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FROM THK GIFT OF 

WILLIAM ENDICOTT, Jr. 

(Class of 1887) 
OF BOSTON 



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ENCYGLOPiEDIA 
OFSHIPS AND 

SHIPPING 



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Edited by 

HERBERT B. MASON 



THE SHIPPING ENCYCLOPAEDIA 

UMITED ^ 

CHICHESTER HOUSE CHANCERY LANE - 

LONDON MDCCCCVIII 

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W.H.SMITH&tON 
PRINTERS 
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LONDON, B.C. 



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PREFACE 



■J-Ul. 



. I 



The " Encyclopaedia of Ships and Shipping " has been compiled to 
furnish information of value to those in any way connected with 
nautical matters. 

In preparing the work, it Jias, been necessary, in order to confine the 
matter to one volume, to make the article as concise as possible, and where 
space has prevented the subject being dealt with to any great length, 
standard authorities'^are quoted to enable the reader to obtain further iuw 
formation on the subject. This applies particularly to Law and Insurance 
and in most instances the leading Admiralty Court cases on the question 
are quoted. 

The Editor is grateful to the many gentlemen of distinction who have 
been good enough to assist him with their advice and aid in the com. 
pilation of the work. Among these may be mentioned : 

The Naval Attaches at the Embapies in London, for their kind- 
ness in furnishing information ejQabling him to include in this 
work particulars of vessels in ,the various foreign navies. 



EDGAR TARRY ADAMS, Esq. 

SirVTHEODORE V. S. ANGIER . 

The Rt. Hon. LORD ARMSTRONG, 
J.P., D.L. 

Sir NATHANIEL BARNABY, K.CB. 

Sir BENJAMIN C. BROWNE, D.C.L 

Professor CARL BUSLEY 

M. Le Marquis de CHASSELOUP- 

LAUBAT 

G. STEU ART CROSHAW,Esq.,M Jl. 

ARCHIBALD DENNY, Esq. 

J. M'AUSLAND DENNY, Esq., M.P. 



A.*^ DICK, Esq. 
H. RAYLTON DIXON, Esq. 
Sir 4- J- DURSTON, K.CB. 
WILLIAM FIFE, Esq. 

SirJAMES FORTESCUE 

FLANNERY, J.P. 

Sir CHRISTOPHER FURNESS, 

M.P. 
Sir JOHN GLOVER 

JOHN GRETTON, Esq., M.P. 

The Right Hon. LORD GEORGE 
HAMILTON, G.C.S.I. 



Commander JOSEPH HONNER,R.N. 
LINTON HOPE, Esq., A.Iiist. N.A. 
Admiral Sir JOHN OMMANNEY 

HOPKINS, G.C.B. 
The Late Colonel Sir HENRY M. 

HOZIER, K.C.B. 
JOHN INGLIS, Esq. 
The Rt. Hon. LORD INVERCLYDE 
FRED. T. JANE, Esq. 
Sir ALFRED L. JONES 
The Late LORD KELVIN, O.M. 
Professor ALEX. KENNEDY, LL.D., 

F.R.S. 
Sir J. K. LAUGHTON 
The Late GEORGE C. MACKKOW, 
, ^ Esq., M.Inst. N.A. 
W. MARRIOTT, Esq., F.R. Met. Soc. 



Admiral Sir GEORGE DIGBY 

MORANT, K.C.B.. 

sir^biGBX Murray, Bart. 

Sir JOHN MURRAY, K.C.B., LLD.„ 

F.R.S. 
Sir ANDREW NOBLE, K.C.B. 
Engineer Rear-Admiral H. J. ORAM 
The Hon. CHARLES A. PARSONS,. 

C.B. 
Commander ROBINSON, R.N. 
Sir MARCUS SAMUEL, Bart. 
The Rt. Hon. EARL SPENCER, K.G. 

Sir THOMAS SUTHERLAND, 

G.C.M.G_ 
Sir WILLIAM WHITE, K.C.B. 
Sir JAMES WILLIAMSON, C.B. 



THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF 
SHIPS AND SHIPPING 



A. The highest class of merchant ships on Lloyd's 
books, subdivided into Ai and A2, after which they 
descend by the vowels. Refer to Lloyd's Register 
of British and Foreign Shipping. 

A. Distinguishing letter on sea fishing boats re- 
gistered at Aalborg, Denmark. 

A. Distinguishing letter on sea fislfing boats re- 
gistered at Aberdeen, Scotland. 

A. Distinguishing letter on' aea fishing boats re- 
gistered at Antwerp, Belgiom. 

A.A. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Alloa, Scotland. 

AJB. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Aberystwith, England. 

A3. Able body. Signifjring trained seamen. 
Refef to Able-bodied Seaman. 

Abaok. Position of ship's sails when wind bears 
against front surface. 

Abaft Relatively near the stem. 

Abalone. A shell-fish of the East and West Pacific 
Coasts. The fiesh is dried and eaten, and the shell is 
used as mother-of-pearl. 

Abandon. See Abandonment. 

Abandomnent generally means a Notice of Aban- 
donment or letter from the assured notifying to the 
underwriter the abandonment of the subject in- 
sured. " The abandonment must be direct and ex- 
press, and I think the word Abandon should be used 
to make it effectual " (Lord Eflenborough in Par- 
meter V. Todhunter, Camp., 542). It is a positive 
transfer of property from the assured to the under- 
writer the notice is intimating his intention to 
abandon. As a rule, the underwriter declines to 
accept the notice, but his neglect to reply must not 
be taken as his acceptance (Provincial Insurance 
Company of Canada v. Leduc, L.R., 6 P.C. 224)., No 
particular form has been prescribed for tender or 
notice of abandonment. It is not even necessary 
that it should be in writing, although it is usually so 
given as documentary evidence of the tender ; but in 
whatever iorm it is given one essential is that it be 
given unequivocally; no conditions may be at- 
tached; it must be an absolute offer then and there, 
but it is desirable that it should state some grounds 
on which the tender is made. The reply of the 
underwriter if he accepts must be similarly uncondi- 
tional and absolute. Refer to Derelict and Con- 
structive Total Loss, 



Abatement or Rebate is in commerce an allowance 
or discount made in consideration of prompt pay- 
ment. The term is also used to express the deduc- 
tion occasionally made by the Customs authorities 
from duties chargeable upon such goods as are 
damaged or for loss in warehouses. Among ship- 
pers the term rebate is used to denote the amount 
returnable for freight paid by the shipper to the ship- 
owner or his agent, when the shipper confines his 
shipments to one line or ring of shipowners. 

Abbe, Profeasor deYeland, A.M., Ph.D., LL.D., 

Professor of Meteorology, United States Weather 
Bureau {b. New York City, December 3, 1838). 
Educ. College of the City of New York; University 
of the State of Michigan; Harvard University; Cen- 
tral Nicholas Observatory, Poulkova, near St. 
Petersburg, Russia. Instructor of Mathematics, 
Trinity Parish School, New York, 1857-58, and 
Engineering, Michigan State Agricultural College, 
1859; aid in U.S. Coast Survey, 1860-64; Direc- 
tor of Cincinnati Observatory, 1868-73; organised 
the weather service under the Secretary of War, 1870- 
91, now under the Secretary of Agriculture; 
started the reform in standards of civil time reckon- 
ing by even hours of longitude from Greenwich, 
1875, which is now widely adopted; conducted the 
Signal Service expedition to observe the solar eclipse 
from Pike's Peak, 1878; Meteorologist to the Ex- 
pedition to the West Coast of Africa, 1889-90; 
Associate Editor of the American Meteorological 
Journal, 1891-94; editor of the monthly Weather" 
Review, 1893; Professor of Meteorology, Columbia 
University, 1885; Lecturer on Meteorology, Johns 
Hopkins University, 1895. 

Publications : " The Parallax of Sirius " (1866), 
" The Distribution of the Nebulae " (1867), "Dorpat 
and Poulkova " (1869). " The Weather Bulletin of 
the Cincinnati Observatory " (1869), ** The Eclipse 
of August " (1869), " How to Use Weather Maps " 
(1871), " Historical Note on Weather Telegraphy " 
(187 1), " Observations of Coggia's Comet " (1874), 
"The Aurora of Feb. 4th, 1872 "; "The Hurricane of 
August, 1873"; "The Meteor of Dec. 24th, 1874"; 
" The Signal Service Eclipse Expedition to Pike's 
Peak, 1878"; "Short Memoirs on Meteorology" 
(1878), " Treatise on Meteorological Apparatus and 
Methods " (1887), " Determination of the True 
Amount of Precipitation " (1889), " Mechanic of the 
Earth's Atmosphere " (1891), " Atmospheric Radia- 
tion " (1892), " Preparatory Studies for Storm and 
Weather Predictions " (1889), " The Marine Nepho- 
scope " (1893), "The Meteorological Work of the U.S. 

B 



ABBREVIATIONS 



ABERDEEN 



Signal Service " (1893), " Annual Summary of Pro- 
gress in Terrestrial Physics and Meteorology " (1873- 
89), the article " Meteorology " in " The Times " 
Supplement to the 9th Edition of the Encyclopaedia 
Britannica, " Aims and Methods of State Weather 
Services" (1899), "The Altitude of the Aurora" 
(1899), " The Physical Basis of Long-Range Fore- 
casts " (1901). 

Abbreviatioiu are distributed throughout the En- 
cyclop adia of Ships and Shipping in alphabetical 
order. 

A J.C. Railway Time Tables for Cardiff, New- 
port and Swansea. Published monthly. Price id. 

Address: Cardiff. 

t 

Abdul Hamid. Turkish cruiser (1904)- 

Length 330 ft. Beam 4a ft. Maximum draught 16 ft. 

Displacement 3,277 tons. Complement 302. 

Guns, Armour. ' 

2—6 in. " Steel." 

6—4 in. 2 in. Deck. 

2-— 3 pdr. 

2 — I pdr. 

Torpedo Tub^s, 

3 Above water. 

Twin screw. Hp. forced 12,000 ^aa kts. Coal 

maximum 600 tons. 

Abdul Medjidiah. Turkish armoured cruiser. 
(Philadelphia, 1903). 

Length 331ft. Beam 42 ft. Draught 16 ft. 
Displacement 3,400 tons. Complement 300. 
Guns. Armour. 

2—6 in. " Steel." 

8 — ^4*7 in. 4 in. Deck amidships. 

6 — X'8 in. 

Torpedo Tubes. 

2 Above water. 

Hp. 13,000=22 kts. Coal 600 tons. 

Abeam. In a direction at right angles to vessel's 
length. 

Abel, Sii Frederick Angiutiii (1827-1902). Scien- 
tific Chemist (b. London). Was an authority on ex- 
plosives and improved the manufacture of gun 
cotton; was part-inventor with Professor Dewar of 
cordite. Invented an apparatus for determining the 
flashpoint of petroleum; Professor of Chemistry, 
Royal Military Academy, 1851-55; Chemist to the 
War Department, 1854-88; First Director Imperial 
Institute, 1887. 

Publications: "Gun Cotton" (1866), "The 
Modern History of Gunpowder " (1866), " On Ex- 
plosive Agenti* " (1872), " Researches in Explosives" 
(1875), " Electricity Applied to Explosive Pur- 
poses '■ (1(^84). 

Aberdeen. Steamship, built in 1882. One of the 
first to be cngined with triple expansion engines, 
which were designed by Mr. Kirk to work with steam 
at 125 lbs. pressure. 



Aberdeen, Leitfa and Horay Steamriiip Oo.» Ltd., 

with their head office in Aberdeen, maintain a 
service every Monday from Leith for Aberdeen, 
Buckie, I^ssiemouth, Cromarty, InVergordon and 
Inverness, making the return journey from Inverness 

every Thursday. 

Fleet. 
Earnholm. James Crombie. 

Aberdeen Line (Rennie's). Was inaugurated in 
1856 with a fleet of, sailing ships trading regularly 
between London and Natal. In 1857 steam was 
first tried with the Madagascar^ the first steamer 
on the South African Coast carrying the mails from 
Cape Town to Durban. In 1886 the Matabele, 
the first steadier in the South African trade to be 
fitted with triple expansion engines, was added to the 
fleet. The company now maintain a weekly service 
from the West India Dock, London, to Natal, calling 
at Portland and the Canary Islands (Las Palmas and 
Tenerifle), and an East African service inaugurated 
in 1892, which has developed into a fortnightly ser-^ 
vice between Natal and Quilimane, calling at the 
Portuguese ports of Delagoa Bay, Inhambane and 
Beira and Chinde. 

Fleet. 

Ifafa. Jnchanga. Jnsizwa. 

Illovo. Ingsli. Inyati. 

Jnanda. Inkonha. Inyoni, 

Inhosi, 
Gross tonnage, 28,000. 

Aberdeen Line (Thompson's). This company, ply- 
ing between London and Australia, via the Cape, 
founded in Aberdeen in 1824, has occupied for three- 
quarters of a century a prominent position in the 
Australian cargo and passenger trade ; due in the first 
instance to the runs of their noted clippers to 
Melbourne and Sydney. The Aberdeen^ built in 
1881, was the first ocean steamer to demonstrate 
decisively the superior merits of triple expansion 
engines. The total tonnage now only includes one 
sailing vessel of 2,093 ^^^» ^^^ ^^^ clippers having, 
been replaced by modem steamships. The Mil- 
Hades holds the record from London to Melbourne 
via the Cape, her steaming time being 34 days, 
actual time from port to port 35 days. 

Fleet. 

Aberdeen. Marathon. Nineveh. 

Australasian. Miltiades. Salamis, 

Damascus. Moravian. Sophocles. 

Gross tonnage, 44,000. 

Aberdeen, Newcastle and Hull Steamship Co., 

Ltd., with their head office in Aberdeen, maintain a 
service of steamers at advertised hours between 
Aberdeen and Hull and Aberdeen and Newcastle-on- 
Tyne. A steamer leaves Aberdeen for Hull every 
Tuesday, returning from Hull every Saturday. A 
steamer leaves Aberdeen for Newcastle every Satur- 
day, and returns from Newcastle ever>' Wednesday. 

Fleet. 
Earl of Aberdeen. Norwood. 



ABERDEEN 



ACCIDENT 



Abtrdeeo Stewn Navlgatlaii Oompwiy, with their 
head office in Aberdeen, and their London office at 
Limehouse, maintain a regulair service of steamers 
between London and Aberdeen, sailing every Wednes- 
day and Saturday. The steamers have excellent 
passenger accommodation. 

Flbbt. 
City of Aberdeen, Hogarth. 

City of London. Harlaw. 



East Indiaman. Went ashore on 
the Bill of Portland, February 6, 1805 ; 300 lives lost. 

Aberratioii. An apparent change of place, or 
alteration of their mean position, in the fixed stars, 
caused by the orbital movement of the earth. Aber- 
ration of planet signifies the space through which it 
appears to move during the time which it occupies in 
passing from the planet to us. 

AUe-Bodied Seaman. (Merchant Shipping Act, 
J 894, section 126.) A sean^an shall not be entitled 
to the rating of A.B., that is to say, of able-bodied 
seaman, unless he has served at sea for four years 
before the mast, but the employment of fishermen in 
decked fishing vessels registered under the first part 
of this Act shall only count as sea service up to the 
period of three years of that employment; and the 
rating of A.B. shall only be granted after at least one 
year's sea service in a trading vessel in addition to 
three or more years' sea service on board of decked 
fishing vessels so registered. 

Service may be proved by certificates of discharge 
or by certificate of service from the Registrar- 
General of Shipping and Seamen (q.v.) or other 
satisfactory proof. 

Aboafd. Inside or upon a ship. 

Abookir* British ist class cruiser. (Fairfield, 
1900.) 

Length 454 ft. Beam 69 ft. Maximum draught 28 ft. 
Displacement 12,000 tons. Complement 700. 
Guns. Armour. 

2 — 9-2 in., 45 cal. " Krupp." 

I2~~6 in. 6 in. Belt amidships. 

12 — 12 pdrs. 6 in. Barbettes. 

2 — 12 pdr., 8 cwt. 12 in. Conning tower. 

3 — 3 pdr. 
2 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
2 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 21,000 = 21 kts. Coal maxi- 
mnm 1,600 tons. Approximate cost ;^749,ooo. 

This ship-name was introdaced into the Navy in 
1798 with the Aquilon captured at the battle of the 
Nile; she was renamed the Abouhir. 

Aboat Ship. To turn or tack head to wind. 

Above Boafd. Over the deck. 

AbOK. See Aback. 



Abrek. Russian torpedo gun -boat (1896). 
Length 2x2 ft. Beam 25 ft. Maximum draught 13 ft. 
Displacement 534 tons. Complement 109. 

Guns. 
2 — ^47 in, 

4—3 pdr. 
2 — I pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes, 

2 Above water. 

Twin screw. Hp. 4,500=321 kts. 

Abninii Dake of, Prince Luigi Amedeo Giuseppe 
Maria Ferdinando Francesco, Captain Italian Navy 
and Geographer (b. Madrid, J anuary 29,1873). Third 
son of Amedeo, Duke of Aosta, and cousin to the King 
of Italy. Ascended Mount St Elias, Alaska, July 
31, 1897, and determined its altitude and geological 
origin. Commanded an Arctic expedition to the 
North Pole, 1900; when he and his party reached 
86** 33' N. Refer to Arctic Exploration. 

Publication: " The Ascent of Mount St Elias " 
(1900). 

Abyssal Anfmi^lf are those which inhabit the 
greatest depths of the ocean. Until the last half of 
the 19th century, it was commonly supposed that 
only the upper strata and shallow water of the ocean 
were inhabited. This was disproved by the Challen- 
ger expedition {q,v.), and it was thought that possi- 
bly the discovery would lead to the finding of liv- 
ing fossils. This, however, has not been the case to 
any great extent, as the deep-sea animals show clear 
signs of having been derived from shallow water and 
do not shed any light on the origin of life in the sea. It 
has been proved that Abyssal animals are carnivo- 
rous and depend upon the dead organisms which drop 
down from the surface waters. At the great depth 
at which they are found the water is so cold, and the 
pressure so enormous, that living plants are absent. 
One striking peculiarity of deep-sea animals is that 
many of them, especially fish, are ^lind. The 
last volume of the Challenger monographs, entitled 
" Summary of Results," gives a graphic and his- 
torical account of deep-sea dredging. 

Abyssmia. Guion screw steamer. Caught fire 
in mid-Atlantic, December 18, 189 1. Passengers and 
crew rescued by the Spree, 

A.O. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Karolinensiel, Germany. 

A/c. Account. 

Aoademies* Naval. See Naval Establishments. 

AcalephSS. From the Greek, meaning Nettle; a 
name given to the animals commonly known as jelly- 
fish, sea-blubber, medusa, sea-nettle. 

Aco^tance. See Bill of Exchange. 

Aocident " The expression ' accident * in the 
ordinary sense denotes an unlooked-for mishap or 

b2 



ACCIDENT 



ACEVEDO 



untoward event which is not expected or designed/' 
and covers cases of inevitable accidents and accidents 
caused by the Act of God {q.v.). 

An inevitable accident is " that which the party 
charged with the offence could not possibly prevent 
by the exercise of ordinary care, caution and mari- 
time skill," and is a good defence to an action for 
negligence. 

By section 425 of the Merchant Shipping Act, 1894, 
a report of any accident to a British steamship caus- 
ing loss of life or personal injury, or affecting the 
seaworthiness or efficiency of the ship, must be sent 
by her master to the Board of Trade as soon as pos- 
sible after its occurrence. 

This section also applies to all foreign steamships 
carrying passengers between places in the United 
Kingdom. 

By section 728 inspectors may be appointed by the 
Board of Trade (q.v.) for the purpose of reporting on 
the causes and nature of any accident or damage to 
any ship. 

Refer to Collisions at Sea, Employers' Liability, 
Limitation of LiabiUty, Seamen. 

Aoddent Inraranoe. See Insurance. 

Accommodatioa Ladder. Flight of steps over ship's 
side. 

Aoconnt. Going upon. A phrase for buccaneer- 
ing. 

Aocountaat GeneraL An officer in the English 
Court of Chancery who receives and disburses all 
moneys paid into the Court. This office was abolished 
in 1872, the duties being transferred to the Paymas- 
ter-General. 

Aooonntant Offloen (Navy). See Paymaster 
(Navy). 

Aooul. A term used by seamen, indicating the end 
of a deep bay. 

Aocomolated Temperature. This is the combined 
amount and duration of the excess or defect of the 
air temperature above or below the base temperature 
of 42^. It is considered that the temperature above 
that value is mainly effectual in starting and main- 
taining the growth, and in completing the ripening 
of agricultural crops. 

Aocomtllator, Hydranlio. Devised by Lord Arm- 
strong, consists of a vertical cylinder and heavily 
weighted ram, fed at a constant rate from the 
hydraulic pump, giving a pressure of 700 lbs. to the 
square inch. In this way an artificial head of water 
IS obtained. Any superfluous water escapes from 
the top of the cylinder, as when the piston reaches its 
highest point it automatically stops the pump. The 
differential accumulator is one in which forced pres- 
sure may be obtained by means of changing the area 
of the piston surface, or by the use of several different 
pistons. 



In the steam accumulator the piston rod forms the 
ram of the hydraulic cylinder. 

The air accumulator " Armstrong " is one in which 
the ram works against compressed a>t in a chamber, 
instead of against weights. / 

Accumulators, electric, are battbies or reservoirs 
for the accumulation of electric ezfergy. 

See Robinson, " Hydraulic Po^er and Hydraulic 
Machinery." 



Aoetyleiie (C, HJ is a colourless, poisonous 
gas, discovered by B^rtelot, i862) a^d brought promi- 
nently into commercial use by W,ilson's discovery 
(1888) of the modem method of preparing calcium 
carbide. 

On analysis it contains — Carbon 92*3 

Hydrogen 77 



100"0 



It occurs in small quantities in coal gas, and to a 
greater extent in oil gas. It is largely manufactured 
for commercial purposes, and is usually made by 
bringing water into contact with calcium carbide, 
which is manufactured by heating a mixture of lime 
and hard metallurgical coke, of the highest degree of 
purity, in an electric furnace. It is now largely 
manufactured in America and Europe and is usually 
supplied to consumers in air-tight drums. Not more 
than 28 lbs. may be stored in Great Britain or in any 
of the British Colonies, by any one person, without 
an annual licence; and must be stored in a place 
specially built, and a certain distance away from 
other buildings. The package in which it is con- 
tained must be hermetically sealed, as it rapidly 
absorbs moisture, thus deteriorating in quality, and 
liberating a gas which is dangerous. It is liable to 
spontaneous explosion when in a liquid state, and it 
is illegal to manufacture or keep it in this form. The 
gas when burning is intensely white, and it is .said to 
resemble sunUght more nearly than any other artifi- 
cial illuminant. The highly illuminating and in- 
trinsical brightness of the flame makes it a very 
suitable illuminant for lighthouses. 

It has been used in England, United States, Ger- 
many, Argentine and China for lighthouse and 
beacon illumination. On the German and Dutch 
coasts oil gas mixed with about 20% of acetylene has 
been used with excellent results, as it increases the 
illuminating intensity about 100% ; but it is very ex- 
pensive. The cost of lighting by acetylene is about 
the same as lighting by coal gas at 55. per 1,000 feet. 
See Lewes' " Acetylene," 1900; Dormer, " L' Ace- 
tylene et ses applications, ' ' Paris, 1 896. For a list of 
the papers and memoirs on acetylene, see Ludwig's 
" Fiihrer calcium carbid — und Acetylene — ^Litera- 
tur." Berhn, 1889. 

Acevedo. Spanish torpedo-boat. (Chiswick, 
1885.) Length, 1 17 ft. ; beam, 12 ft. ; draught, 6 ft. ; 
displacement, 63 tons; complement, 20; arma- 
ment, 2 machine, 2 tubes; Hp., 660 = 20 kts.; coal, 
25 tons. 



ACHE 



ACT 



Ache, Count d' (1700-75). French admiral. Was 
accounted responsible for the capture by the British 
of the French possessions on the Malabar and Coro- 
mandel Coasts of India. 

Aoheloos. Greek gun-boat. Of no fighting value. 

Achenbaoh, A. (b. i S 1 5) . German painter. Leader 
of the Impressionist movement in German painting;, 
particularly sea-scapes. Principal works: " Foun- 
dering of the s.s. President " (1842), *' Hardanger 
Fjord " (1843), " Pontine Marshes " (1846), " Fish 
Market in Ostend " (1866), '* Flooding of the Lower 
Rhine " (1876). 

Aehemar. A star of the first magnitude in the 
constellation Eridanus, commonly known as the 
" Spring of the river." 

Aeheroa. French armoured gun-boat. (Cher- 
bourg, 1887.) 

Length 18 x ft. Beam, 40 ft. Draught 11 ft. 
Displacement 1,700 tons. Complement xoi. 
Guns, Armour. 

I — IO-8 in. " Compound." 

3 — 3'9 in* 9 U3. Belt amidships. 

2 — 2 '8 in. 8 in. Big gun shields. 

Hp. 1,700= 1 3 kts. Coal maximum, 300 tons. 

Aohilles. British ist class cruiser. (Elswick, 

1905.) 

Length 480 ft. Beam 73 ft. Maximum draught 27 ft. 
Displacement 13,550 tons. Complement 850. 

Guf^. Armour, 

6 — 9*2 in., 50 cal. '* ICrupp." 

4 — 7' 5 in. 6 in. Belt amidships. 

24 — 3 pdr, 6- in. Barbettes. 

8 — Pompoms. 6 in. Turrets. 

Maxims. 7 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). . 
3 Submerged. 

Twin screw. Hp. 23,500=22*33 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 2,000 tons. Approximate cost ;{i , 1 50,000. 

This ship-name was introduced into the Navy in 
1744, and is associated with the capture of the 
French Raisonnable, 1758; bombardment of Havre, 
1759; capture of the French Comte de Florentine, 
1759; reduction of Belleisle, 1761; capture of the 
French Achille at the battle of the " Glorious First 
of June," 1794; battle of Trafalgar, 1805. 

Ae-hisar. Turkish torpedo-boat. (Sestri Pon- 
ente, 1904.) Length, 165 ft.; beam, 18 ft.; draught, 
4 J ft.; displacement, 165 tons; complement, 18; 
armament, 2 i-pdr., 2 tubes; Hp., 2,200 = 27 kts. ; 
coal, 22 tons. 

Aflker. One tide swelling above another. 

AoJkmeii. Fresh water pirates. 

Adand, Yioe-^Admiial, Sir William Alison Dyke, 

2nd Bt., cr. 1890; C.V.O. 1903 (b. Oxford 1847). 
Entered H.M.S. Britannia as cadet, 1861 ; promoted^ 



heu tenant 1868, commander 1879, captain x885* 
Attached to the Chilian army in the war between 
Chili and Peru ; commanded the first brigade in the 
march from Pusco Muvin, and was present at the 
Battle of Chorrilos and Mirafiores; mentioned in 
despatches (Medal and two clasps). Deputy Com* 
missioner of Western Pacific, 1883; A.D.C. to the 
Queen, 1896. Captain of Dockyard Reserve at 
Devonport, 1897-99; Rear- Admiral, 1899; Second-in- 
Command of Channel Squadron, 1901-02; Superin- 
tendent of Gibraltar Dockyard, 1902-04; Vice- 
Admiral, 1904. 

Aooek-BilL 5^6 Cock-bill. 

Aeom. A small piece of wood, conical in form, 
fixed on the mast-head above the vane to prevent it 
being detached when wind is violent. 

Aere, Batfle oL On November 3, 1840, the 
allied fleet under Sir Robert Stopford stormed and 
captured Acre (Syria) after a bombardment of a few 
hours, the Egyptians losing upwards of 2,000 killed 
and wounded and 3.000 prisoners, the British loss 
being trifling. 

Aotien Gesellsohaft *' Neptune/^ Rostock. This yard 
was founded in 185 1 by Mr. A. Tischbein. It is situa- 
ted on the Wamow, on the coast of Mecklenburg, 
and covers an area of about 25 acres. It possesses five 
slips together with machine and engine shops neces- 
sary for the building and fitting out of steamers up 
to 10,000 tons. Between 1898 and 1905 vessels 
aggregating 150,000 net register tons and 82,000 
I. Hp. were turned out. The yard gives employ- 
ment to about 1,800 men. 

Aotanaiia. Sea anemones which possess some 
slight power of locomotion. 

Aetinant. Any vessel or torpedo propelled by 
self-contained power which, through the medium of 
a ray, can be steered on or beneath the surface of the 
water by a distant operator. 

Actinometer. An instrument for measuring the 
intensity of solar radiation. 

Aotinin, Battle of. On September 2, 31 b.c. Octavian 
completely defeated the fleet of Anthony and Cleo- 
patra and gained control of the whole Roman 
Empire. 

Actinozoa. Hollow-bodied animals, including sea 
anemones, corals, and allied forms. Their charac- 
teristic is that the life history is simple, and does not 
include the jelly fish stage. The mouth is usually 
surrounded by tentacles; digestive filaments are 
present, and the stinging cells are often well de- 
veloped. 

Active. West Indiaman. Lost in Margate Roads, 
January 10, 1803. 

Act of Ood, An* or vis major, is one which results 
from " such a direct and violent and sudden and 
irresistible act of nature as could not be foreseen, or 



ACTUAL 



ADAMSON 



if foreseen, prevented by ordinary skill, prudence or 
diligence." It is one of the excepted perils found in 
all bills of lading and charter-parties, and in con- 
tracts with common carriers. In contracts taken 
generally, non-performance is excused, if perfor- 
mance becomes impossible owing to an Act of God. 
All loss or damage occasioned by an Act of God is due 
to inevitable accident, and the party who, apart 
^om such inevitable accident, would be liable for the 
loss or damage so occasioned, cannot in such circum- 
stances be made responsible; but not every inevi- 
table ar-cident is an Act of God. 

Actual Capture. In British Prize Courts the actual 
captor is the ship to which the prize strikes her flag, 
and may include many others besides those who take 
part, e.g., a boat's crew despatched on a different 
errand. Joint captors are those who, not being 
themselves actual captors, have assisted by convey- 
ing encouragement to them or intimidation to the 
enemy. "In the law of prize the presumption is 
always in favour of actual captors as against those 
who claim to be joint captors. Under certain cir- 
cumstances the claims of joint capture are ad- 
mitted " e.g., by co-operation, association or bond 
of union, " but the Prize Court has again and again 
declared its resolution not to extend the operation 
of that doctrine." Actual capture may, therefore, be 
taken to be the rule which will always be enforced in 
the adjudication of naval prize, except in cases in 
which the application of constructive capture is well 
recognized and established. Rejer to Prize of War. 

A.Hni. Abbreviation for Alto-cumulus as adopted 
by the International Meteorological Committee and 
used in the International Cloud Atlas. 

AJD. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Ardrossan. Scotland. 

AJ). Anno Domini. The year of our Lord. 

Adalbert, Prince, of Pnuaia (i8 11-73). Uncle of 
Friedrich Wilhelm IV. Took a special interest in 
the formation of the German Navy, and in 1854 
was made admiral. 

Publications: " Aus meinem Reisetagbuch, 
1842-43" (1847); "DenkschriftuberdieBildungeiner 
deutschen Flottc " (1848). 

Adamastor. Small Portuguese cruiser. (Leg- 
horn, 1896.) 

Length 243 ft. Beam 35 ft. Maximum draught 16 ft. 
Displacement 1,750 tons. Complement 237. 

Guns. Armour. 

2—6 in.. '• Steel." 

4 — 4*7 in. i^ in. Deck. 

4 — 6 pdr. 2I in. Conning tower. 
4 — ^Machine. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
3 Above water bow and broadside. 
Twin screw. Hp. natural 3,000= 16 kts., forced 
4,000= 18 kts. Coal maximum 430 tons. 



Adams, Edgar Tarry (b. December 8. 1852). 
Associate of Institution of Naval Architects. F.R. A.S., 
F. R. Meteorological Society. Fellow Commoner 
Downing College, Cambridge. Observer for Royal 
Meteorological Society. Hon. Sec. Cambridge Uni- 
versity Cruising Club. 

Adams, John Couch (1819-92). British astrono- 
mer. Gained a Siza at St John's College, Cambridge. 
1839, and graduated B.A. in 1843; ^^^ Senior 
Wrangler and first Smith's prizeman of his year, and 
elected a Fellow of his College in 1843. It is due to 
his investigations that the cause of the irregularities 
of the planet Uranus were determined — due to the 
action of an undiscovered planet — ^which he de- 
tected and proved was unrecorded in the map; this 
new planet receiving the name of " Neptune." Its 
mathematical production was not only an unsur- 
passed intellectual feat, but proved also that New- 
ton's Law of Gravitation prevailed even to the 
utmost bounds of the solar system. In 1845 the 
honour of Knighthood wais offered to him on the 
occasion of Queen Victoria's visit to Cambridge, but 
then, as on subsequent occasions, he declined it. In 
1866 the Roy ad Astronomical Society awarded him 
their gold medal. He worked for many years ar- 
•ranging and cataloguing Newton's unpublished 
mathematical writings presented to the University 
of Cambridge by Lord Portsmouth. In 1881 he was 
offered the post of Astronomer Royal, which he 
declined, preferring to resume his teaching and re- 
search at Cambridge University. He died, Janu- 
ary 21, 1892, at Cambridge Observatory after a 
long illness, and was buried at St Giles' Cemetery. 
In May, 1895, a portrait medallion by Albert Bruce 
Joy was placed in Westminster Abbey near the 
grave of Newton, and joining the memorials of 
Darwin and Joele, a fitting tribute to this illustrious 
astronomer. 

Publications: "The Scientific papers of John 
Adams " (1896), " Lectures on the Lunar Theory." 

^dft'ng, John* Organiser of a prosperous and 
peaceful miniature colony in the Pitcaim Islands, 
after the mutiny of H.M.S. Bounty (q.v.). His real 
name was Alexander Smith. Refer to Naval 
Mutinies. 

Adams, William. English nayigator (b. Gil ling- 
ham, near Chatham, 1575). He was the first Eng- 
lishman to take up his residence in Japan, and lived 
there from 1600 till his death in 1620. 

Adamscn, Alexander (b. Gla.sgow). Educ. Secular 
School, Glasgow. Apprenticfed 1861 to the Engineer- 
ing Works of Messrs Randolph and Elder; he be- 
came Naval Architect there and continued with this 
firm, which is now known as " The Fairfield Ship- 
building Company," till 1883, when he joined the 
firm of Messrs Palmer and Co., of Jarrow, as Ship- 
yard Manager. Later he joined the firm of Messrs 
Armstrong, Iditchell and Co. He left this firm in 



ADAMSON 



ADMIRAL 



1888 to take the Management of the Shipyard De- 
'partment of the Naval Construction and Armaments 
Co., Ltd.p Barrow-in-Furness, and in 1891 became 
Managing Director of these Works. In 1897 this 
business was purchased by Messrs Vickers. Sons and 
Maxim, who still retained his services, until he re- 
tired from active business in 1900. During his 
career he had to do Mrith the building of some 480 
vessels, representing almost every conceivable type; 
50 of these were war- vessels mostly for the British 
Government, beginning with H.M. composite gun- 
boat Midge built in 1868, and ending with H.M. 
battleship Vengeance, 1900. 

AdamsQQ, James (b. Stirlingshire. January 8, 1850). 
Served his apprenticeship at Falkirk and Glasgow, 
and then went to sea as junior engineer, and after 
obtaining the necessary certificates returned to 
drawing office work. Was appointed Assistant En^ 
gineer to the British India Steam Navigation Com- 
pany, Ltd., and subsequently became their Superin- 
tendent Engineer at the Royal Albert Docks. While 
in Glasgow he devoted considerable time to the 
Glasgow Foundry Boys' Society. Is Organising and 
Hon. Secretary of the Institution of Marine En- 
gineers. Member of the Institution of Engineers 
and Shipbuilders of Scotland. 

Publications: "The Marine EngiBeer " (1898), 
" Seaborne Traffic " (1900), " Our Fuel Supply " 
(1902), " Technical Education " (1904). 

Adamson, WIUiam» C.M.G. 1897. 0^- Glasgow, 
1832). Educated privately. A merchant of the 
Straits Settlements and for many years resided at 
Singapore. Is chairman of the Straits Settlements 
Association and a director of the P. and O. Steam 
Navigation Company, and was decorated ior public 
service in connection with the Colony. 

AJ).C. Abbreviation for Aide-de-Camp {q,v.). 

Adder. U.S. submarine. (Elizabeth Port, 1901.) 
Length, 63 ft.; beam, 11 ft. ; displacement, 120 tons; 
complement, 5 ; torpedo tubes, i ; Hp., 160 sr 8 kts. 
above water, 7 below. 

Address. See Post Office. 

AdeLaar, Cort Sivartsea (1622-75). Danish ad- 
miral (b. Brevig, Norway). At the age of 15 he 
became a cadet in. the Dutch fleet, and took part in 
the famous battle of the Downs (1639), under Tromp. 
In 1645 he was promoted captain in the service of the 
Venetian Republic, and achieved a most brilliant 
victory at the Dardanelles in May, 1645, when, with 
his own vessel alone, he broke through a hne of S7 
Turkish ships, sinking 1 5, burning others and causing 
a loss to the enemy of 5,000 men. Returning to 
Copenhagen in 1663. was made an admiral and in 
1666 Admiral-General. On November 5, 1675, 
while in command of the fleet he died of plague. 

Adelaide Sieamsbip Company, with their head 
of&ces at Adelaide, have a fleet of 30 excellent 



steamers which maintain sailings from Adelaide for 
Australian coast ports. A steamer leaves Adelaide 
at scheduled times for Albany and Fremantle. 
transhipping at that port for Esperance, Geraldton 
and all north-west ports to Wyndham. A service is 
maintained from Adelaide to Melbourne, Sydney, 
Newcastle, Brisbane, Maryborough, Rockhampton, 
Makay, Townsville and Cairns. A service twice a 
week from Adelaide to Spencer Giflf. calling at the 
principal ports en route. 

Fleet. 

Adelaide, Jnnamincha, Narloo. 

Allinga. Kadina, Ouraka, 

Barrier. Kolya. Tarcoola. 

BtfUlarra. Mintaro. Willyatna. 

Colac. Moonta, Winfield. 

Dilkera. Nardoo, Wollowra. 

GratUala, Yongala. 

Adialbatic. The relation of the changes which 
occur in the pressure, volume and temperature of a 
mass of gas, which is subject to the condition that it 
neither parts with, nor receives, heat during the 
process. 

AdJQStmeiit is ascertaining the exact amount of 
indemnity which the assured is entitled to receive 
under the policy; embodying the particulars in a 
statement, fudng not only the exact amount but the 
proportion of the indemnity to be recovered from 
each underwriter. The compiler of this statement 
is called an Average Adjuster {q.v.). 

Refer to Average. 

Adler. Austro-Hungarian destroyer. (Yarrow, 
1886.) Length, 135 ft.; beam, 13 ft.; maximum 
draught, 6 ft. ; displacement, 95 tons ; complement, 
16; armament, 2 nord., 2 tubes; Hp., 900 = 22 kts.; 
coal maximum, 28 tons. 

Adler. Russian torpedo-boat. (Elbing, 1890.) 
Length, 1 52 ft. ; beam, 17 ft. ; draught, 7 ft. ; displace- 
ment, 1 30 tons ; complement, 40; armament, 2 i-pdr., 
3 tubes; Hp., 2,200 = 27 ^ts,; coal maximum, 
50 tons. 

Admella. Steamer plying between Melbourne 
and Adelaide, struck on a reef August 6, 1859, 
when 72 persons perished. 

Afl pnirft l, An* in early records was an officer of 
State entrusted by the Crown with safe-guarding the 
seas, and all matters arising at sea which required 
official investigation and were not within the juris- 
diction of any county, were referred to him for deci- 
sion. Early in the fourteenth century there seem to 
have been three admirals, controlling three districts, 
viz. (i) the Cinque Ports (q.v.), and all ports from 
Dover to Cornwall; (2) from the Thames to Berwick, 
and (3) the Irish Sea coast. The first Lord High 
Admiral was appointed in 1 360, whose Court, in the 
reign of Edward IH., was firmly established and 
began to assert prominent jurisdiction. In more 



ADMIRAL 



8 



ADMIRALTY 



modem times as Judge of the Admiralty Court, ap- 
pointed by the Crown, deprived the Lord High 
Admiral of his judicial powers, and in 1632 his ad- 
ministrative functions were first exercised by Com- 
missioners, commonly known as the Lords of the 
Admiralty (q.v,). The present powers and duties of 
admirals are defined by the Naval Discipline Act 
(^.t;.), 1866, and the Admiralty regulations. Refer 
to King's Regulations. 

Admiral, The Lord High* 0! England. This office 
was first created in 1406, and vested in John, Earl of 
Somerset. It was created for the purpose of taking 
over the legislation, administration and protection 
of the Mercantile Marine, which had previously been 
governed by a body of mercantile Admirals, who, 
owing to the feeble manner in which the fieet had 
been administered, came into existence to undertake 
the safe-guarding of the seas. In 1632 the office was 
put into commission, and its powers have, with one 
or two short intervals, been ever since vested in the 
Admiralty authorities, now known officially as Com- 
missioners, for executing the office of Lord High 
Admiral of the United Kingdom of Great Britain 
and Ireland. 

Admiral Oreig. Russian coast defence battle- 
ship, 1870. Of no fighting value. 

Admiral KomiloS. Small Russian cruiser. (La 
Seyne, 1887.) 

Length 351ft. Beam 48ft. Maximum draught 20ft. 
Displacement 5,880 tons. Complement 478. 
Guns. Armour, 

14— 6 in. "Steel." 

6 — 3pdr. 2 J in. Deck. 

6 — I pdr. 
5 — I pdr.. Boat. 

Torpedo Tubes, 
6 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. natural, 7,500 = 17-5 kts., forced 
9,000 = 18*5 kts. Coal maximum 1,100 tons. 

Admiral Komilow. Russian coast defence 
battleship (1870). Of no fighting value. 

Admiral Lazereff. Russian coast defence bat- 
tleship (1870). Of no fighting value. 

Admiral Makarow. Russian armoured cruiser. 
(La Seyne, 1906.) 

Length 443 ft. Beam 75 ft. Draught 23 ft. 
Displacement 7,900 tons. Complement 500. 
Guns, Armour. 

2—8 in. " Krupp." 

8—6 in. 7 in. Belt, amidships. 

20 — 12 pdr. 6 in. Gun shields. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
2 Submerged. 
Hp., 16,500 = 21 kts. Coal maximum 1,000 tons. 

Admiral Moorsom. L. and N.W.R. steamer. Sunk 
by collision with the Santa Clara near Holyhead; 
4 lives lost. 



Admiral Hakhimott. Russian armoured cruiser 
(1885). Sunk by the Japanese at the battle of 
Tsushima, May 27-29, 1905. 

Admiral Ol flie fleet is an honorary distinction 
giving no command, but merely an increase of half- 
pay. The title was first created in 185 1, when Sir 
Thomas Byam Martin, G.C.B., and Sir George 
Cockbum, G.C.B., were named Admirals of the Fleet, 
the latter receiving the honour for his long and 
highly distinguished services. Should an Admiral 
of the Fleet serve afioat, he is authorised to carry the 
union flag at the main-top-gallant-mast head. In 
1874 the number of Admirals of the Fleet was in- 
creased to three; at the present time there are two 
honorary Admirals of the Fleet, His Imperial 
Majesty, William II., Emperor of Germany, King of 
Prussia, G.C.V.O., and his Majesty King of Sweden; 
and four Admirals of the Fleet; Sir James Elphin- 
stone, K.C.B., Sir Charles Frederick Hotham, 
G.C.B., G.C.V.O.. Right Hon. Lord Walter Talbot 
Kerr, G.C.B,, Sir Edward Hobart Seymour, G.C.B., 
O.M. 

Admiral Oashavov. Russian coast service bat- 
tleship. (New Admiralty, 1893.) Sunk by the Japa- 
nese at the battle of Tsushima, May 27-29, 1905. 

Admiral Seniavin. See Mishima^ Russian coast 
service battleship. Captured by the Japanese at 
the battle of Tsushima, May 27-29, 1905. 

Admiral Spiridoff. Russian coast defence bat- 
tleship (1870). Of no fighting value. 

Admiral Tchitchagoff, Russian coast defence 
battleship (1870). Of no fighting value. 

Admiralty, The, is that Executive Department of 
the State which presides over the Royal Naval and 
Marine forces of the Kingdom. 

The Board, the members of which are commonly 
known as the Lords of the Admiralty, consUt of the 
First Lord, the First and Second Naval Lords, the 
Naval Controller, the Junior Naval Lord, the Civil 
1x^6 , a Parliamentary and Financial Secretary, and a 
Permanent Secretary. The business of the Board is 
divided into four branches : (i) Personnel of the Navy, 
organisation and marine defence; (2) naval con- 
struction, dockyards, ordnance and stores; (3) 
works and personnel of Civil Depsotments; (4) 
Finance. 

The following is a list of Lord High Admirals and 
First Lords of the Admiralty, from the time of 
Charles I. to the present date: 

r66o. James Duke of York, 

1673. King Charles the Second. 

1673. Prince Rupert. 

1679. Sir Henry Capell, Kt. 

1680. Daniel Finch, Esq. 

1 68 1. Daniel Lord Finch. 

1684. Daniel Earl of Nottingham. 

1684. James Duke of York (and as James II.). 



ADMIRALTY 



ADMIRALTY 



1689. Arthur Herbert, Esq. 

1690. Thomas Earl of Pembroke add Montgomery. 

1692. Charles Lord Com walUs. 

1693. Anthony Viscount Falkland. 

1694. Edward Russel, Esq. 
1697. Edward Earl of Oxford. 
1699. John Earl of Bridgewater. 

1 701. Thomas Earl of Pembroke and Montgomery. 

1702. George Prince of Denmark. 

1708. Thomas Earl of Pembroke and Montgomery. 

1709. Edward Earl of Oxford. 

1 7 10. Sir John Leake, Kt. 
17x2. Thomas Earl of Strafford. 
1 7 14. Edward Earl of Oxford. 

1 71 7. James Earl of Berkeley. 

1727. Lord Viscount Torrington. 

1733. Sir Charles Wager, Kt. 

1 74 1. Daniel Earl of Winchelsea and Nottingham. 

1744. John Duke of Bedford. 

1748. John Earl of Sandwich. 

175 1. George Ix>rd Anson. 

1756. Richard Earl Temple. 

1757. Daniel Earl of Winchelsea and Nottingham. 
1757. George Lord Anson. 

1762. George Dank Earl of Halifax. 

1762. George Grenville, Esq. 
1763 John Earl of Sandwich. 

1763. John Earl of Egmont. 
1766. Sir Charles Saunders, K.B. 
1766. Sir Edward Hawke, K.B. 
^77^- John Earl of Sandwich. 
1782. Hon. Augustus Keppel. 

1782. Augustus Viscount Keppel. 

1783. Richard Viscount Howe. 
1783. Augustus Viscount Keppel. 
1783. Richard Viscount Howe. 
1788. John Earl of Chatham. 
1794. George John Earl Spencer. 
1801, John Earl of St. Vincent, K.B. 

1804. Henry Lord Viscount Melville. 

1805. Charles Lord Bartram. 

1806. Charles Gray. Esq. 
z8o6. Thomas Grenville,. Esq. 

1807. Henry Lord Mulgrave. 
1809. Right Hon. Charles Yorke. 

1812. Right Hon. Robert Viscount Melville. 
1827. H.R.H. William Henry Duke of Clarence. 
182B. Right Hon. Robert Viscount Melville< K.T. 
1830. Right Hon. Sir James R. G. Graham, Bart. 
1834. Right Hon. George Baron Auckland. 

1834. Thomas Philip Earl de Grey. 

1835. Right Hon. George Baron Auckland. 
1835. Gilbert Earl of Minto, G.C.B, 

1 841. Thomas Earl of Haddington. 

1846. Right Hon. Edward Earl of Ellenborough. 

1846. Right Hon George Earl of Auckland (died 

January i, 1849). 
1849. Right Hon. Su: Francis T. Baring, Bart. 
1852. Algernon Percy Duke of Northamberland, K.G. 
185 3« Right Hon. Sir James R. G. Graham, Bart, 
1855. Right Hon. Sir Charles Wood, Bart. 



1858. Right Hon. Sir John Pakington, Bart. 

1859. Edward A. St. Maur Duke of Somerset, K.G. 

1866. Right Hon. Sir J. S. Pakington, Bart., G.C.B. 

1867. Right Hon. Henry Thomas Lowry Corry. 

1868. Right Hon. Hugh Culling Eardley Childers. 
1 87 1. Right Hon. George Joachim Goschen. 
1874. Right Hon. George Ward Hunt. 

1877. Right Hon. William Henry Smith. 
1880. Earl of Northbit>ok. 

1885. Lord George Hamilton. 

1886. The Marquis of Ripon, K.G. 
1886. Lord George Hamilton. 
1892. Earl Spencer, K.G. 

1895. Right Hon. G. T. Goschen. 
1900. Earl of Selbome. 
1903. Right Hon. Earl Caudor. 
1906. Lord Tweedmouth. 

Admiralty Aetioos are either in rem — i.e., against the 
property out of which the claim has arisen; or in 
personam-^.e., directly against the person from whom 
relief is claimed. Proceedings in rem are peculiar to 
Admiralty, and are only available when the res is 
within the jurisdiction of the Court. This form of 
action applies to cases where a maritime lien (q.v.) 
is sought to be enforced or where owner seeks to 
obtain possession of ship {q.v.). Actions in personam 
are similar to ordinary actions tried in other divisions 
of the High Court, and are adopted where the res is 
out of the jurisdiction and consequently cannot be 
arrested. Wliere an action has once been com- 
menced in either of these forms, it cannot afterwards 
be changed, and a judgment obtained in a personal 
action cannot be enforced by proceedings in rem, but 
where there is a remedy both in personam and in 
rem, a person who has resorted to one may, if he does 
not thereby get full satisfaction, resort to the other. 
Refer to Admiralty Division; Admiralty Registry; 
Arrest of Ship; Restraint on Ship; Bail; Prelimi- 
nary Act; Taxation; Trial. 

Admiralty Advocate. The Admiralty Advocate, 
originally the Advocate of the Lord High Admiral, 
was an oflScer of the Cro^Ti in the Court of Admiralty 
whose duty it was to represent the Crown in its office 
qi Admiralty. His present duties consist chiefly in 
advising on all legal matters, and on affairs connected 
with the military duties of the Lord High Admiral. 
During the last reign the oflices of Admiralty Advo- 
cate and . Jud^e Advocate of the Fleet (q.v.) were 
combined. 

Admiralty Bail takes the form of a bond executed 
by two sureties who thus agree to submit themselves 
tp the jurisdiction of the Court, and is the security 
given to prevent detention of a ship through arrest 
by the Court in Admiralty proceedings in rem. How- 
ever great the claim, the amount of bail need not 
exceed the value of the ship, which may be an amount 
either agreed upon, or ascertained by appraisement 
(g.v.), and if bail has been given for a sum greater 



ADMIRALTY 



lO 



ADMIRALTY 



than the value of the res, it is only liable to the ex- 
tent of that value, and if excessive bail is demanded 
the plain tifi will have to pay the costs and expenses 
incurred by the defendant in giving bail. Where the 
award exceeds the amount of bail the balance can be 
recovered in an action in personam, but where the 
amount of bail is less than the value of the res, the 
property is liable to rearrest. 

Bail may be taken before the Admiralty Regis- 
trar, or before any District Registrar or Commis- 
sioner to administer oaths in the Supreme Court. In 
every case the sureties, who must not be partners, 
must justify. Refer to Restraint on Ship; Admiralty 
Action. 

Admiralty Charts when issued by Messrs. J. D. 
Potter, 145 Minories, London, E., have received all 
necessary corrections to date of issue ; when ordering, 
the number of the chart will be found in the lower 
right hand comer and this should be quoted. 

Admiralty Ckxirt. See Admiralty High Court. 

Admiralty Court of the Cinqae Ports, The, exercises 
within its local bounds, a jurisdiction analogous to 
the inherent jurisdiction of the High Court of 
Admiralty. That is to say, it has power to deal with 
cases of torts committed on the high seas, suits for 
salvage, possession, hypothecation and seamen's 
wages. It also hears cases on appeal from the County 
Courts and from the Cinque Ports Salvage Com- 
missioners. Its practice and procedure, except in so 
far as they are afiected by the Cinque Ports Court of 
Admiralty Rules 1891, arc similar to those of the 
High Court, and appeals lie to the Privy Council. 
The boundaries of its jurisdiction are from Red Cliff 
near Seaford to within 5 miles of Cape Grisnez in 
France, thence round the Overfall shoal, passing to 
the east of the Galloper Sand till its north end bears 
W.N.W. (true) from the Galloper, thence in a direct 
line across the Middle Thwart shoal to Maze Tower, 
and thence, following the course of the shore, to Shore 
Beacon in Essex. 

Admiralty Diviston, The, is a division of the High 
Court of Justice established in its present form by 
the Judicature Acts, 1873 and 1875, and is governed 
by the Rules of the Supreme Court, 1883. The Bench 
is composed of two Judges, one of whom, as Presi- 
dent of the Probate, Divorce and Admiralty Divi- 
sion, is a member of the Court of Appeal. For causes 
within the exclusive jurisdiction of the Admiralty 
Division see High Court of Admiralty. The Ad- 
miralty Division has the same powers of transfer and 
consolidation of actions as other divisions of the 
High Court, and has concurrent jurisdiction with the 
Inferior Courts of Admiralty, whose jurisdiction is 
limited by the amount of claim or value of the pro- 
perty against which it is to be enforced, or by local 
bounds. Refer to Admiralty Action; Admiralty 
Jurisdiction. 

Admiralty Droits, once the perquisites of the I^rd 



High Admiral, now belong to the Sovereign in his 
office of Admiralty. They consist of all property, 
including ships, boats, cargoes, found dcrehct on the 
high seas, and of things flotsam, jetsam, and lagan, 
not granted to a subject, e.g., lords of manors. The 
jurisdiction as to all these things is now vested in the 
Admiralty Division. Unclaimed derelict property, 
subject to the salvor's reward, goes to the Crown, 
forming part of the casual revenues of the Crown, and 
is carried to the consolidated fund, but property 
found within territorial waters is dealt with by the 
Receiver of Wreck (q.v.) under the Merchant Ship- 
ping Act, 1894. 



, The. See Naval Ceremonies. 



Admiralty, High Coart o( was originally the Court 
of the Lord High Admiral. Its jurisdiction was two- 
fold: (i) As a Prize Court it dealt with captures and 
seizures of vessels and goods in times of war. (2) As 
an Instance Court it had criminal jurisdiction over 
all offences committed on the high seas, not triable 
by the Common Law Courts, and, until 1866, ad- 
ministered discipline in the Navy. The exclusive 
civil jurisdiction of the Instance Court was at first 
limited to private injuries to private rights arising at 
sea, i.e., to contracts of a marine nature and to torts 
to property committed on the high seas or with the 
jurisdiction of Admiralty. By modern statutes its 
powers were extended to include salvage to life and 
property, bottomry, necessaries, supplies to foreign 
ships, possession of ships, collision or damage to 
persons or property, towage, wages, pilotage, dis- 
bursements by master, mortgage, title, ownership 
and management of ships, and. in 186 1. concurrently 
with the Chancery Court, Limitation of Liability 
suits. In 1S35 the criminal jurisdiction was trans- 
ferred to the Central Criminal Court, and by the 
Judicature Acts, 1873 and 1875 the civil jurisdiction 
passed the Admiralty Division (q.v.) of the High 
Court. 

Admiralty JnrisdietiQn is co-extensive with the 
general jurisdiction of the High Court, but reaches 
still further in that it extends over all British ships 
in all parts of the world, and has power to deal with 
all transactions of every description between British 
subjects and those of all other nations in relation to 
marine matters, mercantile or otherwise. Its juris- 
diction extends over all offences committed on the 
high seas, whether triable at the Common Law 
Courts or not. At the present time this criminal 
jurisdiction is exercised by the Central Criminal 
Court, whereof the Judge of the Admiralty Court is 
a member; and all offences within the jurisdiction o 
Admiralty are triable within the county wherein the 
offender is arrested. Refer to Admiralty Action; 
Admiralty Division. 

Admiralty Knol A geographical mile, 6,080 feet 
~ X *oi 3^ fathoms 81*15 mile statute. Refer ^ to 
Knot, 



ADMIRALTY 



II 



ADVENTURE 



Admiralty Light List. Published annually at the 
beginning of each year, and appendices are issued 
every two months, giving the alterations that have 
taken place. 

Admiralty Registry. The Admiralty Court does 
not go into details in matters relating to the assess- 
ment of damages or matters of account, but refers 
them either to the Registrar alone, or to the Regis- 
trar assisted by merchants, who are appointed by 
him and have experience in shipping and mercantile 
affairs. The hearing of the reference is governed by 
Order 56 of the rules of the Supreme Court, Wit- 
nesses may be examined and evidence given by 
affidavit. At the close of the proceedings the Re- 
gistrar makes his report, showing the items allowed 
and disallowed. Objections to the report are brought 
before the Court by petition in objection or by 
motion. 

Adria Royal Hmigarian Sea HavigaiioD Company, 

with their head offices at Fiume, have a fleet of ex- 
cellent steamers engaged in passenger and cargo 
trade to Italy and the Mediterranean ports. Steam- 
ers sail regularly from Fiume and Trieste, to 
Venice, Bari, Messina, Catania, Malta, Tunis, Algiers, 
Gibraltar, Tangiers and Malaga. A steamer sails 
daily (Mondays excepted) from Malta to Syracuse. 
Steamers leave Fiume and Trieste regularly for 
Malta, Catania, Messina, Palermo, Naples, Genoa, 
Nice, Marseilles, Barcelona and Valencia. 

Adriatic Sea (Adriaticum Mere of the Ancients) 
is that arm of the Mediterranean which separates 
Italy from Trieste, Croatia, Dalmatia and Albania. 
It extends from 40** to 45* 50' N. Lat. in a N.W. 
direction. Its greatest length is 460 m., its general 
breadth about 90 m., and its depth varies, at the 
south being as much as 860 fathoms, shoaling to 4 
fathoms in shore and from 23 to a6 fathoms in the 
centre of the north part. The colour is green, dar- 
ker than that of the Mediterranean, and its saltness 
is greater than the ocean. The ebb and flow of the 
tides are inconsiderable. A current runs up the E. 
and down the W. coasts. The prevalence of sudden 
squalls from the N.E. and S.E. renders its naviga- 
tion, particularly for sailing vessels, hazardous, espe- 
cially in winter. The chief industry is fishing, and 
the chief ports are Brindisi, Ancona and Venice; 
Trieste, Pola and Fiume; Corfu; Zante, Vostizza, 
Patras and Kalamata. 

See " Highlands and Islands of the Adriatic," by 
A. A. Paton (1849); " Shores of the Adriatic," by 
Viscountess Strangford (1864) ; Faber's " Fisheries of 
the Adriatic" (1883.) 

Adrift. Flowing at random. 

Ad Valorem. According to value. 

Ad Valorem Daty is duty or customs paid on cer- 
tain goods according to their value in contradistinc- 
tion to duty paid according to weight, number, or 
measure. The term is also used of stamp duties 
which, in many cases, are payable under the Stamp 



Act, 1 891, according to the value of the subject 
matter of the particular instrument or writing, e,g,, 
the stamp duty on Charter-Parties and Bills of 
Lading. 

Advance. In 1853 Dr. Kane, with this little 
brig of 120 tons, undertook to lead an American ex- 
pedition up Smith Sound. They were stopped by ice 
78° 45' N., only 17 miles from the entrance; and the 
vessel was subsequently abandoned. Refer to Arctic 
Exploration. 

Advanoe Note is a document issued by a Ship- 
owner or his agent, undertaking to pay to a seaman 
or his order a sum of money not exceeding, one 
month's wages, within a certain number of days 
after he has sailed in the ship. This restriction as to 
the amount advanced does not apply to seamen en- 
gaged at a foreign port. 

Save as aforesaid any agreement to pay money to, 
or on behalf of, a seaman conditionally on his going to 
sea from any port in the United Kingdom is void, 
and no money paid under any such agreement shall 
be deducted from wages. An Allotment Note is an 
agreement by which a seaman authorises a ship- 
owner to pay over to his near relatives or a savings 
bank any part (not exceeding one-half) of his wages 
during hia abeence. Payment under such a note, 
which must, be made in a form ^proved by the 
Board of Trade, shall begin at the expiration of one 
month, or, if the allotment is in favour of a sav- 
ings bank, of three months, from the date of the 
agreement with the crew, or at such later date as 
may be fixed by the agreement. 

Advanees. These generally are expenses incurred 
ia connection with a vessel putting into an interme 
diate port of refuge and there incurring certain ex • 
penses which are usually paid by the ship's agent on 
behalf of all interests and are payable by cargo and 
freight in certain proportions on Adjustment. There 
is, therefore, an insurable interest to thepa3rer of these 
expenses from the port of refuge to destination 
(Lowndes on the Law of Marine Insurance, s. 32). 
The expenses are usually insured as '* Average Dis- 
bursements." 

Adveniore. British scout. (Elswick, 1904.) 
Length 370 ft. Beam 38 ft. Maximum draught I3jft. 
Displacement 2,750 tons. Complement 268. 
Guns. Armour, 

10—12 pdr. I J in. Deck. 

8 — Pompoms, 

Torpedo Tubes. 
2 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 17,000 = 25 kts. Coal maximum 
380 tons. Approximate cost ;£2 7 5, 000. 
This ship-name is associated with Blake's action 
with Tromp off Dover, 1652; the battle off the North 
Foreland, 1652; Barfleur and La Hogue, 1692; cap- 
ture of Belleisle, 1761 ; Cook's second voyage of dis- 
covery, 1772. 



ADVICE 



12 



AEROLITES 



Advice. An advice note is the instruction usually 
given by one merchant to another, informing him 
with particulars of date or sight, the sum payable 
and the payee, and relates especially to the drawing 
of bills and the forwarding of goods. 

Admna. Japanese armoured cruiser. (St. Na- 
Zaire, 190X.} 

Length 431 ft. Beam 59 ft. Maximum draught 25 ft. 
Displacement 9,436 tons. Complement 482. 
Guns, Armour, 

4—8 in. " Harvey Steel." 

12 — 6 in. 7 in. Belt amidsOiips. 

12 — 3 in. 6 in. Barbettes. 

8 — 1*8 in. 6 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
' 4 Submerged. 
I Above water. 
Hp. 17,000 = 20 kts. Coal maximum 1,300 tons. 

A.E. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Emden, Germany. 

iEi. Lloyd's classification for wood ships when 
carrying perishable goods on short voyages. 

ASgeaa Sea. The north-east part of the Mediterra- 
nean Sea now more commonly known as the Grecian 
Archipelago. Boimded on the north by Turkey, 
west by Greece and east by Asia Minor. Its waters 
are studded with islands and its shores greatly in> 
dented. 

iSSgean Steam Navigation Company, with the head 
offices at Constantinople, possess a fleet of 10 steam- 
ers which maintain a service to meet the passenger 
and cargo demands of the Mediterranean. A weekly 
service is maintained from Constantinople to Mity* 
lene, Smyrna, Chios and Piraeus; another service 
to Gythinm, Calamae, Patrae, Corcyra, St Sarante, 
Aulona, and Trieste; another service to the Dar- 
danelles, Thessalonica and Bulus; another service to 
Bama, Sulina. Toulsta, Galirium» and Balia; and 
four other services to local ports. 

Fleet. 

Alexandria, Crete. Panormos. 

Braila, Heraclea. P. Mitylcna. 

Chios. Naples, Smyrna. 

Odessa, 

iEser. Norwegian gun-boat. (Horten, 1893.) 

Length 108 ft. Beam 29 ft. Maximum draught 8 ft. 

Displacement 387 tons. Complement 43. 

Guns, 
1—8-2 in. 
I — 27 in. 
2 — 1-9 in. 
Hp. 450 — 9 kts. 

JBgkt, The Giant Sea-god of the Norse Sagas. 

2Elgir. German coast service battleship (1895). 
Length 254 ft. Beam 49 ft. Maximum draught i8(t. 
Displacement 4,150 tons. Complement 297. 



Guns. 
3 — 9*4 in. 
10 — i5i pdr. 
6 — 1 pdr. 
4 — ^Machine. 



Armour. 
" Nickel-steel." 
9 in. Belt. 
8 in. Barbettes. 
7 in. Conning tower. 



Torpedo Tubes. 
3 Submerged bow and broadside. 
I Above water stem. 
Twin screw. Hp. 5,100 = 15 J kts. Coal maximum 
580 tons. 

Agoipotamoi, Battle of. Fought 405 b.c. when the 
Spartans under Nysander defeated the Athenian 
Fleet. 

ASneas. Transport lost off Newfoundland Octo- 
ber 23, 1805, when 340 perished. 

SkAoM (Gr. Fleet). In heathen mythology the god 
of the winds. In the " Odessey " he is mentioned as 
the Ruler of the £olian (Lipari) Islands, to whom 
Jupiter had given the superintendence and distribu- 
tion of the winds; and he was supposed to have kept 
them immured in a cave. 

2E6l0B. British 3rd class cruiser (1891). 
Length 300 ft. Beam 43 ft. Maximum draught 18 ft. 
Displacement 3,400 tons. Complement 273. 
Guns. Armour. 

2—6 in. " Steel." 

6 — 4'7 in. 2 in. Deck. 

8 — 6 pdr. 3 in. Conning tower. 

1 — 3P<ir- 
4 — ^Machine. 

Torpedo Tubes (14 in.). 
4 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. natural 7,000 = 18-5 kts.. forced 
9,000 s: 20 kts. Coal maximum 535 tons. 
Approximate cost ;^200,ooo. 
This ship-name is associated with Elliot's defeat 
of Thurot. 1760; capture of Martinique, 1809; bom- 
bardment of SveabociK, 1855. 

^Bran. Swedish coast defence battieship. 
(Gothenburg, 1902.) 

Length 287 ft. Beam 49 ft. Draught 16 ft. 
Displacement 3.600 tons. Complement 250. 
Guns. Armour. 

2—8-2 in. " Krupp." 

6 — 5*9 in. 7 in. Belt amidships. 

10— 2*2 in. 7 in. Turrets. 

2 — 1*4 in. ■ 5 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
2 Submerged. 
Hp. 6,500 = 17 kts. Coal maximum 1,900 tons. 

Aeroolinosoope. A weather indicator by which the 
variation of the barometer and the direction of the 
wind may be signalled. 

Aendites (Gr. air-stones) are stone or metaUic 
masses falling from the sky, known as fire-balls, fall- 
ing or shooting stars, meteoric stones, thunderbolts, 
etc. Some of these meteors are almost entirely stone, 



AEROSTATICS 



13 



AFRICAN 



others a mixture of stone and iron. In 1492 one fell 
at Knsisheini in Alsace, weighing 270 Ibe. Gassendi, 
in 1627, saw one fall in Provence, which weighed 
59 lbs. In 1620 one fell in the Punjab, and was 
forged into a sword for Jehangir, one of the Indian 
emperois. Probably the largest on record is that 
which fell in Brazil and is said to weigh over 6 tons. 
Aerolites often reach the earth in groups, or showers, 
as at L'Aigle in Normandy, 1803; at New Concord, 
Ohio, i860; and atDhurmsala, Punjab, i860. The 
German physicist, Reichenbach, estimates that at 
least 4,500 aerolites of all sizes fall every year. 

See Arogo's " Popular Astronomy "; Brit. Assoc. 
" Report on Meteors "; Fletcher's " An Introduc- 
tion of the Study of Meteorites "; Bonney's "Story 
of our Planets "; Lockyer's " Meteoric Hypothesis " 
(1890). 

Aerosiatiof . See Hydrostatics. 

Aetbxi0f00P6. An instrument consisting of a 
differential thermometer, both bulbs contained in a 
cup-shaped mirror, and one of them in the focus, 
designed by Leslie in 18 17, for the purpose of 
measuring changes of temperature. By this instru- 
ment, even slight variations of temperature due to 
changes in the condition of the sky can be esti- 
mated. 

AllledCt Sir Edmund (1723-88). Admiral, 
British Navy. In command of the Bedford, which 
took a pr<aninent part in the engagement off Cape St. 
Vincent {1780). For services rendered in the West 
Indies under Rodney (q.v.) and Hood {q,v.) (1782- 
84), he was created a baronet and promoted to 
the rank of Rear-Admiral. 

Affondatore. Obsolete Italian battleship. Of 
no fighting value; now used as torpedo dep6t in 
harbour. 

ASraighimfiQt is a contract for the carriage of 
goods by sea, expressed in a charter-party (q.v.) or 
biU of lading (q.v.) Apart from express exceptions 
in the contract, or statutory limitations {see Dan- 
gerous Goods: Limitation of Liability), a ship- 
owner is under the same liabilities for the safe carriage 
of goods as a "common earner" — i^., he is responsible 
for loss or damage to goods in his charge, unless 
caused by an Act of God, the King's enemies, some 
inherent vice in the goods, improper packing, or 
jettison (q.v.) ; and only in these cases is he protected 
if he has taken reasonable care to avoid the danger, 
and if the ship is fitted to receive the goods and sea- 
worthy, and has not improperly deviated from her 
usual course. The liability of a " common carrier " 
commences as soon as goods are delivered to him or 
his agent, and ceases upon actual delivery to the 
consignee, or upon failure by the consignee to fetch 
the goods after notice of arrival. Where, however, a 
pilot is employed by compulsion of law and owing to 
his negligence a collision occurs whereby goods car- 
ried in the ship are damaged, the shipowner cannot 
be held liable. Words in such contracts " are to be 



understood in their plain, ordinary and popular 
sense unless they have generally, in respect to the 
subject matter, as by a known usage of trade, or 
the like, acquired a peculiar sense." The law ap- 
plicable to contracts of affreightment, unless other- 
wise specified, is the law of the flag under which the 
ship sails. 

Afloat. Supported by water. A term used for 
being on board ship. 

Africa. British ist class battieship. (Chatham, 
1905.) 
Length 453 ft. Beam 78 ft. Mean draught 26 ft. 
Displacement 16,350 tons. Complement ^77' 
Guns. A rmour. 

4 — 12 in. "Krupp." 

4—9*2 in. 9 in. Belt amidships . 

10— 6 in. 12 in. Barbettes. 

14 — 12 pdr. 12 in. Conning tower. 

U — 3 P^r. 
2 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
4 Submerged broadside. 
I Submerged stem. 
Twin screw. Hp. 18,000 = 18*5 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 2,000 tons. Approximate cost ;^i ,500,000. 

A ship of this name was with Hughes against De 
Suffren in the East Indies off Cuddalore, 1783; 
Nelson at Trafalgar, 1805. 

Afrioan Steamship Oompany, now under the 
management of Messrs. Elder, Dempster and Co., 
was the earliest African Line and was founded in 
1832. This company received its charter in 1852 
with an annual subsidy of ;£30,ooo for a monthly 
mail and passenger service, which it has maintained 
ever since. The pioneer boats of this company, the 
Forerunner, Faith, Hope and Charity, rendered valu- 
able service during the Crimean War. 

Steamers leave Liverpool regularly on the Opobo 
service for Teneriffe, Grand Canary, Goree, Dakar, 
Rufisque. Bathurst, Sierra Leone, Monrovia, Grand 
Bassa, Cape Palmas, Axim, Sekondi, Cape Coast 
Castle, Accra, Addah, Kotonou, Bonny, New Cala- 
bar, Bakana, Buguma, Degama, Abonema, Opobo, 
and Egwanga; on the Lagos Express Service for 
Grand Canary, Sierra Leone, Axim, Sekondi, Cape 
Coast Castie, Accra, Lagos Road, Forcados (for 
Lagos) and Burutu; on the South Coast Express 
Service for Sierra Leone, Axim, Sekondi, Cape Coast 
Castle, Accra, Lagos Roads, Forcados, Bonny, Cala- 
bar, Cameroons, St Thoma, Landana, Cabenda, 
Banana. San Antonio, Noqui, Boma, Maradi, 
MucuUa. Ambrizette, Mussera, Kinsembo, Ambrixo 
Loanda (if inducement offers), Lobito Bay and 
Benguela, also to Fernando Po, Rio del Ray, Vic- 
toria, Plantation, Knbi, Batanga, Bata, Eloby, 
Ukaka, Botica, Babo(Mi, Cape Lopez, Setta Camma, 
Nyanga, Mayumba, Quillo and Loango; on the 
Brass Service for Madeira, Teneriffe, Grand Colony, 
Conakry, Sierra Leone, Lahou. Grand Bassa, 



AFRIDI 



H 



AIR 



Assinee, Axim, Sekondi, Cape Colony, Saltpond, 
Accra, Lagos Roads, Brass, Akassa, Forcados, Warri, 
Benin and Sapcle; and on the Windward Service for 
Teneriflfe, La Palma, Sierra Leone, Sherbro, Cape 
Mount, Sinoe, Tabou, Drewin, Sassandra, Half Jack, 
Adda (Ivory Coast), Half Assinie, Bay in, Attuaboe, 
Axim, Dixcove, Adjuah, Sekondi, Chama, Elmina, 
Cape Colony, Anamboc, Mumford, Apam, Winne- 
bah, Barracoe, Accra, Pram Pram, Quittab, Lome, 
Little Popo and Whydah. 

Afridi. British ocean -going torpedo-boat de- 
stroyer. (Armstrong, 1905.) Length, 250 ft.; beam, 
25 ft. ; maximum draught, 7 ft. ; displacement, 790 
tons; complement, 60; armament, 3 12-pdr., 
2 tubes; Hp., i4,<xx> = 33 kts. ; coal maximum, 
180 tons. 

Alt. See Abaft. 

After-Deck House. See Deck House. 

After-Olow. The radiance or glow seen in the 
western sky for a longer period than usual after the 
sun has set. 

A.O. or T.T. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing 
boats registered at Tarbcrt (Lochfyne), Scotlaiid. 

AgamemnoiL > British ist class battleship. 
(Beardmore, 1906.) 

Length 410 ft. Beam 79 ft. Mean draught 27 ft. 
Displacement 16,600 tons. Complement 865. 
Guns. Armour, 

4 — 12 in. " Krupp." 

10 — 9*2 in. 12 in. Belt amidships. 

18 — 3'5 in. 14 in. Barbettes. 

6 — 3 pdr. 12 in. Conning tower. 

6 Pompoms. 
2 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in. Q4M.). 
4 Submerged broadside. 
I Submerged stem. 
Twin screw. Hp. 20,000=18*5 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 2,000 tons. Approximate cost ;^ 1,500,000. 

This ship- name is associated with Rodney's vic- 
tory, 1782; Toulon, i793;Bastia, i794;Calvey, 1794; 
Genoa, 1795; Hy^res, 1795; Copenhagen, 1801; 
Calder's victory off Ferrol, 1805; Trafalgar, 1805; 
Sebastopol, 1854. 

Agatha. Packet lost near Memel, April 7, 1808, 
when Lord Royston and many others were drowned. 

Agency Havas. See Havas. 

Agent. See Broker. 

Agile. French sea-going destroyer. (LaSeyne, 1889.) 
Length, 1 39 ft. ; beam, 14 ft. ; maximum draught, 7 ft. ; 
displacement, 121 tons; complement, 6; arma- 
ment, 3 3-pdr., 2 tubes; Hp., 1,100 = 26 kts.; coal, 
maximum, 35 tons. 

Aginconrt. British ist class cruiser (10,690 
tons, 12 kts). Launched x868. 



Agio. The premium borne by a better sort of 
money above an inferior. 

Agordat. Italian gun-boat (1899). 
Length 287 ft. Beam 30 ft. Maximum draught 10 ft. 
Displacement i .3 1 3 tons. Complement 1 54. 
Gtms, Atmour. 

12— 12 pdr. *'SteeL" 

I in. Deck. 
Torpedo Tubes, 
2 Above Mrater. 
T^dn screw. Hp. 8,000 = 23 ^ts. Coal normal 
160 tons. 

Aground. Stranded; situation of vessel whose 
bottom touches the ground. 

Ague. See Malaria. 

Agol. Russian armoured cruiser (Sebastopol, 
1902). 

Length 439 ft. Beam 54 ft. Draught 20 ft. 
Displacement 6,645 tons. Complement 340. 
Gutis. Armour, 

1 2 — 6 in. ' ' Krupp. ' ' 

1 2 — 3 in. 3 in. Deck amidships. 

6 Maxims. 5 in. Barbettes. 

Torpedo Tubes, 
2 Submerged. 
Hp. 19,500 = 23 kts. Coal 1,100 tons. 

A.H. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Arbroath, Scotland. 

Ahead. Immediately before the ship in the course 
steered. 

Ahoy. See Ho. 

AhnlL When a ship is under bare poles, driving by 
wind and sea, stem foremost. 

A.I. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Akreyri, Iceland, Denmark. 

A.I. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Juist, Germany. 



A staff officer who carries and 
circulates the commanding officer's orders. In the 
Navy fiag-Ueutenant to an admiral, or in action the 
quarter-deck midshipman to a captain. 

Aigrette. French sea-going submarine. (Toulon, 
1903.) Length, 118 ft.; beam, 12 J ft.; draught, 
8 J ft.; displacement, 172 tons; complement, 20; 
torpedo tubes, 1-177 in. ;Hp., 200 = 10*5 kts. above 
water, 8 below. 

Aiorone. Italian torpedo-boat. (Odero, 1906.) 
Length, 165 ft. ; beam, 17 ft. ; draughty 4 ft. ; displace- 
ment, 200 tons; complement, 30; armament, 3 
3-pdr., 3 tubes; t^in screw; Hp., 3,000 = 25 kts. 
coal, 40 tons. 

Air Bladder. One of the most characteristic organs 
of fishes; present in most, though not in all fish. It 



AIRY 



15 



ALABAMA 



consists of a hollow sac, formed of several tunics con- 
taining gas, situated in the abdominal cavity, out- 
side the i)eritonear sac. Like the lungs of air- 
breathing vertebrates, it rises as an outgrowth from 
the alimentary canal, and may either retain this 
action throughout life, as in the herring, or become 
entirely shut off from the gut, as in the haddock. 
Being compressible, its special function consists in 
altering the specific gravity of the fish, or in changing 
the centre of gravity. Isinglass, or fish glue, in its 
raw state, is the air bladder, swim bladder or sound, 
of various species of fish. 

Airy, Sir George Biddell (1801-92). British 
Astronomer Royal (b. Alnwick). Educ. Hereford 
Grammar School and Colchester. In 1823 graduated 
Senior Wrangler, first Smith's Prizeman, Trinity 
College, Cambridge, and three years later was ap- 
pointed Lucasion Professor of Mathematics; and 
Astronomer Royal, June 18, 1835. ^^^ Administra- 
tion at Greenwich extended over a period of 46 
years, during which time he reorganised the whole 
management; created a Magnetic department in 
1838; a Spectroscopic department in 1868. The 
solar ecUpses of 1842, 185 1 and i860 were observed 
by him in Italy, Sweden and Spain respectively; 
organised the transit of Venus Expedition, 1854. In 
1872 he was made K.C.B., and in the same year was 
nominated a Grand Cross in the Imperial Order of 
the Rose of Brazil; he also held the Appreciation 
Order for the M6rite; belonged to the Legion of 
Honour of France, and the Legion of the North Star 
of Sweden and Norway. A complete list of his 
printed papers, about 518, will be found in his auto- 
biography, edited by his son, and published in 
1896. 

Aitodocf. Russian torpedo-boat. (Odessa, 
X891.) Length, 126 ft. ; beam, 13 ft.; draught, 8^ ft. ; 
displacement, 81 tons; complement, 13; armament, 
3 i-pdr., 2 tubes; Hp., 1,100 = 21 kts.; coal, 17 
tons. 

Ajaz. Steamer, sunk by collision with the Runde- 
burg, August 9, 1892; 35 Uves lost. 

Ajaz. 74 guns. On February 14, 1807, this 
vessel was destroyed by fire, ofi the Island of 
Tenedos, when 250 perished. 

A.K. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Andf jord, Holland. 

Akadamiicher Setfer-Verein. Est. 1886. Com- 
modore, A. von Appen; Vice-Commodore, W. Hahn; 
Rear-Commodore, Paul Hillmann ; Treasurer, Walter 
Otto; Secretary, Hans Bokland; Konigliche Tech- 
nische Hochschule, Charlottenburg, Berlin. En- 
trance fee, 50m. ; annual subscription, 1 50m. 

Akagi. Japanese gun-boat. (Yokosuka, 1891.) 

Length 164 ft. Beam 27 ft. Maximum draught to ft. 

Displacement 6x5 tons. Complement 1 30. 



Guns. 

I — 8*3 in. 
I — 5*9 in. 
2 — I pdr. 
Hp. 7,000 = 1 3 kts. Coal 1 20 tons. 

Akaahi. Japanese cruiser. (Japan, 1897.) 
Length 305 ft. Beam 4 1 ft. Maximum draught 1 6 ft. 
Displacement 2 , 700 tons. Com plement 275. 
Guns. Armour. 

2—6 in. " Steel." 

6 — ^47 in. 2 in. Deck. 

12 — 3 pdr. 4 J in. Gun shields. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
2 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. 8,500 = 20 kts. Coal maximum 
600 tons. 

Akatioki. Japanese torpedo-boat destroyer. 
(Yarrow, 1901.) Displacement, 306 tons; comple- 
ment, 55; maximum draught, 8^ ft.; armament, 
I i2-pdr., 5 6-pdr.; tubes, 2 i8-in.; Hp., 6,000 = 
31 kts. ; coal, 95 tons. 

Akabono. Japanese torpedo-boat destroyer. 
(Yarrow, 1899.) Displacement, 306 tons.; comple- 
ment, 55; maximum draught, 8^ ft.; armament, 
I i2-pdr., 5 6-pdr. tubes; 2 i8-in.; Hp.; 6,000 = 
31 kts. ; coal» 95 tons. 

Akitsiishima. Old Japanese cruiser. (Japan, 
1892.) 

Length 302 ft. Beam 43 ft. Maximum draught 18 ft. 
Displacement 3,150 tons. Complement 330. 
Guns. Armour. 

4—6 in. " Steel." 

6 — 4-7 in. 3 in. Deck, 

lo— 3pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
4 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. forced 8,400 =19 kts. Coal nor- 
mal 500 tons. 

Aknla. Russian submarine (1905). Length, 77 ft. ; 
displacement, 175 tons; speed, 7 kts. 

A.L. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Ameland, Holland. 

A.L. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Leer, Germany. 

Alabama. U.S. ist class battleship. (Cramp's, 
1898.) 

Length 368 ft. Beam 72 ft. Mean draught 23 ft. 
Displacement 1 1,565 tons. Complement 490. 

Guns, Armour. 

4 — 13 in., 35 cal. " Harvey-nickel." 

14—6 in. 16 in. Belt amidships. 

6 — 6 pdr. 16 in. Turrets. 

4 — I pdr. 10 in. Conning tower. 

4 Colts. 
2 Field guns (3 in.). 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
4 Above water (Armoured). 



ALABAMA 



i6 



ALBATROSS 



Twin screw. Hp. forced io,cxx>= i6 kts. Coal 
maximum 1.450 tons. Approximate cost ;£950,ooo. 

Alabama. Celebrated Confederate cruiser, origi- 
nally known as " No. 290/' her number in the 
yard of the builders, Messrs. Laird, of Birkenhead. 
She was a steam vessel of 1,000 tons, launched May 
15, 1862, with engines of 300 Hp., giving a speed of 
about II kts. During judicial inquiries after her 
character, under pretext of making a trial trip, she 
slipped out to sea, July 29, the day tfefore the 
British Government telegraphed to detain her. 
Under the command of Captain Semmes she did 
great damage to American mercantile shipping, be- 
tween the bamks of Newfoundland and Martinique, 
and succeeded in destroying the HatUras, a Federal 
vessel engaged in the blockade of Galveston. She 
was eventually destroyed by the Federal ironclad 
Kearsarge, off Cherbourg, June 19, 1864. Refer to 
Alabama Case. 

Alabama Case. The Alabama was a steamer 
launched at Birkenhead in 1862, and obviously in- 
tended for a Confederate cruiser. Although the 
attention of the British Government was drawn to 
her, she was allowed to escape, and wrought great 
havoc to property of the Northern States until 
sunk by the Kearsarge (q.v.) in 1864. An inter- 
national tribunal, which sat at Geneva in 1871, 
assessed the damage to be paid by Great Britain at 
over ;£ 3,000,000. 

In the treaty of submission the follo¥dng rules 
were agreed upon by the United States and Great 
Britain to be observed among themselves, and other 
nations who acceded to them. 

A neutral Government is bound: (i) to use due 
diligence to prevent the fitting out, arming or equip- 
ping within its jurisdiction of any vessel it has 
ground for believing is intended to carry on war 
against a Power with which it is at peace, and also 
to prevent the departure from its jurisdiction of such 
vessel ; (2) not to permit either beUigerent to use its 
waters as a base of operations, or for the purpose of 
renewing suppUes, men, etc. ; and (3) to exercise due 
diUgence as to persons within its jurisdiction, to 
prevent any violation of the above obligations. 

Alacrity. British despatch boat (1,700 tons, 
17 kts.). Launched 1885. 

Alagoas. Brazilian river turret armoured gun- 
boat. (Brazil, 1888.) 
Length 120ft. Beam 28ft. Maximum draught 5 ft. 
Displacement 335 tons. Complement 43. 



Guns, 

I — 7 in. 
2 Machine. 



A rmour. 
" Sted." 
4} in. Belt amidships. 
4| in. Gun shields. 
Hp., i8o = 7kts. 



AlaroOQ, Hernando de. Spanish Navigator, per- 
sonally connected with the Spanish expedition to the 
coast of CaUfomia, of which he was leader. He 
sailed from Spain, May 9, 1540, and on arrival in 



California made a careful and exact survey of the 
coast, and was the first European to explore the 
Colorado river; was the first to prove that California 
was a peninsula and not an island, and on his return 
to New Spain in 1541 he constructed a map of Cali- 
fornia, which, according to M. Dufflot de Mofras, 
scarcely differs from the one in use at the present day. 

Alarm. British torpedo gun-boat (1892). 
Length 230 ft. Beam 27 ft. Maximum draught 12} ft. 
Displacement 810 tons. Complement 8 5 . 

Guns. 
2 — 4'7 in. J 

4—3 Pdr. ,..^ i 

Torpedo Tubes, \ 

5 — 14 in. 
3 — 18 in. 
Twin screw. Coal maximum 160 tons. Speed 17 kts. 

« 

Alantie. French sea-going destroyer. (St. Na- 
zaire, 1889.) Length, 151 ft.; beam, 15 ft.; draught, 
8 ft.; displacement, 169 tons; complement, 30; 
armament, 2 3-pdr., 4 tubes; twin screw; Hp.. 
1,400 K 30 kts. ; coal, 40 tons. 

Alaska Steamship Company, with their head offices 
at Seattle, Washington, U.S.A., have a fleet of four 
steamers, which maintain a service twice a week be- 
tween Seattle and Skegway, calling en route at 
Ketchikan, Wrangel, Douglas, Juneau, Haines. 

Fleet. 
Dirigo, Dolphin, Farrallon. 

Jefferson, 

Albaoore. A fish of the Scomberidae family, found 
in shoals in the ocean ; it is from 5 to 6 ft. in length 
with an average weight of about 100 lbs. 

Alhany. U.S. cruiser. (Elswick, 1898.) Pur- 
chased from Brazil. 

Length 330 ft. Beam 43 ft. Maximum draught 18 ft. 
Displacement 3,450 tons* Complement 300. 
Guns, Armour, 

6-^ in. " Harvey-nickel." 

4 — 5 in. 3 in. Deck. 

10—6 pdr. 4 in. Gun shields. 

4 — I pdr. 
4 Colts. 

Torpedo Tubes^ 
2 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. forced 7,500 e= 20-25 ^^< ^^^^ 
maximum 700 tons. 

Albatross (Diomedea). A genus of aquatic birds, 
closely allied to the petrels and gulls, belonging to 
the family of long-winged birds. The name especially 
applied to D* exulans, one of the largest birds capable 
of sustaining flight, and best known as the common 
or wandering albatross. It occurs in all parta of tl^e 
Southern Ocean, and in the seas that wash the coast 
of Asia, and is occasionally found in the North 
Pacific, especially during the breeding season. The 
colour of the bird is a dusky white, the back being 
streaked transversely with black or brown bands, 
and the wings darker than the rest of the body. The 



• ALBATROSS 



17 



ALDEN 



beak is large, strong and sharp-edged, tiie upper 
mandible tenninating in a large hook; the wings are 
narrow and very long. The feet have no hind toe, 
and the three anterior toes are completely webbed. 
It feeds on small fish and on animal refuse that floats 
on the sea. It is a true sea bird, following ships for 
great distances, and rarely found on land, except 
during the breeding season. The early explorers con- 
sidered the presence of the bird a good omen, and the 
evil that befell liim " who shot with his cross bow 
the albatross," is familiar to the readers of Coleridge's 
** Rime of the Ancient Mariner." 

AlbatrOM. British torpedo-boat destroyer. 
(Chiswicky 1898.) Length, 227 ft.; beam, 21 ft.; 
draught, 8 J ft.; displacement, 360 tons; comple- 
ment, 68; armament, i 12-pdr., 5 6-pdr.; 2 tubes; 
twin screw; Hp., 7,900 = 32 kts. ; coal, 100 tons. 

Alliatrou. Italian torpedo-boat. (Odero, 1906.) 
Length, 165 ft. ; beam, 17 ft. ; draught, 7 ft. ; displace- 
ment, 200 tons; complement, 30; armament, 3 3-pdr., 
3 tubes ; twin screw ; Hp. ,3,000 = 25 kts. ; coal, 40 tons. 

Albedo. An astronomical term used to signify the 
proportion of incident light reflected by a non- 
luminous surface. 

Albemarle. British ist class battleship. (Chat- 
ham, 1901.) 

Length 429 ft. Beam 75 ft. Maximum draught 27 ft. 
Displacement 14.000 tons. Complement 750. 
Gufts. Armour. 

4 — 12 in. " Krupp." 

12—6 in. 7 in. Belt amidships. 

12 — 12 pdr. II in. Barbettes. 

6—3 pdr. 1 2 in. Conning tower. 

2 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
4 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 18,000=^19 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 2,000 tons. Approximate cost ;fi ,000,000. 

This ship-name was introduced into the Navy 
about 1685, and is associated with the battle of 
Beachy Head, 1690; Barfleur and La Hogue 1692. 

Albemarle. See Keppel Monk. 

Albert^.Pifaoe of Mooaca See Monaco, Albert, 
Prince of. 

Albert Taoht Olllb, Bofal. See Royal Albert 
Yacht Qub. 

Albion. British ist class battleship. (Thames 
I.W., 1898.) 

Length 418 ft. Beam 74 ft. Maximum draught 26 ft. 
Displacement 12,950 tons. Complement 750. 
Guns. Armour. 

4 — 12 in., 35 cal. *' Harvey-nickel." 

12 — 6 in. ' 6 in. Belt amidships. 

10—12 pdr. 12 in. Barbettes. 

6-^3 pdr. 12 in. Conning tower. 

3 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). ^ 

4 Submerged. 



Twin screw. Hp. 13,500= 18*25 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 2,300 tons. Approximate cost ;£900,ooo. 

This ship-name is associated with Byron's action 
off Granad%, 1779; Rodney's action with de Guichen, 
1780; bombardment of Algiers, 18 16; Navarino, 
1827; bombardment of Sebastopol, 1854. 

Albaaaerqoe, Affonso D' (1453-1515) (b. Alexan- 
dria). Sumamed the " Great " and the " Portu- 
guese Mars." He was the means of upholding and 
extending the power of Portugal in India and the 
East from 1 503 — when he set out on his first expedi- 
tion — till 15 15, when the island of Ormus pelded to 
him without resistance, and remained in possession 
of the Portuguese until 1822. He captured Goa in 
1 5 10, Malacca 1 5 11, and subdued the Malabar Coast, 
Ceylon, and other ports of the East. He died at sea, 
December 15, 15 15, and his body was buried at Goa, 
in the Church of " Our Lady." 

Alcester, Frederick Beanchamp Paget Seymoor, 
Baron (1812-95). British Admiral. Entered the 
Navy 1834, and served in the Mediterranean and 
Pacific. Promoted Commander 1847, and Captain 
1854. Was captain of the Pelorous on the Austra- 
lian station, and commanded the Naval Brigade in 
New Zealand during the Maori war (1860-61), for 
which he was made a C.B. In 1870 he became a 
Rear- Admiral, and Lord of the Admiralty (1872- 
74), and 1876 was made a Vice- Admiral, and 
Commander-in-Chief of the Mediterranean fleet; on 
May 24, 1 88 1, he was made G.C.B., and one year 
later promoted to the rank of Admiral. In July, 
1882, he commanded at the Bombardment of Alex- 
andria, for which service he was raised to the 
peerage of Baron Alcester, of Alcester, and had a 
Parliamentary grant of ^£25,000. 

Aloiooe. Italian torpedo-boat. (Odero, 1906.) 
Length. 165 ft. ; beam, 17 ft. ; draught, 7 ft. ; displace- 
ment, 200 tons ; complement, 30 ; armament, 3 3 -pdr., 
3 tubes ; Hp., 3,000 = 25 kts. ; coal, 40 tons. 

Aloook, Halor Alfred William, OJLE. 1903. M.D., 
LL.D., F.B.S.» (b. June 23. 1859). Superintendent 
of the Indian Museum and Professor of Zoology in 
the Medical College, Calcutta. Educ. Mill Hill, West- 
minster, Blackheath, Aberdeen University. Joined 
the Indian Medical Service {1885); Surgeon-Natural- 
ist to the Marine Survey of India on board the 
R.I.M.S. Investigator (1888-92). 

Publications: " Naturalist in Indian Seas " (1902). 

Aldebaran, the lucida of Taurus, a well-known 
nautical star, commonly called Bull's-eye. 

Aldebnrgh Taoht (Qnb. Est. 1898. Commodore, 
A. H. E. Wood; Vice-Commodore, S. Garrett; Rear- 
Commodore, Percy Clark; Honorary Treasurer, 
W. H. T. T. Powell; Secretary, Ernest S. Rogers; 
Albeburgh-on-Sea. ' Annual Subscription, £1 is. 

Aldeo, John (i 599-1686). One of the Pilgrim 
Fathers, who sailed in the Mayflower, Has been 



ALDRICH 



18 



ALFRED 



immortalised in Longfellow's '* Courtship of Miles 
. Standish." 

Aldrich, Vice-Admiral Pelham (b. December 8, 
1844). Entered Navy 1859, and served as First 
Lieutenant in the Challenger survey expedition 
(1872-75), and as First Lieutenant on the Alert in 
the Arctic expedition (1875-76). (Arctic Medal.) 
Promoted Rear-Admiral 1898, and was Second-in- 
Command of " B " fleet in manoeuvres (1899), and in 
1900 promoted Admiral-Superintendent of Ports- 
mouth Dockyard. Refer to Arctic Exploration, 
Antarctic Exploration. 

Alee. Position of helm when tiller is over to 
leeside, to go about. 

Alewife (Culpae-alosa). A fish of the herring tribe. 

Alexander. See Isabella. 

Alexandra Yacht dab, Southend. Established 
1873. Flag: Red ensign. Burgee: Blue, red shield, 
three white cutiasses in centre. Commodore : W. C. 
Blatspiel-Stamp ; Vice-Commodore, F. G. Ensor; 
Rear-Commodore, E. F. Wood; Honorary Trea- 
surer, G. F. Jones; Honorary Secretary, Arthur F. 
Allen. Entrance fee, £2 2s. and ;£i is. Annual sub- 
scription, £2 2S. 

Alexeieff* Erghenyi Ivanovitch (b. 1843). Russian 
Naval Officer of Armenian extraction. In 1899 he 
commanded the Pacific Squadron, and afterwards 
was made Governor of Kwangting and Viceroy of 
the Far East (1903). His obstinate policy, to a great 
extent, precipitated the war with Japan. 

Alfonso XIL Spanish cruiser. (Ferrol, 1890.) 
Length 278 ft. Beam 42 ft. Maximum draught 17 ft. 
Displacement 341 tons. Complement 300. 

Guns. 
6 — 2 in. 
2 — 2.7 in. 
6 — 6 pdr. 
Torpedo Tubes. 
5 Above water. 
Hp. 4,800 =17 kts. Coal 600 tons. 

Alfonso XII. Spanish mail steamer belonging 
to the Lopez Line, bound from Cadiz to Havana, 
sank off Point Gando, Grand Canary, in nearly 
30 fathoms of water, about a mile off shore. She 
had on board Spanish gold coin valued at ;£icx),ooo. 
Mr A. Lambert, a diver, recovered from this wreck 
j£70,ooo of the treasure at a depth of 160 ft. 

Alfonso De Albaquerane. See Albuquerque. 

Alfonso De Albaqnerque. Portuguese corvette- 
(Blackwall, 1884.) 

Length 203 ft. Beam 33 ft. Draught 40 ft. 
Displacement 1,1 11 tons. Complement 183. 

Guns. 
2 — 6 in. 
5— 4-1 in. 
2 — 2-5 in. 
Hp. 1,360 =» 13 kts. Coal normal 14a 



Alfred* Ernest Albert, Duke of Edinburgh and Duke 
of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1844- 1900). Second son 
and fourth child of Queen .Victoria (b. Windsor 
Castie, August 6, 1844). Entered the Navy 1856, 
and in August, 1858, having passed his examination 
for midshipman, was appointed to the EurycUus. 
Was promoted Lieutenant 1863; Captain 1866, be- 
ing then appointed to the command of the Galatea. 
On attaining his majority (1865), he was created 
Duke of Edinburgh and Earl of Ulster, and given an 
annuity of ;f 50,000. On January 24, 1867, ^^ started 
his voyage round the world, visiting Gibraltar, the 
Cape, and landed at Glenelg, South Australia, on 
October 3 1 . After a stay of five months, in which he 
visited the principal towns of the colonies ; it was on 
his second visit to Sydney, while attending a public 
picnic, an Irishman shot him in the back with a re- 
volver; the wound was fortunately not dangerous. 
In 1869 he visited India, and on his return was pro- 
moted Rear- Admiral, and in 1882 Vice-Admiral, and 
received his baton as Admiral of the Fleet, June 3, 
1893. He commanded the Channel Fleet (1883- 
84) ; the Mediterranean Fleet (1886-89) ; and was 
Commander-in-Chief at Devonport (1890-93). In 
August, 1893, he succeeded his uncle, Ernest II, as 
reigning Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. He was 
succeeded by his nephew, the Duke of Albany. 

Alfred the Great, Youngest son of Ethelwulf, King 
of the West Saxons (b. Wantage, Berkshire, 849. a. d.) . 
When quite yoimg he greatiy distinguished himself 
in assisting his brother Ethelred against the Danes, 
particularly at Ashdown, and on the death of 
Ethelred, he was unanimously elected King (871). 
When only twenty-two years of age he concluded a 
Treaty of Peace with the Danes, who withdrew to 
London, and his supremacy vras acknowledged 
through the whole country, south of the Thames, 
and the greater part of Mercia. He practically 
founded the British Navy» and the naval victory 
which he gained over Danish rovers (873), is the first 
on record won.by Englishmen. Alfred was the means 
of putting the country into a complete state of de- 
fence, old fortifications were repaired, and new ones 
raised in suitable localities; the fleet was brought 
into a state of efficiency. He greatly encouraged 
commerce, and took a keen interest in geographical 
study, founded schools, encouraged literature, im- 
proved the service of the Church ; and his devotion 
to learning and his exertion in the cause of educa- 
tion, are among the most agreeable features of his 
reign. He died on October 27, 1901, at the age of 52, 
and was buried at Winchester, the ancient capital of 
England. 

His principal works are as follows: " Manual or 
Handbook," of which no copy is known to exist; 
" Laws " {See Wilkin's " Leges Anglo-Saxonicae " 
(1721), and Thorpe's " Ancient Laws and Institutes 
of England " (London, 1840). Translations into Old 
English (Anglo-Saxon) of the following: " Bede's 
Ecclesiastical History," edited by Wheloc, Cam- 



ALFRED 



19 



ALLAN 



bridge (1643-44), and by Smith, Cambridge (1722). 
'* The Universal History of Orosins," edited by 
Thorpe, London, 1857. "The Consolations of 
Philosophy," by Boethius. edited by Fox, London 
(1864). Gregory's " Pastoral Care." edited by 
Sweet, for the Early English Text Society, London 
(1871-72). 

AUred Tacht Cklbt BoyaL See aoyal Alfred 
Yacht Club. 

A]g9. Seaweed and the floating substances on 
fresh water. 

Algedras, Gibraltar Railway and Steamship Com- 
pany, with the head office at Algeciras, maintain a 
service between the Railway Pier, Gibraltar, and the 
Railway Pier, Algeciras, ill connection with all trains 
in and out, besides making several other local runs, 
practically every two hours of the day. 

Fleet. 

Aline» Christina. Elvira. 

Margarita. 

Gross tonnage 1,400. 

Alger. Old French cruiser (1889). 
Length 346 ft. Beam 45 ft. Maximum draught 23 ft. 
Displacement 4,200 tons. Complement 407. 
Guns. Armour. 

4 — 6*4 in. 4 in. Deck. 

6 — 5 '5 in. 4 in. Gun shields. 

2 — 9 pdr. 
8 — 3 pdr. 
10 — I pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
4 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. 8,000 nig kts. (Small fighting 
value.) 

Algerian. French submarine. (Cherbourg, 1 901.) 
Length, 1 18 ft. ; beam, 9 ft. ; draught, 8 ft. ; displace^ 
ment, 146 tons; complement, 9; Hp., 250 = 8 kts. 

AlgoL A variable star in Perseus, which goes 
through its changes in a Uttle under three days. 

Algoma. Canadian steamer, foundered in Lake 
Superior, November 7, 1885 ; 45 lives lost. 

AUen, An, is one who owes allegiance to a foreign 
State. By English law every one bom in British 
territory is a British subject, and every one bom out- 
side British territory is an alien, except children of a 
British father. A child bom in British territory of 
alien parents is a natural-bom British subject, but 
children of a British mother and foreign father are 
aliens, unless bom in British Dominions. A British 
subject becoming naturalized in a foreign country 
ceases to be a British subject. A British womtaa 
marrying an alien becomes an aUen. The status of 
aliens in Great Britain is regulated by the Natura- 
lization Act (1870), by which Real and Personal 
property oi every description may be taken, ac- 



quired, held, and disposed of by an alien in the same 
manner in all respects as by a natural-bom British 
subject, but (Section 14) nothing in tliis Act shall 
qualify an alien to be the owner of a British ship. 

Alien Immigration is now controlled by the Aliens 
Act, 1905. The expression " immigration '* means 
an alien steerage passenger who is to be landed in the 
United Kingdom, other than one who is proceeding 
within a reasonable time to some destination out of 
the United Kingdom, or (in certain cases) passengers 
holding prepaid through tickets to some such destina- 
tion. The Act provides for the landing of alien 
immigrants at such ports only as are provided with 
an Immigration officer, who shall control their land- 
ing and refuse (subject to appeal to the Port Immi- 
grant Board) certain classes of immigrants described 
by the Act as " undesirables." The Act further 
provides for the expulsion of aliens resident in the 
United Kingdom, who, through some crime or other 
cause, have become " undesirable." Ship-owners and 
masters of ships are laid under certain obligations 
with regard to the carrying of alien immigrants, and 
may be convicted for contravention of the Act. An 
alien immigrant is not excluded from the United 
Kingdom solely on the ground that he is a political 
offender, 

Aiifigtngi, Admiral Arthur Hildebrand. Entered 
Navy 1852; served in the Baltic and Black Seas 
during the Russian War; present at the night attack 
on the sea fortifications of Sebastopol. at the capture 
of Kertch and Kinbum; at the fall of Sebastopol 
(Baltic, Crimean and Turkish medals, Sebasto- 
pol clasp); Senior Lieutenant of Rinaldo on the 
North American Station during United States Civil 
War; received the Royal Humane Society's silver 
medal for jumping overboard with all his clothes on 
and saving the Ufe of Private J. Brown, who at- 
tempted suicide by throwing himself overboard in 
the Bay of Biscay, May 1861. Lieutenant Com- 
mander of Britotnart on Lake Erie duriug Fenian 
Riots 1866-68; Commander of Boxer on West Coast 
of Africa; took an active part in the destruction of 
various piratical villages during the Niger Expedi- 
tion, 1877; mentioned in despatches; Assistant to 
Admiral Superintendent of Naval Reserves, March 
1892-94; Captain's Good Service Pension 1892-94; 
Second-in-Command Channel Squadron 1895-96; 
Secoiid-in-Command of Channel Fleet at the Navy 
Tactical Exercises 1895. 

AXfK. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Alkmaar, Holland. 

Allan, Robert W. (b. 1852). Scotch marine painter. 
Studied in Paris, 1875- 1880, o^© o* t^© pioneers of 
the mddem Glasgow School. 

Allan, Sir Hugh ( 18x0-82) (b. Saltcoats, Ayr- 
shire). Was one of the projectors of the Canadian 
Pacific Railway Company, and in 187 1 was knighted 
for services rendered to this enterprise; 



ALLAN 



20 



ALLUVIUM 



Allan Line, was originally founded as the Mon- 
treal Ocean Steamship Co., formed by the Allan 
Brothers, who had been connected with Canada as 
sailing-ship owners since 1820. The company began 
a mail service between Liverpool, Quebec and 
Montreal in April, 1856, and have since continued to 
meet and promote the postal, commercial and immi- 
grational requirements of the vast Dominion of 
Canada. In the course of its career it has absorbed 
the fleet of the old State Line of Glasgow, and th^ 
greater part of the fleet of the Royal Exchange 
Shipping Company, and of the Hill Line. Ftom the 
time of the Crimean War, down to the South African 
campaign, the company's vessels have been em- 
ployed as transports, on occasions of national emer- 
gency. The finest vessels of the company are run in 
the mail service from Liverpool to the St Lawrence 
ports in the summer, to HaUfax and St John's (N.6.) 
during the winter season, when the river is closed. 
The Virginian, the first turbine propelled Atlantic 
steamer, beat all records in August 1905, between 
Moville and Rimouski, the actual steaming time be- 
tween ports being 5 days 21 hours. The vessel being 
out of sight of land only 3 days 21 hours. The 
Tunisian, crossing from Liverpool to Quebec, has 
done the land to land passage in 4 days 4^ hours, and 
the Victorian in 4 days i hour. 

Fleet, 
Bavarian. Laurentian. Pretorian. 

Brazilian, Livonian. Rosarian, 

Buenos A yrean, Mongolian. Sardinian. 

Carthaginian. Monte Videan. SanuUian. 

Corean. Numidian. Siberian. 

Corinthian. Ontarian. Sicilian. 

Hibernian. Orcadian. Tunisian. 

Hungarian. Parisian. Victorian. 

Ionian. Pomeranian. Virginian. 

Gross tonnage 147,000. 

AllansQQ-Winn, Bovvland George Allanion, Civil 
Engineer (b. London, January 19, 1855). Educated 
Westminster, Trin. Coll., Cam. Mathematical Tripos, 
1878; engaged in Foreshore Protectton Works in 
England and Ireland; completed the Beramula- 
Srinagar Road, 1896. 

Publications: " Foreshore Protection " (1899), 
" Utilisation of Tidal and Wave Action," " Con- 
structive Power of the Sea," " Youghal Foreshore 
Protection Works," " Protection and Improvement 
of Foreshore by the Utilisation of Tidal and Wave 
Action," " The Lea as a Constructive Agent," 
awarded Silver Medal Royal Scottish Society of Arts, 
1900; Silver Medals Institution of Civil Engineers of 
Ireland, 1902, 1903. 

All Hands. The whole of the ship's company. 

Alliance Blarine and General Asanranoe Company, 
Limited. Established in 1824, and originally 
authorised by a special Act of Parliament; in 1881 it 
was incorporated as a limited company under Com- 



panies Act; in 1892, on the objects of the company 
being revised to meet the requirements of modem 
conditions, the words " and General " were ordered 
to be added to its description. Its present capital is 
;£i, 000,000 in 10,000 j£ioo shares. £2$ paid, i.e., 
;£2 50,000 paid up. Of this, ;£s0'000 was, in 1876, 
written ofi. Since that date a reserve has been 
accumulated of ;£200,ooo. 

The directors of the company are : Rt. Hon. Lord 
Rothschild, G.C.V.O. (President); Rt. Hon. Lord 
Battersea; A. V. Dunlop Best; James Fletcher; Hon. 
William H. Goschen; Max Hecht; C. Shirreff Hilton; 
W. Douro Hoare; Alfred H. Huth; Alex. Lawrie; 
Francis A. Lucas, M.P.; Henry Pryor Powell; Marl- 
borough Robert Pryor; Hon. L. Walter Rothschild, 
M.P.; Hon. N. Charles Rothschild; Sir Marcus 
Samuel, Bart.; H. Melvill Simons; Harry Alexander 
Trotter. Auditors: Benjamin L. Cohen, M.P., 
Charles L. Nichols, F.C. A. ; Underwriter, Edward W. 
Nicholls; Secretary, Douglas Owen. Offices: Capel 
Court, London. 



Alligator Fish (Podothecus Acipenserinus). Found 
in the Strait of Fuca, Puget Sound, and other inlets 
along the north-east coast of the Pacific. The fish is 
about a foot in length, with a compressed tapering 
body. 

Alligator See! Lighthooae, Florida, is one of the 
finest iron sea-swept lighthouse structures in the 
world. It is 135^ ft. in height, standing on the 
Florida Reef in 5 ft. of water. In construction it 
closely resembles the Fowey Rocks tower. 

Allin, Beai^Admiral Sir Thomas (1612-85) (b. 
Lowestoft). Was in command of a ship of the Prince 
Rupert Squadron (1649-50). In 1665, when in 
command of a small fleet, successfully engaged a 
Dutch convoy off Cadiz, and in the following year 
served in the first battie of the North Foreland and 
the St James's fight. In 1670 he became Controller 
of the Navy, and in 1678 Commander-in-Chief in the 
Channel. 

All in the Wind. When vessel's head is too close to 
wind. Sails not drawing. 

All Serene. Australian ship, wrecked in a gale 
in the Pacific, February 21, 1864; 30 lives were lost. 

AUnvion is land claimed from the sea by the wash- 
ing up of earth and sand. Refer to Foreshore: 
Riparian Laws. 

AUnvinnL The geological term for soil or land, 
made up of the settiement deposited by running 
water. It may be (i) restricted to all stream depo- 
sits, such as sand, mud, shingle, gravel, boulders, 
etc., or (3) include all kinds of recent deposits, such 
as dune, formations along the sea^shore. turf, coral 
eeia, etc. The principal level tracks are the deltas or 
the delloid formations, at the mouths of large rivers. 
The delta of the Nile is one of the best marked speci- 



ALMA 



21 



ALOOF 



mens. The Mississippi has carried the solid matter it 
holds in suspension, far into the Gulf of Mexico. 

Alma. Steamer, grounded on a reef near Aden, 
about 35 miles from Mocha, June 12, 1859, and be- 
came a total loss. 

Almanac. A record of the days, feasts, and celes- 
tial phenomena of the year. The most authoritative 
almanac in Great Britain is the Nautical Almanac 
(q.v.); its information is indispensable in navigation 
and astronomy. . 

In France the corresponding almanac is the 
" Connaissance des Temps," published by the Bureau 
des Longitudes; in Germany the " Berliner Astrono- 
misches Jahrbuch"; and in the United States the 
" American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac." 

The "Almanach de Gotha," printed in both 
French and German, is a marvellous work of over 
one thousand pages of statistical information. 

Almas. Russian 2nd class cruiser. (St Peters- 
burg. 1903.) 

Length 325 ft. Beam 43 ft. Draught 18 ft. 
Displacement 3,285 tons. Complement 430. 
Guns, A rmour, 

6— 47 in. "Steel." 

8 — 1-8 in. 3 in. Deck. 

2 — I '4 in. 5 in. Gun shields. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
6 Above water, 
rip. 7,500 =19 kts. Coal maximum 700 tons. 

Alminnte Brown. Argentine battleship. (Laird. 
1880.) Reconstructed La Seyne, 1897. 
Length 240 ft. Beam 50 ft. Maximum draught 22 ft. 
Displacement, 4,267 tons. Complement, 380. 
Guns. A rmour. 

10—6 in. " Compound." 

4 — 37 in. 9 in. Belt amidships. 

8 — 3 pdr. 7 in. Bulkheads. 

8 in. Central battery. 
Torpedo Tubes. 
2 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. 4,500 = 14 kts. Coal maximum 
650 tons. 

Almiraate Ooehiane. Old Cbilian battlesbip, 
3.500 tons. At present used for harbour defence. 
Of little fighting value. 

Almirantis OoodeU. Chilian torpedo gun-boat. 
(Birkenhead, 1890.) Reconstructed 1900. 
Length 230 ft. Beam 37 ft. Maximum draught 1 2 ft. 

Displacement 750 tons. 
Guns, A fmour. 

3 — 14 pdr. I in. Amidships. 

4 — 3 pdr. I in. Bulkhead. 

2 Gatlings. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
5 Above water. 



Twin screw. Hp. 4.000 ^ 20 kts. Coal maximum 
100 tons. 

Almiiante Lynch. Chilian torpedo gun -boat. (Bir- 
kenhead, 1890.) Reconstructed 1900. 
Length 230 ft. Beam 27 ft. Maximum draught 1 2 ft. 

Displacement 750 tons. 
Guns. A rmour. 

3 — 14 pdr. I in. Amidships. ' 

4 — 3 pdr. I in. Bulkheads. 

2 Gatlings. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
5 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. 4,000 = 20 kts. Coal maximum 
100 tons. 

Almlrante O'Higgins. Chilian armoured cruiser. 
(Elswick, 1898.) 

Length 41 1 ft. Beam 62 ft. Draught 22 ft. 
Displacement 8,500 tons. Complement 520. 
Guns, Armour. 

4— Sin. . "Steel." 

10—6 in. 7 in. Belt amidships. 

4 — ^47 in. 7 in. Gun Shields. 

10—12 pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes, 
2 Submerged. 
I Above water. 
, Hp. 16.000 = 21*5 kts. Coal maximum 1,260 tons. 

Almirante SimiwoiL Chilian torpedo gun-boat. 
(Birkenhead, 1896.) 

Length 240 ft. Beam 27 ft. Maximum draught 1 3 ft. 
Displacement 800 tons. 
Guns. Armour. 

2 — 47 in« " Harvey." 

4 — 3 pdr. I in. Belt amidships. 

2 Maxims. 4^ in. Gun Shields. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
3 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. 4,500 = 21 kts. Coal maximum 
100 tons. 

Alndnuite Tamandare. Brazilian cruiser. (Rio de 
Janeiro, 1890.) 

Length 394 ft. Beam 46 ft. Maximum draught 20 ft. 
Displacement 4,537 tons. Complement 450. 
Guns. Armour. 

10—6 m. " Steel." 

2 — ^47 in 1^ in Deck 

8 Kordenfelts. 3 in. Casemates. 

2 in. Conning tower. 
Twin screw: Hp. natural 6,500= 16 kts., forced 
7, 500 =17 kts. Coal maximum 750 tons. 

Aloft Above; anywhere abont higher yards, 
masts, and rigging of ships. 

Alongside. By the side of a ship. 

Aloof. At a distance. Word used for " keep 
your luff " when sailing to the wind. 



ALOSE 



22 



AMALFI 



Alose. French submarine. (Toulon, 1903.) Length, 
yj ft. ; beam. 7 ft. ; draught, 8 ft. ; displacement. 68 
tons; complement, 5; Hp., 60 = 8 kts. 

Alow. Synonymous with below; as opposed to 
aloft. 

Alphios. Greek gun vessel. (Blackwall, 1885.) 
Length 130 ft. Beam 24 ft. 
Maximum draught 12 ft. 
Displacement 420 tons. Complement 80. 

Guns, 
2—37 in. 
3 Maxims. 
Hp. 400 = 10 kts. Coal 50 tons. 

Alt. Alternating (near a light). Abbreviation 
adopted on the Charts issued by the Hydrographic 
Office, Admiralty. 

Altair. The bright nautical star Aquilae. 

Altarismuth. See Azimuth. 

Altitode. A term applied to the angular distance 
of a celestial object from the horizon. Observations 
of altitude are made at sea with the sextant, for the 
purpose of working out problems essential to naviga- 
tion, such as finding the latitude and rating the 
chronometers. Refet to Sextant. 

Alimoath Sailing Chib. Established 1873. Com- 
modore: A. W. Kirk; Vice-Commodore and Honorary 
Treasurer: J. Banks Cran; Honorary Secretary: 
T. B. Dean, The Dunes, Warren Road, Blundellsand. 
Liverpool. Entrance fee, ;£i is. Annual subscrip- 
tion, IDS. 

Alto-Cmmilllf • See Clouds. 

Alton, Frands Oooke, CB. (1902). Fleet Pay- 
master; acted as Secretary to Admiral Seymour in 
China, 1897. 

Alto-Stratas. See Clouds. 

AJntninmm is a metallic substance, first separated 
from the chloride by Wohler in 1828. In 1854 Clare 
D'ville succeeded in improving the mode of produc- 
tion, but it was not until 1885 that a really practical 
electrical method of production was patented by 
Messrs Cowls, this being finally supplanted by the 
Herault-Hall method. Its formula is A i. 27*1, and 
although not ioand free, is one of the most abundant 
elements in nature. The former process of manufac- 
ture consisted in heating to a red heat a mixture of 
the double chloride of aluminium and sodium, but it 
is now almost exclusively obtained by the electro- 
lysis of a solution of the purified oxide in moulton 
cryolite. It is a white metal resembling silver in 
appearance, takes a fine polish, without odour and 
taste, highly malleable at 100*' to 150^ c, and may 
be beaten and rolled into thin sheets, or drawn into 
fine wire. Has a high specific heat and a low specific 
gravity, conducts heat and electricity as well as 
silver. It does not oxidise in air; is not acted upon 
by sulphuretted hydrogen or sulphide of ammonium, 
and preserves its lustre where silver would tarnish 



or blacken. It is soluble in hydrochloride acid, and 
solutions of caustic potash and soda. When alloyed 
with copper it becomes a highly important metal, 
and is largely used for mounting sextants and other 
astronomical instruments, and for making balance 
beams. Owing to its lightness, toughness and 
strength, it is extensively used for boat building; 
for torpedo boats, balloon fitting, bicycles, tele- 
graphy and telephony as conductors; and also used 
as a substitute for stone in lithography. It is manu- 
factured largely at works beside the Niagara Falls, 
the Falls of Schafifhausen and the Falls of Foyers in 
Inverness-shire. See Borcher's " Electric smelting," 
Blount's " Electric Chemistry " (1901), Richard's 
" Aluminium " (3rd edition), 1896. 

Alwado, Pedro de (b. Badajoz, 1495). One of the 
Spanish leaders in the discovery and conquest o£ 
America. In February 15 19 he accompanied 
Hernando Cortez in the conquests of Mexico, and in 
1523 in the conquest of Guatemala, of which place 
he was subsequently appointed Governor. He died 
at Guatemala in 1541. 

Ahrando. U.S. gun-boat, captured from Spain 
during the Spanish American War. Of little fighting 
value. 

Alwayi Alloftt. These words, frequently found in 
Charter-Parties, mean that the vessel, to which they 
refer, shall load or discharge her cargo always afloat 
at a place which is safe for her to lie in when fully 
loaded. The questions usually arising are: (i) Has 
there been a breach of contract, and (2) who is to 
bear the expense of additional transport? Where by 
charter-party a vessel was to load at a certain dock, 
and could have loaded there, but her master shifted 
her to prevent being delayed from sailing by the tak- 
ing-off of the tides, his owners had to pay lighterage. 
Where a ship was to discharge at A always afloat, 
and the master put into and discharged at B the 
nearest safe port that his vessel could lie in always 
afloat, he was held justified in so doing. On the other 
hand, where a vessel was to go to a certain port and 
discharge always afloat, and the charterer seeing 
the impossibility of getting a full ship to the quay, 
offered to lighten her, her master was held wrong in 
refusing. 

A.1I. Distingniahing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Amsterdam, Holland. 

a.m. The abbreviation for ante-meridian. 



All at once, suddenly, generally used for 
anjrthing that is moved by tackle-fall. 

Amalfl. Italian armoured cruiser (1906). 
Length 429 ft. Beam 69 ft. Mean draught 23 ft. 
Displacement 9,830 tons. 



Guns. 
4 — 10 in., 45 cal. 
8— 8 in. 
Many smaller. 



Armour, 
" Temi." 

8 in. Belt amidships. 
7 in. Barbettes. 
7 in. Conning tower. 



AMALIA 



23 



AMERICA 



Torpedo Tubes, 

3 Submerged. 

Twin screw. Hp. 18,000 = 22*5 kts. 

Afwf^lift Steamer, wrecked January zi, 1866. 
The cargo lost was valued at ;£20o,ooo. 



On September 26, 1841, this vessel 
was lost ofi Metis, when 29 passengers and x 2 of the 
crew were lost. 

Amateur. One who practises sport for mere plea- 
sure, as opposed to professional; in rowing the 
amateur is such, in the strictest sense of the word. 



H.M. screw sloop, in collision with 
screw steamer Osprey, near Portland, July 10, 1866; 
both ships went down. 

See Royal Mail Steam Packet Com- 



pany. 



W. India mail steamer, on her maiden 
voyage from Southampton, was burnt at sea about 
no miles S.W.S. of Scilly, January 4, 1852. Out of 
160 persons on board, only 59 were saved. 



French subsidised merchant ship 
(1896). Messageries Maritimes (q.v.). Dimensions, 
445 X 50 X 36 ft.; gross tonnage 6,240. Hp. 
7.200= 18 kts. 



U German armoured cruiser. (Krupp, 
1900.) 

Length 328 ft. Beam 39 ft. maximum draught 1 7 ft. 
Displacement 2,650 tons. Complement 249. 
Guns, Armour, 

10 — ^4*1 in. " Krupp." 

14 — X pdr. 2 in. Deck. 

4 Machine. 3 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes, 
2 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 8,5000321 kts. Coal maodmom 
560 tons. 

Ambuiador. Steamer, sunk in collision with 
the George Mansion, an American ship, in lat. 58** 
6'N. long, 73® 27'E. December 25, 1876; 23 lives lost. 

AmbMsadon. See Embassies. 

Amber. A hard resinous vegetable substance, of a 
bright yellow colour, and translucent. It occurs 
chiefly on the southern shores of the Baltic, and 
those of Sicily, where it is thrown up by the sea. 

Ambergris is a solid, fatty, inflammable substance, 
with ruddy marble-like veins running through it — 
probably a biliary secretion — derived from the in- 
testines of the spermaceti whale. It is generally 
found floating in the sea, on the searcoast, or in the 
sand upon the shore. It is usually met with in the 
Atlantic Ocean, on the coasts of Brazil and Mada- 
gascar, China, Japan, and the Molucca Islands, but 
more parttcularly the Bahama Islands. It is exten- 
sively used in the manufacture of perfumery, and its 
price lor such ose varies from 1 5s. to 25s. per oonce. 



Its genuineness is easUy tested by its solubiUty in 
hot alcohol; its fragrant odour and uniform iatty 
consistence, on being penetrated by a hot wire. 

AiwAHa Steamer. When on a voyage from 
London to Liverpool was lost on the Heme Sand, 
February 26, 1841. 



Thompson. Ship lost near Madras, May 



23. 1843. 



amarii^n 0|||^ xhe circumstances which led to the 
offer of the now historic trophy are as follows : 

The America, a schooner yacht of 170 tons, was 
built for a New York S3nQdicate by George Steers, 
much on the lines of an American pilot boat. Her 
nominal owner. Commodore Stevens, brought her to 
Cowes, where, owing to his rather bombastic chal- 
lenges, he was unable to arrange any match for some 
time. Finally, after numerous abortive attempts 
at bringing about a race, the Royal Yacht Squadron 
decided to ofier a silver cup, valued at i ,000 guineas, 
for a race round the Isle of Wight, open to " all the 
world." 

The famous trophy which was won by the A merica 
an August 2a, 185 1, was not, as frequently stated, a 
Queen's Cup. The Royal prize could only be raced 
for by yachts belonging to members of the Royal 
Yacht Squadron, and thus, of course, the visitors 
were not qualified to enter. The America left New 
York on June 21, 185 1, and arrived at Havre on 
July II, the voyage to Havre having been accom> 
plished in twenty days and five hours, which must 
be considered remarkably good tune when it is taken 
into account that she vras becalmed four days. The 
America's average running was about 7^ kts. Her 
best run for twenty-four hours was 284 kts, and her 
worst 33 kts. The dimensions of the America were 
as follows: 94 ft. in length, on deck from stem to 
stem; 83 ft. on the water line; her keel 8 ft. and 
beam 23 ft. amidships. She drew 11 ft. of. water in 
sailing trim, and her measurement was 170 tons. 
Her spars were respectively 79^ ft. and 81 ft. long, 
with a rake of nearly three inches to the foot. Her 
main gaff was 26 ft. long, and her main boom 58 ft. 
She carried a lug foresail, with foregaff of 24 ft. long, 
and the length of her bowsprit was 32 ft. She car- 
ried eight men before the mast, besides the captain, 
first and second mates and carpenter. 

The race for the trophy was sailed on August 22, 
1851, the course being ** round the Isle of Wight, 
inside Norman's buoy and Sandhead buoy, and 
outside the Nab." The following yachts were 
entered; they were anchored in a double line. No 
time allowed lor tonnage: 

Yacht. Rig, Tons, Owners, 

Beatrice schooner 161 Sir W. P. Carew. 
Volante cutter 48 Mr. J. L« Craigie. 
Arrow cutter 84 Mr. T. Chamberlayne. 

Wyvem schooner 205 Duke of Marlborough, 
lone schooner 75 Mr. A. HiU. 



AMERICA 



24 



AMERICAN 



Yacht. Rig, Tons, Owners, 

Constance schooner 218 Marquess of Conyngham 
Titania schooner 100 Mr. R. Stephenson. 

Gipsy Queen schooner 160 Sir H. B. Hogton. 
Alarm cutter 193 Mr. J. Weld. 

Mona cutter 82 Lord A. Paget. 

America schooner 170 Mr. J. C. Stephens, etc. 
Brilliant schooner 392 Mr. J. H. Akers. 

3-mast 
Bacchante schooner 80 Mr. B. H. Jones. 
Freah > cutter 60 Mr. W. Curling. 

Stella cutter 65 Mr. R. Franklin. 

Eclipse cutter 50 Mr. H.S. Fearon. 

Femande schooner 127 Major Martyn. 
Aurora cutter 4 Mr. T. Le Merchant. 

At 9.55 the preparatory gun was £red from the 
club-house battery, and the yachts were soon sheeted 
from deck to topmast with clouds of canvas; high 
gaff top*sails and balloon jibs being greatly in vogue. 
The Titania and the Stella did not start, and the 
Femande did not take her station (the latter was 
twice winner in 1850 and once in 1851). Thus only 
fifteen started, of which seven were schooners, in* 
eluding the Brilliant (three-masted schooner), and 
eight were cutters. At ten o'clock the signal gun 
for sailing was fired, and before the smoke had well 
cleared away the whole of the beautiful fleet was 
under way, moving steadily to the east with the tide 
and a gentle breeze. The Gipsy Queen, with all her 
canvas set and in the strength of the tide, took the 
lead after starting, with the Beatriu next, and then, 
with little difference in order, the Volante, Constance, 
Arrow, and a flock of others. The America went 
easily for some time, and then began to creep up on 
them, passing some of the cutters to windward. In a 
quarter of an hour she had left them all behind, ex- 
cept the Constance, Beatrice and Gipsy Queen, which 
were well together, and went along smartly with the 
light breeze. Off No Man's Land Buoy the yachts 
were timed: 

Yacht. H. M. S, 

Vokmte 11 7 o 

Freah 11 8 20 

Aurora . . 11 8 30 

Gipsy Queen . . . . ..11 8 45 

America . . . . 11 9 o 

Beatrice .. .. .. xi 9 15 

Alarm .. .. ..11 9 20 

Arrow .. .. .. ii 10 o 

Bacchante .. .. .. 11 10 15 

The other six were struggling away in the rear, and 
the Wyvem soon afterwards hauled her wind and 
went back towards Cowes. At this point the wind 
blew somewhat steadily* and the America began to 
show a touch of her quality. 'Whenever the breeze 
took the line of her hull, all her sails set as flat as a 
drumhead, and without any careering or staggering 
she " walked alolng "• past cutter and schooner, and 
when off Brading had left every vessel of die 
squadron behind her-*-a mere ruck— with the ex- 
ception of VolantCt whidi she overtook at 1 1.30. As 



there was no wind the time consumed in getting up 
from Hurst Castle to the winning flag was very con- 
siderable. The America arrived first at 8.37, the 
Aurora at 8.45, the Bacchante at 9.30, the Eclipse at 
9.45, the Brilliant at 1.20. The rest were not timed. 
Thus the America made good all her professions, and 
Messrs. Stephens were presented by the Royal Yacht 
Squadron with the well won cup. 

The winners conveyed it by deed of gift to the 
New York Yacht Club, to be held by that Club 
against all challengers as an international trophy. 
In 1870 and 187 1 Britain challenged with the 
Cambria and Livonia, both of which were defeated. 
Canada challenged in 1875 and 188 1, and met with a 
similar fate. Further British challengers in 1885 and 
1887 were unsuccessful. In 1893 Lord Dunraven 
challenged with Valkyrie I J., but was unable to carry 
off the cup. In 1895 he challenged again, and won 
the first race against the American Defender, The 
second race fell to the Defender, and on this occasion 
Lord Dunraven attributed his defeat to the crowded 
state of the course. In the third race his yacht 
merely crossed the line, in order to give the American 
yacht a start, and then withdrew from the contest. 
No further challengers were forthcoming until 1898, 
when Sir Thomas Lipton challenged, and in the 
following year sent over the Shamrock to compete 
against the American Columbia, The contest took 
place October 1899, outside Sandy Hook, and 
although a series of five races had been arranged, it 
was only necessary to sail three, the Columbia win- 
ning the first by II minutes; fijiishing alone in the 
second, owing to the Shamrock losing her top-mast; 
and the third by six minutes 34 seconds. In 1900 
he again challenged, and a new vessel, the Shamrock 
II., was sent out in the following year, but he was 
again beaten by the Columbia, that vessel winning 
three races consecutively, the first by about 200 
yards, the Second by a little over a minute. In 1903 
he challenged again with Skamrock III., and this time 
sailed against the American Reliance. Although his 
boat showed wonderful qualities in the light and 
fluky airs characteristic of these waters at the season 
in which the races took place, he again failed to win 
a single race. 

Amflrioa Martt. Japanese Government Liner 
(1898). Dimensions, 4^3 x 51 x 29 ft.; gross ton- 
nage 6,307. Hp., 10,000 =17 kts. 

Amerioan and Colonial Weekly. Established 1902. 
Published (Wednesday). Price ^d. • Address: 14 
Coventry Street, W.C, and 38 King William 
Street, E.C. 

American Average Claose. See Clauses. 

AmOTJ^yiyn Line. The International Navigation 
Company, the proprietary organisation firom. which 
this Line was developed, was incorporated in 
Pennsylvania in 1871. In 1873 a fortnightly service 
of steamers was established between Antwerp aa4 



AMERIGO 



25 



AMMIRAGLIO 



Philadelphia, under the Belgian flag, known as the 
Red Star Line, and the American Line was founded 
in 1880, bringing a weekly service between New York 
and Antwerp, this expansion being followed, in 1886, 
by acquiring the Inman Line. In 1893 the Inman 
and International, as the Line was then called, be- 
came the American Line, and their steamers ex- 
changed Liverpool for Southampton as their port of 
call. Weekly New York Mail Lines are run to and 
from Antwerp and Southampton, steamers running 
between Antwerp and New York call at Dover. A 
Line is also maintained between Philadelphia and 
Liverpool, as well as Antwerp. 

Fleet. 
Haverford. Philadelphia, 

Kensington, Si Paul. 

Merion, St Louis. 

. New York. Southwarh. 

Noordland. Westemland, 

Zeeland. 
Gross tonnage, 170,943. 

Amerigo VaspQoei. Old Italian cruiser (188 1). 
Displacement 3,050 tons. Complement 280. 
Guns, Armour. 

6—47 in. " SteeL" 

4 — 6pdr. I ^ in. Deck. 

8 — I pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes. 

2 Above water. 

Hp. 4,000 = 12 kts. Coal 500 tons. 

Amerigo TeiyDOoL See Vespucci Amerigo. 

Amethyst. British 3rd class cruiser. (Elswick, 

1903.) 
Length 360 ft. Beam 40 ft. Mean draught 14 ft. 

Displacement 3,000 tons. Complement 296. 



Armour. 
" Steel." 
2 in. Deck. 



Guns. 
12 — ^4 in. 
8— 3 pdr. 
2 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
2 Above water. 
Twin screw. Turbine. Hp. 9,800 = 2175 kts. 
Coal maximum 500 tons. 
Approximate cost ;^240,ooo. 
This ship-name was introduced into the Navy in 
i793» when the Perle, captured at Toulon, was re- 
named Amethyst; it is also associated with the cap- 
tare of the French Thetis, 1808. 

Amidships. Middle of the ship. 

Amind Anbe. French ist class cruiser. (St. 
Nazaire, 1903.) 

Length 460 ft. Beam 63 ft. Maximum draught 26 ft. 
Displacement 10,000 tons. 
GiifM. . Armour, 

2 — 7 '6 in., 40 cal. " Krupp." 

8 — 6*4 in. 6} in. Belt amidships. 

