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Full text of "The encyclopaedia sinica"



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THE ENClCLOPAEDlxV S J NIC A 



THE 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA 
SINICA 



BY 

SAMUEL COULING, :\[.A. (Edix.) 

l.ATELY HOXOHARY SKCRKTAKV AXU KDITOU 
XORTII-CnrXA I!RAX''II royal ASIATIC SOCIKTY 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 



Shan(;iiai : 
KKLLV AND WALSH, IJMITKD 

ii()XOK()X(i — sixc; vr«>i:i; — y«>k<»ii \ \i a 

1 !) 1 7 




SIIAN(iHAr : 
Ki;i,l-V AND W'AI-SH. I.IMCI'KI) 

l^rintcrfl aiiD li^iiblishrrs 



PREFACE 



So brave a ritle as T liave irivoii this sniitllMjoctk .seems to^ deinand a|K»loL'y or e\|>laiintitni. 

Cliildren often receive naiuL'S for wliicli iliere is no justification at the time: im l«tl>y is 
I'liANK or Aifii'STis or deserxles to ho called I\\'|'FK\(K or (ii!A(K: hut llien- is alwavs a 
l)os8il)ility that the}' may tji-ow up (6 h&'wortliy of such names. ^ •,. 

This book is a small one l)!!^*?^)/)]* -it , will grow. Kv^gu'lhe h'iii//(/ii/>tin/i(i /I, llaii/iiin was 
not always as large as it is to-day. I lielievo~diiat. t-he' A'iir//ilojjiift/i(i Siiiim, in spite of all ItK 
deficiencies, will prove so useful rliat another edition will be called for, and then another, and that 
each edition will iie fuller than ilic last, till a woi-k is produced that is allliy siiiologueH and 
s|K?cialists and that is worthy of tin' prond name. Ihu this smaller book had to coum- lir>i. 
n«'sides. the name is a good one. 

Xo one knows better than the writer how incomplete the work is. With more time the 
number of articles could have 1)een doubled and almost every article made twice as lon^'. Hut inoKt 
of the book I did alone, and mndi of it in the spare hours of ;i busy life : only towards the end, 
when I felt sure the l)ook could be com]ileted. did f seek for help. \ bigger work would have 
reipiired time and cajiital and a staff of wiiters. On its present scale it will Ikj of use to the 
ordinary student and I'eader. while it will also provide a basis for a fuller work to follow. 

In my researches 1 found a writer who alluded lo a certain dictionary as being • still-lMirn.' 
and he further referred to it as a " mere skeleton." I should be sorry for my l>fM»k t«t Ik- called a 
'still-born skeleton,' but T am pleased to thiidc it is the framework on which :i moic cr.iniil.t.- :nid 
worthier Encyclopaedia may be elaborated. 

y[s heartiest thanks are due to Dr. (i. H. ^loinusoN, who not oidy gave me conjpjetf* 
freedom io use his famous library, — the best in the world for my pur[K)se. — but also encoin-aged nie 
by sympathy, advice and help in many ways. Sir Chahi.ks Ei.iot, both in lloui^koug and IVkinv. 
was always ready to assist, especially in matters relating to the Huddhist religion, and even allow*-*! 
me the free use of a work of his on r>uddhism, not yet published. M. I'aii, Pkm-Hit not only 
heljied with kind advice and correction but contributed an important article, while I'rof. Ki»ni-ARi) 
('ftavaxnhs favoured me with some valuable notes. Professors H. A. (Jii.ks, K. II. rAUKKit, 
Hkxri CoiiDiKit and rjKUTiiOM) liAiFKR, though they have not supplied any articles, have 
expressed the kindest interest in the l)ook and have readily answered various (piories. Dr. Pai"!. 
S. Rkinsc'H, the United States j\Iinister to China, jiroved a keen appreciati<»n of the work by 
having it provided with valual)le articles. La.stly, I must express my gratitude to the Jesuit 
Fathers at Zi-ka-wei, who, with their usual charming courtesy, gave me all the a.ssisUuicc they could, 
placed their library at my disposal and wrote some imi>ortant articles for the Ixxik. 



VI 



As retrartls otlier contributors of matter ; the bulk of the work was done by myself, as already 
stated, and it was only when there seemed a reasonable hope of publishino; that I ventured to ask 
specialists for help. I then found that there was no lack of ready helpers for a work that promised 
to api^ear early : it might have been in vain to ask for help at the beginning, but at the end 1 find 
that, by delaying publication, many more valuable contributions might be obtained. In only two or 
three cases lias any remuneration been offered ; the help has been given with generosity and 
enthusiasm, because the contributors recognized the value of such a book to tlie [lublic. 

Of these contributors Mr. J. 1). de La Toueuii has perhaps taken the most pains, for, 
besides writing the article OrnUholoiiy, he has corrected all the lists of birds which appear in the 
book. It must be understood that ~M\\ La Touchk is not responsible for these lists, but they are 
far more correct than they would have been if he had not kindly read them. Several of the 
(lovernment ^linistries and Services have pi'ovided articles which, whether signed or not, will be 
recognized by the reader as authoritative, and my s^xjcial thanks are due for papers or material to the 
Inspectorate General of iLaritime Customs, the Directorate General of Posts, the Chief Inspectoiate 
of Salt Revenue, the ilinistry of Communications and the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce. 
Among the names which I am permitted to mention are those of F. Sherfksee, Esq., {Foreslrtj) ; 
W. T. Coijjxs, Esq., {Minimi) ; Dr. C. C. Waxo, {Eailirai/s) ; Dr. ^Y. II. WanTx, {GeoUfjij) ; H. Yax 
j)Ki{ Vkkx, Esq., {ConKfivanri/) ; Ciiaxc Chien, Es(]. and W. \\. Strickland, Esq., {Salt Revenue). 

I am further indebted for special articles or material to E. G. Hillikr, Esq., c.m.g.; 
Dr. Wi- LiKX Tkm : E. T. C. Werxkr. Es(i. : 11. Vox Hkidexstam, Esq.; Rev. G. G. Warrlix ; 
Rev. A. C. Morij, : Rev. E. Morgax ; Dr. A. Staxlky : Mrs. F. Avscounii; G. Laxxixg, Esq.; 
Rev. Dr. S. L AVoodhridoe; Rev. Pere Courtois, s..i. : Rev. Pere J. de la Serviere s.j. ; 
Rev. A. P. Parker, d.u. ; Rev. Arxold Foster, b.a. : Lionel Giles, Esq., ll.d. ; Rev. J. P. 
Bruce, m.a.; Fraxk X. ]\rKVER, Es(i.: II. Chati.ev, Esq., d.8C. ; Pere Gauthier, s.j.: and 
Xoii.MAX SiiAw. Hs(|., who has written most of the articles on the products and exports of China, and 
has supi)lied many statistics, in most cases contributed articles have the writer's initials appended, 
but some contributions are anonymous, and to \arions short notes it seemed hardly necessary 
to add the initials. 

After my wife's return from England in 11)10 she became very helpful, writing a number of 
■imi)ortant aiticles and moreover undertaking the notices of all the Protestant Missions in China, 
thus ensuring completeness and imifonnity of treatment in that subject. She has also been of the 
greatest assistance in the laliorions woik of reading proofs, etc. 

^Ir. Z. T. Woo, .Vssistant Librarian of the Royal Asiatic Society, North China Branch, has 
given me some \vel<'orne lu^lp. 

Finally, my very hearty thanks are given to Mr. V. \\ . ;\1()()I!k of ]\Iessrs. Kkllv and Walsh, 
Limitek, who from the inception ol the work has taken the keenest interest in it, and without whose 
friendly co-ojK'rat ion and unsparing hard work the book could not have been out so soon, and would not 
have shewn so satisfactory an ajjpearancc. Only those who have had the exi)crience can know the 
difficulties of producing such a work in the Far Fast, far from res(»in'ces an<l by the labour of 
Chinese workmen whose Fnglish is of the scantiest. The typographical errors which have escaped 
notice till too late, but which are not nunutrous, will be easily ]iurdone(l, and the necessity for using 
a new mark over the ii (as in Tzu) : this oix' change in (lie \Vai)K system, being constant 
throughout th(! book, can cause no confusion. Il is not necessary to sav nineli alucir the ilillicullies 
which the Great Wai' has caused both to printer mid coiii|iiler. 



As lo thf roinanizati.iii of Cliincsr cliaractiTs. Wadk's gjsU'ia lisw Ikjcij adhered m a- 
I'ar as possildo. It lias not, liowovcr, Itofii iK)ssil)lc to liu iiiiironii. Xamos of placcK like K»hk-Iu>\v. 
ilaiiirchow, L'tc, iimst, of coiiisc. Ik- siiclt acooriliiij: L<3 the afc<.'|»lc<l usa<,'o. In the case of Mistiions 
ill I lie soiilliLiii proviiict's (lie names of places are i^i veil as recorded in th<- Miniiioii K«i»ortj», and 
arc often difiicult to nco<:ni/.c l>y om- who only sjieaks inandariii. Further, the I*c«t Ollitv 
aulliorities have issned a hst of jdace iiuines, and these must jreiifiiilly lie accepted ihoiijrh (hfTen-iit 
from the Wadk system, riiiforniity has tlicrefore lieen i.inpossilde, hut the Chineisc chamderh 
will he suHicient help to those who can read iIkiu. As to other ChiiieHe words, not pwjj^raphicai 
names, it has hardly seemed fair to alter the roinaiiization in contrihuted articles, and the Wai»k 
system is therefore again departed from, hut atrain the characters will prevent niihunder«laii«lin;,'. 
AVliere Chinese words form tlie title of an article, not only are <diaractei*K j,'iveii, hut cnjt«-referenc«* 
have heeii nsed freely, so that the reader who looks e.g. for Tsin will at once know lie must turn to 
(Viiii. In some cases it may he that a character is romanizcd in two ways in the same article, and 
I ort'er no excuse. 

Even in personal names there will l)e found somethin*,' to forj.'ive. 

It seems natural to use the title ' I'cre ' for all Ifouian Catholic priesti*, whatever their 
nationality ; and since the hooks consulted ahout them were jrenerally in French it will l»e found 
that the Fathers' names are often in a French form when they should rijjhtly 1)C Italian. l'ortui,Mni«' 
or Spanish. 

AVith rei,^ard to the hooks to which the reader is referred at the end of eaeh ariiei.- ; n iimim 
not he supi)osed that these are all I have consulted. The references are often to those works which 
arc most acccssihle, or to those which will put the studeiii on the track of further IxMtks, — they arc 
often inclusive — in heing referred to Morse, for exam}tle, one is also referred to the auihoriticii 
which Morse may indicate. 

It has been impossible to ol)serve a true proportion in the treatment of 8ui»ject.s and 
this for several reasons. But it may he observed that every reader will l»e inclined to think too 
much space is given to those subjects which have no interest for him. 

The arrangement of headings is strictly ali)habetical : that is, there is no groupin«r of 
certain classes of Chinese sounds such as CJii, Shan, etc. Thus Cli'in Dynasty and Ch'in State will 
be separated by Cliing, etc. The alphabetical arrangement reiiuires some care on the reader's part. 
yet it may be less irritating than the other system. 

Unless otherwise indicated the dollar is always the Mexican dollar. 

The reader w ill no doubt find mistakes enough in the book, and I shall he thankful to have 
them pointed out. liut not everything which seems an error is really one ; it may l»o that the reader 
has depended on a single authority. To give the simplest illustration jxissible, Chinese (ioKiM>.v, 
leader of the Ever Victorious Army, is called Pktku in AViijjam's MiiOlh Kingdom^ yet I am not 
in error wlien I name him Cuarlks (tEORGE. A hundred similar but more diflicnlt e.xamples 
might be given. 

I send the book out in the sincere hope that it may help to interpret and o|kmi up China to 
the foreign reader, and may increase mutual respect and knowledge k'twecn East and West. 

SAMIEL COILIXG. 

Shanghai, August 2.i, 1917. 



vm 



CUMRlliLTuHS WHUSE INITIALS FOLLOW 
THEIR ARTICLES. 



F.A. iMr.«. F. Ayscough. 

J.l'.n. Rt'v. J. P. Beuce, M.A. 

('.('. Chang Chien, Esq. 

C.E.C. Mis. COULING. 

F.C. Rev. Father F. Courtois, S..J. 

H.C. H. Chatley, Esq., D.Sc. 

A.F. Rev. Arnold Foster, B.A. 

G. Rev. Father Gauthier, S.J. 

JL\. IL H. VON Heidknstam, Esq. 

L>.\j. CiEORGE Lannxng, Esq. 

J.L. ,1. D. J)E J..A TorcHE, Esq. 

E.M. Rev. Evan Morgan. 

A.IM'. Rfv. A. P. Parker, D.D. 

P.P. Professor Paul Pelliot, LJi.D. 

T.S. ToKUSUKE Sahara, E.sq. 

S. Rev. Father J. de la Servjere, S.J. 

N.S. Norman Shaw, Esq. 

F.S. FoRSYTHE Sheufesee, Esq. 

A.S. Arthur Stanley, Esq., M.D. 

W.P.S. \V. R. Strickland, Esq. 

R.I'.T. i:. P. Tenney, Esq. 

\'.(1.A'. U. Van der Veen, Esq., C.E. 

W . II.W. \V. II. Wang, Esq., LL.D. 

( .( .W. ( . C. Wang, Esq., LL.D. 

(i.(;.W. Kev. G. G. Warren. 

E.T.( .W. K. T. C. Werner, E.sq. 

S.l.W. Itrv. S. I. WOOIIBRIUGE, D.D. 

W. \Vu LiEN-TEH, P:sq., M.I)., LL.D. 

W. 1". ( oi.LiNS, Esq., AI.Inst.M. & M., has his 
name ;i|)|)<>iuled in full and other contrihutors are 
ani)ii\ nioiis, at tlieir own request. In some cases an 
asterisk marks a contributed article. 



AHUKEVIATIONS. 

I'lic alil)rcvialiun.s in tliis book arc very lew except those known 
to everyone. 

N.( .l'>.i;..\.S. Xorlli Cliiiia Kianch, lioyal .Asiatic Society. 

I!..\..S. Ixoyal .\sialic Sucicly of (ireat Britain and Ireland. 

B.E.F.E.O. Mnllitin de I'Ecole fran<,'aise de 1" Extreme-Orient. 

S..T. Society (J Jesus (.Jesuits). 

f'.M. Gongregation of the Mission (Laxarists). 

L..NLS. London Missionary Society. 
etc. 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA STMCA 



A 



ABACUS, $^^ Euan D'au. reckoning plate, 
the counting-board used by the Chinese. It is a 
frame with a number of wire rods jjarallel. 
These are divided unequally by a transverse bar 
of wood. On each rod are seven balls, five on 
one side of the dividing bar and two on the other. 
Each of the five on the first wire counts singly, 
but each of the two balls counts as five and when 
both are drawn to the dividing line they stand 
for ten. The next wire to the left will similarly 
deal with tens and the next with hundreds. 

It is apparently indigenous, though closely 
resembling that used by the Romans ; it is 
derived from an old system of counting by tallies, 
and came into use in the 3rd century a.d. 
according to Schlegel, in the 12th according to 
Lacoui'ERie and in the 14th according to 

ViSSIliRE. 

It is also called ch'iu p'an 1^^ ball-olate. 

There has recently been some enthusiasm 
shown for the use of the abacus and it is being 
taught in the third and fourth years of the 
elementary schools. But the method is only of 
use for addition, subtraction, multiplication and 
to a limited extent for division. The extraction 
of square roots on the abacus or simplification of 
fractions, for example, h extremely difficult, and 
there is always the objection that, in case of an 
error the whole calculation must be made over 
again. 

VissiERE : Bccherches i^iir Vori'jine fh' 
Vahaque chinois; Schlegel : T'oung Pao, 1893, 
p. 95 ; Lacotjperie : Numismatic Chronicle, vol. iii, 
3rd series, p. 297. 

ABEEL, DAVID, an early missionary to 
China, sent by the American Dutch Reformed 
Church q.v. (through the American Board of 
Commissioners for Foreign Missions q.v.). He 
reached China in company with Bridgman in 1830. 
He paid one visit to the west on account of 
health, travelled a great deal in the Indies for 

I 



the Board's information, entered Amoy directlj 
it was open (1842), and being sent homo in ■ 
dying condition died at Albany, N.Y. in 1846. 

ABEL, CLARKE, chief medical officer and 

naturalist to the A.mhekst Emba-ssy. rnhappily 
nearly everything he collected wa« loiit on the 
homeward journey through the wreck of lh« 
Alccste in the Straits of Caspar north of Pulo 
Leat, east of Sumatra. He wrote an account of 
the journey and Embassy. 

Abel : Narrative of a Journey in the Interior 
of China, etc.. London, 1818. 

ABHIDHARMA, a Sanscrit word tranBlat4'd 
into Chinese as ggl lun di^couTses. The Lun Liang 
or Thesaurus of discourses is one of the divisions 
of the Chinese Tripitaka or .San Ttcmg; it 
contains translations of Buddhist work« on 
philosophical subjects. Sec Buddhist Canon. 

ABORIGINES. The earlier occupanU of 
Chinese soil still exi'^t in large numbers in the 
provinces of Kueichow, Ssuch'uan, Yunnan, Kuan»{- 
si and Kuangtung. In Yunnan about two-thirds 
of the population consists of them. Altogether 180 
tribes have been named, numbering many millions 
and occupying territory larger than that of France. 
In some cases they are on their own ' ' -jI, 

elsewhere they have retreated to the 

No great family in the world is .- ■"••»! 

as these non-Chinese races. Thi" ) ^uc 

to the bewildering number of set. •«» 

to them by the Chinese. In t: of 

Yunnan 141 tribes of them are mentioned separately 
without any attempt to classify them. 

They have been divided according to languag* 

by both BocuNE and Davies =• •- ''"■'• •'"«'•, 

Bourse's being Lolo. Shan am! '" 

j similarly divides them into Mo:. '^^ 

j Tibeto-Burman families. In •"* 

will bo found 22 vocabularies aiiU a: "• ^pcf:^lcnf 

I of Lolo script. 



ABORIGINES 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



Following Davies, who also gives various 
vocabularies, the Families are 

(i) the Mon-Khmer Family, comprising the 
Miao-Yao, the Min-chia and the Wa-Palaung 
groups. 

(ii) the Shan Family, embracing all the tribes 
speaking Shan or Tai dialects. 

(iii) the Tibeto-Burman Family, comprising the 
Hsi-fan, the Lo-lo and the Kachin groups. 

These groups are again subdivided. To the 
Wa-Palaung group belong the Wa, La, and P'u-man 
tribes. The Moso belong to the Hsifan group. 
The Lo-lo group includes also the Liso, the La-hu 
and the Wo-ni tribes. To the Burmese group 
belongs the Ma-ru tribe. 

The Miao and Yao languages, though they lack 
very close resemblance to the Annamese, Cambodian 
and Talain languages, are classified with the Mon- 
Khmer Family, because of the construction of their 
sentences : — the noun precedes the adjective, the 
thing possessed precedes the possessor, the subject 
precedes the verb, and the verb precedes the 
object. The Miao call themselves Mhong, while 
the Talains call themselves IMon. Though the 
Min-chia language is more Chinese in construction, 
yet, according to both L.\coxjperie and Davies, 
it contains a sufficient foundation of similar words 
to justify its inclusion among the Mon-Khmer 
Family. 

Because the Chinese, Shan and Tibeto-Burman 
Families are more closely allied to each other in 
speech than they are to the Mon-Khmer Family, 
it has been supposed tliat the Mon-Khmer separat- 
ed in very early days from the original stock and 
settled in Indo-China long before the others. 
There are evidences which point to the presence 
of a smaller, darker race, before the coming of 
the Mon-Khmer Family. 

About many of the tribes very little has been 
written. Some notes on the more important ones 
are given below, in alphabetical order. To save 
repetition the names only of authors to be referred 
to are given after each tribe, while a full list of 
the works will be found at the end of the article. 

CHUNG CHIA ,^ t^ is the name given to 
some non-Chinese tribes living in Yiinnan, Kuei- 
chou, Kuangsi and Kuangtung, numbering between 
8i.\ and .«even millions. They are akin to the Shan 
tribes of Burma, the Tai of Tonkin, the Lao 
tribes on the borders of China and possibly to 
the Li-mu or Loi tribes of Hainan. Some of their 
houses resemble tho.se of the Shan, being built on 
piles. They are a distinct race from the Miao-chia, 
and are more respected by the Chinese. Most of 
the Chung-chia claim to have come from Kiangsi. 
The probable reason for this claim seems to be 
that when Chinese were sent to subdue the wild 
tribes in the south-west, ( Koh-lao or Miao-chia ) 



and occupied the conquered territory, the soldiers 
married the women of the superior Chung-chia. 
Pere Roux states that the name Chung-chia means 
" sons of all races " and was given to the descend- 
ants of this alliance. Clarke states that the word 
means " the middle tribe " meaning the tribe 
inferior to the Chinese and superior to the Miao. 
The Chinese words adopted into their language 
are pronounced as in the Kiangsi dialect. 

There appear to be three classes of Chung-chia, 
the Pu-i, the Pu-Na or Pula ^- i$] and the Pu-lung. 
Roux states that they are called I-chia by the 
Chinese, but Clarke regards this term as another 
name for the Lo-lo. 

The men dress like Chinese, but the women 
wear tight coats and long skirts and do not bind 
their feet. They do three-quarters of the work. 

They ajDpear to worship no deities, though they 
recognise a Good and an Evil Being. They have 
no legends of the creation or deluge, as the Lo-lo 
and Miao have. E.\orcists are employed in times 
of sickness or calamity to drive away the evil 
influences and sometimes sacrifices are offered in 
front of " spirit " trees. Roux writes that 
formerly they worshipped a cross, and that at one 
time he saw one of these in a pagoda. It used to 
be carried about iri procession, its arms hung with 
eggs, each covered with little crosses. 

They are ruled by local headmen, but disputes 
they cannot settle are carried to the Chinese courts. 
They are fond of litigation and the Chinese 
consider them crafty and dishonest. 

They have no written language. Their speech 
is monosyllabic and contains different definite 
articles. Many of the words resemble those of the 
Shan dialect. 

The Chung-chia do not dance but love singing. 
Formerly they used to hold comjDetitions in im- 
provisation. Their burial sacrifices differ from 
those of the Chinese. 

Roux; Clarke. 

HEAD-HUNTERS. The Vonuum tribe of 
the Southern savages of Formosa and the Atayal 
tribe, the Northern savages of Formosa, are head- 
hunters. Human heads are offered at all their 
celebrations, and adorn the entrances of their 
huts. 

The Wa tribe found between the Salwin and 
Mekong rivers in Yiinnan and across the border in 
Burma are also head-hunters. 

Arnold ; Taylor. 

HEI MIAO .^, 15 , black miao, the most 
important tribe of the Miao, so-called because 
they wear dark-coloured clothes. They are found 
in S.E. Kucichou and are the most intelligent and 
self-reliant of the Miao. Some say they originally 
came from Kiangsi. 

Clarke ; Davies ; Johnston, 



KNCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



ABORlLilNt> 



HUA-MIAO ;{6'® , flower]/ miao, are a Miao 
tribe, so-called because their women wear parti- 
coloured clothes. A bride wears a silver filagree 
crown, seven silver necklets and silver bangles 
on each arm, silver spangles sewn over her coat 
and a richly embroidered skirt. The Ta Hua Miao 
are morally the worst of the Miao. 

Clauke ; Clark. 

HSI-FAN |g ^ , western barbarians is the 
name given by the Chinese to tribes inhabiting 
the regions on the borders of China and Tibet. 
Many are Tibetan in religion and customs, but in 
some districts they have a cult of their own, 
which includes animal sacrifice. Their language 
is connected with the Lo-lo speech. 

DaVIES ; ROCKHILL. 

KACHIN ; a hill-race of Burma, but extending 
into W. Yunnan. The Chinese call them Yeh-jcn 
5j! X (savages) or more politely shun t'ou \i\ 5^ (hill 
tops). They call themselves ching-p'aw. 

Davies. 

KEH-LAO ;Ja ^ or Liao, jg are the oldest 
non-Chinese tribes now found in Kueichou, and 
are nearly extinct. They live in An-shun pre- 
fecture. Their language is very different from 
any other in the province. Three names are given 
to them : Hua Kehlao, ;{£ ^'^ ^^ because the wo- 
men dress in various colours ; Ta-ya Keh-lao, ^ ^ 
^V iSi£ because a bride's front tooth is broken 
before marriage ; and Hung Keh-lao, 7^ ^t ^ 
( red Keh-lao ). The men dress like Chinese, but 
the women have a peculiar costume of their own, 
wear their hair in a top-knot, and do not bind 
their feet. The Keh-lao are great believers in 
demons. 

Vial ; Clarke ; Clark. 

LA is the Shan name of tribes akin to the 
Wa, found in K'eng-ma and neighbouring Chinese 
Shan States. They are more civilized than those 
called Wa, and aae not headhunters, but are not 
Buddhist. Those tribes, of the same stock as Wa 
and La, who have embraced Buddhism are called 
Tai Loi. 

Davies ; Scott. 

LI-MU. See Loi, inf. 

LI-SO is the Chinese name of a native tribe 
whose head quarters are in Yunnan in the Salwin 
basin. They call themselves Li-su. They use 
cross-bows for hunting. They are wide-spread but 
not very numerous. In their northern home they 
are quite untouched by Chinese civilization, and 
live in primitive savagery ; further south they are 
very Chinese in their customs. 

Davies. 

LO-HEI is the Chinese name of the Lahu, a 
hill-tribe that lives in south Yiinnan between the 
Mekong and the Salwin. They talk a Lob dialect 



and are probably a mixed race of Lolu and Wa 
They are very war-like, the men using cross bows 
and poisoned arrows. The men (in China) have 
adopted Chinese dress, but the women wear long 
coats, breeches and gaiters, their tribal costume. 

m •■ 

LOI, (Li mu, etc.), 5|, aborij;ine« uf i 
many of these have bo far adopted (1 
and manners as hardly to be di le. 

Others, while entirely under (1. un 

their own dress and customs — tli. .10 

Lois.' But a third class retain aUu of 

their own ancestral ^o^'"'"'"'''^^ ' I'V 

perhaps half the island, « •uulh, 

and much of their country 1 They 

have no market towns, tiie arciiitccturo of their 
villages is their own and they have ibcir own 
system of village rulers and laws. 

The various tribes differ somewhat in cuiloai. 
The men of the tribe living towards the north-cast 
of the district wear their hair in a large knot, and 
their costume consists of a short coat open down 
the front and girdled, and two pieces of cloth hung 
from the waist. Another tribe lives in the south 
and its men fasten their hair with bone pins ; 
while the women wear their hair tied as a horse's 
tail is in wet weather. The men in the south- 
west part the hair from car to ear, with the front 
hair knotted on the forehead, and the rest brought 
over one ear and tucked into the knot. All the 
women are tattooed and wear short coals and pet- 
ticoats ending above the knee. The clothing is 
made from tree-cotton or from Chinese cotton. 
In one district ornaments of bone and silver are 
worn ; in another, large brass earrings, eight to 
ten hoops of 5 inches diameter in each ear, are the 
pi incipal ornaments ; while heavy bead collars are 
worn in a third district. 

They provide for themselves nearly all they 
need, but bring deers' horns and hides, rattan, etc, 
into the Chinese markets. 

They seem to have no writing and no idols ; 
they are superstitious and su.spicious but are de- 
scribed as gentle and amiable. Their relations with 
the Chinese are always unstable and revolts are 
frequent. Some of the Loi are found in the 
peninsula of Luichow in Kuangtung. and it has 
been thought by some that they were the same race 
as the Chung-chia of Kueichou and Kuang!"i. who 
arc similar to the Tai, and that they wore dri\cn 
south while the Chungchia were pressed to the 
west. 

Most of the Loi dialects have tl >»"• 

matical construction a-i Arr;?.r7T""» e. 

From a comparison of vo '' 

opinion that the Loi arc si ** 

In stature and complexion liicy j>o<ni related to 
the Malays. TIk^v c -irv the centre snd Sotith 



a 



ABORIGINES 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



of Hainan, and are divided into 15 or 16 tribes. 
Their name is pronounced variously as Le, Lai, Li 
and Loi. 

Jeremiassex ; Calder ; Schaeffer ; Henrt. 
LO-LU, Jgig, etc., the Chinese name for an 
important native race in the South-west. Lao-lao 
and Liaoliuo are other forms of the name. The 
Lo-lo resent the use of these terms and are more 
politely called / chia^i^. The Chinese also call 
them Man tzu,^-i- or Man c/iia; this is the name 
commonly used in Ssuch'uan. The Lo-lo native 
name is Xo-su or Xei-su. 

There are various explanations of the Chinese 
name; Lo may be a corruption of No; but others 
say the name was given because they carry baskets 
supposed to contain the souls of ancestors, the 
Chinese word for such baskets being Lo-lo. 

They are the most widely spread of all the 
native races of W. China, being found from 
W. Ssuch'uan to Kueichou, and forming the bulk 
of the population in Yunnan. Their stronghold is 
the Ta Liang range in Ssuch'uan and the Chicn- 
ch'ang ^ ^ valley which is the passage between 
Ssuchuan and Y'unnan. Here they are independent 
and in the majority, and lord it over the Chinese, 
whom they only tolerate that they may barter with 
them. The territory they occupy is estimated at 
11,000 sq. miles. They are divided into ' black ' 
and ' white,' or ' blackbones ' and ' whitebones ' ; 
the former being superior. In Ssuch'uan, where 
they are pure or mingled with E. Tibetans, they 
are comparatively fair, a fine, tall, race ; further 
south they aii-e smaller, darker, inferior, though 
still belter than other aborigines, and are being 
absorbed by the Chinese. Their origin is unknown, 
but they have been suspected of Indo-European 
descent. 

It is surmised that either the Ssuch'uan 
Lo-los may be of the original stock, while those 
in Y'unnan may be the product of a mi.xture with 
another darker race ; or that the shorter, darker 
type may be the original type, and the tall Lo-lo 
of the North may have sonic infusion of Aryan 
blood. 

They have a written language, consisting of 
some three thousand words, and, according to 
Bourne, only used for religious purposes. Du 
Halue gives an early account of them ; Baber was 
the first of recent writers on them ; and they have 
since received a great deal of attention. Cordieu's 
paper in the T'oun/fpao gives a resume of all that 
had been written about them up to date, with a 
bibliography, and was prepared in view of the 
d'Ollone mission then exploring the Ta Liang 
mountains. 

Bauer; Vial; Clarke; Davies ; Cordier ; 
Legendrej Maurolle; Lietard; u'Ollone. 



MA KU, a Yiinnan tribe found on the East 
branch of the Irawadi, extending over the border 
into China in small numbers. They eat dogs. 

Davies ; Pottinger. 
MIAO-CHIA, -g m or MIAO-TZU g ^ is the 
name given by Chinese to tribes calling themselves 
Mhong, whose head-quarters are in Kueichou, but 
who are also found in south Yiinnan, Ssuch'uan 
and Plunan. They appear to have originally come 
from Hunan. In 800 B.C. the king of Chou sent 
an expedition to Changsha against them. In the 
reign of Ch'in Shih Huang Ti they were driven 
west. There are many tribes of them, differing 
in dialect, dress, etc. In Kueichou they are the 
serfs or tenants of the Lo-los. They are very 
simple ; in morals they are inferior to the Chinese. 
Drink is their curse, and even their women aire 
seen frequently drunk. They love music and danc- 
ing, their chief instrument being the lu-sen ^ M 
similar to the Chinese sMng ^ Young people are 
allowed to court. They have no writing but have 
legends of the creation and the deluge. They have 
no idols, but sacrifice to their dead. They believe 
in a future existence. They are in great dread of 
demons and constantly employ sorcerers, exorcists 
and mediums. They are ruled by headmen who 
are responsible to the Chinese magistrate. There 
have been frequent revolts of the Miao, the last 
great one being during the T'ai P'ing rebellion. 
The Miao women wear wonderfully embroidered 
clothes and short, white kilted skirts. Both men 
and women wear dark blue turbans. The men 
use cross-bows and poisoned arrows. The Hei 
Miao, Hua Miao, Ya chiao Miao, are amongst 
the most important of their tribes, in Kueichou. 
Vial ; Clarke ; Davies. 
MIN-CHIA S^ is the name given by Chinese 
to a very mixed tribe found in Yunnan, chiefly in 
the plains of Ta-li fu and Chao-chou, and not 
widely scattered. They call themselves Pe-tso. 
They claim that their ancestors came from Nanking 
and they have adopted a Chinese construction in 
their sentences and many Chinese words. It is a 
' most puzzling language to classify, but Lacouperie 
and Davies agree to place it in the Mon-Khmer 
group. They have no written language. In the 
5th moon they hold a festival of music and dancing. 
! Davies ; Clark. 

■ MO-SO J^^ or Mo-sha, or Mo-ti, or Li chia is 

I the name of a tribe living in the prefectures ot 
1 I,i-kiang and Ilo-king, in Yunnan. They call 
! themselves Na-shi or La-shi. They formerly in- 
habited S.W. Tibet, and claim to have originally 
[ come from Mongolia. They founded a powerful 
state with the capital at Li-kiang, and were part 
of the kingdom of Nan-chao. In 1253 they were 
subjugated by Khubilai Khan. Their language 
I resembles that of the Lo-lo somewhat, but they 



K\'<'ViI,OPAEDIA '^INKA 



ACCENTORINAE 



deny that they are related to the Lu-lo, whom they 
scorn. Their religion is a Tibetan Buddhii;m, and 
they worship their ancestors. They arc grossly 
super.stitious, believing in demons, spirits and 
magic. The deluge legend is not unknown. They 
burn their dead. Their sorcerers use a hieroglyphic 
writing. The men wear Chinese dress with ear- 
rings of green stone, and the women wear pleated 
skirts and their hair in a top-knot. 

Davies ; CouDiER ; Johnston/ Henri d'Ob- 

LEAN3. 

P'U-MAN is the Chinese "name for a tribe 
living in South and South-west Yiinnan. (.'laiike 
says that P'u is the name given by the Chinese 
to Yao ,JS . They ai'e supposed by some to be a 
Shan race, but they scattea-ed, and isolated groups 
have taken over the language of their most power- 
ful neighbours. Davies found some who could 
speak nothing but Chinese. He places them in 
the Wa-Palaung group. 

Clarke ; Davies. 

SHAN is the Burmese name for a race found 
in Burma, Siam and China. They call themselves 
Tai, pronounced T'ai in Siam. The Chinese name 
for them is Pai-i, or in Kueichou, Chungchia. In 
China they are found in Yiinnan, Kueichou, Kuang- 
si, Kuangiung and on the Ssuch'uan borders. Many 
have been absorbed into the Chinese race ; indeed 
the Cantonese may be mainly of Shan blood. 
Before Yiinnan was conquered by Khubilai Khan, 
there existed the Shan kingdom of Nan- chao, with 
Ta-Ii fu as the capital. The majority of Shans 
in Yunnan call themselves Tai No or Northern 
Shans. The Chinese call them Paii. Another 
tribe of Shans are the Lu in South Yunnan, called 
by the Chinese Shui Pai-i. The Shans live in the 
hot valleys, the Chinese keeping to the hills. 
The men dress like Chinese, but the women's 
costume varies in different localities. Their lang- 
uage and the style of their monasteries vary east 
and west of the Salwin. They have two distinct 
forms of wTiting, one for religious and the other 
for ordinary purposes. Some of the Shans in 
Yiinnan are Buddhist in religion, but in the eastern 
part they are ignorant both of Buddhism and of 
writing. 

Davies ; Joiixston. 

TAI LOI is the Shan name of hill-tribes in 
Yiinnan, akin to Wa and La tribes, but Buddhist. 
They can talk the Shan language and have largely 
adopted Shan customs. Tae women wear striped 
ccloui'ed skirts and coats ornamented with shells. 

Davies. 

WA is the Shan name for a head-hunting tribe 
found between the Salwin and the Mekong in 
Yiinnan, lat. 22° to 23", the majority however 
being in Burma. They are shorter, darker, uglier, 
and less friendly than the other tribes in Y^iinnan. 



They wear few or no clothes, and have frc^utnt 
expedition.s for hunting heads. Tlic-y are probably 
the same as the more civilized La tribe. 

D\Vir> ; Sr.-.IT. 

WO-XI '^% a ;;eiieral nan.' sc 

to hill-tribes in .South Yunnan , _. _-j lo 

dialects. Amongst them are the Pu-tu, Pi o and 
Katu. The A-ka is a Wo-ni tribe which eaU dog*. 

Da%'ies. 

Y'AO JS is the name given to a rn - > < -jng 
Kuangsi a.s their hcadquartcTs, Kuan .an 

and, some say, Hunan, liocx and < i \!.ki: both 
say they preceded the Miao and Lolos in Kueichou, 
but that none are left in that pr Their 

only remains there are mounds ntaining 

burnt bricks. According to Chintuc- • • ■;eir 

homes were like largo burrowB in i«!ii. 

Davies speaks of them aa comparali\ er« 

in Yiinnan. Their language i.s somev. ir to 

that of the Miao. 

Davies ; Clarke ; Clark ; Vial (Rorx) ; HosiE. 

YA-CH'IO MIAO SfiKtS is a tribe of Miao 
who claim they come from Tonkin. They sacri- 
fice to Heaven and Earth once a year, an ox to 
Heaven and a pig to Earth. Their women wear 
clothes of dark blue and white. Clarke. 

Arnold : The Peoples of Formofa; Calocb : 
Notes on Hainan and its Aboriginre, (China 
Review, vol. xi, p. 42) ; Clark : Kuriehou and 
Yunnan Provinces; Clarke : Amonj the Tribes 
in South-west China; Cordier : Les Mo tat 
(T'oung-pao, 1908); Davies: Yunnan; d'Ollone : 
Les derniers Barbares; d'Orleaks : Du Tonkin aux 
Indes; Henry : JAnrjnam; HosiB -.Three Years in 
West China; Jeremiassen : Loi Aborigines of Hai- 
nan. (China Review, vol. xx) ; Johnston : Frotrt 
Peking to Mandalay; Lietard : Estai de Diction- 
naire Lo-lo Franrais, (T'oung-pao, 1911) ; Lb- 
gendre : Far We.ft Chinois, (ibid. 1909); Mad- 
ROLLES : Quclques Peuplades Lo-lo, (ibid. 1906) ; 
PoTTiNGER : Upper Burma Gazetteer; Roc'KaiU. : 
I'he Land of the Lamas; Sainson : Histoire parti- 
culiere de Nan-Tchao, 1904; ScHAErriiii : The Lois, 
(East of Asia, vol. iii) ; Scott : Gazetteer of i'pper 
Burma; Taylor : Aborigines of Formosa, (China 
Review, vol. xiv, p. 121) ; Vial (Rocx) : L*t Lolot. 

ABUTILON. See Fibres, textile. 

ACADEMY. See Imperial Academy. 

ACCENTORINAE, Hedge Sparrow 

centoas, a Sub-family of the Turdidae. Th-- -|' < .<« 
known in China aro as follows. 

Accentor m 
centor, found in 
etc. A. erythrnpiijiiif, in ihi 
in X. Chihli and Manchuria. 7 
tu.^, the Rufous-breasted Actont-.r, u 
KokoM"r. till' ririn!;nL' r;i;..;''. T. 



ACCIPITRES 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SIXICA 



the Chinese Hedge sparrow, in Chihli, W. China, 
Manchuria. T. immaculatus, the Maroon-backed 
Accentor, in the mountains of W. Ssuch'uan. 
T. Tubeculoidts, in Kansu. T. fuliescens, Alashan, 
N. Tibet, Gobi desert. 

SwiNHOE : P.Z.S., 1870, p. 124; David et 
OrsTALET : Les Okcaux de la Chine. 

ACCIPITRES, the order of birds which in- 
chides the U.sprcys, Falcons, Eagles, Vultures, etc. 
There are many .species in China. Their distribut- 
ion is as follows. 

Vultur viomtchui, the Cinereous Vulture, has 
been taken in Chihli, Kiangsu, Chekiang, Fukien 
and Mongolia; Gjys /limalai/ennU, the Himalayan 
Griffon; Gypactm barbatus, the Bearded Vulture; 
these three species are rare in China and are found 
less rarely in Mongolia. Otogyps calvus occurs in 
Yiinnan. Aquilu chrysaetus, the Golden Eagle, is 
widely resident in the mountainous districts of 
China and eastern Siberia. The Chinese take it 
with nets, the wings being used for fans and the 
feet and head as medicine. -1. hcliaca, the Imperial 
Eagle, is found in Mongolia and in China, especially 
in the central provinces. A. orientalis Cab., 
(-•1. claiKja D. & 0.) ; some are resident in Mongolia 
and N. China, but it is not found in large numbers 
till spring. A. mucvlata Gm. Observed in Chihli, 
Kiangsu (breeding), Fukien and Kuangtung. 
Spizacttis nipalcnsis is resident in Chekiang, Fukien 
and Formosa, and in Mongolia. HaliaUus albicilla 
L. The White-tailed Sea-Eagle, common through- 
out China. Hulitiiitus prhi'jicus is found in eastei'ii 
Siberia and in Mongolia, but it is rare. Haliactus 
Irucoijaster occurs on the Fukien and Kuangtung 
coa.sts. //. leucoryphus, Pallas' Fishing Eagle, 
taken at Shaweishan or Gutzlaff. //. lencoccphalus 
has been seen in N. China (Soweuby) and 
recorded once from Mongolia by David. 
I'nndion haliaelu.*, the O.sprey, is identical with 
the European bird, and is common in China. 
/laliciftur indus, the Hrahminy Kite, is met with 
in Kiangsi, Fukien and Chekiang in the summer. 
Alilvui melanotU, the Black-eared Kite, is abundant 
in all parts of China. M. ijovinda, the Common 
Indian Pariah Kite, is said by David to be found 
on the south coast but is rare. Elanns cacruleus, 
the Black -winged Kite, visits the South in summer, 
and has been taken in C'hekiang. JJutostnr indirui^, 
the Grey faced Buzzard-Eagle, occurs on migration 
in Eastern China and is found in Manclmria and 
in the Western Hills near Peking. liutco 
hemilanius, the White tailed Buzzard, is common 
in N.E. China, and on the Yangtze, and strays 
down to S.E. (Jhina. li. plum i pes is met with in 
Eastern China in winter. Achibute.o straphiatus, 
the Himalayan Rough-legged Buzzard, is not un- 
common in the north and west of China, and in 



Manchuria and Mongolia ; it has been taken in 
Fukien and at Shaweishan. It probably occurs 
as far as Kuangtung. Circaetus gallicus, the Short- 
toed Eagle, was seen by David both in N. CTiina 
and Mongolia. Spilornis cheela, the Crested Ser- 
pent-Eagle, is found in S. China and Formosa. 
S. rutherfordi occurs in Hainan. Lophospiza 
trivirgata, the Crest-ed Goshawk, occurs in Formosa. 
Astur palumbarius, the Goshawk, is common in 
China, especially in winter. It is the bird most 
commonly trained for the hunting of hares and 
pheasants, and is called Huang Ying or Yellow 
Hawk, though this name more properly belongs to 
Falco sacer. A. poliopsi", a sub-species of A. badius, 
the Shikra, is found in S. China and in Hainan. 
It is common in Cochin-China. A. cuculoides is 
found from the south up to Peking and beyond. 
A. soloensis is found in S. China and 6n the Lower 
Yangtze. Accipiter affinis, a large race of A. 
virgatus, the Besra Sparrowhawk, has been taken in 
Fukien and inhabits Formosa. A. gularls, the 
Japanese Sparrowhawk, is common in Eastern 
China on migi'ation. It is known to the Chinese 
by the name \''ao %% and is used for the chase of 
small birds. .-1. nisvs, the Sparrowhawk, is found 
everywhere and is used in hunting. Circus 
cyanevs, the Hen-Harrier, called by the Chinese 
Pai ying Q i^ or White Hawk, is seen in most 
provinces. C. viclanoleucus, common in Chihli on 
migration, rare in S.E. China. C. macrurus has 
been seen at Peking and on the Yangtze, but is 
very rare. C. pygargus occurs rarely in passage. 
C. aeruginosus, the Marsh Harrier, is very common, 
especially in the South ; it has been seen in 
Mongolia. C. sjnnolotus is abundant in S.E. 
China on passage and in winter. Microhierax 
mdnnohucvs is common in Fukien and has been 
taken in Kiangsi and at Nanking. Falco sacer, 
the Sakcr or Cherriiq Falcon, is found in Mongolia, 
Chihli, Shensi and Ssuch'uan. This bird especially 
has the name Huang ying ^ J^ Yellow Hawk. 
F. peregrinus, the Peregrine Falcon, is common 
in China. F. peregri7iator, the Shahin, occurs in 
S.E. China from the Yangtze southwards. F. 
subhutco, the Hobby, is found in all parts of China. 
Aesalon regulus, the Merlin, is only seen in winter. 
Erythropus anturensis, the Eastern Red-legged 
Falcon, comes up to North China in the spring 
where it commonly breeds. Ccrchncis pekincnsic, 
the Eastern race of the Lesser Kestrel, is met with 
in Chihli. C. alaudarius, C. japonicus and C. 
foturatus occur in East China, where they are all 
common except the first, which has been taken in 
Fukien a few times. Hieraetus fasciatus, Bonelli's 
Eagle, occurs from the Lower Y'angtze to Fukien. 
Pcrnis rj.lioti, the Eastern Honey-Buzzard, passes 
Eastern China on migration. 

David et Ocstalet : Les Oiseaux de la Chine. 



(I 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



AGLEN 



ACUPUNCTURE, or piercing the flesh with 
needles, is an exceedingly common remedy in 
China for rheumatism, sprains and other troubles. 
It is an ancient science, attributed in tradition 
to Huang Ti, and is certainly treated of very 
minutely in works of many centuries ago, and 
the operation is performed to-day very dexter- 
ously by its practitioners. 

At one time the subject excited much interest 
in the west and a great deal was written on it. 
The first knowledge of the art as practised in 
China seems to have been given by a Dutch 
physician, in a work which appeared in London in 
1683, and Kaempfer in 1712 in the third fascicule 
of Amoenitates Exoticne has a paper on the 
subject. A long analysis of the works written 
at the beginning of last century for and against 
the practice of acupuncture will be found in 
Remus.\t. 

Remusat : SuT V Acupuncture [Nouveaux 
Melanges Astatiques) ; Lockhart : The Medical 
Missionary in China; Lay : The Chinese as they are. 

ADAM, the Persian missionary, presbyter, 
chorepiscopos and papas of China who wrote the 
Syro-Chinese inscription on the Nestorian Tablet. 
On the stone his name is given as Ching ching 
:^ ?f^ of the Ta Ch'in monastery -f^ ^. He is 
mentioned in a Buddhist work as having helped 
to translate a Buddhist sutra, and it is well 
known that there are Buddhist terms and expres- 
sions on the Tablet. 

T'oung Pao, vol. vii, p. 589. 

ADEN, S.S., the first merchant steamer 
under the Chinese flag. It first sailed in December, 
1872. The company owning it would not allow 
foreigners to have shares, and it sought, but did 
not obtain, the privilege of entering ports not 
open to foreign trade. The company developed 
two years later into the China Merchants Steam 
Navigation Company (q-v.). 

ErxEL : Europe in China. 

ADMIRALTY, THE, or Ministry of the Navy. 
It was not till 1888 that a Hai Chiin Yamen 
M ^S'f F^ was established; and in 1900 the term 
Hai Chiin Pu JS J^ §B w^s first used but the office 
was still annexed to the Board of War till shortly 
before the fall of the dynasty. The Republic is 
of course making changes in this department. See 
Lung ; Navy. 

ADOPTION. In China adoption is not a 
matter of personal predilection ; .it is regarded 
from the point of view of the whole family, and 
is also a legal duty. 

A Chinese without a son cannot die happy. 
Apart from his own disabilities in the spirit-world, 
his ancestors also would suffer through the lack of 



a representative on eartn lu aiit-iui lo iik- lu-cts.'ary 
sacrifiecK. Heme Mknlus said ' The uumI unfiliul 
thing a man can do is to die without a 8oa.' Thi« 
is the relii^iouB or family reaiioa fur adoption. 

The law aluo requires a son-less man to adopt 
an heir to his property. 

Adoption is of several kinds. In ley(d or 
perfect adoption ( B4g| mfu chi) a sonless man 
demands one of hi.s brotlier's sona ; or, if there aro 
none, the grand.son of an uncle, then the great- 
grandson of a great-uncle, and so on. 

If a man (over 16) dies without a son tho 
process of adoption often goes on and a nephew or 
another is made his son. 

The rights and duties of an adopted son do 
not differ in any respect from those of one natural- 
ly begotten. 

Other kinds of adoption are timpU adoption 
('j^l^ kuo fang), and benevolent adoption (gH 
ch'i yang). In the former a man with or without 
children adopts a son or daughter of the came 
stock and of a lower generation but incapable of 
becoming his heir. In the latter the adopted child 
is not of the same stock : the surname is different 
or is unknown, and inheritance is therefore barred. 

These two kinds of adoption are not dis- 
tinguished in ordinary usage ; in either case the 
adopted children are called K :f- t ttu and Wt 'k 
i nil 'conventional' or 'charity' son or daughter. 

It is said that about five per cent, of Chinese 
families adopt children, seventy per cent, of 
the adopted being males. 

There is another kind of adoption often 
practised, based not on legal or religious but on 
merely superstitious grounds. When parents fear 
they may not be able to rear a child because evil 
spirits are against it or against the family, they 
think it possible to cheat the spirits and avert 
evil by a pseudo-adoption of the child into another 
family. 

This superstition even leads to children being 
given in adoption to some object such as a tree, 
a bridge, an idol, etc. 

Hoang : Le Maringe rhmoif. 

AGAR-AGAR jif ^J , hai t*'ai and |t K^K'un 
pu, is got from several species of Algae, Crucilaria 
gigantina, G. sphatrococcus, etc., from the Malayan 
islands and Hainan. It is a gelatinous subsUnce 
with an irregular sponge-like appearance. It i« 
used as food and also as a medicine for goitre, 
dropsy and menstrual disorders. 

AGARIC. See Fungw. 

AGE OF THE FIVE RULERS, THE. See 
Five Rulers. 

AGLEN, FRANCIS ARTHUR, '^-^ born on 
October 17, 1869, and entered the Customs Service 



AGLIARDI 



ENCYCLOrAEDlA SINICA 



in China in 1888. He was Commissioner at several 
pores, and in 1903-4 acted as Chief Secretary to the 
Inspectorate-General. He became Deputy Inspect- 
or-General in 1910, then Officiating Inspector-Gen- 
eral, and finally Inspector-General in 1911, which 
position he still holds in 1917. He has received 
various honours from the Chinese Government. 

AGLIARDI, ANTONIO, archbishop of 
Caesarea and later, Cardinal. When the Pope 
in 1886 thought of sending a legate for permanent 
residence in Peking, his choice fell on Agliardi, 
who accepted his nomination. On objections 
being made by France the project was abandoned. 

CoRDiEU : Uistoire des lielatlons de la 
Chine, etc. 

AGRICULTURE. This subject is of supreme 
importance in China, where it is estimated that 
two-thirds of the population cultivate the soil. 
It is naturally, however, not a subject to attract 
the first attention of foreign students of the coun- 
try ; few have combined the necessary knowledge 
witli the necessary amount of travel, and there- 
fcn-e comparatively few books on agriculture can 
be referred to. 

Such books as there are must be read with 
caution : for e.xample in one valuable work some 
statistics are worked out for Shantung on the 
assumption that a rnou is one-sixth of an English 
acre. More local knowlege would give very dif- 
ferent results, since the 7nou generally quoted 
in Sliantung is neai'ly one-half an English acre. 
It may be added that in that province one mou per 
mouth is sufficient to provide for the family. 

In the thousands of years during which the 
race has practised agriculture the art has arrived 
at tlie highest perfection which could be attained 
empirically, but the scientific farming which in 
the Western world is new is, of course, in China 
still unknown. The great natural fertility of the 
soil, combined with the patient and unceasing toil 
of the farmer arc the chief factors in Chinese 
farming. 

It has been said that Chinese agriculture is 
intensive rather than extensive. This probably 
means that little is done to open up new areas of 
cultivation, while everything is done to squeeze 
the best result from the land which is worked. 
Poverty among the people, governmental inaction, 
and tlie difficulty in depending on the government 
to protect new ventures must account for much land 
lying idle. Under the Republic, with its Ministry 
of Agriculture and Commerce, a new state of 
things may be expected. 

The methods of farm-work vary according to 
local and climatic conditions, but are always of a 
primitive style. The plough, for example, may 
be carried home on the shoulder at the end of the 



day's work : it is probably the plough of many 
centuries ago. But in every part of China there 
is no difference in the infinite care which is 
bestowed on the fields. Manure is valued as if 
it were gold ; and wisely under the conditions, 
though in these days of sewage destructors it may 
seem to us absurd. Cultivatioa is necessaa-ily 
shallow. Rotation of crops is not a common 
practice, but it is in use to some extent where it 
is found possible. There is very little selection 
of the best produce for sowing again ; the average 
seed is generally considered as good enough. There 
is an almost complete absence of meadow-land, 
domestic animals being more economically fed on 
cut fodder, with some grazing on hill-sides, etc. 
The Chinese are not without knowledge of irrig- 
ation and drainage, but difficulties in cooperation 
prevent anything being done in such matters except 
locally and in a small way. 

Grain culture is of such importance in the 
national life that, as may be read in any general 
work on China, the Emperors used to set the 
example to the people every spring. Rice is the 
chief grain, and is grown wherever possible. Wheat 
comes next, after which follow maize, kao-liang, 
various millets, hull-less barley, hull-less oats and 
buckwheat. 

Of beans there are innumerable local varieties 
of the soy-bean ; cow-peas are quite important ; 
broad-beans are cultivated as a winter crop in the 
milder regions, and as a summer crop on the table- 
lands and mountain valleys of W. and N.W. China. 
Otlier beans, such as gram-beans, adzuki-beans, 
moth-beans, etc. are also much grown. 

Plants which give oil-bearing seeds are vary 
widely cultivated, such as sesame, rape, soy-beans, 
hemp, Pcrilla, etc. 

Fibre plants occupy a good deal of land, 
such as cotton, pai ma ( Ahutilon aviccnnae ), hemp, 
jute, ramie, etc. 

Starchy root-crops are abundant, but are not 
as important as in Western lands. The main root- 
crojDS are taros, yams, sweet potatoes, arrowleaf 
( SagUtaria sinensis ), etc. 

Vegetable culture is in a high state of per- 
fection, and no race can compare with the Chinese 
in the way they get succulent vegetables from 
small patches of land. 

Fruit-growing is practised wherever it pays, 
but through lack of scientific culture is not as 
successful as it should be. ( See under various 
fruit names ). 

King : Farmers of Fortxj Centuries; Meyer : 
U.S. Department of Agricidture, lieports; Ric- 
hard : Coinjire/iensive Geographi/. 

AH LUM CHEONG, the baker whose bread 
made some four hundred people ill at Hongkong 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



ALAUDIDAE 



on January 15, 1857. Analysis showed the white 
bread contained 60 grains of white arsenic in 
every pound. Such appears to be tlio meaning 
of Eitel's statement, which is unintelligible as 
it stands. The dose wa.s too heavy to be effective, 
that is to say, the sufferers discovered at once 
that they were poisoned and drank emetics as 
fast as they could be supplied ; those who ate 
least suffered most. No one died of the poison 
but the health of some was permanently injured, 
and the nervous shock through the sudden sense 
of insecurity was perhaps worse than the poison. 
Lady Bowring, the Governor's wife, was delirious 
for a time and had to return to England. 

Ah Lum's own wife and children were among 
the sufferers, and he himself having gone to 
Macao that morning was voluntarily returning 
to HongTcong when he was arrested. Nor did 
his workmen attempt to run away but were 
arrested to the number of fifty-one many hours 
after. There was not sufficient evidence to 
incriminate anyone, but Ah Lcm as a suspicious 
character was expelled from the island for five 
years. In a civil action against him W. Tarrant, 
editor of the Friend of Chiiia, obtained $1,000 
damages. It was believed by the whole com- 
munity that the attempt was the crime of the 
Cantonese officials, with or without the connivance 
of Ah Lum. a smaller dose would no doubt 
have killed so many of the British that Hongkong 
could have been easily attacked and taken. 

EiTEL : EuTOfe. in China, p. 313. 

AHUNG or AMONG Mm- The title of the 
lowest official in the Mohammedan mosques of 
China; probably from Persian Alchun, which is 
from a root meaning to instruct. 

AIGRETTES, ILE D', a name given by the 
French to the island iiccirest Kuangchow in the 
leased territory. It is also marked on some maps 
a-3 La Rigaudiere. 

AIGUN^^, in Heilungkiang province, Man- 
churia, is on the southern bank of the Amur, 
20 miles below Blagovestchensk and on the opposite 
bank. It is one of the self-opened ports of the 
Komura Convention of 1905. The old Aigun was 
destroyed by the Russians in 1900 and has never 
recovered its former importance, the mercantile 
community preferring to settle at Taheiho (called 
by the Russians Saghalan) directly opposite 
Blagovestchensk. Lat. 50° 5' N. ; Long. 126° 29' 
E. The population is 25,410. 

1915 1916 

Net Foreign Imports Hk. Tls. 547,176 356,947 

Net Chinese Imports 775,033 794,041 

E.xports 324,299 413,419 

Total Hk. Tls. 1,646,508 1,564,407 

2 



AKUTA r-^'g-flfBon of a chieftain of the 
Nu-Chih Tartars under the Liao dynasty (Khi- 
tan). He was born in 1069. His father died in 
1100 when preparing to revolt. Akcta threw off 
his allegiance in 1114, and the next year he called 
himself the first Emperor of a new dynasty, the 
Chin ^ . In 1120 he made an alliance with 
the Sung dynasty against the Liao, and two years 
later he took Peking by assault, the Liao Emperor 
having already fled. He died in 1123, and was 
canonised as the first Emperor of the Chin 
dynasty. 

Giles in his Biographical Dictionary names 
him Akdta, but in a later work, China and the 
Miinihu.<, .says 'Akviknc. Koiiiftitiic- l.ut \ii. n/U 
called Akuta.' 



AKUTENG. 



S.-e Akut 1. 



ALABASTER, CHALONER, entered the 
Britiah Consular Service in 1855 a» student inter- 
preter, and ended his official career as Coniul at 
Canton in 1892, when he retired. After the taking 
of Canton in 1858 he was appointed to accompany 
Viceroy Yeh, transported to Calcutta. He was 
made K.C.M.G. in 1862. He died in England in 
1898, aged 59. His writings are few. 

ALANS or A LAN I, a race which early in 
our era had its home near the Aral Sea, and was 
perhaps identical with the Massagetae. They were 
already known to the Chinese. They were 
used as troops, as all the conquered races no doubt 
were, by Chenghis Khan and Khcbilai Khan. 
Marco Polo tells of the mai^.sacre of a body of 
Christian Alans. 

According to Marignolli, who wrote about 
1555, there were some 30,000 Alans in the Great 
Khan's service; they filled the mo.'-t important 
offices of state and all were Christians', at Icait 
nominally. It is suggested by Yi'LE that this 
suriirising fact may be due to the gradual de- 
generation of the Mongols leading them to rely 
much on their foreign auxiliaries. 

Yule : Cathay and the Way Thither. 

ALA SHAN.KBHUj Holan shan the moun 
tains in Kansu, west of the Ordos, and running 
north and south for one hundred and fifty niile«, 
parallel with the northern cour.se of the Yellow 
River. They reach 10,000 or 11.000 feel in height, 
and are a wilderness of igneous rocks, but above 
7,500 feet there are forests. Prejevalsky upeiil 
some time in these mountains, bunting the Burhel. 

West and north-west of these mountaina lies 
the portion of the Gobi Desert sometimes called 
Little Gobi, sometimes the Alashan Desert. 

ALAUDIDAE, the Larks. Alauda arcentit : 
a couple of Sub-species are widely spread in the 
northern half of China and in E. Siberia, bat. 



ALBATROSS 



EKCTCLOPAEDIA SIls^lCA 



according to David, are not found in Mongolia. | 
These arrive in China at the beginning of the 
cold season and go back north again in April. A. \ 
coelivox Swinh. is abundant in S. China to the 
Yangtze. A. sala from N. Formosa and A. watter- 
si differ slightly from A. coelivox of the Pes- 
cadores and S. Formosa. Otocorys alpestris, 
common in northern Europe and Asia is seldom 
met with in China, and then only in the winter. 
The Chinese cage it for the sake of its song. They 
do the same with 0. sibirica the Siberian Horned 
Lark, which is common everywhere in Mongolia 
ajid is found in N. China in the winter. 
Gahrita Icautungensis is common all the year 
round in Mongolia and in the north and west 
of China as far as N.W. Ssuch'uan, and is 
generally found in the foothills. Alaudula che- 
he7isis and CalenJrpUa hrachydactyla are abundant 
in Mongolia, coming down in the cold season to 
the northern plains of China; the farmer breeds 
abundantly in Chihli and Shantung. C. dukhunens- 
is occurs in W. China and has been taKen iu 
migration at Shawei shan. Melanocorypha mongo- 
lica comes south to China only in small numbers 
in the winter, but is found in cages in every 
province as the Chinese are especially fond of its 
song. 



David et Oustalet 
(Alaudides). 



Les Oiseaitx de la Chine; 



ALBATROSS. See Tubinares. 

ALBAZIN, a town or fort built on the banks 
of the Amur by Khabaiiov during his e.xpedition of 
1648 51 ; it did not receive its first governor till 1672. 
In 1675 Nicolas Sp.^tau Milescu, returning from 
an embassy to Peking, advised the inhabitants of 
Albazin not to continue their e.xpeditions on the 
Amur and to keep on good terms with the Chinese ; 
advice that was not listened to, and the Chinese 
prepared in 168'1 to begin hostilities. Albazin was 
twice besieged. In the first siege, 1684, thirty or 
forty Russians " including a priest, were made 
prisoners and taken to Peking. After some years 
they ware set free but stayed in the capital. Per- 
mission was given for priests to be sent them for 
their religious needs, and this was the beginning of 
the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission {q.v.). 

In 1689 tlie Treaty of Nerchinsk was signed, 
by which the Russians were pushed back irom the 
Amur, and Albazin, after a short and troubled 
existence of thirty-eight years was destroyed. It is 
probable that some ruin.s of the fort may still be 
seen, and an inscribed monument has been put up on 
the spot. 

CoRDlEU : Ilistoire dr.-* Rrlntions dr In Chijic, 
etc., Ravenstein : The liuisians on the Amur; 
Dudgeon : The liussian Ecclesiastical Mission, 



Chinese Recorder, vols, iii & iv ; Innocent : The 
livc^aian Orthodox Mission in China, ibid., vol. 
xlvii. 

ALBION PRESS, a printing press belonging 
to J. R. Morrison at Macao, at which the 
Anglo-Chinese Calendar for 1833 was printed, 
besides a sermon by Dr. Morrison and four 
numbers of a periodical called The Evangelist 
and Miscellanea Sinica. In May, 1833, it was 
interdicted by civil authority, the reasons given 
being that the publications issued contained 
matter contrary to Roman Catholic teaching, and 
that the printing press was prohibited everywhere 
in Portuguese territory unless the king of 
Portugal sanctioned it. 

Chinese Repository : vol. ii, p. 92. 
ALBUQUERQUE, ALPHONSO D', the 
founder of Portuguese empire in the East, was 
born in 1453. After conquering Malacca, he sent 
Perestrello to China in 1515, and thus opened 
the chapter of modern trade between Europe and 
China. He died on December 16, 1515. 

ALGAE, the Order containing Auks, Guille- 
mots etc., Alca antiqua Gm., of the sub-family 
Alcinae, is Bering's Guillemot ; it is found in the 
Formosan Channel. 

ALCESTE ISLAND mMMi '^«^' ^« *°°' ^ ^^^^^ 
island N.W. of the Shantung Promontory. The 
boat in which Lord Amherst came as ambassador 
was named Alceste, and the island probably 
received its foreign name at that time. 

ALCHEMY, ^ ^ Zien tan. The mediaeval 
theories as to the transmutation of metals and the 
elixir of life exist almost in their entirety in 
Chinese thought. Dr. Martin and other sinologues 
have made a strong but not complete case for the 
origin of alchemy in China; Waiters thinks it 
had its origin in India ; and Giles speaks of it as 
introduced from the West into China after the 
Han dynasty. 

Alchemy has been an important branch of 
Taoist study. Proceeding from the theory of 
progressive evolution (v. Yin and Yaiig) it was 
thought that the various forms of matter (v. Five 
Ehmvnt^) gradually changed, and that the essence 
of man could similarly be modified. Hence Chinese 
alchemy, as in Europe, had two sections : — 

(1)' Nei Tan ft ;^, or spiritual alchemy, in 
which by ascetic practices, spiritual exercises, 
communion with virgin nature and the use of 
natural minerals and vegetable drugs, the body 
and soul gradually become transformed into the 
substance and spirit of an ethereal being (Hsien fill 
with theurgic powers. Many of the Taoist sages 
and saints are believed to have thus attained 
perfection. 



10 



ENCVCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



ALMALIK 



(2) Wai Tan ^\p- , or material alchemy, which 
aimed at transforming inorganic matter, especially 
metals. 

The two great desires of men, — perhaps of 
Chinese especially,— for long life and for wealth, 
are thus combined. 

To what extent such practical knowledge of 
chemistry as the Chinese have may be due to the 
researches of alchemists is uncertain. That several 
Emperors were deceived by Taoist impostors and 
drank the Elixir vitae is a matter of history. 

Allegorical language similar to that employed 
by European alchemists abounds in Chinese books 
on the subject, and, as in Europe, there is a 
perplexing tendency to alternate the emphasis on, 
first, the inner or spiritual process and, second, 
the outer or physical process. 

Tan fj; or cinnabar (mercury sulphide) is 
largely referred to as the matrix from which gold 
is produced, gradually by nature or rapidly by art. 
Jade is also an object and material for alchemical 
processes. 

Martin : Hanlin Papers; and Lore of Cathay ; 
Chatley : Alchemy in China, (in Journal of the 
Alchemical Society). [H.C.] 

ALCOCK, RUTHERFORD, k.c.b., d.c.l., 
Sir, was born in London in 1809 and died there in 
1897. He first came to China in 1844, was Consul 
at Foochow, Shanghai and Canton, and after service 
in Japan from 1858 to 1865 he returned to Peking 
as Minister. He retired in 1871. His writings 
include nothing on Chinese subjects, except the 
preface to the account of Matig.\ry's journey. 

MicHiE : The Englishman in China. 

ALENI, JULES^^^g. Ai Ju liao, was born 
at Brescia in 1582, became a Jesuit at 18 and 
arrived in Macao in 1610. After some years 
spent there in teaching mathematics he was sent 
to Peking; thence he went to Shanghai and to 
Yangchow, where he baptised a mandarin as the 
first Christian of the district, and followed him 
when appointed to Shensi. Later he worked in 
Shansi and in 1620 went to Hangchow. Called 
to Ch'ang shu ;^- f;A he made 220 converts in a 
few weeks. The Kolao Yeh retiring to Fuchow 
invited him to follow. He went in 1625, and for 
some years had very great success in the Province ; 
but in 1638 through troubles caused by the 
imprudences of members of another Order, he 
and other priests were exiled to Macao, the 
Christians were persecuted and the many churches 
fell into heathen hands. Contrary to all hope 
Aleni returned to Fuchow the next year. He 
was vice-provincial of South China from 1641 to 
1648. He died in 1649. 

Havret : La Stele chrctienne de Singan-fu, 
vol. ii, p. 29, note. 



ALFALFA or Lucerne, @ ^ tnu fuu. Niels 
Edbesen Hanse.n-, prolu-ssor jn the South DakoU 
State College of Agriculture, found that tbii 
important forage plant grew in A«ia much fur- 
ther north than had been Bupposed. The blue- 
flowered variety was found aa far aii 45« north 
latitude in Hi ; and north of that and atretching 
away far northward beyond the TranaSibcrian 
Railway between 50° and 64° north latitude, waa 
a yelloW-flowercd variety. The imporUnce of 
this lies in the hope it gives of cultivating profit- 
ably the North American desert regions, right up 
to the Hudson's Bay district. 

Mu-hsii is not uncommon in the northern 
provinces of China. Some seed was sent lo 
England and elsewhere, obtained by HosiE in 
Shensi. In 1912 half a ton of the seed was sent 
to Pretoria. 

KiRKWOOD : The Romantic Story of a 
Scientist, in the World's Work, April, 1908. 

ALLEN, HERBERT JAMES, born in India. 
where his father was in the Civil Service; he came 
to China as student-interpreter in 1861. lie retired 
from the Consular Service in 1888 and died in 
Wales in 1911. He wrote various papers, trans- 
lations, etc., his best-known work being Early 
Chinese History ; or are the Chinett Clattict forgtdT 
(1906) 

ALLEN, YOUNG JOHN, born in the United 
States in 1836, died in Shanghai in 1907. He came 
to China in 1860 as a missionary of the Methodist 
Episcopal (South) Church, but the Civil War began 
soon after, he lost the support of the home church 
and he entered the service of the Chinese Govern- 
ment, first as teacher then as translator. He was 
editor for many years of the Wan Kuo Kung Pao 
S535i?& which he began at his own e.xpense under 
that title in 1875 and carried on thu.s for some 15 
years ; he then edited it for the Christian Literature 
Society till his death ; — the most successful of such 
periodicals issued by foreigners for the Chine-se. 

ALL SOULS' DAY, a name used for the 
Buddhist feast held by Chinese on the 15th of 
the 7th moon. See Yu Ian p'in. 

ALMALIK, the Mohammedan name for the 
city called Alimali by the Chinese, and Armalcc. 
Armalegh, etc., by European travellers of the 
Middle Ages. It was a seat of rule both for 
Turkish and Mongol authority at different time*. 
It stood somewhere on the Hi river, but its site 
is uncertain. It was a Roman Catholic see bat 
only had one bishop. According to Gams, the 
Franciscan Richard of BcRcrvDY was appointed 
in 1538 and martyred in 1342. It was the scene 
of several other martyrdoms. 

Yule : Cathay and the Way Thither, (1914) 
voL iii, p. 87, note. 



11 



ALMANAC 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



ALMANAC. The Chinese almanac is com- 
monly called Huang U ^E& °^ ^' ?^" M^ 5 ^"*^ *^^ 
official name is S/tih hsien f Am g*^'^. It is a 
government monopoly and there is a severe penalty 
for issuing unauthorised editions. In its more 
recent form it dates from the beginning of the 
Ch'ing dynasty, though it had also been issued in 
the preceding dynasty. It was the special work of 
the Imperial Board of Astronomy, ch'in Vicn chten. 
(See Astronomy, Board of). There is in it a 
certain amount of useful astronomical information, 
— the days of the month, the moon's phases, the 
pquino.xcs, solstices, etc. But to most people the 
astrological part is probably more important, since 
they learn from it the days and hours that are 
lucky for every undertaking in life, from a wedding 
to taking a bath. 

It might have been supposed that the Republic 
would have ceased to fool the people with such 
superstitions ; but though the almanac has improved 
in some respects it is as much as ever the guide to 
' lucky days.' 

A. F. Parker : T/ie Chinese Almanac, Chinese 
Recorder, vol. xi.x. 

ALMONDS; there are no almonds grown in 
China, but kernels of apricot-stones of certain 
species are often mistaken for them and called 
almonds. See Apricots. 

ALOPEN liJi m '^- The founder of the Nest- 
orian Mission in China, who arrived in a.d. 631. 
Sec f'lnpcn. 

ALTAI, meaning Golden Mountains and some- 
times so translated in Chinese (■^\\lc/iin shan) ; a 
range e.xtending in a southeasterly direction from 
Ru.s.sian territory into N.W. Mongolia. Its highest 
peak i.s 14.000 ft. 

ALTAR OF EARTH. See Temple of Earth. 

ALTAR OF HEAVEN. 

llcarcn. 

ALTYN TAGH, a range of mountains connect- 
ed with the K'un lun mountains, and with them 
separating Turkestan and Tibet. They rise to 
13,000 or 14,000 lect. 

A LUM. See /I A Lum. 

ALUM I'd- fan '^ Jff is produced to some extent 
in Kuangtung and Anhui, but the chief supply 
comes from P'ing-yang, a few miles south of Wen- 
chou in (Jhekiaiig. The alum is obtained from the 
Fan Shan in the Sung yang hills, near the 
Fukien border, first visited by Gutzlaff in 1855. 
"The alum is taken in .stone blocks (fir.st split with 
fire, and then broken with a sledge hammer) from 
the sandstone in which it lies. It is then boiled 
an<l soaked, and carried away in crystals." The 



See Temple of 



annual output is estimated at 200,000 piculs, some 
of which is used in dyeworks. The quality is said 
to be very good. Alum is used in making paper, 
as a mordant in dyeing, in tanning and in cement 
for masonry. The demand increased very much in 
1915. owing to shortage of dye-stuffs. 

Export abroad, 1914, 29,970 piculs, value 
Tls. 60,762 ; 1915, 43,846 piculs, value Tls. 77,583. 

A-LU-T'E PiJi'MJ, the Empress Chia Sht:n^)iI|, 
daughter of the Manchu Duke Chung Cn'i ^^^^ 
and wife oi the Emperor T'ung Chih. She was 
left with child when T'ung Chih died, and if she 
had borne a son he would have reigned. But this 
did not suit the Empress-dowager's plans ; Kuang 
Hsii become emperor and A-lu-t'e either committed 
suicide as a protest or was murdered. See Bland 
AND Backhouse; Annals of the Court of Pehing. 

AMAH, from Portuguese ama; the word used 
by foreigners in China for the Chinese nurses of 
their children. 

AMARAL, JOAO MARIA FERREIRA DO, 

a Governor of Macao. In 1849, finding the free 
port of Hongkong was spoiling the business of 
Macao, he issued a proclamation on March 5, 
ordering that no duties should be collected in 
Macao and that the Hoppo's ofiice should be 
closed. The Chinese naturally regarded this as 
the first steo towards asserting complete inde- 
pendence. Many merchants, with their families 
and deoendents, left Macao with the Hoppo, and 
the streets were deserted. Amaral then ordered 
that if more Chinese left Macao without permission, 
their property should be confiscated. 

On August 22, as he was riding near the 
Barrier, eight men attacked him ; unarmed and 
having no right hand, he was easily overcome ; 
his head and left hand were cut off and carried 
away. The Portuguese soldiers took possession 
of the Barrier (Porto da Cerco) and Chinese 
fort; two British men-of-war came from Hong- 
I kong, and the American and .French officials sent 
protests to the Kuangtung Viceroy. The Chinese 
were, however, so obstructive that it was not till 
January 16, 1850, that the head and hand were 
recovered from them and placed in Amaral's 
coffin. 

The immediate result of this murder was that 
Portugal paid no more rent for Macao, though 
the independence of the place was not recognised 
by C;hina till 1887. 

Morse : The International Relations of the 
Chinese Empire; Montalto de Jesus : Historic 
Macao. 

AM BAN l^^ RR a Manchu word meaning 
minister of state Xl'iL. Europeans use it for tfie 
political representatives of China in Mongolia, 



12 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



AMERICAN BAPTIST 



Turkestan and Tibet. An attempt has been made 
to connect it with the arnbartun of Cresar, Gallic 
War, vi, 15. 

AMBASSADORS' ROAD, a name given by 
travellers to tiie road between T'eng-yueh and 
Ta-li fu ; it is about fourteen days journey. 

According to Richard a similar name was 
given to the road from Canton through the Kan- 
chiang valley in Kiangsi, the road traversed by 
Macartney, Amherst and other ambassadors on 
their way to Peking. 

Ward : The Land of the Blue Poppy, p. 11. 
Richard : Comprehensive Geography, p. 145. 

AMBER hu p'oj^fQ. Early Chinese writers 
describe amber as being the resin of the pine and 
fir, which, having sunk into the earth is in proce.<!S 
of time transformed into a lustrous substance of 
a blood -red colour, and which when rubbed 
possesses the property of attracting mustard seeds. 
The first mention of amber by a Chinese writer 
is by Pan Ku in the first century of our era, who 
states that it was imported from Kashmir. An- 
other writer of the same period refers to its being 
obtained from the country of the Shans. We are 
told that in the same century the amber mines 
of North Burma were exploited and amber sent 
thence to Yunnan. Several places in Yunnan are 
said by Chinese writers to have produced indigen- 
ous amber; but the so-called Yunnan amber of 
the present day comes from the Burma mines, the 
centre of the industry being Maingkhwan, inhabit- 
ed by Shans, 110 miles from- Yung-ch'ang fu. 

Amber was brought from Persia in or before 
the 6th century, according to the Wei annals, and 
in the 10th .century tribute of amber was sent to 
China from Turfan. Amber, presumably from 
India, is much used in Tibet, and is thence trans- 
ported to Kansu. In the 17th century the Dalai 
Lama sent some as tribute to the Chinese Emperor. 
As regards importations of European amber 
into China, it is known that in the middle ages 
Russian amber was transported via Siberia ^ to 
Turkistan and thence to China. The Dutch im- 
ported amber into Formosa in the 17th century, 
and the Portuguese carried it to Macao in the 18th 
century, though it is not certain whether this was 
European amber or from the Indian Archipelago. 
The reports of the Chinese Maritime Customs 
show that the chief sources of the present iupply 
are Prussia, Japan and the Indian Archipelago. 
The amber used in Korea comes exclusively from 
Prussia. 

Chinese imitations of amber date from early 
times. A 15th century account describes imitation 
amber as being made from dyed sheep's horn. 
The present imitations are made from copal, 
shellac, colophony and glass. Amber-coloured glass 



beads are made in Po-shan in Shantung, wimc an 
imitation amber is made in Canton from the upper 
part of the beaks of cranes. 

A powder made from amber i« much used in 
Chinese medicines. 

Jet is referred to by Chinese writers a« bUck 
amber. See Jet. 

Lauker : Historical J ottingA on Anibtr in Asia; 
HiRTH and RocKinLL : Chau Jukua. 

AMBOYNA, a port in the Moluccaa wliere 
the East India Company had a large factory for 
the trade with Japan. In 1623 the Dutch mas- 
sacred ten or twelve English factors and traders, 
on the pretence that they had been plotting with 
Japanese to seize the Dutch fortress. At the 
time, Holland and England were at peace, but 
the English government was too weak to get 
reparation. The Company therefore abandoned 
the Japan trade and turned with more encr^Jy to 
opening commercial relations with China. 

Cromwell, in 1654, got £80,000 from the 
Dutch government as an indemnity for the mas- 
sacre. 

Eames : The Engli*h in China. 

AMERICAN ADVENT MISSION. 

llcad'juartcr.' : — Boston, Mass. 
Entered China, 1897. 
Works in Anhui and Kiangsu. 
The Society's work was begun by Mr. and Mrs. 
G. H. Maloxe, who settled in Nanking in 1897. 
opening a school in a Buddhist temple, and holding 
services there for two and a half years. Work was 
also begun near Wuhu, but all was stopped by the 
Bo.xer rising. In 1901, Nanking was re-occupied, 
and Wuhu and Ch'ao Hsien ^ !K(near Wuhu) were 
opened. 

Nanking is the principal station, and there i.s 
a strong industrial work done there both for boys 
and girls, who are taught cabinet-making, mattress- 
making, weaving, tailoring, hrtiss work, baking, 
etc. In 1917 the Mission reported, 

Foreign workers 

Chinese assistants 

Communicants 

AMERICAN BAPTIST FOREIGN MISSION- 
ARY SOCIETY. 

Headquarters :— Boston, Mas.-«. U.S.A. 
fjntered China, 1842. 

Works in Kuangtung, Chikiang, Ktangfu, 
Kiangsi and S^uch'uan. 

South China Mission. This Society, like the 
L.M.S. and other of the older-established Missions, 
did not begin its work for the Chinese in Chin* 
Proper. As early as 1833. one of the American 
Baptist missionaries went from Burmah to Siam. 
and his first three converts were Chinese from 
Kuangtung province. The first church formed wa« 



16 

38 

580 



13 



AMERICAN BAPTIST 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



at Macao in 1837; but when China was opened in 
1842, workers were sent at once to Hongkong. One 
of these, the Rev. 1. J. Eobekts, settled two years 
later in Canton, where Hung, afterwards the 
leader of the T'ai P'ing rebels was for some weeks 
under his instruction, but was refused baptism. 
When Hung was at Nanking in 1853, he invited 
Mr. Roberts to go and preach the gospel there. 
Mr. Roberts, aftea* various delays did so, and 
remained fifteen months with the rebels, then left 
them in disgust, being unable to influence them as 
he wished. 

Swatow became a treaty port in 1858, and in 
1860 the work from Hongkong was moved there, 
the mis.'jionaries being familiar with the Swatow 
dialect, as they had used it both in Siam and 
Hongkong. The work of which Swatow is the 
base naturally divides itself into two parts, one 
where the Ch'ao-chou j^ 'Jj^ (Swatow) dialect is 
used, and one the Hakka department. The former 
was all worked from Swatow till 1893, when 
Ung-kung iH ISg was opened ; Ch'ao-chou city 
itself being occupied in 1894 ; Kit-yang JS !^ i" 
1895, Ch'ao-yaiigj^iig, in 1905, and Ho-po jnj ^ 
in 1907. Swatow is by far the strongest centre, 
and has a large hospital, and strong educational 
work, including the Ash.more Theological Seminary. 
Medical work is also done at Ch'ao-j'ang and 
Kit-yang. The Hakka work has its centre at 
Ka-ying^Jg, opened in 1890. Here there are a 
Boys' Academy, lower Schools, Girls' and Women's 
Schools. Chang-ning ;^ ^ , in Kuangsi, opened in 
1912, is an extension of the Hakka work northward. 
It is four days' journey from Ka-ying. 

Since 1913, the A.B.C.F.M. has maintained 
work in Canton city in connection with the China 
Baptist Publicatioii Society. 

East China Mission. This was begun at Ning- 
po in 1843 by a medical missionary, Dr. D.J. 
Macgowa.n, who was the first to succeed in establish- 
ing a permanent station here, owing largely to his 
medical skill overcoming native prejudice. The 
Rev. E.C. Lord arrived in 1847, and the Rev. 
J. GoDDARD was transferred from Siam in 1849, his 
son joining in 1868; in addition to other workers. 
The work progressed slowly, with evangelistic, 
educational and medical branches all represented, 
special attention being given to the training of 
theological students under the care of the Rev. 
H. Jenki.ns ; this branch was transfcircd to Sliao- 
hing in 1889, and finally to Shanghai under the 
Union scheme (v. infra). 

The second station occupied was Shaohing ^ 
gtt. After the usual delays and disappointments 
land was bought in 1869, and the church organized 
in 1870. Kin-hwa ■^ ig was opened in 1883. As 
early as 1867, one of the missionaries was invited 
to this city by some natives of the place who had 



become Christians at Ningpo. He went, rented a 
house, and stayed for several months, but was 
finally driven out, and no other foreigner went there 
till 1883, though work had been kept going by a 
Chinese preacher. Dr. S. P. Barchet (afterwards 
of the U.S.A. Consular Service) opened a hospital 
here in 1894. 

Huchow JJH i}W, 60 miles N. of Hangchow, was 
opened in 1888 after repeated failures caused by 
the bitterly anti-foreign spirit of the literati; and 
for some time, the Mission was threatened with 
riots. The medical work here is shared with the 
M.E. (South) M. 

Hangchow was not permanently occupied by 
the Society until 1899, though as early as 1866 the 
Rev. C. ' T. Kreyer had organized a church there, 
composed of Christians from Ningpo ; but he left the 
Mission in 187o, and except for two short periods, 
the work was in charge of a Chinese preacher in 
the interim. In this city, in addition to the Way- 
land Academy for Boys, the Mission has a share 
in the Union Girls' High School. The Boys' and 
Girls' schools ac Kin-hwa, Shaohing and Huchow 
are of loweo" grade, and act as feeders to the 
Hangchow High Schools. Ningpo, from its 
position, has its own schools of Academy grade. 

The Medical work is done at Ningpo, Shao- 
hing, Kin-hwa and Huchow, where there are 
hospitals. 

The Kiangsu work centres in Shanghai and 
is educational and administrative. The first agents 
of the Mission to reside permanently in Shanghai 
came in 1907. 

In addition to secretarial, fiscal and administ- 
rative work for all the three divisions of the 
A.B.F.M.S. the only work in this port is in 
connection with the Union College and Theological 
Seminary which was opened in September, 1906, 
in rented quarters (Dr. R. T. Bryan, President), 
and was removed to its own buildings at the Point 
in 1907, under the name of Yates College, the 
present Head being the Rev. F. J. White, D.D. 

West China Mission. Work was begun in 
1890, by the Revs. W. M. Upcraft and G. Warner, 
at Sui-iu in Ssuch'uan. Large reinforcements 
arrived within a very few years, and a hospital 
was established, and a Bible Training School and 
dayschools opened. 

Kia-ting ^ ^ and Ya-chou Jf j\\ were occupied 
in 1894, Ning-yiian ^ j^ in 1905, and Chengtu in 
1909. The points selected, with the exception of 
Ning-yiian, are all great trade centres, Sui-fu 
being the terminus of the great trade route from 
Burma through Yiinnan to Ssuch'uan ; Kia-ting, 
at the confluence of the Min, Ya and T'ung rivers; 
Ya-chou, on the great road from Peking to Lhasa, 
and the centre of the tea-trade with Tibet ; while 
Chengtu is the capital of the province. Ning-yiian 



14 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



AMERICAN BOARD 



is 12 days' journey from Ya-chou over high moun- 
tain passes in the midst of the harder trihes. It 
was occupied in the hope of planting a line of 
stations to link up eventually with the mission's 
work in Burma, but the Intensive Policy (c. infra) 
has vetoed this. 

In 1893, and again after the Boxer year, strong 
reiniorcements were sent from the U.S.A. ; and in 
1917, there were 46 missionaries of the Society in 
Ssuch'uan. 

The Mission has a share in the West China 
University at Chengtu (q-v.) and all its educational 
work is affiliated to the West China Educational 
Union, probably the best-developed scheme in 
China. There are in addition to the dayschools, 
Senior Primary Boarding schools for boys and girls 
at each central station and Schools of Middle grade 
at Sui-fu. 

The medical work centres round Ya-chou and 
Sui-fu where there are hospitals, Ning-yiian, 
where a hospital is already planned, and the Union 
Medical School at Chengtu. 

Central China Mission. Until 1916, the Society 
had a fourth sphere of work known by this name. 
Work was begun in Hanyang in 1894, by Dr. J. S. 
Adams, and was encouraging and successful. In 
1911, however, the Board adopted what is known 
as the " Intensive Policy " viz., concentration on 
fewer stations, and develojjment of existing work, 
rather than opening up new territory, even if 
already assigned to it ; and as the Central China 
work was less developed than those of the other 
three divisions, it was withdrawn. Two of the 
centres elected to join with the W.M.M.S. which 
was in the district : the rest were placed, continuing 
as Baptist churches, under the supervision of the 
L.M.S., and retained the Church building and 
parsonage at Hanyang. The L.M.S. purchased the 
remaining property. 

Women's Work. The first single lady workea* 
of the A.B.F.M.S. was Miss Adele M. Fielde, 
who arrived in Swatow in 1873, after some years 
in Siam. Two others came to Ningpo in 1878-9, 
and now in all three divisions there are a consider- 
able number of ladies sent out by the Women'.<! 
Board of the Society ; in whose charge is most of 
the work done for girls and women. 

Statistics for year ending December 31, 1915. 

Foreign missionaries 143 

Chinese staff 569 

Communicants 6,529 

AMERICAN BIBLE SOCIETY, THE. 

Headquarters : — New York. 

As early as 1832, the Rev. E. C. Bridgman of 
the A.B.C.F.M. (the first American Missionary to 
China), appealed to the American Bible Society 
for " means to prepare and circulate the Christian 
Scriptures ; " and in response the Society made 



itb first appropriation for that purpose in 18J3, 
though tlie work of distribution waB done by 
missionaries without any c.vpeniie to the Society 
for 33 years, the funds being used for Iraiulattng 
and publishing. 

The JiitiijGMAN and CuLBBiiTaoN version of the 
Bible (See Dtlet/uta' Version) wa« published by 
the Society in 1862. and a share was borne in the 
production of Dr. Guuuaud's Uevixed New Tehta 
ment, (1853) and one in Southern Mandarin (1851) 
made by Meuuuhst and Stuo.nach. 

In 1356, the plan of selling the Scriptures at 
a nominal price was substituted for the former 
policy of indi.scTiminato free distribution, and 
native colporteurs were first employed. 

An Agent for China and Japan was appointed 
in 1875 in the person of the Rev. L. II. (JuucK, 
D.D. who greatly extended the use of native 
colporteurs and also employed foreigners in that 
capacity. 

In 1890, Dr. Gulick retired, and was followed 
by Dr. L. N. Wheeler, on whose death in 1895, 
the present Agent, Dr. John H. IIvkes took bis 
place. 

In the period 1833 — 1915, the Society published 
independently 207 versions of Scripture (chiefly 
portions), and 37 in conjunction with the other 
Bible Societies. 

During 1916 nine foreign superintendents in 
nine centres, directed the efforts on the field of 354 
workers nearly all of whom were Chinese. 

The number of sales during the year was, 

Bibles 12,982 

Testaments 62,951 

Portion.^ 2,198,777 

Total direct issues from 
the China Agency ... 24,374,562 

AMERICAN BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS 
FOR FOREIGN MISSIONS, THE. 

Headquarters : — Boston, Ma.ss. 

Entered China, 1830. 

Works in Chihll, Shantung and Shami (N'orth 
China Mission) ; in Fukien (Foochow Mission) ; and 
in Kuangtung (South China Mission). 

South Chin\ Mission. The work of the Society 
began in 1830, by the arrival in Canton of the 
Rev. E. C. BaiDGMAN {q.v.) the first American 
missionary to China. He was accompanied by the 
Rev. D. Abeel {q.v.) of American Seaman's Friend 
Society, and they found Morrison of the L.M.S. 
alone. In 1833. came Rev. S. Wells Wiluams 
(-7. 1".), and in 1334, Rev. Dr. Peter Parker (q.v.) 
the first medical mi."sionary to China. 

The first War (1S40) suspended the work for 
five years ; and in 1854, war again interrupted it, 
the missionaries being driven out, and all their 
property burned. Work was begun again in 1858, 
but was discontinued in 1866, when lack of r€- 



15 



AMERICAN BOARD 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



inforcements, and the arrival of other Societies, 
leil to the work being handed over to them. 

In 1583, the A.B.C.F.M. re-opened their South 
China mission at the earnest request of Cantonese 
Christians in California. It was at first called 
the " Hongkong Mission " and was begun by Rev. 
C. R. Hager in 1883, who worked alone for eight 
years. In 1893, the name was changed to " South 
China Mission." A church was organized in Hong- 
kong in 1897, wliich has always been entirely seli- 
suppwting. Work was gradually e.xtended to ten 
districts on the mainland. Canton city itself being 
re-occupied in 1890. The " Chinese California 
Missionary Society " has taken a prominent part 
in the work, which is very prosperous. 

In 1847, Mr. Bridgman removed to Shanghai, 
but the base of operations was removed to Tientsin 
in. 1860, and the work in Shanghai handed over to 
other missions. 

In 1842, Mr. Abeel (who, though a minister of 
the (Dutch) Reformed Church in America (Q-v.) was 
now working in connection with the A.B.C.F.M.) 
began work in Amoy ; but on the Reformed Church 
developing a mission of its own in China, (1857), 
the A.B.C.F.M. handed over its share of this work 
to the new Mission. 

FoocHOw Mission. The work here was begun 
in 1847, on the island of Tong-chou f\>r^, in the 
river Min, by the Rev. Stephen Johnson, and the 
Rev. and Mrs. L. B. Peet, who had all laboured 
among the Chinese in Siam ; and within the next 
fi.'c years, ten other workers aa'rived, including the 
Rev. Justus Doolittle, author of "The Social 
Life of .the Chinese," and of a Vocabulary and 
Handbook. 

In 1849, premises were secured on the present 
foreign community side; but the mission centre 
was afterwards uemoved to Ponasang, ^%iM. At 
the close of the first decade, ill-health and death 
had. reduced the thirteen workers to five, and only 
one convert had joined them, the teacher of the 
boys' school, baptized in 1856. At the close of the 
second decade (1867) the whole Mission staff was 
only eight, while the converts numbered si.\ty-four ; 
and during this period the first uniform edition of 
the New Testament in Foochow colloquial was 
published, two members of the A.B.C.F.M. co- 
operating with two members of the !M.E.M. in this 
work. These two Societies and the C.M.S. divided 
the Foochow field between them at this time. 

In 1874, the prefectural city of Shao Wu 3|55^, 
250 miles from Foochow, was opened. In 1891, 
Pagoda Anchorage was occupied -in order to reach 
more easily the Lower Min and Diong-lo ^ *g 
fields which had been worked since 1863 from 
Foochow. In like manner Ing-hok, j^ jffi, 40 miles 
S.W. of Foochow was occupied as a resident station 
in 1893, the district having been worked from 1865. 



Educational work was begun in 1849, when a 
day-school was started. The opening of the first 
boys' board ing-.school (afterwai'ds developed into 
Foochow College) took place in 1853 ; and in 1854, 
the girls' boarding-school was opened, now the 
Girls' College. 

In October, 1916, the Foochow Mission had a 
staff of 2?2 teachers, teaching in schools of all 
grades, 5,655 jaupils ; and was a partner in the 
Foochow Union Medical, Normal, Language, and 
Theological Schools, and in the Fukien Union 
College, now the Arts Department of Fukien 
University {q-v.). 

Union is also prominent in evangelistic work, 
and there are over seventy organized churches. 

^fc (Ileal work is carried on at all four centres. 
In addition to other activities, the Foocliow Mission 
throughout its history has done a great deal of 
important literary work in the Foochow dialect, 
the translation of the Old and New Testaments 
into the same in collaboration with other missions, 
text-books, etc., etc. 

North China Mission. — Chihli District. This 
work was bcguii by the Rev. Henry Blodget in 
1850. Mr. Blouget had arrived in Shanghai in 
1854, but his health gave way, and, hoping to 
regain his strength in the north, he followed the 
forces of the Allies to Tientsin, and for a time 
lived in the barracks with the English soldiers, 
though his first residence was the temple of the 
Goddess of Mercy. This temple was afterwards 
rented for a place of worship, and services were 
held there until 1864. In this year Dr. Blodget 
removed to Peking, leaving the work at Tientsin 
to two of his colleagues. 

Peking was opened in 1864 by Dr. Blodget, and 
in the same' year Mrs. Bridgman, widow of the 
pioneer missionai'y of the American Board, took 
up her residence in the Tartar city, buying with 
her private resources a very fine proiDcrty not far 
from the East Gate of the Imperial city. This she 
afterwards gave to the Mission, together with an 
adjacent piece of ground, and the buildings thereon, 
which were the homes of the missionaries until 
destroyed by the Boxers in 1900. Mrs. BiUDGMAN 
had charge of the girls' school till her retirement 
in 1868. Another munificent donor to the Peking 
Mission was a Mrs. Tank of Wisconsin, who built 
the first Protestant church in the city ; afterwards 
this was rebuilt on a larger scale from her estate, 
and still later, the Woman's Union College also. 

A number of workers arrived in Peking 
between 1864 and 1880, and were there for short 
periods, and a printing-press was established in 
1869, at which the Peking Committee version of 
the Mandarin New Testament was printed and 
published. From the year 1880 onwards, when 



16 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINK- A 



AMERICAN FREE 



Rev. and Mrs. W. S. Ament arrived, the staff was 
placed on a permanent basis. 

In 19()0, the Press, tlie church, and the whole 
plant of the Jlission both in Peking. and out stationB 
were destroyed by the Boxers, and two hundred 
and fifty of the converts were niassaoied. The 
whole compound was rebuilt in foreign style after 
the rebellion was put down. 

Tiingchow, 15 miles west of Peking, was 
opened as a station in 1867, Kev. and Mrs. L. D. 
Chai'TN being transferred from Tientsin for this 
purpose. The first converts were baptized in 1868, 
and a small boys' boarding-school opened, the 
nucleus of Tungchow College. 

In 1869, Rev. and Mrs. D. Z. Sheffield joined 
the staff, and in 1873 a Theological Seminary was 
started under the Rev. C. Goodrich., In 1900, 
every building belonging to the Tungchow Mission 
was destroyed. One hundred and forty of the 
native Christian community suffered martyrdom, 
while the city itself was nearly ruined with the 
coming of the Allied troops. Two years afterwards, 
the station was re-occupied, and in 1903 all the 
buildings were completed. The College was rebuilt 
as the North China Union College, by union with 
the A.P.M. and L.M.S. and under the same scheme 
the Theological Seminary was iremoved to Peking, 
where there had also been established a ^Yoman's 
Union College. 

In Pao ting fu ^^-j^/^ , work was begun as 
early as 1873, but land was not purchased till 1884. 

In 1900, forty of the Christian community 
suffered death through the Boxer movement, either 
directly or indiu'ectly, and the three missionaries 
who had remained on the station were killed. 

When the work was reconstructed after the 
rebellion, closer union with the American Presby- 
terians was effected by a rcdivision of the field, 
by the establishment of the Union School for girls, 
and the leaving of medical work in the hands of 
the Presbyterians. 

Kalgan ?g5^P , was opened in 1865 by Rev. and 
Mrs. John T. Gclick, reinforced in the next three 
years by four other workers. . In 1882, land was 
bought, and a church, a hospital, boys' and girls' 
schools, with dwelling-houses, were gradually built 
by 1893. A promising work was begun among the 
Mongols, but through the growing claims of the 
Chinese work it had to be given up. 

In 1900 more than thirty Kalgan Christians 
suffered death at the hands of the Boxers. In 1909 
the station was handed over to the Methodist 
Protestant INIission (q-v.). 

Shantung District. After itinerating work had 
•been going on for twelve or thirteen years in 
Western Shantung from Tientsin, the village of 
P'ang-chuang, 6 miles from the Grand Canal, and 

3 



near in<' a.w aiigii. <'i me province, was opined 
as a station in 1880. A ho8[)ital was built in 1833, 
and boys' and girU' schools followed. Although 
tiituatcd in a very exposed po.sition, the station 
escaped quite uninjured in 1900, and only two of 
the converts were killed, thougli many were robbed. 

In 1915 15 the station was removed to Te chou 
S 9^- with U< iw<. liKspitals and the boys' and 
girls' schools 

Lin-ch'ing liiou. imty-five miles S.W. of P'ang 
chuang, was opened in 1086. In llic u(>hcaval of 
1900, some of the convert.^ were killed, and many 
pillaged, and the Mi.ssion property much damaged. 
For some years after this the work was carried on 
from P'ang chuang, but was reorganized, and llie 
city re occupied, after nearly ten yearn" absence, and 
schools and medical work re established, a fine new 
hospital being completed in 1915. 

Shnnsi dittrirt. This work originated in iho 
Theological Seminary at Oberlin, Ohio, in 1881. 
when some of the students decided to form an 
"Oberlin Band" for foreign mi.ssionary work. The 
field chosen was Shansi, and in 1883 six workerit 
arrived at T'ai-ku jtc ^f on the T'aiyuan fu plain: 
and Fen-chou fu j'^>;H1J^ "'»'' opened in 1887. In 
the Boxer uprising of 1900, six members of the 
T'ai-ku station, seven of those at Fenchou fu. and 
more than eighty Chinese Christians Buffered 
martyrdom, and the Mission property was greatly 
injured; but when the rebellion was over, the 
stations were re-occupied and the woo-k continued. 

The literary out-put of the North China 

Mission has been very great, including the works 

(in English) of Dr. A. H. Smith, and (in Chinese; 

those of Drs. Blodget, Goodrich, Siieffiklu, etc. 

Statistics for the whole Mission, January 1, 1916. 

155 
450 



Foreign missionaries ... 
Employed Chine.<!e Staff 
Communicants (Jan. 1915) ,11.187 



AMERICAN FREE METHODIST MISSION. 

Headquarters -.—Chicago, 111. 
Works in Honan Province. 
The work of this mi.ssion in China was hegnn 
in 1904. when the Revs. C. F. Aitleton and 0. H. 
ScoFiELD were sent out, and went in the first place 
to Ssuch'uan where they studied the language. 
In 1906. Miss Clara Leffingweix with two other 
sin-^le ladies went to Cheng-chou in Honan, but 
died there in the same year. Mr. An-LCTOS was 
then appointed superintendent and went to Honan. 
.iung.tsTs^il^ was opened in 1906. Kai-fcnc fu .n 
1907 and Ch'i bsii'iifn J^in VTin 
relinquished in 1917. In 1917 thn ■ ' 

Foreign mis-^ionarics 

Chinese staff 

Communicants 



17 
14 

135 



r 



AMERICAN GOSPEL 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



AMERICAN GOSPEL BAPTIST MISSION. 

■This mission was foa-med in 1893 by a number [ 
of missionaries working in Shantung under the , 
Southern Baptist Convention of U.S.A., who 
separated from that Society for two reasons ; first, 
to confine themselves to evangelistic work, so as to 
raise up a church not relying on foreign money ; 
second, to avoid being govea'ned by a Board, as 
each missionary wished to be supported directly 
by some home church, which was thought " more 
scriptural." Seven workers seceded on these 
grounds and were shortly after joined by reca'uits 
from America. 

In 1894, T'ai-an ^ ^ and Tsi-ning Chou, 
!5|^M, were chosen as spheres of work; and 
afterwards stations were opened in North Honan 
and North Anhui. 

The chief promoter of this movement died in 
1902 ; and by the death of some, and the return 
of others to the Board, the ranks were considerably 
reduced. 

In 1916, one station namely T'ai An, was 
reported, with ten foreign workei's ; but in 1917 
there only remained two. 

AMERICAN LUTHERAN BRETHREN 
MISSION. 

Headquarters :^Minneapolis, Minn, U.S.A. 
Entered China, 1902. 
Works in Honan and Hupei. 
This mission has three stations, one in Hupei, 
Tsao-yangjgpg, (1902) and two in Honan, T'ung- 
pei tfiij)f6 (1910) and P'ing-shih chen ^J^IIh, (1911), 
and in 1916 reported thirteen foreign workers. 

AMERICAN METHODIST EPISCOPAL 

MISSIONS. See MetJwdist Episcopal Mission and 
Mtth'jdist Episcopal {SontJi) Mis.non. 

AMERICAN PRESBYTERIAN MISSION. 

Headquarters : — New York. 

Entered China, 1843. 

This, the largest denominational Society in 
China, has seven Missions, working in the provinces 
of Kuamjtung, Kiamjsu, Chehiang, Hunan, Shan- 
tung, Anhui, and Chihli. 

South China Mission. The first four mission- 
aries, the Kevs. J. A. Mitchell and R. W. Onn 
and their wiVes, reached Singapore in 1838 and 
worked among the Chinese there. When the 
five Treaty porta were opened in 1843, it was 
decided to ent^r China, but this was found im- 
po.ssible for several years, and in the interim the 
missionaries resided in the East India Company's 
premises at Macao, where a boys' school was 
begun. Revs. A. P. Happer, W. Speer and 
John B. French settled in Canton in 1847. They 
opened a dispensary and a girls' school in 1851, 
and the first church was organized in 1862 with 
13 members. Among early recruits were John 



G. Kerr, M.D. (died 1901), and Rev. H. Y. Noyes 
(died 1914). 

Bitter opposition to the foreigners and per- 
secution of the Christians were chronic for many 
years. 

In 1894, an epidemic of bubonic plague swept 
over Canton, in which 100,000 perished. The 
populace believed this outbreak to have been caused 
by the foreigners and a riot ensued in which one 
of the chapels was burned (for the third time) and 
a Chinese Christian murdered. 

In 1900, nearly all the country stations were 
wrecked, and the Christians much persecuted. 

An extensive propaganda is carried on, in 
which emigration to, and return from, the U.S.A. 
has played a great part, many who have become 
Christians in the States returning to teach their 
countrymen, or sending large sums of money to 
support evangelists and pastors. 

The Canton station possesses a splendid equip- 
ment, having, in addition to 69 day-schools a 
Boys' College and Girls' Seminary, the lineal des- 
cendants of the two early ventures ; a Kindergarten 
Training School, a School for Nurses and three 
Schools for the Blind. The mission started the 
Canton Christian College [q.v.) and still shares in 
it as a Union institution, and also in the Union 
Theological College, and the Hackett Medical 
College for Women. Tlie J. G. Kerr refuge for 
the insane is well known ; it had 500 inmates in 
1916. The David Gregg Ho-^jntal is for women 
and children. 

Yeungkong p^ tC , 112 miles S.W'. of Canton 
was occupied in 1886. It has Boys' and Girls' 
Boarding Schools, and 22 day-schools, a Hospital, 
and 26 places for worship. 

Lien-chou '^ >)W , 125 miles North-west of 
Canton, was opened in 1890, but suffered much 
loss in 1900, while in 1905 the station, including 
a hospital, was wrecked, and the missionaries (five 
in number) killed by a mob. In 1917, there are 
Boys' and Girls' Boarding Schools ; a Bible 
Institute for Women ; a Theological class for 
preachers, seven day schools, and Men's and 
Women's Hospitals. The country church-work 
centres round 11 out-stations. 

Ko-chou ]gj i}\] station dates from 1912, though 
worked as an out-station for 20 years ; it has 12 
day-schools and 22 out-stations. 

Shek-lung ^ ig| for many years a sub-station of 
Canton, was opened as full station in 1915 ; it 
has 17 out-stations, and 10 day schools with 
341 pupils. 

Hainan was originally worked from Canton, but 
was made a separate mission in 1893. An in- 
dependent missionary, Mr. C. C. Jeremiassen, 
began work in the island in 1881, at the port of 
Hoihow, 3 miles from Kiung-chou, the capital, 



18 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA AMERICAN PRESBYTERIAN 



He became a member of the A. P.M. in 1885, when 
Kiung-chou was occupied. Work had been begun 
in Nodoa the year before, and Ka-chck '^ |g, the 
remaining centre, was opened in 1900. 

The KiungchouHoihow station has Boys' and 
Girls' Boarding-schools and Bible Women's School, 
in addition to day-schools. The hospital is at 
Hoihow, and adjoins the Jeremiassen Memorial 
Church, the two being worked in close connection. 

At Nodoa, the church is self-supporting. 
There are 6 schools of all grades, including a Boys' 
High School, where the pupils speak 5 different 
dialects, and a Girls' Middle School. Ka-chek 
has 2 Boarding and 6 day-schools and a Hospital. 

The evangelistic and church work in Hainan , 
centres round these 3 places and 24 out-stations ; j 
and a footing has been obtained in the Lui-chou 
peninsula on the mainland. 

The Central China Mission is the oldest field 
of the Mission in China, Ningpo having been 
occupied in 1844 by D. B. McCartee, M.D. and 
Rev. W. M. LowRiE, {q-v.). 

In the ne.xt year, a printing press, which had 
been prepared years before China was opened, was 
removed to Ning-po from Macao. It was trans- 
ferred to Shanghai in 1860 (See Mission Presses). 
A boys' Boarding School was begun in 1845, but 
was removed to Hang-chou in 1867 ; a girl's school 
was opened in 1846. The first church was orga-.lz- 
ed in 1845. 

The Ning-po station now has in addition to 18 
day-schools, a Boys' Academy with a Chinese 
principal and two Boarding Schools for Girls. 
The McCartee Hospital is in the charge of a 
Chinese physician. A specialty is made of tract 
distribution in evangelistic work. 

Shanghai was occupied in 1850, instead of 
Amoy, which had been entered in 1844, but the 
work was much hindered by the T'ai P'ing re- 
bellion for some years. The Revs. J. K. Wight and 
M. S. Ctjlbertson were the pioneers, and the fir.st 
church was organized in 1850. The wo!-k here is 
largely administrative, and a large number of the 
staff is employed in the Shanghai Mission Pre.ss, 
the largest Mission Press in the world. One mem- 
ber is Chairman of the Presbyterian China Council, 
formed in 1910 to co-ordinate the work of the 
seven missions, and meeting annu.-.lly ; while 
another is Chairman of the China Continuation 
Committee {q.v.). The station has Boys' and 
Girls' Boarding Schools, eleven primary schools, a 
Nevtus Memorial Institute and a Bible School for 
Women. There are four churches ; the one in Hong- 
.kew built it33lf a new place of worship and a 
manse in 1915, at the cost of S5000. 

Hang-chou though often visited, was not open- 
ed as a station till 1859, when the Rev. J. L. 
Nevius and his wife arrived, but were soon com- 



pelled to retire, tliroui^h the T'ai P .: 

an(C8. The station was n- ' i:ert<*'! :• 

the first native church 

present Hang-chou Chri ' 

Boarding Schtxjl are both Union lm»iiiuiioiiji ; and 

the A.i'.I'.I. has nine day-schooU with over 300 

pupilH. There aro two country field* with 24 out- 

stations in addition to the city work. 

Soochow was opened in 1871 by the R«v>. G. F. 
Fitch and M. C. Scumidt. In this rich city the 
beginnings were very difficult and slow, but of 
late years the work has made gr. d 

the largo city church ia practical 1;. ..,•. 

There is a Hospital for Women, an Ac^dctiiy lor 
Boys, eight elementary schools, and nine out- 
stations. 

7'he North China MU^iun ha.s three itationj 
occupied by foreign niisaionarieg, namely ; Peking, 
(1863), Pao-ting fu (1893). and Shunle fu (1903). 

Peking was opened by the Rev. \V. A. P, 
Martxn [q-v.), who in 1869 became Prcnidcnt of 
the T'ung Wen Government College. Th«» Mi««iou 
early established Boys' and Girls' Boar Is, 

and medical work began in 1880. Iti .i« 

Presbyterian mi'ssionaries and Christiann iii i'vkui^; 
went into the British Legation, where they remain- 
ed during the siege ; but nine-tenth.s of the country 
Christians, and most of the adherents, were 
martyred. An indemnity for the destroyed property 
was paid on the restoration of order, and the 
ground lost was speedily more than recovered. 
The equipment now comprises shares in the 
Union Theological Seminary; the North Chin* 
Union College (t« bo affiliated with Peking Un 
ivcrsity), Union Bible School for Women, Union 
I Medical College for Women, and a Union fJirU' 
, Boarding school. The mission itself lias 15 primary 
.schools and three boarding schools. There are 
i hospitals for Men and Women ; nine places of 

worship, and seven out-stations. 
' Pao-ting fu f^J^/jJ , was a pro.«perou« station 

when the Bo.xers swept down on it, burning the 
hcu^es, in which four missionaries and three 
I children peri.shed. The Chinese Church was almoct 
exterminated. In 1001, a public memorial service 
was held for the martyrs, and a better silo being 
provided for the mission, it rapidly regained iU 
prosperity. . 

Tho station has Boys' and Girls' Boarding 
Schools (the latter in conjunction with the 
American Board), a Bible School for Women and 
14 day-schools. 2 hospitals. 17 places of w ,r0..n 
and 14 out-stations. 

Shun-tc fu |Bift;(|, ha.<i a ro.t; ^ ..•.^,.-- 
Girls' and Boys' Boarding Schools. 4 day-schools 
and 4 out-stations. A large evangelistic work u 
done both in the city and coantry. 



19 



AMERICAN PRESBYTERIAN ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



The Shantung Mission, said to be "the largest 
in t'.i9 world," began in 1851, when the Revs. 
J. L. Nevius, Danforth, and Gayley, with their 
wives, occupied Teng-chou, under very difficult 
conditions. Cholera and brigandage were raging, 
the unrest made the obtaining of funds very diffi- 
cult, and the gentry were first susj^icious, and, when 
a few converts had been made, actively hostile. 
The first church was organized in 1862, and 
two years later the Rev. C. W. Mateer and his 
wife opened a school with si.\ pupils. This gradu- 
ally developed into the Shantung College (1881) 
and in 1904, was moved to Weihsien as part of 
the Shantung Protestant University (q.v.). A Boys' 
Boarding and High School was at once opened in 
the emptied College buildings, the teaching of Eng- 
lish began in 1913, and in 1916 then'e were 127 pupils. 
As early as 1862, the teaching of girls was begun ; 
the present commodious Girls' School was opened 
in 1913. There are 38 schools of all grades in the 
district. Medical work, begun in 1871, is carried 
on in a fine new hospital opened in 1913. 

Evangelistic work made ven'y slow progress 
for many years, but there is now a large Christian 
CGinrnunity. 

Chefoo was opened in 1862, by Dr. D. E. 
McCartee and wife, the Rev. Hunter Corbett and 
wife following soon after. The Shantung Presby- 
tery was formed in 1865, and the long itinerating 
tours inland begun, for which Drs. Nevius, Corbett 
and MiLL.s (of Tengchow) became famous. A great 
deal of famine relief work was done in 1878. The 
country work is now divided into two districts, 
in one of which the Korean C'hurch maintains three 
missionaries. 

In 1898, a new plant was obtained at Chefoo ; 
a museum and industrial work were started, and 
there are also many institutional activities, cluster- 
ing round the new church opened in 1914. 

Educational work is carried on at the English 
School for Boy.s ; Girls' and Boys' High Schools; 
Mens' and Womens' Bible Training Schools, and 
eight primary schools. 

Medical work is done by 2 physicians, the 
present hospital and dispensary having been com- 
pleted in 1913. 

Tsi-nan fu j55Ifj/ff - ^^'<i^ occupied by the Rev. 
Jasper McIlvaink in 1872, but work was not re- 
gularly established till 1874-5. Mr. McIlvatne 
died in 1881, and in the same year, a riot compelled 
all the workers to retire. 

Dispensary work was begun in 1880, by Dr. 
Stephen A. Hunter, and a hospital opened in 1893. 
Another for women followed in 1898, vacant land 
in the East Suburb having been at last secured, to 
which most of the work of the Mission has gradual- 
ly been transplanted. ' 



In addition to all the activities of the Shan- 
tung Protestant University in this city the A. P.M. 
itself has' a Boys' Academy, erected in memory of 
Dr. W. B. Hamilton, and a Girls' High School 
besides 40 primary schools in the city and district. 
The City Church is a union of the A. P.M. 
and English Baptist Mission Christians. 

Weihsien was opened in 1883. The city was 
intensely hostile to all foreigners. The station 
was built, a mile outside the gates, in spite of 
the violent placards put up by the gentry inciting 
the people to murder the new-comers on a certain 
date. 

In 1900 the whole compound, containing a 
church, two hospitals, three boarding-schools, and 
a number of residences, was totally destroyed by 
the fires of the Boxers ; but all was rebuilt on a 
much larger scale after order was restored. 

The Arts College of the Shantung Protestant 
University was opened here in 1904, but will ])Vo- 
bably be ready to remove to the provincial capital 
by the fall of 1917, when the buildings will be 
utilized for district work. 

The Educational work in Weihsien and district, 
apart from the University, is very large, includ- 
ing a Boys' Academy, a Girls' High School, 6 
Higher Grade Schools in the country, and 57 
primary schools, 17 being self supporting. There 
is also a Bible Women's Institute. 

The country evangelistic work is carried on 
from 176 out-stations; the Chinese Christians are 
very active in the propaganda, and of recent years 
have erectcdi for themselves a large number rf 
church buildings. 

In 1904, under the University Scheme, two 
members of the A. P.M. went to Ts'ing-chou fu 
to co-operate in the Theological College. With 
the removal of the College to Tsi-nan fu in 1917, 
this arrangement will cease. 

Tsi-ning chou district had been itinerated for 
many years, when in 1890 an attempt was made 
to settle in the city. The missionaries were at 
cncc driven out, but returned in 1892. The people 
soon became so friendly that in 1900, when all 
the foreigners had to leave, their premises and 
belongings were not touched. There are now two 
good hospitals and a dispensary : the Laughlin 
Academy for Boys : the Kenarden School for Girls ; 
a number of day-schools and a Women's Bible 
institute. Evangelistic work is carried on in a 
field estimated to contain 5,000,000 souls ; and there 
are 60 churches and chapels. 

Tsing-tao was opened in 1898 after the German 
occupation, and the German Governor, Admiral 
Oscar von Truppel, gave the mission its compound 
in a beautiful situation. 

In 1914, owing to the siege by the Japanese, the 
work was stopped, and the missionaries had to 



20 



EN' CYCLOP A ED I A SINK A AMERICAN PRESBYTERIAN 



leave. During their absence their premises were 
occupied, first by German, and then by Japanese 
troops, and were partially damaged and looted. 
Work was begun again as soon as the Japanese 
permitted the woi'kers to return. 

The educational work is done in Boys' and 
Girls' High Schools, a Women's Bible School, and 
56 Primary Schools. 

The Christian community of this field i.s presid- 
ed over by 5 Chinese and 2 American pastors. 
Several churches have always been self-supporting, 
notably that of Tsingtao city, which has built its 
own church and manse, school, and Y.M.C.A. 
building ; also chapels in the S^ast and West 
suburbs. There are 175 out-stations worked from 
Tsingtao. 

I-chou iuf^'Mffi , 330 miles S.W. of Chefoo, 
was opened as a station in 1890, though a largo 
work had been going on for many years in the 
district, and there were a considerable number 
of country Christians. Educational work began in 
1894 in 2 primaiy schools in the city. There are 
now an Academy for Boys ; a High School for 
Girls ; a Bible Institute for Women, and day- 
schools. There are two good Hospitals ; a large 
itinerating work is done, and there are 7 cut- 
stations. 

Yi-hsien j^!||(1905) is in a region where very 
little preparatory work had been done. It now has 
a flourishing Industrial School, and a Girls' Board- 
ing School, besides ten day schools. The medical 
work done in hospital and dispensary is subscribed 
to regularly by the mine and railroad officials near, 
for the benefit of their employes. There is a 
great deal of evangelistic work done in the district. 

T'eng hsien ^ jjlj^, was opened in 1910. The 
South Shantung Bible and Normal School here 
witli 180 students, is under the principalship of 
a Chinese, the Rev. Liu Sze-i. There are ako a 
Girls' Boarding School and ten day schools : a dis- 
pensary under a Chinese physician : and eleven 
churches and chapels. 

The Kianij-An Mi.<sio7i works, as its name 
implies, in Kiangsu and Anhui. There are three 
stations, Nanking, Huai-yiian, and Nan Hsii-chou. 
Nanking was opened in 1875 by the Revs. 
Charles Leaman and Albert Whiting, after many 
visits and much opposition from the authorities. 
Mr. Whiting died three years later of famine fever 
in Shansi, where he was doing relief work. Mr. 
l.EAMAN in 1917, still lives in Nanking. The force 
of A. P. Missionaries in this city is largely connect- 
ed with Union work in Higher Christian Education, 
in Nanking University (y.r.) and Ginling College. 
The Mission itself has a School of Theology, and 
there are also a Girls' High School, and a Training 
School for nurses. 



There i* a large 1 
in 1915, containing a .^ 

Men's Reading Uoum ana xii dis- 

pensary, etc., etc. The \\.. i aa an 

addition to the evangelistic equtpmenl. The church 
work centres round 6 city and 8 country chapeljt. 
Huaiyuan ttift> ^'^ opened in 1692, and ha« 
Boys' and Girls' Boarding nclioolu and <liiy >ch(X)l». 
Medical work is carried on at Hope Hcwpjul, by 
men and' lady physicians.— A new W ,pel 

and building wa« erected in 1915 to; jm 

and evangelistic work among women , auJ there 
ace 22 churches and chapels in the city and diilrict. 
Nan Hsu chou (^ 'n^ f^, opened in 1912. ha4 
Boys' and Girls' Schools in the city, and 3 day 
schools in the out station.^. Medical work i> bcun{ 
undertaken, in the first inxtance in a buildini; 
offered by "the elders, the teachers and the rni- 
chants" of the city. The whole of the Kiang An 
Mission has 27 out-stations, from which evangel- 
istic viork goes on. 

Hunan Mienion. The A. P.M. first entered this 
province from its field in Kuangtung, out stations 
being esUblished in 1887 and 1889 ; in 1900, some of 
the workers settled in Siangtan jUJ^ ^>^l' l^^ Boxer 
movement forced them to leave for the cx^ast. 
They returned in July, 1901. The station has 
(1917^ Boys' and Girls' Boarding Schools, and six 
day-schools; and a flourishing medical work with 
Men's and Women's Hospitals. Hengchuu Hf ^ 
75 miles S. of Siangtan. was opened to forcii^n 
residence in 1902. It has an Evangelists' Training 
school. Boarding-schools for Boys and Girls, ten 
day-schools, and a Women's Hospital. 

Chen-chou i^ j\\ (1904) has Boys' and GirU' 
Academy and 10 day-schools, and a hospital, with 
a nurses' Training class. 

Ch'ang te ^-{g was opened in 1898 by the Cum 
bcrland Presbyterians. In 1906, this Ix^dy unites! 
with the Northern Presbyterian Church of the 
U.S.A. and its work in Hunan came under the Board 
of the latter. A fine new church was opened here in 
1915 and there are Boys' and Girls' Boarding 
Schools : two day-schools and a Hospital. 

Tao-yiian, (1904), is a substation of Ch'ang U*-, 

; and has a Boys' Academy, a day-school and self- 

\ supporting medical work under a Chinese physician. 

j Chang sha, the capital, was not occupied till 

' 1913. Here the mission has a share in the Union 

Theological Seminary being one of four unitin;; 

Missions, and in the Union Bible School, an-J runs 

! a Girls' High and Normal Schf>ol in additjon 

to day schools. The church and ova ' rk 

in Hunan centres round the 6 alnive ; 'i». 

and 48 out stations. 

JAterarij Work. For the lit<*T»r>- wnrit aroun- 

pHshed by the .Mission a.« .-» v '*• 

• of the Presbyterian Mis.Mf>ii 1' "l- 



21 



AMERICAN PRESBYTERIAN ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



suited. Drs. W. A. P. Martin, C. W. Mateer, 
John Wherry, J. M. W. Farnham, J. L. Nevitjs, 
W. M. Hayes and many others, have combined to 
produce hundreds of works, some in English and 
some in Chinese, dealing with religious and 
educational matter of every kind. 

Statistics of the A. P.M. as Luven in the 
Report published May, 1915. 

Foreign missionaries 

Chinese staff 

Communicants 



given in 

427 

1,984 

34,329 



AIVIERICAN PRESBYTERIAN MISSION 
(SOUTH). 

HeudquarteTS : — Nashville, Tennessee. 

"Works in Cheliang and Kiangsu, and is divided 
into the Mid-China and North Kiangsu Missions. 

MidC/iina Mu-'^ion. This was begun in 1867, 
two years alter the close of the Civil War, by the 
anival in Hangchow of the Rev. E. B. Inslee. In 
1872, Dr. and Mrs. H. C. DuBose were sent out, 
and occupied Soochow. During the year's 1875-9, 
owing to the financial conditions in the Southern 
States, no reinforcement was possible, but between 
1880-1887, eleven new workers arrived, and between 
1888 and 1895 no less than forty-seven were sent, 
including five physicians and eleven single ladies. 
Tung-hsiang hsien ;f[a)!^|'i|J, close to the Grand Canal, 
and ?T. P^ Kiang-yiu were opened in 1895. 

There was considerable difficulty in securing a 
foothold in all these places. For example, after 
the missionaries had settled in Soochow, it was 
said that their residence spoiled the ftng-shui, and 
th3 Chinese who had acted as middleman in the 
purchase of the property was beaten with 1000 
blows. The Mission therefore had to move to 
another part of the city. 

From the year 1891, the Mission tried to enter 
Ka-shing, but in 1895, had to content itself with 
a town nine miles away. In 1905, through medical 
work a foothold was at last obtained in Ka-shing 
itself. Ch'ang-chow ^;!'|'|, on the Grand Canal, 
halfway between Soochow and Chinkiang, was 
opened by the Mission in 1911, but in 1916, through 
depletion of staff was, at least temporarily, vacated. 
In connection with the initiation of The 
Christian Intelligencer, a paper for Presbyterians 
of China, Dr. S. I. Woodbuidge, a member of the 
Mission, was stationed in Shanghai. The circula- 
tion of this paper is given in January, 1917, as 
7000 weekly. The business manager of the Mission 
also resides in Shanghai. 

In 1905, in connection with Union Higher 
Educational work in tlieology and medicine, Nan- 
king became a station of the Society, which also 
has a share in the Union institutions of the 
Hangchow Christian College (Boys) and Hangchow 
High School (Girls). The total number of schools 



of all grades in the Mid-China Mission, according 
to the report for 1916, is 49, with an attendance 
of 1920 pupils ; and there were 24 theological and 
17 medical students at Nanking. Two members of 
the Mission are on the staff of Nanking University 
(q.v.), and one physician on that of the Tsi-nan 
Medical College. (See Shantung Protestant 

University. 

In addition to evangelistic, church and educa- 
tional work, medical work is carried on in Kashing, 
and Soochow, there being a hospital in each place. 
The native assistants number 54, and there are 
6 foreign physicians in residence . 

The North Kiangsu Mission works from 
8 stations, the earliest of which was the treaty 
port of Chinkiang, opened in 1885; Ts'ingkiang pu 
rSJIJrtl) ^^'^s occupied in 1889, and ^^ Suchien, 
in 1894. In each case considerable difficulties 
were met with. In Suchien the missionaries 
" occupied for two years a mud hut under the 
city wall, where they were plentifully supplied 
with brickbats." Hsii chou ^. jlfl in N.W. Kiangsu 
was opened in 1896, and a small work there was 
handed over to the ' Mission from the English 
Baptists of Shantung. 

In 1900, the North Kiangsu Mission escaped 
without injury, being outside the Boxer sphere 
of action. Since then four other foreign-manned 
stations have been opened, namely Huai an i{|^, 
120 miles N. of Chinkiang, in 1904; Hai chou ^^1- 
on the borders of Shantung and near the Yellow 
Sea, in 1908; T'ai chou ^'}\], in 1909; and the 
newest station Yen cheng^ftK, opened in 1911.^ 

The educational work of the Ncffth Kiangsu 
Mission is represented (in 1916) by 90 schools of 
various grades, with 2000 students, and 101 teachers. 
The schools are well-patronized by non-Christian 
Chinese of good position, and pay a large part of 
their own expenses. 

Medical work is done at all stations except 
Chinkiang; and at Ts'ing kiang p'u, Hsu-chou fu, 
. and Haichou (or according to its new name) 
Tung Hai^-^, three new hospitals were complete 
and occupied in 1915. A class of men nurses is 
a new experiment at Suchien, promising well. 

The A. P. Mission (South) has always considered 
all its other work as subordinate to the evangelistic, 
and the native church itself takes a large part in 
forming new groups of enquirers and opening new 
stations. 

A. P.M. (South) Statistics for June 30, 1916. 

Foreign missionaries 143 

C'hinese staff 525 

Communicants 4,237 

AMERICAN REFORMED PRESBYTERIAN 
MISSION (COVENANTERS). 

Headquarters : — Piiiladelpliia, Pa. 
Works in Canton province. 



22 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SI NIC A 



AMERICAN RELATIONS 



The first two missionaries and their wives 
arrived in Canton in 1895, and after spending two 
years at the language selected as their centre 
Tak-hing Jg^ on the north bank of the West River, 
150 miles from Canton. They were obliged to 
leave their work in the Boxer year, but returned 
in the fall of 1901. Lo-ting chou M/Efl'I . ^vas taken 
over from the Christian and Missionary Alliance in 
1913. Work was opened in Do-shing on the West 
River in 1910; and a work begun among lepers 
about the same time. The lepers were attacked 
and murdered by Kuangsi soldiers during the 
revolt in the spring of 1916. 

The educational work consists of two schools 
for girls, two for boys (grammar-school grade) one 
for women and ten primary schools. A kindergarten 
was begun in Lo-ting in 1917, and a High School 
is proposed for Tak-hing in 1918. 

There are hospitals at Tak-hing and Lo-ting 
and three dispensaries ; and one physician is located 
at Canton, cooperating with ten other missions in 
medical education. 

In January, 1917 the Mission reported : — 

Foreign missionaries 18 

Chinese staff 36 

Conimunicants 469 

AMERICAN RELATIONS WITH CHINA. 

The first American ship to trade with China went 
in 1784, and with many advantages over other 
nations the Americans soon took an important share 
in the business at Canton. In 1798 the first 
American Consul was appointed, and the American 
flag was first hoisted at Canton in 1802. In 1821, 
they handed over to the Chinese and to unjust 
death an Italian sailor named Terii.\nova who had 
accidentally killed a Chinese woman. Their trade 
in tea declined when an English Act of. Parliament 
(5 Geo. IV, c. 88) allowed the East India Company 
to export any goods from China to Canada and 
other American colonies. In the Report to the 
House of Commons, 1830, the Company stated that 
American ships were 20 in 1828, as against 42 in 
19C6. W^hen the opium was surrendered in 1839 
the American merchants gave up 1540 chests through 
Captain Eliot. In the succeeding troubles, when 
British ships refused to enter Canton, the American 
captains signed the required bond to bring no 
opium and their trade was not hindered ; they did 
a great deal of unlawful business in carrying the 
goods of English traders and a good number of 
Briti.sh ships were transferred to the American 
flag. In the great debate on the war, held in the 
British House of Commons on April 7, 1849, 
Palmerston, in defending the action of the Govern- 
ment, mentioned that the American merchants in 
Canton had appealed to their Government at 
Washington to join with England and France in 



'■■nt 

en 

'<r- 

of 



a blockade of the Ci 

demands on China '. 

American (Joverument did n</'. 

appeal and so had nu part in tht. ^ . . 

War " which ended in 1843. 

