dam between Amsterdam 
and the Zuider Zee. The canal is iC^ miles long, 
107 feet wide on the water surface, 8g fact at the 
bottom, with a minimum depth of 33 feet. The for- 
mation of the banks through the Wyker Mecr and 
Lake Y enabled about 12.000 acres, which was for- 
merly occupied by these lakes, to be reclaimed. The 
canal took 10 years to complete, and tlic contract 
sum for the execution of tlic work /3,350,ooo. 

Amsterdftm Drrdock Company (.\msterdamsche 
Droogdok Maatschappy) was established in 1897. 
They commenced with one flo.ating dock of 4,000 ton 
lifting powTr, and fitted out a repairing yard, start- 
ing with about 100 men. In 1880 another floating 
dock was purchased, with a lifting capacity of 3,000 
tons, and nine years later a third was added, with a 
lifting capacity of 7.500 tons. They now possess, be- 
sides the three floating drydocks, workshops capable 
of carrying out the biggest repairs to sliips, engines 
and boilers, and employ a staff of men, numbering 
about Ooo. 

AmsterdAmacbe OrooKdok K&atscbappy. Set Am- 

atcrdani l->ryilock Coinp.tny. 

Axnorets. Russian torpedo boat destroyer (1906). 
Displacement, 625 tons; cumplcmcnt, ]no; arma- 
ment. 6 6-pdr. : 2 tubes. ; lip., 6.000 = 28 kts. 

AX. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registcrt;d at Nordemcy, Germany. 

AJI, or A. Distinguishing letters on sea (isliing 

boats registered at Alicrdecn, Scotland. 

Anakria. Russian torpedo-boat. (Hlhing, 1S90.) 
LengLb, 128 ft; beam, 16 ft.; draught, 7 ft.; dis- 
placement. 130: armament. 3 i-pdr., 2 tubes; 
Up., 1,200 22 kts. ; coal, 17 tons. 

Aupft. Russian torpedo-boat. (Odessa. 1891.) 
Length, 136 ft.; beam. 13 ft.; draught, B^ ft.; dis- 
placement, 81 tons; complement, 13; armament. 
2 i-pdr., 2tubes; Hp., i,ooG = 2i kts. ; coal, 16 tons. 

Anastoflofi. Russian torpedo-boat destroyer 
{i9c>6). Length. 185 ft; beam, ai ft. ; draught, 7 ft.; 
displacement, 334 tons: complement, 60: arma- 
ment, 1 i2-pdr., 5 3pdr.; 3 tubes; twin screw; 
Hp.. 5,600 n 26 kts.; coal maximum, too tons. 

Anohge. .Anchorage. Abbreviation adopted on the 
Charts iwued by the Hydrographic Office. Admiralty. 

Anohor. A large and hravy instrument in use 
from the earliest times, by which ships hold fast to 





the bottom of the sen. A common form cooaiit* of a 
long iron Khank, having at one end a. rinjc to which the 
cable i» attached, and the other branching out into 
two arms, with flukes or palms a.t their bill or ex- 
tremity. The oumlHT of nnchors carried by a ship 
vary, according to her sixe. Tliere are many patent 
anchors, some of which have movable, instead of 
rigid arms; others axe stockier, so constructed that 
they can be drawn right into the hawse hole of a ship. 
All large ships carry several aochors. A fitst-class 
battleship usually has eight anchors. Anchors of 
various forms arr used for keeping baoj's and moor- 
ings in position. For this work the screw and the 
mushroom anchor art usually employed. 

Anchorage. Ground which is suitabtc for ships to 
ride in safety upon. 

Anchor Ice (or Gronnd Ice) forms at the bottom 
ol nvcrs, aud is coiuraoo in the Baltic Sea and off Uie 
coast ol Labrador. It is formed ol congealed water, 
retarded in the l)ed of tbt- river, or on the sea bottom, 
by Uie current being too great for the formation of 
ice on the surface. In the Labrador fishing grounds 
it forms at a considerable depth. Seals caught in the 
line at this depth have liccn brought up solidly 
^ozen. Iron chains and anchors luivt* at times l>een 
found tlonting in anchor or ground ice. 

Anchor lane, was established in 1852, by Messrs. 
Handyside and Henderson (now Henderson Bros.), 
with a service from the Clyde to Portuguese and 
Spanish ports extending later to Mediterranean 
ports. In 1856 they started a trade between 
Cljisgow and New York, and the Mediterranean and 
New York, and now maintain, in addition, a service 
between the United Kingdom, Bombay and Calcutta 
and the chief Mediterranean ports, which has been 
vigorously pui^hed with fine steamers. Increasing in 
size, in cargo carr>'ing capacity, and in speed with 
the development of the trade. 
Algttia, Britannia. Funussia. 

A rabia. Calabria. Italia. 

Asia. CtUdonia, MassUia. 

Assyria. CaUfomia. Nubia, 

Astoria. Castalia, Olumfiia. 

Austraiia, Circassia. Persia. 

Bavaria. Columbia. Porugia. 

Bohemia. Dalmatia. Scinda. 

Cross tonnage 130,000. 

Anchor Sailing dub. Deal. Established 1893. 
Hurgt:c: Blue, with yellow foul anchor. Commodore, 
Kicliard Lyddon; Vice-Commodore, T. T. Denne; 
Hooorary Treasurer, F. T. Houeyball; Honorary 
Secretary, JohnSparke. Annual subscription. tos.6d. 

Aooieat lUriner. Poem by Samuel Taylor Colc- 
Tidge. The suggestion of shooting the albatross 
came from Wordsworth. It was published in 
" Lyrical Ballads "" (1798). 

Andamn* Charles William, jim. (b. January iS, 
iSja). Served his apprenticeship with Messrs Craig, 

T&ykir and Co., Stockton-on-Tees, and was in 
190U appointe<t chief draughtsman to that firm. 
Member ol the North-East Coaiit Institution o( En- 
gineers and Shipbuilders. 

Anderson, Thomas James (b. August 8, i864)< 
Marine Engmeer. Served apprenticeship with the 
Blaydon Iron Works Co., and MeS'srs. R. and W. 
Hawthorn and Co., Newcastle-on-Tyne, Holds B.T, 
certificate for Marine Enginexiring. Appointed Ship 
and Engineer Surveyor to Lloyd's Register of Ship- 
ping, 1SS9. 

Andoe. Vice-Admiral Sir Hilary OtutaTlu, K.C.B. 
{cr, iQoa], C.B. (b. February 14, 1S41). Edu- 
cated University College Sdiuol. Entered Navy 
1855 as Naval Cadet; promoted Lieutenant 1861; 
Commander 1872; Capfcun 1878; and Rear-Admiral 
1804- Was principal Naval Transport officer during 
Boer War (1881)- During the first Soudan e.xpedi- 
tion was Flag-Captain to Lord John Hay. Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the Flevt. In 1895 was ap- 
[lointed .\dmiral- Superintendent of Chatham fiock- 
yard. and in 1900 promoted Vice .\duiiral, and re- 
tired. Has been decorated with Japan medal and 
star, Soudan clasp. Queen's Jubilee medal and Royal 
Humane Society's medal. 

Andrada. Brazilian cruiser. (Bergen, 1892.) 
Length 2S3tt. Beam 34 ft. Draught 18 ft. 
Displacement 3,560 tons. Complement 30a 

3—47 »n- 

2 — 14 pdr. 

6— 6pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes. 

5 .^bove water. 

Itp. 3,600= 17 kts. Coal maximum 600 tons. 

AadreaDorift. Italian battleship (1S85}. 

Length 338 ft. Beam 6j ft. Maximum draught 30 ft. 
Displacement 11.300 tons. Complement 536. 
G^ns. Armour. 

4 — 17 in. " Compound." 

3 — 6 in. 18 in. Belt amidships. 

4 — 47 in. 18 in. Redoubt. 

3 — 12 pdr. iS in. Conning tower. 

10 — 6 pdr. 
17— I pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
2 Submerged. 
I .\bovc water. 
Twin screw. Hp. natural 7,500 = 15 kta., forced 
io,fX»a i6'5 kt<c. Coal normal 850 tons. 
Approximate cost ^^780,000. 

Andrae. Blacker Joban Heinrik (b. Leenwarden. 
HolUnd. .March 30, ifi'47)- Danish Naval Architect, 
Royal Danish Navy, R.N.L. Entered Navy as Mid- 
shipman in 1863, serx'ing with distinction till 18S0, 
when he retired from active »ea life, and was ap- 
pointed to the Steamship Department of the Admi- 
ralty, of which he was promoted chief in 1884. la 




M6$ k* «MraAtc«(t tte Tccttel taiplp-vompoofid 
> ta tti» Urtcb NsYy. MMl « 1894 the Yarrow 
^ Tito VMIir «a n larf* K«k. Membrr c^ the 
k at Kftvftl Ardatectft. 

^■Mk«tu«t« Bat\tniKr Tot dc Kmni-t van Jc 
Tw'i'wK'^S *>i Watcrmijn^y tSyj; numcious pa|»>rs 
ku tbc Tmisactioos af the Institution of 

ia>|> tolomoo Aucntl (1S54-97). Swedish 
A«raukut AttJ Explore', (b. Giimna.) Aftu-r making 
. wvcTt/i) Kiilocin journeys he decided I0 attempt to 
1^ WMlk Itiv North Pole in a balloon of oovul dcslgn.and 
^•1»i(v\1 July II. 1897. from Danes I&Iand (Spitz- 
' bvry^ti) with two companions, Strindbcrg and 
(^HMCnkel. in a balloon of 5,ouci cubic mettTH. with tlit* 
|MaM ol hekng drifted by the wind over the Pole. 
1^ aunier pigeon, apparently liberated 48 hours 
^e stATt, was sliot, and several buoys were 
found which had ticen carried in the balloon, coa- 
tniniug despatches dated July ii. but nothing fur- 
ther has been heard of the explorers, of wbosc fate 
there can be no doubt. 

Aadrei PsrvoswamiL Kussian ist class battle- 
ship. (St. Petersburg, 1906.) 

Length 460 ft. Beam Soft. Mean' draught 2^7 ft. 
Displacement 17,400 ton». 
Gums. Armour. 

4 — 1 3 in.. 40 cal. " Krupp. " 

12 — 8 in., 1 1 in. Btlt amidships. 

30 — 12 pdr. 12 in. Turrets, 

30~3 pdr, 12 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Ttihes. 
2 Submerged. 
2 Above water, 
bow and stern. 
Twin screw. Hp. 17.600 - iS kts. Coal maximum 
3.000 tons. Approximate cost ^[,500,000. 

Andromache. See Antarctic Exploration. 

Andromedft. 28 guns. In October 1780. this 
vessel was lost in a storm in the West Indies. 

Andromeda, British ist class cruiser. (Pem- 
broke, i»ij^.) 

Length 450 ft. Beam 69 ft. Maximum draught 27 ft. 
Displacement 11,000 tons. Complement 677. 
Guns. Armour. 

16 — 6 in. " Harvey." 

12—13 pdr. 4 in. Belt amidships. 

3 — 13 pdr,, 8 cwt. 12 in. Conning tuwer. 
13 — 3 pdr. 
2 Maxims. 

Tarffedo Tubes [18 in.), 
a Submerged. 
Twin screw, Hp. 16,500 = 30*25 ^^- ^*^' maxi- 
mum 2,000 tons. 

Approximate cost ;f6oo,ooo. 
This ship-name is associated with Rodney's action 
against Dc Gulcben, 1780; Keppel's action off Brest, 

Anemo-CUDOgrvh. An instrument for recording 
the anguljir dcvintions of wind movement from a 
horizontal path, or from one parallel to the surface of 
the ground. 

Anemogram. Ttie trace marked on paper by an 


Anemograpb. A self-recording anemometer. 

Anemointter. 'Vn instrument for measuring and 
indicating the pressure or velocity of the wind. If 
currents of air were anything like uniform it would 
l>e compamtively simple to dwlucc the velocity from 
the pressure, but the varialiility is so great that the 
relation Iwiwocn the; velocity and th« prcs.sure be- 
come almost unworknb!y complexcd. There are 
two things absolutely essential to every anemometer, 
(i) A wnd-vane, to show the changes of direction; 
(2) a wind-gauge, to show the changes in the velocity 
or of force. Anemometers may be either non-record- 
ing, a.s merely exhibiting the variation to the eye. or 
recording, marking them permanently on paper. 
The best known form is the Hermispherical Cup 
Anemometer, invented by Dr Robinson, which con- 
sists of four hermi!>pherical cups which rotate hoii- 
zontally with tlie wind, and a combination of wheels 
which record the number of revolutions in a given 
time. The Osier's Anemometer, one of the most 
trustworthy of the pressure-gauge description, traces 
with pencils, upon a sheet of paper, lines which indi- 
cate changes of the wind both in direction and in 
pressure. It consist* of a plate nsually about a 
square foot in area, which is kept facing the wind, 
and is by it drix-eu back upon springs, whose resis- 
tance is the measun* of the wind's force. The Royal 
Meteorological Society appointed a committee to 
consider the subject of wind-force; and an .Anemo- 
meter, invented by W. H. Dines, has supereeded its 
predecessors. Anemometry forma a most important 
feature in meteorological observations, and many im- 
portant and remarkable results have appeared since 
the invention o( the self-recording apparatus. 

Anemoscope. .An instrument for recording the 
direction of the wind. 

Aneroid (Or. non Liquid), Barometer invented by 
Vidi. Paris, 1643 (patented in England. 1844), con- 
sists of a metal box from which the air in exhausted, 
and a steel spring in the form of a douUe leaf. Its 
action depends on the etiect produced by the pres- 
sure of the atmosphere on a circular metallic cham- 
ber, partially exhausted of air and hermetically 
scaled. Th,c dial is graduated by comparison with a 
mercurial barometer, both instruments being placed 
under an air pump for the purpose. The vacuum 
chamber is made of t\^*o discs of corrugated German 
silver, soldered together, to which is attached a strong 
spring, which acts in opposition to the motion of the 
box. At the centre of the upper surface of the ex- 
hausted chamber, a lever of brass or iron is attached. 
The end of the lever is attached to a second or 





smaller lever, from which a chain extends to vrbere 
it works on a drum attached to the axis oi the hand, 
coiuiccted with a hair spring, regulation and chang- 
ing the motion from vertical to horizontal, and t^ 
fnlating the hand. Tlie spiral spring ktt-|» thi- 
chain fnv Irom •ilackness while the prewtare is 
dinunishtng. and when the pressure increases the 
Icvtr pulls down the chain. As these instruments 
arc graduated expcrimtrn tally, and heinx liable to 
changes from elasticity of the brasN chamt>er chang- 
mK. or from chanf^es in the s^'stem oi levers which 
work the pointer, rusting, ar alteration in the tarce 
oi tl»t ^prmgs. they rniuire to be repeatedly com 
piared witli a mercurial barometer. 

Set \M>>-mpcr " How to use the Aneroid Barome- 
ter " (|«91). 

AneroidoKrBph. A self-recording aneroid boro- 


An^amos, Battle of. Xaval Oght off Angamoa Point 
(Chilf). OctobtT a. 1879, between Peruvian ironclad 
Huascat and Chilian ironclads Blanco EncalaJa and 
Almatante Cochrane, uaasted by car\*ctte Covadtmga ; 
alter a iNittle of about oue hour and a hall Uic 
Penivian» were forced to surrender. 

Ancel Ttab. Specie!! of shark found in both the 
t and Wc-Ht Hcmisplieres, It reaches a length of 
five feet, and ii viviparous. 

Angier, Ueot. filr Theodore Vivian Samuel. K.T. 

|go4 (b. London, 1S4;). Educated Itossal School, 

T-ancashire; King's College, London. Apprenticed in 

1S61 to Mcssn. Davison. Son and Lindlcy, where he 

KAervetl his lime. After a trip through Southern 

Europe he returned to London, and joined the firm 

Messrs. S. H. Angicr and Co. In 1869. owing 

the death of his father, he was compelled to 

|^m^)arV in business on his own account, and started 

be linn of Mesiu-s. Angirr Brothers, of which he is tlie 

iliead. Held a Commi^on in the T>uke of Cambri<lge's 

^Hussars (Middlesex Yeomanry). Director of several 

Insurance Associations; Vice-Chairman in 18B5 and 

I Chairman in 1884 of the General Shipping Owncr'^ 

^Society: Vice-President of Chamber of Shipping 

\\f^\: President 1885 ; Fellow of the Royal Statistical 

Pfexicty; scr%*ed on the Load Line Committee i8g8; 

rServed on Uoj-d's Register Committee 1884 1889; 

ontcsted Orkney ThcUand as Unionist Candidate in 

190J; Member of the original committee of tlie Tariff 

Reform Leagne: Vice-President of Brighton and 

Hove Tariff Reform League. Travelled extensively 

Over India. Ceylon, Australia. United States and 


Angte-IrCD. Strips of iron, ha\-ing edges turned 
up at an angle to each otlier, used for ribs and knees. 
in framing iron vessels. 

Antler. British torpcdo-bfat destroyer. (Chis- 
tkick, i8<>8.) Len^jth. 210 ft.; beam, t ij ft. : draught, 
7 ft. : displacement. 278 tons : complemeat. 60 ; arma- 
ment. I i3-pdr., $ 6-pdr. ; 3 tubes; twin screw; 
Hp., s.tioo^^jukta.; coal. 80 tons. 

AB^Br-Ftah. A fish caHed ^so Sea Pevil. FVog. or 
Frog Fish, and in Scoltand, Widc-gnh, si^ifying 
wide montli. It has an eni>rmous head, on which are 
placed two elongated appendages, or filaments, 
which. Wing mo%T»hIr, art* m.imriivred a.s if lliey 
were l>ait, and when !tmaU fishes approach to ex- 
amine them the Angler, hidden amid mud and sand, 
which it ha.t stirred up by means of its ventral fins, 
seizes them. It occurs along the Dritish coasts, and 
averages alKint three ffet in length, but occasionally 
sporimens arc taken measuring as much as five fei-l. 

Angler's News and Sea Fisher's Jonraal. Estalv 

liflhetl igtx). Piibli.'ihrd weekly (Saturdny). Price 
\d. Address: 4 and 5 Gough Square, Londrm, E.C. 

Anglesey Yacht Chih. Royal. S«v Royal Anglesey 
Yacht Chib. 

Angjia. .\nchor Line steamer, capsized in 
river Huogly. August 24, 189a; 13 liven lost. 

Angling. In modem Engliiih the practice of catch- 
ing by means of a rod, line, honk and bail. The 
hook is rendered attractive to the ftsh by concealing 
it in a natunil bait, or attaching to it a di-ccptive imi- 
tation of a Hy. Among tlie best-known works on 
Angling may be mentiunrd France^' book un 
" Anghng," 18B5; KlaxwiU's "Salmon and Sea 
Trout." i88v; Duer'a book on " The Dry Fly," 
1897; Hardy's " Tlic Salmon," 1893; *■ Fly Fishing." 
Sir £. Grey, 1899. 

Anglo-Algerian Steamship Company, with which is 

incLiqioratLtl the Anglo-. \raliian ;ind IVrnian Line, 
managed by Messrs. Frank C. Strick and Co., Ltd., 
London, incorporated in iS()(3; tiave a fleet of 
16 modem steamers engaged in cargo carrying lo 
various parts of the world. 


ji fghanistan Bardtttan Sijurislon 

A rain'stan Gvrjt'stan Sctbt sin n 

Armamslan CuUstan ShahriititH 

Avristan Koo»distan TatariiUm 

Baluchistan Luristan Turhistan 


Anglo-Saxon. Mail steamer, wrecked on a reef 
off Cape Race, Newfoundland, Apnl 27, 1863; 237 
lives lost. 

Angnille. French submarine. (Toulon, 1903.] 
Length, 77 ft. ; beam. 7-^ ft. : draught, S ft. : displace- 
ment. ('18 tons; complement. 5: Hp.. 6o = S kts. 

Angular Heastire. Set Weights and Measures. 

Anjoo. Lieateoant Set Antic Exploration. 

Anker. An obsolete liquid measure of 8*2914 gal- 
lons. The Scots anker contaiued 20 Scots pints. 
The measure is still in use in Denmark, Russia and 

*""^*ni French subsidised merchant ship 
(189S). Manageries Maritimea iq.o.). Dimensions. 




44S X so X 36 't-; gross tonnage. 6,364; Hp., 7^00 
« iS kU. 

AniupoUfl. U.S. guQ-boat. (Elizabeth Port. 1897.) 
Length 168 ft. BeAin 36 ft. Mnximum draugbt |3| ft. 
Displacement ton&. Complement 135. 
6 — 4 in. 
4^^ pdr. 
2 — I pdr. 
Hp. 1,350 1= 13 kts. Coal maximam 22$ tons. 

Anak Jsoe. An emigrant stiip, driven un sliou' 
at Barra Islands on tbc West Coast ol ScotUod, 
September 29, 1853; 348 lives were lost. 

Annovazzi. Qioaeppe. Rear-Admirat, Italian Navy 
(b. ii>40). Entered Navy 1865: Director of Naval 
Ordnance ami Torpedoes 1S98-1900; S«:ond-in- 
Command of the ttaltan Squadron TO03; Prc^dent ol 
the PerroiiDent C4)mmiMion for Ordnance Expcri- 
iDcntiag. 1904-05. 

Anodon. See Mussd. 

AnsOD. 44 g"Ds. On December sg. 1807, tliis 
vessel vr-as wrecked in Mount's Bay. wlien 60 lives 
were \<»t. 

Anson. British 2nd class battleship. (Pembroke, 

t-cngtb 330 ft. Beam 68 ft Maximum draught 37 ft. 
Displacement io,6oo tons. ComiUement 515. 
Guns. Armour* 

4 — 13'5 is. " Compound." 

6 — 6 in. tS in. Belt amidships. 

1 2^-6 pdr. 12 in. Barbettes. 

10 — 3 pdr. 12 in. Conning tower. 

Twin screw. Hp. ii,soo= 16*25 k^- ^^^al maxi- 
mum 1 ,200 tons. Approximate cost ^800,000. 

This ship-name is associated with Rodney's vic- 
tory. 1782; deatruction of the Catliape. 1797; cap- 
tare of the Daphne. 1797: Warren's action, 1798; 
capture of the Bomona, 1806; and the Curacao, 1&07. 

Anoo. Oiptaia Charlev Eostace. B.K.. BLT.O. 

igOT {b. 1859). Entered Navy 1S72; promoted 
Lieutemmt 1S82. and served in £g)*pt (medal and 
clasp; bronze star) ; Commander 1894; Captain 1901, 
and appointed to command H.M. yacht Osbortu, 

Anson, Oearge Lord, British Admiral (b. Shuck- 
borough Manor. Stailordshire, April 22, 1697). 
Entered Navy at the age of 15, and at the early age 
of 31 was promoted to command of the ^'^easel 
sloop, and by 1734 to the command of the man-of- 
war Scarborough. From 1724 to 1735 he made tlirec 
expeditions to South Carohna against tlir Spaniards. 
In 1739, on the outbreak of the Spanish war. he was 
given command of a squadron of eight vessels, 
equipped to annoy the Spaniards in the South Seas. 
He sailed in September 1740, and, altliougb losing 
most of his men, with only one remaining slup» the 

Cfnhiriori. he captured a rich galleoo on her passage 
to Manila, and returned to England 1743 laden with 
booty, and was appointed Rear-Admiral of tlie Blue. 
In 1745 he was made Rcar-AdminU of the White. 
In 1747 as Vice- Admiral, he mtercepted off Cape , 
I'inistfcTTC, a powerful French fleet, which he utterly 
defeated, taking six men-of-war and foar Hast 
InOiamen. In recognition of iiis signal services lie 
was raised lo the peerage. In 1757 lie became first 
Lord of the Admiralty, and four years later Admiral 
of the Fleet, which rank he held until his death, 
June '3. 1763. 

Ant. British jrd class gun-boat (254 tons). 
Launched 1873. 

Antarotio. Ship. Sm Antarctic Exploration. 

Antorodo. Opposed to Arctk ; the Antarctic Circle 

or 7.0UV wtticli it encloses. 

Antacctio Circle. A small circle of the earth de- 
scribed around tlie Southern Pole, at a distance from 
it of 23° 28'. Sometimes, however, the term is 
more loosely applied to the South Polar regions Im 

Antarctic Kxploratim. The first ship to approach 
the Antarctic circle was one of a fleet onder Jacob 
Mabn. which s.ti)ed from Rotterdam, June 1508. 
The vessel, a yacht of 150 tons, named the Good 
News, was commanded by Dirk Gerritz. and he is 
credited with having discovered the South Shet- 
lands. In 1772 a Frenchman named Yve* J. 
Kerguelen. discovered the island which bears his 
name, in 48" 4t' 5.; this island is now usually used as 
a base for Antarctic exploration. The first voyage of 
importance to the southern seas was that of Captain 
Cook, who in January 1773, sailed southwardsjrom 
the Cape of Good Hope in the Rfsoluiion. On Janu- 
ary 17 the .\ntarctic circle was crossed for the first 
time in long. 39° 35' E. In December of that year 
he made another attempt to discover the supposed 
southern ContineDt. and again crossed the Antarctic 
circle in 147" 46' W., and on January 29. 1774. 
reached 70" 23' S. Captain Bristow. in 1S06, dis- 
covered .\uckland Island and Hazleburgh, and four 
yeara later Campbell Island. In 1S18 Mi. William 
Smith came across tbc land known as South Shet- 
land, which was subsequently confirmed by Mr. 
Bransiivld, the Captain of H.M.S. Andromache, who 
discovered another portion, which was named Brans- 
field's Land. The South Orkneys were discovered 
by Captain George Powell in the sloop Dooe 1821, 
and in the following year James Weddell, K.N., of 
the sailing vessel Jane, attained the lat of 74* 1 5' S. 
In 1630 an expediticin under the command of Mr. 
John Biscoe. R.N., sighted land in long. 47" 20' E., 
and lat. 65" 57' S., which he named Endcrby Land. 
Subsequently discovering Bi.^coc Iskind. the land 
now known aa Graham Land. In 1839 the French 
expedition, under Dumont d'Urville. discovered 
Joinville Land and Louis PhiUippe Land, and two 




mull tslands on the Antarctic cirde named Tnre 
Ad^lie and Cote Clarie. The finest expedition that 
has ever explored the soath polar seas, was the 
English Antarctic Expedition which left England in 
1839, and Hobart, December 1840. This expedition 
vrzji under the command of Captain (afterwards Sir) 
James Clarke Rosk. who was accompanied by Dr. 
(afterwards Sir) Joseph Hooker. Two old bomb 
vessels were fitted out, the Erebus and Terror, and 
sailed trom Chatham ia Scptcmbt;r 1S39, proceeding 
to the Cape, and thence southward to Kcrgueleo 
Island. Possession Wands were discovcTcd, and a 
landing aSccted on one of the largest, and the coast 
Uoc of Victoria Ijind was traced from Cape North to 
Cape Crozier, a dbstance of about 570 miles. Several 
summits and mountain ranges wexe named, including 
a volcano, Erebus, 12,400 ft. The south magnetic 
pole was calculated to be tn 76' S. and 145'' 20' E., 
about 500 miles south-west of the ship's position. 
The whole of the great southern land discovered on 
this voyage was named Victoria Land, la Novem- 
ber 1841 a second voyage Mt*as undectokcn, and the 
Arctic circle was crossed on New Year's Day 1843. 
After navigating through a belt of ico Soo miles 
broad, a clf*r sea was sighted February 1. »fi.p. and 
the voyage continned to the southward in 174* 31' W. 
On l-'ebniary 33 the expedition attained a lat. of 
78* 1 1' S.. the highest ever reached at that time. In 
December of the? lallowtDg year Hii» cxpi»ditinn sailed 
on the third visit, and the land named after Prince 
d*Jomville by Pumont d'Urviltp. and the southern 
side of the South Shetlunds was discovered and sur- 
veyed. In i<^4; Lieutenant Moore, in command of a 
mrrchant liarc|uc, the Pagoda, conttnuc^l the work 
which Rons had so ably started, and completed the 
magnetic observations south of the 60th parallel, 
between tlie meridians of the Cape and Australia. In 
1873 the CA<i//*ii^.-^ expedition (q.v,), under the com- 
mand of Captain Narcs, sailed from England, arriving 
at Kerguclen liilnnd on January* 6. 1S74, where sur- 
veys were made, and the islands including those 
named Heard and Macdoual*), which had been dis- 
covered in November 1853. by Capt^m Heard, of Uic 
American ship Oricniol, thoroughly examined by the 
naturalists^ of the expedition. Several deep sea 
sotiDdings were taken, the greatest depth being 
1,975 fathoms. Tlic IJnvl winter pa>scMl by man 
within the Antarctic circle was that of 1S98, when 
the Btlgica, imdcr Captain de Cerlachc. was brset by 
IceinUt. 71" 51' S.. and long. 85* 16' W. 

llie German .Antarctic lixpcdition in the Oaua 
{1901-03), discovered new land south of 61° 58' S.S. 
and 9?" 8' E., which wa* named KaiMr Vfilhelm IL 
land, and also discovered an inactiw volcano, which 
was named Gaussbcrg. 

A Swedish Expedition in the •■* ntatctic left Europe 
in 1901, the vessel was lost two ycarri later, hut the 
party were rescued. The Scotti'ih National Antarc- 
tic Expedition in the Scotta (t902-04), confined its 
work tn the Weddefl Sea. Four thousand miles ol 
oceao. from 17* 45' W. long, to 70* 35* S. lat. was 

explored, and after wintering in the South Orkneys, 
they reached, in^ their second .leason, the south- 
eastern extremity of Weddell Sea, discovering a 
great barrier of inland ice, which b believed to be 
part of the Antarctic Continent, and which was 
found to be 600 miles north of its supposed position. 

Among the most important expeditions recently 
at work in the Antarctic regions, must be mentioned 
the British National Antarctic Expedition, in the 
Discovery (190^-04). The Ross barrier was followed 
for a considerable distance to the ea«t, and the coast 
discovered named EdMrard VII. land. Subsequently 
it was discovered that Mount Erebus and Terror are 
on au island, and that Murdo Bay is really a Strait. 
Connected with this expc<lition were Captain R. F. 
Scott and Lieutenant Shacklcton. who on January i . 
1903, sledged southward along the coast oi Victoria 
Land, and carried the Dritish flag to Sj* 17' S., the 
highest southern lat ever attained. 

Sm "Antarctic Manual." Murray, igof; Uar> 
(loch's "From Kdinburgh to the Antarctic," 1894; 
Bull's " Cniise of the Antarctic," 1S96; Butcligrc- 
vink's " Finst on the Antarctic Ccniiocnt." 1901; 
Bernacchi's "To the South Polar Regions," 1901; 
" SouUiem Cross Collections" (Nat. Hist.), (903; 
Nordcoskojld's " Antarctica," 1905, 

Aatarctte Omu. a name that should, stnctly 
speaking, be applied only to tlie ice-hound sna to tlie 
south of the Antarctic circle; but gcncndly applied 
to the great water division of the globe round tlic 
South Pole, .\s compared with the jVrctic Ocean, 
little is known al>out Ous portion of the earth's hur- 
face. There i» good reason to IxsUcvr, however, Uial 
Iho Antarctic consists of a ceutr;il mass of Jand 
covered with a thick and presumably unbroken ice 
cap. The depth \"arips considerably, and percepti- 
bly decreases as the edge of the ice-barrier is ap- 
proachrd. Ea-st of Victoria t^nd the depth varies 
from luu to S<x> fathom-s; e-i-st of South Shetland 
Isles luo to 500 fathoms; west of Graham's Land 
joo to 300 fathoms; between Patagonia and Kerguc- 
len Isle Irom 2,000 to fathoms. Records of the 
Chaiifttftr expedition proved that deep-sea sound- 
ings were taken at a depth of t .975 fathoms. To the 
S.w. of South Georgia. Sir James Clark Ross records 
hdvtng sounded a depth of 4.acxj fathoms, without 
finding bottom. The tempt'raturc of the Antarctic 
is slightly colder than that of the Arctic, and varies 
oonsidcrably. Observations made by the Gennan 
t>ee|>-5ca £xi)cditioD in the I'alJivia ui i89H'99, give 
a surface temperature down to 50 fathoms of 29" to 
30" v.; at 165 fciUuims 35" F.; below 800 fathoms it 
sinks to 3t*. According tu the nbservations of the 
ChaUtnger expedition the temperature of the surface 
water was between 29° and 35", according to the 
latitude, with the bottom temperature from 32* to 

Antarctic Pole. The Sonkhem Pole, whether of the 
earth or of the heavens. 




Antarctic Tropic. The tropic of Capiicoro. 

Antares. A star of the flrst magnihidc. commanly 
called the Scorpion's Heart; it is one of the n.^u6cn! 
stars, and used ior determining the latitude and 

Antennariiu. A genun of npiny-ftnned fishes akin 
to the I'ishing Frogs. The Walking-fish, a native of 
the Indian seas, is an exceedingly grotcsquelookiag 

AntheliOBL Coloured rings seen round the shadow 
of an uliMTviT. projected Du to a cloud or fog lying 
below liim. Also called " Glory." 

Anthozoa. Sve Actinozoo. 

Anthxocita [or Stone Cnal) ik a variety of coal, 
difiermg from the common bituminous kind by its 
great hardness, the large proportion of carbon in its 
composition, and the great heat given out in burn- 
ing. While ordinary coal has a dull lustre, anthra- 
cite is brilliant, and is frequently iridescent on the 
natural surface. It does not soil the fingers when 
liaiidletl like ordinary coal; ignites with difficulty; 
bums with a feeble smokeless flame, giving out an 
intense heat, and is the best steam coal known. 
Anthracite has been defined as the ultimate product. 
of the conversion of vegetable matter into coal. 
The cliief deposits in Great Britain exist in the great 
coal-ficlrfs of South Wales, while the greatest fidds at 
present worked are those of Pennsylvania. It is also 
lound in Sclesia. Westphalia, France, Rttssia. West 
Canada, and the Kocky .\fountains. It has been 
estimated by Richtliofen that the anthracite de~ 
posits in the Chinese province of Shansi, amount to 
630,000,000,000 tons. See Robert's Anthracite 
Coal Industrj* (1902). 

Anttaiopopbagi. S^e Cannibalism. 

Anticyclone. Au area of relatively high barometric 
pressure increasing towards the centre, in which the 
wind blows spirally outwards, and in the northern 
hcnusphcre, in the direction of the movement of the 
hands of a watch. 

Anti-lDcnistatoors. See Boiler Composition. 

Antipatharia (or Black Corals). A group of Acti- 
nozoa Iq.v.) with homy skeleton. 

Antipodes. The name given to those inhabitants 
uf the I'lUth's surface who are diametrically opposite 
to each other, i.e., feet to feet. From the people the 
term has passed to the places themselves, which arc 
situated at the two extremities of any diameter of the 

Anti-Trades. Winds in the upper air blowing in a 
contrary diri-ction to tiiat of the trade wind {q.v.) of 
the lower Uvi-l, The direction o( tlie anti-trade 
winds is uHiially from the S.W.. btit in the soutliem 
bemi^>here. they Wow from the N.W 

AnWm. British ist class cruiser. (Clydebank, 


Lcngtli 451 > ft. Bram 68 ft. Maximum draught 25 ft. 
Displacement 10.700 tons. Complement 655. 
Onns. Atntvur. 

4— 7*5 iu. '* Kmpp." 

6—6 in. & in, BeJt amidships, 

s — 1 J pdr. 6 in. Barbettes. 

22 — 3 pdr. 13 in. Conning tower. 

3 Maxims, 

Torpedo Tubes. 
2 Submerged. 

Twin screw. Hp. = a2| kts. Coal maxi* 
mum i.Sootons. Approximate cost ^850,000. 

Anvers, Yacht Club D*. See Yacht Clnb d' An- 

Aoataka, Japanese torpedo -lioat. (Knrc, 1903.) 
I^ngUi. 147 ft; beam, 16 ft.; draught, S ft,; dis- 
placement, 150 tons; complement, 26; armament, 
I Opdr.. 2 3-pdr.; 2 tubes; Hp., 4,200=30 kts.; 
coal 30 tons, 

Apcftr Line, with the head ofTices in Calcutta, wasi 
foundeci by Messrs. A. Apcar and Co., for the purp€»e 
of trading between Calcutta, the Straits Settlements 
and Hong Kong, maintain a fortnighUy service be- 
tween Calcutta and Hon^ Kong. They carry pas- 
sengers as well as cargo, and are known as the 
Opium Boats, on account of their being used by 
the Indian Government for conveying opium to 

AratoftH Apcar. Catharine Apcar. Gregory Apcar. 
Gross tonnage, 14,000. 

Apeak or Apeek. .'V sliip drawn directly over the 
anchor is said to be apeak. The anchor is apcnk 
when the cable has been sufficiently hove in to bring 
the ship over it. 

Aphetion, That point in the orbit of a planet at Its 
greatest di.<^taiicc from the san. 

Apogee. That point in its orbit when thf rnnmi Ls 
furthest from the earth. The distance being about 
253,000 miles. 

Apollo, frigate, wrecked on the connt of Portu- 
gal, April 1. i8tTi(. 

Apoplexy, Uncansciousness bom. See Appar- 
ently Dt-ad. Methods of Restoring the. 

Apparently Dead, Method of Restoring the. The 

art oi resuscitating itie appaccntly dead docs not 
appear to have been knoMm to the ancients, and 
although ."iome few instances of recovery from 
drou-ning and hanging occurred on the Continent 
and at Oxford at>OLit the year 1650, it was not until 




the middle of the otghteenth centniy that any 
serious mvcstigatina oa this subjcirt tnok place. At 
this time the eiiiinent Dr. J. Fothcrgill, in a paper 
to the Ro>'3] Society, propooodcd the most im- 
portant theory of the " possibility ol saving many 
lives without risking anything." and this theory 
having boon put in practice by M. Rcaumcr, an in- 
f^enious iorcigiiur. several succc5»ful attrmpts at 
rc&uscitation wen; rrcordcd in Switzerland, and a 
society for tlic recover^' of the apparently drowned 
was estabhshed in Amsterdam. In the year 1773 
the records of this society fell into the lianda of the 
late Dr. I^lawt^s. who, in association with Dr. Co^n 
and several other gentlemen, founded what is 
known as tlie Royal Humane Society {q.v.). 

If from drowning, sufiocation. or narcotic poiiion- 
ing. the point-s to be aimed at an.-— /fr.U and tiifm^tft- 
tfae restoration of breathing ; and, sficondly, 
' breathing is n-storeri, the promotion of warmth 
and circulation. 

Dr. H. R. Sik'estt-9's Method 0/ Heaimng Naiuni 

Itutf I. Toadju-Ht the patient's position. 
'Place the patient on his t»ack on a flat surface. 
inclined a little (rom the feet npwards : rainc and 
KUpport the hrad and shoulders on a smalt firm 
cushion or folded article ol dress placed under the 
shoulder-blades. Remove all tight clothing about 
the neck and chest. 

Ruir 3. To maintain a Erec entrance of air into 
tlic windpipe. Cleanse the mouth and nostrils ; 
open Che mouth ; draw forward the patieOt'S tongue, 
and keep it forward ; an clnstic band over the 
Icmgue and undt^r Uie chin will answer this purpose. 

RuU 3. To imitate the movement** of breathlftg. 

Firstly. Induce inspiration. I'lace j-oorwlf at 
the head ol the patient, grasp his anns, raise tbvn 
npwards by the sides ol bis bead, stretch them 
stCEuUly but gently upwards, for two scconfy. (By 
this means fresh air is <Irawn into the Itmgs by 
raining the ribs.) 

Secondly. Induce expiratton. Immediately torn 
down the patient's arms, and press them^ — or your 
own hands— gently against the :sidcs o( his chest. 
for Iwo seconds. (By this mRins foid air is ex- 
pelled from the hinpi by depressing the riba.) 
Repeat tlicse mea^res alternately, deliberately, and 
perseveringly, fifteen times in a minute, nntil a 
!:pontanc0iL4 t-flort to respire I>e perceived. (By 
thcw mpan** an exchange of air is produced tn the 
langH ainrilar to that efJected by natanU respiration.) 

Rule 4. To excite respiration. 

E>unng the employment of the abox-c method 
eicctte the nostrils with snuff, or smclhng-9alts. or 
tickle the throat with 3 feather. Rub the chest and 
face briskly, and dash cold and hot water alternately 
on them. Friction of the limbs and body with dry 
Bannel or cloths shonlrl W. had rcconmr- to. When 
there ia proof of returning rrspimtion. the indivifln.-il 
may be placed in a warm bath, the movements of 

the arms above described being continued nntil re- 
spiration is fully rc-storpfl. Raise the body in 
twenty seconds to a sitting position, dash cold water 
against the chest and face, and pass ammonia under 
the nose. Should a galvanic apparatus be at hand, ap- 
ply the spongps to the region of diaphragm and heart. 
Treatment after XalnraJ Breathing has been Restored. 
To induce circulation and warmth. Wrap the 
patient in dry blankets, and rub tlio Umbs upwards 
energetically. Promote the warmth of the hiody by 
hot flannels, bottles or bladders of hot water, heated 
bricks, to the pit of the stomach, the armpits, and 
to the soles of the feet 

On the restoration of life, when the power of 
swallowing ha^ returned, a teaspoonfnl of warm 
water, small qtianlities of wine, wnrm brandy and 
water, or coffee should be given. The patient should 
be kept in bed, and a disposition to sleep encour- 
aged. During reaction large mustard plasters to 
the chest and below the shoulders will greatly 
relieve the distressed breathing. 

Note. In all cases of prolonged immcntioa in cold 
water, when tlie breathing continues a warm hath 
should be employed lo restore the temi^wrature. 
// /rt>jH Intense Cold, 
Rub the body with snow, ice, or cold water. 
Restore warmth by slow degrees. It is highly 
dangerous to apply heat too cariy. 
// from Intoxicatiou. 
Lay the individual on his side on a bed, with his 
head rai»rxl. The parient should he induced to 
vomit. Stimulants should be avoided, 

If fn}ta Afyiiplexy or from Sunstroke, 
Cold water should be applied to the head, which 
should be kept well raised. Clottung removed from 
the neck and chest. Stimulants avoided. 
// /rojn Eitf-iric Shock. 
Remove the body from contact with the wire, 
cable, or other conductor (in doing this, the body 
must not be toucliod witli the naked hand, but iudia • 
rubber gloves, a fold of dry cloth, or other non- 
conductor should bo uwd), and at oiicc proceed to 
induce lespiration by the above method. 

Apparently Drowned. See Apparentdy Dead, 
Method of Restonng thr. 

Apportionmant (■) may form the subject of an 
action for distribution of saJvace (f.f.), or may be 
raised by some interested party in the course of au 
unlinary sal\'agc action. The Admiralty Court, 
which ift bound to appartion on apphcation. will 
coiislder. as between owners and crew, the value ol 
the salving property and its risk, as agBinat the 
skill, labour, and courage of the crew. 

The master usually has a special award for his 
rcsponsibihty, and the crew a lump sum di.ftri- 
buted. according to thi*ir ratings, but individual 
members may be specialty awarded. 

Kh tM^twcon independent salvors, each case is coo* 
sldered according to its merits, but where the s«r- 




irir. tbe 6f3t 

4^ IffM^^BHft «f fioMriOB diaiige. Where 
WM >ai9» «v Wkl to Miae. wtefttcmr the dtgne of 
^tft w * Mck aft^ lk» duna^ » ai^fwrtiooed in 

t^M, 11 <te 1d«» to a is ^i.oco snd to B ^3,ooo. 
A ««i n<vMff i^co afnnst B. and B can rccowr 
£t wfr afotert A. 

^H/Hlit^ T^ TahM goods imported. 

When any questions arise in 
I tk» Adiotralty Court as to the value of a 
k^^ M Iwr OHfO^ the marshal or his deputy, acting 
MBitir •■ fiviir from tlie Court, proceed to make aa 
mmUXj ol the ship's property or cargo, wliich is 
wtaanktmi oo oath by a qualified \-aluer. The inven- 
(Oiy. vpimiMmeQt in writing, and a certificate of the 
BRnwdioia are then sent to the registry. An ap- 
l«ai9MM>1 proj^erly made is conclusive of the value 
ct the property and is binding, although the pro- 
p«Cty be aftcr^^'ards sold for a lesser amount. Where a 
sale of a ship has been decreed by the Court, it is fixed 
and advertised by the marshal, and is usually sold by 
public auction. If the bidding is much under the 
appraised value, the Court will not always order the 
property to be sold for what it will fetch, but may 
•ettle a spedfic sum, below which it shall not be sold. 

AppnntiM. Bea. The contract of apprenticeship 
to the Merchant Service must, if tlic apprentice is to 
be bound for a longer period than one year, be made 
by indenture, a duplicate of which is sent for record 
to the Registrar-General of Shipping and Scam en(^.r.). 

The indenture of a pauper apprentice must be 
attested by two justices, who shall satisfy themselves 
that the boy has consented to be bound, is of at least 
12 years of age. and sufficiently strong and healthy. 
In forcign-goiilg ships the apprentice and his inden- 
ture must be produced to the superintendent before 
whom the crew is engaged. (Merchant Shipping 
Act, 1894. sections 105-109.) 

Ko boy under 13 years of age can be apprenticed 
to the sca-fishing service; and no boy under 16 years, 
unless duly apprenticed by indenture in a form ap- 
proved by the Board of Trade, can Iw taken to sea 
for longer than one day. The superintendent must 
satisfy himself that the indenture complies with this 
Act, that the boy's relatives or guardians assent to 
his apprrrnticcslup, that tltc master is a fit person to 
receive the boy. and that the apprentice is not under 
tbe age of 13 and is of sufficient strength and health. 
The superintendent may enforce sbputatioiis in the 
indenture on betialJ of the boy, and take legal pro- 
ceedings In his own name lor this purpose. 

Anyone who receives money or other considera- 
tion from the person to whom the Iwy is bound as 
apprentice shall be guilty ol a misdemeanour. 
(Merchant Shipping Act, 1894. sections 392-398.) 

The rights and liabilities of apprentices are very 

similar to those of seamen, though apprentices are 
not " seamen " v^ithin the meaning of tbe Act. 

Aprvdn. Feodor. Coont ( 16; i • 173S). Founder of the 
Russian Navy. lo 1710 took a successful part 
against Sweden, and three years lat«-r was in com- 
mand of the fleet against Finland, and was inatru- 
mcntal in inducing Sweden to conclude the treaty of 
Nystad. which gave Russia the Baltic Province. 
Was made Admiral of the Navy by Peter the Great. 

Aproo. Strengthening timber abaft the lower part 
of stem, above foremost end of keel. 

Agu&rimn. Tanks or vessels containing aquatic 
plants or animals living as nearly as possible under 
their natural conditions. Among the plants wliich 
flourish in the fresh water aquarium arc the Cana- 
dian Water Weed, various species of Duckweed and 
the B!.T,dderu-ort, the common Water Buttercup, 
Water Starwort and Homwort. Of the animal in- 
habitants, by far the easier to keep alive are those 
capable of breathing both air and water, such as 
Newts and Axolotls. Of fish the Stickleback and 
Minnow arc the most likely to flourush. There are 
Marine Aquariums attached to the Biological Station 
of Naples and Plymouth; and Aquaria at Brighton. 
Berlin, Hamburg, New York and Washington. 

5m Taylor's "Aquarium " (188 1). Wood's "Com- 
mon Objects of Sea-shore, including Hints for an 

Aqoaritu. The eleventh sign in the Zodiac. 

Anoatio Awjfii^ly are those living in or about the 
water; swimming m, (lying over, or deriving their 
food from the water. 

Aqoatlo Planta. Plants found grou-ing in water^ 
stagnant, fresh or salt. 

Aquatics. Inhabiting or relating to water. 

Aqueduct. An artificial conduit or canal built for 
the conveyance of water. The term is not applied 
to pipes working under pressure, but only to chaa- 
ocls in which water flows with a free surface. The 
piers and arches of an aqueduct may be of stone, 
brick or concrete. The water-channel of wood, 
iron, steel or masonry. .\t the end of the first cen- 
tury A. D., Rome had nine aqueducts, with a total 
length of over 270 miles. In the Roman provinces 
there were aqueducts at Niraes. Segovia. Tairagonia. 
Metz, Mainz, Antioch and Pyrgos. The aqueduct 
" DcUe Torre Spolcts " (Umbria) dates from the 
eighth century, and is about 300 feet high. There 
was a famous aqueduct at Athens (made 560 b.c.). 
one at Samos (625 A. D.), and one still in use at Syra- 
cuse. In Trance the aqueduct of Maiutciion. which 
was constructed to bring water to Versailles, is 4,400 
(eel long, and over 2cio feet liigh. The first aque- 
ducts of importance in Britain were built towards 
the end of the eighteenth century, to carry canals. 
The Barton aqueduct, built by Brindley, carried the 
Bridgewater Canal over the Irwcll. The aqueduct 






carrying the Ellesmere Canal across the Dec is i ,000 
feet long and 126 feet high. In British Indin the 
most important a the Ganges Canal, which traverses 
the North Western Provinces of Bengal, and dis- 
tributes over their vast area nearly the whole volume 
of the waters of the Ganges. The Croton aquedoct 
by which the City of New York is supplied with water, 
built in 1S43, was regarded at that time as one of the 
most magniScmt works of the kind in modern tiuies; 
its length is 38^ mileK. The Loch Katrine Aqueduct 
of the Glasgow Waterivorks is the modem aqueduct 
which has probably attracted the largest share of 
public attention; the length of the aqueduct is about 
35 miles, of which j; may be considered the aqueduct 
proper, the remaininf; 8 miles consists of two lines of 
cast-iron pipes, by which the water is conveyed from 
large servwe reservoirs at Mugdock to the City of 
Glasgow. An aqueduLt near Edinburgh, conveying 
the water of the Edinburgh and Glasgow Union 
Canal acn»s the valley of the Water of Leith at 
Slatelbrd, is coustructcd entirely of cast-iron, built in 
with masonry. It is about 500 feet in length, and con- 
sists of eight arches, each 4$ ieet span, 75 feet above 
the Icnl of Uie river. The aqueduct which carries 
the water to supply the Vienna Waterworks from 
Kaiserbrunn spnng to the receiving reservoir at 
Rosenhugel is 56^ miles long. 

S« Hrrschcl's " Water Supply of Rome "; Tur- 
neaureand RubmU's "Public Water Supplies" [1901]. 

Aqdmiu Rodu. A name applied to alt rock>' 
ntaases btrnt-ath th<^ water, whether in the form of 
sedimentary depoiits. accumulatioDS of shells, or of 
crystallised masses due to concentration by evapora- 

AQoeom V&poor. See Elastic f'orcc of Vapour. 

Aqtudabon. Brazilian battleship. Displacement, 

5.000 tOB^. 

Blown up by the exploding of her magazine at 
Jacatcpagna. a small port to the south of Kio dc 
Janeiro, January 33. 1906. The ship sank three 
minutes after the explosion, and 300 officers and men 
perished. This vessel was torpedoed by the Sampio, 
and sank in shallow water at Destoro. during the 
revolt of the Brazilian Fleet, March, 1894. She was 
refloated and sent to Stettin to tmdergo repairs. 

AviOa. Italian torpcxlo-boat. {Elbing. 1B88.} 
Length, i53ft.:bcam, 17 ft. ; maximum draught. 8 ft.; 
displacement. 130 tons; complement. 34; arma- 
ment. 3 3-pdr. q.f.. i i-pdr.; 3 tubes; Hp.. 2,aoo = 
a6 kts.; coal maximum, 40 tons. 

AqidloD. French torpedo-boat (1899). Dis- 
ptacrment, 1 20; complement, 54 ; maximum draught, 
tj\ it.; guns, 2 5-pdr.; torpc<1o tubes, 2 15-in.; 
twin screw ; Hp„ 2.000^36 kts,; coal. 16 tons. 

Aqoilooe. Italian torpedo • boat destroyer 
(190:;). Displactrmcnt. ;tjlo tons; complement, lou; 
armament, j u-pdr.. 5 6-pdr.; 3 tube«; Hp., 
6,800- 2a kt«. 

Aiiaflaao. Italiaa torpedo-boat destroyer. 
(Naples, 1903.) Duplacement. 330 tons; maximum 
draught, 8 ft.; armament, 5 6-pdr., tubes, 3 18 in.; 
Hp., 6,000= 30 kts. ; coal, So tons. 

kS^ Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Ayr, Scotland. 

Arab. British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Clydebank, 
1901.} Length. 210 ft.; l>cam, ig ft. ; draught, 7 It: 
displacement, 278 tons; complement. 60; armament, 
I i2-pdr., 5 6-pdr.; 3 tubes; twin screw; Hp., 
5,800^30 kts.; coal. 80 tons. 

Arabia. British subsidised merchant stup 
(1898). P. and O. Company {q.v.). Dimensions, 
500 X 54 X 33 it; gross tonnage, 7.900; passenger 
accommodation. 524; Hp., 9.400=13 ktfl. 

Aragnarx. Brazilian torpedo-boat. (Thomy- 
cruft. 1891.) Length, i5uft.: beam. 14 ft.; draught, 
5 It.; displacement, 150 tons; complement, xj; 
armament, 2 q.L, 4 tubes; Hp.. i.55i>'-25 kts.; 
coal, 33 tons. 

Arao. Swedish coast servke battleship. 
(Lindholmen, 1902.) 

Length 287 ft. Beam 49 ft. Maximum draught 16 ft. 
Displacement 3.650 tons. Complement 350. 
Guns. Armouf. 

2 — 8'3 in.. 45 cal. " Knipp." 
6—6 in. 7 in. Belt amidships, 

10 — 3 pdr. 7 in. Turrets. 

3 — 1 ixlr. 8 in. Conning tower. 

Tofpedo Tubes {i-&ai.), 
2 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp .6,500^^17 kts. Cool normal 
360 tons. 

Aran. Japanese torpedo-boat destroyer. 
(Yarrow, 190;.) Displacement, 3Sotons; comple- 
ment. 55; miiximnm draught. 9 ft.; armament, 
I i2-pdr., 5 6pdr.; tubes. 2 18 In.; Hp.. 6,ooo— 
31 kts.; coal, 95 tons. 

Ararat, U.S. gun-boat, captured from Spain in 
the Spanish American War, 1S98. Of little fighting 

Arbelete. French torpedo-boat destroyer. (Nor* 
mand. 1903.) Length, iSo ft.; beam, 21 ft.; maxi- 
mum draught. 10 ft.; displacement. 300 tons; com- 
plement, 45; guns, I 9'pdr., 6 3-pdr.; torpedo 
tubes. 3 1 5 in.; speed. 37-30 kts. 

Arbitratica. (1) Arbitration is an agreement be- 
tween parties to refer disputes to the decision of one 
or more persons. The Arbitration Act, 1S89, amends 
and consolidates the previous Acts on the subject. 
Where parties have submitted to determine qnes- 
tloos In dispute by :u:b]trat4on, such submission, 
nnl«BS a contrary intention appear, is irrevocable, 
except by leave of the Court. The arbitrator is a 
person either appointed by the Court or mutually 
agreed opou between the parties. The rules of pro- 
cedure and evidence are similar to those of the High 




Court, and perjury is panishable as in other cases. 
The arbitrator, who may be removed and his award 
aet aside by the Coort for xmsconiluct, must try the 
case impaitially, and make the award in writing 
wtUiin three months, when it must be hnal and not 
siibj»:t to couditioas. 

WTierc then: arc two arbitrators whose opinions 
difler. on umpire is appointed by tbem. 

The Court may refer any cjvU matter (or inquiry 
or report to an o&cial or special rcleree. who k 
dctsmed an officer of tl>e Court, and must conduct the 
rcierence according to rules prescribed by thu Court, 
His report or award, unless set aside by t]ie Court or 
Judge, shall be equivalent to the verdict of a jury, 

(j) International Arbitration is the settlement ol 
disputes between ind?peudcnl states by one or more 
pnvato individuals or a friendly power, mutually 
agreed upon. The principal questions rrfcrrrd tu 
International Artntrabon relate to boundaries on 
land, fisheries at sea. breaches of neutrality, and 
unlawful arrests and seizures of vessels. 

At The Ilaguc Peace Conference, 1899, where 
twenty-six states were represented, the estabJish- 
meiitol a pcrman<-nt Court of International Arbitri- 
tiou wa3 ayrew! iijion. 

Arbathnot, Charles Ramsay, Captain K.N. (b. Feb- 
ruary 5, iSsu). Fducated H.M.S. Britnntiia ; a Sub- 
Licutenant of the Royal yacht; Lieutenant in Arctic 
yacht Pandora (Arctic medal); promoted Com- 
maitdur 1S83; Captain iStfi; commanded H.M.S. 
OrUtHtlo. Hagship Australian Station, 1892-95. I^^fcr 
tti .\rct)c Exploration. 

Arc French torptdo-boat destroyer, (Chalon. 
1903.} Length, [Sj ft.; beam, 21 ft.; draught, lolt,; 
displacement, .^00 tons ; cumplcment, 62 ; iirma- 
ment, t 9-pdr., 6 3-pdr. ; 2 tutws; twin screw; 
Hp., 0,000^28 kls.; coat, 75 tons. 

Aroaohoa, Tachtinc Club D\ EsUblished tSS/. 
Prcsiikiii. Cunitc- de Gaulne; Vice-Prcstidents, H. 
Exahaw and G. Ficon. ::5o. Boulevard de la 
Plage, Arcachoo. Annual subscription, 2u francs, 

Arcadia. British subsidised merchant ship 
{iSaS) . p. and O, Company (q.v.) . dimen- 
sions, 468 X 5a X 34 J ft.; gross tonna{^, 6,605; 
passvngcr accommodation, 32:; Hp.. 6,000— 17 kts. 

Arched SaUAll. A squall oii the West Coast of 
Africa, in wliich the clouds take the shape 0/ an arcli. 

Arober. French sea-going tor^tedo-bcat. (Nor- 
maud, 1893.) Length, 138 it.; beam, 14 ft.; 
draught, 7 It.; displacement, 131 tons; complement. 
36; armament, 2 3-pdr., 2 tubes; Hp., H,25o 
26 lets.; coal, 27 tons. 

Arober Fish. A name givea to tlie Toxotcs Jacula- 
tor, and ^vcral Kiu>t India and Polynesian fishes, 
from the habit they luive of shooting drojiR ot water 
a diataocc ol three or four feet into the atr, thus 
bringing down insects for their food. 

Archimedean Bcrew. An apparatus invented by 

the Greek math ema tic ion, Archimedes. It consists 
of a spiral pump working on a central axis, and is 
used for draining (locks or nu.sing water to any pro- 
posed height. 

Arching. 5m Hogged. 

Archipelago. A name now applied to any group ot 

islands coiisiilcrt-d collcclivelv. 


Architects, MavaL 

Architecture, KavaL 

science of "-hip building. 

Sff Institution of Naval 

Construction or art and 

Aroona. Oermon armoured cruiser. (Weser, 1902.] 
Length 3j8 ft. Beam 40 ft. Maximum draught 17 It. 
Displacement 3,71; tons. Complement 159. 
Guns. Awmi'ur. 

10 — 4-1 in. ■' Krupp." 

10 — I ptir. 3 in. Deck. 

4 Machine. 4 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedu Tutes, 
1 Submtvged. 
Twin screw. Hp. S.txx/.-ji kts, Cual maximum 
7110 tans. 

Arotio. U.S. mail steamer, in coIUmod off 
Newfoundland with the Frencli steamer Vesta, and 
went down; 300 lives were last. 

Arotio. Pertaining to the North generally, or more 
specially to the region within the .\rctic circle. 

Arotio Circle. A small circle of the globe, jj" 28' 
rli^tancc from the North VfAe, which is ite centre. It 
is opposed to the Antarctic circle, which is at the 
same distance from the South Pole, /' 

Arctic ExpIoratloiL I'he Arctic Sea, we are told by 
King Alfred, wa-s entered by a Norwegian named 
Other, and although the locahtiv:^ mentioned cannot 
now be identified, it is quite po&.sible that they refer 
to the Nortli Cape and the coast of Lapland. U was. 
however, not until 1553. when an expedition pro- 
moted by Sebastian Cabot, and under the command 
of Sir Itugh Willoughby and Kichard Chancellor, 
that any advance wa-^v made in Arctic Fx]iIoratioa. 
The expedition sailed on May 20, 1553, " for the 
.Starch and discovery of the northern parts of the 
world to open up a way and passage to our men lor 
travel to new and unknown kingdoms." On tliis 
rxptKlition Nova Zembta was sighlud. In the spring 
of 135<' Steven Burrough, who was with CItancellor, 
sailed in a small pmnace called the Seatchfhrifl. He 
went to Archungel, aiiU discovered Uic Strait leading 
into the Kara Sea, Iictwwu Nova Zcmhia am) the 
Island of Waigat, la 1 580 two vessels, unde-r 
.\rthur Pet and Charles Jackmao, sailed through the 
Strait discovered by Burrough, and thence ea&tward 
beyond the mouth of the River Obi. Pet di.<K:overed 
a Strait into the Kara Sea, between Waigat and the 
mainland, and endeavoured to push eastward, but 
without success retomed to England in safety. 




Jaclcman, after wiotcrini; in a Norwegian port, sailed 
for EngUod. but was never beard o( again. In 1 576 
Frobtsber, aided financially by Michael Ij>k, set sail 
■with two small vessels of 30 to 25 tons, called the 
Gabriel and Michael. Thi't expedition was formed 
with the idea of discoverini; a shorter route to India 
by the north-west. On July ao, FrohJsher sighted 
high land, which he named Queen Elitabetlt's Fore- 
land, and the following day he entered the Strait now 
known a<t Frobt<ther Strait, calling; the land Meta 
Inco^ita. Kor a long time Frobisher Strait was 
supposed to pass through Greenland, but it is now 
clear that Frobisfaer never saw GremlaiiU, and that 
his Strait and the Meta Incognita arc on the .Ameri- 
can side of Davis Strait. John Davis made three 
voyages in three successive years. He was the first 
to visit the West Coast of Greenland; discovered 
Gilbert Sound and the Strait which bear* his name. 
On hts second voyage he did not accomjilish any- 
thing of note. In his third voyage i >;87, he ad- 
vanced far up Davis Strait, and reached a lofty 
island m 73^ 41' N,, which he named Sanderson's 

In 1594 some Amsterdam merchants fitted out 
a vessel of some 100 tons, under the command of 
Willem Barents. He discovered the whole western 
coast as far as Cape Nassau and the Orange Island at 
the north-western extremity. On his Sf>cond voyage 
he made an tinsnccc-'wfiil attempt to enter the Kara 
Sea. Daring the third voyage. 1596. he acted as 
pilot to Jacob van Heemskerck, who was accom- 
panied by Coraetiszoon Rijp: they sailed northward 
and discovered Hear Island, and sighted tlte north- 
tt-estem extremity of Spttxbergen. which they named 
Kiewland. They were the fimt to face, and soccess- 
(uUy pass, an Arctic winter, and in the spring of the 
foUowtog: year made their way m boats to the Lap- 
land coast. Barents died daring the voyage, but his 
record takes first rank among Polar enterprises of 
the sixteenth century. 

In f6o3 Captain Waymouth. sent out by the East 
India Company to seek for a passage by the open- 
tag aeen by Davis, returned without any auccem. 

In irto5 Chri^an FV. of Drnmark sent out three 
a Dane named Lindcnov. They managed to get as far as 
ttic Wii>t Coast of Greenland, and had much intercourse 
with the Eskimo, In 1607 Henry Hud^ion. in tlieservicc 
of the Muscovy Company, made hi* frrtit voyage, and 
diacoverod the most nortberty pomt on the Eastern 
Coast ol Greenland. 73*^ N.. he examined the edge- of 
the ice between Greenland and Spitxbcrgen, and 
reached the latitude of 80" zy N. On his return he 
discovered HudMra's Tutches. since called Jan 
Mayen. In his second \'uyagc. 1608, he i-xamined 
tlte edge of the ice between Spitzbergen and Nova 
Zcmbla. In his third voyage, when employed by 
tlie Dutch I-Iast India Company, he explored the 
coast of North America, and discovered the River. 
Strait and great Boy whiih bear his name. Sir 
Thomas Button ui May. 1613, in command of two 

ships, the KesnluHon and Discomry. sailed from 
England, entered Hudson's Bay. crosaed it to tta 
weslern shore, and wintered at the mouth of the 
Hudson river. In the f«Uowing year he explored 
the shore of Soathampton Island as far as 65' N., 
returning to England in 1613- In J*'* Robert 
Bylot, as master, and WiUiam Baffin, as pilot and 
navigator in the Discoutry, examined the coast of 
Hud-ion's Strait, and made many valuable obierva- 
tioDs. In the following year the two sailed again in 
the Discovfty. and discovered what has been Itnown 
ever ance as Baffin's Bay. Baffin named the most 
northern opening Smith Sound, after the promoter 
of the voyage Sir Thomas Smith; Wolstenholroe 
Sound, Cape Dudley Digges. Hak1u)'t Island, Lancas- 
ter Sound, Jones Sound, and Cary Islands were 
named after othera interested in the expedition. 
In 1631 two expeditions were dispatched, one from 
London and one from Bristol. In the London ship, 
Charles, Luke Fox explored the western side of Hud- 
son's Bay, as far as a place called " Sir Thomas Roc's 
Welcome." Captain James, in the Bristol ship 
Afaria. went north and reached "North West Fox." 
6«* 47' N. He wintered off Charlton Island, and 
returned in 1632. 

After the acquisition of Siberia by the Russians, 
the whole of the northern shores of that vast region 
was gradually explored. In 1648 Simon Desnnefl, a 
Cossack, in a boat expedition on the River Kolyma. 
pa"*sed through the Strait, afterwards named Bering. 
and reached the Gulf of Auadyr. Captain Vlamingh, 
in 1664, advanced as far round the northern end of 
Nova Zembla as the winter quarters of Barents. In 
1671 Frederick Marteni visited the Spitibtrgen 
group. In 1707 Captain Gilies and Outsger Rep 
wt^nt to the eastward as far as the northern shoreii of 
Greenland, and saw high land tn Do**, which has since 
lM>rn known as Gilies l^nd. 

In 17^3 John Scrogp^, in the employment of the Hud- 
son's Bay Company, was sent from Churchill River 
in fiearcb of two ships commanded by Mr. Knight, 
He went as far as Sir Thomas Roe's WVlcoine, and 
then returned, and it vrds sul'««quently found that 
the two ships were loat and the crews had perished. 

Heler the Great in 1 735 appointed Captain Vitus Be- 
ring, a Dane.locommandati ex[M:dition. Twovessels 
setftailin 1738, Bering ascertaining the existence of a 
Strait between At^ia and America. In 1740 he again 
set sail in the St. /-"uii/. with thcobject of discovering 
the American sideof theStrait. He sighted that mag- 
nificent peak, named by himMt.St. Elias; explored the 
Alutian Islands, but the ship was wrecked on an is- 
land, and Bering himself died on December 8. 


In 1735 Lient. T. Tcheljmskm got as far as 77''35' 
N-. near the Cape which bears his name, and eight 
years later reached, with a sledge party, the most 
northerly point of Siberia 77' 4 1 ' N. 

Capt. Christopher MiOdletoo in 1742 discovered Wa- 
ger Rivet and Repulse Bay. In i74GCaptain WMoor 
made a vo>'age in the same direction, and explored the 




Wager loJet. Between 1769 and 1772 Samuel Heanie 
descended the Coppermine River to the Polar 

In 1771 a Russian menhant named Liakhoff dis- 
covered New Siberia or Liakhofi Island. 

In 1773 Captain Phipps sailed in an expcdition.which 
was stopped by ice, to the north of Hakluyt headland, 
the north-western portion of Spiubtrgcn.Thc)'rcached 
Se\-en Island and discovertd Waldun Island, returning 
to England in September of the same yeax. In ijyS 
Captain Cook sailed from Kamchatka in search of 
the nortli-e.*iEt, or north-west passage, from the 
Pacific til the Atlantic. During bis voyage be 
reached (ape Prince of WaJeii, and his ships, the 
Resolute and Ihscovery, arrived at the edge of the ice 
70* 41' a., after pairing through Bering Strait. In 
1789 Alexander Mackenzie discovered the mouth of 
(he Mackenzie River. Captain Scoreshy. a whahng 
captain, takes first rank as a successful fisher and 
acicnti^c observer. In 1806 he succeeded in advanc- 
ing bis ship Resolution as far nortli as 81° a' 42". 
In 1822 he forced his way through the ice, which 
cucumbers the approach to the land of the East Coast 
of Greenland, and surveyed that coast from 7$° down 
to 69" N., a distance of 400 miles. In 1818 the two 
veaseh Dorothea and Trmt, commanded by Captain 
David Buclian and Ueutenant John Franklin, sailed 
by way of the Spitsbergen route to discover the 
north-west pasaage, in the hope of receiving the 
^ reward which was offered for making the 
Dorth-wcst passage, or ,^5,000 for reaclung 89* N. 
The vessels were driven into the ice pack by a heavy 
swell from the south, and compelled to return to 
England. At the stame time another expedition, fol- 
lowing in the wake of BafEn's voyage of 1616 and 
sailing by way of Baffin's Bay. consisting of two 
ships the IsabetU and Alexander, commanded by 
Captain John Ross and Lieutenant Edward Parry, 
sailed on the same quest. They returned to Eng- 
land having accomplished very little, except that 
they wore able to vindicate Baffin's accuracy as u 
discoverer. In i8iy Lieutenant E. Parry was 
selected to command two vessels, the Heda and 
Griper. He passed through Lancaster Sound, tlic 
continuation oi which be named Barrow Strait, and 
advanced westward, discovering the Arclupclago, 
bincc known as Parry Islands. He discovered Wel- 
lington Channel, and sailetl onward for 3U0 miles to 
Melville Inland, returning in 1820. A fresh expedi- 
ticu m the J-'uty and Jlecia, still under his command, 
•ailod the following year. They passed tJieir firsl 
winter on tlic coa^^t of Miilville Peninsula, 66° 1 1' N. ; 
tbL-ir Second winter among the Eskimo in 69* 2a' N., 
and discovered a channel leading westward from the 
head of Hudson's Bay, which he named Fury and 
Hecla Strait. la l3i9 Lieutenant John Franklin. 
accompanie<l by Dr. Richardson, George Back and 
Hood, attempted to reach land by the northern 
shores of America. They landed at York factory, 
and proceeded to the Great blavc Lake, in the fol- 
lowing year they started for the Coppermine River. 

and reached its mouth on Jaly 18. 1821. subse- 
quently exploring 550 miles of coast line, the ex- 
treme point of wliich they named Cape Turn 

la i82tCaptain Lutke, a Russian, was employed in 
surveying the West Coast of Nova Zembla, as lar as 
Cape Nasfiau, and examining the ice of the adjacent 
sea. In 1821 Lieutenant Anjou, a Russian, made a 
complete survey of the New Siberia Islands. Be- 
tween 1830-23 Baron Wracgcll made four journeys 
with dog-sledges, exploring the coast between Cape 
Tchelagskoi and the Kolyma. 

In tSj4 three combined attemptii were urganised. 
under Parry, Beechy.and Franklin, to connect tlie Cape 
Tumagam of Fronklm, with the discoveries made by 
Parry during his second voyage. Parry was to enter by 
the Lancaster Sound, and make for the great o^ieniug 
he had seen on the south named Prince Regent's 
inlet. Beechy by Behring Strait, and Franklin from 
the shores of Arctic America. Parry was unfortu- 
nate; Beechy in the Btosium entered Behring Strait, 
August 1826. and gat as far as Point Barrow 71° 23* 
53" N. lat. ; Franklin descended the Mackenzie River 
to the mouth, and explored the coast for 374 miles to 
the westward. In 1827 ParT>' made an attempt to 
reach the Pole from the northern coast of Spitx- 
Iie-rgen in sledge boats. On this occasion he reached 
latitude 62" 45' N. 

lo 1 829 Captain Graah, of the Danish Navy, under- 
took an expedition to the East Coast of Greenland ; he 
advanced as far as 65' 18' N". on the east coast, whcie 
he WHS Mopped by ice. He wintered at NugarUk, in 
63° 22' N,. and retumod in the following year. 

In 1839 Captain John Ross, and his nephew 
James, undertook a private expedition of dis- 
covery on behalf of Felix Booth, in a small vessel 
called the Victory. Ross proceeded down Prince 
Regent inlet to the Gulf of Boothia, and «rin- 
tered on some land named by him Bootliia Felix. 
On this expedition Jaine» Ross crossed the land and 
discovered the position of the north magnetic pole; 
discovered land to the westward of Boothia, which 
he named King William Land, the northern shore of 
which he exaoiined. The most northern pomt oppo- 
site the magnetic pole he named Cape Felix. The 
Rosses spent four winters m the Arctic, and were 
eventually picked up by a whaler in Barrow Strait 
and brought home. Their prolonged abst^nce caused 
great anxiety, and Sir George Back, with Dr. Richard 
Kmg as his companion, started out m 1833 to search 
for them, but ouing to lack of supphes were com- 
{.-Krlk-d to iL-tuni. In 1836 Sir George Back was sent, 
at the instigation of the Royal Geographical Society, 
to proceed to Repulse Bay in his ship the Terror, to 
examine the coast line at the rooutli of the Great Fish 
River. The expedition did not accomplish the task, 
and the vessel was brought back across the Athuiiic 
is a sinking condition. In July of the following year 
Messrs. Simpscm and Deasf, both in tlin «'r\acc of tlic 
Hudson's Bay Company, started on an expedition. 
They reached the mouth of the Mackenrie, and con- 







nected tfamt position witb Foint Barrow, which bad 
been dtacovrrrd by the Blifssom in 1826. Daring 
this voyage the explorers landed at Montreal Island, 
at tho mouth of the Great Fish River, and advanced 
as far as Castor and Pollux Kiver, and retnmed along 
the north side of the channel, which i.s the south 
<ihorc ol King William Island, discovered by James 
Ross. In order to complete the delineation of the 
Dorthem shores o! the American Continent Dr. John 
Rae was cotmsted by the Hudson's Bay Company 
with an expccUtion. He went to Repulse Bay. whea-e 
he wintcTctl, and in tlic spring of the following year 
explored on foot thcshorcHof agreat gulf having 7,000 
miles of coast line. He was the means of connecting 
the work of Parr>'. at the mouth of the Fury and 
Hecia Strait, to that of Ross on the coast of J3oothia, 
and proved that Boolhia was part of the American 
Continent, In 1843 Middendorf was sent to explore 
the rffcion which terminates in Cape Techelyu^kin, 
prevtoosly surveyed by Baron WrangeU. He reached 
the Cape in the height of the short summer, whence 
be saw open water, and thn» completed the explora- 
tion of the Arctic shores of Siberia. 

In 1845 Sir John Franklin. in the Erebus and Tertor. 
made a fTt:sh attempt to make the passage from Lan- 
cairterSound toBuhringStrait.Hewintercd at Beechy 
Island, and in Ihr following spring fcftmd a channel 
leading sooth along the west<-m shore of the land of 
North Somerset, discovered by Parry in 1 8 10. He 
knew that if he could reach the channel on the Ameri- 
can coast he would be able to make his way along it 
to the Behring Strait. He sailed down Peel Sonnd 
towardn King William Island, with land on both 
sfdes. bat immediatdy after passing the southern 
point of the western lend, he was driven by the great 
Palafocrystic Sea (the name given by Sir George 
Narcs to the accumulation of ice of enormous thick- 
ness, which arisrs from the al>sence ol direct com- 
mnnication Iwtwecn this portion of the north polar 
region and the warm waters of the Atlantic and 
Pacific] towards Kmg William Island. In the 
spring ol 1848 Sir James Ross was sent willi two 
ships, the EnterptiM and the Invtsti^ator, to search 
for Franklin. He wintered in T^eopoU Harbour, and 
in the spring of 184Q made a long sledge jonniey with 
Ijeutenant M'Clinlock along the northern and wes- 
teni coasts of North Somerset, without hnding any 
traces of the FrankUn eicpedition. In [f'48 Sir John 
Richardson and r»r. Rac. at the mstigation of the 
Hnflson's Bay Company, continued the search, and 
examined the American coast from the mouth of the 
BCackencie to that of the Coppermine: and in 1851, 
after a long sledge journey and a boat voyage, to the 
shores of WolUston and Victoria Land. Anjuet>- 
aboat the fate of the Franklin expedition was no\^' 
being keenly felt, and an rxtcnsivo plan of st-arch 
was organised ; one expedition, under CoUinsun and 
M*Clure in the Enterprise and I nititifotof ; one under 
Captain Aostin, comprising the A itiitanct and 
tltMohde. with two steam tenders, the Pioneer and 

tntfapid, and two brigs tfai: Lad^^ Franklin and Sttfia, 
onder Captain Penny. Austin and Penny entered 
Barrow Strait, and discovered Franklin's winter 
quarters on Beechy l^and. Stopped by ice, the 
expedition wintered of! GriiTith Island, and m the 
following spring ttiey planned a thorough and exten- 
sive System of search by means of sledge travelling. 
Penny undertook the search by Weliington Channel, 
M'CJintock advanced to Melville I^aad, marching 
over 770 miles in 81 days; Captain Oinmaney and 
Shoraxd Osborn went south, and discovered Prince of 
Wales Island: Lieutenant Brown examined the wcs^ 
tern shares of Peel Sound ; bnt with the exception of 
the winter quarters at Beechy Lslaml. no record, no 
sign of FrankUn was discovered. Colhnson, in the 
EnUrprist, was within a few miles of Point Victory. 
on the sliori^s of Victoria Land, where the fate of 
Franklin would have been ascertained Imd be 
pushed a little further. He passed his hrst winter in 
a Sound in Prince Altx^t Island, 71° 35' K. and 
117* 35' W,; his second in Cambridge Bay. and his 
third in Camden Bay. 70" «' N.. 140" 29' W.. return- 
ing to England in 1854. M'Clurc in the Invesligalor, 
passed the first winter, iSjo-ji.atthc Princess Royal 
Islands, and came across the same palxocrystic ice 
wtiich stopped FrankUn off King William Land. He 
turned south, and after many hair-breadth escapes, 
took refuge in a bay on the north shore of Banks- 
land, which he named the Bay of God's Mercy, and 
here the Investigator rcmainc<1, never to move again. 
Two winters were spent here, and M'Clure and his 
crow were preparing to abandon the ship and reach 
the American coast as Fnmklin had attempted, and 
possibly the fate of this expedition would have been 
that wbicli overtook Sir John Franklin and his 
party, bad not succour pro\-identialty arrived la 

It was during the autumn of 1853 that Captain 
Kellett, in command of the Hesalule. with M'Qintock 
m the steam tender Intrepid, discovered M'aure'a 
record, and thus oscertainefl the position of the 
Inv^sti/iator. In the following spring Lieutenant 
Pim was entru^ited with the task of taking a message 
across the Strait, which he successfully accom- 
plished. Tho officers and crew ol the Investigaior. led 
by M'Clure, arrived saicly on board the ResoluU, 
June 17. 1S53, and reached England in the following 
year. They not only discovered, but traversed the 
north-west passage, though not in the saiAe ship, and 
partly by tra\-eUing o\'er the ice. M'Clure received 
the honour of Knighthood, and a reward of ^, 
voted by the Honae of Commons, waa granted to 
himself, tlic olhcen and crew. The sledge party of 
Kcllctt's expedition, led by M'CUntock, Mccham and 
Vasey Hamilton, completed the discovery of the 
northern and western sides of Melville Island. 
M'Qintock's sledge |iarty was away from the ship 
for los days, and during that time travelled i.jiS 
miles; Mecliam's party was away 94 days, wtd 
travelled 1.163 miles. 




la i8s3 Or. Rae was employed to complete the 
examination of the coast of America. He went up 
Chcstcr&cld Inlet and River Quoich, wtutcrinf} at 
Repulse Bay. He aiicceodcd in connecting the dift- 
covcries of Simpson with those of jamcs Ross, and 
established the fact that King William Land was an 
island. He also brought home tidings and relics of 
Franklin's expedition, gathered from the Eskimo. 
In the spring of 1S54 Mcciuun made a most remark- 
able journey, in Uie hope of obtaining news of Cap- 
tain CoUinson; he was absent 70 days, out of which 
he was travelling tii-} days; the distance travelled 
was I,5J6 miles, and is v>ithout parallel in .\rctic 

Charles Hall, of Cincinnati, became an Arctic ex- 
plorer through his deep interest in the search for 
Franklin. Ho made his first journey 1860-63. and 
discovered the interesting remains of a stone house 
built by Frobisher. on the Countess of Warwick 
Island, nearly 200 years before. On liis second ex- 
pe<1ition, i.Sft^-fig. he reached the line of retreat of 
the Franklin survivors at Todds Island, on the south 
coaiit of King William Island. He heard from the 
Eskimo the story of the wreck of one of the ships, 
ftnd was told that seven bodies had been buried at 
Todds Island. He brought home some boncA, which 
are believed to be those of Lieutenant Le Vescnmte 
of the Erebtu. 

The Norwegian fishermen are responsible, to a 
great extent, for recent exploration of the Spits- 
bergen seas. In 1865 Captain Carlsen circumnavi- 
^ted the Spitibergeo group for the first time in 
ft brig called Jan Mayen. In 1B64 Nordcns- 
kiiJld and Duner made observations at 80 different 
places on the Spitsbergen shores. In 186S the Sofia, 
an iron steamer, attained a latitude of 81° 41' N". on 
the meridian of 18° E. The expedition, consisting of 
the steamer Palftem and the brig Gladrn. commandoil 
by Professor Nordenskifild and Lieutenant Palander, 
spent the winter of 1868 at Mussel Bay. on the nor- 
thern shore of Spitsbergen, and in the following 
spring made an important sledge journey of 6it days' 
duration over North Ka<^t Land, In 1868 an expedi- 
tion, financed by Dr. Pctcrmann of Gotha. and com- 
manded by C-aptain Koldewey, sailed from Bergen 
to Hinlopen Strait in Spitzbergen. In 1869 another 
expedition, in command of Captain Koldewey, con- 
sisting of the Geffnania. a steamer of 140 tons, and 
the brig ItaHsa. sailed from Bremen for the past 
coast of Greenland. The Germania wintered at 
Pendulum Island in 74* 30' N.. and in March of the 
following year set out, unde-T Koldewey, and reached 
a distance of 100 miles from the ship to the north- 
ward. A Cape, named after Prince Bismarck, 
marked the northern limit of their discoveries. 
Lieutenant Payer, who had bceti witli Captain Kolde- 
wey, resolved to continue the work of Polar dis- 
covery. He and a naval officer named Wcyprecht 
chartered a Norwegian schooner, c-alled the /»&;*«. 
and examined the edge of the ice between Spitzber- 

gen and Nova Zembla. in 1873 an Austia-Iiun- 
garian expedition was organised. The steamer 
Tegethoff wa.s 6ttcd out. with Weyprocht in com.- 
niand. and Payer to conduct the slodge parties. The 
vessel sailed on July 14, 1872, but was closely beset 
near Cape Nassan, at the northern end of Nova 
Zembla, in August. In October, 1873. the island 
named Count W'ilczek was discovered in 79° 54' N., 
and the second -ninter was passed here. 

In March, 1S74, Payer started on a 30 days' 
sledge journey, and discovered the country named 
Franz-Josef Land. The expedition was compelled to 
abandon the ship and attempt to retreat ia boats. 
They were eventually picked up by a Russian 
schooner, and arrived at Vardo on September 3. 
1874. This expedition was one of the most im- 
portant connected with nortli polar exploration 
during the last century. 

In 1875 an English expedition, with Captain Nares 
as leader, in two powerful steamers, the AUri and 
Discovery, started for Sniitli's Sound. Captain 
Markham, Lieutenant .\ldrich and Captain Field- 
ham, K..-\., were also in the AUrt. Tiie Discovery 
was commanded by Captain Stevtnson, with Lieu- 
tenant Beaumont as liis lirst lieutenaat. The expe- 
dition k-tt Portsmouth on May 2% 1875, and entered 
Smith's Sound towards Uie end of July, The Dis- 
cowry established her winter quarters at L.ady 
Franklin Bay 81" 44' N„ the AUft pressed onwart 
and reached the eil^c of the Pala-ocrystic Sea, and 
passed the? wiutt-T ofl the open coast facing the great 
Polar ]}ack in 82" 27' N. Captain Markham. with 
Lieutenant Parr, advanced ovt-r tht- Polar |>ack at 
the liigh latitude of Sti^'' 20' 26" N. Lieutenant 
/Vldrich explored the coast line to the westward, 
facing the frozen Polar Ocean for a distajice of 320 
miles. The AUrt reached ttic highest nortliern lati- 
tndc over attained by any ship up to that date, and 
wintered further north than any ship had wintered 
before. The expedition returned to England in 
October, 1876. In 1875 Sir Allen Young, in his 
steam yacht the Pandora, attempted to force his way 
down Pee] Sound to the magnetic pole. He entered 
Peel Sound on August 39, and proceeded further 
than any vessel had gone since it was passed by 
Franklin's two ships in 1846. He reachc<I lati- 
tude 73* 14' N., and sighted Cape Bird at the 
northern side of the weetem entrance to Bellot 

tn 1875 Professor Nordenskiold turned his atteii' 
tion to the possibility of navigating the seas along 
the northern coast of Siberia, and in June of th. 
year sailed from Troins6 in the Proven. He reached 
the Ycniesi by way of the Kara Sea, and discovered 
an excellent harboiir on the eastern side of its 
mouth, which he named l*ort Dickson, aftvT Mr. 
Oscar Dickson, who had largely contributed to the 
expedition. Nordenskiftld. l>cing con\-inced that the 
achievement of the north-east passage was feasible, 
the King of Sweden, Mr, Oscar ]>iclcson and M. 

nd I 





SibarnkoS nipptied the funds lor a second expedi- 
tion, UK) the steamer Vtga was parchased. On 
Attgnat lo thoy leit Port Dickson, and on tlie t9th 
reacbed the most northern part of Siberia. Cape 
Severo or Tchelyiiskin in 77" 41' N. Towards the 
end oi September the Vega was iroxen in ofi fhe shore 
of a low plain in 67' 7' N. and 173" jo' W. Alter be- 
ing impruoncd m ice lor tu-o hundred and ninety-fouc 
days, on Jnly iB. 1874, the Vega proceeded on her 
voyage, and po^ufil Bchhng Strait two da>-n later. 
Thus, attrr a Iap«c of three hnndred and lwxntj--six 
years, the north-east passage )utd b<:en accomplishod 
without the loss of a single life and without damage 
to the vessel. 

In 1879 Sir Henry Gore-Booth and Captain A. H. 
Markham, R.N. (9.V.), undertook a Polar craise in the 
NtHwegiaa schooner h&jStn. They sailed along the 
west coast of Nova Zembla, passing tlirough the 
Matotchkim Shar to the east coast, and examined 
the ice hi the direction of Fran*- Josef Land an far as 
78* 34' N. 

Inthesameyear an expedition was undertaken in 
the United Sutes, with the object of obtaining further 
ioloreiation of the sad historyof the retreat of theofh- 
crr» Hnil men of Sir John FnuikUn's expedition. Tlic 
expedition cooxisted of Lientenant Schwatka of the 
United States Army, and three others. The first winter 
wasspeutnear theentrauceofChestertteld Inlet, andm 
April they set out, assisted by Eskimo and dogs, for 
the estuary of the Great Fisb River. The)- crossed 
over to Capo Herschel on King William Island, in 
June, and examined the western shores of the island 
as far as Cape FeUx. the northern extremity, with 
very httle success. Some graves were' found, as wuU 
as a medal belonging to Lieutenant Irvine of H.M.S. 
Terror, and some booes believed to be his were 
brought home, and eventually sent to England and 
interred at Edinburgh. 

In 1879 Mr. Cordon Bennett purchased from Sir 
Allen Young the Pandora, which he rechristcned the 
JtaunetU, and dispatched an expedition of dis- 
covery by way of Behring Strait. The Jeanntue, 
imder Lieutenant Dc Long, United States Navy, 
sailed from San Francisco, July S, 1879, and on Sep* 
tembcT 3 was seen steaming towards Wrangcll Land. 
hi 1881, as uothiugliHd been Iward uf ihi^ vc^el. two 
steamers were M-nt np the Behring Strait in scorch. 
One 01 these, the Hodgers, under Lieutenant Berry, 
explored Wrangcll Land 70" 57' N., which lie found 
to bean tsIandaboutTO miles Ion ({by 28 miles wide, but 
ntnmed without any news of the /roiiHr^/^. F.ventu- 
ally, inelanclioly tidings arrived from Sibena. After 
having been beset in heavy ice pack for twenty-two 
months, the Jeannetle was crusJtcd and sunk in 
77" 15' K. lat. and 155^ E. long. The officers and 
men succeeded in reaching an island, which they 
named Bennett Land, in Jnly, and in the following 
September reached one of the New Siberia Islands, 
and from there set out tor the mouth of the Lena. 
Mr. Melville, the engineer, and his boat'» crew, 
reached Irkutsk, and immediately set out m search 

of De Long and bis party. Eventually De Long's 
body and two of his crew were discovered on March 
23. iti83, they having perished from exhaustion and 
want of food. 

In 1880 Mr. Leigh Smith made three voyages to 
Spitabcrgen in the Krew steamer Eira. He sailed 
along the land to the westward and discovered 
1 10 mJes of new coast line, and returned to Eng- 
land. In the following year be once more made 
for Franz-Joscf Land, and reached a point further 
west than had bern po^itile on his previous vo^'age. 
Ho Iiad. however, gone a little too far ou this occa- 
sion, and in August the ship wa.^ caught in the ice, 
was nipped, and sank, He and liis crew pa.s^L-d the 
winter of 1S81-81 in a hut, and on June 21, 1882. 
started in the hope of reaching some vessels on the 
Nova Zembla coast. On Augu« 2 they were sighted 
by the WtlUm Barents, and subsequently taken on 
board the Hof>f, a wlialer which had come out to 
tlieir rescue, under the command of Sir Allen 

ft was at the sngge^tion of Lieutenant Wcypreeht, 
from a paper read by him before a large meeting of 
German naturaUsts. that the importance of estab- 
lishing a number of station.s within or near the Arctic 
circle was brought about. The various nations of 
Europe were represented at an international Polar 
Conference at Hamburg in 1879, and another at St. 
Petersburg in 1882. and it was finally decided that 
each nation should e^itablisb one or mort; stations. 
The stations established were at the following locali- 
ties ronnd the Arctic circle: 
Norwegians.—" Bosekop," Alten Fjord, Norway. 
Swedes, — " Ice Fjord." Spitxbergen. 
Dutch.—" Dickson Harbour," mouth of Yeniesi, 

Russians. — " Sagastyr Island," mouth o( Lena, 

Siberia. " MOlier Bay." Nova Zembla. 
Americans. — " Point Barrow," Nortli America. 

" Lady FrankUn Bay." 8['44' N. 
English. — " Great Slave Lake," E)ominton of 

Germans. — " Cumberland Bay," west side ol Davis 

Danes. — " Godthaab," Greenland. t 

Austrians.' — " Jan Mayen," North Atlantic. 71* N. 

In 1881 Lieutenant Groely's party, consisting of 
two lieutenants, twenty sergeants and privates of 
the United States Army, and Dr. Pavy, an enthu- 
nastic explorer, installed themselves at Lady 
Franklin's Bay for the winter. In the following year 
many important journeys were made; Lieutenant 
Lockwood journeyed along the north coast of 
Greenland, and reached a small island in 83" z^' N., 
and 40** 46' W. ; Dr, Pavy made two tnpa into the in- 
terior of Grinnell land, the coast on the western side 
was reached, and a large lake was discovered near 
Discovery Harbour. The fate of this expedition was 
like so many others. As no relief ship had arrived by 
the summer of 1883, Lieutenant Grecty started from 
Lady Franklin's Bay with hjs men for Smith Sound, 




where be expected lb paaft a. sWp. They were over- 
come by cold, and compelled to encamp at Cape 
Satnae od the western riKoea of Smith Sound. Here 
many oi them died of actual starvation, and when the 
relieving steamers Thetis and Bear did arrive at Cape 
Sabine, Lieutenant Crt-fly anrJ six of his companions 
were fonnd just alive. 

The next Important Arctit work was the crossing 
of the great glacier forming the interior of Greenland, 
by Nansen and Peary. Dr. Nanscu. with six com- 
panions, auccethJed in landing on the East Coast of 
Greenland in August. 1888, and reached a height of 
7,000 feet on the glacier in 64* 50' N., and on Sep- 
tember 36 arrived at the inner end of the Ameratik- 
fjord in 64* !»' N.. having traversed 260 mile* of 

In April. 1S92, Peary accompanied by Hiviod 
Astrup, started from Whale Sound, on the West Coast 
of Greenland in 77" N.. and taking a north-easterly 
course sighted land in 83' 1 2' N. 

In the year 1893 Dr. Nansen in the Fram started on 
hia famous expedition to cross the Polar Ocean, by 
tnistiDg to the drift from east to west. His ship was 
forced into the ice to the north-west of Kcw Siberia 
Island, and for three wintere the drift was con- 
tinued, the vessel eventually coming out of the pack 
to the north of Spitibergen. Tbe principal dis- 
coveries on this memorable voyage was that there is 
a very deep ocean to the north of the Franz- Josef 
group, continuous with that to the north of Spitz- 
bergcn. The rr-sult of this expedition materially ex- 
tended our knowledge of the polar regions. 

In 1894 Mr. Jackson commanded an expedition In 
the Windward, fitted out at the expense of Mr. A. C, 
Harmsworth. In the spring of 1895 he made a 
jonmey DOrthwards as lax as 8 1 " 19' 30" N .. and dis- 
covered a channel leading between groups of islands 
to the west of the Atistria Sound of Payer. In 189G, 
during bis second winter, Mr. Jackson's party met 
Dr. Nansen and his companions, and in the following 
year, accompanied by Mr. ArniilagL\ made a remark- 
able journey, during which he discovered the western 
portion of Frame- Josef Land. The Jackson-Harma- 
worth expedition returned to England in the autumn 
of (897. 

In 1899 Captain Sverdrup in the Fram led an ex- 
pedition up Smith's Sound, with the object of dis- 
covering the northern coast of Greenland. In the 
nmmer of 1889 H.R.H. the Duke of Abruzri, on 
board the Norwegian whaler Jasoti. which was re- 
named the Stella Poiate, proceeded to l*ranz- Josef 
Land, and wintered at Tcplttz Bay in Rudolph Land. 
Three sledge expeditions were sent north in the 
spring of 1900, and one under Captain Cagni, reached 
84* 33' N.. at aboat 56" E., which is 30 miles farther 
north than Kansen's farthest. The sides of tbe Stella 
Polare were crushed by ice pressure, but she was 
patched up, aiut in her the expedition reached Nor- 
way HI SL'plfiTibtr. itytjci. 

Robert Edwin Peary, the American Arctic ex- 

pkxer, during his third Arctjc expedition for the 
discovery of the North Pole (1898-1902) rounded Che 
north end of Greenland, the most nurtliemly known 
land m the world, and succeeded in reaching 84' 13' 
N. lat.. the highest latitude then attained. In the 
summer 'of 1905 he started by way of Greenland for 
the North Pole in the steamer Hooseveit, e^MciaOy 
constructed for the undertaldog, provided with tbe 
neccasary means of forcing its way tlirough the ice. 
and furnished with an installation of wireless tele- 
graphy. On November 4, 1 906. news wras received in 
New York that Peary had gained for tbe United 
States the " Farthest North " record. The fiooseivU 
spent the winter ol 1905 on the north coa-st of Grant 
Land, somewhere north of the Alert's winter quar- 
ters. In February, 1905, Peary, with his party, went 
north with sledges, via Hecla and Columbia. They 
were ddayed by open water between 84* and 85*. 
and beyond 85^ a six days' gale disrupted the ice, 
destroyed the caches, cut o3 communication with tbe 
sup[X)rting bodies and drifted them due east. 'ITiey 
reached 87^ 6' N. lat., over ice drifting steadily east- 
wards. On the return journey grt-at hardships were 
endured, and the sliip was eventually reached by 
way of the Greenland coast. 

Set Scoresby's " Account d Arctic Regions and 
of the Whale Fishery" (1820}. Osborne's "Narra- 
tive of an .\ttempt to Reach the North Pole" (1837), 
M'Clintock's " fJisannerv- of the North-West Pas- 
sage by M'Clure" (1857), Narc's " Nanativc of the 
Discovery of the Fate of Sir John Franklin" (1859), 
Markham's " Narrative of a Voyage to the Polar 
Seas" (1875-76). Middendorf's "Polar Regions" 
(1861), Manual of the " Natural Historj*. Geology* 
and Physics of Greenland and the Neighbouring Re- 
gions," British Admiralty (1875), "Arctic Geography 
and Ethnology," Royal Geographical Society {1875). 
Bcssd's " New Lands within the Arctic Circle" 
(1876), Mohn's "The North Ocean, its Depths, 
Temperature and Circulation " (1877). Petterson's 
"Voyage of the Jeannette"; "The Ship and Ice 
Journals of George \V. De Long " (1883). Nansen's 
"Farthest North" (1897), "The Norwegian North 
Polar Expeditioa, ]893>96." 

Arctic Ocean, One of the great water divisions o( 
the Globe, the Arctic circle (60° 30') bemg taken as a 
boundary, the whole of the ocean lying to the north 
is given this name. It is for the most port enclosed 
between the North Coast of Europe. Asia and North 
America. It communicates with the Atlantic by a 
broad opening on the cast of Greenland, and a nar- 
row, but important cfaaimel on the w*est, which has 
been traced as far north as 87* 6' N. The immediate 
area round the Nortli Pole is as yet unexplored; the 
nearest approaches which have been made have been 
those of Dr. Nansen and Johansca 86" 14', in iS'ys; 
Captain Cagni 86' 54'. 1900: Robert Edwin Peary 
87° 6' N „ 1 906. So far as is kno\«-n the region imme- 
diately runnel thi- PoIk con^tsls vt dccj) wali.T tovin-d 
with rough and broken ice-pack. The area of the 



Arctic Ocean is estimated at 5.908,000 square mDes. 
The tcmpcratnrc of the sur&cc water is gmerally 
29*. or aboat freezing point of salt water, at a\Kiut 
1 10 fathoms it increases to 33*. and the highest tem- 
perature ranges between 120 and 350 fathoms. 
namely, 35* to 39*. The greatest known depth ia 
aboat 2.650 fathoms. The most important of the 
namerous islands are Spitzbergen. Nova Zambia, 
with the multitudinous adjacent islets to the north 
of Europe; Ihc Likhow Islands or New Siberia, off 
tlic coast of .\sia, and the irregular Archipelago, 
into which the north easttm portion of America is 
spUt. Refer to Arctic Exploration. 

Sea Dr. Nansen's " Farthest North ' (1807). 
" Scientilic Results of tfie Nausi^u Expedition " 
(1900), " On the Patar Stat in the Arctic Sea," 
AbniEzi '1903), " Histor>- of the Kara Sea Trade 
Route to Siberia," Kinlock {I'&i^). 

Arctic Pole. The North Pole, as oppoMd to the 

AntiTcnc or Southern one. 

Arctic Zone. The zone or belt of the earth be- 
en thf Noiili Pole and the Arctic circle. 

A star of the first magnitude, one of the 
nautical stars, close to the knee of Arctopbylax. 

Ardaa. Italian torpedo-boat, (Odcro, 1906.) 
Length, ifi5 ft.; beam, 17 ft.; draught. 7 ft.; dis- 
placement, 300 tons; complemrnt, 36; armament. 
3 3-pdr., 3 tabes. ; Hp.. 3,000 = 25 kts. ; coal. 40 tons. 

Ardent. British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Chis> 
wick, 1S94.) Length. 201 ft.; beam. 19 ft.; draught. 
J ft. ; displacement, 247 tons; complement. 45 ; 
armament. I 12-pdr., 5 6-pdr. ; 3 tubes; twin 
screw; Hp , 4,500 = 27 kts.; coal, 60 tons. 

This ^hip-name is associated with Hootl's occupa- 
tion of Toulon, 1793; Camperdown. 1797; Copen- 
hagen, iSoi; Bombardment of Copenhagen, 1807. 

Ardest, Term used when vessel gripes or goes to 
wmd quickly. 

Ardjoeno. Netherlands torpedo-boat. (Yarrow, 
1886.) Length, i:^ ft.; beam. 13 ft.; draught. 6 ft. ; 
displacement, 83 tons; complement, 16; armament, 
3 t-pdr.. 2 tube*. Hp.. 8{k) = 3i kts.; coal, 30 tooa. 

Anometer Stg Hydrometer. 

Arethasa. A vessel built and cngined by Mes-Hni . 
Pcnn m iftoowitli engines of large cylindwr capacity 
to admit of great expansion with surface condensers 
and •iiiperhraters to the boilers. They were double- 
trunk with two cylinders and worked at a pressure 
of 2s!bs. to the -'«iuarf inch. This vessel was con- 
structed with the ide-i of economising fuel. 

Aretnn. Italian torpedo gun-boat (1891}. 
Displacement S50 tons. Complement 118. 
GuHi. Atmour. 

! — ^47 in. " Steel." 

6 — 6pdr. 1^ in. Deck. 

3—1 pdr. 

Torfttdo Tuber, 
fi Above water. 


Twin screw. Hp. 4,100=19'$ kts. Coal maxi- 
mum I So tons. 

Argeluder. Friedrlch Wilhelm August (1799-1^95)- 
German astronomer {b. Mcmet). From 1823-27. 
he was director nf the Abo Observatory', and in 1837 
became Profcs:Jor of Astronomy at Bonn, where he 
published his celestial atlas " Uranometria Nova " 
in 1843. In continuation of Bcsscl's work he deter- 
mined the position of some 22.000 stars. 

Argentino Tocbt Clab, with their headquarters in 
Buenos Xytvs. was established in 1II83. Patron, 
His Excellency the President of the Argentine Re- 
public ; Commodore, Kcar-.\dmira] Enrique G. 
Howard; Vicc-Crmmodore, C. V. Blanco; Hon. 
Treasurer. F. F. Nishet; Hon. Secretory, L. B. 
Trant. Entrance fee, 100 dols. Annual subscrip- 
tion, 50 dots. 

Arginiiic, Battle of. In 406 d.c. Couod and the 
Athenian Fleet defeated the Spartans in a naval 
fight off the Island of Arginusc, between Nesboa and 
Asia Minor. 

Argonaut. British istclasscruiaer. (Fairfield, 1898.) 
Lcngth450 ft. Beam 68 ft. Maximum draught 27 ft. 
Displacement 11.000 tons. Complement 677. 
Guns. Armour. 

rfi — 6 in. "Harvey," 

12 — ta pdr. 4 in. Belt amidships. 

7 — 13 pdr., 8 cwMt. 12 in. Conning tower, 
12—3 ptJr- 
2 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
3 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 18,000=20-3 Ws. Coal maxi- 
mum 3,000 tons. Approximate cost ^600,000. 

Argonaat The name given to cuttles belonging 
to the genus Argonauta. One of the heroes who 
accompanied Jason in the ship Argo when he sailed 
on tiis mytliic voyage in quest of the Golden FUecf. 

Argooaate, French torpedo-boat (1899). Dis- 
placement, 1 30; complement. 34; maximum draught, 
9 ft.; guns 3 3-pdr.; torpedo tubes 2 ij-in.; twin 
screw; Hp.. 2.000^26 kts.; coal, 16 tons. 

A^io Steamship Co., with their bead offices 
at Bremen, have a fleet of 30 steamers engaged in 
general cargo carrying, and the Bremen-London and 
the Bremen-HtiU trades. They are modem well- 
built ships, containing excellent accommodation for 
the conveyance of passengers. A steamer leaves 
London every Tuesday. Thursday and Saturday, for 
Bremen, one sailing ^m Bremen on the same days. 
A steamer leaves Hull for Bremen every Monday 
and Friday, returning from Bremen every Wednes- 
day and Saturday. 

Argot. FrcQcb shallow draught gun-boat. (Chis- 
wick, 1900.) Displacement. 132 tons; speed. 13 kts. 

Argyll. British ist class cruiser. (Greenock 
Foundry Co., 1904.) 
Leiigtb450 ft. Beam68 ft. Maximumdrangbtas ft. 




DiAplacemcnt 10,700 tons. Cotnp]tnnent655. 
Gunt, Afmouf. 

4 — 7-5 in. '* Knipp." 

6 — 6 fn. 6 in. Bfrlt amidships. 

2 — 12 pclr. fi in. Barljcttcs. 

23 — 3 pdr. 13 in. Conning tower. 

3 Maxims. 

Torpedo Ti^es, 
2 Sutiinerged. 
Tvrin screw. Hp. 3i,ooo>32^ kU. Coal maxi- 
mum t.Sootons. Approximate coat ^850,000. 

ArlAdne. British ist class cruiser. (Clydebank, 

Lcngtli 450 't- Beam69 ft. Ma.ximnm draught 37 (t. 
Displacement 1 tons. Complement 677. 
Gttnt. A rmour. 

16 — 6 in.. 40 cal. " Harvey." 

12 — 13 pdr. 4 in. Belt amidships. 

2 — 13 pdr., 8cwt. 12 in. Conning tower. 
f a — 3 pdr. 
3 Maxims. 

To*peHo Tubes (iS in.). 
2 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 18,000-^20-3 ^^- Coal maxi 
mutn i.ooc> tons. Approximate cost ^600,000. 

A ship ol this name was with Barrington at St. 
Lucia 1 77S ; with Byron against D'Estaing, ofl 
Grenada, 1779: Hotham, off Hy*res. 1795. 

Ariadne. Cjcrman armoured cruiser (W<:ser, 1900]. 
Length 33S It. Beam 39 ft. Maximum draught 17 ft. 
Displacement 3.650 tons. Complement 249. 
Gi*»s. Atmouf. 

10 — 4'i in. " Krupp." 

14 — I pdr. 2 in. Deck. 

4 Machine. 3 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
2 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 8,c;oo = 3i kts. Coal maximum 
560 tons. 

Ariadne Steamship Co., Ltd.* have two tuudom 
carnu >tv.«iKTs built .^t Wi^si Harllcixxfl. which are 
engaged in the cargo trade with the Continont. 
Ariadna. Anadne Alexander, 

Ariake. Japanese torpetlo-boat destroyer. (Yar- 
row, 1905.) Displacement. 3S0 tons; complement 
Sj; maximum draught, 9 ft.; armament, i i3-pdr., 
5 6-pdr., tubes 3 i8in.: Hp.. 6.000^31 kts.; coal. 
95 tons. 

Arid. On March iS, 1830. thi^ vessel was lost in 
thr Persian Guli. when 79 perished. 

Ariel. British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Chiswick, 
1897.) Length, 310ft.; beam. 19 ft.; draught. 7 (t.; 
displacement. 378 tons; complement, 60; arma- 
ment. I i3-pdr.. 5 6-pdr., 3 tubes; twin screw; 
Hp.. 5.800 = 30 kts.; coal. Bo tons. 

This vessel struck the head of the break-water 
duringanight attack on Malta Harbour, April, 1907. 
and foundered ; one life lost. 

Aliea. A northern constcHation. forming the first 
of the tu-el%rc signs of the Zodiac, into which the sun 
enters about March 30. With Musca, Aries contains 
23 Nebula:, 8 double, and 148 single stars, of which 
only 50 are visible to the naked eye. The commence-^ 
ment of this -■ngn, called the firat point of Aries, is t 
original from which the right ascension of the 
heavenly bodies is reckoned upon the equator, and 
their longitude upon the ecliptic. Omng to the effect 
nf precession, tlte passage of the sun through Aries 
haa been moved forward from April 16 to May 13. 

Arkansas. V.S. monitor. (Newport New«, igoo.| 

Length J 52 ft. Beam 50 ft. Maximum draught 1 3 fttt 

Displacement 3,755 '*"**■ Complement 130. 

Guns, Armour. 

I a in., 40 cal. " Knipp." 


1 1 in. Belt amidships. 
1 1 in. Barbettes. 
8 in. Conning tower. 


4— 4 in. 
3 — 6 pdr. 
4 — I pdt. 
3 Colts. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.), 
2 Above water, 
Twin screw. Hp. 2,400'=' 12 kts. Coal maximum 
400 tons. 

Ark ol Noah. A sacred and capacious vessel, built 
by N0.1I1 for the purpose of presLTving the race of 

man, and of the land animals, against the flood. It 
took 120 years to build, measured 300 cubics in 
length, 5>' in breadth, and 30 in height; it had three 
storeys, and was constructed of Gopher woo<l, and 
pitched over or paved with Bitnmrm. 

A.R.M. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Amemuiden, Holland. 

Armada. A Spanish term, signifying a royal fleet. 
It comes from the same root as Army. 

ArmadB, The Spanisfa. See Spanish Armada. 

Armand Behio, French subsidised merchant 
ship (1892). Mcssagerics Maritimes (ij.v.). Dimen- 
sions, 486 X 49 X 36 ft. ; groBs tonnage. 6,6J5. ; Hp.. 
7,500 = 17 kts. 

Armvd Neutrality is the condition of a neutral State 
which IS prepared to take militaij' measures against 
possible attempts on the part of a bcnigercnt {q.v.) 
to use neutral territory' or to commit aggressions. The 
tirst artned neuiraUty of 1780. formed by Kussia. 
Denmark and Sweden, proclaimed the principles 
tliat neutral vessels may freely navigate and carry 
goods belonging to subjects of beUigereat«, if not of 
the nature of contraband of war {q.v.). and that no 
blockade {q.v.) should be recognised unless ctfectivc. 
The second armed neuiraiity of 1800 made no ad- 
vance, owing to the Naval supremacy of Great 
Britain and the death of the Emperor Paul. In 1807 
R uH«ia proclaimed armed neulrattty afresh, and it waa 
not until the Declaration of Paris (q.v.), 1865, that new 
rules were finally settled. 

Ar'mfla Light, situated off Cape KmisteiTe, was 
established in 1S97, and is a 3-flash light every 





30 seconds: duratioa of flash one-tenth second; 
candic-powpr 250,000; burner, mantle jo mm. 
diameter; iUnminant, incandescent, oil, gas. 

AnniojE the Lead. Tallow placed in the cavity at the 
end nl mounding lead, to bring up specUiMiu from 
the bottom. 

Annoar, KtTal, The idea of using armour for iron- 
cJadti t» At.)uut i$6 yean old, and dates from the intio- 
dnction of guns capable of horizontal shdt Are. In 
1821 a French commission was appointed to con- 
sider the question of armour-clad vessel*), but dwHded 
it ti> be impracticabl*;. and nothing was done until 
tlie Crimean War, when the hr^t armoured vessels 
were linilt in I-rance for the purpose of attacking the 
Russian <ihore batteries in the Black Sea. None of 
these were Sf>a-ROing vessels, atrd it was not until 
i8s7 that Napoleon III., with Dupuy de LQme. be- 
gan a new cm of naval conatructioQ, with the sea- 
going frigate Gloite. the framo of which was built of 
wood and plated with iron. In December, iB^>o. the 
first British sva-going ironclad Warriiyt wa« launched ; 
her displaccmrnt wa:» 9,000 Ions, and less than two* 
ttatrds of her length was armoured. The Black Ptinct 
followed in 1861, both vessels being built of. oi well 
as armoured with, iron, the superior strength and 
Luting qualities of which soon drove wood , as a con- 
structive matcriRl, nut altogether, lo 1873 the 
MinotoHf was launched, a vessel of 10,300 tons, 
armoured thronghout her length, except at the bow, 
and armed v.H\\ breech -loading rifled gun^. In 1867 
the turret system, in which the guns were carried on 
a turning platform, protected by an armoured ring. 
was applied to the Captain and Monarch. The ///*- 
cvle$, m iS&H, with 9 in. armoor. was an example of 
the belt and battery system; she was only armoured 
to the main deck, except tliat the armour was carried 
up to the upper deck, where it was necessary to protect 
the big guns carried in her central battery. In 1 87 1 
tlie Dtnfottation, with 13 in. armour, reprfst-nttrtl a 
tevolntioi in design, for she hail twin-screw h. and 
depended entirely on t>teain propultiion: the hori- 
sontal armour of her main-deck was a new feature, 
which materially increased weight and cost. So the 
iocresase went on untd the InfUxibU, launched in 
lA/ti^ bore some armour which wai> a^ much a» 24 in. 
thick. She WA-a of tlic central citadel type; her 
armour was concentrated for about one-third of her 
length, the fore and ait protcctmn being a steel deck. 
This vessel was severely criticized, and it was urged 
agaifut her that her unarmoured taids might be 
freely petu-trated ; but in 1804. at the battle of Ya-lu. 
two Chinese 8fa)]>s of the &.ime type were exposed to 
fire all day. and in the evenmg were able to follow up 
the Jiipane^e fleet when it withdrew. While she was 
being cotistnicicd. compound armour wa^ intmduce<l 
and applied tn her in certain positions, which 
marked the beginning of thr complete superbession 
of troa by steel. Nearly all battleships boUt between 
tA8«-^o bad compound arawtir— 'i.r., armoor wiih 

a bard steel fac« and soft iron back. In the Majestic 
1894, HarveyiJtcd steel was employed, which was 
made by a mixture with steel of small proportions of 
otlier metals, notahly nickL-l. Her plating was ^J, in., 
and was «qual to 1 5 in. of iron. She was a return to 
the belt system, and had a lai^ protected area. In 
the Formidable , a modern addition to the Maj^sJic. 
the armour was carried forward to the bow. and Mith 
this increase of armoured area there was another 
quality of armour plate, the lateet and best which is 
known as " Kmpp " armour. The neoessary thick- 
ness was therefore decreased, and instead of 24 in. 
wrought iron armour, 12 iu. compound, or 7^ in, 
Harveyixed steel, sj^in. Kmpp steel wassubebtuted. 
At the present day la in. Krupp steel armoi^r plates 
are the thickest used, and these only in such vessels 
as the Dreadnought and her class; the major part of 
the armour of roont of the battleslup« ui the British 
and foreign navies being about nine inches. 

Re/er lo Vcry*s " Navies of the World "; Very's 
"Naval Construction"; Browne's "Position of 
Britiftli and Foreign Armour"; Braitiicy'ft "Naval 

Armotired VesstU. See Armour, Naval. 

AnuttCBC WhJtworth and Co. Ltd., Sir W. G 

Elfwick and Walker, 

The Hlswick shipyard has a frontage on to the 
Kiver Tyne of about 2.300 feet, and berth accommo- 
dation is provided in the yard for the building of ten 
vessels at the same time. Three of the berths, which 
have been apecially piled an<l strengthened to re- 
ceive exceptionally large and heavy war-vessels, are 
capable of taking vessels up to 65a ft. in length and 
90 ft. in breadtli. Line»of rait mterseot the yard and 
run alongside each of the berths, whilst locomotives 
%\*ith cranes for light lifts and heavy travelling cranes 
to lift large castings, etc., arr constantly employed in 
and about the shipyard. 

The machinery <^hed. containing punching, shear- 
ing, drilling, bending and plaiung machines, has a 
length of I ,ouo feet, and in it are found tlie mo»t up- * 
to-date api^ianccs for dealing quickly with fihip 
plates and other work. 

In the centre of the yard the lUlglu smith aud angle 
turning nhops. with liirnacr-s for heating an^tlc bars 
and plates, are situated; at the eaht end a vtry cotn- 
plete sawmill, with timber sheds, the pattern -making 
shop and plumbcn>' shop, boat buildmg nhop, sail 
making loft and model making shop, are also located, 
and on the west side the blacksmiths' shop, fitting 
shop and joiners' shop, with a mould loft 300ft. in 
length above the drawing and general othces and 
general store. The latter, as well as the fitting shop, 
jointrrs' shop and mould loft, arc, however, being 
traoaierred to the other end of the shipyard, where 
the joiners' shop will be in close and convenient 
proximity to the sawmill. 

The whole of the machinery employed in the ship- 
yard is elrctiicany driven, and the installation of 



motors for producing power and light represents 
about 2.000 B.Hp. 

Three large nir compressors supply compretised air 
lor working various portable tools throngboot the 
yard, mains being fitted so that compressed air can 
be readily obtained wherever required, in the yard 
and on l>oard vessels at quays. 

A floatinf; workshop has been constructed for u»e 
alongside vessels when away from the yard. This 
shop is fitted with \'arious machines, a d)'namo for 
lighting pur])OS«, smith forge, etc.. and a galley for 
preparing workmen's meals. 

The Elswicfc shipyard was primarily established in 
1884, for tlic exclusive building of warships, but 
during this period other vcss4^ls of special typ<>s, in- 
cluding several oil-carrying vessels, a cable repairing 
vessel, and an exceptionally finely modelled and 
luxuriously furnished \'acht and a State barge for the 
Sultan of Tnrkey, have been constructed there. 

At this yard the firm could, if required, proceed 
contemporaneously with the construction of ten war 
vessels, having accommodation for two battleships 
of 30.000 tons or more displacement (one of tlie 
berths recently constructed and strengthened with 
ferro-concrote piling could take a vessel up to 
30,000 tons), one tirst-class cruiser of, say, 15.000 
tons, and one of 10.000 tons; two second-class 
cruisers of 4,000 tons; two third-claM cruisers or 
gunboats of z.txxi tons, and two torpedo-boat de- 
stroyers, or other smaller craft. 

