Skip to main content

Full text of "Encyclopaedic dictionary; an original work of reference to the words in the English language, giving a full account of their origin, meaning, pronunciation, and use"

See other formats






: ;:■ t 

]!■ . . : 

;v ! 

:. Nc5t of Weaver Bird. j. Nest of Scarlet Weaver Bird. 3. Edible Nest of Esculent Swift. 4. Nest of Tree Wasp. 

5. Nest of While Ant. 6. Nest of Stickleback. 











Nests ..... 



'Jo face p. 81 

Orders .... 

„ 2;i2 

Ores ..... 






PiCID.E .... 








mem., s. [A contract, of iiicmoraiuhim (q.v.).] 
A word pliiced as a note before yoiuetUinj,' to 
aid the meinoiy. 

mem'-ber. * mem-bre. s. [Fr. membre, from 

Lut. iiiaiibrniii = a limb, a luciuber of tliu 
body; Ital. immbro; Sp. & Port, iiikmbro.] 

L Ordinary Language : 

1. A i>art of -an iiniinal body capable of por- 
foiiiiing a distinct office ; a limb, a vital oi;j;aii. 

2. A I'ait of ail aggi'egat* or whole : as — 

(1) A part of a discotirse or period; a head, 
a clause. 

(2) Oue of a number of persons constituting 
a society, association, cominuuity, &c. ; au 
individual forming ptyt of an association ; 
specif., one uho represents a county or town 
iu parliament, 

" Uti n'as atrenuoualy supported by Sir James 
Moutgomery, tuviitl/vr fur Ayi-shire.' — Mucaulau : 
MUt. Eiig., cb. xUL 

U. 2'echnicalhj : 

1. Arch.: A moulding, eithex' as a cornice 
of five members, or a base of three members, 
and applied to the subordinate parts of a 

2. Alg. : Each part of an equation connected 
by the sign of equality. The one on the left 
is called the tiist member, and the oue on the 
right, the second member. • 

^ Member of Parliament: [I. 2(2), & Par- 


mem'-bered, a. [Eng. ^nember; -erf.] 

1. Onl. Lang.: Having members or limbs; 
used in composition : as, hig-niembered. 

2. Her. : A term applied to a bird when its 
legs are borne of a ditlercnt tiucture to that 
<jf the bird itself. 

mem.'-ber-Ship, s. [Eng. memier; ship.] 

1. The state of being a member. 

'"No atlvaiif.ij:es from external cliurch mentberthlii 
.. . can uf tliemselves give a man confidence towai'ils 
God. "— i'oiifA ; .ScjT/ioiM, vol. it. ser, IL 

2. The members of a body, society, or asso- 
ciation collectively. 

mem-br&9'-i-d£e, s. pi [Mod. Lat. wie»i- 
bnitXis); Lat. fem. pi. adj. suff. -ida:] 

Entom. : A family of homopterous insects, 
of the order Rhyncota, remarkable for the 
extraordinary forms which the prothorax as- 
sumes. There is frequently a posterior part, 
wlioUy or partially covering the abdomen and 
wings. The typical genus Membracis (q.v.) 
and Bocidiuni are American ; Centrotus and 
Gargara are common in Britain and in Europe. 

mem'-bra -9X8, .'^. [Gr. ^e>^pa| (memhrax), 
genit. fji€[xppaKOi imrmbralcos) = a kind of 
cicada. ] 

Entojn.: The typical genus of the family 
Membracid[e(q.v.). Chief species, Mevibracis 
ekvata and M. concuta. 

mLem'-bra-na, s. [Lat. = a membrane, a 
skin, from luenibrum = a limb, a member of 
the body.] 

A nnt. : A membrane. There are a ntenibrana 
sacci/ormis, a }nembrana Uviitans, &c. 

membrana nictitans» s. 

Zool. : A fold uf t!ie conjunctiva on tlie 
inner side of the eye. It constitutes tlie 
third eyelid of birds, and occurs also in some 
fishes, amphibians, and mammals, but is rudi- 
mentary in man and monkeys. In human 
anatomy it is called 2>/i«( semilunaris. 

membrana tympani, & 

Anat. : Tlie drum of the ear. 

mein-bra-na'-9e-», s. pi. [Lat. membra- 
11(a); fem. pi. adj. sutf. -acece.] 

Entom.: A family of heteropterous insects 
of the order Rhyucotn. Antennai four-jointed, 
rostrum three-jointed, enclosed in a channel, 
tarsi two-jointed. Ocelli generally absent. 
In the majority tlie autennfe are thickened or 
clavate. Cliief genera : Acanthia (Cilhex), 
Aradus, Tingis, Monanthia, aud Syrtis. 

mem-bra-na'-ceous (ce as sh), a. [Lat. 

niemht-anaccus. fnnn vf: tnbrana ^= a. membrane 
(q.v.).] The same as Membhanous (q.v.). 

" Cousider its vaj-iety. suited iu various foods, some 
metiihraiuiceous, agietahle to the frugivorous or cjir- 
iiivoroua \iintX."—Ocr}iain: I'hytico-Thcolony bk. vii., 
uti. ii. 

mem'-brane, s. [Membrana.^ 

.-l;m/. ; An expansion of any tissue in a 
thin and wide layer. Bichat divides them 
into serous, mucous, and fibrous membranes. 
Among the most import-ant membranes in the 
body are those of the brain : viz., the dura 
mater, the aiuchnoid, the pia mater aud the 
falx. [Meningitis.] 

K (1) Additional membrane: 
Bot. : The name given by Brown to the 
quintine of the ovule. 

(2) Arachnoid viembrane: [Arachnoid]. 

(3) Schnciderianmevibrane : [Schneiderian 

(4) Undulating membranes : 

Zool. : Simple membranous bands, one 
margin only of which is attached, the other 
being free and exhibiting an undulatory 
motion. They are allied to and answer the 
same puri>ose as cilia. They are stated to 
occur on the spermatozoa of salamanders and 
tritons, and in the water vessels of some An- 
nelids, Infusoria, and Rotatoria. {Grij^th .1- 

membrane-bones, $. pL 

Co7iip. AiMt.: Bones or ossifications which 
have their origin, not in cartilage, but in 
membraneous connective tissue. The bones 
of the heart are membiane-bones. 

" The different kinds of these rwmf>rane-b'>neii occur 
with i;re.i.ter ur li-as toiieUmcy tliruuk'huut this suh- 

membra -ne-oils, a. [Membrakoxjs.] 

mem-bra-nif'-er-ous, a. [Lat. vievibmna 
= ii membrane; /t;-o = to bear, to produce, 
and Eng. adj. sutf. -ous.] Having or producing 

mem-bra' -ni-form, a. [Lat. ?;w«itrana = a 

membmne. and jhruia = form, shape.] llaving 
tlie form of a membrane or parchment. 

mem-bra-nip'-dr-a, $. [Lat. membrana = 
a membrane, and^^orKs = a channel, a passage.] 

1. Zool. : The typical genus of the family 
Membraniporidie (q.v.). 

2. PaUvont. : Species are found in the Cre- 
taceous and in the Teiliary rocks. 

mem-bra-ni-pdr'-i-d£e, s. pi [Mod. Lat. 
vicmbran>2'>or{(() ; Lat. fciii. pi. atlj. suff. -itta:] 

1. Zuul. : A family of Bryozoa or Polyzoa. 
The polyzoou, which is calcareous, or partly 
horny, partly calcareous, is composed of hori- 
zontal cells contiguous to each other. The 
species grow on sJiells, corals, &c. Genera : 
Membraiiipora, Lepralia, &c. 

2. Pahmnt. : Tlie family has existed from 
PaUeozoic times till now. 

• mem-bra~ndr-o-|^, s. [Lat. viembrana — 
a membrane, and Gr. Adyos (logos) = a word, a 
discum'se.] A treatise on mcmbraues ; tiie 
science wliich treats of membranes. 

mem'-br^-noiis, * mem-bra'-ne-ous, (i. 

[Fj". tacmbranciiX ; Ital. & Sp. membratioso.] 

1. Ord. Lang. : Belonging to or consisting 
of membrane ; resembling a membrane. 

2. Pot. : Thin and semi-transparent, like a 
fine membrane, as is the case with the leaves 
of mosses. It is non-development of paren- 
chyma which makes the leaves of some plants 
mcmbi'auous. (Liatlkii.) 

membranous cellular -tissue. 5. 

Pol. : Cellular tissue in which the walls of 
the cells are composed solely of membrane. 

membranouslabyrinth, 5. 

Aih'f.: McmbraiiMiis structures inside tho 
osseous labyrinth uf tlie ear, and having 
spread over them the ultimat* rauiiQcations 
of the auditory nerve. 

mem-e-9yr-e-S0, s. pi. [Mod. Lat. nu}n€cy- 
l{on); Lat. lem. pi. adj. sutf. -fflC.] 
Pot. : A tribe uf Mclastoinaceie. 

me-me9'-y-l6n, 5. [Lat., from Gr. fiijtitKvkov 

{mimvkuloi') : )u.tfia(VuAof (miviaik-iilnn) = tlie 
edible fruit of the Arbutus. There is a certaiu 
superficial resemblance between tlic Arbutus 
and tho Memecylon.] 

Dot. : Tlie typical genus of the tribe Meuic- 
cyle;e (q.v.). The species are small trees or 
shrubs with entire leaves, with a nromiueiit 
midrib and clustei"s of small bluish flowers. 
Ab<mt fifty species are kn<»wn. Mrmcajlon 
cdtile is found in India, Ceylon, Tenasseriin, 

boil, boy ; pout, jowl ; cat, 9eU, chorus. 9hin, benph : go, gem ; thin, this ; sin. a^ ; expect. :s:enophon, exist, ph = £. 
-clan, -tian = shan. -tion, -sion = shun ; -tion, -sion ~ zhun. -clous, -tious. -slous = shus. -ble. -41c. &c. = bel, dcL 


memento— memory 

aii't tt,. 

^l I, 

11 iitfu- 

y with clmy- 
prudiu-iitg a 

mft mill to. ; IlJit. = n-iiiPinWr. W mlntl- 

fill. ^.11^. iuii'er. <»f iHrmdii = to 

1,1 iiil. 1% i.ui;^»'stii>ti, n iiu-m- 

or . k.«jiii|<iTn«aki-u inriiH'ry. 

memento morl, j'Ar. tl<-'>t.| KimiipiiiUt 

ilfallt. I v^l at-Mi HiitMUlitivily, ;i.<t in ttit' 
rx«iii|*lf. of any I'liiMrni of inorultty. It wa.H 
fiinmrly the ciLHtini to vsvnr thnkol!! on 
itliirti tikiilln. Bit't KonietliiifN apimtphato 
niotttx.'^, weiT uiUititl or ciigravcu, an tv 
iiiiii>U-r« of the ili.*ir of life. 

*- I iiiAkr M r^-l UM of II M miinr ■ timn il»Ut t>( n 

/• .. lit a. 

m3m -la-nA, mSm i'-n^ •'<- (Corloncjw.l 

/..J..- /•(.!. ;n/i(.« Kfoiitid, a iltM'Hi't al»«)ut till- 
512'' of A ra))l>it. It IH found in O'ylon. 

■kim'-Oir (olr n^ W&r), <■ [Fr. Mrntoitr, fh)n) 
Lat. mr.u.;,.> = m.-l.l.Ty (q.v.).] 

1. A memorial a*-«uint; ahisior)* cnni]>osr4l 
fh>ni jiorKonal vx|M-rii'm'« anil nTpniory ; an 
accimnt of tran.-iai-tii>ti)4 in whirl i thi' narrator 
liorv a |«r1 ; an ai'«-oUiit of niatters i-onnecttft 
«lth iMimo |>4*n<H| i>f history, but lt»H ftill and 
formal ttinna lti.■«^•r}' proiH.T. 

" TtMrv !■ iiut ill Aitf KuUiur k coiuimtittlnii of Ihc 
nrviiuM III th«> K»iiuui rim>lrc. uul Ititnlly luiy 
M^Mc^n fpnu ab«ucT It iiilKht l)« cvIlw.-tAt."— .IrftM/A- 

2. A MoirraphicAl notic<», wlii'ther written 
l»y till* anhject liiinsrlf or by ani>thfr ; a bio- 
(tnipliy or aut<-ibio;ii-apliy ; rfcolloctinns uf 
uilf H life. (^Fifiiirntly in tJu plurttl.) 

" Tu writ* bU own rn^rttoin, ftud lr*%'0 )iU hrlr* 

3. An ac<^unt nf something worth notice or 
P'liu-mbi'ring ; a refoni of investipitions or 
• litcovcries on any snliject, esiwcinlly a coni- 
miiiiii-ation t<p a li-ann-^l society on some i»oint 
or subject of scieiitiric Interest. Thus there 
an? Mem-'ir* "f the Oeoh'gical Survey. 

t mdm -oir-ism, «. \FA\}$.meMnlr;-ijtm.'i The 
writing of mi'muiiii ; nieinuint. 

" Rwlaclii,- titnt ■aiiiv tnnnnirU>n uf ttio rli;lit«eiitli 
oeutuo' '<>l<' liUtury." — Curlglt: MUcfUanirt. 11. SI'i. 

( mfim 'olr-ist. It. [En^;. vif»wir; -Ut.] A 
wnter of a ineinuir or memoirs. 

mSm-or-a-bU'-I-a, .«. vJ. [Lat. neut. pi. of 
mrmonitiU'if — mern'orable (q.v.).] Thin;;s re- 
niarkablt: ur worthy to In; remembered or re- 

mSm-or-a-bil-i-t^, «. [Ens, memorable: 
-i(i/.l The (iniility or stite of being memor- 
able ; memonibltMMss. 

- Scuthfjf : 

jnem'-or-a-ble, c k ». [Fr.. from Lat. w- 
mnrabilui ; from ttiemoro = to commemorate; 
ineiHur^ mindful.) 

A. A$ aitj. : Worthy in he remembered ; 
notable, rvuiarkablc, distinguished; woithy 
of nietnor>\ 

"On thl« mem'>rablf liny he wiumten wtiereter tho 
peril WM ^mtcirt.''— JV'(c>(M/atf ; Hiit. A'wy., ch. xvi. 

* B. v44 *«6«f. ; A memorable event ; memo- 

mSm'-or-a-ble-ness, $. [Enp. vieiiwmhu : 
-HAW.] Tlie quality or state of being memor- 
able; tnemorability. 

mSm'-or-a-bl^, m/r. [Fr. memoral,(le); -hj.] 
Ill .1 niemnrable. notewiirthy manner; iu a 
manner to l»c renieml>ered. 

mom-or-fijk'-d&m (i>!. mSm-or-^'- 

da), ^. {l-it. nenl., sill};, of tn€iiionni'ltu<, pi. 
part, of vKuwrc = to reuont.] 
I. Ortl. IjjiXfi. : A note to lielp the memor>-. 

" A\v\ overi«jUurtthUin<nn->mndi(i(t (of the kiiiKu 
©wii iMiiili. 'Oth«rwUc a»X\»tifX.' ~ — Uacjn ; Oenry 

yji.. i>, S12. ' 

H Technically: 

1. Diptnnwcy : A summary of a qacstion ; a 
jiistiticrttion of a course adopted. 

2. htif: A short coniiK-nditMis note in 
wrilltig of iuiv tmnsjielion. or the outline of 
III) llilended dee<l ; a docuiiteut eontaining the 
name of the comiiany, object. ann>unt of 
i-apltal. Ilabilily of memlMTx. &e., rt-quired 
(torn rvery jtnutslork c»nni«ny for regis- 

•I (1) MfHunitiiihnn nf AM»tcintinii : 

L'tir: A doruiiu-nt re<iuin-<l by 10 and 20 
Viet. c. 47. H»*e. n ; 4 & 5, fmni every joint- 
tttock eonii<anv on its formation, stating the 
oliject, the iiuioniit of the capital, and the 
liability of the memlK-i-s. 

(2) Mentorait'lum in error: 

Ijtiir: A document alleging error in fact, 
arromiKiiiicd \>\ an iilliilavit of each matter of 

memoranduni-book, ■«■ A book in 

which meinoninda ait- notwl tlown. 

" With nirmontndiiHt-hvtk fi»r r»rrj- town." 

Cov/tfr. I'rvjreuqf Krmr.yil. 

memoranduxn-cbeok, .«. A brief in- 

f..i mat imie ot a debt, of the nature of a due- 

• mdm-^-r^n'-dftm-mer, «. fEng. mtmo- 

t'iu-lniii ; -ir.] One who tJtkes notes. 

"Thut Mi^n»i>tili3\l. rtiitx-dotlcal mcnwrandummer.'' 
—M.kI. /i.irU'ty : ffi'try. Hi. 33i. 

• mdm-or-ate, y.f. [IJit. memoratus, pa. par. 

itfuunnoiv = toct'inmeinonite, torecinl ; iiiemor 
= mindful.] To counaemorate, Ui bring to 

■ mSm'-6r-at-ive,a. [O.Fr. mfmorotif; Ital. 
»^ Sp. hi*-miiivtivo; fmm Lat. vuanoititHs, jia. 
juir. of ineinoiv.] Conimemoi'ating or tending 
to preserve the memory of anything. 

"Tlieiiiliiil ilotli secretly fniim-t'tit»elfe tuemoratin 
hv.v,Ur—ll/'. J/'ttl : lloiy OtmerrHition*. }i^^. &7. 

mfi-mor'-i-a, 5. [Uit.] Memory. 

memoria-technicaf 5. A contrivance 

fur assisting tlie lueltn'ry. 

me-mor -i-al, * me mbr'-i-all, a, & s. 

(Fr. memorial, from Lat. incmnritdis, front 
7*i^»jocm = memory ; Sp. uiemnrial; Ital. vie- 

A. As (uljective : 

1. Serving as a raeniorial ; preservative of 
memory; commemorative. 

" Liuit v'er tlie urn the sacred enrtb they sgiivful. 
And niioed the t«>nih, turmtirial of the dead." 

J'irpr : i/omer ; lliadxxiw, 1.008. 

• 2. Contiined in memory. 

B, As stthstuntive : 

I. Ortl ! miry Jjtttguage: 

1. Anything wliieh preser\'es or serves to 
preserve the memory of something ; anything 
which keeps a person or thing in memory ; a 

' 2, A iKite or hint to assist the memorj- ; a 

3. A written statement of facts submitted 
to a i>erson or persons in authority, as to Par- 
liament ; a statement of faets accompanied 
with a petition. 

"Should this r/)<?tnnriVi/ fall in the accom|(lialiiiieiit 
nf ita oh]ect. rui elFort wiU W uirute to ifmcure jit lenst 
n reprieve."'— />a(7y TeJtyriiph. Dec, C4, 1864, 

*i. Memory, remeuibrancc ; that which is 
or may l>e remembered. 

"Their memorial is i>ertehed with them."— Ptafm 

ix. c, 

n. Technimlhj : 

1. Diplomncy : An informal stflte paper, 
used in negotiations, and containing such 
documents as circulars sent to foreign agents, 
answers to the conmiunications of ambassa- 
dors, and notes to foreign cabinets and am- 

2. Law: 

(1) Enfflish Law: A writing containing the 
particulars of a deed. It is the instrvinient 
registered, as in the case of an annuity which 
must Ik; registei"ed. 

(2) Scots fjiw: A statement of facts bearing 
upon a particular point, doubtful ordispntc.l, 
in order to obtain the opinion of counsel upon 
that point; a statement of facts and points of 
law bearing upon a question in dispute, de- 
signed to a.ssist counsel in drawing a summons 
or defences, to prepare him for an'oral hearing 
before a judge and the like ; a brief. 


memory (q-v.).] 

[Uit. = pertaining to 

at©, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father : we. wet, here, camel, her, there 
or. wore, w^lf, work, who, son ; mute, cub, ciire, unite, cur, rule, full ; try. 

/W. ; A genus of L'rticaccje, called al-S(» 
Pouzolzia. Atkinson says that Mvmorit'fis 
jM-ntitiulra. commuu in the lower hills in jans 
of India, yields a useful cordage libre. 

mS-mor'-i-al-ist, ^•. lEng. mnnnrial; -ist.] 

1. One who writes a memorial or memorials. 

2. ')nc wlii'draws upand presents a memo- 
rial to a person or body in authority; one 
who signs a memorial. 

■' Tlic tiietunri'ifWi naacrt that thP vcnlirt of guilty 
was not weU fmnulitl. ;iiid is unwvtl»ffu;t"ry fur tl.e 
fitlliiwiiig retuioiiK.'"— //'o7,v T-ln/r-ifih. IK-t. 24. 1S»4. 

t3. A writer or comi>iler of memoirs; a 

■' The ntemnriitliMtt of the rei^i of Louis XVI. will 
1>edt convey to tin- ri-mler ii notion of the but d;iya of 
OeuTK-e IV.— /..v"""- UiHlatphi», ch. Iv. 

me-mbr'-i-al-ize, '■■'. [Eng. iJir^focm/; -ize.} 
To i.irsfiit a' memorial to ; to i)etition by way 
uf memorial. 

*mem~or-le, ^'. [Memorv.] 

* mem'-or-ist, s. [Lat. menw^io) = to com- 

iiirmorate ; Eng. sutf. -i.sM One who or that 
winch commemorates or causes to remember. 

t me-mor'-i-ter, i"l''. [Lat.] By memory, 
from memorv, by heart ; as, To repeat a les.sou 


* mom'-or-ize, r.t. [Eng. »i^moi-(y); -ize.] 

\. Ti> commemorate ; to cause to be remem- 
bered ; to render memorable ; to rectird. 
"Some hlesaiiii; to this land, wtiich slinll 
Iu it l»e mf»iioWj«/." ShitffesiK : Henry \'lll. ,i\i. 1. 

2. To commit to memory ; to learn by heart. 

mem'-or-y, *mem'-6r-le, s. [Vr.memMre, 
from l>at. vicmorio., from ineDwr = mindful ; 
Sp., Tort., & Ital. tneinoria.'] 
I. Ordimiry Language: 

1. Tlie act of remembering. 

2. In the same sense as IL 1 & 2. 

3. The state of beiiig remembered or kept 
in remembrance ; continued existence in tbe 
recoUection and minds of men; exempliun 
from oblivion. 

" Let them lie before the Lord couttnually, tlmfche 
may cut ulf the juemorj/ of them from the tuircli. — 
J'siitm cix. 15. 

4. That which is remembered about a per- 
son or event. 

"Use the memory of thy predecessoiir fairly and 
temlerly."— B«co»i ,■ Kss(tt/«; O/ (ireat Places. 

5. Anything remembered ; an idea suggested 
by the ]iast. 

" 6. Tliat which brings or calls to i-emem- 
branee ; that which jtreserves the reniem- 
bmnce of any person or event; a memorial, 
a monumental record. 

" Beg a hair of him for memory.' 

Shaketp. : Jiiliiu C<e*ar, iii. S. 

7, An act or ceremony of remembrance or 
commemoi-ation ; a service for the dead. 

•• Their iHriges. their trentals, and their shrifts, 
Tlieir mevt9rie$, their singiugs and their gifts. " 
Spenser : Mother Jlubbertls Talc. 

8. The time' during which past events cnii 
be remembered or kept in juind ; the time 
during which a person has or may have kn<i» - 
ledge ofwliat is past; as. This occurred within 
my own memory. 

II. Technically: 

1. Mental Phi!.: The mental faculty or 
power whicli c;uises the impressions of bygone 
events, at ordinary times latent in the mind, 
to atlect it anew or to be reproduced by an effort 
for the purpose. In the lii-st case, it will be 
found that the principle which has created 
the old impression spontaneously to affect 
the consciousness again has been tlie associa- 
tion of ideas. The ideas connected with the 
long latent impression had been for some cause 
prominently before the nnnd, and they brought 
up with them the latent one unsumnioned, 
When a conscious effort is made to recall some 
half-forgotten incident, aid is sought from 
the same principle of association of ideas. 
One attempts to remember wliat happened at 
the same time and place as the incident whicii 
he seeks to recall, and it tends to come back 
in their conijiany. If in place of an historical, 
wliat is forgotten is a scientiHc fact or law, 
•association of the time and place at which 
it fii-st became known to us will, as in the 
other case, aid in its recall, besides which 
there is logical and philosophical connection 
between it and other facts. General laws 
exist and natui-al classification and arrange- 
ment. Historic incidents also can be linked 
together naturally by regarding each as the 

pxne, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, pot, 
Syrian, se, cs = e ; ey = a ; qu = Uw- 

memory— mendacity 


consequence of S'>nie known antece-U'iit otio, 
ami as the antece<ientnfsonieone inune-ikitely 
following. Oniinary minds rememlHT iuci- 
tleiits and facts by association of ideas of 
the tirst and more artiticial kind : philosophers 
aim at doing so by tlie second and more 
natnnil kind of assiiciation. Men vary gi-eatly 
in the vahie of their memories. A memoi-y 
to V>e <;ood should be susceptible, ready, and 
retenti\e. (See these wonls.) The keener 
one's susceptibility, the more interested he 
will be in human affairs, the more attention 
he will pay to all objects of sensation, and 
the more easily he will remember them; the 
ni(»re that reflective coexists in liis mind 
with perceptive power, the more permanent 
will lie the impression. The old, losing in- 
terest in recent events, as their mind and 
bo*iy decay, complaiu of difficulty ia re- 
membering them. 

f "Tlilii laying up of our IJeaa in the repository of tlie 
merwrif, sigiiifles no umre but tliia. tliiit the luiuil hiw 
a power in uiauy cases to revive iMjrceptioiis, which it 
has once lind. with tliia MUIltioiiid iwrceptloii aiuioxed 

' to them, that it has lind tliem before. '—Locke : Num. 
Vndcrst., bk, ii., cli. x., 5 2. 