In general it may be ■•■ ■' •' • 'i-- 
between China and the I 
friendly. The position was >i 
one of complete neutrality and 
distinct purpose on the part oi 
to pre.'^crve China's aovereisjn i 
ritorial integrity. The fn. 
China was due largely to th. . 
States not to allow her citizens U> ha^u atijlliin^ 
to do with the opium trade. Ac,'ain. the L'niled 
States Government's aid in thi- :i of the 

coolie traffic greatly strengthci. ■ fririid- 

ship for that country. The appointment of Mr. 
Anson Buklinoame as United States Minister to 
China, during Lincoln's Adminiatration, was • 
mo.st important factor in maintaining good relations 
between the two countries. Buklinuamb reached 
Canton in 1861. He spent some months in vi»iting 
various treaty ports in order to familiariz« himrt'lf 
with Chinese affairs, and arrived at Peking in 1862. 
On reaching the capital he entered into his niisnion 
in full accord with the spirit of friendlincus and 
forbearance which at that time acluated the 
American Government. After si.x years spent in 
Peking he was, a^ the suggestion of the great 
Chinese statesmen, Wen Hsianc, appointed die 
representative of the Chinese Government to West 
ern Nations, with authority to attend to every 
question arising between China and those countries. 
His mission had its origin in the profjosed revision 
of the Treaty of Tientsin of 1858. Unfortunately, 
the death of Mr. BunuNOAMC at St. Petersburg. 
while he was on his visit to the nations, prevented 
the consummation of his mission, and tho only 
nation which immediately acted up":: "**J 

for the revi-sion of the treaty was the 1 ■-<» 

The Revised Treaty, drawn up by Mr. istwAnu. 
was a model of justice and friendliness, embodied 
in admirable language. 

Many other factors have combined to produce 
and maintain that harmony and goo<l will which 
have, for the most part, characterise'! ''■■• r. ' «' ■ -^ 
between China and the United St.T 
more than 130 years since they cam'- iii-' > 
contact. There have been many able and »vin 
pathetic Ministers from " 

China ; many of the P: 
States have shown great -. 
dealings with China; V- 
advisers to the Chiner 
done by numerous 
licarty cooperation o: 
Chinese; thf> work u 



bv 



23 



AMERICAN RELATIONS 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



the China Medical Board Mission; the work of 
Americans in famine relief ; the manifest absence 
of "land hunger" on the part of the United States; 
etc., — all these things have combined to give the 
Chinese that confidence in the sincerity and good 
will of the United States that is so necessary to 
harmonious relations. 

The one .serious drawback to the uninterrupted 
harmony between China and America has been the 
Exclusion Policy adopted by the latter country. 
Article 5 of the Burlingame Treaty recognized 
upon the part of both governments the inherent 
and inalienable right of man to change his home 
and allegiance, and also the mutual advantage cf 
the freest immigration and emigration of their 
citizens and subjects respectively from one country 
to another for the purposes of ti'avel, of trade, 
or for permanent residence. Article 6 provided 
that the citizens and subjects of each country res- 
pectively should enjoy the same privileges in respect 
of travel or residence as may be enjoyed by the 
citizens or subjects of the most favored nation. 
Immediately following the adoption of the Bur- 
lingame Treaty Chinese immigration into the 
United States rapidly increased. Chinese laborers 
poured into California and their wages being k5 
cheap, they soon began to seriously interfere with 
white mechanics and laboring men of all kinds, 
throughout the Pacific coast states. The Americans 
raised a cry of distress and the hostility to Chinese 
immigration became so great that in 1876 a joint 
committee of the two houses of Congress was 
appointed to visit the Pacific coast and investigate 
the character and extent and effect of the immigrat- 
ion. Two reports were submitted by this com- 
mittee. The majority report recommended the 
repeal of the immigration law, while the minority 
report as strongly recommended that the law be 
allowed to stand. Many attempts were made to 
find a solution of the question and the agitation of 
the subject passed through many vicissitudes, 
especially in the years 1880, 1882, 1888, and 1894. 
The net result of it all is that the immigration of 
Chinese laborers has been entirely prohibited, and 
only Chinese scholars and merchants are permitted 
to enter the United States. This failure of the 
United States to find a satisfactory solution of the 
immigration problem, and her exclusion of Japan- 
ese, as well as Chinese, laborers, has also caused 
ill-feeling between Japan and America. The boycott 
of American goods by the Chinese in 1907 is an 
evidence of the illwill engendered in China, also, 
against the people of the United States by this 
exclusion policy. The present situation is an in- 
toleiable one and some satisfactory solution of the 
question has still to bo found. 

The so called " Open Door " policy was in- 
augurated by the United States Secretary of State, 



John Hay. In 1900, Secretary Hay secured a 
treaty signed by every leading nation, pledging 
each to respect the integrity and independence of 
the Chinese Empire, and to claim no rights of 
trade that were not freely conceded to others. 
Unfortunately, the United States Government has 
been either unable or unwilling to make sufRciently 
strenuous efforts to secure the execution of the 
provisions of this Open Door policy, and the results 
have not been at all commensurate with the high 
hopes that were held with regard to it when it was 
first inaugurated. See Emigration; Burlingame 
Mis.<ion, etc. 

[A.P.P] 
The following is a complete list of United 
States Ministers and Charges d'affaires at Peking. 

Note. — The names of Charges d'Affaii'cs are in 
italics ; where they are also indented it signifies 
that they served during the temporary absence of 
the Minister and not between the terms of office of 
two Ministers. 
Messrs. 
Caleb Cushing Feb. 27, 1844— Aug. 27, 1844 

James Biddle, U.S.N. Aug. 8, 1845-Apr. 15, 1845 
Peter Parker Apr. 15, 1846— Oct. 10, 1846 

A. H. Everett Oct. 10, 1846— June 28, 1847 (Died) 
Peter Parker June 28, 1847— Aug. 24, 1848 

Com. John W.- Davis, 

Aug. 24, 1848— May 25, 1850 
May 25, 1850— Jan. 31, 1855 
Jan. 31, 1855— Jan. 27, 1854 
Jan. 27, 1854— Apr. 15, 1854 
Apr. 15, 1854— Dec. 12, 1854 
Dec. 12, 1854— May 10, 1855 



U.S.N 
Peter Parker 
Humphrey Marshall 
Peter Parker 
Robert M. McLane 
Peter Parker 



Com. J. Abbott, U.S.N. May 10, 1855— Nov. 9, 1855 



Nov. 9, 1855— Dec. 31, 1855 
Dec. 51, 1855— Aug. 25, 1357 
Aug. 25, 1857— Nov. 25, 1857 
Nov. 25, 1857— Dec. 8, 1858 
Dec. 8, 1858— May 18, 1859 
May 18, 1859— Dec. 15, 18S0 



S. WeJls Williams 
Peter Parker 
S. Wells Willinmx 
Thomas B. Peed 
S. Welh Williams 
John E. Ward 
Com. C. K. Stribling, 

U.S.N. Dec. 15, 1860— Oct. 14, 1861 

S. Wells Willia?ns Oct. 14, 1861— Oct. 24.- 1*61 

Anson Burlingame Oct. 24, 1861— Nov. 21, 18j7 

S. W. Williams May 5, 1865— Sept. 19, 1866 

S. Wells Williams Nov. 21, 1857— Sept. 29, 1868 

J. R. Brown Sept. 29, 1868— July 5, 1869 

S. Well.< Williams July 5, 1869— Apr. 20. 1870 

Frederick F. Low Apr. 20, 1870— >Tuly 24, 1875 

S. Wells Williams July 24, 1873— Oct. 28, 1874 

Benj. P. Avery Oct. 28, 1874— Nov. 8, 1875 (Died) 



Chester Holeombe 
George F. Seward 

Chester Holeombe 
James B. Angell 
Chester Holeombe 
John Russel Young 



Nov. 8, 1875— Jan. 1, 1876 
Jan. 1, 1876— Aug. 16, 1880 

June 8, 1878-June 19, 1879 
Aug. 16. 1880— Oct. 13, 1881 

Oct. 15, 1881— Aug. 17,1882 
Aug. 17, 1882— Apr. 8, 1885 



24 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



AMOY 



Enoch J. Smithers Apr. 8, 1885— Oct. 1, 1885 

Col. Charles Denby Oct. 1, 1885— July 10, 1898 ' 

Chas. Dcnby, Jr. Mar. 17, 1894— Oct. 27, 1894 

('has. Denby, Jr. May 14, 1896— Aug. 1, 1896 

Edwin H. Conger Jufy 10, 1898— Jan. 14, 1905 

// G. Squicrs Mar. 11 , 1901— Aug. 17, 1901 

/. G. Coolidge Jan. 14, 1905— June 1, 1905 

W. W. Rockhill June 1, 1905— June 1, 1909 

/. G. CuoUdgr. Oct. 21, 1906— Nov. 23, 1906 

T. E. Moore Nov. 23, 1906— Dec. 8, 1906 

//. /'. Fletcher Oct. 1. 1907— Apr. 15, 1908 

//. P. Fletcher June 1, 1909— Apr. 21, 1910 j 

W. J. Calhoun Apr. 21. 1910— Feb. 27, 1913 

P. S. Hcintzleman June 27, 1911— Aug. 11, 1911 

E. T. Williams Aug. 11, 1911— Nov. 12, 1911 

E. T. Williams Feb. 27, 1913— Nov. 15, 1913 

Paul S. Reinsch Nov. 15, 1913— 

J.V.A. MacMurray July 6, 1914— Sept. 30, 1914 
J.V.A. MacMurray Junel4, 1915— Sept. 27, 1915 

Memorandum. 
The Legation was located at : — 

Macao from Feb. 27, 1844 to Aug. 27, 1844. 
Canton from Aug. 8, 1845 to July 20, 1862. 
Peking from July 20, 1862 to present. 

AMHERST MISSION. Lord Amherst's em- 
bassy was the second from Great Britain to 
China, Lord Macartney's (1792) being the first. 
The suite included Sir George Staunton, Sir John 
Davis and Dr. Mourison. The object was to 
promote a better understanding between the two 
countries. 

It arrived at Peking and left again the same 
(lay,— August 29, 1816. The reason for this abrupt, 
inglorious conclusion of the mi.ssion was that 
immediately after being hurried over the road from 
Tientsin to the Summer Palace the ambassador 
was urged to present himself at once in his dusty, 
weary condition before the Emperor (Chia Ch'ing). 
He refused to depart from the previous arrange- 
ment by which his reception had been fixed for the 
next day. when his baggage, with uniforms, 
presents, etc., would have arrived, and he could 
appear decently before the Emperor. The pressure 
on him was urgent; he interpreted it as disrespect 
to his mission and his sovereign, and as he 
remained firm, he was summarily dismissed and 
was hurried back coastward the same afternoon. 

The explanation of this strange proceeding 
seems to be that the officials had assured the 
Emperor that the h'o t'ou ceremony would be 
performed. On finding with what firmness Lord 
Amherst refused to prostrate himself, they used 
this device to screen themselves ; either the ambas- 
sador, in the excitement of being hu.stled into the 
Emperor's presence would h'o t'ou, or the failure 

4 



of tlie audience would be put on oiht-r jjrourida 
than that of the ceremcny. 

Davis : .sl,t>'heji of China. 

AMHERST, LORD (the shin to aaui.dV 
See Jjord A>nher-t. 

AMHERST PHEASANT. .- ■ 
AMIDISM, if 1. rhtii.j t'u, pure . ^1 

of iiuddhi.sui. .Sei- /{iiiliUmt School*. 

AMiOT, JEAN JOSEPH MARIE £^8. 

a Jesuit niis.<!ionary who was born at Toulon on 
February 8, 1718, and wa.s Kent to China in 1740. 
He ma.stercd Chinese and Manchu, and won tha 
confidence of the Emperor Cii'ien Lr.vc. His 
wide knowledge enabled him lo ui-rertain and Rive 
to the west much new information alxiut the 
Chinese. Most of his varied writingN are found 
in the M( moires conreritant I'hiftoirr, .... /jtir 
le.i miisionaires de Pi' kin (Paris 1776 89 1. He aiao 
issued a Manchu grammar. He died at Pekini; 
in October, 1793. 

AMITABHA ; also Amita, etc., H JM P£ and 
there are otner variations of the name. Al fir»t 
the term was impersonal, meaning the ideal, and 
boundless light. It was probably a I'erM.-in or 
Gnostic idea introduced into the HuddhiMn of 
Kashmir or Nepal, whence it reached China rtn 
Tibet. It is not mentioned by Fa Hsies or Hsi'AX 
Tsang, it is unknown in Southern Buddhigm, or 
in the earliest Sutras brought to < hina ; and the 
fir.st Sutra that alludes to Amita does not give him 
any importance. He came to the front early in 
the 5th century a.d. When the poetical not ion* of 
the Lotus-school 5H?£^ or Pure land nchool tP±.ni 
concerning a Paradise in the West began to 
infiuence the common people A.mita became the 
favourite Buddha, and is now the nuwt popular 
Buddha, in China. 

There are various traditions as to hta origin. 
He is an incarnation of the 9th son of the ancient 
Buddha Maha bhidjna jftana bhibhu ; or Ihc 2nd 
son of a certain Indian of the lunar race; or he it 
the celestial rellex of Sakyami-ni. etc.. etc. 

He is strangely obscure in the early art and 
literature of Indian Buddhism, and is in fact 
I barely mentioned. It is also to be noticed thai 
' the Chinese translations of the principal Amidi»l 
scriptures,— two in the second century and four 
in the third,— are all by natives of Central Aaia. 
while the chief features of the cult are all 
Persian. 

Eitel : Handhnnk of tiuddhifiu ; JoHNrroN : 

Buddhist China. 

AMOGHA, AMOGHAVADJRA S.<. Pu 
K'un'j. 

AMOY Btr'J,Hs.a min. ■•. lh« fiv« 

Treaty ports opened to trade by the Treaty ol 



25 



AMPHIBIA 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



Nanking in 1842. The city is on the island of 
Hai-men, in the province of Fukien ; its latitude 
is 24° 40' N. and its longitude 118°. E. 

The chief export was formerly tea, but that 
trade has almost entirely ceased, partly owing to 
the deterioration of the native growth and partly to 
the occupation of Formosa by the Japanese ; For- 
mosan teas having been formerly warehoused in 
Amoy before being shipped to foreign markets. 

Large numbers of coolies went from this port 
to the Malay peninsula, but this traffic has also 
declined greatly in recent years. The population 
is 114,000. 

The foreign population is about 280, mostly 
residing on the Island of Ku-lang-su (q.v.). 

1915 1915 

Net Foreign Imports Hk. Tls. 8,855,282 8.106,478 

Net Chinese Imports 8,131,567 6,138,067 

Exports 3,230,371 3,153,017 

Total Hk. Tls. 20,217,220 17,397,552 

PlTCHKR : In and about Amoy ; and Fifty 
Years in Amoy. 

AMPHIBIA. There are two distinct fauna; 
in China ; one tropical and oriental and the other 
more or less common to the temperate parts of 
Europe, Asia and North Africa. Thus, in Mid- 
and North China the Common Frog of Europe 
[Rana temporaria) and the Common Toad of 
Europe (Bufo vulgaris) are met with. The genus 
of Fire-bellied toads (Bombinator) consists only 
of three species, of which two are European and 
the third Chine.se. The little green Tree Frog 
{Hyla arborea) also extends from Europe right 
across the temperate part of the continent to 
China, where also a closely allied form [Hyln 
arborea sinensis) is found even as far south as 
Formosa. The Edible Frog (liana esculenta) is 
another European form found in China, extending 
certainly as far south as Fukien. The green Toad 
{Bufo viridis) from southern Europe extends 
through the middle of A.«ia along the Himalayas 
to South-China. 

Of the tropical forms the common toad of 
India (Bufo mdanostivtus) is found all over South 
China, certainly as far north as the Yangtze valley, 
and is the common toad found around Shanghai. 
The largest Indian frog, the Tiger Frog (Bona 
tigrina) is also found as far north as the Yangtze. 
The commonest Shanghai frog (Ifana limnocharis) 
is also the commonest species in Formosa and 
extends throughout the Malay Peninsula and 
India. The tree frogs of the genus Bhacophorus 
also extend from India through China up to the 
Yangtze ; while a few species of the family 
Kngystoviatidce extend from the Tropical Orient 
into South China. 

The Giant Salamander (Cnjptohranchus max- 
imus) is peculiar to North China and Japan. The 



Salamanders with the exception of Tylototriton, 
which is found in India and the mountains of 
Yunnan, are all northern animals. 

As regards the distribution of species, China 
is divided into two regions. South China is 
included in the Oriental Region, which comprises 
Southern Asia and the Malay Archipelago ; and is 
essentially tropical. North China is included in 
the Palsearctic region, which comprises Europe, 
the adjacent part of Africa and Asia north of the 
Indus, Himalayas and Nanling mountains. The 
Nanling mountains, which are only some three 
thousand feet high, divide the watersheds of the 
Yangtze and the West River. There is, however, 
no hard and fast line of division in China. 
Fukien, as regards botany, shows an almost equal 
intermingling of tropical and temperate forms. 
The same holds good as regards Amphibia and 
Reptiles, and makes Fukien perhaps the be.=;t 
collecting ground in China. 

The Himalayas and other mountains and 
deserts of Central Asia effectually prevent the 
entry of many northern species into India, but no 
such natural obstruction to the migration of species 
occurs in China, so that, although Foocbow may 
be considered the point of division on the coast 
line between the northern and tropical Amphibia, 
there is so deep an intersection that, for practical 
purposes, it is probably better to take the Yangtze 
valley as the middle of the dividing zone between 
Oriental and Palsearctic species. [A. S.] 

AMPHITRITE, L', probably the first 
French ship to go from France to China for 
trade. She was sent by the Compagnie de I'lnde 
and Sieur Jotjrdan, but the promoter and soul 
of the enterprise was Pere Bouvet. The ship 
sailed from La Rochelle commanded by Captain 
DE LA RoQUE, on March 6, 1698. Pere Bouvet 
was on board with eight other missionaries, 
among whom was Premare. The Amphitrite 
returned to Port Louis on August 3, 1700. Later 
she made other voyages to China. The account 
of the first voyage was written by de Ghirardini 
and also, strange to say, in an anonymous English 
work in 1859 — a translation of an unpublished 
manuscript. This was translated back again into 
French, and is given in Madrolle. 

Madrolle : Les premiers Voyages franqais a 
la Chine; Belevitch-StanivEVITCH : Le Gout 
chinois en France, c. iii. 

AMPHITRITE ISLAND, the name given 
by llie French to the Tung Hai ;gi ?§ island south 
of Kuang-chou wan, included in the leased 
territory. 

AMUR, RIVER, Hoc Hri lung chiang. 

AMURSANA KpJB^^/^JI^, a claimant for the 
chieftainship of the Mongols, who on being 



26 



K\i y I.UI'AEDIA SIMCA 



ANGLO-CHlNL-it COLLEGE 



defeated fled to Peking (1740) and begged 
assistance from Ch'ien Lung. An army was sent 
to establish him as ruler of the Mongols in 
vassalage to China. He soon began to plot 
rebellion, but an expedition was sent against 
him : he fled into Siberia and there died, of 
small pox. 

AMYGDALUS PERSICA. See /'caches. 
AMYOT. Soe Ami,,!. 

ANALECTS, CONFUCIAN. Ihis is the title 
used by Lecci: for Lun Yuf^s;}, (li<icourj>eii and 
dia!o(/ues, tlie first of the Four Books. It contains 
discussions between Confucius and his disciples, 
his answers to their questions, and one book full 
of the sayings of some disciples. The title may 
also be translated Ditjested Convermtiom. The 
work dates, according to Legge, from the end of 
the fourth or the beginning of the fifth century 
B.C. and was produced by the disciples of the dis- 
ciples of the Sage. The Han scholars who edited 
the classics after the burning of the Books had 
two te.xts of this work, and another was afterwards 
discovered hidden in the wall of Confucius' house. 
The work contains twenty books. It has been 
translated into English by Legge (1861) ; Ku HuNG- 
MiNG, (1908) ; Lionel Giles, (1907) ; Sootuill, 
(1910) ; into Latin by Zottoli, (1879) ; into Frencli 
by CorvuEUR, (1895) ; and into German by 
Wilhelm. There arc various other translations, 
for which see Cordier's Bibliotheca Siiiica. 

ANCESTRAL WORSHIP. The honours paid 
to the dead are so called, though many object to 
the word 'worship' with its English connotation. 
It appears as an established cult at the very 
beginning of Chinese history, and it remains to-day 
as the chief religious practice of the race. Much 
of its present form however dates only from the 
Su.ig period. 

Among the common people every household 
preserves in a shrine the v.'ooden tablets, inscribed 
with names, dates, etc., in which the spirits of the 
dead members of the family are supposed to dwell. 
Every clan has its ancestral temjjle where incense 
is daily burnt before the tablets, and twice a 
month there are ceremonial offerings of food. On 
all occasions when the family life is affected, — by 
marriages, deaths, etc., formal announcements are 
made to the ancestors. In spring and autumn there 
are also ceremonies at the graves. 

The good side of this is the filial piety which 
is a great moral asset of the race. The sentiments 
expressed may be compared with the western 
bedecking of the grave with flowers. The evil 
side is the fear lest neglected ancestors should 
work evil to the family. Love and commemoration 
often give place to superstitious fears. 



u of primfl 

all 

.Hi 



a, 



It is ' 
importance t 

much controversy. No one ca: 
honours paid to the dead; bui .. 
spirits are invoked an tutelar power.- 
good or evil to dc«cendant«, if tlie 
them is comparable to that we owe 
Chri.stianity must call it i<' ' • 
Even then, however, there 
how to deal with it ; Koni. 
direct hostility; otliern pn 
ion, confident that wlien ("I. 
correct view.s on other matt' . 

The question was so dmcubHcd .i 
the 17th century as to wreck the v. 
Missions in Ciiina. (See Kiteji Controversy). View* 
of modern Protestant Mifsions on the inatt«r may 
bo gathered from the lively discUMion at the 
Shanghai Conference of 1890. 

Mautin : Lore of Cuthny ; Records or Generai 
CoNFEUKNrE of Protestant Missionaries, 1890. 

AN CHI YEN 'UViM- See Yalooh. 

ANGLICAN CHURCH. CHINESE. S.^ 
Chini-<e An'j/i'tt/i I'lnnrl,, 

ANGLICAN MISSIONS. Four foreign mis 

sionary societies roproeiit the An^^Iican communion 
in China, viz., (i) The Church Missionary Society 
(including the Church of England Zenana Society', 
which entered China in 1044, and ha.s five dioci>>«s; 
(ii) The Dome.«tic and Foreign ■• , Board 

of the Protestant Episcopal Cliu I'.S.A. 

which entered China in 1845, and I.a , t!,;ic' difx-Ofen; 
(iii) The Church of England Mi.x.sion in North 
China, somewhat incorrectly called the .S. P.O. 
Mission, which entered ('hina in 1863, and has two 
dioceses; (iv) The Church of England in Canada 
Mission, which entered China in 1910, and has one 
diocete. See Church Mig/ionary Society, etc; and 
Chini'.-'O Ariijlirf'Tt Churrh. 

ANGLO-CHINESE CALENDAR, AN. publish- 

ed for most years between 1844 and I. " "' »o 
or Canton at the office of the Chin'' /. 

It contained a list of foreigners in Cliina, a LjI of 
Chinese officials, postal information etc , ctr. Soe 

.1 wjlo-Ch iitcse Kulindnr. 

ANGLO-CHINESE COLLEGE AT MA- 
LACCA, THE, was founded in 1818, and was 
then the only Protestant college east of ihc 
Ganges. Its object was announced as ' tho 
reciprocal cultivation of Chinese and European 
literature.' It had a press, at which very import 
ant work was done, such aa the ' 

Pnr.MAUE's Xodtitl /.in'junr 'iini'-nr 

Delegates' Version of the ' 

It was founded by Dr 
£5000 down and £100 a year i- 
its rnrnmenreriient : he was I'l 



wKo gave 

'' from 

f th« 



ANGLO-CHINESE FRIENDSHIP ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



College till his death. The putting up of the 
buildings was Dr. Milne's work, and he was 
Principal till he died in 1822. 

Chinese RErosiTORY, vol. iii, p. 183. 

ANGLO-CHINESE FRIENDSHIP BUR- 
EAU, ']' J^^IS'^ Chung Yinj yu i hui; a Society 
founded in London in 1913 for purposes which are 
sufficiently indicated in the name. Members 
living in China decided to form a similar Society 
in Peking, to work in close co-operation with what 
it calls in the same sentence 'the London branch' 
and ' the parent Society.' 

The object of the Bureau in China is to 
give information to students proceeding to 
England, to give them letters of introduction and 
arrange that they may be met on arrival and be 
helped in getting lodgings, etc. ; and also to use 
the English Society to recommend Englishmen for 
business and professional posts in China. Social 
meetings in Peking are arranged for, and a Jour- 
nal is published. No. 1 being dated December, 
1915. The subscription to the Society is six dollars 
per annum. 

ANGLO-CHINESE KALENDAR AND RE- 
GISTER, THE, 1832, E. I. Co. Press, Macao. 
Edited by J. R. Morrison, for three years, after 
which he issued the Commercial Guide; the 
Kalendur appeared in 1835 edited by the editor of 
the Canton Register. 

ANHUI ^ {?J|[ a province whose name is derived 
fioni its two chief prefectures, An-ch'ing and 
Hni-chou. Its boundaries are Honan, Kiangsu, 
Chekiang, Kiangsi and Hupei. Its area is 
estimated to be 48,460 square miles and the 
inhabitants have been reckoned by different author- 
ities at nine millions and at thirty-four millions. 
Probably the most careful estimate is twenty-three 
millions. The Huai river runs through the northern 
half of the province and the Yangtze through the 
southern, but the two rivers have no connection 
within the limits of the province. The northern 
part is an alluvial plain foimed by the Huai and 
the Yellow River, part of the Great Plain ; the 
southern is hilly. 

Under the Ming dynasty it, with Kiangsu, 
formed the old province of Kiangnan. Its literary 
name is Huan fi^ . 

Its chief city is Anking (Nganking) on the 
Yangtze left bank, and the treaty port of Wuhu 
is within its borders. 

RiCJiARD : CoDipreJiejiKive Oe.oijraphij ; Havret : 
Xfjanhoei, (Var. Sin. No. 2). 

ANISEED, or Staj--ani.se. The tree which 
produces aniseed is ronfined to small areas in 
Wc-tern Kuangsi and to Tonkin. It i.s lUicitim 
verum, Hook. Star aniseed is called pa-cliiok A ^ 
eiijht horns, from the shape of the fruit, which 



consists of eight seed-capsules arranged to form a 
star. From the amber-coloured seeds aniseed oil 
is extracted. The export from Kuangsi practically 
constitutes the world's supply, and has increased 
considerably of late years, the amount shipped 
averaging 12,000 piculs, worth nearly 300,000 Hk. 
Tls. Unfortunately the Chinese dealers adulterate 
the oil with spirits of wine and kerosene oil. 
Aniseed oil is used more as a drug and less as a 
spice than cassia oil. See Star-anise Oil. 

Illicium anisatum ^p '^ Man'j-ts'ao is a false 
star-anise produced in Japan and imported to 
China. It is highly poisonous. 

ANISODACTYLI, an Order of birds which 
includes the families Coraciidae (rollers), I\'Ieropidae 
(bee-eaters), Alcedinidae (kingfishers), Upupidae 
(hooijoes), etc. 

Mcrojjs viridis and Melittophagus swinhoii 
occur in Yunnan, and Nyctiornis atliertoni in 
Hainan. Merojjs ■pJiilippinus, the Blue-tailed Bee- 
Eater, is a summer visitor in S. China ; and M. 
sumatranus has been taken in Fukien and Kiangsi. 
Eurystomus calonyx, the Broad-billed Roller, is 
common in China. Ooracias afjinis occurs in Yiin- 
nan. Alcedo beJujalcnsis, the common Kingfisher, is 
found everywhere in China. In S.E. China these 
birds are netted in large numbers ; their captors 
pluck the back feathers, which they use in making 
the well-known kingfisher feathei- jewellery, and 
then release the birds. Alcedo grandis, a very 
rare bird, and Ccyx tridactyla, both in Hainan. 
Halcyon pileata, the Blackcapi^ed Kingfisher, is 
found in summer all over China. H. ismyrneyisig, 
the White-breasted Kingfisher, is found in Hainan, 
and from Canton to Shanghai. Callialcyon lilacina, 
the Ruddy Kingfisher, is met with in Formosa. 
It has been taken in Fukien, Kiangsu and Man- 
churia. Sauropatis chloris, taken once at Shawei- 
shan. Ccryle vuria, the Indian Pied Kingfisher, 
is common south of the Yangtze. C. lugubris, the 
oriental Pied Kingfisher, is found in South Chin'i 
to valley of Huangho( ?) V pvpa epops, the European 
Hoopoe, is a common bird throughout China. U . 
indica is found in Hainan. 

David et Oustalet : Les Oiseavx de la Chine , • 
(Alcedinides). 

ANKING ^|g an ch'ing, or Nganking, capita] 
of Anluii ])r()viuce, is on the north bank of the 
bfangtze, 370 miles from Shanghai in lat. 36° 9' N. 
and long. 116° 5' E. : it is a port of call foa- river 
steamer.s. The population is said to be 40,000. 

ANN, the name of a British brig which left 
Chusan for Macao on March 8, 1842 and was 
wrecked on the Formosa coast three days later. 
Two men perished in the wreck ; the rest, fifty-five 
in number, were seized by the Chinese, stripped 
and taken to Tai-wan fu. The journey took till 



28 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



ANTI-FOOTDINDING 



the 24th and was full of suffering ; some of them 
were completely naked in the rain and cold ; they 
slept in common jails, twenty-five in a room less 
than eight feet square ; they were ticketed like 
cattle, handcuffed and fettered, and assured, by 
signs, that they were going to be beheaded. ITrom 
March 24 to about August 13 they were kept in 
prison and terribly ill-treated ; then forty-four 
of them were beheaded. Eleven were released in 
October. The official responsible for this brutality 
as well as for the slaughter of the crew of the 
Xerbudda (q.v.) was ordered to "be punished : it 
is known that he was rewarded. 

Chinese Repository, vol. xii ; Journals kept 
by Mr. Gidhj and Capt. Dcnham. 

"ANNA" CASE, THE. In September 
1875, a German schooner Anna left Amoy for 
Tientsin but was beached and plundered by the 
Chinese crew after the two German officers had 
been murdered. The mandarins of the district 
near Foochow where the ship was beached seemed 
to be in connivance with the pirates and allowed 
them to get off with their booty, and the German 
Government therefore exacted $39,000 com- 
pensation. 

ANNALES DE LA PROPAGATION DE LA 
FOI, the celebrated missionary magazine of the 
Association de la Propa<jation de la Foi (q.v.). 
It is a continuation of the other famous series of 
Luttres Edifiante.--. The first cahier as it was 
termed, appeared at Lyons in 1822, and was sold 
at 50 centimes ; the second in 1823, at 75 centimes 
and the third in 1824 at 50 centimes. Then three 
cakiefs were issued in 1825, and the six were 
published as volume I with an index. The work 
has been very popular, and is now illustrated. 
Besides the French edition, still issued from Lyons, 
there have been for many years translations into 
German, Flemish, English, Dutch, Italian, Portu- 
guese, Spanish, Basque, etc. 

ANSERES, an Order which consists of the 
Ducks, Geese and Swans. The species known in 
China are as follows. 

/l«ser serrirostris, the Eastern Bean Goose. 
A. serjetum, the Bean Goose, the most common of 
the geese that visit China in their migrations. 
A. middendorfji, the great Bean Goose. A. fcrus, 
the Grey Lag Goose, and -4. albifrons, the White- 
fronted Goose, both are common on the coast, 
especially in the South. .4. erythropus, the Dwarf 
Goo.sc or Lesser \Yhite-fronted Goose, abundant on 
the lakes of the eastern provinces, especially 
Kiangsi. A. cyqnoides, the Chinese Goose, comes 
from the north in large numbers to winter in 
China. Cygnus olor, the mute Swan seen once at 
Peking and shot once at Chinkiang. C. musicus, 
the Whooper, in great numbers in migration ; some 



pass the winter in CI. 
Jangkowski's Swan, N'. • 
davidi — David's Swai: 
Mallard, abundant in t 

the yellow-nib duck, re. . d 

Mongolia. Tadorna cornutc, ... i- 

mon on the coa^t. L'aiarca n :y 

Sheldrake or Brahniiny Duck, ubuniaui .;. .m^jm- 
golia, where it an object of religious reverence ; 
it winters in China. SarcidiornU m>! ihe 

Comb duck, obtained one year in Fi. ■ l>i 

acuta, the Pintail; many pass the v ao 

central and soutlitrn pro\iiu»'i« .n 

jm-iuiira, tlie Whi.stling Teal, tal .:.d 

Kiangsu. Mareca penelope, the n 

in S. China in the winter. ' •, 

the Gadwall, is found in Cli; ila 

clypc.ata, tlie Shoveller, common in the winter and 
at the times of migration. Nettoput coromandr- 
tionus, the Cotton Teal, in Central China in 
summer, in small numbers. Aiz galericvlata, the 
Mandarin Duck, resident in southern and central 
China. Querqucdula circia, the Garganey or Blue 
winged Teal, China and Formosa. Neitium crtcra, 
the Common Teal, and A^. formo/um, the Baikal 
Teal or Clucking Teal, and Eunettn falcata, the 
Falcated Teal, these three are common in China and 
Formosa, in winter and at the times of migration. 
Oidemia carbo, the Eastern Velvet " la 

the coasts. 0. amerirann, the Eastern ; • r 

Claufjula i/laucion, the Golden Eye. wmiers in 
China. Nyroca jerivn, the Pochard or Dun-bird, 
common in China in winter and at the times of 
passage. A', rufina, the Red crested Pot-hard, 
Fukien. A', jerruginea, the White-eyed Duck, 
winters in China. A', inarila, the Scaup, abundant 
in winter on the coast. A', fuligula, the Tuflcd 
Duck, common in winter. A', batri, the Kastvni 
White-eyed Duck, common in winter. Mft'iu* 
albelliis, the Smew, common in Central i 
winter. M. serrator, the Red-brcaslcd .M< ; 
M. merynnser, the Goosander; .1/. tq 
Cot'ld's Merganser, these three winter in ' 

David et Ovstalet : Let Oueaux de /.. 
(Anatidt'.^). 

ANTEATER, SCALY, Mnni« dnlmanni, is 
found at Amoy, in Formosa, in i' ''id 

elsewhere in the south. It is do.«cribi ; 'C 

in the second jjaper named below. 

SwiNHOE : I'.Z.S., 1870, pp. 236. 650. 

ANTI-FOOTBINDING. Several of the Man- 

chu Emperors issued < 

foot-binding, the nU'^' 

who in 1565 issued oi 

the feet of children l> 

reign should be sevcirely j 

hic'h officials backed up * 



29 



ANTI-FOOTBINDING 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



complete failure, and four years later the edict 
was withdrawn. One of Tag Ktjang's concubines 
once attired herself as a Chinese lady with bound 
feet, but was instantly ordered away in disgrace, 
and the Emperor never saw her again. As late as 
1838, the Mancluis threatened sevea-e punishment 
for foot-binding. 

After the T'ai P'ing rebellion half the people 
in Kuangtung, Kuangsi and Chihli ceased the 
practice. 

Christian missionaries strongly discouraged 
foot-binding among their converts, in many cases 
making unbinding a condition of receiving pupils 
into their boarding-schools, and in a few places, 
a condition of entering the Church. 

The chief difficulties in the way were that 
natural feet were in many places associated with 
prostitution, and that no husbands could be found 
for girls with unbound feet. The attemjat was 
more successful in the South than in the North, 
where the custom was almost universal, slave-girls 
and Buddhist nuns being the only e.\ceptiuns, till 
Christian schools arose. 

The great majority of Chinese girls, even in 
Christian families, still had bound feet, and the 
non-Christian part of the population was appa/i'ently 
still untouched by the new ideas, when in 1895, ten 
ladies of several different nationalities formed the 
T'ien Tsu Hui p^JS'^, Natural Foot Society, with 
Mrs. Archibald Little as President. This body 
at once decided to memorialize the Elnpress- 
Dowager, who as a Manchu, was a natural-footed 
woman. 

After being drawn up very careiully in English, 
and then translated into Chinese, the memorial was 
distributed to get signatures, and nearly all foreign 
ladies in the Far East added their names. 

The memorial was forwarded through, the 
American Minister to the Tsurrg-li Yamen who 
thought it a matter which they could not bring 
befoc'e Her Majesty, but offered to keep it on their 
shelves. It is believed that it reached the palace ; 
but the Anti-iootbinding Edict she issued in 1902 
(the last of the many Manchu attempts to alter the 
practice) was probably the result of her wish to 
curry favour with the foreign ladies in the capital, 
with whom she made special efforts to be friendly 
at that time. 

The Society also sent memorials and letters 
to all Viceroys and provincial governors; and 
public meetings were held in most of the provincial 
capitals and many large cities. At these meetings 
the President of the Society addressed large Chinese 
audiences, — a very great innovation in those days. 

Over a million tracts, leaflets and placards were 
sent out from Shanghai alone, as well as a large 
number from five other centres ; a immber of 
branches were established all over the Empire ; a 



school was opened in Shanghai for natural-footed 
non-Christian Chinese girls; and in every po^.'^ible 
way public opinion was educated. 

During the Eeform movement of 189o-8, K'ang 
Yu-WEi ^|;^/^ formed the Pu Ch'an Tsu 11 ui 
^MSi^ i" Canton, which had before long 10,000 
members, and after the coup iVLtat was removed 
to Shanghai. A considerable number of smaller 
societies having the same object arose over China, 
to what extent directly inspired or stimulated by 
the T'ivn Tsu Hui cannot be estimated. 

Eventually, all Viceroys and Governors issued 
proclamations against the custom, that of H.E. 
Chang Chih-tung being very widely circulated. 

The T'ien Tsu Hui issued its " tenth and last 
repoi't " in 1905; it was handed over to a committee 
of Chinese ladies in 1998, and seems to have shortly 
after ceased to function, its work being done, the 
societies of Chinese origin taking its place. It 
undoubtedly had a very large share in creating a 
strong public opinion against the practice of foot- 
binding, and the custom has been abandoned by 
piactically all people of the official classes, and 
though it is still widely practised among the lower 
ranks especially in the North, its extinction can 
hardly be far distant. See Foot-hindin(j. 

Giles : Historic (Jhina; Beport of Pekirifj 
Hospital, 1858; Mrs. A. Little : Intimate Cliina. 

A 

AN TE HAI ^%^\, the favourite eunuch of 
Tz'u Hsi the Empress-dowager, in the early days 
of her power ; connnonly known as Hsiao An /]-» ^ 
Little An, on account of his small stature. His 
power and arrogance were very great and his 
influence over Tz'u Hsi such as to give rise to 
most scandalous reports. In 1859 she sent him 
into Shantung to get money for her privy purse. 
It was contrary to dynastic house-law for a eunuch 
to leave the capital, and Prince Ktjng took 
advantage of this to persuade Tz'u An, the 
co-Regent Empress-dowager, to sign a decree com- 
manding the immediate execution of the insolent 
An Te-hai. The sentence was promptly carried 
out in Shantung, several other eunuchs being got 
rid of at the same time. Tz'ii Hsi knew nothing 
of it for some days, when her wrath against Prince 
KuNG and the Empress Tz'u An was very great, 
nor did she ever forgive them. 

An Te-hai was succeeded by the notorious 
Li Lien-ying [q-v-]. 

ANTELOPES. There are four species in N. 
China, and Mongolia. They are as follows, with 
their distribution : — 

G'azeUa suhijutturosu, N. and E. Mongolia; (J. 
gutiuTosa, Inner Mongolia; G. qmcivalshii , Ordos, 
Hsinchiang; G. picticaiidata. S.W. Kansu, Tibet, 
Hsinchiang. 



30 



FA'cyrj.OrAEDIA SINK A 



APRICOTS 



Of these G. gvtturosa is the largest and G, 
picticauduta the smallest. Both G. ijiitturot^a and G. 
subgutturosa have an enormous larynx which swells 
up in the rutting season ; the former is hence known 
as the Goitred Antelope. 

SowF.r.BY : JouriKil, X.C.Ii.L'.A .S.. vul. xlvii. 

ANTIMONY. See Minerals. 

AN TU Vic fid, Antioch, the capital of Ta 
Ch'in. Sec Ta C'h'in, Fu-Un. 

ANTUNG^^l'^^^s opened a.s a Treaty Port 
by the Commercial Treaty with the United States 
in 1903, but on account of the Russo-Japanese war 
the actual ojDcning dates from the .'spring of 1907. 
It is on the right bank of the Yalu River, thirty 
miles from its mouth. The river is closed by ice 
from the end of November to the end of March. 
The Chinese population is about 40,000 in the 
winter, but in the busy months that number is 
pei'haps doubled by immigrants, chiefly from Shan- 
tung. There is • a Japanese Settlement with a 
population of about 20,000. The port is connected 
with Mukden by rail. 

A British Consulate was established in 1907. 
but was closed again in 1909. 

1915 1616 

Net Foreign Imports Hk.Tls. 13.553,055 18,507,536 

Net Chinese Imports 1.842,430 1,625,365 

E.xports 8,806.245 8,609,965 

Hk. Tls. 24,211,731 28,743,866 

ANZER, JEAN BAPTISTE, was born in 
1851 at \Yeinricht, Germany, and died at Rome 
in 1903. He belonged to a newly created Mission, 
and reached China in 1879, when he was made 
pro-vicar in the southern part of Shantung. In 
1883 he was attacked by Chinese and left for dead. 
In 1885 Southern Shantung was made into a 
bishopric and Anzer became bishop there. In 1890 
he abandoned the protection of France and 
accepted that of Germany ; this gave Germany a 
pretext for the seizure of Tsingtau when mission- 
aries had been murdered in 1897. See Tsingtau. 

APAOKI pUf^-il^. the first ruler of the united 
K'itans. See K'itan.'^. 

APE'S HILL, so called from the number of 
monkeys (Macacus cyclopis) formerly found there, 
is near Takao in Formosa, and Takao is sometimes 
called Ape's Hill Harbour. The hill stands alone 
and is 1,710 feet high. 

APOSTOLIC FAITH MISSIONARIES, are 
representatives of a recent religious development 
in the U.S.A. and hence have only made their 
appearance in China within the last few years. 
They show a great tendency towards " hiving off " 
to form other small missions, known as Full Gospel 
Mission, etc., etc. They do not publish statistics, 
on principle ; but in the Miis'wn Directory for 1916, 



they are guen as 82 in 

Shanghai and Sof)chow ; it r 

stations in Chihli ; at I 

stations in Siiansi ; wiii. 

and Mongolia. As ihero i« but 

cither at home or on the lielii, 

cohe.sii n in the work dono, and the .» 

constantly changing. Their head<.' 

Springs, Arkansas U.S.A. Sec .1 

APPIANI, LOUIS 1|ft>;»f , a J,a/.4u«t iii,-*..,u. 
ary, born in l'iedni(>iii on March 22, 1663. He wa« 
sent to China by the Propaganda wiih the title 
vice-visitor apostolic, and reaclicil ( ;n:l. n . n 
August 14, 1699. When tlic Legate de '1 
came to Cliina in 1705 he chose P. An ; . . _ 
interpreter to accompany him to Peking;. When 
the Emperor an<jri!y ordered the Lc^jatc to leave 
China, P. Apimani was arrested on the journey 
south and brought from Nanking back to I'eking ; 
then he wa.s sent for trial into Ssuch'uan where 
he had worked ; brought back to the capital he wju 
imprisoned for two years tlu-re, then exiled to 
Canton and kept in prison there twelve years. Ho 
died at Macao on August 29, 1732, and w.ii» buried 
in the Dominican church. 

Favieu : Peking, p. 172. 

APPLES, Mulwi spp. ^ji^ p'in luo. The 
true apple M. fylventrig docs not seem to be 
found in China (unless, of course, in a few 
foreign gardens). The larger, whitish varieties 
cultivated by the Chinese seem to belong to the 
M. prunifolia group. The fruit is often handsome 
in appearance, but it is soft and spongy in texture 
and of insipid flavour. 

Another group is small and generally red, 
and though often mealy the taste is sour. These 
trees are probably derived from the wild crab- 
apple, M. baccata, which grows all over N. China 
and Manchuria and is used as the stock for 
grafting all apples on. The crab-apple tree 
sometimes reaches 40 to 50 feet in height ; the 
fruit is very abundant and is about the size of 
a green nea ; it is eaten raw, dried or made into 
preserves. 

Meyer : Agricultural Exjilorationt, .etc. 

APRICOTS, (I'runun armeniacaj. # htiny. 
The wild Apricot is common in N. China, and 
there are many varieties in cultivation. Thoy are 
grafted on seedling apricot stock or on the wild 

peach. The trees are generally not pr 

regular orchards but in small groups, « : 
Oil terraces on the hillsides. 

Perhaps the finest var!et»*» ure found in 
Shantung. Apricot kern- * • '» 

grown at Yeriching and \ 
of Peking are e.xported fr 
These are sweet. Bitter f. "'i' 



31 



ARAHANT 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SlNICA 



districts of Chihli, Honan and Shantung. The 
apricots ripen in June and the shipping season 
starts in August; the fruit itself is uneatable. \ 
These edible kernels have given rise to the mistaken 
idea that almonds are grown in China. [ 

Meyer : Agricultural Explorations, etc. ; Far i 
Eastetin Review, February, 1915. I 

ARAHANT, Chinese Lo han (q.v.) the ideal | 
which Sakyamuni taught that every man should 
stri\e to be. An arahant is one who has travelled 
the Eightfold Path, has reached enlightenment 
and is saved to all eternity. For the opposition 
of this ideal and the Mahayanist ideal of 
bodhisaLship see Bi>dhi<attva. 

ARCHAEOLOGY. Very little archaeological 
work has been done by foreigners in China Proper ; 
and though the Chinese are keen students and 
collectors of their own antiquities, archaeological 
research as foreigners understand it is unknown 
among them. Immense sums are paid for treasures 
which are found by accident, but money is not 
applied to the systematic search for what would 
illustrate history. Feng shui, the lack of cooperat- 
ion, the weakness of the government, the suspicious- 
ness of the crowded population, are all against 
such enterprises. 

The chief work which foreigners have done in 
this line has been in the less populous parts of 
W. China and Turkestan (Hsin-chiang). 

The discovery by Bower, de Rhins and others, 
of ancient manuscripts at Kucha and Khotan led to 
the first purely archaeological mission, which was 
Russian, under Klementz. It went to Turfan in 
1897, and found that early manuscripts were so 
commonly exhumed that the people used them for 
window paper ! 

In 1902 the Congress of Orientalists organized 
an International Association to encourage such 
work, the head-quarters being in Petrograd, while 
each nation was left free to make its own plans. 
Stein, .sent by the Indian government, was the first 
in the field in 1900-01. Grunwedel next took up 
Klementz' work at Turfan, and was followed by 
Lecoq. Then France sent Pelliot, who worked at 
Kucha vn 1907, then went to Urumtsi, Turfan. 
Hami and Tun-huang. 

The principal spoils of these expeditions were 
literary. Vast numbers of Chinese manuscripts 
were obtained from every centre, both secular and 
religious ; some found near Tun-huang dating back 
to B.C.. 98, proving very early intercourse ; numerous 
Sanskrit works were found, including the oldest 
Sanskrit manuscripts known and one lost canonical 
work ; Tibetan manuscripts were abundant, especial- 
ly on the south side of the desert and in Tun-huang. 
Works were found in stranpc languages which at 
first received the names Tokharian and Nordarisch. 



Further research, however, has resulted in their 
being called Kuchan and Khotanese, since they 
were certainly the languages used at Kucha and 
Khotan. There were also three other Iranian 
languages, all in alphabets of Aramaic origin, two 
being apparently tongues of Persia (Manichaean 
works only), and the third Sogdian (Manichaean, 
Buddhist and Christian texts). There were some 
Christian texts in Syriac ; some manuscripts in old 
Turkish dialects in Runic alphabet, others in 
Uighiir, another in Semitic (a fragmentary form), 
believed to belong to the White Huns, or 
Ephthalites. One of the main results of the Stein 
and Pelliot Missions was the finding of a great 
library at Tun-huang, containing Chinese, Tibetan, 
Sanskrit, Sogdian and "Khotanese" works of the 
7th, 8th and 9th centuries. Among other relics of 
Nestorianism Stein brought from Turfan fragments 
of the New Testament of the 9th century and one 
fragment belonging to the 5th century. 

Besides securing manuscripts these expeditions 
examined caves decorated with stucco figures and 
with frescoes; statues (mostly stucco), paintings 
on silk and paper, embroideries, coins, etc., were 
also obtained. The civilization thus revealed is a 
mixture of Persian, Indian, Chinese, Hellenic, etc. 

In 1907 an important Mission was sent from 
France in charge of Chavannes (See Mission 
Archcologique). It worked especially at the Lung 
Men caves in Honan, at the Ta-t'ung fu cave- 
temples in N. Shansi, and in Manchuria. 

A Japanese mission was organized by Count 
Otani and conducted by Tachiba, who brought 
back much from Liao-Ian, Turfan and Tun-huang. 

The Japanese have also done some interesting 
work in Shantung and Shansi, and have made 
important researches in the prehistoric archaeology 
of Manchuria and Eastern Mongolia. Their work 
in Korea has resulted in the discovery, among 
many things, of the earliest extant Chinese 
paintings. 

In 1914 an archaeological mission visited Western 
China, the members being MM. Gilbert dc Voisins, 
Victor Segalen and Jean Lartigue. The full results 
of their journey are being published, but a brief 
account is given in the Journal Asiatique for 1915. 
Plates are given, showing some of the Han 
sculptures, pillars, etc., which were found. The 
art is said to display exotic influence, chiefly 
Iranian in character. 

The discovery of the Oracle Bones (q.v.) in 
Honan was of g^eat interest and importance in 
Archaeology. 

According to an announcement in the Journal, 
N.C.B.R.A.S. for 1914, it was proposed to found 
an American School of Archaeology in Peking, 
but the project appears to have been still-born. 



32 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



ARCHITECTURE 



Stein: Ancient Khotan, 1907; and liuins of 
Desert Cathay, 1912; Chavannes : Mission Archeo- 
logique, 1913; Pelliot : Les Influences iranienneK, 
etc., 1911, and La Mission Pelliot, 1909; 
B.E.F.E.O., vol. xi, p. 171. 

ARCHERY. Chinese historians naturally, and 
perhaps in this case rightly, ascribe the invent- 
ion of bows and arrows to the period of Huang Ti 
and Yao, while the bow-case and arrow-tube are 
said to have been made by Shun, the cover for | 
the bow being called <w?fi. The bow was in all 
probability evolved from the primitive drill-bow. 
The Shu Ching states that the war-chariot of 
B.C. 2190 contained an archer, a javelin-thrower and 
a charioteer. In later times soldiers practised ar- j 
chery on horseback as well as on foot. In the I 
later Feudal period bows were adorned with green I 
bands and ornaments of ivory and horn, and differ- 
ed in size and colour according to the user's rank. 
Bow-cases to hold two bows were made of tiger-skin 
and later of seal-skin. Arrows were made of sedge, \ 
tipped with barbs of metal, stone, ivory or bone. ! 
Under the Ch'in dynasty the bow used was four 
feet long and made of bamboo, and poisoned arrows 
were employed. Later a cross-bow was in use 
which could discharge 10 iron arrows at once. The 
T'ang bows were of mulberry-wood and horn, and 
the cross-bows could shoot arrows 300 paces. The 
Ming dynasty introduced bows bound with silk. 
Under the Ch'ing rule the soldiers practised archery 
six times a month both on foot and on horseback, 
the greatest experts being from Manchuria and 
Ssuch'uan. There were four types of bow, the long 
bow over 5 feet in length, used by foot-soldiers, the 
short bow 4 feet long used by horsemen, the train- 
■ ing bow used to strengthen the arm, and the^ 
cross-bow. The bows were graded according to 
their pull, eighty and even a hundred and twenty 
pounds pull being spoken of. The strings were of 
silk, gut or strong twine. The Chinese bow is of 
the' composite type, the outer layer to resist 
stretching being of sinew, the inmost layer to resist 
contraction being of horn, while a layer of wood 
between provides support for both. When un- 
strung such a bow goes into a strongly reversed 
form. 

Not only was archery practised by the army 
but by Buddhist and Lama priests even in the 
Manchu dynasty. Archery was also a favourite 
pastime with the common people in ancient times. 

Werner : Sociology; Bois-Reymond : Chinese 
Archery (Journal, N.C.B.R.A.S., vol. xliii). 

ARCHITECTURE. That Chinese architecture 
is monotonous is an indisputable fact. The model 
most generally employed for the majority of build- 
ings, be they dwelling houses, temples or palaces, is 
that of the t'ing '^ thus described by Bushell in 

6 



Chinese Art. '"'ihiti con.M.ua etscni; . 
roof with recurved ed^jes rt'.itiiii^ up' 
The curvilinear tilting of the coruci •. 
has been supposed to be a Burvival from ' 
tent dwellers, who used to hang thi- 
canvas pavilions on spears ; but i.. 
it back to a very dim antiquity, a* v. 
records of the Chinese except ax a eellled 
al people. The roof is the principal feaiuro ■ 
building and gives to it, when fininhcd, an 
of grandeur or simplicity, of strength or t:; . 
To vary its aspect the architect is induced ociittio:* 
ally to double or even triple it. This prepundi-ranca 
of a part usually sacrificed in Western architecture, 
is justified by the smaller vertical elevation of tho 
plan and the architect devotes every attention to 
the roof by the addition of ante-fixal ornamenU, 
and by covering it with glazed tilea of brilliant 
colour, so as to concentrate the eye upon it. The 
dragons and phoenixes posed on the crest of thj» 
roof, the grotesque animals perched in linea upon 
the eaves, and the yellow, green and blue tile* 
which cover it are never chosen at random, but 
after strict sumptuary laws, so that they may 
denote the rank of the owner of tho house or 
indicate the imperial foundation of a temple." 
[ The great weight of the roof requires the use of 
irany pillars, and though stone is common in China 
these are generally of wood ; one notable exception 
I being the magniticently carved marble pillars to 
bd seen at the temple of Confucius in Ch'u Fou. 
1 Shantung. The space between the pillars is filled 
' in with bricks or blocks of stone, these not being 
i intended to serve in any way as supports ; in fact 
I the construction is curiously like that of the modern 
I American building of the newest type, where steel 
supports sustain the structure, and tho portions 
between are filled with concrete. 
I As Chinese buildings are constructed of bricks 

and wood they are most perishable, therefore but 
few ruins of note exist; from the ancient books, 
; however, we can obtain some idea of the archit«tl- 
ure in early days. 

Apart from the form described above there 

was another known as the T'ai 3| or lofty tower ; 

i these T'ai being the first large buildings described 

i in the canonical books. Three sorts are described 

i by Bushell; "one intended as a storehouse of 

i treasure, a second built within a walled hunting 

! park for watching military exercises and the pica- 

j sures of 'the chase, and a third fitted up as an 

I astronomical observatory." Among Uter represent- 

atives of the T'ai he cites the towers of the Ore»l 

Wall the storied buildings surmountm,: tho g«t« 

of cities, and the observatory at Poking, also a 

i square tower mounted on a wall. 

In addition to buildings Chinese architecU 
have erected beautiful memorial arches of stooa 



'S6 



ARCONA ISLAND 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



known as P'ai lou {q.v.); wonderful bridges of 
both marble and stone ; and, under the influence 
of Buddhism, pagodas, or T'a tg, of infinite 
variety. 

The cupola does not exist ; the structure bear- 
ing the nearest resemblance to it being the " stupa," 
or " dagoba " erected over the remains of Buddhist 
priests. 

PALfoLOcrE : L'Art Chinois; Bushell : Chinese 
Art; MiiNSTERBEaG : Chinesische Kunstgeschichte ; 
BoERSOHMANX : Baulaui-'it der Chinescn. [F.A] 

ARCONA ISLAND. See Arkona Insel. 
ARDEAE, a Sub-order of Herodiones, (qv.), 
containing the Herons aud their allies. The follow- 
ing are the species found in China. 

Ardta cinerea, the Common Heron, throughout 
the north in summer and the south in winter. 

A. manilleni'is, the Eastern Purple Heron, China 
coast provinces ; it sometimes winters in Ssuch'uan. 
Herodias alba, the Large Egret, and H. intermedia, 
the Smaller Egret, both found in the south all the 
year round, and in the north in summer. H. 
garzetta, the Little Egret, throughout China. H. 
evlophotes, in Formosa and S. China. Buhulcus 
coromandus , the Cattle Egret, in Formosa and the 
southern half of China, in the summer. Butorides 
javnnica, the Little Green Heron, in S. China. 

B. amurtnsis , China coast on migration, Manchuria 
and Formosa. Ardeola bacchus, the Chinese Pond- 
Heron, in the south all the year, in summer in the 
Yangtze valley up to Ssuch'uan. N'ycticorax 
griseus, the ^Nlght Heron, common tnroughout 
China. N. magnifica, Fukien, Anhui, Hainan. 
Gorsachius melanolophus, the Malay Bittern, in 
Formosa. G. goisagi, Fukien, Shaweishan. Botau- 
ris stellaris, the Bittern, in the north. (?) Dupetor 
flavicoUis, the Yellow-necked Bittern, common in 
summer in the south and centre of China, and 
in S. Shensi. Ardctta cinnamomea, the Chestnut 
Bittern, passes the summer in China and Man- 
churia. A. curythma, Amoy, Shanghai, Chefoo, 
etc. ; a migrant, China coast, Manchuria. A. 
sinensis, in all parts of China; Manchuria. 

ARENDT, CARL, Professor of Chinese in 
the Seminary of Eastern Languages in Berlin, has 
written various papers on Chinese subjects and a 
grammar of Chinese. 

ARGALI. See Sheep, wild. 

ARGOLS, the dried droppings of the yak and 
camel, used as fuel by Mongols and Tibetans. 

A R GOON, half-castes, generally the offspring 
of temporary marriages (as allowed by Moham- 
medan law) between Turki merchants and Tibetan 
women. It is found under Argon in Jaeschke's 
dictionary, and defined as the offspring of mixed 
marriages between Chinese and Tibetans. 

RocKuiLL : The Land of the Lamas. 



ARHAN. ARHAT. See Arahant. 

ARKONA INSEL (Arcona Island), the name 
given to the small island in the bay at Tsingtau, 
immediately opposite to the town. The Chinese 
name of this island is Tsingtau # g green island, 
and the name has been transferred from it to 
the town on the mainland. It bears a lighthouse. 
The Japanese name is Kato-jima. 

ARMEALEC, ARMALECH, ARMALEGH. 

See Almalik. 

ARMY. The Chinese forces consisted till 1895 
of the Eight Banners [q.v.) and some Provincial 
troops raised in each province independently ; but 
these did not constitute an Army in the modern 
sense of the term. After the China-Japan war 
some attempt at reorganization was made ; five 
Divisions of a proper army were raised, but were 
disbanded during or after the Boxer outbreak. 
Only one Division under Yuan Shih-k'ai was left 
as the beginning of a new army. The new army, 
Lu chiin J^ ^ land forces, was decreed in 1901. 
Only in Chihli, under Yiian's Viceroyalty, was the 
decree effective ; here, between 1903 and 1906 six 
Divisions were organized. Then the Lu-chun Pu 
or Ministry of War was established and a scheme 
was sanctioned to form thirty-six Divisions within 
ten years. In 1907 it was determined to complete 
this scheme by 1912. It is obvious that the 
Revolutio2i and the later divisions in the State 
have interfered with the steady carrying out of 
any programme. There were said to be 800,000 men 
under arms at the date of the abdication, and in 
August, 1913 the strength of the regular army was 
given as 500,000. China Yeau Book, 1916. 

ARROW CASE, THE; an incident of 1856 
which led to the second war with China. A boat 
in the Canton river, flying the British flag, was 
boarded by Chinese who pulled the flag down 
and carried off to prison 12 men. It was 
contended by the Viceroy Yeh that the boat was 
Chinese and that among the arrested men was a 
pirate ; it is certain that the British registration 
of the boat had expired 10 days earlier, but this 
was unknown to Yeh. Mr. (Sir Harry) Parkes 
demanded the return of the crew and that any 
charges against them should be examined at the 
British Consulate. Yeh would make no apology 
for the insult to the flag nor acknowledge that his 
action was wrong. The incident was the cul- 
minating point of many years of insolence, and 
the question was not so much the injury to the 
Arroiv as the inviolability of the flag and the 
whole of the future relations between China and 
the outside world. Sir Michael Seymour at 
once attacked Canton, and the war led to the 
Treaty of Tientsin. 



34 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



ART 



ARROWROOT. What is exported from China 
to Europe under this name is (1) the (Ju ftn Hji^J-, 
the flour of the Water-lily root, A'dumbiutn 
spcciosum. It is coarse, light-brown, resembling 
joss-stick powder. Chieh fin g0 j^i is made from 
the root joints and is more expensive. It comes 
from the Huai river district. (2) Ling /tn ^ ,t^, 
Water Caltrop flour, Trapa bicornis. This is 
whitey-brown like coarse wheat flour. (3) Ma t'i 
ftn .CylSS,^, Water Chestnut flour, Eleocharus or 
Scirpiis tubcrosus. (4) Ko fen ^ l(^j , the root of 
Pachijrhizus thunbergianus, a wild creeper. 

ARSENALS. The first arsenal in China of 
a western character was begun by Dr. (Sir Halliday) 
Macartney in 1863. 

Macartney, a British army officer, was then on 
special service under Li Hung-chang, and was 
painfully making better shells, powder and guns 
than the Chinese could produce alone. He took 
the opportunity of the Lay-Osborne fleet being 
dispersed to secure the floating arsenal which 
accompanied it, by letting Li behold it at work. 
It was established at Nanking when that city was 
taken from the rebels. 

An arsenal was established at Foochow under 
M. GiQUEL in 1866. 

There are now, according to a list in the China 
Year Book, arsenals at the following places : 
Canton, Chengtu, Foochow, Hangchow, Hanyang, 
Kai-feng, Lanchow, Nanking, Shanghai, Hsi-an fu, 
Te-chow, Tsi-nan fu, Urumtsi and Yiinnan fu. 

ARSENIC -3:5 hsin shi/i. The annual 
movement of this product through Treaty ports 
is on an average nearly 1,000 tons, the producing 
ports being Hankow and Changsha, and a little 
is also sent out from Kuangtung. The arsenic 
is sent mostly to Tientsin and the Shantung 
ports, and then inland to be used by the peasants 
for poisoning insect pests, including those which 
attack the wild silkwoi'ms. Arsenic in the form of 
aipiment occurs in many places in N. W. Yiinnan, 
the chief mines being near Chaochow, near Tali 
and in Menghua, etc. See Orpiment. 

ART. One has but to glance at the articles 
on Art in any Encyclopaedia, and to note the 
dates upon which the great majority of books on 
Chinese Art have been published, and one realizes 
that the knowledge, among Occidentals, of this 
great branch of human culture is in its very 
infancy. 

Much study has been devoted to the subject 
within the last decade, but until further translations 
of the voluminous catalogues and histories com- 
piled by the Chinese themselves are available, 
until the ideals of the nation are more clearly 
grasped, dogmatic decisions are most dangerous. 



Certain it is that Ail wLich Is " J 

manifestation of tho ulon, the rtv< ^ 

invisible reality t .j 

flourished among i ..j. 

quity ; and sinei: Uie ui.^. i imi,. :i.i;a "iiiea 1 of 
man is tiiat connuciiul with \n.i rLi;j;ioii it may be 
well to consider briefly the original Ucli^jion of 
China and its relationship with Art. 

This ancient Faith is divided by Cbinow 
scholars into three periods ; (i), the Primal-ancient, 
a monotheism, a worship of Soanc Tl lh« oolj 
God in Heaven ; this lasted until the riie of the 
Chou dynasty (1122 b.c.) and then ga\c way to a 
(ii), clearly defined duali.<<ni, when the womhip of 
Earth was added to that of Heaven, and when » 
belief in gods and spirits many and variotu, b«' 
came rife in the land. Now, as the (,'hiiicM are, 
and have been since the legendary titnca, an 
agrarian people to whom the success or failure cf 
their crops means life or death, it is not strange 
that these spirits should, in their idea, dwell in 
the mountains and rivers, the clouds which con- 
trol the life-giving showers, and other natural 
objects. Of these spirits no images were made, 
but symbols suggesting them ornamented the 
utensils of everyday use, and the bron/c vessels 
which served in the religious rites. Thus came 
Chinese Art to birth. From that day to this 
symbols have played an all-important part in its 
each and every branch ; in fact no intclli^'ent study 
of the subject is possible without some knowledge 
of symbolism. 

The third period, known as the " Near An- 
cient," stretched to some epoch subsequent to our 
era and was materialistic or, more strictly, agnostic, 
with echoes of the old monotheism. It saw the 
rise of Confucianism and Taoism, as well as the 
introduction of Buddhism. Ideals became natur- 
ally more complex and man, striving to express 
these ideals, developed art in many forms, while he 
began to fa.«hion his gods (now becoming more 
and more numerous ) in his own image. 

The most ancient relics of Chine5e art extant 
are the bronze vessels and the jade t; ■ ich 

date from periods prior to that tui : .in 

Chinese history, the rise of the Chou dynaHy. 

The next medium of which the Chinese artist 
in those far off days availed himself to express his 
nascent ideas, was stone, and various car\ed sbbs 
dating from the Han dynasty (B.C. 203— a.d. 25) 
are still to be seen, while the famcus " »tono 
drums " which stand at the entrance to the Con- 
fucian temple at Peking are the moat precious 
relics of the Chou. 

Pottery ne.xt claimed 1.; •00 

as the invention of the wri. . "^"•^ 

tion is attributed to the (jciiv^ui ' I*. 

appointed by SuiH Hvaxo Ti, B.C. to 



3b 



ARTHINGTON FUND 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



superintend the building of the Great Wall ) was 
perfected, painting was added to the Arts of China. 
This reached its highest point of excellence during 
the T'ang and Sung dynasties (a.d. 618—1280) 
also known as the Golden Age of Chinese literature. 

The various arts were perfected from this 
period on ; the magnificent spontaneity of the early 
days ga"e way to a polished refinement of gi'eat 
charm, which, unfortunately has degenerated in 
our day into a conventionalized use of the symbols 
which have become stereotyped through the ages. 
It is not too much, however, to hope that a 
renaissance may take place; that when China shall 
have passed through the present stage of tra,nsition, 
to her old vital appreciation of the forces of 
Nature, — which appreciation is the very root of 
her great Art — she will add that of the best forces 
in World Civilization as it develops to-day. To 
realize that firm grounds exist for this hope one 
has but to converse with a Chinese connoisseur, to 
grasp his keen appreciation of all that is best 
and greatest in the artistic productions of his Land, 
and his realization that the productions of the 
moment are weak and lacking in vitality. 

See Architecture; Bronze; Cloisonne; Em- 
broidery; Enamel; Glass; Jade; Jewellery; Lac- 
quer, Painting, Porcelain, Pottery, Sculpture, 
Symbolism, and Wood-carving. 

Paleologue : L'art chinois, 1887; Bxjshell : 
Chinese Art, 1904; Munsterberg : Chinesische 
Kunstrjeschichte, 1911. [F.A.] 

ARTHINGTON FUND, THE, was left by 
Mr. Robert Arthington of Leeds, England, to be 
used in opening new work in foreign missions, or 
in extension of existing work. Mr. Arthington 
was a Baptist, but any Mission supported by a body 
of Evangelical Christians was eligible to receive 
from his bequest ; and in addition to Baptist 
Missions, the C.M.S., L.M.S., W.M.S., U.M.M. 
and Friends' Missions have all received grants for 
work in China as well as a number of inter- 
denominational Societies such as the Y.M.C.A., 
Medical Associations, Tract Societies, etc. Other 
countries besides China have received benefit from 
this Fund, which was, roughly, a million sterling. 
Mr. ..\rthington died in 1900 ; and as no endow- 
ment was set up, the Fund has gradually been 
exhausted. 

China Mission Year Book, 1914, p. 507. 

ARTHUR, PORT. See Port Arthur. 

ASAFOETIDA. See Pharmacopoeia. 

ASBESTOS. See Minerals. 

ASOKA (Agoka), the Emperor of Maurya, 
who reigned from about 269 to 227 B.C. His empire 
extended over the whole of India, except the 
extreme south of the peninsula, and included the 
greater part of what are now called Afghanistan 



and Beluchistan. He is mentioned here because 
he was the great patron of Buddhism. Many of 
his monuments and inscriptions remain, including 
an inscribed pillar which marks the traditional 
birth-place of Buddha. 

Rapson : Ancient India. 

ASSEMBLIES OF GOD, THE, a term 
adopted by certain communities of Christians in 
U.S.A. of recent origin. They decline to form 
themselves into a sect, and claim to follow the 
apostolic form of Christianity more closely than 
other bodies of Christians. They have a Mission- 
ary Presbytery which is however only an advisory 
body, formed in 1914, at a General Council held 
at Hot Springs, Arkansas. They are represented 
in China by the Apostolic Faith Missionaries 
[q.v.), and the Pentecostal Missionaries, [q.v.) ; 
and the Pentecostal Missionary Union {q.v.) is 
classed with these under the heading of " Assem- 
blies of God " in the Directory of Protestant 
Missions in China, 1916. Twenty-one workers of 
the " Assemblies of God " aji'e also given as 
associated with the South Chihli and two other 
Missions. There are in all 118 names, and in the 
case of the Americans, there is a great prepon- 
derance of Scandinavian surnames. The Mission- 
aries derive their support in an unsystematic 
manner, either through the above-named Presby- 
tery, or the London Headquarters of the Penta- 
costal Missionary Union, or through various reli- 
gious periodicals or from private sources. They 
are all largely independent of any home control 
and of each other, and members of any one of the 
above-mentioned bodies are by no means willing 
to be called by the names of the others. 

ASSEMBLIES, PROVINCIAL. See Pro- 
vincial Asseinhlies. 

ASSEMBLY, NATIONAL. See National 
Assembly. 

ASSOCIATION DE LA PROPAGATION DE 
LA FOI, The Society for the Propagation of the 
Faith. This celebrated Roman Catholic organiza- 
tion was founded at Lyons on May 3, 1822. Its 
object was to help the work of the Missions in 
heathen lands by prayers and regulated offerings 
of the faithful. To English readers it cannot but 
be interesting to read the passage in the Society's 
first call to the faithful : ". . . everywhere is 
recognized the need of opposing to the gigantic 
efforts of the Protestant Bible Society something 
equally well organized in favour of the truth. 
Our French Association must always keep the 
English Society in mind, and exert itself to do as 
much." 

( . . partout on a compris la nccessite d'opposer aux 
gigantcsques efforts de la socicte protcstante bibli- 
que, quelque chose d'aussi bien combine en faveur de 



36 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



ASSOCIATION 



la veritc. Notre Association fran<;aise, doit toujours 
avoir en regard la Socitte anjlaise, et s'e//orcer de 
lui /aire contre-poidsj. 

In view of the importance of this Association 
and the difficulty of rcfea-ring to its earliest 
publications the following translation of an extract 
of its rules is given. 

Ad majorem Dei gloriam. 
Art. I. A pious Association is founded in 
France, taking the title of Association of the 
Propagation of the Faith. 

Art. II. Its aim is to extend the society cf 
faithful Catholics by helping in. every way it can 
the apostolic mi.ssionaries appointed to spread 
the light of the Faith among foreign nations of 
both hemispheres. 

Art. III. It is composed of religious people 

of both sexes, whose Christian conduct must 

bring down on the enterprise the blessing of God. 

Art. IV. The Association is divided into 

divisions, centuries and sections. 

Art. V. Ten members form a section, ten 
sections a century, and ten centuries a division. 

Art. VI. Each division, each century, each 
section shall have a chief. 

Art. VII. The chiefs of divisions, of cen- 
turies and of sections are included in the sections, 
and are never supernumerary ; so that the 
divisions are composed of only one tnousand 
associates. 

Art. VIII. The chiefs of century are 
nominated by the chief of their division; they 
communicate on the one hand with this chief, 
on the other with the chiefs of their sections. 

Art. IX. The chiefs of section are nominat- 
ed by the chief of their century, and communicate 
with him ; each of them has to see to the replace- 
ment of members who cease to make part of his 
section. 

Art. X. Each chief of division, of century 
or of section keeps an exact list of the ten persons 
who are under his administration ; he commun- 
icates it to his superior chiefs whenever it is 
asked for. 

Art. XI. In no case may the divisions, 
centuries or sections assemble together. 

Art. XII. The chief means by which the 
Association hopes to arrive at the proposed end 
are prayers and gifts. 

Art. XIII. To bring the blessing of God 
on the Association and on the Missions each 
Associate is asked to recite daily a Pater and an 
Ave; it will be enough if he devotes to this pur- 
pose once for all the Pater and Ave of his morn- 
ing and evening prayer ; he will add this invoca- 
tion : "Saint Francis Xavier, pray for us." 

Art. XIV. The Association chooses as 
special times of prayer and of actions of grace 



The Feoit 0/ the Jnicntijn 0/ tht 11 

the day on which the Afi^ociation v, . 

at Lyons, May 3, and the Feast 

Xavieu, whom it recognizes aa i 

ber 3). On this day a Mass v. ; 

for the success of the Work, in a.. 

a Council. 

Art. XV. Each Associalo contribu'.. 
Missions five centimes (one halfpoony) per w««lc. 
Art. XVI. Tho A^gociates whoM t«*l 
prompts them to give more than a halfpenny 
a week will bo free to charge theniuuIvcB, either 
alone or in combination with any number of 
persons less than ten, with the contribution for 
an entire section. 

Art. XVII. The chiefs of section receive the 
contributions from tho members of their section, 
and pay tho total to their chiefs of century on 
the first Sunday of each month ; each chief o( 
section is responsible for ten contributions. 

Art. XVIII. Within the month the chiefs 
of centuries pay to their chief of division the 
sums they have received from the chiefs of their 
sections. 

After the Association had been cstablighcd for 
a year, the Pope, Pifs VII having already cxprcs*- 
ed his joy in the new organization, ho was ajtk-Ml 
to make concessions of Indulgences for the Asaoci- 
ates. He readily complied in a rescript which had 
the force of a brief. Accordingly tho AssociaUM 
have plenary indulgence and remission of all sins 
on the two Feasts named in Regulation XIV above, 
and on one day a month at their own choice; 
always supposing that the Associate has said the 
prayers of the Association, has confessed, uken 
the Holy Communion, etc. In addition, every time 
the Associate recites the prayers of the Association 
or gives an offering for Missions or assists at an 
assembly held on behalf of Missions, ho receives 
an indulgence of a hundred days. These in- 
dulgences, whether plenary or partial, are avail- 
able per modum suffragii for souls in purgatory. 

The first President of tho Councjl of the 
Association was His Serene Highness tho Princ* 
of Croy, Grand Aumonier of France, Bjshop 
of Strasburg and then Archbishop of Rouen. He 
fir.st obtained tho king's {Locis XVIII) approval 
and then sent letters to all tho archb..shops and 
bishops of tho kingdom recommending Ihcm lo 
support the Association. 
' The Association at once began the i.'!<ue o£ th« 

I famous Annales dc la Prvpa.jntv^n dr la /c. (q v.). 

In the first year of ita existence, when the 

' Association was only known in •-- AMgnon. 

and a few other places in tho e ■^«' ' ' 

: total contributions amounted to —..-•. . ..-'ics an 

35 centimes. After deducting fr. 2255 for expen«- 



37 



ASS, WILD 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



this was divided equally between the three Mis- 
sions of the East, Louisiana and Kentucky. 

In 1913 the total receipts were Fr. 8,114,983.07 
or approximately £325,000. 

Annales de la Propagation de la Foi, Xo. 3, 
January, 1824. 

ASS, WILD. Equus hemionus; found in 
Chinese Turkestan ( Hsinchiang ). It is probably 
E. hemionus tyjiicus not E. hemionus kiang, the 
true kiang of Tibet. See Equidae. 

ASTER ISMS. ScHLEGEL has advanced che 
hypothesis that the names of the constellations and 
asteroids on the Chinese sphere belong exclusively 
to the Chinese and go back to B.C. 17,000; that 
these names of Chinese asterisms found on Western 
globes have been borrowed from China and added 
to; and he supports his hypothesis by many argu- 
ments drawn from history, tradition and geology. 

ScHLEGEL : Uranographie Chinoise. 

ASTRAEA CHANNEL, the new passage in 
the Woosung river made by the Huang-pu Conserv- 
ancy. It is just within the outer bar, and 
south-west of GouGH Island. H. M. gunboat 
Astraea was the first vessel to go through it on its 
completion in 1909 : hence the name. The Chinese 
call it ^ 7^ 355 ''■?«" shui tao. 

ASTROLOGY g. & . The fundamental prin- 
ciples of Chinese astrology are laid down in the 
eighth section of the early document known as 
the "Great Plan" {Hung Fan^^'^i) which now 
forms a chapter of the Shu Ching. It is therein 
asserted that climatic change is directly related 
tj the moral conduct of the people, and that the 
stars, sun and moon, are the means by which such 
climatic changes [Ftng Shui ]g, 7^ " wind and 
rain," q-v.) are produced. With this simple prin- 
ciple was later incorporated the cosmical theory of 
the Yin and Yang (q.v.). The Five Elements (q-v.), 
which are also referred to in the " Great Plan," 
were regarded as the constituents of all things, 
and each could be Positive or Negative (Yang or 
Yin) in character. They have mutual affinities, anti- 
pathies and "catalytic" actions, and in the heavens 
their essences are concentrated in the five planets. 
[Mercury = water, Venus = copper, Mars = fire, 
Jupiter = wood, Saturn = earth]. The planets collect- 
ively form the ^^l^, s/iao yin, the Lesser Negative 
Influence. The fixed stars have various terrestrial 
affinities, especially with certain regions of China, 
and collectively form the /I; \i^,sha(i yang or Lesser 
Positive Influence. The Sun [k^ , t'ai yang, 
Major Pjsitive Influence, or p jih) and the Moon 
(^1'^. i'oi yin, Major Negative Influence, or ^ 
yiieh) are the dominant factors, their potency vary- 
ing according to their positions in the ecliptic s'^ \^, 
huang tao, Yellow Path) and in azimuth. The 
azimuths are indicated by a division of the circuit 



of the horizon into twelve sectjrs named after the 
"twelve branches." The twelve double-hours into 
which the Chinese day is divided correspond to 
these twelve azimuthal sectors. The ecliptic is 
divided into twenty-eight lunar asterisms or con- 
stellations. Each of the azimuth and ecliptic 
divisions has affinities with the elements (planets) 
and is yin or yang. From this point, the system 
is continued rather arbitrarily and the practice of 
astrology has not normally proceeded on such rigid 
mathematical lines as it did in Europe. 

Although it was conceived that conjunctions of 
several planets heralded the birth of a sage (a 
well-known theory in the west) and that new stars, 
comets and other exceptional celestial phenomena 
were significant, in ordinary practice attention was 
concentrated on the computation of fortunate days 
and times. The cosmic breath which animates 
vegetation, animal life, man and the dead, waxes 
and wanes with the cycles of- the Sun and Moon, 
so that, in the end, all that is required to be 
known is the Ye.\e (referring to the long cycles 
such as that of 60 years, the Metonic or that 
period of 500 years in which Mencius thought 
sages would reappear — like the Egyptian phoenix 
in the Clementine epistles), the Month, (referring 
to the epoch in the annual cycle), the Day, (referring 
to the epoch in the lunar rnonthly cycle), and the 
Hour, (referring to the epoch in the daily solar 
cycle). These four represented by four pairs of 
the " sexagesimal cycle " characters express the 
moment of birth, of the crisis or of the enquiring ; 
and by considering the mutual affinities of these 
eight characters as referred to the Yin and Yang, 
Five Elements, Twelve Zodiacal signs and other 
correspondences the astrologer proceeds to prophesy. 

DouE : Researches into Chinese Superstitions ; 

Dennys : Folh-Lore in China. m- i-t n 

[H.C.J 

ASTRONOMY, IMPERIAL BOARD OF, 

&Oi1t ch'in Vien chien. Though generally called 
by foreigners the Board of Astronomy this is not 
one of the Six Boards, and the Chinese term is 
chien not pu ^. 

It was founded in the thirteenth century, but 
has done nothing for astronomical science. The 
imperial government was merely concerned with the 
preparation, printing and distribution of the calen- 
dar, a government monopoly. The President of 
the Board was generally a prince, and, the post 
being more or less honorary, he merely performed 
certain official ceremonies but had no knowledge 
of or care for astronomy. Below the President 
were 195 functionaries, half Manchus and half 
Chinese ; they included two Directors ^ IF. chien 
chcng and four Assistant-Directors 5^t fill chien fu. 
There were also some sixty students attached to 
the Observatory, with an allowance of a tael a 



38 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SIXICA 



AUDIENCES 



month, say three or four shillings ; and as 
astronomy could not lead to any important and 
lucrative posts there were few enthusiastic students 
who spent all their lives at the Board. This state 
of things continued till the beginning of the present 
century, when the Empress-Dowager introduced 
some changes. 

The Board was connected with the Board of 
Bites, but it was always more or less independent 
of all the other Ministries. Since 1913 it has 
been joined to the Ministry of Public Instruction. 

An important fact in the history of the Board 
is that it provided the door through which Christ- 
ianity entered China in the seventeenth century. 
Until then the direction of the Board had been 
in the hands of Mohammedans, and errors had 
crept into the calendar which they were unable 
to correct. The Jesuit missionaries were called 
in to help and they proved their worth. P. Sabatin 
DE Ursis and P. Terrenz were the first engaged 
in this work. They were followed by P. Rho, 
who introduced the most important of the mission- 
aries in this connection, — P. Adam Schall. He 
was in great honour and of great service both to 
the passing Ming dynasty and to the incoming 
Manchus ; and though after the death of Shun Chih 
he fell before the attacks of his enemies whom he 
had displaced in their offices and honours, the 
work was continued by a worthy successor P. 
Verbiest. This official position held by the 
missionaries gave them their only right to residence 
in Peking for nearly two hundred years. A re- 
gulation in the Ta C'h'ing Hvi Tien was that two 
foreigners should always be on the Board. 

The language used is sometimes very vague, 
but it should be observed that no missionary ever 
held the office of President of the Board ; the 
post was that of Director or Assistant-Director. 
It is worthy of note also that no French Jesuit 
ever held the post, the missionaries engaged being 
mostly Portuguese ; the first French priest em- 
ployed in the Board was the Lazarist P. Racx. 

Le Bvlletix Catholique de Pr.KiN, 1915, p. 471. 

AUDIENCES. In the East an ambassador 
has always been regarded as a messenger sent by 
his master but not representing him. This differ- 
ence in the eastern and western views has caused 
continual trouble. 

It is uncertain when the custom of prostrations 
before the Chinese ruler began ; the first occasion 
on which an ambassador objected to it seems to 
have been in a.d. 713, when an envoy from Caliph 
Walid brought presents to the T'ang emperor 
YiiAN TsuNG. The envoys of Harun-al-Raschid, 
sent in 798 to Te Tsung, seem to have performed 
the obeisance without protest. 

In the Mongol dynasty there were numerous 
embassies from the west, mostly for the purpose 



of converting the Mt • 
rule that friars do not. 
well understood in ti 
hence in most ca-ses i 
during this period. I j 

that none of the onvf»j . ., _.i 

went to Karakorum or olMwbera beyond the 
Chinese frontier. 

In the Ming dynasty, in 1419, Ycnq Lo 
received an embassy from Herat, and though it 
was not from Europe, the account is very inlor- 
esting because it is so detailed. It ' xX. 

the envoys bowed thrice to the earv 
heads did not touch tho ground. 

The next mission to roffr to •« B^'t^:' 
from Russia, which r-- 
1655. It left again in 

plished nothing, because BACKiiorr rt : c 

his credentials to anyone except t ^ ■ ,t 

himself. 

Another embassy arrived the same year from 
Canton, sent by the Dutch East India Company 
to seek trading privileges. The Jesuit faiheri at 
the court did all they could to prevent the 
heretical Dutch from access to the Emperor, but 
in vain. The mission did not scruple lo perform 
all the prostrations required, at ■ ea and 

to various objects. Its success . in the 

permission for one hundred men lo ^i^ii Canton 
for trade every eight years, twenty of them 
proceeding to Peking with the ' presents ' for the 
Emperor. 

Ides was the first Russian envoy sent after 
the Nertschinsk treaty, but unfortunately we have 
no account of his audience with K'ang Hsi. 

In 1720 Ismailoff reached Peking as an envoy 
from Peter the Great, and we have accounts left 
by P. RiPA and by Bell (q.v.). The envoy per- 
formed the nine-fold k'oVou, but only after 
demur and on conditions. He seems to have placed 
his credentials actually in the hands of tho 
Emperor. 

A Portuguese mission under Metello arrived 
at Peking in 1727. Tho envoy carried out the 
full h'u-t'ou ceremony and placed his letter in the 
Emperor's hands. 

Earl Macartney, the British ami .n5.-\.!f.r. ar- 
rived in 1793 and was received by ; r 
at Jehol. According \o the British t • 
he did not k'o-t'ou. Several writers 
less knowledge of the affair -. 
ceremony was performed, and t! 
tically state so. Mo?t readers will i>Ty>ui 
the official account as tni«» 

In 1794 came Ti •» 

mission. They only ea '» 

in his chair, and they w( '• 

regarded as a .'nccaclc i --^ 



AUGUSTANA 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



obliged to prostrate themselves in season and out 
of season. 

At the request of China an embassy was sent 
from Russia in 1805. It was under Golovkin, v ho 
refused the ho'-tou and was therefore sent away 
with nothing done. 

Lord Amherst's mission in 1816 was also 
dismissed without an audience, really, though in- 
directly, because Lord Amherst was not willing 
to h'o-t'ou. 

This long series of combats on the audience 
question comes to an end with the case of Ward, 
the American Minister, who, in 1859 brought a 
letter to Hsien FIing. The Chinese made some 
truly ridiculous suggestions to get over the difficult- 
ies, but Ward was firm in the matter, with the 
consequence that the letter was delivered without 
an audience. 

The right of representatives of Foreign Powers 
to reside in Peking was finally settled in 1850 ; 
but the question how the ministers should be 
received by the Emperor was not raised in the 
treaty. The death of Hsien F^ng without return- 
ing to the capital, with the minority of his 
successor, postponed the matter till 1873. Then, 
on June 29, the ministers were received without 
prostrating themselves or even bending the knee. 

This first audience was however not wholly 
satisfactory. The edict which granted it used tho 
same term for the envoys as was used for the 
annual tribute-bearers from Korea ; it said they 
supplicated permission to present their letters ; and 
the audience itself was given in the Tzu Kuang Ko, 
a pavilion in the palace grounds where envoys from 
tiibutary States were commonly received. (China, 
No. 1, 1874 Corresp.) And the whole affair was 
afterwards grossly misrepresented in printed reports. 
E.xcept for occasional audiences during the 
next year the question was again in abeyance for 
fourteen years because of the minority of Kuang 
Hsii. Then in December 1890 a much improved 
edict arranged for another audience. Once more 
however the reception itself was unsatisfactory, 
being held in the same pavilion as before ; and 
the Ministers at last intimated that they would 
go there no more. On November 12, 1894, the 
Ministers were for the first time granted audience 
in a proper place (the Wen-hua Tien) and in a 
proper manner. See Embassies. 

GuNDRY : China Past and Present; Rockhill : 
Diplomatic Missions to the Court of China (Amer. 
Hist. Review, vol. ii) ; China Review : vol iii. 
AUGUSTANA SYNOD MISSION. 
Headqunrttrs : — St. Paul, Minnesota, U.S.A. 
Entered China, 1905. 
Works in Ilonan. 

The first missionaries sent by the Society were 
the Rev. A. W. Edwins and wife, who arrived in 



1905 and in 1906 established themselves in Hsii-chou 
fiT 'Mh on the Peking-Hankow Railway, this being 
the easternmost point of their district. Work has 
since been extended to Ju-chou J^\?'Ij, Honan fu 
J^iT^I?, Yii-chou 1^'^ , Kia-hsien ^^, and Pao-feng 
g|3. As in all new fields the evangelistic side of 
the work largely predominates, but educational 
work is carried on, in primary schools, and one 
high school, together with a School for the Blind. 

Medical work is well developed, and there are 
hospitals at Honan fu, Ju chou and Pao-feng. 

In 1916 the Mission had 31 foreign missionaries. 

AUGUST EMPEROR. See Imperial titles. 

AUGUSTINIANS, the Hermits of St. August- 
ine, a mendicant Order supposed to have been 
founded in 388, but really dating as an Order from 
the thirteenth century. The members of the Order 
who now work in China belong to the branch called 
Augustiniens chajisscs (shod), or Augustinians of 
the Observance. The first in China were P. Martin 
DE Herrada and his companions who came over 
from the Philippines in 1579 (see De liada) ; they, 
however, only stayed four and a half months. 
The Order has given two Bishops to Peking and 
its first Vicar-Apostolic to Kiangnan. In the quest- 
ion of the rites Bishop FRAN901S de la Purification 
and Alvare de Benavente were opposed to che 
Pope's decision, but the Order generally was sub- 
missive. All the Friars are of Spanish nationality. 
Since 1879 they have only had one Vicariat in 
China, that of N. Hunan. For 1916 the returns 
are 31 European and two Chinese priests, 7529 
Christians and 7976 Catechumens. 

They have agencies in Shanghai and Hongkong. 

Addis and Arnold : Catholic Dictionary, 1905; 
de Moidrey : La Hierarchic Catholique en Chine. 

AVALOKITA, the most important of the 
Bodhisattvas in Chinese Buddhism. In many 
forms and in manv ages he has been one of the 
principal deities in Asia, yet his origin is obscure 
and even the meaning of his name is doubtful. 
It means in its full form (Avalokite'svara), 
The Lord who is regarded, but it is often given 
as The Lord who regards. Though grammatically 
incorrect the latter translation suits him, since 
he is the personification of divine mercy. 

He is not found in the Pali Canon nor in 
earlier Sanskrit works, but c. xxiv of the Lotus 
Sutra, a chapter which is probably a late addition, 
Bays he saves from shipwrecks, robberies, etc., 
from passion, hatred and folly ; assuming every 
shape, — Buddha, goblin or what not, in order to 
perform his deeds of mercy; he also grants 
children to women who pray to him. This last 
power, generally in the hands of a female deity, 
is interesting in view of his later transformation 
into a goddess. 



40 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA -INn a 



BABBLERS 



This chapter was turned into Chinese 
between 384 and 417 a.d. 

The Chinese pilgrims Fa Hsien and Hsuan 
TsuANG shew that his worship was popular in 
India from the fourth to the seventh century; 
its beginnings may therefore be put some century 
or two earlier : it would of course become well 
established before it made its appearance in 
standard literature. 

He is somehow connected with a mountain 
called Potala or Potalaka, but the connection is 
a mystery. The name has, however, been trans- 
ferred to the palace of the Grand Lama at 
Lhasa and to a Lama Temple at Jehol ; it also 
appears in the name of the sacred island P'u-t'o. 

In older works of art he appears as a human 
youth in the garb of an Indian prince ; later ho 
is represented with many arms and eyes, the idea 
being that he is mighty to see and save the 
unhappy everywhere. The symbolism has its 
crudest extreme in a monstrous image to be seen 
in the Forbidden City at Peking^ with literally 
a thousand heads and a thousand hands ! 

He is not an adaptation of any earlier Hindu 
god, and does not issue from any local cult, but 
is the idea of divine compassion, represented as 
effectively as the art and mythology of the times 
permitted. 

He is often seen accompanied by a female 
figure, Tara, which also has perhaps made easier 



; the transformation of Avalokita into • fenulc 

; deity. But it is apparently Avalokita himaelf 

who has been changed into Kcam Yra. To ■»%• 

, mankind from their distresses he could Assum* 

! any form, and of all forms the female has c««me<l 

most widely useful for this work, so that it 

I has become in popular esteem his permanent 

shape. Male Kdan Yins are sometimes seen in 

China. The change was made in China ; proUbly 

, about the twelfth century ; religious sentiment 

called for such a female aid in iho sorrows of 

e.vistence, and found it in Avalokita who ajuumed 

all shapes and granted offspring to the childlcsa. 

The meaning of Kuan Yin R^- U liierallj 
Tcgard sound and is interpreted as She who attends 
to the cries of men. 

The common name for her in English is 
goddess of mercy. She is the tenlra! figure at 
' P'u-t'o, and receives mjre attention throu(;hout 
China than any other Buddhist object of worship. 
The resemblances between Kuan Yin in the East 
and the Madonna in the West are obvious. 

AWABI, gg fi,j"io iju, a shellfish imported in 
I large quantities from -Japan. A larger kind comics 
from San Francisco. The shells are aI.so imported 

There are two kinds, the black and the while, 
the black being superior. It is imported in a 
smoke-dried state. 



B 



BABBLERS. See Crateropodinae. 

BABER, EDWARD COLBORNE was born 
at Dnlwich in 1843. He joined the Briti.sh 
Consular Service as student-interpreter in 1866, 
and in 1876 was attached to the Grosvenor Mission 
which proceeded tj Yunnan to investigate the 
circumstances connected with Margary's death. 
The next year he went to Chungking as Consular 
Agent, travelling thither with Captain Gill. 
While holding this post he made two important 
journeys in Western Ssuch'uan, and wrote an 
account of them not only valuable but very 
delightful to read ; it appears in the Supplementary 
Papers of The Royal Geographical Society, vol. i, 
1882, under the title Travels and Researches in 
Western China. In 1879 he was appointed Chinese 
Secretary at the Legation, but did not leave 
Chungking till October, 1880. In 1885-86 he was 
Consul-General in Korea, and soon after was made 
Political Resident at Bhamo, where he died, 
June 16, 1890. 



BrETSCHNTIDEU : IJ iftori/ uf Lufu/jran liuliinital 
Discoveries. 

BABU LAND, a name for the indrfKiident 
Lolo country. It is a corruption of p'a p'o H^ 
climb hill — 'the land of hill-climbers'. See Lolo. 

Pollard : AV/,</ of .Isia, vol. iv, p. 70. 

BADGER. See Muttelida. 

BAGSPA, See Baschpa. 

BA.KTRA, the present Balk. (36*48' N. Ut, 
67° 'I' E. long.), a nursery of Buddhism in the 
seventh century, and still famous for rchcs and 
monuments. 

BAK TRIBES. Some sinolocrues hare tho« 
translated the Chinese term ]>ai ' ' 

ancient pronunciation of /x7i wn ; 
baJ:. They then suppose the march < 
tribes across Central Asia to the Y< 
and their settlement in China. There are many 
arguments against such a theory, which ara folljr 
given by DE Harlez in the T'oung Pao tor 1806. 
p. 369. ' 



41 



BALFOUR 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



BALFOUR, FREDERIC HENRY, came to 
China in the silk business in 1870. Later he devoted 
himself to literature and journalism. He translated 
the Tao t?. ching, etc., {Taoist Texts, Shanghai), 
and the Divine Classic of Nanhua (Shanghai, 1881) ; 
and issued Waifs and Strays from the Far East 
and Idiomatic Dialogues in the Peking Colloquial, 
besides various articles, reviews, etc. He lived for 
some years in Japan, then became editor of The 
North China Daily News from 1881 to 1886. He 
retired and lived in London and Italy, dying in 
Florence in 1909. 

N. C. Herald, June 12, 1909 ; Cordieh : Biblio- 
theca Sinica, col. 720. 

BALFOUR, GEORGE, Sir, first British 
Consul at Shanghai, was born at Montrose in 1809. 
He entered the army, and ultimately rose to the 
rank of General. He was staff-officer of the Madras 
forces in the first China War, was elected joint 
agent for captured public property, was receiver 
of the indemnity paid under the Nanking Treaty, 
and settled the debts due by the Hong Merchants. 
From 1843 to 1846 he was H.B.M. Consul at 
Shanghai, receiving his commission as captain in 
March 1844. He became C.B. in 1854, and K.C.B. 
in 1870. He died in London on March 12, 1894. 

BALIS, BALISHI, and other forms: a term 
found in mediaeval writings for a certain amount 
of Chinese money. The word is probably of 
Persian origin, balik meaning a shoe or slipper. 
It was therefore no doubt an ingot of gold or 
silver, or paper money of corresponding value ; 
but its worth varied, and it is not possible now 
to calculate it with any exactness. 

Yule : Cathay and the Way Thither, (1913), 
vol. ii, p. 196; IIobHon-Johson, s.v. Shoe. 

BALL, JAMES DYER, was born December 
4, 1847, and spent 30 years in Government Service 
in the Far East, mostly in the Supreme Court in 
Hongkong. He has held the post of Registrar 
General in the Colony, and other offices. He is 
the author of Things Chinese (4th ed. 1903), and 
about a dozen works for students of Cantonese, 
Hakka and other dialects. 

BAMBOO. Under the genera Bamhnsa, 
Ajundinaria, and Phyllostachys, the number of 
species of bamboo is very large. The Chinese name 
is Chu ^ , the different kinds being distinguished 
by a prefix, such as pan-chu^^, spotted bamboo; 
ti>ung-chu i^f^, coir-bamboo, used in the manu- 
facture of fans; lu-chuy^f^. Bambusa arundin(tcea. 

The uses of bamboo are innumerable. A list 
will bo found in Chinese Timber and Forest T'recs, 
by N. SiiAW, but even this is hardly exhaustive. 
Foi tlie manufacture of paper two kinds are used ; 
The Tz'uchu or the sjjiiiv bamboo, a magnificent 
species which produces stems 75 feet tall and 8 to 10 



inches in diameter, and the Chin-chu ^-ft • (See 
Paper). The Nan-chu, Dendrocalamus giganteus, 
is. even finer; it is especially useful for constructing 
rafts, in S&uch'uan, and the wood is prized for 
chopsticks. 

The Chu-p'u '^ 1^ or Treatise on Bamboos, 
which was published in the 3rd or 4th century, 
gives a tolerably complete account of the bamboo, 
its names in the classics, and its uses in ancient 
times, whicli differ little from those at present 
employed. In the early days of China the bamboo 
was found in large forests as far north as the 
Yellow River, but deforestation, with its con- 
sequent dessication, has driven the plant much 
further south, though it is still cultivated in Honan. 

In Chinese medicine the bamboo plays its part : 
the leaves, the rhizome, the thin outside skin, and 
the sap, are used as a tonic, anthelmintic, etc. 
Bamboo shoots are an important article of diet, 
eaten fried, salted, and fresh. In the warmer parts 
of China it is the shoots of B. arundinacea and 
B. vxdgaris which are thus eaten, in the west those 
of other species, especially Arundinaria nitida. 

The exportation from Foochow, the greatest 
producer by far, was in 1914, 130,000 piculs, worth 
nearly one million Taels. Very little however goes 
abroad. 

BAMBOO BEETLE. See Calandra longipcs. 

BAMBOO BOOKS, a collection of bamboo 
tablets covered with more than 100,000 small -seal 
(Parker says j^rea^er-seal) characters, supposed 
to have been exhumed in a.d. 281 from the tomb 
of HsiANG, King of Wei, who died B.C. 295. They 
contained fifteen different works, some of which 
have been neglected and probably lost ; but 
included the / Ching and annals from the reign 
of Huang Ti to near the end of the Chou 
dynasty, B.C. 298. 

Native opinion as to their authenticity is 
divided, but is generally unfavourable. 

Legge, in the prolegomena to the Shu Ching, 
gives both text and translation of the Bamboo 
Annals, together with some account of them. 
They have also beea translated into French 
by E. BiOT. 

Parker : Ancient China Sim2)lified, p. 94. 

BAMBOO GROVE, ■iirl^ chu lin, one of the 
many famous ' chibs ' in Chinese history. It 
existed in the third century and consisted of seven 
wine-bibbers, the best-known among them being 
Liu Ling. 

BAMBOO OYSTERS, small oysters found at 
Foochow, so called because they collect on bamboos 
which are stuck for that purpose in the mud. 

D.^NKS. To one foreign Bank, the Hongkong 
and Shanghai Bank, a special article has been 
devoted, because of the important part it has 



42 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SIXICA 



BARGAIN MONEY 



played in commercial and political intercourse. 
Others have to be left unnoticed. 

Native banking is quite ancient, dating at least 
from the T'ang dynasty, according to Ma Tuan-lin, 
but, as in the case of other early Chinese 
institutions, its development has not been con- 
tinued. Joint-stock concerns have been, at least 
till lately, quite unknown, and there has been no 
government control of Banks. 

Native Banks are of five kinds ; besides the 
Shansi banks, a class by itself, which came 
to grief in 1911. These are i, the Official Banks, 
which deal with the government ta.xes, etc. The 
Customs Bank was formerly the chief of these ; 
now the Bank of China and the Bank of Conmiuni- 
cations have taken its place. They receive the 
Customs revenue, and Foreign Banks pay govern- 
ment loans, etc., through them. In other business 
their scope is very limited, ii, The Hui-p'iao 
Banks. These are exchange banks, set up by 
merchants who have business in different parts of 
the country, iii, Ordinary Banks doing ordinary 
banking business ; these failed in large numbers 
in 1911. iv. Provincial Banks, which are really 
State Banks for the provinces, though they have 
shareholders. v, Banks doing regular banking 
business on foreign methods but with Chinese 
capital. At present these ai'e of small account. 

Edkins : Banking and Prices in China; Wagel : 
Finance in China, and Currency and Banking; 
Customs Decennial Reports. 

BANNERS, E I G HT, A SJ£ pa ch'i. The eight 
divisions of the Manchu army under flags of 
different colours. There were under each banner 
three subdivisions, Manchus, Mongolian descend- 
ants and Chinese descendants of those who joined 
the Manchus against the Ming dynasty in the 
17th century. The flags were of the colours (in 
this order), yellow, white, red, blue, with and with- 
out borders. They were three superior and five 
inferior. A complete division of each nationality 
(/.M-sot, @ ill) existed under each flag, so that there 
were really twenty-four banners. They included the 
Manchu population of Peking with various gar- 
risons in the Provinces. See Garrisons. 

BANTAM, a small state in Java, near Batavia ; 
commercial relations were established there by the 
East India Company's first vessels despatched 
1601-03. The British were of course hindered in 
trade by both Portuguese and Dutch. (See 
Amboijna). In 1670 ships were sent from Bantam 
to Taiwan (Formosa) and obtained permission to 
trade, granted by the 'King of Taiwan,' Koxinga's 
son. He also later gave liberty of trade with 
Amoy, and in 1677 the Directors in England wrote 
urging that the trade in tea should be encouraged. 
This letter may be considered as the initial step 



in the tea trade whicli was later to becomo lo 
important. 

In 1682 the company sent o; 
the superintendence of the Chi: 
Bantam to Surat ; but three weeka W-fc: 
was received the Dutch, though at ; 
England, attacked and captured Hantam and ex- 
pelled the occupants of the Englixh factory. Lat«r 
the China trade was superintended from Madras. 

Eami.s : The IJnglish in China. 

BANYAN, Fieuji indica, a common lre« in 
South (liiii.'i. 

BANYAN CITY.nV'hfi Jung rh'^nj, a nam«« 
for Fooiliow. 

BAPTIST MISSIONARY SOCIETY, THE, 
known in China a.s the Kiigli.fh Baptist MiMion, ^.c. 

BAPTIST MISSIONS. There arc ten miwion" 
of the Baptist faith and order working in China, 
VIZ., eight from the U.S.A., one from Great Britain 
and one from Sweden. They are : — 

1. American Advent Mission Society. 

2. American Baptist Foreign Missionar}- 

Society. 

3. American Go.ipel Baptist Mission. 

4. China Mennonite Missionary Society. 

5. Church of the Brethren Mission. 

6. English Baptist Mission. 

7. Mennonites of North American Conference. 

8. Seventh-Day Baptist Mission. 

9. Southern Baptist Convention Board. 
10. Swedish Baptist Mi.'sion. 

Sr.e under each. 

BARBARIAN EYE ifl [} « "i". an insulting 
term used by the Governor of Canton in docu- 
ments, applied to Lord Napieu on his arrival as 
Superintendent of Trade in 1834. ' Eye ' is 
simply equivalent to ' head ' or ' chief ' ; the 
insult lay in the use of the other character 
meaning barbarian. 

BARBARIANS, formerly the common Chincjt* 
estimate of all foreigners. The particular character 
^ i once used for it was forbidden in the Tientsin 
treaty of 1858, Art. li ; but of course other t«rms 
meaning the same were used in8t«ad. 

BARBER BOAT; a small kind of boat pro- 
pelled by paddlos was known by this name in 
(Canton. 

BAR BETS. See Zijgodactyli. 

BARGAIN MONEY S 1? ting eh'im, etr. 
The supercargoes of tlie Macclrffield in 1699 found 
that, owing to insufficiency of currency and lark 
1 of capital, the Chinese could not dciivr' •' 

cargo unless part of the price were paid in n 
j The practice has obtained ever since. ir. tn*- 
Boxer year a good deal of th<^ forricn mcrchanU' 
losses were due to such adN-^ 

Eamcs : The Lngiith in 



43 



BARLEY 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



BARLEY. The classical name was moui^ or ^; 
the modern is -^^ ta mat, etc. Ifc is not very 
extensively grown in China. 

BARON. See Nobility. 

BASCHPA. This title may be found in 
European authors in a great variety of forms, 
of which Baschpa is the least correct, though it 
may be the easiest. 'Phagspa is the best 
transliteration of the original ; Phagspa, Bashpa, 
Pa-SEu-pa [u ,m Qi (Giles), Passe-pa and Pha-kh- 
sse-pa lJirtJit]yrLi. Baghcheba, Phagpa (Pauthier), 
are other forms, the variety being due to 
different authors transliterating from different 
languages. 

It is a Tibetan title, equivalent to the Sanskrit 
drya, (noble). The name of the person meant may 
be transliterated bLo-gros rGyal-mtshan. He was 
a Tibetan Buddhist priest, who, in 1269 at the com- 
mand of KiiUBiLAi Khan made a Mongol alphabet of 
letters adajjted from the Tibetan and written 
vertically. Wylie says there are more than thirty 
extant inscriptions in this script. It was an in- 
convenient alphabet, and before the close of the 
dynasty it was superseded by one founded on 
Uighur, which has been in use ever since. 

Baschpa was confidential adviser to Khubilai 
and converted him to Buddhism. 

Wtlie : Sur une Inscription Mongol; Ts'ing 
wan k'e mung (Introduction) ; Taylor : The 
Alphabet; GRiiNWEDEL : Mythologie dcs Bvddhis- 
mus in Tibet vnd Mongohi, Leipzig, 1900 ; Giles : 
Biographical Dictionary, (sub Pa-ssu-pa) ; Pau- 
thier : Journal Asiatique, 1862. 

BASEL MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

Headquarters : — Basel, (Bale), Switzerland. 

Entered China, 1847. 

Works among the Hakkas in Hongkong and 
Kuangtung. 

The Society has in recent years divided its 
field into three districts, known as Southern, East 
River, and Moi River. 

Southern Division. The first missionaries of 
the Society to Chrina were the Rev. Th. Hamberg 
(a Swede) and the Rev. R. Lechler of Wiirtemberg, 
who arrived in Hongkong in 1847. Following the 
advice of Dr. Gutzlaff, the latter tried to reach 
the Hoklo people near Swatow, but a few years 
later he returned to join Mr. Hamberg who was 
working among the Hakkas in Hongkong and on 
the mainland. In 1851 they organized in the 
Colony a church of 60 members. In 1852 a footing 
was obtained at Li-long ^Jg, in the San-on ^f 3? 
district, through a convert from the place, where 
after a short stay Mr. Hamberg baptized ten people. 
In the next year he and his wife went inland to 
live at a village called Pu-kak '4^ ^ ; but owing to 



village feuds and the consequent fighting and 
brigandage life was very insecure. 

During the Second War, work was completely 
suspended and one of the missionaries was captured 
by robbers. After paying ransom for him all 
retired to Hongkong and worked for the Hakkas 
resident there. Hongkong was made a permanent 
station of the Society in 1859. On the return to 
the mainland, Li-long was made the centre of that 
work. Long-heu MPi 15 miles from Li-long, was 
taken over from the Berlin Mission in 1882 ; 
Chong-hang kang5g^g?, 8 miles from Li-long was 
opened in 1883, and Khi-tseh hung lij ^ close to 
Mirs Bay, in 1879. 

Moi River Division. This work w'as begun by 
a Hakka convert, through whose enthusiasm a 
hundred persons were baptized in 1862, when the 
first missionary arrived at Chong-tschun ^$*t , in 
the Chhong-lok ^ *!g district. The station was 
made a permanent foreign residence in 1869. 
Three other places were afterwards opened, in 
this same district, viz., Nyen-hang li pt^S > i" 
1866, Moi-lim i(^W , in 1889, and Chhong-lok ^ Ig 
city itself in 1908. 

The chief station of this Division is Kia-ying 
chow ^fgj)i)'[ , opened in 1883. Medical work 
was begun in 1893 and a hospital built 
in 1905. In the county of Hsing-ning ff& ^ 
Phyangthong i^ i^ , was occupied in 1887, and 
Lo-kong ^^ in 1901. In this year Phyang-thong 
station was burnt down by rioters, but was 
rebuilt in 1902. 

The East River Division contains 6 stations. 
In the district of ^^^.^ Yun-an are Ho-shoo wan 
li^'tS.^tl, (1885) and Ku-tschuk -^4^; on the East 
River (1879) three days' journey from Nyen-hang li. 
Hok-shu-ha i!*, Tjj "[-^ in the Lyung-chhon c|)ll district 
was occuiDicd in 1886. Later on, three new spheres 
of work were entered with the establishment of 
stations in the district cities of Ho-yiin JfiJ ijgj in 
1901 ; Ho-pin JBJ 2p in 1909 ; and Ling-ping chou 
if£2pj;,j.[ in the same year. 

During the last few years the work of the 
Mission has extended into Kuangsi and Fukien, 
where there are a number of out-stations. 

The Educational work is carried on in 125 
schools, including a Theological Seminary at Li- 
long : a Normal School at Ku-tschuk, and another 
for girls at Kia-ying (opened in 1915) ; a language 
School at the same place ; and three middle schools 
at Ling-ping, Nyen-hang and Ku-tschuk. The 
foreign leadership in Hongkong and British Kow- 
loon was withdrawn in 1914 in consequence of the 
European War, and some of the schools have been 
temporarily closed. In 1914 the number of scholars 
was 4631. 

The Literary work of tlie Basel Mission has 
been very considerable, including in win li, 



44 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SIXICA 



BEAL 



Dogmatics. Ethics, Symbolics, Church History, 
and Successive phases in Rdigion (?) >j',|^^iiJ^ift 
(issued in 1916) from the pen of the late Rev. 
Martin Schaub, head for many years of the 
Theological Seminary. The Church History has 
been translated into Korean. The Hymn book 
used by all the German missions is tlio work of 
the Basel Society; as well as the Lutheran Greater 
Catechism, the Church Rules (Gemeindcordnung) 
etc., etc. Work in the Hakka language includes 
the entire Bible (in character) by the Rev. Otto 
SCHULTZE, issued in 1915 by the B. and F. Bible 
Society ; the Smaller Lutheran Catechism, Books 
of prayers and sermons, etc., etc. There is a 
monthly paper The Christian Messenger, edited by 
Dr. Oehler, which has 2000 subscribers. 

A Hakka-German Dictionary, prepared by the 
late Rev. R. Lechler, has been translated into 
English, and issued by Dr. MacIver of the English 
Presbyterian Mission. 

Owing to the -War, no statistics later than 
those of 1914 are obtainable. These are given 
below. 

Foreign missionaries on the field, 69 

,, on furlough, 24 

Chinese staff : Ordained Pastors, 11 

„ : Preachers, 137 

„ : Teachers, 178 

: Others, 22 

Church members . 10,324 

BASILE DE GLEMONA or GEMONA. 

See BroUo. 

BATS !i|§ 4g picn fu, the Order Cheiroptera. 
The Chinese have various other names for this 
animal, asff^^/w i, w-ing-concealer ; S^ yeh yen, 
night swallow ; j^ ^ t'ien shu, sky mouse ; ^ j^ 
fci shv, flying mouse ; f[I| ^ hsien shu, fairy mouse, 
etc. The following species are found in the North : 
Rhinolophus ferrum-equinum nippon, the Horse-shoe 
Bat, Chihli ; B. ferrum-equinum, S.E. Shensi ; 
Myotis {Leuconce) pequinius, Chihli ; M. moupinen- 
sis, S.such'uan ; Af. mystacinus, Saghalien ; M. 
ikonnihovi, Amur; M. myosotis ancilla, S.E. 
Shensi ; Vespertilio m,urinus, the Common vesper- 
tilio, Manchuria ; V. supcrans, the Chinese vesper- 
tilio, Chihli ; Miniopterus schreibersi chinensis, 
Chihli ; Pipistrellus ahramus, Chihli ; Murina 
huttoni subsp., Manchuria; Plecotus ariel, the 
liong-eared Bat, Shansi ; Eptesicus serotinus, thn 
Serotine, Coastal regions ; E. serotinus pollens, 
Kansu. 

The above is Sowekby's list and considering 
its recent date it may be accepted as correct. 
Regarding South China, however, there is no such 
late list. Swinhoe's list of 1870 is here given for 
what it is worth, but as many bats are migratory 
the same species will be found in North and Soutli 



China, but witti duivjjci.i nu: ; 

be made for confu-siou ui iio:. 
in oilier lists of mammals u\ la.* v.„ia. i. 
ncurds the following south of ihp ^ 
CyiiunyclcrU uinplexn.iiuduta, the I 
Alctjudcniia lyra, the Lyre-nowd Biit ; . 
auritd, the Larget-ared Leaf-no»c ; /'. iwirihou, 
Swinhoe's Leaf-nose; Miuioptttut H'putia, th* 
Red-andblack Bat; l't.iperlUiii fimbnaius, the 
Fringed Bat; V. lani'je.r, the Woolly-faced Bat; 
Veifperu.jo xmbiicutus, the Imbricatt-d Ucuu-Ual; 
K. pulucrultu, the Grizzled Housc-Uat; Di^iuprt 
(Muluifsii.i) Tupp'.lii (?), the Large cared Tailed Bat; 
al! the above from Amoy. VtiptrliUo ru/o m-jtr, 
the Black-and-orango Bat, and Vttperwjo ptputrtl- 
lus, the Small House-Bat, both from Formuca ; V. 
abramus, the Chinese Houso-Bat, Hainan and 
Canton; F. niulnngus, from Hon(,'kong; Scotophtiui 
pumiloides, S. China; .S'. hcathii and S. Umiinncku, 
both from Canton. 

La Touche reports from N.W. Fukicn the 
following : Ithinolophua luctus and UrotophUut 
ornatuf, both recorded for the first lime in China; 
li. pearsoni; Vespertilio murinus euperans; Pipis- 
trellus savii pulveratus; P. abramuf, and .uunna 
leucogastra. 

Bats play an important part in Chinese fairy- 
lore. They arc also much used in decoration, the 
' Five Bats ' being common on porcelain, embroid- 
ery, etc., representing the ' Five Happincssca.' 
This is a pun, fu ^ being used for fu ijj happinrsa. 
A similar pun is the depicting a deer J^ lu, a symbol 
for lu Ij^ emolument. 

Sowerby : Journal, X.C.Ii.rt.A.S., 1916; 
SwiNHOE : Catalogue of the Mammals of China, 
P.Z.S., 1870, p. 615; Thomas : Mammals collected 
by Mr. J. D. La Touche, etc., P.Z.S., 1898, p. 769; 
Dorc : Itechcrrhcs --ur les Superalitions, p. 475. 

BAT'URU [IiE3?^, a Manrhu wjrd meaning 
brave. It was a title bestowed for bravery on 
officers who already had the peacock's feather. 

See Decorations. 

BAYAN (jQV! P'J y*^"' a Mongol chief and 
Khubilai Khan's great minister and general, who 
completed the conquest of the Empire. He took 
Hangchow, the Sung capital, in 1276. His naine 
means ' great ' or ' noble,' and the Chinese form 
of it is sometimes written fiflR pai ytn, ' hundrrd 
eyes,' in reference to his constant vigilance. 

Marco Polo : Travel'; Giles : UiJjraphual 
Dictionary. 

BEAL, SAMUEL, ^sas born in Devon on 
November 27, 1825. In 1852, he became nav»I 
chaplain, was on the China station, and there 
learned Chinese. During the war of 185658 he 
acted as naval interpreter. He was a pioneer in 
the study of Chinese Buddhist literature, and 



45 



BEALE 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SlNlCA 



continued his studies in that subject after his 
return to England. In 1877, he was appointed 
Professor of Chinese at University College, London, 
and in 1885, received from Durham the honorai-y 
degree of D.C.L. He died in England, August 
20, 1889. 

His chief works are The Travels of Fah-hian 
and Su7ir/ Yun (1869), A Catena of Buddhist 
Scriptures from the Chinese (1871), The Bomantic 
Le<j'ind of Sahja Buddha (1875), The Buddhist 
Tripitaka as it is known in China and Japan (18761, 
Texts from the Buddhist Canon (1878), A Life of 
Buddha by Asvarjhosha Bodhisattva (1879), An 
Abstract of Four Lectures on Buddhist Literature 
in China (1882). 

BEALE, THOMAS, born about 1775, a re- 
sident in -\lucao, who disappeared on December 10, 
1841, and was discovered dead and buried in the 
sand five weeks later. He had lived in China 
about 50 years. 

He had constructed a fine aviary, in which 
Reeves' pheasant was kept long before Reeves 
took a specimen to England, with many other rare 
and beautiful birds from China, India, the 
Moluccas, etc. His garden had 2500 pots of plants, 
mostly Chinese. 

Chinese Repository : vol. xi, p. 59. Bret- 
SCHNEIDER : History of European Botanical Dis- 
coveries. 

BEAN, SOYA:^tt ; Glycine hispida, Monch. 
or Dolichos soja, L. This bean, so valuable lor the 
oil which is expressed from it, has come into great 
prominence of recent years, owing to the enormous 
dimensions of the export trade in it since the 
Russo-Japanese War. It is an annual leguminous 
plant, peculiarly suited to the climate of Manchuria, 
whence it is mainly exported. The oil-yielding 
variety par excellence is the yellow bean, of which 
nearly 15 million piculs, or not far short of one 
million tons, were exported in 1915, 90% of this 
being from Manchuria, and the balance from 
Chihli, Hupei and Kiangsi. There are also white, 
black, green and subvarieties, of less value. For 
several generations beans, but more especially 
bcancake, had been sent to South China as manure 
for the sugar plantations ; exportation abroad was 
prohibited until 1869, when shipments were made 
to Jaj)an, which soon became a large customer both 
for beans and bean oil ; foreign demand did not 
however develop until 1909, when the English oil- 
crushing mills started importing from Manchuria. 
Since then till 1915 soya beans, cake, and oil have 
become leading staples of the export trade, and 
£37,000,000 worth have been exported in 5 years. 

The yield jier acre has been estimated at from 
1,000 to 2,000 lbs. according to soil and weather 
conditions. In the Far East soya beans are used. 



as human foodstuffs, for making soy, bean paste, 
or Chiang, as tou fu'^^ or beancurd, in soups, etc. ; 
in cooking instead of rapeseed and sesamum oil ; 
and the cake is employed as a fertilizer and for 
fattening hogs. In Europe and America the oil ii= 
chiefly used in soap manufacturing and the refuse 
cake as cattle fodder. Over one million piculs of 
bean oil were exported in 1915, Great Britain taking 
322,000, Holland half that amount, and Japan 
290,000 piculs; 11,600,000 piculs of beancake went 
abroad, almost entirely to Japan. There are now 
about 20 bean-oil mills of modern type in China, 
and Ma.nchuria has hundreds oi native-style mills. 
The yield of oil is from 16 to 20 per cent. An 
official estimate places the total annual production 
of beans in China at nine million tons. Besides the 
Soya Bean there are many other kinds of bean 
cultivated in China, and entering largely into the 
diet of the people. The chief of these is Phaseolus 
munrjo L, the green bean Lii Tou .fl^^j, which 
contains little oil but is used in the manufacture of 
vermicelli. 

The annual export of vermicelli, principally 
from Chefoo, is considerable — amounting in both 
1913 and 1915 to nearly Hk. Tls. 3,000,000 ; it goes 
to Chinese emigrants abroad. 

The Broad Bean, Vicia faba L. and Kidney 
Bean, Dolichos lahlab L, are others among a number 
of species. The exports for 1916 were 
Beans, Yellow, Pels. 6,732,209, Tls. 13,786,993, 
Beancake, Pels. 11,636,245, Tls. 26,122,751, 

Bean Oil, Pels. 1,565,640, Tls. 11,833,167, 

Customs Report, Special Series, No. 31 : The 
Soya Bean of Manchuria; HosiE : Manchuria. 
BEANCAKE, BEAN OIL. See Beans. 
BEARS. See Ursidac. 

BEGHE DE MER M'^f'"' -'f"'" or ■''«'''> slug: 

Holothuria ; a dainty with the Chinese ; found 

in the Pacific islands and the Indian archipelago. 

It is sometimes over a foot long and two or three 

inches in diameter. It resembles the rind of 

pork both in appearance and taste. 

The value imported in 1916 was Hk.Tls. 1,514,548. 

BEE-EATERS, (birds). See Anisodactyli. 

BEILEH Afijpci lei. See Imperial Nobility. 

BEITZE p^J- pi'i tzi'i- See Ivipcrial Nobility. 

BELGIAN MISSION, (Roman Catholic). 

See Missionaires du Cocur Imviaculc de Marie. ■ 

BELL, JOHN, a native of Antermony in 

Scotland. He went to Russia in 1714, and having 

some knowledge of medicine and surgery, got 

himself appointed on an embassy to Persia the 

next year. In 1719 he was attached to the 

embassy of Ismailoff from Peter the Great to 

K'ANG Hsi. They left St. Petersburg on July 14, 

and returned thither on January 5, 1722, having 

spent about four months in Peking. He took 



46 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA >1.m' a 



BERLIN WOMEN'S 



notes of all he saw, and published them twenty 
years later. His book includes an account of his 
journey to Persia and other travels, and also the j 
Journal of de JjANGE the Ambassador's secretary, i 
who was left behind in Peking as Agent of Peter 1 
the Great. The first edition was in two volumes 
4to., published by Foulis, Glasgow. 

Bell : Travels from St. Petembunj in liussia 
to (liver.-^e parts of Asia; 1763. 

BELLS. See Musical Instruments. \ 

BENEAGA (also Veneaga). used by John de ' 
Barros and other historians for ?'a mao (q.v.) I 
It is a Malay word meaning a mart. I 

BENJAMIN OF TUDELA, a traveller 
between 1159 and 1173, who reached the Persian 
Gulf, and wrote a little about China, mere 
hearsay. His English editor says he was the 
first European author to mention China by that 
name, but Yule disputes this. 

Bergeron : Voyages de Benjamin de Tudelle, 
etc. ; Yule : Cathay and the Way Thither ; 
Wright : Early Travels in Palestine, (Bohn). 

BERIBERI K(J ^X' ^^'^°^ ^^'■'^ ^""^ S^ "'°"- 
This disease has been known in China for many 
centuries. It is found in all latitudes, but is 
more common in the tropics. In China it would 
appear to be a coast disease, found inland only 
along the course of the great rivers. 

It is proved to be a ' peripheral neuritis,' and 
to be connected with the gathering or crowding of 
people together; but everything else about the 
disease seems to be a matter of discussion. For 
various theories as to cause, etc., see Jefferys and 
Maxwell, Diseases of Chijia. 

BERLIN MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

H('(i(lqu(irttr.-i : — Borlin. 

Entered China, 1882. 

Works in Kuanr/txintj, Kiungsi and Shout umj. 

Under the influence of Dr. Gutzlaff an 
organization known as the Berlin Missionary 
Society for C'hina sent out in 1850 its first agent, 
the Picv. A. Hanspach, who in 1856 began work 
among the Hakkas in Kuangtung. In the period 
1856-69 four men in all were sent, but in 1872 the 
Society seems to have ceased to exist, and its two 
remaining workers with their work were handed 
over to the Rhenish Mission. In 1882 the work 
was taken over by the Berlin IMissionary Society 
(established 1824), with one of the original workers, 
(the Rev. F. Hubrig), 450 Christians in si.x 
districts, and a Higher Grade School and 
Theological Seminary. 

The work met with considerable opposition, 
the missionaries were repeatedly wounded and 
robbed, and on one occasion Messrs. Hanspach and 
Hubrig, had their house in the Hui chou Jg>H 
district burned down by the Triad Society, and 



1' 



J 



narrowly escaped death at the ha 

Tile firtt permanent ttalion in the . 

occupied till 1885. 

In addition to Canton city anj Ho;-- ■ 
Mi.ssion now ha« nine other stationn in 
i\\c principal of which i* Shiu chou liY.ij\ , 
in 1903. 

The whole work in divided into dl^•; 
" lower " and " upper " dintriclJi, ll • 

along the famous old road viii the MimIih V^-:, .jAo 
Kiang.si, in which provi'ice the Minnion ha« one 
station. Nan an f u jvjic'ff < opened in 1903. 

From the beginning, eduialional v..rk wa» 
much relied on to overcome heathen p; 1 

enlighten the Christians. Mr. Ha.n-'' d 

t as many as 150 village boy«' schooU beiore bu 
retirement in 1870. The first girU' »chool waa 
begun in 1880. There are now two boy»' boarding 
schools, and one for girls at Shiu-chou which oflcrs 
a nine years' course ; the crown of the educational 
work is the Theological Seminary at Canton now 
closed because of the War. Since 1911, the 
curricula of the Mission schools have be*n adapted 
to the requirements of the Chinese Board of 
' Education. 

The first medical mi^^sionary arrived in 1854, 
; and began work on the mainland opposite Hong- 
kong. Being supported by private funds he worked 
for both the Berlin and Rhenish Mi-ssjona. At the 
present time there are no medical men on the 
I Mission's foreign staff. 

' A member of this Mission superintends the 

so-called Foundling Home of the Berlin Women's 
Missionary Society (7. v.) at Hongkong. 

On the occupation of the Kiao chow territory 
by Germany in 1898, the Mission sent to T»ini,'t«o 
the Revs. C. J. Voskamp and A. Kinze, who had 
both had many years' experience in the south. 
Tse mo fins, was opened in 1901, and has • 
Theological Seminary ; and Kiao chow city w*» 
occupied in 1908. 

A German-Chinese School was e*Ubliahed »l 
Tsingtao, and a hospital in the near neighbourhood, 
worked by a Chine.>^e phy»^ician. 

Work was carried on without interrupt Jon 
during the Revolution of 1911, but was stopped by 
the siege in 1914 ; it is now (1917) proceeding under 
various restrictions. 

Berlin Mission Statistics (1915) 

Foreign missionaries 

Chinese staff 

Communicants 

BERLIN WOMEN'S MISSIONARY SOCIETY 

FOR CHINA was formtii ' ^* 

influence ol' Dr. Gutzlait "* 

a lady to Hongkong, who b ** 

girls abandon'"! I'v thvir P '^ 



20 



BERTHEMY 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



is well-known under the somewhat incorrect title 
of the " Berlin Foundling Home." In 1860, the 
Mission's unhealthy house in the eastern part of 
Victoria was given up, and suitable buildings 
erected at West Point. A special branch for blind 
girls was taken over about 1896 by the Hildesheim 
Mission [q.v.). In 1916 there were six workers. 

BERTHEMY CONVENTION, an agreement 
concluded between the French Minister and the 
Tsung-li Yamen on February 20, 1865. It followed 
on the Convention of Peking which, by Art. VI 
restored to the Church all the property taken from 
it during the times of persecution ; and it fixed the 
actual conditions on which the purchase of land in 
the interior for church purposes should be conduct- 
ed. In consequence of the obstruction of provincial 
authorities, however, the Convention was useless 
There were several attempts to make it workable, 
but it was not till May 26, 1895 that it was put 
into a satisfactory form by the firm demands of the 
French Minister Geraud. 

CORDIER : Histoire des Relations de la Chine, 
etc., vol. i, p. 68. 

BERTHEMY, JULES FRANCOIS GUST- 
AVE, born in Paris, December 1, 1826, was 
attached to the French diplomatic service, and 
became minister in Peking in 1862 in succession 
to il. DE BoriiBOVLOX. See Bcrtheniy Convention. 
BETEL-NUTS, \fM ping lang, one of the chief 
articles of export from Hainan Island, where there 
are large groves of the Areca palm, especially at 
Aichow and Lingshui. The trees are planted some 
15 feet apart, and bear fruit from the age of 
ten to ninety years. Their most prolific period 
is between their 15th and 30th year, when one tree 
will produce 700 or 800 nuts, valued at about 40 
cents. Large herds of cattle are allowed to roam 
• at will through the plantations, and their manure 
serves to fertilize the soil. The groves are said to 
be the seat of malaria, e.-^pecially at the season when 
the trees are in flower. Hainan nuts are superior 
to those from Singapore, which are imported for 
the purpose of adulteration. The nuts, in halves, 
are dried in the sun ; each half is wrapped in a 
leaf of the Chaveca betel, on which a little lime 
has been daubed ; it is then ready for chewing. 
It "makes lips, gum and saliva a bright red colour. 
The taste is astringent. The habit of chewing 
the betel-nut is common in parts of South China. 
In 1916 Pcl.s. 23,667 were exported : value Tls. 
171,808 ; the value imported being Tls. 293,548. 

Notes and Queries on China and Japan, Sept 
1368. 

BETHEL, SEAMAN'S FLOATING, THE, 

at Whampoa was due to the efforts of the Rev. 
G. LooMis, who began to collect subscriptions for 
it in December 1848. The cost was $6,000, half 



of which was given by foreign residents and half 
by the shipping of the port. The Bethel was 
opened on March 19, 1850, when Dr. Legge 
preached, the Pev. P. Parker assisted, and a 
hymn specially written by Dr. (Sir John) Bowring 
was sung. 