6—4 in. 8 in. Turrets. 

18 — 3 pdr. 8 in. Conning tower. 

2 — 9 pdr. Boat guns. 



Torpedo Tubes (177 in.). 
2 Submerged. 
2 Above water. 
I Above water (stem). 
Three screws. Hp. 20*500 » 21 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 1 , 590 tons. Approximate cost £%7 5 ,000. 

Amiral Bandin. French 2nd class battleship 
(1883). Reconstructed 1901. 

Length 321 ft. Beam 69 ft. Maximum draught 29 ft. 
Displacement 1 2 , 1 50 tons. Complement 62 5 . 
Guns, Armour. 

2— 14-5 in. " Steel." 

4 — 6*4 in. 16 in. Belt amidships. 

8 — 5*5 in. 16 in. Barbettes. 

18 — 3 pdr. 12 in. Big gun shields. 

Torpedo Tubes (177 in.). 
6 Above water. 

r 

Twin screw. Hp. natural 5,000=14 kts., forced 
9700 = 16 kts. Coal maximum 800 tons. 

Amiral Ohainer. French 2nd class cruiser. 
(Rochefort, 1893.) 
Length 361 ft. Beam 46 ft. Maximum draught 20 ft. 

Displacement 4,750 tons. Complement 370. 
, Guns, Armour. 

2 — 7*6 in., 45 cal. " Creusot steel." 

6 — 5 '5 in. 4 in. Belt amidships. 

6 — 9 pdr. 4 in. Turrets. 

4—3 pdr. 4 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes (177 in.). 
4 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. 8,300= 18-5 kts. Coal normal 
406 tons. Approximate cost ;f3 50,000. 

Amiral &6hociaH. French turret battleship. 
(L'Orient, 1896.) 

Length 293 ft. Beam 58 ft. Draught 24 ft. 
Displacement 6,600 tons. Complement 337. 
Guns. Armour. 

2 — 1 2 in. • "Compound.'* 

8 — 3-9 in. i8 in. Belt. 

10— I '8 in. 18 in. Gun shields. 

Torpedo Tubes, 
4 Above water. 
Hp. 8, 500 =15 kts. Coal maximum 800 tons. 

Ammiraglio di St Bon. Old Italian battleship. 
(Venice, 1897.) 

Length 344 ft. Beam 69 ft. Maximum draught, 26 ft. 
Displacement 9,800 tons. Complement 542. 
Guns. Armour, 

4— -10 in. " Harvey-nickel." 

8 — 6 in. 10 in. Belt amidships. 

8 — ^47 in. 10 in. Barbettes. 

8—6 pdr. 6 in. Conning tower. 

12 — I pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
4 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. natural 9,000 s 16 kts., forced 
13.500=18 kts. Coal Maximum 1,000 tons. 
Approximate cost ^700,000. 



AMOK 



26 



ANCHOR 



Amok. A Malay term, sigBifying slaughter or 
sudden frenzy, which seizes an individual. In the 
Malay States, as well as in India and Burma, as soon 
as a man is known to have " run amok," every effort 
is made to capture him, as until they are slain, or fall 
from exhaustion, any one whom they meet would 
probably be murdered. 

Amphitrite. Ship, with female convicts to 
New South Wales, lost on Boulogne Sands, August 
30, 1833 ; out of 131 persons, only three were saved. 

Amphitrite. British ist class cruiser. (Vickers, 
1898.) 

Length 450 ft. Beam 69 ft. Maximum draught 27 ft. 
Displacement 11,000 tons. Complement 677. 
Guns. Armour. 

16—6 in. " Harvey." 

12 — 12 pdr. 4 in. Belt amidships. 

2 — 12 pdr., 8 cwt. 12 in. Conning tower. 
1 2 — 3 pdr. 
2 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
2 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 18,000 = 20*3 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 2,000 tons. Approximate cost ;£6oo,ooo. 

This ship-name is associated with Hood's occupa- 
tion of Toulon, 1793. 

Amphitrite. U.S. monitor (1883). 
Length 260 ft. Beam 56 ft. Maximum draught 16 ft. 
Displacement 3,990 tons. Complement 160. 
Guns. Armour. 

4 — 10 in. •* Iron." 

2 — 4 in. 9 in. Belt amidships. 

2 — 6 pdr. 12 in. Barbettes. 

2 — 3 pdn 8 in. Conning tower. 

2 — I pdr. 
2 Machine. 
Twin screw. Hp. 1,600=10-5 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 330 tons. 

Amplitude. The horizontal distance or amount of 
deviation towards the North or South of a heavenly 
body, from the true East at rising, to the true West 
at setting. For fixed stars it is constant ; for the sun 
and the planets, it varies with the declination. Its 
measure is an angle intercepted between the prime 
vertical, and the vertical circle passing through the 
object. 

Amsterdam OanaL In 1865 the merchants of 
Amsterdam, realizing that it was imperative they 
should have better communication with the North 
Sea than that afforded by the North Holland Ship 
Canal, formed a company for the purpose of con- 
structing a canal from Amsterdam, in nearly a direct 
line to the North Sea, through the Lake Y and Wyker 
Meer, a distance of 16^ miles. The canal commences 
at a made harbour, which is farmed by two piers, 
built of concrete blocks, founded on a deposit of 
rough basalt, and passes through a broad belt of 
sand-hills, which protect the whole of this part of the 



coast to Holland from the in-roads of the sea, through 
the village of Valsen, and then enters the Wyker 
Meer, a wide track of tide covered land. From ther«, 
through the promontory of Buitenhuizen, which 
separates Wyker Meer from Lake Y; the rest of tiie 
course being through Lake Y as far as Amsterdam. 
There are two sets of locks, one set at each end; the 
North Sea locks at a distance of about three-quarters 
of a mile from the North Sea Harbour, and the 
Zuider Zee locks on the dam between Amsterdam 
and the Zuider Zee. The canal is 16^ miles long, 
107 feet wide on the water surface. 89 feet at the 
bottom, with a minimum depth of 23 feet. The for- 
mation of the banks through the Wyker Meer and 
Lake Y enabled about 12,000 acres, which was for- 
merly occupied by these lakes, to be reclaimed. The 
canal took 10 years to complete, and the contract 
sum for the execution of the work /2, 2 50,000. 

Amsterdam Drydock Company (Amsterdamsche 
Droogdok Maatschappy) was established in 1897. 
They commenced with one floating dock of 4,000 ton 
lifting power, and fitted out a repairing yard, start- 
ing with about 100 men. In 1880 another floating 
dock was purchased, with a lifting capacity of 3,000 
tons, and nine years later a third was added, with a 
lifting capacity of 7,500 tons. They now possess, be- 
sides the three floating drydocks, workshops capable 
of carrying out the biggest repairs to ships, engines 
and boilers, and employ a staff of men, numbering 
about 600. 

Amsterdamsehe Droogdok Maatsohappy. Sm Am- 
sterdam Drydock Company. 

Amnrets. Russian torpedo-boat destroyer (1906). 
Displacement. 625 tons; complement, 100; arma- 
ment, 6 6-pdr. ; 2 tubes. ; Hp., 6,000 = 28 kts. 

AJI. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Nordemey, Germany. 

AJI^. or A. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing 
boats registered at Aberdeen, Scotland. 

Anaklia. Russian torpedo-boat. (Elbing, 1890.) 
Length, 128 ft.; beam, 16. ft.; draught, 7 ft.; dis- 
placement, 130; armament, 2 i-pdr., 2 tubes; 
Hp.» 1,200 22 kts.; coal, 17 tons. 

Anapa. Russian torpedo-boat. (Odessa, 1891.) 
Length, 126 ft.; beam, 13 ft.; draught, 8^ ft.; dis- 
placement, 81 tons; complement, 13; armament, 
2 i-pdr., 2 tubes; Hp., 1,000 = 21 kts. ; coal, 16 tons. 

AnasiosofL Russian torpedo-boat destroyer 
(1906). Length, 185 ft. ; beam, 21 ft. ; draught, 7 ft. ; 
displacement, 324 tons; complement, 60; arma- 
ment, I i2-pdr., 5 3-pdr.; 2 tubes; twin screw; 
Hp., 5,600 — 26 kts. ; coal maximum, 100 tons. 

Anohge. Anchorage. Abbreviation adopted on the 
Charts issued by the Hydrographic Ofl&ce, Admiralty. 

Anohor. A large and heavy instrument in use 
from the earliest times, by which ships hold fast to 



ANCHORAGE 



27 



ANDREiE 



the bottom of the sea. A common form consists of a 
long iron shank, having at one end a ring to which the 
cable is attached^ and the other branching out into 
two arms, with flukes or palms at their bill or ex- 
tremity. The number of anchors carried by a ship 
vary, according to her size. There are many patent 
anchors, some of which have movable, instead of 
rigid arms; others are stockless, so constructed that 
they can be drawn right into the hawse hole of a ship. 
All large ships carry several anchors. A fiist-class 
battleship usually has eight anchors. Anchors of 
various forms are used for keeping buoys and moor- 
ings in position. For this work the screw and the 
mushroom anchor are usuaUy employed. 

Anchorage. Ground which is suitable for ships to 
ride in safety upon. 

Anchor Ice (or Ground Ice) forms at the bottom 
of rivers, and is common in the Baltic Sea and off the 
coast of Labrador. It is formed of congealed water, 
retarded in the bed of the river, or on the sea bottom, 
by the current being too great for the formation of 
ice on the surface. In the Labrador fishing grounds 
it forms at a considerable depth. Seals caught in the 
line at this depth have been brought up solidly 
frozen. Iron chains and anchors have at times been 
found floating in anchor or ground ice. 

Anchor Line» was established in 1852, by Messrs. 
Handyside and Henderson (now Henderson Bros.), 
with a service from the Clyde to Portuguese and 
Spanish ports extending later to Mediterranean 
ports. In 1856 they started a trade between 
Glasgow and New York, and the Mediterranean and 
New York, and now maintain, in addition, a service 
between the United Kingdom, Bombay and Calcutta 
and the chief Mediterranean ports, which has been 
vigorously pushed with fine steamers, increasing in 
size, in cargo carrying capacity, and in speed with 
the development of the trade. 

Fleet. 
Algeria, Britannia, Fumessia, 

Arabia, Calabria. Italia, 

Asia. Caledonia. Massilia, 

Assyria, California, Nubia, 

Astoria. Castalia, Olumpia, 

Aitstralia. Circassia, Persia, 

Bavaria. Columbia, Parugia, 

Bohemia, Dalmatia. Scinda. 

Ethiopia. 
Gross tonnage 1 30,000. 

Anchor Sailing dnb, Deal. Established 1892. 
Burgee: Blue, with yellow foul anchor. Commodore, 
Richard Lyddon; Vice-Commodore, T. T. Denne; 
Honorary Treasurer, F. T. Honeyball; Honorary 
Secretary, John Sparke. Annual subscription, los. 6d, 

Andent Mariner. Poem by Samuel Taylor Cole- 
ridge. The suggestion of shooting the albatross 
came from Wordsworth. It was published in 
" Lyrical Ballads " (1798). 

Andereon, Charlei WiUiam, jon. (b. January 18, 
1872). Served his apprenticeship with Messrs Craig, 



Taylor and Co., Stockton-on-Tees, and was in 
1900 appointed chief draughtsman to that firm. 
Member of the North-East Coast Institution of En- 
gineers and Shipbuilders. 

Anderson, Thomas James (b. August 8, 1864). 
Marine Engineer. Served apprenticeship with the 
Blaydon Iron Works Co., and Messrs. R. and W. 
Hawthorn and Co., Newcastle-on-Tyne. Holds B.T. 
certificate for Marine Engineering. Appointed Ship 
and Engineer Surveyor to Lloyd's Register of Ship- 
ping, 1889. 

Andoe, Vic^Admiral Sir ffilary ChutaFos, K.C.B. 
(cr. 1902), C.B. (b. February 14, 1841). Edu- 
cated University College School. Entered Navy 
1855 as Naval Cadet; promoted Lieutenant 1861 ; 
Commander 1872; Captain 1878; and Rear- Admiral 
1894. Was principal Naval Transport officer during 
Boer War (1881). During the first Soudan expedi- 
tion was Flag-Cap tain to Lord John Hay, Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the Fleet. In 1895 was ap- 
pointed Admiral-Superintendent of Chatham Dock- 
yard, and in 1900 promoted Vice- Admiral, ^d re- 
tired. Has been decorated with Japan medal and 
star, Soudan clasp. Queen's Jubilee medal and Royal 
Humane Society's medal. 

^"fl^ft Brazilian cruiser. (Bergen, 1S92.) 
Length 252 ft. Beam 34 ft. Draught 18 ft. 
Displacement 2,560 tons. Complement 300. 

Guns, 

2 — ^47 in. 

2 — 14 pdr. 

6 — 6 pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes, 

5 Above water. 

Hp. 3,600=: 17 kts. Coal maximum 600 tons. 

Andrea Doria* Italian battleship (1885). 
Length 328 ft. Beam 65 ft. Maximum draught 30 ft. 
Displacement 1 1,200 tons. Complement 526. 
Guns. Armour. 

4 — 17 in. " Compound." 

2 — 6 in. 18 in. Belt amidships. 

4 — 4'7 in. 18 in. Redoubt. 

2 — 12 pdr. 18 in. Conning tower. 

10—6 pdr. 
17 — 1 pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
2 Submerged. 
I Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. natural 7,500= 15 kts., forced 
10,000= i6'5 kts. Coal normal 850 tons. 
Approximate cost ;f 780,000. 

AndresB, Bhidker Johan Hetnrik (b. Leenwarden, 
Holland, March 30, 1847). Danish Naval Architect, 
Royal Danish Navy, R.N.L. Entered Navy as Mid- 
shipman in 1862, serving with distinction till 1880, 
when he retired from active sea life, and was ap- 
pointed to the Steamship Department of the Admi- 
ralty, of which he was promoted chief in 1884. In 



ANDREE 



28 



ANEROID 



1865 ^® introduced the vertical triple-compound 
engine in the Dutch Navy, and in 1894 the Yarrow 
Water Tube Boiler on a large scale. Member of the 
Institution of Naval Architects. 

Publications: Bijdrage Tot de Kennis van de 
Topedo's of Watermijney 1872; numerous papers 
published in the Transactions of the Institution of 
Naval Architects. 

Andrte, Solomon Angiut (1854-97). Swedish 
Aeronaut and Explorer, (b. Grenna.) After making 
several balloon journeys he decided to attempt to 
reach the North Pole in a balloon of novel design,and 
started July 11, 1897, froni Danes Island (Spitz- 
bergen) with two companions* Strindberg and 
Fraenkel, in a balloon of 5,000 cubic meters, with the 
hope of being drifted by the wind over the Pole. 
One carrier pigeon, apparently liberated 48 hours 
after the start, was shot, and several buoys were 
found which had been carried in the balloon, con- 
taining despatches dated July 11, but nothing fur- 
ther has been heard of the explorers, of whose fate 
there can be no doubt. 

Andrei Pervoswanni. Russian ist class battle- 
ship. (St. Petersburg, 1906.) 

Length 460 ft. Beam 80 ft. Mean draught 27 ft. 
Displacement 17,400 tons. 
Guns. Armour. 

4 — 12 in., 40 cal. " Krupp." 

12 — 8 in., 1 1 in. Belt amidships. 

20 — 12 pdr. 12 in. Turrets. 

20 — 3 pdr. 12 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
2 Submerged. 
2 Above water, 
bow and stem. 
Twin screw. Hp. 17,600= 18 kts. Coal maximum 
3 ,000 tons. Approximate cost £ i , 500,000. 

Andromache. See Antarctic Exploration. 

Andromeda. 28 guns. In October 1780, this 
vessel was lost in a storm in the West Indies. 

Andromeda. British ist class cruiser. (Pem- 
broke, 1897.) 

Length 450 ft. Beam 69 ft. Maximum draught 27 ft. 
Displacement 11,000 tons. Complement 677. 
Guns. Armour. 

16—6 in. " Harvey." 

12 — 12 pdr. 4 in. Belt amidships. 

2 — 12 pdr., 8 cwt. 12 in. Conning tower. 
12 — 3 pdr. 
2 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
2 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 16,500 = 20*25 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 2,000 tons. 

Approximate cost ;£6oo,ooo. 
This ship-name is associated with Rodney's action 
against De Guichen, 1780; Keppel's action off Brest, 

1778. 



Anemo-CIinograph. An instrument for recording 
the angular deviations of wind movement from a 
horizontal path, or from one parallel to the surface of 
the ground. 

Anemogram. The trace marked on paper by an 
anemograph. 

Anemograph. A self-recording anemometer. 

Anemometer. An instrument for measuring and 
indicating the pressure or velocity of the wind. If 
currents of air were anything like uniform it would 
be comparatively simple to deduce the velocity from 
the pressure, but the variability is so great that the 
relation between the velocity and the pressure be- 
come almost unworkably complexed. There are 
two things absolutely essential to every anemometer, 
(i) A wind-vane, to show the changes of direction; 
(2) a w^ld-gauge, to show the changes in the velocity 
or of force. Anemometers may be either non-record- 
ing, as merely exhibiting the variation to the eye, or 
recording, marking them permanently on paper. 
The best known form is the Hermispherical Cup 
Anemometer, invented by Dr Robinson, which con- 
sists of four hermispherical cups which rotate hori- 
zontally with the wind, and a combination of wheels 
which record the number of revolutions in a given 
time. The Osier's Anemometer, one of the most 
trustworthy of the pressure-gauge description, traces 
with pencils, upon a sheet of paper, lines which indi- 
cate changes of the wind both in direction and in 
pressure. It consists of a plate usually about a 
square foot in area, which is kept facing the wind, 
and is by it driven back upon springs, whose resis- 
tance is the measure of the. wind's force. The Royal 
Meteorological Society appointed a committee to 
consider the subject of wind -force ; and an Anemo- 
meter, invented by W. H. Dines, has superseded its 
predecessors. Anemometry forms a most important 
feature in meteorological observations, and many im- 
portant and rem£u:kable results have appeared since 
the invention of the self-recording apparatus. 

Anemoscope. An instrument for recording the 
direction of the wind. 

Aneroid (Or. non Liquid). Barometer invented by 
Vidi, Paris, 1843 (patented in England, 1844), con- 
sists of a metal box from which the air is exhausted, 
and a steel spring in the form of a double leaf. Its 
action depends on the effect produced by the pres- 
sure of the atmosphere on a circular metallic cham- 
ber, partially exhausted of air and hermetically 
sealed. The dial is graduated by comparison with a 
mercurial barometer, both instruments being placed 
under an air pump for the purpose. The vacuum 
chamber is made of two discs of corrugated German 
silver, soldered together, to which is attached a strong 
spring, which acts in opposition to the motion of the 
box. At the centre of the upper surface of the ex- 
hausted chamber, a lever of brass or iron is attached. 
The end of the lever is attached to a second or 



ANEROIDOGRAPH 



29 



ANNAM 



smaller lever, from which a chain extends to where 
it works on a drum attached to the axis of the hand, 
connected with a hair spring, regulating and chang- 
ing the motion from vertical to horizontal, and re- 
gulating the hand. The spiral spring keeps the 
chain free from slackness while the pressure is 
diminishing, and when the pressure increases the 
lever pulls down the chain. As these instruments 
are graduated experimentally, and being liable to 
changes from elasticity of the brass chamber chang- 
ing, or from changes in the S3^stem of levers which 
work the pointer, rusting, or alteration in the force 
of the springs, they require to be repeatedly com- 
pared with a mercurial barometer. 

See Whymper " How to use the Aneroid Barome- 
ter " (1891). 

Anflroidogiaph. A self-recording aneroid baro- 
meter. 

Aagamos, Battle ol Naval fight off Angamos Point 
(Chile), October 8, 1879, between Peruvian ironclad 
Huascar and Chilian ironclads Blanco Encalada and 
Almarante Cochrane, assisted by corvette Covadonga; 
after a battle of about one hour and a half the 
Peruvians were forced to surrender. 

Angel Fish. Species of shark found in both the 
East and West Hemispheres. It reaches a length of 
five feet, and is viviparous. 

Angler, Lieut Sir Theodore Vivian SamueL K.T. 

1904 (b. London, 1845). Educated Rossal School, 
Lancashire; King's College, London. Apprenticed in 
1861 to Messrs. Davison, Son and Lindley, where he 
served his time. After a trip through Southern 
Europe he returned to London, and joined tlie firm 
of Messrs. S. H. Angier and Co. In 1869, owing 
to the death of his father, he was compelled to 
embark in business on his own account, and started 
the firm of Messrs. Angier Brothers, of which he is the 
head. Held a Commission in the Duke of Cambridge's 
Hussars (Middlesex Yeomanry). Director of several 
Insurance Associations; Vice-Chairman in 1883 and 
Chairman in 1884 of the General Shipping Owner's 
Society; Vice-President of Chamber of Shipping 
1884; President 1885 ; Fellow of the Royal Statistical 
Society; served on the Load Line Committee 1898; 
served on Lloyd's Register Committee 1884-1889; 
contested Orkney Thelland as Unionist Candidate in 
X902 ; Member of the original committee of the Tariff 
Reform League; Vice-President of Brighton and 
Hove Tariff Reform League. Travelled extensively 
over India, Ceylon, Australia, United States and 
Canada. 

Ansle-Iroo. Strips of iron, having edges turned 
up at an angle to each other, used for ribs and knees, 
in framing iron vessels. 

Aa^er. British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Chis- 
wick, 1898.) Length, 210 ft. ; beam, 19 ft. ; draught, 
7 ft. ; displacement, 278 tons ; complement, 60; arma- 
ment, I i2-pdr., 5 6-pdr.; 2 tubes; twin screw; 
Hp., 5,800= 30 kts. ; coal. 80 tons. 



Angler^Flah. A fish called also Sea Devil, Frog, or 
Frog Fish, and in Scotland, Wide-gab, signifying 
wide mouth. It has an enormous head, on which are 
placed two elongated appendages, or filaments, 
which, being movable, are manoeuvred as if they 
were bait, and when small fishes approach to ex- 
amine them the Angler, hidden amid mud and sand, 
which it has stirred up by means of its ventral fins, 
seizes them. It occurs along the British coasts, and 
averages about three feet in length, but occasionally 
specimens are taken measurhig as much as five feet. 



Angler's Hewg and Sea Fisher's JonmaL Estab- 
lished 1900. Published weekly (Saturday). Price 
id. Address: 4 and 5 Gough Square, London, B.C. 

Anglesey Taoht Clab, Royal. See Royal Anglesey 
Yacht Club. 

Anglia. Anchor Line steamer, capsized in 
river Hoogly, August 24, 1892; 12 lives lost. 

Angling, In modem English the practice of catch- 
ing fish by means of a rod, line, hook and bait. The 
hook is rendered attractive to the fish by concealing 
it in a natural bait, or attaching to it a deceptive imi- 
tation of a fly. Among the best-known works on 
Angling may be mentioned Frances' book on 
"Angling," 1885; Maxwell's "Salmon and Sea 
Trout," 1889; Duer's book on "The Dry Fly," 
1897; Hardy's " The Salmon," 1893; " Fly Fishing," 
Sir E. Grey, 1899. 

Anglo-Algerian Steamship Company, with which is 
incorporated the Anglo-Arabian and Persian Line, 
managed by Messrs. Frank C. S trick and Co., Ltd., 
London, incorporated in 1896; have a fleet of 
16 modem steamers engaged in cargo carrjnng to 
various parts of the world. 

Fleet. 

Afghanistan Bardistan Nijaristan 

Arabistan Gorjistan Serbistan 

Armanistan Gulistan Shahristan 

Avristan Koordistan Tabaristan 

Baluchistan Luristan Turhistan 

Muristan 

Anglo-Saxon. Mail steamer, wrecked on a reef 
off Cape Race, Newfoundland, April 27, 1863; 237 
lives lost. 

Angoille. French submarine. (Toulon, 1903.) 
Length, yy ft. ; beam, 7^ ft. ; draught, 8 ft. ; displace- 
ment, 68 tons; complement, 5 ; Hp., 60 = 8 kts. 

Angnlfir Measore. See Weights and Measures. 

Anjon* Lieatenani See Arctic Exploration. 

Anker. An obsolete liquid measure of 8*29x4 gal- 
lons. The Scots anker contained 20 Scots pints. 
The measure is still in use in Denmark, Russia and 
Germany. 

Amiftm, French subsidised merchant ship 
(1898). Messageries Maritimes (g.v.). Dimensions, 



ANNAPOLIS 



30 



ANTARCTIC 



445 X 50 X 36 ft.; gross tonnage, 6,364; Hp.. 7.200 
= 18 kts. 

Annapolis. U.S. gun-boat. (Elizabeth Port, 1897.) 
Length 168 ft. Beam 36 ft. Maximum draught 12 J ft. 
Displacement 1,000 tons. Complement 135. 

Guns. 
6 — 4 in. 
4 — 6 pdr. 
2 — I pdr. 
Hp. 1,250= 13 kts. .Coal maximum 225 tons. 

Annie Jane. An emigrant ship, driven on shore 
at Barra Islands on the West Coast of Scotland. 
September 29, 1853; 348 lives were lost. 

Annovaszi, CKiueppe, Rear-Admiral. Italian Navy 
(b. 1846). Entered Navy 1865; Director of Naval 
Ordnance and Torpedoes 1898- 1900; Second -in- 
Command of the Italian Squadron 1903 ; President of 
the Permanent Commission for Ordnance Experi- 
menting, 1904-05. 

Anodon. See Mussel. 

Anson. 44 guns. On December 29, 1S07, this 
vessel was wrecked in Mount's Bay, when 60 lives 
were lost. 

Anson. British 2nd class battleship. (Pembroke, 
1886.) 

Length 330 ft. Beam 68 ft. Maximum draught 27 ft. 
Displacement 10,600 tons. Complement 515. 
Guns. Armour. 

4 — 1 3 • 5 in. " Compound. " 

6 — 6 in. 18 in. Belt amidships. 

12—6 pdr. 12 in. Barbettes. 

10 — 3 pdr. 12 in. Conning tower. 

Twin screw. Hp. 11,500= 16-25 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 1 .200 tons. Approximate cost ;£8oo,ooo. 

This ship-name is associated with Rodney's vic- 
tory, 1782; destruction of the Calliope, 1797; cap- 
ture of the Daphne, 1797; Warren's action. 1798; 
capture of the Bomona, 1806; and the Curacao, 1807. 

Anon, Captain Charles Eustace, B.N.. M.V.O. 

1901 (b. 1859). Entered Navy 1872; promoted - 
Lieutenant 1882, and served in Egypt (medal and 
clasp; bronze star) ; Commander 1894; Captain 1901. 
and appointed to command H.M. yacht Osborne. 

Anson, George Lord, British Admiral (b. Shuck- 
borough Manor, Staffordshire, April 22, 1697). 
Entered Navy at the age of 15, and at the early age 
of 21 was promoted to command of the Weasel 
sloop, and by 1724 to the command of the man-of- 
war Scarborough. From 1724 to 1735 he made three 
expeditions to South Carolina against the Spaniards. 
I^ 1739. on the outbreak of tlie Spanish war, he was 
given command of a squadron of eight vessels, 
equipped to annoy the Spaniards in the South Seas. 
He sailed in September 1740. and, although losing 
most of his men, with only one remaining ship, the 



Centurion, he captured a rich galleon on her passage 
to Manila, and returned to England 1743 laden with 
booty, and was appointed Rear- Admiral of the Blue. 
In 1745 he was made Rear-Admiral of the White, 
In 1747 as Vice- Admiral, he intercepted off Cape 
Finisterre, a powerful French fleet, which he utterly 
defeated, taking six men-of-war and four East 
Indiamen. In recognition of liis signal services he 
was raised to the peerage. In 1757 he became first 
Lord of the Admiralty, and four years later Admiral 
of the Fleet, which rank he held until his death. 
June 6, 1762, 

Ant. British 3rd class gun-boat (254 tons). 
Launched 1873. 

Antarctic. Ship. See Antarctic Exploration. 

Antarctic. Opposed to Arctic; the Antarctic Circle 
or Zone which it encloses. 

Antarctic Circle. A small circle of the earth de- 
scribed around the Southern Pole, at a distance from 
it of 23** 28'. Sometimes, however, the term is 
more loosely applied to the South Polar regions in 
general. 

Antarctic Ezploratioa. The first ship to approach 
the Antarctic circle was one of a fleet under Jacob 
Mahu, which sailed from Rotterdam, June 1598. 
The vessel, a yacht of 150 tons, named the Good 
News, was commanded by Dirk Gerritz, and he is 
credited with having discovered the South Shet- 
lands. In 1772 a Frenchman named Yves J. 
Kerguelen, discovered the island which bears his 
name, in 48° 41' S. ; this island is now usually used as 
a base for Antarctic exploration. The first voyage of 
importance to the southern seas was that of Captain 
Cook, who in January 1773, sailed southwards from 
the Cape of Good Hope in the Resolution. On Janu- 
ary 17 the Antarctic circle was crossed for the first 
time in long. 39* 35' E. In December of that year 
he made another attempt to discover the supposed 
southern Continent, and again crossed the Antarctic 
circle in 147® 46' W.. and on January 29, 1774, 
reached 70** 23' S. Captain Bristow, in 1806, dis- 
covered Auckland Island and Hazleburgh, and four 
years later Campbell Island. In 18 18 Mr. William 
Smith came across the land known as South Shet- 
land, which was subsequently confirmed by Mr. 
Bransfield, the Captain of H.M.S. Andromache, who 
discovered another portion, which was named Brans- 
field's Land. The South Orkneys were discovered 
by Captain George Powell in the sloop Dove 182 1. 
and in the following year James Weddell, R.N., of 
the sailing vessel Jane, attained the lat. of 74** 15' S. 
In 1830 an expedition under the command of Mr. 
John Biscoe, R.N., sighted land in long. 47** 20' E.. 
and lat. 65° 57' S., which he named Enderby Land, 
subsequently discovering Biscoe Island, the land 
now known as Graham Land. In 1839 the French 
expedition, under Dumont d'Urville. disco v^ed 
Joinville Land and Louis Phillippe Land, and two 



ANTARCTIC 



31 



ANTARCTIC 



small islands on the Antarctic circle named Terre 
Ad^lie and Cote Clarie. The finest expedition that 
has ever explored the south polar seas, was the 
English Antarctic Expedition which left England in 
1839, and Hobart, December 1840. This expedition 
was under the command of Captain (afterwards Sir) 
James Clarke Ross, who was accompanied by Dr. 
(afterwards Sir) Joseph Hooker. Two old bomb 
vessels were fitted out, the Erebus and Terror, and 
sailed from Chatham in September 1839, proceeding 
to the Cape, and thence southward to Kerguelen 
Island. Possession islands were discovered, and a 
landing a£fected on one of the largest, and the coast 
line of Victoria Land was traced from Cape North to 
Cape Crozier, a distance of about 570 miles. Several 
sununits and mountain ranges were named, including 
a volcano, Erebus, 12,400 ft. The south magnetic 
pole was calculated to be in 76" S. and 145*' 20' E., 
about 500 miles south-west of the ship's position. 
The whole of the great southern land discovered on 
this voyage was named Victoria Land. In Novem- 
ber 1841 a second voyage was undertaken, and the 
Arctic circle was crossed on New Year's Day 1842. 
After navigating through a belt of ice 800 miles 
broad, a clear sea was sighted February i, 1842, and 
the voyage continued to the southward in 1 74** 31' W. 
On February 23 the expedition attained a lat. of 
78® 1 1' S., the highest ever reached at that time. In 
December of the following year the expedition sailed 
on the third visit, and the land named after Prince 
d'Joinville by Dumont d'Urville, and the southern 
side of the South Shetlands was discovered and sur- 
veyed. In 1845 Lieutenant Moore, in command of a 
merchant barque, the Pagoda, continued the work 
which Ross had so ably started, and completed the 
magnetic observations south of the 60th parallel, 
between the meridians of the Cape and Australia. In 
1873 the Challenger expedition (q.v.), under the com- 
mand of Captain Nares, sailed from England, arriving 
at Kerguelen Island on January 6, 1874, where sur- 
veys were made, and the islands including those 
named Heard and Macdonald, which had been dis- 
covered in November 1853, by Captain Heard, of the 
American ship Oriental, thoroughly examined by the 
naturalists of the expedition. Several deep sea 
soundings were taken, the greatest depth being 
1,975 fathoms. The first winter passed by man 
within the Antarctic circle was that of 1898, when 
the Belgica, under Captain de Gerlache, was beset by 
ice in lat. 71° 31' S., and long. 85** 16' W. 

The German Antarctic Expedition in the Gauss 
(1901-03), discovered new land south of 6i** 58' S.S. 
and 95° 8' E., which was named Kaiser Wilhelm II. 
land, and also discovered an inactive volcano, which 
was named Gaussberg. 

A Swedish Expedition in the Antarctic left Europe 
in 1 90 1, the vessel was lost two years later, but the 
party were rescued. The Scottish National Antarc- 
tic Expedition in the Scotia (1902-04), confined its 
work to the Weddell Sea. Four thousand miles of 
ocean, from 17** 45' W. long, to 70° 25' S. lat. was 



explored, and after wintering in the South Orkneys, 
they reached, in^ their second se£ison, the south- 
eastern extremity of Weddell Sea, discovering a 
great barrier of inland ice, which is believed to be 
part of the Antarctic Continent, and which was 
found to be 600 miles north of its supposed position. 

Among the most important exx>editions recently 
at work in the Antarctic regions, must be mentioned 
the British National Antarctic Expedition, in the 
Discovery (1902-04). The Ross barrier was followed 
for a considerable distance to the east, and the coast 
discovered named Edward VII. land. Subsequently 
it was discovered that Mount Erebus and Terror are 
on an island, and that Murdo Bay is really a Strait. 
Connected with this expedition were Captain R. F. 
Scott and Lieutenant Shackleton, who on January i, 
1903, sledged southward along the coast of Victoria 
Land, and carried the British fiag to 82° 17' S., the 
highest southern lat. ever attained. 

S$8 "Antarctic Manual," Murray, 1901; Mur- 
doch's ** From Edinburgh to the Antarctic," 1894; 
Bull's "Cruise of the Antarctic," 1896; Borchgre- 
vink's "First on the Antarctic Continent," 1901; 
Bemacchi's "To the South Polar Regions," 1901; 
"Southern Cross Collections" (Nat. Hist.), 1903; 
Nordenskojld's " Antarctica," 1905. 

Aniarotto Ooean. A name that should, strictly 
speaking, be appUed only to the ice-bound sea to the 
south of the Antarctic circle; but generally applied 
to the great water division of the globe round the 
South Pole. As compared with the Arctic Ocean, 
little is known about this portion of the earth's sur- 
face. There is good reason to believe, however, that 
the Antarctic consists of a central mass of land 
covered with a thick and presuidably unbroken ice 
cap. The depth varies considerably, and percepti- 
bly decreases as the edge of the ice-barrier is ap- 
proached. East of Victoria Land the depth varies 
from 100 to 800 fathoms; east of South Shetland 
Isles 100 to 500 fathoms; west of Graham's Land 
200 to 300 fathoms ; between Patagonia and Kergue- 
len Isle from 2,000 to 3,000 fathoms. Records of the 
Challenger expedition proved that deep-sea sound- 
ings were taken at a depth of 1,975 fathoms. To the 
S.W. of South Georgia, Sir James Clark Ross records 
having sounded a depth of 4,000 fathoms, without 
finding bottom. The temperature of the Antarctic 
is slightly colder than that of the Arctic, and varies 
considerably. Observations made by the German 
Deep-Sea Expedition in the Valdivia in 1898-99, give 
a surface temperature down to 50 fathoms of 29° to 
30* F,; at 165 fathoms 35** F.; below 800 fathoms it 
sinks to 31^. According to the observations of the 
Challenger expedition the temperature of the surface 
water was between 29° and 38°, according to the 
latitude, with the bottom temperature from 32® to 

35°. 

Antaroiio Pole. The Southern Pole, whether of the 
earth or of the heavens. 



ANTARCTIC 



32 



APPARENTLY 



Antarctic Tropic. The tropic of Capricorn. 

Antaret. A star of the first magnitude, commonly 
called the Scorpion's Heart; it is one of the nautical 
stars, and used for determining the latitude and 
longitude. 

Antemiariiu. A genus of spiny-finned fishes akin 
to the Fishing Frogs. The Walking-fish, a native of 
the Indian seas, is an exceedingly grotesque-looking 
animal. 

Anthelion. Coloured rings seen round the shadow 
of an observer, projected on to a cloud or fog l3dng 
below him. Also called " Glory." 

Anfhozoa. See Actinozoa. 

Anthracite (or Stone Coal) is a variety of coal, 
differing from the common bituminons kind by its 
great hardness, the large proportion of carbon in its 
composition, and the great heat given out in burn- 
ing. While ordinary coal has a dull lustre, anthra- 
cite is brilliant, and is frequently iridescent on the 
natural surface. It does not soil the fingers when 
handled like ordinary coal; ignites with difficulty; 
bums with a feeble smokeless flame, giving out an 
intense heat, and is the best steam coal known. 
Anthracite has been defined as the ultimate product 
of the conversion of vegetable matter into coal. 
The chief deposits in Great Britain exist in the great 
coal-fields of South Wales, while the greatest fields at 
present worked are those of Pennsylvania. It is also 
found in Selesia, Westphalia, France, Russia, West 
Canada, and the Rocky Mountains. It has been 
estimated by Richthofen that the anthracite de- 
posits in the Chinese province of Shansi, amount to 
630,000,000,000 tdhs. See Robert's Anthracite 
Coal Industry (1902). 

Anthropophagi. See Cannibalism. 

Anticyclone. An area of relatively high barometric 
[)ressure increasing towards the centre, in which the 
wind blows spirally outwards, and in the northern 
hemisphere, in the direction of the movement of the 
hands of a watch. 

Anti-Ihcmftatoan. See Boiler Composition. 

Antipatharia (or Black Corals). A group of Acti- 
nozoa (q.v.) with homy skeleton. 

Antipodes. The name given to those inhabitants 
of the earth's surface who are diametrically opposite 
to each other, t.f., feet to feet. From the people the 
term has passed to the places themselves, which are 
situated at the two extremities of any diameter of the 
earth. 

Anti-Trades. Winds in the upper air blowing in a 
contrary direction to that of the trade wind {q.v.) of 
the lower level. The direction of the anti-trade 
winds is usually from the S.W., but in the southern 
hemisphere, they blow from the N.W 



Antrim. British ist class cruiser. (Clydebank, 

1903.) 

Length 450 ft. Beam 68 ft. Maximum draught 25 ft. 
Displacement i o, 700 tons. Complement 655. 



tt 



Armour, 
Krupp." 
6 in. Belt amidships. 
6 in. Barbettes. 
12 in. Conning tower. 



Guns. 
4—7-5 in. 
6 — 6 in. 
2 — 12 pdr. 
22 — 3 pdr. 
2 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
2 Submerged. 

Twin screw. Hp. 2i,ooo = 32|^ kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 1 ,800 tons. Approximate cost ;^8 50,000. 

Anvers, Taiflit Olnb D\ See Yacht Club d' An- 
vers. 

Aoataka. Japanese torpedo-boat. (Kure» 1903.) 
Length, 147 ft.; beam, 16 ft.; draught, 8 ft.; dis- 
placement. 150 tons; complement, 26; armament, 
I 6-pdr., 2 3-pdr.; 2 tubes; Hp., 4,200=30 kts.; 
coal 30 tons. 

Apcar Line, with the head offices in Calcutta, was 
founded by Messrs. A. Apcar and Co., for the purpose 
of trading between Calcutta, the Straits Settlements 
and Hong Kong, maintain a fortnightly service be- 
tween Calcutta and Hong Kong. They carry pas- 
sengers as well as cargo, and are known as the 
Opium Boats, on account of their being used by 
the Indian Government for conveying opium to 
China. 

Fleet. 

A ratoon A pear. Catharine A pear. G regory A pear. 

Lightning. 
Gross tonnage, 14,000. 

Apeak or Apeek. A ship drawn directly over the 
anchor is said to be apeak. The anchor is apeak 
when the cable has been sufficiently hove in to bring 
the ship over it. 

Aphetion. That point in the orbit of a planet at its 
greatest distance from the sun. 

Apogee. That point in its orbit when the moon is 
furthest from the earth. The distance being about 
253,000 miles. 

Apollo. Frigate, wrecked on the coast of Portu- 
gal* April I, 1804. 

Apoplexy, Unconsdoiunees frooL See Appar- 
ently Dead, Methods of Restoring the. 

Apparenfly Dead* Method ol Bestoring the. The 

art of resuscitating the apparently dead does not 
appear to have been known to the ancients, and 
although some few instances of recovery from 
drowning and hanging occurred on the Continent 
and at Oxford about the year 1650, it was not until 



APPARENTLY 



33 



APPORTIONMENT 



the middle of the eighteenth century that any 
serious investigation on this subject took place. At 
this time the eminent Dr. J. Fothergill, in a paper 
to the Royal Society, propounded the most im- 
portant theory of the " possibility of saving many 
lives without risking anything," and this theory 
having been put in practice by M. Reaumer, an in- 
genious foreigner, several successful attempts at 
resuscitation were recorded in Switzerland, and a 
society for the recovery of the apparently drowned 
was established in Amsterdam. In the year 1773 
the records of this society Jell into the hands of the 
late Dr. Hawes, who, in association with Dr. Cogan 
and several other gentlemen, founded what is 
known as the Royal Humane Society (q.v.), 

li from drowning, suffocation, or narcotic poison- 
ing, the points to be aimed at are — first and imf9tedi' 
alely, the restoration of breathing ; and, secondly, 
after breathing is restored, the promotion of warmth 
and circulation. 

Dr. H. R. Silvester's Method of Restoring Natural 

Breathing. 

Rule I. To adjust the patient's position. 

Place the patient on his back on a flat surface, 
inclined a little from the feet upwards ; raise and 
support the head and shoulders on a small firm 
cushion or folded article of dress placed under the 
shoulder-blades. Remove all tight clothing about 
the neck and chest. 

Rule 2. To maintain a free entrance of air into 
the windpipe. Cleanse the mouth and nostrils ; 
open the mouth ; draw forward the patient's tongue, 
and keep it forward ; an elastic band over ±he 
tongue and under the chin will answer this purpose. 

Rule 3. To imitate the movements of breathing. 

Firstly. Induce inspiration. Place yourself at 
the head of the patient, grasp his arms, raise them 
upwards by the sides of his head, stretch them 
steadily but gently upwards, for two seconds. (By 
this means fresh air is drawn into the lungs by 
raising the ribs.) 

Secondly. Induce expiration. Immediately turn 
down the patient's arms, and press them — or your 
own hands — gently against the sides of his chest, 
for two seconds. (By this means foul air is ex- 
pelled from the lungs by depressing the ribs.) 
Repeat these measures alternately, deliberately, and 
perseveringly, fifteen times in a minute, until a 
spontaneous effort to respire be perceived. (By 
these means an exchange of air is produced in the 
lungs similar to that effected by natural respiration.) 

Rule 4. To excite respiration. 

During the emploj'ment of the above method 
excite the nostrils with snuff, or smelling-salts, or 
tickle the throat with a feather. Rub the chest and 
face briskly, and dash cold and hot water alternately 
on them. Friction of the limbs and body with dry 
flannel or cloths should be had recourse to. When 
there is proof of returning respiration, the individual 
may be placed in a warm bath, the movements of 



the arms above described being continued until re- 
spiration is fully restored. Raise the body in 
twenty seconds to a sitting position, dash cold water 
against the chest and face, and pass ammonia under 
the nose. Should a galvanic apparatus be at hand, ap- 
ply the sponges to the region of diaphragm and heart. 
Treatment after Natural Breathing has beevi Restored. 

To induce circulation and warmth. Wrap the 
patient in dry blankets, and rub the Umbs upwards 
energetically. Promote the warmth of the body by 
hot flannels, botties or bladders of hot water, heated 
bricks, to the pit of the stomach, the armpits, and 
to the soles of the feet. 

On the restoration of life, when the power of 
swallowing has returned, a teaspoonful of warm 
water, small quantities of wine, warm brandy and 
water, or coffee should be given. The patient should 
be kept in bed, and a disposition to sleep encour- 
aged. During reaction large mustard plasters to 
the chest and below the shoulders will greatiy 
relieve the distressed breathing. 

Note. In all cases of prolonged immersion in cold 
water, when the breathing continues a warm bath 
should be employed to restore the temperature. 

// from Intense Cold. 
Rub the body with snow, ice, or cold water. 
Restore warmth by slow degrees. It is highly 
dangerous to apply heat too early. 

// from Intoxication. 
Lay the individual on his side on a bed, with his 
head raised. The patient should be induced to 
vomit. Stimulants should be avoided. 

// from Apoplexy "or from Sunstroke. 
' Cold water should be applied to the head, which 
should be kept well raised. Clothing removed from 
the neck and chest. Stimulants avoided. 

// from Electric Shock. 
Remove the body from contact with the wire, 
cable, or other conductor (in. doing this, the body 
must not be touched with the naked hand, but india- 
rubber gloves, a fold of dry cloth, or other non- 
conductor should be used), and at once proceed to 
induce respiration by the above method. 

Apparentty Drowned. See Apparentiy Dead, 
Method of Restoring the. 

Apportioninent (i) may form the subject of an 
action for distribution of salvage (q.v.), or may be 
raised by some interested party in the course of an 
ordinary salvage action. The Admiralty Court, 
which is bound to apportion on application, will 
consider, as between owners and crew, the value of 
the salving property and its risk, as against the 
skill, labour, and courage of the crew. 

The master usually has a special award for hia 
responsibility, and the crew a lump sum distri- 
buted, according to their ratings, but individual 
members may be specially awarded. 

As between independent salvors, each case is con- 
sidered according to its merits, but where the ser- 

C 



APPRAISE 



34 



AQUEDUCT 



vices are not rendered contemporaneously, the first 
set of salvors is favoured. 

(2) Apportionment of collision damage. Where 
both ships are held to blame, whatever the degree of 
fault is in each ship, the damage is apportioned in 
equal shares. 

Thus, if the loss to A is ;£ 1,000 and to B £2,000, 
A can recover ;(5oo against B, and B can recover 
;£ 1, 000 against A. 

Appraise. To value goods imported. 

Appnisement. When any questions arise in 
actions in the Admiralty Court as to the value of a 
ship or her cargo, the marshal or his deputy, acting 
under an order from the Court, proceed to make an 
inventory of the ship's property or cargo, which is 
appraised on oath by a quaUfied valuer. The inven- 
tory, appraisement in writing, and a certificate of the 
proceedings are then sent to the registry. An ap- 
praisement properly made is conclusive of the value 
of the property and is binding, although the pro- 
perty be afterwards sold for a lesser amount. Where a 
sale of a ship has been decreed by the Court, it is fixed 
and advertised by the marshal, and is usually sold by 
public auction. If the bidding is much under the 
appraised value, the Court will not always order the 
property to be sold for what it will fetch, but may 
settle a specific sum, below which it shall not be sold. 

Apprentioe, Sea. The contract of apprenticeship 
to the Merchant Service must, if the apprentice is to 
be bound for a longer period than one year, be made 
by indenture, a duplicate of which is sent for record 
to the Registrar-General of Shippmg and Seamen (q.v.). 

The indenture of a pauper apprentice must be 
attested by two justices, who shall satisfy themselves 
that the boy has consented to be bound, is of at least 
12 years of age, and sufiiciently strong and healthy. 
In foreign -going ships the apprentice and his inden- 
ture must be produced to the superintendent before 
whom the crew is engaged. (Merchant Shipping 
Act, 1894, sections 105-109.) 

No boy under 13 years of age can be apprenticed 
to the sea-fishing service; and no boy under 16 years, 
unless duly apprenticed by indenture in a form ap- 
proved by the Board of Xrade, oan be taken to sea 
for longer than one day. The superintendent must 
satisfy himself that the indenture complies with this 
Act, that the boy's relatives or guardians assent to 
his apprenticeship, that the master is a fit person to 
receive the boy, and that the apprentice is not under 
the age of 13 and is of sufficient strength and health. 
The superintendent may enforce stipulations in the 
indenture on behalf of the boy, and take legal pro- 
ceedings in his own name for this purpose. 

Anyone who receives money or other considera- 
tion from the person to whom the boy is bound as 
apprentice shall be guilty of a misdemeanour. 
(Merchant Shipping Act, 1894, sections 392-398.) 

The rights and liabilities of apprentices are very 



similar to those of seamen, though apprentices are 
not ** seamen " within the meaning of the Act. 

Aprazia, Feodor, Ooant (1671-1728). Founder of the 
Russian Navy. In 17 10 took a successful part 
against Sweden, and three years later i^^as in com- 
mand of the fleet against Finland, and was instru- 
mental in inducing Sweden to conclude the treaty of 
Nystad, which gave Russia the Baltic Province. 
Was made Admiral of the Navy by Peter the Great. 

Apron. Strengthening timber abaft the lower part 
of stem, above foremost end of keel. 

AqnttriPin. Tanks or vessels containing aquatic 
plants or animals living as nearly as possible under 
their natural conditions. Among the plants which 
flourish in the fresh water aquarium are the Cana- 
dian Water Weed, various species of Duckweed and 
the Bladderwort, the common Water Buttercup, 
Water Starwort and Homwort. Of the animal in- 
habitants, by far the easier to keep alive are those 
capable of breathing both air and water, such as 
Newts and Axolotls. Of fish the Stickleback and 
Minnow are the most likely to flourish. There are 
Marine Aquariums attached to the Biological Station 
of Naples and Plymouth; and Aquaria at Brighton, 
Berlin, Hamburg, New York and Washington. 

See Taylor's " Aquarium " (1881). Wood's " Com- 
mon Objects of Sea-shore, including Hints for an 
Aquarium." 

AQoariiif • The eleventh sign in the Zodiac. 

AQOatio AnimftlM are those living in or about the 
water; swimming in, flying over, or deriving their 
food from the water. 

AQoatio Planti. Plants found growing in water, 
stagnant, fresh or salt. 

Aquaiios. Inhabiting or relating to water. 

AQnednct. An artificial conduit or canal built for 
the conveyance of water. The term is not applied 
to pipes working under pressure, but only to chan- 
nels in which water flows with a free surface. The 
piers and arches of an aqueduct may be of stone, 
brick or concrete. The water-channel of wood, 
iron, steel or masonry. At the end of the first cen- 
tury A.D., Rome had nine aqueducts, with a total 
length of over 270 miles. In the Roman provinces 
there were aqueducts at Nimes, Segovia, Tarragonia, 
Metz, Mainz, Antioch and Pyrgos. The aqueduct 
" Delle Torre Spolets " (Umbria) dates from the 
eighth century, and is about 300 feet high. There 
was a famous aqueduct at Athens (made 560 b.c). 
one at Samos (625 a. d.), and one still in use at Syra- 
cuse. In France the aqueduct of Main tenon, which 
was constructed to bring water to Versailles, is 4,400 
feet long, and over 200 feet high. The first aque- 
ducts of importance in Britain were built towards 
the end of the eighteenth century, to carry canals. 
The Barton aqueduct, built by Brindley, carried the 
Bridgewater Canal over the Irwell. The aqueduct 



AQUEOUS 



35 



ARBITRATION 



cairying the EUesmere Canal across the Dee is i .000 
feet long and 126 feet high. In British India the 
most important is the Ganges Canal, which traverses 
the North Western Provinces of Bengal, and dis- 
tributes over their vast area nearly the whole volume 
of the waters of the Ganges. The Croton aqueduct 
by which the City of New York is supplied with water, 
built in 1842, was regarded at that time as one of the 
most magnificent works of the kind in modem times ; 
its length is 38 j- miles. The Loch Katrine Aqueduct 
of the Glasgow Waterworks is the modem aqueduct 
which has probably attracted the largest share of 
public attention; the length of the aqueduct is about 
35 miles, of which 27 may be considered the aqueduct 
proper, the remaining 8 miles consists of two lines of 
cast-iron pipes, by which the water is conVeyed from 
large service reservoirs at Mugdock to the City of 
Glasgow. An aqueduct near Edinburgh, conveying 
the water of the Edinburgh and Glasgow Union 
Canal across the valley of the Water of Leith at 
Slateford, is constructed entirely of cast-iron, built in 
with masonry. It is about 500 feet in length, and con- 
sists of eight arches, each 45 feet span, 75 feet above 
the level of the river. The aqueduct which carries 
the water to supply the Vienna Waterworks from 
Kaiserbrunn spring to the receiving reservoir at 
Rosenhugel is 56^ miles long. 

See Herschel's '* Water Supply of Rome "; Tur- 
neaure and Russell's "Public Water Supplies" (1901). 

Agaeoaa Rocks. A name applied to all rocky 
masses beneath the water, whether in the form of 
sedimentary deposits, accumulations of shells, or of 
crystallized masses due to concentration by evapora- 
tion. 

AqpeODS Vapour. See Elastic Force of Vapour. 

Aqmidaban. Brazilian battleship. Displacement, 
5,000 tons. 

Blown up by the exploding of her magazine at 
Jacarepagna, a small port to the south of Rio de 
Janeiro, January 22, 1906. The ship sank three 
minutes after the explosion, and 300 officers and men 
perished. This vessel was torpedoed by the Sampio, 
and sank in shallow water at Destoro, during the 
revolt of the Brazilian Fleet, March, 1894. She was 
refloated and sent to Stettin to undergo repairs. 

Aqpila. ItaUan torpedo-boat. (Elbing, 1888.) 
Length, 1 52 ft. ; beam, 1 7 ft. ; maximum draught, 8 ft. ; 
displacement, 130 tons; complement, 24; arma- 
ment, 2 3-pdr. q.f., i i-pdr.; 3 tubes; Hp., 2,200 = 
26 kts.; coal maximum, 40 tons. 

Aqoflon. French torpedo-boat (1899). Dis- 
placement, 120; complement, 34; maximum draught, 
9^ ft.; guns, 2 3-pdr.; torpedo tubes, 2 15 -in.; 
twin screw ; Hp., 2,000=26 kts. ; coal, 16 tons. 

AonilODe. Italian torpedo-boat destroyer 
(1902). Displacement, 330 tons; complement, 100; 
armament, 2 12-pdr., 5 6-pdr.; 3 tubes; Hp., 
6,800=28 kts. 



AiQfaflono. Italian torpedo-boat destroyer. 
(Naples, 1902.) Displacement, 330 tons; maximum 
draught, 8 ft.; armament, 5 6-pdr., tubes, 2 18 in.; 
Hp., 6,000=930 kts.; coal, 80 tons. 

AJR. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Ayr, Scotland. 

Arab. British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Clydebank, 
1 901.) Length, 2x0 ft. ; beam, 19 ft. ; draught, 7 ft. ; 
displacement, 278 tons; complement, 60; armament. 
I 12-pdr., 5 6-pdr.; 2 tubes; twin screw; Hp., 
5,800=30 kts.; coal, 80 tons. 

Arabia. British subsidised merchant ship 
(1898). P. and O. Company (q.v.). Dimensions, 
500 X 54 X 33 ft.; gross tonnage, 7,900; passenger 
accommodation, 524; Hp., 9,400-18 kts. 

Aragoary. Brazilian torpedo-boat. (Thorny- 
croft, 1891.) Length, 150ft.; beam, 14 ft.; draught, 
5 ft.; displacement, 150 tons; complement. 27; 
armament, 2 q.f., 4 tubes; Hp., 1,550—25 kts.; 
coal, 22 tons. 

Aran. Swedish coast service battleship. 
(Lindholmen, 1902.) 

Length 287 ft. Beam 49 ft. Maximum draught 16 ft. 
Displacement 3,650 tons. Complement 250. 
Guns, Armour, 

2 — 8-2 in., 45 cal. " Krupp." 
6—6 in. 7 in. Belt amidships. 

10 — 3 pdr. 7 in. Turrets. 

2 — I pdr. 8 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes (i8in.). 
2 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp .6,500=17 kts. Coal normal 
360 tons. 

Aran. Japanese torpedo-boat destroyer. 
(Yarrow, 1905.) Displacement, 380 tons; comple- 
ment, 55; maximum draught, 9 ft.; armament, 
I 12-pdr., 5 6-pdr.; tubes, 2 18 in.; Hp., 6,000= 
31 kts.; coal, 95 tons. 

Arayat. U.S. gun-boat, captured from Spain in 
the Spanish American War, 1898. Of little fighting 
value. 

Arbelete. French torpedo-boat destroyer. (Nor- 
mand, 1902.) Length, 180 ft.; beam, 21 ft.; maxi- 
mum draught, 10 ft. ; displacement, 300 tons; com- 
plement, 45; guns. I 9-pdr., 6 3-pdr.; torpedo 
tubes, 2 15 in.; speed, 27-30 kts. 

Arbitratioii. (i) Arbitration is an agreement be- 
tween parties to refer disputes to the decision of one 
or more persons. The Arbitration Act, 1889, amends 
and consolidates the previous Acts on the subject. 
Where parties have submitted to determine ques- 
tions in dispute by arbitration, such submission, 
unless a contrary intention appear, is irrevocable, 
except by leave of the Court. The arbitrator is a 
person either appointed by the Court or mutually 
agreed upon between the parties. The rules of pro- 
cedure and evidence are similar to those of the High 

c2 



ARBUTHNOT 



36 



ARCTIC 



Court, and perjury is punishable as in other cases. 
The arbitrator, who may be removed and his award 
set aside by the Court for misconduct, must try the 
case impartially, and make the award in writing 
within three months, when it must be final and not 
subject to conditions. 

Where there are two arbitrators whose opinions 
differ, an umpire is appointed by them. 

The Court may refer any civil matter for inquiry 
or report to an official or special referee, who is 
deemed an officer of the Court, and must conduct the 
reference according to rules prescribed by the Court. 
His report or award, unless set aside by the Court or 
Judge, shall be equivalent to the verdict of a jury. 

(2) International Arbitration is the settlement of 
disputes between independent states by one or more 
private individuals or a friendly power, mutually 
agreed upon. The principal questions referred to 
International Arbitration relate to boundaries on 
land, fisheries at sea, breaches of neutrality, and 
unlawful arrests and seizures of vessels. 

At The Hague Peace Conference, 1899, where 
twenty-six states were represented, the establish- 
ment of a permanent Court of International Arbitra- 
tion was agreed upon. 

Aibattmot, Charles BaniMyt Captain R.N. (b. Feb- 
ruary 5, 1850). Educated H.M.S. Britannia; a Sub- 
Lieutenant of the Royal yacht; Lieutenant in Arctic 
yacht Pandora (Arctic medal); promoted Com- 
mander 1883; Captain 1891;' commanded H.M.S. 
Orlando, flagship Australian Station, 1892-95. Kefcr 
to Arctic Exploration. 

Arc. French torpedo-boat destroyer. (Chalon, 
1903.) Length, 183 ft.; beam, 21 ft.; draught, 10 ft.; 
displacement, 300 tons; complement, 62; arma- 
ment, I 9-pdr., 6 3-pdr.; 2 tubes; twin screw; 
Hp., 6,000—28 kts. ; coal, 75 tons. 

Arcachoo, Tachting CSnb D'. Established 1887. 
President, Comte de Gaulne; Vice-Presidents, H. 
Exshaw and G. Picon, 250, Boulevard de la 
Plage, Arcachon. Annual subscription, 20 francs. 

Arcadia. British subsidised merchant ship 
(1888). P. and O. Company {q,v.). Dimen- 
sions, 468 X 52 X 34 J ft.; gross tonnage, 6,605; 
passenger accommodation, 321 ; Hp., 6,000— 17 kts. 

Arched SqualL A squall ofi the West Coast of 
Africa, in which the clouds take the shape of an arch. 

Archer. French sea-going torpedo-boat. (Nor- 
mand, 1893.) Length, 138 ft.; beam, 14 ft.; 
draught, 7 ft.; displacement, 131 tons; complement, 
26; armament, 2 3-pdr., 2 tubes; Hp., 1,250— 
26 kts. ; coal, 27 tons. 

Archer Fiah. A name given to the Toxotes Jacula- 
tor, and several East India and Polynesian fishes, 
from the habit they have of shooting drops of water 
a distance of three or four feet into the air, thus 
bringing down insects for their food. 

Ardhimedean Screw. An apparatus invented by 



the Greek mathematician, Archimedes. It consists 
of a spiral pump working on a central axis, and is 
used for draining docks or raising w^ter to any pro- 
posed height. 

Arching, See Hogged. 

Archipelago. A name now applied to any group of 
islands considered collectively. 

Architeoti, NavaL See Institution of Naval 
Architects. 

Architecture, Naval. Construction or art and 
science of ship-building. 

Aroona. German armoured cruiser. (Weser, 1902.) 
Length 328 ft. Beam 40 ft. Maximum draught 17 ft. 
Displacement 2.715 tons. Complement 259. 
Guns, Armour. 

10— 4-1 in. " Krupp." 

10 — 1 pdr. 2 in. Deck. 

4 Machine. 4 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes, 
2 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 8,000=21 kts. Coal maximum 
700 tons. ' 

Arctic. U.S. mail steamer, in collision off 
Newfoundland with the French steamer Vesta, and 
went down ; 300 lives were lost. 

Arctic. Pertaining to the North generally, or more 
specially to the region within the Arctic circle. 

Arctic Circle. A small circle of the globe, 23" 28' 
distance from the North Pole, which is its centre. It 
is opposed to the Antarctic circle, which is at the 
same distance from the South Pole. 

Arctic EzploratioiD. The Arctic Sea, we are told by 
King Alfred, was entered by a Norwegian named 
Other, and although the localities mentioned cannot 
now be identified, it is quite possible that they refer 
to the North Cape and the coast of Lapland. It was, 
however, not until 1553, when an expedition pro- 
moted by Sebastian Cabot, and under the command 
of Sir Hugh Willoughby and Richard Chancellor, 
that any advance was made in Arctic Exploration. 
The expedition sailed on May 20, 1553, "for the 
search and discovery of the northern parts of the 
world to open up a way and passage to our men for 
travel to new and unknown kingdoms." On this 
expedition Nova Zembla was sighted. In the spring 
of 1556 Steven Buirough, who was with Chancellor, 
sailed in a small pinnace called the Searchthrifi. He 
went to Archangel, and discovered the Strait leading 
into the Kara Sea, between Nova Zembla and the 
Island of Waigat. In 1580 two vessels, under 
Arthur Pet and Charles Jackman, sailed through the 
Strait discovered by Burrough, and thence eastward 
beyond the mouth of the River Obi. Pet discovered 
a Strait into the Kara Sea, between Waigat and the 
mainland, and endeavoured to push eastward, but 
without success returned to England in safety. 



ARCTIC 



37 



ARCTIC 



Jackman, after wintering in a Norwegian port, sailed 
for England, but was never heard of again. In 1576 
Frobisher, aided financially by Michael Lok, set sail 
with two small vessels of 20 to 25 tons, called the 
Gabriel and Michael, This expedition was formed 
>»ith the idea of discovering a shorter route to India 
by the north-west. On July 20, Frobisher sighted 
high land, which he named Queen Elizabeth's Fore- 
land, and the following day he entered the Strait now 
known as Frobisher Strait, calling the land Meta 
Incognita. For a long time Frobisher Strait was 
supposed to pass through Greenland, but it is now 
clear that Frobisher never saw Greenland, and that 
his Strait and the Meta Incognita are on the Ameri- 
can side of Davis Strait. John Davis made three 
voyages in three successive years. He was the first 
to visit the West Coast of Greenland; discovered 
Gilbert Sound and the Strait which bears his name. 
On his second voyage he did not accomplish any- 
thing of note. In his third voyage 1587, he ad- 
vanced far up Davis Strait, and reached a lofty 
island in 72° 41' N., which he named Sanderson's 
Hope. 

In 1594 some Amsterdam merchants fitted out 
a vessel of some 100 tons, under the command of 
Willem Barents. He discovered the whole western 
coast as far as Cape Nassau and the Orange Island at 
the north-western extremity. On his second voyage , 
he made an unsuccessful attempt to enter the Kara 
Sea. During the third voyage, 1596, he acted as 
pilot to Jacob van Heemskerck, who was accom- 
panied by Comeliszoon Rijp; they sailed northward 
and discovered Bear Island, and sighted the north- 
western extremity of Spitzbergen, which they named 
Niewland. They were the first to face, and success- 
fully pass, an Arctic winter, and in the spring of the 
following year made their way in boats to the Lap- 
land coast. Barents died during the voyage, but his 
record takes first rank among Polar enterprises of 
the sixteenth century. 

In 1602 Captain Waymouth, sent out by the East 
India Company to seek for a passage by the open- 
ing seen by Davis, returned without any success. 

In 1605 Christian IV. of Denmark sent out three 
ships under the Englishmen Cunningham and Hall, and 
a Dane named Lindenov. They managed to get as far as 
the West Coast of Greenland, and had much intercourse 
with the Eskimo. In 1607 Henry Hudson, in the service 
of the Muscovy Company, made his first voyage, and 
discovered the most northerly point on the Eastern 
Coast of Greenland, 73° N., he examined the edge of 
the ice between Greenland and Spitzbergen, and 
reached the latitude of 80° 23' N. On his return he 
discovered Hudson's Tutches, since called Jan 
Mayen. In his second voyage, 1608, he examined 
the edge of the ice between Spitzbergen and Nova 
Zembla. In his third voyage, when employed by 
the Dutch East India Company, he explored the 
coast of North America, and discovered the River, 
Strait and great Bay which bear his name. Sir 
Thomas Button in May, 16 12, in command of two 



ships, the Resolution and Discovery, sailed from 
England, entered Hudson's Bay, crossed it to its 
western shore, and wintered at the mouth of the 
Hudson river. In the following year he explored 
the shore of Southampton Island as far as 65° N., 
returning to England in 161 3. In 1616 Robert 
Bylot, as master, and William Bafi&n, as pilot and 
'navigator in the Discovery, examined the coast of 
Hudson's Strait, and made many valuable observa- 
tions. In the following year the two sailed again in 
the Discovery, and discovered what has been known 
ever since as Baffin's Bay. Baffin named the most 
northern opening Smith Sound, after the promoter 
of the voyage Sir Thomas Smith; Wolstenholme 
Sound, Cape Dudley Digges, Hakluyt Island, Lancas- 
ter Sound, Jones Sound, and Cary Islands wefe 
named after others interested in the expedition. 
In 1 63 1 two expeditions were dispatched, one from 
London and one from Bristol. In the London ship, 
Charles, Luke Fox explored the western side of Hud- 
son's Bay, as far as a place called " Sir Thomas Roe's 
Welcome." Captain James, in the Bristol ship 
Maria, went north and reached "North West Fox," 
66° 47' N. He wintered off Charlton Island, and 
returned in 1632. 

After the acquisition of Siberia by the Russians, 
the whole of the northern shores of that vast region 
was gradually explored. In 1648 Simon Desnneff, a 
Cossack, in a boat expedition on the River Kolyma, 
passed through the Strait, afterwards named Bering, 
and reached the Gulf of Anadjnr. Captain Vlamingh, 
in 1664, advanced as far round the northern end of 
Nova Zembla as the winter quarters of Barents. In 
1 67 1 Frederick Martens visited the Spitzbergen 
group. In 1707 Captain GiUes and Outsger Rep 
went to the eastward as far as the northern shores of 
Greenland, and saw high land in 80°, which has since 
been known as GiUes Land. 

In 1 722 John Scroggs.in theemployment of the Hud- 
son's Bay Company, was sent from Churchill River 
in search of two ships commanded by Mr. Knight. 
He went as far as Sir Thomas Roe's Welcome, and 
then returned, and it was subsequently found that 
the two ships were lost and the crews had perished. 

Peter the Great in 1 725 appointed Captain Vitus Be- 
ring, a Dane, to command an expedition. Two vessels 
set sail in 1728, Bering ascertaining the existence of a 
Strait between Asia and America. In 1740 he again 
set sail in the St. Paul, with the object of discovering 
the American side of the Strait. He sighted that mag- 
nificent peak, named by him Mt. St. Elias ; explored the 
Alutian Islands, but the ship was wrecked on an is- 
land, and Bering himself died on December 8, 

1741. 

In 1735 Lieut. T. Tchel3niskin got as far as 77** 25' 
N., near the Cape which bears his name, and eight 
years later reached, with a sledge party, the most 
northerly point of Siberia 77° 41' N. 

Cap t. Christopher Middle ton in 1742 discovered Wa- 
ger River and Repulse Bay. In 1746 Captain W\ Moor 
made a voyage in the same direction, and explored the 



ARCTIC 



38 



ARCTIC 



Wager Inlet. Between 1769 and 1772 Samuel Heame 
descended the Coppermine River to the Polar 
Sea. 

In 1 77 1 a Russian merchant named Liakhofif dis- 
covered New Siberia or Liakhofif Island. 

In 1 773 Captain Phipps sailed in an expedition, which 
was stopped by ice, to the northofHakluyt headland, 
thenorth-westemportionofSpitzbergen.They reached 
Seven Island and discovered Walden Island, returning 
to England in September of the same year. In 1 778 
Captain Cook sailed from Kamchatka in search of 
the north-east, or north-west passage, from the 
Pacific to the Atlantic. During his voyage he 
reached ('ape Prince of Wales, and his ships, the 
Resolute and Discovery, arrived at the edge of the ice 
70® 41' N., after passing through Bering Strait. In 
1789 Alexander Mackenzie discovered the mouth of 
the Mackenzie River. Captain Scoresby, a whaling 
captain, takes first rank as a successful fisher and 
scientific observer. In 1806 he succeeded in advanc- 
ing his ship Resolution as far north as 81^ 12' 42". 
In 1822 he forced his way through the ice, which 
encumbers the approach to the land of the East Coast 
of Greenland, and surveyed that coast from 75® down 
to 69° N., a distance of 400 miles. In 18 18 the two 
vessels Dorothea and Trent, commanded by Captain 
David Buchan and Lieutenant John Franklin, sailed 
by way of the Spitzbergen route to discover the 
north-west passage, in the hope of receiving the 
^£20,000 reward which was offered for making the 
north-west passage, or £$,000 for reaching 89® N. 
The vessels were driven into the ice pack by a heavy 
swell from the south, and compelled to rehim to 
England. At the same time another expedition, fol- 
lowing in the wake of Baffin's voyage of 16x6 and 
sailing by way of Baffin's Bay, consisting of two 
ships the Isabella and Alexander, commanded by 
Captain John Ross and Lieutenant Edward Parry, 
sailed on the same quest. They returned to Eng- 
land having accomplished very little, except that 
they were able to vindicate Baffin's accuracy as a 
discoverer. In 18 19 Lieutenant E. Parry was 
selected to command two vessels, the Hecla and 
Griper, He passed through Lancaster Sound, the 
continuation of which he named Barrow Strait, and 
advanced westward, discovering the Archipelago, 
since known as Parry Islands. He discovered Wel- 
lington Channel, and sailed onward for 300 miles to 
Melville Island, returning in 1820. A fresh expedi- 
tion in the Fury and Hecla, still under his command, 
sailed the following year. They passed their first 
winter on the coast of Melville Peninsula, 66® 1 1' N. ; 
their second winter among the Eskimo in 69** 20' N., 
and discovered a channel leading westward from the 
head of Hudson's Bay, which he named Fury and 
Hecla Strait. In 18 19 Lieutenant John Franklin, 
accompanied by Dr. Richardson, George Back and 
Hood, attempted to reach land by the northern 
shores of America. They landed at York factory, 
and proceeded to the Great Slave Lake. In the fol- 
lowing year they started for the Coppermine River, 



and reached its mouth on July 18, 182 1, subse- 
quently exploring 550 miles of coast line, the ex- 
treme point of which they named Cape Turn 
again. 

In 1 82 1 Captain Lutke, a Russian, was employed in 
surveying the West Coast of Nova Zembla, as far as 
Cape Nassau, and examining the ice of the adjacent 
sea. In 182 1 Lieutenant Anjou, a Russian, made a 
complete survey of the New Siberia Islands. Be- 
tween 1820-23 Baron Wrangell made four journeys 
with dog-sledges, exploring the coast between Cape 
Tchelagskoi and the Kolyma. 

In 1824 three combined attempts were organised, 
under Parry, Beechy.and Franklin, to connect the Cape 
Tumagain of Franklin, with the discoveries made by 
Parry during his second voyage. Parry was to enter by 
the Lancaster Sound, and make for the great opening 
he had seen on the south named Prince Regent's 
inlet, Beechy by Behring Strait, and Franklin from 
the shores of Arctic America. Parry was unfortu- 
nate; Beechy in the B/os5om- entered Behring Strait, 
August 1826, and got as far as Point Barrow 71° 23' 
33" N. lat. ; Franklin descended the Mackenzie River 
to the mouth, and explored the coast for 374 miles to 
the westward. In 1827 Parry made an attempt to 
reach the Pole from the northern coast of Spitz- 
bergen in sledge boats. On this occasion he reached 
latitude 82® 45' N. 

In 1829 Captain Graah, of the Danish Navy, under- 
took an expedition to the East Coast of Greenland ; he 
advanced as far as 65** 18' N. on the east coast, where 
he was stopped by ice. He wintered at Nugarlik, in 
63® 22' N., and returned in the following year. 

In 1829 Captain John Ross, and his nephew 
James, undertook a private expedition of dis- 
covery on behalf of Felix Booth, in a small vessel 
called the Victory, Ross proceeded down Prince 
Regent inlet to the Gulf of Boothia, and win- 
tered on some land named by him Boothia Felix. 
On this expedition James Ross crossed the land and 
discovered the position of the north magnetic pole; 
discovered land to the westward of Boothia, which 
he named King William Land, the northern shore of 
which he examined. The most northern point oppo- 
site the magnetic pole he named Cape Felix. The 
Rosses spent four winters in the Arctic, and were 
eventually picked up by a whaler in Barrow Strait 
and brought home. Their prolonged absence caused 
great anxiety, and Sir George Back, with Dr. Richard 
King as his companion, started out in 1833 to search 
for them, but owing to lack of supplies were com- 
pelled to return. In 1836 Sir George Back was sent, 
at the instigation of the Royal Geographical Society, 
to proceed to Repulse Bay in his ship the Terror, to 
examine the coast line at the mouth of the Great Fish 
River. The expedition did not accomplish the task, 
and the vessel was brought back across the Atlantic 
in a sinking condition. In July of the following year 
Messrs. Simpson and Dease, both in the service of the 
Hudson's Bay Company, started on an expedition. 
They reached the mouth of the Mackenzie, and con- 



ARCTIC 



39 



ARCTIC 



nected that position with Point Barrow, which had 
been discovered by the Blossom in 1826. During 
this voyage the explorers landed at Montreal Island, 
at the mouth of the Great Fish River, and advanced 
as far as Castor and Pollux River, and returned along 
the north side of the channel, which is the south 
shore of King William Island, discovered by James 
Ross. In order to complete the delineation of the 
northern shores of the American Continent Dr. John 
Rae was entrusted by the Hudson's Bay Company 
with an expedition. He went to Repulse Bay, where 
he wintered, and in the spring of the following year 
explored on foot the shores of a great gulf having 7 ,000 
miles of coast line. He was the means of connecting 
the work of Parry, at the mouth of the Fury and 
Hecla Strait, to that of Ross on the coast of Boothia, 
and proved that Boothia was part of the American 
Continent. In 1843 Middendorf was sent to explore 
the region which terminates in Cape Techelyuskin. 
previously surveyed by Baron Wrangell. He reached 
the Cape in the height of the short summer, whence 
he saw open water, and thus completed the explora- 
tion of the Arctic shores of Siberia. 

In 1845 Sir John Franklin, in the Erebus and Terror, 
made a fresh attempt to make the passage from Lan- 
caster Sound to Behring Strait. He wintered at Beechy 
Island, and in the following spring fdUnd a channel 
leading south along the western shore of the land of 
North Somerset, discovered by I^arry in 1819. He 
knew that if he could reach the channel on the Ameri- 
can coast he would be able to make his way along it 
to the Behring Strait. He sailed down Peel Sound 
towards King William Island, with land on both 
sides, but immediately after passing the southern 
point of the western land, he was driven by the great 
Palaeocrystic Sea (the name given by Sir George 
Nares to the accumulation of ice of enormous thick- 
ness, which arises from the absence of direct com- 
munication between this portion of the north polar 
region and the warm waters of the Atlantic and 
Pacific) towards King William Island. In the 
spring of 1848 Sir James Ross was sent with two 
ships, the Enterprise and the Investigator, to search 
for Franklin. He wintered in LeopoVd Harbour, and 
in the spring of 1849 made a long sledge journey with 
Lieutenant M'Clintock along the northern and wes- 
tern coasts of North Somerset, without finding any 
traces of the Franklin expedition. In 1848 Sir John 
Richardson and Dr. Rae, at the instigation of the 
Hudson's Bay Company, continued the search, and 
examined the American coast from the mouth of the 
Mackenzie to that of the Coppermine; and in 185 1. 
after a long sledge journey and a boat voyage, to the 
shores of Wollaston and Victoria Land. Anxiety 
about the fate of the Franklin expedition was now 
being keenly felt, and an extensive plan of search 
was organised; one expedition, under CoUinson and 
M'Clure in the Enterprise and Investigator; one under 
Captain Austin, comprising the Assistance and 
Resolute, with two steam tenders, the Pioneer and 



Intrepid, and two brigs the Lady Franklin £uid Sofia, 
under Captain Penny. Austin and Penny entered 
Barrow Strait, and discovered Franklin's winter 
quarters on Beechy Island. Stopped by ice, the 
expedition wintered off Griffith Island, and in the 
following spring they planned a thorough and exten- 
sive system of search by means of sledge travelling. 
Penny undertook the search by Wellington Channel. 
M'Clintock advanced to Melville Island, marching 
over 770 miles in 81 days; Captain Ommaney and 
Sherard Osbom went south, and discovered Prince of 
Wales Island ; Lieutenant Brown examined the wes- 
tern shores of Peel Sound; but with the exception of 
the winter quarters at Beechy Island, no record, no 
sign of Franklin was discovered. CoUinson, in the 
Enterprise, was within a few miles of Point Victory, 
on the shores of Victoria Land, where the fate of 
Franklin would have been ascertained had he 
pushed a little further. He passed his first winter in 
a Sound in Prince Albert Island, 71° 35' N. and 
117° 35' W.; his second in Cambridge Bay, and his 
third in Camden Bay. 70° 8' N., 140® 29' W., return- 
ing to England in 1854. M'Clure in the Investigator, 
passed the first winter, 1850-5 1, at the Princess Royal 
Islands, and came across the same palaeocrystic ice 
which stopped Franklin off King William Land. He 
turned south, and after many hair-breadth escapes, 
took refuge in a bay on the north shore of Banks- 
land, which he named the Bay of God's Mercy, and 
here the Investigator remained, never to move again. 
Two winters were spent here, and M'Clure and his 
crew were preparing to abandon the ship and reach 
the American coast as Franklin had attempted, and 
possibly the fate of this expedition would have been 
that which overtook Sir John Franklin and his 
party, had not succour providentially arrived in 
time. 

It was during the autumn of 1853 that Captain 
Kellett, in command of the Resolute, with M'Clintock 
in the steam tender Intrepid, discovered M'Clure's 
record, and thus ascertained the position of the 
Investigator. In the following spring Lieutenant 
Pirn was entrusted with the task of taking a message 
across the Strait, which he successfully accom- 
plished. The officers and crew of the Investigator, led 
by M'Clure, arrived safely on board the Resolute, 
June 17, 1853, and reached England in the following 
year. They not only discovered, but traversed the 
north-west passage, though not in the same ship, and 
partly by travelling over the ice. M'Clure received 
the honour of Knighthood, and a reward of ;Jio,ooo, 
voted by the House of Commons, was granted to 
himself, the officers and crew. The sledge party of 
Kellett's expedition, led by M'Clintock, Mecham and 
Vasey Hamilton, completed the discovery of the 
northern and western sides of Melville Island. 
M'Clintock's sledge party was away from the ship 
for 105 days, and during that time travelled 1,328 
miles; Mecham's party was away 94 days, and 
travelled 1,163 o^iles. 



ARCTIC 



40 



ARCTIC 



In 1853 Dr. Rae was employed to complete the 
examination of the coast of America. He went up 
Chesterfield Inlet and River Quoich, wintering at 
Repulse Bay. He succeeded in connecting the dis- 
coveries of Simpson with those of James Ross, and 
established the fact that King William Land was an 
island. He also brought home tidings and relics of 
Franklin's expedition, gathered from the Eskimo. 
In the spring of 1854 Mecham made a most remark- 
able journey, in the hope of obtaining news of Cap- 
tain CoUinson; he was absent 70 days, out of which 
he w^as travelling 61 J days; the distance travelled 
was 1,336 miles, and is without parallel in Arctic 
records. 

Charles Hall, of Cincinnati, became an Arctic ex- 
plorer through his deep interest in the search for 
Franklin. He made his first journey 1860-62, and 
discovered the interesting remains of a stone house 
built by Frobisher, on the Countess of Warwick 
Island, nearly 200 years before. On his second ex- 
pedition, 1864-69, he reached the line of retreat of 
the Franklin survivors at Todds Island, on the south 
coast of King William Island. He heard from the 
Eskimo the story of the wreck of one of the ships, 
and was told that seven bodies had been buried at 
Todds Island. He brought home some bones, which 
are believed to be those of Lieutenant Le Vcscomte 
of tlie Erebus. 

The Norwegian fishermen are responsible, to a 
great extent, for recent exploration of the Spitz- 
bergen seas. In 1863 Captain Carlsen circumnavi- 
gated the Spitzbergcn group for the first time in 
a brig called Jan Mayen. In 1864 Nordcns- 
kiold and Duner made observations at 80 different 
places on the Spitzbergen shores. In 1868 the Sofia, 
an iron steamer, attained a latitude of 81° 42' N. on 
the meridian of 18° E. The expedition, consisting of 
the steamer Polhem and the brig Gladcn, commanded 
by Professor Xordenskiold and Lieutenant Palander, 
spent the winter of 18^8 at Mussel Bay, on the nor- 
thern shore of Spitzbergen, and in the following 
spring made an important sledge journey of 60 days' 
duration over North Ea^t Land. In 1868 an expedi- 
tion, financed by Dr. Petermann of Gotha, and com- 
manded by Captain Koldewey, sailed from Bergen 
to Hinlopen Strait in Spitzbergen. In 1869 another 
expedition, in command of Captain Koldewey, con- 
sisting of the Germania, a steamer of 140 tons, and 
the brig Hansa, sailed from Bremen for the east 
coast of Greenland. The Germania wintered at 
Pendulum Island in 74° 30' N., and in March of the 
following year set out, under Koldewey, and reached 
a di.^tance of 100 miles from the ship to the north- 
ward. A ('ape. named after Prince Bismarck, 
marked the northern Hmit of their discoveries. 
Lieutenant Payer, who had been with Captain Kolde- 
wey, resolved to continue the work of Polar dis- 
covery. He and a naval officer named Weyprecht 
chartered a Norwegian schooner, called the Ii>lu'/rn, 
and examined the edge of the ice between Spitzber- 



gen and Nova Zambia. In 1872 an Austro-Hun- 
garian expedition was organised. The steamer 
Tegeihoff was fitted out, with Weyprecht in com- 
mand, and Payer to conduct the sledge parties. The 
vessel sailed on July 14, 1872, but was closely beset 
near Cape Nassau, at the northern end of Nova 
Zembla, in August. In October, 1873, the island 
named Count Wilczek was discovered in 79** 54' N., 
and the second winter was passed here. 

In March, 1874, Payer started on a 30 days' 
sledge journey, and discovered the country named 
Franz- Josef Land. The expedition was compelled to 
abandon the ship and attempt to retreat in boats. 
They were eventually picked up by a Russian 
schooner, and arrived at Vard6 on September 3, 
1874. This expedition was one of the most im- 
portant connected with north polar exploration 
during the last century. 

In 1875 2Ln English expedition, with Captain Nares 
as leader, in two powerful steamers, the Alert and 
Discovery, started for Smith's Sound. Captain 
Markham, Lieutenant Aldrich and Captain Field- 
ham, R.A., were also in the Alert. The Discovery 
was commanded by Captain Stevenson, wth Lieu- 
tenant Beaumont as his first lieutenant. The expe- 
dition left Portsmouth on May 29, 1875, and entered 
Smith's Sound towards the end of July. The Dis- 
covery established her winter quarters at Lady 
Franklin Bay 81** 44' N., the Alert pressed onwards 
and reached the edge of the Palaeocrystic Sea, and 
passed the winter off the open coast facing the great 
Polar pack in 82® 27' N. Captain Markham, with 
Lieutenant Parr, advanced over the Polar pack at 
the high latitude of 83* 20' 26" N. Lieutenant 
Aldrich explored the coast line to the westward, 
facing the frozen Polar Ocean for a distance of 220 
miles. The Alert reached the highest northern lati- 
tude ever attained by any ship up to that date, and 
wintered further north than any ship had wintered 
before. The expedition returned to England in 
October, 1876. In 1875 Sir Allen Young, in his 
steam yacht the Pandora, attempted to force his way 
down Peel Sound to the magnetic pole. He entered 
Peel Sound on August 29, and proceeded further 
than any vessel had gone since it was passed by 
Franklin's two ships in 1846. He reached lati- 
tude 72® 14' N., and sighted Cape Bird at the 
northern side of the western entrance to Bellot 
Strait. 

In 1875 Professor Nordenskiold turned his atten- 
tion to the possibility of navigating the seas along 
the northern coast of Siberia, and in June of that 
vear sailed from Tromso in the Proven. He reached 
the Yeniesi by way of the Kara Sea, and discovered 
an excellent harbour on the eastern side of its 
mouth, which he named Port Dickson, after Mr. 
Oscar Dickson, who had largely contributed to the 
expedition. Nordenskiold, being convinced that the 
achievement of the north-east passage was feasible, 
the King of Sweden, Mr. Oscar Dickson and M. 



ARCTIC 



41 



ARCTIC 



Sibiriakoff supplied the funds for a second expedi- 
tion, and the steamer Vega was purchased. On 
August xo they left Port Dickson, and on the 19th 
reached the most northern part of Siberia, Cape 
Severo or Tchelyuskin in 77** 41' N. Towards the 
end of September the Vega was frozen in ofi the shore 
of a low plain in 67** f N. and 173® 20' W. After be- 
ing imprisoned in ice for two hundred and ninety-four 
days, on July 18, 1S79, the Vega proceeded on her 
voyage, and passed Behring Strait two days later. 
Thus, after a lapse of three hundred and twenty-six 
years, the north-east passage had been accomplished 
without the loss of a single life and without damage 
to the vessel. 

In 1879 Sir Henry Gore-Booth and Captain A. H. 
Markham, R.N. (^.v.), undertook a Polar cruise in the 
Norwegian schooner Isbjiim, They sailed along the 
west -coast of Nova Zembla, passing through the 
Matotchkim Shar to the east coast, and examined 
the ice in the direction of Franz- Josef Land as far as 
78** 24' N. 

In the same year an expedition was undertaken in 
the United States, with the object of obtaining further 
information of the sad history of the retreat of the offi- 
cers and men of Sir John Franklin's expedition. The 
expedition consisted of Lieutenant Schwatka of the 
United States Army, and three others. The first winter 
wasspentnear the entrance of Chesterfield Inlet, and in 
April they set out, assisted by Eskimo and dogs, for 
the estuary of the Great Fish River. They crossed 
over to Cape Herschel on King William Island, in 
June« and examined the western shores of the island 
as far as Cape Felix, the northern extremity, with 
very little success. Some graves were found, as well 
as a medal belonging to Lieutenant Irvine of H.M.S. 
Terror, and some bones believed to be his were 
brought home, and eventually sent to England and 
interred at Edinburgh. 

In 1879 Mr. Gordon Bennett purchased from Sir 
Allen Young the Pandora, which he rechristened the 
Jeannette, and dispatched an expedition of dis- 
covery by way of Behring Strait. The Jeannette, 
under Lieutenant De Long, United States Navy, 
sailed from San Francisco, July 8, 1879, and on Sep- 
tember 3 was seen steaming towards Wrangell Land. 
In 1 88 1, as nothing had been heard of this vessel, two 
steamers were sent up the Behring Strait in search. 
One of these, the Rodgers, under Lieutenant Berry, 
explored Wrangell Land 70® 57' N., which he found 
to be an island about 70 miles long by 28 miles wide, but 
returned without any news of the Jeannette. Eventu- 
ally, melancholy tidings arrived from Siberia. After 
having been beset in heavy ice pack for twenty-two 
months, the Jeannette was crushed and sunk in 
77"* 1$' N. lat. and ISS^ E. long. The officers and 
men succeeded in reaching an island, which they 
named Bennett Land, in July, and in the following 
September reached one of the New Siberia Islands, 
and from there set out for the mouth of the Lena. 
Mr. Melville, the engineer, and his boat's crew, 
reached Irkutsk, and immediately set out in search 



of De Long and his party. Eventually De Long's 
body and two of his crew were discovered on March 
23, 1883. they having perished from exhaustion and 
want of food. 

In 1880 Mr. Leigh Smith made three voyages to 
Spitzbergen in the screw steamer Eira. He sailed 
along the land to the westward and discovered 
no miles of new coast line, and returned to Eng- 
land. In the following year he once more made 
for Franz-Josef Land, and reached a point further 
west than had been possible on his previous voyage. 
He had. however, gone a little too far on this occa- 
sion, and in August the ship was caught in the ice, 
was nipped, and sank. He and his crew passed the 
winter of 1881-82 in a hut, and on June 21, 1882, 
started in the hope of reaching some vessels on the 
Nova Zembla coast. On August 2 they were sighted 
by the Willem Barents, and subsequently taken on 
board the Hope, a whaler which had come out to 
their rescue, under the command of Sir Allen 
Young. 

It was at the suggestion of Lieutenant Weyprecht, 
from a paper read by him before a large meeting of 
German naturalists, that the importance of estab- 
lishing a number of stations within or near the Arctic 
circle was brought about. The various nations of 
Europe were represented at an international Polar 
Conference at Hamburg in 1879, and another at St. 
Petersburg in 1882, and it was finally decided that 
each nation should establish one or more stations. 
The stations established were at the following locali- 
ties round the Arctic circle: 
Norwegians. — " Bosekop," Alten Fjord, Norway. 
Swedes. — " Ice Fjord," Spitzbergen. 
Dutch. — " Dickson Harbour," mouth of Yeniesi, 

Siberia. 
Russians. — " Sagast3rr Island," mouth of Lena, 

Siberia. " M611er Bay," Nova Zembla. 
Americans. — " Point Barrow," North America. 

" Lady Franklin Bay," 81* 44' N. 
English. — " Great Slave Lake," Dominion of 

Canada. 
Germans. — " Cumberland Bay," west side of Davis 

Strait. 
Danes. — " Godthaab," Greenland. 
Austrians. — " Jan Mayen," North Atlantic, 71® N. 

In 1 88 1 Lieutenant Greely's party, consisting of 
two lieutenants, twenty sergeants and privates of 
the United States Army, and Dr. Pavy, an enthu- 
siastic explorer, installed themselves at Lady 
Franklin's Bay for the winter. In the following year 
many important journeys were made; Lieutenant 
Lockwood journeyed along the north coast of 
Greenland, and reached a small island in 83^ 24' N., 
and 40* 46' W. ; Dr. Pavy made two tripa into the in- 
terior of Grinnell land, the coast on the western side 
was reached, and a large lake was discovered near 
Discovery Harbour. The fate of this expedition was 
like so many others. As no relief ship had arrived by 
the summer of 1883, Lieutenant Greely started from 
Lady Franklin's Bay with his men for Smith Sound, 



ARCTIC 



42 



ARCTIC 



where he expected to pass a ship. They were over- 
come by cold, and compelled to encamp at Cape 
Sabine on the western shores of Smith Sound. Here 
many of them died of actual starvation, and when the 
relieving steamers Thetis and Bear did arrive at Cape 
Sabine, Lieutenant Greely and six of his companions 
were found just alive. 

The next important Arctic work was the crossing 
of the great glacier forming the interior of Greenland, 
by Nansen and Peary. Dr. Nansen, with six com- 
panions, succeeded in landing on the East Coast of 
Greenland in August, 1888, and reached a height of 
7.000 feet on the glacier in 64° 50' N., and on Sep- 
tember 26 arrived at the inner end of the Ameralik- 
fjord in 64® 12' N., having traversed 260 miles of 
glacier. 

In April, 1892, Peary accompanied by Eiviod 
Astrup, started from Whale Sound, on the West Coast 
of Greenland in 77^ N.. and taking a north-easterly 
course sighted land in 82® 12' N. 

In the year 1893 Dr. Nansen in the Fram started on 
his famous expedition to cross the Polar Ocean, by 
trusting to the drift from east to west. His ship was 
forced into the ice to the north-west of New Siberia 
Island, and for three winters the drift was con- 
tinued, the vessel eventually coming out of the pack 
to the north of j Spitsbergen. The principal dis- 
coveries on this memorable voyage was that there is 
a very deep ocean to the north of the Franz- Josef 
group, continuous with that to the north of Spitz- 
bergen. The result of this expedition materially ex- 
tended our knowledge of the polar regions. 

In 1894 Mr. Jackson commanded an expedition in 
the Windward, fitted out at the expense of Mr. A. C. 
Harmsworth. In the spring of 1895 he made a 
journey northwards as far as 81° 19' 30" N., and dis- 
covered a channel leading between groups of islands 
to the west of the Austria Sound of Payer. In 1896, 
during his second winter, Mr. Jackson's party met 
Dr. Nansen and his companions, and in the following 
year, accompanied by Mr. Armitage, made a remark- 
able journey, during which he discovered the western 
portion of Franz- Josef Land. The Jackson-Harms- 
worth expedition returned to England in the autumn 
of 1897. 

In 1899 Captain Sverdrup in the Fram led an ex- 
pedition up Smith's Sound, with the object of dis- 
covering the northern coast of Greenland. In the 
summer of 1889 H.R.H. the Duke of Abruzzi, on 
board the Norwegian whaler Jason, which was re- 
named the Stella Polare, proceeded to Franz- Josef 
Land, and wintered at TepHtz Bay in Rudolph Land. 
Three sledge expeditions were sent north in the 
spring of 1900, and one under Captain Cagni, reached 
84** 33' N., at about 56° E., which is 20 miles farther 
north than Nansen's farthest. The sides of the SteUa 
Polare were crushed by ice pressure, but she was 
patched up, and in her the expedition reached Nor- 
way in September, 1900. 

Robert Edwin Peary, the American Arctic ex- 



plorer, during his third Arctic expedition for the 
discovery of the North Pole (1898- 1902) rounded the 
north end of Greenland, the most northemly known 
land in the world, and succeeded in reaching 84** 13' 
N. lat., the highest latitude then attained. In the 
summer of 1905 he started by way of Greenland for 
the North Pole in the steamer Roosevelt, especially 
constructed for the undertaking, provided with the 
necessary means of forcing its way through the ice, 
and furnished with an installation of wireless tele- 
graphy. On November 4, 1906, news was received in 
New York that Peary had gained for the United 
States the " Farthest North " record. The Roosevelt 
spent the winter of 1905 on the north coast of Grant 
Land, somewhere north of the Alert's winter quar- 
ters. In February, 1905, Peary, with his palrty, went 
north with sledges, via Hecla and Columbia. They 
were delayed by open water between 84** and 85®, 
and beyond 85*^ a six days' gale disrupted the ice, 
destroyed the caches, cut off communication with the 
supporting bodies and drifted them due east. They 
reached 87® 6' N. lat., over ice drifting steadily east- 
wards. On the return journey great hardships were 
endured, and the ship was eventually reached by 
way of the Greenland coast. 

See Scoresby's " Account of Arctic Regions and 
of the Whale Fishery" (1820), Osborne's " Narra- 
tive of an Attempt to Reach the North Pole" (1827), 
M'Clintock's " Discovery of the North- West Pas- 
sage by M'Clure" (1857), Nare's "Narrative of the 
Discovery of the Fate of Sir John Franklin " (1859), 
Markham's " Narrative of a Voyage to the Polar 
Seas" (1875-76), Middendorf's "Polar Regions" 
(1861), Manual of the " Natural History, Geology 
and Physics of Greenland and the Neighbouring Re- 
gions," British Admiralty (1875), "Arctic Geography 
and Ethnology," Royal Geographical Society (1875), 
Bessel's " New Lands within the Arctic Circle" 
(1876), Mohn's "The North Ocean, its Depths, 
Temperature and Circulation " (1877), Petterson's 
"Vo3rage of the JeannetU"\ "The Ship and Ice 
Journals of George W. De Long " (1883), Nansen's 
"Farthest North" (1897), "The Norwegian North 
Polar Expedition, 1893-96." 

Arctic Ocean. One of the great water divisions of 
the Globe, the Arctic circle (60° 30') being taken as a 
boundary, the whole of the ocean lying to the north 
is given this name. It is for the most part enclosed 
between the North Coast of Europe, Asia and North 
America. It communicates with the Atlantic by a 
broad opening on the east of Greenland, and a nar- 
row, but important channel on the west, which has 
been traced as far north as 87® 6' N. The immediate 
area round the North Pole is as yet unexplored ; the 
nearest approaches which have been made have been 
those of Dr. Nansen and Johansen 86** 14', in i^'j$ ; 
Captain Cagni 86* 34', 1900; Robert Edwin Peary 
87** 6' N., 1906. So far as is known the region imme- 
diately round the Pole consists of deep water covered 
with rough and broken ice-pack. The area of the 



ARCTIC 



43 



ARGYLL 



Arctic Ocean is estimated at 5,908,000 square miles. 
The temperature of the surface water is generally 
29^, or about freezing point of salt water, at about 
1 10 fathoms it increases to 33^, and the highest tem- 
perature ranges between 120 and 350 fathoms, 
namely, 35® to 39**. The greatest known depth is 
about 2,650 fathoms. The most important of the 
numerous islands are Spitzbergen, Nova Zembla. 
with the multitudinous adjacent islets to the north 
of Europe; the Likhow Islands or New Siberia, off 
the coast of Asia, and the vast irregular Archipelago, 
into which the north eastern portion of America is 
split. Refer to Arctic Exploration. 

See Dr. Nansen's "Farthest North" (1897), 
*' Scientific Results of the Nansen Expedition " 
(1900). " On the Polar ^tar in the Arctic Sea," 
Abruzzi (1903), " History of the Kara Sea Trade 
Route to Siberia," Kiniock (1898). 

Arctie Pole. The North Pole, as opposed to the 
Antarctic or Southern one. 

Arctic Zone. The zone or belt of the earth be- 
tween the North Pole and the Arctic circle. 

Arctonu. A star of the first magnitude, one of the 
nautical stars, close to the knee of Arctophylax. 

Ardea. Italian torpedo-boat. (Odero, 1906.) 
Length, 165 ft.; beam, 17 ft. ; draught, 7 ft.; dis- 
placement, 200 tons; complement, 36; armament, 
3 ■3-pdr., 3 tubes. ; Hp., 3,000 = 25 kts. ; coal, 40 tons. 

Ardent. British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Chis- 
wick, 1894.) Length, 201 ft.; beam, 19 ft.; draught, 
7 ft.; displacement, 247 tons; complement, 45; 
armament, i 12-pdr., 5 6-pdr. ; 2 tubes; twin 
screw; Hp., 4,500 = 27 kts.; coal, 60 tons. 

This ship-name is associated with Hood's occupa- 
tion of Toulon, 1793; Camperdown, 1797; Copen- 
hagen, 1801 ; Bombardment of Copenhagen, 1807. 

Ardent. Term used when vessel gripes or goes to 
wind quickly. 

Ardjoeno. Netherlands torpedo-boat. (Yarrow, 
1886.) Length, 125 ft.; beam, 13 ft. ; draught, 6 ft.; 
displacement, 83 tons; complement, 16; armament, 
2 i-pdr., 2 tubes, Hp., 880=21 kts.; coal, 20 tons. 

Areometer. See Hydrometer. 

Arethosa. A vessel built and engined by Messrs . 
Penn in i860 with engines of large cylinder capacity 
to admit of great expansion with surface condensers 
and superheaters to the boilers. They were double- 
trunk with two cylinders and worked at a pressure 
of 25lbs. to the square inch. This vessel was con- 
structed with the idea of economising fuel. 

Aretosa. Italian torpedo gun -boat (1891). 
Displacement 850 tons. Complement 118. 



Guns. 


Armour, 


1 — 47 in. 


" Steel." 


6 — 6pdr. 


I J in. Deck. 


3—1 pdr. 




Torpedo 


Tubes. 


6 Above water. 



Twin screw. Hp. 4,100= 19*5 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 180 tons. 

Argelander, Friedrich Wilhelm Angiist (1799-1895)- 
German astronomer (b. Memel). From 1823-27. 
he was director of the Abo Observatory, and in 1837 
became Professor of Astronomy at Bonn, where he 
pubUshed his celestial atlas ** Uranometria Nova " 
in 1843. In continuation of Bessel's work he deter- 
mined the position of some 22,000 stars. 

Argentine Tacht dab, with their headquarters in 
Buenos Ayres, was established in 1883. Patron, 
His Excellency the President of the Argentine Re- 
public; Commodore, Rear- Admiral Enrique G. 
Howard; Vice-Commodore, C. F. Blanco; Hon. 
Treasurer, F. F. Nisbet; Hon. Secretary, L. B. 
Trant. Entrance fee, 100 dols. Annual subscrip- 
tion, 50 dols. 

Argnuuae, Battle of. In 406 b.c. Conon and the 
Athenian Fleet defeated the Spartans in a naval 
fight off the Island of Arginusae, between Nesbos and 
Asia Minor. 

Argonant. British istclasscmiser. (Fairfield, 1898.) 
Length 450 ft. Beam 68 ft. Maximum draught 27 ft. 
Displacement 1 1 ,000 tons. Complement 677. 
Guns, Armour, 

16—6 in. "Harvey." 

12 — 12 pdr. 4 in. Belt amidships. 

2 — 12 pdr., 8 cwt. 12 in. Conning tower. 
12 — 3 pdr. 
2 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
2 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 18,000=20*3 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 2,000 tons. Approximate cost ;£6oo,ooo. 

Argonant. The name given to cuttles belonging 
to the genus Argonauta. One of the heroes who 
accompanied Jason in the ship Argo when he sailed 
on his mythic voyage in quest of the Golden Fleece. 

Argonanie. French torpedo-boat (1899). Dis- 
placement, 120; complement, 34 ; maximum draught, 
9 ft.; guns 2 3-pdr.; torpedo tubes 2 15 -in.; twin 
screw; Hp., 2,000=26 kts.; coal, 16 tons. 

Argo Steamship Co., with their head offices 
at Bremen, have a fleet of 30 steamers engaged in 
general cargo carrying, and the Bremen-London and 
the Bremen-Hull trades. They are modern well- 
built ships, containing excellent accommodation for 
the conveyance of passengers. A steamer leaves 
London every Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday, for 
Bremen, one sailing from Bremen on the same days. 
A steamer leaves Hull for Bremen every Monday 
and Friday, returning from Bremen every Wednes- 
day and Saturday. 

Argns. French shallow draught gun -boat. (Chis- 
wick, 1900.) Displacement, 122 tons; speed, 13 kts. 

ArgylL British ist class cruiser. (Greenock 
Foundry Co., 1904.) 
Length 450 ft. Beam 68 ft. Maximum draught 25 ft. 



ARIADNE 



44 



AR'MEN 



Displacement io,7CX> tons. Complement 655. 
Guns, A rtnour. 

4 — 7'S in. " Krupp." 

6 — 6 in. 6 in. Belt amidships. / 

2 — 12 pdr. 6 in. Barbettes. 

22 — 3 pdr. 12 in. Conning tower. 

2 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes, 
2 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 21,000=22^ kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 1 .800 tons. Approximate cost ;J8 50,000. 

Ariadne. British ist class cruiser. (Clydebank, 
1898.) 

Length 450 ft. Beam 69 ft. Maximum draught 27 ft. 
Displacement 11,000 tons. Complement 677. 
Guns, A rmour, 

16—6 in., 40 cal. " Harvey." 

12 — 12 pdr. 4 in. Belt amidships. 

2 — 12 pdr., 8 cwt. 12 in. Conning tower. 
12 — 3 pdr. 
2 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
2 Submerged. 
Twin Bcrew. Hp. 18,000=20-3 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 2,000 tons. Approximate cost ;£6oo,ooo. 

A ship of this name was with Barrington at St. 
Lucia 1778; with Byron against D'Estaing, off 
Grenada, 1779; Hotham, ofi Hy^res, 1795. 

Ariadne. German armoured cruiser (Weser, 1900). 
Length 328 ft. Beam 39 ft. Maximum draught 1 7 ft. 
Displacement 2,650 tons. Complement 249. 
Guns. A rtnour, 

10 — ^4-1 in. " Krupp." 

14 — I pdr. 2 in. Deck. 

4 Machine. 3 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes, 
2 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 8,500=21 kts. Coal maximum 
560 tons. 

Ariadne Steamship Oo^ Ltd., have two modem 
cargo steamers built at West Hartlepool, which are 
engaged in the cargo trade with the Continent. 

Fleet. 
Ariadne, Ariadne Alexander. 

Ariake. Japanese torpedo-boat destroyer. (Yar- 
row, 1905.) Displacement, 380 tons; complement, 
55; maximum draught, 9^t.; armament, i 12 -pdr., 
5 6-pdr., tubes 2 i8in.;Hp., 6,000=31 kts.; coal. 
95 tons. 

Ariel. On March 18. 1820, this vessel was lost in 
the Persian Gulf, when ^9 perished. 

ArieL British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Chiswick, 
1897.) Length, 210ft.; beam, 19 ft.; draught, 7 ft.; 
displacement, 278 tons; complement, 60; arma- 
ment, I 1 2 -pdr., 5 6-pdr., 2 tubes; twin screw; 
Hp., 5,800 = 30 kts.; coal, 80 tons. 

This vessel struck the head of the break-water 
during anight attack on Malta Harbour, April, 1907, 
and foundered ; one life lost. 



Aries. A northern constellation, forming the first 
of the twelve signs of the Zodiac, into which the sun 
enters about March 20. With Musca, Aries contains 
22 Nebulae, 8 double, and 148 single stars, of which 
only 50 are visible to the naked eye. The commence- 
ment of this sign, called the first point of Aries, is the 
original from which the right ascension of the 
heavenly bodies is reckoned upon the equator, and 
their longitude upon the ecliptic. Owing to the effect 
of precession, the passage of the sun through Aries 
has been moved forward from April 16 to May 13. 

Arkansas. U.S. monitor. (Newport News, 1900.) 
Length 252 ft. Beam 50 ft. Maximum draught 13 ft. 
Displacement 2,755 tons. Complement 130. 
Guns. Armour. 

2 — 1 2 in., 40 cal. "Krupp." 
4 — 4 in. 1 1 in. Belt amidships. 

3—6 pdr. 1 1 in. Barbettes. 

4 — I pdr. 8 in. Conning tower. 

2 Colts. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
2 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. 2,400 = 12 kts. Coal maximum 
400 tons. 

Ark of Noah. A sacred and capacious vessel, built 
by Noah for the purpose of preserving the race of 
man, and of the land animals, against the fiood. It 
took 120 years to build, measured 300 cubics in 
length, 50 in breadth, and 30 in height; it had three 
storeys, and was constructed of Gopher wood, and 
pitched over or paved with Bitumen. 

A.B.1L Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Amemuiden, Holland. 

Armada. A Spanish term, signifying a royal fleet. 
It comes from the same root as Army. 

^''Tnada, The Spanish. See Spanish Armada. 

Armand BehiC. French subsidised merchant 
ship (1892). Messageries Maritimes {q.v.). Dimen- 
sions, 486 X 49 X 36 ft.; gross tonnage, 6,635. ; Hp., 
7,500=17 kts. 

Armed Neatrality is the condition of a neutral State 
which is prepared to take military measures against 
possible attempts on the part of a belligerent {q.v.) 
to use neutral territory or to commit aggressions. The 
first armed neutrality of 1780, formed by Russia, 
Denmark and Sweden, proclaimed the principles 
that neutral vessels may freely navigate and carry 
goods belonging to subjects of belligerents, if not of 
the nature of contraband of war {q.v.), and that no 
blockade {q.v.) should be recognised unless effective. 
The second armed neutrality of 1800 made no ad- 
vance, owing to the Naval supremacy of Great 
Britain and the death of the Emperor Paul. In 1807 
Russia proclaimed armed neutrality afresh, and it was 
not until the Declaration of Paris (^.t;.), 1865, that new 
rules were finally settled. 

Ar'men Light, situated off Cape Finisterre, was 
established in 1897, and is a 3-flash light every 



ARMING 



45 



ARMSTRONG 



20 seconds; duration of flash one-tenth second; 
candle-power 250,000; burner, mantle 30 mm. 
diameter; illuminant, incandescent, oil, gas. 

Arming the Lead. Tallow placed in the cavity at the 
end of sounding lead, to bring up specimens from 
the bottom. 

Armour, NavaL The idea of using armour for iron- 
clads is about 86 years old, and dates from the intro- 
duction of guns, capable of horizontal shell fire. In 
1 82 1 a French commission was appointed to con- 
sider the question of armour-clad vessels, but decided 
it to be impracticable, and nothing was done until 
the Crimean War, when the first armoured vessels 
were built in France for the purpose of attacking the 
Russian shore batteries in the Black Sea. None of 
these were sea-going vessels, and it was not until 
1857 that Napoleon III., with Dupuy de L6me, be- 
gan a new era of naval construction, with the sea- 
going frigate Gloire, the frame of which was built of 
wood and plated with iron. In December, i860, the 
first British sea-going ironclad Warrior was launched ; 
her displacement was 9,000 tons, and less than two- 
thirds of her length was armoured. The Black Prince 
followed in 1861, both vessels being built of, as well 
as armoured with, iron, the superior strength and 
lasting qualities of which soon drove wood, as a con- 
structive material, out altogether. In 1873 the 
Minotaur was launched, a vessel of 10,300 tons, 
armoured throughout her length, except at the bow, 
and armed with breech«-loading rifled guns. In 1867 
the turret system, in which the guns were carried on 
a turning platform, protected by an armoured ring, 
was applied to the Captain and Monarch. The Her* 
cules, in 1868, with 9 in. armour, was an example of 
the belt and battery system; sh« was only armoured 
to the main deck, except that the armour was carried 
up to theupperdeck, where it was necessary to protect 
the big guns carried in her central battery. In 1871 
the Devastation, with 12 in. armour, represented a 
revolution in design, for she had twin-screws, and 
depended entirely on steam propulsion; the hori- 
zontal armour of her main-deck was a new feature, 
which materially increased weight and cost. So the. 
increase went on until the Inflexible, launched in 
1876, bore some armour which was as much as 24 in. 
thick. She was of the central citadel type; her 
armour was concentrated for about one-third of her 
length, the fore and aft protection being a steel deck. 
This vessel was severely criticized, and it was urged 
against her that her unarmoured ends might be 
freely penetrated; but in 1894, ^t the battle of Ya-lu. 
two Chinese ships of the same type were exposed to 
fire all day, and in the evening were able to follow up 
the Japanese fleet when it withdrew. While she was 
being constructed, compound armour was introduced 
and applied to her in certain positions, which 
marked the beginning of the complete supersession 
of iron by steel. Nearly all battleships built between 
188^-90 )iad compound armour — i.e., armour with 



a hard steel face and soft iron back. In the Majestic 
1894, Harveyized steel was emplo3red, which was 
made by a mixture with steel of small proportions of 
other metals, notably nickel. Her plating was 7^ in., 
and was equal to 1 5 in. of iron. She was a return to 
the belt system, and had a large protected area. In 
the Formidable, a modem addition to the Majestic, 
the armour was carried forward to the bow, and with 
this increase of armoured area there was another 
quality of armour plate, the latest and best which is 
known as " Krupp " armour. The necessary thick- 
ness was therefore decreased, and instead of 24 in. 
wrought iron armour, 12 in. compound, or 7^ in. 
Harveyized steel, 5j-in. Krupp steel was substituted. 
At the present day 12 in. Krupp steel armour plates 
are the thickest used, and these only in such vessels 
as the Dreadnought and her class; the major part of 
the armour of most of the battleships in the British 
and foreign navies being about nine inches. 

Refer to Very's " Navies of the World "; Very's 
"Naval Construction"; Browne's "Position of 
British and Foreign Armour"; Brassey's "Naval 
Aimual." 

Armoured Veoals* See Armour, Naval. 

Armfltooiigt Whitvrorth and Co., Ltd., Sir W. 

Elswick and Walker. 

The Flswick shipyard has a frontage on to the 
River Tyne of about 2,300 feet, and berth accommo- 
dation is provided in the yard for the building of ten 
vessels at the same time. Three of the berths, which 
have been specially piled and strengthened to re- 
ceive exceptionally large and heavy war-vessels, are 
capable of taking vessels up to 650 ft. in length and 
90 ft. in breadth. Lines of rail intersect the yard and 
run alongside each of the berths, whilst locomotives 
with cranes for light lifts and heavy travelling cranes 
to lift large castings, etc., are constantly employed in 
and about the shipyard. 

The machinery shed, containing punching, shear- 
ing, drilling, bending and planing machines, has a 
length of 1,000 feet, and in it are found the most up- 
to-date appliances for dealing quickly with ship 
plates and other work. 

In the centre of the yard the angle smith and angle 
turning shops, with furnaces for heatix^ angle bars 
and plates, are situated; at the east end a very com- 
plete sawmill, with timber sheds, the pattern-making 
shop and plumbers' shop, boat building shop, sail 
making loft and model making shop, are also located, 
and on the west side the blacksmiths' shop, fitting 
shop and joiners' shop, with a mould loft 300ft. in 
length above the drawing and general offices and 
general store. The latter, as well as the fitting shop, 
joiners' shop and mould loft, are, however, being 
transferred to the other end of the shipyard, where 
the joiners' shop will be in close and convenient 
proximity to the sawmill. 

The whole of the machinery employed in the ship- 
yard is electrically driven, and the installation of 



ARMSTRONG 



46 



ARMSTRONG 



motors for producing power and light represents 
about 2.000 B.Hp. 

Three large air compressors supply compressed air 
for working various portable tools throughout the 
3rard, mains being fitted so that compressed air can 
be readily obtained wherever required, in the yard 
and on board vessels at quays. 

A floating workshop has been constructed for use 
alongside vessels when away from the yard. This 
shop is fitted with various machines, a dynamo for 
lighting purposes, smith forge, etc.. and a galley for 
preparing workmen's meals. 

The Elswick shipyard was primarily established in 
1884. for the exclusive building of warships, but 
during this period other vessels of special types, in- 
eluding several oil-carrying vessels, a cable repairing 
vessel, and an exceptionally finely modelled and 
luxuriously furnished yacht and a State barge for the 
Sultan of Turkey, have been constructed there. 

At this yard the firm could, if required, proceed 
contemporaneously with the construction of ten war 
vessels, having accommodation for two battleships 
of 20.000 tons or more displacement (one of the 
berths recently constructed and strengthened with 
ferro-concrete piling could take a vessel up to 
30,000 tons), one first-class cruiser of. say, 15,000 
tons,, and one of 10,000 tons; two second^lass 
cruisers of 4,000 tons; two third-class cruisers or 
gunboats of 2,000 tons, and two torpedo-boat de- 
stroyers, or other smaller craft. 

As illustrating the capacity of Sir W. G. Arm- 
strong. Whitworth and Co.. Ltd., for warship con- 
struction, it may be stated that in 1898 no less 
than twenty war vessels of various types were under ' 
construction, viz., 15 at Elswick shipyard and 5 at 
the Walker shipyard. This extensive list comprised 
one first-class battleship. 12.300 tons and 14.000 Hp.. 
two first-class cruisers, each of 9,700 tons and 
18.000 Hp.. two coast defence armour-clads, each of 
3,400 tons and 4.500 Hp.. one armoured cruiser of 
7.000 tons and 18.000 Hp., eleven second and third- 
class cruisers and two torpedo-boat destroyers. The 
aggregate displacement of these vessels amounted to 
98,000 tons, and the aggregate indicated horse-power 
of the machinery fitted in them amounted to 233,000. 
Six of the vessels, viz., one first-class battleship, one 
armoured cruiser, and four second-class cruisers, 
were launched from Elswick shipyard in that 
•year. 

In all 71 war vessels have been built at Elswick 
shipyard for the British Navy and for other navies of 
ttie world, viz. : 







Total dispt. 


I.Hp. 


British Navy 


23 


117,009 


271.700. 


Japanese Navy 


10 


91.835 


145,000. 


Chilian Navy 


7 


30.550 


79.750. 


Brazilian Navy 


5 


9.447 


21,500. 


Chinese Navy 


5 


I3»97i 


48,000. 


Norwegian Navy 


4 


H.554 


18,000. 


Italian Navy 


4 


5.«26 


27.200. 


Argentine Navy 


3 


II 158 


46.000. 





Total dispt. 


I.Hp. 


Austrian Navy 2 


3.104 


2.000. 


Spanish Navy 2 


2,076 


4.400. 


Indian Service 2 


1.478 


9,000. 


Roumanian Service i 


1.435 


4.7x4. 


Portuguese Service i 


4.253 


12.500. 


United States i 


3.437 


7.500. 


Turkish States i 


3.805 


12.500. 


71 


313.928 


709,764. 



In May, 1907, there were under construction, in 
addition to H.M.S. Invincible, a vessel of the Dread- 
nought class, to be named Superb, and a 33 kt. 
torpedo-boat destroyer for the British Navy, as well 
as two first-class battleships for the Brazilian 
Navy. 

The number of men employed in Elswick shipyard, 
when moderately busy, is from four to five thousand. 

It may be added that Sir W. G. Armstrong, 
Whitworth and Co.. Ltd., by arrangement with 
Messrs. Robert Stephenson and Co., Ltd.. Heb- 
bum-on-T}me, have first claim to the large grav- 
ing dock belonging to the latter firm, for the dock- 
ing of war vessels built by the former. This dock 
is 710 ft. long and 90 ft. wide, and is thns capable of 
receiving the largest war vessels yet built or build- 
ing. It will therefore be seen that the facilities 
possessed by the Elswick firm for the building and 
completion of every class of war vessel leave nothing 
to be desired, and are possibly such as no other 
private firm in the country possess. 

The Walker shipyard was originally founded in 
1840, and after changing hands once or twice, was 
reopened in 1852 by the late Mr. Charles Mitchell, in 
partnership with Mr. Matthew R. Bigge, of Fenham 
Hall, under the style of Messrs. C. Mitchell and 
Co. A number of interesting steamers of all types 
were constructed in this yard ; and if one type of the 
many may be taken as representing a speciality, the 
light draft paddle steamer may be pointed to as a 
class of vessel of which perhaps a larger number than 
any other was built at that time. The relations be- 
tween Mr. Mitchell and the Russian Government were 
very close, and in the early 'sixties Mr. Henry F. Swan 
went to St. Petersburg and constructed a floating 
battery, the Ne Tron Menya, the armoured frigate 
Prince Pojarshi, and three armoured turret ships for 
the Russian Navy, in the dockyard placed at the 
disposal of Messrs. C. Mitchell and Co. by the 
Government. Amongst a large number of commer- 
cial steamers the following may be mentioned as re- 
presenting very unusual types, and as pointing to the 
variety of work which has been characteristic of the 
shipyard: The Hooper, telegraph steamer, which 
was launched in 100 working days; the Faraday; the 
Pouyer Qu&rtier, cable steamer; a floating dock 
formed of iron cylinders, which was built and shipped 
for re-erection in Batavia. and the cruisers Chao 
Yung and Yang Wei. In 1882 the tirm of Messrs. 
C. Mitchell and Co., combined with that of Sir 



ARMSTRONG 



47 



ARPAD 



W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth and Co., and the 
style of the company became Sir W. G. Arm- 
strong, Mitchell and Co., Ltd. After the amal- 
gamation the cruisers Esmeralda, Naniwa Kan, 
Takachiho Kan, and one or two others were built in 
the Walker yard, but it was decided to separate the 
military from the commercial shipbuilding, and the 
Elswick shipyard was formed for carrying on the 
former class of work. The total number of vessels 
constructed in the Walker shipyard since its inau* 
guration, under the management of the late Sir. 
Charles Mitchell, is 708. Although many yards can 
claim a considerably larger output of tonnage, it is 
questionable whether any shipbuilding firm can show 
such a record of varied work. The ice-breaking 
steamer Ermack, the ice-breaking ferry steamer 
Baikal, the ice-breaking ferry steamer Saratovskaia 
Pereprava, represent specimens of work which are in 
their way unique. The tank type of steamer for 
carrying petroleum in bulk owes its inception to Mr. 
Swan, and no less than 91 of this type have been 
already constructed, while it is very seldom that at 
least one of this class of steamer is not under con- 
struction. Passenger steamers of various kinds, tur- 
bine propelled steamers of high speed, and practically 
every type of vessel which a shipbuilder is called 
upon to design, have been turned out from this yard. 
Of late the whole arrangement of the yard has been 
altered, more land has been taken in, the old build- 
ings have disappeared and have been replaced by 
modem up-to-date sheds, with all the latest appli- 
ances lor carrying out rapid and economical ship- 
building. 

AimftrODg, WiUiam George, first Baron Arm- 
strong (18 10- 1 900). British Inventor and founder 
of the Elswick Works. Educated at the Gram- 
mar School, Bishop's Auckland, and on leaving 
was articled to a solicitor, and for a number 
of years was engaged in active practice in Newcastle. 
As a boy he took considerable interest in mechanical 
devices and began investigations on electricity, and 
several of his inventions date from a time prior to his 
giving up the Law. In 1838 he made his first con- 
tribution to Hydraulic Engineering by inventing a 
Hydro-Electric Machine, and six years later invented 
the Hydraulic Crane, which procured for him his 
Fellowship of the Royal Society. The Elswick Works 
were originally founded for the manufacture of 
Hydraulic Machinery, and the first ** Rified Ord- 
nance Armstrong Gun " did not make its appearance 
until 1856. They were adopted by the British 
Government in 1859, he was appointed Engineer of 
Rifled Ordnance, and 300 " Armstrong " guns were 
introduced into the service between 1859 and 1862; 
Great Britain thus originated a principle of gun con- 
struction which has since been universally adopted. 
In 1863 he resigned his appointment and returned to 
Elswick, where he developed his early idea of using 
steel wire for the construction of guns. The retro- 
grade step which was taken by the British Gcvem- 



ment in 1864, when they ceased to use the " Arm- 
strong " gun owing to defects found in parts of the 
breech mechanism, which was caused by careless- 
ness in not closing this part of the gun properly, but 
which might easily have been remedied, decided them 
to revert to the old muzzled loader, and it was not 
until 1880, when he once more demonstrated the 
superiority of breech-loading guns, that they were 
received back into the service. In 1863, when Presi- 
dent of the British Association, his speech on the 
probable early exhaustion of our coalfields, led to 
the appointment of a Royal Commission to investi- 
gate the matter. Besides the Elswick Gun Foimdry, 
he established the Elswick shipyards for the construc- 
tion of steel warships, and some of the fastest ships 
in the British Navy have been built there. In 1897 
he was raised to the peerage, his name appearing 
among the Jubilee honours, and became the first 
Baron Armstrong. He died at Rothbury, Northum- 
berland, December 27, 1900, at the venerable age of 
90. and was buried on the last day of the nineteenth 
century in Rothbury churchyard. 

In addition to being a Companion of the Bath, he 
held the Order of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus of Italy, 
of the Dannebrog of Denmark, of Jesus Christ of 
Portugal, of Francis Joseph of Austria, of Charles the 
Third of Spain, of the Rose of Brazil, of the Dragon 
of China, and of the Sacred Treasure of Japan. He re- 
ceived the honorary degrees of D.C.L. from Oxford 
and Durham, and of LL.D. from Cambridge. 

Publications: " A Visit to Egypt " (1873), " Elec- 
tric Movements in Air and Water " (1897), besides 
many professional papers. 

Armstrong, WiUiaiii Henry AmuitrQiig FitiPatrick, 
Lord Armstrong. J.P., D.L. Northumberland, (cr. 
1903.) Major Northumberland Yeomanry (b. 
March 3, 1863). Married 1889 Winifred, daughter of 
late Sir John Adye, G.C.B. Educated Eton and 
Trinity College, Cambridge, M.A. Cantab Hon. 
D.C.L., Durham. Heir, s. Hon. W. J. Montagu 
(b. 1892). Director of Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whit- 
worth and Co., and of the North-Eastem Railway. 
President of the North-East Coast Engineers and 
Shipbuilding Institution, 1894. Hon. Ass., Inst. 
N.A., and an Hon. Member of the Surveyors 
Institution. 

Army and NaTy Ohronide and Omninm Oatheram 

Established 1902. Published monthly. Price 6d 
Address, 1 1 1 Jermyn Street, St James's, London, S.W' 

Army and Havy €(aiette. Established i860. Pub- 
lished weekly (Saturday). Price 6d. Address, 22 
Essex Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

Arpad. Austro-Hungarian battleship. (Trieste, 
1901.) 
Length 354 ft. Beam 65 ft. Maximum draught 25 ft. 

Displacement 8,340 tons. 



ARPEA 



48 



ARTAN 



Guns. 

3 — 9*4 in.* 40 cal- 
12 — 6 in. 
10—12 pdr. 
16 Maxims. 



Armour, 
" Krupp." 
8 in. Belt amidships 
8 in. Barbettes. 
8 in. Turrets. 



8 in. Conning tower. 
Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
2 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 11,900=18*5 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 840 tons. Approximate cost £6$o,ooo. 

Arpea. Italian torpedo-boat. (Odero, 1906.) 
Length. 165 ft.; beam, 17 ft.; draught, 7 ft.; dis- 
placement, 200 tons; complement, 30; armament, 
3 3-pdr., 3 tubes; Hp., 3,000=25 kts; coal, 40 
tons. 

Arquelxife. French torpedo-boat destroyer. 
(Normand, 1902.) Length, 180 ft.; beam, 21 ft.; 
maximum draught, 10 ft.; displacement, 300 tons; 
complement, 45; guns, i 9-pdr., 6 3-pdr.; tor- 
pedo tubes, 2 1 5 -in. ; speed, 27-30 kts. 

Arrest of Ship. In order to enforce the Admiralty 
process in rem, either party to a suit may, at any 
time after the issue of a writ of summons, apply for a 
warrant of arrest, which, however, is enforceable 
only so long as the res remains in territorial waters. 
Before a warrant for arrest can be obtained, an 
affidavit must be filled by the party or his agent, 
stating the name and description of the party at 
whose instance the warrant is to be issued, the 
nature of the claim or counterclaim, the name and 
nature of the property to be arrested, and that the 
claim or counterclaim has not been satisfied. A 
warrant is then issued from the Admiralty registry, 
directed to the Marshal of the Court, authorising him 
or his deputy to arrest and keep under arrest the 
ship until further orders. The service of the warrant 
is effected by nailing the original to the mast, and 
then leaving a copy in its place. The arrest extends 
to all the vessel's apparel, and sometimes to her 
cargo, either on its account or on the account of 
freight due. 

Any vessel belonging to a British Sovereign or to a 
foreign Sovereign Government is exempt from 
arrest. 

Arrogant. British 2nd class cruiser. (Devonport, 
1896.) 

I«ength 320 ft. Beam 57 ft. Maximum draught 24 ft. 
Displacement 5,750 tons. Complement 480. 
Guns, Armour. 

10—6 in. 2 in. Belt bow. 

1. 8 — 12 pdr. 3 in. Deck. 

I — 12 pdr., 8 cwt. 9 in. Conning tower. 
3—3 pdr. 
2 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
2 Submerged. 
I Above water stem. 
Twin screw. Hp. 10,000— 19 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 1,175 to>^« Approximate cost ;£30o,ooo. 



A vessel of this name was with Rodney in his 
action with De Grasse, 1782. 

Arrogant. French ironclad, sunk off Hy^es Isles» 
March 19, 1879; 47 lives lost. 

ArroL Sir William, Kt. (cr. 1890) (b. 1839). Head of 
the firm of Wm. Arrol and Co., Engineers. Con- 
structed the Tay and Forth Bridges. 

Arrowimiih'g Bristol Tide Tables. Published 
monthly. Price is. Address, Bristol, Gloucester- 
shire. 

Arsenal. A magazine of military stores containing 
weapons of all kinds, and ammunition for the supply 
of the naval and military force belonging to a country. 
The manufacturing establishments for the Navy, 
and the storehouses at places Uke Plymouth, Ports- 
mouth, Pembroke Docks and Chatham, are arsenals, 
but it has long been the custom to speak of them as 
dockyards. In England the term is almost exclu- 
sively applied to the factories and magazines at 
Woolwich, from which the Army and Navy obtain 
the bulk of their guns and ammunition. The principal 
naval arsenals on the Continent are Brest, Cher- 
bourg, Toulon, in France; Spezia and Venice, in* 
Italy; Cartagena, in Spain; Ludwigshafen and Kiel, 
in Germany; Kronstadt, with naval yards at St. 
Petersburg, Libau, Revel, Sebastopol and Nicolaieff, 
in Russia; Horten, in Norway; Karlskrona, in 
Sweden; and Antwerp, in Belgium. In the United 
States, Portsmouth, Boston, Brooklyn, League 
Island, Washington, Norfolk, Pensacola, Mare 
Island and Puget Sound. 

Anon. To maliciously and unlawfuUy set fire to 
His Majesty's ships of war, arsenals, magazines, 
dockyards, or naval or miUtary stores, is a felony 
punishable with death (Dockyard Protection Act 

1772). 
To unlawfully and maliciously set fire to any ship, 

finished or unfinished, is a felony punishable by 
penal servitude to the extent of life, or by imprison- 
ment. To attempt to set fire to any ship, etc., is a 
felony punishable by 14 years' penal servitude, or 
imprisonment (Malicious Damage Act, 1861). 

To set fire to vessels or works in the docks of the 
port of London is still punishable by death. 

Every person subject to the Naval Discipline Act, 
1866, who shall unlawfully set fire to any dockyard, 
victualling yard, or steam factory, yard, arsenal, 
magazine, building, stores, or to any ship, vessel, 
log, barge, boat, or other craft, or furniture thereunto 
belonging, not being the property of an enemy, 
pirate or rebel, shall suffer death or any other pun- 
ishment mentioned in the Act (q.v.). 

Artan, Louis. Marine painter of the Antwerp 
School. Remarkable for the dark and powerful 
effects he obtained in his work, the famous picture, 
the " North East," being a fine specimen of work. 



ARTIFICER 



49 



ASIA 



Artifloer bgiiifltn (British Navy). All engine- 
room artificers oi at least lo years' ccofinned service, 
and of not less than 35 years of age, become eligible 
for warrant rank of artificer engineers. Their miif orm 
is that of the engineer, with Hie addition of a narrow 
strip of purple cloth on the cnff . 

Amn. British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Laird, 
1903.) Length, 225 ft.; beam, 23ft.; draught, 10 ft.; 
displacement. 550 tons; complement, 70; armament, 
I i2-pdr.; 5 6-pdr., 2 tubes; twin screw; Hp. 
7,000=25 kts.; coal, 130 tons. 

AS, Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Aarhuus, Denmark. 

AS, Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Spiekeroog, Germany. 

A.-4. Abbreviation for Alto-stratus, as adopted 
by the International Meteorological Committee and 
used in the International Cloud Atlas. 

Amgizi. Japanese torpedo-boat destroyer. (Thorny- 
croft, 1901.) Displacement, 365 tons; maximum 
draught, 9 ft. ; complement, 60; armament, i 12-pdr., 
5 6-pdr. ; torpedo tubes, 3 i8-in. ; Hp. 6,000^31 kts. ; 
coal, 90 tons. 

AaaUbL Japanese ist class battleship. (Qyde- 
bank, 1899.) 

Length 42 5 ft. Beam 76 ft. Maximum draught 28 ft. 
Displacement 1 5 ,000 tons. Complement 74 1 . 
Guns. Armour, 

4 — 12 in., 40 cal. " Harvey-nickel." 
14 — 6 in. 9 in. Belt amidships. 

20 — 12 pdr. 14 in. Barbettes. 

8 — 3 pdr. 10 in. Turrets. 

6 — 2jt pdr. 14 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
4 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 14,500=18 kts. Coal maximum, 
1,400 tons. 

AMllillO. Japanese torpedo-boat destroyer. 
(Thomycroft, 1901.) Displacement, 365 tons; maxi- 
mum draught, 9 ft. ; complement, 60; armament, 
I i2-pdr.. 5 6-pdr.; tubes 2 i8-in.; Hp., 6,000= 
31 kts.; coal, 90 tons. 



Torpedo Tubes (z8 in.)* 
I Above water bow. 
Twin screw. Hp. forced 18,000 =21 kts. 
maTrimiim 1,300 tons. 



Coal 



>, Japanese torpedo-boat destroyer. (Kobe, 
1906.) Length, 220 ft. ; beam, 20 ft. ; draught, 9^ ft. ; 
displacement, 375 tons; complement, 58; armament, 
I i2-pdr., 5 6-pdr.; 2 tubes; Hp., 6,000=29 kts.; 
coal, 96 tons. 

*f^*"ft Japanese armoured cruiser. (Elswick, 

1898.) 

Length 408 ft. Beam 67 ft. Maximum draught 24 ft. 
Displacement 9,750 tons. Comjdement 500. 
Guns. Armour. 

4 — 8 in. " Harvey-nickel." 

14—6 in. 7 in. Belt amidships. 

13 — 12 pdr. 6 in. Turrets. 

7—2^ pdr. 14 in. Conning tower. 



AlMITiir Japanese torpedo-boatdestroyer. (Thomy- 
croft, 1902.) Length, 216 ft.; beam, 20 ft.; draught, 
8^ ft.; di^lacement, 373 tons; complement, 59; 
armament, i i2-pdr., 5 6-pdr.; 2 tubes; twin screw; 
Hp.. 7,400=3.1 kts.; coal, 96 tons. 