% When an event or fact is recalled to 
the miml by an effort made for the purpose, 
this is not meniory of the normal kind but 
recollection. The art which furnishes aid 
to memory is called Mnemonics (q.v.). 

2. Physiol. : This faculty is the property of 
the cerebral organs only, not of the organ of 
sense, and is never entirely lost except through 
disease or accident. It depends entirely on 
association, and is one of the tirst faculties 
aroused in the infant mind, traces of it also 
occurring in the lower animals. 

■ mem -or-y, v 

.t. [Mkmorv, s.J To remember. 

Mem'-phi-an, «. [See def.] 

1. Lit. : Of or pertaining to Memphis, a 
city of ancient Egypt ; Egyptian. 

"The works of Jlemphian kioga. ' 

Jlilton : P. I., 1. 694. 

* 2. Fig. : Very dark or black, from the su- 
pernatural darkness which overspread Egypt. 
(Exod. X. 21.) 

men, v.t. 6i i. [Mend.] (Scotch.) 

men. s. pi. [Man.] 

% Men of luulerslandiug : 
Chjirch Hist £ Ecchs. : A sect founded by 
iEgidius Cantor, an illiterate man, and William 
of Hildeuissen, who was a Carmelite and 
bt'tter instructed. The sect was tirst dis- 
covered in Brussels in Ull. They trusted for 
salvation to Christ alone, and denied that 
confession and voluntary penance were neces- 
sary to salvation. With these tenets were 
combined some mystic views that a new law 
of the Holy Spirit and of spiritual liberty 
was about to be promulgated. They may 
liave been a branch of the sect called Breth- 
ren of the Free Spirit. (Moshdm : Church 
Hist. ; cent, xv., pt. ii., ch. v., § 4.) 

* men-of-straw, s. [Straw.] 

mezi-pleaser, s. One who seeks to 
please men, rather than God. 

"Not with eye-service as men-pleasers." — Epheeiam 

pien-ac' -can-it e, men-acli'-an-ite, s. 

[From Meiiaccan, Cornwall; suff.'-tfe (iUui.) ; 
Ger. Ttieimkinit.] 

Min. : A mineral crystallizing in the rhom- 
bohedral system, having its angles nearly the 
same as those of lismattte (q.^' ). Occurs 
also in laminar masses or as sand. Hardness, 
5 to 6 ; sp. gr. 4'5 to 5 ; lustre, submetallic; 
."olour, iron-black ; streak, brownish-red to 
black ; opaque ; fracture conchoidal. Compos. : 
a titaniferous sesquioxide of iron, the propor- 
tions of the titanium and iron very varying ; 
sometimes contains magnesia or manganese. 
Its varieties depend upon the amount of 
titanium they contain, and are given by Dana 
as follows:— (1) Kibdelophane, containing 
about 30 per cent, of titanium, (2) Crichton- 
ite, containing the same amount of titanium, 
but crystallizing in acute rhombohedrons, 
having a basal cleavage. (3) Ilmenite, with 
from 26 to 30 per cent, of titanium. (4) Men- 
accanite. with about 25 per cent, of titanium, 
and occurring massive or xs sand. (6) Hysta- 
tite, containing 15 to 20 per cent, of titanium, 
and mucli seso,uioxide of iron; Washingtonite 
is here included, {'i) Uddevallite, about 10 per 
cent, of titanium, and 70 per cent, of sesqui- 
oxide of iron. (7) Basanomelane, 6 to S per 
cent, of titaniLim ; it includes the " Elsenrosc" 

of the Swiss Alps. (t>) Krageroe-Hti^matite, 
with less than ;i per cent, of titanivun. (9) Mag- 
nesian Menacciinite, or Picrotanite, contain- 
ing 10 to l.'j per cent, of magnesia. Found in 
extensive beds m many jiarts of the world, 
us sands in rivers, and in grains in many 
igneous rocks. 

me-n&C'-cSJtt-it-io, a. [Eng. vie7Mccanit(€) ; 
-ic.\ IVrtaining to menaecunito (q.v.). 

men'-ace« ^ man-ace, "* man-ase, * man- 
asse. " man-ysb* v.t. & i. [Vr. vu-naci-r, 
Irnm vienace = a threat, a menace (q.v.) ; Ital. 
vtiitaciare ; Up. amenaziir.] 

A. Transitive: 

1. To threaten ; to express or show an In- 
tention or deterniiuation to inflict punishment 
or other evil, injury, or hurt on. (Followed 
by with or ?ji/ before that which is threatened.) 

" Our tnule was iuterruptetl and our shorea tnenaced 
by theae rovers.'— J/acau^dy; BUt, E»g., ch. xlx. 

* 2. To threaten, to denounce ; to express 
or hold out threats of. 

"He Tnenaced revenge upon the cardinal." 

Shakcap. : Henry VIIl., L 2. 

* B. Intra ns. : To threaten, to utter threats ; 
to look threatening. 

" Who ever knew the hen vena rTunaca boT" 

Sfuikeip.: Julius C'tsiur, 1, S. 

men'-a9e, * man -ace, ''man-asshe, 

^man-asse, s. [Fr. (O.Fr. vienace, vieuachr, 
vumacht:), from Lat. minncl'.v ~ threats, from 
vdnax (genit. ?/intacis)= threatening ; nuntG ~ 
things projecting, . . . threats, from 7fttJieo = 
to project ; Ital. viinaccia; Sp. a-)nenazar.\ A 
threat, a threatening ; the denunciation of 
any injury or punishment ; a declaration or in- 
dication of a disposition, intention or deter- 
nnnation to inflict punishment or other evil. 

" Willi.imhad Iwen provoked into muttering a few 
words of menace."— Maciuiay : BUt. Eng., ch. x. 

men'-a9-er, s. [Eng. vienac(c); -er.] One 
who liienaces or threatens ; a throatener. 

" Ueuee. mutineer! uor terapt me into rage : 
Tlua roof protects thy radhuess." rhilipt. {Todd.) 

men-ich'-an-ite, s. [Menaccanite.) 
men'-ao-ing, pr. par., a., & s. [Menace, v.] 

A. vis pr. par. : (See the verb). 

B. As adj. : Threatening; indicating threats. 

'■ England, though her aspect was auUeii and Tfie- 
■naciiiy. still preserved neutrality."— J/acau/ixtf ; BUt. 
Eng.. ch. xxv. 

C. As. subst. : The act of threatening ; a 
threat, a menace, 

men'-giC-ing-ly, adir. [Eng. menacing ; -ly.] 
\\i a menacing or tlireateuing manner ; with 

" Setting upon VerglniuB ■menacingly," — Savile : 
Tacitus: Bistorie, p. 78. 

men-age' (ge as zh) (1), s. [Manage.] 

* men-age' (ge as zh) (2), s. [Fr., from O. 
Fr. mesiuige, for viaii>onage, from vMisoii=-3i 
mansion (q.v.).] 

1. A household. 

2. Housekeeping ; household management. 

3. A menagerie. 

" I aaw here the largest mfnage that I ever met 
v/iXM.'—.Uldimn : liemarks on Italy. 

i. Management, handling. 

" To savour in the menage of it of bo much modest 
Bweetneas."— Gf[«ift/i.' Plut Ultra. (Pref.) 

•men'-age, v.t. [Manage, v.\ To manage, 
to control. 

He, the rightful owner of that steede, 

lie well could menage and eabdue hid pride." 

Spenser: F. ii., II. iv. 2. 

me-n&g'-er-ie, me-nig'-er-^, s. [Fr. , from 

vienager=- to keep house ; vUnagc = a house- 
hold, housekeeping.] [Menage (2), s.] 

1, A yard in which wild animals are kept. 

2. A collection of wild animals ; espec. one 
kept for exhibition. 

men'-a-gogue, s. [Gr. ^.r\v€^ (»i€ne5) = the 
menses of women ; 0710765 {agdgos) = leading, 
driving ; 0710 {ago) — to lead, to drive.] A 
medicine that promotes the flux of the niL'nses. 

men'-^ld, * men-eld, * men' ild, a. [Cf. 

Wei. laanog = spotted.] Spotted. (Said of 

Me-nan'-dri-an, s. [For etym. see def.] 
Church Hist. (PL) : Followers of Menander.a 
discijile of Simon Magus, who, to all his 

master's heresies, added this of his own ; that 

without baptism in his mime salvation was 
impossible, and to all si) baptised lie promised 
immortality and incorruptluility. He is also 
described by Tertullian, a.n pretending to be 
one of the Kons from the pleroma(q.v.), sent to 
succour souls which were under oppression. 

men-&ph-thJ$X-i^r-io, a. [Eng. me(thyJ); 
wtj,}tth{ii) : ox{nt)yl, and sufT. 'ic.\ (See tho 

menaphthoxylic-acid, s. [Xaphtba* 


men-^ph-thj^l'-vnii^o* ^- [^■■s- I'K'^^O; 

WiphthyJ, o-inl amine.] 

Chem.: CnHigNH^. A liquid produced by 
treating an alcaholic solution of menaphtho- 
thiamide, CnHgNS, with hydrocldoricacid and 
zinc. It boils at 290'— 293", and rapidly ab- 
sorbs carbonic acid ft-om the air. It unitc.1 
with acids, forming salts, which all crystal- 
lize well. With alcoholic soda and cliloroform. 
it yields the strongly-smelling compound for- 
momenaphthyl nitrile. 

• men-cl-oun, s. [Mention, $.} 

mend, * mend-en, v.t. & i. [A corrupt, of 

amend (q.v.).] 
A. Transitive : 

1. To repair or make ^ood ; as a breach, a 
rent, a defacement, or injury of like kind. 

2. To repair or make good, as a thing broken, 
rent, defaced, or otherwise injured or damaged ; 
to restore to the original state ; to put into 
repair, shape, or order again ; to patch up. 

"He Haw James the aun of Zel>edee. ;tnd John hia 
brother, who also were in the ship mending their iiet«." 
—Mark I. 19. 

3. To set right ; to amend or repair what is 

"That's a fault that water will mend."-~Shaketp. : 
Cotnedj/ of Errors, 111. 2. 

4. To amend ; to make better ; to improve ; 
to alter for the better ; to ameliorate ; to 

" a man I aalle the moke, richely for to lyue, 
Or my Chefe Justice, tho lawes to mend and right." 
Hobert de Brunne, p. 6S. 

5. To advance, to further, to improve. 

'■ Salt earth and bitter are not fit to sow. 
Kor will be tamd and mended by the plough." 
Dryden: Virgil; Georgic iL 324. 

6. To add to, to increase. 

"[He] had Tnended the cheer of bis hosts by a pre- 
sent of fat bucks from hts forest*."— J/acawfatf .■ Bitt. 
Eng., ch. xxiv. 

7. To increase, to quicken, to accelerate. 

" Judgment, however tardy, mends her [Mice. 
When obstinacy ouce hits conquerd grace " 

Cowper : Expostulation, TBS. 

* 8. To adjust, to set right. 

" He will mend the ruff and slug "—Shafcesp. : AtCt 
Well That Ends Well, ill. a. 

* 9. To improve upon. 

'■ We'll tnend our dinner here." ~Shaketp. ; Corned]/ 
of Errors, Iv. 3, 

B, Intrans. : To grow or become better ; to 
imjirove, to amend. 

" What think you of this fool? Doth he notm*«d J" 
—ahakesp. : Twelfth A'ight, i. 5. 

* mend, s. (Mend, v.\ Au amendment; a 
correction, a remedy. 

"If she be fair, 'tis the 1>rtter for her; an shfl bo 
not, she has the mends iu her owu hands." — Shaketp. : 
Troilui tt Cressida, L I. 

* mend'-a-ble, a. [Eng. mend; -able.] Tliat 
can be "mended, corrected, or improved. 
Capable of improvement or amendment. 

"Diligently refourme and amende iu such as are 
me}idable."—Sir T. More: Workes, p. 925. 

men-da'-CiOUS, a. [Lat. mendax (genit. 

mendacis) = lying; jnentior = to lie; Ital. 

vtendacio, mtndace.] Lying ; giveu to false- 
hood ; false. 

men-da'-Cious-l^, adv. [Eng. mendacious ; 

-ly.] Ill a mendacious or lying manner. 

men-da'- cious-ness, s. [Eng. viendacmts ; 
■ neM.] The quality of being mendacious or 
lying ; mendacity, lying. 

" It is oiie long record of ambition, rapacitj', -menda- 
cionsnets. :ind crime."— flrif. (iitarterly Jtwiew, vol. 
Ivii.. p. 222. 

men-da9'-i-t^, s. [Lat. mendacitast from 
viendox (genit. mendacis) = ]yiiig; Ital. & Sp. 

1. The act or habit of lying ; a disposition 
to lie or deceive ; habitual lying. 

"Indeed in htm menrf^icVv was nlmoat a disease."— 
.Varauldy : Bist. Eng., ch. vi. 

boil, boy ; pout, jowl ; cat, 9ell, chorus, 9hin, bench ; go, gem ; thin, this ; sin, as ; expect, Xenophon, exist, -ing. 
-cian, -tian = shan. -tion, -sion = shun ; -tion, -§ion = zhun. -clous, -tlous, -sious = shus. -ble, -die, .vc. ^ bel, del. 

mendee— meninges 

u (MAhrmtto, IVmipUer, 
All lutluii name for bcDiu <IiiM«DN(u 

mfaid er. 

iTiit; "^rtd; -*rj One *h<' 

-dl-#nt.«. iFr.j A 

- ■ r. r.. T 


; thu 

p*r. cif rn^aJtiTi = tit bfru ; men/tints = lieg- 
garlv, [)i>fir; Itnl. mfnJicantt; Sp. mrm/iViin/<.] 
' A. ■ ■ 

1. n tobfgging. 

.• whaUrer hp m«T vtnnt. 
ft I .ij -.. n 1.1 iiik h..1 '--^ii "i^drf^flMr," 

...V V /'»«■ &Mfirm. r, 

2. Roliircl til h. .:>:ruy ; l-KKriijj. 

B. ^« «!>'/. : A l»«i;kr»r ; one who he^j* almd ; 
■jitTif. a incmVr nf a mendicant onler or 
fratrrnity ; a nientlicant friar. 

** Hh* Imva Imt ch«it of tn^ 
TkIim tin* mu|Mnm tutnilhil for tli« Klip 
Ot thU -111 m^ndifMnir 

Mendicant Friars, ». pi, [Mendicaxt 

Btendloant Orders, f. pi 

EcfUt. .{■ C/iuPcA Jii't. : Monastic onlera. 
which. !■>• thfir mil', wevf Tiirbiihlen to acquire 
bn'ifl pruperty in any manner whatxot-vor. 
bat wer^ comiwlled to sutmi-st on alms, in 
many in-'inf. s in ih.r .miIv Itistory, anil in 
%fwr iiiitri"K under 

the I; thefvdhybeg- 

BiuR- I . -nth renturv, 

and :ii :.r,.t cmt?.i>t.4uf Uu- Carmelites, the 
iViminicann. and the Franriiicans. In the 
latter half of the eentury the Anguatinians 
^•ecamo a mendicant onler, and the Ser\ites 
were recogniiw-d by Poi>e Innocent VIII., in 
ll--.. :m 1 finh inendieant order. Hallam 
■ w preachers nt first were 
tiatmn by the laity, whose 
■kU a jrn-rit deal upon tlieir 
*;;ia li -A ih-j aiiiccnty and diRinterestedness 
of their pastors. It Ik noticeable that the 
nupinenesK and corrontion which they im- 
iiutf^l to the secular clerjfy came, in time, to 
be imputed to them also. 

* m£n -dl-oate, f.i', (Ijit. mttidieatnn, pa. par. 

of m^n.'tv, = u< l*eg.J To beg ; to ask alms. 

* mdn-di-ca -tion, i. [I^t nutulicalio, from 
wtrmliatttiM, i>a. par. of minduo = to beg.] 
The act, practice, i.r habit of beftj-ing. 

"Mnnoa aoil Zonu-u. two arr»vn itn<| imtictiiiil 
»tlu>n . . omtt th«hl*U>rTof 1l|■(n«||«v^ta]m*■n■ 
diAIri^n. '— ffrvtpiw yulfffir imrnn. bk. rtl., ch. ivil. 

* mSn-di^'-i-enoe. a. [Mendicant.] Beg- 
ging, mendicancy. 

" Thrre hiith »kwt> grwit dtccnnl . . , 
t{»D the ateU of mendirifyer.' 

Komaunt 1^ fA« Hot*. 

min-^iq-i-tf, ' men dlc-l'te, s. [Fr. 
mmdiciU, from lAt. m^nilicitas, from mendicits 
= begaarly. i>oor ; Ital. mfmliciu'i ; Sp. men- 
flieithid.l The act or stflt*- of begging ; men- 

" For rlchMBke wid m^nHMOm 
Bra c)«i>«d two fxUvniltlM.' 

/Tomiunf qf tik* Ri-sr. 

Headlclty Soolety. i. The nsnal name 

bv wtii.h the S'lciety fnr the Supiiressirm of 

^' " '■ I'v ^-i known. It was ertlaldiNhed in 

MS. The plan of the institution 

f printed tickets to be given to 

- r* instead of monev ; which 

L.r;;=u u:U-x them to tlw Society's office 

where their caaes are invcstigatwl and dis- 

I - 1 r T-i' -T-V-u^ to cirrnmstances. In all 

'ir t4^t is imposed. Con- 

i..s are emphiyeil toarreat 

'.'■rs, and tu bring them to 

* min-dl-nant, >. [<>. Fr.} AnoUicr fonu 

of tiifUdlcaiit (q.T.X 

mdnd lAg. *. [Mrst, r.l 

1. Yarn of wo<il mixed witli cotton for darn- 
ing ineriuo giKMJs. 

2, Articles that re^iuire to he mended. 

min -dlp-ito, a. [Named after the Mcndfp 
lltlU. wlure llntt found ; atiir. -iU (i/in.).] 

M\n. : An orthorhnnibic minoml occurring 
In niansea with a DtirouK, and sometimes radi- 
at**d atrticliirc. Hardnestt, 2"5 to 3 ; sp. jn*. 
7 to 7*1 ; lustn», Ru>>-ftdflmantinc ; colour, 
white, with a tinge of yellow or in-d ; streak, 
white. Compels. : chloride of lead, 3tN--4 ; 
oxide of lead, (il'tJ = IMO; forumla, I'bCI 4- 
21*bO. A rare miiierat, after the English 
locality, Imving I: len nut with only in small 
amount in Silesia and WiMtplialia. 

* mSnd'-mSnt, k [A contr. of amefulvvcnt 
(q.v.). ] Aniendmeiit. 

" By that mrmtm^nt nntlihm «1bp hi" meniit 
But t<> Iw kltif. ti^i tluit uinrk wnn lir bout." 

Satkeillt : Mirrourfor JJaffittrat*!, p. 365. 

* mSn'-dose, «. ILat, vuindosm,} False, 

mSn do'-Slte. «. [After the place where 
fnnnd. Miiidoza, River Plate, South America ; 
sutr. -itt (Min.) ; named by Uana.] 

Min. : K whlto fibrous mineral, hanng re- 
senUilanco to Hbroun gj-psuni. but harder. 
Uardnefis, 3 ; sp. gr. I'SS*. It is a soda-alum, 
the composition being : suliihuric acid, 36'3 ; 
alomina, Wl; soda, 7 1 ; water, 44'9 = 100 ; 
formula, NaOSOg -f AUO33SO5 -f 22HO. 

\ mSnd^ s. pi. [Uend, <.} Amends, satisfac- 
tion, remedy. 

" We w»ii hM k»Bplt it in uiiud mony n Jav till we 
got some metuU tar t."— A'coK ; Btnck Ihearf, cb. iL 

* xnene, v.t. [Mean, v.] 

' mene, a. k s. [Mean, a. & .<:.] 

mSn-e-ghin'-ite, s. rxamed after Pi-of. 
Metieghini of Pisa ; sutT". ^-itc. (Miii.)] 

Min. : A mineral occurring in vary slender 
crj-stnis of a prismatic habit, and also fibrous. 
Crystallization, ortho rhombic. Hardness, 
2-5; sp. gr. tf-3S0; lustre, bright, metallic; 
colour, lead-gray. Compos., according to 
Bechi, sulphur, 17-52 ; antimony, 19-28; lead, 
.W-21 ; copper, 3-54 ; iron, 0-35 = 90-90. Found, 
associated with galena, boulangerite, james- 
onite, &c,, at Bottino, near Sen-avezza, Tus- 

* men-eld, a, [Mekald.] 

M6n-e'-vi-an, a. [From Monevla, the 
Roman name of St. David's. It is a corrup- 
tion of Henemenew, the old British name 1 
of or bplongin>; to St. David's. 

Menevian-bedSt Menevian-rooks 

s. pf. 

Giol. : Certain very ancient rocks found near 
St. Pavid's in South Wales, and near Dolgelly 
and Maentwr in North Wales. Dr. Hicks 
placed them at the top of the Lower Cambrian 
rocks. They contain more than fifty species 
offoasils. One of the chief is a large trilobite 
nearlytwofr.tlongcalled Paradoxules Davidis. 
The Meneviau-beds seem co-extensive with 
Etage C of fiarrande's Primordial zone and 
Monic beds in Sweden. 

* menge, • mlnge. v.t. [A.S. viengan = to 
mix; Dut. mengai; O. Fris. mengia ; Icel 
vunga; Ger. vungen.] To mingle, to mix 


'■ The bu«y b**. her honey now »hv mhtgt " 

Surrey : tie$cript. of .SpriTiff. 

men'-g^te, s. [Named after Menge, the dis- 
coverer ; suff. -Ue (Min.); Ger. mmgit.] 
Mineralogy : 

1, An orthorhombic mineral occurring in 
short prisms, frequently terminated by four- 
sided pyramids. Hardness. 5 to 5-5 ; sp cr 
o-4s; lustre, sulnnetallic. splendent; coloSr; 
iron-black; streak, chestnut-brown. Compos 
accordmg to C. Rose, zirconia. oxide of iron' 
and titanic acid. Found embedded in albite 
in graiMto veins in the Ihnen Mountains. Oren- 
burg, Russia. , v/*cji 

2. The same as Monazite (q.v.). 
men-ha'-den, s. [Indian name.] 

Ichthy: Alosa menhaden, one of the Clu- 
poidie, abounding in the waters of New 

England and as far south as Chesapiaike Bay. 
It is also called Bony-tish, White-tish, Hard- 
hejicl, Moss-bnnker, and Pauhageii, In Miis- 
snchusetts and Rhode Island they arc known 
by their native name; in New York as Moss- 
Bunkers and Skipimn^'s. The ec<moniic value 
of this ttfib, suriassed in America only by 
that of the Gadoids, is derived chieHyfrom its 
use as bjtit, and fi'oin the oil extracted from 
it, the annual yield exceeding that of the 
whale from American fisheries. The refuse of 
the nil-factories supplies a material valuable 
for artiliiiiil manures. 

menhaden-oU, .<:. 

(.'hfm. : An oil obtained from a species of 
herring, Alcsii vwuhmkn. When distilled with 
excess of lime, it yields not less than sixteen 
volatile hydrocarbons. 

men'~hir, s. [Gael. & "Wei. imien — a stone, 
and hir = high.] 

AixhwoJ. (i- Anthrop. (PJ.) : Tall stones ; the 
last of the classes into which Megalitliic 
monuments are ^ 

usually dh-ided. ''"'■"" 
They occur singly 
and in groups, 
rough and unhewn, 
and sculptured and 
inscrilifd with Og- 
ham -v^' r i t i n g or 
with runes. They 
are found in Ire- 
lanil and Scotland, 
in Scandina\ia, in 
Algeria, and in the 
Khiissia Hills. Ben- 
gal. In the latter 
instJince many of 
the stones are re- MEysm. 

cent, and Major 

Austen (Jonrn. Anthrop. ItisL, i. 127) thus ac- 
counts for their creation : 

" If any of the Khassia tribe falls ill or geta iuto 
difficulties, he prays to some one of his deceastd 
ancestors, whose spirit he faucles niav be able and 
willing to aseiat him .... ami, to euforce his prayer, 
he vrjws that, if it is granted, he will erect a atuue iu 
huiionr of the lieceased," 

Fergusson's.view as to the origin of European 
menhirs generally may be gathered from the 
extract ; 

" We can trace back the history of the menhirs from 
historic Christian times to non-historic regions when 
these rude stone pillars, with or without still ruder 
inscnptiims, were griidually BupersediuR the earthen 
Uimuli as a record of the d ■ ■• - 
Stone Miniumeiits. p. '30, 

! Aeh.\X."~Ft;r'juMQn : Hiuie 

ate, at, &re. amidst, what, fall, fiithor ; 

me -nx-al, ' mei-ne-al, * mey-ne-al, a. 

k s. [Mid. Eng. Tiicine, mcinct:, meynv, &c. : 
-aZ.] [Many.] ' h i/, . 

A* As culjective: 

' 1. Belonging or pertaining to a retinue or 
train of servants ; serving. 

" Lo ! the Bad father, fmntic with his pain. 
Around bim furious drives hia menial train." 