Chinese Repository, vol. xix. 

BIBLE, THE. There seems some evidence to 
show that the Nestorians translated at least the 
New Testament into Chinese in the first half of the 
7th century, but if so nothing of it has survived. 
Towards the close of the 13th century John de 
Monte Corvino translated the New Testament 
and Psalms into Mongolian, but no copies are now 
known. The Jesuits who came in the 16th century 
only ti-anslated selections of the scriptures ; or if 
a complete translation was ever made it was never 
printed ; and though towards the close of the 18th 
century there were various incomplete and possibly 
complete renderings of the Bible into Chinese exist- 
ing in manuscript, yet when Protestant Missions 
began their work no version of the Bible had ever 
been issued for popular use. 

Strange to say, the first complete Bible in 
Chinese was produced in India. Dr. Marshm.an 
of the English Baptist Mission, one of the famous 
Serampore trio, ' Carey, Marshman and Ward,' 
spent 16 years in the labour, assisted by an 
Armenian born at Macao, and printed the complete 
translation in 1822. An account of his methods 
of work will be found in The Chinese Repository, 
vol. iv, p. 253. Dr. Morrison of the London 
Missionary Society reached Canton in 1807 and 
translating first alone but later with Milne, the 
complete scriptures were printed in 1824. The 
difference between Marshman's and Morrison's 
productions was so small as to make it a matter 
of regret that such labour should have been 
duplicated. The New Testament was revised (by 
Medhurst, GiiTZLAFF and Bridgman) in 1835, and 
later, by the effort and enterprise of GiItlaff, the 
Old Testament also. Giitzlaff also modified the 
New Testament as prepared by Medhurst and 
himself. This went through ten or more editions 
each revised by Gutzlaff. 

After the opening of China in 1843 the work 
of translation became easier and more hopeful and 
the Delegates' Version (q.v.) was finished, the 
New Testament in 1850 and the Old (which was 
not strictly speaking done by the Dejegates), in 
1853. The New Testament was also translated on 
behalf of the Baptists by Goddard, 1853, and he 
was engaged on the Old Testament till his death, 
when Dr. Dean of Bangkok continued his work. 
A revision of the New Testament was also 
published by T. H. Hudson of Ningpo; and in 
1864 the Russian Mission in Peking issued the 
New Testament. 



48 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SIXICA 



BIROS 



The New Testament of the T'ai P'iri}^ rebels | 
was GiiTZLAFF-'s revision of his own and Meuhurst's 
version (r. svj).). At first they issued it unaltered, 1 
but afterwards with considerable changes. Tli^y 
also issued part of the Old Testament. 

The above versions were all in the literary 
style. The first translation into mandarin, the j 
colloquial medium of two thirds of the Chinese ! 
people, was made by Medhuust and Stronach in | 
1856; but a Peking Committee produced in 1870 
the New Testament version, and Bishop Sciikue- 
SCHEWSKY in 1875 the Old Testament, which have 
been the translations most widely used. In 1890 
the Missionary Conference Committees were ap- 
pointed to prepare ' one Bible in three versions 
for the whole of China,' i.e. a high wen li (literary 
style), a low wtn li, and a mandarin version. At 
the next Conference, 1907, it was announced that 
the New Testament was practically completed in 
the three versions and the committees were 
instructed to arrange for the Old Testament to be 
put into win li and mandarin ; and further, from 
the two wen li New Testaments to produce if 
possible a single wen li version. 

To the names already mentioned may be added 
those of CuLBERTSON, Medhurst, Griffith John 
and others who translated parts of the Scriptures 
in early days ; besides the members of translation 
Committees appointed by Conferences. A complete 
New Testament in Wcn-li was produced by the 
Roman Catholics in 1897. 

Versions have also been published in the 
various dialects, both in character and in romanized ; 
there are Scriptures for the blind ; and translations 
into Annamese, Manchu, INIongolian and Tibetan. 

Hykes : Translations of the Scriptures, etc., 
New York, 1916. 

BIBLE SOCIETIES at work in China are 
three in number, viz.. 

The British and Foreign Bible Society. 

The American Bible Society. 

The National Bible Society of Scotland. 

See under each name. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY of foreign works on China. 
A list of 402 works was given in The Chinese 
liepositOTij, vol. xviii, pp. 402, 657. The China 
Review throughout its existence gave in each issue 
a list of new books on Chinese matters, and many 
such partial lists are to be found in various 
Journals and Reviews. In 1876 there appeared 
Mollendouff's Manual of Chinese Bibliography, 
coming down to 1876 and containing 4639 headings. 

The great Bibliography however is Cordier's 
Bibliotheca Sinica (q.v.) 

For Chinese works there are in English Wylie's 
Notes on Chinese Literature and Mayers' Biblio- 



graphy of the CI 
Literature, in the ( 
For works in ( : 

BIBLIOTHECA bINICA, i, i 
This groat catalogue of b'jokit in «■ 
relating to China was first i 
in 1878-1895, and contained 

pages. It is divided into fivo mlUud*, i 

on China. Proper, (ii) works by lot> 
China, (iii) works on the relatioiu between 
foreigners and Chinese, (iv) works on C'hineM 
abroad, (v) works on tributary countries. Under 
these divisions are subdivisions in which the 
order is chronological. A supplement in thre« 
parts was added in 1893 — 5. 

A new edition in four volumes, revised and 
much enlarged, was iHsuod in 1904 8. Il« uM-f ' 
would have bec>n increased by an index of aut' 

Previous to this very complete work, lhou(;h 
hail been many partial lists and catalogui^s, there 
had been nothing serious as a bibliography except 
VON Mollendorff's Manual (q.v.) published in 
1876. See Biblio'jrap/iy. 

BICHO-DE-MAR, See B.-r/,r.,hr,ur. 
BILLEQUIN, ANATOLE ADRIEN, born in 
Paris in 1837, died there in 1894. a.-! he wa» 
preparing to return to Peking. He wa* Pruft-ns.T 
of Chemistry and Natural History in the T'unj; 
Wen Kuan. He received many honours, and 
besides various technical works prepared a French- 
Chinese dictionary. For a li.st of his wriliri;;n "ce 
T'uuiij Pao, 1894. 

BIOT, EDOUARD CONSTANT wai born at 
Paris on July 2, 1803. At the age of thirty. 
satisfied with the modest independence which he 
had acquired as a railway engineer, he devoted 
his time to the study of Chinese under Stanislas 
JULIEN. He published many articles «;n scien- 
tific knowledge in China ; they will be found in the 
Journal Asiatiquc or the Journal dt« Savantt. He 
also published Dictinnnaire dea Nonu ancient el 
modernes dcs Villes . . . dang VKmpirt ehinoU 
(Paris, 1842) ; Egsai aur I'hiftoire d<- I'ln'truftion 
publiquc en Chine (Paris. 1847); Mimoirt >•■' ^■ 
colonies militairci et ajricoha dea Chinoia 
1 1850) ; and Ac Tcheou Li, trad, du chinvi*, \1 .•nv 

1851). He died on March 12. 1850. 
I Journal Afi'iti'iw, 1850, p. 116. 

BIRD, ISABELLA LUCY, (Mrs Hi icr', , 
traveller who wrote many books >l 
journeys. About 1895, she apf: 
' half in China, going as far as 
She was born October 15. 1831, m » 
died there October 7, 1904. 

r.isuop : 77m }■,'„;( ze Valley and 

BIRDS. S.c Ornilholooy. 



i'J 



BIRDS' NESTS 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



BIRDS' NESTS jHtH 2/en ^o- The gelatinous 
nests of a small swift, or sea swallow, Hirundo 
esculenta, found in the Malay archipelago. They 
resemble badly-made fibrous isinglass, of a whit« 
colour, inclining to red. When dry they are brittle 
and wrinkled, about the size of a duck's egg. The 
first quality is perfectly white, the second whitey- 
brown, the third or uncleaned is dark-brown or 
yellowish. Imitation birds'-nests are made with 
isinglass and vermicelli. Birds'-nests soup is a 
favourite delicacy in China. 

The value imported in 1916 was Hk.Tls. 687,365. 

BISHOP. The term used by Roman Catholics 
in China is Chu chiao ^ fft (rule church) ; the 
Protestant term is Chien tu^'^. 

BISHOPRICS, ROMAN CATHOLIC. (1) 

The Archbishopric of Cambaluc (Peking) was 
created by Clement V. in 1307, and Jean de 
MoNTECORViNO (Frauciscan) was appointed Arch- 
bishop and Metropolitan of Cathay. Six bishops 
were named to consecrate him and be his suffragans, 
but only three reached Cambaluc ; they con- 
secrated him and became in turn bishops of Zaiton. 
MoNTECORViNO died probably in 1328. The Arch- 
bishopric was extinguished in the 15tli century, 
when the Ming dynasty was being established and 
when Christianity disappeared. 

(2) Bishopric of Zaiton, either Ch'uan-chou fu 
^ '}\\ M or Chang-chou fu in Fukien, created in 
1313, under Cambaluc. It was suppressed in the 
Ming dynasty. 

(3) Bisl^opric of Armaleck, Alimalik or Ili- 
balik, in Hi. A Franciscan bishop was here 
towards 1338. (See references in De Moidrey's 
Lc hicrarc/iie cat/tolique, p .3.) 

(4) Bishopric of Macao. At the Pope's ordjis 
Melchior Miguel Carneiro, s.j., went to Macao 
in 1558, where he died in 1533. On his tomb he 
is called primus Macaensis episcopus; but De 
Moidrey says he was bishop of China and Japan, 
without precise limits, Macao diocese not having 
been then established. In 1576 Gregory XIII at 
the request of King Don Sebastien created the 
bishopric of Macao, dependent on Goa, and includ- 
ing China, Tonkin and Japan. Some twelve bis- 
hops' names are given up to 1690, when Alexander 
VIII created the dioceses of Macao, Nanking and 
Peking, leaving the limits to be fixed by the King 
of Portugal and the resjjective bishops, IMacao being 
reduced to Kuangtung and Kuangsi. From that 
date to the present sixteen bishops are recorded. 
The effective jurisdiction of the bishops of Macao 
does not now extend beyond the Portuguese Colony 
of ^lacao, the Prefecture of Chao K'ing, the sub- 
prefecture of Hiang shan, besides Timor, etc. 

(5) The Vicariat-apostolic of Nanking was in- 
stituted in 1658, with the administration of Peking, 



Shansi, Shantung, Honan, Shensi, Korea and 
Tartary. The second Vicar-A. was Pere Lo, a 
Chinese, the first Chinese priest, at least in modern 
times, and the first Chinese bishop. He was a 
Dominican. In 1690 (see 3 above) he was made 
bishop (eveque), without delimitation of diocese, 
but properly speaking the first bishop was 
Alexandri Louis Ciceri, nominated in 1695. 
Seventeen names arc given in all down to 1855, 
when the bishojjric was suppressed by decree of the 
Propaganda and replaced by a Vicariat-apostolic. 

(6) Bishopric of Peking, which included 
Peking, Shantung and Liaotung, but was reduced 
in 1839 to Chihli only. From 1690 to 1856 there 
were eleven bishops ; it 'was then suppressed and 
replaced by three Vicariats-apostolic. 

Innocent XII in 1696 reduced the diocese 
of Peking to Chihli, Shantung and Liaotung, and 
of Nanking to Kiangnan and Honan, and of Macao 
to the Two Kuang, entrusting other provinces to 
Vicars-apostolic. See Vicariate. 

BISMUTH. See Minerals. 

BITTERNS. See Ardeac. 

BLACKBURN COMMERCIAL MISSION, 

a mission sent by the Blackburn Chamber of 
Commerce in 1896-7. Mr. (now Sir) F. S. A. 
Bourne of the Consular Service was put in 
charge of it. The route followed was from 
Shanghai to Chungking by the river, thence to 
Ch'eng-tu, to Yiinnan fu, to Kuei-yang, through 
Kuangsi and Kuangtung to Canton. Mr. Bourne's 
report to the Foreign Office was published at 
Blackburn in 1898. 

Report of the Mission to China of the 
Blackburn Chamber of Commerce. 

BLACK FLAGS. See Liu Yung-fu. 

BLACK HAIRED RACE. See Li ^/m. 

BLACK JOKE, a schooner which left Macao 
on August 24, 1839, and was attacked by pirates 
the same night. An Englishman named Moss was 
a passenger, and he was killed with great brutality. 
Only one man of the crew escaped. This murder 
took place just at the time when Commissioner Lin 
had driven all the British from Macao (See Elliot), 
and it caused much excitement among the refugees,- 
who supposed at first that it was done by the 
officials. 

Eames : The Kiujli-h in China, p. 394 

BLACKWATER ^y^. hci shui, a river men- 
tioned in the Yii Kmvj^'JX, probably the Kansu 
part of the Yellow River ; though another mention 
of it says it flows into the Southern Sea. It is 
now in use as the name of a tn'ibutary to the Min 
river in Ssuch'uan, flowing from unknown regions 
on the right of that river. 

MoRLEY : Chinese Recorder, vol. xlv, p. 101, 



50 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SIXICA 



BLIND 



BLAKE, HENRY ARTHUR, Sir, was born 
at Limerick, January 18, 1819. Ho was Governor 
in Chief of Jamaica from 1889 to 1897; he then 
became Governor of Hongkong from November 25, 
1898, till November, 1903. 

He ha.s published C/iina, (1900). 

BLAKISTON, THOMAS W. A captain of 
the British lloyal Artillery, who accompanied Ad- 
miral Hoi'E in his trip to open up the Yangtze to 
foreign trade in 1861, and then from Yochow went 
on a private expedition. The members of this 
e.xpedition were, Captain Blakiston himself, and 
Lieut. -Colonel H. A. Sarel, both on leave of ab- 
sence. Dr. Alfred Barton and Rev. I. Scheres- 
CHEWSKY (afterwards Bishop), who acted as inter- 
preter. They had with them four Sikh soldiers, 
a Chinese writer and two " boys." The little trip 
which the officers had planned and which the others 
were delighted to join in, was through China into 
Tibet, and then across the Himalayas into North- 
western India. 

This plan could not be carried out ; the dis- 
turbed condition of affairs in western China made 
it necessary for the expedition to turn back ; but 
it surveyed more than 900 miles of the river above 
Yochow, brought back many valuable observations, 
and resulted in a very interesting book. 

Though the book was written by Blaklston, 
and though this article appears under his name, 
there was no leader to the party ; the enterprise 
was entirely private, with no assistance from 
Government, and the expenses were shared among 
the three first-named members of the party. 

Blakiston : Five Months on the Yang-tszc; 
1862. 

BLARINELLA, Blarinella grisdda, a new 
species of shrew, described by Oldfield Thomas ; 
there are only two known representatives of the 
genus, which is related to the earless shrews of 
North America. It is found in S.W. Kansu. 

SowERBY : Journal, N.C.B.R.A.S., vol. xlv'ii. 

BLIND IN CHINA, THE. Chinese records 
are very meagre in their references to this subject, 
but we find that in the time of Confucius the 
blind were already engaged as musicians, because 
of their keen sense of hearing, many of the higher 
officials having as many as two or three hundred 
such among their followers. Confucius himself 
showed great consideration for the blind, as is 
proved by his interview with the Music-Master 
Mien. [Analects, Bk. XV, Wei Ling Kung, c. xli). 
Again, it is said that under the Sung dynasty 
the blind learned to sing songs, accompanying 
themselves with a kind of guitar, and also to tell I 
fortunes by a sort of phrenology, by necromancy 
and other means, a custom which has continued 
to the present day. 



The Chinese, with their 
obligation, t^ke the support 
a matter of courto ; and in dcstilute 
benevolent societies to some extent caie . ,, ui.mi 
boys and men, by having them taught to aing 
impure songs, to tell fortunes, or to do 
work as they are capable of. In gcnci . 
the blind are regarded as worthless ai.i 
almost as social outcasts, thern bl•in^' a i 

belief that the misfortune is a resu • 
personal or relative, so that a.'., 
the sufferer is not a meritorious atl. 

The lot of blind girU is extremely pitiabiL- . 
many are put to death in infancy; others ai 

shut up in a dark room; others are sold as 

for inmioral purpo.ses. The number of blind beggars 
in China is enormous. 

The first Protestant Missionary to help tba 
Chinese blind was Dr. Gutzlaff (q.v.) who re«cued 
six blind girls in Canton. Two of them were >.i.t 
to the In.stitution for the Blind in Philadelphia 
where they still are, (1917), bearing the nanus uf 
Fanny and Jessie Gutzlaff. The other four were 
sent to England. One subsequently returned to 
China, and assi.sted in Mi.s.sion work at Ningpo. 
but was unable to do much to help the blind owing 
to ignorance of the Chinese language and customs. 

In 1845-8 Mr. Syle of the C.M.S. started in 
Shanghai with local funds a small workshop for 
indigent adult blind. This work still continues in 
the native city. 

During the past forty years, a number of 
schools or industrial homes have been started by 
Protestant missionaries, in which the blind of 
both sexes have been taught to read, and to do 
various kinds of work, thus partially supj. 
themselves. The brightest pupils have 1 
teachers of other blind, or have been made . 
in other ways to the mi-s.-^ion.^. At first each m: 
ary devised his own Chinese Braille sy.-itcm and 
followed his own lines, the pioneer being Mr. 
W. H. Murray of Peking, who invented • 
" Numeral Type," and opened a School for the 
Blind and the Illiterate Sighted in the capital 
in 1874. A few of the newer schools ha\e ad -■ • ! 
existing .«systems, but even now there arc 
varieties of Braille, and until China ha-i a u: 
spoken language, complete uniformity in i 
type will be impossible. The .xchools : 
China, however, have adopted a single 
which a number of text books and other liUfitlurti 
have been prepared. 

The Shanghai Institution for tl 
is the newest and the most up t . 
schools. It was founded in 1911 by Dr. A-ns 
Fryer, of the University of ('.k'-.x ::.'.:\, who had 
become interested in the B: bis long 

residence of forty years in ■ - ile gave a 



51 



BLIND 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINiCi 



valuable site of land, Taels 10,000 for building, and 
a large endowment, and the Institution was opened 
in November 1912, with Dr. Fryer's son at its 
head. 

Its main object is to train teachers, both blind 
and sighted, to teach in other blind schools, which 
it is hoped the Chinese Government may open in 
the future. A kindergarten course leads on to 
four years primary work, in four departments. 
Literary, Musical, Industrial and Physical. 
English and typewriting are taught to the more 
promising pupil.s, and as the school develops it is 
intended to take pupils up to the University. Two 
pupils are already working at St. John's University. 

The present Government is beginning to make 
enquiries as to foreign methods of training the 
blind though nothing has been done officially up 
to the present for its million blind citizens ; but a 
Blind School on modern lines under purely Chinese 
auspices, has recently been established at Nan-tung 
chou by the progressive philanthropist, Chang 
Chien. 

In March, 1917, a school was opened in Peking 
by E. G. HiLLTER, Esq., c.m.g. in a house lent by 
the Chief of Police. See Hillier, E. G. 

With regard to Missionary Institutions, it has 
been impossible to get any authoritative statement 
of what Roman Catholics may be doing for the 
Blind ; the following is a list of Protestant Mission- 
ary Institutions in 1917. 

1. Peking. — Mission to the Blind and Illiterate 
Sighted, opened 1874 ; 72 boys and girls. 

2. Hankow. — David Hill School for Blind, 
W.M.M.S. ; opened 1888; 41 boys. 

3. Clinton. — Ming Sam School for Blind, 
A. P.M. ; opened 1891 ; 131 boys and girls. 

4. Foochow.— Lin Gwan Fu Tang, C.M.S. ; 
opened 1898; 78 boys. 

5. /'oof/ioi/;.— Blind Girls' School, C.M.S. ; 
opened 1900 ; 45 girls. 

6. Kowloon. — Blindenheim Industrial Schooi ; 
opened 1901 ; 20 girls. 

7. Ilonijkong. — Ebenezer School ; opened in 
1914, as a branch of No. 6 ; 45 girls. 
(These two schools belong to the HiUlcs- 

hcim Mission for llic Blind, Hiidt-.sheim, 
Germany). 

8. Miikdcn. — St. Nicholas School for Chinese 
Blind Girls; opened 1902; 34 girls. 

9. Chanrjsha. — En Nil Hsiich Hsiao, Lieben/.ell 
Mission, (associated with the C.I.M.); 
32 girls. 

10. Macao. — Pentecostal Mission Blind School; 

opened 1909 ; 23 girls. 
71. Slianijhnl. Institution for the Chinese Bli.id ; 

opened 1912 ; 28 boys. 



In the Southern part of China several schools 
have been opened by graduates of the Ming Sam 
School, with a total of some 80 girl pupils. 

BLOCKADE OF HONGKONG, an attempt 
made by the Chinese officials to ruin the native 
junk trade of Hongkong. It began in October, 
1867. The pretence was the suppression of smug- 
gling. Canton Customs Steam-cruisers patrolled the 
seas and exacted duty from all junks except those 
going via Canton or Pakhoi. It caused a falling 
off of 2222 junks or 117,252 tons in the Hongkong 
returns of 1869. The Governor, Sir R. G. 
MacDonnell, was hampea-ed in combating it by 
the fact that H.B.M. Consul at Canton, D. B. 
Robertson, had supported the Chinese in their 
action. 

Correspondence and Minutes, Hongkong Cham- 
ber of Commerce, Hongkong, 1880 ; Blue Book : 
Corresfondence relating to Complaints, 1875 ; 
Eitel : Europe in China. 

BLUBBER, SEA, ?^^5^ hai hsi p'i, is com- 
posed of the dried skins of various sorts of jelly- 
fish, and is an article of diet. 

BLUE DRAGON ^t| a stellar spirit, the 
canonized Texg Chiu-kung, a general of the last 
emperor of the Yin dynasty. He is often seen 
with the White Tiger, as armed guardian at the 
door of Taoist temples. See White Tiger. 

DoRE : Becherches sur les Superstitions, Tome 
ix, p. 54. 

BOAR, WILD. Sus moupinensis is found in 
Shensi and Shansi and -S'. paludosvs on the Yangtze. 
The largest recorded from the former districts 
is 400 lbs. with 10-in. tusk ; larger specimens are 
found on the Yangtze. On account of the moun- 
tainous character of its habitat it can only be hunt-ed 
with the rifle. See Suidce. 

SowERBY : Fur and Feather in North China. 

BOARD OF ADMIRALTY. See Admiralty. 

BOARDS, SIX. See Six Boards. 

BOCCARO WARE. A fine reddish-brown 
stoneware made at I Hsing gf| in Kiangsu. The 
potteries flourished most in the Ming period. This 
faience when first imported into Europe received 
the Portuguese name boccaro, and is still so called 
by foreigners ; the Chinese name is / Hsing Yao. 

Bushell : Chinese Art, vol. ii. 

BOCCA TIGRIS. See Bogue. 

BODHIDHARMA, called Tamo ^ )*{ for short 
by the Chinese, was the twenty-eighth of the 
Patriarchs and the first Buddhist Patriarch of 
China. He arrived in China from India about 
A.D. 520, lived at Sung shan, Honan, and died in 
528. His birthday is celebrated on the 5th of the 
10th moon. On account of his Chinese name and 
the foQ'eign appearance seen in his images many 



52 



Encyclopaedia sink a 



BONHAM 



have sought to identify him with the Apostle 
TuoMAS. He is regarded as the founder of the 
Ch'an or Meditative School of Buddhists. See 
Ch'an; Duddhiil Schools. 

DoRE : liecherc/ies siir les SupcTstition-t, vol. 
vii, p. 243; Johnston : Vvddhist China. 

BODHISAT, used by some as short for the 
Sanskrit term Bodhisattva, (q.v.) 

BODHISATTVA, turned in Chinese into ^{g 
g^j]| -p'u t'i sa t'o, whicli has been shortened into 
p'u .va and pu.<a. The term means ' essence of 
perfect enlightenment.' It is used for one who is 
on the way to reach but has not yet reached 
Buddhahood. 

The older Buddhism regarded a Bodhisattva 
as the preliminary form of a Buddha, waiting in 
the Tushita heaven till his appointed time to 
appear on the earth as a Buddha ; but it did not 
suggest that saints- should try to become Bod- 
hisattvas or Buddhas, or that Boddhisattvas can 
help mankind: these are Mahiiyana doctrines; 
according to which a Bodhisattva is one who has 
vowed to become a Buddha for the sake of the 
world's salvation but refrains from entry into 
perfect bliss so long as one soul is still left in pain 
and sorrow. 

This is the Mahayanist ideal as opposed to the 
Hinayanist ideal of the arahant (lohan). The 
arahant saves himself : the bodhisat is willing to 
lose himself if he can thus save othca-s. This is 
of course only a rough division and unfair to 
Hinayana teaching. For a brief discussion of the 
controversy see Johnston, p. 66. 

The career of a Bodhisattva was early divided 
into stages — five or seven or ten. Later Buddhism 
used the term chiefly for those in the earlier stages, 
hence for monks by the thousand. Generally it 
was supposed that none who had once entered on 
the career could be reborn in a state of punishment, 
yet the final triumph was incalculably distant. 

A different development created many celestial 
Bodhisattvas. The older Buddhism said Gautama 
before his last birth was in the Tushita heaven, 
where now Maitreya waits ; but since there can 
only be one Buddha at a time it admitted no other 
Bodhisattvas. The position was attained by virtue 
practised through countless existences. But pre- 
sently there came to be many such — hardly any of 
them having a clearly Indian origin, and all of 
them being better known in China. Yet even 
among the early Mahayanists these great Bod- 
hisattvas have not climbed to heaven in the old 
way, but they are emanations from ca: sons of 
superhuman Buddhas. 

Later there arc mentioned millions of them, 
but unnamed ; but in earlier books there are quite 
long lists of names. A few only have definfte 



personality and importance. Avalokita and 
Manju'sri are of supreme importance; Maitreya 
(who is on a different footing), Kshitigarbha, 
Samantabhadra and Mahasthamaprapta are the 
only ones besides who are of much note ; but these 
are all-important in Chinese Buddhiftii 
separate articles. 

Johnston : Duddhi.it China. 

BOGUE, the principal mouth of the Cant^in 
River. The Chinese name is liu men /^P^ tiijer 
gate, because Tiger Island lies inside. From this 
the Portuguese called it Boca Tigre, and the 
English corruption of this name is Bogue. But 
the form Bocca Tigris (tiger's mouth) is in more 
common use. 

The Bogue Forts are celebrated because from 
the early days of foreign intercourse they have so 
often obstructed foreign entrance to Canton and 
have been .so often taken by foreign forces. 

BOGUE TREATY. The same as Hoomun 
Chai Supplementary Treaty, (q.v.)- 

BOHEA g^^. Two ranges of hills in Fukien 
on which the tea so named is grown. 

BON AC, the name of the first French agent 
at Canton ; the beginning of French trade there 
being in 1698. See French relation?. 

BONHAM, SAMUEL GEORGE, Sir, Bart.. 
K.C.B., was Governor of Hongkong and H.B.M. 
Plenipotentiary and Chief Superintendent of Trade 
from March 20, 1848 to April 12, 1854. He had 
been trained in the East India Company and had 
served the Colonial Office for ten years. 

He found it impossible to get much recogni- 
tion of treaty rights from the local officials, and 
once started for Peking in the hope of doing 
better, ("ircumstances prevented his reaching the 
capital and no tangible benefit resulted, but the 
Government was pleased with his diplomacy, pro- 
moted him from C.B. to K.C.B. and gave him at 
the same time a baronetcy, November 22, 1850. 

On principle he put men with no knowledge of 
Chinese into Consulships, over the heads of inter- 
preters. When he thus treated Mr. Harry Parkhs 
the latter appealed to Lord Clarendcn, and Sir 
Geouoe's system had to be reversed. 

On the. outbreak of the T'ai P'ing rebellion, 
and through insurgency in Kuangtung not connect- 
ed with that rebellion, Hongkong profited by the 
inflow of Chinese and Chinese capital. Sir George 
took the bold step of visiting the T'ai P'ing head- 
quarters at Nanking, showed the rebels on one 
hand that they could expect nothing from the 
British Government, and on the other hand in- 
formed the Foreign Office that there was nothing 
stable in the movement. 

In Hongkong he tried to introduce the begin- 
nings of Municipal Government. The Colony's 



53 



BRONZE 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SlNlCi 



finances were in a bad state throughout his adminis- 
tration and he was obliged to reduce expenditure in 
many directions. The commercial prosperity how- 
ever was very marked. Legal enactments under 
Sir George's rule were few ; they were mostly 
concerned with reforms in the administration of 
justice. He initiated the restrictive policy with 
respect to coolie emigration from, the island. 
Questions of currency were much discussed during 
this period. On the whole he was one of the most 
popular and successful of Hongkong's Governors, 
though not the best-remembered. He died in 1863. 
EiTEL : Europe in China. 

BONZE is the Japanese bo-dz, which was 
their pronunciation of the Chinese 'J^ fij the 6th 
centuiy way of writing Buddh ; or it may be 
Japanese bo-si, the Chinese /a-.?^i7i vigjji .teacher 
of the law, the title of a full monk. 

BOOK OF CHANGES. ^"^ See / Ching. 

BOOK OF HISTORY. |ft^ See Shu Ching. 

BOOK OF POETRY. B$$5 See Shih Ching. 

BOONE UNIVERSITY, at Wuchang, belongs 
to the American Protestant Episcopal Mission, 
(American Church Mission). 

The pioneers of the Mission arrived at Wuchang 
in June, 1868, and a boys' school was opened in 
October. In 1870, land for the erection of a school 
svas bought, the nucleus of the present Campus. 

The new boarding-school took the name of the 
Boone Memorial School, and the education given 
was wholly in Chinese, half the time being allotted 
to Christian, and half to Confucian books. 

From the beginning the aim was to prepare 
students for the Christian ministry, but non- 
Christians were admitted. The Divinity school was 
organized in 1898, with four students. 

In 1891, English was added to the curriculum. 
A Collegiate Department was formed in 1903, and 
graduated seven men in 1906. 

In 1907 a Medical School was opened as a 
Cnion institution, but difficulties arose in conno^ction 
with it, and it was dissolved. In 1909, the College 
opened a Medical School of its own, but after two 
and a half years it was decided to send the students 
to a Union Medical College at Shanghai formed by 
St. Johns and Boone Universities with the Harvard 
Medical College. 

In 1909, Boone College became a University 
and was incorporated in Washington, D.C. After 
the Bo.xer movement the Ilev. James .Jackson, D.D. 
became the Head of the College and began to plan 
its extension. In the pre-Bo.xer days, the Girls' 
School and the two hospitals impinged on Boone 
College, but all have been moved out, and their 
buildings appropriated ; other handsome buildings 
have also been added including Ingle Hall, built 
in memory of the first bi.shop of the Hankow 



Diocese ; Thomas Hall, in memory of the Treasurer 
of the Mission in U.S.A. ; and a University Library 
which is open to the public, for whose benefit the 
University also arranges periodical lectures on 
important subjects of all kinds. The present camp- 
us occupies 24 acres. 

In 1911-12, the University had to be closed 
because of the Eevolution, but not before the first 
•■'bachelors" had graduated (1911). The first M.A. 
graduated in 1915. 

The first troop of Chinese Scouts was formed 
here in 1913, and the Scout-master has invented a 
system of Chinese signalling. The University has 
its own Y.M.C.A. -as well as Debating Society, 
Alumni Association, etc. The College students all 
devote their Sunday afternoons to outside evangel- 
istic work, and all the branches of Y'.M.C.A. work 
are well manned and supported. 

There are four schools in the University, viz., 
Arts and Science. Theology, Medicine, and Chinese 
Language and Literature ; and Boone Preparatory 
School is a department of the University and under 
its government. 

Since 1911, the date of incorporation, 37 
students have graduated, six of whom are in holy 
orders. 

In January, 1917, Dr. Jackson retired from ihe 
Presidency, and was succeeded by the Rev. A. A. 
Oilman, B.A. 

At this date the University reported : — 

Foreign professors 12 

Chinese professors 21 

Other ...luese assistants 3 

Students in Divinity 10 

College 54 

Preparatory School 267 
BOONE, WILLIAM JONES, ^ Wen, one of 
the first missionaries to China of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church in America. After graduating 
as M.D. he reached Batavia in 1837, and worked 
among the Chinese there. In 1840 he removed 
to Macao, and two years later to Amoy, where 
Mrs. Boone died the same year. In 1843 he 
returned to the States, and was consecrated 
missionary bishop for China in 1844. Having 
married again he returned to China in 1845, 
and settled in Shanghai. He was one of the 
committee of Delegates appointed to translate 
the New Testament. (See Delegates' Version). 
He was also a delegate for the translation 
of the Old Testament, but, with some others 
of the committee, seceded and began an inde- 
pendent version. In 1852 and in 1857 he again 
visited the United States, and in 1863, on account 
of Mrs. Boone's health, embarked with her for 
Europe. She died at Suez, and he, returning 
after a few months in Europe, died in Shanghai 
on July 17, 1864. 



54 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SIXICA 



BOTANY 



BORAX ^l0)p'cntj sha; occurs in Anhui and 
Kansii, but mure especially in the lake districts 
of Tibet. Borax is refined at Canton and in other 
large cities and is used in glazing ca-ockery and 
sckifring metals, and as a flux in reducing the silex 
in glass, enamels, and other vitreous compounds. 
There is also a small amount imported. 

Williams : Cummcrcial Guide; p. 111. 

BOTANICON SINICUM, a valuable work by 
Bretschneideu (q-v-), published in three parts, as 
vols, xvi, XXV and xxix of the Journal, 
N.C.B.R.A.S. 

BOTANY IN CHINA. 

HISTUHKAL— CHINESE PERIOD. 

Did the Emperor Shen NuNGfi|i£^, the celestial 
wjiiiulturift ever exist? And could he be the 
author (b.c. 2800) of the nio.st ancient Materia 
Medica, the Shcn Niiiuj ijCn ts'ao c/iing f'^.H^/tC'^Iji'^^ 
One thing only is certain, that is, that from before 
the Christian era there existed in China a medical 
plant-collection, a classical Pen ts'ao; that is 
probably the Hhen Nung fen ts'ao ching. If it 
was composed in the time of the Western Han 
(206 B.C. — 25 A.D.), it must contain earlier materials. 
But in order to get from these kinds of writing 
the information which interests us most, that is 
to say, ideas on ethnography, on the condition of 
civilization, etc., what is most important for us 
to know in the first place is the date and the place 
of their composition. However that may be, after 
having been quoted age after age, and then com- 
mented on from our 5th century onwards, it lost 
its individuality, since its text is no longer known 
to us except through a work of 1108 a.d., the 
Chi'iKj It'i jji'n t-^'(io WM.^"^- ^^^ the 365 drugs 
enumerated in the Shtn Nung jjtn ts'ao ching, 
about 240 are plants. A good number of them can 
be identified, the same names having persisted up 
to the present day, or else being associated with 
the present-day names by an uninterrupted series 
of commentators. 

The Erh ya f^ J^has already the most positive 
proofs of antiquity. It would seem to be the 
Lexicon of the Shih ching |f j^§5 ; it would bring us 
therefore to the beginning of the Chou, 1100 B.C. 
Unfortunately, one might say, it was completed by 
Tzu HsiA -^ g, Confucius' disciple, towards 
450 B.C. Moreover, it is written in a style of 
disccncerting moderation. The commentaries of 
Kuo P'o |[5 -^ A.n. 276—324 and of Hsing Ping 
ffl'jr^ A.D. 932—1010 are indispensable to understand- 
ing it, even slightly. There had been figures 
illustrating the text from very ancient times. One 
series of these illustrations was due to Kuo P'o/ 
but they are lo.st. The present drawings, 256 in 
number, go back to the Sung dynasty (960—1280 
A.D.) A certain number of them are decipherable; 



some others are still of some help to the under- 
standing of the text ; many are vague and even 
incorrect. 

The classics, Shu ching, Shih ching, Chou It, 
Shan hui ching, contain a large number of names 
of plants, but not very many exact data, for the 
meaning.s of these names are often uncertain, to 
judge from the varying translaticjns and the 
dictionaries. 

From tlie 5th century b.c. onwards, the 
Chinese Empire expands in every direction ; the 
plants noted have no longer for botanists the same 
attraction as before. More important still, after 
the adventurous journey of Chang Ch'ien ^ Jg, 
139 — 126 B.C., some foreign plants become acclimat- 
ized ; then the routes from India introduce 
agricultural products along with I^uddhism. The 
story of these importations would be an interefcting 
one to follow. 

To sum up, of Chinese Botany before the time 
of our Lord, we have valuable indications, but they 
are rather vague, and too scanty. 

Since the Christian era, the interest of Chinese 
botany changes its character; it might certainly be 
said that the number of Pen ta'ao far surpasses their 
value. Nothing but compilations and commentaries 
now appear. The following may be mentioned as 
being a little above the general mediocrity : the 
Nan fang ts'ao mu chuung l^i'Jj^^^^k which is a 
work of pure Botany, for the southern part of the 
Empire, towards 300 a.d. ; the T'ang jn'n ts'ao 
J^y^"^, an illustrated work of the T'ang dynasty, 
between 660 and 670 a.d. ; the Chin lei pin ta'ao, 
mentioned above, which preserved for us the 
Shiln Nung pin ts'ao ching, a.d. 1108; there are 
more than 600 illustrations of plants in the edition 
of 1458 now before the writer ; above all, the 
Chiu huang pen ts'ao $i3S^^> * collection of 
plants for use in times of famine or Wild-Plant 
Herbal. Composed at the beginning of the 15th 
century at Kai-feng fu, from the indications of 
peasants and farmers, it contains 414 plant.s, 276 of 
which are now described, it says, for the first time. 
Each plant is not only described, but also drawn, 
and these drawings are fairly accurate. 

Finally we come to the I'Cn t-<'ao Lung mu, 
^^'M^- t-h^ great classical Treatise on Medicine 
(a.d. 1596). It is still no more than a compilation, 
illustrated, (one might even say, disfigured) by 
engravings which are often indecipherable, copies 
or deformations of older engravings. The merit 
of its author, Li Shih-ciien ^Oj'- J^, lies in having 
having brought together and pre>er\od what is 
best in its prcdeces.sors. and in having given a 
critique of them which is on the whole a fairly 
judicious one. He adds a fair number of 
new plants. There are over 1100 species or forms ; 
the drawings number 742. There may also be 



Oi> 



BOTANY 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



mentioned the Kuang ch'iin fang jj'u J^-H^fS 
A.D. 1630, fuller, more correct, and, above all, 
better printed than the Pen ts'ao hang viu, but [ 
without engravings ; and the large Encyclopaedia 
T'u shu chi ch'eng,U^%]iSi. A.D. 1725, in which 
320 books and numerous illustrations are devoted 
to Botany ; but this work is again a compilation, 
and from the point of view of science marks no 
progress. On the other hand progress is shown in 
the Chih wu ming sfiih t'u k'ao tlLl^^^t®"^ 
A.D. 1848. The author Wu Ch'i-sun $i:^?# gi^^s 
us, along with some good personal remarks, about 
1800 drawings, certainly the best that Chinese 
Botany has produced ; many are quite original, and 
the descriptions are minute enough to extend to 
the stamens. 

The works on Agriculture ought to be examined 
also; in general, they have the good and the bad 
points which we have noted in the various Pen ts'ao. 
I shall restrict myself to mentioning the A^ung 
chtng ch'van shu T^ifJc^^, a.d. 1640, because the 
author is Hsii KuANC-rii'i, because it is before the 
writer, and because it is really well done and well 
illustrated. 

We will omit here the books written in recent 
years to introduce western botany into Chinese 
literature ; they open up a new historical phase. 

On the whole, since the Shen Nmuj pen ts'ao 
ching up to the present time. Botany has progressed 
slowly, but surely and in a constant manner. Only, 
each author hardly tries to do more than prolong 
for a few steps the furrow at which his predecessors 
have toiled ; there is no scientific thought, no 
original imagination, hardly a care for material 
accuracy, no attempt to formulate laws. In spite 
of all, however, we owe gratitude to the Chinese 
naturalists for this continuity of their efforts in a 
single direction. It makes it possible for us to 
follow up the stream of the writings of the past 
and arrive at last at satisfactory conclusions. It 
is thus, to take as an example the first of the 
cultivated plants, the origin of which de Candolle 
tries to find (L'Originc dcs Plantes ciiltivtles, 
Paris, 1883, pp. 23 .sqq.) — it is thus that in a paper 
on the genus liaphanui given at the Sorbonne in 
1914, Mile TuouAnD-RiOLLE was able to demonst- 
rate that the races of the Chinese Radish have not 
varied since the 11th century, and that the radi.sh 
of the present day was known in China 500 b.c. 
I may be allowed to add that, according to 
Bretschneider (Bat. Sin. ii, p. 39) the name 
t'u lo jici (lo fe, lo fu) given to the Radish by 
the I'Jrh ya is too .similar to the Mongolian, Tibetan, 
Aniiamite, and Malayan names {tohin, laojxing, 
ta/iJiug, lohac) for there not to be a common origin. 
The Persian name tump (tiirma in Mongolian 
comes from it, it is said,) reminds one remarkably 
of t'u lo pel. One is tempted to conclude from it. 



a little contrary to Bretschneider, not that China 
has given the Radish, with its name, to neighbour- 
ing peoples, but that all the East and the Far East 
have received this vegetable from the West, 
through Persia, or even from Persia. This con- 
clusion coincides fairly exactly with that at which 
DE Candolle arrives (between the Caucasus, Asia 
Minor, and Mesopotamia). [As regards Japan, 
this conclusion ought doubtless to be somewhat 
modified ; for apparently the Japanese language has 
transferred to a slightly different vegetable the 
Chinese name lai fu^ |5, in Japanese rai fu hu, 
according to Kaempfer, Amoen. exot. 823, and in 
common Japanese daihon.l 

Bibliography : — The preceding data are 
nearly all taken from Bretschneider, Botanicon 
sinicum, Part i, 1882, London; Part ii, 1892; 
Part iii, 1895, Shanghai. A complete Bibliography 
of the subject may be found there. 

European' period. 

This period might commence with M.^^RCO Polo, 
but let us go on immediately to the 16th century. 
The Portuguese establish themselves at Canton, 
Ningpo, and Chang-chow fu, and then fix themselves 
at Macao ; they make known different plants ; they 
introduce into their country the mandarin orange 
and the Sarsaparilla (Smilax glabra). 

In 1581 the Jesuits penetrate into China, and 
during more than two centuries carry on at the 
same time the evangelization and the study of the 
Empire, particularly the study of its Natural 
History. Some publish their observations 
(Martini, 1655, Boym, 1655) or those of their 
fellow-workers (Kircher, 1667) ; many simply send 
to Europe letters, notes, very interesting studies, 
quantities of seeds or some living plants. Their 
names are known, but one must specially note that 
of Father d'Incarville, who from Peking and 
Macao sends (1743) to Bern.\rd de Jussieu a 
collection of 270 species, and also seeds, notes, 
small treatises, and a collection of 4050 Chinese 
drawings relating to Natural History. The series 
closes with a work still considered very important. 
Flora cochinchinensis, by the Father J. PR 
Loureiro, (a Portuguese), Lisbon, 1790, in which 
680 Chinese species, especially of Macao, are 
described. 

During this time, the Portuguese, confined to 
Macao, had seen the Dutch and the English 
dispute the Chinese market with them. The 
former, from their Embassies to Peking (1656, 
1666) bring back at any rat« good observations 
made in the interior of the Empire ; their different 
sojourns in the Pescadores, at Formosa, Canton, 
and in Fukicn permit them to perceptibly increase 
our botanical knowledge. Only moderately success- 
ful on the whole in their dealings with China, they 
succeed better in Japan, and this success is of 



56 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



BOTANY 



interest to us ; for it has meant for us two works 
which for the most part belong to us, Amocnitatcs 
exoticae by Kaempfer. (1712), and Flora jnponica 
by the Swede Tiiunberg (1784). 

With the English expedition of 1701, (Jiinese 
Botany enters upon a more active phase, thanks to 
James Ci.'xningham, whose considerable collections 
from Amoy and the Chusan Islands, published by 
Petiver, Ray, and Pluckexet, came together 
finally into the hands of Sloane, to form the 
nucleus of the British Museum. We may also 
mention the learned Swedish travellers Osbeck, 
ToREEN, EcKEBERG, SpARMAXN (1751 and 1756), 
whose collections were described by Linnaeus. 

At the same time, to make use of the treasures 
received, large gardens are organized in England, 
France, Holland, and Russia ; Ph. Miller publishes 
in succession his eight editions of the Gardener's 
Dictionary, the Hurtms Keioen^is appears in 1789, 
and in 1815 through the pains of the two Aitons, 
Lamarck and the Abbe Poiret edit the plants of 
SoNNERAT ; Curtis' Botanical Magazine is founded 
in 1786 and has not ceased to appear since ; other 
Magazines still, the Bot. Bepository, the Bot. 
Begister, last for a longer or shorter time ; the 
great florists turn their attention towards China ; 
wealthy amateurs cause plants to be gathered at 
their expense and purchase vast collections, Banks 
and Smith m England, Delessert in France. But 
in all this we only touch on the southern part of 
the Empire. 

Northern China is no less favoured than the 
South. Gmelin, Pallas, and then Bunge explore 
and describe Mongolia, ITssuri, the environs of 
Peking. Later (1840 and onwards) Tat.\rinov, 
Maack, Regel, and Maximowicz continue the work, 
especially the two last, Rsgel with his Tcntamen 
Florae I'ssuriemi?, Maximowicz with his Primitine 
Florae Amurensis and his Decades Plantarum. 
From their hands, the torch passes into those of 
Przew.\lski and Potanin, who make us acquainted 
with Chinese Turkestan, Dzungaria, Kan«u, and 
Korea. 

In 1840, English cannon open China to 
European commerce, a result completed by the 
Anglo-French expedition of 1860. A wave of 
enthusiasm then carries botanists in all directions. 
We can mention only some of the hundred of names 
known and honoured in the history of this scientific 
campaign. The labours of Hance, Champion, and 
others at Hongkong result in the fine work of 
Bextiiam, Flora HongJconr/ensis (1861) with a 
supplement by Hance (1873), — 1055+75 species.- 
Fortune (1843 — 1851) makes us acquainted with 
Kiangsu, Chekiang. Southern Anhui, Fukien. 
Hance again, by himself and with others to whom 
he communicates his ardour, gathei's together in 

8 



42 years (1844—1886), from all the provinces and 
border-kingdoms, 22,000 species, according to hi« 
reckoning, (but this number should be considerably 
reduced). 'J'he I'lntUae Davidianae, of the Abbe 
David, edited by Franchet (Peking, Mongolia, 
Shcnsi, Kiangsi, Ssuch'uan), counts 1577 species, of 
which 247 are new. The Abbe Delavay works 
from 1882 to 1896 in the country around Tali fu 
(Yuinian) in a di.«trict a.s large as half a French 
department ; he reveals to us a whole new flora 
there; he sends to the Mu.«eum of Paris over 
4000 species and more than 200,000 hpeciraens. 
Augustine Henry vies with Delavav in Hupei, 
in the islands of Hainan and Formosa, and in 
Southern Yunnan. The Abbe Delavay has be- 
queathed his zeal in botany to his colleagues of 
the Foreign Missions of Pari.s, who are evangelising 
Chihli, Ssuch'uan, Kueichou, Yunnan, and Eastern 
Tibet. 

The Japanese, who came late to the harvest, 
are distinguished by the conscientiousness and 
activity of their labours. We might mention 
Tentamen Florae Lutchucn-^is of Ito and Mat- 
SUMURA, the Flora Koreana of Nakai, and other 
publications by the same author, the magnificent 
collection of works of Messrs. Matsumura and 
Hayata on Formosa, of which 8 volumes have 
appeared, 7 of them being by Mr. Hay.ata alone, 
containing 215 plates and 3525 species. We must 
alio mention-, in connection with Korea and 
Formosa, an incomparable collector. Father U. 
Faurie (died 1916). Finally, we get good lists of 
purely Chinese plants from Kiangsu, Chekiang, etc., 
from the hand of Mr. Matsuda. 

Altogether the writers established in the great 
European museums seem overwhelmed under the 
flood of materials which reach them for description ; 
a large number of plants have not yet been 
published, in spite of the devoted efforts of 
several — Hooker, Franchet, and now Mgnr. H. 
I EVEiLLr. (Bull. Geog. Bot., Btpcrtorium of 
Fcdde, Flora of Kueicfiou; Flora of Yiinnan in 
preparation). On the other hand, the information 
necessary for studj- is scattered in all the 
publications of general Botany, in the Reports of 
the Botanical Societies, in special Reviews for the 
Ferns [e.g. H. Christ), the Mosses (Ual. Paris!, 
the Lichens (Abbe Hue,) etc. ; and even in the 
Floras of Japan (Thunberg, Siebold, and Zuc 
CARiNi, Miguel, Franchet and Savatier) and of 
Indo-Chine (Lecomte, Finet and Gagnepaix. etc.), 
and finally in the Prodrome and its sequels, and in 
the great Ind(x<'.i (Kunth, Walpeu.s), etc. To 
direct us through this forest, an invaluable guide 
is the Index Florae Sinrjieis, by Fo:iBE.s and 
IIe-MSLey, taken from the Journal of the Linnaean 
Society. London. 1886 to 1905, volumes 23, 26. and 
36 ; printed separately in 3 volumv.^. 



0« 



BOURBOULON 



EXCYCLOPAEDIA SIXICA 



Conclu.iion. After this wonderful putting forth 
of efforts, do we know the Chinese Flora ? Not 
yet. The Index Florae Sinensis, after having 
enumerated 8271 Phanerogams, roughly estimates 
those which were then lying hidden in the col- 
lections, and arrives at a minimum total of 12,000 
species. Again, the discoveries of Delavay and of 
A. Henry were already leading us to suspect what 
Mr. Hayata (Formo.sa), after Missionaries in Korea 
and western region.= , has shown plainly, namely. 
that it is not at ail enough to explore, even 
carefully, the country surrounding a few large 
towns, and to pass rapidly through several districts, 
even at the favourable season ; there has to be a 
methodical exploration through all districts and at 
different seasons of the year. To that we have 
not yet attained. Let one read in Bretschneider 
{HiH. of Eur. hot. Discoveries, pp. 1077—1090) the 
list; province by province, of the collections prior 
to 1898 ; having finished let one count also that 
there are not more than 25 species mentioned Tor 
Anhui, and the floral page for Honan is still blank, 
the very province where the principal Chinese 
I'cnt/t'ao were composed. 

Bibliography : — Bretschneider : Earli/ 
Eiiriijiton ItntpftrcliPS into the Flora of China, 
Shanghai, 1881; Id. : Historif of European 
Ji'ifaiiiral I)i<rocerie.t in China, London, 1898; 
Cokdier, liihlinthica Sinira, col. 442/508, 1498/1532, 
3081/86; The works of Messrs. Matsumura and 
Ito, Nakai, and Hayata are published in two 
Reviews : The liotanival Magazine, (Tokyo), Journal 
of the College of Srience, Imp. Univ. of Tokyo 
(each article is for sale separately) ; the Icojics 
I'lantaruiii Forino.tanarnin is published by the 
Bureau of Productive Industries, Government of 
Formosa, Taihoku. [F.C.] 

BOURBOULON. ALPHONSE DE, born at 
Troyea on December 15, 1809, was attached to the 
diplomatic service of France. He was sent as 
Minister-plenipotentiary to China in 1851, and 
again as Envoy-extraordinary in 1859. He ivtired 
in 1866. 

BOURNE, FREDERICK SAMUEL AUG- 
STUS, was born Octobt-r 3, 1854. He enhT.ii the 
"British Consular Service in 1876, and in 1885 6 was 
employed in exph.ration on the Tonkin border. 
He was called to the Bar in 1890. In 1896 he was 
Consul in charge of the Blackburn Mission (y.r.). 
He was in June 1898 aj)point4?d A.ssi.stant Judge of 
H.B.M. Supreme Court for China and Korea and 
Judge of High Court at Weihai-wci. He was 
made C.M.G. in 1909. He retired in 1915, and 
received the honour- of knighthood. 

ecu VET, JOACHIM, one of the f.vc Jesuit 
priests sent to China in 1685 by Louis XIV. He 



was born at Mans on July 18, 1656 and died in 
Peking, June 28, 1730. 

Together with Gerbillon he was instructor in 
mathematics to K'ang Hsi. The Emperor sent him 
to Home as the bearer of presents, and he returned 
with ten new missionaries, including Premare. 
From 1708 to 1715 he was engaged in a survey of 
the Empire, and altogether did some fifty years of 
scientific work in China. He was much honoured 
by the Emperor. His works are, Present Etat de 
la Chine, en figures gravees far P. Giffart sut les 
de--sins apportcs au Roi par P. J. Bouvet, Pari.s, 
1697; Portrait historique de V Empereur de la Chine, 
Paris, 1697. The Library at Le Mans has his 
manuscripts, including a dictionary. 

BO VI DAE. In X. China and neighbouring 
districts there are fourteen species of this family. 
They will be found under Yah, Sheep, Goral, 
Serow, Tahin, Antelope. 

BOWEN, GEORGE FERGUSON, Sir, 
G. C.M.G. ; Governor of Hongkong from 1883 to 
1885. 

BOWER, HAMILTON, Sir, was born 
September 1, 1858, and entered the army in 1880. 
While captain in the 17th Bengal Cavalry in 
1891, he made a journey through Tibet from 
north-west to south-east, from Leh to Batang. 
He thus explored at least eight hundred miles of 
country that no western traveller had visited 
before, most of it over 14,000 feet high. From 
Batang he went to Shanghai and then back to 
India by sea, reaching Simla twelve and a half 
months after leaving it. This journey is recorded 
in the Geographical Journal, I, 1893, and also in 
the book he published in 1894 under the title Diary 
of a Journey across Tibet. 

It was on this journey that he discovered the 
important manuscript since known as The Bower 
Manuscript (q.v.). 

He was accompanied by Dr. W. G. Thorold 
who made a botanical collection. He found one 
flowering plant at a height of 19,000 feet, the 
highest known. 

He received the Founder's Medal of the Royal 
Geographical Society. He took part in the China 
Exj)edition of 1900, and was commandant of the 
British Peking Legation Guard from 1901 to 1906. 

In 1910 he w;;s made C.B. and K.C.B. in 1912. 

BOWER MANUSCRIPT, some writings on 
birch-bark, obtained by Bower in 1890 at Kucha 
in Chinese Turkestan. They are in Sanskrit, and 
consist chiefly of proverbs and medicinal lore. 
The date of them is supposed to be earlier than 
500 A.D. Such leaves of birch-bark had already 
been obtained by Dutreuil de Ruins, among 
whose papers they were found after his murder. 
These discoveries led to Stein's exiolorations. 



^8 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SIXICA 



BOXERISM 



The Manuscript has been published in fac- 
simile with a translation, by the Archeological 
Survey of India. See below. 

HoEHXLE : The Bower Manuscript, Calcutta, 
1893; Lansdell : C/iinrsc Centra'. Afia; Huehnle : 
Asiatic Societi/ of Bemjal Journal, 1891. 

BOWRA, EDWARD CHARLES, was born in 
Kent, England, in October, 1841. Aft«r a short 
e.xperience in a government office in London (which 
appointment, one of the earliest obtained on the 
throwing open ol' the Civil Service to public com- 
petition, he relinquished in order to serve as a 
volunteer in the Foreign Legation in Gahibaldi's 
campaign ior the liberation of Italy) he came to 
China in May, 1863 to join the Chinese Maritime 
Custom.<5, under the appointment of Mr. H. N. Lay, 
then Inspector General. Learning Chinese with 
facility, he was sent by Mr. (Sir) R. Hart as 
English interpreter and secretary with Taotai Pin 
Ch'un's mission to the various countries of Europe 
in 1866. A diary of this mission was published by 
the Taotai in Chinese. On his return he became 
Interpreter-in-charge of the Customs in Canton in 
1867; Acting Commissioner at Ningpo 1868-70; 
Acting Commissioner at Canton 1870-2 ; Com- 
missioner at Canton 1872. In 1873 he went 
to Vienna as a member of the Chinese 
Commission to the Vienna Exhibition of that 
year, receiving the Austrian order of the Iron 
Crown. He died suddenly on October 15, 1874, 
while in England on leave. A Chinese student, 
a man of wide literary and historical culture, a keen 
student of Natural History, especially Botany, and 
a brilliant writer, during his comparatively short 
career in China he contributed a number of valuable 
articles on Chinese subjects. Amcng them are 
The Manrhu Conquest of Canton; The National 
Monuments at Yaishan; Thz Liu Family, or Canton 
during the period of the Five Dynasties; Su 
Tung-po; Hainan (China Review, 1872-4) ; a trans- 
lation of a portion of the Hung Lou Mtng (China 
Magazine 1869) ; and an Index Plantarum, sinice 
ef latine, in Doolittle's Vocabulary and Handhooh, 
vol. ii. His report on the trade of Ningpo for 1869 
ranks almost as a classic in that branch or literature. 
Bretschneider : History of Euroj)ean Botanical 
Discoveries in China. 

BOWRING, JOHN, Sir, was Governor of 
Hongkong, H.B.M. Plenipotentiary and Chief 
Superintendent of Trade from April 13, 1854 to 
May 5, 1859. He was born at Exeter. October 17, 
1792. He was first engaged in commerce, became 
known as a linguist, turned to literature and was 
the first editor of the Westminster Review. He 
was employed by the Government in various ways, 
received from Groningen in Holland the honorary 
degree of Doctor literarum. hnmaniorum, entered 



Parliament, and, having had money losses wag 
glad to accept in January, 1849, the Consulship 
at Canton. Being home on furlough in 1853 he 
was knighted and appointed Governor of Hongkong 
in succession to Sir George Bonham. 

In 1855, •« ith the help of Mr. Harry Parkes, 
he succeeded in making a commercial treaty with 
Siani. The scheme of training Consuls and 
supplying the service with student interpreters is 
due to him. In 1854 he went north to the Pei-ho 
in a vain attempt to open direct communication 
with the Court. He had to deal with the rabidly 
anti-foreign Yeh, Governor of Canton, and could 
make no impression, though he saved Canton 
from the T'ai P'ing rebels by sending a force 
nominally to protect the foreigners in the city. 
Sir John had the case of the Arrow lorcha (7. v.) 
to manage in 1855. In the hostilities which 
en.sued the foreigners in Hongkong had a very 
unpleasant time, the poisoning of the bread from 
the bakery of Ah Lum {q.v.) being one incident 
in the troubles. Sir John was violently blamed 
in Parliament and was replaced as Plenipotentiary 
by Lord Elgin. Throughout the slow war the 
unrest and insecurity in Hongkong continued, and 
the journalistic scurrilities of the Friend of China 
and the Doi'y l'res.< made bitter the life of the 
government : both editors went to jail, but Hong- 
kong got a bad reputation in England. Sir John 
also suffered greatly through conflicts with the 
Council and with law officers, and had much 
anxiety over the finances of the Colony, and though 
in five years he doubled the revenue he could not 
make it equal the expenditure. To decrease crime 
he proposed to license the gambling houses, but 
the Government in England would not allow it. 
Piracy was unusually common during his adminis- 
tration, as was natural, because of the Arrow war 
and the T'ai P'ing rebellion. 

He was not a popular Governor, and was 
much reviled by the press at his departure. On 
returning home he spent a quiet life, and died 
80 years old on November 23, 1872, at Exeter 
where he was born. 

EiTF.L : ICurope in China. 

BOXERISM. This is the name given to the 
anti-foreign disorders of 1900. The 
The Cult, organizers called themselves Hftfy, 
Th<- /'ufillc-Spirited Harmonious Baud. By other.s 
the band was called j^ g| , Bandits, or Jl iW ^. 
The /'uljlicSpiritcd Harmonious Borers, so termed 
from the boxing antics that di.stingui.shed it. The 
fraternity was a revival of an association long exist- 
ing and never wholly extinct in Shantum:. which 
had its rise in political unrest. What had been 
under a ban for long was officially recognised and 
welcomed in 1900. under the (itle nf Volunteers. 
They received help from Government funds. 



59 



BOXERISM 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SiXICi 



Magic 
Equipment. 



Once started, and officially en- 
couraged, the Boxer movement spread 
with great rapidity. As it developed 
it gathered strength from certain magical ideas 
that possessed the members. Some youths were 
found to be susceptible to charms, and were 
sedulou.sly trained. These were taught certain 
gibberish, and by continuous mutterings of their 
incantations they became i/tidatcd (i^}£) until 
finally they were itndcr the .?/>c7/ ( J:f£i. These magic 
arts stirred the popular fervour, so that the people 
in many parts lost their mental balance, and came 
under the sway of wild delusions. Especially did 
the mysterious and miraculous workings of the Red 
Lamp Society (^fcj^^BB) confirm the magic powers 
of the initiated, and increase the waves of terror 
and inspiration that passed over the people. This 
Society was started by a woman ; and young girls 
wearing red trousers and girdles joined it in great 
numbers. 15y means of hypnotism, administered 
to a youth, whole bands reaped spiritual benefits, 
and divine powers descended. Millions of spirit- 
sohliers came to encamp with the faithful. Then 
the inspired came to believe they were endued with 
qualities that gave them immunity from dangers, 
and made them invulnerable to bullets. These ideas 
were assiduously diffused ; and the superstitious 
people readily succumbed to these wily arts, so 
that generally the whole of North China became 
infected. The minds of men were disturbed and 
awed by the conceived proximity of spiritual 
powers. 

Further, the people attributed to foreigners 
the possession of similar powers. Hence it was 
commonly believed that these spiritual agents did 
much mischief to China. Under the guise of 
human beings they bought up the cereals of the 
land, and paid a good price for them, in silver 
ingots. The cereals were whisked away and the 
ingots became ashes. The land was under a cloud 
of terrifying superstitions which in pagan countries 
is a neccsrary concomitant of rebellious movements. 

Whether the movement was instigated by the 
government, or arose independently of it, is not 
quite clear : but this much is plain, that the move- 
ment was led to rely on Imperial favour and 
piotcction; and a Prince became its President. 
The Government in turn was emboldened, by the 
rise of such a powerful instrument, to try con- 
clusions with the foreigners, and drive them out 
of the country. But it did not wholly rely on the 
Boxers. It had a fairly well equipped army. 
Prepared thus materially and magically the Govern- 
ment and the people of North China embarked on 
a hazard that was momentous and daring. They 
proposed to challenge the world. 

It is difficult to trace fully the causes 
that led to such a challenge. But it 



Cause. 



may be concluded that the sources of irritation had 
been in existence for years ; and that the more 
recent political events and foreign aggressions com- 
bined to stir the Chinese to this action : they, on 
their part, being ignorant, conservative and bigoted. 

Some of the indirect causes may be found in 
the pressure and encroachments of strong nations, 
who, through the discovery of steam, were breaking 
down the distances of past times. The wars of 
1842 and 1860 : the Japanese conquest of Korea : 
the French war of 1884 ; these all had left a root 
of bitterness. The introduction of the new learn- 
ing ; of telegraph wires ; of religion supported by 
the sword, and the establishment of churches, called 
chiao, (a term most objectionable to the Chinese 
mind), disturbed the easy routine of officialdom, 
and created alarm in the minds of the Confucian- 
ists, who held in great esteem their own doctrine 
of civilization. This may be seen in the virulent 
Hunan tracts, and the constant hostility of the 
literati. Thoughtless discussions about the par- 
tition of China, the race for concessions, for 
mining rights, and railway building perplexed and 
disgusted the Chinese and helped the growth of 
hostile feelings. 

Some of the more direct and immediate causes 
were the Sino-Japanese war ; the seizure of Port 
Arthur (1895) : the occupation of Kiaochow, and 
the menace to Shantung from a military despotism 
that paid very little regard to the feelings of the 
people : the jiroximity of the Germans to the 
Taoist settlement on the Lao Shan in Chi Mi ( B[]'^) 
which aroused the fraternity to carry on a pro- 
paganda which became widespread against the 
foreigner : the cou-p d'etat in 1898 : the internal 
movement towards reform, as seen in the Reform 
Edicts of 1898 ; were some of the more signal and 
distinctive acts that combined to bring about such 
a state of anger, uncertainty and perplexity as to 
lead finally to war. These fires had been smoulder- 
ing for long as might be gathered from sporadic 
anti-foreign riots. The people also, in many cases, 
were getting dissatisfied with the state of their 
own government and \iranted a change. The Sibyl 
was whispering that the years and the dynasty 
v;ere full. Further the prevailing distress from 
famines and drought was a factor. 

The object was complex. (a) LTn- 
doubtcdly the chief aim of the move- 
ment was to expel the foreigners and stamp out 
foreign religion, f^.^v/J}'^, Protect the coxtntry and 
destroy the forciff/irr became the motto. It was 
at first only intended to terrorize foreigners and 
convince them that China was no place for the'n. 
Such men as Li PiNG-Ei:Na ^^^.f, Hsii T'ung 
'i^M- and Kang iMlJtlJ, were strongly in sympathy 
with such ideas. Tlicy were no longer willing to 
yield to these constant foreign demands. Their 



60 



EXCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



BOXERISM 



ideas were patriotic and they were enraged by 
foieijjn dictation, (b) But there were other factors 
which must not be forgotten. There were distrse 
interests and factions in the State. These were : 
(i) an atteniiit by the revolutionists to di.scredit 
the Manchus. (ii) Dynastic and Clan factions. 
It was the aim of some to oust Kuang Ilsii from 
the throne, and the name of the substitute was 
P'u TsuN vl?f05, son of Prince Tuan (President 
of the Boxers). 

The murder of Rev. S. M. Bkooks 
Symptoms (December 31, 1899), and certain 
Outbreak l^ellicose Edicts (1899) blaming the 
Governors for supineness in past 
years, and exhorting them to more watchful atten- 
tion against foreign aggression, indicated disturbed 
and unsettled conditions. Letters early in 1900 
from missionaries and others warned the Legations 
of impending danger. It is clear the Ministers did 
not apprehend the gravity of the situation. They 
totally failed to see the significance of the first 
coup d'etat of 1898, or of the second, of January, 
1900, when the Emperor was deposed : and they 
seemed to ignore the transfer of Yii Hsien (the 
Governor responsible for the murder of Brooks) 
from Shantung to Shansi. This practical acquie- 
scence gave courage to the infatuated reactionaries, 
and weakened the authority of the pacific party ; 
at the same time the difficulties of British arms 
in S. Africa did not pass unnoticed ; the reaction- 
aries were not slow in drawing certain inferences, 
as that, if a few farmers could win victory over 
a great power, it was not impossible to hope for 
a victory for the Chinese. Further, the transfer of 
Tung Fc-hsiang from Kansu to Peking was signifi- 
cant. At a feast in San-yiian, Shensi, Tung said 
that he was on his way to exterminate nations. 
Thus more than a year before the outbreak an 
impression was made that China was preparing 
for war. 

_, It is not quite clear who were res- 

Oriainators po"^^^-^ ^o^* the movement. It is 
almost certain that the Government 
had a share in it, though it is difficult to state 
precisely how far it intended to go. Possibly the 
authorities at first saw only an opportunity in 
Boxerism to further their hazy intentions. Yet it 
cannot be said that they acted without popular 
support, for the people of Shantung in particular 
were enraged by German militarism and the vox 
pop^ili gave strong encouragement to the Govern- 
ment to carry out its own purposes. Thus confident 
of national support, and having made the prelimin- 
ary preparation, the Government drifted towards 
war without definite declaration. It must however 
be remembered that the better informed and cooler 
brains amongst the -Chinese, led by Kuang Hsii, 
opposed such a mad policy, clearly foreseeing the 



disastrous results. This was evident at the Imperial 
Council called by the Empress-Dowager for opinion 
and decision, when sane advice was rejected for a 
policy of adventure. 

jj^g Since 1898 there had been anarchy 

Outbreak '" t'le Imperial Council Room. One 

Peking and party wislied to overthrow Kua.nc 

Tientsin. Hsii, another was hostile to such a 

movement and opposed the attempt to make P'n 

TsuN the true successor of T'cng Chih f,i] fft . The 

internal discussion was skilfully supprts.=ed by 

creating hatred against the Christian. For the 

anti-foreign riots were undoubtedly engineered by 

clan and dynastic dissensions. Thus the political 

struggle was forgotten for the moment in the 

popular cry of " away with the followers of the 

foreigner." 

It was the severe persecution of the Christiana 
in the South of the Metropolitan Province that 
induced the crisis and determined the issue.". The 
Christians were accu.-ed of turning away the favour 
of the gods, a calamity resulting in famine and 
distress. Soldiers and Boxers fraternised. Foreign- 
ers were warned to leave Peking. Servants 
and helpers deserted. On May 28 the railway 
between Peking and Pao-ting was destroyed, the 
engineers being bravely rescued by M. and Mme. 
Chamot. Others fled to Tientsin, some being killed 
on the way ; seventeen missionaries remaining in 
Pao-ting were massacred on June 30 and July 1. 
As things were locking serious in Peking a composite 
foreign guard of 340 men arrived (May 31); on 
June 2 two members of the S.P.G. were murdered 
in Chihli. On June 6 an edict was issued pro- 
claiming protection to Christians but it was without 
avail because insincere. The country was seething 
with disaffection and foreigners had difficulty in 
getting to the safety of Peking. On the 10th of 
June Prince Tu.\N, head of the Boxers, became 
chief of the Foreign Office. 

The Great Powers jjrepared to meet the 
emergency. On the 10th Admiral Seymocu left 
Tientsin with a composite force of 1800 ; but on 
June 24th he was completely cut off, and though 
only 25 miles away from Peking was compelled 
to cut his way back to Tientsin where he arrived 
on the 26th, being helped by a small Rus.sian force 
which had gone to his relief. 

Events were moving rapidly, and the position 
was getting more critical, as wa.s seen by the 
murder of the Japanese Chancellor of Legation 
SuGiYAMA on June 11th. Tung's soldiers pco-secuted 
Christians during these days and thousands were 
hounded to death. On the 13th the Austrian Leg- 
ation, etc., was dcstioyed. It was about this date 
that the Imperial Clan Council, already mentioned, 
met and decided on a policy, the warlike clans 
voting for war « I'outranct and carrying their 



61 



BOXERISM 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



point, in face of the wise advice of cautious and 
experienced statesmen. Hsii Ching-ch'eng fiT^;^ 
Yuan Ch'ang ^ *§, Hsii Yung-i ^, ffl ^ 
and Lien Yiian 1^- 7c , were put to death for 
oppo.'ing this policy. The die being cast, Yung Lu 
^ ^ , was ordered ( June 21 ) to bring in his 
troops to attack the Legations, Baron von Kettler 
having been murdered the previous day. Edicts 
were issued ( June 20-25 ) ordering the indiscrimin- 
ate e.xtermination of all foreigners : but until the 
capture of the Taku Foi-ts ( June 17 ) no declara- 
tion of war had been made, and this action led the 
Chinese to put the onus of war on the Powers. 
The capture of the forts relieved the serious pres- 
sure on Tientsin, which had been severely attacked 
and bombarded by Chinese troops. The Arsenal 
was captured on July 11th by the Allies, and the 
city on the 14th. The relieving force arrived in Tien- 
tsi.i on the 18th and organized the relief of Peking. 
The refugees were centred, in (a) the British 
Legation. ( 473 civilians and a garrison of 400 
men, with 2700 converts and 400 servants in the 
adjoining compound Su-wang fu) : (b) the 
I'ei T'ang or North Cathedral, ( three oi- four 
thou.^and converts under the leadership of Bishop 
Favier helped by 40 French and German marines). 
In these two centres the beleaguered organized 
themselves, and withstood the half-hearted assaults 
of the Chinese, from June 20 until relieved at 
3 p.m. Augu.st 14th by a force under General 
Gaski.ee. 

Yuan >Shih-k'ai maintained order 



The 
Provinces. 



in Shantung by a ruthless treatment 
of the Boxers. Foreigners escaped 
to points of safety, but many native Christians 
were massacred and much property destroyed. 

Shansi, where Yii Hsien was governor, suffei'ed 
most. Fire and sword reigned here, Yii Hsien 
him.self taking part in killing the Catholic and 
Protestant missionaries, to the number of fifty-one, 
in his Yamen on July 9th and 11th. Some parties 
were able to escape from the South, but through 
much suffering : others were killed on the roads : 
some wandered in (he mountains until the storm 
blew over. Over sixty foreigners were killed in 
the province, besides those already mentioned as 
massacred in T'ai-yuan fu. But a party of fifteen 
e.scaped from Kalgan across the Gobi desert 
and reacheil safely in Irkutsk. Native Christians, 
I'rofe.stant and Catholic, suffered cruelly, a ga-eat 
number being jjut to death. 

P'oreigners in Honan escaped but not without 
many difficulties. Tao Mu and Tuan Fang gave 
protection to foreigners and native Christians in 
Kansu and Shcnsi, though the Boxers were active 
here too. 

There were murders here and there in the 
Central and Southern Provinces, the most notorious 



being the massacre of Mr. D. B. Thomson and 
party, eleven people, in Chii-chou fu on July 21 — 24. 
Chang Chih-tung and Liu K'un-i in compact with 
the British Consuls did much to control matters 
and keep the peace in these parts. 

The proximity of Japan did much towards 
quelling Boxer activity in- Manchuria, yet there 
was much disturbance and foreigners escaped with 
difficulty. Bishop Guillon was mas.'^acred in 
Mukden, and others in other parts. Many Christ- 
ians suiiered. The Boxer outbreak in Newchwang 
was easily suppressed by the Russians (August 4). 
The Chinese attack on Blagovestchensk (July 18) 
was met with savage retaliation. 

The court fled on August 14th : the 
Retrihution. ^^.-{g ^^ Kuang Hsii being first forced 
to ccmmit suicide. It travelled via T'ai-yiian fu. 
That it endured much suffering may be seen from 
the Edict giving the Imperial apologia to the world 
(February 14, 1901). The Emperor says " on the 
journey between (Jhang-ping and Hsien-hua, I 
attended the Empress-Dowager in ragged cotton 
clothing, and we were not able to get so much as 
a bowl of congee." Prince Cuing and Li Hung- 
chang were appointed to negotiate with the out- 
raged Powers. Sir E. Satov^' (from Japan) changed 
places with Sir C. MacDonald. Li had moved for 
peace earlier and asked the good offices of the 
Japanese Emperor without result. A message from 
the Emperor to President McKinley on the 23rd 
July a.sking his help met with a similar fate. 

The Allied armies took possession of Tientsin 
and Peking and the adjoining districts. At first 
many of the soldiers of the composite body acted 
in a brutal and licentious way. Men, women and 
children were outraged and murdered and cities 
looted. " The once crowded Peking is a desert 
and the first few days of foreign occupation have 
.^een much that need not have occurred, and will 
certainly be regretted." (Sir R. Hart). Some 
foreigners came to the caj^tured districts for loot : 
a most disgraceful episode. 

Count VON Waldersee arrived on September 21 
to assume the post of Commander-in-chief of the 
Allied Forces. Punitive expeditions were sent to 
Pao-ting fu where the Treasurer and Tartar-General 
were executed and others punished. Part of the 
wall was destroyed and reparation for outrages was 
exacted. The expedition destined for T'ai-yiian lu 
went no further than the Niang-Tzu Kuan pass, on 
the borders of Shansi. The U.S. Minister with 
justice protested against the military action of 
Count Waldersee round Peking. 

Tentative proposals for the withdrawal of 
troops were made by Russia and the United States, 
but Great Britain refused assent until satisfactory 
terms were arranged. Finally a protocol was 
signed on September 7, 1901. The more important 



02 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



BRACHYPODINAE 



items were (a) an indemnity of 450 millions of taels ; 
to be amortized in 39 years. Interest to be 4% 
and the tael to be reckoned @ 3/- (b) An embargo 
placed on the importation of arms, and the suspen- 
sion of all examinations for five years, (c) Punish- 
ment of principal culprits ; and special envoys to 
be sent to Berlin and Japan, (d) Cemeteries that 
had been desecrated were to bo restored, and 
restitution of houses and goods was to be made, 
(e) The Legation quarters were to be isolated and 
the Taku Forts razed, (f) Guards were to remain 
in Peknig and keep the right of way to the coast, 
(g) Hortatory Edicts were to be published widely ; 
and Commercial treaties to be amended, (h) A new 
Foreign Office was to be established. 

These terms were accepted on December 27 and 
the (-'ourt returned to Peking on January 7tli, 1901. 

Local indemnities were paid : but the Protest- 
ant Church refused any indemnities for the lives 
lost. In lieu of this it was agreed in Shansi to 
establish a University on Western lines, to be main- 
tained by the authorities, and under joint control 
for ten years at the annual cost of taels 50,000. 
The buildings were an additional charge. 

Yi) HsiEX ; Prince Chuang ; Ch'i Hsii ; Hsii 
Ch'ing-hsueh were executed. Kang I ; Chad Hsii 
CHIAO ; YiNG NiEN were ordered to commit suicide. 
Others like Yu Lu committed suicide without the 
command. 

Bibliography : — 

D'Attthourd : Les Boxers; Backhouse and 
Bland : China Under the. Em2)ress-Dowager, and 
Annals and Memoirs of the Court of Peking; 
Broomiiall : Martyred Missionaries of the China 
Irdnnd Mission; Clements : I'he Boxer Rebellion; 
Edwards : Fire and Sword in Shensi; Forsyth : 
The China Martyrs of 1900; Hart : live Pekinj 
Legations ; He.adland : Chinese Heroes; Ketleii : 
The Tragedy of Pao-ting fit ; Martin : The 
Siege of Peking ; Shanghai Mercury Office : 
The Boxer Rising; Morrison : Articles in the 
'Times; Smith : China in Convidsion, and 
China from within; Thomson : China and the 
Powers; Glover : A Thousand Miles of Mercies 
in China. 
(In Chinese) : — 

•^SIfE§- Commei'cial Press (?) 
^^ix'SijImE- iSlS^/fefi Christian Literature Society 

[E.M.] 

BOY, the term commonly used by foreigners 
in China to denote the man-servant who waits at 
table, etc., not coolie or cook. Cf. the French 
use of gar^on. 

BOYM, MICHEL, VMk'& Pu Mi-he, a Jesuit 
missionary, born in I'oland in 1612. He reached 
Tonkin in 1645, thence went to Hainan and in 



1650 to Kuangsi, where he made several converts 
at the court of the fugitive Ming emperor Yung Li. 
The recently baptised princesses and Constantise 
(q.i\) the emperor's son charged him with letters 
to the Pope, and he reached Venice towards the 
end of 1652. His mission -..as a very difficult 
one, and it was not till December 1655 that lie 
received official answers from Pope Alexandeh 
VIII. A few months later he embarked at Lisboii 
with eight companions, five of whom died durim; 
the journey. He reached Tonkin to find the 
affairs of the Ming dynasty in a hopeless state; 
but in his an.viety to be faithful to his mission he 
plunged into Tonkin to reach Kuangsi by land ; 
he was, however, too much e.\hausted by liis 
e.xertions and he died on the Kuangsi border, 
August 22, 1659. 

He made a word for word Latin translation of 
the Nestorian Monument inscription in 1653, which 
was published in 1667 by KiitCHEU in China 
/llv-itrata. His acquaintance with Chinese was, 
however, not as good as was necessary for such 
a task. 

llis writings include Flora Sincn-i<, published 
in Latin at Vienna in 1656. A French translation 
of it is given in Thevenot's Relation des Voyage', 
1695. In the Vienna edition there is also a 
picture of part of the Nestorian Monument. Ho 
also translated a work on medicine, giving a li.st 
of 289 Chinese drugs. The manuscript had to 
pass through Batavia, and the name of the Jesuit 
translator was there removed. The work was 
published with other stolen matter by Andhc 
Ci.EYEU at Frankfort in 1682. 

Remusat : Xoureaiix Mi'lange* A^latigm-^, vol. 
ii ; Havret : La Stele Chn'tienne de Singanfu, 
Part 2, p. 331. 

BRACHYPODINAE, a Subfamily of the 
Crateropodidue, containing the Bulbuls. Pyrnono- 
fus sinensis Gm. ; China to the valley of the Yellow 
River. /••. fornio.<ae; Formosa. /'. tairanus Styan ; 
Formosa. P. hainanus Svv. ; Hainan. /'. xanthor- 
rhoiis Anderson ; S. China. P. at rim pill ui 
Vieillot; S. China. /'. burmanieus SharI'E : 
Yiinnan. Otocompsa jocusa L. ; Kuangtung. (K 
fioviventris TiCK. ; Yunnan. Hemixiis castanonotm 
Swinhoe; Hainan. //. ranipenjii« Seebohm ; 
Fukien, Kuangtung. H. flavala Hodcs. ; Yunnan. 
Inle p'dti Swinh. ; Fukien, Kuangtung. Hypsipctes 
awaitrote^ Temm. ; Chekiang. //. /< ucoi'ephnhu 
Gm. ; S. China. H. cuncolor Blyth ; Yunnan. 
ff. nigerrimm Gould; Formosa. //. ptrniger 
SwiNH. ; Hainan. Criniger palUdua SwiXH. ; 
Hainan. C. henrici Oust. ; Yiinnan. C. grUeicepa 

j Hume ; Yiinnan. Chloropsis lazulina SwiNH. ; 

I Hainan, Fukien. C. hnrdwickii J. & S. ; Yunnan. 
C. aurifrons Temm. ; Yiinnan. Spizixus semitorquet 



63 



BRIDGES 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



SwiNH. ; S. China to the Yangtze. S. canifrons 
Blyth ; Yunnan. 

D.wiD ET OusTALCT : Lp.s Oisettux de la Chine; 
Pycnonotides, Phyllornitides. 

BRACHYPTERYGINAE, a Sub-family of the 
Ciateropodiilae according to the Fauna of India. 
The following Shortwings and Robins belonging to 
this group are found in China and Formosa. 

Brachypteryx sinensis and B. carolinae in N.W. 
Fukien ; B. cruralis in Yunnan ; B. (joodfellowi in 
Formosa. Larvivora oh.icitra in Kansu ; L. davidi 
in Ssuch'uan, T'aipei shan (Ch'inling) ; L. ruficcps 
in T'aipei shan (Ch'inling) ; L. cyanc in N. China 
to the Lower Yangtze and probably in W. China; 
L. sibdana in S.E. China, going north in summer : 
it breeds in .Sai^lialien. 

BRAHMA. See Fan Wang. 

BRANCHES, EARTHLY. See Cycle. 
BRAND, ADAM, secretary of the Ides 
Embassy to China in 1693. See /rfe.t. 

BRAVES. Properly Chinese soldiers bear- 
ing the character ^ {brave) on their coats behind ; 
but often used by foreigners of any Chinese 
soldiers. 

BREDON, ROBERT EDWARD, Sir, was 
born in Ireland on February 4, 1846. He first 
entered the army, but retired in 1873, and joined 
the Chinese C'u.stoms service. He was Deputy 
Inspector-General from 1898 to 1908, then Acting 
Inspector-General till 1910. The Chinese appoint- 
ed him to a Board of Customs, but in defei-enco 
to the wishes of the British Government he with- 
drew. He was present in the siege of the 
Legations, 1900. His honours include K.C.M.G. 
(1904) and many from foreign powers. He grad- 
uated at Dublin as M.A. and M.B. 

BREMER, JAMES JOHN GORDON, Sir, 
was born in 1786 and, like his lather and grand- 
father, entered the navy. After seeing a good 
deal of service elsewhere he reached Hongkong 
June 21, 1840, and had the naval command of the 
E.Kpedition to (.'hina after Admiral Elliot retired, 
and before the arrival of Sir William Paiiker, 
that is, through the greater part of 1840-41. He 
received the honours of C.B. (1815), K.C.H. (1836), 
and K.C.B. (1841). In September, 1849, he became 
rear admiral, but died on February 14, 1850. 

BRETSCHNEIDER, EMILE VASILIE- 
VITCH, \»>vn at l{iga (?) in 1833, died at I'd- 
rograd in 1901. He was Doctor to tlic Russian 
Legation in Peking from 1866 to 1883, retiring 
in 1884. 

His writings both on botany and geography 
are e.xtremely valuable. His Botanicon Sinicum, 
which first appeared in the Journal of the Royal 



Asiatic Society, N. C. Branch, is a standard work. 
Most of his writings are in English. A list of them 
is given in the T'oung Pao, 1901, p. 195. The 
more important and accessible are as follows : — 

Ta-Ts'in-huo fz^^- Chinese Recorder, III; 
On the Icnoivledge possessed by the Ancient Chinese 
of the Arabs, etc., London, 1871; Vebcr das Land 
Fu-Satig, Yokohama, 1876; Elucidations of Marco 
Polo's Travels in North-China, drawn from Chinese 
Sources. By the Archimandrite Palladius. 
(.Journal N.C.B.R.A.S., X, pp. 1-54;, Notes 
on Chinese Mediaeval Travellers to the West, 
Shanghai, 1875; Notices of the Mediaeval Geo- 
graphy and History of Central and Western Asia, 
London, 1876 ; Chinese Intercourse with the Coun- 
tries of Central and Western Asia during the 15th 
century, (Chijia Review, vols, iv, v) ; Mediaeval 
Researches from Eastern Asiatic Sources, London, 
1888; Archaeological and Historical Researches on 
Peking and its Environs, Shanghai, 1876; Early 
Europeaji Researches into the Flora of China, 
Shanghai, 1881 ; Botanicon Sinicum. — Notes on 
Chinese Botany from Native and Western Sources, 
London, 1882 ; History of European Botanical Dis- 
coveries in China, London, 1898 ; On the Study 
and value of Chinese Botanical Works, Foochow, 
1870 ; Map of China, St. Petersburg, 1898 ; 1900. 

BRICK TEA is prepared in Central China by 
softening leaves, twigs and dust of tea with boiling 
water and then pressing the mass together into 
bricks. It is much used in Mongolia, Siberia and 
Tibet, not only for preparing a beverage, but also 
as a medium of exchange. It has the advantage 
of being easy to handle and transport. 

BRIDGES. Since the character tS Hang, a 
bridge or beam, includes water and wood in its 
composition, it has been assumed to prove that the 
earliest bridges were of wood. This would only 
be valid if the character were in its original form. 

Bridges in China are of great variety in 
material and construction. There are stone bridges 
of slabs laid on uprights, or with arches of various 
shapes ; wooden ones, simjile planks laid on supports 
of wood or stone, or arcade bridges, frequently 
found in western China, with double or triple 
rooi's; pontoon bridges; bamboo suspension bridges, 
planks laid on bamboo ropes of perhaps four inches 
diameter; iron suspension bridges, planks on iron 
chains; and Tibetan or Himalayan bridges of a 
single rope of twisted bamboo, one end higher 
than the other, across which gravity takes the 
traveller holding on to a pulley or slider. A good 
description of these last is given by Ward. 

A few bridges of note may be mentioned. The 
Lu kuu ch'iao iS.ifi^ (ch'iao being bridge) across 
the Hun river, ten miles west of Peking, is called 
by foreigners the Marco Polo bridge, because 



64 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SIXTf'A 



B. & F. BIBLE SOCIETY 



that traveller mentions it. It was later described, 
but with curious differences, by Lk Co.mte and by 
Magaillans. It was first built in 1189 and rebuilt 
by K'ang Hsi. (See Yule's Marco Polo, vol. ii.) 

The Polam Bridge near Chang-chou fu i^^'lJj? 
in, iFukien is famous. It is over 800 feet long 
(Liitle) or about 2,000 feet (Phillips). Some of 
the stones are of immense size, one being seventy 
feet long by five wide and four thick, its weight 
being estimated at 107 tons. It dates back to 1208, 
and is one of the few ancient works jn China. Its 
Chinese name is Hutu ch'iao }^;^^, Tiger ferry 
bridge, or Chiang-tung ch'iao jDj'^, East of the 
river bridge. This is according to Phillips, but 
elspwhere the name is given as P'u-nan ch'iao 
\^\\W^' which has given rise to the foreign name. • 

Other noted bridges are the Wan sho-u ch'iao 
KSI^' ^^ Foochow, and some marble bridges at 
the Wan shou Shan Summer Palace near Peking. 

It is recorded that the Yellow Eiver was first 
spanned by a bridge in B.C. 257 by the Ch'in State, 
on what is still the high road between T'ung-chou fu 
and P'u-chou fu, near the end of the river's south- 
ward course between Shensi and Shansi. 

Davies : Yunnan; Johnston: From Pding 
to Mandalay ; Waed : The. Land of the Blue 
i^o-p-p;! ; China Review, vol. xxii : Bridges; 
Phillips : T'oung Pao, vol. v. 

BRIDGMAN, ELIJAH COLEMAN, |f j^^ 

born in the United States in 1801, the first 
American missionary to China, was sent by the 
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign 
Missions, and reached Caiiton in 1829. Two years 
later he founded The Chinese Repositorij and 
managed it till 1847. He was first President of 
the North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic 
Society, 1857-59. His chief work in Chinese was 
the translation, in collaboration with Rev. M. L. 
CuLBERTSON, of the New Testament. 

Pie died at Shanghai in November, 1861. 

BRIDGMAN, JAMES GRANGER, a relat 
ive of Dr. E. C. Bridgman, who arrived in 
Hongkong in 1844 as a missionary of the 
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign 
Missions. He died in less than seven years, at 
the end of 1850, after attempted suicide. He 
succeeded Dr. Bridgman as editor of the Chinese 
Repository for eighteen months, and he published 
a tran.'^lation of Premare's Notitia Linguae Sinicae 
(Canton, 1847). 

BRINJAL, Solanum melongena, the egg-plant, 
found throughout China. 

BRISTLES tS^C'Au tsung. There is a large 
trade in pigs' bristles, mostly with Great Britain, 
France, and the U.S.A. The chief producing dis-' 
tricts are Tientsin (20,000 piculs) ; Chungking 

9 



(Pels. 15-16,000) ; and Hankow (Pels. 15,000). The 
best bristles are about five inches long aft«r 
trimming and bundling. They should be thick and 
wiry, long and of pure colour, preferably white. In 
the region west of Chungking, where the trade has 
made great strides, there are many white pigs, 
which supply the best bristles in the market. Tho 
collecting season is from November to April, bris- 
tles being soft and usele.ss for manufacturing in 
the hot months. Kueichou province and Manchuria 
also supply the market, which is capable of exten- 
sion if the suppliers would but recognise the 
necessity for careful preparation and grading. The 
bristles from South China are inferior. Many 
cleaning factories are in existence in the largo 
centres of the trade. Exportation : 1914, Pels. 
50,000. Tls. 4,440,000; 1915. Pels. 58.000 Tls, 
4,875,000. In 1916 it was Pels. 62,787, Tl.^^. 5,534.684. 

BRITISH AND FOREIGN BIBLE SOCIETY, 

The, has its chief headquarter.-; in London, and its 
China headquarters in Shanghai, with sub-agencie.s 
at Canton, Hankow, Tientsin, Chengtu, Yunnan fu, 
Tsi-nan fu, Kalgan and Mukden. 

The first work done by the Society for China 
was to assist in printing the first two Chine.se 
translations of the Biljle made by Protestant mis- 
sionaries, Marshman and Lassar's, (Serampore 
1822), and Morrison and Milne's (Malacca, 1823). 
Liberal grants were also made to three other 
early versions viz., Medhurst's New Testament, 
GiiTZLAFF's Old Testament, and Medhurst's New 
Testament revised by Gutzlaff. The Society also 
aided generou.sly in the distribution of the 
Scriptures among the Chinese in the East Indies, 
Malaysia, Siam and Cochin China, at a time when 
it had been forbidden by Imperial edict to print 
or circulate the Bible in China itself, and made 
grants towards the many voyages of Gutzlaff, 
Medhurst and others up and down the coast. 

The first agent of the Society was Mr. G. 
Tradf.scant Lay sent out to Macao in 1836. and 
about this time Chinese distributors were fir.'st 
employed. After the cession of Hongkong in 1842. 
this colony was made the Society's centre, and the 
Delegates' Version (1850-4) was practically financed 
by the Society, as also the mandarin version of 
the same, first printed in 1857. 

In I860, missionary travel in the interior 
became possible under the treaty of Peking, and 
Mr. Alexander Wylie (7.1.) who had been in 
charge of the L.M.S. Press in Shanghai, became 
agent for the B. and F.B.S. and itinerated in 
seventeen of the eighteen provinces, being the 
first Protestant missionary to visit mo.^t of the 
ground he traversed. He also introduced the 
practice of selling the Scriptures at a low price 
instead of giving them away. 



G5 



BRITISH CHAMBER 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



At first the sales were slow, but aided by the 
employment of Europeans as colporteurs they 
increased until in 1875 they reached 100,000. Free 
grants were not done away with, but have always 
been made on a generous scale ; and as versions of 
the Bible were made in the southern colloquials, both 
in character and Roman letters, the Society printed 
and published them. 

Corre.'iponding committees were early formed, 
the first being at Shanghai in 1849; and in 1879, 
an arrangement was made with the C.I.M. whereby 
some of its agents combined colportage with 
evangelistic work, by which means a very large 
number of cities, especially in North China, were 
first provided with the Scriptures. The growth in 
the u.se of Chinese colporteurs was also steady, 
reaching 115 in 1890. 

When at the Missionary Conference of that 
year, the "Union" versions were decided upon, 
the cost of producing them was divided between 
the B. & F.B.S. and the American Bible Society 
and the National Bible Society of Scotland which 
had now entered the field. Some years later the 
whole field was divided into sub-agencies, replacing 
the earlier "Corresponding committees" which had 
«)nly advising power, and various other improve- 
ments were introduced. 

Since its fir.st entrance into China the B. and 
F.B.S. has brought out in Chinese 177 versions of 
Scripture (mostly portions) independently, and 36 
in conjunction with other Bible Societies; and 6 
in Tibetan, and 5 in Mongolian. 

The report for the year ending December, 1916, 
gives the following figures : — 

Colporteurs partly or wholly em- 
ployed 464 

Bible-women 25 

Bibles, Testaments and poitiiiiis 

printed 3,116.168 

Volumes i.ssued 2.732.030 

circulated 2,316,578 

BRITISH CHAMBER OF COMMERCE 

(Shaiigliui), The, was formed in 1915, with the 
usual objects of a Cliamber of Commerce, but with 
• aims emphasized by the war. Its intention was to 
be a Chamber for China, Shanghai being regarded as 
a branch only of a wide organization, and an invit- 
ation was sent to all the ports asking business men 
and firms to join, and to form local committees. 

Members pay an entrance fee of thirty taels 
and an animal subscription of the same amount. 
The British Consul CJeneral, Sir Eveuard Fuaseu, 
K.C.M.G. became Honorary President, and the 
the British Commercial Attache, Mr. Archibald 
Rose, CLE. the Vice-President. There are 252 
members in 1917. 



A monthly Journal is issued for the confidential 
information of members, the first number being 
dated September, 1915, and a Chinese Journal is 
also di.stributed among Chinese Chambers of Com- 
merce ; the circulation in 1917 being 800 and 13,000 
respectively. A Language School has been establish- 
ed and has great success. 

BROLLO, BASILIO, a Franciscan mission- 
ary, born at Geniona (often found wrongly written 
as Glemona) in Italy, March 25, 1648 ; he left for 
China in 1680, worked in Hu-kuang and Siam, 
was made Vicar-Apostolic of Shensi in 1700 and 
died in that province, on August 13, 1703, accord- 
ing to CoRDiER who however gives no authority ; 
or July 16, 1704, according to a sketch of his 
life published in Italy in 1890 ; on July 16, 1706, 
according to Father Kennelly, s.j. ; or September 
17, 1706, according to Father de MoxDREY, {La 
Himnrhic ('(ithoUqtie, p. 46). See Dirti()nari('.<. 

BRONZE. The art of moulding and chiselling 
bronze was developed in China in very eai'ly times ; 
and besides all the references to it in ancient 
literature we have many actual specimens of 
bronze art which undoubtedly belong to the Chou 
and Shang dynasties. According to the Sfiu Chiiig 
the famous Nine Tripods were made still earlier, 
in the Hsia dynasty. They were made of metal 
included in tribute sent from the nine provinces, 
and each had the map of a province carved on it. 
But there are now no examples which can be with 
certainty ascribed to the Hsia period. 

Bronzes are practically imperishable, and earlier 
.specimens are becoming more instead of less 
numerous. It is supposed that bronze vessels with 
inscriptions on them were hidden away in great 
numbers at the time of the burning of the books ; 
but it is certain that they now continue to be 
yielded from the soil. In the earliest examples the 
form is simple and the ornamentation is severe. 
Those before Ch'in Shih Huang Ti, that is, 
belonging to the three dynasties Hsia, Shang and 
Chou, are considered by Chinese as a first class, 
while all later bronzes are placed in the second 
class. The Ch'in ^ and Han work is generally in 
imitation of previous art, but in the T'ang and 
Sung periods a new originality is found. 

Bronzes have been for many centuries the 
objects of minute and loving study, and there have 
been many important works written on them. One 
of the best known of these is the Pn ku t'u ^i{^ 
issued in the Sung dynasty. The interest is not 
only aesthetic or antiquarian, but because the 
earliest forms of the Chinese written character are 
found on bronzes. The Shang inscriptions are few, 
but there are many from the Chou period. These 
are always incised, while later specimens in the 
Han dynasty are in relief. At least >t is so said 



60 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SIXICA 



BUDDHISM 



in Strehlneek ; but these easy dicta are often 
snares to the amateur. Giles, translating Ohao 
Hsi-KU, states that "under the three early 
dynasties, inscriptions were cast in intaglio. . . . 
From the Han dynasty onwards the in.'^criptions 
were either in rilievo, ... or they were incised 
with tools," etc. 

After the form and the inscription the most 
important matter is the patina. The colour, 
brilliance, etc., of this depend partly on the alloy, 
— on the presence of gold or silver with the lead, 
tin, etc. ; partly on the conditions in which the 
articles lay buried, the nature of the soil and water 
with which they might be in contact, and so on. 

Among many famous bronzes which might be 
mentioned, a bowl at the South Kensington Museum 
is of great interest and has given rise to much 
instructive controversy. Some assert that while 
the vessel is possibly antique the inscription has 
been incised later ; these include Giles, Chavannes, 
Pelliot and Vissiere. Others claim that the bowl 
and inscription belong to the 7th century B.C. 
Parker, Hopkins and Bushell support this claim. 

Bcshell : Chinese Art; Paleologue : L'Art 
chinoi?; Giles: Adversaria Sinica, No. 9; 
Stanley: Journal, N.C.B.R.A.S., vol. xliii; 
Ferguson : Early Chinese Bronzes, ibid. vol. xlvii ; 
Strehlneek : Chinese Pictorial Art; Thom : Jf.A.S. 
Journal, vols, i & ii, 1834-5. 

BRONZE DRUMS. These are curious 
remnants of ancient culture, found from the 
Yang-tze down to the Malay peninsula. They are 
supposed to be emblems of authority or to be 
associated with worship. Hirth has proposed 
to class all the aboriginal races who use or have 
used them under the name ' Bronze drum nations.' 
The northern representatives were Man tribes 
of the Ch'u State, but it is impossible to say at 
present whether the southern ' bronze drum 
nations ' had any connection with China in 
prehistoric times or not. See Man-tzu. 

Hirth : The Ancient History of China. 

BRUCE, FREDERICK WILLIAM ADOL- 
plui.-. the Hun., brother of Lord Elgin, (i/.r.) was 
born April 14. 1814, and died in the U.S.A. on 
September 19, 1867. He was sent to China to 
exchange the ratifications of the Tientsin Treaty, 
but was stopped by the Taku forts (.June, 1859). 

After the War which followed this treachery, 
Bruce arrived in Peking as Minister-plenipotentiary 
on March 26, 1861. The crushing of the T'ai P'ing 
rebellion and the incident of the Lay-Osborne 
Flotilla belong to his period of administration. 

He left Peking on his appointment to Washing- 
ton in 1865, having received the honour of K.C'.B. 
in 1862. 

BUBBLING WELL r| DS /'<^" .'/'«, sea's eye. 
a well at Shanghai, about three miles west from 



the Bund, in the road to which it has given its 
(foreign) name. The water is foul drainage and 
the bubbling is through the excape of no.\ious ga^s 
which, it is said, can be ignited. 

The well was originally on a canal, and the 
water near by is said to have been quite warm 
about 3 feet beneath the surface. There was 
formerly a pavilion over it with the inscription 
" the fountain that bubbles towards Heaven." 
Two inscriptions are now decorating it, one stating 
that it is the sixth .spring of the Empire, the other 
announcing that it is the upot where the KiJtras 
were listened to. (The reference is to a legend of 
some frogs who were much impressed by the reading 
of the Buddhist Scriptures). 

The Chinese name of the Bubbling Well Koad 
is Chin^/ an .v.si2 lu ^f^^\f^ the Ching an ffil or 
temple being near the well ; it is said to have been 
built in A.n. 259. 

BUDDHA'S HAND. See Oranges. 

BUDDHISM IN CHINA. Chinese writers 
give various accounts of the introduction of Bud- 
dhism. The Fa Yuan Chu Lin^'-j}^^!^, completed 
in 668 by the Buddhist priest Tao Surn ^^, says 
that as early as B.C. 217 a native of India (known 
in China as Li Fang 1^\]^) arrived with seventeen 
companions at the capital, Hsi-an, as Buddhi.«t 
missionaries, and that they were imprisoned by 
the reigning First Emperor, but were miraculously 
set at liberty. 

The same work gives a mass of evidence to 
prove that Buddhi-st books were known in China 
before the Ch'in dynasty, and says they were 
among those burned by the First Emperor, though 
it is more than doubtful whether at this time 
Buddhist doctrine had been collected in written 
form even in India. Another statement (quoted 
by Kr.vir.sAT) is that in B.C. 122, during a military 
expedition of the Chinese to a " country beyond 
Yarkand," sent by the Han Emperor Wu Ti, a 
gi Iden statue of Buddha was taken and brought 
back to the court, with some account of his 
religion. 

All these statements are questioned by critics. 
Yet even if we doubt the existence of Indian 
influence on the Chinese thought found in Taoism, 
there must have been considerable intercourse with 
Iridia from very early times. However, neither 
Ssu-MA Ch'iex, nor the History of the Western Han 
Dynasty (206 B.C. to 24 a.d.) says anything about 
Buddha or Buddhism, and it is supposed they 
would have mentioned its introduction had they 
known of it. Giles however thinks the evidence 
for the above stories as good as that for the 
authorized version, which is, that Buddhism was 
introduced into China in the reign of the Emperor 
Ming Ti, (58-76 a.d.) of the Eastern Ilan. It is 



67 



BUDDHISM 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



said that about 63, the Emperor had a dream in 
which he saw "a high shining gold image of a god, 
which appeared to him, and entered his palace." 
A courtier (some say the Emperor's brother), 
interpreted the dream by saying the gold image 
was Buddha, who thus demanded to be worshipped 
in China ; as a consequence, the Emperor sent an 
embassy of eighteen men to India, to ask for 
Buddhist books and teachers. The messengers 
left the capital (Lo-yang, now Honan fu) in 63, 
and travelled across Central Asia, until they reach- 
ed Khotan. The exact dates both of the dream 
and of the return, differ in different accounts. 
The embassy brought back with it images of 
Buddha, Buddhist Scriptures, and two Buddhist 
monks, Kas'yapa Matanga, known to the Chinese 
a.s Sh^ Mo TKNC^^Sf, and Gobarana or Chu 
Fa-lan ^^555, I.e., Fa-LAN from India. (The 
former died soon after his arrival, the second died, 
also in China, at over 60 years of age). They 
came with white horses, and for this reason, the 
first temple, which was erected in the capital, was 
tailed I'di Ma Ssu, White Hor.'^e Temple. They 
soon began the translation of various sacred books, 
and a Life of Buddha from northern tradition, 
though they do not seem to have translated con- 
troversial matter, nor to have stood definitely fbr 
Mahayanist views. The stream of Indian nii.ssion- 
aries who followed them continued for 500 or 700 
years. 

The new religion, though under the direct 
patronage of the Emperor, did not make rapid 
progress. For 250 years its authorized represent- 
atives were all foreigners, whose most important 
work was the translation of the Buddhist Canon, 
which wont on steadily all the time. In the 2nd 
century, an Indian translator named by the Chinese 
Chi Kung-ming, did 40 years' work at Lo-yang, 
producing, inter alia, the first Chinese version of 
the Lotxis of the Good Law. Three hundred and 
fifty books were produced before the Han dynasty 
closed ; and during the Three Kingdoms, trans- 
lators were still busy, one of them being tutor to 
the crown prince of the Wu Kingdom, at Nanking. 

The first Chinese name among the translators 
is found under the Western Chin -^ dynasty. 

Buddhism greatly prospered among the less 
civilized of the short-lived states of the fourth and 
fifth centuries. The second prince of the later 
Chao ^ JS (in modern Chihli and Shansi), gave 
permission in 335 for native Buddhists to take 
monastic vows : 42 convents were soon erected in 
the capital alone : and in 381, nine-tenths of the 
inhabitants of North-west China were estimated 
to be Buddhists. 

The Eastern Chin ^ favoured the religion, and 
the 9th Emperor Hsiao Wu Ti (373-397) became a 
Buddhist, the first Emperor to do so. About this 



time the first ruler of the Posterior Ch'in ^^ 
state (parts of modern Shensi and Kansu), did the 
same ; and his successor was an ardent disciple, 
who in 405 gave a title and a hall to Kumarajiva, 
{q.v.), and commanded him to retranslate the 
principal Buddhist classics, the former translations 
having been very poor and not direct from the 
Sanskrit. This Indian's name can be seen to this 
day on the fii'st page of the chief Buddhist books. 
He was assisted by 800 priests, and 300 volumes 
were produced. 

About this time enthusiastic Chinese Buddhists 
began to make pilgrimages to India, bringing back 
legends, manusci'ipts and information ; and in 
.some cases writing accounts of their adventure.'^. 

The most famous of these early pilgrims was 
Fa Hsien ^^ ('Z-^-)j who left home in 399, and 
returned in 414. (For later pilgrims, see Sung 
Yiin; HsUan Tsang; I Ching). 

The Chin dynasty fell in 420, the Tartar Wei 
getting the northern states, and the Chinese Sung 
the southern ; and with this change came the first 
persecution of the Buddhists, both in the North 
and South. 

Image-making and the building of temples 
were forbidden, and in the north the Buddhists 
themselves were severely dealt with. In 426, the 
Wei Emperor decreed that all Buddhist books and 
images should be destroyed, and many priests 
suffered death. 

In 451, however, his successors rescinded 
this edict, and, as compensation, permitted a 
temple to be built in every city, and 40 or 50 of 
the inhabitants to take the vows. The Emperor 
himself eventually did the same ; and in 467 he 
made an image fifty feet high of brass overlaid 
with gold. 

His successors, for the most part, patronized 
Buddhism. Hsiao Wen Ti abdicated in 471 to study 
it ; and though the following ruler was reactionary, 
his successor in turn favoured it, so much so that 
his realm contained 13,000 temples. 

The Liu Sung rulers, though at first they 
persecuted, followed the example of Wei as to 
later toleration, - in spite of the opposition of the 
literati ; Ming Ti (465-473) was a devout Buddhist, 
and put up such a costly monastery in Hunan 
that his ministers remonstrated. 

The reign of the Southern Emperor Liang 
Wu Ti (502-550) marks an era in Chinese Buddhism. 
He rivalled Asoka in his enthusiasm, and thrice 
took the vows, being redeemed by his ministers 
the second time at gn'cat price. 

He rebuilt the Ch'ang-ts'ien monastery near 
Nanking, where there was a shrine for relics of 
AsoKA. In 527, Bodhidiiarma [q.v.), the twenty- 
eighth of the j)atriarchs, arrived in China from 
India by sea, and first visited the court of Liang 



68 



KNCYCLOrAEDIA SINIfA 



BUDDHISM 



\Vu Ti, but not being satisfied with his reception, 
passed on to the Wei Kingdom and finally took 
up his abode at Lo-yang. Here he is said to have 
sat for nine years with his face to a wall, wrapt 
ill meditation. Wen Hsuan Ti, the first emperor 
of IS'orthern C'h'i, compelled Taoists and Buddhists 
to discuss their tenets in 555, saying one or other 
must be unnecessary. He decided in favour of 
Buddhism, and ordered the Taoists to become 
bonzes or die. Only four chose the latter. 

The first emperor of the Ch'en pK dynasty 
retired, after a four-years reign, to a monastery. 

Some years after, the prince of the Northern 
Chou prohibited both Buddhism and Taoism, but 
his son reversed the father's edict. This is a 
fair sample of Buddhist history in China ; pros- 
perous or declining, according to the tastes or 
political necessities of the ruler, but always con- 
demned by the Confucian literati. 

The Sui dynasty was favourable to Buddhism, 
and three collections of the Tripitaka (q.v.) were 
made between 594 and 616, while the Annals say 
that the Buddhist books out-numbered the Con- 
fucian. 

The T'ang dynasty was on the whole the period 
of Buddhi.sm's greatest pro.<|)erity. but the early 
rulers were not favourable. A second persecution 
broke out under them, and Kao Tsu suppressed a 
number of monasteries. In the second reign, 
however, HsiiAN Tsang went to India and was 
honoured on his return, and spent the rest of his 
life translating by Imperial command the books 
he had brought back. The notorious Empress 
Wu also was a nun for a time, and even gave 
herself out to be Maitheya, and ordered a new 
sutra which made this statement to be distributed 
broadcast. Under the Emperor Hsuan Tstjng 
(713-755) a great persecution arose. The religion 
was prohibited, and more than 12,000 priests were 
forced to return to secular life. The Emperor 
later modified his views, for the Tripitaka v.-as 
publi-shed under his auspices in 730. From this 
time for 150 years all the T'ang rulers save 
VVu TsuNG (841-7) were pro-Buddhist. The latter 
half of the 8th century, marks at once great 
increase of popularity, and growing corruption of 
doctrine and ritual, with added ceremonies for 
the dead. 

Su TsuxG had a Buddhist chapel in his 
palace, and made his eunuchs and guards dress up 
as bodhisattvas and genii. 

The next Emperor used himself to expound 
the scriptures ; and when a temple was built to 
his dead mother, he appointed 1,000 monks and 
nuns to " say mass " every year on the 15th of 
the 7th moon. This is the origin of the Chinese 
All Sovli' Daj/ (q.v.) ; and was an official recogn- 
ition of the ceremonies and doctrines which have 



endeared Buddhism to the heart of the people, 
I at the cost of nobler teachings neglected. 
j The last-mentioned three Emperors were all 

I patrons of Am()(;ua, a ( ingalose monk who arrived 
j in China in 733 and became known to the Chinese 
: a.s Pu-k'L'ng ;j?£g, "Not holluw," wliich is the 
I meaning of the Indian word. He taught the 
Yoga or Tantra doctrine, the chief characteristics 
of which are ecstatic meditation (really a kind of 
self -hypnotism) combined with myBterious move- 
ments of the hands and fingers and the u^e of 
incantations, all for exorcistic and magic purposes. 
In 819, HsiEN TsuNG, hearing that a monastery 
in Shensi had a bone of Bituuha wliich worked 
miracles every 30 years, had it brougfit in state 
to the capital; on which occasion Ha.n Yii {q.r.) 
made his famous protest, and nearly lost his head. 

Wu TsuNG (841-7) was devoted to Taoism, 
and violently averse to Buddhism. He describcB 
the Buddhist temples as " eclipsing the imperial 
palaces in splendour," and monks without number 
living on the people. He again prohibited 
Buddhism, ordered 4,600 large, and 40,000 f^maJler 
temples to be demolished, and their lands confis- 
cated. Monks and nuns to the number of 260,500 
were secularized, and 150,000 temple slaves set 
free. The numbers are probably exaggerated. In 
two years, the Emperor was taken ill as the result 
of Taoist elixirs, and became dumb; his successor 
killed the Taoist instigators of the Buddhist per- 
secution, revoked the edict, and began reconstruct- 
ion. Yet he also received favourably a memorial 
that monks and nuns must get permission before 
taking their vovvs. 

The devotion of the T'ang dynasty to 
Buddhism has passed into a proverb. De Groot, 
however, says that the faith never recovered from 
the injury the T'ang rulers inflicted on it. 

During the next three centuries, the history cf 
Buddhism chiefly concerns its influence on art ; 
block printing was to give a great impulse to 
Confucianism ; but the first Sung Emperor's reign 
was marked by the issue of the first printed 
Buddhist canon, with a preface by His Majesty. 
This dynasty saw 274 new translations, though 
these were naturally fewer than in earlier times, 
mo/it of the work being already done. 

The second Emperor built a stupa 360 feet high 
for relics. Jen Tsung, the 4th Emperor, was not 
very much given tu Buddhism, but mstr:' 
in 1035 appointed fifty youths to study S.i 
Hui TsuNti, the 8th Emperor, hated Buddli;siii. 
having been turned out from his novitiate in boy- 
hood for misconduct. He was an ardent Taoist 
and tried to amalgamate the two faiths, in such 
a way as to suppress Buddhism. He ordered that 
the title of Bvudha should be exchanged for one 
like those of the Taoist divioities. Priests were 



69 



BUDDHISM 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINlCA 



no longer to be " seng," nor monasteries " ssu 
yiian," Taoist terms being substituted. The 
attempt was a complete failure; the edict was 
reversed ; the Taoist instigator degraded, and 
Taoism itself persecuted. 

With the Southern Sung dynasty, and the 
removal of the capital to Hangchow, eclecticism 
in religion prevailed. Thus, Chu Hsi studied 
Buddhist literature in his youth, and though after- 
wards strongly anti-Buddhist, his writings bear 
traces of his contact with Buddhist thought. In 
fact, the Sung philosophy is more than anything 
else the answers given by Confucianism to the new- 
questions raised by Buddhism. (See Philosophy). 

The Yiian dynasty consistently favoured 
Buddhism, though in a form more Tibetan and 
Mongolian than Chinese. 

Khubilai Khan, in fact, took up a new 
attitude. Hitherto the Empire had been a 
Confucian institution, and any other religion was 
only a concession. But Khubilai converted 
Imperial temples, which were really Confucian, 
to -Buddhist uses ; and put Confucianism in a 
secondary place. A census taken at the end of 
tjie 13th century, gives the number of temples as 
more than 42,000, and that of the monks as over 
215.000. 

It was complained of KntrBTLAi's successors 
that they spent 3,000 gold taels in writing 
Buddhist books in gilt letters, and committed 
other extravagances. There was plenty of literat- 
ure published at this time ; including the ninth 
Tripitaka, and many translations into Mongolian 
^>i Sutras, etc. It would appear that Lamait^m 
and Buddhism were not regarded as different 
sects. A Lama ecclesiastic was at the head of the 
Buddhist hierarchy. It is possible that the 
Chinese Buddhism of the time was tainted with 
Saktism, from which Peking Lamaism even to-day 
is not free. The last emperor is said to have 
hastened the downfall of his house by witnessing 
indecent plays in company with lamas; and these 
things caused a reaction in favour of Confucianism. 

The first Ming Emperor had once been a 
Buddhist monk ; and in his reign we first hear of 
secular clergy, who might marry, and did not live 
in monasteries, and though decrees were issued 
against them in 1394 and 1412, they increased in 
number. This shows the influence of Lamaism, 
in which celibacy is not insi.sted on. The Ming 
rulers, being the restorers of native civilization, 
naturally backed up Confucianism ; but they found 
it profitable to conciliate the Mongolian and 
Tibetan hierarchies so as to get safety on the 
north and west. Few of them cared much for any 
religion. The third Emperor, Yung Lo, though 
educated by a Buddhist priest, yet restricted 
ordination, and on one occasion sent into the army 



1,800 young men who had come up to take the 
vows. However, the 11th collection of the Canon, 
called ' northern ' because printed in Peking, was 
issued with his preface. He sent into Tibet for 
Halima [q-v.), gave him high titles, and made his 
three chief disciples the chief prelates of the 
whole Buddhist church. Since then, Tibetan 
clergy (red) have had jDrecedence of Chinese clergy 
(grey). 

In 1426, the fourth Emperor ordered examin- 
ations to be instituted for would-be monks, and 
four years later, no monastery was allowed to have 
more than 60 mow of land. In 1458 the restriction 
of ordinations to once a year was decreed. Hsien 
TsuNG was a puppet of the priests but his son 
Hsiao Tsung drove out the eunuchs who were 
responsible for abuses and extravagances, and he 
also burned the Taoist books. In the reign of 
Wu TsuNG, who is said to have known Sanskrit, 
Mongol, and Arabic, and to have been completely 
swayed by the eunuchs, 40,000 Buddhist and 
Taoist priests were made. In his successor's reign, 
the Confucianists once more memorialized the 
throne against Buddhism, but only got the 
Buddhist chapel in the Forbidden City done away 
with ; for the Emperor, while also favouring 
Taoism, distributed the Tripitaka widely, repaired 
P'u-t'o, and joined in the ceremonies. In the latter 
part of the dynasty, new enemies to Buddhism 
arrived in the persons of the Jesuit missionaries, 
who at once regarded the Buddhists as their 
chief rivals. 

The Ch'ing dynasty showed but little favour 
to Buddhism ; and almost at once ordered the 
inspection of monasteries, and limitation of m.onks. 

Shun Ciiih wrote prefaces to Buddhist books 
and, according to one account, took the vows; 
but the great K'ang Hsi was stoutly Confucianist, 
and Yung Ch'eng's harsh remarks on heterodoxies 
in his expansion of the Sacred Edict have had 
great weight with his people ever since. However, 
the lamas from Tibet and Mongolia were always 
received respectfully. The 12th Tripitaka collect- 
ion was issued under Yung Ckeng and Ch'ien 
Lung. The latter received Teshu Lama with 
honour. The late Empress-Dowager received the 
ministrations of the Dalai Lama, and her former 
colleague, Tz'ii An, was a devout Buddhist. On 
the whole the Manchus were less favourable than 
any previous dynasty, issuing many restrictions, 
and not rescinding them. The effect was to 
increase the number of secular clergj', who were 
allowed to have one disciple each. 

With the fall of the Manchus. and the pro- 
clamation of religious liberty, Buddhism also has 
lifted up its head. Its state had, with certain 
notable exceptions, fallen very low, but a revival, 
I)artly under Japanese influence, can be noted. 



70 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



BUDDHISM, HOLY PLACES 



This Japanese influence is keenly resented, however, 
in certain quarters, and when in 1915, among 
twenty-one demands made by the Japanese minister 
in Peking two asked (1) for Japanese hospitals, 
churches, and schools in the interior to have the 
right of owning land, and (2) that Japanese subjects 
should have the right of propagating liuddhism 
in t'hina, the Chinese government refused both 
demands. 

See Buddhift Canon : Buddhist monnfierie.t : 
Buddhi><t Schools; Sacred Hills of Buddhism, 
etc., etc., etc. 

Edkins : Chinese Buddhism; Hackmann : 
Buddhi.-'in as a lid ig ion; Johnston : Buddhist 
China; Giles : Confucianism and its Bivals; 
Parker : Studies in Chinese Eelijion. 

BUDDHIST CANON. The extant Buddhist 
Scriptures in the Chinese language are called HJK 
San Tsang, three treasuries, which is a translation 
of the Sanskrit 'Tripifaka. In spite of translating 
and retaining this name, the Chinese have added a 
fourth division. 

The divisions are, i Siitra,!;^ ching, works on 
doctrine; ii Vinaya. 4^ /</, works on asceticism and 
monastic discipline ; iii Abhidharma, 1^ lun, works 
on philosophy ; iv J^ tso, miscellaneous works. 

The first three divisions or tsang (treasuries) 
are all tran.slations ; the fourth, added by the 
Chinese, includes both translations and original 
Chinese works. 

Just as the Chinese Collection, consisting of 
four divisions, should not properly be designated 
Tripitaka or Son Tsang, meaning Three Thesauri, 
so the collection has no real right to be called a 
Canon. It is simply a theological miscellany, a 
corpus scriptoruni sanctorum, all the very diverse 
works in it being, or having at some time been, 
of literary or doctrinal value ; while the validity 
of the collection is entirely dependent on imperial 
authority. 

The Tripitaka as it exists in China to-day is 
only the latest one of several such collections that 
have been made. Twelve are enumerated between 
the sixth and eighteenth centuries, the latest five 
having been printed, while the rest remained in 
manuscript. Each collection included works not 
in the preceding one ; but with addition, there 
was also excision and compression, so that the 
present collection contains fewer works than the 
first that was issued, at the beginning of the sixth 
century. This is due, not to the rejection of 
works which to changing thought became heretical, 
or to the critical mind became apocryphal, but 
to the fact that many early translations were only 
provisional, or incomplete, or partial versions, 
which could be superseded by the complete trans- 
lation of the whole. 



Of the latest three Collections, the first, by 
Hung \Vu, founder of the Ming dyna.sty, and the 
second, by Ydng Lo, differ only in the number of 
Chinese works admitted into the fourth di'.i ;• i 
They are known as Southern and Northern r.-j. < 
lively, one having been printed in Nanking, the 
other in Peking. The last Collection, by Yu.ng 
C'hk.N(; and Ch'ikn Linc;, i.s tlie reviKion of HrsM; 
VVu's Collection, with the addition of 54 Chinemj 
works. 

The total number of works included in the 
Chinese Canon is 1662, nearly two-thirds of thenj 
being in the first division (Sutras). A catahjgue 
w.".s made of the whole Collection by Bunyiu Nanjio 
in 1883, which may be consulted for the sub 
division of the Canon. The Catalogue is without 
an index to the Chinese titles, but this lack has 
been supplied by E. D. Ross. 

A new edition of the Canon appeared in 1913, 
known as the " Hardoon Reprint," the expenses of 
the undertaking having been chiefly met by the 
munificent gifts of Mr. and Mrs. S. A. Hardoon of 
Shanghai, who also entertained the scholars 
responsible for the work, during the years of their 
labours. The most prominent of these able and 
learned Buddhists was a monk who bears the 
monastic name of T.sung Yang. 

There are also two well-known Japanese edi- 
tions, published in recent times, one in Tokyo and 
one in Kyoto. 

EiTEL : Chinese Buddhism; Bcnyiu Nanjio : 
A C:itah)gue of the Chinese Translation of thr 
Buddhist Trijuitaka; Ross : An Alphabetirol List 
of Titles, etc., (Archaeological Department of India. 
1910); Johnston: Buddhist China; Beai. : Th. 
Biiddhi<t Tripitaka in China and Japan, a 
Catoh„i,n , etc., 1876. 

BUDDHISM, HOLY PLACES OF, are gene- 
rally found on hills or mountain-tops ; and the 
word jli, mountain, is commonly used of places of 
pilgrimage, even when situated elsewhere. In 
many cases, peaks already " holy " have been 
appropriated, partially or completely, by tht- 
Buddhists. China, indeed, abounds both with 
Taoist and Buddhist mountain-shrines. Four place.'*, 
however, have come to be specially sacred to 
Buddhism, and pre-eminently objects of Buddhi.st 
pilgrimage. They are i, Wu T'ai Shan .TJJIill. "" 
Shansi, which from its position is especially the 
seat of Mongol Lamaism. The presiding Bodhis 
attva is Manju'sri, (g.r.); ii. Chiu Hua Shan 
^^|ll. in Anhui, who.se patron divinity !« 
i'l Tsang Jft iJS, ('/■<•). the Ruler of the dead, and 
also the protector of little children; iii, I"u T'o 
Shan I? PE lU , off the coast of Chekiang, whire 
Kuan Yin ('/. f.) is the main object of w • 
iv. O Mei Shan l^MWi '" Ssiich'uan. who.se i. 
are dedicated to the Bodhisattva, P'c Hsien ('/.f.;. 



71 



BUDDHISM MONASTERIES 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



These mountains must not be confounded with 
the " Five Sacred Hills," whose sanctity is of 
an earlier date than Buddhism, and which are 
chiefly associated with Taoism. Among the num- 
berless mountain-monasteries of Chinese Buddhism, 
the above-mentioned four are not the highest, nor 
the most famous for learning, nor for founding 
a new school, nor have they exclusive rights or 
powers ; and it seems certain that their pre- 
eminence arises from their position in the land. 
It is clearly stated by Chinese writers that the 
number of the chosen mountains is four, to connect 
them with the four cosmogonical elements of 
Buddhism. Air, (\Vu T'ai) Fire, (0 Mei) Water, 
(P'u T'o) and Earth (Chiu Hua), the elements 
being thus assigned because of certain peculiarities 
of .'iituation or climate at each place. 

In addition to the four referred to, there are 
" eight small famous hills," some of which share 
their fame with Taoism. The most important 
from the Buddhist point of view, are T'ien T'ai 
-Ji is in ('ht'kiang. \Vu Tang %^'}^ in Hupei, and 
VVu I 5^1^, in Fukien. ManyothOT heights famous 
in Buddhist story might be mentioned ; in fact 
the Sfinn C// 17/ , |I| -J; , or 'History of Buddhist 
Mountains in (,'hina,' runs into thousands of 
volumes. 

Pilgrimages to these places naturally take 
place at the season.s when the weather is likely 
to be good, — roughly speaking, the spring and sum- 
mer in the north, i.e. the lower peaks are visited 
in spring, and the lofty heights in summer ; while 
winter pilgrimages are common in the south. 
The pilgrims are mo.stly pious laity, but A great 
many monks also join them. The calling of the 
latter entities them to free food and .shelter at the 
various monasteries en route. 

Many ' guides,' or books for the information 
and edification of both cla.s.ses of pilgrims exist, 
and a detailed and intcre.sting account of one of 
I'ncse is given in Johnston's work, Chap. vii. 

Johnston : Ihiddhi'^t C/iinn. 

BUDDHIST MONASTERIES. Probably 
earlier ( liinese nionast«.rius imitated the arrange- 
ments at N'aianda and other great Indian establish- 
ments, but unfortunately the Chinese pilgrims give 
us little information as to the buildings in Indian 
monasteries. In ("hina the arrangement is generally 
a (juadranguiar space surrounded by a wall. The 
great gate faces south, and either outside of it 
or in the first court inside, there is a pool, filled 
with red lotus and tame fish and crossed by a 
bridge. The sides of the quadrangle are occupied 
by dwelling rooms, refectory, guest chambers, .store- 
rooms, library, etc. The inner space is divided 
into two or three courts with a temple in each. 
The first temple is called The Hall of the Four 



Great Kings ^^zE ^^'^ t'ien wang containing 
figures of beings who have not yet reached Buddha- 
hood. Generally the Guardian of the North, ^ /ig 
To Wkn is black and holds a pearl and a snake ; 
KuANG Mu ^ g Guardian of the East, is white 
and bears a sword ; i§ g TsSng Chang, Guardian 
of the South, holds an umbrella and is red ; the 
Guardian of the West, J$ g Ch'ih Kuo, is blue 
and carries a guitar. The figures include images 
of the four kings, Maitreya (Mi Lei) 5^ % the 
coming Buddha, Wei T'o $p^, a military Bodhisat- 
tva sometimes identified with Indra, and very 
often Kuan Ti |3 ^, god of War. 

The second court is the principal one, and 
contains the principal images ; it is called the 
Precious Hall of the Great Hero :^£f^g3:ta hsiung 
pao tien. Behind the chief altar there may be a 
single figure, in which case it is always 'Sakyamuni ; 
more often there are three figures, called vaguely 
the Three Precious Ones. They are usually 
'Sakyamuni and two of the superhuman Bodhisat- 
tvas, or Buddhas, Amitabha (0-mi-t'o), Manju'sui 
(Wen-Shu) or some other. The central figure is 
sometimes Kuan Yin or O Mi T'o. The common 
exj)lanation that the triad represents the Buddhas 
past, present and to come, is not correct. 

In this Hall, or at the side of it, other Bod- 
hisattvas have separate shrines : Ti Tsang, Ta 
Shih Chih and others. Kuan Yin generally has a 
special shrine at the back of the chief altar, facing 
the north door of the Hall. The Eighteen Lohan 
are arranged along the side walls of the Hall. 

The third building is called the Fa fang 3j ^ 
and contains only small images. It is used for 
the religious exercises of the monks, but there is 
also exposition of the Scriptures for the laity, and 
sometimes j^reaching. 

In very large monasteries there may be a 
fourth Hall, used for meditation, and called the 
Ch'an fang p^. 

Monasteries are of all sizes, and in any of them 
the number of monks is always changing. This is 
becau.se the monks do a certain amount of wander- 
ing ; at one time many may be absent from their 
monastery, at another it may be filled with visitors. 
A large monastery may have from thirty to fifty 
monks ; a very large one may have as many as 
three hundred. 

Most monks are dedicated by parents while 
but children ; a few become monks from sincere 
religious conviction after they are men. The 
children have the head shaved and wear monastic 
garb ; at twenty years old they are formally admit- 
ted into the Order. There are three ceremonies, 
originally belonging to three stages of the religious 
life, but now crammed into the space of a few 
days. This is partly because, up to the end of 
the Ch'ing dynasty, only certain monasteries held 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



BUDDHIST SCHOOLS 



the goveriuuent's permission to ordain, so that 
candidates might have to travel some distance, 
and would naturally wish that one journey should 
suffice for the whole ordination. 

At the first ceremony, the candidates are 
admitted as novices ; two or three days later they 
accept the rcjbes and bowl, and promise obedience 
to the rules of the I'mtiinokok-ihu. The third and 
final ceremony is the most important ; it is called 
shou I"usa chich ^i^^^ "accepting the Bodhi- 
sattva's commandments," that is, the fii'ty-eight 
precepts of the Fan want/ chintj (q.v.). The 
candidate's head is branded at this ceremony in 
from three to eighteen places, by lighting bits of 
charcoal stuck on to the shaven pate. 

It seems that burning and branding as parts 
of initiation ceremonies were known in India in 
the first centuries of our era, but that they were 
not commonly practised ; and that they were not 
generally accepted in China till the eighth century. 
I Ching, who died in 715, seems to know of 
nothing beyond the two-fold ceremony for novitiate 
and monkhood. The third ordination must be 
part of the later phase of Buddhism introduced by 
Amogha (Pu K'ung) about 750. 