As illustrating the capacity of Sir W. G. Arm- 
strong. Whitworth and Co.. Ltd., for warship con- 
struction, it may be stated that in 181)8 no less 
than twenty war vessels of various types were under 
construction, vix.. 15 at Elswick shipyard and 5 at 
the Walker shipyard. This extensive list comprised 
one fijst-class battleship, 12,300 tons and 14.000 Hp., 
two first-class cruisers, each of 9,700 tons and 
18,000 Hp.. two coast defence armonr-clads, each of 
3.400 tons and 4.500 Hp., one armoured cniiser of 
7,000 tons &nd 18,000 Hp.. eleven second and third- 
dau cmlsen and two torpedo-boat destroyers. The 
aggregate displacement of these vessels amounted to 
98.000 tons, and the aggregate indicated horse-power 
of the machinery fitted in them amounted to 333,000. 
Six of ^e vessels, viz.. one first-class battleship, one 
armoured cruiser, and four second-class cruisers. 
were launched from Rlswick shipyard in that 

In all 71 war vesitels have been built at Elswick 
shipyard for the British Navy and for other navies of 
the world, viz. : 

Total djspt 


British Navy 




Japanese Navy 




Chilian Navy 




Branhan Navy 




Chinese Navy 




Norwegian Navy 




Italian Navy 




Argentine Navy 


ti 15K 


Total dispt. 


Austrian Navy 3 



Spanish Navy 3 



Indian Service 2 



Roumanian Service i 



Portuguese Seni-ice ) 



lTnite<l States 1 



Turkish States i 






av- ^i 

In May, 1907, there were under construction, in 
addition to H.M.S. Invincible, a vessel of the Dtead- 
nought class, to be named Superb, and a 33 kt. 
torpedo-boat destroyer for the British Navy, as well 
as two first-class battleships for the Brazilian 

The number of men employed in Elswick shipyard, 
when moderately busy, is from four to five thousand. 

It may be added that Sir W. G. Armstrong, 
Whitworth and Co.. Ltd., by arrangement wit 
Mesara. Robert Stephenivon and Co., Ltd., Hefa 
bnm-on-Tyne, baxT first claim to tiie lai^e grav-' 
ing dock belonging to the latter firm, for the dock- 
ing of war vessels built by the former. Tliis dock 
is 710 ft. long and 90 ft, wide, and is thus capable of 
receiving the largest war vessels yet built or build- 
ing. It wilt therefore be seen that the facilities 
possessed by the Elswick firm for the building and 
completion of every class of wax vessel leave nothing 
to be desired, and arc possibly such as no other 
private firm tn the country possess. J 

The Walker shipyard was originally founded in 
1840, and after changing hands once or twice, was 
reopcnc<l in 1832 by the late Mr. Charles Mitchell, in 
partnership writh Mr. Matthew R. Bigge. of Fenham 
HaU. under the style of Messrs. C. Mitchell and 
Co. A number of interesting steamers of all types 
were ooostnicted in this yard ; and if one type of the 
many may be taken as representing a speciality-, the 
light draft paddle steamer may be pointed to as a 
class of vessel of which perhaps a larger number than 
any other was built at that time. The relations be- 
tween Mr. Mitchell and the Russian Government were 
very close, and in the early 'sixties Mr. Henry F. Swan 
went to St. Petersburg and constructed a floating 
battery, the Ne Tron Menya, the armoured frigate 
Princt Pojarski. and three armoured turret ships for J 
the Russian Navy, in the dockyard placed at th« f 
disposal of Messrs. C. Mitchell and Co. by the 
Government. Amongst a large number of commer- 
cial steamers the following may be mentioned as re- 
presenting very unusual types, and as pointing to the 
variety of work which has been characteristic of the 
shipyard : The Hooper, telegraph steamer, which 
was launched in 100 working days; the Faraday; the 
Poityer Qxuvtifr. cable steamer; a Hoating dock , 
formed of iron cyhnders, which was built and shipped 
for re-erection in Batavia, and the cruisers Ckao 
Yvtig and Yang HVi. In 1883 the hrm of Messtv. 
C. Mitchell and Co.. combined with that of Sir 




W. G. AmutroaK, Whitwortb and Co., and th« 
style of the company became Sir W. G. Arm- 
stroDg, Mitchell and Co., Ltd. After the amal- 
gunation the cruisers Esmeralda, Naniwa Kan. 
Takaekiito Kan, and one or two others were built in 
the Walker yard, but it vas decided to separate thc 
military from the commercial shiphmlding. and the 
Elswick shipyard was formed for canning on the 
iormer class of worlc. The total number of vessels 
constructed in the Walker shipyard since its ioau- 
gnration, under the management of the late Mr. 
Charles Mitchell, is 70S. Although many yards can 
claim a considerably larger output of tonnage, it is 
qucattonable whether any :Jupbuilding firm can show 
inch a record of varied work. The ice-breaking 
steamer Ermack, the ice-breaking ferry steamer 
Baikat. the icc-brealdng ferry steamer Saralovskaia 
Ptreptava. represent specimens of work which are in 
their way unique. The tank type of steamer for 
carrying petroleum in bulk owes its inception to Hr. 
Swan, and no less than 91 of this type have been 
already constructed, while it is very seldom that at 
least one of this class of steamer is not under con- 
struction, l^assenger steamers of various kinds, tur- 
btoe propelled .tteamers of high q>eed, and practically 
every type of vessel which a shipbuilder is called 
upon to design, have been turned out from this y&id. 
Of late the whole arrangement of the yard has been 
altered, mare land has been taken in. the old build- 
ings hax-e disappeared and have been replaced by 
modem np-to-date sheds, with all the latest appli- 
ances for carr^'ing out rapid and economical ship- 

AnDitrODC, WOlUUU Qeorge. first Baron Arm- 
itFoog (1810-1900). British Inventor and founder 
of the Elswick Works. Educated at the Gram- 
mar School, Bishop's Auckland, and on leaving 
was articled to a wlicitor, and for a number 
of years wa^ engaged in active practice in Newcastle. 
As a boy he took considerable interest in mechanical 
devices and began investigations on electricity, and 
several of his inventions date from a time prior to bis 
giving up the Law. In 1838 he made his first con- 
tribution to Hydraulic Engineering by inventing a 
Hydro- Electric Machine, and six years later mvented 
the Hydraulic Crane, which procured for him his 
Fellowship of the Koyal Society. The Elswick Works 
werv originally founded for the manufacture of 
HydrauUc Machinery, and the first " Rifled Ord- 
nance Armstrong Gun " did not make its appearance 
mitil 1856. They were adopted by the British 
Covemment in iSs9. he wras appointed Engineer of 
Rifled Ordnance, and 300 " Armstrong " guns were 
introduced into tlte service between ]&$9 and 1S63; 
Great Britain thus originated a principle of gun con- 
stmctioa which has since been universally adopted. 
In e86j he resigned his appointment and returned to 
Elswick, where he developed his early idea of using 
Ste«l wire for the con»lruclian of guns. The retro- 
grade step wbkb was takca by the Qritisb Cin-era* 

ment in 1864. when they ceased to nae the " Arm- 
strong " gun ouing to defects found in parts of the 
breech mechanism, which was caused by careless- 
ness in not closing this part of the gun properly, but 
which might uuily have been remedied, decided tbcm 
to revert to the old muKzled loader, and it \h-as not 
until 1880, when he once more demonstrated the 
superiority of breech-loading guns, that they were 
received back into the service. In 1865, when Presi- 
dent of the British Associatioo, his speech on the 
probable early exhaustion of our coalfields, led to 
the appointment of a Royal Commission to investi- 
gate the matter. Besides the Elswick Gun Foundry, 
he established the Elswick shipyards lor the construc- 
tion of steel warships, and some of the fastest ships 
in the British Navy have been boilt there. In 1897 
lie vras raised to the peerage, his name appearing 
amoog the Jubilee honours, and became the first 
Baron Armstrong. He died at Rothbury. Northum- 
berland, December 27, 1900. at the venerable age of 
90, and was buried on the last day of the nineteenth 
century' in Rothbury churchyard. 

In addition to Iwing a Companion of the Bath, he 
held the Order of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus of I taly, 
of the Dannebrog of Denmark, of Jesus Christ of 
Portugal, of Francis Joseph of Austria, of Charles the 
Third of Spain, of the Rose of Brazil, of the Dragon 
of China, and of the Sacred Treasure of Japan. He re 
ceived the honorary degrees of D.C.L. from Oxford 
and Durham, and of LL.D. from Cambridge. 

Publications: " A Visit to Egypt " (1873), " Elec- 
tric Movements in Air and Water " {1897), besidei 
many professional papers. 

ArmitraaK, \mifaia Haniy Aimstraag FitzPatrick* 
Lord ArmstrcDg. J. P., D.L. Northumberland, (cr. 
1903.) Major N'orthumberiand Yeomanry (b. 
March 3, t863). Married 1S89 Winifred, daughtcrof 
late Sir John Adye. G.CJi. Educated Eton and 
Trinity College, Cambridge. M.A. Cantab Hon. 
D.C.L.. Durham. Heir. s. Hon. W. J. Montagu 
(b. 1893). Director of Sir W. G- Armstrong, Whit- 
worth and Co., and of the North-Eastem Railway. 
President of the North-East Coast Engineers and 
Shipbuilding Institution, 1S94. Hon. Ass., Inst. 
N.A., and an Hon. Member of the Surveyors 

Army and Havy Chronlo te ud Omnium Oftthenua 

Established 1902. Published monthly. Price 6rf 
Address, 1 1 1 Jermyn Street, St James's, L<Hidon, S.W* 

Army and Navy Oaiette. Estabhshed i860. Pub* 
U^licd weekly (S.tturtUy). Price Od. Address, jz 
Essex Street. Strand, London. W.C 

Arpad. .\u stroll ungariac battleship. (Trieste, 

Length 354 ft. Beam 65 ft. Maximum draught 25 ft. 
Di9{)lacement 8,340 tons. 




t3 — 6 in. 
10 — 12 p<lr. 

Cttm. Armow. 

3 — 9*4 in., 40CaI. " Krnpp." 

8 id, HtW amidships 
8 ID. Barbettes. 
8 in. Turrets, 
8 in. Conning tuv/t-r. 
Tofpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
2 Submenied. 
Twin wrew. ilp. ii.9O0'^i8-5 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 840 tons. Approximate cost ^650,000. 

Arpea. Italian torpedo iMsat. (Odero, I9C)6.) 
lA'ugtli. 1O5 it.; beam. 17 It.: draught, 7 it.; dis- 
placement, 200 tons; complement, 30; annament, 
3 j-pdr., i tubes; Up,. 3,ooo = its kta; cool, 40 

ATQnalXlie. VrcDcli torpedo-boat dc!jtra>'er. 
(Normiuid, 1902.) Length. t8o It.; beam, 21 ft.; 
maximum draught. 10 It.; displacement, 300 tons; 
coraptement. 45; guns, 1 9-pdr.. 6 3-pdr.; tor- 
pedo tube&, 2 1 5 -in. ; speed, 27-30 kts. 

Anest d Ship. In order to enforce the Admiralty 
process in n-nt, either party to a suit may, at any 
time after tJUe issue ol a writ of summons, apply for a 
warrant of arrest, which, however, is enforceable 
only so long as the rrs rtmainii iu territorial waters. 
Before a warrimt for arrest can be obtained, an 
affidavit mnst be filled by the part>' or his agent, 
stating the name and dcscnptioo ol the party at 
whose instance tlie warrant is to t>e issued, Ihe 
nature of the claim or counterclaim, the name and 
nature of the property to be arrest<>d, and that the 
claim or comiterclaim has not been i»atieficd. A 
warrant is then issued from tin; Admiralty registry, 
directed to the Marshal uf tJic Court, autlioriidng liiiu 
or bis deputy tu arrest and keep under ant-^t the 
sliip until further urdera. Tlie ^.-rvice ol tlie warianl 
h cllccted by naihng the original to the maKt. and 
then leaving a copy in its place. The arrest extends 
to all the vessel's apparel, and sometimes to her 
corgoh either on its account or on the account of 
Ireigbt due. 

Any vessel belonging to a Biitish So\'creign or to a 
foreign Sovereign Government b exempt from 

AiTOCanL British snd class cruiser. (Devonport, 

LeagLb33ult. B^^n 57 tt. Maximum draught 24 ft. 
Displacement 5.75U tons. Complement 480. 
CnHJi. Armvur. 

to — 6 in. 2 in. Belt bow. 

8 — 1 3 pdr. 3 io. Deck. 

1—12 pdr., 8 cwt. 9 in. Conning tower. 
3— 3pdr. 
a Maxim*. 

Torpedo TuUs (i8 in.). 
2 Submerged. 
I Atxive water stem. 
Twin screw. Ilp. io.ooot t(>kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 1 , 1 7 s tcRU, Approximate cost /3oo,ooo. 

A Mnel of this name was with Rodney in bis 
action with De Gra^oo, 17S3. 

Anogant. French ironclad, sank otf Hy^^rei Isles. 
March 19, 1879; 47 lives loM. 

Arrol*Bir Williun, Kt. (cr. 1S90) (b. 1839). Head of 
the lirni of VVtn. Arrol and Co., Engineers. Con- 
structed the Tay and Torth Bridges. 

Arrownnitb't Bristol Tide TaUas. Publlhbrd 
monthly. Price ij. Aildn^:!!, HiuiLol, Oloucofttcr- 

Ars«o&L .^ magazmc of military stores containing 
weapons of all kind:*, and ammunition for ttu- supply 
of the naval .and military force btrlonglng to a country. 
The manufacturing establishmcnti for the Navy, 
and the storehouses at places like Pl^^nouth, Ports^ 
month, Pembroke Docks and Chatliam, are ar^nals. 
but it has long l>een tlie custom to <ipcak of tlicm as 
dockyards. In England (he term is almost exclu- 
sively applied to th^ MctoriM and magarinc* al 
Woolwich, from wliich the Army and Nav\" obtain 
the bulk of their guns and ammunition. The principal 
naval arsenals on the Continent are Brest, Cher- 
lH»urg. Toulon, in France; Spetiii and Venict*, in 
Italy; Cartagena, in Spain; l-udwiK-'hafen and Kiel, 
in Germany; Kronstadt, with naval yards at St. 
Petersburg, Libau, Revel, Sebastopol and Nicolaieff, 
in Russia ; Horttn. in Norway : K.irlskrona, in 
Sweden; and Antwerp, in Belgium. In thi- t'nitcd 
States. Portamouth. Boston. Brooklyn, I.cagne 
Island, Washington, Norfolk, Pensacoln, M»rc 
Island and Puget Sound. 

Anon. To malicsonsly and unlawfully set fire to 
His Majesty's ships of war, arsenals, magazines, 
dockyards, or naval or military stores, is a fekwiy 
punishable with death (Dockj-ard Protection Act 

To unlawfully and maliciously set lire to any ship, 
finislied or unfinished, is a felony punishable by 
^tcnal servitude to the extent of lilc. or by imprison- 
ment. To attempt to set fire to any ship, etc,, fs a 
felony punishable by 14 years' penal servitude, or 
imprisonment (Malicious Damage Act. 1861). 

To set Hrc to vessels or works in the docks of the 
port of London is still punishabK* by death. 

Kvery person subject to the Na\-at Di«cipline .\ct, 
i86C, who shall unlawlully set fire to any dockj-anj, 
victualling yard, or steam factory, j-ard, arsenal, 
magazine, buildmg, stores, or to any ship, vessel, 
log, barge, boat, or other craft, or furniture thereunto 
belonging, not being the propertj- ol an enemy,' 
pirate or rebel, ^ha^ suffer death or any other pun- 
ishment mentioned in the Act {(j.v.). 

Artan. Loait. Marine painter of the Antwerp 
School. Remarkable (or the dark and powprful 
effects he obtained in htn work, tfai-- famous picture, 
the " North East," being a &ne specimen of work. 




Artiflev Bngineeis (British Navy). All engine- 
room artiiicers ol at least lo years' confirmed service, 
and of not lesa than 3 5 years of age, become clipble 
for wammt rank of artihcer engineers. Their unitorro 
is tliat of the cu^eer. with the addition of a narrow 
strip of purple cloth on the cuff. 

Aran. British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Laird, 
IV03.] Length, 225 ft.; beam, 23ft.; draught, 10ft.; 
displacement, 550 tons; complement, 70; armament, 
1 13-pdr.; 5 6-pdr., z tabes; twin screw; Hp. 
7,cx»=3<; kts.; coal, 130 tons. 

AS, Distinguishing letters tjo sea fishing boats 
registered at Aarbuus, Denmark. 

AS. DLstinf^iishinK; letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Spiekeroof;, Germany. 

A.^. Abbreviation for Alto-stratus, as adopted 
by the International Meteorolot^cal Committee and 
used in the tntemational Cloud Atlas. 

Angiri. Japanese tQr{«ck>-boat destroyer. (Thomy- 
CToft. iqot.) Displacement, 365 tons; maximum 
draught, g ft.; complement, 60; annament. 1 iz-pdr.. 
5 6-pdr.; torpedo tubes, 3 iB-in.; Hp. 6,000= 31 kts.; 
coal. 90 tons. 

Japanese ist class battleship. (Clyde- 
banV, 1S99.] 

Length 423 ft. Beam 76 ft. Maximum draught 38 ft. 
Diitplacement 15,000 tons. Complement 741. 

4 — 12 in., 40cal. 
14 — 6 in. 
30 — 12 pdr. 
8—3 pdr. 

" llar\-cy-mckel." 
9 in. Belt amidsbipa. 
14 in, Batbcttca. 
lOin. Turrtti, 
14 in. Conning tower. 

Totpeiio Tttbts (ifi in.). 
4 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 14,500^ 18 kta. Coal maximum, 
1 ,4CMj tons. 

Auliilio. Japanese torpedo-boat destroyer. 
(Thorn ycroft, 1901.) Displacement. 56s tons; inaxi- 
mum draught. 9 ft.; complement, 60; armamc-nt, 
1 13-pdr.. 5 6-pdr.; tubes 2 i8-in,: Hp., 6,000^ 
31 kts. : coal, 90 tons. 

e. Japanesetorpedo-boatdestToyer. (Kobe, 
1906.) Length. 330 ft. ; beam, 20 It. ; draught, 9| ft. ; 
displacement, 375 tuiis; complement, 5S; amiament, 
I 12-pdr., 5 <)-pdr.; 3 tubes; Hp., 6,000 39 kts,; 
coaI, 96 tons. 

^fH^Bf, Japanese armoured cmiacr. (Elswick, 

Length 4118 tt. Beam 67 it. Maximum draught 34 ft. 
Displactiuicat 9,750 tons. Complement 500. 
Guns. A ntiour. 

4 — 8 in. " Harvey-nickel." 

14— <t in. 7 in. Belt amidships. 

13 — 1 3 pdr. 6 in. Turrets. 

7 — 3) pdr. 14 in. Conning tower. 

Torf>§do Tvbss (18 in:). 
I Above water bow. 
Twin screw. Hp. forced 18,000=31 kts. 
maximum 1.300 ioas. 


AmmoIo. Japanese torpedo-lxnt destroyer. (Thorny- 
croft, 1903.) I^ngtli, 216 ft. ; beam, 20 ft : draught, 
dt ft.; displaccjnent, 373 tons; complement, 59; 
armament, 1 i3-pdr„ 5 6-pdr.; 3 tubes; twin screw; 
Hp., 7,400 ^31 kts.; coal, 96 tons. 

AMtMjru. Japanese torpedo-boat destroyer. (Osaka, 
1906.) Length. 330 it.; beam, 20 ft, ; draught, 9) ft.; 
displacement. 374 tons; complement, 38; armament, 
I l2-pdr., 5 6-pdr.; 2 tube^: twin screw; Hp., 
6,000=39 ^*^'l c'^* ^ toi^- 

Aslwstos is a tibrous mmcral of the Hom-Blcnd 
family, and aldn to Tremolitc, Actemolite and com- 
mon Horn-Blend. The chemical composition is 
chiefly fiilica. magnesia, alumina and ferrous oxtde. 
It occuni in drUcatc fibres, usually white, grey, bUic 
or green. Though rather brittle, it can be teased out 
like wool, and spun and woven into cloth. It forms 
a fire-proof texture, and to be purified requires only 
to be thrown in tlie fire; and it is said that the 
Romans used to wrap the bodies of their dead in 
asbestos cloth, in order to keep the ashes separate 
from those of the fnneru] pile. From this property 
it has derived its name. The principal sources of 
supply are Canada, tlie Alpine countries, Corsica and 
New South Wales; it has aliso been found near 
Anglesey, Corowall, in several parts of Scotland and 
the Shetland Isles. It is largely used for piston pack- 
ing, and has been found to exceed in durability any 
material hitherto employed. It is invaluable, parti- 
cularly in the case of marine engines. 

St* Jones's " Asbestos and Asbcstlc." 

Ash. Henry Hontio (b. Portsmoutli, January 13, 
1840). British nav,^l architect. ' Served apprenbr*^- 
ship Portsmouth I>ock>-ard. In iSSi was promoted 
foreman of the Devonport Dockyaitl. In March, 
18S5, appointed Assistant Constructor, In 1886 was 
promoted and sent to the Naval Yard at Bermuda, 
and in 1893 was appointed Chief Constructor in the 
Navy, and transferred to Sheemess. He retired at 
tbu age of 60. with 43 years' service. 

Ashfoid, Cyril Enuw^ M.A., Head Master, Chibome 
Uoyal Naval College (b, June 17, 1867). Educated 
King Edward's School, Berlin ; Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge; utb Wrangler, 1889; FirsKlass in Part I, 
Natural Science Tnpos, 1890. 

Publication; "A Text-Book on Electricity and' 

Ashore. Aground on land. 

Asia. Xorth-WVst Transit Service steanu-r. Foun- 
dered between Ontario and Saute Satnte Marie, Sep- 
tember 14* i&8a;98 liveaUwt. 




AsuUo Fetzoleiiin Co. have a fleet of two Bte&inera 
engaged ia the carriage oi petroleum. 

El Guisr. Saline Rickmers. 

AMtio Steam NavtgatiaD Co., Ltt.. managed 
by Messrs. Turner. Morrison and Co., Calcutta, 
)iave a Hctit of 15 large steamers, which main- 
tain Services from CalcQtta round the oooat of 
InJia to Bombay; one from Calcutta to Chittagong 
and Rangoon ; a cargo service from Calcutta to Java ; 
the Andaman Mail service from Calcutta to Ran- 
goon. Port Blair and Madras; and a service from 
Calcutta to Rangoon and Moulmein. 

Kohimur. Ncwab, Rajah. 

Maharaja. Nitam. Rajput. 

Maharani. Surani. Iianc4, 

Nadir. Pasha. Shahjekan. 

Nairung. Pundit. Shahxada. 

Aflkold. Russian ciuiser. [Krupp, 1900.) 
Length 444 ft. fieam 49 ft. Maximum draught 31 ft. 
Dispiacement 6.500 tons. Complement 580. 
Guns, A rnu3ur, 

12 — 6 In. " Krupp." 

12 — 12 pdr. 3 in. Deck. 

8 — 3 pdr, 6 in. Conning tower, 

a — I pdr. 

Torpedo TmUs. 
2 Submerged. 
4 Above water bow and stern. 
Three screws. Hp. 19,500^23 kts. Coal maximum 
1, 100 tons. 

Escaped from Japanese at the Battle of Round 
Island, August 10, 1904, and reached Shanghai, 
where she was interned. 

Aao. Formerly Bayan (f.t.). Japanese armour 
cruiser. (La Seyne,.t900.) 

Length 443 ft. Beam 5s ft. Draught 22 ft. 
Displacement 7,700 tons. Complement 400. 
Guns. A rmour. 

a — 8 in. " Krupp." 

8—6 in. 8 in. Belt. 

20 — :2 pdr. 7 in. Bulkheads. 

y — 3 pdr. 7 in. Big gun shields. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
2 Submerged. 
4 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. 17,400=22 kts. Coal maximum 

1 ,ooG ton.n. 

Aspen. Russian torpedo-boat. (Oshora. 1895.) 
Length. 127 ft.; beam. 15 ft.; draught, 6^ ft,; dis- 
placement, y8 tons; complement, 14; armament. 

2 i-i>di„ 2 tubes; Hp.. 1,250—21 kts.;coal. 17 tons. 

Aspem. Small Austro-Hungarian cruiser. (Pola, 


Length 313 It. Beam 39 ft. Maximum draught 17 it. 
Displacement 2.437 tons. Complement 243, 

Guns. Armour. 

8 — 4*7 in. " Steel." 

12 — 3 pdr. 2 in. Deck, 

a — r pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes (177 in.). 
I AIjovc water. 
Twin screw. Hp. 7.OUO - :iu kts. Coal maximum 
500 tons. Approximate cost £1 50.000, 

Aspio. French screw gun-boat (t8So). Of Utile 

fighting value. 

Aspinall's Muitime Xaw Reports. Established 
1861. Published quarterly. Price 5s. 6d. Address: 
Bream's Buildings, London, E.C, 

'^iMUhtil Dutch ludian Navy gun-boat. (Rotter- 
dam, 1900.) 

Length 179 ft. Beam 30 ft. Maximum draught 13 ft. 
Displacement 7S7 tons. Complement 96. 

3—47 ia- 
2 — 2-9 in. 
4—1-4 in. 
lip. 1,353 U kts. Coat 120 tons. 

Anar-i-Tewflk. Turkish battleship. (I.a Seyne, 

Length 272 ft. Beam 52 ft. Draught 25 ft. 
Di8^placemeaL4,6i3 tons. Complement 320. 
2 — 92 in. 
6 — 6 in. 

10— 12 £Klr. 

Hp. 3.56o<e:13 kts. Coal maximum 400 tons. 

AisetS. A term for property and money in contra- 
distinction to liabilities. 

Assignmoit. A policy may be assigned in whole or 
part (31 and 32 Vict. cap. 86). This .\ct gives the 
form: " I. A.B., of etc., do hereby assign unto CD., 
etc.. his executors, administrators, and assigns, the 
within policy of assurances on the ship, freight, and 
the goods thereid carried (or on ship, or freight, or 
goods as the case may be)." The adoption of this 
form is, however, not imperative, nor is it custo- 
mary, as au assigumeut is usually made by indorsa- 
tioa in writing upon the body, margin, or back of the 
policy, or by delivery of the instrument with inten- 
tiOD to assign it. (.\rnouId, 4th ed., pp. 103, 104.J 
The assignment of a policy of insurance after loss is 
witttin the Act (Lloyd v. Spence; Lloyd v. Fleming, 
L.R. 7 Q.B. 299), but if the interests of the assured 
have ceased before loss, an assignment of the policy 
after the loss has happened will be inoperative (North 
of England! Pure Oilcake Co. i-. .\rchangcl Marine 
Co., L.R. 10 Q.B. 240. Mc Arthur on the Contract 
of Marine Insurance p. 58.) 

Assistance. Ship. See Arctic Exploration. 

Assistance. British steam-repair ship (9.600 tons). 

Association. H.M. ship. 70 guns. Wrecked ofi the 
Scilly I^Untls, October 23, 1707, when Admiral Sir 
Qoudesley Shovel and dou men perished. 

" Steel.-' 
8 in. £>cck. 
6 in. Gun shields. 




AMOdatknolATeraffBAdJQften, Capel Coart. E.C., 
IS an association of :ivemKe .iHjusters combining for 
mutual support as well as iof the regulation o( their 
practice upon approved lines; and the formation of 
the Association of Average Adjusters has cnableil 
tfaem to make progress in this direction. The objects 
of the association arc to promote correctness of 
principle and nmformity of practice in the adjust- 
ment of clainu. An annual meeting is held, which Is 
attended by representatives ol shipowners, mer- 
diants and underwriters, as well as by the adjusters 
themselves, for the discussion of questions affecting 
average adjustment and the formation of practical 

Examinations are also held, which new memberft 
of the professioa havu to pass before they are eligible 
(or admissioD as members of the association. 

Anoolfttiat of Undarwrltfln ud Iiuannw 
Broken in Glasgow is composed of umlrrwriteni, 
marine insurance companies and insurance brokers. 
and is carried cm as a centre for underuriting, marine 
insurance broking, and with the view to protect un- 
derwntcn' and brokers' interests, both in respect to 
underwriting questions and salvagt; arrangements. 

There is evidence of the Association of Under- 
writers in Glasgow for the purpose of underwriting 
as far back as 1744, and that they met at that time 
at the shop of one Andrew Stalker, a seller of marine 
pobcics. In t7;S tiKre appeared &n advertisement 
in the '* Glasgow Mercury " relative to cf^^tain regu- 
lations with respect to the payment of premiums. 
The first recorded meeting of underwriters and 
marme insurance brokers was held on April r, 1S18, 
aad in the minutes of that meeting it was stated 
that " for some time past an association had been 
formed among the underwriters and brokers fre- 
quenting the coSee room for the purpose of such 
directions as might appear necessary tor tlu- superin- 
tendence and protection of the property in which the 
members were generally interested, and also for 
correspooding with agents at the outports on these 
and other matters in which the general interests of 
Ab underwriters were concerned; but that up to 
tliat time no regular office bearen had been ap- 
pomted. nrw minntps of the procedure of the associa- 
tion preserved." A committee was elected at that 
meeting, consisting of a chairman and three direc- 
tors, and a secretary who was to act as treasurer, 
and the committee was to be elected annually. 

The 6rst printed copy of the roles and regula- 
tioDs at the association was issued in 1819. and the 
latest in 190$. The present (1907] committee of 
management consists of seven members, and the 
admission committM of ten members. The asso- 
ciation is represented on the Agency Committee of 
Lloyd's, on the Committee of Lloyd's Register of 
Britisfa and Foreign Shipping, and on the Com- 
mittee of the British Corporation for the Survey 
and Registry of Shipping. The a<<sociation also sends 
representative members to the moetiogs of the 

Association of Average .Adjusters held annually in 

The association ia supplied daily by Lloyl's, Ten- 
don, with telegraphic and poatal Advices of idupping 
movements and casualtieis, and its library is fur- 
nished with shipping newspapers, atlases, gaiet- 
teers. underwriting text books, maritimt- law re- 
ports, and a classified series of charts and sailing 
directions, which are annually rcidmwhcd by dona- 
tion from the Hydrographic Department of the 

In connection with the association, hut having an 
independent Constitution, is the Glasgow Salvage 
Aaaociation (ij.v.). which attends, wHrn instructed, to 
the protection of TTnderwriters' interests in respect 
to wrecked and damaged property. 

Amnmoe. Ste fidarlne Insurance; also Life Afr 

Astajr. Said of an anchor wbcu. in beavugin« the 
cable forms such an angle with the surface as to ap- 
pear in a line with the stays of the ship. 

Aitent. Behind the after part of a ship. 

Asteroidi. The name by which Sir W. Herschel 
proposed to di.stinguish the minor planets circulating 
between the orbits of Jupiter and Mars, They are all 
small bodies, and have been discovered nince the 
commencement of the nineteenth century. The fir^t 
asteroid was discovered on January i, iSoi, and at 
the present time the known number is about 600. 
The largest has a diameter of 500, and the smallest of 
probably less than 20, miles, and there may be multi- 
tudes beyond the range of perception. Their detec- 
tion has been accelerated by the use of the phnto- 
graphic method introduced by T)r. M. Woolf. 

Aftrna. British ;2nd class cruiser. (Devonport, 


Length 3^0 ft, Beam49 ft. Maximnm draught 31 ft. 
Displacement 4.360 tons. Complement 318. 
Guns. A rmour. 

J— 6 in. " Steel." 

8 — 47 in. 2 in. Deck. 

H- — 6 jxir, 3 in. Conning tower. 

1—3 pdr. 

Torp0do Tubes (18 in.). 
4 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. natural 7.000—18 kts.; lorced 
g,ooo=i9'5 kts. Coal maximum 1,000 tons. 
A[^>roximate cost £350,000. 
This ship-name was introduced into the Xavy in 
1739, and commemorates the captvire of the Spanish 
Aslraa at Porto Bcllo. It is associated with the 
capture of the Gloir*. 1795 : the action off L'Oricnt. 
the capture of Barlwidoes. 1796: Egypt. 1801 ; 
Scbomberg's victory off Madagascar, 1810. 

Aitrca. Frigate. On May 33. 1808. this vessel was 
lost on the Anagada Coast. 




AstrononMrltoyilt The oflicial title o£ the head of 
Greenwich Observator>'. The appointment is given 
by the Prime Minister, and the office held by warrant 
under the royal sign manual. Sir \V. H. M. Christie, 
K-C.B., is the prpsrnt Astronomer Royal, the eighth 
holder of this ofJice tdace its estabUshment in 1675. 
In Scotland the Astionomer Royal is Profeasor R, 
Copelond, Director oi the Royal Observatory, Edin- 
burgh, and in Ireland Professor C, J. Jolly. 

Aitrooomical Day is measurtKl t>y the apparent 
motion of the &un ; but for thtj convenience of 
Astronomical Computations it is taken to begin at 
nooo. that IS 12 hours after the beginning ol the Civil 
Day, and end at nooa of the following day. Astroiio* 
mers generally reckon the hours of this day up to 
24 hours, without any distinction of ante or post 
meridian, which they call astronomical time; hence 
the first is hours, of which are p.m. hours, of the 
Civil Day on which it begins ; and the last 1 2 hoars 
of it are a.m. hours, of the day on which it enda. 

Astzooomy. Ttie sublime science which treats of 
the distances, magnitudes, masses, composition. 
motions, and alt that is discoverable rt^garding the 
heavenly bodies, meaning the sun, the earth, the 
moon, the planets, tlit: fixed stars, the comets, the 
meteontes. the nebulie, and all other material bodies 
really or apparently moving in infinite space. The 
xcicuce first took deruiite shape iu BaLj-lonia, where 
in the third miUennium s.c. tlie sphere began to bu 
measured, and the zodiac was delimited and divided. 
The vault of heaven being visible in all its glory 
alternately by day and night in every portion of tlxe 
world, absolute ignorance regarding celestial ptieno- 
niena cannot liave existed io any place or at any 
time. The people belonging to some nations were, 
however, more observant in this respect than others, 
and claims to early proftdency in astronomy have 
been preferred in favour of the Chinese, ChaU1e.aQs. 
Egyptians and the Hindoos. Hipparchus, between 
B.C. 160-125, catalogiiod the stars visible above the 
horizon, noting down 1,180. Among his numerous 
diecoverics may be reckoned the procession at the 
equinoxes, trigonometry, and apparently the stereo- 
graphic projection of the sphere. The next great 
nanw was that of Ptolemy, a geographer and astro- 
nomer of Alexandria, who discovered lunar evection. 
In 1543 Coi^emicus, just before he died, published 
his greftt work. " On the Revolutions of the Heavenly 
Bodies," compiled some 13 years previously. The 
next great name is that of Tycho Brahi. a Dane by 
birtb. who died in i6qi. Though not accepting the 
Copemican system, but holding views partly bor- 
rowed from Copernicus and partly from Ptolemy. 
his extensive and accurate obsexvations gave a great 
impulse to astxcmomy. Kepler, a pupil of Tycho, will 
for ever be rerocmbcred for the discover)' of the tliree 
laws which bear his name, the first and second made 
known in 1609, and the third in 1618. Galiloo. hav- 
ing constructed a telescope in 1610^ subsequently 

diacoverefl the satelhtea of Jupiter, the phases of 
Venus, the mountains of the moon and othex new 
truths. The year in which be died Sir Isaac Newton 
was bom, and in [6S7 he published his immortal 
" Pnncij)ia." in wtuch the law of KTavitation waft 
Hnnounced. thus constituting an epoch in the history 
of science which probably will never be paralleled at 
any future time. The year that Newton died, 1 737. 
was tlie one in which the discovery was made by 
Bradley of the aberration of Ught, which proved the 
motion of tlte earth, and gave the death-btow to all 
Ptoleniiac and Tychonic systems, both of which were, 
founded on the h>'pothe9iB that it was stationary, 
Sir Wm. Herschel, 1738. before he died, among other 
great discoveries, added nine new members to the 
Solar system (one of them the planet Uranus) to tlie 
eighteen previously known. He was one of tlie lirst 
to onginate a systematic study of fitars and nebnlip, 
which prescribes the leading methods of modem 
astronomy. A profound change has been brought 
about in the scope, no less than in the methods, of 
astronomy, by the adoption of the camera as an in- 
strument of precision. Much progress ban already 
been made with the preparation, at eighteen observa- 
tories, of a catalogue Ukely to embrace some four 
million stars; and the corresponding chart of the sky 
will secure the tdentification of p<kssibty 30 

Astronomical enterprise tends more ^d more to 
assume an intr-maticmal ctuiiacter. England com- 
mands both hpmiKphi--rcs. through the establishmen tii 
at Greenwich and the Cupe. Iu the L^nited States 
ol .\merica the organisation centred at Harvard 
College has been extended irom Pole to Pole by thi 
foundation of a post at Atequipa. Among astrono- 
mical societies at present in existence may be men- 
tioned the British Astronomical Ansociation, the 
Soci6t6 Aslronomique de France, the Urania Gesells- 
chait in Berlin, tlie Russian Astronomical Society, 
Uie Astronomical Societies of the Pacihc and Toronto. 
Canada, the Astronomical and Astrophysics Society 
o( America, the Societi degU Spettroscopi-^ti, Itajy, 
catering for the wants of the general public interested 
in this science. 

.■\manR historical works connected with astro- 
nomy, W0 Grant's" History of Physical Astronomy " 
(1852), which is of standard authority; Lewis's 
"Astronomy of the Ancients" [i86a). Berry's 
"Short History" (189S). Gierke's " Popular His- 
tory of .Astronomy during the Nineteenth Cen- 
tury " (1902), Midler's " Geschichte der Himmcl- 
kunde " (1873), Wolf's" Geschichte der Astronomic" 
I1877). Chauvenet's " Manual of Spherical and 
Practical ,\stTonomy " (1893), Loonus's " Introduc- 
tion to Practical Astronomy " (1894), Campbell's 
" Handbook of Practical Astronomy" (i890. Bar- 
low and Bryan's " Elementary and Mathi'matical 
.Vstronomy " (1892), Young's "Manual on Astro- 
nomy " (190J). Chambers' *' Handbook of Dcschp* 
tive and Practical Astronomy " (i889-<^), Corn- 
stock's "Textbook of Astronomy" (1901)* BaU'i 






" Story o( Ui« Heavens," Turaer's " Modem Ahtro- 
aoroy " (1901), Kcwcombc's " Popular AKtrooomy " 
(i8Sj), Qerke'ft " Concise Astronomy " (1898). 
Langl«T'a " New Astxtmomy " (188P). TodiJ'a " New 
Astronomy " (>998). Gregory's " Vault of Heaven " 

A.T. DistiogDishing letters on sea Bshing boats 
registered at Terborg, Gennany. 

Atsoama. Steamer, wrecked 22 miles south of Ca| 
dera, near Copiapo. November. 187;; 104 Uvcs lost. 

Atiga Japanese gun-boat. (Yokosuka, 1891.) 

LengUi iri4 U. Beam 27 it. Maximum draught lu ft. 

Displacement 615 tons. Coniploment 130. 


1 — S'j in. 

I— 5 9 in. 

2 — I pdr. 

Hp. 7,000*13 kts. Coal iJo tons. 

At&Unta. British trainiug-^p. Foundered March, 
i8t^o. on tier voyage from Bermuda, all on board 

AUUate. H^l. frigate. On November 10, 1813, 
this vessel was lost oB Nova Scotia. 

AttaATzom. " From "covers only from tbe time 
of the sailing ul the vessel. " .\t and from " includes 
(in a borne port) the ti>\i intmediatrly the insurance 
is eflected: (in a foreign port) from Uie moment of 
her arrival there-— of course, seaworthy. 

Tbe " Kisk not to attach before tbe expiriuK 
of the previoos policies " L<i generally added. There 
must be no undue delay " at " the port without re- 
ference to underwriters (Houghton v. Hmpire. 1 L.K.. 
I Ex. 200). 

In a pohcy " at and from " a port, it is an implied 
agreement that the vessel shall ba there within such 
a time that tlie risk shall not be materially varied : 
otherwise the policy dors not attach (De Wolf v. 
Archangel Mar. Bank. 2 Asp. Mar. L.C. 873). Refer 
ta Deviation ; also Leave to call. 

Athoniaa. British subsidised merchant ship. 
(lft8i). Canada-Pacific Railway Co. iq.u.). Ditncn- 
sioos, 365 X 48 X z9 it.; gross tonnage. 3.882: 
r accommodation, loa ; Hp.. 4.6000 17 Irts. 

Athoien. ^4 guns. On October 37, 1S06. this 
vessel was lost near Tunis, when 347 perished. 

AtkVliiA. Genan of small fishes, from fonr to five 
inches long, taken in great numbers in the Meditcr- 
nuiean. They arc carnivorous, live in shoals, and arc 
valued ns food, and also used in the manufacture of 
artificial pearls. 

Athartoo. William Henry (b. Preston, Lancashire, 
November 1$, 1A67). .M<?chanical engineer. Served 
^pr«nticcsbip iil works of Mensrs. Craven Brothers, 
Ltd., Manchester, and was for six years evening 

stndrat of the Manchester Technical School; a Whit 
worth Exhibitioner and Royal Exhibitioner in 
Science. Served from i8(yo to 1S93 m the Elswicic 
Dmwing Office of Messrs Armstrong. Whitworth 
and Co.. Ltd. From 1893-97 *t the Armstrong 
College. NewcasUeon-Tync. and subsequently for 
seven years with .Messrs. M.ither and Piatt, Ltd., 
Manchester. Represented that firm at the Glasgow 
International Exhibition of 1901. For a few months 
on tbe engineering stafi of the London County 
Council. Since January, 1905, general manager ol 
the Chain-Belt Hngiiieerlng Co.. Derby, Uie con- 
veying and elevating macliinery of Ley's Malle- 
able Castings Co.. Ltd, Member of the Institution 
of Mech-'inical Enginet- rs, the Manchester AsscKiaticm 
of Engineers, and the North-East Coast Institution 
of Engineers and Shipbuilders. 

Publications: " The Design of Beams and Gir- 
ders,'* " The Resistance and Power of Steamships " 
(jointly with A. L. Mellanby, M.Sc], paper on the 
" Fouling of Ships," and numerous articles. 

Attnwi. Across anything extended in the line of 
a ship's course, 

Atkinson, John Jo80pb (f). Liverpool. i8$o}. Marine 
enguicer. S<-rvx'(l apprtnticeshtp with Messrs. 
George Forrester and Co., Liverpool, and for some 
years was engaged in the construction uf engines. 
Joined the National Line of Atlantic Liners, and 
obtained a Boanl of Trade's Certificate as first-clnJi.-, 
engineer in 1877. In 1889 acted as consulting 
engineer to the late Thomas Irwin. Esq.. in which 
firm he became a partner. He has been connected 
with the construction of many new vessels, and 
structural alterations and repairs on behaU of ilie 
leading underwriters and ship owners. McmWr of 
the North-F.ast Coa^t InHtitution of Engineer.^ and 
Shipbuilders 1891. 

AlkmsGO-WQles, Rear-Admiral George Lambart 
(h. Joly 13, 1847). Kdticatfd Leamington College; 
Koyal Naval Academy. Gcwport; entered Na%-y 
i86t; lieutenant, 186G. Served in Abyssinian War 
in Naval Brigade, 1868, and mentioned in despatches. 
As Commodore commanded Training Squadron. 
1S95 97; Dockyard Reserve. Chatham, 1898- 
igoo. A.D.C. to H.M. Queen Victoria. 1899-1901; 
Rear-Admiral Home Squadron and Second -in -C-om- 
mand Home Fleet. 1903. 

Athmta. I'.S. 3rd das& cruiser. (Chester, 1884.) 
Length 37 1 ft Beam 43 ft. Maximum draught so fL 
Displacement 3.000 tons. Complement 304. 
Gunt. jlrmout, 

»— 8 in. " Steel." 

6 — 6 in. 7)in. Deck, amidships. 

6— 6 pdr. 
Hp. 4,cxx>= 15 ktB. Coal maximum 570 tona, 

■ /, 
AUutio. Steamer belonging to the White Star Line 

.Htnick on thr Meagher Rockit, wc&t ol Sambro', 
April I, 1873; 560 lives lost. 




AUantio Ooean stretches from the Arctic Ocean on 
the ttortb, to the Antarctic Ocean on the south, and is 
that great 04.»an between Europe and Africa on the 
one side and America on the other, divided into the 
Northern, the Intertropical and the Southern, or 
simply into the Northern and Southern Atlantic. 
I'he length ol the Atlantic basin is nearly 8,000 
geographical miles. The depth has been more care- 
fully and Hystematically examined than that of any 
Other oceanic basin, and there is scarcely any por- 
tion of its tloor that has a depth exceeding 3.000 
fathoms, or about 3-4 miles. The greatest depth 
determined by the ChatUtiger sounding VfAS tha.t of 
a. limited depression about loa mites to the north of 
St. Thomas, where ^.870 fathoms, or al>out 4*4 miles, 
was determined. The surface temperature over the 
greater port of the Xorth Atlantic averaga 40" F., 
increasing to 50° F. near the shores of Europe. The 
heal equator lies a little to the north of the geo- 
graphical, and the surface tcmperatarc there aver- 
ages from 60 to 90*. Over the greater portion of the 
Southern Atlantic the bottom water varies between 
35 and 40°. but in tlic North Atlantic the tempera- 
ture averages 2' higher. The water is relatively 
sailer than that of ttie other oceans, its salinity 
being greater in the region of the Trade winds and 
least in the region of Equatorial calms. 

Atlintic Shipping Trust 5^ International Mer- 
cantile Marine Co, 

AUantio Transport Co.. Ltd. Originated in London 
1886, and in 1896 purchased the controlling 
interest in the Intematioaal Steamship Co. 
(a line which dates back to 1865), and two years 
later it absorbed the fleet and American busi- 
ness of the Wilson's and F 11 mess -Ley land T.ines 
The company maintains a regular service from 
London to Baltimore, Hhiiadclphia and New York, 
and its steamers are built principally lor the purpose 
of carrying cargoes of refrigerated meat and live 
stock, although on some of their larger steamers ex- 
cellent passenger accommodation is provided, and 
the three latest vessels can carry up to 250 passen- 


Manitou. Mesat>a. 

MarquctU. Mhweapolis. 

Menominee. Minuehaha. 


Groos tonnage, 138,102. 

AtlantiintS. French t^ubsidised merchant ship. 
(1898). Mcssagenes Maritimes (i/.t-.). Dimensions, 
469 X 50 X 32^ ft. ; gross tonnage, 6,708: Hp.. 7,300 

Atlas Lin«. See Hamburg-Amcrika Line. 

Atmomtfter. An instrument for measuring the 
amount of evaporation of water. 

Atmosphere is the name applied to the ambient 

air. or thin elastic fluid, which snrroonds the globe, 
and gradually diminishing tn gravity rises to an un- 
known height, yet by gravitation partakes of all it* 
motions. It is a mechanical mixture of about 
78 volumes of nitrogen, with 31 of OKvgen, and one 
of argon, and also contains a variable, but all im- 
portant, proportion of water x-apour. Sir John 
Herschel has calculated that the total weight of 
atmosphere, averaging 30 inches of pressure, is about 
1 1§ trillion of pounds, and that, making allowance 
for the space occupied by the land above the sea, 
it is about y^g^^jf^y part of the solid globe. It 
exerts a pressure when the barometer standfi at 
39-90|; of nearly 14J pounds avoirdupois to the 
square inch, and it i.s calculated that a man of 
ordinary site sustains a constant pressure of abotit 
14 tons. 

Atmoapheiio prsssun. Pressure produced by the 
weight of the air. 

AtoU. Se4 Coral, Coral Island, and Coral Reef. 

AtntO, British subsidised merchant ship (i$86). 
Royal Mail Co. {•q.v.). Dimensions, 42] X 50 x 33 ft.; 
gross tonnage. 5,3(10; passenger accommodation. 
277; Hp., 5.600= 17 kts. 

Atrip. A term applied to the anchor when the 
purchase has made it break ground or raised it clear. 


Attaohd, Naval, is the representative of a nation at 
the seat of Government ol a foreign Power quar- 
tered at the Legation. His duty is to note and report 
to his C.overnmeot all chauges tliat take place m 
naval matters. 


Attantire. British scout. (Elswick, 1904.) 
Length 370 ft. Beam 38 ft. Maximum draught 1 3^ft. 
Displacement 3,750 tons. Complement a68 

Guns. .-Irmour. 

10 — t2pdr. i^ in. Deck. 

8 — Pompoms. 

Torpedn Tubes. 
3 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 17.000=25 kts. Coal maximum 
380 tons. Approximate cost ^275.000. 

Attwood, Edward Lewla (b. 187 1). Profeswr of 

Naval .Vrchitftture. Served apprenticeship with 
Messrs, Green, of Blackwall. On being granted a 
scholarship of the Worshipfal Company of Ship- 
wnghts, he went through the Royal Naval Collide as 
a private student, obtaining the Professional certifi- 
cate at the final examination. Appointed a member 
of the Royal Corps of Naval Construction, 1895 ; in- 
structor of Naval Architecture of Royai Na\-Bl Col- 
lege. 190J-04; Professor, 1904. 

Publications: "Text Book of Naval Architecture " 
(1899), "Warships" (1904), paper before the Institu- 
tion of Naval Architects 1905, on the " Admiralty 
Course of Study of Naval Architects." 


A.1F. Dlstio^tshinf; lettere oa sea fishing boats 
registered at Baltnim, Germany. 



Frwicb avisos-transport (i8*s). Of Httle 
fighting valDc. Guns, 4 5'S-hi., 4 9-pdr.; speed 
(nomiaally), 1 1 kts. 

Aacklud, George Edea. Earl of ityS4-i&i9). 
Prcsuieat ol the Board of Trade, 1H30; First Lord of 
the Admiralty, 1834; Governor-General of India. 

French torpedo-boat (1901). Dis- 
placement. 18; tons; coiiipIcmcDt. 18: maximuni 

ught. 9 ft. ; gunji. J 3-pdr. ; torpedo tubes. 3 1 5-in ; 

lOur "Steel," | in. amid&hlps; twin screw: 
Hp., 1,300 26 kts.: coal. 35 tons. 


Spanish torpedo-boat destroyer. (Clyde- 
bank, 1897.) Displacctncnt, 430 tons: armanieat, 
2 l4-pdr., 2 6-pdr., 2 l-pdr.: torpedo tubes, 2; 
Up., 7,500=30 kt».; present speed about 30 kta. 

AodibiUty. Unosual distinctness of distant sounds. 

Aiik<^rAlsidAe. A family of marine bird-'^ with heavy 
bodies, large heads, Hhort wings and compact 
plumage. The Great Auk or Gare-fowl, formerly 
common on all the northern coasts, but now extinct, 
wras flightless. The birds are experts at swimming 
and diving, rarely leaving tiw sea except for breed- 
ing purposes. 

Aaron. Russian cruiser. (Galemii, 1900.) 
Length 4 10 ft. Beam55ft. Maximnm draught 2 1 ft. 
Displacement 6,630 tons. Complement 570. 
Guns. A rmouf. 

3 — 6 in. "Steel." 

22 — 12 pdr. 2| in. Deck. 

8 — Small q.f. in. Cocming tower. 

4^ in. Engine batches. 
Torpedo Tubes. 
4 Above water. 
Three acrews. Hp, 11.600=^70 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 1.430 tons. 

Escaped from the Japanese at the Battle of 
Tsusltinta, May 37-29, 1904, and was interned till 
the end of the war. 

Anronu Transport. On December 3i, 1805. this 
vessel was lost on the Goodwin Sands, when 300 

Aurora, of Hull, sailed from New York, April 26. 
1653, and foundered in mid-Atloatic; 25 hves lost. 

Anrora Anstnlb. A luminous electrical di^Iay of 
much beauty, appearing in the sky in the southern 
bcmisphcrc, sometimes taking the form of an arch, 
streamers, coroua. glow, L-tc. 

Aurora Borealis. Polaris Ught. or Northern light, 
a Innunous meteoric phenomenon of great beauty, 
^irhich i» ■wen in Hie nnrthem -iky in high lulitudt-^. 
taking the form oJ streamers, archn. or patches 

which vary in shade considerably, being sometimes 
grey, and at others brilliant yellow, green, violet, or 
fiery red. They seem to be governed by electricity, 
and are more frtfiueiit in frosty weathnr. and are 
proved to be many miles above the surface of the 
earth. The .Vnrora is not vivid above the 70th degree 
of north latitude, and is seldom seen before the end of 
.\ugu5t. In America, according to Professor Loomis. 
the xone of maximum frequency is l>ctwcen latitude 
50" and 60" N. In Europe between the parallels of 
66* and 75*. The belt of greatest frequency l>egins 
close to the shores of the .Arctic Ocean, from the 
N. Cape East to Point Barrow, thence ftoutli. passing 
through Hudson's Bay in lat. 60°. then south of 
Greenland, and obliquely north again between Uie 
Faroe Islands and Iceland. In London two Auroras 
are seen annually; in Kdinburgh four. 

Aiiiy^M", Charles John, British rear-admiral (1779- 
1852). Was prt;sent at the capture of Koomtet and 
VilU dc Lon'ent in the EnJymion. Between 1826 
and iSjS he was in command of the Aufota in the 
West Indies, and took an active pan in the suppres- 
sion of the slave trade; took part in the bombard- 
ment of St. Jean d'Aic in the BtUewophon. 1S40. 

Aiut«a. Sir Francii WHlilLm (1774-1865). British 
admiral. In iS<k), when in command of tlie Petrel. 
he captured the Lig}trifntte. Served with distinction 
in the Egyptian operations of iSoi, and four years 
later, at the Battle of San Domingo, commanded the 
CoHoptts. Was made admiral in 1848, and Admiral 
of the Fleet, 1863. 

Austin, Hormtio Thomai (1801-65). English ex- 
plorer. .Accompanied Parry in his second expedition 
in search of the North West Passage, and in 1880. 
when four vessels were equipped anJ despatched in 
search of Franklin, he was given command, and ex- 
plored 900 miles of hitherto unknown coast. On his 
retam to England he was made vice-admiral. Refgv 
to Arctic Exploration. 

AostiD, 8. P.. and Sons, Ltd„ shipbuilders, Sunder- 
land. iistabUshed 1827; incorporated 1899. with an 
authorised capital of 7,000 £$ per cent, cumulahw 
Preference Shares of ^10 each, and 65,000 Ordinary 
Shares of £i each, all fully paid, ^70.000 First Mort- 
gage Debenture Stock £4 per cent. 

Number of berths, 3, 

River frontage, | mile. 

Repairing berths: capacity, vessels up to 400 it. 

Maxirooni annual output, 13,000 to 15.000 tuns 
of new tonnage. 

Pontoon, capable of docking vessels 400 ft. kmg 
and at>out 8,ooa tocis dead weight. 

Lifting capacity, 3.600 tons. 

Graving dock, 306 ft. long. 

Public graving docks. 387 and 443 ft. long. 

Machinery, tools and every appliance for building 
and repairing steamers. 

Budding of coUisr ttcuiiM* a speciality. 




AnstnL Ttdating to tbe Soutb. 

Anstrsl. Orient Line afeajiier. Sank in Syducy 
Harbour, subsequently raised by mcAOK of a co0er- 
d»m attached to the gunwales by divei3. and is stiU 
one of the favourite vessels of the Orient Line. 

Aiutr&lasiiui United St«am Nansation Co.. Ltd.. 

with their head oifices in Brisbane, have- a fleet 

of excellent passenger and cargo steamers, which 

maintain sailings from Melbourne to Queensland; 

Melbourue to Western Australia, round the north 

coast to the Philippine Islands. Four of their 

Bteamers maintain regular services from Melbourne 

to Sydney. Roclthampton. Brisbane, Townsville, 

Caiins. Port Douglas and Cooktown. A service 

every tlircc wt^cks is maintained from Brisbane to 

Tliur^ay Island, Nonnanton and Burketown ; two 

of the steamers conduct regular fortnightly services 

to Sydney, Adelaide and l-rt* mantle, and a service ia 

maintained cs-ery four weeks to Noumea (New 

Caledonia) and the Fiji Islands. 


iramac. Ka'coo. Mafanoa. 

Arawatta. Kyarta. tVodango. 

Kanou-na. ^Vyndara. 

Anstnlien. French subsidiaed merchant ithip 
(18S9}. Mc^uageric<i Maritime^ (f.v.). Dimen- 
sions, 4S2 X 39 x 34 '(■• gross tonoage, 6.570; 
Hp., ;,50o--i7 kts. 

Aastralind Steamship Co.. Ltd., managed by Messrs. 
Bethell, Gwyn and Co., London, have a fleet of three 
modern cargo steamers, and maintain a service he- 
tween Bristol and London to Fremantle and 
Albany, "Western ."Vustralia. 

Arrino. AshburtoH. Austraiind. 

Aoitrla. Emigrant ship. Burnt in mid-Altantic, 
Septcmbef 13, 1858: out of 538 personi only 67 were 


Autrian Lloyd Steam Navigatioii Co.. with the head 
o£liccs at Trieste, was established in 1836, and now 
has a fleet of 64^ steamers ranging from i.jJQ to 
6,500 tons. Regular services of pas3engi!i' and cargo 
steamers are maintained from Trieste to Brazil; a 
monthly service between Trieste and Itrindisi. Port 
Said. Suez. Aden, Karachi, Bombay, Madras, liao- 
goon and Calcutta; one belwetin Trieste and Bom- 
bay, Columbo, Pcnang, Singapore. Hong Koog, 
Shanghai and Kol>e. A monthly .service to Calcutta, 
and ouc to Africa via Port Said, Suez, Aden, Mom 
bassa, Beira, Lonren^o Marque.s, and Durban. This 
company maintains a fortnightly accelerated service 
between Tneste. Brmdisi, Karachi and Bombay 
during the busy months. The maximum duration 
of the voyage from Trieste is 1 5 days, tbe new fast 
twin-screw steamers, KoerberMAfrica, Bohemia. 
tmperatoT and Imperatrvr, all fltt■:^d out with every 
modem convenience for tbe comfort and safety of 
passengers, are on this run. 







A urora. 

A iistna , 

Baron Call. 














Enh. Frani 



.Maria Teresa. 
.\faria Vahri^. 
Gross tonnage, 305, 


. Pollute. 
Sultan . 


Austro-Amerlcan Ste&mihip Co.* with their head 
olhcv^^ m Trieste, posso?-; a Heet of 23 large new 
steamers fitted out with every modem convenience 
for passenger service and cargo. Regular sailings are 
maintained every Saturday from Trieste direct for 
New York, and rice ti^rjo, A monthly service is 
maintained between Trieste and the Mexican Ports, 
via Genoa, Marseilles, Canary Islands. La Guayra. > 
and Colon, for Vera Cruz, Tampico and Progreso. 
Many of the company's steamers are used on the 
freight service between Trieste and Northern and 
Southern United States ports. 
.4 Ibfrta, Francesco. Jf^ny. 

.Anna. Fredtrica . Lodovica . 

Auguste. Georgia. Lyuia. 

CariAina. Gerty. Margherita. 

Clara. Guiiia. Maria, 

Dora. Hermine. Marianne. 

Emilia. Ida. Sofia tlohenberg. 

Frny. IreM. Ttriia, 

Eugenia. Virginia. 

Attstro-Hungariiui Imperial and Royal Yacht 
SllOadrOO. R^tiibUsh>--d iSyi. Pation, H.I. and 
R..\.M. the Emperor of Austria; Commodore. H.l, 
and R.H. the Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria; 
Vicc-Conimodorcs, H.H. Prince Philip of Saxe- 
Coburg-Gotlu, Count Alfred Harrach; Rcar-Com- 
modoFCs, Count Gcza Andrassy, Count Carl Bubuoy; 
Secretary and Treasurer, Captain C. Ritter von 
Wolfi, Pola, Auetpa. Entrance fee, 1,000 or 100 
Kronen; annual subscription, 300 or 100 Kronen. 





A.V. Disttngtiisfamg letters on sea Ashing boats 
registered at Korden, Germany. 

Ava. British India. Steam Navigation Co.'ssteanier. 
Sank by collision with Brunhilda, in the Day of 
Bengal. April 74. 1879: 70 lives lost. 

Ata. Indian mail ateamer. Wrecked off the coast 
of Ceylon. February 16, 1858. 

Avalaaohe. French twin-screw gun-boat. Of 
Httlc fighting valne. Guns 2 3'5-iii.: speed (nomi- 
nally). 9 kta. 

ATftlftDChe. Emigrant ship, in coDision with the 
Purest. 15 miles S. by W. of Portland on her voyage 
from I^ondon to New Zealand. Both vessels sank : 
out ol too persona only t z were saved. 

Avatt. The order to hold, stop or cease, in any 

Avenger. H.M. steam frigafc. On December 20. 
1S47, this vessel was lo&t off the N. coast of Africa. 
when officers and crew (nearly 20c) were lost. 

Aventmier. French sva>^oJn^ torpedo-boat. (St. 
Nazaire, 1889.) I^ength, 151 ft.; beam, i$ft.:draught, 
8 ft. : displacemrnt. 1 74 tons : complement, 54 ; arma- 
ment, 2 3-pdr., 4 tubes; Hp., 1.400=20 kts.; coal, 
40 tons. 

Avetoge means either (a) some contributions in 
equitable proportioD which is to be made by all 
parties concerned towards losses and expenses which 
have been incurred for the advantage of all. or (b) 
some cxMtribntion to be mndc to the a.'iaurcrs for 
putiaJ loss or damage sustained by Hie profwrty 
insured. In the case (a) it is adjusted as Genoral 
Arerage (f.t.). In the case of {b) it is adjusted 
either as Particular Average or Salvage Loss (^.f .)■ 

The term " Average " wa.H in use before Marine 
Insurance was known, and has a meaning iodqsen- 
dent of insurance. In this sense it denotes all kiss 
resulting from the causes excepted in an ordmary 
bill of ladin". 

Merchandise is usually insured either f.a,a, (free 
of an average), f.p.a. (free of particular averaRe) or 
w.a. (with average). For the latter there are many 
Average clauses. Refer to Clauses. 

Annga. S<e Mean. 

Afence Adjuster. When damage has been sus- 
tained by ship or cargo the documents in support of 
Ibe damage are placed in the hands of an Average 
Adjastcr. whose function is to apply the law and the 
practical rules generally observed, to the facts of the 
case, so a^ to make a correct statement of the 
amounts due to or from the several partita con- 
cerned. If the parties deem it advisable they invest 
the Average Adjuster willi tJic autliority of an 
Arbitrator, and the statement issued by him has 
then the force of an award ; but in the absence of that 
authority, the hndmgs ol the Adjuster, whether of 

law or fact, ntay be questioned by any of the parties. 
as the adjustment can only be enforced, tike any 
other statement of account, by legal process upon 
proof of Its correctness. (McArthur on the Contract 
of Marine Insurance, p. 173.) 

Average Adjiuten' Assooiatioii. Sm Association of 

Average Adjiistcrt. 
Average Agreemeat. See Average Bond. 

Average Bond is an Agreement bctiA-een the par- 
ties interested in an Adjustment (^.l*.). by the terms 
of which they bind themselves to pay their several 
proportions o( General Average or other chaises 
when ascertained. 

When a general average consists of sacrifices made 
by a ship, or of expenses incurred by a ship on behalf 
of the whole venture, the shipowner has a lien on 
the cargo for its shares of these sacrifices or L'X|K-ndi- 
tures. The form in which the lien is usually en- 
forced is a demand by the shipowners of a deposit of 
a sum sufficient to cover the liability of the con- 
signee's cargo, or the signature of the consigner of an 
Agreement securing payment of his proper propor- 
tion of the genera! average when ascertained. This 
agreement, which is called an Average Bond or 
Agreement, is on a recognised form. 

When the sacrifice is one of cargo by jettison {qjn.), 
the shipowner having by the jcttiiion lost the freight 
payable at destination on the goods thus sacrificed. 
has also an interest in recovery in general average, 
and can exercise his Urn In that case also, and thus 
act on behalf of the cargo owrer. 

But where the damaijc- consists nierely in de- 
terioration of the cargo, without any diminution of 
it or change of species such as would occasion a loss 
of freight, then the only party interested in the rv- 
covrry Is the owner or crwisignec of tlir damaged 
cargo. A steamer put back to Liverpool, having 
taken fire and flooded her holdij to rxtingiu-vh the lire. 
One of the shippers, not satished with the steps taken 
by the shipowners, brought on action against them, 
alleging that the shipowners refused to give any 
assistance to enable anyone to get an average state- 
ment made out, or to take any steps tn enable the 
shippers to recover contributions. Mr. Justice Lush, 
after saying that the shipowner was the only person 
who had the right to require security for general 
average contribution from the other parti»-s uj the 
adventure, wud, " The right to detain for average 
contribution is dexived from the civil law, which also 
imposes on the master of the ship the dut)' of having 
contributions settled and of collecting the amouni, 
and the usage has olwa^'s been substantially in 
accordance with the law. and has become part nl the 
common law of the land. I am. therefore, of opinion 
that he (the shipowner) is Uable in the action for 
not having taken tlic necessary steps for procuring 
an adjustment of the general average and securing 
its payment." (Croolwi-. Allan, 5.Q.B.D. j8.)^ 




A steamer, lionieward boand, fttxaaded near Brid' 
port, but niter jctti<ion and aHsistance came ofi and 
proceeded to Liverpool. There the shipowners 
required a deposit of to ^ of the value of the 
car^o into au account ia the name of the adjuster or 
sliipowncr. or both joiutty. and the signature of nn 
average bond in the form tlien rcf^ularly ^ijoied in 
Liverpool. Several consiK"""-** objected to this, but 
agreed to sign the London form of bond and to pay 
the deposit into the joint account of the shipownpis 
and themselves. This proposal the shipowners de- 
clines) ; the consignees then paid under protest, and 
raised an action against the ^^hipowners. In the 
Court of Appeal it was decide<i that in exercisang his 
Hen on carRO for fteneral average the shipowner need 
not acct-pt a bond or security ; on the other hand, the 
Consij^ce is not bound to sign a bond. The ship- 
owner ha* the right to demand a deposit, giving the 
consignee proper information, so as to enable him to 
judge of the reasonableness of his demand, and if he 
considers it cxcesfiive. to tender a sufitcient sum. 
Huth V. I^mporl; and Gibbslrr. Lamport. L.K. 
16 Q.B.D. 442 and 735. Also, Gow on Marine In- 
surance, p. jqj. 

Average Claoses. See Clanscs 

Average Disbursements. Ser Advances. 

Average Policy. See Policy. 

ArecsB. French torpedo-boat 0^9^)- f^isplace- 
ment, 120; complement. 34; maximum draught, 
gil ft.: guns. 2 3'pdr. ; torpedo tubes, 2 15-in. ; 
tvrin screw: Hp.. i^ooo^^zd kts.: cool, 16 tons. 

Avni-niab. Turkish battleship (1870). Recon- 
structed Atisaldo, Genoa. 

length 531ft. Beam 59ft. Maximum draught 27 ft. 
Displacement 9.120 tons, Complement 600. 
Guns. A rtnour, 

2 — 9'2 in. " Iron." 

13-— 6 in. 12 in. Belt 

14 — 12 pdr. 13 in. Battery. 

1(1 — 6 p[lr, 3 in. Barbettes (Temi). 

a— 3 pdr. 
Twin screw. Hp. 11,000=16 kts. 

Avoirdupois Weight. See Weights and Mcatures, 

Avon. British torpedo-boat destroyer, (Barrow, 
iHgn.) Length. 3to ft.; bearo.zi ft.;draught, $)^ ft.: 
displacement, 300 tons; complement. 60; armament, 
1* ia-|Mlr., 5 6-pdr., 2 tubes; t\Yin screw; Hp., 
6.000=30 lets,; coal. 80 tons. 

Antdloio. Italian torpedo-boat. (Hlbiiig. 1S8S.) 
Length. 152 ft.; beam, 17 ft.; draught, 7^ ft.; dis- 

placement. 130 tons; complement, 24: armament. 
2 3-pdr. q.f., 1 i-pdr. q.f., 3 tubes; twin screw; 
Hp., 2.200=26 kti. ; coal. 40 tons. 

A.W. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Wilhelmshaven, Germany. 

Awa M&ru. Jatiancse liner, belonging to the 

Nippon Vusen Kaislia. Ran on the West Scar Rocks 
ofi Redcar, December 27. 1906. No lives lost. The 
vessel was subseqaently refloated. 

Award. The decision m Arbitration. 

Awash. Ri'cfs even with the surface. 

Away. The cry when a vessel starts on the ways! 


Aweather. Ak oppused to a-Iee; position of helm 
when tiller is moved to the \vindward aide of the 

Aweiirh. Sm Atrip. 

Awbeft or Awatt The display of a stopped flag. 

Awning. A cover of canvas spread over a vessel to 
protect the decks and crew from sun and weather. 

A.X, Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Borkom, Germany. 

AJC. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Norddeich, Germany. 

AyakftM. Japam-se torpedo • boat destroyer. 
(YokoBuka, 1906.) Length, 220 ft. ; beam, aoj ft.; 
draught, oi ft.; displacement. 374 tons; arma- 
ment. I i2-pdr., 5 6-pdr., 2 tubes; twin screw; 
Hp., 6,ocx)^ag kts< 


Aye. A prompt reply on Fec«iving an order, 
signifying yes. 

Aylmer, Matthew Lord (1643-1720). British ad- 
miral. While in command of the Royal Catherine he 
fought in the action off Beachy Head and Cape 
Barflcur. 1692. In 1709 promoted Admiral of the 
Fleet, and five years later, on retiring from active sea 
liff-. was made Governor of Greenwich TTospital. 

Azimuth. A word borrowed from the Arabic; is 
the angular distance of a celestial object from the 
N. or S. point of the horizon, or an arc between the 
meridian of a place and any given -vertical line. In 
the N. Hemisphere it is usually reckoned from the S. 
point of the Horizon through the W. from o* to 36a*. 

Azof Craft Clause. See Clauses. 





B. Distinguishing letter on sea fishing boats 
registered at Bellast, Ireland. 

B. DistingiiishiQg letter on sea fishing boats 
registered at Btankvnbcrghe, Belgium. 

B. Distinguishing letter on sea fishing boats 
registered at Boulogne, France. 

b. Abbreviation for bom. 

b. Blue. Abbreviation adopted on the Charts 
issued by the Hydrographic OlBce, Admiialty. 
denoting the quality of the ocean's bottom. 

B. Bay. Abbreviation adopted on the Charts 
iuued by the >Iydrographic Office, Admiralty. 

B. Black (near a booy} Abbreviation adopted 
on the Chaxta issued by the Hydrograpbic Office, 

B.A. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Ballantrae, Scotland. 

B.A.&. Distinguishiag letters on sea fishing 
boats registered at Baarland, HoUand. 

Babcnborg. Austro- Hungarian battleship. (Pola, 


Length 354ft. Beam 65ft. Maximum draught 35ft. 
Displacement 8,34a tons. 
Guns. A fmoMr. 

3 — 9'4 in. 40 cal. " Knipp." 
I a — 6 in. 8 in. Belt amidsliips. 

to — 12 pdr. A in. Barbettes. 

16 Maxims. 8 in. Turrets. 

8 in. Conning tower. 
Totptdo Tubes (tS in.j. 
3 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 1 1 .900 = 1 83 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 840 tons. Approximate cost ^650,000. 

Bacchante- Bntish ist class cruiser. (Clyde- 
bank, ltJQ2.) 

Lengtlt 454ft. Beam 69ft. Maximum draught 28ft. 
Displacement 12.000 tons. Complement 700. 
linns. AtrnQur. 

2^-9'2 in. 45 cal. " Knipp." 
12 — 6 in. 6 in. Belt amidships. 

I3-»I3 pdr. in. Barbettes. 

3 — 13 pdr. 8 cwt, 12 in. Conning tower. 

3—3 pdr- 
J Maxims. 

Torptdo Tubas, 
2 Submerged. 
Twin screw. >lp. 31,000=21 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 1.600 tons. .\pprDximatecDst £800,000. 

A ship of this name was present at ilie capture 
of the f'uMiand Co/tero. t8i j. 

Back. Sir George (1796-1S78]. British admiral. 
Arctic exploior (b. Stockport). In t8tS he went 
with FianUin in the Trent on a voyage of discovery 
to the Arctic regions, and later accompanied 
Franklin on his expedition to North America. 

The expedition to search for Sir }ohn Ross la 
i68j was commanded by him when be discovered 
the Great Fish or Back River in Canada. 

Fablicatioas : " Narrative of an Expedition in 
U.M.S. Terrot " {iSjtSJ : " Narrative ol tlic Arctic 
Land Expedition 183J-35" (1836). Rtfer lo Arctic 

Back and fill. A mode of drifting safely with the 

tide uf^uiiLst ihc wind. 

Book a saU. To \at the wind press it the reverse 

Bftckbowd. .\ board across the stern sheets ol a 
boat to form the box iu which the coxswain sits. 

Backine-wind. A wmd which changes in a 
dirt*ction contrary to that of the sun's apparent 
course, as *.g., from W. through S. to E., etc 

BaekBtajr. l^ng ropes extending from all mast- 
heads above lower mast to both sides of chain- 
wales. These arc set up with dead c^'es and 
laniard:^ tu tlie back:itay-pliitcs. 

Backwater. The swell of water tlirown back by 
its contact with any solid body. 

Baooa. John, Ltd. Kstabti^hud about the 
middle of the last century by the late -Mr. John 
Bacon. In 1889 Cliis conc«m was formed into a 
limited company which at present own a Aeet of 
ten steamers maintaining regular sailings between 
Liverpool and \Vexfuid. Liverpool and the Bristol 
Channel Porta. 

Baoon. Begintld Hngh Spencer, D.S.O. (b. 1863). 
Commander Hoyal Navy, Chief of the Intelligence 
Department during the Benin Expedition, 1897. 

Publicaliona : " Beiun, the City of Blood"; 
" Manual of Electricity and Electric Lighting for 
the Navj'." 

BadeiL German battleship (1&80). Reconstructed 
1897. Length, 398 ft.; displacfiment, 7, 170 tons; 
speed, i-'J kts. Obsulele, of no fighting value. 

Badea-PoweU, Francli Smyth (b. Oxford. 1850). 
Biarine painter and sculptor. Studied art in Parts, 
painting under Carolus Duran ; has exhibited 
many works at the Royal Academy, London, and 
at the SaJon, Pahs, and other galleries. Among his 
chiel works are : " The I-ast Shot." '* Nelson at 
St. Vincent," *' Trifalgnr Rc-fought," " Queen 
Victoria's Wooden W&Ha." " Wreck of the 
Foudroyant." " Nelson Neanng Trafalgar/' 

Baensch, Friedrich Beruhard Otto (i»j5 1S98) 

German engim-i-r. i-xecuted the North Sea Baltic 

Baffin, WiUiam. Navigator and di^tcovcrer (b. 
1584). In iMi lie accompanied Captain Jamei 
Hall on bis fourth voyage in search of the North- 
west Passage. In 161 $-16 be made two voyages 
ia the Discootry under Bylot, and on the 




second of these discovered and charted Baffin's Bay. 
Accounts of these expeditions were given by Baffin 
himself and were discredited until verified by Sir 
John Rais in 1818. Sm "Voyages of William 
Batftn ■• (1612-32). '■ Marltham " (1881). Rffef to 
Arctic Exploration. 

BAfiKUft> A latccn-rigged Arab trading vessel 
utKL'd in the Red Sea. 

Bagley. U.S. torpedo-boat {1900). Displace- 
ment. 167 tons: guns, 3 i-pdr.; torpedo tubes, 

i l3-iii.; sliced. 28 kts. 

Bag Bml. A tourtli or lower-reef of fore-and-aft 

Bagnio. The Phihppme name lor a revolving 
storm or cyclone. 

BaiUe, WiUiam Balfour, H.D. (1S24-63) (b. 
ICirkwall). Lducated Edinburgh, and on obtaitung 
his degree joined tlie Koyal Navy. Wan appointed 
surgeon and naturalist to tlic Niger Expedition. 1 854, 
and on the dtuth of Fernando Fo was appointed in 
oonimand : ascended tlie Niger about 250 niitcs 
beyond the point reached by former explorers, ai\d 
returned after a vo>-age of 1 18 days without the loss 
of a single man. In 1841 he formed a colony at the 
confluence of the Quorra and BenuL\ in which he 
acted, not merely as ruler, but as physician, teacher 
and priest. Within five years he opened up the 
na>'igation of the Niger, made roads and cstnb- 
liahed a inarkut. Hv. collected vocabularies of 
ucarly fifty African dialects and traiutlated portions 
of the Bible and Praycr-lxx^ into liousa. He- 
died on his way home at Sierra f.*one in November. 
tSOi, at Uiu early age of 39. 

Ban Admiralty. See Admiralty Bail. 

BaUey. U.S. torpedo-boat destroyer. (Morris 
Heights, 1899.) Lcngtli, =05 ft. ; beam, 19 it. ; 
draught, 6 ft. ; displacement. 255 ; aimameut, 
4 6-pdr., 2 tubes ; Hp., 5,000=30 kta. ; coal, 
20 tons 

Bailey and Leettiam Line. See Wilson Line. 

Bainbridge. U.S. torpedo-boat destroyer (1900). 
Displacement, 430 tons ; complement, 64 : guns 
2 14-pdr., 5 6-pdr. : torpedo tubes, 2 i8-in.. 
amidships and alt.; Hp., 8,000-139 lets.; coal, 
139 tons. 

BaioDtttta. French gun-boat, twin screw. Of 
little fighting value. Guns, 2 3'5-in. : speed 
(nominally), 9 kts. 

Baker, Frederick Wallace (b. September 29, 
1870}. American Naval architect. Graduated 
irom the Massachusetts Institute of Technology : 
afterward.s attending lectures at the Glasgow 
Univeisity. Has been actively engaged in ship- 
building, and served during the Spanish- American 
war on board the I'.S, Monterey. Holds thtF 
position of Cottstractor to the Lake Torpedo 

Boat Co. Member of ^e Institntion of Nava! 
Architects, and of the American Society Naval 

Baker. Sir Benjamia, S.G.B., cr 190^ ; K.C.11.6. 
1890. English Civil Engineer (b. 1S40). In con- 
junction with Sir John Fowler Ue designed and 
superintended the construction of the Forth Bridge, 
1882. Consulting engineer for tht Nile Keservoir. 
For services rendered u*as decorated with ist Class, 

Balance Log. S«« Lug. 

Balance Reel. A reef band that crosses a sail 
diugon^illy from outer head-caring to the tack. 

Balohea, AdmL Sir John (i67o-[774). Com* 
maiidcd the Chester in 17^7 wlien she was captured, 
and two years later was again captured by Duguay 
Trouin's squadron when commanding the Glouces' 
ter. Commanded the Shrewsbuty at Cape Passaro 
1718. Was lost in the Victory, 110 guns, when 
that vessel was wrecketl on the Casquet Rocks 
ofi Aldemey, October 4. 1774. 

Baldie. A small class of Scotch Ingger tised on 

Uie east coast. 

Bale-ilings. A long rope or chain for hoisting 

Bale, To. To lade water out of a boat or vessel 
with buckets, cans, or such like. 

Ball. Siamese gun-boat (1899). 600 tons. Of 
little fighting value. 

Baliste. French torpedo-boat destroyer. (Nor- 
iiiand, 1902,) Length, iSo ft. ; beam, 31 ft. ; 
maximum draught, !o ft. ; displacement. 300 tons ; 
complement, 45 ; guns, i 9-pdr., 6 j-pdr. ; torpedo 
tubes, 2 15-in. ; speed, 27-30 kts. 

Ball. Sir Robert Stawell. cr. 1886. Lawndean 
Professor of Astronomy and Geomcny. Cambridge 
University ; Director of Cambridge Obser^-atory ; 
President of the Royal Astronomical Society (b. 
Dublin. 1840). Educated Abbot's Grange. Chester ; 
Trin. Col., Dublin. In 1865 was appointed astro- 
nomer to tht Earl of Rosse, and two years later 
Professor of Applied MathemaHcs tn the Royal 
Irish College of Science. From 1874-92 he held 
the position of Astronomer Royal of Irelaml. In 
1884 he was appointed Scientific Adviser to the 
Commissioners of Irish Lights. 

Publications; "The Story of the Heavens" 
(1885), '• Starland " (1889). " In Starry Realms." 
" In the High Heavens." " Time and Tide " (1889), 
" The Cause of an Ice Age." " Atlas of Astronomy " 
(1891), "The Story of the Sun" (1893), "Great 
Astronomers" (1895), "A Treatise on the Theory 
of Screws " (1900), " The Eartli'a Beginning " 

Ballast. Anything carried for its weight when 
the cargo ii too littU- to bring the vessel sutlicieutly 
low In the water. 






BaUin* Alfcefi Di»ctor-G«neral. Hamburg- 
Amrnka Liae (b. Hamburg. 1857). Educated Ham- 
burg. Has been coimectod with the steamship 
bustntss lunce his early boyhood, having been pre- 
viously to his joitiing the Hamburg-Amerika Ijac 
aasoctatcd with the Canou Litie. From the time 
he )omed the Ilamburg-Amenka Une it has steadily 
tforgied ahead. He it wiu who bioughl at>out the 
arraagement with the Union Stuamship Line (the 
BmalRamation of the Slotnan Lint- with the ships of 
Kdwaid Carr). whereby the passenger busmess 
should be done under the direction of the Hun- 
burg -A merika. Line, Between 1883 and 1905, uoder 
his management, tlic capital of this enormous 
steamship *^feq)nse has increaaed from 15,000,000 
to 100,000,000 marks, the reserve iund from 
3,000,000 to 14,000,000 marks, the proht from 
3,000.00a to ^6,000,000 marks, and the ttcet 
from to 7i|6.}69 register tons, and to-day tht- 
vrasels under hm control comprise 1 57 ocean-going 
steamers, with an agpegate gross tonnage oi 
957,250. Albert BalUn is mare than a great man ; 
there in sometliing ol the ruler in him. and hi- 
pOBsessPs the faculty of lieitig capable of guessing 
llie Deeds of the future. Ail the later vessels ol 
this mogniiicent fleet have been built under his 
personal <lirection. and his gtmius as an organiser 
ii manifest to those who have been fortunate 
BBOOgh to travel on such magnificent floating 
patacc« as the Amtfiita and Emptesi Angustt 
Vutoria. He has the hooour of the theudabip of 
the (Jermao Emperor, and has been decorated with 
the Crown Order of the Mfcoiid class. 

Ball Lightaing. A luminous bail or gjobe which 
moves slowly and sometimes bursts, giving rise to 
flashes of lightning. 

Ballon Sonde. A small rubber balloon employed 
for raising a meteorograph to obtain a record of 
the conditions prevailing In the upper regions of 
the atmosphere. 

BaIdmIocj. The science or study oi mineral 
springs aud baths. 

Baluy. French torpedo-boat. (Normand, <8S6.) 
Length, 134 ft.; beam, 11 ft.; draught, 7 ft.; 
displacement, 66 tons; complement, 21; arma- 
ment. 3 i-pdr., a tubes; Hp., 700=30 kts. ; 
coal, 12 tons. 

Balsa. A Sooth American wood, very porous, 
aluiuMt as light OS cork, um:^ for making surf boats. 

BaltiO Sea. An inland sea of North Europe 
endoBed by Sweden, Russia, the German Empire, 
and Denmark. It communicates lAith the North 
Sim by a channel lAhtch Ucs between the southern 
part of Scandinavia, and the nortfaem peninsTilar 
of Schleswig and Jutland, and with the Atlantic 
tlirough Sliagcr Kak and Kattegat. Its whole 
area, including the Gulf of BoChnia, is about 
t6o,ooo geographical square miles ; it is about 

900 miles long, and its greatest width between 
Karlskrona and Memel is sliKbtly over aoo miles. 
It has three large arms — Gull of Bothnia. Gulf of 
Finland. Gulf of Riga, and several bays, as the 
Bay of Dauxig, Kiel Bay and Neustadter Bay. Its 
depth rarely exceeds 100 fathoms, and along the 
southern coast its shallowness is'a great obstacle 
to navigation. It is fed by numerous rivers, some 
of tliem of considerable sixe, such as the Keva, 
Duna. Nicmcn, Vistula, Oder, Gotaelf. Luica, Tur- 
nea. The salinity ol ttie water is very much below 
that of oceanic water, and varies greatly at different 
seasons. The summer temperature of the surface 
water is about 6j*. In severe winters the Gulf 
of Bothnia becomes frosen from shore to <{hore, and 
each winter the smaller bays and creeks, particu- 
larly those on the north part of the sea are frozen 
over, and suspend navigation. The Kaiser Wil- 
helm or Nord Ostce Canal from Kiel to the month 
of the Elbe affords a short cut bct^^ecn the Baltic 
and the North Sea. 

Baltic Segel Club. Ste Segel Club Baltic. 

Baltic Steamship Company, owned and managed 

by Mc»3r5. A. Coker and Co., Liverpool, have a 

sti-amer which trades between Liveipool and the 

Baltic ports, taking cargo as inducement offers. 



Baltimore. Old U.S. cruiser (iSBfl). Recon- 
structed ji^i. 
Length 325ft. Beam 48ft. Maximum draught 34ft. 
IMsplacemcnt ^.tcta tons. Complement 39$. 
Guns. Armour. 

la— 6 in. •■ Steel." 

6 — 14 pdr. 4 in. I>eck. 

4 — 6 pdr. I iu. Conning tower, 

2—3 iKlr. 
6^1 pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes, 
5 .\bove water. 
Twin scctw. Hp. foa-ed, 10,000—20 ktit. Coal 
maximum 900 tons. 

Banco. A Continental term for bank money. 

Banoroit. U.S. gun-boat. (EUzabeth Point. 

Length 187ft. Beam 33ft Maximum draught ijft*. 
Displacement 839 tons. Complement l9<i. , 
Guns. A rmotw. 

4 — 4 in. " Steel." 

8—3 pdr. I in. Deck. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
I Above water. 
Hp. i,2O0si4 kts. Coal maximum t36tons. 

Bands (Naval). Any ship in die Royal Navy 
when the commander bears the rank ot post- 
captain or that of a superior officer is entitled 
to possess a band. The number of performers 




range from lo to i;, consistiiig of band-master, 
band -corporal, and band&mcn. In 189J a new 
Royal Naval School of Music was opened at 
MeJville Hospital. Chatham. Rtftr to Naval 


Bansalore. East Indiamao. On April 12. 
1S02. this vessel was lost in the Indian Ocean. 

Bank. Rising ground in the sta. composed of 
sand, mild or gravel, not rock. 

Banker. A vessel employed in deep-sea cod- 
Qshury on the Banks of Newfoundland. 

Bankfoa, Lloyd (b. Philadelphia: November 15. 
1S5-). Naval Constructor, U.S. Navy (iHg/S). 
Educated University of Pennsylvania, Degree of 
B.S. 187;; entered U.S. Naval Academy 1879: 
complL-ting ten years' course ; acted as Assistant 
EoginfLT. Philadelphia Water Department. 1S83-S6. 
In 1690 was given the degree of loginiiur itcolc 
d' Application du Genie Mahtime. Paris. Assistant 
Engineer U.S. Navy 1885-89: Assistant Naval 
ronstrnctor U.S. Navy. 1889-96 : Naval Con- 
stnictor U.S. Na\-y. 1896. 

Banshee. British torpedo - boat destroyer. 
(Birkenhead, 1894.) Length, 210 ft ; beam, 19 ft. ; 
draught, y^ ft. ; displacement, 390 tons ; comple- 
ment, $0: armament, i 12-pdr.. 5 6-pdr., 2 tubes; 
twin screw; Hp.. 4,500=27 kts ; coal, to tons. 

Banyan-day. A term applied to a fast-day, 

wlicu oatmeal was issuctl in lieu of meat. 

Baptistc de Andrade. Portuguese gun-boat. 
320 tons. Of no fighting value. 

Bar. A shoal or bank, sand, shingle, or gravel 
thrown up by the sea which endangers navigation. 

Barbadoei. 14 gun.s. In October, 1780. this 
vi'hsi'l was lost in a storm in the West Indies. 

Barbette. A fixed armoured breast work behmd 
wluch the heavy guns of a ship are mounted, the 
gims revolve on turntables within, their after-end.s 
being protected by means of armoured hoods. The 
Temeratre in 1S76 was the first British armour-clad 
to be fitted with barbettes. 

Barcelo. Spauisli torpedo- Ixiat. (Gaardfji, 
1886.) Length, 117 it.; beam, 12 ft.; draught. 
6 ft. ; displacement. 63 tons ; armament, 2 i-pdr., 
3 tubes; Hp., 660=30 kts. 

Barclay. Curie and Co., Ltd., ^^^litcinch, 
Giajigow. ThL< fijm is the oldest established 
concern in the upper reaches ol tlie river, the 
yard at Whiteinch being just outside the city of 

The origin of this shipbuilding business goes back 
to 1818. when Robert Barclay, a shipbuilder who 
hud only limited means at his command, but was a 
man of great initiative, cstablisticd a small yard at 
Stobcross. His son. aUo named Robert, extended 
the range of bis business, and as the wock of 

excavating the channel and deepening the Clyde 
progressed larger and largor ships and steamers 
were buUt at Stobcross. 

In 1S45 Messrs. Rottcrt Curie and James Hamil- 
ton became partners in the firm, and the title by 
which it has been known for sixty years past was 
then assumed — Barclay, Curie and Co. 

Under the management of John Ferguson, in 
1847. this shipyard, which had meanwhile become 
the largest repairing works on the Clyde, com- 
menced building iron vessels. This new departure 
brought in so much work that all the available 
space was occupied by stocks.'whilst as the dimen- 
sions of ships had likewise been mcrcasing. the 
repairing slips became insufficient for their purpose. 

The celebrated clippers that were built by the 
firm gained for it such a reputation that in iSsS 
it became neccssar>' to purchase a piece of land at 
Wliiteinch. about 53.000 square metres in extent, 
for the establishment of new shipbuilding and 
engineering works. Two years afterwards, in 1857. 
the Mr. John Ferguson above mentioned and 
Mr. Andrew Maclean (now Sir Andrew) became 
partners in the Arm, of which the latter had for 
several years been commercial manager. About 
the same time, Mr. Archibald Gilchru>t, who was 
at the head of the engineering works, also joined 
the company. 

New ground was purchased in 1858 at StobcxtMS 
for the rnlargemrnt of the shops, but in 1874 the 
building slips there had to be given up to tlie Clyde 
Trustees in connection with the extension of the 
Harbour, and the work that had hitherto bean 
carried on there was transferred to Clydeholm 
Shipbuilding Yard, Whiteinch. Glasgow. 

In 1878 the firm of Barclay. Curie and Co. 
purchased the property of Jordanvale, comprising 
about 130,000 square metres of laud, wjtb the 
intention of making dry docks there. 

In 18S4 the firm was converted into a Umtted 
company, and Mr. James Williamson, shipbuilder, 
aiterwards Director ol Dockyards ac the British 
Admiralty, joined the Board of Directors, with 
Mr. John Ferguson as chairman. 

The tuaiiagemeut of the concern is now in the 
hands of Messrs. James Gilchrist, chairman. WilUam 
RusseU Ferguson, and Andrew Maclean, joint 
managers oi the business, son:! of the late Arch. 
Gilchrist, J. P.. late John Ferguson, J. P., and late 
Sir Andrew Maclean, K.T., respectively. They 
have the assistance of two very capable young 
gentlemen, Mr. Noel E. Peck, Yard Manager for 
the Naval Architecture Department, properly so 
called, and the construction of the bulls ; and Mr. 
Chas. Randolph Smith, Engineer Manager far the 
Engineering Department for the propelling ma- 
chinery. These two managers also are descended 
from famiUes of Naval Constructors, for m this 
firm everything is herKtlitary. 

It might be said that the reputation of this yard 
is due to the accumulated labours of very many 




men of geniuB, eveiyooe of whom bks left an 
inheritance of means and cxpehetice, of which 
successors have dihgently taken advantage. 

The present prosperity of the company- is cer- 
tainly a consequence of this tradition, but not 
divorced from that spirit of enterprise that soars 
abo%-e its surroundings and translorms the directing 
body into a homogeneous entity prompt to resiiond 
to the influence of the times and to profit by every 
favouring circumstance. 

At present the firm owns a shipbuilding yard at 
Whiteinch. occupying 80,000 square metres of land, 
\nth six or seven stocks large enough for the build- 
ing of vt-ssels up to 180 metres in length. The 
engineering works at Stobcross are on the Admi- 
ralty list for engines of 13,000 Hp. The boiler 
works at Kclvinhaugh, like the engineering works, 
have an outfit of machine toots of most modern 
type, and can turn out boilers of any stxe. At 
Kelx-inhaugh there are also the Dry Docks, capable 
of taking in steamers up to 170 metres in length. 
At Finnie5ton Street there arc the repairing works 
which are so organised that repairs can be executed 
with the utmost speed. There new shafts can 
also be fitted in an exceedingly short time. 

At the present time Barclay, Curie and Co.. 
Ltd., are undertaking the construction of their 
469th vessel, and their annual production exceeds 
4j,ooo tons. Among their regular patrons are : 
The P. and O. Co., Pacific Steam Navigation Co., 
British India Co., City Line, Allan Line, Ellermao 
Lines, BeaveT Line. A frican Royal Mail Co. . 
Messrs. Elder, Dempster and Co., Ifnion-Castle Co., 
etc. For the last -men tinned company, which, as 
is well known, is managed by Sir Donald Currie, 
this >-ard has built about 60 steamers. 

For the P. and O. Company they built the 
Suttia and the Dtmgola. and many other twin- 
screw steamers ; re<:cntly they bave constructed 
for the Pacific Mail Co., the Oriana. of 8.066 
tons, one of the largest steamers classified in 
Llo^xl's Register last year, and in June of this 
year they launched a steames' of tons gross 
register, and 10.000 Hp. for the Allan Line Royal 
Mail Service between Liverpool, Quebec, and 

BarentB, WiQam. Dutch navigator. Was pilot 
of Uiri*^- unsuccessful expeditions to discover the 
North-West Passage. His third voyage was the 
most important, as on June 19 Spitzbergcn was 
discovered and the whole western coast and part 
of the northern examined. He sailed round the 
northwestern end of Nova Zcmbla, and his com- 
pany were the first Europeans to ever face an 
Arctic winter. He died on June 19. 1597, and was 
buncd in the midst of his discoveries, and it was 
not until 1871 that a Norwegian, Captain Carlson. 
came upon Barents' winter quarters, and in 1875 
recovered part of bis diary. Jttftr to Arctic 

Bare polfli. The oooditioa of a ship at sea 
without any sails seL 

Barfl«ar. British ist class battleship. (Chat- 
ham. l.?93.) 

I.ength 360 ft. Beam 70ft. Maximum draught 77ft. 
Displacement (since reconstruction) 11,000 tons. 
Complement 620. 
Guns. A rmour. 

4 — 10 in.. 30 cal. " Compound Harvey." 
10 — 6 in. 12 in. Belt amidships. 

8 — 6 pdr. 9 in. Barbettes. 

12 — 3 pdr. 12 in. Conning tower. 

2 — 9 pdr. Boat. 
3 ^faxims. 

Torpedo Tubts (18 in.). 
3 Submerged. 
I Above water stern. 
Twin screw. Hp. natural 9,000^17 kta., fbiced 
i3iooo=iS's kts. Coal maximum r.iij tons. 
Approximate cost £620.000. 
This ship-name dates iu the Xavy from 1697, and 
commemorates the Anglo-Dutch victory over the 
French at Cape Barfleur, May, 1692 : Vigo Bay, 
1702; battle off Cape Passaro, 1718; Graves's 
action off the Chesapeake. 1781: Hood's action with 
He Crasse, 1782; Rodney's action with De Grasse, 
1 782 : the battle of " The Glorious First of June." 
1794: Bridport's action off I. Groix, 1795; St. 
Vincent, I797 : Calder's action oS Ferrol, 1805. 

Barflettr, Battle ol Cape. On May 19, 1 692. the 

French Navy was dcstroycJ by Admiral Russel 
after the victory of La Hogue. 

Barfieor Light, established 1893, is a two-flash 
light every ten seconds ; duration of flash one-fifth 
to two-fifths second; candle power, 3,500,000; 
illuminant, electricity. 

Barge. A long slight spacious boat for the use o( 

admirals and captains of ships of war. 

Barge, Stealing from, is a felony, punishable under 
the Larceny Act (1861) by penal servitude lor not 
less than three or more than fourteen years, or by 
imprisonment for not more than two yearii, with or 
without hard labour. The offence, which may be 
tried at Quarter Sessions, consists of " the felonious 
removal or carrying away of any goods or mer- 
chandise in any vessel, barge, or boat in any haven. 
or in any port of entry or discharge, or upon any 
navigable river or canal, or in any creek or basin 
belonging to or communicating vrith any such 
haven, port, river, or canal. 

Barbam. British jrd class cruiser (1889). 
Reconstructed 1899. 

Length 3S0 ft. Beam 35ft. Maximum draught 16ft. 
Displacement 1.830 tons. Complement 169.- 

Guns. A fmtmr. 

6 — 4'7 in. " Steel." 

4^3jP^- 2 in- Deck amidships. 

I in. Deck ends. 




Torptdo Tubes. . **w ''N\.- 
2 Above water. 
Twin screw. Mp, 4,^00=19 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 140 toos. 

Barbam. Lord Charles Uiddettoa {17:26-181$). 
Bntisli admiral and Controller of the Navy, 1778-90. 
First Lord of the Admiralty and created Barou 
BarbaiD 1805; vicc-admira], 1793: full admiral, 
1795. He never, however, hoisted his flag afloat. 

Balk. See Barque. 

Baikentine. See Barquantine. 

Barlow, Bear-Admiral Chartos James. DS.O. 

1887 ib. 184S). Entered Navy i8t>7 ; Lieutenant 
of In/If xthlf at the bombardment of Alexandria, 
1882 ; landed with and commanded a party which 
held one ol the gates of the town until reliovcd by 
troops ; served on shore in command of an outpoKt 
near Port Said (Egyptian medal, Alexandria clasp, 
Khedive's Bronze Star, Osmanich 4tii Class) ; 
Commander of the BaccMante flag ; served with 
Nax-al Brigade lantlLtl (hiring Burma Annexation 
war 1S85-S6; mentioned in naval and military 
despatches. General Sir U. Prcodergast in his 
despatch stated that : " Commander Barlow's 
march of 130 miles through tlic country with a 
detachment of bluejackets reflects great credit on 
tliat oflicor and his party." D.S.O. for tlieso sor- 
vices ; promoted to captain (India niedol, ^ixrqia, 
i8Ss 87. clasp). ' ■'* 

Baniaby. Sir Nathaniel. K.O.B^ cr. 1S85 (b. 
Chatham, 1839}. Educated Chatham, Sheeme»s. 
rortsmouth. Altachtd to the office of the Con- 
troller of the Navy from 1854-85 ; as overseer ot 
ships of war biiiMing for the Crimean operations ; 
as Admiralty draughtsman and calculator ; as 
assistant to tlie olhcers of Chatham I^ockysnt in 
devising the structural arrangements of H.M.S. 
Bellerophon and unhsequcnt iron ships : os assistant 
constructor ; then chief na\"al architect, and 
Anally as Director of Naval Construction at "White- 
hall, in succession to Sir Edward Reed (q.v.). 
Was one ol the founders o( the Institution of Naval 
Architects in i860. Was instrumental in effecting, 
through the influence of the Boards of .\dmiralty 
ond the co-operation of Lloyd's Sur\'eyors, great 
and much-needed changes in the division of lorgc 
passenger ships by watertight bulkheads, and in the 
material of their construction. Was created 
C.B. 1S76, and K.C.B. 1885. On the latter occasion 
Lord Northbrook {q.v.). then First Lord of the 
Admiralty, said the appointment was to mark the 
appreciation of " distinguished service and uO'- 
weaiicd application aa Director of Naval Con- 
struction." Has been decorated with thelollowing 
foreign orders :— Commander of the Order of the 
Dennebrog. Denmark, 1873 ; of the Royal Military 
Older of " Our Lord Jesus Christ," Portugal, 
1875 : and of the Rose of Braxil, 1883, 

Publications : " Abridgments of Specifications 
relating to Shipbuilding," etc.. from 1618 to the 
present time, first two volume-^ 1862 ; articles 
" Navy and Shipbuilding " in " Encyclopaedia 
Bntannica." 9th edition ; " NavaJ Development 
of the Nineteenth Century." 

Barnacle (lepas anatifera). A name applied 
to a species of shell fish, often found sticking by its 
pedicle to the bottom of ships, doing little or no 
injury beyond that of deadening the way. 

Barnes. Frederick Kynaatoa (b- February 11. 
1826). British naval architect. Served an appren- 
ticeship of six years at the Pembroke Dockyard, 
and in May, 1848, was selected as a student on the 
establishment of ttic School of Naval Construction, 
undet the direction of tlie late Joseph Woolley. 
LI..D. He remained there for three years, and took 
first place in the final examination, and was selected 
for another year's study at tliat college. In 1853 
joined Dockyard as draughtsman, and in July, 1853, 
he was appointed on the Naval Construction stafi 
of the .fVtminilty. In 1^56 he made a tour of the 
French Imperial Dockyard, and many large private 
establishments; prior to this date very little was 
known of the re.M^urCcs of the French dockyarria or 
private shi])building establishmente. In i860 when 
the Institution o( Naval Architects was founded 
he was one of tlie hrst members, and later l>ecame 
vice-president. In 1862 was appomted to the 
Tlianies Ironworks, Blackv^all. to superintend the 
construction of one of the «ar1y ironclad?, the 
MtHolaur. and to complete the details of the design 
of that class. In 18G4 was appointed Assistant 
Coiistnictor of the Navy, which post he held until 
the retirement of Sir Edward Reed ( Was 
then appointed Constructor of the Navy and 
member ot the Council ol Coostrnction under the 
presidency of Sir NathaaieJ Bornaby. K.CB. (f^.). 
In 1872 he waa appointed surve>'or of dockyards, 
which office he bold nntil his retirement in 1SS6. 

Publications: Several papers published by the 
Institution of Naval Architecta. notably one on the 
" Stability of Ships," 18G1. Was joint author of 
" Shipbuilding : llieoretical and IVactical," of 
which the late Piolessor MacQueen Raakine was 
the chief author. 

Bamett. James R«nnie (K Johnstone. Sei>tent< 
ber 6, 18G4). British naviil architect. Educa' 
Glasgow University. Served apprenticeship with 
Mr. G. L. Watson. Glasgow. Gained South 
Kensington medal for Naval Architecture. In 
tSBo was appointed in charge of Mr. G. L. Wotson's 
office, and on the death of that famous architect 
he succcedetl to the business. Is consultinjp 
naval architect to the Royal Kational Lifeboai" 

was I 

Barney. I'-S. torpodo-boat (tvoo). Displace 
ment. 167 tons; guns, 3 i-pdr. ; torpedo tubes. 
3 18-in. ; speed, 26 kts. 






BvooydoBonieiar. An instrument for ascer- 
taining the jMxiiion. <liAtanct'. and direction of 
advance? of a cyclone or rcvolvinR storm, 

BwOKTftm. TliL' trace marlci:<l on paper by a 

Baro^rnpb. A self-recording barometer. 

Buomettf. An instrument for measuring the 
pn.'i.'i'.iri- ul thf atniOKphcrc, 

BaroD Linf, owned and managed by Messrs. H. 
Hogarth and Sons, %^ith their head offices in 
Glaagow, have a Hect of nine lar^fe slcament engaged 
principally in general trade to Indian ports and tlic 
Far East. Two oi the steamers maintain 3 monthly 
Service benreen Glasgow and Lisbon and Huelva. 
This line also have five large s?ilmg ships which 
trafle to the colonies. 



Baron AtdroxiMn. 
VSaroH Balfour. 

Baron Cawdor. 

Baron Datmeny. 

B/jron FJdon. 

Baton FaMit. 
Baron HuHtly. 
Baron Inncrdate. 
Barvn Kelvin. 
yf achrihanish, 

Buqiuatioe. The diminutive of barque. A 
cl carT>nng a barque's full square-rigged lore- 
St, but fore-and-aft rigged on main and mizzen 

BWQIW. A name given to small three-mx*tted 
vesids with only fore-and-aft sails on her mizzen 

Barracks. NiteL Sm Naval Establishments. 

Barratry 13 wdlul misconduct with criminal 
intent committed by the master or crew of a vessel 
in violation of their duty to the shipowner, and 
without the connivance of the latter. (Atkinson :•. 
Great Weatcxn Insurance Co., I«T. Rep., v. 27, 
p. 103.) 

If the captain is owner of the vessel he commands, 
be eanoot, of course, commit barratry against 
IiimscU : but if he is only a part owner, he may 
do so against the other shareholdent. lAmould, 
4th ed.,p. 713.) \i a vessel is under charter, and 
entire control and management are vested in the 
charterer, any act with criminal intent, committed 
by the master or crew, in xiolation of ihclr duty, 
constitutes barratry against the charterer, even 
though It should have been connived at by tJie 
general owner. (Vallejo 0. Wheeler.) An act 
of known iUegulity is barratry though not intended 
to defraud the owners. If owing to tbe mutinous 
violence ot the crew the mafiter is com[MfIled to 
deviate from his course, this is " bairatrj- of the 
mariners " : but. on the other hand, repeated acts 
of smugghng by the crvw. which might have been 
{irwmitrd by due watchfulness on the pfirt ol tlic 
master or owner, wUl not, even if they resull m 

the conliscnHon of the ship, give rise to a claim on 
the underwriters under this head. [McArlhur on 
Marine Insurance, p. 131; Aniunld, 4U1 ed.. p. 

Unless expressly exempt by tlic terms of his 
contract, a shipowner is hable to the owner ol tho 
cargo tor barratrous acts of hut servants, by which 
the cargo is damaged (Abbott, 491). but damagf 
to goods in a collision caused by tlic; negligence of 
those 00 board is not a loss by barratry. (Grill 
V. General Iron Screw Collier Co.. L.R., 3 C.P..476.) 

Barrica. \ small cask for water carried in boats. 

Barrlngton, Samael (17.29-1800). British admi- 
ral. Served under Hawk at Basque Road, and in 
1761 with Krppcl at Belle Isl:; became Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the West Indies. 1778, and 
second in command to Byron io the action ofl 
Grenada. 1779 ; was present at ihe rehef of 
Gibraltar, 1783 : promoted admiral, I7<>7. 

Barrow Taoht Club, RoyaL See Royal Barrow 

Yacht Chib. 

Barrozo. Brazilian protected cruiser. (Elswick. 
189C1.J SUcatlieit and copi>crcd. 
Length 330(1. Beam 43 (t. Maximum Draught joft. 
Displacement 3,4$* tons. Complement 300. 
Guns. Armour. 

6—6 In. " Sheet." 

4 — 4*7 in. i\ in. Deck amidships. 

10 — 6 pdr. 
4—1 pdr. 
Twin screw. Hp. forced 7,500i>2o kts. Coal 
maximum 850 tons. 

Bany. U.S. torpedo-boat destroyer ( 1 900). 
Displacement, 430 tons; complement. 64; guns, 
2 14-pdr.. 5 6-pdr. ; torpedo tubes, 2 l8-jn., 
amidships and aft; Hp., S,ooo-=29 kts.; coal, 
139 tons. 

Barry, Tohn Arttmr, Australian novelist (b. 
1850). Spent many years voyaging in at] parts of 
the world m the Merctiant Service. 

Publications : '* Steve Brown's Bunyip " (1893), 
" In the Great Deep " (1895), " The Luck of the 
Native Born" (1S98), "The Son of the Sea" 
(1899). "Against the Tides of Fate" <ia99). 
" Line and Blue Star " ((902). 

Barry. Balph Ensworth (b. Philadelphia, 1868}. 
.American Naval -Architect. Apprentice at Roache's 
Sliipyard and at Dclamasters. Educated Steven's 
luHtitutu and Cornel! Universit>' ; was chief 
draughtsman with the Union Ironworks, Inter 
with the Newport Kews Shipbuilding and Dry Dock 
Co. ; Ueutenant U.S. Navy during the Spanish- 
American war, and now c-itculating draughtsman, 
Bureau Construction and Re|>air U.S. Navy ; 
certiftcates as master of sail and steam vessels, nnd 
as pilot for New York. Savannah, and San Fran- 
cisco ; Associate ul the Instituttun of Naval 
Architects: member of the Am. Society Naval 




Architects and Marine En^wrs. tht; Am. Societ>' 
NavaJ Engineers, U.S. Naval Insiilute, and Inter- 
national ConRress o! Naxngation. 

Barry Dook News. Established 1 887. Pub- 
lished weekly (Friday). Price irf. Address : 
Barr>* Docks. Glamorgan. 

Bart, Jean U65 1-1702) (U Dunkirk). Entered 
the Dutch Navy, but when war broke out between 
Louis IV. h« ioineU the French forces, and gained 
distinction in the Mediterranean, where he held a 
sort of roving commission, not then being chgiblt: 
for command m the N.ivy, owing lo his low birth. 
His 5UCCC5S. however, was so great that he was 
given a commission and rose rapidly to the rank of 
captain and then lo that of admiral, and he 
became a popular hero of the French Naval Service. 

Sm Rcichar." Vie dc Jean Bart," 1870; Vandereat. 
" Hlsloire de Jean Bart." 

Basilisk. British sloop (1,170 tons, 14'/ kts.). 
Launched 1S89. 

BasOina Olfa. Greek gun-boat. Of no fighting 

Basque Roads, BatU« of. Fought April, 1809, 
when 14 French ships of the line were attacked and 
destroyed by Adimrals Gambia and Cochrane. At 
a court-martial brought about by Admiral Cochrane, 
who accused Admiral Gambia of neglecting to 
support him in this battle, Admiral Gambia was 

Bal British torpedo-boat defitroyer. (Jarrow, 
1896.) Length, 215 ft. ; beam. 30 fL ; draught. 
6^ ft. ; displacement, 326 tons ; complement, 60. 
armament, i i^-pdr., 5 6-pdr., 2 tubus ; twin 
screw ; Hp., 6,185 = 30 kta. ; coal, 91 tons. 

Batavia Lino. Nederlandsche Stoomboot-Maats- 
ctiappij, W. il. Miillcr and Co., with their head 
olhces in Rotterdam, have a fleet of eleven sl.can:ier!>, 
four of which maintain daily service between 
X^ondon and Rotterdam, in connection with the 
steamers of tlic Nederland Rhine Steam Navigation 
Co., uhich ply between Rotterdam and all places on 
the Rhine as far as Maimheim, the remainder of 
the fleet being used in a cargo carrying capacity 
in different parts of Uie world. 

Batavia //. CaUthnia. 

Batavia III. Grangesherg. 

Batavia I V, Hupania. 

Batavia V. Iberia. 

Batavia VI. Hhenatiia. 

Gross tonnage, 30,000. 

Bates. Llndon Wallace (b. Marsbaeld, Vt., 
November 19, 185(1). Marine engiDeer. Educated 
Cliicago High School and Yale ; was surveyor an 
Northern Pacific KAilroa<l, assistant-engineer 
Northem Paci6c and Oregon Pacific Railroads : 

connected with various railway, dock, and terminal 
contracts in Oregon, Washington. Montana. Kansas, 
Missouri, lllmois, Louisiana. Caliiornia. for all the 
transcontinental railways : built by contract roam- 
motl) dredge Beta for U.S. Government ; employed 
to prepare reports and projects for improvement of 
port of Antwerp : by Suez Canal C-o. on the en- 
largement of the canal : by Russian Government 
on the rivers Volga. Dnieper, and Bug ; by the 
Queensland Government, the Calcutta Port Com- 
missioners on the River Hugli ; built large hydraulic 
dredge lor Russian Government, the sea-going 
dredges Hetcuhs. Samson, and Archer for Queens- 
land, and the I.indon Batfs for Calcutta. In colla- 
boration with leading engineers designated by 
Governments of Russia, Germany, Austria, and 
Belgium, prepared scheme for improvement of 
I*ort ol Shanghai ; Grand Prix, and decorated by 
French Government for " distinguished serv'iccs to 
science " ; member Western Soc. Engineers, 
Chicago; life osso. Inst. Naval Architects and of 
Inst. Civil Engineers of Great Britain ; member 
Soc. Engineers of France. 

Bathurst. Argentine torpedo-boat (Yarrow. 
iSyo.) length. 150 ft.; displacement. 85 tons; 
2 tubes ; speed about 34 kts. 

Bathymetry. The me:\surenienl of depths. 

Battenberg. His Serene Highness Prince Loais 
Alexander oL G.C.B., G.C.V.O.. Personal A.D.C. to 
the Iviug ; captain Royal Navy ; Director of Na\'al 
IntelUffeocc (b. Gratz, May 34, 1854}. Was 
naturalised a British subject and entered the Royal 
Navy as cadet, 1868 ; served tn Egyptian war, 
1882 (medal and Khedive's Star). 

Battendown. To secure with t>atteas ; to 
exclude the sea-water. 

Battens. Blocks of wood tapering from one to 

three iiichts broad. 

Battery floating. Se$ Floating Battery. 

Battleship. See Navy. 

Baty. Battery, .\bbreviation adopted on the 
Charts i-ssued by the Hydrographic Office, Admi- 

Bawle; boat A cutter-rigged Thames Estuary 

fihhiiig-boat, witliuut main t>oom. 

Bayan. S$e Aso. Armoured cruiser. Damaged 
by the Japanese at the action ofi Port Arthur, 
Fcbniorj' 25, 1904, and eventually blown up by the 
Russians iu Port Arthur Harbour before capttula* 
tion, Jannar%', 1905 ; since raised, refitted, and 
added to the active list of the Japanese Navy. 

Bayem. German battleship (1878) ; 7,370 tons. 

Ob.sulele, of uo lighting \'alue. 

Bayley, CapU Edward Henry. C.B. (1900), R.M. 
(b. December. 1849). Educated privately ; H.M.S. 





Britanniti, Entered Na-vy J863 ; captAin 1894; 
served Ashantee 1S73-74 ; served at Tientsht ia 
command of first British Defence Force ; was 

senior commanding ofTicer of all the allied forces, 
represented during the aicgc of Tientsin, July, 
1900; stibseqtiently Chie(-of -Staff to Admiral Sir 
Edward Seymour (f.v.). And senior nnvnl ofTiccr at 
Tientsin until September, when all naval forces 
bad been withdrawn. Decorated for servicfls 
while in China. 

Bay ol Bosas* Battle oL On November i, 1S09, a 
brilliant naval action was fought. led by Lieut. 
John Tailour. and ended in the capture or deatnic- 
tton of eleven armed Spanish vessels. 

Budey* Goocve, and Co., Penzance. 5m Little 
Western Steamship Co. 

BJB. Distinguiahing letters on sea fishing boats 
regifltrred at Bremen. Germany. 

B.O. Distinguishing letters on .sea fishing boats 
registered at Bovenkarspel, Holland. 

BJ>. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Bideford, England. 

BditelBj. Russian torpedo-boat destroyer (1906). 
Length, .185 ft.; beam, 21 ft.; draught, 7J ft.; 
displacement, 324 Ions ; complement, 60 : arma- 
raent 1, 12-pdr., 5 3-pdr., 2 lubes; t«m screw; 
Hp., 5.600 = 36 lets. : coal. 100 tons. 

B.E. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at BarnsUple, England. 

Beaehy Haad, Battle oL Fought June 30, 1690, 
when the British and Dutch Fleet, commanded by 
the Earl of Torrington. were defeated by a French 
force under Admiral Tourville. The Dutch lost 
two admirals. 500 men, and sunk several of their 
abtps lo prevent tlicm tailing into the hands of the 
onerny. The British lost two sliips and 400 men. 

Bftftftii \ signal mark for the safe guidance of 
■hipping. litfer l-o Lighthonse. 

Beadon, Daeres 0. (b. Bishopstoke, July, [857]. 
Educated Cheltenham College ; ."icr\'ed apprentice- 
ship as an engineer with Messrs. R. and W. Haw- 
thorn, Leslie and Co.. of Newcastl?-on-Tyne, in 
whose services and interests he remained practi- 
cally since then. Holds position of outside manager 
in the marine engine department. 

Beftk or Beafchead. A piece of brass fixed at the 
head of ancient galleys with which they rammed 
their enemies. 

Bmud. The extreme width. 

B«viH«ndi. A ship is said to be on her beam- 
cads when she has heeled over so that her beams 
apfvoacb a vertical position. 

Bw a hand. Hastes. 

Bear away and lear 09. To steer farther from 
the wind. 

Bearding. The .-ingular fore part of the rudder 
at the ^ide of the stern (>03t. 

Bearing. The direction. 

Beat. In sea phraseology to excel in speed. 

Beaofoci Sir Fnudi ii;74-i8S7)> Britbh rear- 
admiral. Entered Navy 1787, and was present at 
Lord Howe's action of June t, 1704. Promoted 
commander 1800, and captain 1810. From 1S32-5; 
he acted as hydrofjraphcr to the Admiralty. ^ 

Beaofort's Scale. Devised by Adnural Sir F. 
Beaufoi'l, and now in general usc^for atimating 
the iorce of the wind. 