Pope: ffomcr; iriad xxiv.2'it. 

2. Pei-taining to or suitable for servants; 
servile, low, mean. 

" To their house three barona bold 
MuBtmtinirti service do." Scott; Marmioii. ii. n. 

B. AssubsL: A retainer; one of a body of 
servants; a domestic servant. (Used chiefly in 
" That all might mark— knight, menial, high, and low." 

• men -lid, a. [Menald.] 

",^.° ~Pr,^*®* *■ [From the place where found. 
Menil-Montant, Paris; sutt'. -He {Min.).'} 

Min. : A variety of opal (q.v.), occurring in 
concretionary forms (tuberose or reniform) in 
an argillaceous shale. It is opaque, and of a 
duH-grayish to grayish-brown colour. 

me-nin'-ge-al. a. [Meningks.1 Of or per- 

tamiug tn tlif ineuingL-s (q,v.). 

meningeal-artery. s. 

AauL : The largest of the branches given off 
by the interaal maxillarv artery. It enters 
the cranium by the spinal foramen, and dis- 
tributes its branches chieHy to the dura-puUer, 
meningeal-vessels, s. pi, 
ji'wt.: The vessels of the membranes of 
th*3 brain. 

me-nin'-gej, s. pi [Gi. m^^-^vI (miningx), 
gonit. til) fiyyo^ O'leninggos) = a membrane.] 
Anat. : (See extract). 

"The cerebro-spinnl centre is enclosed in certain 
inenihraiies or rwrntiffes. which are three in number— 
the dura-mater, the arachnoid, aud tho pia-mater "— 
Todd i Bowman : Physiol. AntU., i. ^y. 

wo., wo,^ .... 3.„. .... .,, cu,r;^-eSe!'Su"tix;r^itt: nrr!;.^Lr^ 

cur, rule, fuU ; try. Syrian. », oe = e ; 

ey = a ; qu = kw. 

meningitis— menseful 

men-in-gi -tis, 5. [Eng., &c. mcning{es); sutT. 

I*atkal. : The term ajipUoil by Herpin to tlie 
inflaiiiiniition of the nifnibnuies t-nveloiiiiig 
the brain. Acute simplu meningitis a.s a rule 
invdlvos the inenibi-anes extensively, but is 
mnre marked over the convexity of the cere- 
bral heniisi'here than at the base or any 
localised spot. The i>renionitory symptoms* 
are usually well marked, as headache, gra- 
dually getting worse, heaviness, giddiness, 
irrit:ibilily. and frequently sickness and vomit- 
ing. When the disease is established, it prt_-- 
sents the following stages : (1) Excitement ; 
(2) Transition ; (3) Depi-ession. The extent of 
the intlanimation and its position on tlic 
brain determine the symptoms. There are 
acute and chronic forms of the malady. The 
former gen>.r.illy terminates in death; whilst 
the latter le.sultsurst iu maniacal excitement, 
and tln-n in idiocy. 

zne-nis-c^ n. [Mesiscds.] Pertaiuiug to 
or of tlie form of a meniscus. 

Iiien-is-9i-e -88, s. pJ. [Mod. Lat. meni^ei- 
(um); Lat. lem. pi. adj. sutl'. -ea:] 

Bot. : A sub-tribe of Polypodiacaous Ferns 
without an indusium. 

me-zus -91-11111. s. [Dimin. of Mod. Lat. 

mciiiscns (q.v.).] 

Bot. : The typiciil genus of the subtribe 
Meniscietv. The sori are reniform, seated on 
the backs of tlie transverse venules, tlie veins 
l>iuuate, anastomosing. {Griffith di Uenfrey,) 

me-nis'-coid, a. [Gr. /xi^h'o-kos (meriiskos) ~ 
a little moon, and e'5o? (eidos) = form, ap- 
])caram:;e.] Having the form or appearaiue of 
a meniscus ; concavo-convex, crescent-shaped. 

me-nis'-CUS, s. [Gr. ^Tjrio-^os (mcnislcos) = a 
little moon ; fiijii] {mem) = a moon.] 

1. Optics: A lens convex on one side and 
cniioave on the other. (Lens.] The concave 
side has a curve of greater radius than the 
couA'ex side, and the lens is tliicker iu the 
middle than elsewhere. 

2. ArchinoL .• A kind of bronze plate or 
disc, which was jilaced by the Athenians upon 
the heads of statues, to defend them from the 
tain and from the orduie of birds, 

3. Zool. : A term applied to an organ of 
doubtful function iu Eckinorhynchus. (Hux- 

men-ise, ^-. [Minsow.1 

* men-i-son, * men-i-soun, s. [O. Fr. 

mfnison.] The dysenterv. {Piers I'lowman, 
[BJ xvi. 111.) 

men-i-sper-i]ia'~9e-se. .'4. [Mod. Lat. 7!icit(s- 

2Ki,ii {nin); Lat. fem. pi, adj. sutl'. -aceiv.] 

Hilt. : Meiiispennads, an order of Diclinous 
Exo;^ens, alliance Meuispermales. It consists 
of sarmentaceous shnibs, with alternate, gene- 
rally entire leaves, reticulated and often 
p:ilmtnerved. The wood develops only on one 
side of the pith. Flowers small, in racemes, 
generally dittcious ; sepals in a ternary series 
or in binary rows ; petals generally smaller 
than the sepals, six, or in a binary or single 
series ; stamens as many as the j>etals or 
more numerous, distinct or nionadelphous ; 
ovules three or six ; fruit, usually fleshy 
drupes, containing a single one-celled nut'; 
seed one, envelo].ed in a membranaceous in- 
tegument. Found climbing among trees in 
the tropics of Asia and America. The order 
is divided into six tribes : (1) Heteroclineie, 
{2) Aiiomospennea', (3) Tiliocoreie, (4) Lepto- 
goii.:-:!', with the subtribes Eleutharrhene:e 
and Cissampelideie, (5)Platygoneie, (6) Pachy- 
gonea-. (Lindley.) Known geuera CO, species 
about 350. (Trcus. of Bot.) 

men-i-Bper'-ind,d,s. [Mod. Lat. menispenn- 
{n>u)i Eng. suff. -ud.] 

Bot. (/'/.): The name given by Lindley to 
the order Menispermaceje (q.v.). 

men-i-sper'-mal, «. [Mod. Lat. vicnisjierm- 
{un>): Eng. suff. -al.] 

B'if. : of or belonging to the genus Meni- 
spernmm or the order Monispermacea; (q.v.). 

menlspermal-allianoe, s. [Ml:xispek- 


men-i-sper- ma - les» s. pi. [Mod. Lat. 
riuii(:il'.:nn{nm}; Lat. ""mas. and fem. pi. adj. 
sutl. -alts.] 

Bot. : An alliance of Diclinou.s Exoccns, 
consisting of those with nionodichlaniyde<m> 
flowers, superior disunited carpels, and an 
embryo surrounded by abundant albumen. 
It contains six orders : Iklonimiacea;. Alheru- 
s)>crmacea*, Slyristicacea*, LardizalMilacua.', 
Scliizjuidi-aLea-, and Meiiispcrmaeea; (q.v.). 

men-l-sper'-mate, s. [Mod. Lat. menis- 
3>tTm{ttm) : Eng. sutf. -ntc] 

Chem. : A salt of menispennic acid. 

men-i-spcr -mic, a. [Eng. vie.nis}icnn{ini:) ; 
■ ic] CVintiiined in or derived from meui- 
spernium (q.v.). 

menispennic -acid, a. 

Chem. : A doubtful acid, said by BouUay to 
' exist in tiie seeils vf ,Mtnis{ivriiinm coccidus. 
It is described as crystalline, tasteless, spar- 
ingly soluble in water, and capable of forming 
crystallizable salts with alkalis. 

maCL-is-per'-nune, s. [Mod. Lat. menis- 
2ierni(nm) ; Eng. sutl'. -iiic (CVif"i.).J 

Chem. : CigHi-jNO^. An alkaloid discovered 
by Pellelier and Couerbe in the seeds Of Men- 
ispertnum cocciilus. It crystallizes hi prisms, 
insoluble in water, but soluble iu alcohol 
and ether, from which it deposits in the crys- 
tilline state. It melts at 1-J0°, but is decom- 
posed at a higher temperature. Meuisper- 
mine does not ap^iear to be poisonous. 

men-i-sper -mum, s. [Gr. (llvj'i? (nu'iic) = 
the moon, and o-n-epjua {^peraut) = a seed.l 

Bot. : Moon-seed. The typical genus of the 
order Menispermaceie and the alliance Menis- 
pennales. Seiials, four to eight, in two rows ; 
petals, six to eight ; luale^ twelve to tweiity- 
foLU" free stamens, fenuiles with six sterile 
ones ami two to four capsules. Known spe- 
cies two, one American, the other Asiatic. 

* men'-i-ver, s. [Miniver.] 

Men'-kar, s. [Con-upted Arabic (?).] 

Astron. : The chief star of the constellation 
Cetus. Called also a Ceti. 

Men -non-ite, a. & s. [See def. B.] 

A. As aOJ. : Belonging to or characteristic 
of the sect described under B. 

"Tlie stuileiits receive theyloglcal instruction iii a 
ruuiit, Coiitaiiiiug the library, ovor the J/ennonitti 
cli.ipel."— -WcCfiHfocA; dt Strong: Cgclot). Bib. dt £ccii!i. 
Lit., vi. 96. 

B. As substantive: 

Ercles. £ Church Hist. {PL): Tlie followers 
of Menno Simons (1492-1559), a priest at 
Witinarsum, in Friesland, who resigned his 
position from religious convictions. His 
teaching was ascetic luther than dogmatic, 
except that he was antipitdobaptist. The 
discij'line of the Meunonites involved separa- 
tion from the world, to the extent of refusing 
to bear arms or to till any civil office. There 
was no hiei-archy, but eidiorters were chosen 
by the congregations, each of which was in- 
dependent of all the rest, and from these 
exhorters elders were selected to administer 
the sacraments. The Mennonites spread over 
Switzerland, Germany, Holland, and even to 
France. Their chief home now is in the 
United States and Canada, where they number 
nearly 200,000. There are also some German 
Menuonite colonies iu Southern Russia. 

"The Afennonitet of HollnuU have i^uisstd through 
au interesting nud vro^'^^ive history. '—Uncj/i:, Brit. 
(cil. yth). xvi, 12. 

men-o-bran'-chi-dse, s. pi. [Mod. Lat. 
men>jhra}ich{us) ; Lat. fem. jd. adj. suff. -ida:.] 
Zool, : A provisional family of tailed am- 
phibians, sub-order Ichthyoidea, gi'oup Pereu- 
nibranchiata. It was erected for the reception 
of the possible genus Sleuobrauchus (q.v.). 

men-6-brah'-chus, s. [Gr. ^tcVw {moio) = 
to remain, to be unchanged, and Lat. hranchiic 
= the gills of a tish ; branchia (q.^'.).J 

ZjoI. : A genus of tailed amphibians, of 
the group Perennibranchiata. Although these 
animals have received generic distinction, it 
is by no means certain tlmt they are nut either 
the larva; or the immature condition of ;in 
amblystoine, Batrachuceps. Mciiobranchits In- 
tcralis is fn>ni the Mississipjii, and M. puin-- 
tfitus from the lake district of North Americ;i. 
Dusky ash giay, with dark sj'ots, a dark stre.ik 
from the snout over the eyes ; brancliiai three 
on each side, of bright crimson. Extremities 
four-cleft, without claws. Erroneously re- 
puted poisonous. 

men-^ 16 -^-ilm, *. [MEsoLooy,] 

m5-ndl'-0-g^, £■ [Or. fi^rtt^K6yioi'(7tUtmtog ion), 
from fiTqv (men) = a mouth, antt A»yof {logos) = 
a discourse, a word.) 

1. Ord. Ijing. : A register of nnnitbs. 

2. Greek Chnrih : A calendar of the lives 
of the saints for each day lu the year. 

m5n -d-pau^e. s. [Or. tj.^v{miu), genlt. ^i^jt-oc 

(»i'-a'>,^) = a mouth, and navt^i^ {pausis) = a 

Physiol. : The flaal cessation of the menses 
in women. 

men-d-po'-ma. s. [Gr. m**-" (meuo) = to 
rvniain, and n-iu^a ipdmi) = a lid.] 

Zool. : The tyjiical genus of the family 
Menopomidai (tj.v.), with a single speuiCi,- 
Meiiotxtnia aUeghaiiieiisijt, iwpularly known sd 
the Hellbcudor. Found iu the Aliet;httn\ and 
its tributaries. Length, from eighteen to 
twenty-four inches; paleslate-colour. mottled 
with dusky tints. Tlie neck has a single gill- 
cleft on each side. It Is very vuracious, 
feeding od tlsh, molluscs, and worms. 

men'-O-pome, s. [Menopopia.] Any indi- 
vidual of tlie genus Menopouia (q.v.). 

men-o-pom'-i-dse. s. pi. [Mod. Lat. n«iw- 
poui{a); Lilt. fem. id. adj. sutf. -iJ.e.J 

1. Zoul. : A family of tailed amphibiana. 
It contains the genera Menopoma (q.v.) aud 
Sieboldia (Cryptobraiichug). 

2, Pulteont. : The large salamander originally 
described as Homo diluvii testis is believed to 
have belonged to this family. 

I Tnen-or-rha'-gi-a, men'-or-rha-^, s. 

[Gr. ^1171- {men), t;enit. ^urjrds [iiU'itos)^a mouth, 
and pTJ7i^^t {rhfguumit = to burst forth, to 

Phys. : The flow of the menses ; menstrua- 
tion. Frequently used synonymously with' 
uterine hiemorrhage, or to deuote an im- 
moderate flow of the menses. 

me-nos'-ta-sis* men-os-ta'-tlon, s. [Gr. 

fir}v {>ii,i:n), geuit. ^ijcos ("linis) = a uiuuth, 
and ordtris {stiisis) = a standing.] [.■St.v^is.] 
Physiology : 

1. The retention of the menses aud their 
accuniujatiiin in the uterus. 

2. The acute pain which sometimes precedes 
each appearance of the menses, jiresumably 
caused by the stasis of the blood iu the capil- 
lary vessels of the uterus. 

men-os-ta'-tlon, s. [Menostasis.] 

* men'-ow (I), s. [Minnow.] 

men'-6w <2), s. [Etym. doubtful.] (See tho 

menow-weed, s. 

Bot. : JiuellUt tiihervsa. 

men'-sa, s. [Lat.] A table. 

H " A meiisa tt toro : 

Law : (Lit., fi-om board and bed). A phrase 
ai)plied to a kind of divorce etlected by the 
sentence of an ecclesiastical court, by which 
the jiarties were separatetl, but the marriage 
relation itself was not dissolved. It is now 
superseded by a judicial separation. [Bed, s., 
II. 1 ; Separation.] 

* men' -sal (1), a. [Lat. mensalUi, from mensa 
= a table'.] Belonging to the table; trans- 
acted at table. 

mensal-cbtiroh, s. (See extract.) 

"Prior In tilt Rtd.r.iifttloii in ScwUaud. wheu tbu 
revenue ti( ii iminnli t>lshul>rii; arose from tlie aiiuex- 
ittiou lit i>Hi'i>ii church, tliuse allotted tt> the blAlmii 
hiiii<>elf Mere called intrmiU cUuriJiin, lu fiiriiutiltkt; 
hia table. "—McCUntvck d :itroiia . Ci/ctvf- ^^- ^*'-> 
vi, 'jy. 

* men-sal (2), cu [Lat. iwnsis = a. mouth.] 
Occurring once a luoutli ; monthly. 

mense, s. [Iccl. iwnska = humanity, fhjm 
vunskr = human ; Jaan = a man.] Manuei^, 
moderation. {Scotch.) 

" But nu liAo m^fue luid diacrettoii. and uv iu»iler. 
Ate vi uur uiuuths." — Jicjft : /io6 Jion, cU. vl. 

"mense.i'.f. [Mense,s.] Tograee. [M^:ssk,s.I 

mense-fol, * menske-fUl, "mensk- 

flll, a. [Iccl. ;acn.sAv( = humanity, and Kng. 
JuU.] Mannerly,, noble, high-miuded. 

"Its ft ni^ir tnrutrful hix\l thrifty drcM. *— ^icw*/ 
OU JJorlatitj/, cb. vi. 

boil, boy ; p6ut» jowl : cat, 9ell, chorus. 9hin. benph ; go, gem ; thin, this : sin, as ; expect, Xonophon. exist, ph = t 
-cian, -tian - shan. -tion, -sion - shun ; -tion, -sion = y^"", -clous, -tious, -sious — shus. -ble, -die, ic. = b^L deL 

menseless— menthol 

mtoao 16 

! Eiii,-. 

-;cw.J tU-brtHl, 

t it.-. I'iii'H-l.i;! 

*- N I t. r.ti kii' wiat hla ck«>t«, 

Llk« ilhtt MttJMWwM. xrm>wl«aa ImitM." 

IIl6n -Mf, «. jrf. [LAt. = IIl.'IilIiK.J [Cata- 
Mi M i.] 

* m6iuk, * mexuke. * menm 

A* .1< rt'f'. : Hnrnnn 


■ men- 

Omutlum, 31S. 

B. .<• 


[MCNtiK, (l.| To 

* minBk. ' menake, r.t. 

tli^'iiify. lo li"H'>ur, lo isnoc, 

itp'iithly, inen^itruAl, frrnii nutiti.t = a nmntti ; 
>'r. piftLMtrMiil ; Hm\, wunsiuitt J Sp. vunsutil.] 
* I. Orxlitutty Lnuffuage: 

1. Recurring or ocmrrine once ft month; 
moiitltly ; itotir nr <:x)iii|<lt>te«l Jit a niuiitli. 

2. Of or pcrUiniriK l.i a nicntitnium. 

" T1i« illawDU "f th« wnffrMiU nr itruilC W»t«n 
ia*r bluitvr th* tiio>Ti>>>ntll<'n u well m tli« dlwnU 
'•t tb* luaUU tlMuaMiDw.*— Aicim: PkguoiogiaU H»- 

XL, Trcknioalltf T 

1. Aftron, : Rfcarring onco a month; per* 
fr<m)tii(; a rovolutiou ur coinjtleting a perioU 
In A in<inth. 

2. /W. ; Ijutin;; fnra month. 

3. -V«r ; rt-rtfliniuji; to the menses of wo- 
n.'-n : iii'-n^tniiuis. 

menstrual Hillxnaot«ric, s. 

/'Av*''''. : Tin- tinit.' wlu'n tin- men ws cease. 
Tltis ii u.Kimlly Wtwet-n the a^es of fnrty-Ilve 
ftii'l f .rty-ci^ht, thoiijih tt-wr, or other dis- 
exvH, may maWt- it much earlier. 

" xnin'-Stm-ant* n. [Lat. menstruans, pr. 
I«r. it( metistruo = to liave a monthly term ; 
mfHttntus = montbly.J Subject to monthly 

" Th«t *oiD«n KT« mmstruiinr. luid ni«u pube»crnt 
ftt Um )r*»r o( t»ic« •even. U «c<»uiite(l k puiiclu*l 
Uulh."— *n>ww<. I'tUaar £rro*ir$, bk. i\;, i:\\. lU. 

mSn' - StrA - ate, n. [Lat. m^>u*tnuitus, pa. 
jsir. iif m*i(-tfnK'.] .Menstruous. (Menstrvant.] 

mon -stru ate. wi. [Menstruate. J To dis- 

fli ir-f,--- tUf Iil.rliSfS. 

min-stm-a'-tlon, 5. (MEKsTRrATc, a.] 

L Ortlinary Ijingudfjf : 

1. la the same »ens<' as H. 

2. The |>eri<Hl of menatnmtjng. 
IL I'Kytirtloijy : 

1. Hunuin: A sanKumeous flow from the 
lining tncnibronc of tlie ut«'rus, n-gularly re- 
tuniing once a month. [Etym.J It generally 
liegins alKiut the (Iftcrnth vear, indicating; 
jnitpescencc, and tenninatis al>out the forty- 
llflh. It U sometimes jToIonged, hut eases 
ittt; rare in which women alnjve fifty yenrs 
1..-IV.- l-.riii* chiMren. Tlit-re is, as a mre, no 
111. How during pregnancyand lactation. 
1 ii- 'lis..ise3 incidental to the woman a« a re- 
sult of menstniation are numerous, the chief 
l>eing mennrrhagia and dysmenorrlicea. 

2. ^ninwrL- A similar tlow of blood fromthe 
lining membrane of the utenis of oviparous 
animals. It generally recurs once a year, 
n.siially in the si'ring. though in the case of 
f'-ui- riiuiuals fntm two to six times. In those 
ili.i' l..\.- undcrgnne a change by domesticA- 
ti >ri.a> 1 's'-amlcats, the recurrence Is usually 
In-.gular, dei>ending upon various circum- 
stances, as diet, temiwniture, &c 

* mSn'-str&e, ^. [Mksstriovs.I The menses. 

iVt*" ^«'»*"»l' OKhtw-o*"***** mn Afore 0<kI m 
clothe* RUj-ite«l with 'ttentlrur.--bale : Ai>otoffg, fo. 57. 

mdn 'Stru-ofts, a. [Lat mtmtntus, from 

ni. ,:-!< -: a month ; Fr. n«ii*(ri(eiLr.J 
L Or'Unary jAingnagt: 

1. Having menstruation. 

■■ The wyl.le hoMt^ .tiAll go tbelr way. uid the mm. 
ttritout weiuen ihAl lie«re tuoustcn."— /Jtdroi. (IWL) 

2. Pertaining to or connected with the 

n. Bot. : Lasting for a month. 

men -Btr^-ftm, «. [Ut. The term was pro- 
l-aMy derived from some notion of the old 
chemists aKjut the influence of the moon in 
the preparaUon of dissolvents.] Any fluid or 

hubtillze«l Bulistaiico which dissolves a solid ; 
a solvent. 

" Brieflr. It cuiuUl«th of imrU to f*r from kii tcie 
<llMi>lutluii, tiMt iHiwertuI nwfuffwumj Are iiiiule for 
\U •uulllUou.''— Arntf'M ; Vulfiar Krrvuri, bk. IL. 
cb. L 

t min-B^-r^bD'-I-tj^ (s as sh), s. [Kr. 

inrii.tii nihil it'- . from mfisiinthlr ■= Miensurable 
(.(.v.).] The iiuulily or htnte of being nicnsur- 

"The oomiiioD qiMllty which chArncterliea all of 
theui !■ tbelr mtiuurxiMily."— Htid : Kuapi ; Oh 

m5n'-aa-ra-ble(8assll).t. (Lat- viensnra. 
hilL*. from W»(5»ni - to measure ; nunsuni = 
a measure; Fr. & Sp. rMnsurahh ; Ital. Mirii- 
sitmhilr.] That may or can be measured; 
c;i|iable of being measured ; measurable. 

mdn'-sa-r%-ble-nds8 (s as sh), s. [Elng. 

nif nnuriifyU ; •»<'<.<.) Tin* i|uality or state of 
Ix-ing mensurable ; mensunibility. 

' mSn'-sn-ral (S as sb), a. [Lat mensuraUs, 
from mnu-ii ni = a measure] Pertaiuing or 
relating to measure or nieasurenieut 

* mSn'-ra-rate (s as sh), v.t. [Lat. mejisu- 
ivtus, i»a* i>ar. of meustiro = to measure ; nun- 
sum = a measure.] To measurt; ; to take the 
dimensions of. 

mSn-sn-ra'-tlon (a as sh^ s. [Lat. mensii- 
r-f/i", from iiu::nsuivti(:>, I'a. par. ct)nensnro^ 
to measure,] 

1. Ord. Lang.: The actor practice of measu- 
ring or taking the dimensions of anything ; 

" The stMiiilitnt whereby he deeiret to he tried in his 
meiauratiom to aU other."— A/a J/alt: T/te ChrUtiait, 

IL TcdtnkaUy: 

\. Cainu : That branch of applied geometry 
which givcjj the rules for flnding the lengths 
of lines, the areas of surfaces, and the volumes 
of solids. 

2. Med, : A means for exploring the state of 
the thoracic and other cavities. It consists 
in a comparative measurement of each side of 
the chest by means of a ribbon extended from 
the median line of the sternum to the sinne. 
Effusion or cessation of a portion of a lung to 
ix'rform rcsj^iratory functions may thus be 
detected. [Stfthometer.J 

-ment,si(^. [Fr., from Lat-m^n(Hm.] A com- 
mon suffix, denoting an act or result of, a 
state, an object produced; as, governme/i(, 

* m@nt» pa. i>ar. or n. [Menge.] 

men-t&g'-ra, .«. [A Iiybrid word formed on 
analogy witli podagra, from I^it. mcntum = 
the chin, and Gr. a-ypa ((/3m) = a catching, 

I'nOwh : A species of skin-disease, the same 
as Tinea sycosis. [Tinea.] 

men'-tal (i), • men'-tall, a. [Fr. vientai, 
from Low Lat. I'lcji^Wu-:, from I^t. m«;is(genit. 
nuiUis) = the mind ; Sp. mental ; Ital. vicntale.] 
Of or pertaining to the mind; done or exist- 
ing in the mind ; intellectual. 

"Thnt modification of the Hubnine. which arises 
from n Htroiii; expretuiuu of mental eiiergj-,' — Stcwarl • 
rhil'itoi'hic-tl K**a)it, ch. iii. 


iiiiiid ; madncs.s. insaiiitv. 