By these three ordinations the candidate becomes 
a ho-i<hanij or full -monk and takes a new name. 
All monks pay obedience to the abbot, and in some 
cases the abbot represents the entire clergy of a 
prefecture vi.?-a-vis the government; but each 
monastery is independent in administering its own 
affairs and there is no hierarchy outside. 

The monks are divided into two classes termed 
Western and Eastern. The former are the religious 
part of the house, concerned with ritual, etc. ; the 
latter manage the business affairs of the establish- 
ment. 

The diet in the monastery is strictly vegetarian ; 
as a rule there are three meals a day, all eaten in 
silence. The monks do not go round with the beg- 
ging-bov.'l ; they wear the garments prescribed in 
Indian Buddhism, but supplemented by Chinese 
clothing worn underneath, whatever is made 
necessary by the climate. 

Either two or three services each day are held 
in the principal Hall, the ritual including verses, 
responses and chanting, with the presentation of 
offerings, tea, rice, etc. 

In the course of most ceremonies the monks 
make vows on behalf of all beings, and take oath 
to work for their salvation. They have also to 
deliver sermons and listen to them, and to spend 
time in meditation. Some of them also have to 
teach the novices to read and recit« religious books. 
It is usual for the monks to spend some time 
in wandering in the spring and autumn. There are 
many festivals, some purely Buddhist, some purely 
Chinese. 

10 



As to the laity : they are at liberty to att«nd 
the daily services, which are however primarily for 
the monks. Generally the laity wornliip at any 
hour, lightiifg a few tapers and often trying some 
act of divination before the idols. But at certain 
seasons, the temples are thronged with lay pilgrims. 
The services of the monks are required by the 
laity chiefly for funerals. In addition to the 
numerous monasteries there are a large number of 
nunneries, organized in the same way and under 
their control. These are more numerous in the 
South than in the North; and at the present day 
neither institution bears the best of characters; 
e-ij-, i" 1B40 all the nunneries in Soochow were 
suppressed for immorality ; and a little later the 
monasteries ( ?) in Foochow suffered the .same fate 
on the same charge. 

Haprmann : liiiddhi.^in ii" u liiliijinn, and 
Bitchlfii-f .Miinii--fi 1 1/ L\ir. East of Asia, vol. i. 

BUDDHIST SCHOOLS. The history of thej=e 
would fill a large volume, yet Buddhism had V»een 
known in China for several centuries before any- 
thing was heard of ' schools.' WTien Bodhidkarma 
came in 526, he came as a reformer, perhafis 
because his ideas were not acceptable in India. He 
founded the Ch'an j^. (Sanskrit, Dhyana) or 
Contemjjlative School ; feeling that too much 
attention was paid to sacred writings and outward 
observances, he proclaimed that the heart, rather 
than the words, of Buddha must be the chief guide 
of his followers. Bouhidharma's system has been 
called the "Buddhist counterpart of the Spiritual 
E.xercises of St. Ignatius Loyola" ; it is indeed 
the way of all mystics ; the tending of the inner 
light, the realization of the Eternal as immanent 
in the human Soul, through calmness, meditation 
and prayer. It had the defects, as well as the 
virtues of mysticism, e.ij. leading to the neglect of 
learning, if leading away from priestcraft and 
e.xternalism. 

The Ch'an school early divided into North and 
South ; the former soon decayed, but the latter 
flourished, and after the death of the 6th (Chinese) 
patriarch, there being no one head to whom to 
refer new doctrines that they might be classed as 
orthodox or heterodox, the Ch'an school subdivided 
into five main branches, and other schools also 
arose. Buddhism, moreover, is essentially a tolerant 
religion, recognizing " many ways of salvation," 
and it took kindly to the idea of difierent .-itreams 
flowing from the one source, and complementary 
rather than antagonistic. Persecution and .■ 
munication have been little known, and di. 
amalgamation and interpenetration have been cui. 
stantly at work among the schools. The immense 
size of the Canon was also a factor in the develop- 
ment of sects, special teachers empha.'^i/ing lh« 
importance of their favourite scripturee. 



73 



BUDDHIST SCHOOLS 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



The Chinese reckon that there have been ten i 
principal schools (t; tstiti'j). According to Hack- ; 
MANN, they are as follows : 1. Lu Tsung ^ ^ 
2. Chii She Tsung t|L^^. 3. Ch'eng Shih Tsung 
)ii%'^. 4. San Lun Tsung HaS^- 6- T'ien T'ai 
TsunJ. 6. Hsien Shou Tsung g^J;^- 7. Tz'u En j 
TFung ■^..igi.J^ . 8. Ch'an TsungH^,. 9. Mi Tsung | 
^.^. 10. Ching T'u Tsung ff± 5ft- ! 

Of these, four, viz. Nos. 2. 3, 4, and 9. no 
longer appear r/.s i<cfi(>ol.< in China, although their 
influence remains, and they themselves are found 
in Japan. This is especially the case with the j 
Mi Tsung, also called Chen Yen Tsung {xee below). 

No. 8, the Ch'an or Contemplative School, has 
practically absorbed all the rest. It subdivided in 
the eighth and tenth centuries, as above stated, 
into five sects, .sometimes from their importance 
also called ^ and causing confusion. The proper 
term is 5g chia or ' families.' These are named 
from the places where they originated ; being, in 
chronological order, the Hui-yang, Lin-chi, Ts'ao- 
tung. Yun-men and Fa-Yen Schools; of these the 
Lin chi 6£3? is by far the most important. It 
began in Sliautung in the 9th century. Its founder 
died in 868, and his dagoba was erected near 
Taming fu in Chihli. Most educated monks of 
to-day profess to belong to this school or 'family'. 
It is an interesting fact that it was among the 
Chinese, who are supposed to be above all things 
a practical people, rather than among the people 
of India that Contemplative Buddhism was mainly 
developed, and it is at this day the prevailing form, 
though much modified by alliance with the Ching 
T'u or Amidist School. The special object of the 
Lin-chi Tsung is to teach that while self- 
improvement is hard, man has resources in himself 
to overcome all difficulties. This doctrine ap- 
proaches to Confucianism, and the school is held 
in high esteem among the thoughtful classes in 
China, who despise the image worship of the 
ignorant multitude. 

The five .'^, the Lii, T'ien T'ai, Hsien Shon, 
Tz'u En and ("hing T'u Tsung, are sometimes 
called Chiao men ffcP") , as again.st the Ch'an Tsung, 
known as T.sung men 5fJP'] . They all agree on the 
importance of external.^, while differing from each 
other on other matters as much as they differ from 
the Ch'an. 

i. The strictest is the Lii Tsung. also called the 
Nan Shan, Southern Hill, School. It was founded 
by Tag Hsiian, who died in A.n. 667, and lays 
great stress on the minute observance of the old 
Lii {Viiifii/ii) regulations. The chief seat of this 
school at the present day is at Paohua Shan to 
the east of Nanking, where the rule is exceedingly 
severe, the priests eating only two meals a day, 
drinking nothing but tea, and dressing in black. 



ii. The T'ien T'ai School was founded by 
Chih I §p , (died 597) and was an attempt to com- 
bine esoteric and exoteric teaching ; meditation was 
still to have the first place, (though the use of books, 
which BODHIDHARMA had forbidden, was permitted) ; 
and yet ceremonial was regarded as having objective 
value. The founder's favourite sutra was the 
Mlao Fa Lien Hva Ching ^^^^M^M.- His home 
was in N.E. Chekiang among the beautiful T'ien 
T'ai Mountains, still a great Buddhist stronghold. 

iii. The Hsien Shou Tsung originated in the 
T'ang dynasty, but is named from a great reformer 
who aTterwards arose. Its favourite siitra is the 
Hiia Yen Ching l^^fS ' ^"*^ another and commoner 
name for the school is Hua Yen Tsung. 

iv. The Tz'ii En Tsung was founded by Chieh 
Hsien fSL^ovi the Wei Shih Lun, one of the books 
tran.slated by the famous pilgrim Hsuan Tsang, 
and insists, as the name "kindness-and-compassion- 
school" implies, on the necessity of love towards all 
beings, as the highest sign of true religion. It 
practises a special kind of meditation based upon 
peculiar psychological views. 

V. The Ching T'u Tsung or Lien ^ ^, also 
called the Amidist or Lotus School, was founded 
by a native of Shansi in the 4th century. His 
name was Hui Yuan ,^ig and he lived under the 
Eastern Tsin dynasty. To this school belonged 
Chu Hung, the priest who opposed Matthew Eicci 
in letters which are still extant, who also founded 
the famous Yiin Ch'i g f^ monastery near Hang- 
chow. In reality his was quite a distinct inter- 
pretation of Buddha's teaching, but there has been 
so much borrowing, that a pure Amidist is not to 
be found. Some monks say that "Amidist teaching 
is Ch'an doctrine simplified for the multitude." 
Its especial cult is that of Amitabha, the Buddha 
of the West. The favourite scriptures are three 
sutras of the Pure Land, which \vere not the 
product of early Buddhism. 

This is the form of the religion which, rightly 
or wrongly, is supposed to have most in common 
1 with Roman Catholic Christianity, having its 
j purgatory, its Goddess of Mercy, its elaborate 
machinery for delivering the dead from pain arid 
misery through the good offices of the priests, and 
gaining them an entrance into the Pure Land of 
the Western Heaven. It is also the form which 
is mo.st affected by the ignorant laity, and Kuan 
Yin and Amita Buddha are more often on Chinese 
lips than any other religious names, both having 
ciidearcd themselves to the popular mind by their 
devotion to the human race. The school has its 
own doctrine of Salvation by Faith, but no punish- 
ments are eternal. The mere repetition of the 
name Amitabha has saving efficacy. (See I'ttie 
Lund Sehool). 



EXrYrLOPAEDIA SINICA 



BURGEVINE 



Of the four schools now extinct in China, the 
most important is the Mi Tsung 'i^j !^ , Secrft 
Tenchhi'i SrTiool, or Chen Yen Tsung %M^ . Trttf 
Word School, the latest of the schools of Huddhism 
to arise in China. It was introduced from India 
in the eighth century. It.* principal scrij)ture is 
the Ta-jih ching;A:nt'5 ^^ Suti'a of the Sun- Buddha 
V.M'-iorANA ; and in its higher forms it is an elaborate 
and fanciful pantheism. In its popular use, 
however, it is a short cut to salvation by means 
of spells and ceremonies. The higher teaching of 
the School never had much importance in China, 
but the use of spells and magic appealed to Chinese 
super.stitioii very strongly, and such ideas now 
form a large part of Chinese Buddhism, though 
introduced at such a comparatively late period. 
It was introduced into -Japan in 805, where it is 
known as the Shingon sect, ana is one of the 
most influential at the present day. 

The Chii She Tsung is the Kusha School of 
Japan ; the Ch'eng Shih Tsung, is known as 
Jojitsu, and the San-Lun Tsung as San-Ron. 

Hackmann : Die Schulen des (.'hine^ischen 
Biiddhisiiius; (Mitth. Seminar, 1911); and Hi/d- 
dhixm at a Belii/inn; Edkin.s : ('hinf.'>c Ihiddhixni ; 
jDiiNsroN : h'udd/ii.-f Chinfi. [C.E.C.] 

BUFFALO, WATER, bo.i huhalus, an un- 
v.'ieldy and powerful animal much in use for 
agricultural work in the south. . The head is so 
set that the whole body may be submerged, with 
only the tip of the nose showing above the surface 
of the water. The hide is black, with few hairs.. 
Though the animal is vicious with strangers, it is 
^generally seen under the control of small boys. 

BUGLIO, LOUIS, fi] ^11^ a .Jesuit mission- 
ary, was born at Mineo in Sicily, January 26, 
1606. He entered the Society when 17 years old, 
and after teaching for some years in the Roman 
College he was sent to China in 1637. He is said 
to have written and spoken Chinese with remark- 
able ease. He was an excellent draughtsman, and 
it was in this capacity that he was assistant to P. 
SCHALL and shared his labours and persecutions 
in Peking. He died there in 1682. 

BosMANS : Ferdinand Vcrhiest ; Louvain, 1912. 

BULBULS. See lirarh iipodiuaf. 

BULLETIN CATHOLIQUE DE PEKIN, 

LE, a magazine published by the T^azarist Mission, 
primarily intended for missionaries. The first 
number appeared in December, 1913, and it has 
been issued monthly since then, with the excep- 
tion that it appeared twice a month for two 
months. An edition in Chinese is also issued. 
The price of the Magazine is two dollars per 
annum. 

BULLOCK, THOMAS LOWNDES w.is bor i 
on September 27, 1845. and entered the Briti.^h 



Consular Service in China in February, 1869. 
He was advanced to vaiious important [)uvt-, a .1 
in 1897 become Assistant Judge and ( onsul al 
Shanghai. In July of that year he retired, and in 
1899 he succeeded Leogf. in the Chair of Chiiie-c 
at Oxfor<l. He held this post till liis d.-atli 
March 20. 1915. 

His writings are few,— a snoall number of 
papers in periodicals and /'roi/rejifive Kxercinen in 
t/ii- Chiniyc Written Lan(/uai/r. 

BUND, Hindu.stani l)a)id, an artificial cause 
way or embankment. In Shanghai the bund of the 
International Settlement is 3500 feet in length. 
In Hongkong the word /irai/a is used instead. 

BUNDER, from Bund ('j.v.). A word used 
in ShariL;!iai tor an untrue rumour or rannrd. 

BUNGALOW, {Hind. nujujUth), a one- 
storeyed hciuse. 

BURGEVINE, HENRY ANDREA, an 

American, born at Xewbern, N. Carolina in 1836, 
a subordinate to General Ward, who took com- 
mand of the Ever Victorious Army after Ward's 
death. By his overbearing manners, by inter- 
ference with the civil rule at Sungkiang and in 
other ways he made himself obno.xious to 
Li Hung-chang, then Fu-t'ai or provincial 
Governor. Li begged General Staveley to remove 
BuRGEViNE and appoint a British officer in his 
place, but the General declined to interfere. 
When Burgevine's troons were ordered to Nan- 
king they refused to go until their arrears of pay 
were given them. In quarrelling with Ta Chi, 
the Bank or banker holding the funds, Burgevine 
laid violent hands on the money and struck the 
banker. For this he was dismissed. Captain 
Holland being placed in temporary command and 
Captain Gordon being recommended for the 
permanent appointment. 

Burgevine went to Peking to claim redress, but 
though Sir Frederic Bruce and Mr. Bcrlingame 
were strongly in his favour, it soon became 
evident that there was no possibility of his 
reappointment. He was irritated, weak from an 
imperfectly healed wound, and, it is said, in the 
habit of taking enough stimulants to disorder his 
mind. He got together some one hundred and 
fifty foreign rowdies and went over to the rebels 
at Soochow. There was great danger of Oohdon's 
officers deserting to their old leader. Burgevine 
seems to have had an idea of entraj)ping and 
seizing Gordon ; he also met him and tried to 
persuade him to join in an independent campaign 
against rebels and imnerialists alike ; he arranged 
with Gordon to desert to him, on a guarantee that 
no proceedings should be taken atr-iiii-l him or hif 
officers for their service with the nltel.". When 
the desertion did take place BuncEViNE himwlf 



vO 



BURHEL 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



got left behind in Soochow, and it was only by 
Gordon's diplomacy and the T'ai P'ing leader's 
generosity that he got away in safety. The 
Fu-t'ai handed him over to the American Consul, 
who, at Gordon's request, agreed to take no 
proceedings against him on condition that he left 
the country. For some time he lived quietly at 
Yokohama, but in 1865 he made a trip to 
Shanghai, then to Amoy, where some rebels were 
in arms. At Amoy, while drunk, he agreed to 
join the rebels once more. A black servant 
betrayed him to the Chinese authorities, who 
arrested him on the way to the rebel lines and 
armed to the teeth. The American Consul 
demanded custody of him, but was refused ; the 
American authorities having failed in their dutj 
to arre-st him at once on his return. The utmost 
to be obtained froni the Chinese was a promise 
to keep their prisoner unharmed till the Govern- 
nent at Washington had been consulted. He waa 
sent to Li Hung-chang ; but on the way, at Lan 
Chi hsien in Chekiang, he was drowned by the 
capsizing of a ferry-boat, June 26, 1865. Enquiry 
failed to find any signs of foul play ; but a certain 
amount of doubt must always remain about a 
death so opportune to two governments. 
Wilson : The Ever-Victorious Army. 

BURHEL. See Sheep, wild. 

BURIAL OF THE LIVING. See Sacrifices. 

BURLINGAME MISSION. In 1867 Bur- 
lingame resigned the post of United States minister 
to China, and accepted the leadership of a Mission 
on behalf of the Chinese Government to the 
Western powers. After visiting the United States, 
France, JVussia and England, he died in Eussia, 
1870, before his work was finished. 

The Mission included J. McLeavy Brown, 
(who had been interpreter to the British Legation 
in Peking), as First Secretary, and M. Deschamps, 
(a Frenchman who had been connected with the 
Cliine.se ('ustom.<;) as second Secretary; besides two 
Chinese officials and some students. This being 
tlie first Embassy ever sent by China to Western 
pcwerfi. was a mo.st exciting matter to all interested 
in the opening of ('hina to Western influence, and 
in a mass ol' writing on the .subject, the most 
varying views were expressed. To some it marked 
the b<iginniiig of a new and better era for CJhina; 
to otliers it appeared a gigantic piece of humbug. 
The movement was certainly prejudiced by the 
injiiflicious and exaggerated public utterances of 
Bi'KLiNGAME. The (Jhine.se Government was re- 
presented as desiring and intending to introduce 
Western methods, but only gradually, as the people 
became convinced, and not hastily at the urging of 
foreign powers. On the other hand foreigners in 



ii) China regarded the Government as insincere, 
and desirous only to put off all change as long as 
possible. The time had arrived for the revision of 
the Treaty of 1858 with England, and the 
British minister, backed by the mercantile com- 
munities of the ports, proposed the immediate open- 
ing of China by railroads, telegraphs, navigation 
of inland waters, mining, right of foreign residence 
and other means. In the light of later Chinese 
histoi'y it is clear that such proposals must have 
been abhorrent to the mandarins of those days. 
At this juncture, Burlingame succeeded in making 
a Treaty with United States endorsing the "un- 
qualified admission of the right of China to resist 
all pressure from without as to material improve- 
ments or progress." (Despatch of Sir Rutherford 
Alcock, November 10, 1868). The Chinese Govern- 
ment was at once made strong to resist the British 
proposals, and after tedious delay and fruitless 
endeavour by the British minister, the new Treaty 
was signed with a few jjetty additional concessions 
granted. 

To many, the great effect of the Mission, not 
only by the Treaty it made, but the change it 
brought about in the attitude of Western powers 
towards China, was to confirm her arrogance and 
seclusive, conservative mind, and contempt of the 
foreigner, and to give the victory to the foes of 
progress. To others it was a noble attempt to do 
justice to a Government placed in a difficult 
position. 

A decision on the wisdom or foolishness of the 
Mission and on the goodness or badness of its 
fruits can only be made, — if it is possible to 
decide, — after a study of both sides of the question 
as shown in the mass of contemporary criticism, 
discussion and correspondence. See Amcrinm re- 
l(itio7is. 

F. W. Williams : An^on Ihuliii'jinne. 

BURNING OF THE BOOKS, THE, an ex- 
pression which generally refers to Ch'in Shih 
Huang Ti's notorious deed in B.C. 213. At the 
suggestion of Li Ssu, his prime minister, he ordered 
the destruction of all books except those on 
medicine, divinr.tion and agriculture. Within 
thirty years the Han dynasty reversed the order, 
and perhaps not so much harm was done to literature 
as is sometimes a.-;sumed. The lacunae, different 
readings and general disorder in classics are common 
to all anciefnt literatures. Finding the li/crati still 
in opposition Shih Huang Ti destroyed (^) some 
four hundred of them in the capital Hsion-yang. 

There were other occasions when a clean sw^iep 
was made of literature : Wylie mentions five 
'bibliothecal catastrophes' in his N^ies on Chinese 
Literature. 

TscHEPE : Histoire du B'njaume dv Ts'in. 



76 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



CAMBRIDGE REACH 



BURNS, WILLIAM CHALMERS, born in 
1815, died at Xewcluiaiig, 1868. He was sent to 
China as a missionary by the English Presbyterian 
Church, reaching Hongkong in 1847. He worked 
in several of the ports and left a reputation behind 
him for both scholarship and piety. The widely 
used translation of Bunyan's Pihjriin's Vrogrexs is 
his work, and he wrote some well-known hymns. 

BUSHELL, STEPHEN WOOTTON, was 

boin in 1844 in Kent, took his medical degree at 
London University, and became medical officer 
to the British Legation at Peking in 1868. He 
was made C.M.G. in 1897, retired in 1899 and died 
at Harrow in England, September, 1908. 

He wrote a number of papers on Chinese 
inscriptions, antiquities, numismatics, natural his- 
tory and art; his Chinese Art, (2 vols.) a South 
Kensington Museum Handbook, is well-known, 
and his Chinese Porcelain (1908) is a standard 
work. A full list of his writings is given in 
T'liunci [KID, 1908, p. 596. The mo-st important are 
(hiiiitdl Ci'mitiic Art (t/iv Wnlfrrs Oollerfimi), 



New York, 1897, and Chinexe Porcelain, Oxford, 
1908. 

BUSTARDS. See CraUoe. 

BUTTERFLY CHUANG, a title given to the 
philosopher *(JiiUAN(; Tzii from a famous pa>8age in 
the end of the 2nd chapter of part I of hix work 
in which he likens himself t^j a butterfly. 

BUTTON. The round kncjb, about an inch in 
diameter, worn on tiie dress cap under the Manchu 
dyna.sty to denote the rank of the owner. There 
are nine classes, each being divided into principal 
jE and subordinate \jt, the former being plain, the 
latter bearing the character §5 shou, old uije. The 
nine classes, begiiming with the highest are, 
i, transparent red, — ruby; ii, opaque- red, — coral; 
iii, ti-ansparent blue, — sapphire ; iv, opaque blue, — 
lapis lazuli; v, tran.sparent white, — crystal; vi. 
opaque white, — stone ; vii, plain gold ; viii, worked 
gold; ix, worked gold with two characters ('h>>u), 
being the button for graduate.^ of the lowest degree 
{hxiu ts'ai). 



C 



CACIANFU in Marco Polo, is Ho-chung fu jnj 
4» fff which is now P'u-chou fu, Jiff i?'K Jjj^ in Shansi. 

GAHEN, GASTON, the author of a History 
of the Relations between Russia and China in the 
time of Peter the Great. The author had access 
to the archives in Russia, and produced much 
new material. The work was in French, but the 
text with some of the notes was translated by 
W. Sheldon Ridge in the National Bevivw, 
Shanghai, 1913-14. 

Cahen : Hi<toire r/c-t Relations (h. la liussie 
aver la' Chine sous Pierre le Grand (1689-1730); 
Paris, 1911. 

CALANDRA LONGIPES or Ccrrylio lomjipes, 
^^^. Chit hsiin ch'iinij, the bamboo beetle, which 
bures holes through the bamboo to lay its eggs 
inside. 

CALENDAR OF SUPERSTITIONS. Be- 
sides the Imperial Calendar with its lucky days, 
etc., for use by all, there is a Buddhist calendar 
for the priests' use, Ch'an men jih swir/ jS H B Ii 
Every day has its feast or fast or duty. Most of 
it is given in DoRr.'.s lierherches siir les Siijiei- 
stition<, p. 391 ft xeij. 

GALLERY, JOSEPH GAETAN PIERRE 
MARIE, a distingui.shed .-sinologue w^ho came to 



China as a Lazari.^t missionary, but apostatized. 
He was born at Turin, June 25, 1810, but in 1845 
or 1846 he was naturalized as a French subject. 
He joined the Missi(in-'< Ktramjires and was sent 
to China, reaching Macao in 1836, where he studied 
the language under Gdx^alves. Besides Chinese 
he learned Korean. In his spare time he studied 
the botany and geology of the district. 

He returned to France in 1842, and the next 
year was appointed Interpreter to the French 
Consulate at Canton, and was attached to de 
]/Ai;renf's Mission. Returning in 1846 he was 
naturalized and took up his abode in I'aris. In 
1847 he was made Secretary-Interpreter to the king 
and held this position till his death in Pari.*, 
June 8, 1862. His published works are Dirtionnairr 
Encijcloptdiquc de la lam/ne Chinoii'f, Macao, 
1844; (only vol. I issued); the same was translated 
into English ; Sij-^ttma Phunetirum Scriptura 
Siniccv. 

Bretschneider : History of Kurnpean Botanical 
Dl.-'rorrrii'S in China, 

CAM BA LUC. See Khanliali,/. 

CAMBRIDGE REACH, a part of the Canton 
river below Wliampua. The origin of the name is 
said to be as follows. The British ship tjambridgf. 



CAMEL 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SIXICA 



900 tons, arriving just before the blockade, was 
sold to Russell & Co., the American firm, who 
renamed it the Che-^ipeahe and sold it to the 
Chinese. These filled it with pov.der and ruffians 
and sent it to defend the boom below Whampoa. 
The Nemesis was the first to attack it and to 
board it. It was set on fire and blown up, 
February 1841. In Hall's Narrative he speaks 
of the vessel as ' the L'rnnOrid'jc formerly known 
as the VhK-^upeale,* 

H.'iLL : Narrdtive af the ]'oi/ni/i'.< aiul Scn-ir/'s 
of the Xemexis, p. 352. 

CAMEL. The camel used as beast of burden 
between Mongolia and China is the two-humped 
Hactrian camel. It is constantly seen in the 
streets of Peking and on the main roads in the 
northern provinces. It is found wild in the region 
.'^(,llth and eai^t of Lob nor. 

CAMOENS (CAMOES), LUIS VAZ DE, was 

born at Li.sbon in 1524. He gave cifence at Court, 
and went as a private soldier to Morocco, where he 
lost an eye. Later he went to Goa, where, though 
already renowned as a poet, he made enemies by 
his satirical attacks on government corruption, and 
as a punishment he was sent to take part in the 
military occupation of Macao (1558). At the end 
of his term of service he returned to Goa, but under 
arrest for some intrigue against the, Governor of 
Macao, and was wrecked on the way: At Goa, 
being tried, condemned and pardoned, he was again 
arrested for debt ; and it was only after many other 
n)i.sadveiiiures and seventeen j^ears' absence that he 
reached Lisbon. During all his troubles he had 
worked at his great poem 0*' Lu'<iadns (The Lvsiacl), 
the only thing he saved when wrecked. One of the 
sights of Macao is the grotto in which he wrote. 
On publishing the work he became famous -and 
received a pension. He died in 1580. 

CAMPHOR, ^chanri; from Cinnnmomum 
cdiii ithdTu, Fr. Nees and Eberm. The habitat of 
the iree is the Nanshan range along the southern 
coa.st, especially in Fukien ; it is also found scattered 
in .Ssuch'uan, where it grows up to 3,500 ft. altitude. 
The wood is much used, especially at Canton for 
Tlre.-sing cases, as the oil contained in it renders it 
dista.steful to insects. But it is especially valued 
for its steareopten, Chamjntuil^'^, which is largely 
used in medicine, either crude and in flakes or 
refined in cakes. This is produced by destructive 
di.stillation, x.v. by chipping the trunk, root, and 
branches oi the tree and boiling the chips in a 
covered vessel lined with straw. The sublimed 
camphor condenses on the straw and is gathered in 
these impure flakes and packed in lead-lined chests. 
It is employed as a diaphoretic, carminative, 
sedative, anthelmintic, and antirheumatic remedy, 
for decayed teeth, and in shoes to cure perspiring 



feet ; also in the manufacture of fireworks and to 
pieserve clothes, although it is not altogether in 
favour for the last purpose, as it is thought to 
injure the texture of fabrics. In the North it is 
always called Ch'ao nao j|f])J{§, from Ch'ao chow in 
Kuangtung. 

Until Formosa fell into Japanese hands, that 
island was the source of almost all the camphor used 
in or exported from China. The supply, situated 
in the hills reclaimed from the savage tribes or just 
within their borders, was regarded as the property 
of the State, and camphor was declared to be a 
Government monopoly from the early days of the 
conquest of the island ; it was not until 1868 that 
traffic in the article was permitted to private dealers, 
The annual average export in the years 1865-67, 7, ICO 
piculs, was doubled in the three years 1863-1870, 
Exports were well maintained until 1830, when 
warfare and fires extinguished the trade for 
some years, after which a government monopoly was 
again established. In 1890 a demand arose for 
camphor, to be used in the manufacture of smoke- 
less powder, celluloid, fireworks, etc., and, with 
enhanced prices the Government was enabled to 
raise a considerable revenue from excise, restricting 
the trade to licensed persons. In 1891 nearly 
17,000 piculs were exported, and the industry 
seemed to promise well. Then came the loss of 
the island, with the passing of the trade into 
Japanese hands. The world's supply of camphor 
is almost entirely derived from Formosa, but, 
with State encouragement, China itself could 
undoubtedly produce a large amount. After the 
ces.«ion of Formosa, traders sought for camphor 
supplies in Fukien, where the trees grew in 
abundance in several prefectures (Kienning, Lung- 
yen, Yungchun, etc.). An official from Formosa 
obtained the sole right to collect, and taught the 
people to make camjjhor, and later on the Japanese 
sought to obtain the monopoly, but without success. 
High profits led to a reckless exploitation of the 
industry, and in 1905 there were 20 distilleries in 
Foochow, and over 11,000 piculs were exported. 
Soon, however, all the available trees were cut 
down, and the industry has now become jjrar.-tically 
extinct in Fukien. It can only be revived under 
government supervision. Efforts have been made 
to develop the camphor industry in Kiangsi, where 
camphor forests grow in Kanchow and Kian 
districts. A factory was started at Kiukiang in 
1904, and the average export is now 1,600 piculs. 
In South Hupei a syndicate holds the monopoly 
of development, a company was granted the right 
to exploit the Chekiang camphor, which is found 
in Chuch(jw, in 1903, and there is a small trade in 
Kuangsi. In the Shan States of S.W. Yiinnan 
there are immense numbers of camphor trees 
(Szi-iiKio <,'u><toinf! Bijmrt, 1900) which await 



78 



EX( YCLOPAEDIA SIN K A 



CANADIAN METHODIST 



development, and especially better transportation 
facilities. In short, the industry might be revived 
and de\ eloped to a very great extent, if State 
support were only given to it. The e.xjxjrt in 1916 
wa.'^-pcls. 2.377, value Th. 181,673. [N..S.1 

CAMPICION, Mauco Polo's name for Kan 
chou. Q" '/fl capital of Kansu. 

CAMPO, a name given to the foreign .settle- 
ment at Ningpo, being corrupted from kun;/ po, 
the local pronunciation of ^i;*!- rhininj jiri, meaning 
' north of the ri\cr.' 

CANADIAN HOLINESS MOVEMENT 
MISSION. 

IIi'(idqu(trtvr.'< : — Ottawa. 

Works in Hunan, at Ch'ang-tc -^ ^, (opened 
1910) and An/i.-<irini/,^ '^ (opened 1911). with 7 
foreign 'missionaries in 1916. 

CANADIAN METHODIST MISSION. 

IJ'-'f'/ipKirfrry : — Toronto. 

Kutercd China, 1891. 

Works in Siuch'uan. 

The first missionaries of the C'.M.M.. eight in 
number, arrived in China in the end of 1891, but 
anti-foreign riots in the Yangtze Valley prevented 
their proceeding inland till early in 1892. They 
were led by the Rev. V. ('. Haut, D.D., who had 
formerly been the Superintendent of the M.E.M. 
in Mid-China. They went in the first place to 
Chengtu, already occupied by the C'.I.M. and 
M.E.M. Kia-ting g^, 100 miles S. of Chengtu 
was opened in 1894. 

In 1895 anti-foreign riots broke out at Chengtu, 
and fpr more than twenty-four hours the mob was 
allowed by the Provincial Government (which had 
many thousands of soldiers at hand) to work its 
will on every mission in the city. Every compound 
was looted and destroyed. Both the Protestant 
and Catholic missionaries, however, were kept in 
safety in the yamens, and after ten days were sent 
off with a strong escort, reaching Shanghai in 
safety. The foreign governments whose subjects 
had been concerned brought such pressure to bear 
upon Peking that the Viceroy of Ssuch'uan was 
degraded, and indemnities were paid both to 
Protestants and Catholics. Seven months after 
their enforced flight two of the CM. missionaries 
were back ; and three months later all had returned 
tc Kia-ting or Chengtu, and re-building at once 
began. 

Two and a half years later, the work was again 
hindered through disturbances causet^ by a band 
of outlaws known as }'// vian-tzu ^|^i^, wh) 
terrorized Central Ssiich'uan for some time. 

In 1900, all the members of the Mission, in 
common with representatives of most other Societie.s, 
Protestant and Catholic, were sent down to the 
coast by Consular orders. The outburst in Ssii- 



chuan did not, however, last very long, owiiiu I . 
the firm hand of a ni w Viceroy, H.E. 1 
( H'l'N-iisuAN aifjijij . No foreigners lost :.. .. 
lives; but a few Protestant converts, and juany 
Roman Catholic ( 'hine.se were killed, and r-;- ' 
l)r()perty belonging to the (.'hriBtians was de.-' 

In 1905, two additional stations were ojj>ii."i, 
riz. Jen-shou iz '„^ and Jung hnien ^ «| ; and in 
the ne.xt decade, three more, viz. P'eng hhien JJ |^ 
Tzii-liu tsiiig gjfft^ and Lu chow ^^. In a.lditi..n 
to the above new territory a large part of S.E. 
Ssdch'uan was handed over to the C.M.M. l>v thf 
L.M.S. when it withdrew from the province. 
1909. The centre of this field was Chun, 
where the L.M.S. had begun work in 1888. .Since 
the transfer to the C.M.M. two other istation» 
have been opened, riz., Chung chow .'£. ^, and 
Fow chowffe^, 1913. 

In the Revolution of 1911 12, the niis.sionariei> 
had again to leave their stations through the dis- 
turbances, and all building was suspended for a 
year ; and the European War has once more 
hindered the work by preventing much needed 
buildings from being put up, owing to straitness 
of funds. 

T/ic CM. Mi^.<i„n /V<>x.— This, the fir!*t 
Mission Press in W. China, was erected in 1897 
at Kia-ting. In 1904, it was removed to Chengtu. 
and formally opened in the presence of the Viceroy 
in April. 1905. 

In 1914, the press turned out over two million 
books and tracts in the Chinese, Tibetan and Miao 
languages, (representing over 34.000,000 page.«). and 
650.000 pages of Engli.^h. In 1915. it turned out 
1,250,000 pages in English, and 28.000.030 pages 
in Chinese. 

In addition to printing Scriptures for the 
American Bible Society, and other relipou.-s 
lit€rature, a great deal of the output is for the 
use of the schools under the West China 
Educational Union, for the West China I'niversity, 
and for the Union Schools at Chengtu. Chinese 
institutions, such as the Po.st Office, the Salt 
Gabelle, etc., also give the Press many orders. 

I'Jdnrational work. — From 1892 to 1905. the 
educational work was limited to day-schools in 
each of the central stations ; but in 1905 one 
missionary was specially designated for ihxs^ work, 
and two schools of higher grade were at (jnce 
begun. Even during the repeated ali.'onn's of 
the foreigners, most of the schools were kept 'ipiii 
by Chinese teachers most of the time. 

The Society unites with the F.F.M..S.. 
A.B.F.M.S. and M.E.M. in the Wei<t < lum 
I'niversity, (</. r.), the Union High and Nfrm.il 
Schools, all at Chengtu; and in the Union Mi'iiilc 
(High) School at Chungking. There are prini.iry 
schools at all stations and most out-stationx, and 



79 



CANADIAN PRESBYTERIAN ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINlCA 



all the school work connects with the W. China 
Educational Union. 

After the lievolution, a very successful Young 
Men's Guild was opened at (Chungking somewhat 
on Y.M.C.A. lines, and Kia-ting and C/'hung chow 
afterwards followed with similar Institutional 
work, these efforts being largely financed by local 
Chinese. 

Mcilitfi! tvorl-. — There are dispensaries at all 
the ten stations, and hospitals at seven of them. 

The Mission has already built three General 
Hospitals at Chengtu ; the first, completed early in 
1895, was destroyed in the same year by the 
rioters ; the second was built on the same site and 
opened in 1897; and a third fine modern hospital 
was built in 1913. Another for Women was opened 
in 1915. 

At Jung hsien, the j>i'e.'ient fine building was 
put up in 1914 : and in the same year, an 
interesting e.xperiment was made, viz. union 
medical work with the Chi/ie.^c of the cifj/; the 
C.M.M. jjroviding the building, heavy furniture 
and physicians, and having charge of the religious 
side of the work, while the city has control of the 
patients, collecting fees and paying current expenses. 

77/r Wo>nan',i Mi'^cionary Society of the Home 
(,'hurch sent out its first agent with the pioneer 
j)arty in 1891, and the schools for girls, the work 
for women, and Woman's Hospitals and dispensaries 
are mainly in the hands of this auxiliary. 

Statistics of Canadian Methodist Mission for 
year ending December 31, 1915 (including Women's 
Missionary Society), 

Foreign Mi-ssionaries 168 . 

Chinese Staff 276 

( 'DiiiinMnicants 1,633 

CANADIAN PRESBYTERIAN MISSION. 

Jh'fiil(/iitirler.-< : — Toronto. 

Kntni'd Chinn, 1871. 

\\'orks in Fo)/no-<a, Xorf/i lloiion, and KiKnig- 
tiiiiij. 

Fonii(i.i/i Miy.-'ion. — The first missionary sent to 
China was the Rev. G. Jj. Mackay, who chose 
North Formosa as his sphere. For 23 years he 
was practically alone. He settled in Tamsui, and 
after a year baptized his first converts, five in 
number. For twelve years he met with bitter 
opj)osition, the climax being reached during the 
French invasion of 1884-5, when .seven of the 
largest churches were wholly or partially destroyed. 
In addition to work among Chinese, Mr. Mackay 
preached among the half-civilized tribes of the 
N.lv Coast, and the untamed barbarians of the 
mountains. He was without success among the 
latter, but the former became in the course of a 
few years, in name at least, mostly Christians. 
This hindered tlic work among the Chinese, who 
from pride of race, refu.sed a religion the despised 



Pepohoans had accejjted. The native evangelists 
were trained j)eripatetically — following the mission- 
ary in his itinerations, and learning as occasion 
served. 

After the departure of the French in 1885, 
till 1895, when Formosa was ceded to Jajjan, but 
little active opposition was shown. At the close 
of the Franco-Chinese war, the Governor-General 
paid $10,000 as compensation for the {property 
destroyed by the mobs. Better and larger churches 
were built with the indemnity, and also a Theolo- 
gical College in Tamsui, which in 1914 was moved 
to Taihoku, as a Union College for the English 
and Canadian Presbyterian Missions. Mr. Mackay 
died in 1901. In 1904 the Presbytery of North 
Formosa- -quite independent of the Canadian 
Church, — was organized, and the first pastor was 
ordained in 1906. Shortly after this date, the 
work ceased to be reported among China Missions, 
having been transferred to the Japan branch of the 
Mission. 

yVte North Honan Mission was begun in 1888, 
the fii'st workers being the Rev. J. Goforth and 
the Rev. J. Frazer Smith, M.D. and their wives. 
Some months were spent in Shantung, studying the 
language and waiting for an opportunity to enter 
Honan, and other agents having arrived in 1889, 
a beginning was made. Chang-te ^ J^ and 
Wei-hui ^jj^ had been chosen for centres, as being 
on the line of the proposed Peking-Hankow railway, 
but oflficial hostility prevented their being occupied, 
and two market towns — Ch'u W'ang, and Hsin 
Chen — both on the Wei River, were opened instead. 
Even in these quieter places, riots occasionally 
broke out. In 1894 a fine site was secured outside 
Chang-te city : and about this time a large number 
of additional missionaries arrived, and the work 
began to flourish. In 1900, however, all the 
foreigners were obliged to flee from the Boxers, 
and divided into two parties, one going north to 
Chefoo, and one southward to Hankow. The 
southern party was attacked, and some were 
seriously wounded, but all eventually reached a 
place of safety. The mission buildings were 
partially or totally wrecked, but the Christians 
were not interfered with. When the missionaries 
returned in 1901, Ch'u Wang and Hsin Chen were 
not i-e-opened, as it was found jjossible to enter 
both Wei-hui and Huai-ch'ing tM g in 19C2. 
Tao-k'ow j^ p was opened in 1908, W'u an ^ ^ 
in 1909, and Siu-wu ^i\m 1912. 

In the Revolution of 1911, Honan was one of 
the two provinces which did not go over to the 
Revolutionaries, through the influence of H.E. 
YiiAN Shih-k'ai, himself a native of Chang-te, and 
the mission work was not seriously interrupted. 

Medical work is carried on in four of the 
stations, and a line wcll-equipijcd modern hosjiital 



80 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



CANTON 



was opened in Chang-te in 1914. There are Boys' 
and Girls' Schools at three stations, and the Honan 
Theological College at Wei-huis (opened 1914). 
The higher educational work is gradually being 
developed in union with the Canadian Anglicans, 
who work in South Honan. 

The Mission is responsible for the evangel- 
ization of all Honan north of the Yellow River. 

Thv South China Miisivn was undertaken at 
the entreaty of some Chinese converts in Canada, 
natives of Kuangtung, who promised to support 
one of the missionaries sent. In response to this, 
Rev. W. R. M.\CKAY, M.A., B.I), and his wife 
went to Macao in 1902, other workers following. 

In 1907 the mission was removed to the newly 
opened Treaty port of Kong-moon on the mainland, 
the work at Macao being handed over to the 
London Missionary Society, and the American 
Presbyterian work at Kong-moon being handed 
over to the Canadians. A hospital was opened in 
1912, and a Girls' Boarding School in 1916. 

Statistics for the year ending Dec. 31, 1915. 

Foreign workers 84 

Paid Chinese assistants ... 177 
Communicants 3,215 

CANDARIN or CANDAREEN; Chinese 
^ fill, Malay koiidrm: the hundredth jiart of an 
ounce or tael, q.v. 

CANDIDA, the baptismal name of the daughter 
of Hsu Kuaxg-ch'i [q.v.). She was left a widow 
at 30, and till her death at 73 she was full of pious 
and charitable works. According to Du Halde she 
built 39 churches, printed 130 Christian books, 
established a Foundling Hospital and did something 
for the blind. She died on October 24, 1680. 

Hi<toire d'une dame chrcticnnc dc la Chine; 
Paris, 1688. 

CANGUE; Portuguese camja, a yoke 4511 chia 
\ large square wooden frame, fastened on the neck 
as punishment for smaller offences. The wearer 
has sometimes to stand in some public place and 
sometimes has to wear it day and night. It 
prevents lying down or feeding oneself. 

CAN I DAE. The dog family of the Cmnivora 
is represented in Xorth China by the following 
five species; Canis lupus tschilirnsis, the Chinese 
Wolf, in Chihli ; C. alpinus, the Wild Dog, in 
Manchuria and Kansu ; C. corsac, the Corsac Fox, 
in Inner Mongolia; Ytdyes f'<chilien.<i.<, the Chinese 
Fox, in Shansi, Shensi, Kansu, Manchuria and 
Mongolia ; and Nyctereutes procyonides', the Racoon 
Dog. in Manchuria. 

The above list is recent. For South China 
SwiNHOE reported in 1870 the Racoon Dog, from 
Fukien, Hankow and Shanghai ; Vulpe.< hoolc, the 
South-China Fox, in Amoy and, Hongkong ; V. 
linciv enter, the S. China Mountain Fox, in Fukien. 

11 



SoWEKBY : Ji'iint Rfearch upon the Mum- 
malid, etc., Journal, N.C.B.R.A.S., vol. xlvii ; 
SwiNHOE : (.'ataloijue of the Mannnfdf of China, 
P.Z.S., 1870. 

CANON OF CHANGES. See / Ching. 

CANON, BUDDHIST. See BuddhUt Canon. 

CANONIZATION, a term constantly used by 
English aiitliors writing of Chinese worthies. Being 
a purely ecclesiastical term its employment for a 
merely civil honour is rather unfortunate. 

It denotes the bestowal by edict of an honorific 
po.sthumous title. It is often granted many years 
after death. Generally with the new name there 
is also given a title of nobilify s^uch as Qi duke. 
But these are very empty, having no effect on 
descendants. 

CANOSSIENNES, 'Filles de la Charite', a 
Congregation of Roman Catholic sLsters with 
schools, orphanages, hospitals, etc., in Hankow, 
Hanchung fu (Shensi), Nanyang fu (Honan) and 
Macao. 

There are 84 Sisters altogether in China (1916). 
but the Missions de Chine does not indicate how 
many of these are Chinese. 

CANTON. The name is an imitation of the 
local pronunciation of Kuangtung JSi rfl • 'l^e 
capital of the Kuangtung Province, in lat. 23^ 7' 
10" X., long. 113°. 14' 30 ' E., on the Chu Kiang 
(jr Pearl River. From ancient legends it derive-t 
also the names among Chinese of C"ity of Rams, 
and City of Genii. It is one of the most important 
places in the Empire and is the residence of the 
Viceroy of the Two Kuang (Kuangtung and 
Kuangsi, q.v.) and of the Governor of Kuangtung. 
Up to B.C. 110, it was the capital of the kingdom 
of Nan Yiieh, which included the present Kuang 
tung, Kuangsi and part of Tonkin. 

Canton was the first Chinese port to which 
foreign trade was attracted. The Portuguese were 
the first Europeans to arrive (1516), but Arab 
traders had used the port for centuries before. 
The Dutch followed about a century later, and 
the English came in 1637. and by the end of the 
century nearly all the trade was in their hands. 
The East India Company established a factory 
there in 1684 — their monopoly terminating in 1834. 
Five years later Great Britain was at war with 
China as a consequence of the insolence and 
arrogance with which her traders and officers had 
been treated for years, and especially on account 
of the manner in which the opium trade was 
handled ; Canton was threatened with capture in 
1841, but was ransomed for $6,000,000. The war 
ended with the Treaty of Nanking, by which 
Canton and four other ports were opened to British 
trade and residence. The city still remained closed 
however till 1857, when in the Second War it was 



81 



CANTON 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



taken and held by British and French troops for 
nearly 4 years. 

In September 1883 there was a serious anti- 
foreign riot in Canton, when part of Shameen was 
burnt; in the French war of 1884, Canton was 
unmolested. There have been no serious disturb- 
ances since then, until the Eevolution, but piracy 
is always rife in the surrounding countryside. 

The foreign concessions at Canton (French and 
British) are situated on the island of Shameen, 
(q.v.). The city proper is 6 miles in circumference, 
and the whole circuit, including the suburbs, is 
about ten miles. The population is 900,000, includ- 
ing a large permanent boat-population. 

Of late years many improvements have been 
made. Electric lighting was introduced (after 
previous failure.s) in 1909 ; waterworks were opened 
in 1908, and a fine bund was completed in 1914 
after many vicissitudes. The Samshui railway 
(30 miles) was opened in 1904; the Kowloon line 
in 1911 ; and the Canton-Hankow line has now been 
carried as far as Shiukuan, 140 miles from Canton. 
The city is the centre of a net-work of waterways 
extending through a great part of the province and 
intb Kuangsi : its di.'stributing area has decreased, 
however, since the opening of the West River 
ports to steam navigation. 

The chief e.xports of Canton are silk and silk 
piece goods, tea, matting, cassia, and medicines 
Among minor exports are ginger, glass bangles, and 
fireworks, the last manufactured in and near 
Fatshan, a large city in the vicinity. Canton is 
renowned for its purely native manufactures, such 
as ivory-ware, black-wood furniture, etc., and the 
jade market is famous. In modern industry 
Canton has not yet developed to as great an 
extent as might have been expected. There are 
3 brick and cement works, 2 glass and 2 leather 
factories, 2 paper mills and a cigarette factory. 
There are, besides, numerous small enterprises, 
(silk filatures, flour mills, etc.), which in the 
aggregate make up a considerable volume of 
industry. There are oil tanks, situated on the 
western side of the river, near a new and growing 
quarter of the city. 



Net Foreign Imports 
Net Chinese ,, 

Exports 

Total Hk.Tls. 



1915 

25,872,846 

29,558,061 

48,386,288 

103,817,195 



1916 

25,045,582 

22,958,565 

61.077,491 

109,081,638 



The following is a list of British Consuls since 
the post was established at Canton in 1843. 
1843, Dec. 30, Francis Coleman JVIacgreoor, ("onsul. 
1849, Jan. 4, Dr. John Bowring, (later, Sir John), 

Consul. 
1854, Aug. 10, Ki'TiiEUioitu Au'orK, (later, Sir 

lluTHiiUiORD), Consul. 



1877, 


Nov 


9, 


1880, 


Feb. 


25, 


1886, 


Apr. 


20, 


1891, 


Apr. 


1, 


1893, 


June 


15, 


1899, 


May 


13, 


1900, 


June 


9, 


1902, 


Apr. 


5, 


1906, 


Apr. 


21, 



1858, Dec. 21, Daniel Brooke Robertson, (later. 

Sir D.\niel), Consul. 
James ]\Iongan, Consul. 
Arthur Rotch Hewlett, Con.'iul. 
Chaloner Alabaster, (later, Sir 

Chaloner), Consul. 
,, Consul-General. 

Byron Brenan, Consul. 
Benjamin Charles George Scott, 

Consul. 
,, Consul-General. 

James Scott, Consul-General. 
Robert William Mansfield, 

Consul-General. 
1909, Jan. 21, James William Jamieson, 

Cnn.'snl-Gencral. 

CANTON CHRISTIAN COLLEGE, THE, 

a non-sectarian institution, a university in all but 
name, founded chiefly through the exertions of 
the Rev. A. P. Happer, D.D. of the A. P.M. who 
became the first President in 1887. In 1893, the 
College was incorporated under the laws of the 
State of New York, and a body of trustees aj)point- 
ed. The work was carried on in rented quarters 
till 1894, when some buildings were bought, but 
they proved unsuitable. 

In 1900, the work was removed to Macao for 
safety, returning to Canton in 1904 ; and in the 
next year land was bought and building begun. 

While the College was in exile at Macao, a 
small girls' school was begun in connection with 
it ; and in 1905, after the return to Canton, a few 
girls were admitted to co-education, at the instance 
of two prominent Chinese Christians, one of whom 
is now the head of the Chinese Department and 
Dean of the Middle School. 

In 1913, a separate Woman's Department was 
opened, including a grammar and middle school, 
specially designed to provide a high-class college 
education for the girls of all the Missions in the 
province, which have about 5,000 in their schools 
of various grades. 

The College Department of the C.C.C. offers 
cour.ses in General Arts, Natural Sciences, Agricul- 
ture and Economic Sciences. It is hoped shortly 
to add a course in Medicine, there being already 
a Medical Department which runs its own dis- 
pensary, etc. (See Mcdicdl Mii<xi()ii(irij Socicti) 
ill China). 

A Dcpai'tment of Education was organized in 
1916, and a " Teachers' College " is planned for 
the near future. 

(The Agricultuial l)oj)artnient is partly sup- 
ported by the Kansas State Agriculture (.'ollege, 
and the Pennsylvania State College Mission to 
(Jhina; and Columbia University and Vassar 



EXrYPLOPAEDIA SINTTX 



CARMELITES 



College Christian Associations and other institutions 
in the U.S.A. assist in various ways). 

The largest division of the College is the 
Middle School, and there is a Primary School, 
where the boys and girls study together. 

The campus covers one hundred acres, on the 
Pearl River, about two miles below Canton city; 
it has fifteen acres in crops for the Agricultural 
Department. The chief buildings are Mahtin, 
Grant and Swasey Halls, four dormitories erected 
by Chinese friends of the College, and nine faculty 
residences. 

The President is the Rev. C. K. Edmunds, 
B.A., Ph.D., and in 1916 tlie College reported, 

Foreign Faculty 23 

Chinese Faculty 31 

Chinese assistants about ... 30 

Students 526 

Students studying in U.S.A. 76 

CANTON REGISTER, the earliest English 
j)aper in (liiim. See /'ri-s.<. 

CAPE MERCHANT, a term u.sed in books 
relating to early intercourse between England and 
the East. It seems to have been used in two 
senses, meaning a head merchant or a supercargo. 

CAPITALS. The Hsia capital was at Yang 
hsia f;% g in the modern T'ai-kang hsien, Honan. 

According to the Shu Chimj (^ifjg) the Shang 
capital, first at Po ^ (Shang-ch'iu hsien, Honan), 
was moved in B.C. 1400 to Yin J^ in the modern 
department of Yen-shih fg gf ; the name of the 
dynasty was afterwards Yin. The Shan kao ^ f^ 
of the Shu Chbuj is about the removal of the Chou 
capital from Hao ^ (in Ch'ang-an hsien) to Lo -j^. 
It was issued B.C. 1098, but the actual removal of 
■ the court was not till 769. Lo was 30 li north-east 
of Lo-yang. The later capitals were — 
Hsien-yang Jt^pf, Shensi ; Ch'in dynasty, B.C. 249. 
Ch'ang-an ^gg, (Hsian fu) ; W. Han, b.c. 200 

and Sui, a.d. 582. 
Lo-yang -^^ (^, in Honan; E. Han, a.d. 25; 

Chins, a.d. 280; T'ang, 904. 
Cbien-yeh^^^^, Kiangsu ; E. Chin :^^, a.d. 317. 
Pien-liang v1;i^, (K'ai-feng fu) ; Sung, a.d. 960. 
Lin-an pjj ^, (Hangchow) ; Sung, a.d. 1129. 
Yen-ching f^;^?, (Peking); Y'iian, a.d. 1280. 
Nanking 'jg;g\ ; Ming, a.d. 1368. 
Peking ^'fc^; Ming, a.d. 1403; Ch'ing, 1644; 

Republic^ 1911. 

CAPOOR CUTCHERY, !>on nni^-^, is the 

root of Kaempferia i/nlangn, which grows in Ssii- 
cli'uan and Fukien. The name is derived from the 
Hindustani l-afur-l:uchri or root of camphor, from 
its camphoraceous odour. It is powdered and 
mi.xed with oil and thus employed in friction and 
plasters. It is used principally as a remedy in 



toothache or as a wash in dandruff or sore on the 
head ; and to destroy lice. 

CAPSICUM. A small-fruited \.iiniy ui 
Chilli-pepper, IJu-chiao JJ];^ or Cwpnium frutfifctn*, 
is commonly cultivated as a speciality of Ssiich'uan, 
while both the long and round forms of C. unnuum 
are cultivated in many parts of China, where they 
are the most important relish used, being eaten 
in the green state, fried with vegetables. When 
ripe they are pounded in a mortar and with water 
added form a sauce. They are also roasted for 
use as a seasoning, or boiled in oil to impart to it 
their pungent flavour. Oil so treated will keep f<.r 
an indefinite period. This oil is named layu -^Jill. 
Wilson : A Naturalinl in W. Chinn. 
CARACHARA, CARACORON, forms of 
Kara-korum ('/r.) 

CARAIAN, Mauco Polo's name for Yunnan 
province. Also found as Karajan, etc. 

CARAMORAN, Marco Polo's and Odoric's 
name for the "bellow River, in Mongol Kara 
Mourrti, Black River. 

CARDAMOMS, INFERIOR, ^i^. <!. are the 
capsules or seeds of Amumum rillosuin, LocR,, or 
A. xfinthoides and the Electorea. Grains of 
Paradise is the alternative name of the latter, 
which are imported from Siam. 

Wild cardamoms ^ iz are the seeds of 
A. (iloho.oiin, Lour. The export of cardamoms in 
1916 was pels. 115, value Tls. 6,500. 

CARDS (visiting) are in China not cards but 
pieces of thin red paper about 7x5 inches, bearing 
the name and surname. On the back are often 
found small characters stating that the card may 
only be used for visiting purposes, etc., not in 
business matters. Han-lin scholars and others use 
larger cards with larger writing. 

During a period of mourning the colour is 
different in some cases ; in others a special character 
or phrase is added. 

Red paper was introduced for cards about 
a.d. 1500, white having been used before. 

Since the Revolution the foreign style of car<l 
has come much into use. 

CARMELITES, Jff^Kfr shin<j i hui; the 
Carmel of St. Joseph at Tu-se-wei is the only 
Institution of Carmelites in China. It was founded 
February 24, 1869, the Mother Marie de .Ifsus 
being the first superior and having four French 
nuns with her. She died in 1908. aft<^r 40 years 
in China, and the last of her four companions. 
Mother Do.minique du Mt. Carmel, died in 1914. 
after 45 vears in China. 

The "number of nuns is 27. of whom 21 are 
Si.sters of choir and 9 are lay-sisters (Converses). 

J. DE LA SeRVIKUE, //'-'' 

K'utniinnn, tome ii. 



(h hi ^fiyfiiin du 



83 



CARNIVORA 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



CARNIVORA. This Order is represented in 
North China by thirty-nine species and sub-species, 
belonging to four Families. See Felida, Canidcp., 
Ursida. and Mvstelida. 

CARPINI. See John de Plcmo Carpini. 

CASA BRANCA, the Portuguese name for 
the city of Ch'ien-shan gij|U, on the north of the 
inner harbour of Macao. 

CASSAY, another mediaeval form of Cansay, 
Kinsay, etc., the modern Hangchow. 

CASSINI CONVENTION, the name given to 
a secret treaty signed at St Petersburg by Li 
HuNG-CHANG and Prince Lobanov as the result 
of conferences with Count Cassini in Peking. It 
was ratified in Peking in September, 1896. 

Dr. Dudgeon, with much difficulty, obtained 
it from the Tsung-li Yamen and it was printed in 
The Xorth China Daily News of October 28, 1896. 
In the form given it is, according to (Jordier, a 
hybrid document, partly the Russo-Chinese Bank 
agreement concerning railroads in Manchuria and 
partly a short treaty signed by Li Hung-chang 
and Lobanov respecting Kiaochow, etc. 

The treaty — if there was such a treaty — gave 
permission to Russia to continue the Siberian rail- 
way, then near completion, to various points in 
Manchuria, and to guard it with Russian troops ; 
it also agreed to lease to Russia the harbour of 
Kiaochow in Shantung for a period of ten years ; 
and it gave to Russia some rights at Port Arthur 
and Ta-lien wan. 

CoRDiER : Hifitoire des Relations de la Chine, 
etc., vol. iii, p. 343. 

CASTOR OIL />/ »iii J||fl![i; Ifir.inu-^ commvnis. 
The plant, which was introduced from Tartary, is 
chic-fly cultivated on the borders of fields, partly 
to prevent cattle straying into them and partly 
from considerations of economy. The crushed 
seeds are used in ("hinese medicine as an outward 
application in a large rmmber of diseases, combined 
with the oil, or the pulp is taken internally. The 
oil. strange to say, was not used especially in 
medicine apart from its pulp; its special use is 
for mixing the colours for Chinese seals. 

CATS tffl mao. Rats destroy silkworms, but 
cats keep the rats away ; hence the superstition 
that cats are protectors of silkworms, the picture 
of a cat ( gjfiu ts'an mao, silkworm-cat), stuck on 
a wall, being powerful to ward off harm from the 
worms. 

Cats are also credited with a general power 
to put evil spirits to flight — perhaps because of 
their being able to see in the dusk. It is said 
that in some parts, worship is paid to the cat- 
spirit. 

DoRE, Jfrrhirr/n." fur lis Superstitinti.", p. 472. 
Dennys, Folklore. 



CATALAN ATLAS. This is a manuscript 
of the date 1375, from the library of the French 
king Charles V. It is now in the Mazarin 
Gallery of the Bibliotheque Nationale. It con- 
sists of six woodfen plates each covered with 
parchment on both sides, on which is traced the 
map, coloured and illuminated in gold and silver. 
The lettering is in the Catalan language. China 
(Cathay) is very well defined, and Cordier has 
made a valuable study of this portion of the 
Atlas. 

Cordier : L'Extrtme Orient dans I' Atlas 
Catalan, etc., (in 'Bulletin de Geographic histori- 
que et descriptive,' 1895). 

CATCHPOLE, ALLEN, The first president 
in China of the East India Company, and King's 
Minister appointed by William III. He does not 
seem to have used his diplomatic powers but 
busied himself as President. He had too many 
, difficulties in Chusan and in 1703 sailed away to 
Pulo Condor, an island oft' Cochin China. For a 
year or two there was an effort to develope Pulo 
Condor as a trading centre, but the effort ceased 
when a firmer foothold had been obtained in 
Canton. 

Catchpole left England in 1700 and the last 
mention that is made of him is in 1703. See Pre- 
sident in China. 

Eames : The English in China. 

CATHAN, a mediaeval name for China, 
connected with Khitan as Cathay with Khitai. 

CATHAY, a form of the name by which 
China is known in Central Asia. It is derived 
from the race called Khitans who occupied the 
Sungari basin and established the Liao dynasty 
in China (a.d. 937-980). Other forms are Khata, 
Khitai, and Kitai, which last is used in Russia, 
whose acquaintance with China was through 
Central Asia. 

CATHCART, CHARLES Colonel, sent by the 
British Government as special envoy to Peking in 
1787. He died in the Straits of Sunda on his 
way out. A tablet to his memory stands outside 
the Cathedral at Shanghai. 

CATTANEO, LAZARUS |R An- ^? , was born 
near Genoa in 1560 and entered the Society of 
Jesus in 1581. He spent seven years in India 
before being called to Macao, and after studying 
Chinese passed on to Chao chou, 1594. He was 
Ricci's companion in his first journey to Peking, 
and was sent to Macao to report thereon. After 
various charges, including that of Visitor to Malac- 
ca, he was accused of conspiracy against the Em- 
pire, but his innocence being established he return- 
ed to Nanking. Two years later the Grand 
Councillor {Kdlao) Paul Hsii, retiring to Shang- 
hai because of his father's death, invited Pere 



84 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



CERTHIIDAE 



Cattaneo to Shanghai. There Cattaneo founded 
a flourishing church, and in 1610 founded also the 
church at Hangchow, and in 1620 that at Kia- 
^'"g M-'/S.- He spent his last years at Hangchow 
and died there in 1640. 

Havuet : La Stele c/irctietme de Singnn-fvu 
ii, p. 11, note. 

CATTY, (Malay, Rati), a weight called chin 
fx in China, equal to 1^ Ib.s. a\ cirdupois. 

CAVES OF THOUSAND BUDDHAS ^'[7„M 
c/i'kn Fo tuiuj, are caves near Tun-huang in Kansu. 
They contained a library of about 15,000 scrolls in 
Chinese, Tibetan, Mongol and Jhahnii script, the 
latest dating from a.d. 976-997. Amongst them is 
a Nestorian tract and a Manichean manuscript. 
The caves were walled up in 1036 and were 
examined by Pelliot in 1908, who acquired for 
the French government the more valiiable portion 
of the library. 

Pelliot : V ne Blhliotlilque Mr.ditvah; 
B.E.i^E.O., vol. viii, p. 501. 

CELADON, called in Chinese Lung-ch'uan yao 
nt & %> "1' Ch'ing tz'u 'h' 5.^, ^ famous green por- 
celain from Chekiang. That produced in the Sung 
period was bright grass-green ; later it became a 
greyish green, or sea-green. 

BusHELL : Chinese. Art. 

CELESTIAL EMPIRE. A common term for 
China among foreigners ; probably a translation of 
^ Wi t'ieti ch'ao, heavenly dynasty, which is 
common in Chinese. 

The poetical use of t'ien as an adjective is, 
however, no excuse for the absurd use of 
'celestial' as a noun to denote a Chinese, — in such 
exjiressions as ' bright celestials,' etc. 

CELESTIAL EMPIRE, THE, a weekly 
Shanghai journal founded in 1874 by Pedro 
Loureiro and first edited by F. H. Balfour. It 
is now the weekly issue of The Shanghai Mercury. 

CEMENT is manufactured at Green Island, 
Hongkong, by the Chee Hsin Co., (established in 
1906) ; at Tangshan near Chinwangtao, capacity 
600,000 barrels yearly ; and by the Onoda Cement 
Co., near Dairen, capacity 150,000 barrels yearly. 
There are other works, e.j. at Tayeh, Canton, etc., 
but of smaller capacity. The export from China 
in 1916 was pels. 239,328, value Tls. 185.733 ; while 
the import amounted to Tls. 964,104. 

CENSORS (m^ !/i< •«/"■'', etc.). A body of 56, 
under two presidents, stationed in various districts 
throughout the eighteen provinces. Their duty 
was to report to the throne on all subjects connected 
with the welfare of the people and the conduct of 
government. They were hence called, among other 
names, Jpg*^ (erh nui kiian, eyes and ears officials). 
They were at liberty to censure the sovereign for 
anything blameworthy they saw in his conduct or 



government, without ri.sk „f being put to death, 
though they miglit be degraded. The whole body, 
the Censorate or Court of Censors, with presidents, 
etc., was called ^[3?^^^ Tu ch'a Yuan or (literary) 

'^A'a ^'" *'"'' '^'■"'• 

The Censorate is an ancient institution, being 
known in the third century b.c. Some modifications 
of it as above described were made in 1906, the 

two presidents being reduced to one. 

CENTURION, the first foreign ship of war 
recorded in Chinese waters. It was British, under 
Commodore Anson, and arrived in November, 1741. 
By great firmness Anson succeeded in getting to 
Canton to refit. Later he captured a Spanish ship 
and took her into the Canton river. The Cmturion't 
crew helped to extinguish a great fire in the city, 
and Anson was subsequently admitted to a friendly 
interview with the viceroy, November 30, 1742, but 
could obtain no benefits for traders. 

AuBER : China, an (hittiin-, p. 163; .Mouse: 
InfenidtioiKil Jiilatii>n.<. 

CERNUSCHI, HENRI, born at Milan in 
1821, died at Mentone in 1896. He was of a 
wealthy family and a politician. He was natur- 
alized in France and after the Franco-German war 
he travelled to the Far East, reaching Japan in 
the midst of the Revolution. At such a time, 
and having both wealth and taste, he was able 
to make a splendid collection of works of art. 
He crossed fb China and bought largely there 
also. He gave this magnificent collection to Paris 
in 1882. The Cernuschi Museum is at the corner 
of the Pare Monceau and the Avenue Velasquez. 

CERTHIIDAE, a family comprising the 
Cveepeis and Wiens. Cirthia fiiiniliari.<, the common 
Tree Creeper, occurs in Manchuria and Siberia and 
is rare in China Proper, never being seen south of 
Peking. C. hintalayana is the Tree-Creeper of the 
Himalayas and Sikkim, not rare in the hills of 
\\. Ssuch'uan and Mu-p'in ; it comes down to the 
plains for the winter. Tichodroma muraria, tKe 
Wall-Creeper, with red wings, is only seen in the 
winter ; it spends the summer in rocky parts of 
high mountains, hunting the spiders which are its 
chief food. It has been taken in Chihli, Kiangsu, 
Shensi, Mu-p'in, Kiangsi and Fukieh. Anorthuro 
fumitjala, the Japanese Wren, occurs in the northern 
provinces, but is not common; it is also found in 
Formosa. .-1. ntpalensii, the Nepal Wren, is not 
uncommon during the cold season in western 
Ssuch'uan. /'mii'pi/i/a .^luamiitn, the Scaly-brea.xteil 
Wren, is found in western China but is very rare. 
P. -pusilla, the Brown Wren, is found in N.W. 
Fukien. /*. forrno-sava occurs in Formosa. 
Spelaeornis trofjlod ijtoides belongs to W. S.'^Qch'uan 
and Mu-p'in. It lives in deep woods on the high 
mountains. S. halsueti, a very rare species, is 



85 



CERVID/E 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



found in Shensi. Elachura punctata has been taken 
in N.W. Fukien. 

David et Oustalet : Lex Oixeovx de la Chine. 

CERVID/E. There are eleven species of the 
deer family in North China. They are the follow- 
ing, their distribution being also given. In the 
present state of knowledge and nomenclature it is 
not possible to give so clear a list for the rest of 
(.'hina. 

('ervti.< xanthapyf/u.^, Manchuria, r'hihli, Shen- 
si; C. kanxuem^h, Kansu, Hsinchiang ; ('. inantcfiu- 
ricn-o, Manchuria ; C rh/hoivakii, Eastern Man- 
churia ; C. mandarin)/.", Chihli, W. Shensi; Cap- 
reahis pt/(/nrffii.i, Manchuria; ('. hedfordi, Chihli, 
Shansi. Shensi; C meUin(>ti-<, Kansu; Moschus 
filiiririif, Manchuria, ("hihli, Shansi; M. f^i/anicns, 
Kansu, Ssuch'uan, Tibetan Border; EJaplruni.^ 
dovidianus, Chihli. See Klaphurc; Sita. 

SowERBY : Journal, N.C.B.R.A.S., vol. xlvii ; 
MfMOiRES runvcrnant Vhi^toire nattncUe, etc., 
Shanghai. 

CHAIRS OF CHINESE have been established 
in many Western Universities. That at Cambridge 
was founded in 1888. Sir Thomas Wade was the 
first professor, succeeded in 1897 by the present 
holder. Prof. H. A. Giles. When Dr. Legge 
retired from missionary work in Hongkong a sum 
was subscribed by friends to endow a Chair of 
Chinese at 0.\ford, with the condition that he 
should be the first Professor (1875). He was 
succeeded by Prof. Bullock, 1898. There is now 
no (.'hair at O.xford. There ha.s long been a Chair 
at King's College, London, where Samuel Fearon 
was appointed in 1847 and Summers in 1853 and 
mere recently R. K. Douglas and G. Owen. There 
was another at University College, London, where 
Samuel Kidd taught and later Lacouperie and 
George Brown in 1901. A Chinese Chair is to be 
established at the new Oriental School in London. 

Owen's College, Manche.ster has a Chair of 
Chinese, occupied by Prof. E. H. Parkkr. 

In The United States there are or have been 
several such chairs ; at Yale, where S. W. Williams 
taught ; at Berkeley, California, where Dr. John 
Fkvicr is Professor; and at (,'olumbia University, 
New York, (inaugurated by Prof. H. A. Giles). 
to which Dr. F. Hirth was appointed in 1902. 

.'\t the Petrograd University Ivanov and 
Alkxeiev are Professors of Chinese ; and there is 
an Oriental Institute at Vladivostok. M. Edouard 
("havannes is at the College de France in Paris; M. 
VissiERE at r/'Jrole des Lani/ves (hientrdis in Paris ; 
and M. Courant at Lyons. At Leyden Gustave 
ScHLEGEL was profcssor, and at his death was 
succeeded by J. M. de Groot (now Professor in 
Berlin). Since his resignation, the Chair has been 
vacant. 



There are Chairs in Berlin (Forke and de 
Groot), in Hamburg (Franke) and in Vienna 

(KiiHNERT). 

In Hanoi, a Chinese professorship was founded 
in 1901 for Professor Pelliot (now of the College 
de France in Paris), who was succeeded in 1911 by 
n. Maspero. 

CHAIR, SEDAN i^^f chiao tzil. The common 
and ancient means of conveyance, especially in 
cities, and also on country journeys for those who 
could afford it. There were definite rules with 
regard to the use of chairs. Thus, none but the 
Emperor might have sixteen bearers; a prince of 
the blood had eight ; the highest provincial officials 
might also use eight; all other officials down to 
the actual (not expectant) chih-hsien or sub-prefect 
might have four. Also the chairs of officials down 
to the Commissioners of Justice, Finance and Salt 
were green ; chairs for lower ranks were blue. A 
TuD-t'ai's chair should be blue but he usually had 
a green one because af his brevet rank. 

Foreign Consuls used green chairs as being by 
treaty of equal rank with Tao-t'ais. 

CHALA W^ (rha Ian) the proper meaning 
being a palisade, such as is found across the streets 
of a Chinese city at night. It is known to 
foreigners as the name of the Portuguese cemetery 
at Peking. The name is an abridgement of 
T'eng kung cha Ian f|5^|§f^. The Gate of T'enk 
the EvmirJi. T'eng was a powerful eunuch of 
the middle of the sixteenth century. The history 
of the property is somewhat obscure. It was 
given by Wan Li to the Jesuit missionaries for a 
burial place for P. Ricci in 1610. The place has 
since been enlarged by purchases, and there is 
now there the Provincial House of the Lazarist 
Mission and a Provincial House of the Marists. 
In the cemetery there are eighty-eight graves, 
including those of Ricci, Longobardi, Schall, 
Verbiest and other famous missionaries. Besides 
the name Chala the name Shih men ^P*! stone gates 
is commonly used. The position of the property 
is on the west of Pe'King, about three-quarters of 
a mile outside the 1^'ing-tzu Men. 

Favier : Peling ; Bulletin Catholique de 
Pekin, 1915, p. 274. 

CHALFANT, FRANK HERRING, a mis- 
sionary of the American Presbyterian Mission, 
North. He was born in 1862 in Pennsylvania, and 
died at Pittsburg U.S.A. in 1914. "in 1906 he 
published Ancient Chinese Writing, in which he 
was the first to announce the important find of 
inscribed bones in Honan, of which he and Mr. 
CouLiNG were the first foreign collectors. (See 
Oracle bones). In the volume Sharitung edited by 
Forsyth, he wrote a valuable paper on Chinese 
Coins, whicj;i has also been issued separately. At 



86 



EN( Yi LOl'AEDIA SINTCA 



CHANG CHIEN 



his death he left a work containing drawings of 
all tlie oracle-bones known, with identification of 
characters as far as possible, but it has not yet 

found a publi.-^lKM-. 

CHALMERS, JOHN, was burn in Scotland 
in 1825, and graduated at Aberdeen University. 
He came to Hongkong in 1852 for the London 
Missionary Society. He succeeded Dr. Licgoe in 
charge of the Hongkong Mission, prepared a 
translation of the Bible in Wenli, and received 
the honorary degree of D.D. from his alma mater 
\n 1878. His chief writings are Thi' Oriijin of the. 
Vhiucic, 1865, Spcculationx of the 'Old Philo.^ophcr,' 
1868, .1 Pocl-et Dictionary of the Canton Dialect, 
1872, The C'onci.ie Kunghi-i Dictionary, 1877, and 
structure of Chinese Character.^, 1882. He also 
did important work in revising the Delegates' 
Version. He died in 1900. 

China Bei'irw, vol. .wiv. 

CHAM, a corruption of Khan. " The great 
(ham of Tai'tary" (meaning Chenghis Khan) i.s 
found in English literature. 

CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE. 

FOREIGN. The first organized in China wa.s 
that at Canton, established by the British Merchants 
on August 25, 1834, to ensure unity of action at the 
time when Lord Napier was trying to force open the 
door in China. A General Chamber was formed in 
November, 1836. It was dissolved in April, 1839, 
at the time when the opium was being surrendered, 
while the foreign community was under forcible 
detention and while the bond was being forced on 
them never to introduce opium again. The 
Chamber dissolved "until the restoration of our 
"trade, the liberty of egress from Canton . . . 
"enables the Chamber to serve the community in 
"a legitimate manner." 

The Hongkong Chamber held its first meeting 
on May 29, 1861, sixty-two firms being original 
subscribers. From the beginning it has frequently 
communicated directly with the Minister in Peking, 
and it rejected the suggestion of a consul some 
years ago that all communications should be with 
the Colonial Government. 

In 1870 it gave $2,000 towards the Moss com- 
mercial expedition up the West River. In January 
1884 it received the privilege of electing one 
member for the Legislative Council ; it elected Mr. 
T. Jackson of the Hongkong and Shanghai Bank. 

Other Chambers are those at Chefoo, Changsha, 
Foochow, Hankow, Newchwang, Swatow and 
Tientsin. The Shanghai Chamber, British till 1863, 
then became General. See Briti.<h Chamber of 
Com merce, Sha/ujhai. 

CHINESE. When Yu.\n Shih-k'ai was 
Governor of Shantung he proposed the establish- 
ment of a Chamber of Commerce for the province. 



and this was carried out ; the regulations may be 
found in the Kiaochow Cinlums Dtcenuial Itcport 
for the period 1892 1901, page 128. In the last 
years of the Ch'ing dynasty, when reform was in 
the air, the movement for the establishment of 
( 'hambers of Commerce spread all over the country. 
In Kuangtung the Chamber at Canton has affiliated 
Chambers at many important towns, e.ij. at Sainain 
(established 1909) and in the Kowloon district, from 
whose members two representatives are selected for 
the Provincial Assembly. These Chambers are, in 
Kuangtung, as elsewhere, powerful factors in the 
development of trade. They have in some districts 
very considerable powers; thus at Chefoo they 
control the cash shops ; that at Shasi took over 
the government during the revolutionary trouble.^ 
in 1911, kept the strictest order, regulated the price 
of lice, hel{)ed the destitute and carried out famine 
relief works. 

C HAM DO ; the Eastern division of Tibet J«>K^ 
also called ^ K'ang, from which geograj)hers 
have made Kham and Chamdo. 

CHAMPA, a Kingdom of some importance 
from the third century till the end of the fifteenth. 
It was the southern portion of the present Annam, 
and, like Annam, was probably a littoral Kingdom. 

From first to last Hinduism of the 'Sivaite 
type was its national religion but it also received 
Buddhism from China, and one of its Kings was 
an ardent Buddhist. I Ching, the Chinese 
Buddhist pilgrim, visited the country, and writes 
of it as Lin I )^ g . The Cham language was 
not used for literary purposes but Sanskrit. There 
are still about 130,000 Chams ; those in Cambodja 
are all Mohammedans ; those in Annam still retain 
some traces of Hinduism. 

Masi'erg : Le Hoyaume tie Champa (T'oung- 
pao, 1910-12). 

CHAMPLEVE. A kind of enamel-work, 
similar to cloisonne. See EnameJ. 

CH'AN J^<. in Japanese Zen, the Conteniplati\c 
school of Buddhism founded bv Bodhidharma, 
iq.v.) Practically all monastic Buddhism in China 
belonLTs to this scluiol. See Jiiiililhi.it Schl>lll^. 

CHAN BALECH, a name found in the 
('atalan Atlas. See Khanlialiq. 

CHANCJO, in the Catalan Atlas {q.v.) for 
Kan chou, in Kansu. 

CHANG CH'IEN ?g 5S a minister of Wc Ti 
of the Han dynasty, was sent, about B.C. 138, on 
a mission to the Yiieh-chi ^ it who had con- 
quered Bactria, to get their help against the 
Hsiung-nu. On the way. he was captured by the 
Hsiung-nu and kept in captivity for over ten 
years. He then escaped and reached Bactria. 
Failing to persuade the Yiieh-chi, after staying 
with them for a year he returned to China, being 



87 



CHANG CHIH TUNG 



EXCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



again captured by the Hsiu'ng-nu, and again, 
after a year of captivity, making his escape. 
He had started with one hundred followers, • f 
whom onlv one returned. He brought back much 
information about the countries on the Jaxartes 
and the Oxus, and he is said to have introduced 
into China the cultivation of the grape and the 
making of wine, as well as hemp and the walnut. 
He was sent again to negotiate treaties with the 
various kingdoms of the west, and by B.C. 115 had 
opened up regular intercourse with thirty-six 
states. He was made marquis for his services. 
An interesting legend about him is given in Giles. 

Giles : Chinese Biographical Dictionary; 
Yule : Cathay and the Way Thither. 

CHANG CHIH TUNG ^-^tM a native of 
(hilili, born in 1835. He became Governor of 
Shansi in 1882. In 1884 he became Viceroy of the 
Liang Kuang, and in 1889 of Hu Kuang to carry 
out his proposal of a railway from Hankow to 
Peking. At Hanyang he started ironworks, cotton 
factories and coal mining. In 1894 he became 
Viceroy of the Liang Kiang. Later he was made 
Grand Secretary and appointed to the Grand 
Council. 

At the end of 1898 he produced a work which 
made a great stir, the Wl^M ''^'"on hsiieh p'ien. 
This has been translated by P. Tobak, s.j., (Var. 
Sin. with text), and under the title Learn by Dr. 
S. I. WooDBRiDGE. It is a powerful plea for reform 
in Chinese Education. 

He was regarded by foreigners as an hone.st 
j)atriot and he was noted for fine scholarship. He 
died in 1909 and was canonised as^|g Wen Hsiang. 

CHANGCHUN :^# Ch'ang Ch'un, a town on 
the South Manchurian Railway at its junction 
with the Chinese Eastern Railway. 

There is also a line from this place to Kirin. 
The town comprises a Japanese Railway town, a 
Russian Railway town, a foreign Settlement and 
a native town. It was formerly called K'uan 
Ch'6iig t/.u % i^c ^. 

CHANGES, BOOK OF, or CANON OF. 

.See / Chiiuj. 

CH-ANG PAI SHAN :g S Hi It also has 
the name Lao-pai f<han ^ Q jlj A mountain in 
Manchuria. Through James' book it is commonly 
known as the Long White Mountain. Ch'ang ^ 
however, means long either in time or space, and 
is used here adverbiallv — the ever-white or con- 
stantly-white mountain. The whiteness is not 
due to snow, but to a light-coloured gravel and 
to the greyness of limestone rock. The mountain 
was supposed to be sacred to the Manchu ruling 
family, since it was there that their great 
ancestor AisiN Gioro. (not Ndrhachu as Hosie 
seems to say) was miraculously begotten. There 



is much legend connected with it. Its height is 
about 8,000 feec. It lies in Kirin province, 
some 200 miles east of Mukden, and the rivers 
Sungari, Yalu and Tumen have their origin there. 

James : The Long White Mountain; Hosie : 
Manchuria. 

CHANGS HA ^-fj} long sa7ids, the capital of 
Hunan, on the right bank oi the Siang river, about 
100 miles from the Yangtze, in lat. 20°.,10' N. and 
long. 113° 1' E. 

The name first occurs as the 36th and last of 
the commanderies into which Ch'ix Shih Hr.\NG 
Ti divided his empire. Liu K.\o Tsr, the founder 
of the Han dynasty changed the title and Kingdom 
of his military companion, Wu Jui, from King of 
Hengshan to King of Changsha in 202 B.C. Jci died 
seven months later, but five of his descendants 
ruled after him, until in 157, the last died without 
posterity. In 155 Liu Fa, the sixth son of the 
Emperor, Chixg Ti, succeeded to the title as Ting 
Wang, and arrived in Changsha with Chia I, one 
of the foremost writers and scatesmen of the day. 
There are still memorial temples to both, that to 
Chia I, containing a relic. Ting Wang's son died 
in 101, and the tide became extinct. 

Scarcely anything of national importance occurs 
in later days till we come to the T'ai P'ing siege 
in 1852. Changsha never forgets that she was in- 
violate through a siege of ninety days during which 
the Eastern Prince, who seems to have been the 
ablest soldier in the rebel ranks, was killed by a 
ball from a cannon which was scill worshipped 
after the Republic began. (Iconoclastic soldiers 
have thrown it down from its stand and ii is now 
lying exposed and neglected). 

Changsha was opened as a treaty pore by the 
China-.Japan treaty of 1903 ; the Customs House 
started on July 1st, 1904 ; a Japanese Consul arrived 
in November. A British Consul came the next 
year. The German and American consulates were 
not opened till the second decade of the century. 

The main line from Canton to Wuchang runs 
round the east wall. 

In 1910, there were serious riots. The Gover- 
nor's yamen was set on fire. Most of the foreign 
buildings and many of the government schools were 
burnt. 

There are antimony refining furnaces and other 
metals are worked. The low water in winter 
interferes with the foreign steamer trade. 

The population is estimated at 250,000 to 
300,000. 

1915 1916 

Net Foreign Imports 10.255,902 9,951,696 

Net Chinese „ 3,449,756 2.943.213 

Exports 12,883.676 15.761.316 

Total Hk.Tls. ... 26,589,334 28,656,225 



88 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



CHAVANNES 



CHANG TAO LING 5^131^, often vulgarly 
spoken of by foreigners as the first Taoist Pope. 
He was born in a.d. 34, probably at Tien-mu 
shan in Chekiang, and was descended from Chang 
Liang the minister of Liu Pang, founder of the 
Han dynasty. He devoted his life to study, 
especially to alchemy, magic and the search for the 
Elixir vitae. He was very successful, became 
young again at 60, received from Lao Tzu himself 
a book of talismans, and at 123 years of age 
ascended to heaven. He left his secrets to his 
son. He may be considered the founder of Taoism 
as a system of magic, charms and talismans, a 
system by which the ignorant tao s/iih have ever 
since been able to live at the expense of a more 
ignorant laity. The Confucian writers early dub- 
bed him ' Rice thief.' The Sung emperor Cv.ks 
TscNG gave to Chang Tao-lixg and his descendants 
the title of True Princes S^ ^. As to the title now 
enjoyed by his successors see Master of Heaven. 

DoRc : Becherches sur les superstitions : tome 
ix. p. 525; Mayers : Chinese Reader's Manual. 

CHAN KUO |Ji@. See Fighting State.^ 
Period. 

CHAN KUO TS'E|g,gjg Documents of fight- 
ing States, a historical work about the 'Fighting 
States Period' (q-v-)- The word ts'e is also 
translated stratagems or counsels. The author is 
not known, but the work was revised and 
rearranged in the Han dynasty by Liu Hsiang. 
A well-known edition is Chan Jcuo ts'e chiao chu 
WWiiivl^i^ 'jy ^^'^ Shih tag of the Yiian dynasty. 

Wylie : Xotes on Chinese Literature, p. 25. 

CHAO PING M^ The ninth and last 
Emperor of the Sung dynasty. In 1278, the 
Emperor Chad Shih having died, the Sung cause 
was nearly abandoned as hopeless, but Li Hsiu-FU 
proclaimed Chad Shih's youngest son as Emperor 
and continued the resistance to the Mongols. 
Early in 1279, a final disastrous defeat was 
suffered, and Li Hsiu-fu leapt into the sea with 
Chao Ping on his back, and the Sung dynasty 
came to an end. 

CHAO, STATE OF, m one of the Three 
T.sin ^, or the three States into which Tsin was 
divided in B.C. 451, the others being Wei ^, and 
Han ^. The imperial recognition of it took place 
in B.C. 403. The ruling family was of the same 
ancestry as that of C'h'in, ^ and Ch'in Shih Huang 
Ti was later born to a Chao man by a Chao mother 
in the Chao State. It was one of the Si;c Martial 
States generally leagued against Ch'in, and it pro- 
duced one of the Four Leaders who delayed Ch'in's 
final conquest of the Empire. Its capital was in 
western Chihli. Like C'h'in it was so situated as 
to absorb Turko-Tartar tribes, and to adopt a 
good deal of Tartar custom. For example, the 

12 



king \Vu Ling wore Tartar costume, and intro- 
duced cavalry into his army. It had many great 
wars with neighbouring Slates, but it fought 
together with them against the common enemy 
Ch'in. It was finally destroyed by Ch'in in 
B.C. 222. 

TsCHEPE : Hi.<toire ties Trois Roynume<, Han, 
Wei et Tchao; Hirth : The Ancient Hitttonj of 
Ch ina. 

CHAO T'0;g5f'{;, a Chinese general engaged in 
the conquest of Yiieh (qv.) by Ch'in Shih 
HuANG-Ti. On the downfall of the dynasty he set 
himself up as: King of Southern Yiieh, e.xtending 
his sway to the present Kuangsi. He was a 
faithful vassal of the Han dynasty when it arose, 
till he died in B.C. 215, leaving his throne to his 
grandson. The Han dynasty, when firmly 
established, soon reconquered the country, and 
poured in military colonists. 

CHAPDELAINE, AUGUSTE, an Abbe of 

the Mi-'-^iims Etramji res working in Kuang.si. 
He was born at La Rochelle on January 6, 1814, 
and reached China in 1852; and was most brutally 
tortured and martyred at Si-lin ® i^ Februarv 29, 
1856. 

This murder was the pretext for France join 
ing with England in the Second War. 

CoRDiER : L 'Expedition de Chine, 1857-58; 
Annales de la Propagation de la Foi, 1855, p. 461. 

CHATS. See S'lxirolinne. 

CHAO JU KUA S tic S. a member of the 
imperial family of the Sung dynasty, who was 
Superintendent of Customs at the busy port of 
Ch'iian-chou in Fukien, where he came into con- 
tact with merchants and goods from Arabia, Persia, 
India, etc. He collected a quantity of informa- 
tion which he published in a work Chu fan chih 
13 ^ ^ 'Re'~ords of Foreign Nations', (or 'of 
Barbarians'). It has been translated and annotat- 

I ed by Hirth and Rockhill : Chau Ju-kua; St. 

] Petersburg, 1911. 

CHAVANNES, EDOUARD, one of the first 
of living sinologues, was born at Lyons on October 
5, 1865. Since 1893 he has been Professor in the 
College de France, and, since 1903, a Membre de 
rinstitut. 

He has published some most valuable works ; 
the principal are a translation into French of Ssu-ma 
Ch'ien, Les Mi'moires historiques de Seina Tsien, 
traduits et annotes, (5 vols., 1895-1905); Documents 
sur les Tou-Liue (Tuics) occidentaux, (1903) ; Le 
T'ai chan, essai de monographir d'un cidtc c/' 
(1910); Cing cents Cnnte.i ct Apologues exln:,' 
Tripitaha chinois, (3 vols., 1910-1911); Mi^oiun 
Archeologique dans la Chine scptentrijnalc, (q.v.) ; 
besides many articles in the T'oungpao, the Journal 



80 



CHEFOO 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



Asiatique, the Memoires concernant I'Asie Orientale 
and Ars Asiatica. 

CHEFOO ^^, the foreigners' name for a 
Treaty Port in Shantung; the proper name of 
Yen-t'ai jtj^ "n being always used by the Chinese. 
Chefoo is a purely Chinese village on the other 
side of the bay. 

The port is in lat. 37° 33' 20" N. and 
long. 121° 25' 2 " E. It was opened to foreign 
trade in 1858, by the Tientsin Treaty. There is 
no Settlement or Concession, but there is a district 
recognised as the foreign quarter, which is well look- 
ed after by a committee of foreigners which collects 
voluntary contributions for the purpose. The port 
lacks a harbour and breakwater, but there is hope 
that the want will soon be supplied through co- 
operation with the Chinese. Work on the break- 
water began on September 1, 1915. (See ('hefoo 
Hurbdur, etc.) It also needs and hopes for railway 
communication with the interior. The chief trade 
is in beancake, vermicelli, groundnuts and silks ; 
there is also a good business done in pongee, hair- 
nets, lace and fruits ; the last being due to the 
Rev. Dr. Nevitjs, who, thirty years ago, grafted 
foreign fruits and gave instruction to the Chinese 
in fruit-growing. 

The port ships about one hundred thousjfnd 
coolies to Siberia every year. In 1893 a wine- 
growing company was started on the neighbouring 
hills by some Singapore Chinese, and the produce 
is of excellent quality, but is not on the open 
market. This, the only experiment in viticulture 
in China, is described in the Chefoo Chistoms 
licjjort for 1908. The population is 54,000. 

1915 1916 

Net Foreign Imports ... 6,900,571 6,733,290 
Net Chinese „ ... 9,831.128 7,857,570 

Exports 22.613,560 20,486,972 

Total nk.Tl.«. ... 39,345,259 35,077,832 

CHEFOO AGREEMENT. This resulted from 
the murder of Mahgary in Yunnan. An indemnity 
was agreed on and certain articles aimed at opening 
the way between India and Yunnan. Ichang, 
Wuhu, Wenchow and Pakhoi were opened to ti'ade. 
It was agreed that Briti.sh importers of opium must 
ktep it in bond in hulks or warehouse till selling 
time, when the importer pays the duty and the 
buyer the likin tax. 

The Agreement was signed by Sir Thomas 
Wade and Li Hung chang at Chefoo, September 
13, 1876. 

By an Additional Article signed at Peking, 
March 31, 1890, Chungking was opened as a Treaty 
Port. 

It is frequently spoken of as the Chefoo 
Convention. 

Hertslet : Chinese Treaties. 



CHEFOO CONVENTION. See Chefoo 
Agreement. 

CHEFOO HARBOUR IMPROVEMENT. 

The anchorage at Chefoo is exposed to heavy N.E. 
and N.W. winds ; and as all cargo is dependent on 
lighters the loss to the port has been heavy, since 
there are from 34 to 54 days per annum on which 
loading and unloading are imjDOSsible. 

A scheme for a breakwater was first taken up 
seriously by the Chamber of Commerce after 1900 ; 
but it was not till May, 1913, that the "Chefoo 
Harbour Improvement Commission" was created, 
consisting of the Superintendent of Customs as 
Chairman, a representative of the Consular body, 
the Commissioner of Customs and the Chairmen of 
foreign and Chinese Chambers of Commerce. 

It was decided to build a breakwater to the 
east and a mole westward, running N.E., enclosing 
about 250 acres, to be dredged partly to 20 and 
partly to 25 feet. 

The estimated cost was Hk.Tls. 2,500,000. 
The contract was obtained by tender by the 
Netherlands Harbour Works Company, and work 
was begun in August, 1915. The engineer is Mr. 
0. C. A. VAN LiDTH DE Jeude, C.E., who has 
written a Report (Kelly & Walsh, 1916). 

See Conservancy Work. 

CHEFOO INDUGTRIAL MISSION, THE, 

was founded in 1895 by Mr. and Mrs. James 
McMuLLAN, previously of the C.I.M. The making 
of pillow lace had been taught to a few Chinese in 
1894 by a lady of the A. P. Mission, but Mrs. 
McMuLLAN was the virtual beginner of the Industry 
as it exists to-day. In 1895 she opened the Industri- 
al Mission School, in which the pupils gave part 
of their time to making lace ; and Mr. jNIcMullan 
oj)ened a business for exporting the lace, and other 
products of Shantung, the manufacture of pongee 
being afterwards taken up on a large scale, and 
other industries, such as drawn-thread work, 
embroidery, hair-nets, etc. 

The work was carried on in rented premises 
till 1902, when premises were built outside Chefoo. 
In the same year a church was formed. 

An orphanage was begun in January, 1912. 

In February, 1917 it is estimated that employ- 
ment is given to 10,000 people in the province; and 
with the exception of the Orphanage, the Mi.ssion 
is self-supporting, i.e. the business side makes good 
th'^ dcificit of the other branches of work. 

There is a Church-building which seats 400", 
and the communicants number about 100, the 
church being part of the Shantung Presbytery. 

The orphanages (one for boys and one for 
girls) have fifty inmates ; the four girls' schools 
have 368 pupils, most of whom make lace part of 
the time, and the two bovs' schools have 72. 



90 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



CH'ENGTU 



The Chetoo Lace was awarded a Gold Medal 
at the St. Louis Exposition, and a Diploma of 
Merit at the Exhibition of Women's Work, 
Melbourne. Another branch of the industnial work 
is a printing press from which is issued a monthly 
Christian paper, the " Morning Star," and a 
number of books and tracts, many of them 
translated by the mission helpers. 

CHEIROPTERA. See Bats. 

CHtKIANG ^jX. a coast province, the 
smallest of the provinces, having an area of 36,680 
sq. miles with a population of 11,580,000. Its 
capital is Hangchow {q.v.) on the Ch'ien fang river 
t§® Ol- It has three ports open to foreign trade, 
Hangchow, Ningpo [q-v.), and Wenchow (^.1;.). 
Other important places are Hashing ^^ chia hsing ; 
Shaohsing ,*3 fi celebrated for wine ; and Huchou 
jgg ^ The Chusan Islands (q.v.) are part of the 
province. 

CH'tN DYNASTY, THE, [TitilE (a-d- 557-589) 
was founded by Chen Pa-iisien p-R'^'^ , a general of 
the previous (Liang) dynasty. Finally, a Chinese 
general, Yang Chien i^ M, usurped the throne of 
Chou, in the north, captured Nanking, dethroned 
the last Ch'en emperor, and founded the Sui 
dynasty. 
Dyn. Title Accession 



St fr Wu Ti 
X fS- Wen Ti 

&i;l#3i Liu-hai Wang 
^ "^(^ Hsiian Ti 
^ ± Hou Chu 



Reign Title Adopted 

557 ^^^Yung Ting 557 

560 XM T'ien Chia 560 

y^^ T'ien K'ang 566 

567 ^;:^Kuang Ta 557 

559 iii Ta Chien 569 

583 M't^. Chih Te 583 

Mm Cheng Ming 587 

a petty feudal State 



m 



CH'^N, STATE OF 

of the Chou dynasty. It was given by Wu Wang 
to a descendant of the Emperor Shitn, with the 
rank of Marquis ^. The family name was 
KuKi H^i . It adjoined Sung on the south. 
Confucius spent three years there when he exiled 
himself in disgust from Lu. 

CHENGHIS KHAN /X"^,®, ch'eng chi ssu; 
also written Genghis, Jengiz, etc. The famous 
Mongol ruler, son of a Mongol chieftain, was born 
in 1162 and named Temuchin, reproduced in 
Chinese as ^ 7^ if. T'ieh-mu-chcn. He fought 
successfully with various Tartar tribes and in 1206 
took the title of Emperor and prepared to invade 
China. By 1214 he had possession of all the 
country north of the Yellow River, except Peking. 
He then made peace with the Chin -^ Emperor, 
received the submission of Korea, and in Central 
Asia became master of Tashkend, Bokhara and 
Samarcand. He died in Kansu. 1227. He was the 
grandfather of Khubtlai Khan. 

CH'ENG HUANG i^"^^ The characters mean 
the city wall and the moat, and the combination is 



used as the title of the tutelar god of each walled 
city in China, ' the divine mandarin.' Each city 
has its own Ch'eng Huang, generally some historic 
hero, whose appointment to the office mus£ bo 
sanctioned by the "Master of Heaven" (q.v.). In 
every walled city there is a Ch'eng Huang rnimi or 
temple, and on the 21st of the 5th moon a festival 
of the god is held, with processions, etc. The 
origin of the cult is supposed by some to have been 
in the time of Yao, but it was not popular and 
wide-spread before the Sung dynasty (a.d. 960). 
DoRE gives many particulars. 

DoRE : ItcchtTchcs aur Ita SupvnititiimK, aU:., 
tome xi, p. -875. 

CH'ENG I h^ (fg, younger brother of (JH'fe.sc 
Tzu, and like him a famous scholar of the Sung 
dynasty. He was born in 1033, died in 1107 and 
was canonized as Chkng ]£ Kung. In 1241 he was 
admitted to the Confucian temple. 

CH'ENG MIAO ^^. The inventor of the 
Lesser Seal ( hiUiKteis and later of Li script, two 
successive simplifications of the greater seal 
characters. The Li script developed into the 

modern (clerkly) style. Ch'eng Miao lived in the 
3rd century B.C. under Ch'in Shih Huang Ti. 

CHENG, STATE OF ^ one of the minor 
States of the Chou oeriod, an Earldom, adjoining 
the Royal domain to the east. The fief was first 
granted to a son of the Emperor in B.C. 805, and 
held precedence among the States in Chinese 
authors ; but though thus important as an orthodox 
State closely connected with the imperial house, 
it never played a leading part except for a short 
time under the guidance of the famous Tzu ("h'an 
(q.v.). Its position made it a path between the 
great warring States north and south, and it was 
only through the mutual jealousy of other States 
that it maintained its independence so long. It 
was destroyed by Han (one of the divisions of Chin) 
in B.C. 374. 

Parker : Ancient China Simplified. 

CH'ENG T'ANGjjlcr^. 'T'ang the Completer,' 
was the Prince of Shang S who overthrew the 
tyrant Chieh of the Hsia dynasty and founded 
the Shang dynasty in B.C. 1766. Shu Ching. 

CH'ENGTU /jScSP, is the capital of Ssuch'uan. 
standing near the centre of the province, on the 
river Min *R. It is built, like Peking, in a triple 
form, Chinese, Tartar and Imperial, but the Chino.oe 
is the most important. The population is 500,000. 

The following have held the post of Brili.-h 
Consul-General since its establishment at Ch'cngtu 
in 1902. 

1902, April 5, Alexander Hosie, (now Sir 
Alexander). 

1908, Sept. 1, Pierce Essex O'Brien Butleh ; 
(did not proceed). 



91 



CH'ENG-TU PLAIN 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



1909, Jan. 21, William Heniiy Wilkinson. , 

1911. May 25, Richard Howard Mortimore. j 
CH'tNG-TU PLAIN, the only large e.xiianse 1 
of level ground in S.such'uan, the bed of an an- 
cient lake, the area being nearly 3,500 square miles. 
It contains the provincial capital and seventeen 
other walled cities, and the total population pro- 
bably exceeds si.x millions. Its remarkable fer- 
tility is due to the system of irrigation introduced 
by Li Ping (-/.i:.) in the third century B.C;. He cut 
through a hill near Kuan Hsien, led the Min 
river through, and distributed the water by a 
network of canals all over the plain. These works 
have been enlarged in later centuries and are still 
kept in remarkably good repair. Vale's paper on 
the subject is very detailed. 

Vale : Journal, N.C.B.R.A.S., vols, xxxiii, 
xxxvi ; Wilson : A Naturalist in Western China, 
vol. ii. c. ix. 

CH'ENG TZUgT-, "the philosopher Ch'kng", 
who.se name was Cheng Hao fllS> one of the 
most famous of the Sung scholars, was born at 
Loyang in Honan in 1032. The substance of his 
views is given in his most famous philosophical 
work, the Ting Hsing ,Shu, ;^14^. He died in 
1085, and was canonized as C'h'un Kung ^2f , and 
ill 1241 ills tablet was placed in the Confucian 
temple. 

In con.sequence of a remark of Chu Hsi that 

he had learned from Ch'kng Hao, Wylie states he 

was "a pupil" (Xutes on Chinrfc Literature, p. 69) ; 

and Giles, in his Biograp/iical Dictionary ha? 

perpetuated the error, calling Ch'kng Tzu ' the 

tutor of the great Chu Hsi.' But Chtj Hsi was 

born half a century after Ch'kng Hao's death. 

Si-zi'Ki : Ilixtonj of Chinese Philosophi/. 

CHER CHEN, Marco Polo's Charchan, also 

• called (.'harchand, Chachan, Circian and Ciarcian. 

the name of a river in the Tarim basin and of a 

city once standing near l^ob nor, now reduced to 

a single street of 180 yards in length. The .stream 

there is some 30 feet wide and 3 or 4 deep. Tlio 

whole oasi.s is about 6 miles long by 2^ wide. 

CHERRIES, -tSJiNfe y'"'.f ''""■ '^^^ commonest 
in N. ( hina are the ' bush cherries.' /'rutins 
tommtom. They are grafted on the wild peach. 
Another cherry of N. China is probably /'. 
paurijlora; but it is not at all a common fruit. 
A dwarf cherry or plum, perhaps /'. huuiili.<, is 
also found, but the fruit is too sour and acrid 
to be eaten raw. All these Chinese cherries arc 
very small. 

Meyer : At/rirulturol Ejiilorntiohn. etc. 

CHESS. There are two games in China called 
Clri written in one case fit, in the other jJC. and 
both called Chess by foreigners, though the char- 



acter is written with different radicals in the two 
cases, being stone and wood respectively; but 
this distinction is not closely observed. The game 
called Wei ch'i is played with about 150 counters 
on each side, on a board with 324 squares and 
361 points of intersection of the lines forming the 
squares; starting with a clear board, the object 
for each player is to occupy as many of the 
361 points as possible. It will be seen therefore that 
this ch'i (with a radical showing the counters are 
of stone ) has very little resemblance to the game 
called chess. See Wei Ch'i. 

The other game is unmistakeably the game of 
chess. It is called hsia7i(j ch'i ^ fit, and since 
hsiang means elephant and one of the pieces is call- 
ed the elephaTit, the game may be called ' Elephant 
chess.' Or again, since no doubt often played 
with ivory pieces though the radical is wood, it 
has been called ' Ivory chess.' Again since hsiang 
has also the meanings figure, form, resemble, etc., 
the game may be called ' Figure chess,' ' Symbolical 
chess,' etc., a justification of such a name being 
that while on the two sides the pieces have similar 
; powers the names, though corresponding, are not 
alike; the pawn, for example, on the one side being 
tsu 255 and on the other ping ^- , both words mean- 
ing .soldier. 

Chess is mentioned in the Lun Yii and in 
Mencius, but under the nameg^I. According to 
Giles this was Wei ch'i. The earliest mention of 
hsiang ch'i is found in the Ke chih c fling yiian ifg- 
IJC IS ® • I*- '^ ^^^° mentioned in the T'ung chien 
kang mu, referring to the date B.C. 154. The 
invention of Wei ch'i is, of course, referred by the 
Chinese to the age of Yao ; Hsiang ch'i is put later, 
being attributed to the founder of the Chou 
dynasty, about B.C. 1120; although it is naively 
admitted that it may have originated a few 
hundred years later. 

The chess-board has, like ours, 64 squares, but 
the opposing forces are divided by a blank space 
across the board, called the river. There are thus 
two .separate camps of 32 squares each. Another 
di.ssimilarity from our chess is that the play is 
along the lines and at the intersecting points and 
not on the squares. The lines are numbered 1 to 
9 from right to left. On the back row stand 9 
pieces : in the middle being the General, with a 
Minister on each side. Further from him right 
and left are the Elephants ; next to them the 
Horses, and on the furthest points stand the 
Chariots. The second row of points is vacant. 
The third has two Ballistae (sometimes called 
cannon)' on lines 2 and 8. On the fourth, which 
is the front row, are 5 Soldiers on alternate points. 
Then comes a row of vacant points and then the 
river. The four squares or rather the nine points 
in front of the General and his Ministers, are the 



92 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SlNlCA 



CHI CHA 



boundaries within which these three pieces move ; 
two diagonal lines cross the space. 

As to the movements of the pieces : the Gener- 
al moves one point at a time in any direction over 
the 9 points to which he is confined. He cannot 
be taken, but may take, provided he does not thus 
put himself in check. He may not be put or left 
on the same line with the opposing General with- 
out an interposing piece. Being in check lie must 
take the checking piece, cover himself from check 
by interposing a piece, or move himself out of check. 
If he can do none of these things he is check- 
mated, or, as the Chinese sometimes say, dead. 

The Ministers are limited to the same 9 points 
as the General, but they only move on the diagon- 
al lines, backward or forward ; each therefore con- 
trols only four points. They have no privileges 
and when attacked must either be moved or cover- 
ed, or they are captured. 

The Eleijhants move diagonally backwards or 
forwards two squares at a time if nothing blocks 
the way. They cannot cross the river, so that 
there are only seven possible places for each to 
stand on. 

The Horse moves practically as our knight 
moves, — one point forward, backward or sideways 
and then one point diagonally ; but it cannot leap 
over any intervening piece. It is free to move 
over the whole board. The Chariot moves exact- 
ly as our Castle does. 

The two Cannon have also the same movement 
as our Castle, with this strange difference that their 
attack is not valid except through some intervening 
piece. Thus the enemy General is not checked by 
a Cannon on the same line unless some other piece 
stands between them. 

The Soldier moves only forward one point 
at a time till it has crossed the river ; it may then 
move forwards or sideways a point at a time, but 
never backwards ; nor does it receive promotion 
on reaching the further side of the board. 

In all cases the capturing piece occupies the 
place of the piece taken. It may be added that 
the pieces are not figures as with foreign chess, 
but pieces like draughts with the name written 
on each. 

All evidence seems to show that Indian and 
Chinese chess are derived from some common 
source. 

Wilkinson : Manual of Chinese Chess, Shang- 
hai, 1893; HiMLY : The Chinese Game of Chess as 
compared with that practised by Western Nations, 
N.C.B.E.A.S. Journal, vol. vi ; Hollingworth : 
A short Sketch of the Chinese Game of Chess, ibid., 
vol iii ; Volpicelli : Chinese Chess, ibid., vol xxiii ; 
Holt : Notes on the Chinese Game of Chess, Royal 
• Asiatic Society Journal, London, 1885. 



CHESTNUTS, [Custanea sp.) JH ^ li ttu. 
The cliestnut grows wild in N China, and it is 
also more or less cultivated ; but all the trees are 
seedlings and vary greatly in the quality of the 
fruit. It is quite distinct from the chestnut of 
Japan. 

The nuts are roasted in sand with whidi 
molasses has been mixed, and are sold and eaten 
in great quantities in every town. 

A dwarf chestnut, a shrub a few feet high, 
is met with in the higher mountainous districts. 

Meykr : Agricuftural ExjAorations, etc. 

CHI ,4fS, the family name of Huang Ti and 
therefore of the Chou dynasty rulers, suppo.«ed to 
be descended from him. 

CHIA CH'ING53EThe title of the reign 
of the fifth Emperor of the Ch'ing dynasty. He 
succeeded his father Ch'ien Lung in 1796. It 
was he who rejected Lord Amherst's Mission in 
1816. He was a worthless ruler, and the country 
suffered severely during his reign from pirates, 
revolts, etc. He died in 1820. 

Bland & Backhouse : Annuls of the Court of 
Prhirifj, p. 372. 

CH'IANG ^. barbarian tribes of ancient 
we.stern China, probably Tibetan. The charac- 
ter, made up of ^ sheep and ^ man, shows they 
were shepherds ; or some say the character shows 
a monster, a beast with a man's legs, denoting 
the Chinese view of them as not being human 
creatures. 

CHIANG T'AI KUNG ^js^/Si or CHIANG 
tzu Ya ^-f^ chief c(junsellcr to Wen Wa.nl., 
11th century B.C. He was supposed to have 
authority over " spirits of the vasty deep," 
hence the inscription often seen written over 
doors to repel evil spirits, ^^^^llb "Chiang 
T'AI KuNG is here ! " 

CHIA=TZU Ip^. See Cycle. 

CHIA YU or K'ung Tzu Chia Yu ^T^if- 
Family Sayings (of Confucius). This work is 
generally ascribed to Wang Su who died a.d. 256. 
though it is also said that he found it in the 
house of one of the Sage's descendants. It is fur- 
ther said that there was an earlier work with the 
same title, but it is not known whether the later 
book is indebted to it. 

CHI CHA ^IL' a model man according to 
the literati, — the fourth and favourite son of 
Shou Mkng, Prince of Wu, who died in B.C. 560. 
His father had urgently wished him to succeed 
to the throne, and the eldest brother also urged 
it ; but Chi Cha persistently refused. He accept- 
ed the fief of Yen-ling, and is therefore often 
alluded to as Yen-Ling Chi tzu S'^pT- He 
was sent the round of the States to study their 
ritual, music, etc., and no doubt also to acquire 



93 



CH'I DYNASTY 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



useful knowledge of the political situation. He 

died at the age of 90, and his tomb is still to 

be seen near his home, between Ch'ang-chou fu 
^ >''H M ai^d Chiang-yin jx P^ in Kiangsu ; the 

inscription on it is believed to have been written 

by Confucius himself. 

TscHEPE : Histoire du Royaume de Git; 

Parker : Ancient China Simplified. 

CH'I DYNASTY, THE, ^|E, was founded 
by Hsiao Tao-ch'eng, a successful general, with the 
capital at Nanking. It lasted from a.d. 479 to 502 
and had seven rulers. Another usurjjer then took 
the throne, founding the Liang dynasty. 

Dyn. Title Accession Reign Title Adopted 

% ^f Kao Ti 479 ^70 Chien Yiian 479 

T< 'TTr Wu Ti 482 xk?^ Yung Ming 483 

^iWi. Yii-lin Wang 493 Pll Lung Ch'ang 494 
?S(fig3E Hai-ling Wang 494 5i® Yen Hsing 494 
^ fr Ming Ti 494 M^ Chien Wu 494 

7kM Yung T'ai 498 
i^il^M: Tung-hun Hou 498 ^J^TC Yung Yiian 499 
ifil -ifr Ho Ti 501 tji^ Chung Hsing 501 

CHIEF SUPERINTENDENT. "See Su-perin- 
tendent of Trade. 

CHIEH CHIH-T'UI ^Z\t- A minister in 
the State of Chin, 7th century B.C. Being over- 
looked in the distribution of rewards, he retired 
to the hills and refused to return. A late legend 
says that the repentant prince tried to force him 
out by setting the forest on fire, but that Chieh 
preferred to perish in the flames. This is said 
to be the origin of the Han Shih festival [q.v.). 

CHIEH KUEI ^51 the last Emperor of the 
Hsia dynasty, who succeeded to the throne in 
B.C. 1818, and spent enormous sums of money in 
brutal orgies and especially in the amusement of 
his favourite concubine. Mo Hsi ■^^ . It is 
forcibly said of him that his wickedness dried 
up the rivers I, '0^, and Lo, i^. Only one of his 
ministers dared to remonstrate, Kuan Lung-feng 
HHS£}.^. and he was put to death. 

Cn'ENG T'ang rose in rebellion, defeated Chieh 
KuEi in 1766 b.c. and sent him into banishment, 
where he died B.C. 1763. The Shang dynasty was 
then established in place of the Hsia. 

CH'I EN ^. A mace or the tenth part of a 
Chinese ounce; also money, i.e. Chinese cash. 

CH'I EN LUNG $£F^. The title of the reign 
of an Emperor of tlie ('h'ing dynasty; the fourth 
son of Yung Ckkng whom he succeeded in 1735. 
He was great both as a ruler and as a patron 
of literaturp. He waged various successful wars, 
but the Empire itself had great peace and 
prosperity, the population almost doubling itself 
during his reign. His relations with Western 
powers were friendly, and he received Lord 
Maiartney's Mission in 1723, besides Dutch, 



Spanish and Portuguese embassies ; but the 
preaching of the Christian religion was forbidden 
and Christians were persecuted during part of his 
reign (1746 and 1785). Amongst other great 
literary labours he produced the Catalogue of the 
Imperial Library. (See Encyclopaedias). He ab- 
dicated in 1795 at the end of a cycle (sixty years) 
on the throne, and died three years later. 

CHIH FU 5^-11 fff, knows the fu or prefecture. 
The Prefect, a civil official. There were 183 pre- 
fectures in the Eighteen Provinces. The office was 
abolished after the Revolution. See Chih hsien. 

CHIH HSIEN ^ M Knoivs the hsien or 
district. The District magistrate subordinate to 
the chih fri. He has summary jurisdiction in civil 
and criminal cases. The Prefects and District 
magistrates together collected revenue, maint-ained 
order, dispensed justice, conducted literary exam- 
inations, etc., and generally exercised all the direct 
functions of public administration. Being — especial- 
ly the Cliih hsien, — in the closest relations with the 
peojile they were called ^LJ'g', father and mother 
officials. Since' the Revolution the office of Chih fu 
has been abolished, and the Chih hsien, now called 
Hsieii chih shih |j^ ^p f]J or Hsien chang |^ ^ 
is directly responsible to the Tao yin. See Govern- 
ment. 

CHIH I ^n fl the Buddhist name of Ch'en 
Te-an, a native of Anhui, who at first followed 
the teaching of Bodhidharma. Later he rejected 
the view that contemplation is all-sufficient, though 
he still professed to derive his doctrine from 
Nag.\rjuna whom Bodhidharma followed. 

He especially venerated the Lotus sutra. In 
575, in spite of the wishes of the Emperor, who 
wanted to retain him in Nanking, he went away 
to the T'ien-t'ai Hill in Chekiang. He did a 
good deal of literary work, and is said to have 
founded thirty-five monasteries and to have per- 
sonally ordained over four thousand priests. He 
died in 597, and the school he founded is known 
as the T'ien-t'ai school, [q.v.). 

CHI HSIANGt*5p. il'xjd omen; the year-title 
of the eighth MphcIui EnijDeror who came to the 
throne at 5 years old in 1862. Coins may be found 
with this year-title, which was almost immediately 
altered, however, to T'ung Chih [q.v.). 

CH'I HSI UNO -tig. See -Set-en Martial 
St(iti-.<. 

CHIH LI g.J|: direct rule, formerly called :lh 
pei Nortiiern Chihli, when Kiangnan was called 
I^^J 11(111 Southern Chihli. It contains the capital of 
('hina, Peking, the provincial cafiital being Pao-ting 
^" i^^M- ^^^ northern part is hilly, especially 
the north-west, where the Wei shan rises nearly 
10,000 feet. Most of the province is an alluvial 
plain, the deposit of the Yellow River and the 



94 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



CHIN STATE 



Pai ho. The Pai ho [^ jSJ white river is the most 
important waterway, navigable to T'ung chou near 
Peking. Its chief tributaries join it at Tientsin. 
A bar at its mouth makes it difficult of navigation, 
and it is closed by ice in the winter. The Grand 
Canal has its terminus at Tient.sin ; but this 
northern portion is of little u.«e. 

The chief cities are Peking (q.v.), also called 
Shun-t'ien fu llg^/fj, Pao-ting with 80,000 inhabit- 
ants, Tientsin, (q-v.), Shan hai kuan (30,000), at 
the eastern end of the Great Wall, Ch'inwangtao 
{q.v.), Hsiian hua ^ 'ffc , Kalgan {q.v.) and Jehol 
{q.v.). Pei tai ho (q.v.), the popular watering place, 
is also in Chihli. There are rich coalfields in the 
province. (See Kailan Miiiimj Adrniitisfratiim). 

The area is estimated at 115,830 sq. miles, and 
the population at 20,930,000. 

CHI-KUNG-SHAN i^ ^ III is a mountain 
resort situated on the border of Hupei and Honan, 
2,500 feet above sea-level. At its foot is Hsintien, 
a station on the Peking-Hankow line, 5^ hours' 
railway journey from Hankow, and within an hour's 
walk of Chi-kung-shan. There are two valleys 
containing foreign bungalows, Mission Valley and 
Business Valley. 

About 500 foreigners were there in the summer 
of 1916, the number in the Mission Valley includ- 
ing children being 382, while there were about a 
hundred in Business Valley. 

CH'I-LIN ^0,, ch'i-lin also found romanized 
as ihM-ling, ki-lin, etc. The unicorn of Chinese 
mythology. Ch'i is the name of the male and Un 
of the female. It is the king of all animals, and 
full of gentleness. It has a deer's body, a horse's 
hoof, the tail of an ox and a single horn with a 
fleshy growth on it. It is only seen when wise 
and virtuous rulers are on the throne, or to flatter 
some eminent man ; though it may also presage a 
disaster, as when one was wounded by a hunter 
just before the death of Confucius. 

The first recorded appearance of a unicorn was 
in Huang Ti's palace grounds, about b.c. 2600. 
Two appeared to Yao and one to the mother cf 
Confucius before the sage's birth. It has become, 
like the phoenix, a bringer of children, and its 
picture is often stuck on the doors of women's 
apartments. 

DoRE : Btcherchc.s siir Ics Superstitions en 
Cfiinc, p. 446. 

CHIN ^ the title of a Tartar tribe, (some- 
times written Kin) also known as Nii-Chen "^ ^ 
Tartars. They lived to the north of the Khitans, 
and were subject to them till they overpow-ered 
them in a.d. 1125. Their chief took the title of 
Grand Khan, called his dynasty the Chin (Kin) 
dynasty, and as Chin means 'gold' they are some- 
times called ' the Golden Horde.' 



Having conquered tha Khitans. they next 
attacked the < hinese Empire, took Kaifenjj fu, 
the capital, demanded ho.stages and an immense 
indemnity, and the cession of parts of the modern 
Shansi and Chihli. On their departure, the 
Chinese prepared to fight again, but the Chins 
leturned, took the capital a second lime, 
increased the indemnity, and took Hotung and 
Hopei. The imperial household was carried into 
captivity, and a new ruler appointed to rule 
north China as vassal of the Chins. The Yangtze 
chiang divided the Chin and Sung territories; 
and the struggle between them lasted till 1234, 
when the Chin capital, Kaiftiig fu, wan taken, 
not by the Chinese but by another Tartar tribe, the 
Mongols, which later f(junded the Yuan dynasty. 
Nine Chin Emperors had held sway over half 
C!hina for 118 years. 



Dyn. Title 
M M T'ai 



i: ^^ T'ai Tsung 
EE ^ Hsi Tsung 



1123 
1135 



Accession Hi'ign Title Adopted* 

1115 Jfefag Shou Kuo 1115 

X%^ T'ien Fu lllB 

X^^i- Tien Hui 1123 

X^ Tien Hui 1123 

yil^ T'ien Chiian 1138 

^,^ Huang T'ung 1141 

5^^. T'ien Te 1149 

^7C Cheng Yiian 1153 

JUM f^^heng Lung 

1161 ^-g Ta Ting 

^ Chang Tsung 1190 §flg Ming Ch'ang 

7?:^ Ch'eng An 

^jfQ T'ai Ho 

M3i WeishaoWangl209 i^^ Ta An 

ijJSi Ch'ungCh'int 



!^£ Hai-lingWang 1149 



iifr g? Shih Tsung 



1156 
1161 
1190 
1196 
1201 
1209 
1212 
1213 
1213 
1217 
1222 
1224 
1232 
1233 



3g'^ Chih Ning 

l: ^ Hsuan Tsung 1213 ^^ Cheng Yu 

^^ Hsing Ting 

jj^.^ Yiian Kuang 

g t^ Ai Tsung 1224 jj:;^ Cheng Ta 

y^^ T'ien H#ing 

^^ K'ai Hsing 

* # Mo Ti or 

^ rjr Hou Chu 1234 {fil Sheng Ch'ang 1234 

CHIN or TSIN ^. one of the most important 
feudal. States in the Chou Empire. Its situation 
was in the elbow made by the Yellow River, with 
some territory both west and south of the river. 
It was thus the southern part of the present Shan 
si, which still has Chin as a literary name. The 
district had been the seat of Empire in the earlier 
dynasties. When Chou took the Empire, the fief 
of T'ang was given to a son of Wu Wasc, the 
Chou founder, with the title of Marquis, and in the 
next generation the name Chin took the place of 
T'ang. 

The state reached its greatest height under the 
Second Protector, Wts Kxtsg (see ChTnc Ebh, 



!)5 



CHINA 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



which was his personal name). No other Protector 
was able to impart a lasting prestige to his state 
at all comparable to that which Chin enjoyed for 
the century following his rule. Ch'u throughout 
this period disputed Chin's supremacy and the 
almost annual expeditions the two made caused 
great misery to the unfortunate states which lay 
between, especially to Cheng. To a less extent 
Ch'i also disputed with Chin. There was, besides, 
much fighting between Ch'in and Chin over the 
lands lying to the west of the Yellow River and 
over the respective influence of the two states .on 
the Tartar tribes on both banks. It is interesting 
to note that Wen Kung was the son of a Tartar 
m.other and that some of his children were by his 
Tartar wives. 

In the final struggle, Ch'in won ; but it did so 
under Ch'in Shih Huang Ti, of whose origin there 
■is considerable reason to believe that it was entirely 
Chin (or rather Chao) and not Ch'in. 

When the Chin rulers became weak, thiee of 
the great families divided the State between them, 
in B.C. 451. The new States, sometimes spoken of 
as the Three Chin, were called Han (the Honan 
part), Wei ^ (the Shansi part), and Chao (the 
Chihli part). Wei is sometimes written Ngwei 
to distinguish it from the other Wei State lower 
down the river. These States were formally 
recognised by the Emperor in 403, and the Chin 
State was no more. 

TsCHEPE : Histoire du Itoynume de Tsin. 
Pap.ker : Ancient China Simplified. 

CHINA — (the name). It has been commonly 
accepted that the Ts'in (Ch'in) dynasty of the 3rd 
century B.C. gave rise to the name China among 
neighbouring peoples. Lately, however, the name 
Cina applied to this country has been found in a 
Sanskrit work earlier than the Ts'in dynasty. It 
has been suggested that Indian traders learned the 
name from Malays, that it came into use through 
Buddhist writers and was later on associated 
naturally with the famous Ts'in. Others claim 
that the date of the Sanskrit work may not be so 
early as was suppo.?ed. See Laufer's and 
I'ln.i.ioT's papers, T'lmmj-jjoo, 1912-3. 

CHINA ASSOCIATION, THE, was founded 
in London in 1889, when a meeting was held at 
the offices of the P. & 0. (,'ompany and resolu- 
tions passed, constituting the Association and 
appointing Sir George Bowen as President, Mr. 
W. Keswick as Chairman of Committee, and Mr. 
R. S. GUNURY as Honorary Secretary. In its 
rules and regulations the objects of the Association 
are defined to be, to represent Briti.sh opinion in 
political and commercial relations with the Chinese 
and Japanese, to promote British trade with the 
Far East, and to give facilities for sociail inter- 



course between members of the Association. Later, 
it was found that besides the central organization 
in London, it was desirable to have also local 
committees at the chief commercial centres, and 
accordingly committees have been formed one 
after another at Shanghai, Hongkong, Tientsin 
and Hankow, while the British Association of 
Japan is affiliated to the London Committee. 
The name "China Association" therefore, though 
most convenient, is really too narrow. There are 
about a thousand members, embracing every class 
in the communities, business, professional and 
official. A glance at the annual reports shews 
that it has left untouched hardly a single feature 
of our commercial or political intercourse, and it 
has by memoranda and despatches to the Govern- 
ment given much enlightenment and considerably 
assisted British interests. 

One definite and important act of the Associ- 
ation has been the foundation of a school of 
practical Chinese, endowed through the liberality 
of some members ; it is at present associated with 
King's College, but will be transferred when the 
School of Oriental Languages has its premises 
in order. 

The Annual Reports of the Association are 
a most valuable record of events and tendencies 
in China. 

CHINA BRANCH OF THE ROYAL 
ASIATIC SOCIETY. In January, 1847, some 
residents in Hongkong met and founded the 
Philosophical Society of China. On asking the 
Governor (Sir J. F. Davis) to become its patron, 
he agreed, but said that Lord Auckland, President 
of The Royal Asiatic Society, had repeatedly wished 
a branch of that Society might be established in 
China. The Philosophical Society therefore after 
six days' existence became the Asiatic Society of 
China, January 19, 1847. On Se{)tember 7 of the 
same year it was reported that the Royal Asiatic 
Society had admitted the Asiatic Society of China 
as a branch, and the name was then altered again 
to "China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society." 
Six volumes of T ranKnctinns were issued, the last 
being in 1859, all j)r)nted at the China Mail Office. 

The North China Branch [q.r.) is quite a 
separate institution. 

CHINA CHRISTIAN EDUCATIONAL AS- 
SOCI.^TION, THE, is a re-organization and 
devc'lopimiit of tlie Educational Association of 
China ('/.c.) which body at its last Triennial 
Meeting in 1912 outlined a new constitution, and 
submitted it to all its members throughout China. 
It was adopted with a few slight modifications by 
an overwhelming majority, and established an 
Advisory Council to be appointed by the eight 



96 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



CHINA CONTINUATION 



educational districts into which China was divided 
for the purpose. 

The Council was to consist of three representa- 
tives from each district, as well as an Executive 
Committee of nine, and was to meet annually in 
April. 

The eight educational districts have Branch 
Associations which follow in chronological order. 

1. — Educational Association of Fukien, or- 
ganized 1905. 

2. — The West China Christian Educational 
L'nion, 1906. (Ssuch'uan, Yunnan and Kueichou). 

3. — The Kuangtung Christian Educational As- 
sociation, formerly known as the Educational 
Association of Kuangtung, reorganized in 1914. 
(Kuangtung and Kuangsi). 

4. — The East China Educational Association, 
1914. (Cht'kiang, Kiangsu and Anhui). 

5. — The Central China Christian Educational 
Association, which had been organized in 1910 as 
the C.C.C.E. Union, and changed its name in 1915. 
(Hupei, Hunan and Kiangsi). 

6.— The Manchurian branch of the C.C.E.A., 
1916. 

7. — The Shantung-Honan'Chri.'^tian Educational 
Association, January, 1917. 

8. — A North-China branch for C'hihli, Shansi, 
Shensi and Kansu in process of formation. 

The main objects of the Association are : 

1. — To discuss and publish the findings of the 
local Associations on the various educational pro- 
blems in China : 

2. — To act as a clearing-house for information 
on missionary education in China and throughout 
the world : 

3. — To stimulate the promotion of local associat- 
ions, and to keep these in touch with each other. 

The Association publishes 'I'hc Educational i 
lie view each quarter, and certain of its textbooks, | 
prepared before the reorganization, which are still 
in considerable demand. 

Since 1914 the Association has had a permanent 
Secretary, resident in Shanghai. The first to \ 
occupy this post is the Rev. F. D. Gamewell, 
Ph.D., LL.D. (M.E.M.). 

CHINA CONTINUATION COMMITTEE. 

The China Continuation Committee of the National 
Missionary Conference, Shanghai, 1913, is a body 
of recognised leaders of the Christian Church in 
China elected by delegates to the National Mission- 
ary Conference, presided over by Dr. John R. 
MoTT, in Shanghai, in March, 1913. This con- ' 
ference was the last of a series of conferences held 
at Canton, Shanghai, Tsinanfu, Peking and Han- 
kow. A short conference was held in ^Mukden 
immediately after the National Conference. Each 



sectional conference was attended by missionariea 
and Chinese leaders, some of whom were elected 
by the various missions and churches of the area, 
and some were selected by the local committee of 
arrangements. The National Committee was a 
gathering of experts rather than a general con- 
ference. About one-half the delegates were appoint- 
ed by the sectional Conferences and the remainder 
were co-opted by the Committee of Arrangement."". 
In this way no important phase of mission work 
was overlooked, and no group of churches or 
missions was unrepresented. In all one hundred 
and twenty delegates were present, of whom about 
one-third were Chinese pastors, teachers, scholars 
engaged in literary work/^ and leaders in other 
forms of Christian service. The China Continu- 
ation Committee was appointed by the National 
Conference with the following objects : — 

"1. To help carry out the recommendations 
of the National and sectional Conferences held in 
China in February and March 1913, on behalf of 
the Continuation Committee of the World Mission 
ary Conference, Edinburgh, 1910. 

" 2. To serve as a means of communication 
between the Christian forces of China and the 
Edinburgh Continuation Committee, its Special 
Committees and the Mission Boards of the West. 

"3. To serve as a means by which the Christian 
forces of China may express themselves unitedly 
when they so desire. 