Beaotoy, On February 30. 1823. Mr. Weddel. 
R.X.. in command of this vessel, penylrated as far 
south as 74* 15' S. 

Beaamont, Vioe-Admiral Sir Lems Anthony, 
K.C.M.0^ K.C.B. (b. May 19. 1847I. Entered Na\-y 
i860; served Arctic expedition, 1875-76 (Arctic 
medal) : private secretary to I.ord Northbrook ; 
First Lord of the Admiralty, and High C^m- 
missioner to Egypt, 1884 ; Director of Naval In- 
telligence, 1894-99 ; A.D.C to the Queen, 1895-97 ; 
Commander-in-Chief Australian Station, 1900: in 
personal attendance on H.R.H. the Duke of Corn- 
wall and York during the Australian tour, 190I ; 
decorated K.C.M.G. (or these 'services ; K.C.B. on 
His Majesty's birthday. 1904. 

Becalmed. Implies the state of a vessel unable 
to niaki- ht-adway owing to there being no wind. 

Beoke, George Loak. English novelist (b. 
Sydney. New South Wales. 1848). The experience 
he gained between 1870 and [893 while trading in 
the South Sca-s he turned to good account in his 
stories of adventure, .^mong the best known are 
" By Reef and Palm " (1893). " The Ebbing of the 
Tide ■' (r896). " Pucific Tales " (1897), " The South 
Sea Pcarier " (1900), " By Rock and Pool " (1901). 
" Brtachley Black Ship " (1902). 

BeckeL A tupe-eye to receive a knot or toggle. 

Bedlord. British ist claas cmtser. (Fairfield. 

Length 440 ft. Beam 66 ft. Moan draught 34 ft. 
Displacement 9,800 tons. Complement 678. 
Guns. A rmour. 

14 — 6 in.. 45 cal. " Krupp." 
8 — 12 pdr. 4 in. Belt amidships. 

2 — 13 pdr.. 8 cwt. 5 in. Barbettes. 
3 — 3 pt''"- »o in. Conning tower. 

S Pompoms. 

Totptdo Tubts (18 in.) 
2 Submerged. 
Twinscrew. Hp. 22,000 - 23 kta. Coal maximum 
1.600 tons. Approximate cost ^77S-0O0. 
This ship-name dates in the Navy Crom 1702, 

u 2 




aod U associated witli Rooke's victory at Vigo, 
1705 ; action off Cape Sparco, 170J ; Rooke's vic- 
tory off Maiagar, 1704; capture of IJ3uisl«rg. 
1758; expedition to Quebec, 1759; capture of 
Comete. ij6i : Rodney's action off St. ViOccnt. 
1780; Grave's action off the Chesapeake, 1781 : 
Hootl's action with Dc Oras!>e, 1782 ; Rodney's 
action with Pe Gra&se, 1782 ; flood's occupation of 
Touk>n. 1793: Hotham's action off Genoa, i/y^i ; 
Hothatn's action ofi Hy6rcs, 1795 ; Camperdown. 
Badloid. Admiral Sir Frederick Geonte Denham 

{b. 1S38). Ealored Royal Navy 1S52 ; radft uf 5.i»i 
son, 1852-54 ; served dt:nnR Hiis'^inn war, BUick 
Sea ; present at the bombardments of Odessa and 
Sebastopol (Crimean and Turkish medals. Seba«- 
topol clasp) ; mid. of VttltMe in the Baltic expedi- 
tion. 1855 ; present at the bomtjardment of Svea- 
borg {Baltic medal) ; aencd Black Sea during 
BuMiian war (Crimean and Turkish medaU) ; rap- 
tain of Shah at the engagement with the Peruvian 
ironclad Huasrar ; when captain of Monarch did 
excellent work for the relief of General Cordon. 
1RB4. and received the thanks of the Admiralty 
(Egyptian medal. Nile. 1884-85, clasp, Khedive's 
Bronze Star); A.D.C. to the Queen, [888-9' ; Lord 
Comml«isioner of the Admiralty, 18B9-92 ; Com- 
mander-in-Chief Capi- of Good Hope and West 
Coast of South Africa, 18^2-95 : in recoRnition of 
services in the Benin River. l8'.)4. he receivi-d 
K.C.B. (gcntral Africa medal. Gambia, 1804, Benin 
River, 1894, Brass River, 1895, clasps} ; Second 
Sea l4?rd of the Admiralty, 1895 ; Commander-in- 
Chief North America and Vt'est Indies, 1899 ; 
G.C.B. 1903 : retired 1903. 

Publications: "Sailors' Pocket-Book," "The 
Sailors' Hand-Book," and "The Sailors" Ready 
Reference Book." 

Bed of river, TJie. means the .soil iH'twecn the 
two adjacent banks between which the river 
normally flows. In a navigable ndal river the 
property in the bed belonf;s prima facie to the 
Crown up to high-water mark, but it may be vi-stcd 
in a board of conservators, or (granted to a private 
individual who takes subject to all public rights — 
f.^..of navigation, anchorage, and grounding— such 
river being a public highway. The regulation of 
most of our important waterways is vested in a 
Conservancy {q.v.). whicli protects but docs not 
actually own the bed. unless it be in the interests 
and far the purposi-s of navigation, la a non-tidal 
river or at>ove lidu-llow the property in the bed 
vesta I'resuniptivcly in the ripariau owners (j-i.) 
ad medium f;lum aqutt, who must not interfert.; 
with the natural flow of the stream so as to injure 
other riparian owners ; but this prestimphon is 
letiuttablc: by evidence t]\at one riparian owner i3 
owner of Uie soil of the wholt- bed. 

Beeohey, Frederiok William. Naval rear-admiral 
and goographcr (b. London, 1796). Entered the 

Navy in 1806, and was ongaged in active service 
during tlie wars with France and America, 181S; 
iierved under Franklin in Arctic expedition, and in 
1819 accompanied Parry in the fieda; took part 
in the survey of the ML-diterranean coast. 1821. 
in 1825 he v/as appointed to the Blasom to ex* 
plore the Bvhrine Strait, in conjunction with 
Franklin and Parry. The whole voyage lasted 
three years, dunog which he paiaed ilirough the 
Behring Strait, and penetrated as far as lat. 
71" 23' 31' N. and long. 156° 21' 30' W.. dis- 
covering several islands in the Pacific and an 
'•xccllent harbour near C-ape Prince of Wales. In 
1847 he was appomted by the Admiralty to pre- 
side over the Marine Department of tlie Board of 
Trade; promoted rear-admiral, 1854; d. Novem- 
b<T 2g, tSift. Refer to Arctic Exploration. 

BeechinK, Jamea (t778>iK58). Inventor of "sdf- 
rii-hung lifeboat." and originator of the Yarmouth 
fishmg -vessel. In competition with others he was 
awarded the l*rincc Consort '.s prize- for his life- 
Ixjat, which was taken as a mcxInJ for the boats of 
the National Lifeboat Institution- 

Beerbohm^i Morning Shipping List Hst. 1S69. 

Publi^hrd daily tiiiuruuiK). PricL- iid. Address: 
94 Ij?3ulenliall Street, l^ndon, K.C. 

Beet. Wood or iron projections bolted on each 

«ide of the bowsprit. 

Before, The bearing of any object which ia 


Betiera, or Behaini. Martin (b. Nuremberg, 
1436}. VVa^ appointed geographer to an ex- 
pedition undertaken by Hiegu Cam to the western 
coast of Africa, and as a reward for his !wr\'iccs 
received the honour ol knighthood. While visiting 
bis native city in 148J he constructed a terrestrial 
globe in which be iticorporaLcfl the discoveries of 
Marco Polo and other travellers. The globe is still 
prrserved in thu family, and has frequently been 
reproduced. It is not, however, accurate, as mis- 
taken in the localisation of the places he visited 
arc noticeable : in soqic instances they arc as much 
as 16° out He died at Lisbon. 1 $u6. 

Behring. Captain Vittia. See Arctic Exploration. 

Belay- To lasten a rope by twining it rotind a 
t)elaying-pin or ch-at. 

Belcher Sir Edward (>799-i877). British ad- 
miral. In iSa; he went with Captain E. W. 
Beechey (j.f.) in the Blossom, when important dis- 
coveries were niade. In 1851 he was appointed to 
command the Assislnnif on an .\rctic expedition. 
and on his return was promoted rear -admiral. 

Publications : Narrative of " A Voyage Round 
the World in the H.M.S. Sulphur " (184457). 

Bellast and Coantj Down Railway Go. Steamboat 
Service t-omnH-iKu sailing aboul thv (.-lul of May 
for the summer season, making trips four tiiues 





daily from BcUast to Baagor. On Saturrlays only 
« steamer leave* Belfast for Bangor. Dooaghadee, 
and Lame Yiasbour. 

Btarimagh. Sl*tvc 

Oorinthian SailiiK Clab. Msublished 
1&S9. FUg . Blue, with y«ilow i)«ll on r«4 shield. 
Commodore, J. SIcKeghcrty; Vicc-Commodorc, 
E. J. Bryne ; UoAr-l'omniodore, W. Shields ; 
Treasurer. W. Hutchinaoa ; Secretary. W. J. 
Hantian. Eotrance fee, 2s. 6d. ; annual subscrip- 
tion, 51. 

Ballwt, Port oL Belfast Harbour, the premier 
harbour of Ireland, is at the hca<] of H«l<ast IjotiRh. 
in latitude s^'' 56' N.. 5" 3O' W. The time of high 
watt-T at full and change is lo hours and 43 minutes. 

The rise of the tide varies from t>Jfi, springs to 
7ft. Sin. neaps. 

The prevaihng wind is from the south-west to 
north-west for nine months of the year. The 
harbour is safe, and the approach from tlK- sea ts 
easy by means of a straight chaoael, which in 
oJiiciently lighted by oil, po that it is ea&ily navi- 
gated by night as well as by day. The depth of 
water in the chamiel is 20 feet at average low 

In l6t 5 a charter incorporating Belfast a borough 
empowered the " Sovereign, free htirgcAses. and 
commonalty " to construct a wharf or quay at 
Belfast, and in 1688 a now charter empowered the 
game authority to mend the quays and receive 

The firat Act of Parliament for regnlBting Belfast 
Harbour was passed in 1739. and rmpowere<l the 
authorities to appoint officers, to make ln*e-laws, 
to supply ballast, and to levy tonnage dues. In 
1785 an Act wan pa.«ed by which the Belfast 
Corporation, consisting of tj members, was con* 
EtitDtcd. This Act empowered the new corpora- 
tion to hcensc pilots, appoint a harbour- master, 
mark and deepen the channel, and construct docks. 
A further Act was pas:H.-d in iSj; changing the 
name of the corporation to the " Corporation for 
Preserving and Improving the Port and Harbour 
of Belfast. " This corporation consisted of 1 8 
members, two of whom were e * officio. The 
corporation bad power under this Act to borrow 
money, purchaj^c private quays and docks, and 
construct a straight channel to deep water. The 
first section of this channel was oi>ened in 1841. 
the second in 1S49. and it was further extended and 
deepened in 189 1. 

The present harbour authority, styled the " Bel- 
fast Harbour Commissioners." was constituted by 
the Belfast Harboor Act at 1847. This Act gave 
enlarged borrowing powers for the purpose of pur- 
chasing additional property, filling up old dock«. 
and widetung and improving the quays, .'\uthority 
W9S also given to levy tonnage and quayage dues 

on vessels, rates on goods, pilotage, porterage and 
stora^, and rents. The Commuuioncrs are also 
conservators of the harbour under the Belfast Port 
and Harbour Conservancy .\ct, 1S52. 

By the Belfast Harbour Act. i33j. the number 
of members was increased to twenty-two, Uie Lord 
Mayor being a member ex officio. 

A person is not qualified to act as a Commis- 
sioner unless he resides within 2n milc5 from the 
harbour office, ami pn*w«SKe^ one of thn foltnwing 
qualifications : 

He must be either the registered ownw of at 
least 300 tons of a vessel or vessels belonging 
lo and rcgUtored at Belfast, and engaged in 
the coftstinrj, channel, or foreign trade : or be 
rativl a.H the occupier of premises within the 
borough of Bflfa.-st on a net annual value of 
not less than £60, or bi-- rated aa one of several 
joint occupiers of sudi premises of not less 
than £60 lor each such joint occupier ; or be 
seixed in his own right or in the right of his 
wife of real estate in the United Kingdom of 
a net annual value not less than 1^200, or of 
pcreonal estate of a gross value not Icsa than 
The Commissioners are elected by a constituency 
of shipowners and ratepayers. The elector must 
be the registered owner of at least 50 tons of a 
vessel or vessels belonging to and registared at 
Belfast, and engaged in the coasting, cbaoocl, or 
foreign trade, or be rated as the occapwr of pre- 
mises within the borough of Belfast on a net annual 
value of not less than ^lo. 

Tlie following is a statement of the 
docks, etc., in the harbour : 







giMra,^ , 



C«xiia Qua? 

Doiwcall Quay 

Alb(A Uiwr — 
Qoecn'a Qu^U' 

ft. In. 
fl 8 

24 3 
3* S 
23 9 

n. In. 
IS 5 
13 9 
t3 3 




" ' 


No. I St 2 qmir<i 

No. 3 Quay 


U 3 
3* i 

as 9 

no ' 


AlexRiiiIrA Wbtrf 
CtareriM Whjrf .. 

ViGloria Wburl 

A'tiandra Jelly ... 
New Wh»ri, Down ... 

M ) 

a J 

£4 3 
)0 1 
40 3 

a 9 

18 9 
IS 9 
21 ^ 
» 9 






I Width 



I CUrendon Dock I 
Abercofa BwId 
nufTerio Dock ' 

: Siwneec Dock I 

MilenrmterBuia , 

York Dock I 




below I WMV 
Lavi am 





a. I- p. 

«0 3l 

10 2 12 
3 t 12 
7 I 99 
3 3 




ToUl t>Mal Qun««. 24,M) f«ct. 






o( Ell- 
in nee 


of l>oek n,^d,h i.Minh 



to Aoor 

ot floor of floor 



fl. In. 

ft. In. 

ft In. 

ft. in. 

CUten<li>n Cnvln^ 


1 9 

14 9 

V 6 

»3 e 

Dock No. 1 

CUfwndDO Ofavlnn 



» 6 



Dock No. 2 


Hamilton GraviiK 

Atriindra Cnvirw 


J 7 

n 9 


431 6 







Harboor dsmm— LerrJ of Nft 2 Chnndon Gnvlng Docli Sit). 

and I ft. si in». below >Tcni<r low water Icvd. 

Oidnancfi daiuio— U li. ll) Ins.) Tlxc tct-t bclnw H^rbuar 


The Commissioners arc c^n.'i true ting 
(jraving dock of ll»c (oHowing dimensions : 


length o( dock or floor from the north 
quoin of the inner caisson sill to the toe 
of the battered wall at the Muth of the 

dock 850 o 

Brcadtli of dock from toe to toe of the 

battered side wall below alter courses . . 100 o 
Breadth of dock from coping to coping . . 1 28 o 
Height of coping above harbour datum . . rfj o 
Width of caisson chamber in clear 23 4i 

Level of surface at inner and outer sills Ik 

lo be below liarbour datum . . 24 6 

This ^TA\ing dock will be one of the largest in 
the world. 

The docks and basins cover an area of 
about 136 acres. The liarbour consists of about 
590 acres of land and 1,528 acres of water, or 
about 2, lis acres io all. There is a compk-le 
system of tmmways around the harbour, and coal. 
etc.. can be loaded direct from veutcls into the 
railway trucks. Tliese tramways are connected 
with ail the railu-ay systems of the country. Ship- 
building IS encouraged, and the large shipbuilding 
and engineering works of Meftsrs. Hartaod and Wolfi, 
Ltd., and Messrs. Workman. Clark and Co.. Ltd., 
who have a world-wide reputation for the con- 
struction of the largest class of ocean-going 
steamers, are situated on the harbour estate. 

The revenue ol the harbour from aJl soorces, 
excluding loans, for the year 1906 was Ixs^.ooo, 
and the Buplus, after defraying all expenses, was 
nearly ^20,000. 

Belfast Steamship Co., with their head office at 
Poncgall Quay, Belfast, maintain a daily service 
between Belfast and Liverpool, and ihm wna. 
Sundays excepted, leaving Belfast at 8 p.m. and 
Liverpool at 10 p.m. The steamers of the com- 
pany arc lighted throughout by electricity, and 
6tted with every modem converirnce for the com- 
fort of passengers. The open sea passage is about 
six hours. 


Caloric. Logic. 

Comic. Ma^c. 

Gwupkic. Mystic 

Heroic. Optic. 

Gross tonnage. 74.000. 

Belgian SaUlog Clob. Boyal. 
Saihng Club. 

Stt Royal Belgian 

Belgian Btata Railway and BCail Packet Serrioe 

maintain three sf-r^ices in each direction from 
Dover to Ostend in conjunction with the railway. 
The new fast turbine steamer Pnttc^ss Eliiabelh 
has a speed of 25 knots, and is fitted with the 
Marconi system of wireless telegraphy. 

another Belgioa. Ship, S»e .Antarctic Exploration. 

Belgiqite, Ror&l Yacht OInb de. Set Royal Yacht 
Club de Belgiqiic. 

Bdier. French torpedo-boat dcstroyt*. (Nor- 
mand, 1902.) Length, 180 ft. ; beam, 2t ft. ; 
maximum drauf^ht, 10 ft. ; displacement, 500 tons ; 
complement, 45 ; guns. 1 9-pdr., fi- 3-pdr. ; torpedo 
tulws, 2 i5-in. : speed, 27-30 knots. 

Bell, Henry (b. Torpichaton. 1767). Introducer 
of practical steam navigation mto the United 
Kingdom. In January, iSt2. hc: produced the 
steamboat Comet, of 35 tons, duven by an cDgine 
of 3 Hp., with a speed of 7 miles an hour, which 
plied between Glasgow and Greenock. This was 
the first steam vessel to be launched in Great 
Britain. He died at Helensburgh, November 13. 
1640, and a monumrnt was erected to his memory 
at Dunglass. on the banks of the Clyde. 

Bell. Sir James, cr. 1S95 (*»^ Cla.<igow). Con- 
tested the Amenca Cnp with the yacht Tkistlt. 
now Comet, and at the present time owned by the 
Emperor of Germany. 

Bell Brothers and BIocLcUand, with their head 
offices in Glasgow, have a lleet of ten steamers 
engaged in cargo trade, TItcse vessels have accom- 
modation for a limited number of passengers. 

BeiUigio. Bellaura . 

DeUatlsa. Beitena. 

Bflia HOC A . BeUcndm. 

Beliatden. Betlcvue. 

BeJIasco. Bellgtano. 

BellerophoiL British ist class battleship, l^d 
down. tgo6. 

Length 500 ft. Beam 80 ft. Draught 26 ft. 
Displacement 18,000 tons. 
Gvns. Armouf. 

10 — 12 in. " Krupp." 

18 — J in. 13 in. Belt amidships. 

13 in. Barbettes. 

Torpfdo Tubts (iS ia.). 
4 Submerged broadside. 
I Submerged Btem. 

Turbine. Hp. 23.000^31 kts. 

Approximate cost £1,750,000. 
The fint vessel ol this name was launchud in 
1786. aad disUn^uislied herselX in May, 1794. inau 
engagement witli the French Retoluiionaire. She 
fired the first gun at the battle of " The Glorious 
First of June," I7>>4- la 1798 she was present at 
the battle of the Nile, and subsequently took part 
in the battle of Trafalgar. Napoleon Bonaparte, 
on his surrender to Captain Maitland on July 15, 
i3[5. was conveyed from Basque Roads to Ply- 
mouth in this vessel. The second BelUrophon was 
launched In 181S. In 1S40 she was engaged in the 
boniljardmcnt of St. Jean d'Acrc. and in 1854 the 
bombar(]mr>nt ol Seliastopol. The third BelUro- 
phon was an iron battleship, buitt in 1856, which 
In 1904 had her name changed, and is still in tise 
ftt Devonport as a training establishment and 

B^erophoQO. St* Ocean Steamship Co. 

Belligfinnt The term "belligerent," according 
to Tlie Hague Conference (1899), which reproduces 
and ampUfies the provisions of all former confer- 
enccs, includes both the combatants and non- 
oombatants who 1 

(i) Are commanded by some rcsiK>nsible person : 

(2) Wears some distinctive emblem ; 

(3) Carry arms openly ; and 

(4) Conduct operations according to the laws 
and customs of war. 

The unorganixcd inhabitants of invaded terri- 
tor>' who take up arms are also regarded as belli- 
gerents so long as they observe the customs of 
wax. Rtfcr to Contraband of War. Neutrality, 
C&rtel. Blockade, Visit and Search. 

I Ballot. Joseph Rent. French naval officer and 
explorer (b. Pans. March 18, 1836). Distinguished 
himseU in the French expedition of [845 in Mada- 
gascar, and received tlic Cross of the Legion of 
Honour, He obtained permission to join the 

■ £nglish expedition under the command of Cap* 
I tain Kennedy in search of Sir John Franklin, and 
I on this occasion discovered the strait which bears 

■ his n^me between Buthia Felix and Somerset 
I Land. Two years later lie accompanied Captain 

lagleJield on an expedition, and while making a 
perilous Journey with two comradt-s across tlie ice 
was overtaken by a storm and penshed. Relet to 
Arctic Exploration. 

Bell Bock Light, situated near the Ffrth of Tmy, 
ts a red and white alternate flarfi every 60 seconds. 
Duration of flash, \ second : candle-power. 60,000 ; 
burner. 6 wick ; iUaminact. oil. 

Belli. At sea the subdivision of a " watch " 
(f.f.) are noted by a hall-hourly striking of a bell 
with a clapper. 

Bdly. The swell of a saiL 

Belly-band. A broad strip of canvas half-way 
between the close reef and the foot of square sail 

to strengthen It. 

Bally-stay. A rope from the centre of the most 

Bembhdge Sulinii Olab, Isle of Wight. Estab- 
lished iH>i6. BurgfR ■ White, blue borders on fly, 
red device to centre, representing the Isle of Wight. 
Cotnmodore, R. Stewart Savile : Vico-Commodore. 
Sir Charles Camplx^U : Rear-Commodore, Col. Sir 
Simon Lockhart : Treasurer and Secretary. Mr. 
H. H. Freman. Entrance iee, ^s 5'- : annual sub- 
scription, li IS. 

Beabow, 7ohn. English admiral (b. Shrews- 
bur)'. 1650). In 1668, when tnuJing to the Mediter- 
ranean, he defeated a Sallee pirate, and for ttUs 
James n. made him captam of a man-of-war, and 
for some yenrj he was employed to prot«:t English 
commerce in the Channel. Took part m the bom- 
bardment of St. Malo. 1693, and was in charge of 
the squadron which burnt Dieppe, and bombarded 
Havre and Calais. In 1696 he became rear-admiral, 
and in 1698 set sail for the West Indies, where he 
compelled the Spaniards to restore several English 
vessels they had ^'ized. In 1700 be was appointed 
vice-admiral, and returned to tlie West Indies. In 
1703 iiis ship, the Brtda. gave choae off Santa 
Martha to a French squadron under Du Casse. and 
kept up a running fight for live days. During this 
fight he was severely wounded in Uie head, hin 
right leg was idiattureU by a shot, and he was 
compelled to conduct the action from a cradle on 
hts quarter-deck. The French admiral escaped, 
and he was reluctantly forced to abandon the 
chase. He returned to Jamaica, and died of his 
wounds, November 4. 1702. 

Banbow, Sir Henry, K.C.B„ cr. 1902. D.S.O., 
1891 ; Chief Inspector of Machinery. R.N. {b. 
September 5, 1S36). Educated private school : 
entered Navy as assistant engineer in 1861. and 
became chief engineer 1879 ; promoted to Inspector 
of Machinery 1885. and Chief Inspector of Machinery 
1888; served with the Naval Brigade m tlic Nile 
Expedition. 1884-85 (inedal. bronze star), and re- 
paired under the enemy's fire the boiler of the 
Softa. which was displaced by a shot from Fort 
Habeshi ; decorated for services with the NiIb Ex- 
pedition ; retired, 1893. 

BencbOL Sec Thwarts. 

Benooolen. East Indiaman, struck on sands 
near Bude Haven, Cornwall, October 19, 1862. 
when twenty-six lives were lust. 

Bend. To extend or 

proper yard or stay ; a 
cable when stowing it. 

make fast a 
kink formed 

sail to its 
in a hemp 




Beneap. The utuatioa o( a vessel wh(;n she is 
agronnd at the height of spring tides. 

Benedetto Brin. Itslittn battlnhip. (Castdla- 
mari-. 1901.) 
Length 430 ft. Beam 7S ft. Mean draught 27 ft. 
Bisplacement i.;.427 tons. Complement 720, 
Gwns. Atmvuf. 

4 — 13 in. 40 cal. " Tcmi." 
4 — 8 in. 6 in. Belt. 

13 — 6 in. S in. Barbettes. 

16 — 13 pdr. 6 in. Casemates. 

8 — 6 pdr. 13 in. Conning tower. 

3 — I pdr. 
3 Mwcims. 

Tofpedo Tubes {\& in.). 
4 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. natural t^.ooo^ 18 kts.. forced 
lg,ooo = 30 kts. Coal majcimum 2,oou tons. 
Apprcurimate coat ^i.t5a,ooo. 

Bengal Lights or Blue Lights are pyrotcchnical 
preparalioii^ for fii^^nals by night. I^ota&siuin 
chlorate, aiuiniony, sulphide, and sulphur are the 
chief Ljigrcdic-nt£ used in their manufacture. \s 
the mixture is highly explosive great skill is re- 
quired m the making. 

St8 Coolcy's " Cyclopa^ia of Practical Receipts " 

Bengo. Portuguese gun-boat {1879). B.L. guns. 
Of little 6ghtjng value. Speed [nominally) 10 kts, 

Benjamin Constant Brazilian cruiser. (La 
Seyuc. 1892.) 

I.ength 23611. Beam 44ft. Maximum draught iSft. 
Displacement 2,750 tons. Complement 380, 
Guns. Armour. 

4 — 6 in. " Steel." 

S — 4'7 in. 2 in. Deck. 

3 — 12 pdr. 3 J in. Conning tower, 

3 — I pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
4 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. natural 3,800—14 kts., forced 
4,000= 15 kts. Coal maximum 260 tons, 

Ben Uae. B. K. Thomson and Co.. with their 
bead office in Loith, own a tine Heel of cargo 
stoamcTH trading to the East and Far East. The 
sUps are all modern, with a sea speed of about 
10^ kts., and have excellent accommodation for a 
few first-class passengers. 

Beniomond. Beniarig. 

Bfnmoiu. Benvctiuc. 

BoHsUder. BenUdi. 

Beugloe. Banlawers. 

Banvorltch. Benavon, 

Bencltuch, Moscow. 

Benarty. PHttAwr^. 

Gross tonnage.1 48.D00. 

Bennett Line, with their head oflliccs in T.ondon, 
maintain regular i!er\*ice5 bctw-etm Goolc and 
Boulogne^-sur-Mer. and between I^ndon and that 
port. Steamers leave Coole every Wednesday, 
Thursday, and Saturday, and from London every 
Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, returning Tues- 
day, Thursday, and Sunday. 

Africa. Malta. 

Burma. Mopsa. 

dtrea. Syria. 

Bennington. U.S. g^un-boat. (Chester, 1891.) 

Ltugth -'3(jit. Beam 36ft. Maumum draught t6ft. 

Displacement 1,70a tons. Complement 195. 

Guns. Atmour. 

6— 6 in, "Steel." 

4 — 6 pdr, } in. Deck amidships. 

Hp. 3.400= 17 kts. Coal maximum 40a tons. 

Bentick Shroadt, Formcj-ly used to assist the 
futtock .sliruuds extending from weather hittock 
staves to the i^iposite lee<hannel3. 

Benton. Steamer of Singapore sunk in collision 
with an unknown steamer, April 38, 1807 ; 150 lives 

Beownil German coast service battleship {1890). 
Length 354ft. Beam 49ft. Maximum draught iSft., 
Displacement 4,150 tons. Complement 297. 
GufU. Armour. 

3 — 9'4 in. " Compound." 

10 — rsJ pdr. gin. Belt. 

6 — I pdr. 8 in. Barbettes. 

4 Machine. 7 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes, 
3 Submerged bow and broadside. 
I .Above water stem. 
Twin screw. Hp. 5,100= i5'5 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 580 tons. 

Berenice. H.HJS. On October 13. 1866. this 
vessel u-as humt in thp Persian (tull. 

Bertslcrd. Vice-Admiral Lord Charles William de 
la Peer, O.O.V.O., K.C.B. cr. H}o^ (b. Ircl.-md, 
Fi'bnuary 10. i.'^4()). Edutatcd at Bi^yford School 
and Stubbinglun, Famliam, Hampshire. Rntered 
Britannia as cadet, 1859: sub-lieutenant, 18O6 , 
lieutenant. 1868 ; commander. 1875, Accom- 
panied H.R.H. Prince of Wales (Edward VIL) ns 
a naval A.D.C. to India, 1875-76. Commanded 
H.M.S. Condor at the Ixjmbardmrnt of Alexandria. 
July 11. 1882. Lan^led at Alpxnndria, and with 
Royal Marines instituted a repdnr pohcc systt-m. 
which imdcr his able administration achieved 
marvellous results. The "Times" boiTcs{}ondent, 
July 34, 1S82, says : " I say without fear and 
contradiction that no such work has ever been done 
with such complete absence of violence." I'ro- 
moted captain, and mi.-ntioncd in despatches for 
gallantry. (Egj-pf medal. AleAandria clasp, Khe- 
dive's Bronxe Star. Medjidie. 3rd Clasj».) Served in 
Lhe Soudan with the Kite Expedition for the relief 




of Geaeral Gordon. Served on stafl of Genera! 
Lord \Volscley, and subscfiufntly commanded the 
Naval Brigade at the l^ttlrti of Abu Klea, Aim 
Km. and Mett-mmrh. (llcntiontrd for gallantry.) 
Commantled the cxpwlitian which n-jcuerl Sir 
Clwrlcs Wilson's party in Sofia, when boilen were 
fepaired nnder fire. Specially mentioned in de- 
spatches for gallantry, and the Secretary of the 
Admiralty in the House of Commons said ; " The 
rescue of Sir C. Wilson by Lord Charles Beresford 
wss a feat of arms equally rctnarltable tor the skill 
and gallantry displayed." Kcceived the thaaks oi 
boUi Houses for the operations in the Soudan. 
Agoui specially mentioned in despalche.s by Lord 
Wodsclcy. 1885, who ^id an ot&cer whose readiness 
of rasource, whose ability as a leader are only 
equalled by his daring. (Nile 188435 and Abu 
Ktca clasps.) Lord Commissioner ot the Adnunilty, 
1885 . resigned. 1888. While captain of Vndaunicd 
rendered assiatonct; on the occasion of the grounding 
of the Sngnakay. for which, during the visit of the 
English Fleet to Ciolf Juan, the French admiral 
viAtted the UndaunUd to personally present to her 
captain, officers, and men the thanks of the French 
Govcnunent. A.D.C, to the Queen. 1S97. Second- 
in-command Mediterranean Station, T900-3. Com- 
mander-in-Chief Channel Fleet, 1903-4. G.C.V.O., 
|i^7: K.C.B. on His Majesty's birthday, Novem- 
be 9. '903. 

Beresford, Sir John Poo (1766-1844). 3rittsh 
admiral. In 1795. when captain of the Hussar 
on the North American Station, be engaged five 
French store ships, and captured two. In 1797, 
when in command of the Ration, he captured a 
valuable Spanish treasure ship n«ar the Bahamas. 
Was present at the action in tJasque Road (1809.) 
Promoted rear-admiral 1814, and made a baronet. 
In 183.S he became admiral, and retired. 

Berk Etshan. Turkish toqKrdo-boat destroyer. 
{Gaarden. 1894.) Length. 187 ft. : beam, ai ft. ; 
draught, 7 ft. ; displacement, 370 tons ; anna- 
ment, 6 j-pdr., 2 tubes ; Hp., 1.2009:25 kts. 

Berkeley^ James* Third Earl (1680-173^). Fought 
with great crt-dit in Kooke's action otf Malagar in 
1704, and in command of the 5/. George at the 
siege of Toulon. Was appointed First Commis- 
fiioncr of the Admiralty. 171 1, aud two years later 
was promoted admiral and Commander-in -Chief o( 
the Fleet. 

Berkaler, Sir Oeor^e Craofleld {1753-181S). In 
i^&o 62. as captain, he was in oommaod of the 
frt^tc Recovery at the relief of Gibraltar ; at Lord 
Howe's vicuiry. 1794. was in command of the 
Marlhortrngh ; in I7c>9 he was in command of a 
squadron bloci ding Brest; promoted admiral, 

Berlin. German armoured cniiser. (Dancig 
Dockyard, igoj.) 
Length 34tft. Beam 40ft. Maximum draught i61ft. 

Displacement j.200 tons. Complement 280, 
Guns. Armour. 

10— 4"i in. " Krupp." 

10 — 1"4 in. 2 in. Deck- 

4 Maxims. 4 in. Conning tower 

Toff^edo Tubes. 
2 Submerged. 
Twin M;ri-w. Hp. = 33 ki3. Coal maxi- 
mum Soo tons. 

Berlin. 1.775 tons. Great Easteru Railway Co.'s 
mail steamer, rimning between Harwich and the 
Hook of Holland, strand^-d on the rocks in the 
Wcinity of Vooma Inland, at the end of the North 
Pier at the Hook •■>'■ Holland ina gale. February 21. 
1907, and became a total wreck. Of 14} on board — 
93 pa.%wngcrs and jjo crew — only 1 s were saved, 

Berliner Segler Club. Eslahlisho*! 188$- ^-om- 
modorc, E. Deter ; Vice-Commodore, O. Jach- 
mann ; Treasurer, W. I>ettTe ; Secretary, J. Nurren- 

bach, 5 Schifloaucrdamm. Berlin. 

Btrliner Taoht Olnb. E.<itablished 1885. Com- 
modore. Paul Scliuiult ; V'icc-Comuiodorc, F. Mcr- 
tens ; Rear-Commodore, G. Gottling ; Troasurer. 
C Ihlow ; Secretary. .M. Buchholu. Qub House. 
Grunau. by Berlin. Rntrancc fee. mark 50 ; annual 
suUicnpUon, mark 40. 

Bermnrta Eig. 5m Mugian Rig. 

Beroe. A small marine organism belonging to 
the Ctcnophora, and found abundantly near the 
surface of tlu; sea during summer. It iliflcrs from 
its near allies in uot [Kisses-^iiig t^ntacle^ and 
ha%'ing a wide slit-Hke mouth. 

Berry. Edward (b. Ucvonport, March 1858). 
Served apprenticeship H.M. steam-engine factory 
at Kcyh;iro, Devonport ; in 1S75 joined the Union 
S.5. Co. : in 1883 rose to the position of chief 
engineer, which he retained until 181^ ; had charge, 
under the late Charles du Saotory, Esq., supt. 
engineer to the Union S.S. Co., of the conversion 
of two crank compound engines to triple expan- 
ition ; resignei) this apjKuntment in 1895, and com- 
menced business as a naval architect and marino 
engineer surveyor : in 1 898 accepted the appoint- 
ment of supt. engineer to the Ocean S.S. Co., ol 
Liverpool : memlier of the Institution of Naval 

Berry. Sir Eduratd (17G6-1631). Bntish rear- 
admiral. Served wiLb Nelson in 1796. who was 
instrumental in his promotion to commander in 
that year : he led the txHuding party at the cap- 
ture of San Jo9<eph and San Nicholas in the victory 
ofi Cape St Vincent, 1797 ; promoted captain, and 
took part in the battit; of the Nile ; was in com- 
mand of the Foudriyitftt. 1800. at the capture of 
the Gfn^eut \ in the Asamtmnun be took pidrt in 
the battle of Trafalgar. 1S05. and San Domingo in 
iSt; ; he was given a K.C.B. and retired, 1821. 
having obtained flag rank. 




Bartli, The station ia whicb a ship rides at 


Bartin, Louis Emile. Chid Constructor French 
Navy (b. Nancy, March 33, 1840). Educated 
PolWechnic School, and served at the arsenals o( 
Chrrbourg and Brest from 1862-85 ; while there he 
designed and superintended the construction oi 
many ships-of-war built for the French Navy ; in 
188G Wsited Japan, and superintended the con- 
struction of many ships in the Japanese Na\T, 
which have played so prominent a part in the 
Rnsso-Japunesc war. On his return from Japan 
in 1892 he became! Chief of I'licole dn Gftnic Mari- 
time of Palis, and in 1895 was called to the Minislrj' 
and pven the title of Director nf Material, which subsequently changed to that of Chief of the 
Technical Section, and in this capacity designed 
and superintended tlic construction of tlie battle- 
ship Henry I v.. and the cruisers 7«a»«« d'Atc 
and Juiifn-di-la Graviirf. and those 01 the class 
Montcalm. Cloire. (^ambeUa. MicheUt. and Kenans : 
was tile prime mover of the Bill of 1895 which led 
to iJie construction of submarines in the French 
Navy : is a commander of the I-^gion of Honour, 
Grand Krain of the Rising Sun. Grand Order of 
St. Anne, Grand Ofhcer at Puis ; member oi the 
Institution t»f Naval Architects, and Director of 
Nava] Construction. C.K. 

Publications : Numerotis papers on naval archi- 
tecture (i86y-it)o6), published in the Transactions 
of the Academy of Science, Paris, the Institution 
of Naval Architects, Society o( Nav-al Architects 
and RtBrinc Engineers, the Maritime Technical 
As&ocialion, and the Society of Science of Cher- 
bourg, among which may be mentioned " Notes on 
Waves and Rolling," " NavaJ Science," " Ventila- 
tion of Ships," the " Resistance of Cniisers." 

Berwick. British ist class cruiser. [Beardraore, 
Length 440 ft. Beam 66 ft. Mean draught 24 ft. 
Displacement 9,800 tons. Complement 678. 

Guns. A rmour. 

14—6 in., 45 cal. " Krupp." 
8 — I a pdr. 4 in. Belt amidships. 

2 — 12 pdr., a cwt. 5 in. Barbettes. 
3 — 3 pdr. 10 in. Conning tower. 

8 Pompoms. 

Torpedo Tubfs (18 in.). 
3 Sobmerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 22.000 = 33 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum T,5oo tons. Approximate cost £775,000. 

This ship-name dat(« in the Navy from 1687, 
and is associated with the battle of Bcochy Head, 
1690 ; Barfleur and I-a Hague, 1692 ; Vigo Bay, 
1702 : capture of Gibraltar, 1704 ; sivgv. of Gibraltar, 
1727 ; Malthews's action off Toulon, 1744 ; capture 
of Otphee. 1758 ; Keppcl's action ofl Ushant. 1778 ; 
battle of the Dogger Bank. 1781 ; Hood's occupa- 
tion of Toulon, 1793 ; the destruction of ihcAmacmt. 

BMchamnL Russian torpedo-boat destroyer. 
(EJbing, i88g.) Length, 19^ ft.; beam. 18 ft.: 
draught. II ft. ; displacement. 3501005 : armament, 
I i2-pdr., 5 3-pdr.. 2 tubes ; Up,, 6,000=27 Icts. 

BMpo«cbt8chadny. Russian torpcdo-bo*t de- 
stroyer. (Elbing. 1899.1 I--ength, 196 ft.; beam. 
iS ft.; draught, 11 ft; displacement, 350 tons ; 
armament, i 12-pdr., 5 3^>dr., 2 tubes ; Hp,, 
6,000=27 kts. 

Bessflmer. Sir Benry (1813-98) (b. Charlton. 
Herefordshire). Inventor of the Bessemer process 
of the manufacture of steel, a process of manu- 
facture which revolutionised the stoel industry 
over the whole world. The pecuniary reward of 
Bessemcr's invention came to him quickly, but it 
was not until 1879 that the RojTil Society' made 
him a Fellow and Uic Government honoured him 
with a knighthoofi. He also patented inventions 
tor die-casting, railway signalling, and a ship which 
was to save her passengers from the miseries of 
mat -de-met, this last having adjustable cabins, 
which should always preserve a horizontal floor. 
A boat called the Be^senter wrs built ia 1875 for 
the cro55-channel service, but the mechanism was 
found defective in practice, and she was ultimately 
discarded. He died at London, March 15. 1898. 

Bestraschny. Russian tnrjHado-boat destroyer. 
{Elbing, 1S99.) Length, 196 ft.; beam. 18 ft,; 
draught, 1 1 ft. ; displacement. 350 tons ; armament, 
1 12-pdr., 5 3-pdr., J tubes; Hp.. 7,000=27 kts. 

Beta. A fiie-float bnilt by Messrs. Forrestt and 
Co., of Wyvcnhoe, lor the London County Couodl 
Fire Brigade. She is too ft. in length, with a t}eam 
ol 16 ft. 6 in., and a water-draught of 40 in. This 
low draught enables her to pass under the bridges 
at all states of the tide. On her trials she steamed 
12 kts.. and with only one boiler in use a little 
over II. She is fitted with four fire-pumps, which 
give a discharge of 4.000 gals, ot water pL'r minute. 

Between deck^. The space contained between 

any two dec Us of a ship. 

Betveea wind and water. At the water's edge. 

B.F. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Banff, Scotland. 

B.H. Distingmshiag letters on sea fishing boRts 
registered at Plyth, England. 

B.H. Dlstingiiiahiug letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Brouwershaven, Holland. 

BhimA. Steamer, in collision with the steamer 
Nana in tht Red Sea, September 11. tS66. 
Nineteen lives lost, 

BX Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Brielle. Holland. 

Bibby Line. One of the oldest steamship lines 
trading between England and India, and was 




foonded in 1807. 100 years ago, l^ Mr. John 
Bibby^, the gnndfatbcr oi the present representa- 
tives, the fleet at that time coosisting of smatl 
sailing-vessels. In 1851 the steam lleet was com- 
menced, and in 1891 the Lancashire was built, 
which vessel stiU holds the record iwtween Liver- 
pool and Rangoon for a passage of 23 days 20 hours. 
The company maintains regular sailings between 
Livtiqwol and Rangoon via Marseilles and Colombo, 
aad tht* steamers have excellent passenger accom- 

Cluthirt. Shropshif*. 

Derbyshire. Statfordihire. 

Herefordshire. Warwicfuhirt, 

Worctster shirt. 
Gross tonnage, 

Bickerdyke, John [nom dc plume of Charles Henry 
Cook). EngUsb oovehst and writer on angling 
(b. London, 185S). 

Publications : " Angling in Salt Water " (1887). 
" Days in TbuJc with Rod, Gnn. and Camera," 
" Sea-Fishing "* (Badminton), " Wild Sports in 
Ireland " [1897), " Book on the AU-Kound Angler " 

Bickerton. Sir Richard Himey (i75<>-i832). Eng- 
linb arimirai. In 1781, wbcQ cuptam of the /n- 
vmcibie. was present at the action off Martioiq^ue, 
and under Lord Keith took part in the £g>-ptian 
operations, and was made Commander-in-Chief at 
Alexandria after the capture of that town, 1801. 
He was second -in -canuuand of the Mediterranean 
to Lord Nelson, 18U4 : promoted tu tbc rank of 
admiral, 1810, and Commander-in-Chief at Ports- 
month. l8l3. 

Bioklord. Vioe-Admiral Andrew Kennedy (b. 
India). Entered Navy, 1:^58 ; served in China, in 
BaroAut. at the action of Siraonoseki ; in charge of 
rocket-boat Research on the coast of Ireland during 
Fenian riots. 1866-68 : senior and gunniry lieu- 
tenant of Anuthyst dunng actions with Peruvian 
rebel ironclad Huascar ; commander of Thaita, em- 
ployed in transport service during Egyptian war, 
1882 (Egyptian medal, Khedive's Bronze Star, 
Medjidie. 3rd Class) : A.D.C. to the Queen. 1896 : 
soperintendent Sbecruess dockyards, i&^y ; Com- 
nander-io-Chief, Pacific Station. 1900. 

Bidukft. See Kayak. 

Bidder. George Parker (i8o6-7ti). English en- 
gineer. Educated Edinburgh University ; prize- 
maa in higher mathematics. 1873. Assisted 
Stq)lien8on in the construction of the London and 
Birmingham railway, and constructed several hnrs 
m England and abroad — e.g.. Denmark. Norway, 
and India. He planned the Victoria Dockq, 
London, invented the railway swing bridge, and 
was ono of the founders of the fin*t electrical tele- 
gra{A company. 

BMiDb, U.S. (oqmlo-boat (1900), Displace- 
ment. 167 tons; guns. 3 i-pdr. ; torpedo tubes, 
3 l8-in. ; speed. 28 kts. 

BXE. Du^tingiushing letters on sea fishing 
t>oat3 registered at Btcrvlict, Holland. 

Blggiit, Andrew Stephenson (b. Ayrshire. 
August 2;, 1857). Mannc eugmtrcr. Served ap- 
prenticeship to marine engineering, and entenxl the 
service of Sir William Arrol and Co-. Glasgow, as 
principal assistant ; was appointed engineer and 
manager under Su: Wilham Arrol for carrying out 
the construction of the Forth Bridge, and on com- 
pletion of this worlc in 1890 was made partner in 
the firm ; since then has taken the leading part in 
carrying out various contracts, including the steel 
work of the Tower Bridge ; is managing director of 
Sir WdUam Arrol and Co.. Ltd., and head, Wright- 
son and Co., Ltd.; dttsigned the three famous bridges 
over the Nile at Cairo ; past-president of the Glas- 
gow University iCngmeerlng Society : governor of 
the Glasgow and West of Scotland Technical 
College ; number of council of the Institution of 
Engincen and Shipbuilders. 

Puhlicatiuns : Has contributed many scientific 
and technical papers to the British Association, 
Institution of Civil Engineers, institution of 
Mechanical Engineers. Institution of Engineers and 
Shipbuilders iu Scotland. 

Bight. The loop of a rope when it is folded in 
opposition to the end. 

Bilge. That part of a ship where the floors and 
second futtocks unite, and upon wtiich tbc ship 
would rest ii laid on the ground. 

Bilge-keel. An additional short keel placed out- 
side the bilge of bouts to protect the skin in ground- 
iag, and also, especially abroad, to enable them to 
hold a lietter wind when saiUng and heeling over. 

Bilgawajrs. The foiind.ition5 of tlie cmdle sup- 
portmi; a ship upon the sliding-ways during build- 
ing and launching. The bilgeways are about five- 
sixtlu tlie length of the ^hip. and are about two ft. 
6 in. square. 

BiU. See Anchor. 

BiUtnder. Formerly applied to small mcrctiant 
vess<U with two masti, distinguishable by the fact 
that their mainsail is bent to the whole length of 
her yard hanging fore and aft Few vessels are 
now rigged in this manner. 

BiU board. Doubting nndcr the lore<hannel to 
the waterhne as a protection from the bill of the 

BiU of exohuge. A, is an instrument in writing 
whereby a debtor assigns to his creditor a debt 
due to himself from a tiurd party. These instru- 
ments came into use among merchants early in the 
fourteenth century, notwithstanding the rule oi 




Common Law that " ctioscs in action " or debts 
were not assiguoble. Tliey Mcre recognised for 
centtirii's in Ihe Courts of Staple and Admiralty. 
which adniinistcrecl the law merchant. Their 
v-alidily in conrt5 ol law generally was not cslab- 
■islicd until the days of Lord Mansfield. The Bills 
of T*xchangc Act, iflfla. codifies the law now 
governing them. 

. The person making the bill i« callwi Ihi- dramer ; 
the pcreon to whom it is^ addressed the drawee, or. 
after accepting it, the acceptor ; the person in 
whose favour it is drawn is the payee, or, if he 
endorse the bill to another, the rndorser ; while tin: 
prmon to whom the bill is a.tsigned or negotiated 
is the endorsee or holder. 

No notice ol assignment is neccssar)- {as in 
etjuity) to complete the holder's title. A bill 
drawn [a) to order, or (fc) to bearer, will [a) when 
Indorsed or (ft) when handed over vest a right ol 
action upon the bill in a.ny prrson talcing htma 
fide and for value, and without notice of any flaw 
in the title of the person from whom he took it, 
consideration for the bill being always presumed 
until the contrary appear. 

The essentials of a biJI of exchange are : (i) it 
most be in writing ; (2) the order to pay mnst be 
unconditional^ — i.e.. not payable on a contingency 
or out of a specified fund : (3] payment must be on 
demand or at a fixed or ascertainable future time ; 

(4) payment must be lor a sum certain in money ; 

(5) the drawee must be indicated with reasonable 
certainty ; (6) if not payable to bearer the bill 
must clearly indicate the payee. 

• "Where the drawer and drawee are the same 
person, the holder of the instrument may treat it 
either as a bill or promissory note. 

Bill of healtlt. A, which is included in the of 
a ship's (loruments, is a certificate Fiignc-d by 
consuls or other authorities and delivered to the 
shipmaster, stating the sanitar>- condition and 
state of health ol the port at the time of her leaving. 
A " clean " Mi of health means llml at tlic time of 
the slnp's departure no infectious disease was 
known to exist. A " suspected " or " tainted " 
hilt of health is one that imports that there were 
rumours of Ihc' existence of some infectious disease. 
though up to tlie time of certifying it had not 

A "foul" bill of health means that when the 
vesKt left the port was infected. 

Bill of ladinff. A* is a receipt (or goods and an 
undertaking to carry safely and deUver them in 
good condition at their port of destinatioD, with 
the exception of ius:i ur dauuigc caused by the act 
of God, king's enemies, fire, or any daugei or 
accident of seas, rivers, and navigation. Upon 
<lelivery of goods on boartl the shipper receives 3 
" mate's receipt," which contains the terms upon 
which the goods are lo be carried. 'ITie master or 
ifhip's agent altorwardM signs a bill of lading, and 

delivers it lo the holder of the receipt. Three 
ImIIs are made out. One is sent to the consignee, 
a second goes by the ship, and the third is retained 
by the shipper. 

A clean bill of lading is one in which there is 
nothing to qualify the admission on the part of 
the shipowner that so many packages are shipp«l 
in good order and \veII-condition(xl. .\ through 
I«n of lading is our made for the carriage of goods 
from one place to another by several shipowners 
or railway companies. 

A bill of lading is not a negotiable instrument, 
ami the transferee has no better title to the goods 
therein niimlioned than lliu transferor had, but 
the i)roperty in goods will pass to the transfeit-e by 
indorsement and delivery of a biU, subject to the 
right of stoppage in transitu {f.u.). Indorsement 
of a bill of lading by the buyer to a bona fide pur- 
chaser for value will defeat tliis right of stoppage 
in transitu. 

ficfei to Affreightment, Damage. 

Bill of LftdioR Claiue. See Clauses. 

Bill ol store is a licence granted by the Customs 

house authorities to a merchant, by which he is 
entitled to reimport within live years unsold goods 
free ol duty. 

Billyboy, h large one-masted vessel principally 
used on the east coast. 


Binnacle. A box for the compass. 

Birkbeck. Sir Edward, cr. 1*86 (b. October ri 
iSjtS). ui Royal National IJfcboat 
Institution ; originator and chairman of the Inter- 
national Fisheries Exhibition. I^ndon, 1883 ; M.P., 
North Norfolk, (879-85 ; East Norfolk. ^885-92. 

Birkenhead. Troopship, iron paddlc-wheelcd, 
and of 556 Hp. On January 7. 1852, this vessel 
sailed from Queenstnwn for the Cajie, having on 
board detachments of the 12th I,anccrs. and. 6th. 
1 2th. 43rd, 45th, and 60th Itiiles, 73rd, 74th, and 
Vist rt:gimcnts. On February 26, 185J, she struck 
upon a pointed pinnacle rock off Simon's Bay, 
South Africa, and of (>3S persons only 184 wene 
saved by the boats ; 454 of the crew and soldiers 

Btrmins^bain. U.S. scout (1904), 

Ll■Il^;tll ^24ft. Beam 45ft. Draught iBft. 
Displacement 4,000 tons. Complement 384. 
Cults. Armouf. 

6^14 pdr. s in. Belt amidsliips. 

Torpedo Tubes (21 in.). 
a Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 16,000=34 kis. Coal maxi 
mum 1.000 tons. 

Biflooe, John, B.N. See Antarctk Exploration. 

Bishop Bock Lighthonw, Stunted on the western- 
most landfall rod; of thf Scilly Isles, fully exposed 
to the Atlantic, occupies perhaps a more exposed 

it 1 





situatkin than any t>tHrr ?n ttie twSbM, It givrs a 
tiR-o-fia«h light per miimfre, the duration of Mch 
flash being four second«t. 170,500 candle powrr. 
u.%ing the Doaglas S-wick burner, and oil as illu- 
minant. It was designed by the late Mr. James 
Walker, and carried out by Mr. J. N. Douglas. 

BistritBA. Roumanian inin-boat. 100 tons. Of 
no lighting value. 

Bits. The anchor ih .>uttd to bite when it holds 
fast in the* ground. 

Blttam. British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Bar- 
row, 1S97.) Length. 310 ft.; beam, si ft.: draught, 
5} ft.; displacement. 300 tons; complement, 60; 
annamFnt, i la-pdr., 5 6-pdr.. 2 tubes ; tMrtn 
screw; Hp., 6,000=30 kts. ; coal, 8a torn. 

Bitti. Cro45 timbers or iron to secure the cables 
when the ithip rides at anchor. 

BXW. DistJngihiihing letters on sea fiahing 
boats registered at Brock in Waterland, Holland. 

Bile. A cold, piercing wind of Langncdoc. 

BJ«rke. Ku^uian torpedo-boat. (PutilofT, 1S90.) 
length ij6 ft. : beam, 13 ft. ; draught. y\ ft. ; 
dtsplacvmenf. Si ions; armament, i tubes; Hp., 
i.sjo—ai kts.; coal. 1; tons. 

Bjoni. Swedish armoured gun-boat. 460 tons. 
Of no fighting value. 

BJL Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Berwick -on-T weed, England. 

Bk. Baak. .Abbreviation adoitted on tht; charts 
issued by the Itydrographic Office. .Admiralty. 

B/L. BUI of Lading. 

B.L. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Blankenham, Holland. 

BX. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Bristol. England. 

Blaok Book of Admiraltjr. Tin: Black Book of 
Admiralty, sai<.I Lo Imvi? betrn partly compiled 
during the rcigii of Edward III., is a collection ol 
■* ancient statutes of the Admiralty to be observed 
both upon the ports and havens, the high seas, and 
beyond liic seas "... " having been from lime 
to time kept in the registry of the Court for the use 
of the Jndges of the Admiralty." It is now pre- 
served at the Royal Courts of Justice. Rtftr lo 
" Laws of Olcron." 

Blaek, John 0. (b, Glasgow, March 31, 1864). 
Educated Blair Lodge, and on leas-ing school was 
aittded to Messrs. Russell and Aitken, Falkirk. 
■oliciton, and at the same time studied Naval 
Architecture at the Technical College, Glasgow. 
Finding that the law was not to his liking, his 
father apprenticed him to Messrs. Blackaddvr and 
Co., and finally to Messrs. Shanks and Bell, of 
Yoker. Alter serving an apprenaceship be took up 

activr seat We, ttnd rti 1895 *«s appo?trt«l chief 
ofticer of the florpAcv, and was the means of saving 
the lives of so many men of the steamer CharlftLood, 
which was in collision off the Longshjp "Light with 
the Bot^hesc. He afterwards commanded thia 
steamer, and in iijon the PlanH Mnn ; igoi. 
the We^mmsifr. which \v:is used by the .\raeri- 
can Government in the Spanish-Amcricnn war to 
carry coals for Admiral Dewey's fleet. la 1903 he 
retired from the sea and became Marine Superin- 
tendent to the Monarch Steamship Co. He « 
President of the Shipmasters' and Officers' Associa- 
tion, and editor of the " Scottish Shipmaster," and 
is the head of the movement which has for its 
object the e«tablislimcnt of a Xautical College to 

Publications : " Our Mercantile Marine." a 
number of papers on the education of Mercantile 
Officers ; " Position of our Merchant Shipping " ; 
" Sanitation and IJWng Acconrmodntion on British 
Cargo Steamers " ; " Discipline of Merchant 

Blackbani, C* J. (b. November ai, iSsa). Marine 
engineer. Served his apprenticeship at Messn. 
Laird Brothers, Birkenhead ; was appointed 
.\ssistant Superintendent Engineer to the Guion 
Line, and held the appointment for seventeen 
years, until tht company was wound up in tSus ; 
appointed Superintendent Engineer to the Isle of 
Man Steam Packet Co.. and was closely connected 
with the building of the paddle steamer Empress 
Queen, and the turbine steamer ViJtin^. the two 
fastest steamers of their class a6o3t. 

Blukpool Pugeoger Bteunlioat Co^ Ltd., with 
Uicir head offices at Blackpool, maintain daily 
sailings from Blackpool to Douglas (Isle of Man), 
Llandudno, Southport. Liverpool, Manchester. 
Morecambo, and Fleetwood. 
Btitt. Greyhound. 

Dickersto^e. Qwfen of the North. 


Black Prince. British ist class cmiscr. (Thames 
lronwork.s. 1904.) 

Length 480 ft. Beam 73ft. Maximum draught 2yli. 
Displacement 13,500 tons. 
Gvm. A rmour. 

6 — 92 in-. SO "1- " Krupp.'* 

10—6 in. 6 in. Beit amidships. 

24 — 3 pdr. 6 in. Barbettes. 

8 — li pdr. Pompoms. 7 in. Conning tower. 
Torptdo Tubes (18 in.). 
3 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp, ^3.500 = 22-33 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 3,000 tons. Approximate cost £i,t5o,(xx>. 

This ship-name was introduced into the Navy 
in lh.(8 : the first Blaik Prince, which was driven 
ashore by Blake's squadron. iA<n, had on board 
Prince Rupert. 




Black Sea» or Euxlnc, from the old Roman name 
Hontus Etixinus. is a large inland sea in the south- 
cast of Europe, bounded on the north and cast by 
Russia, on the south by Asia Minor, and the west by 
Turkey, Bulgaria, and Roumania. It is entered 
from the Medilcrranean throuj^h the channel of the 
Dardanclirs or Hcllcapontw*, the Sea of Marmara 
or I^opontis, and the chaiuiel of Constantinople or 
Tbractian Bosphorus ; and it is connected with the 
Sea of AxofE by a strait bct^vcen the Crimea and 
the Isle of Taman, known as the Strait of Kcrtch or 
Yenikale. The basin of the Black Sea is of an 
irregular ovate form with a nearly flat bottom ; its 
greatest length from east to nest is 720 miles ; its 
gruatcsit breadth is in its western portion, between 
ihe estuary o( the I>uieper on the north and the 
mouth of the Sakaria on tlie south, where it Ls 
3S0 miles. Its total area, including the Sea of 
Azo0. is about 172,500 square miles. In the centre 
of the basin the maximum depth is about 1,227 
fathoms. The uniform mean temperature of the 
sea is about 46-0, but during the summer the 
surface water rises in temperature from 54* F. in 
May, to 78° in August. The wmds are variable 
except during tlie summer, when they generally 
blow from the north-east, while at other seasons 
southerly or south -westerly winds often pn;vail. 
The area is wiy subject to fogs, and remarkable 
lor the rapidity with which violent stonns not 
unfn:qucntly rise, often to subside again with like 
rapidity. This aca is practically destitute of islands 
and seldom freezes, even along the shore. The 
salinity of the Black Sea water varies at different 
periods of the year, and is about half the salinity 
of ordinary sea water. 

Sm Sir John Murray 00 the " Deposits of the 
Black Sea " (igoo). 

Black Sea Yacht Club. Established i87s> ^^■ 
nuKlore, Angelo Aiuitra ; Vice-Commodore, Baron 
Wladimir Mahs ; Rear -Commodore, N. Grodschi ; 
Treasurer. Angelo Anatra ; Honorary' Secretary, 
S. I. Doojau, Odessa. Entrance fee, 100 roubles ; 
annual subscription, 30 roubles. 

Bladutrake. The range of plank immediately 
abtivc the wales in a ship's side. 

Blacktlioru Winter. The cold weather, accom- 
panied by keen north-east winds, which sometimes 
occurs about the second week in April, when the 
blackthorn is in bloom. 

Blackwall Eitob. See Knots. 

Blackwater. British torpedo-boat destroyer. 
(Laird, 1903.) length, 225 ft.; beam, 23 it.; 
draught, 10 it. ; displacement, 550 tons ; com- 
plement, 70; armament, I i2-pdr., 5 G-pdr., 2 
tubes; twin screw; lip., 7,000=25 kts. ; coal, 
130 tons. 

Biackwat«r Sailing Club. Commodore, J. H. T. 
Tudabery; Vice-Coniuiodore. Walter H, Grayj 

Rcar-Commodorc, E. Copland ; Honorary Secretary 
and Treasurer. T. Lauranco Eve. Friary. Mald< 
Essex ; Qub House. Heybridge Basin, Essex. 
Entrance fee, los. ; annual subscription, los. 

Blackwood, Tic^-Admirsl Hon. Sir Htnr; (177°- 

1832). As Ucutenaul of the Invinciblg took part in 
Howe's battle of June i, 1794, and in the following 
year in Bridport's action he commanded the 
Migma. In 1780 was attached to tlie squadron 
blockading Malta, where ht> distinguished himulf 
in the Penelope by attackmg the GuHlairu Telt, 
which he captured. At the battle of Trafalgar, 
he rendered good scr\'ice in the Euryatus. 
brought home the despatches announcing the 
victor>-. In 1637 he was appointed Commander-in-. 
Chief at the Nore. 

Blade. A flat part of an oar which is plunged 

into the water in rowing. 

Blake. Briti^li ist class cruiser. (Chatham, 
I-engtli 375ft. Beam 65ft. Maximum draught 27ft. 
Displacement 9, 1 $a tons. Complement 590. 


rw/. I 





"Steel and Compound." 
6 in. Deck. 
12 in. Conning tower. 

1 — 9*2 in. 
10—6 in. 
16 — 3 pdr. 
2 — 9 pdr. Boat. 
7 Machine. 

Torpedo Tubes (14 in.). 

2 Submerged. 

2 Above water. 

Twin screw. Hp. natural ]j,oou^iS'5 kts., 

forced 20,000^22 kts. Coal maximum 1,800 tons. 

This ship-name was first introduced into the 

Navy in t8o8, and is associated with the bom- 

bardmtint of Flushing, 1809. 

Blake, Robert (159S-i(j57). British admiral 
(b. Bridgcwatcr). Was appointed commander of 
the BntisJi Flett, 1649. and in the following year 
destroyed most of Pnnce Rupert's squadron at 
Malaga. In 1651 he captured the Scilly Isles and 
Jersey. Appointed to command the Fleet, assisted 
by Rear-Admiral Bourne, against the Dutch in 
1654 ; he defeated van Tromp in the Downs, and De 
Witt and De Ruyter ofl the mouth of the Thames. 
He sustained a reverse, however, at the hands of van 
Tromp ofi Dungeness. In 1653, after an indecisive 
action with van Tromp ofl Portsmouth, he met the 
same antagonist off the Dutch coast and finally 
routed him. Van Tromp was killed in this action. 
In 1656, when war broke out with Spain, be took 
charge of the blockading squadron off Cadii. 
sailing from there to Tencrifle, where, finding & , 
naval force at Santa Cruz, he attacked and defeated J 
them. He died August 17, 1657. on board his 
flagship the George, vnthin sight of Plymouth 

5m Hcpworth Dickson's " Robert Blake '* 
(1853); "A Life," by Dr. Samuel Johnson 





^777)' D- Hannay's "Life of Blake" (tSS6) ; 
[*' The First Dutch War." (Navy Rccorrls Society, 

1 189*)- 1 900.) 

Bl&kely. U.S. torpedo-boat (1900}. Displace- 
Iveat, 165 toos ; guns. 3 i-pdr. ; torpedo tubes. 3 
ri6-in. ; maximum spccU, 26 kts. 

Blanche. Frigate. On March 4, 1807, this 
Iveaset was lost on the French coast, when 45 men 

Blanche Net. On November 35, 1 120, this 
LvesscI was wrecked ofl Barfleur. The children of 
PBcnry I. and a large number of attendants were 
on board ; 363 persons perished. 

Blanco-Enoalada. Cbiltan cruiser. (Elswick, 1893.) 
Sheathed and co[)pered. 
iX-cngth 370ft. Beam 46ft. Maximum draught loft. 
Displacement 4,420 tons. Complement 427. 
dms. Armour. 

i — 8 in. '■ Steel." 

10 — 6 in. 4 in. Deck. 

12 — 3 pdr. 6 in. Conning tower, 

lo— 1 pdr. 6 in. Gun shields. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
5 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. 11,000=21*79 kts.; forced, 
■ §4. 000 = 22*78 kt». Coal maximum 900 tons. 

Bland Line, was founded by Messrs. M. H. 

Hand and Co.. Ltd., Gibraltar, and maintains 

I* regular &teaju service between Gibraltar and 

Tangiers, carrying the mail ; and frequent sailings and from Tctuao, Mclilla. I-arache. Rabat, and 

|Other Morocco ports. They also undertake salv-agc 

vork. and maintain the ocean tug and salvage 

ner Rescut, together with an efficient staff of 

liven, mechanics, etc. They were instrumental 

flo ting H.M.S. AisistaMos {q.v.) from her 

^pcrilons position on the shores of Tetuan Bay in 

Dber, 1905. 

Do^in. Gibet Afusa 

Express. Gibet Tarik. 

Gibel Habid. NeUie. 

Gibet Kebir. Rescue. 


Bluer. British 3rd class gun-boat [254 tons). 
^Launched 1870. 

Bleiuia. Swedish gun-boat (500 tons). Of no 
gfating value. 

Blmhftiin, 74 guns. Admiral Sir T. Troubridge. 

> February- i. 1607, this vessel foundered near the 
llaland of Rodriguex, East Indies, when aU on board 

Blenheim. British ist class cruiser. (Tliames 
Jlronunrks, 1S90.) 

ngl^b ^7Sf^' Beam 6$ft Maximum dranght 37ft. 
Displacement g.150 tons. Complement 590. 

Gutu. Armouf. 

2 — 9'a in. " Steel and Compound." 

10 — 6 in, 6 in. Deck. 

16 — 3 pdr. 12 in. Conning tower. 

2 — 9 pdr. Boat. 
7 Machine. 

Torpedo Tubes (14 in.). 
2 Submerged. 
2 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. natural 1 3,000 = i8'5 kts,, 
forced 2o.ooot=22 kts. Coal maximum i.Soo tons. 
This ship-name was first introduced into the 
Navy in i/o^;). and commemorates the victory o( 
the Duke of Marlborough over the Frcncli in 1704. 
It is associated with Howe's relief o( Gibraltar,! 78a ; 
Hotham's action at Genoa, 179; ; the battle off 
Cape St. Vincent, 1797 ; and the Baltic, 1854. 

Blerrie Castle. On December 25, TS59. this 
vessel sailed from T.ondon Docks for Adelaide. 
She was lost in the Channel ; $7 persons were 

drown L'd. 

Bli^ WlllUm (17^4-18 r 7;. British admiral 
(b. Cornwall). Saw 5iervice under Captain Cook. 
1772-74 ; took part in the action off the Doimer 
Bank, r78i : and Howe's retici of Gibraltar, 1782. 
In 1788 commanded the Bounty {q.v.). and after his 
adventures on voyage was promoted captain ; 
commanded ihc Warrior, 1794. off Ushant : the 
Director, 1707. at Camperdown ; and the GtatiSH. 
1801. at Copenhagen. Was a brave and first -rate 
seaman, but one of the worst of t>Tants in days 
when tyrannical naval commanders were too 
numerous. Utfer to Naval Mutinies. 

Blink. Norwegian torpedo-boat. (Christiania. 
lyoj.) Length. 115 It.; beam. 14 ft.; draught. 
f> ft. ; displacement. 65 tons ; armament. 2 i'^ in., 

2 tubes ; Hp.. 650= 19 kts. 

Blit3L German 3rd class cruiser. (lOd. 188a.) 
Displacement, 1,390 tons; Hp. z,70Oi=l5'5 kts. 
Of no fighting valne. 

BUtl. Austro-Hungarian torpedo gun-boat. 
(Schichau, 1 88S.» Practically of no 6ghtin^ 

Blixi Swedish torpedo-boat. tKarlskiona, 1898.) 
Length 1 28 ft. ; beam, 15 ft. ; draught, 7 ft. ; dis- 
placement, 93 tons; complement, t8 : armament, 

3 l*9-in. (q.f.), 2 tuln-s ; Hp., i,250ss23 lets.; coal, 
17 tons. 

BUuud. A violent and bitteily cold wind 
accompanied with blinding snow. 

B.L^. Distinguishing letters on sea ft<)hing 
boats registered at Blakhus, Holland. 

bUt. Black. .Abbreviation adopted on the charts 
issued by the Hydn^raphic Office. Admiralty, 
denoting the qnahty of the ocean's bottom. 

BX.O. Distingaishing letten on sea Tt^hing 
boats registered at Blokzijl. Holland. 




Block. A shc-t) ol wooci or metal containing 
sheaves for rmuiiDj; ropes. 

" BlOOkade is a sipRe carriwi on by surrountling a 
place uith hofttic troops or ships, soaa to prevent 
the besieged Jrorr rocnving any supplies o( men or 
provisions, or having any communication from 
without." Tlie law of nations imposes no obliga- 
tion n|xin ne\itxal3 to abstain from breach o( 
hlotlcade, ard a State does not violate law^ of neu- 
trality ioT failing to prevent its aubjccLi from com- 
mitting breaches. For breach of blockade >thips and 
cargo are liable (o confiscation, proxided notice of 
such blockade has been brought lo the master's 
knoivledge. and there has boon some act of viola- 
tion, either by coming in or going out with a cargo 
laden after the commtuccmt-nt of blockade. But a 
neutral i.** generally allowed to leave a port with such 
cargo as has l>een bona fidt purchased and delivered 
before blockade. By the Dedaraticjn of Pahs 
Kq.v.) blockadc-s to be binding must be effective. 
Refct Ic Pajjcr Blockade. 

Blohm and Voss. The Hamburg ahipyaxd of 
Blobm and Voss, which lies on the Stainwardcr. 
wa.H roiinde<I in 1877 by Messrs. Hermann Blohm 
and Ernest Vos>*. The area of the dockyard is 
about 50 acres, and tbrre is a vast water frontage. 
The most important feature of the yard is the 
repairing tiepariment. There arc five tloating 
docks- N'os. t and 2 have 3,000 Iq 4700 tons 
capacity, witli six departments, and can take thri.'e 
ships of over 300 ft. in length : No. 4 a capacity of 
I7.5(^ tons, and can take ship up to 500 It. in 
length. It was in Docks No.s. i and 2 that the 
lengthening of the Norddeutscher Lloyd steamers 
Preussen. Bayern, Sachscn, and Pfalt was done. 
These vessels were cut in two, and by means of 
specially dcvi.«d hydraulic machinery pulled apart, 
the Pnussen was lengthened 70 ft., and the other 
three 50 ft. In the dockyard on tlic othri side of 
tile wharf lies dock No. 3, which ha^i a capacity of 
17.000 tons; it is furnished with steam boilers, 
machines, dynamos, and in time of war can he 
transported to any naval base to dock ships re- 
quiring to be repaired. Hock No. 5. which is 
ncaring completion, will be thr largest steam dock 
ever constructod, and is to have a capacity of 35.000 
tons, which will enable it to take the largest warship 
or vessel belonging to the mercantile marine in 

The 3*ard contains six slips in which stiijis of up to 
600 ft. in length can be built, while on tlic opposite 
side of the dockyard there ^re separate sUtwi for 
warship building. The machine shop is furnished 
with all the Litest and best appliances for the 
building of marine engines, and contains electri- 
cally driven travelling cranes ol 10 to 30 loiut 
lifting capacity. 'Ihe boiler shop hx«i also Uiree 
travelling cranes of jo tons capacity, and contains 
all the necessary machinery for the turning out of 
large marine boilers. 

On the quays are the necessary cratws for the 
reception and setting in place of machinery and 
boilers, one atcam crane of 100 tons capacity, and 
several small cranes, steam and electric turn 
cranes, and on the sonthcm part of tlio quay a crai 
of 150 tons and one portal crane of 50 tons, 
establishment employs an average of 5.000 worF 

Of the cargo and passenger vessels built at this 
yard mention may be made of the foUowi: 
modem ships : 

Tool dt.i[>t. Tout oil' 



tlnlnnrui ... 


Gr.if Waltl^rgee ,. 


niuchtr „ 




IS. too 



13 UXi 



1 >.D00 

H«mbun( AtiimcA Lia 

HoIIaod America Line. 


and the pleas u re -yadtt Priniessin Victarut Lu 
S.oootons displacement, for the Hamburg- A meri< 

Of warships the 1st class battleship Kaiser 
Cnrl der Grosse, oi 11.152 tons displacement. 13,500 
I.Hp.. with a speed of 175 kts. ; the cruiser Frit- 
drich Carl, 9.000 tons displacement, 17.700 I.Hp.. 
21 kts. speed; the ctTjiser Voicft, 9.500 tons dis 
placement, 19,000 I.Hp., 21 kts. speed ; and a large 
new cruiser not yet completed, of J 1.500 too* 

Blom, Ohristtan [b. Horten. Norway. Wiy 
1870). Norwegian naval architect ; commander in 
the Ko>'al Norwegian Navy. In i38*> entered Nor- 
wegian Naval Academy, amd promoted sub-lieu- 
tenant i8gi ; in iSy5 went to France to study 
naval architecture at the I'ficole d'.VppUcation da 
Genie Maritime in Paris, gaining his diploma with 
Iir5t<la55 honours; from 1897 to it>oa acted aa 
assistant-director of naval constniciion at Horten, 
and in 1902, having risen to commander in the 
Navy, retired from active sea life and became 
director of naval construction. 

3 tM^i 

Blomfleld^Tice-Admiral Riobard Masii*, K.C.M.G 
cr. i^o-t. C.Bf.6., i.»-\i (b. J.S35). Educated at 
Stevenage Grammar School; entered Navy. 184a; 
served in the Crimean campaign as midshipman. 
mate, and lieutenant of A^amsruHon and Roy^ 
Albert ; mate of tht- first launch of the Royd 
Albcfi in AKjfl Expedition. 1855 (Crimean and 
Turkwh medals, Sebastopol and .\zofi clasps) ; 
Ueutenant of H.M.S. Hero, conveying H.R.H. the 
Prince of Wales, now King Edward VII., repre- 
senting H.M. the late Queen, to the British American 
colonics and back, i860; commander. 1S66 ; cap- 
tain. 1873; member of the .-Vdmiralty Torpedo 
Committee, 1873-76; Comptroller of Port of .\lcx- 
andria from the instilutiwn uf tliat olTice in 1879; 
present by invitation uf Cninmandcr-in-Chiei on 
his flagship during the boiiibardmeot of Alexandria, 
iS82 ; received Medjidie, jrd Class, August 1S83. 
from the Khedive of Egypt in recognitioo ol his 





servic<« whilst actually and entirely eanployed by 
His Highness beyond Her Majesty's dominion : 
granted Eg>']>Uao war medal and Star of Egypt for 
wrviccs rendered to H.M. Government and the 
Khedive during the events of 1S82 ; Deputy Con- 
troUer General of Eg>'ptian ports and lighthouses. 
1888; Comptroller General, 1901 ; rcccivcMl the 
order of Qsnianit-h 3rd Class from the Khedive and 
Her Majesty 'i4 j»tr iiiiHsion to wear it, iSiji. 

Publications ; Papers in Alexandria Archao- 
logical Society's Bulletins. 

Bloodbottnd. British 3rd Class gun-boat (254 
tonsi. I,a;Miehed 1871. 

Blossom. Ship. S*g Arctic Exploration. 

Bloxamise. The method adopted by Mr. J. C. 

Bloxani lo obtain smoothed mean \-alues. 

Blae Funnel Line. 6V« Ocean bteam&hip Co.. 

BlDeJuket and CoAstgnard Gaxette. Published 
monthly. I^'icc i<l. Addr e-.-,s : ; i Old Bailey, 
London. E.C. 

BUw Pster. A blue flag with a white square in 
the centre, lltiii signal when hoisted at the fore 
Lop-maat head denotes the vessel is about to sail. 

BhMWftter. The open ocean. 

Bluff. Abrupt high land projecting almost per- 
pendicularly into the sea. 

B.K. Diatingnishlng letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Bnxham, England. 

Bn. Beacon. .\bbrc\-iBtion adopted on the 
charts issued by the Hydn^raphic Offic*. Ad- 

BiV. DistinguishiDg letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Boston, Lincolnshire, England. 

B.O. Distinguishing letters on sea fisliing boats 
registered at Borrows toncss. Scotland. 

B<NU Austro-Hunganan torpedo-boat. (Yar- 
row. 189S,) LenRth, i $2 ft. ; beam, 15 ft. ; draught, 
7i ft; displacement, 133 tons, complement. 24: 
armament. 2 3-pdr. q.f.. 3 tabes; Hp.. »,ooo = 
24 ktJ. : coal, 30 tons. 

BoadiMa. Transport, lost near Kinsale, Janu- 
ary 3t, 1816. when over 200 of the 82nd Regiment 

Board. Timber sawn to a leas thickness llian a 
plank. .\I1 such timber Is under i^ in. in thick- 

Boudiog-Dettiog. .\ stout rope netting placed 
to obstruct an enemy. 

Botrd of Ttade, The, was established in 1660 as 
a couns<.-J ol trade for keeping control and auper- 
mtendcDcv upon the whole commerce of the nation, 
la 1872 Its functions were transferred to the Pn\y 
Council, and four years later a new Board was 

appointed lor the consideration of all matters re- 
lating to trade and foreign plantations, with powers 
of a purely coasultativc character. In 1840 tlic 
Board of Trade was first entrusted witli adminis- 
trative functions, which have since increased in 
proportion to tlie doclme of its consultative duties. 
The powers of the Board ol Trade are now ^urtly 
ministerial and partly Judicial, and are constantly 
being extended by statutory ejiactments. 

The Board is under the dtn.>ction of a president, 
a Parliamentary secretary, a permanent secretary, 
and four .-uuiRtant secretaries, who. together with 
a stafi, transact the whole bu&lucxs. though there 
are many e.v-officio membern on the commitfoe. 
There are seven departments — viz. 1 The Statistical 
.-md Commercial, the Railway, the Marine, the 
Harbour, the Finance, the Fisheries, recently trans- 
ferred to the .\^icultural apd Fisheries Board 
iq.v.). antl ilit- Baitkruplcy DcpartmcnL 

Board ol Trade JooroaL EstabUahed 1886. Pub- 
lished weekly (Tliursday). Price td. Address : 
East Harding Street. London. E.C. 

Boat The regulations respecting boal^ are con- 
tained in sections 4^7-431 of the Merchant Shipping 
Act, 1894, and are set out in detail under the 
rules made by the Board of Trade (19025 for life- 
sa%ing appliances. ships arc divided into 
divisions and classes, according to their tonnage 
and trade, and for each class a minimum number 
of boats, Ufeboats. rafts, jackets, and buoys is 
specified. For failure to carrv the minimum 
number of boats, etc.. and to kei.-p the same in 
proper repair and ready for use. tlie master (if in 
default] shall t>c liable to a fine of ^50, and the 
owner (if in default) to a fine of ^loo, for each 
offence. A British sliip, not provided with life- 
saving appliances in accordance with tbb Act, 
may be detained until the defects are rcmcthod. 

In Uoyd's policy boats are included as part of 
the ship. When na\'igated at sea boats carry the 
lantern prescribed by Article 7 of the Regulations 
for preventing collisions at sea (q.v.). 

The method of ascertaining the measurement 
and carrying capacity of boats is briefly as follows : 
Length (outside) x breadth (outside) x depth 
(inside] X '6. The product is the measurement of 
the boat in cubic feet. The carrying capacity of a 
boat is equal to the number of cubic ft^^t in her 
measurement divided by (a) 10 io the case of a 
lifeboat having at least one cubic foot of air-tight 
compartments for every ten cubic feet of her 
measurement, and (6) 8 in the case of other boats. 
Refer to Merchant Shipping Act 

Boatswain. The seaman who has charge of the 
crew, boat sads, ship sails, rigging, canvas, colours, 
anchor, cable, etc.. and pipes the hands to their 

sevenU duties. 

Bobstayt. Ropes or chains used to keep the 
bowsprit down. 




BOeUla, Arnold (iSz^'Tqoi). Swiss painter (b. 
Baspl}. Studied 'Paris, Antu-crp, Brussels: acted 
as art teacher at Weimar. 1866-71 : lived at Flor- 
ence. 1874-85, Zurich, 1885-92, and moved to Fien- 
sole, 1892. where he died. Among hia most re- 
markable works arc " Pian Amongst the Reeds." 
" Pirates Phindering a Castle." *' Island o( the 
Dead," " Pa.nic Terror," " The Sport o( the Waves," 
" The Stillness of the Sea," " Tritons Nereids." 

Bodroff. Austro-Hungarian river monitor. 
I-tiiRth J84 (t. Beam ^i ft. Draught 4 ft. 
Displacement 433 tons. Complement 60. 

GuHS, A rmour. 

3— 4'7 in. " Harvcy-nickeL" 

1 — 4'7 in. a. in. Belt amid:<hips. 

Howiteer. 3 in. Big guiishields. 

Hp. 1,400=^13 kts. Coal 65 tons. 

Bodiy. Russian torpedo-boat destroyer, (Ncv- 
sky. 1902.) Length, 196 ft. ; beam, 18 ft. : draught, 
ni ft. ; clisplacemt-nt. 350 tons; armament. I 13- 
pdr., 5 .vpdr,. 3 tubfs; Hp., 6,000 = 27 kts. 

Body. The main strength of a fleet. 

Body-plan. A section supposed to cut the \-e«8d 
tlirough her broadest part showing the breadth of 
her timbers. 

Bogatyr. Russian armoured cruiser. (Valkan 
Co., 1901.) 

Ixngth 437ft. Beam 5 21 1. Maximum draught 35ft. 
Displacement 6,550 tons. Complement 573, 
Ouus. Armaut. 

12 — 6 in. " Knipp." 

12— tspdr. 3 in. Deck. 

8—3 pdr. 3 in. Turrets. 

2 — ) pdr. 3 in. Casemates. 

6 in. Conning tower. 
Torpedo Tubts, 
2 Submerged. 
I Above water bow. 

1 Above water stern. 

2 Above wftter training. 

Twin screw. Hp. 19.500—23 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum i.Doo tons. 

Bohrdt, Hans (b. 1857}. German marine painter. 
His works comprise numerous pictures depicting 
sea and ships, among the best known being " Re- 
ception of King William II. at Spithcad," " The 
Meteor " (1891). " Brandenburg's First Sea Fight " 
{1893), which were purchased by the Emperor 
William II.. " Opening ol the Baltic Canal " (1896). 
"Sea Fight off Gothland" (I'joi), " Tht Viking's 
La^t Voyage " {1896). 

Boievou Russian toxpedo-boat de:>troyi^r (1905). 
Length, i8s ft.; beam, 21 ft.; draught, 74 ft.; 
displacement, 324 tons ; complement, 60 ; arma- 
ment, j 12-pdr., 5 3-pdr.. 2 tube.1 ; tvein screw; 
Hp., 5.600=36 kts. ; coal, 100 tons. 

Boilcf. Russian torpedo-boat destroyer. (Nev- 
sky. 1000.) Length. 196 ft. ; beam, 18 ft ; draught, 
irj ft.; displacement, 350 tons; armament, 
I i2-pdr.. s 3-pdr., 2 tubes; Hp.. 6.000 = 28 kts. ; 
coal. '10 tons. 

Boiler compoiitioiu. The life of a steam boiler, 
and the method of working it economically, depends 
to a great extent on the kind of water used. The 
principal impurities which tend to reduce the life 
and steam -producing qualities of the boiler are : 
bicarbonate of calcium and ii)agne»(iitm. magnesium, 
chloride of calcium, sulphate, and common salt 
in sea water. 

A large number of patented anti-incrusfation 
compounds are advertised, the baiiis of tlie majority 
being some form of alkali. 

BoQers, Harine, the most general type of which 
is known as the Scotch boiler, consist of a short 
horizontal, cylindrical steel shell with flat end plates. 
and provided with several internal furnaces com- 
municating with, internal combustion cluunbers. 
Another variety, the double-ended boiler, has 
furnaces at both ends of the shell, with a common 
combustion chamber. The single-ended marine 
boiler is practically half a double-ended boiler. 

Watcr-tiibc hoilcrs an; those in which tliK steam 
is generated from water contiined in ttun lubes of 
small diameter, by heat applied to the outside of tlie 

There are numcrou:» forms of water-tube boilers, 
among which may be mentioned tlic Babcock and 
Wilcox Boiler, the Stirling Boiler, the BelxHIlc Boiler, 
etc., etc, 

Boilers are defined by the Boiler Explosion Act 
{1882} as "any closed vessel used for generating 
steam, or for heating water or other liijuids, or into 
which steam is admitted for heating, steaming. 
boiUng, or other similar purposes." and includes 
pipes conveying steam. This Act provides that a 
notice of e\-ery boiler explosion, except those 
occurring to boilers in His Majesty's service, shall 
Ix" sr,nt to the Board of Trade within twenty-four 
hours of its occiirrence. 

By the Merchant Shipping Act (1S94), section 435. 
a report of any incident to a steamship, causing 
loss of life or injury to the person, or affecting the 
seaH'orthiness of the vessel, or her efficiency either 
in her hull or in any part of her machinery, must 
be -lent by her owner or master to the Board of 
Trade as soon as possible. For failure without 
reasonable cause to comply with this section, the 
owner or master .shall be liable to a fine not ex- 
ceeding £$0. This section applies to all British 
ships and to foreign ships carrying passengers 
between places in the United Kingdom, ftefef to 
Inspection of Ships. 

Bokbara. P. and O. steamer on her way from 
Slianghni to Hong Kong, wrecked off Sand Island. 
in tlie Pescatloies group, during a typhoon. October 
10, 189a ; 12; lives lost. 




BX^.L. Distinguishiiig leCten on eea fishing 
boats rogistrrcd at Brock op Langcdijk, Holland. 

Bold shore. That which has deep water close 

to tt. 

BoU&rds. Strong tinibm fixed vertically into 
the ground by which vessels are secured to the 

Bolster. Smalt cushions of tarred canvas to 
pziacrve the stays from beinf; chafed by the masts 
when the ship pitches. 

Bolton Steamship Co., Ltd.. owned and managed 
by Messrs. F. Bollun and Co., I_ondon. have a fleet 
of six modern steamers engaj^ed in cargo trade. 
Hamsay. Romney. 

Reynolds. RosuUi. 

Ribera. Rubens, 

Bolt-rope. A superior rope made of fine yam 
stitched round the edge of a sail to prevent the 
canvas from tearing. 

Bolti. A cylindrical pin of metal, used to unite 
the diflerent parts of a vessel, varied in form 
according to the places where they are required, 
tn «hiphuilding, bolts which completely penetrate 
a structure are through bolts, and those which 
only paitly do so arc blunt bolts. Drift-bolts are 
osetl to dri\-e Out others. Bay-twits have jags or 
barbs on each side to keep tbem from flying out of 
theirfades. Clench-lx>lU arc clenched with livetting 
hammers. Fcnd-t>olt& are matle with long and 
thick beads, and siiuck in the outermost bends of 
the ship to save her sides from bruises. Set-bolts 
are used for forcing the planks and Iiringiag them 
close together. Scaqi-bolts and keel-bolts are 
pointed, not chnched. and used for false keel or 
Icmporai-y purposes. Bring-to bolts are fitted with 
an eye at one end, and a knot and screw at the 
other, for bringing to tlic ends at thf stem. 

Bombarde. French torpedo-boat destroyer. 
(Havre, igoj.) Ixngth, 185 ft. ; beam, ai It. ; 
draught. lu ft. : displacement, 300 tons ; comple- 
Bi«nt. 63 ; armament, i 9-pdr., 6 3-pdr., 3 tubes ; 
twin screw : Hp., 6,ooo=s3fl kts. . coal. 75 tons. 

Bombardmeot is more often a naval than a 
milUar>- operation, and may be cither to bring 
about capitulation or to destroy military stores, 
arienals, dockyards, etc. In recent years the mo^t 
notable bombardments ore tbose of Alexandria 
and Port Arthur, the latter possibly the mo«t 
tcnrit^e in history. The method employed was by 
" sapping " and " mining," supported by a terrific 
artillery fire. The guns used were the usual regular 
siege guns of from 5-6 in. calibre, 47 and b in. 
naval guns, ordinary field ordnance, and 1 1 in. 
mortars weighing Aonie eight tons apiece. In all 
joo guns were trained on the fortress. The mortars 
fired a shell weighing about 500 pounds loaded 

with an exploeive invented by Dr. Shimose, which 
burst on contact. Ttiey had a maximum range of 
seven to eight miles, but were tired within three 
miles of the town. It is estimated that about 
1 1 ,000 Russians m Vott Arthur were kiUed during 
the various bombardmeut&. 

Bombay. On December 14, 1864. this vessel 
was burnt off Flores Tsland. near Hontcndcs, when 
91 lives uTre lost. 

Bombay Steam Navigation Co., with their head 

office m Bombay, liave a Urge fleet of passenger 
and cargo steamers maintaming a service on the 
west coast of India as lar north as the Persian Gulf, 
and south to Ceylon. A scr\'icc is maintained 
at scheduled times from Bombay to Kurracbec^ 
calling at Kutch Manvie and intermediate ports 
and vict versa ; a daily service from Bombay to 
Goa. and vice versa ; a service at scheduled times 
from Bombay to all ports south of C^oa. and vice 
twsa. The vessels arc specially fitted for coolie 
traffic, and haxx accommodation for as many as 
1 ,600 passengers. 

Bombe. French torpedo gun-txnt. (Havre. 
1885.] Length, 196 It.; beam. 3r ft.: draught, 
6 ft.; displacement. 413 tons; complement, 63; 

guns, 4 S'l-in. ; 3 Maxims; torpedo tubes, 3 
Hp., 2,000= 18 kts. ; coal maximum, too tuns. 

Booftventore. Brtti&li 2nd class cruiser. (Devon- 
port, 1892.) 

Length 3Joft, Beam 49ft. Maximum draught 2iit. 
EHspIacemcnt 4,360 tons. Complerm;ot 318. 
Gums. Armour. 

2— 6 in. "Steel." 

8—47 in- * in- Dcck. 

S — 6 pdr. 3 in. Coniiing tower, 

r— 3 pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes ( 1 8 in.). 
4 Above water. 
Twin sciew. Hp. natural 7.000=18 kta.. forced 
9,000= 19*5 kts. Coal maximum 1,000 tons. 
Approximate cost ^250,000. 
This ship-name dating from the end of the 
15th century is associated with the defeat of the 
Armada, 1588; the last cruise of Drake and 
Hawkins, 1595 : the Cadiz expedition, 1025 ; th* 
battles off Dungeness, 1652. Beachy Head. 1690, 
and Barfleur, 1692. 

Bonded Prices Clause. See Clauses. 

Bonded wuehoiise. A, is a place approved by 
the Commissioner of Customs where dutiable goods 
are deposiu^l without payment uf duty on landing. 
Such places, which are under the control of revenue 
officers, a0ord merchants lacihties for free exporta- 
tion and for postponing the payment of duties 
until the goods pasa to the consumer or retailer. 

Bone, W. (b. Dcvonport. June 30, 1843). British 
naval architect. Served apprenticeship Dcvonport 
Dockyard from 1U57-64, and in 1867 gained diplonu 



as Fellow of the Koyal School of Nawd AreW- 

tecture ; from 1867-69 acted as assistant-inspL-ctor 
on the riyric for Ciovemment vtswis building under 
contract ; in 1869 was appointed surveyor to 
llo>"d's Registry* of British and Foreign Shipping, 
and assisted the late Bernard Weymouth. Esq.. in 
making tlit' great cliangc of their niles for scantlings 
of vessels from tonnage basis to the present system.; 
in 1876 became managing director of the Tyne 
Iron Shipbuilding Co., Ltd., since which time he 
has designed 150 vessels of all classes. 

BonettA. British 3rd duss gun-boat (354 tons). 
Launcla-d 1H71. 

Bonite. French submarine. (Toulon, 1903.) 
Length. 77 ft. ; beam. 7J ft ; draught, 8 ft. ; dis- 
placement. fiS tons; complement, 5; Hp., 60 = 

BonneL An additional part laced to the foot of 
a !>ail to i^aUier more wind. 

Booby hatch. A readily removable companion 

Boom. A long spax run out to extend or boom 
out the loot of any particular sail. 

Boom-ironi. Metal supports through wfaJcb the 
studding-sail booms traverse. 

Booms. Spare spars. 

Booth, Felix. 5m Arctic Exploration. 

Booth lane, Ihe, founded in 1866 by Messrs. 
AIfrer.1 Booth and Co., Liverpool, and was subse- 
quently .nmalRamated in 1901 with the Red Cross 
Line lounded by Messrs. R. Siagkhurst and Co., 
under the name and title of the Booth Steamship 
Co,. Ltd. Tlic steamers maintain frequent 
sailings from New York. iJverpoo!, Ha\Te, Oporto, 
and Lisbon, to the Amazon ports of Para and 
Manaos, and carry a great number of passengers 
between Portuguese ports and tlic Amazon. The 
company carries Ihe Royal mail tu Paxa and 
Manaos, and iilao mails betwi.i:ii New York and 
Braxil, The Iijuitos Steamship Co., Ltd., which 
this company manage, liave a larj^c fleet of steamers 
which trade more than 2,000 miles up the Amaxon 
to IquitOH ill IVru. 


Amtuon. CamcieHse. Horatio^ 

Ambrnse. Ceatensg. Hubert. 

A HStlm, Clement. Jerome. 

A ntony. Cutkbevt. }u.iiin . 

Augustine. Dominie. Lan/ra»c. 

Basil. DuMsluH. Madeirense. 

BtHedict. Fluminense. Maranhense. 

Bernard. Gvatigense. Obideme. 

Boniface. Gf enory. Polyearp, 

Gross tonnage, 80,000. 





The Iquitos Steamship Cc's 


Bolivar. Javtiry, Nap<^ 

HuAscaf. Vcayali. 

Cross tonnage. 5,000. 

Boot-topping. A tgrm applied to sheathing 
vessel with planking over felt. 

Booty. Sea Prize. 

Booty of War is property of a belhgerent {q.y 
capturtul by an army on land and belongs to 
Crown, although generally granted to the capti 
as reward for their servicer. Booty ol war c> 
sists principally of arms, provisions and mili 
stores, private property beiog no longer liable 
capture. By the advice ol a Privy CouoctI 
questions relating to booty of war may be ref 
to the Judges of the Prize Court ol Admiral 
which ha-*:, by 3 and 4 Vict. c. 65. jurisdic 
analogous to that in question of prize of war (f . 

B.O.R. Di-stinguishing letters on sea 6shing 
boats regiiitered at Bor^cle. Holland. 

BOTA. A violent, cold, anticyclone wind, blowing 
down from mountains close to the coast, if a cliillcd 
tableland lies behind them. The Bora Of the 
Adriatic is best known, but a similar wind b 
observed elsewhere. 

Borchgrevick, Canten Egaberg (1864. b. 
tianta). At an early age went to Australia : ss 
on the AtUatctic, 1894. and was among the 
part>* to land on the Antarctic Continent, ift95. 
i8«>S was given command of the Southern 
expedition organised by Sir George N'ewnca ; on 
hi.s return in iyo2 was deputed to tn\-C3ttgal^H 
into the volcanic disturbances in the West Indie^^| 
An account ol his first Antarctic voyage is pub- 
lished in the Gth International Geographical Con^^ 
grcss, 1895. See Antarctic ExploratioD. . ^H 

Boida, Jean Charles (1733-99)- Mathematician 
and nautical astronomer (b. Dax). Educated 
La Flechc ; visited the Azores and Canary Islands, 
ol which he constructed an admiralile map ; was 
an able mathematician and contributed a long 
senes of valuable memoirs to the Academy of 
Science. His researches in hydro-dynamics were of 
great use for marine engineering, and the greater 
part of tlic instruments employed in the task of 
determining the arc of the meridian were invented 
by him. 

Bore. A sudden and rapid Hovr of a tide 


Borea. Itahaa toipedoboat destroyer. (Naples. 
190J.) Displacement. 330 tons ; maximum draught. 
8 ft. ; armament, 5 6-pdr. ; lubes. 2 i8-in. ; Hp.^ 
6,000 = 30 kts, : coal, 80 tons. 

Boreas. Man-of-war. On November 28. 1B07" 
thi'^ vessel was lost upon Uie llannois Rock in the 





BOTM. Ftench torpedo-boat .(189S). Displace- 
ment. 140 tons ; complonient. 34 ; maximum 
draught. 7) ft. ; guns. 2 j-pdr. : torpedo tubes, 
3 15-in. ; VKin itcrew ; Hp., 3,3oo = jr kts. ; coal, 
15 tons. 

Borja da Moiota, Antoine Latmnt Joseph (b. 

Naiitiis, SirptfinbtT ^y, i.'^44)- Eiliit.iti.'d Chaptal 
College, and was admttttrd as a supernumerary 
in tlie office of the Minlstr}* of Public Works in 
1865 ; but subsequently in the same year entered 
the scr\-ice of the Burr-au Veritas, whrrc he suc- 
cearively held the poeition of Chief Accountant, 
1876; general secretary. 1881 ; chief of the 
administrative service, 1884 ; and was ultimately 
choocD in i88g odminutrator of this important 
Association. In tliese many capacitiex he has 
taken a considerable part in the woik of this 
Institubon, so useful to navigation and I'rench 
Interaational Commerce ; he has reorganised the 
offices of the Bureau Veritas in Kussia, Germany, 
Italy, Swettcn, and Norway, and has coostaully 
applied useful modifications or additions to the 
publications of tbe Bureau Veritas, regarding the 
construction ol ships. Connected with the " Reper- 
toire general de la maiine marcbande " [General 
Magazine of Merchant Marine) : treasurer and 
member of the Burvau of llie Maritime Technical 
Association ; was nominated in 1900 member of the 
Head Council of the Merchant Marine. As recorder 
of the universal Exposition section, he rend an 
interesting report and document on the " Question 
of Tonnage." and at the Congress of Lisbon held 
May. 1904, by the International Association, read a 
memoTvidtim on the " Load-hnc of Ships ot Com- 
merce." Is Chcx-aiier of the Legion of Honour; 
Chevalier of the i»t cla-ts of the Order of SL Olaf 
of Norway ; associate member of the Institution 
of Civil Engineers, and the Institution of Naval 

Borneo. Hutch gun-bont. (Glasgow, i8>)j.) 
L Length 179ft. Beam 31 ft. Maximom draught ijlt. 
I Displacement 787 tons. Complement 106. 

I Guns. 

I 6—41 in. 

Hp. 1,000 = 13 ^^- Cool maximum 124 tons. 

Borodino. Russian ist ctasa battleship. (New 
Admiralty, 1901.) Sank by the Japanese at the 
Baltic of Tsttshima, May 2y-2g, iiiO$. 

Bomitia. l>ominion Line steamer. Sprang a 
leak in mid-Atlantic, December 1, 1879, and went 
down : 160 lives Irwt. 

BoMnQoet, AdmirU Georfe Slanler (b. i8js). 

Educated R.N. Academy, Gosport ; entered Navy 
1848 ; mid. and acting mate ot Rodwy, 1854, in 
Black Sea during Russian war; acting lieutenant 
of Spitfitt. engaged at the taking of Kertch and 
Ycnikale ; acting lu-utenant of Rodnty, in the 

naval brigade before Sebastopol (Crimean and 
Turkish n\edals. Sebastopol claap. and 5th Class 
Medjidie) ; lieutenant of CaUulla flagship, engaged 
in the bombardment and capture of the forts at the 
entrance to the Peiho river, 1858 ; as lieutenant 
in commiind of the Woodcock engaged wiUi the 
north forts at the entrance to the I'eilio river, i860, 
which were captured by the combined English and 
French land forces (China medal, two Takn claap*} ; 
in command of Flamer. served daring 0[)eration9 
against the Taiping rebels, and was present on shore 
at the taking of Min-hong.Kahding, Na-jow.Cho-lin ; 
wounded in the attack on the city of Fuog-wha, 
1861 ; mentioned in despatches ; employed in 
various operations against pirntes in the neighbour- 
hood of Chusan, 1873 ; severely wounded, in an 
attack by rebels on Flamer. in llaog-chow Bay ; 
mentioned in despatches ; Gold medal from Impe- 
rial Government of China, and promoted to com- 
HL-mder for distinguished services ; captain of 
Northumberland during Ibr Egyptian war, 1 882 
(Egyptian medal, BChedive's Bronze Star, Os- 
manieh 3rd Class} ; rear-admiral 1887 ; vice- 
ndmiml 1S92 ; admiral 1898 ; retired 1904. 

Boscftwen, Edward. British admiral (1711-61}. 
Present at Che taking of Porto Bello. 1740 ; and at 
the siege of Carthagena, 1741 ; in May, 1747. he 
distiiigiushcd himself in an engagement off Cape 
Fmisterre, where ho captured ten French ships and 
M. de Hocqoart, their commander ; in 1 748 be 
laid siege to Pondicherry. and while there received 
news of the peace, and Afadras was delivered up to 
him by the French. In 1751 was made a Lord ol 
the Admiralty, and chosen an Elder Brottier of 
Trinity House ; in 1755 he mtercepted the French 
squadron bound to North America, and captured 
the Alcide and the Lys. and Hocquart became hts 
prisoner for the third time. In tltis engagement 
he captured 1,500 prisoners, and receivod on lua 
return to England the thanks of Parliament. In 
1759. when in command of the Meditcrraoean Fleet, 
he pursued the French Fleet, and after a sliarp 
engagement m Lagos Bay defeated them, capturing 
three large .shijvs, burned two, and returned to 
Spithcftd with his prizes and pnsonent. He 
died near Gnildiord, January 10, 1761, at the early 
age of 50. 

Boiton. U.S. 3rd class cruiser. (Chester, (SSf.) 
Lengtli ;7ift. Beam 42ft. Maximum draught 20ft. 
Displacement 5.000 ions. Complement 280. 
Guns. Atmour. 

a— 8 in. '■ Steel." 

6— 5 in. i\ in. Deck. 

6— 6pdr. 
Hp. 4.000=15 kts. Coal maximum 450 tons. 

Boiton StaaiiuhipCa^witli which i-f amalgamated 
the Boston Tow-Boat Co.. with tlielr head office in 
Boston, maintain a fleet of hve cargo 
steamers which trade to the Far East ; th(f two 
latcet, the Shauntut and Tremont, having excellent 




passenger aceommodatioa, snd a sea sp«etl of 

15 kts. 


Hyades. PUiodes. Shaumui. 

Lyra, Ttenumt. 

Gmss tonnage, 31,000^ 

Both sheets alt. Running before the wind. 

Bottle Chart. Those on wluch the set oi surface 
currents arc exhibited derived from papers found 
in buttles wbich have been tbrciwa overlxiard for 
ttiat purpose, and washed up on the beach, or 
picked up by other ships. 

Bottom. The part of a ship or boat which is 
below the waves. 

Bottomry. A bottomry bond is a marine con- 
tract in writing, by which the master of a vessel, 
in consideration of a sum of money advanced to 
him, hypoihecatcs or binds the vessel as security 
for the loan and interest. The object of such a 
bond is in the interests of commerce, and to mci;t 
the case of a vessel arriving at a foreign port, 
where her master cannot obtain credit, in need of 
repairs or necessaries the want of wtiich would 
hinder her voyage. The property in the ship re- 
mains in her owners, who are personally liable to 
the lender, and this debt can only be defeated by 
the actual total loss of the vessel. Where it is for 
the benefit of all parties concerned height may be 
pledged, and also cargo, but in the latter case the 
master mtist if possible communicate with the 
cargo-owners first. Among maritime hens a claim 
under a bottomry bond take^ precedence of all 
other claims except those for wages and salvage. 
The Admiralty Division of the High Court, wbich 
has almost exclusive jurisdiction over ail matters 
relating to bottomry, will construe such bonds 
liberally and with the principles of equity according 
to the general tenor of their contents. 

In marine insurance an insurable interest arises 
thus : When a captain finds himself in a foreign 
port and unable to defray his exi>cnsc3, and gt^ts 
money on his own credit, or on the shipowner's, 
he is empowered " in direst need " to raise money 
by pledging his ship lor repayment, against her 
arrival at her destination, the bond for the advH.nce 
being payable a certain number of days after 

A "respondentia" bond is a similar advance. 
but on cargo pledged as security. The lender of 
the money has an insurable interest, but the interest 
must be mentioned and specified in the policy of 
insurance. (Glover 1/. Black, 3 Burr., 1.394.) 

Money lent in bottomry or on respondentia do 
not contribute in general average. (C, Joyce v. 
Williamson, in " Park on Insurance," p. 48:.) 

Bottomry Claase. See Clauses. 

Bouch, Sir Thomas (1833-80). Civil engineer (b. 
Thurriley). Entered the service of the Edinburgh 
and Northern Railway Co., now the N.B.U. system, 

and in 1849 beoaioe manager and engineor. mv 
carried into effect the Hoaling ntilway for passi: 
goods trains across the Firths of Forth and Tay. 
He designed and superintended the constnictioa 
of many large railway viaducts, and designed the 
first Tay Bridge, which was begun in 1S70. This 
Imdge fell in on December 28, 1879, with the train 
which was crossing at the time. He was so affected 
by the news that he never recovered from the shock, 
and died shortly after. In June, 1879, he received 
the honour ol knighthood. 

Bonolier. French gun-boat (1884). Displace-, 
ment. 170 tons. On service in Cochin China, 
little fighting value. 

Bondouria, Demetrim. Roar-admiral of the Greel 
Navy (b. 1846), Entered Navy, 1863 ; com- 
manding officer of Sphakietia during the Turco- 
Greck war. 1897, and sent to Candia in charge of 
torjiedo flotilla ; commanding oiTiccr of the Royal 
yacht Amphitrite, 1889-1905 ; A.D.C. to the King, 
[895 : A.D.C. Genera], 1905 : Admiral Superinten- 
dent of Salamts Dockyard, 1905 ; was decorated 
a Commander of the Ro^id Order of our Saviour. 

BonealnTUIe, Loois Autoine de ([729-1811)., 
French admiral. Served with Montcalm in Canada, 
>7S^S9> ^i"l again in Gerinauy duriug the Seven 
Years* War ; commanded the firat French expedi- 
tion round the world, 1756-59. which led to many 
important geographical discoveries ; acted as naval 
commander in North jVmcrican war, and was mad« 
a count by Napoleon. 

Booatr* (i) A sam paid by the Government 
exporters and manufacturers for the purpose 
promoting a certain trade and enabling them to 
undersell foreign rivals. The system has been 
abolished in England. 

(a) A sum paid to Army and Militia recruits. 

(3) A sum distributed among the officers and 
men of a warship lor naval services, other than 
salvage or the capture of enemy's property. 

Botint;. armed transport, with a crew of 44 
ofiicers and men and two gardeners, left Spit- 
head, December, 1 7S7, on a voyage to the South 
Sea. On the night of .^prU 28. r789, when off 
Tahiti, the seamen, led by Fletcher Christian, rose, 
secured the arms, and then seized the captain and 
took command of the ship. Christian, with most 
of the crew, decided to retire to some unknowti 
island. It was not until 1S14 that a man-of-war, 
the Briiun, discovered Pitcaim's Island, and found 
upon it John Adams, the sole survivor of the 
Bounty mutineers, who had formed a colony there. 
and installed himself chief. Hefer to Naval 

Bonrnflol. Australian emigrant vessel, Struck 
on a reef in the Torres Straits, and became a total 
wnsck, August 3, t8s3. 








BoomiirM. French torpedo-boat (1898). Dis- 
placement. 140 tons; comptempnt. 34: maxunain 
draught, 7^ ft. : guns, a ypdr. ; torpedo tubes. 
3 15-in-: twin screw; Hp., 3,joo=3i kts. : coal. 
15 tons. 

BoBTSt French ist class battleship. [L'Orient. 


I-engih 401ft. B<?am 70 ft. Maximum draught iSft. 
Displacement 12.205 tons. Complement 630. 
I Guns. Armour. 

^^^ 2 — 12 in., 40 cal. ■* Spociol." 
^^K 2 — fO'8 in. 16 in. Belt atnidsbips. 

^^K 8 — 5*5 in. 15 in. Turrets. 

^^^L 3 — 4 in. to in. Conning tower. 

^K 10—3 pdr. 
^^K JO — I pdr. 

^^K^ Torpedo Tiiivs (177 in.). 

^^^f z Submcn^ed. 

I 2 Above water. 

I Tbrce screws. Hp. 14,000 = 17 kts. Coal maxi- 

miun 800 tons. Approximate cost ;ji ,300,000. 

BoavinBs. French coast service battleship. (T^ 
I Seyne. 1^92.) 

I Length 292{t. Beam 50ft. Maximum draught 34ft. 
I Displacement 6.S35 tons. Complement 335. 

I Gum. Armour, 

I a— 13 in.. 45 c*I. *' CreusoL" 

I 8 — 4 in. lb in. Belt aniidship5. 

I 4— J pdr. 14 in. Turrets. 

1 10 Small. 12 in. Conning tower. 

J^^L J'orpido Tubts {177 in.). 

^^P 3 Above water. 

Twin screw. Up.. 8,900= [6'2 kts. Coa] maxi 
mum 337 tons. Approximate cost ^575.000. 

Bow. Tbe fore end of a vessel, being the ronnding 
part forward, beginning on both sides where they 
arch inwards, and terminating where they close 
at the stem. 

Bowdea-Smitb, Sir Kathaolel. K.C.B., cr. 1897. 

Briti-sh admiral {b. Hampshire, 1838). Entered 
Navy. 1852. .-ind was naval cadet in IVtncMestet 
dunng Burmese war, 1852-53 (Burmah medal and 
Pegu cla£pl ; mid. in PovtU George in the Baltic. 
1854-55 (tiaJtic medal) ; was present at the capture 
of Pelho foru, 1858, and as lieutenant of the 
ChssapealU was present at the unsuccessful attack 
on the Taku forts. 1S59 (China modal. Fatshan 
and Taku clasps) ; served as flag-captain on the 
Mediterranean and F.ast Indian stations : senior 
officer S.E. coast America. ; commanded tbe 
Britannia. 1883-86 ; one of the British representa- 
tives at the International Marine Conference, 1889 ; 
Commander-in-Chiel Australian Station. 1893-95 : 
K.CB. on the commemoratum ol Her Majesty's 
Diamond Jubilee ; Command PT-io -Chief at the 
More. 1 899- 1 900; retired, I903. 

Bowen, Richard (1761-97). British naval officer 
(b. Hfracombc). On board the Foudroyant he parfa- 
cipatrd in the capture of the Livety and the Pe^ase ; 

in 1794 be dbtin^lshed himself at the attack on 
Port Royal. Martinique, which resulted in the cap- 
ture of the Btenvenu ; al the battle oQ Cape St. 
Vincent, 1797. when in command of the Terpsichore, 
he gained further glory by engaging pinglc-handed 
the Spanish four-decker Sentissima Trinidad ; was 
present at the bombardment of Cadiz, and was 
shot dead during that ill-fated attack on Santa 

Bower BQchors. Those at the bow in constant 


Bowgnoe. A fender to prevent the ship's side 
receiving in]ur>'. 

Bowline. A rope fastened forward to bow tbe 
leech of tbe sail. 

BowUafr<briille. A span on the leech of a square 
SAil tu wiucU tlic iMiwliue IS clinched. 

Bowring and Co., Ltd., 0. T. See English and 
American Stcimship Co. 

Bowse. To haul with tackle. 

Bowsprit A long spar ranking with a lower 
mast projecting over tl»c .stem. Beyond it extends 
the jibtioom, and beyond that again tbe flying 
jibboom. To these spars are secured the stays of 
tbe fore-mast and oi the spars above it. On ttiese 
stays are set the lore and fors>topmast stay-sails. 
the jih3. and flying-jib. 

Bowsprit shroads. Strong ropes or chains 
leading from nearly the outer end of the bowsprit, 
giving lateral support to that spar. 

Box. The spacu between the back-board and 
the stem-post of a boat where the coxswain sits. 

Boxer. British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Chis- 
«nck, 1S94.) Length. 201 tt. ; beam. 10 (L : 
draught, 7 it. ; displacement, 247 tons ; comple- 
ment. 45 ; armament, i 12-pdr., 5 6-pdr., 2 tubes; 
twin screw ; Hp.. 4,soo«27 kts ; coal. 60 tons. 

Box-hauUng. \Vhen the ship is veered sttaxp 
round on her heel, the head >*ajds brace flat aback, 
the after yards squared ; to avoid making a great 

Box her ofl. To force the bow from the wind. 

Boyarlo. Russian cruiser (3,200 tons). This 
vessel struck a mine outside Dalny, February 12, 

1904, and foimiered. 

Boyd. WQUam {b. Amcliffe, Octolier 17. 1839). 
Educated Rugby and King's College. London ; 
entered business in 1863. and became a partner in 
the engineering firm of Messrs. Thompson. Boyd and 
Co., of Newcastle, and on tlic dissolution (1874) 
wa-t appointed managing director of tbe Wallsend 
Slipway and Engineering Co. ; director of John 
Spencer and Sons.Ncwbum Steel Works. Newcastle ; 
tirst president of the North-Ea-st Coast Institution 
ol Engineers and Shipbuilders (1884-86) ; member 
of tbe Newcastle School Board (1871-77) ; joined 




the lat Kewcaatle Vol. Artillery in 1665, and com- 
manded the corps from 1871-79. wfaen he resigned ; 
firsl Mayor of Wallsend. November 1901. 

Poblications : Has rrad papers at various times 
before the Institution of Mechanical Engineers and 
tho North-Eait Coast Insutution of Engineers and 

Boyes, George Thomas Henry. Director ot 

transports. Admiralty. Entt-rcd Navy. 1854 ; 
was present at the siege of Stbastopol. expedition 
to Kertch and Ycnikale. and attack and capture 
of Kinburn [Crimean and Turkish mL-<lali, Scbasto 
pol clasp) : commander nf .^cAiWm diiiiuR Egyptian 
war (l^gyptian medal, Khedive's Bronze Star, 3rd 
Class Medjidie} : captain of the Ausou during the 
operations attending the salvage of H.M.S, Nowe 
at Ferrol. iHt)2 ; commodore and naval ofticer in 
charge, Horg Kong, iR<»_;-9fi ; acting director ot 
trans]>orts. looo: retirod. itfot ; commander 
jnd Saxe-Emestinc Order. 

Publication : "The Salvage of H.M.S. Howe." 

Boyevoi. Russian torpedo - boat destroyer. 

(Yarrow. ji>o6.) Displacement, 356 ; complement. 
63 ; armament, i i2-pdr.. 5 3-pdr., 3 tubes, 18 in. ; 
Hp.. 5.700=26 kts. ; coal.Sotons. 

Boyne. Mail steamer, from Brazil, raa on a rook 
during a log, 15 miles ofi Uahant, and became a 
total loss. 

Boyne. British torpedo boat destroyer. (Heb- 
biim, 1904.) Length. 222 ft. ; beam, 23^ ft. : 
draught. (>^ ft. : displacement. 600 ; complement. 
72; armament, i i3-pdr., 5 6'pdr., 2 tubes.; 
twin screw; Hp., 7.500=35 kts. ; coal. 126 teas. 
This ship-name is associated with the attack on 
Carthagena, 1741 ; Barringlnn at St. T-ucia, I77fi ; 
Byron's action ofl Grenada. 1779; Roduey's 
action with De Guichen, 1780; capture of Mar- 
tinique. 1794. 

Boyne. 9R guns. On }>\ny 4. 1795, this vessel 
was destroyed by fire at Portsmouth, causc<l by the 
explosion of the magazine, when mobt of the crew 
perished. Portions of the uxeck were recovered in 
June. 1840. 

B.R. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Breskens. Holland. 

BiK. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Bridgwater, England, 

br. Brown. Abbreviation adopted on the charts 
issued by th« Hydrographic Ofticc, Admiralty. 

denoting thi- quality of the ocean's bottom. 

Brace to or by. To bring the yards back to 
make them shake. 

Brace-np. To place the yards as far forward as 

thty will go, for tin.- ptirpose of heaving to. 

Braokenbitcy. Admiral John William. CBLG., 
1879, C.B., iSiij. Commanded the Skak's naval 

brigade during the Zulu war ; promoted oa|>tain 
for services on West Coast of Africa. iSfti (Zuln 
medal and clasp) ; captain of the Thaiia during t^e 
i^f?yptian war, 18S7 (Egyptian mcdai, Kliedive's 
Bronxe Star. Medjidie. 3rd Class) ; captain of 
Tutquoiu during operations on East Coast of 
Africa. iSHj-gt ; mentioned in despatches: navatg 
officer in charge of na'i-al establishment, Bermuda, '^ 
1894-96 ; second in command of the Channel 
Squadron, 1898. 

Braokish. Water not fresh. 

Bradshaw'i General Railway Steam N&rfgation 

Oalde lor Great Britain and Ireland. Established 
1837. PubUshcd monthly. Price 6rf. Address: 
5«i Flpet Street, London, E.C. 