AaatsoyiL Japanese torpedo-boat destroyer. (Osaka, 
1906.) Length, 220 ft. ; beam, 2p ft. ; draught, 9} ft. ; 
displacement, 374 tons; complement, 58; armament, 
I 1 2 -pdr., 5 6-pdr.; 2 tubes; twin screw; Hp., 
6,000=29 kts.; coal, 98 tons. 

Asbestos is a fibrous mineral of the Horn-Blend 
family, and akin to Tremolite, Actemolite and com- 
mon Horn-Blend. The chemical composition is 
chiefly silica, magnesia, alumina and ferrous oxide. 
It occurs in delicate fibres, usually white, grey, blue 
or green. Though rather brittle, it can be teased out 
like wool, and spun and woven into cloth. It forms 
a fire-proof texture, and to be purified requires only 
to be thrown in the fire; and it is said that the 
Romans used to wrap the bodies of their dead in 
asbestos cloth, in order to keep the ashes separate 
from those of the funeral pile. From this property 
it has derived its name. The principal sources of 
supply are Canada, the Alpine countries, Corsica and 
New South Wales; it has also been found near 
Anglesey, Cornwall, in several parts of Scotland and 
the Shetland Isles. It is largely used for piston pack- 
ing, and has been found to exceed in durability any 
material hitherto employed. It is invaluable, parti- 
cularly in the case of marine engines. 

See Jones's " Asbestos and Asbestic." 

Ash* Heory Horatio (b. Portsmouth, January 13, 
1840). British naval architect. Served apprentice- 
ship Portsmouth Dockyard. In 1881 was promoted 
foreman of the Devonport Dockyard. In March. 
1 88 5 , appointed Assistant Constructor. In 1 886 was 
promoted and sent to the Naval Yard at Bermuda, 
and in 1893 was appointed Chief Constructor in the 
Navy, and transferred toSheemess. He retired at 
the age of 60, with 43 years' service. 

Ashtord* Oyril Bmest, M.A., Head Master, Osborne 
Royal Naval College (b. June 17, 1867). Educated 
King Edward's School, Berlin; Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge; nth Wrangler, 1889; First-class in Part I. 
Natural Science Tripos, 1890. 

Publication: "A Text-Book on Electricity and 
Magnetism." 

Ashore. Aground on land. 

Asia. North- West Transit Service steamer. Foun- 
dered between Ontario and Saute Sainte Marie, Sep- 
tember 14, 1882; 98 hves lost. 



ASIATIC 



50 



ASSOCIATION 



Aflatio Petroleiim Oo. have a fleet of two steameis 
engaged in the carriage of petroleum. 

Fleet. 
El Guisr, Saline Richmers. 

Asiatio Steam Vavigatkn Ooh Ltd.. managed 
by Messrs. Turner, Morrison and Co., Calcutta, 
have a fleet of 15 large steamers, which main- 
tain services from Calcutta round the coast of 
India to Bombay; one from Calcutta to Chittagong 
and Rangoon ; a cargo service from Calcutta to Java ; 
the Andaman Mail service from Calcutta to Ran- 
goon, Port Blair and Madras; and a service from 
Calcutta to Rangoon and Moulmein. 

Fleet. 

Kohimuf. Newab. Rajah, 

Maharaja. Nizam, RajptU. 

Maharani. Nurani. Ranee. 

Nadir, Pasha. Shahjehan. 

Nairung. Pundit. Shahzada. 

Askold. Russian cruiser. (Krupp, 1900.) 
Length 444 ft. Beam 49 ft. Maximum draught 2 1 ft. 
Displacement 6,500 tons. Complement 580. 
Guns. Armour. 

12 — 6 in. " Krupp." 

12 — 12 pdr. 3 in. Deck. 

8 — 3 pdr. 6 in. Conning tower. 

2 — I pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
2 Submerged. 
4 Above water bow and stem. 
Three screws. Hp. 19,500=23 kts. Coal maximum 
1,100 tons. 

Escaped from Japanese at the Battle of Round 
Island, August 10, 1904, and reached Shanghai, 
where she was interned. 

AiO. Formerly Bayan (q.v.). Japanese armour 
cruiser. (La Seyne, 1900.) 

Length 443 ft. Beam 55 ft. Draught 32 ft. 
Displacement 7,700 tons. Complement 400. 
Guns. Armour. 

2—8 in. " Krupp." 

8—6 in. 8 in. Belt. 

20— 1 2 pdr. 7 in. Bulkheads. 

7 — 3 pdr. 7 in. Big gun shields. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
2 Submerged. 
4 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. 17,400=22 kts. Coal maximum 
1,000 tons. 

Aipen. Russian torpedo-boat. (Oshora, 1895.) 
Length. 127 ft.; beam, 15 ft.; draught, 6 J ft.; dis- 
placement, 98 tons; complement, 14; armament, 
2 I -pdr., 2 tubes; Hp., 1,250=21 kts.; coal, 17 tons. 

Aspem, Small Austro-Hungarian cruiser. (Pola, 

1899.) 

Length 313 ft. Beam 39 ft. Maximum draught 17 ft. 
Displacement 2,437 ^oas. Complement 242. 



Guns. Armour. 

8—47 in. " Steel." 

12 — 3 pdr. 2 in. Deck. 

2 — I pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes (177 in.). 
I Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. 7,000=20 kts. Coal maximum 
500 tons. Approximate cost £1 50,000. 

Aspic. French screw gim-boat (1880). Of little 
fighting value. 

AspinaU's Kariiiiiia law Beporti. Established 
1 861. Published quarterly. Price 5s. 6rf. Address: 
Bream's Buildings, London, £.C. 

^Tff^fl" Dutch Indian Navy gun-boat. (Rotter- 
dam, 1900.) 

Length 179 ft. Beam 30 ft. Maximum draught 12 ft. 
Displacement 787 tons. Complement 96. 

Guns. 

3—47 in. 

2 — 2*9 in. 

4 — I '4 in. 

Hp. 1,353 = 13 kts. Coal 120 tons. 

Anaf^i-I^BWllk. Turkish battleship. (La Seyne, 
1870.) 

Length 272 ft. Beam 52 ft. Draught 25 ft. 
Displacement 4,61 3 tons. Complement 320. 
Guns. Armour. 

2--9'2 in. " Steel," 

6 — 6 in. 8 in. Deck. 

10—12 pdr. 6 in. Gun shields. 

Hp. 3,560=13 kts. Coal maximum 400 tons. 

Aiseti. A term for property and money in contra- 
distinction to liabilities. 

Andsnment. A policy may be assigned in whole or 
part (31 and 32 Vict. cap. 86). This Act gives the 
form: " I, A.B., of etc., do hereby assign unto CD., 
etc., his executors, administrators, and assigns, the 
within policy of assurances on the ship, freight, and 
the goods therein carried (or on ship, or freight, or 
goods as the case may be)." The adoption of this 
form is, however, not imperative, nor is it custo- 
mary, as an assignment is usually made by indorsa- 
tion in writing upon the body, margin, or back of the 
policy, or by delivery of the instrument with inten- 
tion to assign it. (Amould, 4th ed., pp. 103, 104.) 
The assignment of a policy of insurance after loss is 
within the Act (Lloyd v. Spence; Lloyd v. Fleming, 
L.R. 7 Q.B. 299), but if the interests of the assured 
have ceased before loss, an assignment of the policy 
after the loss has happened will be inoperative (North 
of England Pure Oilcake Co. v. Archangel Marine 
Co.. L.R. 10 Q.B. 249. Mc Arthur on the Contract 
of Marine Insiurance p. 58.) 

Assistance. Ship. See Arctic Exploration. 

Assistance. British steam-repair ship (9,600 tons). 

4tSfffthlt^ffll H.M. shq>. 70 guns. Wrecked off the 
Scilly Islands, October 22. 1707. when Admiral Sir 
Cloudealey Shovel and 800 men perished. 



ASSOCIATION 



51 



ASTREA 



Anooiation of ATtrage Adjiigtarg, Capei Court. B.C., 
is an association of avexage adjusters combining for 
mutual support as well as for the regulation of their 
practice upon approved lines; and the formation of 
the Association of Average Adjusters has enabled 
them to make progress in this direction. The objects 
of the association are to promote correctness of 
principle and uniformity of practice in the adjust- 
ment of claims. An annual meeting is held, which is 
attended by representatives of shipowners, mer- 
chants and underwriters, as well as by the adjusters 
themselves, for the discussion of questions affecting 
average adjustment and the formation of practical 
rules. 

Examinations are also held, which new members 
of the profession have to pass before they are eligible 
for admission as members of the associaticHi. 

Aaooiatioii of Uaierwiltofs and Ihauiaiioe 
BraiDBCS in CHaagOW is composed of underwriters, 
marine insurance companies and insurance brokers, 
and is carried on as a centre for undenmting, marine 
insurance broking, and with the view to protect un- 
derwriters' and brokers' interests, both in respect to 
underwriting questions and salvage arrangements* 

There is evidence of the Association of Under- 
writers in Glasgow for the purpose of underwriting 
as far back as 1744, and that they met at that time 
at the shop of one Andrew Stalker, a seller of marine 
poUcies. In 1778 there appeared an advertisement 
in the '* Glasgow Mercury " relative to certain regu- 
lations with respect to the payment of premiums. 
The first recorded meeting of underwntejs and 
marine insurance brokers was held on April i, 18 18, 
and in the minutes of that meeting it was stated 
that " for some time past an association had been 
formed among the underwriters and brokers fre- 
quenting the coffee room for the purpose of such 
directions as might appear necessary for the superin- 
tendence and protection of the property in which the 
members were generally interested, and aXso for 
corresponding with agents at the outports on these 
and other matters in which the general interests of 
the underwriters were concerned; but that up to 
that time no r^ular office bearers had been ap- 
pointed, nor minutes of the procedure of the associa- 
tion preserved." A committee was elected at that 
meeting, consisting of a chairman and three direc- 
tors, and a secretary who was to act as treasurer, 
and the committee was to be elected annually. 

The first printed copy of the rules and regula- 
tions of the association was issued in 18 19, and the 
latest in 1905. The present (1907) committee of 
management consists of seven members, and the 
admission committee of ten members. The asso- 
ciation is represented on the Agency Committee of 
Lloyd's, on the Committee of Lloyd's Register of 
British and Foreign Shipping, and on the Com- 
mittee of the British Corporation for the Survey 
and Registry of Shipping. The association also sends 
representative members to the meetings of the 



Association of Average Adjusters held annually in 
London. 

The association is supplied daily by Lloyd's, Lon- 
don, with telegraphic and postal advices of shipping 
movements and casualties, and its library is fur- 
nished with shipping newspapers, atlases, gazet- 
teers, underwriting text books, maritime law re- 
ports, and a classified series of charts and sailing 
directions, which are annually replenished by dona- 
tion from the Hydrographic Department of the 
Admiralty. 

In connection with the association, but having an 
independent Constitution, is tiie Glasgow Salvage 
Association {q*v.), which attends, when instructed, to ' 
the protection of Underwriters' interests in respect 
to wrecked and damaged property. 

Assoranoe. See Marine Insurance; also Life As- 
surance. 

Aatay. Said of an anchor when, in heaving in, the 
cable forms such an angle with the surface as to ap- 
pear in a line with the stays of the ship. 

Aatem. Behind the after part of a ship. 

AateroiAa. The name by which Sir W. Herschel 
proposed to distinguish the minor planets circulating 
between the orbits of Jupiter and Mars. They are all 
small bodies, and have been discovered since the 
commencement of the nineteenth century. The first 
asteroid was discovered on January i, 1801, and at 
the present time the known number is about 600. 
The largest has a diameter of 500, and the smallest of 
probably less than 20, miles, and there may be multi- 
tudes beyond tiie range of perception. Their detec- 
tion has been accelerated by the use of the photo- 
graphic method introduced by Dr. M. Woolf , 

AatraBft* British 2nd class cruiser. (Devonport, 

1893.) 

Length 320 ft. Beam 49 ft. Maximum draught 21 ft. 

Displacement 4, 360 tons. Complement 318. 
Guns. Armour, 

2—6 in. " Steel." 

8 — 4*7 in. 2 in. Deck. 

8 — 6 pdr. 3 in. Conning tower. 

X — 3 pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
4 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. natural 7.000^18 kts.; iorced 
9,000= 19*5 kts. Coal maximum i.ooo tons. 
Approximate cost £z$o,oqo. 

This ship-name was introduced into the Navy in 
1739, and commemorates the capture of the Spanish 
Astraa at Porto Bello. It is associated with the 
capture of the Gloire, 1795; the action off L'Orient, 
the capture of Barbadoes, 1796; Bgypt, 1801; 
Schomberg's victory off Madagascar, 18x0. 

Aatrea. Frigate. On May 23, 1808, this vessel was 
lost OH the Anagada Coast. 



ASTRONOMER 



52 



ASTRONOMY 



Astronomir BoyaL The ofiicia] title of the head of 
Greenwich Observatory. The appointment is given 
by the Prime Minister, and the office held by warrant 
under the royal sign manual. Sir W. H. M. Christie, 
K.C.B., is the present Astronomer Royal, the eighth 
holder of this office since its establishment in 1675. 
In Scotland the Astronomer Royal is Professor R. 
Copeland, Director of the Royal Observatory, Edin- 
burgh, and in Ireland Professor C. J. Jolly. 

Asirooomical Day is measured by the apparent 
motion of the sun; but for the convenience of 
Astronomical Computations it is taken to begin at 
noon, that is 12 hours after the beginning of the Civil 
Day, and end at noon of the following day. Astrono- 
mers generally reckon the hours of this day up to 
24 hours, without any distinction of ante or post 
meridian, which they call astronomical time; hence 
the first 12 hours, of which are p.m. hours, of the 
Civil Day on which it begins; and the last 12 hours 
of it are a.m. hours, of the day on which it ends. 

AstroQOmy. The sublime science which treats of 
the distances, magnitudes, masses, composition, 
motions, and all that is discoverable regarding the 
heavenly bodies, meaning the sun, the earth, the 
moon, the planets, the fixed stars, the comets, the 
meteorites, the nebulae, and all other material bodies 
really or apparently moving in infinite space. The 
science first took definite shape in Babylonia, where 
in the third milltonium b.c. the sphere began to be 
measured, and the zodiac was delimited and divided. 
The vault of heaven being visible in all its glory 
alternately by day and night in every portion of the 
world, absolute ignorance regarding celestial pheno- 
mena cannot have existed in any place or at any 
time. The people belonging to some nations were, 
however, more observant in this respect than others, 
and claims to early proficiency in astronomy have 
been preferred in favour of the Chinese, Chaldeans, 
Egyptians and the Hindoos. Hipparchus, between 
B.C. 160-T25, catalogued the stars visible above the 
horizon, noting down 1,180. Among his numerous 
discoveries may be reckoned the procession of the 
equinoxes, trigonometry, and apparently the stereo- 
graphic projection of the sphere. The next great 
name was that of Ptolemy, a geographer and astro- 
nomer of Alexandria, who discovered lunar evection. 
In 1543 Copernicus, just before he died, published 
his great work, " On the Revolutions of the Heavenly 
Bodies," compiled some 13 years previously. The 
next great name is that of Tycho Brah6, a Dane by 
birth, who died in 1601. Though not accepting the 
Copemican system, but holding views partly bor- 
rowed from Copernicus and partly from Ptolemy, 
his extensive and accurate observations gave a great 
impulse to astronomy. Kepler, a pupil of Tycho, wiU 
for ever be remembered for the discovery of the three 
laws which bear his name, the first and second made 
known in 160^ and the third in 1618. Galileo, hav- 
ing constructed a telescope in 1610, subsequently 



discovered the satellites of Jupiter, the phases of 
Venus, the mountains of the moon and other new 
truths. The year in which he died Sir Isaac Newton 
was bom, and in 1687 he published his immortal 
" Principia," in which the law of gravitation was 
announced, thus constituting an epoch in the history 
of science which probably will never be paralleled at 
any future*time. The year that Newton died, 1727, 
was the one in which the discovery was made by 
Bradley of the aberration of light, which proved the 
motion of the earth, and gave the death-blow to all 
Ptolemiac and Tychonic systems, both of which were 
founded on the h3rpothesis that it was stationary. 
Sir Wm. Herschel, 1738, before he died, among other 
great discoveries, added nine new members to the 
Solar system (one of them the planet Uranus) to the 
eighteen previously known. He was one of the first 
to originate a systematic study of stars and nebulae, 
which prescribes the leading methods of modem 
astronomy. A profound change has been brought 
about in the scope, no less than in the methods, of 
astronomy, by the adoption of the camera as an in- 
strument of precision. Much progress has already 
been made with the preparation, at eighteen observa- 
tories, of a catalogue likely to embrace some four 
milUon stars ; and the corresponding chart of the sky 
will secure the identification of possibly 30 
million. 

Astronomical enterprise tends more and more to 
assume an international character. England com- 
mands both hemispheres, through the establishments 
at Greenwich and the Cape. In the United States 
of America the organisation centred at Harvard 
College has been extended from Pole to Pole by the 
foundation of a post at Arequipa. Among astrono- 
mical societies at present in existence may be men- 
tioned the British Astronomical Association, the 
Soci6t6 Astronomique de France, the Urania Gesells- 
chaft in Berlin, the Russian Astronomical Society, 
the Astronomical Societies of the Pacific and Toronto, 
Canada, the Astronomical and Astrophysical Society 
of America, the Society degli Spettroscopisti, Italy, 
catering for the wants of the general public interested 
in this science. 

Among historical works connected with astro- 
nomy, see Grant's *' History of Physical Astronomy " 
(1852), which is of standard authority; Lewis's 
" Astronomy of the Ancients " (1862), Berry's 
" Short History " (1898), Gierke's " Popular His- 
tory of Astronomy during the Nineteenth Cen- 
tury " (1902), Madler's " Geschichte der Himmel- 
kunde " (1873), Wolf's " Geschichte der Astronomie" 
(1877), Chauvenet's " Manual of Spherical and 
Practical Astronomy " (1893), Loomis's " Introduc- 
tion to Practical Astronomy" (1894), Campbell's 
'* Handbook of Practical Astronomy " (1891), Bar- 
low and Bryan's " Elementary and Mathematical 
Astronomy " (1892), Young's " Manual on Astro- 
nomy " (1902), Chambers' " Handbook of Descrip- 
tive and Practical Astronomy" (1889-90), Com- 
stock's "Textbook of Astronomy" (1901). Ball's 



A.T. 



53 



ATLANTIC 



" Story of the Heavens," Turner's " Modern Astro- 
nomy " (1901), Newcombe's '* Popular Astronomy " 
(1883), Gierke's ''Concise Astronomy" (1898), 
Langley's " New Astronomy " (1888), Todd's " New 
Astronomy " (T898), Gregory's " Vault of Heaven " 

(1893). 

A.T. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Terborg, Germany. 

Ateoama. Steamer, wrecked 22 miles south of Cal- 
dera, near Copiapo, November, 1877; 104 lives lost. 

Atago. Japanese gun-boat. (Yokosuka, 1891.) 

Length 164 ft. Beam 27 ft. Maximum draught 10 ft. 

Displacement 615 tons. Complement 130. 

Guns, 

I — 8*2 in. 

I — 5 '9 in. 

2 — I pdr. 

Hp. 7,000= 1 3 kts. Coal 1 20 tons. 

Atalanta. British training-ship. Foundered March, 
1880, on her voyage from Bermuda, all on board 
perishing. 

Atelaate. H.M. frigate. On November 10, 18 13, 
this vessel was lost off Nova Scotia. 

At and Vtobl " From " covers only from the time 
of the sailing of the vessel. ** At and from " includes 
(in a home port) the risk immediately the insurance 
is effected; (in a foreign port) from the moment of 
her arrival there— of course, seaworthy. 

The clause " Risk not to attach before the expiring 
of the previous policies " is generally added. There 
must be no undue delay " at " the port without re- 
ference to underwriters (Houghton v. Empire, i L.R., 
I Ex. 206). 

In a policy " at and from " a port, it is an implied 
agreement that the vessel shall be there within such 
a time that the risk shall not be materially varied; 
otherwise the policy does not attach (De Wolf v. 
Archangel Mar. Bank, 2 Asp. Mar. L.C. 273). Refgr 
to Deviation ; also Leave to call. 

Athenian. British subsidised merchant ship. 
(188 1). Canada-Pacific Railway Co. {q.v.). Dimen- 
sions, 365 X 48 X 29 ft.; gross tonnage, 3,882; 
passenger accommodation, 102 ; Hp., 4,600= 1 7 kts. 

Afhenicn. 64 guns. On October 27, 1806, this 
vessel was lost near Tunis, when 347 perished. 

Atherina. Genus of small fishes, from four to five 
inches long, taken in great z^umbers in the Mediter- 
ranean. They are carnivorous, live in shoals, and are 
valued as food, and also used in the manufacture of 
artificial pearls. 

Attiartan, William Henry (b. Preston, Lancashire, 
November 15, 1867). Mechanical engineer. Served 
apprenticeship in works of Messrs. Craven Brothers, 
Ltd., Manchester, and wa3 for six years evening 



student of the Manchester Technical School ; a Whit- 
worth Exhibitioner and Royal Exhibitioner in 
Science. Served from 1890 to 1893 ^^ ^^^ Elswick 
Drawing Office of Messrs. Armstrong, Whitworth 
and Co., Ltd. From 1893-97 at the Armstrong 
College, Newcastle-on-Tyne, and subsequently for 
seven years with Messrs. Mather and Piatt, Ltd., 
Manchester. Represented that firm at the Glasgow 
International Exhibition of 1901 . For a few months 
on the engineering staff of the London County 
Council. Since January, 1905, general manager of 
the Chain-Belt Engineering Co., Derby, the con- 
veying and elevating machinery of Ley's Malle- 
able Castings Co., Ltd. Member of the Institution 
of Mechanical Engineers, the Manchester Association 
of Engineers, and the North-East Coast Institution 
of Engineers and Shipbuilders. 

Publications: "The Design of Beams and Gir- 
ders," " The Resistance and Power of Steamships " 
(jointly with A. L. Mellanby, M.Sc), paper on the 

Fouling of Ships," and numerous articles. 



tt 



Athwart. Across anything extended in the line of 
a ship's course. 

AfUnson, John Joseph (b. Liverpool, 1850). Marine 
engineer. Served apprenticeship with Messrs. 
George Forrester and Co., Liverpool, and for some 
years was engaged in the construction of engines. 
Joined the National Line of Atlantic Liners, and 
obtained a Board of Trade's Certificate as first-class 
engineer in 1877. In 1889 acted as consulting 
engineer to the late Thomas Irwin, Esq., in which 
firm he became a partner. He has been connected 
with the construction of many new vessels, and 
structural alterations and repairs on behalf of the 
leading underwriters and ship owners. Member of 
the North-East Coast Institution of Engineers and 
Shipbuilders, 1891. 

Atkinson- Willei, Bear-Admiral George Lambart 

(b. July 13, 1847). Educated Leamington College; 
Royal Naval Academy, Gosport; entered Navy 
1 861; lieutenant, 1866. Served in Abyssinian War 
in Naval Brigade, 1868, and mentioned in despatches. 
As Commodore commanded Training Squadron, 
1895-97; Dockyard Reserve, Chatham, 1898- 
1900. A.D.C. to H.M. Queen Victoria, 1 899-1901 ; 
Rear-Admiral Home Squadron and Second-in-Com- 
mand Home Fleet, 1903. 

Atlanta. U.S. 3rd class cruiser. (Chester, 1884.) 
Length 271 ft. Beam 42 ft. Maximum draught 20 ft. 
Displacement 3,000 tons. Complement 304. 



Guns, 




Armour. 


2 — 8 in. 




" Steel." 


6— 6 in. 




i^in. Deck, amidships, 


6— 6 pdr. 






Hp. 4,000=15 


kts. 


Coal maximum 570 tons. 



Atlantio. Steamer belonging to the White Star Line 
struck on the Meagher Rocks, west of Sambro', 
April 1. 1873; 560 lives' lost. 



ATLANTIC 



54 



ATT WOOD 



Aflaatic Ocean stretches from the Arctic Ocean on 
the north, to the Antarctic Ocean on the south, and is 
that great ocean between Europe and Africa on the 
one side and America on the other, divided into the 
Northern, the Intertropical and the Southern, or 
simply into the Northern and Southern Atlantic. 
The length of the Atlantic basin is nearly 8,000 
geographical miles. The depth has been more care- 
fully and systematically examined than that of any 
other oceanic basin, and there is scarcely any por- 
tion of its floor that has a depth exceeding 3.000 
fathoms, or about 3*4 miles. The greatest depth 
determined by the Challenger sounding was that of 
a limited depression about 100 miles to the north of 
St. Thomas, where 3,870 fathoms, or about 4*4 miles, 
was determined. The surface temperature over the 
greater part of the North Atlantic averages 40** F., 
increasing to 50** F. near the shores of Europe. The 
heat equator Ues a little to the north of the geo- 
graphical, and the surface temperature there aver- 
ages from 80 to 90°. Over the greater portion of the 
Southern Atlantic the bottom water varies between 
35 and 40**, but in the North Atlantic the tempera- 
ture averages 2® higher. The water is relatively 
Salter than that of the other oceans, its salinity 
being greater in the region of the Trade winds and 
least in the region of Equatorial calms. 

Atlantic Shipping TcaaL See International Mer- 
cantile Marine Co. 

Aflantio Transport Co., Ltd. Originated in London 
1886, and in 1896 purchased the controlling 
interest in the International Steamship Co. 
(a line which dates back to 1863), and two years 
later it absorbed the fleet and American busi- 
ness of the Wilson's and Funiess-Leyland Lines. 
The company maintains a regular service from 
London to Baltimore, Philadelphia and New York, 
and its steamers are built principally for the purpose 
of carrying cargoes of refrigerated meat and live 
stock, although on some of their larger steamers ex- 
cellent passenger accommodation is provided, and 
the three latest vessels can carry up to 250 passen- 
gers. 

Fleet. 
Manitou. Mesava. 

Marquette, Minneapolis. 

Menominee. Minnehaha. 

Minnetonka. 
Gross tonnage, 138.102. 

Atlantique. French subsidised merchant ship. 
(1898). Messageries Maritimes (q.v.). Dimensions, 
469 X 50 X 32J ft.; gross tonnage, 6,708; Hp., 7,200 
= i8kts. 

Atlas Line. See Hamburg- A merika Line. 

Atmometer. An instrument for measuring the 
amount of evaporation of water. 

Atmcephere is the name applied to the ambient 



air, or thin elastic fluid, which surrounds the globe, 
and gradually diminishing in gravity rises to an un- 
known height, yet by gravitation partakes of all its 
motions. It is a mechanical mixture of about 
78 volumes of nitrogen, with 21 of oxygen, and one 
of argon, and also contains a variable, but all im- 
portant, proportion of water vapour. Sir John 
Herschel has calculated that the total weight of 
atmosphere, averaging 30 inches of pressure, is about 
1 1^ trillion of pounds, and that, making allowance 
for the space occupied by the land above the sea, 
it is about ^^^^^^^^ part of the solid globe. It 
exerts a pressure when the barometer stands at 
29*905 of nearly 14^ pounds avoirdupois to the 
square inch, and it is calculated that a man of 
ordinary size sustains a constant pressure of about 
14 tons. 

Atmospheric pressure. Pressure produced by the 
weight of the air. 

Atoll. See Coral, Coral Island, and Coral Reef. 

Atrato. British subsidised merchant ship (1886). 
Royal Mail Co. (q*v.). Dimensions, 421 x 50 x 33 ft.; 
gross tonnage, 5,360; passenger accommodation, 
277; Hp., 5,600=17 kts. 

Atrip. A term applied to the anchor when the 
purchase has made it break ground or raised it clear. 

Attach^! Nayal* is the representative of a nation at 
the seat of Government of a foreign Power quar- 
tered at the Legation. His duty is to note and report 
to his Government all changes that take place in 
naval matters. 

Attentive. British scout. (Elswick, 1904.) 
Length 370 ft. Beam 38 ft. Maximum draught i3^ft. 
Displacement 2,750 tons. Complement 268 

Guns. A rmour. 

10 — 12 pdr. i^ iO' Deck. 

8 — Pompoms. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
2 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 17,000=25 kts. Coal maximum 
380 tons. Approximate cost ;£275,ooo. 

Attwood, Edward Lewis (b. 187 1). Professor of 
Naval Architecture. Served apprenticeship with 
Messrs. Green, of Blackwall. On being granted a 
scholarship of the Worshipful Company of Ship- 
wrights, he went through the Royal Naval College as 
a private student, obtaining the Professional certifi- 
cate at the final examination. Appointed a member 
of the Royal Corps of Naval Construction, 1895 ; in- 
structor of Naval Architecture of Royal Naval Col- 
lege, 1901-04; Professor, 1904. 

Publications: "Text Book of Naval Architecture " 
(1899)1 "Warships" (1904), paper before the Institu- 
tion of Naval Architects 1905, on the " Admiralty 
Course of Study of Naval Architects." 



A.U. 



55 



AUSTIN 



A.n. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Baltrum, Germany. 

Anbe. French avisos- transport (1885). Of little 
fighting value. Guns. 4 5'5-in., 4 9-pdr. ; speed 
(nominally), 11 kts. 

AncUand, George Eden* Barl of (1784- 1849). 
President of the Board of Trade, 1830; First Lord of 
the Admiralty, 1834; Governor-General of India, 
1835-41. 

Andacieuz. French torpedo-boat (1901). Dis- 
placement, 185 tons; complement, 18; maximum 
draught, 9 ft.; guns. 2 3-pdr.; torpedo tubes, 3 15-in; 
armour '* Steel," | in. amidships; twin screw; 
Hp., 1,200 26 kts. ; coal, 25 tons. 



Spanish torpedo-boat destroyer. (Clyde- 
bank, 1897.) Displacement, 430 tons; armament. 
2 14-pdr,, 2 6-pdr., 2 i-pdr. ; torpedo tubes, 2; 
I^Jp-' 7f500=3o kts."; present speed about 20 kts. 

Andibility. Unusual distinctness of distant sounds. 

Ank or Alsidae. A family of marine birds with heavy 
bodies, large heads, short wings and compact 
plumage. The Great Auk or Gare-fowl, formerly 
common on all the northern coasts, but now extinct, 
was flightiess. The birds are experts at swimming 
and diving, rarely leaving the sea except for breed- 
ing purposes. 

Anrora. Russian cruiser. (Galemii, 1900.) 
Length 410 ft. Beam 5 5 ft. Maximum draught 21 ft. 
Displacement 6,630 tons. Complement 570. 
Guns. Armour, 

8—6 in. " Steel." 

22 — 12 pdr. 2} in. Deck. 

8 — Small q.f. 6 in. Conning tower. 

4^ in. Engine hatches. 

Torpedo Tubes, 

4 Above water. 

^ Three screws. Hp. 11,600=20 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 1,430 tons. 

Escaped from the Japanese at the Battie of 
Tsusliima. May 27-29, 1904, and was interned tiU 
the end of the war. 

Anrora. Transport. On December 21, 1805, this 
vessel was lost on the Goodwin Sands, wheif 300 
perished. 

Aiiron» of Hull, sailed from New York, April 26, 
1853, and foundered in mid-Atiantic; 25 lives lost. 

Aurora Anstralijl. A luminous electrical display of 
much beauty, appearing in the sky in the southern 
hemisphere, sometimes taking the form of an arch, 
streamers, corona, glow, etc. 

Aurora Borealis. Polaris light, or Northern light, 
is a luminous meteoric phenomenon of great beauty, 
which is seen in the northern sky in high latitudes, 
taking the form of streamers, arches, or patches 



which vary in shade considerably, being sometimes 
grey, and at others brilliant yellow, green, violet, or 
fiery red. They seem to be governed by electricity, 
and are more frequent in frosty weather, and are 
proved to be many miles above the surface of the 
earth. The Aurora is not vivid above the 70th degree 
of north latitude, and is seldom seen before the end of 
August. In America, according to Professor Loomis, 
the zone of maximum frequency is between latitude 
50° and 60° N. In Europe between the parallels of 
66° and 75°. The belt of greatest frequency begins 
close to the shores of the Arctic Ocean, from the 
N. Cape East to Point Barrow, thence south, passing 
through Hudson's Bay in lat. 60°, then south of 
Greenland, and obliquely north again between the 
Faroe Islands and Iceland. In London two Auroras 
are seen annually; in Edinburgh four. 

Austen, Charles John, British rear-admiral (1779- 
1852). Was present at the capture of Koomeet and 
Ville de Lorient in the Endymion. Between 1826 
and 1828 he was in command of the Aurora in the 
West Indies, and took an active part in the suppres- 
sion of the slave trade; took part in the bombard- 
ment of St. Jean d'Arc in the Bellerophon, 1840. 

Ansten, Sir Franeis William (1774- 1865). British 
admiral. In x8oo, when in command of the Petrel, 
he captured the Ligurienne. Served with distinction 
in the Egyptian operations of 1801, and four years 
later, at the Battie of San Domingo, commanded the 
Canopus, Was made admiral in 1848, and Admiral 
of the Fleet, 1863. 

Anstiiit Horatio Thomas (1801-65). English ex- 
plorer. Accompanied Parry in his second expedition 
in search of the North- West Passage, and in x88o, 
when four vessels were equipped and despatched in 
search of Franklin, he was given command, and ex- 
plored 900 miles of hitherto unknown coast. On his 
return to England he was made vice-admiral. Refer 
to Arctic Exploration. 

Austin, S. P., and Sons, Ltd., shipbuilders, Sunder- 
land. Established 1827; incorporated 1899, with an 
authorised capital of 7,000 £$ per cent, cumulative 
Preference Shares oi £10 each, and 65,000 Ordinary 
Shares of ;£i each, all fully paid, ;i7o,ooo First Mort- 
gage Debenture Stock £4 per cent. 

Number of berths, 3, 

River frontage, ^ mile. 

Repairing berths : capacity, vessels up to 400 ft. 

Maximum annual output, 12,000 to 15,000 tons 
of ne^ tonnage. 

Pontoon, capable of docking vessels 400 ft. long 
and about 8,000 tons dead weight. 

Lifting capacity, 3,600 tons. 

Graving dock, 306 ft. long. 

Public graving docks, 387 and 443 ft. long. 

Machinery, tools and every appliance for building 
and repairing steamers. 

Building of collier steamers a speciality. 



AUSTRAL 



56 



AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN 



AnstraL Relating to fhe South. 

AnstraL Orient Line steamer. Sank in Sydney 
Harbour, subsequently raised by means of a coffer- 
dam attached to the gunwales by divers, and is still 
one of the favourite vessels of the Orient Line. 

Anstralaiian United Steam Navigatioii Co., Ltd., 

with their head offices in Brisbane, have a fleet 
of excellent passenger and cargo steamers, which 
maintain sailings from Melbourne to Queensland; 
Melbourne to Western Australia, round the north 
coast to the Philippine Islands. Four of their 
steamers maintain regular services from Melbourne 
to Sydney, Rockhampton, Brisbane, Townsville, 
Cairns, Port Douglas and Cooktown. A service 
every three weeks is maintained from Brisbane to 
Thursday Island, Normanton and Burketown; two 
of the steamers conduct regular fortnightly services 
to Sydney, Adelaide and Fremantle, and a service is 
maintained every four weeks to Noumea (New 
Caledonia) and the Fiji Islands. 

Fleet. 
iramac, Karcoo. Maranoa, 

Arawalia, Kyarra. Wodango. 

Kanowna, \ \] Wyndara. 

Anatralin. French subsidised merchant ship 
(1889). Messageries Maritimes (q.v.). Dimen- 
sions, 482 X 39 X 34 ft.; gross tonnage, 6,570; 
Hp., 7.500=17 kta. 

Anstralind Steamship Co., Ltd., managed by Messrs. 
Bethell, Gwyn and Co., London, have a fleet of three 
modem cargo steamers, and maintain a service be- 
tween Bristol and London to Fremantle and 

Albany, Western Australia. 

Fleet. 
A rrino. A skburton, A ustralind. 

Austria. Emigrant ship. Burnt in mid-Altantic, 
September 13, 1858; out of 538 persons only 67 were 
saved. 

Anstrian Lloyd Steam Navigation Co., with the head 
offices at Trieste, was established in 1836, and now 
has a fleet of 64 steamers ranging from 1,329 to 
6,500 tons. Regular services of passenger and cargo 
steamers are maintained from Trieste to Brazil; a 
monthly service between Trieste and Brindisi, Port 
Said, Suez, Aden, Karachi, Bombay, Madras, Ran- 
goon and Calcutta; one between Trieste and Bom- 
bay, Columbo, Penang, Singapore, Hong Kong, 
Shanghai and Kobe. A monthly service to Calcutta, 
and one to Africa via Port Said, Suez, Aden, Mom- 
bassa, Beira, Louren90 Marques, and Durban. This 
company maintains a fortnightly accelerated service 
between Trieste, Brindisi, Karachi and Bombay 
during the busy months. The maximum duration 
of the voyage from Trieste is 15 days, the new fast 
twin-screw^ steamers, Koerber, Africa, Bohemia, 
Imperaior and Impetatrix, all fitted out with every 
modem convenience for the comfort and safety of 
passengers, are on this run. 



Fleet. 




Erth. Franz 


Medea. 


Ferdinand. 




Espero. 


Melpomone. 


Ettore. 


Metcovich. 


Euterpe. 


Moravia, 


Galatea. 


Nippon, 


Galicia. 


Orion, 


Coritia. 


Persia, 



Achille. 

Africa, 

Aglaja. 

Almissa. 

Amphitrite. 

Apollo, 

Aurora. 

Austria. GrafWurmbrand, Polluce. 

Baron Call, Habsburg. Salzburg, 

Bohemia. Helios. Satumo. 

Bosnia, Hungaria. Semiramas. 

Bucovina, Imperator. Silesia, 

Calipso. Imperatrix, Stiria, 

Carinthia, India, Sultan. 

Carniolia, Istria. Tebe, 

Castore, Juno, Thalia, 

China, • Jupiter. Tirol, 

Cleopatra. Koerber. Trieste, 

Dalmatia. Leda, Urano, 

Danubis, Maria Teresa. Venus, 

Daphne, Maria Valerie, Vesta. 

Elehtra, Marquis Vindobona, 

Bacquerhem, 

Gross tonnage, 203,000. 

Aastro-Amerioaa Steamship Co^ with their head 
offices in Trieste, possess a fleet of 23 large new 
steamers fitted out with every modem convenience 
for passenger service and cargo. Regular sailings are 
maintained every Saturday from Trieste direct for 
New York, and vice versa. A monthly service is 
maintained between Trieste and the Mexican Ports, 
via Genoa, Marseilles, Canary Islands, La Guayra 
and Colon, for Vera Cruz, Tampico and Progreso. 
Many of the company's steamers are used on the 
freight service between Trieste and Northern and 
Southern United States ports. 

Fleet. 

Alberta, Francesca, Jenny, 

Anna, Frederica. Lodovica. 

Auguste. Georgia. Lucia, 

Carolina. Gerty. Margherita. 

Clara. Guilia, Maria, 

Dora, Hermine. Marianne, 

Emilia. Ida, Sofia Hohenberg. 

Erny, Irene, Terisa. 

Eugenia, Virginia. 

Anstro-Hdagarian Imperial and Boyal Yaeht 
SgoadroiL Established 1891. Patron, H.I. and 
R.A.M. the Emperor of Austria; Commodore, H.I. 
and R.H. the Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria; 
Vice-Commodores, H.H. Prince Philip of Saxe- 
Coburg-Gotha, Count Alfred Harrach; Rear-Com- 
modores, Count Geza Andrassy, Count Carl Bubuoy ; 
Secretary and Treasurer, Captain C. Ritter von 
Wolff, Pola, Austria. Entrance fee, 1,000 or 100 
Kronen ; annua] subscription, 200 or 100 Kronen. 



A.V. 



57 



AVERAGE 



A.V. Distingaishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Norden, Germany. 

Ava. British India Steam Navigation Co/s steamer. 
Sunk by collision with Brunhilda, in the Bay of 
Bengal, April 24, 1879; 70 lives lost. 

Ave. Indian mail steamer. Wrecked off the coast 
of Ceylon, February 16, 1858. 

AvAlanche. French twin-screw gun-boat. Of 
little fighting value. Guns 2 3*5 -in.; speed (nomi- 
nally), 9 kts. 

Avalanche. Emigrant ship, in collision with the 
Forest, i $ miles S. by W. of Portland on her voyage 
from London to New Zealand. Both vessels sank ; 
out of 100 persons only 12 were saved. 

Avast. The order to hold, stop or cease, in, any 
operation. 

Avengar. H.M. steam frigate. On December 20, 
1847, this vessel was lost off the N. coast of Africa, 
when officers and crew (nearly 200) were lost. 

ATeatnrier. French sea-going torpedo-boat. (St. 
Nazaire, 1889.) Length, 151 ft. ; beam, 1 5 ft. ; draught, 
8 ft. ; displacement, 1 74 tons ; complement, 34 ; arma- 
ment, 2 3-pdr., 4 tubes; Hp., 1,400=20 kts.; coal, 
40 tons. 

Averaga means either (a) some contributions in 
equitable proportion which is to be made by all 
parties concerned towards losses and expenses which 
have been incurred for the advantage of all, or (b) 
some contribution to be made to the assurers for 
partial loss or damage sustained by the property 
insured. In the case (a) it is adjusted as Geperal 
Average (q.v,). In the case of (6) it is adjusted 
either as Particular Average or Salvage Loss {q.v.). 

The term " Average " was in use before Marine 
Insurance was known, and has a meaning indepen- 
dent of insurance. In this sense it denotes all loss 
resulting from the causes excepted in an ordinary 
bill of lading. 

Merchandise is usually insured either f.a.a. (free 
of all average), f.p.a. (free of particular average) or 
w.a. (with average). For the latter there are many 
Average clauses. Refer to Clauses. 

Average. See Mean. 

Average Adjuster. When damage has been sus- 
tained by ship or cargo the documents in support of 
the damage are placed in the hands of an Average 
Adjuster, whose function is to apply the law and the 
practical rules generally observed, to the facts of the 
case, so as to make a correct statement of the 
amounts due to or from the several parties con- 
cerned. If the parties deem it advisable they invest 
the Average Adjuster with the authority of an 
Arbitrator, and the statement issued by him has 
then the force of an award ; but in the absence of that 
authority, the findings of the Adjuster, whether of 



law or fact, may be questioned by any of the parties, 
as the adjustment can only be enforced, like any 
other statement of account, by legal process upon 
proof of its correctness. (McArthur on the Contract 
of Marine Insurance, p. 172.) 

Average AUnsters' Assooiatiaa. See Association of 
Average Adjusters. 

Average Agreement See Average Bond. 

Average Bond is an Agreement between the par- 
ties interested in an Adjustment {q.v.), by the terms 
of which they bind themselves to pay their several 
proportions of General Average or other charges 
when ascertained. 

When a general average consists of sacrifices made 
by a ship, or of expenses incurred by a ship on behalf 
of the whole venture, the shipowner has a lien on 
the cargo for its shares of these sacrifices or expendi- 
tures. The form in which the lien is usually en- 
forced is a demand by the shipowners of a deposit of 
a Sum sufficient to cover the liability of the con- 
signee's cargo, or the signature of the consigner of an 
Agreement securing payment of his proper propor- 
tion of the general average when ascertained.^ This 
agreement, which is called an Average Bond or 
Agreement, is on a recognised form. 

When the sacrifice is one of cargo by jettiaon (^.0.), 
the shipowner having by the jettison lost the freight 
payable at destination on the goods thus sacrificed, 
has also an interest in recovery in general average, 
and can exercise his lien in that case also, and thus 
act on behalf of the cargo owner. 

But where the damage consists merely in de- 
terioration of the cargo, without any diminution of 
it or change of species such as would occasion a loss 
of freight, then the only party interested in the re- 
covery is the owner or consignee of the damaged 
cargo. A steamer put back to Liverpool, having 
taken fire and flooded her holds to extinguish the fire. 
One of the shippers, not satisfied with the steps taken 
by the shipowners, brought an action against them, 
alleging that the shipowners refused to give any 
assistance to enable anyone to get an average state- 
ment made out, or to take any steps to enable the 
shippers to recover contributions. Mr. Justice Lush, 
after saying that the shipowner was the only person 
who had the right to require security for general 
average contribution from the other parties to the 
adventure, said, " The right to detain for average 
contribution is derived from the civil law, which also 
imposes on the master of the ship the duty of having 
contributions settled and of collecting the amount, 
and the usage has always been substantially in 
accordance with the law, and has become part of the 
common law of the land. I am, therefore, of opinion 
that he (the shipowner) is liable in the action for 
not having taken *the necessary steps for procuring 
an adjustment of^the general average and securing 
its payment." (Crooks v, Allan, 5. Q.B.D. 38.) J 



AVERAGE 



58 



AZOF 



A steamer, homeward bound, stranded near Brid- 
port. but after jettison and assistance came ofi and 
proceeded to Liverpool. There the shipowners 
required a deposit of xo % of the value of the 
cargo into an account in the name of the adjuster or 
shipowner, or both jointly, and the signature of an 
average bond in the form then regularly signed in 
Liverpool. Several consignees objected to this, but 
agreed to sign the London form of bond and to pay 
the deposit into the joint account of the shipowners 
and themselves. This proposal the shipowners de- 
clined; the consignees then paid under protest, and 
raised an action against the shipowners. In the 
Court of Appeal it was decided that in exercising his 
lien on cargo for general average the shipowner need 
not accept a bond or security ; on the other hand, the 
consignee is not bound to sign a bond. The ship- 
owner has the right to demand a deposit, giving the 
consignee proper information, so as to enable him to 
judge of the reasonableness of his demand, and if he 
considers it excessive, to tender a sufficient sum. 
Huth V, Lamport; and Gibbs \v, Lamport, L.R. 
16 Q.B.D. 442 and 735. Also, Gow on Marine In- 
surance, p. 293. 

Average Claiues. See Clauses. 

Average Diabnrseinents. See Advances. 

Average Pdioy. See Policy. 

Aveme. French torpedo-boat (1898). Displace- 
ment, 120; complement, 34; maximum draught, 
9 J ft.; guns, 2 3-pdr.; torpedo tubes, 2 15 -in.; 
twin screw; Hp., 2,000=26 kts.; coal, 16 tons. 

Avni-Dlah. Turkish battleship (1870). Recon- 
structed Ansaldo, Genoa. 

Length 331 ft. Beam 59 ft. Maximum draught 2y ft. 
Displacement 9, 1 20 tons. Complement 600. 
Guns, A rntour, 

2 — 9*2 in. " Iron." 

12 — 6 in. 12 in. Belt. 

14 — 12 pdr. 12 in. Battery. 

10 — 6 pdr. 3 in. Barbettes (Temi). 

2—3 pdr. 
Twin screw. Hp. 11,000=16 kts. 

Avoirdnpois Weight See Weights and Measures. 

Avon. British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Barrow, 
1896.) Length, 210 ft.; beam, 21 ft.; draught, 5^ ft.; 
displacement, 300 tons; complement, 60; armament, 
1 1 2 -pdr., 5 6-pdr., 2 tubes; twin screw; Hp., 
6,ooo=r 30 kts. ; coal, 80 tons. 

Awdtoio. Italian torpedo-boat. (Elbing, 1888.) 
Length, 152 ft.; beam, 17 ft.; draught, 7 J ft.; dis- 



placement, 130 tons; complement, 24; armament, 
2 3-pdr. q.f., I i-pdr. q.f., 3 tubes; twin screw; 
Hp., 2,200=26 kts. ; coal. 40 tons. 

A.W. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Wilhelmshaven, Germany. 

Awa Mara. Japanese liner, belonging to the 
Nippon Yusen Kaisha. Ran on the West Scar Rocks 
off Redcar, December 27, 1906. No lives lost. The 
vessel was subsequently refloated. 

Award, The decision in Arbitration. 

Awash. Reefs even with the surface. 

Away. The cry when a vessel starts on the ways 
launching. 

Aweafher. As opposed to a-lee; position of helm 
when tiller is moved to the windward side of the 
ship. 

Aweigh. See Atrip. 

Awheft or Awatt The display of a stopped flag. 

Awning. A cover of canvas spread over a vessel to 
protect the decks and crew from sun and weather. 

A.X. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Borkum, Germany. 

AJC. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Norddeich, Germany. 

Ayakaae. Japanese torpedo - boat destroyer. 
(Yokosuka, 1906.) Length, 220ft.; beam, 20^ ft.; 
draught, 9^ ft.; displacement, 374 tons; arma- 
ment. I 12-pdr., 5 6-pdr., 2 tubes; twin screw; 
Hp., 6,000=29 kts. 

Aye. A prompt reply on receiving an order, 
signifying yes. 

Aylmer, Matthew Lord (1643-1720). British ad- 
miral. While in command of the Royal Catherine he 
fought in the action off Beachy Head and Cape 
Barfleur, 1692. In 1709 promoted Admiral of the 
Fleet, and five years later, on retiring from active sea 
life, was made Governor of Greenwich Hospital. 

Admafh. A word borrowed from the Arabic; is 
the angular distance of a celestial object from the 
N. or S. point of the horizon, or an arc between the 
meridian of a place and any given vertical line. In 
the N. Hemisphere it is usually reckoned from the S. 
point of the horizon through the W. from o" to 360**. 

Asof Craft Clanse. See Clauses. 



B 



59 



BAFFIN 



B 
B. Distinguishing letter on sea fishing boats 
registered at Belfast, Ireland. 

B. Distinguishing letter on sea fishing boats 
registered at Blankenberghe, Belgium. 

B. Distinguishing letter on sea fishing boats 
registered at Boulogne, France. 

b. Abbreviation for bom. 

b. Blue. Abbreviation adopted, on the Charts 
issued by the Hydrographic Office, Admiralty, 
denoting the quality of the ocean's bottom. 

B. Bay. Abbreviation adopted on the Charts 
issued by the Hydrographic Office, Admiralty. 

B. Black (near a buoy) Abbreviation adopted 
on the Charts issued by the Hydrographic Office. 
Admiralty. 

B.A. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Ballantrae, Scotland. 

B.A.A. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing 
boats registered at Baarland, Holland. 

Babenborg. Austro-Hungarian battleship. (Pola, 
1902.) 

Length 354ft. Beam 65ft. Maximum draught 25ft. 
Displacement 8,340 tons. 
Guns. Armour, 

3 — 9*4 in. 40 cal. " Krupp." 
12 — 6 in. 8 in. Belt amidships. 

10 — 12 pdr. 8 in. Barbettes. 

16 Maxims. 8 in. Turrets. 

8 in. Conning tower. 
Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
2 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 11,90033 18' 5 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 840 tons. Approximate cost ;£65o,ooo. 

Bacchante. British ist class cruiser. (Clyde- 
bank, 1902.) 

Length 454ft. Beam 69ft. Maximum draught 28ft. 
Displacement 12,000 tons. Complement 700. 
Guns. Armour. 

2 — 9*2 in. 45 cal. " Krupp." 
12 — 6 in. 6 in. Belt amidships. 

12 — 12 pdr. 6 in. Barbettes. 

2 — 12 pdr. 8 cwt. 12 in. Conning tower. 

3—3 P<ir. 
2 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
2 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 21,000=21 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 1 ,600 tons. Approximate cost £800,000. 

A ship of this name was present at the capture 
of the Fumi and Cattaro, 1813. 

Back, Sir George (1796-1878). British admiral, 
Arctic explorer (b. Stockport). In 18 18 he went 
with Franklin in the Trent on a voyage of discovery 
to the Arctic regions, and later accompanied 
Franklin on his expedition to North America. 



The expedition to search for Sir John Ross in 
1883 was commanded by him when he discovered 
the Great Fish or Back River in Canada. 

Publications : ** Narrative of an Expedition in 
H.M.S. Terror " (1838) ; *' Narrative of the Arctic 
Land Expedition 1833-35" (1836). Refer to Arctic 
Exploration. 

Back and fiU. A mode of drifting safely with the 
tide against the wind. 

Back a sail. To let the wind press it the reverse 
way. 

Backboard. A board across the stem sheets of a 
boat to form the box in which the coxswain sits. 

Backing*wiiid. A wind which changes in a 
direction contrary to that of the sun's apparent 
course, as e.g., from W. through S. to £., etc. 

Backstay. Long ropes extending from all mast- 
heads above lower mast to both sides of chain- 
wales. These are set up with dead eyes and 
laniards to the backstay-plates. 

Backwater. The swell of water thrown back by, 
its contact with any solid body. 

Bacon, Xohn, Ltd. Established about the 
middle of the last century by the late Mr. John 
Bacon. In 1889 this concern was formed into a 
limited company which at present own a fleet of 
ten steamers maintaining regular sailings between 
Liverpool and Wexford, Liverpool and the Bristol 
Channel Ports. 

Bacon, Reginald Hugh Spencer, D.S.O. (b. 1863). 
Commander Royal Navy, Chief of the Intelligence 
Department during the Benin Expedition, 1897. 

PubUcations : " Benin, the City of Blood " ; 
" Manual of Electricity and Electric Lighting for 
the Navy." 

Baden. German battleship (1880). Reconstructed 
1897. Length, 298 ft.; displacement, 7,370 tons; 
speed, 12^ kts. Obsolete, of no fighting value. 

Baden-Powell, Francis Smyth (b. Oxford, 1850). 
Marine painter and sculptor. Studied art in Paris, 
painting under Carolus Durari; has exhibited 
many works at the Royal Academy, London, and 
at the Salon, Paris, and other galleries. Among his 
chief works are : " The Last Shot," " Nelson at 
St. Vincent," "Trafalgar Re-fought," "Queen 
Victoria's Wooden Walls," "Wreck of the 
Foudroyani," " Nelson Nearing Trafalgar." 

Baensch, Friedrich Bemhard Otto (1825-1898). 

German engineer. Executed the North Sea Baltic 
Canal. 

Baffin, William. Navigator and discoverer (b. 
1584). In 161 2 he accompanied Captain James 
Hall on his fourth voyage in search of the North- 
West Passage. In 1615-16 he made two voyages 
in atke Discovery under Bylot, and on the 



BAGGARA 



60 



BALLAST 



second of these discovered and charted Baffin's Bay. 
Accounts of these expeditions were given by Baffin 
himself and were discredited until verified by Sir 
John Ross in 18 18. S&e " Voyages of William 
Baffin" (1612-22), "Markham" (1881). Refer to 
Arctic Exploration. 

Baggara. A lateen-rigged Arab trading vessel 
used in the Red Sea. 

Bagley. U.S. torpedo-boat (1900). Displace- 
ment, 167 tons ; guns, 3 i-pdr.; torpedo tubes, 

3 1 8 -in.; speed, 28 kts. 

Bag BeeL A fourth or lower-reef of fore-and-aft 
sails. 

Bagnio. The Philippine name for a revolving 
storm or cyclone. 

Baikie. William Balfour, M.D. (1824-63) (b. 
Kirkwall). Educated Edinburgh, and on obtaining 
his degree joined the Royal Navy. Was appointed 
surgeon and naturalist to the Niger Expedition, 18 54, 
and on the death of Fernando Po was appointed in 
conmiand ; ascended the Niger about 250 miles 
beyond the point reached by former explorers, and 
returned after a voyage of ti8 days without the loss 
of a single man. In 1841 he formed a colony at the 
confluence of the Quorra and Benue, in which he 
acted, not merely as ruler, but as physician, teacher 
and priest. Within five years he opened up the 
navigation of the Niger, made roads and estab- 
lished a market. He collected vocabularies of 
nearly fifty African dialects and translated portions 
of the Bible and Prayer-book into Housa. He 
died on his way home at Sierra Leone in November, 
1863, at the early age of 39. 

Bail Admiral^. See Admiralty Bail. 

Bailey. U.S. torpedo-boat destroyer. (Morris 
Heights, 1899.) Length, 205 ft. ; beam, 19 ft. ; 
draught, 6 ft. ; displacement, 235 ; armament, 

4 6-pdr., 2 tubes; Hp., 5,0003=30 kts.; coal, 
20 tons. 

Bailey and Leetham Line. See Wilson Line. 

Baittbridge. U.S. torpedo-boat destroyer (1900). 
Displacement, 426 tons ; complement, 64 ; guns 
3 14-pdr., 5 6-pdr. ; torpedo tubes, 2 i8-in., 
amidships and aft.; Hp., 8,000=29 kts.; coal, 
139 tons. 

Baionette. French gun -boat, twin screw. Of 
Uttle fighting value. Guns, 2 3' 5 -in. ; speed 
(nominally), 9 kts. 

Baker, Frederick Wallace (b. September 29, 
1870). American Naval architect. Graduated 
from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology ; 
afterwards attending lectures at the Glasgow 
University. Has been actively engaged in ship- 
building, and served during the Spanish-American 
war on board the U.S. Monterey, Holds the 
position of Constructor to the Lake Torpedo 



Boat Co. Member of the Institution of Naval 
Architects, and of the American Society Naval 
Engineers. 

Baker. Sir Benjamin, K.O.B., cr 1902 ; K.C.M.O. 
1890. English Civil Engineer (b. 1840). In con- 
junction with Sir John Fowler he designed and 
superintended the construction of the Forth Bridge, 
1882. Consulting engineer for the Nile Reservoir. 
For services rendered was decorated with ist Class, 
Medjidie. 

Balance Log. See Lug. 

Balance ReeL A reef band that crosses a sail 
diagonally from outer head-earing to the tack. 

Balohen, AdmL Sir John (1670-1774). Com- 
manded the Chester in 1707 when she was captured, 
and two years later was again captured by Duguay 
Trouin's squadron when commanding the Glouces- 
ter, Commanded the Shrewsbury at Cape Passaro 
1 7 18. Was lost in the Victory, no guns, when 
that vessel was wrecked on the Casquet Rocks 
off Aldemey, October 4, 1774. 

Baldie. A small class of Scotch lugger used on 
the east coast. 

Bale-slingl. A long rope or chain for hoisting 
packages. 

Bale, To. To lade water out of a boat or vessel 
with buckets, cans, or such like. 

BalL Siamese gun-boat (1899). 600 tons. Of 
little fighting value. 

Balifte. French torpedo-boat destroyer. (Nor- 
mand, 1902.) Length, 180 ft. ; beam, 21 ft. ; 
maximum draught, 10 ft. ; displacement, 30b tons ; 
complement, 45 ; guns, i 9-pdr., 6 3-pdr. ; torpedo 
tubes, 2 1 5 -in. ; speed, 27-30 kts. 



Ball* Sir Robert Stawell, cr. 1886. Lawndean 
Professor of Astronomy and Geometry, Cambridge 
University ; Director of Cambridge Observatory ; 
President of the Royal Astronomical Society (b. 
Dublin, 1840). Educated Abbot's Grange, Chester ; 
Trin. Col., Dublin. In 1865 was appointed astro- 
nomer to the Earl of Rosse, and two years later 
Professor of Applied Mathematics to the Royal 
Irish College of Science. From 1874-92 he held 
the position of Astronomer Royal of Ireland. In 
1884 he was appointed Scientific Adviser to the 
Commissioners of Irish Lights. 

Publications : " The Story of the Heavens " 
(1885), " Starland " (1889). " In Starry Realms," 
" In the High Heavens," " Time and Tide " (1889). 
" The Cause of an Ice Age," " Atlas of Astronomy " 
(1892), " The Story of the Sun " (1893). " Great 
Astronomers " (1895), "A Treatise on the Theory 
ol Screws" (1900), "The Earth's Beginning" 
(1901). 

Ballait Anything carried for its weight when 
the cargo is too Uttle to bring the vessel sufficiently 
low in the water. 



BALLIN 



6i 



BANDS 



Ballin* Albert. Director-General, Hamburg- 
Amerika Line (b. Hamburg. 1857). Educated Ham- 
burg. Has been connected with the steamship 
business since his early boyhood, having been pre- 
viously to his joining the Hamburg-Amerika Line 
associated with the Carron Line. From the time 
he joined the Hamburg-Amerika Line it has steadily 
forged ahead. He it was who brought about the 
airangement with the Union Steamship Line (the 
amalgamation of the Sloman Line with the ships of 
Edward Carr), whereby the passenger business 
should be done under the direction of the Ham- 
burg-Amerika Line. Between 1883 ^^^ I905> under 
his management, the capital of this enormous 
steamship enterprise has increased from 15,000,000 
to 100,000,000 marks, the reserve fund from 
3,000,000 to 24,000,000 marks, the profit from 
2,000,000 to 28,000,000 marks, and the fleet 
from 65,000 to 796,269 register tons, and to-day the 
vessels under his control comprise 157 ocean-going 
steamers, with an aggregate gross tonnage of 
957,250. Albert BaUin is more than a great man ; 
there is something of the ruler in him, and he 
possesses the faculty of being capable of guessing 
the needs of the future. All the later vessels of 
this magnificent fleet have been built under his 
personal direction, and his genius as an organiser 
is manifest to those who have been fortunate 
enough to travel on such magniflcent floating 
palaces as the Afnerika and Etnprsss AugusU 
Victoria. He has the honour of the friendship of 
the German Emperor, and has been decorated with 
the Crown Order of the second class. 

Ball Idghtaing. A luminous ball or globe which 
moves slowly and sometimes bursts, giving rise to 
flashes of lightning. 

BaUom Sonde. A small rubber balloon employed 
for raising a meteorograph to obtain a record of 
the conditions prevailing in the upper regions of 
the atmosphere. 

Balneology. The science or study of mineral 
springs and baths. 

Balny. French torpedo-boat. (Normand, 1886.) 
Length, 134 ft. ; beam, 11 ft. ; draught, 7 ft.; 
displacement, 66 tons ; complement, 21 ; arma- 
ment, 2 i-pdr., 2 tubes; Hp., 700=20 kts. ; 
coal, 12 tons. 

Balsa. A South American wood, very porous, 
almost as Ught as cork, used for making sturf boats. 

Baltic Sea. An inland sea of North Europe 
enclosed by Sweden, Russia, the German Empire, 
and Denmark. It communicates with the North 
Sea by a channel which Ues between the southern 
part of Scandinavia, and the northern peninsular 
of Schleswig ajid Jutland, and with the Atlantic 
through Skager Rak and Kattegat. Its whole 
area, including the Gulf of Bothnia, is about 
160,000 geographical square miles; it is about 



900 miles long, and its greatest width between 
Karlskrona and Memel is slightly over 200 miles. 
It has three large arms — Gulf of Bothnia, Gulf of 
Finland, Gulf of Riga, and several bays, as the 
Bay of Danzig, Kiel Bay and Neustadter Bay. Its 
depth rarely exceeds 100 fathoms, and along the 
southern coast its shallowness is a great obstacle 
to navigation. It is fed by numerous rivers, some 
of them of considerable size, such as the Neva, 
Duna, Niemen, Vistula, Oder, Gotaelf, Lulea, Tur- 
nea. The salinity of the water is very much below 
that of oceanic water, and varies greatly at different 
seasons. The summer temperature of the surface 
water is about 63**. In severe winters the Gulf 
of Bothnia becomes frozen from shore to shore, and 
each winter the smaller bays and creeks, particu- 
larly those on the north part of the sea are frozen 
over, and suspend navigation. The Kaiser Wil- 
helm or Nord Ostee Canal from i^el to the mouth 
of the Elbe affords a short cut between the Baltic 
and the North Sea. 

Baltic Segel Clab. See Segel Club Baltic. 

Baltic Steamship Company, owned and managed 
by Messrs. A. Coker and Co.. Liverpool, have a 
steamer which trades between Liverpool and the 
Baltic ports, taking cargo as inducement offers. 

Fleet. 
Ivy. 



I. Old U.S. cruiser (1888). Recon- 
structed 1 90 1. 
Length 325 ft. Beam 48ft. Maximum draught 24ft. 
Displacement 4,600 tons. Complement 395. 

Guns. Armour, 

12—6 in. " Steel." 

6—14 pdr. 4 in. Deck. 

4 — 6 pdr. 3 in. Conning tower. 

2—3 pdr. 
6 — I pdr. 
2 Colts. 

Torpedo Tubes, 
5 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. forced, 10,000 a 20 kts. Coal 
maximum 900 tons. 

Banco. A Continental term for bank money. 

Bancroft U.S. gun-boat. (Elizabeth Point, 
1892.) 

Length 187ft. Beam 32ft. Maximum draught 13ft. 
Displacement 839 tons. Complement 195. 
Guns. Armour, 

4—4 in. " Steel." 

8 — 3 pdr. \ in. Deck. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
I Above water. 
Hp. 1,200=14 kts. Coal maximum 136 tons. 

Bands (Naval). Any ship in the Royal Navy 
when the commander bears the rank of post- 
captain or . that of a superior officer is entitled 
to possess a band. The number of performers 



BANGALORE 



62 



BARCLAY 



range from 10 to 15, consisting of band-master, 
band -corporal, and bandsmen. In 1893 ^ o®w 
Royal Naval School of Music was opened at 
Melville Hospital. Chatham. Refer to Naval 
Education. 

Bangalore. East Indiaman. On April 12. 
1802, this vessel was lost in the Indian Ocean. 

Bank. Rising ground in the sea, composed of 
sand, mud or gravel, not rock. 

Banker. A vessel employed in deep-sea cod- 
fishery on the Banks of Newfoundland. 

Bankson, Lloyd (b. Philadelphia. November 15, 
1857). Naval Constructor, U.S. Navy (1896). 
Educated University of Pennsylvania, Degree of 
B.S. 1877; entered U.S. Naval Academy 1879; 
completing ten years' course ; acted as Assistant 
Engineer, Philadelphia Water Department, 1883-86. 
In 1890 was given the degree of Ing^ni^r £cole 
d 'Application du G^nie Maritime, Paris. Assistant 
Engineer U.S. Navy 1883-89; Assistant Naval 
Constructor U.S. Navy, 1889-96 ; Naval Con- 
structor U.S. Navy, 1896. 

Banshee. British torpedo-boat destroyer. 
(Birkenhead, 1894.) Length, 210 ft. ; beam, 19 ft. ; 
draught, 7^ ft. ; displacement, 290 tons ; comple- 
ment, 50; armament, i 12-pdr., 5 6-pdr., 2 tubes; 
twin screw ; Hp., 4,500=27 kts ; coal, 60 tons. 

Banyan-day. A term applied to a fast-day, 
when oatmeal was issued in lieu of meat. 

Baptiite de Andrade. Portuguese gun-boat. 
220 tons. Of no fighting value. 

Bar. A shoal or bank, sand, shingle, or gravel 
thrown up by the sea which endangers navigation. 

Barbadoes. 14 guns. In October, 1780, this 
vessel was lost in a storm in the West Indies. 

Barbette. A fixed armoured breast work behind 
which the heavy guns of a ship are mounted, the 
guns revolve on turntables within, their after-ends 
being protected by means of armoured hoods. The 
Temetaire in 1876 was the first British armour-clad 
to be fitted with barbettes. 

Barcelo. Spanish torpedo-boat. (Gaarden, 
1886.) Length, 117 ft.; beam, 12 ft.; draught, 
6 ft. ; displacement, 63 tons ; armament, 2 i-pdr., 
2 tubes; Hp., 660=20 kts. 

Barclay, Curie and Oo., Ltd.» Whiteinch, 
Glasgow. This firm is the oldest established 
concern in the upper reaches of the river, the 
yard at Whiteinch being just outside the city of 
Glasgow. 

The origin of this shipbuilding business goes back 
to 1818, when Robert Barclay, a shipbuilder who 
had only Hmited means at his command, but was a 
man of great initiative, established a small yard at 
Stobcross. His son, also named Robert, extended 
the range of his business, and as the work of 



excavating the channel and deepening the Clyde 
progressed larger and larger ships and steamers 
were built at Stobcross. 

In 184s Messrs. Robert Curie and James Hamil- 
ton became partners in the firm, and the title by 
which it has been known for sixty years past was 
then assumed — Barclay, Curie and Co. 

Under the management of John Ferguson, in 
1847, this shipyard, which had meanwhile become 
the largest repairing works on the Clyde, com- 
menced building iron vessels. This new departure 
brought in so much work that all the available 
space was occupied by stocks, whilst as the dimen- 
sions of ships had likewise been increasing, the 
repairing slips became insufficient for their purpose. 

The celebrated clippers that were built by the 
firm gained for it such a reputation that in 1855 
it became necessary to purchase a piece of land at 
Whiteinch. about 53,000 square metres in extent, 
for the establishment of new shipbuilding and 
engineering works. Two years afterwards, in 1857, 
the Mr. John Ferguson above mentioned and 
Mr. Andrew Maclean (now Sir Andrew) became 
partners in the firm, of which the latter had for 
several years been commercial manager. About 
the same time, Mr. Archibald Gilchrist, who was 
at the head of the engineering works, also joined 
the company. 

New ground was purchased in i858^at Stobcross 
for the enlargement of the shops, but in 1874 the 
building slips there had to be given up to the Clyde 
Trustees in connection with the extension of the 
Harbour, and the work that had hitherto been 
carried on there was transferred to Clydeholm 
Shipbuilding Yard, Whiteinch, Glasgow. 

In 1878 the firm of Barclay. Curie and Co. 
purchased the property of Jordanvale, comprising 
about 130,000 square metres of land, with the 
intention of making dry docks there. 

In 1884 the firm was converted into a limited 
company, and Mr. James Williamson, shipbuilder, 
afterwards Director of Dockyards at the British 
Admiralty, joined the Board of Directors, with 
Mr. John Ferguson as chairman. 

The management of the concern is now in the 
hands of Messrs. James Gilchrist, chairman, William 
Russell Ferguson, and Andrew Maclean, joint 
managers of the business, sons of the late Arch. 
Gilchrist, J.P., late John Ferguson, J. P., and late 
Sir Andrew Maclean, K.T., respectively. They 
have the assistance of two very capable young 
gentlemen, Mr. Noel E. Peck, Yard Manager for 
the Naval Architecture Department, properly so 
called, and the construction of the hulls ; and Mr. 
Chas. Randolph Smith, Engineer Manager for the 
Engineering Department for the propelling ma- 
chinery. These two managers also are descended 
from families of Naval Constructors, for in this 
firm everything is hereditary. 

It might be said that the reputation of this yard 
is due to the accumulated labours of very many 



BARENTS 



63 



BARHAM 



men of genius, everyone of whom has left an 
inheritance of means and experience, of which 
successors have diligently taken advantage. 

The present prosperity of the company is cer- 
tainly a consequence of this tradition, but not 
divorced from that spirit of enterprise that soars 
above its surroundings and transforms the directing 
body into a homogeneous entity prompt to respond 
to the influence of the times and to profit by every 
favouring circumstance. 

At present the firm owns a shipbuilding yard at 
Whiteinch, occupying 80,000 square metres of land, 
¥rith six <x seven stocks large enough for the build- 
ing of vessels up to 180 metres in length. The 
engineering works at Stobcross are on the Admi- 
ralty list for engines of 13,000 Hp. The boiler 
works at Kelvinhaugh, like the engineering works, 
have an outfit of machine tools of most modem 
type, and can turn out boilers of any size. At 
Kelvinhaugh there are also the Dry Docks, capable 
of taking in steamers up to 170 metres in length. 
At Finnieston Street there are the repairing works 
which are so oi^^anised that repairs can be executed 
with the utmost speed. There new shafts can 
also be fitted in an exceedingly short time. 

At the present time Barclay, Curie and Co., 
Ltd., are undertaking the construction of their 
469th vessel, and their annual production exceeds 
43,000 tons. Among their regular patrons are : 
The P. and O. Co., Pacific Steafai Navigation Co., 
British India Co., City Line, Allan line, Ellerman 
Lines, • Beaver Line, African JRojral Mail Co., 
Messrs. Elder, Dempster and Co., Union-Castle Co., 
etc. For the last-mentioned company, which, as 
is well known, is managed by Sir Donald Currie, 
this yard has built about 60 steamers. 

For the P. and O. Company they built the 
Sicilia and the Dangola, and many other twin- 
screw steamers ; recently they have constructed 
for the Pacific Mail Co., the Oriana, of 8,066 
tons, one of the largest steamers classified in 
Lloyd's Register last year, and in June of this 
year they launched a steamer of 12,000 tons gross 
register, and 10,000 Hp. for the Allan Line Royal 
Mail Service between Liverpool, Quebec, and 
Montreal. 

Barents, Willem. Dutch navigator. Was pilot 
of three unsuccessful expeditions to discover the 
North-West Passage. His third voyage was the 
most important, as on June 19 Spitzbergen was 
discovered and the whole western coast and part 
of the northern examined. He sailed round the 
north-western end of Nova iZembIa, and his com- 
pany were the first Europeans to ever face an 
Arctic winter. He died on June 19, 1597, and was 
buried in the midst of his discoveries, and it was 
not until 1871 that a Norwegian, Captain Carlson, 
came upon Barents' vdnter quarters, and in 1875 
recovered part of his diary. Refer to Arctic 
Exploration. 



Bare polet. The condition of a ship at sea 
without any sails set. 

Barflenr. British ist class battleship. (Chat- 
ham, 1892.) 

Length 360 ft. Beam 70ft. Maximum draught 27ft. 
Displacement (since reconstruction) 11,000 tons. 

Complement 620. 
Guns. A rmour, 

4 — 10 in., 30 cal. " Compound Harvey." 
10 — 6 in. 12 in. Belt amidships. 

8 — 6 pdr. 9 in. Barbettes. 

12 — 3 pdr. 12 in. Conning tower. 

2 — 9 pdr. Boat. 
2 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
2 Submerged. 
I Above water stern. 
Twin screw. Hp. natural 9,000=17 lets., forced 
I3,oooecz8'5 kts. Coal maximum 1,125 ^ons. 
Approximate cost £620,000, 
This ship-name dates in the Navy from 1697, and 
commemorates the Anglo-Dutch victory over the 
French at Cape Barfleur, May, 1692 ; Vigo Bay, 
1702; battle ofF Cape Passaro, }7iS: Graves's 
action off the Chesapeake. 1781 ; Hood's action with 
De Grasse, 1782; Rodney's action with De Grasse, 
1782 ; the battle of " The Glorious First of June," 
1794 ; Bridport's action off I. Groix, 1795 ; St. 
Vincent, 1797 ; Calder's action off Ferrol, 1805. 

Barflenr, Battle of Gape. On May 19, 1692, the 

French Navy was destroyed by Admiral Russel 
after the victory of La Hogue. 

Barflenr light, established 1893, ^ ^ two-flash 
light every ten seconds ; duration of flash one-fifth 
to two-fifths second ; candle power, 3,500,000 ; 
illuminant, electricity. 

Barge. A long slight spacious boat for the use of 
admirals and captains of ships of war. 

Barge, Stealing from, is a felony, punishable under 
the Larceny Act (1861) by penal servitude for not 
less than three or more than fourteen years, or by 
imprisonment for not more than two years, with or 
without hard labour. The offence, which may be 
tried at Quarter Sessions, consists of " the felonious 
removal or carrying away of any goods or mer- 
chandise in any vessel, barge, or boat in any haven, 
or in any port of entry or discharge, or upon any 
navigable river or canal, or in any creek or basin 
belonging to or communicating with any such 
haven, port, river, or canal. 

Barhanu British 3rd class cruiser (1889). 
Reconstructed 1899. 

LeoQgth 280 ft. Beam 35ft. Maximum draught i6ft. 
Displacement 1,830 tons. Complement 169. 
Guns, Armour, 

6— 47 in- "Steel." 

4 — 3 pdr. 2 in. Deck amidships. 

I in. Deck ends. 



BARHAM 



64 



BARNEY 



Twin screw, 
mum 140 tons. 



Torpedo Tubes. 
2 Above water. 
Hp. 4,700=19 kts- 



Coal maxi- 



Barham, Lord Oharles Kiddelton (1726-1813). 
British admiral and Controller of the Navy, 1778-90. 
First Lord of the Admiralty and created Baron 
Barham 1805 ; vice-admiral, 1793 ; full admiral, 
1795. He never, however, hoisted his flag afloat. 

Bark. See Barque. 

Barkentine. See Barquantine. 

Barlow, Bear-Admiral Charles Jamee. D.S.O. 

1887 (b. 1848). Entered Navy 1862 ; Lieutenant 
of Inflexible at the bombardment of Alexandria, 
1882 ; landed with and commanded a party which 
held one of the gates of the town until relieved by 
troops ; served on shore in command of an outpost 
near Port Said (Egyptian medal, Alexandria clasp, 
Khedive's Bronze Star, Osmanieh 4th Class) ; 
Comihander of the Btu^chanU flag ; served with 
Naval Brigade landed during Burma Annexation 
war 1885-86 ; ' mentioned in naval and military 
despatches. General Sir H. Prendergast in his 
despatch stated that : " Commander Barlow's 
march of 120 miles through the country with a 
detachment of bluejackets reflects great credit on 
that ofiicer and his pairty." D.S.O. for these ser* 
vices ; promoted to captain (India medal, Burma, 
1885-87, clasp). 

Bamaby, Sir Nathanielt K.O.B., cr. 1885 (b. 
Chatham, 1829). Educated Chatham, Sheemess, 
Portsmouth. Attached to the office of the Con- 
troller of the Navy from 1854-85 ; as overseer of 
ships of war building for the Crimean operations ; 
as Admiralty draughtsman and calculator ; as 
assistant to the officers of Chatham Dockyard in 
devising the structural arrangements of H.M.S. 
Bellerophon and subsequent iron ships ; as assistant 
constructor ; then chief naval architect, and 
finally as Director of Naval Construction at White- 
hall, in succession to Sir Edward Reed {q.v.). 
Was one of the founders of the Institution of Naval 
Architects in i860. Was instrumental in eflecting, 
through the influence of the Boards of Admiralty 
and the co-operation of Lloyd's Surveyors, great 
and much-needed changes in the division of large 
passenger ships by watertight bulkheads, and in the 
material of their construction. Was created 
C.B. 1876, and K.C.B. 1885. On the latter occasion 
Lord Northbrook {q.v.), then First Lord of the 
Admiralty, said the appointment was to mark the 
appreciation of " distinguished service and un- 
wearied application as Director of Naval Con- 
struction." Has been decorated with the following 
foreign orders : — Commander of the Order of the 
Dennebrog, Denmark, 1873 ; of the Royal Military 
Order of "Our Lord Jesus Christ." Portugal, 
1875 ; and of the Rose of Brazil, 1883. 



Publications : " Abridgnnents of Specifications 
relating to Shipbuilding," etc., from 161 8 to the 
present time, first two volumes 1862 ; articles 
" Navy and Shipbuilding " in " Encyclopaedia 
Britannica," 9th edition ; " Naval Development 
of the Nineteenth Century." 

Barnacle {lepas anatifera). A name applied 
to a species of shell fish, often found sticking by its 
pedicle to the bottom of ships, doing little or no 
injury beyond that of deadening the w^ay. 

Bamei» Frederick Kynastoii (b. February 11, 
1826). British naval architect. Served an appren- 
ticeship of six years at the Pembroke Dockyard, 
and in May, 1848, was selected as a student on the 
establishment of the School of Naval Construction, 
under the direction of the late Joseph WooUcy, 
LL.D. He remained there for three years, and took 
first place in the final examination, and was selected 
for another year's study at that ccdlege. In 1852 
joined Dockyard as draughtsman, and in July, 1853, 
he was appointed on the Naval Construction stafi 
of the Admiralty. In 1856 he made a tour of the 
French Imperial Dock3rard, and many large private 
establishments ; prior to this date very little was 
known of the resources of the French dockyards or 
private shipbuilding establishments. In i860 when 
the Institution of Naval Ar^tects was founded 
he was one of the first members, and later became 
vice-president. In 1862 was appointed to the 
Thames Ironworks, Blackwall, to superintend the 
construction of one of the early ironclads, the 
Minotaur, and to complete the details of the design 
of that class. In 1864 ^^ appointed Assistant 
Constructor of the Navy, which post he held until 
the retirement of Sir Edward Reed (q.v.). Was 
tiien appointed Constructor of the Navy and 
member of the Council of Construction under the 
presidency of Sir Nathaniel Bamaby, K.C.B. {q.v.). 
In 1872 he was appointed surveyor of dockyards, 
which office he held until his retirement in 1886. 

Publications : Several papers published by the 
Institution of Naval Architects, notably one on the 

Stability of Ships," 1861. Was joint author of 

Shipbuilding : Theoretical and Practical," of 
which the late Professor MacQueen Rankine was 
the chief author. 

Bamett* Barnes Bennie (b. Johnstone. Septem- 
ber 6, 1864). British naval architect. Educated 
Glasgow University. Served apprenticeship with 
Mr. G. L. Watson, Glasgow. Gained South 
Kensington medal for Naval Architecture. In 
1889 was appointed in charge of Mr. G. L. Watson's 
office, and on the death of that famous architect 
he succeeded to the business. Is consulting 
naval architect to the Royal National Lifeboat 
Institution. 

Barney. U.S. torpedo-boat (1900). Displace- 
ment, 167 tons; guns, 3 i-pdr. ; torpedo tubes. 
3 i8-in. ; speed, 28 kts. 



€t 



(« 



BAROCYCLONOMETER 



65 



BARRY 



BafoofdonoiBets. An instrument for ascer- 
taining the position, distance, and direction oi 
advance oi a cyclone or revolving storm. 

Barogram. The trace marked on paper by a 
barograph. 

BarognplL A self-recording barometer. 

Barometer. An instrument for measuring the 
pressure of the atmosphere. 

Baron Line* owned and managed by Messrs. H. 
Hogarth and Sons, with their head o/iices in 
Glasgow, have a fleet of nine lacge steamers engaged 
principally in general trade to Indian ports and the 
Far East. Two of the steamers maintain a monthly 
service between Glasgow and Lisbon and Huelva. 
This line also have five large sailing ships which 
trade to the colonies. 

Fleet. 
Ardnamurchan, Baron Faitlie, 

Ballachulish, Baron Huntiy, 

Baron Ardrossan. Baron Jnnerdale. 

Baron Balfour, Baron Kelvin, 

Baron Cawdor, Corryvrechan, 

Baron Dalmeny, Machrihanish. 

Baron Eldon, Ochtertyre, 

Barqaantine. The diminutive of barque. A 
vessel carrying a barque's full square-rigged fore- 
mast, but fore-and-aft rigged on main and mizzen 
masts. 

Barqoe. A name given to small three-masted 
vessels with only fore-and-aft sails on her missen 
mast. 

Bazrack8» HavaL S00 Naval EstabUshments. 

Barratry is wilful misconduct with criminal 
intent committed by the master or crew of a vessel 
in violation of their duty to the shipowner, and 
without the connivance of the latter. (Atkinson v. 
Great Western Insurance Co., L.T. Rep., v. 27, 
p. 103.) 

If the captain is owner of the vessel he commands, 
he cannot, of course, commit barratry against 
himself ; but if he is only k part owner, he may 
do so against the other shareholders. (Amould, 
4th ed.,p. 713.) If a vessel is under charter, and 
entire control and management are vested in the 
charterer, any act with criminal intent, committed 
by the master or crew, in violation of their duty, 
constitutes barratry against the charterer, even 
though it should have been connived at by the 
general owner. (Vallejo v, Wheeler.) An act 
of known illegality is barratry though not intended 
to defraud the owners. If owing to the mutinous 
violence of the crew the master is compelled to 
deviate from his course, this is " barratry of the 
mariners " ; but, on the other hand, repeated acts 
of smuggling by the crew, which might have been 
prevented by due watchfulness on the part of the 
master or owner, will not, even if they result in 



the confiscation of the ship, give rise to a claim on 
the underwriters under this head. (McArthur on 
Marine Insurance, p. 131 ; Amould, 4th ed., p. 
712.) 

Unless expressly exempt by the terms of his 
contract, a shipowner is liable to the owner of the 
cargo for barratrous acts of his servants, by which 
the cargo is damaged (Abbott, 492), but damage 
to goods in a collision caused by the negligence of 
those on board is not a loss by barratry. (Grill 
V, General Iron Screw Collier Co., L.R., 3 C.P.,476.) 

Barrloa. A small cask for water carried in boats. 

Barrington, Samuel (1729- 1800). British admi- 
ral. Served under Hawk at Basque Road, and in 
1 76 1 with Keppel at Belle Isb ; became Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the West Indies, 1778, and 
second in command to Byron in the action off 
Grenada. 1779 ; was present at the reUef of 
Gibraltar, 1782; promoted admiral, 1797. 

Barrow Taoht Olab, Royal. Sm Royal Barrow 
Yacht Qub. 

Barroio. Brazilian protected cruiser. (Elswick, 

1895.) Sheathed and coppered. 

Length 330ft. Beam 43 ft. Maximum Draught 20ft. 

Displacement 3,450 tons. Complement 300. 

Guns. Armour, 

6—6 in. " Sheet." 

4 — 4' 7 in* 3 J ill. Deck amidships. 

• 10 — 6 pdr. 
4 — I pdr. 
Twin screw. Hp. forced 7, 500 « 20 kts. Coal 
maximum 850 tons. 



U.S. torpedo-boat destroyer (1900). 
Displacement, 420 tons ; complement, 64 ; guns, 
2 14-pdr., 5 6-pdr. ; torpedo tubes, 2 18 -in., 
amidships and aft; Hp., 8,000^=29 kts.; coal, 
139 tons. 

Barry, John Arthur, Australian novelist (b. 
1850). Spent many years voyaging in all parts of 
the world in the Merchant Service. 

Publications : " Steve Brown's Bunyip " (1893), 
" In the Great Deep " (1895), " The Luck of the 
Native Bom" (1898), "The Son of the Sea" 
(1899), "Against the Tides of Fate" (1899), 
" Line and Blue Star " (1902). 

Barry, Ralph BnBWorth (b. Philadelphia, 1868). 
American Naval Architect. Apprentice at Roache's 
Shipyard and at Delamaster's. Educated Steven's 
Institute and Cornell University ; was chief 
draughtsman with the Union Ironworks, later 
with the Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock 
Co. ; heutenant U.S. Navy during the Spanish- 
American war, and now calculating draughtsman, 
Bureau Construction and Repair U.S. Navy ; 
certificates as master of sail and steam vesseb, and 
as pilot for New York, Savannah, and San Fran- 
cisco; Associate of the Institution of Naval 
Architects; member of the Am. Society Naval 

D 



BARRY 



66 



BAYLEY 



Architects and Marine Engineers, the Am. Society 
Naval Engineers, U.S. Naval Institute, and Inter< 
national Congress of Navigation. 

Bany Dock News. Established 1887. Pub- 
lished weekly (Friday). Price id. Address : 
Barry Docks, Glamorgan. 

Bart, Jean (165 1 -1702) (b. Dunkirk). Entered 
the Dutch Navy, but when war broke out between 
Louis IV. he joined the French forces, and gained 
distinction in the Mediterranean, where he held a 
sort of roving commission, not then being eligible 
for command in the Navy, owing to his low birth. 
His success, however, was so great that he was 
given a commission and rose rapidly to the rank of 
captain and then to that of admiral, and he 
became a popular hero of the French Naval Service. 

See Reichar/* Vie de Jean Bart," 1870 ; Vanderest, 
" Histoire de Jean Bart." 

Basilisk. British sloop (1,170 tons, 14*7 kts.). 
Launched 1889. 

Bafriliimft Olga. Greek gun-boat. Of no fighting 
value. 

Basane Roads, Battle oL Fought April, 1809, 

when 14 French ships of the line were attacked and 
destroyed by Admirals Gambia and Cochrane. At 
a court-martial brought about by Admiral Cochrane, 
who accused Admiral Gambia of neglecting to 
support him in this battle, Admiral Gambia was 
acquitted. 

Bat. British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Jarrow, 
1896.) Length, 215 ft.; beam, 20 ft.; draught, 
6| ft. ; displacement, 326 tons ; complement, 60. 
armament, i 12-pdr., 5 6-pdr., 2 tubes; twin 
screw ; Hp., 6,1853=30 kts. ; coal, 91 tons. 

Batavia Line. Nederlandsche Stoomboot-Maats- 
chappij. W. H. Miiller and Co., with their head 
offices in Rotterdam, have a fleet of eleven steamers, 
four of which maintain daily service between 
London and Rotterdam, in connection with the 
steamers of the Nederland Rhine Steam Navigation 
Co., which ply between Rotterdam and all places on 
the Rhine as far as Mannheim, the remainder of 
the fleet being used in a cargo carrying capacity 
in different parts of the world. 

Fleet. 

Balavia II. Caledonia. 

Batavia III. Grangesberg. 

Batavia I V. Hispania. 

Batavia V. Iberia. 

Batavia VI. Rhenania. 

Tuetonia. 
Gross tonnage, 20,000. 

Bates, Linden Wallace (b. Marshfield, Vt., 
November 19, 1856). Marine engineer. Educated 
Chicago High School and Yale ; was surveyor on 
Northern Pacific Railroad, assistant-engineer 
Northern Pacific and Oregon Pacific Railroads ; 



connected with various railway, dock, and 
contracts in Oregon. Washington, Montana, Kansas, 
Missouri, Illinois, Ix)uisiana, Califomia, for lUl the 
transcontinental railways ; built by contract mam- 
moth dredge Beta for U.S. Government ; employed 
to prepare reports and projects for improvement of 
port of Antwerp ; by Sues Canal Co. on the en- 
largement of the canal ; by Russian Government 
on the rivers Volga, Dnieper, and Bug ; by the 
Queensland Government, the Calcutta Port Com- 
missioners on the River Hugli ; built large hydraulic 
dredge for Russian Government, the sea-going 
dredges Hercules, Samson, and Archer for Queens- 
land, and the Lindon Bates for Calcutta. In colla- 
boration with leading engineers designated by 
Governments of Russia, Germany, Austria, and 
Belgium, prepared scheme for improvement of 
Port of Shanghai ; Grand Prix, and decorated by 
French Government for " distinguished services to 
science " ; member Western Soc. Engineers, 
Chicago ; life asso. Inst. Naval Architects and of 
Inst. Civil Engineers of Great Britain ; member 
Soc. Engineers of France. 

Bathnrai. Argentine torpedo-boat. (Yarrow, 
1890.) Length, 150 ft.; displacement, 85 tons; 
2 tubes ; speed about 24 kts. 

Bathymetry. The measurement of depths. 

Battenberg, His Serene Highness Prince Louis 
Alexander oL G.C.B., G.C.V.O., Personal A.D.C. to 
the King ; captain Royial Navy ; Director of Naval 
InteUigence (b. Gratz, May 24, 1854). Was 
naturalised a British subject and entered the Royal 
Navy as cadet, 1868 ; served in Egyptian war, 
1882 (medal and Khedive's Star). 



Battendown. To secure 
exclude the sea-water. 



with battens ; to 



BatleiUL Blocks of wood tapering from one to 
three inphes broad. 

Battery floating. See Floating Battery. 

BattiMhip. Sm Navy. 

Baty. Battery. Abbreviation adopted on the 
Charts issued by the Hydrographic Office, Admi- 
ralty. 

Bawley boat A cutter-rigged Thames Estuary 
fishing-boat, without main boom. 

Bayan. See Aso. Armoured cruiser. Damaged 
by the Japanese at the action off Port Arthur, 
February 25, 1904, and eventually blown up by the 
Russians in Port Arthur Harbour before capitula- 
tion, January, 1905 ; since raised, refitted, and 
added to the active list of the Japanese Navy. 

Bayenu German battleship (X878) ; 7,370 tons. 
Obsolete, of no fighting value. 

Bayley, Oapt Edward Henry, C.B. (1900), R.N. 
(b. December, 1849). Educated privately ; H.M.S. 



BAY 



67 



BEDFORD 



Britannia, Entered Navy 1863 ; captain 1894 ; 
served Ashantee 1873-74; served at Tientsin in 
command of first British Defence Force ; was 
senior commanding officer of aU the allied forces, 
represented during the siege of Tientsin, July, 
1900 ; subsequently Chief -of -Stafi to Admiral Sir 
Edward Seymour (^.v.)* ^^<^ senior naval officer at 
Tientsin until September, when all naval forces 
had been withdrawn. Decorated for services 
while in China. 

Bay of Hoses, Battle oL On November i, 1809, a 
brilliant naval action was fought, led by Lieut. 
John Tailour, and ended in the capture or destruc- 
tion of eleven armed Spanish vessels. * 

Baieloy, Geocget and Co^ Penxance. See Little 
Western Steamship Co. 

B.B. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Bremen, Germany. 

B.C. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Bovenkarspel, Holland. 

B.D. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Bideford, England. 

Bdilaliiy. Russian torpedo-boat destroyer (1906). 
Length, 185 ft. ; beam, ai f t. ; draught, 7^ ft. ; 
displacement, 324 tons ; complement, 60 ; arma- 
ment I, 12-pdr., 5 3-pdr., 2 tubes; twin screw; 
Hp., 5,600=26 kts. ; coal, 100 tons. 

BJEL Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Barnstaple, England. 

Beaohy Head, Battle 6L Fought June 3i>, 1690, 
when the British and Dutch Fleet, commanded by 
the Earl of Tonington, were defeated by a French 
force under Admiral TourviUe. The Dutch lost 
two admirals, 500 men, and sunk several of their 
ships to prevent them falling into the hands of the 
enemy. The British lost two ships and 400 men. 

Beaoon« A signal mark for the safe guidance of 
shipping. Refer to Lighthouse. 

Beadon, Daores 0. (b. Bishopstoke, July, 1857). 
Educated Cheltenham College ; served apprentice- 
ship as an engineer with Messrs. R. and W. Haw- 
thorn, Leslie and Co., of Newcastle-on-Tyne, in 
whose services and interests he remained practi- 
cally since then. Holds position of outside manager 
in the marine engine department. 

Beak or Beakhead. A piece of brass fixed at the 
head of ancient galleys with which they rammed 
their enemies. 

Beam. The extreme width. 

Beam-ends. A ship is said to be on her beam- 
ends when she has heeled over so that her beams 
approach a vertical position. 

Bear a hand. Hasten. 



Bear away and bear op. To steer farther from 
the wind. 

Bearding. The angular fore part of the rudder 
at the side of the stem post. 

Bearing. The direction. 

Beat. In sea phraseology to excel in speed. 

Beaofort, Sir Francis (i774'iS57). British rear- 
admiral. Entered Navy 1787, and was present at 
Lord Howe's action of June i, 1794. Promoted 
commander 1800, and captain 1810. From 1832-55 
he acted as hydrographer to the Admiralty. 

Beanfort's Scale. Devised by Admiral Sir F. 
Beaufort, and now in general use^for estimating 
the force of the wind. 

Beantoy. On February 20, 1823, Mr. Weddel, 
R.N., in command of this vessel, penetrated as far 
south as 74® 15' S. 

Beaamont» Vioe-Admiral Sir Lewis Anthony, 
K.C.1L0., K.C.B. (b. May 19, 1847). Entered Navy 
i860 ; served Arctic expedition, 1875-76 (Arctic 
medal) ; private secretary to Lord Northbrook; 
First Lord of the Admiralty, and High Com- 
missioner to Egypt, 1884 ; Director of Naval In- 
telligence, 1894-99 ; A.D.C to the Queen, 1895-97 ; 
Commander-in-Chief Australian Station, 1900 ; in 
personal attendance on H.R.H. the Duke of Corn- 
wall and York during the Australian tour, 1901 ; 
decorated K.C.M.G. for these"services ; K.C.B. on 
His Majesty's birthday, 1904, 

Becalmed* Implies the state of a vessel unable 
to make headway owing to there being no wind. 

Beoke, George Louis. English novelist (b. 
Sydney, New South Wales, 1848). The experience 
he gained between 1870 and 1893 while trading in 
the South Seas he turned to good account in his 
stories of adventure. Among the best known are 
" By Reef and Palm " (1893), " The Ebbing of the 
Tide " (1896), " Pacific Tales " {1897), " The South 
Sea Pearler " (1900), " By Rock and Pool " (1901), 
" Breachley Black Ship " (1902). 

Beckei A rope-eye to receive a knot or toggle. 

Bedford. British ist class cruiser. (Fairfield, 
1901.) 

Length 440 ft Beam 66 ft. Mean draught 24 ft. 
Displacement 9,800 tons. Complement 678. 
Guns. Armour, 

14 — 6 in., 45 cal. " Krupp." 
8—12 pdr. 4 in. Belt amidships. 

2 — 12 pdr., 8 cwt. 5 in. Barbettes. 
3 — 3 pdr. 10 in. Conning tower. 

8 Pompoms. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.) 
2 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 22,000=23 kts. Coal maximum 
1,600 tons. Approximate cost ;f775,ooo. 
This ship-name dates in the Navy from 1702, 

D 2 



BEDFORD 



68 



BELFAST 



and is associated with Rooke's victory at Vigo, 
1702 ; action off Cape Sparco, 1703 ; Rooke's vic- 
tory off Malagar, 1704 ; capture of I^uisberg, 
1758 ; expedition to Quebec, 1759 ; capture of 
Comets, 1761 ; Rodney's action off St. Vincent, 
1780; Grave's action off the Chesapeake, 1781 ; 
Hood's action with De Grasse, 1782; Rodney's 
action with De Grasse, 1782 ; Hood's occupation of 
Toulon, 1793 ; Hotham's action off Genoa, 1795 ; 
Hotham's action off Hydros, 1795 ; Camperdown, 

1797. 

Bedford, Admiral Sir Frederick George Deoham 

(b. 1838). Entered Royal Navy 1852 ; cadet of Sam- 
son, 1852-54 ; served during Russian war, Black 
Sea ; present at the bombardments of Odessa and 
Sebastopol (Crimean and Turkish medals, Sebas- 
topol clasp) ; mid. of Vulture in the Baltic expedi- 
tion, 1855 ; present at the bombardment of Svea- 
borg (Baltic medal) ; served Black Sea during 
Rus.sian war (Crimean and Turkish medals) ; cap- 
tain of Shah at the engagement %vith the Peruvian 
ironclad Huascar ; when captain of Monarch did 
excellent work for the relief of General Gordon, 
1884, and received the thanks of the Admiralty 
(Egyptian medal, Nile, 1884-85, clasp, Khedive's 
Bronze Star) ; A.D.C.to the Queen, 1888-91 ; Lord 
Commissioner of the Admiralty, 1889-92 ; Com- 
mander-in-Chief Cape of Good Hope and West 
Coast of South Africa, 1892-95 ; in recognition of 
services in the Benin River, 1894, ^e received 
K.C.B. (general Africa medal, Gambia, 1894, Benin 
River, 1894, Brass River, 1895, clasps) ; Second 
Sea Lord of the Admiralty, 1895 ; Commander-in- 
Chief North America and West Indies, 1899 ; 
G.C.B. 1902 ; retired 1903. 

Publications: "Sailors' Pocket-Book,' ' "The 
Sailors' Hand-Book," and "The Sailors' Ready 
Reference Book."^ 

Bed of river. The, means the soil between the 
two adjacent banks between which the river 
normally flows. In a navigable tidal river the 
property in the bed belongs prima facie if> the 
Crown up to high-water mark, but it may be vested 
in a board of conservators, or granted to a private 
individual who takes subject to all public rights — 
e.g,t of navigation, anchorage, and grounding — such 
river being a public highway. The regulation of 
most of our important waterways is vested in a 
Conservancy (^.v.), which protects but does not 
actually own the bed, unless it be in the interests 
and for the purposes of navigation. In a non-tidal 
river or above tide-flow the property in the bed 
vests presumptively in the riparian owners (q-v.) 
ad medium filum aqua, who must not interfere 
with the natural flow of the stream so as to injure 
other riparian owners ; but this presumption is 
rebuttable by evidence that one riparian owner is 
owner of the soil of the whole bed. 

i^'Beechey, Frederick William. Naval rear-admiral 
and geographer (b. London, 1796). Entered the 



Navy in 1806, and was engaged in active service 
during the wars with France and America, 18 18; 
served under FrankHn in Arctic expedition, and in 
1 8 19 accompanied Parry in the Heela; took part 
in the survey of the Mediterranean coast, 1821. 
In 1825 he was appointed to the Blossom to ex- 
plore the Behring Strait, in conjunction with 
Franklin and Parry. The whole voyage lasted 
three years, during which he passed through the 
Bebring Strait, and penetrated as far as lat. 
71® 23' 31^ N. and long. 156** 21' 30' W.. dis- 
covering several islands in the Pacific and an 
excellent harbour near Cape Prince of Wales. In 
1847 ^ ^^^c^ appointed by the Admiralty to pre- 
side over the Marine Department of the Board of 
Trade ; promoted rear-admiral, 1854 ; d. Novem- 
ber 29, 1856. Refer to Arctic Exploration. 

Beeohing, James ( 1 778-1 858). Inventor of " self- 
righting lifeboat," and originator of the Yarmouth 
fishing- vessel. In competition with others he was 
awarded the Prince Consort's prize for his life- 
boat, which was taken as a model for the boats of 
the National Lifeboat Institution. 

Beerbohm's Morning Shipping List Est. 1869. 
Published daily (morning). Price ^d. Address : 
94 Leadenhall Street, London, E.C. 

Bees. Wood or iron pf ejections bolted on each 
side of the bowsprit. 

Before. The bearing of any object which is 
before. 



Behem, or Behaim, Kartin (b. Nuremberg, 
1436). Was appointed geographer to an ex- 
pedition undertaken by Diego Cam to the western 
coast of Africa, and as a reward for his services 
received the honour of knighthood. While visiting 
his native city in 1482 he constructed a terrestrial 
globe in which he incorporated the discoveries of 
Marco Polo and other travellers. The globe is still 
preserved in the family, and has frequently been 
reproduced. It is not, however, accurate, as mis- 
takes in the localisation of the places he visited 
are noticeable ; in some instances they are as much 
as 16^ out. He died at Lisbon, 1506. 

Behring. Captain YitllS. See Arctic Exploration. 

Belay. To fasten a rope by twining it round a 
belaying-pin or cleat. 

Belcher, Sir Edward (1799-1877). British ad- 
miral. In 1825 he went with Captain E. W. 
Beechey {q.v,) in the Blossom, when important dis- 
coveries were made. In 1851 he was appointed to 
command the Assistance on an Arctic expedition, 
and on his return was promoted rear-admiral. 

Publications : Narrative of " A Voyage Round 
the World in the H.M.S. Sulphur " (1844-52). 

Belfast and Ooonty Down Railway Co. Steamboat 
Service commence sailing about the end of May 
for the summer season, making trips four times 



BELFAST 69 



BELFAST 



daily from Belfast to Bangor. On Saturdays only 
a steamer leaves Belfast for Bangor, Donaghadee, 
and Lame Harbour. 

Flebt. 
Bearinagh. Sleio^. 

Beliut Corintliiftii SaiUng (Slab. Established 
1889. Flag : Blue, with yellow bell on red shield. 
Commodore. J. McKegherty ; Vice-Commodore» 
E. J. Bryne ; Rear-Commodore, W. Shields ; 
Treasurer, W. Hutchinson ; Secretary, W. J. 
Hannan. Entrance fee, 25. 6d. ; annual subscrip- 
tion, 55. 

Bdfasi» Port oL Belfast Harbour, the premier 
harbour of Ireland, is at the head of Belfast Lough, 
in latitude 54** 36' N., $'' 56' W. The time of high 
water at full and change is 10 hours and 43 minutes. 

The rise of the tide varies from g^tt, springs to 
7ft. Sin. neaps. 

The prevailing wind is from the south-west to 
north-west for nine months of the year. The 
harbour is safe, and the approach from the sea is 
easy by means of a straight channel, which is 
efficiently lighted by oil, so that it is easily navi- 
gated by night as well as by day. The depth of 
water in the channel is 20 feet at average low 
water. 

In 161 3 a charter incorporating Belfast a borough 
empowered the " Sovereign, free burgesses, and 
commonalty " to construct a wharf or quay at 
Belfast, and in 1688 a new charter empowered the 
same authority to mend the quays and receive 
dues. 

The first Act of Parliament for regulating Belfast 
Harbour was passed in 1729, and empowered the 
authorities to appoint officers, to make bye-laws, 
to supply ballast, and to levy tonnage dues. In 
1785 an Act was passed by which the Belfast 
Corporation, consisting of 15 members, was con- 
stituted. This Act empowered the new corpora- 
tion to license pilots, appoint a harbour-master, 
mark and deepen the channel, and constmct docks. 
A further Act was passed in 1837 changing the 
name of the corporation to the " Corporation for 
Preserving and Improving the Port and Harbour 
of Belfast." This corporation consisted of 18 
members, two of whom were ex officio. The 
corporation had power under this Act to borrow 
money, purchase private quays and docks, and 
construct a straight channel to deep water. The 
first section of this channel was opened in 1841, 
the second in 1849, and it was further extended and 
deepened in 1891. 

The present harbour authority, styled the " Bel- 
fast Harbour Commissioners," was constituted by 
the Belfast Harbour Act of 1847. '^^s ^<^ 8^^® 
enlarged borrowing powers for the purpose of pur- 
chasing additional property, filling up old docks, 
and widening and improving the quays. Authority 
was also given to levy tonnage and quayage dues 



on vessels, rates on goods, pUotage, porterage and 
storage, and rents. The Commissioners are also 
conservators of the harbour under the Belfast Port 
and Harbour Conservancy Act, 1852. 

By the Belfast Harbour Act, 1883. the number 
of members was increased to twenty-two, the Lord 
Mayor being a member ex officio, 

A person is not qualified to act as a Commis- 
sioner unless he resides within 20 miles from the 
harbour office, and possesses one of the following 
qualifications : 

He must be either the registered owner of at 
least 300 tons of a vessel or vessels belonging 
to and registered at Belfast, and engaged in 
the coasting, channel, or foreign trade ; or be 
rated as the occupier of premises within the 
borough of Belfast on a net annual value of 
not less than £60, or be rated as one of several 
joint occupiers of such premises of not less 
than £60 for each such joint occupier ; or be 
seized in his own right or in the right of his 
wife of real estate in the United Kingdom of 
a net annual value not less than ;f2oo, or of 
personal estate of a gross value not less than 

its .000. 
The Commissioners are elected by a constituency 

of shipowners and ratepay^^. The elector must 
be the registered owner of at least 50 tons of a 
vessel or vessels belonging to and registered at 
Belfast, and engaged in the coasting, channel, or 
foreign trade, or be rated as the occupier of pre- 
mises within the borough of Belfast on a net annual 
value of not less than ;£2o. 

The following is a tabular statement of the 
docks, etc., in the harbour : 

RIVBR LAGAN, Etc. 



Op«ned 


QuaVB 


Depth 


Lineal 


o.h.w. 


o.l.w. 


Quayage ' 


1848 

1849 
1874 
1877 


Canal Quay 

Donegal! Quay 

Albert Qnay 

Queen's Quay 

MuaoBAvx Channkl 


ft. In. 
8 8 
24 3 
24 3 
23 9 


ft. in. 
2 
IS 9 
13 9 
IS 3 


feet 
200 
3.218 
1.987 
2.122 


1903 
1904 


No. I 0c2 Quays 

No. 3 Quay 

Wharvss 


32 3 
34 3 


23 9 
25 9 


800 
400 


1889 
l<t8^ 
1893 
1900 
1905 


Alexandra Wharf 

Clarence Wharf 

Victoria Wharf 

Alexandra Jetty 

New Wharf. Down ... 


34 3 
25 3 

24 3 
30 3 
40 3 


25 9 
16 9 
IS 9 
21 9 
31 9 


943 
750 
754 
814 
600 



DOCKS AND BASINS. 



Opened 



1851 
1867 
1872 
1872 
1872 
1897 



Docks 



Width 
of En- 
trainoe 



Clarendon Dock 
Abercom Basin 
Dufferin Dock 
Spencer Dock 
MUewater Basin 
York Dock 



feet 
SO 

60 
180 

100 



Depth 






below 


Water 


Lineal 


Low 


area 


Quayage 


Water 


1 




feet 


a. r. p. 


feet 


9 


4 21 


2.076 


11 


10 2 12 


1.429 


15 


3 1 12 


1.660 


15 


7 1 39 


1.974 


11« 


5 2 


971 


26 


10 1 


4.142 



Total Lineal Quayage. 24.840 feet. 



BELFAST 



70 



BELLEROPHON 



GRAVING DOCKS. 



Width 
of En- 
trance 



Level 
; of sill 
' above 

Datum 



Clarendon Graving 

Dock No. 1 
Clarendon Graving 

Dock No. 2 



Hamilton Graving 

Dock 
Alexandra Graving 

Dock 



feet I ft. in. 



36 

60 
80 



1 9 

Harb. 
datum 
Below 
datum 
5 7 

IS 



Depth 

°^.£^^ Breadth Length 

^i«^«- i of floor of floor 
coping 

to floor 



ft. in. 

14 9 

15 6 



n 9 

31 



ft. in. I ft. in. 
27 6 245 



34 



287 



50 451 6 



50 



800 



100 





128 





16 





23 


4i 



Harbour datum— Level of No. 2 Clarendon Graving Dock Sill, 
and 1 ft. 83 ins. below average low water level. 

Ordnance datum — (2 ft. \\\ ins.) Three feet below Harbour 

datum. 

The Commissioners axe constructing another 
graving dock of the following dimensions : 

ft. in. 
Length of dock or floor from the north 
quoin of the inner caisson sill to the toe 
of the battered wall at the south of the 

QOCK .. .. .. .. .■q5^^ 

Breadth of dock from toe to toe of the 
battered side wall below alter courses . . 
Breadth of dock from coping to coping . . 
Height of coping above harbour datum . . 
Width of caisson chamber in clear 
Level of surface at inner and outer sills is 
to be below harbour datum . . . . 24 6 
This graving dock will be one of the largest in 
the world. 

The docks and basins cover an area of 
about 1 36 acres. The harbour consists of about 
590 acres of land and 1,528 acres of water, or 
about 2,118 acres in all. There is a complete 
system of tramways around the harbour, and coal, 
etc., can be loaded direct from vessels into the 
railway trucks. These tramways are connected 
with all the railway systems of the country. Ship- 
building is encouraged, and the large shipbuilding 
and engineering works of Messrs. Harland and Wolfi, 
Ltd., and Messrs. Workman, Clark and Co., Ltd., 
who have a world-wide reputation for the con- 
struction of the largest classf^of ocean-going 
steamers, are situated on the harbour estate. 

The revenue of the harbour from all sources, 
excluding loans, for the 3'ear 1906 was ;J 157,000, 
and the surplus, after defraying all expenses, was 
nearly ;^20,ooo. 

Belfast SteaniBliip Co., with their head ofl&ce at 
Donegall Quay, Belfast, maintain a daily service 
between Belfast and Liverpool, and vice versa, 
Sundays excepted, leaving Belfast at 8 p.m. and 
Liverpool at 10 p.m. The steamers of the com- 
pany are lighted throughout by electricity, and 
fitted with every modem convenience for the com- 
fort of passengers. The open sea passage is about 
six hours. 



Fleet. 
Caloric, Logic. 

Comic. Magic. 

Graphic. Mystic. 

Heroic, Optic. 

Gross tonnage, 24,000. 

Belgmn Safliag Clab» RoyaL See Royal Belgian 
Sailing Club. 

Belgian State Bailway and Hail Packet Servioe 

maintain three services in each direction from 
Dover to Ostend in conjunction with the railway. 
The new fast turbine steamer Princess Elizabeth 
has a speed of 25 knots, and is fitted with the 
Marconi system of wireless telegraphy. 

Belgica. Ship. See Antarctic Exploration. 

Beteiqae, Royal Taoht dob de. See Royal Yacht 
Club de Belgique. 



French torpedo-boat destroyer. (Nor- 
mand, 1902.) Length, 180 ft. ; beam, 21 f t. ; 
maximum draught. 10 ft. ; displacement, 300 tons ; 
complement, 45 ; guns, i 9-pdr., 6 3-pdr. ; torpedo 
tubes, 2 1 5 -in. ; speed, 27-30 knots. 

Bell, Henry (b. Torpichaton, 1767). Introducer 
of practical steam navigation into the United 
Kingdom. In January, 181 2, he produced the 
steamboat Comet, of 25 tons, driven by an engine 
of 3 Hp., with a speed of 7 miles an hour, which 
plied between Glasgow and Greenock. This was 
the first steam vessel to be launched in Great 
Britain. He died at Helensburgh, November 13, 
1840, and a monument was erected to his memory 
at Dunglass, on the banks of the Clyde. 

Ben, Sir James, cr. 1895 (^* Glasgow). Con- 
tested the America Cup with the yacht Thistle, 
now Comet, and at the present time owned by the 
Emperor of Germany. 

Bell Brothers and HaoLeUand, with their head 
offices in Glasgow, have a fleet of ten steamers 
engaged in cargo trade. These vessels have accom- 
modation for a hmited number of passengers. 

Fleet. 

Bellagio. Bellaura. 

Bellailsa. Bellena. 

Bellanoch. Bellenden. 

Bellarden. Bettevue. 

Bellasco. Bellgrano. 

Bellerophon. British ist class battleship. Laid 
down, 1906. 

Length 500 ft. Beam 80 ft. Draught 26 ft. 
Displacement 18,000 tons. 
Guns. Armour. 

10 — 12 in. " Knipp." 

18 — 3 in. 12 in. Belt amidships. 

12 in. Barbettes. 



BELLEROPHONE 



71 



BEND 



Torpedo Tuhes (18 in.). 
4 Submerged broadside. 
I Submerged stem. 
Turbine. Hp. 23,000=21 kts. • 
Approximate cost j( 1,7 50,000. 
The first vessel of this name was launched in 
1786. and distinguished herself in May» 1794* in an 
engagement with the French Revolutionaire. She 
fired the first gun at the battle of " The Glorious 
First of June/' 1794. In 1798 she was present at 
the battle of the Nile, and subsequently took part 
in the battle of Trafalgar. Napoleon Bonaparte, 
on his surrender to Captain Maitland on July 15, 
18 1 5, was conveyed from Basque Koads to Ply- 
mouth in this vessel. The second BeUerophon was 
launched in 18 18. In 1840 she was eAgaged in the 
bombardment of St. Jean d'Acre, and in 1854 the 
bombardment of Sebastopol. The third BeUero- 
phon was an iron battleship, built in 1856, which 
in 1904 had her name changed, and is still in use 
at Devonport as a training establishment and 
workshop. 

Bellerophone. See Ocean Steamship Co. 

Belligerent. The term " belligerent," according 
to The Hague Conference (1899), which reproduces 
and amplifies the provisions of all former confer- 
ences, includes both the combatants and non- 
combatants who : 

(i) Are commanded by some responsible person ; 

(2) Wears some distinctive emblem ; 

(3) Carry arms openly ; and 

(4) Conduct operations according to the laws 
and customs of war. 

The unorganized inhabitants of invaded terri- 
tory who take up arms are also regarded as belli- 
gerents so long as they observe the customs of 
war. Refer to Contraband of War, Neutrality, 
Cartel, Blockade, Visit and Search. 

BeUot, Joseph Reii6. French naval officer and 
explorer (b. Paris, March 18, 1826). Distinguished 
himself in the French expedition of 1845 ^ Mada- 
gascar, and received the Cross of the Legion of 
Honour. He obtained permission to join the 
English expedition under the command of Cap- 
tain Kennedy in search of Sir John Franklin, and 
on this occasion discovered the strait which bears 
his name between Bothia Felix and Somerset 
Land. Two years later he accompanied Captain 
Inglefield on an expedition, and while making a 
perilous journey with two comrades across the ice 
was overtaken by a storm and perished. Refer to 
Arctic Exploration. 

Bell Bock Light, situated near the Firth of Tay, 
is a red and white alternate flash every 60 seconds. 
Duration of flash, ^ second ; candle-power, 60,000 ; 
burner, 6 wick ; illuminant, oil. 

BeDs. At sea the subdivision of a " watch " 



BeUy. The swell of a sail. 

Belly-band. A broad strip of canvas half-way 
between the close reef and the foot of square sail 
to strengthen it. 

Belly-siay. A rope from the centre of the mast 
forward. 

Bembiidge Sailing dab. Isle of Wight. Estab- 
lished 1886. Burgee : White, blue borders on fly, 
red device in centre, representing the Isle of Wight. 
Commodore, R. Stewart Savile ; Vice-Commodore, 
Sir Charles Campbell; Rear-Commodore, Col. Sir 
Simon Lockhart ; Treasurer and Secretary, Mr. 
H. H. Freman. Entrance fee, £$ 55. ; annual sub- 
scription, £s 35. 

Benbow, John. English admiral (b. Shrews- 
bury, 1650). In 1668, when trading to the Mediter- 
ranean, he defeated a Sallee pirate, and for this 
James II. made him captain of a man-of-war, and 
for some years he was employed to protect English 
commerce in the Channel. Took part in the bom- 
bardment of St. Malo, 1693, ^^^ ^^^ ^ charge of 
the squadron which burnt Dieppe, and bombarded 
Havre and Calais. In 1696 he became rear-admiral, 
and in 1698 set sail for the West Indies, where he 
compelled the Spaniards to restore several English 
vessels they had seized. In 1700 he was appointed 
vice-admir^, and returned to the Wejst Indies. In 
1702 his ship, the Breda, gave chase off Santa 
Martha to a French squadron under Du Casse, and 
kept up a running fight for five days. During this 
fight he was severely wounded in the head, his 
right leg was shattered by a shot, and h6 was 
compelled to conduct the action from a cradle on 
his quarter-deck. The French admiral escaped, 
and he was reluctantly forced to abandon the 
chase. He returned to Jamaica, and died of his 
wounds, November 4, 1702. 

Benbow, Sir Henry, K.C.B., cr. 1902. D.S.O., 
1 891 ; Chief Inspector of Machinery, R.N. (b. 
September 5, 1838). Educated private school ; 
entered Navy as assistant engineer in 1861, and 
became chief engineer 1879 ; promoted to Inspector 
of Machinery 1885, and Chief Inspector of Machinery 
1888 ; served with the Naval Brigade in the Nile 
Expedition, 1884-85 (medal, bronze star), and re- 
paired uAder the enemy's fire th6 boiler of the 
Sofiti, which was displaced by a shot from Fort 
Habeshi ; decorated for services with the Nile Ex- 
pedition ; retired, 1893. 

Benches. See Thwarts. 

Benooolen. East Indiaman, struck on sands 
near Bude Haven, Cornwall, October 19. 1862, 
when twenty-six lives were lost. 

Bend. To extend or make fast a saU to its 
(^.9.) are noted by a half-hourly striking of a bell proper yard or stay ; a kink formed in a hemp 
with a clapper. cable when stowing it. 



BENEAP 



72 



BERESFORD 



Beneap. The situatioa of a vessel when she is 
aground at the height of spring tides. 

Benedetto Brim Italian battleship. (Castella- 
mare, 1901.) 
Length 430 ft. Beam 78 ft. Mean draught 27 ft. 
Displacement 13,427 tons. Complement 720. 
Guns. Afmouf, 

4 — 12 in. 40 cal. " Temi." 
4 — 8 in. 6 in. Belt. 

12—6 in. 8 in. Barbettes. 

16 — 12 pdr. 6 in. Casemates. 

8-^6 pdr. 12 in. Conning tower. 

2 — I pdr. 
2 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
4 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. natural 14,000 » 18 kts., forced 
19,000=320 kts. Coal maximum 2,000 tons. 
Approximate cost ;£i, 150,000. 

Bengal lights or Blue Lights are pyrotechnical 
preparations for signals by night. Potassium 
chlorate, antimony, sulphide, and sulphur are the 
chief ingredients used in their manufacture. As 
the mixture is highly explosive great skill is re- 
quired in the making. 

See Cooley's " Cyclopaedia of Practical Receipts " 
(1892). 

BengO. Portuguese gun>boat (1879). B.L. guns. 
Of little fighting value. Speed (nominally) 10 kts. 

Benjamin Constant Brazilian cruiser. (La 
Seyne, 1892.) 

Length 236ft. Beam 44ft. Maximum draught i8ft. 
Displacement 2,750 tons. Complement 380. 
Guns. Armour, 

4— 6 in. "Steel."* 

8 — ^4' 7 in. 2 in. Deck. 

2 — 12 pdr. 3i in. Conning tower. 

2 — I pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
4 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. natural 2,800^^14 kts., forced 
4,ooos 15 kts. Coal maximum 260 tons. 

Ben Line, E. H. Xhomaon and Ga, with their 
head office in Leith. own a fine fleet of cargo 
steamers trading to the East and Far East. The 
ships are all modem, with a sea speed of about 
io( kts., and have excellent accommodation for a 
few first-class passengers. 

Fleet. 
Benlomond. Benlarig. 

Benmolu. Benvenue. 

Benalder. BenUdi. 

Bengloe. Benlawers, 

Benvorlich. Benavon. 

Bencleuch. Moscow. 

Benarty. Petersburg, 

Reval. 
Gross tonnage, 48,000. 



Armour. 
" Steel." 
\ in. Deck amidships. 



Bennett Line, with their head offices in London, 
maintain regular services between Goole and 
Boulogne-sur-Mer. and between London and that 
port. Steamers leave Goole every Wednesday, 
Thursday, and Saturday, and from London every 
Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, returning Tues- 
day, Thursday, and Sunday. 

Flbbt. 
Africa. Malta. 

Burma. Mopsa. 

Corea. Syria. 

Bennington. U.S. gun-boat. (Chester, 1891.) 
Lengtii 230ft. Beam 36ft. Maximum draught i6ft, 
Displacement 1,700 tons. Complement 195. 
Guns. 
6-^ in. 
4 — 6 pdr. 
Hp. 3,400=17 kts. Coal maximum 400 tons. 

Bentick Shronda. Formerly used to assist the 
futtock shrouds extending from weather futtock 
staves to the opposite lee-channels. 

Benton. Steamer of Singapore sunk in collision 
with an unknown steamer, April 28, 1897 M5o lives 
lost. 

Beownll German coast service battleship ( 1 890) . 
Length 254ft. Beam 49ft. Maximum draught 18ft. 
Displacement 4,150 tons. Complement 297. 
Guns. Armour. 

3 — 9*4 in. "Compound." 

10— 15 J pdr. 9 in. Belt. 

6—1 pdr. 8 in. Barbettes. 

4 Machine. 7 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
3 Submerged bow and broadside. 
I Above water stem. 
Twin screw. Hp. 5.ioo=si5*5 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 580 tons. 

Berenice, H.K.8. On October 13, 1866, this 
vessel was burnt in the Persian Gult. 

Becaiiord, Tioe-Adniiral Lord Ohades William da 
la Poer* 0.0. V.O^ K.O.B. cr. 1903 (b. Ireland, 
February 10, 1846). Educated at Beyford School 
and Stubbington, Famham, Hampshire. Entered 
Britannia as cadet, 1859 ; sub-lieutenant, 1866 ; 
lieutenant, 1868 ; commander, 1875. Accom- 
panied H.R.H. Prince of Wales (Edward VII.) as 
a naval A.D.C. to India, 1875-76. Commanded 
H.M.S. Conddr at the bombardment of Alexandria, 
July II, 1882. Landed at Alexandria, and witli 
Royal Marines instituted a regular police system, 
which under his able administration achieved 
marvellous results. The " Times " correspondent, 
July 24, 1882, says : " I say without fear and 
contradiction that no such work has ever been done 
with such complete absence of violence." Pro- 
moted captain, and mentioned in despatches for 
gallantry. (Egypt medal, Alexandria clasp, Khe- 
dive's Bronze Star, Medjidie, 3rd Class.) Served in 
the Soudan with the Nile Expedition for the relief 



BERESFORD 



73 



BERRY 



of General Gordon. Served on staff of General 
Lord Wolseley, and subsequently commanded the 
Naval Brigade at the battles of Abu Klea» Abu 
Km, and Metemmeh. (Mentioned for gallantry.) 
Commanded the expedition which rescued Sir 
Charles Wilson's party in Sofia, when boilers were 
repaired under fire. Specially mentioned in de- 
spatches for gallantry, and the Secretary of the 
Admiralty in the House of Commons said : " The 
rescue of Sir C. Wilson by Lord Charles Beresford 
was a feat of arms equally remarkable for the skill 
and getllantry displayed." Received the thanks of 
both Houses for the operations in the Soudan. 
Again specially mentioned in despatches by Lofd 
Wolseley, 1885, who said au officer whose readiness 
of resource, whose ability as a leader are only 
equalled by his daring. (Nile 1884-85 and Abu 
Klea clasps.) Lord Commissioner of the Admiralty, 
1885 ; resigned, 1888. While captain of Undaunted 
> rendered assistance on the occasion of the grounding 
of the Seignahay, for which, during the visit of the 
English Fleet to Golf Juan, the French admiral 
visited the Undaunted to personally present to her 
captain, officers, and men the thanks of the French 
Government A.D.C. to the Queen, 1897. Second- 
in-command Mediterranean Station, 1900-3. Com- 
mander-in-Chief Channel Fleet, 1903-4. G.C.V.O., 
1907 ; K.C.B. on His Majesty's birthday, Novem- 
ber 9, 1903. 

Berwiord, Sir John Poo (1766-1844). British 
admiral. In 1795, when captain of the Hussar 
on the North American Station, he engaged five 
French store ships, and captured two. In 1797, 
when in command of the Raisan, he captured a 
valuable Spanish treasure ship near the Bahamas. 
Was present at the action in Basque Road (1809.) 
Promoted rear-admiral 1814, and made a baronet. 
In 1838 he became admiral, and retired. 

Berk Blshaii. Turkish torpedo-boat destroyer. 
(Gaarden. 1894.) Length, 187 ft. ; beam, 21 ft. ; 
draught, 7 ft. ; displacement, 370 tons ; arma- 
ment, 6 i-pdr., 3 tabes ; Hp., i,3ooas35 kts. 

Berkdey, Jamest Third Bar! (1680-1736). Fought 
with great credit in Rooke's action off Malagar in 
1704, and in command of the 51. George at the 
siege of Toulon. Was appointed First Commis- 
sioner of the Admiralty, 171 1, and two years later 
was |»t>moted admiral and Commander-in-Chief of 
the Fleet. 

Berkdey* Sir €toorg» Oranfldd (1753-1818). In 
1780-82. as captain, he was in command of the 
frigate Recovery at the relief of Gibraltar ; at Lord 
Howe's victory, 1794, was in command of the 
Marlborough ; in 1799 he was in command of a 
squadron bloc'^Lding Brest ; promoted admiral, 
1810. 

Berlin. German armoured cruiser. (Danzig 
Dockyard, 1903.) 
Length 341ft. Beam 40ft Maximum draught x6(ft. 



Displacement 3,200 tons. Complement 380. 



Guns, 
10— 4*1 in. 
10 — 1*4 in. 
4 Maxims. 



Armour. 
" Krupp." 

3 in. Deck. 

4 in. Conning tower 
Torpedo Tubes, 

2 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 11,0003:23 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 800 tons. 

Berlin. 1,775 to^^* Great Eastern Railway Co.'s 
mail steamer, running between Harwich and the 
Hook of Holland, stranded on the rocks in the 
vicinity of Vooma Island, at the end of the NorHi 
Pier at the Hook of Holland in a gale, Fe1nniary2i, 
1907, and became a total wreck. Of 143 on board — 
93 passengers and 50 crew — only 1 5 were saved. 

Berlinar Segler Club. Established 1885. Com- 
modore, E. Deter; Vice-Commodore, O. Jach- 
mann ; Treasurer, W. Lettre ; Secretary, J. Nurren- 
bach, 5 Schiffoauerdamm, Berlin. 

Btettner Taoht (nub. Established 1885. Com- 
modore, Paul Schmidt ; Vice-Commodoce, F. Mer- 
tens; Rear-Commodore, G. Gottling; Treasurer, 
C. Ihlow ; Secretary, M. Buchholtz, Qub House, 
Grunan, by Berlin. Entrance fee, mark 30 ; annual 
subscription, mark 40. 

BermniU Big. See Mugian Rig. 

Beroe. A small marine organism belonging to 
the Ctenophora* and found abundantly near the 
surface of the sea during summer. It differs from 
its near allies in not possessing tentacles and 
having a wide slit-like mouth. 

Berry, Edward (b. Devonport, March 1858). 
Served apprenticeship H.M. steam-engine factory 
at Keyham, Devonport ; in 1878 joined the Union 
S.S. Co. ; in 1883 rose to the position of chief 
engineer, which he retained until 1890 ; had charge, 
under the late Charles du Santory, Esq., supt. 
engineer to the Union S.S. Co., of the conversion 
of two crank compound engines to triple expan- 
sion; resigned this appointment in 189$, and com- 
menced business as a naval architect and marine 
engineer surveyor ; in 1898 accepted the appoint- 
ment of supt. engineer to the Ocean S.S. Co., of 
Liverpool ; member of the Institution of Naval 
Architects. 

Berry, Sir Bdward (1766-1831). British rear- 
admiral. Served with Nelson in 1796, who was 
instrumental in his promotion to commander In 
that year ; he led the boarding party at the cap- 
ture of San Joseph and San Nicholas in the victory 
off Cape St. Vincent, 1797 ; promoted captain, and 
took part in the battle of the Nile ; was in com- 
mand of the Foudroyani, 1800, at the capture of 
the GMreux ; in the Agamemnon he took part in 
the battle of Trafalgar, 1805, and San Domingo in 
1815 ; he was given a K.C.B. and retired, 1821, 
having obtained flag rank. 



BERTH 



74 



BIBBY 



Berth. The station in which a ship rides at 
anchor. 

Bertm» Louib Emile. Chief Constructor French 
Navy (b. Nancy, March 23, 1840). Educated 
Polytechnic School, and served at the arsenals of 
Cherbourg and Brest from 1862-85 ; while there he 
designed and superintended the construction of 
many ships-of-war built for the French Navy ; in 
1886 visited Japan, and superintended the con- 
struction of many ships in the Japanese Navy, 
which have play^ed so prominent a part in the 
Russo-Japanese war.. On his return from Japan 
in 1892 he became Chief of I'^cole du G^nie Mari- 
time of Paris, and in 1895 ^^^ called to the Ministry 
and given the title of Director of Material, which 
was subsequently changed to that of Chief of the 
Technical Section, and in this capacity designed 
and superintended the construction of the battle- 
ship Henry I V., and the cruisers Jeanne d*AfC 
and Jufien-de-la-Gravi ire, and those of the class 
Montcalm, Cloire, Gatnbetta, Michelet, and Renans ; 
was the prime mover of the Bill of 1895 which led 
to the construction of submarines in the French 
Navy : is a commander of the Legion of Honour, 
Grand Krain of the Rising Sun, Grand Order of 
St. Anne, Grand Officer at Puis ; member of the 
Institution of Naval Architects, and Director of 
Naval Construction, C.R. 

Publications : Numerous papers on naval archi- 
tecture (1869- 1 906), published in the Transactions 
of the Academy of Science, Paris, the Institution 
of Naval Architects, Society of Naval Architects 
and Marine Engineers, the Maritime Technical 
Association, and the Society of Science of Cher- 
bourg, among which may be mentioned " Notes on 
Waves and Rolling," " Naval Science," " Ventila- 
tion of Ships," the " Resistance of Cruisers." 

Berwick. British ist class cruiser. (Beardmore, 
1902.) 
Length 440 ft. Beam 66 ft. Mean draught 24 ft. 
Displacement 9,800 tons. Complement 678. 

Guns. Armour, 

14 — 6 in., 45 cal. ** Krupp." 
8 — 12 pdr. 4 in. Belt amidships. 

2 — 12 pdr., 8 cwt. 5 in. Barbettes. 
3 — 3 pdr. 10 in. Conning tower. 

8 Pompoms. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
2 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 22,000=23 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 1,600 tons. Approximate cost ;£77 5, 000. 

This ship-name dates in the Navy from 1687, 
and is associated with the battle of Beachy Head, 
1690 ; Barfleur and I^ Hogue, 1692 ; Vigo Bay, 
1702 ; capture of Gibraltar, 1704 ; siege of Gibraltar, 
1727 ; Matthews 's action off Toulon, 1744 ; capture 
of Orphee, 1758 ; Keppel's action off Ushant, 1778 ; 
battle of the Dogger Bank, 1781 ; Hood's occupa- 
tion of Toulon, 1 793 ; the destruction of the .^mojron, 
1811. 



Bwchomaii Russian torpedo-boat destroyer. 
(Elbing, 1889.) Length, 196 ft. ; beam, 18 ft. ; 
draught, 11 f t. ; displacement, 350 tons ; armament, 
I i2-pdr., 5 3-pdr., 2 tubes ; Hp., 6,000=27 kts. 

Besposchtsohadny. Russian torpedo-boat de- 
stroyer. (Elbing, 1899.) Length, 196 ft. ; beam, 
18 ft.; draught, 11 It.; displacement, 350 tons; 
armament, i 12 -pdr., 5 3-pdr., 2 tubes ; Hp., 
6,000=27 kts. 

Benemer, Sir Henry (1813-98) (b. Charlton, 
Herefordshire). Inventor of the Bessemer process 
of the manufacture of steel, a process of manu- 
facture which revolutionised the steel industry 
Over the whole world. The pecuniary reward of 
Bessemer's invention came to him quickly, but it 
was not until 1879 that the Royal Society made 
him a Fellow and the Government honoured him 
with a knighthood. He also patented inventions 
for die-casting, railway signalling, and a ship which 
was to save her passengers from the miseries of 
mal-de-mer, this last haxang adjustable cabins, 
which should always preserve a horizontal floor. 
A boat called the Bessemer was built in 1875 for 
the cross-channel service, but the mechanism was 
found defective in practice, and she was ultimately 
discarded. ?Ie died at London. March 15, 1898. 

Bestrasohny. Russian torpedo-boat destroyer. 
(Elbing, 1899.) Length, 196 ft. ; beam, 18 f t. ; 
draught, 11 ft. ; displacement, 350 tons ; armament, 
1 i2-pdr., 5 3-pdr., 2 tubes ; Hp., 7,000=27 kts. 