" 4. To promote co-operation and co ordination 
among the Christian forces of China. 

"5. To act as a Board of Reference when 
invited to do so by the parties immediately 
concerned." 

The Committee is composed of not less than 
40 nor more than 65 persons, selected to represent 
the different nationalities, ecclesiastical families 
and departments of mission work, of whom not 
less than one-third must be Chinese. 

The Committee carries on its work by means 
of Special Committees and an executive staff. 
The staff included (1917) a Chinese and a foreign 
general secretary, a national evangelistic secretary 
and a statistical secretary, with about ten clerical 
assistants. 

The Special Committees include tho.<c on a 
Forward Evangelistic Movement, the Chine."** 
Church, the Promotion of Intercession, Theolo.-i. ii 
Education, Christian Literature, Sunday Sl!.:- 1 
and Bible Study, Survey and Occupation, and 
Business and Administrative Efficiency, Self- 
Support, Social Application of Christianity, Train- 
ing of Missionaries, Hymnology, and Comity. The 
reports of these committees are published in con- 
nection with the annual meeting of the Committee, 
and their " findings," if approved by the Continu- 



CHINA DIRECTORY 



EXCYCLOL'AEDIA SINICA 



ation Committee, stand as the expression of the 
united opinion of that body. 

The secretaries of the Committee edit the 
China Miction Year Book and the China Church 
Year Book, the two authoritative annuals in English 
and Chinese, relating to the activities of the 
Protestant missions and churche.^, and the Directory 
of Protestant Missionaries in China, classified by 
mi«sionB, geographically and alphabetically. 

The China Continuation Committee aims also 
to serve as a clearing house of information on all 
aji{>ects of niis.sionary work in China. 

The Office? are at 5 Quinsan Hardens, Shanghai. 

[C.L.B.] 

CHINA DIRECTORY, THE, was published 
Annually from 1860 till incorporated with The 
Cktuntch and Directory for China in 1376. It was 
printed in Hongkong by Suobtrede. 

CHINA GRASS, cr lUniie. See Fibris, ti.xtile. 

CHINA INLAND MISSION. . 

//radquurtim :— Shanghai, with Home Centres 
ifi Kngland. Scotland, Switzerland, Canada, United 
States, AuHtralia, New Zealand and Tasmania. 

This, by far the largest Missionary Society 
o|M.<rating in China, was founded in England in 1866 
by Dr. Hiiisos- Tayloh, who had already worked 
in China for xi.x years under the Chinese Evangel 
lution So<i.-iy ('/.«•.). Dr. Taylor was invalided 
home in 1860, and during his stay approached the 
principal British Societies then having work at 
the Treaty Ports in China, to press the claims of 
the interior upon them. As none of them felt able 
»t lh«l lime to extend their work into inland 
China, Dr. Taylor, with the help and .sympathy of 
a few personal friends, formed the China Inland 
MiMiun, with the following distinctive features :— 

1 — II was to be interdenominational. 

2. - It was never to go into debt : nor to solicit 
donation* or subscriptions : nor to jiubiish tiie 
n»me« of its supporters, although rendering annual 
accounts of all monies received. 

3. -The workers were to have no guaranteed fi.\- 
ed stijM'nd, but wore to share in whatever .'ujiplies 
might como in. 

4. —The Hpadi|uartors were to be in China. 

5.— The work wa» to be directed by senior 
miMionary superintendents, and not by any Home 
Bou-d. 

6— The programme was the rvunijrlization of 
thf whole of Chtna as speedily an possible, accord- 
ing to ■ plan elaborated by the founder of the 
Mi»sion. This plan involved («) the early 
'K-cupation of strategic points, such as capitals of 
province, great marts, etc., (which wore generally 
very difficult to open), rather than Iho faking of 
1.:h, of Irttjil rcMftance; {!,] a proi)ondfrance of 
l- :..cr work, leaving fruits in many casun to be 



reaped by other Missions; (c) the complete sub- 
ordination of all other forms of work to the direct 
preaching of the Gospel. 

In the year 1865, when the C.I.M. was funned, 
all Protestant work was confined to seven provinces, 
almost all the missionaries (112 in number) residing 
in the five Treaty Ports, so that eleven provinces 
were wholly without Protestant workers, not to 
mention the great Deijendencies. 

Dr. Taylou's plan made Ningpo, where he had 
already resided, the provisional base, with Hang- 
chow, the provincial capital, as the first objective. 
Thus Chekiang was the first province occupied. 
Work in Hangchow was opened in 1866, and by 
the end of the year there were four centres in the 
province, three of them being inland. 

Kiangsu was ne.xt occupied, a footing being 
obtained in Nanking in 1867, and in Soochow, 
Yangchow and Chinkiang in 1868. Nanking and 
Soochow were relinquished in favour of other 
missions which shortly after arrived. Tsing-kiang 
p'u, on the Grand Canal, was opened in 1869. 
Shanghai, being the headquarter.s and business 
centre of the Mission, was occupied from very 
early days, and has a very strong staff working 
in handsome and commodious premises given by a 
member of the Mission. 

Anhui was entered in 1869, Anking, the capital, 
being occupied ; and for many years no other 
Protestant Mission had work in this province. 

In Kiangsi, work was also begun in 1869, and 
Kiukiang become the centre of a large itinerating 
work. 

In 1874 Wuchang, the capital of Hupei, was 
entered, chiefly with the intention of extending work 
to the nine interior j^rovinces still untouched by 
Protestant Missions. 

In 1876, the year of the signing of tiie Chefoc 
Agreement, Shansi, Shensi, and Kansu were visited. 
T'ai-yiJan fu, the capital of Shansi, was occupied 
as a permanent station in 1877, (though relinquished 
later) ; Han-chung fu in Shensi in 1879 : T'sin-chow 
in Kansu in 1877, and Lan-chou fu, the capital, in 
1885. In 1877, Ssuch'uan was reached, and Chung- 
king occupied, Chengtu following in 1881. 

In 1887 Ta-li fu, the capital of Yunnan, was 
opened as a mission station, though visited as 
early as 1881, and in 1887, Kuei yang, the capital 
of Kueicliou, after ten years of itinerating work. 

In 1879, Shantung was entered, a Sanatorium 
for the mission and English schools primarily for 
the mission children, being started at Chefoo. A 
certain amount of direct mission work has arisen 
in the neighbourhood. 

In <'hihli, Tientsin was made a business base 
in 1888 : the chief station in this province is Huai-lu 
81 1(6 opened in 1887. 



OH 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



CHINA INLAND 



Honan was not opened until 1884, when a 
station was established at Chou-chia k'ou JSi^U 
though itineration had been begun as early as 1875 ; 
and K'ai-feng fu, the latest of all the provincial 
capitals to open its gates to missionaries, was not 
entered till 1901. There are now 10 other stations 
in the province. 

Hunan, after nearly 30 years of itinerating 
work, was opened in 1901, when premises were 
secured at Changsha and Ch'ang-te 'Jjf;^; Nan-chou 
t'ing ^^ Si was opened in 1904. 

The Mis.-^ion has no work in Fiikien, Kuangtung, 
and Kuangsi, other missions having early occupied 
the former two, and in later times, Kuangsi also. 
The Dependencies are scarcely touched by any 
Mission. The C.I.M. entered Tibet in 1897, but 
no station is established there ; a certain amount 
of work is done however from the centres in border- 
ing provinces. In Sinkiang, there is one station, 
Ti-hua fu j^ifc/fj, opened in 1908, with two workers. 

Space does not permit to follow in detail the 
developments of a work which, begun in 1865 
through the devotion of one man and his immediate 
friends on a "faith" basis, without any denominat- 
ional or other guarantees, could report itself in its 
Jubilee year as having 225 stations, 1063 mission- 
aries, 754 organized churches and 34.830 communic- 
ants. But attention may be called to seven great 
outstanding facts. 

I. — The intcTnationcdiz'mrf of the Mi.ision. This 
was no part of the original scheme, wide-reaching 
though that was, but was thrust upon the Mission 
from without. In 1887 an American gentleman 
(Mr. Henry W. Frost, then living in Western 
New York) came to England to invite Dr. Taylor 
to the U.S.A. with the view of establishing a 
branch there of the C.I.M. Dr. Taylor went in 
the following year and visited Northfield and other 
American religious centres, and the outcome was 
that 14 workers were sent out in the same year ; 
others followed, and a Permanent Council was 
formed in 1889. In 1916, the U.S.A. contingent 
numbered 114. This new departure was followed 
by similar ones mainly among the Lutheran 
Churches of Europe, and in 1917 no less than eleven 
Missions are associated with the C.I.M. The 
•Home Department of each is virtually autonomous, 
and all financial arrangements are independent, but 
in other respects co-operation is complete, as well 
as the agreement in aims and principles. (For these 
Associate Missions v. infrn). 

II.— The dividinfj of the field. This early 
became important owing to the inter-denomin- 
ational character of the Mission : as, men holding 
divergent views, e.g. on the best form of church 
government, could not well succeed each other in 
the same station. The problem became accentuated 
when the Associate workers arrived, speaking 



different language.'*, and po.ssessing very different 
traditions from those of their British fellow-worker!'. 
The first formal division took i)lace in SsCichuan, 
where all territory east of the Kialing River was 
assigned in 1889 to the Church of England section 
of the Mission. (See Anijlicun Missionn). Later, 
other divisions of the field took place, especially in 
favour of the Associate Missions. 

III. — The effect of the Boxer Afovtmtitt. The 
Mission being essentially an inland one, and its 
'pen<onnd so large (nearly 700) it was inevitable 
that its lo.sses in 1900 should be very great, and 
no fewer than fifty-eight of its missionaries with 
twenty-seven of their children lost their lives, 
either by massacre, or as the result of privations 
endured. A large number of the nativ'e Christians 
also perished. Yet in little more than a year from 
the outbreak of the troubles, work was resumed in 
most parts of the field. 

IV.— In 1903, Dr. Taylor, finding hi.s health 
precarious, appointed Mr. D. E. Hoste as hii> 
successor in the Direction of the Mission. Dr. 
Taylor died at Changsha in 1905. 

V. — In the years following the Bo.xer movement 
all Missions in China perceived a great awakening 
of interest in Christianity, partly due to the dis- 
covery of the might of Western nations, as proved 
by the capture of Peking, and partly to other even 
less admirable motives. This awakening took the 
final form of mass movements, and the C.I.M., 
while recognizing the mixed motives often present, 
decided to instruct all who presented themselves. 
The opportunities for preaching increased a hundred 
fold, lands and buildings were freely offered, and 
crowds came to listen. Moreover the native 
churches themselves underwent a great revival. 
During the 15 or 16 years since the resumption of 
work after the Boxer movement, the number of 
communicants has more than trebled, and a church 
of more than 4,000 members has been gathered in 
among the aboriginal tribes in the S.W. provinces, 
with 7,000 enrolled enquirers, from peoples wholly 
untouched before. 

VI.— At the time of the Revolution of 1911 
the lives and property of foreigners were generally 
respected by both the contending parties : but 
again the C.I.M. suffered by the loss of two 
missionaries and six children who were massacred 
at Hsi-an fu by a lawless mob. The general effect 
of the Revolution and of the Declaration of 
Religious Liberty which followed has been greatly 
to iuaease the interest of the people in Christianity. 
VII.— Although evangelistic work has always 
been regarded as the main work of the Mission, 
the very success which has attended it has led to 
other forms of activity, which have been begun 
when necessary. 



90 



CHINA MEDICAL 



ENCYCIX»rAF.I>TA SINICA 



With regard to medical work, Dr. Hudson 
TAYLon, himself a medical, man, started dispensary 
work at Hangchow as far back as 1866; and the 
healing of the sick has always been regarded as 
second only to the preaching of the Gospel. 

While Education has not been employed as an 
fvangtUgtic agtncy, the teaching of the children of 
Christians dates from the beginning of the Mission, 
and few of the central stations are without a 
school; and in addition to those under direct 
Miuion control, the Chinese Christians themselves 
have opened quite a number. There arc several 
Orphan schools supported by the Mission, a large 
Foundling Home in N. Shansi, and a School for 
blind girls at Changsha. There are also Bible 
Institutes in various districts for the training of 
native pastors and evangelists. 

The following are the Associate Missions :— 
(1)._SWEDISH MISSION IN CHINA. 

Headquarters :— Stockholm, and Kingsbury, 
Cal. U.S.A. Formed in 1887. 

Works in .Shansi, Shonsi, and 38 hsien in Ilonan. 

Number of foreign workers in 1916 : 52. 
(2).— SWEDISH HOLINESS UNION. 

lltadquarten : — Torp, Kumla. 

lirqan xcrh in China, 1890. 

In 1896, the field between the two arms of the 
(treat Wall wa.s assigned to this ^li.-sion. In 1900, 
all the workers, 10 in number, suffered martyrdom. 
The work was reopened in 1902, and in 1916 the 
Mission reported 31 foreign workers. 
(3).— SCANDINAVIAN ALLIANCE MISSION, 
representing the Scandinavian Churches of U.S.A. 

JJeadquarttrs : — Chicago. 

Has worked in Shensi and E. Kan.su since 1894. 

The foreign workers in 1916 numbered 58. 
(4).— SWEDISH ALLIANCE MISSION. 

JJeadquartura : — Jonkoping, Sweden. 

This mission began work in China in 1892 in 
in the part of Shansi north of the Great Wall, 
And lost heavily in the Bo.xer movement in 1900. 

The foreign workers in 1916 numbered 15. 
(5).-N0RWEC:iAN MISSION IN CHINA. 

flitid'/uartrrA :— Handsf jord, Norway. 

It. ^;:iii work in 1889. 

lis cphere is the N.W. mountain district of 
Shansi. In 1916, the mission had 5 Nations, and 
16 forci;;ii workers. 
(6|.-N(Jl:WEGIAN ALLIANCE MISSION. 

lleadquarttTB :— Kri«liania. 

Began work in China, 1899. 

Wjirkji in Lung Chu Chai, Shensi. 

In 1916 there were 4 foreign workers. 
(7).-GEUMAN CHINA ALLIANCE MISSION. 

Htadquarteri :— Barmen, Germany. 

Kntrrrd China, 1890. 



\\ oiks in Kiaugsi and Chekiang in 10 stations, 
with 35 foreign workers (1916). 
(8).— LIEBENZELL MISSION. 

Ueadquarters :— Liebenzell, W^urtemburg. 
The province of Hunan was allotted to this 
mission in 1906. It has there 11 stations and 61 
foreign workers (1916). 

(9).— GERMAN WOMEN'S MISSIONARY 
j UNION. 

I Jlcadqucrtcrs :— Malche, Freienwalde a.O., 

Germany. 

Befjan work in 1908, in Ssuch'uan. 
I It has 4 lady workers (1916). 

1 (10).— FRIEDENSHORT DEACONESS MISSION. 
j Headquarters : — Miechowitz, Silesia. 

I Btgan work in China, 1912. 

Works at Ta-ting fu in Kueichou. 
I The foreign workers in 1916 numbered 4. 

' (11).— FINNISH FREE CHURCH MISSION. 
I Headquarters : — Abo, Finland. 

Began work in China, 1891. 
I Works in Kiangsi. The foreign (lady) workers 

I in 1916, were 7 in number. 

I Statistic.^ of China Inland Mi.'<sion and its 

I Associates, 1916. 

Foreign missionaries 1,077 

I Paid Chinese Staff 1,295 

j Chinese workers, voluntary or paid 

' by Chinese Church 1,465 

i Communicants 37,672 

i Pupil.s in Day and Boarding-Schools 10,210 

I CHINA MEDICAL BOARD, THE, a sub- 

sidiary organization of the Rockefeller Found- 
I ation. It was establi.shed in November, 1914, with 
thirteen members, in the U.S.A., and it immediately 
proceeded to suggest the re-organization of the 
Peking Union Medical College, with the result 
that it assumed financial re.«iponsibiIity for the 
school, and also reimbursed to the London Mission- 
ary Society the cost of land, buildings and equip- 
ment. It further arranged for lower classes of 
students to be sent to Tsinan fu. paying to the 
Shantung Christian University $100,000 gold for 
maintenance and $50,000 gold for buildings and 
equipment. New buildings are to be put up in 
Peking, fourteen additional acres having been 
bought for the purpose. 

Other i)lans are in course of development with 
respect to Shanghai, Nanking, Changsha, Canton, 
and a great deal has been expended in grants to 
ho.«pitals not connected with Medical Schools. 

Other activities are de.scribed in the paper 
referred to bplow. 

GuEENK : The Work of the China Medical 
Hoard, China Medical Journal, May, 1917. 

CHINA MEDICAL MISSIONARY Asso- 
ciation, founded in 1886, chiefly through the 



100 



JCNCVCI/Jl'AKDlA SINICA 



CHINA MERCHANTS 



influence of tlie late Dr. H. W. Booke, of the 
American Protestant Episcopal Mission. 

A Journal was shortly afterwards started, {in 
the first instance quarterly) the first issue appearing 
in March, 1887. The first President was Dr. 
J. G. Kerr of Canton. There were 29 active, 
9 honorary, and 17 corresponding members. 

The first general meeting of the Association 
took place at the General Conference of 1890, the 
chief result of which was the appointment of a 
committee to unify medical terminology. In 1908, 
a Medical Lexicon wa.< issued embodying the labours 
of thi.s committee. 

The .'second meeting of the Association was held 
in Shanghai in 1905, Dr. Christie of the U. F. 
Church of Scotland Mission, Mukden, presiding. 
Dr. CousLAND of Swatow was lent to the Association 
to do translation work. Mr. H. S. Wellcome (of 
Burroughs & Wellcome, the well known English 
drug manufacturers) gave £1,000 for this object, 
and various Missionary Societies also contributed. 
The next meeting was in Shanghai at the General 
Conference nf 1907 when the late Dr. G. A. Stuart 
of the M.E.M. was president, and a Research 
Committee was appointed. 

The Association next met at Hankow in 1910, 
Dr. CousLAND presiding, and received the r^aort 
of the Research Committee, whose investigations 
liad been expressly limited to the study ui 
intestinal parasites. The results obtained were 
felt to be so valuable that a second Research Com- 
mittee, enlarged in number and in scope was 
appointed. 

Tha next meeting was held in Peking in 1913, 
Dr. Logan of Hunan presiding, and was received 
by H.E. YiiAN Shih-k'ai who spoke most warmly 
of Medical Mission work especially in connection 
with the plague in Manchuria in 1911, and Red 
Cross work during the Revolution. The chief 
points di.«oussed were the improvement in Mission- 
ary Medical Education, as to standard, and as to 
union work, and as to bringing it in line with the 
requirements of the Ministry of Education. Co- 
o})eration with the Chinese was also recommended, 
as far as possible. 

The next Conference was held in Shanghai in 
1915; an interesting exhibit demonstrating the 
importance of public hygiene was shown, and 
attracted large crowds. A permanent Council on 
Public Health was created, and as an indirect 
result of the Association's meetings, a similar 
organization on non-missionary lines, called the 
National Medical Association of China {q-v.) was 
started in 1916. 

The 1917 Conference was held at Canton in 
January, and was a Joint Conference of the CM. 
M.A., and the National A.«;sociation, and separate 
as well as united meetings were held. Eighty-one 



members of the former were present and ci^^hty- 
eight of the latter. They were warmly received 
and greatly honoured by the enlightened and 
democratic Governor of Kuangtung, H.E. Cue 
Ch'ing-lan, ^ g ;iB. The C.M.M.A. supported 
two important memorials presented to the Govern- 
ment by the National Association. 

The C.M.M.A. in addition to other activities 
received four important Reports from the Research 
Committee embodying the results of .systematic 
and .scientific enquiry into the physical and physio- 
logical conditions of the Chinese. 

The Association's influence has greatly increased 
during the last few years, and in addition to the 
formation of the N.M.A. two other importaril 
developments have taken place. 

1. Largely as the result of representations 
made by the C.M.M.A. to the Edinburgh Con- 
tinuation Committee (Medical Missions section) a 
British Advisory Board on Medical Missions has 
been establii^hed, which will have a great effect on 
all medical missionary work in China. 

2. The Kiangsu Educational Association, non- 
missionary and purely Chinese, called on the 
C.M.M.A. to help in fixing anatomical, chemical 
and other terms for use throughout all China. The 
first sessions were held at the K.E.A. headquarters 
in Shanghai in January, 1917. 

The membership of the C.M.^^.A. in January, 
1917 was 550. 

CHINA MENNONITE MISSIONARY SOC- 

iety, The. 

Headquarters : — Hillsboro, Kansas, U.S.A. 
Works in Shantung and Uonan. 
The first missionaries were the Rev. and Mrs. 
H. C. Bautel, who arrived in China in 1901, 
representing a community of German Mennonitcs 
in the U.S.A. Ts'ao hsien yg ^ and Shan hsien 
S. gj , in Shantung were opened in 1905, and the 
former is still the principal station. Ts'ao-chou fu 
W iW Jf5^ was opened in 1908 ; and Honan was entered 
in 1914, when Yu-ch'eng ^tig was occupied. In the 
same province, Liu-hc^jSJ, (1915), and Suichou 
g^ ^, are also worked. Ning-ling hsien % ^ 1& 
is to be a foreign-manned station in the near future. 
At Ts'ao hsien there is orphanage and indust- 
rial work ; a school for the blind, and a boarding- 
school for girls, with 270 pupils in all. 
In 1917, the Mission reports :— 

Foreign missionaries 29 

Chinese staff 51 

Church members 127 

Outstations 15 

CHINA MERCHANTS STEAM NAVIGA- 
TION COMPANY. This Company was, in 1674. 
developed out of a former Company ( See Aden ). 
Its object was to trade with ports not open to 



101 



CHINA MONUMENTS 



E-NL'iCL«'PAEDIA SINICA 



foreign commerce, a monopoly which it did not 
obtain, and ultimately to kill all the foreign 
coaating trade. It was practically created by Li 
HcNGCHANC and was well backed up by Chinese 
Merchants, especially in Hongkong. It was offici- 
ally recognized and had the privilege of carrying 
north over one-third of the annual tribute rice. 
In 1877 it bought up the Shanghai Union Steam 
Navigation Company; and on October 20, 1879 it 
sent the steamer Uocttung to Honolulu with a 
large niimlHT of emigrant.s. The Company wa?, 
after a time, quite successful, but it docs not seem 
to have done much damage to the foreign ship- 
ping interests. 

ElTKl. : Eurnjir in China. 

CHINA MONUMENTS SOCIETY, THE. 
A Sotiety formed in Peking in 1908 by foreigners 
with the object of securing " complete suppression 
of Vandalism in China by foreigners, or due to 
foreign influence or agencies, and the protection 
of China's antiquities, monuments and all cultural 
objects, for the benefit of mankind, and especially I 
with reference to the welfare of Chinese society." 
See Royal Asiatic Soc. N. C. Branch, Journal, 
1912, and various publications of the Society. 

CHINA REVIEW, THE, or Xot>s JL- Queries 
OH t/>r f-ir i:<ft : h.^un in July, 1872 by N. B. 
DcNNYii in Hongkong, and issued every two 
months, coming to an end with vol. xxv, No. 6, 
June July, 1901. The second editor was Dr. Eitel. 

CHINA-ROOT, fu ling j^^ ; I'aehyiitn cocos. 
A fungu.s Lri>\vtli on the roots of fir trees, used 
both as a foo<l and drug. It is found in the form 
of large tubers, which do not readily decay, and 
are Mid to occur unchanged after lying in the 
ground for thirty yj-ars. The substance probably 
ronsists largely of pettine, and is free from smell 
or taste ; the hardest and whitest is the best. It is j 
ground up, mixed with rice flour, and made into , 
small square rakes for consumi)tion. It is used ! 
as a nrrve tonic and sedative. 

HiVRirr (I'rovince tic Xijanfiori) gives the 
follfiwing account of the preparation of fuling : 
.S<{uarf<i pifci'H of fir are placed in the soil and a 
cutlint; of fuling is iipplie'l and covered with sand, 
when, ttft<T a few niKtiths, new tubers form, growing 
into the wixi]. I'nfortunately the district ')f Lu an 
has l>«*en di'forcsied by thin culture. 

Smilnx ptruilo rhvtn x* the China root of the 
South, where it toke^ the place of Purhymu. The 
latter is usually much larger. Smilnx is exported 
to India and Burma; its use par excellence is in I 
syphilitic His«-nses. 

CHINA'S SORROW. The Yellow liiver; so 
(rtl'.'d ».y Ih- Kni|i.r..r Chia Cn'ixc in liis will, 
1820 , i»J jDi l|) .Sfl m -i ^ See Yrllnw Itxv.r. 



CHINA SUNDAY SCHOOL UNION, THE, 

{Headquarters, Shanghai), an interdenominational 
branch of Protestant missionary enterprise. The 
1907 Centenary Jlissionary Conference appointed 
a Sunday School Committee. In 1910, at the Con- 
vention of the World's Sunday School Association 
at Washington, D.C., the Kev. E. G. Tewksbtjry, 
formerly of the American Board of Missions, was 
chosen as National Secretary. The China Sunday 
School Union was organized a few months later. 
The " China Sunday School Journal," a monthly 
in English for teachers first appeared in January, 
1913. Two monthlies in Chinese are also issued 
for scholars. Various Chinese Lesson Helps are 
issued^ and a Teacher-Training series in both 
Chinese and English. 

In addition to the production of suitable 
literature, the Union aims at promoting the best 
methods in Religious Pedagogy. Books of its 
Teacher-Training Course are used in Schools and 
Institutes of Method and in Theological Seminaries. 
A Teacher-Training Certificate has been issued to 
some 800 Chinese leaders who have been examined 
in courses of Religious Pedagogy. 

The following statistics will indicate something 
of the extent of Sunday School work in China : 

Number of Sunday Schools 3,025 

Scholars 165,282 

,, Teachers 7,375 

Weekly issue of Lesson Note literature, 
180,000 copies. 

Number of copies of Teacher -Training 
series sold, 5,000 each of six books. 

CHINA TRADE ACT, THE, properly 'An 
Act to regulate the Trade to India and China,' 
(3 and 4 Will. IV, c. 93). It fixed the date, 
April 22, 1834, when the East India Company 
should cease to exist ; it created the office of 
Superintendent of Trade in China ; and provided 
that the Superintendents might be empowered by 
Orders in Council, to create a court of law for 
trying offences committed by British subjects in 
Chinese territory. 

Eames : The Emfish in China. 

CHINAWARE is distinguished in the Customs 
cxpiirt list from " pottery and earthenware." 

Dr. BusHEU. in Chinese Art, includes under 
pottery, in its widest sense, every production ol 
the fictile art, comprising all kinds of earthenware 
and stoneware, as well as porcelain, its highest 
achievement. As regards the trade in these goods, 
it is either inter-provincial or for the use of Chinese 
abroad. The value of " chinaware " exported 
averages nearly 3 million taels annually, and of 
pottery and earthenware nearly 2 million taels. 
'i'he former is almo.'-t all from Kiukiang or Swatow, 
Kiukiang .sending out rather more than Swatow. 



|o2 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SIXICA 



CH'IN DYNASTY 



The sftoiid class is more evenly distributed among 
the ports, but the bulk comes from Shanghai and 
the Kuangtung ports. The famous old Imperial 
potteries at Chingtechen, which were almost ruined 
by the T'ai P'ing rebels, now turn out a good 
deal of chinaware, (that sent from Kiukiang), but 
it is sadly inferior to the old wares. The Kuang- 
tung chinaware is from three centres, 1, I'akwoh, 
on the northern border of the province, near Amoy; 
2, from Yangchun, in Chaoching prefecture ; 3, 
from Yangchiang, also in the south of the province. 
This last is more ambitious than the former 
(which chiefly regard domestic ii-se) ; and turns 
out architectural ornaments, cisterns, fish bowls 
and flower pots, etc. These wares are named 
Kuang-yao (Kuangtung pottery). The other leading 
centre, from which Shanghai is sujjplied, is I-hsing, 
on the western shores of the Taihu. The factories 
at Liling, in N.E. Hunan, have been revived of 
recent years. 

At one time it was feared, in the trade in 
S. China, that Japanese articles w^ould drive out 
the heavier Chinese ware ; but the former went 
out of favour owing to its sameness and fragility, 
and the latter gained on account of its strength. 
The reproduction of antique shapes also stimulated 
the demand. 

The materials used are two sorts of earth, one, 
petuntse {^%.^) a hard, white, fusible quartz; 
secondly, kaolin (^ ^1, decomi^osed fel.spar of 
granite, which are imported to Chingtechen from 
other places in Kiangsi, and from Anhui. 
The export in 1916 amounted to Hk.Tls. 1,787,399. 

KiuKi.'\NG Customs Decennial Report, 1901. 

[N.S.] 

CHINA YEAR BOOK, THE, an annual 
which first appeared in 1913 under the editorship 
of H. T. Montague Bell and H. G. W. Woodhead. 
The Great War prevented its publication for the 
year 1915, but it was issued in 1916. It contains 
a large and valuable amount of information, 
especially with regard to the year's commerce, 
finance, etc. 

CHIN DYNASTY, LATER ^^. See Five 
Di/)iaslie-<. 

CHIN or TSIN DYNASTY »t^B, also called 
the Western Tsin, was established in a.d. 265, as 
the outcome of the strife betwen the ' Three 
Kingdoms ' (q.v.) It was founded by Ssu-ma Yen 
after the Shu-Han kingdom had been conquered, 
and he soon proceeded to the conquest of Wei. 
The capital was at Lo-yang. The Hsiung-nu soon 
laid claim to the throne, took Lo-yang and carried 
off two Tsin Emperors in succession. The Tartars 
were then masters of the whole of North China, 
and the Tsin capital being removed to Nanking, 



the dynasty is from a.u. 317 known as the Eastern 
Chin or Tsin dynasty. 



Dyn. Title 

K-ifr ^^■" Ti 



Accession JU-ign Title Adojjted 



n 



304 



265 -^kb T-ai Shih 265 

jgc'4l Hsien Ning 275 

^31 T'ai K'ang 280 

$Re T'ai Hsi 290 

Aiiifr Hui Ti 290 zKKS Yung Hsi 290 

?h^ Yung P'ing 291 

7C^ Yuan K'ang 291 

/km Yung K'ang 300 

/k*^ Yung Ning 301 

*^' T'ai An 302 

yh^l Vung Hsiiig 

yh'Jc Vung An 

iL^Jt rhien Wu f 

yk'Jc Vung An j 

^SS Kuang Hsi 306 

^^r Huai Ti 307 ?k^ Yung Chia 307 

S^r Min Ti 313 lit^ Chien Hsing 313 

Tschei'e : Hi<toire flu Royaume de Tein. 

CHIN or TSIN DYNASTY, EASTERN, 

]^ 3^, a continuation of the Western Tsin, but 
with its capital at Kiang-ning (Nanking). The 
eleven Emperors of this dynasty were all weak 
and incompetent. It began in a.d. 317, and in 
420 it gave place to the Sung Dynasty. 
Dyn. Title Accession Keign Title Adopted 



7C ^ Yiian Ti 



m 



B 



"f^ Ming Ti 
^ Ch'eng Ti 

^ K'ang Ti 
^f Mu Ti 



a ^^ Ai Ti 
^ % Ti Yi 



317 iitSt Chien Wu 
is^^Sa. T'ai Hsing 
7kBi Yung Ch'ang 
323 ;*:^ T'ai Ning 
326 J^m Hsien Ho 

J^^ Hsien K'ang 
343 5^70 Chien Yuan 
345 7kVi\ Yung Ho 

ft^ Sheng P'ing 
362 PI5RI Lung Ho 
^^ Hsing Ning 



-^■^^ TT • XT • T.' I'566 ;fciBl T'ai Ho 
M^^ Hai Hsi Kung \ '^^ 

W\^^ Chien Wen Ti 371 iS^c Hsien An 

^B. Ning K'ang 

jfcyC T'ai Yiian 

Ik 3c Lung An 



#S\;^ Hsiao Wu Ti 373 
S !^ An Ti 



397 



7C^ Yiian Hsing 
^3c Lung An 
^^ Ta Hsiang 
7C^ Yuan Hsing 
iHm I Hsi 
419 TC^S Yuan ILm' 
TscHEPE : Ilistoire du Royaume de 
CH'IN DYNASTY, THE,^ l2 (bc 255 206) 
though short-lived was a most important dynasty ; 
it accomplished the destruction of the feudal 
system, and brought the whole of China under one 
ruler. Cii'iN Shih Hx\\ng ti the founder, (b.c. 246) 



JS fj? Kung Ti 



317 
318 
322 
323 
326 
335 
343 
345 
357 
362 
363 

366 

371 
373 
376 
397 
402 
402 
402 
403 
405 
419 
Tgin. 



1U3 



CH'I, NORTHERN 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



.vas the finst ruler to Uke the title of Hcaxg Ti. 
He extended the empire, built the Great Wall to 

I heck the TarUrs, and burnt the classical books. 
See Sfiifi Huang Ti; Great Wall; Burnimj of Boohs. 

Dynastic Title Accession 

K ■ BE Chao Ht-iang Wang 255 
^. X £ Hsiao Wen Wang 250 

S a i Chuang Hsiang Wang 249 
?*< ?. Cheng Wang 246 

«r fi -???• Shih Huang ti 221 

riftil^f Krh Stiih Huang ti 209 

CHI. NORTHERN DYNASTY 4b* W a short 
dynaKty of the Epoch of Division between North 
and South. In 550 it succeeded tlie Eastern Wei 
and twenty-eight years later it was swallowed up 
by the Northern Chou ; which was soon after con- 
•juercd by the Ch'en dynasty. 
Dyn. Title Acces.sion Reign Title Adopted 

A.I>. A.D. 

4:l[# Wen H«uan Ti 550 5^1* T'ien Pao 550 

B ift Fei Ti 560 ^l^ Ch'ien Ming 550 

#«<fr H^iao(■haoTi 560 ^^ Huang Chien 560 

ft** \Vu Ch'eng Ti 561 *^ T'ai Ning 561 

fifJS Ho ChHng 562 

A ^ Wen Kuiig or ^Ife T'ien T'uiig 555 

II * H..U C'hu 555 K^ Wu P'ing 570 

ttfb Lung Hua 576 

5ftlt:E -^n t*' ^^"anfJ 576 ^.I Te Ch'ang 576 
Vl £. Yu <hu 577 7jt^ Cli'cn- Kuaiig 577 

CHINESE AND JAPANESE REPOSITORY, 
THE, a magazine issued monthly in England un- 
der ihe editorship of the Rev. Jamls Sv.mmeks, 
b«>Kinning -July, 1863. It contained many articles 
I'l-riiilrd from The C/tiiivtc Hvpositonj. It only 
I inpletod the third volume. 

CHINESE ANGLICAN CHURCH. Since 
1912, the «l«'\en diotcsfs of the English, American 
and Canadian branches of the Anglican communion 
in <*hina have been one Chinese Church, known as 
the Holy ("tttholic Church in China, Chung Hua 
Sheng Kung llui («!'^«ii^). 

Thi« flid not involve any re arrangement or .sub- 
divi>ion i.f diiM-eneK, in each of which the bishop 
*ith the Diix-ewin Synod manage internal affairs; 
•V . every tlire« yearn, each diocese send.-j its 
I'l h'jp. with four . l.r .^ nnd four laymen, to the 
General Syn'Ml 

At Iho riri.1 i..i,.i,,l ^ynod. which mot in 1912, 
it wan f.ropomd to form a new diocese, and a 
■•van apjioiiittd to consider the matter. 
"I <;«'n.Tal .Syn(xi it was decided to send 
'■*"'■ Shenni to report on the suitability 

"' •' '• for the proposed new missionary 

« rk. nn<i a* tho result it was decided that as many 
1 .'t- ..f Sli.iiM w.T- n..f r«Ti,pi,.,| l,y a„j. other 



Mission, work should be begun at once with the 
view of establishing a twelfth diocese there. The 
responsibility for this new departure lies in the 
hands of the Chinese Church, all eleven dioceses 
assisting by supplying volunteer workers, and 
apportioning funds for the first three years. 

A Chinese bishop will probably be appointed 
in a few years ; but until this time the episcopal 
oversight will be in the hands of one of the 
neighbouring bishops— the first appointed being 
Bishop White of Honan, followed by Bishop 
NoRRis of the North China diocese. 

CHINESE COLLEGE at Naples, (Collegio 
dei (.'inc?i), was founded by Pere Matted Rii'a, 
the formal opening taking place on July 25, 1732. 
P. RiPA {q.v-), after his return from China had 
seven years' hard work before he could get this 
Institution founded. The Pope promised his ap- 
proval when it should have been established, and 
provided Rii'a found the funds; the Propaganda 
objected to its location at Naples ; the Emperor 
Charles VI encouraged it but with certain difficult 
conditions. 

It was opened with five students who had 
accompanied Ripa from Peking. It consisted of a 
College and a Congregation ; the former was to 
qualify young Chinese or Indians for missionary 
work in the East, at the expense of the foundation, 
the students taking five vows ; the latter was for 
ecclesiastics who would teach without payment and 
who took no vows. 

It was reorganized in 1889. See Bipa. 

CHINESE ENGINEERING AND MINING 

COMPANY. See Kailan Mining Adminiftratioii. 

CHINESE EVANGELISATION SOCIETY, 

Tiie. The formation of this society was one result 
of the deep interest aroused by the missionary 
voyages of Giitzlaff [q-v.) up and down the coast 
of ciiina in 1831-1835. It entered China in 1853, 
and worked chiefly in Ningpo. Dr. Hudson 
Taylor {q.v.) was the most prominent of the small 
band of workers sent out. After he was compelled 
to return home through ill-health in 1860, he 
resigned his connection with the Society, and 
founded the China Inland Mission. Two or three 
years after this the older Society ceased to exist, 
and some members of its Home-Committee became 
referees for the C.I.M. The workers on the field 
resigned, or wore accepted by other Missions. 

CHINESE MISCELLANY, THE. A volume 
published in Shanghai soon after 1850, but with- 
out date, place, or author on the title-page. It 
contains a paper on silk manufacture, one on 
Shanghai, from native sources, and two others. 

CHINESE ORIENTAL COLLEGE. See .SVu 
/ Kiiiiti. 



irii 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



CHINESE SOCIAL 



CHINESE RACE, THE. The urigin of the 
Chinese people remains an unsolved iJi'obleni. The- 
ories have been put forward to connect tliem with 
Egypt and with North America. 

Some .-tudents claim that there is strong 
philological evidence to shuw the early Chinese seat 
was in the Mesoijotaniian valley. It is claimed 
that they came into China from the west and 
that they found an earlier people in possession 
of the land. The earliest reliable history shows 
them in the Yellow River valley, first higher in its 
course and afterwards lower, and ignorant of the 
Yangtze basin. The inference is that they came 
from Eastern Turkestan, from Lubnor, along the 
north side of the Altyn Tagh and Nan Shan ranges, 
past the sites of the present Sining and Lanchow 
to the Wei valley, then down the Wei into tht 
Yellow River valley. It is supposed by some thaf 
these early immigrants were the ancestors of the 
historical Chuu Jg race; that they had their home 
in the Tarim valley, then a jjleasant land, now a 
waste howling wilderness, where Stein has un- 
covered the remains of a prosperous civilization; 
that they were driven out by the beginnings of 
that desiccation which is going on still. Wherever 
they came from, there is proof that they were 
agricultural. It may be taken for granted that 
they mingled with the aboriginal races of the land 
they conquered ; that remnants of these people have 
remained unabsorbed ; and that the Chinese of the 
south are nearer to the original type than those of 
the north, who have been for centuries in contact 
with Tartar tribes. 

The more modern students, however, regard 
the philological argument as proving the direct 
opposite of the above theory. The languages of 
Eastern Asia have been grouped under the name 
Sino-Tibetan, and since they are unmistakably 
one tongue the above theory implies that not only 
China but Indo-China, Siam, etc., were overrun by 
the same Mesopotamian conquerors, xiho retained 
and imposed their language : which seems impos- 
sible. 

There may or may not have been a conquering 
race coming from the West — it cannot be proved 
or denied ; but if it came it must have lost its own 
tongue, since Chinese, as proved by its connections, 
was not that tongue. 

CHINESE RECORDER AND MISSIONARY 
JOURNAL, THE. Tliis magazine dates from 
IMay 1868. It was begun by the Rev. S. L. Baldwin 
of Foochow and printed there as a monthly.journal 
with 264 pages in the year, at $2.00 per ann. 
From February 1870 to May, 1872 its editor was 
the Rev. J. Doolittle. It was then suspended, 
but in January, 1874 Mr. Alex. Wylie issued it 
again, with the American Presbyterian Mission 

14 



Press in Shanghai as publishers. It appeared 
bi-monthly, making an annual volume of 480 pp. 
at .$3.00 per ann. Dr. S. L. Baldwin was editor 
again in 1878, and Dr. A. P. Happer in 1880. 
In January 1885 Dr. Cclkk became editor and 
the magazine from March 1885 has been issued 
monthly. In the earlier years when foreigners 
were few and the Recorder the only magazine, it 
contained many papers of the highest value on 
general and scientific topics, by such writers as 
Edkins, liuETSCHNEiDEn and Kincsmill. But in 
later years it has naturally confined itself more to 
subjects more clo.sely related to missionary work, 
and now publishes very little of ireneral or 
sinological interest. 

CHINESE REGIMENT, THE, a ime regiment 
which was raised at Wcihaiwei, early in 1399. Bv 
February, 1902, it mu.stered over 1,300 men, but 
orders were then received from home to stop 
recruiting, and soon afterwards instructions came 
to reduce the regiment gradually till it vanished. 

During the Boxer troubles the regiment was in 
action twice in the leased Territory to put down 
risings ; then 363 men of all ranks took part in the 
fighting in Chihli, and were present at the taking 
of Tientsin ; the losses were about 12 per cent. 
The men were well disciplined and loyal. 

Colonel C. D. Bruce, afterwards well-known in 
Shanghai, was mo.st active in the formation of the 
regiment. 

Barnes : On Active Srrvice tcith the Chinese 
Rerjiment. 

CHINESE REPOSITORY, THE, a monthly 
magazine begun by Buidgman with Mokuison's 
help, and afterwards edited by S. Well.s Williams. 
The first number was issued in Canton, Maj', 1832 ; 
and the last, which included a full inde.x to the 
20 volumes, in December, 1851. About 21,000 
volumes were printed in all, but 6.500 were 
destroyed in the burning of the Factories in Decem- 
ber, 1856. The complete set is therefore very hard 
to get. The work is valuable not only because of 
its rarity, but because of the amount of information 
it contained respecting those far-off days. It gives 
some particulars about itself in vol. v, p. 159. 

CHINESE SCIENTIFIC BOOK DEPOT, 
THE, an agency in Shanghai with branches in 
several ports for .selling all kinds of useful 
literature to the Chinese. It was founded in 1885 
by Dr. John Fryer, and was kept on a self- 
supporting basis. It expired in 1911. 

CHINESE SOCIAL AND POLITICAL 
SCIENCE ASSOCIATION, THE, was founded 
in Peking in 1915, its objects being the study of 
Law, Politics, Sociology. Economics, etc.. and 
fellowship among those interested in these studies. 
It issues a quarterly Review, which is free to 



lo; 



CHIN SHIH 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



gOMiping information about him may be found 
111 Hi-KTEu's lilt- "f <''d China. 

CHIN SHIH J|i w/ifJWf»/i«7 scholar, one who 
|.ass«-<l ti).- thir.l examination for what foreigners 
u.-uiiilv (itM^iialed the degree of Doctor. The 
examination was held every three years in Peking. 
and only rhu jtn (q.v.) who had not taken office 
might compete. See I'huuifj i/iinii. 

CH'IN SHIH HUANG Ti. >.c >/m7( 
H uitnij 'I t- 

CH'IN, STATE OF ^. (often written TSIX). 
Thi» famoui' feudal .Stale, which ultimately united 
all China under one rule, occupied the territory 
now called Shensi and part of Kansu. Thi.s was 
the original home of the Chou house. It was a \ 
frontier Stale, having the Hsi Jung Tartars to 
north and we«t. Though Ssuma Ch'ien traces 
the family history back through the previous 
dyiia.<«tieK, the earliest reliable fact is that the 
Chou Emperor H.iO employed Fki xzu ^.-J- to look 
after hin herds of horses, and invested him with 
the !imall territory of Ch'in as an 'attached' State 
(fu yumj), in B.C. 938. It is the same district as 
is called Vurig chou Jg^H '" ^.he Yu Kiinj, and was 
in the present Kung ch'ang fu in Kansu. A later 
ruler was made Margrave, and when the Emperor 
Yf was killed by the Tartars and his successor 
moved the capital from near the present Hsian fu 
to Lo yang in 781, the Ch'in ruler was made an 
earl, the State became a direct fief of the Emperor 
and the original territory of the Chou family was 
handed over to it. All this was on condition of 
puniahing the Tartars and permanently recovering 
the territory from tliern, a task not ea.sy, the first 
earl bwing hif> life in battle in the attem[)t. 

This removal of the im{>erial ca|iital and rise 
of the <'h'in power on Chou's old patrimony is 
• ■n«' of th<« mo«t important points in early Chinese 
'as being the beginning of trust- 
^y. The central jjower had owned 
Us V. d from this date counted for less 

and !• the greater feudal .states for five 

centuries fought among themsdves till Ch'in won 
the Empire. 

Although the Ch'in rulers, (whose family name 

waa YiNfi Kl, drew their descent from IlrANo Ti 

himxcif, it muHt not be forgotten that in the eighth 

' iry ».r. both rulers and people were half 

>r both in blo<)d and civilization. All the 

' ' '■ iii • ■ t.ict with barbarians became more 

' •' ■ ' '' • I'-rmixture of blwid and by constant 

• I • iri', nut t<i nieiitii.n their larger outlnok on life, 

■•f: • the purrly CliineM. 'orthodox' middle king- 

' ritual and ceremony only, became 

•■'■<■]■■ '• line except as a prey. 

The Ch'in Stat^*, thoui;h regarded by the 
orthfxb.x ns mini b.-irbaroii^ nirj ili..i|,^rh jt borrowed 



it? literary statesmen from other States, was with- 
out a rival in military genius. Its most important 
ruler was Duke ^Ir ||, B.C. 658, who had a Chinese 
adviser and also a very able Tartar adviser of Chin 
^ descent. He became Protector (q.v.), that is, 
leader of all the feudal States, though this never 
had formal recognition. He conducted bloody 
wars against his neighbour Chin, but his chief 
glory is his enormous e.xtension among the Tartars 
westwards. The question whether it was this Duke 
Mt or the Emperor Mu who made great journeys 
as far as the Tarim river will be noticed under the 
article Mu. According to the .S7(/^ Chi he added 
twelve small States to his principality during his 
reign of thirty-seven years, and increased his 
territory by a thousand li. At his death in B.C. 621 
one hundred and seventy-seven people were buried 
alive in his tomb. (See Sacrificef^). 

During the next two centuries Ch'in made no 
further conquests in China, but conquered the 
kingdoms of Pa £ and Shu gj (now forming 
Ssuch'uan). It was in the period B.C. 360 — 340 
that Ch'in made its most important progress. 
Under the guidance of a 'princely adventurer' from 
another State, called Wei Yang, (q.v.) a code of 
laws was issued, the civil and military administ- 
ration was reformed, the capital (which had had 
many removals) finally fi.xed at Hsieri-yang )^^. 
and many other important reforms introduced ; 
Ch'in resources were so well organized that a 
century later it ruled all China. At the date of 
these reforms it is estimated that the population 
of Ch'in was about three millions, in forty-one //.s;c«. 

In the fourth century B.C. the States had been 
practically reduced to the six (or seven) called the 
Six (or Seve7i) Martini States (q.v.) -tjS|. Of these 
only Ch'in and Ch'u, each already possessing a 
third part of modern China, could hope to possess 
the whole. !Each sought for alliances with other 
States, one in an east and west, the other in a 
north and south direction, causing the period to be 
known as the Perptndiciilar and Horizontal Period 
(q.v.). In the year 364 Ch'in cut off 60.000 Wei 
heads ; 80,000 more in 331 ; three years later 82,000 
Tartar heads ; in 314 Han lest 10,000 ; in 312 Ch'u 
lost 80.000 ; in 307 Han lost 60,000 and in 304 Ch'u 
lost 20,000 heads. Pai Ch'i QIC,, the celebrated 
Ch'in general killed 240,000 Han people in a single 
battle ; in 275 cut off 40.000 Wei heads, and 50,000 
Han heads in 264. In the year 260 he accepted the 
surrender of 400,000 Chao troops, guaranteed their 
safety and then proceeded to massacre them to a 
man. In 267 Chin lost 26,000; in 256 Han lost 
40,000 and in 247 her last 30,000, while Chao in 256 
also lest her last 90,000. The Chinese comment 
ators reckon one million four hundred thousand 
lives .as the price paid to unify the Empire; and 
there is no reason for doubting the figures. The 



loy 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



CH'IU CH'ANG CHUN 



Imperial territory was taken by Ch'in in B.C. 255 
and with the death of the Emperor Nan in the 
same year the Ch'in dynasty really began ; but it 
was not till B.C. 221 that Chung, Earl of Ch'in, 
having overthrown Ch'u and Ch'i took the Empire 
as Shih Hu.ang Ti or Fir.st Emperor. 

Ch'in still remains the literary name (jf Shensi. 

Parker : Ancient China Simplified; Tschepe : 
I/iituiie (lu lioyuume de Tn'in; Ssu-ma Ch'ien : 
Shih Chi, (Chavannes). 

CH'IN WANG HlHi;. See Iii,pr,i„i Xobilitij. 

CHINWANGTAO r^ Hi |» , king of Ch'in's 
island, on the Liao-tung Gulf, about ten miles west 
of Shan-hai kuan, in lat. 39" 55' 15' N. and long. 
119"-38' E. The port is never closed by ice, and 
the pier and breakwater are so constructed that 
vessels can load or unload in any weather or state 
. of tide, straight into or from railway trucks. It is 
on the main line from Mukden and Newchwang to 
Tientsin. Its advantages as a port were discovered 
by the Chinese Engineering and Mining Co., (now 
the Kailan Mining Administration). From Decem- 
ber. 1897, the Post Office landed mails there during 
the sea.son of ice in the Pei-ho ; and in December, 
1901 the port was definitely opened to trade. 
The port was selected as one of those for the 
embarkation of coolies for South Africa in 1904. 
At present the chief and almost sole article of 
export is coal, and this trade is increasing. 

The name is due to the fact that T'ai Tsung 
of the T'ang dynasty, when he was Prince of Ch'in 
spent some time here while prej)aring war against 
Korea in the 7th century a.d. 

The population is about 3,000. 

1915 1916 

Net Foreign Imi)orts 3.498,751 2,614,794 

Net Chinese „ 1.269,076 1,102,543 

Exports 5,842,115 5,712,426 

Total Hk.Tls. ... 10,609,942 9,429,763 

CHIPMUNK. Eittnmiri.<, of the Sriiirldae 
family (Squirrel.s). See Rodents. 

CH'I, STATE OF, ^, a feudal State of the 
Chou period, between the Yellow River and the 
sea, occupying parts of the modern Shantung and 
Chihli. It seems to have been open to the sea, 
but the Promontory was always in possession of 
barbarous tribes. The Yellow River, as it then 
ran, divided Ch'i from Chin ^ and Yen. The 
fief was granted by the Chou founder to his chief 
adviser, (not of the royal house but with the 
clan-name Chiang ^ , and descended from mythical 
roj-alty), with the rank of Marquis^ . Its capital 
was at Lin-chih gg/H , which city still retains that 
name as a h.<ien of Shantung. After the date of 
the enfeoffment, for some three centuries there is 
little known. The first marquis distinguished 
himself by encouraging trade, manufactures, fish- 



eiies and salt production. Five centuries later, 
Kuan Tzii {(/.r.) made the country p^J^.«perou^ bv 
the same means. It became a luxurious State 
with a gay and splendid capital. It was one of 
the most civilised and ritualistic of the States, 
but never had the lofty spiritual status of Lu, 
and like the other northern States, it was always 
in close political and social touch with the Tartars. 
Its great duty as a frontier State was to defend 
Lu, Wei and Sung from the Tartars, and il was 
.said that Duke Huan, with his minister Kuan I/.u, 
saved China from becoming a Tartar province. 
In B.C. 894, the reigning prince was boiled alive 
at the Emperor's order for some political offence ; 
I this was avenged two centuries later. In 688, 
I Ch'i had become so important that the Emperor 
commissioned it to act with authority in the 
matter of a disputed succession, the first example 
of such deputed authority. Duke Huan came to 
power in 683, and toi.k Kuan Tzu for his mi ii.><tir. 
In 679 he became the first Protector of China. 
(See I'lotector). 

A prince of Ch'en l^i took refuge in Ch'i in 
671, and his descendants were ambitious. The 
name Ch'en was changed, it is not known when 
or why, to T'ien fl). In the year 481 Tien Hixc 
assassinated the ruling prince, and in 391 the 
T'ien family took the ( h'i throne. Thci;- tlll^ 
was formally recognized by the Emperor in 378. 
There weVe seven rulers of this new line before 
the State submitted to Ch'in, b.c. 220. 

Besides Kuan Chung or Kuan Tzu. Ch'i pro- 
duced the philosopher Yen Tzu {</.r.). The name 
Ch'i is still used as the literary name of Sha itnn','. 
Parker : Ancient China Simplified. 

CHIT. From the Hindi chitthi, a letter 
or note. A term used among foreigners in China 
for letters, notes, I.O.U.s, etc. 

CH'IU CH'ANG CH'UN, gp :g # ; pn.p.rly 
g|5 ^ ;j^ Ch'iu Ch'u-chi, CH"ANG-(jruN being a 
name adopted by himself. (This is Professor 
Giles' own correction of the entry in his fSiu/rn/Jii- 
C(d Dictionary). 

A noted Taoist, born in 1148 in Shantong. 11 is 
fame was such that Chenghis Khan (not Kii.uii.\i 
as stated by Rk'hauu) invited him to the court ; 
the letter and answer are given by BnET.scii-.riiii: :. 
The sage left his retirement and went to Yon 
(Peking) but found the Khan had gone wot ; in 
spite of his age he proceeded to Persia and there 
found Chenghis. The journey there and back took 
three years, and a journal of it was kept by one 
of his disciples. (See H.n yn chi). On his return 
he lived in Peking where ground was given him to 
build a monastery on Ch'iung hua Island. He 
died July 27, 1227, and the Pai Yun Kuan |^S|| 
a monastery still to be seen outside the Hsi pien 



lO'.l 



CHIU HUA SHAN 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



nieii ggftif^ was Luill to receive his remains. His 
birthday is celebrated there every rear on the 19th 
of the first moon. 

The novel ncimed Hsi yu f:hi, translated in part 
by Dr. T. IUcuahu under the title A Missiun to 
Hruvtn and ascribed to Ch'itj Ch'ang-ch'un is 
a later anonyraoiu work. 

Bkeisch.neider : Meiiiotial Itifearchti ; Giles : 
lii'iijraphinJ Dictionary ; RlClfAKlt : A Mignioii to 

IJctlV It. 

CHIU HUA SHAN A'^lU '^"f "f t'>'' i''t)ur 
.^a(ifd Hills of (hiiie.se Uuddhii-ni. is about 20 
iiiw<s south of the Yarij;t/e in Aiihui proviiite. Its 
patron divinity is Ti Tsanc t'usa ;t|}j|||, who opens 
the uates of purgatory and n-.^cues .sufft-rinj; souls. 
The firi'l Huddhist hermit to live there was Pet Tv, 
an Indian pilgrim who arrived in A.D. 401. The 
old name of the mountain was Chiu Tzil shan 
jlf'Hl, bo<.-au.<»e of nine outstanding peaks, but it 
yMXA given the name of Chiu-hua Shan ^il^iU .Vine 
yiiivrr* Iiat by the great T'ang poet I^i Po. Not 
\it\g after hid visit, there came a holy man, Chin 
'"h'iao iiijo. from a foreign land, either Siam or 
Kon-a, wheise sanctity gave the hill its fame, for 
he wa» supposed to be an incarnation of Ti Tsang 
Puka. The oldest buildings were destroyed by the 
T'ai P'iiig reb«'ls, who also burnt a scholars' retreat 
built on the site of a cottage where once Li Po 
rt-rided. The chief monastery is Hua ch'eng Ssu, 
founded in the 8tli century. A pavilion behind it, 
v%hi<h fortunately escaped destruction by the rebels, 

• ontains the set of Kuddhist Scripture."? presented 
by the Ming Emperor Wan Li. Another of the 

• ighti- of ChiU'hua Shan is the gilded mummy of 
a revered abbot who died at the beginning of the 
19th century. 

KiTKEii : A'lM Hun Slum (East of .•Vsia, vol. iv, 
p. 45); .loiissK.s : liuddhi't Chinn. 
CHI YiJN. See I)i,ti„„nri,,. 

CHOP, KJor !jtKt '-" '"'"> a mark or brand 
or naiiif put oi. gotxls, ctdre.-ponding to .some e.\- 
lenl with the Western trade mark. Thus a part- 
icular "rhop" of tea means tea with a certain 
brand on the chut, showing it comes from a certain 
lirnt. The t"rm is Ufed « f <ourse of foreign gijods j 
al»<j. The word may be deriveil from the Cantonese ' 
pronunciation, (chap), of ^ r/ui, to puncture, or 
(roni the lliiiriustani < fia/itm lo xtam|) or print. The 
Ciaiid <!ii,p, |£^ /.un.j tint or %\JI^ hiimj jui, is 
the port t learance givr.i by the CustoniH. The 
name m tiU-rally ml r/io/i, because of the big red 
U'aI staiiipfd on it. 

CHOPCHOP, from Cantonese pronunciation 1 
"' ^.% (A<//» Itifi) meaning ' (|uick, ipiick ' or 
' make h««te.' A 'pidgin' English expression. 

CHOPSTICKS. The bamboo. wimmI or ivorv 
j.air of .Ink" with wliiih the Cliinese lake up food. ! 



It is recorded that ivory chopsticks were first used 
by Chou Hsin of the Shang dynasty. The word 
■ chop •■ is the Cantonese pronunciation of ^ chi, 
quick, (see Chojj fhoj)), the Chinese name of the 
'. implements being k'liai tzu '^-J-. hmteiier'i. 

CHORTEN. The Tibetan name for stwpa 

\ CHOSEN ^H, The Japanese transliteration 

of the two Chinese characters forming the official 

i name for Korea. In Mandarin they are c7iao hsien 
' dawn-freshness," and formerly the name belonged 
to a district in the north west of the peninsula. 
CHOTSCHO. See Turf an. 

CHOU DYNASTY m^ (bc. 1122-255), the 
longest, and in many respects the most interesting 
' and important of the dynasties. China's three 
I greatest Sages belong to the latter half of the 
Chou period, — Lao Tzu, Confucius and Mencius 
The dynasty was founded by Wu Wang, of 
the Chou State, on the destruction of the Shang 
dynasty. Fiefs were then granted to members 
of the royal house, to other supporters, and to 
representatives of preceding dynasties, that the 
necessary sacrifices might be continued. The 
system thus developed was successful as long as 
there w-as gratitude, personal or hereditary, to 
the ruling house; but this became gradually 
weaker ; and especially after the central power 
had confessed its impotence by removing its seat 
to Lo-yang and giving over its original patrimony 
to Ch'in, the Emperors became of less and less 
account, while the greater States fought and 
intrigued for centuries for leadership, till all were 
swallowed up in the new dyna.sty of Ch'in. 

The Chou rulers never used the discredited 
title of Emperor, Ti ^, but used the new title 
of King, Wang ^r instead. In vassal States also. 
as the central authority grew more weak, this title 
was sometimes usurped. Leading States one 
after another to the number of seven in reality, 
became Protectors, though only five were officially 
recognised ; this period was called that of tlu' 
five Leaders or Protectors, EfQ Wu Po and lasted 
from B.C. 685 to b.c. 591, though the last Pro 
lector was really appointed in B.C. 492. Mean- 
while the Imperial Domain shrank to the territoiy 
between the Yangtze and the river Lo. 

The Chou rule was largely based on ritual. 
ceremony and red-tape : the o'hou Li is an extra 
ordinary proof of the minute regulations by which 
the empire was governed. The more orthudo.\ 
(.'hineso States clave to this and were conservative. 
Lu in the days of Confucius being a marked 
exam|)le; while the great frontier States with a 
considerable admixture of barbarian blood would 
lay more stress on military strength; the outcome 
being seen in the burning of the books by the 



110 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA f5INICA 



CHOU TZU 



1 onqiieriiig Clriii ruler. Sec /'i(iti;ili>i.< ; Fiiidaf 
States. 

IjE(iGE : s/iii Cfiliitj, ('/run C/i'iii, etc.; 
HiRTH : Ancient Hi^tmy of China; Parker : 
Anrient China Simplipid ; Faber : JU-^e nf the 
('halt Dyn<i<tij (Chinese Reeorder, vol. xx.xiii). 
Dynastic Accession , ])yna.stin Accession 

Appellation B.C. j Appellation B.C. 

ff^3^ Wu Wang 1122 i fc^ 3-1 Ch'ing Wang 618 
jSu^ Ch'eng ,. 1115 g-; IE K'uang ., 612 
aiaE K'ang „ 1078 ^ 3^ Ting „ 606 

B0i Chao ,; 1052 f|?j SE Chien ,, 585 

BEE Mu ,, 1001 m. BE. Ling „ 571 

^♦•ri Kung „ 946 ^ i Ching „ 544 

UBc. I ,,934 ^it i Cliing „ 519 

^i Hsiao ,, 909 tC 3£ Yuan ,, 475 

^i I „ 894 iR5e3E Cheng Ting „ 468 

Ei Li „ 878 # £E K'ao „ 440 

m3E. Hsiian „ 827 ^E'ff. Wei Lieh „ 425 
m^L Yu „ 781 3: i An „ 401 

^Pi P'ing „ 770 E'i i Lieh „ 375 

mjE. Huan „ 719 K H Hsien „ 368 

lt£ Chuang „ 695 i tftftSaE: Shen Ching ., 320 
^3c. Hsi „ 681 I ij i Xan „ 314 

Jfei Hui „ 676 : ^.^^ Tnng Chou 

g.=E Hsiang ,, 651 Chun 255 

CHOU DYNASTY, LATER. See Five 
Di/naitie.^. 

CHOU KUAN. See Chou Li. 

CHOU LI ^@ or Chuu Kuan ^'f, T/k Chou 
Ritfs or ?V/c Offices of Chou. An ancient work, 
supposed by some to have been written by Chou 
KuNO, brother of the founder of the Chou dynasty 
(B.C. 1122) ; by pthers taken as a forgery of a 
thonsand years later. Chu Hsi and Ma Kuang- 
LiN however consider it a work of the early Chou 
period. It gives the official services of all officers 
at the Chou court. It was translated into French 
by E. BiOT in 1851. 

BiOT : Lc Tr.heou li. 

CHOU, NORTHERN, DYNASTY :{b J^ |E ; 

a short dynasty rif the Epoch of Di\ ision between 
North and South. It succeeded W^estern Wei in 
557. Later it absorbed N. Ch'i, but was soon it.self 
overcome by Ch'en. 

Dyn. Title Accession Redgn Title Adopted 
A.n. A.D. 

^^^ Hsiao Min Ti 557 

5q ^ Ming Ti 557 ^)£ Wu Ch'eng 558 

^ ^ Wu Ti 561 f*S Pao Ting 561 

5S5fn T'ien Ho ^ 566 

^Jg Chien Te * 572 
;g ^ Hsuan Ti 578 ^i\ H.^iian Cheng 578 

A)j34 Ta Ch'eng 579 

I? If? Ching Ti 580 ±^ Ta Hsiang 580 

:k^ Ta Ting 581 



CHOU, STATE OF )a, a principality of the 
Shang dynasty, which took the Empire from 
Shang in b.c. 1122. The first anceBtor claimed 
is Ch'i ^, Minister of Agriculture to Yao, 
B.C. 2286, now worshipped as the god of Agricul- 
ture. Shun gave him a small fief, T'ai, on the 
river Wei. Of a descendant, Duke Liu, it is 
.said by Ssu .ma Ch'ien that he became a Western 
Tartar and had his city in Pin ^ (present 
I'inchou % i}\\ near Sanshui 3 y^ in Shensi). 
A later descendant, 'I'a.v Vv ^^ (v-'-l moved 
further .south in 1325 to ("h'i, on account of 
barbarian incursions from the north. The plain 
south of Ch'i received the name Chou /?3 • Ta.n 
Fr had three sons, Tai Po. (,'hung Ycng and 
'hi Li. The last had a brilliant son whom 
Tax Fu wi,shed to come to the throne ; the elder 
brothers therefore went away among the bar- 
barians and founded the Wu State. Ch'asg, Bt 
the brilliant grandson, afterwards known as 
Wen Wang, moved his capital across the Wei to 
Feng ig , S.W. of the pre.sent Hsi-an fu, and it is 
said he divided his Chou territory into Chou and 
Chao (see Shao Kung), giving Chou to a younger 
son, Ta.v 0_. famous as Chou Kung or Duke of 
Chou. 

Wkn Wang suffered under the infamous last 
ruler of the Shang dynasty, ('hou Hsin; but even 
Chou Hsin did not dare to put to death a man 
with Wen Wang's reputation ; the Duke was 
therefore sent to prison at Yu-Ii in modern 
Honan, where he spent three years in studying 
the Eight Diagrams and producing the / Ching. 
His eldest living son obtained his release by th<' 
gift of a beautiful girl to the tyrant, and the 
Duke proceeded to increase his strength by war 
with some of the near States. Fa, ^ the oldest 
son living, succeeded, and is better known as 
Wu Wang. He overthrew the Shang, and 
established the new and famous Chou dynasty. 

Legge : Shu Ching and Shih Ching ; Faber : 
Bise of the Chou Dynasty (Chinese Recorder, 
vol. xxxiii) ; Hirth : The Ancient History of 
China. 

CHOU TZU, whose name was ^|j[gg Chou 
Tun I, the first celebrated philosopher of the Sung 
dynasty, born in 1017, is only less important than 
Chu Hsi, who, about a century afterwards, in- 
herited, adopted, and perfected his views. Chou 
Tzu held several high offices, but afterwards left 
public life and gathered round himself a number 
of brilliant disciples. He died in 1073, and was 
canonized as yc^ Yuan Ts'ung. He was the first 
to take the expression ;i: S i'ai chi from one of 
Confucius' appendices to the / Ching, and give 
it a more profound philosophical interpretation as 
that nucleus in the Infinite from which creative 
energy is set free. He also it was who selected 



111 



CHOULTREY 



ENXTCLOrAEDIA SINiCA 



the Foui- Books as representing what is most 
fiindaniental in Confucianism, to be studied along 
with the Five Classics. He wrote a great deal, 
but only two works now exist; the icSH *'"* ^'" 
til, or -Diagram of the Tltimate I'rindple," and 
the as '■"":/ •■'^"> ^^ General Treatise.'' The 
former has been translated into German by 
C; ABKLF..STZ, and the main part of the latter by 

GUIBE. 

CHOULTREY, an Indian word, found in 
books of travel in S. China a century ago. It 
dcnot<«s a rest house. These were found on the 
main roads in the south, built and support-ed at the 
emperor's e.xpense. and were primarily for military 
and other officials. 

DiAnY OF A JornsEY Ovehlaxd, etc., London, 
lfc22; Vii.k: H(,lis„n Jiih^nn. 

CHOW-CHOW. A preserve of orange peel, 
ginger, pumelo rind, etc.. in syrup. 

CHOW CHOW WATER, an e.xpression the 
origin of which i.s unknown, meaning a 'race' of 
wat«T or overfall of water or eddies, cross-currents, 
etc. 

CHOW DOG, meaning edible dog, the name 
mviii to a Cliiiiese dog intr(;duced into England 
more than a century ago; it is now a fashionable 
and favourite breed found in all big dog-shows. 

I)i NBAit : 't'lif Chow ('hi)W, London, 1914. 

CHRISTIAN AND MISSIONARY ALLIANCE. 

Jh'iil-ju'iil' I' : -N.-u Vuik. 

Hntrrrd Chtnn. 1888. 

Work* in Anhui, Hunan. Hupei. Kiangsu and 
Kuangiti. The field is worked under the four Con- 
fcrcni-*^ of ('(Mitral, \Ve«t China. South China, and 
Shanghai. The Society is interdenominational, and 
UvH uporial Ktrens on evangelistic work. Its object- 
ive in the first instance was Tibet. 

I'mlriil Chiim dinfi nitrr. — The first missiotiary 
wan Kent lo NVtilyi, where a conmiodious Receiving 
ILiini- wa» built for thi* new missifjuarics expected. 
Till' I'xal work finally became established in South 
Wiiliu, from which tentre it spread through a 
ratliuii of 75 miles, in whiih the foreign manned 
11 ntn-j. are Nan ling hcicti ifpS^. Ts'ing yang hsien 
W FB tt "'■'' \^ an chill y {ih. Wuchang was ojjcned 
in VfXi to prcivido a business and forwarding depot 
f,or projo<tcd work in Hunan and Tibet; and later 
Itrrame thu centre for ('entral China, instead of 
Wuhu. During the luMt dvcndo an agent has been 
plnceci in Hankow. An early as 1896, three C. and 
M..\. mM*:"iiaries did pioneering work in Hunan, 
and narrowly eMraped martyrdom. After many 
dixapiwiintmcntti Ch'ang te ^ff^ wan opened in 1897, 
ami Changnhn in 1899. the So( ioty's representative 
being the firul foreign rei<ideti(. The only other 
>l4tti' n III this province ifi Han hIiou Ilmcii i9^jft|$. 



West China tuiijtrtitct:.—ln 1894, two C. and 
M.A. missionaries ' went to Kansu, choosing the 
southern part for their field, as the China Inland 
Mission was in the north. The first station opened 
was T'ao chow \^y^, now the headquarters of the 
Conference. Two years later an entrance was 
effected into Min chow l*£il||, and in 1899 a town 
was occupied just across the Tibetan border. A 
riot soon occurred there, the Mission property was 
destroyed, and the workers had a narrow escape. 
In 1900, all were obliged to flee to the coast, but 
in 1903 they returned, and now, in addition to 
T"ao chow and Min chow, occupy Ti-tao chow 
iAjglM'l (1932) and Cho-ni 4 % (1905). Promising 
work is done among Chinese, Mohammedans, and 
Tibetans. 

South China Couferpnce. — The Mission may 
justly claim to have been the pioneers in Kuang.«i, 
the last province except Hunan to permit missionary 
occupation. Up to 1895 no foreigner had been able 
to reside permanently in it, and a band of C. and 
M.A. workers destined for it were obliged to stay 
at Canton and Macao until they could proceed to 
their objective, making house-boat trips up the 
West River till they gained a footing. In 1917 the 
Mission reports nine stations which form a line 
from Wuchow, just inside the eastern border 
of Kuangsi. along the upper course of the West 
River to the boundary of French Indo-China. A 
branch work has sprung up over the border, with 
two stations, viz. Tourane in Annam and Haiphong 
in Tonkin, and seven missionaries. This is now 
regarded as a separate Mission, though for the 
present administered from Wuchow. 

ICdilicr worh in North China. — Previous to 
1900, the Mission had a large and promising work 
in N. Shansi (outside the Great Wall) and the 
eastern plain of Mongolia. This district had been 
assigned to the Swedes, and by 1896 there were 
60 workers, with headcjuarters at Kuei-hua ch'eng 
^itWt.' ^"d far-reaching plans had been made for 
linking up with Kansu, and also with Ta-t'ung fu 
^ ^ Jff on the south. Work was begun at Kalgan 
as a base for Mongolia, and carried right on as far 
as I'rga. 

IJy 1900, there wei-e 16 stations and 200 con- 
verts. When the lioxer outbreak occurred, the 
Swedes were in especial peril because of their 
isolation ; 21 adults and 15 little children suffered 
death at the hands of the Boxers. Of the re- 
mainder, one (larty of 16 escaped north over the 
desert, and reached the Trans-Siberian Railw-ay ; 
another party fled south, and fiiuilly got to Hankow. 
The work was completely broken up, and though 
the Chinese Government made generous com- 
jiensation and was willing for the missionaries to 
return, it was for several reasons deemed inadvis- 
able to reopen the field; and the six stations in 



II 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



CHRISTIANS' MISSION 



Shansi were transferred to the C.I.M. and its 
Associates. 

A start was made in Peking in 1891, through 
Miss Douw, a wealthy associate of the Mission, 
who chose her own workers and financed the work. 
In 1900 all the buildings were destroyed, and Miss 
Douw herself was so broken by her terrible ex- 
periences that she died not long after in the U.S.A. 
and the work lapsed. 

Tientsin was occupied in 1895, when Rev. and 
Mrs. J. WooDBERiiy arrived to attend to the 
bu-siness of the N. China Mission. They also 
began evangelistic work in English among the 
students of the Government Medical and Naval 
Colleges, which was exceedingly successful. The 
class graduating from the Medical College in 1900 
all received baptism. On the break-up of the N. 
China work, Mr. and Mrs. Woodberry removed 
to Shanghai, and opened school work there. In 
1917, there are altogether 150 students in the Boys' 
Academy, Girls' Seminary (each with primary 
department), and the kindergarten. Co-education 
is used in the upper classes. A church to seat 500 
will be completed during 1917, when a Chinese 
pastor will be secured, and evangelistic work 
extended. 

Statistics for C. and M. Alliance, 1916 : — 

Foreign missionaries 93 

Chinese assistants 194 

Communicants 2,294 

CHRISTIAN LITERATURE SOCIETY FOR 
CHINA. 

Headquarters : — Shanghai. 

Founded, 1887. 

The object of the Society is stated to be, "The 
publication and circulation of literature based on 
Christian principles, throughout China, her colonies, 
dependencies, and wherever Chinese arc found, 
especially periodical literature adapted for all 
classes." 

The China Missionary Conference of 1877 had 
urged "the extension of the work of preparing and 
distributing of Christian literature," and had 
appointed a School and Text-book Committee. 
One result of this action was that in 1884, the 
Rev. Alexandeu Williamson, LL.D, of the U.P. 
Mission of Scotland, formed in Glasgow the 
Chinese Book and Tract Society, which was after- 
wards changed into the Society for the Diffusion 
of Christian and General Knowledge among the 
Chinese. In 1906, the present name was formally 
adopted. 

Dr. Williamson died in 1890, and the Society 
seemed in danger of extinction ; but in 1891, Dr. 
W. MuiRHEAD of the L.M.S. took temporary 
charge, and in 1892, the Rev. Timothy Richard 
of the E.B.M. was made secretary, a position which 

15 

1 



he held till his retirement in 1915. He wa« 
succeeded by the Rev. J. Hopkyn Rees, D.D. of 
the L.M.S. A Depot for the sale of C.L.S. literature 
was opened in Honan Road in 1897. A site for 
new bookstore premises was purchased in 1907, but 
in 1917 is still being let for other purposes, the 
profits accruing to the Society. 

In 1909 the work was much aided by the 
erection of fine new offices. Sir Thomas Hanbuuv 
having bequeathed Tls. 20,000 for that purpose. 

Owing to the nature of the Society's work, 
results are difficult to give ; but the dissemination 
of its books and periodicals among the civil and 
military officials of all ranks, both in and out of 
office, the heads of schools and colleges and the 
literati in general, contributed very greatly in 
awakening China to the advantages of Western 
learning and civilization, as well as in removing 
many of the deep-seated prejudices entertained by 
Chinese of the old style against Christianity. 
In later years, especially since the Revolution of 
1911, the sales have been almost stationary, owing 
to the great activity displayed by the Chinese 
themselves in the translation and preparation of 
text-books, etc. ; but as these are generally non- 
Christian, if not anti-Christian in tendency, there 
is still a large sphere of usefulness open to the 
C.L.S. 

The periodicals which have been issued by 
the C.L.S. are, 1. Ta T'ung I'ao i^^^, 3. general 
magazine first issued in 1904; 2. Chiao II ui Kung 
Pao ©.•^•2;^. a magazine for Christians, first issued 
in 1891; 3. Nil To Pao "fr^^ft, for women and 
girls, dating from 1912. 

The well-known Wan Kuo Kung Pao H^S'^ 
was issued for fifteen years by the C.L.S. (See 
Allen, Y. J.). 

In addition to periodicals, the Society has 
issued over 500 works and its catalogue for 1916 
gives 433 books and pamphlets for sale. All pub- 
lications are in the Chinese language. 

The Society has always aimed at indirectly 
assisting all missions, and is therefore inter- 
denominational, different missions at different times 
releasing such members as were deemed specially 
suitable for literary work, while supporting them 
as before. The present (1917) editorial and dis- 
tributing staff (not including Dr. RichaUd, Secret- 
ary Emeritus) contains the names of three Baptists, 
one Congregationalist, one Canadian Presbyterian, 
one Engli.sh Friend, and one Anglican; while 
members of several other Societies give part of 
their time. 

CHRISTIANS' MISSION, NINGPO. A small 
company of Engli.'^h ladies, working on undenomin- 
ational and "faith" lines. The work was started 
bv two sisters, the Misses E.A. and L.M. Hopwood. 



13 



CHRONICLE 



Ex\ CYCLOPAEDIA SINlCA 



III 1917 there are se\en foreign workers and a 
Chinese pastor, who supervises the church work. 
There are a number of outstations; educational 
work is carried on for both boys and girls, but the 
main emi-ha-is is laid on evan;:clistic effort. 

CHRONICLE AND DIRECTORY FOR 
CHINA. JAPAN, (.tc, etc. > THE, published 
annually from 1863 at the Daily Press Office, Hong- 
kong. In 1876 the China Directory was incorporat- 
ed with it. It is now entitled Directory and 
C/irniiictr, etc. 

CH-iJAN CHOW^Jj.^^. often called Chin chew, 
ill Fukic-n. -enerally n-irarded as the Zayton of 
Maiuo Tout, tlupugh I'HiLLii'S made out a very 
elrung ca.se for (hang chou ;|$^ being Zayton. 

Hence Khibilai Khan sent his expeditions to 
Java and Japan, and here the Arabs traded. It 
i'UI)er8eded Kanpu, and itself in turn gave place 
to Araoy. 

Yule: Marco I'ol« ; riiJLLii-s : Two Mudiixval 
Fukim Tradiwj I'ortf, T'oung Pao, 1895-96. 

CHUANG TZU St^, whose name was Chuang 
•Hoojtl^g. \\a.-< boin about B.C. 350 in the state of 
Liang, in modern Anhui, and was a contemporary 
of M UNCUS. He was entirely devoted to the Taoist 
philosophy and wrote the work which from a.d. 742 
has been called The Holy Canon oj Xan Hua, 
Nan Hua, in Ts^ao-chou fu. Shantung, being his 
place of retirement. Many legendary anecdotes 
are preserved illustrating his cynical wit. He spent 
all his energy in glorifying Lao Tzu, and attacked 
the Confucian philosophy with great skill. His 
leaching.-! were not much valued until later ages, 
but rtjse to fame in the eighth century under the 
patronage of the T'ang Emperor, HsiiAN TsUNG. 
See Sun Hua Chin-j; Taoinn ; Philosophy. 

SczcKi : IJiHory of Chinese Philosophy; 
UlLES : Chwinij Tzu, Mystic, Moralist and Social 
/{rfoniirr; Legge : Texts of Taoism, (Sacred Books 
of the Ea«t). 

CHUANG YUANH^cTO. The successful 
candidate* in the Chin shih (q.v.) examination were 
further tented in an e.vamination held within the 
palace and therefore called tien s/it/t Sft p^- The 
i>t»'l.-nl who came out at the head of the list was 
railed ihwni'j yuan. 

CH'UAN HSiiCH P'lEN fflj^^JiV , a work on 
cducnlii'ti. Sfc ('hon'j ('liih I iiii'/. 

CHUENPI CONVENTION, an agreement 
made between Captain Ciiaules Elliot and Kishen 
in Jantinry, 1841, after the forts at Chucnpi and 
I'aikoktuw, nuloide and on each side of the liogue, 
had bfH>n taken. It gave Hongkong to the British 
(^rown, an indemnity of nix million dollars to the 
liritiiih Ciovernment, allowed direct olTicial inter- 
cdur.He on equal terms, and re opened Canton to 
trade. 



It w-as not acknowledged by either Government. 
KiSHEN was degraded and sentenced to death (See 
Kishen) ; Elliot was severely blamed because the 
terms were quite inadequate. Six million dollars 
would hardly pay for the confiscated opium and left 
nothing for the expenses of the expedition, or for 
debts owing by the bankrupt Hong Merchants ; the 
cession of Hongkong was accompanied by some 
conditions about payment of duties; and Chusan 
was evacuated. The convention was disavowed, 
Elliot was soon aft^r recalled, hostilities were 
begun again and resulted in the Treaty of Nanking. 

CHU FAN CHIH It # * > Chao Ju-kua's 
work on Chinese and Arab Trade in the 12th and 
13th centuries. See Chao Ju-kua. 

CHU HSI ^M y ^^^ famous commentator and 
expounder of the Confucian classics, generally 
known as Chu Tzu. He was born in 1130 in 
Fukien where his father (an Anhui man) was 
holding office. He was a precocious child, and he 
became a chin shih at 19. After obtaining office, 
he studied Buddhist and Taoist teachings for some 
years, and some say he was actually once a Buddh- 
ist priest ; but later, under a profound philosophical 
teacher, Li T'UNG, he became an ardent Confucian- 
ist. He encouraged, however, a belief in future 
retribution as beneficial for governmental purposes. 
After holding various provincial offices, and being 
several times summoned to Court to offer advice 
0(1 literary and governmental matters, he was in 
1180 made Governor of Kiangsi, where he applied 
himself diligently to carrying his theories into 
practice. He was accustomed to retire from time 
to time to. the White Deer Grotto ^}^M near 
Ruling, where he revived the so-called University. 
With the assistance of his pupils, he revised and 
brought up to date Ssu-ma Kuang's great History, 
adding notes and comments. His greatest work, 
however, was done in connection with the Confucian 
classics. His writings are very numerous, and 
include an epitorne of the teachings of his master, 
Li T'UNG. He died in 1200, and in 1241 his tablet 
was placed in the Confucian Temple. He was 
canonized as % £!J! W^n Li. 

Chu Hsi's commentaries on the classics, and 
exposition of the views of the Sung scholars, of 
whom he was the chief, have been for subsequent 
centuries the standard of orthodoxy, though in the 
latter part of the Ch'ing dynasty a number of 
scholars arose who threw doubt upon his doctrines. 

He considerably modified the older Confucian 
teachings; e.g., though on the one hand he re- 
affirmed the Mencian doctrine that man is by 
nature upright and that he can unaided attain 
perfection, on the other hand he pressed the 
agnostic side of Confucianism unduly, perhaps in 
his effort to get a consistent system out of disjointed 



114 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SIXICA 



CHUNGKING 



and fragmentary utterances. His philosophy, while 
based on the / Ching, was that of a thoroughly 
materialistic evolution, recalling the views of 
Haeckel. His identification of 3^ Heaven with j§ 
li struck a blow at the old Confucian idea of a 
personal God, from which it has never recovered. 
But if jg can be interpreted as that Eternal 
principle of Kight which all intelligent Theists 
conceive as being the Essence of Cod's being, and 
which His will freely exjjresses, the chasm between 
Cnu Hsi and those who believe in Divine Person- 
ality may not be so great as it appears. 

The influence of his study of Buddhism may 
be seen in the systematic nature of his philosophy, 
and in his attempt to solve the mystery of the 
source and power of evil, which the ancient sages 
had not attempted. See Confucianisvi; Philo-^vphy. 

Giles : Co?ifvci(inism and its Bivals; Buxjra- 
Ithical Dictkmari/ ; Le Gall : Le P/iilosophe Tchou 
Hi (Var. Sin.). [C.E.C.] 

CHU I ^^ red coat, a god of literature, the 
helper of backward students in their examinations. 
He and K'uei Hsing are the inseparable companions 
of ^YEN Ch'axg and have secondary altars in his 
temples. 

DoRE : Becherches sur Ics Superstitions, vol. vi, 
p. 50. 

CHU JEN §A, np^'^i^^^ man; the term used 
for a scholar who passed the second examination, 
generally called in English Master of Arts. See 
(7iin shih; Ilsiu ts'ai. 

CHU KIANG ^XL; Pearl River, is the north- 
ern mouth of the Si kiang West Elver (q.v.). It 
branches off at San-shui hsien, passes Fatshan and 
(Janton, and enters the sea through the Bocca Tigris 
between Hongkong and Macao. 

CHU-KO LIANG m^il:. a.d. 181—234. A 
native of Shantung. Liu Pei sought him in his 
scholarly seclusion and obtained his help in the 
attempt to gain the EmiDire. He defeated Ts'ao 
Ts'ao and made Liu Pei Emperor of Shu (Ssu- 
ch'uan), one of The Three Kingdoms, founding the 
dynasty called the Minor Han. He is said to have 
carried his arms southward into Burma, and he 
carried out three campaigns against the Wei State. 
Various cunning war-devices are attributed to him, 
.«uch as bows to shoot several arrows at once, and 
" wooden oxen and running horses," which no one 
now can explain. He has always been the favourite 
hero of the Chinese, and his tablet was admitted 
to the Confucian Temple in 1724. 

CHUNAM, an Indian word, meaning prepared 
lime ; used in China to denote a mixture of lime, 
oi' and sand for making pavements. 

CH'UN CH'IU ^^ springs and autumns, the 
title of the classic, the last literary work of 
Confucius and specially claimed by him as his. 



It contains the annals of the Lu g. State for 242 
years up to within two years of the sage's death, 
i.e. from B.C. 722 to b.c. 481. The title, which 
was already in use, implies that the annals 
are recorded under the four season.*, and two are 
used to represent the four. 

It is a very meagre work and has been compared 
with the headings to cha|iler.s in an Englisli Bible. 
Tso ^, said to have been a disciple of Confucius, 
made a commentary and included annals of other 
states be;>idos Lu, so that his work is axdatively 
like tile cha|)ter.s of the Bible compared with the 
headings. This is the Tso Chuan, (7.1'.) There 
are al.«o less valuable commentaries by Kunu-yasu 
Kao and Ku-mang ( 'h'ih, both of the 5th century 
B.C. but probably later than Tso-cn'iu Ming. 

The prolegomena to the classic in Lecge's 
translation deal with it most sevea-ely. Legge says 
there is not the slightest tincture of literary ability 
in the composition, and declares that the work 
ignores, conceals and misrepresents facts. 

The suggestion has been made by Guube that 
both the book and the commentary called T.hi 
C'/iKfin are from the pen of Confucius; but this is 
not at all likely. 

Legge : 6'/«**/V?, vol. v. 

CHUNG CHI A TZU #^^ . See Lolo. 

CH'UNG ERH ^5, double ears, the personal 
name of the son of Duke HsiEX of the Chin ^ 
State, born in B.C. 696. He was the son of a 
Tartar mother. When his father, at the instigation 
of another Tartar concubine who wished her own 
son to succeed, sought to kill him, he fled to the 
barbarian tribes in t'le north, where he took a 
Tartar wife, and to Ch'i, where he again took a 
wife. After nineteen years of adventurous wander- 
ings he returned to Chin, took the throne as Duke 
Wen and was appointed second Protector. He 
died in b.c. 628. See Protzctor. 

CH'UN G-HOU ^J?:A Manchu official, born 
in 1824, and Superintendent of Trade residing 
at Tientsin when the massacre of June 21, 1870 
took place there. He was regarded as innocent of 
actual connivance though probably a stronger 
official might have prevented it. He was sent to 
France with a letter of apology, and is the first 
Chinese official of rank who ever visited the Wesc. 
While ambassador at St. Petersburg, he negotiated 
the Treaty of Livadia in 1878, ceding a large 
portion of Hi to Russia. Being denounced by Li 
HuNG-CHANC, Tso Tsuxg-t'ang and Chang Chih- 
TUNG, he was sentenced to death, and foreign 
Ministers tried in vain to save him. It was only 
in response to a letter from Queen Victouia that 
he was pardoned. He died in 1893. 

CHUNGKING Ig S ch'ung ch'iiuj, in Sau- 
ch'uan, the chief commercial port of Western 



115 



CH'UNG-MING 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



China, is important as a distributing centre, having 
great banking facilities. It is on the Yangtze, 
some 1,400 miles from its mouth, in lat. 29° 33' 56" 
\. and long. 106° 38' E., and stands on a high 
rocky bluff which makes a peninsula at the junction 
of the Chialing with the Yangtze. It has a good 
wall round it, some five miles in length, with nine* 
gates ; the city is lighted by electricity. 

It was opened to foreign trade by an Additional 
Article (1890) to the Chefoo Agreement of 1876. 
The first steamer to get up to Chungking was 
Mr. Archibald Little's 9-ton launch the Leechuan, 
which arrived in the low-water season of 1898. 
The British gunboats. Woodcock and WoocUark, 
arrived on May 6, 1899, and the first merchant 
steamer, the Pioneer, on June 20 of the same year. 

Revolutions, rebellions and riots have inter- 
fered much with the development of trade. The 
ordinary rise of the river there is 75 feet, but it 
has been as much as 108 feet. The chief articles 
of export are silk (yellow), goatskin, hides, bristles, 
and, sent through from the Tibetan border, musk, 
rhubarb and other medicines, and wool. The 
pupulalion i.s 517,000. 

1915 1916 

8,697,530 6,310,330 

9,771,546 8,756,030 

16,537,260 17,803,414 

35,006,336 32,869,774 



Net Foreign Impo^t^' . 
Net Chinese 

Export* 

Total lik.Tis. 



CH'UNG-MING ^ gq , (Tsunj ming and 
Tfong fiiiifj) ; an alluvial island in the Yangtze 
Mtuary. It has about one million inhabitants, and 
ha« many Roman Catholic village communities, 
orix'inatcd by H.sii Kvangch'i {q.v.) in the 
U-jjinning of the 17th century. There are now 
(1917) fifty eight R.C. Christian communities on 
tho i.'lainl with 13,461 Christians. 

Hwi'.KT : ///Ic dc Tgonijming (Var. Sin. I). 

CHUNG T'ANG t|i ^ central hall; the title 
of address for a Grand Secretary {q.v.). Thus 
Li Hi'NC ciiANC i« often called Li Chung t'ang, to 
the confusion of foreigners who do not know 
Chinf»o. (f'f. Kutvj pfio). 

CHUNG WANG ftHl ^oyo^ prince, the most 
famous cif the priiicfs made by the Heavenly Prince, 
leader of the T'ai P'iiig Rebellion. He rose from 
the ranks to be created prince in 1859. From 1860 
to 1864 ho was the mainstay of the movement. He 
lived Dp to his title and was only prevented by 
loyalty from escaping at the last. Before being 
executed he wrote an account of the rebellion which 
ha» been translated by W. T. Lav, but it is out 
of print; a typewritten copy is in the library of 
N.C. Branch, Royal Aniatic Society, Shanghai. 
Se« T'ai Ping lifbrltinn. 

CHUNG YU ff til (lit.Tary name Tzil Lu 
tF" W ) For some time an intimate di.srjplc of 



Confucius, he afterwards entered the public service 
in Wei. His parents were poor and he had been 
accustomed when young to fetch rice for them 
from a distance. In his wealthier years he grieved 
for old days of poverty and filial service, and he 
has accordingly been included in the twenty-four 
examples of filial piety. He was killed by con- 
spirators against his chief the Duke of Wei. He 
was bold, and Confucius complained of his rash- 
ness. 

JjEGOE : CJiine^e Classics, vol. i, prolegomena, 
p. 87. 

CHUNG YUNG. See Doctrine of the Mean. 

CH'UN, PRINCE B U i- The first to bear 
this title was 1 Huan ^^, the seventh son of the 
Emperor Tao Kuang, younger brother of Hsien 
Feng and of Prince Kung (the si.\th son), and father 
of TsAi T'ien the Emperor Kuang Hsii. He had 
married the sister of Tz'u Hsi, and Tz'u Hsi put 
the son of her sister on the throne in defiance of 
law and precedent. T'ung Chih having left no 
son and Kuang Hsii being incapable of acting as 
his heir because he was of the same generation, 
there was much fear lest Prince Ch'un should 
become the founder of a new line of Emperors, and 
thousands of Memorials were sent in against the 
selection of his son, and one Censor committed 
suicide in formal protest. 

The Prince, as the Emperor's father, sought to 
resign all the offices he held, but he was retained 
in an informal way as adviser to the Empresses- 
dowager when t.hey wanted advice. His first-class 
princedom was made hereditary for ever, instead 
of its sinking one grade in each generation as is 
the rule. 

Later on the Empress-dowager ordered that 
in all important matters the Grand Council before 
advising the throne should consult Prince Ch'un, 
thus making him really head of the executive. 
This increased the fear and suspicion lest, T'ung 
Chih being left without an heir, Prince Ch'un 
should be the head of a new line, and a storm of 
opposition arose. The Empress-dowager explained. 

On January 1, 1891, Prince Ch'un died. He 
was an able though dissolute man, and he had 
always been a favourite with the Empress-dowager. 
His offices included Chamberlain of the Palace, 
Head of the Navy, and Commander of the Manchu 
Field FoToe. 

The second Prince Ch'un was Tsai Feng, son 
of the first, and brother of Kuang Hsu. He 
married, by the Empress-dowager's orders, the 
daughter of Jung Lu, and their son was put on 
the throne with the title Hsuan T'ung, thus mak- 
ing still more po.ssible the new line from Prince 
Cn'uN and the cutting oif of the elder line with 
the childless T'ung Chih. 



116 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



CHURCH OF ENGLAND 



In the Peace Protocol of 1901 this Prince was 
designated to go to Berlin and express the Govern- 
ment's regrecs for the murder of Baron von 
Ketteler. 

On his son being made heir to T'ung Chih at 
the death of Kuang Hsii Prince Ch'un was appoint- 
ed Kegent, and held this position till the Revolu- 
tion and establishment of the Eepublic in 1911. 

CHUN WANG m^- Sec Imprrial NoOilit;/. 

CHURCH OF THE BRETHREN MISSION. 

Headquarters : — Elgin, 111., U.S.A. 

Works in Shansi in the 2 centres of Liao chow 
jgijll and P'ing-ting chow ^^^f\\, with 17 foreign 
workers in 1916. 

CHURCH OF ENGLAND IN CANADA, 
MISSIONARY SOCIETY OF THE. 

Hijddqiuirfers : — Toronto. 

I'jUttrtd China, 1909. 

Works in Honan. 

The Anglican Conference held at Shanghai in 
1907 appealed to the Anglicans of Canada to under- 
take work of their own in China ; and the latter in 
response decided in 1908 to "send out a bishop and 
clergy to establish a mission in some province as 
yet untouched by the communion." The province 
selected by the Canadians and sanctioned by the 
Anglican Conference in China was Honan; and 
the bishop chosen was the Rev. Willi.^m C. White, 
who had worked in Fukien under the C.M.S. since 
1897. 

Bi.shop White went to Honan in 1910, taking 
with him four well-qualified Chinese assistants lent 
by the C.M.S. in Fukien, as well as two from the 
American Church Mission in Hankow. 

Having regard to the general conditions in 
China at the time, as well as to the requirements 
of Honan in particular, the Mission adopted the 
policy of "cvanr/elizatio7i through education with 
the aim of building up a self-suj^porting, self- 
governing and self -extending church." 

K'ai-feng fu, the cajjital of the province, was 
selected as headquarters, and woi'k was begun in 
native houses until land could be purchased and 
buildings erected ; and educational work was begun, 
looking towards a Christian University for the 
province in the future. As the result of the 
evangelistic work already done by the Canadian 
Presbyterians north of the Yellow River, the China 
Inland Mission south of it, and other missions, a 
considerable church was already in existence, for 
which well-trained native helpers and pastors were 
required ; these missions therefore welcomed the 
new-comers, and engaged to use, rather than 
duplicate, such educational advantages as they 
might offer. The Canadian Anglicans also made 
themselves responsible for the evangelization of the 
prefecture of Kuei-te |ii|^, , whose 300,000 inhabit- 



ants were absolutely without any Christian workers. 

Medical work was no part of the original 
scheme for K'ai-feng fu, but the need appeared so 
great that a hospital and medical school were soon 
started. Another hospital at present (1917), in 
native quarters, is run at Kuei-te city, but is 
exj)ccted soon to have a modern plant. 

In September, 1916, the Mission reported : — 
Foreign workers in holy orders ... 6 

Physician 1 

Lady workers 8 

Chinese helpers, ordained 1 

hiy 17 

Communicants 89 

Non-communicant members 61 

Total number of scholars 337 

CHURCH OF ENGLAND MISSION, 
NORTH CHINA. 

Headquarters : London. 

Entered China, 1863. 

Works in Chihli, Shantung and Manchuria. 

This work is sometimes called a mission of the 
" Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in 
Foreign Parts " (S.P.G.), but as a matter of lacl, 
though largely helped by this Society, it is also 
supported by special funds. 

Diocese of North China. 

The first S.P.G. worker for the Chinese, Dr. 
J. A. Stevv.\rt, reached Peking in 1863. He found 
there the Rev. J. S. (afterwards Bishop) Burdon. 
In 1864, however, it became necessary for the 
S.P.G. to cease working in Peking, and its operat- 
ions there were suspended for ten years. 

In 1872, an anonymous offer was made of £500 
a year for five years for the founding of a new 
mission in China, which resulted in the Rev. C. P. 
(later Bishop) ScoiT and the Rev. M. Gheenwooh 
being sent out. These two missionaries reached 
Chefoo in 1874, and began their work among the 
Chinese in the next year, making tours in the 
interior from time to time. 

During the famine of 1878-9, Mr. S<'orr and 
others of the Mission helped in famine relief, 
mainly in Shansi. 

An anonymous gift of £10,000 having been 
made in England for the endowment of a new 
bishopric in North China, Mr. Scott (who had 
been made Canon of the Shanghai Cathedral in 
1377), was coi.secrated in London in 1880, and 
became the first Bishop of North China, i.e., of 
Chihli, Shansi, Shensi, Kansu, and Honan. 

On his return to China in 1881, he made his 
headquarters at Peking, and the work of tl>c 
C.I^I.S. with its 26 Christians— the result of 17 
years' toil — was handed over to him, the one 
remaining C.M.S. agent joining him. 

Yung-ching hsien ^j^fgjg 40 miles S. of Peking 
and Ho-chien fu^f^fff were opened in 1880; and in 



117 



CHURCH MISSIONARY 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



1893, work was begun in Ch'i Chou fip^ , 40 miles 
S. of Pao-ting fu. 

On June 1st, 1900, Rev. H. V. Norman and 
Rev. C. Robinson were murdered by the Bo.xers, 
at Yungching, Uigether with several of the native 
Lhristirns : a new church in the district was also 
dcBtroyed by fire. In 1903, the diocese was divided, 
Shantung, 'with the e.xception of the German 
territorv. being constituted a second bishopric, 
and Rev. (Ieofkuey I). Ii-ur was consecrated as its 
bishop, while Manchuria, which was formerly under 
the Bishop of Korea, was transferred to the North 
China diocese. 

Ch'i Chou became a resident station in 1904 : 
and the Rev. Frederick Day was killed there in 
1912 by disbanded soldiers on his remonstrating 
bc.au!<e they had taken one oi" the carts with which 
he was travelling. 

Hiiihoji SfOTT, after 40 years' work in China, > 

recigiied in 1913, and was followed by the Rev. 

Fi:\sK L. Nonuis. In this year also, the first 

iiati\o priests were ordained in the North China 

<li<ti-f, namely, two Chinese who had been made 

deacons in 1905. The Cathedral at Peking was 

built and ronsecrated in 1907 ; a ho.spital (St. Luke's) 

and dispensary in 1905; the Boys' School (with one 

hundred and twenty pupils in 1915), was started 

in 1910; the Girls' School (St. Faith's) in 1903. 

St. Faith's Home for women's work had been 

1 ..I in 1897, the P'ei Hua i^i'0 School for 

•r'clasa girls began in 1912; a school for 

• liists in 1913; and a hostel for two hundred 

I Is in Government Colleges in 1914. 

The first Diocesan Synod was formed in 1916. 
The Mission sends its students for their higher 
education to Boone University, Wuchang, to 
Si. John's I'niversity, Shanghai, and to Hongkong 
L'nivcrsily. 

Diurene of Shmitung. 
In the year 1878, when Mr. SfOTT and Mr. 
CiiitENvvoou were making one of their many tours 
into ihe interior from (liefoo they visited T'ai-an fu 
Ik'icM ' **l'''l' ^^* then unoccupied by any Society, 
.irnl dfcidiul to make it one of the stations of their 
missmn. There was a good deal of opposition to 
Ik- encciuiiterfd, but property was bought in 1889, 
when missionaries entered into residence. Work 
-was Iwgun at ^H| l"ing yin 50 miles from T'ai-an, 
in 1{I79 but the city was not occupied by foreigners 
till 189.3. Yen chou fu 52 ^ ;ff was ojicncd in 1909, 
tind-JKA T'ung-ch'ang in 1915. 

Un December Slsl 1899, the Rev. Sydney 
M. W. HiiooKH was murdered by the Bo.xors on 
his way from T'ni an t<i P'ing yin. Mr. Brooks' 
boily was recovered and buried in P'ing yin, where 
llie nieniurinl church of St. Stephen perpetuates 
his memory. 



There are Boys' Schools at T'ai-an (opened 
1887) at P'ing-yin (1895) and at Yen-chou fu (1913) 
and a Girls' School at T'ai-an (opened 1897). Girls' 
Schools were opened at P'ing-yin and Yen-chou at 
the same time as those for boys. 

The first advancement to the native priesthood 
in Shantung took place in 1913 at T'ai-an ; two 
Chinese deacons who had been ordained in 1910 
becoming priests. 

The first baptisms at Y'en-chou fu took place 
in 1914, although as a consequence of anti-British 
feeling stirred up by some German residents because 
of the great European War, the work was adversely 
affected. For a time all the girls and some of the 
boys were withdrawn by their parents from the 
Mission Schools. 

The mission has succeeded in gaining a footing 
in Chii-Fu iHl-fL, the native city of Confucius, and 
in 1915, a line property was offered to them of 
which war-time economies precluded the acceptance. 

In 1915 the first portion of the T'ai-an fu 
Cathedral was finished and consecrated ; it will 
seat 400 worshippers. 

Since 1906, the Mission has co-operated in the 
Shantung Protestant University's Arts College at 
Weihsien, and their first contingent graduated in 
1913, three of whom at once began to teach for 
the mission. 

Besides work for the Chinese, the Mission 
ministers to foreign Anglican communities at 
Chefoo, Peking (Briti.'ih Legation Chapel), Tientsin, 
Weihaiwei, Dairen, Mukden, and Newchwang. 

Statistics for year ending December 31, 1916 : 
North China Shantung 

Diocese Diocese Total 
Foreign clergy 15 10 25 

C'hinese ,, 2 6 o 

,, Helpers unordained 17 39 55 

Communicants 726 882 1,608 

Non-coniiminicatit member.-^ 745 558 1,503 

CHURCH MISSIONARY SOCIETY FOR 
AFRICA AND THE EAST, 

//(/tilqi/arters :— l.i ndon, England. 

Works in Fvkien, Kuant/.<i, I/vnan, Chrlintnj, 
KiiiiiHjltin/j, Ssi'ich'ua7i and Yimuun Provinces and 
Ilonijhoiuj ; with five dioceses. 

Diocese of Chkkiang. The first Missionaries 
of the Society to reach China were the Rev. George 
Smith (afterwards Bishop of Victoria) and Rev. 
T. McClatchie, who , reached Shanghai in 1844. 
Work was begun in Ningpo in 1848, by Rev. R. H. 
CoBBOLD, M.A. and Rev. W. A. Russell. The 
work was hindered by the T'ai P'ings ft)r more 
than a year, but after they had been put down, 
the Rev. G. E. (afterwards Bishop) Moule opened 
Hangchow (in 1864) and thus established the fir.st 
Protestant mi.ssion station in inland China. 



\\H 



Encyclopaedia sinica 



CHURCH MISSIONARY 



Work was bej,'uii at ^ii^, Chuki, as early as 
1877, through the influence of a native of the 
place who had learned Christianity at Ningpo, and 
in spite of great persecution, it was very success- 
ful. The city was opened as a foreign-manned 
.-station in 1894 but the premises were burnt down 
in 1900 by a mob. Shao-hsing was opened in 1870 
and ^;;n T'ai-chou in 1892, though work had been 
carried on without foreign residence for some years. 

In 1872, China north of lat. 28° was constitu- 
ted a separate diocese and Dr. Russkll became the 
first bishop. In 1879 he died, and the bishopric 
was divided into two, viz., Mid-China and North 
China ; and the Rev. G. E. Moule was consecrated 
tlie first bishop of the former dioce.se. He retired 
in 1907 and was succeeded in 1908 by Dr. H. J. 
MoLONY. Since 1912, what used to be the Mid-China 
.Mission, has been called the Chekiang Mission, the 
diocese including that province only. The Shanghai 
work of the C.M.S. is under the episcopal over 
sight of the American bishop, and is self-supporting. 
There is an Institute for the Blind in the native 
city. 

The chief rducutioiial ivork of the Chekiang 
Mission is carried on at Trinity College, Ningpo, 
founded by the Rev. J. C. Hoare, afterwards 
Bishop of Victoria ; at the Anglo-Chinese College, 
Shanghai : at the Mary Vaughan High School for 
girls at Hangchow ; and there are boys' and girls' 
boarding schools at four other stations, the pupils 
being mainly from Christian families. 

Medical luorh is carried on at Hangchow where 
an opium refuge and hospital was opened in 1871. 
In 1886 the present large hospital was built under 
Dr. D. Main, who also has under his care one of the 
largest Leper Homes in China, a fine Sahatorium 
and a Medical School. Medical work in Ningpo 
began in 1886, when the settlement doctor gave four 
years of voluntaiy work. The hospital was after- 
wards enlarged, and a woman's ho.spital added. The 
Medical work began early at T'ai chow, and a fine 
hospital was built there in 1905. In 1916 two of 
the three hospitals were closed througli the absence 
of the doctors at the Great War. 

Diocese of Fukien. Work began in Foochow 
in 1850, when the Rev. W. Wiltom, M.D. and the 
Rev. H. 0. Jackson arrived. The difficulties were 
great ; the staff was small ; and it was eleven years 
before the first converts were received, when the 
London committee had nearly decided to abandon 
Foochow in favour of Ningpo. 

In 1864 all the mission property was destroyed 
by a mob, but was rebuilt in the next year. 

Rev. J. R. (afterwards Archdeacon) Wolfe 
arrived in 1862. He died in 1915 at Foochow, 
after more than fifty years' work. 

The Dublin University Mission began work 
in connection with C.M.S. in 1886, taking over the 



district of jpfij^ Funing, near the Chekiang border, 
and, since 1911, this auxiliary has taken charge of 
Trinity College, Foochow, which includes St. Mark's 
College, an Anglo-(,'hinese College, and Middle and 
junior boys' schools. 

In- 1893, the Rev. and Mrs. R. W. Stewart, 
with two of their children and seven ladies, wero 
massacred by Vegetarians at Whasang. See Kit- 
ch<:n;i 7ii'i!<sacre. 

In 1906, the Fukien mission, which had been 
under the Bishop of Victoria, was constituted a 
separate diocese and the Rev. H. McE. Price of 
Japan was consecrated as the first bishop. 

The chief educational institutions are at Yoo- 
chow, including Union Medical and Theological 
Colleges, Trinity College, the Stewart Memorial 
School for Women, boarding-schools for boys and 
girls, and Schools for the blind ; b'.ys' and girls* 
boarding-schools are also established at most 
.stations. 

There are seven hospitals in the dioce.se, and 
Asylums for Lepers at five centres. 

Diocese of Victoria. This is a missionary, as 
well as a colonial diocese. Mission work was begun 
in 1862 by the arrival of the Rev. J. Stringer. 
The first Bishop (Dr. G. Smith), the third (Dr. 
Burdon) and the fourth (Dr. Hoare) were all 
C.M.S. mi-ssionaries. Bishop Hoare was drowned 
in a typhoon in 1906, and was succeeded by Bishop 
Lander. In Hongkong, the Chinese Church is 
self-supporting with Chinese clergy. The Mission, 
besides supporting day schools, is responsible for 
four institutions, which are now in connection with 
Hongkong University, viz., St. Stephen's College, 
founded 1903, which is almost self-supporting : St. 
Paul's College (1850) for the training of clergy and 
catechists : St. Stephen's Girls' College, and St. 
John's Hostel. 

Work is also carried on on the mainland, four 
centres being open in Kuangtung Province, namely 
Canton (1898), Kowloon, where there is a Girls' 
orphanage, Lim-chou fu ^;H1;^(1902), and Pakhoi 
(1886). 

At Canton the mission has an interest in the 
Union Theological College, opened in 1914; and 
maintains both boys' and girls' schools. At Pakhoi, 
there are mens' and womens' hospitals, two 
asylums for lepers, and boys' and girls' schools. 

Diocese of West China. In 1891 the Rev. 
J. H. HoRSBURGH with a party of fifteen, arrived 
in S^uch'uan to open work on lines similar to those 
of the China Inland Mission. Great difficulty was 
experienced in getting a footing, but in 1894 
Chung pa tpiS ^vas occupied, and other towns 
shortly after. Until 1895. the West China Mission 
was part of the Mid-China Diocese, the Bishop 



110 



CHURCH OF SCOTLAND 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



being resident in Hangchow nearly two thousand 

miles away; but. in that year, the Rev. W. W. 

Cassf.ls, who had been working in the C.I.M., was 

lated the first bishop of the diocese of West 

.. As in the case of other Ssuch'uan missions, 

woik has been often hindered by disturbances, 

nvh as the riots of 1895 and 1398 : and in 1900, 

con.sular orders, all the staff withdrew to the 

. • Other disturbances took place in 1909, 1911, 

and 1913. 

Bishop t ASSELS h.is episcopal jurisdiction over 
both ('.M.S. and C.I.M. nii.ssionaries in Ssuch'uan. 
In 1916, the mission reported 13 foreign-manned 
stations, including Chengtu and Chungking. The 
. : - ::)i ;■, evangelistic. There is a Diocesan 
1 , a :, .: ' .. .<> at Pao ningf*^. and a hospital 
at .\licn <h(.u IftW (1911) as well as boys' and girls' 
mchools, and the Mission co-operates in a Hostel 
in Chengtu. as also in the West China University. 

Diocese of Kcangsi-Hunax. This was formed 
m 1909 out of the diocese of Victoria and embraces 
Hunan, south of lat. 28° and Kuangsi north of the 
West River. Archdeacon W. Banister was con- 
secrated its first bishop. 

In 1899 the Rev. L. BvnuE and his wife were 
cent lo Kueilin, and the first convert there was 
rt'coived in 1902. 

In 1903 Yung cliou fu /K^H/f.f in Hunan was 
'K-cupied ; HCngchou fu 'i^-)\Uf in 1910; and in 1911 
Hi«iang tan ifflfllwas taken over from the American 
Church (Protestant Episcopal). 

In 1910, serious riots broke out at Ch'angsha 
the capital, and all mi.ssion buildings were burnt; 
and under consular orders the workers at Y'ung 
rhou fu retired for a time to Hankow. 

The work is chiefly evangelistic, but at Kueilin 
medical work is done, and elementary schools have 
bt'en opened in several places. 

The C. E. Zenana Missionary Society began 
work in Fukicn in 1884, when Miss Gough arrived, 
who afterwards married the Rev. J. C. HoAiiE. The 
ft.E.Z.M.S. ladies now (1917) number forty, and 
of these three are qualified medical practitioners and 
••ight are trained nursew. Two of the latter work in 
the Native [lofpilal at I'oochow, which is support- 
ed Irjcally. The Wfimens' Hospitals are at Foo- 
chow, Dong Kai, and Lo Yuan ; and more or less 
dinpcnKAry work in done at all the stations (eleven 
in number) whiTo the C.E.Z.M.S. works, in 
addition to evangelistic work among the women 
and Kc.hools. 

The Kuangsi-Hunnn diocese also has 2 agents 
of the Swicly. The Matistics of the C.E.Z.M.S. 
are lucludcd in those of the C.M.S. 



Statistics for year ending June 1, 1916. 
Dioceses of (a) S. China ; (b) Kuang.si ; (c) Fukien ; 
(d) Chekiang; (e) W. China. 

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Totals 

Foreign clergy 14 9 22 18 17 80 

Foreign unord- 

ained workers 36 12 81 65 41 235 

and women 

Chinese clergy 7 20 24 51 

Statistics to December 51, 1915. 
Chinese unord- 
ained Assist- 150 30 694 175 64 1,113 
ants & women 
Communicants 1,292 214 5,167 2,555 551 9,780 
Non-communi- 
cant members 1,408 125 5,850 3,245 319 10,947 

CHURCH OF SCOTLAND MISSION. 

Headquarters : — Edinburgh. 
Works in Ichang and neighbourhood. 
The first missionaries of this Society to China 
were the Rev. Geo. Cockburn, M.A. and three 
colporteurs, the latter being partly supported by 
the National Bible Society of Scotland. The party 
arrived at Ichang in 1878. In 1890 Dr. W. PiRiE, 
the first medical missionary, arrived, but died in 
1893. 

It was not till 1890 that the Mission was able 
to put up its own buildings including a dispensary 
and hospital. In 1891 a riot occurred which 
compelled the missionaries to retire for a time. 
In 1897 the first workers of the Women's Association 
for Foreign Missions arrived, and in 1917 there are 
five of its representatives in the field, superintend- 
ing, in addition to evangelistic work, girls' day and 
boarding schools, industrial work, an orphanage 
and a Women's Bible School. In 1915, this 
Auxiliary built the Buchanan Memorial Hospital 
for Women and Children. 

Owing to the many changes in the small staff, 
it was not till 1893 that settled out-stations were 
occupied. In 1917, there are fifteen of these, the 
chief being I-tu 'tt S|>, about 30 miles from Ichang. 
In 1901, a fine new hospital and church, with 
residences, were erected outside the city. Shortly 
after this a Theological Institution and High 
School was begun, and there are primary schools 
in 1917 with about 200 pupils. 
Statistics for 1915-6. 

Foreign missionaries 15 

Chinese staff 28 

Communicants 524 

Non-communicant members ... 368 

CHUSAN ^\U chou shan, ship hills, a group 

of about one hundred islands, all hilly and fertile. 

The chief is-land is Chusan itself; it is about 

20 miles long and 6 at its greatest width. On it 



121) 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



CLAIRVOYANTS 



stands Tinghai, the governmental capital of the 
archipelago. East of the main island lies the 
famous P'u t'o ('/.i'.). 

Jn 1700 the East India (Jompany had a factory 
at Ting hai, and in 1703 u special mission was sent 
there with a view to opening up trade with Che- 
Iciang, and establishing a factory at Tinghai or 
Ningpo. Flint (tj-r.) was the head of the mission, 
which was vigorously opposed by the authorities 
in ('aiiton. It is possible however that after 
Flin't's visit to Tientsin trade with Ningpo might 
have been permitted, if Flint had not ventured 
there a second time without permission. 

One of the objects of Ma<'autney'.s Mission 
was to obtain permission to trade at Chusan. 

Chusan has several times been in possession 
of the British. It was first taken in 1840, and 
again in 1842, when it was held till the payment 
of the indemnity agreed oil in the Nanking treaty. 
It was taken again in 1860. 

In the forties, when Great Britain might have 
claimed either Chusan or Hongkong or both for 
her own, there were many who held strongly that 
Chusan would be the better possession. There are 
probably some who think so still, in spite of the 
splendid success of Hongkong. 

By the Convention of Bocca Tigris, made by 
Davis in 1846, China was bound never to cede the- 
islands to any other power. 

CH'U, STATE OF,-^, also written TS'U, one 
iif tlif largest and most powerful of the Chou 
fmuial States. The fief was granted by the second 
of the Chou rulers with the title Viscount •jf-, 
B.C. 1077. The family name was Mi ^. The title 
of King wa.s sometimes usurped, and Ch'u must be 
regarded, like Ch'in, as both feudal State and in- 
dejiendent Empire; it was subject to Chou only 
when it suited to be so. 

The position of Ch'u was south of the orthodox 
States, a buffer-state between China and all the 
barbarian South. It must be always borne in mind, 
however, that as far as its administration and 
capitals were concerned it was never south of the 
Yang-tze. Its first capital was above the I-chang 
gorges ; a later'one was Ching-chou f u in the present 
Hupei ; the country extended eastward to the sea. 
All this terrftory was named The J\ing\e,Ching ^]. 
a name which is still seen in Ching-chou fu and is 
used as the literary name of Huiiei. It was into 
this Jungle that the two jirinces went who founded 
the State of \Vu (q-v.), which later lay between 
Ch'u and the sea. The administrative part in the 
north was Chinese, but the mass of population 
southward would be barbarian. The jieople of 
<'h"u are spoken of as bearded; no (Jdes from Ch'u 
are included by CoNrucirs in the Shih Ching ; the 
C^h'u laws were very severe and the rule was 



tyrannical and absolute. In later times Ch'u 
produced a certain amount of high-cla.s8 literature, 
but this may be put down to her policy of annexing 
minor Chinese States. (See Eltgitn of Vhu; and 
tA Siii,). 

It became the Protector State in B.C. 638. 
Towards the end of the Feudal period it waged 
bloody wars with Wu, which it extinguished in 438. 
with Ch'i and finally with Ch'in, between whcm 
and itself lay the last fight for the Empire. Ch'in 
finally coiKjuered in B.C. 222. 

I'AUKEii : Ancient China SiiitplifiKd. 

CHU Tl :)[-t^.. See Yung Lo. 

C H • U TZ ' . See FAugits of Chu. 

CH'iJ YUAN .Eij?. also called CH'U P'ING. 
JSi ^ , a loyal minister of the Ch'u State. He was 
a great favourite till displaced by a rival. lie 
then wrote a poem Li Sao (^. i".), still famou.«, 
to warn his sovereign, but the warning was 
disregarded, with the result that the Prince, war 
ring against Ch'in, was captured. Cn'ii Yuan found 
himself no more in favour with the succeeding ruler, 
and he drowned himself in che Mi lo ^g| river, 
B.C. 295. The Dragon-Boat Festival is in his 
honour, when rice is thrown on the water to pro 
pitiate his spirit. See Drwjon Boat. 

Giles : lii'/<jrap/iical Dictionary ; etc. 

CHU YUAN-CHANG ^-jxiCi- See IJung Wu. 

CINCLINAE, the Dippers, a Sub-family of 
Turdidae. The following are known in China. 

Cinclvs pallasii, Pallas' Dipper, Manchuria. 
Chihli. 6'. soulici, South China to Yangtze. C- 
inarila, Formosa. C. Offiaticu^, Ssuch'uan. C. 
r(i.--7iniirl('n-<i--\ Ssiach'uan, Kansu. 

CINCALAN, a name in the Catalan Atlas 
{(/■v.). It is the Arabic Sin Kilan, the name given 
by Arabs and Persians to Canton. In Odohic a 
dozen whimsical variants of the name are u.'-cd. 

CINNABAR. See Mineral'. 

CIRCIAN. See Cherchcn. 

CISTERCIANS. See Trappnt.^. 

CITRUS. See Oran>je.<. 

CIVETS. Several species are mentioned by 
SwiNKOE from S. China, including Vivvrra zibttha 
L., the Indian Civet, from Canton to near Shang- 
hai, in the Chusan Islands and Hainan; Viierriculn 
niaktrrcn-iif Gm.. the JJttle Spotted Civet, cominm 
in S. China, Hainan and Formo.«a ; I'aijumu lariat". 
the Gem-faced Civet, in Kuangtung. Fukien and 
Formosa. 

SwiXHOE : Cutalnijini of thv Mannnah ■■' ''h,„,i 
etc., P.Z.S.. 1870. 

CLAIRVOYANTS are common in S. China, 
nnd air iniuli consulted by Chinese who wish to 
rominunicate with the dead. The deity appealed 



16 



121 



CLASSICS 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



to by incanlatioii seems to be the spirit of the 
Pleiade.^. A fairly full description of the mode of 
procedure i^ given by Eitel in Xuti-x and Queries, 
vol. 2, p. 19, and in Dorf, licchtrches sur les 
Siipi mliliiinti rn i'Tiine, vol. 1, p. 139. 

CLASSICS. The present arrangement of the 
tla-ssitai Lu.»k.s of China is supposed to have 
originated in the Sung dynasty. It includes nine 
works, five being called |{ rfiiii'j and four being 
called H f/iu. Chiiuj signifies first the warp 
threads of a web; then, wliat is regular and assures 
regularity. In regard to books it indicates they 
are authoritative on their subjects. The five t'hing 
are canonical works, to be received as law. Shn 
merely means writings t,r books. 

The five Clninj are 1, / Vhni>j g^or l{i>,>k of 
CAamjtg. 2, S/iit C/iiii'j ^j§ or Bim/: of /Ii.<toii/. 
3, Sftih Chtnij j5|5 or Itook of Udes. 4, Li ('hi 
K IB or Jfirord of J{itr.<. 5. Ch'tni C/i'iii ^ ^ 
Spmiij mid .[uttiiim. 

Of these only the Chun Ch'iii can properly be 
considered as the work of CoxKrcirs. The / ChiiKj 
ha-v appendices by him. 

The expres.'ion the Four Hooks J/tj^ is an 
abbreviation for the Books of the Four Philosophers, 
7%-^iii% They are, 1, Liin Yii fft |g or Cotifiirinn 
liio/'ri'. it is occupied with the sayings of CoN- 
n-cii s. 2, 'J'n Hsmh ^^ The Ureat Letinting, 
i>uppose4l to be the work of Tskng, a disciple of 
Cosri-cirs. 3, Chumj Yitiitj t|i ^ Doctrine of the 
Mritii, ascribed to KCNc Cm grandson of CoN- 
iTfirs. 4, Mf'nfjtzu. ^ -f- The worltt of Mencius. 

This arrangement is defective, inasmuch as the 
To Jhiirh and Chmoj Yiimj are found In the A/ Chi, 
being respectively Book 42 and ]}ook 31 in that 
work. 

The oldest enumeration gives only the five 
I'fiiiifj, sometimes made six ChiiKj by the addition 
of ll.rt )■» Chi Jli 5g Heiord of Miisir, now one of 
the BcMikx in l.i Chi. 

AmUhcr enunteration gave nine Cliiihj. and in 
the famous comjjilation of the Classics by the 
•MMond emperor of the T'aiiK there are thirteen 
Chuuj: viz., /; Shih; Shu; three editions of 
(■k'uH Ch'iu with annotations by Tso cn'ir MiNfi 
itefiCWl. KiS(iYANo Kao 'ji^.^j, and Kt' i.iANfi 
■•"" «t«^. : A. Chi; Chou U ^ « ; / A/ « j^ 
l.un YU UkWt ■ I'-'t' 1'" Wfll. a dictionary; Hxioo 
('h,n.j ^inr. ClasMc of Filial I'iety ; and 'Mhvjtz,). 

<»f the«e Mkncius. A„„ Yii, Ta Il»„eh, Chun,, 
Yiiu.j and H.inn Chimj. were sjx.kcn of as H»ino 
Chimj, f\sff Smaller clasFics. 

The only complete translation of the Four 
Boole and Five Chin., is the English translation by 
I.r.oot, A 'monument of Anu'lo Chinese scholarship."' 

Sec separate articles on each. 



CLEPSYDRA, K'M ^'^".7 ^ou, the water-clock, 
ail apparatus for marking time by the leakage of 
water from an an-angement of jars. There was 
formerly one called T'ung lou hu in the Drum 
Tower at Peking ; and there is one still in use at 
Canton, said to be eight centuries old. It consists 
of four copper jars placed on steps, and the water 
trickles down to the lowest, where a floating 
indicator marks the hour. It is arranged to run 
for twelve hours. 

CLIPPERS, ves.sels built for speed and used 
in the opium and tea trade in the thirties and 
onward of last century. The earliest were 
American, for while the BiiLish trade was a 
monopoly of the East India Company, there was 
no need in it for haste, and the East Indiamen 
were known as ' tea waggons.' 

Aft;er the E. I. Co. charter ceased in 1834 
competition began in the building and sailing of 
fast ships ; betting encouraged racing ; in 1856 
began the custom of paying each season a premium 
of £1 per ton of freight to the tea-ship first 
reaching London. 

In the si.xties, British designers and builders 
had beaten the American from the field, and 
comjjetition then became keen between the Clyde 
and Aberdeen. 

The opening of the Suez Canal and the use of 
steam brought tlie clipper trade to an end. 

Lubbock : The China Clijtperx; Glasgow, 1914. 

CLOISONNE, from French rloison, a partition, 
enamel-work made by soldering to a metal ground 
a narrow ribbon of cojjper, silver, or gold, following 
an intricate design or pattern, so as to divide the 
surface into cells. The workman fills in the cells 
with moistened enamel colours, and then fires the 
piece, several firings being re(iuired to completely 
fill the cells and correct any pitting of the 
surface. He then polishes with pumice and cleans 
with charcoal. The art was jjrobably introduced 
by Arabs in the Yiian dynasty and was called 
Fo lamj ch'ien ^ ||J .' or Byzantine incrusted work 
(.see fa Ion). During the Ming dynasty there w^as 
an important roxival in the art, which was called 
Ching t'ai Ian ^ ^ ^^ clnisoimc. K'ang Hsi 
cloisonne resembles it. The work of the Ch'ien 
Lung period is more finished and more harmonious 
in colouring. 

BusMKi.L : Chiinse Ar/; Paleologite : L'Ari 
chinoi.y. 

CLOVES y ^ ting hsitmij, nail incense; so 
lallcci because the shape resembles a Chinese nail, 
T- Chao Ju-kua says that officials at Court had 
to have them in the mouth when speaking to the 
Emperor. They are chiedy produced in the 
Moluccas. 



122 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



CO-HONG 



COAL. The fust mention of coal in Chinese 
liteiatuie is by Liu An gi) ^ (Huai Nan-tzu) who 
died B.C. 122. He call.s it j}inij fan ?;[; ^ ice- 
charcoal, it has also been termed t'u i. Van carth- 
charccal, i>hih ^ Can, stone charcoal and nivi y^. 
See Miiii'ials. 

COAL HILL iX 111 inci ilian, al.so called 
Ching shan J^ |U I'ru.</jcct Hill and Wan gui shan 
1^^ |[j, a hill in the grounds north of the palace in 
I't'king ; it is .said to be a mass of coal stored there 
for use in case of siege. Its height is about 150 
feet; there are five or six pavilions, etc., on it, 
built in the Ming period : the hill itself dates from 
till' Yuan dyna.'^ty. It was on this hill that the 
last Ming emperor hanged himself. 

Favieii : I'ihlnij. 

COCCYGES, an Order which contains the 
f'lickoos. /anr/as/oniu.f ///.<//.«, met with in Hainan. 
('tntropiL< ■'<in(:n-iis, the Common Coucal or Crow- 
Pheasant, resident in Hainan and in the southern 
provinces as far as Chekiang. C. bcngalen-fis, 
resident in Hainan and Formosa and the southern 
provinces. Eiidynamis huiiorata, the Indian Koel, 
is a common bird in Hainan and S. China, and 
travels to N. Anhui. Coccystes coromandus, the 
red-winged Crested Cuckoo, is found in S. China, 
to the valley of the Yangtze, and probably goes 
further north. Surniculus lugubris, the Drongo 
Cuckoo, passes the summer in central China. 
Cacomantis mcndinus, the Eufous-bellied Cuckoo, 
is found in S. China during part of the year, from 
Ssuch'uan to Fukien, and in Hainan. Ohrysococcyx 
viacidatu/!, the Emerald Cuckoo, a very small bird, 
is found in Ssuch'uan and in Hainan. Hierococcyx 
i<jjurvf.rioidv-i, S. China to the Yangtze ; H. hypery- 
thru<, in East China. Cucidiis viicropterus, the 
Indian Cuckoo, occurs in S. China to the Yangtze 
valley. C. ranuru<, the Common Cuckoo of 
Europe, common all over China. C. ftaturatus, the 
Himalayan Cuckoo, in all parts of China in summer. 
C. puliocfp/inliK, a small cuckoo found in S. China 
in the summer, to the Yangtze valley. 

David et Oustalet : Lrs Oiseaux dc la ('hinc ; 
{( 'u'-ulides). 

COCKCHAFER AFFAIR. A lieutenant of 
H.M. gunboat Cockchafer was pelted by villagers 
while rowing with some of his men on the river 
near Swatow in 1868. He landed, and the villagers 
fired at the boat's crew. The fire was returned 
and the British then pulled away, but a thousand 
villagers intercepted them' and wounded eleven at 
once by firing from the high banks. The boat 
only got past after eleven Chinese had been killed 
and many wounded. Being unable to get any 
apology through the officials, a small squadron was 
sent up the river, H.B.M. Consul Alabaster 
accompanying it ; and on .January 29, four hundred 



and fifty men were landed and burned two villages 
with no casualties, and witit liule loss to the 
enemy. A Chinese gunboat present tacitly aj) 
proved, and the authorities were probably pleasdl 
to have the utmiaiiageable people taught a lesson. 
The effect in Swatow was said to be excellent, as 
the turbulent villagers had hitherto been regarded 
as invitu'ible. 

COCKS 4!sS^, hiimj flii, are supposed, on the 
evidence of the Shan llai Ching, to protect houses 
from fire. The picture of a red cock is therefore 
often seen stuck on a house wall. Since ghosts 
retire about sunrise it is supposed the cock chases 
them ; hence it is a potent dennjnifuge, u.sed at 
funerals and weddings : a white cock is put (jn the 
coffin in funeral processions to clear the road of 
dt'iiions. Doiii': : Uirhirrhii' ■■'iir li.< Siiptrytitinni. 