Disorder of the 

mental-arithmetic, s. Aritlmietical 
operations ].erformcd mentally, without any 
niechitniciil aid such as paj^er and pencil. 

mental-reservation, £. 

Moml Tbeol. <C Etliics : Reitrictio -menUiUs. 
the using words in a sense other than ttiat 
wliicli is obvious and which the speaker knows 
they are likely to convey. The subject is one 
of extreme delicacy. All theologians agree 
in the cardinal doctrine, it is never lawful to 
lie. The Roman doctrine is, that the reser- 
vation, to be lawful, must be of such a 
character that it may be perceived by the 
person to whom it is addressed ; and, even 
w-hen mental reservation is pcnnitted, it is 
always to be used with caution, and only as 
the less of two evils. Jeremy Taylor (Ductor 
DubiUintium), from an Anglican, and Liguori 
(Theol. Mor., lib. iv.) an<l Cardinal Newman 
{Hist. Relxg. Optn. and Ajiologia) from a Roman 
point of view, are excellent authorities on the 

" I do not «y thnt in all auws it is unlawful to use 
m*itf/iZ r»n-r.tfwn. even hi cmftiues* and escai>e."— 
Jer. Taylor : Ouciori>u{,Uantium,hV.. iii., i:h. ii rule 5 

mSn'-taJ(2), «. [I-it mentum = the chin.] 
Aiuit.':'0( or pertaining to the chin. 
mental-artery, j. 

Aii'it. : A branch of the inferior dental 
artery, issuing at the mental fonimen to oe 
Uistribut' d on Die lower li}t. 

mental- foramen, i^. 

Atuit. : The outer orilice of the inferior 
dental canal. It occurs »»pposite the second 
incisor in the lower jaw. autl gives passage to 
the mental nerves and vessels. 

mental-fossa, s. 

Aimt. : A sm:tlt depression in the lower jaw 
fur the attachment of muscles. 

mental-nerve, s. 

Anat.: A bianch uf the inferior dental 
nerve. It issues by the mental foramen, .ind 
is distributed to the muscles of the lower lip. 

mental -prominence, 6. 

Ani't. : Tlie tii;ingular eminence f'trming 
thr chin ; a feature distinctive of the humaii 

mental-spines, s. pi. 

A}Utt : Two pairs of pi-ominent tubercules 
placed close together in the body uf the man- 
dible, the upper iiair giving attachment to the 
genio-glossi, and the lower pair to the genio- 
liyoid muscles, {(^uain,) 

men'-tal, s. [Etym. doubtful.] A basket 
made water-tiglit, and having lour ropes at- 
tached, by which two men lift water from ,\ 
stream or cistern and discharge it into a 
trench for irrigation. 

*■ men-t^'-i-ty. s. [Eng 

Mental cast or habit. 

imnta} (1), a. ; -ity.\ 

■'Hiiiljliraa hiis the saiue bard mcitCitfitt/.'—Emer- 
son : Ktvj. Traits, ch. xiv, 

men'-tal-ly, n(?i'. [Eus- mental (l) ; -/(/.] In 
the niuid ; intellectually ; nut practically ut 
externally, but in thought or meditation. 

"There is no assiguable jifirtiuu of matter su mi- 
nute that tt may nut at least, itn'iilulfi/, (to iKirrow x 
sfhcol-terin) be further divided," — Boi/lt:.- ICorft*. i , 

40 L 

men'-tha, s, [Lat. nientha^ menta ; Gr. ^tV^ 
(mint hi')' =^ niiut.] 

Bot. : The typical genus of the family Men- 
thidae, the tribe Menthea, and perhaps the 
order Labiatae or Laiuiacea.- (Labiates). The 
root is stoloniferous and creeping, tlie flowers 
small, whorled, either remote or constituting 
crowded terminal spikes; calyx tive-toothed, 
tube of the corolla short ; the limb campanu- 
late, fourdobed ; stamens four, equal. About 
twenty-eight species known, chiefly from the 
Noith Temjierate Zone, Seven are British, 
viz, : (I) Mentha syh^estris ; (2) M. rolu ndi/olia; 
(3) .1/. piperita ; (4) M. aqnatica ; (5) .1/. sativa ; 
((3) .V. arvensis; and (7) M. I'ltlcQinm. The 
connuonest are Nos. 4 and (i. Xjs. 3, 6, and 
7 are aromatic and carminative, though not so 
much so as Mentha viridist, apparently only 
an escape in Uritain. It is the Spearmint, 
from which are made Oil of Spearmint and 
Spearmint AVater. No. 6, dried and powdered, 
is used in India as a dentrilice; it is a refri- 
gerant, a stomachic, and stojis vomiting. No. 
7 is said to be a good expectorant. M. citrata 
yields a fragrant oil like that of Berganiot. 
M. Piperita is Peppermint. M. inmna, an 
Indian species, has the same odour as the 
last; its leaves are astringent. M. sativu is 
grown in India for culinai-y purposes and for 
its oil. 

mentb'-e-SQ, s. 2)1. [Lat. mcntha, and fenu 
pi. adj. suH". -ea:] 

Bot. : A tribe of Labiatie or Lamiacete. 

men'-thene, s. [Eng. menth(ol): -cm.] 

Cheni. : CjoHig, A hydrocarbon produced 
by the action of phosphoric anhydride on 
menthol. It is a transparent mobile liquid, 
having an agreealde odour. Boiling point 
1G3° ; sp. gr. -Sol at 21', It is insoluble in 
water, but very soluble in oil of turpentine. 

menth' - i - dae. s. pi. 

pl, adj. sufi". -ida:.] 

Bot. : A family of 
Menthepe (q.v.). 

[Lat. vientJui, and feni. 
Labiate plants, tribe 

men'-thol, s. [Lat, menth(a), and Eng. (aU 
coh)ol. ] 

Chem. : CioHoflO. Menthvlic alcohol ; cam- 
piiorof peppermint, A crystalline substance 

fate, fat. fare, amidst, what, fall, fother- we wet hpr*» /»a«,<»i v IT^^ - 3 7. 

menthyl— Mercator 

deposited fiotii oil of i>rpi«L'rmiiit whicli lias 
Ijeeii kept for a loiiy tiuic. It forms sniidl. 
white, fni^'raiit, iirisnuitic crystals. It is 
sli;.'liHy soliil'le ill water, easily iii alcohol, 
etlier arid oils ; iiisoluMe iu alkalis. 

menthol-cone, s. 

J'hunn. : A niixturc <if menthol ami spenim- 
ceti, iitatlc ill flu- form of a cone, and used as 
a siifritic for neuralgia, ice. 

men'-thj^l, s. [Lilt. vienth{n), and Eng. 

Cfiem. : CmHn,. The radical of nu-nthylic 
alcohol, known in comliimition as acetate of 

nienthvl, I^>'^^}^ j.o, a highly refmctive oil 

men-thyl'-ic, ". [E'ls- t'lenthi/J : -ic] Con- 
taiiii'd ill or dciivrd fioni mentlud (ii-v.)- 
menthylicalcohol, s. [Menthoi..] 

* men-ti-cul'-tu-ral, n. [Lat. imns (jienit. 
mintis)^ the- nniid.' and e»/^(/n = culture, 
iniprovenient.] Cnltivating or improving the 

jnen'-tlon, " men-ci-on, ^ men-ci-oun, 
* xnen-tioun, s. [Kr. Mcntiuu, from Lat. 
>nn<ttniii!)ii, at-cus. of meiUio = a mention. 
Fioni the same root as mens (genit. mentis) — 
tlie mind ; memini =to remember, &c. ; Ital. 
mcnzione; Port, ?itf»f(Jo; Sp. vuincion.] A 
l:irief or concise notice of, or reference tt> any- 
lliing in words or writing ; a cursory speaking 
<if anytliing ; a directing of the attention to a 
l>eison or thing hy simple refereme to or 
iiaiiiiiig without a jtarticular account or treat- 
nietit. (Used especially in the phrase, To make 

" Now, the mention |"f God's name] is vniii, when it 
is useless."— /'(I (ctf ." Moral Phil., bk. iv., uh, ix. 

men'-tion, v.t. [JIention, s.j To make men- 
tion of ; to name ; to refer to ; to si>cak of. 

" 1 jueiition Egypt, where I'ruuil kin^s 
Did our furetathei-s voke." 

Milton : P»alm Ixxxvi. '' 

t men'-tion-a-ble, n. [Eng. mention; -a^/^.] 
That may or ciiii be meutioued ; fit to he 

* men - ti' - tlon, s. [Lat. mentitio = lying; 
vttntior = io sjteak falsely, to lie.] Lying, 
falsehood. (Wharton.) 

* men-to-, jurf. [Lat. ?;ie/i^(Hi (2).] Of or 
behjugiiig to the chin. 

mento-liyold, a. 

Aii((t. : Connected with the chin and the 
hyoid hone. There is a 
mentodiyoid muscle. 

* men - ton'-niere, 
' men-ton -iere (i as 

y), s. [Fr., from mcuton ; 
Lat. jKc/i^Ki/i. — the chill.] 
Ohl Arm. : A steel gor- 
get or defence for the 
chin and throat, secured 
lo the hascinet and to 
tlie cuirass. It was some- 
times furnished with a 
small door for breath- ^entonniere. 

3Uen'-tor, s. [From Mentor, in Homer, the 
wise counsellor of Teleiiiachus.] A monitor, 
a wise connsellor or adviser. 

* men-tor'-i-al, «. [Eng. mentor; -inL] Con- 
taining or of the nature of advice or counsel. 

men'-tum, s. [Lat. = the chin, from a root, 

vifu; mill' = to project.] 

L Eiitum. : The basal portion of the labium 
or lower lip in insects. 

2. Zool. : The anterior and infei-ior mandible 
of tlie lower jaw. In man it is known as 
vientiim proHiiiinlinn, on account of the men- 
tal prominence (q.v.); in the lower mammals 
it is called m€iitnm ahsconditam. 

3. Bot, : A projection caused by the exten- 
sion of the foot of the column in some orchids. 

ment-zel'-i-a, ■'■■. [Named aft^^r C. Mentzel, 

a botanical author of Brandenburg.] 

Ik't. : A genus of Loasaceie, tribe Loaseie. 
They are lierbs, with oi-ange or yellow Howeis. 
Tlie root of Mcntzelia hispida, a Mexican spe- 
cies, is said to be purgative. 

me-nu't s. [Fr.] A list of the dishes, &n., 
to be served at a dinner, supper, &c. ; a bill 

of fare. 

me-nur'-a, s. [Hr. h^iti (mrni') = the moon, 
a enscent, and oupd (uK/xr) = a tail.] 

ornith. : A gnms of Passerine songless 
birds from Australia, typical of the family 
Menuriila-. or the sub-family Menurina^ Three 
speeies are known ; Mcnurti tuiperba, the Lyre- 
bird ; yt. I'ictiiriir, sejiarated ln)m the former 
by Gould {I'nic. Zool. Snr., \S&:, y. S.i), and 
.V. idhcrti, tirst described by C. L. Bonaparte 
(Ct'iu-'p. Aciiim, i, 'JIO). 

me-nur'-i-dw. s. J)/. (Mod. Lat. iiu'iiiui<i); 
Lat. fern. pi. adj. sutf, -«/('■.] 

Ornith.: A family of Passerine songless 
biitls, containing the single genus Menura 
(q.v.). Mr. Sclater (/^i-s lS8i>, p. 345) forms 
the families Mennrid;e and Atrichiida; into a 
group, Pseudoscines (q.v.). 

men-u-ri -nee. s. pi. [Mod. Lat. mcmiria); 
Lat. feiii. pi. adj. suff. •inir.] 

Ornith. : A sub-family of Garrod's Ab- 
normal Acromyodian Oseiiies. It contains 
two genera : Meuui-a and Atrichia. {I'ruc. 

Zool. SOC, 1S70, p. JIS.) [SiCKUB-BIRD.] 

' menuse, s. [Mixsow.] 

nien-3?'-Sjl'-the-8B, s. pi. [Mod. Lat. vicny- 
anlh{i.!-!); I-at. fem. pi. adj. sutf. -cir.] 

Hot. : A tribe of Gentiamicea-, differing from 
the typical one, Gentianeffi, by liaving the 
corolla induplicate. 

men-y-3ji' -tiles, s. (Said to be from Gr. 
fj.iji' (iiuii)= a nicinth, and ar^o? (nnthcs) = a 
Hower, because it continues a niontli or be- 
cause it excites menstruation. If it could be 
derived from fiyivvm {incnnG) =. to disclose, 
this would account for the y, which the former 
etymology does not.] 

Bot. : Buckbean, the typical penus of the 
tribe Menyantheaj (q.v.). Calyx, five-partite ; 
corolla, funnel-shaped, fleshy, the segments 
liairy within ; stamens, four ; stigma, two- 
lobe<l ; capsule, one-celled, two-valved, the 
valves bearing the seeds or parietal placenUe 
along their middle. Only known species, 
Menyanthes trifoUata, the Buckbean or Marsh- 
trefoil, has ternate, stalked leaves, with obo- 
vate, obscurely-tootlie'l leaflets. From the 
sheathing base of the leaf-stalk arises a 
flower-stalk, terminating in a compound ra- 
ceme or tliyrse of many white flowers, tippeil 
externally with red, and beautifully fiinged 
with white threads within. The rhizome is a 
highly valuable tonic. It is very bitter. It is 
given in intermittent and remittent fevers, 
gout, rheumatism, scurvy, dropsy, herpes, 
and worms, and can be used as a substitute 
for ho]is in making beer. 

men-y-an'-thin, s. [Mod. Lat. menyanthies) ; 


Chem. : CsoHgffOn. A bitter substence iso- 
meric with pinipicrin, discovered in buckbean 
{Mcaynnthes tri/oliatu). It is obtained as a 
nearly colourless resinous mass, having a very 
bitt^'r t;iste. It is easily soluble in hot water, 
alcoliol, and alkalis, and insoluble iu ether. 

men-y-3.n'-thol, s. [Eng. vienyantk{in)f and 

Lat. y/((,'i[Ht.),] 

Chem. : An oily body obtained by distilling 
menyanthin with dilute sul]'huric acid. It is 
heavy and colourless, smells of bitter almond 
oil, and has a faint acid reaction. 

men'-yie. men'-zie, men'-ye, s. [Meinv.] 

men-zi-e'-sf-a, s. [Named after Archibald 
Meiizies, a Scotch botanist, surgeon, and 
naturalist to Vancouver's exjiedition.] 

Lot. : A genus of Ericaeea? (Heaths), tribe 
Andromedidfe. Memiesia ccarulen is called by 
Sir Joseph Hooker rhyllodoce ccerukii, and 
M. poli/olia, Dabcocia poli/olia. 

Me-phis-to-phe'-le-an, Me-phis-to- 

phe -li-an, «'- IMFPHlsmrHELES.] Ke- 

senibliiig *tlie character of iMei)histoplieles in 
Marlowe's play of Dr. Faustus ; diabolical, 

Mepli-is-t6pli'-e-le§, "• MSph-is-toph'- 
i-lis, " Meph-is-toph -i-lus, s. [Sup- 

ji.iscd to be a corru]itioii uf Or. Ne<|>oo'TO<j)eA)j? 
(yephostojyh^li:!^), from ve^o<: (ncj'hns) = a cloud, 
and «f»i\eu) iiihUeo) = to love.] The name of 
a familiar spirit who jdays a piincipal part 
in 5Iarlowe*s play of Dr. Faustus. 

me-phit'-ic, * me-phit ick, me-phit' 






nie|.lii(is (<i.v.); Fr. vui^hifi'inr ; Ital. it Np. 
vi<Htu-i<.\ Of <M- pertaining l<» mephitid; <ineii- 
sive III the smell; foul, noxious, poisonouB, 
jiestilential ; destructive of life. 

me-ptai-tis, .«. [Lnt.] 

1. f>rd. I.nnij.: A foul, offensive, iioxioUH. 
or i>estilential exhalation from decomposing 
substances, Illth, &c. 

2. Zool. : Skunk, an American genus of 
arctoid niaminalK, family Melidie (q.v.), n-- 
maikable for the power (tf ejecting a fetid 
liquid from the anal glands. M. mcphitiai itt 
the (.'ommon Skunk; M. jniturius, the Little 
Mripetl Skunk (q.v.); ami tlie -V. mapuritu^ 
the White-backed Skunk (q.v.). [Skunk.] 

meph'-it-ism, s. [Eng. j/u'ji/u7(w); -wm.j 
The same i^ Mi:i'iiiTis, 1, 

me -ra -clous, ". [Lat. ?;ier«cKs = pure, un- 
mixed, from muriis — pure.] Free from ad- 
mixture or adultenitiun, inwe; hence, stroug, 

Mer'-ak, s, [Cormpted Ambic] 

Ai^troii. : A lixed sUiT, (3 I'rsti: Majoris. 

' mer'-ca~ble, a. [Lat. mercahUis, from mcrcor 
= to trade ; hterx (genit. »it-rci^) ^ merchan- 
dise.] That may or c;iu be bought or sold. 

mer'-can-tDe, * mer-can~tll, o. [Fr. mcr- 
c(irJil,'U\mi L»jw Lat. v»((:/t(n((<7w = mercan- 
tiU', Iroin Lat. vurauis (genit. meraintis), pr. 
piw. of vuTcor = to trade ; Sp. &. Poit, mcr- 
iXUitil; Itai. miraintik.] Pertaining to or 
connected with merchants and trade ; relating 
to trade and commerce, or the buying and 
selling of goods ; commercial. 

" An (i.lf pt in tin- uiyntery of uicrcantilc politics."— 
.U.UiUtlay : Ilht. iln.j., cli. vl. 

" mer'-can-til-ijm, s. [Eng. viercanti}(c); 
-igiii.] The same as Meucastilitv (q.v.). 

" AU led astmy l)y the suphisni of mercitiititixm.' — 
CQiiteitiporary JUvicw, Nvtv., 16&1, p. Vi'i. 

* mer'-can-til-ist, n. [Eng. mercantH^e); 
'i^t.\ DeVoted to mercantile aflairs. 

" The mcrciuitiligf reiisoiiei-s liave deduced erroneiiua 
coiiclusious." — Coiitoii/iorari/ Jictieu), Xuv., 1»81, p. b>H,. 

* mer-can-til'-J-ty, .■!. [Eng. mercantHie): 

■it;/.] Slereautile spirit. 

mer-cap'-tan, s. [Lat. mei (curium) cajitani^) 
= absorbing mercury.] 

Chem. (PL): CnHan-fiSH. Tliio-alcohols. 
the sulphydrates of thealeohol radicles, that is, 
where the oxygen is replaced by sulphur— t-.r/., 

H I ^ ^ ^''^ mercaptau of ethylic alcoliol. 

mer-cap'-tide, 5. [Eng. mercapt(an) ; pi. 

sutf. -idfs.] 

Chem. (PI.) : Compounds formed by the sub- 
stitution of metals for hydrogens inthemercap- 

tans— e.j7., ^.^ |-S. =sodie ethyl mercaptide. 

mer-cap-to'-ic, a. [Eng., &c. merc<i]it(an); 
u connective, and sutf. -ic] Contained in or 
derived Svom mercaptau. 

mercaptoic-acid, ."'. 

chem. : A name given by Croissant and Bre- 
tonniere ty the suli'hurelted dyes cdjt-ained by 
the action of metallic sulphides, or of sulphur 
and an alkali, on carbohydrates, gum-resins, 
«mer-cat, s. [Lat. mercatus, from mcrcor = 
to trade.] Market, trade. 

* mer-ca-tantc» .••■. [Ital.l A foreign trader. 
(i<hiikcsp. : TnniiiHj of the Shreu; iv. '.;.) 

• mer'-ca-tive, n. [Eng. mercat; -ive.] Of 

vv pertaining to trade. 

Mer-ca'-tor, s. (See the compound.) 

Mercator's chart or projection, 5. 

A mode of projection or representation of a 
portion of the surface of the earth njinii a 
]daiie, in wliieh the meridians are represented 
by equi-distiuit i>arallel straight lines, and the 
jiarallels of latitude by straight lines j.erpen- 
dieular to them. This chart is ]>arlicularly 
adajited to the puri)oses of navigation, inas- 
much as the plot of a ship's course, or u 
rhumb line between two points upon it, is 
represented by a straight line. On this ac- 
count, as well as on account of the facilitief* 
which it affords for making calculations neces- 

t)oil. Ijo^; poiit, joTt^l; cat, 9eU, chorus, yhln, DenQh; go, gem; thin, this; sin. as; expect, Xcnophon, exist, -ihg. 
-Clan, -tian = shan, -tion. -sion = shun ; -tion, -jion = zhun. -clous, -tious, -sious = shiis. -bio, -die, ire. = bel. deL 

mercature— mercuramine 


a r 

f n^rror ■> Uitr»il«.) T)ie 

* iiMr9«. I.' .A coDtnet. of amem (ii.v.y] 
1" iiiif. to amerce. 

L m6Bt, * moroe-ment, *. [A 

tb«ui n>uiiu*und)>L '— /'«k|r>tH tYottjrri^ iJUt. ItM). 

* mer -9^ dar j^. c [l>at. mtrcnJuia.} 

I. A ..iiMU'fif. 
S. (>ni- tliat hlrrs. 

*niorf4 niir'-I-aa, «. [I-At. mrrcrftan'ui^ 
iiiricciinry ('i.v.).J A im'rcenarj'. 

m6r -fin-^r I Ij^, oi/p. (Kng. mtrcenary; 
■ 'y.J In n iiifrcciiar)* manner. 

mer-96B-Ar-i ndsa, f. [Kng. m^riYmiri/; 
• nr».l Tlif 'tuihty or stale of Witi;^ iiu-r- 
c<n.iry . venality ; r«a<line»s to act fur hire cr 

" A kln<l of mtfnwwirjNCM; u tK>li« but » mlnie*!. 
twUct lit< K>al L* Uk«lj to b« ■ruiitj' oL'— Aojrf« , It orU. 

* mer-oen-ar-io, n. ^^ s. 

fr -m l,it. mrtcfiutriiis, mer- 

1 J ; I.-r iiu rr<</n(irii«, from 

fli^r-- I .j) = a reward ; Sp., Port., 

4 lU. , 

A. Ai adj€ctin : 

1. llirtNl (JT ptirchaaod for money : as, mer- 
cenary tiTK)!)*. 

**T}T&iiur i^rovv to itAnd In n««l of m&rcettari/ 
mlditn'-KiiJ^iak. HiMt. tVortd. bk. T., ch. It., f 2. 

2. iK'n*", carried out, or entered into ftoui 
motived of i^in. 




BxoaU tea tboiiMod mtrcmarn de 

Cowper: JVwfA, 22*. 

3. Tliflt nwy or can l«e birvd ; venal ; actu- 
atr-i '"^ u.iiii..,,, ,.| ),y a i„ve of gain or a liojie 
of i> . SL-tli^li. 

".<! Liberty, ahoold ttaud, 
1 ---ejutrp Tiilgi\r IwiiJ." 

Courpcr: tharUp, S57. 

B. As nil>si. : One w]io i.s liired ; specif., a 
ftildier who ia hired in foreign service ; a 

" Bm DM ft Ah«ph«nl »ad no mftrcmitrl*.' 

Chtiuccr : C. T. 518. 

taitr'-^iTt ». [Fr. mercier, from Low hat. 
inrrc. ri:i.< = ft mepccT, frorii ni*'rj(g(!iiil. mercis) 
^ nuTcliondiae.l One who deals In silk, 
cutt*Mi, vvix>llfii, and linen goods. 

" I«h hi»u* nude lucny knj-^ht to the nwrcer and 
dimj-cr." 7'i«T* i^^omfuin, ji. S3. 

mer'-9er-8lllp, s, [Eng. nwrcer; -sAi^.J The 
liiMii.-i-, profession, or occupation of a 

" IIr<<,iirnMe« lilmulf toWanocrc^oOBfool to Icftve 
J, « y..rr. -r^iiy,, nnd p> to bc A luuMiufilecr."— iTuwcif : 
irfVr*. bk_ ii. let. IxU. 

mer-^or-j^, ' mer-cer-le, s. [Fr. merc'ric, 
from mPTcitr — a nien-'T.] 

I. Tlie tra«lft or business of a mercer; mer- 
cers collectively. 

'■ n. ' T^. -y ii n-iir fruiii out of Lotiiliiird-itm-t 
ft"' ' ■ ' ' r.rjwand Flcet-stiML " 


"Clutb«; faiTr«, uid i.tlier m«rc«ry.~— jS«m«ri 
FrviMaart ; Cronjrclx, vul. L, ch. cvocUl. 

itiiodities in which 
Uons, woollens, A:c. 

* mer'-^liand, * morchand, v.i. 

VuiTch.iwi'-r.) Ji. tra.k-, to traffic. 


■■ Fer JiiiMiiio'nir'rft^ri-^.v( at tlili Hiuc with France." 
-llitun Umrji Vll., ji. if*. 

mar- Chan -dlse, s. 

from nuircAa/ui =a Uier- 

mer' - fban - di^e, 

( Vj. norchnTuiiae, 

chant (q.v.).] 

• 1. The act, necupation, or business of 
trading as a merchant ; trade, trafBe, com- 

" I am nuke whkt meri:\nndi»e I will.' 

akaJtmtp : Merchant of I'cnlc*, Hi. 1. 