Beta* A fire-float built by Messrs. Forrestt and 
Co., of Wyvenhoe, for the London County Council 
Fire Brigade. • She is 100 ft. in length, with a beam 
of 16 ft. 6 in., and a water-draught of 40 in. This 
low draught enables her to pass under the bridges 
at all slates of the tide. On her trials she steamed 
12 kts., and with only one boiler in use a little 
over II. She is fitted with four fire-pumps, which 
give a discharge of 4,000 gals, of water per minute. 

Between deokv. The space contained between 
any two decks of a ship. 

Between wind and water. At the water's edge. 

B.F. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Banff, Scotland. 

B.H. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Blyth, England. 

B.H. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Brouwershaven, Holland. 

Bhima. Steamer, in collision with the steamer 
Nana in the Red Sea, September 11, 1866. 
Nineteen Uves lost. 

BX Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Brielle. Holland. 

Bibby Line. One of the oldest steamship lines 
trading between England and India, and was 



BICKERDYKE 



75 



BILL 



ff 



«f 



founded in 1807. 100 years ago, by Mr. John 
Bibby, the grandfather of the present representa- 
tives, the fleet at that time consisting of small 
sailing-vessels. In 185 1 the steam fleet was com- 
menced, and in 1891 the Lanc<ishife was built, 
which vessel still holds the record between liver- 
pool and Rangoon for a passage of 23 days 30 hours. 
The company maintains regular sailings between 
Liverpool and Rangoon via Marseilles and Colombo, 
and the steamers have excellent passenger accom- 
modation. 

Fleet. 
Cheshivg. Shropshire. 

Derbyshire. Staffordshire. 

Herefordshire. Warwichshire. 

Worcestershire. 
Gross tonnage, 55.000. 

Biokefdyke, John {nam ds plume of Charles Henry 

Cook). English novelist and writer on angling 

(b. London, 1858). 

PubUcations : " Angling in Salt Water " (1887), 
Days in Thule vrith Rod, Gun, and Camera." 
Sea-Fishing" (Badminton). " WUd Sports in 

Ireland " (1897). " Book on the All-Round Angler " 

(1900). 

Bickertcm, Sir Biohard Honey (1759-1832). Eng- 
lish admiral. In 1781, when captain of the In- 
vincible, was present at the action o£f Martinique, 
and under Lord Keith took part in the Egyptian 
operations, and was made Commander-in-Chief at 
Alexandria after the capture of that town, iSoi. 
He was second-in-command of the Mediterranean 
to Lord Nelson, 1804 ; promoted to the rank of 
admiral, 18 10, and Commander-in-Chief at Ports- 
mouth, 18 12. 

Bicklord, Vioe-Admiial Andrew Kennedy (b. 
India). Entered Navy, 1858 ; served in China, in 
Barossa, at the action of Simonoseki ; in charge of 
rocket-boat Research on the coast of Ireland during 
Fenian riots, 1866-68 ; senior and gunnery Ueu- 
tenant of Amethyst during actions with Peruvian 
rebel ironclad Huascar ; commander of Thalia, em- 
ployed in transport service during Egyptian war, 
1882 (Egyptian medal, Khedive's Bronze Star, 
Medjidie, 3rd Class) ; A.D.C. to the Queen, 1896 ; 
superintendent Sheemess dockjrards, 1897 * Com- 
mander-in-Chief, Pacific Station, 1900. 

Bidarka. See Kayak. 

Bidder, Oeocge Parker (1806-78). English en- 
gineer. Educated Edinburgh University ; prize- 
man in higher mathematics, 1872. Assisted 
Stephenson in the construction of the London and 
Birmingham railway, and constructed several lines 
in England and abroad — e.^., Denmark, Norway, 
and India. He plaimed the Victoria Docks. 
London, invented the railway swing bridge, and 
was one of the founders of the first electrical tele- 
graph company. 



Biddle. U.S. torpedo-boat (1900). Displace- 
ment, 167 tons ; guns, 3 i-pdr. ; torpedo tubes, 
3 18-in. ; speed. 28 kts. 

BXEL Distinguishing letters on sea fishing 
boats registered at BiervUet, Holland. 

Biggart^ Andrew Stephenson (b. Ayrshire, 
August 25, 1857). Marine engineer. Served ap- 
prenticeship to marine engineering, and entered the 
service of Sir William Arrol and Co., Glasgow, as 
principal assistant ; was appointed engineer and 
manager under Sir William Arrol for carrying out 
the construction of the Forth Bridge, and on com- 
pletion of this work iff 1890 was made partner in 
the firm ; since then has taken the leading part in 
carrying out various contracts, including the steel 
work of the Tower Bridge ; is managing director of 
Sir William Arrol and Co., Ltd., and head, Wright- 
son and Co., Ltd.; designed the three famous bridges 
over the Nile at Cairo ; past-president of the Glas- 
gow University Engineering Society ; governor of 
the Glasgow and West of Scotland Technical 
College; member of council of the Institution of 
Engineers and Shipbuilders. 

Publications : Has contributed many scientific 
and technical papers to the British Association, 
Institution of Civil Engineers, Institution erf 
Mechanical Engineers, Institution of Engineers and 
Shipbuilders in Scotland. 

Bight, The loop of a rope when it is folded in 
opposition to the end. 

Bilge. That part of a ship where the floors and 
second futtocks unite, and upon which the ship 
would rest if laid on the ground. 

BUge-keeL An additional short keel placed out- 
side the bilge of boats to protect the skin in ground- 
ing, and also, especially abroad, to enable them to 
bold a better wind when sailing and heeling over. 

BOgeways. The foundations of the cradle sup- 
porting a ship upon the sliding-ways during build- 
ing and launching. The bilgeways are about five- 
sixths the length of the ship, and are about two ft. 
6 in. square. 

BilL See Anchor. 

BUlander. Formerly applied to small merchant 
vessels with two masts, distinguishable by the fact 
that their mainsail is bent to the whole length of 
her yard hanging fore and aft. Few vessels are 
now rigged in this manner. 

Bill board. Doubling under the fore-channel to 
the waterline as a protection from the bill of the 
anchor. 

Bill of exchange. A, is an instrument in writing 
whereby a debtor assigns to his creditor a debt 
due to himself from a third party. These instru- 
ments came into use among merchants early in the 
fourteenth century, notwithstanding the rule of 



BILL 



76 



BISHOP 



Common Law that ** choses in action " or debts 
were not assignable. They were recognised for 
centuries in the Courts of Staple and Admiralty, 
which administered the law merchant. Their 
validity in courts of law generally was not estab- 
lished until the days of Lord Mansfield. The Bills 
of Exchange Act, 1882. codifies the law now 
governing them. 

The person making the bill is called the drawer ; 
the person to whom it is addressed the drawee, or, 
after accepting it, the acceptor ; the person in 
whose favour it is drawn is the payee, or, if he 
endorse the bill to another, the endorser ; while the 
person to whom the bill is assigned or negotiated 
is the endorsee or holder. 

No notice of assignment is necessary (as in 
equity) to complete the holder's title. A bill 
drawn (a) to order, or {b) to bearer, will (a) when 
indorsed or (6) when handed over vest a right of 
action upon the bill in any person taking bona 
fide and for value, and without notice of any flaw 
in the title of the person from whom he took it, 
consideration for the bill being always presumed 
until the contrary appear. 

The essentials of a bill of exchange are : (i) it 
must be in writing ; (2) the order to pay must be 
unconditional — i.e., not payable on a contingency 
or out of a specified fund ; (3) payment must be on 
demand or at a fixed or ascertainable future time ; 

(4) payment must be for a sum certain in money ; 

(5) the drawee must be indicated with reasonable 
certainty ; (6) if not payable to bearer the bill 
must clearly indicate the payee. 

Where the drawer and drawee are the same 
person, the holder of the instrument may treat it 
either as a bill or promissory note. 

Bill of health. A, which is included in the list of 
a ship's documents, is a certificate signed by 
consuls or other authorities and delivered to the 
shipmaster, stating the sanitary condition and 
state of health of the port at the time of her leaving. 
A " clean " bill of health means that at the time of 
the ship's departure no infectious disease was 
known to exist. A " suspected " or " tainted " 
bill of health is one that imports that there were 
rumours of the'existence of some infectious disease, 
though up to the time of certifying it had not 
appeared. 

A " foul " bill of health means that when the 
vessel left the port was infected. 

Bill of lading. A« is a receipt for goods and an 
undertaking to carry safely and deliver them in 
good condition at their port of destination, with 
the exception of loss or damage caused by the act 
of God, king's enemies, fire, or any danger or 
accident of seas, rivers, and navigation. Upon 
delivery of goods on board the shipper receives a 
" mate's receipt," which contains the tenns upon 
which the goods are to be carried. The master or 
ship's agent afterwards signs a bill of lading, and 



delivers it to the header of the receipt. Three 
bills are made out. One is sent to the consignee, 
a second goes by the ship, and the third is retained 
by the shipper. 

A clean bill of lading is one in which there is 
nothing to qualify the admission on the part of 
the shipowner that so many packages are shipped 
in good order and well-conditioned. A through 
bill of lading is one made for the carriage of goods 
from one place to another by several shipowners 
or railway companies. 

A bill of lading is not a negotiable instrument, 
and the transferee has no better titie to the goods 
therein mentioned than the transferor had. but 
the property in goods will pass to the transferee by 
indorsement and delivery of a bill, subject to the 
right of stoppage in transitu {q.v.). Indorsement 
of a bill of lading by the buyer to a bona fide pur- 
chaser for value will defeat this right of stoppage 
in transitu. 

Refef to Affreightment, Damage. 

Bill of Lading dame. See Clauses. 

Bill of fliore is a licence granted by the Customs 
house authorities to a merchant, by which he is 
entitied to reimport within five years unsold goods 
free of duty. 

BJUjiloy* A large one-masted vessel principally 
used on the east coast. 

Binnaole, A box for the compass. 

Birkbeok, Sir Bdward«cr. 1886 (b. October zi, 
1838). Chairman of Royal National Lifeboat 
Institution ; originator and chairman of the Inter- 
national Fisheries Exhibition, Ix>ndon, 1883 ; M.P., 
North Norfolk, 1879-85 ; East Norfolk. 1885-92. 

BirkanlieadL Troopship, iron paddle-wheeled, 
and of 556 Hp. On January 7, 1852, this vessel 
sailed from Queenstown for the Cape, having on 
board detachments of the I2tli Lancers, 2nd, 6th, 
1 2th, 43rd, 45th, and 6oth Rifles, 73rd, 74th. and 
91st regiments. On February 26, 1852, she struck 
upon a pointed pinnacle rock ofl Simon's Bay, 
South Africa, and of 638 persons only 184 were 
saved by the boats ; 454 of the crew and soldiers 
perished. 

BinninghaBL U.S. scout (1904). 

Length 424ft. Beam 45ft. Draught 18ft. 
Displacement 4,000 tons. Complement 384. 
Guns, Armour, 

6—14 pdr. 5 in. Belt amidships. 

Torpedo Tubes (21 in.). 
2 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 16,000^24 kts. Coal maxi 
mum 1,000 tons. 

Biscoe, Johllt ILH. See Antarctic Exploration. 

Bishop Bock Liglifhoiue» situated on the western- 
most landfall rock of the Scilly Isles, fully exposed 
to the Atlantic, occupies perhaps a more exposed 



BISTRITZA n 

situation than any other in the world. It gives a 
two-flash light per minute, the duration of each 
flash being four seconds, 170,500 candle power, 
using the Douglas 8-wick burner, and oil as illu- 
minant. It was designed by the late Mr. James 
Walker, and carried out by Mr. J. N. Douglas. 

BisiritHU Roumanian gun-boat, 100 tons. Of 
no fighting value. 

Bite. The anchor is said to bite when it holds 
fast in the ground. 

Biitwn. British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Bar- 
row, 1897.) Length, 210 ft. ; beam, 21 ft. ; draught, 
5^ ft. ; displacement, 300 tons ; complement, 60 ; 
armament, i I2*pdr., 5 6-pdr., 2 tubes ; twin 
screw ; Hp., 6,000=30 kts. ; coal, 80 tons. 

Bitts. Cross timbers or iron to secure the cables 
when the ship rides at anchor. 

BXW. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing 
boats registered at Broek in Waterland, Holland. 

Bii0^ A cold, piercing wind of Languedoc. 

Bjerke. Russian torpedo-boat. (Putilofl, 1890.) 
Length 136 ft. ; beam, 13 ft. ; draught, j\ ft. ; 
displacement, 81 tons; armament, 2 tubes; Hp., 
1,250=21 kts.; coal, 17 tons. 

Bjorn. Swedish armoured gun-boat, 460 tons. 
Of no fighting value. 

B JL Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Berwick-on-Tweed, England. 



Bank. Abbreviation adopted 00 the charts 
issued by the H3rdrographic Office, Adnuralty. 

B/L. Bill of Lading. 

B Ji. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Blankenham, Holland. 

B Ji. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Bristol, England. 

Blaek Book of Admiralty. The Black Book of 
Admiralty, said to have been partly compiled 
during the reign of Edward III., is a collection of 
" ancient statutes of tiKe Admindty to be observed 
both upon the ports and havens, the high seas, and 
beyond the seas "... " having been from time 
to time kept in the registry of the Court for the use 
of the Judges of the Admiralty." It is now pre- 
served at the Royal Courts of Justice. R^fw to 
"Laws of Olerom." 

Black, John G« (b. Glasgow, March 21, 1864). 
Educated Blair Lodge, and on leaving school was 
articled to Messrs. Russell and AitJcen, Falkirk, 
solicitors, and at the same time studied Naval 
Architecture at the Technical College, Glasgow. 
Finding that the law was not to his liking, his 
father apprenticed him to Messrs. Blackadder and 
Co., and finally to Messrs. Shanks and Bell, of 
Yoker. After serving an apprenticeship he took up 



BLACK 

active sea life, and in 1895 was appointed chief 
officer of the Borghcse, and was the means of saving 
the lives of so many men of the steamer Charlewood, 
which was in collision off the Longship Light with 
the Borghese, He afterwards commanded this 
steamer, and in 1900 the Planet Mars ; 1901,. 
the WsstminsUr, which was used by the Ameri- 
can Government in the Spanish-American war to 
carry coals lor Admiral Dewey's fleet. In 1903 he 
retired from the sea and became Marine Superin- 
tendent to the Monarch Steamship Co. He is 
President of the Shipmasters' and Officers' Assoda- 
tion, and editor of the " Scottish Shipmaster," and 
is the head of the movement which has for its 
object the establishment of. a Nautical College in 
Glasgow. 

Publications : " Our Mercantile Miarine/' a 
number of papers on the education of Mercantile 
Officers ; " Position of our Merchant Shipping " ; 
" Sanitation and Living Acconunodation on British 
Cargo Steamers " ; " Discipline of Merchant 
Ships." 

Blaokbnni, 0. 7. (b. November 21, 1852). Marine 
engineer. Served his apprenticeship at Messrs. 
Laird Brothers, Birkenhead ; vras appointed 
Assistant Superintendent Engineer to the Guion 
Line, and held the appointment for seventeen 
years, until the company was wound up in 1S95 ; 
appointed Superintendent Engineer to the Isle of 
Man Steam Packet Co., and was closely connected 
with the building of the paddle steamer Empress 
Queen, and the turbine steamer Viking, the two 
fastest steamers of their class afloat. 

Blackpool Passenger Steamboat Ck>., Ltd., with 
their head offices at Blackpool, maintain daily 
sailings from Blackpool to Douglas (Isle of Man), 
Llandudno, Southport, Liverpool, Manchester, 
Morecambe, and Fleetwood. 

Fleet. 
Bells, Greyhound. 

Bicherstoge, Queen of the North. 

Wellington. 

Black Priace* British ist class cruiser. (Thames 
Ironworks, 1904.) 

Length 480 ft. Beam 73ft. Maximum draught 27ft. 
Displacement 13,500 tons. 
Guns. Armour. 

6 — 9*2 in., 50 cal. " Krupp." 

10 — 6 in. 6 in. Belt amidships. 

24—3 pdr- 6 in. Barbettes. 

8 — ij pdr. Pompoms. 7 in. Conning tower. 
Torpedo Tubes (i8 in.). 
3 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 23,500=22*33 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 2,000 tons. Approximate cost £i,\ 50,000. 

This ship-name was introduced into the Navy 
in 1648 ; the first Black Prince, which was driven 
ashore by Blake's squadron, 1650, had on board 
Prince Rupert. 



BLACK 



78 



BLAKE 



Black Sea* or Euxine, from the <^d Roman name 
Pontus Euxinus, is a large inland sea in the south- 
east of Europe, bounded on the north and east by 
Russia, on the south by Asia Minor, and the west by 
Turkey, Bulgaria, and Roumania. It is entered 
from the Mediterranean through the channel of the 
Dardanelles or Hellespontus, the Sea of Biarmora 
or Propontis, and the channel of Constantinople or 
Thractian Bosphorus ; and it is connected with the 
Sea of Azofi by a strait between the Crimea and 
the Isle of Taman, known as the Strait of Kertch or 
Yenikale. The basin of the Black Sea is of an 
irregular ovate form with a nearly flat bottom ; its 
greatest length from east to west is 720 miles ; its 
greatest breadth is in its western portion, between 
the estuary of the Dnieper on the north and the 
mouth of the Sakaria on the south, where it is 
380 miles. Its total area, including the Sea of 
A2off, is about 172,500 square miles. In the centre 
of the basin the maximum depth is about 1,227 
fathoms. The uniform mean temperature of the 
sea is about 48*20, but during the summer the 
surface water rises in temperature from 54° F. in 
May, to 78° in August. The winds are variable 
except during the summer, when they generally 
blow from the north-east, while at other seasons 
southerly or south-westerly winds often prevail. 
The area is very subject to fogs, and remarkable 
for the rapidity with which violent storms not 
unfrequently rise, often to subside again with like 
rapidity. This sea is practically destitute of islands 
and seldom freezes, even along the shore. The 
salinity of the Black Sea water varies at different 
periods of the year, and is about half the salinity 
of ordinary sea water. 

I See Sir John Murray on the " Deposits of the 
Black Sea " (1900). 

Black Sea Yacht Clab. Established 1875. ^^- 
modore, Angelo Anatra ; Vice-Commodore, Baron 
Wladimir Mahs; Rear-Commodore, N. Grodschi; 
Treasurer, Angelo Anatra ; Honorary Secretary, 
S. I. Doojan, Odessa. Entrance fee, 100 roubles ; 
annual subscription, 30 roubles. 

BlackBtrake. The range of plank immediately 
above the wales in a ship's side. 

, Blackthorn Winter. The cold weather, accom- 
panied by keen north-east winds, which sometimes 
occurs about the second week in April, when the 
blackthorn is in bloom. 

Blackwall Hitch. See Knots. 

Blackwater. British torpedo-boat destroyer. 
(Laird, 1903.) I-ength, 225 ft. ; beam, 23 ft. ; 
draught, 10 ft.; displacement, 550 tons; com- 
plement, 70; armament, i 12-pdr., 5 6-pdr., 2 
tubes; twin screw; Hp., 7,000=25 kts. ; coal, 
130 tons. 

Blackwater^SaiUng Clab. Commodore, }. H. T. 
Tudsbery; Vice-Commodore, Walter H. Grayj 



Rear-Commodore, £. Copland ; Honorary Secretary 
and Treasurer, T. Laurance Eve, Friary, Maldon, 
Essex; Qub House, Heybridge Basin, Essex. 
Entrance fee, 105. ; annual subscription, xos. 

Blackwood, Vice-Admiral Hon. Sir Henry (1770- 
1832). As Ueutenant of the Invincible took part in 
Howe's battle of June i, 1794, and in the following 
year in Bridport's action he commanded the 
Migara. In 1780 was attached to the squadron 
blockading Malta, where he distinguished himself 
in the Penelope by attacking the GuiUame Tell, 
which he captured. At the battle of Trafalgar 
he rendered good service in the Euryalus, and 
brought home the despatches announcing the 
victory. In 1827 he was appointed Commander-in- 
Chief at the Nore. 

Blade. A flat part of an oar which is plunged 
into the water in rowing. 

Blake. British ist class cruiser. (Chatham, 

1899.) 

Length 375ft. Beam 65ft. Maximum draught a7ft. 
Displacement 9,150 tons. Complement 590. 
Guns. Armour, 

2 — 9*2 in. " Steel and Compound." 

10 — 6 in. 6 in. Deck. 

16—3 pdr. 12 in. Conning tower. 

2—9 pdr. Boat. 
7 Machine. 

Torpedo Tubes (14 in.). 
2 Submerged. 
2 Above water. 
Twia screw. Hp. natural 13,000=18*5 kts., 
forced 20,0003322 kts. Coal maximnm x,8oo tons. 
This ship-name was first introduced into the 
Navy in 1808, and is associated with the bom- 
bardment of Flushing, 1809. 

Blake, Robert (i 598-1657). British admiral 
(b. Bridgewater). Was appointed commander of 
the British Fleet, 1649, and in the following year 
destroyed most of Prince Ruperfs squadron at 
Malaga. In 1651 he captured the Scilly Isles and 
Jersey. Appointed to command the Fleet, assisted 
by Rear-Admiral Bourne, against the Dutch in 
1654 ; he defeated van Tromp in the Downs, and De 
Witt and De Rujrter ofi the mouth of the Thames. 
He sustained a reverse, however, at the hands of .van 
Tromp ofi Dungeness. In 1653, after an indecisive 
action with v^ Tromp off Portsmouth, he met the 
same antagonist ofi the Dutch coast and finally 
routed him. s Van Tromp was killed in this action. 
In 1656, when war broke out with Spain, he took 
charge of the blockading squadron ofi Cadiz, 
sailing from there to Tenerifie, where, finding a 
naval force at Santa Cruz, he attacked and defeated 
them. He died August 17, 1657, on board his 
flagship the George, within sight of Plymouth 
Sound. 

See Hepworth Dickson's " Robert Blake " 
(1852) ; " A Life," by Dr. Samuel Johnson 



BLAKELY 



79 



B.L.O. 



(1777) ; D. Hannay's " Life of Blake " (1886) ; 
" The FxxBt Dutch War." (Navy Recozds Society. 
1 899- 1 900.) 

Btokdy. U.S. torpedo-boat (1900). Displace- 
ment. 165 tons ; guns, 3 i-pdr. ; torpedo tubes. 3 
i8-in. ; maximum speed, 26 kts. 

Blanohe. Frigate. On March 4, 1807, this 
vessel was lost on the French coast, when 45 men 
perished. 

Blanohe Nef. On November 25. 1120. this 
vessel was wrecked oflf Barfleur. The children of 
Henry I. and a large number of attendants were 
on board ; 363 persons perished. 

Blanoo-BnoaladA. Chilian cruiser. (Elswick, 1893.) 
Sheathed and coppered. 

Length 370ft. Beam 46ft. Maximum draught 20ft. 
Displacement 4.420 tons. Complement 427. 
Guns. Armour. 

2—8 in. " Steel." 

10 — 6 in. 4 in. Deck. 

12 — 3 pdr. 6 in. Conning tower. 

10— I pdr. 6 in. Gun shields. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
5 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. ii,oooaa3i*79 kts. ; forced, 
14,000 ss 22*78 kts. Coal maximum 900 tons. 

Bland Une* was founded by Messrs. M. H. 
Bland and Co., Ltd., GibraJtar, and maintains 
a regular steam service between Gibraltar and 
Tangiers, carrying the mail ; and frequent sailings 
to and from Tetuan, Melilla, Larache, Rabat, and 
other Morocco ports. They also undertake salvage 
work, and maintain the ocean tug and salvage 
steamer Rescue, together with an efficient staff of 
divers* mechanics, etc. They were instrumental 
in floiting H.M.S. Assistance {q.v.) from her 
perilous position on the shores of Tetuan Bay in 
November. 1905. 

Fleet. 

Dolphin. Gibel Musa 

Express, Gibel Tarik. 

Gibel Habid, NeUie. 

Gibel Kebir, Rescue, 

SeaguB. 



British 3rd Class gun-boat (254 tons). 
Launched 1870. 



Swedish gun-boat (500 tons). Of no 
fighting value. 

Wwih^m y^ guns. Admiral Sir T. Troubridge. 
On February i. 1807. this vessel foundered near the 
Island of Rodriguez, East Indies, when all on board 
perished. 



British ist dass cruiser. (Thames 
Ironworks, 1890.) 

Length 375ft. Beam 65ft. Maximum draught 27ft. 
Displacement 9,150 tons. Complement 590. 



Guns. Armour. 

2 — 9'2 in. " Steel and Compound." 

10—6 in. 6 in. Deck. 

16 — 3 pdr. 12 in. Conning tower. 

2 — 9 pdr. Boat. 
7 Machine. 

Torpedo Tubes (14 in.). 
2 Submerged. 
2 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. natural 13,000=18*5 kts., 
forced 20,000=22 kts. Coal maximum 1,800 tons. 
This ship-name was first introduced into the 
Navy in 1709, and commemorates the victory of 
the Duke of Marlborough over the French in 1704. 
It is associated with Howe's relief of Gibraltar, 1782 ; 
Hotham's action at Genoa, 1795 ; the battle off 
Cape St. Vincent, 1797 ; and the Baltic. 1854. 

Btorvle Caatto. On December 25, 1859, this 
vessel sailed from London Docks for Adelaide. 
She was lost in the Channel ; 57 persons were 
drowned. 

BUgh« William (1754-1817). British admiral 
(b. Cornwall). Saw service under Captain Cook. 
1772-74 ; took part in the action off the Dogger 
Bank, 1781 ; and Howe's relief of Gibraltar, 1782. 
In 1788 commanded the Bounty (q.v.), and after his 
adventures on that voyage was promoted captain ; 
commanded the Warrior, 1794, off Ushant ; the 
Director, 1797, at Camperdown ; and the Glatten, 
1 801, at Copenhagen. Was a brave and first-rate 
seaman, but one of the worst of tyrants in days 
when tyrannical naval commanders were too 
numerous. Refer to Naval Mutinies. 

Blink. Norwegian torpedo-boat. (Christiania, 
1903.) Length. 115 ft. ; beam, 14 ft. ; draught, 
6 ft. ; displacement, 65 tons ; armament, 2 i '4 in., 
2 tubes ; Hp., 650=19 kts. 

Blite. German 3rd class cruiser. (Kiel. 1882.) 
Displacement, 1.390 tons; Hp. 2.700 =» 15*$ kts. 
Of no fighting value. 

Bliti. Austro-Hungarian torpedo gun-boat. 
(Schichau. 1888.) Practically of no fighting 
value. 

Blizi Swedish torpedo-boat. (Karlskrona. 1898.) 
Length 128 ft ; beam. 15 ft. ; draught. 7 ft. ; dis- 
placement. 92 tons ; complement, 18 ; armament, 
2 i*9-in. (q.f.), 2 tubes ; Hp., 1,250 = 23 kts. ; coal. 
17 tons. 

BUnard. A violent and bitterly cold wind 
accompanied with blinding snow. 

B.L^ Distinguishing letters on sea fishing 
boats registered at Blokhus, Holland. 

blk. Black. Abbreviation adopted on the charts 
issued by the Hydrographic Office, Admiralty, 
denoting the quaUty of the ocean's bottom. 

B.L.O. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing 
boats registered at Blokzijl, Holland. 



BLOCK 



80 



BLOMFIELD 



Block. A shell of wood or metal containing 
sheaves for running ropes. 



M 



Blockade is a siege carried on by surrounding a 
place with hostile troops or ships, so as to prevent 
the besieged from receiving any supplies of men or 
provisions, or having any communication from 
without." The law of nations imposes no obliga- 
tion upon neutrals to abstain from breach of 
blockade, and a State does not violate laws of neu- 
trality for failing to prevent its subjects from com- 
mitting breaches. For breach of blockade ships and 
cargo are liable to confiscation, provided notice of 
such blockade has been brought to the master's 
knowledge, and there has been some act of viola- 
tion, either by coming in or going out with a cargo 
laden after the commencement of blockade. But a 
neutral is generally allowed to leave a port with such 
cargo as has been bona fids purchased and delivered 
before blockade. By the Declaration of Paris 
(9.V.) blockades to be binding must be efiective. 
Refer to Paper Blockade. 

Blohm and Voss. The Hamburg shipyard of 
Blohm and Voss, which Ues on the Stainwarder, 
was founded in 1877 by Messrs. Hermann Blohm 
and Ernest Voss. The area of the dockyard is 
about 50 acres, and there is a vast water frontage. 
The most important feature of the yard is the 
repairing department. There are five floating 
docks ; Nos. i and 2 have 3,000 to 4,700 tons 
capacity, with six departments, and can take three 
ships of over 300 ft. in length ; No. 4 a capacity of 
17,500 tons, and can take ships up to 500 ft. in 
length. It was in Docks Nos. i and 2 that the 
lengthening of the Norddeutscher Lloyd steamers 
Preussen, Bayem, Sachsen, and Pfalz was done. 
These vessels were cut in two, and by means of 
specially devised hydraulic machinery pulled apart, 
the Preussen was lengthened 70 ft., and the other 
three 50 ft. In the dockyard on the other side of 
the wharf lies dock No. 3, which has a capacity of 
17,000 tons ; it is furnished with steam boilers, 
machines, djmamos, and in time of war can be 
transported to any naval base to dock ships re- 
quiring to be repaired. Dock No. 5, which is 
nearing completion, will be the largest steam dock 
ever constructed, and is to have a capacity of 35,000 
tons, which will enable it to take the largest warship 
or vessel belonging to the mercantile marine in 
existence. 

The 3'ard contains six slips in which ships of up to 
600 ft. in length can be built, while on the opposite 
side of the dockyard there are separate slips for 
warship building. The machine shop is furnished 
with all the latest and best appliances for the 
building of marine engines, and contains electri- 
cally driven travelling cranes of 10 to 30 tons 
lifting capacity. The boiler shop has also three 
travelling cranes of 30 tons capacity, and contains 
all the necessary machinery for the turning out of 
large marine boilers. 



On the quays are the necessary cranes for the 
reception and setting in place of machinery and 
boilers, one steam crane of 100 tons capacity, and 
several small cranes, steam and electric turn 
cranes, and on the southern part of the quay a crane 
of 150 tons and one portal crane of 50 tons. The 
establishment employs an average of 5,000 work- 
men. 

Of the cargo and passenger vessels built at this 
yard mention may be made of the following 
modem ships : 



Barharossa 
Pretoria ... 
Bulgaria ... 
Fhoenicia 
Oraf Waldersee 
Molike 
Blucher 
Potsdam ... 



ToDsdispt. Tons cap. 
... 15.100 9.000 Norddeotacber Lloyd 

... 23.500 13.500 Hambnitf America Line 
... 19.500 11.500 
... 15.100 9.000 

... 23.500 13.500 

... 21.000 10.000 

... 21.000 10.000 

... 23.000 13.000 Holland America Line, 

Rotterdam 



and the pleasure-yacht Prinxasain Victoria Luise, 
5,000 tons displacement, for the Hamburg-American 
Line. 

Of warships the ist class battleship Kaiser 
Carl der Grosse, of 11,152 tons displacement, 13,500 
I.Hp.. with a speed of 17*5 kts. ; the cruiser Frie- 
drich Carl, 9,000 tons displacement, 17,700 I.Hp., 
21 kts. speed ; the cruiser Yorch, 9,500 tons dis- 
placement, J 9,000 I.Hp., 21 kts. speed ; and a large 
new cruiser not yet completed, of 11,500 tons 
displacement. 

Bloiii. Chiistian (b. Horten, Norway. May 28, 
1870). Norwegian naval architect ; commander in 
the Royal Norwegian Navy. In 1889 entered Nor- 
wegian Naval Academy, and promoted sublieu- 
tenant 1891 ; in 1895 went to France to study 
naval architecture at the r£cole d 'Application du 
G6nie Maritime in Paris, gaining his diploma with 
iirst-class honours ; from 1897 to 1902 acted as 
assistant-director of naval constpiction at Horten, 
and in 1909, having risen to commander in the 
Navy, retired from active sea Ufe and became 
director of naval construction. 

Blomfield,?ice-Adiiiiral BIchard Kanlfl, K.0.]LO^ 

cr. 1904, O.M.O., 1903 (b. 1835). Educated at 
Stevenage Grammar School ; entered Navy, 1848 ; 
served in the Crimean campaign as midshipman, 
mate, and lieutenant of Agamemnon and Royal 
Albert; mate of the first launch of the Royal 
Albert in Azoff Expedition, 1855 (Crimean and 
Turkish medals, Sebastopol and Azoff clasps) ; 
lieutenant of H.M.S. Hero, conveying H.R.H. the 
Prince of Wales, now King Edward VII., repre- 
senting H.M. the late Queen, to the British American 
colonies and back, i860 ; commander, 1866 ; cap- 
tain, 1872 ; member of the Admiralty Torpedo 
Committee, 1873-76 ; Comptroller of Port of Alex- 
andria from the institution of that office in 1879 ; 
present by invitation of Commander-in-Chief on 
his flagship during the bombardment of Alexandria, 
1882 ; received Medjidie, 3rd Class, August 1883, 
from the Khedive of Egypt in recognition of his 



BLOODHOUND 



8i 



BOBSTAYS 



services whilst actually and entirely employed by 
His Highness beyond Her Majesty's dominion ; 
granted Egyptian war medal and Star of Egypt for 
services rendered to H.M. Government and the 
Khedive during the events of 1883 ; Deputy Con- 
troller General of Egyptian ports and lighthouses, 
1888 ; Comptroller General, 1901 ; received the 
order of Osmanieh 3rd Class from the Khedive and 
Her Majesty's permission to wear it, 1891. 

Publications : Papers in Alexandria Archaeo- 
logical Society's Bulletins. 

Bloodhonnd, British 3rd Class gun-boat (254 
tons). Launched 1871. 

Blosfom. Ship. See Arctic Exploration. 

Blozamiie. The method adopted by Mr. J. C 
Bloxam to obtain smoothed mean values. 

Bine Funnel line. See Ocean Steamship Co., 
Ltd. 

Bluejacket and Ooastgnard Gaiette. Published 
monthly. Price id. Address: 51 Old Bailey, 
London, E.C. 

Bine Peter. A blue flag with a white square in 
the centre. This signal when hoisted at the fore 
top-mast head denotes the vessel is about to sail. 

Blnewater. The open ocean. 

Blnlf. Abrupt high land projecting almost per- 
pendicularly into the sea. 

B.1L Distinguishing letteis on sea fishing boats 
registered at Brixham, England. 

Bn. Beacon. Abbreviation adopted on the 
charts issued by the Hydrographic Office, Ad- 
miralty. 

B JV. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Boston, Lincohishire, England. 

B.O. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Borrowstoness, Scotland. 



Austro-Hungarian torpedo-boat. (Yar- 
row, 189S.) Length, 152 ft. ; beam, 15 ft. ; draught, 
7i ft. ; displacement, 133 tons ; complement, 24 ; 
armament, 2 3-pdr. q.f., 3 tubes; Hp., 2.000 » 
24 kts. ; coal, 30 tons. 

Boadioea. Transport, lost near Kinsale. Janu- 
ary 31, 18 16, when over 200 of the 82nd Regiment 
perished. 

Boaid. Timber sawn to a less thickness than a 
plank. All such timber is under i| in. in thick- 
ness. 

Bonidiag-nettiag. A stout rope netting placed 
to obstruct an enemy. 

Board of Trade, The, was established in 1660 as 
a counsel of trade for keeping control and super- 
intendence upon the whole commerce of the nation. 
In 1872 its functions were transferred to the Privy 
Council, and four years later a new Board was 



appointed for the consideration of all matters re- 
lating to trade and foreign plantations, with powers 
of a purely consultative character. In 1840 the 
Board of Trade was first entrusted with adminis- 
trative functions, which have since increased in 
proportion to the decline of its consultative duties. 
The powers of the Board of Trade are now partly 
ministerial and partly judicial, and are constantly 
being extended by statutory enactments. 

The Board is under the direction of a president, 
a Parliamentary secretary, a permanent secretary, 
and four assistant secretaries, who. together with 
a staff, transact the whole business, though there 
are many ex-officio members on the committee. 
There are seven depetrtments — ^viz. : The Statistical 
and Commercial, the Railway, the Marine, the 
Harbour, the Finance, the Fisheries, recently trans- 
ferred to the Agricultural and Fisheries Board 
(9.V.), and the Bankruptcy Department. 

Board of Trade JonmaL Established 1886. Pub- 
lished weekly (Thursday). Price id. Address : 
East Harding Street. London. E.C. 

Boat. The regulations respecting boats are con- 
tained in sections 427-431 of the Merchant Shipping 
Act. 1894. ^^^ sure set out in detail under the 
rules made by the Board of Trade (1902) fbr life- 
saving appliances. British ships are divided into 
divisions and classes, according to their tonnage 
and trade, and for each class a minimum number 
of boats, lifeboats, rafts, jackets, and buoys is 
specified. I^or failure to carry the minimum 
number of boats, etc.. and to keep the same in 
proper repair and ready for use. the master (if in 
default) shall be liable to a fine of £$0, and the 
owner (if in default) to a fine of ;£ioo, for each 
offence. A British ship, not provided with life- 
saving appliances in accordance with this Act, 
may be detained until the defects are remedied. 

In Lloyd's policy boats are included as part of 
the ship. When navigated at sea boats carry the 
lantern prescribed by Article 7 of the Regulations 
for preventing collisions at sea (q.v.). 

The method of ascertaining the measurement 
and carr3ang capacity of boats is briefly as follows : 
Length (outside) x breadth (outside) x depth 
(inside) x '6. The product is the measurement of 
the boat in cubic feet The carrying capacity of a 
boat is equal to the number of cubic feet in her 
measurement divided by (a) 10 in the case of a 
lifeboat having at least one cubic foot of air-tight 
compartments for every ten cubic feet of her 
measurement, and (b) 8 in the case of other boats. 
Refer to Merchant Shipping Act. 

Boatiwain. The seaman who has charge of the 
crew, boat sails, ship sails, rigging, canvas, colours, 
anchor, cable, etc., and pipes the hands to their 
several duties. 

Bobstaya. Ropes or chains used to keep the 
bowsprit down. 



bOcklin 



82 



BOKHARA 



BfloUin, Arnold (1827-1901). Swiss painter (b. 
Basel). Studied 'Paris, Antwerp, Brussels ; acted 
as art teacher at Weimar, 1866-71 ; lived at Flor- 
ence. 1874-85, Zurich, 1885-92, and moved to Fien- 
sole, 1892, where he died. Among his most re- 
markable works are " Pan Amongst the Reeds," 
"Pirates Plundering a Castle," "Island of the 
Dead," " Panic Terror," " The Sport of the Waves," 
" The StiUness of the Sea," " Tritons Nereids." 

Bodrog. Austro-Hungarian river monitor. 
Length 184 ft. Beam 31 ft. Draught 4 ft. 
Displacement 433 tons. Complement 60. 

Guns. A rmour. 

2 — 4y in. " Harvey-nickel." 

I — 4'7 in. 2 in. Belt amidships. 

Howitzer. 3 in« Big gunshields. 

Hp. 1,400=13 kts. Coal 65 tons. 

Bodry. Russian torpedo-boat destroyer." (Nev- 
sky, 1902.) Length, 196 ft. ; beam, 18 ft. ; draught, 
11^ ft. ; displacement, 350 tons ; armament, i 12- 
pdr., 5 3-pdr., 3 tubes ; Hp., 6,000=27 kts. 

Body. The main strength of a fleet. 

Body-plan. A section supposed to cut the vessel 
through her broadest part showing the breadth of 
her timbers. 

Bogatyr. Russian armoured cruiser. (Vulkan 
Co., 1901.) 

Length 437ft. Beam 52lt. Maximum <iraught 25ft 
Displacement 6,550 tons. Complement 573. 
Guns. Armour. 

12— 6 in. "Krupp." 

12 — 12 pdr. 3 in. Deck. 

8 — 3 pdr. 3 in. Turrets. 

2 — I pdr. 3 in. Casemates. 

6 in. Conning tower. 
Torpedo Tubes. 
2 Submerged. 
I Above water bow. 

1 Above water stem. 

2 Above water training. 

Twin screw. Hp. 19,500=23 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 1,000 tons. 

Bohrdt, HanB (b. 1857). German marine painter. 
His works comprise numerous pictures depicting 
sea and ships, among the best known being " Re- 
ception of King WUliam H. at Spithead," " ITie 
Meteor " (1891), " Brandenburg's First Sea Fight " 
(1893), which were purchased by the Emperor 
William IL, " Opening of the Baltic Canal " (1896), 
"Sea Fight off Gothland" {1901), "The Viking's 
Last Voyage " (1896). 

BoievoL Russian torpedo-boat destroyer (1905). 
Length, 185 ft. ; beam. 21 ft. ; draught, 7^ ft. ; 
displacement, 324 tons ; complement. 60 ; arma- 
ment, I i2-pdr., 5 3-pdr., 2 tubes ; twin screw ; 
Hp., 5.600 = 26 kts. : coal, 100 tons. 



Boiky. Russian torpedo-boat' destroyer. (Nev- 
sky, 1900.) Length, 196 ft. ; beam, 18 ft. ; draught, 
iii ft.; displacement, 350 tons; armament, 
I i2-pdr., 5 3-pdr., 2 tubes; Hp., 6.000s: 38 kts. ; 
coal, 90 tons. 

Boiler oompodtionB. The life of a steam boiler, 
and the method of working it economically, depends 
to a great extent on the kind of water used. The 
principal impurities which tend to reduce the life 
and steam-producing qualities of the boiler are : 
bicarbonate of calcium and magnesium, magnesium, 
chloride of calcium,, sulphate, and common salt 
in sea water. 

A large number of patented anti-incrustation 
compounds are advertised, the basis of the majority 
being some form of alkali. 

Boflen, Ibrine* the most general type of which 
is known as the' Scotch boiler, consist of a short 
horizontal, cylindrical steel shell with flat end plates, 
and provided with several internal furnaces com- 
municating with internal combustion chambers. 
Another variety, the double-ended boiler, has 
furnaces at both ends of the shell, with a common 
combustion chamber. The single-ended marine 
boiler is practically half a double-ended boiler. 

Water-tube boilers are those in which the steam 
is generated from water contained in thin tubes of 
small diameter, by heat applied to the outside of the 
tubes. 

There are numerous forms of water-tube boilers, 
among which may be mentioned the Babcock and 
Wilcox Boiler, the Stirling Boiler, the Belville Boiler, 
etc., etc. 

Boilers are defined by the Boiler Explosion Act 
(1882) as " any closed vessel used for generating 
steam, or for heating water or other liquids, or into 
which steam is admitted for heating* steaming, 
boiling, or other similar purposes," and includes 
pipes conveying steam. This Act provides that a 
notice of every boiler explosion, except those 
occurring to boilers in His Majesty's service, shall 
be sent to the Board of Trade within twenty-four 
hours of its occurrence. 

By the Merchant Shipping Act (1894), section 425 , 
a report of any incident to a steamship, causing 
loss of life or injury to the person, or affecting the 
seaworthiness of the vessel, or her efficiency either 
in her hull or in any part of her machinery, must 
be sent by her owner or master to the Board of 
Trade as soon as possible. For failure without 
reasonable cause to comply with this section, the 
owner or master shall be liable to a fine not ex- 
ceeding £$0, This section applies to all British 
ships and to foreign ships carrying passengers 
between places in the United Kingdom. Refer to 
Inspection of Ships. 

Bokhara. P. and O. steamer on her way from 
Shanghai to Hong Kong, wrecked off Sand Island, 
in the Pescadoies gzx>np. during a typhoon. October 
10. 1892 ; 125 lives lost 



B.O.L. 



83 



BONE 



B.O.Ii. Distinguishing letters on sea iishing 
boats registered at Broek op Langcdijk« Holland. 

Bold sluwe. That which has deep water close 
to it. 

Bollards. Strong timbers fixed verticaliy into 
the ground by w^hich vessels are secured to the 
shore. 

Bolsttr. Small cushions of tarred canvas to 
preserve the stays from being chafed by the masts 
when the ship pitches. 

Bolton Steamahip Co.» Ltd.^ owned and managed 
by Messrs. F. Bollon and Co., London, have a fleet 
of six modem steamers engaged in cargo trade. 

Flkbt. 

Ramsay, Romney. 

Reynolds. Rossetti. 

Ribera. Rubens, 

Bolt-rope. A sux>erior rope made of fine yam 
stitched round the edge of a sail to prevent the 
canvas from tearing. 

Bolti. A cylindrical pin of metal, used to unite 
the different parts of a vessel, varied in form 
according to the places where they are required. 
In shipbuilding, bolts which completely penetrate 
a structure are through bolts, and those which 
only partly do so are blunt bolts. Drift-bolts are 
used to drive out others. Bay-bolts have jags or 
barbs on each side to keep them from flying out of 
their holes. Clench-bolts are clenched with rivetting 
hammers. Fend-bolts are made with long and 
thick heads, and struck in the outermost bends of 
the ship to save her sides from bruises. Set-bolts 
are used for forcing the planks and bringing them 
close together. Scarp-bolts and keel-bolts are 
pointed, not clinched, and used for false keel or 
temporary purposes. Bring-to bolts are fitted vnih 
an eye at one end, and a knot and screw at the 
other, for bringing to the ends at the stem. 

Bombarde. French torpedo-boat destroyer. 
(Havre, 1903.) length, 183 ft. ; beam, 21 f t. ; 
draught, 10 ft. ; displacement, 300 tons ; comple- 
ment, 62 ; armament, i 9-pdr., 6 3-pdr., 2 tubes ; 
twin screw ; Hp., 6,000=28 kts. ; coal, 75 tons. 

Bombardmaiit is more often a naval than a 
military operation, and may be either to bring 
about capitulation or to destroy military stores, 
arsenals, dockyards, etc. In recent years the most 
notable bombardments are those of Alexandria 
and Port Arthur, the latter possibly the most 
terrible in history. The method employed was by 
" sapping " and " mining," supported by a terrific 
artillery fire. The guns used were the usual regular 
siege guns of from 5-6 in. calibre, 47 and 6 in. 
naval guns, ordinary field ordnance, and 11 in. 
mortars weighing some eight tons apiece. In all 
300 gnns were trained on the fortress. The mortars 
fired a shell weighing about 500 pounds loaded 



with an explosive invented by Dr. Shimose, which 
burst on contact. They had a maximum range of 
seven to eight miles, but were fired within three 
miles of the town. It is estimated that about 
11,000 Russians in Port Arthur were killed during 
the various bombardments. 

Bombay. On December 14, 1864. this vessel 
was burnt off Flores Island, near Montcndes. when 
91 lives were lost. 

Bombay Steam Vavigatton Ck>.» with their head 
office in Bombay, have a large fleet of passenger 
and cargo steamers maintaining a service on the 
west coast of India as far north as the Persian Gulf, 
and south to Ceylon. A service is maintained 
at scheduled times from Bombay to Kurracheev 
calling at Kutch Manvie and intermediate ports 
and vice versa ; a daily service from Bombay to 
Goa, and vice versa ; a service at scheduled times 
from Bombay to all ports south of Goa, and vice 
versa. The vessels are specially fitted for coolie 
traffic, and have accommodation for as many as 
1,600 passengers. 

Bombe. French torpedo gun-boat. (Havre, 
1885.) Length, 196 f t. ; beam, 21 ft. ; draught, 
6 ft.; displacement, 413 tons; complement, 63; 
guns, 4 8'i-in. ; 3 Maxims; torpedo tubes. 2 
Hp., 2,000=18 kts. ; coal maximum, 100 tons. 

Bonaventnre. British 2nd class cruiser. (Devon- 
port, 1892.) 

Length 3 20ft Beam 49ft. Maximum drau ght 2 1 ft. 
Displacement 4,360 tons. Complement 318. 
Guns. Armour. 

2—6 in. " Steel." 

8 — 4'2 in. 2 in. Deck. 

8 — 6 pdr. 3 in. Conning tower. 

1—3 pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
4 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. natural 7,000=18 kts., forced 
9,000=19*5 kts. Coal maximum 1,000 tons. 
Approximate cost ;£25o,ooo. 
This ship-name dating from the end of the 
15 th century is associated with the defeat of the 
Armada, 1 588 ; the last cruise of Drake and 
Hawkins, 1595 ; the Cadiz expedition, 1625 ; the 
battles off Dungeness, 1652, Beachy Head, 1690, 
and Barfleur, 1692. 

Bonded Prloes Claiue. See Clauses. 

Bonded warehonse. A, is a place approved by 
the Commissioner of Customs where dutiable goods 
are deposited without payment of duty on landing. 
Such places, which are under the control of revenue 
officers, afford merchants facilities for free exporta- 
tion and for postponing the payment of duties 
until the goods pass to the consumer or retailer. 

Bone^ W. (b. Devonport, June 30, 1843). British 
naval architect. Served apprenticeship Devonport 
Dockyard from 1857-64, and in 1867 gained diploma 



BON ETTA 



84 



BOREAS 



as Fellow of the Royal School of Naval Archi- 
tecture ; from 1867-69 acted as assistant-inspector 
on the Clyde for Government vessels building under 
contract ; in 1869 was appointed surveyor to 
Lloyd's Registry of British and Foreign Shipping, 
and assisted the late Bernard Weymouth, Esq., in 
making the great change of their rules for scantlings 
of vessels from tonnage basis to the present system.; 
in 1876 became managing director of the Tyne 
Iron Shipbuilding Co., Ltd., since which time he 
has designed 1 50 vessels of all classes. 

Bonetta. British 3rd class gun -boat (254 tons). 
Launched 1871. 

Bonite. French submarine. (Toulon, 1903.) 
Length, jj ft. ; beam. y\ ft. ; draught, 8 ft. ; dis- 
placement, 68 tons ; complement, 5 ; Hp., 60 « 
8kts. 

Bonnet. An additional part laced to the foot of 
a sail to gather more wind. 

Booby hatch. A readily removable companion 
way. 

Boom. A long spar run out to extend or boom 
out the foot of any particular sail. 

Boom-irons. Metal supports through which the 
studding-sail booms traverse. 

Booms. Spare spars. 

Booth, Felix. See Arctic Exploration. 

Booth Line, The, founded in 1866 by Messrs. 
Alfred Booth and Co., Liverpool, and was subse- 
quently amalgamated in 1901 with the Red Cross 
Line founded by Messrs. R. Singlehurst and Co., 
imder the name and title of the Booth Steamship 
Co., Ltd. The steamers maintain frequent 
sailings from New York, Liverpool, Havre, Oporto, 
and Lisbon, to the Amazon ports of Para and 
Manaos, and carry a great number of passengers 
between Portuguese ports and the Amazon. The 
company carries the Royal mail to Para and 
Manaos, and also mails between New York and 
Brazil. The Iquitos Steamship Co., Ltd., which 
this company manage, have a large fleet of steamers 
which trade more than 2,000 miles up the Amazon 
to Iquitos in Peru. 

Fleet. 

Amazon. Cametense, Horatio, 

Ambrose. Cearense. Hubert. 

Anselm. Clement. Jerome. 

Antony. Cuthbert. Justin. 

Augustine. Dominie. Lanfrane. 

Basil. Dunstan. Madeirense. 

Benedict. Fluminense. Maranhense. 

Bernard. Grangense. Obidense. 

Boniface. Gregory. Polycarp. 

Hildebrand. 
Gross tonnage, 80,000. 



The Iquitos Steamship Co.'s 
Fleet. 
Bolivar. Javary. Napo. 

Huascar. Ucayali. 

Gross tonnage, 5,000. 

Boot-topping. A term applied to sheathing a 
vessel with planking over felt. 

Booty. See Prize. 

Booty of War is property of a belligerent {q.v.) 
captured by an army on land and belongs to the 
Crown, although generally granted to the captors 
as reward for their services. Booty of war con- 
sists principally of arms, provisions and military 
stores, private property being no longer liable to 
capture. By the advice of a Privy Council 
questions relating to booty of war may be referred 
to the Judges of the Prize Court of Admiralty, 
which has, by 3 and 4 Vict. c. 65, jurisdiction 
analogous to that in question of prize of war {q.v.). 

B.O.B. Distinguishing letters on. sea fishing 
boats registered at Borsele, Holland. 

Bora. A violent, cold, anticyclone wind, blowing 
down from mountains close to the coast, if a chilled 
tableland lies behind them. The Bora of the 
Adriatic is best known, but a similar viind is 
observed elsewhere. 

Borohgrevink, Oarsten Egeberg (1864, b. Chris- 
tiania). At an early age went to Australia ; sailed 
on the Antarctic, 1894, ^^^ ^^^ among the first 
party to land on the Antarctic Continent, 1895. In 
1898 was given command of the Southern Cross 
expedition organised by Sir George Newnes ; on 
his return in 1902 was deputed to investigate 
into the volcanic disturbances in the West Indies . 
An account of his first Antarctic voyage is pub- 
lished in the 6th International Geographical Con- 
gress, 1895. See Antarctic Exploration. 

Borda, Xean Charles (i733'99)- Mathematician 
and nautical astronomer (b. Dax). Educated 
La Fleche ; visited the Azores and Canary Islands, 
of which he constructed an admirable map ; was 
an able mathematician and contributed a long 
series of valuable memoirs to the Academy of 
Science. His researches in hydro-dynamics were of 
great use for marine engineering, and the greater 
part of the instruments employed in the task ol 
determining the axe of the meridian were invented 
by him. 

Bore. A sudden and rapid flow of a tide. 

Borea. Italian torpedo-boat destroyer. (Naples, 
1903.) Displacement, 330 tons ; maximum draught, 
8 ft. ; armament, 5 6-pdr. ; tubes, 2 i8-in. ; Hp., 
6,000 = 30 kts. ; coal, 80 tons. 

Boreas. Man-of-war. On November 28. 1807, 
this vessel was lost upon the Hannois Rock in the 



BOREE 



85 



BOSTON 



BofM. French torpedo-boat (1898). Displace- 
ment. 140 tons ; complement, 34 ; maximum 
draught, yi ft. ; guns, 2 3-pdr. ; torpedo tubes, 
3 15-in. ; twin screw ; Hp., 3;2oo=3i kts. ; coal, 
15 tons. 

Borja de Moaota, Antoine Lanrati Joieph (b. 

Nantes, September 29, 1844). Educated Chaptal 
College, and was admitted as a supernumerary 
in the office of the Ministry of Public Works in 
1865 ; but subsequently in the same year entered 
the service of the Bureau Veritas, where he suc- 
cessively held the position of Chief Accountant, 
1876 ; general secretary, 1881 ; chief of the 
administrative service, 1884 ; and was ultimately 
chosen in 1889 administrator of this important 
Association. In these many capacities he has 
taken a considerable part in the work of this 
Institution, so useful to navigation and French 
International Commerce ; he has reorganised the 
offices of the Bureau Veritas in Russia, Germany, 
Italy, Sweden, and Norway, and has constantly 
applied useful modifications or additions to the 
publications of the Bureau Veritas, regarding the 
construction of ships. Connected with the " Reper- 
toire g6n6ral de la marine marchande " (General 
Magazine of Merchant Marine) ; treasurer and 
member of the Bureau of the Maritime Technical 
Association ; was nominated in 1900 member of the 
Head Council of the Merchant Marine. As recorder 
of the universal Exposition section, be read an 
interesting report and document on the " Question 
of Tonnage," and at the Congress of Lisbon held 
May, 1904, by the International Association, read a 
memorandum on the " Load-line of Ships of Com- 
merce." Is Chevalier of the Legion of Honour ; 
Chevalier of the ist class of the Order of St. Olaf 
of Norway ; associate member of the Institution 
of Civil Engineers, and the Institution of Naval 
A2x:hitects. 

Bofneo. Dutch gun-boat. (Glasgow, 1893.) 
Length 179 ft. Beam 3 1 ft. Maximum draught 1 3 ft. 
Displacement 787 tons. Complement 106. 

Guns, 

6 — 4*1 in. 

I — 2*9 in. 

2 — I '4 in. 

Hp. 1, 000 ss 13 kts. Coal maximum 124 tons. 

Borodino* Russian ist class battleship. (New 
Admiralty, 1901.) Sunk by the Japanese at the 
Battle of Tsushima, May 27-29, 1905. 



Dominion Line steamer. Sprang a 
leak in mid- Atlantic. December i, 1879, and went 
down ; 160 lives lost. 

Bofanaaet» Admiral Oeorge Stanley (b. 1835). 
Educated R.N. Academy, Gosport; entered Navy 
1848 ; mid. and acting mate of Rodney, 1854, in 
Black Sea during Russian war ; acting lieutenant 
of SpUfirs, engaged at the taking of Kertch and 
Yenikale ; acting Ueutenant of Rodney, in the 



naval brigade before Sebastopol (Crimean and 
Turkish medals, Sebastopol clasp, and 5th Class 
Medjidie) ; lieutenant of CalctUta flagship, engaged 
in the bombardment and capture of the forts at the 
entrance to the Peiho river, 1858 ; as lieutenant 
in command of the Woodcock engaged with the 
north forts at the entrance to the Peiho river, i860, 
which were captured by the combined English and 
French land forces (China medal, two Taku clasps) ; 
in conunand of Flamer, served during operations 
against the Taiping rebels, and was present on shore 
at the taking of Min-hong,Kabding, Na-jow.Cho-Un ; 
wounded in the attack on the city of Fung-wha, 
1862 ; mentioned in despatches ; employed in 
various operations against pirates in the neighbour- 
hood of Chusan, 1873 ; severely wounded, in an 
attack by rebels on Flamer, in Hang-chow Bay ; 
mentioned in despatches ; Gold medal from Impe- 
rial Government of China, and promoted to com- 
mander for distinguished services ; captain of 
Northumberland during the Egyptian war, 1882 
(Egyptian medal, Khedive's Bronze Star, Os- 
raanieh 3rd Class) ; rear-admiral 1887 ; vice- 
admiral 1892 ; adnural 1898 ; retired 1904. 

BoBQaw«il> Edward. British admiral (1711-61). 
Ptesent at the taking of Porto Bello, 1740 ; and at 
the siege of Carthagena, 1741 ; in May, 1747. he 
distinguished himself in an engagepient off Cape 
Finisterre, where he captured ten French ships and ' 
M. de Hocquart, their commander ; in 1748 he 
laid siege to Pondicherry, and while there received 
news of the peace, and Madras was delivered up to 
him by the French. In 1751 was made a Lord of 
the Admiralty, and chosen an Elder Brother of 
Trinity House ; in 1755 he intercepted the French 
squadron bound to North America, and captured 
the A hide and the Lys, and Hocquart became his 
prisoner for the third time. In this engagement 
he captured 1,500 prisoners, and received on his 
return to England the thanks of Parliament. In' 
I759» when in conmiand of the Mediterranean Fleet, 
he pursued the French Fleet, and after a sharp 
engagement in Lagos Bay defeated them, capturing 
three large ships, burned two, and returned to 
Spithead with his prizes and 2,000 prisoners. He 
died near Guildford, January 10, 1761, at the early 
age of 50. 

Bofton. U.S. 3rd class cruiser. (Chester. 1887.) 
Length 27 1 ft Beam 42ft. Maximum draught 20ft. 
Displacement 3,000 tons. Complement 280. 
Gu9U, Amtour, 

2—8 in. " SteeL" 

6—6 in. i^ in. Deck. 

6 — 6 pdr. 
Hp. 4.000s 1 5 kts. Coal maximum 450 tons. 

Botton Bteanohlp Co., with which is amalgamated 
the Boston Tow-Boat Co., with their head office in 
Boston, maintain a fleet of five up-to-date caigo 
steamers which trade to the Far East ; the two 
latest, the Shaumui and Tremont, having excellent 



BOTH 



86 



BOURNEUF 



passenger accommodation, and a sea speed of 
15 kts. 

Fleet. 
Hyades. Pleiades. 

Lyra. 

Gross tonnage, 31,000. 



Shaumut. 
Tretnont. 



Both iheets aft. Running before the wind. 

Botlle Ohari. Those on which the set of surface 
currents are exhibited derived from papers found 
in bottles which have been thrown overboard for 
that purpose, and washed up on the beach, or 
picked up by other ships. 

Bottom. The part of a ship or boat which is 
below the waves. 

Bottomxy. A bottomry bond is a marine con- 
tract in writing, by which the master of a vessel, 
in consideration of a sum of money advanced to. 
him, hypothecates or binds the vessel as security 
for the loan and interest. The object of such a 
bond is in the interests of commerce, and to meet 
the case of a vessel arriving at a foreign port, 
where her master cannot obtain credit, in need of 
repairs or necessaries the want of which would 
hinder her voyage. The property in the ship re- 
mains in her owners, who are personally liable to 
the lender, and this debt can only be defeated by 
the actual total loss of the vessel. Where it is for 
the benefit of all parties concerned freight may be 
pledged, and also cargo, but in the latter case the 
master must if possible communicate with the 
cargo-owners first. Among maritime liens a claim 
under a bottomry bond takes precedence of all 
other claims except those for wages and salvage. 
The Admiralty Division of the High Court, which 
has almost exclusive jurisdiction over all matters 
relating to bottomry, will construe such bonds 
liberally and with the principles of equity according 
to the general tenor of their contents. 

In marine insurance an insurable interest arises 
thus : When a captain finds himself in a foreign 
port and unable to defray his expenses, and gets 
money on his own credit, or on the shipowner's, 
he is empowered " in direst need " to raise money 
by pledging his ship for repayment, against her 
arrival at her destination, the bond for the advance 
being payable a certain number of days after 
arrival. 

A " respondentia " bond is a similar advance, 
but on cargo pledged as security. The lender of 
the money has an insurable interest, but the interest 
must be mentioned and specified in the policy of 
insurance. (Glover v. Black, 3 Burr., 1,394.) 

Money lent in bottomry or on respondentia do 
not contribute in general average. (C. Joyce v. 
Williamson, in " Park on Insurance," p. 481.) 

Bottomry CQaiut. See Clauses. 

Boaoh, Sir ThomM (1822-80). Civil engineer (b. 
Thursley). Entered the service of the Edinburgh 
and Northern Railway Co., now the N.B.R. system. 



and in 1849 became manager and engineer, and 
carried into effect the floating railway for passing 
goods trains across the Firths of Forth and Tay. 
He designed and superintended the construction 
of many large railway viaducts, and designed the 
first Tay Bridge, which was begun in 1870. This 
bridge fell in on December 28, 1879, with the train 
which was crossing at the time. He was so afi[ected 
by the news that he never recovered from the shock, 
and died shortly after. In June, 1879, he received 
the honour of knighthood. 

BoncUer. French gun-boat (1884). Displace- 
ment, 170 tons. On service in Cochin China. Of 
little fighting value. 

Bondourii, Demetrius. Rear-admiral of the Greek 
Navy (b. 1846). Entered Navy, 1863 ; com- 
manding officer of Sphakieria during the Turco- 
Greek war, 1897, ^^^ sent to Candia In charge of 
torpedo flotilla ; commanding oflicer of the Royal 
yacht Amphitriie, 1889- 1905 ; A.D.C. to the King, 
1895 J A.D.C. General, 1905 ; Admiral Superinten- 
dent of Salamis Dockyard, 1905 ; was decorated 
a Commander of the Royal Order of our Saviour, 
1890. 

BoiigBitt¥J]le» Lonif Antoine de (1729-1811). 
French admiral. Served with Montcalm in Canada, 
1756-59, and again in Gennany during the Seven 
Years' War ; conunanded the first French expedi- 
tion round the world, 1756-59, which led to many 
important geographical discoveries ; acted as naval 
conunander in North American war, and was made 
a count by Napoleon. 

Bounty, (i) A sum paid by the Government to 
exporters and manufacturers for the purpose of 
promoting a certain trade and enabling them to 
undersell foreign rivals. The system has been 
abolished in England. 

(2) A sum paid to Army and Militia recruits. 

(3) A sum distributed among the officers and 
men of a warship for naval services, other than 
salvage or the capture of enemy's property. 

Bounty, armed transport, with a crew of 44 
officers and men and two gardeners, left Spit- 
head, December, 1787, on a voyage to the South 
Sea. On the night of April 28, 1789, when off 
Tahiti, the seamen, led by Fletcher Christian, rose, 
secured the arms, and then seized the captain and 
took command of the ship. Christian, with most 
of the crew, decided to retire to some unknown 
island. It was not until 18 14 that a man-of-war, 
the Briton, discovered Pitcaim's Island, and found 
upon it John Adams, the sole survivor of the 
Bounty mutineers, who had formed a colony there, 
and installed himself chief. Refer to Naval 
Mutinies. 

BonmeuL Australian emigrant vessel. Struck 
on a reef in the Torres Straits, and became a total 
wreck, August 3, 1853. 



BOURRASQUE 



87 



BOYD 



Boorrasqiie. French torpedo-boat (1898). Dis- 
placement, 140 tons ; complement, 34 ; maximum 
draught, 7^ ft. ; gnns, 2 3<pdr. ; torpedo tubes, 
2 15-in. ; twin screw; Hp., 3,200 = 31 kts. ; coal, 
15 tons. 

Bonwt French ist class battleship. (L'Orient. 
X896.) 

Length 40 1 ft. Beam 70 ft. Maximum draught 28ft. 
Displacement 12,205 tons. Complement 630. 
Guns, Armour. 

2 — 12 in., 40 cal. " Special." 
2 — To'8 in. 16 in. Belt amidships. 

8 — 5*5 in. 15 in. Turrets. 

8 — 4 in. 10 in. Conning tower. 

10—3 pdr. 
20 — I pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes (17*7 in.). 
2 Submerged. 
2 Above water. 
Three screws. Hp. 14.000=17 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 800 tons. Approximate cost j£ 1,200,000. 

Boavinas. French coast ser\dce battleship. (T^ 
55eyne, 1892.) 

Length 292ft. Beam 59ft. Maximum draught 24 ft. 
Displacement 6, 5 3 5 tons. Complement 335. 
Guns, Armour. 

2 — 12 in., 45 cal. " Creusot." 
8 — 4 in. 18 in. Belt amidships. 

4 — 3 pdr. 14 in. Turrets. 

10 Small. 12 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes (177 in.). 
2 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp., 8,900=16*2 kts. Coal maxi 
mum 337 tons. Approximate cost ;£57S,ooo. 

Bow. The fore end of a vessel, being the rounding 
part forward, beginning on both sides where they 
arch inwards, and terminating where they close 
at the stem. 

Bowden-Smifh, Sir Nathaniel, K.C3., cr. 1897. 
British admiral (b. Hampshire, 1838). Entered 
Navy, 1852, and was naval cadet in Winchester 
during Burmese war, 1852-53 (Burmah medal and 
Pegu clasp) ; mid. in Royal George in the Baltic. 
1854-55 (Baltic medal) ; was present at the capture 
of Peiho forts, 1858, and as lieutenant of the 
Chesapeake was present at the unsuccessful attack 
on the Taku forts, 1859 (China medal, Fatshan 
and Taku clasps) ; served as flag-captain on the 
Mediterranean and East Indian stations ; senior 
oflicer S.E. coast America ; commanded the 
Britannia, 1883-86 ; one of the British representa- 
tives at the International Marine Conference, 1889 ; 
Commander-in-Chief Australian Station, 1892-95 ; 
K.C.B. on the commemoration of Her Majesty's 
Diamond Jubilee ; Commander-in-Chief at the 
Xore, 1 899- 1 900 ; retired, 1903. 

Bowen, Riohaid (1761-97). British naval officer 
(b. Ufracombe). On board the Foudroyant he parti- 
cipated in the capture of the Lively and the Pegase ; 



in 1794 he distinguished himself at the attack on 
Port Royal, Martinique, which resulted in the cap- 
ture of the Bienvenu; at the battle off Cape St. 
Vincent. 1797, when in command of the Terpsichore, 
he gained further glory by engaging single-handed 
the Spanish four-decker Seniissima Trinidad ; was 
present at the bombardment of Cadiz, and was 
shot dead during that ill-fated attack on Santa 
Cruz. 

Bower aaohon. Those at the bow in constant 
use. 

Bowgraoe. A fender to prevent the ship's side 
receiving injury. 

Bowline. A rope fastened forward to bow the 
leech of the sail. 



A span on the leech of a square 
sail to which the bowline is clinched. 



Bowring and Go., Ltd., 0. T. 

American Steamship Co. 

Bowse. To haul with tackle. 



See English and 



Bowsprit A long spar ranking with a lower 
mast projecting over the stem. Beyond it extends 
the jibboom, and beyond that again the flying 
jibboom. To these spars are secured the stays of 
the fore-mast and of the spars above it. On these 
stays are set the fore and fore-topmast stay-sails, 
the jibs, and flying-jib. 

Bowsprit shroilds. Strong ropes or chains 
leading from nearly the outer end of the bowsprit, 
giving lateral support to thai spar. 

Box. The space between the back-board and 
the stem-post of a boat where the coxswain sits. 

Boxer. British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Chis- 
wick, 1894.) Length, 201 ft. ; beam, 19 ft. ; 
draught, 7 ft. ; displacement, 247 tons ; comple- 
ment, 45 ; armament, i 12-pdr., 5 6-pdr., 2 tubes ; 
twin screw ; Hp., 4,500=27 kts ; coal, 60 tons. 

Boz-haoling. When the ship is veered sharp 
round on her heel, the head yards brace flat aback, 
the after yards squared ; to avoid making a great 
sweep. 

Box her off. To force the bow from the wind. 

Boyarin. Russian cruiser (3,200 tons). This 
vessel struck a mine outside Dalny, February 12, 
1904, and foundered. 

Boyd, William (b. AmcUfle, October 17, 1839). 
Educated Rugby and King's College, London ; 
entered business in 1863, and became a partner in 
the engineering firm of Messrs. Thompson, Boyd and 
Co., of Newcastle, and on the dissolution (1874) 
was appointed managing director of the Wallsend 
Slipway and Engineering Co. ; director of John 
Spencer and Sons,Newbum Steel Works, Newcastle : 
first president of the North-East Coast Institution 
of Engineers and Shipbuilders (1884-86) ; member 
of the Newcastle School Board (1871-77) ; joined 



BOYES 



88 



BRASSEY 



the I St Newcastle Vol. Artillery in 1865, and com- 
manded the corps from 1871-79, when he resigned ; 
first Mayor of Wallsend, November 1901. 

Publications : Has read papers at various times 
before the Institution of Mechanical Engineers and 
the North-East Coast Institution of Engineers and 
Shipbuilders. 

Boyes, Cteorge Thonuui Henry. Director of 
transports, Admiralty. Entered Navy, 1854 ; 
was present at the siege of Sebastopol, expedition 
to Kertch and Yenikale, and attack and capture 
of Kinbum (Crimean and Turkish medals, Sebasto- 
pol clasp) ; commander of Achilles during Egyptian 
war (Egyptian medal, Khedive's Bronze Star, 3rd 
Class Medjidie) ; captain of the Anson during the 
operations attending the salvage of H.M.S. Howe 
at FexTol, 1892 ; commodore and naval officer in 
charge, Hong Kong, 1893-96 ; acting director of 
transports, 1900 ; retired, 1901 ; commander 
2nd class Saxe-Emestine Order. 

Publication: "The Salvage of H.M.S. Howe" 

Boyevoi. Russian torpedo - boat destroyer. 
(Yarrow, 1906.) Displacement, 356 ; complement, 
62 ; armament, i 12-pdr., 5 3-pdr., 3 tubes, 18 in. ; 
Hp., 5,700 = 26 kts. ; coal, 80 tons. 

Boyne. Mail steamer, from Braal, ran on a rock 
during a fog, 15 miles ofi Ushant, and became a 
total loss. 

Boyne. British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Heb- 
bum, 1904.) Length, 222 ft. ; beam, 23^ ft. ; 
draught. 9} ft. ; displacement, 600 ; complement, 
72 ; armament, i x2-pdr., 5 6-pdr., 2 tubes. ; 
twin screw ; Hp., 7, 500 » 35 kts. ; coal, 126 tons. 
This ship-name is associated with the attack on 
Carthagena, 1741 ; Barrington at St. Lucia, 1778 ; 
Byron's action off Grenada, 1779 ; Rodney's 
action with De Guichen, 1780 ; capture of Mar- 
tinique, 1794. 

Boyne. 98 guns. On May 4, 1795, this vessel 
was destroyed by fire at Portsmouth, caused by the 
explosion of the magazine, when most of the crew 
perished. Portions of the wreck were recovered in 
June, 1840. 

B.B. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Breskens, Holland. 

B J(. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Bridgwater, England. 

br. Brown. Abbreviation adopted on the charts 
issued by the Hydrographic Office, Admiralty, 
denoting the quality of the ocean's bottom. 

Brace to or by. To bring the yards back to 
make them shake. 

Braoe-np. To place the yards as far forward as 
they will go, for the purpose of heaving to. 

Brackenlmry, Admkal Jolm WiUlun, CILO., 
1879, 03., 1887. Commanded the Shakes naval 



brigade during the Zulu war; promoted captain 
for services on West Coast of Africa, 188 1 (Zulu 
medal and clasp) ; captain of the Thalia during the 
Egyptian war. 1882 (Egyptian medal, Khedive's 
Bronze Star, Medjidie, 3rd Class); captain of 
Turquoise during operations on East Coast of 
Africa, 1887-91 ; mentioned in despatches ; naval 
officer in charge of naval establishment, Bermuda. 
1894-96 ; second in command of the Channel 
Squadron, 1898. 

BraokidL Water not fresh. 

Bradshaw*! General Raflway Steam NaWgatioii 
Guide for Great Britain and Ireland. Established 
1837. Published monthly. Price 6d. Address: 
59 Fleet Street, London, E.C. 

Bragagna. A lateen-rigged trader of the Adriatic 

Bragood. A lug-rigged trader of the Adriatic. 

Brailfl. Ropes passing through leading blocks on 
the hoops of the mizsen mast and ga£f, fastened to 
the outer-mo6t leech of the sail in different places to 
truss it close up as required ; all try-sails and several 
of the stay-sails have brails. 

Brail op. To haul in the sail. 

Brand. Norwegian torpedo-boat. (Christiania, 
1899.) Length, 128 ft. ; beam, 15 ft ; draught. 
6} ft. ; displacement, 84 tons ; armament, 2 i '4 in. 
q.f., 2 tubes ; Hp., 1,100=23 kts. 

Brandenburg. German ist class battleship (1891) 
Length 380 ft Beam 64 ft. Maximum draught 26 ft 
Displacement 10,060 tons. . Complement 568. 
Guns, Armour, 

6 — II in. "Compound." 

8— 4*1 in. 15 in. Belt 

8 — i5i pdr. 12 in. Barbettes. 

2 — I pdr. 5 in. Turrets. 

4 Machine. 12 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
2 Submerged. 
I Above water stem. 
Twin screw. Hp. forced io,ooosi7 kt<}. Coal 
maximum 1,050 tons. Approximate cost ;£75o,ooo. 

Branrteld. See Antarctic Exploration. 

Braney, Oapt Hon. Thomas Allnntt Braney, 
B.A., J.P., H.A., F.B.0.8. | West Kent Yeomanry 
(b. March 7, 1863). Eldest son of first Baron 
Brassey, married Lady Idina Mary, third daughter 
of first Marquess of Abergavenny, 1889. Educated 
Eton; Balliol College, Oxford. Editor "Naval 
Annual," 1890 ; assistant private secretary to Earl 
Spencer when First Lord of the Admiralty ; assistant 
secretary to Royal Commission on Opium ; con- 
tested Epsom Division, 1892 ; Christchurch, 1895 
and 1900 ; member Agricultural Organisation Asso- 
ciation ; is a director of Powell, Duffr3ni Steam 
Colliery Co. ; chairman of the Pertusola Co., which 
owns important lead smelting works near Spezia, 
in Italy. 

Publication : " ProUems of En^nre " (1904). 



BRASS EY 



89 



BRENNAN 



Biifiey, Thomas, Baron, K.C.B^ OX*, JJP^ 
BAJJu (b. Stafford, 1836). Became a Civil Lord 
of the Admiralty, 1880-83. and Secretary to the 
Admiralty, 1883-85 ; chairman of the Opium Com- 
mission, and the Commissions on Unseaworthy 
Ships, Coaling Stations, and Pensions to the Aged 
Poor ; president of the Institution of Naval 
Architects, 1893-95 ; Governor of Victoria, 1895- 
1900. In 1876 he and Lady Brassey undertook a 
voyage round the world in their 3racht the Sun- 
beam, and the account which was published of the 
voyage attained great p<^ularity. He is a high 
authority on naval questions and has been a fre^ 
quent writer on those subjects. 

PubUcations: "Work and Wages" (1872), 
" British Seamen " (1877), " The Eastern Ques- 
tion " (iSyS), "Foreign Work and English 
Wages" (1879). "The British Navy," in five 
volumes (1882-83) *' edited for a number of years 
" The Naval Annual." 

Bntmuchweig. German ist class battleship. 
(Krupp, 1902.) 
Length 430ft. Beam 72ft. Mean draught 26 ft. 
Displacement 13.200 tons. Complement 691. 
Guns. Armour. 

4 — 1 1 in. 9 in. Belt. 

14 — 67 in. 1 1 in. Barbettes. 

23 — ^24 pdr. 1 1 in. Turrets. 

13— *i pdr. 12 in. Conning towen 

3 Machine. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
5 Submerged bow and broadside. 
I Above water stem. 
Three screws. Hp. 16,0003:18 kts. Coal Maxi- 
mum 1,600 tons. Approximate cost ;£ 1,1 60,000. 

BravL Russian torpedo-boat destroyer. (Nevsky. 
1902.) Length, 196 ft. ; beam, 18 f t. ; draught, 
11^ ft.; displacement, 350 tons; armament, 
I i2-pdr., 5 3-pdr., 3 tubes; Hp., 6,000=27 kts. 

Braaon. British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Clyde- 
bank. 1896.) Length, 218 f t. ; beam, 20 ft. ; 
draught, 5^ ft. ; displacement, 300 tons ; comple- 
ment, 60 ; armament, i 12-pdr., 5 6-pdr., 2 tubes ; 
twin screw ; Hp., 6,000=30 kts. ; coal, 80 tons. 

Braaen. British torpedo-boat destroyer (300 
tons, 30 kts.). Launched 1896. 

BJLD. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing 
boats registered at Broadford, Scotland. 

Break bulk. To commence discharging cai;go. 

Break her sheer. When a vessel is forced by 
wind or current to pass the wrong side of her 
anchor. 

Breakwaien. See Harbours. 

Breaming. Cleaning a ship's bottom by burning. 

Breaai-lasi. A rope or cable used to confine a 
ship's broadside to a wharf or quay. 



Breaet hook. Thick pieces of timber used to 
strengthen the fore parts of a ship. 

Breda. In August, 1702, this vessel, flag-ship 
of Admiral John Benbow, gave chase to the Santa 
Martha, a French vessel under Du Casse; and 
although unsupported kept up a running fight for 
five days. 

Breeies. Wind in general, whether weak or 
strong. 



Land and sea. Winds which blow near 
the coast, from sea to land during the day, and 
from land to sea during the night. 

Bremen* German armoured cruiser. (Weser, 
Bremen, 1903.) 

Length 341ft. Beam 40ft. Maximum draught i6^ft. 
Displacement 3,200 tons. Complement 280. 
Guns. A rmour. 

10 — ^4' I in. " Krupp." 

10 — I '4 in. 2 in. Deck. 

4 Maxims. 4 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
2 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 11,000=23 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 800 tons. 

Bremer^Vnlkan Behiffban nnd Maiehinenftilirik, 

Vegesack, Bremen. This shipyard was founded 
in 1893. &A(l ^s an area of about 80 acres, water 
frontage of three-quarters of a mile, and is furnished 
with all the latest appliances and machinery 
necessary for a large modem yard. It has six 
sUps capable of building the largest vessels, each 
slip having electric travelling cranes. Since it was 
founded, 506 vessels have been launched, among 
which may be mentioned large mail, passenger and 
freight steamers for the Norddeutscher Lloyd, 
Hamburg-Amerika Line, Hansa Line, Argo Steam- 
ship Co., A. Kirsten, Hamburg, and a number of 
smaU steamera for the Woermann Line, and the 
East Africa Line. Between 1900 and 1905 vessels 
were launched with a net tonnage of 138,250, and 
machinery of 76,330 I.Hp. 

Bremer Taoht dnb. Established 189 1. Commo- 
dore, A. Boyes ; Vice-Commodore, Joh. MuUer ; 
Rear-Commodore, H. Wurtmann; Treasurer. A. 
Frese; Secretary, G. Tottcher, Woltmershauser, 
Dreieck, Bremen, Germany. Annual subscription, 
mark 15. 

Brennan, Lonis. Inventor of the Brennan 
torpedo (b. Ireland, 1852). In 1882 the British 
Admiralty, recognising the value of his torpedo, 
invited him to England, paying him a retaining fee 
of £$,000, and engaging him for a period of three 
years at a salary of £2,000 a year and expenses, to 
enable him to improve his invention. He was after- 
wards given a reward of ;f 110,000, and a salary of 
;£i,5oo for five years. In 1907 he produced a 
working model of his invention, the mono-rail 



BRENNUS 



90 



BRILLIANT 



gioscope train, which no doubt, in tha near future, 
will be put to practical use. 

BrennoB. French ist class battleship (1891). 
Length 375ft. Beam 65ft. Maximum draught 27ft. 
Displacement 11,395 tons. Complement 696. 
Guns. Armour. 

3 — 13*4 in. 42 cal. *' Creusot steel." 
10— 6*4 in. 18 in. Belt amidships. 

4 — 9 pdr. 18 in. Turrets. 

14 — 3 pdr. 5 in. Conning tower. 

2 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
6 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. 13,600=17.5 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 800 tons. Approximate cost ;£995,ooo. 

Brenton, Sir Jahleel (1770- 1844). British vice- 
admiral. Served in the Bar fleur at Cape St. Vincent ; 
flag-captain to Saumare^ in the actions at Alge- 
ciras and Gibraltar, 1801 ; was wrecked and taken 
prisoner in the Minerve, 1803, and imprisoned till 
1806. In May, x8io, when in command of the 
Spartan, he defeated a Franco-Neapolitan flotilla ; 
for this service he was made a baronet in 18 z 2, and 
K.C.B. 181 5 ; was subsequently a resident Com- 
missioner at the Cape of Good Hope, and Lieutenant 
Governor at Greenwich Hospital. 

See ** Life of Sir Jahleel Brenton," by Raikes, 
1846. 

Brett, John (1830-1902). British painter; The 
chief exponent of the pre-Raphaelite method as 
applied to sea-scape ; elected A.R.A.N., 1881 ; 
Among his principal works are " Britannia's 
Realm " (1880) ; Tate Gallery, London. " The 
Norman Archipelago " (1885), in Manchester ; 
" North-West Gale oflf the Longship Lighthouse," 
in Birmingham. 

Brickflelder. A very hot, dust-laden wind 
blowing from the North in New South Wales. 

Bridge, Admiral Sir Oyprian Arttuir George, 0.0 JB. 
1903. K.O.B. 1899 (b. March, 1837). Entered Royal 
Navy, 1853 ; served in Brisk in White Sea, 1854 ; 
present at the operations of the Bar of Archangel, 
and at the attack on Solovetski ; was fired on when 
landing with a flag of truce on one of the Solo- 
vetski Islands ; took part in the second expedition 
to Petro Paulovski ; present in the Pelorus in the 
Bay of Bengal during the Indian Mutiny ; landed 
with a naval brigade and* proceeded to the Burmese 
frontier ; member of the Committee on Heavy 
Guns, 1878; machine guns, 1879; Ordnance 
Committee, 1S81 ; Director of Naval Intelligence, 
1889-94 : Commander-in-Chief Australian Station, 
'895-97 ; K.C.B. on Her Majesty's Birthday, 1889 ; 
Was appointed by the Board of Trade in con- 
junction with Mr. Aspinall, K.C. (q.v.), to inquire 
into the North Sea outrages (Dogger Bank) {g.v.), in 
Hull, October, 1904. 

Bridgewater, Frauds Bgerton, Third Dnke of 

(1736-1803). Projected the first navigable canal 



executed in Great Britain in modem times, and 
has sometimes been stvled " The Father of British 
Inland Navigation." The canal, constructed on 
the advice of James Brindley. was 77^ miles long, 
and spanned the Irwell from Worsley to Man- 
chester, subsequently being extended to the Mersey, 
and cost £220,000. In 1887 this canal was sold 
to the Manchester Ship Canal Co. {q.v.). 

Bridle. Two parts of a cable from the hawse to 
the mooring. 

Bildporti Sir Alexander Hood, First Yisooont 

(1727-1 814). English admiral. Was in charge of 
the Minerva in Quiberon Bay, 1759, and in the 
same frigate captured the Warwick in 1761 ; com- 
manded the Robust in the action 06. Ushant, 1777 ; 
in 1780 promoted rear-admiral, and two years later 
was present at the relief of Gibraltar ; he was 
second-in-command to Lord Howe in the victory 
of June I, 1794. for which he was made Baron 
Bridport ; in 1795 he defeated the French off 
L'Orient for this victory he was promoted vice- 
admiral, and created a peer of the realm and placed 
in command of the Channel Fleet. 

Brierly, Sir Oswald Walters (1817-94)- English 
marine painter. During the Crimean war he was 
on board Keppel's ship in the Baltic, and pub- 
lished a series of lithographs ; he took sketches for 
Queen Victoria at the naval review at Spithead, 
1856 ; he accompanied the Duke of Edinburgh 
round the world, 1867-68, and the Prince (King 
Edward VII.) and Princess of Wales on their tour 
to Constantinople and Egypt. Among his best- 
known works are : " The English and French 
Fleets in the Baltic " (1854), " The Retreat of the 
Spanish Armada " (1872), " Drake taking the 
Capitana to Torbay " (1872). "The Loss of the 
Revenge " (1877), " The Decisive Battle off Grave- 
lines " (1881). 

Brig. A two-masted square-rigged vessel with- 
out mainsail or try-sail, inast abaft the main mast. 

Brigaatine. A square-rigged vessel with two 
masts. 

Bright, Sir Charles Tilston (1832-88). Telegraph 
engineer (b. Wanstead, 1832). At the age of 20 
he became engineer to the Magnetic Telegraph Co., 
and in that capacity superintended the laying of 
lines in various parts of Great Britain ; in 1853 he 
laid the first submarine cable between England and 
Ireland ; in 1858 he laid the first Atlantic cable, 
and subsequently supervised the laying of sub- 
marine cables in almost every part of the world. 

Brighton. See L.B.S.C. Ry. steamers ; also Tur- 
bine Steamers. 

Brilliant. Ship. See Rennel, James. 

Brilliant. British 3rd class cruiser (1891). 
Length 300ft. Beam 43ft. Maximum draught i8ft. 
Displacement 3,400 tons. Complement 273. 



BRIN 



91 



BRISTOL 



Guns. A rmour. 

2—6 in. " Steel." 

6 — 4*7 in. a in. Deck. 

8 — 6 pdr. 3 in. Conning tower. 
1—3 pdr. 
4 Machine. 

Torpedo Tubes (14 in.). 
4 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. natural 7,0003=18*5 kts., 
iorced 9,000=20 kts. Coal maximnm 535 tons. 
Approximate cost ;^2oo,ooo. 

This ship-name was first introduced into the 
Navy in 1755, and is associated with the bombard- 
ment of Havre, 1759 ; action off Vigo. 1751. 

Brill, Benedetto (1833-98). Italian naval en- 
gineer and administrator (b. Turin). In 1873 
Admiral St. Bon, Minister of Marine, appointed 
him Under-Secretarv of State, and later he was 
promoted Minister of Marine, which office he held 
until 1 89 1, and during that time distinguished him- 
self by the manner in which he developed the 
Italian Navy. The huge armoured cruisers Dan- 
dolo, 12,265 tons, built 1S78 (reconstructed 1897), 
and the Italia, 15,654 tons, built 1880, were his 
work, though he afterwards abandoned their type 
in favour of smaller and faster vessels of the Varese 
and Garibaldi class. He died on May 24, 1898. 
While Minister of Marine, he, more than any man, 
must be regarded as the practical creator of the 
Italian Navy. 

Brindley* James (171 6-7 2) . English engineer, the 
pioneer of English inland navigation, who planned 
for the Duke of Bridgewater the canal from Worsley 
to Manchester. During his life he designed and 
superintended the construction of over 365 miles 
of canal, the most important of which was the 
Grand Trunk between the Trent and the Mersey. 

Brine, Lindsay. British admiral (b. 1834). 
Entered Navy, 1847, and was mid. of the Leander 
during the operations in the Black Sea, i8t;4 ; 
he commanded an outpost battery at Eupatoria 
at the action of November 14 ; was mentioned in 
despatches, and gazetted for " meritorious ser- 
vices," and promoted lieutenant, receiving in addi- 
tion for his services the Crimean and Turkish 
medals, with Sebastopol clasp ; after serving as 
lieutenant of the Retribution in the Baltic, he was 
sent out to China, and was in charge of a division 
of boats at the attack on Peiho forts in 1859, and 
commanded the Opossum at the capture of the 
Takn forts in the following year (China medal. 
Canton and Taku clasps) ; he was captain of the 
Briton, and senior officer on the east coast of 
Africa, and was employed in the suppression of 
the slave trade, receiving from the Admiralty the 
expression of ** their appreciation of the able 
manner in which the service had been carried 
ont "; in 1875 he accompanied Sir Douglas Forsyth 
to Mondalay with the mission to the King of 



Burmah, and in the following year proceeded in 
the Briton with the Resident at Aden to Tamarida 
to execute a treaty with the Sultan of Socotra ; at 
the occupation of Cyprus, 1879, he commanded 
the Invincible ; he received the gold medal of the 
Royal United Service Institution in 1882, and for 
five years was a Younger Brother of Trinity House, 
and one of the Naval Assessors to the House of 
Lords ; he retired in 1894. 

Publications : " The Taeping Rebellion," 
" American Indians : their Ancient Earthworks and 
Temples." 



by the lee. To incline too rapidly to lee- 
ward, till wind, after crossing stem, backs the 
saUs. 

Bring to. To anchor or stop by backing a sail. 

Bris. Swedish torpedo-boat. (Karlskrooa, 1900.) 
Length, 128 ft. ; beam, 15^ ft. ; draught, 7 ft. ; 
displacement, 92 tons ; complement, 18 ; armament, 
2 i'5-in., q.f., 2 tubes ; Hp., 1,250=23 kts. ; coal, 
17 tons. 

Brisbane, Sir Charles (1769-1829). British rear- 
admiral. Was mid. at the battle of Dominica, 
1782 ; was present at the occupation of Toulon, 
and under Nelson in Corsica ; in 1796 in the Oiseau 
he successfully defended himself against two 
Spanish frigates of superior force ; in command of 
the Doris he planned and executed the gallant 
cutting out of the Chevrette from Camarat Bay ; 
in 1807 he achieved his greatest success, the cap- 
ture of the Curacao and several Dutch vessels with 
a force of four frigates only ; he was decorated 
K.C.B., 181 5, and retired with the rank of rear- 
admiral, 18 19. 

Brisbane, Sir James (1774- 18 26).' British naval 

oTficer. Younger brother of Sir Charles Brisbane 
(q.v.) ; was mid. in the Queen Charlotte at the 
battle of " The Glorious First of June," 1794 ; was 
present in the Cruiser at the bombardment of 
Copenhagen, 1801, and was promoted in 18 16; he 
commanded Lord Exmouth's flagship, the Queen 
Charlotte, at the bombardment of Algiers, and for 
services rendered was created a knight. 

Bristol Channel Yacht dab, Swansea. Estab- 
lished 1875. Flag : Red ensign. Burgee : Red, 
blue cross, with Prince of Wales's feathers in 
centre. Commodore, The Earl of Dunraven ; 
Vice-Commodore, Major J. Edwards Vaughan ; 
Rear-Commodore, Edward H. Bath ; Honorary 
Treasurer, P. Langdon Thomas ; Honorary Secre- 
tary, F. G. Andrews. Entrance fee, £2 25. ; annua 
subscription, £2 2s. Outport members, £1 6s. 

Bristol Pleasure Steamers. P. and A. Campbell's 
steamships maintain a service of marine excursions 
in the Bristol Channel between Bristol, Cardiff, 
Clevedon, Weston, Newport, Minehead, Lynmouth, 
Ilfracombe, Clovelly, Chepstow, Mumbles, and 
Tenby. 



BRISTOL 



92 



BRITANNIA 



Ravenswood. 
Wavetley. 
Westward Ho, 

thousand years 
It begins the 



Fleet. 
Albion, Britannia, 

Bonnie Doon, Cambria, 

Brighton Queen, Glen Rosa, 

Bristolt Port of, has for one 

maintained a leading position, 
twentieth century by constructing docks at the 
head of the Bristol Channel of such magnitude and 
cost as to surpass all municipal achievements 
hitherto attempted in this direction. 

The shipping trade of the port with distant 
parts of the world dates back for many centuries. 
Vessels were formerly discharged and loaded at 
landing-places along the banks of the tidal river 
Avon, which then flowed tlirough the heart of the 
city. In 1809 a new course for the river was 
formed, and the old water way for a length of two 
and a half miles was converted into a floating 
harbour. This is now equipped with modem 
wharves, granaries, transit sheds, cranes, railways, 
etc., and many large manufactories and other 
industrial concerns are located in the immediate 
neighbourhood of the quays. 

In the course of the last 40 years the river 
navigation has been greatly improved. The 
cbaoncl has been deepened, and banks and points 
have been marked by a series of illuminated posts 
and lights, and a new entrance lock has been c(mi- 
strucied, the result being that it is now possible 
for vessels of 325 ft. in length between perpendi- 
culars to enter the city docks with little or no 
delay. 

The dimensions of the docks are as follows : 

The City Dochs, 

Depth of water on sill : 



Mean spring tides 




33 tt. 


Mean neap tides . . 




23 „ . 


Length of lock 




. 350 .. 


Width of lock 




62 „ 


Area of docks 




83 acres. 


Length of wharfage 




. 4.898 yds. 


Avonmouth Dock, 




Depth of water on sill : 






Mean spring tides 




38 ft. 


Mean neap tides . . 




28 „ 


length of dock 




. 2,180 „ 


Width of dock 




Soo „ 


Length of lock 




. 48s .. 


Width of lock 




70 M 


Width of extension 




180 „ 


Area of dock 




Z9 acres 


Length of wharfage 




. 1 ,600 yds. 


Royal Edward Dock, 




Depth of water on inner 


sill: 




Mean spring tides 




40 ft. 


Mean neap tides . . 




30 " 


Length of dock 




. 1,120 „ 


Width of dock 




. 1,000 „ 


length of lock 




. 875 .. 


Width of lock 




lOO „ 


Area of dock 




30 acres 



34 ft. 


24 .. 


1,800 „ 


300 „ 


444 M 


66 „ 


12 acres 


943 yds. 



Length of wharfage (at present sanc- 
tioned) . . . . . . . . 3,730 ft. 

Portishead Dock, 

Depth of water on sill : 
Mean spring tides 
Mean neap tides 

Length of dock 

Width of dock 

Length of lock 

Width of lock 

Area of dock 

Length of wharfage 

All these docks have extensive covered quays 
and shed accommodation* At the Avonmouth 
Dock a fruit store and warehouse have been pro- 
vided specially for the West Indian trade. Cold 
stores, with a capacity of 220,000 cubic ft., afford 
ample accommodation for carcases of beef and 
mutton, as well as provision for other perishable 
articles, and nine oil-tanks each averaging over 
1,000,000 gallons storage capacity for the reception 
of petroleum. The floating pontoon dock is 355 ft. 
long and 62 ft. wide, and is available for the recep- 
tion of vessels of these dimensions. 

The Koyal Edward Dock, the first sod of which 
was cut by H.R.H. the Prince of Wales on March 5, 
1902. will be completed in the early part of 1908, 
and will be replete with every modem convenience 
for the loading and discharging of vessels. 

Briatol Stoam Navigatioii Oo.» with their head 
offices in Bristol, maintain a regular service of 
steamers from Bristol to both Cork and Dublin. 
Steamers leave Bristol every Thursday, returning 
from Cork every Tuesday. Steamers leave Bristol 
for Dublin every Tuesday, and return every Ftiday. 

Fleet. 
Argo, Blarney. Killamey, 

Bristow, Oaptftin* See Antarctic Exploration. 

• 

Britannls. Britiah ist class battleship. (Ports- 
mouth, 1904.) 

Length 453 ft. Beam 78 ft. Mean draught 26 ft. 
Displacement 16.350 tons. Complement 777, 
Guns, Armour. 

4 — 12 in. " Krupp." 

4 — 9*2 in. 9 in. Belt amidships. 

10—^ in. 12 in. Barbettes. 

14 — 12 pdr. 12 in. Conning tower. 

14—3 pdr. 
2 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
4 Submerged broadside. 
I Submerged stem. 
Twin screw. Hp. i8.ooosei8'5 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 2,000 tons. Approximate cost ^fi ,500,000. 

This ship-name was first introduced into the 
Navy in 1682, and is associated with the battles of 
Barfleur and La Hogue, 1692 ; Hood's occupation 
of Toulon, 1793 ; Hotham's action off Genoa, 1795 ; 
Hotham's action of Hydres, 1795 ; battle off Cape 



BRITANNIA 



93 



BRITISH 



St. Vincent, 1797 ; Trafedgar. 1805 ; bombardment 
of Sebastopol, 1854. 

In i860 the Prince of Wales (now King Ed- 
ward VII.) launched a vessel of this name which 
was fitted as a training ship for naval cadets, 
and stationed at Portsmouth. She was subse- 
quently transferred to the Dart, where in 1905 
she was superseded by the Royal Naval College, 
Dartmouth. 

Britamiia (1887). British subsidised mer- 
chant ship. P. and O. Company {q.v.). Dimen- 
sions. 465 X 52 X 34 ft- ; gross tonnage, 6,523 ; 
Hp., 6,000= 17 kts. Principally used as a Govern- 
ment transport. Passenger accommodation, 304. 

Britannic See White Star Line. 

Britbh AdmlraL Emigrant ship, wrecked on 
King's Island, Bass's Strait, May 23, 1874, when 
80 out of 89 persons were lost. 



America Asraranoe Co. Incorporated 
1883. Capital. 9850,000. Since the incorporation 
this company has paid a steadily increasing divi- 
dend, which for the last 70 years has averaged 
^'21%, and a Reserve Fund has been built up of 
91,024,042-95. 

The directors of the company are : Hon. George 
Cox (president), J. J. Kenny (vice-president and 
managing director), Augustus Myers, Thomas 
Long. John Hoskin, K.C., LL.D., Hon. S. C. Wood, 
Robert Jafiray, Lieut.-Col. H. M. Pellatt. E. W. 
Cox. Head o&ce : Toronto, Ontario. 

British and African Steam Navigation Co., Ltd., 

was originally established in 1858 to run a line of 
cargo and passenger steamers between Glasgow, 
Liverpool, and the West Coast of Africa. In 1900 
a new company was formed with a capital of 
£1,000,000, with Sir A. L. Jones as chairman, to 
acquire an additional fleet of steamers for the 
service. They purchased from Messrs. Elder, 
Dempster and Co. a number of vessels, and to-day 
own a fleet of 95 steamers, aggregating 269,170 
tons, and control an extensive business with the 
West Coast of Africa. 

British and Foraign Marina fiunvanoe Oo^ Ltd. 

Registered January 8, 1863. Authorised capital, 
;£ 1*340,000 (paid up, ;£268,ooo, or £4 per share). 
The Reserve Fund is ;£90o,ooo, and the balance of 
Profit and Loss Account carried forward to Janu- 
ary I, Z906, ;£i4i,285. Present dividend, 20%. 

The directors of the company are : 

Liverpool. — Richard Hobson (chairman), G. B. 
Heyworth (deputy-chairman), Joseph Beausire, 
William Bingham, Harold Brocklebank, Arthur 
Earle, E. Edmondson, H. H. Hammond, Sir Ed- 
ward Lawrence, Samuel Sanday, Hugh L. Smyth, 
Thomas Woodsend. Underwriter, John Davies ; 
secretary, Arthur McNeill. 

London. — The Rt. Hon. Lord Avebury (chair- 
man), E. T. Doxat (deputy-chairman), Robert 



Balfour, Augustus Pfaolip Brandt, Ernest Chaplin, 
C. G. Du Croz, Herbert Edlmann, W. Scott-Elliot, 
James N. Graham, J. Howard Gwyther, J. J. 
Hamilton, F. J. Johnston. Underwriter, Thomas 
J. Storey ; secretary, Thomas Davis. 

Head office : British and Foreign Chambers, 
5 Castle Street, Liverpool. London Office : i Old 
Broad Street, E.C. 

Britiah and Foreign Steamship Co., Ltd., have 
a fleet of 14 large modem cargo steamers 
trading to various parts of the world. These 
vessels are fitted with the latest appliances for the 
handling of cargo. 

Fleet. 

Saint Andrew. Saint Hugo. 

Saint Beds. Saint Irene. 

Saint Cuthbert. Saint Jerome. 

Saint Dunstan. Saint Leonards. 

Saint Egbert. Saint Nicholas. 

Saint Fillans, Saint Oswald. 

Saint George. Saint Quentin. 

Gross tonnage, 56,160. 

Britiah and Iriah Sfteam Paoket Co.. with their 
head office in Dublin, nuuntain a service twice a 
week, leaving London for Dublin Sundays and 
Wednesdays, and Dublin for London Wednesdays 
and Saturdays, calling at Portsmouth, Southamp- 
ton, Plymouth, and Falmouth. The fleet consists 
of six large and powerful, steamers, with excellent 
passenger accommodatioa for some six to seven 
hundred passengers, and a sea speed of 1 3 kts. 

Fleet. 

Calskot. Lady Olive. 

Lady Hudson Kindkan. Lady Roberts. 

Lady Martin. Lady Wolseley, 

Gross tonnage, 7,000. 

British Dominions Marine Insnranoe Co., Ltd. 

Registered September 15, 1904, with an authorised 
capital of ;£6oo,ooo, of which shares to the extent 
of ;£20i,ooo were issued and ;£ioi,ooo called up. 
The capital is composed of 17,000 fully-paid £z 
preference shares, interest on which is limited to 
6% per annum, and 50,000 £^ ordinary shares, of 
which £1 has been paid up. 

The directors of the company are : His Honour 
Judge Bompas, K.C. (chairman). Sir W. E. M 
Tomlinson, Bart., F. H. Booth, Alex. G. Mackenzie, 
P. H. Marshall, H. T. GuUick, G. Wigley, J. W. 
Rogerson. Underwriters, Robert Gardner, Moun- 
tain and Co., Ltd. Offices : Z7 Royal Exchange, 
London, E.C 

British India Steam Nafigatimi Co. Founded in 
185$ by the late Sir William MacKinnon, as the 
Calcutta and Burma Steam Navigation Co., for 
the performance of mail services for the East 
Indian Co. In 1857 the Baltic and Cape of Good 
Hope were sent out to inaugurate the business. In 
1862 a fresh mail service was entered into, which 
included an additional route, and the name of the 



BRITISH 



94 



BRITISH 



company was officially altered to its present title. 
On the opening of the Sues Canal this company's 
steamer, the Indian, conveyed the first cargo of 
Indian produce to England through the canal. 
In 1872 the Aden-Zanzibar Mail Service was put 
on, and from then until now new routes have been 
constantly added. The company is under con- 
tract with the Indian Government for mail services 
to Persia. India, Burma, East India, the Mauritius, 
and also runs other services to Batavia, Queens- 
land, etc. In 1889 a three weekly service was 
started from Calcutta to Manila, which has since 
been extended to Moji, Kobe, and Yokohama. 
The company has a capital of ;£ 1,700,000. and pays 
dividends averaging about 10%. 

Fleet. 

Africa. Jelunga. Pundua. 

Amarapoora. Jumna. Purnea. 

Antra. Kapurthala. Putiala. 

A ska. Kasara. Queda. 

Avoca. Katoria. Querimba. 

Bancoora. Kistna. Quiloa. 

Bangala. Kola. Ramapoora. 

Bezwada. Lalpoora, Rangoon. 

Bhadra. Lama. Rasmara. 

Bharata. Landaura, Sangola, 

Bhundara. Lawada. Sanihia. 

Booldana. Lhasa. Satara. 

Bulimba. Lindula. Scindia. 

Byculla. Linga. Sealda. 

Canara. Loodiana. Shirala. 

Carpentaria. Lanka. Sirdkana. 

Chanda. Madura Sirsa. 

Chupra. Madda. Sofala. 

Colaba. Manora. Surada. 

Dilwara. Maiiana. Tata. 

Dumra. Megna. Taroba. 

Dunera. Meanatchy. Teesia. 

Dwarka. Momhassa. Thongwa. 

Ellora. Muttra. Vnganda. 

Ethiopia. Nerbudda, Ujina. 

Fazilka. Nevasa, Ula. 

FuUala. Nowshera. Umballa. 

Goalpara. Nuddea. Umta. 

Golconda. Obra. Upada. 

Goorkha, Okara. Urlana. 

Gwalior. Okhla. Vadala. 

Henzada. Onda. Virawa 

Hindu. Onipenta, Waipara. 

Islanda. Oolobaria. Wardha. 

Ismaila. Orissa, Waroonga. 

Itaura. Pachumba* Warora. 

Itinda. Palamcotta. Zaida. 

Itola. Palitana. Zanumia, 

Itria. Pentakota. Zibenghla. 
Gross tonnage, 442.000. 

British iUrine Salvage Co., Limited, Olaigow, 

was^started in 1888 to carry on the business of sal- 
vors of stranded and sunken vessels and their 
cargoes. The registered office of the company 



is at the Royal Exchange^ Glasgow, and its salvage 
appliances are stored at Greenock, dose to quay 
and railway, ready for despatch by sea or land. 
The company's plant consists of 12 in., 10 in., and 
8 in. centrifugal steam pumps, each complete with 
boiler and piping, diving gear, portable electric 
overland and submarine lights, heavy purchase 
blocks, steel wire hawsers, etc.. two wrought iron 
pontoons with screws and lifting chains. 

British Maritime Tmst, Ltd., managed by 
Messrs. Fumess, Withy and Co., Ltd., West 
Hartlepool, has a fleet of 22 modem vessels 
engaged in the cargo trade to various parts of 
the world, some of the later ones having limited 
accommodation for passengers. 

Fleet. 

Adriana. Cynihiana. Peruviana. 

Atheniana. Graciana. Potomac. 

Austriana. Guardiana. Sandown. 

Birmingham. Indiana. Thomley. 

Cehriana. ' Lugano. Tudhoe. 

Como. Malinche. Westhampton. 

Croxdale. Oriana. Wyandotte. 

Persiana. 

British Pacific Cable, owned proportionately by 
the Governments of the United Kingdom, Canada, 
and Australia, the proportions being the tTnited 
Kingdom and Canada five-eighteenths, New South 
Wales, Victoria, Queensland, and New Zealand 
two-eighteenths each, was constructed by the 
Telegraph Construction and Maintenance Co., at 
a cost of £1,795,000. It runs from Vancouva to 
Fanning Island, thence to Fiji and Norfolk Island, 
and by means of tvio cables to New Zealand and 
Queensland respectively. It has a total length 
of 7,838 nautical miles, and was opened to traffic 
on December 8, 1902. 

British Qaeen. Packet, from Ostend to Margate, 
wrecked on the Goodwin Sands, December 17, 18 14, 
when all on board perished. 

British ship is a ship British owned, surveyed, 
measured, and registered according to the require- 
ments of the Merchant Shipping Act, 1894. Such 
vessel is regarded as a part of Great Britain, and is 
subject, together i^ath all on board, wherever she 
may go, to the jurisdiction of the nation whose 
fiag she flies. Not more than 64 persons can 
be registered as owners, and the majority' may 
direct the ship's movements. 

Every transfer of a British ship or share thereof 
by way of sale or mortgage, or upon death, mar- 
riage or bankruptcy of an owner, must be registered. 
Refer to Flag, Restraint on Ship, Log Book, Pas- 
senger Boats, Foreign-going Ships, Yacht, 
Passengers. 

British Underwriter. Established 1896. Pub- 
lished monthly (first Saturday). Price 3^. Ad- 
dress : 6 Dorset Street, London, E.G. 



BRITON 



95 



BROKER 



Briton. See Union-Castle Line. 

Brk. Broken. Abbreviation adopted on the 
charts issued by the Hydrographic Office, Admi- 
ralty, denoting quality of the ocean's bottom. 

Broaching to. Coming up into the wind. 

Broad* George Alexander, M.V.O. (b. 1844). Staff 
captain. Royal yacht Alberta since 1897 ; entered 
Navy, i860; navigating lieutenant of Valofcms 
while attached to Arctic Expedition, 187s : staff 
commander on flagship Triumph, Pacific, 1885-88 ; 
Northumberland, Channel Fleet, 1889-90 ; Cam- 
perdown, Channel Fleet, 1890-92 ; commanded 
Royal yacht Elfin, 1892-97. Decorations : 
Diamond Jubilee medal, 1897 1 Prussian Royal 
Order of the Crown, 2nd class, 1901. Refer to 
Arctic Exploration. 

Broadiide. The whole side. 



Broadside on. The whole side of a vessel, as 
opposed to end on. 

Brock, Walter (1836-1906). Marine engineer. 
Educated Glasgow Academy and Glasgow Universi- 
ty ; in 1852 apprenticed to the firm of Messrs. R. 
Napier and Sons, and on completing an apprentice- 
ship of five years, part ol which was spent in the 
dockyard at Brest fitting engines in vessels for the 
French Navy, he was appointed draughtsman in the 
firm ; in 1859 he accepted the position of head 
draughtsman with Messrs. Wm. Simpson and Co., 
but in 1864 he returned to Messrs. R. Napier and 
Sons, as manager of their engine works ; became a 
partner in the firm of Messrs. Denny and Co. in 1878, 
and a few years later in the shipbuilding firm of 
Messrs. William Denny and Brothers ; was, up to 
the time of his death, managing director of both 
firms, which, although carried on under different 
designations, are in reaUty one. Was a Chevalier 
of Leopold of Belgium; member of Institution of 
Naval Architects, of the Institution of Civil Engin- 
eers, and the Institution of Mechanical Engineers 
of England, and of the Institution of Engineers 
and Shipbuilders in Scotland. 

Brooken Spectre. See Anthelion or Glory. 

Brocklelmnk Line» owned by Messrs. H. J. 
Brocklebank, of Liverpool, possess a fine fleet of 
large steamers, carrying passengers and freight at 
scheduled times from Liverpool to Calcutta direct, 
via the Suez Canal. 

Fleet. 

Ameer, Malakand. 

Gengali. Manipur. 

Gaekwar. Mdrwarri. 

Mahratta. Matheran. 

Mahronda. Pindari. 



Broke, Sir Phifip Bowes Tare (1776-1841). Bhtish 
rear-admiral. Was present at tlie siege of Bastia, 
at Hotham's {q.v,) two actions in 1795, and at the 



battle of Cape St. Vincent, 1797 ; on June r, 181 3, 
in the Shannon he engaged the U.S. fhgate Chesa- 
peake, and after a severe action obliged the enemy 
to surrender. He was created a baronet 181 3. and 
made K.C.B. 181 5. 

See " Life," by Brighton, 1866. 

Broken-backed. The state of a ship, so loosened 
in her frame as to drop at each end, causing the 
lines of her sheer to be interrupted. 

Broker. A shipbroker is usually employed to 
effect the charter of a ship. He is paid a commis- 
sion of 5 per cent, on the amount of freight by the 
shipowner, to which he is as a general rule entitled, 
whether the freight is earned or not. Where 
several brokers are employed to obtain a charter, 
the first to introduce the principals to each other 
becomes entitled to the commission. Shipbrokers 
are bound by the instruction of their principals, 
and will lose their right to brokerage for acting in 
contravention thereof. A third party chartering 
a vessel through a broker who is acting contrary to 
his instructions cannot enforce it against the ship- 
owner, but his remedy for any damage he may have 
suffered by the broker so acting would be an action 
for breach of warranty of authority against such 
broker. 

In Marine Insurance risks are usually placed 
before the underwriter by a broker, an expert in 
insurance law and practice, whose position in the 
matter is somewhat important, as he becomes 
responsible to the underwriter for the premium, 
although the underwriter still is liable to the assured 
(the employer of the broker) for the loss, in the 
event of a ckum arising on the policy. The assured 
is debtor to the broker, and the latter to the under- 
writer ; and the underwriter is debtor to the assured 
foi: losses. (Amould, 5th ed., p. 192.) 

The underwriter is prevented by the receipt 
clause in the policy from claiming the premium 
from the assured direct, or seeking to set off un- 
settled premiums against losses ; he must look to 
the broker for his consideration, and the latter to 
the assured. In short, the underwriter is entirely 
debarred from claiming upon the assured direct ; 
unless the latter has acted fraudulently, or has 
connived at the commission of fraud by the broker, 
in the particular instance.* It is settled law that the 
broker has a lien for the amount of the premiums on 
every policy effected by him. whether for a princi- 
pal or for an agent. If a broker employs another 
to effect an insurance, and divides the brokerage 
with the latter, the sub -agent has a lien for the 
premium paid by him to the underwriter, both as 
against the principal and the agent first employed, 
and is entitled to hold the policy until that Uen is 
satisfied, though the premium has been paid by the 
assured to the first broker. Further, when the 
broker has been employed by the assured direct, he 
has a lien upon each policy in his possession for the 
general balance of his account with the latter. In 



BROKERAGE 



96 



BROWN 



the event of a loss a34sing on a policy the claim is 
generally collected by the broker from the under* 
writers and settled by the Custom of Lloyd's (q.v.), 
(McArthur on the Contract of Insurance, p. 36 ; 
Phillips on Insurance, vol.' II., s. 1,909). In 
companies' policies it is usual to substitute for the 
acknowledgment of the receipt of the premium a 
promise on the part of the assured to pay it, but 
under the clause so worded the obligation of each 
party to the other stands upon the same footing — 
the clause being only a promise to pay. Refer to 
Principal and Agent. 

Brokerage. The commission charged by mer- 
chants and brokers tor securing and transacting 
business for ships. 

Brontometer. A combination of meteorological 
instruments designed to facilitate thtt study of 
thunderstorms. Pens register in aniline ixik» on 
paper worked by a clock on a drum about 12 in. 
long, the velocity of the wind, rainfall, and the 
atmospheric pressure ; other pens worked by keys 
record the exact time of thunder or lightning, and 
the duration and intensity of haiL 

Brooklsnu U.S. belt cruiser (1895). 
Length 400 ft. Beam 65 ft. Maximum draught 38 ft. 
Displacement 9,215 tons. Complement 500. 
Guns, Armour. 

8—8 in. " Harvey." 

12 — 5 in. 3 in. Belt amidships. 

1 2 — 6 pdr. 8 in. Barbettes. 

4 — I pdr. 8 in. Conning tower. 

4 Catlings. 

Torpedo Tubes, 
5 Above water, bow and broadside. 
Twin screw. Hp. forced 16,000=21 kts. Coal 
maximum 1,650 tons. 

Broom. A besom at the mast-head signifies the 
ship is for sale. 

Broome, Thomas C. (b. Wolverhampton, 1869). 
After leaving school in 1884 he went to sea, and in 
1889 passed for second mate and master, and four 
years later obtained an extra master's certificate. In 
1897 ^^ received a commission as sub-lieutenant in 
the Royal Naval Reserve, and served on H.M.S. 
Cambridge, Defiance, and Astrea, 1899- 1900, and 
in the latter year received a lieutenant's commis- 
sion. In 1902 he retired from active sea life, and 
joined the Tyser Line as assistant marine superin- 
tendent Joined Institution of Naval Architects, 
1904. 

Brought alongiide. " After which she shall load 
there from the charterers a full and complete cargo 

of , the cargo being brought to and taken from 

alongside at the charterer's risk and expense." 

The above clause is found in most charter-parties, 
and marks the place where, and the time when, the 
responsibility for the cargo passes from the char- 
terer to the shipowner, and again at the port of 
delivery from the shipowner to the charterer or his 



consignee. It is not sufficient that the cargo be 
placed within easy reach of the shipowner ; it must 
be actually brought alongside the ship at the 
charterer's expense (».«., '* free alongside "), and 
where the ship, owing to her draught, is unable to 
get up to the wharf, the cost of lightering faUs on 
the charterer. Similarly at the termination of the 
voyage, the cargo is delivered, and the shipowner's 
risk ended, as soon as the cargo is put overside. 

Brown, Andrew, JJP. (b. Glasgow, 1825). Marine 
engineer. Left school 1837 to serve apprentice- 
ship with Mr. John Neilsen, Oakbank Foundry, 
Glasgow; was appointed assistant draughtsman 
to Messrs. Todd and MacGregor, 1849; engaged 
in Caledonian running engine shops, Glasgow, 1850 ; 
and in i860 joined the late Mr. Wm. Simons at 
Renfrew, and is now chairman of Wm. Simons and 
Co., Ltd. He is the oldest engineer and ship- 
builder on the Qyde, and has been associated with 
many events in marine engineering, such as the 
Prompt <i854), the first screw steamer running 
between Leith and London, in place of the old sailing 
smacks ; Viviandiere, the pioneer coasting steamer 
of the Clyde Shipping Co. ; the Anchor Line 
India (1877), the first vessel fitted with compound 
engines on the North Atlantic service ; the Oxton, 
the first four-screw propelling ferry steamer built for 
vehicular traffic on the Mersey (1879) ; the first 
hopper dredger (1866) ; the first steam hopper 
barge in Europe (r86i) ; the Finnieston, and 
the first elevating deck ferry steamer built 
for vehicular traffic on the Clyde. The great 
advance made in building may be seen from the 
fact that the first hopper dredger had a capacity of 
200 tons, while the latest construction, the Cetus 
(1905). for the Natal Government, is of 3,000 tons. 
He became a member of the Renfrew Town Council 
in 1865, and continued a member until 1900 ; was 
elected Provost in 1877, and held that position 
for 1 5 years ; member of the Institution of Civil 
Engineers. 

Publications : Has contributed papers to the 
Institution of Shipbuilders and Engineers in 
Scotland, on " Improved Dredging Plant," in 1874 
and 1899, and also read at the Institution of Civil 
Engineers in 1894 &> paper on " Recent Types of 
Ferry Steamers." 

Brown, A. B. (b. Ringwood, 1839). After 
serving an apprenticeship at sea, he, in 186 1, entered 
the service of the P. and O. Co. as a junior officer, 
and was promoted chief officer in 1866. In 1868 
the Japanese Government, having decided to light 
and buoy its coast, purchased a steamer and ofiered 
him command, and he was actively engaged for 
several years in the service of the Mikado's Govern- 
ment, surveying sites and superintending the con- 
struction of lighthouses and beacons, etc. In 1874 
the Japanese Government decided on sending an 
expedition to Formosa, and purchased from the 
P. and O. Co. their steamer Delta, which was 



BROWN 



97 



BRUNEL 



re-christened Tahasago Maru, and he was given 
command, and had charge of the transport of 1,500 
men to Laingkiao Bay, under General Saigo. On 
the termination of the expedition, the Japanese 
Government found itself with a number of steamers, 
and an arrangement was made with Mr. Iwasaki 
Yatiro to purchase the ships and form a company 
and this formed the nucleus of the Mitsu Bishi 
Company ; in fact, the modern Mercantile Marine 
of Japan. In 1874 he returned to Great Britain 
and purchased two other merchant vessels as a 
further addition to this fleet. On his return to 
Japan in 1875, ^^ ^^^s appointed to assist in 
forming a marine bureau. In 1885 a new company 
was formed, the Nippon Yusen Kaisha, to take over 
the then existing steamship companies, the Mitsu 
Bishi Co., and the Kiodo Unyu Kaisha. and at the 
request of the Government he was appointed general 
manager. In May, 1889, he resigned this position 
and came to England to take charge of the com- 
pany's shipbuilding programme, and other business 
requiring expert superintendence ; settled in 
Glasgow and founded the firm of Messrs. A. R. 
Brown, MacFarlane, Ltd. He has been closely 
associated with the modem Mercantile Marine of 
Japan from its earliest infancy, and assisted in 
founding the Tokio College, and the Tokio Marine 
Insurance Co. For service rendered to the Japan- 
ese Government, he was decorated with the 3rd 
Order of the Rising Sun, and was the first British 
subject in Japan to receive this honour. 

Brown, George llatthews (b. South Shields, 
May .11, 1872). B.A., B.Sc, W.H. School. Served 
apprenticeship in the engine works department 
of Messrs. Palmer's Shipbuilding Co., Ltd., 
J arrow ; afterwards working in their drawing office. 
Gained Whitworth's Scholarship in 1895 ; gradu- 
ated B.Sc, Durham, with honours, in 1898, and 
B.A. (Part II. Science Tripos), Cambridge, 1900. 
At present engaged as chief engineer in the power 
and mining department of Messrs. Thomson, Hou- 
ston Co., Rugby. 

Publications : Has contributed papers to the 
Engineering Society on " Steam Practice and 
Electrical Engineering." 

Brown, Lieni. See Arctic Exploration. 

Browne, Sir Benjamin Chapman, K.T. (cr. 1887), 
D.C.L. (b. 1839). Served his apprenticeship at the 
Elswick Works under Sir W. G. Armstrong ; in 
1870 took an active part in the reconstruction of the 
old firm of R. W. Hawthorn, with a special view to 
the development of the marine engine trade, and 
during the next 16 years was closely connected 
with engine building for the British Admiralty, the 
Italian, French, Russian, and many other Govern- 
ments. In 1896 he became chairman of the firm 
of R. and W. Hawthorn, LesUe and Co., Ltd., 
the amalgamation of R. and W. Hawthorn and Co. 
and the shipyards of A. S. LesUe and Co. ; he is 



also connected with electric light and power com- 
panies, and with tlie coal trade ; is well known 
in connection with labour institutions, and in 1904 
he served on a committee appointed by the Home 
Secretary, to examine the working of the Worker's 
Corporation Act. Member of the Institutions of 
Civil Engineers, Mechanical Engineers, and Naval 
Architects. 

B.B.n. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing 
boats registered at Bruinisse, Holland. 

Brohn, Johannes (b. Borris. Denmark, March 11, 
1868). Served his apprenticeship in Flensburg 
Shipbuilding Yard, and with Messrs. Mackie and 
Thomson, Glasgow. Studied naval architecture 
and engineering at the Glasgow University, and 
took his degree of B.Sc, and in 1892 the degree of 
D.Sc. was conferred on him ; in 1895 ^^ joined the 
staff of the Committee of Lloyd's Register of 
British and Foreign Shipping, London, and stUl 
retains the post of Scientific Adviser to this body ; 
in 1900 he was awarded the gold medal by the 
Institution of Naval Architects for his paper 
" The Stresses at the Discontinuities of a Ship's 
Structure." 

PubUcations : A number of papers dealing with 
the Strength and Stability of Ships, read before 
the Institution of Naval Architects, and the Insti- 
tution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland. 

Bmiser. Steamer. In collision with the Haswell 
off Aldborough, August 19, 1866; 15 lives lost. 

Brniz. French 2nd class cruiser. (Rochefort, 

1894.) 

Length 361ft. Beam 46ft. Maximum draught 20ft. 

Displacement 4,750 tons. Complement 370. 

Guns, Armour. 

2 — y'6 in., 45 cal. " Creusot " steel. 

6 — 5*5 in. 4 in. Belt amidships. 

6 — 9 pdr. 4 in. Turrets. 

4 — 3 pdr. 4 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes (17*7 in.). 

4 Above water. 

Twin screw. Hp. 8,300= 18' 5 kts. Coal normal 

406 tons. Approximate cost ;f 3 50,000. 

Bmiier. British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Chis- 
wick, 1895.) Length, 201 ft. ; beam, 19 ft. ; 
draught, 7 ft. ; displacement, 247 tons ; comple- 
ment, 45 ; armament, i 12-pdr., 5 6-pdr., 2 tubes ; 
twin screw ; Hp., 2,500=27 kts. ; coal, 60 tons. 

Bnunmer. German protected gun-boat (1884). 
Displacement, 870 tons. Of no fighting value. 

Brunei, Isambard Kingdom (1806-59]. English 
civil engineer. Was one of the pioneers in the 
development of ocean steam navigation ; he de- 
signed the Great Western, the first ship to make 
regular voyages across the Atlantic, 1838 ; he built 
the Great Britain, the first large iron steamship 
which was navigated by the screw propeller, 1845 * ^^ 

E 



BRYSON 



98 



BUENOS 



constructed the huge Great Eastern for the Eastern 
Steam Navigation Co., 1853 ; gave much attention 
to gun improvement, and designed a floating gun 
carriage for the attack on Kronstadt, 1854. He 
died on board the Great Eastern, September 15. 
1859. See " Life of I. K. Brunei/* by Isadore 
Brunei, 1870. 

Bryson* John JToshaa (b. Newcastle. March 4, 
1868). Marine engineer. Educated Glasgow Tech- 
nical College, where he took first place in steam and 
mechanical engineering, with flrst-class honours, 
gaining Atkinson's bursary ; at the Glasgow Univer- 
sity he gained first prize for mechanical engineering, 
and held Elder's bursary for marine engineering and 
naval construction ; served his apprenticeship with 
Messrs. R. and W. Hawthorn, Leslie and Co.; from 
1890-95 was employed in the drawing office of the 
Naval Construction and Armaments Co.. having 
under his entire charge the shipbuilding and 
engineering department. Member of the Institu- 
tion of Naval Architects. 

B.S. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Beaumaris, England. 

B. Th. U.,or British Thermal Unit, is the unit 
quantity of heat employed by engineers. It is 
mechanically equal to 778 ft. lbs. of work, and is the 
amount of heat required to bring one pound of 
water from 49** to 50° F. 

B.T.U., or Board of Trade Unit, is the legal unit 
for the sale of electrical energy to the public. 

B.U. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Bunschoten, Holland. 

Baccaneer. A name given to pirates who 
formerly infested the Spanish coast. 

Buccaneer Tacht Clnb. Established 1898. Com- 
modore, Major R. Giles Bradshaw ; Vice-Commo- 
dore, A. Christie Bradshaw ; Rear-Commodore, 
Charles R. Catchpool ; Honorary Secretary and 
Treasurer, Lieut. -Col. A. T. Simpson, Bosham 
Abbey, Sussex. Entrance fee, £$ 35. ; annual sub- 
scription, £s 3^- 

Bncban, Captain David. See Arctic Exploration. 

Bnchardo. Argentine torpedo-boat. (Yarrow, 
1890.) Length, 150 ft.; displacement. 85 tons; 
2 tubes ; speed, about 24 kts. 

Backland, Henry Birkett (b. South Shields, 
March 16, 1869). Served his apprenticeship with 
Messrs. Black, Hawthorn and Co., Gateshead ; from 
there joined Messrs. Henry Watson and Sons as 
draughtsman, and subsequently the Central Marine 
Engineering Works, Hartlepool. Having obtained 
his Board of Trade certificate at sea, was appointed 
manager of the Tyne Boiler Works Co., Ltd., where 
under his charge several bridges were built for 
India, and also in 1887. during the French scare, 
430 spherical submarine mines for the Home and 



Indian Governments. In 1S88 he embarked in 
business on his own account as a consulting 
engineer and naval axx:hitect at Newcastle. Know- 
ing that boilers are the heart of a steamer, he 
early made them his special study and care, and 
has designed and patented the " Buckland Vertical 
Donkey Boiler " and the '* Stanley Spherical 
Marine Boiler." 

BneUe, Vice-Admiral Claode Edward (b. Dur- 
ham, 1839). Entered Navy. 1852 ; cadet of 
Leander, and served in Black Sea during Russian 
war; joined Valorous December. 1864; ^^ en- 
gaged in two night attacks on the sea front at 
Sebastopol, the capture of Kertch and Kinburn 
(Crimean and Turkish medals, Sebastopol clasp) ; 
joined Inflexible, 1856 ; was engaged in the de- 
struction of the Chinese fleet at Escape Creek, 
Sawshu, and Fatshan ; took part in the capture of 
Peiho forts, 1858 ; was mentioned in despatches 
by the Commander-in-Chief (China medal. Canton, 
Fatshan, and Taku clasps) ; was lieutenant in Hero 
when she took H.R.H. The Prince of Wales to 
Canada ; A.D.C. to the Queen, 1889-91 ; captain, 
senior naval officer, Gibraltar, 1889-92 ; senior 
officer on the coast of Ireland, 1895-98 ; promoted 
admiral, August 12, 1903, when he retired. 

Baoklers, Two blocks of wood fitted together 
to stop up the liawse-holes to prevent the ship 
taking any water in a heavy sea. 

Bnoknall Steamship lines, Ltd., managed by the 
founders, Messrs. Bucknall Bros., possess a fleet of 
26 first-class steamers. The present company 
was formed in 1900 to take over and extend 
the British and Colonial line from London to 
south-east African ports, established 1892. The 
company maintains monthly service from London 
to Madeira, Cape Town, Algoa Bay, East London, 
and Natal ; also lines between New York and South 
Africa and New York and India, as well as a line 
between Manchester and the Persian Gulf ports. 

Budapest. Austro-Hungarian battleship. (San 
Rocco, 1896.) 

Length 323ft. Beam 56ft. Maximum draught 21ft. 
Displacement 5,600 tons. Complement 469. 
Guns. Armour. 

4 — 9*4 in., 35 cal. " Harvey." 
6 — 6 in. 10 in. Belt amidships. 

14 — 3 pdr. 8 in. Bulkheads. 

12 Machine. 10 in. Barbettes. 

8 in. Conning tower. 
Torpedo Tubes (177 in.). 
4 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. 8,500=17 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 500 tons. 

Bnenos Aires. Argentine cruiser. (Elswick, 
1895.) Sheathed and coppered. 
Length 408ft. Beam 47ft. Maximum draught 32ft. 
Displacement 4,500 tons. Complement 400. 



BUGALET 



99 



BURAN 



Guns. 

2 — 8 in. 
4 — 6 in. 
6—4*7 "I- 
4 — 6pdr. 



Armour. 
" Steel." 
5 in. Deck amidships. 

5 in. Gun shields. 

6 in. Conning tower. 



1 6 — 3 pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
5 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. natural 13,000=23 kts., forced 
17,070=24 kts. Coal maximum 1,000 tons. 

Bogalet A large trading boat of the Persian 
GuU. 

Bngeaild. French 2nd class cruiser. (Cher- 
bourg, 1893-) 

Length 308ft. Beam 43ft. Maximum draught 22ft. 
Displacement 3,772 tons. Complement 358. 
Guns. Armour. 

6 — 6*4 in. 3 in. Deck. 

4 — 4 in. 2 in. Sponsons. 

4—3 pdr. 
II — I pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
2 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. 9,500=19 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 587 tons. Approximate cost ;j30o,ooo. 

BqiUL a vessel's form or construction. 



Boilder^B risks. The great increase in the size 
and in the values of steamers has made the risk 
while in course of construction a very serious one 
to all concerned, and special terms have been 
arranged by the underwriters for the due protection 
of builders and owners. Refer to Builder's Risks 
Clauses. 

Bnlgeways* See Bilgeways. 

Bulk. When cargo is stowed without sacks or 
packages. 

Bulkheads. Partitions built up to divide the 
ship into separate sections. 

BuUardt King and Co. See Natal Line. 

Bonen, Frank Thomas (1857). Enghsh author 
(b. Paddington). Served at sea, 1869-83 on a 
whaler ; from 1883-89 he worked as clerk in the 
Meteorological Office. Among his best-known 
writings are " The Cruise of the Cachalot" (1898), 
" Idylls of the Sea " (i899)» " With Christ at Sea " 
(1900), " Deep Sea Plunderings " (1901), '* A Whale- 
man's Wife " (1902), " A Sailor Apostle " (1903), 
"Sea-Wrack" (1903), "Creators of the Sea" 

(1905). 

Bullfinch. British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Hull 
1 901.) Length, 210 f t. ; beam, 20 ft. ; draught, 
5^ ft. ; displacement, 300 tons ; complement, 60 ; 
armament, 1 12 -pdr., 5 6-pdr., 2 tubes; twin 
screw ; Hp., 5,800=30 kts. ; coal, 80 tons. 



BoU Book Light, established 1889 on Bull Head, 
Bantry Bay, is a single flash Ught every 15 
seconds ; duration of flash, three seconds ; candle- 
power, 300,000 maximum ; burner, 10 ring Douglass ; 
illuminant, oil gas. 

Bull-rope. A rope from the jib-boom to keep a 
buoy or boat from the bows. 

Boll's-eye. A thick piece of glass inserted into 
scuttle hatches for the admission of Ught. 

Bolwark. British ist class battleship. (Devon- 
port, 1899.) 

Length 430ft. Beam 75ft. Maximum draught 29ft. 
Displacement 15,000 tons. Complement 750. 
Gur^s. Armour. 

4 — 12 in., 40 cal. " Krupp." 
1 2 — 6 in. 9 in. Belt amidships. 

16 — 12 pdr. 12 in. Barbettes. 

6—3 pdr. 12 in. Conning tower. 

2 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
4 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 15,000=18 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 2,100 tons. Approximate cost ;{ 1, 000, 000. 

Bulwarks. The woodwork round the vessel above 
her deck. 

Bnmboat. A small boat used when carrying 
provisions to a ship lying at a distance from the 
shore. 

Bninkin shrouds. Strong chains fiixed on stays 
to the bumkin ends to support the strain exerted 
by the fore-tacks upon them. 

Bnmpkm. A short boom projecting from bow. 

Bung. A stopper for the large opening in the 
bulge of a cask called a bunghole. 

Bonk. A sleeping-place. 

Bunt. The middle part of a sail formed into a 
cavity that it may gather more wind. 

Bun^lines. Ropes attached to the foot of a 
sail which are used to haul it up. 

Buoy. A floating object to mark a navigable 
channel to warn a vessel against submarine danger, 
or to serve as an anchorage. 

Buoyancy. Capacity for floating lightly. 

Buoy-rope. The rope which attaches the buoy 
to the anchor. 