Bragasna. A lateen-rigged trader of the Adriatic 

Bragozzi. A lug-rigged trader of the Adriatic. 

Brails. Ropes passing through leading blocks on 
the hoDpfs of the niizzcn mast and gafl, fastonod to 
the outer-most leech of the sail in difics^tmt places to 
truss it close up as required ; all try-sails and iicveral ^ 
of the stay-sails have brails. 

Brail up. To haul in the sail. 

Brand. Xcrwcgian torpedo-boat. (Christiajua, 
1899.) Length, 128 ft.; beam. 15 ft.; draught. 
6} ft. : displacement. 84 tons ; armament, 2 1*4 in. 
q.f.. 2 tubes : Hp., 1. [00=^23 kts. 

Brandenburg. German tst class battleship (iSgi) 
Length jSn It. lieam 64 ft. Maximum draught 26 ft. 
Displacement 10,060 tons. Complement $68. 
Guns. Antumr. 

6—1 1 in. " Compound." 

8 — 4' I in. 15 in. Belt. 

8 — I5i pdr. 12 in. Barbettes, 

a — ^i pdr. 5 in. Turrets. 

4 Machine. 12 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
z Submerged. 
1 Above water stem. 
Twin screw. Hp. forced 10,000 = 17 kL*?. Coal 
maximum 1.050 tons. Approximate cost;^ 
Bransfleld. See .-Xntarctic Exploration. 

Bruaey, Capt. Hon. Thomas Allnntt Brassey. 
B.A.. J.P.. M.A., F.R.G.8. West Kent Yeomanry 
(b. March 7, 1863). Eldest son of first Baron 
Bras-wy, married Lady fdina Mary, third daughter 
of lir-st Marquess of Abergavenny, 1889. Educated 
Eton ; Balliol College, Oxford. Editor " Naval 
Annual." 1890; assistant private secretary to Earl 
Spencer when First Lord of the Ad miralty ; assistant 
secretary to Royal Commission on Opium ; con- 
tested Epsom Division, 1S92 ; Christchurch. 1895 
and 1900 ; member .Agricultural Organisation Asso- 
ciation ; is a director of Powell. Dufi[r>'n Steam 
Colliery Co. ; chairman of the Pcrtusola Co., which 
owns important lead smelting works near Spefia, 
in Italy. 

Publication: " Problems of Empire" (1904). 




Bnaer* Thomu. BarcBi, K.OA^ DX^ 7^., 
D.OJL {b. Stafford, 1836). Brcaroc a Civil I^rd 
of the Admiralty, 1880-1*3, and Secretary to the 
Admiralty, t88,^-ft; ; cliairman of the Opium C^m- 
nunion, and the CommtSRinnH on llnKctaworthy 
Ships. Coaling Stations, and Pensions to the Aged 
I^)Or : pr«sid«nt of the Institntton of Naval 
Architects, 1893-Q5 , Govc-rnor ol Victoria. i8g5' 
1900. Id 1876 he and Lady Brassey undertook a 
voyage round thr world in Ihcir yacht the Sun- 
beam, and Iho account which was published of the 
voyage attained great popniarity. He is a high 
authcmty on na\-a] questions and has been a fre- 
quent writer on those subjects. 

Publications : " Work and Wages " (1872). 
"British Seamen" (1877), "The Eastern Queg- 
tion " (1878), " Foreign Work and linRlish 
Wages" (1879). "The British Navy." in live 
i^volumes (1883-83) : edited (or a number of years 
'The Naval Annual." 

BrauiuehweiK. German 1st diss battleship. 

(Krupp, i9oa.) 

Length 43uft. Beam 72ft. Mean draught 26 ft. 
Diaplaccment 13,200 tons. Complement 691. 
Cuns. Armour. 

4— II in. 9 in. Belt. 

14 — 67 in. 11 in. Barbettes. 

aa — 34 pdr. II id. Turrets. 

13 — I pdr. 12 in. Conning tower. 

3 Machine. 

ToTptdo Tubes. 
5 Submerged bow and broadside. 
I Above water stern. 
Three screws. Hp. 16.000= 18 lets. Coal Maxi- 
dium 1,600 tons. Approximate coot /i. 160.000. 

BnrL Kussiaii torpedo-t^oat destroyer. (Ncvsky, 
1902.) Length, 196 XL ; beam, i4 ft. , draught, 
11} ft : displacement, 35a tons : armament. 
1 l2-pdr., 5 3-pdr., 3 tubt^a ; Hp.. 6.000 = 37 kta. 

BzuciL British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Qydc- 
bank. 1S96.} Length, 2t8 ft.; beam, 20 ft., 
dnnight, 5^ ft. ; displacement. 300 tons ; comple- 
ment. 60 ; armament, i 12-jHlr.. 5 6-pdr., 2 tubct) ; 
twin screw ; Hp.. 6,ooocs30 kts. ; coal. So tons, 

Brszeo. British torpedo-boat dertroyer (300 
tons. 30 kts.]. Launched 1896. 

BAJ). Di&tinguisliing letters on sea fishing 
boats icgiKtered at Broadford, Scotlajid. 

Brvak balk. To commence di-Kharging cargo. 

Brwk har abeor. When a vessel is forced by 
nd or current to pass Ihc wrong side of her 
' Anchor. 

Breakwaters. See Harboun. 

firwming. Cleaning a ship's bottom by buraiog. 

Breast-lut. A rope or cable useil to confine a 
ship's broadside 10 a wharf or quay. 

BNUt liook. Thick pleott Of timber osnl to 
strengthen the fore parts of a ship. 

Breda. In August. 1702. tht.i vessel, flag-ship 
of .Admira.! John Benbow. gave chasv to the Santa 
Matiha. a French vessel under Dn Ca««e ; and 
although unsupported kept up a running light for 
five days. 

Breeses. Wind in general, whether weak or 


Breeies, LAiut and sea. Winds which blow near 
the coast, from sea to land during the day. and 
from land to sea during the night. 

Bremn. Gertuan armoured cruiser. (Weser. 
Bremen, 1903.) 

length 341ft. Beam 40ft Maximum draught i6flt. 
Diaplacement 3,200 tons. Complement 280. 
Guns. Armour. 

10 — 4'i in. " Krupp." 

10 — 1*4 in. 2 in. Dtxk. 

4 Maxims. 4 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
7 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 11.000=23 ^'^^- ^^^ maxi- 
mum Soo tons. 

Bremer-VuUcan flohifTban and SCaschinenlafarik. 
Vcgesack, Bremen. This shipyard was founded 
in 1893. ^"<1 ^''^^ ^^ an?a of about 8n 3cr(r«, water 
frontage of three-quarters of a mile, and is f urmshed 
with all tliv latest appliances and machinery 
necessary for a large modern yard. It has six 
slips capable of building the largest vcsseU, each 
slip liaving electric travelling cranes. Smcc it was 
founded, 506 vessels have been launchetl. auionK 
which may be mentioned large mail, passenger and 
freight steamers for the Norddcutscher Lloyd. 
Hamburg-Amcnka Line, Hansa Line, Argo Steam- 
s)up Co., \. Kirsten, Hamburg, and a number o{ 
small steamers (or the Woerrtiann Line, and the Africa Line. Between igoa and 1905 vessels 
were launched with a net tonnage of 138.25U. .and 
machinery of 76,.Ho I.Hp. 

Bremei Yacht Clab. EstaULshed i8ot. Commo- 
(ItKe. A. Boyes ; Vice-Commodore, joh. Mailer ; 
Renr-Commodore, H. Wurtniann ; Treaanrcr, .V 
Frese ; Secretary. G. TAttcher. Woltmershauser, 
Dreicck. Bremen. Germany. Annual subscription, 
mark 15. 

Brennaa. Louis. Inventor of tlie Brennan 
toriiedu (l>. IrcUnd. 1852). In 18S2 the British 
Admiralty, recognising the value of his torpedo, 
invited him to England, paying him a retaining fee^ 
of iS'OOo, and engaging him for a period of three 
yeai'S at a .-ialary of ,^2,000 a year and expenses, to 
enable him to improve his invention, (le was after- 
wards given a reward of £110.000. and a salary of 
£1.500 tor five years. In 1907 hn prodnced a 
working model of bis invention, the mooo-rail 




gioscope train, which no doubt, in the oear fnture, 
will be put to practical use. 

Brtnniu. Fruuch ist class batUc-abip [1891). 
Length 3;5ft. Beim 6jft. Maximum draught ijit. 
Displactment 1 1.395 tons. Complement 696. 
Guns. Armour. 

3 — 134 in. 42 cal. " Crcusoi steel." 
10 — 64 in. tS in. Belt amidships. 

4 — 9 pdr. iS in. Turrets. 

14 — 3 pdr. 5 in. Conning tower. 

3 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
6 Above water. 
Twin .screw. Hp. 1 3,600= 17.5 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum Sou tons. Approximate cost i99S-°^*°* 

Brenton. Sir Jahleel (]7;o-i844}. British vice- 
admiral. Served in ihcBarflru* at Cape St. Vincent ; 
flag-captain to Saumarex in tlic actions at Algc- 
ciras and Gibraltar. iHoi ; was wrecked and taken 
prisoner in the Minervt. 1803. and imprisoned tUl 
i8cA. In May, tSio, when m command of the 
Spartan, be defeated a Franco -Neapolitan flotilla ; 
lor this serWce be was made a baronet in 1813, and 
K.C.B. 1815; was subsequently a resident Com- 
misBioner at the Cape of Good ! lope, and Lieutenant 
Governor at Greenwich Hospital. 

St* " Life ol Sir Jalilcel Breaton," by Raikcs. 

Brett, John (1830-1902]. British painter. The 
chief expunent of the prc-Kapbaelite method aa 
applied to sea-6cape ; elected A.R.A.N.. 1S81 : 
Among his principal works are " Britannia's 
Realm ' (i8tio) ; Tate Gallery, London. " The 
Norman Archipelago " (1S85), in Manchester : 
" Kortli-West Gale off the Longship Lighthouse," 
in Bimiinghani. 

BrickfieMer. A ver>- hot, dust-laden wind 

blowing from the North in New South Wales. 

Bridge, Admiral Sir Cyprian Arthm George, O.C.B. 
1903.K.C.B. 1699 ib. March, 1837). Entered Koyal 
Navy, 1S53 ; served in BtisM in White Sen, 1^54 ; 
present at the operations oi the Bar oi Archangel, 
and at ihf attack on Solovelski ; was rired on when 
landing with a flag of tmce on one of the Soto- 
vetski Islands ; took part in the second expedition 
to fetro Paulovski ; present in the Pelorus in the 
Bay of Bengal during the Indian Mutiny : landed 
with a naval brigade and proceeded to the Burmese 
{rentier ; member of the Committee on Heavy 
Guns, 1878 ; machine guns, 1879 ; Ordnance 
Comnuttee, 1S81 : Director of Naval Intelligence, 
18&9-94 • Commander -in- Clue- f Australian Station, 
'895-97 ; K.C.B. on Her Majesty's Birthday. iSfio ; 
W'jis appointed by the Board of Trade in con- 
junction with Mr, Aspinall, K.C. (f.c). to inquire 
into the North Sea outrages (l>ogger Bank) {t^.v.]. in 
Hull. October, 1904. 

Bridgewatar, Francis Egecton, Third Duke ol 
(1736-1803). Projected tlie first navigable canal 

ejcecuted in Great Britain in modem tunes, and 
has sometimes been styled " The Father of Brttisb 
Inland Navigation." The canal, constructed on 
the adv)c<* of James Bhndley, was 77^ miles long, 
and spanned the Irwell trom Worsley to Man- 
chester, subsequently being extended to the Mersey. 
and owl 1220.OOO. In 1S87 this canal was sold 
to the Manchester Ship Canal Co. {q.v.). 

Bridle. Two parts of a cable from t}ie hawee to 
the mooring. 

BrJdport, Sir Alexander Hood, First y»ooant 

(1737-1S14). English admiral. Was in charge of 
the Minerva in Quiberon Bay, 1759. and in Uk 
same frigate captured the iVatwick in 1 761 ; com- 
manded the Robust in the acUon off Ushant. 1777 : 
in 17^0 promoted reax-ndmiral, and two years later 
was present at the relief of Gibraltsu* ; he was 
second-in-command to Lord Howe in the victory 
of June I, 1794. for which he was made fiaroo 
Bridport ; in 1795 he defeated the French oft 
L'Orient for this victory he was promoted vice- 
admiral, and created a peer of the realm and placed 
in command of the Channel Fleet. 

Brierly, Sir Oswald Walters {1817-94). En^ish 
marine painter. Duriitg the Crimean war he was 
on board Keppel's ship in the Baltic, and pub- 
lished a series of lithographs ; he took sketches for 
Queen Victoria at the naval review at Spithead, 
iR^C ; he accoin[]anic<] tlie Duke ol lidiaburgh 
round the world, 1867-63, axul the Prince (King 
Edward VI I.} and Princess of Wales on tlacir tour 
to Constantinople and Egypt. Among his best- 
known works are : " The English and French 
Fleets in the Baltic " (1854), " The Retreat of the 
Spanish Armada " (1872^ " I>rake takuig the 
Capitana to Torhay " (1872). "The Loss of the 
Revenge " {1877), " The Decisive Battle ofi Grave- 
lincs" (18S1). 

Brig. A two-masted square-riggwl vessel with- 
out mainsail or tr^'-sail, mast at)aft the main masL 

Brigantine. .\ square-rigged vessd with two 


Bright, Sir Charles Tilstoa ([832-88). Telegraph 
engineer (b. Wanstcad, 183^]. At the age of ao 
he became engineer to the Magnetic Telegraph Co.. 
and in that capacity superintended the laying of 
lines in various parts of Great Britain ; in 1853 he 
laid the first submarine cable between Enj^and and 
Ireland; in iSjS be laid the first Atlantic cable, 
and subsequently siiperviMid the laying of sub- 
marine cables in almost every part of the world. 

Brighton. See L.I3.S.C. Ry. steamers ; also Tufa 
bine Steamers. 

Brilliant. Ship. See Rcnncl, James. 

Brilliant British 3rd class cruiser (1S91). 
Length 3uott. Beam 43ft. Maximum draught iSIt 
Displacement 3,400 tons. Complooicnt 





Guns. Amumr^ 

2 — 6 in. "Steel." 

6 — 47 in. 3 in; Deck. 

S — 6 pdr. 3 in. Conning tow«r. 

T— jpdr. 

4 Machine. 

Torpedo Tubes (14 in.). 
4 Abovf wntpr. 
Twin screw. Hp. nntunU 7,000 ™ 1 8* 5 kis.. 
lorccd 9,000=530 ku. Coal maximum 535 tons. 
Approximate cost ^300.000. 
This ship-name was first inbx>duced Into the 
Na\'y in I7!;5, and is associated with the bombard- 
ment of Havre, 1759 ; action of! Vigo, 1751. 

Brin. Bmedetto ft83-i-93). Italian oavat en- 
gineer and administrator (b. Turin). !□ 1S73 
Admiral St. Bon. Minister of Marine, appoiuteil 
him l'nder-Secretar\- ol State, and later be was 
promoted Minister of Marine, ntiich office bo held 
imtil i&9t, and dunog that time distinguished him- 
self by the manner in which ho developed the 
Italian Navy. The huge armoured cruisers Dan- 
doio. 13,26s tons, built 1S78 (reconstracted 1S97), 
and the Jtaha, 15.654 tons, tmilt 18S0, Wftre ht» 
work, though he afterwards abandoned their typo 
in favour of smaller and faster vessels of the Vartsa 
and Garibaldi class. He died on May Z4. 1(^9^. 
While Minister of Marine, he. more than any man. 
must be regarded as the practical creator of the 
Italian Navy. 

Brindler. Junei (i7i6-;3). English engmeer, the 
pioneer of English inland na^cigatIon, who planned 
tor the Duke of Bridgewater the canal from WonJcy 
to 3iattchcater. Daring his life he designed and 
superintended the coiuttruction of over 36$ miles 
of canal, the most important of which was the 
Grand Trunk between the Trent and the Mersey. 

Brine. linday. British admiral (b. 1834). 
Entcrefl Mavy, 1847, and was mid. of the teandfr 
during the operations in the Black Sea, iS<;4 ; 
he commanded an outpost battery at Eupatoria 
at the action of November 14 : was mentioned in 
despatches, and Kazetted for ** meritorious ser- 
vices." and promoted lieutenant, receiving in addi- 
tion lor his services the Crimean and Turkish 
medals, with Sebastopol clasp ; aitcrr serving as 
lieutenant of the Rrtribution in the Baltic, he was 
sent oot to China, and was in charge of a division 
of boats at the attack on Peibo forts in 1859, and 
commanded the Opossum at the capture of the 
Taku forts in the following year (China medal, 
Canton and Taku clasps) : he was captain of the 
Briton, and senior officer on the east coast ol 
Africa, and was employed in the suppression of 
the slave trade, receixing from the Admiralt>' the 
expression of " tlieir appreciation of the able 
manner in which the stirxnce had been carried 
out " : in 1S75 be accompanied Sir Douglas Forsyth 
to Mandahty witb the missioa to the King at 

Bnrmah, and in the following year proceeded in 
the BtHan with the Resident at .\den to Tamarida 
to execute s treaty with the Sultan of Socctra ; at 
the occupation of Cyprus, 1879, ho commanded 
the Invincible ; he received the gold medal of the 
Royal United Serx-ice Institution in i8Sa. and for 
five years was a Younger Brother of Trinity House, 
and one of the Naval Assessors to the House of 
Lords : he retired in 1S94. 

Publications : " The Taeping Rebellion." 
" American India,as : their Ancient Earthworks and 

Bring by the iM. To incline too rapidly to lee- 
ward, till wind, after crossing atem. backs the 


Bring to. To anchor or stop by backing; a sail. 

Bria. Swedish torpedo-boat. (Karlakrona, 1900.) 
length. i2fi ft.; beam, 15^ ft.; draught, 7 ft.; 
displacement, 92 tons : complement. 18 ; armament. 
2 i'5-in., q.f., 3 tubes ; Hp.. 1.350=23 kts. ; coal, 
17 tons, 

Brisbane. Sir Charles (1769-1S39). British rear- 
admiral. Was mid. at the battle of Dominica, 
1782; was present at the occupation of Toulon, 
and under Nelson in Corsica ; in 1796 in the Oistnu 
he successfully defended himself against two 
Spanish frigates of superior force : in command of 
the Doris he planned and executed the gallant 
cutting out of the ChevtetU from Camarat Bay ; 
in 1807 he achieved his greatest success, the cap- 
ture of the Curacao and several Dutch vcs.iels with 
a force of four frigatcK only ; he wa.s decorated 
K.C.B,, 1815, and retired with the rank of rear- 
adnural. 1819. 

Brlsbftoe. Sir JAmei {1774-1826)1 British naval 
officer. Younger brother of Sir Charles Bri^tbane 
{q.v.) ; was mid. in the Qtuen CharhUg at the 
tiattle of *' The Glorious First of Jane," 1794 ; was 
present in the Cruiser at the bombardment .of 
Copenhagen, 1801, and was promoted in 1.S16: he 
commanded l-ord Exmouth's Oa^ship, the Queen 
Charlotte, at the bomtjardmeut of Algiers, and (or 
services rendered was created a knight. 

Brlsto! CbEonel Tactat CInb, Swansea. Estab- 
lished 1875. Hag : Red ensign. Burgee : Red, 
blue cross, with Prince of Wales's feathers in 
centre. Commodore, The Earl of Dunraven ; 
Vice-Commodore. Major J. Edwards Vatighan ; 
Rear-Commodore. Edward H. Bath ; Honorary 
Treasurer. P. I-ingdon Thomas ; Honorary Secre- 
tary, F. G. Andrews. Entrance fee, £2 2s. ; annua 
subscription. (2 2s. Outport members, £t 6j. 

Bristol Pleasure Steamers. P. and A. Campbell's 
steamships maint.iin a service of marine L-xoursions 
in tlic Bristol Channel between Bristol, Caxdifl, 
Clevedon, Wrston, Newport, Minehead, I.ynmouth. 
Iltracombe. Clovelly, Chepstow. Mumbles, and 





Brighton Qtueil. 
Bristol, Port ol. 


Gltn Tttisa. 

has for one 

Westward Ho. 

thousand years 
It begiiu; the 

n)aintaini:c) a k-ading position. 
twentieth century by constructing docks at Thfi 
head of the Bristol Channel of such magnitude and 
cost as to surpass all municipal ochievcmenta 
^thcrto attempted in this direction. 
' The shipping trade of the port with distant 
parts of the world dates back for many centuries. 
Veescis were fomierly dischaigetl and loaded at 
landing-places along the banks of the tidal nver 
Avon, which then flowed through the heart of the 
city. In 1809 a new course lor the nver was 
fornu'd. and the old water way for a length of two 
and a half miles was converted into a floating 
harbour. This is now equipped with modem 
wharves, granaries, transit sheds, cranes, ratiwa>-s, 
L-tc, . and many lart;c man u factories and other 
industrial concerns arc located in the immediate 
neighbourhood of the quays. 

In the course of the last 40 years the river 
navigation lias been greatly improved. The 
channel has been deepened, and banlts and points 
have been marlcrd by b scries of illuminated posts 
and lights, and a new entrance lock baa been con- 
structed, the result being that it is now possible 
(or vessels of 325 ft. in length between perpendi- 
catar.s to enter the city docks witli Uttle or no 

The dimensions of the docks arc as follows : 
The City Docks. 

Depth of water on sill : 
Mean spring tides . . . . 3,1 ft. 

Mean neap tides .. .. .. 23 ,, 

Length of lock . . 350 ,, 

Width of lock O2 .. 

Area of doclis . . . . . . 83 acres. 

Lengtli of wharfage . . . . 4.S9S yds. 

Avonmouth Dock. 

Depth of water on sill : 
Mean spring tides 
Mean neap tides 

(.engtli of dock 

Width of dock 
Length of lock 
Width of lock 
WidtJi of extension 
Area of doclc 
Length of wharfage 

fiayal Edvoard Dock. 
Depth of water on ioner sill : 
Mean spring tides 

38 ft. 
aS ,. 
3.180 „ 
500 ,. 

485 .. 

70 ., 

iSo ,. 

19 acres 

1 ,600 yds. 

40 ft. 

Mean neap tides . . 30 

Length of dock 
Width of dock 
I.ength of lock 
Width of lock 
Area of dock 

1,120 ., 
1,000 „ 

87s .. 
100 .. 
30 acres 

Length of wharfage (at present saitc- 


PortiaUad Dock. 
Depth of watrr on sill : 

Mean spring tides . . 

Mean neap tides . . 
Length of dock 

3.730 Jl- 

34 ft. 
34 .. 

1,800 ., 
300 .. 

444 M 

66 .. 

12 acres 
'M3 yds- 

Width of dock 

Length o( lock 

Width of lock 

Area of dock 

Length oi wharfage 

All these docks ha\'e extensive covered quays 
and shed accomnwdation. At the Avoumouth 
Dock a fruit store and warehouse have been pro- 
\-itlc{l specially for the West Indian trade. Cold 
storRs.with a capacity of cnbic tt., atforrl 
ample accommodation for carcases of beef and 
multon. as well as provision lor other perishabld 
articles, and nine oil-tanks each averaging over 
t, 000.000 gallons storage capacity for the reception 
of petroleum. The floating pontoon dock is 355 ft. 
long and 6z ft. wide, and is available for the reocp- 
tioQ of vessels of these dmiensions. 

The RoyaJ Edward Dock, the first sod of which 
was cut by H.R.H. the Prince of Wales on March 5, 
1903. will be completed in the early part of 1908, 
and uill be replete with every modem convenicac« 
for the loading and discharging of vessels. 

Bristol 8t«m Nivigatioa Co., with their head 
ofiicv-^ 111 BiisloJ, maintain a regular service of 
steainer>i from Bri.stul to txitli Cork and Dublin. 
Steamers leave Bristol every Thursday, returning 
Irom Cork every Tuesday. Steamers leave Bnatol 
for Dublin every Tuesday, and return over>' Friday. 


A rgo. Blarney. Killarney. 

Briftow, Cftptain. S^r Antarctic Exploration. 

BritAnnia. British 1st class battiesliip. (Ports^ 
mouth. 1Q04.) 

Length 453 ft. Beam 78 ft. Mean draught 2t« ft. 
Displacement 16,350 tons. Complement 777. 
Guns. Armour. 

4 — 12 in. " Knjpp." 

4- — 9'2 in. 9 in. Belt amidships. 

10 — in. 13 in. Barbettes. 

14 — 13 pdr. 13 in. Conoing tower. 

M— J P^r. 
3 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
4 Submerged broadside. 
I Submerged stem. 
Twin screw. Hp. i8,ouo=iS'5 kts. Cool n>ax>> 
mum 2.000 ;ons. Approximate cost £1 ,500.000. 

This ship-name was first introduced into the 
Navy in i<>S3, and is atisociatctl with the battles of 
Har^eur and 1^ Hogue, 1&92 ; Hood's occupation 
of Toulon. 1793 : Hotham's action off Gcooa, 1795 ; 
Hotham's action of Hydres, 1795 ; battic off Cape 






SL Vniwnt. 1797; Trafalgar, 1805 ; borobardment 
of Scbastopol. 1854. 

In ift6o the Prince of Wales {now King Ed- 
ward VII.) laundied a vessel o( tliis name wliicli 
was fitted as a training ship for naval cadets, 
and stationed at Portsmoutli. She wa^ subso- 
quL'ntly translcrrcd to the Dart, where la 1905 
she was superseded by the Roj-al NavuJ CoUege. 

Britannia ( 1 887). British subsidised mer- 
chant ship. P. and O. Company (q.v.). Dimen- 
swtw. 465x53x34 't- ; gross tonnage. 6.523 1 
Hp.. 6.000=^17 kts. Principally used as a Govern- 
ment transport. Passenger accommodation, 304. 

Britannic See White Star Line. 

Brttilb AdttlxaL Emigrant ship, wrecked on 
King'^ Island, Baks's Strait, May 23, 1874. when 
80 out of 89 p*r4on5 were lost. 

British Am«rica AssoranM Co. Incorporated 
)88j. Capital. 18(0.000. Smcc the incorporation 
this company ha-s paid a steadily increasing diW- 
(j«nd. which for the last 70 years has averaged 
^'31%. and a Reserve Fund has been built np of 

Tlic directors of the company are : Hon. George 
Cox (prcsidfntK J. J. Kenny (vice-president and 
managing director), Augustus Myers, Thomas 
Long. John Hoskin. K.C.. I.L.D.. Hon. S. C. Wood. 
Robert Jaaray, UcuL-CoL H. M. PellaiL. E. W. 
Cox. Head oRicc : Toronto. Ontario. 

Britufa and Atrican Steam Rangatioa Co., Ltd-. 
m-a« originally cstablishetl in 1858 to run a line of 
cargo and passenger steamers between Glasgow, 
Liverpool, and the West Coast of .\frica. In tgoo 
a new company was formed with a capital of 
^ with Sir \. L. Jones as ctiairman. to 
acqnire an additional fleet of steamers for the 
service. They purchased from Messrs. Elder, 
Dempster and Co. a number of vessels, and to-day 
own a fleet «f 95 stcamrrs, aggregating J69, 170 
tons, and control an extensive boKinesK with the 
West Coast of .\lnca. 

Britidi and Foreign Marine Insurance Co.. Ltd. 

Registered J.Tnu.iry S, 1863. Authons«'d aipital. 
^1.340,000 (paid up. ^;68,ooo. or £4 per share). 
The Reser\'e Fund is ^900.000. and the balance of 
Profit and Loss Account carried forward to Janu- 
»ry I, 1906. ^141,285. Present dividend, 20%. 

The directors o( the company are : 

Liverpooi. — Richard Kobson (chairman), G. B. 
Hcyworth {deputy -chairman), Joseph Beausire, 
William Bingham. Harold Brocklcbank. Arthur 
Earle. E. Edmondson. H. H. Hammond. Sir Ed- 
ward Lawrence. SamueJ Sanday. Hugh L. Smyth, 
TiKnnas Woodsend. Underwriter, John Davies ; 
s«cret3Lry, Arthur McNeill. 

London. ~ 'the Kt. Hon. Lord Avcbury (chair- 
ixian), E. T- Doxat (dcpaty-chairntan) . Robtsrt 

Balfour, Augustus Philip Brandt, Erm-st Chaplin, 
C. G. Du Croz, Herbert Edlmann. W. Scott Elliot, 
James N. Graham, J. Howard Gwyther. J. J. 
Hamilton, F. J. Johnston. Underwriter, Thomas 
J. Storey : secretary. Thomas Davis. 

Head office ; British and Foreign Chambers, 
<; C-LStlc Street. Liverpool. London Of&cu : i Old 
Broad Street, E.C. 

British and Foreign Steamship Co.. Ltd.* have 
a fleet of 14 large modem cargo steamers 
trading to various parts of the world. These 
vi^seJs arc fitted with the latest appliances for the 
handling of cargo. 


Sainl Andrew. Saint Hugo. 

Saint Btde. Ssint Irene. 

Saint CtUtthrri. Saitit Jerome. 

Saint Dunstan. Saint Leonards. 

Sainl Egbert. Saint ?/tchotas. 

Saint Fillans. Saint Oweatd. 

Saint George. Saint Qttentin. 

Gross tonnage. i;6.i6o, 

British and Irish Steam Packet Co.. with their 
bead ot&cc in Dubliu. maintain a service twice a 
week, leaving London for Dublin Sunda)*?) and 
Wednesdays, and Dublin for London Wediiescl-iys 
and SatunJay.s. callmg at PortsmouUi. Southamp- 
ton, Plymoutli. and Falmouth. The fleet consists 
of six large and powerful steamers, with excellent 
passenger accommodation for some six to seven 
hundred passengers, and a sea speed of 13 kts. 

CaUhot, Lady Olive. 

Lady Hudson Kinahan. Lady Roberts. 

Lady Martin. Lady Wolseley. 

Gro&s tonnage, 7,00a. 

British Dominions Blarine Insurance Co., Ltd. 
Registered September t;, it)o4. with an authorised 
capital of £ of which sliarcs to the extent 
of £201,000 were issued and ;^ioi,ooo called up. 
The capital is composed of 17,000 fully-paid £3 
preference shares, interest on which is limited to 
6"^, per annum, and 50,000 £i ordinary shares, ol 
which I: has been paid up. 

The directors of the company arc : His Honour 
Judge Bompas, K.C (chairman). Sir W. E. M 
TomliosoD. Bart.. F. H. Booth. Alex. C. Mackenzie, 
P. H. Marahall. H. T. Collick. G. Wigley, J. W. 
Rogerson. Underwriters. Robert Gardner, Moun- 
tain and Co., Ltd. OfQces : sj Royal Exchaoge, 
London. E.C 

British India Steam Navigation Co. Founded in 
i^>5 t>y the Ute Sir William .MacKinnon, as the 
Calcutta and Burma Steam Navigation Co.. for 
the performance of mail services for the East 
Indian Co. In 1857 the Battic and Cape of Good 
Hop* were sent out to inaugurate the business. In 
1862 a fresh mail service wa^ entered mto, whicJi 
included an additional route, ami the name of the 

compaay was oflficiaily altered to its preaeat title. 
On the opening of the Suez Cnnal thi<t company's 
steamer, the Indian, conveyed the firet cargo of 
Indian produce to England through the canal. 
In 1872 tlie Aden-Zanzibar Mail Service was put 
on, and from then until now new routos have been 
constantly added. The company t» under con- 
tract vrith the Indian Government (or mail services 
to Persia. India, Burma. Haat India, the Mauritius, 
and also runs other services to liaiavia, Queens- 
land, etc. In 18S9 a three weekly service was 
started from Calcutta to Manila, which has since 
been extended to Moji, Kol>e. and Yokohania. 
The company lias a capital of 1^1.700,000, and pays 
dividends averaging about 10%, 


Africa. Jetutiga. PuMdua. 

Amarapoota. Jumna. Pum^a. 

Antra. KafiuttMaia. Putiata. 

A ska. Katara. Qutda. 

A roc». Katoria. Quen mba. 

Bancoora. Kisttta, Quiloa. 

Bangala. Kota. Ramapoora. 

Beswada. Lalpoota, Rangoon. 

Bhadra. Lama. Rasmara. 

Bharala. Landaura. Sango!a. 

Bhundara. Lawada. Sanlhui. 

Booidana. Lhasa. Saiara. 

BulifHha. Lindula. Scindta. 

HycuUa. Linga. Stalda. 

Canata. Loodiana, ShiraJa. 

Catpetttaria. Lunka. Si'dhana. 

Chanda. Madura Siisa. 

Chupra. Madda. Sofata. 

Colaba. Manora. Surada. 

Dilwara. Matiana. Tara. 

Dumra. Megna. Taroba. 

Dunera. MeanaUJiy. Tiesta., 

Dwarha. Momhassa. TMtmgwa. 

EUora. Miittra. Unganda. 

Ethiopia. Ntrbudda, Ujina. 

Fazilha. Nevasa. Via. 

Fultala. Notfshera. Umbatla, 

GoaSpara. Nuddea. Umta. 

Goiconda. Obra, Upada. 

Gootkha. Ohara. Uriana. 

GwatioT. Okhta. Vadaia. 

Henzada. Onda. Virawa 

Hindu. Oniptnta. Waipota. 

Jslanda, Ootabaria, Wardka. 

Jsmatla. Orissa. Wofoanga, 

llaura. PacAumba, Warora. 

Jtinda. PalamcaUa. Zaida. 

Itola. Palilana. Zamania. 

Itria. Pmtakota. Zihtnghla. 
Gross tonnage, 441.000. 

British Harioe Salvage Co., Limited, Glasgow, 
wBs^startcd in iSHft to carry on the business ol sal- 
von of fttrandt^d and sunken vessels and their 
cargoes. The registered office ol Uie company 

is at the Royal Exchange, Glasgow, and its salvage 
appliances are stored at Greenock, close to quay 
and railway, ready for despatch by sea or land. 
I'he company's plant consists of i> in,, 10 in., and 
8 in. ccDtrifuga] stt-am pumjM. each complete with 
boiler and piping, diving gc^ar, portable electric 
overland and submarine lights, heavy purchase 
blocks, Eteel wire hawsen. etc., two wrought iron 
pontoons with screws and lifting chains. 

Britiib Maritime Tnut, Ltd^ nonaged by 

Messrs. Funiess, Withy and ('o,, Ltd., West 
Hartlepool, has a fleet of 22 modem vessels 

engaged in the cargo trade to various parta of 
the world, some of the latvr ones having Limited 
accominudation for passuigcra. 

Adriana. Cyntkiana. Pcruviatui. 

Alkentann. Gracmna. Potomac. 

Ausl^iana. Guardiana. Sandoam. 

Birmingham. Indiana. Tkornity, 

Cebrtana. Lugano. TuJkoe. 

Como. MaitHcke. li'e stkampton. 

CroxdaU. Otiana. Wyandotte. 

British Pacific Cable, owned proportionately by 
the Governments of the United Kinsdom. Canada. 
and Australia, the proportjon-s being the Ignited 
Kingdom and Canada five-eighteenths. New South 
Wales. Victoria. Queensland, and New Zt:aTaiid 
two eighteenths each, was constructed b>- Ibe 
Ti'legraph Construction and Maintenance Co., at 
a cost uf iL.7*iS,ovo. U runs Irom Vancoiiva to 
Fanning I-^asd, thence to Fiji and Norfolk Island, 
and by mrans of two cables to New Zealand and 
Queensland respectively. It has a total length 
of 7,833 nautical miles, and was opened to traff.c 
on December 8, 1902. 

British Qneen. l*acket, from Ostend to Msu^gate. 
wreckctl on the Goodwin Sands, Oecember 17. 1814, 
when all on lioard ijcrishcd. 

British ship is a ship British ounied, surveyed. 
mea-surcd. and registered according to the require- 
ments of the Merchant Shipping Act, 1894. Such 
vessel is regarded as a part of Great Britain, and is 
subject, together with all on board, wherevor she 
may go, to the jurisdiction of the nation whose 
flag she flics. Not more than 64 pereons can 
lie registered as owners, and the majority may 
direct the ship's movements. 

Every transfer of a British ship or Jthart.* thereof 
by way of sale or mortgage, or upon death, mar- 
riage or bankniptry of an owner, must be registered. 
Refer to Flag. Restraint on Ship, I^g Book, Pas- 
senger Boats, Foreign-going Ships. Yacht, 

British TTaderwriter. Hstablisbed 1896. Pub- 
lished montldy (ftrst Saturday). Price j,d. Ad- 
dress : 6 Dorset Street, London. E.G. 


BirttoD. Set Uaioa-Cutie Uoe. 

Brk. Broken. Abbreviation adopted on tho 
charts issued by the I lydrographtc Office, Admi- 
ralty, denoting quality o( the oC(^ao's bottom. 

Broaching to. Coming np into the nrind. 

Broad, tieor^e Alexander, H.T.O. (b. 1844)- Staff 
captsta. Roj-aJ yacht Aiberia j^ince 1897 ; cnt»niid 
Navy, i860; nax-igating lieutenant of I'alotous 
while atlachi:*! to Arctic Expedition, 1875 ; stafl 
commander on flagship Triumph, Pacific, 1885-88 ; 
Sorthumberiand. Channel Fleet, 1889-go ; Cam- 
ptvdown, Channel Fleet, 1890-92 ; commaiided 
Royal yacht Elfin. 1S92-97. Decorationa : 

rKamond Jubilee medal, 1897 ; Prussian Royal 
Order o( tlw Crown, 2nd class. 1901. Ktlrr to 
Arctic fixploration. 

Broadside. The whole side. 

Broadside on. The whole side of a veas^ as 
opposed to end on. 

Brock, Walter (1836-1906). Marine engineer. 
Educated Glasgow Academy and Glasgow Universi- 
ty ; in 185a apprenticed to the firm of Messrs. R. 
Napier and Sons, and on completing an apprentice- 
ship of five yeATS, part of which was spent in the 
dockyard at Brest fitting engines in vessels for the 
French Navy, be was appointed dniughuroan in the 
firm ; in 1859 he accepted the position of head 
draughtsman «ith Mtssrs. Wm. Simpson and Co., 
but in 1864 be returned to Mes&rs. K. Napier and 
Sons, as manager of their engine works : became a 
partner in the firmof Messrs. Penny and Co. in 1S78, 
and a (cw yearn later m the shipbuilding 6rm of 
Messrs, William Penny and Brothers ; was, up to 
the time of his death, managing director of both 
hrms, which, altliouj^h cairied on under difiercat 
designations, are in reality one. Was a Chevalier 
of Leopold of Belgium; member of Institution of 
Naval Architects, of the Institution of Civil Engin- 
eers, and the Institution oi Mechanical l-'ngineers 
ol England, and of the Institution of Engtncera 
and Shipbiiildvrs in Scotland. 

Brocken Spectre. See Anthelion or Glory, 

Brocklebank Line, owned by Mcssia. tl. J. 

Brocltlebaiik, of Liverpool, [K>s.-ics.«! a fine fleet of 
targe steamers, carrj'ing pa&acngcrs and trright at 
scheduled times from Liverpool to Calcutta direct. 
via the Sues Canal. 


A meet, ^f alalia nd. 

Gengali. Sfantpur. 

Gaekwar. Mamvirri. 

Mahtatta. Matheran, 

Mahronda. Pindari. 

Broke, Sir Philip BoweiTere (1776- 1S4 1), British 
rearadmiral. Uo^ prnent at the siege of Bostia, 
at Hothant's ijfjf.) two actions In 1795. and at the 


battle of Cape St. Vincent, 1797 ; on June i, 1815, 
in the SkannoH he engaged the U.S. frigate Chesa- 
peake, and after a severe action obliged the enemy 
to surrender. He was created a baronet 1813, and 
made K.CvB. 1815. 

See " Life," by Brighton. 1866. 

Broken-backed, lite stale of a ship, so loosened 
in her fra.nie as to drop at each cirJ, causing; the 
lines of her sheer to be mlLTrupted. 

Broker. A sbipbrokcr is usually employed to 
effect the charter of a ship. He is paid a commis- 
sion of 5 per cent, on the amount of freight by the 
shi)K)wnrr. to which he is as a general rule entitled, 
whether the freight is earned or not. Where 
several brokers are employed to obtain a charter, 
the first to introduce the principals to each other 
becomes entitled to the commission. Shipbrokers 
arc bound by the instruction of their principal!;, 
and will lose their nghi to brokerage for scting in 
contravention thureof. A ttiird party chartering 
a vessel through a broker who is acting contrary to 
his instructions cannot enforce it against tlie ship- 
o«-ner. but his remedy for any damage he may liave 
suffered by the broker &o actinf< would tie an action 
for breach of warmnty of authority against such 

In Manne insurance h^ks are utually placed 
before the underwriter by a broker, an expert in 
insurance law and practice, whose poution in the 
matter is somewhat important, as he becomes 
respoubtbte to the underwriter for the premium, 
although the underwriter stUI is liable to the assured 
(the employer of the broker) for the loss, in the 
event of a claim arising on the policy. The assured 
is debtor to the liroker. and the latter to the uoder- 
writer ; and the underwriter is debtor to the aasutBd 
for losses. (Amould. 5th ed.. p. 19a.) 

Tho underwriter is prevented by the receipt 
clause in the policy from claiming the premium 
from the assured direct, or seeking to set otl an- 
settled prrmiunu against losses : be mu^t look to 
the broker for his consideration, and the latter to 
the assured. In short, tlie underwriter is entirely 
debarred from claiming upon the assured direct ; 
unless the latter has acted fraudulently, or has 
connived at the commission of fraud by the Itroker, 
in the particular instance. It is settled law that tlie 
broker has a lien for the amount of the premiums on 
every policy cflectwl by him. wht-ther lor u princi- 
pal or for an itgent. If a broker employs another 
to efiect an insurance, and divides the brokoia^e 
with the latter, the sub-agent has a lien for the 
premium paid by him to ttu: underwriter, both as 
agaiiut the principal and the agent first employed, 
and is entitled to hold the policy until that hen is 
satisfied, though the premniiu tuLs be«n paid by tlie 
assured to the &rst broker. Further, when the 
broker lias been employed by the assured direct, lie 
ha.1 a hen upon eactt fxilJcy in hi« possession tor tlie 
general balaiKe of liis account with the latter, tn 




tfatf event of a lens arisiog on a. policy the claim h 
generally collected by the broker from the under- 
writers and settled by the Cnstom of Llo\'d's (o.v.). 
(McArthnr on the Contract of Insurance, p. 36 : 
Phillips on Insurance, vol. TI.. s. i.qog). In 
companies' policies it is usnal to suhstitnte for the 
acknoxvlcdgmcnt of the receipt of the premium a 
promise on the {lart of Ibc assured to pay it. but 
under tJic clauM so worded the obligation of each 
party to the other stands upon the same fooling — 
the clause being only a promise to pay. Refer to 
Principal and Agent. 

Brokerage. The commission charged by mer- 
chants and brokers for securing and transacting 

business for ships. 

Brontometer. A combtnalinn of meteorolc^ica) 
instruments rfcsigned to facilitate thr study of 
ihunrlfrstorms. Pens register in anUinc ink. on 
paper worked by a clock on a drum tibout 12 in. 
long, the velocity of the wind, rainfall, and the 
Ktmotiphrric prcMurc ; other pens worked by kej-s 
record the exact tiine of thimder or lightning, and 
the tlumtion and intensity of hail. 

Brooklyn. U.S. belt cruiser (i8<>;)- 
Length 400 ft. Beam 65 ft. Maximum draught aS ft. 
DLsplacuuiL-nt g.215 tons. Complement 500. 


8 — 8 in. 

12— 5 in. 

12 — 6 pdr. 

4— r pdr. 
4 Catlings. 

" Har>'ey." 
3 in. ^U amidships. 
8 in. Barbettes. 
8 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tuhrs. 
5 Above water, bow and broadside. 
Twin screw. Hp. forced 16,000=21 kts. Coal 
maximum i. €50 tons. 

Broom. ■'V tx^soni at the mast-liea<l signifies the 

ship is lor sale. 

Broome, Thomas C. (b. Wolverhampton. 1869)- 
Aitcr leaving school in 1S84 he went to sea. aiid in 
itjS<« pas^'d for second mate and master, and four 
yeaiH later obtHUU-d uii extra mast^r'.s ciTtiricate. In 
1897 hi* rL-ci^tvL-d a commissiou as sub-Ueutenant in 
the Royal Naval Reserve, and served on H.M.S. 
Camfcudjjf. Defiance, and Astrea, 1899-1900, ajid 
in the latter year received a heuteoant's commis- 
sion. In ig03 he retired from active sea life, and 
joined the Tyiier Line as as&i^tant marine superin- 
tendent. Joine<l Institution of Naval ArcliiLects, 

Brougbt alonKside. " After which she shall load 
there from the charterers a fuH and complete cargo 

of . the cargo being brought to and taken from 

along!iide at the charterer's risk and Expense." 

The above clause is found in most charter-parties, 
and markii the plact; where, and the time when, the 
responsibiUty for the cargo passes from the char- 
terer to the shipowner, and again at the pert of 
delivery from the shipowner to the charterer or his 

ooiuQgnee. It u not sufficient tliat the cargo be 
placed within easy reach of the sliipowner ; it must 
be actually brought alongside tlie ship at the 
charterer's expense {^.e.. " free alongside "), and 
wherr the ship, owing to her draught, is unable to 
get up to the wharf, thn cost of lightering fails on 
the charterer. Similarly at the tcrnunatioii of the 
voyage, the cargo is delivered, and the shipowner's 
risk ended, as soon as the cargo is put overside. 


Brown. Andrew. JJP, (b. Glasgow. 1835). Marin 
engineer. I-elt school 1S37 to serve apprentic 
ship with Mr. John Neilsen, Oakbauk Foundry, 
Glasgow: wai; appointed assistant druughlsman 
to Messrs. Todfl and MacGrt^or. 1 849 : engaged 
in Caledonian running engine shops. Glasgow. 1850 ^^_ 
ani in 1.S60 joined the late Mr. Wm. Simons aJ^H 
Renfrew, and is now chairman of Wm. Simons antl 
Co., Ltd. He is the oldest engineer and ship- 
builder on the Clyde, and has been associated with 
many events in marine engineering, such as the 
Prompt (1854), the first screw steamer running 
between Leitli and London, in place of the old sailing 
smacks ; Viviandicte, the pionc-er coasting .steamer 
of the Qyde Shipping Co. ; the Anchor Line 
India {1877), the first vessel fitted with compound 
engines on the North Atlantic service ; the Oxtom, 
the first four-screw propelling ferry steamer built for 
vehicular traffic on the Mersey {1S79) ; the first 
hopper dredger (18O6] ; the first steam hopper 
barge in Europe f[S6i) ; the Finmestnn, and 
the first elevating deck ferry steamer built 
for vehicular traffic on the Qyde. The great 
advance made in building may be seen from thCv^_ 
fact that the first hopper dredger had a capacity ol^H 
300 tons, while the latest construction, the CebA 
{1905), for the Natal Government, is of 3.000 tons. 
He became a member of the Renlrew Town CouncD 
in 1865. and continued a member until 1900; was 
elected Provost in 1S77, and held that poaitioa 
for 15 years; member of the Institution of Civil 

PubHcation.s : Has contributed papers to t! 
Institution of Shipbuilders and Engineers 
Scotland, on " Improved Drinlging Plant," in 1S74 
and 1 899, and also read at the Institution of Civil 
Engineers in 1894 a paper on " Recent Tj-pes of 
Ferry Steamers." 

Brown, A. B. (b. Ringwcod, 1S39). Aite^ 
serving an apprL-uticesbip at sea, he. in 1 86] , entered 
the service of the P. and O. Co. as a junior officer, 
and was proniote<I chief officer in 1S66. In 1868 
the Japanese Goveniinent. having decided to light 
and buoy its coast, purchased a steamer and offered 
him command, and hi: was actively engaged for 
several years in the service of the Mikado's Govern- 
ment, surveying sites and superintending the con- 
Ktruction of lighthouses and beacons, etc. In 1874 
the Japanese Government decided on sending an 
expedition to Formosa, and purchased from the 
P. and O. Co. thtrtr steamer Delta, which was 






re-chriiitenad Takasa^ Maru, and he was given 
Dommand, and had charge of the transport nf i.jioo 
men to Laingluao Bay, under General Saiga. On 
the termination of the expedition, the Japanese 
Government found itst-lf with a number of steamers, 
uid an arrasgement yras made with Mr. IwaHalh 
Yatiro to purchase the ships and form a company 
and this formed the nucleus of the Mitsu Uishi 
Company ; in fact, the modem Mercantile Marine 
of Japan. In 1874 he rctnrned to Great Britain 
and purcha-'wrd two other merchant vessels as a 
(nrther addition to this fleet. On his retwm to 
Japan in 1675. he was appointed to assLst in 
forming a marine bureau. In 1885 a new company 
was formed, the Nippon Yusen Katsha, to take over 
the then existing steamship companies, the Mitsu 
Bishi Co.. and the Kiodo Unyu Kaisha. and at the 
rwiuesl of the Government he was appointed general 
manager. In May, 1889, he rfrsign(-<l this position 
.-uid came to England to take charge of the com- 
pany's shipbuilding programme, and other busineiis 
requiring expcrrt superintendence ; settled in 
Glasgow and founded the 6rm of Messrs. A. R. 
BrewQ. MacFarlane, Ltd. He has been closely 
associated wiili the modem Mercantile Marine of 
Japan from its earliest infancy, and assisted in 
tonnding the Tokio College, and the Tokio Marine 
Insniance Co. For service rendered to the Japan- 
ese Government, he was decorated with the 3rd 
Order of the Rising Sun, and was the fint British 
subject in Japan to receive this honour. 

Brown* George Matthews (b. South Shields, 
May 11. 1S72J. B.A.. B.Sc. W.H. School. Served 
apprenticeship in the engine works department 
of Messrs. PalmcTS Shipbuilding Co.. Ltd.. 
Jairow ; aftcxwards working in their drawing ofUcc. 
Gained Wlutworth'.s Scholarship in iSt^j ; gradu- 
ated B.Sc., Durham, with honours, in 189^. and 
B.A. (Part II. Science Tripos). Cambridge, 1900. 
At present engaged as chief engineer in the [lOwer 
and mioing department of Messrs. Thomson. Hou- 
ston Co.. Rugby. 

Publications : Has contributed papers to the 
Engineering Society on " Steam Practice and 
Electrical Engineering." 

Brown, Lieut, Se$ Arctic Exploratioa. 

Browne, Sir Benjamin Chapman, K.T. (or. 1887). 
D.CL. (b. 1S39). Served his apprenticeship at the 
£3swick Works under Sir W. G. Armstrong ; in 
1870 took an active part in tiie recon-structjon of the 
old 6rm of R. W. Hawthorn, with a special view to 
ihc development of the marine engine trade, and 
during the next 16 years was closely connected 
with engine building for the British .\dmiraUy, the 
Italian, French, Russian, and many otfter Govern- 
mentx. In 1896 he btHramc cbairman of the firm 
of R. and W. Hawtljom, Leslie and Co., Ltd.. 
the amalgamation of R. and VV. llawihom and Co. 
and tfaa shipyards of A. S. Leslie and Co. ; he is 

also connected wiUi electric light and power com- 
panies, an<l with the coal trade ; w well known 
in connection witli labour institutions, and in 1904 
ho served on a committee appointed by the Home 
Secretary, to examine the working of the Worker's 
Corporation Act. Member of the Institutions of 
Civd Engineers, Mechanical Engineers, and Naval 

B.B.U. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing 
boats registered at Bruinisse. Holland. 

Brohn. Johuines [b. Borris. Denmark. March 11, 
1868). Served his apprenticeship in Flensburg 
Shipbuilding Yard, and with Messrs. Mackie and 
Thomson, Glasgow. Studied naval arcliitccture 
and engineering at the Glasgow University, and 
took his degree of B.Sc.. and in 1891 the degree of 
D.Sc. was conferred on hma ; in 1895 he joined the 
staff of the Committee of Lloyd's Register of 
British and Fnrcign SlLipping, L.ondon. and still 
retains tlie post of Scientific Adviser to this body ; 
in 1900 he was awarded the gold medal by the 
Institntion of Nax-al Architects for his paper 
*' The Stresses at the Discontinuities of a Ship's 

Publications : A number of papers dealing with 
the -Strength and Stability o( Ships, read Itrforc 
the Institution of Naval Architects, and the Insd- 
tutton of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland. 

Broiler. Steamer. In collision with the llasuvll 
off Aldborough, August 19, i!i66; 15 lives lost. 

Brtlix. French and class cruiser. (Rochefort, 


Length 361(1. Beam 46ft. Maximum draught aoft. 
Displacement 4.750 tons. Complement 370. 
Guns. Armour. 

2 — ^7'6 in.. 4S cal. " Creusot " steel. 
6 — 5"5 in. 4 in. Belt amidships. 

6 — 9 pdr. 4 In. Turrets. 

4 — 3 pdr. 4 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tuhes [tfj in.). 
4 Above water. 
Twin screw, lip. 3,300= iS'5 kts. Coal normal 
406 tons. Approximate cost £350,000. 

Braizez. British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Chis- 
wiLk, 1895.) Length, 201 ft. : beam, ig ft ; 
draught, y ft. ; displacement. 347 tons : comple- 
ment, 45 ; armament, t is-pdr.. 5 6-pdr.. 2 tubes ; 
twin screw ; Hp., 3,5oow37 kts, ; ooal, bo toos. 

Brummer. Cferman protwited gmi-boat (1RS4); 
Displacement. S70 tons. Of no 6ghting value. 

BnmeU Isambatd Kingdom {1806-59). English 
civil engineer. Was one of the pioneers in the 
development of ocean steam navigation ; be de- 
signed the Great Western, the £rst ship to make 
regular voyages across the Atlantic, 1838 ; lie built 
the Great Britain, the first large iron stcanuhip 
which was navigated by tlie screw piopeller.1845 : be 




constnictfrtl the huge Great Eastern for the Ea«lcrn 
Steam >Jn\-iKation Co., 1R53 ; Rave rm:ch attention 
10 gun improvement, and designed a floating guo 
carriage for the attack on Kronstadt, 1854. Ho 
died on board the Great Easttm. September 15, 
1859. See " Uie ot I. K. Brunei." by Isadoro 
BrunM, i8;o. 

Bnrson, John Joshua (b. Newcastle, Marcli 4. 
S868) . Marine engineer. Educated Glasgow Tech- 
^nical College, where he took first place in steam and 
mechanical engineering, with first-cIass honours. 
gaining Atkinson's bursarj' ; at the Glasgow Univer- 
sity he gained first prize for mechanical engineering, 
and held Eldej-'s bursary for marine engineering and 
naval construction ; served his apprcnticcsliip with 
Mcs&rs. R. and W, Hawthorn. I..eslie and Co.; from 
iKi;)o-95 was employed in the drawing office of the 
Kaval Construction and Armaments Co., having 
under his entire charge the shipbuilding and 
engineering department. Member of the lustilu 
lion of Naval Architects, 

BJ. Distinguishing letters on si?a fishing boats 
registered at Beaumaris. England. 

B. Th. U.,or British Thermal Unit, is the unit 
quantity of heat emploj-cd by engineers. It is 
medianically equal to 778 ft. Uw. of work, and is the 
amount of heat required to bring one pound of 
waler from 49* to 50" F. 

B.T.U.,or Board of Trade Vnit, is the legal unit 
for the sale of electrical energy to tlic public. 

B.IT. I>islingui5hlng tetters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Bunschoteo. Holland. 

BnccuiMT. A name given to pirates who 
formerly inft-sted the Spanish coast. 

Buccaneer Yacht Club. Established 1898. Com- 
modore, Major R. Giles B^ad^llaw ; Vice-Commo- 
dore, A. Christie Bradshaw ; Rear -Commodore, 
Charles R. Catchpool ; Honorary Secretary and 
Treasurer, Licut.-Col. A. T. Simpson, Bosham 
Abbey, Sussex. Entrance fee, £i }s. ; annual sub- 
scription, ^3 3j. 

Buchan, Captain David. Ste Arctic Exploration. 

Bncbardo. Argentine torpedo-boat. (Yarrow. 
i8go.) Length, j 50 ft. ; displacement, 85 tons ; 
2 tubes ; speed, about 24 kts. 

Baoklond, Henry Birkett [b. SmiUi Shields, 
March lO. iS6g). Served hi.s apprcntitcship witli 
Messrs. Black, Hawtliorn and Co., Gateshead ; from 
there jnined Messrs. Henry Watson and Sojis as 
draughtsman, and subsequently the Ccnlrnl Marine 
Engineering Works, Hartlepool. Having obtained 
his Board of Trade certificate at sea. was appointed 
managiT of the Tyue Boiler Works Co.. Ltd.. where 
under his charge several bridges were built for 
India, and also in 1887, during the French scare. 
4.^0 spherical submarine mines for the Home and 

Indian Govcmmojits. tn iSSA he embarked in 
business on his own account as a consulting 
engineer and nax-al architect at Newcastle. Know- 
ing that boilers are the heart of a Bteamer, he 
early made them his special study and care, and 
has designed and patented the " Buckland Vertical 
Donkey Boiler " and the " Stanley Spherical 
Marine Boiler." 

Buckle. Vic6-Admiral Claude Edward (b. Dar- 
ham, 1^39). EulL-rcd Navy, 1852 ; cadet of 
Laandsr, and served in Black Sea during Russian 
ivar : joined Valorous December. 1S64; was en- 
gaged in two niglit attacks on the sea front at 
Sebastopo!, the capture of Kerlch and Ivinbiirn 
(Crimean and Turkish medals, Sebaslopc^ clasp) ; 
joined Inflexible. 1S56 : was eugaged in the de- 
struction of the Chinese fleet at Escape Creek. 
Sawshu. and Fat&han ; took part in the capture of 
Peiho forts, 1838 ; was mentioned in despatches 
by the Commander-in-Chief (China medal. Canton. 
Fatshan, and Taku clasps) ; was lieutenant in Hero 
when hlic took H.U.II. The Prince of Wales to 
Canada ; A.D.C. to the Queen. 1889-91 : captain, 
senior naval officer. Gibraltar, 1S89-92 ; senior 
officer on the coast of In-laml. 1K9S-98 : promoted 
admiral. August I3. 1903, when he retired, 

BacUers. Two blocks of wood fitted together 
to stop up the hawse-holes to prevent the ship 
taking anv water in a hca\-y sea. 

BucknaU Steamship Lines. Ltd.. managed by the 
founders. Messrs. Bucknall Bros., possess a fleet of 
a6 first-class steamers. The present company 
was formed in tQoo to take over and exlead 
the British and Colonial line from London to 
southeast African ports, established 1892. The 
company maintains monthly service from London 
to Madeira, Cape Town, Algoa Bay. East London, 
and Natal ; also lines between New York and South 
Africa and New York and India, as wdl as a line 
between Manchester and the Persian Gulf ports. 

Budapest Austro- Hungarian battleship. [San 
Kocco, 1896.) 

Length 323ft. Beam ;61t. Maximum draught 2ilt. 
Displacement 5.C00 tons. Complement 469. 

4 — j>'4 in., 35 cal. 
6 — 6 in. 

1 2 Maclilne. 


" Harvey." 
10 in. Belt amidships. 
8 in. Bulkheads. 
10 in. BarlK'ltes. 
8 in. Conning tower. 
Torpedo Tubes (177 in.). 
4 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. 8,500=17 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 500 tons. 

Buenos Aires. Argentine cruiser. 
vHcfS-) Sheathed and coppered. 
Length 4oSft. Beam 47ft. Maximum draught ^aft 
Displacement 4.S00 tons. Complement 400. 




Cum. Armour. 

a— Sin. "Steul." 

4 — 6 in. s in. Deck amid^liips. 

6 — 47 In. 5 in. Oun shields. 

4 — 6 pdr. 6 in. Conning tower. 

i6 — 3 pdr. 

Torpedo Tubvr, 
5 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. natural 13,000=33 kts., lorcrd 
17.070—34 kti. Call maximuin 1,000 tons. 


A larg« trading boat of the Peratan 

Baseaod. French ^nd class cniiser. (Cher- 
bourg, 1893.) 

Length 3oHlt. Beam 45ft. Maximum draught szlt. 
Displacement 3.773 tons. Complement 358. 
1 Guns. Armour. 

^■b' 6 — 6*4 m. 3 in. Deck. 

^^^ 4 — 4 in. 3 in. Sponsona. 

^B 4—3 [xlr- 

^^^ II — 1 pdr. 

^^K Torpedo Tubes. 

1^^* 3 Above water. 

Twin screw. Hp. 9,500=19 kta. Coal maxi- 
roum 587 tons. Approximate cost /30o,ooo. 

BoUd. A vessel's form or construction. 

Bonder's risks. Tlic great tncrcas*.- in the sixu 
and in the values of steamers Itas made tlie risk 
wlule m cour»! of construction a ver>' serious one 
to aJl concerned, ond cpccial terms haw been 
arrajiged by the underwriters for the due protection 
ol buildpra and owners. Rtfer to Builder's Risks 

Bulgeways. Stt Bilgeways. 

Bulk, ^^'hc^ cargo is stowed without sacks or 

Bulkheads. Partitions built up to divide the 
ship into separate sections. 

Bollard. King and Co. See Natal Line. 

BnlleD, FTsnk Thomas 0^57)- Engli&h author 
(b. Faddmgion). Served at sea, (869-83 on a 
whaler: from tSdj-Sg he worked as cterk in the 
Meteorotogicai Othce. Among bis best-known 
writings arc " The Cruise of tho CacKaiot" (iS^8). 
" Idylls o{ the Sea " ( 1 899). " With Christ at Sea " 
(1900), " De«pSeaP)underings "(looi)' " ^ Whale- 
man's Wife" {1902), "A Sailor Apostle" (1903). 
••Sea-Wrack'* (1903), "Creators of the Sea"* 

BuMnoh. British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Hull 
19UI.) Length, 210 it. ; beam, 20 it. ; draught. 
5I it. ; di^laceaient, 300 tons ; complcmeut, 60 ; 
armament, i 13-pdr., j 6'pdx., i tubes; twin 
scnw ; Hp,,.5,SoOiB3o kts. ; coal, 80 tons. 

Bull Boek Ugh^ established 1SS9 on BuU Head, 
Bantry Bay, is a single fla&b Ught every ij 
seconds ; duration of flash, three seconds : candle- 
power, 300.000 maximum ; burner. 10 ring Douglass ; 
illumtiunt, oil gas. 

BoQ-rope. A rape from tiie jib-boom to keep a 
buoy or boat from the bows. 

BoU^s-eje. -^ thick piece of glass inserted into 
scuttle hatches for the adnussiou of hght. 

Bulwark. British i st class battleship. (Devon- 
port. 1899.) 

Length 430ft. Beam 7$(t. htaximam draught 29(1. 
Displacement 15.000 tons. Complement 750. 
G»Ni. Armonr, 

4 — 12 in,, 40 ual. " Krtipp." 
12 — 6 in. 9 in. Belt amidships. 

16 — 12 pdr. 12 in. Barlx-ttcs. 

G — 3 pdr. 13 in. Conning tower. 

2 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
4 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 15,000=18 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 3.100 tons. Approximate cost / 

Bulwarks. The woodwork round the vustcl above 
her deck. 

Bamboat. A small boat used when carrying 
provifioita to a ship lying at a distance from thf 

Bamkin shroada. Strong chains fixed on stayti 
to ihe buiiikin ends to support the strain exerted 
by the fore-tacks upon them. 

Bampkin. A short boom projectmg irom bow. 

Bunt;. A sLup[>Gr (or the large opcnmg in the 
bulge of a cask called a bunghole. 

Bunk. -A. sleeping-place. 

Boat, The middle part of a sail formed into a 
cavity that it may gather more wind. 

Bont-Unes. Kopes attached to the foot of a 
sail which are used to haul it up. 

Buoy. A floating objtct to mark a navigable 
channel to warn a vessel against submarine danger, 
or to serve as an anchorage. 

Buoyanoy. Capacity lor floating hghtly. 

Bttoy-rojM. The rope which attaches the buoy 
to the anchor. 

BOTUkoS. Russian torpedo-boat destroyer (190b). 
Length, 1S5 (t. : U-am. ^1 ft ; draught, /f ft. ; 
displacement, 3^4 tons; complement, 60; arma- 
ment, 1 i2-pdr., ; 3-pdr., 2 tubes; twin screw; 
Hp.. 5,600 = 36 kts. ; coal, 100 tons. 

Bonn. Gale from the north-east, accompanied 
witli drifting snow, in the Sleppea of Central Asia. 
See Purga. 

£ 2 




BnrlaB, The number of tmui weight whieh a 
ship will carry wlion loadrd. 

BorgM. A 8\%'aIiow-tJu]cd broad flag uaed in 
merchant ves-stch. cuttrrs. and yachis. 

Bmmeiiter and Wain's EnKioeering and Sliip- 
tailding Co., Ltd^ Copeidiagen. Ttiis firin was 
started in July, (fl46, by H. Baumgarten and 
C. Bumetster. Thdr business, employing 30 
hands, manufactured various machinory, stationary 
Btcam -engines, and boilers, tlic tlisl marine engine 
being turned out a few years later, tn 184^. 

Messrs. Banmgarten and Burmcifitcr carried on 
their works vdih great energy and ability, and the 
business expanded rapidly, keeping pace with the 
increasing demand for steam power in all branches 
of industry. 

From 1861, on the retirement of Mr. Baumgarten. 
Mr. Burmeistcr was sole partner a few years, when 
ho in 1865 askrd Mr. William Wain, a gentleman 
of considerable mechanical skill and vatnable 
practical knowledge, to join him and become a 
partner in the firm, the name then being changed 
to Burmeistcr and Wain. 

The firm continued progressing successfully as a 
private firra until 1872, when it was formed into a 
limited company, with C. F. Tietgen as a chair- 
man, and a board of management, witli C Bur- 
roeister and W. Wain as directore. The company 
has bad the benefit of retaining the interest and 
scr\*iccs of Mr. Wain until his death, 18S2. and 
Mr. Bunneister until his retirument in 1U9O. 

The two merited chiefs have in course ol time 
t)«en followed by ©there, and full adv-anlage has 
been taken by the introduction of modem machinery 
and recent appliances and facilities. 

The company has built and cngined about 
350 vessels, aggregating 191.000 tons, with jt/.cxjo 
l.Hp., and from 1872-1906 carried out 8,700 larger 
repairs to steamers. 

The Btcamcn built comprise several of special 
types, such as icc-breakera, large railway ferries, 
salvage steamers, and steamers for telegraph ser- 
vice, war vessels, mail and passenger steamcn*. 
yachts, and oil steamers. 

The engine dcpartmeiit. besides having built the 
engines for all the new steamers built by the com- 
pany, has supplied th*.* greater part of the tmginea 
for the warships of the Royal Danish Navy. 
Further, it has built the engines for the eU-ctnc 
plant. Sewage, and waterworks of the Corporatiou 
of Coi>enliagcn. for a great nunilxir of factories, 
and many other stationary plants in Deomack ; 
the engines for the Electric Central Station in St. 
Petersburg ; for the electrical works iu StockUoUn, 
(iotlirnburg. Klagstorp, and Fredcrikshald in Nor- 
way, etc. ; engines to Malaga, South America, and 
l;idia for electric plant. 

Not only engines but also boilers ol various 
types have been supplied to a great number of the 
abovv-Damed plants, and during the last two years 

the conqnny has delivered and set working abont 
100 Dtcsal engines of various dimension:* : and 
recently they have taken up the manafacturing of 
steam turbines for electricity works. 

Many heavy lorgings have been turned out from 
these shops for works iu Denmark. Norway, Eng- 
land, Scotland, Ht^and, Russia. 

Boniham Tacbt Clab, Essex Established 1895, 
and new wiuti added in 1900, which was opened by 
the president of the club, l^rd Claud Hamilton. 
Commodore. C. H. Colland ; Vice-Comroodore, 
C. J. R. Tijou ; Rear-Commodore, G. M. Roberts ; 
Hononuy Treasurer. A. L. Ramage ; Honorary 
Secretary. R. K. Moooey. Entrance fee. £i rir. 6rf. ; 
annual subscription, £1 111. 6d. 

Barni. Russian torpedo-boat destroyer {190O}. 
length. 185 ft.; beam. 21 ft.; draught. ;| ft.: 
displacement. 324 tons ; complement,6o ; armament, 
I 13-pdr., s 3-pdr., a tubes; twin screw; Hp., 
5,600=36 kts. ; coal. 100 tons. 

Burns. O. and J., Ltd. See Scottish and Irish 
Royal Mail Line. 

Burnt, Ste Fire ; aim Memorandum. 

Borroogh, Sieven. See Arctic Exploration. 

Bant o( the mouoon. The suddc^n change of 
weather accompanjnng the setting in of the south- 
west monsoon. 

Barton, R., and Sons, published by the lat« 
Mr. R. Burton, of Newport. Mon.. over a century 
ago. Since 1840 it has been carried on by his 
three sons, who in 1898 formed the business into 
a limited company. Their steamers maintain 
regular ser^nces between Liverpool and the Bristol 
Channel ports, and daily services between Bristol 
and Cardiff, and Bristol and Newport, Mon. 

Barton. A small tackle with a double and 
single block u.<ied to set up or tighten shrouds. 

Bash ol a sheave. The metal lining on which a 
pin reals. 

Basley, Carl fb. Kcustrclitc. October 7, 1850). 
Educated at High 5»chool, and on Itaving gained 
practicU experience m engineering in a large 
factory : in 1871 he entered the Academy in 
Berlin, and three years late-r passed out with first- 
class diplomas for marine engineenng. and entered 
the Imperial Geimon Marine as second engineer ; 
in 1875 he was engaged as marine engineer at the 
Imperial Wharf, Kiel ; in 1879 he became associated 
with the marine academy and school at Kiel, 
attaining the degree of profMSor in 1890. and 6vc 
yi-ars later the title of Geheimen Regterungsrat ; 
in t8v6 he joined F. Scbichau in Elbitig *ad 
Danzig ta naval con<itructor. which position ha 
still holds ; he was a juror on the committee of the 
exhibitions, Hamburg (18S9). Chicago (1893), 
Antwerp (T894), Lubeelr [1895), Kiel (t996). 

Brussels (1897). Parw (1900) ; was a member of the 
organixatton " Schittbautchnischcn Gcscllschaft." a 
scicotific organization of shiphiillclrrs and ship- 
avrncrs founded in 1R89. on the lines of tht- Institu- 
tion of Naxi'al Architecti in this conntry, and th<; 
Association Technique ^^aritime oE France, having 
for its aim the improvements of national ship- 
building : he is an enthusiastic yachtsman, and has 
devoted mach time to this sport ; was one of the 
founders of the Marine Rcf^^tta Association. 18S7, 
which was changed in iM^n to the Imperial Yacht 
Qub. of which he is still one of the directors ; was 
the founder of the German Sailing Association. 
1558 ; was on baird the German torpedo-boat 
S. 43 carT>-ing the news to H.M. The German 
Emperor of the result of the Dover- Helgoland nice 
00 June 24. 1902, when that vessel wa.s run into 
by the British steamer Fursby. nearly losing his 
life: in 1900 he was elected chairman of the Ger- 
man Airship Association, Berlin; he is author of 
many well-known technical works, and hm read 
papers before various scientihc institutions. Among 
his works may be mentioned : 

I. Die Meerwasscr-DbtiUicr-Apparato dcr fvaisar- 
lichen Marine, Berlin. 1880. 

3. Die Schifhnachinc. Kiel. 2 Bde. u. i Atlas, 
I. Aufl. 1333; II- Auil. 1884; russisch l8Sy; III. 
Aufl. l8<)l ; cngl. iSgj. 

3. Die Vcrwcndnng flussiger HeizstofTc fur 
Schiflskeasel. Berlin. 1K87. 

4. Die Entwickelung der Schiflsmachine in den 
letztcn Jahrxchnten. Berlin, I. Aufl. iSaS, III. 
Aufl. i8g2. 

5. Dm ncupren Schnelldampfer. Kiel, I, Aufl. 
1891, II. Aufl. 1893. 

6. Die Entwickelung des N'orddeutschen Lloyd 
and der Hamburg Amerikaa Packetf. Act. Ges. 
Zusammcn mit R. Haack. Berlin, 1893. 

7. Die jungsttin Bestrebungen und Erfolgc des 
deutacbcn Schiffbaues. Berlin. 1895. 

8. Die Wasscrrohrkessel der Dampfschiffe, Berlin. 

9. Die gesundheitUchen Einrichtungcn der mo- 
dcmen Dampfschiffc, Berlin. 1S97. 

10. Der Kampf un den ostasiastischen Handel. 
Bcrlia I. Aufl. 1897. II. Aud. 1S9S. 

II. Die raodemcn Untcrsccbootc. Berlin, 1899. 

Bon. A small Dutch fishing vessel. 

Bostamente. Spanish torpedo-boat. (N'ormand, 
18S7.) Length, 126 ft. ; beam, loj (t ; draught, 
6^ ft. : di.<iplaccmcnt, A3 tons ; armament. 3 3^>dr., 
2 tubes , Hp., 800 = 22 kts. ; coal, 25 tons. 

Bastard. British 3rd class gun-boat (254 tons). 
Launched iSjt. 

Bote Shipbuilding, Engineering, and Dry Dock 
Oo., lAA. Amongst the leading dry dock under- 
takings in the Bristol Channel, tlic Bute Ship- 
btttlding, Engmccring, and Dry Dock Co.. Ltd.. 
oocopies a front place. This company was formed 
in the early part of the year [8R3, and the first 

vessel entered the Graving Dock on Jane 22, 1885. 
The Bute Dry Dock was therefore constructed and 
opened ahoot three years prior to the opening of 
the Roath Dock. 

This dr»' dock was constructed at a time when a 
2,000 ton ship was accounted a large vessel, and it 
i.s indicative of the foresight of the promoters 
when it is remembered that the dock haa a length 
of 600 ft. and a breadth of 87 ft., with a depth of 
water over the sill at spring tides of 28 ft,, .ind there 
is consequently no difhculty in accommodating 
the modem sized steamship. 

The Bute Dry Dock occupies a unique positron, 
inasmuch as being situated within the Roath Basin. 
Vessels taken in hand are conveniently situated for 
subsequent loading in the Roath Basin. Roath 
Dock, or £ Dock, and may be moved to cither 
of these wet docks regardless of tides with a 
minimum of delay and cxpcnst*, a cousidenttioa in 
these day<! ol keen competition which is not Uyf* 
sight of by shipowners. 

As regards equipment, one of tho chief features 
of tlic dry dock is its compactness. The work- 
shops arc arranged around and in close proximity 
to the dry dock, with a crane railway alongade 
between the dock and the shops, which are well 
served with three steam travclUng cranes, capable 
of handling material and heavy machinery, etc., 
of all descriptions, and this, coupled with the 
proximity of the workshops, enables oiierations to 
be earned on with the greatest expedition. Tho 
large crane is capable of lifting 30 tons, and has a 
lifting power of 8^ tons over a radius ol 50 ft.,, 
these capabilities mcetiog all the needs of ordinary 
ship repairing work. 

TIio various workshops are exoellently equipped 
with up-to-date machinery plant and tools, replete 
in ever}' detail, an important f.'tctor in the suc- 
cessful working of a dry dock and ship repairing 
concern. There is a complete electric light in- 
stallation 'n the workshops, yard, and dry dock. 
and no barrier exists to continuous working, re- 
pairs being carried on at night mtcmaily and 
externally upoa vessels in tlic dry dock or along- 
side in the wet dock, under the same conditions aa 
by day. 

The Bute Dry Dock has always moved with the 
times, and amongst its innovations of late years 
has been a complete equipment of electrically 
driven appliances. These conditions have com- 
bined to give " The Bute " a name for despatch 
and economy which it is difficult to beat, " prompt- 
ness and uffcctiveae&s " being its chief charac- 

Tlie dock is fitted with powerful stuam-pumps, 
but it may be also drained by means of sluices 
discharging into the entrance channeL 

The dry dock is divisible into accttona by a 
caisson, thus enabling an onlmary sized steamer 
to remain in dry dock for extensive repairs, IcaWng 
the other portion available for other ves«J 

The work undertaken by " The Bute " is most 
varieil and cosino]>olilan. In its earliest days as 
many as five vessels have been accommodated at 
one time. Now it is a common occurrence for a 
large tramp steamer to monopolise the whole of 
the dock, a contrast which spcalts for itscU. Ocean 
liners, troopships, stately *' sailers," mud-dredgers, 
and warships have found a temporary resting* 
place in the Bute. In August, 1902, the Japanese 
cruiser Takasago wag dry-docked for cleaning and 
painting, the work being efficiently and expedi- 
tiously carried out in Uiree days to the entire 
satisfaction of the Japanese naval authorities. 

The repair of ships has not been the only work 
undertaken by the Bute Dry Dock. Successful 
salvage operations have helped to make the name 
of this (enterprising firm, one of these being the 
steamer Fidete Ptimavesi, which was successfully 
raised after sinking in the Roatb Dock while 
loading in September, 1892. A later case was tliat 
of the Pitta, which sunk while loade<l near the 
entrance lock of the Roath Basin. After being 
raised this vessel was kept afloat while txiing dis- 
charged, and was afterwards docked and rL>pairud 
by the same firm. 

A particular feature of the Bute Dry Dock 
whkh claims special attention is its capabiUtics 
for docking loaded ships, a feature which h as 
gained for it a rejmtation to which it is deservedly 
entitled. Over 20 ships have been dr>' docked 
with cargo and repaired in this condition, two 
recent cases being the Vattxhait Bridge (gross 
register tonnage, 3,391}, loaded with a full cargo 
of rails, and extensively repaired, and the HiU' 
grove (gross tonnage. 3.465). with a cargo of 5.500 
tons of coal. The success which has attended the 
docking of loaded vessels is sufficient proof of the 
solid formation o( the dock bottom. 

In 1901 the mercantile pontoon was acquired, 
and is worked as an annexe to the parent concern. 
The pontoon is situated in the Roath Dock, and 
represents the only dry dock accommodation avail- 
able there. It is ^ao ft. long and 52 ft. wide, and 
ia capable of raising vcsscl.i up to 2,600 tons dis- 
placement. Tlierc are excellently e<nupiwd wark- 
sh^s in close proximity to the pontoon. 

The Bute Dry Dock has shared in the prosperity 
of the sliip-rcpairing industry, and commercial 
succa<w<i has attendetl the enterjjrise in no small 
measure, the name of the Bute Dry Dock being 
synouymuus with an up-to-date policy, good 
management, and, as a result, large dividends. 
This pcf'iHoo the company has maintained, atUiough 
the conditions of the ship -repairing trade at the 
present day and the exceptionally keen competi- 
tion now prevailing have operated in giving a 
temporary check to its erstwhile commercial success. 

Buderage. Once a tax upon all imported wine, 
and paid to the King's butler. Obsolete since 


Bott. The end of a plank. 

Buttock. The breadth of the ship's stem h 

truck upwards. 

Button, Sir Thomas. See Arctic Exploration. 

Batt-sUngs. Slings by which casks are raised. 

Bnys-Ballot^s Law. In the northern heraisphere. 
" Stand with youx back to the wind and the 
haromfter will be lower on the left hand and 
higher on the right." Directions arc reversed In 
the snuthem hemisphere, 

Bosiard. German 3rd class cruiser. (Danxig, 

Length 356ft. Beam 30ft. Maximum draught 19(1. 

Displacement 1,555 tons. Complement 165. 

Guns. Armuur. 

8 — 4*1 in. "Steel." 

7 Maxims. 3 in. Deck amidships. 

Torpedo Tubes. 

2 .M>ove water. 

Hp. 2,900=16 kts. Coal maximum 300 tons. 

B.T. Distinguishing letters on sea flshing boats 
registered at Vegesack. Germany. 

B.W. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Barrow-in-P'urncsa, England. 

B.W.O. These letters stand for Birmingham 
Wire Gauge, wltich extended the appliLation of the 
gauge introduced by Sir Jose]>h WhitworUi in 
1857. In 1884 the C.W.G. became the Imperial 
Standard wire gauge. The various si2e5 arc usually 
denoted by numbers. 

B.Z. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Bremerliaven, Germany. 

By. On or close to the wind. 

Byclaga. Russian submarine (1905). Spaed. 
g kts. 

Bylott Robert. See Arctic Exploration. 

Byng, The Bon. John ;i704-57). English 
admiral. In 1756 he fought an unsatisfactory 
action off Minorca ; was subsequently court- 
ntartialtcd. and on being couWcted for not having 
done liis best was Si-ntcncecl to be sliot. He was 
executed on board the Monarch at Portsmouth, 
March 14. 1757. There was no imputation upon 
his honour or courage, but he suffered this penalty 
for his too strict obseT\ance of rules, didcipline, 
and points of naval etiquette. 

Ses Charnock's " Biographia Navalis" (1797). 
Clowe's "Royal Navy" (1896-1901). 

Byron, Hon. John [1725-8G). English vice- 
admiral. Accompanied Anson round the World. 
1740-44, and gained the nickname of "Foul 
Weather Jack." In the Dolphin he ^-isited 
Madeira, BradJ, Patagonia, Falkland Islands, the 
Padiic, Society Islands. Ladroncs, Batavia, and 




tJw Cvpe. In 1 769 be «'sa appointed Gorcmor ot 
Nvwioundland, and nine years later was dospatclied 
ia commaDd of a fleet to watch the movements oi 
Count D'Estaing. and in July, 1779, foufibt an in* 
decisive eagagrmcnt with tiim off Grcoada. 

5m Byron's journal on "A Voyage round the 
World" (1767). 

B7 the board. Over the ship's ade. 

By the head. \\'hen the vessel draws more 
water forwanl. 

Bythesea, Rear-Admiral John, V.C. C.B.. OXE. 
(1327-1906). Hdncatrtl Grnsvenor College, Bath. 
Entered thr Nax-y as a voluntciT ist class. 1841 ; 
promoted lieutenant, tH^g ; commander, 1856 : 
awarded the V.C. while serving in H.M.S. AnogaHi 
in Russian war. 

Extract from the " Garette," February 24. 1S57 : 

" On August 9, 1854, having ascertained that an 
A-D.C. of the Emperor of Russia had landed on 
the Island ol Wardo in charge of a mail and de- 
spatches for the Russian general, Ucutenant Bythe- 
sea obtained permission for himself and WUiam 
Johnson, stoker, to proceed on shore with a view 
to intercept them. Being disguised and well 
armed, they concealed themselves till the night of 
the 1 3th, when tlia mail bags were landed close to 
the spot where they lay Sfcretod in the bushes. 
The mails were accompanied by a military escort, 
which passed dose to them, and which, as soon as 
it was aJtcortained that the road was clear, took its 
doparturc. Avaihng thcmsL-lvi.'S of tliis opportunity 
Ueutenant Bythesea and the stoker attackixl the 
6ve men in charge of the mail, took three of them 
prisoners, and brought them in their own boat on 
board the Arro^ani." 

Coramnndcd the Locusi in, the Baltic, 1S55 
(Baltic medal), and the Cruiser in China during 
the war, 1838-60 (China medal. Taku clasp) : 
captain. 1861 ; a member of the Royal Com- 
mission on Defence of Canada. iSf*2 ; Naval 
Attach^ at Wa^shington, 1^55-^57 ; in command of 
tbe Pkabt ill the flying squadron under Admiral 
Hornby, 1870 ; Consulting Naval Officer to Govcm- 
ntcnt of India. 1874-80 ; rear 'admiral, 1877. 

By the stern. When the vessel draws more 
water aft. 

Bytachok. KuKsian submarine (i()o6). I..ength, 
50 It.; l^>eam, 14 ft.; displacement, no tons; 
tpeed, loltta. 

ByweU Cutle. In collision with the steamer 
P*inmx Alict (j.w.). September 3. 1S78. 

Byiantla. French steamer, sunk by collision 
with the English steamer Rinatdo in the Dar- 
danelles, December 18, 1878. 

B.Z. Distinguishing letters on sea 5shing boats 
rcgi'«tvrcd at Bergen op Zoom, Holland. 

0. Cape. Abbreviation adopted on the charts 
issued by the Hydrographic Office, Admiralty. 

0. Centigrade 

C. DisUoguishing letter on sea fishing boats 
registered at Cork, Ireland. 

0. Distinguishing letter on sea fishing boats 
registered at Caen, France. 

c. Coane. Abbreviation adopted on the charts 
uMued by the HydrogtaphJc Office, .\drairalty, 
denoting the quality of tlu- ocean's bottom. 

C.A. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Cardigan, England. 

Cabin. A compartment of a ship %vhcre pas- 
sengers and officers reside. 

In a passenger ship the cabin is that portion of 
the ship which is set apart for the exclosive use of 
passengrrs. 1 

A cabin passenger (Merchant Shipping Act, i8<>4; 
section 268, subsection 3) is one who : 

(fl) Has at least 36 clear superficial feet to his 
exclusive use. 

(ft) Is messed throughout the vo5ragc at the same 
table as the master. 

{e) Has contracted to pay a fare of at least 
thirty shillings a week. 

(d) Has a ticket in the form prescribed by the 
Board of Trade. 

In a cargo ship the cabin is the space rcservcti for 
the use of the officers, and cannot generally be uiwl 
for the stowage of cargo. In loading a " full and 
complete cargo," the charterer cannot claim cabin 
space for passengers or goods, unless specially pro- 
vided for in the contract, and should he do so. 
their passage money can be claimed by the ship- 
owner ; and the goods stowed in the cabin can be 
charged freight at the current rales. Refer to 
Ikferchant Shipping Act ; Passenger. 

Gable. A strong rope or chain by which tho 
.ship is kept at anchor. 

Cable laid, A nine-stranded rope. 

Caboose. The cook-honse or galley on deck. 

Cabot. Sebastian (i474-'5S7)- The renownctl 
navigator and contemporary of Colnmbus (b. 
Bristol). Wtien Henry VITI. resolved to enter the 
new lield of maritime discovery, he granted a patent, 
dated March ;, 1496. to Louis, Sebastian, and 
Santos Cabot, who went to seek out, subdue and 
occupy at their own charges any regions which 
before "had been unknown to all Christiana." 
They were authorised to set up the Royal banner, 
and a fifth part of the gains of the voyage was to bo 
n-ser\'ed to the Crown. 

John and Sebastian sailed from Bristol in tho 
Matthew in 1497. and it is probable that the Island 
of XewfouiuUand was discovered on this voyage. 



From 3 map drawn by Sebasttmn Cabot, and en- 
graved by Clement Adams, which was liuug in 
Qnccn Elizabeth's gallery at Whitehall, the most 
precise account of the discovery was obtained. Tlic 
notice runs as follows : ** In the year of our Lon!. 
1497, John Oibot, a Venetian, and his son Sebastian, 
discovered that countr>*, which no one before his 
time had ventured (o approach, on June 24, about 
five o'clock in the morning." He called it the Terra 
ptimum ntsa. because this was the place that first 
met his eye in looking from the sea. On the con- 
trary, the island which Ues opposite the land he 
called the island of St. John, because it was dis- 
covered on tlic festival of St. John the Baptist. 

In [498 a second patent was granted to John 
Cabot, authorising htm to take six ships of not 
more than 200 tons, in any port of the realm " and 
them convey and Icdc to the lande and the isics 
of late founti by the saJd John in ourc name and 
by cure commandment." Before the expedition 
was ready John QalKSt died, and Sebastian, with a 
fleet of five vessels, set sail from Bristol in May. 
On this voyage he dLscovcrcd 1,800 miles of sea 
coast on the. North American Continent, probably 
passing into Htidson's Bay, which some authorities 
represent he discovered, but ol this there is nothing 

Nothing more appears relative to Seba.stjan 
until 1517, when he undertook, with Sir Peter 
Perke, another voyage to Spanish America. In 
Aagust. 1526, a squadron was fitted out under 
Cabot to pursue Spanish discoveries in the Pacific. 
but some of his ofhceis having spread dissatisfac- 
tion in the fleet, the original pluu was abandoned 
as impractical, and the fleet put into T^ Plata. He 
explored the river for a distance of jt;o miles, but 
being attacked by the natives he was compelled to 
abandon furtlirr discoveries up the Paraguay, and 
returned to Spain, 1530. On his return to England 
in 1549 he was made Grand Pdut of England, an 
office which is said to have been created for him. 
He was active in promoting the cxpetlition of 1553 
to Russia, which opened to England the trade ol 
Oiat country, the success of wliicli gave him thf 
life pajnnent of Governor of the Muscovy Company. 
He died in England in 1557, about 80 years of age. 

Cackling or KecUing is covering a cable spii-ally 
wth old rope to protect it from being chafed in the 
hawse hole. 

Cacongo. Porlnguese river gun-boat { 1 886). 
Displacement 2S0 tons. Of little fighting value. 

Cadet ships, Naval. See Naval Education. 

Cadets, Nav&L Sft Naval Edncation. 

Cadet's Owa. Katablishcd 1902. Published 
monthly. Pnce jd. Address : 8j Ham Park 
Road, West Ham, London, E. 

Cadiz. London steamer. Wrecked on the Wizard 
Hock, Brest, August 8, 1875 ; 62 persons wore lost. 


Cadii, Battle oL One hundred vesscLi of 
Spanish Armada destroyed by Sir Francis Drake 
at this battle. 15S7, A French squadron here 
surrendered to the combined Spanish and British 
flees. 1S08. 

Oadmoi British screw sloop. Disptacemi 
r. 070 tons : Hp., 1.400; speed. 13J kta. 

Cassar. British ist clasa battleship. (Ports- 
mouth, 1896.) 

Length 41,1ft. Beam 7-;ft. Maximum draught jofL 
Displacement 14,900 tonit. Complement 757. 


" Harvey." 
9 in. Belt amidships. 
14 in. Barbettes. 
14 in. Conning tower. 

4 — 13 in.. 35 cal. 
12 — 6 in. 
16 — 12 pdr. 
12 — 3 pdr. 

3 — 13 pdr. Boat guns, 
a Maxims. 

I'orpsdo Ti/^tx (18 in.). 

4 Submerged. 
I Above water stem. 
Ivdn screw. Hp. natural 10,000 — 16*5 
forced>i7'5 kts. Coal maximum 2,000 
tons. Approximate cost ^ 

This ship-name was introduced into the Navy 
ill 1793. and is associated with the battle of "The 
Glorious First of June," 1794 ; Algeciras. i8oi 
Saumarez's action, 1801 ; Sir Richard Stracha&l 
action, 1.S05 ; Ba-^u^ur Roads. 1S09. 

Caiman. French coast service battleship (1685). 
Reconstructed. 1901. 

Length ag^ft. Beam 59ft. Maximum drau bt 15ft. 
T>isplaccment 7,000 tons. Complement 3B1. 
Guns, jlrfttour. 

2 — lO"8 in., 45 caL " Compound." 
'') — 4 in. 19 in. Belt amidships, 

to in. Turrets. 
12 in. Conning tower, 
Hp. 6,000= i4'5 kts. Coal maxi- 


10 — 3 pdr. 

Twin screw, 
mum 800 tons. 

A small Levantine vessel. 

Sm Oiiras. Noble 


Cairaglen Steamship Co., Ltd, 
and Co. 
Cairn Line. See Cairns. Noble and Co. 

Caima, Charles Waldie (b. Dublin, October t=, 
1872). M.Sc. Durham Univcryity. In 1893 he gained 
the North-ltast Coast Engineering Scholarship, and 
in 1894 the Wulworth Scholarship, and later in 
the same year was bronre medallist in mechanical 
engineering, City and Guilds of Tendon ; studied 
at the Durham Univtrsity College of Science, 
Newcastle {now Armstrong College) ; was appren- 
ticed to Messrs. R. and W, Hawthorn. Leslie and 
Co.. Ltd., 1893-95. and later joined the Central 
Marine Engineering Works, West Hartlepool, 
where be did much interesting work in connection 
with some of thi* improvements in marine engineer- 
ing practice inaugurated under the late Mr. Thomas 
Mudd. M.lnst.C.E., and Mr. W. C. Borrowman. In 





1899 he joiaed Messrs. Vickers, Sons and Maxim ; 
af(c>r sooiL- tintu ihcrc, a pericxl at sea, and on the 
HtAti of the Tyiic runtoftiLH unJ Dry Dock Co.. 
he, ill H>oj, embarkftl iik biiiUiiess 00 his own 
account as consulting t.-ngtnccr. and acts as 
superintend i^t engineer for the Caini Line and 
Caclic Stcam:iliip Co. Mc>inber of Uic North-East 
Coast Institute of Engtact-rs and Shipbuilders. 

Oatnu, Notle and Oo^ with th«ir head ofhccs in 
Newca-stle on-T>-ne. have a fluct of two steamera, 
and alM) act as managers for the Cairn Line of 
Steamers, the Gaelic Steamship Co., Ltd.. and 
the Cainiglen Steamship Co., Ltd., in which they 
are finaacially inter^ted. Ttte vessels are ail 
modem cargo carriers, but have no passenger 
accommodation . 

Cairn Line. 
iCairnatoH. Cairmsh, Cairnnrvts, 

'CaitHCfag. Cairnmote. Cairnlvch. 

Cairndon. Cairttttttr. Cairnross. 

The Gaelic Steamships, Ltd. 
CairHAU. Cairnstralk. 

Cairnbnfin. Caimm'.>»a. 

The Caimglcn Steamship Co., Ltd. 
Cairns, Noble and Co. 

Oftiro. Iron ship, carrying gunpowder, wrecked 
ort Gouyh Island, January, 1877. 

Oaittoo. An adopted term for a sort of float 
sunk 10 a required depth by letting water into it 
which, when it is liauled under a ship's bottom, 
receives her steadily, and on pumping out the water 
floats her. It is also a name applied to a vessel 
fitted with valves, to act in.stead of gatc3 for a diy 
dock. In engineering work it is a chamber of Iron 
Off wood used in the construction of subaqueous 
foundations. It is used in places where either the 
water or the permeable soil is too deep to allow a 
dam to be erected, and serves the same purpose as 
a cofierdam. The largest caissons ever used vren 
tbosc of the East River Suspension Bridge at New 
York, of which one was 170 ft. long by 100 ft. wide. 
O.AX. IHstinguishing letters on sea fishing 
txnts registered at Calab, France. 

Ofttebcia. Small Italian cruiser. (Spexia, 1&94.) 
Length 249it. Beam 43ft. Maximum draught 17ft. 
Displacement 2.49^ tons. Complement J54. 
CMns. Armoui. 

4 — 6 in. " SteeL" 

6 — 47 in. 2 In. Deck amidships. 

S— 6pdr. 
8— t pdr. 
2 Machine. 

Torpedo Ti^s, 
a Submerge. 

Twin screw. Hp. forced 4,000=16 kts. Coa! 
maximum ;go ions. Appro.vitnatc cost £185,000. 

Calais Light, established 1SS3, i3 a four-flash 
light every 1 5 seconds ; duration of flash j second ; 
candle-power, 900/wo ; illuminant, electricity. 

Oalamianei. U.S. gun-boat. Captured from 
the Spuniirds in the Spanish-.^mertcan war. 

CalatsJQma. Italian torpedo gun-boat (1893)^, 
DutpUcoment 850 tons. Complement 118, 
CuHs. Arntiiur. 

1 — 4'7 in. " Sttx'I." 

6 — 6 pdr. li in. Deck. 

3— t pdr. 

Torptdo Tubts. 
Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. 4,100=19*5 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum I So tons. 

Calouita. Ship. On a voyage from South Shields 
to Aden, took fire m mid -ocean, September 1 1. 187.1. 
and foundered ; many Uvcs lost. 

Caldftr, Sir Robert (i743-(Si3}. baronet (b. 
Elgin). admiral. Entered the Navy 
as a midshipmaa in 1 75*;. and in 1766 was 
promoted lieutenant, and served in the Esstx under 
the Honourable George Faulkner, in tlie West 
Indies ; he attained the rank of post-captain In 
1783. and 14 years later was named " Captain 
of the Fleet " by Str John Jarvis, and took part in 
the battle of Cape St. Vincent, and wai solectcJ as 
the bearer of despatches announcing the victory to 
King George III,, for which he was knighted, nvaX 
the following year raised to the peerage , in. [ 790 
he was promoted rear-admiral, and two years I iter 
was despatched with a small squadron in pursuit of 
the French force, wlio were conveying »uppti^'~> lo 
the French iu Egypt ; in this he was not success- 
lul, and on his return to Enf^and he struck his 
flag ; he was, however, recalled to service, pro- 
moted vice-admiral, and when tn comman 1 olf 
Ferrol engaged a superior force of French and 
Spanisli ships; part of the fleet chased by Nelson 
from the West Indies to Europe ; the action look 
place on July a. 1805. and after a combat of four 
hours, during which time he captured two Spanish 
ships, be gave orders to discontinue the action ; in 
consequence of the strong public fcchng against 
him in England, he demanded a court-martial, 
which was held on December jj, 1305, and n-sulted 
in his being convicted of an error of judgment, and 
he was severely reprimanded for not liavini; done 
his utmost to renew the engagement, at the same 
time be was acquitted both of cowardice and dis- 
afiection : the tide ol public feeling having turned 
again, and in recognition of his services, and of his 
acquittal of the charges made against him be was 
appointed Commander of Portsmouth. He died 
at Hull. Hampshire, August ji. 1818. 

Oalfllooift (1S94). British subsidised merchant 
ship, P. and O. Co. (7.r.\ Dimension 1, 486 x 




54 ^ Hi f^' gross toiuiago, 7,558; passenger 
aocosnmodation, 490 : Hp., 10,000^18 kts. 

OaledODJA. Formerly one of H.M. train ing-sh(ps 

6talione<i at Vinh oi I-'orth. and sold July 10. jqo6. 
She was originally named Ihe Impre^vable. and waa 
modelled exactly after Nelson's famoua ship the 
VictoTy. a ttire«-decker ot 3.808 tons displace- 
ment, and can^'ing 98 guas, she was launclied at 
Chatham in i8to, and \(as one of the North Sea 
Fleet, which, under Admiral Young, watched 
Napoleon's vessels ; at the great naval review 
at Spitliead she was the flagship of the Duke of 
Clarence. after^N-ards King William IV., and later 
took part in the bombardment of Algicn ; in 1843 
(the became flagship at Dcvonport. and subse- 
quently for a period of 24 years was a naval 
training ahip for boys there: in 1886 she was 
renamefl the Kent, but on being sent to the 
Forth she was christened the Caledonia. 

' Caledonian Cuul is a waterway, partly natural, 
and partly artjiicial. and passes through GU-nmore. 
Invemess-shire, connecting the Atlantic Ocean 
with the Moray Firth branch of the Norlli Sea. In 
1773 James Watt was eraptoyed to survey the 
country- lor a distance of about 60 miles, with a 
view of forming a ship canal between the two seas. 
thereby saving a coasting voyage of some 400 miles, 
but it was not until iSoi. when Telford and Jessop 
made their estimate of the cost, that the construc- 
tion of the canal commenced. In 1822 the canal 
although only two-tliirds finished was opened for 
navigation. Its total length, including tucks, is 
60J miles, depth at standard level 17 ft., breadth 
at surface 100 it., and at bottom 50 ft Of the 
whole distance about 37J miles is natural take 
navigation, and the remaining £3 artificial or 
canal navigation. It is chiefly used by fiiihing 
fleets, and by small pleasure steamere. 

Calilornift. U.S. 1st claKs cruiser. (Union Iron- 
works, 1 1103.) 

T.ength 502ft. Beam 70ft. Maximum draught 27ft. 
Displacement 13,400 tons. Complement S22. 
Guns. Armour. 

4—8 in., 45 cal. " Krupp." 
14^-6 in. 6 in. Belt amidslnps. 

18 — 14 pdr. 6 in. Turrets. 

12 — 3 pdr. 9 in. Conning tower. 

8 — I pdr. 
8 Colts. 
2 Field guns, 3 in. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
3 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp, 2^,000=22 kts. CoaJ maxi- 
mum 2.000 tons. Ap])roximate cost jTi .300.000. 

Oftll. A whistle used for piping the hands on 
deck for their various duties. 

CaD&o. I'.S. gun-Loaf. Capturc<l from Spain 
during t lie Spanish-American war. 01 Ultle 
fighting ^-alue. 

Oalliopt, Italian torpedo-lynt (1906). Loa, 
1C15 ft. ; beam. 17 ft. ; draught. 7 (t. : displi 
ment, 200 tons; armammt, 3 3-pdr., 3 tuV 
twin screw ; Hp.,»2^ kts. ; coal,40tons. 

Calm. A quiescent state of the air. 

Calm belt. See Doldrums. 

Calm centre. Tlic vortex of a cyclonic sConn. | 

Calypso. British 3rd class cruiser (3,770 
t4'6 kts.}. Launched 1883. 

Camber. The curve of a ship's plank. 

Cambria. Iron screw ntcamcr, lo»t in a stof 
of! Inishtraliull Island. N.W. Ireland. October 
1870 ; 170 lives were lost. 

Cambrian. British 2nd class cruiser. (Pem- 
broke, 1893.) 

Length 320ft. Beam 45ft. Manraum draught aift. 
Displacement 4.3G0 tons. Complement 318. 
Guns. Armour. 

3 — 6 in. " Steel." 

8^4'7 in. 2 in. Deck. 

a — 6 pdr. 3 in. Conning tower. 

1—3 pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes (16 in.). 
4 Above water. 
Twin screw. Up. natural 7,000=18 kts., {orc«d_ 
9.0001* 19*5 kLs. Coal maximum 1,000 tons. 
Approximate cost ^250.000. 
This ship-name has l>eeQ borne by &hips in the 
Na\'y sincv i7(>o. and is associated witli the bom- 
bardment of Copenhagen. 1807. and the victory ol 
Navario, 1857. 

Cambridge. British gunnery school ship (4.971 
tons). Launched 1858. 

Cambridge Vaiversity Croiging Olab. Established 

1893, ■^^'t'' tlu" object 01 the pruinotion of inter- 
course between members of the t.Iniveniity. the 
interests of amateur cruising and racing, and tbdr 
mutual advantage and mstruction as regards 
nautical subjects generally. Flag : Red enaign. 
Burgee ; Gnles across ermine, in tlie dexter chief 
a lion passant guardcnt or a burgee representing in 
design and colours the coat-of-arms of the univer- 
sity, but sinifiUlied by omitting the book and 
three o( the four lions ; the lion retained to be in 
the upper part of the faoist of the flag. President, 
C. B. Finch; Commodore, C. J. P. Caves; Vke- 
Commodore, Uev. H. Rogers ; Rear-Commodore, 
J. Phillimorc : Honorary Treasurer, H. Y. Oldham ; 
Honorary Secretary, Edgar T. Adams, Downing 
College. Annual subscription, los. 6d. Residents. 
£1 IS. (for the first three years). 

Cameleon. German armoured gun-boat {187s). 
Displacement, i,too tons, carrying one old la-in. 
gun. Of little fighting value. 

Oameleon. Cutter. On August 37, 1S34. thi> 
vessel was run down off Dover by the Castor, 
innate, when 1 3 oi the crew were drovmed. 




Camm«ll, Lurd and Co^ lAL To recotmt the 
history of Uie wcH-knowii firm oi Laird is almost 
equivalent to giving a history oE the steamship 
itself, so intimately has the lirm been aBsoeiated 
with the origin and growth of iron vessels ; and. 
moreover, while the Birkenhead Ironworks may 
safely claim to be one of the oldest shipbuilding 
firms io the kingdom, it rclainnl (or upwards of 
7S years its original character as a private 
family concern. The business was converted into 
a limited company, under the title of Laird Brothers. 
Ltd., in the year 1900. 

In 1S24 William Ijiird laid the foundation of the 
existing establishment, but it was his son, John 
Laird, who in 1S29 recognised the future poAtti- 
bilities of iron as a material foe shipbuilding, and 
he gave practical proof of the faith that was in 
him by constructing in that year what, if not 
actually the first iron ship, was certainly one of 
the first. 

Shortly after thit initial attempt MacGregor 
I.aird, also a son of William Laird, made another 
siep in advance by being the first to take an iron 
vessel on a sea voyage. This was the Alburka. 
forming one of the African expedition's vessels. 

In 1838 the first screw steamer was launched at 
Birkenhead to the order of an American naval 
officer, and was christened with his name, Robert 
F. Stockton. 

In 1839 Mr. Laird received his first order from 
tho Admiralty lor an iron paddle steamer named 
the Dotvr, which was employed as a mail packet. 

When in i56i Mr. John Laird retired from the 
firm, his three sons, William, John, and Henry H. 
Laird, entered into partnership, under the stylo of 
Laird Brothers. 

On the death of Mr. John Laird the younger, 
early in 1898, Mr. William Laird, the sole re- 
maining member of the partnership of 1 66 1 , 
associated with him in partnership Mr. John 
McGregor Ijtird. who bad for several years taken 
a leading part in the general conduct of the busi- 
ness, Mr. William Laird, jun., and Mr. Roy 
McGregor l^ird, each being a son of one of the 
members who cotuttiluted the firm in 1861, and 
therefore representing the fourth generation that 
has sprung up to continue the traditions of the 

In 1903 an important extension of the works 
was decided upon, embracing a large area of land 
adjcMning the present yard, on which a filung-out 
basin of ample extent and two large graving docks 
capable of taking in any sixe of steamer have boen 
coDStmcted, together witli new shops complete 
with all the most modem appliances ; and. in con- 
nection with this extension, an amalgamation was 
arranged with Charles Cammell and Co., Ltd., of 
Sheffield, thft well-known steel and armour plate 
makers, the name of the new company being 
Cammell, I^rd and Co., Ltd. 

Mr. John McGregor Laird and Mr. K. R. Bevis 

joined the board of the new company as directors, 
the former being .subsequently appointed chairman. 

Thii amalgamation places the company in a 
position to construct entirely on their own premises 
vessels of war ot the largest class complete with 
their armour, ready for service. 

During the So yeara of their existence the 
Birkenhead works have turned out a vast amount 
and variety of work, embracing steamers of all 
classes, from the Atlantic liner to the small river 
steamer, and for many years past very special 
attention has been dex-oted to the design and pro- 
duction of %-csscls of war of all typ«s, as is evidenced 
by the fact that 104 vessels have been built for 
ilia Majesty's Navy, among which have been four 
tst claAs batUc.*iliip5i of 14.000 tuns and [3.000 to 
18,000 Hj).. and a large number of gun-vcsaela, 
torpedo gun-boata. and torpedo-boat destroyers, 
and recently seven of the new 25J knot destroyers 
have been completed and successfully passed 
through their trials. 

The works have also built many armour clad 
vessels, gun-boats, and torpedo-boat destroyers for 
the Dutch, Portuguese, Russian, Peruvian, Argen- 
tine, BraziUan, Chilian, and other navies. 

Campania (1893). British subsidised merchant 
ship. Cunard Line [q.v.). (Liverpool. New York.) 
Dimensions, 620 x 65 X 37 § ft. ; gross tonnage, 
12,950; Hp,, 30,000 13 2 1 kts, 

GampbeU, Captain Frederick Livingston, B.N. 

(1854-1906). Entered the service as a cadet. 
April 7, 1868, and promoted captain, 1897, and 
tx:forc his appointment as su peri u tend cnt of Sheer- 
ness Dockyard, 1905, in succession to Rear -Admiral 
W. H. P. Graham, he commanded tho Majestic, 
1st class battleship in the Channel Fleet. He was 
killed while hunting with the MeyncU Hounds. 
January 34, 1906. 

Campbell. Rear-Admiral Charles (b. March 26, 
1847). Educated Royal Naval Academy. Gosport. 
Entered tlic Britannia. 1S60 ; commander in Thalta 
employetl in transport service during Egyptian 
war. 18S2 (EgyjiUau medial. Khedive's Bronw 
Star) ; when la command of tho Phttomei on the 
East Coast of Africa he commanded the road*cuttiflg 
party to Xana's stronghold, was four days under 
fire, and led the centre attack, and on leaving 
Zanzibar was presented by th« Sultan with a 
handsome sword in commemoration of his services ; 
was created C.B. in recognition of his services In 
the operations against the chief Nana in the Benin 
River ; mentioned in despatches (general Afri'ra 
medal, Benin River clasp), and given a D.S.O. 
(or his prompt action in saving the hves of tha 
wounded in Benin City on February 18, 1897 
(Benin clasp) : as captain 01 tho Empress of In-iiit 
was second-in<ommand to Admirals Ilarria eud 
Nod during the operations in Crete. i897<99' ' 




Campbell's Steuialuiw. Set Bristol Pleasure 

Campbeltown and Glaagunr St«am Packet Joint 
Stock Co.* Ltd., one of the olrlest stpatriihip 
companies in existence, maiDtain a service for 
passengers and cargo between Campbeltown and 
Glasgow, sailing twice daily during June, July, 
and August, and once daily during ilie rest of the 
ytar, calling fin touU at Greenock and Gourock, on 
the Firth of Clyde, Loch Ranza and Pinunill in 
Arran. and Cairadall in Kintyre. 
Davaar. Kinloch, Kinlyrs. 

Campbeltown Taoht Club. E.Htablisbed 1894. 
Flag : Red ensign. Burgee : White with red bar 
and blue lona cross. Vicc-Commodorc. D. Mac- 
Callnm ; Rear -Commodore, G. W. Gardiner ; Trea- 
surers, T. I-. Brown, R, Y. Maxtons ; Secretaries, 
T. MncKelvte, J. J, Smith. Annual subscription, 

Camperdowu. Battle ol Fought October 11. 1797, 
whtn Admiral Duncan, with a fleet of 18 ships. 
defeated the Dutch fleet under De Winter, and 
captured 1 1 of the enemy's vessels. In recog- 
nition of this victory Admiral Duncan was created 
Viscount Lord Ounriin of Camperdown. and given 
an annual pension of /3.000, 

Camperdown. British ist class battleship (10.600 
tons, i6'9 kts.). Launched i8S$. 

Oampe, Harold Edward Josnlyn (b. London, 
1874). EdiicaU'tl lying's College, London ; took 
honours diploma for naval architecture at South 
Kensington ; apprenticed to Messrs. Harlaad and 
Wolfl, Belfast, and after serving his time joined 
the firm of Messrs. Palmer, Ltd., alterwards holding 
an important position with Messrs. Swmi, Hunter, 
Ltd., and Sir Kaylton Dixaii. Lid. : in [900 he 
established himself in London as a consulting 
engineer, naval architect, and marine surveyor ; 
member of the Institution ol Naval Architects and 
of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. 

Canada, Jamaioa, Steamship Co., with the bead 

oflTiceS) in Toronto, have a fleet of two steamers 

which maintain a bi monthly service to Kingston 

(Jamaica], calling en route at Santiago de Cuba. 


Kathinha. Veritas. 

CaiudJan. Steamer. On June 4, 1861, this 
vessel struck ou a field of ice in the Straits of Belle 
Isle and foundered ; 35 lives were lost. 

Canadian Aostralian Line was established in 
1893, and runs in connection witli the Canadian 
Pacific Railway. The (our steamers of the fleet 
arc under contract with ilic Canadian, New South 
Wales. Queensland, and Fijian CWivemmcnts for a 
monthly mail service Iwtwccn Vancouver, Victoria 
(B.C.). Honolulu. Brisbane, and Sydney (X.S.W.). 


Aorangi. Moana. 

MiottvTA. Mahano. 

Gross toonagv. 11.350. 

Canadian FaciAc Railway Steamers. See Empress 


Canadian Yacht Club. Royal. See Royal Canadian 
Yacht Chib. 

Canal is an artificial waterway constructed 
the conveyance of goods or passengers by boat 
sliip. Canals may be classified under two di^n- 
sions : (i) Ordinary inland navigation canaU ; and 
(2} ship canals pro\iding a means of inexpensive 
transportation between ocean and ocean, or between 
the ocean and some inland centre. 

Ref»r to SuejE Canal. Manchester Ship Canal. 
North Sea and BaJtic Canal, North Holland Canal. Canal, Bruges Canal. I^anguedoc Canal, 
Caledonian Canal. Corinth Canal, Cronstadt Canal, 
and Panama Canal. 


Can baoy. A contraction of the words 

Cannibalism. The act or practice of eating 
human flesh ; man eating. 

CaoninK, Sir Samnel (b. 1833). Eoglisb civil 
engineer. Was closely conncctcfl with the manu- 
facture and successful laying of submariuc cables 
in the Atlantic and Mediterranean, notably in con- 
nection witli Atlantic Cable Expedition of iSi 
and 1869. 


Cano, Juan Sebastian del (1460-1536]. S 
navigator. Accompanied Magellan on his voyage! 
round Cape Horn, 151^), and on his death assumed 
comnuind of the cx|)edition. He returned to Spain, 
1533, by way of the Cape of Good Hope in the sole 
surviving ship of the fleet, and was thus the fint 
circumnavigator of the globe. 

Canoe. .^ light sballaw boat pointed at either 


Canoe Club, RoyaL Set Royal Canoe Qub. 

Canopo. Italian torpedo-boat (1906]. Length. 
165 ft. ; beam, 17 ft. ; draught, 7 ft. ; displacement* 
200 tons ; armament. 3 3-pdr.. 3 tubes ; twia 
screw : Hp.. 3.oooa35 kts. ; coal. 40 tons, 

Oanopns. British ist class battleship, 
mouth, 1897.) 
Length 418ft. Beam 74ft. Maximum draught 36ft. 

Displacement 13,950 tons. Complement 750. 

4 — 12 in., 35 cal. 
12 — 6 in. 
10—13 pdr. 
6—3 pdr. 
3 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tmbat (18 in.). 
4 Submerged. 

" Harvey-nickel." 
6 in. Belt amidships. 
13 in. Barbettes. 
13 in. Conning tower. 




Tvrinsciww. Hp. i3,soo*t8'3S kts. Coalmud- 
mum 2,300 tons. Approximate cost. ^900,000, 

This ship-name was introduced into the Navy 
in 1798. and is associated with San Domingo, 
1S06, Dordanelle*!, 1807. 

CmU Anything diverging from a. ceatnX right 

Ctnvu. A cloth made of hemp. 

Osp. A block of wood used to confine two masts 
together in order to lengthen thcra ; also pieces of 
oak on the upper blocks on which a vessel is built 
to receive the keel. 

Cap d'Aotiler Light, situated on the coast of 
France, Ivnglisb Channel, was established in 1894. 
and is a single dash Ught every 30 seconds ; dura- 
tion of tight, one second ; candle-power, 220,000 
maximum ; burner, mantle 55 mm. diameter ; 
illuminant, incandescent, acetylene, oil. 

0ftP6. A projecting point of land running out 
from the coastline, diffcriug from a hcndlami in so 
much that a cape may I>e low-lying. 

Cape Byron Light, c»i.ihllKhod 1901, situated on 
the coast of New South Wales, is a two-fiash light 
every 70 seconds ; duration of flash, one-ftfth 
second ; candle-power, 145.000 ; burner. 6 wick : 
illnminant, oil. 

Cape Fintsterre. Battle o(. In 1747 Vice-Admiral 
Atison intercepted off Cape Fiaisterrc a powerful 
French fleet bound (o thu East and Wtrsi Indies. 
He captured six men<of-war and four Ea«t India- 
men. The French admiral, Jonquiere. surrendered. 
Among the £>hips captured wore the ImtincibU and 
the Glory. 

Cape Francoise. Battle ol Fought October 21, 
1 757, between Uie English and French, when the 
latter, although superior to the British in ships by 
jjion than two to one. suffered a crushing defeat. 

Oape Qri»-]lei Light, situated in Straits of Dover, 
Lsa single flash light t-very five stxonds ; duration of 
Hash, one-tenth second ; candle-power estimatec) 
at t^; illuminant. electricity. 

Cape Henry. Action off. Fought March 16, 1781. 
betu'een the British, under Vice-AdmiraJ Marriott 
Arbuthnot, and the French, under Commodore dea 
Toncbes. The action was indecisive, but resulted 
in the British regaining command of Chesapeake 

Qipe la Hive Light, e:«tabluhed 1S95. ^ *■ nnglu 
flash hght every hvc seconds ; duration of flash, one- 
tenth second ; candle-power estimated at; 
inuminant, electricity. 

Cape la Hogae, Battle ot FouKhl M.Yy w. i<^2. 
when the l3nti:ih and Dutch fleets under Admirals 
Russel and Rookc defeated the French fleet com- 

manded by Admiral Tourville. The British burnt 
13 of tlie enemy's ships and destroyed eight more. 

Cape Leenwin Light, estaWiahed i3^, situated 
on the south-cast coast of Western Australia, is a 
single Hash light every five seconds ; duration of 
flash, one-fifth second ; candle-power. 145,000 
burner, 6 wick ; illuminant, oil. 

Cape St Blase U^t, established 1S07, situated 
fioutli-west of MuvscJ Bay, SuutJi Africa, is a two- 
dash light every 15 .seconds; duration of flash, 
one-third second; candle-power. 5.000; burner, 

1 wick Douglas; illuminant, oil. 

C^e St Vincent, Battle oL Fought February 4. 
1797, when Sir John Jarvis. with the Mediterranean 
fleet of 15 sail, defeated tJie Spanish dcet of 27 
ships of the line, taking four stiips and linking 
six. For this victory he was raised to the peerage 
as Ear! St. Vincent. 