2. The rbjecta of commerce ; wares, goo<is ; 
that which is bought and sold, except live- 
stock and r*wl estate ; commodities. 

* mer -ohan dice* 'mer'9lian dizOtt-i- 
lMui. uAsi-itt:, 5.1 To tnule, to linmc; to 

c»i:v Mil tra!'- or .■oinmercc. 

» .1 liUCurltw. w«r«CwiAiUilt««- ' 


• mer ^hon diz cr. *. [Kng. %Mfxkund\:^t); 
•rr.) A iiurchttiit, a imder. a tnillli'ker. 

"Tlint whirli dl<l not ft little ftDiuM the mcfxAan- 
diiert ~Ii,.uf,in I'tljrtiitt /'r-if/iXM. i. 

' mar -«ban-drj^, <. [M>d. £ng. merdtand = 
tiierchant*; -rn.] Tr.ido, eomniercc, merclmn- 

mer'-oh^nt, * mar-ohand, * mar-chant, 
* mar-bbaunt, ' merduuid« ^~- ^.v >•. 

[0. Kr. mii\-hnni (Kr. m»irchnHt), fnmi Lat. 
iiifriMJix, pr. par. of Wfrco;-=to traffic, frnni 
nurx (genii. m-Tcw) = merchandise ; J»p. »u.t- 
chantc; Ital. Tnercante^ iMrcataiUe.] 

A. Assnbstantive: 

1. One who carries on trmleona large scale ; 
ft wbi'tesale tnnler ; one who carries on trade 
with foreign countries. 

"84>e A mrrchrtiit in ft Btonn ftt HAft. and what he 
%-;iliu-» most hv will \h> mire to tltrow ovctboftrd Iftftt." 
~.SoufA .- Sennvm, vol. Iv., »et. 12. 

2. A retail dealer ; a shoi)keeper. 

* 3. A merchant vessel ; a merchantman. 

" The muten o( BOiiie mrrchrtnr." 

Shakesp. : Temput. iL 1. 

" 4, A fellow, a chap. 

" Whiit nancy mivrhant wiui thin th«t waa ei> full of 
hl» rogiierj" * "—'ihiikei]i. : Romoo * Jit/ift, li. 4. 

B. As ailj : Pertaining or relating to trade 
or eumineree ; mercantile. 

^ Law merchant; The same as Commercial 
Law Oi.v.). 

mercliaiit-bar. >-. A bar of iron in a 
finirthetl state tit fur the merchant ; imn after 
tlie puiliilcd bais hove been piled, reheated 
and rolled. 

' merchant- captain, s. The captain 
of a iiMrchaiit-vessei. 

merchant-iron, s. Bar iron. 

merchant-prince, s. A great, wealthy, 
or extensive merchant or mannfacturer. 

" Miiuy u( tlie 7nerc!uint-priiircxoi Lombard Street 
and CiTutiill."— J/dcdu/iiy . Hist. £nff., ch. xv, 

merchant-roUs, s. jU. Finishing rolls 
of a roUing-niill. 

merchant -seaman, s. A sailor em- 
I'loyed in tlie nieicliant service. 

merchant -service, s. Tlie mercantile 

merchant-Ship, s. 


A shiji eng:igt»d in 

merchant - tailor, 
lor, -s. 

1. Originally, a tailor who was also a mer- 
chant, and a member of the Meichant Taylors" 
Com[iany in Ix)ndon ; nowcomnuinly used by 
tailors in a large way of business. 

2. One educated at the Merchant Taylors' 

merchant train, s. a train oC rolls 

with groKves of varying sizes and shapes, 
which reduce the reheated puddle-bars to b;tr- 
iron of merchantable fonn. 

merchant-vessel, .v. A mercliant ship. 

• mcr-9hant, * mar-chant, vJ. (Fr. mer- 
chinuier.] To deal, to tiallic, t^ trade. [Mer- 


"Hi» wyfe had rather mnrcftnn/ with voil"— fler. 
nert: Froiuart : Crmy:U\ vol, ii.. ch. cxxlx. 

• mer' - 9hant - a - We, ". [Eng.; 
-cihle.] Fit for llie market; fit to be sold; 
such as will fetch the usual price. 

"The niedicAl wid mtrrrhnntubie commodity of 
cMtor. or jiiiirt* conceived to bo bitten away."— Jrowno : 
I'li/i/ar £rruurs, bit. ili.. cli. iv. 

• mer'-9hant-ho9d, s. [Eng. merchant; 
-hofxt.] The occupation of a merchant. 

•■ Fiadiite merchnnthoixt In GlasRow ruinous t'. 
weak health."— CariyI*.- /teminUcences. L ITt. 

mer' -9hant- like, * mer'-9hant-l^, a. 

[Kng. merchant ; -like, -hf.] T.ike a merchant ; 
Iwcoiniug or betitting a merchant ; pertaining 
to the business of a merchant. 

"At the flrat Rlance this tnuisHCtion »eemed niT- 
rh-mtlike and tali."~Jlai;t\Uaji : Hist. £ng., ch. xxi. 

mer '~9hant-man, 


[Eng. 7n/pTchant, and 

* 1, A Tiiercliant. 

2. A ship engaged in conimerce, as distin- 
guished from a man or ship of war ; a merchaut- 

" lleyoijd the light of the Ikwcou bright 
A inercJuiiitnian i» tAckluif." 

T. U. A,ldricli : Asadrift. 

' mer-9h^nt-rj^, s. [Eng. imrchant; -j*j/.] 

1. 'I'hc business, occupation, or tiade of a 

•■ lu jixti:\iiLmcaasvXmerclMntri/."—\Vaipots: Lettert^. 
Iv. 492. 

2. The merchants of a country, taken col- 

' mer-Che'-ta, s. [Low Lat, Tnerchcta, viar- 
cUeta = the fee of a murk.J 

J-'eudal Jmw : Mcrcheta vmlierum ■was a fine. 
jiaid ill England and Scotland by the tenant 
to his lord for liberty to disjiuse of his daugh- 
ters in marriage. [Marches.] 

* mer' -91-3.-1)16, a. [Eng. mercy; 


" That of hts mercy God so merciable 
On U3 hiagrete mercy iiiultiiilie." 

Chaucer : C. T., 15,009. 

* mer' - 91 - a - ment, 5. [Amercement.] 

Auiercenient. line. 

* mer '9i-fide, po.. 2^0 r. or a. [Mercify.] 

mer -9i-fiil * mer-ci-full, * mer-cl-voU 
* mer-cy-ftli, a. [Eng. mercy ; -full.] 

\. Full of mercy ; disposed or ready to show- 
mercy to offenders ; forgiving. 

" Mcrci/titl over all UIb works, with good 
Still overcoming evlL" A/Ulun : P. L., xil. 505. 

2. Compassionate, tender-hearted, kind, 

•' I shall both find your lordship Jud^e and juror. 
You Me &o JTurrciful." iihakesp.: Henry VJII., v, 2. 

3. Characterized or marked by mercy ; in- 
dicating tendeniess or limuanity. 

" Virtues which are merciful, nor weave 
Suortid fur the failing," 

Byron : Ckilde Harold, ill. 114. 

mer'-9i-ful-ly, * mer-ci-ful-lye, adv, 
[Eng. merci/iii ; -/(/.] In a merciful manner ; 
with mercy, conipa.ssion, or pity. 

" All persona vninstlie exit d by Nero ... he merci- 
/p*/?,v rcstoied ag.iiue t» their country and honour." — 
^'(tp)7e . Tacitus ; Jlislorie, p. IL 

mer'-9i-ful-ness, s. [Eng; merciful; -vnss.] 
The quality or state of being merciful ; tender- 
ness, compassion, pity. 

" In dealyiig niercifullye to beaates we alioiilde lerne 
mi-ni/uhi'me vutu oure neighboures." — Deuterunomif 
xxii. (Notes.) (1551). 

* mer'-9i-fSr, v.t. [Eng. mercij; ■fy.'\ To pity, 

to show mercy towards. 

"Whlleat she did weepe. of no nun mercifi-ie." 
Spetiscr : F. Q., VI. vii. 32. 

mer-91-less, ■ mer-ci-lesse, «. lEng. 

mercy ; -ksa.] 

I. Void of mercy ; unfeeling, hardhearted, 
pitiless, cruel, unmerciful, savage. 

"The courage and military skill which those who 
moat detest his mercUcsf nature allun- him to have 
poaaeased."— J/ticauiay; Ifitt. Eng., ch. xiii. 

* 2. Without hope of mercy. 

" And all dismayd through mercUeate desimlre." 

:ipenier: F. ft., IV. viii. 51. 

mer '-91-16 SS'-ly, adv. [Eng. merciless; -ly.) 
In a merciless manner ; unmercifully ; with- 
out mercy or pity, 

"Persecutors, who like lions and leopards have 
tyrannized uver thee and tnercUeu/y torn thee In 
peecefl."— Bw/iop Ball: Salomon'x Song of Songt para- 

mer'-9i~less-ness, s. [Eng. vierciless ; -ness."] 
The quality or state of being merciless ; want 
of mercy or pity. 

" Though a poore oppresser (as he is unkindly), bo he 
is a moufiter of yntfrcilesTieKie. ' — BigJiop Ball: Hennon 
preacht at W'estmiTuter, April 5, 1628. 

mer-CUr-a-9et'-Jl, a. [Eng. mcrciniy), and 
t'rf(y!{i:ni-).'] Derived from mercury and acetyl- 

mercuracetyl-oxide, s. 

Ckcm. : (L^HHgoJiO. 31 ercuro vinyl-oxide. 
A highly-explosive jtowder, produced when 
acetylene is left for some time in contact with 
a solution of potassio-inercuric iodide, mixed 
with a little ammonia, and the resulting scaly 
crystalline precipitate washed with a conceu- 
tiated solution of potassium iodide. 

mer-ciir'-a-mine, .1. [Eng. mercur^y); 
am(vwnia), and suff. -ine (CAem.).] 

fitc, fat. fare, amidst, what, fall, father ; we, wet. here, camel, her. there 
or. wore, woll, work, who, son ; mute, cub, ciire. unite, cur, rule, full ; try. 

pine, pit, sire, sir, marine : go, pot, 
Syrian, se, ce — e ; ey — a ; qu = kw. 

mercurammonium— mercury 

Chcm. : "S-Mi^i. Mercuminmniimni. X<>t 
known in the free state. The hviirated oxi<h*, 
N-_>Ug4(H0).j. is I'repared by p'^nring a S"'lu- 
tion uf ammonia upon yellow mercuric oxitle. 
It forms a yt*Unwisli-whit^; powder, yieldiii;,' 
detiiiite salts with tlie mineral ac ills. 

mcr-cur-d.m-xiid'-m-uiti, s. [Eng. mcr- 
cin\ij), ;uk1 aiuinoiuum.] (MERCURA^aiSK.] 

mer-ciir'-l-al, n. & s. [Lat. inercHrUtlis, fi-oni 

111'- rear ins = niereury (q.v.) ; Fi'. Htercurici ; 
Sp. mercurial; Ifcil. mercuriale.] 
A. As adjective: 

1. Of or peilainjng to Mercury ; having the 
qualities ascribed to Mercm'y. An astro- 
lo^'ical word introiluced when men believed 
that those who were born while the planet 
Mercury was in the ascendant would neces- 
sarily belitxht-hearted ; sprightly, gay, flighty, 
changeable, tiekle. 

" Pipgott beiug a more forwRnJ ami mercuyi'd m:ui 
got trlufy of it iimoug most scholars."— M'om/; /'usfi 
Uxoii., vol. ii. 

*2. Pertaining to Mercury, regarded as the 
god of trade : hence, pertaining to trade or 

"Thus tickliug, lyiug evasiou, with several other 
aiich like eiiriliujn virtues, are a sort of [jronerties j>er. 
titiuiu^ to the iii-m;tiee of the law, as well .-is to the 

lit urofessiou. 
bk. i. (Note.) 

3. Of or pertaining to mercury or quick- 
silver ; containing or consisting of quicksilver. 

4. Caused by quicksilver ; as, a viercurinl 

B. As siihstantive : 

1. A person of a mercurial temperament ; 
one who is sprightly, changeable, or tickle. 

2. A preparation uf mercury, used as a drug. 

mercurial-bath, s. A bath used in the 
pn>-umatie trnuiih in collecting such gases as 
aie largely absorbed by water. 

mercurial-finger, s. 

Astral. : The little linger. (See extract.) 

"The thumb io cbiroiujuicy we give to Venus, the 
fi.rcHiiger to Jove, tlie miklst to Saturu, the riug tu Sol, 
thi- leHst to Meroury."— /fc» Jonson : Alvhemiet, i, 2. 

mercurial -gauge, s. The pressuie- 
gaut;i- in whicli the sttaui acts upon a body 
of mercury, and raises a column of it iu a 
glass tube. 

mercurial-level, s. A form of level in 
whicli Tiiercury is used. 

mercurial -ointment, s. 

Phanii. : An ointment made of mercury, 
lard, and suet, rubbi?<l thoroughly together. 
Called also Blue Ointment. 

mercurial-palsy, mercurial-trem- 
ors, . - 

I'iithfJ. : A kind of palsy produced by the 
abuse of mercury. 

mercurial-pendulum, s. A compen- 
sation pendulum invented by Graham of 
J.,cpndi>n, 1700. A jar of mercury is used for 
the bob or weight. As the i>endulum ex- 
pands, the mercury rises, and by the rise of its 
centreof gravity comi)ensates for the inequality 
causid by the expansion of the pendulum. 


mercurial-pill, 5. [Blue-pill-I 
mercurial-plaster, s. 

Phunn. : A ]ilast'.'r made of mercury, olive- 
oil, sulphur, and lead-plaster, 

mercurial-pump, s. A pump invented 
by Haskins in 17'20. in which a column of 
mercury acts as plunger and i>istou packing. 

mercurial-suppository, s. [Supposi- 

TOil'i . j 

mercurial-thermometer, s. A ther- 
mmneter tube tilled witli mercury, in contra- 
distinction to a spirit, air, or metallic ther- 

mercurial vapour-bath, s. [Vapour- 


mer-ciir-i-al-ine, 5. [JIud. Lat. mercu) (al- 
ibis): Eng. suff. -(Ti-e (C/tem.).] 

Chcin. : A volatile base obtained, together 
with ammonia, by distilling the seeds of .1/f 1- 
cttriulis 2^''^"-^^'^ with lime or potasli and 
water. According to E. Schmidt, this base i.s 
i'U'iitical with methylamiue. 

mer-cur-i-a-Us, s. (Lat., as adj. = pertain- 
in;^' til mercury ; a^ subst., the Dog's -mercury. 

see def. ."So called \)fcanse Mercury is s.aid to 
have discovered its virtues.] 

Bat. : Dog's Mercury ; a genus of Euphor- 
biaceie, tribe AcalypheiV. l-'luwers im^noecious 
or diu'cious ; males in interrupted axillary 
spikes ; fenmles clustered, spiked or lacemose. 
Sejials, .three ; stamens, eight to twenty, 
generally nine to twelve. Styles, two, sinijile ; 
ovary an<l capsivle two-celled, cells are seedetl. 
Known species. sLx ; from the Eastern Hemi- 
sphere. Two are British: MercuritiUs peren- j 
nis and i£. annwi. The former is jiilose, has a 
simple stem, and flowej."s in March and April. 
The latter is nearly glabrous, with the stem 
bnmched, and tlowers from July to October. 
Tlie leaves of ill. annua are eaten as a pot- 

^ mer-ciir'-i-al-ist, s. [Eng. mercurial ; 'ist. 1 
1. A persun of a mercurial temperament ; 
one who is sprightly, hcklc, and chang^ble. 

much ill coixteiuplfitioii. 
;iuJ musing ii^ucli iil.xjut 

" MerciirieUitta an? aolit*r>'. much ill coixteluplfition. 
ilitilo, jioets, I'hiloaoiilieid, ;iuJ musing <ii^ucn iiLh * 

2." A iiliysiciau who is much gtveh to the 
use of mercury in his trcatilient of diseases.' 

mer-ciir'-i-al-ize, v.i. & (. [Eng. mercurial ; 

*A. Intrans. : To act capricioualy; to be 
capricious oi- changeable. 
B. Traiisitive : 

1. Med. : To treat or aflfect with mercury. 

2. Photog. : To treat witli mercury ; to ex- 
pose to the vapours of mercury. 

mer-ciir'-i-al-l^, adv. [Eng. mercurial ; -ly.^ 
lu a mercurial manner. 

mer-ciir-ic, <.'.. [Eng. mcrcur{y); -ic.] Con- 
tained in ur derived fmrn mercury. 

mercuric-chloride, s. 

Ckem. : HgClo. Corrosive sublimate. It is 
prepared by decomposing mercuricTSUlphate 
witli hydrochloric acid. It melts at 2(i5', 
boils at 292°, and its vapour condenses in crys- 
talline needles or octabedra. Alcohol and 
ether dissolve it readily. It is a violent, acrid 
poison, the best antidute being white- of egg. 

mercuric-cyanide, s. 

Ckem. : Hg(CN)-j. Prepared by dissolving 
yellow ineruuric oxide in aqueous hydrocyanic 
ncid, the former being in slight excess. It 
crystallizes in brilliant quadratic prisjns, 
slightly soluble in water, and is very poi- 

mercuric - ethide, s. [Mep.curv- di- 
mercuric-fulminate, s. [Fulminate.] 
mercuric-iodide, ^^ 

Ckem. : H'^^U- A bjilliant red, crystalline 
jinwder, prepai'ed by triturating mercury with 
iodine. It is insoluble iu water, but soluble 
in alcohol and in solutions of potassic iodide 
or of mercuric chloride, yielding colourless 

mercuric- oxide, s. 

Ckem. : HgO. Red oxide of mercury. Ob- 
tained by decomposing the nitrate by heat. 
It is slightly soluble in water, and dissolves 
in fused potassic hj'drate. It is highly 

mercuric-sulphide, s. [Vermilion.] 

mer'-cu-ried, jia. j>ar. or a. [Mercurv, v.] 

■^ mer-ciir-i-fi-ca'-tion, s. [Mercurifv.] 
The act of mixing with mercury. 

" It remiiius, that I iieifurm the iiroraise I niiule, of 
flddlug tlie ways ■'!' mi'ii-iirififntiim (as uhymists Speak) 
nlwve referred to. "— //oylc; Works. 1. 043, 

* mer-cur'-x-fly, v. t. [Eng. mercury; -fa.] 

1. To obtain mercury from, as from metallic 
minerals, by the ajiplication of intense heat, 
which expels the mercury in fumes, which 
are afterwards condensed. 

"A pwt only of the uetol ia mcrcuriM*^" — Boyle: 
Worki. i. 611. 

2. To treat or combine with mercury ; to 

' mer-Cur'-i-OUS, n. [Eng. viercury ; -ous.\ 

The sami- as ;MEru'i-'Rl.\L (q.v.). 

" mer-ciir'-i-ous-ness, 5. [Eng. mercHrious ; 
-m-s.s-,] The quality or state of being mer- 

"-Vchapeau with winf^a, to denote the mcrcuri-ins- 
ncii:- o! this ine»8uliger."— /■««i/- . Worthies ; Kent. 

* mer -CU-ri^m, t. {Eng. mrrcMii))); -ism.) 
A cnmniiinication of news or intelligence ; au 
dunouncement, a commuidcalion. 

mer-xiir'-i-^ s. [Lat.] 

Chtm.: ThiH term was applied by i\\* 
alchemists to all volatile substances : thus 
quicksilver was called Mercuriirs cnnmunia, 
and alcohol, il. vcjttabiUs. At prt»ient it is 
only applied to quicksilver — e.g., M. (iu/cw it 
ayuonymous with calomel. 

mer-cu-rds-fim-md'-nl-iiin, s. [Kng. 

mercur(>(n)i, and ummoHiiun.] 

Clu'Di. : !!g.j'II,jN'2. Not known in the free 
state. The chloride of this base is the black 
substance formed wlien drycaloinejl ib exposed 
tu the action of ammonia-giis. 

mer'-cu- roils, a. [Eng. viercuiiy): -ous,] 

(iScc the compounds.) 

mercurous -chloride, 5. 

(Vn;m. ; llg-/l-j, caluiiiel. It niay'tie. Ob- 
tained by I'l-ccipitating a solution: of Iiier- 
curous nitrate with one of common aaK-, . It 
crystallizes in quadrilateral prisias, unit is 
tasteless and insnluble iu water. It is of 
great importance in medicine. 

mercurous-oxide, s. 

CItevi. : Hg.jO. Prepared by adding caustic 
potash to mercurous nitr;ite. It is a chirk 
gray, nearly black powder, insoluble in Water, 
and slowly decomposed by the action of light 
into red oxide and metallic mercury. 

mer-cu-ro-vin'-yl, s. [Eng. viercuriy); 
ui'imect., and ciuyl (q.v.}.j (See the com- 

mercurovlnyl-ozide, s. [Merclha- 


mer'-cu-r3^, * mer-cu-rie, $. [Norm. Fr. 

rnyiTurie (Fr. incrciire). from Lat. Mercuriits=: 
I. Ordinary La 11 ffuage: 

1. Lit. : Iu the same sense as II. 

2. Figurativdy : 

* (1) A messenger, a courier, an intelligencer. 

" Following the uiirror of hU Christian kiu)^. 
With witige<l heels, us Bngllah Mvrcuriet. ' 

altakcst^. : i/vurjf I'., il (Cliorua.) 

* (2) A i;ommon name for a newspaper or 
peiiodical publication. 

"No allusiuu tu it ia to )>e found iu the Siouthly 
Jlcrcuriiis." — MaaiiUay : Uisl. Bng., cU. xxl. 

" (3) One who carries about newspapers for 

(4) Liveliness of temi>erament ; spirit, vnl.-i- 
tility, sprightliness, tickleuess, changeable- 
IL Technically: 

Astron. : The planet nearest the sun, unless 
iudeed it be established that the hypothetical 
Vulcan really exists. Its stationary j)oints 
are from 15 to 20 degi'ees of longitude from 
the sun, hence it rises and sets not far from 
the time when the sun does so. The light of 
the suu and the haze of the horizon ci>mbiiie 
to render observation of the planet difficult ; 
hence, as Sir John Herschel says, we " can 
see little more" of the planet " than tliat 
it is round, and exhibits pliases." It varies 
in l)rightness from 15" to 12" of the celestial 
circle or vault. Hence it is sometimes tele- 
scopic, and at other times visible to the naked 
eye, being as bright as a star of the second 
magnitude. It was known to the ancients. 
Its diameter is about ;i,200 miles; its mass 
about T^ith that of the earth ; its sidereal 
period S7 days, 1(5 hours, 49 minutes, ;iO 
seconds. It is seen at its greatest brightness 
as an evening star, at average intervals <.f 
about 116 days, Its average distance from the 
sun is 3j,.'!io0.000 miles. Its gieatest and 
distances differ nearly thirteen million miles, 
it moves iu its orbit about Ili9,3u0 miles an 
hour, against 68,040 performed iu the same 
lime by the eartli. The orbit of Mercury is 
remarkable for its extreme eccentricity, the 
distance from the sun varying from about 
; 30,000,000 to 4 {,000,000 millions of miles. The 
1 etfect of tliis would be that, supposing there 
i were any inhal)itants of Mercury, within a 
j period of about six weeks, the sun would 
' double i[i apparent size, and give abimt double 
■■ the quantity of light and heat. The planet ia 
: sujipnsed to rotate on its axis in 24h. 6m. 2SS. 
j Transits of Mercury over the snn'a di.-^c occur 
I like those of Venus, but more fre»tuently ; those 

boil, b^ : po^t, jo^l : cat, 9eU, chorus, chin, bench ; go, gem ; thin, this : sin, as : expect, If^cnophon, e^ist. ph = C 
-clan, -tian = shan. -tion, -sion = shun ; -tion, -sion — zhun. -cious, -tious, -sious = shus. -ble, -die, ic. — bel, deL 

^ 110.I" 111 S..vrliil.T, th.<«>- lit 

, ,.11.- ill M.y. Tl"> «r" "' 

[• tlilrto'ii or arvsn yrtin, 

i!.trl*iic»* '»ii ac»-oiint t'f 

° i.l««n«ti<>ii iiifu«M 

, of lUc uioVtflueuU of 

tlic ^uuL 

i iW ■ Thr BrnlW MereiirialU (q.v.). 
1 .»« • A illntoiiiic lii<l«llic lUmenf. 
,yml-l II,:; .t..iiit.'w«Klit.-.Y.; M'- /r. l- ••^ : 
T.Viii, ■ i-.Viii :iiT-i'.; kiM.Mii (null 111.- .arliist 

..miillv ill till' f'Tiii •■' ""■"•iirH- sulplii.!.', nr 
;'," :,Ur ... or., fonn.. .1. Sj.iii, A-lna. un; 
.Ili.r l«r1« ..r 111- "orl.l. from «liiHi it •» 
•"t™.-t.^l l.v r.«.til« thf oiv n. n forimc- 
,h 111.-< l"lo «■ <:''-1"' ^'^ 
•! .p. Ic Him-ury i» co>,.l.-.isc.l, «l..l.- the 
'i phun.u. .C..1 i« ;.ll"»-.-.l to .-soap- It ik.s- 
I" i;. . l.Hr.- IIW- tlmt of ,.oli»li.-<f "■iv". '"; 

iiML-c-, contnictiiij! at tl..- "".""<■"' "f ""''',' ■ 
all,, ... H>-,lnK-r,loric aci.l .» w.thout a,-tl„.. 
■".,., ■iio..-.!r>-. CM ...Ipliun. ac.l .Ux-s ."t 
, tacV it. l«it tlif hot co.,cu..m.t.-,l acd , IS- 
,„lv« it with .-v.-lutiou <.f 8.lllih..rous a.ili>- 
.W,le It i. s„liiM.- ii. c.,M .lilute "'tnc: nci.l, 
"A.;.ro... ..itaite U-iiiKfoni,.-.l. M';<-»0- "; 
li,vnliu.M,- to till- ch.-.niat, »h.i eiiii.loji, it in 
".ir.-cti.ifc- R.^.-*" "liich art- Holul.k 1.1 «aU-r 
It is al»o u.Hcd in im-liciiic, in .-xlrac-tiiig gohl 
a.,,1 ,ilv.-rfni.nth.-iror.-.s. i.. silv.ring i.iirTOis, 
In, I gil.ling. Tlio v.ii«ur of .nercur,'. ".hen 
ifihaU-J. acU a. a i«>ison, ,,nxl.i.-...g sal.vation. 
i CI,,-.-. .V,/l/ii-;. : A Itoinaii ileity, iileuti- 
fliHl with thf Gr.-.-k IK-nii.-s. He «as the son 
',f J,i|,it.-r «..a Jlaia. He was the 
.-..1 .if tnimc 811,1 gain (from Ut merx, gen. 
„„Ti< = nierclian<lis«, gain), an.l 'he ),i-<>- 
l.-cLir of niercliants ami Kliopkeeiiel-s. Aftei- 
wanU, Ui.ig i,leutit1e.l with Heniies, lie was 
reganU-l a.s the goJ of elo.iue.iee and co.ii- 
mere.- ..,.1 the prot.o(..r of '"■■'■•■■J-., He «^>s 
»l,o the .iie«.H.-.,ger an.l lieiiild of the gods, 
a.i.l as sii, h he was re|iresonUd as a yuiitli, 
lightlv CI.-..1, with the lietasus or Wll.gcl hat 
ii.i.l wi.igs on his liirls, bean.ig in his hai.,1 
111,- or,le.ii of his ofticc as a 
lienihl, a rod with two serjicts twmed round 
almut it. 