Burakoff . Russian torpedo-boat destroyer ( 1 906) « 
Length, 185 ft. ; beam, 2i f t. ; draught, 7\ ft. ; 
displacement, 324 tons ; complement, 60 ; arma- 
ment, I i2-pdr., 5 3-pdr., 2 tubes ; twin screw ; 
Hp., 5,600=26 kts. ; coal, 100 tons. 

Bnran. Gale from the north-east, accompanied 
with drifting snow, in the Steppes of Central Asia. 

See Purga. 

E 2 



BURDEN 



lOO 



BUSLEY 



Borden. The number of tons weight which a 
ship will carry when loaded. 

Boigee. A swallow-tailed broad flag used in 
merchant vessels, cutters, and yachts. 



. Bormeisifir and Wain's Engin«ering and Ship- 
building Co., Ltd., Copenhagen. This Arm was 
started in July, 1846, by H. Baumgarten and 
C. Burmeister. Their business, employing 30 
hands, manufactured various machinery, stationary 
steam-engines, and boilers, the first marine engine 
being turned out a few years later, in 1849. 

Messrs. Baumgarten and Burmeister carried on 
their works with great energy and abihty, and the 
business expanded rapidly, keeping pace with the 
increasing demand for steam power in all branches 
of industry. 

From 1 86 1, on the retirement of Mr. Baumgarten, 
Mr. Burmeister was sole partner a few years, when 
he in 1865 asked Mr. William Wain, a gentleman 
of considerable mechanical skill and valuable 
practical knowledge, to join him and become a 
partner in the firm, the name then being changed 
to Burmeister and Wayi. 

The firm continued progressing successfully as a 
private firm until 1872, when it was formed into a 
limited company, with C. F. Tietgen as a chair- 
man, and a board of management, with C. Bur- 
meister and W. Wain as directors. The company 
has had the benefit of retaining the interest and 
services of Mr. Wain until his death, 1882, and 
Mr. Burmeister until his retirement in 1890. 

The two merited chiefs have in course of time 
been followed by others, and full advantage has 
been taken by the introduction of modern machinery 
and recent appliances and facilities. 

The company has built and engined about 
250 vessels, aggregating 191,000 tons, with 317,000 
I.Hp., and from 1872- 1906 carried out 8,700 larger 
repairs to steamers. 

The steamers built comprise several of special 
types, such as ice-breakers, large railway ferries, 
salvage steamers, and steamers for telegraph ser- 
vice, war vessels, mail and passenger steamers, 
yachts, and oil steamers. 

The engine department, besides having built the 
engines for all the new steamers built by the com- 
pany, has supplied the greater part of the engines 
for the warships of the Royal Danish Navy. 
Further, it has built the engines for the electric 
plant, sewage, and waterworks of the Corporation 
of Copenhagen, for a great number of factories, 
and many other stationary plants in Denmark ; 
the engines for the Electric Central Station in St. 
Petersburg ; for the electrical works in Stockholm, 
Gothenburg, Klagstorp, and Frederikshald in Nor- 
way, etc. ; engines to Malaga, South America, and 
India for electric plant. 

Not only engines but also boilers of various 
types have been supplied to a great number of the 
above-named plants, and during the last two years 



the company has delivered and set working about 
100 Diesal engines of various dimensions ; and 
recently they have taken up the manufacturing of 
steam turbines for electricity works. 

Many heavy forgings have been turned out from 
these shops for works in Denmark, Norway, Eng- 
land. Scotland, Holland, Russia. 

^ Bornham Yacht dab, Essex Established 1895, 
and new wing added in 1900, which was opened by 
the president of the club. Lord Claud Hamilton. 
Commodore, C. H. CoUand ; Vice-Commodore, 
C. J. R. Tijou ; Rear-Commodore, G. M. Roberts ; 
Honorary Treasurer, A. L. Ramage ; Honorary 
Secretary, R. K. Mooney. Entrance fee, £1 \is.6d. ; 
annual subscription, £1 us. 6d. 

BornL Russian torpedo-boat destroyer (1906). 
Length, 185 ft. ; beam, 21 ft. ; draught, ji ft. ; 
displacement, 324 tons ; complement,6o ; armament, 
I i2-pdr., 5 3Tpdr., 2 tubes ; twin screw ; Hp., 
5,600=26 kts. ; coal, 100 tons. 

Burns, 0. and 7., Ltd. See Scottish and Irish 
Royal Mail Line. 

Burnt. See Fire ; also Memorandum. 

Bnrroogh, Steven. See Arctic Exploration. 

Bnnt of the monsoon. The sudden change of 
weather accompanying the setting in of the south- 
west monsoon. 

Burton, B., and Sons, established by the late 
Mr. R. Burton, of Newport, Mon., over a century 
ago. Since 1840 it has been carried on by his 
three sons, who in 1898 formed the business into 
a limited company. Their steamers maintain 
regular services between Liverpool and the Bristol 
Channel ports, and daily services between Bristol 
and Cardiff, and Bristol and Newport, Mon. 

Barton. A small tackle with a double and 
single block used to set up or tighten shrouds. 

Bosh of a sheave. The metal lining on which a 
pin rests. 

Bosley, Carl (b. Neustrelitz, October 7, 1850). 
Educated at High School* and on leaving gained 
practical experience in engineering in a large 
factory ; in 1871 he entered the Academy in 
Berlin, and three years later passed out with first- 
class diplomas for marine engineering, and entered 
the Imperial German Marine as second engineer ; 
in 1875 he was engaged as marine engineer at the 
Imperial Wharf, Kiel ; in 1879 he became associated 
with the marine academy and school at Kiel, 
attaining the degree of professor in 1890, and five 
years later the title of Geheimen Regierungsrat ; 
in 1896 he joined F. Schichau in Elbing and 
Danzig as naval constructor, which position he 
still holds ; he was a juror on the committee of tlie 
exhibitions, Hamburg (1889), Chicago (1893), 
Antwerp (1894), Liibeck (1895), Kiel (1896), 



BUSS 



lOI 



BUTE 



Brussels (1897), Paris (1900) ; was a member of the 
organization '* Schifintxautchnischen Gesellschaft," a 
scientific organization of shipbuilders and ship- 
owners founded in 1889, on the lines of the Institu- 
tion of Naval Architects in this country, and the 
Association Technique Maritime of France, having 
for its aim the improvements of national ship- 
building ; he is an enthusiastic yachtsman, and has 
devoted much time to this sport ; was one of the 
founders of the Marine Regatta Association, 1887, 
which was changed in 1891 to the Imperial Yacht 
Club, of which he is still one of the directors ; was 
the founder of the German Sailing Association, 
1888 ; was on board the German torpedo-boat 
5. 42 carrjring the news to H.M. The German 
Emperor of the result of the Dover-Helgoland race 
on June 24, 1902, when that vessel was run into 
by the British steamer Fursby, nearly losing his 
life ; in 1900 he was elected chairman of the Ger- 
man Airship Association, Berlin ; he is author of 
many well-known technical works, and has read 
papers before various scientific institutions. Among 
his works may be mentioned : 

1. Die Meerwasser-Distillier- Apparate der Kaiser- 
lichen Marine, Berlin, 1880. 

2. Die Schififmachine, Kiel, 2 Bde. u. i Atlas, 
1. Aufl. 1883 ; II. Aufl. 1884 ; russisch 1889 ; III. 
Aufl. 1891 ; engl. 1892. 

3. Die Verwendung fltissiger Heizstoife fur 
Schiffskessel, Berlin, 1887. 

4. Die Entwickelung der Schiffsmachine in den 
letzten Jahrzehnten, Berlin, I. Aufl. 1888, III. 
Aofl. 1892. 

5. Die neueren Schnelldampfer. Kiel, I. Aufl. 
1891, II. Aufl. 1893. 

6. Die Entwickelung des Norddeutschen Lloyd 
und der Hamburg-Amerikan Packetf. Act. Ges. 
Zusammen mit R. Haack, Berlin, 1893. 

7. Die jungsten Bestrebungen und Erfolge des 
deutschen Schiflbaues, Berlin, 1895. 

8. Die Wasserrohrkessel der Dampfschifle, Berlin, 
1896. 

9. Die gesundheitlichen Einrichtungen der mo- 
demen Dampfschifle, Berlin, 1897. 

10. Der Kampf un den ostasiastischen Handel. 
Berlin I. Aufl. 1897, H- Aufl. 1898. 

11. Die modernen Unterseeboote. Berlin, 1899. 

Bum. a small Dutch fishing vessel. 

Bnstamente. Spanish torpedo-boat. (Normand, 
1887.) Length, 126 ft. ; beam, 10} ft. ; draught, 
6J ft. ; displacement, 63 tons ; armament, 3 3-pdr., 
2 tubes ; Hp., 800=22 kts. ; coal, 25 tons. ^ 

Bustard. British 3rd class gun-boat (254 tons). 
Launched 1871. 

Bate Sliipbiiildiiig, Engmeering, and Dry Dock 
Co.» Ltd. Amongst the leading dry dock under- 
takings in the Bristol Channel, the Bute Ship- 
building, Engineering, and Dry Dock Co., Ltd., 
occupies a front place. This company was formed 
in the early part of the year 1883, and the first 



vessel entered the Graving Dock on June 22, 1885. 
The Bute Dry Dock was therefore constructed and 
opened about three years prior to the opening of 
the Roath Dock. 

This dry dock was constructed at a time when a 
2,000 ton ship was accounted a large vessel, and it 
is indicative of the foresight of the promoters 
when it is remembered that the dock has a length 
of 600 ft. and a breadth of 87 ft., with a depth of 
water over the sill at spring tides of 28 ft., and there 
is consequently no difficulty in accommodating 
the modem sized steamship. 

The Bute Dry Dock occupies a unique position, 
inasmuch as being situated within the Roath Basin. 
Vessels taken in hand are conveniently situated for 
subsequent loading in the Roath Basin, Roath 
Dock, or East Dock, and may be moved to either 
of these wet docks regardless of tides with a 
minimum of delay and expense, a consideration in 
these days of keen competition which is not lost 
sight of by shipowners. 

As regards equipment, one of the chief features 
of the dry dock is its compactness. The work- 
shops are arranged around and in close proximity 
to the dry dock, with a crane railway alongside 
between the dock and the shops, which are well 
served with three steam travelling cranes, capable 
of handling material and heavy machinery, etc., 
of all descriptions, and this, coupled with the 
proximity of the workshops, enables operations to 
be carried on with the greatest expedition. The 
large crane is capable of lifting 30 tons, and has a 
lifting power of 8-^ tons over a radius of 50 ft., 
these capabilities meeting all the needs of ordinary 
ship repairing work. 

The various workshops are excellently equipped 
with up-to-date machinery plant and tools, replete 
in every detail, an important factor in the suc- 
cessful working of a dry dock and ship repairing 
concern. There is a complete electric light in- 
stallation in the workshops, yard, and dry dock, 
and no barrier exists to continuous working, re- 
pairs being carried on at night internally and 
externally upon vessels ia the dry dock or along- 
side in the wet dock, under the same conditions as 
by day. 

The Bute Dry Dock has always moved with the 
times, and amongst its innovations of late years 
has been a complete equipment of electrically 
driven appliances. These conditions have com- 
bined to give " The Bute " a name for despatch 
and economy which it is difficult to beat, " prompt- 
ness and eflectiveness " being its chief charac- 
teristics. 

The dock is fitted with powerful steam-pumps, 
but it may be also drained by means of sluices 
discharging into the entrance channel. 

The dry dock is divisible into sections by a 
caisson, thus enabling- an ordinary sized steamer 
to remain in dry dock for extensive repairs, leaving 
the other portion available for other vessels. 



BUTLERAGE 



1 02 



BYRON 



The work undertaken by " The Bute " is most 
varied and cosmopolitan. In its earliest days as 
many as five vessels have been accommodated at 
one time. Now it is a common occurrence for a 
large tramp steamer to monopolise the whole of 
the dock, a contrast which speaks for itself. Ocean 
liners, troopships, stately " sailers," mud-dredgers, 
and warships have found a temporary resting- 
place in the Bute. In August, 1902, the Japanese 
cruiser Takasago was dry-docked for cleaning and 
painting, the work being efficiently and expedi- 
tiously carried out in three days to the entire 
satisfaction of the Japanese naval authorities. 

The repair of ships has not been the only work 
undertaken by the Bute Dry Dock. Successful 
salvage operations have helped to make the name 
of this enterprising firm, one of these being the 
steamer Fidele Primavesi, which was successfully 
raised after sinking in the Roath Dock while 
loading in September, 1892. A later case was that 
of the Pina, which sunk while loaded near the 
entrance lock of the Roath Basin. After being 
raised this vessel was kept afloat while being dis- 
charged, and was afterwards docked and repaired 
by the same firm. 

A particular feature of the Bute Dry Dock 
which claims special attention is its capabilities 
for docking loaded ships, a feature which has 
gained for it a reputation to which it is deservedly 
entitled. Over 20 ships have been dry docked 
with cargo and repaired in this condition, two 
recent cases being the Vauxhall Bridge (gross 
register tonnage, 3,391). loaded with a full cargo 
of rails, and extensively repaired, and the Hill- 
grove (gross tonnage, 3,465), with a cargo of 5,500 
tons of coal. The success which has attended the 
docking of loaded vessels is sufficient proof of the 
solid formation of the dock bottom. 

In 1 90 1 the mercantile pontoon was acquired, 
and is worked as an annexe to the parent concern. 
The pontoon is situated in the Roath Dock, and 
represents the only dry dock accommodation avail- 
able there. It is 320 ft. long and 52 ft. wide, and 
is capable of raising vessels up to 2,600 tons dis- 
placement. There are excellently equipped work- 
shops in close proximity to the pontoon. 

The Bute Dry Dock has shared in the prosperity 
of the ship-repairing industry, and commercial 
success has attended the enterprise in no small 
measure, the name of the Bute Dry Dock being 
synonymous with an up-to-date policy, good 
management, and, as a result, large dividends. 
This position the company has maintained, although 
the conditions of the ship-repairing trade at the 
present day and the exceptionally keen competi- 
tion now prevaiUng have operated in giving a 
temporary check to its erstwhile commercial success. 

Buflerago. Once a tax upon all imported wine, 
and paid to the King's butler. Obsolete since 
1809. 



Bntt. The end of a plank. 

Battock. The breadth of the ship's stern from 
truck upwards. 

Button, Sir Thomas. See Arctic Exploration. 

Butt-slings. Slings by which casks are raised. 

Buys-Ballot's Law. In the northern hemisphere, 
'* Stand with your back to the wind and the 
barometer will be lower on the left hand and 
higher on the right." Directions are reversed in 
the southern hemisphere. 

Buzzard. German 3rd class cruiser. (Danzig, 
1890.) 

Length 256ft. Beam 30ft. Maximum draught 19ft. 
Displacement 1,555 tons. Complement 165. 
Guns. A rtnour. 

8—4-1 in. "Steel." 

7 Maxims. 3 in. Deck amidships. 

Torpedo Tubes, 
2 Above water. 
Hp. 2,900=16 kts. Coal maximum 300 tons. 

B.V. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Vegesack, Germany. 

B.W. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Barrow-in-Fumess, England. 

B.W.G. These letters stand for Birmingham 
Wire Gauge, which extended the application of the 
gauge introduced by Sir Joseph Whitworth in 
1857. In 1884 the B.W.G. became the Imperial 
Standard wire gauge. The various sizes are usually 
denoted by numbers. 

B.X. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Bremerhaven, Germany. 

By. On or close to the wind. 

Byeluga. Russian submarine (1905). Speed, 
9 kts. 

Bylot, Robert. See Arctic Exploration. 

Byng, The Hon. John (1704-57). English vice- 
admiral. In 1756 he fought an unsatisfactory 
action off Minorca ; was subsequently court- 
martialled, and on being conv-icted for not having 
done his best was sentenced to be shot. He was 
executed on board the Monarch at Portsmouth, 
March 14, 1757. There was no imputation upon 
his honour or courage, but he suffered this penalty 
for his too strict observance of rules, discipline, 
and points of naval etiquette. 

See Chamock's "Biographia Navalis" (1797). 
Clowe's "Royal Navy" (1896-1901). 

Byron, Hon. John (1723-86). English vice- 
admiral. Accompanied Anson round the world, 
1740-44, and gained the nickname of " Foul 
Weather Jack." In the Dolphin he visited 
Madeira, Brazil, Patagonia, Falkland Islands, the 
Pacific, Society Islands, Ladrones, Batavia, and 



BY 



103 



CABOT 



the Cape. In 1769 he was appointed Governor of 
Newfoundland, and nine years later was despatched 
in command of a feet to watch the movements of 
Count D'Estaing, and in July, 1779, fought an in- 
decisive engagement with him off Grenada. 

See Byron's journal on " A Voyage round the 
World'* (1767). 

By the board. Over the ship's side. 

By fhe head. When the vessel draws more 
water forward. 

Bythesea, Bear-Admiral John, V.C, O.B., C J.E. 

(i 827-1 906). Educated Grosvenor College, Bath. 
Entered the Navy as a volunteer ist class, X841 ; 
promoted lieutenant, 1849 ; commander, 1856 ; 
awarded the V.C. while serving in H.M.S. Arrogant 
in Russian war. 

Kxtract from the " Gazette," February 24, 1857 : 
" On August 9, 1854. having ascertained that an 
A.D.C. of the Emperor of Russia had landed on 
the Island of Wardo in charge of a mail and de- 
spatches for the Russian general. Lieutenant Bythe- 
sea obtained permission for himself and WilUam 
Johnson, stoker, to proceed on shore with a view 
to intercept them. Being disguised and well 
armed, they concealed themselves till the night of 
the 12th, when the mail bags were landed close to 
the spot where they lay secreted in the bushes. 
The mails were accompanied by a military escort, 
which passed close to them, and which, as soon as 
it was ascertained that the road was clear, took its 
departure. Availing themselves of this opportunity 
Lieutenant Bythesea and the stoker attacked the 
five men in charge of the mail, took three of them 
prisoners, and brought them in their own boat on 
board the Arrogant,*' 

Commanded the Locust in, the Baltic, 1855 
(Baltic medal), and the Cruiser in China during 
the war, 1858-60 (China medal, Taku clasp) ; 
captain, i86i ; a member of the Royal Com- 
mission on Defence of Canada, 1862 ; Naval 
Attach^ at Washington, 1855-67 ; in command of 
the Phcebe in the flying squadron under Admiral 
Hornby, 1870 ; Consulting Naval Officer to Govern- 
ment of India, 1874-80 ; rear-admiral, 1877. 

By fhe stem. When the vessel draws more 
water aft. 

Byischok. Russian submarine (1906). Length, 
50 ft.; beam, 14 ft.; displacement, 120 tons; 
speed, 10 kts. 

Bsrwell Castle. In collision with the steamer 
Princess Alice (q.v.), September 3, 1878. 

Bynuitin. French steamer, sunk by collision 
with the English steamer Rinaldo in the Dar- 
danelles, December 18, 1878. 

B.Z. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Bergen op Zoom, Holland. 



C. Cape. Abbreviation adopted on the charts 
issued by the Hydrographic Office, Admiralty. 

C. Centigrade. 

0. Distinguishing letter on sea fishing boats 
registered at Cork, Ireland. 

C. Distinguishing letter on sea fishing boats 
registered at Caen, France. 

c. Coarse. Abbreviation adopted on the charts 
issued by the Hydrographic Office, Admiralty, 
denoting the quality of the ocean's bottom. 

C.A. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Cardigan, England. 

Cabin. A compartment of a ship where pas- 
sengers and officers reside. 

In a passenger ship the cabin is that portion of 
the ship which is set apart for the exclusive use of 
passengers. 

A cabin passenger (Merchant Shipping Act, 1894, 
section 268, subsection 3) is one who : 

(a) Has at least 36 clear superficial feet to his 
exclusive use. 

(6) Is messed throughout the voyage at the same 
table as the master. 

(c) Has contracted to pay a fare of at least 
thirty shillings a week. 

(d) Has a ticket in the form prescribed by the 
Board of Trade, 

In a cargo ship the cabin is the space reserved for 
the use of the officers, and cannot generally be used 
for the stowage of cargo. In loading a " full and 
complete cargo," the charterer cannot claim cabin 
space for passengers or goods, unless specially pro- 
vided for in the contract, and should he do so, 
their passage money can be claimed by the ship- 
owner ; and the goods stowed in the cabin can be 
charged freight at the current rates. Refer to 
Merchant Shipping Act ; Passenger. 

Cable. A strong rope or chain by which the 
ship is kept at anchor. 

Cable laid. A nine-stranded rope. 

Caboose. The cook-house or galley on deck. 

Cabot» Sebastian (1474-1557). The renowned 
navigator and contemporary of Columbus (b. 
Bristol). When Henry VI I L resolved to enter the 
new field of maritime discovery, he granted a patent, 
dated March 5, 1496, to Louis, Sebastian, and 
Santos Cabot, who went to seek out, subdue and 
occupy at their own charges any regions which 
before *' had been unknown to all Christians." 
They were authorised to set up the Royal banner, 
and a fifth part of the gains of the voyage was to be 
reserved to the Crown. 

John and Sebastian sailed from Bristol in the 
Matthew in 1497, and it is probable that the Island 
of Newfoundland was discovered on this voyage. 



CACKLING 



104 



CAIRNS 



From a map drawn by Sebastian Cabot, and en- 
graved by Clement Adams, which was hung in 
Queen Elizabeth's gallery at Whitehall, the most 
precise account of the discovery was obtained. The 
notice runs as follows : " In the year of our Lord, 
i497f John Cabot, a Venetian, and his son Sebastian, 
discovered that country, which no one before his 
time had ventured to approach, on June 24, about 
five o'clock in the morning. " He called it the Terra 
primum nisa, because this was the place that first 
met his eye in looking from the sea. On the con- 
trary, the inland which lies opposite the land he 
called the island of St. John, because it was dis- 
covered on the festival of St. John the Baptist. 

In 1498 a second patent was granted to John 
Cabot, authorising him to take six ships of not 
more than 200 tons, in any port of the realm " and 
them convey and lede to the lande and the isles 
of late found by the said John in oure name and 
by oure commandment." Before the expedition 
was ready John Cabot died, and Sebastian, with a 
fleet of five vessels, set sail from Bristol in May. 
On this voyage he discovered 1,800 miles of sea 
coast on the North American Continent, probably 
passing into Hudson's Bay, which some authorities 
represent he discovered, but of this there is nothing 
authentic. 

Nothing more appears relative to Sebastian 
until 1 5 17, when he undertook, with Sir Peter 
Perke, another voyage to Spanish America. In 
August, 1526, a squadron was fitted out under 
Cabot to pursue Spanish discoveries in the Pacific, 
but some of his officers having spread dissatisfac- 
tion in the fleet, the original plan was abandoned 
as impractical, and the fleet put into "La Plata. He 
explored the river for a distance of 350 miles, but 
being attacked by the natives he was compelled to 
abandon further discoveries up the Paraguay, and 
returned to Spain, 1530. On his return to England 
in 1549 he was made Grand Pilot of England, an 
office which is said to have been created for him. 
He was active in promoting the expedition of 1553 
to Russia, which opened to England the trade of 
that country, the success of which gave him the 
life payment of Governor of the Muscovy Company. 
He died in England in 1557, about 80 years of age. 

Cackling or Keckling is covering a cable spirally 
with old rope to protect it from being chafed in the 
hawse hole. 

Cacongo. Portuguese river gun-boat (1886). 
Displacement 280 tons. Of little fighting value. 

Cadet sbipSy^ NavaL See Naval Education. 

Cadets, Naval. See Naval Education. 

Cadet's Own. Established 1902. Published 
monthly. Price \d. Address : 83 Ham Park 
Road, West Ham, London, E. 

Cadiz. London steamer. Wrecked on the Wizard 
Rock, Brest, August 8, 1875 ; 62 persons were lost. 



Cadiz, Battle of. One hundred vessels of the 
Spanish Armada destroyed by Sir Francis Drake 
at this battle, 1587. A French squadron here 
surrendered to the combined Spanish and British 
fleet, 1808. 

Cadmus. British screw sloop. Displacement, 
1,070 tons ; Hp., 1,400 ; speed, 13^^ kts. 

CflBsar. British zst class battleship. (Ports- 
mouth, 1896.) 

Length 4 1 3ft. Beam 75 ft. Maximum draught 30ft. 
Displacement 14,900 tons. Complement 757. 
Guns, Armour, 

4 — 12 in., 35 cal. " Harvey." 
12 — 6 in. 9 in. Belt amidships. 

1 6 — 1 2 pdr. 1 4 in. Barbettes. 

12 — 3 pdr. 14 in. Conning tower. 

2 — 12 pdr. Boat guns. 
2 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 

4 Submerged. 
I Above water stem. 
Twin screw. Hp. natural 10,000=16*5 kts., 
forced 12,000=17*5 kts. Coal maximum 2,000 
tons. Approximate cost ;f 1,000,000. 

This ship-name was introduced into the Navy 
in 1793, and is associated with the battle of " The 
Glorious First of June," 1794; Algeciras, 1801 ; 
Saumarez's action, 1801 ; Sir Richard Strachan's 
action, 1805 ; Basque Roads, 1809. 

Caiman. French coast service battleship (1885). 
Reconstructed, 1901. 

Length 294ft. Beam 59ft. Maximum drau ht ? 5ft. 
Displacement 7,000 tons. Complement 381. 
Guns, A rmour, 

2 — io*8 in., 45 cal. " Compound." 
6 — 4 in. 19 in. Belt amidships. 

10 — 3 pdr. 10 in. Turrets. 

12 in. Conning tower. 
Twin screw. Hp. 6,000=14*5 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 800 tons. 

Cidaae. A small Levantine vessel. 

Gaimglen Steamship Co., Ltd. See Cairns, Noble 
and Co. 

Cairn Line. See Cairns, Noble and Co. 

Cains, Charles Waldie (b. Dublin, October 12, 
1 872) , M.Sc. , Durham University. In 1 893 he gained 
the North-East Coast Engineering Scholarship, and 
in 1894 the Whitworth Scholarship, and later in 
the same year was bronze medallist in mechanical 
engineering. City and Guilds of London ; studied 
at the Durham University College of Science, 
Newcastle (now Armstrong College) ; was appren- 
ticed to Messrs. R. and W. Hawthorn, Leslie and 
Co.. Ltd., 1893*95, and later joined the Central 
Marine Engineering Works, West Hartlepool, 
where he did much interesting work-in connection 
with some of the improvements in marine engineer- 
ing practice inaugurated under the late Mr. Thomas 
Mudd, M.lnst.C.E., and Mr. W. C. Borrowman. In 



CAIRNS 



I OS 



CALEDONIA 



1899 ^6 joined Messrs. Vickers, Sons and Maxim ; 
after some time there, a period at sea, and on the 
staff of the Tyne Pontoons and Dry Dock Co., 
he, in 1903, embarked in business on his own 
account as consulting engineer, and acts as 
superintendent engineer for the Cairn Line and 
Gaelic Steamship Co. Member of the North-East 
Coast Institute of Engineers and Shipbuilders. 

Cairns, Noble and Co., with their head offices in 
Newcastle on-Tyne, have a fleet of two steamers, 
and also act as managers for the Cairn Line of 
Steamers, the Gaelic Steamship Co.. Ltd., and 
the Caimglen Steamship Co., Ltd., in which they 
are financially interested. The vessels are all 
modem cargo carriers, but have no passenger 
accommodation. 

Fleet. 
Cairn Line. 
Caimavon. Catrnesh. Cairnnevis. 

Cairncrag. Cairnmore. Cairnloch. 

Caimdon. Caimtorr. Caimross, 

Caimtsla, 
The Gaelic Steamships, Ltd. 
Cairnali. Caimstrath. 

Cairnbahn. Cairnmona. 

The Caimglen Steamship Co., Ltd. 
Caimglen, 
Caimlyou. 
Cairns, Noble and Co. 
Cairndhu. 
Cairngowan. 

Cairo. Iron ship, carrying gunpowder, wrecked 
off Gough Island, January, 1877. 

Caisson. An adopted term for a sort of float 
sunk to a required depth by letting water into it 
which, when it is hauled under a ship's bottom, 
receives her steadily, and on pumping out the water 
floats her. It is also a name appUed to a vessel 
fitted with valves, to act instead of gates for a dry 
dock. In engineering work it is a chamber of iron 
or wood used in the construction of subaqueous 
foundations. It is used in places where either the 
water or the permeable soil is too deep to allow a 
dam to be erected, and serves the same purpose as 
a cofferdam. The largest caissons ever used were 
those of the East River Suspension Bridge at New 
York, of which one was 170 ft. long by 100 ft. wide. 

C.A.L. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing 
boats registered at Calais, France. 

Calabria. Small ItaUan cruiser. (Spezia, 1894.) 
Length 249ft. Beam 42ft. Maximum draught 17ft. 
Displacement 2,492 tons. Complement 254. 
Guns. Armour, 

4—6 in. " Steel." \ 

6— 4'7 in. 2 in. Deck amidships. 

8 — 6pdr. 
8 — I pdr. 
3 Machine. 

Torpedo Tubes, 
3 Submerged. 



Twin screw. Hp. forced 4,000=16 kts. Coal 
maximum 500 tons. Approximate cost ^185,000. 

Calais light, established 1883, is a four-flash 
light every 1 5 seconds ; duration of flash } second ; 
candle-power, 900,000 ; illuminant, electricity. 

Calamianes. U.S. gun-boat. Captured from 
the Spaniards in the Spanish-American war. 

Calataflma. Italian torpedo gun-boat (1892). 
Displacement 850 tons. Complement 118. 

Guns. A rmour. 

, 1—47 in. " Steel." 

6 — 6 pdr. I J in. Deck. 

3—1 pdr 

Torpedo Tubes. 
6 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. 4,100=19*5 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 180 tons. 

Caloutta; Ship. On a voyage from South Shields 
to Aden, took fire in mid-ocean, September 11, 1874, 
and foundered ; many lives lost. 

Calder, Sir Robert (1745-1815), baronet (b. 
Elgin). English admiral. Entered the Navy 
as a midshipman in 1759, and in 1766 was 
promoted lieutenant, and served in the Essex imder 
the Honourable George Faulkner, in the West 
Indies ; he attained the rank of post-captain in 
1782, and 14 years later was named " Captain 
of the Fleet " by Sir John Jar vis, and took part in 
the battle of Cape St. Vincent, and was selectei as 
the bearer of despatches announcing the victory to 
King George III., for which he was knighted, and 
the following year raised to the peerage ; in 1 799 
he was promoted rear-admiral, and two years later 
was despatched with a small squadron in pursuit of 
the French force, who were conveymg supplies to 
the French in Egypt ; in this he was not success- 
ful, and on his return to England he struck his 
flag ; he was, however, recalled to service, pro- 
moted vice-admiral, and when in command off 
Ferrol engaged a superior force of French and 
Spanish ships ; part of the fleet chased by Nelson 
from the West Indies to Europe ; the action took 
place on July 22, 1805, and after a combat of four 
hours, during which time he captured two Spanish 
ships, he gave orders to discontinue the action ; in 
consequence of the strong public feeling against 
him in England, he demanded a court-martial, 
which was held on December 23, 1805, and resulted 
in his being convicted of an error of judgment, and 
he was severely reprimanded for not having done 
his utmost to renew the engagement, at the same 
time he was acquitted both of cowardice and dis- 
affection ; the tide of public feeling having turned 
again, and in recognition of his services, and of his 
acquittal of the charges made agaiust him. he was 
appointed Commander of Portsmouth, lie died 
at Holt, Hampshire, August 31, id id. 

Caledonia (1894). British subsidised msrchant 
ship, P. and O. Co, (q-v.). Dimensions, 486 x 



CALEDONIA 



1 06 



CAMELEON 



54 X 34i ft., gross tonnage, 7,558 ; passenger 
accommodation, 490 ; Hp., 10,000= 18 kts. 

Caledonia. Formerly one of H.M. training-ships 
stationed at Firth of Forth, and sold July 10, 1906. 
She was originally named the Impregnable, and was 
modelled exactly after Nelson's fajnous ship the 
Victory ; a three-decker of 3,808 tons displace- 
ment, and carrying 98 guns, she was launched at 
Chatham in 18 10, and was one of the North Sea 
Fleet, which, under Admiral Young, watched 
Napoleon's vessels ; at the great naval review 
at Spithead she was the flagship of the Duke of 
Clarence, afterwards King William IV., and later 
took part in the bombardment of Algiers ; in 1843 
she became flagship at Devonport, and subse- 
quently* for a period of 24 years was a naval 
training ship for boys there ; in 1886 she was 
renamed the Kent, but on being sent to the 
Forth she was christened the Caledonia. 

i Caledonian Canal is a waterway, partly natural, 
and partly artificial, and passes through Glenmore, 
Invemess-shire, connecting the Atlantic Ocean 
with the Moray Firth branch of the North Sea. In 
1773 James Watt was employed to survey the 
country for a distance of about 60 miles, with a 
view of forming a ship canal between the two seas, 
thereby saving a coasting voyage of some 400 miles, 
but it was not until 1801, when Telford and Jessop 
made their estimate of the cost, that the construc- 
tion of the canal commenced. In 1822 the canal 
although only two-thirds finished was opened for 
navigation. Its total length, including locks, is 
60J miles, depth at standard level 17 ft., breadth 
at surface 100 ft., and at bottom 50 ft. Of the 
whole distance about 37 J miles is natural lake 
navigation, and the remaining 23 artificial or 
canal navigation. It is chiefly used by fishing 
fleets, and by small pleasure steamers. 

California. U.S. ist class cruiser. (Union Iron- 
works, 1903.) 

Length 502ft. Beam 70ft. Maximum draught 27ft. 
Displacement 13,400 tons. Complement 822. 
Guns. A rmour, 

4 — 8 in., 45 cal. " Krupp." 
14 — 6 in. 6 in. Belt amidships. 

18 — 14 pdr. 6 in. Turrets. 

12 — 3 pdr. 9 in. Conning tower. 

8 — I pdr. 
8 Colts. 
2 Field guns, 3 in. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
2 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 23,000 = 22 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 2,000 tons. Approximate cost ;£i, 200,000. 

CalL A whistle used for piping the hands on 
deck for their various duties. 

Callao. U.S. gun-boat. Captured from Spain 
during the Spanish-American war. Of little 
fighting value. 



Calliope. Italian torpedo-boat (1906). Length, 
165 ft. ; beam, 17 ft. ; draught, 7 ft. ; displace- 
ment, 200 tons ; armament, 3 3-pdr., 3 tubes ; 
twin screw ; Hp., 3,000 = 25 kts. ; coal, 40 tons. 

Calm. A quiescent state of the air. 

Calm belt. See Doldrums. 

Calm centre. The vortex of a cyclonic storm. 

Calypso. British 3rd class cruiser (2,770 tons, 
146 kts.). Launched 18S3. 

Camber. The curve of a ship's plank. 

Cambria. Iron screw steamer, lost in a storm 
off InishtrahuU Island, N.W. Ireland, October 19, 
1870 ; 170 lives were lost. 

Cambrian. British 2nd class cruiser. (Pem- 
broke, 1893.) 

Length 320ft. Beam 49ft. Maximum draught 21ft. 
Displacement 4.360 tons. Complement 318. 
Guns. Armour. 

2— 6 in. "Steel." 

8 — ^4*7 in. 2 in. Deck. 

8 — 6 pdr. 3 in. Conning tower. 

1—3 pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
4 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. natural 7,000=18 kts., forced 
9,000=19*5 kts. Coal maximum 1,000 tons. 
Approximate cost •£250,000. 
This ship-name has been borne by ships in the 
Navy since 1790, and is associated with the bom- 
bardment of Copenhagen, 1807, and tlie victory of 
Navario, 1857. 

Cambridge. British gunnery school ship (4.971 
tons). Launched 1858. 

Cambridge University Cruising Clab. Established 
1893, with the object of the promotion of inter- 
course between members of the University, the 
interests of amateur cruising and racing, and their 
mutual advantage and instruction as regards 
nautical subjects generally. Flag : Red ensign. 
Burgee : Gules across ermine, in the dexter chief 
a lion passant guardent or a burgee representing in 
design and colours the coat-of-arms of the univer- 
sity, but simplified by omitting the book and 
three of the four lions ; the lion retained to be in 
the upper part of the hoist of the flag. President, 
G. B. Finch ; Commodore, C. J. P. Caves ; Vice- 
Commodore. Rev. H. Rogers ; Rear-Commodore, 
J. Phillimore ; Honorary Treasurer, H. Y. Oldham ; 
Honorary Secretary, Edgar T. Adams, Downing 
College. Annual subscription, 105. 6d. Residents » 
£1 IS, (for the first three years). 

CameleoQ. German armoured gun-boat (1878). 
Displacement, 1,100 tons, carrying one old i2-in. 

gun. Of little fighting value. 

Cameleon. Cutter. On August 27, 1834, this 
vessel was run down oflF Dover by the Castor^ 
frigate, when 13 of the crew were drowned. 



CAMMELL 



107 



CAMPBELL 



Cammell, Laird and Co.. Ltd. To recount the 
history of the well-known firm of Laird is almost 
equivalent to giving a history of the steamship 
itself, so intimately has the firm been associated 
with the origin and growth of iron vessels ; and, 
moreover, while the Birkenhead Ironworks may 
safely claim to be one of the oldest shipbuilding 
firms in the kingdom, it retained for upwards of 
75 years its original character as a private 
family concern. The business was converted into 
a limited company, under the title of Laird Brothers, 
Ltd., in the year 1900. • 

In 1824 William I^ird laid the foundation of the 
existing establishment, but it was his son, John 
Laird, who in 1829 recognised the future possi- 
bilities of iron as a material for shipbuilding, and 
he gave practical proof of the faith that was in 
him by constructing in that year what, if not 
actually the first iron ship, was certainly one of 
the first. 

Shortly after this initial attempt MacGregor 
Laird, also a son of William Laird, made another 
step in advance by being the first to take an iron 
vessel on a sea voyage. This was the Alburha, 
forming one of the African expedition's vessels. 

In 1838 the first screw steamer was launched at 
Birkenhead to the order of an American naval 
ofi&cer, and was christened with his name, Robert 
F. Stockton. 

In 1839 Mr. Laird received his first order from 
the Admiralty for an iron paddle steamer named 
the Dover, which was employed as a mail packet. 

When in 1861 Mr. John Laird retired from the 
firm, his three sons, William, John, and Henry H. 
Laird, entered into partnership, under the style of 
Laird Brothers. 

On the death of Mr. John Laird the younger, 
early in 1898, Mr. William Laird, the sole re- 
maining member of the partnership of 1861, 
associated with him in partnership Mr. John 
McGregor Laird, who had for several years taken 
a leading part in the general conduct of the busi- 
ness, Mr. William Laird, jun., and Mr. Roy 
McGregor Laird, each being a son of one of the 
members who constituted the firm in 1861, and 
therefore representing the fourth generation that 
has sprung up to continue the traditions of the 
firm. 

In 1903 an important extension of the works 
was decided upon, embracing a large area of land 
adjoining the present yard, on which a fitting-out 
basin of. ample extent and two large graving docks 
capable of taking in any size of steamer have been 
constmcted, together with new shops complete 
with all the most modern appliances ; and, in con- 
nection with this extension, an amalgamation was 
arranged vnth Charles Cammell and Co., Ltd., of 
Sheffield, the well-known' steel and armour plate 
makers, the name of the new company being 
Cammell, Laird and Co., Ltd. 

Mr. John McGregor Laird and Mr. R. R. Bevis 



joined the board of the new company as directors, 
the former being subsequently appointed chairman. 

This amalgamation places the company in a 
position to construct entirely on their own premises 
vessels of war of the largest class complete with 
their armour, ready for service. 

During the 80 years of their existence the 
Birkenhead works have turned out a vast amount 
and variety of work, embracing steamers of all 
classes, from the Atlantic liner to the small river 
steamer, and for many years past very special 
attention has been devoted to the design and pro- 
duction of vessels of war of all types, as is evidenced 
by the fact that 104 vessels have been built for 
His Majesty's Navy, among which have been four 
1st class battleships of 14,000 tons and 13,000 to 
18,000 Hp., and a large number of gun-vessels, 
torpedo gun-boats, and torpedo-boat destroyers, 
and recently seven of the new 2$i knot destroyers 
have been completed and successfully passed 
through their trials. 

The works have also built many armour clad 
vessels, gun-boats, and torpedo-boat destroyers for 
the Dutch, Portuguese, Russian, Peruvian, Argen- 
tine, Brazilian, Chilian, and other navies. 

Campania (1893). British subsidised merchant 
ship. Cunard Line (q.v.). (Liverpool, New York.) 
Dimensions, 620x65x37 J ft.; gross tonnage, 
12,950 ; Hp., 3o,boo=2i kts. 

Campbell, Captain Frederick Livingston, B.N. 

(1854-1906). Entered the service as a cadet, 
April 7, 1868, and promoted captain, 1897, and 
before his appointment as superintendent of Sheer- 
ness Dockyard, 1905, in succession to Rear- Admiral 
W. H. P. Graham, he commanded the Majestic, 
ist class battleship in the Channel Fleet. He was 
killed while hunting with the Meynell Hounds, 
January 24, 1906. 

Campbell, Rear-Admiral Charles (b. March 26, 
1847). Educated Royal Naval Academy, Gosport. 
Entered the Britannia, i860 ; commander in Thalia 
employed in transport service during Egyptian 
war, 1882 (Egyptian medal, Khedive's Bronze 
Star) ; when in conunand of the Philomel on the 
East Coast of Africa he commanded the road-cutting 
party to Nana's stronghold, was four days under 
fire, and led the centre attack, and on leaving 
Zanzibar was presented by the Sultan with a 
handsome sword in commemoration of his services ; 
was created C.B. in recognition of his services in 
the operations against the chief Nana in the Benin 
River; mentioned in despatches (general Africa 
medal, Benin River clasp), and given a D.S.O. 
for his prompt action' in saving the lives of the 
wounded in Benin City on February 18, 1897 
(Benin clasp) ; as captain of the Empress of India 
was second-in-command to Admirals Harris and 
Noel during the operations in Crete, 1897-99. 



CAMPBELL'S 



1 08 



CANOPUS 



Camp1)eU'8 Steamships. See Bristol Pleasure 
Steamers. 

Campbeltown and Glasgow Steam Packet Joint 
Stock Cq.« Ltd., one of the oldest steamship 
companies in existence, maintain a service for 
passengers and cargo bet-ween Campbeltown and 
Glasgow, sailing twice daily during June, July, 
and August, and once daily during the rest of the 
year, calling en route at Greenock and Gourock, on 
the Firth of Clyde, Loch Ranza and Pimmill in 
Arran, and Carradall in Kintyre. 

Fleet. 
Davaar. Kinlock. Kintyre, 

Campbeltown Yacht Club. Established 1894. 
Flag : Red ensign. Burgee : White with red bar 
and blue lona cross. Vice-Commodore, D. Mac- 
Callum ; Rear-Commodore, G. W. Gardiner ; Trea- 
surers, T. L. Brown, R. Y. Maxtons ; Secretaries, 
T. MacKelvie, J. J. Smith. Annual subscription, 
55. 

Camperdown, Battle oL Fought October 11, 1797, 
w^hen Admir£il Duncan, with a fleet of 18 ships, 
defeated the Dutch fleet under De Winter, and 
captured 11 of the enemy's vessels. In recog- 
nition of this victory Admiral Duncan was created 
Viscount Lord Duncan of Camperdown, and given 
an annual pension of ;f3,ooo. 

Camperdown. British ist class battleship (10,600 
tons, 1 6*9 kts.). Launched 1885. 

Camps, Harold Edward Joscelyn (b. London, 
1874). Educated King's College, London ; took 
honours diploma for naval architecture at South 
Kensington ; apprenticed to Messrs. Harland and 
Wolff, Belfast, and after serving his time joined 
the firm of Messrs. PaJmer, Ltd., afterwards holding 
an important position with Messrs. Swan, Hunter, 
Ltd., and Sir Raylton Dixon, Ltd. ; in 1900 he 
established himself in London as a consulting 
engineer, naval architect, and marine surveyor ; 
member of the Institution of Naval Architects and 
of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. 

Canada, Jamaica, Steamship Co., with the head 
offices in Toronto, have a fleet of two steamers 
which maintain a bi-monthly service to Kingston 
(Jamaica), calling en route at Santiago de Cuba. 

Fleet. 
Kathinka. Veritas, 

Canadian. Steamer. On June 4, 1861, this 
vessel struck on a field of ice in the Straits of Belle 
Isle and foundered ; 35 lives were lost. 

Canadian Aostralian Line was established in 
1893, ^^^ ru^s ^^ connection with the Canadian 
Pacific Railway. The four steamers of the fleet 
are under contract with the Canadian, New South 
Wales, Queensland, and Fijian Governments for a 
monthly mail service between Vancouver, Victoria 
(B.C.), Honolulu, Brisbane, and Sydney (N.S.W.). 



Flebt. 

Aorangi. Moana. 

Miowera. Maheno. 

Gross tonnage, 11,250. 

Canadian Padflc Railway Steamers. See Empress 
Line. 

Canadian YaohtClab,BoyaL 5^5 Royal Canadian 
Yacht Club. 

Canal is an artificial waterway constructed for 
the conveyance of goods or passengers by boat or 
ship. Canals may be classified under two divi- 
sions : (z) Ordinary inland navigation canals ; and 
(2) ship canals providing a means of inexpensive 
transportation between ocean and ocean, or between 
the ocean and some inland centre. 

Refer to Suez Canal, Manchester Ship Canal, 
North Sea and Baltic Canal. North Holland Canal, 
Amsterdam Canal, Bruges Canal, Languedoc Canal, 
Caledonian Canal, Corinth Caneil, Cronstadt Canal, 
and Panama Canal. 

Can baosr. A contraction of the words " cone 
buoy." 

Cannibalism. The act or practice of eating 
human flesh ; man eating. 

Canning^ Sir Samael (b. 1823). English civil 
engineer. Was closely connected with the manu- 
facture and successful laying of submarine cables 
in the Atlantic and Mediterranean, notably in con- 
nection with Atlantic Cable Expedition of 1865-66 
and 1869. 

Cano. Jnan Sebastian del (1460-1526). Spanish 
navigator. Accompanied Magellan on his voyage 
round Cape Horn, 15 19, and on his death assumed 
command of the expedition. He returned to Spain. 
1522, by way of the Cape of Good Hope in the sole 
surviving ship of the fleet, and was thus the first 
circumnavigator of the globe. 

Canoe. A light shallow boat pointed at either 
end. 

Canoe Clnb, Bosral. See Royal Canoe Club. 

Canopo. Italian torpedo-boat (1906). Length, 
165 ft. ; beam, 17 ft. ; draught, 7 ft. ; displacement, 
200 tons ; armament, 3 3-pdr., 3 tubes ; twin 
screw ; Hp., 3,000 = 25 kts. ; coal, 40 tons, 

Canopos. British ist class battleship. (Ports- 
mouth, 1897.) 

Length 418ft. Beam 74ft. Maximum draught 26ft. 
Displacement 12,950 tons. Complement 750. 
Guns. Armour. 

4 — 12 in., 35 cal. " Harvey-nickel." 
1 2 — 6 in. 6 in. Belt amidships. 

10 — 12 pdr. 12 in. Barbettes. 

6 — 3 pdr. 12 in. Conning tower. 

2 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
4 Submerged. 



CANT 



109 



CAPPANUS 



Twin screw. Hp. 1 3,500 = i8'25 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 2,300 tons. Approximate cost, ;£900,ooo. 

This ship-name ^as introduced into the Navy 
in 1798, and is associated with San Domingo, 
1806, Dardanelles, 1807. 

Cant. Anything diverging from a central right 
line. 

Canvas. A cloth made of hemp. 

Cap. A block of wood used to confine two masts 
together in order to lengthen them ; also pieces of 
oak on the upper blocks on which a vessel is built 
to receive the keel. 

Cap d'Antifer Light, situated on the coast of 
France, English Channel, was established in 1894. 
and is a single flash light every 20 seconds ; dura* 
tion of light, one second ; candle-power, 220,000 
maximum ; burner, mantle 55 mm. diameter ; 
illuminant, incandescent, acetylene, oil. 

Cap9. A projecting point of land running out 
from the coastline, differing from a headland in so 
much that a cape may be low-ljdng. 

Cape Byron Light, established 1901, situated on 
the coast of New South Wales, is a two-flash light 
every 20 seconds ; duration of flash, one-fifth 
second ; candle-power, 145,000 ; burner, 6 wick ; 
illuminant, oil. 

Cape Finisterre, Battle of. In 1747 Vice-Admiral 
Anson intercepted ofl Cape Finisterre a powerful 
French fleet bound to the East and West Indies. 
He captured six men-of-war and four East India- 
men. The French admiral, Jonquiere, surrendered. 
Among the ships captured were the Invincible and 
the Glory, 

Cape Francoise, Battle of. Fought October 21, 
1757, between the English and French, when the 
latter, although superior to the British in ships by 
more than two to one, suffered a crushing defeat. 



Cape GMs-Kei Light, situated in Straits of Dover, 
is a single flash light every five seconds ; duration of 
flash, one-tenth second ; candle-power estimated 
at 15,000,000; illuminant, electricity. 

Cape Henry, Action off. Fought March 16, 1781, 
between the British, under Vice-Admiral Marriott 
Arbuthnot, and the French, under Commodore des 
Touches. The action was indecisive, but resulted 
in the British regaining command of Chesapeake 
Bay. 

Cape la H^e Light, established 1893. ^ ^ single 
flash light every five seconds ; duration of flash, one- 
tenth second ; candle-power estimated at 10,000,000 ; 
illuminant, electricity. 

Cape la Hogne, Battle oL Fought May 19, 1692, 
when the British and Dutch fleets under Admirals 
Russel and Rooke defeated the French fleet com- 



manded by Admiral Tourville. The British burnt 
13 of the enemy's ships and destroyed eight more. 

Cape Leenwin Light, established 1896, situated 
on the south-east coast of Western Australia, is a 
single flash light every five seconds ; duration of 
flash, one-fifth second ; candle-power, 145,000 
burner, 6 wick ; illuminant, oil. 

Cape St. Blase Light, established 1897, situated 
south-west of Mossel Bay, South Africa, is a two- 
dash light every 1 5 seconds ; duration of flash, 
one-third second ; candle-power, 5,000 ; burner, 

1 wick Douglas ; illuminant, oil. 

Cape Si Vincent, Battle ot Fought February 4, 
1797, when Sir John Jarvis, with the Mediterranean 
fleet of 15 sail, defeated the Spanish fleet of 27 
ships of the line, taking four ships and sinking 
six. For this victory he was raised to the peerage 
as Earl St. Vincent. 

Capitan Herinotarpa. Chilian torpedo-boat de- 
stroyer. (Laird, 1902.) Displacement, 350 tons ; 
armament, i 12-pdr., 5 6-pdr. ; tubes, 2 i8-in. ; 
Hp.. 6,250=30 kts. ; coal, 90 tons. 

Capitan Munoigamere. Chilian torpedo-boat de- 
stroyer. (Laird, 1896.) Displacement, 300 tons ; 
armament, i 12-pdr., 5 6-pdr. ; torpedo tubes, 

2 i8-in. ; Hp., 6,250=30 kts. ; coal, 90 tons. 

Capitan O'Brien. Chilian torpedo-boat destroyer. 
(Laird, 1902.) Displacement, 350 tons ; armament, 
I 12-pdr., 5 6-pdr. ; tubes, 2 i8-in. ; Hp., 6,250= 
30 kts. ; coal, 90 tons. 

Capitan Orella. Chilian torpedo-boat destroyer. 
(Laird, 1896.) Displacement, 300 tons ; arma- 
ment, I 12-pdr., 5 6-pdr. ; tubes, 2 18 -in. ; Hp., 
6,250=30 kts. ; coal, 90 tons. 

Capitan Prat Chilian battleship. (La Seyne, 
1890.) 

Length 328ft. Beam 60ft. Maximum draught 26ft. 
Displacement 6,901 tons. Complement 480, 
Guns, Armour. 

4—9*2 in. " Creusot." 

8 — 4*7 in. 12 in. Belt amidships. 

6-^ pdr. 10 in. Barbettes. 

4 — 3 pdr. 4 in. Redoubt amidships. 

10— I pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
4 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. natural 8,000=17 kts., forced 
12,000=18*3 ^ts. Coal maximum 1,100 tons. 
Approximate cost ;^39i,ooo. 

Capitan Thompeon. Chilian torpedo-boat. (Yar- 
row, 1898.) Displacement, 140 tons ; maximum 
draught, 7f ft. ; armament, 3 3-pdr. ; tubes, 

3 14-in. ; Hp., 2,200=27 kts. ; coal, 40 tons. 

Cappanos. The worm which adheres to and eats 
the bottom of wooden ships not sheathed with 
copper. 



CAPRERA 



no 



CARGO 



Oaprera. Italian gun-boat (1894). 
Length 230ft. Beam 27ft. Maximum draught i ift. 
Displacement 853 tons. Complement 118. 



Guns, 
2 — 4y in. 
4 — 6 pdr. 
2 — I pdr. 



Armour. 
" Steel." 
i^ in. Deck. 



Torpedo Tubes. 
5 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. forced 4, 250=19 '8 kts. 
maximum 180 tons. 



Coal 



Caprideose. In 1852 this vessel commanded 
by a Frenchman discovered the Gulf of Peter the 
Great, the whole gulf being subsequently mapped 
out in 1859 by the Russian ships America and 
Stryelok. In 1861 a Russian post was opened here, 
which ultimately received the name of Vladi- 
vostock. 

Capricorne. French gun-boat (1882). Displace- 
ment, 360 tons. 

Capshofe. A supporting spar between the cap 
and trestle-tree. 

Capsiie. To overturn. 

Capstan. A drum or spindle having a horizontal 
circular head used for heaving great weights. 

Capt. Abbreviation for captain. 

Captain. British turret ironclad (6,950 tons). 
Built Birkenhead, 1869. Capsized during a squall 
in the Bay of Biscay, September 6, 1870, when 
most of her crew, including her designer, Captain 
Coles, perished. She was fully rigged with tripod 
masts and large sail spread. This spread of canvas, 
with her low freeboard and deficient stability, was 
largely responsible for her loss. 

Refer to Reed, Sir Edward James. 

Captain in the British Navy ranks above a com- 
mander, and immediately below a commodore. 
His duties are the safe navigation of the ship, and 
in addition he is responsible for the crew, in regard 
to health and discipline, the stores, provisions, and 
ammunition. In his hands lies the punishment of 
offenders among the crew, but is permitted only to 
arrest or suspend commissioned officers, not to 
punish them. The retiring age is 55. 

Captain Sachen. Russian torpedo-boat. Black 
Sea. (Nicolaieff, 1899.) Length, 210 ft. ; beam, 
24 ft. ; draught, 9 ft. ; displacement. 742 tons ; 
complement, 120 ; guns, 7 4'7-in., 7 Maxims ; 
torpedo tubes, 3 above water; Hp., 3,400 = 
18 kts. ; coal, 100 tons. 

Capture. See Actual Capture, Privateer, Prize 
of War. 

Capture Claose. See Clauses. 

Carabine. French torpedo-boat destroyer. (Nor- 
mand, 1902.) Length, 180 ft. ; beam, 21 ft. ; 



maximum draught, 10 it. ; displacement, 300 tons ; 
complement, 45 ; guns, i 9-pdr., 6 3 -pdr. ; torpedo 
tubes, 2 15-in. ; speed, 27-30 kts. 

Caramnm. Brazilian torpedo cruiser. (Kiel, 
1896.) 

Length 240ft. Beam 31 ft. Draught loft. 
Displacement 1,014 tons. Complement 140. 
Guns, Armour. 

2— 3'9 in. " Steel." 

6 — 2*2 in. -J in. Deck amidships. 

2 — 1*4 in. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
3 Above water. 
Hp. 6,000 = 22 kts. 

Carboy. A large glass vessel protected with 
wicker-work used for carrying corrosive or danger- 
ous liquids. 

Carcass. This vessel, with the Racehorse, under 
Capt. Phipps, sailed from the Nore on June 2, 1773. 
on a polar expedition. They reached Seven Islands 
and discovered Walden Island, and attained a 
latitude of 80® 48' N., and found ice at the edge of 
the pack 24 ft. thick. 

Cardiff ** Hall " line, owned and managed by 
Messrs. £. Nicholl and Co., Cardiff, was founded 
by Mr. £. Nicholl. Beginning in quite a small way 
they now own a fleet of six modem cargo steamers. 
These boats are not engaged in any particular 
trade, but carry cargo to and from all parts of the 
world. The vessels of the fleet are constructed on 
the Doxford -turret type, and from a dividend - 
earning point of view are most successful. 

Fleet. 
Eaton Hall. Silksworth Hall. 

Grindon Hall. Tredegar Hall. 

Haigh Hall. Whateley Hall, 

Gross tonnage, 42,000. 

Cardiff* Swansea and Hewport Shipiifaiir GaBeHe. 

Established 1859. Published weekly (Monday). 
Price 215. per annum. Address : 190 Fleet Street, 
London, E.C. 

Cardinal Points. The name by which the North, 
East, South, and West rhumbs of the horizon are 
distinguished. 

Careen. To heel over. 

Cargo. The risk on cargo commences from its 
loading on board the ship. When vessels load in a 
river or bay, the clause " including all risk of 
craft," is usually added, but even that clause, 
when printed in the poUcy, covers only craft or 
lighterage if it is the custom to load by craft. For 
instance, it would protect craft risk at, say, Val- 
paraiso. where it is the custom to load by lighters, 
but not at Liverpool, where it is not the custom. 
The printed clause covers only what is customary. 
The addition of the clause " laden on board said 
ship or vessel, craft, or boat," as above, covers it. 



CARLINES 



III 



CARONIA 



If the policy is worded, say, " Deraeraxa to Liver- 
pool," it is implied that the cargo has been really 
loaded at Demerara — a literal compliance with this 
condition is essential. The addition of the words 
" wheresoever laden " will cover this risk. 

A new clause recently adopted by Liverpool 
underwriters, and one to which no objection will be 
raised, is this : " Warranted free from particular 
average, unless the vessel or craft be stranded, sunk, 
or burnt, each craft or lighter to be deemed a sepa- 
rate interest " — and sometimes with this addition : 
" And to pay the insured value of any lighter, load, 
or part thereof totally lost." 

The risk on cargo terminates when the goods have 
been " safely landed," *.«., on the quay, wharf, or 
customary place of discharge. TJJie underwriter is 
not liable for loss arising from theft, fire, or any 
other peril to which the goods may be subjected 
while lying on the quay or in dock. If it is the 
custom of the trade to convey the goods from the 
ship to the shore in lighters or craft, they are pro- 
tected by the policy ; if it is not the custom, they 
are not protected, unless specially provided for. 
Cargo has to be landed within a reasonable time 
from the arrival of the ship, or it wiU cease to be 
covered by the policy. What is a reasonable time 
depends on the usage of the trade. When goods are 
insured by a vessel to several ports in succession, 
the risk ends at the final port of discharge named 
in the policy. To such places as " Jamaica " or 
" West Coast of America," it ends where the vessel 
discharges the bulk of her cargo. Any inconsider- 
able portion taken further would not be covered by 
the ordinary wording. 

Refer to Loading, Affreightment, Freight, Ship- 
master, Bottomry, Charter Party, Bill of Lading, 
F.O.B., Brought Alongside, Always Afloat, Coaster, 
Dangerous Goods, Deck Cargo, Demurrage, Limita- 
tion of Liability, Contraband of War, Final Port, 
Manifest, Maritime Lien, Grain Cargo. 

Carlines. Pieces of timber lying fore-and-aft 
from one beam to another. 

Oarlo Alberto. Italian armoured cruiser. (Spezia, 
1896.) 

Length 325ft. Beam 59ft. Maximum draught 24ft. 
Displacement 6,500 tons. Complement 500. 
Guns, Armour, 

12 — 6 in. " Harvey." 

6 — 4*7 in. 6 in. Belt amidships. 

14 — 6 pdr. 4 in. Gun shields. 

6 — I pdr. 6 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes, 
4 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. natural 8.600=17 kts., forced 
1 3,000 =3 1 gkts. Coal maximum i ,000 tons. 
Approximate cost ;£40o,ooo. 



Oumania {^^S)* British subsidised merchant 
ship, Cunard Line (q,v,). (Liverpool, New York.) 
Dimensions, C50 x 72 x 40 ft. ; gross tonnage, 19,600. 



Carmichael» Angus T., M.I.ELS. (b. Glasgow, 
June 7, 1875). Educated Glasgow and West of 
Scotland Technical College. Served his appren- 
ticeship with Messrs. G. and W. Henderson and Co.. 
Ltd., after which he joined the service of the 
Japanese Mercantile Marine. On the outbreak 
of the Japanese-Russian war, joined the Army 
Transport Department, and on June 15, I9t>4. the 
transport he was on was attacked by the Russian 
Vladivostock squadron, and he, with 28 other 
officers, was taken prisoner. After seven days* 
close confinement on the cruiser Russia, he was 
taken to Vladivostock, and from there sent to 
Siberia. Having been detained as a prisoner of 
war for 14 months, he was, on August 10, 1905. 
by special order of the Czar, set free. 

Carnarvon. British ist class cruiser. (Beard- 
more, 1904-) 

Length 450ft. Beam 68ft. Maximum draught 25ft. 

Displacement 10,700 tons. Complement 655. 

Guns. Armour, 

A,—rS in. " Krupp." 

6 — 6 in. 6 in. Belt amidships. 

2 — 12 pdr. 6 in. Barbettes. 

22 — 3 pdr. 12 in. Conning tower. 

2 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes, 
2 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 21,000= 22^ kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 1,800 tons. Approximate cost /8 50,000. 

Oamatio. P. and O. steamer wrecked off Sliad- 
wan. in the Gulf of Suez, September 13, 1869 ; 
25 lives lost. Treasure to the extent of 20 boxes 
of bar silver and six boxes of bar gold, valued at 
;£4o,ooo, in addition to a large quantity of valuable 
cargo, recovered by divers. 

Camot. French ist class battieship. (Toulon, 

1894.) 

Length 380ft. Beam 70ft. Maximum draught 28ft. 
Displacement 1 2, 1 50 tons. Complement 62 1 . 
Guns, Armour, 

2—12 in.. 45 cal. " Creusot." 
2 — io*8 in. 18 in. Belt amidships. 

8 — 5*5 in. 14 in. Turrets. 

4 — 9 pdr. 6 in. Conning tower. 

12 — 3 pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes (177 in.). 
2 Submerged. 
2 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. 15,000 = 18 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 700 tons. Approximate cost ;£ 1,1 00,000. 

Oaronade. French gun-boat (1884). Displace- 
ment, 170 tons. On service in Cochin, China. Of 
littie fighting value. 

Caronia (1905). British subsidised merchant 
ship, Cunard Line {g,v.), (Liverpool, New York.) 
Dimensions, 620 x 72 X 40 ft. ; gross tonnage, 19.600 
Hp., 1 5, 000 » 18 kts. 



^ 



CARPENTER 



112 



CARTEL 



Carpenter, Captain Alfred, DJSI.0. (b. 1847). 
Entered Navy i860 ; lieutenant 1870 ; served as 
lieutenant in the Challenger Scientific Expedition.and 
received the Albert medal, second class, as a mark 
of Royal favour for gallantry in saving life at sea, 
June, 1876. Extract from the " Gazette " : " At 
10.30 p.m. on the 31st January, 1876, while the 
Challenger was at anchor in Stanley Harbour, 
Falkland Islands, in five fathoms of water, distant 
a quarter of a mile from the shore, Thomas Bush, 
an A.B., fell overboard from the steam pinnace 
which was coming alongside, and sank without 
uttering a cry. The night was dark, the weather 
boisterous and raining, there was a short, choppy 
sea (which rendered swimming extremely difficult), 
and an outsetting current. Lieutenant Carpenter, 
without a moment's hesitation, jumped from the 
gang^'ay and swam towards the spot where the 
man disappeared, some 20 ft. from the ship ; he then 
dived, seized hold of Bush, and brought him to the 
surface, and supported him for three to five minutes, 
but Bush being a very heavy man, and encumbered 
with thick waterproof clothing, and moreover being 
quite insensible. Lieutenant Carpenter, as he got ex- 
hausted with his exertions, was obliged to let him 
slip down ; he supported him with his legs for a few 
moments, and then they were both hauled into the 
pinnace, and taken on board the Challenger. Every 
effort was at once made by the medical officer to 
restore Bush, but without success. There were 
several patches of floating kelp round the ship, 
amongst which the strongest swimmer could be 
helpless, which materially increased the risk 
incurred." Commander, 1883 ; commander in 
command of Myrmidon during the naval and 
military operations in Eastern Soudan, 1883-84 ; 
mentioned in despatches (Egyptian medal, Khe- 
dive's Bronze Star) ; commander in charge of 
Marine Survey of India, 1884-89 ; served with 
Naval Brigade during Burmah annexation war, 
1885-86 ; received the thanks of the Government 
of India, and specially mentioned in despatches, 
D.S.O. for this service (India medal, Burmah clasp). 

Caiftnois. French torpedo-boat destroyer. (Nor- 
mand, 1902.) Length, 180 ft. ; beam, 21 ft. ; maxi- 
mum draught, 10 ft. ; displacement, 300 tons ; 
complement, 45 ; guns, i 9-pdr., 6 3-pdr. ; torpedo 
tubes, 2 15-in. Speed, 27-30 kts. 

Carr, Admiral Henry John (b. July, 1839). 
Entered Navy, 1852 ; lieutenant, i860 ; lieutenant 
of Bombay when she was burnt at sea, 1864 ; men- 
tioned in despatches for gallantry ; commander, 
1871 ; captain, 1879 ; senior officer at Bermuda, 
1892-94; rear-admiral, 1894; admiral superin- 
tendent Devonport Dockyard, 1896 ; retired 
1899 f' vice-admiral, 1901 ; admiral, 1904. 

Carriage of goods by sea. See Affreightment. 

Carrick. Bng. Lost in a gale in the St. Lawrence, 
May 19, 1847 ; 170 emigrants perished. 



Carrick bend. See Knots. 

Carrington» Richard Christopher (1826-75). Eng- 
lish astronomer (b. London). Equipped an 
observatory at Redhill, Surrey, in 1853, and in 
1857, after three years' survey of the zone of the 
Heavens, within nine degrees of the North Pole, he 
completed a catalogue of 3.735 stars. His observa- 
tion of sunspots and discovery of the composite 
law of solar rotation were published in 1863. 

Carronade. An obsolete gun formerly used at 
close quarters in naval engagements. 

Carron Line, with the head office at Carron, 
Sterlingshire, N.B., incorporated by Royal Charter 
in 1773, is one of the oldest in the country. One of 
the steamers sail every Monday, Wednesday, and 
Saturday from London for Grangemouth, and 
another every Friday for Bo'ness, returning for 
Grangemouth every Wednesday, Thursday and 
Saturday, and Bo'ness every Tuesday. 

Fleet. 
Avon. Grange, 

Firth, Thames. 

Carry away. To break. 

Carry on. To spread all sails. 

Carstens^ Samuel (b. Denmark. 185 1). Served 
his apprenticeship to practical wood shipbuilding 
in Denmark, and in 1876 was appointed to the 
shipbuilding yard of Messrs. J. and G. Thompsen 
and Co., Glasgow, for the building of some compo- 
site gun-boats for the British Government ; in 1877 
he joined the drawing office of Messrs. Charles 
Mitchell and Co., and three year^ later was ap- 
pointed head draughtsman with Messrs. Richard- 
son, Duck and Co. ; in 1888 he joined the designing 
department of Messrs. Palmer and Co., J arrow, 
and was appointed chief in the technical depart- 
ment of Messrs. Burmeister and Wain, Copenhagen, 
in 1889. 

CarteL A vessel commissioned in time of war to 
exchange prisoners of hostile powers, or carrying 
proposals from one to another. No arms, ammu- 
nition, or war-like materials are permitted to be 
carried on board, excepting a single gun for sig> 
nailing purposes. 

Cartels are conventions between belligerents 
(g.v.), and are usually made by high officials {e.g,, 
generals or admirals) in the exercise of their implied 
general authority, for the purpose of permitting 
certain intercourse of a pacific character. They 
relate chiefly to communications by post, telephone 
or railway, the treiitment of wounded, and the 
exchange of prisoners. 

Cartel ships are those vessels belonging to bellige- 
rents {q.v.) which are commissioned for the carriage 
by sea of exchange prisoners. By the customs of 
nations these ships must not trade or carry cargo, 
despatches or munitions of war, except one gun 



CARTER 



"3 



CASSINI 



for purposes of signalling. They hold an official 
document specifying their character, and exempting 
them from capture or molestation, but for the 
breach of general rules or any specially imposed 
conditions they are liable to seizure and confiscation. 

Carter, WilUam Charles (b. London. February 21, 
1859). Educated University College School and 
City of London School ; apprenticed to Messrs. 
J. and F. Howard, on the conclusion of which he 
joined the drawing office staff of Messrs. Wigham. 
Richardson and Co., and served the firm both in 
the shops and at sea. In 1881 joined Messrs. 
Harland and Wolflf, Belfast, and was engaged there 
for several years in designing marine and structural 
engineering work ; was also a lecturer at the 
Mechanics Institute, Belfast, on engineering 
subjects ; in 189 1 he commenced business in 
London as a Consulting Marine Engineer and 
Technical Adviser to Shipowners. He holds the 
position of consulting engineer to many steamship 
and industrial companies. 

Member Institution of Naval Architects, associate 
member of Institution of Civil Engineers ; holds 
bronze medal for machine design. 

PubUcations : " Practical Hints in Boiler De- 
sign," "The Principle of Moments," "About 
Work and Power," etc. 

Carfhagena, Battle ofL Fought August 19, 1702, 
between the British under Admiral Benbow and 
the French under Admiral Du Casse. During the 
engagement a chain shot shattered the leg of 
Admiral Benbow who, in spite of his wound, con- 
tinued to conduct the action and was successful in 
driving the French off. Had he been supported by 
the whole squadron the victory would have been 
complete and Admiral Du Casse his prisoner. 
Admiral Benbow died of his wound in October, 1702, 
at Jamaica. 

GarveL A lateen rigged vessel formerly used 
by Spaniards and Portuguese. 

Carvel build. A vessel or boat the planks of 
which are all flush and smooth, the edges laid close 
to each other, and caulked to make them water- 
tight, as opposed to clinker-built, where they 
overlap each other. 

Gaiabianoa. French avisos (1895). 
Length 269ft. Beam 27ft. Maximum draught 12ft. 
Displacement 960 tons. Complement 139. 
Guns, 'Armour, 

1—4 in. " Steel." 

3 — 9 pdr. I in. Deck amidships, 

7—S pdr. 
Hp. 5,000= 21 kts. Coal maximum 135 tons. 

Case. Outside planking of the ship. 

OaM-bacdening. The operation by which wrought 
or cast iron is hardened by decarbonisation, 
whereby the surface is converted into steel. The 



process of conversion is that the iron to be treated is 
packed in cast or wrought iron chests in iron 
oxide powder and heated to a dull redness for 
varjring periods according to the size of the article 
and the thickness of the coating required. 

Case-shot or Canister-shot was a form of pro- 
jectile formerly much used in gunnery. It con- 
sisted of a number of small iron balls, varying in 
weight and number, packed in a cylindrical metal 
case or canister, fitting the bore of the gun from 
which it is fired. Owing to its small effective 
range it is now practically superseded, and its place 
is taken by the use of machine guns discharging 
shrapnel. 

Cashiering. Scandalous conduct unbecoming an 
officer and a gentleman is punished in the British 
Navy by cashiering, i.e., cancellation or annulment 
of commission, which renders officers incapable of 
serving the Crown again. 

Cashmere. Steamer belonging to the British 
India Steam Navigation Co. wrecked off Guardafui, 
July 12, 1877. 

Casqaets light Built in 1877 on a reef to 
the west of Alderney, Channel Islands ; has a 
three-flash light per half minute ; duration of 
flash, two seconds ; candle power maximum, 
60,000 ; eight-wick burner (1894) '» illuminant, 
oil. 

Cassard. French 2nd class cruiser. (Cher- 
bourg, 1896.) 

Length 326ft. Beam 45 ft. Maximum draught 23ft. 
Displacement 4,000 tons. Complement 393. 
Guns, A rmour, 

6 — 6 '4 in. 3 in. Deck. 

4 — 4 in. 2 in Sponsons. 

4—3 pdr. 
II — I pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
2 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. 9,500=19 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 624 tons. Approximate cost ;£3oo,ooo. 

Casse*T0te. French gun-boat (1884). Displace- 
ment 170 tons. On service in Cochin, China. Of 
little fighting value. 

Cassier's Hagaaine. Established 1891. Pub- 
lished monthly. Price is. Address : 33 Bedford 
Street, London, W.C. 

CassinL French avisos (1894). 
Length 269ft. Beam 27lt. Maximum draught 12ft. 
Displacement 960 tons. Complement 139. 
Guns. Armour, 

1—4 in. " Steel." 

3 — 9 pdr. I in. Deck amidships. 

7—3 pdr. 
Hp. 5,ooo»2i kts. Coal maximnm 135 tons. 



CASSIOPEA 



114 



CAVE 



Cassiopea. Italian torpedo-boat. (Naples, 1906.) 
Length, 165 ft. ; beam, 17 ft. ; draught, 7 ft. ; 
displacement, 200 tons ; armament, 3 3-pdr., 3 
tubes ; Hp., 3,000=25 kts. ; coal, 40 tons. 

Castelfidardo. Obsolete Italian battleship. Of 
no fighting value ; now used as torpedo depot in 
harbour. 

Castine. U.S. gun-boat. (Bath, 1892.) 
Length 204ft. Beam 32ft. Maximum draught 1 5ft. 
Displacement 1,177 tons. Complement 151. 
Guns. Armour, 

8—4 in. " Steel." 

4 — 6 pdr. i in. Deck amidships. 

Hp. 2,200= 16 kts. Coal maximum 292 tons. 

Castle Yacht dab, Solent. Established 1887. 
Burgee : Red, white cross, castle in centre. This 
club is a purely racing club for the Y.R.A. small 
classes, and gives the most regattas, of any of the 
Solent clubs. The club house stands on Calshot 
Spit, under the shadow of the old castle, built in 
the reign of Henry VIII., and its site is rented 
from the War Department. Commodore, Col. The 
Hon. H. G. L. Crichton, A.D.C. ; Vice-Commodore, 
Frederick Cox ; Rear-Commodore, The Earl of 
Hardwicke ; Honorary Treasurer, R. S. Hankinson ; 
Secretary, W. Campbell. ' Entrance fee, £2 ', annual 
subscription, £$. 

Cast-off. To let go. 

Castor. French submarine. (Rochefort, 1903.) 
Length, 77 ft. ; beam, 7J ft. ; draught, 8 ft. ; dis- 
placement, 68 tons ; complement, 5 ; Hp., 60= 
8 kts. 

Castor and Polllix. Fiery balls which appear at 
the mast-heads, yard-arms, or sticking to the 
riggings ol vessels in a gale at sea. 

Cat. A ship built on a Norwegian model. 

Cataluna. Spanish armoured ship (1900]. 
Length 348ft. Beam 60ft. Maximum draught 25ft. 
Displacement 7,000 tons. Complement 497. 
Guns. Armour. 

2 — 9*4 in. " Harvey.'* 

8 — $'s in. 12 in. Belt amidships. 

2 — 12 pdr. 12 in. Bulkheads. 

8 — 6 pdr. 8 in. Barbettes. 

8 — 3 pdr. 8 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
2 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. natural x 0,000= 18 kts., forced 
15,000=20*25 kts. Coal maximum 1,200 tons. 

Catamaran. A small raft formed by logs lashed 
together, sometimes canying an outrigger, in use 
among the natives of India, Ceylon, and the Straits. 

Caiapnlte. French torpedo-boat destroyer. (Nor- 
mand, 1902.) Length, 180 ft. ; beam, 21 ft. ; 
Inaximum draught, zo ft. ; displacement, 300 tons ; 
complement, 45 ; guns, i 9-pdr., 6 3-pdr. ; torpedo 
tubes, 2 15-in. ; speed, 27-30 kts. 



Cai-Uock. A strong three-fold block usually em- 
ployed for hoisting the anchor. 

Catch. Denoting among fishermen the quantity 
of fish taken at a haul. 

Ca^fall. A rope rove to the cat-block. 

Cath. Cathedral. Abbreviation adopted on the 
charts issued by the Hydrographic Ofi&ce, Ad- 
miralty. 

Catharpin legs. Ropes connecting lower parts of 
futtock shrouds. 

Cathead. A bracket serving to suspend the 
anchor clear of the bow. 

Catherine Adamson. Wrecked on the coast of 
New South Wales, 25 miles from Sydney, June 3, 
1875 * ^^ hves lost. 

Catinat. French 2nd class cruiser. (Granville, 
1896.) 

Length 332ft. Beam 44ft. Maximum draught 21ft. 
Displacement 4,000 tons. Complement 378. 
Guns. Armour. 

4 — 6*4 in., 45 cal. " Steel." 
10—4 in. 2 in. Deck. 

10 — 3 pdr. 2 in. Casemates. 

4 — I pdr. 2 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes (17*7 in.). 
2 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. 8,500= i9'5 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 750 tons. Approximate cost £350,000. 

Cato. 50 guns. On November 5, 1783, this 
vessel was lost on the Malabar coast, when Admiral 
Sir Hyde Parker [q.v.) and the crew perished. 

Cai-rig. A rig formed of one sail, fore-and-aft 
mainsail, used by pleasure-boats in light wind. 

Cat's-paw. A term used to indicate a light wind 
springing up in a calm ; a name also given to a 
particular twisting hitch made in the bight of a 
rope. 

Catterihan. Steamer, from Sydney to Hong 
Kong, wrecked on the Seal Rocks off Cape Hawk, 
August 8, 1895 f ^5 ^v^ ^^^* 

Cattle Clauses. See Clauses. 

CanUdng. Forcing oakum into the seams of the 
planks of a ship's deck to prevent leakage. 

CavaL A large cleat for securing ropes. 

Cave, Admiral John Halliday, C.B. (b. 1827). 
Entered the Navy, 1849 ; lieutenant of Princess 
Royal in the Baltic Expedition, 1854, and senior 
lieutenant of the Diamond attached to the Naval 
Brigade at the siege of Sebastopol ; present at the 
storming of the Redan, 1855 ; mentioned in de- 
spatches (Crimea, Baltic, and Turkish medals, 
Sebastopol clasp, Knight of the Legion of Honour, 
5th Class Med j idle). 



CAVENDISH 



115 



CERVERA 



Cavendish, Thomas (1560-92) (b. Trimley St. 
Mary). Commanded an expedition to the South 
Seas in 1586. Sailing from Plymouth with three 
small vessels he passed through the Straits of 
Magellan, and cruised along the coast of Chili, Peru, 
and Mexico. He sunk many Spanish ships, and 
captured off the coast of California the Santa Anna, 
a vessel belonging to the King of Spain, with a 
cargo of immense value. Returning to England 
with his plunder by way of the Cape of Good 
Hope, he reached Plymouth on September 9, 
having circumnavigated the globe in 2 years and 
55 days. The second voyage which he undertook 
with five vessels was a most disastrous one. His 
crews were mutinous, and after leaving the Straits 
of Magellan they obliged him to steer for Eng- 
land, and he died on the voyage home in 1592. 
He is attributed with having discovered a harbour 
which he named Port Desire on the east coast of 
Patagonia. 

CaviL See Cleat. 

CJB. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Coleraine, Ireland. 

OMIle. French 2nd class cruiser. (La Seyne, 
1890.) 

Length 378ft. Beam 49ft. Maximum draught 20ft. 
Displacement 5,800 tons. Complement 486. 
Guns. Armour, 

8—6-4 in. ** Steel." 

10 — 5 '5 in. 4 in. Deck amidships. 

6 — 6-8 in. 

Torpedo Tubes. 

4 Above water. 

Hp. 10,200=19 kts. Coal maximum 1,000 tons. 

Centaur. 74 guns. On September 21, 1782, 
this vessel foundered on her passage from Jamaica. 
Most of the officers and crew were lost. 

Oentanro. Italian torpedo-boat. (Naples, 1906.) 
Length, 165 ft. ; beam, 17 ft. ; draught. 7 ft. ; dis- 
placement, 200 tons ; armament. 3 3-pdr., 3 tubes ; 
twin screw ; Hp., 3.000=25 kts. ; coal, 40 tons. 

Centigrade. The thermometer scale, frequently 
called after Celsius, in general use on the Continent, 
in which the interval between the freezing and 
boiling points is divided into 100°, the freezing 
point being o*', and the boiling point 100^. 

Centreboard. A drop keel used in racing crafts, 
its object being to prevent a boat making leeway. 

Centre of bnoyancy. Term used in naval archi- 
tecture for the mean centre of that part of a vessel 
which is below the water line. 

Centurion. British ist class battleship. (Ports- 
mouth, 1892.) 
Length 360ft. Beam 70ft. Maximum draught 27ft. 

Displacement (since reconstruction) 11,000 tons. 
Complement 620. 



Armour, 
" Compound Harvey." 
12 in. Belt amidships. 
9 in. Barbettes. 
12 in. Conning tower. 



Guns. 
4 — 10 in., 30 cal. 
10 — 6 in. 
8—6 pdr. 
12 — 3 pdr. 
2—9 pdr. Boat. 
2 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
2 Submerged. 
I Above water stem. 
Twin screw. Hp. natural 9,000^17 kts., forced 
13,000=18*5 kts. Coal maximum 1,125 tons. 
Approximate cost ;(620,ooo. 
This ship-name has been used in the Navy since 
1580, and is associated with defeat of the Spanish 
Armada, 1588 ; Blake's action with Tromp off 
Dover, 1652 ; battle off the North Foreland, 1653 ; 
battle off Lowestoft, 1665 ; St. James's fight, 
1666 ; Barfleur and La Hogue, 1692 ; Anson's 
circumnavigation, 1740-44 ; capture of the Acapulco 
galleon, 1742 ; Anson's victory off Finisterre, 1747 ; 
expedition to Quebec, 1759 ; reduction of Havana, 
1752 ; Barrington at St. Lucia, 1778 ; Rodney's 
action against De Guichen, 1780 ; capture of the 
Dutch East Indian Settlements, 1795 ; action off 
Vizagapatam, 1804. 

Ceram. Dutch gun-boat. 
Length 176 ft. Beam 25ft. Maximum draught i ift. 
Displacement 541 tons. Complement 82. 

Guns, 

3—47 in. 

I — 2*9 in. 

2 — 1*4 in. 

Hp. 8,000=12 kts. Coal maximum 140 tons. 

Of no fighting value. 

Gerbto. A French gun-brig of seven guns and 
a crew of 87 captured by Lieutenant Coghlan in 
the harbour of L'Orient, July 26, 1800. 

Cende de la Voile de Paris. Established 1858. 
President, Georges Pettier ; Vice-Presidents, E. 
Laveme, J. Valton ; Treasurer, Ferdinand Doucet ; 
Honorary Secretary, Jacques Baudrier, 53 Rue de 
Chateaudun, Paris ; Club House, Mureaux (Seine 
and Oise). Entrance ^fee. 40 ^francs ; annual 
subscription, 60 francs. 

Cerde de la Vofle de Poissy. Established 1888. 
President, A. Leroy ; Vice-President, G. Waren- 
horst ; Rear-Commodore, H. Descombes ; Treas* 
urer, G. Li6gard ; Secretary, P. Malet, Hotel 
de I'Esturgeon, Poissy (Seine and Oise). Annual 
subscription, 10 francs. 

Ceres. On November 10, 1866, this vessel was 
lost near Camsoe, Ireland ; 36 lives lost. 

Cervera y Topete, Pasonal. Spanish admiral (b. 
1839). Admiral-in-Chief during the Spanish- 
American war, 1898 ; was blockaded at Santiago 
by tile American admiral Samson, who on July 3 
defeated the Spanish fleet, compelled by force of 



CESAREVITCH 



ii6 



CHAIN 



public opinion in Spain, though against Cervera's 
better judgment, attempted an escape, which re- 
sulted in the destruction or capture of every 
Spanish ship, the death of one-third of their men, 
and the surrender of Cervera as prisoner of war. 

Oesarevitch. See Tsesarevitch. 

Ceylon Steanudiip Co., Ltd., with their head office 
in Colombo, Ceylon, have a fleet of two modern 
steamers engaged in a weekly service round the 
Island of Ceylon. 

Fleet. 
Lady Gordon. Lady Havelock. 

C.F. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Cardiff, England. 

C.FJ. In a mercantile contract these letters 
stand for " cost, freight, and insurance," and mean 
that the price paid covers the cost of the goods to 
be sent, their freight, and insurance during transiL 
When goods are sold under a C.F.I, contract the 
seller fulfils his part of the contract when he ships 
the goods, and hands to the consignee the shipping 
documents and policy of insurance in conformity 
with the contract. 

CO. Coast guard. Abbreviation adopted on 
the charts issued by the Hydrographic Office, 
Admiralty. 

O.G. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Kallantsoog, Holland. 

C.H. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Cherbourg, France. 

C.H. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Chester, England. 

Ch. Church. Abbreviation adopted on the 
charts issued by the Hydrographic Office, Ad- 
miralty. 

Chaoabnoo. Chilian protected cruiser. (Elswick, 
1898.) 

Length 360ft. Beam 46ft. Maximimi draught 20ft. 
Displacement 4,300 tons. Compl-iment 400. 
Guns. Armour. 

2— 8 in. " Harvey-nickel." 

10 — 4' 7 in. 4 J in. Deck. 

12 — 12 pdr. 4 ID. Gun shields. 

6 — 2 J pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes, 
K Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. forced 15,000=24 kts. Coal 
maximum i.ooo tons. 

Chacabaca Iron ship. Went down in the Channel 
after collision with the steamer Torch, March i, 
1873 ; 24 Hves lost. 

Chads, Admiral Sir Henry Dncie, K.CJB., cr. 1887 
(b. 18 19). Educated Royal Naval College, Ports- 
mouth ; as mid. served and engaged in boats of 
Andromache in action with pirates and suppression 



of piracy in the Straits of Malacca, 1836 ; senior 
lieutenant of Harlequin, was wounded in an attack 
on pirates in the Island of Sumatra, 1844 ; as 
captain was present at the capture of Bomarsund 
in the Baltic, and specially' recommended to the 
Admiralty by the marshal commanding the French 
troops (Baltic medal) ; captain superintendent of 
Deptford Dock and Victualling Yards, 1863-66 ; 
rear-admiral, 1866 ; flag-officer second in command 
Channel fleet, 1869-70; vice-admiral, 1872; Com- 
mander-in-Chief at the Nore, 1876-77 ; admiral, 
1877 ; K.C.B., 1887 ; retired. 1884. 

Chaffer. A name applied to a whale or grampus 
in the northern seas. 

Chafing mati. Mats used to protect the rigging. 

Chaimite. Portuguese gun-boat (1897). dis- 
placement, 340 tons. At present on the Zambesi. 

Chain. A connected series of links of metal 
passing through each other so as to move more or 
less freely, and thus form a strong but flexible 
string, used for various purposes, as for restraint, 
support, connection, transmission of mechanical 
power, etc. Chain making is a special industry. 
The welding of the links until recently was almost 
entirely done by hand. The manufacture of weld- 
less steel chains of a size up to one inch diameter 
metal is now accomplished by machinery. Chain 
cables arc generally made in lengths of from 1 2^ to 
25 fathoms, the length being joined together by 
shackles. A cable's length is 100 fathoms of 
6*08 ft. each, and is one-tenth of a nautical mile. 
The largest sizes of chains pass, before use. certain 
standard tests under Lloyd's Register, which im.- 
pose a strain sufficient to detect bad material or 
workmanship, yet not so severe as to injure the 
metal. Chains used as cables on British ships 
must pass a statutory test and be properiy stamped. 
The various test requirements of the British 
Admiralty and the United States Testing Board 
can be found in Kent's " Mechanical Engineers* 
Pocket-Book," 1901. The breaking strain of any 
chain may be calculated from its cross section, to 
the area of which it bears a fixed proportion. The 
largest mooring chains on record were made in 
1907 for use on the Mauretania and Lusiiania, 
the links were 4^ and $3 diameter, the weight of 
each end link 336 pounds, and each common link 
243 pounds, the swivel connection weighing 4.485 
pounds, and each shackle 711 pounds, giving a 
total weight of moorings of over 200 tons. 

Chain. A measure of 66 feet. 

Chain cables. All vessels have to carry anchors 
and chain cables tested up to a strain ranging with 
the size of the vessel. 

Chain-plates. Iron plates, the lower ends of 
which are bolted to the ship's side, to which the 
dead-eyes are fastened. 



CHAIN 



117 



CHAMBER 



Chain^piimp. A lai*ge hand pump, worked by 
endless chains producing a continuous flow <^ 
water. 

ChaHenger. See Challenger Expedition. 

Challenger. British 2nd class cruiser. (Chat- 
ham, T902). 

length 355ft. Beam 56ft. Maximum draught 21ft. 
Displacement 5,880 tons. Complement 475. 
Guns. Armour, 

1 1 — 6 in. 3 in. Deck amidships. 

8 — 12 pdr. 6 in. Conning tower. 

I — 12 pdr., 8 cwt. 
6—3 pdr. 
2 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
2 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 12,500=21 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 1,225 tons. Approximate cost ;f42o,ooo. 

Challengef Expedition. H.M.S. Challenger, a 
British man-of-war selected by the Admiralty to 
carry out an investigation of the physical and bio- 
logical conditions of the great ocean basins, was a 
steam corvette, with a spar upper deck» of 2,300 
tons displacement, and 1,200 Hp. Only two guns 
were retained, and the space occupied by the other 
guns, ammunition, etc., was utilised in providing 
accommodation for zoological and chemical labora- 
tories and other workrooms, and for scientific 
apparata, special sounding and dredging platforms 
being erected, and also an engine for hauling in 
the dredging and sounding lines. The fitting-out of 
the Challenger was commenced in June, 1873, and 
she sailed from Portsmouth on December 21, 1872, 
returning to that port 6n the completion of her 
circumnavigating voyage on May 24, 1 876. During 
this period of three years and hve months the 
distance sailed was nearly 69,000 miles, and about 
500 deep sea soundings* as well as 133 dredgings» 
151 trawlings, and 263 series of temperature obser- 
vations beneath the surface, were taken. 

The Challenger carried a full complement of 
naval officers and men, under the command of 
Captain G. S. Nares, who was unplaced at Hong 
Kong by Captain F. T. Thomson. The scientific 
work was entrusted to a civilian staff, consisting of 
Professor C. Wyv'ille Thomson, director ; J. Y 
Buchanan, chemist ; H. N. Moseley, naturalist ; 
John Murray, naturalist ; R. von Willemoes-Suhm, 
naturalist ; and J. J. Wild, secretary and artist. Dr. 
von Willemoes-Suhm died during the course of the 
cruise in the Pacific, and the only surviving 
members of the civilian staff at the present day are 
Sir John Murray and Mr. J. Y. Buchanan. 

After the return of the expedition, the work of 
preparing the scientific results of the voyage for 
publication was at first under the direction of 
Professor Sir C. Wyville Thomson, who died in 
1882, the direction then passing into the hands of - 
his chief assistant, Mr. (afterwards Sir) John 



Murray. The official reports, published by H.M. 
Government, filled 50 large quarto volumes, 
which appeared at intervals between the years 
1880 and 1895, ^Qd contained 29,500 pages, illustra- 
ted by 3,000 lithographic and chromolithographic 
plates and maps, and thousands of wood-cuts in 
the text. The list of 76 authors includes the 
names of scientists of world-wide reputation — 
British, Colonial, Continental, and American — 
who devoted in many cases years of study and pains- 
taking labour to the department of knowledge 
allotted to them. The scientific work carried out 
on board H.M.S. Challenger practically laid the 
foundations of the recent science of oceanography, 
and the published results of that work formed the 
starting-point for all subsequent researches. 

In addition to the Official Reports, edited by Sir 
John Murray (50 vols., 1880-95), of the expedition, 
see Spry's " Cruise of H.M.S. Challenger/* 1876. 
" Notes by a Naturalist " (Moseley, 1879). Refer to 
Murray, Sir John. 

Chamber of Commerce* A, of which there are 
more than 100 in the United Kingdom, is an 
association of merchants, manufacturers, capitalists 
and others engaged in commerce, for the purpose 
of promoting mercantile and industrial interests 
in general, and those of their own district in 
particular. Some chambers of commerce are 
incorporated by charter, others incorporated and 
registered under the Companies Acts and licensed 
by the Board of Trade, and others neither incor- 
porated, registered nor licensed. They collect 
statistics and information on all matters relating 
to trade, discuss measures affecting their interests, 
and represent their vieivs to the public authorities. 
Action with regard to legislative measures is taken 
by petitioning Parliament by the representation to 
the House of their views through some private 
member. 

The earliest Chamber of Commerce in Great 
Britain was that of Glasgow, incorporated in 1783. 
The London Chamber of Commerce was formed in 
1882, and the Association of Chambers of Commerce 
of the United Kingdom, which meets in conference 
annually for the discussion and promotion of 
measures affecting trade and commercial interests, 
was founded in i860. 

Chamber of Shipping is an association of mer- 
chants of the United Kingdom, established in 1876, 
for the purposes of Parliamentary work and com- 
munication with the principal Government depart- 
ments on matters relating to shipping. 

It consists of two committees, (i) The Ship- 
owners' Parliamentary Committee, which watches 
public Bills affecting shipping matters, and looks 
after Parliamentary shipping interests. (2) A 
Documentary Committee, which deals with charter- 
parties, bills of lading, and the forms of maritime 
documents. 



CHAMBERS 



ii8 



CHANGE 



(1 



«< 



Chambers, Oeorge (1803-40). Marine painter 
(b. Whitby). For several years pursued a life of 
the sea. He was employed by Thomas Horner to 
assist in painting the great panorama of London 
for the Coliseum (the exhibition building in Regent's 
Park, which has since been demolished). His best 
works represent naval battles. Two of these — 
The Bombardment of Algiers " (1836) and 
The Capture of Porto Bello *' — are in Greenwich 
Hospital. 

Chambers, John, Low^estoft. This firm was 
established in 1878 as " Page and Chambers," the 
title being altered successively to " Page and Co.,*' 
" Chambers and Colby," and " John Chambers." 
Over 260 wood-built vessels of various descriptions 
have been launched, including yachts, lifeboats, 
cargo vessels, deep-sea trawlers, and herring 
drifters. Among the vessels built may be men- 
tioned the yacht Hoyden (for Mr. T. G. Bowles), 
the yacht Zephyr (for Mr. B. Dowson), the 
yacht Meriden (for Mr. E. R. T. Croxall), and the 
herring drifter Consolation, This latter was the 
first steam herring boat on the coast, and was so 
successful that the firm have launched subsequently 
80 of this well-known type of steamer. The advent 
of the steam drifter has, in fact, revolutionised the 
herring fishery of the Kingdom. The last vessel 
launched was the Thomas B. Miller, a mission 
trawler for the Royal National Mission to Deep Sea 
Fishermen. 

Chamois. British torpedo-boat destroyer. Foun- 
dered in the Gulf of Patras through one of her screw 
blades coming off and piercing her bottom. 

Champlain, Battle of Lake. Fought in 18x4, when 
the American Mgates commanded by Macdonough 
defeated the British fleet. 

Champlain, Samuel de (i 567-1635). First French 
Governor of Canada (b. Brouage). Sailed for 
Canada in 1603 ; on his third voyage he founded 
Quebec, discovered the lake which now bears his 
name, and established a flourishing fur trade. He 
was brought to England a prisoner when Quebec 
fell before the British, 1629 ; but by the treaty of 
St Germain, when Canada was restored to the 
French. 1632, he was released, and again became 
Governor, and remained so till his death. 

See " Life," in French, by Dionne, 1891, and 
by Gravier, 1900. 

Champness, H. Robert, H.y.O. (b. 1852). 
Educated Old Brompton, Kent ; Assistant Director 
of Naval Construction at the Admiralty ; entered 
H.M. Dockyard, Chatham, in 1866, at the age of 14, 
taking first place in competition for entry. After 
four years spent in theoretical study and acquiring 
a practical knowledge, he obtained second place 
at the examination for admission to the Ro3ral 
School of Naval Architecture, then located at South 
Kensington Museum, and joined there in 1870 ; at 
the end of his third session, the school was trans- 
ferred to the Royal Naval College. Greenwich, 



where his final session was passed ; he was then 
appointed to the Drawing Oflice at Chatham Yard, 
where, after one year, he proceeded to the Admi- 
ralty for duty and, returning to Chatham in 1875, 
was appointed to assist in supervising the con- 
struction of H.M.S. Timiraire ; in May, 1877, he 
was again transferred to the Admiralty, where he 
remained till March, 1885, being appointed a 
second-class Assistant Constructor on the Estab- 
lishment of the Royal Corps of Naval Constructors 
in 1883 ; from the Admiralty he was appointed 
overseer to the Barrow Shipbuilding Works, and 
while there he received the thanks of the Admiralty 
for a report upon a type of submarine torpedo-boat ; 
in November, 1886, he was sent to Portsmouth to 
reorganise the Drawing Office staff ; he was pro- 
moted to first-class Assistant Constructor in Novem- 
ber, 1889, and in that capacity, until April, 1895, 
he was closely associated with, and largely responsi- 
ble for, the accelerated rate of shipbuilding, having 
charge of H.M.S. Centurion, and later of the Royal 
Sovereign class of battleships, on delivery from 
contractors, as well as of the building of the 
Majestic, Prince George, and Casar, In April, 
1895, he was appointed to Malta Yard as Chief 
Constructor, and remained till April, 1897. '^he 
thanks of the Admiralty were conveyed to him for 
expedition in fitting bilge keels to H.M.S. Barfleur 
in three weeks, and the Governor of Malta also 
expressed satisfaction with the work done in pre- 
paring transports for conveyance of troops to Crete. 
In February, 1897, he was appointed chief con- 
structor at Dcvonport, just after the first modem 
battleship at that yard had been laid down, and 
held this appointment until the end of 1902 ; at the 
launch by Her Majesty the Queen of H.M.S. Queen, 
on March 8, 1902, when His Majesty the King also 
laid the first keel plate of H.M.S. King Edward VII., 
he was decorated by His Majesty with the fourth 
class of the Royal Victorian Order ; was appointed 
Assistant Director of Naval Construction, taking up 
the appointment on January i, 1903. Member 
of Institution of Naval Architects. 

Publication : A paper on the " Launch of a 
Battleship," read before the Institution of Mechani- 
cal Engineers. 

Chan. Channel. Abbreviation adopted on the 
charts issued by the Hydrographic Office, Admi- 
ralty. 

Change of Voyage. This expression in tlie Devia- 
tion Clause refers only to a change after the policy 
has once attached by the commencement of a 
voyage of such a kind that, if not changed, it would 
have been within the policy. It has been held 
that an initial declaration of insurance on any other 
voyage is outside the policy, and that therefore the 
" change of voyage " never took effect at all in such 
a case. (Israel v, Sedgwick, 8 Times Law Reports, 
726 ; also Gow on Marine Insurance, p. 61.) 

Refer to Deviation ; also Clauses. 



CHANNEL 



119 



CHARLESTON 



GhanneL See Trinity House Pilotage Districts ; 
Fairway. 

Channel Islands Taoht Clnb» Royal. See Royal 
Channel Islands Yacht Club. 

Channels or Chains. Projections over a ship's 
side on ¥/hich the rigging is spread. 

Chansy. French 2nd class cruiser. (Bordeaux, 

1894) 

Length 361 ft. Beam 46 ft. Maximum draught 20 ft. 

Displacement 4,750 tons. Complement 370. 

Guns. Armour. 

2 — 7*6 in., 45 cal. " Creusot " steel. 

6 — 5*5 in. 4 in. Belt amidships. 

6 — 9 pdr. 4 in. Turrets. 

4 — 3 pdr. 4 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes {177 in.). 

4 Above water. 

Twin screw. Hp. 8,300=18*5 kts. Coal normal 

406 tons. Approximate cost ;f35o,ooo. 

This vessel went ashore off the coast of China, a 

little below Shanghai, and was abandoned. 

Chaplains, NavaL See Naval Education. 

Charger. British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Pop- 
lar, 1894.) Length, 190 ft. ; beam, 18 ft. ; draught, 
si ft. ; displacement. 250 tons ; complement, 45 ; 
armament, i 12-pdr., 5 6-pdr., 2 tubes ; twin screw ; 
Hp., 3,100=27 kts. ; coal, 60 tons. 

Chargeors R6anis (French Steam Navigation 
Co.) have a fleet of 35 excellent steamers, fitted with 
all the latest modem improvements for the trade in 
which they are engaged. A service is maintained 
from Havre, Dunkirk, Bordeaux, and Marseilles 
at scheduled times for Colombo, Singapore, Saigon, 
Tourane, and Haiphong, taking passengers and 
cargo for transhipment, for Bangkok, Pnom-Penh, 
and Hanoi. A monthly service for the West Coast 
of Africa sailing from Havre and Bordeaux, for 
Teneriffe, Dakar. Conakry, Grand Bassa, Grand 
Lahou, Cotonou, Libreville, Cap Lopez, Sette-Cama, 
Mayumba, Loango, Banana, Boma, and Matadi. A 
service for Brazil from Havre and Dunkirk for 
Vigo, Leixoes, Lisbon, Pemumbuco, Bahia, Kio de 
Janeiro, and Santos. A service to La Plata from 
Havre, Dunkirk and Bordeaux, calling at Vigo, 
Teneriffe, Monte Video and Buenos Aires. A Far 
£ast service leaves Antwerp and Dunkirk for 
Singapore, Shanghai, Hankow, Taku, Japanese 
ports, San Francisco, and the River Plate. 

Fleet. 
Admiral Airy. Campana, 

Admiral Aube. Campinas. 

Admiral Baudin. Canarias, 

Admiral Courbet. Caravellas. 

Admiral de Ksrsaint, Carolina, 

Admiral Exelmans. Cholon. 

Admiral Fourichon. Colombia, 

Admiral Hamelin. Colonia, 

Admiral Jaureguiberry, Concordia, 



Admiral Latouche Treville. 

Admiral Magon. 

Admiral Nielly. 

Admiral Ponty. 

Admiral Rigault de Genouilly. 

Admiral Sallandrouze de 

Lamomaix, 

Admiral Superre, 

Admiral Troude. 



Cordilleras. 
Cordoba. 
Corrientes. 
Corsica. 
Europe. 
Paraguay. 
Santa Fe. 
Ville de Maceio. 
Ville de Maranao. 



Charlemagne. French ist class battleship. 
(Brest, 1895.) 

Length 387 ft. Beam 67 ft. Maximum draught 28 ft. 
Displacement 1 1 , 260 tons. Complement 63 1 . 
Guns. Armour. 

4 — 12 in. " Harvey-nickel." 

10 — 5*5 in. 14 in. Belt amidships. 

8 — 4 in. 1 3 in. Turrets. 

20 — 3 pdr. 12 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes (177 in.). 
4 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 14,500=18 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 1,100 tons. Approximate cost ;£ 1,100,000. 

Charlemagne. Iron clipper. Wrecked on the 
coast near Canton, March 20, 1857 ; the loss 
amounted to about ;^ 110,000. 

Charlemonte Packet. Lost between Holyhead 
and Dublin, December 22, 1790, when 104 of the 
passengers and crew were drowned. 

Charles. In 1631 this vessel, commanded by 
Luke Fox, explored the western side of Hudson's 
Bay as far as a place called Sir Thomas Roe's 
Welcome. In August be met Captain James and 
the Bristol ship Maria {q*v.) in Hudson's Bay, and 
together they went North, and reached 66° 47' N. 
Refer to Arctic Exploration. 

Charlee MarleL French ist class battleship. 
(Brest, 1893.) 

Length 390 ft. Beam 70 ft. Maximum draught 27 ft. 
Displacement 11,882 tons. Complement 620. 
Guns. Armour. 

2 — 12 in,. 45 cal. " Creusot steel." 



18 in. Belt amidships. 
15 in. Turrets. 
9 in. Conning tower. 



2 — 10*8 in. 
8— 5 '5 in. 
4 — 9 pdr. 
20 — 3 pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes (177 in.). 
2 Submerged. 
4 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. 14,500=18 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 1,000 tons. Approxinukte cost ;£ 1,000,000. 

Charleston. U.S. ist class cruiser (1903). 
Length 423 ft. Beam 65 ft. Maximum draught 23 ft. 
Displacement 9,700 tons. Complement 564. 
Guns. Armour. 

14 — 6 in. " Krupp." 

id — 14 pdr. 4 in. Belt amidships. 

12 — 3 pdr. 4 in. Battery. 

12 — I pdr, 5 in. Conning tower. 

8a>lt8, 



CHARNER 



1 20 



CHASSELOUP 



Torpedo Tubes, 
2 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 2 1 ,000 =21*5 k ts. Coal maxi- 
mum 1,500 tons. 

Cbarner. French armoured cruiser. (Rochefort, 

1895.) 

Length 348ft. Beam 46ft. Maximum draught 19ft. 

Displacement 4,700 tons. Complement 375. 

Guns. A rmour, 

2— 7*6 in. " Steel." 

6 — 6*5 in. 4 in. Belt amidships. 

14 Small. 5 in. Barbettes. 

4 in. Conning tower. 

Hp. 8,300=18 kts. Coal 500 tons. 

Chart. A hydrographic map representing a por- 
tion of the earth's surface projected on a plane. 
The term is commonly restricted to those intended 
for navigators' use on which merely the outlines of 
coasts, islands, etc., are represented. In the 
earliest charts the earth's surface was regarded as 
flat, and it was not until 1569 that Mercator 
treated it from a spherical point of view. Modern 
Admiralty charts are prepared and issued by direc- 
tion of the Hydrographic Department. In Ad- 
miralty charts all the information necessary to a 
navigator is included, and the recognised abbrevia- 
tions used are as follows : In the case of buoys 
capital letters are used to denote their difference 
in colour ; the quality of the sea bottom is ex- 
pressed in small letters ; soundings are shown in 
fathoms when numerals are marked on the white 
surface, and in feet when appearing on the dotted 
surface ; lights are shown by a yellow dot with a 
red spot in the middle ; currents indicated by a 
feathered arrow in the direction of their flow ; 
rocks below the surface by a dotted circle with a 
cross inside ; rocks awash or above water by a 
dotted circle, with one or more dots according to 
the number of rocks indicated. 

Chartered companieB are companies which have 
been granted a charter by the Crown, authorising 
them to carry on certain business. Formerly 
chartered companies were formed for the purposes 
of colonisation and the expansion of the Empire, 
and possessed an exclusive monopoly of trade and 
great powers of governance, as in the case of the 
old East India Company ; but modem chartered 
companies which are principally engaged in trade 
are confined by the rights and powers they acquire 
on concession, the Crown merely authorising or 
recognising the acquisition of such rights and 
powers — e.g., the Royal Niger Co., 1886 ; the Im- 
perial British East Africa Co., 1889 ; the South 
African Co.. 1889. Reti^f to South Sea Bubble. 

Chartered freight. See Freight. 

C]iarter*party. A charter-party is a contract 
between a shipowner and a merchant, by which 
the former agrees to place a ship, or a part thereof, 
at the disposal of the latter (called the charterer) for 



a particular voyage or voyages, or for a certain 
period of time. It may be made verbally, but is 
usually in writing, and must, to be available in a 
court of law, bear a sixpenny stamp. Unless the 
contract amount to a demise or lease of the ship, 
the ownership of the vessel continues in the ship- 
owner, and her master and crew are his servants. 
The provisions of the written contract, which can- 
not be contradicted or varied by parol evidence, 
are either conditions precedent, the breach of 
which by one party entitles the other to repudiate 
the contract, or collateral promises, the breach 
of which only gives the injured party the right to 
damages. Whether a particular clause amounts 
to a condition or is merely a warranty (q.v.) de- 
pends upon the intention and meaning of the parties 
as appears on the instrument ; but all representa- 
tions concerning the ship are treated as conditions, 
and a shipowner who knowingly makes a mis- 
representation with regard to the ship is liable to 
an action for deceit. The proper persons to sue 
or be sued under the contract are primarily the 
contracting parties, but where made by agents the 
ordinary law of principal and agent (^.v.) applies. 

Refer to AfiEreightment, Broker, Free of £xp>ense 
to Ship, He or They Paying Freight, Brought 
Alongside, Always Afloat. 

Charybdis. British 2nd class cruiser. (Shecr- 
ness, 1893.) 

Length 320ft. Beam 49ft. Maximum draught 21ft. 
Displacement 4,360 tons. Complement 318. 



Armour, 
" Steel." 

2 in. Deck. 

3 in. Conning tower. 



Guns. 
2 — 6 in. 
8—47 in. 
8 — 6 pdr. 
1—3 pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
4 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. natural 7,000=18 kts., forced 
9,000=19*5 kts. Coal maximum 1,000 tons. 
Approximate cost jf25o,ooo. 

Chasselonp-Laabat French 2nd class cruiser. 
(Cherbourg, 1893.) 

Length 308ft. Beam 43ft. Maximum draught 22ft. 
Displacement 3,772 tons. Complement 358. 
Guns. Armour. 

6—6*4 in- 3 ^' Deck. 

• 4 — 4. in. 2 in. Sponsons. 

4—3 pdr. 
II — I pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
2 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. 9,500=19 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 587 tons. Approximate cost ;f3oo,ooo. 

OhaiMloaihLaabat» Uaraoia de (b. June 12, 
1863). In 1889 joined the £cole Central des Arts 
et Manufactures as a mechanical engineer, and 
later graduated from the Institution of Civil 
Engineers of France, obtaining the Nozo prize in 
1897 ixx naval work, and subsequently became 



CHASSE 



121 



CHESTER 



manager of the Soci^tS des Chantiers and Ateliers 
of Gironde. He is treasurer of the Society of Civil 
Engineers of France and vice-president of the Ligue 
Maritime Franfaise. Assoc, of the Inst, of Naval 
Architects. 

Publications : " Remarks on the Battle of 
Yolon, and the Conditions that Warships have to 
fulfil" (April. 1896), "Marine BoUers " (April. 
1897), " The Different Modes of Gunnery on 
Ships " (April. 1898)," The Naval Strength of Spain 
and America " (May, 1898), " Naval Materials " 
(July. 1898), " Large Mail Steamers " (1898). " Notes, 
on the Evolution of the Construction of Warships " 
(February, 1900), " Modem Ships of War " (edited 
by V. C. Danod. Paris, 1903). 

Chasse-Marte. A coasting vessel used on the 
French shores of the Channel, lugger-rigged, with 
two or three masts and sometimes a top-sail. 

duuHdron Light, situated in the Bay of Biscay, 
established 1895, is a single flash light every 
10 seconds ; duration of flash, half second ; candle- 
power, 360,000 maximum ; burner, mantle 30 mm. 
diameter ; ilhiminant, incandescent oil gas. 

Chateanrenanlt French 2nd class cruiser, (ha, 
Seyne, 1898.) 

Length 457 ft. Beam 56 ft. Mean draught 22 ft. 
Displacement 8,018 tons. Complement 600. 
Guns. Armour. 

2 — 6*4 in., 45 cal. 3 in. Deck. 
6 — 5*5 in. i^ in. Casemates. 

10 — 3 pdr. 
Three screws. Hp. 23,000=23 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 2,100 tons. Approximate cost ^^6 10,000. 

Cliatfleld, Admiral Alfred John, C^., cr. 1887 
(b. 1 831). Entered Navy. 1846; sub-lieutenant, 
185 1 ; lieutenant, 1854; Ueutenant of Gladiator in 
Baltic expedition, 1854 ; present at bombardment 
of Bomarsund (Baltic medal) ; also in the Black 
Sea, the blockade of Odessa, and all operations 
before Sebastopol, and at capture of Kinbnm 
(Crimea and Turkish medals, Sebastopol Cflasp) ; 
commander. 1863 ; captain, 186S ; captain of 
Amethyst blockading the coast during the Ashantee 
campaign. 1874 (Ashantee medal) ; joined in the 
engagement with the Peruvian turret ship Huascar, 
1877 ; commanded on south-east coast of Aiperica 
for two years, and H.M.S. 7'hunderar in Mediter- 
ranean ; superintendent Pembroke Dockyard. 1882- 
85 ; awarded good service pension. 1882 ; rear- 
adnciiral. 1886 ; vice-admiral. 1891 ; admiral. 1897. 

Chatham. See Dock^^ards. Naval. 

Chattanooga. U.S. 3rd class cruiser (1891). 
Length 292ft. Beam 44ft. Maximum draught 17ft. 
Displacement 3,200 tons. Complement 293. 
Guns. A rmour, 

10 — 5 in. " Harvey-nickel." 

8 — 6 pdr. 2 in. Deck. 

2 — I pdr. 
2 Colts. 



Twin screw. Hp. 4,500=16*5 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 700 tons. 

Chaanoey. U.S. torpedo-boat destroyer (1900). 
Displacement. 420 tons ; complement, 64 ; guns^ 
2 14-pdr.. 5 6-pdr. ; torpedo tubes, 2 i8-in. amid- 
ships and aft ; Hp., 8.000=29 kts. ; coal. 139 tons. 

Cheeks. Pieces of timber in duplicate and corre- 
sponding perfectly to each other. 

OheerfoL Liverpool steamer. In collision with 
H.M.S. Hecla m the Bristol Channel. July 21, 
1885 ; 13 lives lost. 

OheerlnL British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Heb- 
bum, 1897.) Length, 210 ft. ; beam, 21 ft. ; 
draught. 8 ft. ; displacement. 308 tons ; comple- 
ment, 62 ; armament, i 12-pdr.. 5 6-pdr.. 2 tubes ; 
twin screw ; Hp., 6.000=30 kts. ; coal, 82 tons. 

Chehner. British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Chis • 
wick, 1904.) length. 222 ft. ; beam, 23J ft. ; 
draught, 9J ft. ; displacement, 600 tons ; comple- 
ment, 72 ; armament, i 12-pdr., 5 6-pdr., 2 tubes; 
twin screw ; Hp., 7,500=25 kts. ; coal, T26 tons. 

Cheq. Chequered (near a buoy). Abbreviation 
adopted on the charts issued by the Hydrographic 
Oflice, Admiralty. 

Chemomoretz. Russian gun- vessel, Black Sea. 
(Nicolaieff, 1899.) Length, 210 f t. ; beam, 35 ft. ; 
draught. 11 ft.; displacement. 1,224 tons; com- 
plement, 161 ; guns, 2 8-in., i 6-in., 7 q.f. ; torpedo 
tubes, 2 above water; Hp., 1,500=13 kts.; coal 
maximum, 250 tons. 

OherwelL British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Pal- 
mer, 1903.) Length. 225 ft. ; beam. 23 ft. ; 
draught. 10 ft. : displacement. 540 tons ; comple- 
ment, 70 ; armament, i 12-pdr.. 5 6-pdr.. 2 tubes ; 
Hp.. 7,ooo8 25 kts. ; coal. 95 tons. 

Chesapeake. American frigate in Boston Bay 
(50 guns, 376 men), commanded by Captain T^w- 
rence, struck to the Shannon, a British frigate 
(38 guns, 320 men), commanded by Philip Vere 
Broke, after a severe action of 11 minutes, June i, 
1813. 

Chesapeake and Ohio Steamship Co., Ltd., with 
their head ofhce in London, have a fleet of seven 
modem cargo steamers, which maintain a regular 
service from London and Liverpool to Newport 
News. 

Fleet. 
Alhiana. Powhatan, 

Alleghany, Mariana. Rappahaunock. 
Kanawha, Shenandoah, 

Gross tonnage, 25,669. 

Chess-trees. Iron plates with thimble eyes on 
each top side. 

Chester. U.S. scout (1904). 
length 424ft. Beam 45ft. Draught i8ft. 
Displacement 4,000 tons. Complement 384. 



CHEST 



122 



CHINE 



Guns. A rmour. 

6—14 pdr. 2 — 5 in. Belt amidships. 

Torpedo Tubes (21 in.). 
2 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 16,000=24 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 1,000 tons. 

Chest-rope. See Guest-rope. 

Chevalier. French torpedo-boat {1893). ^'^'■ 
placement, 134 tons; complement, 32; maximum 
draught, 7 ; guns, 2 3-pdr. ; torpedo tubes, 2 15-in. ; 
Hp., 2,700 = 27 kts. ; coal, 17 tons. 

Chicago. Old U.S. cruiser (1885). Reconstructed 
1899. 
Length 328ft. Beam i8ft. Maximum draught 23ft. 
Displacement 5,000 tons. Complement 459. 
Guns. A rmour. 

4 — 8 in. I J in. Deck. 

14 — 5 in. 
9 — 6 pdr. 
Twin .screw. Hp. 10,000=19 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 940 tons. 

Chichester, Rear-Admiral Sir Edward, Bart. 
C.M.G., 1899 ; C.B., 1900 (b. 1849). Entered Navy, 
1863 ; sub-lieutenant, 1869 ; lieutenant, 1870 ; lieu- 
tenant of the X^^liO' during the war in Egypt, 
1882 ; promoted to commander for services rendered 
1882 (Egyptian medal, Khedive's Bronze Star) ; 
principal transport officer in Egypt, 1884-85 ; cap- 
tain, 1888 ; senior officer in command of H.M. 
ships employed in protecting North Sea fisheries, 
receiving the thanks of the Lords of the Admiralty 
for " judgment and tact displayed " ; C.M.G. for 
services in Manila ; A.D.C. to the Queen, 1899 ; 
naval transport officer at Cape Town during the 
Boer war, 1 899-1 900 ; mentioned in despatches, 
1900, by Lord Roberts, who wrote : '* Captain Sir 
E. Chichester has carried out his arduous duties 
with an ability and tact which have ensured the 
smooth and successful working in all the arrange- 
ments." Again, in 1901, mentioned in despatches 
by Lord Roberts, as follows : " The arduous work 
of disembarking the troops, supplies, stores, re- 
mounts and mules, and embarking the many thou- 
sands of sick and wounded and discharged men 
reflects the greatest credit upon Captain Sir Edward 
Chichester and the staff at each of the four ports." 
C.B., October, 1900, for services during the Boer 
war; A.D.C. to the King, 1901-02; rear-admiral, 
1902 ; admiral superintendent in charge of all H.M. 
naval establishments at Gibraltar, 1904. 

ChidorL Japanese torpedo-boat. (Normand, 
1900.) Length, 147 ft. ; beam, 16 ft. ; draught, 
8 ft.; displacement, 150 tons; complement, 26; 
armament, i 6-pdr., 2 3-pdr., 3 tubes ; twin screw ; 
Hp., 4,200=30 kts. ; coal, 30 tons. 

Chihaya. Japanese torpedo gun-boat (1901). 
Displacement 850 tons. Complement 125. 



Guns, 
2 — 4*7 in. 
4 — 12 pdr. 
Torpedo Tubes, 
3 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. 6,000=21 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 250 tons. 

Childwall HalL Hull steamer. Wrecked near 
Cape St. Vincent, Portugul, April 11, 1878; 14 
lives lost. 

Chili (1894). French subsidised merchant ship. 
Messageries Maritimes (^.v.). Dimensions, 462 x 
57 X 46 ft. ; gross tonnage, 6,375' ; Hp. , 6,000 =17 kts. 

Chimere. French crniser-a\Hsos (188 1). Dis- 
placement, 227 tons ; draught, 8 ft. ; armament, 
2 I -pdr. ; speed (nominally), 11 kts. 

Chimes. That part of the waterway projecting 
above the deck plank which is gouged hollow to let 
the water run free. 

China (1896). British subsidised merchant ship, 
P. and O. Co. (q.v.). Dimensions, 500x54x33 ft. ; 
gross tonnage, 7,900 ; passenger accommodation, 
464; Hp., 9,400=18 kts. This vessel was 
wrecked on Perim Island, May, 1900; eventually 
got off and refitted. 

China and Manila Steamship Co., Ltd., managed 
by Messrs. Shewan, Tomes and Co., Hong 
Kong, have two modem steamers, which maintain 
a service from Hong Kong to Manila and vice versa. 
These vessels have excellent passenger accommoda- 
tion, and carry a large quantity of cargo. 

Fleet. 
Rubi. Zafiro. 

Gross tonnage, 5 ,080. 

China Mutual Steamship Co., Hong Kong. See 
Ocean Steamship Co., Ltd. 

China Navigation Co. was formed in 1873 
by Messrs. John Swire and Sons, of London, for 
trading in China, and the first vessels built were 
two 1,200 tons gross register completed in 1876. 
They now have a fleet of 64 steamers, all of which 
have been built by the Scotts' Shipbuilding and 
Engineering Co., Ltd., of Greenock, trading from 
China, as far south as Australia, as far west as 
the Straits, and as far north as Vladivostock and 
the Amur River. They also have ships trading 
up the Yang-tse to Ichang, 1,000 miles from the sea, 
where the rapids prevent navigation farther into the 
interior. 

Chin Chu. Japanese gun-boat. Displacement, 
440 tons. Captured from the Chinese at Wei-Hai- 
Wci, 1895. Of no fighting value. 

Chinckle. Small bight in a line. 

Chine. Part of the water-way projecting above 
the deck plank, hauled out to let the water run 
free. 



CHIN 



123 



CI 



Chin HokiL Japanese gun-boat. Displacement, 
440 tons. Captured from the Chinese at Wei- 
Hai-Wei. 1895. Ot no fighting value. 

Chin Nan« Japanese gun-boat. Displacement, 
440 tons. Captured from the Chinese at Wei-Hai- 
Wei, 1895. Of no fighting value. 

Chinook. A warm, dry wind at the eastern base 
of the Rocky Mountains, similar to the Fohn. 

Chin-pen. Japanese gun-boat. Displacement, 
440 tons. Captured from the Chinese at Wei-Hai- 
Wei, 1895. Of no fighting value. 

Chin SeL Japanese gun-boat. Displacement* 
440 tons. Captured from the Chinese at Wei-Hai- 
Wei, 1895. Of no fighting value. 

Chin To. Japanese gun-boat. Displacement, 440 
tons. Captured from the Chinese at Wei-Hai-Wei, 
1895. Of no fighting value. 

Chin Ten. Old Japanese battleship. Captured 
from the Chinese at Wei-Hai-Wei, 1895. 
Length 308ft. Beam 59ft. Maximum draught 23ft. 
Displacement 7,350 tons. Complement 400. 
Guns. A rmour, 

4 — 12 in. " Compound." 

4 — 6 in. 14 in. Belt amidships. 

10 — 3 pdr. 12 in. Barbettes. 

2 — I pdr. 8 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes. 

3 Above water. 

Twin screw. Hp. natural 6,200= 14*5 kts. Coal 
maximum 1 .000 tons. 

Chips. A colloquialism for the ship's carpenter. 

Chishinia. Japanese cruiser. Sunk in collision 
with the Revenna, a P. and O. steamer, in the Gogo- 
shima Straits, July 20, 1895 * 75 ^i^^ lost. 

Chitoie. Japanese armoured cruiser. (San 
Francisco, 1898.) 

Length 405ft. Beam 48ft. Maximum draught 25ft. 
Displacement 4,760 tons. Complement 405. 
Guns. Armour, 

2—8 in. " Steel." 

10 — 4*7 in. 4i in. Deck. 

12 — 12 pdr. 
6 — 2 J pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes. 

4 Above water. 

Twin screw. Hp. 15,000= 22*5 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 1,000 tons. 

Ohiyoda. Old Japanese cruiser. (Clydebank, 
1889.) 

Length 308ft. Beam 43ft. Maximum draught x 7ft. 
Displacement 2,450 tons. Complement 350. 
Guns. A rmour, 

10 — ^4*7 in. " Chrome Steel." 

15 — 3 pdr. 4i in. Belt. 

3 Catlings. 1 in. Deck. 

Torpedo Tubes, 
3 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. 5,500=19 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 420 tons. 



Chook-a^blook or Bloek and hloek. When the 
tackle blocks meet. 

ChoikaL Japanese gun-boat of slow speed and 
no fighting value. 

Choke-a-loff. To make fast round both parts 
of the fall, to prevent the leading part from ren- 
dering. 

Chow-ehow. A Chinese word for eatables. 

Christian ComeUos. Netherlands torpedo-boat. 
(Yarrow, 1905.) Length, 152 ft.; beam, 15 it.; 
draught, 7^ ft. ; displacement, 1 30 tons ; comple- 
ment, 25 ; armament, 2 2-pdr., 2 tubes ; Hp., 
1,900=27 kts. ; coal, 36 tons. 

Chronograph. An instrument for registering 
mechanically intervals of time in such a manner 
that on inspection of the record afterwards the 
observer is able to measure these intervals with 
great accuracy. This instrument differs from the 
chronometer and chronoscope, in being' self- 
registering. Its essential parts are generally a 
cylinder worked by clock-work, and kept in con- 
tinuous revolution, and a marker which travels 
parallel to the axis of the cylinder, and registers 
on a sheet of paper wrapped round the cylinder. 
It was by means of an instrument constructed on 
this principle, as early as 1864, that Bashforth 
carried out his great experiments on the flight of 
projectiles of high velocity through the air. 

Chronometer. An instrument in the nature of a 
clock or watch for the exact measurement of time. 
They are fitted with a compensation balance, ad- 
justed for the accurate measurement of time in all 
climates ; and used for the determination of the 
longitude. The rating of chronometers is usually 
conducted at Government Observatories, and are 
set to the time of some first meridian. British 
ships and most Americans use the time of Green- 
wich meridian ; the French use that of Paris. In 
the handling of chronometers care should be taken 
to stow them as near as possible to the centre of 
motion, where the vibration of the vessel is least ; 
to avoid as much as possible any change in tempera- 
ture in the place where they are kept ; and to 
place them as far as possible beyond any magnetic 
influence. Chronometers are fitted in their cases 
on gimbals, by which means a horizontal position is 
always maintained. 

Chuck. Sea-shell ; sometimes the colloquialism 
for the boatswain. 

Chiisan. Steamer. From Glasgow for Shanghai, 
foundered in a gale ofl Ardrossan, October 20, 1874. 

CL Abbreviation for Cirrus, as adopted by the 
International Meteorological Committee, and used 
in the International Cloud Atlas. 

CL-oa« Abbreviation for Cirro-cumulus, as 
adopted by the International Meteorological Com- 
mittee, and used in the International Cloud Atlas. 



C.I.F. 



124 



CITY 



CXP. See C.F.I. 

Oigno. Italian torpedo-boat. (Naples, 1906.) 
Length, 165 ft. ; beam, 17 ft. ; draught, 7 ft. ; 
displacement, 200 tons ; armament, 3 3-pdr., 
3 tubes; twin screw; Hp., 300=25 kts. ; coal, 
40 tons. 

Cigogne. French sea-going submarine. (Toulon, 
Z903.) Length, 118 ft. ; beam, 12} ft. ; draught, 
8 J ft. ; displacement, 172 tons, above ; comple- 
ment, 20; Hp., 200= I o* 5 kts. above, 8 kts. 
below ; torpedo tubes, i i7'7-in. 

Cimbria. Hamburg steamer. Sunk by collision 
with the English steamer Sultan, off the coast of 
Holland, January 19, 1883 ; 454 lives lost. 

Cimeterre. French gun-boat. Displacement, 
140 tons ; draught, 4 ft. ; guns, 2 3*5 -in. ; speed 
(nominally), 9 kts. 

OinoiimAti. U.S. 3rd class cruiser. (Brooklyn, 
1892.) 

Length 300ft. Beam 42ft. Maximum draught 21ft. 
Displacement 3^213 tons. Complement 339. 
Guns. A rmour. 

II— 5 in. "Steel." 

8^-6 pdr. 2 J in. Deck. 

4 — I pdr. 2 in. Conning tower. 

Twin screw. Hp. 10,000=19 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 556 tons. 

Oinane Ports. In early history the Cinque Ports 
— comprising Dover, Sandwich, Romney, Hastings, 
and Hythe, and the two ancient towns of Win- 
chelsea and Rye — ^were enchartered corporations 
under the custody of a Lord Warden and his 
officers, to whose jurisdiction they were alone 
subject. In return for this special privilege they 
had to provide ships and crews for the King's 
services. Within the limits of the Cinque Ports 
the Lord Warden had the exclusive jurisdiction of 
an admiral, and tried all offences committed on the 
high seas. The exclusive civil jurisdiction of the 
Lord Warden, except as to the adjustment of salvage 
and the jurisdiction of the Admiralty Court of the 
Cinque Ports (9. v.), was abolished in 1855, and the 
qfRce of Admiral of the Cinque Ports ceased in 1882, 
but the Cinque Ports are still for certain purposes 
treated as a separate county, and have their own 
militia and volunteer corps, whilst each Port 
retains its own special borough jurisdiction. 

Oinaae Ports Taefat dab. Royal. See Roya^ 
Cinque torts Yacht Club 

droo. British torpedo gun-boat (1892). 
Length 230ft. Beam 27ft. Maximum draught i2iit. 
Displacement 810 tons. Complement 85. 

Guns. 
2 — 4*7 in. 
4—3 pdr. 
Torpedo Tubes, 
5 — 14 in. 
3 — 18 in. 



Twin screw. Coal maximum 160 tons. Speed 
17 kts. 

This ship-name is associated with Duncan's 
action off Camperdown, 1797 ; capture of Mar- 
tinique, 1809. 

Ciroe. Frigate. 32 guns. On November 16, 
1803, this vessel was lost off Yarmouth. 

CHrro-oamalafl. See Clouds. 

CSrro-fltratiu. See Clouds. 

drnu. A name given to roundish, curling, 
elevated clouds. Refer to Clouds. 

Oimjano Videla. Chilian torpedo-boat. (Yarrow. 
1898.) Displacement, 140 tons ; maximum draught, 
7i ft. ; armament, 3 3-pdr. ; tubes, 3 14-in. ; Hp., 
2,200 = 27 kts. ; coal. 40 tons. 

CL-S. Abbreviation for Cirro-stratus as adopted 
by the International Meteorological Committee, 
and used in the International Cloud Atias. 

CHlsoi VelikL See Sissoi VeUky. 

City Line. This line was founded in 1839 by 
Messrs. George Smith and Sons, and subsequently 
sold in 1 90 1 to Messrs. J. R. Ellerman. The line 
comprises a fleet of 22 steamers pl3dng between 
Glasgow, Liverpool, London, and Calcutta. Bombay, 
Kurrachee. 

Fleet. 

City of Athens, City of Karachi. 

City of Benares, City of Khios. 

City of Bombay, City of Lucknow. 

City of Calcutta. City of Madrid. 

City of Cambridge, City of Manchester. 

City of Corinth. City of Oxford. 

City of Delhi. City of Perth. 

City of Dundee, City of Sparta. 

City of Edinburgh. City of Vienna. 

City of Glasgow. City of Venice. 

Ctty of York, 
Gross tonnage, 108,000. 

Oity of Botton. On February 11, 1870, this 
vessel sailed from New York. A board stating 
that she was sinking was found on the Cornish 
coast. 

City of Chicago. Inman Atiantic liner. Ran 
ashore near Old Head pf Kinsale during a fog, 
July 21, 1892. Captain's certificate suspended for 
nine months. 

City of Columbus. U.S. passenger ship. Ran on 
a reef off the coast of Massachusetts, January 18, 
1884 ; 97 Uves lost. 

City of Cork Steam Packet Co., with their 

head offices at Cork, own a fine fleet of large and 
well-apportioned steamships, which maintain a 
service for London, Liverpool, Bristol, Southamp- 
ton, and Milford. 



CITY 



125 



CLARK 



City of Dablin Steam Packet Co., jointly carry- 
ing on day and night Irish mail service with 
the London and North- Western Railway Co., 
have a fleet of four twin-screw steamers, with a 
speed of about 24 kts. The average passage 
between Holyhead and Kingston is 2 hrs. 45 mins. 

Fleet. 
Connaught. Munster. 

Leinster. Ulster. 

CiiF of OlasgOW. Steamer. Sailed from Glasgow 
in 1854, and was never heard of again. There were 
480 persons on board. 

Git7 of Montreal. Inman liner. Burnt off the 
coast of Newfoundland on her way to Liverpool, 
August 10, 1887. 

City of Paris. Inman Atlantic liner. With about 
680 passengers and 370 crew, left New York, 
March 19, 1890. On March 25 the starboard 
engine broke down, and the inflow of water stopped 
the engines, and the vessel was without machinery 
or sailing apparatus. She was picked up and 
towed into Queensland, March 29, 1890. 

Civfl Branches, NavaL See Naval Education. 

Civil engineer. See Engineer. 

Civil Bngineers* Lutitatkm of, which was founded 
on January 2, 18 18, and incorporated by RoysJ 
Charter, June 3, 1838, receiving supplemental 
charteis extending its powezs in 1887 and 1896, 
has its headquarters at Gt. George Street, London, 
S.W., members, associate members, honorary 
members, associates, and students numbering 7,386. 
Among the objects of the institution are the ad- 
vancement of mechanical science and the training 
of cavil engineers in that species of knowledge 
which is essential to them. 

C.K. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Colchester, England. 

CJi. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Carlisle, England. 

eL Clay. Abbreviation adopted on the charts 
issued by the Hydrographic Office, Admiralty, 
denoting the quaUty of the ocean's bottom. 

djuniL Metal bands applied to a mast or yard 
to prevent the wood from bursting. 

dan Line. Began a fortnightly service from 
Glasgow and Liverpool to Bombay and Kurrachee in 
1878, adding one to South and East African ports 
in 1 88 1, and another to Colombo, Madras, and 
Calcutta in 1882, a joint service to New York 
direct to South and East African ports appearing in 
1893. Twenty-nine turret-deck steamers figure in 
the fleet, of which the Clan Colquhoun is the largest. 
The line is under the management of Messrs. 
Cayzer, Irvine and Co., of Glasgow, Liverpool, 
London, and Manchester, whose * senior partner. 
Sir Charles Cayzer, Bart., was the founder. 