Capitaa Merinotarpa. Chilian torpedo-boat de- 
stroyer. (Laird, 1902.} Displacement, 350 tons; 
armament, i 12-pdr., $ 6-pdr. ; tubes. 2 i8-in. ; 
Hp.. 6.250=30 kts. : coal, 90 tons. 

Capitan Htuoagamere. Chilian torpedo-boat de- 
stroyer. (Laird. iSg6.) Displacement, 300 tons ; 
armament, i i3-pdr., 5 6-pclr. ; torpado tubes. 

2 i8-in. : Hp.. 6.250^30 kts. : coal. 90 tons. 

Capitan O'Brien. Chilian torpedo-boat destroyer. 
[Laird. 1903.) Displacement. 350 tons ; armament, 
I !2-pdr., 5 6-pdr. ; tubes. 3 18-in. ; Hp., 6.350 = 
30 kts. ; coal, o^ tons. 

Capitan OreUa. Chihan torpedo-boat destroyer. 
{I^ird. i89(>.) Displacement, 300 tons ; arma- 
ment, 1 l2-pdr„ 5 6-pdr. ; tubes, 2 iS-io. ; Hp.. 
6,250= 30 kti. ; coal, 90 tons. 

Capitaa Prat Chilian battleship, (La Scyne. 
'«90.) ^.,„ } 

Length 32Sft. Beam 60ft. Maximum draught 36ft 
Displacement 6,901 ions. Complement 480. 
Cum, Armour, 

4 — y'a in. " Creusot." 

8 — 47 in. u in. Belt amidships. 

6 — 6 pdr. io in. Barbettes. 

4 — 3 P*^- 4 in- Redoubt amidstiips. 

10 — 1 pdr. 

Torptdo Tubes. 

4 Above fratex. 

Twin screw. Hp. natural 8,000=17 kts.. forced 

I2,ooo±=i8'3 kts. Coal maximum t.ioo tons. 

Approximate cost ^391. 000. 

Capitan Tbompaon. Chilian torpedo-boat. (Yar- 
row. ]8<>S.) Displacement. 140 tons : maximum 
draught, 7| ft. ; armament, 3 3-pdr. ; tubes. 

3 14-in. ; Hp.. 2,200=^27 kts. ; coal, 40 tons. 

Cappasni. The worm which adhem tn and cat.s 
the bottom of wooden ships not sheathed with 


I 12 


Oarpenter, OapUln Alfred, t>S.O. (b. 1847). 
Enletrd Na\'>' i860; Uvntcnaot iftjo; served as 
UeutGnantiii the Cholimgcr Scientific Expedition .and 
received ihc Albert inedaJ, second class, as a marie 
of Royal favour for gallantry in saving life at sea. 
June. 1876. Extract from the " GasetU: " : " At 
10.30 p.m. on the 31st January, 1876. while the 
Challenger was at anchor in Stanley Harbour. 
Falkland Islands, in five fathoms of water, distant 
a quarter of a mile from the shore, Thoni&s Bu&h, 
ail A.B., fell overboard from the steam jMniiaci: 
which was coming alonfi^ide. and sank without 
uttering a cry. The night waa dark, the weather 
boisterous and raining, there waa a short, choppy 
Sea (which rendered swimming extremely difficult), 
and an outscttiiig current. Lieutenant Carpenter, 
without a moment's hesitation, jumped from the 
gangway and swam towards the spot where the 
man disappeared, some 20 ft. from the ship ; he then 
dived, sci2etl hold of Bush, and brought him to the 
surface, and supported him for three to five minutes, 
but Bush being a very heavy man, and encumbered 
with thick waterproof clothing, and moreover being 
quite in.scnsibU-, Lieutenant Cari>enter. as he got ex- 
hausted with his exertions, was obliged to let hini 
slip down ; he supported him with his legs lor a few 
moments, and then they were both hauled into the 
piciiace, and taken on board the Challenger. Evct>' 
eflort was at once made by the medical o&cer to 
restore Bush, but without success. There were 
several patches of floating kelp round the ship, 
amongst which the strongest swimmer could be 
helpless, wliich materially increased the risk 
incurred." Commander. 18S3 ; conunandcr in 
command of Myrmidon during the naval and 
mihtary operations in Eastern Soudan. 1883-8(1 ; 
mentioned in despatches (Egyptian medal, Khe- 
dive's Bronze Star) ; cummaudcr in charge of 
Marine Survey of India, 1S84-S9 ; served with 
Naval Brigade during Burmah annexation war, 
1885-86 ; received the thanks of the Go\*cmmcnt 
of ladia, and specially mentioned in despatches. 
D.S.O. for this service (India medal, Burmah clasp). 

Oartaois. French torpedo-boat destroyer. (Nor- 
uiaiid, 1903.) Lengtli, iSoft. ; beam, 3i ft. ; maxi- 
mum draught, lu ft. ; diBplacemeut, 300 tons ; 
complement, 4$ ; guns, 1 9-pdr., 6 3-pdr. ; torr^edo 
tubes, 2 15-iiu Speed, 37-30 kts. 

Can, Admiral Henry John (b. July, 1839)- 
Entered Navy, 1852 ; Ucutenant, i86a; heutenant 
ol Bombay when .she was burnt at 6ea. 1S64 ; nitti- 
tioned iu despatches for gallantry ; commander. 
J871 ; captain, 1679; senior officer at Bermuda, 
18*12-94; rear-admiral, 1894; admiral superin- 
tendent Devonport Dockyard, 1896 ; retired 
1899: vice-admiral, 1901; admiral, 1904. 

Carriage ol goods br sea. See A0reightment. 

Carriok. Brig. Lost in a gale in the St. Lawrence, 
May ig, 1847 ; 170 emigrant? perished. 


Oarriclc bend. See Knots. 

Oarrington, Richard Chnstophef (1826-75). ^^i- 
Ush astronomer (b. l.,ondon) . Equipped an 
observatory at Redhill. Surrey, iu 1853, and in 
1857, after three years' survey of the zoac of the 
Heavens, within nine degrees of the North Pole, he 
completed a catalogue of 3,735 stars. His observa- 
tion of sunspots and discovery of the compou 
law of solar rotation were published in 1S63. 

Oarronade. An obsolete gun formerly used at 
close quarters in naval engagements. 

Carton line, with the head office at Carron. 

Sterlingshire. N,B.. incorporated by Royal Charter 

'" 1773> is ^"(^ o^ tl>*-' oldest in tlic country. One o( 

the steamers sail every Monday. Wednesday, and 

Saturday from London for Grangemouth, and 

another every Friday for Bo'ness, returning for 

Crangemoutli everj- Wednesday, Thursday and 

Saturday, and Bo'ni'ss evL-ry Tuesday. 


Avon. Grange. 

Firth. Thames. 

Carry away. To breaJc. 

Carry on. T« spread all sails. 

Carsteni, Samuel (b. Denmark. 1851). Served 
his apprenticeship to practical wood shipbuilding 
in Denmark, and in 1876 was appointed to the 
aliiphuilding yard of Messrs. J. and G. Thoinpscu 
and Co.. Glasgow, for the building uf some compo- 
site gun-boats for the British Government ; in 1877 
he joined the dra^ving ofFice of Messrs. Chaxtes 
Mitchell and Co., and three years later was ap- 
pointed head diaughtsinan with Mes'vrs. Richard- 
son, Duck and Co. ; in 1888 he joined the designing 
department oi Mesixs. Palmer and Co., Jarrow. 
and was appointed chiel m the technical depart- 
ment of Messrs. Burmeister and Wain, Copenhagen, 
in 1889, 

CarteL A vessel commissioned in time of war to 
exchange pnaoners of hostile powers, or carrying 
proposals from one to another. No arms, ammu- 
nition, or war-like materials are permitted to he 
carried on board, excepting a single gun for sig- 
nalling purposes. 

Cartels are conveniiona between belligerents 
(f.t/.), and are usually made by high ofHcials {e.g<, 
generals or admirals) in the exercise of their imphcd 
general authority, for the purpose of pcrmiltuof 
certain intercourse of a pacific character. Tbey 
relate chiefly to communications by post, telephone 
or railway, tliu treatment of wounded, and the 
exchange of prisoners. 

Cartel slijpe arc those vessels belonging to beUi^ 

rents (t/.)'.} which arc commissioned for the carnage 
by sea i)f exchange prisoners. By the customs of 
nations these ships must not trade or carry cargo, 
despatches or munitions ol war, except one gW 




lor purpOBM ol stgnaUing. They hold u official 
documcat specifying theii' cliaractcr, and exempting 
them from capture or moIcstaUon, but for tlio 
brtsicli of gunvral rules or any specially imposed 
conditioHH thry arc liable to seizure and confiscation. 

Oftrtsr. William Charles (b. Lonilon. Febru&ry it. 
1859). Educated Ifniversity College School and 
Oty o( London School ; apprenticed to Messrs. 
J. and F. Howard, ou the coni:lu:>ion of wliich be 
Joioed the drawing office staiF of Messrs. Wigham. 
Richardson and Co.. and ser\-ed the firm both in 
the ^ops and at sea. In 1881 joined Messrs. 
Harland and Wolff, Belfast, and was engaged there 
for several years in designing marine and structural 
engineering work ; was also a lecturer at the 
Mechanics Iimtitutc, Beliast. on engineering 
subjects ; in 1S91 he commenced business in 
London as a Consulting Marine Engineer and 
Technical Adviser to Shipowners. He holds the 
position of consulting engineer to niany steamship 
and induxtrial companies. 

Member Tnstitutioa ol Naval Architects, associate 
member of Institution of Civil Engineers ; holds 
bronze medal for machine design. 

Publicalions ; "Practical Hints in BoUer De- 
sign." •* The Principle of Moments," " About 
Work and Power," etc. 

Carthagena, Battle off. Fought August 19. 1702. 
between the British under Admiral Benbow and 
Che French under Admiral L>u Casse. During the 
engagement a chain shot shattered the leg of 
Admiral Bcnbow who, in spite of his wound, con- 
tinued to conduct the action and was successful in 
driving the French ofl.^Had he been supported by 
the whole squadron the victory would have been 
complete and Admiral Du Casac his prisoner. 
Admiral Benbow died of his wound in October. 1703, 
at Jamaica. 

Carvel. A lateen rigged vessel formerly used 
by Spaniards and Portuguese. 

Carvel build. A vessel or boat the planks of 
which arc ail flush and smooth, the edges laid close 
to each other, and caulked to make them, water- 
tight, as opposed to clinkia-built, where they 
overlap each other. 

Canbiaaoa. French avisoa (189$). 
Length soi^lt. Beam 27ft. Majumum draught 12ft. 
Displacement gOu tons. Complement 139. 
CvHs. Armour. 

I — 4 in. "Steel." 

3—9 pdr. I in. Deck amidships. 

;— 3pdT. 

Hp. 5,000=31 kts. Coal maximum 135 tons. 

ClM. Outside planking of the ship. 

OaBfr-htriding. The operatioa by uhich wrought 
or cast iroa ii hardened by dccarbonisation, 
whereby the surface is converted into stoel. The 

process of conversion is that the iron to be treated is 
packed in cast or wrought iron chests in iron 
oxide powfler and heated to a dull redness for 
varying periods according to the size of the article 
and the thickness of the coating required. 

Case-shot or Canister-shot was a form of pro- 
jectile formerly much used in gunner)'. It con- 
sisted of a number of small iron balls, varying in 
weight and number, packed in a cylindrical metaJ 
case or canistci, fitting the tiore of the gun from 
which it is fired. Owing to its small effective 
range it is now practically superseded, and its place 
is taken by the use of machine guns discharging 

Cashiering. Scandalous conduct unbecoming an 
otticer and a gentleman is punished in the British 
Navy by cashiL-ring, i.e.. cancellatioa or annulment 
of commission, which renders oflicers Incapable of 
serving the Crown again. 

Outamare, Steamer bdongmg to the British 
India Steam Navigation Co. wrecked ofl Guardafui, 
July la. 1877. 

Casiiuets Light Built in 1877 on a reef to 
tlie west of Alderuey. Channel Islands , tias a 
three-flash light per half minute; duration of 
flash, two seconds ; candle power nmximuni, 
60,000 : eightwick burner (1894) : illuminant, 

Canard. French ^nd class cruiser. (Cher- 
bourg, 1696.) 

T^'ngtb 326ft. Beam 45ft Maximum draught 23ft. 
Displacement 4,000 tons. Complement 593. 
Gums. Armour. 

6 — 6'4 in. 3 in. Deck. 

4—4 in. 2 in Sponsons. 

4—3 pdr. 
ri— I pdr. 

Torptdo Tubes. 
2 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. 9,500= I'j kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 624 tons. Approximate cost ^300.000. 

Casse-Tlte, French gunboat (18S4). Displace- 
ment ];u tons. On service in Cochin, China. Of 
httle 6ghting value. 

Cassier *s Uagasine. Established i $9 1 . Pub- 
lished moutbly. I^ce fs. Address : 33 Bedford 
Street, London, W.C. ' 

Casaini. French avisos (1894). 
Length 369ft. Beam 27IL Maximum draught 12ft. 
Displacement 960 tons. Complcmrnt ij*/. 
CuHS. ArtHouf. 

I — 4 in. *' Steel." 

3—9 pdr. 1 in. Deck amidshii'^ 

7—3 pdr. 
Hp. 5,000^3 1 kta. Coal maximum 135 tons. 

CftMiopM. Italian lorpetlo-boat.(Naplc«, 1906.] 
Length. 165 U. ; beam, 17 ft. ; draught. 7 It. ; 
displacement, 300 tons ; annamcnt. 3 j-pclr., 3 
tubes ; Hp., 3,ocK>=>a5 Irts. ; coal, 40 tons. 

Oastelfldardo. Obsolete Italian battleship. Of 
no fighting value ; now used as torpedo dep6t in 

CuUne. U.S. gun-boat. (Bath, 1893.) 
Lcnj;Ut io^lt. Beam ,uU. Muxunum draught 15ft. 
Displacement 1,177 tons. Complement 151. 
Guns. Armour. 

8 — 4 in. " Steel." 

4 — 6 pdr. } in. Deck amidships. 

Hp. 3.200=^ j6 kts. Coal maximum 292 tons. 

CaatlQ y&cbt dnb, Solent. EstabUsbed 1S87. 
Bur^fec : RltJ, white cross, castle in centte. This 
dub is a purely racing club (or the Y.R.A. small 
classes, and gives the most regattas of any of thc 
Solent clubs. The club house stands on Calsbot 
Spit, under the shadow of tlie old castle^ bui]t in 
tho reign of Huury VIII., and its site is rented 
from the War Department. Commodore, Col. The 
Hon. H. G. L. Crichton, .\.D.C. ; Vice -Commodore, 
Frederick Cox ; Rear -Commodore, The Eaxl of 
Hardwjcke ; Honorary Treasurer, R. S. Hankinson ; 
Secretary. W. Campbell. Entrance fee, £'$ ; annual 
subscription, £3. 

Oast-ofi. To let go. 

C&gtnr. French submarine. (Rochefort, 1903-) 
Length, 77 ft. ; beam, 7i ft. ; draught, 8 ft. ; dis- 
placement, 6S tons ; complement, 5 ; Hp., 60 = 
8 kts. 

Cutor and PoUox. Fiery balls which appear at 
the mast-heads, yard-arms, or slicking to the 
riggings of vessels in a gale at sea. 

Cat. A ship built OD a Norwegian modeL 

Cataluna. Spanish armoured ship (1900). 
Length 34dit. Beam 60ft. Maximum draught 3sft. 
Displace men I 7,000 tons. Complement 497. 
Guns. Armour. 

3— 9'4 in. " Harvey." 

8 — 5*5 in. 12 in. Belt amidships. 

2 — 12 pdr. 12 in. Bulkheads. 

8 — 6 pdr. 8 in. Barbertes- 

8 — J pdr. 8 in. Coniung tower. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
2 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. natural 10,000= 18 kts., forced 
15,000=20*25 kts. Coal maximnm 1.300 tons. 

OaUmar&n. A small raft formtd by logs lashed 
together, soinetimca carrying an outrigger, in use 
among the natives of India, Cej'loD, and the Straits. 

Oatapolte. French torpedo-boat destroyer. (Nor- 
niantl. looz.) Length. 180 ft, ; beam, 21 ft. ; 
maximum draught, 10 It. ; displacement, 300 tons : 
comptcment. 45 ; guns, i g-pdr., 6 ^-ixtr. ; torptJo 
tubes. 3 15-ui. ; speed. 27-30 kts. 

Cat-block. A strong three-fold block usually 
ployed for hoisting the anchor. 

Catch. Denoting among fishermen the quanl 
of fish taken at a haul. 

Cat-iall. A rope rove to the cat-block. 

CsUl Cathedral. Abbreviation ad(^ted on the 
charts issued by the Hydrographic OiVicc, Ad- 

Oatharpin le^s. Ropes connecting lower parts ol 

futtocU nhroufls, _ 

Oat-head. A bracket serving to suspend 
anchor clear ol the bow. 

Catherine Adammn. Wrecked on the coast 
New South Wales. 3$ miles from Sydney, June 3. 
1875 ; 30 lives lost. 

OatinaL Freuch 2nd class cruiser. (GraavUI 

Length 3.pfL Beam 44fL Maximum draught 3lf 
Displacement 4,000 tons. Complement 378. 

" Steel." 
3 in. Deck. 
3 in. Casemates. 
2 in. Conning tower. 


4 — 6*4 in., 45 cal. 
10 — ^4 in. 
10— 3 pdr. 
4 — [ pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes {ij'j in.). 
2 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. 8.500^ 195 kts. Coal 
mum 750 lona. -Approximate cost £350.000. 

Cato. 50 guzu. On November 5, 17S3. thb 
vessel was lost on the Malabar coast, when AdmiiaJ 
Sir Hyde Parker (q.v.) and the crew perished. 

Cat-rig. A rig formed of one sail, fore-and-aft 
mainsail, used by pleasure-boats in light wind. 

Cat's-paw. A term used to indicate a light wind 
springing up in a calm ; a name also given to a 
particular twisting hitch made iu the bight of a 

Catterthun. Steamer, from Sydney to Hong 
Kong, wrecked on the Seal Rocks oR Cape Hawk. 
August 8, 1895 ; 65 hvcs lost. 

Cattle Clauses, Sea Clauses. 

CaoUdng. Forcing oakum into the seams o( the 
planks of a ship's deck to prevent leakage. 

CavaL A large cleat for securing ropes. 

Cave, Admiral John Halliday. C.B. (b. 182;]. 

Entered the Navy, 1849; lieulcaant ol Frinctu 
Royai iu the Baltic Expedition. 1854. and senior 
heutenant of the Diamond attached to the Naval 
Brigade at the siege of Sebostopol ; present at the 
storming of the Redan, 1S55 ; mentioned in de- 
spatches (Crimea, Baltic, and Turkish medals, 
Sebastopo! clasp. Kright of the Legion of Honour, 
Stb Oa^ Medjidic). 



OsireiidiBb. Thomu (i 560-93) (b. Tiimley St. 
Mary). Commandert an eicpnJiHoa to the South 
Seas in 1586. Sailing from Plymouth with three 
small vessels be passed through the Straits of 
Magdlan, and cruised along the coast of Chili, Peru, 
and Ueirico. He sank many Spanish ships, and 
captured off the coast of California the Santa A nna. 
a vessel belonging to the King of Spain, with a 
cargo of immense valoe. Returning to England 
with his plunder by way of the Cape of Ciood 
\^rrpe, he reached Plymouth on September 9. 
having dicumnavi gated the globe in 2 years and 
55 days. The second voyage which be undertook 
with five vessels was a most disastrous one. His 
crews nere mutinous, and after leaving the Straits 
of Magellan they obliged him to steer for Eng- 
land, and hr died on the voyage home m 1592. 
He is attributed with having discovered a harbour 
which he named Port Desire on the east coast of 

CbvO. See Drat. 

CE. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Colcrainc, Ireland. 

Cteille. French snd class cruiser. (La 5e3mc, 


L«ogth 378ft. Beam 49ft. Maximum draught soft. 
Displacement 5.800 tons. Complement 486. 
Guns. Armour. 

S — 64 in. " Sted." 

10 — 5'5 in. 4 in. Deck ainidsliips. 

6—6-8 in. 

Torpedo Titbts. 

4 .\bove water. 

Hp. 10.200=^19 ktfi. Coal maximum 1.000 tons. 

Ctatmr. 74 guns. On September 2 1 , 1783, 
this vessel foundered on her passage from Jamaica. 
Most of the otTicers and crew were lost. 

Oantiaro. ItaUan torpedo-boat (Naples, 1906.) 
Length, 165 tL '. beam. 17 ft. : draught, 7 ft. : dis- 
placement, ioo tons : armament, 3 j-pdr., 3 tubes ; 
twin screw ; Hp., 3,ooo«z5 lets. ; coat, 40 tons. 

Gntiind*. The thermometer scale, frequently 
called after Celsius, in general use on the Continent. 
in which the interval between the freezing and 
boiUng pomts is divided into 100'. the freezing 
point b<ung o", and the boiling point loo*", 

Omlrft-board. A drop keel used in racing crafts, 
its object bring to prevent a boat making leeway. 

Centre of baosraooy. Term used in naval archi- 
tecture for tlic mean centre of that part of a vessel 
which K below the water line. 

Omtarion. British ist class battJeship. (Ports- 

fDOUlh, \A<)2.) 

Length 360ft. Beam 70ft. Maximum draught 27ft. 
Displacement (since reconstruction) 11,000 tons. 
ComE)lement 630. 


" Compound Harvey.** 
13 in. Belt amidships. 
9 in. Barbettes. 
12 in. Conning tower. 


4 — 10 in.. 30 cal. 
10 — 6 in. 
8 — 6 pdr. 
14—3 pdr. 
2 — 9 pdr. Boat. 
3 Maxims. 

Torpedo Titb«s (18 hi.). 
2 Submerged. 
1 Above water stenL 
Twin screw. Hp. natural 9.000=17 kis.. forced 
13,000=18*5 lets. CoaI maximum 1,13$ tons. 
Appnuciroatc cost ^630,000. 
This ship-name has been used in the Navy since 
15S0, and is associated with defeat of the Spanish 
.Annada, 15A8 ; Blake's action with Tromp off 
Dover. i6s> ; battle off the North Foreland. 1653 ; 
battle off Lowestoft. 1665 ; St. James's fight. 
1666 : BaHlcur and t.a Hogue, 1693 : Anson's 
circum navigation, 1 740-44 ; capture of the Acapuico 
galleon, I742 ; Anson's \*ictory off Finisterre, 1747 ; 
expedition to Quebec. 1759 : reduction of Havana. 
1752 : Barringtoa at St. Lucta. 1778 ; Rodney's 
action against De Guichen. 1780; capture of the 
Dutch East Indian Settlements, 1795 ; action off 
Vixagspatam. 1804. 

Ctram. Dutch gun-boat. 
Length 176ft. Beam3$ft. Maximum draught lift. 
Displaccmont 541 tons. Complement Hi. 
3—4*7 in. 
1 — 3*9 in. 
3 — I '4 in. 
Hp. 8.000=12 kts. CoaI maximum 140,1008. 
Of no fighting value. 

OerMre. A French gun-brig of seven guns and 
a crew of 87 captured by Lieutenant Coghlaa in 
the liarbour of L'Oricnt. July 36, r8oo. 

0«nl« de la Voile de Paris. KstahUshed 1S58. 
President. Georges Pottier ; Vice-Presidents, E. 
Laveme. J. Valton ; Treasurer, Fcrdiaoad Doucet ; 
Honorary Secretary. Jacques Baudrier. 53 Rue de 
Chateaudun. Paris ; Oub House. Mureaux (Seine 
and Oise). Entrance fee, 40 francs ; annual 
subscription, 60 francs. , 

Cerde de la Tofle de Poi»y. HsUblishcd 1888. 
President. A. Leroy : Vice-President. G. Waren- 
horst ; Rear-Commodore, H. Descombes ; Treas- 
urer, C. Liegard ; Secretary. P. Malet, Hotel 
de TE^tur^eon. Poissy (Seine and Oise). Annual 
subscription, 10 francs. 

Oeres. On November 10. 1866, this vessel was 
lost near Comsoe. Ireland ; 36 lives lost. 

Oenrera y Topete. Pascaal. Spanish admiral (b. 
i^30)' Admiral -in -Chief during the Spanish- 
American war, 1808 : was blockaded at Santiago 
by (he American admiral Samson, who oo July 3 
defeated the Spanish fleet, compelled by force of 


I [6 


public opinion in Spain, though against Ccrvera's 
better judgment, attempted an escape, which re- 
sulted in the destruction or capture of every 
Spanish ship, tlie death ol cnc-third o( their men, 
and the surrender of Orvera as prisoner o( war. 

Cesaievitch. Sm Tse-sarevitch. 

Ceylon Steamship Co.. Ltd., ^^-ith their head office 
in Colombo. Ccylou. have a fleet ol two modern 
steamers engaged in a weekly service round the 
Island of Ceylon. 


Liuiy Gordon. Lady Hmchck. 

CJ. DistiTigaishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Cardilf. Kngland. 

CITX In a mercantile contract these letters 
stajid Toi " cost, freight, and insurance." and mean 
that the price paid covers the cost of the rckkIs to 
be sent, their freight, and insuiance during transit. 
When goods are sold under a C.F.I, contract the 
seller fulfils his part of tlie contract when he ships 
the goods, and hnnds to the consignee the shipping 
documents and policy of insurance ui conionnity 
wth the contract. 

O.I}. Coast guard. Abbreviation adopted on 
the charts issued by the Hydrographic Office, 

0.0. Distmguislung letters on sea Aalung boats 

registered at Kallantsoog, Holland. 

C.H. Distinguishing letters on sea 5shing boats 
registered at Cherbourg, France. 

C.H. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Chester, England. 

Oh. Church. Abbreviation adopted on the 
charts issued by the Hydrograpliic Office. Ad- 

Obacabuoo. Chilian protected cruiser. {Elswick, 

Length 36r.ft. Beam 4Gft. M<ix:taCTi draught soft. 
Diaplacemt-iit 4,joo tons. Coinp'.-.uicnt 400. 
Guns. Afttutur. 

2 — 8 in. ' Harvey-nickcI," 

10 — 47 in. 4J in. Deck. 

13— IJ pdr. 4 in. Gun shields. 

6 — 3|pdr. 

Torpedo Tube*. 
5 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. forced— 24 kts. Coal 
maximum 1.000 tons. 

Cbacahaoo. Iron&hlp. Went down in the Channel 
after colliiiion with the* steamer Torch, March 1, 
1873 : 24 lives lost. 

Chads, Admiral Sir Henry Docie, K.C3., cr. 1S&7 
(b. itiiy). liducatcd Ruyai Naval College. Ports- 
mouth ; as mid. served and engaged in boats of 
^ndromacMe in action tvitb pirates and suppression 

of piracy m the Strait» of Malacca. iBi6 ; senior 
lieatenant of Harlaquin, 'was woundcil in an attack 
on pirates in the Island of Sumatra. 1844; as 
captain was present at the capture of Bomarsund 
in the Baltic, and specially recommendc-d to tlio 
Admiralty by the marshal commanding the French 
troops (Baltic medal) : captain superintendent of 
Ueptlord Dock and VictiiaUing Yards. 1863-66; 
rear-admiral, 1S66 ; flag-officer second in comauuul 
Cliannc-l flcvt, 1S69-70 ; viL<.--adm.iral, 1872; Com- 
mander-in-Chief at the Norc, 187(^-77 ; admiral, 
1877 ; K.C.B.. 1887 ; retired. 1884. 

Chaffer. A name applied to a whale or grampus 
in the northern seas. S 

Chafing mate. Mats used to protect the rigging. 

Choimite. Portuguese gun-boat (1897)* Dis- 
placement. 340 Ions, At present on the Zambesi. 

Chain. A connected series of hnks of metal 
passing through each other so as to move more or 
less freely, and thus form a strong but flexible 
string, used for various purposes, as for restraint. 
support, connection, transmission of mechanical 
power, etc. Chain making is a special iodiistry. 
The welding of the links until recently was almost 
entirely done by hand. The manufacture of weld- 
less steel chains of a size up to one inch diameter 
metal is now accomplished by machinery. Chain 
cables arc gcncraUy made in lengths of from iz| to 
35 fathoms, the lunglli being joined together by 
shackles. A cable's lengtli is 100 fathoms of 
6'oS ft. each, and is one-tenth of a nautical mile. 
The targe-st sizes of cliaii\s pass, before use, certain 
standard tests undur Lloyd's Register, which im- 
pose a strain sufficient to detect bad material or 
workmanship, yet not so severe as to injure fie 
metal; Cliains used as cables on British ships 
must pass a statutory test and be properly stamped. 
The various Lest requirements of the British 
Admiralty and the United States Testing Board 
can be found in Kent's "Mechanical Engineers' 
Pockct-Book," 1901. The breaking strain of any 
chain may be calculated from its cross section, to 
the area of wliich it bears a fixed proportion. The 
largest mooring chains on record were made in 
1907 lor osc on the Mauretania and Lusitania. 
the links were 4^ and 1;^ diameter, the weight of 
each end link 336 pounds, and each common hnk 
343 pounds, the swivel connection weighing 4.485 
pounds, and each shackle /ri [x>und$, giving a 
total weight of moorings of over 200 tons. 

Chain. A measure of 66 feet. 

Chain cables. All vcbsels have to carry anchc 
and chain cables tested up to a strain ranging wit 
till' si«i; of the vessel. 

Chain-plates. Iron plates, the lower ends 
which are bolted to the ship's side, to wliich the 
dead-eycfi are fastened. 




duun-pamp. A large hand porop, worked by 
endless chains producing a continaous flow of 


Challenger. See Challenger Expedition. 


Oballenx«r. British =nd class cniiKr. 
ham. 1903). 

length J55ft. Beam j6ft. &>[axiTniini dmught 2ih. 
Displacement 5,880 tons. Complement 475. 
Gunt. Armour. 

II— <Sin. 3 in. Deck amidships. 

8 — 13 pdr. f> in. Conning tower. 

I — 12 pdr., a cwt. 
6— 5 pdr. 
2 Maxims. 
^^B Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 

^^^r 3 Subrnrrgcd. 

W Twin screw, Hp. 13.500=21 kts. Coal maxi- 

■ mum i,32<; tons. Approximate coat £420,000. 

I ChaUeii«er Expedition. H, M.S. Challmger. a 

I British man-of-war selected by the Admiralty to 

■ carry out an investigation of the physical and bio- 
I logical conditions of tlie great ocean basins, was a 

steam corvette, with a spar upper deck, of 2.300 
tons displacement, ami 1,300 Hp. Only two guns 
were retained, and the space occupied by the other 
guns, ammunition, etc., was utilised in providing 
accommodation for zoological and chemical iabora- 
tniies and other workrooms, and for scientific 
appvata. special sounding and dredging platforms 
being erected, and also an engine for hauling in 
the dredging and sounding Lines. The fitting-out of 
the ChaiUtiger wa3 coninu-nced in June, 1872, and 
she sailed from Portsmouth on Uec-eiubor 21, 1672, 
retummg to that port on the completion of her 
circumnavigating voyage on May 34, 1676. During 
this period of three years and five months the 
distance sailed was nearly 69,000 miles, and about 
500 deep sea soundings, as well as 133 dredgings, 
i$i trawlings. and 265 series ol temperature obser- 
vations beneath the surface, were taken. 

The Challenger carried a full complement ol 
oavml officers and men, under tJie command of 
Captain G. S. Nares. who was replaced at Hoog 
Kong by Captain F. T. Thomson. The scientific 
work was entrusted to a civilian stafT, consisting of 

» Professor C. W>'>'ille Thomson, director ; J. Y 
Buchanan, chemist ; H. N. Moscley. naturalist ; 
John Murray, naturalist ; R. von Willemoes-Suhm, 
naturalist ; and J. J. Wild, secretary and artist. Dr. 
von Willemoes-Suhm died during the course of the 
cruise io the Pacific, and the only surviving 
Bt«nb«rs of tltc civilian staff at the presmt day are 
Sir John Murray and Mr. J. Y. Buchaiuin. 

» After the return of the expedition, the work of 
preparing the scientific n»u1ta of the voyage for 
publication was at first under the direction of 
Professor Sir C. WyMUe Tbomsou, wlio dte^j in 
i88>2, the direction then parvsing into the hands oi 
hii chief assistant. Mr. (afterwards Sir) John 

Mmray. Th« official reports, pubhshed by H.M. 
Government. 6lletl 50 large quarto volumee. 
which appeared at intervals between the years 
1880 und 189s. and contained 39,500 pages, illustra- 
ted by 3.000 hthographic and chromolithograpbic 
plates and maps, and thousands of wood-cuts In 
the text. The list of 76 authors inchides the 
names of scientists of world-wide reputation — 
British, Colonial, Continental, and American — 
who dc\'Otctl in many caMts years uf study and pains- 
taking labour to the department of knowlcdgu 
allotted to them. The scientific work carried out 
on board H.M.S. Challenger practically laid the 
foundations of the recent science of occanc^aphy. 
and the published results of that work formed the 
starting-point for all subsequent rc-scarcUt-s. 

In addition to the Official Rciwrts, edited by Sir 
John Murray {50 vols., 1880-95). of thcexpcdition, 
sec Spry '9 "Cruise of H.M.S. Challenger," 1 876. 
" Notes by a Naturalist " (Moscley, 1879). Befer to 
Murray, Sir John. 

Cbunber oH Commerce. A, of which there arc 
more than 100 lu the United Kingdom, is an 
association of merchants, manufacturers, capitalista 
and oUicns engaged in commerce, for the purpose 
of promoting meicaniite and industrial iutoicsts 
m general, and those o[ their own district in 
particular. Some chambers of commerce arc 
incorporated by charter, oLhen> incorporated and 
registered under the Companies .\ct5 and licensed 
by the Board of Trade, and others neither incor- 
porated, registered nor licensed. They collect 
statistics and information on all matters relating 
to trade, discuss measures affecting their interests, 
and represent their views to the pnblic authorities. 
Action with regard to legisiati^'c measures is taken 
by petitionmg Parliament by the representation to 
the House of their views through some private 

The earUest Chambftr of Commerce in Great 
Britain was that of Glasgow, incorporated in 1783. 
The London Chamber of Commerce was formed in 
I8S2, and the AjiLsociaiion of Chambers of Commerce 
of the United Kingdom, which mcctu in conference 
annually lor the discussion and promotion of 
measures afToctiog trade and commcraal interests, 
was founded in ]&6o. 

Ohamber ot SbiyyhiS is an association of mer- 
chants of the United Kingdom, established in 1878, 
(or the purposes of Parhamentary work and com- 
munication witli the i>rincii>aJ C^vemment depart- 
ments on matters relating lo -ihipping. 

It consists of two committees. (1) The Ship- 
owners' Parliaroentar)' Cotnimttee, which watches 
public BilU aflecting shipping matters, and k>okfi 
after Parliamentar)* shipping interests, [z) A 
Documentary Conimiltc«, which dtsals with cttartcr- 
parties. bills of lading, aod the forms of maritime 




Chambers, OeotKfl (1803-40). Marine painter 
(b. Whitby). For several years pursued a life of 
the sea. He was employed by Thomas Homer to 
assist in painting tlte great panor&ma. of London 
for the Coliseum (the exhibition bnilding in Regent's 
Park, which has since been demolished). Hift best 
works represent naval battles. Two of these — 
" The Bombardment of Algiers " (1836) and 
" The Capture of Porto Belle " — are in Greenwich 

Chjunhers, John, Lowestoft. This firm was 
established in 1878 a* " Page and Chambers," the 
title being altered succcseiNcly to " Page and Co.," 
" Chambers and Colby." and " John Chambers." 
Over 260 wood-built ntssvcIs of \-arioas descriptions 
have been launched, including yachts, lifcboaLa, 
cargo vessels, dccp-sca trawlers, and herring 
driftt-rs. Among the vessels built may be men- 
tioned the yacht Hoyden (for Mr. T. G. Bowles), 
the yacht Zephyr (for Mr. B. Dowson). the 
yacht Meridtn (for Mr. E, R. T. Croxall). and the 
herrlDg drifter Consotalion. This latter was the 
first steam herring boat on the coast, and was so 
successful that the firm have launched subsequently 
80 of this well-known t>*pe of steamer. The advent 
of the steam drifter has. in fact, revolutionised the 
herring fishery of the Kingdom. The last vessel 
launched wa^ the Thomas B. Miller, a. mission 
trawler for the Royal National Mission to Deep Sea 

Cbamoia. British torpedo-boat destroyer. Foun- 
dered in the Gulf of Patras through one of her screw 
blades coming off and piercing her bottom. 

Cbamplain, Battle ol Lake. Fought in 1814. when 
the American frigates commanded by Macdonnugh 
defeated the British fleet. 

Cbamplam, Samuel d« (1567-1635)- First French 
Governor oi Canada (b. Brouage). Sailed for 
Canada in 1603 ; on his third voyage he founded 
Quebec, discovered the lake which now bears his 
name, and established a flourishing fur trade. He 
was brought to England a prisoner when Quebec 
foLl before the British, 1629 ; but by (he treaty of 
St. Germain, when Canada was restored to the 
French, 1632, he was released, and again became 
Governor, and remained 90 till his death. 

5« " Life," in French, by Dionnc, 1891, and 
by Gravier, igoo. 

Charopness, H. Robert, H.V.O. (b. 1852). 
Educated Old Brompton, Kent ; Assistant Director 
of Naval Construcrion at the Admiralty ; entered 
H.M. Dockyard, Chatham, in 1866, at the age of 14, 
taking first place in competition for entry. After 
four years spent in theoretical study and acquiring 
a practical knowledge, ho obtained second place 
at the examination for admission to the Royal 
School of Naval Architecture, then located at South 
Kensington Museum, and joined there in 1870 ; at 
the end of his Uiird session, tlie school was trans- 
ferred to the Royal Naval College, Greenwich, 

where his final session was paned : he was then 
appointed to the Drawing Office at Chatham Yard. 
where, after one year, he proceeded to the Admi- 
ralty tor duty and. returning to Chatham in 1875. 
was appointed to assist In supervising the con- 
struction of H.M.S. TinUraire; in May. 1877, Iw 
was again transferred to the Admiralty, where he 
remained till Match, 188$. being appointed a 
second-class Assistant Constructor on the Estab- 
lishment of the Royal Corps of Naval Constructors 
in 1S83 ; from the Admiralty he was appointed 
overseer to the Barrow Shipbuilding Works, and 
while there he received the thanks of the Admiralty 
for a report upon a type of submarine torpedo-boat ; 
in November, 1R86, he was sent to Portsmouth to 
reorganise the Drawing Ofhce staff ; he was pro- 
moted to first -cla.u Assistant Constructor in Novem- 
ber, 1889, and in that capacity, until April, (895, 
he was closely ossociatcsd with, and largely responsi- 
ble for. the accelerated rate of ."ihipbuilding. hav-ing 
charge of H.M.S. Centurion, and later of the Royal 
Sovereign class of battleships, on delivery from 
contractors, as well as of the building of the 
Majestic, Princ* George, and Casttr. In April, 
1895, he was appointed to Malta Yard as Chief 
Constructor, and remained till April. 1897. The 
thanks of the Admiralty were conveyed to htm foi 
expedition in fitting bUgc keels to H.M.S. Barfleut 
in three weeks, and the Governor of Malta also 
eotprcssed satisfaction with the work done in pie- 
paring transports for conveyance of troops to Crete. 
In February, 1897. he was appointed chief eoa- 
f^tructor at Devonport, just after the first modem 
Ixitlleship at that yard had been laid down, and 
held this appointment unHl the end of 1902 ; at the 
launch by Her Majesty the Queen of 11. M.S. Queen. 
on March 8, 1902, when His Majesty the King also 
laid the first keel plate of H.M.S. King Edward VII.. 
he was decorated by His Majesty with the fourth 
class of the Royal Victorian Order ; wa.s appointed 
Assistant Director of Naval Construction, taking np 
the appointment on January 1, 1903. Member 
of Insritntion of Naval .■Vrchitects. 

Publication : A paper on the " Launch of a 
Battleship," read before the tnstjtution of filecfaaju* 
cal Engineers. 

Chan. Channel, Abbreviation adopted on the 
charts issued by the Hydrographic Ofl^ce. Admi- 

Change ol Voyage, Ttiis expression in the Oovia* 
tion Clause refers only to a change after the policy 
has once attached by the commencement of a 
voyage of such a kind that, if not changed, it would 
bave been within the pohcy. It has been held 
that an initial declaration of insurance on any other 
voyage is outside the policy, and that therefore the 
"cbangeof voyage" never took effect at all in such 
a case. {Israel v. Sedgwick, S Times Law Reports. 
72A ; also Gow on Marine Insurance, p. 61.) 

Jitfer to Deviation ; also Clauses. 




*'^»*»' See Trinity House l*ilotage Districts ; 

Cbonoel IsUnds T*oht Club, Rorftl. Set Royal 

Cliann*;! Isiiindb Yacht Club. 

(Bunnell or OhAliu. Projcctious over a ship's 
side on which the rigging in fiprcad. 

Ohanxy. French snd class cruiser. (Bordeaux, 


Length 361 ft. Beam 46 ft. Maximum draaght soft. 
Displacement 4,750 tons. Complement 570. 
Guns. Armour. 

a — 7*6 in.. 45 cal. " Crcn«ot " ste«l. 
6 — 5*5 in. 4 in. Belt amidships. 

6—9 pdr. 4 in. Turrets. 

4 — 3 P^l'- 4 ^f^- Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes (tj'? in.). 
4 Above water. 
Twin screw, Up. 8,300= iS's kts. Coal normal 
406 tons. Approximate cost £350,000. 

This vessel went ashore off the coast of China, a 
little below Shanghai, and was abandoned. 

Chaplains, NavaL See Na\'al Education. 

Chaifcf. British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Pop- 
lar. 1894.V T-ength, 190 ft. ; beam, 18 ft. ; draught, 
5i ft. ; displacement. 250 tons ; complement. 45 ; 
armament, t iz-pdr., 5 6-pdr., a tabes ; twin scr«w ; 
Hp., 3.100=27 kts. ; coal, 60 tons. 

Cbargoors Biaais (French Steam Navigation 
Co.) have a fleet of 35 excellent stcamera, fitted with 
all the latest modem improvements (or the trade in 
which they are engaged. A service is maintaine<l 
from HavTe, Dunkirk, Bordeaux, and Marseilles 
at scheduled times for Colombo, Singapore, Saigon, 
Tourane. and Haiphong, taking passengers and 
cazgo (or transhipment, for Bangkok, Pnom-Penli, 
and Hanoi. A monthly service (or the West Coast 
of Africa sailing from Havre and Bordeaux, (or 
Tenerifie, Dakar, Conakry, Grand Bassa, Grand 
Lahou, Cotonou, Ubrev-ille, Cap I.opex. Setto-Cama, 
Mayumba, Loango, Banana, Boma, and Matadi. A 
ser\'ice for Brazil from liavrc and Dunkirk for 
Vigo, Leixoes, Lisbon, Pemumbuco, Bahia, Kio de 
Janeiro, and Santos. A service to La Plata from 
Havre, Dunkirk and Bordeaux, calling at Vigo, 
Teoeriffe. Monte Video and Buenos Aires. A Far 
East service leaves Antwerp and Dunkirk for 
Singapore, Shanghai, Hankow, Taku, Japanese 
ports, San Franct.-K:o, and the River Plate. 

Admiral Alty, Campana. 

Admiral Attbs. Campintu. 

Admiral Battdin. Canarias. 

Admiral Courbet. CanRwUttf. 

Admiral d« Kef taint. Carolina. 

Admiral Exeimam. Choiun. 

Admiral I-'ourtchuti. Colombia. 

Admiral ffamelin, Catonia, 

Admiral Jaureguibfrry, Ci»tic«rdia. 

Admiral Laloueiu TrwiUe. 

Admiral Ma^on. 

Admiral Nitlfy. 

Admiral PotUy. 

Admiral Rigault de GenouiUy. 

Admiral Sailandroiuc de 


Admiral Superr*. 

Admiral Troudg. 

Santa E'e. 
Ville de Maceio. 
Ville de Maranao. 

ChBrlemAgne. French ist clans battleship. 
(Brrtt. U«J5.) 

Length 337 ft. Beam 67 ft. Maximum draught 28 h. 
Displacement 11,260 tons. Complement 631. 
Guns. Armour. 

4 — 12 in. " Harvey -nickel." 

10 — s'$ in, 14 in. Belt amidships. 

8 — 4 in. 1 3 in. Turrets. 

20 — 3 pdr. 1 2 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes (177 in.). 
4. Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 14.500=18 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 1,100 tons. Approximate cost j^i, 100,000, 

Cborlemaffne. Iron clipper. Wrecked on the 
coast near Canton, March 20. 1857; the loas 
amounted to about ^ 

Charleniont« Packet Lost between Holyhead 
and Dublin, December 23, 1790, when 104 of the 
passengers and crew were drowned. 

(Hiades. tn 163 1 this vessel, commanded by 
Lake Fox, explored the western side of Hudson's 
Bay as far as a place called Sir Thomas Roc's 
Welcome. In August he met Captain Jainc^ and 
the Bristol ship Maria [if-V.) in Hudson's Bay, and 
together they went North, and reached 66* 47' N. 
Refer to Arctic Exploration. 

Charles Uartel. French ist class battleship. 
(Brest. 1893.1 

Length 390 ft. Beam 70 ft. Maximum draught 17 ft. 
Displacement 11,862 tonb. Comptrmcnt 620. 
Guns. .Armour. 

3—12 in,. 45 cal. " Creusot steel." 
2 — io'8 in. 18 in. Belt amidships. 

8 — 5"5 in. J 5 in. Turrets. 

4 — 9 pdr, 9 in. Conning tower. 

30—3 pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes (17*7 in.). 

3 Submerged. 

4 Above water. 

Twin screw. Hp. 14^500=18 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 1,000 tons. Approximate cost £1.000,000. 

Oharlestoa. U.S. lat class cruiser (1903)* 
Length 433 ft. Beam 65(1. Maximum draught 33 ft. 
Displacemeat 9,700 tons. Complement 564. 
Guns. Armour. 

14—6 in. "' Krupp." 

j8— 14 pdr, 4 im Belt amidships. 

13 — 3 pdr, 4 in. Battery. 

12 — I pdr. 5 in. Conning tower. 

8 Colts. 




Torpedo Tuhei. 

2 Submfrgrd. 
Twin screw, lip.^3i'> lets. Coal maxi- 
roum i.suo tons. 

Charner. French armouml cruiser. (Rochefort. 

Length 348(t. Beam 461t. Maximum draught igft. 
DisptacomcDt <(,70«) tonit. Complement 375. 
Guns. Atmour, 

3 — 76 in. "Steel." 

6—6*5 ii'- 4 >"• ^)t amidships. 

14 Small. 5 in. Barbettes. 

4 in. Conning tower. 
Hp. 8,300= iS kts. Coal 500 tons. 

Chart. A hydrographit map representing a por< 
tion of the earth's suriace projecttd 011 a plane. 
The tcini is commonly n'btricled to those intended 
lor navigators' uae on which merely the outlines of 
coasts, islands, etc., arc represented. In tlie 
earliest charts the earth's surface was regarded as 
flat, and it was not until 1569 that Meixalor 
treated it from a spherical point of view. Motlcrn 
Admiralty charts arc prepared and issued by direc- 
tion of the Hydrographic Depaxtmpnt. In Ad- 
miralty charts all the information necessary to a 
navigator is included, and the recognised abbrevia- 
tions use<l arc as IoHoks : In the caae of buoy» 
capital letters are used to denote their difference 
in colour ; the quality of the sea bottom is ex- 
pressed in small letters ; soundings are shown in 
fathoms when numerals are market! on the white 
surface, and in (eet when appearing on tiie dotted 
surface ; lights arc shown by a yellow dot with a 
red spot in the middle : currents indicated by a 
feathered arrow in the direction of their flow ; 
rocks IxJow the surface by a dotted circle with a 
cross inside ; rocks awash or above wat«r by a 
dotted circle, witli one or more dots according to 
the number ol rocks indicated. 

Cliaxtered compuiiM arc companies which have 
been granted a charter by the Crown, auihorising 
tlirm to carry on certain business. Formerly 
chartered companit-s were formed for tile purposes 
of colonisation and the expansion of the Empire, 
and possessed an exclusive monopoly of trade and 
great powers of governance, as in the case of the 
old East India Company ; hut modern chartered 
companies which are principally engaged in trade 
are confined by the rights and powers they acquire 
on concession, the Crown merely authorising or 
recognising the acquisition of such rights and 
powers — €.g,, tlie Royal Niger Co., 1886; the Im- 
perial British East Africa Co.. 18^9 : the South 
African Co.. 1889. lig/er to South Sea Bubble. 

Chartered freight. Sm Freight. 

Charter-party. A charter-party is a contract 
between a ^hipo»nc■^ and a meichant, by which 
the former agrees to piece a ship, at a part thereof, 
at the disposal of the latter (called the charterer] for 

a pftTticular voyage or voyages, or for a certain 
period of time, [t may be made verbaily, but is 
usually in writing, and must, to be available in a 
court ol law, bear a ■>ixpcany stamp, I'nlLss the 
contract amount to a demise or lease oi the ship. 
th« ownership of the vessel continaee in the ship- 
owner, and her master and crew are his servants. 
The provisions oi the Hxittcn contract, wtiich can- 
not be contradicted or varied by parol evidence, 
are either conditions precedent, the tu^ach of 
which by one party entitles the other to r\;pudiate 
the contract, or collateral promises, the breach 
of which only gives ttie injured party the right to 
damages. Whether a particular clause amounts 
to a condition or is merely a warranty iq.v.) de- 
pends upon the intention and meaning of the parties 
as appears on the instrument; but all representa- 
tions concerning the ship are iicated as condition!, 
and a shipowner who knowingly makes a mis- 
representation with regard to the ship is liable to 
an action for deceit. The proper persons to sac 
or be sued under the contract arc primarily the 
contracting parties, but where made by agents i3ut 
ordinary law of principal and agent [q.v.) applies. 

Kffer to Affreightment, Broker. Fire of Expense 
to Ship, He or They Pajing Freight, Brought 
Alongside. Always Afloat. 

Oharjrbdis. British 2nd class cruiser. {Sheer- 
ness, 1893.) 

Length jiuft. Beam 4(jfl. Maxiniuni draught 2lft. 
Displacement 4,360 tons. Complement 318. 
Guns. Armour. 

2—6 in, " Steel." 

8—47 in. 3 in. Deck. 

8 — 6 pdr. J in. Conning tower. 

1—3 pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
4 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. natural 7.000=18 kta.. foreed 
9,000^19*; kts. Coat maximum tons. 
Approximate cost £250,000. 

Chanakmp-Laubat French 2nd doss cr 
(Cherbourg. iSyj.) 

Length 308ft. Beam 43ft. Maximum draught aafi. 
Displaccmtnt 3,773 tou5. ConipK-ment 358. 
Cum. Armour, 

6—6*4 in- 3 io. Deck. 

4 — 4 in. 2 in. Sponsons. 

4—3 pdr. 
II — I pdr. 

Torpedo Tuhts. 
2 Above water. 
Twin screw, lip. 9,500=19 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 587 tons. Approximate cost /300.000. 

OhasMhrap-Iatibat, Harquia de (b. June u. 
1863). In iSAq joined the £cole Central des .Arts 
ct Manufacturc-s ns a mechanical engiaeer, and 
later graduated from the Institution of Civil 
Engineers of France, obtaining the No£o pri«c in 
1897 for naval work, and subsequently Iwcame 



manager of the Soci6t6 des ChanHers and Ateliers 
o( Gironde. He Is treasurer o( the Society of Gvi) 
Engineers of France and vice-president of the I-igue 
Maritime Fran^isc. Assoc, of the Inst, of Naval 

Publications : " Remarks on the Battle of 
Yolon, and the Conditions that Warships have to 
fulfil " (April. i8g6), " Marine Boilers " (April. 
1897), "The Different Modes of Gunnery on 
Ships " (April, 1898)," The Naval Strength of Spain 
and America " (May, 1808). " Naval Materials " 
(July. i8981."LarReMailSteamers'*(i8<>8)." Notes. 
on the Evolution of the Construction of Warships " 
(February. 1900). " Modern Ships of War " (edited 
by V. r. Danod, Paris. lyoj). 

Obasse-Haries. A coasting vessel used on the 
French shores of the Channel. Ingger'riggcd, with 
two or three masts and sometimes a top-sail. 

Ohsssiron Light, situated in the Bay of Biscay. 
established tS>>5. is a single Saab light every 
10 seconds ; duration of fla;h. half second ; candie- 
power. 360.000 maxinmm ; bnmer, mantle 30 mm. 
diameter ; illitminant. incandescent oil gas. 

Chatcaarenanlt French sod class cmiaer. (La 
Scync, 189S.} 
Length 457 ft. Beam 56 ft. Mean draught u ft. 
Displacement S,oi8 tons. Complement 600. 
Guff-f. Armour, 

3— 6'4 in., 45 cal. 3 in. Deck. 
fr— 3'S in. I J in. Ca^mates. 

10—3 pdr. 
Three screws. Hp. 33.000=23 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum ^.foo ton5. Approximate cost /6io,ooo. 

OhatfleU. Adninl Alfred JTobn* O.B.. cr. 1S87 
(b. i^jf|- Entered Navy, 1S46; sub- lieutenant. 
1851 ; Ueutt'nant, 1854; lieutenant of Gladiator in 
Baltic expedition, 1854 ; preoeot at bombardment 
of Bomarsund (Baltic mcrlat) ; alio in the Black 
Sea, the blockade of Odessa, and all operations 
before Sebastopol, and at capture of Kiabum 
^Crimea and Turkish mcdab, Sebastopol clasp) ; 
commander. 1S63 ; captain. 18^ : captain of 
Amtihyst blockading the coast during tlie Ashantee 
campaign. 1874 (Ashantee medal) ; joined in the 
engagement with the Peruvian tnrret ship Muascat, 
1877 : conuuondcd on south-east coa:£t of America 
for two years, and H.M.S. Thundettr m Mediter- 
ranean : superintendent Pembroke Dockyard, 188)- 
85 ; awarded good service pension, 1882 : rear- 
admtraJ. 18S6 ; vice admiral, iSsii ; admiral, 1897. 

Chatham. See Docki,-aids, Naval. 

Chattanooga. U-S. 3rd class cruiser (lAgil. 
Liengih 793tt. Beam 44ft. Maximum draught 17ft. 
Displaci>racnt j.3oo tons. Complrmcnt 293. 
Guru. A rmour. 

10 — 5 in. " l[ar\'ey-nickeL" 

8 — 6 pdr. a In. Deck. 

2 — I pdr. 
s Colls. 

Twin screw. Mp. 4,soo~iA'S kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 700 tons. 

0haiUlC67. U.S. torpedo-boat destroyer (1900). 
Displacement. 4J0 tons ; complement. 64 ; guns, 
2 i4pdr., s 6-pdr. ; torpedo tubes, 2 iS-ta. amid- 
ships and aft ; Hp.. 8,000 = ^9 kts. ; coal. 139 tons. 

Cheeks. Pieces of timber in duplicate and corre- 
sponding perfectly to each other. 

Cheerful. Liverpool steamer. In collision with 
H.M.S. Heclij in the Bristol ChanneJ, July 21. 
1885 ; I J livM lost. 

OhaerfaL British torpedo-boat deatroyor. (Hcb- 
bum. 1897.} Length, 310 ft, ; beam. 31 f L : 
draught. 8 it. ; displacement. 308 tons : comple- 
ment, 6a ; armament, i ra-pdr., 5 6-pdr., 2 tubct ; 
twin screw ; Hp., 6.000=30 kts. ; coal, 82 tons. 

Cbelmer, British torpedo-boat destro^'er. (Cfais- 
wick. 1904.) length. 222 ft. ; beam, 33^ ft. : 
draught, gj ft. ; displacement, 600 tons ; comple- 
ment, 72 : armam'-'nt, t ts-pdr., < rt-pdr., 2 tubes ; 
twin screw ; Hp., 7, 500=^35 kts, ; cool. 136 toos. 

Cheq. Chequered (near a buoy). Abbreviation 
a<lopte<I on the charts issued by the Hydrographic 
Oflict. Adrtirslty. 

OhernoniDrets. Russi.-in gun-vessel. Black Sea. 
(Nicolaiefl, 1899.) Length, 210 ft. ; beam, 35 ft ; 
draught. It ft,; displacement, 1,224 tons; com- 
plement, r6i ; guns, 2 8-in.. i 6-in., 7 q.f. ; torpedo 
tuljes. 2 above water; Hp., i,5oo=«l3 kts. ; coal 
maximum, 350 tons. 

CherwelL British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Pat* 
nicr, 1903.) Length, 22.^ ft. : beam, 23 ft. ; 
draught. 10 (t. : displacement. 540 tons: comple- 
ment. 70 ; armament, 1 la-pdr., t, 6-pdr., 2 tube* ; 
Hp.. 7,000-3 2 s kts. . coal, 9; tons. 

Chesapeake. American Irigate in Boston Bay 
(50 guns, 376 men), commanded by Captain 
rence, struck to the ShannoH, a Bntish frigate 
(38 guns. 320 men), commanded by Philip Vere 
Broke, alter a severe action of 1 1 minutes, June i, 

Chesapeake and Ohio Steaoubip Co., Ltd„ with 

Lhcir head olfice in London, have a fleet of seven 
modem cargo steamers, which mainiain a regular 
service from Loudon and Liverpool to Newport 


Athiann. Powhatan. 

jtUeghany. jMiihhiiu. ftappahauMixk, 
KamawMa. SheMuJoab. 

Gross tonn»i;c. 2$.66<}. 

Chess-trees. Iron plates with thlmbl<<> eyes on 
each top side. 

Chester. U.S. scout 11904). 
Lfnxth 434it. Beam 45ft. Draught tSfC. 
Displacement 4,000 tons. Complement 384. 

Gu»s. Armour. 

6—14 pdr. 3 — 5 in. Belt amidships. 

Torpedo TuIm (21 in.). 
3 Submerged. 
TwHn screw. Hp. 16.000 — 24 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 1 ,000 tODS. 

Cbest-rope. See Guest-rope. 

Chevalier. French torpedo-boat (i803). r*'s- 
placcment, 134 tons; complement, 32; maxiinuin 
draught. 7 ; guns, 3 ,vpclr. ; torpedo tubes, a Ij-io. ; 
Hp.. 2.700=537 kts, ; coal, 17 tons. 

Ohioafo. OW U.S. cmiscr (iBfis). Reconstructed 
Length 328ft. Beam 18ft. Maximum draught 23ft, 
Displacement 5.000 tons. Complement 459. 
Cuns. Armour. 

4 — 8 in. I J in. Deck. 

14—5 in. 
1^6 pdr. 
Twin »crew. Hp. io.oodm 19 kts. Cool maxi- 
mum 940 tons. 

Chichester, Rear- Admiral Sir Edward, Bait. 
C.M.G.. 1899 ; C.B., 1900 (b. 1849). Entered K^vy. 
1863 ; sub-ticutonant, 1869 ; lieutenant, 1870 ; lieu- 
tenant of the Tbalta daring the war in Egypt, 
1883 : promoted lo commander for services rendered 
1882 {Egyptian medal, Khedive's Bronze Star) ; 
principal transport oHiccr in Egj'pt. 1884-85 ; cap- 
tain, iSSS ; senior officer in command of H.M. 
ships employed in protecting North Sea fisheries. 
receiving the thanks ol the Lords of the Admiralty 
for "judgment and tact displayed "; C.M.G. for 
wrvices in Manila; A.D.C. to the Queen, 1899; 
naval transport officer at Capo Town during the 
Boer war, iS99-i9f>n; mentioned in despatches, 
1900, by Lord Roberts, who wrote ; " Captwn Sir 
E. Chichester has carried out his arduous duties 
with an ability and tact which have ensured the 
smooth and succcsslul working in all the arrange- 
ments." Again, in 1901. mentioned in despatches 
by Lord Roberto, as follows : " The arduous work 
ol disemtiarking tlie troops, supplies, stores, re- 
mounts and mulc«, and embarking the many thou- 
sands of sick and wounded and discharged men 
reflects the greatest credit upon Captain Sir Edward 
Chichester and the staf! at each of the four ports." 
C.B., Octoljcr, Hjoo, for services during the Boer 
war; A.D.C. to the King, igoi-02 ; rear-admiral, 
1902 ; admiral supciintendcnt in charge of alt H.M. 
naval establishments at Gibraltar, 1904. 

Ohidori. Japanese torpedo-boat. (Normand. 
1900.) Length, 147 ft. : beam, 16 (t. : draught. 
8 ft.; displacement, 150 tons; complement, 26; 
armament, i 6-pdr., 2 3-pdr.. 3 tiilics ; twin .screw ; 
Hp., 4,200= jo kts. ; coal, 30 tons. 

Ohihaya. Japanese torpedo gun-boat (1901). 
Displacemeot 850 tons. Complement 135. 


3—4-7 in. 

4 — 1 3 pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes. 

3 Above water. 

Twin screw. Hp. 6,000=21 kts. Coal maxi 

mum 250 tons. 

Ohfldwall Halt Hull steamer. Wrecked ne 

Cape St. Vincent, Portugul. April 11, 1878; 
lives lost. 

Ohiti (iSQ4). French subsidised merchant sh 
Messa^ertes Maritimes (q.v.). Dimensions. 462] 
57 x46 ft. : gross tonnage, 6,371; ;Hp., 6,000^ 17 kt 

Chimere. French crmser -avisos (iSSi). 
placement. 327 tons : draught, S ft. ; armament. 
2 i-pdr, : speed (nominally), 11 kts. 

Chimes. That part of the waterway projectiiig 
above the deck plank wliicb is gouged hollow to let 
the water run free. 

China (1896). British subsidised merchant ship. 
P. and O. Co. (q.v.). Dimensions, 500 x 54 X 33 ft, ; 
gross tonnage, 7.900 ; passenger accommodation. 
464 ; Hp., 9.400= r8 kts. This vessel was 
wrecked on Perim Island, May. 1900; eventually 
got of! and refitted. 

China and HanUa Steamship Co., Ltd^ managed 

by MfS-srs, .Slu-.van. Tonii-s and Co., Hong 
Kong, have two modcn: steamcrR. which maintain 
a service from Hong Kong to Manila and vice vaa. 
These vessels have excellent passenger accommoda- 
tion, and carry a large quantity of cargo. 
Rubi, Zafiro. 

Gross tonnage. 5.080, 

China Mutual Steatnsfaip Co., Hong Kong. 

Ocean Steamship Co.. I-td. 

China Navigation Co. was formed in 
by Messrs. John Swire and Sons, of London, for 
trading in China, and the first vessels built were 
two 1,200 tons gross register completed in 1876. 
Thoy now have a fleet of 64 steamers, all of which 
have been built by the Scotts' Shipbuilding and 
Engineering Co.. Ltd., of Greenock, trading from 
China, as far south as Australia, as far west as 
the Straits, and as far north as Vladivostock and 
the .\mur River. They also have ships trading 
up Uic Vang-lsc to Ichang, i .000 miles from the sea. 
where the rapids prevent navigation farther xnto the 

Chin Chtt. Japanew gnn-hont. Displacement, 
440 tons. Captured from the Chinese at Wei-i 
Wd, 1895. Of no fighting value. 

Chinckle. Small bight in a line. 

Chine. Part of the wati?r-way projecting alw 
the deck plank, hauled out to let the water run 


Cbln BoklL Japaneae gun-boat Displacement, 
440 tons, CapturrtI from the Qiine^e at W*i- 
Hai-Wei, 1395. Of no figbUng value. 

Obin IFaa. Japanese gun-boat. Displacement, 
440 tons. Captured from ttic Chinese at Wei-Hai- 
Wei, 1895. Of 00 fighting value. 

Cliinot^ A warm, dry wind at the eastern base 
of the Roclty Mountains, similar to the Ffllin. 

Chin-pen. Japanese gun-boat, displacement. 
440 tonii. Captured from the Chinese at Wei-Hai- 
Wei, 1S05. Of no fighting value. 

Ohla Set J apanese gun-boat. Displacement . 
440 Ions. Captured from the Chinese at Wei-Hai- 
Wci, 1895. Of no fighting value. 

Chin To. Japanese gun-lxtat. Displacement. 440 
tons. Captured from the Chinese at Wei-Hai-Wei, 
iSg$. Of no fighting valtic. 

Chin Tea. Old Japanese battlesliip. Captured 
from the Chmese at Wei-Hai-Wei. 1S95. 
Length 3oSft. Beam 59ft. Ataximum draught 23(1. 
Displacement 7.3$° tous. Complement 400. 



4— li in. 

" Compound." 

' 4—^ in. 

14 In. Belt amidships. 

' 10— J pdr. 

13 in. Barbettes. 

2—1 pdr. 

8 in. Conning tower. 





.1 .\bove 


Twin scrvw. 

JIp. natural 6,200= 14*5 kts. Coal 

inaxiiiium i.ouo tons. 

Chips, -^ colloquialism for the ship's carpenter. 
Ohishima. Japanese cruiser. Sunk in coUision 
with ih<^ Hevenna. a V. and O. steamer, in the Gogo- 
shima Straits, July 30, 1B95 ; 75 livea lost. 

OhitoM. Japanese armoured cruiaer. (San 
Francisco, 189S.) 

I^ength 405ft. Beam4B(t. Maximom draught asit, 
Diiplacrmeat 4,760 tons. Complement 405. 
Gttnj. Armour. 

2—8 in. " Steel." 

10—47 ^- Ai ^' Deck. 

t3 — 13 pdr. 
6 — 3} pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
4 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. i;.ooo=32'5 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum I .ouo tons. 

OhiTOdft. Old Japanese cruiser. (Qydebank , 


Len^b 308ft. Beam 43ft. Maximum draught I7tt. 
Displacement 2.450 tons. Complement ^$0. 
Cans. Armour. 

10 — 4*7 in. " Chrome Steel." 

15—3 pdr. 4i in. Belt. 

i Catlings. 1 in. Deck. 

Torptdo Tubt3. 
3 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. 5,500^19 kti% Cool maxi- 
ntam 420 tons. 

Chook-ft-Uook or Bloek and block. When the 
tackle blocks meet 

Cht^ftL Japanese gunboat of slow speed and 
no fighting valne. 

Cbok»-ft-lafl. To make fast round both parts 
of the fall, to prevent the leading part from ren- 

Chow*<:how. .\ Chinese word for eatables. 

Cbriitian CorneUtu. Netherlands torpedo-boat. 
{Yarruw, l«/05.) Length. 152 ft.; beam. 15 It.; 
draught, 7^ ft ; displacement, 130 tons; comple- 
ment, 25; armament, 2 2-pdr., 2 tubes; Hp., 
I,900a27 kts. ; coal, 36 tons. 

Ohronomph. An instrument for registering 
mechanically intervals of time in such a manner 
that on inspection of the record afterwards the 
observer is able to measure these intervals with 
great accuracy. Thi.s instrument differs from tho 
chronometer and chronoscope. in being self- 
registering. Its essential parts arc generally a 
cyhnder worked by clock-work, and kept in con- 
tinuous revolution, and a marker which travels 
parallel to the axis of the cylinder, and register? 
on a sheet of paper wrapped round the cylinder. 
It was by means of an instrumeat constructed on 
this principle, as early as 1864, tliat Bashforth 
carried out his great experiments on the flight of 
projectiles oi high velocity through the air. 

Chronometer. An tnstrnmeut in tltc nature of a 
clock or watch (or the exact measurement of time. 
They are fitted with a compensation balance, ad- 
justed for the accurate measurement of time in all 
climates ; and used for the determination of the 
longitude. The rating of chronometers Ls usually 
conducted at Government Observatories, and are 
set to the time of some first meridian. British 
ships and most .\mericans nse the time of Green- 
widi meridian ; the French nse that of Paris, tn 
the handling of chronometers care should be taken 
to stow them as near as possible to tlie centre of 
motion, where the vibration of the veasel i.i least ; 
to avoid as much as possible any changein tempertt- 
tore in the place where they are kept ; and to 
place them ea far as passible beyond any magnetic 
influence. Chronometers are fitted in their cases 
on gimbals, by which means a horixontal posirion is 
always maintained. 

Ohnok. Sea-sbell ; sometimes the coUoqntaliam 
for the boatswain. 

rhntun Steamer. From Glasgow for Shanghai , 
foundered in a gale ofi Ardroeisan, October 20, 1874. 

CL Abbreviation for Cirrus, as adopted by the 
International Meteorological Committee, and used 
in the International Cloud Atlas. 

Ci.-OQ. Abbreviation for Cirro-cumulus, as 
adopted by the International Meteorological Com- 
mittee, and used in the International Cloud Atlas. 

CXF. SmCF.1. 

Cigno. Italiaa torpedo-boat. (Naples, 1906.) 
Length, 165 ft. ; beam, 17 ft ; draught. 7 ft. : 
displacement. 200 tons ; aniiament, 3 3-pdr., 
3 tubes; twin screw; Hp.. 300^2$ kts. : coal. 
40 tons. 

Oiso^e. French sea-going submarine. (Toulon, 
1905.) Length. 118 ft.; beam. I2| it; draught. 
84 ft.; displacement. 172 tons, above; comple- 
ment, 20; Hp.. aoo=io'5 kts. above, 8 kts. 
below : torpedo tubes, i 17'7-in. 

Clmbria. Hamburg steamer. Sunk by collision 
with the English steamer Sultan, off the coast of 
Holland. January 19, 1883: 454 lives lost. 

Cimelerre. French £un-boat. Displacement, 
140 tons ; draught, 4 ft. ; gun?:, 2 3"S-in. ; speed 
(nominally), ^kls. 

Cincinnati, U.S. 3rd claas cntLsrr. (Brooklyn. 

Length 300ft. Beam 42ft. Maximum draught 21ft. 
Displacement 3.213 tons. Complement 339. 
Gvns. .-tuttour. 

II — Jin. "Steel." 

8 — 6 pdr. aj in. Deck. 

4 — I pdr. 2 in. Conning lower. 

Twin screw. Hp. 10.000=19 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 556 tons. 

Cinqne Forts. In early historj' the Cinque Ports 
— comprising Dover, Sandwich. Romney, Hastings, 
and Hythe, and Uic two ancient towns of Win- 
chclsca and Rye — were cnchartered corporations 
under the custody of a Lord Warden and his 
officers, to whose juri.sdiction they were alone 
subject. In return for this special privilege they 
had to provide ships and crews for the King's 
services. Within the limits of the Cinque Ports 
the Lord Warden had the exclusive jurisdiction ol 
an admiral, and tried aU offences committed on the 
liigh seas. The exclusive civil jurisdiction of the 
Lord Warden, except as to thi- adjustment of salvage 
and the jurisdiction of tho Admiralty Court of the 
Cinque Ports (q.v.). «-as abolishc<] in i&js, and the 
office of Admiral of the Cinque Ports ceased in 1882, 
but the Cinque Ports arc still for certain purposes 
treated as a separate county, and have: their owu 
militia and volunteer corps, whilst t^ach Port 
retains its own special borough jurisdiction. 

Otnqae Poets Yacht Club. Soyal. Sec Roya' 

Cinque Ports Yacht Chib 

C1k». British torpedo gun-boat (1892). 
Length 23urt. Beam 27ft. Maximum draught islft. 
Displacement Sto tons. Complement .S5. 
2—47 in. 
4—3 pdr. 
Torpedo Tubes. 

5—14 in. 
3— iR in. 

Coal Tnaximnm 160 fotw. Si 

Twin screw. 
17 kti. 

This ship -name is associated with I>na 
action off Camperdowo. 1797; capture of Mar 
tinique. 1809. 

(Kroe, Frigate. 32 guns. On Novcmbex 
1803, this vessel was lost off Yarmouth. 

Cirro-cumuliu. Ste Clonds. 

Oirn^itratas. See Clouds. 

Cimu. A name given to ronndish, ctirting. 
elevated clouds. Refer to Clouds. 

Cirnjano Videk. Chilian torpedo-boat. (Yarrow, 
1898.) Displacement, t.)o tons ; maximum draught, 
72 ft. ; armament. 3 3-pdr. ; tubes, 3 14-in. ; HpL( 
2,200=27 kts. ; C04I, 40tona. 

ffl.-i. Abbreviation for Cirro-stratus as adopt 
by the International Meteorological Committee, 
and used in the Intemational Cloud Atlas. 

Oissoi Veliki, See Sissoi Veliky. 

unift ee, t 

City Line. This line was founded in 183 
Messrs. George Smith and Sons, and subsequently 
sold in 1901 to Messrs. J. R. Ellerman. The line 
comprises a fleet of 22 steamers plying between 
Glasgow, Liverpool. London, and Calcntta, Bombay. 


City of Atheits. City of Karachi. 

City of Benares. City of Khios. 

City of Bombay. City of Lucknow. 

City of Calcutta. City of Madrid. 

City 0/ Cambridge. City of Manchester. 

City of Corinth, City of Oxford. 

City of Delhi. CUy of Perth. 

City of Dundee. City of Sparta. 

City of Edinburgh. CUy of Vienwi. 

City of Glasgow. CUy of Venice. 

CUyot Yorh. 
Gross tonnage, 108,000. 

City of Boston. On February it, 1870. 
vessel Knilcd from New York. A board stating 
that she was sinking was found on the Comi^ 


City of Chicago. Inman Atlantic Uner. Ran 
ashore near Old Head of Ktusalc during a fog. 
July 21, 1892. Captain'!) certificate suspended foc 
nine months. 

City of Oolambns. U.S. passenger ship. Ran 
a Tvvl off tilt- coast of Ma.tsachu.sctbi, January iS, 
1S&4 ; 97 lives lost. 


City ol Cork Steam Packet Co., \vitlt tb 

head oflicos at Cork, own a fine fleet of large and 
well -apportioned Kteamships. which maintain a 
service for London, Liverpool, Bristol, Southamp- 
ton, and Milford. 




Ottr o( DnUJn Steam PMket Co., Jointly cany- 

I irvg on day and night IrUh mail wrvice with 
I the London and North -Western Railway Co., 
' have a fleet oi lour twin-screw steamers, with a 
speed of about 24 kts. The average passage 
between Hctybead and Kingston is 2 hra. 4$ miD& 
ft Fleet. 

^^^_ Coaneut^hi. Munster. 

^^m Uimtcr, Ulster. 

OKy of Gluffow. Steamer. Sailed from Glasgow 
in 1854. and was ne\'er heard oi again. There were 
I 4^ persons on board. 

01^ of MoatrcaL Inman liner. Burnt off the 
coast of Newiomidland on her way to Liverpool, 
Asgttst 10, 1887. 

City of Paiia. Inman Atlantic tiner. With about 
()8o passengers aiid 370 ciew, led New York, 
Much 19, 1S90. On .March 35 the starboard 
(sgine brake down, and the intlow of water stopped 
the engines, and the vessel was without machinery 
or BaiUng apparatus. She was picked up and 
tcmed into Queensland, March 39, 1890. 

Civil Branches, Naval. 5» Naval Edacation. 

Qvil engineer. See Engineer. 

CiTil Engineers, InstitaUon of, which was founded 
on January 3. 1818, and incorporated by Royal 
Qtuter. June 3. 1858. receiinng supplemental 
darters extending its powers in 1887 and 1896, 
hn its headquarters at Gt. George Street. London, 
S.W., mrnibrrs, a-isociate nirmbcnt, honorary 
BKDbivs. associates, and itndenbs niimliering 7.386. 
AtOcog tho objects of the institution arc the ad- 
vaocemeot of mechanical science and the training 
oi Qvil engineers in that species o( knowledge 
which is essential to them. 

OJL Distinguishing letters on sea tishing boats 
'tsistered at Colchester. England. 

U. I>istinguishing letters on sea (tsliing bonis 
L n|i3tcml at Carlisle. England. 

tL Ctay. Abbreviation adopted on the charts 
iSDed by the Hydrographic Office, Admiralty, 
denoting the quality of the ocean's bottom. 

ffllttp. Metal bands applied to a mast or yanl 
toprrvent the wood from bursting. 

OUlt Uns. Began a fortnightly service from 

Clttgow and Liverpool to Bombay and Kurrachee in 

1S78, adding one to South and E.-ist African ports 

in tS8t, and another to Colombo, Madras, and 

Calcntta in 1882. a joint service to New York 

(bpKt to South and East African ports appearing in 

'*93. Twenty-nine turret-deck steamers figure in 

the fleet, of wluch the C/«ti Colquhotin is the largest. 

Tb« Line is under the management of Messrs. 

CaywT. Irvine and Co.. of Glasgow, Liverpool, 

JjoatAon. and Manchester, whose senior partner, 

Charles Cayter, Baii.. was the founder. 

Clan Alpins, 
Clan BiulMHan. 
Clan Camtron. 
Ctan Campl-tAl. 
Clan Chattan. 
CtcH Ckisholm. 
Ctan Cottjukoun. 
Clan Cumming, 
Clan Fatquhat. 
Clan Ferguson, 
Ctan Forhet. 
Clan Frasfr. 
Clan Gordon, 
Clan Orahattt. 
Clan Gtnnt, 
Clan Lamoiii. 
Clan Leilie. 
Clan LivJiay. 
Ctan MacaliiUr. 
Clan Macatday. 
Ctan Macdonatd. 
Cian Macdougall. 
Clan Macfadyen. 
Clan Macfarlani. 


Clan Macintosh, 
Clan Macintyr*. 
Clan Mackay. 
Clan Mackinnon. 
Clan Madachlan, 
Ctan Maclaren. 
Clan Maclean, 
Clan Macleod, 
Clan Macmillan. 
Clan Afacnab. 
Clan MacneiL 
Clan Mai-phtrson. 
Clan Mathtion 
Clan Menziei. 
Clan Murray, 
Clan Ogihy. 
Clan Ranald, 
Ctan RobertiiiH, ■ 
Ctan Rosi, 
Clan Shaw, 
Clan Sinclair. 
Clan Stuart. 
Clan Sutherland. 
Clan Urqukarl. 
tonnage. 199,000. 

(Han line ol shlpt. See Dunlop Steamship Co., 

Clanwilliam. Richard Jam«« Bleade, Foortta Earl 

ol, cr. 1776. G.C.B. ; K.C.M.G. ; F.R.G.S. ; Ad- 
miral of the Fleet. 1895 (b. 1832). Entered Navy, 
184S ; heottnant of Imperieuse. 1354-55. blockading 
the Gulf of Finland ; served in the Baltic. 1854-5$ 
(Baltic medal) ; employed in the destruction of 
Chinese wat-vcsscls, 1837 (China medal) : at the 
destruction of Fatslian flotilla of war-junka, June. 
[857 {Fatshan claspj ; severely wounded at the 
capture of Canton, 1831 (Canton clasp) ; specially 
mentioned in despatches : decorated CB.. 1877 '• 
A.D.C. to the Queen, 1S72-76 ; I-oril of the Ad- 
miralty, 1 874-80 ; rear -adrairnL 1876 : Comrawnder- 
in-Chief, Flying Squadron, 1S80-82 : K.C.M.G.. 
18S2; Commander-in-Chief. North America and 
West Indies, 1885 ; K.C.B.. 1887. on the occasion 
of the celebration of the completion of the fiftieth 
year of her late Majesty's reign ; Commander-in- 
Chief, Portsmouth, 1891-94; Admiral of the Fleet. 
1895-1902 ; retired, 1902. 

Clapper. A name ior the valve of a pnmp-box. 

Clark, Joaiah Latimer (1332-98). English en- 
gineer and electrician (b. Great Marlow). Asso- 
ciated with the construction of the Britannia 
Tubular Bridge, and in 1S50 joined the Electric 
Tckgraph Co. He remained with this company 
till 1870. during vrhtch period he introduced many 
improvements in the telegraph system, including 
the insulation of underground wires by gutta- 
percha, and the method of preser\'ing sabmarinc 
cables by a covering of asphalt, hemp, and silica 

kkDovm as Clarh's corapoond, He also invented a 
single c&meia for taking stereoscopic pictures. 
Was bead ol tbc firm of Clark and StandfieM. 
wlijcli firm, since 1874, have dtrv-oted Ihciusclves 
to the coiuitruction of floating docks and hydraulic 
canal lUts. It is attributed to a suggestion of 
Clark's tltat the affixing of stamps to telegrams as 
payment and the registering of abbreviated ad- 
dresses for telegrams was Introduced by the Tele- 
graph Office anthorities. 

Clark, Vicd-AdminU Sir Boaverie Francu, K.O.B. 
cr. 1900 (b. 1843). Entered Nav-y, 1854 ; cadet on 
tlic CossacM in the Baltic, present at the bombard- 
ment of Svcaborg (Baltic medal] ; mid. and acting 
mate in the Ariel. East Coast of Africa, and cap- 
tured several slave dhows ; sub-lieutenant, i36i ; 
lieutenant. 1862 ; lieutenant of Esk during the New 
Zealand war, 1863-65. and served wUli Naval 
Brigade at Waikato (New Zealand medal) ; com- 
mander. 1875; captain. 18S4 ; captain of Anson, 
received silver medal " al Valor di Marina " from 
H.M, the King of Italy for services rendered at the 
wreck of Utopia, in Gibraltar Bay, 1891, receiving 
from the reigning Duke of Saxc-Coburg-Gotha the 
second decoration of the Saxe Ernestine Order, 
189J ; director of transport, i8y6 ; rear-admiral, 
1899: vice-admiral, 1904; retired. 

Clark, Lyonel Edwin (b. London, February 3, 
1S56). Educated Dulwicli and Mertun Collegi:, 
Oxford ; in 1876 joined the* linn of Messrs. Clark 
and Standfield, and on the death of Mr. Standticld 
in 1890 became manager, and in 189B senior 
partner. As head of the 6rm he has bad the 
designing of many floating docks and other large 
works, in all [mrts of the world, including docks 
capable of dealing with the largest ironclads for 
the Spanish, Amencan, British, and Austrian 
Governments. Mt-mber of the Institutions of Naval 
Architects and Civil Engineers. 

Clark, William Tietney (1783-1852). English 
civil engineer (b. Bristol). Constructed the Ham- 
mersmith Suspension Bridge, 1824-27, and the 
suspension bridge over the Danube at Budap'-st, 
1839-49, which was classed as his most important 
work, and cost over £600,000. 

Clas Hom. Swedish torpedo gun-boat (1898). 
Vi little fighting value. 

Length 223ft. Beam 27fL Maximum draught lolt. 
Displacement 700 ions. 
Guns. Armour. 

2—47 in. *' Bofors steel." 

4 — 6 pdr. J in. Deck. 

2 in. Conning tower. 
Torpedo Tubes, 
1 Submerged bow. 
Twin screw. Up, 4,coo=io kts. 

Clasp-book. A split iron clasp moving on a 

daaslfleatioa. 5m Lloyd's Registry of British 
and Foreign Shipping and Bureau Veritas. 

Clat Uggla. Swedish torpedo gun-boat (1899). 

Length 323ft. Beam 27jft- Maximum draught oft 

Displacement 700 tons. Complement 99, 

Guns. A rmour. 

2 — 4.'7 in. " Bofors steeL" 

4 — 6 pdr. I in. Deck. 

2 in. Conning tower, 
Torpedo Tubes. 
I Submerged bow. 
Twin screw, lip. 4,000^20 kts- 

OlaoMi. In marine insurance policies marginal 
printed clauses take precedence il they ditler Irom 
tlie body of the policy, and written clauses take 
precedence over printed clauses. As Judge Dua 
expressed the difference : Tlie printed words may 
not express the intentions of the parties, the 
writte-n words certainly do. More importance is 
attached to clauses and conditions introduced by 
the parties themselves than to customary forms of 
expression. • 

Amould gives two valuable rules of practice oo 
the subject : 

(i) The provision of the text and clauses of the 
policy in favour of the assured are throughoDt 
taken to be cumulative, and not restrictive ot 
exclnsdve of one another ; in other words, extn 
clauses added to the policy with the intention ol 
adding to the txtcnl of Uie assured's indemnity 
are not allowed to deprive him ol any indemnity 
he may have under the original text. For instance, 
in Hagedorn v. Whitmore (1 Stark 157) the cxin- 
cncc of a sj]cx:ial clause dcahng with the payment 
of damages to liners was not allowed to deprive 
the assured of a claim for damage wliich he bad 00 
the policy in the ordinary pnntcd form. 

(2) Any ambiguity in an exception to, or re- 
striction of, the terms of a policy is taken in x 
sense least favourable to the underwriters. The 
ground for this apparent liord treatment of aoe 
of the parties to the contract is given by C. j. 
Cockbum in Notmcn v. Anchor Insurance Ca 
(4 C.B., N,s., 4S1), namely. " the policy being the 
language of the company must, if there be any 
ambiguity in it, be taken most strongly against 
them " (Amould, 5th ed.. p. 805, etc. ; Marshall, 
p. 229). 

American Avbragh Ci.AUSfis. — No partial \asi 
or particular average shall be paid in any case 
miiess amounting to 5 per cent. Bread, flax, flax- 
seed, and sugar arc free from particular average 
under 7%. Coffee and pepper {in bags or bulk) 
and rice are free from i}articular average under 
ID%. Cassia (except in boxes), hemp, mattm|. 
tobacco atems are free trom particular average 
under 20%. 

The followmg are free irom particular average . 

B&gs and bagging (and articles used for), car- 
riages (pleasure), cheese, cotton bagging, fiah (dry). 


fruits (preserved or otherwise), furniture (house 
bold), grain (all kinds), hay, hempen yam. hides. 
Indian meal, iron (bar. bundle, rod, hoop, sheet), 
looking-glassos, madder, musical instruments, rags, 
roots. i»It, likiiis, steel, snraac, bn platen, tobacco. 
vegetables, wicker-ware, willow (manufactured or 
otherwise), wire (all kinds), and all other articles 
that are perishable in their own nature. 

Warranted by the insured free from damage or 
iajur>', from dampness, change ol flavour, or being 
spotted, discoloured, musty, or mouldy, except 
cattscd by actual contact of sea water with the 
articles damaged occasioned by sea perils. Not 
liable lor leakage of molasses or other liquids 
unless occasioned by stranding or collision with 
another vessel. 

N.B. — The warranty " trtt itom average " ; 
free from average under 5% unless general is not 
quahhcd by the important exception customary 
in the English policy " or unless the vesael be 
stranded, sunk* or burnt." 

Average Clauses. — Being only to cover tha 
risks esKCpted by the clause " f.p.a. unless stranded, 
etc.." but no claim to attach hereto unless it 
amount to % on the whole interest. 

Biu. OP Laoikc Clause. — Including all liberties 
aa per Bill of Lading. 

Bonded Pkices.— In case of claim for particular 
avmge bonded prices arc to be taken as the basis 
of settlement. Rpecially in the case of teA. tobacco, 
coflco, wine, and spirits imported into this country 
— a rule of the Average Adjusters' Association 

Bottomry Clause. — To pay such proportion of 
the I as may bo recovered in consequence of the 
stirety being destroyed or diminished in value by 
reason of the perils insured against, or of any 
nabsequent Ixmd or bonds. 

CAPTuaE Clause. — Warranted free of capture. 
seizure, and detention, and the consequences 
tfaereoi, or of any attempt thereat, piracy excepted, 
and also from all consequences of hostihties or 
warlike operations, whether' before or after dc- 
claration of war. 

Cattle Clauses. —Against all risks, including 
tnortality and jettison arising from any cause 
whatsoever. Animals walking ashore, or when 
alung from the vessel, walking after being taken 
out of the sling, to be deemed arrived, and no 
claim to attach to this policy on such animals. 
Each animal to be deemed a separate insurance. 

{b) Warranted free from mortality unless caused 
by the stranding, sinking, nr burning of the ship. 
or by collision with another ship or veaseL 

{€) Liable only in case of total I068 of veswl 
and of animals, or for payment of general average 
levied on all interests. 

Continuation Clauses, — Skip in Shipi 
poiidtt. — " Id the event nl any shipment coming 
upon this poUcy, the value of which is in excess 
ot the sum then remaining available, it is mntoally 



agreed that the underwriters ahaU grant a policy 
for such excess up to but not beyond the amount 
of this policy, and the assured shall pay the premium 
thereon at the same rate. 

Time Sttameft. — [a) Should the vessel hereby 
insured be at sea on the expiration of this policy, 
it is agreed to hold her covered until arrival at 
port of destination at a premium to be arrangod, 
provided due notice be g^von on or before the 
expiration of this policy. 

(&) Should the be at sea on 

the day of 190 it is 

hereby agreed to issue a policy covering the vessel 
from that date in accordance with the continuation 
clause contained in the original policy or policies. 

Cotton. — To pay average on each 10 t>ales 
running landing numbers, or on the whole, and on 
pickings without reference to scries or percentage. 

With liberty to stop and stay at ports and places 
to tranship, to compress, and to lighten. 

U Is understood and agreed that this insurance 
attaches as soon as the cotton becomes the pro* 
perty of the assured, or is at their risk, and covers 
said cotton in presses, yard-t, railroad depots, or 
wherever it may be, and continues so to attach 
until safely landed at the port of destination. This 
policy also covers cotton intended for interior 
points in Europe until its dchvcry at the mills, if 
with customary despatch and when so specified in 
the certificate of insumnce. 

Including risk of crait to and from the vessel. 
Each lighter or craft to be considered as if sepa- 
rately insured. Held covered in event of deviation 
provided the same be communicated to assurers 
as soon as known to the assured, and an additional 
premium paid ii required. 

Warranted by the assured free from any liability 
for merchandise in the possession of any carrier 
or other bailee, who may be hable for any loss or 
damage thereto : and for merchandise shipped under 
a bill of lading containing a stipulation that the 
carrier may have the beocfit ot any iniurance 

It is by the assared expressly stipulatoJ in re- 
«[)ect to land carriers that no nght of subrogation 
is, or is to be abrogated or impaired by or through 
any agreement intended to rcheve a carrier from 
duties or obligations imposetl or recognised by the 
common law or otheru-ise. 

The insurance on cotton hereunder shall in all 
cases be null and void to the extent of any msumnce 
with any lire insurance companies, directly or in- 
directly covering upon the same property, whether 
priw or subsequent hereto in date. 

in case of loss prior to issue of certificate or 
poUcy, and negotiation of exchange for purchase ol 
cotton, the liability under this ia<;urancc is not to 
exceed the cost of the cotton and cliaigcs added, 
except in cases where the assured is compelled by 
his contract to replace the cotton destroyed, in 
which cases the actual cost of the new cotton, and 

of placing it wherr the old coHon «ras lost, shall 
be the limit of claim, provictcd it docs not exceed 
the srnn insnrcd. Refer to Particular Average. 

Ckaft. — Special Clause. — Including all risks of 
craft lighterage aad/or any other conveyances by 
land or by water from the time of leaving manu- 
factory, aod/or warehouse, and /or import steamer. 
and /or ship, and /or docks until on board the 
vessel, and from the vessel until rafely delivered 
into consignee's warehouse or destination in the 
interior, and of fire while waiting shipment, and all 
risks incidental to steam navigation or otherwise, 
and tranahipmcut and oil Uberties and conditions 
as per Bills of Lading, including neghgonce clause. 
Each craft, or lighter, or package to be (leeme<l a 
separate insurance. Including all risk of theft 
and /or pilferage. 

SltLlSA Craft Clausb. — Including all risk of 
crall, especially at Sulina, and /or in the River 
Danube, or from ports or places in the River 
Danube, to the vessels at Sulina. 

Azor Cratt Claosb. — Including all risk of craft, 
especially at Yenikale anr] the Sea of Axof, or 
[rom ports or places in the Sea of Azof to Yenikale. 
C.T.L. Clausb. — In the event of total and/or 
constnicUve total loss no claim shall be used by 
underwriters on ship in respect of freight. 
CuSTOMABV Average Clavsbs ; 

jitrouiroot. — Each 30 brls.. or 50 tins. 
Cigars. — Each case. 
Cochinsal. — Each bale, or $ packages. 
CittMamott. — Each 5 bales. 

Coffee. — Every 10 hogsheads, tiercea, or casks, 
20 br1s. or 50 bags running landing mimbors. 

Cctoanut Oil.^To pay average it damage 
amount to 3% on each series of 5 pipes, lo pun- 
cheons, or 20 hogsheads original numbers. 

Cotinn Seed CrtAtf.— f.p.a. under 10% on tha 
total interest (American). 

Cotton. — American and Egyptiaji. Each 
10 hales running landing numbers, or on the 
whole, and on pickings ^s-ithout references and 
scries or percentage. East Indies black leaf dts- 
coloration not admis<;ible unless bale so aficctcd 
had bcrti in actual contact with sea water or fire. 
Flax and Hemp. — Each interest mark or 
quality {or each 5 tons or zo package) as raised 
from the ship's hold. 
Fish 0(7.— Each cask. 
Flout. — Every lioo value (Sago flour). 
Ginger. — Every Rs. value running land- 
ing nuniljers (;%(. 

Goodi (Manchester). — Each package. 

Hides. — Each hide«, it amounting to 

Wflf s. — Subject to i«% particular average. 

indigo. — Each package. 

Jute (Calcutta to Dundee).^ — 5 % each 250 bales. 

Lac Dye. — Each package. 

Leather. — 5% each bale particular average. 

Mohair. — Each bale. 


Myrohftlans. — Ha^ 500 bogs : each £100 value 
tf 5%. 

Palm fCernets. — Every 8 tons running lan> 

Olive oil. — Each 10 casks or ^ tons ninnii 
landing numbers. 

Opium. — Each package. 

Palm oil. — Each 3 tons M* 3 cask running land- 
ing nuralK-rs. 

Pepper. — Each 50 hags. 
Pimento. — Every 10 bags running landing 

Pape oil. — Each 5 tons. 

Rape seed. — Each 500 liags running landing 
nnmbers (5%). 

Pice (Calcutta and Rice ports). — Each ;o bagc, 
100 bngH, ur aoo bags, according to arrango meiil, 
oiitrt'ard. if cirraned, each 50 hags. 
Pum. — Each mark or interest. 
Sdfo.— Each 20 boxes. 
Saltpetre. — Each 100 bags. 
.Sejtna. — Each 5 bales. 
Sheep shins and skins. — Each bale 

ShrlJac. — Each package. 
■Silk. — Each hale. 

Sugar. — Each 20 boskets or 50 bags. Eadi 
7$ baskets or 300 bags. 

Tea. — Each 10 chests, 20 halt chests, or 40 
quarter chrats following landing numbers. 

Tin plates. — Each 100 boxes : each 50 boxes. 
Tobacco. — Each 10 hogsheads. 10 boxes, jo 
bags, or 10 tierciis, 

IKoo?.— Modilcxranean and Black Sea. tMh 
5 bales. Cape, each bale : Cameli wool, «ach J 
bales : River Plate, each 5 bales ; East Indian; 
each 10 bales running landing numbers ; W.CS. 
America, each bale ; Australia and New Zealaad, 
each bale. 

DECKtOAD CtAUSE.— In anil over all. Inclu- 
ding risk of craft and/or craft to and from the 
vessel aLso deck-load. Pe/er to Jeitiwwi clause. 

Destination Ct.auses. — (a) Warranted free of 
all average, but to pay a total loss on such portion 
as does not reach its destination. 

(b) Warranted free of all average but to pay a 
total loss on such portion as docs not reach its desti- 
nation in the ship. 

Detention Clause.— Warranted free from any 
claim, consequent on loss of time, whether arising 
from a peril of the sea or otherwise. 

Deviation Clause.— In the event of the veasd 
making »iiy deviation or change ol voyage, it b 
mutually agreed that such deviation or cbangr 
shall be arranged, provided due notice be given by 
the assured on receipt of advice of such dcviatioa 
or change of voyage. 

DiHiNiSHtKG Clause.— It is agreed that the 
amount of risk shall be reduced by one-twelfth for 
each expired month. 

F.a.a. — Warranted free trom all average, with- 
out benefit of salva^. Warranted free from all 
average without benefit of saJvage, but to pay a 
total loss on such portion an does not reach its 
destinatioo. ' 

F.G.A. — General average and salvage charges 
payablr according to foreign statement or prr York- 
Antwerp rules, li in accordance with the contract 
of aflrcightment (q.v.). (Old clauses^. — (a) Warranted Irce from 
particular average unless the vessel or craft be 
Btranded, sunk, or burnt, each craft or lighter 
beinfi deemed a separate insurance. 

Unden^'hters. not'withstanding Uiis warranty, to 
pay for any damage or loss caused by fire or by 
coUistoo witli any other ship or craft, or with ice, 
or any substance other than water, and any special 
charges for warehouse rent, rcshipping, or for- 
warding, for which they would othcr%«'tse be hable. 
Also to pay the insured value of any package or 
packages which may be totally lost in tranship- 

[b] Warranted frc<; from particular average, unless 
the vessel or craft be stranded, sank, burnt, or on 
fire, or strike the ground, pier. quay, bridge, or 
against any other object, whether stationary or 
floating on the water, especially ice. or in collision 
(the collision to be of such a nature as may be 
reasonably supposed to have caused the damage). 
or veKsel put into a port of distress and duicharge 
cargo. Each craft or lighter to be deemed a 
separate insurance, but to pay landing, ware- 
bousmg. forwarding and special charges, if incurred. 
Including partial loss from the wharf or quay into 
craft, and vice versa, as wcU as loss in transhipment. 
General average payable as pi.>r foreign statement, 
or Yoi^-Antwerp rules if so made up. irrespective of 
insured value. Including all risks ol act of default, 
error of judgment, of pilot, master, or crew. In 
the event of any deviation or change of voyage, it is 
hereby agreed to hold the assured covered at a 
premium to be arranged. 

{e) Warranted free from particular average 
unless Ibc vessel and /or the interest hereby insured 
be sirandt-d, sunk, on fire, or in collision ; or a fire 
occur on board by reason of which loss or damage is 
caused to tlie interest hereby assured ; each craft 
or lighter being deemed a separate insurance. 

UDderwritexs, notwithstanding this warranty, to 
pay for any loss or damage which may reasonably 
be supponed to have been caused by vessel or craft 
being in contact with any substance other than 
water, ice included, and any special charges for 
warehouse rent, rcshipping or forwarding, for 
which they would othcrwijui be liable, also to pay 
partial loss arising from transhipment. 

This palic>' to hold the assured covered on interest 
as above by the vessel as above and/or craft and/or 
any other steamer or steamers, ship or ships, and/or 
any other convt-yancc or conveyances, until safely 
debvered at destination as above, or until lost. 

Including all risk whilst waiting shipment and/or 
reshipment, and all other risks and losse-s by land 
and water until delivered into the warehouse or 
other places for which the goods have been entered, 
or in which it is intended they shall be finally 
lodged, whether previou.sly cli-iKhBrged or landed 
elsewhere witliin the port or place of dwliiiation 
or not. with or without recourse against lightermen. 
and all risk of craft and/or craft and/or boats 
especially to and from the ship or vessel and/or of 
any special hghterage. each craft and/or lighter to 
be deenied a separate? insarance. Deck-load to b« 
deemed a separate insuraiKe;. 

With leave to call and stay at any ports and/or 
places in and /or out of the way for orders and/or 
any other purposes whatsoever necessary or other- 

General average and salvage cliarges jwyable 
according to foreign statement if so claimed, or as 
per York-Ant^verp rult-s. or as per York-Antwerp 
rules, ift9o, if in accordance vritb the contract of 

Including all liberties and exceptions and/or 
exemptions hr per charter-party, and/or new and/or 
bill of lading. Including negligence clause. 

Including all nsk nf negligence, default and/or 
error in judgment of master, manners, engineers, 
pilots, or any others of the crew. 

Seaworthiness of vessel admitted as between the 
assured and underwriters. 

tncloding risk by raU and/or inland conveyances 
from warehouse in interior and whilst awaiting 
shipment, and whilst on quay at port of discharge. 

The above clauses /uid conditions are additional 
to those contained in the annexed jxJtcy. and so 
far as they are inconsistent therewith are to super- 
sede the same. 

F.p.a. — New clause called F.p,a. and port of 
distress clause. 

Warranted free from particnlar avera^, unless 
the ship or craft be stranded, sunk, on fire, or unless 
there be a forced discharge of cargo at a port of 
distress, or in collision (the collision to be of such a 
nature as may reasonably be suppoaetl to have 
caused or led to the damage claimed for), bnt to 
pay landing, warehousing, forwarding, and special 
charges, il incurred ; also partial toss arising from 

Including all risk of craft, or otherwise, to and 
from the vessel, each craft or lighter to be deemed 
a separate Insnrance. 

Freight Contingency Clause. — On increased 
value on arrival by jiayment of freight and/or 
charges being against the risk of depreciabon by 
perils insured against only : total loss and/or loss 
of a part to t)e deemed an arrival, but to mdude all 
risks of craft and/or raft at destination, and the 
risk of toss of the whole or part after the freight 
may have bcconur due. 

Gbnbral Clauses. — Including ri^k per any con- 
veyance to destination, and for not exceeding sevca 


days from noon of date deliveiy order is accepted 
by buyers. 

In the event of claim to pay average as customary. 

In the event ol claim lor particular average, the 
same to be ascertained b>' comparison of the sound 
and damaged prices, after the deduction o( Irdght 
and duty. Refer to Particular Avcraue. 

Held covered whilst on quay awaiting shipment. 
and/or in waichoui^c. 

Including risk (rom taking po^AcssJon and until 
on shipboard. 

Held covered on wharv-cs. and/or quays, and/or 
in u-ajchouse, awaiting shipment, and/or until 
foru'ardrri to destination or elsewhere. 

All losFPS and claims nri:dng under tliis policy lo 
be settled according to the usage and customs of 

Average as customary. 

Grain CLAtrss. — Indudmg all risk of craft to and 
from the vessel, especially iroin the voutcl when 
discharging in the river, or in any dock on the 
Liverpool side oi the river to the grain warehouses ; 
each lighter or cralt to be considered a separate 

GacuNoiNc. Clause. — [a) Grounding in the Suez 
Canal. River Danube, and Dcmerara. or on the 
Yenlkale Bar not to he considered a slranding. 

{b) Grounding hi canals, harbours, or tidal ri\cr 
not to be deemed a strand. 

MancSrster Ship Canal Clause. — Grounding in the 
Manchester Ship Canal or its comnectiona. on the 
River Mersey above Rock Fern- slip, if occurring on 
A voyage to or from a point on the Manchester Ship 
Canal i^hall not hr deemed to be a strand. 


ha'ving guaranteed the solvency of the under- 
WTiters on this policy, wc the said underwriters 
agico that in case of loss or other demand the same 
shall be plaa-d to our account, and shall be held to 
hf'. part payment of any money due or that may 
bi-come due from the .saiil A.B., but in the event o( 
a claim undi.r this policy we arc at liberty, as 
against the assurers, to set oH agatn.<tt it moneys 
due or becoming due to us from tlic said A.B. 

Honoi:r Policies (attached to the policy). — 
" In the event of loss this policy is to be deemed 

sufficient proof of interest No 

Per. " *■ It is understood and agreed that 

full interest is admitted on this policy." 

Ice Clause. — Should the navigation he inter- 
nipted by ice. the captain lo have liberty to pro- 
ceed lo and discharge at any ndghhonring |x>tI ; 
the rislt. to continue until safe arrival of the goods 
at their destination by land carriage or otherwise. 

IKLAND Conveyance. — {a] Including all risks. 
incKiding fire from the warehouse to the ship, and 
■while on wharf or quay, or in stores or elaewherc 
awaiting shipment, and till on t>oard. 

{b) I'his addition to {a) and by any conveyance 
from the vessri's place of discharge to the hnal 
destination of the goods. 

iNt^KD Risk Clause. — (Outward) Inclnding a.U 
risks of inland conveyance to place ol shipment, 
and of fire in transit, and whilst awaiting ahipmc: 
in docks, warehouse or elsewhere. 

(Inuvrd.) tticluding risks per inland eonv 
ances from port of discharge to destination. 

{ManchesUr outward.] Including the risk from' 
Manchester to place of shipment by railway and 
for other conveyance, and of fuv in trantfil, and 
whilst waiting in docks, warehouses, or elsewhere. 

Institute Builder's Clauses (1906). — ^This 
inaurancc is also to cover all risk.*:, inclnding 
fire, while under construction and/or fitting ont, 
except in buildings or workshops, but including 
maleriaJs in yards an<l blocks of the a.ssure<l. or on 
quays. [Hiiituons, craft, etc., and all risk which in 
transit to and from the works and /or the vessel 
wherever she may be lying, also alt risks of loss or 
damage through collafKie of supports or ways from 
any cause whatever, and all risks of launching 
and breaking of tlie ways. 

This insurance is also to cover all risks of trial 
trips as often as required, and all risks whilst pro* 
ceeding to and returning from trial course. 

With leave to procec'<l to and (rora any wet or 
dr>' docks, harbours, ways, cradles, and pontoons 
rlunng the currency ol this policy. 

In case of launch lailtire, underwriters to bear all 
subsequent expenses incurred in completing launch. 

Average payable irrespective of percentage, and 
without deduction of one-third, whether the a verage 
he particular or general. 

(ieneral avei-agc and salvage charges as per 
foreign custom, payable aa per foreign statcmei 
and^or per York-Antwerp rules, if required ; and 
the c\'cnt of salvage, towage, or other assistance 
being rendered to the vessel hereby insured by any 
vessel belonging in port or in whole to the same 
owners, it is hereby agreed that the value of such 
service (without rcganl to the common ownership 
of thf vexxels) shall be asuTtainrd by arbitration in 
the manner hereinafter provided for under Colhsion 
clause, and the amount so awarded, so far as applica 
blc to the interest hcicby insured shall constitute 
a charge under this policy. 

In the event of dcxnation to be held covered at 
additional premium to be hereinafter arranged. 

To cover while building all damage to ha' 
machinery, apparel, or furniture, caused by settling 
of the stocks, or of hoisting or other gear, eitl 
before or after launching, and white fitting out. 

With leave to increase value. 

It is also agreed that any changes of interest 
in the steamer hereby insured shall Dot aHcct 
validity of the policy. 

And it is expressly declared and agreed that no 
acts of insurer or insured in recovering, saving, or 
preserving the property insured shall be considered 
as a uaiver or acceptance of abandonment. 

This insurance also specially to cover loss of 
dvnagc to the hull or machinery, through ncgti- 


p »__i 

at e I 









gcDce ot master, manners, (.-ngineers, or {nlota, or 
through exploaJons, bursting of boilers, breakage of 
shafts, or through ajiy latent dctLxt in tlic machinery 
or hull, or from explosions, riots, or other 
causes of whatever nature, arising either on shore 
or otherwLsc, howsoever causing loss of or injury 
to the property hereby insured, proWclcd such loss 
or damage has not resulted from want of due 
diligence by the owners of the ship or any of them. 
or t>y the manager, and to cover all nsks incidental 
to steam navigation, or in graving docks. 

iNSTtTUTz Builder's Collisioh Cuiuse. — And 
at is further agree^d that if the ship hemby insured 
&h&ll come into coUisiOQ with any other ship or 
vessel, and the assured shall in consequence thereof 
t^ecome liable to pay, and shall pay by way of 
daiuagL-s to any other person or pcxMiii^ any sum or 
sums uot exceeding in respect of any one such 
collision the value of the slup hereby insured, wc 
the assurers wHll pay the assured such proportion of 
such sum or sums so paid as our subscriptions 
hereto bear to the value of tiic ship hereby insured. 
And in casus whi're the liabililyof tltuship trns Imico 
contested with a consent in writing, of a maiohty 
of tiie underwriters on the hull and/or machinery 
(in amount). We will also pay a like proporuon 
of the costs thereby incurred or paid ; but when 
both vessels are to blame, then, unless Ihu liability 
of tlic owners of one or both such vessels become 
limited by law. claims under this collision clause 
shall be settled on the principles of Cross Liabihtlcs, 
as if the owncis of each vessel liad been compelled 
to pay to the owners of the other of such vessels 
such one half or other proportion ot the latter's 
damages as may have been properly allowed in 
ascertaimiig the balance or sum payable by or to 
the assured in consequence oi such collision. 

Aad it is farther agreed that the principles in- 
volved in this clause shall apply to the case where 
both vessels are the property in part or whole of the 
same owners, all questions of responsibility- and 
amount of liabiUty as bctwceu the two ships being 
left to the decision of a single arbitrator, or failing 
such agreement to the decision uf arbitrators, one 
to be appointed by the managmg owners of both 
vessels, and one to be appointed by ibc majority 
in amount of underwriter's interest in each vessel ; 
the two arbitrators cliosen to choose a tliird 
arbitiator before entering upon the rclervnce. 
The terms of the Arbitration Act of iSt>9 to apply 
to such reference, and the decision of ^ucb single 
or of any two of such tlireo arbitrators, appointed 
as above, to be final and binding. 

This clause shall also extend to any sum which 
the assured may become liable to pay, or shall pay 
for ttie removal of obstructions under statutory 
powers, for injur)' to baibouis. wharves, piers, 
stages, and similai structures, or for loss of liie or 
personal injury consequent on such collision. 

I.ssTrTUTX Builder's pRorucrioN and Inoeu- 
.frrv Clause. — And we further agree that if the 

assured shall become liable to pay, and shall pay 
sum or sumti in respect of any res^wnsibiUty, 
claim, demand, damages, and/or expenses, or shall 
incur any other loss arising from or occasionod by 
any of the following matters or things dunng tne 
currency of this policy in respect of tho ship hereby 
insured, that is to say ; 

Loss or damage in respect of an)* other ship or 
boat or in respect of any goods, mcrchandi^H:. 
freight, or other things or interests, whatsoever, on 
board such other ship or boat caused proximately 
or otherwise by the ship insured in so far as the 
same is not covenxl by the running down clause 
hereto attached. 

Loss or damage to any goods, merchandise, 
freight or other things of interest whatsoever, 
other than as aforesaid, whetlter on board the said 
steamer or not. which may arise from any cause 

I.OSS of or damage to any harbour, dock, graving, 
or otherwiw, slipway, way, gridiron, pontoon, pier, 
quay, jetty, stage, buoy, telegraph cable, or other 
fixed oi movable tiling whatsoever, or to any goods 
or property in or on the s^ime. howsoever caused. 

Any attempt or actual raising, removal or 
destnicbon of tho wreck of the said steamship or 
the cargo thereof, or any neglect or failure to raise, 
remove or destroy the same. 

Any sum or sums from which the insured may 
become liable to incur from causes not bereiobcforo 
specified, but whiCh are or have heretofore been 
absolutely or conditionally recoverable from or 
undertaken by the Liveqjool and London Steam- 
ship EVotection Association, Limited, and/or N'orth 
ol l^ngland Protecting and Indemnity Association, 
6m/ excluding loss of hfe and personal injury. 

We will pay the assured such proportion of siich 
sum or sums so paid, or which may be required to 
indemnify the assured for such loss, as our respcc* 
tive subscriptions bear to the policy value of the 
ship hereby insured, and in case the liability of 
the assured has been contcatcil witli tlie consent in 
writing of Uie majority oi the underwriters, or the 
ship hereby insured in amount, wc will also pay a 
like proportion of the costs which the assured shall 
thereby incur, or be compelled to pay. 

Institute Time Clauses li«jt>6). — And it ia 
further agreed that if the ship hereby insured shall 
come into collision with any other ship ur \'es3el, 
and the assured shall m consequence thereof 
become liable to pay, and shall pay by way of 
damages to any other person or persons any sum 
or sums not exceeding in respect of any ooe such 
collision the value of the ship hereby insure<l, this 
company will pay the assured such proportion of 
throe-fourths of sucli sum or sums so paid as its 
subscription hereto bears lo the value of tlic ship 
hereby insured, and in cases in wliich the liabihty 
ol the ship has been contested, or proceedings have 
been taken to Umit liabihty, with the consent in 
writing of this company, the company will also 

F 2 




pay a like three-foorUis of the costs which the 
assurtxl shall tlicrcby incur, or be compelled to pay ; 
but when both vessels are to blame Uien unless 
the liability oi the owners ol one or both c( such 
vessels become limited by law, claims under this 
clause shall be settled on the principles of cross 
habilitics, as U the owner of each vessel had been 
compelled to pay to the owners of the other of such 
Vessels snch one-half or other proportion of the 
lalter's damages as may have been properly 
allowMl m ascertaining the balance, or sum payable 
by or to the assured in consequence of such col- 

Provided alwrays that this clansc shall in no case 
ejttend to any sum which the assured may become 
liable to pay or shall pay lor the removal of obstruc- 
tions under statutory powers, for injury to harlmurs. 
wharves, piers, stages, and similar structures, 
con&etjuent on auch collision, or in rBsi>ect of the 
cargo or engagement of the insured vessel, or for 
loss of life or personal Injury. 

Should the ^■c53c! hereby insured come into 
collision witii or receive salvage service from 
another vessel belonging wholly or in part to the 
same owners, or under the same management, the 
assured shall have the same rights under this 
policy as they would have were the other vessel en- 
tirely the property of owners not interested in the 
vessel hereby insured : but in such cases the 
liability lor the collision or the amount payable 
for the services rendered shall be referred to a aole 
arbitrator, to be agreed upon between the under- 
writers and the assured. 

In port and at sen, in docks ami graving docks, 
and on ways, gridirons, and pontoons, at all times, 
in all places, and on all occasions, services and 
trades whatever and wheresoever, under steam or 
sail, with leave to sail with or without pilots, to tow 
and assist vessels or craft in all situations^ and to 
be towed and to go on trial trips. 

Should the vessel at the expiration of this policy 
be at sea. or in distress, or at a pon of refuge or of 
call, she shall, provided previous notice is given to 
the underwriters, be held covered at a pro rata 
niontlUy premium, to her port of destination. 

Held covered in case of any breach of warranty 
as to cargo, trade, locality or date of sailmg, pro- 
vided notice be given and any additional premium 
required be agri-ed immediately after receipt of 

Sboitld the vessel be sold or transferred to new 
management, then, unless the underwriters agree 
in writing to such sale or transfer, this policy shall 
thereupon become cancelled from date of sale or 
transfer, unless the vessel has cargo on boaj'd and 
has already sailed from her loading port, or is at sea 
in ballast, in cither of which cases such cancellation 
shall be suspended until arrival at final port of 
discharge if with cargo, or at port of destination if 
in ballast. \ pro rata daily return of premium 
sliall be made. 




This Insurance also specially to cover (ftubject 
free of average warranty) loss of, or damage to bull 
or macrnnery through the negligence of master, 
mariners, engineers, or pilots, or crew not to be 
considered as part owners within the meaning of 
this clause should they hold shares in the steamer. 

General average and salvage charges to be ad- 
justed according to the law and practice obtaining 
at the place where the adventure ends, as if the 
contract of afireigh tment contained no special 
terms relating to general average and salvage 
charges, except that, where the contract of aflreight 
ment provides for the application of York-Antweip 
rules, or. in cases of wood cargoes. York-An 
rules omitting the first word of Rule I, underwri' 
shall pay in accordance with such provisions. 

Average payable on each valuation separately, 
or on Uie whole-, without deduction of thirds, new 
for old whether the average be particular or general. 

Donkey boilers. Avinchci;, cranes, windlasses, 
steering gear, and electric hght apparatus shall be 
deemed to be part of the hull, and not part of the 
machinery. Refrigerating machinery and insulatii 
not covered unless expresbly included in the policy? 

Warranted free from particular average und 
3% but nevertheless when the x-essel shall have be«tt 
stranded, sunk, on fire, or in collision with any 
other stiip or vessel, underwriters shall pay the 
damage occasioned thereby, and the expense of 
sighting the bottom after stranding shall l>e paid if 
reasonably incurred, even if no damage is found. 

No claim shall in any case be allowed in respect 
of scraping or painting the vessel's bottom. 

Grounding in the Suez Canal, or m the Manches- 
ter Ship Canal, or its connections, or in the River 
Mersey above Rock Ferry SUp. or in the Ri 
Plate (above Buenos Aires) or its tributaries, or 
the Danube, Demerara, or Bilbao River, or In the 
Ycnikalc or Bilbao Bar. shall not be deemed to be a 

The warranty and conditions as to average 
under 3% to I>c applicable to each voyage as if 
separately insured, and a voyage shall be deemed to 
commence at one of the following periods to be 
selected by the assured when making up the claim, 
vis. : at any time at wtiich the vessel (i) begins to 
load cargo or (2) sails in ballast to a loading port. 
Such voyage shall be deemed to continue during 
the ensuing period until either she lias made one 
outward and one homeward passage (including an 
intermediate ballast passage, d made) or has 
carried or discharged two cargoes, whichever 
may first happen, and further in either case, until 
she begins to load a subsequent cargo or sails in 
ballast for a loading port. 

^^^lcn the vessel sails in ballast to eflect 
repair such sailing shall not be deemed to be a sailing 
for a loading port, although she loads at the ropsir- 
ing port. In calculating the 3% above referred to, 
particular average occurring outside the period 
covered by the policy may be added to particular 



: saus m 

: damago^l 




average occurring within such period, provided 
it ocCTir upon the same voyage {as above defined), 
bnt only that portion of the claim arising within 
such period shall be recoverable hereon. The com- 
mencement of a voyage shall not be so fixed as to 
overlap another voyage on which a claim is mi^de 
on this or the preceding policy. 