CO HONG, the foreign name for the guild of 

merchants at Canton, formed in 1720, no doulit 
with official sujiport, superseding the Empi-ror's 
Merchant (q.c.) who had been appointed in 1702. 
The guild proceeded to regulate the prices at whirh 
goods were to be sold to foreign mei'chants. and 
the supercargoes protested and refused to ilo busi 
ness. It was abolished, but almost immediately 
revived. In 1755 orders were given that abso- 
lutely all trade with foreign ships must be througn 
the Guild. 

The (yO-hong was unmercifully squeezed by the 
officials with the result that in 1771, many of 
the merchants were bankrujjt and it was dissolved. 
This was said to be done in the foreign merchants' 
interests, and cost them Tls. 100.000. In 1782. a 
body of twelve or thirteen merchants was char- 
tered called the Hong merchants; it was the Cu- 
hong under a new name and is often called by 
the old. It formed 'the only means by which the 
foreign traders could communicate with the 
government. The Viceroy both took the Hong 
merchants' money and held them entirely respon 
sible for all the foreigners did ; and the foreigners 
on the other hand were full of protest and rebel 
lion ; the Co-hong was thus between the hammer 
and the anvil. They undoubtedly got their reward ; 
it was worth, in one case, an entrance fee of Tls. 
200,000 to become a Hong merchant; when Canton 
had to pay a ransom one member of the Co-hong 
gave a million taels from his own purse ; and 
HovvQUA, the best-known of them, estimated his 
wealth in 1834 at twenty-six million dollars. 
These figures show the enormous difficulties un 
der which foreign trade was carried on for a cent- 
ury, and indicate one factor among the many 
which produced the so-called Opium War. 

The integrity of the dealings between the 
Comjjany and the Co-hong seems to have been 
remarkable, though on the other hand it seems to 



-1: 



;OLAO 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



have been common for Merchants to fail for 
millions which would then be repaid in instalments 
without interest. 

The Nanking Treaty abolished the system 
and repaid to British subjects three million dollari; 
owinK by insolvent Hong Merchants. 

Ea.mes : Tht fJn<jli.'h in China; MoRSE : In- 
ternationid Tt'ation* of the Chinese Empire; 
EfTKL : Eurnpt in China. 

COLAO "1- K. 1,1-1 . Set' Ihiind Senetuii/. 

COLLEOGE, THOMAS R., a surgeon of the 
East India Company, who, in 1827 opened at his 
own e.xpense an Ophthalmic Hospital in Macao. 
After the first year the e.xpen.se was met by the 
foreign community. It was the fir.st institution for 
the relief of indigent natives which was supported 
by voluntary contributions of foreigners, though 
<o!ne mcflital work among Chinese had been done 
in 1805 by Mr. ALEX.\N-DEn Pearson and in 1820 
by Mr. )..ivi.vgsto.\e. both surgeons of the East 
India Company. In 1838 he became with Drs. 
Parker and Bridcman the founder of the Medical 
Missionary Society in China, the first such Society 
to be formed. He was President of it for forty 
years. 

Chin-NEHY painted a picture representing him 
engaged in his good work. He died in England 
in 1879. See J'lirler, Peter. 

COLLIE, DAVID, of the London Missionary 
Sccioty, sailed from Portsmouth on November 8, 
1821, and reached Malacca on June 26, 1822, having 
lit laved two months in Madras where Mrs. 
Collie died. In 1827 he became Principal of the 
Anglo-Chinese College. Tiie nc.\t year his health 
gave way as the result of heavy work, and he was 
went to Singapore, but died on the way, when only 
orio day at .sea, February 27, 1828. His works in 
Kiiclish ore (1) .In .ibritli/inient of Snrrcd Hi.^fnri/, 
.Malacca, 1826, written for the use of the students 
in the College, (2) Thf Chinese Oln.o/>ir(il worl:^, 
ritmtniiuly culled the four Donl-n, tramthited and 
d'tftratrd with nottn, Malacca. 1828; tliis work 
wan published after his death. 

^WVLIE) : Mrimniids of I'loli-.-hint Mi<.<ii>ii 
niirf In flir f'hini'X, 

COLLINSON, SAM. Se- Si,-,,., L„lin h.<in. 

COLQUHOUN. ARCHIBALD ROSS, was 
-born .11 .Manli. 1848. <ifl tlie Ciipc .,1' (iodd noi)o. 
In 1871 h«- entered the Indian Public Works 
Di-partmrnl. In 1881 82 he travelled from Canton 
to lUinmo, seeking the bent route for a railway, 
uM<l wrote the account of tin- journey in .ArrofH 
I'htyn'. Ho has been Timr^ correspondent in the 
Far Vm*K and eiiicwhere, and ha.x travelled much in 
all parts of the world. His published works are 
numerous; those connected with China are Acro»» 
Chryt.', 1883; Amowjtt the Sha,f<, 1885; Jlr,j„rt on 



Uailicay Cuinmunicatiunt} between India and China 
(joint author), 1885; China in Transformation, 
1898; The " Overland " to China, 1900. 

He died December 18, 1914. 

COLUMBAE, The Order of birds which 
includes the Pigeons and Doves. The following 
are the species known in China. Treron nipalensin, 
in Hainan. T. formosae. in S. Formosa. SpJieno- 
cercit- gororiu.<. in Formosa, and at Shaweishan. 
Usniotreron biri'.irta, in Hainan. Carpnpharja aenea. 
the Green Imperial Pigeon, and C. (/riseicapilla, 
both in Hainan. Dendrotreron hodfjsonii, the 
Speckled Wood-Pigeon, in W. Ssuch'uan in the 
mountains. Alsocomus pidchriroJli<, the Ashy 
Wood-Pigeon, in the interior of Formosa. Columba 
intermedia, the Indian Blue Rock-Pigeon, in the 
northern half of China. C. rupestris, the Blue 
Hill-Pigeon, the commonest species in the north 
and west of China. C. pvnicea, Hainan. Macro- 
pyjia tu-^alia, the Bar-tailed Cuckoo-Dove, in 
Mu-p'in and N.W. Fukien, and M. minor in Hainan. 
Chalcophops indica, the Bronze-winged Dove, in 
Hainan, Formosa, Yiinnan and W. Ssuch'uan. 
Ttirtur orientalis. the Eastern Turtle-Dove, Formosa, 
all China and Mongolia. T. chine.nsis, Central and 
South (.'hiiia, Formosa, Hainan. T. risoriu-", the 
Indicin Ring-Dove, N. China, occasionally on Yang- 
tze and in Fukien. the borders of Mongolia, and 
S. Shensi. T. humi/i--, the Red Turtle-Dove, S. 
Chin;i. 

David et Ou.stai.et : Les Oiseaiix dc la Chine. 

COMMERCIAL PRESS, THE, a printing firm 
estaljJisJUMl in Shanghai in 1895 with a couple of 
presses. It began later to publish school text -books, 
and was registered in the Hoard of Commerce as a 
limited Company, cne of the first of such institutions 
in China. It is a purely Chinese business, with 
a capital of two million Me.x. dollars. Its total 
number of employes is 2,800, and these are treated 
on Christian principles ; meals, hospital, savings- 
bank, Sunday re.st, etc., etc., being all features of 
the firm's policy. The founders were Christian 
men, the management is done in a Christian spirit, 
and o.ie of the rules of the Company is never to 
publish anything of an anti-Christian character. 

COMPAGNIE DE LA CHINE, LA, a Com 

pany with the monopoly of French trade with 
China. Tl:c:e were three of these Companies 
formed one after the other. The first was founded 
in 1660 by the efforts of a Rouen merchant named 
Feumanel. The rules stated that the principal 
idea of the Society was to facilitate the passage 
of bishops appointed by the Pope for the "conver- 
sion of China. The king, Louis XIV, under 
Mazarin's influence, encouraged the enterprise by 
the promi.se of prizes to returning rhi|)s, but there 
do not seem to have been issued any letters-pal- 



124 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA STXICA 



CONFUCIANISM 



ent. The Fronde, liowcver, and the war witli 
Spain had made money scarce, the necessary cap- 
ital was not to be j;ot, and the .Society 'g'tnininiil 
faute de capitaux.' 

After the return of the Am/Jiili Ifr (rj.v.) from 
her first voyage to China, a second 'Company of 
China' was established and registered on Xovem- 
ber 9, 1700, and in October 1705, letters-patent 
were obtained. Aftei' a short existence, embit- 
tered by many disputes and a great lack of pro- 
fits, the king took froin the Society its monopoly 
in 1711. 

In 1712 a new Company was foinied, named, 
like the second one, the Comi)agnie Royale de la 
Chine, and the ne.xt year letter.s-patent were issued 
establi.shing the Society's monopoly for fifty years. 
The Company was, however, killed the very ne.xt 
year by the protectionist jjolicy of the government, 
for it.s .ships returned loaded with silk to find 
that in their absence a decree had been issued to 
forbid the import of .silk. The Company was 
later amalgamated with the ('ompagnie de I'lnde. 

Madrolle : 7^6.5 Premip.rs Voyages froTK^ois 
a la Chiiw; BELF.viTCU-STANKKvnrH : /.'' Goul 
Chinoin en France. 

COMPOUND, the term generally u.sed for the 
walled enclosure within which foreigner.* live. The 
derivation of the word is uncertain, but it may 
C(jme from the l-'ortuguese cnmpanha. 

COMPRADOR E, ^ ^jjl mni pan, negotiator of 
purchases ; from Portuguese vomprar, to buy. THe 
term for the Chinese agents u.sed by foreign 
menhants to do their buying and selling. 

CONCESSION, a piece of ground lea.sed by 
the Chinese to a foreign government and sub-let 
to western merchants ; while a Settlement is an 
area within which western merchants may lease 
land directly from the Chinese owners — which is 
generally done by perpetual lease. In either case 
it is understood that the j^olice control shall be in 
the hands of the foreign power : a right which the 
power delegates to a Municipal Council. 

BouRNR : Tic port of the Miasion to China of thv 
LiliKhhurn CJiainher of Coninicrre, p. 15. 

CONCUBINE ^ rh-irh. Concubinage is 
recognised by Chinese law, the issue taking rank 
after that of the wife ^ ch'l. The concubines' 
children treat the wife as mother, mourning at her 
death for the full period of 27 months ; while the 
real mother if she dies before the wife, may only 
be mourned fm- 12 months. Imperial concubines 
were termed JJ iia/nj /.■ii'?i-fi'i ^. ^ j5f£ if of the fir.st 
rank, fciiei fcl for the second, fei for the third, p'in 
^% for the fourth and l-uei jen H\ for the fifth. 

CONFUCIANISM is that body of teachings 
lulled by ( 'uNiL'iii's from the more ancient sages 
of <.'hina, which was commended and enforced bv 



his teaching and example, handed down by his 
inmiediate disciples, consolidated by Mesuus, and 
cast into its present form by Cue Hsi, and which 
has ever since been the orthodoxy of the race. 
It is .spoken of both as a religion and a philo.sophy. 
Most foreign critics, and some Chinese, deny that 
it is a religion ; and as it discourages all belief in 
a Personal Cod. does not u.se prayer except to 
" inform " the spirits of important events, and 
leaves personal immortality out of its scheme, 
except in' so far as ancestral rites are concerned, 
Confucianism can hardly be called a religion in the 
Western sense of the word. 

There are, however, points in the teacliiiigs of 
CoNFUf'iv.s and Mr.Ncn-s which might have develo|> 
ed such a religion. For example, there is evidence 
in the Avnlerf.< that Heaven was not an impersonal 
term to Confccius, that prayer was resorted to by 
him, and that his cautious attitude towards the 
" spirits " was based on reverence and a sen.se of 
limited knowledge, rather than on doubts of a 
future existence. Whatever may have been his 
view of their meaning, he is very insistent on the 
importance of sacrificial rites to the spirits of the 
dead. 

In any case, Confucianism has at least been 
for millions a sub.stitute for religion. 

Again, Confucianism has been described as a 
philosophy ; and it is true that by the Sung scholars 
a cosmogony, based on the / Chimj, was carefully 
thought out, and incorporated with the more 
practical doctrines. But neither a .system of 
Philosophy nor a Religion was what Confccivs 
had at heart ; he was interested in one philosophical 
subject only, Ethics, and chiefly with Ethics as 
applied to the art of government ; and though in 
the cour.se of ag^s his cult has changed considerably, 
it has never departed from the Ma.ster's central 
idea. The system of public examinations in vogue 
till recent years made proficiency in his teachings, 
or rather, a close knowledge of his books, the sole 
requirement for holding office ; and Conki'cii'h 
himself spent the best part of his life at courts 
trying to influence the rulers, devoting himself to 
teaching his- pupils the art of government, only 
after he failed in thi.s. 

There is historical evidence that with the rise 
of the Chou dynasty, came a gradual cleavage in 
the ancient thought of China. The main division, 
more akin to Taoism, was inclined to the Shaiig 
dynasty, while the smaller division, which was to be 
by far the more imjiortant. received the sujiport of 
CoNFUcir's, (who.^e favourite hero was Ciior Krso), 
and was greatly developed through him. 

In his day, the Empire was in confusion, the 
central government weak and the feudal lords in 
perpetual strife. Confccics' remedy for the ills of 
the time was education; not a universal education. 



12.: 



CONFUCIANISM 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



but that of picked men, and even these were to be 
educated in the first place a* officials. 

Hiis ideas finally prevailed, but not without 
encountering grave opposition, both in the "Burn- 
ing of the Books" and from rival theorists. Taoist 
leathers, and such vigorous thinkers as Mo Tzu, 
Hsu.s Tzii and Yang Tzii disputed with the 
ortho.iox Confueianists; Buddhi.-m. Mohammedan 
isni, and in later years. Christianity, set up rival 
svHtenis. and all had considt-rabie success. Yet all 
jiut together had but little effect on China compared 
with the cull of Coxnc lis, which is a wonderful 
reHex of the typical Chinese mind, with its dislike 
«»f niftaphy.-i<s and its common sense view of 
HKiralily. This, with the moral eminence of the 
Sagi? hiniiut'If, accounts for its bcccjming supreme. 

CoStftiirs left no exact or ordered statement 
uf hii) d'X-trine«, hia one original work being the 
t'/i'uii r/i'iu, the Annals of his native .State. His 
followers ciilitHled his teachings in an unsy.stematic 
way, und also iianded down the classics he had 
i'diU'd. A.-> against iH'cuitism. and magical arts, 
CoNU'rirs fmplia.<ii/f.l the near and the every day 
duties ; but a|jparently accepted without question 
th«* «• sniogonicai ideas of the ancients, their system 
of divination and their sacrificial customs, from the 
.-.I' nine to Heaven or .Shang Ti performed by the 
Kniperor, down to the ancestral rites of the 
humblest peasant. It was left for later generations 
to Hy^lemati/.e the cult, and considerable changes 
tcxik place, though the intention was merely to 
.■M...iiit(i the ancient doctrine. 

' •nfiicianisni as we have it is a noble and self- 
. •ii-i..l«nl body «»f ethical doctriiie based on the 
following princi]iles : — 

i. The rniverse is regulated by an Order 

which in moral in its essence, ii. Man is the crown 

iiigs. the universe in /i/l!r, and as such is 

V irinH\ by nature, with Heaven-conferred 

1 gcKid, free will being taken for 

I' ct.'ine is ienj»iicit in jjre-Ctnfucian 

igB. wjMi re stated by Mf.ncu's, and is a chief 

(•tone of Chinese tliought, in spite f;f 

T/u who maintained thai human nature is 

Hid Van(; Hsirxc, who held that it has both 

gcMKi and evil elements. Meniu'S (like Bishop 

Brti.nm believed that man has egoistic and altruistic 

• li-ntentn. liolh tjond. jji. Men do wrong (1) 

~l»irou({h lack of knowledge and (2) from the force 

of Imd example, iv. The remedies are therefore 

' 'ion and gocxl example. 'J'he former is 

mI to n<-cpiirc, and only the few can have it, 

i»ii il the^c few are tlie ollicials, they will, besides 

governing well, abo furnish the examples necessary 

for the common peop'e. v. Tin- edncation mcssary 

f<ir officinlN la both inward an. I outward; the 

individual must rectify hiniKelf before he can 

reiiify oihem. The outward means of <ie\.l,,i,iii,.i,i 



are (1) the all-sufficient teachings of the ancients, 
learnt by heart and exhaustively studied, and (2) 
a close attention to all the sacrificial ceremonies 
and rules of decorum for social intercourse, extend- 
ing to the most meticulous care about small things, 
even in solitude. (See Analects, Book X, for the 
Master's punctiliousness). With this may be com- 
pared Pascals dictum that a strict observance of 
ail the Church rituals is finally conducive to Christ- 
ian faith and piety, vi. The inward means to be 
emjiloyed is a constant reverence for one's own 
nature as a moral being, with special emphasis on 
watchfuhiess over self in solitude when ordinary 
inhibitions are absent. This acting in secret as 
though tliere were witnesses is " Sincerity " as 
taught in the Doctrine of the. Mern. vii. .\s t<< 
the contents of goodness, (a) the fn .d;;;i;cntal virtut- 
is Ji II iz . for which our terms kindness, bene- 
vclciKc, sympathy, fellow-feeling, etc., give far 
too poor a connotation. It is rather the " Love 
which worketh no ill to his neighbcur." Such 
words are hard to define, and have many uses, 
and so we find that Jhi is sometimes used for the 
foundation virtue and sometimes for its various 
manifestations in conduct. As elaborated by 
Mencius, it is the altruistic side of human natuiv 
working spontaneously, (b) The second great virtue 
^^ ^ Wt-y justice or righteousness, which is the 
checking of the egoistic impulses when required in 
the interests of altruism, (c) The third is TA $!5. 
\ery inadequately translated by "propriety" ; the 
proper performance of ceremonies and rules of 
decorum which have both subjective and objective 
value, (d) The fourth is Vhih ^, intelligence, power 
of sound judgment and discriminaticn. These four 
are Mkncius' elaboration of the C of Confucius. 
(e) A fifth, Httin ■fj^, fidelity to one's word, faith- 
fulness, has been added, and the five together make 
up the II'm ch'ami %^ , the five virtues, which 
comprise the whole duty of man, and are the moral 
counterpart of the five elements, 3i. % . The 
Ccnfucian claim is that when a man educated 
in the above way takes office he will be able to 
" renovate the people," while if the times are out 
of joint and office becomes intolerable he has a 
iouMtain of strength in himself and can " go his 
way alone." 

The comparison of such a moi'al system with 
that of Stfjicism has often been made. Its limit- 
ations are also obvious. Confucius did not diagnose 
correctly the moral situation of man. The problem 
of evil is not faced ; it is scarcely evaded so much 
as ignored. Confucianism has also failed to satisfy 
the deepest iii.stincts of the human heart, and 
Buddliism and Taoism have had to sii])ply the 
de.'iciency. On the other hand, the morality taught 
is high and noble; the doctrine of the uprightness 
"'■ linnian nature has made for democracy; the 



RMj 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



CONFUCIUS 



evils of a jirii'stliooil lia\c heeii avoiJocl, the officials 
from the Eniperor downward being tlie priests. 
No divination is practised in Confucian temples; 
idolatry is discountenanced, even the multijilication 
of images of Confucius being discouraged ; while 
the insistence on filial piety is the greatest moral 
asset of the race. The cult has held together the 
Chinese social fabric for ages, and will be one of 
the greatest factors in shaping its future. 

See Cuiifuchts; Mcncius; Philosophy, etc. 

Leggk : Chinese Classics; Faber : Systciudtiv 
Di'jcst of the Doctrines of Confucius, Hongkong, 
1875; Mind of Mcncius; Giles: Confuciuni-sin 
find its liii-(ds; Pauker : China and Rclijion; 
Studies in Chinese lt'eli(/ii)n ; Suzuki : History of 
Chinese Philosophy. [C.E.C.] 

CONFUCIAN TEMPLE, % ^ w.n wicic. 
iMery town in China must have a temple to' the 
Sage— a prefectural city (///) which is also the chief 
city of the rhou or hsivn thus possessing two or 
three such buildings. 

The plan is ahvays the same, three courts in 
a south to north direction, e.xcept that the third 
court in some cases may be j)laced east of the second. 
The main building, the temple proper, is on the 
north side of the second court. The whole 
enclosure was left without a south gate until some 
student of the district liad gained the high place 
of rhuan;/ yiia/t (q.v.) ; this gate when made (and 
some other parts of the temple) were only used by 
the Kmperor or a rhuan;/ yiion. The temjile walls 
arc led; this, and many other things and names 
al>out the place, recall the Chou dynasty, in which 
( 'u.NKUcius lived. A careful and clear description 
will be found in Watters' book. 

Two Confucian temples deserve special men- 
tion, — that at Peking where the chief building is 
over 80 ft. Jong with pillars 40 ft. high. In the 
court arc tlie famous stone drums {(j-v.). The other 
temple is that at Ch'ii fou, the Sage's home. The 
main building is 70 ft. high and 134 ft. long, and 
it has fine pillars of carved marble. There is an 
image of ("onfucius. 

Watteus : A Guide to the Tablets in a Temple 
of ('onfucius; Favier : Pekint/; Edkins : Visit to 
Ihr Home of Confuriw, Journal, N.C.B.R. A.S., 
".ol. viii. 

CONFUCIUS, the Latinized •form of K'ung 
Fu Tzu, the " philosopher K'ung," the name of 
China's greatest sage, who has been revered for 
ages as the fountain of wisdom and virtue. His 
ancestry has been traced by certain of his followers 
to the semi-mythical Yellow Emperor, B.C. 2700 ; 
and, after the spread of IJuddhism, a number of 
legends were invented as to the circ-umstances of 
his birth, evidently in imitation of those concerning 
IjUudiia. These, however, are gentjrally discredited 



even by the Confucianists themselves. Apart from 
these fantasies, it seems that he was uf good 
pedigree; for he was descended from a halfbrotlier 
^of the last Siiang Emperor, who had ruled the 
feudal state of Sung^fe, with its capital at Kueite 
fu, in Honan. About two and a half centuries 
before Confucu-s the reigning duke abdicated in 
favour of his younger brother; this compelled the 
5th generation to follow the custom of founding a 
new clan, and taking a new name. The name 
chosen was that of K'ung |L. The great-grand fallur 
of the .sage moved northward from Sung into Lu, 
in modern Shantung, to escape from an hereditary 
feud, and Confucius' father was a military official 
of Lu, brave in nature and conuiianding in person. 
This official had had nine daughters by his wife, 
and a crippled son by a concubine, and greatly 
desiring another son, when over seventy years lA 
age he married quite a young girl, who bore him 
Confucius in the year 551- u.c. at a village called 
^ ^ in the modern district of jg 7/^ , Ssu Shui. 
The fatlier died when the son was only three years 
old. and the widow removed to Ch'ii-fcu flj *?- 
in the modern Yen -chou fu. The boy had some 
of the characteristics of old men's sons, being very 
sober-sided, and finding his chief amusement in 
grave imitation of ceremonies, while his favourite 
toys were the paraphernalia of the sacrifices. He 
was mai-ried at 18, and a son \Vas born to him the 
next year. He also had at least one daughter, for 
we hear of his giving one in marriage. He is .<^aid 
to have divorced his wife, but this is not certain. 
The son was apparently not very sympathetic 
with his father, whom he predeceased ; he never 
became famous, and we know very little about 
him; but his son. K'ung Chi iL'fiii:. better 
known as Tzii Ssii ('/.'".) was a well-known 
teacher and expander of his grandfather's 
doctrines. On his marriage, Confucius was gi\en 
a small ))Ost as keeper of granaries in his native 
state, and afterwards became superintendent of 
parks and herds. He seems to have then collected 
round him a number of pupils, after the manner of 
the teachers of Greece. He was an ardent student 
of History, and visited the Imperial city (then Lo- 
yang, the modern Honan fu) to study the archives, 
with the declared intention of deducing sound ideas 
on the principles and practice of gord government. 
During this visit an interview is said to have taken 
place between Confucius and Lao Tzu, who was 
keeper of the archives. The latter delivered 
himself of some severe criticism while the former 
was nonplussed by the transcendental ideas 
Lao Tzu expressed. The whole story of the 
interview is discredited, because it rests on the 
authority of Chuanc Tzu, who is supposed to have 
invented it In -luiifv Lao T/u. and belittle 

CuNFUClCS. 



127 



CONGEE 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



The latter, on his return from Lo yang, 
fullowed his nia.Her, the Duke of Lr, into the 
exile which civil war had forced upon him; but 
the next Duke promoted the sage on his return. 
time after time, till he became Minister of Justice; 
»uil marvellous accounts are given of the speedy 
improvement in the peo|)le's condition and morals 
when he heM the office. The ruler of the neigh- 
bouring state of Cli'i was much alarmed at this 
improvement, and sent the Duke of Lu a number 
of beautiful girls and tine horses to divert his mind 
from hi^ reforms. This proved successful ; so that 
;it 57 years of age CoNrrcirs left i'l disgust, and 
ed the remainder of his life in what the 
11 misitionary would call " evangelistic and 
literary work." In the former, he met with 
ill KUcceMs ; for though he and his followers visited 
many of the feudal courts, to preach his doctrines 
and exhort the rulers to virtue, none, would listen, 
and at leant on one occasion, the sage narrowly 
etH-aped with his life. After 12 years of wandering 
he returned to J..U to edit the classics of the 
ptcviouK age-, and the Five Canons of today are 
^ub.•.tantially us he left them. With the exception 
lie of the Appendices to the / Citing, his one 
.tl work was the ^10^ ^priiuj and Autumn 
A/iiml', n record of Lu, said to have been written 
to nhow the necessity of a strong central govern- 
nient. The rest of-his time was spent in teaching 
hi« diwiples, who are said to have niembered 3000 
III all. 76 of whom became his life-long adherents. 
The chief of those was Ykn Hvi, who j)rfi-decea!5ed 
the .Maitter. Neither the rulers nor the common 
{M'ople apfireciated CoNKi'rics, and he died in 
479 B.I'., under a sense of failure as regarded his 
mn>ition. and of foreboding as to the future of his 
• ouiilry. His death, which was mourned at his 
lomb by his disciples for three years, was taken 
very quietly by those for whom he had agonized, 
though the Duke of I^u built a temple for him, 
and iiintituted hucrihces in his honour which were 
i«'<l until the a<'cessi(»n of the Fir.^t Emperor. 
Miipi-rial <»ov»'riimeiit gave no recognition of liis 
iiifninry until nearly 300 year.s after his death. 
Vi'l had he not been widely renowned as a sage, 
the FirKl Kmpcror would not have had to "burn 
the biMikn." It was the re discovery of these te.xts 
under the Hnn dynasty, which gave his doctrines 
th.« place they have ever since held in China. 

Sincf that time every new line has paid respet t 
til the memory of CoNriTirs, the Kmperor .some 
timi'ji iiacrificiiig in person at Ch'u foii where iie 
i« buried, and lii-»owiiig new titles on him ; of 
which S M '"■ •^''"•^ Perfect Sage, given by the 
Sung emperor Cikn Tsr.sc, in a.i>. 1012, has been 
I'onrirmed by all later rulers. 

The MKp'f (icrsonal name must not be pro 
nounced, but "mou" a rrrtmn juri'on, >ubstituto(l ; 



nor must it be written in full, one stroke being 
always omitted. Not only has Confucius himself 
been honoured in every conceivable way short of 
aksolute deification, but in accordance with Chinese 
custom his ancestors have been ennobled, and many 
honours and titles have been given to his des- 
fc.idants. Fcr example, T'ai Tsung in a.d. 979 
bestowed posthumous honours on the forty-four 
generations of the descendants of Confucius, and 
exempted de.scendants in the future from all 
taxation. In 1233 the direct male representative of 
the family was given the title of ^^^ Widcli/ 
Holy Duke; and in 1294, Khubilai Khan granted 
two estates near the Grand Canal, where it crosses 
the borders of Kiangsu and Shantung provinces, 
fo" sacrificial purposes. The jilacc of the hereditary 
Duke Confucius at the Imperial Court was equal 
to that of a Grand Secretary, i.f. he " ranked 
immediately below the Imperial princes." 

At the present time, every city in China, large 
or small, has a Confucian temple, at which twice 
in the year ceremonies by local officials are per- 
formed. It is true that, at the Eevolution of 1911, 
this worship was for a short time discontinued, 
and the study of the Confucian classics was dis- 
couraged in the schools. But in June, 1913, 
President Yuan Shih-k'ai issued a mandate urging 
the study of the classics ; in the next Sejjtember, 
Confucius' birthday was celebrated with universal 
enthusiasm. In Febrnary, 1914, the President 
issued another mandate urging the nation to pay 
the customary honou)'s to the sage, aiuiounced that 
he would personally do so, and encouraged, but 
did not command, the homage customary in schools 
to the tablet of Confucius. Officials unwilling or 
unable to conduct the ceremonies were to find sub- 
stitutes, while, as against the Confucian Revivalists 
and others, he declared that the ancient rite of 
worshipping Confucius Iiiul nothimj to do with 
nli'/inn (tyuni/ chiao). See Confuriani.i/n. 

].iKGGE : (Jhincne Clri<i^ics, vol. i ; Giles : Co/i- 
liiridiiixiii iiiid ilx Hiral-t; liiiuiniiihiidl Dirtioiuirji : 
Pakkeij : Sfiidicx in f'/iiii('.-:c Jfr/iijiim : Life, J.abours 
iind Dor/rlnr nl C„nfuri,i.<, Woking, 1897. [C.E.C. | 

CONGEE, a ■ word derived from the Tamil 
/.'iiiji, and in use all over India for water in which 
rice has been boiled. It is met with in early books 
about China. The proper Chinese would be 
//// r/n„i ^i^jj. ■ 

Vi-i.K : lli>h.<,,n-.J(ih.<i<n. 

CONGREGATIONAL MISSIONS. F..ui 
.Societies are reported under tliis hcailiiiii in tlic 
Directory for 1916. They include : 

(1) The London Missionary Society, the 
pioneer Protestant Mission in China; (2) The 
.\mericaii Hoard <>f ('onimissioners for Foreign 
.Mission^, the pioneer mission of the U.S.A. in 



12J 



Encyclopaedia sinica 



CONSERVANCY 



China; (3) Tlie Scandinavian Alliance Mission of 
North America, working in Mongolia; (4) The 
Methodist Protestant Mission, affiliated with (2). 
6'ee under each titlr. 

CONGREGATIONS, MISSIONARY, (Roman 
Catholic). The R. C. Missions in China are in i 
charge of eleven different Congregations, besides 
the Macao bishopric which is not directed by a | 
Congregation. 

The following is the complete list, with 
statistics for 1916. 

Macao bishopric, founded in 1576 as suffragan 
of Goa and having China, Japan and Tonkin as 
diocese. Its jurisdiction to-day only extends to the 
Colony of Macao, Chao-ching fu, part of Timor, 
and the Portuguese Missions of Malacca and 
Singapore. 

There is one Bishop, 57 European and 8 Chinese 
priests, and about 40,000 Christians. 

Vicars- Priests Christ- 
apostolic Eur. Chin. ians 
Foreign .^lissions of Paris 12 376 226 318,973 
Franciscans 10 288 141 241,595 

Lazarists 10 189 232 529,955 

Foreign Missions of Milan 4 105 56 59,160 
Scheut Congregation 5 168 46 101,247 

Dominicans 2 21 10 59.481 

Jesuits 2 178 88 329.363 

Seminary of S.Paul of Rome 1 10 6 14,625 
Steyl Congregation 1 66 17 86,150 

Augustinians 1 31 2 7,529 

Cong, of S. Francis-Xavier 

of Parma 1 12 6,427 

Totals, including a Pre- 

fecture-ap. & a Mission 52 1,494 834 1,827,172 

There are other Congregations working in 

China but not in charge of defined territory, and 

there are many Congregations of women. See 

separate titles, Laznri<ts, Scheut, etc. 

De MoiDRFA' : Le Hierarchic Cathollquc; 
Calendrier-Annuait{e, Zikawei, 1917; Les Mis- 
sions DE Chine. 

CONON, BISHOP OF. See Malgrof. 

CONQUEST ISLAND, a name given to the 
island of Chiang Hsin Ssii Ji;it»# in the On river 
opposite Wenchow. 

CONSERVANCY WORKS IN CHINA can 

ba divided into two distinct groups, viz : 

(a) Works carried out under foreign super- 
vision, either the result of treaties between 
China and the Foreign Powers or the 
initiative of the foreign conmiunities in 
treaty ports. 

(b) Woi'ks carried out entirely without pres- 
sure from without, or in other words purely 
Chinese works. 



To the first group belong the Whang-poo Con- 
servancy, the Hai Ho Conservancy, the Liao 
River Conservancy and the Chefoo Harbourworks. 
To the second group belong a number of works, 
all very important but so extensive that it would 
be impossible here to mention them all. Moreover, 
with exception of a few they can, according to our 
Western conception of river conservancy along 
scientific lines, hardly be called conservancy works. 
The exceptions are, the Hwai River problem, 
the Si-kiang conservancy and the Grand Canal 
improvement scheme ; but the remainder, of which 
the most important arc the Yellow River problem, 
the Yangtze, the rivers in Chihli Province, the 
Siang Rivea- with the Tungting Lake in Hunan, 
the greater part of the Grand Canal, are all pro- 
blems dealt with in the Chinese way or in other 
words entirely void of any rules by which hydraulic 
problems are governed. It is a strange fact that 
in a country like this with a civilization about 
four thousand years old, where more than in any 
other part of the world the very existence of a 
great part of the population d.pcnds on the state 
of the waterways, so little about the real science 
of river improvement is known. I do not mean 
to say that in the old days there was nobody who 
had a fair knowledge of elementary hydraulic rules, 
for many old works still in existence would prove 
the contrary, but hydraulics was never taken up as 
a science and was consequently never taught. The 
reason is that those wca-ks which can be considered 
to have been more or less scientifically carried out 
were merely the fruit of one man's brain and 
with the death of that man his knowledge died with 
him and therefore did not serve as a foundation 
for future work ; so that later hydraulic engineers 
could not profit by the experiences of their pre- 
decessors. Thus the knowledge of river engineer- 
ing remained largely individual and never rose to 
the status of a science born from the experience 
of others. Hence also the fact that to the present 
day the same methods are adopted as were in use 
a few thousands o; years ago, and the further fact 
that although much energy and money have been 
spent conditions have not only remained as they 
were but are in most cases even worse. Undoubt- 
edly the firm belief that water, instead of being 
ruled by natural laws, is subject to the influence 
of numerous gods who, in the form of frogs, 
snakes, turtles, etc., sometimes show themselves 
to us mortals as the Chinese pretend, has made it 
more diflicult still for river engineering to become 
a science. Even one of the first rules of river con- 
servancy, namely, " that the improvement of a 
river is a problem which cannot be solved effi- 
ciently by taking one section of the river in hand 
only," has never been understood and wo see 
therefore invariably that if something is done !o 



W 



129 



CONSERVANCY 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



a river it is only of a local nature and never 
forms a part of one scheme for the entire river. 

The gum contributed by the Central Govern- 
ment during the year 1915 to those local works 
or River improvement Bureaux as they are called, 
amounted to far over three million dollars ; and as 
we may safely assume that more than twice that 
amount is spent by the local authorities, either 
officials or gentrj-, in addition to what the Central 
Government pays, we arrive at a total of at least 
ten million dollars for ordinarj- works only, without 
taking into consideration the special grants made 
by the Government in case of casualties. As 
moreover those works consist e.\clusively in re- 
pairs to dykes but never in training the stream, 
in other words, works that do not prevent future 
disasters, all the money spent this way is but 
dead capital bearing no interest whatsoever. But 
if we add to the sum thus spent per annum — prac- 
tically uoelesely — the millions and millions lost 
everj' year by the ever returning inundations, we 
arrive at fuch an appalling figure of total loss that 
it is to the Western trained mind incomprehensible 
why other methods than those existing have not 
long ago been adopted. 

It is fortunate, however, that more enlight- 
ened Chinese have felt the necessity of another 
policy ; and so we see, first in Kiangsu the Hwai 
River Conservancy Bureau arise on the initiative 
of Chang Chies, and then in Shantung the Grand 
Canal Improvement Bureau of which Pan Fu is the 
originator. In both Bureaux, the work is carried 
on according to the rules which scientific river im- 
provement demands. A third instance of modern 
nieth'^Kls being adopted is the West River ini- 
prnvemcnt due to the initiative of the gentry in 
Kuangtung under the Directorship of Tan Hsia- 

HKSG. 

Moreover the Government, at last aware of the 
supreme importance of a uniform central conserv- 
ancy polity, eMtablished in January, 1914, follow- 
ing in thin the advice of Chang Chien, then Min- 
ister of Agriculture and Commerce but also China's 
authority on rivers, -a National Conservancy Bureau, 
of which he was appointed Director-General. This 
is the first step the Chinese Government took to- 
wards an efficient and systematic solution of perhaps 
the most important problem in China. But al- 
Ibcugh the feeling which brought about the 
existence of the Bureau wa.s undoubtedly genuino, 
the renuit lhu» far obtained is not very great. 
Not only were the actions of the Bureau curtailed 
by lack of funds but what is more serious the 
Government has failed to give the Bureau the 
ossisUnce which it nhould have had, so that at 
present most of the Conservancy Bureaux in the 
different parts of the country still work entirely 
ii.'l'i.. r.,Ii-n(Iv of tho r.iirt!au and go on following 



the old methods by which not only millions are 
spent in vain but bitter fruits will be harvested 
as well. Possibly the Government was and still is in 
many instances unable to give assistance because 
the very fact that the people at large do not 
understand the necessity of expert advice, that 
they do not see the necessity for an improvement 
according to scientific rules, combined with the 
great personal interest which they have in a matter 
which is to their limited view of such a particular, 
private and local nature, brings it about that any 
inteirference is looked upon as an infringement on 
their rights and is therefore in most cases bitterly 
resented. Only a strong government is able to 
cope with that evil. 

The lack of sufficient support was one of the 
reasons that (■h.\ng Chien resigned his office, which 
was a severe loss. Fortunately, however, the 
Bureau found in Pan Fu, appointed in September, 
1916, a successor whose energy and keen sense of 
the necessity of modern methods of river engineer- 
ing and of central supervision promise much for 
a final success. 

The work of the National Conservancy Bureau 
consists in furthering conservancy schemes in the 
different parts of the country, in giving advice, 
in seeing to it that if works are taken in hand this 
is done according to the rules laid down for 
scientific river improvement, in short, that no 
haphazard methods are followed but that all work 
done is subordinate to one general scheme of 
improvement. Moreover, the Bureau is collecting 
data on the various rivers so as to have, when 
the time for an improvement arrives, as much 
information as possible on hand, without which 
no proper scheme can be made. Apart from this 
the Bureau is doing actual work in connection 
with the Hwai River Scheme and the Grand Canal 
in Kiangsu, for which already extensive surveys 
have been made and data collected. Furthermore 
the Bureau is connected with the South Grand 
Canal Conservancy Scheme in Shantung. The third 
work that was mentioned as being based on modern 
methods, viz., the Sikiang Improvement Works, 
although subject to the Central Government, falls 
without the Bureau's influence. As this is in direct 
opposition to the main principle, i.e. that in the 
interests of an effective conservancy policy all 
v\rorks should be under one head, — the State, by 
means of an organ specially founded for that pur- 
pose, — the National Conservancy, this fact is to 
be regretted very much, notwithstanding the happy 
fact that the work has fallen into competent hands. 

Other works carried out according to modern 
methods do not exist; but the Bureau has already 
in many instances been able to introduce, be it 
as yet to a small degree, many improvements, and 
there is no doubt, for the signs are already there, 



130 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



CONSERVANCY 



that all over the country the old system is mak- 
ing place, though reluctantly, for more advanced 
ideas. 

The Hwai Ho Coitservaixcy. The Hwai River 
rises in Honan, drains through various tribut- 
aries an area of about 50,000 square miles west of 
the Tientsin-Pukovv liailway, then flows eastward 
and traversing the Provinces Anhui and Kiangsu 
with a very gentle slope reaches finally the Yellow 
Sea through the Yangtze. Before 1324 the Hwai 
had its own outlet to the sea, but since the Yellow 
River usurped its bed, abandoning the same again 
in 3853 after having raised it to such an extent 
that it is useless as a river bed, the Hwai River 
has during 'those six centuries as well as possible 
emptied its waters into the Yangtze. As the 
connections with that stream were however very 
imperfect the whole Hwai area has during that 
period been subject to many serious inundations, 
which by their frequency brought the inhabitants to 
such a state of destitution that famine belongs in 
that region to the common occurrences. The flood 
of 1914 devastated an area of 21 hsien and the 
total estimated loss of the crops on the land 
alone represented a value of over twenty million 
dollars ($20,000,000.00). How much more serious 
the floods must have been before 1853, when 
occasionally the Yellow River added its water to 
those of the Hwai, is evident, and the deplorable 
state of affairs can therefore cause no wonder. 
Much has been done to bring relief and the Govern- 
ment also spent much money, but never was the 
problem properly studied until 1910 when Chang 
Chien, who had always been very interested in 
the Hwai River problem, with the aid of the gentry 
in the affected area took the first step to an 
effective and systematic scheme of improvement. 
Fully aware of the necessity of adopting modern 
methods, he established in Kiang.su and Anhui I 
a Surveying Bureau with a view to surveying the 
Hwai River area and to collecting such data as 
are necessary for a proper project. i 

It is on this survey that in the summer of 
1914 the Board of Engineers nominated by the 
American National Red Cross Society, which for 
years past had already done much for relief work, 
based their report on the Hwai River Conser- 
vancy Project, in which they recommended the 
improvement of the present outlets towards the 
Yangtze River. 

The region to be benefited is the area south- 
west of the old Yellow River bed, bounded on 
the west by the Tientsin-Pukow Line, and the 
necessary works will be only carried out in that 
district. The upper Hwai River and its tribut- 
aries will not be touched, but they will neverthe- 
less profit by the proposed works. 



The total area benefited will cover roughly 
7,386,000 acres or 44,316,000 mou. 

The revenues which will be received annually 
accruing from the improvements will amount to :— 

Trom taxes on land $2,136,000.00 

from revenues on the Grand Canal 

and other canals $ 225,000.00 

Total ... $2,361,000.00 



The cost of the works is estimated at $60, 
000,000.00 not counting discount and interest, 
which, if bonds are issued at 90% bearing 5% 
interest, would after a six-year construction period 
bring the total cost of the project up to $90,000 
000.00. 

Owing to the European War the agreement 
which was in January 1914 entered into by the 
Chinese Government with the American Red 
Cross Society, empowering the latter to raise a 
loan necessary to carry out the works, and of which 
one of the issues was the sending out of the Board 
of Engineers above referred to, was in January 
1915 extended for a further period of one year, 
and in 1916, as the war still lasted, it was extended 
again. Up to now no definite settlement has been 
arrived at. 

The South (ircind Canal Improvement in Shan- 
tung. Since the lellovv River, having broken 
through it.s north dyke not far from Kai-feng Fu, 
flooded the lowlying country in the southwest of 
Shantung, and crossing the Grand Canal found an 
outlet to the sea by usurping the bed of the Ta- 
Ch'ing Ho, the entire drainage system of this low 
country became up.<et. Not only the Ta Ch'ing H'j — 
a branch of the Wkn Ho — lost its free outlet to the 
sea, like the Hwai in the south six centuries earlier, 
but the Grand (.'anal and the connections of the 
various rivers with the lakes which served in time 
of fre.shets as storage basins got silted up. The 
consequence is that at present every year serious 
inundations occur, which ruin the crops and even 
render large areas of land permanently unfit for 
cultivation. 

Here, as in the Hwai River district, the 
Government did much for relief, but no steps for 
a radical improvement were taken until Pan Fu in 
the end of 1914 .started a Surveying Bureau at 
Tsining chou, in order to study conditi(jns in the 
way that modern river-engineering demands. Based 
on that survey and the data collected it was possible 
at tlie end of 1915 to draw up a general .scheme of 
improvement, so that early in 1916 negotiations 
could be opened with an American contracting firm 
for the construction of the necessary works and 
the financing of the scheme. The result was that 
the firm undeitook to float a loan of 3,000,000. 
dollars Gold, being the amount neccssarv for the 



181 



CONSOO FUND 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



works. The bonds were to be issued at 90% bear- 
ing an interest of 7%. When however the con- 
tract was finally signed, with the sanction of the 
Central Govermnent, in September 1916, Japan 
intervened, basing her objections on the Ki5u 
chow Treaty. At present it seems likely again 
that a solution will be found, so that the works, 
which will not only benefit Shantung but also 
Kiangsu, because they will have a good effect )n 
the part of the Giand Canal in that Provinco, 
will probably be commenced in the near future. 

The funds necessary to cover the loan will be 
derived from taxes on the reclaimed lands and tne 
properties benefited by the improvement. As, 
according to a conservative estimate, si.\ hundred 
thou.sand (600,000) mou of land can be reclaimed 
there will be ample funds to pay off the debt and 
interest accumulated. 

T/ic i'l Kiau'j ur the West Jiiccr Comervancy. 
This conservancy was also started at the end of 
1914. It comprises the We.'=t River in Kuangtung 
and its tributaries with a view to prevent the 
serious floods which repeatedly take place in that 
region. The initiation was by the gentry, leading 
merchants and charity institutions who, after the 
extraordinary serious flood in 1914 made represent- 
ations to the Central Government with the effect 
that Admiral Tan Hsia-hkng was appointed 
Director Cleneral of the Board of Conservancy 
Works of Kuangtung. The Board, aware of the 
iu-re.ii<ity of abandoning the old system of river 
ronxervancy, asked the assistance of a foreign 
expert, with the result that early in 1915 a survey 
wad commenced entirely in accordance with what 
scientific engineering demands. This survey, com- 
prinihg the valley of the West River in Kuangtung 
Province, its tributary the Kwei Kiang and some 
[tartv of the main river in Kuangsi, was completed 
in June, 1916. 

The entire river has a catchment area of 
359,000 i>(|uarc kilometers, its sources are in Yiin- 
run, whence it runs first along the border of Kuei- 
chow, then traverses Kuangsi and Kuangtung 
whore it debouches into the sea. 

Hn»«d on this survey and the various data 

'od the conclusion arrived at was that a 

t\V, "f the high water level in order to 

[iri". int floods is not justified either from an 

iH<inomi<«l or tcclinical point of view, but that 

lh« object of flfM)d prevention can be obtained by 

a dyke xyiitem if this is properly constructed and 

maintAined to a RufTicient elevation. The total 

outlay neccsnary for this project is estimated to 

amount to 34,000,000.00 Hongkong dollan-s. About 

'■ri.- fhird of the work, requiring an expenditure of 

1 1 '%.000 00 Hongkong dollars and comprising 

'inn (if the dyke system of the River 

tor 160 to 304, i.x [iroposed to be 



done first, divided over a period of six years. 
The necessary funds are to be raised in the 
Province by way of taxation. A decision has not 
at present been taken. 

See HiiaiKj pUi Conservancy ; Chtfoo Harbour 
Worh<. [H. v.D. v.] 

CONSOO FUND, THE, was instituted in 1779 
to be a reserve for the payment oi any Hong 
Merchant's liabilities who became bankrupt. To 
form it J, tax of three per cent., sometimes raised 
to six per cent., was imposed on almost all goods. 
While the foreigner, however, had to bear the full 
burden of this tax, the greater j^art was never 
actually paid into the Fund, but used by the Hong 
Merchants ; while such part as passed to the Fund 
was appropriated by the imperial authorities for 
all kinds of expenses. When a crisis arose fifty 
years later, through the insolvency of the Hong 
Merchants, there was nothing left of the Fund. 
This was one cause of the first war, and in the 
Treaty of Nanking the Chinese Government agreed 
to pay three million dollars in settlement of the 
Hong Merchants' debts and the Co-hong was 
abolished. Eamks : The Enf/lish in China. 

CONSOO HOUSE, Wff^^^e. !/">"./ '""'.'/ '^"' 
liiaii. a fine buikiini; in Canton, in Chinese style, 
owned by the Hong lUerchants (q.c.) collectively, 
and regarded as one of the 'sights' of the place in 
old days. It was the Council Chamber for the 
Factories up to 1839, and this has misled some 
people to suppose that Consoo is the Chinese pro- 
nunciation of Council; whereas it no doubt is the 
foreign pronunciation of kuntj so ^/;fr, or Guild. 

The house is still standing, at the top of Old 
China Street ; but no early plans of the district 
are extant and its reconstruction is therefore 
difficult. 

CONSTANTINE OF CHINA. See H.len, 
A<'//(^/( •^.■>'. 

CONSTITUTION, THE. Immediately after 
the establi.>hment of the Republic the National 
Council at Nanking adopted a Provisional Con- 
stitution (March 10, 1912). By Art. 53 a National 
Assembly was to be convened within ten months, 
which should adopt a Constitution. Till that Con- 
stitution was promulgated the Provisional Con- 
stitution was to have full force. 

The National Assembly was elected in Decem- 
ber, 1912. A year later the President dissolved the 
Kuo-min tang, and thus destroyed parliamentary 
government by making a quorum unobtainable. 
The President then created the Political Council 
ik^'^^ Chi'ng chih hui i appointing the members 
himself. This recommended the establishment of 
an elected assembly, the Constitutional Council 
ife^Jfe"&Ii5 ^" f" '"" '• This was stated by the 
I'losident to be the organ for the amendment of the 



i;?: 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



CORMORANT FISHING 



Provisional Constitution. In six weeks, on May 1, 
1914, it produced the Constitutional Compact, or 
Amended Provisional Constitution. 

On the death of Yuan Shih k'ai in 1916, the 
country fell back on the Provisional Constitution of 
the 1st year ; while Parliament has been makinj^ 
the new Constitution ever since. 

In criticising these Constitutions, or others 
still to be made, it should be borne in mind, not 
only that the masses have never been educated to 
appreciate constitutional government, but that the 
Constitution-makers themselves have mostly had 
no great e.xperience of such government even in 
foreign lands. The results must be largely 
academic, experimental and unsatisfactory. See 
iroceniment. 

China Year Book ; China JIission Yeau 
Book ; National Review, July 1, 1916. 

CONSULATES GENERAL. There p.re se- 
ven British Consulates-general in China — Canton, 
Cheng-tu, Hankow, Mukden, Shanghai, 'Tientsin 
and Yiinnanfu. Under each of these names will 
be found the chronological list of those who have 
held the post. 

CONTENDING STATES. See Fijhtin.j 
States Period. 

CONVENTION CURRENCY, the proper 
name for the Shanghai tael, the convention being 
that at Shanghai 98 taels by weight on the scales 
settle a liability of 100 taels in money of account. 
See Tail. 

CONVENTION OF CHUENPI. See Chucii- 
pi Convention. 

COOLIE. The origin of this word is variously 
given, i. Hindi, Kali, a race in India; ii, Tamil, 
Kiili, wages ; iii, Turkish, KiiJi, a slave. The 
name given by foreigners to Chinese labourers, 
navvies, menials, etc. 

COOLIE TRADE. Macao was the head 
quarters of this infamous trade, though Hongkong 
for a time had a share in spite of various regulations 
against it. The Hongkong traffic was finally stopped 
in ]855 by the Chinese Pas.^en(/ers Act, (18 & 19 
Vic. cap. civ). Coolies were at first easily hired for 
Cuba, Peru and elsewhere at four dollars a month, 
but in time the demand was far greater than ^he 
supply. Kidnapping was then resorted to, and a 
Commission which reported after careful enquiry, 
found that the majority of the coclies in Cuba had 
been 'decoyed abroad and not legitimately induced 
to emigrate.' The Portuguese rulers of Macao 
were very unwilling for investigations to be made, 
but as the result of urging by the British govern- 
ment after the Commission in 1873, they finally 
closed the 'barracoons' where the coolies had been 
confined before shipment, and the trade ended in 



1875. During the 25 years it had continued about 
half a million coolies were taken away. Though 
called 'contract emigration' it was pure slavery and 
reproduced all the horrors of the slave trade, 
especially with respect to the treatment of the 
coolies on board ship, their sufferings and high rate 
of mortality. 

EiTEL : Europe in China; Williams : Miihili 
Kin<jd>ni 25 25. 

COOPER, THOMAS THORNVILLE, .i 
Briton, born in 1839, who in 1868 travelled 
to the eastern border of Tibet and heard (*f 
a road which, however, he was not able to 
traverse, running from iJatang to a t<jwn on 
the head waters of the Brahmaputra. Poturning 
to Shanghai he attempted in 1870 to cross from 
Calcutta. In 1878 he was murdered at Bhamo by 
his escort. 

He published J our mil of Ovirhind Jnurni j 
from China towards India, Calcutta, 1869; Truvili 
of u Pioneer of Commerce in Pi'jtail and Petlirouts. 

COPPER. See Mineral''. 

COPPERAS. See Mineral.''. 

CORDIER, HENRI, was born at New 
Orleans, U.S.A., on August 8, 1849, and was 
educated in Paris. After some time in London he 
reached China in 1869 and stayed there till 1876. 
On his return he was attached to CJiqcel's .special 
mi.ssion. In 1881 he received his appointment to 
the Paris School of Oriental Living Languages 
[Kroht df'f langues orientales Virante<) wRere he has 
remained ever since. He has been President of the 
Socii'te de Geojraphie, Member of the Societe Asia- 
tiquo, Member of the Inst it ut de France, etc., etc. 

He has written so much on Chinese subjects 
that it is impossible to attempt any list of his 
works. Students will always be grateful to him 
for his Bihliotheca Sinica (q.v.) and for the T'ounrj 
Pao, a review which he created and which he still 
edits. His Uistoire des Relution.% de la Chine acec 
les Puissances occldentales is a valuable work ; it is 
frequently referred to in these pages. 

CORMORANT FISHING is carried on in 
many parts of China, from Canton to Shantung. 
The practice was mentioned by Ooonic at the 
beginning of the fourteenth century. The birds 
are all reared in captivity, the eggs being hatched 
under a hen. The price of a bird before being 
tiained is, or was, from three to ten shillings ; the 
value is perhaps trebled after training. They are 
taught by being driven into water, with a string 
attached to a leg. live fish being then thrown in 
for them to pursue, and they learn to go and 
come at different calls. A string is always fixed 
round the throat while they fish, to prevent the 
prey being swallowed. Their fishing days last for 
about five years, after which thev become old and 



133 



CORMORANTS 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



sulky. The fisherman sits in his boat or raft with 
perhaps a dozen birds perched on the edge of the 
craft or diving at his signal. Descriptions may 
be found in scores of books of travel, such as 
Fortc.se's, Gordon Ccmminc's, etc. 
CORMORANTS. See Stcjanopodes. 
CORNELIAN at jg. There are mines, now not 
worked, m Kast Munchuria and elsewhere; but 
most is imported from India, etc. 

It i** made into beads, buckles, ear ornaments, 
etc and exported from Canton. The best are 
flawle.s8 and bri^'ht-red, others reddish-yellow. 
The Ktones themselves are amber, red, and white. 

CORUNDUM STONE. Found near Tengyiieh 
(YunMun . a..<l u<cal in the cutting of the local 
jadfstoiio. whicli is jx.li.-lied by means of copper 
di;«.s .sprinkled with corundum i)0wder and revolved 
xcrtic-iUy I'V a treadle. 

CORVINAE. This subfamily includes the 
Crow.% Ma.L'pies, Jays, Nutcrackers and Choughs. 
Those found in Ciiifia are all resident species, with 
the exception of the Eastern Carrion Crow, the 
daurian and black Jackdaws and the Nutcrackers. 

Curvut corax is found all the year round in 

Mongolia, and in winter it comes down into Chihli 

province. Daviu says that in Peking this bird is 

known a.s Tutzii kuants'ai !E|-rfL'*l or Tartars' 

colfin, because it helps to devour the corpses which 

the .Mongols expose instead of burying. C. Icvail- 

luuti is found all over China, generally in inhabited 

regions; in Peking, where it is abundant, it does 

good work as a scavenger. C. orientalis, is the 

fare-ontern race of the Carrion Crow of Europe; 

it differs from C. Uvaillanti in having a much less 

powerful beak and in the metallic reflections of 

itit plumage being purple instead of green. It is 

found on migration on the China coast and was 

i»e«a by SwiNiiOE in the Nan chao Islands south 

of China. C. tonjuutus is one of the most charac- 

l4>riiitic of ('hinese birds, most abundant in the 

Kouthcrn provinces but found all over China except 

in the mountain*. 

Ftujilnjux piftiri'itor, the East Asian Rook; 
l.yeim dnurinis, the Ka.stern Jackdaw; L. nef/lectus, 
«l»*»n«ly allied to the European Jackdaw ; Fref/ilus 
•lii'i >itu» : F. brar/iypin .SwiNliOK, a short-footed 
variety of the common Chough; Nurifraga hptor- 
rhynrhuA Bl. and .V. hrminpild with the Magyjie, the 
Azure winged Magpie, three Jays, two Tree Pies, 
three l'ruri»fitr are other species of this sub-family 
found in China, with .\u< ifTiuja nwsioin in Formosa. 
D*vm fTT Of9TM.KT : l,c» (Jifvdiix lie la Chine. 

COS MAS, the first CJrcek or Honian writer 
who !>pc,ikii i>f China in a malter-of fact way. He 
wrot« Ijctween 530 and 550 a.d., and appears to 
have been an Ale.xandrinc Clreek. In his earlier 



life he had been a merchant, and had visited the 
Persian Gulf and Ceylon, and was therefore called 
Indicopleustes. He became a monk later, and 
wrote a Universal Christian Topography. In 
the book are some references to China, under the 
name Tsinista. 

Yule : Cathay and the Way Thither, vol. i, 

p. 25. 

COTTON ^ttl Vc, ""C" '"'"' ^^'°™ Gassy pimn 
hcrbucnun. Cotton and cotton fabrics appear to 
have first reached China from Central Asia, as the 
earliest Chinese name for them ^i or fi g| po or 
pai tieh is certainly from one of the Turki languages. 
A lat«r term was hu jjei -l^ ^ or chi pei 'if M. 
which is the Malay word kapas. Other terms came 
into use later, and the present names of the cotton 
shrub, mien, and of cotton, mien hua seem to have 
been coined after the introduction of cotton cult- 
ivation and spinning into China in the fourteenth 
century. Until then most cotton, both raw and 
manufactured, was imported from Hainan and 
Indo-China, though some cotton fabrics came from 
Java. Borneo, India, Persia and even Asia Minor. 

Cotton is grown chiefly in the Yangtze and 
Yellow Eiver basins and in Chekiang province. 
Cultivation is increasing in Shansi, which is a 
promising area. The amount produced was roughly 
estimated at 400,000 tons in 1908, but since then 
there has been a considerable increase, and the 
crop in 1916 is estimated at nearly 500,000 tons. 
Although shorter in staple than Indian cotton, the 
Chinese product is whiter and better prepared. 
The Shensi cotton is the best in China, being derived 
from American seed. Shantung cotton is prized for 
medicated cotton on account of its whiteness. In 
the Yangtze belt the plant is sown in the spring 
and harvested in autumn, but in Chihli it is sown 
in November and picked in September. The 
average yield is said to be forty pounds per moii. 
The people of China dress in cotton from head to 
foot, even their shoes being made of many layers 
of cotton. Other uses are for bed curtains and 
coverlets, mattresses, portieres, awnings for stalls, 
sails and boat-awnings. Attempts to introduce 
American seed have not met with success, as the 
cotton deteriorates in a few years. There is much 
room ffr improvement in the selection of seed and 
methods of cultivation. 

The principal centre of cotton manufacturing 
is Shanghai, where there are (1916) 23 mills; in 
the cotton di.strict of Kiangsu there are 15 more 
(at Haichow, Wusieh, etc.), and in Chekiang 
several others. The Hankow-Wuchang mills are 
al^o important. There are now upwards of 70 
modern mills in China ; the production of yarn and 
cloth is rapidly increasing ; and in 1916 the Indian 
and Japanese yarn imports were sensibly affected 



134 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



COVID 



by this increase. It is interesting to record that 
the fiist cotton mill project was started in 1878 by 
the Shanghai Cotton Manufacturing Company : 
building was begun, but, owing to official oppos- 
ition and intrigue, the project hung fire until 1889, 
when work commenced ; in the following year 
Chang Chih-tong opened a factory at Wuchang, 
and following the Treaty of Shimonnseki (1895), 
which gave to foreigners the right to engage in 
manufacturing industries in China and to import 
machinery, development was rapid. Cotton, which 
at that time cost Hk.Tls. 12 per picul, has now 
aliMo.st doubled in price; unfortunately adulteration 
by watering was for years the bane of the trade ; 
but in 1911 a Cotton Testing House was set up in 
Shanghai, which rejects all cotton containing more 
than 15% of water. The export, which was 
726,000 piculs in 1915, rose to 851,000 piculs in 1916. 
Chinese cotton is only | inch to | inch in staple, 
and, used alone, is only suitable for spinning low 
counts. Imported cotton has therefore to be mixed 
with it, and this increased from 364,000 piculs in 
1915 to 407,000 piculs in 1916. 

It is estimated that there are now in China, 
1,250,000 spindles, turning out nearly three hundred 
million pounds of yarn, and about 5,000 looms, 
producing over fifty million yards of cloth per 
annum. The export of raw cotton in 1916 was 
pels. 851,037, value Hk.Tls. 17,091,973; and the 
import of cotton goods Tls. 136,679,386. 

HiKTH and Rockiiill : Chao Ju-hua. [N.S.] 

COUNCIL OF STATE. See Grand Council. 

COUNTRY SHIPS were those English ships 
which sailed between India and China, not belong- 
ing to the East India Company, but sailing under 
its licence and general control. 

COUPLET, PHILIPPE, IS K 3® Po Ying 

U, a Jesuit missionary, one of an interesting group 
that sailed together, Verbiest, de Eougemont and 
DE DoRviLLE being the others. He was born in 
1623 at Malines. He reached China in 1658. In 
1680 he was sent by his superiors to Europe, partly 
to get recruits for the mission, and partly to en- 
lighten the Pope in the matter of the Chinese rites. 
While in Europe he published the large work en- 
titled Confucius Sinarum Philosophus, containing 
translations of the Ta Hsiieh, Chung Yung and Lun 
Yii. Couplet was only editor of the volume, the 
names of PP. Intorcetta, Herdtricht and de 
Rouge.mont appearing with his own on the title 
page. He also issued a most useful list, first in 
Chinese and then in Latin, of the members of the 
Society of Jesus working in China. This Cuta- 
logus, after passing through many editions, became 
the valuable but now unobtainable Catdogus Pa- 
trum issued by P. Pfister in 1873. Sec Jesuits. 



He started back to China in 1692, but during 
a storm was crushed and killed by a falling bi>x. 

CouDiER : Nouveriux Mijlunges Orientaux 1886 
p. 411 ; BosMANS : Vcrhiest; Louvain, 1912. 

COURT DIALECT. The dialect of Peking, 
also called Mandarin and kuan hua. See Mandarin 
difdrrt. 

COURTEENES, WILLIAM, Sir, obtained 
from King Charles I a licence to fit out a com- 
mercial expedition to China, in spite of the the- 
oretical monopoly of the East India Coni|jany. To 
him belongs the credit of initiating English trade 
with China. The expedition was commanded by 
John Weddell (q.v.). 

CouRTEENEs' Association was amalgamated 
with the Company in 1649. 

Eames : The English in Chinn. 

COURT GAZETTE. See Gazvttc, I'rl.i,,;. 

COURT OF FOREIGN CONSULS, THE, 

was established in 1869 in Siianghai by a Memor- 
andum signed by the Ministers of Great Britain, 
Prussia, France, Russia and the United States, 
and published with the revised Land Regulations 
which came into force that year. The Memorandum 
says the Court is to be "established at the begfn- 
ning of each year by the whole body of Treaty 
Consuls," its function being to enable individuals 
to sue the Municipal Council. 

It consists of three Treaty Consuls chosen annu- 
ally by the Consular body. 

Maclellan : The Story of Shanghai. 

COUVADE, the extraordinary but widespread 
custom of the husband taking to bed when the wife 
gives birth to a child. It is found amongst 
aborigines in Kueichou, and Marco Polo Bk. ii. 
Ch. 50 records it of people on the borders of Tibet. 
COUVREUR, SERAPHIN, a French Jesuit 
in the S.E. Chihli Mission. He was born on Jan- 
uary 14, 1835, entered the Society on September 23. 
1853, and arrived in China on April 30, 1870. 
I . He has prepared many valuable works, includ- 
j ing Dictionaire classique de la langve chinoise (in 
; order of radicals) ; the same under the phonetics ; 
{ Petit Dictionnaire Chinois-franqais (radical order) ; 
! Dictionnrium sinico-latinum; Guide de la conver- 
\ sation (French-English-Chinese); Choix de Docu- 
ments (Chinese text with French and Latin trans- 
lation) ; also the Four Books, the Shu rhing, Shih 
ching and Li chi, text, French and Chinese trans- 
lation, and notes. 

COVID, a corruption (probably Indo-Portu- 
guese) of the Portuguese covado, a certain measure 
of length. In European settlements both in India 
and China, the word was formerly in common use. 
In China it will now only be met with in reading 



135 



COWRIES 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



works of the early part of the last century. It was 
used for various lengths in different districts; in 
one place it is defined as thirteen inches. Giles 
gives it as equal to 14.1 inches English. 

Yule : HubsunJubfon; Giles : Glossary of 

Ji« fen If I . 

COWRIES, shells found (amongst many places) 
in the Pescadores and, according to Fauvel, on 
the Shantung coast. They have been used in many 
parts of the world as the medium of exchange, but 
perhaps in China earlier than elsewhere. They 
were so used by prehistoric aborigines, and were 
continued as curreiify among the Chinese till 
interdicted in Ch'in Hk 338 B.C. 

The peculiar Chinese coins called Ant's nose 
money and Ghost's head money (see NumUmaticK) 
are al.so called Ihio pci ch'icn ftVH^, and name 
and tihape indicate that the.se metal coins were 
meant to be instead of the cowry money. The date 
of the coinage according to Lacoui'EUIE is about 
600 H.r. and the place the kingdcm of Ch'u. 

Cowries are worn as ornaments by Li-ssu women 
on the TibeUn border, which suggests to Kincdon 
Waud a connection between these people and a sea- 
faring folk; but it is perhaps only a survival of 
a custom common when cowries were the currency. 

l.ArorPEUiE : Mrtalllr Cowries of Ancient 
ihiwi, .lournal. H. A. Soc, vol. .\x, j)art 3; 
Ward : Thr Lantl of the lihic Poppi/, p. 142. 

CRANES. See Grollne. 

CRATEROPODINAE, a large subfamily of the 
Crntcro/i'iiltdiir. (Gates, Fauna of India, Birds, 
vol. I). It includes the Laughing-Thrushes, 
Scimitar Babblers, and many of the Babblers. In 
tin- i^eims I'lihintorhinu.* the bill is much com- 
|irih-fd, is nlender and much curved downwards; 
Ihp birds are called Scimitar Babblers. P. 
rrtjthroriirmiii lives in the interior of Formosa. 
/'. ijraiivox in found in the mountains of S. Shensi 
and N. Si<uch'uan, and on the Hupei — Hunan 
lionliT. It is said to be kept in the hou.sc in some 
diklricts to destroy parasitic insects. /'. swinhoei 
liven in the wooded hills from Fukien to South 
Anhui. /'. mu.^iciit in a Formosan species, described 
by SwixilOE in Journal, \.t'./{Jf..\.S., (1860). /'. 
ni'jroftrllalun is found in Hainan. P. stridulus 
HwiNil. IS found in Fukien, and /'. sti/ani Seebohm 
'in the Ixnvcr Yangtze. Ptrror/iinus davidi was 
ducovcrcd by Uaviu in Chilili, and is very common 
in the \Ve»UTn Hillf near Peking; it is also found 
i'l Miinrhurin nnd in S, Shensi. lialiax lanreolntus 
I" lofiimon on the highest wooded bills of Mu jj'in, 
>Ti'i(h"uan, and in rare in southern Shensi. It 
haa been taken once near Fowhow. Trochalo- 
ptrron tnivnnum is only found in Formosa, 
wlurr it JH very widespread, in mountains 
uikI plains alike. Drynna^trs chimni'i', the Black- 



throated Laughing-Thrush, seems to be confined 
to the borders of Tonkin and China. D. pcrspicil- 
latus is a large species found in S. China and S. 
Shensi, mostly in cultivated land near human 
habitations. D. poecilorhi/ncha belongs to Formosa. 
D. sannio, the White-browed Laughing-Thrush, 
is widely spread in the southern provinces, especi- 
ally to the west. D. castonotis, Garrvlax monachus, 
G. semitorqUata, and G. schmackeri are only found 
in Hainan, where they are resident. G. albigularis, 
the White-throated Laughing-Thrush, occurs in 
the wooded mountains which separate Ssuch'uan 
from Tibet and Kokonor. G.rvficeps is a variety 
of the last-named species, found in Formosa. G. 
picticolHs was discovered by Swinhoe in Chekiang 
and is found from Fukien to South Anhui. 
Cindosoma lunulatum was discovered by David 
in W. Ssuch'uan ; it has since been found in Mu- 
p'in, W. Kokonor and even S. Shensi. 0. maximum 
is a large bird, found only within narrow 
limits, in the highest forests of Mu-p'in at 
10,000 feet altitude. C. arthemisiae is similar 
to the last in habitat and habits. A fourth 
bird of this genus from Yunnan is lanthocincla 
bieti. I. cinereiceps occurs from Fukien to S. 
Anhui. Dryonastes berthemyi is found in the 
wooded hills of W. Fukien. Trochalopteron 
formosum lives in the highest forests of W. 
Ssuch'uan, only descending when obliged to by 
the snow. T. canorum is very abundant in the 
southern provinces, but its northern limit is South 
Shensi. It is a favourite cagebird among the 
Chinese, not only for its song, which they consider 
better than that of any other native bird, but also 
because it is combative and can be used as a fight- 
ing bird. T. milni is found in the mountains of 
W. Fukien, and T. blythii on the western frontiers 
of Ssuch'uan ; it is fairly common at Mu-p'in and 
in western Kokonor. T. cllioti also belongs to the 
same district, but is found also in N. Ssuch'uan, in 
Shensi and in Kansu. T. morrisonianum is 
peculiar to Formosa. 

David et Oustalet : Lc'^Oispnvx de la Chine. 

CREEK POINT, a name found on earlier 
I charts for what is now called Chinwangtao Bluff. 

CREEPERS (birds). See Certhiidae. 

CREMATION is the most general method of 
di.<posing of the corpses of Buddhist monks in 
China. At one time even Buddhist laity were 
cremated, but in 1370 an Imperial decree was issued 
forl)idding it. The corpse is arranged in a sitting 
po.sture, clothed in an outer garment of crimson, 
and placed in a square chest. Nearly every large 
monastery possesses a crematorium, a circular or 
many-sided chamber about seven feet high. Sandal- 
w<i(j(l is the fuel supposed to be used. Cremation 
takes frfni .<ix to twelve hours. The ashes are 



i:in 



JSNCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



CYCLE OF ANIMALS 



then stored for a time in a red bag or in an urn, 
but are eventually thrown into a pit beneath an 
■'All-mingling Pagoda" ^ ln\ tjf. Cremation is 
also practised by the Mant/.u aborigines of 
Ssuch'uan. 

The practice is essentially JJuddhist in origin 
and was frequent in the Yuan dynasty ; indeed, the 
expression "they burn their dead' is very ((jmnum 
in AlARfo Polos account of his travels. It may 
never have been accepted among the masses, but 
the practice has been much more common in 
< hekiaiig, Kiangsu and Fukieii than is generally 
admitted. 

VfcTTs : X»(i.^ on t/ic Di.<jii>fal of Huddlii-'l Dxid 
III I'hiiiii, Journal, R.A.S., vol. xliii ; De Groot : 
'i'hc J\'r1iiji<niit Si/stf'/ii (if C/iiiia. vol. iii, p. 1391. 

CRICKET FIGHTING. Two well selected 
crickets are put into a pan and teased with straws 
till they fall to furious fighting, which lasts till one 
is dead or disabled. It is an occasion foi' betting 
and is chieflv seen in the south. 



CROSSOPTILON, 

I'htusuiit.-:. 



the Eaied I'heasant. See 



CROWS. See Corcina". 

CUMBERLAND PRESBYTERIAN MIS- 
SION, (American). This Mission had its home 
headquarters in St. Louis, Mo. and entered China 
in 1897 in the persons of Rev. T. J. Phkstox and 
Dr. and Mrs. O. T. Logan, who opened work in 
Ch'angte ^'^f, in Hunan, in 1899. In 1902, the 
first converts were received, and in 1903 a ho.spital 
and a girls' day-school were opened. In 1906, the 
the home church united with the Presbyterian 
Church (North), and thenceforward the C.P. 
Mission became part of the sister society, the 
workers, converts, and jilant being transferred to it. 

CUMQUATS. See Onimje.<. 

CUMSHAW, a present, sometimes used for 
' bucksheesh.' It is derived from *g j^} ' grateful 
thanks,' pronounced Kuni ski in the Amoy dialect 
and Kdin .<aii in Cantonese. 



CURLEWS. 

CUSTOMS. 



See Limicolat. 
See MdTitinif, (.'iistin)i.- 



CUTTLE FISH, &i^, ch'vn yii, etc., Seinn 
'ifficlii(ili<, an important article of trade in Ningpo. 
the fi.*hery being in the shallow and muddy waters 
of the Chusan Archipelago. The black fluid which 
the fish secretes and ejects at will is wasted by the 
Chinese. It was formerly supposed to be the 
material used in the manufacture of Indian or 
(Chinese ink; but this is an error. The cuttle-lish 
bone, u;ed formerly as pounce in Europe, is in 
China used as medicine. 

BowRA : Cuitoms lieport, Nhijpo, 1858. 

IS 



CYCLE Ip ^, chiutzu. The Chinese cycle 
is a period of 60 years, each year being distinguish- 
ed by a name of two characters. The characters 
are taken, one from the Ten heavenly stems, >c -f 
tlie other from the Twelve earthly branches ll^ ^ 
The ten stems in order and the twelve branches 
in ordeu- are given below. The first stem with 
the fir.st branch is Ip ^ c/iiatzu, the first year 
of the cycle. Tne second stem with the second 
branch gives the name of the second year, ich'ou 
"Zt 31 > and 80 on to the tenth stem and tenth 
branch. The eleventh branch is then joined with 
the first stem, the twelfth with the second stem, 
and so on. Si.vty years can be numbered in this 
way. after which chiatzu comes again and a new 
cycle begins. The present cycle began in 1864, 
and the year 1917 is therefore "J" Q ting-ssu, being 
the 54th year in what is sometimes called the 76th 
cycle. 

. 'J'he system is attributed to Hcaxg-Ti, 2637 
B.(., but it is certain that before the Han dynasty. 
K.c. 206, there is no evidence of the stems and 
branches being u.^ed to mark years but otdy days 
and hours, etc. 

The cyclical signs play an important part in 
divination, the twelve branches also mark the 
twelve (Chinese) hours ch'cn 0of the day and the 
twelve points of the compass ; and stem and bran- 
ches are used in many other ways. (See Giles' 
f)i'fiy)niirif. Tables Yd, Ye.). 

Buddhism has invented twelve .spirits as rulers 
of the cycle, — the twelve Yuan chia tc H^ or Yiitn 
h'en 70 S- Their names and pictures may be seen 
in [loKF.'s bonk. J/i'diPirJicx .iur hit Su])i'.rsfitii>n.'>. 

Stems. Branches. 

^ chia -J" tzu 

2. i 31 ch'ou 

fkj ping H yin 

J- ting ^|] mao 

j^ wu M <-^h*en 

g chi E, s.^u 

^ keng ^ wu 

5^ hsin ^ wei 

^ jen ^ shen 

^ kuei g yu 
;.!^ hsu 
^ hai 

CYCLE OF TWELVE ANIMALS. The 

twelve Branches {q.v.) have twelve animals as- 
sociated with them, and these are used to mark 
the years of a cycle. Thus it is common ior a 
Chinese to give his age by stating the animal 
belonging to his birth-year. The twelve, in order 
are Rat, Ox, Tiger, Hare, Dragon, Snake, Horse. 
Sheep, Monkey, Fowl, Dog. Pig. The system is 
found in other lands besides China, though with 
variations in the ILat of animals. 



137 



DAIREN 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



The use of this cycle may be traced in Chinese 
literature a-« far back as the fir?t century of our 
era. Accordinji to Chavaxxus' researches the 
invention is due to Turkic tribes and was introduced 
into China by the Hsiung nu who occupied N.E. 
hhansi ; further, the system was carried into Egypt 
and modified when the country became a Roman 
province. JIalevy contends that the cycle has an 
Egyptian origin ; tliat by the Christians the names 
of tlie twelve sacred animals were then used as 



symbols of the twelve apostles; and that the system 
was carried to Turkic tribes by Coptic missionaries. 

This hypothesis seems destroyed by the exist- 
ence of the cycle in China in the first century. 
There is a mass of wTiting on the subject, a list of 
the most important references being given in 
Chavannes' paper named below. 

Chav.4NNES : JjC Cycle Turc dc? donzc Animnux, 
in T'oung-pao, 1906; Halevy : Nouve.lle.-< Considi-r- 
atioH'i sur Ic Cycle Turc des Animaux, ibid. 



D 



DAIREN, till- .Japanese form of the Chinese 
Ta lien J^ i^ and the .same as the Kus^sian Dalny ; 
a port in the south of the Liaotung peninsula, in 
iat. 38^ 55' 44 ' N. and long. 121° 37' 7" E. But 
the ( hiiiese village of Ta-lien is 7 miles away on 
the opposite side of the bay. 

The place was only a small village when the 
Hussiaiis leased it from China in 1898. but in a 
few years it was converted into a fine town. The 
.lapanp.'ie took possession at the beginning of the 
war of 1904. and have continued to improve' the 
place. The harbour works are on an extensive 
M-ale and include some thirteen thousand feet of 
breakwaters. The town is lighted by electricity 
and has an electric tramway system ;' there are 
large railway works and an important cement 
fiwtory near the town ; many bean mills with and 
without modern machinery, a government labora- 
tory and agricultural experiment station, a dock, 
and other establishments. The trade is increasing 
rapidly, and great hopes are entertained for the 
future of the port. It is the terminus of the South 
Manchurian Kailway connected with the Trans- 
Siberian line. The population is 40,860. 

It wan made a free port in 1906, and has a 
('hifu'jie Customs House for goods crossing the 
b<iundary of the leased territory. 

1915 1916 

Net Ffjreign Imports 
Ni'l <"hinei»e 
K'. ports 

loiiil Hk.Tl 



27,615.276 35.954.742 

7,333.246 9,1133801 

48,885,640 54.708,247 

83.834,162 99,776,790 



DALAI LAMA, termed in Chine.«e ^MlJAfif 
r/iin kiniif III '/n/i. Tin- Uiamond (Ireat Tcailu-r. the 
chief lama of Tibt-tan liuddhism and the temporal 
ruler of Tibet. Dalni <.r 'I'nli in Mongolian for 'the 
(K-ean,' aiid in nometime.H tranxluted 'the Ail embrac- 
ing.' The title wn.«i first given in 1576 by Altan 
Khan, I'rince of Tumod. to the chief lama of Lhasa, 
who came to him in the Urdos. It was also applied 



retro.-pectively to the four preceding Grand Lamas 
of the Gelupta sect (the Yellow clergy) ; and it is 
thus said sometimes that it originated with the 
founder of the sect, Tsongk'apa, about 1400. The 
present Dalai Lama is the 13th. The re-incarnation 
of lamas is an early belief, mentioned in the 13th 
century by Rubkuck. Each Dalai J^ama is supposed 
to be a re-incarnation of Avalokita. The visit of 
the Dalai Lama to Peking in 1908 is fully described 

by RofKHILL. 

RorKHii.L : /)<r/tn LdiiKi" <>f Lhfi-ri, T'oung Pan, 
vol. xi. 1910; \Vai>i)F.i.i. : T/ir /l,idd/n--/n nf Tihri ; 
Grenaud : Tlhif. 

DALAI NOR, a lake in Mongolia, near the 
border of Manchuria, one hundred miles north of 
Dolon ncr. Its circumference is about forty miles, 
and it lies at 4,200 feet above sea-level. Pujeval- 
SKY gives a list of the numerous birds he found 
on the lake. Phjevalsky : Mmiijolin. 

DALNY. See Daircn. 

DANES' ISLAND (and French Island), in the 
Chu Chiang Delta, some ten miles below Canton. 
According to Hunter, the names were given 
because Danes and French had in early times the 
privilege of occupying storehouses there while they 
overhauled their ships after their long voyages. 
He speaks of tombstones to be seen un the islands 
in his day. 

Another account is that they were so called 
because the one was the burial place for the Danes 
and the other for the French, English, Swedes and 
Dutch. 

.A.fti'1' the killing of an English ^iailor by French 
.sailors about 1754, the two islands were appointed 
as places of recreation for foreigners, in order to 
lessen the number of quarrels and disturbances. 

Finally, according to liRETSCHNEiDEU, the name 
Dane's Island properly belongs to the island called 
by foreigners Whampca ; while the real Whampoa 



138 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



DAVID 



is an island on the opposite side of the river. 
Thus Danes' Island was the anchorage for foreign 
ships for 150 years, but under a wrong name I 

Hunte:i : Thv Fan A'wae in Cuntun ; (,'hinese 
RF.ro.^iTOHY : vol. i, p. 222; liuETSCH.\i:ir)Eii : 
H i.<t iri/ of Eiiiopidii liiitdiiicdl I)'..<riiri'iiin in 
( 'III nil. p. 633. 

DANISH LUTHERAN MISSION. 

Ill inliianrtdrs : — L'(jj)i'iih;igcu. 
Works in Manchuria : — (a) in Liaotung Penin- 
.•;ula, ceded in 1895 by the Scotch and Irish 
Presbyterian?, (b) in the western half of Heilung- 
chiang Province, and (c) in Harbin. 

The fir.st missionaries of the Society arrived in 
China in 1893, and Manchuria was chosen as their 
field. Port Arthur and Ta-ku shan ;^ JI llj were 
opened in 1896, Siu-Yt>n |ll|S [^ in 1898, and Feng- 
huang ch'eng .^IHijg in 1899. During the Bo.\er 
troubles missionary work was pi'ohibited at Port 
Arthur, and the three other stations were wrecked. 
After 18 months these latter were re-opened and 
in 1902 Antung ^ ^ was added. The Russo- 
Japanese war again checked the work, but in 1906, 
normal condition.'-, returned, the prohibition at 
Port Arthur was removed with the departure of 
the Russians, and K'uan-tien ^ ^ was occupied. 
In 1911, the province of Hei-luiig chiang was 
entered, a station being opened at Sui-hua fu 
j^it M ' ^"^ Harbin was entered in 1912. 

This mission specializes in evangelistic work, 
and has not develoiDed much educational or medical 
activity, but it has since 1912 been represented on 
the teaching staffs of the Union Arts and Medical 
Colleges at Mukden, which it shares with the Irish 
Presbyterian and United Free Church of Scotland 
Missions. Statistics, 1916 : — 

Foreign workers 47 

Chine.-^e assistants 109 

Communicants 764 (1915) 

D'ANVILLE, JEAN BAPTISTE BOURGI- 
GNON, " first Geographer of the King," was 
born in Paris, July 11, 1697, and died on January 
28, 1782. He prepared for Du Halde all the maps 
for the Jesuit's great work. Some were reduced 
from the maps made by the Jesuit Fathers in 
China for K'an(; Hsi ; but a great deal of original 
work was added by D'Anville, and some maps were 
entirely designed by him. They were also thrice 
published as an Atlas, once to accompany the 
edition of Du Halde printed in Holland in 1736. 
once in Paris, chez Dezauche, without date, and 
aL;ain to accompany the AVjbe Grosieu's Descript- 
ion, in 1785. 

The original maps are preserved in the Nation- 
al Library in Paris. 

CoRDiER : Du Ha/ih' ct d'Aiirilh'. in Kecueil 
d-^ Memoires Orientaux, 1905. 



DATES (fruit). ' Red dates ' huit<j t<fno are 
Jujubes (7.1 .) ; ' Black dates ' fiei txito are Persim- 
mons (7.C.). The e.\port of black and re.l date.s 
in 1916 was Tls. 284,145. 

DATES (in time). Thi^c are t\v<j ways in 
China to record a date; first the method of the 
Cycle (7.1-.), the year 1900, for example, being 
known as the Kiii.j fzii year ^J-. This system 
has the di.^advantage that the AV//// fzii combinat- 
ion is repeated every si.vty years; some furtiier 
indication is therefore re<juircd as to tlie partiinlar 
cycle. 

The other method is by the reign-title, /)//// 
/ico (q.v.), of the emperor, with a number; for 
instance, K'ang Hsi, 20th year, means the 20th 
year of the reign of the second ruler of the Ch'ing 
or Manchu dynasty, who ruled under the ninn huo 
K'ang Hsi. 

DAVID, ARMAND, Abbe, a Lazarist mission 
ary and a noted naturalist. He was born in France 
near Bayonne in 1826 and died in Paris in 1900. 
He entered the Congregation of the Mission in 
1848 and devoted ten years to study. On arris in^; 
in China in 1862 he was set apart at the reijue.st 
of the French government for research work in 
Natural Hi.-;tory, the e.xpense of his journeys being 
provided by the government. Having first explored 
the neighbourhood of Peking he went into Southern 
Mongolia for seven or eight months in 1866. A 
.second joun-ney took him through central China and 
eastern Tibet in 1868-70. After a short visit to 
Europe he made his third and last journey, 1872-74. 
going over a great e.xtent of China Proper. His 
health was then so bad as a result of his arduous 
work that it was necessary for him to return finally 
to Europe. 

His discoveries were many, both zoological and 
botanical, and there are many species called by 
his name. The Elaphure will always be the mo.<t 
.striking if not most important of his discoveries, 
in view of the swift extinction of the species. Of 
plants he estimated that he had collected about 
3,000 species, but not all of these reached Europe. 

He made a Natural History Museum at the Pei 
T'ang in Peking, which was of great service in 
breaking down the prejudice of the officials, who 
frequently visited it. The princesses from the 
palace were also frequent visitors, and it is said that 
the Empress-dowager herself went tliere incognito. 
When the Pei T'ang was removed the Empre.'<s- 
dowager desired that the Museum should be left, 
and it was presented to her and used in the 
education of Kuang Hsii. 

On his return to Paris he created another 
museum of Natural History at St. Lazare for 
the use of young missionaries. 



l;59 



DAVID'S DEER 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



A good accouut of his life and labours is to be 
found in a series of articles which he contributed 
to the periodical Lcs Missions CuthoUquns, and a 
first-rate resume of his journeys and their results — 
especially botanical — is given by Bretschneider. 

CoRDiEK : T'ounijjino, 1901; Les Missions 
Catholiques, 1888 : Z)e quclqucs services tctkIvs, 
etc. ; Bretsciixeider : Histury uf Euroytan Butani 
cat Diarijieries in China, vol. ii. 

DAVID'S DEER. Sec Ehiphure. 

DAVIS, JOHN FRANCIS, was born in 
Lcndon in 1795 and died on November 14, 1890. 
In his youth he had served on the staff of Lord 
Amheu.st's Mis.sion to China. He spent the best 
part of his life in the service of the East India 
Company, was a member of its Select Committee at 
Macao and Hongkong, and retired in 1835 as a 
Chief Superintendent of Trade. On Sir Henry 
PoTTiNCER leaving China Davis was appointed 
Superintendent of Trade under the Foreign Office, 
and Governor and Commander-in-Chief at Hong- 
kong under the Colonial Office. He was a scholar 
and a philanthropist, but he does not seem to 
have given much satisfaction to Hongkong as 
a diplomatist and governor, and when he left 
Hongkong in March, 1848 there was no public 
farewell or banquet ; the leading paper of the 
Ctlony stated that he was 'unpopular from his 
official acts and unfit for a Colonial Government 
by his personal demeanour and disposition.' He 
had been made a baronet in 1845. 

His chief works are Poeseos Sinetiii'S Comment- 

tirii, On the Pur.try of the Chinese, London, 1829 ; 

iluu Koon'j t^eic, or thr. Sorrows of Han, London' 

1829; Sftn-i/u-low, or the three. Dedirntfd Jfooiiis 

' inton, 1815; Chini'se Xoi-rlx, translated 

orijlunh. . . . London, 1822; The 

/'ni'in, a lioinance translated from the 

■I'jinal. London, 1829; HicnWnnShoo, 

< .... . .l/'i/<// Mazims, . . . London, 1828; 

I'/ir ClnniHr, a iji/nral Descrij/tinn of the Empire 
of t.'hina and its Inhahitaitts. . . London, 

1836. The la<tnanied work has been often reprint- 
ed, and has been tran.^lated into French, German, 
Dutch and Italian. 

ElTEL : Europe in China; T'ou.Nc; I'ao, vol. iii, 
1092. J.. 535. 

DEAF, SCHOOLS FOR CHINESE. It is 
iHtimolfd that there are 400.000 deaf-nuites in 
Chinn, Three nchools have been opened by Pro- 
' iricB. 1. Tlie earliest of these, for 

.-t:irtf(l privately at Tengchou fu 
'" -^ ■ I'v Mrs. C. R. Mills of the 

•^•'* ' '•" engaged in similar work in 

the I .,S.,\. The Rchool was removed to Chefoo 
in 1038 after Dr. Mills' death, and was given the 
n^rne of The CiiAnLEs RoGEK Mills Memorial 
School. A department for girls was atMed in 1907. 



In 1910, the w-ork, till then entirely supported by 
voluntary gifts, became a part of the regular work 
of the Presbyterian Mission (North). 

One of the special aims of the school is to train 
teachers w-ho, under Chinese control and support, 
can extend the work. 

In 1917, there were twenty-two boys and 
twenty-two girls in attendance, with six teachers, 
three men and three women. Two foreign lady 
workers, one of them being Mrs. Mills, are 
provided by the Mission. 

2. A small school was opened in Hangchow in 
February, 1914, by a Chinese Chri.«tian who had 
studied the methods in the Chefoo school, being 
drawn to do so through an elder brother, a deaf 
lad, having been taught there. 

3. A class for deaf girls, in connection with 
the Girls' School of the Methodist Episcopal 
Mission at Kut'ien near Foochow, is taught by a 
Chinese lady trained in Chefoo. 

At Nan T'ung-chou |^ jH ^.[.l , in Kiangsu, 
a school has been opened for the deaf bj- Chang 
Chien, late Minister of Agriculture and Commerce, 
as j)art of a large philanthropic scheme for benefit- 
ting his native district. The teacher is also from 
the (.'hefco Normal Class. 

DE ANDRADE; two Portuguese brothers of 
this name ujiened the chapter of intercourse 
between China and Portugal. The one, Fernao 
Pehez, reached Shangch'uan (St. .John's) in 1517, 
with fcur Portuguese and four Malay ships. He 
had on board Thome Pires, sent by the governor 
of Goa as envoy to the Chinese emperor. Behaving 
in a conciliatory manner he was permitted to take 
two shij)s up to Canton. The next year, howe\ei', 
his brother Simon arrived with one ship and three 
junks, and behaved so badly that the. Chinese were 
forced to drive both the brothers front the coast, 
while Pires suffered imprisonment and |ier]iaf)s 
death. .See I'drtii'iuisv Ji'ddfimi.-' ; /'ins. 

DEATH-BLOWTO CORRUPT DOCTRINES. 
A vile Chinese book issued about 1860 and circulated 
by magistrates in Shantung, charging all manner 
of most repulsive obscenities on the teachers of 
Christianity. It was translated into English under 
the above title by Drs. Nevius, Mateer and 
Hartwell, in order that foreign public opinion 
might be .'•tirred and the book suppressed. 

The author was said to be T'ano Tzii-sHiiNG, 
Fantai of Hupei, who distributed it gratis to 
officials in 1862. 

DECORATIONS, ORDERS, etc, -^ jj} shau;i 
Ictni'j. Under the Empire the chief distinction for 
merit was what foreigners generally call The Yellow 
Hiding .Jacket, "^ ^ ;^- hianuj i/ui kiia, or \j ^. 
h.iin</ /ma. The Travelling Jacket, the most coveted 
reward for military service. It was given to GOxIDON 
and to Giquel. A similar high distinction was The 



IIU 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



■ DELEGATES' VERSION 



Jacket with Sable Tails ^UM'^- "" ■'" >>"" /'<"'■ 
There was also the privilege ot using I'urple reins 
^^ tzil ch'KttKj, or Yellow Reins I^T'Ci hiinnij chinnij. 
Such reins were properly used by princes, but the 
honour was bestowed on distinguished officials. 

Another distinction of practical value to aged 
o.'ficials in frequent attendance at Court was the 
privilege of using a horse or a sedan ihair wit'.iin 
the limits of the Imperial city. 

The decoration of the Feather or i'luine %\ fi 
Un<i chih, the principal distinction for publii' 
ser\ico, had two divisions, the Peacock Feather 
?L'^^ ^■■'"'6' ch'uch /i7(.7— again divided into three 
classes, and the Blue Feather ^^^ Ian liwj, collo- 
(luially known as the Crow Feather ^S|^^ Uk, 
Liiii I ill'/. 

Another distinction was the bestowal of the 
title Pa fu-lu. representing the Manchu word 
hiit'uru (brave) ;Uhis was only given for active 
service in war, was accompanied by a laudatory 
epithet, and carried with it the right to the Peacock 
Feather. At least one European, (Jeneral W. 
Mksny, has received this honour. As to orders 
similar to European, the Empire till its last year 
only had the Order of the Double Dragon ^fl^M 
.■'/i 11(111'/ hiri'j j/iio /(•-■■//(;/. which was instituted in 
1881, for the decoration originally of Ministers of 
Foreign Powers at Peking. Later it was given to 
other foreigners also, and was then arranged m 
live divisions, and the divisions in classes. After 
1908 the Order was also given to (."hinese officials. 

On March 20, 1911, the Imperial sanction was 
given to an elaborate system of decorations ||f| ^ 
/i)<u/t c/ianif, including red, blue, black, and yellow 
dragons, but the dynasty fell that year. 

.\ccording to the present Republican system, of 
Civil orders there are now ten, the fir.st being the 
(Jrand Cordon, which is reserved for rulers of 
countries. Then follow nine grades of the Chia Huo 
^ 7^ which is awkwardly translated in English 
•E.xcellent Crop,' or more pleasantly in French as 
'I'Epi d'Or.' The insignia of the order is a grain- 
ear, as seen on the copper coinage ; it varies in size 
with the grade; the colours attached also vary. a~ 
follows : — 

1st class— Yellow with red border. 
2nd clas.s — Yellow with white border. 
3rd class— Red with white border. 
4th class — Red with white border. 
5th class— Red with white border. 
6th class — Blue with red border. 
7th class— Blue with red border. 
8th class— White with red border. 
9t,h class— Black with white border. 
A sash also belongs to the higher grades. 
Military (or naval) honours are of the two 
kinds : the order of The White Eagle, and the 



Order of W, n 11 u -^ ffi The Striped Tiger, with 
nine grades; the former carries an honorarium with 
it, the latter carries none. 

An additional honour, which is supposed to 
correspond with the British Victoria Cross, is the 
Barlge for Meritorious Service. 

liRU.NNKUT and HaUEI.STKOM : /V<></|/ i/n;/ 

/'"lifictil Onjanizftti'in nf C/iinti. 1912; Maykhs : 
77m- ('liim:ti- (juvi-rnini-nt. 

DEER (enililcin). 'l"hc wurd hi ^ deer, and 
the woi'd H^ la good fortune, being proiujunced 
alike, the deer has become an emblem of ha|)piiiesb 
or emolument and may often be seen in pictures 
with the god of longevity, etc. 

Doin; : H:rliirihi'< "in li.< SupirKtiti'in", ]>. 474. 

DEFENCE CREEK. In 1863, when Shanghai 
was threatened by the T'ai-P'ing rebels, a mass 
meeting of foreign residents was held on April 12. 
with the British Consul, Mr. RuTiiEitKuni) Al(o< h. 
in the chair. On the suggestion of A. (i. Dallas. 
it was decided to dig a trench and make a paved 
rcjad to the west of the English Settlement, where 
theie was already a ditch ; with the Huang pu < ii 
the east, the Yang-king-pang to the soutii. and 
the Soochow Creek to the north, the settlement 
vuuld then be defended on ail four sides. 1 lie 
trench was dug, and for si.\ty years was known 
as Defence Creek. It was culverted in 191515. 
Its position was on the we.stern side of Thibet 
Road, etc. 

I'n/tiT.-' n-^hfcliii/ till Ciril Win in C/iiiin. 
present 1(1 fn t/n: I/mi-r nf Liiiil.<, 1853; jip. 9-15. 

•l/OKSK : /llf'lllf/fii'll"/ l{il<lti:ill.< of (hi- Chuii < 

ICinpire. 

DE HARLEZ, CHARLES-JOSEPH, (Mgr.) 
was born at Liege in 1832 and ilicd in 1899. He 
became a pi iest and after occupying other posts 
was made Professor of Oriental Languages in 
Louvain University, teaching Sanscrit, Zend. 
Chinese, Manchu, etc. In his last years he devoted 
himself to Chinese and Manchu only. He was a 
voluminous writer. See CouniEifs Hiliti"f/i>r.i 
Si/iirn for his woi'ks. 

DELEGATES' VERSION. A translation of 
the New Testament into Chinese book language, 
finished in 1850. The Delegates were Messrs. 
Medhuust, Miln'e. Stronach, Buidgmax and 
Bishop Boone, appointed by the .several Missionary 
Societies. The delegates also proceeded to translate 
the Old Testament, but a division soon took place 
among them. The more active members of the 

; former committee continued their work in the same 
style and completed the translation in 1853; but 

' it'is not strictly correct to call this the Delegates* 
version. See Uibh\ 

Chinese Recouper I, p. 148: TTT o 19. 



141 



DE MAILLA 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



DE MAILLA, JOSEPH ANNE MARIE DE 
MOYRIAC, a French Jesuit missioiiaiy, born in 
Isere, December 15, 1669, arrived in China 1700. 
and died at Peking on June 28, 1748. He had a 
deep knowledge of the Chinese and Manchu 
languages and translated the main substance of 
tlie T'utvj Chicn Kamj Mii into French, probnbly 
using both the original and the Manchu version. 
His tran.-ilation wa.* published by Abbe GROSiK.t 
in 1777 in thirteen quarto volumes under the title 
//m.'iiiVc frinrriilf df hi ('him-. 

DEMONIFUGES -g ?P pi h.<i^h. These are 
\ir\ iiiuiii rolls : i asli fr(jni llie mouth of the dead; 
the impress of a mandarins seal ; willow branches ; 
the imijerial calendar, are all supposed to ward off 
evil if carried on the person or kept in a room, etc. 

|>iii;r ; ]'i rhirrhfn "iir Irs Siipi'r.-'titiiins, p. 348. 

DII^'GUE. an Indian name for a particular 
k:ii.| ■.! ii\."r. <allt(I by foreign phy.siciaii.s in China 

DENNYS, NICHOLAS BELFIELD, occupied 
various jiDsitioii.s in the Far Ea.sl — in the Navy, 
the Consular Service, etc. He was proprietor and 
editor of the Cliinn Mail and first editor of Thv 
I'hiiui H'view. He wrote Fulhiore of China and 
(with W. F. Mayers and C. King) Thv Treatu 
I'orlii of China and Japan. His Handbook of the 
Canton Vrrnaiular was widely used; and when 
living in Malaya he produced some works on those 
lands. 

He arrived in China in 1863, and died in 
H.,iigk..ii.' i,, 1900. 

D'ENTRECOLLES, FRANCIS XAVIER, a 
French .Jesuit niissicjnary, noted as the writer of 
fvt. letters descriptive of the manufacture of 
porcelain at Ching-te chen, or, as. he writes it, 
Kim te Icliini. The letters are dated 1712 and 
1722. and were printed in the Lettrex /'Jdifiann.i ft 
i'ut»i-u<r< ; they may, however, be more easily 
lead elsewhere : they are given, for example, in 
IU*sHr.l.l.'s lii-rnption of Chilli yi: I'ottcrtj and 
I'-inrlinn. 

DE RADA. MARTIN, also called Martin dk 
IIkkhaim, an .\u;MistiMian missionary, a native of 
r.impeluna in Navarre. With several other niis- 
lonaries he was Kent from Me.\ico with the 
expedition for the coiKjuc^t of the Philippines, and 
a^iived there in 1565. In 1574 Luzon was attacked 
by a Chinese pirate, but the .Spaniards defeated him. 
ThiM gcxjd deed led to a conference between the 
•Spaninh Governor and the Chinese commander who 
had been in pursuit of the pirate, and it was agreed 
that n ni:8i«ion should be sent into Fukien. Dc Rada 
and Friar Gehommo NUms were chosen. Dk Rada 
had already felt such an enthusiastic desire to 
evangelize China that he had proposed to some 
Chinese merchants to be carried back by them as 



a slave. The mission landed at Kanhai on July 5, 
1575. went to Chin-chou and to Fuchow and re-em 
barked at their port of arrival on September 14, 
1575. They were thus less than three months in 
the country, according to the account given by 
Major in his introduction to the Hakluyt Society's 
re-is.^ue of Mendoza's History. In other works it is 
stated that de Rada spent three years in China and 
was then beaten and driven out. Favier in his 
I'ikinfj, and the Bulhtin Catholiquc de Ptkiii both 
tell the story so. but give no authorities. Accord- 
ing to Major the mission was wrecked on its way 
back, and rescued by a Spanish ship. De Rada 
died at Manila in 1577. 

His narrative of the visit to China was carried 
home to Philip II by the Friar Ma~:in who had 
been his companion, and the result was the embassy 
in which Mendoza took part. The embassy, like 
DE Rada's mission., was a failure ; but it led to 
Mbndoza's collecting de Rada's narrative and 
others, and from them making up his Hi-'^tori/ of 
China. 

Mendoza : History of China; Major : J/c//- 
doza's HiHory of China, Introduction, Hakluyt 
Society, 1853; Favier: Piling, c. vi ; Lc Jiiilletin 
Catholique de Prhin, 1915, p. 198. 

DESGODINS, AUGUSTE, of the Sociav de,., 
Mi.i.fiun.-- I'triniiii ri'.< ilr Paris, was born in France 
in 1825 and rlied near Darjiling in 1913. He 
started for Tibet in 1855, but got shut up in Agra 
in the Mutiny. Failing to enter Tibet from India 
he settled in W. Ssuch'iian. His writings, nearlv 
all on Tibetan subjects, include a Tibetan-French 
Dictionary. A list of them is given in the T'oumj 
I'ao, 1913, p. 783. 

DES VCEUX, GEORGE WILLIAM, Sir, was 

bcrn in 1834. After occupying various posts in the 

West Indies and elsewhere, he w-as appointed 

(Governor of Hongkong in October. 1887. He 

resigned and retired on May 7, 1891, and died 

December 15, 1909. He became C.M.G. in 1877, 

K.C.M.C. in 1883 and G. C.M.G. in 1893. He 

pnblislicd .1/// Cihminl Si-rciri', etc., (1903). 

DEVA ^i'^. a general term for all t'.:c gc.ds 
of Hiahminisni and all beings who dwell in the 
.-:i.\ Dcva lokas : they are subject to metempsychosis. 

DEVERIA, GABRIEL, was born in 1844 in 
France. He went to (,'hina as student-interpreter 
in 1860. and after filling several posts returned to 
France in 1876. In 1882 he was made secretary- 
interpreter in Chinese in Paris, and in 1889 became 
Prcfessor in the Ecole des Langues Orientales 
Vivantes. He had been promoted Consul-General 
in 1888 and made officer of the Legion of Honour 
in 1896. He died in 1899. A list of his many 
writings is given in the T'oumj-pao, 1899. 



II: 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



DIVORCE 



DIAGRAMS, EIGHT. Sec /'« law. 

DIALECTS. Maiuiariii or K nun huu is the 
Sf/okeii laiif^Uiigc of about two thirds of China. 
There are three forms of it, spoken typically 
in Peking. Nanking and Chengtu. The Pekingese 
though considered by sinologues as a debased form 
of the language is the Court speech, used by all 
oflicials throughout China. It wculd- seem absurd 
to call mandarin a dialect, since it is the tongue of 
2:5:),000,003 people. 

South of the Yangtze basin there ai'e eight 
well defined dialects. Uf these the Canton speech 
i.^ one of the mo.>-t important. It is much nearer to 
early Chinese speech than mandarin is. It is very 
regular, and ea.^ily put into character. The Amoy 
dialect, spoken by some ten millions of people, 
differs very widely from the book-language. The 
Fonchow dialect has a much narrower range ; the 
reading and spoken sounds approximate more closely 
than in Amoy. At Ningpo the idioms are similar 
to the tnandaiiii, l)ut the proportion of unwritten 
sounds is so great that no attempt has been made 
to write the colloquial in Chinese character. The 
Shanghai dialect has also marked affinities with 
mandarin, though quite unintelligible to a native 
of Peking. 

DIAMONDS ^ U3lJ S are found in Shantung 
and on the Yiinnan-Burma frontier, but just on the 
Burma side. They are not favourite gems of the 
Chinese. They are used to cut glass and to drill 
holes in clamping and mending broken i)orcelain. 

DIAMOND SUTRA, THE, CInn knn<i rhnuj 
^M ^. called in the original Sanskrit Priijnu- 
I'uiainitd; (me of the most metaphysical of the 
works ascribed to Gautama, esteemed in China 
above almost any other Siitra. It is known in 
Tibetan, Mongol and Manchu translations. The 
first Chinese translation was made by Kumarajiva 
(384-417), and another is ascribed to HsiiAN Tsang. 
It has been translated from Sanskrit into 
English by Max Muller, and into French by 
DE Harlez ; and from Chinese into English by Beal 
and by Gemmell ; and there are other European 
translations. 

Beal: Juunwl, linijul AsUitic Surifti/. 18o4-5 ; 
DE Harlez: Jinirnul Aimtique, 1892; Gemmell : 
The Diamond Sf/tra. London, 1912. 

DIAZ, EMMANUEL, {Senior); $?!S^^ Li vui 
wo, a Jesuit Father born in Portugal in 1559. He 
reached Macao, became Rector of the College there, 
then was sent as Visitor to Nanking, Nanch'ang, 
and Chao-chou. In 1608 he reached Peking, and on 
his return to Macao reported so favourably on his 
conferences with Ricci, that the powers of the latter 
were confirmed and he became independent of the 
Rector of Macao. Diaz then worked and bore 
persecution at Nanch'ang ; in 1609 he again became 



Rector of Macao. In 1622 he was made Visitor 
of the mission stations, and ten years later was 
appointed Father General-Visitor lor China, Japan 
and Tonkin. He died at Macao in 1639. 

Havket : Lft .Still; ihn'ticnnt (It Si injuti foit, 
ii, p. 55, note. 

DIAZ EMMANUEL Ki^laS ^'""'J -l^" «". a 
Jesuit Father, the younger of that name, born in 
I'ortugal in 1574. Having lini.ihed his studies at 
Goa he taught theology for si.x years at Macao and 
went to Chao-chou in 1611. He was driven thence 
by the hatred of the littrati. He was then sent 
tj visit all the e.xisting missions. After the perte- 
cution of 1616 and the consequent e.\ile to Macao 
he was sent to Peking in 1621. Two years later 
he was made Vice-provincial of the China MisiMon, 
and occupied this position and that of Visitor 
during 18 years. After labouring in many cities 
and writing many works in Chinese he died at 
Hangchow in 1659. His grave is still to be seen 
there. Havret : La Stele c/in'tienne de Si-nt^an f/u, 
ii, p. 330, note; Moule : C'/iine.iC Recorder, vol. 
x.\i p. 509. 

DICAEUM, a genus of the Family Dir/tiidnr. 
It con)j)rises the Flowerpeckers. D. erucntntuin, 
the Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker, is found in <'hina 
from Fukien to Yunnan. J>. ininulluni is the 
smallest of all the birds of the Far East, and is 
only found in Hainan. IK ii/nipertus Hodos., 
common in South (,'hina. D. formogum, latelv 
discovered in Formosa. 

DICRURIDAE, a Family of the Order of 
/'wseres, comprising the Drongos. liiirhdiujn 
leur(>(/eny<, the White-Cheeked Drongo, is found 
at certain seasons in the central province.'-, 
and twice a year may be met with in small 
numbers in Chihli and even in Manchuria. D. 
einerarea, is found in Hainan and S. China. Ii. 
(lira, the Black Drongo, occurs throughout E. 
China, is resident throughout the lower hills and 
the plains of Formosa, and in Hainan. Chibin 
hottintdtta may be found in summer spread all over 
China. Chaptid briiuiiiann, the Bronzed Drongo, 
resident in the mountains in the interior of 
Formosa. 

David et Ov-STalet : Lcs Oiscaux de la (Jhin<\ 

DICTIONARIES. See Li.ae.ujniidnj. 

DiOSPYROS. See Per.<iinm»n. 

DISTRICT MAGISTRATE, $n«lC/M7i htun. 
[q.r.]. 

DIVORCE. The Jiooh of Ifitf menticns 
seven defects for which a man may divorce his 
■ ife ( m^) :~i. sterility of male infants; ii. adult- 
ery ; iii. di.sobedience or neglect of parents-in-law ; 
iv* a bad tongu-; v. theft; vi. jealou.'y ; vii. an 



US 



DOCTRINE OF MEAN 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA StNiCA 



incurable disease. But any of these seven reasons 
is not sufficient for divorce under three conditions ; 
i. if the wife has mourned three years for her 
father in-law or mother-in-law; ii. if the husband, 
formerly pofjr, has became wealthy ; iii. if there are 
no relatives left in her father's family to receive 
her. Kut these three conditions will not avail ii" 
the defect is adultery ( r neglect of parents-in-law. 

If huKband and wife cannot live in harmony, 
llx'y may n^ree to separate, an-, the wife can return 
to her fatlu-r's family, but may not marry again. 

A divorced wife may not be sold by her 
hu'iband. A women who has been divorced may 
marry ajjain. Hoaxc : Ar Mdiiin/c r/iin()i<. 

DOCTRINE OF THE MEAN, THE, ip 1^, 
ill.' tlmd ..f tin- Fi.ur lioi.k.-;. 'J'he Kiigli.-ili name 
in Li:i;t;F°s ; the title has also been translated The 
MidtUr ir«y, riinariiihlr .Vilieu, The Lniver-Hil 
f>nlrr, etc. 

It is Bonk 31 in the Li Chi, but it was also 
Kttidied as a 8eparat« work at least as early as the 
heuiniiin^' of the fifth century, a.u. It is generally 
accepted a.s the work of K'UNG Chi commonly 
called Tzo Ssu •^j©, grandson of Confucius. See 
Chifir*. ]aa;v.v. : Chiiicfe (.'lassiif, vol. i, p. 35. 

DOGSKINS are made up into nig.s for sleeping 
iiiatt) and ciuthiiig. The hair is long and thick and 
of all colours, from a rich black tinough all shades 
and rnmbinatioii.-i of brown, yellow and grey to 
pun- while. The last are the finest. There are thou- 
Mn.U of dog farm.s dotted over S.W. Manchuria and 
K. .Muiigolia. where from twenty to some hundreds 
of dogH are reared annually as a source of wealth ; 
».</., a bride will have as her dowry a number of 
do^i, in proportion to her father's means. Nowhere 
eUe ill the world are found such splendid dogskins 
for Hize, length of hair and quality, as the e.xtreme 
cold develops there. A full sized robe is 80" by 
68 . taken from eight dogs. The dogs are cruelly 
^trangk•d when eight months old. in midwinter, the 
•••mtM Iwiiig then at their best. The e.\j)ort in 1916 
«a« Tix. 690.940. Cistoms Hei-ohts. 

DOG, WILD; t 111,1- III/, I II us; there are two 
vnrieli.'H in Cliina, one from the Tibet-Kansu 
borderland, the other from the Manchuriaii forests; ' 
.liiey are gra«lually getting scarcer. They are closely 
related to the Hed <l.,g of the Deccan." It is .said 
they work together in packs of from forty to a 
hundred, killing out the deer. 

SowKunv : J,nn„„l, S.('.li.lt.A,s., vol. .xlvii. 

DOLON NOR, .Mongolian for .err,, l„k,;, a 
town II. .M. ,,«ol.u on (he road from Peking to .lehol 
by the Ku pei k'ou (,.a..H) ; it i.s 150 miles north-east 
of Kalgan, I'hang chia kOu. The Chinese name for 
the place IS Lain.i mi;,.. There are about 20.000 



inhabitants, mo.^tly Chinese. The lakes from which 
the place got its Mongol name are now dry. 

Macaktney'.s embassy was taken to Jehol by 
this route. Prjevalsky : Morigolii/. 

DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN MISSIONARY 
Society of the Protestant Episcopal Church in tiie 
U.S.A. (American Church Mission). 
Jlendquurters : — New Yoi'k. 
I'hitervd China, 1835. 

Works in Anhui, Hunan, Hupei, Kiangsi and 
Kiangsu. 

The field consists of three missionary diocese.--, 
Shanghai, Anking, and Hankow. 

The fir.st missionaries of the Society in r'hina 
were the Revs. Henry Lockwood and F. H. 
Hanson, who reached Canton in 1835. As there 
was little hope of doing effective work there, they 
left almost at once to work among the Chinese 
in Batavia. 

The early years were full of disasters. Mr. 
LofKWOOD'.s wife, a daughter of Dr. Medhurst 
[q-v.), died in a few months. Mr. Hanson with- 
drew through ill-health in 1838, Mr. Lockwood 
following him in the next year ; and the Rev. 
W. J. Boone, M.D. and his wife, who had reached 
Batavia in 1837, were left alone. In 1840, the 
BooNES both broke down, and went to Macao to 
recuperate. They never returned to Batavia, for 
the Home Board pressed for the removal of the 
Mission to the mainland of China, and Dr. Boone 
chose Amoy as his future residence, partly for 
climatic reasons and partly because he had learned 
the dialect. 

Mrs. Boone died early in their stay at Ainoy. 
and in 1843, Dr. Boone went to the TT.S.A. to 
appeal for more workers. He returned with a 
party of nine, and landed in Shanghai in 1845, it 
having been decided to begin work in the Yangtze 
Valley with Shanghai as a base, ralher than to 
return to Amoy. This date, therefore, is regarded 
as the time when the Mission in China began its 
work (IK at present constituted. 

Diocese of Shan<jhai.— Dr. Boone had been 
con.secrated Missionary Bishop to China while on 
furlough, and took up his residence in Shanghai 
with his party. The first convert was baptized in 
1846, an Amoy man, who had been with Dr. Boone 
to the United States; and in the .same year a boys' 
school was opened, the humble beginning from 
which have sprung St. John's University at Shang- 
hai, and Boone University at Wuchang. Edu- 
cational work for girls was begun in 1851 by a Miss 
Jones, and the well-known Miss Lydia Fay. 

Translation of Scriptures, Catechism, etc., 
followed, and missionary excursions into the country 
were frequent in spite of oflTicial restrictions on 
travel, and some tentative medical work was 
started. 



144 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



D. i F. MISSIONARY 



III the meantime, great trials fell ujion the 
personnel ; there were a number of deaths, and 
some retired through broken health, while in 
Chefoo, where the Bishop had tried to plant a 
station, one worker suffered martyrdom at the 
hands of a mob in 1861. In consequence of these 
reverses, the educational and medical work had to 
be suspended, and the evangelistic staff dwindled 
to two, Mr. (afterwards Archdeacon) Thomson, 
and Wong, the first convert, who was ordained 
priest in 1863. The American Civil War also 
affected finances, and on the field the T'ai P'ing 
rebellion was a great hindrance. To complete the 
disappointments, the Bishop himself died in 1864. 

For two years the IMission was without a head, 
and then from 1866 to 1877 Bi.shop Williams 
had the oversight both in China and Japan— an 
impossible task. 

Bi.shop Williams' successor in the China Field 
was the Rev. S. I. J. Schebeschewsky (q-v-), who 
had ai-rived in 1859, and who was consecrated 
Bishop of Mid-China in 1877. Next year he 
established St. John's College at .Jessfield, Shang- 
hai, with the two existing boys' schools as a nucleus. 

Bishop ScHERESCHEWSKY met with a sunstroke 
in August, 1881, which caused paralysis, and made 
him a cripple for the rest of his life ; and when 
recovery was seen to be impossible, he resigned his 
jurisdiction in 1883, and spent his remaining years 
in translation work. He was succeeded by Bishop 
Boone's son, the Eev. William Jones Boone, born 
and brought up in China. Inuring this episcopate, 
the work of the Mission was greatly extended. 
Hankow had been opened in Bishop Williams' 
time, (see below), and the six hundred miles which 
separated it from the earlier sphere at Shanghai, 
was bridged by work at Chinkiang, (afterwards 
given up). Wuhu and Anking ; and 300 miles beyond 
Hankow, Shasi was opened, as well as Ichang, 
one hundred miles further. 

Bishop BooNE died at Hankow in 1891, and 
was succeeded by the Rev. F. R. Graves, who had 
arrived ten years before. 

While all these developments were taking place 
on the upper Yangtze, the work at Shanghai was 
extending in every direction. St. John's College 
had added a department of English in the early 
eighties; St. Mary's School for Girls was opened 
at Jessfield in 1881 ; permanent medical work was 
begun under Dr. H. W. Boone, son of the first 
bishop, and St. Luke's Hospital built ; and there 
were other activities too numerous to mention. 

In 1902, St. Elizabeth's Hospital for Women 
and Girls was opened ; a new building in connection 
with St. Luke's was put up in 1903; and in 1906, 
St. John's was incorporated as a University. 

In 1916. the Mission reports itself as planning 
to remove St. Luke's to a better site, and to again 



extend tlie medical work ; als-rj to remove St. 
Mary's Hall from Jessfield, that it and St. John's 
may both expand. 

The work in the Shanghai diocese is highly 
centralized, fifty-five of the ninety-two workers 
given in the Missionary Directory for 1916 being 
stationed in Shanghai ; while the remaining thirty- 
seven are divided among seven stations. Of these. 
Wusih ^ ^, was opened in 1900. This centre has 
a ho.spital, and a fine church was consecrated there 
in 1915, which was destroyed by fire in 1916. 
Soochow was occupied in 1902 ; Yangchow in 1907 ; 
and Nanking in 1908, specially with the view of 
working among the higher classes. 

Diocese of Hunhow. — In 1368 work was begun 
at Wuchang. A boys' school was opened in 1871, 
the nucleus of the present University, and some- 
what later a school for girls, now SC. Hilda's. 

Medical work was begun in 1874 under Dr. 
Bunn, who was obliged to retire five years later, 
through the ill-health of Mrs. Bunn. About this 
time other workers also were compelled by sicknes*. 
or by the needs of the Shanghai district, to leave 
Wuchang, and for some months one man, the Rev. 
S. R. J. Hoyt, was alone, and with the help of 
two partially-trained Chinese, kept going the boys' 
and girls' boarding-schools, the three chapels, the 
hcspital and the dispensary. 

Hankow, where the work had been super 
intended from Wuchang, was made a central station 
in 1885, and in the same year the Divinity School 
of the Mission was transferred from Shanghai to 
Wuchang. 

In 1889. a Catechists' Training School was 
opened in Hankow, which was to have a great 
share in the development of the mission ; and very 
possibly the evangelistic work of these trained men 
was one cause of the anti-foreign outbreak in 1890-1. 
The whole of the Yangtze Valley was disturbed, 
and at Shasi (opened 1886) the Mi.ssion property 
was burned. 

The result of the evangelistic campaign men- 
tioned above was that 379 were baptized in eleven 
months— a phenomenal figure for those days. In 
1892. a new church was opened in Hankow ; 
it was the largest in Central Clhina, and could 
accommodate fourteen hundred. An English depart- 
ment was opened in Boone School in 1892. A 
college course was added in 1902, and in 1909 the 
college became Boone University. 

The Medical work in Wuchang is reported in 
1916 as undergoing long-needed expansion,— the 
work deserving better hospitals than are at present 
in use. 

A long-required division of jurisdiction took 
place in 1901. and the field was divided into tw«. 
dioceses, the Province of Kiangsu, with Shanghai 



l!t 



U5 



D. & F. MISSIONARY 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINlCA 



as «ee city being one. and the Hankow diocese 
taUinK the -remainder. The first Bishop of the 
new dio<e.e was Kev. J. A. Ingle, who had been 
ii> China 10 years. He died two years later at the 
.-arly a^'c of "thirty eight, and wa.s .succeeded by the 
Rev. L. H. Roots of Hankow. 

In 1909, the American Lutheran Mis.^ion in 
Hankow was handed over to the American Church, 
as the Lutherans wished to concentrate on tho 
newlv-o,.t.ncd province of Hunan. This province 
had klready been occupied by the American Church 
aUo. ChanK^ha becominu a permanent station ui 
1902. under a native clergyman, the Rev. S. C. 
ni\N<;. In the "ri.e riots" of 1910. the mob 
liotcd the Mission property, but the missionaries 
were not injured. 

AfttT the Boxer rising. Boone College was re- 
cpiiied with 100 students. "Boone Library" was 
built in 1910. and a Normal School for Women was 
bt-gun in Hankow in 1912. 

In 1911, when Hankow was thi- centre of the 
Re\<.luti..n and the native city was burned by 
thf Northern army, many of the Chri.stians suffered 
.li-wusly. All the institutions in Wuchang were 
.l...-.d for .several months,, and other work was 
l.ik.ii>up. Dr. Ma( Willie of St. Peter's Hospital 
«a« President of the Red Cross work, and even 
St. P.^rt's Cathedral was turned into an auxiliary 
h<»pital. The missioiiaries cared for the sick, the 
\\«.»nded. and the homeless, and buried the dead, 
preaching the (lospel as they worked. 

J/i,,riMr I,/ .l«/i;*</.— Anking was opened as a 
i>latiun with foreigners in charge in 1896, when 
I)r. and Mrs. Meubins wi-nt there to begin medical 
work. Ten years later, St. .James' Hospital, wa.s 
built, the (iiM'ht at the time in Central China. By 
1910 the work lenteriiig round Wuhu (opened 1885), 
Aiikinu. and Kiukiang (1901), had developed to 
»ii'H nn fxtent. that it was decided to divide the 
' 'ii.ttrict into lwf» dioceses. The new 

..- t<i comprise Anhui, and Kiangsi north 
ot 20- N. I^l. .\nkiiig was cho.sen as see city, 
and the llev. I). T. Hintinctdn of Ichang, was 
roniK'irati'fl at* Jlrsl Hish(»|i. The Cathedral, the 
lai'jjeitt rliurch in the China Mi.'^sion. was completed 
III 1912. and very strangely, " The great city 
.lrin|ile wnw dismantled almost at the .same time. 
The btiildjng was white-washed, and made into a 
market and m'lel of the idols were thrown into the 
river,"— part of the ^reat nioviMin-nl against 
■•hicli WHS yr{ gi iiig by the Declaration of 
Liberty prriclaimed at the establishment 
r.i ihi' l!i-publi<'. On the whole this is one of tne 
most successful aiul entouraging Mi.<-sions in Chin.i ; 
and itn educational work is rapidly rivalling that 
of the two older dioceses. 



79 



52 



264 



24 



155 



135 615 



.Statistics, January 1st, 1917. 

Shanghai Hankow Anking 
Diocese Diocese Diocese Total 
Foreign ordained 

workers 13 22 8 43 

uuordained 
workers & women 
Chinese staff ordained' 21 16 10 47 

,, unordained | 
and women including , 216 

Teachers ^ 

Communicants 1.640 1,726 910 4,276 

Baptized non- 
communicants 1,733 1.971 850 4,554 

DOMINICANS, a mendicant Order of Friar 
Preachers founded in 1217. They first came to 
China in the 14th century and probably provided 
Archbi.shops to Khanbalig (Peking) early in the 
15th century. 

Gasi'.\rd de la Croix reached China in 1556 
but stayed only one month. A Portuguese 
Dominican, Jean de la Piete. was Bishop of 
Macao in 1605. Several fruitless attempts to 
evangelize China were made by Dominicans from 
the Philippines,— in 1587, 1590, 1596, 1598 and 1611. 
At last, in 1625, a mission was founded in Formosa ; 
it was destroyed by the Dutch in 1642. but the time 
had been sufficient to give the Dominicans a footing 
in the Fukien province, where they remained. 
Being Spani.sh this was their way into China 
instead of through the Portuguese Macao. Since 
1716 all the Vicars- Apostolic of the Dominicans 
have been of the I'rcvince of the Very Holy Rosary 
(Philippines). In the question of the Rites the 
Dominicans were against Ricci's practices. 

They have the two Vicariats of Fukien and 
Amoy, and the Prefecture-Apostolic of Formosa. 
There are 58 European and 31 native priests, with 
about 61,000 Christians. The agency (Procure) is 
at Hongkong. 

DOOLITTLE, JUSTUS, a missionary under 
the American Board, born in 1824. who arrived in 
China in 1850 and spent mo.st of his missionary life 
in Foochow. He was the author of a very popular 
book. Tfir SorinI life nf the C'hinr<c, and of a 
dictionary or miscellaneous handbook of great 
service in its time. His health obliged him to 
return to America in 1873 and he died there in 1880. 
DOOR OF HOPE, THE, a philanthropic work 
slartofl in Shanghai in 1900 by a Committee of 
five missionary ladies, to rescue such of the many 
Chinese prostitute.s in the Foreign Settlement as 
desired to leave a life of shame. The first Home 
was opened in a Chinese house in November, 1901, 
the first worker being Miss Cornelia L. Bonnell 
(died 1916). 



146 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



DRAGON 



III 1904, a number of philanthropic Chinese 
offered to assist in the work, and the offer was 
accepted. They opened a Receiving Home in the 
most notorious quarter of the settlement, and also 
secured by their influence the enactment of new 
municipal ref^ulations favourable to public morality, 
especially one limiting to 15 years the age at which 
girls might enter the brothels. One result of this 
was tiiat a large number of kidnapped children 
were freed, and given into the charge of the 
Mission, which in 1906 opened a Children's Home 
in the country at Kiangwan, near Shanghai. In the 
same year, an Industrial Home was opened, where 
the girls could be taught to work towards self- 
supp(jrt. 

Ill 1912 the Municipal ( 'ouiicil pressed the 
Mission to undertake the care of the strayed, stolen 
and abandoned children found in the streets of 
Shanghai by the police, and guai'anteed the 
neces.'^ary finances from time to time. The request 
was accede;l to, and a Home iuv Waifs and Strays 
was begun. 

In January, 1917, tlie Mission reported 8 
foreign lady workers, 36 Chinese assistant-;, and 
420 women and girls in their care. 

DOUBLE DRAGON. See l)<r„rali,„t.<. 

DOUGLAS, ROBERT KEiSINAWAY, was 

born ill Deson, 1838, and died in England in 1913. 
He entered the Consular Service of China in 1858, 
and left it in 1865 to take a post in the British 
Museum, where he was Keeper of Oi'iental Books 
and MSS. at the time of his retirement in 1907. 
lie was Professor of Chinese in King's College, 
London University, and was several times Vice- 
Presideni of the Royal Asiatic Society. He was 
knighted in 1903. ' 

His published works are Thr LaninKKjcji and 
J/itcrature of China, (1875) ; (Jouj iirinnkm and 
Taoism, (1877); China, (1882); A Chinese Manual, 
(1889) ; Chinese Stories, (1893) ; Soriefi/ in China, 
(1894) ; The Life of Li Htnuj-ehan;/, (1895) ; China, 
(1899), in Stcry of the Nations Series; Eumin and 
the Far Ea^t. (1904). 

DOVES. See Columhae. 

DRAGON BOAT FESTIVAL. The festival 
so called by the westerner is one of the most im- 
portant in the Chinese year and is known as J^ |E| 
fiian yanef. According to De Groot the name in- 
dicates that the festival is properly that of the 
summer solstice, though now held earlier, on the 
5th day of the 5th moon ; while the offerings, the 
prominence of the dragon, etc., are with the object 
of procuring sufficient rain. The popular account 
is that the feast is to commemorate the death of 
Ch'u YiiAX (q.v.). who drowned himself in the 
3rd century b.c. that the offerings are to appease 



his .-jjirit and the racing boats are in memory of the 
search for his body. 

The dragon-boats are narrow, seating two men 
abreast, and are from fifty to a hundred feet long ; 
they are moved by paddles while drums ami 
gongs make a great din. Haces are run fi.r 
small prizes. 

Besides the out-of door celebratitins, which »if 
coui'se are what the foreigner takes nujsl notiee of, 
there aie ceremonies performed in every home. 
offerings to ancestors, etc. 

\)i: UuooT : A<x /'V//x anniilli-" II KiiKiiii. 

DRAGON FLOWER SOCIETY, THE, 

is said to iia\e Ix-eii lomided Ijy l.o Hr.M, wlic i.-, 
also regarded as the founder <jf the Hsieii T'ieii and 
\Vu Wei .Societies ('/.(".). The sect is of Biiddhihi 
ciigin. The name Lung Hua is sonietimes given to 
Buddhist mcnasteiies ; it would seem to have some 
affinity with the White Lotus sect ('/.'".) and it is 
recorded that the Lung Hua Temple and Pag(i<la 
near Shanghai was a White Lotus centre before llie 
lltli century. 

In contrast to the Hsieii T'ien sect, the inenibeis 
are drawn from the lower and middle classes and are 
much more numerous. All are vegetarians and their 
places of meeting are called \'egetarian Halls 
The teaching is eclectic, and all mannei- of (on 
fucian, Taoist and Buddhist saints and worthies 
are worshipped, in addition to many gods and 
goddesses ; but as with the White Lotus .Society. 
Maitukya is the favourite. All members are under 
the control of a Bishop who resides in Kukien and 
has the title "Empty of the Empty" 
Nine degrees of officials are under him and at their 
meetings in addition to recitations of sutras ami 
other religious e.xercises. elaborate e.xertions are 
made to help the souls of the dead. The initiation 
rite is" part of the consecration ritual of Buddhist 
monks, and private devotions are considered veis 
important. See Secret Seels. 