Clan Alpine. 
Clan Buchanan. 
Clan Cameron. 
Clan Campbell. 
Clan Chattan. 
Clan Chisholm, 
Clan Colquhoun, 
Clan Cumming. 
Clan Farquhar. 
Clan Ferguson, 
Clan Forbes. 
Clan Fraser. 
Clan Gordon. 
Clan Graham, 
Clan Grant. 
Clan Lament. 
Clan Leslie. 
Clan Lindsay. 
Clan Macalister. 
Clan Macaulay. 
Clan Macdonald. 
Clan Macdougall. 
Clan Macfadyen. 
Clan Macfarlane. 
Gross 



Fleet. 

Clan Macintosh. 
Clan MacifUyre. 
Clan Machay. 
Clan Machinnon. 
Clan Maclachlan. 
Clan Maclaren. 
Clan Maclean. 
Clan Macleod. 
Clan Macmillan. 
Clan Macndb. 
Clan Macneil. 
Clan Macpherson. 
Clan Matheson. 
Clan Menzies. 
Clan Murray. 
Clan Ogilvy. 
Clan Ranald. 
Clan Robertson. 
Clan Ross. 
Clan Shaw. 
Clan Sinclair. 
Clan Stuart. 
Clan Sutherland. 
Clan Urquhart. 
tonnage, 199,000. 



CSan line of skips. See Dunlop Steamship Co., 
Ltd. 

Clanwilliam, Biohard James Heade, Foorth Barl 
of, cr. 1776. G.C.B. ; K.C.M.G. ; F.R.G.S. ; Ad- 
miral of the Fleet, 1895 ^- ^^Z^)- Entered Navy, 
1845 > lieutenant of Imperieuse, 1854-55, blockading 
the Gulf of Finland ; served in the Baltic, 1854-55 
(Baltic medal) ; employed in the destruction of 
Chinese war-vessels, 1857 (China medal) ; at the 
destruction of Fatshan flotilla of war-junks, June, 
1857 (Fatshan dasp) ; severely wounded at the 
capture of Canton, 185 1 (Canton clasp) ; specially 
mentioned in despatches ; decorated C.B., 1877 ; 
A.D.C. to the Queen, 1872-76 ; Lord of the Ad- 
miralty, 1874-80 ; rear-admiral, 1876 ; Commander- 
in-Chief, Flying Squadron, 1880-82; K.C.M.G., 
1882 ; Coipmander-in-Chief, North America and 
West Indies, 1885 ; K.C.B., 1887, on the occasion 
of the celebration of the completion of the fiftieth 
year of her late Majesty's reign ; Commander-in- 
Chief, Portsmouth, 1891-94; Admiral of the Fleet, 
1 895-1 902 ; retired, 1902. 

dapper. A name for the valve of a pump-box. 



Clark, Josiah Latimer (1822-98). English en- 
gineer and electrician (b. Great Marlow). Asso- 
ciated with the construction of the Britannia 
Tubular Bridge, and in 1850 joined the Electric 
Telegraph Co. He remained with this company 
till 1870, during which period he introduced many 
improvements in the telegraph system, including 
the insulation of underground wires by gutta- 
percha, and the method of preserving submarine 
cables by a covering of asphalt, hemp, and silica 



CLARK 



126 



CLAUSES 



known as Clark's compound. He also invented a 
single camera for taking stereoscopic pictures. 
Was head of the firm of Clark and Standfield, 
which firm, since 1874, have devoted themselves 
to the construction of floating docks and hydraulic 
canal lifts. It is attributed to a suggestion of 
Clark's that the affixing of stamps to telegrams as 
payment and the registering of abbreviated ad- 
dresses for telegrams was introduced by the Tele- 
graph Office authorities. 

Clark, Vice-AdmJral Sir Boaverie Francis, K.C.B. 

cr. 1900 (b. 1842). Entered Navy, 1854 ; cadet on 
the Cossack in the Baltic, present at the bombard- 
ment of Sveaborg (Baltic medal) ; mid. and acting 
mate in the Ariel, East Coast of Africa, and cap- 
tured several slave dhows ; sub-lieutenant, 1861 ; 
lieutenant, 1862 ; lieutenant of Esk during the New 
Zealand war, 1863-65, and served with Naval 
Brigade at Waikato (New Zealand medal) ; com- 
mander, 1875; captain, 1884; captain of Anson, 
received silver medal '* al Valor di Marina " from 
H.M. the King of Italy for services rendered at the 
wreck of Utopia, in Gibraltar Bay, 1891, receiving 
from the reigning Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha the 
second decoration of the Saxe Ernestine Order, 
1893 ; director of transport, 1896 ; rear-admiral, 
1899 ; vice-admiral, 1904 ; retired. 

Clark, Lyonel Edwin (b. London, February 3, 
1856). Educated Dulwich and Merton College, 
Oxford ; in 1876 joined the firm of Messrs. Clark 
and Standfield, and on the death of Mr. Standfield 
in 1890 became manager, and in 1898 senior 
partner. As head of the firm he has had the 
designing of many floating docks and other large 
works, in all parts of the world, including docks 
capable of dealing with the largest ironclads for 
the Spanish, American, British, and Austrian 
Governments. Member of the Institutions of Naval 
Architects and Civil Engineers. 

Clark, William Tiemey (1783-18 52). English 
civil engineer (b. Bristol). Constructed the Ham- 
mersmith Suspension Bridge, 1824-27, and the 
suspension bridge over the Danube at Budapest, 
1839-49, which was classed as his most important 
work, and cost over ;{6oo,ooo. 

Clas Horn. Swedish torpedo gun-boat (1898). 
Of little fighting value. 

Length 223ft. Beam 27ft. Maximum draught loft. 
Displacement 700 tons. 
Guns. Armour. 

2 — 4*7 in. ** Bofors steel." 

4 — 6 pdr. J in. Deck. 

2 in. Conning tower. 
Torpedo Tubes. 
I Submerged bow. 
Twin screw. Hp. 4,000=20 kts. 

Clasp-hook. A split iron clasp moving on a 
pivot. 



*' Bofors steel." 
j- in. Deck. 



dassifloation. See Lloyd's Registry of British 
and Foreign Shipping and Bureau Veritas. 

Clas Uggla. Swedish torpedo gun-boat (1899). 

Length 223ft. Beam 27jft. Maximum draught 9ft. 

Displacement 700 tons. Complement 99. 

Guns, Armour. 

2 — 47 in. 
4 — 6 pdr. 

3 in. Conning tower. 
Torpedo Tubes, 
I Submerged bow. 
Twin screw. Hp. 4,000=20 kts. 

Clauses. In marine insurance policies marginal 
printed clauses take precedence if they differ from 
the body of the policy, and written clauses take 
precedence over printed claU^s. As Judge Duer 
expressed the difference : The printed words may 
not express the intentions of the parties, the 
written words certainly do. More importance is 
attached to clauses and conditions introduced by 
the parties themselves than to customary forms of 
expression. 

Amould gives two valuable rules of practice on 
the subject : 

(i) The provision of the text and clauses of the 
policy in favour of the assured are throughout 
taken to be cumulative, and not restrictive or 
exclusive of one another ; in other words, extra 
clauses added to the policy with the intention of 
adding to the extent of the assured's indemnity 
are not allowed to deprive him of any indemnity 
he may have under the original text. For instance, 
in Hagedom v, Whitmore (i Stark 157) the exist- 
ence of a special clause dealing with the payment 
of damages to liners was not allowed to deprive 
the assured of a claim for damage which he had on 
the policy in the ordinary printed form. 

(2) Any ambiguity in an exception to, or re- 
striction of, the terms of a poUcy is taken in a 
sense least favourable to the underwriters. The 
ground for this apparent hard treatment of one 
of the parties to the contract is given by C. J. 
Cockburn in Notmen v. Anchor Insurance Co. 
(4 C.B., N.S., 481), namely, " the policy being the 
language of the coinpany must, if there be any 
ambiguity in it. be taken most strongly against 
them " (Arnould, 5th ed., p. 805, etc. ; Marshall, 
p. 229). 

American Average Clauses. — No partial loss 
or particular average shall be paid in any case 
unless amounting to 5 per cent Bread, flax, ^ax- 
seed, and sugar are free from particular average 
under 7%. Coffee and pepper (in bags or bulk) 
and rice are free from particular average under 
10%. Cassia (q^cept in boxes), hemp, matting, 
tobacco stems are free from particular average 
under 20%. 

The following are free from particular average : 

Bags and bagging (and articles used for), car- 
riages (pleasure), cheese, cotton bagging, fish (dry). 



CLAUSES 



127 



Clauses 



fruits (preserved or otherwis«), furniture (house 
hold), grain (all kinds), hay, hempen yam, hides, 
Indian meal, iron (bar, bundle, rod, hoop, sheet), 
looking-glasses, madder, musical instruments, rags, 
roots, salt, skins, steel, sumac, tin plates, tobacco, 
vegetables, wicker-ware, willow (manufactured or 
otherwise), wire (all kinds), and all other articles 
that are perishable in their own nature. 

Warranted by the insured free from damage or 
injury, from dampness, change of flavour, or being 
spotted, discoloured, musty, or mouldy, except 
caused by actual contact of sea water with the 
articles damaged occasioned by sea perils. Not 
liable for leakage of molasses or other liquids 
unless occasioned by stranding or collision with 
another vessel. 

N.B. — The warranty " free from average " ; 
free from average under 5 % unless general is not 
qualified by the important exception customary 
in the English policy " or unless the vessel be 
stranded, sunk, or burnt." 

Average Clauses. — Being only to cover the 
risks excepted by the clause " f.p.a. unless stranded, 
etc.," but no claim to attach hereto unless it 
amount to % on the whole interest. 

Bnx OF Lading Clause. — Including all liberties 
as per Bill of Lading. 

Bonded Prices. — In case of claim for particular 
average bonded prices are to be taken as the basis 
of settlement, specially in the case of tea, tobacco, 
coffee, wine, and spirits imported into this country 
—a. rule of the Average Adjusters' Association 
(q,v.). 

Bottomry Clause. — To pay such proportion of 
the £ as may be recovered in consequence of the 
surety being destroyed or diminished in value by 
reason of the perils insured against, or of any 
subsequent bond or bonds. 

Capture Clause. — Warranted free of capture, 
seizure, and detention, and the consequences 
thereof, or of any attempt thereat, piracy excepted, 
and also from all consequences of hostilities or 
warlike operations, whether before or after de- 
claration of war. 

Cattle Clauses. — Against all risks, including 
mortality and jettison arising from any cause 
whatsoever. Animals walking ashore, or when 
slung from the vessel, walking after being taken 
out of the sling, to be deemed arrived, and no 
claim to attach to this policy on such animals. 
Each animal to be deemed a separate insurance. 

(b) Warranted free from mortality unless caused 
by the stranding, sinking, or burning of the ship, 
or by collision with another ship or vessel. 

(c) Liable only in case of total loss of vessel 
and of animals, or for payment of general average 
levied on all interests. 

Continuation Clauses. — Skip or Ships 
policies. — " In the event of any shipment coming 
upon this poUcy, the value of which is in excess 
of the sum then remaining available, it is mutually 



agreed that the underwriters shall grant a policy 
for such excess up to but not beyond the amount 
of this policy, and the assured shall pay the premium 
thereon at the same rate. 

Time Steamers, — (a) Should the vessel hereby 
insured be at sea on the expiration of this policy, 
it is agreed to hold her covered until arrival at 
port of destination at a premium to be arranged, 
provided due notice be given on or before the 
expiration of this policy. 

(6) Should the be at sea on 

the day of , 190. . . ., it is 

hereby agreed to issue a policy covering the vessel 
from that date in accordance with the continuation 
clause contained in the original policy or policies. 

Cotton. — ^To pay average on each 10 bales 
running landing numbers, or on the whole, and on 
pickings without reference to series or percentage. 

With liberty to stop and stay at ports and places 
to tranship, to compress, and to lighten* 

It is understood and agreed that this insurance 
attaches as soon as the cotton becomes the pro- 
perty of the assured, or is at their risk, and covers 
said cotton in presses, jrards, railroad dep6ts, or 
wherever it may be, and continues so to attach 
until safely landed at the port of destination. This 
policy also covers cotton intended for interior 
points in Europe until its delivery at the mills, if 
with customary despatch and when so specified in 
the certificate of insurance. 

Including risk of craft to and from the vessel. 
Each lighter or craft to be considered as if sepa- 
rately insured. Held covered in event of deviation 
provide the same be communicated to assurers 
as soon as known to the assured, and an additional 
premium paid if required. 

Warranted by the assured free from any liability 
for merchandise in the possession of any carrier 
or other bailee, who may be liable for any loss or 
damage thereto ; and for merchandise shipped under 
a bill of lading containing a stipulation that the 
carrier may have the benefit of any insurance 
thereon. 

It is by the assured expressly stipulated in re- 
spect to land carriers that no right of subrogation 
is, or is to be abrogated or impaired by or through 
any agreement intended to relieve a carrier from 
duties or obligations imposed or recognised by the 
common law or otherwise. 

The insurance on cotton hereunder shall in all 
cases be null and void to the extent of any insurance 
with any fire insurance companies, directly or in- 
directly covering upon the same property, whether 
prior or subsequent hereto in date. 

In case of loss prior to issue of certificate or 
policy, and negotiation of exchange for purchase of 
cotton, the liability under this insurance is not to 
exceed the cost of the cotton and charges added^ 
except in cases where the assured is compelled by 
his contract to replace the cotton destroyed, in 
which cases the actual cost of the new cotton, and 



CLAUSES 



128 



CLAUSES 



of pl&cing it where the old cotton was lost, shall 
be the limit of claim, provided it does not exceed 
the sum insured. Refer to Particular Average. 

Craft. — Special Clause, — Including all risks of 
craft lighterage and /or any other conveyances by 
land or by water from the time of leaving manu- 
factory, and /or warehouse, and /or import steamer, 
and /or ship, and /or docks until on board the 
vessel, and from the vessel until safely delivered 
into consignee's warehouse or destination in the 
interior, and of fire while waiting shipment, and all 
risks incidental to steam navigation or otherwise, 
and transhipment and all liberties and conditions 
as per Bills of Lading, including negligence clause. 
Each craft, or lighter, or package to be deemed a 
separate insurance. Including all risk of theft 
and /or pilferage. 

SuLiNA Craft Clause. — Including all risk of 
craft, especially at Sulina, and /or in the River 
Danube, or from ports or places in the River 
Danube, to the vessels at Sulina. 

Azof Craft Clause. — Including all risk of craft, 
especially at Yenikale and the Sea of Azof, or 
from ports or places in the Sea of Azof to Yenikale. 
C.T.L. Clause. — In the event of total and /or 
constructive total loss no claim shall be used by 
underwriters on ship in respect of freight. 
Customary Average Clauses : 

Arrowroot. — Each 20 bris., or 50 tins. 
Cigars. — Each case. 
Cochineal. — Each bale, or 5 packages. 
Cinnamon. — Each 5 bales. 
Coffee. — Every 10 hogsheads, tierces, or casks, 
20 brls. or 50 bags running landing numbers.. 

CocoantU Oi/.-;-To pay average if damage 
amount to 3% on each series of 5 pipes, 10 pun- 
cheons, or 20 hogsheads original numbers. 

Cotton Seed Cake, — f.p.a. under 10% on the 
total interest (American). 

Cotton, — American and Egyptian. Each 
10 bales running landing numbers, or on the 
whole, and on pickings without references and 
series or percentage. East Indies black leaf dis- 
coloration not admissible unless bale so affected 
had been in actual contact with sea water or fire. 
Flax and Hemp* — Each interest mark or 
quality (or each 5 tons or 20 packages) as raised 
from the ship's hold. 
Fish Oil. — Each cask. 
Flour. — Every ;iioo value (Sago flour). 
Ginger. — Every Rs. 1,000 value running land- 
ing numbers (5 %). 

Goods (Manchester). — Each package. 

Hides. — Each 1,000 hides, if amounting to 

10%. 

Hops. — Subject to 10% particular average. 

Indigo. — Each package. 
. Jute (Calcutta to Dundee). — 5 % each 250 bales. 

Lac Dye. — Each package. 

Leather. — 5 % each bale particular average. 

Mohair. — Each bale. 



Myrobalans. — Each 500 bags ; each ;£ioo value 

if 5%. 

Palm Kernels. — Every 8 tons running landing 
numbers. . 

Olive oil. — Each 10 casks or 5 tons running 
landing numbers. 

Opium. — ^Each package. 

Palm oil. — Each 3 tons or 5 cask running land> 
ing numbers. 

Pepper. — Each 50 bags. 

Pimento. — Every 10 bags running landing 
numbers. 

Rape oil. — Each 5 tons. 

Rape seed. — Each 500 bags running landing 
numbers (5%). 

Rice (Calcutta and Rice ports). — Each 50 bags, 
100 bags, or 200 bags, according to arrangement, 
outward, if cleaned, each 50 bags. 

Rum. — Each mark or interest. 

Sago. — Each 20 boxes. 

Saltpetre. — Each 100 bags. 

Senna. — Each 5 bales. 

Sheep skins and skins. — Each bale or £100 
value. 

Shellac. — Each package. 

Silk. — Each bale. 

Sugar. — Each 20 baskets or 50 bags. Each 
25 baskets or 300 bags. 

Tea. — Each 10 chests, 20 half chests, or 40 
quarter chests following landing numbers. 

Tin plates. — Each 100 boxes ; each 50 boxes. 

Tobacco.- — Each 10 hogsheads, 10 boxes, 50 
bags, or 10 tierces. 

Wool. — ^Mediterranean and Black Sea, each 
5 bales. Cape, each bale ; Cameli wool, each 5 
bales ; River Plate, each 5 bales ; East Indian, 
each TO bales running landing numbers ; W.C.S. 
America, each bale ; Australia and New Zealand, 
each bale. 

Deckload Clause. — In and over all. Inclu- 
ding risk of craft and /or craft to and from the 
vessel also deck -load. Refer to Jettison clause. 

Destination Clauses. — (a) Warranted free of 
all average, but to pay a total loss on such portion 
as does not reach its destination. 

(b) Warranted free of all average but to pay a 
total loss on such portion as does not reach its desti- 
nation in the ship. 

Detention Clause. — Warranted free from any 
claim, consequent on loss of time, whether arising 
from a peril of the sea or other\vise. 

Deviation Clause. — In the event of the vessel 
making any deviation or change of voyage, it is 
mutually agreed that such deviation or change 
shall be arranged, provided due notice be given by 
the assured on receipt of advice of such deviation 
or change of voyage. 

Diminishing Clause. — It is agreed that the 
amount of risk shall be reduced by one-twelfth for 
each expired month. 



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129 



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F.a.a. — ^Warranted free from all average, with- 
out benefit of salvage. Warranted free from all 
average without benefit of salvage, but to pay a 
total loss on such portion as does not reach its 
destination. 

F.G.A. — General average and salvage charges 
payable according to foreign statement or per York- 
Antwerp rules, if in accordance with the contract 
of affreightment {q.v.). 

F.p.a. (Old clauses). — (a) Warranted free from 
particular average unless the vessel or craft be 
stranded, sunk, or burnt, each craft or lighter 
being deemed a separate insurance. 

Underwriters, notwithstanding this warranty, to 
pay for any damage or loss caused by fire or by 
collision with any other ship or craft, or with ice, 
or any substance other than water, and any special 
charges for warehouse rent, reshipping, or for- 
warding, for which they would otherwise be liable. 
Also to pay the insured value of any package or 
packages which may be totally lost in tranship- 
ment. 

(6) Warranted free from particular average, unless 
the vessel or craft be stranded, sunk, burnt, or on 
fire, or strike the ground, pier, quay, bridge, or 
against any other object, whether stationary or 
floating on the water, especially ice, or in collision 
(the collision to be of such a nature as may be 
reasonably supposed to have caused the damage), 
or vessel put into a port of distress and discharge 
cargo. Each craft or lighter to be deemed a 
separate insurance, but to pay landing, ware- 
housing, forwarding and special charges, if incurred, 
including partial loss from the wharf or quay into 
craft, and vice versa, as well as loss in transhipment. 
General average payable as per foreign statement, 
or York- Antwerp rules if so made up, irrespective of 
insured value. Including all risks of act of default, 
error of judgment, of pilot, master, or crew. In 
the event of any deviation or change of voyage, it is 
hereby agreed to hold- the assured covered at a 
premium to be arranged. 

(c) Warranted free from particular average 
unless the vessel and /or the interest hereby insured 
be stranded, sunk, on fire, or in collision ; or a fire 
occur on board by reason of which loss or damage is 
caused to the interest hereby assured ; each craft 
or lighter being deemed a separate insurance. 

Underwriters, notwithstanding this warranty, to 
pay for any loss or damage which may reasonably 
be supposed to have been caused by vessel or craft 
being in contact with any substance other than 
ixrater, ice included, and any special charges for 
'warehouse rent, reshipping or forwarding, for 
which they would otherwise be liable, also to pay 
partial loss arising from transhipment. 

This poUcy to hold the assured covered on interest 
as above by the vessel as above and /or craft and/or 
any other steamer or steamers, ship or ships, and /or 
any other conveyance or conveyances, until safely 
delivered at destination as above, or until lost. 



Including all risk whilst waiting shipment and /or 
reshipment. and all other risks and losses by land 
and water until delivered into the warehouse or 
other places for which the goods have been entered, 
or in which it is intended they shall be finally 
lodged, whether previously discharged or landed 
elsewhere within the port or place of destination 
or not, with or without recourse against lightermen, 
and all risk of craft and /or craft and /or boats 
especially to and from the ship or vessel and /or of 
any special lighterage, each craft and /or lighter to 
be deemed a separate insurance. Deck-load to be 
deemed a separate insurance. 

With leave to call and stay at any ports and /or 
places in and /or out of the way for orders and /or 
any other purposes whatsoever necessary or other- 
wise. 

General average and salvage charges payable 
according to foreign statement if so claimed, or as 
per York-Antwerp rules, or as per York-Antwerp 
rules, 1890, if in accordance with the contract of 
a&eightment. 

Including all liberties and exceptions and /or 
exemptions as per charter-party, and /or new and /or 
bill of lading. Including negligence clause. 

Including all risk of negligence, default and/or 
error in judgment of master, mariners, engineers, 
pilots, or any others of the crew. 

Seaworthiness of vessel admitted as between the 
assured and underwriters. 

Including risk by rail and /or inland conveyances 
from warehouse in interior and whilst awaiting 
shipment, and whilst on quay at port of discharge. 

The above clauses and conditions are additional 
to those contained in the annexed policy, and so 
far as they are inconsistent therewith are to super- 
sede the same. 

F.p.a. — New clause called F.p.a. and port of 
distress clause. 

Warranted free from particular average, unless 
the ship or craft be stranded, sunk, on fire, or unless 
there be a forced discharge of cargo at a port of 
distress, or in collision (the collision to be of such a 
nature as may reasonably be supposed to have 
caused or led to the damage claimed for), but to 
pay landing, warehousing, forwarding, and special 
charges, if incurred ; also partial loss arising from 
transhipment. 

Including all risk of craft, or otherwise, to and 
from the vessel, each craft or lighter to be deemed 
a separate insurance. 

Freight Contingency Clause. — On increased 
value on arrival by payment of freight and /or 
charges being against the risk of depreciation by 
perils insured against only ; total loss and /or loss 
of a part to be deemed an arrival, but to include all 
risks of craft and /or raft at destination, and the 
risk of loss of the whole or part after the freight 
may have become due. 

General Clauses. — Including risk per any con- 
veyance to destination, and for not exceeding seven 

F 



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130 



CLAUSES 



days from noon of date delivery order is accepted 
by buyers. 

In the event of claim to pay average as customary. 

In the event of claim for particular average, the 
same to be ascertained by comparison of the sound 
and damaged prices, after the deduction of freight 
and duty. Refer to Particular Average. 

Held covered whilst on quay awaiting shipment, 
and /or in warehouse. 

Including risk from taking possession and until 
on shipboard. 

Held covered on wharves, and /or quays, and /or 
in warehouse, awaiting shipment, and /or until 
forwarded to destination or elsewhere. 

All losses and claims arising under this policy to 
be settled according to the usage and customs of 
Lloyd's. 

Average as customary. 

Grain Clause. — Including all risk of craft to and 
from the vessel, especially from the vessel when 
discharging in the river, or in any dock on the 
Liverpool side of the river to the grain warehouses ; 
each lighter or craft to be considered a separate 
risk. 

Grounding Clause. — [a) Grounding in the Suez 
Canal, River Danube, and Demerara, or on the 
Yenikale Bar not to be considered a stranding. 

(5) Grounding in canals, harbours, or tidal river 
not to be deemed a strand. 

Manchester Ship Canal Clatise. — Grounding in the 
Manchester Ship Canal or its connections, on the 
River Mersey above Rock Ferry slip, if occurring on 
a voyage to or from a point on the Manchester Ship 
Canal shall not be deemed to be a strand. 

Guarantee of Underwriters' Clause. — ^A.B. 
having guaranteed the solvency of the under- 
writers on this policy, we the said underwriters 
agree that in case of loss or other demand the same 
shall be placed to our account, and shall be held to 
be part payment of any money due or that may 
become due from the said A.B., but in the event of 
a claim under this policy we are at Uberty, as 
against the assurers, to set oft against it moneys 
due or becoming due to us from the said A.B. 

Honour Policies (attached to the policy). — 
" In the event of loss this policy is to be deemed 

sufficient proof of interest No 

Per " " It is understood and agreed that 

full interest is admitted on this policy." 

Ice Clause. — Should the navigation be inter- 
rupted by ice, the captain to have liberty to pro- 
ceed to and discharge at any neighbouring port ; 
the risk to continue until safe arrival of the goods 
at their destination by land carriage or otherwise. 

Inland Conveyance. — (a) Including all risks, 
including fire from the warehouse to the ship, and 
while on wharf or quay, or in stores or elsewhere 
awaiting shipment, and till on board. 

(6) This addition to (a) and by any conveyance 
from the vessel's place of discharge to the final 
destination of the goods. 



Inland Risk Clause. — {Outward) Including all 
risks of inland conveyance to place of shipment, 
and of fire in transit, and whilst awaiting shipment 
in docks, warehouse or elsewhere. 

(Inward.) Including risks per inland convey- 
ances from port of discharge to destination. 

{Manchester outward.) Including the risk from 
Manchester to place of shipment by railway and 
for other conveyance, and of fire in transit, and 
whilst waiting in docks, warehouses, or elsewhere. 

Institute Builder's Clauses (1906). — ^This 
insurance is also to cover all risks, including 
fire, while under construction and/or fitting out, 
except in buildings or workshops, but including 
materials in ^'ards and docks of the assured, or on 
quays, pontoons, craft, etc., and all risk which in 
transit to and from the works and /or the vessel 
wherever she may be lying, also all risks of loss or 
damage through collapse of supports or ways from 
any cause whatever, and all risks of launching 
and brealfing of the ways. 

Ihis insurance is also to cover all risks of trial 
trips as often as required, and all risks whilst pro- 
ceeding to and returning from trial course. 

With leave to proceed to and from any wet or 
dry docks, harbours, ways, cradles, and pontoons 
during the currency of this policy. 

In case of launch failure, underwriters to bear all 
subsequent expenses incurred in completing launch. 

Average payable irrespective of percentage, and 
without deduction of one-third, whether the average 
be particular or general. 

General average and salvage charges as per 
foreign custom, payable as per foreign statement, 
and /or per York- Antwerp rules, if required ; and in 
the event of salvage, towage, or other assistance 
being rendered to the vessel hereby insured by any 
vessel belonging in part or in whole to the same 
owners, it is hereby agreed that the value of such 
service (without regard to the common ownership 
of the vessels) shall be ascertained by arbitration in 
the manner hereinafter provided for under Collision 
clause, and the amount so awarded, so far as applica- 
ble to the interest hereby insured shall constitute 
a charge under this policy. 

In the event of deviation to be held covered at an 
additional premium to be hereinafter arranged. 

To cover while building all damage to hull, 
machinery, apparel, or furniture, caused by settling 
of the stocks, or of hoisting or other gear, either 
before or after launching, and while fitting out. 

With leave to increase value. 

It is also agreed that any changes of interest 
in the steamer hereby insured shall not affect the 
validity of the poUcy. 

And it is expressly declared and agreed that no 
acts of insurer or insured in recovering, saving, or 
preserving the property insured shall be considered 
as a waiver or acceptance of abandonment. 

This insurance also specially to cover loss of or 
damage to the hull or machinery, through negli- 



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131 



CLAUSES 



gence of master, mariners, engineers, or pilots, or 
through explosions, bursting of boilers, breakage of 
shafts, or through any latent defect in the machinery 
or hull, or from explosions, riots, or .other 
causes of whatever nature, arising either on shore 
or otherwise, howsoever causing loss of or injury 
to the property hereby insured, provided such loss 
or damage has not resulted from want of due 
diligence by the owners of the ship or any of them, 
or by the manager, and to cover all risks incidental 
to steam navigation, or iu graving docks. 

Instituts Builder's Collision Clause. — ^And 
it is further agreed that if the ship hereby insured 
shall come into collision with any other ship or 
vessel, and the assured shall in consequence thereof 
become liable to pay, and shall pay by way of 
damages to any other person or persons any sum or 
sums not exceeding in respect of any one such 
collision the value of the ship hereby insured, we 
the assurers will pay the assured such proportion of 
such sum or sums so paid as our subscriptions 
hereto bear to the value of the ship hereby insured. 
And in cases where the liability of the ship has been 
contested with a consent in writing, of a majority 
of the underwriters on the hull and /or machinery 
(in amoimt). We will also pay a like proportion 
of the costs thereby incurred or paid ; but when, 
both vessels are to blame, then, unless the liability 
of the owners of one or both such vessels become 
limited by law, claims under this collision clause 
shall be settled on the principles of Cross Liabilities, 
as if the owners of each vessel had been compelled 
to pay to the owners of the other of such vessels 
such one half or other proportion of the latter's 
damages as may have been properly allowed in 
ascertaining the balance or sum payable by or to 
the assured in consequence of such collision. 

And it is further agreed that the principles in- 
volved in this clause shall apply to the case where 
both vessels are the property in part or whole of the 
same owners, all questions of responsibility and 
amount of liability as between the two ships being 
left to the decision of a single arbitrator, or failing 
such agreement to the decision of arbitrators, one 
to be appointed by the managing owners of both 
vessels, and one to be appointed by the majority 
in amount of underwriter's interest in each vessel ; 
the two arbitrators chosen to choose a third 
arbitrator before entering upon the reference. 
The terms of the Arbitration Act of 1889 to apply 
to such reference, and the decision of such single 
or of any two of such three arbitrators, appointed 
as above, to be final and binding. 

This clause shall also extend to any sum which 
the assured may become liable to pay, or shall pay 
for the removal of obstructions under statutory 
powers, for injury to harbours, wharves, piers, 
stages, and similar structures, or for loss of life or 
personal injury consequent on such collision. 

Institute Builder's Protection and Indem- 
nity Clause. — And we further agree that if the 



assured shall become liable to pay, and shall pay 
sum or sums in respect of any responsibility, 
claim, demand, damages, and/or expenses, or shall 
incur any other loss arising from or occasioned by 
any of the following matters or things during tne 
currency of this policy in respect of the ship hereby 
insured, that is to say : 

Loss or damage in respect of any other ship or 
boat or in respect of any goods, merchandise, 
freight, or other things or interests, whatsoever, on 
board such other ship or boat caused proximately 
or otherwise by the ship insured in so far as the 
same is not covered by the running down clause 
hereto attached. 

Loss or damage to any goods, merchandise, 
freight or other things of interest whatsoever, 
other than as aforesaid, whether on board the said 
steamer or not, which may arise from any cause 
whatever. 

Loss of or damage to any harbour, dock, graving, 
or otherwise, slipway, way, gridiron, pontoon, pier, 
quay, jetty, stage, buoy, telegraph cable, or other 
fixed or movable thing whatsoever, or to any goods 
or property in or on the same, howsoever caused. 

Any attempt or actual raising, removal or 
destruction of the wreck of the said steamship or 
the cargo thereof, or any neglect or failure to raise, 
remove or destroy the same. 

Any sum or sums from which the insured may 
become liable to incur from causes not hereinbefore 
specified, but which are or have heretofore been 
absolutely or conditionally recoverable from or 
undertaken by the Liverpool and London Steam- 
ship Protection Association, Limited, and/or North 
of England Protecting and Indemnity Association, 
but excluding loss of life and personal injury. 

We will pay the assured such proportion of such 
sum or sums so paid, or which may be required to 
indemnify the assured for such loss, as our respec- 
tive subscriptions bear to the policy value of the 
ship hereby insured, and in case the liability of 
the assured has been contested with tlie consent in 
writing of the majority of the underwriters, or the 
ship hereby insured in amount, wc will also pay a 
like proportion of the costs which tlie assured shall 
thereby incur, or be compelled to pay. 

Institute Time Clauses (1906). — And it is 
further agreed that if the ship hereby insured shall 
come into collision with any other ship or vessel, 
and the assured shall^in consequence thereof 
become liable to pay, and^shall^pay by way of 
damages to any other person or persons any sum 
or sums not exceeding in respect of any one such 
collision the value of the ship hereby insured, this 
company will pay the assured such proportion of 
three-fourths of such sum or sums so paid as its 
subscription hereto bears to the value of the ship 
hereby insured, and in cases in which the liability 
of the ship has been contested, or proceedings have 
been taken to limit liabiUty, with the consent in 
writing of this company, the company will also 

F 2 



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132 



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pay a like three-fourths of the costs which the 
assured shall thereby incur, or be compelled to pay ; 
but when both vessels are to blame then unless 
the liability of the owners of one or both of such 
vessels become limited by law, claims under this 
clause shall be settled on the principles of cross 
liabilities, as if the owner of each vessel had been 
compelled to pay to the owners of the other of such 
vessels such one-half or other proportion of the 
latter's damages as may have been properly 
allowed in ascertaining the balance, or sum payable 
by or to the assured in consequence of such col- 
lision. 

Provided always that this clause shall in no case 
extend to any sum which the assured may become 
liable to pay or shall pay for the removal of obstruc- 
tions under statutory powers, for injury to harbours, 
wharves, piers, stages, and similar structures, 
consequent on such collision, or in respect of the 
cargo or engagement of the insured vessel, or for 
loss of life or personal injury. 

Should the vessel hereby insured come into 
collision with or receive salvage service from 
another vessel belonging wholly or in part to the 
same owners, or under the same management, the 
assured shall have the same rights under this 
policy as they would have were the other vessel en- 
tirely the property of owners not interested in the 
vessel hereby insured ; but in such cases the 
liability for the collision or the amount payable 
for the services rendered shall be referred to a sole 
arbitrator, to be agreed upon between the under- 
writers and the assured. 

In port and at sea, in docks and graving docks, 
and on ways, gridirons, and pontoons, at all times, 
in all places, and on all occasions, services and 
trades whatever and wheresoever, under steam or 
sail, with leave to sail with or without pilots, to tow 
and assist vessels or craft in all situations, and to 
be towed and to go on trial trips. 

Should the vessel at the expiration of this policy 
be at sea, or in distress, or at a port of refuge or of 
call, she shall, provided previous notice is given to 
the underwriters, be held covered at a pro rata 
monthly premium, to her port of destination. 

Held covered in case of any breach of warranty 
as to cargo, trade, locality or date of sailing, pro- 
vided notice be given and any additional premium 
required be agreed immediately after receipt of 
advices. 

Should the vessel be sold or transferred to new 
management, then, unless the underwriters agree 
in writing to such sale or transfer, this policy shall 
thereupon become cancelled from date of sale or 
transfer, unless the vessel has cargo on board and 
has already sailed from her loading port, or is at sea 
in ballast, in either of which cases such cancellation 
shall be suspended until arrival at final port of 
discharge if with cargo, or at port of destination if 
in ballast. K pro rata daily return of premium 
shall be made. 



This insurance also specially to cover (subject to 
free of average warranty) loss of, or damage to hull 
or fnacliinery through the negligence of master, 
mariners, engineers, or pilots, or crew not to be 
considered as part owners within the meaning of 
this clause should they hold shares in the steamer. 

General average and salvage charges to be ad^ 
justed according to the law and practice obtaining 
at the place where the adventure ends, as if the 
contract of affreightment contained no special 
terms relating to general average and salvage 
charges, except that, where the contract of affreight- 
ment provides for the application of York-Antwerp 
rules, or, in cases of wood cargoes, York-Antwerp 
rules omitting the first word of Rule I, underwriters 
shall pay in accordance with such provisions. 

Average payable on each valuation separately, 
or on the whole, without deduction of thirds, new 
for old whether the average be particular or general. 

Donkey boilers, winches, cranes, windlasses, 
steering gear, and electric light apparatus shall be 
deemed to be part of the hull, and not part of the 
machinery. Refrigerating machinery and insulation 
not covered unless expressly included in the policy. 

Warranted free from particular average under 
3% but nevertheless when the vessel shall have been 
stranded, sunk, on fire, or in collision "with any 
other ship or vessel, underwriters shall pay the 
damage occasioned thereby, and the expense of 
sighting the bottom after stranding shall be paid if 
reasonably incurred, even if no damage is found. 

No claim shall in any case be allowed in respect 
of scraping or painting the vessel's bottom. 

Grounding in the Suez Canal, or in the Manches- 
ter Ship Canal, or its connections, or in the River 
Mersey above Rock Ferry SUp, or in the River 
Plate (above Buenos Aires) or its tributaries, or in 
the Danube, Demerara, or Bilbao River, or in the 
Yenikale or Bilbao Bar, shall not be deemed to be a 
stranding. 

The warranty and conditions as to average 
under 3% to be applicable to each voyage as if 
separately insured, and a voyage shall be deemed to 
commence at one of the following periods to be 
selected by the assured when making up the claim, 
viz, : at any time at which the vessel (i) begins to 
load cargo or (2) sails in ballast to a loading port. 
Such voyage shall be deemed to continue during 
the ensuing period until either she has made one 
outward and one homeward passage (including an 
intermediate ballast passage, if made) or has 
carried or discharged two cargoes, whichever 
may first happen, and further in either case, until 
she begins to load a subsequent cargo or sails in 
ballast for a loading port. 

When the vessel sails in ballast to effect damage 
repair such sailing shall not be deemed to be a saiUng 
for a loading port, although she loads at the repair- 
ing port. In calculating the 3% above referred to, 
particular average occurring outside the period 
covered by the policy may be added to particular 



CLAUSES 



t$i 



CLAUSES 



average occurring within such period, provided 
it occur upon the same voyage (as above defined), 
but only that portion of the claim arising within 
such period shall be recoverable hereon. The com- 
mencement of a voyage shall not be so fixed as to 
overlap another voyage on which a claim is made 
on this or the preceding policy. 

In no case shall underwriters be liable for un- 
repaired damages in addition to a subsequent total 
loss sustained during the term covered by this 
policy. 

The insured value shall be taken as the repaired 
value in ascertaining whether the vessel is a con- 
structive total loss. 

In the event of total or constructive total loss 
no claim to be made by the underwriters for freight, 
whether notice of abandonment has been given or 
not. 

In the event of accident whereby loss or damage 
may result in a claim under this policy, notice shall 
be given in writing to the under wri ter s , where 
practicable, and if abroad, to the nearest Lloyd's 
agent also, prior to survey, so that they may 
appoint their own surveyor if they so desire ; and 
whenever the extent of the damage is ascertainable 
the underwriters may take or may require the 
assured to take tenders for the repair of such 
damage. In cases where a tender is accepted by or 
with the approval of underwriters, the underwriters 
will make an allowance at the rate of £$o per cent, 
per annum on the insured value for the time actually 
lost in waiting for tenders. In the event of the 
assured failing to comply with the conditions of 
the clause, £t 5 per cent, shall be deducted from the 
amount of the ascertained claim. 

Warranted free of capture, seizure, and detention, 
and the consequence thereof, or any attempt 
thereat, piracy excepted, and also from all conse- 
quences of hostilities, or warlike operations, 
whether before or after declaration of war. 

per cent, for each uncom« 

menced month if it be mutually agreed to 

cancel this policy, as follows 

for each consecutive 30 days the vessel 

To return may be laid up in port, vix, : — 

and per cent, if in the United King- 
dom not arrival under 

average. 

per cent, under average, or if 

abroad 

Institute Voyage Clauses. — And it is further 
agreed that if the ship hereby insured shall come 
into collision with any other ship or vessel, and 
the assured shall in consequence thereof become 
liable to pay, and shall pay by way of damages to 
any person or persons any sum or sums not exceed- 
ing in respect of any one such collision the value of 
the ship hereby insured, this company will pay the 
assured such proportion of three-fourths of such 
sum or sums so paid as its subscription hereto 
bears to the value of the ship hereby insured '; and 



in cases in which the liability of the ship has been 
contested, or proceedings have been taken to limit 
liability, with the consent in writing of this com- 
pany, the company will also pay alike proportion 
of three-fourths of the costs which the assured shall 
thereby incur or be compelled to pay ; but when 
both vessels are to blame, then unless the liability 
of the owners of both of such vessels become limited 
by law, claims under this clause shall be settled on 
the principle of cross-liabilities, as if the owners of 
each vessel had been compelled to pay to the 
owners of the other of such vessels such one-half 
or other proportion of the latter's damages as may 
have been properly allowed in ascertaining the 
balance or sum payable by or to the assured, in 
consequence of such collision. 

Provided always that this clause shall in no case 
extend to any sum which the assured may become 
liable to pay, or shall pay for the removal of obstruc- 
tions under statutory powers, for injury to harbours, 
wharves, piers, stages, and similar structures, con- 
sequent on such collision, or in respect of the cargo 
or engagements of the insured vessel, or for loss of 
life or personal injury. 

Should the vessel hereby insured come into 
collision with or receive salvage service from any 
other vessel belonging wholly or in part to the same 
owners, or under the same management, the 
assured shall have the same rights under this policy 
as they would have were the other vessel entirely 
the property of owners not interested in the vessel 
hereby insured ; but in such cases of liability for 
the collision, or the amount payable for the services 
rendered shall be referred to a sole arbitrator to be 
agreed upon between the underwriters and the 
assured. 

This insurance also specially to cover (subjject 
to the free of average warranty) loss of or damage to 
hull or machinery through the negligence of the 
master, mariners, engineers, or pilots, or through 
explosion, bursting of the boilers, breaking of the 
shafts, or through any latent defect in the ma- 
chinery or hull, provided such loss or damage has 
not resulted from want of due diligence by the 
owners of the ship, or any of them, or by the 
manager, master, mates, engineers^ pilots, or crew, 
not to be considered as part of the owners within 
the meaning of this clause should they hold shares 
in the steamer. 

General average and salvage charges payable 
according to the foreign statement or per York- 
Antwerp Rules, if in accordance with the contract 
of affreightment. 

Average payable on each valuation separately or 
on the whole without deduction of thirds, new for 
old, whether the average be particular or general. 

Donkey boilers, winches, cranes, windlasses, 
steering gear, and electric light apparatus shall be 
deemed to be part of the hull and not of the ma- 
chinery. Refrigerating machinery and insulation 
not covered unless expressly included in this policy. 



CLAUSES 



134 



CLAUSES 



Warranted free from particular average under 
3%, but nevertheless when the vessel shall have 
been stranded, sunk, on fire, or in collision with any 
other ship or vessel, underwriters to pay the damage 
occasioned thereby. No claim shall be allowed in 
respect of scraping or painting the vessel's bottom, 
whether she be stranded or not ; but the expense 
of sightingTthe bottom after stranding shall be 
paid, if reasonably incurred, even if no damage be 
found. 

Grounding in the Suez Canal or in the Manchester 
Ship Canal or its connections, or in the River 
Mersey, above Rock Ferry Slip, or in the River Plate 
(above Buenos Aires) or its tributaries, or in the 
Danube, Demerara, or Bilbao River, or in the 
Yenikale or Bilbao Bar shall not be deemed to be a 
stranding. 

The insured value shall be taken as the repaired 
value in ascertaining whether the vessd is a con- 
structive total loss. 

In the event of accident whereby loss or damage 
may result in a claim under this policy, notice shall 
be given in writing to the underwriters where prac- 
ticable, and, if abroad, to the nearest Lloyd's agent 
also, prior to survey, so that they may appoint 
their own surveyor if they so desire ; and whenever 
the event of the damage is ascertainable, the under- 
writers may take or may require the assured to take 
tenders for the repair of such damage. In cases 
where a tender is accepted by or with the approval 
of underwriters, the underwriters will make an 
allowance at the rate of £$0 per cent, per annum on 
the insured value for the time actually lost in 
waiting for tenders. In the event of the assured 
failing to comply with the conditions of the clause, 
£1$ per cent, shall be deducted from the amount of 
the ascertained claim. 

Warranted free of capture, seizure and detention, 
and the consequences thereof or any attempt there- 
at, piracy excepted, and also from all consequences 
of hostihties, or warlike operations, whether 
before or after declaration of war. 

Held covered in case of deviation or change of 
voyage provided notice be given, and any addi- 
tional premiums required be agreed immediately 
after receipt of advices. 

With leave to sail with or without pilots, and to 
tow and assist vessels or craft in all situations, and 
to be towed. 

With leave to dock and undock and go into 
graving dock. 

Jbttison Clause. — (a) Warranted free from 
claim for jettison or washing overboard, {b) War- 
ranted free from particular average and from all 
claim for jettison or washing overboard. 

(c) Warranted free from all average but to cover 
risk of jettison and washing overboard. Refer to 
Deck Load clause. 

Lbavs to Call. — With leave to call at any inter- 
mediate ports and places for all purposes. 



Machinery Clause. — In case of loss or injury 
to any part of a machine consisting, when complete, 
for sale or use, of several parts, the underwriters 
shall only be liable for the insured value of the part 
lost or damaged. 

Meat. — (American) Ip.a. clause, but in case 
of the prolongation of the voyage after 14 days to 
pay for any damage to or deterioration of the 
meat. 

Negligence Clause. — It is agreed that the 
assured shall not be prejudiced by the insertion in 
the bill of lading of the following clauses : — 

(a) The act of God, perils of the sea, fire, barratry 
of the master and crew, enemies, pirates, thieves, 
arrest and restraint of princes, rulers and people, 
collisions, stranding, and other accidents of naviga- 
tion excepted, even when occasioned by the negli- 
gence, default, or error in judgment of the pilot, 
master, mariners, or other servants of the ship- 
owner. 

(b) The insertion of the London Conference Rules 
of Affreightment in the bill of lading and/or charter 
party. 

Passage Money Clause. — ^Against all costs, 
charges and liabilities, the master's penalties ex- 
cepted, to which the owners or charterers of the 
ship may be subjected under the 50th and 52nd 
sections of the i8th and 19th Victoria, cap 119, 
entitled the Passengers Act 1855 ; and under the 
14th, 15th, and 1 6th sections of the 26th and 27th 
Victoria, cap 51, entitled The Passengers Amend- 
ment Act 1863, including the replenishing of the 
provisions and stores, required by the Act on 
putting into a port in the United Kingdom ; also 
the maintenance of the passengers according to the 
dietary of the Act while the vessel is detained after 
putting into a foreign port. But it is understood 
that the underwriters' liability shall not exceed a 
total loss from any one casualty, and that they shall 
not be liable for the expense of replenishing the 
provisions and stores or maintenance as aforesaid, 
except the putting into port be caused by accident 
or damages to the ship. 

Petroleum. — ^Not liable for leakage unless the 
vessel be stranded or in collision, or there be a 
forced discharge of cargo at any intermediate port 
of distress and it amount to over 3% on the whole. 

Average payable on each 500 cases of and over 
3%, but only the excess of i^% on the whole 
interest for leakage claims. 

Profit Clause, Commission Clause. — Warrant- 
ed free of all average, but to pay a total loss on such 
packages as do not reach their destination by any 
conveyance. 

Reinsurance Clause. — (a) " Being a re- 
insurance subject to the same clauses, and condi- 
tions and /or change of voyage as original policy 
and policies, and to pay as may be paid thereon." 

(6) " Being a reinsurance against the risk of 
total loss and/or constructive total loss only, and no 
claims to attach to this policy for salvage charges.'* 



CLAUSSEN 



»35 



CLEMENS 



Sue and Labour Clauss. — " And in case of any 
loss or misfortune it shall be lawful to the assured, 
their factors, servants, and assigns, to sue, labour 
and travel for, in and about the defence, safeguard, 
and recovery of the said goods and merchandises 
and ship, etc., or any part thereof without prejudice 
to this insurance ; to the charges thereof we. the 
assurers, will contribute, each according to the 
rate and quantity of his sum herein insured." 

Tba (China). — ^To pay average on each lo chests, 
20 half chests, or 40 quarter chests following landing 
numbers, but no claim to attach for wet or damp in 
respect of any package unless the tea therein shall 
have been in actual contact with sea water. 

Tobacco (American). — In case of particular 
average to pay the excess of 5 % on the value of each 
10 hogsheads following landing numbers. 

Total Loss Only (T.L.O.).— The interest 
insured by this policy to be against the risk of total 
loss only. 

(This clause is an engagement distinct from the 
main body of the poUcy, and is not subject to the 
restrictions contained in the memorandum. The 
liability under it is not a liability for particular 
avezage, but for a claim over the amount of the 
policy ; as, for example, expense incurred in an 
unsuccessful attempt to save a ship which is never- 
theless totally lost.) 

ToT^L Loss Clause. — Against the risk of total 
loss only. 

Trading Clause. — Outward cargo to be deemed 
homeward cargo 24 hours after arrival at first port 
or place of trade. 

Valuation Clause. — The insured value shall be 
taken as the required value of the vessel in ascer- 
taining whether there is a constructive total loss 
under this policy. 

Waiver Clause. — ^And it is expressly declared 
and agreed that no acts of the insurer or the insured 
in recovering, saving, or preserving the property 
insured shall be considered as a waiver or acceptance 
d abandonment. Refer to Sue and Labour Clause. 

Yacht Clause. — To pay a claim if amounting 
to £ or upwards (generally £$0), 

Cianwen, Geocg Wilhalm (b. Bremerhaven, Janu- 
ary 23, 1845). Served his apprenticeship in the 
shipbuildixig yard of Messrs. Joh. C. Tecklenborg, 
Bremerhaven ; in 1866 he joined the shipbuilding 
yard of Messrs. Caird and Co., Greenock, where he 
became head draughtsman, under the management 
of Mr. James ID»ickson ; in 1870 he returned to 
Germany and joined the firm in which he served 
bis apprenticeship, and in 1876 he became managing 
partner, having in the meantime designed and 
superintended the construction of several steamers 
for the well-known firm of Fried. Krupp, Essen. 
Under his direction the firm established a new ship- 
building yard at (yeestemunde, and in 1883 added 
engineering works. In 1897 the firm was converted 
into a limited company, and he was appointed 



managing director. Member of the British Inst, 
of Naval Architects and the German Schifin^autech- 
nische Gesellschaft. 

dawing-off. To beat to windward from a lee 
shore to avoid getting into difficulties. 

Olasn&are* French torpedo-boat destroyer. 
(Forges et Chantiers, 1904.) Length, x8o ft. ; 
beam, 21 f t. ; maximum draught, 10 ft. ; displace- 
ment, 300 tons ; complement, 45 ; guns, i 9-pdr., 
6 3-pdr. ; torpedo tubes, 2 1 5-in. ; speed, 27-30 kts. 

(nays, Paul Jean (18 19-1900). Belgian marine 
painter (b. Bruges). Was one of the founders of 
the Marine Belgian School of Art, and his work is 
particularly strong in depicting the beauties of the 
sea at peace. His best known pictures are : " Dutch 
Boats in the Flushing Roads " (National Gallery, 
London), " Festival of the Scheldt at Antwerp " 
(New York), " Calm on the Scheldt " and " Coast 
near Ostend " (Brussels), " The Open North Sea " 
(Munich), " Entry of Queen Victoria into Ostend 
in 1857." 

Gtoaranoe is a certificate issued by the Customs 
authorities showing that the vessel therein named 
has complied with the Customs requirements, paid 
her port and light dues, and is entitled to proceed 
to sea. It can be obtained by the master " as 
soon as his cargo is in such a position as to enable 
him to make out his manifest (^.v.) for the use of 
the Customs." 

Oleai. A piece of wood with two arms for belay- 
ing ropes. Also small wedges used to secure sails 
from slipping. 

0]6meiis» fiamaal Langhome (better known as 
Mark Twain). American author and humorist 
(b. Florida). At the age of 17 became a qualified 
pilot on the Mississippi River, and in his " Life on 
the Mississippi " he graphically records his experi- 
ences while "learning the river." After drifting 
about the United States he went to San Francisco, 
and in 1876 was supplied with money by one of 
the leading newspapers in that city to join a party 
going to the Mediterranean ports. The letters 
written by him during this voyage were gathered 
ill 1869 into a volume, " The Innocents Abroad," 
and the book won an enduring popularity. Among 
his best known works are : " Roughing it " (1872), 
"The Gilded Age" (1873), "Life on the Missis- 
sippi " (1874). " Tom Sawyer " (1876), " A Tramp 
Abroad " (1880), " The Prince and the Pauper " 
(1881), " Adventures of Huckleberry Finn " (1884) ; 
"A Yankee at King Arthur's Court" (1889), 
" The American Claimant " (1897), " Pudd'n-head 
Wilson " (1894), " The Man who Corrupted Had- 
leyburg " (1900), " A Double-Barrelled Detective 
Story " (1902). A complete edition of his works 
was published in 22 vols, in 1900 by the American 
Publishing Co., of Harvard, Con. 



CLENCH 



136 



CLOUDS 



Otonoh. Burring the end of a bolt to keep it 
secure. 

Cleopatra. British 3rd class cruiser (380 tons, 
13 kts.). Launched 1878. 

Clermont. This vessel, designed by Robert 
Fulton ai3d launched on the Hudson River, U.S. A., 
in September, 1807, was the first successful vessel 
propelled by steam. She made the trip from New 
York to Albany, a distance by river of about 150 
miles, in 32 hours. 

Cleveland. U.S. 3rd class cruiser (1891). 
Length 292ft. Beam 44ft. Maximum draught 17ft. 
Displacement 3.200 tons. Complement 293. 
Guns, Armour. 

10 — 5 in. " Harvey-nickel." 

8 — 6 pdr. 2 in. Deck. 

2 — I pdr. 
2 Colts. 
Twin screw. Hp. 4,500= i6'5 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 700 tons. 

Clew-gamet. Hauling up the clew of a cross. 

dew-line. The line which hauls up the clew. 

Clew of a saiL The corner to which the sail is 
attached. 

Clews. An arrangement of small ropes for 
slinging hammocks. 

Climate. The average condition of meteoro- 
logical phenomena at a given place. 

Climatological station. A station at which 
observations are made only once a day, usually at 
9 a.m. 

Climatology. The science or study of climate. 

Clinch. The inner end of a cable ; also method 
of connecting a rope cable to an anchor. 

dinker-bnnt (dhicher-built). Applied to a boat 
or ship built with the lower edge of each plank 
overlapping the one below. 

Clio. Italian torpedo-boat. (Naples, 1906.) 
Length, 165 ft. ; beam, 17 ft. ; draught, 7 ft. ; 
displacement, 200 tons ; armament, 3 3-pdr., 
3 tubes; twin screw; Hp., 3,000=25 kts.; coal 
40 tons. 

dip. Hooks for catching hold of fish. 

Clipper. A name applied to Australian sailing 
ships, owing to the sharp, fast, low in the water, 
rakish appearance of the vessel. 

dose-hauled. The general trim of a ship's sails 
when sailing close in to the wind. 

dose-reefed. All sails reefed. 

Close to the wind. A name applied when sailing 
just sufficiently near to the wind to fill the sails 
without shaking them. 



dottis. In a sail, are the breadths of canvas in 
its whole width. 

dond. Moisture in the air condensed into a 
visible form. 

dond-borst. Sudden precipitation of a great 
amount of rain or hail in a short time. 

donds. The different modifications and forms 
of cloud, as originally given by Luke Howard, 
were Cirrus, Cirro-cumulus, Cirro-stratus, Cumulus, 
Cumulo-stratus, Stratus, and Nimbus. It is desir- 
able, however, to employ the nomenclature adopted 
by the International Meteorological Committee, 
and used in the International Cloud Atlas, which 
is as follows : 

Cirrus (Ct.). — ^Detached clouds, delicate and 
fibrous-looking, taking the form of feathers, gene- 
rally of a white colour, sometimes arranged in 
belts, which cross a portion of the sky in ** great 
circles," and, by an effect of perspective, converge 
towards one or two opposite points of the horizon. 
(The Ci.-S. and the Ci.-Cu. often contribute to the 
formation of these belts.) 

Cirro-Stratus (Ct.-5.). — A thin, whitish sheet, at 
times completely covering the sky, and only giving 
it a whitish appearance (it is then sometimes called 
Cirro-nebula), or at others presenting, more or less 
distinctly, a formation like a tangled web. This 
sheet often produces halos around the sun and 
moon. 

CirrO'Cumuhu (Ct.-Cti.). — Small globular masses 
or white flakes without shadows, or having very 
slight shadows, arranged in groups and often in 
lines. 

Alio ^ Cumulus ( A .-Cm.). — Largish globular 
masses, white or greyish, partially shaded, arranged 
in groups or lines, and often so closely packed that 
their edges appear confused. The detached masses 
are generally larger and more compact (changing 
to S.-Cu.) at the centre of the group. At the 
margin they form into finer flakes (changing to 
Ci.-Cu.). They often spread themselves out in 
lines in one or two directions. 

AUo-Stratus (^.-5.). — A thick sheet of a grey 
or bluish colour, which shows a brilliant patch in 
the neighbourhood of the sun or moon, and which, 
without causing halos, may give rise to coronas. 
This form goes through all the changes like the 
Cirro-stratus, but by measurements made at 
Upsala its altitude is one-half less. 

Strato-Cumutus (5.-Cttv). — ^Large globular masses 
or rolls of dark cloud, frequently covering the 
whole sky, especially in winter, and occasionally 
giving it a wavy appearance. The layer of Strato- 
cumulus is not, as a rule, very thick, and patches 
of blue sky are often visible through the inter- 
vening spaces. All sorts of transitions between 
this form and the Alto-cumulus are noticeable. It 
may be distinguished from Nimbus by its globular 
or rolled appearance, and also because it does not 
bring rain. 



CLOWES 



137 



CLYDE 



Nimbus {N,), — Rain-cloud. A thick layer of 
dark clouds, without shape and with ragged edge, 
from which continued rain or snow generally falls. 
Through the openings in these clouds an upper 
layer of Cirro-stratus or Alto-stratus may almost 
invariably be seen. If the layer of Nimbus 
separates up into shreds, or if small loose clouds 
are visible floating at a low level underneath a 
large Nimbus, they may be described as Fracto- 
nimbus (the " scud " of sailors). 

Cumulus (Cu.), — Wool -pack clouds. Thick 
clouds of which the upper surface is dome-shaped, 
and exhibits protuberances while the base is 
horizontal. These clouds appear to be formed by 
a diurnal ascensional movement, which is almost 
always observable. When the cloud is opposite to 
the sun the surfaces usually presented to the 
observer have a greater brilliance than the margins 
of the protuberances. When the light falls aslant 
these clouds give deep shadows ; when, on the con- 
trary, the clouds are on the same side as the sun, 
they appear dark, with bright edges. The true 
Cumulus has clear upper and lower limits. It is 
often broken up by strong winds, and the detached 
portions undergo continual changes. These may 
be distinguished by the name of Fracto-cumulus. 

Cumulo- Nimbus {Cu.-N.), — ^The thunder-cloud; 
shower-cloud. Heavy masses of cloud, rising in 
the form of mountains, turrets, or anvils, generally 
having a sheet or screen of fibrous appearance 
above (" false Cirrus "), and underneath a mass of 
cloud similar to Nimbus. From the base there 
usually fall local showers of rain or of snow (occa- 
sionally hail or soft hail). Sometimes the upper 
edges have the compact form of Cumulus, forming 
into massive peaks round which the deUcate ** false 
Cirrus " floats, and sometimes the edges themselves 
separate into a fringe of filaments similar to that 
of the Cirrus cloud. This last form is particularly 
common in ^ling showers. The front of thunder- 
clouds of wide extent frequently presents the form 
of a large bow spread over a portion of the sky 
which is imiiormly brighter in colour. 

SttiUus (5.). — A horizontal sheet of lifted fog. 
When this sheet is broken up into irregular shreds 
by the wind, or by the summits of mountains, it 
may be distinguished by the name of Fracto- 
stratus. 

• 

dowaf. Sir WiUJam Laird (1856-1905). Naval 
critic and writer (b. Hampstead). Educated Alden- 
ham. King's College, London, and Lincoln's Inn, 
and at the last moment abandoned the Bar for 
journalism, and wrote on technical subjects, chiefly 
naval, subsequently devoting himself to researches 
in naval history. Some of his papers on the condi- 
tion of the Navy have been translated into many 
languages, and have had an enormous influence 
upon naval as well as pubUc opinion. He served 
on the Arts and General Committees of the Royal 
Naval Exhibition of 1891, gained the gold medal 



of the United States Naval Institute in the follow- 
ing year. Was elected a FeUow of King's College, 
London, in 1895, ^^^ chosen an hon. member of 
the Royal United Service Institution. 

PubUcations : " The Naval Pocket-Book," " The 
Captain of the Mary Rose," "Blood is Thicker 
than Water," " History of the Royal Navy." 

dabbing. Dropping with tide or current, drag- 
ging the anchor. 

dnb-haoL Method of tacking by letting go lee 
anchor when wind is out of sails ; bringing head 
to wind. 

CDab Maritinio del Abnu President, Don Thomas 
Znbiria ; Vice-President, Don Pedro MacMahon ; 
Treasurer, Don Angel Uona ; Secretary, Don 
Manuel Galindes, Las Arenas, Bilbao. Entrance 
fee, 125 pesetas ; annual subscription, 60 pesetas. 

dab Naatioo de Bilbao. President, Don Benigns 
de Chavarri ; Vice-President, Don Justo D. de 
Somonte ; Treasurer, Don Jose de Arbide ; Secre- 
tary, Don Antonio Carlevaris, Qub House, Nuevo 
Teatro, Bilbao. Entrance fee, 150 pesetas ; annual 
subscription, 60 pesetas. 

dab Haatiane de Hioe. Established 1883. Pre- 
sident, F. Pilatte ; Vice-Presidents, J. G. Maurel, 
A. Chauchard, A. Isnard ; Treasurer, D. Sauvaigo ; 
Honorary Secretary, L. Bonfiglio, 93 Quai du 
midi, Nice ; Honorary Assistant-Secretary, L. Des- 
joyeux. Entrance fee, 20 francs ; annual sub- 
scription, 30 francs. 

dsrde (1890). British subsidised merchant 
ship. Royal MaU Company (q.v.). Dimensions, 
436x50x33 ft.; gross tonnage, 5,620; passenger 
accommodation, 554 ; Hp., 7,540=; 17 kts. 

dyde. British drill-ship (1,447 tons). Launched 
1829. 

dyde Bin ol Eatry. Established 1840. Pub- 
lished Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday. Price 
£1 IIS. 6d, per annum. Address : Glasgow. 

(Hyde Oorinihiui TMbt dab. Established 1876, 
with present headquarters at Hunter's Quay. It 
was originally known as " The Clyde Corinthian 
Sailing Club " at Dunoon. Towards the end of 
1876 the Loch Long Sailing Club was amalgamated 
with it, and in 1880 assumed the present title. 
Flags : Red ensign and red burgee, with white 
cross, and in the centre a yellow shield with lion. 
Commodore, Wm. Council ; Vice-Commodore, R. S. 
Allan ; Rear-Commodore, C. Maclver ; Honorary 
Secretary and Treasurer, John D. Allison. En- 
trance fee, £1 15. ; annual subscription, £1 is. 

Clyde Liae^ owned and managed by Messrs, 
W. M. P. Clyde and Co., of New York, have a 
fleet of Ave steamers, which maintain daily sailing>s 
from New York for Florida, calling at the principal 



CLYDE 



138 



COALING 



ports en route. This line is the only water line to 
Florida without transhipment. 

Fleet. 
Algonquin. Arapohoe, 

Apache. Comanche. 

Iroquois. 

Clyde Shipping Co., with their head offices in 
Glasgow, have a large fleet of fuU-powered steamers, 
which maintain regular steam communication 
between Glasgow, Greenock, Plymouth, Southamp- 
ton, Newhaven, Dover, and London ; Belfast, Ply- 
mouth, Southampton, and London ; Waterford, 
Plymouth, Southampton, and London ; Glasgow, 
Greenock, Waterford, and Cork ; Glasgow, Greenock 
and Limerick ; Belfast, Dublin, Waterford, and 
Cork ; Cork and south-west coast of Ireland ports ; 
Glasgow, Greenock, Antwerp, and Ghent. The 
company also maintain a fleet of powerful tug 
steamers at Glasgow, Greenock, Dublin, Queens- 
town, and Cardiff. 

Fleet. 

Ailsacraig. Flying Swallow. 

America. Flying Swift. 

Aranmore. Flying Witch. 

[Copeland. Flying Wizard. 

Dungeness. Garmoyle. 

Eddystone. Goodwin. 

Fastnet. Ireland. 

Flying Cormorant. Kalibia. 

Flying Dutchman. Kish. 

Flying Elf. Lizzard. 

Flying Falcon. Langships. 

Flying Fish. Needles. 

Flying Fox. Pladda. 

Flying Linnet, Portland. 

Flying Mist. Rathlin. 

Flying Phantom. Saliee. 

Flying Scotsman. Sanda. 

Flying Scout. Sheerness. 

Flying Spindrift. Skerrynore. 

Flying Sportsman. Spithead. 

Flying Sprite. Toward. 

Tushar. 

Clyde Taoht dab, BoyaL See Royal Clyde 
Yacht Club. 

C.N. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Campbeltown, Scotland. 

CO. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Courseulles, France. 

CO. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Carnarvon, England. 

Coak. Small triangular piece of perforated brass 
in sheave of a block to prevent splitting and galling. 

Coaling of ships at sea. In 1892 Admiral Sir 
Michael Sejrmour succeeded during the naval 
manoeuvres in coaling his squadron at sea by the 
aid of mechanical appliances. In the Spanish- 



American war, 1898, some coaUng was thus accom- 
plished, and although coaling stations are now 
eagerly sought after by all Powers, a fleet which is 
able to assert and to maintain the command of the 
sea will not find great difficulty in its coal supply. 
Coaling by the Temperley transporter has been 
largely used in connection with the coaling of war- 
ships at sea. The transporters are made for loads 
of from 5 to 60 cwts., up to 1,000 ft. in length, 
and a travelling speed of from 1,000 to 1,500 ft. 
per minute. The record for coaling from a collier 
without outside labour was achieved by Lord 
Charles Bcresford's flagship King Edward, which 
took in 950 tons in 3 hours 20 minutes, or an 
average rate of 285 tons per hour. 

Coaling stations are ports specially fitted out and 
used for supplying steamships with coal. In 188 1 
a Royal Commission, under the presidency of the 
Earl of Carnarvon, reported on the question of 
British coaling stations, which resulted in the sum 
of ;£i, 1 55,100 being granted by the British Govern- 
ment for improving the armament and works of 
these stations. Britain has coaling stations in 
every part of the world. Among them are Gibraltar, 
Malta, Aden, Bombay, Kurrachee, Trincomalee, 
Colombo, Singapore. Hong Kong, Simon's Bay, 
Table Bay, Mauritius, Sierra Leone, St. Helena, 
Jamaica, St. Luda, Halifax, and Bermuda. A 
complete list of coaling stations of the world, in- 
cluding those on the Admiralty List, is appended. 

Home Ports. 

Aberdeen. Grimsby. Scilly. 

A3rr. Hartlepool. Seaham. 

Ardrossan. Holyhead. Shields (North). 

Bairy. Hull. Shields (South). 

Belfast. Leith. Southampton. 

Birkenhead. Limerick. Sunderland. 

Bl3rth. Liverpool. Swansea. 

Bristol. London. Stomoway. 

Cardiff. Londonderry. Troon. 

Cork. Milford Haven. Tynemouth. 

Cowes. Newcastle. Waterford. 

Dartmouth. Newport (Mon.). Wearmouth. 

Dublin. Oban. Wexford. 

Dundee. Plymouth. Whitby. 

Exeter. Portland. Whitehaven. 

Falmouth. Portsmouth. Wigtown. 

Glasgow. Port Talbot. Youghal. 

European Ports. 

Abo. Bergen. Bremerhaven. 

Ajaccio. Beyrout. Brindisi. 

Alexandria. Bilboa. Caen. 

Algiers. Bizerte. Cadiz. 

Altona. Bona. Cagliari 

Amsterdam. Boulogne. (Sardinia). 

Antwerp. Bordeaux. Calais. 

Augusta. Bourbon. Constantinople. 

Barcelona. Braettesnaes- Copenhagen, 

Ban. Bremen. Corcubion. 

Batoum. Brake. Corfu, 



COALING 



139 



COASTER 



European Ports — (cont,) 



Corunna. 

Cronstadt. 

Danzig. 

Carentan. 

Cctte. 

Charente. 

Cherbourg. 

Christiania. 

Christiansiind. 

Dieppe. 

Dordrecht. 

Dram. 

Dunkirk. 

Drontheim. 

Elsinore. 

Emden. 

Staples. 

F6camp. 

Fiuxne. 

Flushing. 

Galatz. 

GaUipoli. 

Geestemunde. 

Genoa. 

Gibraltar. 

Gravelines. 

Hamburg. 

Havre. 



Helsingborg. 

Honfleur. 

Huelva. 

Ibrail. 

Kiel. 

Kustendji. 

La Rochelle. 

Lisbon. 

Malmo. 

Malta. 

Marseilles. 

Memel. 

Messina. 

Nantes. 

Naples. 

Narva. 

Nordenham. 

Odessa. 

Ostend. 

Oran. 

P^ermo. 

Piraeus. 

Port Said. 

Port Audemer. 

Pontreux. 

Revel. 

Riga. 



Rouen. 

Rotterdam. 

Salonica. 

Savooa. 

St. Petersburg. 

St Malo. 

Schiedam. 

Seville. 

Smyrna. 

Stettin. 

Stockholm. 

Suez. 

Sulina. 

Syra. 

Tarifa. 

Toulon. 

Trieste. 

Trouville. 

Tunis. 

Valery. 

Varna. 

Venice. 

Vigo. 

Villafranca 

(Nice). 
Wilhelmshaven. 
Zaandam. 
Zea. 



Atlantic Ports 

Antigua. 
^Ascension. 

Bahia. 

Bahia Blanca. 

Baltimore. 
^Barbadoes. 



Belize. 

^Bermudas 

Boston (U.S.). 

Buenos Aires. 

Cape Coast Castle. 
*Cape Town. 

Cape Verdes (St Vin- 
cent). 

Ceara. 

Charleston (S.C). 

Chester (U.S.). 

Congo. 

Coosaw River. 

Curasao. 

Dix Cove. 

Klmina. 

Falkland Islands. 

Fayal (Azores). 
♦Fernando Po. 

Galveston. 

Gambia. 

Greenport 

Gulfport. 



(North and South). 

♦Halifax. 

Havana. 

Horn Island. 
♦Kingston (Jamaica). 
♦Lagos. 

La Plata. 

Las Palmas. 

Loanda. 

Louisberg (C.B.). 

Madeira. 

Maranham. 

Marcus Hook (U.S.). 

Martinique. 

Mobile. 

Monte Video. 

Mossamedes (West 
Coast S.Africa). 

Nassau. 

Natal. 

Newport News. 

New Orleans. 

New York. 

Norfolk (Va.). 

Para. 

Pensacola. 

Pemambuco. 

Philadelphia. 

Pictou. 

Portland (M.). 
♦Port Stanley (F.I.). 



Atlantic Ports — {cont,) 

Punta Arenas. St. Paul de Loanda. 

Punta Delgada. St. Thomas. 

Quebec. St. Vincent. 

Quetta. Santos. 

Rio de Janeiro. Savannah. 

Rosario. Ship Island. 

Santa Cruz (Teneriffe). ♦Sierra Leone. 



St John (N.S.). 

St Johns (N.F.). 
♦St. Lucia. 
♦St Helena. 

St. Michael's (Azores). 



♦Simon's Town. 
Sydney (C.B.). 
Trinidad. 
Vera Cruz. 
Whydah. 



Yarmouth (N.S.). 
Indian Ocsan and China Sbas. 



♦Aden. 

Amoy. 

Bangkok. 

Batavia. 
♦Bombay. 

Bussorah. 

Bushire. 
♦Calcutta. 

Canton. 

Coconada. 
♦Colombo. 

Delagoa Bay. 

Galle. 

HakodadL 



Karatzn. 
Killindim. 
Kobi. 

Kurrachee. 
Labuan. 
Madras. 
Manila. 
♦Mauritius. 
Moji. 
Mombasa. 
Moulmein. 
Muroran. 
Nagasaki. 



♦Newcastle 
(N.S.W.). 

Otaru. 

Penang. 
♦Perim. 

Rangoon. 

Saigon. 

Seychelles. 

Shanghai. 
♦Singapore. 

Sourabaya. 

Suez. 
♦Trincomalee. 

Yokohama. 

2^anzibar. 



♦Hong Kong. 
Pacific (North and South) and Australasia. 



Adelaide. 

Acapulco. 

Astoria. 

Auckland. 

Brisbane. 

Caldera. 

Callao. 

Chiloe* 

Christchurch. 

Comox. 

Coquimbo. 

Coronel. 

Diego Garcia. 
♦Esquimalt 
♦Fiji Islands. 

Guayaquil. 



Hobart Town. 
Honolulu. 
King George's 

Sound. 
I^dysmith. 
Leruka. 
Lota. 
Mazatlan. 
Melbourne. 
Mamaimo. 
♦New Westmin- 
ster. 
Otago. 

Portland (O.). 
Panama. 
Payta. 



Perth. 

San Diego. 

San Francisco. 

Seattle. 
♦Sydney. 

Taooma. 

Tahiti. 
♦Taboga. 

Tamsui. 

Fechau. 

TonkaJi. 

Union. 

Valparaiso. 

Vancouver. 

Victoria (V.I.). 
♦Wellington. 



Ports marked ♦ are on the Admiralty List 

Coal Marchant and Shipper. Established 1900. 
Published weekly (Saturday). Price (by subs.). 
Address : 165 Strand, London, W.C. 

Ooamiiigl. A rest of a ship's hatch. 

Coast. A general name for the littoral of any 
country, applied to that part of the land only 
which lies contiguous to the sea. 

Coaster. The expression " coaster " includes all 
British ships trading from one part of the United 



COASTGUARD 



140 



COBRA 



Kingdom to another, and all foreign ships carrying 
cargo, passengers, or ballast from one part of the 
United Kingdom to another, or from the Channel 
Islands or the Isle of Man to the United Kingdom, 
or vice versa. 

The coasting trade is confined to coasters, except 
vessels coming from parts beyond the seas with 
inward cargo for more than one port in the United 
Kingdom. If any goods shall be taken in or put 
out of any coaster at sea or over the sea, or if any 
coaster touch at any place over the sea, or deviate 
from her voyage unless forced by unavoidable cir- 
cumstances, or if, having touched at some place 
over the seas, the master does not declare the fact 
to the proper officer on first arrival in the United 
Kingdom, the master shall be liable to forfeit ;fioo. 

The master of every coaster must keep a cargo- 
book, in which must be entered {inter alia) the 
name of every port of loading and the nature of 
goods taken on board. Before leaving the port of 
loading a transire must be signed by the master, 
and a copy given to the Customs officers ; and 
before goods can be discharged, and within 24 hours 
of ai rival in port, the transire must be handed to 
the Collector of Customs, under a penalty of ;£3o. 

By the Merchant Shipping Act, 1894, coasters 
are exempt from : 

(i) Compulsory pilotage. 

(2) Registration, if under 15 tons. 

(3) Agreement with crew, and marking deck and 
loadlines. See Merchant Shipping Act. 

(4) If not carrying passengers, from carrying 
certificated officers. 

CkMurtguardt The, a force originally intended solely 
for the prevention of smuggling ; now forms part 
of the Navy, and acts both as a naval reserve 
(q.v.) and a means of coastal defence. The force, 
which was transferred from the Customs Conmiis- 
sioners to the Admiralty in 1857, and limited to 
10,000 officers and men, is under the superintend- 
ence of an admiral, and is annually exercised 
af oat. Its duties ashore include the prevention 
of smuggling, the protection of shipwrecked pro- 
perty, assisting distressed vessels, and the keeping 
of weather reports and the hoisting of storm signals. 
There are 11 coastguard districts in the United 
Kingdom, each under a captain, who has a cruiser 
and revenue cutters under his control. 

Coftsting trade. By Act of Parliament (39 and 40 
Vict. c. 36, s. 140) it is enacted that all trade by 
sea from any one part of the United Kingdom to 
any other part thereof (the Channel Islands and 
the Isle of Man being counted as part of the United 
Kingdom) shall be deemed coasting trade, and all 
ships while employed in such trade shall be deemed 
coasting ships, and all foreign ships proceeding 
either with cargo, passengers, or in ballast on any 
voyage from any one part of the United Kingdom 
to another shall be deemed subject to the same 
laws, rules, and regulations as British ships when 



so employed. In spite of the absence of any special 
restriction on foreign vessels, British ships control 
practically the whole of the coasting trade of the 
United Kingdom, foreigners claiming only 10%. 

Ckmtit. Italian gun-boat (1899). 
Length 287ft. Beam 30ft. Maximum draught loft. 
Displacement 1,313 tons. Complement 154. 
Guns. Armour. 

12—12 pdr. " Steel." 

I in. Deck. 
Torpedo Tubes. 
2 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. 8,000=23 kts. Coal normal 
160 tons. 

OoatB, Jamee (b. Glasgow, December 22, 1853). 
Educated in Liverpool, and served his apprentice- 
ship on the Clyde. After a period at sea, obtaining 
a marine engineer's certificate, he' in 1881 went to 
Russia to superintend the construction of a large 
arc light plant, and to hght up the petroleum 
works at Novorossisk. In 1883 he went to India 
as engineer to the Indian Phoenix Gold Mines, and 
on his return in 1886 he was offered by the Egyptian 
Government a position of chief engineer of a 
petroleum expedition, and while there erected 
works. On his return to England he joined the 
steam navigation party on behalf of the Fairfield 
Shipbuilding Co., where he gained experience as 
to the requirements of the engine-room staff of 
the Navy, having been at the speed trials of many 
ironclads. In 1688 he went to Peru as chief 
engineer of the London Pacific Petroleum Co., and 
remained there three years, returning to Scotland 
in 1892 to take up the position of chief engineer 
to the Scottish Co-Operative Wholesale Society. 
After a period of ii years with this company he 
went to Norway on behalf of the Standard Con- 
struction Co., in charge of the workshops for 
Edison's great scheme for separating the ore 
magnetically, and since his return to England has 
been engaged in transforming the power used in 
factories from steam driving to electricity. 

Member of the Institution of Engineers and Ship- 
builders of Scotland ; associate member of the 
Institution of Electrical Engineers ; vice-president 
of the West of Scotland Scientific Society. 

Cobbing. An obsolete form of punishment, 
formerly inflicted for breach of discipline. 

Ooble. A low flat boat with square stem, used 
in cod and turbot fishery. 

Ck>booee. See Caboose. 

Cobra. British torpedo-boat destroyer. (£ls> 
wick, 1 90 1.) This vessel was wrecked in a gale 
off the Lancashire coast on September id, 1901, 
and immediately went to pieces, her shell not being 
strong enough to bear the weight of her machinery 
and armament. 



COBRA 



141 



CODES 



Ctolira. Austro-Hungarian torpedo-boat. (Yar- 
row, 1899.) Length, 152 ft. ; beam, 15 re. ; draught, 
yi ft. ; displacement, 133 tons; complement, 24; 
armament, 2 3-pdr. q.f., 3 tubes; Hp., i,8oo=s 
24 kts. ; coal, 30 tons. 

Cochrane. British ist class cruiser. (Fairfield, 
1905.) 

Length 480ft. Beam 73ft. Maximum draught 27ft. 
Displacement 13,550 tons. 
Guns. Armour. 

6— 9'2 in., 50 cal. " Krupp." 
4 — 7*5 in. 6 in. Belt amidships. 

24 — 3 pdr. 6 in. Barbettes. 

8 Pompoms. 6 in. Turrets. 

Maxims. • 7 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
3 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 23,500=23 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 2,000 tons. Approximate cost j( 1.129,500. 

0oehnui6» Admiral The Hon. Sir Arthur Aaok- 
land Leopold Pedro» K.C.B., cr. 1889 (b. 1824). 
Entered Navy, 1840; mid. during operations on 
coast of Syria, including the bombardment of Acre, 
1840 (Syrian medal) ; lieutenant, 1845 ; com- 
mander, 185 1 ; commander of Driver in the Baltic 
Fleet, 1854 (Baltic medal) ; captain, 1854 ; present 
in boat action at seizure of Dutch Folly Fort, 
Canton, 1856 ; commander 3rd Division of Naval 
Brigade at the attack on Canton, 1857 ; present at 
the destruction of the Fatshan flotUla of war- 
jnnks. 1857 ; wounded (China medal, Fatshan and 
Canton clasps) ; rear-admiral, 1870 ; Commander- 
in-Chief, Pacific, 1873-76 ; vice-admiral, 1876 ; C.B., 
1855 : captain's good service pension, 1868-70 ; 
admiral, 1881 ; flag officer's good service pen- 
sion, 1886 ; retired. 1886. 

Ooohraiie, Admiral Thomas. See Dundonald, 
Thomas Cochrane, Earl of. 

Cochrane, Sir Alexander Forrester Inglis (1758- 
1832). British admiral. Was present at the action 
ofi Martinique, 1780, in the Montagu. In 1801 he 
commanded the Ajar in Lord Keith's expedition 
to Egypt, and became Second-in-Command under 
Duckworth, and was present at the battle of San 
Domingo, 1806. He was made vice-admiral, 1809 ; 
K.C.B., 181 5 ; admiral, 181 9. 

Cochrane, Sir Thomas John (1789-1872). Eng- 
lish admiral. When in command of the Surprise 
he captured the American privateer Decatur, sub- 
sequently assisting in the attack on Washington 
and Baltimore. He was promoted vice*admiral, 
1850 ; admiral, 1856 ; and an Admiral of the Fleet, 
1865. 

Co^kbilL Situation of anchor when suspended 
from cat-head. 

Co^kbnm, Sir George (1772-1853). British ad- 
miral. Served in the East Indies and Mediter- 
ranean, and assisted as captain of the Minerva at 



the blockade of Leghorn, 1796, and fought at the 
battle of Cape St. Vincent. He afterwards parti- 
cipated in the reduction of Martinique, 1809. In 
18 1 2, on his promotion to rear-admiral, he was 
sent to North America, where he greatly distin- 
guished himself during the various operations in 
the Chesapeake, and took a large share at the battle 
of Bladensburg and the capture of Washington. 
Early in 181 5 he received the Order of the Bath, 
and in the autumn of that year he carried out in 
the Northumberland {q.v.) the sentence of deporta- 
tion to St. Helena which had been passed upon 
Bonaparte. He was created G.C.B. and made a 
Lord of the Admiralty in 1828. From 1841 to 
1846 he was First Naval Lord. In 185 1 he was 
made Admiral of the Fleet, and a year before his 
death the baronetcy fell to him by heritage. 

Cocker, George Herbert Engineer R.N. ; D.S.O., 
1900 (b. November, 1871). Educated Bloxham, 
Banbur>% Oxford ; assisted at salvage operations 
at Ferrol on board H.M.S. Howe (1893) > AustraUa 
in H.M.S. Karrakatia, 1894-97 ; China. 1900 ; 
D.S.O. decorated for services with Royal Marines 
at the defence of Tientsin, and with the Brigade 
during Admiral Seymour's attempted relief of the 
Legation ; employed in repairing and constructing 
temporary armoured trucks and mounting the 
4-in. guns of the Algerine at PeiYang ; present at 
the capture of the native city of Tientsin (China 
medal) ; mentioned in despatches. 

CooUe. (Cardium edule.) A genus of the 
common bivalve molluscs, many of the members of 
which are edible, and have considerable commer- 
cial value. 

Cockpit. A place near the after hatchway of old 
wooden warships, where wounded men were 
attended to. 

CoC3Fte. French armoured gun-boat. (Cher- 
bourg, 1889.) 

Length id tft. Beam 40ft. Maximum draught 12ft. 
Displacement 1,680 tons. Complement 100. 
Guns, Armour. 

I— IO-8 in. " Steel." 

2 — 3*9 in. 10 in. Belt amidships. 

2 — 1*8 in. 8 in. Big gun shields. 

Hp. 1,700s 13 kts. Coal 300 tons. 

Code-signals. Flags for communicating at sea. 

Codes, Telegraphic. A system of words used to 
represent sentences with a view of reducing the 
cost of telegraphing or cabling and to secure 
secrecy. The best and probably the most univer- 
sally used code is the A.B.C., first published in 
1872. Private codes are much used, and there are 
various systems for their construction. There 
are certain regulations made by the International 
Telegraph Convention which must be conformed 
with, the most important of which "is, viz., only 
Dutch, English, French, German, Italian, Portu- 



CODRINGTON 



142 



COLLINGWOOD 



guese, Spanish and Latin may be used, but any or 
all of these languages may be contained in one 
telegram. Words of more than 10 letters are 
charged as two words. 

Codrington, Sir Edward (1770-1851). British 
admiral (b. Gloucester). Entered the Navy in 
1783 ; as lieutenant on board Lord Howe's flagship 
he saw ser\'ice at the battle of " The Glorious First 
of June." In Lord Bridport's action oflf L'Orient, 
1795* he commanded the Babete, and 10 years later 
he received command of the Orion, in which he 
fought at Trafalgar. In 18 13 be sailed for North 
America and, on being promoted the following year 
to rear-admiral, was Captain of the Fleet at Wash- 
ington and Baltimore, afterwards taking part in 
the attack on New Orleans. In 1826 he was in 
command of the combined fleets of Great Britain. 
France and Russia, sent to restrain Ibrahim Pasha 
from operating against the Greeks. In 1827 the 
battle of Navarino was fought, in which the 
Turkish and Egyptian fleets of ^^ sail, with gun- 
boats, schooners and craft of all sorts, were almost 
entirely destroyed. Having attained the rank 
of admiral. 1837, he became Commander-in-Chief 
at Portsmouth. 

See Memoir by Lady Boucher, 1873. 

Coeflogon. French 3rd class cruiser. (St. Na- 
zaire, 1894.) 

Length 312ft. Beam 30ft. Maximum draught 14ft. 
Displacement 1,900 tons. Complement 190. 
Guns. A tmour. 

4— -S'S in. " Steel." 

3 — 1*8 in. i| in. Deck amidships. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
5 Above water. 
Hp. 5. 800 s= 19 kts. Coal maximum 300 tons. 

Cofferdam. A water-tight enclosure formed by 
piles 2 to 6 ft. apart driven into the bottom of a 
river, the intermediate space being packed with 
clay« so as to form a water-tight wall. It is used as 
a dam when laying bare the bottom of a river in 
order to establish a foundation for a pier, abut- 
ment, quay or docks. 

Cognee. French torpedo-boat destroyer. Length, 
190 ft. ; beam, 21 ft. ; draught. 9 J ft. ; displace- 
ment. 431 tons ; complement, 48 ; guns, i 9-pdr., 
6 3-pdr. ; torpedo tubes, 2 17*7 in. ; speed, 27-30 
kts. 

Coil. Rope laid in ring fashion. 

C6L A neck of low pressure between two anti- 
cyclones. 

Colchester. 50 guns. On September 21, 1744, 
this vessel was lost on the Kentish Knock, when 
50 men perished. 

Cold. Coloured. Abbreviation adopted on the 
charts issued by the Hydrographic Office, Admi- 
ralty. 



Colima. Pacific Co.'s steamer from San Fran- 
cisco to Panama, wrecked off south-west coast of 
Mexico ; 108 lives lost. 

Collapsible boat. A kind of boat of which the 
frame is collapsible for compact stowage, either on 
shipboard or for transportation. 

Collar. An eye in the end or bight of a shroud or 
stay, to go over the mast-head ; also a rope formed 
into a wreath with the heart or dead eye seized in 
the bight to which the stay 'is confined at the lower 
part. 

Colleges* Training. See Naval Education. 

Collier. Vessels employed exclusively in carry- 
ing coals. 

Collingwood, Cnihbart. First Baron Collingwood. 
1750-1810 (b. Newcastle-on-Tyne). Entered the 
Navy at the age of 11, and was in the Shannon 
under command of Captain (afterwards Admiral) 
Brathwaite, to whom he was indebted in a 
great measure for that nautical knowledge which 
marked his career. After serving under Admiral 
Roddam he, in 1774, went to Boston, and a year 
later, on being promoted lieutenant, joined the 
unsuccessful expedition to the Spanish Main, the 
idea being to pass into the Pacific by navigating 
the River San Juan and Lakes Nicaragua and 
Leon. He first saw active service in America, 
and fought on shore at the battle of Bunkers Hill. 
1775. In 1779 he was made commander of the 
Badger, and shortly afterwards post-captain of 
the small frigate Hinckinbroke. In 1783 he was 
appointed to command the Samson, of 64 guns, and 
subsequently to the Mediator, destined for the West 
Indies, where with Nelson, who was in command of 
that station, he remained for some years. In 1781 
he had the misfortune to be wrecked in the Pelican 
in a hurricane, and he returned to England and 
remained on shore until 1793, when he was appoint- 
ed captain of the Prince, flagship of Rear-Admiral 
Bowyer. On the outbreak of the French war in 

1793, he took part in Lord Howe's victory, June i, 

1794, and in command of the Barfleur displayed 
great judgment and courage ; on board the Excel- 
lent he shared in the victory of February 14. 1797, 
at the battle off St. Vincent. In January, 1799, 
he was promoted vice-admiral, and hoisting his 
flag on the Triumph joined the Channel Fleet. In 
1803 he was employed in watching the French 
Fleet off Brest, and fen- two years he displayed the 
most unwearied vigilance in discharging this duty. 
In the Royal Sovereign he was second in command 
to Nelson at the battle of Trafalgar, and led the lee 
column, and the manner in which he carried his 
ship into action, and fought the Santa Anna (the 
largest ship of the line then afloat) single-handed, 
and eventually had the satisfaction of seeing her 
strike her colours, in ajgreat measure helped to de- 
moralise the Spaniards, and to the victory at Trafal- 
gar. On the death of Nelson, Collingwood assumed 



COLLINSON 



H3 



COLLISIONS 



supreme command of the fleet, and on his return to 
England was raised to the peerage as Baron Col- 
lingwood of Coldbume and Heathpool, and recei\'ed 
the thanks of both Houses of Parliament, with a 
pension of ;£2,ooo a year. In original genius and 
daring he was inferior to Nelson, who had no 
equal ; but his merits as a naval officer were of the 
fiist order, and in seamanship and general talent 
many who were familiar with both considered him 
superior. He was an enemy to impressment and 
fl<^ging, and was given the honourable name of 
" father " among his crew for his kindness. He 
died on board the Ville de Paris, oft Port Mahan, 
March 7, 18 10. His body was conveyed to 
England, and buried in St. Paul's Cathedral. 

CoUiason. See Arctic Exploration. 

Collision. In marine insurance the collision 
clause becomes operative when the vessel insured 
has been in collision with any other ship or vessel, 
and when in consequence of their ship or vessel 
having been in fault the owners become liable to 
pay and shall have paid to the persons interested in 
the other ship or vessel for the damages sustained, 
such damages not to exceed the value of the insured 
ship or vessel, i.e., the policy value. (Sevrard v. 
Owner of the Vera Cruz, 5 Asp. Mar. L.C. 386.) 
The proportion of this amount for damage sus- 
tained for which the underwriter of the insured 
ship is liable under the clause is three-fourths 
of the sum paid as above by the assured. The 
maximum liability of the underwriter in any 
one case is 75% of the insured value, irrespec- 
tive of costs. There is no liability on the under- 
writer to pay costs unless expressly included, 
though in practice they are usually admitted. 
(Xenos V. Fox, L.R. 4 C.P. 665.) The balance 
(35%) o^ ^^ owners' liability is either separately 
insured, or specially included by an alteration in 
the clause. (McArthur on the Contract of In- 
surance, p. 296.) 

The total amount under the Merchant Shipping 
Act of 1894 {q.v.) for which a shipowneri Irtish 
or foreign, is in our Courts liable for damage to 
property and loss of Ufe or personal injury (pro- 
vided he is not by his own default concerned in it) 
is ;£i 5 per ton ; or excluding the personal damage 
£S per ton, reckoned on the net register of ships ; 
and on the gross register, without deduction of 
engine room space, of steamers, each collision taken 
separately. 

Unless specially included, damage by collision 
to the following are not included in the protection of 
the clause : Wharves, jetties, floating buoys, pon- 
toons, stages, piers- (floating or fixed), break- 
waters, quays, or dock walls, or similar structures. 
(I>amage to the vessel herself is claimable in par- 
ticular average.) 

The portion of the collision clause limiting the 
liability of the underwriter to three-fourths of the 
damage the owners of the insured vessel have had to 



pay is now frequently altered to a " four-fourths " 
clause, which, of course, includes the entire liability ; 
and most of the leading companies will now issue 
policies without a collision clause, but giving full 
protection to the shipowner for all his important 
liabilities. See Gow on Marine Insurance, p. 254. 

Briefly the decisions of liability under the col- 
lision clause have led to the following conclusions : — 

(a) When neither vessel can establish a claim 
against the other for default, no damages can be 
recovered, each vessel bearing her own loss. 

(b) When one vessel is in default and solely to 
blame, this vessel is responsible for the damage 
sustained. If the policy value of the insured ship 
exceeds £S per ton, the underwriter pays the pro- 
portion that his subscription bears to that value. 

(c) When both vessels are to blame. Settle- 
ments under this condition vary, but generally the 
damages sustained by both are added together and 
the sum halved, each vessel being debited with 
one-half. (Stoomvaart v. P. and O. Co., L.R. 
7 H. of L. 798 ; Chapman v. Royal Netherlands 
Co., L.R. 4 P.D. 157; Voorwarts v. Khedive, 
L.R. 7 App. Cas. 800 ; London Steamship Associa- 
tion V. Grampian Co., L.R. 24 Q.B.D. 32 and 
663 ; McArthur p. 302.) 

In the case of both vessels to blame it is of great 
importance where outside of England the action is 
to be entered, as the treatment differs widely — 
United States of America is as in England ; France 
and Belgium according to the degree of each ship's 
fault ; Portugal, Spain, Italy, and Holland, each 
ship bears her own loss ; Germany, neither can 
recover ; Russia (probably), rests where it falls ; 
Scandinavia, Court decides in each case. See 
Gow on Marine Insurance, p. 249, and McArthur 
on the Contract of Marine Insurance, Appen- 
dices I, 2, and 3. 

All these arrangements of liability rest only on 
the insured shipowner having paid in respect of 
his responsibilities. In the case of a collision 
between two vessels belonging to the same owner, 
he cannot under the ordinary clause recover any- 
thing from imderwriters on either vessel, but had 
himself to bear his collision damages unless they are 
claimable as the direct results of a sea peril. This 
is generally avoided by special clause agreeing that 
in such cases the principle of the collision clause 
wUl be maintained. Refer to Clauses. 

ColUaioiifl at Sea. " There are four possibilities 
under which an accident of this sort may occur. In 
the first place, it may happen without blame being 
imputed to either party ; as where a loss is occa- 
sioned by a storm or other vis major. In that case 
the misfortune must be borne by the party on whom 
it happens to light ; the other not being responsible 
to him in any degree. Secondly, a misfortune of 
this kind may arise where both parties are to blame ; 
where there has been want of due diligence on both 
sides. In such a case the rule of law is that the 



COLLISIONS 



144 



COLLISIONS 



loss must be apportioned between them. Thirdly, 
it may happen by the misconduct of the suffering 
party alone ; and then the rule is that the sufferer 
must bear his own burden. Lastly, it may have 
been the fault of the ship which ran the other down, 
and in this case the injured party would be entitled 
to entire compensation from the other.' 

In order to raise a presumption of fault against 
the other, each ship must prove her own case. In 
two cases only does a statutory presumption arise, 
viz., where there has been (i) an infringement of 
the regulations which might possibly have con- 
tributed to the collision ; or (2) a failure to stand by 
and render assistance after collision. In a collision 
between a ship in motion and one at anchor the 
burden of proof rests with the former to show that 
the accident was not due to her negligence. The 
regulations for the prevention of collisions at sea 
{q.v.) which were drawn up by the International 
Marine Conference held at Washington in 1890 
have been universally adopted. They apply to all 
ships at sea, on tidal rivers and inland waters, 
except where special local rules, which every State 
has the right of making and enforcing within its 
jurisdiction, are operative. 

When a collision occurs between any ships in 
territorial waters the action is decided, wherever 
tried, by the lex loci — i.s,, the law of the particular 
place where the collision happens. 

Actions for collision on the high seas between 
any ships are tried in the Admiralty Court of that 
country within the jurisdiction of which proceedings 
are first commenced. 

The British Admiralty Court has jurisdiction to 
try any cause brought for collision between any 
ships, British or foreign, in any waters, provided 
the injury complained of is an actionable ofience 
according to English law. In actions for colUsion 
on the high seas between any ships, whether 
British or foreign, the Admiralty Court of this 
country administers not the law of flags, but the 
British maritime law (q,v*). 

When an action is pending in a foreign Court, 
the Court of AdmixBlty may stay proceedings here, 
or dismiss the action, or put the plaintiff to his elec* 
tion ; and a final judgment in a foreign Court is a 
bar to subsequent proceedings elsewhere. The form 
of procedure and remedy in all collision actions is 
according to the law of the tribunal before which 
the case is tried. 

Refer to Apportionment, Accident, Foreign Ship, 
Damage. 

OoUisioiis, Regulation for the Pityentioii at Sea, 
1886. Article i. — Rules concerning lights shall be 
compUed with in all weathers from sunset to sunrise. 

Article 2. — A steamer under way shall carry (a) 
a white light not less than 20 ft. above the hull, 
showing an unbroken light 10 points on each bow ; 
(b) on the starboard side a green light showing from 
right ahead to two points abaft the starboard beam ; 



{c) on the port side a red light showing from right 
ahead to two points abaft the port beam ; {d) green 
and red lights to be fitted with inboard screens, to 
prevent their showing across the bow ; {e) an 
additional white light may be carried further aft, 
and at least 1 5 ft. higher than, but similar in con- 
struction to, the light mentioned in subdivision (a). 

Article 3. — ^A steamer towing a vessel shall carry 
in addition to her side Ughts, two white lights 
vertically, one light not less than six ft. above the 
other ; and if towing more than one vessel, and the 
length of tow measures more than 6.000 ft., three 
white Ughts. 

Article 4. — (a) A vessel which from accident is 
not under command shall carry : (i) by night two 
red all-round Ughts vertically ; (2) by day two 
black balls or shapes, {b) A telegraph ship at 
work shaU carry : (i) by night three aU-round 
lights vertically, the highest and lowest being red 
and the middle one white ; (2) by day. three 
shapes, the highest and the lowest being red and 
globular, and the middle one white and diamond- 
shaped, {c) Side Ughts if under way. 

Vessels referred to in this article also carry 
side lights when making way through the water. 

Article 5. — A sailing ship under way, and any 
vessel being towed, carry side lights only. 

Article 6. — Small vessels under way, if prevented 
by bad weather from fixing side lights, shall keep 
them ready for exhibition in time to prevent 
colUsion. 

Article 7. — Steamers under 40 tons, and vessels of 
less than 20 tons under oars or sails when under 
way, are not obliged to carry lights, but may carry 
Ughts similar to those in Article 2, or a combined 
lantern. Rowing boats shaU have ready for use a 
hand lantern showing a white Ught. 

Article 8. — Pilot boats on duty caxry only an 
aU-round white mast-head Ught, and exhibit flares- 
up every 15 minutes. Side lights are to be ready 
for use and exhibited in time to prevent collision. 

Article 9. — See Fishing Boats. 

Article 10. — ^A vessel being overtaken shall show 
a flare-up. or may carry a fiixed lantern astern, 
showing a white Ught. 

Article 11. — A vessel under 150 ft. long, when at 
anchor. shaU carry forward, where it can best be 
seen, an aU-round white light. A vessel over 
150 ft. long, when at anchor, shall carry an addi- 
tional Ught astern. 

Article 12. — Every vessel may, in order to attract 
attention, exhibit a flare-up. or use a detonating 
signal, in addition to the Ughts prescribed by these 
rules. 

Article 13. — Nothing in these rules shaU interfere 
with signals made between ships of war. sailing 
ships under convoy, or recognition signals duly 
registered and published. 

Article 14. — A steamer under sail only, but 
having her fimnel up. shaU by day carry one black 
baU or shape. 



COLLISIONS 



145 



COLLISIONS 



Article 15. — In fog, mist, falling snow, or heavy 
rain, by day or night : (a) A steamer under way 
shall sound, at intervals of not more than two 
minutes, a prolonged (4-6 seconds) blast. 

(b) A steamer with engines stopped, and having 
no way on, shall sound, at intervals of not more 
than two minutes, two prolonged blasts, with an 
interval of about one second between them. 

(c) A sailing ship under way shall sound, at 
intervals of not more than one minute, one blast 
if on starboard tack, two blasts if on port tack, 
three blasts if wind aft. 

(d) A vessel at anchor shall ring her bell rapidly 
for five seconds at intervals of not more than one 
minute. 

{e) A vessel towing, a telegraph ship at work, and 
a vessel not under command shall, when under 
way, sound one prolonged and two short blasts at 
intervals of not more than two minutes. 

Article 16. — Every vessel shall, in fog, mist, etc.. 
go at a moderate speed, having regard to the 
existing circumstances. A steamer hearing, appar- 
ently forward of her beam, the fog signal of a vessel, 
the position of which is not ascertained, shall stop 
her engines and then navigate with caution. 

Article 17. — When two sailing vessels are ap- 
proaching one another, so as to involve risk of 
collision — one shall keep out of the way of the other, 
as follows, viz. : — 

(a) A vessel running free shall keep out of the 
way of one close-hauled. 

(6) A vessel close-hauled on the port tack shall 
keep out of the way of one close-hauled on the 
starboard tack. 

(c) When both are running free, with the wind 
on different sides, the vessel which has the wind on 
the port side shall keep clear. 

(d) When both are running free, with the wind 
on the same side, the vessel to windward shall 
keep clear. 

(e) A vessel having the wind aft shall keep clear. 

Article 18. — ^When two steamers are meeting 
end-on, or nearly so, so as to involve risk of collision, 
each shall alter her course to starboard. 

Article 19. — When two steamers are crossing, so 
as to involve risk of collision, the vessel which has 
the other on her starboard side shall keep out of 
the way. 

Article 20. — ^When a steamer and sailing vessdi 
are proceeding in such directions as to involve 
risk of collision, the steamer shall keep clear. 

Article 21. — When by any of these rules one of 
two vessels is to keep out of the way, the other g^?ii 
keep her course and speed. 

Note, — ^When, in consequence of thick weather 
or other causes, such vessel finds herself so close 
that collision cannot be avoided by the action of 
the giving-way vessel alone^ she also shall take 
such action as will best aid to avert collision. 



Article 22. — Every vessel directed by these rules 
to keep out of the way of another shall, ii possible, 
avoid crossing ahead of her, and 

{Article 23) — shall, if necessary, slacken speed, 
stop, or reverse. 

Article 24. — Every vessel overtaking another 
shall keep out of her way. An overtaking vessel is 
one which comes up with another from any direction 
more than two points abaft the beam. No subse- 
quent alteration of the bearing between the vessels 
shall relieve an overtaking ship of her duty to keep 
clear. 

Article 25. — In narrow channels every steamer 
shall, where safe and practicable, keep to that side 
of the fairway {q.v.) which lies on her starboard 
side. 

Article 26. — Sailing ships under way shall keep 
clear of sailing vessels engaged in fishing. 

Article 27. — In obeying these rules, regard shall 
be had to all dangers of navigation, and to any 
special circumstances which may render a depar- 
ture from these rules necessary, in order to avoid 
immediate danger. 

Article 28. — One short blast from a steamer 
under way means, " I am directing my course to 
starboard.'' Two short blasts mean. " I am direct- 
ing my course to port." Three short blasts mean, 
" My engines are going full speed astern." 

AfticU 29. — Nothing in these rules shall exonemte 
any vessel, or the owner, master, or crew thereof, 
from results of neglect of any precaution required 
by ordinary practice of seamen, or by special cir- 
cumstances. 

Article 30. — Nothing in these rules shall interfere 
with the operation of any special rule made by 
local authority. 

Article 31. — A vessel requiring assistance shall 
use the following signals, either together or 
separately, viz, : — 

By day or m'ght — 

(i) A gun or other explosive signal fired every 

minute. 
(2) Continuous sounding of fog signal. 

By day — 

(i) Letters N.C of the International Code. 

(2) A square flag with any ball above or below 
it 
By night — 

(i) Flames. 

(2) Rockets or shells fired once a manute. 

Aids to memory of the rule of the road at sea, 
by the late Mr. Thomas Gray, C.B. — 

I. — Two steamships meeting. 

'* When both side lights you see ahead. 
Port your helm and show your RED." 

2. — Two steamships passing, 

" GREEN to GREEN— or, RED to RED— 
Perfect safety — Go ahead 1 " 



COLNE 



146 



COLUMBUS 



3. — Two stsamships crossing. 
Note. — ^This is the position of greatest danger ; 
there is nothing for it but good look-out, caution, 
and judgment. 

" If to your starboard RED appear, 
It is your duty to keep clear ; 
To act as judgment says is proper ; 
To Port — or Starboard — Back — or Stop her 1 
But when upon your Port is seen 
A steamer's starboard light of GREEN, 
There's not so much for you to do. 
For GREEN to Port keeps clear of you." 

4. — All ships must keep a good look-out. 
** Both in safety and in doubt. 
Always keep a good look-out ; 
In danger, with no room to turn. 
Ease her I Stop her 1 Go astern 1 " 

Colne. British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Chis- 
wick, 1905.) Length, 222 ft. ; beam, 23^ ft. ; 
draught, 9^ ft. ; displacement, 600 tons ; comple- 
ment, 72; armament, i 12-pdr., 5 6-pdr., 2 tubes; 
twin screw; Hp., 7,500=25 kts. ; coal, 126 tons. 

Colomb, Viofr-Admiral Philip Howard (1831-99)- 
Inventor and biographer (b. Scotland). Saw active 
service during the Burmese war, 1852 (Burmah 
medal and clasp). Is the inventor of the system 
known as Colomb's " Flashing Signals," which has 
been universally adopted throughout the world. 

Pubhcations : Essays on " Naval Defence " 
(1893). " Naval Warfare " (1891). " Memoir of Sir 
Astley Cooper Key " (1898). 

Colombia. Pacific Steam Navigation Co.'s 
coastal mail steamer from Panama to Valparaiso, 
lost at Lobos de Tierra, August 10, 1907. One 
passenger and two of the crew perished. 

Colombo. East India mail steamer, vrecked on 
Minicoy Island, 440 miles from Point de Galle, 
Ceylon, November 19, 1862. No lives were lost. 

Colonial lighthoiUM. (Merchant Shipping Acts, 
1894-98.) The expression " colonial lights " means 
any lighthouses, buo3rs, or beacons on or near the 
coast of a British possession, and maintained by 
the Board of Trade out of moneys ^provided by 
Parliament, or out of colonial light dues. 

The dues, which are fixed by the Sovereign by 
Orders in Council, and cannot be levied in any 
British possession without the consent of the 
Legislature of that possession, are collected and re- 
covered from the owners or masters of all vessels 
passing or deriving benefit from the lights in respect 
of which the dues are levied, by persons appointed 
by the Governor, and are paid over to the General 
Lighthouse Fund, subject to the prior payment 
thereout of any sums payable on account of money 
secured on those dues at the commencement of 
this Act (1896) in accordance with the conditions 
on which^the money is secured. After deducting 
the expenses of collection the dues are applied to 



erecting and maintaining the lighthouses, etc., in 
respect of which they are levied. Accounts of all 
light dues received, and sums exp>ended in con- 
struction, repair, etc., arc annually laid before 
ParUament. 

Colonial Mntoal Fire Im oranoe Co. Established 
1878, transacting fire, marine, fidelity, guarantee, 
plate glass, and accident insurance. Authorised 
capital, ;f2 50,000, of which ;£ 100,000 has been sub* 
scribed in 100,000 shares oi £1 each. Dividends 
at the rate of 8% per annum are paid, and a 
Reserve Fund has been built up of ;£75,ooo. 
Offices : 60 Market Street, Melbourne. 

Colorado. U.S. ist class cruiser. (Cramp's, 

1903.) 

Length 502ft. Beam 70ft. Maximum draught 27ft. 
Displacement 13,400 tons. Complement 822. 
Guns. Armour. 

4 — 8 in., 45 cal. " Krupp." 
14—6 in. 6 in. Belt amidships. 

18 — 14 pdr. 6 in. Turrets. 

12 — 3 pdr. 9 in. Conning tower. 

8—1 pdr. 
8 Colts. 
2 Field guns, 3 in. 

Torpedo Tubes (iS in.). 
2 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 23,000=22 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 2,000 tons. Approximate cost ;fi, 200.000. 

Coloesui. British 2nd class battleship (9,420 
tons, 14*2 kts.). Launched 1882. 

Columbia. U.S. commerce destroyer (1892). 
Length 4 x2ft. Beam 58ft. Maximum draught 26ft. 
Displacement 7,450 tons. Complement 524. 
Guns. Armour. 

i~« in. " Harvey." 

2—6 in. 4 in. Deck. 

8 — ^4 in. 4 in. Sponsons. 

12 — 6 pdr. 5 in. Conning tower. 

4 — I pdr. 
4 Colts. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
4 Above water. 
Three screws. Hp. forced 21,500=23 kts. Coal 
maximum 2,400 tons. 

Colombia. Iron steamer (2,750 tons). In collision 
with the small wooden steamer San Pedro off the 
coast of Northern Calif omia, July 20, 1907. Out 
of 261 passengers 150 were drowned. 

Colnmbns, Bartolomeo (1445-15 15). Brother of 
Christopher Columbus (b. Genoa). Accompanied 
Bartolomeo Diaz on his voyage to the Cape of 
Good Hope, 1486-87 ; commanded the auxiliary 
fleet despatched after Columbus sailed on his 
second voyage, 1494 ; was given the small island 
of Mona. near Hespaniola, where he resided until 
his death. 



COLUMBUS 



H7 



COMMERCIAL 



Odninlntt, Chriftopher (1436-1506). In Italian, 
Cristofero Colombo, and in Spanish, Cristobal Colon. 
Discoverer of the New World called America 
(b. Genoa). Went to sea at the age of 14. and is 
known to have visited, among oihtr places dnring 
his early activity, England, Ireland, and the Greek 
Islands: In 1740, when he was wrecked during a 
sea fight with some Venetian galleys off the coast 
of Portugal, he landed and settled at Lisbon, and 
during the next few years made many voyages to 
Madeira and the Azores. On August 3, 1492, an 
expedition consisting of the Santa Maria, a decked 
ship with a crew of 50, commanded by Columbus 
in person, the Pinta, with 30 men under Martin 
Pizon, and the Nina, with 30 men under his brother 
Vincente Pizon, the whole expedition numbering 
only 120 men, left Spain. Three days after the 
ships had set sail the Pinta lost her rudder, and 
they had to put in at Tenerifie to refit. On Sep- 
tember 6 they weighed anchor once more, and his 
real voyage of discovery began. On October 12 
land was sighted in the Bahamas, which was named 
by Columbus San Salvador. He discovered Cuba 
and Haiti, and returned to Europe after his ship 
Santa Maria had been wrecked. On September 13, 
during that voyage, the variation of the magnetic 
needle was for the first time observed. 

On September 25, 1493, he set out with a much 
larger squadron, and reached Dominica, an island 
in the West Indies. He returned from his second 
voyage in 1496, and set out on a third, which 
resulted in the discovery of the mainland of South 
America. In 1502 he set out on his last voyage, 
during which he explored the Gulf of Mexico, re- 
turning in 1504. He died. May 20, 1506, at Valla- 
dolid, in Spain. 

5«0 Washington Irving's " Life and Voyages 
of Columbus " (1831). Sir A. Help's (1869), and 
J. Winsor's " Narrative and Critical History of 
America." Vol. II. (1885-89). "Life," by Fernando 
Columbus, Major's " Select Letters of Columbus," 
biographies by Markham (1893), ^^^ Adams (1892). 

Oolimilnu, Olty oL Passenger ship. Ran on a 
reef on the coast of Massachusetts and went down, 
January 18, 1884 ; 97 lives lost. 

Ck>mb. A small piece of timber under the low<^ 
part of the beak-head for the fore-tack to be 
hauled to. In some vessels it is used instead of a 
bumkin. It has the same use in bringing the fore- 
tack on board that the chess-tree has to the main 
tack. 

Comeniu» Andrte A« (b. Vails, July 10, 1842). 
Spanish naval architect. Educated at the School 
of Naval Architecture, Ferrol. In 1864 was ap- 
pointed assistant naval architect, and in 1873, ^y 
order of the Spanish Government, he was appointed 
constructor of the]^largest graving dock in Ferrol, 
and after completing this work he was in 1880 sent 
to London as engineer to the Royal Spanish Naval 
Commission, and was subsequently attached to the 



Spanish Legation in London. In 1881 he went to 
Paris and represented the Spanish Navy at the 
Congress des Electricous. On his return to Ferrol 
in 1884 he was appointed Chief of the Royal Dock- 
yard, and under his direction many ships of war 
were built, and he designed and superintended the 
construction of six ships of war for the Spanish 
Navy, building by Messrs. Vila and Co., Ferrol. 
In 1898 he retired from the Navy with the rank of 
General of Naval Architecture. For services 
rendered he has been decorated with the Legion 
d'Honneur, France, and the Grand Cross of Naval 
Work in Spain. 

Member of the Institution of Naval Architects, 
of the Royal Society of Arts, of the Institution of 
Electrical Engineers, of the Association Technique 
Maritime, and of the Soci6t6 Internationale des 
Electricienes of Paris. 

Publications : " Treatise on Shipbuilding," 
adopted as a text-book in engineering schools ; and 
many articles published in the transactions of 
technical societies. 

Comet. German torpedo gun-boat (1892). 
Length 2 3 3ft Beam 3 1 ft. Maximum draught 1 3 ft. 
Displacement 960 tons. Complement 115. 

Guns, Armour, 

4— iSjpdr. "Steel." 

2 Machine. i in. Deck. 

I in. Conning tower. 
Torpedo Tubes, 

1 Submerged bow. 

2 Above water. 

Twin screw. Hp. 4,500=319 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 120 tons. 

Comet. See Bell, Henry. 

Comete. French gun-boat (1884). Displace- 
ment, 470 tons. On China station. 

Come ap. To let go or slacken. 

Coming-op. When the wind shifting allows a 
nearer approach to the course. 

Commander. In the British Navy ranks below 

^^..^aptain and above first Ueutenant ; is second officer 

in command of a smaller vessel not commanded by 

a captain. Optional retirement, 45 ; compulsory 

retirement, 50. 

Commerdal, Shipping, and General AdTertiier 
for West ComwaU. Established 1867. PubUshed 
weekly (Saturday). Gratis. Address : Penryn, 
Cornwall. 

Commercial treaties are contracts made between 
States in furtherance of security of trade, naviga- 
tion, or personal legal rights. The subjects dealt 
with include importation, exportation, transit, 
transhipment, bonding of goods, Customs tariffs, 
navigation charges, quarantine, admission of 
vessels to ports and docks, coasting trade, fisheries, 
and Consuls and their rights. They determine the 



COMMISSION 



148 



COMPAGNIE 



local position of subjects of each State in the other 
country in regard to residence, property, taxes, 
military service, and nationality. 

Gommissloil Clause. See Clauses. 

OommJssioned offloeni» NavaL See Naval Educa- 
tion. 

Comniissionent NavaL See Admiralty, Lords of 
the. 

Commodore in the British Navy is temporarily 
conferred to a post captain when commanding a 
small squadron. He is entitled to exercise most of 
the functions of the flag-officer, and to hoist the 
broad pennant. In yacht clubs the commodore is 
president ; in the mercantile marine he is the senior 
master serving afloat. 

Commodore Py. Argentine torpedo-boat. (Thorny- 
croft, 1890.) Length, 150 ft.; displacement, 
1 10 tons ; 3 tubes ; speed, 24 kts. 

Common bend. See Knot. 

Commonwealth. British ist class battleship. 
(Fairfield, 1903.) 

Length 453 ft. Beam 78 ft. Mean draught 26 ft. 
Displacement 16,350 tons. Complement 777, 
Guns, Armour. 

4 — 12 in. " Krupp." 

4—9*2 in. 9 in. Belt amidships, 

to-— 6 in. 12 in. Barbettes. 

14 — 12 pdr. 12 in. Conning tower. 

14—3 pdr. 
2 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes, 
4 Submerged broadside. 
I Submerged stem. 
Twin screw. Hp. 18,000=18*5 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 2,000 tons. Approximate cost j^i, 500,000. 

Comoianti. See St. Elmo's Fire. 

Compagnie de Navigation Marooane et Ar- 
menienne. This company, with their head offices 
in Marseilles, have a fleet of 11 well-appointed 
vessels sailing from Marseilles every alternate 
Wednesday for Samsoun, Trebizonde, Batoum, and 
Novorossisk, returning from Novorissisk via inter- 
mediate ports every alternate Sunday. A service 
is maintained once monthly from Marseilles to 
Tangiers and the coast of Morocco, and one twice a 
month from Marseilles for Gibraltar, Tangiers, and 
the coast of Morocco. 

Flbbt. 

Anatolie, Circassie. Meurthe. 

Armenie, Jtnerethie, Mingrelie. 

Bithynie. La Gaule, Moselle. 

Caramanie, Oued Sehou, 

Compagnie de Navigation Ilizie» with their head 
offices at Marseilles, have a fleet of 14 steamers, 
which maintain frequent sailings from Mairseilles 
to the Mediterranean ports. A service is main- 
tained every Saturday from Marseilles for Bizerte, 



Tunis, and Palermo, and vice vwsa \ one every 
Friday from Marseilles for Philippeville and B6ne, 
and vice versa ; one every Wednesday from Mar- 
seilles to Oran, Beni Saf . Nemours, Melilla, Tetouan, 
and Tangiers, and vice versa ; one every Wednesday 
from the same ports, calling at Palermo and 
Malaga ; one every Tuesday and Friday from 
Marseilles for Algiers ; every Wednesday for Tunis, 
Sousse, Monastir, Mehdia. Sfax, Djesbah, and 
Tripoli. 

Fleet. 

Emir. Medjerda. Rhone. 

Djurjura. Moulouya. Soudan. 

Felix Tonache, Oasis. Tafna. 

Isly. Omara. Tell. 

La Marsa. Tonaree. 

Compagnie dee Bateaux A Vapenr da Nord, with 
their head offices in Dunkirk, have a fleet of 20 
modem steamers, ranging from 700 to 5,000 tons. 
The company, which is now one of considerable 
importance, commenced in a very modest way in 
1852. Services are maintained from Dunkirk to 
Bordeaux, Marseilles, and Cette, where they con- 
nect with the Messageries Maritimes for South 
America, and with the Comp. Transatlantique for 
the Mediterranean. China, and Japanese ports. A 
service from Dunkirk to Havre, which connects with 
the Cbmp. Transatlantique for New York ; from 
Dunkirk to Bayonne ; from Dunkirk to Boulogne, 
L'Orient, La Rochelle, and Rochefort ; from Dun- 
kirk to Hamburg; from Dunkirk to London. A 
service is also maintained three times a month to 
Morocco via Gibraltar. 

Fleet. 

Cambria. Ville de Carthage. 

Frederich Morel. Ville de Cette. 

Jean Bart. Ville de ConstanHne. 

Maria. Ville de Dunherque. 

Nord. Ville de LilU. 

N. Verberchmoes. Ville de Lorient. 

President. Ville de Marseilles. 

Ville d' Arras. Ville de Rochefort. 

Ville de Bordeaux. Ville de Strasburg. 

Ville de Bouhgna. Ville de Valencisnne. 

Compagnie Fran^ de Navigation A Vapenr. 
See Cyp. Fabre and Co., Marseilles. 

Compagnie Franoaiie de Cabotage des Hen de 
Chine, with their head office in Paris, have a fleet 
of three steamers engaged in passenger and cargo 
trade on the coast of China. These vessels have 
accommodation for a large number of native 
passengers on deck. 

Fleet. 

Binh Thuan. Hainam. Phu Yen. 

Gross tonnage, 4,100. 

Compagnie Gtoteale Traniatlantiqne, with their 
head office in Paris, was established in 1862, and 
has a fleet of 56 steamers aggregatiug 182,321 tons, 
the vessels including La Lorraine and La Savoie, 



COMPAGNIE 



149 



COM PAN I A 



both of which have a speed of 21 kts. A service 
is maintained every Saturday from Havre for New 
York, sailing from New York for Havre every 
Thursday. A service from St. Na^aire and Bor- 
deaux for the West Indies, Venezuela, Central 
America, South and North Paci&c, Cuba, and 
Mexico. Steamers also trade from Marseilles to 
Algiers, Bizerte, Bono« Bougie. CoUo, SjidjelU, La 
Celle, Malta. Oran, Philippeville, Tabarka, Tunis, 
Sfax and Sousse. 

Oompagnto Havraiie Peninrakiire de NaTigatton 
iL V^p0iir» with their bead office in Havre, is the 
outcome of the purchase of the business and 
steamers of £. Grosos, now director general of this 
company. The fleet consists of 1 1 powerful modem 
mail, passenger and cargo steamers, which maintain 
regular sailings from Havre to Portugal, Spain, 
and Algeria, and vice versa : from Havre to Re- 
union and Madagascar, and vice versa ; and from 
Havre to Chili and Peru, and vice versa. 

Fleet. 

Constantin. Ville d' A Iger. 

Die^o-Suarez. Ville du Havre. 

Djibouti. Ville de Majunga. 

Havraise. Ville de Paris. 

Madagascar Ville de Tamatave. 

Ville de Tartagone. 

Ckxmpagnie Hanaillaise de Vavi^tion A Vapeur 

(Fraissinet et Cie.), with the head offices in Mar- 
seilles, have a fleet of 18 steamers, which maintain 
a service from MarseiUes for Corsica ; a postal 
service for the West Coast of Africa ; a service 
for the Levant and Danube ; and one to Naples. 
Steamers leave Marseilles for Bastia and Livoume, 
Fridays and Sunda}^ ; for Ajaccio, Mondays and 
Fridays ; for Propriano every Thursday ; for 
Calvi and He Rousse, Wednesdays. A service from 
Nice to Bastia every Wednesday, and for Ajaccio 
every Saturday. A monthly service from Mar- 
seilles for the West Coast of Africa ; and a fort* 
nightly service for the Levant and Danube, calling 
at Genoa, Dardanelles, Constantinople, Bourgas, 
Varna, Sulina, Galatz, Braila. 

Flbrt. 

Balkan. Liamane. 

Bocognamo» L'Marc. 

Cort0, Luzette Fraissinet. 

Cvmos. Mare Fraissinet. 

Esttrel. Pelion. 

Faraman. Stamboul. 

Felix Fraissinet. Tanrus. 

Goh. Tibet. 

Henry Fraissinet. Ville de Bastia. 

Compagnia ]I6ditenaii6aiiiia da NaTigatioii, with 
their head offices in Marseilles, have a fleet of 13 
excellent passenger and cargo steamers, which 
maintain a service from Marseilles, Nice, and Port 
Vendres, to Corsica, Algiers, Tunis, and Italy. 
Steamers sail from Marseilles weekly for Ajaccio ; 
twice a week for Bastia ; weekly ior Algiers, via 



Port Vendres ; weekly for Tunis and Naples ; 
weekly for Leghorn. From Nice weekly for Bastia, 
Naples and Tunis. From Port Vendres weekly for 
Algiers. 

Fleet. 

Algerien. Gallia. Numidia. 

Bastiais. Iberia. Orient. 

Corsica. Italia. Tavignano. 

Emile. Jeanne d' A re. Vizzavone. 

Monte d'Ore. 

Compagnia Transaflantiaa de Baroelona, with 
their head offices in Barcelona, have a fleet of 
excellent passenger steamers, which carry the mails 
from Barcelona to Antilles and Central America, 
transhipment for North and South Pacific Coast 
taking pjace at Colon. Regular sailings are 
maintained from Barcelona and Genoa, to Cadiz, 
Las Palmas, Teneriffe, Santa Cruz, San Juan, 
Havana, Pt. Limon, Colon, Sabanilla, Curasao, 
Porto Cabello, and La Guaira. A service is main- 
tained at scheduled times from Genoa. Naples, 
Barcelona and Cadiz, for New York, Havana, and 
Vera Cruz. A regular monthly service from Santan- 
der to Havana and Vera Cruz. A service from 
Genoa, Barcelona, and Cadiz to Santa Cruz, Tene- 
riffe. Monte Video, and Buenos Aires. A regular 
service for the Philippine Islands, from Liverpool, 
Spanish Ports, and Genoa, calling at Port Said, Suez, 
Aden, Columbo, Singapore, Manilla. 

Fleet. 

Alicante. Leon XII. 

Antonio Lopez. Manuel Calvo. 

Buenos Ayres. Montevideo. 

Isla de Luzon. Moniserrat. 

Isla de Panay, P. de Sairustegui. 

Oompania Karitima Oabana (formerly the Munson 
Steamship Line), with their head offices in New 
York, have a fleet of five steamers trading between 
New York, Havana, and Cuba. Regular sailings 
are maintained at scheduled times, and three of the 
steamers have accommodation for passengers. 

Fleet. 

Cubana. Mobila. Olinda. 

Curityba. Paloma. 

Oompania Traniailantioa, Cadiz, with the head 
offices at Cadiz, have a fleet of 22 modem steamers, 
which trade between Cadiz and the West Indian 
Islands. These vessels, nearly all of which have 
been buUt in England, have excellent passenger 
accommodation, and are fitted with the latest 
machinery for working cargo. 

Fleet. 
Alfonso XII. C. Lopez. Mogador, 

Alfonso XIII. CrisHna. Montevideo. 

Alicante. I. Luzon. Moniserrat. 

A. Lopez. I. Panay. Rttbat. 

B. Aires. J. Pielago. Satrusteg. 
Cataluna. Larache. S. Franco. 

C. Cadiz. Leon XIII. ViUaverde. 

M. Calvo. 



COMPANION 



150 



CONCORD 



Companion. A high covering for a hatchway. 

Company, A, is an association of persons called 
members, whose shares are transferable. A limited 
company is one in which the liability of the share- 
holders is limited to the nominal value of their 
shares. Syndicates are associations formed either 
under agreements which constitute the members 
partners, or under the Companies Acts, in which 
case their position does not differ legally from that 
of other registered companies. The Companies 
Act, 1 862-1 900, protects the public from imposition, 
so far as it is possible to do so, by requiring certain 
legal and public formalities in the formation, 
prospectus, commencement of business, powers, 
acts, accounts, and winding-up of every company. 

Compass Course is the course steered by ship's 
compass. 

Composite. In shipbuilding a vessel con- 
structed partly of wood and partly of iron having 
an iron framework with a wooden skin. 

Compressor. A curved bar to brace the chain 
cable against a beam. 

Comas. British 3rd class cruiser (2,380 tons, 
12} kts.). Launched 1878. 

Compass, The fliariners', which is a declination 
compass, is an instrument used at sea for directing 
the course of a ship. Although the invention of 
the compass was formerly placed about the year 
1302, there are indications that it was used in 
China some 2,000 years ago, and it is certain it was 
in use in Europe during the twelfth century. The 
discovery of the magnetic declination or variations 
of the compass is due to Columbus, and was made 
by him in 1492. The compass consists of three 
parts, viz., the box, the card, and the needle. The 
box is circular, and usually made of brass, and is 
hung on gimbals, so that it maintains a horizontal 
position in every motion of the ship. The mag- 
netised needle, which is the essential part of the 
compass, is fixed to the lower part of a card, which 
revolves with the needle. The upper surface of 
the card is divided into 32 points, with their inter- 
mediate quarters, and in addition all steamships 
have the circumference of the compass card marked 
out into 360 degrees. In iron or steel vessels there 
is a deviation of the north and south line from the 
magnetic meridian, owing to the permanent 
magnetism of such a vessel. This is compensated 
for by placing a permanent steel magnet in the 
neighbourhood of the compass, which exerts an 
equal and opposite couple to that due to the ship. 
There are numerous improved and patent com- 
passes, including those of Pope, Preston, Gowland, 
Harris, Walker, and Scoresby. The one most in 
favour, however, was patented in 1876 by Sir 
William Thomson (afterwards Lord Kelvin), 
iq.v.). 

The declination compass is an instrument 
invented to measure the magnetic declination of the 



place when its astronomical meridian is known. 

The Inclination Compass is an instmment for 
measuring magnetic inclination or dip. 

See Cavallo's " Treatise on Magnetism " (2nd 
ed., 1800), Macpherson's " Annals of Com- 
merce " (1805), Johnson's " On the Deviations of 
the Compass" (1852), Scoresby 's "The Compass 
in Iron Ships" (185s), Evans and Smith's "The 
Admiralty Manual of the Compass," Merrifield's 
" Magnetism and the Deviation of the Compass " 
(Part II., 1872). Harris's "Rud. Treat on Mag- 
netism" (1872), Thomson's "Nature" (vol. x., 
p. 388, 1874). 

Con. Abbreviation for Connecticut. 

Concealment. In marine insurance all facts of 
importance bearing on the risk must be placed before 
the underwriter. To conceal a material fact 
voids the insurance. The principle is that an 
underwriter is entitled to assume as the basis of 
a contract that the assured has communicated to 
him every material fact not only which he knows, 
but which he ought to have known. Hence, when 
an agent, the shipper of goods, who ought to 
have telegraphed to the owner the news of the ship's 
loss, purposely refrained from doing so, and sent 
the news by post in order to give his principal time 
to insure, the insurance was held void. (Proud- 
foot V. Montefiorc, L.R. 2 Q.B.D. 511.) The 
penalty for concealment, generally speaking, is 
that the policy is wholly void, or, more preciaely, 
voidable at the option of the underwriter on first 
discovery of the concealment. He may elect to 
condone it and retain his premium, but he must 
make his election at once. (Marshall on Insurance, 
p. 450.) 

The obligation to communicate any fact bearing 
upon the risk rests equally upon the underwriter 
with the assured ; and therefore if at the time of 
effecting the insurance the underwriters were pri- 
vately cognisant of the fact that the ship had 
arrived in safety, the policy would be void as to 
him, and an action would lie against him for the 
recovery of the premium. (Carter v. Boehm ; 
Marshall on Insurance, 2nd ed., p. 466.) 

Untrue deductions of value on a " ship or ships " 
policy, representing risks which have run off as of 
less value than they actually were, vitiates a policy 
on the ground of concealment, or rather of mis- 
representation. (Rivaz V. Gerussi, 4 Asp. Blar. 
L-C. 377 ; also Morrison v. Uni'verBal Co., L.R. 
8 Ex. 40, 197.) 

Concord. U.S. gun-boat. (Chester, 1891.) 
Length 230ft. Beam 36ft. Maximum draught 17ft. 
Displacement 1,700 tons. Complement 294. 
Guns. Armour, 

6--6 in. " Steel." 

2 — 6 pdr. \ in. Deck amidships. 

2—3 pdr. 
Hp. 2,400=^16 kts. Coal maximum 401 tons. 



CONDE 



151 



CONSTANCE 



Oondft. French ist class cruiser. (L'Orient, 
1900.) 

Length 460ft. Beam 63ft. Maximum draught 26ft. 
Displacement 10,000 tons. 
Guns. Armour, 

2 — 7*6 in., 40 cal. " Knipp." 
8 — 6*4 in. 6} in. Belt amidships. 

6 — ^4 in. 8 in. Turrets. 

18 — 3 pdr. 8 in. Conning tower. 

2 — 9 pdr., Boat guns. 

Torpedo Tubes (17*7 in.). 
2 Submerged. 
2 Above water. 
I Above water stem. 
Three screws. Hp. 20,500=21 kts. Coal maad- 
mnm 1,590 tons. Approximate cost ;£875.ooo. 

Oonde da Veoadito. Spanish cruiser. (Carta- 
gena, 1888.) Length, 210 ft. ; beam, 32 ft. ; 
dzanght, 13 ft. ; displacement, 1,112 tons; com- 
plement, 130 ; guns, 4 4*7 in., 2 2*7 in. ; torpedo 
tubes, 2 above water; Hp., 1,600=14 kts. ; coal, 
220 tons. 

Condor. Dutch gun-vessel. Displacement, 400 
tons. At present on commission on Indian Station. 

Condor. French avisos. (Rochefort, 1886.) 
Length 216ft. Beam 29ft. Maximum draught 16ft. 
Displacement 1,200 tons. Complement 134. 

Guns. Armour, 

5—3-9 in. " Steel." 

I — 2'5 in. i^ in. Deck amidships. 

Torpedo Tubes, 
5 Above water. 
Hp. 3,800=17 kts. Coal maximum 300 tons. 
Of small fighting value. 

Condor. German 3rd class cruiser. (Hamburg, 

1892.) 

Length 246ft. Beam 33ft. Maximum draught 15ft. 
Displacement 1,600 tons. Complement 165. 
Gtms, Armour, 

8—4*1 m. " Steel." 