5 Mnl • Tlie chief preparations of mercuiy 
,i.ed in nieiliciiie a.v caloi.iel, corrosiv,- subli- 
mate hy.lrargvn.... iiiin cieta, and bhie pill. 
Mercury should not Iw given in anai.nia, hectic, 
«;urvy scr„, or lulK-rculons d.seasc, nor 
ill cirrhosis, melanosis, gangrene, fattyUisease, 
..r splenic discises. In bilious allections, an.l 
.IvsiieiMiB, secon.lary syphilis, in some forms 
.,f .liarrha-a, in minute doses, iu intis, and lu 
acute and chronic rheumatism, it .s a very 
valuable reincly, and in all forms ol inllani- 
iiiatio.i uiiaccoiiiikinie,! by di-opsy. Its chief 
-,eti,.ns an' absi.rV-nt, .ilterative, antiphlogis- 
Ii,- purgative, an,l also inalesserdegree tonic, 
«tiiiiiilant, ami s,-,lative. ChiWien usually 
«ta.i.l it better than grown-up iieople ; with 
Iheiii the form of adniiiiistration is the 
gray-iww.ler ami for adults, calomel or blue 
pill • an.l ill fVphilis, corrosive sublimate. As 
an external application, calomel, or cahimel 
an.l lime water (black wash) are also useful 

fi. .Will. .-An isometric mineral, fluid at ordi- 
rarj- teni|H-ratures. Volatilizes at 06-2° F., and 
iiiaybecristallize,! iu octahedrons at— 39°F. 
Sp gr. 13-508; lustre metallic; colour tiii- 
wVite ; oiuuiue ; coniims., pure mercury, with 
«., ca-<i„iially some silver. Occurs in small 
j-hil.uh-s s.alteR-il llirougli cinnabar (q.v.), or 
its gungue. Tin- most iiiiiiortant mines arc 
those of Almaden, S|«iin, and Mria, Cnrniola. 
In the Pioneer mine, Na|ia Valley, California, 
.[■Kirlz pe'-les are sometimes f.iuiid w-hieli 
C"i.t.,in several poiin.U weight of mercurj". 
mercnry-ajnalgain, s. 

1. [Ti<-i/i. (/'(.): Tli,< comiioumlsfonnedby the 
.11,1, ..I of m.-rcury with the , .titer metals. The 
• amalgams ai.jiear to U- delliiite com- 
li,.,iml», whilst the liiini.l amalgams may be 
i.;.-nr.le<l in many instances as solutions of 
,1. unite compounds in excess of mercury. Tlie 
i:i..«t useful and i.iter.-sli.ig are those of 
s-Hlium, silver, an,l gol,l. 

2, Min. : The same as (q.v.). 
mercury-antlxnonite, --'. 

Mnt, : The tyiiia- as .\mmiulite (.pv.). 

morcnry-<!liloride, s 

meroury dloUiyl. 


: The 

1 Calomel (q.v.). 

CA,„. : llg<>llf. ^>"<^'"'" "'"''"• ^"'^ like the in.--tliyl c,,n.l-;un,l, ami possess- 
i.,.- similar pr,.l>ertie.s. It lioils at l.i9 , and 

i"; u sp gr. of •->•« ; at 2«i- its vapour de- 
..„l,i,..»es into mercury uli.l Imtaue. 

mercury dl-lsoamyl, s. 

iVirm.: Hg<C5lluV,. _.A col.mrless l,|l..,l. 
nbt.-.i.,ed by gently healing .s,.a.iiylic m uli.l , 
ao-tie ether, and sodium amalgam. ^ . k. 
1^ insiduble in water, giving, with a solution 
,'f iiVline, plates of mercu.y .so- 
amyl iodide, ■Hg(C5H)i)I. 

mercury-dimethyl, s. 

«•;,.,„.: Hg<;^;JJ:'. A colourless i-efractive 
Ihiuid, pr.'pa.-e,l by ad.ling so<lium »•"•']»'"' 
., a niixtui-e of .iietliylic iodide ami etilu 
acetate. It is immiseible with w.^ter, boils at 
S", a.,d has a sp. gr. 3-«VJ at or""»n- '«"• 
)...rat...x'. It is a solvent for caoutehouc. lesiii, 
an.l i.hosphonis. 

mercury-dlnaphthyl, s. 

.V,.i,...- Ilg(Ci.,ll7>j. A crystalline sub- 
stance, prei«re,l by boiling a mixture ufluoii- 
napl,tl..iene .,n<l benzene with so, imii anial- 
g;,i,i It melts at 243*, is insoluble in watei. 
dillicultly sidiible iu hot alcohol, but very 
soluble in chloroform. 

mercury-dlphenyl, s. 

C/i.-ui- .• I sHsHk-ChHj- a crystalline body, 
obtiineil by heating br-.m-beuzine with sodium 
aiiiiilgam and a small quantity of ethylic ace- 
tate It be,-omes vellow on exposure to light, 
melts at I'iU*, ami sublimes unehanged. It 
is insoluble in water, slightly soluble in alco- 
hol and ether, but very soluble in benzene. 

mercury goose-foot, s. 

/;.,f ■i'It'n"]'*"lnti'iBoiiii^Heiiricnx. It has 
hastate-triangular leaves, and compound and 
8-iillary spikes of flowers. The leaves ,ye used 
fur spi.iacli. Called also Good King Henry. 

mercury-Iodide, s. 

Mill. .- The same as CocciNITE (q.v.). 

mercury-selenlde, s. 

.Vi.i. ; The .same .is TiEMAXSlTE (,l.v.). 

mercnry-sulpMde, s. 

.V/ii. .- The same as Cixs.aear and Meta- 


• mer'-ou-ry, r.t. IMebcvrv, s.] To treat 
with a pieparation of meri-ury. 

"They are lu, teuJei- lu) n ludy's face new tnercurled." 
—Den Jonfiii . fyntUUis IluouU, i. L 

mcr-c*.'iner-ci.mer-cle, s. tFr.wfi ci, 

fnfm Lat. mcrceikm, accus. of mcrccs (geiut. ■ 
i.ic,-cni;s)=rewar,l, pay, pity, mercy, fmm 
)/iti-i (genit. iiicrcis) = meveliandise, tratnc, 
from iiKreo=to gain, to buy. to merit; Sp. 
Mcmd; Port, jiicm'; Ital. meni.) 

1. That benevolence or kindness of heart or 
ilisi'.osition w-hicli induces a person to over- 
l,jok injuries, or to treat an otfeniler with 
greater forbearance and clemency than lie 
.lescrves ; a dispositiou to temper justice with 
mildness, and to inttict a lighter punishment 
f<,r iitfences than they strictly call for; .-le- 
meney, tenderness of heart, mildness, com- 


" There's mercy m every pbice. „ „ . , 
Vowper : Alexttiider Selkirk, 

2. An act or exercise of kindness, couipas- 
si„ii, or clemency ; a blessing ; a kind or 
merciful act proceeding from Providence. 

" E'ell » Juili^ment, iiiakiuf? wiiy l..r thee. 

Seeiija lu tUcir eyes R »««rt-y for thy siike.' 

C'vaper : Jtuk, 11. 133. 

3. Pardon, forgiveness. 

- I cry your w.>r«hii,-8 merci/.''~Shaketp. : MitUum- 
mer .VtffftCj Dream, ill. 1. 

4. Pity, compassion. 

-They crleil the nioie. saving. Have merri/ upon us, 
O Lul^. tliuu son of Piivid.- — J/aM/u-w XX. 31. 

5. Power of acting at plea-sure ; discretion, 
liljerty ; unrestrained exercise of will or au- 

" The offender's life lies in the meren of the duke." 
bhakeiji. : Jlerehaiit v/ I'enice. iv. 1. 

% ' (1) To le ill Mercy ; To be un.lcr line. 

- Aii,l the saiil Wi!lUlu Kent l.cili(i solemnly CAlled 
.lutli iiotcoiue. nor liiitli l.rusecute,! his writ ftforesaid. 
Tliereforc it is coiisldereil. that the 6,iiiie W-illiam ami 
Ills nleditea of viose.-uting. to wit. John Doe and 
Rk-h;ird Roe. be in inerci/ for his false comiilaiut. — 
IltiickHone : Comment., iK., Aifp. No. 1.. p. 6. 

■ (2) To lole to uurcy : To forgive, on pay- 
ment of a tine or penalty. 

"That they of Ipre sl.ulde l>ay lo the kynje x tlo.u. 

.'i'.: ' hlrof" ■f h,u Ihey of Ipre ^J',^*';;;^''-- 1' 
-Bci-uers .- FrauMrt ; Cmni/ele. vol. 1".. cli. c.cxi ii. 

the M'hlcne iiiey o, ,i'it ......... .- 

Joyful therof, Th.u they of Ipro 
-llernert : Froiuart ; Cronyele. 

(3) Sisters o/Tiurcy : [S.stebhood). 
mercy-seat, • mercl-seate, s. 

1 ;,it. S: Jwi.ih Anti,,. : Heb. Pri^E? (*.-")'- 
poretJi) ; this may be from 1D3 (l-nptar) = to 
cover in the literal sense, or 153 (,kip,ier) = 
t„ ,-,.v,.r liguratively, specially t.. cn-el- sin 
Heli.-e, the Sei.tiiagint remlers the wol,l 
;"a,rrip,o. (),i(„.s(er,au) = which is pro- 
i.iti^l.'ry or offered in propitiation; and tlie 
\iil.-it,- )o-ou;(fa(oriii»i = ail atonenieut. a 
pi„r.iliatioii. The gohlen covering place,! 
„„,u the ark of the testimony, ^\hetlle it 
w ,s the aetual lia of that ark <.r -^ tablet 
placeil above the lid, is .loubtful. Like the 
ilk, it was two-and-a-hall cubits (3 feet « 
iiiehes) long, an.l une-aml-alialf (2 feet 3 
inches) broad. At each end was a elieiub, 
the twoMooking face to lace, an, covering the 
mercy-se;it with their wings, llie whole was 
put in the most holy place of the tabernacle, 
iii,l afterwanls of the temple (Lxotl. xxt. 
lT--'-> xxvi. 34, xxxvii. 6-lt, xl. 20 ; 1 Cliroii. 
xx\"in 11). On the great day of the Atone- 
ment, Aaron, the high priest, cast incense on 
e.,al (charcoal) burning in a censer, and the 
cloml of sweet-scented .spices which thence 
arose covered the mercy-seat, Go.l ivliose 
special dwelling when he visited the pl.-ice 
was between the cherubims (Psalms Ixxx. ), 
appearing in the cloud(Lev. xvi. 12, 13). iiie 
iilercv-seat was also sprinkled seven times 
with "the blood of abulloek and a g.iat ..Ifere.l ai 
a siu-otfering (Lev. xvi. 15). Jehovah spoke to 
Hoses from oil the meicy-seat (Num. vii. >>V). 
- And over it the cherubims of glory sha.lo»ing the 

merr!l.,e.u: of .vl.ich we canuot no,, speak l.,itlcu. 

l:.r\y."—Hel>rews ix. 5. 

o J.-;,! • In the Kew Testament the entry of 
the lii"h priest into the most holy place is made 
sviiibiTlical of the entry of into heaven, 
t;, pursue His work of intercession, and of the 
-ipi.roach of the Christian to God by the bloo, 
. .1 Jesus (Heb. x. 19-22), whence, in devotional 
language, an approach to the mercy-seat 
siguilles an approach to God in prayer. 

'• Jesus ! where'er thy i«:ople meet, _^ 
There they hehold thy ,»erctf-sea(. 

Vuieper: OInei/ Itifmns. xxvL 

* mercy-Stock, s. A propitiation. 

•-Our Saviour, our Ealisoiu. our our 
Merey.iti>ek.- —Ilntehiniun : Warkt. p. 132. 

• mercy-Stroke, s. The dtath-blow, as 
putting an end to pain. 

*merd, *mard, -mer-da, s. [Fr. mrde, 
Horn IJit. Mi'i'n.) Oidore, .lung. 

- Haire o- th- head, bunit clouts, ch.-ilk. mei-ift, im* 
ehiy."— /Je,i Jonfjn : .Uehifmitt. ii. 3. 

mere, 'meer, «. [Lat. i)K)-«s= pme ; O. Fr. 

1. Pure, unadulterated. 

"Our wine is here miugled ""hl'f.t,' ."Pl^j? 
liiynh ; there liu the life t.. coniej it IS mere .-uid Ull- 
mSxed.--Jer. A.yor.- Tl,e ««rtha Cuminumamt. 

* 2. Genuine, free from admixture. 

"But now our ioys are mere and uumixt; for that 
we insy do our duty aud have our reward at once. - 
/(/., Tut/lor: /title 0/ ConKienee. ILpist. Ded.l 

•j Such and no more ; this or that alone ; 
apart from anything else ; sole, alone, simple. 

-• He well knew that nu-ye names ex_ercise a lnit-l,ty 
influence on the public miud."-.l/„ra»l"!/ ""'- 
A„j/.. ch. xxiii. 
I. Absolute, unqualified, tntiie ; in every 
respect, downright. 

•-This is mere falsehood.-* ,,. 

Sluiketp.: Winters Tate, m.t. 

mere-right, s. 

/,,iif ; The right of properly without posses- 

mere (1), s. [A.S.mere; cogn. with Dut. iiieer; 
Ii-el. •miirr= the sea; Ger. Mcir; O. H. Gel. 
iiuii-i; Goth.iiwrei,- Russ. muri ; Lith. maris; 
Wel. iiu5r,- Gael. & Ir. miiir; Lat. iiuii'f.l A 
lake, a pool. 

mere (2), ♦ meare, * meer, ' meere, s. 

lA.S. iiwre, gemtiere ; Dut. i.,i- .' ; leel. wit:')'.) 
A boumlary, a border ; a boumUii y-stone. 

'• What mound or steddy mere is offel'd to loy sisht.' 
Draifton r /' s. 1. 

• mere, * mear, v.t. [Mere (2), s.] To bound, 
t.i limit, to ilivide. 

" That brave honour of the Latine name. ., 

W'liich ineareti her rule with Afriai and Byze. 

Spenser: Jtuines of /tome. xxii. 

fete. fat. fere, amidst, what. taU, father : we, wet, here, camel, her, there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go. pot, 
or, wore, wol^ work, who, son ; mute. cub. ciire, unite, cur, rule, full ; try. Syrian, se. ce = e ; ey = a ; qu = kw. 

mered— meridian 


' znered, «. [Mkre, «.] Entire, sole, only. 

"At aticli a fuliit, 
Whtii liitif toTiaU tlic wurltl ojniuseil, he beiiit' 
Tlie nw»'.r,/>Hiestinii." 

a/iitkcKp. : Antoiii/ A: Cleofintrn, iii. 11. 

mere'-lSr, ^meere-ly, 'meer-ly, n'h\ 

[Kiig. viere., a.; -hj.] l^urely, only, sok-ly, 
simply. It separates tliat wliich it designates 
and qualities from everytliiug else. But in so 
doing, the chief or most emphatic reference 
may be made either to that which is ineludfd, 
or to that wliich is excluded. In niodein 
Kn^lish it is always tc the latter. In Shak- 
Kpei-e's day the other reference was more 
ci'inninn, that, namely, to which was iu- 
fluded — 

(1) Merely, refeiTing to what is included 
rather than what is excluded ; absolutely, en- 
tirely, (juite, utterly. 

" Fye on't 1 O fye : 'tis au Hiiweedetl gardeu. 
Tluit grows ti)s«e(] ; thiut^s nmk aiuI gmss iriimture, 
Pii8«e,is It merely." S/xikeHfj. : IliunU-t. i. .;. 

(2) Solely, only ; for this and nothing more ; 
in This and no other way. 

" Never ti> remove an uuoiMiilj' merely liecaiise it is 
r.ii iiiiuiiialy."— -l/(t(.iiH/a^,- Emj., eli. x\. 

mer-cn'-cli:^-ina, s. [Gr. ^epot {mcros) = a 
jiart, and iyxvfio. {engchunut) = infusion.] 

Dot. : Imperfect cellular tissue found abund- 
antly in intercellular spaces. Professor Monen 
makes it a subdivision of Piu-enchyiua. Meyer 
gave the name to tissue with ellipsoidal or 
spheroidal cells. More commonly known as 
Lax Parenchyma. 

Tner-en-chym'-a-toiia, ff. lEng., kc.,vier- 
enchyma ; t conn.' and sulf. ■nus.\ 

Hot. : Having the structure or appearance 
of merenchynm (q-v.). 

* mere^'-man, 5. [Eng. mere (2), s. ; and 

//((';(.] Oiif'whii has charge of or points out 

liciundarie^ ; ;l me;irsiiian. 

mere-Stone. - zneere-stone, s. [Eng. 
vifre (2), s., and stoiie,] A boundary -stone ; a 

" The iiiishiier of a meer&itone is to blame. But It is 
the uujust jiul^e. thut is the cnpitaU remover of l:iiiil- 
lui^rkes.M'lieii he deflueth iiiiiisiie vl lands aiid property.' 
— liavon : Essiit/s ; 0/ JtuUvuturt: 

* mer-e-tri'-cian, (r. [Lat. nierctrlcius = 
meretrici(jus (q.v.).] Meretricious. 

" Take f rum huiuan eummcrL-e mcref Wf* a /i amours.' 
— 7". Ilruvm: in.rfc*. iii. ;•-«. 

mer - e - tri '- cious, «. [Ivat. mcretriclns ■=. 
jtertaiuing to a courtesan, from ?it«re?r(j;(genit. 
liter etr ids) — a couitesan, from tiicrco = to 
gain, to earn.] 

1. Of or pertaining to courte-sans or prosti- 
tutes ; such as is practised by harlots. 

, " Her deceitful and meretriciout tratfick with aU the 

nations of the world."— B/>. Hall: HardTexts; Jtaiah 
x\iii. 17. 

2. False; alluring by false show; worn or 
assuried for show ; unreal, tawdry, fjaudy, 
showy ; extremely bad in taste. 

" No meretrit^iotis graces to hegiiile. 
Uo cluflteriug uruameuta to clot; t^he pile." 

Cowper: 3'rulh,2^. 

mer-e-tri'-cious-ly, adv. [Eng. mervtri- 
cir>us;-hi.] In a meretricious manner; ^\ith 
false show ; tawdrily, gaudily, against good 

mer-e-tri'-cious-nesa, s. [Eng. meretrl- 
i:i<iii.'i; -Hfj^s.] Tile ([U.'ility or state of lieing 
nieietriciuus ; false show, tawdriness, sliowi- 

*in,er'-e-trik, a. [Lat. viprctririus — mere- 
tricious (q.v.).] Harlot, meretricious. 

" And thei'efore tliei thiiike it imiiossible to be any 
knaiierye or errouit. in co holy fathers with their 
jiicrefrik tuuth^v. '—Joye : Jixfjuiichn of /taniel, ch. xit 

mer-ga-net'-ta, s. (Mod. Lat., from Lat. 
iiierqiis ^ a diver, and Gr. vfirra (nctto) = a 

Ornitk. : Torrent-duck ; a peculiar genus of 
Anatidte, restricted tt> the Andes of South 
America, from Colombia toChili. Tlirees]iecies 
are known : Merganetta onitata, M. tiinicri, 
and jV. kncogenys. Mr. Bridges says of the 
first species, " It swims and dives against tlie 
flow of the Chilian mountain-tori-ents with a 
rapidity truly astonishing." {I'roc. Zool. .Soc, 
lS7i;, p. 407.) 

mer-ga-net-ti'-nae, .s'. }>L [Mod. Lat. mcr- 
fjaiiett(n) ; Lat. feiii. j'l. adj. sntf. -Ina:] 

Oniith. : A sub-family of Anati'he. It con- 
tains but a single genus, Merganetta (q.v.). 

mer-g%n'~ser. s. [Lat.*7;if»>;(i(s) = n diver, 

and ausiT =■ a goose.) 
Ornitholoijy : 

1. A geims erected by Leach for his Mer- 
ganser mstor, the Mcryua ?Hfrj/(nkttTof Linnicus. 

2. A popular name for any member of the 
Linnaean genus Mergus, especially fur Mertjti.t 
mtrganscr, the Goosander (q.v.). 

merge, v.t. & i". [Lirt. vicrgo = to dip.] 

A. Tran.s. : Tn sink ; to drown ; to cause to 
be swallowed up or absorbed. (Only used fig- 

" Whenever a Rreater estate and a less coincide an^ 
meet in one antl the same t>cra>in, without any inter- 
mediate estjittf, the less is iitiniediat.e]y annihilated ; or 
IH the law |ihnkse is sjild to he jiieriji-d. thut is. sunk or 
drowned in the etviUiir." — litavkstuHi: : Cuintncnt., 
bk. ii., ch. xi. 

B, Iittmns. ; To be absorbed or swallowed 
ui> ; to be lost or sunk. 

t mer-gel'-lus* s. [Mod. Lat., dimin. of Lat. 

■mn-gns i^l.v.).] 

Oruith. : In some classifications a genus of 
the sub-family Merginte. It contains but one 
species, the Smew, McrgellusQIcnjus) ulbdlus. 

^erg'-er, s. [Eng. uiergie): -cr.] 

1. Oi(L Lang. : One who or that which 

2. La ID : (See extract). 

" Merger is the act of law, and is the annihilation of 
one estate in another. Its etlect ia to consolidate tsso 
estates, and to conform them into one estate. After 
iiwrgcr, tlie only subaistiug estate continues precisely 
of the sjtnie ({nantity and extent of ownership .'is it was 
before the accession of the estate which is merged. 
It is a fundamental rule that there cannot 1>e any 
merger unless there be a remainder or revei^ioii in 
which the particuhir estate may merge,"— ,l/<(.'/'"«' . On 
Mi:rytr, pt. i., ch. i. 

mer-gi'-nsB, s. j)?. [Lat. vicyjiin-); fern. pi. 
adj. surt. -(/««.] 

Oruith.: A subfamily of Anntidie. Prince 
Bonapajte makes it include Mergus albellus, 
erected into a genera, and Leach's genus Mer- 
ganser. According to the Brit. Mns. tat. 
(Gray) it comprises the Linna-an genus Mer- 
ganser, and Mergellus (q.v.). 

mer'-gu-lus, 5. [Mod. Lat., diniin. of Lat. 


Oruith. : A genus of Anatida?, erected by 
Vieillot for the recei>tion of Mergnlus melanu- 
hucos, tlie Little Auk (q.v.). Bill shorter than 
the head, thick, broader than high at base, 
ujiper mandible indistinctly groo\ed, tips of 
both notched ; commissure arched ; nostrils 
lateral, round, at base of bill ; legs, short and 
abdominal ; three webbed toes ; wings and 
tail short. 

mer'-giis, s. [Lat. = a diver, a water-fowl ; 
iiicrgo ~ to ilip, to plunge into.] 