In no case shall underwriters be liable for un- 
repaired damages in addition to a subsequent total 
loss sustained during the term covered by this 

The iiuturcd \-aluc shall he taken as the repaired 
value in ascertaining whether the vessel is a con- 
structive total Ioft£. 

In tlic cvi-nt of total or constructive total low 
no claim to be made by the nnderwriteni for freight, 
whether notice of abandonment has been given or 

In the event of accident whereby loss or damage 
may rc:sult in a claim under this policy, notice shall 
be given in writing to the underwTlters. where 
practicable, and if abroad, to the nearest Lloyd's 
agent also, prior to sur^-ey, so that they may 
appoint their own surveyor if they so desire ; and 
whenever the extent of the damage is ascertainable 
the nnderwriter^ may take or may require the 
assured to take tenders for the repair of such 
damage. In coses where a tender is accepted by or 
with the approval of underwriters, the underwriters 
will make an allowance at the rate of £30 per cent, 
per annum on the insured value for the time actually 
lost in waiting for tenders. In tlic event of the 
assured iaihug to comply witli the conditions of 
the clause, ^13 per cent, shall be deducted from the 
amount of the a.tcertained claim. 

Warranted free ol capture, seizure, and detentioo. 
and the consequence thereof, or any attempt 
thereat, piracy excepted, and also from all conse- 
qoeooes of hostilities, or warlike operations, 
whether before or after declaration of war. 

._ per cent for each uncom- 

menced month if it be mntually agreed to 

cancel this policy as follows 

for each consecutive 30 days the vessel 

To return may l>e laid up in port, vit. : — „ 

aad per cent if in the United King* 

dom not arrival under 


per cent, under average, or if 

abroad ;.. 

iKamvrtt Voyage CLatraES.— .^.nd it is further 
agreed that if the ship hereby injured shall come 
into collision with any other ship or vessel, and 
the assured shall in consequence thereof become 
liable to pay. and shall pay by way of damages to 
any person or persons any sum or sums not exceed- 
ing in reject of any one such collision the value of 
the ship hereby insured, this company will pay the 
UBured such proportion of three-fourths of such 
sum or sums so paid as its subscription hereto 
bears to the value of the ship hereby insured ; and 

in CAMS in which tTie liability of the ship "has been 
contested, or proceedings have been takm to limit 
hability. with the consent in writing of this com- 
pany, the company mhU also pay a like proportion 
of three-fourths of the cosM which the awured shall 
thereby incur or be compelled to pay : but when 
both vessels are to blame, then unless the tlability 
of the owners of both of such vessels become limited 
by law. claims under this clause shall be settled on 
the principle of cross-Uabilities, as if the owners of 
each vessel had been compelled to pay to the 
owners of the other of such vesaels such on«-haU 
or other proportion of the latter's damages as may 
have been properly allowed in ascertaining the 
balance or sum payable by ur to the assured, in 
consequence of such collision. 

Provided always that this clause shall in no case 
extend to any sum which the assured may become 
liable to pay, or shall pay for the removal of obstruc- 
tions under statutor>- powers, for injury to harbouta, 
wharves, piers, stages, and similar structures, con- 
sequent on such collision, or m respect of the cargo 
or engagements of the msured vessel, or for toss o( 
life or personal injury. 

Sliould the vessel hereby insured come into 
collision with or receive salvage service from any 
other vessel belonging wholly or in part to the same 
owners, or under the same management, the 
assured shall have the same rights under ttii.s policy 
as they would liave were the other vessel entirely 
the property of owners not interested in the vessel 
hereby insured : bnt in such cases of liability for 
the coUiston. or the amount payable for the services 
rendered shall be referred to a sole arbitrator tn bo 
agreed upon between the underwriters and the 

This insurance also specially to cover (subject 
to the free of average warranty) loss of or damage to 
hull or machinery through the negtigence of the 
master, mariners, engineers, or pilots, or Uirough 
explosion, bursting of the boilers, breaking of the 
shafts, or through any latent defect in the ma- 
chinery or hull, provided such loes or damage has 
not resulted from want of due diligfucc by the 
owners of the ship, or any of them, or by tlie 
manager, master, mates, engineers, pilots, or crew. 
not to be considered as part of the owners within 
the meaning of this clause should they bold shares 
in the steamer. 

General average and salvage charges payable 
according to the foreign statement or per York- 
Antwerp Rules, if in accordance with the contract 
of affreightment 

Average pa)*able on each valuation separately or 
on the whole without deduction of thirds, new for 
old, whether the average be particular or general. 

Donkey IxMlers, winches, cranes, windlasses, 
steering gear, and dcctric light apparatus shall be 
deemed to be part of the hull and not of the ma- 
chinery. Refrigerating machinery and Insulation 
not covered unless expressly included in thi'i policy. 

WuTsnted {ree from psiticnlar average under 
3%. bat iMTvcrtheless when the vessel shall ba\-e 
been stranded, sunk, on fire, or in coIIiskhi with any 
other ship or vcastl, underwriters to pay the danaage 
occaaioaed thercl^y. No claim shall be allowed in 
xcspect of Kcraping or painting the veawl's bottom, 
whetbcT &t)e be Btranded or cot ; but the expense 
ol sighting the bottom oitei stranding shall be 
paid, if reasonably incurred, even U oo damage be 

Grounding in the Suez Canal or in the Manchester 
Ship Canal or its connections, or in the River 
i/ttney, above Rock Ferry Slip, or in the Kiver llate 
(above Buenos Aires] or its tnbulanes, or in the 
I>anube. Deinuara, or BObao River, or in the 
Yenikale or Bilbao Bar shall not b« deeinad to b« a 

The tnsnrcd value shall be taken aa the repaired 
value in ascertammg whether the vessel is a con* 
stnictivc total loss. 

In the event of accident wbcrcby loss or damage 
may result in a claim under this jKilicy, notice shall 
be given in wnting lo the anderwriters where prac- 
ticable, and, if abroad, to the ocarest Lloyd's agent 
also, prior to sur>-ey, so that ihey may appoint 
their own Burvcyor if they so desire ; and whenever 
the event of the damage is ascertainat>Ie, the under- 
vriters may take or may require the assured to take 
tenders for tlie repair ot such damage. In cases 
where a tender is accirpted by or witJi the approval 
of onilerwriters, the undcrwritCTs will make an 
allowance at the rate of ,^30 per cent, per annum on 
the insured value for the time actually lost in 
waiting for tenders. In the event of the assured 
failing to comply with the conditions of the clause, 
£tS pw cent, shall be deducted from the amount of 
the ascertained claim. 

Warranted free of capture, seixnre and detention, 
and the conBeqiiencps thereof or any attempt there- 
at, piracy excepted, and also from all consequences 
of hostilities, or warlike operations, whether 
before or after declaration of war. 

Held covered in case of deviation or change of 
voyage provided notice be given, and any addi- 
tional premiums required be agreed immediately 
after receipt of advices. 

With leave to sail with or without pilots, and to 
tow and assist vessels or craft in all situations, and 
to be towed. 

With Icavu to dock and undock and go into 
graving dock. 

Jettison Cuidsb. — (a) Warranted free from 
claim for jettison or washing overboard. (6) War- 
ranted free from particular average and from all 
claim for jettison or washing overboard. 

(c) Warranted £rec from all average but to cover 
risk of jettison and washing overboard. Jie/er to 
Deck Load clause. 

Leavk to Call. — With leave to call at any inter- 
mediate ports and places for all purposes. 

Machimekv Clause. — Zn case ol Iom or aijn; 
to any part of a machme consisting, when oompkte, 
for sole or use, of several parts, the undcrantin 
shall only be liable for the insnrecl val ue of tbt put 
lost or daniagrd. 

Meat.— {A.mehcaiO tp.a. clause, but a can 
of the prolongation of the voyage after 14 din id 
pay for any damage to or deterioration of & 

Neclicekcs Cukvss. — It is agreed that Ik 
assured shall not be prejudiced by the insertiaa tt 
tbc bill of lading of the following clauses : — 

{a) The act of God. perils of the sea, hrc. bamtiy 
of the master and crew, enemies, pirates, chicvti 
arrest and restraint of prioces, ruler!^ and people, 
collisions, stranding, and other accidents of navigs- 
tion excepted, even when occasioned by the ne|b- 
gence, default, or error in judgment of the pQot. 
master, mariners, or other servaDts ot tbe ^1^ 

(&) The insertion ol the London Conference Rofas 
of Affreightment m the bill of lading and /or charter 

Passage Monsv Clause.— Against all ccsti, 
chafes and liabilities, the master's penalties ex- 
cepted, to which the owners or charterets of tbe 
ship may be subjected under the 50th and $iai 
sections of the i8th and i^lh Victoria, cap IJ9. 
entitled the Passengers Act 1855 ; and under tlK 
t4th, 15th, and i6th sections of the 36th and 77t& 
Victoria, cap 51, entitled The Passengers Ameml- 
ment Act 1863, including the rcplenishtng of tlw 
provisions and stores, required by the Act oi 
putting into a port in the United Kingdom ; liso 
the maintenance of the passengers according to tbe 
dietary ol the Act while the vessel is detained afttf 
putting into a foreign port. But it is andesstood 
that tlie underwriters' liabibt)- shall not exceed a 
total loss from any one casualty, and that they shall 
not be liable lor the expense of replenishing thr 
provisions and stores or maintenance as aforesaid, 
except the putting into port be caused by accident 
or damages to the ship. 

Petboleuu. — Not liable for leakage unless the 
vessel be stranded or in collision, or there be ft 
forced discharge of cargo at any intermediate port 
of dii>Lre«s and it amount to over 3% on the whole. 

Average payable on each 500 cases of and over 
3%, but only the excess of ii% on the vfhdt 
interest for leakage claims. 

pHOFiT Clause, Commission Clause. — Wairant- 
ed free of all average, but to pay a total loss on aucb 
packaged as do not reach their destiuatjon by any 

Reinsurance Clause. — (a) " Being a re* 
insurance subject to the same clauses, and condi- 
tions and/or change of voyage as original poUcy 
and policies, and to pay as may be paid thereon." 

(lb) " Being a reinsurance against the risk of 
total loss and/or constructive total loss only, and no 
claims to attach to this policy for salvage charges." 


Sue and Laboor Claitsb.— " And in case of any 
Iocs or misfortuac it shall be lawful to the assured. 
their factors, servants, and assigns, to sue. labour 
and travel for. in and about the defence, safeguard, 
and recovcr>- of the said goods and merchandises 
and ship, etc.. or any part thereof without prejudice 
to this insurance ; to the charges thereof we. the 
aasnTcrs. will contribute, each according to the 
rate and quantity of his sum herein insured." 

Tea (China). — To pay average on each lo chests, 
20 half chests, or 40 quarter chests foUowing landing 
oumbcra, but no claim to attach for wet or damp in 
respect of any package unless the tea therein shall 
have been in actual contact with sea water. 

Tobacco (American). — In case of particular 
average to pay the excess of 5% on the value of each 
10 hogsheads following landing numt>ers. 

Total Loss Only (T.I„0.). — The interest 
insured by this policy to be against the risk of total 
loss only. 

(This clause is an engagement distinct from the 
main body ot the policy, and is not subject to the 
restrictions contained in the memorandum. The 
Uabihty onder it is not a tiabihty for particular 
average, but for a claim over the amount of the 
policy ; as, for example, expense incurred in an 
luisuccessful attempt to save a ship which is never- 
theless totally lost) 

Total Loss Clause. — Against the risk of total 
los only. 

Trading Clause. — Outward cargo to bo deemed 
homc\«ard cargo 24 hours after arrival at first port 
or place of trade. 

Valuation Clause. — The insured value shall bo 
token as the required value of the vessel in ascer- 
taining whether there is a constructive total loss 
under this policy. 

Waivrr Clausb. — .4nd it is expressly declared 
and agreed that no acts of the insurer or the insured 
in n?covcring. sa\ing, or preserving the property 
insured shall be considered as a waiver or acceptance 
of abandonment. Refer to Sue and Labour ClauAc. 

Yacht Claure.^ — To pay a claim if amounting 
to i. ».... or upwards (generally i^o). 

Qaiussn. Qttcn Wilhelm (b. Bremcrhaveu. Janu- 
ary 23. 1S45). Served his apprenticeship in the 
shipbudding yard of Messrs. Joh. C. Tecklenborg. 
Bremerhavcn ; in 1866 be joined the shipbuilding 
yard of Messrs. Caiid and Co., Greenock, where he 
became head draughtsman, under the managtment 
of Mr. Jame» Dtckaon ; in 1870 he retumod to 
Germany and jomed the firm in which he served 
his apprenticeship, and m 1 876 he became managing 
partner, having in the meantime designed and 
superintended the construction of several steamers 
for the well-known firm of Fned. Krvpp. Essen. 
Under his direction the firm established a new ship- 
building yard at Geestemuode, and in 1^83 added 
engineering works. In 1897 the Ann was converted 
into a Umitcd compainy, and he was appointed 


managing director. Member of the British Inst. 
of N'avaJ .'Architects and the Gennan Schiffbautech- 
nische Gesellschaft. 

Clawing-off. To beat to windward from a le« 
shore to avoid getting into difhcultica. 

Claymore. French torpedo-boat destroyer. 
(Forges et Chantier^, 1904.) Length, 180 ft. ; 
lieam, 21 ft. ; maximum draught, 10 ft. ; displace- 
ment, 300 tons : complement, 45 ; guns, t 9-pdr.. 
6 3-pdr. ; toqiedo tubes, 3 ts-in. ; speed, 27-30 lets. 

Olajrs. Fatil Jean (1819-1900). Belgian marine 
painter (b. Bruges). Was one of the founders of 
the Marine Belgian School of Art, and his work is 
particularly strong in depicting the beauties of the 
sea at peace. His best known pictures are : " Dutch 
Boats in the Flushing Roads " (National Gallery, 
London}, " Festival of the Scheldt at Antwerp '* 
{New York), " Calm on the Scheldt " and " Coast 
near Ontcnd " [Brussels), " The Open North Sea " 
(Munich), " Entry of Queen Victoria into Ostend 
in 1857.' 

Clearance is a certificate issuod by the Customs 
aiithonties showing that the vessel therein named 
has complied with the Customs requirements, paid 
her port and light dues, and is entitled to proceed 
to sea. It can be obtained by the master " as 
soon as his cargo i^ in such a xmsitian as to enable 
him to make out his manifest {q.v.) for the use of 
the Customs." 

daftt. A piece of wood with two arms for belay- 
ing ropes, Abo small wcdgvs used to secure sails 
from slipping. 

Olfiineoa. Samael Lsnghorne (better known as 
Mark Twain), American author and humorist 
(b. Flonda]. At the age of 17 became a qualified 
pilot on the Mississippi River, and in his " Life on 
the Mississippi " he graphically records liis experi- 
ences while " learning the river." After drifting 
about the United States he went to San Francisco, 
and in i8;S was supplied with money by one of 
the leading nevrspapcrs in that city to join a party 
goiug to tlie Mediterranean ports. The letters 
written by him during this voyage were gathered 
in ift6g into a volume, "The Innocents Abroad," 
and the book won an enduring popularity. Among 
his best known works arc : " Roughing it " (1873), 
"The Gilded Age" {1873), "Life on the Missis- 
sippi " (1874). " Tom Sawyer " (1876), " A Tramp 
Abroad" (1880). "The Prince and the Pauper" 
(i88i). " .\dventures of Huckleberry Finn " (1884) ; 
" A Yankee at King Arthur's Court " (l88g), 
" The Amencan Claimant " (1897). " Pudd'n-head 
Wilson ■■ {1S94), "The Man who Corrupted Had- 
leyburg " (iQOo), " A Double -Borreiltx! Detective 
Story " (1903). A complete edition of his worica 
was published in 22 vols, in 1900 by the American 
Publishing Co., of Harvard, Con. 






Biuiing the end of a. bolt to keep it 

Cleopatra. British 3rd class cmiser (380 tons, 
13 kU.). Launched i8;8. 

Clermont This vessel , dcBigrocd by Robert 
Fulton and launched on tlic Hudson River, U.S.A., 
in September. 1607. was the first successful vessel 
propelled by steam. She made the trip from New 
York to Albany, a distance by ri^-er of about 150 
miles, in j2 hours. 

Cleveland. U.S. 3rd class cruiser (tdgi). 
Length zgift. Beam 44ft. Maximuro drauf^ht 17ft. 
Di.splaccntcnt 3,200 tons. Compleinent 293. 
Guns. A rmtmr. 

10 — 5 in. " Hajvc>*-nickcl." 

8 — 6 pdr, 2 in. Deck. 

2 — I pdr. 
7 Colts. 
Twin screw. Hp. 4.500s 16*5 lets. Coal maxi- 
mum 700 tons. 

Clew-ganet. Hauling up the clew of a cross, 

Olew-line. The line which hauls up the clew. 

Cl«w ol a saiL The corner to which the sail is 

Ctewi. An arrangement of small ropes for 
slin^ng hfimmocks. 

Climate. The awrage condition of meteoro- 
logical phenomena at a given place. 

CUmatoIOKiCftl station. A station at which 
observatiotih are niado only once a day, usually at 
9 a.m. 

Climatology. The science or study of climate. 

OUnoh. The inner end of a cable ; also method 
of connecting a rope cable to an anclvor. 

Clinker-built (chncber-butlt). Afiphed to a boat 
<x ship built 'M'ith the lower edge of each plank 
overlappmg the one below. 

Clio. Italian torpedo-boat. (Naples, 190(1.) 
Length, 165 ft. ; beam, 17 ft. ; draught, 7 ft. ; 
displacement. 200 tons : armament. 3 3-pdr., 
3 tubes; twin screw; Hp., 3,000=35 kta. ; coal 
40 tons. 

OUp. Hooks for catching hold of fish. 

Clipper. A name applied to Australian sailing 
NliijiH, ciwing to the sharp, fast, low in the water, 
rakish appearance of the vessel. 

Olog^hanled. The general trim of a ship's sails 
wlirii .'-.■liliii)^ clohc* in to the wind. 

dOK-reefed. ^\it sails reefed. 

CloM to the wind. A name applic^d when sailing 
just sutticientJy near to the wind to fill the sails 
without .shaking them. 

Clothi. In a saO, are the bnadtlis of canvas in 

its whole width. 

Olood. Moisture in the air condensod into 

visible form. 

Clond-bani. Sudden precipitation ol a great 
amount of rain or hail in a short time. 

donds. The different modifications and forms 
of cloud, as originally given by Luke Howard, 
were Cimi?. Cirro-cumulus, Cirro-stratus. Cumulus. 
Cumulo -stratus. Stratus, and Nimbus. It is desir- 
able, however, to employ the nomenclature adopted 
by the International Meteorological Committee, 
and mufd in the International CUnid Atlas, which 
is as follows : 

Ctrrus (Ci.).— Detached clouds. deUcate and 
fibrous-looking, taking the form of feathers, gene- 
rally of a white colour, sometimes arranged in 
belts, which cross a portion of the sky in " great 
circles." and. by an effpct of perspfclivc, converge 
towards one or two opposite point? of the horizon. 
(The Ci.-S. and the Ci.-Cn. often contribute to tbe 
formation of these belts.) 

Cirro-Stratus (Ci'.-S.). — A thin, whitish sheet, 
times completely covering the sky. and only giving 
it a whitish appearance (it is then sometimes called 
Cirro-nebula), or at others presenting, more or less 
distinctly, a formation like a tangled web. Tliis 
sheet often produces lialoe around the sun and 

CitTO-Ciimuius (Ci'.-Cw.).— Small globular masses 
or white flakes without shadows, or having very 
slight shadows, arranged in groups and often 

Aito • Citmutut {A.-Cm.). — I^argtsh globnii 
masses, white or greyish, partially shaded, arranged 
in groups or lines, and often so closely packed that 
their edges appear confused. Tlic detached masses 
are generally larger and more cumpact (changing 
to S.-Cu.) at the centre of the group. At the 
margin they form into finer flakes (changing to 
Ci.-Cu.). They often spread themselves out 
tines in one or two directions. 

AUo-Sttatus {A.-S.). — A thick sheet of a 
or bluish colour, which shows a brilliant patch in 
the neighbourhood of the sun or moon, and which, 
without causing halos. may give rise to coronx. 
This form goes through all the changas like the 
Cirro-stratus, but by measurements made at 
Upeala its altitude is one-half less. 

SirtUo-CumulHs (S.-Cu.}.— Large globular masses 
or rolls of dark cloud, frequently covering the 
whole sky. esjiecially in winter, and occasionally 
giving it a wavy appearance. The layer of Strato- 
cumnlus is not, as a rule, ver>* thick, and patches 
of blue sky are often visible through the inter- 
vening spaces. All sorts of transitions between 
this form and the Alto-cumulus are noticeable. It 
may be distinguished from Nimbus by its globular 
or rolled appearance, and also because it docs not 
bring rain. 



Nimbus (M). — Raio-cloud. A thick layer of 
dark doudii, without shape iuid with ragged edge, 
from which continued rain or snow generally fails. 
Through the oponings in these clouds an upper 
layer ot Cirro-stratus or Alto-stratus may almost 
invariably be seen. If the layer of Nimbus 
separates up into shreds, or if small loose clouds 
are visible floating at a low level underneath a 
large Nimbus, they may be described aa Fracto- 
nimbus (the " scud " of sailors). 

Cumulus {Cu.). — Wool - pack clouds. Thick 
clouds of which tJie upper surface is dome-shaped, 
and exliibits protuberances while tlio base is 
horizontal. These clouds appear to l>e formed b}' 
a diurnal ascensional movement, wbicb is almost 
always observable. When the cloud is opposite to 
the sun the surfaces usually presented to the 
observer have a greater brilliance than the margins 
of the protuberances. When the light falls aslant 
these clouds give deep shadows ; when, on the con- 
trary, the clouds are on the same side as the son, 
they appear dark, with bright edges. The true 
Cumulus has clear tipper and lower limits. It is 
often broken up by strong winds, and the detached 
portions undergo continual changes. These may 
be distinguished by the name of Fracto-cumutus. 

Cumi^- Nimbus (Ch.- W.).^The timnder -cloud ; 
shower -cloud. Heavy masses of cloud, rising In 
the form of mountains, turrets, or anvils, generally 
having a sheet or screen of fibrous appearance 
above (" false Cirrus "), and underneath a mass of 
cloud similar lo Nimbus. From the base there 
usually fall local showers of rain or of snow [occa- 
sionally bail or soft hail). SmneLimes the u^iper 
edges have the compact form of Cumulus, forming 
into massive peaks round which the delicate " false 
Cimis " floats, and sometimes the edges themselves 
separate into a fringe of filaments similar to that 
of the Cirrus cloud. This last form is particularly 
common in spring showers. The 4ront oi thunder- 
clouds oi wide extent frequently presents the form 
of a large bow spread over a portion of the sky 
which is uniformly bnghter in colour. 

Stratus (S.). — A horizontal sheet of lifted fog. 
When this sheet is broken op into irrcgntar shreds 
by the wind, or by the summits of mountains, it 
may be distinguished by the name of Fracto- 

CHowtt. Sir WUUftm L«ird (1856-1905). Naval 
critic and writer (b. llampstcad). Educated Alden- 
baro. King's College, London, and Lincoln's lun, 
and at the last moment abandoned the Bar for 
joomahsm, and wTote on technical subjects, chiefly 
naval, subsequently devoting himself to researches 
in naval history. Some of his papers on the condi- 
tion of the Navy have been translated into many 
lanyuages, and have hod an enormous influence 
upon naval as well as public opinion. He served 
on the Arts and General Committees of the Royal 
Naval Exhibition ol 1891. gained the gold medal 

of the United States Naval Institute in the follow- 
ing year. Was electod a Fellow of King's College, 
London, in 1895, and chosen an hnn. member of 
the Royal United Service Institution. 

Publications : " The Naval Pocket-Book." *' The 
Captain of the Mary Rose," " Blood is Thicker 
than Water," " History of the Royal Navy." 

dobbtne. Dropping with tide or current, drag- 
ging the anchor. 

dab-haal. Method of tacking by letting go loe 
anclior when wind Is out of sails ; bringing head 
to wind. 

Club Haritimo del Abra. President, Don Thomas 
Zubiria ; Vicc-Picsidcnt, Don Pedro MacMahon : 
Treasurer, Don Angel Llona ; Secretary, Don 
Manuel Galindez, Las Arenas, Bilbao. Entrance 
fee, I2S pesetas ; annual subscription, 60 pesetas. 

Clab Kantico de Bilbao. President, Don Benigns 
de Cha^-arri ; Vice-President. Don Justo D. dc 
Somonte : Treasurer, Don Jose de .Arbide ; Secre- 
tary. Don Antonio Carlevaris, Club House, Nuevo 
Teatro, Bilbao. Entrance fee, 150 pesetas ; annual 
subscription. 60 pesetas. 

Olab Nautique de Nice. E.stablishcd 1883. Pre- 
sidetit, F. Pilatti! ; Vice-Presidents. J. G. Maurel. 
A. Chauchard, A. Isnard ; Treasurer, D. Sauvaigo ; 
Honorary Secretary. L. Bonligtio, 93 Quai du 
tmdi. Nice; Honorary .\s3istaut-S«:retary, L. Des- 
joyeux. Entrance fee, 30 francs ; annual sub* 
scription, 30 franca. 

01yd* (1890). British subsidised merchant 
ship. Royal Mail Company {q.o.). Dimensions. 
436x50x33 ft ; gross tonnage. 5,620; paiwenger 
accommodation. 554; Hp., 7,540—17 kts. 

Clyde. British drill-ship (1.447 tons). Launched 

Clyde Bill ol Entry. Established 1840. Pub- 
lished Tuesday. Thursday, and Saturday. Price 
£1 115. 6f^. per annum. Address : Glasgow. 

Clyde Corinthian Yaoht CInb. Estabhshed 1876, 
with present headquarters at Hunter's Quay. It 
was originally known as " The Clyde Corinthian 
Sailing Club " at Dunoon. Towards the cud ol 
i87() the Loch Long Sailing Club wa? amalgamated 
with it, and in 18S0 assumed the present title. 
Flags : Red ensign and red burgee, with white 
cross, and in the centre a yellow shield with lion. 
Commodore, Wm. Connell ; Vice-Comnuxlore, R. S. 
Allan ; Rear -Commodore, C. Maclver ; Honorary 
Secretary and Treasurer, John D. AUisoo. En- 
trance fee, li IS. ; annual sulMcriptiuu. ^l is. 

Clyde line, owned and managed by Messrs. 
W. M. P. ayde and Co., ^f New York, have a 
fleet of five steamers, which maintain daily sailings 
from New York for Florida, calling at the principal 




ports en rotttf. This line ia the only water line to 

Florida without traDghipment. 


A lifowfuin . A fapokos. 

Apache. Comancke. 


Clyde Shipping Oo^ with their head offices in 
Glasgow, have a liirge fleet of full-powered steamers, 
which maintain regular steam communication 
between Glasgow, Greenock, Plymouth, Southamp- 
ton, Ncwhaven. Dover, and London ; Belfast, lly- 
mouth, Soutliampton, and London ; Waterford, 
Plymouth, Soutliampton, and London ; Glasgow, 
Greenock. Waterford. and Cork ; Glasgow, Greenock 
and Limerick ; Belfast, Dabliu, Waterford. and 
Cork ; Cork and south-west coast of Ireland ports ; 
Glasgow, Greenock, Antwcrji. and Ghent. The 
company also maintain a fleet of powtirful tug 
stcamcns at Glasgow. Greenock, Dublin. Queens- 
town, and Cardiff. 


Ailsaetaig. Flying Swallow. 

America. Ftying Swift. 

Arattmore, Plyi^S WiUh. 

Copeland. Flying Witard. 

Dungeness. Carmoyi*. 

Eddystone. Gocdufin. 

Fastnst. Ireland. 

Flying Cormorant. Kalibia. 

Flying Dutchman. Kish. 

Flying Elf. Lizzard- 

Flying Falcon. Longships. 

Flying Ftsh. Needles. 

Flying Fo:t. Pladda. 

Flying Linnet. Portland. 

Flying Afist. Rathlin. 

Flying Phantom, Salia. 

Flying Scotsman. Sanda. 

Flying Scout. Sheemess, 

Flying Spindrift. Skerrynore. 

Flying Sportsman. Sptthead. 

Flying Sprit*. Toward. 

Clyde Yacht Club. Royal. See Royal Qyde 

Yacht Club. 

C.1I. DistingTiistiing letters on sea fishing boal^ 
registered at Campbeltown, Scotland. 

0.0. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at CourseuUes, France. 

0.0. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Carnarvon, England. 

Coak. Small triangular piece of p4!rfor&ted bracts 
in sheave of a block to pL'event splitting and galling. 

OoftUnff ol shipc at sea. In 1&91 Admiral Sir 
Michael Seymour succeeded during the naval 
xnanaeuvres in coaling his squadron at sea by the 
aid of mechanical appliances. In the Spanish- 

American war, 1898, some oonting was thus accom- 
pliKhed, and although coaling stations are now 
eagerly sought after by alt Powers, a fleet which is 
able to assert and to maintain the command of the 
sea will not And ^rcat difficulty In its coal supply. 
Coaling by the Tcmperley transporter has been 
largely used in connection with the coaling of war- 
bhips at sea. The transporters are made for toads 
of from 5 to 60 cwts., up to ft. in length. 
and a travelling speed of from 1,000 to 1.500 ft. 
per minute. The record for coaling from a coIHer 
without outside lalx)ur was achieved by Lord 
Charles Beresford's flagship King Edward, which 
took in 950 tons in 3 hours 20 minutes, or an 
average rate of ^85 tons per hour. 

Coaling stations arc ports specially fitted out and 
used for supplying steamships with coal. In tSSt 
a Koyal Commi.wion, under the presidency of the 
Earl of Carnarvon, reported on the question of 
British coaling stations, which resulted in the sum 
of £1,155,100 being granted by the British Govern- 
ment for improving the armament and works of 
these stations. Britain lias coaling stations in 
every part of the world, .^niong them are Gibraltar. 
Malta, Aden, Bombay, Kurrachee, Trinconoalee. 
Colombo, Singapore. Hong Kong, Simon's Bay, 
Table Bay. Mauritius, Sierra Leone, St. Helena. 
Jauiajca, St. Lucia. Halifax, and Bermuda. A 
complete list of coaling stations of the world, ia- 
eluding those on the Admiralty List, is appended. 

Home Ports. 

Grimsby, Scilly. 

Harttepool. Seaham. 

Holyhead. Shields (Nortb)J 

HuU. Shields (South). ' 

Leith. Southampton. 

Limerick. Sunderland. 

Liverpool. Swausea. 

London. Stornoway. 

Londonderry. Troon. 

Milford Haven. Tynemouth. 

Newcastle. Waterford. 






















Alton a. 







Newport (Mon.). Wuarmouth. 

Port Talbot 





EuRopEAif Ports. 


















EiffiOPEAN Ports — (cont.) 

ATtAirnc Ports— («Mtf.) 



































La Rochelle. 
















Port Said. 

Port Audcmer. 








St. Petersburg. 

St. Male. 




















Ajlahtic Ports 



Bahia Btanca. 



* Bermudas 

Boston (U.S.). 

Buenos Aires. 

Cape Coast Castle 
•Cape Town. 

Cape Verdes (St Vin- 


Charleston (S.C). 

Cheater (U.S.). 


COosaw River. 


Dix Cove. 


Falkland Islands. 

Fayai (Azores). 
•Fernando Po. 


Gam Ilia. 



(North and South). 



Horn Island. 
•Kingston (Jamaica). 

La Plata. 

Las Palmas. 


Louisberg (CB.). 



Marcus Hook (VS.). 



Bioote Video. 

Moaaamedes (West 
Coast. S.Africa). 



Newport News. 

New Orleans. 

New York. 

Norfolk (Va.). 






Portland (M.). 
♦Port Stanley (F.I.). 

Punta Arenas. 

Punta Delgada. 



Rio de Janeiro. 


Santa Cnu (Teneriffe). 

St. John (N.S.). 

St. Johns (N.F.). 
•St Lucia. 
•St. Helena. 

St. Michael's (A2or!>s). 

St. Pftul de Loanda. 

St. Thomas. 

St. Vincent. 



Ship Island. 
•Sierra Leone. 
♦Simon's Town. 

Sydney (CB.). 


Vera Cnw. 

th (N.S.). 

Indian Ocean and China Seas. 

•Adon. Karatzu. ^Newcastle 

Amoy. Killindim. (N.S.W.). 

Bangkok. Kobi. Otani. 

Batavia. Kurracbec. Penang, 

•Bombay. Labuan, •Perim. 

Bossorah. Madras. Rangoon. 

Btishire. Manila. Saigon. 

•Calcutta. •Mauritius. Seychelles. 

Canton. MojL Shanghai. 

Cocoftada. Mombasa. ♦Singapore. 

•Colomba Moulmein. Sourabaya. 

Delagoa Bay. Muroran. Suez. 

Galle. NagasakL •Trincomalee. 

Hakodadi. Yokohania. 

•Hong Kong. Zanzibar. 

Pacific (North and South) and Austrauisia. 













Diego Garcia. 
•Fiji Islands. 


Hobart Town. 


I-Tmg George's 






Mam a i mo. 
•New Westmin- 


Portland (O.). 




San Diego. 

San Francisco. 










Victoria (V.I). 

Ports marked • are on the Admiralty List. 

Coil Btorchant and Shipper. Established 1900^ 
Published weekly (Satunlay). Price (by subs.). 
Address : 165 Strand, London, W.C 

Oo&mingfl. A rest of a ship's hatch. 

Ooast. A general name lor the littoral of any 
country, applied to that part of the land only 
which hes contiguous to the sea. 

Ooftitar. The expression " coaster " includes all 
British ships trading from one part of the United 





Kingdom to another, and all foreign ships carrying 
cargo, passengers, or ballast from one part ol the 
United Kiugdom to another, or Jrom the Channel 
Islands or the Isle of Man to the United Kingdom, 
or vice versa. 

The coasting trade is confined to coasters, exc^t 
vessels coming from parts beyond the seas with 
inward cargo for more than one port in the United 
Kingdom. If any goods shall be taken in or put 
out ol any cnaHtcr at sea or over the sea, or if any 
coaster touch at any place over the sea, or deviate 
from her voyage unless forced by unavoidable cir- 
cunnstances. or ii, having touched at some place 
over the seas, thr master docs not declare the fact 
to the proper officer on first arrival in the United 
Kingdom, the master shall be liable to forfeit /loo. 

The master of every coaster must keep a cargo- 
book, in wliich must be entered {inter alia) the 
name of every port of loading and the nature of 
goods taken on board. Before leaving the port of 
bading a tracsire must be siKne<l by the master, 
and a copy given to the Customs officers : and 
btffore goods can be discharged, and within 34 hours 
of arrival in port, the tranaire must be handed to 
the Collector of Customs, under a penalty of £30. 

By the Merchant Shipping Act. 1S94, coasters 
arc exempt from : 

(i) Compulsory pilotage. 

(a) Registration, if under 15 tons. 

0) Agreement with crew, and marking deck and 
loadhncs. See Merchant Sliipping Act 

U) li not carrying passengers, from carrying 
certi£calcd officers. 

Coastgujird. The, a force originally intended solely 
for the pre\ention of smuggling; now forms part 
W of llie Navy, and acts both as a naval rcstrrvo 
{q.v.) and a means of coastal defence. The force, 
wtiich was transferred from the Customs Commis- 
sioners to the Admiralty in t$S7. and Hmited to 
10.000 o^iccrs and men. is under the superintend- 
ence of an admiral, and is annually exercised 
afloat. Its duties ashore include the prevention 
of smuggling, the protection of ship-nTecked pro- 
perty, assisting distressed vessels, and the keeping 
of weather reports and the hoisting of storm signals. 
There are 1 1 coastguard districts in the United 
Kingdom, each under a captain, who has a cruiser 
and revenue cutters under his control. 

Coasting trade. By Act of Parliament (39 and 40 

Vict. c. 3(1. &. 140) it is enacted that all trade by 
sea from any one part of the United Kiugdom to 
any other part thereof (the Channel Islands and 
the Isle of Man being counted as part of the United 
Kingdom) shall be deemed coasting trade, and all 
ships while employed in such trade shall be deemed 
coasting ships, and all foreign ships proceeding 
either with cargo, passengers, or in ballast on any 
voyage from any one part of the United Kingdom 
to another shall be deemed subject to the same 
laws, rules, and legulatioaa as British ships when 

so employed. In spite of the absence of any special 
restriction on foreign vessels, British ships control 
practically the whole of the coasting trade of the 
United Kingdom, foreigners claiming only 10^. 

Coatit Itahan gun-boat (1809). 
Length 287fL Beam 50ft. Maximum draught 10ft. 
Displacement 1.J13 tons. Complement 154. 
Gnns. Annour. 

12 — 12 pdr. "SteeL" 

I in. I>«k. 
Tarpeda Tubas. 
2 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. S.oooa^j Uts. Coal oonnal 
160 tons. 


Coats, James (b. Glasgow, December 22. iSjj). 
Educated m Liverpool, and 5cr\-od his apprentice- 
ship on the Clyde. After a period at sea. obtainio^ 
a marine engineer's certificate, he in 1881 went to 
Russia to superintend the construction of a. large 
arc light plant, and to light up the petroleuin 
works at Novorocsisk. lu 1883 iic went to India 
as engineer to the Indian Phosnix Gold Mines, and 
on his return in 18S6 he was offered by the Kgyptiaa 
Govcrnmi-ut a position of chief engineer of a 
petroleum expedition, and while there erected 
works. On his return to England he joined ths 
steam navigation party on behalf of the Fairfield 
Shipbuilding Co., where he gained exi>erience u 
to the requirements of the engine-roooa stafl of 
the Navy, having been at the speed trials of many 
ironclads. In 1S88 he went to Peru as chief 
engineer of tlie London Pacific Petroleum Co.. and 
remained there three years, returning to Scotkod 
in 1S92 to take tip the position of chief engiaon 
to the Scottish Co-Operativc Wholesale Sodetr 
After a period of 11 years witli this company he 
went to .Vorway on behalf of the Standard Cm- 
struction Co.. in charge of the worki^hops far 
Edison's great scheme for scparatmg the on 
ma^etic&lly, and since his return to England has 
beoi engaged in transforming the power used in 
factories from steam driving to electricity. 

Member of the Institution of Ivngineers and Ship- 
builders of Scotland ; associate member of the 
Institution of Electrical Hngineers ; vice-prvsident 
of the West of Scotland Scii ntific Societ>'. 

Cobbing. An obsolete form of punishment. 
formerly inflicted for breach of discipline. 

Coble. A low 6at boat with square stem, 

in cod and turbot fishery. 

Coboose. Sk Caboose. 

Cobra. British torpedo-boat destroyer. {1 ^ 
wick. i[>ot.) This vessel was wrecked in a pfe^ 
ofl the t^ncasbire coast on September 18, 1901. 
and immediately went to pieces, her shell not being 
strong enough to bear the weight of her 1 
and armament. 




Oobn. A lutro- Hungarian torpedo-boat. (Yar- 
row, 1A99.) Length, 153 ft. ; beam. 1^ it. : draught, 
7i ft. : displacement. 133 tons: complement, 34: 
armament. 2 3-pdr. q.f., j tubes; Hp., i,Soo= 
24 kt^. ; coal. 30 tons. 

Codinafl. British ist class cruiser. (Fairfield. 

I.ength 480ft. Beam 73ft. Maximum draught a/ft. 
IWsplaccmcnt 15 1:50 tons. 
Cuns. A rmoUT. 

6—9*3 in.. 50 cal. " Krupp." 
4 — 7*5 in. 6 in. Belt amitJshtps. 

34—5 pdr. 6 in. Barbettes. 

8 Pompoms. 6 in. Turrets. 

Maxims. 7 in. Conning tower. 

Titrptda Ttibu (18 in.). 
3 Submerged. 
Tvfin screw. Hp. 23,500=^23 kts. Coal maxt- 
mum 2,000 tons. Approximate cost ^i, 129,500. 

Cochrane, Admiral The Hoo. Sir Arthor Auck- 
land Leopold Pedro. K.C.B., cr. 1889 (t>- 1824)- 
Entered Na\y. 1840 ; mid. during operations on 
coast of Syria, including the bombardment of .\cre, 
1S40 (Syrian medal) ; lieutenant, 1845 '• com- 
mander. 1851 : commander of Driver in the Baltic 
Fleet, t8s4 (Baltic medal) ; captain. 1854 ; present 
in boat action at seizure oi Dutch FoUy Fort, 
CantOD, i8$G ; commander 3rd Division of N'aval 
Brigade at the attack on Canton. 1657 ; present at 
the destruction of the Fatshan flotilla of war- 
jonks, 1857 : wounded (China medal, Fatshan and 
Canton clasps] ; rear-admiral, 1870; Commander- 
in-Chief, Pacific, 1873-76 : vice-admiral. 1876 ; C.B.. 
1655; captain's good service pension, 1868-70; 
admiral. 1881 ; flag officer's good service pen- 
sion. 18S6; retired. 1886. 

Cochrane, Admiral Thomas. See Dundoaald, 
Thomas Cochiajie, Earl of. 

Ooohnne, Sir Alexander Forrester IngliB (175S- 
TS32). British admiral. Was present at the action 
ofi Martinique, 1780, tn the j>f '»i/agH. In 1801 he 
commanded the Aja.v in Lord Keith's expeditiou 
to Egypt, and became Second -in-Command under 
Duckworth, and was present at the battle of San 
Domingo. 180G. He was made vice-admiral, 1S09 ; 
K.C.B., i8t5 : admiral, 1S19. 

Coctaraae, Sir Thomas John (1789-1873). Eog* 
Itsh admiral. When in command of the Surprise 
be captured the .American privateer Decatur, sub- 
sequently assisting in the attack on Washington 
and Baltimore. He was promoted vice-admiral, 
185a ; admiral, 1856 ; and an Admiral of the Fleet, 

CookbOL Situation of anchor when suspended 
from cat head. 

Cookbom, Sir Oeorge (1773-1853). British ad- 
miral. Served in the East Indies and Mediter- 
ranean, and a&sistcd as captain of the Minerva ftt 

the blockade of Leghorn, 1796, and fought at the 
battle of Cape St. Vincent. He afterwards parti- 
cipated in the reduction of Martlnii|ue, 1809. In 
1813, on his promotion to rear-admiral, he was 
sent to North America, where he grratly distiti- 
gaisbod biuuielf during the various operations in 
the Cheiapeahe. and took a large share at the battle 
of Bladcnsburg and the capture o( Washmgton. 
Early in iSt; ho received the Order of the Bath, 
and in the autumn of that year he carried out in 
the Northumberland {q.v.) the sentence of de[>orta- 
tion to St. Helena which had been passed upon 
Bonaparte. He was created G.C.B. and made a 
Lord of the .Admiralty in 1828. From 1841 to 
1S46 he was First Naval Lord. In ]S5i he was 
made Admiral of tlie Fleet, and a year before his 
death the baronetc\' fell to him by herita^ 

Cockey, George Herbert. Engineer R.N. ; D.S.O., 
1900 (b. November. :87i). Educated Bloxham, 
Banbun-, Oxford ; assisted at salvage operations 
at Ferrol on board H.M.S. Howe (1893) : Australia 
in H.M.S. Karrakatta. [894-97; China, 1900; 
D.S.O. decorated for services with Royal Marines 
at the defence of Tientsin, and with the Brigade 
during Admiral Seymour's attempted relief of the 
Legation : employed in repairing and constructing 
temporary armoured trucks and mounting the 
4-in. guns of the Algerine at Pei-Yang ; present at 
the capture of the native city ol Tientsin (China 
medal) ; mentioned in despatches. 

Oockle. (Cardium eduie.) A genus of the 
common bivalve molluscs, many of the members of 
which are edible, and have considerable commer- 
cial value. 

Cot^it A place near the after hatchway of old 
wooden warnhips. where wounded men were 
attended to. 

OoCTte. French armoured gun-boat. (Cher- 
bourg, 1889.) 

I..ength iSift. Beam 40ft. Maximum draught isft. 
Displacement 1,680 tons. Complement 100. 
Guns. Armnur. 

I— loB in. "Stael." 

3 — 3*9 in. 10 in. Belt amidships. 

2 — I '8 in. 8 in. Big gun shields. 

Hp. 1,700=13 kts. Coal 300 tons. 

Code-signals. Flags for commanicating at sea. 

Codes, Telegraphic. A system of words used to 
represent sentences with a view of reducing the 
cost of telegraphing or cabling and to secure 
secrecy. The best and probably the mo^t univer- 
sally used code is the A.B.C., first published in 
1873, Private codes are much used, and there arc 
various systems for tlieir construction. There 
are certain regulations made by the International 
Telegraph Convention which must be conformed 
with, the most important of which 'is. vie., only 
Dutch, English. French. German. Italian, I\]rtu- 




gnese, Spanish and T-atin may be used, but any or 
SlU of these languages may l>c contained in one 
telegram. Words of more tliao 10 lettcra are 
charged as two ^vorda. 

Codringtoii. Sir Edward ( 1 770- 1^51). British 
admiral (b. Gloucester). Entered the Nav>' in 
1783 ; as lieutenant on board Lord Howe's flagship 
he saw service at the txitlle ol " The Glorious First 
oi June." In Lord Bridport's action ofi L'OriCDt. 
1795. he comnianded the DabeU, and 10 years later 
he rccrivcd command oi the Orion, in which he 
fought at Tralalgar. In ifiii he sailed lor North 
America ami. on being promoted the following year 
to rvar-admiral, was Captain of the Fleet at Wash- 
ington and Baltimore, afterwards taking part in 
th? attack on New Orleans. In lOzO ho was in 
command of the combined fleets of Great Britain, 
France and Russia, sent to restrain Ibrahim Pasha 
from operating against the Greeks, In 1827 the 
battle of Na\-arino was fought, in which the; 
Turkish and Egy|jtian fleets of 36 sail, with gun- 
boats, schooners and craft of all sorts, were almost 
entirely destroyed. Having attained the rank 
of admiral, 1337. he became Conimnnder-in-Cluef 
at Portsmouth. 

See Memoir by Lady Boucher. 1873. 

CoiMlocon. French 3rd class cruiser. [St. Na- 
taire. 1894-) 

length 312ft. Beam 30ft. Maximum draught 14ft. 
Displacement 1.900 tons. Complement 190. 

(Tkws. A*VlOUT. 

4— 55 in. " Steel." 

3 — I'S in. [J in. Deck amidships. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
5 Above water. 
Hp. 5,800=19 kt*. Coal maximum 300 ions. 

Cofferdani. A water-tight enclosure formi'd by 
piles 3 to 6 ft. apart driven into the bottom of a 
river, the intermediate space being packed with 
day, so as to form a water-tight wall. It is used as 
a dam when laying bare the bottom of a river in 
order to establish a foundation for a pier, abut- 
ment, quay or docks. 

OogiiQe. French torpedo-boat dcKtrcivcr. Length, 
iijo ft, : beam, zi ft. : draught, q^ ft. ; displace* 
ment, 431 tons; complement, 48; guns, i q-pdr.. 
fi 3-pdT. ; torpedo tubes, a i7"7 in. ; speed, 27-30 

CoU. Rope laid in ring fashion. 

CoL A neck of low pressure between two anti- 

Colchester. 50 guns. On September 21, 1744. 
this vessel was lost on the Kentish Knock, when 
$0 toen perished. 

Cold. Coloured. AbbreNnation a<toptcd on the 
charta uisutd by the Hydrographic Ofhco. Admi- 


OqUbuu Pacific Cc's steamer from San Fhiu- 
Cisco to Panama, wrecked off south-west coast of 

Mexico : loS lives lost. 

CoQapslble boat A kind of boat of which the 
frame is collapsible for compact stowage, either oo 
shipboard or for transportation. 

CoUlir. -^n eye in the end or bight of a shroud or 
stay, to go over the mast -head ; also a rope formed 
mto a wTeath with the heart or dead eye seized in 
the bight to which the stay is confined at the lower 


Coii«ges, Training, See Naval Education. 

CoUiflr. Vessels employed exclusively in carry 

ing coals. 

Oollingwood, Cuthbert First Baron Collingwood. 
I75<i-i8l0 (b. N"rwca«tle-on-Tyne). Entered the 
Navy at the age of 11, and was in the Skanmm 
under command of Captain (afterwardfi .^dminUl 
Brathw-ditc, to whom he was indebted in a 
great measure for that nautical knowledge which 
marked his career. After serving under Admiral 
Roddam he, in 1774, went to Boston, and a year 
later, on being promoted lieutenant, joined the 
unsuccessful expedition to the Spanish Main, the 
idea being to iiass into the Pacific by navigating 
the River San Juan and I^kes Nicaragua and 
Leon. He first saw active service in America, 
and fought on shore at the battle of Bunkers HiJl. 
1775. In 1779 he was made commander of the 
Batlger, and shortly afterwards post-captain ol 
the small frigate H inchinbtoke. In 1783 he was 
appomteri to command the Sam^nn. of 64 guns, and 
aubs<*quenlly to the Mediator, destined for the West 
Indies, where with Nelson, who was in command of 
that station, he remained for some years. In 17S1 
he bad tlie misfortune to be wrecked in the PglUan 
in a hurricane, and he returned to Kng1.'\nd and 
remained on shore until 1793, when he was appoint- 
ed captain oi the Prince. Sagship o( Kear-Admiral 
Powyur. On the outtjreak c( the French war in 

1793, he look part in Lord Howe's victory, June I. 

1794, and in command of the BarftfUt displayed 
great judgment and courage ; on l>oard the Exeel- 
leni he shared in the victory of February 14, 1797. 
at the battle off St. Vincent. In January, 1799, 
lie was promoted vice-admiral, ami hoisting his 
flag on the Triumph joined the C-hannel Fleet. In 
1803 he was employed in watching the French 
Fleet ofi Brest, and for two years he displayed the 
most unwearied vigilance in EH<icluirging this duty. 
In the Roval Sovereign ho was second in command 
to Nelson at the battle of Trafalgar, and led the lee 
column, and the manner in which he carried his 
ship into action, and fought the SaH$it Anno fthe 
largest ship of the line thc^'n afloat^ ^ngle-handed, 
and eventually had the satisfaction of seeing her 
strike her colours, in .ijgreat measure helped to de- 
moralise the Spaniards, and to the victory at Trafal- 
gar. On the death of Nelson, CoUingwood assumed 




supreme commaod of the fleet, and on his return to 
England was raised to tho p«era|[4 aa Baron Col- 
lin^-ood of Coldbump and Heathpool. and received 
ike thanks of both Uouses ol Parliament, with a 
pension ol ^3,000 a year. lo ohgiual genius and 
darinf; lie waa inferior to Nelson, who had no 
equal ; but his merits as a naval oiSc*^r were of the 
first order, and in seamanship and general talent 
many who were famihar with both considered him 
superior. He was an enemy to Impressment and 
flogging, and was given the honourable name of 
" father " among bis crew for bi:i kindness, lie 
died on board the Vilte dt Paris, ofi t'ort Mahan. 
March 7, itiio. His bc»dy was CQnve>'ed to 
England, and buried in St. Paul's Cathedral. 

ColUnson. Ste Arctic Exploration. 

CoQiaioil. In marine insurance the coUisioo 
clause becomes operative when the vessel insured 
has been in collision with any other ship or vessel, 
and when in caoscquence uf their ^^liip or vessel 
h&ving been in fault thi; owners become liable to 
pay and shall have paid to the persons interested in 
tl]e other ship or vessel for the damages sustained, 
such damages not to exceed the value of the insured 
ship or vcsstl. i.e.. the policy value (Seward v. 
Owner of the Vtta Crut. 5 Asp. Mar, L,C, 386.) 
The proportion ol this amount for damage sus- 
tained for which the underwriter ol the msured 
ship is liable under the clause is three-fourtiis 
of the sum paid as above by the assured. The 
maximum liability of the underwriter in any 
one case is 75% of the insured value, irrespec- 
tive of costs. There is no liability on the under- 
writer to pay costs unless expressly iucluded. 
thou0t in practice they are usually adoutted. 
(Xenos V. Fox, L.R. 4 CP. 665.) The balance 
(S5%) of the owners' liabiUty is either separately 
insured, or specially included by an alteration in 
the clause. (McArtliur on the Contract of In- 
surance, p. 296,) 

The total amount under the Merchant Shipping 
Act of ij)<M {l-V') >or which a shipowner, British 
or foreign, is in our Courts liable for damage to 
property and loss of life or personal injury (pro- 
vided he is not by his own default concerned in it) 
** j£'5 P^ ^"^'^ '• ^^ excluding the personal damage 
i% per tun. reckuaed un the net register ol shipii ; 
and on the gross register, wathout deduction of 
engine room space, of steamers, each collision taken 

Unless specially included, damage by collision 
to the following are not included in the protection of 
the clause : NNTiarves, )ettics, floating buoys, pon- 
toons, stages, piers (floating or fixed), break- 
waters, quays, or dock walls, or slmihu structures. 
(Damage to the vessel faer^eli is claimable in par- 
ticular B\Yrage.) 

The portion of the collision clause limiting the 
liability of the underwriter to thrce-lourtbs ol the 
damage the owners of the insured vessel have had to 

pay is now frequently altered to a " four-fourths " 
clause, which, of course, includes the entire liability ; 
ami most of the leading companies will now issue 
poUcies without a collision clause, but givmg full 
protection lo the shipowner for all his important 
liabihtjcs. Stt Cow on Marine Insurance, p. J54. 

Briefly the decisions of Uabihty under ihe col- 
lision clause have led to the following conclusions : — 

{a) When neither vessel can establish a claim 
against the other for default, no damages can be 
recovered, each vessel bearing hev own loss. 

{b) When one vessel is in default and solely to 
blanie. this vessel is responsible tor the damage 
sustained. If the policy value of the insured ship 
exceeds ^.S per ton, the undorwritor pays the pro- 
portion that his subwuipttou bears to that value. 

(0 \\1ieu both vessels are to blame. Settle- 
ments under this condition vary, but generally the 
damages &ustamed by both are added together and 
the sum halved, each vessel being debited with 
one-half. (Stooravaart v. P. and O. Co., L.R. 
7 H. of L. 748 : Chapman v. Royal .Vethurlands 
Co., UR. 4 P.D. 157 ; Voorwitrts v. Khedive. 
L.R. 7 App. Cas. Soo ; London Steamship Associa- 
tion V. Grampian Co., L.R. 24 Q.B.D. 32 and 
665 ; McArthur p. y>2.) 

In the case of botli vessels to blame it is of great 
importance where outside of England the action is 
to be entered, as the treatment difiers widely — 
United States of .America is as in England ; France 
and Belgium according to the degree of each ship's 
fault: Portugal, Spam, Italy, and Holland, each 
ship bears her own loss ; Germany, neither can 
recover ; Russia (probably), rests where it falls ; 
Scandinavia, Court decides in each case. See 
Gow on Marine Insurance, p. 349. and McArthur 
ou the Contract of Marine Insurance, Appen- 
dices I. 2. and 3, 

Ail these arrangements of liability rest only on 
the insured shipowner having paid in respect of 
bis respoosibihties. In the ca^u of a collision 
between two vessels bt'louging to the same owner, 
he cannot under the ordinary clause recover any- 
thing from underwriters ou either vessel, but had 
himself to bear his collision damages unless they are 
claimable as the direct results of a sea [>eril. This 
is generally avoided by special clause agreeing that 
in sucb uises the principle of the collision clatise 
will bo maintained. Heter to Clauses. 

Collisions at Km. " There are four possibiUties 
under which an accident of this sort may occur. In 
the first ptac€, it may happen without blame being 
imputed to either party ; as where a loss is occa- 
sioned by a storm or other vis major. In chat case 
the misfortune must be borne by the party on whom 
it happens to light ; the other not being responsible 
to him in any degree. Secondiy, a nusfoituoe of 
this kind may arise where both parties are to blame ; 
where there has been want of due diiigcucc on both 
tides. In stich a case the rule of law is Uiat the 




loss iniitt be appartxnied between them. Thirdly , 
it may happen by the misconduct of the saflering 
party alone ; and then the rule is that the sufierer 
must bear his own burden. Lasily, it may have 
been the fault of the ship which ran thf> other down, 
and in this case the injured party would be entitled 
to entire compensation from the other. * 

Id order to raise a presiunpUoo of laott against 
the olhw, each ship must pro^-e her own caae. In 
two cases only docs a statutory presumption arise, 
fix., where there baa been (1) an infringement of 
the regulations which might possibly have con- 
txibutrd to the collision ; or fa) a bilure to stand by 
and render assistance after collisioil. In a collision 
between a ship in rootioQ and one at aachor the 
burden of proof rests with the former to show that 
the accident waS not due to her negUgencc. The 
regidations for the prevention of collisions at sea 
(f.r.) which -werr drawn op by the InCcmatkmft] 
Marine Conference held at Wasliington in 1890 
have been universally adopted. They apply to all 
ships at sea, on tidal rivers and inland waters. 
except where special locaJ rales, which every State 
has the right o< making and enforcing within its 
inrisdiciion, are operative. 

^^hen a collision occurs l>etween any ships in 
tcmtotial waters the action is decided, wherever 
tried, by the Ux loci — ix.. the law of the particular 
place where the collision Iiappens. 

Actions for collision an the high seas between 
any ships are tried in the Admiralty Co>art of that 
country within the jurisdiction oi which pixxeedings 
are first commenced- 

The British Admiralty Court has jurisdiction to 
try any caase brought for coUi»on between any 
ships. British or foreign, in any waters, provided 
the injury complained oi is an actionable offence 
according to En^ish law. In actions foe collision 
on the high seas between any ships, whether 
British or foreign, the Admiralty Court of this 
country administers not the law of flags, but the 
British maritime law {q.v.). 

Vrlten an action is pending in a foreign Court, 
the Court of .Admiralty may stay proceedings here. 
or d^Tmisff the action, or put the plaintiff to bis elec- 
tkm ; and a final jadgment in a foreign Court is a 
bar to suhseqnent proceedings elsewhere. The form 
oi procedwe and remedy in all coUisioo actions is 
aoOOnUne to the law of the tribunal before which 
the case is tned. 

Refef to ApportJooBeiit, Accident. Foreign Ship. 

OoUiaioiu, BeffolatioQ lor the Prvrentiaa it Sea, 

U96. AriicU i.^Rnles conceming Ughts diall be 
complied with in all weathers from sunset to sunrise. 
Artidt 2. — A steamer under way shall carry (o) 
a white light not less than 20 ft. above the hull, 
showing an uobrokpn bght 10 points oti each bow ; 
(£r] on the starboard side a green light showing from 
right ahead to two points abaft the starboard beam ; 

(c) on the port side a red light showing from right 
ahead to two points abaft the port beam : (d) gireo 
and red Ughts to be fined with inboard screens, to 
p<e%-ent their showing across the bow ; (c) an 
additional white bght may be carried further aft. 
and at least 15 ft. higher than, bat similar to cod 
struction to. the light mentioned in sabdivuioo {s). 
Afiiile 3. — A steamer towing a vessel shAfi carry 
in additkm to her side hgfats, two white lights 
vertically, one light not less than six ft. above the 
other : and if towing more than <me vessel, and tbt- 
length of tow measures more than 6,000 ft., three 
white lights. 

Afti^ 4.- — (o) A vessel wluch from accidaot is 
not under command shall carry : <i) by night two 
red all-round tights vertically -, (3) by day two 
black balls or shapes. (6) A tel^rapb ship at 
work shall carry : (i> by night three aD-ronad 
lights vertically, the highest and lowest being red 
and the middle one white ; (3) by day, three 
shapes, the highest and the lowest being red aod 
globular, and the middle one white and diuiiood> 
shaped. («) Side UghU tf under way. 

VcsA^ referred to in this article abo carry 
side lights when making way throogfa the water. 

AritcU 5. — K sailing ship tmder way, aod any 
vessel being towed, cany side lights only. 

ArticU 6. — Small vessels under way. if preveated 
by bad weather from fixing side lights. riiaU lt«q» 
them ready for exhibition in time to pfevnt 

Article 7. — Steamers imda^ 40 tons, and vessetoof 
less than 30 tons under oars or satW when vn^" 
vray, are not abligBd to carry lights, but may carry 
Ughts amilar to thoee in Article a, or a oombtaed 
lantern. Rowing boats shall have ready for sse a 
hand Untera showing a white light. 

ArticU S. — Pilot boats on duty carry only as 
all-round white mast-head light, and exhibit flare*- 
up every 1 5 minutes. Side lights are to be ready 
for use and exhibited in tunc to prevent coUisioo. 
ArticU 9. — Se* Fishing Boats. 
ArticU to. — A vessel being overtnkSB shall : 
a Aare-np. or may cany a fijced lantern 
showing a white light. 

ArticU II. — A vessel under iso ft. long, wlieaat 
anchor, shall carry forward, where it can best be 
se«n. an aU-round white Ught. A veasel Ofcr 
1 50 ft long, when at anchor, dutt carry mm mUSr 
tional light astern. 

A fticU 1 2 . — E \>ery vessd may, in order to attract 
attention, exhibit a flare-up. or use a detooatiiis 
signal, in adtbtion to the lights prescribed by these 

ArticU 13. — Nothing in these rules shaU interfere 
with signals made between ships of war, sailing 
sh^ under con\-oy, or recognicioa signab dotf 
registered and published. 

ArticU 14. — \ steamer under sail only, but 
having her funnel up. shaU by day carry aoe black 
bailor shape. 

« ready 

tision. ^H 




AftuU l^.^In fog, mist, falling snow, or heavy 
rain, by day or night 1 {a) A steamer under way 
shali sound, at intervals of not more than two 
minutes, a prolonged (4-6 seconds) blast. 

(6) A steamer with engines Btopptx], and having 
no way on. shall sound, at inter%-ala of not more 
than tvto minutes, two prolonged blasts, with an 
interval of about one second between them. 

(c) A sailing ship umlcr way sliall sound, at 
LDtervals of not more than one minute, one blast 
if on starboard tack. t\»-o blasts if on port tack, 
three blasts if wind aft. 

(d) A vessel at anchor shall ring her bell rapidly 
for five seconds at intervals of not more than one 

ifi) A vessel towing, a telegraph ship at work, and 
a vessel not nnder command shall, when under 
way, sound one prolonged and two short b1a*rtn at 
intervals of not more than tw*o minutes. 

Articie 16.— Every vessel shall, in fog. mist, etc.. 
K) at a moderate speed, having regard to the 
existing drcumstanccs. A steamer bearing, appar- 
ently forward of her beam, the fog signal of a vessel, 
the position of which is not ascertained, shall stop 
her engines and then nangate with caution. 

AfticU 17. — WIten two sailing vessels are ap- 
proaduDg one another, so as to involve risk of 
coUtsion — one shall keep out of the way of the other, 
as follows, vu. : — 

(a) A vessel running free shall keep out of the 
way of one dDse-hauIed. 

(b) A vessel close hauled oa the port tack shall 
keep out of the way of one close-hauled 00 the 
starboard tack. 

(c) When both are running free, with the wind 
on different sides, the vessel which has the wind on 
the port side shall kix-p clear. 

(d) When both are running free, with the wind 
on the same side, the vessel tu wiadwaml shall 
keep clear. 

{e) A vessel having the wind aft shall keep dear. 

ArticU 18. — When two steamers are meeting 
end-on, or nearly so. so as to involve risk of collision, 
each shall alter her course to starboard. 

ArticU 19. — \Micn two steamers arc cra^ng, so 
as to involve nsk of collision, the vessel which has 
the other on her starboard side shall keep out of 
the way. 

Article 30. — When a steamer and sailing vessel 
arc proceeding in such directions as to involve 
risk of collision, the steamer shall keep clear. 

Ariicld 21. — When by any of these rules one of 
two vessels is to keep out of Lhe way, the other shall 
keep her course and speed. 

Noit, — When, in consequence of thick weather 
or other causes, such vessel finds herself so dose 
that collision cannot be avoided by the action ol 
the giving -way vessel alone, she also shall take 
such action as will best aid to avert collision. 

Artide 22. — Every vessel directed by these rules 
to keep out of the way of another shall, if possible, 
avoid crossing ahead of her. and 

{Article 23) — shall, if necessary, slacken speed, 
stop, or reverse. 

Article 2j\. — Every vessel overtaking another 
shall keep out of her way. An overtaking vessel is 
one which comes up with another from any direction 
more than two points abo/t the beam. No subse- 
quent alteration of the bearing l>etween the vessels 
shall relieve on overtaHng ship of her duty to keep 

Articie ij;. — In narrow channels every steamer 
shall, where safe and practicable, keep to that side 
of the fairway {<J-^-) which lies on her starboard 

Artide 26, — Sailing ships under way shall keep 
clear of sailing vessels engaged in fishing. 

Articie 37.— in obeying these rules, regard shall 
be had to all dangers of navigation, and to any 
special circumstances which may render a de)>ar- 
ture from these rules necessary, in order to avoid 
immediate danger. 

Articie 28. — One short blast from a steamer 
under way means, " 1 am directing my counie to 
starboard." Two short blasts mean, " I am dir<-ct- 
ing my course to port." Three short blastn mean, 
" My engines arc going full speed astern." 

Article 21). — Nothing in these rules shall exonerate 
any vessel, or the owner, master, or crew thereof, 
from results of neglect of any precaution required 
by ordinary practice of seamen, or by special cir- 

Article 30. — Nothing in these rales shall interfere 
with the operation of any special rule made by 
local authority. 

Article 31. — A vessel requiring assistance shall 
use the following signals, either together or 
separately, vii. : — 

By day or night — 

(i) A gun or other explosive signal fixed every 

(3] Continuous sounding of fog signal. 

By day — 

(1) Letters N.C. of the International Code. 

(2) A square flag with any ball above or below 

By night — 
(1) Flames. 

(3) Rockets or shells fired once a minute. 

Aids to memory of the rule of the road at sea, 
by the late Mr. Thomas Gray. C.B. — 
1, — Two steamshtps meeting. 

" When both side lights you see ahead, 
Port your helm and show your RED." 
S. — Two steamships passing. 

•• GREEN to GREEN— or. RED to RED— 
Perfect safety— Go ahead I *' 




3. — Two steamships crossing. 
Nott. — This is tbe position of greatest danger ; 
there is nothing for it but good look-out. caution, 
and judgment. 

" If to your starboard RED appear, 
It is your duty to keep dear ; 
To act as judgment says is proper ; 
To Port — or SUrboarcl— Rack — or Stop her I 
But when upon your Port is seen 
A steamer's starboard light ol GR£EN, 
There's not so much for you to do, 
For GREEN to Port keeps clear of you." 
4. — Jtll ships must keep a good look-out. 
" Both in safety and iu doubt. 
Always keep a good look-out ; 
In danger, with no room to turn, 
Ease her 1 Slop her I Go astern ! " 

Colae. British torpedo-boat destroyer. {Chia- 
wick, 1905) Length. 222 ft, ; beam. 33^ ft. ; 
draught, 9^ ft. ; displacement. 600 tons : comple- 
ment. 73 ; armament, i 12-pdr., 5 6-pdr., 2 tubes ; 
twin screw ; Hp., 7, 1:00=25 kts. ; coal, 126 tons. 

Colomb. Vic&-AdxniraJ Philip Howard (1631-99). 

Inventor and biu^^rapbcr (U Scotland). Saw active 
service during the Burmese war, 1852 (Bunnah 
mctlal and clasp). Is the inventor of the system 
known as Coiomb's " Flashing Signals," which has 
been universally adopted throughout the world. 

Publications: Essays on "Naval Defence" 
(1893). " Navai Warfare " (1891), " Memoii of Sir 
Astley Cooper Key " (1898]. 

Colombia. Pacific Steam Navigation Co.'s 
coastal mail steamer from Panama to Valparaiso, 
lost at I^bos de Tterra. August 10. 1907. One 
passenger and two of the crew perished. 

Colombo. Hast India mail steamer, wrecked on 
Minicoy Island. 440 miles from Point de Galle, 
Ceylon. November 19. 1662. No lives were lost. 

Colonial Ughthoosei. (Merchant Shipping Acta, 
1894-9S.] The expression " colonial hgbts " means 
any lighthouses, buoys, or t-eacons on or near the 
coast of a Biitish possesuou, and maintained by 
the Board of Trade out of uiuncys provided by 
Farliantcut, or out of colonial light dues. 

The dues, whtch arc fijced by the Sovereign by 
Ordeis in Council, and cannot be levied in a»y 
British possession without the consent of the 
Legislature of that possession, arc collected and re- 
covered from the owners or masters of all vessels 
passing or deriving benefit from the lights in respect 
of which the dues are levied, by persons appointed 
by the Governor, and are paid over to the General 
Lighthouse Fund, subject to the prior payment 
thereout of any sums payable on account of money 
secured on those dues at the commencement of 
this Act (1890) in accordance \s'ith the conditions 
OD which the money is secured. After deducting 
the expenses of collection the dues are applied to 

erecting and maintaining the lighthouses, etc., in 
respect of which they are levied. Accounts of . 
hght dues received, and sums expended in con-1 
struction. repair, etc.. are annually laid before 

Colonlat Mntual Fire Instiranoe Co. Established j 
1878, IranbAcUng firf. marine, fuU-Iity, guarantee,] 
plate glass, and accident insurance. Authorised! 
capital, ^250.000, of which ^ has been sub 
scribed in 100,000 shares of £t each. Dividends 
at the rate of 8% per annum aic paid, and a 
Reser\'c Fund ha-s txren built up of ^75.000. 
OOicrs 6u Market Street, Melbourne. 

Colorado. U.S. ist class cruiser. (Cramp's, 

Length $02ft. Beam 70ft. Maximum draught 27it. 
Displacement 1 -[.400 lona. Complement 822. 
Guns. Armour. 

4 — 8 in., 45 caL " Knipp." 
14 — 6 in. t> in. Belt amidships. 

18— 14 pdr. 6 in. Turrets. 

12—3 pdr. 9 in. Conning tower. 

8—1 pdr. 
8 Colts. 
2 Field guns. 3 in. 

Torpedo Tubes (iS in.). 
2 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 23,000^22 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 2,oou tons. AppFOximalr cost /)!, 300.000. 

ColoHiu. British 2nd class battleship {9,410 
tons, 142 kts.). Launched 18S2. 

Columbia. U.S. commncc destroyer (1893). 
Length 4 1 2ft. Beam 58ft. Maximum draught 26ft. 
Displacement 7,430 tons. Complomuit 524. 
Guns. Armour. 

I — 8 in. " Harvey." 

2 — 6 in. 4 in. Dock. 

S — 4 in. 4 in. Sponsoos. 

13^-6 pdr. 5 in. Conning lower. 

4 — I pdr. 
4 Colts. 

Totptdo Tubts (18 in.). 
4 Above water. 
Three screws. Hp. forced 2i,soo=33 fcts. 
maximum 2.40a tons. 

Columbia. Iron steamer (2.750 tons). In collisic 
with the small wooden steamer San Pedro ofl tli 
coast of Northern California, July 20, 1907, Oul 
of 361 passengers i$o were drowned. 

Colamhas, Bartolomeo (i44S-<5ij)- Brother of 
ChriatojiluT Columbus (b. Genoa). Accompanied 
Bartolomoo Diaz on his voyage to the Cape of 
Good Hope, 1486-S7 : commanded the auxihary 
Heet dtspatchi-d after Columbus sailed 00 bis 
second voyage, 1494 ; was given tlus small island 
of Mona. near Hcspaniola. whore he resided OAtU 
his death. 




Oolnmbtu. Christopher (1436-1506). tn Italian. 
Cristofero Colombo, and in Spanish, Cristobal Colon. 
Disco\-crer ol the New World called America 
(t). Onoa). Went to sea at the age of 14, and is 
knowD to liavt; visited, among other places during 
bis early activity. England, Ireland, and the Greek 
Islands. In 1740. when he was wrecked during a 
sea fight i*ith some Venetian galleys off the coast 
of Portuf^al, he landed and settled at Lisbon, and 
during the next few years made many voyages to 
Madfara and the Azores. On August .1, 14^2, an 
expedition consisting of the Santa Maria, a docket] 
ship with a crew of 50, commanded by Columbus 
in prrson, the PtnJa. with 30 men under Martin 
Pizon, and the Nina, with 50 men under his brother 
Vinccntc Pizon, the whole expedition numbering 
only 120 men, leit Spain. Three days after the 
shipA had set .sail the Pinta livtt her rudder, and 
they had to put in at TeneriiTc to refit. On Scp- 
Eember 6 they weighed anchor once more, and bis 
real voyage of discovery began. On October 12 
land was sighted in the Bahamas, which was named 
by Cjjlumbus San .Salvador, He discovered Cuba 
and Haiti, and returned to Europe after his ship 
Smnta Maria had been MTccked. On September 1 j, 
during that voyage, the variation of tlie magnetic 
needle wa.f for the lirst time observed. 

On Spptember is, 1493, be set out with a much 
larger squadron, and reached Dominica, an island 
in the West ludica. tte returned from his second 
voyage in 1496, and set out on a third, which 
resulted in the discovery of the mainland of SouUi 
America. In 150:1 he set out on his last voyage, 
daring which he explored the Gulf of Mexico, re- 
turning in 1.104. He died. May 20, 1506. at Valla- 
dolid, in Spain. 

St€ Washington Irving's " Life and Voyages 
cd Columbua " (1S31). Sir A. Help's (1869), and 
J, Winsoc's " Narrabvc and Critical History of 
Amexica." Vol. H. (1885-89), "Life." by Fernando 
Columbus, Major's "Select Letters of Columbus," 
biof^raphie^ by Markliam (1893), and Adanus (1S92). 

Cohimbai, City ol. Passenger ship. Ran on a 
rvcf on the coast of Massachusetts and went down. 
January t8. 1884 ; 97 lives lost. 

Oomh. .-V smalt piece of timber under the lower 
part of the beak-head for the forc-tack to be 
battled to. In some vessels it is used instead of a 
bunikin. It has the same use in bringing the fore- 
tack on board that the chess-tree has to the main 

CJonnrma. Andite A. (b. Vails. July 10, 1S42). 

Spaniitb naval architect. Educati'd ;it tlic School 
of Na\-al Architecture, Fcrrol. In 1364 waa ap- 
pointed assistant naval architect, and in 1873. by 
order of the Spanish Goveniment, he was appointed 
constructor of the largest graving dock in Fcrrol. 
and after completing thw work In; was in 1880 nrnt 
to I-ondon as rngmeer to the Royal Spanish Naval 
Commission, and was subsequently attached to the 

Spanish Legation in London. In i83r he went to 
Paris and reprcjscnted the Spanbsh Navy at the 
Congress des Electricous. On his return to Fcrrol 
in 1 884 he was appointed Chief ot the Royal Dock- 
yard, and under his direction many ship-i of war 
were built, and he derigned and supenntended the 
construction of six ships of war for tlic Spanish 
Navj,'. building by Messrs. Vila and Co.. Fcrrol. 
in 1898 he retired from the Navy with the rank ol 
General of Naval Architecture. For services 
rendered he has been decorated with the Legion 
d'Honneur, France, and the Grand Cross of Naval 
Work in Spain. 

Member of the Institution of Naval Architects, 
of the Royal Society of Arts, of the Institution of 
Electrical Engineers, of the Association Technique 
Maritime, and of the Soci6t£ Internationale dca 
Electricienes of Pans. 

Publications : " Treatise on Shipbuilding," 
adopted as a text-book in engiocering schools ; and 
many articles published in the transactions of 
technical societies. 

Comst. German torpedo gun-boat (1892)- 
Length 333ft. Beam 31ft. Maximum draught 13ft. 
Displacement 9^ tons. Complement [15. 

Guns. ArtHour. 

4— iSi pdr. *' Steel." 

2 Machine. i in. Dock. 

t in. Conning tower. 
Torpedo Tubes. 

1 Submerged bow. 

2 Above water. 

Twin screw. Hp. 4.500^ 19 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 1 20 tons. 

Comet, See Bell, Henry. 

Oomete. French gun-boat (1884). Displace* 

ment, 470 tons. On China station. 

Come ap. To let go or slacken. 

ComiDg-np. When the wind shifting allows a 
nearer approach to the course. 

Commander. In the British Navy ranks below 
captain and above first lieutenant : is second oflicer 
in command of a smaller vessel not commanded by 
a captain. Optional retirement. 45 ; compulaory 

retirement, 50. 

Commercial, Shipping, and Oeaeral Advertiser 
(or West Cornwall. Established 1867. Published 
weekly {Saturday). Gratis. Address: Penryn, 

Commercial treaties are contracts made between 
States in iurtherance of security of trade, naviga- 
tion, or personal legal rights. The subjects dealt 
with include importation, exportation, transit. 
transhipment, bonding of goo<lB, Customs tariffs, 
navigation charges, quarantine, admission of 
vessels to ports and docks, coasting trade, fisheries, 
and Consuls and their rights. They determine the 




local position of subjects of each State in the other 
country in regard to rcskloncc. property, taxes, 
mihtnry sen-ice, and nationality. 

GommlBSion Clatue. See Clauses. 

Conuoissioned officers, NaraL Set Naval Educa- 

CommissiODan, NavaL -SV^ Admiralty, t^rds of 


Commodore In the British Navy is temporarily 
conferred to a post captain when commanding a 
small squadron. He is entitled to exercise most of 
the functions of the 6ag-ofIicer, and to hoist the 
broad pennant. In yacht clabs the comroodore is 
president ; in the mercantile marine he is the senior 
master serving afloat. 

Commodore Py. Argentine torpedo-boat. (Thorny- 
croft, i$9o.) Length, 150 ft. ; displacement, 
110 tons ; } tubes ; speed, 24 kts. 

OommoB bend. See Knot 

Commonwealth. British ist class battleship. 
[Fairfield, 1905,} 

Length 453 ft Beam 78 ft Mean draught 3^ ft. 
Displacement (6,350 tons. Complement 777. 
Guns. A rmemr. 

4 — 13 in. " Krupp." 

4— 9'3 in. 9 in. Belt amidships. 

10 — 6 in. 12 in. Barbettes. 

14 — 13 pdr. t2 Id. Conning tower. 

14— i pdr. 
3 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
4 Submerged broadside. 
1 Submerged stern. 
Twin screw. Hp. [8.000= i8"5 kts. Coal maxi- 
mnm 3.000 tons. Approximate cost ^t, 500,000. 

Comozants. See St. Elmo's Fire. 

Compa^nie At Naripation Harocane et Ar- 
meniemie. This company, with therir head cilices 
in Marseilles, have a fleet of ii well-appointed 
vessels sailing from Marseilles every alternate 
Wednesday for Sanisouii, Trebizonde, Batoum. and 
Novorossisk, returning from Novorissisk via inter- 
mediate ports every alternate Sunday. A service 
is maintained once monthly from Marseilles to 
Tangiers and the coast of Morocco, and one twice a 
month from ManeineH for Gibraltar, Tangiers, and 
the coast of Monxxo. 


AnaMie. Circassie. Meurtht. 

Armenie. Imtretfiu. Mingvelie. 

Btthyni*. La GauU. MoselU. 

Caramanie. Oued Sebou. 

Oompafoie de Naiigation Mixte, with their head 
ofhces at MarseiUcs, have a fleet of 14 steamers, 
which maintain frequent sailings from Marseilles 
to the Mediterranean ports. A service is main- 
tained every Saturday from Marseilles for Bizerte, 


Tunis, and Palermo, and vie* versa ; one every 
Friday from Marseilles for Philippeville and BAoe. 
and tic* vena ; one every Wednesday from Mar- 
seilles to Oran, Beni Saf, Nemotirs, Mdilla, TctOBan.. 
and Tangiers, and viu versa ; one every Wednsiday 
from the same portit. catling at Palermo and 
Malaga : one every Tuesday and Friday from 
Marseilles for Algiers ; every Weducsday for Tunis, 
Sousse. Monastir, Mehdia. Sfax. Djesbab, 


Emir. Medjerda. RJkom*. 

Djurjura. Mouiouya. Soudan. 

Feiix TonacMe. Oasis. Tafna. 

I Sly. Omara. TetL 

La Marsa. Tottaru. 

Compagnie des Bateaoz A Vapeiu da Hord. with 

their head offices in Punkirk, have a fleet of 30 
modem steamers, ranging from 700 to 5.000 tons. 
The company, which is now one of considcaabie 
importance, commenced in a very modest way to 
i8;3. Services are maintained from Dunkirk to 
Bordeaux, Marieillca. and Cette. where they con- 
nect with the Messagerics Maritimes for Sooth 
America, and with the Comp. Transatlantique ior 
the Mediterranean, China, and Japanese ports. A 
service from Dunkirk to Havre, which connects witlt 
the Comp. Tran.satlantiquc (or New York ; from 
Dunkirk to Bayonne ; from Dunkirk to Boulogne, 
L'Orient. La Kochelle, and Kochefort ; from Don- 
kirk to Hamburg; from Dunkirk to London. A 
service is also maintained three times a month to 
Morocco via Gibraltar. 


Cambria. Vilte de CariMa^. 

Frederick Morel. Vilie de Cette. 

Jean Barl. Viile de Constattiim. 

Maria. Vilte de Dunhrr^iu. 

Word. ViiU de Litte. 

N. Verberckmoes. Vilte de Lorient. 

President. V'lile de MarsgiUst. 

Viile d' Arras. Vilte de Hockefort. 

VUU de Bordeaux. Viile de Strasburg. 

Viile da Boulogne. Vilte de Valenciennt. 

Compagnie Fran^ais de Nangation 4 Vapeor. 
See Gyp. Pabre and Co., Marseilles. 

Compagnie Francaise de Cabotage des Men dc 
Chine, with their head olfice in Paris, have a fleet 
of three steamers engaged m passenger and caigo 
trade on the coast of China. These vessels have 
accommodation for a large number of native 
passengers on deck. 


Binh Thuan. Hainam. Pku Yen. 

Gross tonnage, 4,100. 

Compagnie 6^n6rale Tiansatlantlqae, with their 

head ofiice in Pans, was establi&hed in 1S63, and 
has a fleet of 56 steamers aggregating 182,331 ton;. 
the vessels including La Lorraine and La 




both of which bAve a speed of 31 kts. A service 
is maintaioed every Saturday from Havre for New 
York, SAiUng irom New York (or Havre every 
Thursday. A service from St Naxaire and Bor- 
deaux for the West Indies, VeDrzuela, Central 
America. South and North Pacific. Cuba, and 
Mexico. Steamers al&o trade from Marseilles to 
Algiers, Bi2crtc, Bono, Bougie, CoUo, Sjidjellt, La 
Cello, Malta, Oran. Pliilippuville. Tabarka. Tunis. 
Slax nnd Sotiasr. 

Corapagnis Havratse Feninsnlaire de Navuiation 
A Vapeor. with their bead office in Havre, is the 
outcome of the purchase of the business and 
steamers of E. Grosos, now director general oi this 
company. The fleet cooststa «f 1 1 powerful modem 
nail, passenger and cargo steaniersi. which maintain 
regular sailings from Havre to Portugal. Spain, 
and Algeria, and vkt versa ; from Havre to Ri- 
UQSon and Madagascar, and ifice versa ; and from 
Havre to Chili and Prru, and vice versa. 

C(mitanttn. Vttte d' At§ef. 

CPiigo-Suarex. ViUe du Havre. 

Dfitmtti. ViUe de Majunga. 

HavtaisM. Villc tie Paris, 

t^adagascar Ville de Tnmatave. 

^ VitU de Tarragotu. 

Ctonptgaie Hineillaise do MavigatioQ A Vapear 
(Ftaissinct ct Cie.K ^mUi the liead crtices in Mar- 
seilles, have a fleet of 18 steamers, which maintain 
B service from Marseilles for Corsica ; a postal 
•ervice for the West Coast of Africa : a service 
for tfao Levant and Danube : and one to Naples. 
Steamers leave Marseilles for Bastia and Livoume. 
Fridays and Sundays ; for Ajaocio. Moncla>'S and 
Fridays ; for Propriano every Thursday ; for 
Calvi and lie RotissB, Wednesdays. A service from 
Nicic to R-uitia every Wednesday, and for Ajaccio 
every Saturday. A monthly service from Mar- 
seilles lor the West Coast of Africa ; and a fort- 
nightly service for the Levant and Danube, calling 
at Genoa. DardaneJIes. Constantinople. Bourgas. 
Varna, Sulina. Galatz. Braila. 

Daihan. Ltamone. 

Socognamo. L'MoK. 

vrte. Luxetie Fraitsinet, 

'vnioj. Mate Fraissiiut. 

Esttrel. PelioH. 

Faraman. Sta mboul. 

Fetix Fraitsriut. Tanrus. 

Colo. Tibet. 

Henry Ftaissimt. Ville de Bastia. 

Compacaie lUditerraofenne de SavigaUon* with 
their head ofhces in Marseilles, have a tleet of 1 3 
excellent paeenger and cargo steamers, which 
maintain a service from Marseilles, Nice, and Port 
Vcitdrcs, to Corsica. Algiers. Tunis, and Italy. 
Steamers sail from Marseilles weekly lor Ajaccio ; 
twice a week for Bastia ; weekly Ux Algiers, via 


Port Veodres : weekly for Tunis and Naples ; 
weekly for Leghorn. From Nice weekly lor Bastia. 
Naples and Tunis. From Port Vcndres weekly for 


■Algerien. Gallia. Sutnidia. 

Bastiais. Iberia. Orient. 

Corsica. Italia. Tavignano. 

Entile. Jeanne d' Arc. Viaavone. 

Monie d'Ore. 

Compagnie Traasatlantiea de BarceloDA. with 
their head ofhces in Barcelona, have a fleet of 
excellent passenger steamers, which carry the mails 
from Barcelona to Antilles and Central America, 
transhipment for North and South Pacific Coast 
taking place at Colon. Regular sailings are 
maintained from Barcelona and Genoa, to Cadiz, 
Las Palmas, Teneriffe. Santa Cruz. San Juan, 
Havana, Pt. Limon. Colon, Sabanilla. Curafao. 
Porto CabfJlo. and La Guaira. A service is main- 
tained at schcdul^l times from Genoa, Naples, 
Barcelona and Cadiz, for New York, Havana, and 
Vera Cruz. .\ regular monthly service from Santan- 
dcr to Havana and Vera Cruz. A ser\'ice from 
Genoa, Barcelona, and Cadiz to Santa Cruz, Tene- 
rifte, Monte Video, and Buenos Aires. A regular 
service for the Philippine Islands, from Liverpool. 
Spanish Ports, and Genoa, calling at Port Said, Suez, 
Aden. Columbo, Singapore, Manilla. 

AlicatUe. T.eon XII. 

Antonio Ijopet. Manuel Caloo. 

Buenos Ayres. Montevideo. 

Isla de Luxon. Moniserrat. 

tsla dr Panav. P. de Satrustegui. 

Compania Maritima Cabana (formerly the Munson 
Steamship Line), with their head offices in New 
York, have a fleet of five steamers trading between 
New York. Havana, and Cuba. Regular -uiilings 
arc maintained at scheduled times, and three of the 
steamers have accommodation for passengers. 

Cubana. Mobila. Olinda. 

Curityba. PaJoma. 

Gompuiia Tniniw*lant !iv t, Cadiz, v,-ith the head 
oSices at Cadiz, have a fleet of 22 modem steamers, 
which trade between Cadiz and the West Indian 
Islands. These vessels, nearly all of which have 
been built in England, have excellent pa5uengcr 
accommodation, and are fitted with the latest 
machincty for working cargo. 
Alfonso XII. C. Lopes. 

Alfonso XIII. Cristina. 

AlicanU. I. Lujon. 

A. Lopet. I. Panay. 

B. Aires. J. Pielago. 
Cataluna. Larache. 

C. Cadii. Leon XIII. 

M, Catvo. 






S. Franco. 





Oomptnion. A high covering for a hatchw&y. 

Company, A, is aa aasociation of peraoas called 
members, whose shares are traniferable. A limited 
company is one in which the liability of the share- 
holders is limited to the nominal value of their 
shares. Syndicates are associatianri formed cither 
under agreements which constitute the members 
partners, or under the Companies Acts, in which 
case their position docs not differ legally from that 
of otiicr registered companies. The Companies 
Act. 1863-1000. protects the public from imposition, 
so far as it is possible to do so, by requiring certain 
legal and public formalities in the formation. 
prospectus, commencement of business, powers, 
acts, accounts, and '.vinding-np of every company. 

Compass Coarie is the course steered by ship's 


Composite. In shipbuilding a vessel con- 
structed partly of wood and partly of iron having 
an iron framework with a wooden skin. 

Compresaor. A curved bar to brace the chain 
cable against a beam. 

Comiis. Britidh 3rd class cruiser (3.380 tons, 
12I kts.). Launched 1878. 

Compaas, The Mariners\ which is a declination 
compass, is an iitstmuicnt used at sea for directing 
the course of a ship. Although the invention of 
the compass wxi formerly placed about the year 
1303, there are indications that it was used in 
China some 2.000 years ago. and it is certain it was 
in use in Europe during the twelfth century. The 
discovery of the magnetic declination or variations 
of the compass is due to Columbus, and was made 
by him in 1493. The compass consists of three 
parts, vii., the box, the card, and the needle. The 
box is circular, and usually made of brass, and ia 
huDg on gimbals, so that it maintains a horizontal 
position in every motion of the ship. The mag- 
netised needle, which is the essential part of the 
compass, is fixed to the lower part of a card, which 
revolves with the ucedlc. The upper surface of 
the card is divided into 32 points, with their inter- 
mediate quarters, and in addition all steamships 
have the circumference of the compass card marked 
out into .160 degrees. In iron or steel vessels there 
is a deviation of the north and south line from the 
magnetic meridian, owing to the permanent 
magnetism of such a vessel. This is compensated 
(or by placing a permanent steel magnet in the 
neighbourhood of the compass, which exerts an 
equal and opposite couple to tliat due to tltc ship. 
Tliere are numerous improved and patent com- 
passes, including thase of Pope, Preston. GowlanH. 
Harris, Walker, and Scor«by. The one most in 
favour, Iiowever, was patented in 1876 b>' Sir 
William Thomson (afterwards Lord Kelvin). 

The declination compass is an instrument 
invented to measure the magnetic declination of the 

place when its astrononueal meridian is known. 

The Inclination Compass is an instrument for 
measuring magnetic inclination or dip. 

See Cavallo's "Treatise on Magnetism" (2nd 
ed., 1800). Macphvrson's " Annals of Com- 
merce " (1805), Johnson's " On the Deviations of 
the Compass" (1853), Scoresby's "The Compass 
in Iron Ships" (1855). Evans and Smith's "The 
Admiralty Manual of the Compass," Merrifield's 
" Magnetism and the Deviation of the Compass " 
(Part II., 1872], Harris s " Rud. Treat, on Mag- 
netisin " (ifi?^), Thomson's "Natnro" (voL x., 
p. j«8. 1874). 

Con. Abbreviation for Connecticut. 

ConcMlmeot. In marine insurance all facts of 
Importance bearing 00 the risk must be placed before 
the imderwriter. To conceal a material fact 
voids the insurance. The principle is that an 
underwriter is entitled to assume as the basts o! 
a contract that the assured has communicated to 
hira every material fact not only which he knows, 
but which he ought to have known. Hence, when 
an agent, the shipper of goods, who ought to 
have telegraphed to the owner the news of the .ship's 
loss, purposely refrained from doing so. and sent 
the news by post in order to give his principal time 
to insure, the insurance was held void. (Proud- 
foot V. Monteflore, L.R. 2 Q.B.D. 511.) The 
penalty for concealment, generally speaking, is 
that tlxc polic>* is wholly void, or, more prrciselyj 
voidable at the option of the underwriter on first 
discovery of the concealment. He may elect to 
condone it and retain his premium, but he most 
make his ejection at once. (Marshall on losur&noe, 
p. 450.) 

The obligation to communicate any fact bearing 
upon the risk re^ts equally upon the under write r 
with the assured ; and therefore if at the time of 
effecting the insuraiice the underwriters were pri- 
vately cognisant of the fact tha.t the ship had 
arrived in safety, the jmlicy would bo void as to 
him, and an action would ho against him for the 
recovery of the premium. (Carter v. Boehm ; 
Marshall on Insurance, 2nd ed., p. 466.) 

Untrue deductions of value on a " ship or ships " 
policy, representing risks which have run off as of 
less value than they actually were, vitiates a poKcy 
on the ground of concealment, or rather of mis- 
representation. (Rivaz V. Gcrussi. 4 Asp. Mar. 
L.C. 377 ; also Morrison v. Universal Co., L.R. 
8 Ex. 40, 197.) 

(3oDCord. U.S. gun-t»at (Chester. 1891.) 
Length 230ft. Beam 36ft. Majcimum draught 17ft. 
Displacement 1,700 tons. Complement 294, 
Guns. Armtmr, 

6— «ia. "Steel." 

2 — 6 pdr. I in. Deck amidships. 

2—3 pdr. 
Mp. 3,400=16 kts. Coal maximum 401 tons. 





Ooode. Frcacb lat daas cruiser. (L'Orient, 

Leagtli 460^1. Bc-ani 63ft. Maximum draught 26it. 
Displacement 10,000 tons. 

" Krapp." 

6} in. Belt amidships. 
8 in. Turrets. 
S in. Conning tower. 


a — 7"6 in., 40 cal. 
8 — 6"4 in. 
6 — 4 ID. 
1 8—3 pdr. 
3—4 pdr.. Boat guns. 

Torpfdo Tuhes (177 in.). 
3 Submerged. 
2 Above water. 
I Above water stem. 
; screws. Hp. io.soo^se kts. Coal maxi- 
mum t.590 tons. Approximate cost ^^875.000. 

Oonde de Vcnadito. Spanish cruiser. (Carta- 
gena. iS38.) Length. 310 ft.; beam. 33 ft; 
draught, 13 ft.; displacement, i.iis tons: com- 
plement. 130; guns. 4 4'7 in., 2 37 in. ; torpedo 
tubes, 2 above water ; Hp.. i,6oo=c 14 kts. ; coal, 
230 tons, 

Oondor. Dutch gunvesseL Displacement, 400 
tons. At present on commission on Indian Station. 

Ooodor. French avisos. (Rochcfort, 18S6.) 
Length 3i6ft. Beam 39ft. Maximum draught 16ft. 
Dtsplacement 1,200 tons. Complement 134. 

Guns. A rmour. 

5 — 3 "9 in. " SteeL*' 

I — 3'5 in. 1} in. Deck amidships. 

Torpedo Ttibes. 
5 Above water. 
Hp. 3,8003:17 kts. Coal maximum 300 tons. 
Of small fighting value. 

Condor. German 3rd class cruiser. (Hamburg, 

Length 346ft. Beam 33(t. Maximum draught i;ft. 

Displacement i.6uo tons. Complement 1O5. 

Guns. Armour. 

-41 ia. "Steel.*" 

I Small. 3 in. Deck amidships. 

Totf>*do Tubes. 

2 Above water. 

Hp. z,9ooa 16 kts. Coal maximinn 300 tons. 

Ooodoroet. French ist class battleship. I.aid 
down 1906. 

Length 475ft. B«amS4ft. Maximum draught 27ift. 
Displacement 18,000 tons. Complement 6S0. 
Guns. Armour. 

4 — 12 m. " Knjpp." 

13 — 9*4 in. 10 in. Belt amidships. 

16— 13 pdr. 1 3 in. Turrets. 

8 — 3 pdr. 13 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes (iS in.]. 

2 Submerged. 

3 Above water. 

Three screws. Hp. 33,500=19 kts. Coal maxi- 
mom 2,010 tons. Approximate cost ;^i, 

Oondora. Italian torpedo-boat. (Ansaldo, 189S.) 
Length. 1 54 ft. ; beam. 16 ft. ; draught. 6( ft, ; 
displacement, 136 tons; complement, 27; arma- 
ment. 2 3-pdr., 2 tubes ; twin screw ; Hp., 2,5000 
27 kts. ; coal. 33 tons. 

Oooflict. British torpedo-boat destroyer. (East 
Cowcs. 1S94,) Length. 205 ft : beam, 20 ft : 
draught, 8 ; displacerocat, 370 tons ; complement, 
50; armament, i 12-pdr., 5 6-pdr.. 2 tubes; twin 
screw ; Hp.. 4,370 = 37 kts. ; coal, Co tons. 

OoDneotioaL L'.S. tut class battleship- (New 
York, J 904.) 

Length 4sGft Beam 76ft. Maximum draught 37ft 
Displacement 16.000 tons. Complement 916^ 
Guns. A rmour, 

4—13 in., 45 cal. " Krupp." 
8 — 8 in. 1 1 in. Belt amidships. 

13 — 7 in. 13 in. Turrets. 

30 — 14 pdr. 9 in. Conning tower. 

13—3 pdr. 
14 Small. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
4 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Coal maximum 2,200 tons. 
Approximate cost /1,300,00a. 

Conning. Directing the helmsman. 

Congaeror. On December 26. ift6i. this vessel 
was stranded on Rum Cay, near the Baliamas, and 
was lost The captain was censured for neglect of 


Conqoeror. East Indiaman. homeward bound, 
wrecked near Boulogne. January 13, 1843. Crew 
and passengers lost 

OonqDoror. On February 15, 1760. this vessel 
was lost on St Nicholas's Island. Plymouth. 

Oonssmncy is a board of cotnmissioncrs or 
trusteeft in whom the control of a river or port is 
vested by Act of ParUament The Board regulates 
the navigation and flow of water, protects fisheries, 
and adopts measnrcs to prevent pollution. Tlie 
Thames Conservancy by the Act of 1894 consists 
of 38 conservators, whose authority extends from 
Cricklade to Yantlet Creek, and includes the right 
to improve navigation, the maintenance of tow- 
paths, locks, etc.. the licensing, the erection of 
wharfs and piers, the dred^ng of the river, and 
removal of obstructions. The Thames Conser\*ancy 
possesses all rights in the bed and soil of the river 
up to tngh-water mark. 

Oonjerrators of the Thames. See Thames C^- 


Constance. A vessel, built by Messrs. Elder in i860, 
with engines of large c>iinder capacity to admit of 
great expansion with sur lace -condensers and super- 
heaters to the boilers. It was worked with steam 
of 32 pounds pressure, and wex« compound eng i a ei 
with six cylindtrre. The economy of fuel was vwy 




marked, as th«y wero able to obtain ooe indicated 
horsc-povk'cr with 2} pounds oi fuel. The engines, 
howe\'er. were excessively complicated and heavy 
for that time, their weight being about 5I cwt. 
per maximum indicated horse-power. 

CoDstractive total Ion U a loss o( a ship con- 
demned on account of her having sustained injuries 
so extensive that she is not worth the cost of 

As to constructive total loss of cargo, the under- 
writer engages only that the thing iiixurud shall 
reach its destination capable of being used under 
the same denomination that it had when the risk 
commenced — 1>.. that a &hip shall reach its de- 
stination capable of b«'iiig used as a ship, and that 
cargo, say rice, shall reach its destination capable 
of being used as rice. 

The questions, therefore, are : 

(1) Is it practically possible for the assured to 
make the thing insured reach its destination i 

(2) Will or does it reach its destination capable 
of being used under the denomination it had before 
it was damaged by perils of the sea ? 

There arc many points, some ol great nicety, 
bearing on auytlting that could hv said : but. 
speaking generally, it is an un'^'ritteti law of marine 
insurance that the assured must act as a prudent 
uninsured owner would do. if the outlay neces- 
sary to remove or repair the damage is what a 
prudent uninsured owner would undertake, it is 
not a constructive total loss ; if he would not. it is. 

There is a constructive total lo€S of goods when 
the goods cannot practically reach thoir destiua- 
tion— 1.#., when the expenses resulting from perils 
of the sea will exceed the probable proceeds of Uie 
goods at their port of destination. 

To make an underwriter liable for a total lo^^s 
when it is a constructive total loss only, a notice 
of abandonment is necessary. There cannot be a 
coiutructtve total loss of freight, for there is nothing 
to abandon. 

By English law the assured cannot say to his 
underwriter ; " Here, take my property. Give me 
the amount for which you have insured it." All 
be can legally say is : "I give you notice that, in 
consequence of such and such circumstances, I 
now make my election, and declare my intentions 
to transfer my interest in what I have insured vvith 
you, d{:maiiding in return the sum insured there, 
and now I make you the o£er of this Irausfer." 
This tender or notice of abandonment should bo 
made as soon as the assured has made up his mind 
that it is rea.sonably certain the interest in effect 
will be totally lost 

H he delays, then all that he does may be 
reckoned up against him as testimony of his un- 
willingness to tender abandonment at the proper 
time, and he may in consequence have to be 
satisfied with some form of indemnity that does 
not confer on him a payment of a total loss against 

the transfer of his property, but leaves bim with 
that property repaired, so as only to be as good as 
it was before the accident causing the damage. 

If the notice of abandonment to the under- 
writers has not been accepted, there is a posa- 
biUty of neither assured nor underwriter taking 
steps to save the imperilled property : neither may 
be inclined to act in such a way as may be held 
to indicate an assumption of ownership which each 
wishes to declaim. This is the reason of the crxist- 
cnce of the " Waiver Clause " or " Sue and Labour 
Clause." by which it is " expressly declared and 
agreed that tlie acts of the assured or ttic assurer 
in recovering, saving, or preserving the property 
shall not be considered as a waiver or acceptance 
of abandonment." If, on the oUier hand, the 
assurcd's tender of abandonment is difficultly 
operative as regards both assured and underwriter, 
each of them has exercised his option and must 
abide by the consequences. (Gow on Marine Insur- 
ance, p. 147.) Refer to Abandonment; also Clauses 

Constraotive Total Loes Clause. See C7.L. 

Qausc. I 

Ooninl, Meroan tile, is a Govern me nt official , 
resident abroad, wtio is appointed to guard the 
rights of the subjects of the natioa he serves, and 
to watch the interests cf that country commercially. 
Mis powers are wide and various, and he enjoys 
ccrtaui immunities and privileges by virtue of hi» 

The duties of a British Consul include reportins 
on local import and export trade, administeriog 
any oath or af&davit, holding inquiries respecting 
offences committed on the high seas by British 
seamen, issuing and counter -signing passports, 
sok-muising marriages contracted t>etween Britaih 
subjects or between a foreigner and a British sah- 
ject. registering births and deaths, and as5istii% 
shipwrecked or unemployed seamen. All docu- 
ments alTixed with the Consular seal and signed by 
the Consul or hisdcputy arc admitted as evidence in 
a British Court of Law without proof of seal of 

ConJiulate ot the Sea, The {Consulato del mare), 
is the earliest known collection of sea laws and 
customs, and was printed at Barcelona in the 
Catalan language in 1494, whereof the only existiflg 
copy is in the Paris National Library. It consisted 
of a code of procedure issued by the kings of 
Aragon for the guidanci: of Courts and Consuls at 
sea. a collection of ancient customs, and a body 
of ordinances for the government of wai^ps. 
Although not universally recognised, it was adopted 
by most of the Mediterranean States, and England 
adhered to its rules until it was superseded by the 
Declaration of Paris, 1856 (^-v.). 

Oonsulato del Hare. Stm Consulate of the Sea. 

Oontmt. A document specifying a veasd's 
destination, stores, etc. signed by her master and 
delivered to the Customs aatbohties before she can 
clear outwards. 

OobAmI British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Bir* 
kenhead, 1694.) Length, 3io ft.; beam, ig ft.; 
draught, 9 ft. ; displacement. 390 tons ; comple- 
ment, 50: ammment, 1 l3-pdr.. $ (S-pdr., 2 tubes; 
twin screw ; Hp., 4,4O0'=27 kts. ; coal, 60 tons. 

ContintutioD ClaoMt. S££ Clauses. 

Contraband. See Smuggling. 

Contraband ol war. Gofxls said to be contra- 
band of war are divided into two classes, {i) Abso- 
lute contraband — i.e., all articles primarily manu- 
factured or ordinarily used for naval or military 
purposes in war time. (2) Conditional contraband 
— I.*., articles which niay be and are used in times 
o( peace as well as of war. the law of nations 
looking at their destination to detennioe their 
character. A neutral ship carrying contraband of 
war is by the law of nations liable to confiscation if 
captured by a belligerent, though of late the 
practice has been relaxed where the owners of the 
ship and cargo arc diflerent persons, the contra- 
band goods only under such circumstances being 
aejyed. Yet the knowledge of a shipowner that tiis 
vessel is carr^-ing contraliand. or the fact that she 
IB saibng under false papers, renders her liable to 
confiscation in addition to the goods she is carrying. 
The hability to seizure commcncrs when a vessel 
leaves port, and ends when her contraband cargo 
is discharged. 

Great Britain has recently drafted a memo- 
randum on which it is proposed to negotiate with 
Germany. France, and Rus.<ua (or tlie conclusion of 
an agrcemvii (, aticctiDg contraband. There will be 
three lists : 

1. " Abiotute " contfoband. — Articles to be placed 
in the first class have already been accepted by the 
Confereocc. Others can be added after due notifi- 

2. " Condiiional " contraband.— VuvX of alt kinds, 
railway and telegraph material, foodstuffs, dothing 
and materials for clothing, com. Additional articles 
can be added after due notification. Liability to 
confiscation, save on payment o( full compensation, 
only to come mto force after the expiration of a 
fixed period, say. 30 days. 

j. " tion-declarable " contraband, — Mails, raw 
cotton, raw wool, silk, jute, and other raw material 
ol the textile industries : iUuminatiiig otis ; oil seeds 
and nots ; rubber, gums, hops : raw hides and 
homs ; raw sugar; metallic orvji ; explosives not 
nsed for warlike purponea. 

Ko goods arc to be considered conditional con- 
tTaband unless generally destined for the armed 
forces of the enemy. The burden of proof is to be 
oo the captor, and full compensation is to be paid 

if tiie charge is not substantiated. Neutral destina- 
tion is to render ships immune to capture for con- 

It is understood that in return for agreement on 
these points Great Britain %vQuld give up the 
doctrine of cootinuoua voyages with regard to 
contraband. Reftr to Visit and Search, Neutrality. 

Oontribotiiig valaes. Su General Average. 

Controller, Nara], is the third naval ord who has 
care of the material of the fleet. His duty em- 
braces all matters connected with naval construc- 
tion, dockyards, engines, ordnances, and sto es, 
with the exception of coal. He is responsible not 
only for the administrative but also of the execu- 
tive part of naval shipbuilding. He is responsiUe 
for the satisfactory construction and pcTformance 
of ships, and the Director of Naval Construction is 
responsible to the controller. See Vasey Hamilton's 
" Naval Administration." 1896. 

Conveyanoing includes all legal draftsmanship. 
A conveyance is the instrument by which property 
is transferred from one person to another, and 
includes assignment, appointment, lease, settlement, 
and other assurance, and covenant to surrender. 
It is made by deed on a sale, mortgage, demise, 
or settlement of any property, or on any other 
dealing with or for property. The object of con- 
veyancing is to express intentions in the shorteat 
and clearest manner. 

OODTOr is the accompaniment and protection of 
merchant vessels by warships of their country in 
time of war. 

With regard to neutral ships under convoy, most 
Continental nations have a<lopted the principle 
that the dt^laration of the convoying officer that 
the merchantmen under his charge carry no con- 
traband of war exempts them from the belli- 
gerent's [q.v.) right of visit and search {q.v.). 
Great Britain, however, has always refused to 
recognise this immunity of convo>-ed vessels, and 
hold that the so-called " right of convoy *" has no 
existence except by virtue of a treaty between 
States mutually conceding that right. In marine 
insurance a warranty [q.v.) to sail under convoy is 
a stipulation in the policy that tlie ship shall so 
sail, and implies that the convoy shall be for the 
whole voyage, that the sailing orders will come 
from the officer of the convoying ship, and that the 
insured vessel will do her best to keep with her 
Cook, Omptaln Hatw (1738-79). Celebrated navi- 
gator (b. Marton. Yorkshire). After some years 
spent in the North Sea and Baltic, he in 1755 
joined the Royat Navy, and distinguished himself 
to such an extent that he was appointed master 
successively of the Stuy, Grampus, Garland, and 
Mercury, in the last of which he was principally 
engaged in surveying the St. Lawrence Hivor, of 




which he pnbKsbed a chart of the journey from 
Quebec to the sea, and the coast of Newfoundland. 

Tn 1768 he receive<J a commission as liputonant. 
•Jid set sail m tbe Endeavour, a vessd of 370 tons, 
accompanied by several men of science, to observe 
the transit of Venus. From Tahiti, where he 
erected an obs«rvatofy, he set sail in quest of the 
Great Continent, then suppcraed to exist in the 
South Pacific, and reached the Island of New 
Zealand, which he circumnavigated, aud charted 
the coast. From New Zealand be proceeded to 
Australia (then called New Holland), and 00 
April 28 came in sight of Botany Bay. From 
Australia, Cook sailed to New Guinea, and thence 
to Batavia, where his ships had to be laid up for 

In 1772. having been raised to the rank of cap- 
tain, be was placed in command of the Resolution, 
& ship of 462 tons, and a smaller ship called the 
Adventure, which were sent out to determine the 
extent of the reported southern continent. He 
reached Madeira on July 29. touched at tht? Cape 
of Good Hope, and from there the expedition 
entered the Antarctic circle in January, 1773. 
After skirting the ice in high latitudes, and being 
satishci) that no land existed within the limits of 
his researches, he set sail for New Zealand. Sailing 
again to the south and east the ResoluiioH again 
encountered ice. and in January. 1774, in longitude 
106* 54' W. Cook reached his highest latitude. 
71* 10' S. After entering among tlie Society 
l$Iands, steering northward he navigated the 
southern tropic from Easter Island to New Tripodcs, 
and discovered the island named by him New 

He then set sail for home, reaching England on 
July 29, 1775, the Adventure, which liad become 
separated from the Resolution in the South Seas, 
arriving the previous year. In 177^ he had charge 
of an expedition to the Pacific to endeavour to find 
a passage round the north coast of Nortli America. 
Tlie two ships, the Resolution and Discovery, were 
speedily equipped and placed under his commar^l. 
He sailed in the Resolution from Plymouth. July 12, 
1776, the Discovery, under Captain Clarke, saiUng 
shortly afterwards. The two ships joined company 
at Cape Town. On this voyage he discovered a 
group of islands, which he named the Sandwich 
Islands, after the Earl of Sand^nch, who had 
taken great interest in the expedition. After cir- 
cumnavigating these and laying down their posi- 
tion on a chart, he reached the coast of North 
America, and explored it from about the 45th 
parallel to Icy Cape, where thej- were stopped by 
the ice. Returning to winter ofi the Sandwich 
Islands, he discovered Nfaui and Hawaii, and it 
was here, in consequence of some trouble with the 
natives, that he met his death. February 14, 1779, 
being murdered in attempting to reach his boat. 
Sm " Life " by Kipple, 1778, by Bcsaut, 1S90. 
by f^Dghton, " The Diet, of Nat Biog." The 

accotuit of his first vfyyufce, written by htmacU, 
Is in vols. II. aud III. of " Hawkesworth's Voyaffio," 
1773, that of the second, published in two vols. 
in 1777, and of the third in three vols., 1784. 
Refer to Antarctic Exploration. Arctic Expknatioa. 

Oook, George Croose (h. New York, October 24. 

1875). Educated Webb's Academy of Shipbuild- 
ing, New York. In 1897 be entered the hull con- 
struction department of Messrs. W. M. Cramp and 
Sons, shipbuUdiog company, Philadelphia, and 
spent several years in work on naval vessels few 
tbe United States, Japanese, and Russian Coven- 
ments. In 1898 be resigned hit position, aad 
entered the department of naval architectore of 
the Glasgow University, where he was a student for 
two years, and won senior class honours in naval 
architecture. On leaving Glasgow he entered tbe 
hull construction department of Howaldtswerke. 
Kiel. Germany, and remained there some time. 
After making a tour of the shipyards and schools 
of naval architecture of Europe, he established 
himself a"? a naval architect in New York Qty. 
Ho is instructor of naval architecture at the Ne* 
York Nautical School, and lecturer on shipbuildiDS 
for the public schools of New York City. 

Publications : Papers published in transactioas 
of the Society of Naval .Architects of New York ; 
contributions to leading American technical journal. 

Cooltfl s;atem. The. which sprang up iipoa the 
abolition of slavery, is the importation of labouxen 
from China, India, and other countries by natiocu 
cither tliem.<>clve» deficient in labourers or hoping 
to increruie their own industrial profits by the em- 
ployment of foreign labour cheaper than that 
locally obtainable. In India the Govenunent 
regulates the exportation of coolies, which it 
restricts to British colonies, Guadeloupe, Mar- 
tinique, and Dutch Guiana. Since 1903 Chineaa 
labour has been exteDsi\'ely employed in the Ttans- 

Cooperate is a system in the North Sea of barter- 
iug tobacco, spirits, etc., to seamen and lishermea 
by Dutch and other boats, called coopers. The 
North Sea Fisheries BUI (1888) prohibited thii 


Ooote, Arthur {b. Huntingdonshire. March. 1841). 
British naval architect. Served his apprenticeship 
at Messrs. Denny Brothers, Dumbarton, then for a 
year with Messrs. Samiiel-son. of Hull ; and for theot 
undertook the delivery of a number of twin-9cre« 
Largcs for work on a chain laid between Roaen and 
Paris. In 1S64 he joined Mr. Andrew t.ealie in 
partnership, at the Hebbum Shipbuilding Yard, 
Newcastle ; and on the retirement of Mr. Leslie 
became the sole partner. In iSSs he formed an 
amalgamation with Messrs. R. and W. Hawthonv. 
and became one of the two Directors of Messrs. R. 
aud W. Hawthorn, LesUe and Co.. Ltd. He ii 

cbairmaji o( ttie An(>Io- Australian Steanuhip Co., 
Ltd.,and Fivcmanaf thcCityof Londoo. Mcmbcroi 
the Institution ol Naval Architects ; ot the Institu- 
ttoD ol Mccbanical Engineers ; and ol the lostitutioa 
of the North-East Coiut Engineers and Sliip- 

Oopenhasen* Battle ot On April 2nd. 1801. 
Lord Nelson and Admiral Parker defeated the Dutch 
fleet of 23 ships of the line, wht-n r8 of the enemy's 
fleet were captured or destroyed. Again in 1 807 ti%e 
Dntch fleet surrendered to .\diniral Gambia and 
Lord Calhcart. The capture consisting of 18 ships 
of the line, 15 frigates, 6 brigs, and 25 guii-boats, 
together vnfh immense naval stores. 

CoQaette. British torpedo-boat destroyer. [Chis- 
wick, i8y8.) Length, 310 ft. ; beam, 19 It. : 
draught, 7 ft. : d»placement, 365 tons ; comple- 
ment, 60 ; armament, t 12-pdr., 5 6-pdr., 2 tubes; 
twin-screw ; Hp., .s.Sooejo kts. ; coal, 80 tons. 

Coracle. An ancient British boat constructed of 
wicker work, covered by skins, oilcloth, etc. ; 
still in use among Welsh and Irish fishermen. 

Oorml. {Coraitiaria.) A name applied to the hard 
calcareous support or skeleton of many species of 
marine zoophytes. The coral producing animals 
abound chiefly in tropical seas, and their growth 
depends mainly u{ion the mean winter temperature 
ol tho tea, and they are confined to seas in which 
the temperature of the water during the winter does 
not sink, on an average, below 60* or 68** Fahr. 
The reef-building corals arc essentially shallow 
water forms, flourishing betwreen extreme low 
water mark and depths of from 3o to 2$ fathoms. 
By their continued growth and aggregation of 
countless generations, they form reels, barriers, and 
isim of vast extent. The red coral {Coralhum 
titibrum) of the Mediterranean is highly prized to: 
cnunental pnqwaes. 

The chief works on Coral and Coral Islands are : — 
Proc. Key. Soc. Edin. (1878-80) ; Cuppy, Proc. Roy. 
See. Edin., xiii. (1885-86) ; W. Wharton. " Nature." 
xxxvii. (1887-88), tv. (1896-97) ; J. Murray. 
"Nature," xxxix. (1888-89): C. Darwin. "Struc- 
ture and Distribution of Coral Reefs" (1889); 
Sidney j. Hickson's " Naturahst in N. Celebes " 
(1889) ; J- D. Dana, " Corals and Coral Islands " 
(1B90) : W. Savillc Kent's " Great Barrier Reef of 
Anstialia " (1893) ; Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., 
rxx\-iiL (1896) ; J. Stanley Gardiner. "The Coral 
Reefs of Funatuti, Rotuma, and Fiji " ((Proc. 
Camb. Phil Soc., ix., 1898) ; " Thu Fauna and 
Geography of tlie Maldive and Laccadive Archt- 
peUgoes" (190O : A.. Agassis, Bull Mus. Comp. 
Zod., passim, and Mem. Mos. Comp. Zool., xxvi. 
(1903) ; W. J. SoUas, " Report to the Comouttee of 
the Royal Society appointed to inve«tigate the 
Structure oi a CoraJ Reel by Boeing " (Proc Roy. 
Soc, bt.). 

Oonl Iilud is an island made in a large measure 
of coral. Bermuda is an instance ol the kind. 
Refer to Coral Reef. 