7 Small. 3 in. Deck amidships. 

Torpedo Tubes, 
2 Above water. 
Hp. 2,900=16 kts. Coal mfl,ximum 300 tons. 

Condoroot French ist class battleship. Laid 
down 1906. 

Length 475ft. Beam 84ft. Maximum draught 27^ft. 
Displacement 18,000 tons. Complement 680. 
Guns, Armour, 

4 — 12 in. " Krupp." 

i2->9'4 in. 10 in. Belt amidships. 

16 — 12 pdr. 12 in. Turrets. 

8 — 3 pdr. 13 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 

2 Submerged. 

3 Above water. 

Three screws. Hp. 22,500= 19 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 2,010 tons. Approximate cost j{i,825,ooo. 



Condore. Italian torpedo-boat. (Ansaldo, 1898.) 
Length, 1 54 f t. ; beam, 16 ft. ; draught, 6} ft. ; 
displacement, 1 36 tons ; complement, 27 ; arma- 
ment, 2 3-pdr., 2 tubes ; twin screw ; Hp., 2,500= 
27 kts. ; coal, 23 tons. 

Oonflici British torpedo-boat destroyer. (East 
Cowes, 1894.) Length, 205 ft. ; beam, 20 ft. ; 
draught, 8 ; displacement, 270 tons ; complement, 
50; armament, i 12-pdr., 5 6-pdr.. 2 tubes; twin 
screw ; Hp., 4,370=27 kts. ; coal, 60 tons. 

Conneotioat. U.S. ist class battleship. (New 
York, 1904.) 

Length 456ft. Beam 76ft. Maximum draught 27ft. 
Displacement 16,000 tons. Complement 916. 
Guns. Armour. 

4 — 12 in., 45 cal. " Krupp." 
8 — 8 in. 1 1 in. Belt amidships. 

12 — 7 in. 12 in. Turrets. 

20—14 pdr* 9 ui« Conning tower. 

12 — 3 pdr. 
14 Small. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
4 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Coal maximum 2,200 tons. 
Approximate cost ;£ 1,300,000. 

Conning. Directing the helmsman. 

ConQiuror. On December 26, 1861, this vessel 
was stranded on Rum Cay, near the Bahamas, and 
was lost. The captain was censured for neglect of 
duty. 

Conqueror. East Indiaman, homeward bound, 
wrecked near Boulogne, January 13, 1843. Crew 
and passengers lost. 

Conaaeror. On February 15, 1760, this vessel 
was lost on St. Nicholas's Island, Plymouth. 

Conservanoj is a board of commissioners or 
trustees in whom the control of a river or port is 
vested by Act of Parliament. The Board regulates 
the navigation and flow of water, protects fisheries, 
and adopts measures to prevent pollution. The 
Thames Conservancy by the Act of 1894 consists 
of 38 conservators, whose authority extends from 
Cricklade to Yantlet Creek, and includes the right 
to improve navigation, the maintenance of tow- 
paths, locks, etc., the licensing, the erection of 
wharfs and piers, the dredging of the river, and 
removal of obstructions. The Thames Conservancy 
possesses all rights in the bed and soil of the river 
up to high-water mark. 

CooBOnraton of the Thamef. See Thames Con- 
servancy. 

Consiance. A vessel, built by Messrs. Elder in i860, 
with engines of large cylinder capacity to admit of 
great expansion with surface-condensers and super- 
heaters to the boilers. It was worked with steam 
of 32 pounds pressure, and were compound engines 
with six cylinders. The economy of fuel was very 



CONSTRUCTIVE 



152 



CONSULATO 



marked, as they were able to obtain one indicated 
hoTse-power with 2^ pounds of fuel. The engines, 
however, were excessively complicated and heavy 
for that time, their weight being about 5^ cwt. 
per maximum indicated horse-power. 

Constrnotive total Iom is a loss of a ship con- 
demned on account of her having sustained injuries 
so extensive that she is not worth the cost of 
repairs. 

As to constructive total loss of cargo, the under- 
writer engages only that the thing insured shall 
reach its destination capable of being used under 
the same denomination that it had when the risk 
commenced — ue., that a ship shall reach its de- 
stination capable of being used as a ship, and that 
cargo, say rice, shall reach its destination capable 
of being used as rice. 

The questions, therefore, are : 

(i) Is it practically possible for the assured to 
make the thing insured reach its destination ? 

(2) Will or does it reach its destination capable 
of being used under the denomination it had before 
it was damaged by perils of the sea ? 

There are many points, some of great nicety, 
bearing on anything that could be said ; but, 
speaking generally, it is an unwritten law of marine 
insurance that the assured must act as a prudent 
uninsured owner would do. If the outlay neces- 
sary to remove or repair the damage is what a 
prudent uninsured owner would undertake, it is 
not a constructive total loss ; if he would not, it is. 

There is a constructive total loss of goods when 
the goods cannot practically reach their destina- 
tion — }.0., when the expenses resulting from perils 
of the sea will exceed the probable proceeds of the 
goods at their port of destination. 

To make an underwriter liable for a total loss 
when it is a constructive total loss only, a notice 
of abandonment is necessary. There cannot be a 
constructive total loss of freight, for there is nothing 
to abandon. 

By English law the assured cannot say to his 
underwriter : " Here, take my property. Give me 
the amount for which you have insured it." All 
he can legally say is : " I give you notice that, in 
consequence of such and such circumstances, I 
now make my election, and declare my intentions 
to transfer my interest in what I have insured with 
you, demanding in return the sum insured there, 
and now I make you the offer of this transfer." 
This tender or notice of abandonment should be 
made as soon as the assured has made up his mind 
that it is reasonably certain the interest in effect 
will be totally lost. 

If he delays, then all that he does may be 
reckoned up against him as testimony of his un- 
willingness to tender abandonment at the proper 
time, and he may in consequence have to be 
satisfied with some form of indemnity that does 
not confer on him a payment of a total loss against 



the transfer of his property, but leaves him with 
that property repaired, so as only to be as good as 
it was before the accident causing the damage. 

If the notice of abandonment to the under- 
writers has not been accepted, there is a possi- 
bility of neither assured nor underwriter taking 
steps to save the imperilled property ; neither may 
be inclined to act in such a way as may be held 
to indicate an assumption of ownership which each 
wishes to declaim. This is the reason of the exist- 
ence of the " Waiver Clause " or " Sue and Labour 
Clause," by which it is " expressly declared and 
agreed that the acts of the assured or the assurer 
in recovering, saving, or preserving the property 
shall not be considered as a waiver or acceptance 
of abandonment." If, on the other hand, the 
assured 's tender of abandonment is difficultly 
operative as regards both assured and underwriter, 
each of them has exercised his option and must 
abide by the consequences. (Gow on Marine Insur- 
ance, p. 147.) Refer to Abandonment ; also Clauses 
Valuation. 

OonstniotiTe Total Lon OlaiiM. See C.T.L. 
Clause. 

Ooosolt MeroantflAt is a Government official, 
resident abroad, who is appointed to guard the 
rights of the subjects of the nation he serves, and 
to watch the interests of that country commercially. 
His powers are wide and various, and he enjoys 
certain immunities and privileges by virtue of his 
office. 

The duties of a British Consul include reporting 
on local import and export trade, administering 
any oath or affidavit, holding inquiries respecting 
offences committed on the high seas by British 
seamen, issuing and counter-signing passports, 
solemnising marriages contracted between British 
subjects or between a foreigner and a British sub- 
ject, registering births and deaths, and assisting 
shipwrecked or unemployed seamftn. AU docu- 
ments affixed with the Consular seal and signed by 
the Consul or his deputy are admitted as evidence in 
a British Court of Law without proof of seal or 
signature. 

Oonsiilate of the Sea, The (Consulato del mare), 
is the eariiest known collection of sea laws and 
customs, and was printed at Barcelona in the 
Catalan language in 1494, whereof the only existing 
copy is in the Paris National Library. It consisted 
of a code of procedure issued by the kings of 
Aragon for the guidance of Courts and Consuls at 
sea, a collection of ancient customs, and a body 
of ordinances for the government of warships. 
Although not universally recognised, it was adopted 
by most of the Mediterranean States, and England 
adhered to its rules until it was superseded by the 
Declaration of Paris, 1856 {q.v,), 

Coosalato del Hare. See Consulate of the Sea. 



CONTENT 



153 



COOK 



Content. A (Jocument specifying a vessel's 
destination, stores, etc., signed by her master and 
delivered to the Customs authorities before she can 
clear outwards. 

Contest. British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Bir- 
kenhead, 1894.) Length, 210 it. ; beam, 19 ft. ; 
draught, 9 ft. ; displacement, 290 tons ; comple- 
ment, 50; armament, i 12-pdr., 5 6-pdr., 2 tubes ; 
twin screw ; Hp., 4,400 <« 27 kts. ; coal, 60 tons. 

Continuation QauBes. See Clauses. 

Contraband. See Smuggling. 

Contraband of war. Goods said to be contra- 
band of war are divided into two classes, (i) Abso- 
lute contraband — i,e., all articles primarily manu- 
factured or ordinarily used for naval or military 
purposes in war time. (2) Conditional contraband 
— 1.0. , articles which may be and are used in times 
of peace as well as of war, the law of nations 
looking at their destination to determine their 
character. A neutral ship carrying contraband of 
war is by the law of nations liable to confiscation if 
captured by a belligerent, though of late the 
practice has been relaxed where the owners of the 
ship and cargo are different persons, the contra- 
band goods only under such circumstances being 
seized. Yet the knowledge of a shipowner that his 
vessel is carrying contraband, or the fact that she 
is sailing under false papers, renders her liable to 
confiscation in addition to the goods she is carrying. 
The liability to seizure commences when a vessel 
leaves port, and ends when her contraband cargo 
is discharged. 

Great Britain has recently drafted a memo- 
randum on which it is proposed to negotiate with 
Germany, France, and Russia for the conclusion of 
an agreement affecting contraband. There will be 
three lists : 

1. " Absolute " contraband. — Articles to be placed 
in the first class have already been accepted by the 
Conference. Others can be added after due notifi- 
cation. 

2. " Conditional *' contraband, — Fuel of all kinds, 
railway and telegraph material, foodstufis, clothing 
and materials for clothing, com. Additional articles 
can be added after due notification. Liability to 
confiscation, save on payment of full compensation, 
only to come into force after the expiration of a 
fixed period, say, 30 days. 

3. " Non-declarable " contraband, — ^Mails, raw 
cotton, raw wool, silk, jute, and other raw material 
of the textile industries ; illuminating oUs ; oil seeds 
and nnts ; rubber, gun:is, hops ; raw hides and 
horns ; raw sugar ; metallic ores <; explosives not 
used for warlike purposes. 

No goods are to be considered conditional con- 
traband unless generally destined for the armed 
forces of the enemy. The burden of proof is to be 
on the captor, and full compensation is to be paid 



if the cl^arge is not substantiated. Neutral destina- 
tion is to render ships immune to capture for con- 
traband. 

It is understood that in return for agreement on 
these points Great Britain would give up the 
doctrine of continuous voyages with regard to 
contraband. Refer to Visit and Search, Neutrality. 

Contributing values. See General Average. 

Controller* Maval* is the third naval ord who has 
care of the material of the fleet. His duty em- 
braces all matters connected with naval construc- 
tion, dockyards, engines, ordnances, and sto es, 
with the exception of coal. He is responsible not 
only for the administrative but also of the execu- 
tive part of naval shipbuilding. He is responsible 
for the satisfactory construction and performance 
of ships, and the Director of Naval Construction is 
responsible to the controller. See Vasey Hamilton's 
" Naval Administration,'* 1896. 

Con?eyanolng includes all legal draftsmanship. 
A conveyance is the instrument by which property 
is tzansferred from one person to another, and 
includes assignment, appointment, lease, settiement, 
and other assurance, and covenant to surrender. 
It is made by deed on a sale, mortgage, demise, 
or settiement of any property, or on any other 
dealing with or for property. The object of con- 
veyancing is to express intentions in the shortest 
and clearest manner. 

Convoy is the accompaniment and protection of 
merchant vessels by warships of their country in 
time of war. 

With regard to neutral ships under convoy, most 
Continental nations have adopted the principle 
that the declaration of the convoying of&cer that 
the merchantmen under his charge carry no con- 
traband of war exempts them from the belli- 
gerent's {q,v.) right of visit and search (q.v.). 
Great Britain, however, has always refused to 
recognise this immunity of convoyed vessels, and 
hold that the so-called " right of convoy " has no 
existence except by virtue of a treaty between 
States mutually conceding that right. In marine 
insurance a warranty {q.v.) to sail under convoy is 
a stipulation in the policy that the ship shall so 
sail, and implies that the convoy shall be for the 
whole voyage, that the sailing orders will come 
from the of&cer of the convoying ship, and that the 
insured vessel will do her best to keep with her 
convoy. 

Cook, Captain JTames (1728-79). Celebrated navi- 
gator (b. Marton, Yorkshire). After some years 
spent in the North Sea and Baltic, he in 1755 
joined the Rojral Navy, and distinguished himself 
to such an extent that he was appointed master 
successively of the Sluy, Grampus, Garland, and 
Mercury, in the last of which he was principally 
engaged in surveying the St, Lawrence River, of 



COOK 



154 



COOTE 



which he published a chart of the journey from 
Quebec to the sea, and the coast of Newfoundland. 
In 1768 he received a commission as lieutenant, 
and set sail in the Endeavour, a vessel of 370 tons, 
accompanied by several men of science, to observe 
the transit of Venus. From Tahiti, where he 
erected an observatory, he set sail in quest of the 
Great Continent, then supposed to exist in the 
South Pacific, and reached the Island of New 
Zealand, which he circumnavigated, and charted 
the coast. From New Zealand he proceeded to 
Australia (then called New Holland), and on 
April 28 came in sight of Botany Bay. From 
Australia, Cook sailed to New Guinea, and thence 
to Batavia, where his ships had to be laid up for 
repairs. 

In 1772, having been raised to the rank of cap- 
tain, he was placed in command of the Resolution, 
a ship of 462 tons, and a smaller ship called the 
Adventure, which were sent out to determine the 
extent of the reported southern continent. He 
reached Madeira on July 29, touched at the Cape 
of Good Hope, and from there the expedition 
entered the Antarctic circle in January, 1773. 
After skirting the ice in high latitudes, and being 
satisfied that no land existed within the limits of 
his researches, he set sail for New Zealand. Sailing 
again to the south and east the Resolution again 
encountered ice, and in January, 1774, in longitude 
106^ 54' W. Cook reached his highest latitude, 
71^ 10' S. After wintering among the Society 
Islands, steering northward he navigated the 
southern tropic from Easter Island to New Tripodes, 
and discovered the island named by him New 
Caledonia. 

He then set sail for home, reaching England on 
July 29, 1775, the Adventure, which had become 
separated from the Resolution in the South Seas, 
arriving the previous year. In 1776 he had charge 
of an expedition to the Pacific to endeavour to find 
a passage round the north coast of North America. 
The two ships, the Resolution and Discovery, were 
speedily equipped and placed under his command. 
He sailed in the Resolution from Plymouth, July 12, 
1776, the Discovery, under Captain Clarke, sailing 
shortly afterwards. The two ships joined company 
at Cape Town. On this voyage he discovered a 
group of islands, which he named the Sandwich 
Islands, after the Earl of Sandwich, who had 
taken great interest in the expedition. After cir- 
cumnavigating these and laying down their posi- 
tion on a chart, he reached the coast of North 
America, and explored it from about the 45th 
parallel to Icy Cape, where they were stopped by 
the ice. Returning to winter off the Sandwich 
Islands, he discovered Maui and Hawaii, and it 
was here, in consequence of some trouble with the 
natives, that he met his death, February 14, 1779, 
being murdered in attempting to reach his boat. 
See "Life" by Kipple, 1778, by Besant, 1890, 
by Laughton, "The Pict of Nat Biog." The 



account of his first voyage, written by himself, 
is in vols. II. and III. of '* Hawkesworth's Voyages," 
1773, that of the second, published in two vols, 
in 1777, and of the third in three vols., 1784. 
Refer to Antarctic Exploration, Arctic Exploration. 

Ckxik, Geofge Orome (b. New York. October 24, 
1875). Educated Webb's Academy of Shq>build- 
ing. New York. In 1897 ^ entered the hull con- 
struction department of Messrs. W. M. Cramp and 
Sons, shipbuilding company, Philadelphia, and 
spent several years in work on naval vessels for 
the United States, Japanese, and Russian Govern- 
ments. In 1898 he resigned his position, and 
entered the department of naval architecture of 
the Glasgow University, where he was a student for 
two years, and won senior class honours in naval 
architecture. On leaving Glasgow he entered the 
hull construction department of Howaldtswerke, 
Kiel, Germany, and remained there some time. 
After making a tour of the shipyards and schools 
of naval architecture of Europe, he established 
himself as a naval architect in New Yatk City. 
He is instructor of naval architecture at the New 
York Nautical School, and lecturer on shipbuilding 
for the pubUc schools of New York City. 

Publications : Papers published in transactions 
of the Society of Naval Architects of New York ; 
contributions to leading American technical journal. 

Codie QFiteiiit The, which sprang up upon the 
aboUtion of slavery, is the importation of labourers 
from China, India, and other. countries by nations 
either themselves deficient in labourers or hoping 
to increase their own industrial profits by the em- 
ployment of foreign labour cheaper than that 
locally obtainable. In India the Government 
rebates the exportation of cooUes, which it 
restricts to British colonies, Guadeloupe, Mar- 
tinique, and Dutch Guiana. Since 1903 Chinese 
labour has been extensively employed in the Trans- 
vaal. 

Cooperage is a system in the North Sea of barter- 
ing tobacco, spirits, etc., to seamen and fishermen 
by Dutch and other boats, called coopers. The 
North Sea Fisheries BiU (1888) prohibited this 
traffic. 

Ck)ote, Arflmr (b. Huntingdonshire, March, 1841). 
British naval architect. Served his apprenticeship 
at Messrs. Denny Brothers, Dumbarton, then for a 
year with Messrs. Samuelson, of Hull ; and for them 
undertook the delivery of a number of twin-screw 
barges for work on a chain laid between Rouen and 
Paris. In 1864 he joined Mr. Andrew Leslie in 
partnership, at .the Hebbum Shipbuilding Yard. 
Newcastle: and on the retirement of Mr. Leslie 
became the sole partner. In 188$ he formed an 
amalgamation with Messrs. R. and W. Hawthorn, 
and became one of the two Directors of Messrs. R. 
and W. Hawthorn, L^e and Co., Ltd, He is 



COPENHAGEN 



155 



CORK 



chairman of the Anglo- Australian Steamship Co., 
Ltd., and Freeman oi the City of London. Member of 
the Institution of Naval Architects ; of the Institu- 
tion of Mechanical Engineers ; and of the Institution 
of the North-East Coast Engineers and Ship- 
builders. 

Ckypenhagen, Baitte oL On April 2nd, i8ox, 
Lord Nelson and Admiral Parker defeated the Dutch 
fleet of 23 ships of the line, when 18 of the enemy's 
fleet were captured or destroyed. Again in 1807 the 
Dutch fleet surrendered to Admiral Gambia and 
Lord Cathcart. The capture consisting of 18 ships 
of the line, 15 frigates, 6 brigs, and 25 gun-boats^ 
together with inunense naval stores. 

OoQuetti. British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Chis- 
wick, 1898.) Length, 210 ft. ; beam, 19 ft ; 
draught, 7 ft. ; displacement, 285 tons ; comple- 
ment, 60 ; armament, i 12-pdr., 5 6-pdr., 2 tubes ; 
twin-screw ; Hp., 5,800=30 kts. ; coal, 80 tons. 

Coraoto. An ancient British boat constructed of 
wicker work, covered by skins, oilcloth, etc. ; 
still in use among Welsh and Irish fishermen. 

OofaL (Coralliaria.) A name applied to the hard 
calcareous support or skeleton of many species of 
marine zoophytes. The coral producing animals 
abound chiefly in tropical seas, and their growth 
depends mainly upon the mean winter temperature 
of the sea, and they are confined to seas in which 
the temperature of the water during the winter does 
not sink, on an average, below 60* or 68® Fahr. 
The reef-building corals are essentially shallow 
water forms, flourishing between extreme low 
water mark and depths of from 20 to 25 fathoms. 
By their continued growth and aggregation of 
countless generations, they form reefs, barriers, and 
isles of vast extent. The red coral (CoralHum 
Riibfum) of the Mediterranean is highly prized for 
ornamental purposes. 

The chief works on Coral and Coral Islands are : — 
Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. (1878-80) ; Guppy, Proc. Roy. 
Soc Edin., xiii. (1885-86) ; W. Wharton, " Nature," 
zzxviL (1887-88), Iv. (1896-97); J. Murray, 
" Nature," xxxix. (1888-89) ; C. Darwin, " Struc- 
ture and Distribution of Coral Reefs" (1889); 
Sidney J. Hickson's " Naturalist in N. Celebes " 
(1889) ; J. D. Dana, " Corals and Coral Islands " 
(1890) ; W. SaviUe Kent's " Great Barrier Reef of 
Australia " (1893) >* Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., 
xxxviiL (1896) ; J. Stanley Gardiner, " The Coral 
Reefs of Funafuti, Rotuma, and Fiji " ((Proc. 
Camb. Phil. Soc.. ix., 1898) ; " The Fauna and 
Geography of the Maldive and Laccadive Archi- 
pelagoes " (1901) ; A. Agassiz, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Z06I., passim, and Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., xxvi. 
(1902) ; W. J. Sollas, ** Report to the Committee of 
the Royal Society appointed to investigate the 
Structure of a Coral Reef by Boring " (Proc. Roy. 
Soc, Ix.). 



Ooial lalaiid is an island made in a large measure 
of coral. Bermuda is an instance of the kind. 
Refer to Coral Reef. 

Ootal BeeL A reef consisting to a considerable 
extent, though not exclusively, of coral. The stony 
skeletons of zoophytes form large masses of lime- 
stone, and these with shells, fragments of echini, etc., 
become cemented together by carbonate of lime, 
derived probably from the decomposition of dead 
coral. Darwin divides coral reefs into three kinds — 
(i) the annular or lagoon reef, generally called an 
atoll, (2) the encircling or barrier reef, and (3) the 
fringing or skirting reef. The first two axe found 
only where subsidence is in progress. An encircling 
reef, that is, one encircling an island at some 
distance from the shore, is found in an area of 
subsidence where the central mountain of high land 
has not yet disappeared beneath the ocean. A 
barrier reef — the best known example of which 
is one running parallel to the north-east coast of 
Australia for 1,000 miles, 350 of them without a 
break — is a portion of what, if completed, would be 
an encircling reef. A fringing reef, close to the 
shore of a volcanic island, is produced by the eleva- 
tion of the area, which converted into dry land the 
narrow chann^ by which it was at one time separa- 
ted from the shore. The Dangerous and Society 
Archipelagoes are areas of subsidence with atolls, 
as is the case with the Bermuda Island, the only 
specimen in the Atlantic of an atoll. The New 
Hebrides, Solomon Islands, and New Ireland 
afford examples of fringing reefs. 

Cordillere (1895). French subsidised merchant 
ihip. Messageries Maritimes (q^v.). Dimensions, 
462x57x46 ft.; gross tonnage, 6,375; Hp., 
6,000=17 kts. 

Corinth. Union liner. Sunk in collision with 
H.M.S. Firebrand, March, 1886. 

Cocintil Cmu^ This ship canal crosses the Isth- 
mus of Corinth. The work was commenced in 1882, 
but not completed until 1893, through lack of funds. 
It is four miles long, 100 ft. broad, with a bottom 
width of 72 ft., and a depth of 26 ft. It shortens 
the sea route from the Gulf of Patras to the Gulf of 
Athens by 180 miles. Owing to the deficient 
width, strong currents, and to the fact that the 
sides of the canal have given much trouble since its 
opening, notwithstanding that long lengths have 
been protected by masonry, or rubble stone, the 
traffic is principally confined to small vessels. The 
total cost amounted to approximately ^£3,000, 000. 

Gorinthian Taoht Club, RoyaL See Royal 
Corinthian Yacht Club. 

Cork jacket. A jacket lined with cork for the 
purpose of sustaining the wearer on the surface of 
the water. 

Cork Yaeht Clnb, Boyal. See Royal Cork Yacht 
Qub. 



CORMORANT 



156 



COSMAO 



Oonnorant. Late screw sloop. Displacement, 
1,130 tons. Flagship of the Admiralty Superin- 
tendent at Gibraltar Dockyard. 

Cormorant. German 3rd class cruiser. (Danzig, 
1892.) 

Length 246ft. Beam 33ft. Maximum draught 15ft. 
Displacement 1,600 tons. Complement 165. 
Guns. Armour, 

8—4-1 in. " Steel." 

7 Small. 3 in. Deck amidships. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
2 Above water. 
Hp. 2,9oossi6 kts. Coal maximum 300 tons. 

Oom. See Memorandum. 

ComwalL On March 19, 187 1 , this vessel was lost 
in collision with the Himalaya, off Hartlepool. 

ComwalL British ist class cruiser. (Pembroke, 
1902.) 
Length 440ft. Beam 66ft. Mean draught 24ft. 
Displacement 9,800 tons. Complement 678. 
Guns. Armour » 

14—6 in., 45 cal. " Krupp." 
8 — 12 pdr. 4 in. Belt amidships. 

2 — 12 pdr., 8 cwt. 5 in. Barbettes. 
3 — 3 pdr. 10 in. Conning tower. 

8 Pompoms. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
2 Submerged. 

Twin screw. Hp. 22.000=23 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 1,600 tons. Approximate cost ;£77 5, 000. 

This ship-name was introduced into the Navy 
about 1685, and is associated with Barfleur and 
La Hogue, 1692 ; capture of Port Louis, 1748 ; 
Knowles's action off Havana, 1748; Bjrron's action 
off Grenada, 1779 ; Rodney's action with De 
Guichen, 1780. 

Cornwall Tacht Club, RosraL See Royal Cornwall 
Yacht Club. 

ComwalliB. British ist class battleship. (Thames 
Ironworks, 1901.) 

Length 429ft. Beam 75ft. Maximum draught 27ft. 
Displacement 14,000 tons. Complement 750. 
Guns. Armour. 

4 — 12 in. " Krupp." 

12 — 6 in. 7 in. Belt amidships. 

12 — 12 pdr. II in. Barbettes. 

6 — 3 pdr. 12 in. Conning tower. 

2 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
4 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 18,000=19 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 2,000 tons. Approximate cost £1 ,000,000. 

ComwaUis, Sir William (1744-1819). British 
admiral. Served at Louisburg, 1758; battle of 
Quiberon, 1759 ; and was present at the capture of 
the Achille by the Thunderer, 1761. In 1779 he 
took part in the battle off Grenada, and greatly 
distinguished himself. He was commander of the 
Canada with Hood at St. Kitts, and Rodney, off 



Les Saintes, 1782. In 1795 by a great feat of 
strategy, skill, and daring, when in command of a 
small squadron, he managed to escape from a supe- 
rior French force, and for this he was made full 
admiral. His nickname in the Navy was '^ Billy 
Blue." 

Corona. A series of small coloured rings, due to 
refraction through thin clouds, round the sun or 
moon. The order of the colours is the reverse of 
that in the rainbow. 

Coronation. 90 guns. On September i, 1696, 
this vessel foundered off the Ramhead. The crew 
were saved. 

Corposants. See St. Elmo's Fire. 

Corrientes. Argentine torpedo-boat destroyer. 
(Yarrow, 1896.) Displacement, 250 tons ; armour, 

1 in. Protection amidships ; armament, i 14-pdr., 
3 6-pdr, ; tubes, 3 i8-in. ; Hp., 4,200=27 kts. 

Corrlgan. French ship. See Korrigan. 

Corsaire. French torpedo-boat (1892). Dis- 
placement, 171 tons; complement, 32; maximum 
draught, $\ ft. ; guns, 2 3 -pdr. ; torpedo tubes, 

2 15-in. ; Hp., 2,500=25 kts. ; coal, 15 tons. 

Cortes. Steamer. Foundered in the Bay of Bis- 
cay, December 16, 1874 ; 25 lives lost. 

Cosa, Joan de la (1450-1510). Spanish navigator 
(b. Santona, Italy). Accompanied Columbus as 
pilot in 1492, and was sent on several expeditions 
to explore the newly-discovered lands. He made 
two coloured maps on vellum^ one marking the dis- 
coveries by Columbus and his successors, and the 
other the Spanish possessions in Africa. He was 
killed at Tabasco in Central America during a 
skirmish with some Indians. 

See " Life," in Spanish, with reproduction of 
maps in six sheets, 1892. 

Cosens and Co., Ltd^^ with their head offices at 
Weymouth, own a fleet of eight excellent pleasure 
steamers, which maintain frequent sailings daring 
the summer months, from Weymouth, Swanage and 
Bournemouth, to Ryde, I.W., Cowes, Southsea, 
and Brighton. Excursions are also ran to Torquay, 
Exeter, Teignmouth, and Dartmouth. 

Flbet. 

Albert Victor » Majestic. Premier. 

Brodick Castle. Monarch. Queen. 

Empress. Victoria. 

Cosmao. French 3rd class cruiser. (Bordeaux, 
1890.) 

Length 312ft. Beam 30ft. Maximum draught 14ft. 
Displacement 1,900 tons. Complement 190. 

Guns. Armour. 

4— 5 5 in. "Steel." 

8 — 1*8 in. li in. Deck amidships. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
5 Above water. 
Hp. 6,000=20 kts. Coal maximum 300 tons. 
Of small fighting value. 



COSPATRICK 



157 



COURT 



Ckwpatrick. Emigrant vessel. Took fire in mid Publications : Has contributed papers on various 

ocean on her way to Auckland, New Zealand, engineering subjects to the Institution of Engineers 
November 17, 1874 ; 470 lives lost. and Shipbuilders in Scotland. 



Cossack. British ocean-going torpedo-boat de- 
stroyer. (Laird, 1906.) Length, 250 ft. ; beam, 
25 ft. ; draught. 7 J ft. ; displacement, 790 tons ; 
complement, 60 ; armament, 3 12-pdr., 2 tubes ; 
3 screws; Hp., 13,000=33 kts. ; coal maximum, 
185 tons. 

Cosnlich FrateDi, Trieste. See Austro-American 
Steamship Co. 

Ootton elaiises. See Clauses. 

Cooleavrine. French torpedo gun-boat. (Havre, 
1896.) 

I^ength 196ft. Beam 21ft. Maximum draught 6ft. 
Displacement 369 tons. Complement 63. 
Guns. Torpedo Tubes. 

4 — I '8 in. 2 Above water. 

Hp. 2,ooo=ri8 kts. Coal maximum 100 tons. 
Of no fighting value. 



Ckyont Belgioioso. Indiaman. On March 13, 
1783, this vessel was lost off Dublin Bay, when 
147 souls perished. 

Connter. A prefix applied to many words of 
our language generally signif3dng opposition. 

Countess Evelyne. Cardiff screw steamer. Sunk 
by collision with the City of Hamburg, near Trevose, 
May 3, 1893 '> 24 lives lost. 

Cooper, Sinolair (b. Wick, August 24, 1856). 
Mechanical engineer. Educated Local School, 
Fraserburgh, and Grammar School, Aberdeen. 
After serving his apprenticeship with Messrs. Bar^ 
clay. Curie, and Co., Glasgow, he entered the 
Glasgow University, and took a complete engineer- 
ing course, obtaining the certificate of proficiency 
in engineering science. While at the University, 
and for some time after completing his course, he 
worked in the physical laboratory under Sir 
William Thomson (Lord Kelvin), being chiefly 
engaged in carrjring out a series of experiments 
upon the elasticity of metals. In 1879 he entered 
the employment of Messrs. Miller and Co., Coat- 
bridge, and there designed a large amount of new 
and special plant for steel works. In 1882 he was 
appointed engineering manager of Messrs. I. and W. 
Beardmore, Glasgow, and continued in this ap- 
pointment until 1887, when he went into partner- 
ship with the late Mr. Lindsay Burnet, Moore Park 
Boiler Works, Govan, and since his death has been 
sole partner in that business. Has been Member 
of Council of Institution of Engineers and Ship- 
builders in Scotland, and one of their representa- 
tives on Lloyd's Technical Committee ; membCT 
also Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Institu- 
tion of Naval Architects, Iron and Steel Institute, 
and Royal Philosophical Society. 



Cooibet. French 2nd class battleship (1882). 
Reconstructed 1902. 

Length 318ft. Beam 69ft. Maximum draught 28ft. 
Displacement 10,000 tons. Complement 689. 
Guns. Armour. 

4— io'8 in. " Iron." 

3—9*4 in. 1 5 in. Belt amidships. 

I — 6*4 in. 9 in. Battery. 

10—4 in. 3 in. Conning tower. 

14—3 pdr. 
17 — I pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
None. 
Twin screw. Hp. 8,100=15*1 kts. Coal normal 
900 tons. 

Coureiir, French sea-going torpedo-boat de- 
stroyer. (Chiswick, 1888.) Length, 147 ft. ; beam, 
15 ft.; draught, 4^ ft.; displacement, 129 tons; 
complement, 27 ; armament, 4 Nords., 2 tubes ; 
twin screw ; Hp., 1,550=23 kts. ; coal, 25 tons. 

Coiines* Mainsail and foresail of square-rigged 
ship. 

Coart-martial in the Navy consists of trials by 
a special court composed of admirals, captains, or 
commanders, or of officers of any of those ranks 
for the trial of offences under the Articles of War, 
the whole system resting on the Naval Discipline 
Acts, i860 to 1866. Under the Act of 1866, the 
court-martial must consist of five to nine officers, 
the rank of the president depending on that of 
the prisoner, and must be held publicly on board 
of one of H.M.S. ships of war. Except in the case 
of mutiny, where the trial is held immediately, it 
is necessary to give at least 24 hours' notice for 
the attendance of the officers constituting the court. 
The captain of the ship in which the ofEence is 
committed is the prosecutor, and the prisoner is 
given a copy of the charge, and allowed to prepare 
a defence, and consult legal advisers, communicate 
with witnesses, and obtain the services of a friend 
to represent his case. The Board of the Admiralty 
have under the Naval Discipline Acts the general 
power of suspending, annulling, modifying sentences 
which are not capital. The jurisdiction extends 
to all persons belonging to the Navy, to land 
forces and other persons on board, shipwrecked 
crews, spies, and persons borne on the books of 
H.M. ships in commission. The definition of the 
jurisdiction of locality includes harbours, havens, 
or creeks, all places within the jurisdiction of the 
Admiralty, all places on shore out of the United 
Kingdom, all dockyards, barracks, hospitals, etc., 
all places on shore in or out of the United Kingdom 
for all offences punishable under the Articles of 
War except those specified in the Naval Discipline 
Act of i860. If the finding of the court is " Not 



COURT 



158 



CRAIGIE 



guilty." the judge advocate draws it up» and it is 
signed by all the members. The finding is arrived 
at by taking the opinions of the majority. Should 
the prisoner be found guilty and sentenced to im- 
prisonment, the punishment begins from the time 
of sentence. When the sentence is death, notice 
is given by the firing of a gun from the ship where 
it is to be carried out. 

See Simmons on the " Constitution and Prac- 
tice of Court-Martial" (1875), Tring's "Treaties of 
the Criminal Laws of the Navy " (1861) ; cUso " The 
Annual Mutiny Act," Articles of War, Naval 
Discipline Acts. 

Court, Viee-Admiial of the. See Vice-Admiralty 
Courts. 

(toatelai. French torpedo-boat destroyer. (Forges 
et Chantiers, 1904.) Length, 180 ft. ; beam, 21 ft. ; 
maximum draught, 10 ft. ; displacement, 300 tons ; 
complement, 45 ; guns, i 9-pdr., 6 3-pdr. ; torpedo 
tubes, 2 1 5 -in. ; speed, 27-30 kts. 

Ck>verley and Westray Line, taken over by the 
Ellerman Lines, Ltd., in 1901, maintain a service 
of passenger and cargo steamers between London 
and Oporto. A monthly service was inaugurated 
in 1904 in conjunction with the Allan Line to 
Uruguay and the River Plate. 

€k>ven are unstamped documents issued pre- 
paratory to the preparation of the stamped poUcy 
for the protection of the assured. Refer to Slip. 

Cowry. The popular name of the shells of the 
Cyproeide, a family of molluscs. Upwards of 100 
species are recognised, and they are widely distri- 
buted over the world, being found chiefly in shallow 
water along the seashore. They are used for 
money and barter, and are collected in great 
quantities in the Maldive Isles, in Ceylon, along 
the Malabar coast, and Borneo, and various parts 
of the African coast from Ras Hafun to Mozam- 
bique. They are still used in India, East Africa, 
and Central Africa. In India it requires 3,840 to 
make a rupee, and in Siam 6,400 are equal to a 
tical, or about 15. 6d, 

Coz, Walter Beseigh (b. Falmouth, 1867). Served 
an apprenticeship of five years at engineering, two 
years shipbuilding, and, having obtained consider- 
able experience in Glasgow, he was in 1890 ap- 
pointed managing director of the shipbuilding and 
repairing department of Messrs. Cox and Co., 
Falmouth. He has wide experience in the con- 
struction of yachts, tugs, barges, etc., of all types 
and descriptions, and has carried out some of the 
most intricate repairs to boilers and machinery 
that have been executed in the West of England, 
and in re-classing, re-b<»lering| and re-engining 
vessels of all types. 

Member of the Institution of Naval Architects. 



Coxswain. The seaman who steers a boat. 

C.P. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Kolijnsplaat, Holland. 

Cr. Creek. Abbreviation adopted on.the charts 
issued by the Hydrogr^phic Office, Admiralty. 

Crab. A form of windlass for hauling ships into 
dock. 

Cradle. A frame consisting of bUgeways, poppets, 
etc., on which vessels are constructed. 

Craft. A term in sea phraseology for every kind 
of vessel. 

Craft daiue. See Clauses. 

Craig, George Batt, J.P. (b. April 23, 1849). 
Was originally educated with a view to the legal 
profession, but his inclination towards engineering 
science early manifested itself, and he entered the 
drawing office of Messrs. Thomas Wingate and Co., 
Glasgow. After being connected with this firm 
for some time, he became draughtsman to Messrs. 
John Fullerton and Co., of Paisley, and from there 
migrated to the east coast, where for some years 
he was chief draughtsman to Messrs. Wigham 
Richardson and Co., Newcastle. Subsequently he 
became superintendent engineer for the P. and O. 
Co., which position he held for many years. On 
resigning this he decided to commence business on 
his own account, and accordingly started the 
Northumberland Shipyard under the name of 
Messrs. Edward's Sons and Craig. At present he 
is senior partner in the firm of Messrs. Craig, 
Taylor and Co., which yard he laid out about 
21 years ago. 



p», Vioe-Admiral Robert William (b. 1849). 
Entered Navy, 1863 ; sub-heutenant, 1868 ; lieu- 
tenant, 1872 ; gunnery lieutenant of Active, landed 
with a detachment from that vessel during the 
Kaffir war, 1877-78 ; commanded at Fort Cunning- 
ham ; mentioned in despatches for valuable ser- 
vices rendered on the Gaika frontier ; took part in 
the operations against Sandilli ; again mentioned 
in despatches ; landed with the Naval Brigade 
during Zulu war, 1878-79, and acted as adjutant 
to the Active's detachment ; present at the action 
of Inyezane, 1879, at the defence to Port Durn- 
ford ; acted as stafi-officer of the Naval Brigade 
composed of detachments from the Shah, Boadicea, 
and Active ; mentioned in despatches ; promoted 
for services rendered (Zulu medal and clasp) ; 
commander, 1879 ; commanded the Flirt on the 
Cape of Good Hope and West Coast of Africa 
station ; received the tlianks of the Foreign Office 
for valuable services rendered in negotiating 
treaties with the chiefs of the Oil River District ; 
promoted to captain for services rendered, 1886 ; 
received the K.N. college prize for steam and naval 



CRAMP 



159 



CRESCENT 



architecture, 1887, ^^^ the gold medal of the Royal 
United Service Institution, 1892 ; commanded 
H.M.S. Hyacinth on the China station, and acted 
as senior naval officer at Singapore, 1892 ; took 
part in the operations of the International Squadron 
in Crete, 1897, when in command of the Camper- 
down ; served as senior British naval officer from 
March 21 to May 24, 1898 ; good service pension, 
1898 ; promoted rear-admiral, 1900 ; admiral 
superintendent of Chatham Dockyard, 1902 ; vice- 
admiral, 1905. 

Cramp, Charles Henry. American shipbuilder 
(b. Philadelphia. May 9, 1828). Served an appren- 
ticeship with John Birely for three years, subse- 
quently becoming attached to his father's yard in 
1848. No school of naval architecture of any kind 
existed at that time in the United States. The 
time of his entrance into the shipbuilding trade was 
the beginning of a great transition from wood to 
iron or steel in the materials for the construction 
of ships, and in the substitution of steam for sails 
for propulsion. During the beginning of his career 
a large number of vessels were built in his father's 
yard, most of which were designed by him — coast- 
wise sailing ships, three-masted schooners, Cali- 
fornia clippers, paddle and screw steamers, screw 
tug-boats, and the first screw war vessel, the 
Libertadov, for Venezuela. At the beginning of 
the Civil War he designed the ironclad battleship 
New Ironsides, which was built of wood, mounting 
14 1 1 -in. Dahlgen guns and two Parrots of 8-in. 
calibre ; also the fast cruiser Chattanooga, and the 
monitor Yazoo, and rebuilt several others, and at 
the end of the war the monitor Terror was built. 
£ngine building was started in 1871, and the 
modem compound engine introduced. Since that 
time every type of vessel, battleship, armoured 
cruiser, gun-boat, and ocean merchant steamer has 
been built, mostly of his own design, and up to 
the time of his retirement from active participation 
in the business in 1902 he had designed and super- 
intended the construction of some 350 vessels. 

Ghmage is the right to use a crane for loading or 
unloading goods, and the price paid for its use. 

Crane. British torpedo-boat destroyer. ( Jarrow, 
1896.) Length, 215 ft.; beam, 20 ft.; draught, 
6 J ft. ; displacement, 324 tons ; complement, 60 ; 
armament, i 12-pdr., 5 6-pdr., 2 tubes ; twin 
screw ; Hp., 6,336=30 kts. ; coal, 80 tons. 

Crank. Unstable ; incapable of carrying sail 
without danger of overturning. 

OraTen. U.S. torpedo-boat (i8q8). Displace- 
ment. 147 ; guns, 3 i-pdr. ; torpedo tubes, 3 i8-in. ; 
maxinmm speed, 27 kts. 

Ofawfofd, lieni-Colonel Thomas, J.P. (b. Novem- 
ber 9, 1825). Commenced bis business career in 



the offices of Messrs. Losh, Wilson and Bell, with 
whom he remained for 15 years. In 1854 he 
entered the firm of Messrs. C. Mitchell and Co., and 
when this firm amalgamated with that of Sir W. G. 
Armstrong, Whitworth and Co., he remained with 
them, and is now head of the commerdal depart- 
ment, and celebrated the jubilee of his connection 
with them on November 8, 1904. Has been con- 
nected with the public life of Walker since 1859, 
and acted as secretary for the first local board. 
He joined the ist Northumberland Volunteer De- 
tachment as a private in 1859, and retired as hon. 
lieu t. -colonel in 1887. with the long service medaT 
He is chairman of the Walker Local Board, of the 
Walker Urban District Council, president of the 
Walker Mechanics Institute, chairman of the 
Walker and Wallsend Union Gas Co. and Qapham 
Steamship Co., Ltd., alderman of the Newcastle 
Corporation, and J. P. for Northumberland. 

Publication : " Nineteenth Century Notes on 
Walker." 

Crawl. A wooden pen built on the sea coast to 
contain fish or turtle. 

Creasote. A colourless liquid obtained by the 
distillation of wood tar. 

Credit, Letter of. A letter written by one party 
to another requesting the party addressed to 
advance the bearer or person named a specified sum 
of money. 

CreeL See Kreel. 

Creeper. Small grapUng-irons for dragging a 
harbour for lost property. 

Creposcnlar rays. Diverging beams seen when 
the sun is near the eastern or western horizon, and 
clouds are gathered round its disc. 

Crescent. British ist class cruiser. (Ports- 
mouth, 1892.) 

Length 360ft. Beam 6oft. Maximum draught 26ft. 
Displacement 7,700 tons. Complement 544. 
Guns. Armour, 

I— 9'2 in. " Steel." 

1 2 — 6 in. 5 in. Deck. 

12 — 6 pdr. 12 in. Conning tower. 

2—9 pdr. boat. 
5—3 pdr. 
2 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
2 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. natural 1 0,00b ^ 18*5 kts., 
forced 12,000=19*5 kts. Coal maximum 1,250 
tons. Approximate cost ;£42o,ooo. 

This ship-name is associated with the battle off 
the North Foreland, 1653 ; capture of the French 
Berheley, 1759 ; capture of the French La Reunion, 
1793 '» capture Qf Cape of Ggod Hope, 1795, 



CRESSY 



i6o 



CRONSTADT 



Oressy. British ist class cruiser. (Fairfield, 

1899.) 

Length 440ft. Beam 69ft. Maximum draught 28ft. 
Displacement 12,000 tons. Complement 700. 
Guns. A rmour. 

2 — 9*2 in., 45 cal. " Krupp." 
1 2— -6 in. 6 in. Belt amidships. 

12 — 12 pdr. 6 in. Barbettes. 

2 — 12 pdr., 8 cwt. 12 in. Conning tower. 
3—3 pdr. 
2 Maidms. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
2 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 2 1,000 =23 "5 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 1 ,600 tons. Approximate cost, ;J749,ooo. 

Crew, The, means the whole ship's company 
with the exception of the master. " At common 
law the master of a ship has authority over all the 
mariners {i.e., the crew), and it is their duty to obey 
his commands in all lawful matters relating to the 
navigation of the ship or the preservation of good 
order." The owner is only bound to provide 
sufficient and capable crew, which, since 1853, may 
be composed of all nationalities. The crew of an 
emigrant ship must satisfy the emigration officer. 
When a complaint is made to the Board of Trade 
or a detaining officer by some of the crew that any 
British ship is unsafe, the Board or officer may, 
unless the complaint is made by one-fourth (being 
not less than three) of the seamen, require security 
to be given by complainants for the cost of ascer- 
taining whether the ship ought to be detained, and 
Sot compensation. 

In all British vessels, except coasters under 
80 tons, the master must enter into an agreement 
with the crew in a form approved by the Board of 
Trade, and in the case of foreign going ships (q.v.) 
each seaman must sign the agreement in the 
presence of a superintendent. The High Court has 
power to rescind any contract between owners or 
master and seaman or apprentice if, under the 
circumstances, it appears just to do so. 

Refer to Seamen, Employers' Liability, Wages, 
Merchant Shipping Act. 

Cricket. British ocean-going torpedo-boat de- 
stroyer. (White, 1906^) 

Crimp, A, is one who for commission undertakes 
to supply ships with seamen, decoys another into a 
foreign naval or military service, or induces sailors 
to desert. The Merchant Shipping Act, 1894 
(sections no- 112, 213-219), provides that seamen 
and apprentices for merchant ships shall only be 
engaged by masters, mates, or other bona fide 
servants of the owners, or by a person licensed by 
the Board of Trade for this purpose, who shall 
receive no remuneration other than the fees autho- 
rised by this Act. An unlicensed person supplying 
seamen shall be liable to a penalty of ;£2o. Local 
authorities may, with the consent of the Board of 
Trade, make bye-laws relating to seamen's lodgings, 



and impose fines not exceeding £$0 for their contra- 
vention. The Act further makes it a punishable 
offence for a lodging-house keeper to detain a 
seaman's effects, to solicit a seaman to become 
a lodger, or to remove a seaman's goods from any 
ship, except under his personal directions. 

An unauthorised person who, without permission, 
goes on board any British ship upon her arrival at 
the end of her voyage at a port in the United King- 
dom, or remains after being warned ofif, is liable to 
fine or imprisonment. This section may, by Orders 
in Council, be made to apply to ships of foreign 
nations which have a similar provision against un- 
authorised boarding, and so desire. 

Crimping still abounds in many ports of the 
United States. 

Cringle. An iron ring confining a sail to a stay. 

Cristoforo Colombo. Italian 3rd class cruiser. 
(Venice, 1892.) 

Length 249ft. Beam 36ft. Maximum draught 17ft. 
Displacement 2,700 tons. Complement 238. 

Guns. 

6 — 4*7 in. 

2 — 2*2 in. 

4 — 1*4 in. 

Hp. 2,300=16 kts. Coal maximum 445 tons. 

Of no fighting; value. 

orl. Coral. Abbreviation adopted on the charts 
issued by the Hydrographic Office, Admiralty, 
denoting the quality of the ocean's bottom. 

Crooodfl. German armour gun-boat. (Bremen. 
1880.) 

Length 154ft. Beam 36ft. Draught lift. 
Displacement 1,091 tons. Complement 76. 
Guns. Armour. 

1—12 m. " Steel." 

2 — 3*3 in. 8 in. Belt amidships. 

8 in. Gun shields. 
Torpedo Tubes. 
2 Above water. 
Hp. 759=10 kts. Coal 80 tons. 

Cromer eralnboai. A boat somewhat resembUng 
a jolly boat. 

Cronstadt Canal was made with the object of 
bringing St. Petersburg into direct communication 
with the Baltic for large vessels. In 1877 opera- 
tions were commenced and the canal was com- 
pleted in 1885. Starting from the Neva, at St. 
Petersburg, the canal proceeds in a south-westerly 
direction for about two miles, and then runs in a 
straight line north-west to Cronstadt. It is 17^ 
miles in length, and for the first 7i miles, where it 
is protected by embankments, it has a bottom 
width of 275 ft. The depth is 22 ft. throughout. 
Three basins, formed by widening out the canal 
near St. Petersburg, give an area of 230 acres for 
the accommodation of shipping. The total cost 
of the canal was about ;£ 1,300,000. 



CROSSING 



i6i 



CU.-N. 



Orosriiigliine. See Naval Ceremonies. 

Crossing the bows. Passing close ahead. 

GrosBJaftk. The sail set on the crossjack-yard. 

Crossjaok-braoes. Ropes applied to the mizzen 
yard arms to change the position of the mainsail 
occasionally. 

Orossjack-lifts. Ropes which reach from the 
mizzen mast-head to yard arms on the mizzen mast 
to steady and suspend the ends. Their use is 
principally to support the weight when a number 
of men are employed on it furling or reefing the 
sail. 

Grossjack-yards. The lower yard on the mizzen 
mast, to the arms of which the clues of the mizzen 
topsail > is extended. The term is applied to any 
fore-and-aft vessel setting a square-sail, flying 
below the lower cross-trees. 

Croas-irieoo. The traversed timbers of the bits. 

CroflS*-8pal6S. Temporary beams supporting the 
ship in frame until the deck knees are fastened. 

Gross-trees. Timbers under tops and at top- 
mast heads supporting top-gallant rigging. 

Grotches. See Crutch. 

Grow. An iron lever to prize or remove weighty 
bodies. 

Grown. A name applied to finishing a knot by 
passing the strands of the rope over and under each 
other above the knot. 

Grow's-foot. A number of small lines brought 
to a common centre. 

Crow's-nest. A small shelter for look-out man 
at top-gallant mast-head. 

Crosier, Francis Bawdon Moira (1796- 1848]. 
Arctic explorer ; made three voyages with Parry, 
1821-27. Accompanied Captain Ross in the 
Terror, 1839, and sailed in the same vessel with Sir 
John Franklin's expedition, 1845, ^^^ perished in 
the Polar regions. 

See M. Clintock's " Fate of Sir John Franklin," 
5th ed., 1881. 

Cmiser. An armed vessel used to protect the 
commerce of its own country, or to inflict damage 
on that of another. 

CnnsJng Taoht Glnb» RoyaL See Royal Cruising 
Yacht Club. 

Gmpper. A chain to keep down the heel of the 
jibboom. 

Crutch. A support for the main boom of a sloop, 
brig, or cutter fixed on the tafirail. A metal swivel 
for oar to work in. 

Cmtehley, William Gains (b. 1848). Commander 
(retired) R.N.R, : Secretary to the Navy League, 



late Chairman Shipmasters' Society. Sea service 
from 1863-94 in sailing ships, mail steamers, and 
H.M. ships. Seventeen years in command of 
mail stealtiers. Has written on naval and marine 
subjects for many years past 

GJSI. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Cowes, Isle of Wight, England. 

O.T. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Castletown, Isle of Man, England. 

G.T.L. Abbreviation for Constructive Total Loss. 

Cn. Abbreviation for Cumulus as adopted by 
the International Meteorological Committee and 
used in the International Cloud Atlas. 

Cnhan Steamship Co. (Cuban Line) have a fleet 
of six large passenger and freight steamers trading 
from London to Bermuda, Vera Cruz, and Coat- 
zacoalcos, and one from Antwerp to the same ports. 

Fleet. 
Cayo Bonito. Cayo Largo, 

Cayo Domingo. Cayo Manzanillo. 

Cayo Gitano. Cayo Soto. 

Cookoo. British 3rd class gun-boat (254 tons). 
Launched 1873. 

Caddy. A cabin or cook-room usually in fore 
part of vessel ; in lighters and barges at the stern. 

Gnmberland. British ist class cruiser. (London 
and Glasgow, 1902.) 
Length 440ft. Beam 66ft. Mean draught 24ft. 
Displacement 9,800 tons. Complement 678. 
Guns, Armour, 

14 — 6 in., 45 cal. " Krupp." 
8 — 12 pdr. 4 in. Belt amidships. 

2 — 12 pdr., 8 cwt. 5 in. Barbettes. 
3 — 3 pdr. 10 in. Conning tower. 

8 Pompoms. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
2 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 22,000=23 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 1,600 tons. Approximate cost ;f 77 5, 000. 

This ship-name is associated with the capture of 
Calcutta, 1757 ; the battle oh Cuddalore,'^i758 ; 
Negapatam, 1758 ; Pondicherry, 1759 ; Keppel's 
action off Ushant, 1778 ; Hydres, 1795 ; and the 
action at Rosas, 1809. 

Gnmbrae Light, Firth of Clyde, is a two-flash 
light every 30 seconds ; duration of flash, two- fifth 
second; candle-power, 158,000; illuminant, elec- 
tricity. 

Gnmolo-nimbns. See Clouds. 

Cnmnlns. See Clouds. 

Gn.*N. Abbreviation for Cumulo-nimbus, as 
adopted by the International Meteorological 
Committee, and used in the International Cloud 
Atlas, 



CUNARD 



162 



CURRIE 



Oimard, Sir Samael ( 1 787- 1 865). Anglo-Canadian 
shipowner (b. Halifax). Founded in 1839, together 
with George Bums, of Glasgow, and David Maclver, 
of Liverpool, the British and North American 
Royal Mail Steam Packet Co. In July, 1840, he 
established the first steam pastal communication 
between England and America, and developed this 
service by building iron ships, of which the Persia 
was the first, subsequently superseding the paddle 
by the screw propeller, of which the China (1862) 
was the first. 

Canard Steamship Co., Ltd., was originally esta- 
blishefl in 1840, with the Britannia, a wooden 
paddle steamer which made her first voyage 
between Liverpool and New York in 14 days, 
8 hours, at the rate of 8 J kts., which was, in 
those days, a remarkable achievement. In 1878 
the company took over the business of the British 
and North American Royal Mail Packet Company, 
and the British and Foreign Steam Navigation 
Co. It now owns a fleet of 22 steamers, all of which 
are fitted with the Marconi system of wireless 
telegraphy, and in 1903 the Lucania, with Signor 
Marconi {q.v.) on board, was the first vessel to hold 
communication with both sides of the Atlantic. 
The " Cunard Bulletin," containing the latest 
Marconigrams, is published on the steamers, and is 
the first real ocean newspaper. In 1903 the British 
Government agreed to lend this company j^2, 600,000 
at an interest of 2}%, and also to subsidise the 
company to an extent of ;£i 50,000 per annum, on 
condition they built two large steamers of high 
speed for the Atlantic trade, and to hold its fleet at 
the Government's disposal for 20 years. This 
agreement was the outcome of negotiations arising 
from the formation of the Atlantic Shipping Com- 
bine. The Lucania held for some time the Liverpool 
record for the fastest passage both westward and 
eastward, her time westward being 5 days, 7 hours, 
a3 minutes, with an average speed of 21*81 kts.; 
eastward, 5 days, 8 hours, 38 minutes, an average 
speed of 22 '01 kts. 

The westward Atlantic record, with the exception 
of the highest day's run, is at present held by the 
Lusilania, She has made three trips to New York 
and back. The following table shows at a glance 
the achievements of the LusUania on her six 
voyages : 



Date. 


Arrived at 


Time on Voyage. 


Average Speed 


Days 


hrs. 



4 
19 
22 
18 
23 


mins. 

34 

49 

5 

53 

40 

5 


Knots. 


Sept. 12 
Sept. 27 
Oct. 11 
Oct. 24 
Nov. 8 
Nov. 21 


New York 

Queenstown 

New York 

Davnt's Rock 

New York 

Daunt's Rock 


231 

22'58 

2402 

2361 

24*25 

2360 



ing, beat the previous record held by the Deutsch- 
land of the Hamburg- Amerika Line by 17 kts. 
This has now been beaten by the Mauretania on 
her maiden voyage by her steaming 624 kts. in 

24 hours. The average speed for a day's run was 

25 kts.. and the maximum speed attained 2$\ kts. 
This vessel holds the eastward record, having made 
the passage from Sandy Hook in 4 days 22 hours 
29 minutes, beating the Lusitania's record previous 
passage by 21 minutes. 



Aleppo. 

Brescia, 

Campania, 

Carmania. 

Caronia. 

Carpathia. 

Cherbourg, 



Fleet. 
Etfuria, 
Ivemia, 
Lucania, 
Lusitania, 
Mauretania 
Pannonia. 
Pavia, 



Saragassa, 

Saxonia, 

Slavonia, 

Sylvania. 

Tyria. 

UUonia. 

Umbria. 

Veria. 



In achieving her record voyage her runs for the 
four clear days at sea were 606, 616, 618, and 
610 kts., and the average speed throughout was 
34*25 kts. Her record, 618 kts. for a day's steam- 



Cypria. 

Gross tonnage, 192,000. 

Onnha, Tristao da Oonlui (1460-1540). Portu- 
guese navigator. Discovered the islands which 
bear his name, in the South Atlantic ; conquered 
the Island of Socotra ; visited Madagascar, Mozam- 
bique, and the coast of Zanzibar. 

CanninghaiiL Explorer. See Arctic Exploration. 

Ouracoa. British 3rd class cruiser (2,380 tons, 
13 kts.). Launched 1878. 

Currents. Progressive flowing of water in one 
direction compelling all bodies floating therein to 
submit to the stream. 

Oorrenti, Ooeanio. See Ocean. 

Ciirrie» Arefaibald and Go., with their head offices 
in Melbourne, have a fleet of Ave steamers trading 
from Melbourne to Calcutta, and Melbourne and 
Cape Town. These steamers maintain regular ser- 
vices from Melbourne to Java and Singapore, 
Colombo, Madras, and Calcutta, carrying a limited 
number of passengers, cargo, and live-stock. Large 
quantities of horses are shipped by this line from 
Australia for the Government remount department 
jn India. 

Fleet. 

Darius, Fortunatus. 

Eurylus, Grauhus, 

Curie, Sir Donald, O.C.H.O., cr. 1897 ; K.C.K.G^ 
cr. 1 88 1 (b. 1825). Head of the Union-Castle Line 
of steamships {q.v.) between London and South 
Africa, in which capacity he has rendered im- 
portant service to the Government on various occa- 
sions. 

Carrie Une, with their head offices in Sunderland, 
maintain a service every Friday from Sunderland 
to Leith, returning from Leith every Thursday. 
This line is one of the few now in existence on which 
intoxicating liquors are not sold. 

Fleet. 
Britannia* Warsaw* 






CURTATONE 



163 



CUTTER 



Cnrtilone. Italian gun-boat. (Venice^ 1887.) 

Length 177ft. Beam 32ft. Maximum draught 13ft. 

Displacement 1,200 tons. Complement 131. 

Guns, 

4 — 2'2 in. 

2 — 1*4 in. 

Hp. 1.100=12 kts. Coal maximum 200 tons. 

Of no fighting value. 



Cnrtii, Sir Rog«r (1746-1816). English admiral 
(b. Downttm, Wilts). Was flag-captain to Lord 
Howe in North America ; as commander of the 
BriUiatU was present during the siege of Gibraltar, 
1782, and commanded the Naval Brigade in 1793 ; 
was appointed Lord Howe's Captain of the Fleet, 
and was present at the action of "The Glorious 
First of June," 1794. For services rendered he 
was promoted vice-admiral and created a baronet. 
In 1803 he was made admiral, and five years later 
Commander-in-Chief at Portsmouth. 

OortiB Turbine. See Turbines. 

Ciinoii-H6we» Vice- Admiral Honoorable Assheton 

Gore (b. 1850). Entered Navy, 1863 ; lieutenant, 
1872 ; first lieutenant of Bacchante during her 
voyage with the Princes in 1879-80 ; flag-captain 
of Boadicea ; as chief of the staff served in the 
Naval Brigade, landed under the command of 
Vice-Admiral Hon. Sir E. R. Fremantle, K.C.B., 
C.M.G., Commander-in-Chief on the East India 
Station, for the punitive expedition against the 
Sultan of Vitu, in East Africa, October, 1890 ; 
mentioned in despatches ; C.B. for this service 
(general African medal, Vitu (1890) clasp) ; Assist- 
ant-Director of Naval Intelligence, 1891-92 ; cap- 
tain of Cleopatra, 1894 \ landed a party of seamen 
and marines for the protection of the inhabitants 
of Bluefields, Nicaragua, and it is acknowledged 
that his prompt action on this occasion prevented 
an outbreak of civil war in Nicaragua; C.M.G., 
1896, for services rendered while engaged in the 
protection of the Newfoundland Fisheries ; A.D.C. 
to the Queen, 1899 ; second-in-command Channel 
Squadron, 1902; C.V.O., 1902; second-in-command 
China Station, 1903. 

Coihing. U.S. torpedo-boat (1890). Displace- 
ment, 105 tons ; guns, 3 i-pdr. ; torpedo tubes, 
3 i8-in. ; maximum speed, 22 kts. 

Oiutttioe, Vte-Admiial Sir RuglnaW Ne?ille 

(b. 1847). Entered Navy, i860 ; served with Naval 
Brigade of Euryalus at the storming of Kah-ding, 
1862 ; in the same ship at the actions of Kagosima, 
1863, and Shimonoseki, 1864 ; lieutenant, 1868 ; 
Royal Humane Society's silver medal, 1868, for 
jumping overboard and assisting to support Gunner 
W. Foster, R.M.A., who had fallen into the water 
at Hamoase, imtil a boat arrived ; captain, 1885 ; 
Assistant-Director of Naval Intelligence Depart- 
ment, 1887-90 ; Naval Attach^ to America, 1893 I 
A.D.C. to the Queen, 1897 '» rear-admiral, 1899 ; 



C.M.G., 1900, for services in Crete ; Director of 
Naval IntelUgence, 1899 '* second-in-command 
Mediterranean fleet, 1902 ; C.V.O. on the occasion 
of the visit of H.M. King Edward VII. to Malta, 
1903 ; vice-admiral, 1904. 

Oiutoniary Average OUiues. See Clauses. 

Custom ot Uoyd's. In marine insurance where 
points of law are doubtful or not defined the estab- 
lished custom usually followed 13 accepted, and 
called the custom of Lloyd's. To entitle a particular 
trade custom to judicial sanction, it must be shown 
to be reasonable, general, and notorious in the 
branch of trade to which it appertains, and one 
which is not at variance with the plain words of 
the contract. If the custom conforms to these 
conditions, judicial cognisance will be taken of it ; 
but if it does not conform to each and all of them 
it will be disapproved unless made a term of the 
contract by agreement between the parties. Upon 
satisfactory evidence of assent by the parties, 
whether express or impUed, to a particular usage 
of trade, the Court will construe the contract in 
accordance with such usage, though it be at variance 
with legal principle ; but in the absence of proof of 
assent to the usage, the contract wUl be inter- 
preted in strict accordance with the law. (Stephens 
V, Australasians Co., L.R. Rep. v. 27, p. 585 ; 
Stewart v. West India and Pacific Co., L.R. Rep. 
V. 27, p. 823 ; Bartlett 9. Pentland, 10 B. and 
Cr. 760; McArthur on the Contract of Marine 
Insurance, p. 53.) 

Giuioiii of the 86ft. See Naval Ceremonies. 
Ofurtomi. See Duty. 

Costoiiifl Union, A, is the combination of different 
countries or States, each previously possessing a 
separate tariff system, into one area, with a common 
tariff and free trade inter se. 

Such union, called a " Zollverein, " after the name 
given to the German Custom Union founded in 
1828, has been proposed for the several parts of 
the British Empire, and for the States of North 
and South America. A customs union between the 
Free State, Cape Colony, Basutoland, and the 
Bechuanaland Protectorate was agreed upon in 
1896, but perhaps the most notable example of a 
modern Zollverein is afforded by the Common- 
wealth of Australia (1901). 

Cat and nuu To cut the cable and move off 

quickly. 

OaflftS. A sabre which is slightly curved. The 
name applied to the small -hand led swords supplied 
to the Navy ; has a flat, wide, slightly curved 
blade, and is better adapted for cutting than 
thrusting. 

Oatter. Small, single-masted, sharp-built, broad 
vessel carrying fore and aft mainsail, gaff topsail, 
stay Ii^resail, and jib. 

G 2 



CUTTLEFISH 



164 



DALHOUSIE 



Ontileflsh. U.S. submarine. (Quincy, 1906.) 

Cut water. The foremost part of a vessel's 
prow. 

G.y. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Castlebay, Barra, Scotland. 

Cyclone. An area of relatively low barometric 
pressure, decreasing towards the centre, in which 
the wind blows spirally inwards, and in the northern 
hemisphere in the opposite direction to the move- 
ment of the hands of a watch. The name is 
usually applied to tropical revolving storms. 

Cydone. French torpedo-boat (1898). Displace- 
ment. 140 tons ; complement, 34 ; maximum 
draught, 7J ft. ; guns, 2 3-pdr. ; torpedo tubes, 
2 15-in. ; twin screw ; Hp., 3,200=31 kts. ; coal* 
15 tons. 

Cydoop. Netherlands gun-boat. Indian Navy 
(1893). Displacement, 438 tons. 

OFClope. Italian gun-boat. (Naples, 1903.) Dis- 
placement 831 tons ; Hp., 2,300=15 kts. 

Cygnet. British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Chis- 
wick, 1898.) Length, 210 ft. ; beam, 19 ft. ; 
draught, 7 ft. ; displacement, 285 tons ; comple- 
ment, 60 ; armament, i 12-pdr., 5 6-pdr., 2 tubes ; 
twin screw ; Hp., 5,800=30 kts. ; coal, 80 tons. 

Cymrio (1898). British subsidised merchant 
ship. White Star Line (q.v.). Dimensions, 585 x 
64X37 ft.; gross tonnage, 13,096; passenger 
accommodation p 1,420; Hp., 7.300=15 kts. 

Cynthia. British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Chis- 
wick, 1898.) Length, 210 ft. ; beam, 19 ft. ; 
draught, 7 ft. ; displacement, 285 tons ; comple- 
ment, 60 ; armament, i 12-pdr., 5 6-pdr., 2 tubes ; 
twin screw ; Hp., 5,800=30 kts. ; coal, 80 tons. 

Cjpiien Falire and Co. Sec Fabre Line. 

C.Z. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Cadsand. Holland. 

Onr. Steamer. Wrecked oft the Lizard, Janu- 
ary 23, 1859 ; 14 lives lost. 



D. Distinguishing letter on sea fishing boats 
registered at Dublin, Ireland. 

D. Distinguishing letter on sea fishing boats 
registered at Dunkirk, France 

d. Dark. Abbreviation adopted on the charts 
issued by the Hydrographic Office, Admiralty, 
denoting the quality of the ocean's bottom. 

D.A. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Drogheda. Ireland 

Dabchick. A small diving bird. 



Daooa. British India Steam Navigation Co.'s 
steamer. Went on a reef of rocks about 400 miles 
from Suez, and became a total wreck. Passengers, 
mostly emigrants, saved by the steamer Rosaria, 
May 16, 1890. 

Daedalns. Drill-ship for Royal Naval Reserve. 

Dago. In sea slang the name for anyone of 
Spanish, Portuguese, or Italian descent. 

Dagae. French torpedo gun-boat. (Havre, 1885.) 
Length, 196 ft. ; beam, 21 ft. ; draught, 6 ft. ; 
displacement, 413 tons; complement, 63; guns, 
4 8*i-in., 3 Maxims ; torpedo tubes, 2 ; Hp., 2.000 
= x8 kts. ; coal maximum, 100 tons. 

Dahabiyeh. A boat used on the Nile for pas- 
senger traffic, usually two-masted, with triangular 
sails. 

Dahlgreen. U.S. torpedo-boat (1898). Dis- 
placement, 147 tons; guns, 3 i-pdr. ; torpedo 
tubes, 3 i8-in. ; maximum speed, 27 kts. 

Daily Freight Register. Established 1893- ^b- 
lished morning. Price 42s. per annum ; country, 
63s. Address : 1 1 Tokenhouse Yard, London, E.G. 

Dally Shipping Register. Established 1 877. Pub 
lished morning. Price i d. Address : Swansea. 

Dakota. Great Northern Steamship Co.'s Ameri- 
can mail and passenger steamer. Went ashore ofif 
Nagami, Japan, February, 1907, and became a 
total wreck. No lives lost. The Dakota and her 
cargo represented a loss to London underwriters of 
;£7 50,000, 

Dale, Admiral Alfred Taylor (b. 1840). Entered 
Navy, 1854 ; served as mid. on Commander-in- 
Chief's staff at the capture of Peiho, 1858 (China 
medal, Taku clasp) ; lieutenant, i860 ; com- 
mander, 1870 ; captain, 1876 ; A.D.C. to the Queen, 
1889-91 ; rear-admiral, 1891 ; private secretary to 
the First Lord of the Admiralty, 1889-92 ; com- 
manded " D " fleet on the Blue side under Rear- 
Admiral Fitzroy at naval manoeuvres, 1893 '» Rear- 
Admiral Second-in-Command, Channel Squadron, 
1894 ; commanded " B " fleet on the Red side 
under Vice-Admiral Fitzroy at the naval manoeu- 
vres, 1894; vice-admiral, 1897; admiral, 1903; 
retired, 1905. 

Dale. U.S. torpedo-boat destroyer (1900). Dis- 
placement, 420 tons ; complement, 64 ; guns, 
2 14-pdr., 5 6-pdr. ; torpedo tubes, 2 i8-in., amid- 
ships and aft ; Hp., 8,000 = 29 kts. ; coal, 139 tons. 

DaUlotuie. On October 19, 1853, this vessel 
foundered off Beachy Head, when the captain, 
passengers, and crew perished. The cargo was 
worth ;£ 1 00,000. 

Dalhoule. Screw steamer. Lost at the mouth of 
the Tay, November 24, 1804 ; 34 lives lost. 



DALRYMPLE 



165 



DANGEROUS 



Dakym]^ Atenmder (1737- 1808). First hydro- 
grapher to the British Admiralty (b. New HaUes, 
Edinburgh). Devoted his Ufe to geographical and 
hydrographical studies, and published in addition 
to many pamphlets an account of " Discoveries in 
the South Pacific Ocean Before 1764." 

Damage. The Admiralty Court has always juris- 
diction over torts committed by British subjects 
on the high seas. 

By the Admiralty Courts Acts. 1840 and i86z, 
the High Court of Admiralty has jurisdiction to 
decide all claims in the nature of damage received 
by any ship, or done by any ship. The jurisdic- 
tion, under the Act of 1861, has been held to apply 
to cases of collision between two British vessels in 
foreign inland waters (the Diana, Lush., 539), 
and to foreign ships in foreign waters (the Courier, 
. Lush., 541), and to every kind of injury to person 
or property caused by a ship (the Sylph, 3 Asp. 37), 
and to all injury to a ship caused by persons or 
property (the 2eta, 1893, Ai>p. Cas. 4, 468). But 
it has been held that the Admiralty Court has no 
jurisdiction over claims by third parties for damages 
for loss of Ufe under Lord Campbell's Act in an 
action in rem. (the Vera CruM, 1888, 10 App. 
Cas. 59). By section 6 of the same Act the High 
Court of Admiralty has jurisdiction over any claim 
by the owner or consignee, or assignee of any bill 
of ladiug of any goods carried into any port of 
Kngland or Wales in any ship for damage done to 
the goods or any part thereof by the negligence or 
misconduct of, or for breach of duty, or breach of 
contract, on the part of the owner, master, or crew 
of the ship, imless it can be shown that at the time 
of the institution of the cause any owner or part 
owner of the ship is domiciled in England or Wales. 
Refer to Accident, Limitation of LiabiUty, Collision 
at Sea, Apportionment, Admiralty, High Court of. 
Maritime Lien, Affreightment. 

Dampbdiilb Bhederei ** Union,'* with their head 
office in Hamburg, have a fleet of 12 steamers 
carrying cargo to various parts of the world. A 
special service is maintained at scheduled times 
from New York for Pemambuco, Bahia. Rio de 
Janeiro, Santos, and vice versa, four steamers being 
exclusively employed on this run. 

Flbet. 
Albano. Guniher. Ssigmund, 

Albenga, GurUrune. Sieglinde. 

Barcelona, Pallanza, Syracusa, 

Brunhilde. Pisa. Verona. 

Gross tonnage, 37,000. 

Dampier, WlUiam (1652-1712). English navi- 
gator (b. East Coker, Somersetshire). He served 
in 1673 in the Dutch war under Sir Edward Spragge, 
and was present at two engagements. In 1679 he 
joined a party of buccaneers, with whom he crossed 
tbe Isthmus oi Darien. They spent the foUowmg 
year on the Peruvian coast, where they captured 



several vessels in the Padiic Ocean, and conducted 
a piratical war against the Spaniards. In 1698 be 
explored the coast of Australia, and was wrecked 
on the Island of Ascension on his way home. He 
then joined Woodes Roger's privateering expedi- 
tion, for which he acted as pilot, and on this voyage 
rescued Alexander Selkirk. His works are well 
known, and have frequently been reprinted. They 
consist of " A Vo3rage Round the World," 3 vols., 
1697 ; reprinted, 1893 > " Two Voyages to Cam- 
peachy," 1699 ; "A Voyage to New Holland," 
1709. See W. C. Russell's *' Dampier," 1889. 

Dan. Abbreviation for Danish. 

Dana, Biehaid Hanry (1815-82). American 
author. Was an authority in the department of 
Maritime Law, and in 1841 wrote " The Seamen's 
Friend." He also published in 1840 an account of 
his own sailor life, " Two Years Before the liCast," 
which attained great popularity. 

Dandolo. Old Italian battleship (1878). 
Length 341ft. Beam 65ft. Maximum draught 30ft. 
Displacement 12,265 tons. Complement 506. 
Guns, Armour, 

4—10 in. " Steel." 

7 — 6 in. 21 in. Belt amidships. 

5 — ^4*7 in. 17 in. Redoubt. 

16—6 pdr. 10 in. Turrets. 

8 — I pdr. 
4 Machine. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
4 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. natural 7.500=515 kts. Coal 
maximum i ,000 tons. Approximate cost ;£86o,ooo. 

Dandy. A small cutter or sloop with jigger- 
mast abaft, carrying mizzen lug-sail. 

DaagttOQl goods. The expression " dangerous 
goods " iodudes aquafortis, vitriol, naphtha, 
benzine, gunpowder, lucifer matches, nitro-glycerine, 
petroleum, explosives, and any other goods of a 
dangerous nature. (Merchant Shipping Act, 1894. 
section 446.) 

(i) No person shall send or carry on any ship, 
British or foreign, any dangerous goods, without 
marking their nature outside each package, and 
giving notice in writing of the same, together with 
the name and address of the sender, to the master 
or owner qn shipment, under a penalty of ;£ioo for 
each offence. 

(2) For knowingly sending or carrying such goods 
under a false description a i)erson is liable to a fine 
of ;£5oo. 

(3) The master may refuse to carry, or demand 
to have opened, any package he suspects to contain 
dangerous goods. 

(4) The master may throw overboard any goods 
he considers dangerous if unmarked, or of which he 
has had no notice ; and neither he nor his owner 
shall be subject to any liabUtty, criminal or civil, 
for so throwing goods overboard. 



DANIEL 



166 



DARING 



(5) Any Court having Admiralty jurisdictioa may 
declare forfeited any dangerous goods sent or 
carried without proper notice having been given, or 
unmarked, or under a false description. 

(6) No emigrant ship shall carry dangerous goods 
aa cargo. 



SieiiiiiiaiL White Cross steamer. Struck 
on the rocks oft Sambro', Nova Scotia, April 3, 
1884; izo lives lost. 

Danmark. Danish emigrant ship. Sunk in the 
Atlantic, about 800 miles from Newfoundland, 
April 6, 1889. Captain Murrel, of the Atlantic 
Transport liner Missouri, and his crew rescued all 
on board. At the Mansion House on May 24, 1889, 
Captain Murrel, in the presence of a distinguished 
company, received from the Lord Mayor a silver 
salver with an inscription and a purse of ;£5oo from 
the citizens of London. The officers and crew also 
received testimonials. 

Dannebrog Steamship Co., Copenhagen, owned 
and managed by C. K. Hansen, have a fleet of 13 
modem cargo steamers engaged in cargo trade in 
the North Sea, and various parts of the world, as 
inducement offers. 

Fleet. 
AnuUienbofg, Kronborg. 

Brathingsborg, Rosenborg, 

Flynderborg. Skanderborg, 

Fredensborg, Soborg, 

Fredetiksborg, Stegelborg. 

Icnisborg, Stjemeborg. 

Uranienborg. 

Danton. French ist class battleship. Laid 
down, L'Orient, 1906. 

Length 475ft. Beam 84ft. Maximum draught 27^ft. 
Displacement 18,000 tons. Complement 680. 
Guns, Atmour. 

4 — 12 in. " Krupp." 

12 — 9 '4 in. 10 in. Belt amidships. 

16 — 12 pdr. 12 in. Turrets. 

8 — 3 pdr. 13 in. Coxming tower. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 

2 Submerged. 

3 Above water. 

Three screws. Hp. 22,500=19 kts. Coal maxi- 
' mum 2,010 tons. Approximate cost £1,600,000. 

Dantsig. German armoured ciuiser. (Danzig 
Dockyard, 1905.) 

Length 341ft. Beam 40ft. Draught ib^it. 
Displacement 3,200 tons. Complement 280. 
Guns, Armour, 

10— 4' 1 in. " Krupp.*' 

10—1*4 in. 2 in. Deck. 

4 Maxims. 4 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes, 
z Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 1 1 ,000 « 2 3 kts. Coal 800 tons. 



Danube (1893). British subsidised merchant 
ship. Royal Mail Steam Packet Co. (q.v.). Dimen- 
sions, 420x52x33^ ft.; gross tonnage, 5.891; 
passenger accommodation, 655 ; Hp., 6,650s: 
17 kts. 

Danube Craft Clanse. See SuUna Clause. 

Danube Navigation OommSnion was constituted 
in 1856 when, by the Peace of Paris, the navigation 
of the river was declared free to all nations. Origin- 
ally it was an express condition that it should 
dissolve in 1858, but by various conferences it has 
been continued, and still continues to exist. It 
exercises sovereign powers over the mouth of the 
Danube, where it has conducted engineering works. 
It possesses its own flag, uniform, and police, and is 
empowered to raise loans and make its own laws. 
Its jurisdiction extends as far as the Iron Gate. 

Daphne. Coasting steamer. Turned turtle in the 
Clyde, July 3, 1883 ; 124 lives lost. 

Dazd. French torpedo-boat destroyer. (Nor- 
mand, 1902.) Length, 180 ft. ; beam, 21 ft. ; 
maximum draught, 10 ft. ; displacement, 300 tons ; 
complement, 45 ; guns, i 9-pdr., 6 3 -pdr. ; torpedo 
tubes, 2 15-in. ; speed, 27-30 kts. 

Dardanellee or Hellespont, or Straits of GeilipoU, 
is that long strait about 45 miles in length, and 
varying from one to five miles in width, between 
Europe and Asia, connecting the JEgean Sea with 
the Sea of Marmora. It is of great strategic im- 
portance, as it commands the entrance to Constanti- 
nople from the Mediterranean. It is strongly 
fortified on both sides, and the channel is pro- 
tected by torpedoes. During the Russo-Japanese 
war, two vessels of the Russian Volunteer Fleet 
passed through the Dardanelles under a commercial 
flag, July 4 to 6, 1904. These vessels were really 
fast cruisers, and intended to interfere with shipping, 
and in fact in the Red Sea stopped a number of 
British and German ships. Eventually, on receipt 
of instructions from the Czar, delivered to them by 
British cruisers near Zanzibar, they ceased opera- 
tions. 

Dardandles. Battle of the. On February 19, 

1807, Admiral Sir John Duckworth, ^^ith a British 
squadron, forced his way through to Constant!- 
nople, and returned on March 3, when great damage 
was done to the British ships, the castles of 
Sestos and Abydos hurling down stone shot upon 
the vessel. 

Dardo. Italian torpedo-boat destroyer. (Schi- 
chau, 1900.) Displacement, 330 tons; maximum 
draught, 8| ft. ; armamei^t. i 12-pdr. ; 5 6-pdr. ; 
tubes, 2 i8-in. ; Hp., 6,000=30 kts. ; coal, 80 tons. 

Daring. British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Chis- 
wick, 1893.) Length, 185 ft. ; beam, 19 f t. ; 
draught, 7 ft. ; displacement, 237 tons ; comple- 
ment, 45 ; armament, i 12-pdr., 3 6-pdr., 3 tubes ; 
twin screw ; Hp., 4,3003=27 kts. ; coal, 50 tans. 



DART 



167 



DAVIS 



Dart. Screw surveying vessel <i882). Dis- 
placement, 470 tons ; speed (about), 8 kts. ; lent to 
the N.S.W. Government for surveying purposes. 

Dartmonth, Lord George Legge (1647-91). 
English admiral. Served with distinction during 
Dutch war. Was appointed in 1688 Admiral of the 
Fleet by James II.. and sent to intercept the 
Prince of Orange. He died a prisoner in the Tower 
of London. 

Dartmoath College. See Naval Establishments. 

Dart Safling dub, Dartmouth. Established 1900. 
Burgee : Red, blue dart pointing to mast. Ensign, 
red. Commodore, A. H. Bridson ; Vice-Commo- 
dore, F. L. Carslake ; Rear-Commodore, A. F. G. 
Brown ; Honorary Treasurer, W. Pollard ; Honor- 
ary Secretary. F. L. Hockin. Entrance fee, 105. 6d. 
Annual subscription, sailing members, los. 6d, ; and 
non-sailing members. 55. 

Dart Taeht dab, RoyaL See Royal Dart Yacht 
Club. 

Dasher. British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Pop- 
lar, 1895.) Length 190 ft. ; beam, 18 ft. ; draught, 
6 ft. ; displacement. 250 tons ; complement, 45 ; 
armament, i 12-pdr., $ 6-pdr.. 2 tubes ; twin 
screw ; Hp., 3,180=26 kts. ; coal, 60 tons. 

D'Aflsas. French 2nd class cruiser. (St. Na- 
zaire, 1896.) 

Length 326ft. Beam 45ft. Maximum draught 23ft. 
Displacement 4.000 tons. Complement 393. 
Guns. Armour. 

6 — 6*4 in. 3 in. Deck. 

4 — 4 in. 2 in. Sponsons. 

4—3 pdr. 
II — I pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
2 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. 9,500=19 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 624 tons. Approximate cost ;^30o.ooo. 



French torpedo-boat (1899). Dis- 
placement, 120 ; complement, 34 ; maximum 
draught, 9J ft. ; guns, 2 3-pdr. ; torpedo tubes, 
2 15-in. ; twin screw; Hp., 2,000 = 26 kts.; coal, 
16 tons. 

Davie, James (b. Dumbartonshire, July 17, 1843). 
Served his apprenticeship in Glasgow with Messrs. 
Alexander Chaplin and Co., his shipbuilding 
experience being mostly confined to the design and 
construction of light draught boats. He made a 
^>ecial study of heat as applied to the steam engine, 
and his first paper on this subject was read before 
the Junior Section of the Institution of Engineers 
and Shipbuilders of Scotland in 1876. About the 
year 1877 ^e introduced the iive^team-eurface- 
lieater (for heating the feed-water before entering 
tbe boilers), which is now considered a necessary 
auxiliary to high-pressure steam boilers; but 



engineers were so sceptical as to its utility that the 
inventor undertook to fit two Atlantic liners with 
his apparatus, which, after being subjected to a 
severe test, proved the system a complete success. 
He is senior partner of the firm of Davie and Home, 
Engineers, Johnstone, Scotland, whose principal 
work is the manufacture of the " Davie " patented 
specialities in evaporators, heaters, filters, pumps, 
etc. 

Member of the Institution of Engineers and 
Shipbuilders of Scotland. 

Davis. U.S. torpedo-boat (1898). Displace- 
ment, no tons; guns, 3 i-pdr. ; torpedo tubes. 3 
i8-in. ; maximum speed, 23 kts. 

Davis, Vioe-Adiiiiral Edward Henry Megga (b. 

1846). Entered Navy, i860 ; lieutenant 1870 ; 
first lieutenant Active, served on shore with Naval 
Brigade at Cape of Good Hope during Kaffir war, 
1877-78 ; specially promoted for services rendered ; 
commander in transport service at Natal during 
Zulu war. 1879 (Zulu medal and three clasps) ; 
captain of the Royalist, hoisted the British flag on 
1 3 islands of the Gilbert group. 1892 ; C.M.G. for 
services connected with islands in the Western 
Pacific. 1894 ; rear-admiral, 1901 ; vice-admiral. 
1905. 

Davis, John (i 550-1605). Celebrated English 
navigator (b. Sandridge). He made three voyages 
for the British Government in search of the North* 
West Passage to the Pacific. In the first he pushed 
his way round the southern end of Greenland, 
across the strait that bears his name, and along the 
coast of Baffin's Bay to the Cape of God's Mercy, 
which he thus named, believing that his task was 
accomplished. In the second (1586) he made little 
further progress. In the third (1587) he reached 
the entrance of the strd.it subsequentiy explored by 
Hudson. In 1591 he joined Cavendish in his 
second voyage to the South Sea, and after the rest of 
the expedition returned, unsuccessful, he con- 
tinued to attempt, on his own account, the passage 
of the Strait of Magellan ; this he did not accom- 
plish, but became the discoverer of the Falkland 
Islands. In 1598 he piloted a large Dutch mer- 
chant fleet from Middelburg in Holland to the East 
Indies. Three years later he accompanied Sir James 
Lancaster, as first pilot, on his voyage in the service 
of the East India Company, and in 1605 he sailed 
again for the same destination with Michelbourn 
in the Tiger. On his way home he was murdered by 
Japanese pirates off the coast of Malacca. He 
published " The World's Hydrographical Descrip- 
tion, whereby it appears that there is a short and 
speedy passage into the South Seas to China by 
northerly navigation" (London, 1595); "The 
Seamen's Secret " (1594) ; and invented the Back- 
staff, or Davis Quadrant. See Markham's " John 
Davis " (1889). Refer to Arctic Exf^ration. 



1 



DAVIS 



1 68 



DEBEN 



Davis, W. T. (b. Devonport, May 21, 1867). 
British naval architect. Served apprenticeship at 
Portsmouth Dockyard, and in 1887 passed first at 
the examination for entry at the Royal Naval 
College, Greenwich. After completing the course, 
and successfully passing the necessary examinations, 
he, in 1890. was appointed Assistant Constructor at 
Portsmouth Dockyard, where he served until 1903, 
and was then promoted to Constructor, and joined 
the Admiralty Constructive Stafi. 

Davit. A derrick of wood or iron, with sheaves 
or blocks at its end, projecting over vessel's side for 
hoisting or suspending ship's boat. 

DavoAt. French 3rd class cruiser. (Toulon, 
1889.) 

Length 289ft. Beam 40ft. Maximum draught 21ft. 
Displacement 3,027 tons. Complement 336. 



Guns. 




Armour, 


t — 6 '4 in. 




3j in. Deck. 


4—9 pdr. 




i^ in. Conning tower. 


8 — 3 pdr. 








Torpedo 


Tubes, 




4 Above water. 


Twin s 


screw. Hp, 


9,000 =s 20' 5 kts. 


Approximate < 


cost ;£222,000. 



Davy Jones. The spirit of the sea. 

Davy Jonai'i Locker. The ocean ; the common 
receptacle for all things thrown overboard ; it is 
a phrase for death or the other world, when speaking 
of a person who has been buried at sea. 

Day and night breeies is the name applied to the 
diurnal variations in the direction and velocity of 
the wind. Over the ocean the period is but feebly 
marked ; on land, however, the winds are distinctly 
stronger about noon than at night. 

Day degree. The accumulated temperature is 
expressed in " Day Degrees " — a day degree signi- 
fying I** of excess or defect of temperature above 
or below 42**, continued for 24 hours, or any other 
number of degrees for an inversely proportional 
number of hours. 

Days of grace. Days allowed by law or custom 
for payment of Bills of Exchange (except those 
payable at sight or on demand) after specified day 
of payment, thus when three days are allowed, as 
usual in England, a bill due on the fifth of the month 
is payable on the eighth. 

D.D. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Dordrecht, Holland. 

D/D. Days after date. 

D.E. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Dundee, Scotland. 

Deaden her way. To retard progress. 

Dead-eye. A round, flattish wooden block with 
three holes without sheaves. 



Dead freight is the compensation paid to a ship- 
owner for failure to ship a full cargo. Refer to 
Freight. 

Deadman, Henry Edward, C.B., cr. 1904 (b. 

March 7, 1843). British naval architect. Served 
his apprenticeship at the Royal Dockyards of 
Deptford and Chatham, and in 1864 gained an 
Admiralty scholarship at the Royal College of 
Naval Architecture, and the diploma of Fellow of 
the School in 1867 ; since that time has been 
wholly employed in the Admiralty service ; Con- 
structor in Bombay Dockyard, 1880-83 ; Con- 
structor at Chatham, 1883-86; Chief Constructor 
of Portsmouth, 1886-92 ; Chief Constructor at 
Admiralty, 1892- 1902 ; Assistant-Director of Naval 
Construction on Admiralty, 1902. 

Deal Casfle. 34 guns. In October, 1780, this 
vessel was lost in a storm in the West Indies. 

Deane, Charles George (b. London, 1869). Served 
apprenticeship with the Thames Iron Works and 
Shipbuilding Co., Black wall. In 1891 was ap- 
pointed as assistant naval architect to the P. and 
O. Co., and spent eight years supervising the com- 
pletion of the company's ships. In 1903 he was 
promoted naval architect, and has been associated 
with the designing of a number of the largest and 
finest ships of this fleet. 

Member of the Institution of Naval Architects. 

Deane, Richard (1610-53). British soldier sea- 
man. Held joint command in 1653 with Blake 
and Monck, and was killed at the first battle off 
the North Foreland. See "Life," by J. B. Deane 

(1870). 

Dease. Explorer. See Arctic Exploration. 

Death, Appearances indicating. There is no ^ 
breathing nor heart's action, the eyelids are gene- 
rally half closed, the pupils dilated, the jaws 
clenched, the fingers semi-contracted. Within a 
varying period, usually not more than 12 hours, 
the body becomes rigid, owing to the development 
of rigor-mortis. The blood gravitates to the most 
dependent parts, and develops discoloration of the 
skin, known as post-mortem rigidity or post-mortem 
staining. 

Deben Sailing dab, Woodbridge. Was first estab- 
lished in I840 as the " Deben Yacht Club." and met 
with great success for many 3rears, the shipping 
trade at Woodbridge and general interest in the 
waters being then, before the days of railways, of 
a more robust nature than at present. Some time 
during the fifties the club fell through, but 
was restarted in 1864, but again succumbed. In 
1886 it was again revived, under the present title, 
for the purpose of encouraging boat-sailing on the 
river Deben, and up to this time has proved suc- 
cessful. It may be mentioned that the Syren. 
built for Mr. D. B. Gall in 1842 (first secretary of 
the club) by Gerrard, of Woodbridge, is still afloat. 



DEBENTURE 



169 



DEFIANCE 



her jubilee having been celebrated at Harwich in 
1892. She is still in the same family, being now 
the property of Mr. Alfred Gall. Burgee : Blue, 
white spot in centre. Commodore, Walter Brooke ; 
Honorary Secretary and Treasurer, Frank Amer. 
Annual subscription, 55. minimum. 

Debenture. An instrument of the nature of a 
bill or bond, by which a debt is claimable. May 
bear interest or confer some peculiar advantage. 
It is given at the Custom House to claim a draw- 
back. 

Decatur. U.S. torpedo-boat destroyer (1900). 
Displacement, 420 tons ; complement, 64 ; guns, 
2 14-pdr., 5 6-pdr. ; torpedo tubes, 2 i8-in.. amid- 
ships and aft ; Hp., 8.000=29 kts. ; coal, 139 tons. 

DMd6e. French gun-boat. (L 'Orient, 1899.) 
Length, 184 ft. ; beam, 26 ft. ; draught, 12 ft. ; 
displacement, 635 tons ; complement, 99 ; guns, 
2 3*9-in., 4 2"5-in., 4 r4-in. ; Hp., 1,000=13 kts.; 
coal, 100 tons. 

Deek. A floor in a ship above the bottom of the 
hold. Decks may run from stem to stem, or be 
but partial. 

Deck oargo. If goods carried on deck are lost 
or damaged, the shipowner is only liable under 
express contract or universal custom of a trade. 
The master of any ship arriving in the United 
Kingdom from abroad between the last day of 
October and April 16 is liable to a fine of £$ for 
every 100 cubic feet of wood goods carried in any 
uncovered space ou deck, unless he can show tliat 
his arrival in the United Kingdom between these 
dates was due to exceptionally severe or excep- 
tionally unfavourable weather. No goods, luggage, 
or stores shall be carried on the upper or pas- 
sengers' decks of an emigrant ship unless they are 
properly secured and do not interfere with the 
health or comfort of the passengers. Refer to 
Jettison, Merchant Shipping Act. 

Deck house. Any built-up house of wood or 
iron on the deck of a vessel. Those in the after 
part of the ship are termed after-deck houses ; 
those in the fore part of the ship' forward-deck 
houses. 

Deck Load danBe. See Clauses. 

Dedaration of Paris was a diplomatic instrument 
signed by the representatives of all the Powers 
except the United States, Spain, Mexico, and 
Venezuela at the Congress of Paris, 1856. It was 
obligatory only for and between the Powers who 
acceded to it, and had the effect of securing to 
neutrals a larger carrying trading in time of war. 
The following measures were adopted : 

(i) Privateering is and remains abolished. 

(2) The neutral flag covers the goods of a belU- 
gereat (q.v.), with the exception of contraband 
of war. 



(3) Neutral goods, with the exception of con- 
traband of war (9 .v.), are not liable to capture 
under a belligerent's flag. 

(4) Blockades (q,v,) in order to be binding must 
be effective — 1.«., maintained by a force sufficient 
really to prevent access to the coast of a belligerent. 

In the Spanish-American war both sides declared 
their intention to adhere to the above rules (except 
Spain as regards privateering). 

Declination compass. See Compass. 

Deoiinatton needle, or declinometer, is an instru- 
ment for registering the amount and variations of 
the magnetic declinations. The variation east is 
generally reckoned negative, and west positive. 

DecHnaticwi of a celestial object The distance 
north or south from the equinoctial, and is xueasured 
by that portion of celestial meridian which is inter- 
cepted between centre of object and equinoctial. 

Decoy. British torpedo-boat destroyer. This 
vessel sunk after collision with the Arun off the 
Scilly Isles on August 13, 1904. 

Dee. British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Palmer, 
1903.) Length, 225 ft. ; beam, 23 ft. ; draught. 
10 ft. ; displacement, 540 tons ; complement, 70 ; 
armament, z 12-pdr., 5 6-pdr., 2 tubes; Hp., 
7,ooos=25 kts. ; coal, 127 tons. 

Deep. The estimated fathoms between the 
marks on the hand lead line. Refer to Lead. 

Deep sea deposits. See Deposition. 



Deep sea ezploratton. See Ocean, Abyssal 
Animals, Challenger Expedition. 

Dee Tacht dab, BoyaL See Royal Dee Yacht 
Club. 

Defence. British armoured cruiser. (Pembroke, 

1905.) 
Length 490ft. Beam 74ft. Mean draught 26ft. 
Displacement 14,600 tons. Complement 755. 
Guns. Armour. 

4—9*2 in,, 50 cal. '* Krupp." 
10^7*5 in. 6 in. Belt amidships. 

30 Small. 6 in. Barbettes. 

7 in. Conning tower. 
Torpedo Tubes, 
$ Submerged. 
Hp. forced 27,000=23 kts. Coal maximum 
2,000 tons. 

Defence. 74 guns. On December 24, 181 1, this 
vessel, with the St. George (98 guns) and the Hero, 
stranded on the coast of Jutland ; 2,000 lives lost. 

Defiance. British torpedo schoolship ( 5,270 t^ms) 
Launched 1861. 

Defiance. 64 guns. In October, 1780. this 
vessel was lost in a storm in the West Indies. 



DE 



170 



DENISH 



De Honey, Admiral Sir Algernon nrederiek Rons, 

K.C.B., cr. 1903 (b. 1827). Entered Navy, 1840 ; 
present in the operations on the Syrian coast, 
1840 (Syrian and Turkish medals) ; was flag- 
lieutenant to Sir George Seymour in the West 
Indies when in command of H.M.S. Brisk, cap- 
tured after a hard chase the celebrated Spanish 
slaver Manuela \ lieutenant, 1846 ; commander, 
1853 ; captain, 1857 ; senior officer at Jamaica in 
the Wolverene during the rebellion, 1865, and re- 
ceived the thanks of the Governor and both Houses 
of Parliament ; senior officer on the lakes of Canada 
in the Aurota during the Fenian disturbances, 
1856-57 (Canada medal and clasp) ; commanded 
H.M. ships Devastation^ Victor, Wolverene, Aurora, 
and Abouhir in the West Indies ; rear-admiral, 
1875 ; commanded the Brisk and Hector on the 
Cape of Good Hope and Home Stations ; Com- 
mander-in-Chief in the Pacific, 1876-79 ; in the 
Skah with the Ametkyst engaged for three hours 
the Peruvian rebel turret ship Huascar, May, 1877, 
driving her under the shelter of the town of Ylo, 
when she escaped after dark, and surrendered next 
day with the Peruvian squadron. His action being 
questioned in Parliament, Sir J. Holker, Attorney- 
General, said : " Huascar having committed acts 
which made her an enemy of Great Britain, De 
Horsey was justified in what he did." The I^rd 
Commissioners of the Admiralty, in communicating 
the decision of the law officers, wrote : *' My lords 
now desire me to convey to you their approval of 
your having put a stop to the lawless proceedings 
of the Huascar. Vice-admiral, 1879 ; admiral, 
1885 ; senior officer in command of Channel 
Squadron, 1885 ; retired. 1892. 

PubUcation : " Rule of the Road at Sea." 



De Long, George Washington (1844-81). Ameri- 
can Arctic explorer (b. New York). In 1873 he 
sailed on the Junita, commanded by Captain 
Braine, in search of the arctic exploring steamer 
Polaris, and was detailed to the command of the 
launch which was sent out by the Junita from 
Upemivik, Greenland. In 1879, in command of 
tho Jeanette, he set sail from San Francisco for 
Siberian Straits, the expedition being fitted out by 
Thomas Gordon Bennett. On September 5, 1879, 
the vessel was enclosed in the ice-pack, and after 
a long drift was finally crushed by the ice on 
June 12, 1 88 1, in yy** 15' N. latitude, 155® E. 
longitude. The members of the expedition jour- 
neyed by sledge and boat 150 miles to the New 
Siberian Islands, during which most of them 
perished. De Long among the number. The 
journal, in which he made regular entries up to the 
day of his death, has been edited by his wife, and 
published under the title ** Voyage of the Jeanetie," 
Refer to Arctic Exploration. 

Mmoeratie. French ist class battieship. (Brest, 
1905.) 
Length 452ft. Beam 79ft. Maximum draught 27it. 

Displacement 14,865 tons. Cx)mplement 793. 



Guns. 

4 — 12 in., 50 cal. 
10 — 76 in. 

8 — 4 in. 
24 — 3 pdr. 



Armour. 
" Knipp." 

1 1 in. Belt amidships. 
13 in. Main turrets. 
13 in. Conning tower. 
Torpedo Tubes (1904). 

2 Submerged. 

3 Above water. 

Three screws. Hp. 18.000=18 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 1,850 tons. Approximate cost ;^ 1,425,000. 



Dejatelny. Russian torpedo-boat destroyer 
(1905). Length, 185 ft. ; beam, 21 ft. ; draught, 
7| ft. ; displacement, 324 tons ; complement, 60 ; 
armament, i 12-pdr., 5 3-pdr., 2 Maxims, 2 tubes ; 
twin screw; Hp., 5,600=26 kts. ; coal maximum, 
100 tons. 

Delaware. Steamer. Wrecked off Scilly Isles on 
December 20, 1871, when only two out of 47 persons 
were saved. 

DeUin. Norwegian torpedo-boat. (Elbing, 1896.) 
Length, 128 ft. ; beam, 16 ft. ; draught, 6} ft. ; 
displacement, 84 tons; armament, 2 1*4 q.f., 

2 tubes ; Hp., 1,100=24 l^ts. 

Oelfiino. Italian submarine. (Spezia, 1894.) 
Length, ^S ft.; beam, 10 ft.; displacement, iii 
tons; complement, 12; torpedo tubes, 2; Hp., 
150=12 kts. above, 10 below. 

De Long. U.S. torpedo-boat (1900). Displace- 
ment, 165 tons; guns, 3 i-pdr. ; torpedo tubes, 

3 1 8 -in. ; maximum speed, 26 kts. 



Demnixage is the sum paid to the shipowner by 
the charterer for each day taken in loading or dis- 
charging the ship beyond the lay days or agreed 
time. It is usually stipulated in charter-parties 
that the charterer may, by paying a certain sum 
per diem for overtime, detain the vessel for a 
specified time, or for as long as he pleases after the 
expiration of the lay da3rs. 

^lien the demurrage da3rs are limited by special 
contract the sum due for detention of vessel beyond 
them will be taken as the measure of loss for the 
further time in the form of damages. Demurrage 
cannot be claimed for detention by a public enemy 
or for delay caused by the shipowners or their 
servants. All ordinary causes of detention, such 
as the orders of a harbour master, are at the 
charterer's risk, and he must pay demurrage even 
though the delay were inevitable. Claim for de- 
murrage ceases as soon as the ship is cleared out 
and ready for sailing, though unable to proceed on 
account of heavy weather. 

Denish Stale BaflwayB have a fleet of 31 modem 
steamers, which maintain services in conjunction 



DENNY 



171 



DEODORO 



with this railway and also to ports in various parts 
of Denmark and the vicinity. 

Fleet. 

Alexandra. Marie. 

Dagmar. Masnedsurid. 

Danneskjold. Mjolner, 

Fredencia, Nyborg. 

Frejn. Ogir. 

Fyn. Prins Christian. 

Helsingborg. Prinsesse Alexandrine. 

Hjalmar. SjaUand. 

Ingeborg. Shimer. 

Jylland. Staihodder. 

Kiobenhaven. Stanbalh. 

Korsor, Strib. 

Kronprinsesse Louise. Thor. 

Kronprins Frederik. Thyra. 

Lillebalh. Tyr. 

Valdemar. 
Gross tonnage, 19,450. 

Denny, Arohibald (b. Dumbarton, February 7, 
i860). Served his apprenticeship with Messrs. 
William Denny and Brothers, Dumbarton, and 
studied at the Royal Naval College, Greenwich, for 
three years ; assumed partner in Messrs. William 
Denny and Brothers in 1883, from which time he 
has taken a leading part in the design of all vessels 
built by that firm ; one of the founders of the 
British Corporation for the Survey and Registry 
of Shipping ; chairman of the Technical Com- 
mittee, and responsible for the rules since 1892 ; 
a member of the Committee on Freeboard, which 
sat in the year 1898 ; a member of the conmiittee 
upon the design and construction of torpedo-boats 
(the Cobra Committee), 1892-94; past-president of 
the Institution of Engineers and ' Shipbuilders in 
Scotland ; past-president of the Junior Engineers. 
London ; member of councU of the Institution of 
Naval Architects ; member of the Main Committee 
on Standardisation, and chairman of the sub- 
<x>mmittee on Ship and Engine Material. 

Publications : The author of numerous technical 
papers published in the Transactions of the Insti- 
tution of Naval Architects, principally on the 
" Strength and Stability of Ships." 

Denny, John HoAoBland (b. Dumbarton, Novem- 
ber 29, 1858). Educated Dumbarton Burgh 
Academy and Lausanne, Switzerland. Being in- 
tended for his father's business, Messrs. W. M. 
I>enny Brothers, Dumbarton, he received a special 
conunercial training prior to joining the firm, and 
-mrs^ apprenticed to the counting house. On several 
occasions he was sent abroad in the interests of his 
boose, and in his successful efforts to extend the 
business visited almost every part of Europe ; and 
one of the first contracts he was successful in 
obtaining was the re-engining of one of the North* 
German Lloyd steamships. His next attempt to 
secure a portion of the Continental trade was a 
contract for the building of the fast paddle steamers 



Princess HenrieUe and Princess Josephine for the 
Belgian Government. With Russia he has done a 
large business, supplying the principal vessels for 
the volunteer fleet, one of which was intended for 
the transport of criminal convicts to Saghalin. He 
naturally evinced a deep interest in all matters 
connected with the shipping and shipbuilding 
industries, and his services have been requisitioned 
several times for important committees appointed 
by the House of Commons and the Board of Trade. 
He was a member of the special committee which 
dealt with the War Office contracts, in another in 
connection with shipping subsidies ; was appointed 
by the Government on the committee which sat 
to investigate the cause of the decrease of volun- 
teers in the British Mercantile Marine^ and acted 
as a member of the Tonnage Committee. He is 
a keen volunteer, and as colonel conunands the 
1st Dumbartonshire Rifle Volunteers, one of the 
strongest and most efficient in the service. 

D'BntreoasteaosL French 2nd class cruiser. (La 
Sejme, 1896.) 

Length 393ft. Beam 58ft. Maximum draught 26ft. 
Displacement 8,114 tons. Complement 521. 
Guns. Armour. 

2 — 9*4 in., 40 cal. " Harvey." 
12 — $'s in. 3 in. Deck. 

12 — 3 pdr. 9 in. Turrets. 

4 Maxims. 10 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes (if 7 in.). 
2 Submerged. 
4 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. 13,500= 195 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 1,000 tons. Approximate cost ^670,000. 

Denver. U.S. 3rd class cruiser (1892). 
Length 292ft. Beam 44ft. Maximum draught 17ft. 
Displacement 3,200 tons. Complement 293. 
Guns. Armour. 

lo — 5 in. " Harvey-nickel." 

8 — 6 pdr. 2 in. Deck. 

2 — I pdr. 
2 Colts 
Twin screw. Hp. 4,500=16*5 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 700 tons. 

Deodoro. Brazilian coast service battleship. 
(La Seyne, 1898.) 

Length 268ft. Beam 48ft. Maximum draught 15ft. 
Displacement 3,162 tons. Complement 200. 
Guns. Armour. 

2 — 9*2 in. " Harvey-nickel." 

4 — 4*7 in. 1 3 in. Belt amidships. 

2 — 12 pdr. 8 in. Turrets. 

4 — 6 pdr. 5 in. Conning tower. 

4 — I pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
2 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 3,400=14 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 240 tons. 



DE 



172 



DESERTION 



DeOreftifl, Albert I>eiOantidiGafldnao?o. Italian 
vice-admiral. Ufiiciale Manriziano ; Grande Ui!i- 
ciale Corona d'ltalia. Entered Navy, x866 ; 
captain of Piemonte during Cretan insurrection, 
1895-96 ; Director of Naval Ordnance and 
Torpedoes, Spezia, 1900-02 ; Chief of the Stafi of 
the Fleet on mission to H.I.M. the Sultan, t 902 -03 
(Medjidie, ist Class) ; President of the Permanent 
Commission for experimenting with guns and 
torpedoes. 1903-04; rear-admiral, 1904; A.D.C. 
to the King, 1904-05 ; Commander-in-Chief of the 
ocean squadron, 1905-06 ; vice-admiral, 1906. 

Publication : " Technical Text-book on Gunnery." 

• 

Dep. Abbreviation for department. 

Depetit Thonan. French tst class cruiser. 
(Toulon, 1905.) 

Length 460ft. Beam 63ft. Maximum draught 24ft. 
Displacement 9,367 tons. Complement 612. 
Guns. Armour. 

2 — 7*6 in. ♦ " Harvey-nickel." 

8— 6'4 in. 6J in. Belt amidships. 

4 — 4 in. 8 in. Turrets. 

16—3 pdr. 6 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes (17*7 in.). 
2 Submerged. 
Three screws. Hp. 22,000=21 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 1.600 tons. Approximate cost ;£90o,ooo. 

Deprewioil* See Cyclone. 

Depth. The measure of anything from the 
surface of highest point downwards. 

Derelict is the term applied to any ship or part of 
a ship or cargo found floating on the open seas, and 
abandoned by those in charge without the hope 
of recovery or intention of returning. (For derelicts 
found on or near the coast of Great Britain, refer 
to Wreck.) 

The question in every case is one of intention. If 
the crew intended to return the property cannot be 
treated as derelict. 

Salvage is payable to persons bringing derelicts 
into safety, and, by an cdd rule of Admiralty, the 
salvors were awarded one-half of the value salved, 
but now the amount of award depends on the 
circumstances of the case, and. never more than 
a moiety is given, except where an action goes by 
default and the owners only appear at trial. 

By the Derelict Vessels (Report) Act, 1896, the 
master of every British ship shall, under a penalty 
of £s, notify Lloyd's agent at his next port of call 
or arrival of the existence and locality of any 
derelict vessel. Refer to Admiralty Droits. 

Derrick. A single spar supported by stays and 
guys used in loading and unloading vessels. 

De Bayter. Dutch battleship (1902). 
Length 312ft. Beam 48ft. Maximum draught i8ft. 
Displacement 4,950 tons. Complement 320. 



Guns. Armour. 

2 — 9 '4 in., 40cal. " Krupp." 
4—6 in. 6 in. Belt amidships. 

8 — 12 pdr. 10 in. Barbettes. 

2 — I pdr. 10 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes (i8 in.). 
2 Submerged. 
I Above water bow. 
Twin screw. Hp. 5.300=16 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 680 tons. 

De Bayter (Baijter), Michael Adrianszoon. Se^ 

Ruyter. 

Derwent. British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Haw- 
thorn. 1903.) Length, 220 ft. ; beam, 23 ft. ; 
draught. 10 ft. ; displacement, 534 tons ; com- 
plement. 70 ; armament, i 12-pdr., 5 6-pdr., 
2 tubes; twin screw ; Hp., 7,000=25 kts. ; coal, 
130 tons. 

Derwent Tacht dub. Established 1880. Com- 
modore. O. R. Tinning ; Vice-Commodore, W. E. 
Jorden ; Honorary Treasurer, D. R. Lucas ; 
Honorary Secretary, J. E. Philp, Hobart. Tas- 
mania. Annual subscription. £1 is. 

Desaix. French ist class cruiser. (St. Nazaire. 
1901.) 

Length 426ft. Beam 58ft. Mean draught 24ft. 
Displacement 7,700 tons. Complement 520. 
Guns. A rmour. 

8 — 6*4 in., 45 cal. " Krupp." 
4 — 4 in. 4 in. Belt amidships. 

10—2 pdr. 4 in. Turrets. 

6 in. Conning tower. 
Torpedo Tubes (177 in.). 
.2 Above water. 
Three screws. Hp. 17,000=21 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 1,200 tons. Approximate cost jf 7 50,000. 

Deeoartes. French 2nd class cruiser. (St. Na- 
zaire, 1904.) 

Length 332ft. Beam 44ft. Maximum draught aift. 
Displacement 4,000 tons. Complement 378. 
Guns, Armour. 

4—6*4 in., 45 cal. " Steel." 
10 — 4 in. 2 in. Deck. 

10—3 pdr. 2 in. Casemates. 

4 — I pdr. 2 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes (17*7 in.). 
2 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. 8,500=19*5 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 750 tons. Approximate cost ;f 3 50,000. 

Deiertion. A seaman deserting from the mer- 
chant service or sea fishing service, except for the 
purpose of joining the Royal Navy, is liable to 
forfeit all wages due and the effects he leaves. If 
desertion takes place abroad any wages a merchant 
seaman may earn in any other ship until his return 
to the United Kingdom are liable to be forfeited to 
satisfy any excess of wages paid to a substitute 
engaged at a higher rate. Except in the United 



DESMOINES 



^72, 



DEUTSCH 



Kingdom, a deserter from the merchant service is 
also liable to imprisonment for not more than i3 
weeks, with or without hard labour. If absent 
without leave at any time within 24 hours of the 
ship's leaving port, a merchant seaman or fisherman 
forfeits two days' wages, and in addition, for every 
24 hours' absence, either a sum not exceeding six 
days' pay (four days' pay in the case of a fisherman) , 
or any expenses in hiring a substitute. If abroad a 
merchant seaman is also liable to imprisonment 
not exceeding 10 weeks with or without hard labour. 
For desertion or absence without leave a merchant 
seaman is liable to be arrested without a warrant 
and taken back to his ship, all costs and expenses 
properly incurred to be paid by the offender, or 
deducted from his wages. (Merchant Shipping 
Act (1894), sections 221-224.) 

The offences of desertion and absentee without 
leave by those subject to naval discipline are dealt 
with in the Naval Discipline Act, 1866 (^.v.), and 
the Naval Desertexs Act, 1847. By these Acts an 
offender is liable for desertion (1) to the enemy, 
to capital punishment ; (2) under other circum- 
stances, to penal servitude or other punishment. 
In both cases there is also forfeiture of pay, effects, 
price-money, bounty, salvage, allowances, gratuities, 
pensions, medals, and decorations. For absence 
without leave an offender is punishable vdth im- 
prisonment not exceeding 10 weeks, with or without 
hard labour, or other punishment, and if absent 
for a month, and is not tried for the offence, he is 
liable to the above forfeitures. For assisting or 
persuading to desert from the Navy, a person not 
subject to the Naval Discipline Act is liable to a 
fine not exceeding £^0 or ;£2o respectively. 

DafmoinM. U.S. 3rd class cruiser (1902). 
Leng^ 292ft. Beam 44ft. Maximum draught 17ft. 
Displacement 3,200 tons. Complement 293. 
Guns. Armour. 

10 — 5 in. " Harvey -nickel." 

8 — 6 pdr. 2 in. Deck. 

2 — I pdr. 
2 Colts. 
Twin screw. Hp. 4.500= 16*5 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 700 tons. 

Demnefl, SimoiL 5m Arctic Exploration. 

Deiperate. British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Chis- 
wick. 1898.) Length, 210 ft. ; beam, 19 ft. ; 
draught, 7 ft. ; displacement, 285 tons ; comple- 
ment, 60 ; armament, i 12-pdr., 5 6-pdr., 2 tubes ; 
twin screw ; Hp., 5,800 = 30 kts. ; coal, 80 tons. 

Deftinatioii olaofas. See Clauses. 

D'Hrtreei. French avisos. (Rochefort, 1897.) 
Length 312ft. Beam 39ft. Mean draught i6ft. 
Displacement 3,460 tons. Complement 234. 
Guns. Armour. 

2 — 5*5 in., 45 cal. " Hard steel." 

4 — ^4 in. I J in. Deck. 

8 — 3 pdr. 



Twin screw, 
mum 480 tons. 



Torpedo Tubes, 

3 Above water. 

Hp. 8,500=21 kts. Coal maxi- 

Approximate cost ;£2 10,000. 



' Deitroyers or torpedo-boat destroyers are vessels 
of great speed designed to act against hostile tor- 
pedo flotillas. This class of vessel was first intro- 
duced into the British Navy in 1893 \ smd the first 
two, the Havoc and Hornet, of 240 tons displace- 
ment, had a speed of 27 kts. At the present time 
destroyers are from 350 to 360 tons displacement, 
with a speed varying from 30 to 35 kts. They 
carry quick-firing guns, and torpedoes, and are 
specially constructed at the bow to enable them to 
nn down and sink a torpedo-boat. 

Deftraetor. Spanish torpedo gun-boat. (Clyde- 
bank, x886.) 

Displacement 386 tons. Complement 45. 
Guns. Armour. 

1—3-5 in- " Steel." 

4—6 pdr. i^ in. Bulkheads. 

2 Nordenfelts. 

Torpedo Tubes (15 in.). 

3 Above water. 

Twin screw. Hp. 3,800= 20*2 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum no tons. 

Detention olanse. See Clauses. 

Det Forenede Damnskibi Seiskab. See United 
Steamship Co., Copenhagen. 

Detroit. U.S. 3rd dass cruiser (1891). 
Length 257ft. Beam 37ft. Maximum draught i6ft. 
Displacement 2,000 tons. Complement 250. 
Guns. Armour. 

9—5 in. " Steel." 

6—6 pdr. I in. Deck. 

2 — I pdr. 2 in. Conning tower. 

2 Catlings. 

Torpedo Tubes, 

4 Above water. 

Twin screw. Hp. 5,400=17 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 435 tons. 

Deatsch-Amerikanisohe Petroleam-GeseUsohaft, 

with their head oifice in Hamburg, have a ifleet of 
18 modem tank steamers engaged in the kerosene 
oil trade. 

Fleet. 

August Korff. Gut Heil. 

Bgm. Petersen. Helios. 

Brilliant. Mannheim. 

Deutscktand. Paula. 

Diamant. . Phoebus. 

Elise Marie. Prometheus. 

Energie. Standard. 

Excelsio/. Washington. 

Geestemunde. WillhommM. 

Gross tonnage, 64,800. 



DEUTSCH 



174 



DEVASTATION 



Dentseh-Aiutralisolw DampfBchiffi-GMeUBchftft. 

See German Australian Steamship Co. 

Deutsche Levant Line, with their head offices !n 
Hamburg, have a fleet of 30 first-class steamers, 
maintaining services between Hamburg, Antwerp, 
and the Mediterranean Ports, Russia, Egypt, and 
Arabia. Steamers leave Hamburg and Antwerp at 
scheduled times for Malta, Piraeus, Smyrna, Con- 
stantinople, and Odessa. Another service to 
Burgas. Vcma, Golatz, and Braila. Another in- 
cludes Alexandria, Jaffa, Beyrout, Alexandretta. 
and Messina. Another to Novorossisk. Matiupol. 
Taganrog. A service is maintained from Ham- 
burg, calling at Dover, which conveys passengers 
and cargo to Lisbon. Algiers. Tunis, and Constanti- 
nople. 

Fleet. 
A ndros» Lemnos, Pyrgos. 

A rgos. Lesbos, Rhodos, 

Athos. Lipsos. Samos, 

Chios. Milos. Serinbos. 

Delos, Naxos. Shyros. 

Enos. Paros. StambuL 

GakUa. Patmos. Tenedos, 

Imbros, Pera, Thasos. 

Kypros. Pylos, Tinos. 

Kythnos. Velos. 

Gross tonnage, 66,000. 

Deatichen Dampfsohifflahrts-Oesellsohaft "Han- 
■U^' See Hansa Line. 

Deatichen DamptMhifffahrts-OeseUschaft "Koi- 
mos/' See Kosmos Line. 

Detttsohe Os^ Africa Line, with their head offices 
in Hamburg, maintain a main and intermediate line 
of steamers to East and South Africa. The fleet 
consists of 12 modern, well-built steamers, par- 
ticularly adapted to the class of trade in which they 
are engaged, having excellent accommodation 
for passengers. A monthly service is maintained 
from Hamburg and Bremerhaven, via Cape Colony, 
to Durban and Delagoa Bay ; a fortnightly one via 
Marseilles, and another via Genoa, through the 
Suez Canal, to East and South Africa, which boats 
connect with a line running from the East Coast of 
Africa to Bombay. 

Fleet. 

Admiral, Herzog. Marhgraf. 

Bur germeister, Kanzler. Prasident, 

FeldmarshalL Konig, Prituessin. 

Gouverneur, Kronprinz. Ptinzregeni. 

DentMShland (1900). German merchant ship. 
Hamburg - Amerika Line (q.v.), Dim«i8ions, 
686x67x40 ft.; gross tonnage. 16.503; Hp., 
33,000=23-5 kts. 

Deateehland. Atlantic steamer. Wrecked on 
the Kentish Knock sandbank, at the mouth of the 
Thames, December 6, 1875 ; 70 lives lost. 



Deateehland. German ist class battleship. 

(Krupp, 1904.) 

Length 430ft. Beam 72ft. Mean draught 25ft. 
Displacement 13.400 tons. Complement 700. 
Guns. Armour. 

4 — II in. " Krupp." 

14—6*7 in. 10 in. Belt. 

22 — 24 pdr. X I in. Barbettes. 

4 — I pdr. 1 1 in. Turrets. 

4 Machine. 12 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
6 Submerged, bow, stern, and broadside. 
Three screws. Hp., 16,000 » 18 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 1.800 tons. Approximate cost j^i. 200,000. 

DeatMhland P. German ist class battleship, 

(Wilhelmshaven, 1905.) 

Length 430ft. Beam 72ft. Mean draught 25ft. 
I>isplacement 13,400 tons. Complement 700. 
Guns. Armour. 

4 — II in. " Krupp." 

14 — 6*7 in. 10 ixu Belt. 

22 — 24 pdr. 1 1 in. Barbettes. 

4 — I pdr. II in. Turrets. 

4 Machine. 1 2 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
6 Submerged, bow, stem, and broadside. 
Three screws. Hp. 16,000=18 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 1,800 tons. Approximate cost ;£ 1,200,000. 

Deuteohland B. German ist class battleship. 
(Krupp. 1906.) 

Length 430ft. Beam 72ft. Mean draught 25ft. 
Displacement 13.400 tons. Complement 700. 
Guns. Armour. 

4 — II in. " Krupp." 

14 — 6'7 in. 10 in. Belt. 

22 — 24 pdr. 1 1 in. Barbettes. 

4 — I pdr. 1 1 in. Turrets. 

4 Machine. 12 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
6 Submerged, bow, stem, and broadside. 
Three screws. Hp. 1 6,000 s 18 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 1,800 tons. Approximate cost ;f 1,200,000. 

Deyastation. British 2nd class battleship (9.330 
tons. 14 kts.). Launched 1871. 

Devastation* French 2nd class battleship (1879). 
Reconstructed 1902. 

Length 318ft. Beam 69ft. Maximum draught 28ft. 
Displacement 10.000 tons. Complement 689. 
Guns. Armour, 

4— 108 in. " Iron." 

2 — 9'4 in. 1 5 in. Belt amidahipe. 

1 1 — 4 in. 9 in. Battery. 

4— -9 P^' 3 ui. Conning tower. 

12 — 3 pdr. 
20—1 pdr. 
Twin screw. Hp. 8.100= 15*1 kts. Coal normal 
900 tons. 



DEVIATION 



175 



DIAMOND 



Deviattom In marine insurance it is of the 
utmost importance to specify accurately the port 
or place at which the risk commences, and the 
port or place at which it terminates. It is an im- 
plied condition that the vessel shall follow the 
course usually taken by other vessels in the same 
trade. Any deviation from the ordinary track, 
however sUght, without a justifying cause will 
vitiate the policy. To meet this latter risk a clause 
called the " Deviation clause " is usually inserted 
in the policy, to this effect : "In the event of the 
vessel making any deviation or change of voyage, 
it is mutually agreed that such deviation or change 
shaU be held covered at a premium to be arranged, 
provided due notice be given by the assured on 
receipt of advice of such deviation or change of 
vojrage." Refer to Voyage; Change of Voyage, 
Leave to Call, Clauses. 

Deviatkm. See Compass. 

Deviation daiue. See Clauses. 

Domtlon of the Ck>mpa8i. The angle included 
between the Magnetic North and the Compass 
North. This error is due to the disturbing influ- 
ences of the iron of which the ship is built, as 
rudder-posts, masts, chains, funnels, etc. ; her -po&i- 
tion when building, her cargo, or other causes within 
the ship. 

DeyiL Priming made by bruising and damping 
gunpowder. 

Devonport Dockyard. See Dockyards, Naval. 

Devonshire. British ist class cruiser. (Chat- 
ham, 1904.) 

Length 450ft. Beam 68ft. Maximum draught 25ft. 
Displacement 10,700 tons. Complement 655. 
Guns, A rmour, 

4 — 7*5 in. " Krupp." 

6 — 6 in. 6 in. Belt amidships. 

2 — 12 pdr. 6 in. Barbettes. 

22 — 3 pdr. 12 in. Conning tower. 

2 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes^ 
2 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 21,000 = 22 J kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 1,800 tons. Approximate cost ;£8 50,000. 

This ship-name is associated with Barfleur and 
La Hogue, 1692 ; Anson's victory off Finisterre, 
1747 ; Hawke's victory off Ushant, 1749 ; the 
reduction of Havana, 1762. 

D«w. Condensation of moisture on solid objects, 
caused through cooling by radiation. 

Dew«y» Oeoiga. American admiral (b. Mont- 
pelier, 1837). Graduated U.S. Naval Academy, 
1858. Took part in the forcing of the entnmce to 
the Mississippi, and served as lieutenant on the 
steam sloop Mississippi when she was shattered by 
the Confederate batteries at Port Hudson. In 1897 
he was assigned, at his own request, sea service, and 
sent in oonunand of the squadron to the Far East. 



On May i, 1898, during the Spanish- American War, 
after having received orders to " capture or destroy 
the Spanish Fleet " at the Philippines, he steamed 
into Manila Harbour. His flag-ship Oiympia led in 
a fight at close range, which lasted about eight 
hours, until the last Spanish flag wa^ hauled down. 
He destroyed or captured the whole of the Spanish 
fleet in the Far East without the loss of a single 
ship. On his return to America in October, 1899, 
he received a great ovation, was promoted admiral, 
and received the thanks of Congress. 

Dew-poini. The temperature at which dew 
begins to be deposited. 

Deyatelni. Russian torpedo-boat destroyer 
(1905). Length, 185 ft. ; beam, 21 f t. ; draught, 
7| ft. ; displacement, 324 tons ; complement, 60 ; 
armament, i 12 -pdr., 5 3 -pdr., 3 tubes ; twin screw ; 
Hp., 5,6oos=26kts. ; coal, 100 tons. 

D.H. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Dartmouth, England. 

Dhow. A wooden vessel having generally one 
mast and a lateen sail, used by Arabs in the Red 
Sea and Arabian Gulf, for carrying small cargoes. 

DJ. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Dieppe, France. 

Diadem. British ist class cruiser. (Fairfield, 
1896.) 

Length 435 ft. Beam 69ft. Maximum draught 27ft. 
Displacement 11,000 tons. Complement 677. 
Guns. Armour, 

J 6-^ in. " Harvey." 

12 — 12 pdr. 4 in. Belt amidships. 

2 — 12 pdr., 8 cwt. 12 in. Conning tower. 
12 — 3 pdr, 
2 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
2 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 16, 500 =3 20^ kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 2,000 tons. Approximate cost ;t5 54,800. 

This ship-name was introduced into the Navy in 
1782 ; and is associated with Hood's occupation of 
Toulon, 1793 ; St. Vincent, 1797 ; Hotham*s action 
off Genoa, 1795 ; Hothara's action off Hydres, 1795. 

■ Diagonal bnild. Denoting the manner of boat 
building in which the outer shell consists of two 
layers of planking with the keel in opposite direc- 
tions, constructed upon temporary transverse 
models. 

Diamond. British 3rd class cruiser. (Laird, 
1904.) 
Length 360ft. Beam 40ft. Mean draught 14ft. 
Displacement 3,000 tons. Complement 296. 
Guns. Armour, 

12—4 in. *' Steel." 

8 — 3 pdr. 2 in. Deck. 

2 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
2 Above water. 



DIANA 



176 



DIDEROT 



Twin screw. Hp. 9,8009=21*75 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 500 tons. Approximate cost £240,000. 

This ship-name is associated with the defeat of 
the Spanish Armada, 1588 ; battle of the Kentish 
Knock, 1652 ; battle ofi Portland, 1653 » l>SLttle ofi 
the North Foreland, 1653 ; Blake's attack on Porto 
Farina ; battle of Bantry Bay, 1689. 

Diftna. British 2nd class cruiser. (Fairfield, 

1895.) 

Length 364ft. Beam 54ft. Maximum draught 23ft. 

Displacement 5,600 tons. Complement 450. 

Guns. Armour, 

II — 6 in. "Harvey." 

8 — 12 pdr. 2 J in. Deck. 

1 — 12 pdr., 8 cwt. 6 in. Conning tower. 

7—3 pdr. 

2 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 

2 Submerged. 

I Above water stem. 

Twin screw. Hp. natural 8 ,000 =18*5 kts. , forced 

9,600=19*5 kts. Coal maximum 1,076 tons. 

Diana. Russian cruiser. (Galemii, 1899.) 
Length 410ft. Beam 55ft. Maximum draught 21ft. 
Displacement 6,630 tons. Complement 570. 
Guns, Armour. 

8—6 in. " Steel." 

22 — 12 pdr. 2^ in. Deck. 

8 Small q.f . 6 in. Conning tower. 

4^ Engine hatches. 
Torpedo Tubes. 
4 Above water. 
Three screws. Hp. 11,600=20 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 1,430 tons. 

Escaped from the Japanese at the battle of 
Round Island. August 10, 1904, and reached Saigon, 
and was interned till the end of the war. 

Diathermanoy. The property in virtue of which 
the solar rays pass through a medium without 
raising its temperature. 

Dial. Bariolomeil (145 5-i Soo)- Portuguese navi- 
gator (b. Lisbon). Was the first to sail round the 
southern extremity of Africa (i486), which he 
named Cape of Bad Hope, the name being after- 
wards changed by King Joao 11. to Good Hope. 
In 1497 he was superseded by Vasoo da Gama» and 
sailed under him as second-in-command on a 
voyage of discovery. He was with Cabral's ex- 
pedition to Calicut, India, during which Brazil was 
discovered. 

Dibervflla. French avisos (1892). 
Length 262ft. Beam 26ft. Maximum draught 12ft. 
Displacement 925 tons. Complement 140. 
Guns, Armour. 

1—4 in. *• Steel." 

3^-9 pdr. I in. Deck amidships. 

7—3 pdr. 
Twin screw. Hp. 5,000=21 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 135 tons. 



Diekie, Jamei (b. Arbroath, March 4. 1847). 
Served an apprenticeship to the building of small 
wooden vessels, and in 1870 went to America and 
started a shipbuilding yard on his own account. 
Subsequently joined the Union Ironworks as super- 
intendent of their shipyard, and in 1884 designed 
and superintended the construction of the first 
sailing-vessel built on the Pacific coast. While 
with this firm he was closely connected with the 
construction of 20 war vessels for the United States 
Navy and a cruiser for the Japanese Navy« In 
1905 he severed his connection with the Union 
Ironworks, and started business on his own account 
as naval architect and marine engineer. 

Publications : Has contributed papers to the 
Society of Naval Architects and Mechanical En- 
gineers, and to the North-East Coast Institution of 
Engineers and Shipbuilders. 

DioUmon, John, and Sons, Ltd., Palmer's Hill 
Engine Works, Sunderland. These works were 
founded in 1852 by the chairman of the present 
company. The site, comprising about 4^ acres, is 
of peculiar formation, in former days having been 
an old ballast hill, on the site of which the present 
works are erected in terraces. The different flats 
are excavated from the side of the hill, and secured 
by means of heavy concrete retaining walls. 

The principal manufacture is that of marine 
engines and boilers. Extensive repairing work in 
connection with this industry is also carried out. 
The boiler shop has lately been extended and 
fitted with the latest type of machinery for dealing 
with boilers up to 80 tons weight. The engine 
works are also fitted with machinery of modem 
type, and no expense has been spared to make 
the whole fax:ix>ry complete and fully equipped for 
dealing expeditiously and efficiently with the com- 
pany's manufactures. There is a river frontage 
of about 630 ft., and machinery is shipped from 
the quay on board the steamers by means of a 
large 80-ton crane. 

The output for the last ten years was as follows : 
1897. 1 1 sets of engines, representing 20,760 I.Hp. 

38.634 ,. 
29,004 „ 
4i»622 „ 

31.044 .. 

31.030 .. 

24.723 .. 

f. .. 43.860 „ 

31.656 .. 

51.102 ,. 
The number of men employed is about i,ooo. 

DIot Abbreviation for dictionary. 

Didiffot French ist dass battleship. Laid 
down 1906. 

Length 475ft. Beam 84ft. Maximum, draught 2 7^ft. 
Displacement 18,000 tons. Complement 680. 



1898. 


22 


1899. 


16 , 


1900. 


21 


I90I. 


16 , 


1902. 


17 . 


1903. 


II 


1904. 


20 , 


1905. 


17 . 


1906. 


30 , 



.. 



DIDO 



177 



DIU 



Guns. Armottr. 

4 — 12 in. 10 in. B^t axm<lship3. 

12^-9*4 in. 12 in. Turrets. 

16—12 pdr. 13 in. Conning tower. 

8—3 pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 

2 Submerged. 

3 Above water. 

Three screws. Hp. 22,500=19 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 2,010 tons. Approximate cost ;£ 1,82 5, 000. 