Ichthy. : A genus of natatorial Tiirds, family 
Anatidie. Bill about as long as the head, 
slender, rather pointed ; base large ; mandibles 
serrated, point of upper curved ; nostrils 
lateral ; legs short ; three toes in front webiieii. 
hind tne with pendent lobe ; wings of moderate 
size, first and second quill feathers nearly 
equal in length. 'Wallace (Geog.Dist. Animals^ 
ii. 304) defines the range of the genus in space 
as: Pala-arctic and Nearctic regions. Brazil, 
and the Auckland Islands. Mu:jiis ailnlhis is 
the Smew, M. ciicuUatiis the Hooded Mergan- 
ser, M. serrator the Red-breasted Merganser, 
ami M. vicrganser the Goo.sander. {Varrell.) 

mer-i-an'-dra, s. ^ [Gr. jieptV (m^ris) = a 
I'art, a division, and at-iqp (aucr), genit. afSpo? 
{andros) = a man, a stamen.] 

Hot. : The typical genus of the family 
Meriandridie(q,v.). Meridmira hengaleiisis and 
M. strubiliftra are carminative and antisi»as- 
niodic. An iidusion of the leaves is given in 
India in aphtha; and sore throat. 

mer-i-S-n'-dri dee, s. ;>/. [Mod. Lat. meri- 
andii'i); Lat. fern. pi. ailj. suff. -a/'.f'.] 
Lot. : A family of Labiates, tribe Menthea'. 

mer-i-a'-ni-a, s- [Named after Mdtne. Merian, 
who wrote on* the iii-sects of Surinam.] 

Lot. : Jamaica. Rose ; a genus of Melas- 
tnnmceie, tiihe Melastonieie. Merianiti leiican- 
tha is tlie White-flowered, and iM. jinrpun-n 
the Purjile-floweied Jamaica Hose. 

mer'-i-carp, s. [Gr. ^epi? (nurls) - a part, 
and Kapno? {I.arpos) ~ fruit.] 
Bota II II : 
L Tlie n.imo given by Pe Candolle to the 

half of a cremocarp, i.i., of an nnibcUifeioua 
fruit. Mericarps are indehiscent. 

2. The distinct ])ieces into which a cruci- 
ferous siliquu or silicuia .splitii. 

me-rid'-i-an, «. <& .«. [Fr. vieridieu. from Lnt. 
intiridiaiuus = pei-tiiining to mid-day ; uu lidies 
(for iiiedidies) = mid-day; mediiis = miildle, 
and dies =^ a day ; Ital. & Sp. tueridiano.l 

A. As adjcctifc: 

I. Ordinary Language : 

1, Literally : 

(1) Of or jiertaining to mid-day or the meri- 
dian ; noon-day. 

"And hid a dawning sky lUsplny 
The hl;ue of a nu-ridiint day." 
Cowper: I'oetical Ephltv to f.'fly Autteti. 

(2) Of or pel talning to the magnetic meridian. 

2. Figitrtftirely: 

(1) Pertaining to or at the highest point or 
culmination ; i>ertainingtotlie point or period 
of highest sjdendour ; as, meridian glory. 

' (2) Comiplete, tliorougli. 

" Out of the mouth ol a nieridian vlllalu."— XortA ; 

/r.rfU(it'H. p.'ien. 

II. Geol. : Noon-day ; in allusion to the 
mid-day date of the strata tr) which it is ap- 
plied. A term appropriated to certain niiihlle 
loiinations of the Appalacliian Faheozoie sys- 
tem, which are callecl in the New York Survey, 
the Oriskany Sandstone, and \\liich apjteai" to 
be on the horizon of the Lower Ludlow rocks 
of England. The greatest thickness of this 
sau'l.-^tone is less than 200 feet. Its ilistinctiv« 
los.sils are large braehiopoilous bivalves, {i'rof. 
il. D. liogers: (.kology 0/ Femisylvania.) 

B. -45 substantive: 

I. Ordinary Language: 

1. Literally : 

(1) Mid-day ; noon-day. 

(2) lu the same sense as II. 2. 

2. Figuratively : 

(I) The highest point ; the culmination ; the 
point or period of highest splendour. 

" From that full mrridiaii uf my glory 
I haste now to my setting." 

Shakcxp. : Jfcnry VIII., iii. 2. 

* (2) Tlie special circumstances, require- 
ments, conditions, or cjipabilities ot^ : as of a 
country, a distiict, a sphere of Hie, &c. 

"All other knowledge merely serves thec-oncenis of 
this life, and is totted to the meridian thereof." — Hule : 
Orio, tyf Muitkiiid. 
II. Technimlhj: 

L Astroii. : [Celestial Meridian], 
2. Geog. : [Terrestrial Meridian]. 

(1) Celestial Meridian : The great circle 
marked out on the sjilieie by the prolongation 
of tlie terrestrial meridian passing through the 
spot where the observer stands. If, as is appa- 
rently the case, the earth be at rest, then tlie ce- 
lestial meridian becomes a fixed circle, across 
which all the stars ]iassin their diurnal courses 
from East to West. If, as is really the Cjise, 
the stJirs are at rest, and tlie ejirth rotate, 
then the si)eetator's meridian sweeps daily 
across the plane fitun West to East. 

(2) Firstiiieridian: That meridian from which 
all others are leckoned, counting eastward or 
westward, and from which also longitudes 
arc- reckoned. 

(:i) Magnetic-Meridian : [Maonktic]. 

(4) Meridian idfitudc of the ami or ,,/a star: 
Its altitude when on the meridian of the 
phiee where it is observed, 

(ri) Meridian distance of a 2'>oint : The distance 
from the j'oint to some assumed meridian, 
generally the one diawn through the extivnie 
east or west point of the survey. 

(0) Meridian line on a dial : The same as the 
twelve o'clock hour-line. 

(7) Meridinit of a globe: The brazen circle 
ill wliich it turns and by which it is supported: 
aiso meridian-lines diawn on the globe itself, 
generally at a distance of 15'. 

(s) Terrestrial meridian : The terrestrial me- 
liilian of any place on the eartli's surface is s 
;^ circle passing through the two i«)Ies 
and the place. 

meridian-circle, ^. 

1. A transit instrument with a graduated 
circle securely fastened at right angles to the 
liorizontal axis and turning with it. 

2. The altitiule circle of a globe. 

meridian - distance, meridional - 
distance, >. [lii:i-.\iiri m:. .<., II. :.'.l 

fcoil, boy- ; poiit, jd^l ; cat, 9ell, chcrus, 9liin, l>enQh ; go. gem ; thin, this ; sin, as ; expect. Xenophon. exist. -Ing, 
-cian, -tian = shan. -tion, -sion = shun ; -tion, -sion — zhiin. -cious, -tlous, -sious = shus. -hie, -die, Ac. — hel, deL 


meridional— mermaid 

BMrldlAn UbO, (. An nrr or |«rt itfthc 
ni. r 1, xu • t a 1, t«nuiuat«U eac-li way by 
llj.- h..M:..i. 

morldlan -nuurk, «• A mark |>Upi.'<1 at 

•4)1111- llillrt -ll*) itio- ItX'Ill all plisMTVUt'TV. 

Rt,.l .I.. ^ itli iif tlir i-mitlt)ii of the tnilisit- 
' itTvt? (u a iiieaiis of niitrkiiig 
>>r tlie true aoutli |>oiut of the 

1. . 

in6 rid 1 dn aI, a. & s. [Fr.. from I^t. 

A. At ai^JKitive : 

1. Of or pertaiiilug to the meridian : hence, 

- Tt>« imtriJi.H-il lltirs tUntl wMcr u)K>u Olio aide 
Umu ttM utbflr — ArowM C jn-ud' (iiinlrn. cb. Iv. 

* J. U&vlug a soutUtfrly adi>cct ; fuclug the 

B. At suUt. : The s<mtb. 

"Tbc f<»HdLn*al l«bU-h tber of th« Oomui call 
M'tiU.. ukI tliviw of tfa* M(dlUmi>««n Htn Zcszu 
(;i,.fi,.,i tviuiUMiitj I* t&lu>' lutil twUtarvm.'— 0(>j)f« . 

meridional ATO, *• An arc nf the earth, 
ima-uir-l .il"ii^- til.- iiRTidiaii, with the view 
cf ii.t.Trtttiimi>; tlie U-n^ith of a ih-"tri-eo in 
iliiri-ivnt Ulitu>h'5, nml thuiieu calculating tbc 
cuct form itf Ute eartlL [Arc, Oblati:.] 

meridional distance, s. [Mcridian 

meridional ports, >. ;/. Parts of the 
linje. itil lufiuh-ui. :u-c*'r\iin^ to Mercator'.s 
nyjtfem. C'iriV!i|H)uJing to each minute of 
Utiliule, fmin tlie equator up to sumo tixed 
limit, usually bit'. 

me-rtd-i-^-niU -i-tj^, s. [Eng. meridional; 

1. Tlie state nf U'iiig on tho meridian. 

2. rositiuii ill the uoutb ; Oditect towards 

thr south. 

me-rid -1^ nal-lj^, adv. [Gng. meridional ; 
•/i/.] In the (lirectiuu of the meridian ; iu a 
line north and south. 

' riie Jevri. iii>t willlit); to Me m llieir t«iiiiite aWyd. 

• mSr'-Il^ s. [O. Fr. vierel = a counter ; Fr. 
virrrlle, mnrr/?* = hoji-scotrh.I A game jilayed 
with counters or i>fg!* : called alsojice-jKuni/, 
or ninr nm's morris. 

' mSr -I-mdnt, s. [Mkrriuent.] 

me ri -no, n. J: s. (Sj*. = (a.) moving or roam- 
iiii; fruiu pasture to i»a-sturc, (.*.) an inspector 
nt jia^tuns, from |,v>w Lat. majoritius = n 
iuiO"''-<lomo, a steward of a household.] 
A. Ai Oil/tctire : 

1. I>enottng a variety of sheep from Spain, 
or Ihfir wotd. 

2. Made of tJie wool of the nieriuo sheep. 
S. As substiintiw : 

1. Zoot. : A H|>uniiih breed of the domestic 
fc'nep(Oi'i* (triM). It is extremely iiuimrtant 
commercially, on account of the excellence 
<if iti wool, which is close-set, soft, spirally 
twj.-ited, and short. There are large tlocks ili 
Geniiany. an<l it Is extensively bred in Aus- 
tmliii, where it wa.s introduced towanis the 
end of the laitt century. The animal is small,, and longdegged. The males are 
Iji'rned, The face, ears, ami legs are dark, 
the forehead woolly, and the akiu of the 
throat lax. 

2. Fabric: A flue French woollen material, 
so named as beini; made from the wool of the 
merino sheep. It is a lady's dress goods, all 
wool, and twilkd vn both sides. 

merino-sheep, s. [Mkrino, B. 1.] 

mer-i 6 ncs, . [X proper name occurring 
ill iJuiin.T.1 

Zool. : Cuvier and Illiger's name for the 
genus Jaculus, for which Dr. C'oues has pro- 
l"'sed Zaj'us (l-v.). 

mer is-m&t'-lo, n. [Gr. nifntrfia (merisma), 
K'liit. ntpiTfjiaTo^ (imrismatos) =a part, and 
Euii., Ac. suit, -ic] 

Hot. : Seitarating by the formation of internal 
partitions, as often occurs in cellular tissue. 

mer-it. *mer-ltO, -. IFr. nuVi/e. from Lat. 
mTitu-n = thfttwiiich is deserved ; nuut. sinj:. 
of m^ritvi, pa. ]«r, of ineicor=to deserve; 
Sp., Tort., i: Ital. merilo.] 

* 1. The quality of deserving, whother well 
or 111 ; desert of g-iod or evil. 

2. The quality of deserving well; excel- 
lence deserving honour or reward; deseit, 
worlli, w<irthine»g. 

■■ Thcrif-rr jrwuff It whol* ami niilto. 
Auit ttiuti ahult Uftii* ttiv uiurv mrrlte. 

iioMMunt (/ the Hote. 

3. That which is deserved, earned, or 
merited ; a ivward, return, or recompense 
eirned ur merited ; deseits. 

I i[We the* ; r«lgu (ur over. Hint nMume 
Tl.y >»eriW Miltov : r. I.. Hi. 319. 

4. (/'/.) The essential circumstances of a 
case or matter, without reference to extra- 
neous matters ; the rights and wrongs of a 
case : as, To decide a cose on its merits. 

'merit-monger, ^. One who supports 

tho doctrine of human merit as entitled to 
ri'waid, or who depends n^'on merit for salva- 

"Ltke lu tliexe merit-mnnaifrs ^oe. which tateciiie 
ttiemwlvca afU-r tliclr lUKiiU. —Latiinvr : &ir. JJ/. on 
th€ tont't frut/vr. 

mer'-it, •'mer-yt, v.t. & i. [Ft. vUritcr, 
from merite - merit (4. v.); Sp. meritar ; Ital. 
laeritare: Lat. vierilv, frequent, of vicrcor =■ 
to desen-e.] 

A. Transitive: 

* 1. To deserve, whether good or ill; to 
earn ; to be entitled to receive ; to incur. 

2. To deserve, as a reward ; to earn, to 
have a right to claim, to have a just title or 
claim to. 

•■ Those best can hear reproof who meHt jirnise." 
Pufft : Ettay uit C'riti<:i»in, .SKi. 

* 3. To reward. 

■' The khig will merit it with gifts." Chdpnutu. 

B. Intraiis,: To acquire merit, to become 

" Aud yet he bode them do it, aud they were bouiide 
tu obtiy, uud mttry <-U aud deaerued by their ubedieuce. " 
— Sir T. More: U'orkot, i>. 4'JU. 

' mer'-it-a-We, n. [Eng. 7?i€rif; 'able.] De- 
serving of'reward ; meritorious. 

"Tlie people geuenvlly lire very acceptive, and apt to 
iipplHud Riiy nieritutftt) vfurii/'—Heii Juiison: Cmm i/i 
AtlKreJ, ii. i. 

mer'-it-ed, jw. jKir. & a. [Merit, v.] 

t mer'-It-ed-ly, civ. [Eng. merited; -ly.] 
lu aecordam-e with merit or deseits ; de- 
servedly, worthily. 

" A pleiisatit Itttlt) town, once esteemed for it^t 
delltl.iiuuess. Imt imw mudi more and more meriteitl>/ 
famous for ita ruin."— tfoj//e.- tVorlu, i. 25. 

" mer'-it-er, s. [Eng. Tnerit, v. ; -er.] One 
who deserves or merits. (Rogers: Naamun 

thi' Siir'nin. I', oil.) 

mer-i thai, meri-thal -lus, 5. [Gr. /uepts 
{uurici) — n purt, and ^oAAbs (thallos) = a young 
shoot. j 

Hot. : The name given by Du Petit Thomass 
to au iiiternode. 

mer-it or-ie, 


mer-i-tor'-i-oiis, a. [Lat. mcritorlus, from 
meritiu = deserveil ; Fr. vwritoire; Ital. k Sp. 

1. Deserving of reward or recompence. ro- 
tm-n or notice ; possessing merit ; high iu 

'2. Earning money; prostitute, luveling, 

mer-i-tbr -i-ous ly, adv. [Eng. meritori- 
ous; -/,».] In 11 meritoiious manner ; so us to 
deserve reward. 

"Tbej- did well and 7Utritorioutfy iu those verj' 
things.' —aiouth : Sermont, vwL iv., ser. 3. 

mer-i-tor'-i-ous-nesB, s. [Eng. vieritori- 
oils; -ueni.] The ipiality or sUile of being 
ineritoriuus ; tlie state of deser\iiig well; 
merit, wortliine.-is, desert. 

"Tlicro wiv» a full persuasion of the high mvritori. 
oium-tj of wliat Uiey did."— <Sw«(A.- :ier»u)nt. Vol. ' 
ser, 12, 


* mer'-I-tor-y, " mer-i-tor-ie, u. [Lat. 
meritorins = meritorious ('i.v.).j Meritori- 
ous ; deserving of reward. 

" How m/tritorif is thiike dede 
Of charitee to clothe and feile 
The poitre folke." Oower : C. A. (Prol.) 

* mer-i -tot, 'mer-y-tot-yr, s. [Eng. 
iiurry, and t-.tler.] A swing ; a rope on which 
to walk or dance. 

"A Merylolyr: oscUtum. petaurus."—Catkol. An- 

' merk, s. [Mark, .«.] .\n old ScotiisK coin 
of silver, value 13^. sterling, or Ids, -Id. 

' merke, s. [Mark, s.] 

' merke, " mlrke, a. [A.S. mure, myrce, 
mnn-e: Icel. vi'irkr ; Dun. & Sw. mdrk.] 
Murky, dark, gloomy. [Murky.] 

"The merke diUe." Piers Plvwman. bk. 1. 1. 

mer'-kin, *-. [Etym. doubtful ; perhaps a 
diniin. from O. Fr. viergtic — a. tuft.] 
* 1. A wig ; a piece of false luiir. 
2. A mop for cleaning cunnuu. 

t mer-lan'-giis, .'>■. [Latinised from Fr. Titer- 
ktii - a whiting.) 

Ichth'j. : A genus of Gadida?, erected for 
the iTH-eiition of lishes having the generic 
charaiiter of Gadus. with the excej'tion that 
there is no barbel on the chin. In this 
nomenclature thi^ Whiting is Merlangus vul- 
garis; Couch's Whiting, ,1/. alius; the Coal- 
lisli, M. carbonurius, aud the Pollack, M. 
jhjUuchius. [Gadus.] 

"merle, s. [Fr., from Lat. mtrula; Ital. 
mcrla.] The blackbird (q.v.). 

" To walke Aud tiike the dewe by it was day, 
And heare tbe nwr/e mid luavtse many one. ' 
Chaucer: Cuiuplaint of Vrevuide. 

mer'-lin, * mer-li-on, s. [O. Fr. evieriUon, 

i-6)neritlon ; cf. lt;d. smeriglione ; Sp. esmeitjon 
= a merlin. Diez eonsiders all formed fiom 
Lat. vierula. (Skeat.).^ 

Omith. : Falco cesalon (Linn.), the smallest 
of the British falcons, averaging only from ten 
to twelve inches in length, according to .sex. 
Tlie plumage of old males is blue-gray on 
bead, back, and wing-covers ; cheeks and 
back of neck reddish-brown ; tail-feathers 
bluish-gray, with slight indications of three 
dark bands, tips white ; under-surface rufous, 
with brown patches ; bill bluish horn-colour; 
cere, legs, aud toes yellow ; claws black. The 
females and young birds are of a more uniform 
brown. It breeds in Scotland, the Orkney 
aud Shetland Islauds, and iu Northumberland. 

mer'-ling, 5. [Fr. merlan — a. whiting.] 

I<:hthy, : Mi'rlangus vuhjnris, the wliitiug. 


^. iMnKLtN.] 

mer -Ion, s. 

[Fr. vie r Ian; 
Ital. merlo, 
from Lat. 
d i m i n . of 
' imcriis (for 
i/i)f riis) =a 

for?. .-The 
solid part of 
an enibat- " 

tied parapet, between two embrasures, either 
in nmsoiiry or earthwork. 

" The jnerfont and embrasures with which the main 
portion of the buildiui; was fuiiiisbed." — Archauloijia, 
xii. H7. 

mer-Iuc'-9i-us, mer-lu'-9i-us, 5. [Mod. 

Lat., from Ital. mcrluzzo = a hake.] 

Ichthy. : A genus of Gadida ; body elongate, 
scales minute, separate caudal, two dorsals, 
and one anal ; ventrals, of seven rays, well 
developed. Teeth in jaws and on vomer in 
double or triple series. Two speuies are 
known : Merlncciits nilguris, the Hake (q.v.),- 
and M. gayi, from the Straits of Magellan, on 
the coast of Cliili ; less coniniou on New 
Zealand coast. The vertebral column i;* 
singularly modified to form a strong roof for 
the air-bhidder. {(iUnther.) 

mer-lu'-ji-us, s. [JIerluccius.] 

mer - maid, * mere - malde, * mere - 
maid -en. ^ mer - maid - en, ^. [A.s. 
ini:rc=za. lake, a mere; mtcgt/ = a maid.] A 
fabulous marine creature, having the upper 
half like a woniau and the lower like a £sh ; 
a sea-nytuph with a fish's tail. 

"And as for the meremtiidea called Nereides, it is 
no fabulous Ule that gi.yth of them: lor looke how 
liaint^-r^ dmw them, so they are indeed."—/*. UoUand : 
J'iinif. bk. ix.. ch. V. 

mermaid's-glove, s. 

ZqoI. : HuHchvmiria j>almata, the largest of 
the British Sponges, sometimes attaining a 
height of two feet. Its ]»opular name has 

f&tc. fit. fare, amidst, what, fall, father : we, wet, here, camel, her. there 
or, wore, wolf, work, who, sdn ; mute, cub, ciire, unite, cur, rule, fiill ; try. 

pine, pit, sire, sir, marine : go. pot, 
Syrian. 0e, oe = e ; ey = a ; gu = kw., 

merman— merula 


refereiu-e to its form, which bears a reraott- 
T.seinl'lance to a glove with extended Augers. 


mermaid'shead, .1. 

Zoi>l. : A sea-ui cliiti, Spatangiis corchttus, 
common on the British coasts. 

mermaid's - purses, 5. />/. A popular 
nami- for the eg^'-cases of ths Raiidw ami 
Scylliidw. Called alsa Sea-purses. 

■"Tliefie cases are frequently fiunil on the sea-shore, 
luni arecullt'd mermaids purses. &c"— J'arreW : Briti«h 

•'-man,s. [A.S. vierc = 3i mere, a lake, 
and En--'.' iHnj?.] The male con-espondiug to 
the mermaid (q.v.); a sea-man, witli the tail 
of a fish instead of legs. 

mer'-mis, s. [Gr. fieptm (mennis) = a cord, a 


Zool. : A nematoid genus of worms, some of 
the species of which are parasitic in insects. 
Mevmis nigrcsceiis emigrates en masse out of 
insects in liot weather, and being found on 
the ground in great nunihers gi^e rise to the 
popular belief that there has been a shower 
of worms. The larvae of M. albicans especially 
resort to caterpillars, to the larvse of other 
insects, or even to a mollusc, Succinea am- 

mer'-d-blast, s. [Gr. ^epos (»u'ros) = apart, 
and ^AaoTo? (&/«s(05) — a sprout, shoot, sucker.] 
Bi<i!. : An onini only a portion of which is 
directly germinal. [Meroblastic] 

mer-o-blas'-tiCt n. [Eng. tnerohlast; -ic] 
A term apyilied to the o^a of oviparous 
animals, iu which the yolk is chiefly uutiitive 
and in a small part only formative. 

" So also it hft« been customary to distinguish such 
ova as tliose "f Imds by the term merohlastic. as iiuli- 
catiiij; tliat a imrt only of the yolk is direi;tly or i>ri- 
m.TilIy gt-rmiual or engaged in eiubryoiiii; deveLni- 
iiieut."— (^IKKH . Anatomy (1882). 11. 732. 

nier'-6-9ele, s. [Gr. juvjpos (micros) = the 
thigh, and lojAr) (tc/t')= a tumour.] 

Surg. : Hernia of the tliigh ; protrusion of 
the intestines at the upper part of the thigh. 

Mer'-6-pe, 5. [Lat., fiom Gr. MfpoTrrj {Mer- 


1. Astron. : The smallest and least bright 
of the Pleiades. 

2. Class. Mythol. : One of the Pleiades, who 
were regarded as daughters of Atlas, Of all 
her sisters she alone failed to captivate the 
affections of a celestial deity, and married a 
mortal. On this account the star into which 
she was at last tiansfiirmed was less bright 
than the others. [1.] [Myth.J 

me-r6p'-i-dse»s. pi. [Lat., &c. merop(s), fern, 
pi. adj. suff. -i'kt'.] 

Ornith. : Bee-enters, a family of insessorial 
picarian birds, of which Merops is the type. 
Their range in space is over the Paljeartic, 
Ethiopian, Oriental, and Australian sub- 
regions. Five genera are known, all lecent. 

me-rop'-i'dan, (t. & s. [Mod. Lat. meropi- 
d(a) ; En^. adj. suff. -an.] 
Ornithologii : 

A, As acJj,: Of or belonging to the family 
Meropidje : as, of vierojndan affinities. 

B. As subst. : A bird of the family Meropi- 
dfe (q.v.). 

mer'-ops, s. [Lat.. from Gr. iiipo^ (merops) 
= Merops apiaster, the typical species of the 

Ornith. : The typical genus of the family 
Meropidje. The bill moderate or long, archetl, 
acuminate, margins entire; tongue narrow, 
horny at apex ; tarsi short ; tibiae denuded 
above the heel ; wings long, tail with two 
middle feathers elongate. Twenty-one species 
are known. Merops apiaster is common in the 
south of Europe and in Africa, and is an occa- 
sional visitant to Britain. The back is red- 
brown, the throat yellow with a black margin, 
breast and bt-Uy greenish-blue. It feeds on 
insects, especially wasps and bees, which it 
captures on the wing, like swallows. 

*mer-or-gan i-za'-tion, s. [Gr. lutpo? 

(iiu:ros)= a part, and Eng. organization (q.v.).] 
Partial organization ; organization in part. 

mer'-«s, mer'-us, s. [Gr. fiepo^ (meros) = a 
part. J 

Arch. : The plain surface between the 
channels of a triglyph. 

mer d-stom' a-ta, s. pL [Miid. Lat., fi-om 
Gr. fiTjpo? (nicrvs) = thigh, and aT6fia(i>toma) ~ 
a mouth.] 