Ooral RmL a reef consisting to a comsidcrablc 
extent, though not exclusively, of coral. The slooy 
skeletons of zoophytes form large masaes of lime- 
stone, and these with shells, fragments o( echim. etc. 
become cemented together by carbonate ol lime, 
derived probably Crom the decomposition ot dead 
coraL Darwm divides coral reefs into three kiud-i — 
(1) the annular or lagoon reef, generally called an 
atoll, (2) the encircling or barrier reef, and (3) the 
fringing or skirting reef. The first two are found 
only where subsidence is in progress. An encircling 
reef, that is. one encircling an island at same 
distance from the shore, is found in an area of 
:iubsidence where the central mountain of high land 
has not yet disappeared beneath thi: ocean. A 
barrier rcct — the best known example ol wtiich 
is one runomg parallel to the noith-cast coast of 
Australia for miles, 350 ot them without a 
break — is a portion of what, if completed, would bv 
an encircling leof. A fringing reef, close to the 
aliore of a volcamc island, is produced by the eleva- 
tion of the area, which con\-erted into dry land the 
narrow channel by which it was at one time separa- 
ted from the shore. The Dangerous and Society 
Archipelagoes are areas of subsidence uith ntolls. 
as is the case writh the Bermuda litland, tlie only 
spccimpn in the AUanbc ol an atoll. The New 
Hebrides. Solomon Islands, and New Ireland 
aflord examples of fringing reefs. 

Oordillere (189$). French subsidised merchant 
jhip. Mr>is.igeries Marilimes [i/.v,). Dimensions, 
463 X 57 X 46 ft. ; gross tonnage, 6.375 : Hp., 
6.000=17 kts. 

Coiintb. Union liner. Sunk in collision with 
H.M.S. Fir<riranrf. March, 1886. 

Corinth CanaL This ship canal crosses the Isth- 
mus ol Cormth. The work was commenced in 1.S82, 
but nut completed until iSgj, through lack of funds. 
It is four miles long. 100 ft. broad, with a bottom 
width ol 72 ft., and a depth of 26 ft. It shortens 
the sea route from the Gulf of Patras to the Gulf of 
Athens by 180 mdes. Owing to the deficient 
width, strong currents, and to the tact tliat tlic 
sides of the canal have given much trouble since its 
opening, notwithstanding that long lengths have 
been protected by masonry, or rubble stone, the 
traffic is principally conhned to small vessels. The 
total cost amounted to approximately ^3,000,000. 

Corinthian Taoht Clnh, Royal. See Royal 
Connthian Yacht Oub. 

Cork jack«U A jacket lined with cork for the 
purpose of sustaiuln|[ the wearer on the surface of 
the water. 

Cork Yacht Clab, RojaL S« Ro>'al Cork Yacht 




Oormonuit. Late screw sloop. Displacement, 

1. 1 30 tons. Flagship of the Admiralty Snperin- 
tcndent at Gibraltar Dockyard. 

CormoraaL German 3rd class cruiser. (Danzig, 

Length 346ft. Heam 33ft. Maximum draught 15ft. 
Displacement 1,600 tons. Complement 165. 
(jUHS. ArtHOur. 

8— 4*1 in. "Steel." 

7 Small. 3 in. Deck amidships. 

Torpedo Tub4s. 
2 Above water. 
Hp. 3,90O»i€ kts. Coal maximum 300 tons. 

Corn. Set Memorandum. 

CornwaU. On March 19. 1S71. this vessel was lott 
in colhsion ^^itb the Himalaya. oB Hartlepool. 

Cornw&ll. British ist class cruiser. (Pembroke, 
Length 440ft. Beam 66ft. Mean draught a^it. 
Dis(tlacement 9,800 tons. Complement 678. 

A rmour. 
" Krupp." 

4 in. Belt amidships. 

5 in. Barbettes. 

10 in. Cooning tower. 

14 — 6 in., 45 cal. 
8 — 12 pdr, 
a— 13 pdr,. 8 cwt. 
3—3 P^r. 
8 Pompoms. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 to.}. 
3 Submei^ed. 
Twin screw. Up. 22.000=23 kta. Coal maxi- 
mum 1 .600 tons. Approximate cost ;^775,ooo. 

This ship-name was introduced into the Navy 
about 1685, and is a.<isociated with Barfleur and 
La Hogue. 1692; capture of Port Louis, 1748; 
Knowles's action oS Havana, 1748 : Byron's action 
off Grenada, 1779: Rodney's action with De 
Guichen. 1780. 

Cornwall Yacht Clab, Royal. Set Royal Cornwall 
Yacht Club. 

Oomwallifl, British I s( class battleship. (Thames 
Ironworks. 1901.) 

Length 43gft. Beam 75ft. Maximum draught 27ft. 
Displacement 14.000 tons. Complement 750. 
Guns. Armour. 

4 — T2 in. " Krupp." 

12 — 6 in. 7 in. Belt amidships. 

12 — II pdr. II in. Barbettes. 

6—3 pdr. 12 in. Conning tower. 

2 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tub$s (18 in.>. 
4 Submerged. 
Twin screw, Hp. 18,000=19 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 3.000 tons. Approximate cost ^1,000.000. 

Conkwallis, Sir William (1744-1819)- British 
admiral. Served at Louisburg. 1758: battle of 
Quitieron, 1759 : and vi&a present at the capture of 
the Achille by the Thunderer, 1761. In 1779 he 
took part in the battle ofi Grenatta, and greatly 
distinguished himself. He was commander of the 
Canada with Hood at St. Kitts. and Rodney, off 







Les Saintes. 1782. In 1795 by a great feat of 
strateg>', skill, and daring, when in command of a 
small squadron, he managed to escape from a supe- 
rior Frt-nch force, and for this he was made fuD 
admiral. His nickname in the Navy wa.s " Billy 

Corona, A scries of small coloured rings, due to 
relraction through thin clouds, round the sun or 
mooa. The order ol the colours is the reverse of 
that in the rainbow. 

Coronation. 90 guns. On September x. 1696. 
this vessel foundered ofi the Ramhead. The civw 
were saved. 

Corposants, See St. Hlmo'sFire. 

CorrieDlM. Argentine torpedo-boat destroyer 
(Yarrow, 1896.) Displacement, 250 tons ; amuMir, 

1 in. Protection amidiihips : armament, 1 14-pdr., 
3 6-pdr. ; tubes. J i8-in. ; Hp., 4,300 = 27 kts, 

Corrigao. Frencli ship. S«e Korhgan. 

Corsaire. French torpedo-boat (1892). Dis 
placement, 171 totis : complement, 32; maximum 
draught, si ft. ; guns. 2 j-pdr. ; torpedo tubes 

2 15-in. ; Hp.. 2,500=25 kts. ; coal. 15 tons. 

Cortes. Steamer. Foundered in the Bay of 
cay, December 16. 1874 : 35 lives lost. 

Coia. Joan dela (1450-1510). Spanish navigatw 
(h. Santuna, Italy). Accompanied Columbus as 
pilot in 1492. and was sect on several expeditions 
to explore tho newly-discovered lands. He made 
two coloured maps on vcUum. one mzirking the dis- 
coveries by Columbus and his successors, and the 
other the Spanish possessions in Africa. He was 
killed at Tabasco in Central America during 
skirmish with some Indians. 

See " Life," in Spanish, with reproduction 
maps in six sheets. tSgz. 

Cosens and Co., Ltd., with their head offices at 
Weymouth, uwu u fleet oi eight excellent pleasure 
steamers, which maintain frequent sailings during 
the summer montK^, from Weymouth, Swanagc and 
Bournemouth, to Ryde. LW.. Cowes. Southsea. 
and Brighton. Excursions are also run to Torquay, 
Exeter. Teignmouth, and Dartmouth. 

Albert Victor. Majestic. Prtmisr, 

Brodick Castle. Monarch. Qmmm. 

Empress. Victoria, 

Cosmao. French 3rd class cruiser. (Bordeatuc, 

Length 312ft. Beam joft. Maximum draught 141 
Displacement 1,900 tons. Complement 190. 
Guns. Armour. 

4— 5*5 In. "Steel." 

8— r8 in. ij in. Deck amidships. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
5 .^bove water. 
Hp, 6,000 a 20 kts. Coal maximum 300 tons. 
Of small fighting value. 







OofiNiUOk. Emigrant vessel. Took fin in mid 
ocean on ber way to Auckland, New Zc&land, 
Kovcmbcr 17, 1B74 ; 470 lives lost. 

Couaek. British oc^an-gomg Lorpcdo-boat de- 
stroyer. (Laird, 1906.) Length. 250 ft ; bfam, 
25 ft. ; firaught, 7^ ft. ; displacement, j^ tons : 
complement. 6u , armament, 3 t2-pdr.. 1 tubes; 
3 screws; lip.,>33 kts. ; coal maximum, 
1S5 tons. 

Costilicb Fntielli, Trieste. Sm Aoatro-American 
Steamship Co. 

Cotton cIftnB«s. Ste Clauses. 

Cooleunine. Trmch torpedo gim-lxuit. (Mavre, 

Length 196ft. Beam 21ft. Maximum draught 6ft. 
Displacctiicnt .t^g tona. Com]>tcnicnt 63. 
Gum. Tofpedj Tubes. 

4 — r"8 in. 3 .\bove water. 

Up. 2,€ioo=i8 kts. Coal maximum 100 tons. 
Of no fighting value. 

Coont Belgioioso. Indiaman. On March 13, 
17S3, this vessel was lost oB DubUn Baf, when 
147 souls perished. 

Coantv. A prefix applied to many words oi 
our language generally signifying opposition. 

Ooontess Evelyne. Cardiff screw steamer. Sunk 
by colli-sion with the City of Hatnbutg. near Trevose, 
May 3. 1S93 ; 34 lives lost 

Ooap«r, SinoUtr (b. Wick. August 34. 1856). 
Mecbamcal engineer. Educated Local School, 
Fraserburgh, and Grammar School, Aberdeen. 
After serN-ing his apprenticeship with Messrs. Bar- 
clay. Curie, and Co., Glasgow, he entered the 
Glasgow Univrrsity. and took a complete engineer- 
ing course, obtainmg the certificate of proficiency 
in cngmeering science. While at the University, 
and for some time after completing his course, he 
worked in the physical laboratory under Sir 
William Thomson (I^rd KeK^n). being chiefly 
engaged in carrying out a series of experiments 
opOD the elasticity of metals. In 1S79 he entered 
the employment of Messrs. Miller and Co., Coat- 
hridge, and there designefl a large amount of new 
and special plant for ^eel works. In tSSs he was 
appointed engineering manager of Messrs. I. and W. 
Beardmore, Glasgow, and continued in tim ap- 
pointment until 18S7, when he went into partner- 
ship with the late Mr, Lindsay Burnet, Moore Park 
Boiler Works, Govan, and since his death has been 

Psole partner in that business. Has been Member 
ol Council of Institution of EnginccrK and Ship- 
boilden in Scotland, and om; of their representa- 
tives on Lloyd's Technical Committee ; member 
also Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Institu- 
tion of Naval Architects, Iron and Steel Institute, 
and Roya] Philosophical Society. 


Publications : Has contributed papers on various 
engineering subjects to the Tmttitution of Engineers 
and Shipbuilders in Scotland. 

Courbet French and class battleship (i88>}. 
Reconstructed [903. 

Length 318ft. Beam 69ft. Maximum draught 28ft 
Displacement tons. Complement 689. 
Guns. ArtmntT. 

4 — io'8 in. " Iron,'* 

3— 9"4 in. 15 m. Belt amidships. 

I — 6'4 in. 9 in. Battery. 

10 — ^4 In. 3 in. Conning tower. 

17 — I pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
Tvrin screw. Hp. 8,ioo»[5't kts. Coat nonnal 
9on tons. 

Conrenr. French sca-goiag torpedo-boat de- 
stroyer. (Chiswick, iSSa.) Length. 147 ft. ; beam, 
15 ft.; draught, 4} ft.; displacement. 129 tons; 
complement, 37; armament, 4 Nords., 1 tubes; 
twin screw ; Hp., 1.550 = 23 kts. ; coaJ, 35 tons. 

Cotines. Mainsail and foresail of square-rigged 

Cottrt-martial in the Navy consists of trials by 
a special court composed of admirals, captains, or 
commanders, or ol officers of any of those ranks 
for the trial of oflcnccs under the Articles of War, 
the whole system resting an the Naval Disciplme 
Acts, i860 to 1S66. Under the Act of i«66. the 
court-martial must consist of five to nine ofbcers. 
the rank of the president depending on that of 
the prisoner, and must be held publicly on board 
of one of H.M.S. ships of war. Except in the case 
of mutiny, where the trial is held immediately, it 
is necessary to give at least 34 hours' notice for 
the attendance of the ofhcers constituting the court 
The captain of tlic ship in which the ofleoce Js 
committed is the prosecutor, and the prisooer is 
given a copy of the charge, and allowed to prepare 
a defence, and consult legal advisers, communicate 
with witnesses, and obtain the services of a friend 
to represent his case. The Board of the Admiralty 
have under the Naval Discipline .Acts the general 
power of suspending, annulling. modif>*ing sentences 
which are not capital. The jurisdiction extends 
to aO persons belonging to the Navy, to land 
forces and other persons on board, shipwrecked 
crews, spies, and persons borne on the lx)oks of 
H.M. ships in commission. The defimtion of the 
jurisdiction of locahty includes harbours, havens, 
or creeks, all places within the jurisdiction of the 
Admiralty, all places on shore out of the United 
Kingdom, all dockyards, barracks, hospitals, etc., 
all places on shore m or out of the United Kingdom 
for all ofiences punishable under the Articles of 
War except those specified in the Naval Discipline 
Act of i860. If the hnding of the coon is " Not 




guilty." tite judge advocate draws it up, and it is 

signed by aU the members. The trndiiiK is arrived 
at by taking the opinions oi the majority. Should 
the prisoner be found guilty and sentenced to im- 
prisonment, the punishment begins from the time 
of sentence. VThcn the sentence is death, notice 
is given by the firing of a gun from the ship where 
it is to be carried out. 

See Simmons on the " Cooatilutioo and Prac- 
tice of Court -Martial " (1875), Tring's "Treaties of 
the Criminal Laws of the Na\'y " (1861) ; also "The 
Annual Mutiny Act," Articles of War, Naval 
Disctpbnc Acts. 

Court, Vice-Admiral oi the. See Vice-Admiralty 


ConlaUu. French tortjedo-boat destroyer. (Forges 
et Chanticrs, 1904.) Length. 180 ft. ; beam, 31 ft. ; 
maximum draught, 10 ft. ; displacement. 300 tons : 
complement, 45 ; guns, i g-pdr., 6 jpdr. : torpedo 
tubes, 3 15-iD. : speed. 27-50 lets. 

Coverley and Westray Line, taken over by the 
Ellerman Lmcs, Ltd., in i^ot, maintain a service 
of passenger and cargo st<::arocrs bctwet-n London 
and Oporto. A monthly service was inaugurated 
in 1904 in conjunction v<tlh the Allan Line to 
Urugnay and the River Plate. 

OOVBTS are unstamped documents issued prc- 
paiatory to the preparation of the stamped policy 
lor the protection of the assured. Refer to Slip. 

Cowry. The popular name of the shells of the 
Cyprocidc, a iamily of molluscs. Upwards of 100 
species are recognised, and Ihey arc widely di.stri- 
buted over the world, being lound chietly in shallow 
water along the seashore. They are used for 
money and barter, and are collected in great 
quantities in the Maldive Isles, in Ceylon, along 
the Malabar coast, and Bonieo. and vaiious parts 
oi the AErican coast from Ras Hafun to Mox»m- 
bique. They are still used in India, East Africa, 
and Central Atnca. In India it requires 3,840 to 
make a rupee, and in Siain 6,400 are equal to a 
tical, or about is. 6(f. 

Cox, Walter Reieigh (b. Falmouth, iBC;). Served 
an apprcnticeslup of five years at engineering, two 
years shipbuilding, and. liaving obtained coiisidci- 
able experience in Glasgow, he was in 1890 ap- 
pointed managing director of tl;e shipbuilding and 
repairing department of Messrs. Cox and Co., 
Falmouth. He has Wide experience in the con- 
struction of yachts, tugs, barges, etc.. of all types 
and dc^icriptions, and lius carried out some of the 
must iutniuite repairs to boilers and machinery 
that have been executed in the West of England, 
and in re-classiug, re-boilcring, and re-engining 
vessels of ail typts. 

Member of the Institution of Naval Architects. 

Oonvaiiu The seaman who steers a boat. 

O.P. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Kolijnsplaat, Holland. 

0^. Creek. Abbreviation adopted on the charts 
issued by the Hydrographic Othce, .Admiralty. 

C^b. A form of windlass lor hauling ships ioto 

Cradle. A frame consisting of bilgeways, poppets, 
etc., on which vessels are constructed. 

Oratt. A term in sea pliraseology for every kind 
of vessel. 

Craft ClaoM. See Clauses. 

Craig, George Butt, 7.P. (b. .\pril 23, 1849^ 
\\'as originally t'dvicuted with a view to the le|Esl 
profession, but tus inclination towards engineering 
science early manifested itself, and he entered the 
drawing office of Messrs. Thomas Wingatc and Ca. 
Glasgow. Alter being connected with this fim 
for some lime, he became draughlsmaii to Messs. 
John FuUerton and Co., of Paisley, and irom there 
migrated to the east coast, where for some yean 
he was chiei draughtsman to Messrs. Wighim 
Richardson and Co.. Newcastle. Subsequently hr 
t>ccamc superintendent engineer for the P. and 0. 
Co., which position he held for many years. Os 
reiiigmng this he decided to commence business 00 
his own account, and accordingly started the 
Northumberland Shipyard under the name ca 
Me!s.<ir5. Edward's Sons and Craig. At present hr 
is Henior {lartner m the firm of .Messrs. Cmg. 
Taylor and Co.. which yard he laid out aboat 
21 years ago. 

Craigie, Vice-Admiral Robert William 0>- >^9)> 

Entered Navy. 1863 : sub-Ucutcnaut, ihOS ; Uea- 
tenant, 1872 ; gunnery lieutenant of Active, landed 
w'ith a detachment from that vessel during ttkc 
Kofhr war, 1877-7S ; commanded at Fort Curmmg- 
ham ; mentioned in despatche.s fur valuable icr- 
vices rendered on the Gaika frontier ; took part in 
the operatious against SandilU ; again mentioned 
in despatches ; landed with the Naval Brigade 
during Zulu war, i878-7i>, and acted as adjutant 
to the Aciive's detachment ; present at the achuo 
of luyczanc, i87g. at tlic defence to Port Dam- 
ford ; acted as i^taif-oflicer of tli« Naval Brigade 
composed of detachments from the Shah. Boadicn, 
and Active; mentioned in despatches; promoted 
for services rendered (Zulu medal and claspl . 
commander, 1879; commanded the Flitl on tfic 
Cape of Good Hope and West Coast of Alnci 
station ; received the thanks of the Foreign OJii« 
for valuable services rendered in negotiatmg 
treaties with the chiefs of the Oil River District. 
promoted to captain for services rendered, 18&6; 
received the R.N. college prize lor steam and nav&l 




architecture, tSS/, and the gold medal of the Koyal 
United Service Institution, 1892 ; commanded 
H.M.S. Hyaa'nth on the China station, and acted 
as senior naval olficer at Singapore. iSoa ; took 
part in the operations of the International Squadron 
in Crete, ;8(J7, wlieu in command o( the Camper' 
domm : served a^ wnior British naval oflicer trom 
March si to May 24, iSsV* : good serx-ice |>easion, 
1898 ; promoted rear-admiral. 1900: admiral 
superintendent oJ Chatham Dockyard, 1902 ; vice- 
admiral, 1905. 

Cramp. Obarlcs Heory. American shipbuilder 
(b. Philaddphi.-i, May i). iSaS). Served an apprcn- 
Ucrahip «-ith John Rircly lor three years, subsc- 
quentiy bocominR attached to his father's yard in 
tS^S. No <ichool of DQval architecture of any kind 
C3rist^^d at that time in the United States. TIic 
ttme of his entrance into the shipbuilding trade was 
the hcginninK of a great transition from wood to 
iron or steel in the materiaJs for the construction 
of ships, and in the substitution of steam for sails 
for propulsion. During the beginning of his carcrr 
a large number of vessels were built in his father's 
yard, most of which were defttgnod by him — coast- 
wise sailing ships, tiu^e-raasted schooners. Cali- 
fornia clippers, paddle and screw steamers, screw 
tug-boats, and Uic firsl .screw war vessel, the 
Lihcptador. for Venezuela. At the beginning of 
Ibc Civil War he designed the ironclad battleship 
Ntw Itonsides. which was built of wood, mounting 
14 ir-in. Dahlgen guns and two Parrots of 8-in. 
calibre ; al»o the fan cruiser Chattanoitga, and the 
monitor Vfuoo, and rebuilt sf^vcral others, and at 
the end of the war the monitor Tetrof was buill. 
Engine building was started in 187 1, and the 
modem compound rnginc introducc<l. Since that 
time every type ol vessel, battleship, armoured 
cmiaer, gun-boat, and ocean merchant steamer has 
hecn built, mostly o( his own design, and up to 
the time of his retirement from active participation 
in the busioL'ss m i^oi he hod designed and super- 
intended the construction of some 350 vessels. 

Onnace is the right to use u crane for loading or 
nnloadtng goods, and the price paid for its use. 

Crane. British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Janow. 
1S96.) Length. 215 ft.; beam, 20 ft.; draught. 
6| ft. : displacement. 334 tons ; complement, 60 ; 
annament, 1 iz-pdr., 5 6-pdr., 2 tubes; twin 
screw : Hp.. 6,336=30 kts. ; coal. 80 tons. 

Crank. Unstable ; incapable of carrying sail 
vrithout danger ol overturning. 

Craven. U.S. torpedo-boat (iSqS). Displace- 
ment. 147 i guns, 3 I pdr. ; torpedo tubes, 3 i8-in. ; 
maxinium «pet^. 27 kts. 

Crawford, Lieat-Colonel Thomas, JT.P. fb. Novem- 
ber 9, 1925). Commenced his business career in 

the offices of Messrs. Loah, Wilson and Bdl, with 
whom he remained for 1; years. In 1854 he 
entered the firm of Messrs. C. Mitchell and Co.. and 
when this firm amalgamated with that of Sir W. G. 
Armstrong. WhitiA'orth and Co., he remained with 
them, and is now head of the commercial depart- 
ment, and celebrated the jubilee of his connection 
with them on November 8, 1904. Has been con- 
nected with the public tife of Walker since 1859, 
and acted as secretary for the first local board. 
He joined the ist Northumberland Volunteer De- 
tachment as a private in (859, and retired as hon. 
lieut. -colonel in 18S7. with the long servic-e medal 
He is chairman of the Walker Local Board, of the 
Walker Urban District Council, president of the 
Walker Mechanics lastitute, chairman of the 
Walker and Wallsend Union Gas Co. and Claptiam 
Stcam.4htp Co., Ltd., alderman of the Newcastle 
Corporation, and J. P. for Northumberland. 

Publication : " Nineteenth Century Moles on 

OrawL A wooden pen built on the sea coast to 
contain fish or turtle. 

CreaBoCe. A colourless liquid obtained by the 
distillation of wood tar. 

Credit, Letter oL A letter written by one party 
to another re«i nesting the party addressed to 
advance the bearer or person named a specified sum 
of money. 

CreeL Set Krcel. 

Creeper. Small graphng-irons for draggii^ a 
harbour for lost properly. 

Crepuscular rays. Diverging beams seen when 
the sun is near the cv-itcm or western horizon, and 
clouds arc gathered round its disc. 

Crescent Briiisb ist class cruiser. (Ports- 
mouth, 1892.) 

Length 36oit. Beam 60ft. Maximum draught 26ft. 
Displacement 7,700 tons. Complement 544. 
Guns. Armow. 

X — 9*2 in. "Steel," 

l» — 6 in. s in. Deck. 

13 — 6 pdr. 12 in. Conning tower. 

2 —9 pdr. boat. 
5—3 pdr. 
2 Maxims. 

TofpeJo Tubes (18 in.). 
2 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. natnral io.oo>= 18*5 kts.. 
forced 12.000= 195 kts. Coal maximum 1,250 
tons. Approximate cost 1^20,000. 

This ship-name is associated with the battle off 
the North Foreland, 1653 ; capture of the French 
Berkeley, 1759 ; capture of the French I.a Rtuninn, 
■ 793 : capture of Cape of Good Hope, 1795. 

OraMy. British ist class cruiser. (Furfield, 

Length 440ft. Beam 69ft. Maximum draught zfifi. 
Duplacement 12,000 tons. Complement 700. 

" Krnpp." 

6 in. Belt aniidahipa. 

6 in. Barbettes. 
12 in. Conning tower. 

2— g'2 in.. 45 caJ. 
12^6 in. 
12 — 12 pdr. 
3 — 13 pdr., 8 cwt 
3— J pdr. 
2 Maxims. 

Torpedo T»6ss (18 in.). 
3 Submerged. 
Twin 6crew. Hp.^23'5 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 1 ,600 tons. .Approximate cost, £749.000. 

Crev, nie, means the whole ship's company 
with the exception of the master. " At common 
taw the master of a ship has authority over all the 
mariners {i.e.. the crew), and it is their duty to obey 
his commands in all lawful matters relating to the 
navigation of the ship or the preservation of good 
order." The owner is only bound to provide 
sufficient and capable crew, which, since i^SJ. may 
be composed of all nationalities. The crew of an 
emigrant ship must satisfy the emigration officer. 
When a complaint is made to the Board of Trade 
or a detaining officer by some of the crew that any 
British ship is uasaatc, Uic Board or officer may. 
unless the complaint is made by one-fourth (being 
not less than three) of the seamen, require security 
to be given by complainants for the cost of ascer- 
taining whether the ship ought to be detained, and 
lor compensation. 

In all British vessels, except coasters under 
80 tons, the master must enter into an agreement 
with the crew in a form approved by the Board of 
Trade, and in the case of foreign going ships (^.f.) 
each seaman must sign the agreement in the 
presence of a superintendent. The High Court has 
power to rescind any contract between owners or 
master and seaman or apprentice if, under the 
circumstances, it appears just to do so. 

Reftr to Seamen, Employers' Liability, Wages. 
Merchant Shipping Act. 

Cricket. British ocean-going torpedo-boat dc- 
atroyLT. fWliite. I906.) 

Crimp, A, is one who for commLssion undertakes 
to supply ships with seamen, decoys another into a 
foreign naval or military service, or induces sailors 
to desert. The Merchant Shipping Act, 1 894 
(sections iio-ri3, 213.219I. provides that seamen 
and apprentices for merchant ships shall only be 
engagt^d by masters, mates, or other bona fide 
•ervants of the owners, or by a person licensed by 
the Board of Trade for this purpose, who shall 
receive no remuneration other than the fees autho- 
rised by this Act. An unlicensed person supplymg 
seamen shall be liable to a penalty of £20. Local 
authorities may. with the consent of the Board of 
Trade, maJic byclaws relating to seamen's lodgings. 

and impose fines not exceeding ^50 for their contn- 
vfution. The Act further makes it a punishahi.* 
offence for a lodging-house keeper to detain « 
seaman's effects, to solicit a seaman to becotae 
a lodger, or to remove a seaman's goods from sajr 
ship, except under his personal directions. 

An unauthorised person who. without permissioni 
goes on board any British ship upon her arrival at 
the end of her voyage at a port in the United Kmg- 
dom. or remains after being warned ofif. is liable to 
fine or imprisonment. This section may, byOrdcn 
in Council, he made to apply to ships of ford*n 
nations which have a similar provision against un- 
authorised boarding, and so desire. 

Crimping still abounds m nuuiy ports of tht 
United States. 

Cringle. An iron ring confining a sail to a stay. 

Cristoloro Colombo. Italian 3rd class cruurt 
(Venice. 1693.) 

Length 34(}ft. Beam 36ft Maximum clraogfat iTft. 

Displacement 3.700 tons. Complement 238. 


6— 47 in. 

2 — 2*2 in. 

4 — I "4 in. 

Hp. 2.300=16 kts. Coal maximum 445 tons. 

Of no fighting value. 

crl. Coral. Abbreviation adopted oa the cbaiti 
issued by the Hydrographic Office, Ailmiraltj. 
denoting the quahty of the ocean's bottoni. 

foooodO. German armour gun-boat. (Bremen, 

Length 154ft. Beam 36ft. Draught iiit. 
Displacement i,f>9i toiw. Complement 76. 
Guns. Atmour. 

I — 13 in. " Steel." 

3 — 3*3 in. 8 in. Belt amidships. 

8 in. Gun shields. 
Torpedo Tttbts. 
2 Above water. 
Hp. 759=10 kts. C<ial 80 tons. 

Cromer crab-boat A boat somewhat rc!fcmbliDg 
a jolly boat. 

CrODstadt Canal was made with the object ol 
bringing St. Petersburg into direct communicauon 
with the Baltic for large vessels. In 1877 opera- 
tions were commenced and the canal was com- 
pleted in 1885. Starting from the Neva, at St. 
Petersburg, the canal proceeds in a south-westerly 
direction for about two miles, and then runs in a 
straight line north-west to Cronstadt. It is t7^ 
miles in length, and for the first 7} miles, where it 
is protected by embankments, it has a bottocn 
widUi of 275 ft. The depth is 22 ft. throughout. 
Three basins, formed by widening out the canal 
near St. Petersburg, give an area of 330 acres (iw 
the accommodation of shipping. The total cost 
ol the canai was about ^1,300,000, 

CROSSING ^^ i6i 

GnaiDg Une. See Naval C«remotdec 

Crossing the bows. Passing close alicad. 

Croujaok. Th<> sail set on the cmasjack.yard. 

Orouiack>bracH. Ro\ks applied to the nyjixen 
yard arms to change the positioa of tliQ mainsail 

Crossiack-lifU. Koi>es which reach from the 
mizzen masl-hcad to yard arms on the minKm mast 
to steady and suspend the ends. Their use is 
principally to support the weight when a number 
of men are employed on it furUng or reehng the 

Oroiiiack'-yuds. The lower yard on the mizzen 

ma&t, to the arms of whicli tlic clues of the mizzen 
topsail 13 extended. The ti-rm is applied to any 
fore-and-aft vessel scltiug a .square-saU, flying 
below the lower croas-trucs. 

CrnM plmn The traversed timbers of the bits. 

QrOH-flpalM. Temporary' bcaiii.H supporting the 
ship in frame nntil the d<«clt knees are fastened. 

Oros»-tnet. Timbeis under tops and at top- 
mast heads supporting top-gallant rigging. 

Crotohei. See Crutch. 

Crow. An iron lever to prise or remove weighty 

Crown. .\ name applied to finishing a knot by 
passing the strands of the rope over and under each 
other above the knot. 

CrowV!oot. A number ot small lines brought 
to a common centre. 

OhnrVneit. A smalt shelter for look-out man 
.it lop-gaUant mast-head. 

Croxler. Frvioia Ba wdon Uoim ( 1 796- 1 S48). 
Arctic explorer ; made three voyages with Parry. 
1871-27. .\ccompanicd Captain Koss in the 
Terror, iiijg, and sailed in the same vessel with Sir 
Jobn Franklin's cx[M:dition, 1845. and perislied in 
the Polar regions. 

5m M. CUntock's " Fate of Sir John Franklin," 
5Ched.. 18S1. 

OniMr. An armed vessel used to protect the 
commerce of its own country, or to inflict damage 
on that of another. 

Gruisinff Yacht Clah, Royal. See Royal Cruising 
Yachl Club. 

Cmpper, A chain to keep down the hoel of the 

Omtch. A support for tiic main boom of a sloop. 
brig, or cutter fixed on the taffrail. A metal s^^ivel 
for oar to work in, 

OralohlcT. Williun Cains (I)- rg4A). Commander 
{retired) R.N.R. : Secretary to the Navy League, 


lat« Chatnnan Shipmasters' Socict^r. Sea servite 
from i86j-94 in sailing shipst. mail steamers, and 
H.KI. ships. Seventeen years in command of 
mail ste-amers. Has written on naval and marine 
subjects for many years past. 

OA Distinguishing letters on sea fishmg boats 
registered at Cowes. Isle ol Wight, England. 

O.T. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
regUtorod at Cnstletovm, Isle of Man. Etigiand. 

C.T.L, Abbreviation for Constructive Total Loss. 

Cn. Abbreviation tor Cumulus as adopted by 
the International Metoorological Committee and 
used in the International Cloud Atlas. 

Oabaa Steftmtbip Co. (Cuban Line) have » fleet 
of i>\x large pa^^senger and freight steamers trading 
from London to Bermuda. Vera Cruz, and Coat 
zacoalco:!. and one from Antwerp to the same ports. 


Caya Bontto. Cayo Largo. 

Cayo DomtHgo. Cayo MaiuattUto. 

Cayo Gitano. Cayo Soto. 

Caekoo. 3rd class gun-boat (354 tons). 
Launched 1H73. 

Ooddy* A cabin or cook-room usually in (ore 
[tfirt of vcasel ; in lighters and barges at the stem. 

Cnmberlaad. British ist class cruiser. (London 
and Glasgow, ii^z.) 
Length 440ft. Beam 06rt. Mean draught 24fl.' ' 
Displacement 'j,8oo tons. Complement 678. 
GuKS. Armour. 

14 — ft In.. 45 cal. " Krnpp." 

8 — 13 pdr. 4 in. Belt amidships, 

a— 12 pdr. 8 cwt. 5 in. Barbettes. 
3 — $ pdr. 10 in. Conning tower. 

8 Pompoms. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
z Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 22.000 — 23 lets. Coal maxi- 
mum 1.600 tons. Approximate cost ^775.000. 

This ship-name is associated with the capture of 
Calcutta. 1757; the battle ofl Cuddalorc. 1758: 
Negapatam, i7;8 ; Pondichcrry, 1759: KeppeFs 
action off Ushant, 1778: Hyftres. 1795: and (he 
action at Kosas. 1809. 

Cambru Light. Firth td Clyde, is a two-flaali 
light cvcr>- JO seconds ; duration of flash, two fifth 
second ; candle-power. 158,000 ; illuminant, elec- 

Cnmolo-aimbiu. See Clouds. 

Camoloi. See Clouds. 

Ca.-H. Abbreviation loc Cumulo-nimbus, as 
adopted by the International Meteorological 
Committee, and u«d in the International Cloud 




Ouwrd,Sir8&miMl (1787-1865). Anglo-Canadian 
shipowTiPT lb. Halifax). Foanded in 1839. together 
with George Burns, of Glasgow, and David Maclvcr. 
of Liverpool, the British and North American 
Royal Mail Steam Packet Co. In July. 1840. he 
established the firet steam postal communication 
between England and America, and developed this 
service by building iron ships, of which the Persia 
was Ilie first, subsequently superseding the paddle 
by the screw propeller, of which the China (1862) 
wafl the first. 

Canard Steamship Co., Ltd.. whs nrigirally csta 
blishcrl in 1840. with the liritannia, a wooden 
paddle steamer which made her fint voyage 
between Liverpool and New York in 14 days, 
S hours, at the rate ot S| kts.. which was, in 
thatc days, a remarkable achievement. la 1878 
the company took over thi' businrs.H of the British 
and North American Royal Mail Packet Company, 
and the British and Foreign Steam Navigation 
Co. It now owns a Ueet of 22 steamers, all of whidi 
are fitted with the Marconi system of wireless 
telegraphy, and in 1903 tlie Lucania, with Signor 
Marconi {q.v.) on board, was the first vessel to hold 
communication with both sides of the Atlantic. 
Tlie " Cuuard Bulletin," contaiiiing the latest 
MarconigraniH. is published on the steamers, and i« 
the first real ocean ncwiipapcr. In 1903 the British 
Government agreed to len<l this company ^ 
at an interest of 3|%, and also to subsidise the 
company to an extent of ^150,000 per annum, on 
condition thry built two large steamers of high 
speed for tlir* Atlantic trade, and to hold its fleet at 
the Government's disposal for 20 years, lliis 
agreement was the outcome of negotiations arising 
from the formation of the Atlantic Shipping Com- 
htne. The Z.wraiuahcld for .some time the Liverpool 
record for the fastest passage both wuitward and 
eastward, her time westward being 5 days, 7 hours, 
33 minutes, with an average speed of 3) Si kis. ; 
eastward. 5 days, 8 honrs. 38 minutes, an average 
speed of 22'oi kls. 

The westward Atlantic record, with Uic exception 
of the highest day's run. is at present held by tlu' 
Luiitania. She has made three trips to New York 
and back. The following table shows at a glance 
Uw achifvi-ments of the Lusitania on her six 
voyages : 


AhItm! «i 

Time onVi 


Avrracr Siiec.i 






Ocr. 11 
Oct. Zi 
Nov. 8 
Nov. 3 J 

Now York 

Now York 


Hem Vork 

Dauiit's Rock 




. U 



ZS'61 - 

In achieving her record voyage her runs ior the 
four clear days at sea were 606, 6t6. 61S, and 
610 kts., and the averngn .tpced tliroughout was 
34*25 kts. Her record. 618 kta. for a day's steam- 

ing, beat the previous record held by the 
land of the Hamburg-Amerika Line by 17 kts. 
This has now been beaten by the Afauretania 00 
her maiden voyage by her steaming 624 kt». in 
34 hours. The average speed for a day's nin wis 
25 kts.. and the maximum speed attained 25) kts. 
Tliis vessel holds ihc eastward record, having made 
the passage from Sandy Hook in 4 days 22 hosn 
29 minutes, beating the Lusitttnia's record previoas 
passage by 21 minutes. 




















Car path ia. 



Gross tonnage, 193.000. 

Otmha, Tristao d« Canha (1460-1540). Porta 

guese na\igalor. DiscovcrL'd the islands wfaicii 
bear his name, in the South Atlantic . cioDq^ucnd 
the Island of Socotra : 'visited Madagascar. MonJn- 
bique, and the coast of Zaa^ibar. 

Cnnningbam. Explorer. See Arctic Exploration 

Cnracoa. Brirish 3rd class cruiser (3.3S0 toss. 
13 kts.}. Launched 1678. 

Camnts. Progressive flowing of water in «k 
dirrction compelling all bodies floating therein tn 
submit to the stream. 

Carr«nts, Oceanic. See Ocean. 

Currie, Archibald and Co., with their head offica 
in Melbourne, have a fleet of five steamers tradinj 
from Mciboumei to Calcutta, and Melbonnw ani 
Cape Town. These steamers maintain regular ser- 
vices from Melbourne to Java and SingapOR, 
Colombo. Madras, and Calcutta, carrying a limitwl 
number of passengers, cargo, and live-stock. Laigt 
quantities of. horses are shipped by this Une froB 
Australia for the Government remount dcpartmcitt 
in India. 


Darius. Forttinatu%. 

Eurylus. Gracchus. 

Ctirri«, Sir Donald, Q.C.&X.G., cr. 1897 , K.O.IUU 

cr. 18S1 (b. 1835). Head of the UnioA-Castle List 
of steaniKhips (f.f.) bctwern London and Soutli 
.Africa, m which capacity ho has rendered Wd- 
portant service to the Government on various occfc- 


Ourrie Line, with their head offices in Sunderlanf. 
maintain a service every Friday from SunderUml 
to Leith, returning from Leith every Thorjdi* 
This line is one of the few now in existence on wtid 
intoxicating liqnors arc not sold. 


Britannia, Watsmn^ 




Onrtaftooa. Italian gua-boat. (Venice. r8S/.) 

Length I77it. Beam 32 ft. Maximum draught 1311. 

DispUcement 1. 200 tons. Complement iti. 


4 — 32 in. 
3^1 "4 in. 

Hp. t.iou=i2 kls. Coal maximum 300 toii^. 
(If no figliting value. '.> 

Curtis, Sir Roger {1746-1816). English adtmroi 
(b. Downtoa. WUte). Was flag-captain to Lord 
Howe in Xortb Amenca ; as commander of the 
Briiliant was present during the fiiege of Gibraltar, 
1782. and tx>mmaade<l the ^faval Brigade; in ij'yi '. 
was appointed Lord Howe's Captain o( the Fleet, 
and was present at the action ol " The Glorious 
First of June." I7<H. For scr\'icfs rendered he 
was promoted vice-adniirul and created a baronL't. 
In 1803 he was (nade admiral, and five years later 
Comnumder-in-Chict at Portsmouth. 

Cortis Tarbine. See Turbines. 

Coreon-Howe, Vice-Admiral Honourable Assheton 

Oore (b. 1S50). Entert-d Navy, 1S63 ; liuutonaut, 
tS/3 : Arbt lii-utcnant of Bacchante during her 
voyage with the Princes in 1879-80; flag-captain 
of Boaduea ; as chief of the staJl served in Cfac 
Naval Brigade, landed under the command of 
Vice-Admiral Hon. Sir E. R. Fremantle, K.C.B.. 
CM.G., Commander-in-Chief on the Kast India 
Station, few the punitive expedition against the 
Saltan ol Vitu, m East Africa, October, 1S90; 
mentioned in despatches ; C.B. for this service 
«;general African me-dal, Vitu [tScjo) clasp) ; Assist- 
ttt-Director of Naval Intelligence, 1891-92 ; cap- 
lain of CUopaira. 1894 ; landed a party of seamen 
ud marines lor the protection of the mbabitants 
of Bloefielda, Nicaragua, and it is ackuowledgcU 
liut his prompt action on this occasion prevented 
>B outbreak of dvU war in Nicaragua; C.M.G., 
i&9(j, lor services rendered while engaged in ttie 
protection of the Newfoundland Fisheries; j\.D.C. 
lo the Queen, 1899 ; second -Ui -command Ctiaunel 
Squadron. 11/02; C.V.O.. 1902; second -in •command 
Qiina Station^ 190J. 

Ottihinc. l^S. torpedo-bout (1890). Displace- 
ment. 105 tonji ; guns, j i-pdr. ; torpedo tubes, 
3 iV-in. : maximum speed, 23 kts, 

Oaitane<, Tic«-Admiral Sir Beginald Neville 
fb. 1847). Eutcitd Navy, iBOu ; sk;r\L'd wilU Naval 
Brigade of Euryatm at the storming of Kah-ding, 
1862 : in the same ship at the actions ol Kagosima, 
1863. and Shimonoseki, 1864; lieutenant, 1868; 
Royal Hoxnaoe Society's silver modal, 186S, fur 
t fiunptng overboard and assisting to support Gunner 
I W. Foster, K.M.A., who had fallen into the water 
ila.moaxe. until a boat arrived ; captain, 1885 : 
Ktant' Director of Naval Inlvlligence Depart- 
At. 1887-90; Naval Attacb6 to .\merica, 1895; 
„O.C, to the Queen, 1897 ; rear-admiral, 1899 ; 

C.M.G., 1900. fbi' seiidces In Crete : Director kif 
Na\'ai Intelligence, 1890 ; second in-cominand 
Mediterranean fleet, I902 ; C.V.O. on the occasion 
of the visit of H.M. Kmg Edward VII. to Malta. 
1903 : vice-admiral. 1904. 

Ctulomary Average Clauses. See Clauses. 

Ciutom ot Lloyd's. In mannc insurance where, 
points of law are doubtful or not defined ttio estab- 
lished custom usually followed is accepted, and 
called the custom of Lloyd's. To entitle a particular 
trade custom to judicial sanction, it muiit be shown 
to be reasonable, general, and notorious in the 
branch of trade to which it appertains, and .one 
which is not at variance with the plain words of 
the contract If the custom conforms to these 
conditions, judicial cognisance will be tnken of it ; 
but if it does not conlorm to each and all of them 
it will be disapproved unless made a term of Uie 
contract by agrcwinent betwtL-n the parties. Opon 
satisfactory evidence o( assent by the parties, 
whether express ur iinplted, to a particular usage 
ot trade, the Court will construe the contract in 
accordance with su^li u^iagc, though it be at variance 
with U'gal principle ; but in the absence of proof of 
assent to the usage, the' coutruct will be inter- 
preted in strict accordance with the law. (Stephens 
V. Australaaiana Co.. LAl. Hep. v. 27. p. 585 ; 
Stewart v. West India and Pacific Co., L.R. Kep. 
v. 37, p. 833 ; Bartlelt v. Pcutland, 10 B. and 
Cr. 760 ; UcArthur on the Contract of Marine 
Insurance, p. 53.) 

Castom ol the sea. S^e Naval Ceremonies. 
Castoms. See Duty. 

Ciutoau Union, A, is the combination of different 
countries or rfialcs, each previously possessing a 
separate tariif system, into one area, with a common 
tariff and free trade iuier se. 

Such union, called a "Zollveroin, "after theaaniv 
given to the German Custom Union founded In 
1828, has been proposed for the several parts of 
the British Empire, and for the States of North 
and South America. .\ customs union between the 
Free State, Cape Colony, Basutoland, and tlic 
Bechuan.iland Protectorate was agrci,!<l upon in 
1896, but perhaps the most notable example of a 
modern Zollvercin is afforded by the Common- 
wealth of Australia (lyoi). 

Cut and run. To cut the cable and move off 


Cutlas. A sabre which is slightly curved. The 

name applied to tbe smalt -htindk-d swords supplird 
to the Navy ; has a llj.t, vaults, .^lightly curved 
blade, and is belter adapted for cutting tlian 

Oatter. Small, hingk-masted. sbatp-buiU. broad 
vessel carrying lore and aft mainsail. gaH topsail, 
stoy fi.<resaU, and )ib. 




CatUefista. U.S. submarine. (Quincy, 1906.) 

Cut water. The fornnoat part of a vessel *s 

C.Y. Distinguish ing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Cutlebay, Borra. Scotland. 

Cyclone. An area of relatively low barometric 
pressure, decreasing towards Ihc centre, In which 
the wind blows !tpirally inwards, and in the northern 
llenmphere in the* opposite direction to thv move- 
ment or the liands of a watch. The name is 
usually applied to tropical revolving Rtorms. 

Oyidone. French torpedo-boat ( 1(198). Displace- 
ment, 140 ions : complement. 34 : maximum 
draught, 7} it. : gims, a J-pdr. : torpedo tal>es, 
2 i5-in. : twin screw; Hp,. ,1,200=31 kLs. ; cnai, 
tc tons. 

Gydoop. Nctherlantlit gun-boat. Tndian Navy 
(1893), Displacement, 438 tons. 

Qrolope. Italian gim-boat. (Naples, 1903-) I^s- 
placrmtiit 8ji tons; Hp., 3,500315 kta. 

CyRUVt. British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Chis- 
wiiJt. iSi^S.} l.(:ngth. 210 ft. ; beam, 19 ft. ; 
draught, 7 ft.; displacement, 285 tons; comple- 
ment, 60 ; armament. 1 i3-pdr.. 5 6-pdr.. : tuU-s ; 
twin 9crcw ; >^., 5,8oqb30 kts. ; coal. 80 tons. 

OymrlO <iS99). Bnlish Kub!tidi.sed merchant 
ship. White Star Line (f .r.). Dimensions, 58s x 
64 >< 37 It- ; gross tonnage, 1 3.096 ; pasisenger 
accommodation. 1,420; Hp., 7,300=1$ kts. 

Ojmthia. torpedo-boat destroyer. {Chis- 
wick, 1898.) Length, sio ft. ; beam, 19 tt. ; 
draught. 7 It. : displacement. 285 tons ; comple- 
ment. 60 : armament. 1 i2-pdr., $ 6-pdr.. 2 tubes ; 
twin screw ; Hp.. 5.800-30 kt9. ; coal, 80 tons. 

Oyprien Fabre and Co. Set Fabre Line. 

0^ Distingui!>hing lettcn on sea fishing boats 
registered at Cadsand, HoHard. 

Ont. Steamer. Wrecked oS the Lizard. Janu- 
ary 23, 1859 : 14 hvea lost. 

D. Distinguishing letter on sea fishing boots 
reffistcied at Dublin, Ireland. 

D, Distinguishmg letter on sea fishing boats 
r^tetercd at Dunkirk, France 

d. Dark. Abbreviation adopted on tbe charts 
i.uued by the llydrographic Oflice. Admiralty, 
denoting Uie quality of the ocean's bottom. 

OJL DistingnisJung letters on sea 6sbing boats 
rei ftt CTed at Droglieda, Ireland 

Dabchlck. A small diving binL 

Daooa. British India Steam Navigation CO-'s 

steamer. Wcut o«i a reef of rocks aboat 400 miles 
frum Suez, and bocanie a total wreck. Passengers, 
mostly emigrants, .savr<l by the steamer Hotaria, 
.May 16. 1S90. 

Daedalot. Drill-ship for RA)-al Naval Reserve. 

Dago. In sea slang the name fior anyono ol 
Spanish, Portuguese, or Italian descent. 

Dague. French torpedo gun -boat (Havre, r88s4 
Length, 196 It. : beam, si ft. ; draught, 6 It. { 
di^ilacemrnl. 41.1 tons: comploineot. 63; guns. 
4 8'i-in., 3 Maxims; torpedo tubas, 2 ; lip.. : ^kxi 
= 18 kts. ; coat maximum. 100 tons. 

Dababiyeh. A boat u-sed on the Nile fur pas- 
senger tnitlic. ii-iiially tu-o-irasteil. with trisiitjniMr 

DahlgTMO. U.S. toqiedo-boot (1898). Dis- 
placement, 147 tons ; guns, 3 i-pdr. ; torpedo 
tubes. 3 18-in. ; maximum speed, 2^ kts. 

Dally Freight Register. EstnbUshed 189^ Pub- 
lished nioiiiinj'. Price 421. per annum ; country. 
631. Address : 1 1 Tokenhouse Yard. London, £.C. 

Dally Shipping Regiatar. I^stablivhed 1877. Pub 
lislitKl moruing. Pi ice id. Addn-ss : Swansea. 

Dakota. Great Northern Steamship Co-'s .\men- 
can mail and passenger steamer. Went ashore oH 
Nagami. JajNiu, February. 1907, and became a 
total wreck. No lives lost. The Dakota and her 
cargo represented a loss to I-,ondon undcrvrritcra of 

Dale, Admiral Alfred Taylor (b. 1840). Entered 
Navy, 1S54; strvvd as mid. on Commandcr-in- 
Chiei's staff at the capture of Peiho. 1858 (China 
medal. Taku clasp) ; Ueutenant, i860 ; com- 
mander, 1870 ; captain, 1876 ; A.D.C. to the Qnnai, 
1889-91 ; rear-adniirul, [Sgi ; privatr secirtary to 
the First Lord of the Admiralty. 11*89-93 ; com- 
manded " D " flwt on the Blue side under Rear- 
.Vimiral Fitiroy at naval manoeuvres, 1893; Kcar- 
Admiral Second-in-Command, Channel Squadron, 
1894; commanded "B" fleet on tlic Ked aide 
under Vice-Adniiral Fitxroy at the naval mantsn- 
vres, 1894 ; vice-admiral, 1897 ; admiral, lyoj ; 
retired, 1905. 

Dais. L'.S. torpedo-boat d(*stroyer (1900). Dts- 
placenieot, 420 tons ; complement, 64 ; guns, 
2 I4pdr.. n Opdr. ; torpedo tubes. 3 18-ia.. amiit- 
ships and alt ; lip.. kts, ; coal, 139 tons. 

Daltaoliiift. On October 19. 18;}, tfiis 
fouiKlen:<l off Beachy Head, when the ta 
liaasengcrs. and crew perished. The cargo »o> 
worth ^Too.oon. 

Dalfaousie. Screw steamer. Lust otUie mouth ol 
the Tay, NovemUdr 24, i8C^ ; 34 Uves kMt. 





Dalmnple. Alttxiadar (1737-1808^ First hydro- 

Iffrapher to the Bntish Admiralty (b. New Hailos, 
Edinburgh). Devoted hi5 lile to geographical and 
hydrographical studios, and published, in addition 
to many pamphlets an account ol " Discoveries in 
the South Pacific Ocean Bclorc ij6^" 

OftDUIgs* "^^^ AdmiralLy Court has always juris- 
diction over torts cominitled by Britislk subjects 
on the high sea.i. 

By the Admiralty Courts Acts. 1840 and 1861. 

the liigh Court ol Admiralty has jurisdiction to 

decide all claims in the nature of damage received 

by any Khip, or done by any ship. The juriftdic- 

tion. under the Act of r86i, hat* been held to apply 

to cases ol collision between two British vesseL i in 

loreign inland waters (the Diana. Lush. . 5 39) , 

and to foreign ships in foreign waters (the Courier, 

Lush,, 541). and to every kind ol injury to person 

or property caused by a ship {the Sylph. 3 Asp. 37), 

and to all injury to a ship caused by persons or 

property (the Ztta, 1893. App. Cos. 4.. 468). But 

It has been held thB.t tbe Admiralty Court has no 

jurisdiction over claims by tliird parties for damages 

for loss of Ufe under Lord Campbell's Act in an 

action in tern, (tlie Vera Cna. 1868, 10 App. 

Cas. $•)). By section 6 of the same Act tbe High 

Court of Admiralty lias juhsdictioa over any claim 

by the owner or consignee, or assignee ol any bill 

of lading of any goods carried into any port of 

£ngland or Wales in any ship fpr damage done to 

the goods or any part thereof by ihc negligence or 

miscoaduct of, oc foe breach of duty, or breach of 

contiact. on the part of the owner, master, or crew 

of the ship, unless it can be shown that at the time 

of tbe institution of the cause any owner or part 

owner of the ship is domiciled in England or Wales. 

Kcfer to Accident, Limitation of Liability, ColUsion 

at Sea. Apportionment. .\dmiraUy, High Court of. 

Maritime Lien, Affreightment. 

Dampbcbiffs Rhederei ** Union," with their head 
ofTiCf m Hamburg, have a tlei-t of 12 steameni 
carrying cargo to %-arious partt of the world. A 
special service is maintained at scheduled times 
irom New York for Peraambuco, Babia, Rio dc 
Janeiro, Santos, and vica versa, lour steamers being 
eatclusively employed on tUu run. 
AU>aru>. (Anther. SsigMun^. 

A Ibtnga. Gutitrune. Siegtintte. 

Barcelona. Fallania. Syracusa. 

tifunhildt. Pisa. Verona. 

Crom tonnage, 37.000. 

Winiam (1652-1713). English navi- 
stor (b. East Cokt-r. Somersetsture). He served 
lin 167} in the Dutch war under Sir Edward Sprftgge, 
land was present at two engagemeuis. In 1679 he 
L^uied a party of buccaneers, with whom he croescd 
|tbe Isthmus ol Darien. They spent the following 
lyew on the Pia-uvian coast, where they captured 

several veeseb in the Pacific Ocean, and conducted 
a pimtical war against the Spaniartls. In 169S he 
explored the coast of .Australia, and was wrecked 
on the Island of Ascension on his way home. He 
then joined Woodcs Itnger's iirivatrering rxprdi- 
tion, for which he actixl :Vf {lilot, and on this voyage 
rescued Alexander Selkirk. Ilia works arc well 
known, and have frequently bwn rcprinK-d. They 
consist of " A Voyage Round the World," 3 vols., 
1697: reprinted, 1893: "Two Voyages to Cam- 
peachy," 1699 ; " A Voyage to New Holland," 
1709. See \V, C. RuMell's " Dampier," I8S.>. 

Dan. Abbreviation for Danish. 

Dana, Bichard Henry (1815-^2). American 

autlior. Was an authority in the department of 
Maritime Law. and in 1841 wrote " The Seamen's 
Friend." He also published in 1840 an account of 
his own sailor life, " Two Years Before the Mast." 
which attained great popularity. 

Dandolo. Old Italian battleship (1878). 
Length 341ft. Beam 65ft. Ailaximum draught 30ft, 
Displacement 12,265 tons. Complement 506. 
Guns. A rmour. 

4—10 in. " Steel." 

7—6 in. 2 1 in. Belt amidships. 

5 — 4'7 in. 17 in. Redoubt. 

16—6 pdr. 10 in. Turrets, 

8—1 pdr. 
4 Machine. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
4 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. natural 7.500=15 kts. Coal 
maximum tons. Appro-ximate cost ^860,000. 

Dandy. A small cutter or sloop with jigger- 
mast abaft, carrying mlzxen lug-sail. 

Dangerous goods. The expression " dangerous 
goods " includes aquafortis, vitriol, naphtha, 
benzine, gunpowder, lucifer matches, nitro-glyccrine, 
petroleum, explosives, and any other goods of a 
dangerous nature. (Merchant Shipping Act, 1894 
section 446.) 

(t) No person shall send or carry on any ship, 
British or foreign, any dangerous goods, without 
marking their nature outside each package, and 
giving notice in writing of the same, together with 
the name and address of the Minder, to Uid master 
or owner on shipment, tinder a penalty of j^ioo for 
each oflencc. 

(a) For knowingly sending or carrying such goods 
under a false description a person is liabte to a fine 
ol £500. 

(3) The master may refuw to carry, or demand 
to have opened, any package he suspects toc<Hitain 
dangerous goods. 

(4) The master may throw overboard any goods 
lie considera dangeroos if unmarked, or ol which he 
has had no notice ; and neither he nor his owner 
shall be subject to any liability, criminal or civil, 
for so throwing goods overboard. 




(5) Any Court having Admiralty jimsdktioa may 
declare forfeited any dangerous goods sent or 
carried without proper notice liaviug been given, or 
tiiitnarlicd , or uuOcr a false drifCTiptiun. 

(6) N'o emigrant &Iup sliall carry dangerous goods 
U cargo. 

Daniel Stcinman. Wliite Cross steamer. Struck 
on tlic rodcs ofl Sambro'. Nova Sootia, April 3, 
]{jii4 ; 1 30 lives lost. 

Dftoiurk. Danish emigrant ship. Sunk in the 
Atlantic, about 800 miles from Kewfoundland . 
April 6, 1869. Captain Murrel, oi the Atlantic 
Transport liner Missouri, and his crew rescued all 
on board. At the Mansion House on May 24, 1689. 
Captain Murrel, in the presence ol u distinguished 
company, received from ttie Lord Mayor a silver 
salver with an inscription and a purse ol £500 Irom 
the citizens of London. The ofhcers and crew also 
received testimonials. 

Dannebrog StQamstup Co., Copenhagen, owned 
and managed by C. K. Hansen, have a fleet of 13 
modern cargo steamers engaged in cargo trade in 
the Nurtli Sea, am) vhtious parts of the world, as 
inducement ofien. 

Amalisnborg. Kronborg. 

Bralhingsborg. Rosenborg. 

J-'lyrtdeftorg. Skandtrborf. 

Ftedemhorg. Sohorg. 

FredetiMsbvrg, Utegelborg. 

Icnisborg. Stjcmeborg. 


Dantoa. French 1st class battleship. Laid 
down, L'Orient, 1906. 

Length 475(t. Beam 84ft. Maximum draught 2j^ii. 
Displacement 18.006 tons. Complement 680. 
Guns. Armour. 

4 — 12 in. " KrupiJ." 

i2^y"4 in. 10 in. Belt amidships, 

10^12 pdr. 13 in. Turrets. 

8— 3 pdr. ] 3 in. Conning tower. 

Torptdo Tubes (18 in.). 

2 Submerged. 

3 Above water. 

Three screws. Hp. 22,500= 19 hts. Coal inaxi 
mum 2.010 tons. Approximate cost j£l.6oo,ouo. 

Dantzig, German armoured oaiser. (Danzig 
Dockyard, )9t>s.) 

Length 34111. Beam 4olt. Draught i6^it. 
Displacement 3,300 tons. Complement 280, 
Guns. Attnour. 

10 — 41 in. '* Krupp." 

icv— r4 in. 2 in. Deck. 

4 Maxims. 4 m. Conning tower. 

Torptdo Tubes. 
a Sabincrgcd. 
Twiascrew. Hp. ]i,oo0Ai3kts. Coalfiuotons. 

Oanobe (<S93). Brittsb sabsidisod xnefcbant 

ship. Royal Mail Steam Packet Co. iq.v.). Dimen- 
sions, 430x52x33^ ft.; gross tonnage, j.S^i: 
passenger accommodation. 655 : Hp.. 6.650s 

t; kt*!. 

Danube Craft Ctousc. Sm Sulina Claasc. 

Danube Navigation Commisiion was oonsbtntel 
in i8s6 when, by the Peace of Paris, the navigation 
of Uie river was declared free to all nations. Ongai- 
ally it was an express condition that it shouW 
dissolve in 1858, but by various conferences it has 
been continued, and still continnes to exist. It 
exercises sovereign powers o^-cr the mouth of thf 
Danube, where it has conducted cngint-cring work* 
Tl possesses its own f!»g. iiinfonii. and police, and is 
empowered to raise loans and make its own laws 
Its jurisdiction extends as (ax as the Iron Gate. 

Daphne. Coasting steamer. Turned turtle in tbe 
Clyde, July 3, 1883 ; 124 lives lost. 

Dard. French torpedo-boat destroyer. (Nor 
maiid, 1902.) Length. 180 It.; beam, 21 ft, 
maximum draught, to ft. ; displacement, joo tons: 
complement, 45 ; guns, t y-pdr.. 6 3-pdr. ; torpeiki 
tubes, 2 15-in. ; speed, 27-30 kts. 

Daidanellfis or Hellespont, or Straiu of GeIlipol>. 
is that long strait about 45 miles in length, and 
varying from one to five miles in width, bctwem 
Europe and .\sia, connecting the ^geau Sea with 
tlie Sea of Marmora. It is Of great strategic tin- 
portance. as it commands the entrance to Constanti- 
nople from the Mediterranean. It is stronglj 
fortified on both sides, and the channel is i«i>- 
tccted by torpedoes. During the Kusso-Japaotie 
war, two vessels of the Russian Volunteer Fleet 
passed through the Dardanelles under a commeroil 
fiag. July 4 to 6, 1904. These vessels were peaDj 
fast cruisers, and intended to interfere with shippiflg 
and ill fact in the Red Sea stopped a number ^ 
Bntiiih and Gcmiaa ships. Eventually, ou receipt 
of instnictions Irom die Czar, delivered to them l.t 
British cruisers near Zanzibar, tfa«y ceaaed opcrs^ 

Dardanelles, Battle of the. On Fc-bniarf t^ 
1807, Admiral Sir John Durkworth. with a BIltlJ^ 
squadron, forced his way through to ConstaiiU 
nople. and relumed on March 3, when great dasaicc 
was done to the British ships, the castles ol 
Sestos and Abydos hurling down stone shot apov 
the vessel. 

Dardo. Italian torpedo-boat destroyer. (Sdu 
chau. I goo.) Displacement, 320 tons; majanmin 
draught, 8| ft. ; ymiamunt, i 1 3-pdr. ; 5 <t-y^. . 
tubes, 2 i8-in. ; Hp., 6.000=30 kts. ; coal. So ta& 

Dating. British torpedo-boat destroyer. [Ctta- 
wick, 1893.) Length, 185 ft.; beam. 19 tt. 
draught, 7 It. : di.splacement, a^y tons ; compk- 
raent.4S : armament. 1 12-pdr., 36-pdr., 3 tub« 
twin screw ; Hp., 4.300 = 27 kts. ; coal, 50 tons. 




Dui. ScKVr survey inK vessel (1882). Dia- 
pUcement 470 tons ; speed (about), 8 kts. ; lent to 
the N.S.W. Government for surveying purposes. 

Dirtmonth. Lord Oeorre teggt (i6i7-^t). 

English ndmiral. Ser\-eti witli dislinction (hiring 
Dntch war. Was appointed in ifiSS Admiral of the 
PT*«t by James H.. and sent to intercept the 
Pnnc« of Orange. He died a prisoner in the Tower 
of London. 

DmrtmoQth CoUeRe. Su Naval EstabliKlimenti;. 

Dart Sailing Clab. Dartmouth. Established iqoo. 
Burgve : Red. blue dart pointing to mnst. Enaign, 
red. Commodore. A. H. Bridson ; Virx--Commo- 
dore. F. L.. Carslaki- ; Rear-Commodorr. A. F. G. 
Brown ; Honorary Trfa.«inrtT. W. Pollard ; Honor- 
ary Secrelarj*. F. L. Hockin. Entrance fee. i<w. 6rf. 

, Annual subscription, soiling members, los. 6d. : and 

' noa-satling members. 5s. 

X>vt Tacht Club. Royal. See Koyal Dart Yacht 

Sllhsr. British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Pop- 
lAT. 1895.) Length 190 ft. ; beam, iS ft. ; draught, 
& It. : displacement. 350 tons ; complc^mcnt, 45 : 
unameut. i is-pdr., 5 6-j)dr.. 2 tubes ; twin 
i<^n^; Hp., 3,180=36 kts. ; Doal, 60 tons. 

D'Auu. French 2nd class cruiser. (St. Na- 
mre. 1896.) • i 

l^njjth 32fift. Ream4Sft. Maximum draught 33ft, 
l>isplacement 4,000 tons. Complement 393. 
GuMS- Atmour. 

C — 6"4 in. J in. Deck. 

4 — ^4 in. 2 in. Sponsons. 

4— .1 pdr. 
II — I pdr. 

Tntpf4o Tubei. 
z Abo\'e water. 
Twin screw. Hp. 9,500=19 kls. Coal maxi- 
Binm '^ij4 Ions. Approximate cost {joo.ootj. 

Daapbin. Knsncb torpedo-boat (iSs>9)- Dis- 
E>Uccment. 120; complement, 54; maximum 
<I>aught, y^ fl. . guns. 3 J-pdr. ; torpedo tubt-3. 
1 i$-tn. ; twin screw ; Hp., 3,000=16 lets. ; coal, 
)6 tons. 

Oaria, Jamei (b. DnmU-irtonshirc, July 17, 1843). 

&«nr«d bis apprenticeship in Glasgow with Messrs. 

^Lkxander CiiapUn and Co.. his shipbuilding 

npeneace being mostly connncd to the design and 

coutrnction of light draught boats. He made a 

fecial study of heal as applied to the steam engine, 

■ad has fijBt paper on this subject was read before 

Ur Junior Section of the In<ititution of Engineers 

ad ShipbuildcRi of Scotland in 1876, About the 

froT t877 he introduced the livc-stcAm-surface- 

bsatcr (for heating the feed-water before entering 

boders). which is now considered a necessary 

to htgb-pressnra steam boilers ; but 

engineers were 90 sceptical as to its utility that the 
inv«ntor undertook to fit two Atlantic liners with 
his apparatus, which, after being subjected to a 
severe test, proved the system a complete success. 
He is senior partner ol tiic firm of Davie and Horno, 
Eugine(;r<s, Julinstonc, Scotland, whose principal 
work is the manufacture of the " Davie " patented 
specialities lo evaporators, heaters, Alters, pumps, 

Member of the Institution of Engineers and 
Shipbuilders of Scotland. 

Davis. U.S. torpedoboat (189S). Displace- 
ment, 110 tons; guns. 3 i-pdr. ; torpedo Cubes, 3 
i8-in. : maximum speed. 33 kts. 

Davis, Tioe-Admiral Edward Henry MeggB (b. 

1846). Entered Navy. ifi6o ; lieutenant 1870 ; 
tirst lieutenant Active, served on shore with Naval 
Brigade at Cupe of Good Hope during Kaf&r war, 
1877-78 ; specially promoted for services rendered : 
commander in transport service at Natal during 
Zulu war. 1S79 {Zulu medal and three clasps) ; 
captain of the Royaliit, lioisled the British flag on 
1 3 islands of the Gilbert group, 1893 : C.M.G. lor 
services connected with islands in the Western 
Pacific. 1894 : rear-admiral. 1901 ; vice-admiraJ, 

Davis, John (is;o-t6o;). Xlclebrated English 
navigator (b. Sandridge). He made three voyagas 
for the British Government in search of the North- 
west Pass.agc to the Pacific. In the first he pushed 
his way round the southern end of Greenland, 
across the strait that bears h'L<) name, and along the 
coast of BafHn'a Bay to the Cape of God's Mercy, 
which he thus namfd. believing tliat hLs was 
accomplished. In the second (is85} he made httic 
further progres.^. In the third (1587) ho reached 
the eatrancc ol the strait subsequently explored by 
Hudson. In 1591 he joined Cavendish in his 
.second voyage to the South Sea, and after the rest of 
tbe expediciou retamed, unsuccessful, he con- 
tinued to attempt, on his own account, tlie passage 
of the Strait of Magellan ; this he did not accom- 
plish, but became the discoverer of the Falkland 
r.slands. In 159? he piloted a large Dutch mer- 
chant fleet from Midtldburg in Holland to the East 
Indies. Three years later he accompanied Sir James 
Lancaster, as first pilot, on his voyage in the service 
of the India Company, and in 1605 he .sailed 
again for the same destination witli Miclielbourn 
in the Tiger. On his way home he was murdered by 
J.-tpanesc pirates of? the OKfit of Malacca. I-Ie 
published " The World's Hydrographical Descrip- 
ttoo, whereby it appears that there is a short and 
speedy passage into the Soutli Seas to China by 
northerly navigation" (Ijjndon. IS95) ; "The 
Seamen's Secret " (1594) ; and invented the Back- 
staff, or Davis Quadrant. See Markham's " Joba 
Davis " [18S9). Refer to Arctic EKploratioo. • 1 




DaVbt W. T. (b. Dcvonport. May si. tS6j). 
British naval architect, Serveil apprenticeship at 
Portsmoutb Dockyard, and in 1887 passed ttrst at 
the examination for cT>try at the Royal Naval 
CoUfge, Greenwich. After completing the course, 
and successfully passing Ihe ncceRsary rxa mi nations, 
he. in l8go, was appointed Assistant Constructor at 
Portsmouth Dockyard, where lie served until 1903, 
and was then promoted to C<mstnictOT, and joined 
the Admiral ly Constructive Staff. 

Darit, A derrick of wood or iron, with sheaves 
or blocks at its end, projecting over vessel's aide ior 
hoisting or suspending ship's boaL 

Davo&t, French 3rd class cruiser. (Toulon. 

Length 38911. Beam 40(1. Maximum draught aift. 
Displacement 3,037 tons. Complement 336. 
CuHS. A rmour. 

6 — 6'4 in. 3| in. Deck. 

4 — 9 pdr. 1^ in. Conning lower. 

8—3 pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes. 

4 Above water. 

Twill screw. Hp. 9,ooo=3o"5 kts. 

Approximate cost j^333,ooo. 

Davy Jonen. The spirit of the sea. 

Davy Jones's Locker. The ocean : the common 
receptacle for all things thrown overboard ; it 1.1 
a phrase for death or Ihe other world, when speaking 
of a person who ha-t I>ecn buried at sea. 

Say and night treezes is the najtic applied to the 
diurnal variations in tlie direction and velocity of 
the wind. Over the ocean the period i.s but feebly 
marked ; on land, how-ever, the winds are distinctly 
stronger about noon than at night. 

Day degree. The accumulated temperature is 
expressed in " Day Degrees " — a day degree signi- 
fying l" of excess or defect of temperature abo\x 
or below 4J". continued ica 34 hours, or any other 
number of degrees for an inversely proportional 
number of hours. 

Days of grace. Days allowed by law or ciistom 
for payment of Bills of Exchange (except those 
payable at sight or on demand} after specified day 
of payment, thus when three days are allowed, as 
usual in England, a bill due on the fifth of the month 
is payable on the eighth. 

D.D. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Dordrecht, HoUand. 

D^D. Days after date. 

D.E. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Dundee, Scotland. 

Deaden her way. To retard progress. 

Dead-eye. A round, flattish wooden block with 
three holes without sheaves. 

Dmd frvlgbt ia the compensation paid to a ship- 
owner for failure to idiip a full cargo. Hefrr to 


Deadman. Henry Edward. C.B., cr. 1904 (b. 

March 7, :84.?). British naval architect. Served 
his apprenticeship at the Royal Dockyards of 
Deptfnrd and Chatham, and in 1S64 gained an 
Admiralty scholarship at the Royal C^^Uege ot 
Na\-al .•\rchitecture. and the diploma of Fellow ot 
the School in t367 ; since that time has been 
wholly employed in the Admiralty «cr\-ice ; Con- 
structor in Bombay Dockyard. iSSO'tij ; Con- 
structor at Chatliam. i88j-86 ; Chief Constructor 
of Portsmouth. 1886-93 ; Chief Constructor at 
.\dnuralt>'. 1892-1902 ; Assistant-Director of N'aval 
Construction on Admiralt)*, 1903. 

Deal Castle. 34 gunn, in October. 1780, this 
vessel was lost in a storm in the West Indies. 

Deane, Charles George (b. London. 1869). Served 
apprcnticusliip with thi; Thames Iron Works and 
Shipbuilding Co.. Blackwall. In 1891 wa^ ap- 
pointed as assistant naval architect to tbc P. and 
O. Co.. and spent eight years supervising the com- 
pletion of the company's shipft. In 1903 he was 
promoted naval architect, and has been associated 
with the designing of a number of the largest and 
finest ships of Ibis fleet. 

Member of the Institution of Naval Architects. 

Deane, Riobard {ifitQ-S3). British soldier sea- 
man. Held joint command in 1653 with Blake 
and Monck. and was killed at the first battle cB 
the North Foreland. Sea "Life." by J. B. Deaat 


Dease. Explorer. See Arctic Exploration. 

Death, Appearances indicating. There is 00 
breathing nor heart's action, ibc eytUds are gene- 
rally half closed, the pupils dilated, the ;a« 
clenched, the rmgers srmi-contracted. Within i 
varying period, usually not more than 13 hoo^ 
the body becomes rigid, owing to tlic developmot: 
of ngor-mortis. The blood grantatps to the most 
dependent parts, and develops di»co1oration of the 
skin, knou-n as pnst-mortem rigidity or poKi-morttm 

Deben Sailing Club, Woodbrid'ge. Was first e»to^ 
lished m 1S40 as the " Deben Vacht Cluh." and aet 
with great "succww for many years, the shlppini 
trade at Woodbridgc and general interest in 4t 
waters being tbt-n, hefore the days of railways, of 
a more robust nature tlian at ](rcscnt. Some tiar 
during the fifties the club fell through, hrt 
was restarted in 1864, but again succumbed. Ii 
1886 it wa,s again revived, under the present tiOe. 
for the purpose of encouraging Iioat-saiUng on fl» 
river Deben, and up to thu* time has provtfl joe- 
cessful. It may be mentioned that the Sym 
built for Mr. D. B. Gall in iS-i^ ffirst secretary* 
the club) by Gerrard. of Woodbridge, is still «flo«t 




her , jubilee having been celebrated at Harwich in 
1^3. She is still in the same fanuly, being now 
the property of Mr. AUred Gall. Burgee : Blue, 
white spot in centre. Coiuniodore, Walter Brooke ; 
Honorary Secretary and Treasurer, Frank Amer. 
Annual .-subscription, 5^. minimum. 

I Debeotnre. An instminent of the nature of a 
liill or bond, by which a debt is cinimable. May 
bear interest or confer some peculiar advantage. 
It is given al the Custom House lo claim a draw- 

Deoatnr. U.S. torpedo-boat destroyer (1900). 
L>i$plHCx-nient. 420 loiLs ; compluinuit. 64 ; guns, 
2 l4-p<]r,. 5 6-pdr, ; turjiedo tubes, 2 18-ia.. araid- 
aliipt and alt; Hp., 8,000=^29 kcs. ; coal, 139 Uma. 

IMddte. Frtmch gun-boat. (L'Orient. 1B99.) 
t-ength. tS4 it. ; lieam. 26 ft.; draught, ix ft. ; 
displacement. 631; tons; complement. 99; guns, 
2 3'9-in.. 4 a s-in., 4 r4-in. ; Hp., i,ooo>=l3 kts. ; 
coal, 100 tons. 

Dack. A floor in a ship above the bottom of the 
hold. Decks may nm from stem to stem, or be 
but partial. 

Dm& ouvo. If goods carried on deck are lost 
or damaged tli« shipowner la only liable under 
exprevs contract or universal custom of a trade. 
The master of any ship arhvinf? in the United 
Kingdom from abroad between the last day 01 
October and April 16 is Uahic to a fine of is lor 
■.very 100 cubic feet of wood goods carried to any 
uncovered space on deck, unlE-ss hu can sliow that 
his arrival in the United Kingdom between these 
dates was due to exceptionally severe or e:ccep- 
iionaJly unfavourable weather. No goods, luggage, 
or stores shall be carried on the upper or pas- 
jengCTs' declcs of an emigrant ship unless they are 
properly secured and do not interfere with the 
health or comfort of the j>as9engera. Jttftr to 
Jettison, Mercliant Shipping .\ct. 

Deck boose. Aay bcilt-up house of wood or 
iroa on the deck of a vessel. Those in the after 
part of the ship are termed after deck houses ; 
tbose in the lore part of the ship forward-deck 

Deck Load ClaaM. S*e Oau-ses. 

Declar&lioa ol Paris was a diplomatic instrument 
ai^ed by the rcpn::scnta lives ol all the Powers 
except the United States. Spain. Mexico, and 
Venezuela at the Congress of Paris, 1856. It was 
obligatory only for and between the Powers who 
Acceded to it, and bad the cficct of securing to 
iKilimlii a largrx carrying tratlmg in time of war. 
Tbe following measures were suU^Xtd : 

(I) Privateering is and rcmauis alxilishcd. 

(a) The neutral flag covers the goods of a bflli- 
gercoL (7 p-)- with the exccptioa of coatraband 
ol war. 

(3) Neutral goods, with tbe exception of con- 
traband of war {g.v.). are not liable to capture 
under a belligerent's flag. 

(4) Blockades (^.v.\ in order to be binding must 
be effective — i.e.. maintained by a force sutficienl 
leally to prevent access to the coast of a belligerent- 
la the Spanish- American war both sides declared 

thnr intention to adhere to the above rules (except 
Spain as regards privateering). 

Declinatloa compass. Sm Compass. 

DeolinatJoa neodle, or declinometer, is an tnstm- 
ment lor ri-^i^tt-ring the (iraount and variations of 
the magnetic declinations. The variation east is 
generally reckoned negntlvo. and west poeitivi'. 

Declination ot a celestiat object The distance 
north or soutli from the oquinoctud, and is measured 
by Uiat portion of celestial meridian which Is inter- 
cepted between centre' of object and e<iuinoctial. 

Deooy. British torpedo-boat dtstroyer. This 
vessel sunk after collision with the Arun off the 
SciTIy Isles on .\ugust 13. 1904, 

Dee. British toq>cdo-boat destroyer. (Palmer. 
(903.) Lengtlt. 225 ft. ; beam. 23 ft. : draught. 
10 ft. : displacement, 540 tons ; complement, 70 ; 
armament, i 12-pdr., 5 o-pdr., 2 tubes ; Hp., 
7,000-025 kts. ; coal, 12; tons. 

Deep. The estimated fathoms between the 
inarkH on the hand lead line. Re/er to Lead. 

Deep sea deposits. See Deposition. 

Deep sea exploratioiL. Sea Ocean. Abyssal 
Animals, Challenger Expedition. 

Dee Yacht Club, Royal. See Royal Dec Vacht 


Defence, British armoured cruiser. (Piembroke. 

Length 490ft. Beam ^^it. Mean draught 26ft. 
Displacement 14.600 tons. Complement 755. 
Guns. Armour. 

4— 9'2 in., 50 cal. " Krupp." 
to — 7'$ in. 6 in. Belt amidahlps. 

30 Small 6 in. Barbettes. 

7 in. Conning tower. 
Torpedo Tubes. ' 

5 Submerged. 
Hp. forced 27.000=23 kts. Coal mascimum 
2 ,000 tons. 

Delenoe. 74 guns. On December 24, 1811. this 
vessel, with tbe SI. Georff (gS guns) and the Hero, 
stranded on the coast of Jutland ; 3,ooq lives lost. 

Defiance. British torpedo schooUhip (5,370 tnns) 

Launched 1861. 

Deflaace. 64 guns. In October, 1 780. this 
vessel was lost in a storm in the West Indies. 




De EonwTt Admiral Sir Alfftfnoa Ftederiok Rons, 

K.C.B., cr, 1903 (b. 1S27). lintered Navy. 1S40 ; 
present in the opcraiions 00 the Syrian coast. 
1840 (Syiiaa and Turkish medals) ; was flag- 
lieutcnaiit to Sir George Seymour in the West 
Indies when in command of H.M.S. Brisk, cap- 
tured aitcr a hard chase the cttcbrated Spanish 
slaver ilanueta ; lieuicnant, 1846; commander, 
iS53 : captain, 1857 ; senior officer at Jamaica in 
tlie Wolvereve during the rebellion, iBOs. and le- 
ceived the thanks of the Governor and both Houses 
of Parliameot ; senior o&ccr on the lakes of Canada 
in the Aurora during the Kenuin disiurbances, 
1856-57 (Canada medal and cla^p) : cunimanded 
H.M. ships Deva^latjifH, Victor, Wvivercne, Aurora, 
and Abvukxr in the West Indies; rear-aiUiiiiul. 
1875; commanded the Brisk and Hector on the 
Cape of Good Hope and }lomc Stations ; Com- 
mander-in-Chief in the Pacific, 1876-7^ ; in the 
Shah with the Amethyst engaged for three hours 
the Peruvian rebel turret ship Huascar. May, 1S77, 
driving her under the shelter of the town of Ylo, 
when she ei^caped after dark, and surrendered next 
day with the Peruvian squadron. His action being 
questioned in Parliament. Sir J. Holker. Attorney- 
General, said : " JJuascat having committed acts 
which made her an enemy of Great Britain, De 
Horsey was justified in what he did." The Lord 
Commifisioneis of the Admiralty, in comiuunicating 
the decision of the law ofiicers. wrote : " My lords 
now desire me to convey to you their approval of 
your having put a stop to the lawless proceedings 
of the Huauat. Vice-admiral^ 1S79: admiral, 
1S85 ; senior ofiiccr in command of Oiannel 
Squadron, i88s : retired. 1892. 
Publication : " T<ule of the Road at Sea." 

Dejatelny. Russian torpedo-boat destroyer 
(1905). Length. 185 ft. ; beam. 21 ft, ; draught, 
7^ ft. ; displacement, 334 tons ; complement, 60 ; 
armament, i 12-pdr., 5 3-pdr.. 3 Maxims, j tubes ; 
twm screw; Hp., $,(ioo^st> kts. : coal maxunnm, 
100 tons. 

Delaware. Steamer. Wrecked oS ScUly Isles on 
December 30, 187 1, when only two out of 47 persons 
were saved. 

Delfin. Norwegian torpedo-boat. (Elbing, 1896.) 
Length, 128 ft.; beam, 16 it.; draught, 6$ ft.: 
di^accment, 84 tons ; armament, 2 14 q.f., 
3 tubes; Hp., 1,100=34 kts. 

Delfino. Italian submarine. (Speii&, IB94.) 
Length, 78 ft.; beam, 10 ft.; displacement, in 
tons; complement, 12; torpedo tubes, 2; Hp., 
150^^12 kts. above. 10 below. 

De Long. U.S. torpedo-boat (1900). Displacc- 
munt, 165 tuns: guns, 3 i-pdr. ; torpedo tubes, 
3 iS-in. ; maximum speed, 36 kts. 

De LOOK. Oeoffe Wadiliiffton (1844-81). Araeti- 
can Arctic explorer (b. New York). In 1875 ** 
sailed on the Junita, commanded by Captain 
Bratne, in search of the arctic cxpiaring stoaner 
Polaris, and was detailed to the commadd of the 
launch which was sent out by the Junita irnn 
Uporoivik. Greenland. In. 1879, m command ot 
the Jeanetie, he set sail from San Francisco for 
Siberian Straits, the cxpcilition being fitti-d. out by 
Thomas Gordon Bennett. On September 5. iSfq. 
the vessel 'A'as enclosed in the ice-pack, and after 
a long drift was finally crushed by the ice on 
June 12. 1881, in 77* 15' N. latitude, 155* E. 
longitude. The members of the expedition jour- 
neyed by sledge and boat isu miles to the New 
Sit>erian Islands, during which most of then 
perished, L>e I-ong among the number. The 
journal, tn which he made regular entries up to the 
day of his death, ha.s been edited by his wife, and 
published under the title " Voj-age of the Jeanetk," 
Hefer to Arctic Exploration. 

Dtmocratle. French ist class battleship. (Brwi, 


Ixngth .152ft. Beam 79ft. Maximum draught ijit 
Diir^jlacemcnt 14,865 tons. Complement 793. 
Guns. Armour. 

4— ij in., 50 cal. " Krupp." 
10 — ; 6 in. II in. Belt amidabipa. 

8 — 4 in. 1 3 ia. Main turrets. 

24—3 pdr- '3 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes (1904). 
3 ^submerged. 
3 .\bove water. 
Three screws. Hp.^iS kts. CoaJ maxi- 
mum 1,830 tons, .Approximate cost ^i,435,ooa 

Oemorrage is the sum paid to the shipowner b; 
Uie uhartercT fur each day taken in loading or di^ 
charging the ship beyond tlie lay days or agreed 
tin:c. It IS usually stipulated iu charter-paitiia 
that the charterer may, by paying a certain sua 
per diem for overtime, detain the veasel for a 
specified time, or for as long as be pleases after thr 
expiration of the lay days. 

M'hen the demurrage days are limited by sped*' 
contract the sum due for delenliou of vessel beyoiHl 
them will be taken as the measure of loss for tfaf 
furtliLT time in the form of damages. Demuria^r 
cannot be claimed lor detention by a public eAontf 
or for delay caused by the shipowners or theff 
servants. All ordinary causes of detention, sv3k 
as the orders of a harbour master, are at tbt 
cliarterer's nsk, and he must pay demurrage even 
though the delay were inevitable. Claim for de- 
murrage ceases as soon as the ship 13 cleared odI 
and ready for sailing, though unable to proceed od 
account of heavy weather, 

Denish State Bailways have a fleet of 3 1 moden 
steamers, wluch maintain services ia conjuncuoo 




with this railway and also to ports in various parts 
of Denmark and the \nctntty. 

Ahxandra. Mati». 

Palmar. Masnedsurid. 

Dannstk^old. M joiner. 

Fredencia. Nyborg. 

FtBjn. Ogir, 

Fym, Pfins Christian. 

tffisingborf^. ' Prinsesst Ahxandrine. 

Hjalmar. Sjaiiatid, 

Inijfborg. Skimgr, 

J yila ltd. Sta ikodder. 

KjobtnhiKe*. Stanhalk. 

Korsor. Strib. 

Kronprinsesu Lotti<g. Thor. 

Kronprins Frtdenh. Tkyra. 

Lattbaik. Tyr. 

GroM tonnage. 19.45a 

Denny. AKfailmU (b, Dumbarton, Feliruary 7. 
1S60). Served his apprenticeship with Messrs. 
WiUiam Denny and Brothers. Dumbarton, and 
studied at the Rov-al Naval College. Greenwich, for 
three yean . u-tsumcd (>ait:icr in Messrs. Wiiliiuu 
Denny and Brothers in 1883, from which time he, 
has taken a leading part in the design of all vessels 
built by that firm ; one of the founders of the 
Brittah Corporation for the Survey and Registry 
oC Shipping ; chairman of the Technica] Com- 
milti-e, and rri^ponsiblc for tlic rules since 1892 ; 
a member of the Committee on Freeboard, which 
sat in the year 1S98 ; a member of the committee 
upon the design and construction ol torpedo-boats 
fthe Cobra Committee), 1892-94: past -president of 
the Insdtntion of Enginc-crs and Shipbtiildcrs in 
Scotland : past-president of the Junior Engineers. 
London ; member of council of the Institution of 
Naval Architects ; member of the Main Committee 
on Standardisation, and chairman of the sub- 
committee on Ship and Engine IKaterial. 

Publications : The author of numerous technical 
papers published in the Transactions ot the Insti- 
tution of Naval Architects, principally on the 
" Strength and StabJity oJ Ships." 

Donnjr. John HcAiuland ib. Dumbarton. Novem- 
ber 29, 1B5SI. Educated Dumbarton Burgh 
Academy and T.ansanne. Switzerland. Being in- 
tended for his father's business. Me^ssrs. W. M. 
Denny Brothers, Dumbarton, he received a 5i:>eaal 
commercial training pnor to joining the firm, and 
was apprenticed to the counting house. On several 
occasions he was sent abroad in the interests of his 
house, and in his successful efforts to extend the 
business visited almost every part of Europe ; and 
one of the first contracts be was successful in 
obtaining was the rc-*ngining of one of the North- 
German IJoyd steamships. His next attempt to 
secnn; a portion of the Continental trade was a 
contract for the building of the fast peddle steamers 

Pnnesss fTtnfititt and PrhKtss Josepkins for the 
Belgian Government. With Russia he has done a 
large business, supplying the principal vessels for 
the volunteer fleet, one of which was intended for 
the transport of criminal convicts to Saghalin. He 
naturally e^-inced a deep interest in all matters 
connected with the shipping and shipbuilding 
industries, and his services have lieen requisitioned 
several times for important committees appointed 
by the House of Comnwns and the Board of Trade. 
He was a member of the special committee which 
dealt with thp War Office contracts, in another in 
connection with shipping subsidies ; was appointed 
hy the Government on the committee which sat 
to investigate t'v; cause of the decrease of volun- 
teers in the Brui^ Mercantile Marine, and acted 
as a member of the Tonnage Committee. He is 
a keen volunteer, and as colonel commands the 
1st Diuiibartonshire Rifle Volunteers, one of the 
strongest and most efficient in the service. 

D'BntiWQUteanx. French zod class cruiser. (La 

Seyne, 1896.} 

Lengtli jgjft. Beam 58ft. Maximum draught 36ft. 
Displacement 8,114 ^oca- Complement 521. 
Guns. Armimr. 

2— <)"4 in.,40 cal, " Harvey." 
I a — 5 '5 in. 3 m. Deck. 

12 — 5 pdr. in. Turrets. 

4 Maxims. 10 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes (177 in.). 
2 Submerged. 
4 Above water. 
Twin screw. Kp. 13,500= iq'; kts. Coal maxi* 
mum 1,000 tons. Approximate cost j£670,ooo. 

Dennr. U.S- jrd claw cruiser (1802)- 
Length zgift Beam 44(1. Maximum draught 17ft. 
Displacement 3,200 tons. Complement 393. 
Qmi*. Armour, 

10 — 5 in. " Harvey-nickel." 

8 — 6 pdr. 2 in. Deck. 

2 — I pdr. 
2 Colts 
Twin ficrew. Hp. 4.500^ 16*5 kts. Coal maiti- 
mum 700 tons. 

Deodoro. Brazilian coast service battleship. 
(La f^pync. iSyfi.) 

Length 26.Sft. Buain 4Sft Maximum draught 15ft. 
Displacement 3,162 loos. Complement 200. 
Gmhj. Armour. 

2 — 9'2 in. " Harvey-nickel." 

4 — 4'7 in. 13 in. Beit amidships, 

2 — 13 pdr. S in. Turrets. 

4 — 6 pdr. 5 in. Conning tower. 

4—1 pdr. 

Torp$do Tubes {18 in.). 
2 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 3,400=14 kts. Coal maxi* 
mum 34a tons. ' "*' ' 




DeOnstis, Albert DeiCoatidiCasielnoovo. Italian 
vice-admiral. Ufliciatt Maumiano ; Grando Uf&- 
cialc Corona d'ltalia. £atercd Navy, tS66; 
captain of Piemontc (turin^ Crotan Insurrccttou, 
lS95-<X>; Director ol Naval Ordiunce and 
Torpedoes. Spezia. 1900-03 ; Chief ol thr Stafi of 
the I'ket on mission to li.LM. the Sultan, 1902-03 
(Mcdjidic, ist Cla55} ; Pfvsidcct ot the Permanent 
ComiuiRMon for experimenting with guns and 
torpp^or^, 1903-04: rcar-admira], 1904: A.D.C 
to thu King. 1904-05 ; Commander-in-Chief of iIil- 
occao squadron, 1905-06: vke-admiral, 1906. 

Publication : " Technical Text-book on Gunnery." 

Dep. Abbreviation for department. 

Depetit Thonan. French i st cla.<is cruiser. 

(Toulon, 1905.) 

Len}^h 460ft. Beam 63ft. Maximum draught 2411. 
Displacement 9.367 tons. Complement 6iJ. 
Guns. Armour. 

2 — 7*6 in, " Harvey-nickel." 

S — 6'4 hi. 6} in. Belt amidships. 

4 — 4 in. 8 in. Turrets. 

16 — 3 pdr. 6 in. Conning tower. 

Totptdo Tubes (177 in.). 
3 Submerged. 
Three screws. Hp. 22.000=31 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 1 .600 tons. Approximate cost :£900,ooo. 

DeprMsion. Se< Cyolono. 

Depth. The measure of anything from the 
surface of highest point downwards. 

Derrilbtl is the term applied to any ship or part of 
a ship or cargo found floating on the open seas, and 
abandoned by those in charge without Ike hops 
of recot'cry or inttHtion of returning. (For derelicts 
found on or near the coast of Great Britain, refer 
to Wrpck.) 

The question in every case is one of intention. If 
the crew intended to return the property cannot be 
treated as derelict. 

Salvagr i't payable to pcrsouR bringing derelicts 
into safety, and. by an old rule of Admiralty, the 
salvors were awarded one-half of the value salved. 
but now the amount of award depends on the 
circumstances ol the case, and never more than 
a moiety is given, except where an action goes by 
default and tlic owners only appear at trial. 

By the Derelict Vessels (Report) Act, 1896. the 
master of every British ship shall, under a penalty 
of is. notify Lloyd's agent at his next port of call 
or arrival of the existence and locality of any 
derelict vessel. Refer to Admiralty Droits. 

Derriok. A single spar supported by stays and 
guys u»ed in loadinK and unloading vessels. 

De Kuyter. Dutch battleship (iqnz). 
Lcngthjiatt. Bcaiu 4tift. Maximum draught iSft. 
Displacement 4,950 tons. Complement 320. 


2 — 9*4 in., 40 cat. 
4 — 6 in. 
8 — 12 pdr. 
a — I pdr. 

" Kxupp." 
6 in. Belt amidships. ; 
10 in. Barbettes, 
to in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
2 Submerged. 
I .\bove water bow. 
Twin screw. Hp. 5,300=16 kts. 

tnum 680 tons. 

Co«l man- 

De Rtiyter (Ruijterj. Michael Adriuissoon. 


Derwent. British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Ha' 
thorn, 1903.) Length, 320 ft. ; beam. 2j ft; 
draught, 10 ft.; displacement, 534 tons; com- 
plement, 70 : armament, i i2-pdr., 5 6-pdr.. 
2 tubes ; twin screw ; Hp., 7,0001=35 lets. ; coal, 
130 tons. 

Derwent Yacht Clab. Established 1880. Com- 
modore, O. R. Tinning : Vice-Commodore, W. E. 
Jordcn ; Honorary Treasurer, D. R. Lucas; 
Honorary Secretary, J. E. Philp, Hobart. Tas- 
mania. Annual subscription, £1 is. 

Deoaix. French ist class cruiser. (St. Kaiaire, 
Length 426ft. Beam 53ft Mean draught 54ft. 
Displacement 7.70a tons. Complement 520. 
Guns. Artnouf. 

8 — 6'4 in.. 45 cal. " Krupp." 
4 — 4 in. 4 in. Belt amidshipSL 

10 — 2 pdr. 4 in. Turrets. 

6 in. Conning tower. 
Torpedo Tubes (177 in.). 
2 .-^bove water. 
Three screws. Hp. 17,000 = 21 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 1,200 tons. Approximate cost ji75o.c»o, 

Descartei. French 2nd class cruiser. (St. Na- 
Zaire, 19^) 

Length 333ft. Beam 44lt. Maximum draught silt 
Displacement 4,000 tons. Complement 37&. 
Guns. Armour. 

4 — 6'4 m., 45 cal. " Steel." 
10—4 in. 2 in. Deck. 

10 — 3 pdr. 3 in. Casemates. 

4 — I pdr. 2 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes (17*710.]. 
2 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. 8.500=19*5 kts. Coal maxi 
mum 750 tons, .\pproximatc cost ^350.000. 

DMtrtion. A seaman deserting Xzona the mer- 
chant service or sea Ashing service, except for the 
purpose ol joining the Roy»l Na\-y, is liable to 
forfeit all wages due and the effects he leaves. If 
desertion takes place abroad any wages a merchant 
seaman may earn in any other ship until liis return 
to the United Kingdom arc liable to be lorfciled to 
satisfy any excess of wages paid to a substitute 
engaged at a higher rate. Except in the United 

Kjng[doiD a deserter from the merchant service is 
also Itablo to impriwnmont for not mor«> than I3 
weeks, with or without hard labour. If abwnt 
without leave at any time within 24 hours ot the 
ship's leaving port, a merchant seaniaii or fisherman 
forfeits two rtnys' wagijs, and in addition, (or every 
34 hour»' absence, either a sum not exceeding &ix 
days' pay (four days' pay in the case of a fisherman). 
or any expenses in hiring a substitute. If abroad a 
merchant seaman is also liable to imprisonment 
not exceeding 10 weeks with or without hard latwur. 
For desertion or absence withoot leave a merchant 
seamiui is liable to be arrested withont a warrant 
and taken back to his ship, all costs and expenses 
properly incurred to be i>aid by the offender, or 
dedacted from his wages. (Merchant Shipping 
Act (iSfk^l. scclioos ^21-324.) 

Tlie offences of desertion and absence without 
leave by those subject to naval discipline are dealt 
with in the Naval Discipline Act. 1866(9.^.). and 
the Xaval Deserters Act. 1847. By these Acts an 
ofieader is liable for desertion (i) 10 the enemy, 
to capital puni.shmeDt ; {2) under other circum- 
stances, to i*enal servitude or other punishment. 
In both cases there is also forfeiture of pay. effects, 
prize-money, bounty, salvage, allowances, gratuities, 
pensions, medals, and decorations. For absence 
without leave an offender is punishable with im- 
pH!K}nment not exceeding 10 weeks, with or withoat 
hard labour, or other punishment, and if absent 
for a month, and ia not tried for the offence, he is 
liable to the above forfeitures. For assisting or 
persuading to desert from the Navy, a person not 
subject to the Naval Discifrilne Act is liable to a 
fine not exceeding ^30 or ^20 respectively. 

Deimoiaec. U.S. jrd class cruiser (1902). 
Length jr>:(t. Beam 44ft. Majcimum draught i;ft. 
Displacement 3.200 tons. Complement 393. 
Guns. Aimour. 

to — s in. *' Harvey-nickel." 

8—6 pdr. 2 ia. Deck. 

3 — 1 pdr. 
2 Colts. 
Twin screw. Hp. 4.500=1 16'5 kts. CoaI maxi- 

mnm 700 tons. 

■ . I. .'ii 

DMnneff. SimoD. Sm Arctic E:cploration. 

Detente. Rrmsh torpedo-boat destroyer. (Chis- 
wick. 1S98.I length. 210 ft.; beam, to ft., 
draught. 7 (t. : displacement. 2S$ tons ; complc- 
nient, 60: armament, 1 12-pdr., 5 iS-pdr., 2 tubes; 
twinscrew: Hp., 5,800^30 kts. ; ooal.Sotons. 

DMtination claoMI. See Clauses. 

D*WrMS. French avisos. (Rochefort. 1897.) 
Length 312ft. Beam j^ft. Mean draught i6ft. 
Displacement 3.460 tons. Qjmplement 134. 
Guns. Armour. 

2 — 5"5 in.. 45 cal. " Hard steel." 

4—4 in- I? in- Deck. 

8-3 pdr. 

Torpedo Tub*s. 
3 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. 8,500=21 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 480 tons. Approximate cost £210.000. 

Destroyers or torpedo-boat destroyers are vessels 
of great speed designed to act against hostile tor- 
I>edo flotillas. This class of vessel was first Intro- 
duced into the British Navy in 1893 : anJ the first 
two, the Havoc and Hortut. of 240 tons dt.splacc- 
mont, had a speed of 27 kts, At the present time 
destroyers arc from 350 to 360 tons displacement, 
with a speed varying from 30 to 35 kts. They 
carry quick-firing guns, and torpedoes, and are 
!<pecially constructed at tlie bow to enable them to 
rnn down and sink a torpedo- Ixtat. 

Destractor. Spani:ib torpedo gun-boak (Clyde- 
bank. isa6.) 

DijTplacement 366 tons. Complement 45. 
Gums. Armour. 

I— 3*5 in. "SteeL" 

4— « pdr. 1} in. Bulkheads. 

2 Nordcnfelts. 

Torpedo Tubes (15 in.). 

3 .Above water. 

Twin screw. Hp. 3,800—202 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 1 10 tons. 

Detention clauM. See Clauses. 

Det Forenede Dampskibs Seiskab. Seg United 
Steamship Co., Copenhagen. 

Detroit VS. 3rd class cruiser (1891I. 
Length 2$7ft. Beam 37(1. Maximum draught 16ft. 
Displacemeat 3,000 tons. Complement 250.1 , 

Guns. Armour. 

9 — 5 in. " Steel." 

<5 — 6 pdr. I in. Deck. 

2 — ] pdr. 2 in. Conning tower. 

2 GatUogs. 

Torpedo Tubes. 

4 Above water. 

Twin t»crew. Hp. 5.400= 17 kts. Coat maxi- 
mum 435 tons. 

Oeutacta-Amerikanisohe Petroleom-GeielUchalt, 
with their head oifice in Hamburg. havi> » fleet of 
18 modem tank steamers engaged in the kerosene 
oil trade. 


August Korff. Gut HeiL 

Bgm. Petersen. Heliits. 

Brilliant. AfaniiMtim, 

Dtuitckland. Paula. 

Diamant. Phoebus. 

Elise Marit. PromelAsus. 

Energie. Standard. 

Excelsior. WmsMimglam. 

GeisttTUunde. Wilikommen. 

Gross tonnage, 64.800; 




Deuticb'AQstralische Dampfschifls-OeselUchalt. 
See German Australian Steamship Co. 

DeaUchfl LeT&nt Line, with their head offices In 
Hamburg, havf a fleet o( 30 first-class steamers, 
maintaining services belwi-cu Hamburg, Antweip. 
and the Mi'tlitnTancan PortK, Russia, E^ypt. and 
Arabia. Steamers leave flamburg and Antwerp at 
scheduled times for Malta, Pira>iu, Sm/ma. Con- 
stantUiopIc, and Odessa. Another service to 
Burgas. Verna, Golatj, and Braita. Anotbrr in- 
cludes Alexandria, JaRa. Bcyrout. Alcxandrctla, 
and Messina. Another to Novororaislc, Maliupol, 
Taganrog. A :>cn'ice is maintained from Ham- 
burg, calling at Dover, which conveys passengers 
and cargo to Lisbon. Algicn*. Tunis, and Constaiiti 

A ndros. Lemnos. Pyrgfls. 

Argos. Lesbos. Hhodos, 

Afkoi. Lipsoi. Samos. 

Chun. Milos. Strittbos. 

Dthsi iVrtjroj. ShyrfM. 

Enus. i'aros. Utantbui. 

(Jalaia. PaimoM. Tenedos. 

Imbros. J'era. 'J'hasos. 

Kypros, pyh*^ Ttnos. 

Kythnos. Yclos. 
(ji05?> tonnage. 6b,oon. 

Dmitschen DampIschiflfahrts-0«seUschAft "Han- 
SR,*' See Hatisa Line. 

Deatacheo DampEschiflf&hrtt-GesflUchaft " Eos- 


Stc Kosnios Luic. 

Deutsche Ost»Africa Line, with their head o&ices 
in HHiiihurg. maintain a main and intermediate hnc 
of steamers to East and South Atrica. The fleet 
consists of 13 modem, well-built steamers, par- 
ticularly adapted to the class of trade m which they 
arc engaged, having excellent accommodation 
(or paiiM^ngers. A monthly service Is maintained 
from Hamburg and Brcmcriiaven, via Cape Colony, 
to Durban and Ddagoa Bay ; a forlnightly one via 
Marseilles, and another via Genoa, through the 
Suez Canal, to East and South Africa, which boats 
connect with a line running from the East Coast of 
Africa to Bombay. 


A dmiraL Hersog. Marhgraf. 

Butgermeister. Kanxter, Prasidenl. 

Feldmarshall. Konig. Primessin. 

Gouverneur. Kfonptittz. Ptingregent. 

Dentschland ( 1 900]. German merchant ship. 
Hamburg - Amerika Liuc iq-v,). Dimensions. 
686x67X40 ft.; gross tannage. 16.503; Hp.. 
33.000— 23'5 kls. 

Deatiobland. Atlantic steamer. Wrecked, on 
the Kenti5h Knock sandbank, at the numtli of the 
Thames, Ucceqibet h. 1875 ; ;u lives lost. 

Deatscbland. German 1st class battlesh 
(Krupp, 1904.) 

length 450ft. Beam ^jfl. Mean draught a5lL_ 
Displaccmc-nt 13,400 tons. C<rtnplemcot 700. 
uuus. Armour. 

4-rT-ii in. " Krupp." 

14 — C>'7 in. 10 in. BelL 

32 — 34 pdr. 11 in. Barbettes. 

4 — t pdr. 1 1 in. Turrets. 

4 Machine. 12 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tulvj. 
6 Submerged, bow, stem, and broadside. 
Three screws. Hp., 16.000= 18 kta. Coal 
mum i.aoo tons. Approximate cost^i,20o,fi 

DeateohUnd P. German ist class bat 
lAN'iIhelinshaven. 1905.) 

Length 4ioft. Beam 72ft. Mean draught 3511. 
Di!iplai:cmeal 13.400 tons. Compleoient 700. 
iiuHs. Armour. 

4 — 1 1 in. " Krupp." 

14— 0'7 in. 10 in. Belt. 

33-^24 pdr. 1 1 in. Barbettes. 

4 — I pdr. 1 1 in. Turrets. 

4 Machine. 13 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
6 Submerged, bow, stem, and broadside. 
Three screws. Hp. 16,1)00=1 18 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum I, Sod tons. Approximate cost ;^i ^00,000. 

Deatschljuid R. C>crman ist class battleship. 
(Krupp, 1915O.) 

Length 430ft. Beam 73it. Mean draught lift. 
Displacement 1 3,400 tons. Complement 7oaL 
Guns. Armour. 

4—1 1 m. '* Krupp." 

14 — 6'7 in. 10 in. Belt. 

22 — 34 pdr. II in. Barbettes. 

4 — [ pdr. II in. Turrets. 

4 Machine. 12 in. Conning lower. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
6 Submerged, bow. stem, and broadside. 
Three screws. Hp. i6.oooniS kts. Coal maxi- 
mum t,8uu tons, .approximate cost ^1,200,000. 

Devutation, British sad class batUeafaip (9,330 
tons, 14 kts.). Launched 1871. 

Devutation. French 3nd class battleship (1879). 
Reconstructed looz. 

length 3i8it. Beam 69ft. Maximum draught 38f(. 
Displacement 10.000 tons. Complement 689. 
OuKS. Armour. 

4 — 10'$ in. "iron." 

3 — 9*4 in. 15 in. Belt aiuidatups. 

1 1 — 4 in. 9 in. Battery. 

4—9 pdr. 3 in. Conning tower. 

13—3 pdr- 
30 — I pdr. 
Twin screw, Hp. 8,100= 15*1 kts. Coal normal 
900 tons. 




Den&Uoo. In ininnL' insurance it is of the 
utmost iinportance to specify accurately the port 
or place at which the risk commences, and the 
port or place at which it terminates. It is an im- 
plied coodition that the vessel shall follow the 
coarse usually taken by other vessels in the same 
trade. Any deviation from the ordinary track, 
however sKght, wiUiout a justifying cxuse will 
vitiate the policy. To me^t this latter ri^k a. ctaiae 
called the " Deviation clause " is usually insertcfl 
m the poUcy, to this e&cct : " In the event of the 
vessel making any deviation or chan^v of voyagt-. 
It is mutually agreed that .such dt;viation or ctiange 
Hhall t>e held cov«rv<l at a premium to be arranged. 
providKi du« notice be gi\-cn by the assured on 
receipt of advice of such deviation or change of 
voyage." fiefer to Voyage. Cbaiigo of Voyage, 
Leave to Call, Clau3<'9. 

Deriation. See Compass. 

Deviation claiue. See CUusi-^. 

Deviation of the Compaii. The angle included 
between the Magnetic North and the Compa<>.s 
North. This error is due to the disturbing influ- 
encea of tho iron of which tlie ship is built, as 
mdder-posts, masts, ctuilns. funnels, etc. ; her po«n- 
tion when building, her cargo, or other causes within 
the ship. 

DcTlL Priming nude by bruising and damping 


Devonport Dockyard. 5«< Dockyards, NavaL 

Devonabir*, British ist class cruiser. (Chat- 
ham, 1904.) 
l.ength 450ft. Beam 68ft. Maximum draught 35ft. 

Ihsplacement 10700 tons. Complement 653. 

EGuns. j'trmour. 

4—75 in* " Krupp." 

6—6 in. 6 in. Belt anudii.hipt, 

2 — I z pdr. 6 in. Barbettes. 

« — 3 pdr. 12 in. Conning tower. 

3 Maxims. 
Torpedo Tubtt. 
2 Sirbmergcd. 
Twin wrcw. Hp. 21.000=224 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 1,800 tons. Approximate cost ^850,000. 

This shtp-namc is associated with Barlleur and 
l.a Hugue, 16^2; Anson's victory off Finistcrrc, 
1747: Hawke's %-ictory ofl Usiiant, 1749; the 
reduction ol Havana, [762. 

DfW. Condensation of moisture on solid objects, 
caused through cooling by radiation. 

Demr, 6«orge. American admiral (b. Mont- 
peher, 1837). Graduated U.S. Naval Academy. 
11156. Took part in the forcing of the entrance to 
the Mississippi, and served as lieutenant on the 
ateam sloop Misiisuppi when she was shattered by 
the Confederate batteries at Port Hudson. In 1897 
he was aaigned, at his own request, sea service, and 
sent in command 01 the squadrm to the Far East. 

On May t, 189ft, during the Spanish- Auerican War. 
after having received orders to " capture or destroy 
the Spanish Fle<:i " at the Philippines, be steamed 
into Manila Hatlwur. His flag-ship Otympta lod 111 
a fight at cIu^c lunge. which lasted atiout eight 
houni. until the last Spanish flag was hauled down. 
He destroyed or cajjtured the whole of the Spanish 
ilcct in tlu.> Far Ea^t witliout the loss of a single 
ship. On his return to .^meric:l in October. lS(j9, 
be received a great o%'ation. was pramote<l admiral, 
and received the thanks of Congress. 

Dew-point. The teniperaturv at which dew 
begins to be deposited. 

Deyatclni. Russian torpedo-boat destroyer 
(i90(;). Length, 185 ft. ; beam, u ft. ; draught, 
7| ft. ; displacement, 324 tons ; complement, 60 ; 
armament. 1 12-pdr., 5 3-pdr., 3 tubes ; twin screw ; 
Hp., 5.600 = 26 kts. ; coal, lootons. 

D.EC Distinguishing letters on -tea fishing Ixiats 
registered at D.irlmoutli. England. 

Dhow. -A. wooden vessel having generally one 
mast and a lateen sail, used by Arabs in the iied 
Sea and Arabian iiixU, for carrying small cargoes. 

DX Distinguishmg letters on sea fbhing boats 
registered at Dieppe, France. 

Diadem. Bntish 1st class cruiser. (Fairfield, 

Length 435ft. Beam 69ft. Maximum draught 37ft. 
Displacement tons. Complement 677. 
Gutts. A rmouT. 

16—6 in. ■' Harvey.' 

12—12 pdr. 4 in. Belt amidiilupi. 

2 — 12 pdr., 8 cwt. 12 in. Conning tower. 
13— 3 pdr. 
3 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes (iS in.). 
a Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 16,500^30;^ kts. Coal maxi> 
raum tuns. Approximate cost ^554.800. 

This ship-name was introduced Into the Navy in 
178J ; and is associated with Hood's occupation of 
Toulon, 1793; St. Vincent, 1797 ; Hotham's action 
oS CenoR. 1795 ; Hotham's action off Hy^res, 1795. 

Diagonal build. E>eBoting the manner of boat 
building in which the outer shell consists of two 
layers of planking with the keel in opposite direc- 
tions, constructed upon temporary transverse 

Diamond. Bri tish 3rd class cruiser. {Laird , 
1904) _, 

Length 360ft. Beam 40ft. Mean draught \^U 
Displacement 3.000 tons. Complement 296. 
G«tti. A rmotu. 

12—4 in, "Steed." 

8—3 pdr. 2 in. Deck. 

3 Maxims. 

Torpedo TitLts {i8:in.)«< 

2 Above water. j , ip^na' 




Twin scnw. Up. 9,9oo»zt'7s kts. Coal maxi- 
jnum 500 tons. Approximate co&t ^240,000. 
' This ship-name is associated with the defeat of 
the Spanish Armada., 1588 ; battle of the Kentish 
Knock. 1653 : battle ofi Portland. 1653 ; t>attlc off 
the North Foreland, 165J ; Blake's attack on Porto 
Farina ; battle o( Bantry Bay, 1689. 

DiaUL British and class cruiser. (FairfieTd, 

LcngLh 36411. Beam 54it. Maximum draught ^^rt. 
Displacement 5,600 tons. Complement 450. 
Gtm$. Armour. 

1 1 — 6 in. " Harvey.*' 

8 — 13 pdr. 3^ in. Deck. 

1 — 13 pdr.. 8 cwi. 6 in. Conning tower. 

;— 3 pdr- 
3 Maxims. 

Torpedc Tubts (18 in.). 
2 Submerged. 
I Above water stem. 
Twin screw. Up. natural^ 18*5 kts., forced 
g,6oo=ig*5 kts. Coal maximum 1,076 tons. 

Diana. Rnnsian cruiser. (Galcmii. 1899.) 
Length 410ft. Beam 55ft. Maximum draught 3 r ft. 
I>i9|]iacement 6,630 tons. Complement $70. 
Guns. A MMiir 

8— 6 in. "Sicel. " 

22 — 12 pdr, 2^ in. Deck. 

8 Small q.l. 6 m. Conning tower. 

4} Engine hatches. 
Torpedo Tttbes. 
4 Above water. 
Three screws. Hp. 11,600 = 20 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 1,430 tons. 

Escaped from the Japanese at the battle of 
Round Island. August 10, 1904. anrj reached Saigon, 
and was int<Tncd till the end of the war. 

Diathetmanoy. The property in virtue of which 
the solar ra>'s pass through a medium without 
raisiofr its tcnipcr.ilure. 

Diaz, Baitolomeu (1455-1500). Portuguese navi- 
gator (b. Lisbon). \Va.«i the fxrsl to sail round the 
"soutliem extremity of Africa (i486), which he 
named Cape of Bad Hope, the name being after- 
wards changed by King Joao II. to Good Hope. 
In 1497 he was superseded by Vasco da Gama, and 
sailed under him as second-in-command on a 
voyage of discovery. He was with CabnU's ex- 
pedition to Calicut, India, during which Brasil was 

DTlMTTille. French avisos (1892). 
Length 363ft. Beam 26ft. Maximum dranght lafi. 
Displacement 925 tons. Complement 140. 
Guns. Armour. 

1 — 4 in. " Steel." 

3 — 9 pdr. I in. Deck amidships. 

7— 3 pdr. 
Twin screw. Hp. 5,ooo«3t kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 13s tons. 

Ditdda. lamea (b. Arbroath, March 4. 184; 
Served an appreoiiccship to the building of smal! 
wooden vessels, and in 1870 went to America and 
started a shipbuUdiug yard on his own aocouoL 
Subdcqueivtly joined the Union Ironworks as super- 
intendent of their shipyard, and in 1884 designed 
and superintended the construction of the fini 
Killing- vessel built on the Pacific coasL While 
with this fiim hr wbh closely Lonncctcd witli the 
construction of 20 war vesseU for the United States 
Navy and a cruu>cr for the Japanese Navy. In 
1905 he severed his connection with the Union 
Ironworks, and started business on his own account 
as na%'ai architect and marine vngmeer. 

E^bltcations : Has contributed papers to thr 
Society ot N'aval .\rchitects and Mechanical En- 
gineers, and to the North-East Coast Institution ol 
Engineers and Shipbuilders. ^ 

Diokinson, JTobn, and Sons. Ltd., Palmer's Hit! 

Engine Works, Sdndt-rland. These works were 
founded in 1S52 by the chairman of the present 
company. The site, comprising about 4^ acres, is 
of peculiar formation, in former days having been 
an old ballast hill, on the site of which the present 
works are erected in terraces. The difierent fiats 
arc excavated from the side oi the hilt, and secured 
by means of heavy concrete retaining walla. 

The principal manufacture is tliat of marine 
tiigincs and boilers. Extensive repairing work to 
connection with this industry is also carried out 
The boiler shop has lately been extended and 
fitted with the latest type of ctiacbiner>- for dealing 
with Ixiilrrs up to 80 tons weight. The engine 
works are also htted with machinery of modem 
type, and no expense has twen spared to make 
the whole factor^' complete and fully equipped for 
dealing expeditiously and ellicientty with the com- 
pany's manufactures. There is a river frontage 
of about 630 ft., and machinery ia shipped from 
the quay on board the steamers by means of ^ 
large 80-ton crane. ■ 

The output for the last ten years was as follows . 
1897. II sets of engines, representing 30.760 I.Hp. 

X898. 32 ., „ .. 38.654 

1U99. 16 ,, „ „ 29.004 

1900. 31 „ ,. ., 41,1 

1901. 16 „ ., .. 3i.n 

1902. 17 „ ,, ,, 31.030 

1903. 11 M .. .. 34*733 

1904. 30 „ ., .. 43.1 

1905. 17 ., .. .. ii.6sA 

1906. 30 .. ,. .. 51. I€ 
The number ol men employtxl is about I .ooQ.* 

DkL Abbn-viation for dictionajy. 