Didow British 2nd class cruiser. (Londqn and 
Glasgow, 1896.) 

Length 364ft. Beam 54it. Maximum draught 23ft. 
Displacement 5,600 tons. Complement 450. 
Guns, Armour. 

II — 6 in. " Harvey." 

8 — 12 pdr. 2 J in. Deck. 

I — 12 pdr., 8 cwt. 6 in. Conning tower. 
7—3 pdr. 
2 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
2 Submerged. 
I Above water stem. 
Twin screw. Hp. natural 8,000 =18*5 kts. , forced 
9,600 » 1 9' 5 kts. Coal maximum 1,076 tons. 

Digby, Sir Henry (i 769-1842). English admiral 
(b. Christchurch). Commanded the Africa in the 
battle of Trafalgar. He was made admiral 1841. 

IMUoD* Makwlm (b. London, 1859). Was for 
some years identified with banking and financial 
institutions in the metropolis. In 1893 ^^ became 
general manager and secretary of the Palmer Ship- 
building and Iron Co. Has been twice Mayor of 
Jarrow, and is president of the Northern Union of 
Mechanics. 

Publications : Several works on Banking. 

Piminiiihing daase. See Clauses. 

Diiigliy. A small boat fitted with settee sail pro- 
pelled by paddles in use on the coast of India. 

Dip. The inclination of the magnetic needle 
towards the earth. 

In navigation the difference of the latitudes of a 
star seen from two levels. 

The angle contained between the sensible and 
apparent horizon, the angular point being the eye 
of the observer. 

The allowance made in all astronomical observa- 
tions of latitude over the height of the eye above 
the level of the sea. 

Dip. To lower, generally with the intention of 
hoisting again. 

DipWdoieope. An instrument for determining 
correct time by tiansit observations of the sun or 
of the stazs. The first instrument was constructed 
by Dent from a design patented by Bloxham in 
1843. PLoasl, of Vienna, improved it, and Stein- 
iieil three years later brought oat the transit prism 
which is now used. 



Direel LinM Weit Indittt Sarfioe, with a fleet of 
13 well-built modem vessels, maintain services to 
the West Indian Islands. One of their steamers 
leave London fortnightly for Barbadoes, Grenada, 
Trinidad, and Demerara, transhipping at Barbadoes 
for St. Vincent, St. Lucas, Montserrat, and St. 
Kitts. A steamer leaves Glasgow every three 
weeks for Barbadoes, calling at and transhipping for 
the same ports. 

Flbet. 

Crown of Arragon. Salybia. 

Crown of Castile. Sarstoon. 

Crown of Grenada. Serrana. 

Crown of Navarre. Spheroid. 

Naparima. Statia. 

Saba. Torgorm. 

Yanariva. 



An allowance made for money paid 
before it is due. To discount a bill is to buy from 
the holder the right to receive the money upon it 
when due. 

Disooyery. In May, 161 2, Sir Thomas Button 
sailed in this vessel on a voyage of discovery to 
the polar regions. He entered Hudson's Bay, and 
wintered at the mouth of a river 57° 10' N. The 
following year he explored Southampton Island as 
far as 65^ N., returning to England in 161 3. In 
161 5 Robert Bylot. master, and William Baffin, 
pilot, sailed in this vessel and carefully surveyed 
the coast of Hudson's Strait, and sailed round the 
great channel now known as Baffin's Bay. All the 
capes, islands, and sounds discovered were named 
by these explorers after the promoters of this 
expedition. Refer to Antarctic Exploration, also 
Arctic Exploration. 

Digk of the 8011 or Hoeii. The round face, which, 
on account of the great distance, appears flat, as 
like a plane surface. 

Digplaoement. The weight of water which a 
vessel displaces when floating. The water dis- 
placed is equal to the weight of the ship. 

Diitingniflhed Senrioe Order was introduced 
in 1886 for naval and army officers who per- 
formed distinguished service. It ranks next to 
the Fourth Class of the Royal Victorian Order. 
The decoration consists of a white enamel cross 
edged with gold, with the Imperial Crown on one 
side and the Royal Cipher on the other. It is 
worn on the left breast and suspended by a red 
ribbon with a blue edge. 

Diltren. A term used when, owing to damage 
or danger, the ship requires immediate assistance. 

Din. Portuguese corvette. (Lisbon, 1889.) 
Length, 147 ft. ; beam, 27 ft. ; draught, 13 f t. ; 
displacement, 717 tons; complement, 114; guns, 
1 5*9-iA*» 2 4'7-in., I 3-pdr. ; Hp., 700=12 kts.; 
coal, 80 tons. 



DIURNAL 



178 



DIXON 



Diliiiial motions of the planets are the spaces guns, 8 5-in.,4 6-pdr., 4 i-pdr. ; Hp., 3.800= 16 kts. 
they move through in the day. coal maximfum. 1,371 tons. 



Diurnal ineqnaliiiF or Diurnal variation* Changes 
due to the time of day. 

Dinmal range. The amount of variation between 
the maximum and minimum of any element during 
the 24 hours. 

Divine Service in Navy. See Naval Ceremonies. 

Diving. This art has been practised from very 
early times in the Indian seas, divers being em- 
ployed in bringing up from considerable depths 
coral, pearl, sponges, etc. The record time a good 
diver can remain under water without the aid of 
artificial means is about three minutes. The 
earUest contrivance for enabling divers to remain 
for any length of time under water was the diving- 
bell, but this was not entirely a success owing to 
the necessity of the bell having to be frequently 
drawn to the surface in order to get a fresh supply 
of air. It was in 1830 that Mr. A. Siebe, the founder 
of the firm of Siebe, Gorman and Co., Ltd., in- 
vented the open diving-dress, which consisted of 
a dress made of solid sheet indiarubber between 
specially prepared twill. The helmet, made of 
highly planished tin copper, with gunmetal fittings, 
was fitted with two side oval or round thick plate 
glasses in brass frames with guards. The air was 
supplied from an air-pump by means of a vulcanised 
indiarubber air-pipe attached to a gunmetal inlet 
valve in the helmet, by which the air is allowed to 
enter. The diving-dress of to-day is merely an 
improvement on that invented in 1830. Divers at 
a depth of 32 ft. under water have upon the surface 
of their whole bodies a more than ordinary pres- 
sure of 20,000 lbs. weighty yet,, when we consider 
the uniformity of that pressure, which causes no 
dislocation of the parts, all the external being 
equally affected with it, it is not to be wondered 
that divers complain of no sensible pain though 
they be pressed with so great weight of water. 
The following table represents the pressure in 
pounds on the square inch at a given depth of 
water : 



20 ft. 


. . 8i lbs. 


130 ft. 


. . 56j^ lbs. 


30.. 


.. 12J 




140.. 


.. 6of .. 


40 .. 


.. i7i 




150 M 


■. 65J .. 


50., 


.. 2li 






Limit. 


60 „ 


.. 26i 




160 „ 


.. 69* „ 


70** 


.. 30J 




170 .. 


... 74 ,. 


80., 


.. 34* 




180 „ 


..78 ,. 


90 M 


. 39 




190 » 


.. 82J .. 


100 „ 


. 43* 




204 „ 


.. 88i „ 


I 10.. 


. 47* 




The greatest depth any 


120 „ 


. 52* 




diver has ever de- 










scended. 



Dixie. U.S. cruiser. (Newport News, 1893.) 
Length, 389 ft. ; beam, 48 ft. ;^ draught, 20 ft. ; 
displacement, 6,145 ^^ * complement, 181 ; 



Dixon, (leorge (175 5-1 800). English navigator. 
Served under Capt. Cook in his third expedition on 
the North- West coast of America. In 1785 he set 
sail in command of the Queen Charlotte — a com- 
panion ship, the King George, being under the 
command of Capt. Portlock — ^in the interest of the 
King George's Sound Co** London, to .make a 
minute examination of the North- West Coast of 
America. The voyage resulted in the discovery 
of numerous small islands, ports, and bays, of 
which Queen Charlotte's Island. Port Mulgrave, 
Norfolk Bay, and Dixon's Archipelago are the 
most important. He returned to England in 1788. 
In the following year he published an account of 
his voyage, entitled " A Voyage round the World, 
but more particularly to the North-West Coast of 
America," which contained many valuable charts. 
In 1 79 1 he published " The Navigator's Assistant." 

Dixon, Harold Baylton (b. Middlesbrough, 1872). 
Educated Harrow and France. Served his appren- 
ticeship in his father's firm. Sir Raylton Dixon 
and Co., Ltd., and in 1897, on its registration as«> 
private company under the Limited Liability Act. 
he was selected a director, and on the death of 
Sir Raylton Dixon in 1901 became chairman. He 
is a director of the British and African Steam 
Navigation Co.. and the Imperial Direct West 
Indian Mail Service, Ltd., and under his capable 
direction the Cleveland Shipyard has not only 
maintained its high standard and reputation, but, 
if possible, enhanced it. 

Dixon and Ck>., Ltd., Sir Raylton, Middlesbrough- 
on-Tees. The history of this firm, whose name 
is synonymous with ability to undertake and 
execute work in ship construction and repair, is in 
brief this. The originator, Mr. Raylton Dixon, 
after serving his time as a premium apprentice with 
Messrs. Coutts and Parkinson on the Tyne, com- 
pleted his articles with Messrs. Charles Mitchell and 
Co., of the same river. In 1859 he went to the 
Tees as manager of a shipyard there, and, three 
years later, established under the titie of Packhouse 
and Dixon, the undertaking which later resolved 
itself into Raylton Dixon and Co., subsequently 
being registered in 1897 as a Umited company under 
the present title of Sir Raylton Dixon and Co., Ltd. 

From small beginnings the works gradually 
extended until they became of their present im- 
portance, emplo3ring about 2,400 hands ; building 
passenger and other high-class vessels for the 
British Government, and some of the most im- 
portant shipping companies at home and abroad. 
The yard is replete with all the latest modem 
machinery for the construction of vessels, and 
among the clients of the firm may be mentioned : 
Messrs. Elder, Dempster and Co., Lamport and 
Holt. Moss Steamship Co., Shipping and Coal Co. 



DIXON 



179 



DOCK 



of Rotterdam, General Steamship Co.. Booth 
Steamship Co., Java, China, and Japan Line, Louis 
Dreyfus and Co., Glover Brothers, and the Bergen 
Steamship Co. 

The yard turned out in 1906 eight vessels, aggre- 
gating 26,610 B.T. gross tons, and the figures for 
the previous five years are : — 

Year. B.T. Gross tons. 



1905 
1904 

1903 
1902 
1901 



27780 

23.787 
20,407 

18,152 

25,609 



Giving an average size of vessel of 3,326 B.T. gross 
tons. 

Dixon* ThomM (b. Thickley, May 10, 1848). 
Served apprenticeship with Messrs. Pile, Spence 
and Co. In 1868 appointed cashier to Sir Raylton 
Dixon and Co., apd on the firm being converted 
into a private limited company in 1897, ^^ made 
secretary, and on the death of Sir Raylton Dixon 
(q.v.) was appointed a director. 

Mron, Thomaf, and Soni, with their head office in 

Belfast, have a fleet of two steamers, which run in 
conjunction with those of the Lord Line {q.v.). 

Fleet. 
Belfast. Bangor. 

Diery. Non^'egian torpedo-boat. (Christiania, 
T900.) Length, iii ft.; beam, 14I ft; draught, 
6^- ft. ; displacement, 65 tons ; armament, 2 i •4-pdr., 
2 tubes ; Hp., 650= 19 lets. 

DJK. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Dundalk, Ireland. 

DJi. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Deal, England. 

Dmitri DooakoL Russian annoured cruiser 
(1883). Sunk by the Japanese at the battle of 
Tsushima, May 27-29, 1905. 

Dmitrieff. Russian torpedo - boat destroyer 
(1906). Length, 185 ft. ; beam, 21 ft. ; draught, 
7 J ft. ; displacement, 324 tons ; complement, 60 ; 
armament, i 12-pdr., 5 3-pdr., 2 Maxims, 2 torpedo 
tubes; twin screw; Hp., 5,600=26 kts. ; coal 
maximum, 100 tons. 

Dnieper (1894). Russian Government liner. 
ILength, 460 ft. ; beam, 52 ft. ; draught, 20 ft. ; 
gross tonnage, 5,432 ; Hp., 10,500=18 kts. 

D.O. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Douglas, Isle of Man, England. 

XMlfOWOleti. Russian torpedo gun-boat (1906). 
Displacement, 625 tons; speed, 19 kts. 

Dock eompanief . See Harbour. 

Dook dnef are payments made by the owner of a 
ship using a dock to the dock company, and are in 
proportion to the vessel's registered tonnage. The 
term includes payments by the shippers of goods. 
Vessels belonging to the Board of Trade (q.v.) and 



the General Lighthouse Authorities are exempt 
from dock dues. 

Dock master is one whose duties consist in 
managing and directing the movements and berth- 
ing of all ships using any dock under his control, the 
collection of dock dues, and the carrying into efiect 
of the dock bye-laws. He is appointed by, and is a 
servant of the dock-owners, who are responsible 
for any damage to property directly traceable to 
his acts, or defaults arising from orders given by 
him within the scope of his authority, provided 
that, in cases of collision there has been no con- 
tributory negligence on the part of the master or 
crew of the vessel doing damage, and that the dock 
master's orders are properly executed. 

Doeks. A dock is an artificial enclosure into 
which ships may be floated for the purpose of 
repair, discharge, or loading. They are divided 
into three classes — tidal docks or basins, wet docks, 
and graving or dry docks. 

A tidal dock is one which has an open entrance, 
and the water level in the dock rises or falls accord- 
ing to the state of the tide. 

In a wet dock the water is maintained at one 
uniform level by closing the entrance by means of 
watertight gates. 

Graving docks or dry docks are used exclusively 
for the repair of vessels. They are fitted with 
water-tight gates at one end ; the gates have sluices 
in them, in order to allow the water to gradually fill 
the dock to admit the vessels. Such docks are 
supplied with a row of keel blocks up the centre, 
and the vessel is placed with her keel immediately 
over them, and as the water is pumped out, the 
vessel gradually settles on these blocks. 

Floating docks, which are invariably constructed 
of iron or steel, fulfil the same purpose as that of a 
graving or dry dock. 

Refer to Harbours; London, Port of; Bristol, 
Port of ; Belfast, Port of ; Leith, Port of ; Naval 
Establishments. 

Dock warrants are documents of title to goods 
and acknowledgments on the part of dock com- 
panies that they hold and are responsible for certain 
quantities of goods specified therein. Between the 
two contracting parties the transfer of a Dock 
warrant operates only as a token of authority to 
take possession, and not as a transfer of possession. 
But any document of title may be lawfully trans- 
ferred to any person as a buyer or owner of the 
goods, and if he in turn transfer such document of 
title to another who takes bona fide and for valuable 
consideration, the last transfer will have the same 
efiect for defeating the vendor's lien, or right of 
stoppage in transitu (q.v.), as the transfer of a bill of 
lading has for defeating the right of stoppage in 
transitu. Pock warrants are not. however, nego- 
tiable instruments, and the transferee acquires no 
better title to the goods than the transferor had. 
(Sale of Goods Act, 1893. s^nd Factors Act, 1889.) 



DOCKYARDS 



i8o 



DOMETT 



Dookyaidf, NavaL See Naval Establishments. 

Dodd, Thomas Jamat (b. Portsmouth, April, 1847). 
Educated Portsmouth, and in 186 1 passed first in 
the examination before the Civil Service Commis- 
sioners, and was entered in Portsmouth Dockyard 
as a shipwright apprentice. After serving five 
years he was granted by the Lord Commissioners of 
the Admiralty a scholarship for a further two years, 
during which time he studied the principles of 
design, and was instructed in the actual work of 
laying off and ship's construction. In 1868, after 
completing seven years' apprenticeship, he was 
appointed an assistant overseer of iron and compo- 
site vessels building by contract for H.M. service, 
and was so employed on the armour-clad frigates 
Swiftsute and Triumph, on the turret-ship Cyclops, 
four iron gun - vessels, and the iron troopship 
Assistance. In May, 1873, he was appointed 
surveyor to Lloyd's Register of British and Foreign 
Shipping at Leith and Sunderland, and assisted the 
late Mr. Martel in the preparation of the first free 
board tables which were accepted by the Govern- 
ment in 1890. In 1874 he was appointed exclusive 
surveyor at Genoa, Italy, and in 1877 ^^ appointed 
to Marseilles, on special duties. In February, 1880, 
he was promoted to Glasgow, and in 1900, when the 
Glasgow Committee of Lloyd's Register of British 
and Foreign Shipping was formed, he was appointed 
secretary of that committee, in addition to the 
principal surveyorship. 

Member of the Institution of Naval Architects, 
and of the Institution of Engineers and Ship- 
builders of Scotland. 

Dog. To pass zigzag the tails of a stopper or 
other ropes. 

DogalL Italian 3rd class cruiser. (Elswick, 
1889.) 

Length 250ft. Beam 37ft. Maximum draught 15ft. 
Displacement 2,000 tons. Complement 257. 
Guns, Armour, 

6—6 in. " Steel." 

I — 2*9 in. 2 in. Deck. 

9 — 2*2 in. 4 in. Deck gun shields. 

Torpedo Tubes, 
4 Above water. 
Hp. 7,600=19 kts. Coal maximum 480 tons. 

Doggar. A Dutch smack carrying main and 
mizzen mast, principally used for fishing on Dogger 
Bank. 

Doggar Bank. A sand bank in the middle of North 
Sea between England and Denmark, and extending 
within 40 miles of the Yorkshire coast. Has an aver- 
age depth of 10 to 20 fathoms. Famous cod-fishing 
centre. Here on the night of October 21, 1904, the 
Russian fleet (which was afterwards annihilated 
by Admiral Togo at the battle of Tsushima) when 
on its way to the Far East fired on the trawlers, 
sinking the Crane, and damaging others, and killing 
two and wounding many of the fishermen. An 



International Commission was held to inquire into 
the incident, and the Russian Government was com- 
pelled to pay compensation. 

Doggar Bank, Battla oL On August 5, 1781, an 
indecisive battle was fought between the British 
under Admiral Sir Hyde Parker and the Dutch. 

Doggatt'f Ckwt and Badga. A sculling prize 
founded by Thomas Doggett in 17 16 for Thames 
watermen who have finished their apprenticeship 
within a year prior to the race. It consists of a red 
coat with a large silver badge on the arm. The 
race takes place annually, the course being from 
London Bridge to Chelsea, and is always keenly con- 
tested. A record of winners has been preserved 
since 1791. 

Dog's aar* The leech of a sail between the reefs 
when it sticks up. 

Dof-yaoa. A small contrivance made of thread, 
cork and feathers, to show the direction of the wind. 

Dog-watoh. The half -watches of two hours each, 
from four to six, and six to eight in the evening. 

Doldniiiui. Those parts of the sea near the 
equator where calms are generally experienced. 

Dolphin* A bollard post on a quay to which 
hawsers are made fast. 

Dolphin. U.S. gun-vessel. (Chester, 1885.) 
Length, 240 ft. ; beam, 32 ft. ; draught, 17 f t. ; 
displacement, 1,486 tons ; complement, 117 ; guns, 
2 4-in., I 6-pdr., 6 3-pdr. ; Hp., 2,250=15 kts. ; 
coal, 173 tons. 

Dolphin ttrikar. A short gaff spar for guying 
down the jibboom which it supports. 

Dom Carlos L Portuguese armoured ship ( 1 898 ) . 
Length 360ft. Beam 46ft. Mean draught 17ft. 
Displacement 4,100 tons. Complement 473. 
Guns. Armour. 

4—6 in. '* Steel." 

8 — ^4*7 in. 4^ in. Deck. 

12 — 3 pdr. 4 in. Conning tower. 

10 — I pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes. 

2 Submerged. 

3 Above water. 

Twin screw. Hp. forced 12,500 = 22 kts. Coal 
maximum 700 tons. 

Domatt, Sir William (1754-1828). English ad- 
miral. Shared in the action off Ushant, 1778 ; 
Arbuthnot's action in the Chesapeake, 1781 ; was 
in command of the flag-ship Romney in the Mediter- 
ranean at the outbreak of the war, 1793 ; com- 
manded Hood's flag-ship, the Royal George, in 
Howe's battle of "The Glorious First of June," 
1794. In 1799 he was present at Basque Roads, 
and two years later was promoted flag-captain to 
Sir Hyde Parker (q.v.) at Copenhagen. He was 
one of the Commissioners of Naval Inquiry, ap- 
pointed in 1803 on dockyards, which sat until 
March. 1808. He was made admiral, 1819. 



DOMINION 



i8i 



DONA 



Domiiuoii. British ist class battleship. (Vickers* 

1903.) 
Length 453ft. Beam. 78ft. Mean draught 26ft. 
Displacement 16.350 tons. Complement jjy. 
Guns, Armour, 

4 — 13 in. ** Knipp." 

4-— 9*3 in. 9 in. Belt amidships. 

10 — 6 in. 12 in. Barbettes. 

14 — 12 pdr. 12 in. Conning tower. 

14—3 pdr. 
2 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
4 Submerged broadside. 
I Submerged stem. 
Twin screw. Hp. 18,000=18*5 kis. Coal maxi- 
mum 2,000 tons. Approximate cost ;£ 1,5 00,000. 

Dominion Steamihip Line. . In 1870 some Liver- 
pool and New Orleans cotton merchants formed 
the Mississippi and Dominion Steamship Co., Ltd. 
Since 1894 the proprietary company has been the 
British and North Atlantic Steam Navigation Co., 
Ltd. A weekly passenger service between Liver- 
pool and Quebec and Montreal in the summer and 
Halifax (Nova Scotia) and Portland (Maine) in the 
winter is maintained, as well as a regular weekly 
freight service from Liverpool to Portland through- 
out the year. There is also a fortnightly freight 
service between Avonmouth and Quebec and 
Montreal in the summer, and Portland in the 
winter. The largest steamer is the Norseman, 
9,546 tons. There is building a new twin-screw 
steamer of 14,000 tons, which will be named the 
Alberta. 

Fleet. 
Cambroman. Irishman. Ottoman. 

Canada. Manxman. Roman, 

Comishman, Norseman, Turcoman, 

^Dominion, Ottaw^. Vancouver, 

Englishman. Welshman, 

Gross tonnage, 88,650. 

Dom Lois L Portuguese gun- vessel. (Lisbon, 
1895-) Length, 151 ft.; beam, 27 ft.; draught, 
14 ft. ; displacement, 710 tons ; armament, 4 4'1-in., 
3 2*5-in., 3 Maxims; Hp.» 512=9 kts. ; coal, 
100 tons. 

Domvile, Adminl Sir Ck)mpion Bdward, K.O.B., 

cr. 1898 ; O.O.V.O.* 1903 (b. Worcestershire, 1842). 
Educated Royal Academy, Gosport ; entered Navy, 
1856 ; lieutenant, 1862 ; lieutenant commanding 
Algerine ; promoted to commander for his skill and 
gallantry in services against pirates in China, 
1866-68 ; captain, 1876 ; captain of Dido, 1879-83 ; 
saw active service on West Coast of Africa and the 
Cape during Boer war ; Acting Commodore, 
Jamaica, 1882 ; captain of Temeraire, 1884-86 ; 
captain H.M.S. Excellent, Gunnery School, Ports- 
mouth, 1886-90 ; vice-president of Ordnance Com- 
niittee, 1890-91 ; Director of Naval Ordnance and 
Torpedoes, 1891-94; Rear- Admiral, Mediterranean 
Fleet, 1894 96 ; Admiral Superintendent of Naval 



Reserves, 1897 ; President of Boiler Commission 
since 1900 ; Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean 
Station, 1902 ; retired October, 1907, on attaining 
the age of 65. 

Don* Russian Government liner (1890). Length, 
504 ft. ; beam, 57 ft. ; draught, 24 ft. ; gross ton- 
nage, 8,430 ; Hp., 16,400= 19 kts. 

Donald« James (b. Glasgow, 1867). Served ap- 
prenticeship with the Fairfield Shipbuilding and 
Engineering Co., Glasgow. From 1891-96 was 
assistant to Dr. Francis Elgar in the London 
offices of the company. In 1896 he joined the 
Union Ironworks, San Francisco, California, as a 
naval architect and assistant to the general manager 
In 1 901 he severed his connection with this firm 
and joined as naval architect the New York Ship- 
building Co. 

Member of the Institution of Naval Architects 
(England), and of the Institution of Naval .Archi- 
tects (New York). 

DonalllKin Line. Established in Glasgow in 1854 
by Donaldson Brothers, who started business with 
the little wooden bark Joan Taylor, of 229 tons, 
trading between Glasgow and the River Plate. 

Their first iron vessel was the barque Miami, built 
in 1867, and their first steamer the Astarte, 863 tons, 
built 1870. They now have a large fleet, which 
trade regularly between Glasgow and St. John, 
N.B., Quebec, Montreal, Baltimore, Norfolk, and 
Newport News, and make a speciality of live-stock 
and frozen cargoes, their principal steamers being 
fitted with cold storage on Hall's principle. 

Fleet. 

Alcides, Hestia. Marina, 

Almora. Jndrani, Orihia. 

Athenia. \ Kastalia. Parthenia, 

Cassandra, ' Lahonia. Salacia. 

Concordia. Tritonia, 

Gross tonnage, 65,000. 

Don Al?aro de BaMU. Spanish torpedo gun- 
boat (1897). 

Displacement 830 tons. Complement 89. 
Guns. 
2 — 4 in. 
4—3 pdr. 
2 Gatlings. 

Torpedo Tubes. 

1 Submerged bow. 

2 Above water. 

Twin screw. Hp. natural 2,500=17 kts., forced 
3,5003=19*5 kts. Coal normal 120 tons. 

Dona Maria de Molina. Spanish torpedo gun- 
boat (1896). 

Displacement 830 tons. Complement 89. 



Armour. 
" Steel." 
6 in. Conning tower. 



Guns, 


Armour. 


2— 4 in. 


'• Steel." 


4—3 pdr. 


6 in. Conning tower, 


2 Gatlings. 





DONEGAL 



182 



DOUBLE 



Torpedo Tubes, 
z Submerged bow. 
2 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. natural 2,500=17 kts., forced 
3,500=19*5 kts. Coal normal 120 tons. 

Donegal. British ist class cruiser. (Fairfield, 
1902.) 
Length 440ft. Beam 66ft. Mean draught 24ft. 
Displacement 9,800 tons. Complement 678. 
Guns, A rmour. 

14 — 6 in., 45 cal. " Krupp." 
8 — 12 pdr. 4 in. Belt amidships. 

2 — 12 pdr., 8 cwt. 5 in. Barbettes. 
3 — 3 pdr. 10 in. Conning tower. 

8 Pompoms. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
2 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 22,000=23 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 1,600 tons. Approximate cost ;i7 15,900. 

DonetE. Russian corvette. Black Sea. (Nico- 
laiefif, 1888.) Length, 210 f t. ; beam, 35 ft. ; 
draught, 11 ft. ; displacement, 1.224 ; complement, 
161 ; armament, 2 8-in., i 6-in., 7 q.f., 2 torpedo 
tubes ; Hp., 1,500= 13^ kts ; coal, 250 tons. 

Don Joan de Austria. U.S. gun-vessel. (Cartha- 
gena, 1898.) Length, 210 ft. ; beam, 32 ft. ; 
draught, 13 ft. ; displacement, 1,159 tons ; comple- 
ment, 130 ; armament, 6 4-in., 4 6-pdr., 4 Maxims ; 
Hp., 1,500 = 14 kts. ; coal, 210 tons. 

Donkey-engine is a subsidiary engine driven by 
steam from the main boilers, used on ship board 
for working winches, capstans, and pumps. 

Doil Pedro. French steamer, from Havre to La 
Plata, wrecked off the N.W. coast of Spain, May 27, 
1894 I 87 lives lost. 

Donskoi Kasak. Russian torpedo gun-boat. (St. 
Petersburg, 1905.) Displacement, 625 tons ; speed, 
19 kts. 

Donskoi Kassaok. Russian torpedo-boat de- 
stroyer. (Yarrow, 1906.) Displacement, 508 tons ; 
draught, 8 ft. : complement, 75 ; armament, 
2 i2-pdr., 5 6-pdr., 2 tubes ; Hp., 5,200=26 kts. 

Doon. British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Yar- 
row, 1904.) Length, 222 ft. ; beam, 23 J ft. ; 
draught. 9^ ft. ; displacement, 600 tons ; comple- 
ment, 72 ; armament, i 12-pdr., 5 6-pdr., 2 tubes ; 
twin screw ; Hp., 7,500=25 kts. ; coal, 126 tons. 

Dorade. French submarine. (Toulon, 1903.) 
Length, 77 ft. ; beam, 7^ ft. ; draught, 8 ft. ; dis- 
placement, 68 tons ; complement, 5 ; Hp., 60= 
8 kts. 

Doria, Andrea (1466- 1560). Famous Genoese 
admiral. When 50 years of age he entered into 
the service of Francis I. of France, and was given 
command of the fleet in the Mediterranean, and 



captured Genoa for the French in 1527. After this 
victory Francis I. slighted him. and when con- 
ducting the blockade of Naples for the French he 
was persuaded to change sides, receiving from 
Charles V. a promise of the freedom of his native 
town. His action altered the fortunes of the war, 
and he drove the French from Genoa ; re-established 
the republic on a broad basis, which he continued 
to maintain in unity and independence until his 
death. See Petit *s " Andre Doria, un Amiral Con- 
dottiere, 1887." 

Doris. British 2nd class cruiser. (Barrow, 
1896.) 

Length 364ft. Beam 54ft. Maximum draught 23ft. 
Displacement 5,600 tons. Complement 450. 
Guns. Armour. 

II — 6 in. "Harvey." 

8 — 12 pdr. 2 J in. Deck. 

I — 12 pdr., 8 cwt. 6 in. Conning tower. 
7--3 pdr. 
2 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes (i8 in.). 
2 Submerged. 
I Above water stem. 
Twin screw. Hp. natural 8 ,000 = 18*5 kts. , forced 
9,600=19*5 kts. Coal maximum 1.076 tons. 

Doris. Frigate. On January 12, 1805. this 
vessel was lost on the Diamond Rock, Quiberon 
Bay. 

Dombnsoh's Floating Cargoes. Established 1 8 58. 
Published daily (morning and evening). Price (by 
subscription). Address: n Tokenhouse Yard, 
London. E.C. 

Dorothea. This vessel, commanded by Captain 
David Buchan, sailed, April, 18 18, for the polar 
regions. Driven into the pack upon a heavy 
swell she was severely nipped, and had to return 
to England. Refer to Arctic Exploration. 

Dorset Yacht dub, Royal. See Royal Dorset 
Yacht Club. 

Dortmnnd-Weser-Ems Canal connects the West- 
phalian coalfields with the Weser at Munster, and 
forms the intermediate link between the Midland 
Canal and the Rhine-Weser-Elbe CanaL It was 
commenced in 1892, and cost about four million 
sterling. It is 174 miles long, and has an average 
depth of about 8^ ft., and can be navigated by 
vessels up to 750 tons. 

Dostoiny. Russian torpedo-boat destroyer ( 1 906) . 
Length, 185 ft. ; beam, 21 ft. ; draught, yi ft. ; 
displacement, 324 tons ; complement, 60 ; arma- 
ment, I 12-pdr., 5 3 -pdr., 2 Maxims, 2 tubes ; 
twin screw ; Hp., 5,600 = 26 kts. ; coal, 100 tons. 

Double. To strengthen a ship with extra plank- 
ing when through age or otherwise she has become 
loosened. 



DOUBLE 



183 



DO WELL 



DoftUe insaxanoe sometimes happens when the 
same interest is insured with two different under- 
writers without any fraudulent intention. In such 
cases the rule is that the assured claims his loss in 
full from one set of underwriters, and they in turn 
claim a return of one-half from the other under- 
writers. The same principle holds if the amounts 
are any other proportion than half. 

Donglai, Sir Andrew Snape (1761-97). British 
naval officer. In 1794 was flag-captain of the 
Queen Charlotte, Lord Howe's flag-ship at the 
battle of " The Glorious First of June/' when he 
was dangerously wounded. In the following year 
he took part in Bridport's action off L'Orient. 

Dooslaf* Admiral Sir Arehibald Lneiiis, K.03. 

(b. 1843). Entered Navy 1856; served as mid- 
shipman and lieutenant of the Arragon ; present at 
all the engagements of the Naval Brigade up the 
rivers Congo and Gambia during her commission 
on the coast of Africa ; gunnery lieutenant of 
Aurora, and commanded a gun-boat on the lakes of 
Canada during the Fenian invasion, 1866 ; com- 
mander, 1872 ; instructor in the use of Harvey's 
torpedo of the Channel and Reserve fleets, 1872 ; 
selected by the Admiralty to proceed to Japan as 
Commander of the Naval Mission to instruct the 
Japanese Navy ; served as Director of the Imperial 
Japanese Naval College at Yedo for two years ; 
received the thanks of the Emperor of Japan, and 
approval of his services from the Admiralty ; 
captain, 1880 ; captain of Serapts during the naval 
and military operations in the Soudan, 1884 
(Egyptian medal, Khedive's Bronze Star) ; member 
of Ordnance Committee, 1887-90 ; A.D.C. to the 
Queen, 1893-95 ; rear-admiral, 1895 » vice-president 
of Ordnance Committee, 1896 ; Commander-in- 
Chief East Indian Station, 1898 ; Lord Commis- 
sioner of the Admiralty, 1899 ; vice-admiral, 1901 ; 
Commander-in-Chief North America and West 
Indies, 1902 ; K.C.B., 1902 ; Commander-in-Chief 
at Portsmouth, 1904 ; admiral, 1905. 

Donglai* Sir Charlas. British rear-admiral. Took 
a distinguished part in the relief of Quebec, 1776 ; 
commanded the Stirling Castle in the action off 
Ushant, 1778, and was Captain of the Fleet to 
Rodney in the battle of LesSaintes. He is credited 
with having first introduced flint gun locks into 
the Navy. 

I>0llgiafl» Sholio. British admiral (b. 1833). 
Served during Cafree and Burmese war (Cafree 
and Burmese medals) ; present in the Baltic 
during Russian war; at the bombardment of 
Sleiburg (Baltic medal) ; served during China war, 
1855-58, at Fatshan (China medal, Fatshan clasp) ; 
commanded the Coromandel at the capture of Bogue 
and Peiho forts (Taku clasp) ; landed with Naval 
Brigade at the capture of Canton, 1857 (Canton 
dasp) ; commander of Espoir, 1860-64, on West 
Coast of Africa during slave trade blockade, whm 



he captured and liberated over 2,000 slaves ; com- 
manded the Indian troop-ship Malabar, frigate 
Aurora, and ironclads Achilles and Resistance ; 
C.B., 1881. 

Doaglasf, Sir Jamei Nicholas (1826-98). English 
engineer (b. London). Became chief engineer to 
Trinity House Corporation, for whom he designed 
and superintended the construction of many light- 
houses, especially the structure which replaced the 
Eddystone Lighthouse, 1878-82. He carried out, 
with Tyndall and Faraday, many experiments on 
Ughthouse illumination and fog-signalling. 

Doaro. British mail steamer. Sunk by collision 
with Spanish steamer Yurrac Bal, April i, 1882 ; 
59 lives lost. 

Dove. See Antarctic Exploration. 

Oofe. British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Hull, 
1 90 1.) Length, 210 f t. ; beam, 20 ft. ; draught, 
$i ft. ; displacement, 300 tons ; complement, 
60 ; armament, i 12-pdr., 5 6-pdr., 2 tubes ; twin 
screw ; Hp., 5,800^30 kts. ; coal, 80 toas. 

DoTer and Ostend Belgian Government Mail 
Packet. See Belgian State Railway and Mail 
Packet Service. 

Dover Straiti, Battle ot. On September 28. 1652, 
the Dutch admiral van Tromp defeated the British 
admiral Blake. The Dutch, with a fleet of 80 
ships, engaged the British fleet with 40 ships, several 
of which were captured and six destroyed. The 
Dutch admiral sailed in triumph through the 
Channel, with a broom at his mast-head, to denote 
that he had swept the British from the seas. 

DoweD, Sir WiDiam Mcmtaga (b. 1825). Entered 
Royal Navy 1839. Served as midshipman of Druid 
and Blenheim ; served in China, and took part in all 
the operations from the attack on the barrier at 
Macao in 1840, to the capture of Ning Po, 1841 
(China medal and clasp) ; landed with the Naval 
Brigade at Monte Video, 1846-47 ; gunnery lieu- 
tenant of Albion in Black Sea; present at the 
siege of Sebastopol (Crimean and Turkish medals, 
Sebastopol clasp. Knight of the Legion of Honour, 
Medjidie, 5 th Class) ; served with Naval Brigade 
at the capture of Canton, 1857 (China medal. 
Canton clasp) ; C.B., 1864, for services in Japan ; 
in command of the West Coast of Africa and Cape of 
Good Hope Stations, 1867-71 ; second in command 
Channel Squadron, 1877-78 ; senior officer on the 
Coast of Ireland, 1878-80; senior officer in com- 
mand of the Channel Squadron, 1882-83 ; attached 
to Mediterranean fleet and engaged in Egyptian 
war, 1882 ; K.C.B. for services rendered (£g3rptian 
medal, Khedive's Bronze Star, Osmanieh, 2nd 
Class) ; commander-in-chief China, 1884-85 ; com- 
mander-in-chief Devonport, 1888-90 ; retired 1890, 
and received admiral's good service pension 1891, 



DOWN 



184 



DOXFORD 



Down, A ridge or bank of sand cast up by the 
action of the sea or wind near the shore. 

Downs, Battle of the. On February 20th. 1653, 
the British under Blake defeated van Tromp and the 
Dutch fleet off Portsmouth, taking and destroying 
II men of war and 30 merchantmen. On June 2 
the Dutch and English fleets were again engaged 
off the North Foreland, and victory was once more 
for the British. Six Dutch ships were captured, 
1 1 sunk, and the rest ran into Calais Roads. 

Downs* The. A roadstead eight miles long and 
six miles wide, on the coast of Kent. Extends from 
N. to S. Foreland, and is protected on the E. by the 
Goodwin Sands. Ships can find safe anchorage 
there except during Southerly gales. 

Dowse. (Douse.) To strike or allow the sails to 
fall suddenly on account of squall. 

Doxlord, WiUiam* and Sons* Ltd., Sunderland. 
This great establishment on the Wear, which has 
attained world-wide reputation, is the result of 
sustained effort, continuous striving, . and steady 
growth from grandfather to grandson. It was in 
1840 that the firm was established by the late 
William Doxford, who started a little wooden 
ship-building yard at Cox Green, and it was here 
that the " worthy master " built many a " strong 
and goodly vessel, that did laugh at all disaster, 
and with wave and whirlwind wrestle," with 
" timbers fashioned strong and true, stemson and 
keelson and stemson knee, framed in perfect 
symmetry." 

The Arm to-day are famous for their great ocean 
carriers, and it must not be forgotten that more 
than a generation ago they were equally famous 
for their fine sailing ships, which rank amongst the 
stateliest vessels then turned out on the Tyne 
or Wear. 

By the middle of the century it was clear that 
the day of the wooden ship was doomed ; and so 
moving with the times, Mr. Doxford left Cox Green 
and started a ship-building yard at Pallion, in 1857, 
somewhat to the west of the present site, which 
they purchased in 1869. Here five slips were laid 
down, and steamers of the ordinary iron cargo type 
were built in considerable numbers. 

In 1878 an engine-building department was 
added to the yard. Here for many years steamers 
were built and engined, and the reputation of the 
firm grew. At this time the capacity of the yard 
was about 28.000 tons of shipping per annum, with 
five building slips ; shortly afterwards, these five 
slips were converted into three of larger size, capable 
of turning out vessels up to 12,000 tons dead weight 
on each berth. From the time of this change the 
tonnage output of the firm steadily rose, until in 
1 902 it had reached 43 ,000 tons. During this period 
extra machinery, railway accommodation, and a 
fitting out quay, including a 150-ton radial crane, 
were added to the establishment. Property sur- 



rounding it was gradually acquired, until finally, in 
1 90 1, a start was made with the extension of the 
premises, and three extra slips were designed. 
These slips were started in 1902, and completed in 
1904, enabling the firm to lay down the first keel in 
their new yard in June of that year, before the close 
of which three large vessels had been launched, 
thereby bringing the output of the firm up to 53,000 
tons, all in turret steamers. In 1905 — the first year 
in which the full capacity of the increased establish- 
ment was tested — the total output of tonnage was 
87,000 tons, and in 1906 this was increased to 
106,000 tons, a total which placed the firm in the 
immediate front rank of British builders. 

In September, 1901, the engine works were 
destroyed by fire, and were rebuilt on an enlarged 
scale. In the process of rebuilding the firm took 
the opportunity not only to lay down new machinery 
of the most powerful type with all the latest 
improvements, but brought this department right 
up to date, with a capacity for turning out 30 sets 
of marine engines per annum, with an I.Hp. of 
45,000. 

The engine and boiler shops consist of two bays 
of 49 ft. span, and two ba3rs of 32 ft. span, all 350 ft. 
long. Each bay has four overhead travelling, 
electrically-driven cranes. Weights up to 80 tons 
pan be lifted and transported in the wider bays. 
These shops are fitted throughout with the most 
up-to-date tools and machinery, electrically driven. 

For over a decade the name of Doxford has been 
inseparably identified with the turret deck steamer. 
The early prejudices against it have gone. Ship- 
owners who at first dedined to experiment with it 
now recognise its merits. They have proved to be 
economic and commercially efficient craft, and they 
are found in every trade, which is attested by the 
simple fact that there are now afloat and building 
175 turret vessels with an aggregate gross tonnage 
of 670,000, and a dead-weight capacity of 1,080,000 
tons, to the credit of the Pallion yard. 

In their long ship-building experience this firm 
have turned out many notable ships. They 
started with number one vessel in 1863 ; their last 
wooden vessel was constructed in 1864 ; their last 
composite ship in 1869 ; and their first steel ship in 
1882. In 1874 they built three gun-boats and one 
corvette — Opal — for the British Navy, and have 
recently constructed six torpedo-boat destroyers, 
among which are the Violet and the Sylvia, capable 
of steaming 30 knots. So far back as 1879 they 
built the biggest dead-weight steamer then afloat, 
the Grecian, of 4.500 tons, for the Allan Line. 
In 1896 they repeated the same performance on a 
much larger scale, the vessel being the Algoa, a 
vessel of ii»3oo tons dead-weight, which was the 
largest tramp steamer built that year. In 1905 
they again performed an achievement in shipbuild- 
ing by turning out the three largest single-deck 
ships afloat, viz,, the B.I. steamers Qmloa, Qtisrimba 
and Queda, each of 12,000 tons dead-weight, these 



D.R. 



185 



DRAKE 



being the largest turret steamers which have yet 
been built. For the Clan Line the firm has con- 
structed no fewer than 30 turret steamers, chiefly 
from 6,000 to 8,000 capacity. 

Among the more recent important developments 
by Messrs. Doxford, is the twin-masted collier, the 
E. O, Saltmarsh, built for the Louisville and Nash- 
ville Railroad Co., for their coal trade from Pensa- 
cola to Tampico. She is fitted up with Doxford 's 
system of derrick gear, and can discharge 2,000 tons 
of coal per day out of her five hatches, and deliver 
same direct into the railway trucks, which are 
standing 6 ft. from the quay wall. When it is 
remembered that Doxford 's are now able to build 
and engine two ships for every calendar month of 
the year, some idea of the extent of the establish- 
ment and the perfection of its organisation will be 
understood. 

DJt. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing 
boats registered at Dover, England. 

Draak. Nether land coast defence monitor (2,000 
tons) . Very old, and of no fighting value. 

Drabltt. Canvas laced on the bonnet of a sail to 
give it more drop. 

Drag. Applied to an anchor when not holding. 

Dragon* British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Bir- 
kenhead, 1894.) Length, 210 ft. ; beam, 19 f t. ; 
draught. 7 ft. ; displacement, 290 tons ; comple- 
ment, 50 ; armament, i 12-pdr., 5 6-pdr., 2 tubes ; 
twin screw; Hp., 4,500 = 27 kts ; coal, 60 tons. 
This ship-name is associated with the battle off the 
North Foreland, 1653 ; battle off Lowestoft, 1665 '» 
capture of Belleisle, 1671 ; reduction of Havana, 
1762 ; Calder's action off Ferrol, 1805. 

Dragon. French sea-going torpedo-boat. (Nor- 
mand, 1892.) Length, 138 ft. ; beam, 14^ ft. ; 
draught, 8 ft. ; displacement, 129 tons ; comple- 
ment, 26 ; armament, 2 3-pdr., 2 tubes ; twin 
screw; Hp., 1,400=25 kts. ; coal, 20 tons. 

Dragon Fly. British coastal torpedo-boat de- 
stroyer. (White, 1906.) 

Dragonne. French torpedo gun-boat. (Havre, 
1885.) Length, 196 ft. ; beam, 21 ft. ; draught, 
6 ft.; displacement, 413 tons; complement, 63; 
guns, 4 8*1 in., 3 Maxims, 2 tubes ; Hp., 
2,000=18 kts. ; coal maximum, 100 tons. 

Drake. British ist class cruiser. (Pembroke, 
1902.) 

Length 529ft. Beam 71ft. Maximum draught 28ft. 
Displacement 14,100 tons. Complement 900. 
Guns. Armour, 

2 — 9*2 in., 45 cal. " Krupp." 
16 — 6 in. 6 in. Belt amidships. 

14 — 12 pdr. 6 in. Barbettes. 

3 — 3 pdr. 12 in. Conning tower. 

2 Maxims. 



Torpedo Tubes (18 in."). 
2 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp., 30,000 = 23 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 2,500 tons. Approximate cost ;£!, 000,000. 

Drake. 10 guns. On June 20, 1822, this vessel 
was lost near Halifax, when several were drowned. 

Drake, Sir Francis (t 545-95)- Celebrated English 
admiral (b. Tavistock). He joined the ill-fated 
expedition of Sir John Hawkyns, destroyed by the 
Spaniards 1 567, where he acquired a great reputa- 
tion. After two voyages to the West Indies he 
sailed from Plymouth, 1572, for Nombre de Dios, 
which he successfully attacked. He crossed the 
Isthmus of Panama, and committed great havoc 
among the Spanish shipping. Having embarked 
his men and filled his ship with plunder, he set sail 
for England, arriving at Plymouth, 1573. In 
December, 1577, he sailed with another squadron, 
intending to undertake a voyage through the South 
Seas to the Straits of Magellan, which no English- 
man had hitherto attempted. He reached the 
coast of Brazil on April 5, and entered the Rio de 
la Plata, where he parted company with two of his 
ships. On August 20 he entered the Straits of 
Magellan, and on September 25 passed them, having 
then only his own ship. He then worked his way 
up the West Coast of South America, making several 
prizes by the way. Off Cape Francisco he cap- 
tured the Cacafuego, with more than 1 50,000 pounds 
of treasure. He then struck across the Pacific, and 
returned home by the East Indies, Cape of Good 
Hope, and Sierra Leone, and reached England, 
September, 1580 — the first Englishman to circum- 
navigate the globe. The voyage occupied two 
years and ten months. In 1585 he set sail with a 
fleet of 25 ships to make reprisals on the Spaniards 
in the West Indies, and took the cities of St. Jago, 
St. Domingo, Carthagena, and St. Augustine. In 
1587 he went to Lisbon with a fleet of 30 sail, and 
having received intelligence of a great fleet being 
assembled in the Bay of Cadiz, destined to form part 
of the Armada^ he entered the bay, and burnt up- 
wards of 10,000 tons of shipping. When the 
Armada appeared the following year, he was 
appointed vice-admiral under Lord Howard, and 
enhanced his reputation in the running fight up 
channel, where he made prize of a very large 
galleon commanded by Dom Pedro de Valvcz, who 
was reputed the projector of the invasion. In 1595 
he sailed on his last expedition to the West Indies. 
After a series of misfortune he died of dysentery at 
Porto Bello. A monument was erected to his 
memory at Tavistock, and there is a duplicate of it 
on Plymouth Hoe. 

See Barrow's " Life of Drake " (1843). Sir J. K. 
Laughton, ** The Diet, of Nat. Biog.," Corbett's 
•* Drake and Tudor Navy " (1899), " The World en- 
compassed by Sir Francis Drake '* by Fletcher (1628) , 
" Sir Francis Drake, his Voyage " (i 595) by Thomas 
Maynarde, published by the Hakluyt Society in 1849, 



DRAUGHT 



1 86 



DRISTIG 



Draoffhi. The depth of water a ship displaces 
when floating. 

Draw. When sails are well filled by the wind. 

Drawback. An allowance granted by Govern- 
ment to encourage exportation of an article, or a 
return of duties paid upon certain articles on 
esi^ortation. 

Dreadnought. British ist class battleship. (Ports- 
mouth, 1906.) 

Length 500ft. Beam Soft. Draught 26ft. 
Displacement 18,000 tons. 
Guns. sirmour, 

10 — 12 in. " Krupp." 

18 — 3'5 in. 12 in. Belt amidships. 

12 in. Barbettes. 
Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
4 Submerged broadside. 
I Submerged stern. 
Turbine. Four screws. Hp. 23,000=21 kts. 

Approximate cost ;f 1,750,000. 
The first vessel of this name in the Navy was 
launched in 1573, and is described as measuring 
400 tons and carrying 200 men. She took part in 
the overthrow of the Invincible Armada, and 
participated in the attack upon Cadiz under Sir 
Walter Raleigh. She was reconstructed in the 
latter part of the reign of Charles II., and was lost 
with the greater part of her ship's company off the 
North Foreland. Another vessel of the same name 
took part in the battle of Barfleur, and in the year 
1742 a Dreadnought of 60 guns, measuring 938 tons, 
was built at Portsmouth, and one commanded by 
Captain the Hon. Edward Boscawen captured the 
French frigate Medie of 26 guns and 240 men. 
In 1 80 1 she was ordered to be broken up, and a 
new three-decker of 98 guns, building at Ports- 
mouth, was given her name by Lord St. Vincent. 
This is the vessel which took part in the battle of 
Trafalgar, and in 1831 she was moored ofi Dept- 
ford and used by the Seaman's Hospital Society 
for several years, eventually being broken up 
some time in the seventies. The immediate pre- 
decessor of the present Dreadnought was an iron- 
clad turret-ship designed as the Fury, but launched 
under her new name in 1875. She carried 4 1 2*5 in. 
38 ton muzzle-loaders, and had engines of 8,000 
Hp., which gave her a speed of about 13 kts. 
She is still in existence in the Kyles of Bute, to 
which place she was removed in 1905. 

The new Dreadnought has turbine engines and 
four screws, and can average a speed of 18 kts. 
on ocean voyages. Most warships have only twin 
screws, and the advantage even of two screws is 
well illustrated by the recent passage of the Terrible 
from Hong Kong to Malta at an average speed of 
12^ kts. with one of her screws disabled. This 
advantage is doubled in the case of the Dread- 
nought I indeed, it is much more than doubled. 
There is only one engine to each screw in a war- 



ship with reciprocating engines. In the Dread- 
nought there are ten turbines in all, six for going 
ahead and four for going astern. Their arrange- 
ment is as follows. At the forward end of the 
inner shaft on the starboard side there is a turbine 
for going ahead at cruising speed. This turbine 
may for purposes of reference be called A. Abaft 
of this there is a low-pressure turbine, C> for going 
ahead. Abaft of this, and in the same casing, 
there is a low-pressure turbine, Y, for going astern. 
At the forward end of the outer shaft there is a 
high-pressure turbine. B, for going ahead, and abaft 
of this there is a high-pressure turbine, X, for 
going astern. At cruising speeds the steam passes 
successively through A to B and thence to C before 
passing through the condenser. At high speed 
A is cut out, and the steam passes direct to B, and 
thence to C. For going astern the steam passes 
first to X and then to Y. It will be seen that in 
all cases both screws are actuated. The arrange- 
ment on the port side is symmetrical with that 
just described. It would seem to follow that, 
unless all three of the turbines in the series for 
going ahead and both of the turbines in the series 
for going astern are disabled at once, at least one 
of the starboard screws can be driven ahead or 
astern ; and the same reasoning applies, of course, 
to the port screws. It is scarcely necessary to 
point out how much greater a security against 
total breakdown is obtained by this system than 
by the system of twin screws actuated by re- 
ciprocating engines. 

Dredging. See Clubbing. 

Dresdener MaschinenhaofabrSk Schifbwerft Actien 
Gesellsohaft Uebingaa. This yard is famous for its 
river steamers, of which it has built no fewer than 52, 
with 50,600 I.Hp., for the Rhine, amongst which 
may be mentioned the Rheingold and the Kaiserin 
Augusta Victoria. The average output is about 
7,642 net register tons per annum. 

Dress. To ornament a ship with flags. 

Drift. Floating without guidance. 

Drif^net. A long net, the top floated by corks 
and the lower edge sunk by lead sinkers, by which 
mackerel, herring, and pilchard are caught. A 
number of nets, to the extent of a mile or more, 
are used by each boat, and are left suspended 
vertically in the water for some hours after sun- 
set, when they are usually " shot " or set in the 
water in the neighbourhood where fish are thought 
to be schooling, the boat riding to a warp at the 
leeward end of the line until the nets are hauled 
again. 

Dristtg. Norwegian torpedo-boat. (Christiania, 
Z901.) Length, 11 1 ft.; beam, 14^ ft.; draught, 
6j- ft. ; displacement, 65 tons ; armament, 2 1*4 in., 
2 tubes ; Hp., 6503= 19 kts. 



DRISTIGHETEN 



187 



DUBLIN 



Driftigbeteiu Swedish battleship. (Lindholmen, 
1900.) 

Length 285ft. Beam 48ft. Maximum draught i6ft. 
Displaoement 3,500 tons. Complement 250. 
Guns. Armour. 

2—8-2 in. " Knipp." 

6 — 6 in. 8 in. Belt amidships. 

10 — 6 pdf. 8 in. Turrets. 

2 — I pdr. 8 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes, 
2 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 5,5703=16*8 kts. Coal maxi- 
mam 400 tons. 



A large square sail set with a great 
yard on end of the spanker boom across taffrail 
when the wind is aft. 

Driving. Dragging the anchor in a gale. 

Drizde. Rain in very small drops. 

Droghers« Small craft plying round the bays ot 
the West Indian Islands. 

Drogne or Sea anchor. An arrangement for pre> 
venting drift and keeping a vessel's head to sea in 
bad weather. A drogue can be made by some 
canvas and a few spars, but most fishermen now 
carry a ready-made canvas bag spread at its 
mouth by a bamboo or iron ring, and fastened to 
a bridle. This can at any time be bent on to a 
warp and used eithei for heaving-to in bad weather 
or for checking the boat's way when runnirg into 
a crowded harbour. 

Droltm Adminlty. S^e Admiralty Droits. 

Drop astenL To slacken ship's way to allow 
another to pass beyond hei . 

Drop of a f afl. The distance the foot is from the 
yard. 

Drought. A long continuance of dry weather. 
Absolute drought, a period of more than 14 con- 
secutive days absolutely without rain. Partial 
drought, a period of more than 28 consecutive days, 
the aggregate rainfall of which does not exceed 
0*01 in. per diem (Symons). 

Drowned. To be deprived of life by submersion 
in water or other liquid. 

Drowning. Asphyxia caused by immersion of 
the whole body, or even of the face only, in any 
fluid. 

Drowning, Beeeoe of the. In addition to a 
knowledge of swimming the most essential re- 
quisites in order to efiect the successful rescue of 
a drowning person are courage and presence of 
mind. Always approach a drowning person from 
behind, assuring him in a loud voice that he is 
safe. Before jumping in throw ofi, if possible, all 
clothes. Do not approach a person in the water 
while he is struggling, as you so by run great risk 



of being clutched and dragged under, but keep 
off for a few seconds, till he gets quiet, then seize 
him firmly by the hair, turn him quietly on his 
back, giving him a sudden pull which will cause 
him to float, then throw yourself on your back, 
and with both hands graspmg his hau: you can 
float or swim for the shore. It is of the first im- 
portance, however, that both yourself and the 
person you are saving should be on your backs. 
When attempting a rescue by diving seize the hair 
of the head with one hand only, using the other in 
conjunction with the feet for regaining the surface. 
The exact position where a body lies under water 
may often be found by noticing the air bubbles 
which will occasionally rise. Do not lose your 
presence of mind should you at any time be grasped 
by a drowning person, but, havmg taken a full 
breath, allow yourself to sink with him, and in 
almost every case he will release his hold. Refer 
to Apparently Dead, Method of Restoring the. 

Dmdge. British gun-boat (890 tons). 

Dnunmond Castle. Union Line steamer, with 
mails and passengers from Africa, struck on the 
rocks between Ushant and the mainland, June, 
1896, and became a total loss ; 250 lives lost. 



Dmry, Vioe-Admind Sir Oharlet Garter, K.C.S.I., 

cr. 1903 (b. 1846). Educated Collegiate School, 
Frederickton, N.B. ; entered R.N., 1859 ; sub- 
lieutenant, 1865 ; lieutenant, 1868 ; commander, 
r878 ; captain, 1885 ; member of Ordnance Com- 
mittee, r893 » received the thanks of the Foreign 
Office for services in Crete, 1896 ; rear-admiral, 
1899 ; Commander-in-Chief, East Indies, 1902 ; 
K.C.S.I., 1903 ; Second Sea Lord of Admiralty, 
1904 ; vice-admiral, 1904. 

Dryad. British torpedo gun-boat (1894). 
Length 250ft. Beam 30ft. Maximum draught 13ft. 
Displacement 1,070 tons. Complement 120. 

Guns. 

2 — 4*7 in. 

4—3 pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 

5 Above water. 

Twin screw. Hp. natural 2,500=17 kts., forced 

3,500=18*5 kts. Coal maximum 160 tons. 

D/S. Days after sight. 

DJSL Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Dumfries, Scotland. 

D.8.0. See Distinguished Service Order. 

Dab. A term applied to a pool of deep and 
smooth water in a rapid river. 

DaUin Baj flailing COnb. Established 1884. 
Commodore, Captain Viscount Crichton ; Vice- 
Commodore, J. B. Boyd ; Honorary Treasurer, 
W. M. A. Wright ; Honorary Secretary, J. H. 
Hargrave, 4 Haddington Terrace, Kingston, Co. 
Dublin. Annual subscription, los. 6d. 



DUBLIN 



188 



DUKE 



Dablin (Onstoms) Bill of Entry. Established 
1858. Published daily (morning). Price 50s. per 
annum. Address : Dublin. 

Dabagae. U.S. gun-boat. (Morris Heights. 
1904,) Length, 174 ft.; beam, 35 ft.; draught, 
13 ft.; displacement, 1,085 tons; complement, 
162 ; armament, 6 4-in., 4 6-pdr.. 2 i-pdr. ; Hp., 
1,200=12 kts. ; coal, 200 tons. 

Dno D'Agoitaine, 64 guns. On January i. 
1 76 1, this vessel was lost off Pondicherry, when 
all perished. 

Da Chayla. French 2nd class cruiser. (Cher- 
bourg, 1895.) 

Length 326ft. Beam 45ft. Maximum draught 23ft. 
Displacement 4,000 tons. Complement 393. 
Guns. Artnour, 

6 — 6'4 in. 3 in. Deck. 

4 — 4 in. 2 in. Sponsons. 

4—3 pdr. 
II — I pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
2 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. 9,500=19 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 624 tons. Approximate cost ;£3oo,ooo. 

Daek. The finest quality canvas, used for small 
sails. 



Dnckham, Fredrio Eliot (b. Falmouth, June 15, 
1 841). Served his apprenticeship with Messrs. 
Peto Brassey and Betts at the Victoria Docks. In 
1868 he was appointed engineer of the Miliwall 
Docks, in which position he remained till 1898, 
when he was appointed general manager. In 190^ 
on his retirement, he was made a director of the 
docks. He has during his life acted as a consulting 
engineer, and among his inventions are the " Hydro- 
static Weighing Machine " and the " Pneumatic 
Elevator," now extensively used in discharging 
grain cargoes. Member of Institution of Civil 
gineers. 

Publications : Contributed papers to the Institu- 
tion of Civil Engineers, for one of which he was 
awarded the Telford gold medal and two premiums. 

Daekworth, Sir John Thomas (i 748-1 817). Eng- 
lish admiral (b. Leatherhead). Entered the Navy 
in 1759, and in 1770 was appointed lieutenant of 
the Princess Royal, flagship of Admiral Byron, in 
which he sailed to the West Indies. After having 
been present in the action off Grenada, 1779, he 
commanded the Orion under Lord Howe, and took 
part in the three days' naval engagement with the 
Brest fleet, which terminated in a glorious. victory 
on June i, 1794. For his conduct on this occasion 
he received a gold medal and the thanks of Parlia- 
ment. In 1804 he won a victory ofi San Domingo, 
and in the following year, when in command with 
the Royal George, passed through the Dardanelles, 



but sustained considerable loss in e&cting his 
return, the Turks having strengthened their posi- 
tion. In 18 10 he was appointed to the chief com- 
mand at Plymouth, which he held until his death, 
April 14, 1817. 

Dngay Tconin. French auxiliary cruiser. (Lake 
Tonkin.) Length, 446 ft. ; beam, 50 ft. ; depth, 
36 ft. ; displacement, 6,300 tons ; armament, 
7 5*5 -in., and small q.f. ; Hp. (nominal), 832 = 17 kts. 

Dngdala* W. H^ MJnstCIL, MX1I.A. (b. Mon- 
mouthshire, J uly , 1859). Served an apprenticeship 
of seven years as pupil with Messrs^ R. and J. 
Evans, of Liverpool, and eventually became chief 
draughtsman and finally manager of this firm. 
From Liverpool he went to Belfast, and joined 
Messrs. Workman, Clark and Co., where he had 
charge of their scientific department for 12 months. 
He then joined Messrs. Harland and Wolff as 
works manager, and had charge of the building 
and completion of the two White Star Line steamers, 
Teutonic and Majestic, In 1892 he was invited to 
become shipyard manager to Palmer's Shipbuilding 
and Iron Co., Ltd., and after a period of seven years 
with this firm he left to take up the position of 
managing director of Messrs. S. P. Austin and Son, 
Ltd., of Sunderland, which position he still holds. 
He is a member of the Institution of Civil Engineers, 
Institution of Naval Architects, president of the 
North East Coast Institution of Engineers and 
Shipbuilders, member of the River Wear Commis- 
sion and of the Technical Sub-Committee to 
Lloyd's Registry of British and Foreign Shipping. 

Dugoay-Trooin, Beni (1673-1736). A famous 
French admiral (b. St. Malo, June 10, 1673). ^^ 
169 1, securing a privateering frigate, he did much 
damage to English shipping, and took many 
valuable prizes. In 1697 ^® entered the French 
Navy, and speedily made his name as a commander 
in the war of the Spanish Succession, making a 
brilliant capture of Dutch vessels. His most 
glorious action was the capture in 171 1 of Rio de 
Janeiro. In 171 5 he was made chief of a squadron, 
and in 1728 Commander of the Order of St. Louis 
and Lieutenant General. He died September 27, 
1736. 

Doilio. Old Italian battleship. Of no fighting 
value. 

Doke Line (Dublin and Glasgow Steam Packet 
Co.), with their head offices in. Dublin, maintain a 
service of steamers every Monday, Wednesday, 
and Friday, and every alternate Tuesday, Thurs- 
day, and Saturday, from Dublin for Glasgow or 
Greenock. 

Fleet. 
Duhe of Fife, Dulu of Montrose, 

Duke of Gordon, Duke of Rothesay, 



DUKE 



189 



DUNDONALD 



Duke of EdmlMicsh. British ist class cruiser. 
(Pembroke, 1904.) 

Length 480ft. Beam /3ft. Maximum draught zyit. 
Displacement 13,500 tons. 
Guns, Armour. 

6—- 9'2 in,, 50 cal. " Krupp." 
10— 6 in. 6 in. Belt amidships. 

24—3 pdr. 6 in. Barbettes. 

8 — i^ pdr. Pompoms. 7 in. Conning tower. 
Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
3 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 23,500= 22*33 ^^^s. Coal 
maximum 2 ,000 tons. Approximate cost ^ t , 1 50,000. 

Duke o! Satheiland* Steamer from London, 
wrecked ofi the pier at Aberdeen, April 2, 1853, 
when ttie captain and many of the passengers and 
crew perished. 

Duke of Wellington. 6,071 tons. Launched 
1852. . 

Dambea (1889). French subsidised merchant 
ship. Mcssageries Maritimes (q,v.). Dimensions, 
463 X 46x32 ft. ; gross tonnage, 5,917 ; Hp., 5,000 
= 16 kts. 

Dnnbar. Clipper. Wrecked on the rocks near 
Sydney, August 20, 1857 ; 121 lives lost. 

Ihmeui. British ist class battleship. (Thames 
Ironworks, 1901.) 

Length 429ft. Beam 75ft. Maximum draught 27ft. 
Displacement 14,000 tons. Complement 750. 
Guns, Armour, 

4 — 12 in. " Krupp." 

12 — 6 in. 7 in. Belt amidships. 

12 — 12 pdr. II in. Barbettes. 

6 — 3 pdr. 12 in. Conning tower. 

2 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
4 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 18,000=19 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 2,000 tons. Approximate cost ;Ji, 000,000. 

Dimoiil, Adam, Viscount of Camperdown (1731- 
1804). An illustrious naval commander (b. Lundie, 
Forfarshire). Entered Navy 1746, and in 1749 
became a midshipman in the Centurion, He served 
in the attack on Goeree, 1758 ; in the attack on 
Havana, 1762 ; at the defeat of the Spanish fleet 
by Rodney oflf Cape St. Vincent, 1780; and took 
part in Lord Howe's relief of Gibraltar as captain 
of the Blenheim, 1782. In 1795 he hoisted his flag 
as Commander-in-Chief of the North Sea Fleet. In 
recognition of his great victory over the Dutch 
fleet under De Winter on October 11, 1797, he was 
created Lord Viscount Duncan of Camperdown 
and Baron of Lundie, with an annual pension of 
£3,000 2l. year. He died August 4, 1804. 

Daaean, Bobert» ILP. (b. Govan, 1850). Educa- 
ted Glasgow High School and Academy. Served 



his apprenticeship to engineering with Messrs. 
Alexander Chaplin and Co. After completing his 
time went to Glasgow University, taking his civil 
engineer's certificate after a two years' course, and 
several Walker prizes. He then worked with the 
firm of Messrs. Dubs and Co., and subsequently 
W. and A. M'Onie as draughtsman. In 1876 he 
embarked in business on his own account in partner- 
ship with Mr. William Ross, taking over the business 
of Messrs. Addison, Hamilton and Barrie. He is 
senior partner of Ross and Duncan, Whitefield 
Works, Govan, and was elected a member of Par- 
liament for the Govan Division of I^narkshire in 
1906. He is, perhaps, best known as the pro- 
prietor and editor of the Imperial Unity Magazine 
" Britannia," which was founded in 1896, and cir- 
culates through the Empire. He is a member of 
the Institution of Civil Engineers, Westminster, and 
of Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in 
Scotland, a Life Fellow of the Royal Colonial 
Institute, and member of Council of the British 
Empire League. 

Dnndonald, Thomas Coobrane, Tenth Earl of 

(1775-1860). British admiral (b. Lanarkshire). 
At the age of 17 he joined the Navy as midshipman 
on board the Hind, and was afterwards transferred 
to the frigate Thetis, In 1798 he was sent to the 
Mediterranean to serve in the fleet under the com- 
mand of Lord Keith. When in command of the 
sloop Speedy he performed a series of exploits in 
capturing vessels immensely superior to his own, 
among others the Spanish ship El Gamo, The 
cruise of the Speedy, which had occupied some 13 
months, during which she took upwards of 50 
vessels with 123 guns, and 534 prisoners, ended in 
her own capture by three French line-of-battle 
ships, after making so gallant a resistance that the 
French captain to whom Cochrane delivered up his 
sword at once returned it. In the Basque Roads, 
1809, with a division of fire vessels, he pushed 
within the enemies' lines, effecting immense destruc- 
tion. In 1 8 14 he was dismissed the Service and 
sentenced to a year's imprisonment, and fined £1 ,000 
for being implicated in a Stock Exchange swindle. 
His ruin and disgrace were completed by his being 
expelled from the House of Commons and deprived, 
with the usual humiliating ceremony, of the 
Knighthood of the Bath, which had been bestowed 
on him after his heroic service at Basque Roads. 
At the close of his imprisonment, finding that there 
was little hope of his being again actively engaged 
in the service of his native country, he accepted 
a command in the Chilian Navy, 1818, and greatly 
distinguished himself by the capture of the Spanish 
frigate Esmeralda. He afterwards joined the Navy 
of Brasil, and secured the independence of that 
country, 1823-25. He became an admiral in the 
Greek Navy in 1827, and fought against the Turks. 
In 1832 he was reinstated in his own place in the 
British Navy, and became full admiral 185 1. He 



DUNLOP 



190 



DUNN 



wrote the " Autobiography of a Seaman " (i86x) ; 
" Narrative of Services in the Liberation of Chili, 
Peru, and Brazil." See " Life " by Fortescue 

(1891). 

Dunlop, David James (b. Mexico, December 7, 
1838). Educated Glasgow Academy, Glasgow 
High School, and Liverpool. Served his appren- 
ticeship at general engineering with Messrs. Neilson 
and Co., Glasgow. In i860 he went to Java as 
assistant to a firm there, and in 1862 he joined 
Messrs. Randolph, Elder and Co. ; was responsible 
for the design of a floating dock for the French 
Government at Saigon, and had charge of the 
erection and completion of this work, which was 
accomplished with Chinese labour. On returning 
to England he joined Messrs. John Elder and Co., 
at the Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering 
Works, Govan. In 1870 he began business on his 
own account at Port Glasgow, under the name of 
Messrs. Cunhffe and Dunlop. When Mr. Cunhffe 
retired in 1881, the name of the firm was changed 
to that of David J. Dunlop and Co., and he became 
the sole partner. He has been closely connected 
with the building of passenger steamers, cable 
steamers, oil steamers, and large yachts, and is the 
patentee of " Dunlop 's Marine Engineering 
Governor." 

DnnlQp, John 6. Served his apprenticeship 
(1864-69) with Messrs. Randolph, Elder and Co., 
Glasgow, and before its completion was placed 
in full charge of machinery building, including 
the earlier sets of compound engines for the 
Navy. He was responsible in 1870 for the 
engines of H.M.S. Tenedos, Hydra, and Cyclops. 
In 1872 he became engineering works manager at 
the Fairfield Works of Messrs. John Elder and Co., 
and here he completed the machinery of many 
notable steamers. His first triple expansion set 
was for the Pacific Mail Steamer Iberia. Amongst 
other notable craft engined was H.M.S. Inflexible, 
Condor, Flamingo, and Nelson, and several im> 
portant merchant ships, including the greyhound 
Arizona, In 1879 he became superintending 
engineer for the Orient Line, and under his regime 
the Orient, Austral, and Ormux were added to the 
fleet In the last named, completed in 1886, he 
introduced quadruple expansion engines in the 
Australian service. He was the first to introduce 
electric incandescent lamps on board ship, and in 
overcoming many of the practical difficulties, he 
materially advanced the electrical era. Another 
direction in which he rendered immense service 
was in the application of the cold storage system on 
board ship. He was the first to fit refrigerators for 
passenger requirement, and for cargoes frozen 
from Australia, and to his eneigy is due the begin- 
ning of one of the trades of lasting advantage to 
ouF Colonies. In 1887 he became engineering 
manager of the Clydebank Works, and a few years 
later managing director. While at Clydebank 



he has been responsible for the construction of many 
warships and merchantmen. Among the former are 
the battleships RamiUies, Jupiter, and Hindustan 
the Japanese Asatri, and the cruisers Terrible, 
SuUej, Bacchante, Leviathan, and Antrim ; while 
among merchant ships first place is occupied by the 
Cunard and other Atlantic liners, and high-speed 
channel steamers. He fitted turbine machinery to 
the 29,800 ton Cunarder of 19 kts. speed, and to the 
one of 38,000 tons of 35 kts. speed for the same 
fleet. 

Danlop Steamship Co., Ltd., with which is in- 
corporated the Queen Line of steamers, and the 
Clan Line of ships, owned and managed by Messrs. 
Thomas Dunlop and Sons, was founded by the 
father of the present partners in the year 185 1. 
The company started shipping with a number of 
wooden ships ; the first iron ship, the Clan Macleod 
being built in 1874. At the present time the 
company have six iron and steel sailing ships and 
nine steamers. The sailing ships are all called 
** Clans," and the steamers *' Queens." The 
vessels are not engaged in any particular trade, 
but carry cargo to and from all parts of the world 
as inducement offers. 

Fleet. 

Clan Buchanan. Queen Alexandra. 

Clan Galbraith. Queen A melia. 

Clan Graham. Queen Cristina. 

Clan Mackenzie. Queen Eleanor. 

Clan Macpherson. Queen Helena. 

Clan Robertson. Queen Louise. 

Queen Adelaide. Queen Mary. 

Queen Olga. 

Dunn, James. British naval architect. After 
serving his apprenticeship in the Chatham Dock- 
yard, he entered the department of Surveyor of 
the Navy at the Admiralty. His work there was in 
connection with the design of the first iron armour- 
plated sea-going ship built for the British Navy, 
the Warrior, and later of the Achilles and other 
ironclads. From 1866-69 he superintended the 
construction of the Audacious, returning to the 
Admiralty to fill the position of chief draughtsman. 
In 1870, before the Royal Corps was formed, he 
was given the distinctive title of Assistant Cou- 
structor and Chief Draughtsman, and after the 
formation of that body, he filled successfully 
various appointments up to senior chief constructor, 
and on occasions acted as Director of Naval Con- 
struction. In these several capacities he was asso> 
ciated with the design of many British warships. 
In 1875 he was deputed to undertake the survey 
of merchant ships with a view to the selection of 
vessels to be placed on the Admiralty list of 
merchant cruisers, and to him is largely due the 
credit for bringing this scheme to a practical success. 
Wlien H.M.S. Deterel was lost in 1881 , and an explo- 
sive committee appointed to investigate the cause, 
he was chosen to represent the Admiralty. In 1884 



DUNNAGE 



191 



DURANCE 



he was appointed to assist the War Office in its pre- 
paration ot the Nile Expedition to relieve the late 
General Gordon. In 1885 he was the Admiralty 
representative on the Load Line Committee, and in 
1898, after his retirement, served on a second 
committee on the same subject. In 1897 ^^ 
became a director of Messrs. Vickers, Sons and 
Maxim, Ltd.. and has been responsible for the de- 
sign of many warships built by them for the British 
and foreign Navies, involving, in some instances, 
important departures. He is a vice-president of 
the Institution of Naval Architects, and a J. P. for 
the Borough of Barrow-in-Furness. 

Publications : '' Memoirs on Modem Merchant 
Ships," " The Arrangement and Equipment of 
Shipbuilding Yaids," "The Watertight Sub- 
Division of Ships," and other papers published in 
the Transactions of the Institutions of Naval 
Architects, Mechanical Engineers, etc. 

Daimage. Loose wood or valueless substance 
used for packing cargo to prevent it shifting. 

Dimois. French avisos (1896). 
Length 256ft. Beam 28ft. Maximum draught 13 ft. 
Displacement 900 tons. Complement 128. 

Guns. 
6 — 9 pdr. 
6—3 pdr. 
Twin screw. Hp. 6,400 = 23 kts. Coal normal 
137 tons. 

Dapemy, Louis Udore (1786-1865). French 
navigator (b. Paris). From 18 17 to 1820 he served 
under Freycinet in his great voyage round the 
world, and explorations in the North Pacific, being 
entrusted with the Hydrographic operations on 
board the Urania. In 1822 he attained the rank 
of lieutenant, and was entrusted with the command 
of the Coquille, which was engaged in scientific 
explorations in the South Pacific and along the 
coast of South America. He surveyed parts of 
Australia and New Guinea, discovered Drummond, 
Henderville. Charlotte, and other Islands, one 
of which received the name of Duperrey. From 
this voyage he brought back not only great additions 
to cartography, and important data in regard to 
the currents of the Pacific, but also numerous 
pendulum observations serving to determine the 
magnetic equator, and to prove the equality of the 
flattening of the two hemispheres. The value of 
his labours was recognised by his admission into 
the Academie des Sciences in 1842. He died 
in August, 1865. The following are his principal 
works : " The Partie Historique." *' The Hydro- 
graph," and " The Physique," and " The Voyage 
autour du Monde sur la Coquille," Paris, 1826-30. 

Dnpleiz. French ist class cruiser. (Rochefort, 
1900.) 
Length 425ft. Beam 58ft. Mean draught 34ft. 
Displacement 7,700 tons. Complement 520. 



Guns, Armour, 

8 — 6*4 in., 45 cal. " Krupp." 
4 — 4. in. 4 in. Belt amidships. 

iQ— 2 pdr. 4 in. Turrets. 

6 in. Conning tower. 
Torpedo Tubes (17*7 in.). 
2 Above water. 
Three screws. Hp. 17,000=521 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 1,200 tons. Approximate cost £7^0,000. 

Dapont U.S. torpedo-boat (1897). Displace- 
ment, 175 ; guns, 4 I -pdr. ; torpedo tubes, 3 i8-in. ; 
maximum speed, 27 kts. 

Dopuy de L6m6. French ist class cruiser. 
(Brest, X890.) Reconstructed 1905. 
length 374it. Beam 51ft. Maximum draught 26ft. 
Displacement 6,400 tons. Complement 521. 
Guns, Armour, 

2—7-6 in. " Steel." 

6 — 6*4 in. 5 in. Belt amidships. 

6—9 pdr. 4 in. Turrets. 

8 — 3 pdr. 5 in. Conning tower. 

• Torpedo Tubes (17*7 in.). 
4 Above water. 
Three screws. Hp. 16,000=^22 kts. 
Approximate cost ;£4 16,000. 

Dapvy do L6me» StanliUi GbarlM H^nri Laureni 

(1816-85). French naval architect (b. Ploemeur, 
near L'Oiient). . Entered ^oole P6lytechnique in 
1835, and later was sent to England to study and 
report on iron shipbuilding. He planned and 
superintended the construction of the first French 
war steamer, Napdson, 1848-52, and subsequently 
transformed sailing men-of-war into steamships. 
In 1858 he designed and superintended the building 
of the first French ironclad. La Gloire, At the 
beginning of the war with Germany in 1870 he 
was appointed a member of the Committee of 
Defence, and during the siege of Paris occupied 
himself with planning a steeraUe balloon. The 
experiments, however, that were made with it did 
not prove entirely satisfactory. He received the 
Cross of the Legion of Honour in 1845, ^^ 
made a commander in 1858, and Grand Officer in 
1863. He died at Paris on February i, 1885. 

Dagnenie, Abraham HarqniB (1610-88). French 
admiral (b. Dieppe). Took part in the defeat of 
the Spaniards at Lerins, 1637, and again before 
Tarragona, 1641. His greatest exploit, however, 
was his defeat of the united Dutch and Spanish 
fleets off Stromboli in 1676. This battle gave 
France for a time the complete control of the 
Mediterranean. It was in this engagement that 
the heroic Ruyter, commander of the Dutch 
fleet, fell. 

DmaiUM. Ftench avisos^transport (1885). Of 
little fighting value. Guns, 4 5*5-in., 4 9-pdr. ; 
^peed (nominally), 1 1 kts. 



DU RAN DAL 



192 



DYNAMIC 



DorandaL French torpedo-boat destroyer. (Nor- 
mand, 1889.) Length, 180 ft. ; beam, 20 ft. ; 
draught, xo ft. ; displacement. 300 tons ; comple- 
ment, 62 ; armament, i 9-pdr.. 6 3-pdr., 2 tubes ; 
twin screw ; Hp., 5,000=28 kts. ; coaJ, 84 tons. 

Darnford, Bear-Admiral Jobn, C.B., D.8.0. (b. 

1849). Entered Navy. 1862 ; lieutenant. 1872 ; 
commander, 1882 ; commander commanding 
Mariner ; served during the Burmah Annexation 
war. 1885-86 ; with field force on staff, and also 
with Naval Brigade ; present at engagement at 
Minhla ; mentioned in naval and military de- 
spatches ; D.S.O. for services rendered ; com- 
manded Naval Brigade and flotilla of armed 
launches in Upper Burmah, 1887 ; mentioned in 
despatches ; services specially acknowledged by 
Viceroy and Secretary of State for India (India 
medal and Burmah clasp), 1885-87 ; captain, 1888 ; 
a Lord Commissioner of the Admiralty, 1901 ; 
rear-admiral, 1902 ; commander-in-chief, Cape of 
Good Hope Station, 1904, 

Dnrstont Sir Albert Jahn, K.C.B., cr. 1897 
(b. Devonport. October 25. 1846). Engineer rear- 
admiral. Entered Portsmouth Dockyard Febru- 
ary. 1 86 1, and while serving apprenticeship as an 
engineer student he in 1865 gained a scholarship 
at the school of Naval Architecture and Marine 
Engineering, and in 1868 became a Fellow ; entered 
the Navy as an assistant-engineer of the second 
class in 1868 ; served in H.M.S. Ocean, then on the 
China Station, on which the late Sir W. N. W. 
Hewitt, K.C.B.. V.C. {q.v.), was admiral, and Sir 
John Fisher, G.C.B. (q.v.), commander ; from 1872- 
81 served as assistant-engineer at Portsmouth, and 
from T 88 1 -88 as chief engineer at Sheemess, and 
subsequently at Portsmouth Dockyard ; was ap* 
pointed Chief Engineer Inspector to the Admiralty 
under the late Richard Sennett, and in April. 
1889, was promoted Engineer-in-Chief ; has been 
closely connected with the change from the 
cylindrical to water-tube boilers in the ships of 
H.M. Navy. 

Dost-oonnter. An instrument for counting the 
number of dust particles in a given volume of air. 

DnsiHltorilL A whirlwind passing over a dry or 
sandy district and carrying up the dust into the 
air. 

Dntehmail. In sea phraseology a name for a 
block or wedge of wood driven into a gap to hide 
a badly-made joint. 

Datiee, Szoiae and Ciutomi. i. The Excise, 
which forms part of the Inland Revenue, is an 
inland tax (i) on certain commodities (chiefly beer, 
spirits, and tobacco) produced and consumed within 
the country ; (2) on licences granted to certain 
trades and professions — e.g., auctioneers, pawn- 
brokers, and publicans ; and (3) on licences for 



certain luxuries — e,g.» armorial bearings, male ser- 
vants, and motor-cars. The Commissioners of the 
Inland Revenue, under the Inland Revenue Regula- 
tion Act, 1890. and the Excise Management Act. 
1827, have wide powers as to the management and 
collection of Excise duties. 

2. Customs are duties charged on certain im- 
ports and exports, and are regulated mainly by 
the Customs Consolidation Act. 1876. and the 
Stamp Act. 190Z. Duties are now levied {inter 
alia) upon wine, beer, spirits, tobacco, tea. cofiee. 
cocoa, sugar, dried frnits, chicory, molasses, 
glucose, chutney, playing-cards, confectionery, con- 
densed milk, and saccharin. The powers of Customs 
officials include the prevention of smuggling (q.v.) 
and the prosecution of offenders, the rights of 
search, seizure and forfeiture, the restriction of the 
landing of goods to specific places, and the limiting 
of the size of vessels and packages containing 
dutiable goods. Ofiences against Excise and 
Customs laws are tried before Courts of Summary 
Jurisdiction, though grave cases of smuggling may 
still be dealt with by the High Court under the old 
Exchequer procedure. 

D.y. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Deventer, Holland. 

Dvenadaat Apoetdov. Russian ist class battle- 
ship. Black Sea fleet. (Nicolaieff, 1892.) 
Length 330ft. Beam 6oft. Maximum draught 26ft. 
Displacement 8,400 tons. Complement 500. 
Guns. Armour. 

4— 1 2 in. ' * Compound. ' * 

4 — 6 in. 14 in. Belt amidships. 

8 — 3 pdr. 12 in. Turrets. 

10 Maxims. 12 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
6 Above water. 

Hp. 11,500=16 kts. Coal maximum 1,200 tons. 

Dwarl British ist class gun-boat (710 tons. 
13^ kts.). Launched 1898. 

Dyelny. Russian torpedo-boat destroyer (1906). 
Length, 185 ft. ; beam, 21 ft. ; draught. 7 J ft. ; 
displacement. 324 tons ; complement. 60 ; arma- 
ment. I i2-pdr., 5 3-pdr., 2 tubes; twin screw; 
Hp., 5.600=26 kts. ; coal, 100 tons. 

Dsrmpluia. This vessel, commanded by Lieu- 
tenant Hovgaard, of the Danish Navy, who accom- 
panied Nordenskold in his discovery of the North - 
East passage, was fitted out to ascertain if land 
existed to the north of Cape Tcheljruskin. He 
sailed from Copenhagen in July, 1882, and was 
unfortunately beset in the ice pack and compelled 
to winter in the Kara Sea. Refer to Arctic Explora- 
tion. 

Dynamic oooling. The cooling produced by tlie 
expansion of air when it passes into a region of 
decreascKi pressure. 



DYNAMO 



193 



EARLE'S 



Dynamo. Strictly, any machine of which 
mechanical motion is transformefl into electric 
current; tbns applicable to all magneto-electric 
machines in which a current is produced in coils 
of wire rotated in the neighbourhood of a magnet. 
The term dynamo or dynamo electric machine is 
now by usage restricted to those machines which 
give a continuously direct external current. 
Machines which give alternating currents are dis- 
tinguished as alternators. 

Dynamometer. An apparatus for measuring 
force or power, as, for example, the power de- 
veloped by a steam-engine or other motor. In 
practical engineering it is also called a break or 
absorption dynamometer, in consequence of the 
energy being absorbed by a frictional resistance. 
Leroy's dynamometer is a spiral spring in a tube. 
Power is applied to condense the spring, and the 
pressure indicated by a graduated bar. Regnier's 
dynamometer consists of an elliptic spring whose 
collapse in the direction of its minor axis is made 
to move an index-finger on graduated arcs. The 
Sector dynamometer is made of a bar oi steel, bent 
in the middle, and having a certain flexibility. To 
each limb is attached an arc, which passes through 
a slot in the other limb. Loops at the ends of the 
arcs permit the device to be placed between the 
power and the load, so that the limbs are drawn 
together when power is applied. 

D.Z. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Delfzijl, Holland. 



E 

E. Distinguishing letter on sea fishing boats 
registered at Esbjerg, Denmark. 

B. Distinguishing letter on sea fishing boats 
registered at Exeter. England. 

E. Abbreviation for east. 

Baide* H.M. ship. Wrecked on the rocks off 
Scilly Isles. October 22, 1707, when Captain Hen- 
cock and crew were lost. 

Eagle. British drill-ship (2,340 tons). Launched 
1804. 

Eagle Speed. Emigrant vessel. Foundered near 
Calcutta, August 24, 1865 > ^^5 coolies drowned. 



The motion and high wave produced by 
the influx of water of the ocean into the mouth of 
a river at the flow of the tide. 

Eamei, Engineer Bear-Admiral ffir William. 

Chief Inspector of Machinery. Entered Navy as 
assistant-engineer, 1844 ; engineer, 1845 ; chief 
engineer, 1847 '» chief engineer of Inflex^le during 
the Crimean war,*engaged][in attack on the Russian 
batteries at Oatchakoff and Fort Nicolaieff. 1854 ; 
present at the blockade of Odessa. 



B. and 0. E. Abbreviation for errors and omis- 
sions excepted. 

Eardley-Wilmoi; Bear-Admiral Sydney Harrow. 

(b. Mortlake, 1847). Educated Stubbington, Fare- 
ham. Entered Navy, i860 ; served in Emerald 
and Duncan ; promoted lieutenant, 1869 ; gunnery 
lieutenant, 1876 ; senior lieutenant of Vernon 
torpedo school ; served at the Admiralty, 1881-84 ; 
commanded H.M.S. Dolphin in Red Sea, 1885-86 ; 
assisted in the defence of Suakim (Egyptian medal, 
Osmanieh 4th Class) ; promoted captain, 1886 ; 
served in the Intelligence Department, Admiralty, 
1887-90 ; appointed superintendent Ordnance 
Stores, Admiralty ; retired. 1893. 

Publications : " Life of Vice-AdmLcal Lord 
Lyons," " Our Navy for One Thousand Yearsi." 
" Our Fleet To-day and its Development During 
the Last HaUXentury," '' Our Flags ; their Origin, 
Use, and Tiaditions." 

Barings. Small ropes employed to fasten the 
upper comers of a sail to its yards. 

Barle's Shipbuilding and Engineering Oo., Ltd* 

This shipbuilding yard was established by Messrs. 
Charles and William Earle at the Victoria Dock, 
Hull, in 1853. the first vessel built being the 
Minister Thoirheck, 258 tons gross, and 60 N.Hp. 
In 1863 Messrs. Earle purchased the site of the 
present shipyard, on the side of the Humber which 
is two miles wide opposite the yard, and in course 
of time the engineering works and boiler shop wets 
transferred to this site, so that now all are in one 
compact area of 26 acres, with direct railway com- 
munication into the yard from the North Eastern 
Railway and the Hull and Bamsley Railway. In 
1 87 1 II steamers were built and engined by Messrs. 
C. and W. Earle. with a total of 19.032 tons gross. 
In this year (1871). owing to the death of Mr. 
Charles Earie. and declining health of Mr. William 
Earle. the undertaking was disposed' of to a limited 
company, under its present name, the first chair- 
man being Mr. (afterwards Sir) E. J. Reid, who 
had then recently retired from the Chief Con- 
structorship of the Navy, and the vice-chairman, 
Sir John Brown, the founder of the famous Sheffield 
firm bearing his name. Sir John Brown became 
chairman in 1874, and retained the position for 
nearly 20 years. Messrs. C. and W. Earle' had 
confined their business to ordinary mercantile 
steamers, but under the company many larger and 
more important vessels were built, including iron- 
clads for foreign governments,' warships for the 
British Navy, and several first-rate steam yachts, 
two being for the late Emperor of Russia, Alex- 
ander III., at the launch of one of which he was 
present. In 1884 Mr. A. E. Seaton (who had been 
with the company since 1872) became general 
manager, and later on a director, and he retained the 
management until 1899. In 1901 the undertaking 
was purchased by the late Mr.C. H.Wilson, th^n M.P. 

H 



EARLE'S 



194 



ECLIPSE 



for West Hull (afterwards Lord Nunbumholme). and 
a new company was formed under his chairmanship. 
The entire reconstruction of the works was im- 
mediately taken in hand, and the year 1902 was 
practically devoted to this object, no expense being 
spared in re-arranging the yard, erecting new build- 
ings, and installing new machinery of the latest 
and most efficient type, all the machinery being 
worked by electric power. This work has been 
carried on during the succeeding years, and the 
company now possesses a shipyard with the best 
facilities for building and launching vessels of any 
size, extensive engineering shops, and an excep- 
tionally spacious and well-equipped boiler shop 
capable of dealing with engines and boilers of the 
largest description. There are also within the 
works four patent slips, the largest taking vessels 
up to 3,600 tons, and two tidal docks for fitting 
out new ships and repairs. A loo-ton crane is in 
course of erection. During the whole of its career 
Earle's has been noted for the excellence of its 
work, and perhaps no better proof of this could be 
given than the long connection it has had in build- 
ing for the Wilson Line. The ninth vessel built 
here, launched in 1855, ^^^ ^^r Messrs. Thos. 
Wilson. Sons and Co., and since that time the yard 
has seldom been without one or more, sometimes 
several, vessels on the stocks for that firm, no 
fewer than 105 steamers having been built here for 
Messrs. Wilson. It is mentioned above that the 
first vessel built in the yard was the Minister Thor- 
beck, launched in 1853. ^^i^ vessel was built for 
Messrs. Ringrose. and since that time several 
vessels have been built here for Messrs. Ringrose 
and their successors, the Hull and Netherland 
Steamship Co., Ltd. Earle's have also built 
II steamers for the Great Central Railway Co., and 
nearly all the fleet of the Great Eastern Railway 
Cow have been built here, and there is one vessel 
on the stocks for this company at the present time. 
Many vessels of the British Navy, built in H.M. 
Dockyard, have had their engines and boilers con- 
structed and fitted by Earle's, including H.M.S. 
London and H.M.S. Formidable, each of 15,000 
I.Hp. One feature of Eade's has been the building 
of steam trawlers. One of the first, if not the 
first, steam trawler that was ever built was the 
Zodiac, launched here in 1881. built to the order of 
the Grimsby and North Sea Steam Trawling Co., 
Ltd. This vessel was built on the lines of the then 
existing powerful sailing vessels, and had large 
sail power in addition to the propelling machinery. 
Since that date the steam trawling industry has 
devel(^)ed to an enormous extent, and the vessels 
have greatly increased in size and elaboration of 
fittings, and are now solely driven by their pro- 
pelling machinery. Following on the success of 
the Zodiac, Earle's built a large number of these 
vessels, and still have a department devoted to 
this class of work. Over 160 steam trawlers have 
been built and equipped by the company, and 



their vessels have always had an excellent reputa- 
tion for seaworthiness. 

■ul of Kote. On August 8, 1821. this vessel 
was lost on the Burfoo Bank, near Liverpool, when 
40 persons were drowned. 

Earnest. British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Bir- 
kenhead, 1896.) Length, 2io ft.; beam, 21 ft.; 
draught. 5^ ft. ; displacement, 300 tons ; comple- 
ment, 58 ; armament, i 12-pdr., 5 6-pdr., 2 tubes; 
twin screw ; Hp., 6,000 = 30 kts. ; coal, 80 tons. 

Etnunore. Newcastle steamer. Foundered in 
a cyclone ofE the Bahamas. September 5, 1889 ; 
18 lives lost. 

Bus her. In steamers, reduce speed. 

Ease off. To slacken out a rope carefully. 

Ease the helm. To move it backwards amid- 
ships. 

Bafi End Hews and LondoB Shipving Ohronide. 

Established 1859. Published weekly (Tuesday and 
Friday). Price, id. and ^d. Address : 46 High 
Street, Poplar, London, E. 

Eastern City. On August 23-24, 1858, this vessel 
was burnt near the equator on her way to Mel- 
bourne. By great exertions all on board were 
saved. 

Eastern Monaroh. On June 2. 1859. this vessel 
was Tjurnt at Spithead. The vessel contained 
about 500 invalid soldiers, who. with the crew, 
behaved admirably, and only eight lives were lost 

Eastam Taoht dob. Royal. See Royal Eastern 
Yacht Club. 

Easting. A course made good or gained to the 
eastward. 

E.B. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Elburg, Holland. 

Ebb. The failing reflux of the tide, or its return 
back from the highest of the flood or high water. 

Eoknen. Russian torpedo-boat. (Abo. 1890.) 
Length, 136 ft. ; beam, 13 f t. ; draught, 7^ ft. ; 
displacement, 81 tons ; complement, 13 ; armament. 
2 i-pdr., 2 tubes; Hp., i,iooss2i kts.; coal. 
17 tons. 

Edair. French sea-going torpedo-boat. (La 
Seyne. 1891.) Length, 144 ft. ; beam. 40} ft. ; 
draught, 7^ ft. ; displacement. 128 tons ; comple- 
ment, 26 ; armament, 3 3-pdr., 2 tubes ; twin 
screw ; Hp., 1,100 = 21^ kts. ; coal, 17 tons. 

Edipse. British 2nd class cruiser. (Portsmouth. 

1894.) 

Length 364ft. Beam 54ft. Maximum draught 23ft. 

Displacement 5.600 tons. Complement 450. 

Guns, A rmour. 

II — 6 in. *• Harvey." 

8 — 12 pdr. 2i in. Deck. 

I — 12 pdr., 8 cwt. 6 in. Conning tower. 

7—3 pdr. 

2 Maxims. 



ECLIPSE 



f95 



EDI 



Torpedo Tubes (i8 in.). 
2 Submerged. 
I Above water stem. 
Twin screw. Hp. natural 8,000= 18' 5 kte., forced 
9,600= 1 9" 5 kts. Coal maximum 1,076 tons. 

Eelipse, strictly speaking, extends to all cases 
of obscuration of one heavenly body by the inter- 
vention of another, either between it and the eye 
or between it and the source of its illumination, 
consequently it includes besides eclipses of the sun 
and moon transits of inferior planets, the conceal- 
ment of stars by the moon or by a planet, or the 
concealment of a satellite by its primary. Solar 
eclipse is the name given to a total or partial con- 
cealment of the sun by the moon. Lunar eclipse 
is the total or partial concealment of the moon by 
the shadow of the earth. An eclipse of the sun 
can only occur when the moon at the time of mean 
conjunction with the sun is within 19}° of her 
node ; a lunar eclipse when she is within 13}^ of 
her node. There may be as many as seven eclipses 
in a year, of which four would be solar, three of 
these partial, while of the lunar eclipses two would 
be total. The least possible number in the year 
would be two, and in this case each eclipse would 
be solar. 

E.D. Existence doubtful. Abbreviation adopted 
oii the charts issued by the Hydrographic Office, 
Admiralty. 

ed. Abbreviation for edition and edited. • 

Edda. Swedish gun-vessel. (Karlskrona, 1886.) 
Length, 185 ft. ; beam, 27 ft. ; draught, lo} ft. ; 
displacement; 549 tons ; complement, 76 ; arma- 
ment, I lo-in., I 6-in., 2 1*5 in., 2 Maxims; Hp., 
960=13 kts. ; coal, 80 tons. 

ESddy. A term used for the water which falls 
back on the rudder of a ship under sail. 

BSddyatone liiglithoiue, situated in the English 
Channel nine miles from the coast of Cornwall and 
about 14 miles S.S.W. of Plymouth Breakwater. 
The first lighthouse to be erected here was one of 
wood built in 1700, and swept away by a storm 
three years later. The second, also constructed 
of isvood, was erected in 1706, and burnt down in 
1755- The third, which stood for over 100 years, 
was designed by Smeaton, and built of stone. 
1757. In 1877 ^^^ Corporation of Trinity House 
decided to erect a new lighthouse, and selected a 
site 120 feet S.S.E. from Smeaton 's Lighthouse. 
This was found necessary owing to the rock founda- 
tion of the old lighthouse becoming undermined 
by the waves. The fourth Eddystone Lighthouse, 
the foundation stone of which was laid by the late 
Duke of Edinburgh on August 19, 1879, was com- 
pleted in 1882, when the upper portion of Smeaton 's 
tovrer was removed and re-erected on Plymouth 
Hoe. The light, the intensity of which is 79,000 
candle-power, has a range of jyi miles, and gives 
a double flash at interv^als of half a minute. 



Eden. Ship. On November 8, 1873, tWs vessel 
sailed from Valparaiso. She was set on fire by her 
mad captain and blew up. The crew were rescued by 
the Juanita, 

Eden. British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Parsons, 
1903.) Length, 220 ft; beam, 23 ft.; draught, 
8£- ft. ; displacement, 527 tons ; complement. 70 ; 
armament, i 12-pdr., 5 6-pdr.. 2 tubes; twin 
screw ; Hp., 7,000=25 kts. ; coal, 130 tons. 

Bdsar. British ist class cruiser. (Fairfield, 
1890.) 

Length 360ft. Beam 60ft. Maximum draught 26ft. 
Displacement 7,350 tons. Complement 540, 
Guns. Armour. 

2— 92 in. "Steel." 

10 — 6 in. 5 in. Deck. 

12 — 6 pdr. 12 in. Conning tower. 

5—3 pdr. 
2 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
2 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. natural 10,000=18*5 kts., 
forced 12,000 = 20*5 kts. Coal maximum 1,250 
tons. Approximate cost ;f4i 0,980. 

This ship-name was introduced into the Navy 
by Charles IL, 1668, and is associated with the 
first battle of Schooneveld, 1673 ; battle of th^ 
Texel, 1673 ; battle of Bantry Bay, 1689 ; battle of 
Beachy Head, 1690 ; Barfleur and La Hogue, 1692 ; 
Bosca wen's victory in Lagos Bay, 1759 ; reduction 
of Havana, 1762 ; Rodney's action off Cape St. 
Vincent, 1780; Copenhagen, 1801. 

Eigar. 70 guns. On October 15, 171 1. this 
vessel blew up at Spithead, when all on board 
perished. 

Edgard Qninei French ist class cruiser. (Brest, 
1905.) 

Length 528ft. Beam 70ft. Maximum draught 27ft. 
Displacement; 13,480 tons. Complement 750. 
Guns. A rmour, 

4 — 7*6 in., 45 cal. " Krupp." 
16 — 6"4 in. 6 J in. Belt amidships. 

8 — 9 pdr. 8 in. Turrets. 

24 — 3 pdr. 8 in. Conning tower. 

Torpedo Tubes [17' 7 in.). 

2 Submerged. 

3 Above water. 

Three screws. Hp. 40,0003=24 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum, 2,400 tons. Approximate cost, ;f 1,350,000. 

Edge away. To decline gradually from the 
course which the ship formerly steered by going 
more away from before the wind. 

Edge in with. To steer obliquely towards a given 
object. 

EdL Netherlands gun-vessel. (Flushing. 1898.) 
Length, 179 ft. ; beam, 30 ft. ; draught, 12 ft. ; 
displacement, 787 tons ; complement, 95 ; arma- 
ment, 3 4'7-in., 2 2*9-in., 4 i*4-in. ; Hp., 1,100= 
13 kts. : coal, 113 tons. 

h2 



1 



EDINBURGH 



196 



ELDERS 



Edinburgh. British 2nd class battleship (9,420 
tons, I4'2 kts.). Launched 1882. 

Bdilh. Steamer. In collision with the Duchess of 
Sutherland off St. John's Point, Ireland. Both 
ships went down. 

Ed)d«r* Turkish torpedo-boat. (Gaarden,i89o.) 
Length, 152 ft. ; beam. 18^ ft. ; draught. 7 ft. ; 
displacement, 150 tons; armament. 5 3-pdr., q.f., 
2 tubes ; twin screw ; Hp., 2,200=23 ^ts. 

Edmand. Emigrant ship, from Limerick to New 
York, wrecked off the Western Coast of Ireland. 
November 12, 1850; 100 lives lost. 

Ednc. Abbreviation for educated. 

Edaoation Engineering, Naval. See Naval Educa- 
tion. 

Ednoation. NavaL See Naval Education. 

Edward Taoht Club. Established 1901. Hono- 
rary Treasurer, T. W. Berry ; Honorary Secretary, 
W. Stewart, Kingstown, Co. Dublin. Entrance 
^^' £3 '> annual subscription, £$. 

E.E. Distinguishing letters on sea nshing boats 
registered at Eemrun, Holland. 

E.E. Abbreviation for errors excepted. 

E.G. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Egmond-Aan-2^, Holland. 

e.g. For example. 

Egeria. British surveying vessel (940 tons. 
IX '3 kts.). Launched 1873. 

Egypt (1897). British subsidised merhcant ship* 
P. and O. Co. (q.v.). Dimensions. 500 X 54 X 33 ft. > 
groRs tonnage, 7,900 ; passenger accommodationi 
524; Hp., 9400= 18 kts. 

Egypt. Atlantic liner. Burnt at sea July 18, 
1890; crew and passengers saved by the Gusiav 
Oscar. 

E.H. Distinguishing letters on sea fishing boats 
registered at Enkhuizen, Holland. 

Eider. North German Lloyd steamer. Struck 
on the rocks near the Isle of Wight, during a fog, 
January 31, 1S92 ; captain, 166 of the crew, and 
227 passengers, together with mails, were saved. 
The vessel was refloated and towed into Southamp- 
ton, March 29, 1892. 

Bidsvold. Norwegian coast service battleship* 
(Elswick. 1900.) 

Length 290ft Beam 50ft. Mean draught i6ft. 
Displacement 3,800 tons. Complement 250. 
Guns. Armour. 

2 — 8 in., 45 cal. " Krupp." 

6 — 6 in. 7 in. Belt. 

8 — 12 pdr. 6 in. Turrets. 

6— -3 pdr. 5 in. Casemates. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
2 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 4,850=17 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 400 tons. 



Ekaterina II. Old Russian battleship. Black Sea 
(1886). 

Length 339ft. Beam 69ft. Maximum draught 29ft. 
Displacement 10,250 tons. Complement 530. 
Guns. Armour. 

6^12 in. " Compound." 

7 — 6 in. 18 in. Belt amidships. 

8 — 3 pdr. 12 in. Barbettes. 

4 — I pdr. 16 in. Conning tower. 

6 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
7 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. 11,000=16 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 870 tons. 

Elastio loroe of vaponr. Pressure of the water 
vapour in the atmosphere. 

Elba. Small Italian cruiser. (Castellamare. 

1893.) 

Length 272ft. Beam 42ft. Maximum draught i8ft. 

Displacement 2,730 tons. Complement 247. 
Guns. Armour. 

2—6 in. '* Steel." 

8 — 4*7 in. 1 in. Deck. 

8— 6 pdr. 
8 — I pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
3 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. 7,500=18*5 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 500 tons. Approximate cost ;£2oo.ooo. 

Elba, Battle of. Foaght August 28. i652,between 
the British under Admiral Badiley and the Dutch 
under Admiral van Galen. The British lost the 
Phomix during the engagement, and were com- 
pelled to retire to Porto Longoue. The Phoenix 
was, however, recaptured on November 20 by the 
British under Captain Owen Cox. 

Elbe. North German Lloyd steamer, from Bre- 
men to New York. Sunk in colUsion with the 
Crathie, of Aberdeen, of! Lowestoft, January 30, 
1S95 ; 334 l^v^ ^'ost. 

Elbing-Obedand Canal, commenced in 1845, 
and finished in i860, at the cost of j£225,ooo, con- 
nects Lake Drausen and the port of Elbing with 
Lakes Geserich and Drewenz. It is no miles long, 
with a width of 52^ ft., and a depth of 4^^ ft. 

Elbow. An angle formed by two cables or ropes. 

Eloano. U.S. gun-boat. Captured from the 
Spaniards in the Spanish- American war, 1898. 

Elder, Dempeter and €k>. See Imperial Direct 
West India Mail Service Co.. Ltd. 

Elder, John (1824-69). Shipbuilder and maxine 
engineer (b. Glasgow). Was the first to experiment 
with and bring into practical use compound steam 
engines. 

Elders and Fyilet, Ltd., was formed in 1901 . ajid 
is the outcome of the immense development of tlie 
West India banana trade. The service began -with 



ELDERSLIE 



197 



ELLERMAN 



four steamers, since which nine have been added and 
fitted with special arrangements for the safe con- 
veyance of fruit. Regular services are maintained 
between Jamaica and Coata Rica from Manchester, 
and from Bristol (Avonmouth). In 1904 the 
company was entrusted with the carriage of parcels 
and mails to Costa Rica. 

Flbbt. 

Andrea. Golden Eagle. Nicoya. 

Appomattox Greenbrier. Oracabessa. 

Barranca. Guanche. Pacuare. 

Chickahominy. Manistee. Reventazon. 

Chirripo. Mariposa. Taora. 

Esperanza. Matina. Zent. 

Miami. 
Gross tonnage, 52,000. 

BUenlie Steamship Oo., Ltd. See Tumbull, 
Biartin and Co. 

Eldiidge, George. British naval architect. Served 
his apprenticeship in H.M. Dockyard, Chatham. In 
1864 joined the firm of Messrs. R. Napier and Sons, 
Glasgow, as assistant manager in the shipbuilding 
department. In 1872 joined Messrs. Palmer and Co., 
J arrow, as manager of their shipbuilding department, 
and in the latter part of 1873 ^« went to St. Peters- 
burg to take charge of the shipbuilding department of 
the Baltic Ironworks, there being closely connected 
with the building of ironclads and cruisers for the 
Russian Government, and many steamers for mer- 
cantile service. On returning to England in 1879, 
he was appointed to superintend the building of the 
Czar's yacht Livadia, then on the stocks at Messrs. 
Elder and Co., Glasgow. In 1882 he joined the 
Orient Steam Navigation Co. as Naval Architect, 
and on the sinking of the Austral in Sydney 
Harbour, he made a contract with this firm to raise 
her, which, after two months' arduous work, he 
successfully accomplished. In 1884 he returned 
to London, and established himself as a consulting 
naval architect and engineer. In March, 1888, he 
made a contract with the Jarrow Shipbuilding Co. 
to go to Bilbao to select a site for building, and to 
prepare plans and estimates for the establishment 
of works to build three cruisers for the Spanish 
Government. Was selected by the Council of the 
Institution of Naval Architects to represent them 
on the Life Saving Appliances Committee. 

Elaotn. British torpedo-boat destroyer. (Clyde- 
bank, 1 90 1.) Length. 218 ft. ; beam, 20 ft. ; draught, 
5 J ft. ; displacement, 300 tons ; complement, 58 ; 
armament, i 12-pdr., 5 6-pdr., 2 tubes ; twin 
screw ; Hp., 6.000=30 kts. ; coal, 80 tons. 

RIeetrio shoek, VnoonsoioiuneH from. See Appa- 
rently dead, Methods of restoring the. 

Bleetrio telegraph* See Telegraphy. 

RleotroBieter. An instrument for measuriAg the 
electrification of the air. 



BlgAT* Franelt (1845). British naval architect 
(b. Portsmouth). Was in the service of the Admi- 
ralty from 1867 to 187 1. In 1879 he was appointed 
adviser on naval construction to the Japanese 
Government, which post he held for two years, 
until he was appointed professor of naval archi- 
tecture and marine engineering in the University of 
Glasgow. In 1886 he resigned this position to 
become first director of H.M. Dockyards, a post 
which he held until 1892. He then acted as naval 
architect to the Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineer- 
ing Co., Glasgow. 

PubUcation : " Ships, Old and New." 

BUagoi. Turkish torpedo - boat. (Sestri Po- 
nente, 1904.) Length, 165 ft. ; beam. 18^ ft. ; 
draught. 4^ ft. ; displacement, 165 tons ; Hp.. 
2,200 at 27 kts. 

Eliot, Whately, ]IJtist.O.E. (b. November 22, 
1 841). Civil engineer. Articled pupil to the late 
Sir J. Coode, C.E., at the Admiralty Breakwater 
Works at Portland, 1861-64. Subsequently en- 
gaged on dock and harbour works at Sunderland. 
Tynemouth, Isle of Man, and in New Zealand. 
Engineer to Peterhead Harbour Board. 1875-80 ; 
resident engineer of harbour works for the Cape 
Government, 1880-85 ; resident engineer of the 
Eastham section of the Manchester Ship Canal, 
including the entrance locks. Appointed by the 
Admiralty in 1894 superintending civil engineer of 
the extension of H.M. Dockyard at Keyham, in- 
volving an expenditure of about ;£4,ooo,ooo, and was 
in charge of the construction of the works from their 
commencement until completion at the end of 1906, 
when he retired from the Admiralty service. 

EUnbetha. Roumanian protected cruiser. (Els- 
wick. 1887.) 

Length 230ft. Beam 32ft. 
Displacement 1,320 tons. 
Guns. Armour. 

4—5-9 in. " Steel." 

4 q.f. 3 in. Deck. 

2 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes. 

4. 
Hp. 3, 000 » 16 kts. 

Eliza Scott. This vessel, 154 tons, commanded 
by Mr. John Balleny and the Sabrina, cutter, of 54 
tons, under Mr. Freeman, started out on an expedi- 
tion of discovery to the antarctic regions in 1838. 
In February. 1839, when. on about the 163® E. 
meridian, land was sighted in 66^ 30' S.. and subse- 
quently Sabrina Island was discovered in March. 
1839. Refer to Antarctic Exploration. 

Ella. London and Hamburg steamer. Left the 
Thames on December 14, 1873, and nothing was 
ever heard of her. 

EUerman linef* Ltd.* with which are incorporated 
the Hall Line, the City Line, the Papayanni Line. 



ELLIDA 



198 



EMERAUDE 



Westcott and Lanrance Line. Coverley and Westray 
Line, was founded in 1840. and originally managed 
by Messrs. John Bibby, Sons and Co., under the 
style of the Bibby Line, until 1870, when it was 
purchased by Messrs. Frederick Leyland and Co.. 
and subsequently known as the Leyland Line, until 
acquired by the Morgan Combination, who sold the 
Mediterranean portion of the business to Mr. J. K. 
Ellerman. Steamers trade regularly between Liver* 
pool and Portugal, Italy, Sicily, Adriatic, Alexan- 
dria, Gibraltar, Malta. Syria, Smyrna, and Con* 
stantinople. 

Ellida. Norwegian gun -vessel. (Horten, 1881.) 
Length, 187 ft. ; beam. 32 ft. ; draught, 14I ft. ; 
displacement, 984 tons ; complement. 128 ; arma- 
ment. 2 4*7 in., 4 2"9-in., 4 i*4-in,, 3 tubes, i sub- 
merged ; Hp., 300=15 kts. ; coal, 120 tons. 

Elliott, Robert, BJe, (b. Chichester, June 18. 
i860). Surveyor to Lloyd's Register. Served his 
apprenticeship as an engineer with Messrs. A. and 
J. Inglis, Glasgow, and in November, 1880, entered 
the Glasgow University, and in April, 1884, gradu- 
ated as B.Sc. in engineering. He obtained a Thom- 
son scholarship in the physical laboratory, and was 
employed on the late Sir W. Thomson's (afterwards 
Lord Kelvin) (q.v.) and the late Professor Fleming 
Jenkin's stafi, where he superintended the manu- 
facture (at Messrs. Siemens' works. Woolwich) of 
the Atlantic Cable for the Commercial Cable Com- 
pany. In 1885 he joined the British India Steam 
Navigation Co., and served a term of four years 
at sea. Having obtained a first-class engineer's 
certificate from the Board of Trade in 1889, be 
was appointed as surveyor to Lloyd's Registry. 

Blmo'i Fire, St See St. Elmo's Fire. 

ELnslie, John Elmslie (b. London, May 29. 1844). 
In 1 86 1 he was apprenticed to Messrs. Samuda 
Brothers, of Poplar, and after being connected 
with this firm as draughtsman, he. in 1871. com- 
menced business as a naval architect and con- 
sulting engineer. He has been connected with 
the designing of a large number of ships, and in 
1890, in conjunction with the late Mr. William 
John, prepared plans for a 9,000 ton cruiser for 
the Spanish Government. Member of the Institu- 
tion of Naval Architects, and member of Council 
of the Institution of Marine Engineers. 

Elongatioii. The angular distance of a planet 
from the sun, as it appears to us upon the earth. 

Elsass. German ist class battleship. (Schichau, 

1903) 

Length 430ft. Beam 72ft. Mean draught 26ft. 
Displacement 13,200 tons. Complement 691. 

Guns, Armour. 

4— II in. " Krupp." 

14 — 6'7 in. 9 in. Belt. 

1 2 — 24 pdr. 1 1 in. Barbettes. 

12 — I pdr. II in. Turrets. 

8 Machine. 12 in. Conning tower. 



Torpeda Tubes, 
5 Submerged bow and broadside. 
I Above water stem. 
Three screws. Hp. 1 6,000 ss 18 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 1,600 tons. Approximate cost ;£ 1.160,000. 

Emanaele Filiberto. Old Italian battleship. 
(Castellamare, 1897.) 

Length 344ft. Beam 69ft. Maximum draught 26ft. 
Displacement 9.800 tons. Complement 542. 
Guns, Armour. 

4 — I o in. " Harvey-nickel . * ' 

8 — 6 in. 10 in. Belt amidships. 

8 — 4*7 in. 10 in. Barbettes. 

6 — 12 pdr. 6 in. Conning tower. 

6 — 3 pdr. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
4 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. natural 9,000=16 kts., forced 
13,500=18 kts. Coal maximum 1,000 tons. 
Approximate cost ^^700,000. 

Bmbankment A structure raised to prevent 
water from overflowing a tract of country or to 
support a roadway ; a bank or mound of earth or 
cement to form a barrier against the encroachment 
of the sea, against the overflow of a river, or to 
carry a railroad, canal, or road across a track of 
low ground. In civil engineering, it is technically 
the earth which requires to be heaped up to pro- 
tect a level. 

Bmbaigo is a temporary detention by a State 
of vessels within its ports. On the breaking out of 
hostilities it was once usual to lay an embargo upon 
all the enemy's merchant vessels within reach, 
with a view to their being declared prize of war. 
but the custom has grown up of allowing the vessels 
of belligerents which, at the outbreak of war. are 
in a hostile port time to unload, reload, and depart. 
A State may lay an embargo on its own ships with 
a view to their employment in the service of the 
nation or to prevent their carrying certain pro- 
ducts out of the country. An embargo puts an 
end to contracts relating to a ship unless her deten- 
tion is certain to be short, in which case it tem- 
porarily suspends them. 

Embassfes. The name given to the residence of 
ambassadors, ministers or envoys extraordinary, 
representing their country at foreign Courts. As 
representatives of Sovereign States, ambassadors 
take precedence after the blood -roj'al, while 
ministers rank after dukes. Great Britain sends 
out eight ambassadors — to Paris, Berlin, St. Peters- 
burg, Rome, Vienna, Constantinople, Washington, 
and Madrid. An ambassador is not subject to 
the civil or criminal laws of the country to which 
he is accredited. Ambassadors are entitled to 
audience of the Sovereign, but in Great Britain only 
in the presence of a Minister of the Crown. 

Bmmilde. French sea-going submarine. (Cher- 
bourg, 1903.) Length. 147 ft. ; beam. 13 f t, ; 



EMERSION 



199 



EMPRESS 



maximum draught, 12 ft. ; displacement, 309 tons 
above. 442 tons below ; complement, 22 ; torpedo 
tubes, 6 17'7-in. ; Hp., 600=12 kts. above. 8 kts. 
below. 

Bmenion. The time when any planet which is 
eclipsed begins to recover light. 

Emir Bneharski. Russian torpedo-boat. (St. 
Petersburg, 1905.) Displacement. 600 tons ; speed, 
19 kts. 

Emperador Carlos V. Spanish cruiser (1895). 
Length 403ft. Beam 67ft. Maximum draught 28ft. 
Displacement 9,200 tons. Complement 600. 
Guns. A rmour. 

2 — 9*4 in. " Creusot special." 

8 — 5*5 in. 2 J in. Deck. 

4 — 4 in. 10 in. Barbettes. 

2 — 12 pdr. 12 in. Conning tower. 

8— 6pdr. 
2 Machine. 

Torpedo Tubes. 
6 Above water. 
Twin screw. Hp. natural 15^000= 19 kts., forced 
18,500=20 kts. Coal maximum 2,000 tons. 

Empire l^ransport Co., Ltd. See Houlder Steam- 
ship Line. 

Employers' liability. The Employers' Liability 
Act of 1880 gives to workmen increased rights of 
action against their masters for personal injuries 
sustained during service. The expression " work- 
men " applies only to certain classes of labourers, 
seamen, and apprentices being expressly excluded. 
But at Common Law the employer is still liable 
if he provides incompetent fellow-workmen, if he 
has been guilty of personal negligence, or if his 
machinery is dangerous or ine&cient, unless the 
workman is aware of the danger and has accepted 
the risk. Refer to Passengers, Protection (Em- 
ployers' Liability Act and Workmen's Compensa- 
tion Act). 

Empress lane, Canadian Paeifto Bailway, was 

established in 1891, and maintained a three- weekly 
service of magnificent twin-screw mail boats between 
Vancouver and Japan and China, calling at Yoko- 
hama, Kobe. Nagasaki, Shanghai, and Hong Kong. 
In 1903 15 large Atlantic steamers were purchased 
from Messrs. Elder, Dempster and Co*, and with 
these three sep&rate services are maintained from 
Liverpool, Bristol, and London. In summer the 
terminal ports are Quebec and Montreal, in winter 
St. John, N.B., the Lmidon line including Antwerp. 

They also maintain a service on the upper lakes. 
Pacific coast, and lakes and rivtsrs in British 
Columbia. 

The steamers plying between Vancouver and 
Japan and China are subsidised for service as 
cruisers 

The Empress of Ireland holds the record between 
Liverpool and Quebec, having made the passage 



in 6 days, 8 hours, and 50 minutes, beating the 
former record by over six hours: British mails by 
this route via Quebec, and then overland to Van- 
couver, where they are put on steamers plying 
between Vancouver, Japan and China, land about 
six days ahead of those sent via the Suez 
route. The Empress of Britain holds the record 
ffom between Moville, Ireland, and Rimouski, 
Quebec, her time being five days, 21 hours, 17 min- 
utes. This time is 63 minutes better than any 
other former passage on record. 

Fleet. 

Alberta. Monmouth. 

Athabasca. Montcalm. 

Athenian. Monteagle. 

A war. Montezuma, 

Beaver. Montfort. 

Charmer, MofUreal. 

Danube. Montrose. 

Empress of Britain, Mount Royal. 

Empress of China. Mount Temple. 

Empress of India. Otter. 

Empress of Ireland. Princess Beatrice, 

Empress of Japan. Princess Louise. 

Lahe Champlain. Princess May. 

Lake Erie. Princess Victoria. 

Lahe Manitoba. Queen City, 

Lake Michigan. Tartar. 

Manitoba. Tees. 

Milwaukee, Yosewitee. 
Gross tonnage, 160,000. 

EmiHcess o! Britain. (Govan, 1906.) British 
subsidised merchant ship. Canadian Pacific Rail- 
way. Dimensions, 550x65 x 40 ft. ; gross tonnage. 
14.500. Passenger accommodation, 1,778 ; Hp., 
18,000=20 kts. 

This steamer arrived at Rimouski on June 18, 
1906, having covered the distance between Moville, 
Ireland, and Rimouski, Quebec, in 5 days, 21 
hours, 17 minutes. This time is 63 minutes better 
than any other former passage on record. 

Empress of China (1891). British subsidised 
merchant ship, Canadian Pacific Railway Co. (q.v.). 
Dimensions, 485 x 51 X 33 ft. ; gross tonnage, 5,947 ; 
passenger accommodation, 230 ; Hp., 10,000= 
i6i kts. 

Empress ol India. British ist class battleship. 
(Pembroke, 1891.) 

Length 380ft. Beam 75ft. Maximum draught 30ft. 
Displacement 14,150 tons. 
Guns, Armour. 

4 — 13*5 in. "Compound." 

10 — 6 in. 18 in. Belt amidships. 

16 — 6 pdr. 17 in. Barbettes. 

12 — 3 pdr. 14 in. Conning tower. 

2 — 9 pdr. Boat. 
2 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 

2 Submerged. 

I Above water stem. 



EMPRESS 



200 



ENGINEERING 



Twin screw. Hp. natural 9,0009=15 kts., forced 
i3,oookI7 kts. Coal maximum 1,400 tons. 
Approximate cost ;£9oo,ooo. 

BmpreM of India (1891)- British subsidised mer- 
chant ship. Canadian Pacific Railway Co. (^.t;.). 
Dimensions, 485 x 51 X 33 ft. ; gross tonnage, 5,934 1 
passenger accommodation; 230 ; Hp., 1 0,000 «= 
i6ikts. 

Empress of Ireland. (Govan, 1906.) British 
subsidised merchant ship. Canadian Pacific Rail- 
way. Dimensions, 550 x 65 X 40 ft. ; gross tonnage, 
14,500; passenger accommodation, 1,778; Hp., 
18.000 ss 20 kts. 

Empress of Jamm (1891). British subsidised 
merchant ship. Canadian Pacific Railway Co. (^.v.)* 
Dimensions, 485 x 51 X 33 ft. ; gross tonnage, 5,940 ; 
passenger accommodation, 230 ; Hp., 10,000= 
16} kts. 

Empresa Insolana de Navegaeao, with their head 
offices in Lisbon, have two excellent steamers, 
which maintain regular services from Lisbon to 
the Madeira Islands and the Azores Islands. The 
voyage to Madeira occupies 40 to 42 hours, accord- 
ing to the weather, and the steamship San Miguel 
on this run has excellent accommodation for pas- 
sengers. A service is maintained twice a month 
to St. Michael, one steamer going direct and doing 
the journey in three days, the other calling at 
Madeira and St. Maria taking five days. A steamer 
leaves Lisbon about the beginning of each month 
for Madeira, St. Maria, St. Michael, Terceira, 
Graciosa, St. George, Pico, and Faval, returning 
by the same route, and due to arrive in Lisbon 
early in the following month. 

Flbbt. 
Funchal. San Miguel, 

Gross tonnage, 3,500. 

Empren Nadonal de Navegaoao, with their head 
offices in Lisbon, have a fleet of 18 excellent 
steamers, which maintain regular services from 
Lisbon to the Madeira Islands, St. Vincent. Prin- 
cipe, St. Thom^, Landana, St. Antonio de Zaire, 
Ambrizatte, Ambriz, Loanda. Novo, Redono, 
Libitto, Benguella, Mossamedes, Bahia, Porto- 
Alexandree, Lorenzo Marques, Beira, and Mozam- 
bique ; a service from Madeira to St. Vincent, St. 
Antao, St. Nicholas, Sal Boa-Viste, Meio, Praia, 
Tarrufal, Togo, and Brava ; another service from 
Lisbon to Thiago, Bissau, to Bolama. 

Fleet. 

Africa, Cabo Verde, Malange, 

Ambaca, Cazengo, Mindello, 

Angola, Guine, Portugal, 

Benguella, Loanda, Principe. ^ 

Bissau, Lobito, Zaire, 

Bolama, Lusitania, Zambesia. 



Enoooilier. British and class cruiser. (Devon- 
port, 1908.) 

Length 355ft. Beam 5^. Maximum draught 21ft. 
Displacement 5,880 tons. Complement 475. 
Guns. Armour. 

11^-6 in. 3 in. Deck amidships. 

8 — 12 pdr. 6 in. Conning tower. 

I — 12 pdr., 8 cwt. 
6—3 pdr. 
2 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 
2 Submerged. 
Twin screw. Hp. 12,500=21 kts. Coal maxi- 
mum 1,225 tons. Approximate cost ;(420,ooo. 

Endeavour. 14 g^ps. In October, 1780, this 
vessel was lost in a storm in the West Indies. 

End tor end« Changing a rope that is worn ; 
substituting strong for weak. 

End on. A direct line with the ship's length as 
opposed to broad side on. 
Endsrmlon. British ist class cruiser. (Hull. 

1891.) 

Length 360ft. Beam 60ft. Maximum draught 26ft. 
Displacement 7,350 tons. Complement 540. 
Guns, Armour. 

2—9*2 in. " Steel." 

10—6 in. 5 in. Deck. 

12 — 6 pdr. 12 in. Conning tower. 

5—3 pdr- 
2 Maxims. 

Torpedo Tubes (18 in.). 

2 Submerged. 

Twin screw. Hp. natural 10.000=18*5 kts., 

forced I2,ooosi9'5 kts. Coal maximam 1.250 

tons. Approximate cost ;f430,ooo. 

This ship-name was first introduced into the 

Navy in 1779, and is associated with Rodney at 

Dominica, 1782, and the capture of the American 

frigate President, 181 5. 

Endsrmlon. Sailing vessel. Burnt in the Mersey, 
January 31, i860 ; loss estimated at ;£2o,ooo. 

En^. Abbreviation for English. 
Engineer. See Engineering. 

Engineer. Esta.blifihed 1856. Published weekly 
(Friday). Price 6d. Address: 33 Norfolk Street, 
London. W.C. 

gfigin^frtng. The art or science of constructing 
engines or machines, and executing such works as 
fall to the duty of an engineer. Engineers may be 
divided into four branches — military, marine, 
mechanical, and civiL A military engineer has to 
do with that branch of the science which is con- 
nected with the design, construction, and main- 
tenance of fortifications. The duties of a marine 
or naval engineer embrace works partly of a 
military and partly of a naval character. He is 
responsible for the design and construction of 
vessels of war, and of various engines of war, such 
as torpedoes and otber projectiles. 



ENGINEERING 



20I 



ENSIGN 



Civil engineering is the most extensive branch of 
the four, and may be said to have originated in 
England abont the middle of the last century, 
owing to the extraordinary development of the 
system of internal communication, as well as by 
the application of steam and electricity for the 
purpose of our manufactures. A civU engineer 
requires a knowledge of mathematics to enable him 
to investigate as well as apply the rules laid down 
by writers on those branches of the mixed sciences 
to which his attention will most frequently be 
drawn. He should have an intimate knowledge 
of the principles of mechanics, hydrauUcs, and all 
branches of natural philosophy. He should be 
able to draw neatly, and should understand the 
principles of projection upon which all engineering 
drawings are constructed. His work includes the 
construction of roads, bridges, railways, canals, 
harbours, and drainage worics. 

A mechanical engineer is one who is efficient in 
the invention, contrivance, and adjustment of all 
kinds of machinery, who is acquainted with the 
strength and quaUty of material used, and possesses 
a thorough knowledge of the power of steam, of 
electricity, and of the engine in all its modifica- 
tions, and the use to which this motive power is 
applied. 

Engineering. Established iS66. Published 
weekly (Friday). Price 6d, Address : 35 Bedford 
Street, London, W.C. 

Engineering Record. Established 1874. Pub- 
lished weekly (Saturday). Price 6d. Address : 
146 Fleet Street, London, E.C. 

Engineering Standards Commiitee, which is 
supported by the Institution of Civil Engineers, 
the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, the 
Institution of Naval Architects, the Iron and Steel 
Institute, and the Institution of Electrical Engineers, 
was formed in January, 1901, on the motion of Sir 
John Wolfe Barry, K.C.B., to consider the advisa- 
bility of standardising various kinds of iron and 
steel sections. The original committee consisted 
of six members, and at the first meeting, held April, 
1 901, it was decided to recommend that the various 
Institutions now associated with the Committee 
be approached and invited to nominate two 
members each on the Committee. The invitations 
were accepted, and the Committee on Standardisa- 
tion thus constituted met for the de^atch of 
business on April 26, 1 90 1 . In 1 90 1 the standardisa- 
tion of locomotives and of tests for engineering 
materials was included, and early in the following 
year the standardisation of electrical plant. The 
work undertaken by the Committee has thus from 
time to time been enlarged, and the following 
subjects have been or are now under coanderation : 
Rolled Sections, Railway and Tramway' Rails, 
Locomotives for Indian Railways, Pipe Flanges, 
Screw Threads, Pipe Threads, Limit Gauges, Rail- 
way Rolling Stock BCaterials, Tyre Profiles, Steel 



V 



NominaUd by the Inst, 
of Civil Enfineers. 



) Nominated by the Inst, 
l of Mechanical Engineers, 

Nominated by the Iron 
and Steel Institute, 

Nominated by the Inst, 
of Naval Architects* 

Nominated by the Inst, 
of Electrical Engineers, 



Castings and Forging for Marine Work, Portland 
Cement, Cast IrcMi Pipes, Generators, Motors and 
Transformers, Prime Movers for Electrical Pur- 
poses, Telegraphs and Telephones, Electric Cables, 
Electric Tramway Materials, Electric Automobiles, 
Electrical Plant Accessories. 

Main Comicittbb. 
Sir John Wolfe Barry, K.C.B. (Chairman). 

Sir Benjamin Baker, ^ 

K.CB. 
Sir William H. White, 

K.CB. 
Sir Alexander R. Binnie. 
Sir Douglas Fox. 
James C. IngUs. 
Professor Unwin. 

William H. Maw. 
Edward P. Martin. 

G. Ainsworth. 
Arthur Cooper. 

Archibald Denny. 
Dr. Francis Elgar. 

Sii William Preece, 

K.C>.B. 
Colonel R. E. B. Cromp- 

ton, C.B., R.E. 

Dr. J. H. T. Tudsbery (Hon. Secretary), Institu- 
tion of Civil Engineers. 
Leslie S. Robertson (Secretary), 28 Victoria 
Street, S.W. 

Engineer's Gaiette. Published monthly. Price 
6d. Address : 56 Chancery Lane, London, W.C. 

Engineers, HavaL See Naval Education. 

Engineers' Taoht dab, RoyaL See Royal 
Engineers' Yacht Club. 

English and Ameriean Shipping Co., Ltd., managed 
by Messrs. Bowring Bros., Ltd., with branch oflSices 
at Cardiff, St. Johns (Newfoundland), New York, 
and San Francisco, have a fleet of 14 modem 
steamers engaged in various cargo trades. 

Fleet. 

Adra, Inca, 

Bona, Mohta, 

Catalone. Mora. 

Dominion, Murcia, 

Huelva. 

Gross tonnage, 43,66$. 

ign gifali Channel Distriot. See Trinity House 
Pilotage Districts. 

Enroth. Swedish submarine. (Stockholm, 
1902.) Length, 82 ft. ; beam, 13 ft. ; draught, 
1 1 '6 ft. ; displacement, 146 tons ; Hp., 100= 1 1 kts. 

Ensign is a national flag flown at the mizzen 
peak or at the ensign stafi of a ship, indicating her 
nationality. 

Great Britain has three ensigns, of which the 
Union flag forms a part, (x) The White Ensign, 



Mystic, 
Pola. 
Roda, 
Vera. 
Zufra. 



ENTERPRISE 



202 



ERNE 



which belongs exclusively to the Royal Navy, 
except that the Royal Yacht Squadron has special 
permission to fly it. This is flown by all ships of 
the Royal Navy, and at all naval stations. The 
Union Jack occupies one quarter of the field, the 
upper quarter nearest the flagstaff. The rest of 
the ensign is white, having the St. George's Cross 
upon it, throughout its length and height. The 
white ensign is the only one of the three that carries 
a cross upon its field in this way. (2) The Blue 
Ensign is flown by ships belonging to the Naval 
Reserve. The Union Jack occupies one quarter of 
the field ^ in the white ensign, and the whole of the 
rest of the flag is taken up by the blue field. Some 
yacht clubs have permission to fly this ensign. 
(3) The Red Ensign is flown by all British ships 
which do not belong to the Royal Navy or the 
Royal Naval Reserve. The design is the same as 
that of the blue ensign, substituting r