(Chinese Recorder. 1936. p. 474: Dt (!itonr : 
Seclarinvism . etc. 

DRAGON, THE, SI '""f/- I" 'hina the 
dragon is a benevolent beast, not connected with the 
powers of darkness as in the West. It is the 
.symbol of fertilizing rain, the god of waters, 
especially supplicated in times of drought or flood. 
Its importance must therefore be very great among 
such an agricultural people as the Chinese ; hence 
its prominence, especially at the summer ferfival. 
Hence also its benevolent life-giving services have 
been compared with good administration by officials, 
and the dragon became the symbol of imperial 
dignity. 

In its shape it is probably derived from the 
crocodile, once common in China, which hides in 
the winter and appears again in the spring. Ini 



147 



DRAGON KINGS 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



agination has embellislied the creature tiU it has 
become a m«<t artistic beast, worthy of its high 
j,oMtion in the ornamental world. For art's sake 
it must be hoped the Republic will spare it. 

De Groot : Uf Fitifi annuelles a Emuui; 
Vis TSAO KAXG MC ; HvAi Nan Tzu ; Dennts : The 
Folklore of China. 

DRAGON KINGS ^£i, Iting wnng. Chinese 
mylliologv honours a number of men with this title, 
and the Indian origin of their names shows the 
superstition to be Buddhist. The lists of them 
.liffcr in different author.-^. Dore gives names, 
pictures and stories concerning them. 

Done : lifrhercht* Hur /^x Siipfi-otitinvs, tome 
vii, p. 234. I 

DRAMA. The drama is not indigenous to | 
China, but was introduced together with the novel, | 
by the Mongols in the Yiian dynasty. Prior to 
that, solemn dances or posturing, accompanied by 
chanting, had been performed on ceremonial 
occaiions. It has been assumed that becau-^e actors 
.<«tin call them.selves "Students of the Pear Garden" 
—the Pear Garden being the name of a Conser- 
vatoire established in 720 a.d. by the Emperor 
HsuAN Tsi-SG of the T'ang dynasty, for the training 
of young musicians, that the actors' profession 
existed at that time. But the training at this 
t(.l!('i,'o was limited to the teaching of instrumental 
muMc and the singing of dramatic poetry. In 736 
a trcupe of barbarian musicians performed plays of 
a -ort called Yoyu *j» fi at the Imperial court. 
But it was not till the Mongol dynasty that the 
drama came to China to remain. 

The majority of plays acted in China are tho.se 
romponed in the Yiian and the early Ming 
dynaiities, and the airs to which the recitatives are 
• ung are chiefly melodies of the Yiian period. 
There were 85 dramatists of the Yiian dynasty, of 
whom 4 were courtesans and 11 were anonymous 
writerH. They com|)Osed 564 plays. The best- 
known collccti(jn of Moiij^ol plays is the Yiifni r/t'u 
h^uiin t*a chi 7c ifll iS !tll .^Ij containing 100 plays 
in 8 volumoii. The most famous of these is "The 
Orphan of tlie Chao Family," which was translated 
into French by the Jesuit missionary Prf.mare in 
1731. The most interesting of the Yiian plays is 
Hn Hfiiinij Chi or " The Story of the Western 
Pavilion " by Want. Shih fi'. Of the Ming plays, 
by far the mont celebrated is /"/ I'd Chi, (q.v.) or 
" Story of the (Juilar," by Kao Tzu-ch'knc, 
fimt performed in 1404. It is regarded by Chinese 
critic* a« the nia»(terpiece of Chinese drama. 

K'ano Hmi was a great patron of the drama, 
KorgeouH representations being given in his theatres. 
("lI'IRN Ll'NG also encouraged the drama, but owing 
to the fact that his mother had been an actress, 
he forbade any women taking a part on the stage, 



a rule which ha.s obtained to the present day. 
A well-known dramatist oi thi.s reign was Hung 
Ssu-FANG. The most famous play-wriglit of the 
19th century was Li-Yii, some of whose plays are 
based on Buddhist legends. 

The Chinese play resembles the European in 
its division into acts and scenes. The dialogue is 
interspersed with poetry which is sung, and which 
resembles the recitative of European opera. There 
are two kinds of plays, the " military," or 
historical play, and the " civil " play, which is 
often a farce. The majority are short, from half 
an hour to an hour in length, though there are 
long ones found in books, from which short extracts 
and given on the stage. Actors are engaged by 
trade-guilds, magistrates and M^ealthy persons to 
perform on special occasions, a play by a large 
troupe costing from .'IS.OO to $10.00. There are 
also theatres in all large cities where plays are 
acted all the year except at the New Year 
festivities. The Chinese theatres at the treaty 
ports show the influence of foreign drama by 
introducing curtains, wings and scenery. In some 
theatres in Shanghai a modern style of acting 
has been adopted, which abandons the old stage 
conventions, and the orchestra, but shows a 
deplorable tendency to borrow from the detective 
stories of the foreign cinematograph. A popular 
' actor in Shanghai is sometimes paid .$1000 a month, 
while famous actors in Peking receive even larger 
pay. Plays are usually performed in the Pekingese 
dialect of Mandarin. 

Actors are of a low social caste. The descend - 
I ants of an actor for three generations were forbidden 
to compete in examinations. One reason for this 
contempt for the profession was that the children 
of slaves were brought up to be actors. Training 
begins between the ages of nine and fourteen. 
The boy must undergo strenuous physical exercises 
tc become a skilful contortionist, and practise 
vocal exercises to become a good singer, for long 
sustained pa.ssages of recitative must often be 
rendered in a single breath. He must have a 
perfect repertoire of between 100 and 200 plays, as 
there is no prompter on the Chinese stage. The 
parts of women are taken by boy.s and men, some- 
times by eunuchs. 

Chinese plays are moral in character, e.\alting 
\iitue, exposing vice, and exhibiting the comic and 
the pathetic sides of life. Great liberty is taken 
with the text, however, and many objectionable 
gags are introduced by the ' actors. The plot is 
usually of a simple character. One striking feature 
of the Chinese stage is the absence of properties. 
Actors, musicians and theatre attendants occupy 
the stage together. Emperors, generals, magist- 
rates, doctors, coolies, courtezans, gods and demons 
are all represented, and the costumes are often 



148 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



DU HALDE 



maj^iiificcMit. There are five classes of eharactera 
in a play : — 1, the hero, .«//«//</ IE, who wears a 
black beard, 2, tan H. the female characters, 
3, chiiKj i^, secondary characters, 4, mo'^, and 
5, ch'ou 3L different minor parts. 

Chinese Plays translated by foreigners : — 
Le Jeune Orphelin de la Famille dc- Tchao Prhmare 
An Heir in Old Age Davis 

The Sorrows of Han Davis 

L'Histoire du Cercle de Craie Stanislas Julien 
Les Intrigues d'une Soubrette Baztn Ainu 

La Tunique Confroiitee (Joining the 

Shirt) by Chang Kro rix, a courtesan 
La Chanteuse 
Le Ressentinient de Teou-Xgo bj- 

Kit AN Han-kinu 
LHistoire du Luth (P'i Pa Chi) 

Bazin : Thidtrv. Chinoix; jMacoowan : Hht- 
liiinir X,iti.<, Journal. X.C.B.R. A.S.. vol. xxi ; 



Ch i/ii'Sf T/ieafriral-' 
Chill ex e Life rat u re . 



Ibid., vol. .\.\ ; Giles : 



DREAM OF THE RED CHAMBER ^i^'^ 
/iiiii'j /on luriiij. One of the best known, and 
probably the best of Chinese works of fiction. The 
proper title of the book is if if ^ H S M jC ^*'<^«.'7 
p'iii'j vu t'li s/iili t'ou chi, but it is generally known 
by the shorter name. The English title is a mis- 
translation of this name, but it would be too late 
now to correct it. The book is in Mandarin, and. 
like most such works in (.'hine.se, is of great length, 
filling about four thousand octavo pages. About 
four hundred characters appear in the story, and 
their drawing is most skilful. It abounds in humour 
and pathos, and is invaluable for anyone who would 
study the .social life of the Chinese. 

It is supposed to belong to the latter part of 
the 17th century ; but the author is not known ; it 
has been attributed to Ts'ao HsiiEH-CH'iN, "W M'^- 

A very good rcsiiim' of the story by Professor 
Giles will be found in the Journal of the 
X.C.B.R.A.S., for 1885. (vol. xx), transferred with 
some additions to Giles" Chinese Literature. 

A translation of the first part of the work was 
published by H. Joly. 

DRONGOS. Sec Dirruridae. 

DRUMS. See Musical Instiumeiits. 

DRUM, SACRIFICE TO THE. It was a 

very ancient custom to sacrifice to the regimental 
drum before a fight. YiiAN Shih-k'ai is said to 
have performed this rite even in 1900 when marching 
again.st the Boxers. 

Parkeii : Ancient China SimjAified, p. 32. 

DRUMS, STONE, important relics inscribed 

with the character used in the early part of the 

Chou dynasty. They are ten large water-worn 

boulders, I'oughly chiselled into the shape of short 



pillars Ij t') 3 feet iiigh and averaging 7 feet hori- 
zontal. circumference. They are much weathered, so 
that on one stone no characters remain, and only 
one has tlie inscription nearly complete. 

They were discovered early in the T'ang 
dynasty, half buried in some waste land in Feng- 
hsiang fu IfiL^^ljff in Shensi, which was the ancestral 
territory of the founder of the Chou dynasty. 

The inscriptions are in the great seal script ;h,^ 
ta chuan, a separate ode on each stone, each 
apparently commemorating some hunting or fishing 
excursion or excursions. Most authorities as.'-ign 
them to the period of HsQan Wang, b.c. 827-782 ; 
their authenticity has been doubted, but not by 
many. The original number of cliaracters was about 
700 ; an author of the Sung dyna.^ty speaks of 465 ; 
one in the Yiian dynasty mentions 386; in the 
( 'h'ien Lung period there were only 310. 

Happily a rubbing was taken in the Sung 
dynasty and fac-similes preserved and engraved on 
stone in the period CiiiA Ch'ing ; it contains 462 
characters. 

At the beginning of the ninth century the 
stones were placed in the Confucian temple at 
Feng-hsiang fu ; but in the troublous times of the 
Five Dynasties they were dispersed and lost sight 
of. They were got together again in the Sung 
dynasty, and when the court fled before the Liao 
Tartars it took the drums and set them up in 
the new capital, Pien Ching vl^;^, in 1108. When 
the capital was taken by the Chin ^ Tartars in 
1126, the conquerors carried the drums to Peking, 
where they were more or less neglected till the 
■ Yiian dynasty. But in 1307 they were placed in 
the gate-way of the Confucian temple, and have 
remained there ever since. 

The Chinese literature on the subject is 
voluminous. In the N.C.B.R.A.S. Journal the 
first reproductions of the inscriptions are given, 
with the text in modern form and a translation, 
the whole having been prepared by Dr. Bushell. 

JovRNAL, y.C.n.L'.A.S., vol. viii. 

DRUSES or DRUZES. A mysterious people 
who have been known in the J..ebanon mountains 
since the twelfth century, but whose origin is un 
known. They themselves state that they came 
from China ; they expect at the end of all things 
to be re-e-stablished in their ancestral home, and 
meanwhile all good Druzes, at their death, art- 
supposed to go to China. 

Graham •.—Journal of iht Ceo./rajjfiical Society 
1853, p. 262. 

DUCKS. Sec .1/,../..-. 

DU HALDE, JEAN BAPTISTE, a Jesuit 
priest whose fame rests on his 'Description 
geographique, historique, chronologique, politique 
de L'Empire de la Chine '. This work was 



U9 



DUKE 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



published in Paris by Lemercieh in four folio 
volumes in 1735. There are two English translations, 
the earlier being in four octavo volumes, dated 3736 : 
the translator was R. Brookes, and the edition is 
incomplete and unsatisfactory. The next was 
publi.«hed by E. Cave in two folio volumes, one in 
1738. one in 1741. 

Uv Halue was born in Paris. February 1, 1674, 
entered the Society in 1692 and died on August 18, 
1743. On the death of Le Gobie.v, Du Halde was 
chosen to continue the series of Lettrfg Edifiantes, 
and the vohimes i.xx.wi were edited by him. It 
was the large amount of surplus material that gave 
him the idea of preparing his Description, in which 
he uxed the manuscripts of twenty-seven of the 
Jefuit missionaries. He was never in China.. 

ConuiER : IJtiHahle ft liAiirillc. in Recueil de 
Memoires Orientaux, 1905. 

DUKE. S,-. Snl,ilit<j. 

DUNN, JOHN GEORGE, a Shanghai mer- 
chant, afterwards special a'^ont of The Eastern 
K.\t«'n<tion Telegraph Co. His name is given here 
U>cause he was chosen by J.i HrNG-CHANG as a 
.•ne-'fcngiT to the Superior of the Lazarist Mission 
in Pari* with a \iew to settling the difficulty about 
ihe Pci T'ang by the appointment of a nuncio or 
legale from Rome. The mission was nearly a 
viii-ceiis : Mgr. Agliardi accepted the nomination 
and Di'N'N announced the date of departure for 
China; France, however, interposed and the legate 
wan never sent. See A'jliardi; Protectorate of 
Mi'Miiint. 

rofUfTKi: : I/i'tiirr 7' •> Rilntion.^ de la Chine. 

DUNYN-SZPOT, THOMAS IGNATIUS, a 
Jesuit Father born in Podlaihia in 1643. Very 
little in known of him, but the Society of Je.sus 
preserves in it« archives three manuscrij)ts by him, 
on the Midftions in China and on Chinese history. 

HAVlurr ; l.a SHU (.'Itritieinir de Siixjdiifou, 
ii. p. 71. 

DURAND-FAREL, CHARLES LOUIS 
MAXIME, M'ni on a mission to < hina by the 
I'kihIi .Miriihlcr of Public Instruction, has written 
oomi- ni*-di<'itl workii in that connection. He was 
A'nocinte Member of the Academy of Medicine. 
Born in Purin in 1815. he died there in 1899. For 
hi" writings see T'oiiifj /'no. 1899. 

DURGAN • DORGUN. ^\gK T„ iil, hnn. 
I be name of tliu Maniliu Uegent who established 
llie •'h'ing dynanty by putting his nephew on the 
throne wiib tin- title .Sin\ ('nm. 

DUTCH FOLLY, a small island in tliu river 
ni>«r thp nouth wei«t corner of ("imton, " French 
Folly " being another at the south east corner. It 
I- siii I that it was granted to the Dutch in the 
.'••\.-iiteentli century for trading purposes, but that 



they began to fortify it, and were then driven off. 
The Chinese proceeded to build a fort there, and 
called it Pearl of the Sea Fort %^T^M fi"i c^u 
]>'(!<) t'oi. 

DUTCH RELATIONS WITH CHINA. The 

relations of Holland and Spain at the end of the 
sixteenth century in Europe are to be borne in 
mind. Portugal was supremely influential in the 
Far East ; and Portugal and her dependencies were 
administered by Philip II of Spain, the arch-enemy 
of the Netherlands. 

The Dutch being unable to get Chinese produce 
through Lisbon, in 1595 sent a great trading ex- 
pedition round the Cape to Java. In 1598 a second 
one was sent, and as a result the Dutch East India 
Company was formed in 1602. It not only had a 
trade monopoly but exercised sovereign powers in 
the settlements it made, whicli included Cape Colony 
and Ceylon. It massacred ten or twelve English 
at Amboyna (q.r.) in 1623. Having failed in an 
attack on the Portuguese at Macao, the Dutch took 
the Panghu i.sland in the Pescadores in 1624. and 
thence made a successful expedition to the main- 
land. Thereupon the Emperor gave them permission 
to settle in Formosa and trade there if they would 
give up the Panghu island ; or according to another 
account they left being defeated by the C^hinese. 
They settled at Taiwan fu, Formosa being in reality 
a No-man's land, built a fort named Fort Zealaiidiu, 
expelled the Spanish from Kelung in 1642 and 
became masters of the island. In 1662 Koxinga 
tcck Fort Zealandia after a nine-months' siege and 
the Dutch retired to Java. Their forts at Taiwan 
fu and Tamsui are now parts of the British 
Consulates. 

Attempts to trade at Canton being again frust- 
rated by the Portuguese an embassy was sent to 
Peking in 1655 under Peter de Goyer and Jacob 
DE Keyser, merchants of Batavia. The envoys took 
rich gifts which they themselves termed tribute, 
they knelt thrice and 'knocked heads' nine times, 
the complete kotow (q.v.); but all they obtained 
was permission to send an embassy accompanied 
by four trading ships once every eight years. 

They do not seem to have taken advantage of 
this generous permission, but after the retreat from 
Formosa a splendid embassy was sent in 1668 
under Lord Peter van Hoorn, a Privy Councillor 
and chief Treasurer of India. H was received in 
very friendly style by the Emperor K'ang Hsi, but 
the Dutch got no particular benefit through it. On 
the contrary they were enrolled among vassal states, 
were summoned to send naval aid in an attack on 
Formosa, and obeyed. They carried on a certain 
amount of clandestine trade in Fukien ports, buying 
permission each time, and it was not till 1762 that 
thev established a factory at Canton. 



, :.(» 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SlNICA 



DYE-STUFFS 



ill 1798, after Macakt.ney's Embassy, aiioUier 
Dutch embassy was s^ent under Isaac Titsingh and 
A. E. VAN Braam. These were more humble than 
their predecessors e\en, and their self-abasement 
has been described in scorching terms in Williams' 
Middle Kiinjdoiii ; De Guignes, who was present 
as a guest, also describes their reception. The oijly 
result of the embassy was to increase the self- 
complacency of the Chinese : the Dutch got nothing. 
During the ne.\t century there has been no 
intercourse which requires special notice. 

The following is the complete list of all the 
Ministers and Charges d'affaires who have re- 
presented the Netherlands in Peking. 
Ian Helexus Feuguson. Minister-Resident and 

Consul-Ceneral from 1870 till 1895. 
F. M. Knobel, Minister-Resident and Consul- 
General ; nominated January 22, 1895 ; credent- 
ials presented November 11, 1895; departed 
November 27, 1901. 
JoNKHEEU John Loudon, Charge d'affaires ad int., 

November 27, 1901— January 31, 1903. 
\V. J. OvDENDYK, Charge d'affaires ad int., Jan- 
uary 31, 1903— October 30, 1903. 

JONKHKER AdOLK JaCOBUS VAN CiTTERS, EnVOy 

E.xtraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary; 
nominated June 10, 1903; credentials presented 
November 20, 1903 ; departed October 1, 1908. 

W. J. Ox'DENDYK, Charge d'affaires ad int., October 
1, 1908— April. 19, 1909. 

JoNKHEER Fii.ANS Beelaerts VAN Blokland, Envoy 
Extraordinary and Mini.ster Plenipotentiai'y ; 
nominated March 13, 1909 ; credentials present- 
ed April 22, 1909. 

DYER, SAMUEL, a missionary of the London 
Missionary Society, born at Greenwich, January 
20, 1804. He reached Penang on August 8, 1827, 
and, being in feeble health, remained there instead 
of proceeding to Malacca. He devoted a good deal 
of his time to the cutting and perfecting of Chinese 
metal type. In 1835 he removed to Malacca, devot- 
ing himself there to the printing office and to 
type-founding. In 1843 he went to a Conference of 
missionaries at Hongkong, then just open, but fell 
ill on the return journey, was put ashore at Macao 
and died there on October 21, 1843. He was buried 
by the side of Dr. Morrison. 

Davies : Memoir of the Ifcv. .'^fimuel Dyer, 
London. 1846. 

DYE-STUFFS. The following are the chief 
dyes produced in China : — 

Blue; from so-called "indigo" plant, /"" |£ 
which name is given to (1) Strobilanthes flaccidi- 
foliui, central and western China, (2) Indigofera 
tinrtorid, a leguminous shrub of South China 
largely grown also in India, (3) Isnti.< tincforia, 
(4) PoIyijDHuia tinctorium , the Dyers' Knotweed, 



grown in Manchuria. Hupei, and other di.stricts 
in N. China. Indiijulfrii is the nio.<t wide.spread 
of these. 

The chief indigo-growing districts, — and cu! 
livation, which had been dying out under the 
competition of aniline dyes, has since the war been 
resumed on a considerable scale, — are the Sungari 
basin in Manchuria, the districts of Anhui on the 
Yangtze, parts of Kiangsi and Hupei, central 
(.'hekiang, and, in the south, the hinterland of 
Pakhoi and the West River in Kuangsi. Three 
crops of leaves are gathered ainiually in the best 
districts and one mow of land yields 700 catties 
in a good season. The shoots are steeped in 
concrete jjits in cold water for several days, when 
they are removed, leaving a greenish-coloured water 
which, after being well stirred and e.xposed to the 
air, becomes darker. Slaked lime is j)laced in the 
water to precipitate the indigo, the water is drained 
off, and the dye is left. 

The inter-provincial trade in indigo, used to 
dye the "blue gown", was at one time enormou.«, 
but e.xport abroad was never very great, as the 
dry article required in Europe is not produced. 
At the beginning of this century foreign artificial 
indigo and aniline dyes began to oust the native 
indigo, and in 1914 the trade had died down to 
a small figure. The export of liquid indigo for 
1916 was Pels. 90,059, value Tls. 765,613. 

Red ; the best known red dye in China i- 
safflower, Corthainus tinrtoriux or humj hun ^^"^ 
the seed of which is said to have been originally 
brought to China by Chang Ch'ien from Turkestan. 
The chief centre of production is, or was, for there 
is now little demand for this beautiful dye, central 
Ssuch'uan, though it is also cultivated near Ichang 
and in N.W. Anhui. The red worsted cord, for 
which Wuhu was famous all over the Empire, was 
dyed with Ssuch'uan safflower. 

1'hp balsam, Iin patii-w htdxaniinn. or h' n'j li.-ii n 
^'"(^ M tUl 'f£ ' ''^ u.sed in combination with 
alum as a finger nail dye, called hai na, apparently 
in imitation of the Arabic henna. Other plant.s 
used for the same purpose are Amhu-^ia tinctoria 
in the north and Lnwsonin in the south ; the latter 
produces the familiar rouge employed by Chine.'e 
ladies. Madder, Jbihia cordifolia, the Chine.-e 
ch'ien t<'ao is a creeper whose stems and roots are 
used to dye a deep red. whence its name jan hi 
/.f'rw^^^. A purple dye is got from the bark of 
Litho.<pi iiiiii/ii eri/fhror/iizon. tzi'i t''ao^:^., n'w 
u.sed chiefly as a drug in the northern and central 
provinces. The colouring matter is brightest if 
the plant is dug up in spring. Formerly 4,000 
piculs of this dye were exported from Chefoo 
yearly and sent to the south. Sappan-wood dye 
from Malaysia and the Phillipi>in.'- i- an important 
article of import. 



151 



DYE-STUFFS 



EN'CYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



Yellow J Turmeric Jg^ chiang huang is the pro- 
duce of Curcuma longa, yii chin^-§s_, found in Ssu- 
ch'uaii and Tibet and also on the West River delta 
and in Formosa, whence it is imported to China. 
The powdered roots are used for dyeing cotton cloth, 
especially women's clothes. The export of this 
dye from Chungking reached the extraordinarily 
high figure of 60,000 piculs in 1912. apparently 
owing to the failure of the Indian crop. The plant 
is still extensively cultivated on the Lower Min 
in Ssuchuan. The export for 1916 was Pels. 26.659; 
Tl>. 110.365. 

A yellow dye for .^ilks and cottons i.s obtained 
from the buds of >>ophora japonlca the huai sfiu 
U ^. a familiar tree widely scattered over China. 
1 lu- Kophfutfrin, also named huni, is used for the 
tianie purpose. The Gardenia florida prrduces a 
yellow dye used for staining woods. 

Oreen ; green dyes are obtained from the leaves 
of I'haiiinwi fiiicloriu* and other species of buck- 
thorn. The bark of two varieties is boiled together 
in ("hekiang to produce the dye, which is vei'y 
expen.-(ive. and therefore sparingly used, mostly 
for grassiloth. It is a very permanent colour, and 
constitutes the sap-green of water-colour painters. 
The pigment is named lu-chino ^0. It has been 
almost totally displaced by aniline dyes, and the 
came fate has overtaken the dye obtained from a 
species of Poh/gonu/n in Ssuch'uan. 

Black; the "nutgalls" produced by an insect 
on the Pfiuf jaianica, the fu-yang tree ^- ^ , are 
•»xten^ivtly employed for dyeing fabrics; especially 
.«ilk. black. The cloth must first be dyed blue. 
This process has been elaborately described by 
HosiE in his report on Sf^uch'uan. Mixed with 
cochineal and other colouring substances the powder 
from the gall.s (Chintse wii pci tzi'i ifjf'^), pro- 
duce* grey, brown and fawn tints. See XufgaU!'. 

As a dye for silk the cupules of two very 
riininion <>akK. the fnin li ^i|5?, and hoii I'uli 



are employed. Used with sulphate of iron a dye 
is produced very .similar to that extracted from 
the VaUonea oak of Asia Minor. In dyeing silk 
with this dye the fabric does not require to be 
dyed blue first. This dye is used in Manchuria, 
Hupei, and the West generally. In the country 
districts of Ssuch'uan local use is made of the 
leaves of the walnut, alder, tallow-tree, etc., for 
the same purpose, and soot from pine-wood, mixed 
with millet spirit, is also used. 

Brown ; the dye yam, ahu Hang ^ ^, or false 
gambier yields a dark brown dye and tanning agent, 
commonly used in Yunnan and exported thence to 
Tonkin. It is also widely grown in Kuangsi, and 
shipped to Kr.angtung from W^uchow. It is used 
for native and foreign cottons, grasscloth and silk, 
and furnishes the lustrous dark-brown waterproof- 
looking colour so much affected by the ('hinese 
in summer. If a darker colour is required, alum 
and nutgalls are added, and in Canton the juice of 
green or unripe persimmons is frequently applied 
as a varnish to the outside of the cloth. It is 
waterproof, and perspiration does not show upon 
it ; to remove dirt only superficial w-ashing is 
necessary. [N. S.] 

I DYNASTIC HISTORIES. Sec Historic.^ of 

I Ch'nin. 

DYNASTIES are divided into IE cheng and 
1 dps p'kn, or principal and partial ; the former having 
! possessed the whole of the contemporary China, 
the latter only a portion. Of the former there are 
twenty-four from the Chou j^ to the Ch'ing 
dynasty. The others include some of importance, 
such as X. Wei, Chin, ^, etc., but most of them 
were of short duration and little interest. All will 
be found under their respective headings. 

Giles : DUtiuvury, 7\ible III ; Hoang : Concur- 
fliDifi: des Chronologies Neomeniqupi', Appendix I. 



E 



EAGLES. Several species arc found in North 

' hin;i. The golden eagle (Aquiln chrygnctus) is so , 

railed becauKc of the colour of its long neck-feathers. ' 

It in BH big ax a good sized turkey and its spread ! 

of wing IN about six feet. It i;* found all over , 

Kannu, Shenni and Shansi, and is very common in ' 
Mongolia. 

The spott«>d rngle (.1. rhingo) i^ :t niiicli stn.-illpi 
bud, fi.und in both North and South Chinn, 



The white tailed sea-eagle [Halicbtus albiciUu) 
belongs to N. China. Though a sea-eagle it goes 
up river courses far inland. It is about as big as 
the golden eagle, but is lighter in colour, has a white 
tail and a heavier bill. 

A related species is the so-called bald-headed 
eagle (//. leucocephalus) which is found even away 
from river courses and in mountainous districts. 

I'ere David once saw in China an eagle of the 
nnirh larger species H. pdagiciif, which is said to 



152 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



EDUCATION 



breed in great numbers in the Sea of Okhotsk. It 
is remarkable for its enormous yellow bill. See 
Accipitre!<. 

SowERBY : Fur and Fi other in Xorth China. 

EAGRE, a name formerly used for the 
phenomenon on the Ch'ien t'ang river, now generally 
spoken of a.s the Hangchow Bore. The name was 
used, of course, for bores anywhere. 

Macgowan : The Kagre of the Tisiintonij Hirer; 
Journal, N.C.B.R.A.S., 1853-4. 

EARL. See NohiUty. 

EARTHQUAKES, have been common enough 
in China, and history records again and again that 
ta.xes were remitted in certain districts because of 
loss by an earthquake. One is mentioned as 
destroying 6,000 lives in Honan in B.C. 70, but 
generally the loss of life is slight because of the 
style of building. 

The important works on this subject arc BiOT, 
Catoloijue general des Tremblemcnts de Terre . . . 
Ob-Nerves en Chine deptiis Its temps anciens jusqu'd 
nos jours, (1841) ; F. Omori, Tremblemcnts de 
Terre en Chine, (1899) ; E. H. Parker, A liH of 
Chinese Earthquakes, (1909); and P. Pierre 
HOANG, S.J., Catalogue des Trembleinents de Terre 
signales en Chine, 2 vols., (1909 and 1913). The 
last-named work is the latest. It was the last work 
of Pere Hoang ; he finished the first volume at the 
age of 80 after three years' work on it and died the 
next day. 

It is a list of earthquakes recorded in Chihe.se 
annals from b.c. 1767 to a.d. 1895, arranged ac- 
cording to provinces, with latitudes and longitudes 
and dates ; the total number is 5793. This work 
was issued as No. 28 of the Varietes Sinologiques, 
and a second volume, prepared by P. Tobar, has 
been numbered 28 bis. 

In spite of keen research the data still seem 
insufficient for decided conclusions as to periodicity, 
etc. Giles : Adversaria Sinica, No. 9. 

EAST OF ASIA, THE, a magazine published 
quarterly in Shanghai from January, 1902 to 
October, 1906. It was illustrated and non-political. 
It wag also issued, with slight differences, in 
German as Der Feme Osten. Both were edited by 
C. Fink. 

EBENEZER MISSION. 

Ill ailijiKirti r.< : — Toronto. Ontario ( 'anada. An 
offshoot of the South Chihli Mission {<l.v.) working 
i'l ^^ K is Piyang hsien, Honan, with 5 foreign 
workers in 1916. 

ECHO DE CHINE, L', a French daily news 
paper in Shanghai, founded in 1895. 

ECLIPSE. The earliest eclipse .of the sun 
recorded in Chinese history is that which took 
place in the reign of Yu ^ (b.c. 781-770), recorded 

20 



in the ,s7u7j Ching Pt. II. Bk. 4, Ode 9. Nature 
was supposed to show thereby its disapproval of the 
Emperor's conduct with regard to Pad .Ssli ('/.'•.). 
The date (28th cyclic day in the beginning of 
10th moon) was August 29, 775 b.c. and Chava.nnes 
claims it is accurate to the day. Reliable clironology 
begins with this date. 

In the Ch'un Ch'iu Confucius records 37 
eclipses of the sun between b.c. 720 and b.c. 481. 
Of these according to E. H. Parker twelve are 
fairly correct and the rest remain to be examined. 

The common idea of an eclipse is that a 
monster is swallowing sun or moon ; gongs and 
drums are used vigorously to drive the monster ofT 
and save the luminary. The Chinese terms H Hi 
jih shih, ^ gj yiich shih, mean the eating up of 
the sun and moon respect ivdy. 

EDKINS, JOSEPH, B.A., D.D., was born 
in Gloucestershire in 1823, graduated at f^ondon 
University, and arrived in Shanghai in 1848 as an 
agent of the J^ondon Missionary Society. In 1861 
he opened Tientsin to the Society and in 1863 went 
to Peking. He received the honorary D.D. from 
Edinburgh in 1875. In 1880 he became translator 
to the Imperial Customs of China, first in Peking, 
then for the last fifteen years of his life in 
Shanghai. He was a noted philologist and had a 
wide knowledge of Chinese literature. His Chinese 
works are numerous and his Chinese. Buddhism, 
Ifeligion in China, China's Place in Philology and 
The Beligious Condition of the Chinese are well 
known. He died in Shanghai, 1905. 

For a list of his works see Chinese Recorder, 
vol. xxxvi, p. 282. 

EDRISI, a geographer who wrote under the 
patronage of Roger II of Sicily. His account of 
China, written about 1153, is meagre and confused, 
and contains many names which it is impossible to 
identify. Yule : Cathay and the Way Thither. 

Parker : Ancient China Simplified. 

EDUCATION. A recent work on this subject 
by a ( hinese begins with the obvious statement that 
"the beginnings of education in China can be traced 
as far back as the beginning of her civilization.'" 
This may be said of any people, but it is typical of 
the Chinese desire to attribute everything they have 
to the days of Yao and Shun. Becauj^e it is said 
that "Yao examined his officers every three years" 
he is regarded as originating the modern competitive 
examination. 

Omitting reference, however, to education a> 
mentioned in the earlier part of the Shu Thing, wo 
find that in the Chou dynasty there were two kinds 
(if school, one kind in the capital and one kind in 
the country, in tlie imperial domain and in the 
feudal states alike. We arc expected in believe 
tiiat cacli lianiict Kl '■' (twenty-five families) "had 



11 



DYE-STUFFS 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



Yellow : Turmeric Jfg chimig huang is the pro- 
duce of L'urrumn lonija, yii c/d'/i^^, found in Ssu- 
ch'uan and Tibet and also on the West River delta 
and in Formosa, whence it is imported to China. 
The powdered roots are used for dyeing cotton cloth, 
especially women's clothes. The e.xport of this 
dye from Chungking reached the e.xtraordinarily 
high figure of 60.000 picuLs in 1912. apparently 
owing to the failure of the Indian crop. The plant 
IS still extensively cultivated on the Lower Min 
in Shuchuan. The export for 1916 wa.s Pels. 26 659 ; 
Tl.. 110.365. 

A yellow dye for .>iilks and cottons is obtained 
from the buds of Si'/i/tnrn jnpoiiica the hii/ii .-7im 
M ^. a familiar tree widely scattered over China. 
1 Ih- A'oflrrutrriii, also named fiuni, is u.«ied for the 
name purpose. The Gortlmin flmidn prrduce."! a 
yellow dye used for staining woods. 

fJreen ; green dyes are obtained from the leave.<; 
of lihninnu* tiiirloriii* and other species of buck- 
thorn. The bark of two varieties i.s boiled together 
in i'hekiang t<> produce the dye. which i."* very 
e.xpensive. and therefore sparingly used, mostly 
for grassdoth. It is a very permanent colour, and 
constitutes the .sap-green of water colour painters. 
The pigment is named lu-c/iino )$ 0. It has been 
almoht totally displaced by aniline dyes, and the 
same fate has overtaken the dye obtained from a 
species of Polyijuituin in Ssiich'uan. 

Black; (he "nutgalls" produced by an insect 
on the Phue jaranica, the fu-yang tree ^ ^ , are 
exlen«ively employed for dyeing fabrics,- especially 
silk, black. The cloth must first be dyed blue. 
This process has been elaborately described by 
Ho.siE in his report on S.-uch'uan. Mixed with 
cochineal and other colouring substances the powder 
from the galls (('himst' wii /jri tzi'i ifjf^), pro- 
duces grey, brown and fawn tints. .See XutijuU". 
As a dye for >ilk the cu))ules of two very 
common oaks, the Ininli :J£flR. and hmi kuli jJJSf^ 



are employed. L'sed with sulphate of iron a dye 
is produced very .similar to that extracted from 
the Vallonea oak of Asia Minor. In dyeing silk 
with this dye the fabric does not require to be 
dyed blue first. This dye is used in Manchuria, 
Hupei, and the West generally. In the country 
districts of Ssuch'uan local u.se is made of the 
leaves of the walnut, alder, tallow-tree, etc., for 
the same purpose, and soot from pine-wood, mixed 
with millet spirit, is also used. 

Brown ; the dye yam, shu lianij ^ i^, or false 
gambier yields a dark brown dye and tanning agent, 
commonly used in Yiinnan and exported thence to 
Tonkin. It is also widely grown in Kuangsi, and 
shipped to Kr.angtung from Wuchow. It is used 
for native and foreign cottons, grasscloth and silk, 
and furnishes the lustrous dark-brown waterproof- 
looking colour so much affected by the Chinese 
in summer. If a darker colour is required, alum 
and nutgalls are added, and in Canton the juice of 
green or unripe persimmons is frequently applied 
as a varnish to the outside of the cloth. It is 
waterproof, and perspiration does not show upon 
it ; to remove dirt only superficial washing is 
necessary. [N. S.] 

DYNASTIC HISTORIES. See Hi.<tnrip.o uf 
Chi 11(1. 

DYNASTIES are divided into JE chtng and 
Ofj p'kn, or principal and partial ; the former having 
possessed the whole of the contemporary China, 
the latter only a portion. Of the former there are 
twenty-four from the Chou j^ to the Ch'ing 
dynasty. The others include some of importance, 
such as \. Wei, Chin, ^, etc., but most of them 
weru of short duration and little interest. All will 
1)0 found under their respective headings. 

rtiLES : J)ir/iii7i(iii/, Tabic III ; Hoang : (Joncor- 
tliinrr fli's C/i ronolorjips Neomeniques, Appendix I. 



E 



EAGLES. Several («pccies arc found in North 
' liUKi. The golden eagle {Atjuilfi chrymrtus) is so 
called because of the colour of it.* long neck-feathers. 
It is ns big MK n r(mk1 sized turkey and its .spread 
of wing is about six feet. It \» found all over 
Knnsu, Shcnsi and .Slinnsi, and is very connnon in 
.Mongolia. 

The spr.tt<>d eagle ( f. rhn„,n) in n nnn h sntiiljcr 
liinl, f<.und in both North and .Sotilh C'liinn. 



The white tailed sea-eagle [Halicctus albiciUu) 
belongs to N. China. Though a sea-eagle it goes 
up river courses far inland. It is about as big as 
the golden eagle, but is lighter in colour, has a white 
tail and a heavier bill. 

A related species is the so-called bald-headed 
eagle (//. hucoccphalus) which is found even away 
from river coin-ses and in mountainous districts. 

I'cre David once saw in (J'hina an eagle of the 
nmrh larger species H. pilagicw^ which is said to 



l.')2 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



EDUCATION 



breed in great numbers in the Sea of Okhot.sk. It 
is remarkable for its enormous yellow bill. See 
Accipitrei'. 

SowERBY : I'tir and Fiathrr in Xorth C/iiiui. 

EAGRE, a name formerly used for the 
phenomenon on the Ch'ien t'ang river, now generally 
spoken of as the Hangchow Bore. The name was 
used, of course, for bores anywhere. 

Macgowan : 77(f Kaijrr of the T^itntiinj liivr; 
Journal, N.C.B.R.A.S., 1853-4. 

EARL. See NobiUty. 

EARTHQUAKES, have been common enough 
in China, and history records again and again that 
taxes were remitted in certain districts because of 
loss by an earthquake. One is mentioned as 
destroying 6,000 lives in Honan in B.C. 70, but 
generally the loss of life is .flight because of the 
style of building. 

The important works on this subject arc BiOT, 
Catalogue general dcs Tre7uhlcinents de Terre. . . . 
observes en Chine dcjjitis les temps anciens jusqu'a 
nos jours, (1841) ; F. Omori, Treinblemcnts de 
Terre en Chine, (1899) ; E. H. Parker, A liH of 
Chinese Earthquakes, (1909) ; and P. Pierre 
Hoang, S.J., Catalogue des Treniblenient" de Terre 
fifjnales en Chine, 2 vols., (1909 and 1913). The 
last-named work is the latest. It was the last work 
of Pere Hoang ; he finished the first volume at the 
age of 80 after three years' work on it and died the 
next day. 

It is a list of earthquakes recorded in Chinese 
annals from b.c. 1767 to a.d. 1895, arranged ac- 
cording to provinces, with latitudes and longitudes 
and dates ; the total number is 5793. This work 
was issued as No. 28 of the Varictes Sinologiques, 
and a second volume, prepared by P. Tobar, has 
been numbered 28 bis. 

In spite of keen research the data still seem 
insufficient for decided conclusions as to periodicity, 
etc. Giles : Adversaria Sinica, No. 9. 

EAST OF ASIA, THE, a magazine published 
quarterly in Shanghai from January, 1902 to 
October, 1906. It was illustrated and non-political. 
It was also issued, with slight differences, in 
German as Der Feme Osten. Both were edited by 
C. Fink. 

EBENEZER MISSION. 

Ill iul(jii(irt<'r^ : — Toronto, Ontario Canada. An 
offshodt of the South Chihii Mission (7.'-'.) working 
in fi^ K i^ Piyang hsien, Honan, with 5 foreign 
workers in 1916. 

ECHO DE CHINE, L', a French daily news 
paper in Shanghai, founded in 1895. 

ECLIPSE. The earliest eclipse .of the sun 
recorded in Chinese history is that which took 
place in the reign of Yu ^ (b.c. 781-770), recorded 

20 



in the >ihih Chinq Pt. II, Bk. 4, Ode 9. Nature 
was supposed to show thereby its disapproval of the 
Emperor'.-i conduct with regard to Pag Ssu ('/.»•.). 
The date (28th cyclic day in the beginning of 
10th moon) was August 29, 776 b.c. and Chavannes 
claims it is accurate to the day. Reliable chronology 
begins with this date. 

In the Ch'un Ch'iu Confucius records 37 
eclipses of the sun between B.C. 720 and b.c. 481. 
Of these according to E. H. Parker twelve arc 
fairly correct and the rest remain to be examined. 

The common idea of an eclipse is that a 
monster is swallowing sun or moon ; gongs and 
drums are used vigorously to drive the monster off 
and .save the luminary. The Chinese terms j4 
jih shih, ^ ^ yueh shih, mean the eating \i\> of 
Ihe sun and nK)on respectively. 

EDKINS, JOSEPH, B.A., D.D., was born 

in Gloucestershire in 1823, graduated at Lcjiidon 
University, and arrived in Shanghai in 1848 as an 
agent of the London Missionary Society. In 1861 
he opened Tientsin to the Society and in 1863 went 
to Peking. He received the honorary D.D. from 
Edinburgh in 1875. In 1880 he became translator 
to the Imperial Customs of China, first in Peking, 
then for the last fifteen years of his life in 
Shanghai. He was a noted philologist and had a 
wide knowledge of Chinese literature. His Chinese 
works are numerous and his Chinese Buddhism, 
lieliqion in China, China's Place in Philology and 
The Beligious Condition of the Chinese are well 
known. He died in Shanghai, 1905. 

For a list of his works see Chinese Recorder, 
vol. xxxvi, p. 282. 

EDRISI, a geographer who wrote under the 
patronage of Roger II of Sicily. His account of 
China, written about 1153, is meagre and confused, 
and contains many names which it is impossible to 
identify. Yule : Cathay and the Way Thither. 

Parker : Ancient China Simplified. 

EDUCATION. A recent work on this subject 
by a Chinese begins with the obvious statement that 
"the beginnings of education in China can be traced 
as far back as the beginning of her civilization." 
This may be said of any people, but it is typical of 
the Chinese desire to attribute everything they have 
to the days of Yao and Shun. Because it is .said 
that "Yao examined his officers every three years" 
he is regarded as originating the modern competitive 
examination. 

Omitting reference, however, to education as 
mentioned in the earlier part of the Shu Chiiig. we 
find that in the Chou dynasty there were two kinds 
of school, one kind in the capital and one kind in 
the country, in the imperial domain and in the 
fcnri.-il slates alike. We arc expe<led to believe 
that each hamlet TkI '" (twenly-hve families) "had 



153 



EDUCATION 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



us hall of etudy called i>fiti^; each viUage a school 
tailed h^iang ^ or h^ii ff; each district a school 
tailed fi^ii }f, and each department of a State a 
colle-^e called fi'-iang ^." Every day "all the 
inhahitantR of each village, men and women, in 
fjoinj,' out to the fields in the morning and in return- 
ing home in the evening, received instruction in the 
hallii of study." The instruction was given by 
••men of strong moral character," officials retired 
from public service at 70 years old. Truly a Golden 
Age ! As an enthusiatic New-China student says, 
the <'hou ideal reprt-.-ented "a combination of 
Spartan and Athenian ideals of education." 

This wonderful system however began its 
(leiadence in the eighth century B.f. ; and though 
M-ht^tU existed in the days of CoNKUCiCS and 
MiArirs. they were private ventures, without 
^'f.v«?rnment supervision or aid. These philosophers 
had not only to exhort the .<;tate to do its duty, 
thi'v also provided the chief material and text books 
for all Chinese education down to last generation. 

'Jhe Ha!i dynasty was marked by a great 
rt-vixal of learning, and educational work was 
rt-organiwd under Wo Ti (140-86 B.C.). China 
iM-canie filled with schools. It must be noted 
howfver that jiublic offices were not, as in earlier 
liMie*-, filled with successful students alone ; there 
were abo other ways to civil employment. Fuither, 
hy education being henceforth confined to one system 
of philosojihy, it became conservative and formal. 

During the three centuries after the Han 
dynasty, education, like all institutions, had an 
irregular and troubled time. Not to •mention 
i>rdinary whtK>ls, the T'ai Hsiieh ;ic ^P "'"l ^^^ 
Kuo 'Vf.(l Htoueh (later Kuo T/.u Chien <j.c.) ^^^ 
were opened and closed again several times. Con- 
fiicianiiini had to contend with liuddhist and Taoisl 
iiifliienceH during this period. The practice of 
»ele«-ting oHicials by examination fell into abeyance 
and olhtes became more or less hereditary. 

Willi tlie ctjming of the T^ang dynasty education 
collegen extablished in the capital, the Kuo Tzu 
wnm once more reorganized. There were si.x 
lolJegeH established in the capital, the Kuo Tzu 
Chien In-ing the chief and conlrnlling the others. 
Ill the cfMinlry every village had its school. The 
Ki^e ChiHsicN were the chief part of all education 
«nd officers were selected by a literary examination. 
-Ill 740, the Man lin Yuan was established, a kind of 
Imperial .Vi ademy attached to the court and largely 
devoted to the study of difficulties in literature. 

After the first century of T'ang rule, Taoists 
returned to favour and colleges to study Taoism 
Vkvrv instituted, of eipial rank with the Confucian. 
Ch«ngca also took place with regard to the selection 
of officials. 

The Sung dyiias-ly restored the Kuo Tzu Chien 
Slid other roljogi.i extincui<>h"d durinc »h«> Five 



Dynasties Period, and organized provincial schools. 
Law, Medicine, Mathematics, etc., also had special 
schools which, however, did not last long. The 
system of examination was laid down, and rules made 
which have lasted almost till the present. Selection 
of officers by competitive examination was the rule, 
especially towards the close of the period. Two 
Sung philosophers who had a great influence on 
education were Chu Hsi and WA^fG An-shih. 

The Kuo Tzu Chien was once more oi>ened by 
Khcbilai Khan, schools were encouraged and the 
examination .«ystera re established, but with Mon- 
golian for the Mongols added. In the middle of 
the dynasty, there were 24,000 schools in the 
country, but it is said that many had only a nominal 
existence and the imperial decrees were not fully 
carried out. Probably the same is true in all 
dynasties. 

The famous Three-Cliaracter Classic 3. ^ IS 
San tzu cJtiiu/ was produced in this period, by 
Wang Ying-lin. 

During the Ming dynasty there were many 
decrees for the re-organization of colleges and 
schools, and once again every village was provided 
for, on paper at least. The comi^etitive examin- 
ations were also modified. The i^hilosoijher and 
educationist Wang Yang-ming lived during this 
period. 

Of the Manchu dynasty we have the usual 
announcement that it restored the Kuo Tzu Chien. 
The great literary monarchs, K'ang Hsi and his 
successors, promoted education both Chinese and 
Manchu, and once again a very complete system 
seems to have been decreed, with monthly, quarterly 
and annual examinations in all schools and colleges I 
It is stated that this last jjerfection ruined the 
provincial schools, because students soon found that 
promotion depended on attendance at the examina- 
tions, not at the school. 

(Competitive examinations reached their fullest 
development. Education was not sought for its 
own sake but for office ; and the State cared for the 
education of the people only so far as it might thus 
supply itself with servants. 

The educational system which thus lasted for 
centuries until the end of the nineteenth may be 
briefly described as follows : — 

AVhen about seven years old a boy began school 
life. His first book was the Three Character Classic 
('/.v.). The characters were learned by sound and 
shajie, but the meaning was not explained at first. 
The learning was done by chanting or shouting, 
a few words at time, till the whole had at last been 
got by heart. As each pupil shouted a different 
part of the book in his own key and according to 
the strength of his lungs, the din and discord were 
striking. The master heard each boy repeat what 
he had learned, th^' pupil turning his back that he 



154 



/ 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



EDUCATIONAL 



might not glance at the open book. He thus 
learned some 400 characters. 

He then attacked in the same way the Thousand 
C'harncter Classic (q.v.), thus adding a large number 
of new characters, after which he began on the 
seriofls work of his scholastic life, the Four Books, 
These were all committed to memory by shouting, 
and after a time explanations were giVen of the 
parts already learned. At the .same time the student 
learned to write, — a long and difficult labour. 
When some way on in his course, he also learned to 
compose an essay or win chamj {q.v.') according to 
very artificial rules of composition. Then poetry 
was attempted. 

The youth next sat for two test examinations 
which would qualify him to enter the contest for the 
degree of bachelor hsiu ts'ai (q.v.). Thi.s last ex- 
amination was held twice every three years in each 
prefectural city, and lasted one day. If successful, 
he became nominally a servant of the State, might 
wear official dress and could purchase from an 
official, or get by influence, some subordinate civil 
post from which he might work his way upward. 

Or the bachelor might proceed with his studies 
of the Five C'lrissics (q.v.), then sit for the master's 
degree, chii jen (q.v.). This examination was held 
triennially at the provincial cajjitals and lasted nine 
days. Accurate knowledge of the Fovr lioolcs and 
Fii;e Classics with considerable skill in composing 
es-say and poems were required. 

There might be thousands of competitors, while 
only a few tens of passes were permitted. 

The successful candidates might then pass to 
the triennial examination at Peking, for the 
Doctorate, c/tiii shih, Jg -jt advancing scholar. 

There might be some eight or nine thousand 
candidates. A first examination was a repetition of 
the chii jen examination; it lasted three days, (not 
consecutive), and was simply to select the three or 
four hundred best scholars who might proceed to 
the examination for the doctorate. But even this 
number was reduced by a further preliminary ex- i 
arnination which lated only one day. Then came 
the real examination for the degree. Successful | 
candidates then .sat for the examination called I 

lie 11 ■<hih, as being held within the palace; it lasted 
one day. The ten successful candidates at the 
head of the list had .special honour, being presented 
to the Emperor, etc. ; the first three could leave 
the j)alace by the central portal, while others must 
use the side doors ; they were entertained by the 
' Mayor of the capital ' H®;^ shun t'ien, etc.; the 
first of the three, and therefore the first scholar in 
the empire in that examination was termed \ 

rhnanrj yiian and became First-class compiler in the 
Han-lin Yiian. 

After this a further examination of the new 
doctors was held, the best of them becoming 



Members of the Han lin, others secretaries, sub- 
prefects, etc., etc. 
! With the opening of ports in 1842 a certain 

amount of western education was introduced by tlie 
Protestant missionaries, and irurmsed in quantilv 
and influence year by year. After the Tientsin 
treaty (1860) the need was evident for translatorN 
and interpreters, in order to carry out diplomatic 
intercourse with the various Treaty I'owers, and in 
1862, the T'ung Win Kuun ^%^ wa« established 
in tlie capital for the training of official interpreters. 
In 1866 it was first called a College, science was 
added to the language curriculum, and in 1869, 
Dr. \\. A. P. Makti.n was made President. Two 
auxiliary .schools were opened in Canton an<i .Shan.' 
hai. 

After this various schools were opened, fin- 
mechanical engineering at the Kiangnan Ars.?nal, 
for naval student.s at Foochow, etc., etc. 

-Apart.from these .special foundations, the intro 
duction of some mathematics into the public ex 
aminations was a striking change, though it was a 
merely nominal improvement at first, in the ab.sencc 
of capable teachers or examiners. The publication 
of Chang Chihtuxc;"s l^^j^ Ch'Hon h-^ui-h /y'/V;, 
had a very powerful effect on education. Serious 
reforms began after the Boxer Outbreak. In 1903 
a Committee of Educational Affairs, ^ ^ jg Hsueti 
Wu Ch'u, was established, and developed in 1905 
into the Ministry of Education Jg % Hsiieh Pu. 
Detailed and far-reaching schemes were jirepared, 
and some progress was being made when the Re- 
volution threw all things into disorder. The lie- 
public has been too much occupied and impoveri;iheil 
to deal very effectively with education so far, hut 
at least it is certain that the antiquated system 
which had lasted too long is now .-wejtt away for 
ever. 

P'iNG WkN-kuo : The Chine-^e S;/stem of I'uhlir 
Edncntion ; Lewis : 2'he Edurnfionnl ('otn/ue.^f „f 
the Far East; Etienne Zl, S..T., Pratiiiif d,.-> E.r 
aiiiitis lit fe rail PS fVar. Sin.. Xo. 51. 

EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF CHINA, 
The, was founded in May, 1890, by some teacher.s 
present at the General Missionary Conference held 
that year in Shanghai. The Conference had at its 
disposal the books, blocks, etc., of the School ami 
Text-book Series (q.v.) which had dissolved, and it 
handed all over to the new Association. Thirty five 
members were enrolled. Seven triennial meetings 
were held in Shanghai, the last taking place in 1912. 
During these 22 years, the Association published 
a considerable number of text-books, and did a 
good deal of terminological work, while the triennial 
meetings were stimulating and helpful to mi.ssionary 
educators. In 1912, the membership was over 500, 
but it was felt that a radical change in organization 



lo.". 



EGG BOATS 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



was necessary to meet the changed conditions in 
China. The sales had greatly declined, owing to 
the Chinese themselves having begun the publication 
of text-books, and foreign firms also coming in as 
competitors; while the great impetus given to 
Western education by the establishment of the 
Republic, demanded that a more aggressive work 
should be done than wa^"! possible on the old lines. 
In 1915, therefore, the Christian Educational As- 
.«ociation of China (^.r.) was formed, on the 
foundation of the earlier Association. 

The Educational Association published (1) a 
"Monthly Bulletin." which (2) became in January, 
1908 the ^fi.nthly Educational Review and (3) this 
was made a <|uarterly in January. 1912. 

EGG BOATS. See Tanhi. 

EGGS. 1 he e.xport of eggs has become very 
important in China of late years, and in 1915 the 
total exports exceeded Hk.Tls. 8,000,000. In 1914 
a million and a quarter Taels worth of frozen eggs 
were sent to Great Britain alone, and over double 
this value of fresh and preserved eggs were sent to 
Asiatic ports. But the chief trade is in aFbumen 
and yolk, the value amounting to nearly five 
millions (half to Britain). This trade is confined 
to Tientsin, Kiaochow, and the Yangtze ports, 
Hankow having about a dozen albumen factories. 
The preparation of albumen is merely an evaporat- 
ing proce.«s, requiring no chemicals or preserving 
materials — only cheap eggs and labour, which, 
especially the former, are abundant. Dried albumen 
is used in cotton printi.ng, also in the manufacture 
of biscuits. The preserved yolk is chiefly used in 
the preparation of glove leather (W uhu Trade 
U'jtift, 1899). Other uses of yolk are for leather 
belling, and of albumen in photography. One picul 
of eggH makes 6i catties of albumen and 35 catties 
•if yolk. 1,000 duck's egg.^ or 1.300 to 1,600 hens' 
eggs are counted to one picul in weight. 

The albumen is churned and put into large 
hogsheads, where it ferments for a period ranging 
from five days to two weeks, according to the 
temperature. The volatile constituents rise to the 
top and the usable portion is drawn off from the 
bottom, mixed with a little ammonia and evaporated 
in a special room in shallow pans by heating 
thntugh worm flues. The result is clear, trans- 
parent, amber sheets, which are cooled and ventilat- 
ed, and placed in air tight tins ready for export. 

Preserved eggs are an imjiortant item in the 
feo^t of the Chinese e[)icure. 

In 1916 the export was as follows. Egg 
olbum.-n and yolk. Pels. 288.346, Tls. 7,702.403 ; 
Fresh and preserved. Pels. 535,134, Tls. 4,629,074. 

EIGHT DIAGRAMS. S.-o V,, Run. 

EIGHT DIAGRAMS SOCIETY, A §h or Nine 
Pnlar.'s^L'^ .SiMJcly, i.<., llic diagrams arranged in 



a circle, plu.'^ the centre. A .secret sect said to have 
been founded towards the close of the Ming dynasty 
by one Li Hsien-t'ien $^3^, or about the begin- 
ning of the Ch'ing dynasty by one Han Ku-TZil 
Iffi^-J". They may be one and the same, for Edkins 
considers the first name is an assumed one, Ll 
repre=enting LAO-Tzii (whose surname it was), and 
Hsien-t'ien the "former heaven," referring to the 
Fu Hsi form of the Eight Diagrams as opposed to 
that of Wen Wang. The founder was a poor 
laVjourer to whom one of the Taoist genii in the 
guise of a mendicant monk gave a revelation of the 
Great First Cause as #|El£ or ffl^lEpg^, "the Un- 
begotten," or the "Unbegotten Venerable Mother" ; 
no thought of sex is included, guardianship or 
providence being the leading thought. The epithets 
All-Merciful, Most Holy, Highest, Incomparable 
etc., are used in speaking of the "Unbegotten," 
and in various ways the idea approximates to that 
of God as conceived by Christianity. 

Li is supposed to have thus become an incarna- 
tion of the "Unbegotten," and he proceeded to 
develop his doctrine on the basis of the Eight 
Diagrams, choosing eight followers, one for each 
diagram, secretly to spread his religion. 

The sect allied itself with political movements 
at the time of the great Mohammedan rebellion in 
Kashgaria, assisting the Emperor (K'ang Hsi) in 
crushing the rebels. Li declined both office and 
money, seeking only toleration for his followers, 
which is said to have been informally given. For 
some reason, the meetings of the sect began to take 
place at night, which was always a reproach in the 
eyes of others, as men and women joined in them. 
It seems certain that the Society altered its aims 
and became anti-dynastic, though this was unknown 
not only to acolytes, but to the majority of members, 
who only regarded it as a religious organization. 

The Society is one of the largest of secret sects, 
and is widely spread. The organization is simple. 
The eight branches are again divided into four 
Military and four Civil, with different methods of 
arriving at the desired results. There are three 
grades of officers who alone can receive new 
members. The meetings are held at the equinoxes, 
.solstices, and other fixed times ; contributions are 
compulsory at the chief meetings. Religious ex- 
ercises, of which deep breathing and the reciting 
of charms are an important part, are followed by 
a feast, and by a clairvoyant seance. The medium 
is known as 5fl US, or the Clear-eyed One, and is 
often a woman or girl, whose chief duty seems to 
be to scrutinize the life and heart of the members 
to detect insincerity or other unworthiness. A short 
list of some of the literature of the Society is given 
in the C'fiincse Recorder, 1886, p. 4. 

ClMN'KSE RF.fOTtDEIt, 1886, pp. 1, 64, 245. 

EIGHTEEN PROVINCES -^A^ s'"^ pa 
•"/n'/Kj, a common name for China proper. The 



151) 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



ELAPHURE 



provinces liave \aiied in number, and have not 
always been called /•fn'inj. Not to go back to more 
ancient times the empire in 629 a.d. (T'ang dynasty)* 
had ten tao if, Kuan-nei ^ fy, Ho tun^; ^ y^, 
Ho-nan^Bli^, Ho-pei fpj :Jh, Shan-nan lU ^ l'»"g- 
yu pgg ;fj-, Huai-nan ^{1 K{. Kiang-nan ^ ^, ( 'hieh- 
nan gi] fifj, and Ling-nan ^ ffy'. 

Tai Tsxjng of the Sung dynasty (976-998) 
made fifteen /« J^f, Uhing tii Tung]g^^, Ching- 
tii Hsi :]^}^g, Ho-pei, Ho-tung, Shensi, Huai- 
nan tUTfi. Hunan, Hu-pei, Fukien, Kiangnan. 
Ssuch'uan, Kuangtung, Kuangsi and two Che-kiangs. 

The present arrangement into k /if luj dates from 
the Yiian dynasty, when, with the two metropolitan 
provinces rji ^ ^ Pei Chihli and Nan Chihli (or 
Kiangnan), containing the northern and southern 
Capitals Pel Ching (Peking) and Nan Ching 
(Nanking) respectively, there were instituted 
thirteen H» ^ fj S" ^"^ 'ambulatory' departments. 
As far as the territory (not the official rule) was 
concerned the Ming dynasty made no change, and 
the names were the same as to-day, with the 
exception that it remained for the Ch'ing dynasty 
to constitute Kansu from part of Shensi, to make 
Kiangnan into Anhui and Kiangsu, and Hukuang 
into Hupei and Hunan. This brought the number 
to eighteen. Secret Societies often used the e.\])res- 
sion The Thirteen Provinces for China because they 
sought to restore by revolution the old state of 
things. 

At one time (1905) a nineteenth was made by 
the division of Kiangsu. 

To the eighteen provinces of China Proper 
mu.=t be added the three Manchurian provinces 
3.^S'> Shengking, Kirin and Hei-lung chiang. 

Besides the ordinary name each province has 
another, derived from ancient territorial nomen- 
clature and used for literary purposes. Lists are 
given in Giles' Dictionary, Mayers' Reader's 
Mumial and Richard's Geof/raphy. {See separate 
articles). 

EIGHT IMMORTALS, THE, ;\^\i\ pa hsien 
are a group of eight who are venerated by the 
Taoist sect as having drunk the Elixir of Life or 
otherwise obtained immortality. Their names are 
Chung-li Ch'iian, Chang Kuo, Lii Tung-pin, Ts'ao 
Kuo-ch'iu, Li T'ieh-kuai, Han Hsiang-tzu, Lan 
Ts'ai-ho and Ho Hsien-ku, but the lists vary. The 
legends told of them may be found under their 
names in Mayers' Chinrxe li<'<i(hr';f Moinial or 
in Giles' Hioi/rajjhiral Dictionary or -in Dorf, 
Ifecherchcs sur les Superstiti(/ns, tome IX. As a 
group they are not mentioned before the Yiian 
dynasty, though the individual legends are found 
earlier. 

EIGHT-LEGGED ESSAY. See Wen chang. 



EITEL, ERNST JOHANN, Ph.D., studied in 
Tubingen and, after a brief pastorate in a Lutheran 
Church, was sent to China by the Bas^el Mission in 
1862. In 1865 he joined the I.,ondon Missionary 
Society, and in 1879, he left missionary work to 
become Inspector of Schools under the Hongkong 
Government and private secretary to the Governor 
(Sir John Poi-e Hennessy). He wrote a great deal, 
in German, Chinese and English, including Hi-tory 
of the HahhaM, Three Lectures on Umldhiom, Hand- 
book for thi- Student of f'hincKe liuddhiim, Chini^'e 
Dictionary in the Canton Dialrrt, Fi'ntj Khui, and 
/'Juropi- in China, the History of Hnmihonij ; besides 
many articles in Reviews and Magazines. He was 
also for many year.s editor of the China llirirw. 
He ended his life as a Lutheran pastor in Adelaide, 
S. Australia. He died in 1908. A complete list 
of his writings is given in the T'oung I'uo. 

T'ouNG Pao, vol. X ; Chinese Recorder, 1909. 

ELAPHURE. Elaphnrus davidianu.", a deer 
discovered by Uavid and called by the Chinese 
Ssu-pu-hsiang gi-l^flj, and often confused by them 
with the rein-deer. Its habitat was the Imperial 
Park ^ jg, south of Peking. It is doubtful 
whether it was indigenous or brought by the 
Manchus. 

It probably existed wild in the region south- 
west of Ko-ko nor, and perhaps also in Eastern 
Manchuria. A Manchu traveller, who wrote in 1777, 
records its existence in Tarbagatai i^8f IIIBh'h ■ 

The proper Chinese name for it is ^ mi as 
proved by von Mollexdorff in his paper cited 
below. 

David states that in 1865 he himself .saw a 
herd of about 120 of these animals in the Imperial 
Park, but that it was extremely difficult to obtaiu 
one, because, as in England once, the penalty for 
killing a deer was death. No doubt the Manchu 
guardians of the park killed and ate as they wi.shed, 
but it was a different matter to sell any portion 
of the beast outside the grounds. Bushell states 
that he was accustomed to ride there among herds 
of them, but that in 1894 the park wall was breached 
by floods and the deer escaped, to be devoured by 
the famished people. It is generally supposed to 
have been killed out during the occupation by 
foreign troops in 1900. 

The colour is a reddish-grey, becoming more 
or less brown in the male, and with blackish marb- 
ling in the summer. It drops its horns after the 
winter soLstice, and the young are born in May or 
June. The animal has the feet of the reindeer, 
the horns of the deer, and the long tail of certain 
antelopes. 

No living specimens have been procurable in 
China for some time, and the animal must be con- 
sidered as extinct in a wild state ; but the Duko 



1">7 



ELDER BROTHER 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



of Bedford has about one hundred head in England. 
A female specimen may be seen in the Museum of 
the Royal Asiatic Society (Xorth China Branch) 
in Shanghai. 

Siii-pu-fiAian'j means 'four dissimilarities' ; the 
( hinese i?ay it is not like the horse, not like the 
ox, not like the deer and net like the goat. But 
tlit-re are other explanations of the name. 

David : Journal dun Voyage en Mongol ie, 
p. 44; VON MoLi.ENUORFF : Journal, N.C.B.R.A.S., 
vol. xi, p. 72; SowERBT : ibid., vol. xlvii, p. 71; 
bcsHELL : Xote^ and Queries on China and Jajiav, 
vol. iv, p. 29; SwiNHOE : P.Z.S., 1870, p. 134; 
BrsHELL : ibid., 1898, p. 588. 

ELDER BROTHER SOCIETY, h> loo hui 
•Jf ^ ^ • A secret brothcrliood which had been 
kmnvii f(»r some time to exist, when three member- 
ship tickets were found in 1886 on a man arrested 
in Shanghai. The Yangtze valley riots in 1891 were 
believed to have been caused by Elder Brothers, 
the object being to embroil the Manchus with the 
fi^reign powers. An early origin is claimed for the 
cult in S!<uch'uan ; in its present form it dates 
from the beginning of the Manchu rule, but while 
anti-dynastic it was pro-T'ang and not pro-Ming. 

The Society builds itself on three famous 
friendiihips recorded in Chinese annals, and each 
member calls the others "Brother." There is an 
I'iabt rate ritual, a system of secret signs with many 
Kraderi of membership, and there is said to be a 
considerable resemblance to Freemasonry. The 
Society, which consi.sts of eight guilds, early divided 
into Kant and West, the latter being the stronger, 
fhpecially in Ssuch'uan, Kansu and Shensi. In 
1990 they became mere liandiU;, and in 1911, getting 
the upper hand of the Revolutionaries, with whom 
they had allied themselves, they were responsible for 
the niat<.-acre of at least 10,000 Manchus in Hsi-an 
fu, a« well as of some of the missionaries. See 
Sfrrrt .Srrtx. 

ELEEPOO, another way of wiitinL' Ti iit ; 
iii^d by l)AVis and others. See /lij>ii. ! 

ELEGIES OF CH'U, jj? JJ <;/,•« tz'ii, a col- 
lection of till- poetry of the fh'u State, consisting ' 
chiefly of llu' poems of Ch'u Yuan, including his 
famous Li Sfio. The style of writing is unique, ' 
on account both of the time and the country. Many I 
editionw huvo been issued, including one by Cue [ 
Hm. Sco Ch'a Yuan; Li Sao. 

Wvi IK : .Xntrf on C/iinnc Litvmlun . 

ELEPHANTIASIS, a disease apparently con- 
ne<te.l with the presence of Ftlarin btnirrofti. As I 
u rule the leg or legs become swollen, perhaps to I 
many times the natural size. See Jekkkhys and 
^f^^"^!^, Dif canes of China. 



ELEUTHS, also called Oliut Mongols or Oloth 
Mongols ; the meaning of the name probably being 
'separated.' They are western hordes, inhabiting 
the country from the Selenga and Orkhori sources 
to the T'ien shan 3^ ^ and Upper Irtish. They 
are divided into four branches, the best-known be- 
ing the Turgut branch, which, two centuries ago, 
carried their conquests and migrations to the Volga. 
The horde of which De Quincev wrote his famous 
description was the Turgut branch of Eleuths. 

Yule : note in Prjevahki/s Mongolia, vol. i, 
p. 231 ; RocKHiLL : Diary of a Journey in Mongolia, 
etc. ; HowoRTH : History of the Mongols. 

ELGIN, LORD, Earl of Elgin and Kincardine, 
was appointed by the British Government as High 
Commissioner and Plenipotentiary when the Second 
War {q.v.) began; he reached Hongkong on July 2, 

1857. His action was hindered, first by the 
necessity of diverting soldiers to India, where the 
Mutiny had broken out, then by the lateness of 
the arrival of Baron Orgs and the French forces. 
It was too lat-e to proceed north, so Canton was 
stormed and the Commissioner Yeh seized and sent 
to Calcutta. The forces then went north and took 
the Taku forts, with the result that the Treaty of 
Tientsin was signed by Lord Elgin on June 26, 

1858. After a visit to Japan he left Shanghai on 
November 8 to select the three ports on the Yangtze 
which were to be opened to foreign trade. He 
then left Hongkong on March 4, 1859, met in 
Ceylon his brother the Hon. F.W.A. Bruce, the new 
envoy to China, bearing the ratification of the 
treaty, and reached London on May 19. As was 
natural since most of the foreign trade was British, 
the lead in the negotiations had been given to Lord 
Elgin- ; his policy served British interests well, 
while he spoke truly in saying M have been China's 
friend in all this.' 

When Bruce, proceeding to Peking f(,r the 
ratification of the treaty, found the Pei-ho blocked 
and was repulsed in the attack on the Taku forts. 
Lord Elgin was sent out as Ambassador-extra- 
ordinary. He, with Baron Gros, th^ French 
Ambassador, reached Hongkong on June 21, 1860, 
after being wrecked at Point de Galle and lo.<=iiig 
all their effects. They then joined their forces, the 
British being at Talien wan and the French at 
Chefoo. In the advance to Peking, in the mid.st 
of negotiations, Parkes and others were treacher- 
ously seized and imprisoned, a number of the party 
dying of their ill-treatment. The. Anting gate at 
i'cking was opened to the Ambassadors after they 
had threatened force. Lord Elgin gave orders for 
the destruction of the Yiiaii Ming Yuan, which 
had been already looted by the French troops, 
as a punishment for the treachery and brutality 
used to the T'ahke.s party. The Convention of 



ir.s 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



ELLIOT, CHARLES 



Peking was then signed on October 24, 1860, and the 
ratifications of the Tientsin Treaty of 1858 were 
exchanged. 

He died as Governor LJeneral of India in 1863. 

ELI AS, NEY, was born in Kent on Fc])ruary 
10, 1844. He became a Fellow of the Royal 
Oeographical Society in 1865, and studied under 
the Society's instructors. In 1866 he went to 
Shanghai in connection with a mercantile house, 
and in 1868 volunteered to explore the old and 
new courses of the Yellow River ; the account of 
the expedition was published in the journals named 
below. 

In 1872 he made a difficult and dangerous 
journey across the Gobi Desert ; the results were 
given in a paper to the Royal Geographical Society. ' 
He received the founder's Gold medal, and his 
services wero retained by the Indian Government. 

He was second in command of the overland 
mission to China which turned back because of 
Mahgauy's murder. He afterwards did a good 
deal of travel in Turkestan, Afghanistan, etc., and 
retired from the service in November, 1896. He 
died in London, May 30, 1897. He was made 
CLE. in 1888, but never accepted the honour. 

.Most of his writings are in the secret archives 
of the Indian Government; those published and 
having reference to China are The New Bed of the 
YeUow River, Journal, N.C.B.R.A.S., 1869; Notes 
of a Journey to the New Course of the Yellow 
River, R. Geog. Soc. Journal, 1870; A Journey 
thrurhjh. Western Monyolia, ibid., 1873; Viiit to 
the Valley of the Shueli in Western Yunnan, 
ibid, xlvi; Introductory Sketch of the HiHory of 
the Shans in Upper Burma and Western Yunnan, 
Calcutta, 1876. 

[Wheeler] : Dictionary of National Biography. 

ELIOT, CHARLES NORTON EDGECUMBE, 

Sir, was born in 1864, and educated at Cheltenham 
and at Balliol College, Oxford, where he took 
many honours. He was 3rd Secretary to the 
Embassy at St. Petersburg from 1888 to 1892; 
was at Constantinople from 1893 to 1898; was 
Charge d'affaires in Morocco in 1892 and 1893 ; was 
in Bulgaria, 1895, and Servia, 1897; was Secretary 
to the British Embassy at Washington in 1898, 
British High Commissioner at Samoa in 1899 ; Com- 
missioner and Commander-in-chief for the British 
East Africa Protectorate, Agent and Consul-General 
at Zanzibar from 1900 to 1904. He then resigned 
and became Vice-Chancellor of the Sheffield 
University. In 1912, he became the first Principal 
of the Hongkong University. He was made C.B. 
in 1898, and K.C.M.G. in 1900. He is known as a 
linguist and as a student of Buddhism. 

His published works are A Finnish Grammar, 
(1890) ; Turkey in Europe, (1900) ; The East Africa 



Protectorate, (1905); Letters from the Far Knf, 
(1907) ; with many papers on Marine Zoology 

ELLIOT, CHARLES, not to be confuun.i. i 
witli his cousin Admiral George Elliot, was a nep 
hew of the first Earl of Minto, and was born in 1801. 
He entered the Royal Navy in 1815, and attained 
post rank in 1828, after which he was not on active 
naval service but .spent two years in British Guiana 
as Protector of Slaves. In 1834 he was sent to 
China with Lord Nai'IEII (^.r.) as Master attendant 
to the Commission. On the resignation of J. F. 
Davis he was made Third Superintendent in 1835, 
and in the same year, on the resignation of Astell, 
he became Second Superintendent. In June, 1836, 
he became Chief Superintendent, though nominally 
this office was abolished. At first his troubles were 
in getting into direct communication with the 
Viceroy, but soon the question of the opium trade 
became all-important. The trade was expanding 
and there was an enormous amount of smuggling, 
and Elliot was regarded as responsible for all. 
The situation began to be acute in 1837, and in 1839 
the crisis came with the appointment of Commis 
sioner Lin. Immediately, foreigners were ordered 
to surrender all opium and were meanwhile for- 
bidden to leave Canton. At great personal risk 
Elliot at once went to Canton and demanded 
liberty for the foreigners ; but in a few days, on 
March 27, 1839, he found himself under the 
necessity of delivering up to the Chinese all the 
opium in the hands of British subjects. He refused 
however to sign the bond promising that opium 
should never again be brought, and he ordered all 
the British to leave Canton ; he left with the last 
of them on May 24. The Chinese were then willing 
to resume trade, but Elliot gave orders that 
British ships should not proceed to Canton, pending 
instructions from England! 

Trouble was precipitated by a drunken riot at 
Kowloon by British and possibly American sailors, 
in which a Chinese, Lin Wei-hsi, was killed. 
Elliot tried and sentenced to fine and imi)ri.son- 
' ment five sailors who took part in the riot, but 
could not find the man or men to whom the death 
was due. The Chinese were dissatisfied and sought 
to cut off all supplies from British ships, besides 
ordering all compradores, servants, etc., to leave 
British employ. The Governor of Macao was 
called on to expel all English merchants and their 
families, and they all departed in haste for Hong 
kong in all sorts of vessels. 

In this time of anxiety the British were with- 
out any gun-boat for their protection ; and their 
fears were much increased by the Black Joke affair 
' {q.v.). War junks hindered the British on their 
ships from provisioning at Kowloon and Hongkong, 
though the natives were willing tc sell, till Elliot 



159 



ELLIOT, GEORGE 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA StNlCA 



lost his temper and opened fire on the junks from 
H.M.S. Vuluijc which had arrived on August 31. 

Insistent demands were made for the murderer 
of Lin Wei-hsi, a most peremptory one being sent 
oa October 25, with an order that the British ships 
jihould either enter the river or eLse sail away, under 
penalty of complete destruction by fire. Elliot in 
reply .^ent the Volaijf (28 guns) and the Hyacinth 
(20 gun.>*) for the protection of the merchant ship- 
ping. Twenty-nine war junks advanced, apparently 
to attack, but offering to withdraw if Lin Wei-hsi's 
murderer were produced. In self-defence the 
Englisih opened fire, destroyed four junks and 
damaged the rest : this was the beginning of the 
Firxt War, wrongly called the Opium War. 

By June. 1840, war vessels and transports ar- 
ri\e<l; and the blockade of the Canton river, was 
e.-tablislu'd. Admiral the Honourable George 
Klliux, cousin of Chahles, brought a commission 
whi«h appointed himself and Captain Charles 
Elliot respectively as first and second Commission- 
er, procurator and plenipotentiary. 

The two went north and reached Tinghai in 
(husan on July 6; it had been occupied by 
Commodore Bue.mkr the day before. They 
established a bl(K-kade of Xingpo and the Yangtze 
mouth, and went to the Peiho. Two months were 
spent in negotiations through Kishen ; the pleni- 
potentiaries reached Macao on November 20. 
Three days later Captain Charles Elliot became 
Bole plenipotentiary through the resignation of the 
Admiral. Negotiations with Kishen at Canton 
were begun and were broken off on the question of 
ceding Hongkong. Elliot however, after the long 
experience of merchants and their families living 
on shipg with no base for trade, was firm ; he 
prcK-ecdcd to take the forts at Chuenpi and 
Taikoklow outside the Bogue on January 7, 1841 : 
ne.\t day negotiations were resumed. 

The Convention of Chuenpi {q.x\) resulted, by 
which Hongkong was ceded ; si.>c millions of dollars 
agreed on as indemnity to the British ; and official 
intercourse allowed on a footing of equality. This 
was promptly disavowed by the British government 
as being altogether inadequate and contrary to 
instructions given; Elliot was recalled and Sir 
Hknuy I'ottincer succeeded him. 

MoUHC : liitrrnutionnl Ifitalioiis nf the Chinese 
Kw/tirr; Kamkh : Thi- Knijlixh in Chinti. 

ELLIOT, GEORGE, tlu- Hon.. IJcarAdmiral. 

See /;//(.,/, fhnrl.'. 

EMBASSIES. Tlif follownig toniplcte list of 
••mli.iJ.-ies from KuK.jxan powers to China is by 
I'erc L. I'kistkk. 

1521.- First l'«-rluguese embas.sy, Thomas Piuics, 
sent by King Don E.mmani'el. It was un 
».ucce4»«ful and I'liiK-i was cnt-t into pii.-nn 



1555.— First Dutch embassy, Pierre de Goyer and 
Jacques de Keyser, sent by the Dutch 
India Company to Shun Chih. (They seem 
to have been received in the Throne Hall). 
1656. — First Ru.^sian embassy. 

1661. — Second Dutch enibas.sy, I. V. Campen and 
C. Nobel, sent to Shun Chih by the Dutch 
India Company. 
1664. — Third Dutch embassy, Pierre van Hoorn, 

sent to Shitn Chih by the Company. 
1670. — Second Portuguese emba?.sy, Don Mangel 
I DE Saldagna, sent to K'ang Hsi by 

ALrHONSo VI. 
1676. — Second Russian embas.'jy, sent to K'ang Hsi. 

It had been twice refused admittance. 
1689. — Third Ru.«sian embassy, Feodor A. Golowin, 
j .sent to K'ang Hsi by the Regent Sophia, 

j for the delimitation of the frontier. 

1693. — F^ourth Russian embassy, Isbrants-Ides, 
! sent to K'ang Hsi by Peter the Great. 

1705. — First Papal embassy, the Patriarch Thomas 
Maillot de Tournon, sent by Pope Clement 
XI, to arrange the question of rites. 
1715. — Fifth Russian embassy, Thomas Golwin 
and Laurent Lange, sent to K'ang Hsi by 
Peter the Great. 
1719. — Si.\th Russian embassy, Leon Wassiliowitch 
i Is.mailo\v, sent to K'ang Hsi by Peter the 

! Great. Lange remained in Peking as Agent 

of the Russian Mi.ssion. [v. .«?//;., 1715). 
^ 1720. — Second Papal embas.sy, the Patriarch Mez- 
zabarba, sent to K'ang Hsi by Clement XI. 
1725. -Third Papal embassy. Fathers Carmes, 
Gothard and Ildephonse sent to Yung 
j Cheng by Pope Benedict XIII. 

1726. — Third Portuguese embassy, Don Alexandre 
Metello de Souza y Meneses, sent by King 
John V to Yung Cheng. 
1726. — Seventh Russian embas.sy. Count Sawa 
Wladislawitch Ragousinski, sent to Yung 
Cheng by Catherine I. 
1753. — Fourth Portuguese embassy, Don Franqois 
Xavier Assis Pacheco y Sampayo, sent to 
Ch'ien hvisG by Joseph I. 
1767. — Eighth Russian embassy, Krapoytow, sent 

to Ch'ien Lung by Catherine II. 
1793. — First British embassy, Lord Macartney, 

sent to Ch'ien Lung by George III. 
1794. — Fourth Dutch embas.«!y, Titsingh, sent to 

Ch'ien Lung by the Dutch Republic. 
1805. — Ninth Russian embassy, Counts Golowkin 
and Potocki, sent to Chia {^h'ing by 
Alexander I. 
1808. — Tenth Russian eniljas.sy, sent to Chia Ch'ING 

by Alexander I. 
1816, -Second British embassy. Lord .\:mhei;st, sent 
tn CiiiA Ch'ING by George III. 



ir.o 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



EMBROIDERY 



1820. — Eleventh Russian embassy, Timowsky, sent 
by Alexander I. 

It will be seen from this list that France, 
Austria and Spain have sent no embassies to Peking. 

Havket : La Stele c/tretiemie de Simjnnfov, 
ii, p. 225, note; K., Avdienrrs r/rnnttn to Western 
/uiriii/.^, ill China Review, vol. iii, p. 67; Jamieson : 
'J7n' 'I'l il'iitfiii/ \iition-i (if C/iiiifi, ibid., vol. xii, 
p. 94. 

EMBER IZINAE, a Sub-family of FritfjiUidae, 
comprising the Buntings. The following species 
are known in China. 

Plectrophenax nivalis, in Chihli occasionally in 
winter. Calcarius lapponicus, common in the 
North to the valley of the Yangtze. Emberiza 
passerina, common in northern provinces. E. 
pi/rrhulina and A', continentalis, N. China to valley 
of Yangtze. E. elegant, Chihli to Fukien and at 
Mu-p'in. E, pusilla, the Little Bunting, throughout 
China in winter. E. ritsttca, found in winter to 
the valley of the Yangtze, and even as far south 
as Fukien. E. fucata, the Grey-headed Bunting, 
throughout China. E. chrysophri/s, common in the 
north in migration. E. tristrami, Chihli to Fukien 
in winter. E. godhwshii, the Eastern Meadow- 
Bunting, Chihli to West China. fj. cioides, 
in Mongolia and in the hills all over China. E. 
leucocej/hala, the Pine-Bunting, in N. China and 
the Ch'inling mountains in winter. E. personata, 
taken at Shaweishaii on migration. E. spodocepfiala, 
the Black-faced Bunting, China generally; very 
common in Central China in winter. E. mdanops, 
comes to breed in Yangtze valley. E. sulphurata, 
in S.E. China. E. rutila, the Chestnut Bunting, 
and E. aureola, throughout E. China on migration. 
Mrlophiitt melanictenis, the Crested Bunting, 
resident in S. China. Junco siernsseni, N.W. 
Fukien. Fringillaria variabilis, taken at Shawei- 
shan on migration. 

David et Ocstalet : Les Oiseaux de la Chine. 

EMBROIDERY. The art of needlework is 
nearly as old as that of weaving. So soon as 
fabrics were made the need for embellishment arose. 
It is du€ to the impermanence of the materials 
that embroideries more ancient than the old bronzes 
do not now exist. Inasmuch as the art of 
embroidery is largely one dealing with work in silk, 
and sericulture having originated in China some 
4,000 years ago, it is reasonable to conclude that 
embroidery also originated in China. Some of the 
earliest embroideries still existing were discovered 
by AuREL Stein in the hidden chapel of the Cave 
Temple of the Thousand Buddhas at Tunhiiang 
and date back to the 10th century. 

Stein describes a large embroidered picture 
on silk of Buddha and his disciples, with good 
drawing and harmonious colouring ; a cushion cover 

•21 



with floral, ornament and tracery resembling that 
used in Chinese embroidery of the present day ; 
together with some silk tapestries and damasks. 
Although Khotan was a sort of half-way house 
between Eastern and Western Asia, it is j^obable 
that the.'je embroideries were of Chinese design 
although influenced by Orneco liuddhist art an 
deve!o|)ed in Central Asia ; the technique and the 
whole treatment of these Stei.v embroidories '\a 
frankly ('hinese. 

In dealing with any department of .('hine.se 
art it may be remembered that China was a mature 
nation long before any of the present European 
nations existed. Printing originated in China 400 
years earlier than in Europe. The art of China, as 
we see it preserved at the present day in Museums 
and elsewhere, represents the result of a very com 
plete and slow moving evolution. As in other art,*;, 
.-i'j in embroidery and allied textile arts, religion has 
been a potent influence, particularly Buddhism. 
The other influences which inspired textile orna- 
ment were the ceremonies of the court and officials, 
whose robes and trappings, especially during the 
T'ang dynasty and later periods, gave full scope 
for the decorative artist. These were later reflected 
and elaborated in the costumes of the theatre. It 
may be noted that of the costumes and trappings 
of the Buddhist religion, court officials and the 
theatre, the most resplendent were intended for 
masculine adornment. In China it has ever been 
the male bird that was most resplendent and 
outwardly attractive. 

The consummation of art textile work came 
in the reign of Ch'ien Lung, a.d. 1736 to 1795, 
when the most beautiful tapestries, brocade^s. 
damasks and embroideries were produced. The 
subsequent decline of taste and art craft was 
giadual, but during recent years the decadence 
has been accelerated since the country was flooded 
with factory-made goods. Perhaps the last stage 
is represented by the so-called " Canton embroid- 
ery " made to meet a " foreign taste," which is 
synonymous with vulgarity, and for the special 
dalectation of the globe-trotter, whose pockets the 
Chinese know too well how to empty. The aver 
age globe-trotter likes realism and prefers pure 
imitation of natural forms to the formal fancies 
of earlier date which have made Chinese art t!ie 
individual thing that it is held to be today. It 
is scarcely necessary to say that the modern 
" Canton embroidery " with its meretricious orna 
ment has practically no artistic merit and is 
merely a product of a period of crude commercial 
ism. Art textile work, so far as China goes, ha,- 
sung its swan song and it will probably bo many 
years before the art s|)irit will .t -lin descend aniont; 
the people. 



Ifil 



EMBROIDERY 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



Embroidery is essentially a personal art and 
requires so little apparatus as to render it the 
most accessible and commonly practised of all art 
crafts. This fact alone, making for keen com- 
petition, tends toward a comparatively high degree i 
of excellence. Considered as an art of expres- 
sion, apart from its decorative value, embroidery 
his its own particular virtue, ceitain textiles 
and surfaces in Chinese work, such as the plumage 
of a bird and the colour and surfaces of flowers, 
being rendered by the needle with a beauty and 
truth beyond the ordinary range of pictorial art. 
In the retinue of beauty, among her sister arts 
of design, embroidery holds a special place. 

DESIGN. So soon as, by the observation of 
beauty and incident, certain supea'ior workers 
found that art did not consist in the imitation of 
nature, real designs would be evolved, and, as 
these became repeated, they would be stored up 
in the memory and transmitted to the next gener- 
ation to be finally recorded in books. Such books 
have been available in China certainly as early as 
the Sung dynasty ( 9601279 a.d.). Later thea-e 
were books for the special use of embroiderers, with 
woodcuts of conventional designs and decorative 
schemcH. The Cliinese are indebted to plants, 
llower.**, and fruits for many of their best designs. 
That these are rarely a mere imitation of the 
oii^inal shows the Chinese to be good designers, 
for natural forms are only of real value for design 
after they have passed through the artist's brain. 
The peach, peony, pomegranate, narcissus and 
lotu.o arc treated so as to be full of rhythmic 
vitality and in keeping with the best conventional 
and aesthetic ornament. They appear fo have the 
right perception of what detail to suppress and 
what to retain. They appreciate the worth of 
»iniplicity in ornament and know the value of 
an empty space. They practise restraint in decor- 
ative dehjgn. If one takes a good piece of hand- 
woven work or embroidery, it is seldom that any 
part of the decoration can be removed without 
aacrificing iho general effect. 

Ab a rule Chinese design in textile work is 
very conventional and tliere is little growth, the 
jjleawinK eflect being obtained by good arrangement 
and colour. Their figures are drawn with vigour 
but the details, such a» hands and feet, are usu- 
ally incorrect. In some cases, especially where 
the clcnicnt-s of decoration are symbolic, they are 
jtcallcrcd without apparent design, the pleasing 
result being duo to colour and the use of gold 
Ihroad. In the matter of background the Chinese 
appear to have a pa.ssion for restless motives. 
While, in fcuropo, it is a generally tecognised 
(.rinciplo of do-iign that the background should 
servo to show up the subject to the greatest ad- 
vantage and not detract from it by asserting it- 



self in any way, in China it is often necessary to 
scrutinize a piece of work to find out which is 
the principal subject and which is secondary 
matter. Thus, in the coat badges (p'u tzu) the 
background frequently consists of recurrent curved 
cloud and wave forms suggesting continuous 
motion : this would be considered wrong by a 
European designer but, in China, by frequent 
acquaintance, especially with the virtues of the 
Chinese fret, it produces a result giving -complete 
artistic satisfaction. 

Recurrence in art expresses repose and is fre- 
quently used for border patterns, in which the 
Chinese are past masters. A border is required to 
give a sense of completeness. The elements used for 
border decoration are chiefly drawn from the key 
pattern and the svastika with its numerous modifi- 
cations ; from bats usually alternated with a written 
character such as shou ^ or hsi §, floral scrolls, 
dragons and birds. A corner will nearly always be 
found treated in a satisfactory manner by the 
Chinese as they are quite at home with geometrical 
patterns — the Chinese appear to have used the 
Grecian fret before the Greeks. 

The Chinese make a quite special use of winged 
creatures in textile ornament. Birds, bats and 
butterflies may be considered the particular decor- 
ation of Chine.«e embroidery and hand-woven work. 
Butterflies are worked with marvellous nicety and 
wonderful vitality. There is no slavish imitation 
of nature and these insect forms are idealised in 
a beautiful way. The bat is perhaps the most 
frequently used of all elements of decoration partly 
because of the beauty of the idealised animal and 
also because it is the emblem of happiness. Birds 
aire drawn with admirable spirit and spontaneity. 
In the use of cloud and wave forms the Chinese 
approach perfection, as may be seen in the fine 
Vh^ien Iaitkj tapestries, in which also some amazing- 
ly good work is got in on the dragon and phcEuix 
motives. In dealing with designs used in Chinese 
textile ornament an important point to note is 
their antiquity. The embellishment of silk 'was 
one of the earliest art crafts and the decoi'ation 
invented for this purpose has been repeated in 
other arts. The comparatively modern arts of 
porcelain manufacture and enamelling on metals 
found in the old emba'oideries and brocades the 
chief inspiration for their patterns, most of which 
were copied with little modification from the older 
textile art. The examination of embroideries and 
woven W'ork will in a large proportion of cases show 
how beautiful a factor of ornament in Chinese art 
is the written character. 

(■OIjOUII. Colour is the chief charm of 
C'hine.se art textile work. Even where the design 
is weak, the glorious massing of colour captures 
the eye and brings complete satisraction. In the 



\U 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



EMBROIDERY 



same maimer the large use of gold thread both 
ill embroidery and woven work, much increases 
the richness of the effect. Many of these richly 
wrought fabrics show an oriental splendour, which 
the occidental appreciates more when they are 
toned down by considerable fading. In the East 
there is a craving for brilliant colour doubtless 
due to the intensification of the rainbow hues 
(tf life. When new, the colours are a trifle flam- 
boyant sometimes ;but it is more than probable 
that the Chinese, with their reverence for age, 
think beyond the present and purposely make the 
original colours too bright in order that the final 
result after years of mellowing may be the more 
perfect. They certainly have this in view in 
painting pictures. 

In embroidery we look f(jr colour in mass 
rather than line work. In Chinese embroidery 
the colour schemes aive most brilliant, the blues 
being especially good and satisfactory, the yellows 
and oranges less so. The colours are usually high 
in tone and harmonize well in most cases. They 
have the effect of making our low-toned Western 
work appear very subdued by comparison. 

By the use of French knot foi- filling in forms 
the Chinese obtain the fullest colour value, the tint 
being reflected from the depths of the projecting 
knots and producing a very deep and intense 
effect unattainable by other means. Satin stitch 
worked with floss silk gives very pure and lively 
flat colour effect and shading. The colours in all 
the best embroideries and woven work appear to 
be vegetable in origin. The pure blue was derived 
from indigo, the reds and yellows from safflower : 
the scarlets from madder. 

METHOD OF WOEKING AND MATERI- 
Ar..S. The iiiafericils used in Chinese embroidery 
are floss silk, gold thread and a tightly twisted 
variety of silk like English purse silk. The floss 
silk is an untwisted glossy silk which is used for 
tilling .spaces, producing a lively effect of light 
and shade when the direction of the stitch is 
changed. It is also used for shading, at which 
the Chinese are particularly clever, formalising 
their work in a way which is vei-y decorative. The 
gold thread is usually made of tinsel twisted 
spirally round a scarlet silk core. It seldom 
tarnishes and is almost invariably fixed in position 
by couching with yellow silk. It is very frequently 
used for outlining floral and other ornament ; in 
spirals for representing the sun and the centres of 
flowers ; in masses when a particularly rich effect 
of cloud or sea is required ; and in borders for 
meanders. 

The -^tifcJics used are simple and few in numbei*, 
namely : (1) Satin stitch, and long and short stitch 
which is a development of it. (2) French knots. 
(5) Stem stitch. (4) Couching. (5) Chain stitch. 



which i.-s worked beforehand and applied ('■ i: •■ 
material afterwards and (6) Split stitch. 

In Chinese work the outlines are quite u..., 
most i-cmarkably so for stitchery : they never seem 
to lose their drawing. The design is, of course, 
first drawn with a brush. 

The colour and workmani-hip in Chinese em- 
broidery are in most cases so excellent that they 
compensate for any dcficiencicB there may be in 
design. Compared with Western embroidery that 
of China shows few stitches. All the stitches, 
on the other liand, used in China are used in the 
present day in the West. From the Western point 
of view there is too much couched outline in 
Chinese work : this is considered a quick way of 
hiding a poor margin : couched outline makes a 
clear line, however, and is the only way of using 
gold thread in embroidery. The use of French 
knot to fill in forms is one of the characteristics 
of Chinese work. The Chinese satin stitch is 
usually perfect work, spidery in its fineness, -as is 
also their shading; in both of which they make 
special use of floss silk. In Chinese embroidery 
the te.xture of the ground material is not shown 
so much nor is the twist of the silk made to givt 
its value to the ornament so much as in Western 
work. But in the actual skill with the needle 
the Chinese appeaT to be far ahead of most 
Western embroiderers. 

The Chinese use pretty much the same imple- 
ments as the Western world and embroidery is 
mostly worked in a frame pivoted on two upright 
supjjorts. 

Chinese embroidery is the model for good flat 
treatment of plant forms. Their method of work 
is almost unapproachable. They produce marvel 
lous effects, often with one or two shades, mainly 
with their skill in placing the stitches, the direction 
01 which they constantly change, obtaining a plea 
sant play of light and shade. They frequently 
use the method of voiding, that is to say, leaving 
the gi'ound to show between the petals of flower* 
and leaves in a manner which is somewhat like 

I the u.se of ties in stencilling. Their manipulative 
skill is wonderful. They have certainly reached 
the top notch in French knot. The term " French 

1 knot " is somewhat of an anomaly considering the 
special frequency and delightful effect of its use 
in Chinese work. In China it goes by the name 
of " Peking " stitch, although most of it comes 
from Mid-China, especially Soochow and Hang 
chow. 

The articles most frequently embroidered are 

i costumes, temple hangings and shrine cloths, shoes, 
pipe-cases, purses and fans. In some of the fan* 
the back and front are precisely similar, the ends 
of the threads being neallv concealed. 

[A, S.] 



IG3 



EMIGRATION 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



EMIGRATION. In the Western sense of the 
term emigration can hardly be .said to exist for the 
Chinese. Ancestral worship and the custom of the 
entire family a.ssembling at stated times make it 
generally impossible for Chinese to go abroad with 
the intention of settling there. Besides this, in 
former times the Chinese laws forbade a native to 
leave China : the offender was liable to death if he 
returned and the crime might be visit€d on his 
family left behind. Yet for centuries Chinese have 
left their country, especially coolies from the south- 
ern provinces. The officials are, however, to-day 
generally opposed to any new e.vperiments in con- 
tracted coolie labour. An attempt was made to 
whip coolies from Shanghai to Me.xico, but at the 
last moment the officials forbade it. At Ningpo a 
Himilar experiment ended in the coolies being fetched 
back from Singapore. Futile attempts have also 
been made at sending coolie labour from Fcochow 
to California. In 1902 the French made an unprofit- 
able venture with coolies sent to Madagascar. 

On the other hand there is a constant stream of 
these .^ocalled emigrants to districts they have long 
been in touch with. For many years a hundred 
thousand or more have gone annually from Swatow 
to Siam and the Straits, and though 75 per cent. 
return it is calculated there are three million abroad. 
Even larger numbers go frcm Canton. From Kong- 
moon large numbers go every year, even to America 
and Australia, some four million Mexican dollars 
being the annual sum sent home or brought by them. 
Thousands go from Samshui to Au.stralia.each year, 
and from Kiungchow thirty thousand a year go to 
Singapore. 

Emigration <jf Chine^e to the United States has 
bet-n the most difficult problem to arise between the 
two countries. In spite of the law large numbers 
wont abroad in the nineteenth century as coolies 
tr) I'eru, Chile, Cuba and elsewhere. (See 
Conlir Traill). From these countries, where their 
treatment was shameful, large numbers found their 
way to California, and many more came there direct 
from China. In 1870 the census shewed there were 
about 56.000 ('hine.He in the States, nearly all west 
of the Hocky Mountains. 

By the Buuli.vi;ame Treaty ( f 1868 the right of 
xolunUiry emigration was recognized. It was not 
Ifing however before American labour became angry 
and at Los Angeles in October, 1871, slew 15 of these 
voluntary immigrants. Other affairs of the .same 
kind took place along the coast. In 1876 a com- 
mittee was aj>poiritcd by both Houses of Congress to 
ntudy the problem, and in 1879 Congress sought to 
violate the HrKi.iNOAMK treaty by restricting, almost 
to the point of excluding, C!hinese immigration. 
'I'he President. Havks, vetoed the bill, but he sent 
three rommiw«ionerH to Peking who were able to 
""^" • "• treaty (November 17. 1880^. allowing 



the States to limit or suspend to a reasonable extent 
the immigration of Chinese labour but not to pro- 
hibit it. Chinese students and merchants were still 
to be allowed free ingress. In 1882 Congress 
passed an act supposed to be founded on this treaty, 
prohibiting all further entry of Chinese labour for 
twenty years. President Arthur promptly vetoed 
this as not being justifiable under the treaty. 
It seems somewhat amusing to find that the re- 
striction was then reduced to a term of ten years 
only, from 1882, and then, in 1892, continued for 
ten years further : it is easier to sin by instalments. 
During the first ten years many difficulties arose. 
For example, labourers already in the States were 
allowed to visit China and return to their work ; 
but in spite of certificates it was often one coolie 
who went and another who came. There was also 
extensive smuggling of Chinese labourers over the 
Canadian border. 

Stricter regulations were put in force in 1884, 
but the feeling against Chinese became such that 
in 1885 there was an atrocious massacre of them 
in Wyoming, followed by others at various points 
on the Pacific coast. 

The Geary Act, May 5, 1892, was entitled 
An Act to prohibit the coming of Chinese persons 
into the United States. Supplementary legislation 
required that duplicate photographs of all Chinese 
in the country should be filed with government 
officers for the purpose of identification. 

Another effort was made in 1894, not to pass 
laws in accord with treaties but to make treaties 
suit the laws. A new treaty in that year debarred 
all Chinese labourers from entering the States, except 
returning coolies who had lawful wives and families 
in the States, or $1,000; this prohibition being to 
last for ten years with a possible prolongation. 

One of the objections' against the Chinese is 
that they do not become citizens of the United 
States; yet at the same time the law forbids their 
being naturalized. 

There have been similar difficulties connected 
with emigration to Canada and to Australia ; but 
the numbers have been smaller and there have been 
no acute political troubles arising from the cjuestion. 
There are only 35,000 Chinese in Australia, and the 
numbers are kept down by a heavy poll-tax. In 
the United States there are 150,000 Chinese. 

EMMANUEL MEDICAL MISSION. 

JJtfidijiiailci:< : — Glasgow, Scotland. 
W^orks at Nanning ^ ^ in Kuangsi, with three 
missionaries in 1916. 

EMOUI, the French way of writing Ainoy. 
See .limn/. 

EMPEROR. The emperor was called Huaiuj 
Ti or IImn,,i Shawj -^^ or §.±. A title of 
respect was Tir,, '/':»/ % ^ Son of Heaven, and a 



164 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA ENGLISH BAPTIST MISSION 



popular title was 'The proseiit-day Buddha' -JJ ^ 
CTffi {'l'>'>i'J c/iin Fo ijcfi). 

The Empress was called J/iia/nj U„u ^ J^. 
and her title of respect was Mother of the State 
gj ^ Kitii iiDi. See Inipiridl Titles. 

EMPEROR'S MERCHANT, THE. See Co- 
houij. 

ENAMEL, called by Chinese ja Ian f],- ^, 
IS a vitreous gla/.e fu.<ed to a metallic surface. 'Jhe 
name fn Ian is said by some to mean Frank or 
France. The Chinese ascribe the introduction of 
the art to the Arabs, but some authorities believe 
it also came overland. The time appears to have 
been in the Yiian dynasty. There are three kinds 
of enamel-work — cloisonne enamels, (see Cloisonne), 
champleve, and painted enamels. In champleve 
enamels the cell walls inclosing the enamel colours 
are actually imbedded in the metal foundation. 
Painted enamels on copper are usually known as 
i/ant/ tz'il JY^ ^, foreign porcelain ; those on porcelain 
luc called yang ts'ai J^i ;p^. (The first Chinese 
painted enamels were copies of foreign enamels and 
of foreign porcelain). Painted Cantonese enamel 
was made for the Persian, Siamese and Armenian 
market. No important copper painted enamels 
have been made since the Ch'ien Lung period. 

BusHELL : Chinese Art. 
ENCYCLOPAEDIAS. The Chinese have no 
works corresponding to the Western encyclopaedias. 
They have, however, a very important cla.«s of books 
called Li'i shu ^ ^. in which subjects are placed 
under categories (lei) and illustrated by extracts 
from various authors who have written on the 
subjects. For these works see J.ri .^/ni. 
ENGLISH BAPTIST MISSION. 
Headquarters : — London. 
Entered China, 1845. 
Works in ^Shantung, Shansi and Shensi. 
Shortly after the opening of the five Treaty 
J'orts, two English Baptist Missionaries were sent 
out to China, reaching Ningpo in 1845; but in a 
few years it was found necessary to hand over the 
work to others. ' 

In 1859, another start was made at Chefoo, and I 
in the course of sixteen years, eight agents were 
sent out. The work was hard, the results were i 
small, and in 1875, only one worker (the Rev. ' 
Timothy Richard) remained. In that year the 
work at Chefoo was handed over to the United 
Presbyterian Mission of Scotland. 

Shantung Mission. — This mission, as at present 
constituted, dates from the year 1875. when Mr. 
Richard chose Ch'ing-chou % )\] , 250 miles W. 
of Chefoo, as his new station. He adopted as his 
policy,, "the offering of the Gospel in the first 
j)lace to the worthy." being led to do this by 
a sermon of the celebrated EinvAim Irving. This 
line of procedure br<ji)!,'ht him intu touch with a 



considerable muiiber uf followers of the secret sects, 
numerous in Mid Shantung, some of whom after' 
wards proved to be very .'^launch and satisfactory 
converts. 

In 1876, Mr. l{i< hard was joined by the Rev. 
A. G. .Jones. The.se two devoted men were soon 
called upon to distribute famine relief;' and with 
Chine.se assistance they ministered to 70,000 persons ; 
: but before long, Mr. Richard went to Shansi to 
: as8i.st in distributing relief funds in that .still more 
stricken province, while Mr. .Jones was left alone 
with the work in Ch'ing-chou fu. At one time he 
had six hundred orphans on his hands. 

The popularity caused by famine relief was 
but .short-lived ; Mr. Jone.s met with grievous 
opposition and persecution, his water supply being 
poisoned, and himself threatened with stoning, and 
for some time he was virtually a prisoner. Rein 
forcements arrived in the early eighties, and in 
1887, a Theological Training School was opened 
under the Rev. .J. S. Whitewright, and a Br.ys' 
High School under Rev. S. Couling. 

The Theological Training School was expanded 
into the Gotch-Robinson College in 1893, and in 
the same year a new Boys' High School was built. 
Both these institutions were merged in 1904 into 
the Shantung Protestant University (r^.v.) 

In connection with the Theological Training 
School, a small collection of interesting objects was 
early made for the enlightenment of the students, 
who also used them as a means of attracting out- 
siders. The re.?ult was so satisfactory that the 
collection was developed into a Museum (built 1893), 
and this branch of the work broke down a great 
deal of opposition to Christianity, and became 
widely known through the province. 

In 1888 the county town of Tsou-p'ing ^ ip 
was opened, and from here evangelistic work was 
begun over fourteen counties ; three quarters of 
the district lies in a region subject to Yellow River 
floods, and is very poor ; but in less than ten years 
there was a membership of 2,000. Tsou p'ing as 
a foreign-manned station was closed in 1915, the 
large mart of Chou-ts'iii; j;^ ^J, 8 miles di.stant, 
which had been opened in 1903, taking its place. 

In 1900, owing to the firmness of H.E. Yiian 
Shih-k'ai, then Acting-Governor of the province. 
Shantung came off lightly compared with some 
other provinces ; nevertheless 130 Christians suffered 
death in the Tsou-p'ing field, and many more had 
their homes destroyed. Since that date, develop- 
ments have been many in all departments of the 
work. 

As a basis for work north of the Yellow River, 
Pei f hen ;5bfll in riJfiM I'n-t'ai. was opened in 193.3. 
In 1904. in coniuMf inn with <he opening of the 
!^hantun^ l^rntfst.int I'niversitj' (y.i'.K two mipfion- 



165 



ENGLISH BAPTIST MISSION ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



aries and their %vives were sent to U fg Wei hsien. 
40 miles east of Ch'ing-chou fu, to teach in the 
Arts College ; and in the same year, Tsi-nan fu, 
I he capital of the province, was at length occupied, 
though intermittent attempts had been made to 
this end from the earliest days of the Mission, j 
Here was built shortly after, in connection with the 
Vniversity. the Union Medical College (opened . 
1910). with hospital (opened 1915). The Tsi-nan 
In>^titute {>]■*:) was built in 1906. 

In 1913 it was decided to move both the Arts j 
College at Wei hsien and the Theological College , 
ai Ch-ingchou to Tsi-nan, and building was begun 
in 1915. to be conijdeted in 1917. 

The Shantung Mission in 1916 reports 4 
Aw'«K-iation8. eighteen pastors all supported by the ! 
nati\e «hurch, and an evangelistic committee of | 
foreigners and Chinese in equal numbers. > 

Sfiati'i Mi^^io/i.—Dr. Kkhaud, with relief funds, 
reached T'aiyuan fu ^fifff, the capital of the 
province, in 1877, side by side with the C.I.M., 
twt) of whose members, the Revs J. J. Tuhner and 
K. H. Jamks, were afterwards transferred to the 
Baptist Mission. Opium-smoking was fearfully 
prevalent, and success came more slowly than in 
Shantung, for after 13 years' woik, there were only 
30 converts. 

Dr. Huhaki) was one of the fir.st missionaries 
to aim at directly influencing the mandarinate, and 
for 3 yearn he gave monthly limelight lantern 
lectures, then a great wonder, to the many expect- 
ant officials and others, on all manner of subjects. 
Kvangelistic work was also systematically carried 
on in the neighbouring counties, and small day- 
(•riiools opened. The Mission was reinforced in the 
••ighlicK by 7 workers; Hsin Chou 'JffiM'l was opened 
in 1885. and Tai Chou -f^ ^ in 1892. Just before 
tin- Boxer outbreak, the membership in iShansi was 
256. with 150 scholars in elementary schools. 

In 1900 every K.H.M. missionary on the field 
in Shan.Hi suflered death by order of Governor Yii 
Hhikn. (See Dr. EinvAiiDs' Fire uiid Sword in 
S/iniini. Of c(mverts 120 were killed, and all were 
hh<N-kingly persecuted, and Mission property was 
dtTfitroyed. In reconstruction after 1900 Dr. MoiR 
Df.NCAS look a leading |)art. The premises were 
partly rebuilt by the Chinese (loverimient, and the 
ChirifHf Christians gave one tenth of their indem- 
nity to rebuild chapels. 

Dr. Hii'iiAUii. then working in Slian^^liai, also 
mediated belwien the Ciii\ernment and the I'rotest- 
ant MiimioiiK which had suffered lot's, urging the 
e«tabli)ihnuMit of n University, with (^hinese and 
We.^tcrn fncultiem. in lieu t>f indemnities. Thus 
;ii...«e Shansi University {i/.r.). The lir.st Principal 
"ii« Dr Mom I)fN<AN, who died in 1906. 



In the Boxer year, the Shou-yang Mission 
(,pv.) was taken over, all the workers there having 
been massacred. In 1903 Dr. and Mrs. E.^ H. 
Edwards, formerly independent workers in T'ai- 
yiian fu, joined the E.B.M. and two new hospitals 
were built in place of the one destroyed. 

The Revolution of 1911, while disturbing the 
work, was neither anti-foreign nor anti-Christian in 
character, and indeed opened the way for new 
efforts. In 1915 the Mission provided a building 
for the Y.M.C.A., and reports success in reaching 
the youngmen, and a general spirit of enquiry, new 
in this field. 

S/ieiisi M issii>n.—MohammedAn rebellions hav- 
ing depopulated Shensi, the Chinese government 
for some time encouraged immigration, offering 
land at nominal prices, and guaranteeing freedom 
from taxes for three years. Among some thousands 
of emigrants from Shantung, were a small number 
of Christians. Of these, some fifty belonged to the 
English Baptist Mission, who, arriving in 1889 in 
TBMWt San-yiian hsien, built Fu-yin ts'un bI^h ^ 
'Gospel Town,' one of the few Christian villages in 
China. As there were at that time no missionaries 
anywhere near, the Eevs. A. G. Shorrock, B.A. 
and MoiR Duncan, M.A. were sent from Shansi in 
1891-2, the Christians having pleaded for foreign 
pastors. Mr. Duncan returned in 1902 to be the 
first Principal of Shansi University, but not before 
he had opened Hsi-an fu, the capital of the 
province, as a mission station. In 16 year?, 
Fu-yin ts'un had become the centre for 60 out- 
stations, had been provided with a church capable 
of seating 500 persons, and the church-members 
totalled 1,000. It was found, in course of time. 
I that the work could be better carried on from 
' San-yiian city, which the C.I.M. hadp'ielded to the 
E.B.M. in 1893, and foreign workers were gradually 
withdrawn from Fu-yin ts'un. As reinforcements 
arrived, the work was developed by the opening of 
I Boys' and Girls' Jioarding Schools, and of Medical 
I work. 

In 1900, all the missionaries were obliged to go 
i to the coast, but there was no serious persecut- 
' ion of the Christians, nor destruction of mission 
I property, owing to the firm stand taken by H.E. 
I TuAN Fang, then Governor of the province. 
I Yen-an fu Jig'tcM' ^as opened in 1910, as well 

as Sui-te chou. afterwards transferred to the 
.American Board. 

In 1911, during the Revolution, the missionaries 
I were in great peril, owing to the Ko-lao Hui (q.v.) 
getting the upper hand of the Revolutionaries, with 
I whom they had been supposed to be allied. Most 
missionaries were obliged to flee to the coast, but 
the doctors and several others remained behind to 
reinier service, and for seven months an extensive 



160 



EXCYf'I.OPAEDTA STNir'A 



ENGLISH PRESBYTERIAN 



Red Cross work was done impartially for Imperial- 
ists, Revolutionaries, Ko-lao Hui men, and civilians, 
which won the gratitude of the Chinese government 
as well as of the local officials and people, and 
opened many new doors of usefulness. 

The Shensi Misssion has a remarkable problem 
to deal with, in that it works not only among the 
natives of Shensi, but also among immigrants from 
Shantung, Hupei and Ssuch'uaii, who, owing to the 
clannishness of the Chinese, are very difficult to 
combine in one organization. It is also remarkable 
for the large measure of self-support attained, the 
strong initiative of the native churches, and for the 
large number of foreign workers who have died, iti 
the midst of usefulness and honour. 

The liiipfL^t Zenana Mission has been working 
in China in connection with the General Society since 
1893. It has agents in all three of the above- 
mentioned provinces ; but the statistics of this 
auxiliary are included in these of the older 
organization. 

Statistics 1915-16. 

Foreign workei's 129 

Native workers 201 

Organized Congregations 283 

Coinnuiiiirauts 7,875 

ENGLISH PRESBYTERIAN MISSION. 

Headquarters : — London, England. 

Entered China, 1847. 

Works in Fukien, Kuangtung and in Formosa. 

Amoy Mi.ssion. — The Rev. W. C. Burns was 
the first missionary of the Society. He reached 
China in 1847, and with his colleague, Dr. James 
H. Young, worked in Hongkong and Canton for 
some years, after which they removed to Amoy, 
where the Dutch Reformed Church of America, 
and the Louden Missionary Society were already 
working. 

Ill 1853, the first Presbytery in China was 
constituted as a union of the converts of the Dutch 
Reformed and English Presbyterian Missions, which 
are of the same faith and order. 

Ill 1866 work was begun at Ch'uan-chou fu 
Si')'\]f^ (Chin-chew fu), 60 miles from Amoy, where 
long and persistent opposition on the part of 
officials and gentry was experienced. This was the 
first inland station of the E.P.M. A Hospital was 
opened in 1881. 

In 1914 "Westminster College School" was 
established in place of the Boys' Middle School, 
which, with a Girls' School, had been begun early 
ill the station's history. 

Evangelistic work was begun at Chang-pu i$}tfi 
in 1880, and a hospital was started in 1889. It has 
Boys', Girls' and Women's Schools. 

Eng-chhun ^ ^ was opened in 1890, and a 
hospital was built about 1894, which is the official 
Opium Refuge. 



In 1881 the Amoy presbytery was divided Into 
two and a Synod organized in 1894. 

A Theological College was opened in Amoy as 
early as 1866, and a middle school was added a 
little later. After a time tiie former was made a 
Union Institution for the two Presbyterian Missions, 
the Dutch Reformed undertaking the Middle School 
work for both. 

The Middle ScIhjoI became known as tli<» 
T.M.viACK College in 1914 and works for all three 
Missions operating in -Vni(jy. 

The Anglo-Chinese CcjIIc:;!' is a uiii.,u .ffMii ni 
the E.P.M. and L.M.S. 

The Sivatow Mi'O'ion wi ri^s ir(/iii lim-f icntiL-.s, 
Swatow, Chao-chou fu and Suabue. 

The work was begun in 1856 by Mr. Hukns 
taking up the threads of what had been done by 
Pastor Lkchlek of the Basel Mi.-sion. who had 
been compelled to leave in 1852. 

In addition to evangelistic work a hospital wa.s 
opened in 1863, a Girls' Boarding School in 1873, 
a Theological college in 1874, and Boys' Boarding 
School in 1876. At first all instruction was gisen 
in the vernacular, but in 1905-6 an Anglo-Chine.se 
CcUcge was opened, teaching both in English and 
in Chine.se. It was largely built by local subscript 
ions and both Christian and non-Christian students 
were admitted. 

A small printing press was established in 1881. 
to work in the romanized colloquial. 

Swatow Presbytery was formed in 1881, ami 
at first included the Churches in Hakkaland, but 
in 1900 it was divided into two, and a Synod 
establi-shed. Swatow Hospital has been repeatedly 
rebuilt. In 1915 the accommodation was greatly 
increased by the building of a large new ward ; 
to this a local merchant generously gave more than 
12.030, as a thank-offering for benefits received. 

Chao-chou fu j»g)>|'IJ^, after many stormy ex- 
j)eriences, was settled in 1888, and a hospital wa.-^ 
shortly after opened. 

Suabue fjli)^ was opened in 1898; this station 
is supported by the Young People of the Presby 
terian Church of England, and has a hospital and 
a Boys" Boarding School. 

The Ilalka Mixtion was opened from Swatow 
in 1870, and in 1882 Wu-king fu 3.15 3? was 
chosen as a centre. Owing to the difference of 
language it was found convenient to di.sjoin the 
Hakka^from the Swatow work in 1880. Wu-king fu 
has a Theological College, a hospital. Girls' and 
Bovs' boarding-schools, and a printing pre.^.s, work- 
in.^ in romanized Hakka and also in character. 
Sam-ho pa SMifl ^vas opened as the centre for 
the North of Hakkaland in 1902, and has a High 
School and Hospital. 



It; 



ENGLISH RELATIONS 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



Shang-hang _h ¥(. ^*"^^ opened in 1914, with 
medical work in native quarters. A hospital was 
built in 1916. 

FoTinoffi .l//<'..rj/i.— The E.P.M. began work in 
Formosa in 1865, led thereto by the fact that the 
great majority of Chinese there are emigrants from 
Amoy. Medical and evangelistic work was begun 
in Taiwan, the capital, but the opposition en- 
countered was so great that it was found necessary 
to remove to a place 30 miles south for a time. 

In 1868, severe persecutions of Christians, both 
Itoman Catholic and l'rote.*tant, broke out. 

The occupation by Japan in 1895 changed the 
a.spect of the mission's work in many ways. 
Medical work was not so urgently required, owing 
to the fine ho.spitals established by the conquerors 
all over the island, and a .school for the blind 
started in 1890 by Rev. \V. Campbell was practically 
»iu;)erseded by the school established liy the Ciovern 
merit, which adoj)ted Mr. Campbells ."system of 
writing devised for his pupils. 

When Taiwan (the name of which the Japanese 
altered to Tainan) was about to be besieged by 
them the E.I', missionaries were able to save the 
city by the judicious suggestions and arrangements 
they made. 

In 1916, there were three foreign-manned 
Mtalicins in Formosa, Tainan, Takow, and Shoka 
(or Chiaiighoa); the first with Theological College 
and Middle .Schools: the third with Boys' school 
(o|)ened 1913 1 ; and all three with hospitals. 

.Since 1912. the E.P.M. has united' with the 
Canadian Presbyterians to form one Synod; the 
theological students are trained together ; and a 
I'nion College at Taihoku for the purpose is 
dei'ided u|)on but deferred because of war economies. 

There are 23 foreign missionaries, 6 ordained 
r»iJne«e, and 4060 communicants in Formosa in 1917. 

Winiini'ii U'/ir/-.— The Women's Board of the 
K. P.M. had in 1916 a total of 30 workers in the 
<'hina field, including 4 women doctors. 

.StatixticM for year eiiding Dcct-niber 31, 1915 
(/»■»/ nirliiiliiiij Fiirmoiiii). 

Foreign Staff 79 

Chinese ,. 596 

Communicants 8.175 

Rapti/.ed iioii Communicants 3,945 



Sc, 



ENGLISH 

i:t.,lt II,, In 



RELATIONS WITH 



CHINA. 



ENVOY. CHINESE. The (ir.Mi envoy sent 
abidjid III modern liines was Ch'it.nm; Hou (r/.r.) 
after the Tientsin Massac re. The first resident 
Kiisoy Nciit abroad liy Cliina wa" Kro Scnc-tao 
IB JR /R "••'»« i" 1876 t<. the Court of St. James'. 

Tlie Chinese now have Ministers at all the more 
iiniiortniit foreign CourtM. 



EQUID>E ; there are probably three species of 
the horse Family in Chinese territory ; viz : — 

Kquiis hemionus, and E. cahallus, in Chinese 
Turkestan ; E. 'prjevaUhii, Chinese Turkestan and 
W. Mongolia. 

SowEUBY : Journal, N.C.B.R.A.S., vol. xlvii. 

ERH YA ^ 3^ «eo7tw^ the standard, an ancient 
work sometimes ascribed to the twelfth century b.c. 
and also to Tzu Hsia, the disciple of Confucius, 
born B.C. 507. It was once included in the 
Confucian Canon. Chu Hsi, however, says we are 
not justified in accepting it as ancient. It was 
first edited by Kuo P'o (a.d. 276-324) with a 
commentary. It is a dictionary of terms. See 
I^fx\v(i<ira'phy. 

ESMOK. See Hzpmao. 

ESPERANTIST MOVEMENT IN CHINA. 

For a considerable number of years, indi\ idual 
Chinese had been studying Esperanto (chiefly 
through contact with Russians in whose country the 
language originated), when in 1909 the first Group 
was formed in Shanghai, where a few score pupils 
attended free evening classes. 

The first effective step in propaganda was taken 
in 1912, in the first year of the' Republic, when the 
"China Esperanto Association" was formed, with 
Mr. K. C. Shan as the first President, having its 
headquarters in Shanghai. Morning and evening 
classes are held, and tuition by correspondence 
carried on — the latter with at least 1,000 pujjils. 

There are Groups in Canton, Peking, Changsha, 
Tientsin, Hankow, Hongkong, Kirin, etc. 

Tne movement has been much retarded by the 
unsettled conditions in China, by the prior claims 
of English for commercial purposes, and latterly, by 
the European War. The organ of the Association 
is I.a iJinii lirllcli), transhited as ap ^ or C'/iinti<e 
iitar, which first a{)peared in January, 1916, and is 
issued monthly. 

ETIQUETTE, CHINESE. As in other East- 
ern lauds the rules of polite behaviour are exceeding- 
ly elaborate. Innumerable formalities govern the 
intercourse of subjects with the ruler, subordinates 
with superiors, children uitii ])arents, and tliei'e 
are special ceremonies to be observed at visits, 
dinners, weddings, funerals, birthdays, and fest- 
ivals. Etiquette prescribes certain styles of dress 
and modes of travel, and regulates deportment in 
standing, sitting, meeting friends, etc. 

To give details on these regulations is manifestly 
out of the que.stion. It may be remarked, however, 
that j)olite behaviour and observance of the rules 
of etiquette are not neglected among.st the humblest 
and poorest cla.sses. Coolies and peasants will, 
before eating, ask others to partake, will offer the 
riglit seat to anyone entering a room, will use the 



ir,8 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



EURASIANS 



I (inner salutations or modes of addrest;. eti-., as* 
naturally as the wealthy and cultivated. It is 
certain that much misunderstanding has been created 
through the foreigner, content with his own system, 
often scorning or at least ignoring the Chinese ideas 
f f what is polite. While he himself is in a position 
to understand that manners differ in different lands, 
the untravelled Chinese conceive either that lack 
of Chinese manners means lack of all politeness — 
which produces contempt for the foreigner, or that 
every transgression is an intended insult, — which 
produces antagoni.sm. Yet there are few foreigners 
so careful and instructed as not to do things every 
day in their intercourse with Chinese that must be 
construed as either intentional rudeness or barbar- 
ian ignorance. 

In these matters, as in many others, a great 
change is coming over Chinese society ; which is 
sufficient reason for not giving here any of the rules 
of etiquette ; they will l)e found in the works 
referred to below. 

Simon Kiong : /.« /W/fo-"' chinoisi- (Var. 
Sin.) ; Chbistie : Chineife Fi'corder, vol. xxvi ; Wae- 
REN : ibid., vol. xxix ; JoxES : ibid., vol. xxxvii. 

EUNUCHS is:^^. They were employed in 
the Imperial Palace, 3,000 for the service of the 
Emperor and smaller numbers for others of the 
Imperial family. The descendantvS also of the eight 
Manchu chiefs who helped to establish the Ch'ing 
dynasty had to use them. They were drawn mostly 
from the province of Chihli, and were condemned 
to this life while quite young, by their parents, for 
the sake of gain, or were driven in later life to the 
voluntary sacrifice through 'poverty. Their use in 
China .seems to date from the Chou dynasty 
(1100 B.C.), and so far as they appear in ("hinese 
history they have always been, as might be 
expected, a curse and 'open sore' in the State. 
They have two large cemeteries some miles west of 
i'eking. The whole of this revolting subject is 
very fully discussed in Stent's paper. 

Stent: Journal, N .C.B.B.A.S., vol. xi ; 
Matignon : Sii/if'r-<fifinii.<, Crifiir if Mi-erc en 
Chine, 1899. 

EURASIANS. A name, of apparently modern 
origin, for children born of European parentage on 
one side, and of Asiatic (Asian) on the other. The 
f hinese characters 6j^ 5S A » proposed by some as an 
equivalent for the English term, would not be 
generally understood without explanation. But if 
the name is of modern origin, the race to which it 
applies is not. The mingling of Europeans with 
Asiatics was as much a fact of ancient as it is of 
modern times. Before the (Christian era, the East 
and the ^^'est met together both in Eastern Europe 

22 



and in Western Asia, as also in parts of North 
Africa. Jews and other oriental traders were found 
in Rome and in all the principal cities of Greece, 
and Roman soldiers and Roman officials, as well ab 
men of Greek race, were resident in Asia Minor and 
in Palestine. Of the.se facts there is abundant 
evidence in the New Testament, and especially in 
the book of Acts. There we read fChap. xvi, 1| 
of Timothy, a chosen companion of St. Pail in his 
mi.ssionary journeyings. that he was an Eurasian, 
his father being a Greek and his mother a Jewens. 
Of Felix, a Roman Governor of Judea, we are told 
[Acts xxiv, 24] that his wife was a Jewess. 
Referring to such facts a.* these, Sir \Vu.lia.m 
Ramsay says "The Roman Emperors regarded the 
Jews as faithful friends and subjects and granted 
or confirmed many privileges in their favour. 
There can be no doubt that the Jews married into 
the dominant families. The ca.=e of Timothy's 
mother may be safely regarded as typical ; it is 
an example of the Hood of light which the rational 
study of that great historical work [the Acts] throwe 
on Roman social history in the Eastern provinces." 
The Eurasians of modern times in India, Ceylon 
and the Far East are, many of them, descendant." 
of Euiopean adventurers who came out to India 
in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. Goa was the 
first territorial pos.=!ession of the Portuguese in 
India. Alphonso d'Alberquehque desired, in 1510. 
to make it both a naval base and a colony. He 
encouraged the men who accompanied his expedition 
to marry native wives and to settle on the land as 
farmers, arti.sans or retail traders. The descend 
ants of these men and of other Portuguese who at 
a later date settled in China, principally in Macao 
and in the neighbourhood of Ningpo, retain for the 
most part the Portuguese name and nationality. 
They are more or less a community by themselves 
and are recognized members of the Roman Catholic 
Church. They are still probably more numeroiu; 
in Macao than in any other part of China. Their 
number in that place was returned in 18% as being 
3,105 J'ortuguese of Macao birth. 177 born in other 
Portuguese possessions, and 615 natives of Portugal ; 
total, 3,898. The Shanghai Census returns for the 
International Settlement in 1915, (exclusive of 
residents in the French Concession) gives the 
numbei- of the ]*ortuguese as 1.323 out of a total 
foreign population of 18.519. It seems impossiblr 
to give any even approximately correct statistics a^i 
to the number of other Eurasians, either in 
Shanghai or elsewhere in China. In the Shanghai 
census returns for 1890 a note was added to the 
effect that among the entire foreign population in 
the International Settlement were 41 Eurasian 
adults and 101 Eurasian children. In the census 
for 1915 no estimate of the Eurasian population 
seems to have been attempted. 



169 



EURASIANS 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



It remains to say something of the present 
status and of the future prospects of Eurasians 
in the Far Ka.--t, although this is not the place to 
deal with these matters in detail. This much, 
however, may be gaid : some well-meant attempts 
to beneht Eurasians that have been made in the 
the past, must be held to be quite inadequate to 
meet the real and imperative needs of the situation 
to day. The Thomas H anbury School in Shanghai 
•founded for the purpose of a Day and Boardinj: 
School, first for the education of Eurasian children, 
and secondly for the education of others than 
Eurasians" is a much-needed institution. It has 
done, and is doing, a good work for the destitute, 
or partly destitute, children who were present to 
the thought of the benevolent founder whose name 
the Scho<jl bears. A full account of the institution 
and of its work appears in the Shanghai Municipal 
Report for 1914. 

lUit no .-uch institution as that can do anything 
to meet the deej)est need of the Eurasian com- 
munity in China as a whole. The average Eurasian 
in China i.* neither in a state of destitution nor 
anxious to receive favours in lieu of rights. Many 
jtuch persons, and their European or American 
friends, are feeling keenly that a slur is being cast 
on them and on their parents which in the case of 
many, at least, is wholly undeserved. Complaints 
of this treatment have been strongly voiced recently 
in the public Press in Shanghai, (see e.g. North 
t'hinu H>n,ld. 1916-17, Vol. cxi.x. Nos. 2540. 2542 
and 2549; and Vol. cx.\ii, Nos. 2582 and 2583), 
e^pt'cially, but not exclusively, in connexion with 
the rights of Hritish Eurasians to receive their due 
in the British Army and as volunteers. During the 
present war a number of them have distinguished 
themselves alike by their patriotism and by their 
l)rnvHry. Why then should they be refused the 
proper recognition of their British inheritance? All 
movements in history against class-privilege and 
• ajtte-di.stinctions have for a while been stoutly 
resisted, but in spite of such resistance there is 
always in Christian society, where it is not in a 
AnW of decadence, a steady influence at work in 
the direction of giving liberty and social justice to 
all rlas«tov, however much some of the superman 
race may still favour that ca.>ite system which is 
rliaracterintic of Indian paganism, but is entirely 
oppost-d (o the whole genius of New Testament 
cthio. There is here, lunvever, no cause for 
despair. On more than one occasion propo.sals made 
III Shanghai and elsewhere in China to exclude 
Eurasians from the Public Schools have been 
successfully re.nisted by the good sense and right 
feeling of a majority of the ratepayers. The result 
has justified the policy, children of Eurasian birth 
"bowing constantly in the competition of school life 
that th^y wiTe in no respect inferior either in nbility. 



diligence or conduct to their school fellows of wholly 
European or American parentage. The same force 
of good sense and right feeling is already work- 
ing in other quarters and is bound gradually to 
ameliorate the social injustice from which many 
PZurasians are now suffering. [A.F.] 