Diderot. Fri'nch ist claaa battleship. Laid 

down Kyob. 

Length 475ft. Beam 84ft. Maxinuini.dcaught37^f|. 
Displacemeat iS,ooo tons. Complement 68ok 




lo in. B«lt axnidfthtps. 

13 la. Turrets. 

13 iQ. Conning tower. 

4 — 12 in. 
12 — 9*4 in. 
16 — 12 pdr. 

8—3 pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 

2 Submerged. 

3 Above u-ater. 
Ttiree screws. Hp. 32,500=19 kis. Coal maxi- 
mum 2,010 tons. Approximate cost ;£i. 825,000. 

Dido. British 2nd class cruiser. (Ix)ndoo sad 
Glasgow. 1896.) 

Length S^-iit. Beam S4ft. Maximum draught 23ft. 
Displacement 5,600 tons^ Complement 450, 
Ghns. Armour. 

1 1 — 6 in. " Harvey." 

6 — 12 pdr. 2f in. Deck. 

1 — :2 pdr., d ewt. 6 in. Conning tower. 
^H, 7—3 pdr. 
^^^L_j Maxims. 

^^^^^ Totpfdo TuAtfi (rS in.). 

^^^^^^^ 2 Submerged. 

I 1 Above water stem. 

I Twin screw. Hp. natural 8,000= ia"5 kts., forced 

9.6oo«>i9'5 kta. Coal maximum 1,076 tons. 

Diffby. Sir Henry (1769-1842). English admiral 
(b. Chrihtcliurch). Commanded the Africa in the 
battle of Trafalgar. He was made admiral 1841. 

Dilloiu Iffriffnl"! (b. London. 1854). W&s for 
sotoe years identihed u-itK banking and hnanctal 
institutioos in the- raetrcpolLa. In 1^93 be became 
general manager and secretary of the Palmer Ship- 
building and Iron Co. Has been twice Mayor of 
Jarrow, And is president of the Xorttiem Union of 

Publications : Several works on Banking; 

Diminishing Claose. Sc€ Clauses. 

Dinghy. A small boat fitted with settee sail pro- 
lud by paddles in use on the coast of India. 

Dip. The inclination of the magnetic needle 
towards the earth. 

In navigation the dHlerence of the latitndes of a 
star seen from two levels. 

The angle contained between the scn.sible and 
apparent horicon. the angular point being the eye 
of the observer. 

The allowance made in all astronomical observa- 
tions of latitude over the height of the eye above 
the level of the sea. 

Dip. To tower, generally with the intention of 
hoisting again. 

n<|lkiit<il)Hili An instrument foe determining 
correct time by transit observations of the sun or 
oi the stars. The tint instrument vas constructed 
by Dent from a design patented by Bloxham m 
1^3. Plossl, of Vienna, impnn'ed it. and Stein- 
luttl three years later brought out the transit prism 
which is now used. 

Dir«ot linaa Weal Indian Sarvioa, with a fleet of 
13 well-built modem vessels, maintain services to 
the West Indian Islands. One of their steamers 
leave London fortnightly for Barbadoes. Grenada, 
Trinidad, and Dcmcrara, transhipping al Barbadoes 
for St. Vincent, St. Lucas, Montsvxrat, and St. 
Kitts. A bteamer leaves Glasgow every three 
weeks for Barbadoes, calting at and transhipping for 
the same ports. 


Croum 0/ A rragim. Salybia. 

Crown of CastiU. Sarslpon. 

Crown of Grenada. Setrana. 

Crottm of Navarre, Sphtroid. 

Naparirna. Statia. 

Saba. Torgorm. 


Disooant. An allowance made for money paid 
before it is due. To discount a bill is to buy from 
the holder the right to receive the money upon ii 
when due. 

Discovery. In May, 1612, Sir Thomas Button 
sailed in this vessel on a voyage of discovery to 
the polar ii^gioos. He entered Hud<ion's Bay, and 
wintered at tlie mouth of a river 57° 10' N. The 
following year he explored Southampton Island as 
far as 65^ N.. returning to England in 1613. En 
1615 Robert Bylot, master, and William Baffin, 
pilot, sailed in this vcwel and carefully sur%"cycd 
the coast of Hudson's Strait, and iiailed round the 
great channel now known as Baffin's Bay. .\ll the 
capes, islands, and sounds discoverer! were named 
by these explorers alter the promoters of this 
expedition. Refer to .Antarctic Exploration, also 
Arctic Exploration. 

Disk of the San or Moon. Tlte round face, which, 
on account ol the grt>at distance, appears flat, as 
like a plane surface. 

DiiplAOimMit. The weight of %vater which a 
vessel displaces when floating. The water dis- 
placed is equal to the weight of the ship. 

Distinguished Service Order was introduced 

in i^^t) tur navai and, army officers who per- 
formed distinguished service. It ranks next to 
the Fourth Qass of the Royal Victorian Order. 
The decoration consists of a white enamel cross 
edged with gold, with the Imperial Crown on one 
side and the Royal Cipher on the other. It is 
worn on the left breast and suspended by a red 
ribbon witti a blue edge. 

Distreis. A terra used when, owing to damage 
or danger, the ship requires immediate assistance. 

Din. Portuguese corvette. (Lisbon, 1SS9.) 
Length. 147 ft.: beam. 37 ft.; draught, 13 ft.; 
displacement, 717 tons; ctnnplcmeal, 114;. guns, 
I 5g-in., 2 4"7-in.. i 3-pdr. ; Hp.. 700^ la ktsj ; 
coal. 80 toosi 




Oinriul motions of the pUnets axe the spaces 
they move through in the day. 

Diaraal inninaUty or DiumAl Tariation. Changes 
due to the urac of day. 

IHarnal ran^e. Tlie amount o( variation between 
the maximum and minimum of any element during 
the 24 hoam. 

Divine Service in Navy. Sec Naval Ceremonies. 

Diving. This art has been practised from very 
early times in the Indian seas, divers being em- 
ployed in bringing up from considerable depthi^ 
corat, pearl, sponges, etc. The record time a good 
diver can remain under water ^^ithout the aid of 
artificial means is about three minutes. The 
earliest contrivance lor enabling divers to remain 
for any length uf time under water was the dixing- 
bell, but thi.<; was not entirely a success owing to 
the necessity ot the bell having to be frequently 
drawn to the surface in order to get a fresh supply 
of air. It was in 1830 ttmt Mr. A. Sicbi:, the founder 
oi the firm of Siebe, Gorman and Co., Ltd., in- 
vented the open diving-dress, which consisted of 
a dress made of sohd sheet iDdiambber between 
specially prepared twill. The helmet, made of 
highly planished tin copper, with gunmetal fittings, 
was fitted with two side oval or round thick plate 
glasses in brass frames with guards. The .-lir was 
suppUed from an air-pump by means of a vulcanised 
Indiarubbcr air-pipe attached to a gunmetal inlet 
valve in the helmet, by which the air is allowed to 
enter. The diving-dress of to-day is merely an 
improvement on that invented in 1830. Divers at 
a depth of 32 ft under water have upon the surface 
of their whole bodies a more than ordinary pres- 
sure of 20,000 lbs. weight, yet, when we consider 
the oiiiformity of that pressure, which causes no 
dislocation of the parts, all tho external being 
equally aSectcd with it, it is not to be wondered 
that divers complain of no sensible pain though 
they be pressed with so great weight of water. 
The following table represents the pressure in 
pounds on the square inch at a given depth of 

20 ft. . . 8 J lb«, 1 30 ft. . . 56i lbs. 

30 .. .. 13J ,. 140 ., ., 60J „ 

40.. .. 17* .. »5" .. •- 65i ,. 

so „ .. 21 J „ Limit. 

60 ., . . 36^ „ 160 „ . . 69J „ 

70 .. .. 3*4 ,- »70 ., .74 .. 

80.. ,. 34t „ i»o ., .. 78 .. 

90 ,. . . 39 „ 190 .. . . Sai .. 

100 „ .. 43J „ 204 „ .. 88J „ 

J 10 „ . . 47f „ The greatest depth any 

lao ,, . . 52J „ diver has ever de- 


Dise. U.S. cruiser. (Newport News, 1893.} 
Leugtli, 389 ft. ; beam, 48 fL ;^ draught, 20 ft. ; 
dicfdacement, 6,145 tons; complement, 181 ; 

gtins, 8 ;-in.,4 6-pdr., 4 i-pdr. ; Hp.. 3,800= 16 Irts. 
coal maximum, 1,371 tons. 

Dixon, OMfg« (1755-1800). Englisli navigauv. 
Ser\-cd under Capt. Cook in his third expedition 00 
the North-West coast of America. In 17S5 he act 
sail in command of the Queen C/iariotte — a com- 
panion ship, the King George, being tioder the 
command of Capt. Portlock — in tlic interest of the 
King George's Sound. Co.. London, to make s 
minute examination of the North-West Coast oi 
.\merica. The voyage resulted in the discovery 
of numerous small islands, ^^lorts, and bays, of 
which Queen Charlutte's Island. Port MulgTave, 
Norfolk Bay. and Dixon's Archipelago arc the 
most important. He returned to England in 178I. 
In the following year he published an account of 
his voyage, entitie<l " A Voyage round the Wofld, 
but more particularly to the Nortli-West Coast of 
.America." whicb contained many valuable charts. 
In 1 70 1 he published " Tho Navigator's Assistant" 

Dixon, Harold RaytKm [b. Middlesbrough. 1872). 
Educated Harrow and France. Served liis appren- 
ticeship in his father's firm. Sir Raylton Dixon 
and Co., Ltd., and in 1897, on its registration as a 
private company under the Limited Liability Acl, 
he was selected a director, and on the death ol 
Sir Raylton Dixon in igoi became chairman. He 
is a director of tlie British and .\frican Steam 
Navigation Co., and the Imperial Direct West 
Indian Mad Service, Ltd.. and under hia capable 
direction the Cleveland Shipyard has not only 
maintained its high standard and reputation, but. 
if possible, enhanced it. 

DixoD and Co.. Ltd., Sir Raylton. Middlesbrough- 

on-Tees. The history ol this firm, whose name 
is synonymous with abihty to undertake and 
execute work in ship construction and repair. Is in 
brief tliis. The originator, Mr. Ka.yllon Dixon. 
after serving hia time as a premium apprentice witli 
Messrs. Coutts and Parkinson on the Tyne, com- 
pleted his articles with Messrs. Charles Mitchell and 
Co., of the same river. In 1859 he went to Xht 
Tees as niaoager of a shipyard there, and, three 
years later, established under the title of Packbousr 
and Dixon, the undertakiii^j which later resolved 
itself into Raylton Ihxon and Co., subsequently 
being registered! in 1897 ^ ^ limited company under 
the present title of Sir Kaylton Dixon and Co., Ltd. 
From small beginnings the works gradually 
extended until they became of their present im- 
portance, employing about 3.400 hands ; building 
passenger and other high-class vessels lor tbr 
British Government, and some of the most im- 
portant shipping companies at home and abroad. 
TTw yard is replete with alt the latest modets 
machinery for the construction of vessels, and 
among tlie clients of the firm may be mentioned . 
Mesars. Elder. Dempster and Co., Lamport and 
Holt. Moss Steamship Co.. Shipping and Coal Co. 

of Rotterdam, General Stcanuiliip Co., Booth 
Steamship Co.. Java, Cbina. and Japan Line, Louis 
Dnyius and Co.. Glover Brothers, and tlic Beigcii 
Steamship Co. 

The yard turned out in 1906 nght vessels, aggre- 
gating 26.610 B.T. ^tosa tons, and the figures tor 
Uie previous five years arc : — 

Year. B:T.'Gro98 tftrts. 

1905 27.780 

IV04 Ji.787 

1903 . . 20407 

1902 18,152 

1901 . , 3$,60() 

Giving an average siie ot vessel of 3,336 B.T. gross 

Dixon, Thomu (i). Thkkley, May lo. 1848). 
Serve*! apprenticeship with Messrs, PHIc, Spence 
and Co. In 1868 appointed cashier to Sir Raylton 
Dixon and Co., and on the firm being converted 
into a private hmitcd company in 1&Q7. was made 
secretary, and on the death of Sir Raylton Dixon 
iq.v.) was appointed a director. 

Dixon, Thomas, and Sons, with their head officcin 
Bellast. have a ileet 01 two steamers, which run in 
conjunction with those of the Lord Line {q.v.). 
BtlfaU. Baudot. 

Dltrr, >7orwcgian torpedo-hoat. (Chrtiittania, 
1900.) Length, tii ft.; beam. 14J ft.; draught. 
6i-ff.; displacement, 65 tons; armament, 3 I'^-pdr., 
2 tubes ; Hp., 650= 19 kts. 

O.K. Distinguishing letters on sea fishmg boats 
registered at Duodalk, Ireland. 

DJ*. Distinguishing letters oq &ea iiithii^ boab> 
registered at Deal, England. 

Ooitrl DonakoL Russian armoured cruiser 
(1883). Sunk by the Ja[ianesc at the battle of 
Tsushima, May 37-29, 1905. 

Dmitricff. Russian torpedo - boat destroy<;r 
(1906). Length, 185 ft. ; beam. Ji It. : draught, 
7i ft. : displacement. 3^4 tons; complement, 60; 
armament, i ii-)xlr., 5 ,1 pdr., 2 Maxims. 2 torpedo 
tnbea ; twin screw; Hp., 5,600 = 26 kts.; coal 
majdroam, 100 tons. 

Dnitptf ( 1894). Russian Government Uncr. 
Length, 460 ft.; beam, 52 ft. ; draught. .:(> tt . 
gross tonnage. 5,432 : Hp.. ib.jboW iS kls. 

0,0. Distinguishing letters on sea Ashing boats 
re^tered at Douglas. I>>lc of Alan, England. 

DotoOWOlett. Russian lorpnlo gimhoat (1906). 
Displacement. <i3S tons . speed, 19 kts. ' 

Dock comp&nies. See Harbour, 

Dock doM arc payments made by the owner of a 
ahip using a dock to the dock company, and arc in 
proportion to the vessel's registered tonnage. The 
term includes payments by the shippers of goodii. 
Vessels belonging to the Board of Trade {q.v.) and 

the General Lighthouas AuthmitieB ata exempt 
from dock dues. 

Dock maitw is one whose duties consist in 
managinjE! and directing the raovemonts and berth- 
tug tii oil shi)is uuiig any dock under his control, the 
collection of dock dues, and the carrying into ctlecl 
of the dock bye-laws. Hu is appointed by, and is a 
servant of the dock-owners, who are responsible 
For any damage to property directly traceable to 
his acti, or default*: arising from orders given by 
liim within the Ttcopc of his authority, provided 
tliat. in cases of coULsion there has Iteen no con- 
tributory negligence on the part of the mast«r or 
crew of the vessel doing damage, and that the dock 
master's orders arc properly executed. 

Docks. A dock is an artificial enclosure into 
which ships may be floated for the purpose or 
repair, discharge, or loading. They .are divided 
into thrve classes— tidal docks or basins, wet docks, 
and gra\*ing or dry docks. 

\ tidal dock is one which has an open entrance, 
and the water level in the dock rises or folia acoonl- 
ing to the state of the tide. '' 

In a u-et dock the water is matntaju'i^r ttX OIK 
uniform level by closmg the entrance tiy means of 
watertight gates. 

Craving docks or dry docks are used exclnsively 
for the repair of veiwls. They are fitted with 
water-tight gates at one end ; tlie gates have sluices 
in them, in order to allow the water to gradually fill 
tlie dock to admit the vessels. Such docks arc 
iiupplicd with a row of keel blocks up the centre, 
and the vessel is placed with her keel immediately 
over tfaem. and as the water is pumpctl out, the 
vessel gradually settles on these blocks. 

Floating docks, which arc invariably constructed 
of iron or steel, fulfil the same purpose as that of a 
graving or dry dock. 

Refer to Ilartx>urs; l^ndon. Port of; Bristol, 
Port of : Belfast, Port of : Loith, Port of : Naval 

Dock warmntg are docunicDts of title lo goods 
and acknowledgments on the part of dock com- 
panies th-it they hold and are responsible for certain 
quantities of goods specified therein. Between the 
two contracting parties the transfer of a Dock 
warrant operates only as a token of authority to 
lake possrssion. and not as a transfer of possession. 
But any document of title may be lawfully trans- 
lerred to any person as a buyer or owner of the 
goods, and if he in turn transfer such documcnl of 
title to another who takes bona fid€ and lor valuable 
consideration, the last transfer will liavc the same 
eilect for defeating the vendor's lieu, or right of 
stoppage tn transUu t^,*.}. as the transfer of a bill of 
lading has for defeating the right of sta))i>age in 
transilM. Dock wan^uts are not. howe\'cr, nego- 
tiable mstnimouu, and Uie transferee acquirer no 
bottor title to the goods than the ir«ib>icior had. 
(Sale ol Goods Act, 1^3. and Factofb Act.jfiflV') 


1 80 


Dockyards, Naviil. Sn Naval Establishments. 

Dodd, Thomas Jamec (b. Portsmouth, April, 1847). 
Educated Hortsraouth. and in i86i paascd first in 
the examination before the Ci\'il Service Commis- 
fiiont-rs, and was enterwl in Portsmouth dockyard 
as n shipwright apprentice. After serving five 
ye.-iTB he was granted by Ihe Lord Commissioners of 
the Admiralty a scholarship for a further two years, 
during which time he studied the principles of 
design, and was instructed in the actual work of 
]a)-ing oflF and ship's construction. In 1868. after 
completing seven years' apprenticeship, he was 
appointed an assistant overseer of iron and compo- 
site vessels building by c-ontracl for H.M. service, 
and was .so employed on the armour-clad frigates 
Swiftsure ajid Triumph, on tJie turret -ship Cyclops. 
four iron gun - vcescIs. and the iron troopship 
AsiiiiaHce. In May. 1873, he was appointed 
surveyor to Lloyd's Register of British and Foreign 
Shipping at Leitli and Sunderland, and assisted the 
late Mr. Martcl in the preparation of the first free 
board tables whidi were accepted by the Govern- 
ment in rSgo. In 1874 he was appointed exclusive 
sur\-eyor at Genoa. Italy, and in 1677 was appointed 
to Marseilles, on special duties. In February, t88o. 
he wa.3 promoted to Glasgow, and in 1900, when the 
Glasgow Committee of Lloyd's Register of British 
and Foreign Shipping was formed, he wa.s api>ointc<l 
secretary of that cnnimiltL-e, in addition to the 
principal survcyorship. 

Member of the Institution of Naval Architects, 
and of the Institution of Engineers and Ship- 
builders of Scotland. 

Ooff. To pass zigzag the tails of a stopper or 

other ropes. 

DogalL Italian 3rd class cruiser. (Elswtck, 

Length 250ft. Beam 37ft. Maximum draufjht 15ft. 
Displacement 2,000 tons. Complement 257. 
Cuns. A riHOur. 

6—6 in. " Steel." 

I— 3"9 in. 2 in. Deck, 

g — 3'a in. 4 in. Deck gun shields. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
4 Above water. 
Hp. 7,600=^19 kts. Coal maximum 480 tons. 

Dogger. A Dutch smack carrying main and 
mizzcn ina^t, principally used for fishing on Dogger 

DofCger Bank. A sand l»ink in the middle of North 
Sea between Hngland and Denmark, and extending 
within 40 miles of tlie Yorkfthire coast. Has an aver- 
age depth of 10 to 20 fathoms. Famous cod-Ashing 
centra. Here on the night of October 21, 1904, the 
Russian fleet (which wns afterwards annihilated 
by Admiral Togo at tlie battle of Tsushima) when 
on its way to the Far East fired on the trawlers, 
sinking the Cratu. and damaging others, and killing 
two and w-ounding many of the fishermen. An 

International Commission was held to inqnire into 
the incident, and the Russian Government was com- 
pelled to pay compensation, 

DoKger Bonk. BalUe ol. On August $. 1781. aa 
indecisive battle wa.s fought tjctwcen the Brilisb 
under Admiral Sir Hyde Parker and the Dutch. 

DoegflU's Coat and Badse. A sculling phte 
founded by Thomas Doggclt in 1716 for Thames 
watermen who have finished tlieir apprenticeship 
within a year prior to the race. It consists of a red 
coat with a large silver badge on the arm. The 
race takes place annually, the course being from 
London Bridge to Chelsea, and is always keenly con- 
tested. A record of winners has been preserved 
since 1791. 

DoK*s ear. The leech of a sail between the reels 

wh(jn it sticks up. 

Dofvane. A small contrivance made of thread, 
cork and feathers, to show the direction of the wind. 

Dog-watch. The half-watches of two hours each. 

from (our to six, and six to eight in ttie evening. 

Doldrunu. Those parts of the sea near the 
equator vvhere calms arc generally experienced. 

Dolphin. A bollard post on a quay to which 

liawsers are made fast. 

Dolj^hin. U.S. gun-vessel. (Oiester. 1885. 1 
Length. 240 ft, : beam. 32 ft. : draught. 17 ft. ; 
displacement, 1,486 tons; complement, 117 ; guns, 
2 4-in., I 6-pdr.. 6 .vpdr. ; Hp.. .2.250=15 kts.; 

coal, 173 tons. 

Dolphin striker. A short gafi s-j^ar for guyi 
down the jibboom which it supports. 

Dom Oarloa I. Portuguese armoured ship (1898). 
Length 360ft. Beam 46ft. Mean draught 17ft. 
Displacement 4.100 tons. Complement 473. 

4 — 6 in. 
8— ^'7 in. 

13—3 pdr. 

10— I pdr. 

A rmaur. 
4i in. Deck. 
4 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
2 Submerged. 
jt Above water. 
Hp. forced 13.500^ 

'33 kU. Coal 

Twin screw, 
maximum 700 tons. 

Domett, Sir William (1754-1828). English ad- 
miral. Shared in the action ofif Ushant, 1778 ; 
Arbutlmol's Bction in the Chesapeake, 1781 ; was 
in command of the flag-ship Roiuney in the !Hediter- 
ranean at the outbreak of the war, 1793 ; com- 
manded Hood's flag-ship, the Royal George, in 
Howe's battle of " The Glorious First of June." 
1794. In 1799 he was present at Basque Roads, 
and two yearn later was promoted fiag-captain to 
Sir Hyde Parker (q.v.) at Copenhagen. He was 
one of the Commissioners of Naval Inquiry, ap- 
pointed in 1803 on dockyards, which sat until 
March, 180S. He was made admiral, 1819. 




Dottlnloa. British lytclsw^ttlcahip. {Vkkeis. 

Length 453ft. Beam ^Sft. Mean draught 36ft. 
Displacement 16.JS0 tons. Complement 77;. 

CGuH*. A rm«wr. 

4 — 12 in. " Krupp." 

4 — 9'3 in. 9 in. Belt amidships. 

10—6 to. 13 in. Barbettes. 

14 — I a pdr. 1 3 in. Conning tower. 

U— 3 pdf- 
3 Maxims. 
Torpedo Ttihts. 
4 Sabmerged hroadsirte. 
I SubmM'ged stem. 
Twin screw. Hp. 18,000=18*5 kis. Coal maxi- 
mum 3,000 ions. Approximate cost j£i, 

Dominion Stflanuhip Lina. In 1870 some Liver- 
pool and N>-W Orleans cotton merchants lormcd 
the Mississippi and Dominion Steamship Co.. Ltd. 
Since 1804 the propnctar)' company ha.? been the 
British and North Atlantic Steam Navigation Co,. 
Ltd. A weekly passenger service between Liver- 
pool and Quebec and Montreal in the summer and 
Halifax {Nova Scotia) and Portland (Maine) in the 
lA-inter is maintained, as well as a regular weekly 
freight service from Liverpool to Portland through- 
out the year. There is also a fortnightly freight 
service between Avonmouth and Quebec and 
Montreal in the summer, and Portland in the 
winter. The largest steamer is the Norseman. 
9,546 tons. There is building a new twin-screw 
steamer of 14,000 tons, which wtU be named the 



IyCofHishmaM, Notuiman. 

Dom inicn . OUa wa . 

I .■CofHishmaM, 
, Enftishmmn. 






Gross tonnage, 88,650. 

Dom Lois I. Portuguese gun-vessel. (Lisbon 
1895.) Length, 151 f L : beam. 27 ft.: draught. 
14 ft : displacement, 710 tons ; armament, 4 4'1-in., 
3 a's-in.. 3 Maxims i Hp.. 512=9 kti, : coal. 

100 tons. 

Domnle, Admiral Sir Comptoa Edward. K.C.B.. 
cr. 1898; O.O.V.O., iyo5 {b. Worcestershire. 18411. 
Educated Royal Academy. Goaport ; entered Navy, 
i8;6: lieutenant, 1863; lieutenant commanding 
Atferitu ; promoted to commander for his skill and 
gallantry in services against pirates in China, 
t866-68 ; captain, 1876 ; captain of Dtdo, 1879-83 : 
saw active service om. West Coast of Africa and the 
Cape during Boer war ; Acting Commodore, 
Jamaica, iSAi : captain of Temeraire, 1884-86 ; 
captain H.M.S, ExcslUnl, Gunnery School, Ports- 
mouth. 1886-90; vice-president of Ordnance Com- 
mittee. 1890-91 : Director of Naval Ordnance and 
Torpedoes, 1891-94; Rear- Admiral, Mediterranean 
Fleet, 1S94 96 : Admiral Superintendent of Naval 

Reserves, 1897 ; I^«eident of Boiler Commission 
since 1900: Commander-in-Chief. Mediterranean 
Station, 1903 ; retired October, 1907, on attaining 
the age of 6s. 

Don. Russian Government liner ( 1690). Length, 
504 ft. ; beam, ^j ft. ; draught, 34 ft. ; gross ton- 
nage. 8,430 ; Hp., 16,400 — 1 1) kts. 

Doo&ld. James (b. Glasgow, 1867). Served ap- 
prenticeship with the Fairfield ShipbmMing and 
Engineering Co. , Glasgow, From 1 8g i -qti was 
assistant to Dr. Francis lilgar in the London 
offices of the company. In 189Q he joined the 
Union Ironworks. San Francisco. Calilomia. as a 
naval architect and assistant to the general manager 
Id 1901 he severed his connection with tliis firm 
and joined as naval architect the New York Ship- 
building Co. 

Member of the Institution of Naval Architects 
(England), and of the Institution of Naval Archi- 
tects (New York). 

Dontldion Line- Established in Glaagow in 1854 
by Donaldson Brothers, who started busineia with 
the little wooden bark Joan Tavtor, of J39 tons, 
trading between Glasgow and the River Plate. 

Their first iron vessel was the barque Miami, built 
in 1867. and their first steamer the AsiarU. S(> ? tous. 
built 1870. They now have a large fleet, which 
trade regularly between Glasgow and St. John, 
N.B., Quebec, .Montieal, Baltimore. Norfolk, and 
NewiKjrt News, and make a speciality of live-stock 
and frozen cargoes, their principal .tteamcrs being 
fitted with cold storage on Hall's principle. 

A Uidsi. Hsstia. ManHOm 

Almora. Indrani. Orthia. 

A Ihania. Kastaita. PaviS^nia. 

Cassandra. Lakoma. SaJacia. 

Concordia. Tritonia, 

Gross tonnage, 65.000. 

Complement 89. 
•• Staef 
6 in. Conning tower. 

"Don Alraro de Basau. Spanish torpedo gun- 
boat (1897). 

Displacement 830 tons. 
2 — 4 in. 
4—3 pth. 
3 Catlings. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
I Submerged bow, 
3 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. natural 2.500 = 17 kts.. forced 
3.300% 19'S kt3. Coal normal i30 tons. 

DOOA HarU d« Molina. Spanish torpedo gun- 
boat (1806). 

Displacement S50 tons. Complement 89. 

Gutu. A rmour, 

3—4 m. " Steel." 

4 — 3 pdr. 6 in. Conning tower. 
a GtttlinRs. 


I 82 


*■''■■ Torpedo Tubet. 

1 SubmcTgtd bow. 

2 Above water. 

Twin screw, lip. natural 3.500=17 kts., forced 
3.500=19'$ kt5. Coal normal 120 tons. 

Donogal. Rritl<ih 1st cUss criilser. (Fairfidrl. 
Ixngth 44oJt. Beam 66(t. Mean draught 24ft. 
Displacement g.8oo tons. Complement ^78. 
Gums. A rmovt. 

14 — 6 in.. >t5 cal. " Knipp." 
8 — 13 pdr. 4 in. Belt amidships. 

3—13 pdr., M cv-t. 5 in. Barbettes. 
3—3 pdr. [o in. Conning tower. 

S Pompoms. 

Torpedo Tttbo (18 in.). 
2 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 22.000 — 23 kls. Coat maxi- 
nmm 1,600 tons. Approximate cost ;^7 15.900. 

Donets. Russian corvette. Black Sea. (Nico- 
laiefl, laSS.) LeuKlh, 210 ti. \ beam, 35 ft. 
draught, 1 1 ft. : displacement, 1 ,224 ; complement. 
i6j ; armament, 2 8-in.. i 6-in., 7 q.f., a torpedo 
tubes ;Hp.. i,soo»ij^ kts; coal. 250 tons. 

Don loan de Anttria. U.S. gun-vessel. (Cartha- 
gena, 1898,) I.ength. 210 ft. ; beam, ^2 ft. ; 
draaght, 13 ft. ; di'^plaecment. 1,159 tons : comple- 
ment, I jo : armament, 6 4-in., 4 6-pdr., 4 Maxims ; 
Hp.. 1.500=14 ktn. : coal, 210 tons. 

Donkey-engine is a subsidiary engine driven by 
&tcam Irom tiic main boilers, used on ship board 
(or working winches, capstans, and pumps. 

Don Pedro. French steamer, from Havre to I.a 
Plata, wrecked off the N.W. coast of Spain. May 27, 
1894 : *7 Wvw lost- 

Donskoj Kasak. Russian torpedo gun-boat. (St. 
Petersburg. 1905.) Displacement, 625 tons ; speed, 
19 kts. 

Donskoi Kassack. Knssian tori>edo-buHt de- 
stroyer. (Yarrow, 1906.) Displacement, 5oStons ; 
draught, S ft. ; complement. 75 ; armameot. 
2 12-pdr.. 5 6-pdr., t tubes ; Hp., 5,200 = 26 kts. 

Doon. British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Yar- 
row. 1904,) Length, 222 ft. ; beam, 23} ft ; 
draught, 9] ft. ; difsplacement, 600 tons : comple- 
ment. 72 ; armament, i la-pdr.. 5 6-pdr., 2 tubes ; 
twin screw ; Hp.. 7,500^35 kts. ; coat. 126 tons. 

Dorade, French submarine. (Toulon, 1903.) 
Length, 77 It. ; beam, 74 ft. ; draught, 8 ft. ; dis- 
placement. 6S tons; complement. 5; Hp., 60 = 

S kt5. 

Dorla, Andrea (1466-1 560), Famons Genoese 
admiral. VrTien ^o years of age he entered into 
Ihr service of Franci:^ I. of France, axtd was given 
command of the fleet in the Mediterranean, and 

captared Genoa for the French in r537. After dual 
\'ictDry Francis I. slighted him, and when con- 
ducting the blockade of Naples for the French he 
was persuaded to change sides, receiving from 
Charles V. a promise of the freedom of his native 
town. His action altered the fortunes of the war, 
and he drove the French from Genoa ; re-established 
the republic on a broad basis, which he continued 
to maintain in unity and independence until his 
death. See Petit's " .\ndre Doria. un Amiral Con- . 
dotticre, 18B7." 1 

Doris. British 2nd class cruiser. (Barrow, 

length 364ft. Beam 54ft. Maximum draught ; 
Displacement 5.600 tons. Complement 450. 
Guns. Armour. 

II — 6 in. " Harvey." 

8 — 12 pdr. zj in. Deck. 

1 — 13 pdr.. S cwt, ^ in. Conning tower. 
7—3 pdr. 

2 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
3 Submerged. 
1 Above water stem. 
Twin screw. Hp. natural S.oooc^ i8'5 kts., forced 
9.6oos=i9's kts. Coal maximum 1,076 tons. 

Dwis. Frigate. On January 
vessel was lost on the Diamond 

12. iSu5, this 
Rfx:k, Quiberoa 




Dorobasch^s Floating Cargoes. Established 1 8 5S. 1 

Piiblislieii daily (morning and evening). FVice (by' 
subscription), .\ddress : ii Tokenhouse Yard, 
]-ondon, E.C. 

Dorothea. This vessel, commanded by Captain ^ 
David Buchan, sailed, April, 1B18, for the polar 
regions. Driven into the pack upon a he^ivy 
tiwell ^e was severely nipped, and bad to return | 

to Englanrf. fiefev in Arctic Exploration. 

Dorset Yacht 
Yacht Club. 

Club. BoyaL See Royal Dorset 

Dortmnnd-Weser-Ems Canal i:onnects the West- 
phahan co.nllif]ds with the Woscr at Munster, and 
forms the intermediate link between the Midlaad 
Canal and the Rhine-Wes«r-Elbc Canal. It was 
commenced in [892, and cost about four million 
sterling. It is 174 mile.s long, and has an average 
depth of about tii ft., and can be navigated by 
vessels up to 750 tons. 

Dociolny. Russian torpedo-boat destroyer (i 
Length, 185 ft. : beam, 21 ft. ; draught. 7 J ft. 
displacement. 324 tons; complement, 60; arma 
ment, i ts-pdr., 5 3-pdr., 2 Maxims, a tubes 
twin screw; Hp., ^,600 = 26 kts. ; coal, too tons. 

Doable. To strengthen a ship with extra plank- 
ing vfhr-n through age or otherwise she has tKcomo 






DoaUe iuaranoe aaxaedmet happeoa when the 

8&m« interest is insured vnih two different under- 
writers wtthout any fraudulent intention. In such 
cases the rule is that the assured claims his loss in 
full from one set of underwriterb. and they in turn 
claim a return of onp-half from the other under- 
^^Titenl. The same phncipk* holds if the araounts 
are any other proportion than half. 

Dooclu. Sir Andrew Soape (1761-97)- British 
naval otliccr. In 1794 uas flag-captain ol the 
Quun CharloUe, I-ord Howe's flag-ship .it the 
hattle of " The Glorious First of June." when he 
■was dangerously woundod. In the following year 
he took part in Bridport's action a£F L'Onent. 

Dotiglu, Admiral 8ir Archibald Laidas, K.C.B. 
(b. 1S4J). Entered Navy iSjG ; served as mid- 
shipman and lieutenant of the Avtagon ; present at 
all the engagementi^ o( the Kaval Brigade up the 
nvers Congo and Gambia during her commission 
on the coast of Africa : gunnery lieutenant of 
Aurora, and commanded a gun-boat on the lakes of 
Canada during the Fenian invasion, 1U06 ; com- 
mander. 1872 : instructor in the use of Harvey's 
torpedo of the Channel and Reserve fleets. 187* ; 
selected by the Admiralty to proceed to Japan as 
Commander of the Kaval Mission to instruct the 
Japanese Navy ; served as Director of the Imperial 
Japanese Naval College at Yedo for two years ; 
received the thanks of the Emperor of Japan, and 
approval of his service* from the Admiralty ; 
captain, 1S80 ; captain of Serapit during the naval 
and mihtary operations in the Soudan, 1S84 
(Egyptian medal. Khedive's Bronxe Star) ; member 
of Ordnance Committer. 1887-90; A.D.C to the 
Qoc«i. 1893-95 : rear-admiral, 1S95 ; vice-president 
ol Ordnance Committee, 1896; Commander-in- 
Chief East Indian Station, 1898 ; Lord Commis- 
sioner of the Admiralty, 1899 ; vice-admiral. 1901 ; 
Commander -in-Chief North America and West 
Indies, 1903 ; K.C.B., 190J ; Commander-in-Chief 
at Portsmouth, 1904 ; admiral, 1905. 

Douglas. Sir Charles. British rear-admiral. Took 
a distinguished part in the relief of Quebec, 1776 : 
coQUuunded the Stirling CaslU in the action oil 
.Usbaiit. 1778. and was CaptaJii of the Fleet to 
Rodney in the battle of Lcs Saintes. Me is credited 
U'lth having first mtioduced flint gun locks into 
the Navy. 

Douglas. Sbolto. British admiral (b. 1833). 
Served during Cafree and Burmese war (Cairee 
and Burmese medals) : present in the Baltic 
fhiring Russian war. at the bombardment of 
Sleiburg (Baltic medal) ; served during China war. 
1655-58. at Fatshan (China medal, Fatshan clasp) ; 
commanded the Coromandet at the capture of Bogtic 
and Pcihu forts (Taku clasp) ; landed with Naval 
Brigade at the capture of Canton, 1857 (Canton 
daap) ; commander of Esf>fir, 1860-64. on West 
Coast of Africa during slave trade blockade, whan 

ha captured and liberated over 3.000 slavea ; com- 
manded the Indian troop-ship Malabar, frigate 
Aurora, and ironclads Achtlies and Resistance; 
C.B.. 1 88 1. 

Donelass, Sir James NiohoUs (1836-98). English 
engineer (b. London). Became chief engineer to 
Trinity House Corpomtion. for whom he designe<l 
and superintended the construction of many hght- 
houses, especially the structure which replaced the 
Eddystone IJghthouse, 1878-82, He carried out, 
with Tyndall and Faraday, many experiments on 
lighthouse illumination and fog-stgaalliag. 

Dooro. Bntish mail Kteamer. Sunk by collision 
with Spanish steamer Ytirrac Dal. April t. 1883; 
59 lives lost. 

Dove. Sss .Antarctic Exploration. 

Dove. British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Hull, 
lyoi.) Length. 310 ft.; beam, zo ft.; draught. 
5i ft. ; displacement, 300 tons ; complement, 
60; armament. 1 i3-pdr., 5 6-pdr:, 2 tubes; twin 
screw; Hp.. 5,800=3 jo kts. : coal, 80 tons. 

Dover and Ostend Belgian Qovenuneat Mail 
Paoket See Belgian State Railway and Mail 
Packet Service. 

Dover Straits, Battle ot. On September z8. 1653, 
the Dutch admiral van Tromp defeated the British 
admiral Blake. The Dutch, with a fleet of So 
ships, engaged the British fleet with 40 ships, several 
of which were captured and six destroyed. The 
Dutch admiral sailed in triumph through the 
Channel, with a broom at his mast-head, to denote 
that he had swept the British from the seas. 

Dowell. Sir William Hootagn (b. 1825). Entered 
Royal Navy 1639. Suivcd as midshipman of Druid 
and Blenhgim ; served in Clilna. and took part in all 
the operations from the attack on the barrier at 
Macao in 1840, to the capture of Ning Po. 1841 
(China medal and clasp) ; landed with the Naval 
Brigade at Monte Vidt-o, 1846-47 ; gunnery lieu- 
tenant uf Albion in Black Sea; present at ttie 
siege ol Sebastopol (Crimean and Turkish medals, 
Scbastopol clasp. Knight of the Legion of Honour, 
Medjidie, 5th Class) ; served with Naval Brigade 
at the capture of Canton, 1S57 (China medal, 
Canton clasp) ; C.B., 1864, for services in Japan ; 
in command of the West Coast of Africa and Ca]>e of 
Good Hope Stations, 1B67-71 ; second in command 
Channel Squadron. 1877-78 ; senior ofhcer on the 
Coast of Ireland, 1878-80; aenior officer in com- 
mand of the Channel Squadron. 1883-83 : attached 
to Mediterranean fleet and engaged in Egyptian 
war, 1882 ; K.C.B. for services rendered (Egyptian 
medal, Khedive's Brouxe Star. Osuianieh. J»d 
Class) : commander-in-chief China, 1884-85 ; com- 
nModer-in-chief DevtHiport, 1888-90; retired 189a, 
and received admiral's good service pension 1891* 




Down. A ridge or bvik of suid cast up by tbe 
action of th« wa or wind near the shnre. 

Downa. Battle of the. On Fdiruury 30th, 1653. 
thf British under IHIake defeated van Tromp and the 
Dutch fleet ofi Portsmouth, laking and destroying 
tj men ol war and 30 merchantmen. On June 2 
the Dutch and Kuglisli ilec-U ucrc again engaged 
ofl the Nortti Foreland, and victory was once more 
for the BritiaU. Six Dutch shjp» were captured, 
I i sunk, and tlie rest ran into Calais Roads. 

Downi. Tba. A roadstead eight miles long and 
six miles wide, on the of Kent. Extends from 
N. to S. Foreland, and is protected on the E. by The 
Goodwin Sands. Ships can (ind sale anchorage 
there except during Southerly gales. 

Dowse. (Douse.) To strike or allow the saih to 
fall suddenly on account of itquall. 

Doxfotd, William, and Sons. Ltd., Sunderland. 
Th:s great establishment ou the Wear, which ha.s 
aiuined world-wide reputatioo, is the result of 
sustained eflort. continuous striving, and steady 
growth from grandfather to grandson. It was in 
11(40 that the hrm was established by the late- 
T^*illiam Doxford, who started a little wooden 
sbip-buildtng yard at Cox Green, and U wns here 
that the " worthy master " built many a " strong 
and goodly vessel, that did laugh at all disaster, 
and with wave and whirlwind ^^Testie." with 
" timbers fashioned strong and true, stemson and 
keelson and stemson knee, framed in perfect 

The Arm to-day are famous for their great ocean 
carriers, and it must not be forgotten that more 
than a generation ago they were equally famous 
for their fine sailing ships, which rank amongst the 
stateliest vessels then turned ont on the Tj'ne 
or Wear. 

By the middle of the century it was clear that 
the day of the wooden ship waji doomed ; and «(0 
moving with the tiroes, Mr. Doxford left Co\ Green 
and started a ship>building yard at Pallion. m 1857. 
somewhat to the west of the present site, which 
they piiurcluuied in l86g. Here five sliim were laid 
down, and steamen uf thi^ ordioary iron cargo ty{>e 
were built in considerable nunibcnt. 

In I tJ78 an engine -building department was 
added to the yard. litre for many years steamers 
were bmlt and cugined, and ihc reputation of the 
firm grew, .-^t this time tlic capacity of the yard 
was about 28,000 tons of shipping per annum, with 
five building slips ; shortly afterwards, these five 
slips were converted into three of larger size, capable 
of turning out vessels up to 12,000 tons dead weight 
on each berth. From the time of this change the 
tonnage output of tbe firm steadily rose, until in 
19U2 it had reached 43.000 tons. Dunngthis period 
extra maohinery, railway uocoinmodation, and a 
fitting out quay, including a 150-ton r.adial crane. 
were added to the establishment. Property sur- 

rounding it was gradually acquired, until finally. 
1901. .1 start was made with the extension of 
premises, and three extra slips were de&igucd. 
These slips were started in 1903, and completed in 
1 904. enabling the firm to lay down the fir^t keel in 
Iheir new yard in June of that year, before the dose 
of which three large vtswuls had bucn lauociuMl. 
thereby bringing the out]>ut of the firm up to 53.000 
tons, all in turret steamers. In 1905— the first yi 
in which the full capacity of the increased establish' 
ment was tested — tlie total output of tonnage wj 
87.000 tons, and in 1906 this was increased 
106,000 tons, a total which placed the firm in 
immediate front raidc of British builders. 

In September, 1901, the engine works were 
destroyed by fire, and were rebmlt on an enlargi 
scale. In the process of rebuilding the firm ti 
the opportunity not orJy to lay down new maichineiy^ 
of the most powerful type u-ith alt the Latest 
improviiments, but L>rought this department righ{ 
up to date, with a capacity lor turning out 30 sei 
oi marine eiiginctt per amium, with an I.Hp. 

l*he engine and boiler shops consist oi two ba; 
of 49 ft. span, and two bays of 32 ft. span, all 350 ft 
long. Each bay lias four overhead travelling, 
electrical ly-d riven cranes. Weights up to 80 tons 
can be lilted and transported in the wider ba>-s. 
These shops arc htted throughout with the most 
up-to-date tools and machinery, electrically driveo. 

For over a decade the name of Doxford has been 
inseparably identified witli the turret deck steamer. 
The caJly prejudices against it liavu goD«. Ship- 
owners who at &rst dcctined to experiment with 
now recognise its merits. They have proved to 
economic and commercially cthcicnt craft, and tbi 
are found in every trade, which is attested by tl: 
simple fact that there are now afloat and building 
175 turret vessels with an aggregate gross tonnage 
of 670,000, and a dead -weight capacity of 1,080^000 
tuna, to the credit of the PalUon yard. 

In their long ship-building experience this 
tuive turned out many notable ships. Thi 
started with number one vessel in 1863 ; their 
wooden vessel was constructed in 1864 ; their last 
composite ship in 1S69 ; and their first steel ship in 
1882. In 1874 they built three gun-boats and one 
corvette — Opal — for the British Navy, and have 
recently constructed six torpedo-boat destroyers, 
among which are the Violet and the Sylvia, capablv^H 
of steaming 30 kuotis. So far back as 1879 the)r^| 
built the biggest dead-weight steamer then afloat, 
the Grecian, of 4,500 tons, for the Allan Line. 
In 1896 they repeated the same performance on a 
much larger scaJc. the vessel being theyf/joa, a 
vessel of 11,300 tons dead-weight, which was th«^| 
largest tramp steamer buUt that year. In 1903^* 
they again peTformed an achievement in shipbuild- 
ing by turning out the three largest single-deck 
ships afloat, vU., the B.I. steamers Quiloa. Quetimba 
and Qxuda. each of 12,000 tons dead-weight, th«ae 









bcitig the lu'gest tdmf ^twi ip ew -wiricli ham yet 
been built. For the Clan Line the firm has con- 
structed no fewer tlian 30 turret ^ttenmcru, chiefly 
from 6,000 to 8.000 capacity. 

Among the more recent important devHopments 
bT Messra. Doxford, is the twin-masted collier, the 
E. 0. Saitmnrsk. built for the Louisville and Nash- 
ville Railroad Co.. for their coal trade from Pensa- 
cola to Tampico. She is fitted up with Doxford's 
system of derrick gear, and can discharge 3.000 tons 
of coal per day out of her five hatches, and deliver 
same direct into the railway tnickii, which are 
standmg 6 ft. from the quay wall. When it is 
remembered that Doxford's are now able to build 
and engine two ships for e%'ery calendar month of 
the year, some idea of the extent of the establish- 
ment and the perfection of its organiuition will be 

D.II. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing 
boats registered at Dover, England. 

Draak. Nethcrland coast defence monitor (3,000 
tons). Very old, and of no fighting value. 

Dmbler. Canvas lacrd on the bonnet of a sail to 
give It more drop. 

Drag. Applied to an anchor when not holding. 

Dragon. Britisb torpedo-boat destroyer. (Bir- 
kenhead, 1S94O Length, 210 ft. ; beam, ig ft. ; 
draught, 7 tt. : displacement, J90 tona ; comple- 
ment. 50 : armament, 1 12-pdr.. 5 6-pdr., 2 tubes : 
twin screw; Hp., 4.500=^27 Jets; coal, 60 tons. 
This ship-name is associatrd with the battle off the 
North ForeJaud, 1653 ; battle off LowestoU, 16O3 ; 
capture of Belleisle, 1671 : reduction of Havana, 
176J ; Caldcr's action off Fcrrol, 1805. 

Dragon. French sea going torpedo-boat. (Nor- 
mand, i8o3-) Length. T38 ft. ; beam, 14) ft. ; 
draught. 8 ft. : displacement, 139 tons ; comple- 
ment. 26: armament. 2 j-pdr. 3 tabee : twin 
screw; Hp., t, 400= 35 kts. ; coal, 10 tons. 

Dragon Fly. British coastal torpedo-boat de- 
stroyer. (White. 1906.) 

Dragonnt). French torpedo gun-boat. [Harrc. 
1885.) I-ength, 196 it. ; beam, 21 ft, ; draught. 

ft,; displacement, 4x3 tons; complement, 63; 
fnitt, 4 fl't in., 3 Maxims, 2 tubes ; Hp., 
a.oooMiS kts. ; coal maximum, too tons. 

Drake. British ist dass cruiser. (Pembroke. 

Length 5 Ji^L Beam 71 It. Maximum draught 38ft. 
Displacement 14,100 tons. Complement 900. 
Ouns, Armour. 

2 — 9'3 in., 4$ caJ. " Krupp." 
}6 — 6 in. 6 in. Belt amidships. 

14 — 13 pdr. 6 in. Barbettes. 

3 — 3 pdr. 13 in. Connmg tower. 

3 Maxims. 

T^rrpdib Tii&er ftS in.). 
a Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp.. 30.000.-^33 kts. Coat nuxi- 
mum 2,500 tons. Approxim."ite cost ^1.000,000. 

Drake. i» guns. On June 30, 1833, this vessel 
was lost near Halifax, when several were drowned. 

Drake, Sir Francis (JUS-OS)- Celebrated English 
Admiral (b. Tavistock). He joined the ill-fated 
expedition of Sir John Hawkyns, destroyed by the 
Spaniards 1567. where he acquired a great reputa- 
tion. After two vo^ragejt to the West Tndtns he 
sailfd from Plymouth. 1573. for Nonibrc de Dios. 
which he successfully attacked. He crossed the 
Isthmus of Panama, and committed great havoc 
among the Spanish shipping. Having embarked 
his men and filled his ship with plundi-r, he set sail 
for England, arriving at Plymouth. 1573. In 
December, 1577, he sailed with another squadron. 
intending to undertake a voyage through the South 
Seas to the Straits of Magellan, which no English- 
man liad hitherto attempted. He reached the 
coast of Brazil on .April 5, and entered the Rio de 
la Plata, where he parted company with two oi his 
ships. On Angust 20 he entered the Straits ol 
Magellan, and on September 35 passed them, having 
then only his own ship. He tlten worked his way 
up the Went Coast of South America, making several 
priies by the way. OH Cape Francisco he cap- 
tured the Cacafuego, with more than 1 50,000 pounds 
of treasure. He then struck across th« Pacific, and 
returned home by the East Indies, Cape of Good 
Hope, and Sierra Leone, atui reached England, 
September, 1 5S0 — the first Englishman to circum- 
navigate the globe. The voyage occupied two 
years and tea months. In 1585 he set sail with a 
fleet of 25 ships to make reprisals 00 the Spaniards 
m the West Indies, and took the ciUea of St. J ago, 
St. Domingo. Carthagcna. and St. Augustine. In 
1587 he went to Lisbon with a fleet of 30 sail, and 
having received intelligence of a great fleet being 
assembled in tlic Bay of Cadiz, destined to form part 
ol the Armada, he entered the bay, and burnt up- 
wards of 10.000 tons of shipping. When the 
Armada appeared the following yuar, he was 
appointed vice-admiral under Lord Howard, and 
enhanced his reputation in the running fight up 
channel, where he made prize of a very large 
galleon commanded by Dom Pedro dc Valvrz. who 
was reputed the projector of the inva.<don. In 1 595 
he saOed on his last expedition to the Wust Indies. 
After a series of misfortrme he died of dysentery at 
Porto Bello. A monument was erected to his 
mwnory at Tavistock, and there is a duplicate of it 
on Plymouth Hoe. 

Sff Barrow s " Life of Drake " (1843), Sir J. K. 
Laughton, "The Diet, of Nat. Biog.,*' Corbett'a 
" Drake and Tudor Navy " (iSgg), " The Worid en- 
compassed by Sir Francis Drake " by Fletcher fl638j, 
" Sir Francis Drake, his Voyage *' (i 593) by Thomas 
Maynarde, published by the Hakluyt Society In 1849. 




Dninsht. The depth of water a ship displaces 
when floating. 

Draw. AVhcn sails are wdl 61lcri b)' the. wind. 

Drawback. Aii allowaacc granted by Govern - 
mcnt to encourage exportation ol an article, or a 
return of duties paid upon certain articles on 

Dreadnought. British ist class battieship. (Pbrts- 
month. it)o6.) 

Length 500ft. Beam Soft. Draught 26ft 
Diitplacement 18,000 tons. 
GuHS. Armour, 

10 — 13 in. " Krupp." 

18—3*5 '"■ t2 in. Belt amidships. 

12 in. Barbettes. 
Tmpfdn Tulms (iR in.). 
^ Submerged broadside. 
I Submerged stem. 
Turbine. Four screws. Hp. 23,000 = 21 kts. 

Approximate cost ^r .750.000. 
The first vessel of this name in the Navy was 
laiinchfd in 1573. and is described as measuring 
400 fens and carrying 200 men. She took part in 
the overthrow of the Invincible Armada, and 
participated In the attack upon Cadiz under Sir 
Walter Raleigh. She was reconstructed in the 
latter part of the reign of Charles U,, and was lost 
with the greater part of her ship's company off the 
North Foreland. Another vessel of the same name 
took part in thv- battle of Barflfur, and in the year 
1742 a Dreadnought of fio gunB, measuring ojS tons, 
was built at Portsmouth, and one commanded by 
Captain the Hon. Edward Boscawen captured the 
French frigate Medfe of 26 guns and 240 men. 
In 1801 she was ordered to be brnlcen up, and a 
new (hrrc-deckcr of 98 guns, building at Ports 
mouth, was given her name by Lord St. Vincent. 
This is the vessel which took part in the battle of 
Trafalgar, and in 1831 she was moored ofl Dcpt- 
ford and used by the Seaman's Hospital Society 
for several years, eventually being broken up 
some time in the seventies. The immediate pre- 
decessor of the present Dreadnought was an iron- 
clad turret ship designed as the h'ury, but launched 
under her new name in 1871;. She carried 4 I2'5 in. 
38 ton muzzle-loaders, and had engines of 8.000 
Hp.. which gave her a speed of about 13 kts. 
She is still in existence in the Kyles of Bute, to 
which place she was removed in 1005. 

The new- Dreadnought has lurbioe engines and 
four .screws, and can average a speed of iS kts. 
on ocean \-oyages. Most warships have only twin 
screws, and the advantage even of two screws is 
well illustrated by the recent passage of the Torrible 
from Hong Kong to Malta at an average speed of 
ir^ kts. with one of her screws disabled. This 
advantage is doubted in the case of the Dread- 
nought : indeed, it is much more tlian doubled. 
There is only one engine to each screw in a war- 

ship with reciprocating eagines. In the Dread- 
nought there are ten turbines in all, six for going 
ahead and four for going astern. Their arrange- 
ment ts as follows. At the forward end of the 
inner shaft on the starboard side there is a turbine 
for going ahead at cruising speed. This turbine 
may for purposes of reference be called A. Abaft 
of this there is a low-pressure turbine, C, for going 
ahead. Abaft of this, and in the same casing. 
there is a low-pressure turbine, V, for going astern. 
At the forward eud ai the outer shaft there is a 
high-pressure turbine, B. for going ahead, and abaft 
of this there is a high-pressure turbine. X, for 
going astcxn. At cruising speeds the steam passes 
successively through .^ to B and thence to C before 
passing through ibc condenser. At high speed 
A is cut out. and the steam passes direct to B, and 
thence to C For going a.<ttern thi? steam passes 
first to X and then to Y. Tt will be seen that ba 
all cases both screws arc actuated. The arrange- 
ment on the port side is $j*mmctrical with that 
just described. It would seem to follow that, 
unless all three of the turbines in the series for 
going ahead and both of the turbines in the series 
for going astern are disabled at once, at least one 
of the siarboard screws can be driven ahead or 
astern : and the same reasoning applies, of course, 
to the port screws. It is scarcely necessary to 
point out how much greater a security against 
total breakdown is obtained by this s>'stcna than 
by the system of twin screws actuated by re- 
ciprocating engines. 

Dredging. Sm Clubbing. 

Dresdener Maschinenbauiabnk Schifiswerft Actiea 
Gesellscbaft Uebineaa. This yard is famous for its 
river steamers, ot which it has built no fewer than 52, 
with 50.690 T.Hp., for the Rlifue, amongst which 
may be mentioned tht; Rhcinj^oid and the Kaiserim 
Augusta Victoria. The average output is about 
7.643 net register tons per annum. 

Dress. To ornament a ship with flags. 

Drift. Floating without guidance. 

Drlft-aet. A long uct. the top floated by car£ 
and Uie lower edge sunk by lead sinkers, by which 
mackerel, herring, and pilchard are caught. A 
numhrr of nets, to the extent uf a mile or more, 
are ii.sed by each boat, and are left suspended 
vertically in the water for some hours after sun- 
set, when they arc usually " shot " or sot in the | 
water in the neighbourhood where fish are thought 
to be schooUn^, the boat riding to a warp at the 
leew&rd end of the line until the nets are hauled 

DilAtig. Norw<^an torpedo-boat. (Christiania, 
1901.] Length, iii ft.: beam. 14^ ft,; draught, 
(>^ ft. ; displacement, 65 tons ; armament, 2 1*4 in., 
j tubes ; Hp,, 650== 19 kts. 





DrisUghaten. Swedish battleship. (Undholmen. 


Length 385ft. Beam 48ft. Maximam draught i6ft. 
Disptficement 3,500 tons. Complement 250. 
Gmhs. AtmoHF. 

3— «■> in. " Kntpp." 

6 — 6 in. 8 in. Belt amidships. 

10— 6pdr. 8 in. Turrets. 

3-^1 pdr. 8 in. Conning tower. 

Torpeda Tubti. 
2 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. $.s;o=iG'8 ktd. Coal maxi- 
mum 400 tons. 

Driver. A large square sail set with a great 
yard on end of the spanlcer boom across taSrai) 
wtien the wind is a(l. 

Driving. Dragging the anchor in o gale. 

Drizzle. Rain in very small dtop«. 

Droghers. Smail craft plying ranrd the bays ol 
the Wc<!i Indian Islands. 

Drogue ur Sea anchor. Ati arrangement for pre- 
venliDg dnft and keeping a vessel's head to sea in 
bad weather. .\ drogue can be made by some 
canvas and a few spais, hut most iishcJincn now 
carry a roady-madc c,-invas bag ^prrad at its 
mouth by a bamboo or iron ring, and fastened to 
a bridle. This can at any time be bent on to a 
warp and used eitfaei for heaving-to in bad weather 
or for checking the boal'^ w&y when runnirg into 
a crowded harbour. 

Droits. Admiralty. S-fM Admiralty Droits. 

Drop astern. To slacken itfaip's way to allow 
anotliei to pass beyond het. 

Drop of a raiL The distance the foot is trom the 

Drought. A long continuance of dry weathn. 
Ab6utute diought. a period of more than 14 con- 
secutive days absolutely witliuut rain. Partial 
drougUt. a period of more than 28 consecutive-days, 
thf aggr^ate rainfall of which does not exceed 
o'oi in. per diem (Syiuons). 

Drowned. I0 be deprived of life by submersion 

in water 01 other liquid. 

Drowning. Asphyxia caused by Immersjon of 
the whole txxly, or even of the face only, in any 

Drowning, Betone 0! the. In addition to a 
knowledge of Huiiiuoing tlio moiit essential rc- 
quisitea ui order to effect the auccessful rescue of 
• drowning person are courage and presence of 
roind. Always approach a drownmg person from 
belund. a.4suriQg him m a loud voice that he is 
safe. Before jumping in throw ofi, it possible, all 
clotbvs. Do oot approach a person in the water 
while h^ is sttu^ghng, ^« you so by run great risk 

of being clutched and dragged under, but keep 
off for a 4ew socoods. till he gets quiet, then seite 
him firmly by the hair, turn him quietly on his 
back, giving him a sudden pull which will cause 
him to float, then throw yourself on your back, 
and with Ijoth hands graspmg his hair you con 
float or swim for the shore. It is ol the first im- 
portance, however, that both yourself and the 
person you are saving should be on your liackn. 
When attempting a rescue by diving seize the hair 
of the head with one hand only, using the other in 
conjunction with the feet for regaining the surface. 
The exact position where a body lies under water 
may often be found by noticing the air bubbles 
which wiil occasionally rise. Do not lose your 
presence of mind should you at any time l»c grasped 
by a drowning person, but, having taken a full 
breath, allow yourself to sink with him, and in 
almost every case he will release his hold. Refsr 
to Apparently Uead, Method of Restoring the. 

Drudge. British gun-boat {S90 tons). 

Drommood Cutle. ITnion Line steamer, with 
mails and passengers from Africa, struck on the 
rocks between Ushant and the mainland, June. 

iS^T), and became a total loss ; 250 lives lost, 

Drory, Tice-Admiral Sir Charles Carter, K.C.SJ., 
cr. 1903 (b. 1S4C1). Educated Collegiate School, 
Frederickton, N.B. ; entered R.N., 1859 ; sub- 
lieutenant. 1865: lieutenant. 1S6S; commander, 
1878 ; captain, 1885 ; member of Ordnance Com- 
mittee. 1893; received the thanks of the Foreign 
Office for services in Crete, 1896; rear-admiral. 
1899 : Commander-in-Chief , East Indies, 1903 ; 
K.CS.I., 1903 : Second Sea Lord of .\dmiraltv, 
1^04 : vice-admital. 1904. 

Dryftd. Britiah torpedo gun-boat (1894). 
Length 250ft. Beam 30ft. Maximum draught 1 ifU 
Displacement i ,070 tons. Complement 1 20.. ' 
3—47 in. 
4— 3 pdr. 
Turpido Ttibcs (18 in.). 
5 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. natural i,suu= 17 kts., forced 
3.500=18'$ kts. Coal maximum 160 tuns. 

D/8. Days after sight. 

1KB. Distmguislung letters on sea ^hing boabi 
registered at Dumfnea, Scotland. 

DJ.O. See Distinguished Service Order. 

Dab. A term applied to a pool of deep and 
amootli water in a rapid river. 

Dohlin Boy Sailing Olab. EsUblishcd 1884. 
Commodore, Captain Viscount Cnchton ; Vice- 
ComnuMlore, J. B. Boyd : Honorary Treasurer, 
W. M. A. Wright; Honorary Secretary, J. H. 
Hargrave. 4 Haddington Terrace, Kingston. Co. 
Uubhn. Annual subscription, 10s. ttd. 




DnUiii (Coitoma) BUI OS Sntrr. Established 
1858. Published daily (morning). Price 30*. per 
annum. AddrMA : DuUin. 

Dabnqne. U.S. guo-boRt. (Morris Heights. 
1904.) LengTb. 174 ft : beam. 35 tt. : draught. 
IJ (t. : displaCL-nicnt, 1.085 ^^& l comptement, 
162; armauumt. ft 4-'in., 4 6-pdr.. 2 i-pdr. ; Hji.. 
i,aoo> u Itts. ; coal, aoo tons. 

Due D'Aqaitaine. ^4 guns. On January 1 , 
!/&[. Lbib Vessel was lost off Pondicherrj', when 
all perished. 

Da Cluyl*. French 2nd class cruiser. (Cher- 
bourg. 18^5.) 

length 336ft. Bmm 45ft. Maximum draught 33ft. 
Displacement 4.000 tons. Complement 393. 
(7u}is. Armour. 

6 — 6'4 in. 3 in. Declt. 

4 — 4 in. 2 in. Sponsons. 

4—3 Pdr. 
. ^.11— I pdr. 

TotpeJo Tubes. 
2 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. 9.500=19 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 624 tona. Approximate cost ^300,000. 

Duck. The finest quatity canvas, used for small 

Duckb&m. Fzediio £Uot (b. Falmouth, June i^. 
1 84 J ) . Served bis appi enticeship with Messrs. 
Peto Brasscy and Bctts at the Victoria Docks. In 
1868 he was appointed engineer of the Millwall 
Docks, in whidi j>osition he remained til) t8L,i8, 
when he was appointed general manager. In 1905, 
on hi« retirement, he was made a director of the 
docks. He has during his life acted as a consulting 
engineer, and among his inventions art- the *' Hydro- 
static Weighing Machine " and the " Pneumatic 
EJevator." now oxti^nsively used in disclmrgtng 
grain cargoes. Member of Institution of Ctvil 

Pubhcations : Contributed papers to the Institu- 
tion of Civil Engineers, for one of which he was 
awanlrrl the Telford gold medal and two premiums, 

Dtickworth, 8ii Jobn Thomas [1748-1817). Eng- 
lish admiral (b. Leatherhead). Entered the Navy 
Jn 1759, and in 1770 wa^ appointed lieutenant of 
the Primess Royal, flagship of Admiral Byron, in 
whicli he sailed to the West Indies. After having 
bci-u present in the action ofl Grenada, 1779. hr 
commanded thcOtioti under Lord Howe, and took 
part in tht? Uircc days' naval engagement with the 
Brest fleet, wtudi terminated in a glorious victory 
on June i, 1794. For bis conduct on this occasion 
be received a gold medal and the thanks of Parlia- 
ment. In 1804 he won a victory off San Domingo, 
and in the followmg year, when in command with 
the h'oxal 6ewfc, paiMcd through the Dardanelles, 

bot sustained considerable loss in tfSectine hts 
return, the Turks having strengthened their posi- 
tion. In r8io he was appointed to the chief com- 
mand at Plymouth, which he held until hin dcaLh. 
April 14. [817. 

Dnsay TroQia. French auxiliary cniioer. (1 
Tonkin.) I.ength, 446 ft. ; beam. ;o ft. ; depti 
36 ft. ; diiplacement, 6,300 tons; armament, 
7 5'5-m., and amallqX ; Hp. (nominal), 632 = 17 1 


DtigdBle. W. H.. lUnsUOJE^ XXV.A. (b. »ton^ 

mouthshire. July. 1859). Served an apprcitticeihip 
of seven years as pupil with Messrs. R. and J. 
Exuns, of Liverpool, and eventually became chief 
draughtsman and lirmlly manager of this firm. 
From Liverpool he went to Belfast, and joined 
Messrs. Workman, Clark and Co., where be had 
charge of their scicntihc department for 12 months. 
He then joined Messrs. Horland and WolS as 
works manager, and had charge of the building 
and completion of the twti White Star I Jne steamers. 
Teutonic and Majestic. In 1892 he was invited to 
become shipyard manager to Palmer's Shipbuilding 
and Iron Co., Ltd., and after a period of seven years 
with this firm he* left to take up the ptosition of 
managing director of Messrs. S. P. Austin and Son. 
Ltd., of Sunderland, which position he still holds. 
He is a member of the Institution of Civil Eogincers, 
Institution of Naval Architects, prcsideat of the 
North East Coast Institution of Engineers and 
Shipbuilders, member of the River Wear Commis- 
nion and of the Technical Sub-Committee to 
Lloyd's Registry of British and Foretgn Shipping. 

Doguay-Trouin, EenA [1673-1736}. .\ famous 
French adniiral (b. St. Malo. June 10, 1673). In 
1691, securing a privateering frigate, he did much 
damage to English shipping, and took many 
valuable prizes. In 1697 lie entered the French 
Navy, and speedily made his name as a commandrr 
in the war of the Spanish Succession, making a 
briltiant capture of Dutch vessels. His most 
glorious action was the capture in 1711 of Rio de 
Janeiro. In 1715 he was made chief of a squadron, 
and in 1728 Commander of the Order of St. I^uis 
and Lieutenant General. He died Scptembtir 37, 

Dnilio. Old Italian battleship. Of no figAti 


Duke LinA (Dublin and Glasgow Steam f^ke 
Co.), with their head offices in Dublin, maintain 1 
ser\-itc oi steamers every Monday, WerloesdayJ 
and Friday, and every alternate Tuesday, Thur 
day. and Saturday, from Dublin for Glawow 

Duke of Fiff. liuk* of Mvntrasm. 

UuA* of Gordou. Ouhe of Rothesay, 





1Mb «I Xdinbiush. Britinh ist cUm 
{Pembrolce, 1904.) 

LcDKth 4Soft. • B«ain 73(1. Maximum draught 27ft. 
Oiaplacemcnt 13,500 tons. 
Gun*. Armour. 

C^-^'a in., 50 cal. " Krapp." 
10—0 in. 6 ill. Bfit amiiJHliips. 

34—3 p<lr. 6 in. IHarbellt-s. 

8 — li pdr. Pompoms. 7 in. Conning tower. 
'torpedo Tubes (i& in.). 
3 SubmergiKl. 
Twin screw. Hp. 23.500= a./'^^ kts. Coal 
maximum 3,000 tons. Approximate cost £r.i ; 

Paha ol Sutberlftod. Steamrr from London, 
wrccVed oft the pier at Aberdeen, .\pril 2. 1853. 
vchtn tlie captain and many of the passcngcnt and 
cruw perbUed. 

Dake of WelUiurton. 

<^.o7i tons. Launchrd 

Dumbea ( i S89I . French subsidised merchant 
ship. Mtssagerits Maritimes (g.v.). Dimensions, 
463x46x33 ft. : gross tonnage, 5,917 ; Hp., 5,000 
= i5 lets. 

DnnbW. Chpper. Wrecked on the rocks near 
Sydney, August 20, 1M57 ; 121 Uvea lost. 

DimouL Rritisli 1st class bnttlcsliip. (Thames 
Ironworks. loot.) 

Length 42<)ft. Beam 75ft. Maximum draught 37lt. 
Displacement 14,000 toai. Complemunt 750. 
Guns. Armour, 

4 — 12 in. " Krupp." 

12 — 6 in. 7 in. Belt uinidships. 

12 — 12 pdr. 1 1 in. Barbettes. 

6—3 pdr. 12 in. Conning tower. 

2 Majdma. 

Torpfdo Tubes {18 in.). 
4 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. i8,doo>iI9 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 3.000 tona. Approximate cost ^1,000,000. 

DniUMa, Adftm, Viscount of Caniperdown {1731- 
1804). An illustriou-s navaJ commander (b. Landie, 
Forfarshire). Entered Navy 174C, and in 1749 
became a midshipman in the Centurion. He served 
in the attack on Goeree. 1758 ; in the attack on 
Havana, 1762 ; at the deleat of the Spanish fleci 
bj' Kodney oR Cape St. Vincent, 1760; and took 
part in Lord Howe's relief of Gibraltar as captain 
of the BUnheim. 1782. In 1795 he hotiited hts flag 
as Commander-in-Chief of the North Sea Fleet In 
recognition of his great victory o\*er the Dutch 
dwt under L)c Winter on October ri. i^g/. he was 
created Lord Viscount Duncan ot C1mpt^o^%n 
and Baron of l.undie. vrith an annua) pension of 
£3.000 a year. He died August 4. 1804, 

DwiOMi. RotarU ILP. (b. Govan. 1850}. Educa- 
ted Glasgow High Scliool and Academy. Served 

dp to on^neering with Messrs. 
Alexander Chaplin and Co. After completing his 
time went to Glasgow University, taking his civil 
engineer's certificate after a two years' course, and 
several W«lkcr prizes. He thrn worked with the 
firm of Messrs. Dobs and Co.. imrl Rubseipiently 
W. and A. M'Onie as draughtsman. In 1876 he 
embarked in business on his own account in partner- 
ship with Mr. William Ross, taking over the business 
of Messrs, Addison, Hamilton and Barrie. He is 
senior partner of Ross and Duncan. A\'hitefieH 
Works, Govan, and was elected a member of Par- 
liament for the Govan Division of [.anorkshire in 
1900. He is, perhaps, best known as the pro- 
prietor and editor of the Imperial Unity Magazine 
" Britannia," which was foumled in 189O. and cir- 
culates through the Empire. He is a member of 
the Institotion of Civil Engineers, Westminster, and 
of Institution of Engineers and ShipbitUders in 
Scotland, a Life Fellow of tlie Koyal Colonial 
Institute, and member of Council of the British 
Empire League. 

DondoiuUd. Thomas Cochrane, Tenth Earl of 

(1775-1860}. British admiral (b. I^narkshire). 
At the age of 17 he joined the Navy as midshipman 
on board the Hind, and uas afterwards transferred 
to the frigate Thetis. In 1798 he was sent to the 
Meditcrraneaa to serve in the fleet under the com* 
mand of Lord Keith. When in command of the 
sloop Spudy he performed a senes of exploits in 
capturing vessels immensely superior to hit own. 
aimng others the Spanish ship El Ganta. The 
cruise of the Speedy, which had occupied some 13 
months, riuring which she took upwards of 50 
vessels with 133 guns, and 534 prisoners, ended in 
her own capture by three French line-of- battle 
ships, after making su gallant a rotiataact: that thn 
French captain to whom Cochrane delivered up his 
sword at once felnrncd it. In the Ba'iiquc Road-*, 
1809, witli a division of hrc vessels, he pushed 
within the enemies' lines, ellcctiag inunense dcstruc* 
tion. In 1S14 he was dismissed the Service and 
scntrticud to a year's inipri.iionraent, and fined ^1 ,t>uu 
for being implicated tn a Stock Exchange swindle. 
His ruin and disgrace were completed by hi5> being 
expelled from the House of Commons and deprived, 
with the usual humiliating ceremony, of the 
Knighthood of the Bath, which had been Urstowrd 
on him after his heroic service at Basque Roads. 
At the close of bis impntKinment, finding that there 
was httle hope of his being again actively engaged 
in the service of his native country, he accepted 
a couunand in the Chilian Navy. 1818, and greatly 
distinguished himself by the capture of the Spanish 
frigate Esmeralda. He afterwards joined the Navy 
of Brazil, and secured the independence of that 
country, 1823-2$. He became an adnural in the 
Greek Navy in 1827, and fought against the Turks. 
In 1832 he was reinstated in his owa pU*:e 111 the 
British Navy, and became fuU admiral 1851. He 




wrote the " Autobiography o< a Seaman " (t36i) : 
" Narrative oi Services in the LilK-ration of ChiU. 
Peru, and Brazil" S«£ " LiJe " by Fortcscue 

Dnnlop. David James ih. Mexico. December 7, 
183S), Kducaied Glasgow Academy, Glasgow 
High School, am) Liverpoul. Servt-d hm apprea- 
iicc^tup at geDf-ml engint-uring with Messrs. Neilson 
and Co., Glasgow. In i86u he wcat to Java as 
assistant to a firm there, and in 1S62 he joined 
Messrs. Randolpli, Elder and Co. ; wa* responsible 
for the design of a Hoattng dock for the French 
Covcmment at Saigon, nnd had charge of the 
erection and completion of this ivork, which was 
accomphsbed with Chinese labour. On returning 
TO England he joined ^lessrs. John Elder and Co., 
at the Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering 
Works. Govan. In 1870 he began husints-s on his 
own account at Port Glasgow, under the name of 
Messrs. CuniitTe and Dunlop. When Mr. Cnnlific 
retired in 1881. the name of the firm was changed 
to that of David J. Dunlop and Co., and he became 
the sole partner. He ha^ been closely connected 
with the building of passenger steamers, c^ble 
eteatDCTS, oil steamers, and large yachts, and is the 
patentee of " Dunlop 's Marine Engineering 

Dtuilop, John O. Sorted his appreobceship 
(1864-69) with Me»si3. Kandolph, Elder and Co.. 
Glasgow, and before its completion was placed 
in full charge of machinery building, including 
the earher sets of compound engines for the 
Nax-y. He was responsible in (S70 for the 
engines of H.M.S. Tetudos, Hydta, and Cyclops. 
]n 1872 he become engineering works manager at 
the Fairfield Works of Messrs. John Elder and Co., 
and here he completed the machinery ot many 
notable steamer.<t. His hrst triple expansion set 
was for the Pacific Mail Stcamtrr Iberia. Amongst 
otlier notable cralt engined wa^i H.M.S. InfiextbU, 
Condor, Flamingo, and Nelson, and several ini- 
poriani merchant ships, including the greyhound 
Arizoha. Id i^j*) he became superintending 
ciiginciT for the Orient Line, and under his regime 
the Orient, Autlrat, and Otmui were added to the 
fleet. In the last named, completed in 1&&6, he 
introduced quadruple expansion engines in the 
Australian service. Ho was the first lo iatroducc 
ciectrii: incandescent lamps on board ship, and in 
overcoming many oi the practical difficulties, he 
materially advanced the electrical era. Another 
direction in which he rendered immense service- 
was in the appUcaiion of the cold storage system on 
lioard ship. He was the hrst to fit refrigerators for 
passenger retjuirement, and for cargoes frozen 
from Australia, and to his energy is due Uie begin- 
ning ol one ot the trades ol lasting advantage to 
our Colonies. In 1^(87 he became vnginct-ring 
manager ol the Clydebank Works, and a few years 
later managing director. While at Clydebank 

be has been responsible for the construction, of may 
wai&liii>s and merchantmen. Among the former are 
the battleships ftamiUies. Jufriter. and HtnduOam 
the Japanese Asatri. and the cruisers TfrnUr, 
Suitij. OaccAante. Leviai/mn. and Antrim ; vhile 
among merchant ships first place is occupied by the 
Cunard and other Atlanhc hncrs, and high-apenl 
channd steamers. He fittwl turbine inAchiner>' to 
the 39,ffoo ton Cunardcr of 19 kts. speed, and to the 
one of 38,000 tons of 25 kts. speed for the same 

Dnnloii Steamship Co., Ltd., with which is in- 
coiporalftl till- <}iiccii l-iiii- of .stcaracrs. and tlw 
Clan Line of bhips, uwiiihI and managed by ilessrs. 
Thomas DuiUqp and Sons, was fonndtst by thr 
father of the present partners ia the year 1851. 
The company started shipping with a number ol 
wooden .ships ; the firsl iron ship, the Cian SfatUc^ 
being built in 1874. At the present time thr 
coiiijtany have six iron and !4tee] sailing ships and 
nine steamers. The sailing ships arc all called 
"Clans." and the steamers "Queens." The 
ve.sset3 are not engaged in any particular trade, 
but carry cargo to and from all parts of the world 
as inducement offers. 


Clan Bttchanan. 
Clan Galbtaith- 
Cian Graham. 
Clan Macheniie. 
Clan Macphetson. 
Clan Jivbcrtson. 
Queen Adilaide. 

Qt*een Alexandra. 
Queen Antelia. 
Qu^en Cristtnu. 

Queen Eleanor. 
Queen Helena, 
Queen Lnuise. 
Queen Mary. 

Qaeen Olga. 

Dunn, James. British naval architect, .\ftef 
serving bis apprenticeship in the Chatham Dock- 
yard, he entered the department oi Surveyor of 
the Xavy at the Admiralty. His work there was in 
connection with the design of the first iron armour- 
plated M-a-guing ship built for the Britiuli Navy, 
the Warrior, and later of the Achilles and other 
ironclads. From i366<69 he superintended the 
construction uf the Audaciotn, returning to tlie 
Admiralty to till the position of cliief draughtsman. 
In iHjii, before the Koyal Corps was formed, he 
v-aa given the distinctive Litlc of Assistant Con- 
structor and Chief Draughtsman, aod after the 
formation of that body, he hllcd successfully 
various appointmenUi up to senior chief coostractor, 
ajid on occasion5 acted as Dirrctot of Naval Con- 
struction. In these several capacities he was asso- 
ciated with the design of many British warstiips. 
In 1875 he was deputed to undertake the survey 
of merchant ships with a view to the selection oi 
vessels to be placed on the Admiralty li&-t of 
merchant cruisers, and to him is largely due the 
credit lor bringir^ this scheme to a jtractical success. 
When H.M.S. Df(cr<-/«as lost in istii, and an explo- 
sive connnittiH; apixnnted to invc-stigate the cause, 
he was chosen to represent tb^- Admiralty. In 1884 




he y/UA appoiated to aaaisL the War Office in its pro- 
parabon of Ihe Nile Expedition to relieve the late 
General Gordon. In 1H85 he was the Admiralty 
representative on the Load Line Committee, and io 
1898, after hi» retircmont, sm-vod on a second 
committee on the <w-ime subject. In 1897 ^'^ 
became a dtrector of Messrs. Vickers. Sons and 
Maxim, Ltd., and has been responsible lot the de- 
sign of many warships built by tliem for the British 
and ioreign Navies, involving, in some instance!), 
important departures. He is a vico-prcwdent of 
the Institution oi Naval Architects, and a J. P. for 
the Boroufib of Barrow-iaFurness. 

Publications : " Memoirs on Modern Merchant 
Ships," " The .\rrangemcnt and Equipment of 
Shipbuilding Yards," " The Watertight Snb- 
Division of Ships," and other papers published in 
the Transactions of the Institutions of Naval 
Architects. Mechanical Engineers, etc. 

• Dnanacc. Loose wood or valuctrju substance 
4Bed lor packing cargo to prevent it shitting!. 

Doaoil, French avisos (1896). 
Length 3s6lt. Beam z8ft. Maximum dtau^jht 1 jft. 
J>i5placement 900 tons. Complement ui. 
6—9 pdr. 
6— J pdtl 
Twin screw. lip. 6,400 = 23 kts. Cool normal 
137 tons. 

Daparray, Loaia Isidore (1786-1865). Fretidi 
navigator (b. Paris). From 1817 to iSao he served 
under Freycinet in his great voyage round thi- 
world, and explorations in the North PacUic, being 
entrusted with tlu- Hydrograpluc operation.^ on 
board the fratn.i. In r8J2 he attained the rank 
of Ucutenant. and was entrusted with the command 
of the CotfuilU, which was engaged m scientific 
explorations in the South Pacific and along the 
coaat of Soath .'\menca. He surveyed part*) of 
Australia and New Guinea, discovered Drummond, 
HendervUlf. Charlotte, and other Islands, one 
of which received the name of Duperrey. From 
this voyage he brought b.ick not only great additions. 
to cartography, and important data in regard to 
(he currents of the Pacific, but also numerous 
pendulum ubwivations ser\'ing to detfrminc the 
magnetic equaiur, and to prove the equality of the 
flattening of the two hcmit-phcics. The value of 
his labours was rcfuif^^ed by his admission into 
the Academic dm Sciences in 1842. He died 
in August, 1865. The following are his principal 
works: "The IVrtie Historique," "The Hydro- 
graph.' and " The Physique," and " The Voyage 
autour du Monde sur la Coquille," Paris, 1826-30. 

Dnplaiz. French tst class cruiser. (Rochefort. 
Length 425(1. Beam 5»<t. Mean draught 34ft. 
Displacement 7,700 tons. Complement 530. 

8 —6*4 in., 45 cal- 
4-^4 in. 
10—2 pdr. 

" Krupp." 

4 in. Belt amidships. 
4 in. Turref.'*. 
6 in. Conning tower. 
Torpsda Tubts {17'j in.|. 
2 .Above water. 
Thiw screws. Hp. 17,000 = 21 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 1,200 tons. Approximate cost ^750.000. 

Dopont. U.S. torpedo-boat (1897). Displace- 
ment, 175 : guns. 4 I -pdr. ; torpedo tui>cs. 3 iS-iu. ; 
maximum speed. 27 kts. 

Dopoy de L6me. French ist class cruiser. 
(Brest, 1890.1 Reconstructed 1905. 1 

Length 3;4iL Beam 51 ft. Maximum draught .26ft, 
Displacumeut 6,400 tons. Complement 521. 
Ouns, Atftumr. 

3 — 76 in. " StceL" 

6— ^'4 in. 5 in. Belt amidships. 

6 — 9 pdr. 4 io. Turrets. 

8 — 3 pdr. 5 in. Conning tower. 

Torpeda Tub^s (I7'7 in.). 
4 Above water. 
Three screws. Hp. 16.000^23 kts. 
Approximate cost j(4i6,ooo. 

Dapny da LAme, Stanislas Charles Henii Laurent 

(1810-85). Kronch navil aicbitect (b. Pl<K:inuur, 
near L'Orieot). Entered Iicole Polylechniquo in 
1835. and later was sent to England to study and 
report on iron shipbuilding. He planned and 
supenntonded the construction of the first French 
war steamer, Napoleon, 1848-52. and sutiseqnently 
transfanucd saihng men-of-war into steamships. 
In 1858 he de&igned and !)U|>cria tended the building 
of the first French ironclad. La Gloire. At the 
beginning of the war with Germany in 1870 he 
was appointed a member of the Committee of 
Defence, and during the ^icgc of Paris occupied 
himself with planning a steerable balloon. The 
experiments, however, that were made with it did 
not prove entirely satisfactory. He received the 
Cross of the [.cgion of Honour in 1845. wa.s 
made a commander in 1858, and Grand Officer in 
1863. H« died at Paris on February i, 1885. 

DuqnMne, Abraham Marqols (1610-88). French 
admir,\l (b. Dicppf). Ttiok part in the defeat of 
Ihe Spaniards at Lerins, 1637, and again belorc 
Tarragona, t^i. His greatest exploit, however, 
was his defeat of the united Dutch and Spanish 
fleets oH Stromboh in 1676. This battle gave 
France for a lime the complete control of the 
Mediterranean. It was in this engagement Chat 
the heroic Roytcr, commander of the Dutch 
aeet, fell. 

Doranoe. French avisoa-tramtport (1885). Of 
little lighluift value. Guns, 4 5's-m.. 4 9-pdr. ; 
speed {nominally), 1 1 kts. 




DnrandaL French torpedo-boat dMli oyw'. (Kor- 
mand. 1889.) Lmgth, 180 ft, ; beam, to ft. ; 
draught. 10 ft. ; displacement. 300 tons : comple- 
ment. 63 ; armamcat. t p-pdr., 6 3 pdr., x tubes ; 
twill Htmw ; Hp., 5.000 = 28 kts. ; coal, 84 tons. 

Dnnitord. Beai^Adininl Jobn. O.B^ D.S.O. (h- 

1849). Entered Nivy. 1863 ; Iit-utcnant, 1872 ; 
commander. 18S3 ; commander commanding 
Mariner ; srrvtfl during the Burmah Annexation 
war. 1885-86: with field force on staff, and also 
with Naval Brigade : present at engagement at 
Minhla ; mentioned in naval and militiry de- 
spatcbes : D.S.O. tor services rendered; com- 
manded Naval Brigade and flotilla of arme«) 
launches in Upper Burmah. 1887 : mentioned in 
despatches : services specially acknowledged by 
Viceroy and Secretary of State for India (India 
medal and Burmall cla»p]. 188J-87 ; captain, 1888 : 
a L.or(I CommiiisioneT of the Admiralty, 1901 ; 
rear-admiral, igo;; commander-in-chief. Cape of 
Good Hope Station, t^o^. 

Dorston, Sir Albert Jolm. K.O.B., cr. (897 
(b. Dc'vonpori, October 2^. 1840)- Jingineer rear- 
admiral. Entered Portsmouth Dockyard Febru- 
ary, 1S61, and while .serving apprenticeship as an 
engineer .student he in 1865 j|;ained a scholarship 
at the school of Naval Architccturt* aiul Marine 
Engineering, and in 1868 became a Fellow ; entered 
the Navy as an assistant -engineer of the second 
class in 186S ; served in H.M.S. Ocean, then on the 
China Station, on which the late Sir W. N. W. 
Hewitt. K.C.B., V.C. (q.v.). was nt]miral and Sir 
John FishoT, G.C.B. (q.v.). commander ; from 1872- 
81 served as assistant -engineer at Portsmouth, and 
from iR8r-88 as chief engineer at Sht'ernes.s, and 
subsequently nt Portsmouth Dockyard ; wa."? ap- 
pointed Chief F.ngineer Inspector to the .Admiralty 
under the late Richard Sennett. and in April, 
1889. was promoted Englneer-in-Chiel ; has been 
closely connected with the change from the 
cylindrical to water-tube boilers in the ships of 
H.M. Navy. 

Dast-counter. An instrument for counting the 
number ot dust particles in a given volume of air. 

Dost-storm. A whirlwind passing over a dry or 
sandy district aiid carrying up the dust into the 

Dntchnuui. In sea phraseology a name for a 
bloclc or wedge of wood driven into a gap to bide 
H hnrily-made joint. 

DutiOl. Exoitt and Oustoms. 1. The Excise, 
which forms part of the Inland Revenue, is an 
inland tax (i) on certain cummodities (chiofly boer. 
spirits, and tobacco) produced and consumed within 
the country : (2) on licences granted to certain 
trades and professions — e.f;.. auctioneers, pawn- 
brokers, and pubticaus ; and (3) on liccDCCS for 

certain luxuries — «.;.. annarial bearings, male aer- 
vanLs, and motor-cais. The CommissioneT^ of the 
IiUand Revenue, under the Inland Revenue Regula- 
tion .\ct, 1S90, and the Excise Management Act. 
1837. have wide powers as to the nianagement and 
collection of Excise duties. 

3. Customs are duties charged on certain im- 
ports and exports, and arc regulated mainly bv 
the Customs Consolidation Act. 1876. and the 
Stamp Act, 1901. Duties are now levied {imin 
alia] u)x>n wine, beer, spirits, tobacco, tea, cofiee. 
cocoa, sugar, dried fruits, chicory, molasses, 
glucose, chutney, pUying-cards, conioctkinery, con- 
densed milk, and saccharin. The powers of Customs 
oflicials include the prevention of smuggling (^.r,) 
and the prosecution of offenders, the rights of 
search, M;izure and forfeiture, the restriction of Uiv 
landing of goods to specific places, and the limiting 
of the size of vessels and packages containing 
dutiable goods. OlTcnces against Excise and 
Customs laws are tried before Courts of Sanunary 
Juris<Iiction. though grave cases of snuiggling may 
still he dealt with by the High Court under the old 
Exchequer procedure. 

D.V. Distinguishing letters on sea hshing boats 

registered at Deventer. Holland. ^ 

Dvenadut Apostolor. Russian ist cla^is battl? 
ship. Black Sea fleet. (Nicolaieff. 1893.) 
Length 3ja(t. Beam 6oft, Maximum draught 26ft 
Displacement 8,4110 tons. Complement 500. 
Gufis. .-irmour. 

4 — li in. " Compound." 

4—6 in. 14 in. Belt amidships. 

H—s pdr. ] 2 in. Turrets. 

10 Maxims. 12 in. Conning tower. 

Torf*edo 7ubes. 
6 Above water. 

Hp, ii,5ooesifi kts. Coal maximum i.joo tons. 

Dmrt British ist class gun-boat (710 tons. 

ijjkts.l. Launched 189S. 

Dyelny. Russian torpedo-boat destroyer (1906). 
Length, 185 ft.; beam, zi ft.; draught, 7J ft.; 
displacement, 324 tons ; complement. 60 ; arma- 
ment, 1 i3-pdr., 5 3-pdr., 2 tubes; twin screw; 
Hp., 5,600=36 kts. ; coal, too tons. 

Dymphoa. This vessel, commanded by Lieu- 
tenant Hovgaard, of the Daniiih Navy, who accom- 
panied Nordenskold iu his discovery of the North- 
East passage, was fitted out to ascertain if land 
existed to the north of Cape Tchelyuskin. He 
sailed from Copenhagen In July, 1882, and was 
unfortunately beset in the ice pack and compelled 
to winter in the Kara Sea. liefer to Arctic Exrplora; 

Dynamic cooling. The cooling producefl by the 
expansion of air when it passes into a rcgioo q| 
dccrcascil pressure. 



Drnkmo. Strictly, aoy machine of which 
mechamcal motion is traosfoincd into electric 
currrnt ; thus applicable lo ail oiajncto-rlecUic 
machines in which a currenL is produced in coils 
of wire rotated in the neighbourhood of a maRnct. 
The term dj'namo or dynamo electric machine is 
now by usage restricted to those machines which 
give a continuously direct external current. 
Machines which give alternating currents are dis- 
tinguished as alternators. 

Dyn&momflter. An apparatus for mea»unng 
force or power, as, for example, the jwwer de- 
veloped by a steam-engine or other motor. In 
practical engineering it is also called a break or 
absorption dynamometer, in consequence of the 
enerT5>* being absorbed by a friclional resistance. 
Lcroy's dynamometer is a spiral spring in a tube. 
Power IS appUed to condense the spnng, and the 
prcftsure utdicated by a graduated bar. Rcguier's 
dynamometer consists of an elliptic spring whose 
coUapse in the direction of its minor axis is made 
to move an index-finger on graduated arcs. The 
Sector dynamometer is made ol a bar of steel, bent 
in the middle, and having a certain flexibility. To 
each limb is attached an arc. which passes through 
a slot in the other hmb. Ijxjpa at the ends of the 
ores permit the device to be placed between the 
power and the load, so that the limbs are drawn 
together when power is applied. 

O.Z. Disttoguishing lettcn on sea hshing boats 
trgisterrd at LVlfzijI. Holland. 

E. Distinguishing letter on sea fishing boats 
registered at Esbjerg. Denmark. 

B. Distinguish mg letter on sea hshing boats 
re^tered at Exeter, England. 

E. Abbrev-iation for east. 

Sagte. H.M. ship. Wrecked on the rocks ofi 
Scilly Isles. October a:, 1707, when Captain Hen- 
cock and crew were lost. 

XaclB> British dhll-sfalp {z.m^' tons). Launched 

Eagle SpMd. Emigrant vessel. Foundered near 
Calcutta, August 34, 1865 ; 365 coolies drowned. 

ftgnr llie motion and high wave produced by 
Ihc influx of water of the ocean into the mouth of 
a river at the flow of the tide. 

Bftines, Ea«inMr Rear-Admiral Sir WilUain. 
Chief Inspector of Macliinery. Entered NaN-y as 
assistant-engineer. 1844 : engineer, 1845 ; chief 
engineer, 1847 : chief engineer o( InfiexibU during 
the Crimeaa war.'engaged^in attack on the Russian 
batteries at OatcbakofI and Fort Nicolaicfl, 1854 ; 
present at the blockade o( Odessa. 

E. and 0. E. Abbreviation lor errors and omis- 
sions excepted. 

Bazdley-WUmot, Bev-Adminl Sydney Harrow. 

(b. Mrirtlakc, 1847). Educalal Stubbington, Farc- 
bam. Entered Navy, iS6a ; served in EmsraJd 
and Duncan; promoted lieutenant. 1869; gunnery 
lieutenant, 1876 ; senior lieutenant of Vernon 
torpedo school ; served at the .Admiralty, 1881-84 ! 
commanded H.M.S. Dolphin in Red Sea, i.SSs-Se ; 
assisted in the defence of Suakim (Egyptian medal, 
Osmanieh 4th Class] ; promoted captain, 1886; 
served in the Intelligence Department, .\dmiraUy, 
1887-90 ; appointed superintendent Ordnance 
Stores, Admiralty : retired, i&<)y 

Publications : " Life ol Vice-Admiral Lord 
Lyons." "Our Navy for One Thousand Years," 
" Our Fleet To-day and its Development During 
the Last Half-Century," " Our Flags ; their Ori^n, 
Use, and Traditions." 

Buingf. Small ropes employed to fasten the 
upper comers ol a sail to its yards. 

Earle'9 Shipbuilding and Engineering Co.. Ltd. 
This shipbuilding yard was estabhshod by Jklcssn*. 
CharlcH and William Earlc at the Victoria Dock, 
Hull, in 1853, the first vessel bailt being the 
\finistsr TfiorbecA. 3^8 tons gross, and 60 N.Hp. 
In 1863 Messrs. Earle purchased the site of the 
present shipyard, on tlic .side of the Humbcr which 
is two miles wide opposite the yard, and in course 
of time the engineering works and boiler shop were 
transferred to this site. 10 that now all are in one 
compact area of .26 acres, with direct railway com- 
munication into the yard from the North HasLcm 
Railway and the Hull and Barnsley Railway. In 
1871 1 1 steamere were built and engined by Messrs. 
C. and W. Earle, with a total of 10.033 tons gross. 
In this year (1S71). owing to the death of Mr. 
Charles Eaile, and declining health of Air. William 
Earle. lim nndf^rtakmg was disposc^d of to a limited 
company, under its present name, the tirst chair- 
man being Mr. (afterwards Sir) K. J. Reid. who 
had then recently retired from the Chief Con- 
structorslnp of the Navy, and the vice-chairman. 
Sir John Brown, the founder of the famous Sheffield 
fiTm bearing his name. Sir John Brown became 
chairman in 1874, and rctamed the position lot 
nearly 20 years. Messrs. C amd W, Earie had 
confine«1 their business to ordinary mercantile 
steamers, but under the company many larger and 
more important vessels were built, including iron- 
clads for foreign governments, warships for the 
British Navy, and several first-rate steam yachts, 
two being for the late Emperor ol Russia, Alex- 
ander til., at the launch of one of which he was 
present. In 16S4 Mr. .\. E. Scaton (who had been 
with the company since 1871) became general 
manager, and later on a director, and he retained the 
management until 1899. In i<)oi the undertaking 
was purchased by the laic Mr.C, H.NVibon th^n M.P. 


for West Hull (afterwards Lord Nunbumholme). and 
a new company was formed under his chairmanship. 
Tlic entire reconstruction of the works was im- 
mediately taken in hand, and the year 1902 vras 
practirany devoted to this object, no expense being 
spared in re-arranging the yard, erecting new build- 
ings, and installing new machinery of the latent 
and mo«t efficient type, all the machinery being 
worked by electric power. This work has Ix'cn 
carried on during the saccecding years, and the 
company now possesses a .ship>*ard with the best 
facilities for building and launching vessels of any 
siic, extensive engineering shops, and an excep- 
tionally spacious and well-equipped boiler .shop 
capable of dealing with enginrs and boilers of the 
largest description. Thcr<> are also within the 
works (our patent shps. the largest taking vessels 
up to 3,600 tons, and two tidal docks (or fitting 
out new ships and repairs. A loo-ton crane i$ in 
course of erection. During the whole of its career 
Earle's has been noted for the excellence of its 
work, and perhaps no better proof of this could be 
given than tlie long connection it has bad in build- 
ing for the WilHon Line, The ninth vessel built 
here, launched in 1655. was for Mcsars. Thos. 
Wilson, Sons and Co.. and since that lime llie yard 
has seldom been without one or more, sometimes 
several, vessels on the stocks for that firm, no 
fewer than 105 steamers having been built here fur 
Messrs. Wilson. U is mentioned above tluil the 
first vessel built in the yard was the Minislsr Thor- 
becit, launched in iSS3- This vessel was built for 
Messrs. Kingro!>c, and since that time several 
vassela have been built here lor Mcurs. Ringrosc 
and their sticccssors, the Hull and NctbrrlanM 
Steamship Co., Ltd. Earle's have al^o built 
II steamers for the Great Central Railway Co.. and 
nearly all the fleet of the Great Eastern Railway 
Co. have been built here, and there is one vessel 
on the stocks for this compajiy fit ihc pri-sent time. 
Many vessels oi tiie Navy, liuilt in H.M. 
Dockyard, have had their engines and boilers con- 
fitmcted and fitted by Earle's. including H.M.S. 
London and H.M.S. FotmtdabU. cadi of 15.00a 
I.Hp. One feature of Earle's has been the building 
of steam trawlers. One of the first, if not the 
first, steam trawler that was ever built was the 
Zodiac, launched here in 1681. built to the order of 
the Grimsby and North Sea Steam Trawling Co., 
Ltd. This vessel was built on the lines of the then 
existing powerful sailing vessels, and had large 
sail power in addition to tho propelling machinery. 
Since that date the steam trawling industry has 
developed to an enormous extent, and the vessels 
have greatly increased in size and elaboration of 
fittings, and are now solely driven by their pro- 
pelling machinery. Following on the success of 
the Zodiac. Earle's built a large number of these 
vessels, and still have a department devoted to 
this class of work. Over l6o sleaiu trawlers have 
been bnitt and equipped by tht conigiany, and 

their v^^ssebi have always had an excellent reputa- 
tion (or seaworthiness. 

Eul of Xoira. On Augnst 8. 1S21. this 
was lost on the Burbo Bank, near Liverpool, wboi 
40 persons were drowned- 

Earnest, British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Bit- 
kenhead, 1896.) Length, 2to ft.; beam, 31 ft; 
draught, 5I ft. ; displacement, 300 tons ; cooiple- 
ment. 58 ; armament, i i3-pdr., 5 6-ixlr.. 3 tubes; 
t%vin screw , Hp.. ^1,000 = 30 kts. ; coal. 80 tons. 

Eammoce. Newcanle steamer. Foundered a 
a cyclone off the BahaTna.<i, September 5. 1689 ; 
tR lives lost. 

E!ase her. In steamers, reduce speed. 

Ease off. To slackrn out a rope carefully. 

3EM6 the helm. To move it backwards ami^ 


East End News and London Shipping Chronkdt. 

Established 1859. Published weekly {Tuesday and 
Friday). Price, rrf, and ^tt. Address : 46 Htgb 
Street. Poplar, London, E. 

Eastern (Sty. On August ^3 24. "*58, this vcsjH 
wii.'H hurnt near thr efiiiator on her way to Mel- 
bourne. By great exertions all on board wen 


Eaitern Uonuch. On June i, 1859, this vessel 
was burnt at Spilhead. The vessel contained 
about 500 invalid soldiers, who, with the crew, 
behaved admirably, nrtil only eight lives were last. 

Butern Taoht Club, Boyal. See Royal Eastect 

Yacht Club. 

Easting. A counte made good or gained to the 
east ward . 

E.B. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 

registered at Elburg, Holland. 

Ebb. The falling reflux of the tide, or its retnni 
back from the highest of the fiood or high water. 

Eekness. Russian torpedo-boat. (Abo, iS^a) 
Length, 136 ft.; beam. 13 ft.; draught. 7J ft; 
displacement. 81 tons ; complement. 13 ; armament. 
2 l-pdr.. 2 lube3 ; Hp., 1,100=21 lets.; coal, 
17 tons. 

Eolair. French sea-going torpedo-boaL (La 
Seyne. 1891.) Length, 144 it- : beam, 40^ it.; 
draught, 7^ ft. ; displacement, 128 tons : comple- 
ment, 36 : armament. 3 3-pdr., 2 tubes ; twin 
screw ; Hp.. 1 .100 — zi} kts. ; coal. 17 tons. 

Eclipse. British and class cruiser. (Portsmouth. 

Length iOj^t Beam 54ft. Maximum draught ajft. 
Displacement 5,600 toua. Complement 450. 
Gum. A rmaur, 

1 1 — 6 in. " Harvey. ' * 

a — 12 pdr. 2\ in. Deck. 

I — 13 pdr., S cwt. in. Conning tower, 

7—3 P«lr. 

2 Maxims. 

To*p«do TtriMS (iH in.). 
2 Submcrgt-xl. 
I Above water nhmi. 
Twin screw. Hp. natural 8.000=18*5 ^ts., foicctl 
9.600= i9'5 Iits- Coal maximum 1.076 tons. 

RtncDv speaking, extends to all cases 
of obscuration of one heavenly body by the inter- 
ve'ntion ol another, either between it and the eye 
or between it and the source of ibt illumination, 
ccn-sequently it includes besides eclipsias of the sun 
and moon traosits of inferior planets, the conceal- 
ment of stars by the moon or by a planet, or the 
concealment of a satellite by its primar>'. Solar 
(xlipM is the name given to a total or partial con- 
cealment of the sun by the moon, Lunar ecUps<- 
i<f the total or partial concealment of the moon by 
the shadow ol the earth. .Sjx ccUpae of the sun 
can only occur when the moon at tlie time ol mean 
ooDjuoctioa with the suu u witlnn ig)" of her 
node ; a limar uchpse when she is within ij^" of 
her node. There may be as many as seven edipse-s 
in a year. o( which four would be solar, thrre ol 
these partuil. while uf tlie lunar ecUpstes two would 
be total. The Icaat possible number iu the year 
would be tno. and in this case each eclipse would 
h« solar. 

BJ>. Existence doubtful. Abbreviation adopted 
ca^ the charts issued by the Hydroffraphic Office. 

•d. Abbreviation for edition and edited. 

BUft. Swedish gun-vessel. (Karlskrona. 1686.) 
t.ength, 185 ft. ; beam. 37 ft. ; Uiaught, \o\ ft. ; 
displacement. 54^ tons : comp)eitu-nt. 76 : arma- 
ment. I lo-m., I 6-in.. 2 T5 in., 3 Maxims; Hp.. 
O6oai3 kts. : coal. So Tons. 

Bddy. A tf-rm usv^ for the water which falls 
back on Ihc rudder of u ship ander sail. 

Eddystone Lightboasa. situated in the English 
Channel nme miles from the coast of Cornwall and 
about 14 miles S.S.W. of Plyinouth Breakwater. 
Ttie fimt lighthouse to be erectiMl here Was one of 
wood built io 1700. and swejrt away by a storm 
thrre yf^T% later. The second, also constructed 
uf wood, was erected iu 17U6, and burnt down in 
1755. The third, which stood for over too v-eara, 
wax doMCiwd by Smeatun, and built of vtonc, 
1757. In 1877 the Corporation of Trinity House 
decided to erect a new lighthouse, aiul selected a 
site I JO feet S.S.E. from Sniealon's Lighthouse. 
ThtH was foiuul necessary owing to tlie rork tounda- 
tion of the old lighthouse becommg undermmed 
by the waves. The fourth Eddystone Lighthouse, 
the foundation stone of which \va& laid by the late 
Duke of Hdinburgh on August 19. 1879, was com- 
ptcte<t in lS82, when the upper portion of Smeaton's 
tower was removed and re-erected on Plymouth 
Hoc- Th^ light, the intensity ol which is 70.tx.1j 
candle-power, has a range of rjj miles, and givef 
a double flash at intervals of lialf a mmute. 

Eden. Ship. On November 8, i&7$, this vnsd 
sailed from Valparaiso. She was set on fire by her 
mad captain and blew up. The crew were rescued by 
the Juanita. 

Eden. Britisli torpedo-boat destroyer. (Parsons, 
l^.^) length. 320 ft. : beam. 23 It. ; draught. 
8] It. ; displacement, 52; tons : complement. 70 : 
annarocnt. t 12-pdr., 5 6-pdr.. 2 tubes ; twin 
screw : Hp., 7,000=25 ktji. ; coal. 130 tons. 

Edgar. British ist class cruiser. (Fairfield, 


Length 360ft. Beam bolt. Maximum draught 26ft, 
15isplacement 7,}$f^ tons. Tomplement 540. 
Guns. Armour. 

3^^ 3 in. " SteeL" 

CO— 6 in. 5 in. Deck, 

13— 6pdr. 12 in. Conning tower. 

5—3 Pdr. 
2 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tub£S (18 in.}. 
J Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp, natural to,ooo=«i8'5 kts,, 
forced 1 2.000 Ez: 2o's kts. Coat maximum t .350 
tons. Approxunatc cost £410.080. 

This lihip-namr- wa.<i incroduced into the Nav>* 
by Charles II,. i'J63, and is associated with the 
fir^it battle of Sthooneveld. 1673 ; battle of the 
Texel, 1673 ; battle of Bantry Bay, 1689 ; battle of 
BcBchy Head, 1690 , Barflcurand La lloguc, 1692 ; 
Boscawen's victory' in Lagos Bay, 1759 ; reduction 
of Havana, 1762 ; Rodney's action off Cape St. 
Vincent, 178a ; Copenhagen, iBoi. 

Edgar. 70 guns. On October m. 1711. tlii^ 
vessel blew up at Spithead. when all on board 

EdgUd QtliMt, French I St class cruiser. iBrest, 

Length 528ft. Beam ;oft. Maximum draught 37fr. 
Displacement 13,480 ton.H. Complement 750. 
Guns. Armituf. 

4 — 7*6 in.. 45 cal. '■ Krupp." 
r6 — 6'4 in. ri| in. Belt amidships, 

fl — 9 pdr. 8 in. Torrets. 

34 — 3 pdr. 8 in. Corming tower. 

Tntpe4o Tiii« {177 in.). 
3 Submerged. 
1 Above water. 
Three screws. Hp. 40,000 » 24 kts. Coal maxi' 
muni. 2.4UU tons. Ajiproximatc cost, j^t. 350.000. 

Edge away. To decline gradually from tlie 
course which the ship formerly steered by going 
more away from before the wind. 

Edge in with. To steer oblt<pu>ly towards a given 

Bdi. Netherlands gun-vesscl. (Flushing. 1898.) 
Length, 179 ft.; beam, 30 It; draught. 11 ft.; 
displacement. 787 tor» : complement, y5 ; ttrma- 
mont, J 4"7-m., 2 2"9-in., 4 i 4-in. , Hp.. 1.100= 
I J kts. : cool. 1 1 1 Ions, 





EdiabUTKb. Ilritish and class batLl«ship (0,430 
Lons. 14-2 kts.). launched 1882. 

Editb. Steamer. In collision with Ibc DucMcss of 
Sutherland ofl St. John's Point, Ireland. Both 
ships went down. 

Edjder. Turkish torpedo-boat. (Gaardm,i89o.) 
Length, 152 ft.; beam. i8j (t. ; draught, 7 ft.; 
displacement. 150 tons; armament, 5 3-pdr.. q.f.. 
2 tubes ; twin screw : Hp., 3.200=23 ^^• 

Edaannd. Emi^atit ship, from Limerick to New 
York, wrecked otT the Western Coast of Ireland. 
November 12, 1850.; 100 lives lost. 

Edue. .'\bbre\'iation for educated. 

Education En^Mrmg. Naval. S^e Naval Educa- 

Edacfltion. NavaL See Naval Education. 

Edward Yacht Club. E>iiabUslit.<d 1901. Hono- 
rary Treasurer. T. W. Berr^-; Honorat)- Secretary-. 
W. Stewart. Kingstown. Co. Dublin. Knirantx- 
fee, ^3 ; annual subscription, j£j. 

E.E. Distinguishing letters on sea nshing boats 
registered at Eemrun. Holland. 

B.S. Abbreviation for errors excepted. 
E.O. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Egmond-Aan-Zec. Holland. 

e.g. For example. 

Egeria. British surveying vessel (940 ions. 
113 kts.). Launclicd 1S73. 

Evypt |i8g;). British subsidised merhcant ship- 
P. and O. Co. (q.v.). Dimensions, 500 x 54X 33 It. ; 
gTo<:s tonnage. 7.900; passenger accommodation' 
52^; Up., 9400=18 lets. 

Efypt. Atlantic liner. Burnt at sea July iS, 
xit/o ; crew and passengers saved by the GvsUv 

S,H. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Enkhuizcn, Holland. 

Bid«r. North German Lloyd steamer. Struck 
on the rocks near the Isle of Wight, during a fog, 
January 31, 1S9Z ; captain, t66 of tiic crew, and 
227 passengers, together with mai l s, were saved. 
The vessel was refloated and towed into Southamp- 
ton, March 39. 1892. 

Eldsvold. NonK-cgian coast service battleship- 
(FJswick, iifuo.) 
Length 290ft, Beam 5uft. 
Displacement 3,800 tons, 
2-~^ in., 45 cal. ' 

6^6 in. 

Mean draught lOft. 

Complement 250. 
" Krupp." 
7 in. Belt. 

8 — 13 pdr. 
6 — 3 pdr. 

Twin screw. 

mum 400 tons. 

6 in. Turrets. 
5 in. CoHemateM. 
Totprdif TiAes. 
2 Submerged. 
Hp. 4.3so>*i7 kts. t'oal maxi- 

Ekaterina XL Old Russian battleship. Black Ses 

Length 339ft. Beam 69ft. Maxiinum draaght 19ft. 
Displacement lo.jjo tons. Complemeot 530. 
Gum. Armour. 

6 — 12 in. " Compoand." 

7—6 in. iS in. Belt amidships. 

8 — 3 pdr. 12 in. Barbettes. 

4 — I pdr. 16 in. CoDning tower. 

ft Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
7 Abovfl water. 
Twin screw. Hp. 11,000=16 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum S70 ton?i. 

Elastic force o! vapour. Pressure of the water 
vapour in the atmosphere. 

Elba. Small Italian cruiser. (CAsteUamaie. 

Length 273ft. Beam 42ft. Maximum draught 18ft 
Displacement 2.730 tons. Complement 347. 
Guns. A rmtmr. 

2— 6 in. "Steel." 

8 — 4'7 in. t in. Deck. 

8—6 pdr. 
8 — I pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
3 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. 7,500= 18*5 kts. Coal 
mum 500 tons. Approximate cost £200,000. 

Elba, BattleoL Fought .\ugust z8. 1652, between 
the British under Admiral Badilcy and the Dotdi 
under .-\dniiral van Galen. The Britisli lost tii« 
Phanix during the engagement, and were oon- 
pcUed to retire to Porto Longoue. The Phatuis 
was, however, recaptured on November 30 by the 
British under Captain Owen Cox. 

Elbe. North German Lloyd steamer, frotit Bcfr 
men to New York. Sank in collision with Um 
Craihis, of Aberdeen, off Lowestoft, January jo, 
•''95 ; 334 lives lost. 

Elbing-Oborland CanoL commenced in 184$. 
ajid ruu:ih(--d m 1S60, at the cost of coo- 
nects Lake Drauseu and the port of Klbing with 
Lakea Geaerich and Diewenz. It is no uUles long, 
with a width of 52^ ft., and a depth of 4^ ft. 

Elbow. An angle formed by two cables or ropeL 

ElCiUlO. U.S. gun- boat. Captured troin 
Spaniards in the Spanish-American war, 1898. 

Elder. Dempster and Oo. Sm Imperial Dii«ct 
Wf-it India Mail Service Co., Ltd. 

Elder, John {1824-69). Shipbuilder and roarine 
cnginet'i ;b. Glasgow). Was the first to experiment 
with and bring into practical use compound steam 

Elders and Fyfles, Ltd., was formed in 1901, aad 
is the oijtcom<: oi the immense development of the 
West India banana trade. The senicc began with 


foui* steamers, since wbicb nine have been added and 
fitted with Ki>ectal arrangements for the sale con- 
veyance ol fruit. R^ular servicts are maintained 
between Jamaica and Costa Rica from Manchester, 
and from Dristol (Avonmouth). tn 1904 tlic 
company nas entrusted witli the carriage of parcels 
and mails to Costa Hica. 


Andrea. Golden Eagle Ntcoya. 

Appomattox Greenbrier. Oracabessa. 

Barratua. GuancMt. Pacuare. 

Chtckakominy. Manistee. Reveniaton. 

Chirripo. Mariposa. Taora. 

Etperanta. Matina. Zent. 

Gross toooage, 53.00a 

Eldenlie Steamship Co., Ltd. See Turnbull. 

Martin and Co. 

Eldhdge, Qtorgt. British naval architect. Served 
his apprentii:c:ilup in H.M. Dockyard, Chatham. In 
1864 joined the firm of Me?tani. R. Na{iier and Son<t, 
Glasgow, as assistant manager in the shipbuilding 
department. In 1872 jomcd Messrs. Palmer and Co. , 
Jarrvw, as manager of their shipbuilding department, 
and in the latter part of 1873 he went to St. Ppters- 
burg to take charge of the shipbuilding department of 
the Baltic Ironworks, there being closely connected 
M-ith the building ol ironclads and cruisers for the 
Russian Government, and many steamers for mer- 
cantile ser^■)ce, On returning to England in 1879. 
he was appointed to superintend the buitdmg of the 
Czar's yacht Livadia, then on the stocks at Mcssra. 
Elder and Co., Glasgow. In 1BS2 he joined the 
Orient Steam Navigation Co. as Naval Architect, 
and on tlie sinking of the Austral in Sydney 
Harbour, he made a contract with this firm to raise 
her. which, after two months' arduous work, he 
mccessfnlly accomplished. In 1884 he returned 
to London, and t^tablishi-d himself as a consulting 
naval architect and engineer. In March, i.SBS. he 
made a contract with the JarTo%v Shipbuilding Co. 
to go to Bilbao to select a site for building, and to 
prepare plans and estimates for the establishment 
of works to build thrc« cruisers for the Spanish 
Government. Was selected by the Council of the 
Institution of Naval Architects to r<*present them 
on the Life Savmg .^pplLaaae^ Committee. 

Xtoetnu British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Clyde- 
. 1901-) Length. Ji8 ft. ; beam, aoft. ; draught. 
5J ft. ; displacement, 300 tons ; complement, 58 ; 
armament, t ts-pdr. 5 6-pdr., 2 tubes; twin 
screw; Hp., 6,000*30 kts. ; coal, 80 tuns. 

EleotHc shock. Unconsmoasness trom. See Appa- 
rently dead. Methods of re^stortng the. 

Etoctric t«l«graph. Ste Telegraphy. 

BSsctromttor. An instrument for measuring the 
electnficatioa of the air. 

■kv* Fnunli (1645). British naval architect 
(b. Portsmouth). Was in the service of the Admi- 
ralty from 1 867 to [871. In 1879 he wa^ appointed 
adviser on naval construction to the Japanese 
Government, which post he held for two years, 
until he was appointed professor ol naval archi- 
tecture and marine cngini^cnng in the L'luvcn^tty of 
Glasgow. In 1886 he re^iigitcd this pu^iLiun to 
l»ecome first director of H.M. DockyarrU. a pa4t 
which he held until 1892. He then acted as na\-al 
architect to the Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineer- 
ing Co., Glasgow. 

Publication: " Ships. Old and New." 

EUftgot I'urktfih tarp<.'do - boat. (Se«tn PO- 
nentc, 1904.) Length, 165 ft. ; bean, 18^ ft. ; 
draught, 4}^ ft. ; displacement. 165 tons ; Hp., 
3,200=27 ^ts. 

Eliot, Whately, Bllnst.O.B. (b. Novutnber 23. 
1841). Civil engineer. Articled pupil to the late 
Sir J. Coodc. C.E., at the Admiralty Breakwater 
Works at Portland. 1861-64. Subsequently en- 
gaged on dock and harbour works at SuuderLand, 
Tynemouth, Isle of Man, and in New /.caland. 
Engineer to Peterhead Harbour Board, 1875-80 ; 
resident engineer of harbour works for the Cape 
Government, 1880-85 \ resident engineer of the 
Eastham section of the Manc