EUROPEAN INTERCOURSE WITH CHINA. 

See Foreign Intercourse ; Spnu'ixh. French, etc.. 
Intercourse. 

EVANGELICAL ASSOCIATION OF NORTH 

America. 

Headqiiartcn- : — Cleveland, Ohio. 

Entered China, 1934. 

Works in Hunan and Kueichou. The chief 
.station in Hunan is Shen-chou fu jg yfl opened 
in 1936, where two schools, a mission press, and 
industrial training are in full operation (1916). 
The chief station in Kueichou is T'ung-jen fu 
M t ilff :• opened 1913, where a hospital with 100 
beds was completed in 1916. Statistics (1917) : 
Stations occupied by foreigners, 2 ; Foreign workers, 
13. Chinese assistants, 24 ; Communicants, 74. 

EVANGEL MISSION. 

Headquarters : — Oakland, California, U.S.A. 
Works at Shiu-hing ^ ® in Kuangtung, since 
1904, with four mis.sionaries in 1916. 

EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN MISSIONARY 

Society. 

Headquarters : — Gaylord, Minn., U.S.A., It 
had two missionaries in 1917, working in Hankow. 

EWO. The Chinese style or name of Messrs. 
Jardine, Matheson & Co.^ (?-'^-)- 

EXHUMATION. The removal of bodies is 
of very frequent occurrence in China, where burial 
is not in public cemeteries but in ground belonging 
to the family. It may be that the land passes into 
other ownership, or geomancy may show that the 
place of burial is not pleasing to the departed. 
There is much ceremony connected with the 
removal, the formalities having been first fixed in 
the T'ang dynasty and revived, after long disuse, 
in the Ming dynasty. A full description of the 
ceremony may be found in The China Beview, 
vol. XXV, p. 176. 

EXTRATERRITORIALITY arises out of 
incompatibility of laws, giving rise to an imperiitm 
ill iinperio. 

In the earliest times the traveller was protected 
by no laws, but with the extension of Eoman 
domination, the assumption was that the traveller 
carried his own law with him. 

But by degrees law became paramount, and law 
of locality was not set aside for convenience of the 
tia\eller. Europeans who first came to the Far 



70 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



FACTORIES 



East were subject to Ivx loci, though long before 
the signature of any treaty the British asserted and 
maintained their right to privilege to the full extent 
of their power. But practically the rights to life, ! 
liberty, and the pursuit of happiness were only 
enjoyed in the small foreign settlements or 
■' factories," and there are cases on record of 
English and Americans causing death and being 
executed by the Chinese after arrest and trial, even 
though the death was the result of accident. ■ 

The ijrinciple that in cases of litigation between I 
foreigners and Chinese the case shall be tried by 
the proper officer of the defendant '.s nationality and ' 
the law administered shall be the law of the 



nationality of that officer, has been secured by two 
wars and by treaties with seventeen Powers. Tlie 
principle was accepted in the earliest treaties of 
land powers made with China, (Nerchinsk, 1689: 
Kiakhta, 1727), and even earlier, in the agreement 
with Koxi.NOA. 1620; but the English. American and 
other maritime powers at Canton early in the nine 
teenth century had no such privilege ; it was gradual- 
ly obtained by treaties from 1842 onwards, its full 
expression being found in tlie Chefoo Convention 
of 1876. No foreigner in China is now subject to 
Chinese law. a« regards either his person or his 
property. Pigoott : Extrntfirriturinlily. 



F 



FABER, ERNST, whs born at Koberg in South 
GeiiiKiuy on April 25, 1839. He studied at Basel 
and Tubingen, and then took special courses in 
Natural History at Berlin. He arrived at Hong- 
kong as an agent of the Pihenish Mission on April 
25, 1865 and worked in the interior of Kuangtung. 
In 1880 he resigned his connection with the Rhenish 
Mission and worked independently, settling in 
Hongkong in 1883. In 1885 he joined the General 
Evangelical Protestant Missionary Society, or Wei- 
mar Mission, and moved to Shanghai the next 
year. He received from the Jena University the 
degree of Doctor Thtohxjkw in 1888. As soon as 
Tsingtao became German he removed thither, but 
died the next year, 1899. 

He was a fine scholar as well as a devoted 
mi.ssionary; besides valuable contributions to our 
knowledge of the flora, etc., of the country, he 
published many works of value in Chinese, German 
and English. Among his best-known books in 
English are --1 Systematic Digest of the Doctrines 
of Confucius; The Mind of Mencittx; Introduction 
to the Scievp of Chivsr l?eJigion : and Prehistoric 
( '/lino. 

FACTORIES, the celebrated buildings where 
foreigners had their only foothold in China during 
the days when all foreign trade was confined to 
Canton. The word must not be understood to 
mean places where things are made. The factories 
were the residences and business places of the 
factors, or agents, of the East India Companies of 
the different foreign nations. They lay between 
the west suburb and the river, 300 feet from the 
water, and extended in an east and we.=t direction, 
that is, parallel with the stream, for a thousand 
feet. 



There were thirteen of them, including one 
occupied by Chungqtja, (or later by Minc.qua), 
one of the Hong merchants (q.v.); and their order, 
from we.st to east, was as follows : the Danisli, 
separated by New China Street (with Chinese 
shops in it) from the Spanish ; then the French ; 
Chungqua's factory; then Old China Street, beyond 
which came the American, the Imperial (Austrian, 
doing Belgian trade), Paou Shun, (occupied in part 
by the Dent firm), the Swedish, the Old English 
and the Chow-chow or Mixed ; Hog Lane came 
here, then the New English, the Dutch, and the 
Creek Factory. 

The Chinese names of these are as follows ; 
the spelling is as found in books made in the south, 
but the characters are added with the northern 
romanization. 

1 Danish, Wang he ^ J5!£ Htiang ch'i. Yellow flag. 

2 Spanish, Luy sung g 5tJ LU sung, Luzon. 

3 French, A'aw hung ^ /^ Kao hung, High j)ublii-. 

4 Chungqua, Man yune % jg Wan yuan, Ten 

thousand fountains. 

5 American, Kvong yune ^ i(J Kunng yiinn. Wide 

fountains. 

6 Imperial, Ma ying .' % Twin eagles. 

7 I'ow shun '^ KCi /'"" shun. I'recious aii.l 

jjrosperous. 

8 Swedish, Sui JlJIj (the name for Sweden). 

9 Old English, Lung shun ff Kfi Gloriously 

prosperous. 

10 Chow chow, Fung tut © * Fing fal. Great and 

affluent. 

11 New English. /'"«• »" {Ifc ?fl /'"" h.>. Ensures 

harmony. 

12 Dutch, Tsech ee $^ Vt Chi i. As.«embled right 

eousness. 

13 Creek, E wo ^ ?fl} I ho, Justice and peace. 



71 



FACTORIES 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



'Jhe national names probably survived from 
the first tenants, but do not imply continued 
i,i-cupancy. 

Each factory consisted of rows of three-storeyed 
buildings one behind the other, parallel with the 
frontage and numbered from front to back. An 
arched pa5.«age pierced each row. The Danish had 
seven rows, the Dutch eight ; the others each had 
fewer, the American fewest. 

A row is hong ^j- and hence the alternative 
name of Furfujn JJoiii/f given to the Factories. 
The terms 'factory' and 'hong' are often synony- 
nii)u.«, but generally the factors used the word 
■factory' of the residence and hong rather for the 
whole considered as a place of business. 

The space in front of the factories or the .space 
between Hog Lane and Old China Street, was paved 
and walled in to the east and west. This made The 
Stjuare, and it was to this and to Jackass Point, 
the landing stage, that the foreigners were re- 
xlrirtcd. Even rowing on the river for pleasure 
was forbidden. The younger ones might sometimes 
n)ak<> a bold excursion to a temple in the suburb, 
oi to White Cloud Mountain, but this was contrary 
to the Chinese regulations and was always attended 
with danger. 

Behind the Factories ran the street called 
Thirteen Factories Street ; it still exists, with the 
.name name. To the east lay the Hongs of the 
Hung Merchants. 

'I'he factories were owned by {he Hong 
.Merchuuts individually, — chiefly by Howqua and 
I'wwKEigt'A, — and were rented by the factors. 

it was within these limits that the merchants 
were confined during the shipping season; that 
.Moiutiso.N spent the earlier part of his time in 
China, and that the foreigners were practically 
imprisoned by Lin until all opium had been sur- 
rendered to him. 

Very irksome rules were made for the residents, 
as that only eight Chinese employes might serve in 
each factory ; that there must be no rowing on the 
river for pleasure ; that no foreign women or arms 
•hould ever be admitted, and so on. Through the 
goodnature of the Hong Merchants frequent in- 
fringement* uf these rules were winked at : except 
the rule against women and weapcjus, which was 
rtrictly enfoned. The factories were nearly all 
destroyed by fire in 1822 and rebuilt, and again in 
1843. Aft«-r Sky.moik's bombardment in 1856 they 
were razed by the Chinese. They had served for 
n hundred years; but the victorious foreigners 
leturned to (xcupy a better spot, Shameen. 

Hi'.VTKu (//!/* „/ </l(/ China), gives a plan of 
the Factories, but plan and text do not quite agree. 
A different plan may be seen in the <'hme»p lie 
l>u»,l,>,y an. I another in Li.ovi.'s book (v. inf.). 



It inu.^t be borne in mind fii'st, that no con- 
temporary plan of the early factories is extant, 
and ne.xt. that they were more than once rebuilt 
in whole or in part, in consequence of fires, and no 
doubt with alterations. 

HrNTER : T/it Fan Kwae at Ccmton, and Bitx 
oj Old Chiiui; Morse : Th^ Trade and AdiDuiist- 
ration uf China, p. 282. Chinese Repositoey, 
vol. XV. ('/ pa.<.<ini ; Lloyd : From Hoiiglong to 
Cant III). 

FA HSIEN i£ 1^. 'l"he religious name of a 
HLuldhist priest, a native if Shansi. 4th and 5tl) 
century B.C. His family name was Kung j|. He 
went to Ch'ang-an (Hsi-an fu) to study Buddhism, 
l)ut finding insufficient material there he started in 
A.D. 399 for India with several companions, hoping 
to obtain a complete set of the Buddhist Canon in 
its original language. He went by land, but 
returned by sea, reaching home a.d. 414, having 
visited Ceylon and Sumatra on his way. He settled 
in Nanking and wrote, or dictated to an Indian 
Buddhist, the account of his travels. It is known 
as Fo huo chi pJS^HE Records of Buddhist king- 
doms. This has been translated into French by 
RFMtis.\T. with notes by Klai'ROth, and into English 
by BEAt, (1869, with a revision in 1884 in his 
liuddhi<t liecords of the- Western World), by Giles, 
(c. 1875), and by LeCge, (with text, 1886). See 
Watteus : Fa Hsien and hi'- Engli.^Jt Translator.-', 
China Review, vol. viii ; also N.C.B.R.A.S., 
Journal, vol. xxi, p. 314. 

Fa Hsien spent the rest of his days in translat- 
ing the books he had brought from India, and died 
at the age of eighty-eight. 

FAIRY FOXES. See Foxc". 

FALCONS. See Arnpifref. 

FAMILY SAYINGS OF CONFUCIUS. See 

C/iia in. 

FANS. The pi'iniitive fan developed gradually 
troin birds" wings and fi'om leaves. A fan of 
pheasants' feathers is recorded to have been made 
by Kao Tsitng of the Shang dynasty. Wu Wang 
is reputed by others to be the inventor (1122-1115). 
In 1106 B.C. fans were used to keep off the dust 
raised by chariot wheels. Ivory fans are mentioned 
as being invented in 991 b.c. The round fan con 
sisted of a frame-work of bamboo, wood, or ivory, 
over which silk was stretched. We hear of a decree 
issued by HsiAO VVu (373-397) forbidding the use 
ot silk in fans ; a similar command was given by 
An Ti in 405. Scon after the establishment of the 
Yuan dynasty, an official of the South-East barbar 
ians was laughed at for carrying a chu t'ou ^ gg 
fan. The folding fan was the invention of the 
.Japanese, introduced into China through Korea in 
the lltli centnrN' a.d. 



172 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



FAN WANG CHING 



The t'(,'llo\viiii; kinds of fans are made in (hiiia : 
banibi.o and pap>;r ; bone ; bone and feather ; bone, 
ivory and paper ; feather, ivory and bone ; feather 
and sandalwood ; feather and tortoise-tihell ; ivory 
and satin ; lacquered and paper ; lacquered and 
silk; mother-of-pearl; bamboo with paper cv silk; I 
peacock's feathers : palm-leaf ; etc. 

The mo=t e.xpensive are those of niotbeiof pearl. 
Urnamental fans are made in large quantities i;. 
(,'anton, and the fine fans made from eagle and 
other plumes also exported. Sunvvui, in the West 
River delta, is the seat of the palm-leaf fan 
industry (see Puliits). Of these fans over 50 millions 
are imported from the Straits, in addition to the 
Chinese production. Hangchow is a great centre 
of foldable oiled-paper fan manufacture; 3.000.000 
pieces are made there yearly ; at Nanking the paper 
fan industry employs nearly 70.000 people; Ningpo 
is another centre ; a great variety of paper fans is 
made there, from the plainest kinds costing less 
than .153 per hundred to those which are decorated 
and have carved handles and cost ten times as much. 

The manufacture of cheap paper fans, similar 
in size to those imported from Japan, is said to be 
driving the foreign article out of the market. The 
value of imported palm-leaf fans in 1916 was 
Hk.Tis. 442.292. and the export of fans amounted 
to Tls. 540,364. 

Customs Dkcennial Kepouts, etc. ; Giles : 
Historic China; Mrs. Little : hitlnuitr Chinn; 
Wernep, : Sori ()(()(/ 1/ (China). 

FANG SHENG K^, rt^ose life. It is a 
meritorious act, according to the ?}uddhists, to buy 
and release captive birds and animals, and societies 
are formed for this and similar purposes. The 
practice is said to have begun in the i-eign of Liang 
Wu Ti, ^ff^^ A.D. 502—550, who was himself a 
Buddhist monk. 

FANG TAN ^ ^^ ,<fjuarc ilnriiiin'nt ; a term 
u.sed in Shanghai to denote a title-deed to land 
issued in place of the original deed when lost, etc. 
There are various explanations of the meaning, — as 
that the character [I] t'icn (land) is square; that the 
document itself is square, and that the seal on it 
is square. Giles : Gh)t<.<iiri/ of Beference. 

FAN-I-MING-I 1^ ^ ^ il, a Sanskrit-Chinese 
Glossary, or Collection of names turned from 
Sanskrit into Chinese, made by Fa Yiix f£§, about 
A.D. 1150. The preface has been tran.slated in 
r-'Hi„<j l',io. 1910. p. 407. 

FAN QUI, ^ {& barbarian devil, tlie term of 
revilenient used for foreigners in southern China. 
The equivalent in the north is Yamj kufi tzi'i. 
W fii'i' foreign devil. These terms, once so ex- 
cessively common as to be often used without 
malice, are less and less heard at pi'esent. 



77/ « I', I II (Jut in Chinn in IS.iG-7 is the title of 
a \n>nk desci'iptive of life in ('liina, by C. TiKitionK 
Dow.NiNG. (London, 1838). 

FANTAN,^- Jtl ffin fan, a method of gambling 
with cash, fan meaning number <tf times, and fan 
meaning to apportion. 

A heap of cash is covered by a bowl ; the 
i|uestion is what the remainder will be after the 
coins have been divided by four. Stakes are placed 
on numbejs 3, 2. 1. 0. Coins are then subtracted 
fcjui' at a time till a remainder is left. A winnei 
receives thi'ee times his stake less seven per cent, 
for the good of the bank. besid(>s his original stake; 
thus a dollar on a winning number brings a profit 
of two dollars and seventy-nine cents. Slakes may 
be put midway between two numbers or nearer to 
one than to the other ; in case of one of the numbers 
being the correct number, payment is made accord 
ing to rules, but less of course than when the 
stake is put light on the winning inimber. 

The game is famous or inf.amous in the South. 
In Hongkong it is illegal ; in Canton it is .-ometimes 
permitted, at other times not ; the changes of policy 
respecting it being due to the financial needs of 
the province and to the views of the local officials. 

It is a monopoly in Macao, and i.< the chief 
source of revenue there. In 1916 tenders were 
received for the purchase of the monopoly for five 
years from July 1, 1917. Eleven tenders were 
received, the highest being Mex. 81.286,660 per 
annum, equal to about £120.000 sterling; the lowest 
being .$610,000 per annum. The payment durim; 
the previous period was S603.000 j)er annum. 

CULIN : Thp (jatnlilimi f.'anns of thi- Chinff 
in A iiii'ricn. 

FAN WANG ^ 3E. Bhah.ma. who has been 
made by the Buddhists into an attendant or va.ssal 
of Buduha. He may be seen occupying this 
position in various temples in company with Yuti 
3£ ^ the supreme god of the Taoists. 

According to some Indra, Fan Wa.nc; and Yu ii 
are the same, god of heaven, in Chinese Ti shih 
fj?- Sp^ or TiEN-Ti SHIH 3^ ^ ^. The Taoists .seem 
to have borrowed him from Buddhism under tin- 
name Yii-Ti as their supreme god, and now the 
Buddhists in some of the temples rejjresent Yu n 
with Fan Wang as vassals and attendants <.f 
BiDDHA. He is sometimes represented as feminine. 

l)oi!F : Ni'i-hfrrhc-' .-oir Ifs Supi'r.i(ition». tome 
\ii. I). 210: WiECEK : 'rfxtiit iihilonophiquix. p. 327. 

FAN WANG CHING ^'^^ Ihahma^ .V.7 
Cla.-slr, the monastic Code in Chinese Buddhism, 
which has more or less taken the place of the 
previous recensions of the Vinaya. De Groot says 
that it is "the centre of gravity of the Church, the 
marrow, the heart, the axis on which turns the 
whole existence of the monks." It i.'^ said to have 



173 



FAR EAST, THE 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SlNICA 



been translated into Chinese by Kumarajiva in 406, 
being one chapter out of some Sanskrit work. The 
original is unknown ; but some of its contents are 
Kuch as might have been produced in China at a 
later date. It expounds a late and even degenerate 
gyi^tem of Buddhism, for example, branding oneself 
as a religious practice; and there is no evidence 
that, even if translated early, it had any great 
authority befcre the eighth century. The Hinayana 
is several time.s denounced in it as heretical, but 
on the whole the .<=pirit of the book is a lofty one, 
urging to charity and all good works. The work 
Hcems to be known and honoured. in all Buddhist 
monasteries throughout China. It has been trans- 
lated and commented on by De Groot, who also 
give.s the text. 

De Groot : Lf Code du Mahuyana en Chine. 

FAR EAST, THE, a monthly journal, illus- 
iialed by photugrai)h.s is.'^ued simultaneously in 
Tokyo, siianghai and Hongkong. The first number 
(New Series) appeared July. 1876, an earlier series 
having been published in Japan. J. R. Bl.-vck was 
publisher and proprietor, and the Journal was 
printed at the (.'rhftinl Empire Office. 

FARGHANAH. See Khol-aml 

FASTING PJ2 iIj cA'iA «u. The Buddhists have 
many fast-days, when wine and all flesh and'vege- 
table.H of strong flavour must be avoided. A short 
lift of such days is given in DoRi's book liechcrches 
fur Ir* Slip' r'tition". p. 314. 

FAUVEL, ALBERT AUGUSTE, was born at 
Cherbourg, November 7, 1851. He came to China 
in the Customs Service in December, 1872, but 
whrn the war between China and France broke out 
he joined the Messageries Maritimes as Inspector. 
While in the Customs he was stationed at Chefoo 
for about four years, and it was at that time that 
he began to be interested in natural history. He 
made several journeys in the interior of Shantnut;. 
Ho in enpecially remembered as the discoverer of 
the Alligator in China. He died at Cherbourg, 
November 3, 1909. His works are as follows : — 
Trip of a XaturnUtt to tht Chinese Far East, 
(China Review, vol. iv) ; The, Wild Silk-vwrms of 
Ihr /'rnvinrr of S/itintumf, (ibid. vol. vi) ; AlIi(/ators 
tn China, (Journal, N.(,'.n.T?.A.S., vol. xiii) ; 
i'mmrnadm d'un Satur(dii>tr, etc., (Mem. Soc. Sc. 
Nat. de Cherbourg, 1883); Thv Wood of the Tea 
llojrf, (China Beview, vol. xii) ; f.a Province 
rhinnite du t.'hnn Totnig, 189D-2. 

Co:ii.ik:i : T'niiuy /'an, 1909, p. 700; Bret- 
^rllNr.I^CR : Ili'i"" ><i I'nr,.,.,,-,, i>. ,t,i„',,ni /;/>. 
covrrirf in Chin" 

FAY, LYDIA MARY, was tlie luht American 
itmgle woman to come to China as a missionary. 
She wn.i Hpnt by the American Prctestant Epis- 



copal Church to Shanghai, where she started a 
Boys' School, which was the seed from which 
St." John's University grew. She had a remarkable 
knowledge of the classics and of the Shanghai 
dialect, and was commended by Dr. S. Wells 
Williams in the preface to his Dictionary. She 
died in 1878. 

FEAST OF LANTERNS. See Lanterns, 
Frast of. 

FEATHERS. In 1913 over a million and 
three-quarter taeis-worth of duck and fowl feathers 
were sent out from the Treaty Ports, almost all of 
which went abroad. This is one of the articles 
in which everj' port has a share, but chiefly the 
Yangtze towns, (especially Wuhu and Shanghai), 
Kowloon and Nanning. Luchow, Anhui, is the 
leading producer. Pedlars collect the feathers and 
sell them to the dealers. Large quantities were sent 
to the bedding factories at Berlin and Stuttgart. 
Duck and goose feathers are preferred, but fowl 
feathers are mixed with these, washed in congee 
water to prevent detection. The quills are split 
and filled with sand or gypsum to add to. the 
weight. But these malpractices are less frequent 
than in the past. The Ssuch'nan feathers have a 
good reputation. 

Chicken feathers are used to make dusters 
or as manure, — for which nothing is rejected in 
China. 

Wing feathers of the eagle are made into fans. 

The little egret, once common in Ssuch'uan, 
has been almost wiped out of existence. King- 
fishers' feathers are u.=ed in ornamental work of the 
variou.s kinds, especially of Canton. 

FEI YEN MM, a celebrated beauty of the 
1st century B.C. She was the concubine and after- 
wards the Empress of Cii'kng Ti. 

F E L I D /E . This Family of Carnivora is re- 
presented in North China by some nine species, 
distributed as follows. 

Fclis tigris longipUis, Manchuria, Corea, (^hihli, 
Shan=i ,; F. 'pardus villosa, Chihli, Shansi, N. Shensi, 
Kansu ; F. funtanieri, S. Shensi ; F. cat^is, Chihli, 
Shansi ; F. mmnd, N. Chihli, Mongolia ; F. 
euptUuru, Chihli ; /''. chinensis sjibsp. Shann, Shensi ; 
/''. viicrotis, S. Shensi; F. isaheUina, Tibet, Kansu, 
Manchuria. 

Swinhoe's list for South China gives F. 
tijri.->, F. pardus, F. macrocelis, F. viverrina, F. 
rhininsi.<i. Some of these ma.y be identical with 
those named above. See Tiger; Leopard; Mamd. 

SowE^BY : Ifccent liescarchcs, etc., Journal, 
N.C.B.R.A.S., vol. xlvii ; Swinhoe : Catalogve of 
Monimri^s. 

FEMALE EDUCATION IN THE EAST, 

Society for promoting, was formed in London in 



174 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



FERREIRA 



1834. The first worker married Dr. Gutzlaff. 
The best-known early missionary was Miss 
Aldeusey, who, after working in Java and 
Singapore, arrived in Hongkong on the very day 
the five treaty ports were opened. She went to 
Ningpo, and there opened the fi.rst mission ijlrW 
xcftool in Clilna -in 1844. She died in Au.-tr.iHa 
in 1857. 

In 1899, the Society ceased to exist, us agents 
joining the C.M.S. in Foochow and Hongkong. 

FENG-HUANG. See I'hoenix. 

FENG SHU I Jg, ;jy; wind and water. (The 
outward and \ isible signs of celestial Yang and Yin). 
The art of adapting the residence of the living 
and the dead so as to co-operate and harmonize 
with the local currents of the cosmic breath 
(Yin and Yang, q.v.) ; often incorrectly called 
'' geomancy." 

It is believed that at every place there are 
special topographical features (natural or artificial) 
which indicate or modify the universal spiritual 
breath (^(, Ch'i). The forms of hills and the 
directions of watercourses, being the outcome of 
the moulding influences of wind and water, are 
the most important, but in addition the heights and 
forms of buildings and the directions of roads and 
bridges are potent factors. From instant to instant 
the force and direction of the spiritual currents 
are modified by the motions of the sun and moon, 
(see Astrolofjy), so that at any particular time the 
directions of the celestial bodies from the point 
considered are also of great importance. 

The jjrofessor of Feng Shui employs a Lo-j)an 
(gradtiated astrolabe with compass) to observe 
directions and astrological harmonies, while at the 
same time he notices the forms which the spiritual 
forces of nature have produced. 

By talismans (dragons and other symbolic 
figures on roofs or walls, pagodas on hills, or 
bridges) and charms (pictures of spirits or ^'words 
of power" inscribed on paper scrolls or stone 
tablets), the unpropitious character of any particular 
topography may be amended. 

Artificial alteration of natural forms has good 
or bad effect according to the new forms produced. 
Tortuous paths are preferred by beneficent in- 
fluences, so that straight works such as railways 
and tunnels favour the circulation of maleficent 
breath. 

The dead are in particular affected by and 
able to use the cosmic currents for the benefit of 
the living, so that it is to the interest of each family 
to secure and preserve the most auspicious environ- 
ment for the grave, the ancestral temple and the 
home. 



There is a copious native literature on the 
subject with elaborate rule.?, plans and theoretical 
information. 

EiTEL : Ft7ij Shui; Doui : Itencarchcs into 
Chinese Superstitions; De CnooT : 77ie lielijiuus 
System of China. . [H.C.] 

FENG TAO •!F^ sH, a p"lili<ian who served 
uikUt ten Emperors of four different houses, but 
is famous as the inventor of block-printing. He 
was born, in A.n. 881 and died in 954, just before 
the close of the T'ang dynasty. 

FENG-T'IEN FU. Si,i M,iJ:d<-n. 

FERGANA or FERGHANA. See Khokand. 

FERNANDEZ, JUAN, a Franciscan friar of 
the province of St. .John the Baptist. 

He was born at Almanza in Spain in 1655 and 
airived in China in 1697. He was in Kiangsi in 
1705 and at Canton in 1717, as .shown by his letters. 
A manuscript dictionary compiled by him and now 
in the possession of Dr. G. E. Mohkison states on 
the fly-leaf that it was finished at Chang-te fu 
(Honan) in 1724. This however may be an error, 
as this date is after the banishment of missionaries 
by Yung Ckeng. In the same place he is called 
Juan Fernandez Serrano, but the addition of 
Serrano has not been explained. 

He left China in 1726, went to Mexico, returned 
I to Almanza and died there on February 3, 1735. 
I See Lexicography. 

Civezza : Saggio di Dibliografia gcograUca 
storica etnografica San francescana, 1879 : Cordier : 
IUhliothrra Sinira, col. 1192. 

FERNANDEZ, SEBASTIEN, iQ nr- C Chung 
Ming-jen, was born in Kuangtung in 1552 of 
wealthy parents, and was the first Chinese to enter 
the Society of Jesus. He was a companion to Ricci 
i and suffered the cangue, the bamboo, prison and 
: torture in Peking, Hangchow and elsewhere. He 
died in 1622. 

Havhet : La Stele chretii'nne de Si-ngan-fou. 
II, p. 11, note. 

FERNE OSTEN, DER, a German magazine 
. issued in Shanghai in conjunction with The Far 
EaH, having the same editor and printer. It ended 
with its third volume, 1906. 

[ FERREIRA, GASPARD, ^"^m. Fti Chi 

kuei, a Jesuit Father, burn in Portugal in 1571. 
I Having completed his theological studies at Macao 
I he was sent to Peking in 1604. Later he was sent 
to Chao chou "^ j^ to the church founded by Ricci 
23 years before. Here he was accused, condemned 
and driven out in 1612. Fleeing to Nan hsiang 
fd Sg he carried on successful work till obliged to 
flee again in consequence of the persecution at 
Nanking. He went to Honan, then from 1630 to 



175 



FESTIVALS 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SlNlCA 



1635 was at Chieii ihangj|^ §, in Kiangsji. lii 1646 
he retired to Canton and died there in 1649. 

Havket : La Stile chretimne dc Singun-fou, 
II. p. 23, note. 

FESTIVALS. 'I'lu- Chiiiese have many fest- 
ival.- which ;ire nut obtruded on the notice of the 
foreigner. Seme of the more important ones, 
h«>wever, are observed to generally as to affect foreign 
inter(i.iir>e. The chief are connected with the 
si-aHons and with the worship of ancestors, not 
with the worship of Co.NFrfir.'*, Buddha, or any 
deitic*. though of cour.xe these al.<?o have their turn. 
.\.>w Year (v.f.) is the greatest of the feasts; all 
ii«'l(t> an- paid, or .«u|>posed to be paid, before the 
• •Id \far <li»'s. then all business is at a standstill and 
ail the world devotes itself to pleasure, paying 
\i-its, dres-sing in fine clothes, making i)resents, 
feasting and idling. There are also, however, 
offerings to the gods, to parents and to dead 
ancestors. The rejoicings last till the 15th day, 
but these «lays include other feasts and ceremonies, 
■ind must not be thought of ac a fortnight of simple 
idling. 

On the 15th is the Feast of J.<anterns (see 
l.iiiihriiK, FniKt of). This clo.ses the New- Year 
festivities and opens the shops again. The foreigner 
se«'> the pr< cessions and the mild illuminations, but 
knows little of the ceremonies, offerings and 
w<irshiji (finnecti.'d with the feast. 

Omitting smaller feasts the ne.\t universally 
kept of the Chinese festivals is Ch'ing Ming ^^■ 
the fifth of the twenty-four solar j)eriods into which 
the year is divided ; it falls on April 4 5. It is 
Monietinjes nann-d the Festival of Tombs, for it is 
at this time that sjunial thought i.« given to the 
dead, to whom formal offerings are made, while 
their graven are put in good order. It was anciently 
the day for the re kindling of fires, which had been 
extinguished three days before. (See IJan Shih). 
It iw also a time for pic-nics and excursions into 
the country, and h<;useh are decorated with foliage. 
\'arious tilings connected with this festival remind 
the WeMlern xtiident of the Christian Easter. 

t)ii the fifth day of the fifth moon c(jmes the 
great xiinitiier festival, for which there is no .special 
name, th<.ugli the foreigner calls it, from what he 
iinoH of it, the Dragon Boat Festival. The Dragon 
io much in evidence at this time. It is the .>jymbol 
of fructifying rain, so important in such an agricul- 
tural (oiintry. (See Dnnfni hunt AVv/ZiY/l). 

'J'he M idsnminer fete is not very important ; 
but with the coming of autumn with the seventh 
moon there i» another great festival, consecrated 
to iho dead. On the first day of the moon the gates 
f'f purgaU)ry are opened, and the hungry gho.sts 
tir«.p forth to have a month of enjoyment of the 
good thingi- provided for them by the pious. U is 



especially on the fifteenth of the moon that liberal 
offerings of food are set out, paper money is burnt 
for the enrichment of the dead, and masses are 
said for the release of the unhapjjv ghosts. The 
festival itself is a Buddhi.<t introduction due to 
Amogha; though of course the wor.^hip of ancestor.^ 
and offerings to them did not originate in ("hina 
with the coming of Buddhism. 

By foreigners this feast is often called All 
Sculs' day; the Chinese name is Yii Ian p'en, (q.r.), 
which is the ti'ansliteration of a Sanskrit word. 

The 'harvest fe.stival' takes place on the 
fifteenth day of the eighth moon, and is the great 
feast, of autumn. Except that it is ii time of 
general enjoyment and holiday-making there is 
nothing to attract the foreigner's notice. It is 
much the same with the festival of the Avinter 
solstice in the eleventh moon, when again there 
are special offerings to the dead. 

With the clc;is« of the year, as at the beginning. 
there are important ceremonies. The Kitchen god 
ascends on high to give his report on the household's 
conduct during the year, and he is well feted before 
his departure on the 24th of the twelfth moon, a 
))aper chariot is burned to provide his conveyance, 
etc. Offerings are also made to other domestic gods, 
mo)e or le'.-s house-cleaning takes place ; the talis- 
manic fiapers stuck over the doors, etc., are renewed ; 
debtor.* are sought for ; creditors are avoided ; 
and (;n the New Year's Eve the whole ])eople spends 
the night in eating and drinking and firing off 
crackers. — a watch-night siervice bnt, w-ith little 
solemnity in it. 

1)k (Jhoot ha.- made an elaborate study of these 
and other feasts as they are actually observed at 
the present day in Amoy ; and in the more im- 
j)ortant of the festivals there can be little difference 
throngh(Hit the whole country. 

His work is not. merely ilescripti\ e ; but the 
origin of every custom is sought for, and its 
connection with the ancient superstitions cf other 
races. Many matters connected with the feistivals 
may seem trivial or merely (juaint and picturesque, 
but may ac(|uire great significance when brought 
into compaiison with usages that obtained in Egypt 
or jinciont (li'ecce or Home. 

Dk (litiior: Af.v l''itr.< ininii<ll(,< n Fjiiioiii : 
i)(H!F. : lt( tlirnhi." .<ur frs Si/jjirsfifinii'^. etc. ; 

Dool.li Tl.K : Snria/ /J/r ,•/ I /i r ('huir.tr. 

FEUDAL STATES t'^i BS- The earliest legends 
of Chinese history tell of a number of states 
governed by hereditary princes owning other princes, 
or eventually one emperor, as overlord. Hence the 
title "feudal!" The opening words of king Wf 
in tlir (locuMicnts of t1i<^ Chon rlvnasty contained 



17H 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SlNICA 



FEUDAL STATES 



in the SJni I'li'nuj are paiaphriisod Ijy Lk(ji;k (in 
accordance with the best ('hinese exposition) : 
"Ah, ye hereditary princes." Although king Wu 
made great changes in the personnel of the princes, 
he only "perpetuated an old institution, he did not 
inaugui'ate a new one. 

The central principle of the institution was 
ancestral worship. When the descendants of any 
given prince were prevented from sacrificing in the 
ancestral temple, the state was said to be destroyed. 
As long as the clan worship was continued the 
state continued. Hence, we find amongst the earl- 
iest arrangements made by king Wu were the 
appointments, or confirmation of existing appoint- 
ments, to five fiefs w'here the five imperial families 
of the past might be honoured. It is interesting 
to note the position and insignificance of the five 
centres : — 

Ancestor Fief Modern name 

Huang Ti (,'hi Shunt'ien, Chihli. 

Yao Chu Tsinan, Shantung. 

Shun Ch'en (.'henchow, Honan. 

Yii (Hsia) Ch'i Kaifeng, Honan. 

T'ang (Yin) Sung Kuei-te, Honan. 

(The last named is the only one that attained to 
any considerable rank in the Chou days). 

King Wu had a large number of brothers, and 
many of these were made lords, but none of their 
fiefs became famous. On the other hand, a nephew 
and a son gave rise to- descendants of front rank. 
The son of the duke of Chou, Po Ch'ing, was 
invested with the state of Lu ^, southern Shantung. 
Lu prided itself on being the foremost state as 
regards conformity to ritual. In military matters 
it never passed the second rank. It was always 
under the orders of one or other of its neighbours. 
King Wu's son, Ch'eng, was playing with a 
younger brother and in sport made him a feudal 
lord. " Of what fief? " enquired the Grand Re- 
corder who, it would seem, had to be in attendance. 
"I was only saying it in fun," replied the boy king. 
But the Recorder would have no light speech from 
the king, so a fief had to be found and the boy lord 
became ruler of T'ang, or as it after came to be 
called. Chin (^), the immense tract of country 
north of the bend of the Y'ellow River, the modern 
Shan.si. From the middle of the seventh century 
B.C. to the beginning of the fifth. Chin was by far 
the most important of the Chinese states. One 
other member of the imjierial family was already 
ruling when king Wu came to his throne, but it 
was away in the wild, unknown south-east, beyond 
the Yangtze. When the future king Wen was a 
babe it was announced that he would be a man of 
importance. His father was the third son of the 
grandfather. The first and second sons, therefore, 
afraid that the inheritance would not pass to their 
young nephew if they stopped at home, went forth 

23 



to the savage lands afterwards named Wu f^. 
Their descendants are first heard of in the Tso 
Chuun in B.C. 583. Away on the northeast, the 
border lands including the plain on which Peking 
now stands, were named Yen ^ft, and given to Shih 
the duke of Shao, whose military prowess has 
almost overshadowed the fact that he also was a 
half-brother of king Wu. In b.c. 805, the son of 
king HsiiAN was given a new fief, Cheng Q(. Even 
to this day the novelty has not worn off the name, 
for the county is still called Hsincheng (i.e. "New 
Cheng") ; it lies in Honan. All these (and many 
others) were occupied by members of the Cm ( JR ) 
clan. The Rites (rarely infringed) strictly forbad 
intermarriage. 

Just Fouth of Yen and north of Lu (i.r. in 
modern north Shantung) a state was carved out 
for Chiang T'ai kung, the most valiant and very 
faithful adherent of kings Wkn and Wu. It was 
called Ch'i ^ and till the beginning of tlie fifth 
century was of first rank. The family name was 
Chiang ^. 

Lastly, mention must be made of two other 
states the rulers of which were untouched by king 
Wu — in all probability he knew nothing of one of 
them. The lands on and over the north-west bounds 
that were known to the Chinese of the twelfth 
century B.C. were then occupied by the Ying (jg^ ) 
family. When Cnou Hsin was being overthrown, 
the lord of Ch'in ^, as this state was called, was 
away preparing a marble sarcophagus for his over- 
lord. When he came back, the overlord was de- 
feated, dead and buried. The faithful follower at 
once committed suicide. King Wu ordered that 
this lord should be buried in the sarcophagus he had 
prepared for his king, and confirmed his son in the 
fief. This was the state that eventually overthrew 
the Chou emfjire and its feudalism. To the south- 
west, reaching to the Yangtze, lay the lands of Ch'u 
^ , the rulers of which were called Mi (^ ). They 
came to rival both Chin and Ch'in, and at one 
time it seemed possible that they would succeed 
to the heritage of empire. Ch'u, Wu and the still 
more remote Yiieh were, however, really outside 
the pale of the feudal lords fS fie, and Ch'u for 
long boasted of this fact. On the other hand, 
Ch'in, which was suspect, made every effort to 
show itself inside the pale. (Its efforts really 
showed the contrary). No bar sinister ever attached 
itself to Chin; but its position ensured constant 
influ.K of fre.sh Tartar blood, and kept the race 
much more vigorous than that of the intermarrying, 
petty lords of the centre, (who, though they had no 
intermarriage on the father's side, had little else 
on the mother's side). 

We really know very little alK.ut the actual 
working of the feudal system until we conie to the 
davs from which we have contemporary records, 



FIBRES, TEXTILE 



ENCYCLOPABlDiA SlNlCA 



t. about the eighth century ».<:. There are three 
large collections of tractates on the ritual to be 
observed, viz. the C/iou Li, the / Li and the Li Chi. 
But we do not know that at any time all the 
minutiae of form and ceremony were observed. 
Certainly when we come to the contemporary 
records, there was but little of the ritual fulfilled. 
The emperor was a mere shadow of the august 
monarch that the rites picture to u.s. 

It is difficult to point to any thing good that 
the feudalism of earlier days did for China. It 
may have been a temporary necessity in the trans- 
ition from a period of tribal to national govern- 
ment. Hut its prolongation through the centuries 
of the < "hou dynasty was a twofold curse to the 
peciplf. In the first place, it j)revented ('hina from 
realising its unity. In the .second, it was the 
direct cause of iiniumerable and incessant wars. 
"There is not a single righteous war in the whole 
of the Annals" was the commim sense verdict of 
.Mk\<iis (vii, bk. 2, J.kgi:k, ji. 354). When we 
remember that the Annals embrace the whole period 
from B.C. 722 to 482, and that no year is without its 
^lory of war, we can picture somewhat what an evil 
it was to all classes of the population. Ch'in Shih 
HiA.Nj; Ti deserves more credit than he usually 
gets for ridding ('hina of feudalism. It attempted 
to rise again with the new Han dynasty, but Liu 
Kao Tsr was too wise and too strong. Whatever 
divisions have since arisen in (Hiina, they have 
ne\er bt'«'n a mere revivification of the feudalism of 
the olden days. (.Stc unihr ■■'ijtiirdti: titli'.s). 

[G.G.W.] 

FIBRES, TEXTILE. 

.\IU ril.oN, Ck id •/,■;„,/ itio, the fibre uf 
Miuttl-in aiiiiiiiiiii, cultivated as a summer crop in 
Western China up to 3,000 feet altitude. The fibre 
in of inferior ipiality, less valuable than that of 
Inio Itonip. Most of the "hemp" which goes down 
riv^r from Ssi'ich'uan is, according to Hosie, the 
fibre of this plant. It is greyish white, tinged with 
a silvery, lustrous colour. The plant is also widely 
<ultivMled in Northerti China, .Mongolia, and Man- 
• liuriu, where it is n)isnamed "jute." As it does 
not rot when wet, it is u.sed for making fishing 
ni'Is. Ti»iitsiii "jute" is largely used locally ; when 
will to Kiiropo it is (Cwtoni^ Id /mrl , 1899) used 
for luliillerating jxirposes. coming into competitiijn 
with a tibr« yrown in .New Zealand. 

HKMI' 'X M /"/"/"" in South China. /> /^j 
fifiihiiim ill the North; I 'iiiiiinhi^ fiilii-n, ir the 
(ommoii ItuNsiun hemji. It is found throughout 
China I'ropcr and Mancliuria. and produces a fibre 
which is of universal use. The stems grow to eight 
feet in height; harvested in June, they are steeped 
in water, sun dried and blea< bed by burning sul- 
r)liiir. after which the fibr,. is removed; it is in 
grciil d-miiiid for textile and cordag-- purp..wps, the 



ccar.se cloth making bags or niouniiiig lainient fot 
the poor. The fibre of the autumn crop, which is 
tougher, is worked into the bodies of paint brushes 
or even of Chinese i)ens. The woody stems are 
burnt and the ashes, mi.xed Avith gunpowder, enter 
into the manufacture of firecrackers. Hemp oil 
is used as an illuminant in Ssuch'uan. The leading 
exporting centres are Chungking, Changsha, Hang- 
chow, and Wuchow. Exportation abroad, 1915, 
Pels. .75,000, value Tls. 850,000; 1916, Pels. 
143,799, Tls. 1,699,371. It goes chiefly to Germany, 
Belgium, and Japan. 

JUTE, chinti-ma '^^, Corrhorus capsular is is 
.sparingly cultivated in Easter)i Ssuch'uan, but is 
not exported from that province. A little jute may 
be cultivated in Chihli and in Kuangtung. It is 
also named Huany ma ^^. 

Other fibres u.sed by the Chiue.-e are that from 
the bark of the Sterculia i-latatiifvlia, or iru-t'uinj 
tree, hence named t'lnvj-ma ;j^ ,ff!t. used for making 
cordage, but of no (H)ninier(ial iuiportancc ; also 
"Pine-apple Hemp," ('/•'•) 

The fibre of Musa text His is also u.*ecl for mak- 
ing cordage. The export in 1916 was pels. 101,390, 
value Tls. 493,970. 

RAMIE, Chu-mn '^'Jfti- f^i'i'/nnnlfi nii'ii/. also 
known as H-<ii>n-iiia {^^), the mo>t important 
textile plant in China, is cultivated mostly in the 
central valleys of Kiangsi, in Hupei. and in Ssu- 
ch'uan, where it also grows w-ild. It is however, 
found in" all the warmer parts of the country up 
to 4.000 feet altitude. It is tlie China-grass of 
cOniniei'ce, and is being exported in growing 
quantities, especially to Japan. In 1903 less than 
2.000 piculs were exported, in 1913 over 170.000 
piculs worth Hk.Tls. 2,500.000. The fibre is bleach- 
ed ill hot rice-paste ;iiid sulphur and woven into 
grass-cloth ('/.'".) or used as twine for making 
fishing nets, wliicli are exported to the Straits 
and Siam. 

Hamie is one of the strongest and finest fibres 
known. It is extremely durable, and is said to be 
less affected by moisture than any other fibre, but 
is somewhat lacking in elasticity. It has a brilliant 
silky lustre, can be dyed readily, and is exception- 
ally long, the ultimate fibres varying from 3 to 16 
inches in lengtli. It is easy to cultivate ami tliii\es 
in almost any soil; in China, however, it is usually 
grown in red clay containing sand. The fibre is 
prepari'il in Chiiui almost entirely by hand. The 
stems arc (list stri))ped, and the cuticle i-emovod 
by scraping and washing, a tedious and expensive 
process. In the resulting product the fibres are 
embedded in a gummy substance ; the getting rid 
of this is not carried out in China, but is effected 
sulisc(]uently in Eurojie by chemical means. 

The production of ramie, so far as it can be 
gauged fn.'in ''ustums statistics, is greatly on the 



178 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



FIRECRACKERS 



increase, the quantity of orit^iiial expoit fiom ports 
haviiifj increased from 265,000 jjituls in 1913 to 
318,000 in 1915. of jrrasscloth, ulmli is made 
from it. the e.xportation averages 30.000 I'd.-;., worth 
Hk.Tls. 100 each, of whicli (piantity half is exported 
ahioad. Formerly it was erroneou.'-iy entei-ed in 
the ('usti>ms lieturns as hemp. The e.xport in 1916 
was pels. 210.931. value Tls. 2,821,208. 

l.MrKKIAI. iNsrnVTK lUl.I.KTl.V. vol. ill. \o. 1, 

1905. [N.S.J ' 

FIGHTING STATES PERIOD Ig^ gg . The 

last t\\o ((.ntui-ies of the Choii dynasty aie known 
by this expression. The Fighting States were 
those contending for Empire, Ch'in, Wu, Ch'u, etc. 
See Sefcn inurtial Sta/c.''. The period begins at 
different dates according to different authorities, 
from B.C. 480 to B.C. 403. Taking the earlier date, 
the liistory of the period of the Chan Kuo Ts'e, 
\v(/iild follow immediately on the Tso Vhvnit. The 
later date is that at which Ssu-ma Kuang's great 
History begins, and is the date when the Emperor 
showed his impotence to help his vassals by re- 
cognising the States of Han, Wei and Chao, 
divisions of the great State of (.'bin ^. 

Politically it was one of the worst times in 
Chinese history, yet some of China's great writers, 
philosophers, patriots, etc., Mencius, Yang Chu, 
Mi Tzu, Chuang Tzu and others, arose during this 
period ; and P.arkku calls it "the true period of 
rhinese chivalry". 

Parker : A/irtfttt China Siitipilficd; Hiuth : 
77/'' Aicii-nt Hi<liinj of China. 

FIGS Ficus carira, 4{| |£ ^ irii hiia kim. lu 
N. China the fig is only grown as an exotic, in pots 
and tubs. In milder regions a few large specimens 
may sometimes be seen in the open, but the fruit 
does not seem to be much cared for by the Chinese, 
and it is not extensively cultivated. 

Mkyek : Afjrirultiiral Expli}rati()n.<. etc. 

FILIAL PIETY ^ h^in,,. This term, so 
iinp(.rtant in Chinese social and p(jlitical history, 
is much more comprehensive than the English 
translation of it would indicate. Hsiao is the 
basis of the virtue we call humanity, and is also 
extended to rulers and made the basis of the 
political structure. The word is found at the very 
outset of Chinese history, in the Camm of Yao 
^ |te. (Shu chinij I, 12), where it is said of Shi'N 
that "he ke])t harmony by filial piety" !^fr?J-y. :^. 

FILIAL PIETY, CANON OF, ^^ Hiiao 
rhimj. A work said to have been written according 
to the teaching of Confucius, by his disciple 
TsENG-TZu. There are however objections to this 
view, and the authorship remains uncertain. The 
work was lost at the Burning of the Books and 
recovered, like others, from a wall where it liad 



been liidden. There are two te.xts, not very dif- 
ferent but much disputed over. 

It has been translated into Englit^h with nutes 
by Imbkii in tlie Chiiii:«<- Nvcortlir, vol. x, and by 
, BiUiKi.MAN in ChincitH Hifjusituri/. vol. iv, and intu 
French by dk JIo.sny and Ciuoi. 

FILLES DE LA CHARITE, a .eh^M-ms 
Society with temporary \ows of a single year, 
founded by St. Vincent ue Pail in 1633. It was 
the first society of women to come to do Christian 
work in China. Its first work was begun in Macao 
in 1843, but the Sisters removed later to Ningpo 
and in 1863 t(j Shangliai. In Shanghai they 
furnished the mirsing staff at tlie Oeneral Hospital 
for nearly fifty years, withdrawing in 1913. They 
work in all the N'icariats which are in the care of 
Lazarists, — having the same Superior (General a< 
that Oi'der. .See Jtiiiriti^, I/ili in' tlr. 

I'|.A.S( HKI : /-<.. Mi^.<ii>li.i ih Chiiii. 

FINCHES. See I'rimiUlahn. 

FINGERNAILS. It is a custom to allowTill 
or some (ingernails t(j grow as long as po.-sible, as 
an indieation that the owner does not have to work 
with his hands. While it holds chieHy among 
women, the more wealthy, and the literary clasi-es. 
it is also affected by some poorer peojile through 
mere foppishne.ss. But in the nature of things the 
custom cannot be very wide-spread. In some cases 
silvei- sheaths are u^ed to pintect the nail.-. 

FINNISH FREE CHURCH MISSION. See 

ChiiKi Inland .l//-.y/(;/(. 

FINNISH N':iSSIONARY SOCIETY. 

Ildiilifuarli r.-' : — Hel^ingfors. FinlaiKi. 

Knt'riid China. 1901. 

Works in N. Hunan. The first mi.-isionaries 
weie Kev. H. Sjoblom and wife. 

The head station of this Mission is at ^7|| 
Tsing shih. (opened 1901) and work is also carried 
on at Tze-li *J{ :f!j, and Yung-ting /jt^, which were 
both occupied in 1907; and the Mission contributes 
one professor to the I'nion Lutheran Theological 
Seminary at She-kow, near Hankow. There are 
boys' and girls" high .schools, and a number of 
primary schools. 

In 1916. the Mission reported 22 foreign workers. 

FIRECRACKERS ttj It JIh ^' ^^'''^'h """e u.M-d 
daily in China for all kinds of celebrations, are 
manufactured in Hunan and Kiangsi. but are a 
speciality of the district of Yimpu in Kuangtung. 
between Fatshan and Canton, and of Taileung. 

The cheaj)est kind is made of gunpowder rolled 
up in coarse bamboo pajjer. with a covering of red 
paper, that being the colour of good omen. Reman 
candles, rockets, fuses, wheels, etc.. are abo made. 
Of late years alum has been used to neutralize the 
.«moke in them, 



170 



FISHES AND FISHERIES 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



Total original exportation is about 200,000 
piciils yearly, "that is, before the war, which has 
natiiraliv re'duced the manufacture. The amount 
exported abroad is not very great, though some goes 
to the United States. The export in 1916 was of 
the value Tls. 3,510,961. 

FISH (emblem). The fish is used to signify 
abuniiaiice or wealth, which arises from the words 
yu f^ fish and yii ^, .^up.Tfluity being pronounced 
alike'. Cf. lu m and lu ^, or fu i@ and fu jfiji- 

FISHERY PRODUCTS: which include, be- 
side.s lish, agar-agar, bicliodemar, isinglass, sea- 
weed, awabi, etc., have always occupied an import- 
ant place in the "sundries" item in the import list; 
in the sixties they compri.sed onetcnth of this item. 
In 1894 the import amounted to over five million 
taels. in 1934 to Tls. 8.657,000 and in 1913 to over 
TU. 15,000,000. Japan has an inijiortant f^hare of 
this total. 

FISHES AND FISHERIES. In China the 
Fish is abundant, the species are numerous, every- 
body, more or less, fishes, and everybody eats fish. 
So one would expect to find in Chinese books of 
Natural History copious details on Ichthyology. 
Moreover, there would be obvious interest, both 
scientific and sinological, in being able to determine 
the species indicated by the ancient classics. 

A.* a matter of fact, to take two examples, the 
WfS f'^^ !/" g'^'fis ^ I's'' o^ 1^ ^^ 2^ fishes which 
It is very difficult for us to identify from the mere 
text, and even with the help of actual pictures, 
an the latter du not always correspond with the 
text. The }^'^.^Q PCn ts'ao hang mu gives about 
50 fishes ; but the illustrations are very rough and 
the text inexact ; it is therefore of little value. 
More will be found, but nothing better, in general 
('hine»e works (Dictionaries, Histories, etc.); con- 
seriucntly, the Lexicons, translations, and com- 
mentaries published by Europeans have been able 
to extract from the Chinese sources no more than 
the latter contain, that is to say, some vague 
generalitie.s, and s<jme errors. 

From the sight of drawings of fishes, executed 
by Chinese artists from nature, and sent to the 
Museums of Europe, savants such as Bloch, 
LAtrPEDE, Valenciennf.s, IficnAnusoN, and Basile- 
-WHKi have been tempted to make up descriptions 
and namcK of species. It has been an almost 
fruitless labour. However, as present-day resources 
are more ample, there may be profit in taking up 
the task ognin according to the jjlan indicated 
by MoLI.ENDOurF (The Vrrtrbmtn of the Province 
of Chihli-Jourual of A'.C.n.It.A.S., 1877) : that 
is, to scientifically determine the species on the one 
hand, and, on the other, to find the Chinese name 
(or rather, names) of each species, by consulting 



fishermen and Sinology, remembering that the 
ancient classics have in mind the basin of the 
Hoangho and the shores of the Yellow Sea. 

Altogether, Europeans did not begin to know 
the ichthyological Fauna of China till the 18th 
century, through the explorers Osbeck, Hout- 
TUYN, and Thunberg, and, for sea-fishes, through 
the captains of the deep sea. In the 19th century, 
many collectors, even if they were specialists in 
other branches, sent to the Museums specimens of 
Fishes-^. Reeves, Swinhoe, Dabry de Thiersant, 
the Abbe A. David, to mention only the best 
known. The specimens sent by J. Reeves, Sen., 
serve as basis for Richardson's work, Report on 
the Ichthyology of the Seas of China and Japan, 
published in 1845. Bridgman in his Chrcstomathy 
(1841) gives a list of 246 species of Fishes with 
their Chinese names, from a series of drawings 
which he had obtained through Beale and which 
had been executed under the eye of a "foreigner." 
This foreigner was Reeves, and the drawings were 
a copy of those which Richardson had used (Cf. 
Bretschneider, Hi-?tory of European Botanical 
Discoveries in China, I, 257). In 1843, Richardson 
had published several species, especially Cantonese, 
in the Zoology of the voyage of the Sulphur. 
John Ri'SSell Reeves continued his father's work 
and sent from Macao some ichthyological specimens. 
The ichthyological collections of Swinhoe have 
been published by Gunther [Ann. and Mag. of 
Nut. Hist., Sept. 1873, pp. 240-250; Nov. 1873, 
pp. 377-380; Feb. 1874, pp. 154-160), to whom we 
owe other articles also on the Fishes of China [ibid. 
1888, pp. 429-435; 1839, pp. 218-229; 1898, pp. 
257-263). Dabry de Thiersant himself published 
a volume, La Pisciculture, at la Peche en Chine 
(Paris, 1872), with descriptions of new species. 
Unfortunately Gunther could say of this publi- 
cation : " The figures as well as the accompany- 
ing notes are the work of persons not conversant 
with the rudiments of descriptive ichthyology." 
In his preface, Dabry announced the coming 
publication of 859 species, which would have been 
the largest ever made on Chinese ichthyology. It 
was never produced ; no doubt some of these species 
appeared under the signature of Sauvage in 1873 
and 1874. The ichthyological harvest of the Abbe 
David amounts to almost nothing. Some Fishes 
sent from Kiangsi arrived in bad condition ; some 
new species were however described by Guichenot. 
The following also are entitled to a place among 
collectors : Simon, published by Guichenot and 
Bleeker/ Styan at Ningpo, published by G. A. 
Bori,ENGER; (P.Z.S., 1935, Part I, pp. 268 sqq.) ; 
Whitehead in Hainan, published by G. A. 
BouLENGER (P.Z.S., 1899, Part IV, pp. 956 sqq.); 
M. DE LA ToucHE at Chinwaugtao, published in 
the Decennial Ihports of the Chinese Customs 



180 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



FISHES AND FISHERIES 



(1902-1911), Chiiiwangtao pp. 176-179. Some other 
publications must not be omitted : B.\sii,k\vski, 
Ichthyoijraphiu Chinae bore.ulis, Pekinj^ 1852, in 
Nouv. Mem. Soc. Nat., Moscow, X, 1855; Juuan, 
in M(':m. Sue. Nat. Sc. de Cherbounj, 1866 and 
1868; Kner, in the Iteise der Oe^ttrrcichiichen 
Fri'iidtle. Nuvurra uiii die Erde, Zoologischer 
Theil, I Bd. ; Fauvel, Prumenadis d'un Nttturcdiste 
dans I'Archipd Vhusan, Cherbourg, 1881; Mollen- 
DOUFK, already cited, pp. 105-111, 1877; and part- 
icularly Bleekeii, Memoirc .s«r les cijprijioidc.-i de 
Chine, Amsterdam, 1871. One may add, On the 
Fixhi's of Yarkand, by Francis Day (P.Z.S., 1876, 
pp. 781-807) ; A Collection of Fresh-water Fishes 
from Corea, by Tate Regan (P.Z.S. 1908 pp. 59-63). 

Altogether, if to the species contained in the 
above-named works are added those of the general 
Ichthyologies, and those which are to be met with 
more or less scattered in the Reviews, we shall 
arrive with difficulty at a total of a few hundred 
species, both deep-sea and fresh-water ones. The 
Catalogue of the Fishes of Japan by D. S. Jordan, 
S. Tanaka, and J. 0. Snydek, Tokyo, 1913, totals 
1236 items. Chinese Ichthyology is still almost 
unknown. 

This is the table of the principal groups as at 
present e.stablished : 
MARSIPOBRANCHIATA. 

Lampreys certainly there are, but they have 
not yet been catalogued. 
ELASMOBRANCHIATA (Sharks, Rays). 

Selacoiuae : Proscyllium Jiaheri Hilgendorf, 
Chilosci/llium indicum Gm., Stegostoma tigrinum 
Gm., Orectolobus japonicus Regan, Cynias Manazo 
Bleeker, Sphi/r7ia zygacna L., Triakis scyllium 
M. & H., Carcharodon carcharias L. 

BatoVdae : Discobatus sinensis, Bloch, Raja 
kenojci M. & H., Pteroplatea japonica T. & S., 
Das y at is akajei and Zugei M. & H. 
CTENOBRANCHIATA. 

Order of the Ganoidea, Sub-order of the 
Cpiondbostetdea. 

Acipenseridae : 
schuricus Basil., A. 

POLYODONTIDAE 

Order of the 
Physostoma. 

SiLURiDAE : Tachysurus sinensis Lacepede, 
Parasilurus asotus L., Rhinobagrus, Liocassis, 
Liobagrus, etc. 

MYCTOrHiDAE : Avlopus elongatus T. & S. 

Salmonidae : Plecoglossus altivcUs T. & S. ; 
the existence of the Trout is probable; Osmerus 
dent ex Steind. ; Salanz chinensis Osbeck. 

EsociDAE (Pike) ; Albvla vulpcs L. 

Cldpeidae : 
Anchovies : Engraulis japonica T. & S., E. 



(Sturgeons) : Acipenser Mand- 

dabryanus Dumf.ril. 
; Psej)hurus gladius Martens. 
Teleostea, Sub-order of the 



cheluensis Gunther, etc. ; t't)i7ia «o**/.< 
T. & S., etc. 
Herrings : Clupta Kuwal T. & S., Etruiif m 

micropus T. & S. 
Shads : Iliiha elongata liENNET. 
Sardines : Sardinellu zunasi Bleekeu. 

ScoMBRESOfiDAE : TylnHUTus unastomellu C.&V., 
Ilyporainphus safari T. & S., Cypsdurun (Exoeel) 
hirundo Steind., C. bruchydactylus Gustheb. 

(.'OBiTiiUE (Loaches) : Mifgurnus anguillicaudu- 
tus GiiNTIfER. 

Cyi'RINIDae : Carp : CyprinuA carpio L. ; Gold 
fish: Carassius auratus Bleeker; Barbels: I/imi- 
barbus barbus T. & S. ; Gudgeons : (,'ubio Sauro- 
gobiu, Psetidogobio, Psettdorasboru parru T. & S., 
Sarcochilichthys .sinensis Bleeker; Breams: Flop- 
ichlhys banibusa Bleeker, Luciobrama typus 
Bleeker, Acanthobrama, Culter, IItiiiicult< r, 
7'euxabramis, Pseudolaubuca ; Bleak.s : among wliidi 
are two of the four species of ^ )^ chia yu, 
Leu'-iscus idellus Val. and L. aclhiops Basil., the 
two others being Hypophtalmichthys nobilis and 
H. molitrix Bleeker. There may also be mentioned 
the Xenocypris and the Opsariichthys, of which 
one species, O. acanlhogenys Boclenger, found at 
Ningpo by Styan and in Chihli by M. ue la Tul'che, 
rivals the Carassiua auratus in beauty. 

Sub-order of the Apoda. 

Symbranchidae : Monopterus javanirus Lac. 
^ SS? huang shan. 

Angdillidae : Anguilla bengalensis Gkav, A. 
japonica T. & S., Q |^ pai shan. 

Congehidae : Conger vulgaris Cdv. 

Murenidae : Gymnothorax reticularis Bloch. 
Sub-order of the Physoclista. 

Gadoidae : Ophiocephalug argus Cantor. 

Pleuronectidae : (Soles, Plaice.) : Zebrius 
zebrinus T. & S., Clidoderma usperrimum and 
variegatum T. & S., some Pseudorhombus, Rhin > 
pi a JUS ia, Platophrys. 

Sphyraenidae : Sphyruena pinguis GiiNTHER. 

MuGiLiDAE : Mugil cephcdus L. 

ScoMBRiDAE : (Mackerel) : Scomber diego Ayres, 
Scomberomoruj chinensis C. & V., Cybium gracilt 
GiiNTHER, Echeneis naucrates L. (Remora). 

STROM.vroi'DAE : Stromateuides argenfeus (Eujih- 
rasen). 

Carangidae : Caranx armatu.^ Forskal. 

Xii'HiiDAE : Xiphias gladius L. 

Sciaenidae : Sciaena albiflora Rich., duffumitri 
C. & v., Corvina japonica T. & S., sina and 
stmiluctuosa C. & V. , 

Percidae : Diploprion bifaaciatui, Kiiil, 
Labrax luyu Basil., Lateolabrax japonicm C. 4 V., 
Petromctopon bocnak Bloch, Pcrca fusca Tc. ; 
some Epinephelus, Lutiamis, Xiphon. 

MULLIDAE : I' pi- III II.-- Iriifniln Plf'H T' i,i iii ntdm 

subvittatus T. & S. 



181 



FISHES AND FISHERIES 



EXryCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



SeKUANIDAE : Sinij/irni rhil(lt-i and r/iun/i/'l 

Basil. 

J'lUSTii'KMATinAE : sonif //'ipalo'jefiif', Diagram- 
trill, Dfntfx. 

SpakiuaE ; S/jnnt" iirii.< T. & S.. .■'wuifionl.f 
(iuXTHEU. some Lfthrimix. I'(iijri).-«tiiiii.-:. Evynms, 
(,'irtllu. 

Chaeiodoxtidae : C/itiitn(l„ii. I'httns. Ahude.j- 
duf "itrditlui FoUSKAL. 

Balistidae : Mondrnnthiw chinengis Osbeck. 

TETUoimxTiUAE : S])fi> ruld'S .'ptidicru-^ (RirH.), 
nreUnlH/- (OsBEf'K). rilhrij/)'' T. & S. 

ScoRl'AEXlDAE : .s<7ya.«7/>ri/x mnriiionit u< ('. & Y., 
SfhanftK iii<jn>inaculutu.i GiiXTHER. Pflnr jnponicum 
and "ineiiif ('. & V., SroriiiniDjj^i", Hdnltripterux. 

CoTTiUAE (Miller's Thumb) : some ('i>ri/tocoftu.<, 
Triirhidiriii irhtliyi', M jinxocPithnhif. Mi'ijalocottus, 
I'ltnu-itttuK, yrffl/iir, /'.<i/c/indii/is. /'lot !/cepfiidij<. 
Thiji'iiniiphrii''. 

TitKiLIDAE (Hfd Curiiets) : ( '/iil/idi>iii<:/i//i;/< 
lii/iiii Less. & (Jakx.. /.'/^Idofriiftn rdnta Hovtt. 
viiiruptirii liiiXTHEH. 

(Jastkosteidae ( Sticklebacks ) : (Jii.<tro.<teu.< 
'Uim-'i.' GVKHENOT. 

Sy.VOXATHlDAE : Si/iiiJIiilf/iil-' a<tl-:iindis liiiXTH., 

// i/j/)itrfiiii/ju-< hixfrix Kwv. 

TitACHixiUAE : Si/liii/ti j(ipii/iii(i T. & S.. Tjdtihi" 

liunitll.< KlSHIXOl'YE. 

I.OI'HIIIIAE (Frog fi.sh) : Liij,fiii)i:ilillS Srfiijflll.< 

Vahi.. 

(JoBllKAE : Moijiiriidd iflj-'riirii T. & S., I'jl<<itri< 
uxyri iJiidn T. & S., i'iiiciigii Lac, poinatopfiila and 
'•wiiifiiiiii" GiiXTHER, A/i'irri/pfff c/tiiifiixin OsBECK, 
/'rriofi/if/ifdiinix i-niit<mfu.<i.< Osbeck, sc/ilosseri and 
kiirlrriilrri 1'all.. Acfmtfioi/oblii» hn.<(n and flnri- 
iiKiiiiiii 'V . & S.. C/Kifturicfit/iyif atiijmatiu-i Rich., 
larititil iif (JiiXTHER, Lop/ii<K/ohl im ocellirtiudn 
(illXTHEU, l'iirniiirri.< /jidr/ifl/tl T. & S., Ciilliiirir/i- 
Ihy.' iditluA (luXTHER, jiipiinir iiii Hol'TT. 

('EIMjLII»AE : Ariitil/n'iij/iilii liiiihri/ii ( '. Hz V. 
Lrturnnlrrnt 'Y . ts. S. 

IlKll.ltiM.KriDOTAE : A'/Kllii III II-- ni/niiiiiiiii.f 'I'.&S., 
t'hini' ht xiiijrniiiiiiii!* I'all. 

BlexxiuiaE : h'.riiiHjniiiiinus hisiiiirijiiiiiiii.< T. & S.. 
Aiiitrr/iii/iiiK fiiniiiilii.i Bi.EEKER. 

Masta<K.mbki.iiiae : Mn-turvmbihis .sini'ii<i.< 
Blkckeh. 

ThI'-HII'IUIiAE : 'I'lirhiui W jiipi>iiiiii.< T. & S. 

liiiiLi<)(iKAi*HY : In iidilitioM to works already 
named, .\'otiir» ^ur liK piiiiluri.< vhinolxi's dis 
I'lfpriiiiiUlfH dtpiiinfn nil Mukiiiiii dr I' I' iiirvrfiit^ 
di Cr, mi injur pnr M . J. Sunn run liiiM (Amst. 
VernlaK. Acad. VL 1872. |)p. 117 121).--PEnNY : 
Appindirr nil I>i< tinnnnin fninriuM l(itiii-chinoi.<>, 
//i-l;irr initiinlh, 5e I'art., /r/itfii/nlnijic, 
pp. 67 74, (rather inaccurate). Cuvier et 
VALESriEXNES : Hiftniri- nnturtlh dea Puixsonx. 



Mollendokff : Tniuf" in China (China Review, 
vol. vii, pp. 276-278). [There appears to be a 
true species of Trout, with the Chinese name 
Jjgfi^^ /i.-.-i" //■// _(///]. Temminck & SCHLEOEL : Fnitnn 
joponica, Pisces, Amsterdam 1850. On the 
f'l/pri/iiig (luratu.-s L. , commonly called the Goldfish, 
may be read Cuv. and Val., op. cit., vol. 16, 
pp. 101-121. W. F. Mayers, Goldfish Cultivation 
(Notes and Queries on C. & J. , vol. ii, pp. 123-124), 
Lfok Vaillant in Ihill. Sue. Ace, 1893, pp. 488-498, 
etc. (Cf. CoRDiETt, BibHotheca Sinica. 2nd edition, 
cols. 387-528. 1536-1538 and 3078). [F.C.] 

FISHEiUES and I'ISCICULTURE. 

It is inaccurate to say that Fishing is not 
regulated by law in China ; but as a matter of fact 
it is ruled less by the code than by custom. These 
customs are as burdensome and as tyrannical as 
the strictest law, but at the same time, they are 
fre(juently excellent, as for instance the one which 
prohibits fishing at the spawning period. They 
hardly aftect any but professional fishermen, while 
the law is concerned only with fishing on a large 
scale- — and little enough with that. Amateurs are 
practically e.xemjjt from all restrictions. In 
general, one might say that the ri'ijime tjf the 
Chinese fisherman is absolute liberty, tempered by 
competition and by the demands of the authorities. 

All the implements of fishing known in Eurojie 
are in use in China : floating lines, sinking lines, 
motiordess lines — with and without bait, harpoons 
with 3, 5, and 7 teeth, different small nets in all 
their varieties, s(juare nets of all sizes, conical 
weighted hand-nets, triangular sand-nets, trij)le- 
nieshed nets, wicker snares and wire-baskets, and 
various drag nets. We may note as rather special 
what have been called hanmier-fishing, mirror-fish- 
ing, and cormorant-fishing, with some other in- 
genious methods and some intelligent industries. 

The world of fishermen is, as it were, a social 
class apart, curious to study, and fairly exclusive 
as also is the fishing population of the coasts of 
Europe, and jierhaps also that of the small river 
boats. The work makes severe, sometimes very 
severe demands, but it also brings with it many 
hours of i-est, and altogether suits the character 
of the (,'hinese labourer fairly well. As for the 
profits, they vary; they depend, to a large e.xtent 
on the man's professional skill ; they seem to 
suffice for a livelihood, but, in general, no more. 

In spite of very active fishing operations, fishes 
do not seem to diminish in the Chinese waters. 
One of the causes of this is the care which is 
taken from time to time to jjour fry into depopulat- 
ed streams and canals. As a private industry, this 
practice has received the name of Pi.sciculture, or, 
from those who might consider that term rather 
ambitious, that of A(|uicultui'e. Fish go up the 



1^2 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



FIVE ELEMENTS 



large river-;, often very liigh up. to .'^pawn ; .special 
men gather the eggs, surround tlieni witli special 
precaution.-^, feed and tend tlie young fish which 
hatch out, and. transporting these "water-chickens" 
by boat, send them at low price to the owners of 
lakes, ponds, and of any pieces of water. These 
owners, once they have put the fry into their fish- 
ponds, have merely to wait for the develojiment of 
the fish, which takes two years for the species 
thus cultivated. At the end of this time, individ 
ual fish of from 8 to 10 lbs. are caught. Authors 
a.ssert that with time tliey would reach the weight 
of from 25 to 50 lbs. ; but for more than one 
reason, this would be of no practical advantage. 

The species admitted into the fi.sh-ponds, the 
domestic fishes, §^ j^ r/uV/ yii, are Jji'uri.«:ii.<i idiUu'< 
\'\i,., rlrinij l/ii^'^\: I', (icthiop.^ Ba.^IL. , l-f'ao yii 
^^ li'i"i> .'/'' ISSiM.'y H illi<>l'}ilfi<if>iiK'litJiij< noOi/i.< 
Ulkkkkk, //"//.'/ //(/ jl^^ /'"";/ (/"'") '■"" .'/'' iifiM'^i. 

(M M,) ? ^^ ■ """''/'''•'■ l^LKKKER, //'('// /Zli j/ii, pi i Hi n 

fzi'i yii (fl) jl^-f-^ To the same distinction the 
carp, ('yjjii/iiix tdijtio \j., li. yii fel 1?5.) 's often 
admitted, and sometimes the ()/t/il<ip/iii{i/.< iiiiiii< 
Cantor, hei yii |5^. 

Among the best fish for the table may be 
mentioned the Shad, Alait-<n c/ir yii Dabhy, 
sfiifi yii j^}^, .some jjerches, or rather, some Basses 
and some i)erch-pikes, Labrax luyii Basil, ht yii 
|g^ ; J^<ilfi)l<ihr(tx jriponicu.<, (C-. & V.). In. yii. 
ill Izii yii fi^ -f- ^ : some sea-perches, Siitipirnt 
i/nifi/.<i and ilniiiuf.<i Bash,, hon l.ii yii ^fEi?^ and 
Jiiiniiif /.-•( .'/M^|5|^.. the Blue Kiver .sturgeon, 
Aciprii-irr dabiyonu-s Dvmf.KIL, luiunq yii j^ j|f. ; 
some Corbs, Corvina sina, ahih cheou yii, ^ "g ^. ; 
the Belt-fish, Tiichiui w //ipii?iirus T. & S. tai yii 
^^ m. etc. 

BiBLioGiiAi'HV : — Dabhy he Thiersant op. cit. ; 
Facvel op. cit. ; Pol Korrigan, Causerie sur la 
Pf'rhc fluvialp. en Chine, Shanghai, 1909; Morrisox, 
Notes on the Physical A-<peets and on the Food- 
fixhe.< of the Lino Basin (in Ann. Xat. Hist. 1898, 
pp. 257-263); Cordier, nil//, si,,., col. 3078/80. 

[F.C] 

FIVE CLASSICS, THE, i^i^ wu ching. The 
five canntiical hooks which, with the Four Books 
(<].v.), constitute what are called the Chinese 
('lassies. They are the / ^ cJiimj, or Book of 
Changes; the Shih ^ chimj, or Book of Odes; the 
Shu § ehimj or Book of History; the Li Chi jg f^ 
or Canon of Eites ; the Ch'un Ch'iu # jf^ij (Springs 
and Autumns) or Annals (of Confucius). This 
arrangement dates from the Han dynasty. 

See under each name. 

FIVE DYNASTIES, Epoch of the, jG. f^ 
wu tai. A period of 53 years with five ephemeral 
dynastit^< bet^ppn the T'ang nnd Sung periods. 



The art of block printing is said to have been 
invented in the Posterior Tang. The five dynasties 
with their rulers are as follows. 

Dyn. Title Accession Keign Title Adopted 

The Posterior l.,iang Dynasty 

T'ai Tsu :*:isn 907 K'ai Ping Ba-'^907 

Ch'ien Hua $£1^911 

Mo Ti or>|t^ur*fj^ Cheng Ming |'[IU1 915 

Chun Wang 913 Lung T6 g^J^! 921 

The I'ostcrior Tang Dynasty ^^ Iji fc. 
Chuang Tsung j£E:« 923 T'ung Kuang ^^ 923 
Ming Tsung 51]'^ 926 T'ien ('h'eng J^jfi 926 
(hang Hsing £f| 930 
Mill Ti lS5ff933 Ying Shun Blilfi 9.W 

Fei Ti or®.i^o. (^3f; 

I.M Wang 934 Ch'ing T'ai ip.iJ 934 

i'lie Posterim- Chin Dynasty ^^Ig. 
Kao Tsu i;*^' U. 936 T'ien !• "u ;^jij 936 

Ch'u 'I'i 1)1- {H ^r or 
Shao Ti dv A; ^ or 
Chi Wang »^ 3i 942 Kai Vnn K]iS 944 

The Po>teiior Han Dynasty ^JJ^lE. 
Kao Tsu ^ II 947 Tien Fu >c»a 936 

Ch'ien Yu f^jj^ 948 
Yin Ti 1% ^ 948 Ch'ien Yu ^^ft 948 

The Posterioi- ('hou Dynasty ^kJ?3IG- 
T'ai T.su ;*:all 950 Kuang Shun gidfi 951 
Shih Tsung itt:^ 954 Hsien Te K'6|.954 
(already in use 
under T'ai Tnu). 
Knng Ti '^^^ 959 Hsien Te g'^. 960 

FIVE ELEMENTS, THE, i \^ ; the five con 
stituent es.sences of manifested nature, viz : — Metal, 
Air, Fire, Water, Wood. They are specified in the 
most ancient philosophic document in China ("The 
Great Plan" ; see Astruloyy) and have ever since 
been considered to be the fundamental forni.s of 
matter, ju.st like the four elements of Greek philoso- 
phy {cf. Plato's Timaeus). In post-Confucian times 
they wei*e associated with Yin and Yang (q.v.), and 
the Sung school (particularly Chou Tcx i and 
Chu Hsi) expounded a scheme of cosmogonic 
genealogy as follows : — 

T'AI ("HI ("Cr.iit Limit ■■ or fUimatci 



riVK EI.KMKX T.s 

I 
THE M.VXIFOI.D' 

According to Chu Hsr, the five elefhents arc 
not identical with the five objects whoso nartie.< 
they bear but are subtle essences whose nature is 
however hest nianife-ted bv those fiv»? objects. 



183 



FIVE ELEMENTS 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



The five elements are identified with the five planets and a complete scheme of affinities or 
"corrcspondcne3s" has been developed as shown in the following table. 



'Same 


'J'''ii Yaii'j T'ui Yin 

Great Great 

Positive ' Negative 




Shao Yin 
The Lesser Negative 




<S7;o« Yung 
Lesser 
Positive 


Star 


Jih T'ou 
Sun 


Yu,h 
Moon 


Shui Using 
Mercury 


Chin Using 
Venus 


HvoH-<ing 
Mars 


Mu Using 
Jupiter 


'T'u Using 
Saturn 


Using 
Fi.xed stars 


Quality 


Hot 


Cold 






Dark 






Light 


Number 


Nine 


Six 






Eight 






Seven 


Feature 


Eyes 

Fang ^ 
Hsu 11 
Mao IS 
lining 25 


Ears 






Mouth 






Nose 


Zodiacal 

Lunar 

Astcrisms 

Nos. 1 to 28 


Hsin 5 

Wri 12 

Pi 19 

Chang 26 


Chi 7 

Pi u 

Shin 91 
Ckfn 28 


K'ang 2 
Niu 9 
Lou 16 
Kuei 23 


Wei 6 
Shih 13 
Tsui 20 
Yi 27 ' 


C/iio 1 
Tou 8 
K'uci 15 
Ching 22 


Ti S 
Nii 10 
Wei 17 
Liu 2 If 


Organ 




Spleen or 
Kidneys 


Lungs 


Heart 


Liver 


Stomach 


Taet« 






Salt 


Pungent 


Bitter 


Sour 


Sweet 


Colour 




Black 


White 


Red 


Green 


Yellow 


Element 


Positive 
Breath 


Negative 
Breath 


Water 


Metal 


Fire 


Wood 


Earth 


Parent 
Element 


Yin 


Yang 


Mclal 


Earth 


Wood 


Water 


Fire 


Child 
Element 


Yin 


Yang 


Wood 


Water 


Earth 


Fire 


Metal 


Enemy 


Earth 


Fire 


Water 
Metal 


Metal 


Wood 


Friend 




Fire 


Wood 


Earth 


Water 


Earthly cj 
"blcms" 


i^clic characters (or 
Nos. 1 to 10) 


Jen + 9 

Kuei —10 

North 


Kcng + 7 

11 sin — S 

West 


I'xng +S 

Ting -^ 

South 


Wu + 5 

Chi ■ - 6 

East 


CUa +; 
Yi —2 
Middle 


Cele«tial cyclic characters (or 
"branches" Nos. 1 to 12) 


Ilai 12 
Tzu 1 
Ch'ou 2 


Shin 9 
Yu 10 
Shu 11 


Ssu 6 
Wu 7 
Wei S 


Yin 3 
Mao 1). 
Ch'en 5 


In 

the 
Centre 


Earthly au.il ,-u(s (co 
inK to the fU-nif) 


rrcppond- 

jues (cor- 
jranchcfl) 


Billow 
Stream 


Weapon 
Cauldron 


Torch 
Lamp 


Fir 
Bamboo 


Mountain 
Plain 


(.'cicstial or 

r'^'pondir 


vital analof 

K to the 


Bear 
Hat 
Ox 


Tiger 

Hare 

Dragon 


Serpent 
Horse 
Goat 


Monkey 
Cock 
Dog 




Musical N{ 

Hank 

Quality 


>tcs 


La 

Things 
Knowlcdj^e 


Re 

Minister 
Uightcous- 

n(-:;s 


So 
Affairs 
Worship 


Mi 

Subject 

Love 


Do 
Prince 
Faithful- 

ne.ss 



The (hineso theories of meteo..,l.,gy. physics, alchemy, astrology, aesthetics and medicine arc all 
ba..€d nn those .r.r.rs,,. „rl.„, ,.. rombined with the "Pa Kua" [q.v.). 

lf^4 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



FLOWER BOATS 



All interesting analogy with the Sephiroth of 
the Jewish Kabbalah is pro\ided by the Five 
elements each with dual polarities, making Ten 
emanations in all. 

The "Map of the (Yellow) River" and "the 
writing of the Lo (River)," which consist of certain 
arithmetical combinations of numbers, are universal- 
ly associated with the Five Elements. 

f^MU's : Chinese Philosojihij. [H.C.] 

FIVE GRAINS, THE, 2.^ 'f" /■"; hemp, 
niilli't, lice, loiu, and beans. 

FIVE REGIONS. Chiiui wa.s divided by 
I'ujje Leo XIJI in 1376 into five ecclesiastical 
regions or synodal regions. For the list of 
V'icariats belonging to each region see Planchet ; 
for tlie decree see DE MoiDnEY. 

Planchet : Les Mhsiojis clc Chine; dk 
JMoini'.F.Y : La Jliiinrrhie CatJioJupte en Chine, 

FIVE RELATIONS 3ifj&, wu lun, the five 
cardinal relations among men, according to Con- 
fucianism, viz., those of husband and wife; father 
and son ; elder and younger brother ; prince and 
officer ; friend and friend. 

FIVE RULERS, AGE OF, 3ifr|[l If'w Ti Chi 
(B.C. 2852-2205), is chiefly legendary. This period 
was governed by nine rulers, of whom the following 
five are famous and give the name to the period. 
Fu Hsi, who is said to have invented picture- 
writing, instituted laws of marriage, taught fishing 
and rearing of domestic animals, and the rudiments 
of music ; Shen-Nung, who taught husbandry and 
the u.se of medicinal herbs ; Huang-Ti, who invented 
the cycle of sixty, built vessels and fi.xed weights 
and measures, while his wife taught the people to 
rear silk-worms and weave silk. The period of 
Yao and his two successors is regarded as the 
Golden Age in China. Shun, instituted religious 
rites, sacrificed to Heaven and formulated rules of 
divination and a code of punishments. 
Dynastic Appellation Personal Appellation 

2953 



-f^^XS Fu-hsi Shih 
jg'^i^ P'ao-hsi Shih 

%^fASz Shen-nung Shih 2838 
5i|lL|J5 l.,ieh-shan Shih 

'^WtHz Yu-hsiimg Shih 2698 
$?ls£t Hsien-yiian Shih 

^JLih Chin-t'ien Shih 2598 

\%^3iSk Kao-yang Shih 2514 

%^Si Kao-hsin Shih 2436 

2366 

^^^ T'ang Ti Yao FSlIf J^ T'aot'ang Shih 2357 

^ Yii Ti Shun ^£^15 Yii-vii Shih .2255 



X 


^ T'ai Hao 


-k 


^ Yen Ti 


n 


it?- Huang Ti 


^ 


^ Shao Hao 


M 


^ Chuan Hsii 


^r 


m Ti K'u 


^ 


^ Ti Chih 



FIVE SACRED MOUNTAINS 3L t^ wu yo. 

These are, the eastern, ^ jlj T'ai Shan in Shantung ; 
the southern. ^ jlj Heug Shan in Hunan ; the west- 
ern, ^ lU Hua Shan in Shcnsi ; the northf.'rn, '|g |lj 

21 



Heng Shan in Cliiiili ; and ihe central, t\i (If Chung 
'. Shan in Honan. 

They are among the chief places of pilgrimage 
in China. They are connected chiefly with the 
Taoi.st religion, though their fame and sanctity 
date further back than Taoism. They must not be 
confounded with the Four Sacred mountains of 
Buddhism. See T'ai Shan, etc. 

FLAGS J]£ c/t'i, are of very ancient use in 
(liin.i. Tliu founder of the Chou dynasty (12th 
century b.c) marched to the conquest of China 
with a white flag in or at his right hand. 

There are many references to them in later 
ancient history; they were carried in hunting as 
well as in war. 

Paiikeh : Ancient China Sinijjli/irU, p. 31: 
China Review, vol. xv, pp. 52, 253. 

FLEUVE BLEU, LE, the Blue River, the 
Frencii name for the lower course of the Yangtze. 

FLINT, Mr., an employe of the East India 
I'oiiipaiiy, whose Christian name seems to have dis- 
appeared from the earth ; he was almost tlio 
first Englishman who qualified himself to act as 
interpreter. He seems to have been known to the 
Chinese as ^^M Hung jcn-hui. In 1755 he was 
.sent to Ningpo and Chusan, with a view to opening 
up trade. Difficulties were made, of course, and 
a memorial was sent to the throne. Cu'ien Lung 
i.«sued in reply the edict which strictly confined al! 
foreign trade (except Russian) to the one port of 
( 'auton. The ofliicials then ordered and forced the 
English to leave Ningpo. Flint, however, went 
north instead of south, and was the first Englishman 
to set foot in Tientsin. He persuaded a local 
mandarin to present his petition to the Emperor, 
with the result that a high official was sent to 
Canton to investigate matters, and the Hoppo was 
degraded. 

Flint seems to have gone a second time to 
Ningpo after the Edict which closed it to trade; 
at any rate, on his return to Canton in December, 
1759, he was ordered into the Viceroy's presence, 
and was shown what was said to be an imperial 
edict, condemning him to three years' imprisonment 
at Macao, and to be then sent away to England. 
A protest was made by all nationalities in Canton, 
and full particulars were sent to the Court of 
Directors in London. A special mission was sent 
from the Directors to the Viceroy of Canton, but 
it was a failure in all respects : Flint remained in 
prison till the third year, and -was then jtut on 
board a homeward-bound vessel. 

Eames : The En<jli<h in China; Davis : China. 

FLOWER BOATS, hua finj^^m, gaily- 
decorated and painted barges, found especially at 



185 



FLOWER PECKERS 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



Canton, and used as pleasure resorts, for suppers, 
wine-parties, etc. They are much frequented by 
prostitutes but are not used as brothels. 

ScuLEfJKL : A Canton Floicer-Boat, London, 1894. 

FLOWER-PECKERS. See Dicacum. 

FLOWERY KINGDOM, THE, a name used 
by foreigners for China, in consequence of the 
Chinese using /tua ^, which means flowers, as a 
name for the country: Chung fiuatp^, 'central 
hu'i' being the usual form. 

FLUTES. See Musical Instruments. 

FLYCATCHERS. See Muscicapidae. 

FLY-WHISK, called "yak's tail" ^M 
chu wci, is a whisk of horse-hair or vegetable fibre 
used by Buddhist and Taoist priests. In Buddhism 
it signifies obedience to the first commandment — not 
to kill. In Taoi.sm it is regarded as an instrument 
'A magic. Its origin is Indian. Many Buddhist 
images are represented holding it. 

Yetts : Disposal of Buddhist Dead in China, 
(U.A.S. Journal, 1911); De GnooT : Lc Code du 
Mnhiiifiina tn Chine. 

FOGO, FUGUJ, FUGU, names found in the 
Catalan Atlas for Foochow. 

FO KUO CHI ^KIE. See Fa Ilsien. 

FONTANEY, JEAN PE ^it^^, born Feb- 
ruary 14, 1643, in tlie diocese of Leon. He was 
the Superior of the five Jesuit priests sent to China 
by Ix>uis XIV. 

They left Brest on March 1685 and arrived 
in Siam in September. After nine months there 
they left for China, but on account of storms had 
to return. Learning then that the Portuguese were 
oppoFfd to their landing at Macao, they took 
ship for Ningpo, and arrived there in July, 1687, 
more than two years after leaving France. Three 
monthH later the five missionaries were ordered by 
the EmjM'ror to go to Peking. After working in 
Nanking for some time and making a journey to 
Canton to seek justice from the Portuguese who 
did all in their power to hinder the work of the 
French, Fontaney again went to Peking. He 
returned twice to Europe on mission business, in 1699 
and 1703, and finally in 1720 according to Remusat ; 
but this must be an error ; see below. At bis first 
return he brought home some Chinese books which 
were deposited in the King's Library. He did no 
imj)cirtant literary work ; there are two letters from 
him in the I^ritrf^ Fdi/iuntrs, volumes vii and viii ; 
he aI«o contributed .some memoranda to Do Halde's 
work. He died at La Fleche on January 16, 1710. 
I{r..Mi'SAT : Nouvcaux Melanges Asiatiques. 

FOOCHOW iS^, the capital of Fukien, in 
Ut. 25", 59' N. ; long. 119o,27' E., on the Min river, 



34 miles from the sea ; st€amers anchor at Pagoda 
Island, nine miles below the city. 

Foochow is a literary and administrative centre, 
but has also considerable industries and trade. 
The best known of the former is the celebrated 
lacquerware, the preparation of which is secret. 
The output has increased very much of late, owing 
to e.xtended demand. Tobacco and fruit are other 
products extensively cultivated ; and paper, from 
the bamboo groves which are a feature of Fukien, 
is a very important industry. The timber, camphor 
and tea trades have declined very largely, camjjhor 
especially having been practically extinguished by 
wanton wastefulness. A match factory and two 
saw-mills deal with timber products. 

The population is given as 624,000. 

1915 1916 

Net Foreign Imports 5,527,777 6,583,194 

Net Chinese „ 4,638,961 4,002,382 

Exports 9,081,041 9,529,034 

Total Hk.Tls. 19,247,'779 20,114,610 

FOOTBINDING. The Chinese have the 
custonj of com])ressiiig the feet of girl children 
with tight linen bandages. Great pain is given 
in the process, and the result is a completely de- 
formed foot and the gait of a cripple. The custom 
does not obtain among Manchus, Hakkas, hill-tribes 
of China and Formosa, or the boat population of 
Canton ; otherwise in most provinces it is practically 
universal. 

The origin of the custom is unknown, though 
it is attributed to one imperial concubine or another 
of 10 or 15 centuries back. Such various dates and 
persons are named in this connection that it does 
not seem worth while to mention any of them. 

The pi'actice was forbidden by K'ang Hsi in 
1664, but the prohibition was withdrawn four 
years later. 

The binding of a girl's feet begins between the 
ages of five and eight. Bandages of strong white 
cotton cloth, 3 inches wide and 6 feet long, are 
wound tightly round the foot, bending the four 
little toes under the sole, so as to narrow the foot. 
These bandages are tightened every day, causing 
great pain to the child, who is compelled to 
keep walking so as not to let the circulation cease. 
After the first year the foot is bandaged in a 
different manner, the heel being drawn tightly up 
to the ball of the great toe, so as to shorten the foot. 
The fashionable length is 3 Chinese inches. The 
bandages are so placed that the foot does not form 
an angle with the leg, but seems a prolongation of 
it. The bones of the instep are made to bulge and 
form an arch resembling the crescent moon. The 
foot and leg atrophy and the skin shrivels. A 
Chinese writer has declared that one girl out of ten 



18G 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



FOREIGN RELATIONS 



dies from the after-effects of foot-binding, sup- 
puration and gangrene often occurring," causing the 
limb to fall off. During the last decade or two 
there has been a great change in the practice of 
this barbarous custom. See Anti-foutbindiiifj ; 
(Ti)ldcn Lilies. 

Chinese Repository : vol. iii, p. 537 ; Gray : 
Chiiiii ; Giles : Historic China; Fau East : Feb., 
1877 ; Report of Peking Hospital : 1868 ; Mrs. 
A. LriTLE : Intimnte China. 

FORBES, FRANCIS BLACKWELL, an 

American, came to China with the diplomatic mis- 
sion of W. B. Reed of the U.S.xl. in 1857. He was 
afterwards a merchant in Shanghai (Russell & Co.). 
He was President of the N.C.B. Royal Asiatic 
Society for some years, and helped to build the 
Society's premises in Shanghai. Being an enthusi- 
astic botanist he began in 1886, in the Linnoean 
Society's Journal, An Enumeration of all the -plants 
known from 'China Proper, etc., now known as 
Forbes and Hemsley's work. He died at Bostoh 
in 1903. 

Bretschneider : History of European Botan- 
ical Discoveries in China. 

FOREIGN CHRISTIAN MISSIONARY So- 
ciety. 

Headquarters : — Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.A. 

Entered China, 1886. 

Works in Kiangsu, Anhui and Ssuch'uan. 

This Society repi-esents a denomination whose 
members wish to be known as 'Disciples of Christ,' 
3r more simply still, ' Christians.' 

Kiangsxi. — The first missionary to be sent to 
China was W. E. Macklin, m.d., a Canadian. He 
was shortly after joined by several other workers, 
including Rev. A. F. H. Shaw, an Englishman, 
(who died afterwards of typhus fever, contracted 
while doing famine relief work), and Rev. F. E. 
Meigs (died 1915). Nanking was chosen as the 
sphere of work, and a hospital and di-spensary were 
started near the Drum Tower, and another dispen- 
sary on the further side of the city, near the South 
Gate. 

A boys' boarding-school was also opened, 
which later became the Nanking Christian College, 
and afterwards developed (1) into the Union Christ- 
ian College, in confunction with the American 
Presbyterians, and (2) in 1909 w&s merged with the 
Methodist University into the Univer.«ity of Nan- 
king. 

The building up of a church and opening of 
outstations were begun at once, and Or girls' school 
was started in 1892.' 

In 1915, the Chinese Church of the Mission 
At Hsia-kwan, the Port of Nanking, erected a $1,000 
school building on their own land at their own 
expense. 



An extension of work in Kiangsu was begun 
at Shanghai by Rev. James Wake in 1890, especially 
in the mill di.strict. The manager of the Chinese 
mills later presented the Mission with a school- 
building in appreciation ol it.-< work. A school and 
Christian Institute were worked for some years in 
Hongkew, but, the Mission having decided to con- 
-solidate its work by confining it to Mandarin- 
speaking districts, the Shanghai workers were 
gradually transferred, and the work itself closed 
in 1917. . 

Nan T'ung chouff^i^^H, on the north bank of 
the Yangtze, 75 miles from the sea, was opened 
in 1895. 

Anhui.—The original plan of the Mission was 
to run a line of stations north from Nanking to 
Kai-feng fu, and with that in view, work was 
begun at Chu chow Jg;. ^ in Anhui on the north 
side of the Yangtze in 1887, and at Feng-yang fu 
in 1889, but the latter place had to be given up for 
a time, as the missionaries were stoned out and 
their landlord put in prison. Since then the 
American Presbyterian Mission (North) has opened 
up the di.strict, and it was therefore left to them. 
In 1903 Po chow was opened, but owing to the 
lack of missionaries, the work could not be con- 
tinued. Wuhu was opened in 1889, and VVu-wei 
chou ^J^jl'li, at first an outstation from Wuhu, 
in 1915, and Lu-chou fu M^ljff. the ancestral 
home of Li Hung-chang, in 1897. A church, 
capable of seating 800 people, was opened in the 
last-named place in 1915. 

Ssilch'uan. — Batang gj, ^ was opened in 1903, 
where 8 workers, including two medical men, carry 
on with gratifying success their medical, evangel- 
istic, and educational work. 
Statistics, 1917 :— 

Foreign missionaries 48 

Chinese Staff 148 

Communicants 1,440 

FOREIGN RELATIONS WITH CHINA. 
The intercourse of China with Eunipoan nations 
will be found under separate headings (see Spanu>h 
Relations, French Relations, etc.) ; but it is neces- 
sary to give a brief sketch which shall include other 
and earlier intercourse. 

The Sinim of Isaiah and the Sinae of Ptolemy 
may or may not refer to the Chinese : the question 
seems still undecided. But there is no doubt that 
both Pliny and Ptolemy write of them under the 
name Seres {q-v.). It is also generally agreed that 
the Chinese Ta Ch'in ix.^ means the Roman 
Empire, or at least the Syrian Province. Greek 
classical writers also make undoubted reference to 
China (.see Cosmos; Taw/as) and it is thus t\mt«t 
certain that at the beginning of our era there were 
trade routes acro.ss Central Asia open between 
Europe and the Far East. That conditions in 



187 



FOREIGN RELATIONS 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



Turkestan were very different in former days from 
those of to-day is proved by recent excavations, 
which show a high state of culture to have once 
existed in that region. 

In the second century traders began to come 
by sea also ; and in the seventh factories in Canton 
and elsewhere were opened by Arabs, duties began 
to be exacted, and an overseer of foreign trade wa* 
established at Canton. 

In the seventh century, Ne.storian missionaries 
came to China, and have left proof of their presence, 
in the Hsi-an fu tablet. 

Two Arabs, Wahab and Abc Zaid, have left 
reKords of their visits in the ninth century, and on 
the other liand we have the narratives of travel 
t(i India by Buddhist pilgrims, beginning with 
Fa Hsien in a.d. 400. 

During the Tang dynasty (618-907) both Arabs 
and Persians had a large trade at Ningpo, Hang- 
chow, Ch'iian chow (Zaitun) and Canfu (near 
Hangchow). Abu Zaid narrates that at the 
rapture of Canfu in 877, there were a hundred and 
twenty thousand Mohammedans, Jews, Christians, 
I'arsees, etc., all engaged in commerce. During the 
Sung dynasty, according to the standard histories, 
there was a vast amount of trade, especially with 
the Arabs, whose busine.«s centre was at Palernbang 
in Sumatra, and there was also active sea traffic 
with Shantung. Chinese vessels certainly went as 
far as Zanzibar. 

The conquests of Chenchis Khan opened the 
ivay for many travellers ; RuBnrQUis, Odoric, 
MoNTEcoRvi.so, and Marco Polo being the best 
known. 

A change took place on the setting up of the 
Ming dynasty, whose chief aim was to make all 
neighbouring countries tributary to the purely 
Chinese dynasty. Naval activity did not promote 
rommerrial intercourse, and for the first hundred 
and fifty years of Ming rule there is hardly the 
(•lightest foreign intercourse recorded except out- 
ward expeditions and the coming of tribute bearers. 
The land routes were closed ])y the hostility of the 
Mongols and tlie Yiinnanese. 

In 1511 the Portuguese took Malacca, and in 
1516 Ai.BrgrKiiQrE sent I'erestuello to Canton. 
Ne.\t year Keunaxdo Peiiez de Andiiaue with eight 
vettitelH was .sent and was well received. But his 
brother Simon arrived in 1518, and proceeded tc 
fortify Sanshnn ('/.v.) and to act the pirate. He 
wan expelled. Other Portuguese settled in Ch'iian 
chow and Ningpo, but were slaughtered or driven 
out in 1545 and 1549. because of their lawless and 
outrageouB conduct. Menkez Pinto's excursion to 
rifle the tombs of the .xeventeen Chine.Me kings, may 
be taken as a sample of I'ortuguese behaviour. 
They made their footing good again at Sanshan, 
I-anipncao, and finally at Macao, wlun- tluv h.nvo 



remained ever since. Their intercourse with China 
until recent times has been almost entirely com 
niercial, not political. 

In 1582, RrcGiERO, the Jesuit missionary, suc- 
ceeded in doing what Xavier wished to do, and 
entered China ; Ricci in 1601 reached Peking and 
opened the long chapter of modern Christian Mis- 
sions in China. Spaniards from the newly-seized 
Philippines made some slight attempt to enter 
China, but most of their trade at first was with 
certain Chinese who were in Manila before the 
Spaniards, and whose junks came from Foochow 
and Anioy. In 1603 and in 1662 there were immen.-e 
massacres of Chinese in the Philippines, due both 
times to Spanish fear lest China ."should conquer 
the islands. 

The Dutch came next, at enmity of course 
with Spain and hence with Portugal at that time. 
They attacked Macao, but were rejjulsed. They 
then occupied an island of the Pescadores. This 
the Chinese made them exchange in 1634, for a 
settlement in Formosa, (which did not belong to 
China). They were driven out by Koxinga in 1662, 
and had comparatively little to do with China 
afterwards, though they sent one or two Missions, 
and, according to Chinese accounts, promised, in 
1655, to send tribute every eight years. 

Russian intercourse with China had begun earl- 
ier than the Dutch, but it was, of course, overland. 
At first Russians were no doubt nothing more to 
the ('hinese than another barbarous tribe of the 
north from Western Asia. In the Yiian dynasty 
Russian mercenary guards were used at court ; but 
Russia is entirely absent from the records of the 
Ming period. Russian history, however, relates 
that envoys were sent to Peking without result in 
1557, 1619, and 1653. Difficulties between the two 
nations on the Amur led to the Treaty of 
Nertchinsk in 1689, China's first treaty with a 
foreign power. A second treaty was made with 
Russia in 1727, when the Russian Ecclesiastical 
Mission was established in Peking, though it pro- 
bably originated earlier. 

The English appeared in China somewhat later 
than the Dutch. Queen Elizabeth sent envoys in 
1596, but they perished at sea before arrival. In 
1637 WEiDDEix's ships reached Macao, but they 
were naturally not recommended to the Chinese by 
the Portuguese, and it was only by violence that 
he could enter (.'anton and sell his cargoes. In 1664 
the East India Company sent ships, but again the 
Portuguese intrigued and no business was done. 
The Company made an agreement with Koxinoa 
to trade with Formosa and consequently with Amoy, 
but such an arrangement was, of course, obnoxious 
to the Manchu rulers. In spite of Portuguese mis- 
representations, the Company gained a foothold at 
Canton. Attempts were made to trade at Ningpo 



HH 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



FOREIGN RELATIONS 



and elsewliere, but from 1684 to 1840 practically 
all foreign commerce was carried on at Canton. 

France has figured very little in China poli- 
tically or commercially until recent times ; her work 
has been almost entirely religious. RuBRfyuis, the 
Fi'anciscan friar, was sent by Louis IX in 1254, to 
the Mongol court, but he never entered China 
Proper. In 1688, Louis XIV sent the first of the 
French Jesuits who have since done so much for 
the country ; and there was a certain small amount 
of French trade at Canton. In 1856 however, 
(-'hai'DELAINe's nnirder caused the French to join 
with the British in the Second War. 

'I'iie story of 'factory days' in ( aiitnn will be 
found under Facturiex, Hong Mirchants, etc. The 
history of the opium question will also be given 
separately. By the First War the British opened five 
ports to international trade, and in the Second War 
France and Great Britain opened Peking itself to 
the Ministers of all foreign powers, besides a 
number of ports for the trade of all nations. Mis- 
sionary work throughout China has received pro- 
tection as the result of these wars, and Great 
Biitain moreover acquired the island of Hongkong. 
In more recent times, Japan has become an 
important factor in Chinese history, and to her in 
1895 China lost Korea and the island of Formosa, 
and in 1905 leased away (to Japan in place of 
Ru.ssia) the Liaotung peninsula. 

Germany was almost unknown to China till 
quite lately, and is supposed to have been favour- 
ably regarded for her comparative submissiveness. 
In 1897, however, she took forcible possession of 
Kiaochow, ostensibly because of the murder of two 
German priegts. This led to the occupation of Port 
Arthur and Dalny by Russia, Weihaiwei by Great 
Britain^ and Kwangchou wan by France. At 
present, 1917, Kiaochow (Tsingtau) is German no 
more, but neither is it returned to China, and; its 
future is undecided. 

America first ti'aded at Canton in 1785 and 
shared in the old factory life. By treaties in 1844, 
she obtained the advantages which Great Britain 
had won by war, and in the Second W^ar got her 
treaty even before France and England. By 
Burlingame's treaty of 1858, America disclaimed 
all wi.sh to meddle in Chinese matters and agreed 
to admit Chinese immigrants. But later treaties 
have much modified this benignant attitude. 

Belgium has been little heard of in China 
e.xcept in connection with railway and other 
concessions. 

Portugal, the fir.<t of European comers, never 
obtained any treaty with China, strange to say, 
till 1887. From 1582 till 1849, the Portuguese paid 
five hundred taels a year to the Chinese government 
for the rent of Macao. After the murder of the 
Governor Amaral in 1849 the rent was paid no 



more, but it was not till 1887 that Macao was 
officially recognised as a possession of Portugal. 

All the treaties made Ijetween foreign Pcwer.s 
and China will be named under Trentxti. 

i-ists of all the Ministers who have represented 
Foreign Powers in Peking will be found under 
the articles dealing with the relation of each Power 
with China : see American lielations, French Itilut- 
ions, etc. In some cases, however, there is no 
such article, the relations having been of small 
hi.storical' importance. The lists in those cases are 
given below. 

AiistrifiJ/titiiftiri/. — List of I. and H. Austro 
Hungarian Ministers and Charges d' Affaires in 
China. 
1871, April 23rd to 1874, March 21.st ; HEU\nirn 

Freiherr von' Camce. 
1874, March 21st to 1877, Ajjril 22nd; Ioxaz 

Freiherr vo"n Schaeefer (Karl Rilter von 

]{oLEsr.AWSKi, Gerant frr.m 1877, May 3rd to 

1879, September). 
1879, JanuaVy 26th to 1883, March 4th ; Maximilian 

Ritter Hoffer von Hoffenfels. 
1883, March' 4th to 1888, January 18th : Karl Graf 

Zaluski. 
1888, June 20th to 1893, November 27th; Rudiger 

Freiherr von Biegeleben (HEiNRifH Graf 

roL'DF.XHOVE, Charge d'Affaires). 

1895, September 10th to 1896, December 26th ; 
Christoph Graf Wydenbruck. 

(The above named all having resided at Tokyo). 

1896, December 26th to 1905, June 27th; Moritz 
Freiherr vox Czikanx (Artur von Rosthorn, 
Councillor of Legation, Charge d'Affaires). 

1905, September 10th to 1911, March 25th ; Eugen 
Ritter von Kuczvnski (Wilhelm Ritter von 
Storck, Secretary of Legation, Charge 
d'Affaires). 

1911, March 25th to -; Arthur von Rosthorn 

(Kuno Graf Des Fours, Secretary of Legat- 
ion, and Rudolf Weinzetl, Councillor of 
Legation, Charges d'Affaires). 
Belgium. — The Legation with all documents 

having been destroyed in the Bo.xer troubles it is 

inijjossible to obtain more information than follow.-. 

Baron Carl de ^'INCK de Deux Orp, was appointed 
Minister in I'eking about May, 1896. and 
left on April 6, 1899. 

M. E. de ( 'artier de Marchienne, Charge 
d'Affaires; April 10, 1899 -May 15, 1900. 

M. JoosTENs, Minister; May 15, 1900— April 17. 
1904. 

Baron E. de Gaiffier d'HestroY, Charge d'Affaires; 
April 17— May 30, 1904; the same, appointed 
Minister; May 30, 1904— November 21, 1905. 

M. E. de Prelle de la Nieppe, Charge d'Affaires; 
November 21, 1905 -June 8. 1906. 



IS'J 



FOREST LAW 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



Baron A. Grexier, Minister; June 8, 1906 — June 

15, 1909. 
M. E. DE Prelle de la Nieppe. Charge d' Affaires; 

June 15, 1909— May 26, 1910. 
M. E. DE Cartieb de Marchienne, Minister; May 

26, 1910— March, 1917. 
Baron J. de Villenfagne de Sorinnes, Charge 

d'Affaircs; March 1917— July, 1917. 
.\1. I'AiL May, Minister; July, 1917— 

Italy. — In the following list some of the earlier 
dates may not be exactly correct and the list of 
(."harges d'Affaires is not complete. The term 
Vominandi-.r is a translation of Commendatorc, and 
indicates an Order of knighthood, not a military 
rank. 

Li.xt of succc.=.>!ive Italian Ministers in China, 
and dates of appointment. 

("ount ViTTORio Sallier de la Tour, Mar. 31, 1867 

„ Alessandro Fe' d'Ostiani, Mar. 7, 1870 

,, Raffaele Ulisse Barbolani, Feb. 22, 1877 

Chevalier Ferdinando De Luca Dec. 12, 1878 

,, Alberto Pansa, Dec. 5, 1889 

Commander Alessandro Bardi, Feb. 8, 1894 

,, Henato De Martino, Mar. 6, 1898 

Marquis Giuseppe SALVACO-RAncr, Mar. 23, 1899 

Count GiovAN>fi Gallina, Dec. 19, 1901 

Commander Carlo Baroli, July 11, 1904 

(.'ount GiuLio Cesare Vinci, Nov. 3, 1907 

Commander Federico Barilari, May 23, 1910 

Count Carlo Sforza. June 25, 1911 

Baron Carlo Aliotti. Nov. 18, 1916 

Chargis d'Affaires. 
Don Livid Borohese, Charge d'Affaires from 

March 13, 1907 to March 11, 1908. 
Chevalier Giuseppe Bhambilla, Charge d'Affaires 

from March 11, 1911 to June 24, 1911. 
Chevalier Daniele Vare, Charge d'Affaires from 

September 29, 1915 to November 17, 1916. 
ConniEii : Ilintoire dea Relations de la Chine 
fivrc U* pui/inances occidcntalcs; MoRSE : Inter- 
national Relations of the Chinese Empire; 
<'allaiian : American Relations in the Far East; 
Srr.KR : r'hiiia and f/u C.S.A. 

FOREST LAW, THE. In August, 1912, 
the lUrpublic instituted the Ministry of Agriculture 
and ForcMtry, including a Department of Forestry. 
A nursery was established in the grounds of the 
^rcmjile of Heaven, and a Bureau of Forestry for 
Kirin Province was instituted; but there was no 
definite policy or correlation of efforts. In 1914, 
this .Ministry was combined with that of Industry 
and Commerce, forming the present Ministry of 
Agriculture and Commerce; at the same time the 
Department of Forestry was combined with the 
l»eparliiient of Agriculture. This organization, 
merely nominal as far as Forestry was concerned, 
lasted till January 15, 1916, when tlie Forest Service 
was inaugurated as an annex to the Ministry of 



Agriculture and Commerce. This must be regard- 
ed as the real beginning of Forestry in China. 

A number of Forest Laws have been promul- 
gated under the Rex^ublic, but little effect has yet 
been made to take advantage of their provisions 
or comply with their restrictions. For e.xample, in 
August, 1914, were issued "Regulations governing 
the granting of Concessions in the National Forests 
in Manchuria," containing eighteen articles. It 
does not seem necessary to give these here in full. 
They provide for the concession to Chinese subjects, 
or Chinese Corporations, of the timber in national 
forests, the maximum area in each grant being two 
hundred square li, and the ma.ximuni term twenty 
years. The costs are §100 for every ten square 
a, expenses of investigation and survey ; §50 for 
a certificate of concession ; §10 per annum for 
inspection ; §200 deposit for each ten square li, 
and eight per cent, stumpage charges on the selling 
price of all logs sold from the forest. 

On November 3, 1914, the Forest Law in 32 
articles was promulgated, by which the Government 
classed all forests not in private ownership as 
Government Forests. Any forests might be made 
Reserved Forests by the Ministry of Agriculture 
and Commerce, indemnity being allowed. Idle 
government-owned hill-land might be granted for 
reforestation purposes to Chinese subjects up to 100 
square li at a time ; §20 to §100 cash security was 
to be given for each lot, returnable with interest 
if, at the end of five years, it was found that 
satisfactory work had been done. In case of 
culpable neglect to improve the lot during the first 
year, the concession was to be cancelled and the 
security money forfeited. Land thus granted was 
to be free from taxes for five to thirty years. 
Punishments were fixed for thefts in forests, for 
firing forests, for injuring trees, removing boundary 
marks, etc. 

This Forest Law was followed in June, 1915 
by Detailed Regulations for its enforcement and 
Regulations for Encouraging Reforestation. 

It was on December 22, 1915, that Chou Tzu- 
CHi, Minister of Agriculture and Commerce, present- 
ed a petition to YiiAN Shih-k'ai, then Emperor-elect, 
stating the intention of the Ministry to establish a 
National Forestry Service and submitting sixteen 
Regulations, here given in full. 

Art. 1. — The Ministry of Agriculture and 
Commerce intends to organize a National Forestry 
Service as an annex to the said Ministry. The said 
Service shall administer the forestry affairs of the 
whole country according to the Forest Law and 
its Detailed Regulations. 

Art. 2.— The ' staff of the National Forest 
Service shall be composed of one Director-General 
and two Co-Directors. The Vice-Minister of the 
Ministry shall be ex-officio Director-General. Other 
officers shall be appointed by the Central Govern- 



190 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



FORESTRY SERVICE 



merit. The three Directors shall manage the affairs 
of the Service in accordance with instructions from 
the Minister. The Forest Service shall also main- 
tain technical foresters, who are to be appointed 
from among those who have obtained the required 
knowledge and experience in forestry. 

Art. 3. — The provincial administrative centres 
shall temporarily serve as forest stations. When 
nicessary to meet the demands of the work the 
Forest Service may, with the approval of the 
Minister, establish additional forest stations. 

Art. 4. — A technical forester shall be appointed 
and assigned to every large forest station. It shall 
be the duty of such an oificial to carry out the 
instructions of the Ministry and of the Civil 
Governor of the Province. 

AjiT. 5. — When no forest stations have been 
designated, the Forest Service may, after due 
investigation of local conditions, and with the 
approval of the Ministry, draw up a working plan 
and put it into execution. 

Art. 6. — A candidate for the position of Pro- 
vincial Forest Commissioner .shall be one who has 
knowledge of forestry and who is well versed in ad- 
ministrative work. The Ministry and the Governor 
of the Province shall jointly submit a petition (to 
His Majesty) for appointment. 

AuT. 7. — The Forest Service shall enumerate 
the duties of the Forest Commissioners and draw 
up regulations for their work, which shall be put 
into execution after approval by the Ministry. 

Art. 8. — The expenses of the Provincial Forest 
Commissioners shall be included in the budgets of 
the respective provinces. 

Art. 9. — Each district (hsien) shall annually 
provide a sum of more than §200.00 to be expended 
for encouraging reforestation. 

Art. 10. — The Forest Service shall cooperate 
in and increase the collection of forest taxes, and 
shall recommend regulations looking to the improve- 
ment of the law governing forest taxation and the 
administration thereof. 

Art. 11. — The Ministry shall decide upon the 
number of divisions to be created in the Forest 
Service- and shall fix the duties of each. The 
number of officers shall be governed and limited 
by the annual budget. 

Art. 12. — The Forest Service may increase the 
number of temporary employes whenever necessary. 

Art. 13. — The Ministry shall draw up rules 
for the guidance and government of the officers and 
employes of the Forest Service. 

Art. 14. — The Forest Service shall formulate 
rules and regulations for the various divisions, for 
the approval of the Ministry. 

Art. 15. — If it should be found that these 
regulations are incomplete, the Ministry may rectify 
them from time to time and memorialize for 
approval. 



Art. 16.— The above regulations shall bt'ccnie 
effective when sanctioned. 

On January 3, 1916, the Council of State 
promulgated a reply to this petition, approving of 
the creation of the National Forest Service. The 
formal opening of the service took placo on the 
16th of the same month. See Forrftnj Srrvtce. 

[F. S., abridged]. 

FORESTRY SERVICE, THE. With ih.- 
establi.^^lununt of the Kcpublic iliure was an im- 
mediate recognition of the importance of ForesCry, 
of the loss China has suffered through the wholesale 
destruction of forests in past centuries and of tho 
need for taking immediate steps to remedy the 
situation. Chanu Chien, when Minister of Agricul- 
ture and Commerce, got some progressive foreat 
laws promulgated, but the first real beginning of 
Forestry in China was in January, 1916, when the 
Chinese Forest Service in the Ministry of Agricul- 
ture and Commerce was inaugurated. This was 
largely due to the foresight and patriotism of 
Chou Tzu-chi the Minister of Agriculture and 
Commerce. The Minister is at the head of the 
Service, and the Vice-Minister is ex-officio Director 
General. The Adviser in Forestry and a Chinese 
act as co-Directors, and an Engli.sh forest expert 
(Mr. W. Purdom) is attached to the Service. 

The general policy adopted is (i) to lessen the 
high price of timber and fuel arising from the 
present scarcity, by the judicious reforestation of 
public lands now lying idle ; (ii) to regulate stream 
flow by the reforestation of important river-sheds ; 
(iii) to protect such public fc>rest resources as still 
exist; (iv) to encourage and assist private activities 
in the same direction ; (v) to conduct a vigorous 
pro-forest propaganda throughout China ; (vi) to 
train Chinese in the various lines of forestry work. 

It soon became evident that to secure efficiency, 
economy and harmony in these activities a more 
specialized organization of the Service into Div- 
isions was necessary. Six Divisions were therefore 
created in February, 1916 : they are as follows. 

(1) The Division of Investigation. This is for 
the provision of data, with regard to peculiar con- 
ditions of soil, climate, sociological conditions, etc., 
etc. Much information has already been collected 
by scientists, travellers and missionaries, but it 
requires to be all examined and correlated before 
it is of use in the new work. 

(2) The lie/orestation Division. This is at 
present the executive of the Service and the branch 
which will be best known to the public. The work 
of this Division includes the establi.shmcnt of 
nurseries, the collection of seeds, transplanting to 
permanent locations, etc. 

(3) The Provincial Division. This Division 
has supervision of all forestry work carried on in 
the provinces, except projects such aa forest 



191 



FORESTRY SERVICE 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SlNlCA 



nurseries established and maintained by the Forest 
Service itself. Provincial Forest Commissioners 
will be appointed, and will be under the control 
of the Chief of this Division. 

(4) The Piopuganda Division. This will en- 
deavour to make the forestry movement a l^^opular 
one, instead of purely official. It will seek to 
enliyliten all classes, from high officials to peasant 
farmers, through newspaj.ers and magazines, by 
issuing circulars and pamphlct.>!, by lectures and 
informal talks, and by a te.xt-book to be used in 
schools. 

(5) The Dniiiun of EduaUion. The duty of 
this Uivixion is to jirovide a corps of secondary 
assistants or rangers, who can be educated in China. 
For the present it is necessary that such highly 
trained foresters as are required be obtained 
by sending students abroad. 

(6) The Clerical Dirixion. This has charge of 
all copying work, translating, etc., and of the non- 
technical iicrsonnel of all kinds. 

It is proposed to establish later two other 
Divisions, the Division of Foreign Management and 
the Division of Cooperation. The former would 
concern itself with the administration, by con- 
servative technical methods, of existing public 
timber lands, that the present generation may 
receive the greatest benefit possible from forest 
resources without decreasing those resources to the 
injury oi generations to come. 

The Division of Cooperation would give advice 
as to important details of reforestation on a large 
scale to those possessing large areas of land now 
more or less unproductive. Railway (.'ompanies. 
Universities, Corporations, Institutions and private 
owners may thus be e.xpected to cooperate in a 
wide extension of reforestation with little or no 
cost to the Central Government. Such private 
enterprise, when once its financial success is 
demonstrated, should far outstrip anythint,' that 
the Government can do. 

Appropriations for the work of the Forestry 
Service are at present made directly by the Central 
Government through the Ministry of Agriculture 
and f'ommerce. Funds can, however, be expected 
in addition from various sources; some might be 
provided by the system of cof)peration mentioned 
above; the jirovinceH should make approjjriations 
for the maintenance of forest commissioners and 
hlnfTs ; and much might be obtained from the sale 
of young In-cs from government nurseries ; there is 
already a demand for such trees, and by selling at 
A low price, so as to encourage the planters, it 
might even be possible to cover the whole expendi- 
ture on tho nurseries. 

Many minor works will also be undertaken by 
the Service, such as the preparation of text and 
reference books; an English-Chinese Glossary of 
Forestry terms; a Dictionary of Chine.sc Forest 



Trees, with botanical and local names, habitat, etc. ; 
a Forest Map of China, or at least the beginning 
of one ; the collection of wood specimens, of a 
forest Herbarium, of minor forest products, etc., 
etc. All such work will go far to iielp in managing 
and increasing the forest resources of the country, 
thereby improving the comfort, prosperity and 
well-being of the inhnbitants, in the present and 
the future. 

[F. S., abridged]. 

FORMOSA. The Chinese name is T'ai wan 
M M gi"6at, bay ; the name Formosa is Portuguese 
and means The Beautiful; Ilha fonnosa, beautiful 
isle. It is between 21°.56'— 26° 23' N. lat. and 
between 120'^. — 122° E. long., separated from the. 
Chinese mainland by a channel about 100 miles 
wide, and nowhere more than 100 fatlioms deep. 
The length of the island is about 210 miles, its 
greatest width about 70, its coastline some 450 
miles. A mountain ridge runs north and south, the 
highest peak being Mt. Sylvia (11,300 ft.). The 
western slope is the more gradual, and on this side 
Chinese colonists live, the east of the range having 
been left to the unconquered aborigines. 

Formosa appears first in Chinese history under 
the name Liu chiu (Loochoo) ; two expeditions being 
sent to the island in the Sui dynasty, 605 — 606 a.d. 
(Ma, Tuan-lin). It is not mentioned again till 
1430 A.D., as it was barbarian, sending no tribute; 
but it cannot be doubted that during these centuries 
Chinese immigrants from Fukien would be gradually 
settling there. In 1620 the Japanese tried to found 
a colony, and had some amount of trade there when 
the Dutch first arrived. 

European connection with the island arose out 
of the struggles between the Portuguese (Macao), 
the Spaniards (Philippines), and the Dutch (Java). 

The Dutch took j)ossession of the Pescadores, 
and after much fighting and parleying agreed to 
give them up in exchange for Formosa,- — over which 
China had then no rights. They went there in 
1624, and built at Tai-wan the Fort Zealandia. 
Two years later the Spaniards established them- 
selves at Kelung (Fort Santissima Trinidad), and 
in 1629 at Tamsui ; but they were driven* out by 
the Dutch in 1642. The overthrow of the Ming 
dyna.sty in China caused a large emigration to 
Formosa, and the Dutch were not wise enough to 
conciliate these settlers. Koxinga {q.v.), not being 
able to resi.«t the Manchu power, attacked the Dutch 
and drove them from Zealandia in 1662, thougli 
it is po.ssible they held Kelung and Tamsui till 
1668. KoxiNCA, his son and grandson, ruled the 
island till 1680, when it passed under Manchu 
government, and formed part of the Viceroyalty of 
Fukien and Chekiang. In consequence of the 
murder by aborigines of shipwrecked crews a futile 
expedition by the Americans against the i-sland was 



192 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SINICA 



FOUQUET 



made in 1867, and another, more successful, in 
1874 by the Japanese. In 1885 it was attacked by 
France. In 1887 Formosa became a separate pro- 
vince of China, and at the close of the Chino Japan- 
ese war it was ceded to Japan, 1895. 

Imb.*ult-Huart : L' Ih Formofe, 1893; Malkay : 
From Far Formosa, 1896 ; Davidsom : The Idand 
of Formosa, 1903; Campbell : TIik Island of 
Formosa, 1896. 

FORTUNATE UNION, THE, the name under 
which Engliish readers know the novel Hao t'/i'iu 
t.'hiam Wig|'$. The author is unknown, but he pro- 
bably wrote at the end of the Ming dynasty,- about 
A.u. 1600. The first translation was given to the 
English public as early as 1761, the tran.slator being 
unknown ; since which we have those by Sir John 
Davis and others, complete or partial, besides 
French and German renderings, generally of the 
early English translation. Balleh has also issued 
the Chinese text with English notes for the use of 
students of the language. 

CoRDiER, : Bibliothcca Sinica, col. 1755. 

FORTUNE, ROBERT, born in Scotland, Sept- 
ember 16, 1812; he was apprenticed to gardeners 
and then spent two or three years in the Royal 
Botanic Gardens in Edinburgh. He was then ap- 
pointed in 1842 as Superintendent of the hot-house 
department of the Royal Horticultural Society at 
Chiswick. The next year that Society sent him to 
China. He made four journeys to that country, 
and wrote four valuable books. Until his day 
almost nothing was known of the flora of China, 
except of that in the neighbourhood of Macao and 
Canton, and to a slighter extent, in the Peking 
district. Some small collections had been sent or 
brought home, but they had been neglected or over- 
looked. But Fortune not only visited all the ports 
then opened to foreign trade : he also explored some 
interesting parts of Fukien, Chekiang and Anhui, 
and brought away very rich collections ; besides 
which he had had the advantage of a thorough, 
■practical training. 

The account of his first voyage is given in 
his Three Years Wanderings in the Northern Pro- 
vinces : northern in those days not meaning what 
it means now ; Kiangsu and Anhui were his furthest 
north. He was sent by the Horticultural Society 
of London in February, 1843, and reached England 
again in May, 1846, having explored the districts 
of Hongkong, Canton, Macao, Amoy, Foochow, 
Ningpo, Shanghai, Socchow, Chusan Islands, etc. 

In 1848 the East India Company sent him to 
China again, to get the finest varieties of the tea- 
plant, with implements, etc., for the benefit of the 
Company's plantations in India. He left England 
in June, 1848, and after visiting the important tea 
districts and sending many plants to India he 



arrived in Calcutta in March, 1851, with 2,000 
young tea plants and 17,000 germinated seeds. In 
September of the same year lie left for England. 
During this expedition he sent heme sixteen letters 
which were publislied as Notes of a Traveller, in 
the (inrdeners' Chronicle : they contain many details 
not included in the book published later. 

The same applies to letters written during hiH 
third journey ; they appeared in the same magazine, 
under the title Leaves from my Chinese Notebook, 
and are fuller than in the book, Itesidince among 
the Chinese. This expedition was also for the East 
India Company, to get more tea-plants, etc., and 
especially to get some tea-makers. He left England 
probably in the beginning of 1853. He again travel- 
led far and wide in the interior, visiting also For- 
mosa, sent thou.sands of plants to the Himalayas, 
engaged tea manufacturers, and concluded his suc- 
cessful journey by a visit to the Punjab, reaching 
England in December, 1856. 

In the summer of 1860 Fortune started onc« 
more for the Far East, to collect natural history 
specimens and works of art. In this trip he went 
twice from China to Tokyo (Yedo), and also visited 
Peking. He reached England again in Januarj-, 
1862. 

Bhetsciineider gives nearly a hundred pages 
to the botanical results of Fortune's travels; it 
appears that he introduced into England about one 
hundred and ninety species or varieties, all new to 
England except as herbarium specimens, and one 
hundred and twenty of these were entirely new to 
science. 

Fortune spent the rest of his days farming in 
Scotland ; he died on April 13, 1880. His writings 
are Three Years Wanderings in the Northern Pro 
vinces in China, . . . 1847; .1 Journey to the 
Tea Countries of China, . . . 1852; .1 licsidencc 
among the Chinese, . . . 1857; Yedo and Peking, 
. . . 1863; Azotes 0)1 the Botany of Ja2)an, (Garden- 
er's Chronicle, 1861) ; Two Visits to the Tea Count- 
ries of China, . . . 1853; Leaves from my Chinese 
Note Book, (Gardener's Chronicle, 1854, and re 
printed in China Mail, 1854). 

BretscHNEIDER : History of Kiiropran Botanical 
Discoveries in China. 

FORTUNE TELLERS |^. itfr 6^ are mentioned 
in Chinese hi.'-tory as early as the second century 
B.C. Modern fortune tellers use two methods, 
either requiring six characters for year, month and 
day of birth, or else eight characters, the extra two 
being for the hour of birth. From the eight 
characters, pa izu Af, the fortune teller knows 
a person's future lot. 

FOUQUET, JEAN FRANCOIS ^-jjlfi^ * 
Frenc-h Jesuit missionary, w;is \v rn in 1663, and 
reached China in 1699. He, more tlian any other 



193 



FOUR BOOKS. THE 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA SlNlCA 



of the missionaries, sought the Christian religion 
in the early Chinese writings, till the classics 
became for him an allegory ; every hill was Calvary ; 
the anricMt Emperor.< were the patriarchs, and m 
the analysis of Chinese characters he found the 
crofw and other instruments connected with the 
Passion. 

He returned to Europe in 1720, and published 
a Chronological Table in which, for the first time 
in Europe, a list of the A'/'h //"" or reign-titles, 
w) important in chronology, was given. An in- 
structive letter of his appears in the Lcttns 
Hdifiniiirt, vol. V. He brought home a large col- 
lection of Chinese books which became scattered in 
many libraries. 

The date of his death, wliich took place in 
France, is not known. 

Rr.MVSAT : Snuveuiu Mihimjif .l.<iiiliqu<i'.