Zool. : A legion of Crustacea ; the indivi- 
duals are oft*n of gigantic size. The month 
is f\irnished with mandibles and maxillfc. the 
terminations of which become walking or 
swimming feet, and r)rgaus of prehension. It 
ctmtains one recent firder, Xiphosura (King- 
crabs or H'H-seshoe crabs), and one extinct, 

Mer-o-vin'-gi-an, a. & s. [From Low Lat. 
Mi-roviiis = Mcr'wig = the great warrior, who 
founded the dynasty in the early part of the 
tiftli century.] 

A. As adjective ; 

1. A term applied to the earliest dynasty of 
French kings. It was succeeded bytheCar- 
lovingian dynasty in 752. 

2. A term applied to the written characters 
of Frem-h 5ISS. of the Merovingian jteriud. 

B. As snbst. : A sovereign of the Merovin- 
gian dynasty. 

me-rox'~ene, s. [Gr. /lepos (meros) = part, 
and ^et-os (xenos) - a stranger.] 

Mia. : The name was originally given by 
Breithuupt to the Inica (q.v.), from Monte 
Sommn, which was found in brilliant crystals 
and with numerous planes. It was considered 
to be uniaxial and rhombohedral in crystalli- 
zation, and referred to the species biotite 
((I.V.). Tscheimak retains the name for the 
Vesuviau magnesian mica, and refers it to a 
group in which the optic axial plane is pa- 
; rallel to the plane of syninietiy. He shows 
' also that this mica, in common with all the 
otiiers, is mnnoclinic in crystallization. 

^mer'-ri-fy. ^ mer-ry-f^y", v.t. [Eng. memj ; 
■J'J-] To make merry ; to amuse. 

"It viei-ryficd ua h.\\."— Mdmc. D'Arhlay: Itiuri/. 
L 324. 

mer-ri-ly, *mer-e-ly, *mer-i-ly, adc. 

[Eng. merry; -ly.] In a merry manner ; witli 
mirth or merriment ; gaily, mirthfully. 

" MerrUy saug the birds, and the tender voices (f 
woiueii,'' Luiif/fcllow .' Jliles ."itaniiisft, v. 

^ mer'-ri-make, ^mer-ry-make,s. [Eng. 
vterry, and nwke.] 

1. A meeting for mirth and amusement ; a 

"Well have fensta, 
ADd funerals also, merrifmalces ai»d wars." 

E. li. Browning: Drama 0/ £xil£. 

2. Mirth, sport, jest. 

" He saw lier gibe, and toy, aiid geare. 
And pass the buuuds of modest merrymdke." 

Spenser: F. Q., II. vl 21. 

' mer'-ri-make, v.i. [Mkrrimake, s.] To 
nuike merry; to be merry and mlithful; to 

mer'-ri-ment, s. [Eng. mcrri/; -men(.] Mirth- 
ful gaiety, mirth, frolic, amusement, merriness. 

"Strange modes of merrinwnt the hours consume." 
Bl/roii : Childe Harold, i. 46, 

mer' - ri - ness, * mer-y-nesse, s. [Eng. 

mciTy ; -mss.] The quality or state of being 
merry ; mirth, gaiety, merriment. 

"Well, sir, be it. as the style shall give us cause to 
climb in the nierriness."— Love's Labours Lost. i. l, 

*mer'-ry, 5. [Fr. merise = the wild cherry. 
A pseudu singular form ; cf. cherry, from cerise, 
pea, from j-easc, iic] The wild red-eherry. 

mer'-ry, *mer-ie, 'mer-y, ^mir-ie, 
*mir-y, *miir-ie, *mur-y, 'mjrr-ie, 
*myr-y, a. [A.S. merg = merry ; Ir. & Gael. 
mcnr = meny ; Gael, mir = to sport, to play, 
vtire = play, mirth, viireojach = merry.] 

1. Pleasant, gay, delightful, cheerful, cheer- 

" Let mentJ England proudly rear 
Her blended rosi-s, bought so dear." 

Hfvtt : Jiokeby, r. 13. 

2. Full of mirth ; loudly cheerful ; gay of 
heart ; jovial, mirthful. 

•• Had I been ynrrry, I might have been censured as 
vastly low."— Goldsmith .- TtiC Bee, i. (Intrudl. 

3. Causing or accompanied by mirth or 
merriment; mirthful, sportive, laughable, 
gay : as, a merry jest. 

4. Indicating or expressive of mirth or 
merriment ; gay. 

" When thy merrp steps draw near." 

Longfellow : Spring. 

*5. Full of gibes or sneers ; sarcastic. 
■* 6. Prosp.'-rjus, favourable. 

" There eke niy feelile harke awhile may atiy. 
Tilt mrru » yud joid weather call her thiin-e away. 
Spcriser: F.'J.. 1, xii. 1. 

^ To make merry ; 

1. To feast with mirth. 

"And they that dwell upoU the etirth shall rojolco 
over tht^ui. and makt^ m«rrif."—lit>v. xl. IS. 

2. T<i indulge in hilarity ; to laugh : a.s, To 
rruike vierry at a person's mistakes. 

merry-andrew, .'?. A buffoon, a zany, 
one who niak'/s sj-ort fur otliers. The t*:rm is 
said U) be derived from Andrew Boorde or 
iiorde, physirian to Henry VIII., who. in 
order to instruct the people, used to address 
tliem at fairs and other crowded jdaces iu an 
eccentric and amusing manner. 

" Tir Italian tncrry.amirewi took their pliice. 
And (^uite duhauch'd the Stag* with lewd tn1"ii«*.* 
JtryiLti : Jipil. to the C.:iv. of Oxford. 

merry- dancers, ■'. pi. The Aurora Bo- 

rcalis or northern liglita; so called from their 

never-ceasing mot inn. 

* merry-go-down. s. strong ale. 

merry-go-round, s. A machine con- 
sisting of a iiumlur of wooden horses and 
little carriage.s, made to revolve in a circular 
frame by machinery, on which children are 
treated to a ride. 

"They took a gentle form of equestrian exorcise 
uiii>ii the wiioden hurses of the merry-go- '" 

Ji'iily Teleijruph. March ::>>, 1685. 


A mixture of 

* merry-go- sorry, 

laughing and crying. 

"The ladie with a m€rri6-gQ.torric.'— Breton : For- 
tunes of Twi- Princes, p. 25. 

merry-gruilt, s. A kind of cotton fabric 
made in Assam. 

merry-hearted, a. Merry in heart; 
mirthful, gay. 

"The new wine moumeth, the vine langulsbeth. &ll 
the mcrry-heartcJ do sigh." — Isaiah xx'iv. 7. 

merry-make* t'.t. [Merrimake, v.] 
morry-making, a. & o. 

A. As adj. : Making merr>' ; jovial. 

" HiB tiilfuCs IfudiuK to exalt the freaks 
Of merry-nifikiu^ beggars." 

tVordsworlh: Excursion, bk. vL. 

B. As suhst. : Merriment, gaiety, merry 

" Ib this a place for mirth and cheer- 
Can -inerrt/mnkitig enter here*" 

\i'ord£U)orth : Matron of Jedburgh. 

* merry-man, s. A meny-andrew ; a 

merry-meeting, s. A meeting or pai-ty 
for merry-making; a feast, a festival. 

merry-thought, s. Tlie furcula orfoiked 
bone of a fowl's breast, which is used in spoit 
by unmarried persons, each taking hold of- 
and pulling at one of the forks, the possession 
of the longest piece when broken being an 
omen of au early marriage to the one who 
gets it. 

■' Let him not be breaking merry-thoughtt under the 
table with my cousin."— Menard." Plautu*. 

* mer'-r^, v.t. [Merry, a.] To make merry ; 
to delight. 

"Thouch pleasure men*i<» the senses for a while. ' — 
Feltham: /iesulves, p. H. 

"^ mer'-sion, s. [Lat. mersio, from mersiis, 
pa. par. of mergo = to dip.] [Merge.] The 
act of dipping or jdunging under water ; im- 

" The mersion also in water, and the emer»iou thence 
doth flL'ure our death to the former, and receiving to a 
new life."— fla»TOw.- Of Bapti-im. 

mer-ten'-si-a, 5. [Named after F. C. Mer- 
ten.';, a Gernian botunist and Professor of 
Medicine at Bremen.) 

1. Smooth Cromwell : a genus of Boragina- 
ceie, tribe Lithospermeffi. Calyx, five-parted ; 
corolla, regular, funnel-shaped ; stamens pro- 
truded beyond the tube ; ttlaments, elongated ; 
fruit, sub-tlrupaceous. Twenty species are 
known. They are from the North Temperate 
and Arctic Zones. One, Merfensia. maritima, 
is found in places along the British coasts. 

2. A genus of Polypodiaceie, tribe Gleich- 
enes. The Brazilian negroes make paper from 
the stalks of Mcrtcnsia dichotoma. 

Mer'-u,5. [Sansc.J 

Hindoo Mythol. : A mountain at the North 
Pole, supposed, like the Greek 01ym]>us, to be 
the abode of the gods. {Prqf. K. M. Bantrjea.) 

mer'-u-la, .t. (Lat. = a blackbird] 

Ornith. : In some classifications, a genus of 
birds, h.ivingas its type the Blackbinl. which 

boil, boy ; pout, jo^^l ; cat, 9eU, chorus. 9hin, bench ; go, gem ; thin, this ; sin, as ; expect, ^enophon, exist, ph = £ 
-cian, -tian = shan. -tion, -sion = shun ; -tion, -§ion = zhun. -clous, -tious, -sioua = shus. -ble, -die. ic. - bel, d^L 


merulidsB— mesh 

u tlitrti «-«lI«U .Urrufi- ruhjiirU, the name 
jiivrii It I'V lUv. It l" ii"w iiK»rv inmiiiioiily 
iutiur<l, aftVr tliV ixmiipl"* «'f LlitiiiL'ua, runlw 

i/f^i*/.1. lULAt-KUIKIi, Tiiiuis.i 

Dl6-r& U da. «. pt. [Ut. Mfr«i(a); fcui. pi. 

«.0. »U!I. -../.. 1 

OriiifA. ; Thni^In-H. A rAiiiily nr IiiKcsson's 
<Iirr»liiiit: I'lnt'*) in llic rlnswitw-tttit'iiJi uf Vi- 
pii-H. SwiiiiKM.ii. Yarn-ll. Ac SwntiiH"ii «livi- 

■ l«l il into lilt' sut'-fauiiUf* Hr.icli>i>oiiiim- 
(Sl.Mrtfi «.»«■.! Tliruxlus). My«'tl»rim*' (Aiit- 
lhru-»lir«>. Mi-niliiiw iTni.- TbruHhc.i),Omli'r<>- 
i--hiin (l^l't'lTN). aii<l Ort''>llllt*"' (0^i^^K•^). 
VIm- fiiinilv Mi^nilidw Is iH'W iiHiro cuiimuiiily 
calhil Tupliilti- Oi-v ). IMkri'la.J 

mAr 9 U IUB» «. [LAt. m^ni/(a)=:a black- 
l>inl ; (fin. i<l. w\j. sutT. -tHfr.] 

(JrMtfA : Acc-'Hiiin t«> Swainsnn, a wib- 
fiiinily nf >lcnili.lit (Thnisln-ji). The wings 
mrr u'i'<T*- U-uathvuvl than in thi* other Mem- 

■ ■•Itt- an<l { ; thi- l>ill notcht-il at the tip, 
I'lit nnt h.H.kftl ov*T th«' l.twtT niHiHlibW ; the 
ffft adapttil Uith fur i>ert.-hing and walking. 

m^rn'-U-iia. ». [GeneraUy dei-iveil fV'vni 
utemta — A lilnckhinl, fnun the blackucs.'t nf 
w.uio Mi>ctii'« ; Imt Paxtun ciMisidera it im 
nltt-rati'-n frrnn Mtxl. Lat. mettdius = an older 
name of the genus. fn>iu Lat. mtUt =:a goal.] 
Iii4. : A Kenus nf Kiiiigals, sub-onler Toly- 
|ion-i (/.i(u//fv) of the iK»re-l>enring Hyiiient)- 
luyctltj* (IkrkfUit). It Jias a soft, waxy 
hyni<-ntuni, which fonus pomus, reticulate, 
or hinnoiis toothed depressions. MeruliuK 
/iK rytiut fu and M. iitstotor are two of the 
]«ani.«itical fungi wliich produce dry rot (q.v.). 

mdr '&s» f. lMt:Ri>s.] 

• mcr valllo, • . A; '•. [Marvkl] 

' mcr Tail ous, • mer-vel-ous. n. [Mar- 
vel lui ».j 

• mer-y, o. (Merry, ».] 

mer-j^-ohip'-ptis. >•. [Gr. ^ijpuiro^w (mem- 
!.,>:.,) — t.i cIrw till- cud, aud Jmros {htppw) = 
a li'ii^c.J 

I'nliront.: A geiius of fossil Equida*, related 
lo the KuiT»]»ean Hippothcriuni, from tlie Plio- 
cene of North Anieric.a. 

mer j^-cho-choe'-ris, s. [Gr. fi»)pu(ca^ai (me- 
nil.-':,;) - I,, i;he\v the cud, aud xotpos (choiros) 
= ;i tiwine.l 

r'-Uront. : A genun of Oreodontidse (q.v.), 
fpiiu the Miocene of N'orth America. 

mer j^-ch^. mer-^-chy'-as, s. [Gr. 

^ijpv»ca^w {iniDil.azO) = tu chew the cud, and 
6« (him) = a swine.J 

l'''{irnnt. : A genua of Oreodontidae (q.v.), 
fruiii the Pliocene of N'orth Aniehta. 

mer-j^-CO'-dus, .«. [Gr. in\pvKa.^ia (mcrulazo) 
=. to < hew the cud, and 66ov« {odoi(s) = a 

f'thront. : A genus nf fossil Cervidic. from 
thf I'lit^icene of Oregon. It indiaites a tran- 
Mti'-n Iwtween the t;nnfl and the Deer. 

mer-^-od-pdt'-a-mu8. •«. [Gr. tirfpvKiiia 
{mrrnktizO) = to chew the cud, aud irorofto? 
{iMjlmnof) = a river. | 

I'lfltrnnt. : A genus of fossil Hippopotaniidae, 
from the Sinalik Hills, Accoi-ding to Dr. 
Falconer it connects Hippopotamus with Au- 
thracotheriuni (q.v.). 

mer-jr-co-ther'-i-am, s. [Gr. M»jpv«a^w 
lui-'/^ri.-co) = to .*lii-\v the cud, and Bijpiov 
(/Aoi'Mi) = a wild animal, 1 

Vnliront. : A gcnuH of CamelidEC, founded on 
molar teeth from the Drift-deposits of SilR;ria 
{M'hoUim). Its true position is doubtful. 
WjtUace (Cfog. JJistrib. Auimah, ii. 217) says, 
'-suppns4i| to K-long to this family" (the 

• me-ryd-y-on al, n. [Meridional.] 
mes-, pre/. (Mcso-.l 

me'-sa, ,«. [Sp., from T>at. ■mcnsa^zn, table.) 
A hii:li pl.ine or tabh;-larid ; more especially a 
tableland of •tmall extent rising abruptly from 
a surrounding jdain ; n term freauently used 
in tliat i>art of the United States bordering on 
Mexico. (Burtlctt.) 

mes ai-con'~tc. c fPref. vies-, and Eng. 

"<'.yMi/> .j (.-s-v the cimipound.) 

mosaoonlo acid. s. 

Chtui. : C5H«i)4=CsH4(COOn>.. Citmcartic 
acid. A diluisic acid, isomeric with itaconic 
acid, «ditained by l>oiling a weak solution of 
citniconic acid with a sixth of its volume of 
nitric ttciil. It erystallizes in line, shining 
neetlles. slightly soluble in cdd water, but 
very stduble in lioiling water, in alcohol, and 
in ether. It melts at '2(iS' to a clear liquid, 
which solidilU'S, on coiding, to a crystalline 
mass. Uy dry distillatiim it sjdiU up into 
ciLracouie anhydride and water. The. suits of 
niesaconie acid have the formnhe C5H4M.JO4 
and CaH6M04, and are neoily all crystuUiz- 

mesooonlo-ether, s. 

Chon. : Cynu()4=C5H4(C.jHRX!04. Acolnur- 
less, mobile liquid, prepared by distilling a 
ndxture of niesnconic-iicid. sulphuric acid, 
and ab'uh«d. It has an iiKneabh- fiuity odour, 
but a bitter taste, anil distils at U-'d' without 
alteration. Its density is ro4;J,aud it is not 
attacke<l by ammonia. 

mes-al-U~anoe» .';. [Misalliance.] 

mes-a ra ic, * ines-a'ra'-ick,n. & s. [Gr. 
fxeiTapatov (luf.'Hi niiim) = the mestutery : pref. 
Tneito-, and Gr. apaia (araia) = the flank, the 

A. As adj. : Mesenteric ; of or belonging to 
the mesentery. [Omphalo-mksaraic.J 

" 80 thftt It , . . Uketh leave of the penneAUt p^irts, 
ftttln) mc^Mtlitiaiif tile me»eriiic)u."——browne: Vuhjar 
Krrourt, bk. ii., cli. v. 

B. Assuhst.: [Mesetfeky, I. 1]. 

Itfes-ar'-tm, s. [Coi-mpted Arabic] 

Astron. : A clouble star y Arietis, between 
the fourth and the lifih magnitude. It is 
situated near one horn of the ilani. 

me-S&t-i-fe-phal'-ic, n. [Gr. tieaano'; 
inie^itios) = middle, and (te^aA»j (keplialc) = 
the head. ] 

Atithroj). : .\ term applied to skulls, having 
an index of breadth ranging from 75 to 55. 
[Sttso-mahir Angle.] 

" Eleven were bmcliyceiibnlic . . . and eleven mc- 
talic<!/'h<tUc."—jrhentBum, Al'lil 11, 1385, p. 47*. 

mes'-cal, s. [Sp.] A strong intoxicating 
spirit, "distilled from ]»uh|ue, the fermented 
juice of the Agave aiiu^ricana of Mexico. 

mesdames (pron. me-dam), s. p^. [Ma- 
dam k] 

* mese, s. [Mess.] 

t me-seem^', impers. i\ [Prop. = it seems to 
me.] It appears to me: it seems to me: I 

mes-el, s. [Measel.] 

• mes-el-rle, s. [Mid. Eng. viesel = a. leper; 
-n'e = -/y.) Leprosy. 

ines-em'-brj^-a''9e-sa, .«. 2^1, [Mod. Lat 
vicsvmhrij(i.tntheinii m) ; Lat. fern, pl, adj. suff. 

Hot. : Ficoids ; an order of perigynous exo- 
gens, alliance Ficoidales. It consists of suc- 
culent shrubs or herbs, with opposite simple 
leaves. The flowers are terminal, though so 
short-stalked as to apjiear lateral, they are 
showy, and generally open under the influence 
of sunshine, closing on its departure. Petals 
in many rows. Stamens indefinite in number; 
ovary inferior or nearly superior, many or one- 
celled. Stigmas nuuiert)us, distinct; ovules 
indetinite, attached to a central placenta. 
Fruit capsular, surrounded by the fleshy calyx 
opening in a stellate manner at the apex, or 
splitting at the base. Found chiefly on the 
hot .sandy plains of South Africa. A tew grow 
in the north of Africa, in tlie south of Europe, 
in Asia, the Islands of the Pacifle, and South 
America. {LnuUeii.) Known genera, sixteen ; 
species upwards of 400. (Prof. Balfour.) 

mes-em-biir-an'-tlie-nium, s. iGr. nea- 
rjn^pia (iMSimbriti) = midday, noon, and acSos 
(antho^) = blossom, flower. Su named because 
these plants open only for a short time in the 
middle of the dny.] 

Hot. : The typical genus of the order Mesem- 
bi-yacew (q.v.). It consists of very succulent 
plants, with thick, fleshy leaves and showy 
flowers, with four or Ave sepals, and many 
narrow petals, generally in several series. Mes- 
embninnthannvi cry.^tuUimini is the Ice-plant 
(q.v.) ; its juice, which is considered diuretic, 

has been prescribed in dropsy and liver com- 
]>luint8 ; the plant itself is used in Spain, as 
are.U. copticiim and M. nodijlorumm Egypt, us 
a kind of barilla for glass works. The si-j- 
culent root of M. edntc, the Hottentot's I'ig, 
of Cajie Cidony, is eaten, as are those of M. 
(jeniculijtnnim ; the seeds are also ground into 
ilimr. The fruit of JV/. ie<]>i Hate rate, Pig-faces 
or Canagong, is eaten in Australia. M. eiiuir- 
ridimi is chewed by the Hottentots like 

mes-en-^e-ph^'-io, a. [Eng., &c. mesen- 
cephul{<m); -ir.] Pertuning to or in any way 
connected witli the mesencephalon (q.v.). 

inSs-en-9eph'-a-l6ii, s. [Pref. mes-, and 
Gr. tyKe^oAos {fnglepholos) — the brain.] 

AnaL : The middle portion of the brain, 
de\'eloping from tlie original middle vesicle, 
and comprising tlie corpora iimulrigemiiui and 
criu-rt cerehri, with contracted internal hollow, 
tlie passage from the third to the fourth ven- 
tricle, {Quai)t.) 

mes-en-ter'-ic, '* mes-en-ter'-itck, a. 

[V.iiQ. meseiUeiin) ; -ic ; Fr. vienenteriqiLf.] Of 
or pertaining to the mesentery. Thus there 
are mesenteric glands, veins, and a plexus. 

meaenterlc-disease, s. 

PatlLoL : Tabes viesenterica, a tubercular or 
strumous degeneration of the meseuteric- 
glands. It stands to them in the same rela- 
tion as phthisis to the lungs, and, says Dr. 
Tanner, might be called alMlominal phthisis. 
It particularly aflects infants and young chil- 
dren. Tlie abdomen is swollen, teiise, and 
painful; the motions extremely fetid, the rest 
of the body wasted ; the angles of the nioutli 
ulcerated ; the lips deep red. It generally 
ends in death. 

mesenteric-glands, s. pi 

Anut. : The glands through wliicli the lym- 
phatic capillaries pass in the folds of the mes- 

mes-en-ter'-i-cQ., s. [Fem. sing, of Mod. 
Lat. viesentericas = of, belonging tu, or resem- 
bling the mesentery.] 
Bot. : The mycelium of certain fungals. 

mes-en-ter-i'-tis, 5. [Eng. mesenter(y) ; suff. 

Vathoh : luflammatiou of the mesentery. 

mes'-en-ter-j^, s. [Gr. p.i<TfV7ipiov {meseu' 
tcrii-n), jxetrevrfpov (>nesenteroii)=. the mesen- 
tery ; pref. mes-, and Gr. evTfpa (eiitera) = the 
I. Anatomy: 

1. Gen. [PI.) : Folds of tlie peritoneum con- 
necting certain portions of the intestinal 
canal with the posterior wall of tlie abdomen. 

2. Spec. : The membrane which forms the 
medium of attachment between the small in- 
testines and the abdomen. (Oiven.) It is a 
duplicature or folding of the peritoneum for 
the jejunum and ileum, the mesoca;cum, the 
the transverse and sigmoid mesocolon, and the 

II. Zool (Pl.)t Tlie vertical plates wliich 
divide the somatic cavity of an Actinia into 

mesh (1), * mash (1), * moske, s. [A.S. 

Hicfj — a net ; cogn. with Dut. maos = a nn'sh, 
a net ; Icel. inoskri = a mesh ; Dan. vmskc ; 
Sw. vuiska ; Ger. viasche; Wei. maag, masgh = 
a mesh ; Litli. mazgas ~ a knot ; viugsti (pa. t. 
vie:gu)z=. to knot, to net.] 
I. Ordinary Language: 

I. The opening or interstice of a net; the 
space or interstice between the threads of 
a net. 

" A c«rJou3 net. whose methet. light and rare, 
Source sboue distinguish'd from th' uulmdied air." 
Cambridge; ScrMeriad, \i. 

t 2. A net ; network. 

" The twiinter plays the spider : and hath woven 
A golden Ttivsh to entrap the hearts of ineu." 

bhnfiesp. : Merchant of Venice, ill. 2. 

3. {PL) : A trap, a snare ; as, To be caught 
in the vieshes of the law. 

II. Technically: 

1. Bot. (PI): The openings In any tissue. 

2. Gearing: The engagement nf the teeth 
of wheels with each other or with an adjacent 
object, as the rack, in a rack and pinion move- 

iate. fat. fare, amidst, what. faU, father: we, wet. here, camel, her. there; pine, pit, sire. sir. marine- go. pot. 
or, wore. wolf. work, who, son ; miite, ciib. cUre, unite, cur. rule, fiiU ; try, Syrian. ». oe = e ; ey = a ; qu = kw. 

mesh— mesmerization 


mesh stick, <. 

JS>(/iHf7: A flat slafc with rnundetl en<ls, 
nsed t(i' fonn tin' mesh nf iu*ts, the hiups 
lieing HimU' over It ami knotted on its edge. 

mesh-work, s. Network. 

mesh (2). mash (2), s. [Mash.] The gr-iiiis 
or wash of a brewery ; mash. 

mesh, " meash, v.t. [Mesh (1), s.] To ratih 
in a net or tnesli ; to ensnare. 

'■ Metifhed in the breerS. that erst w.-is oiiely toriie." 
ir.V'iff ; The Loner thntjied Lone. &C. 

* mesh'-y, n. [Eng. viesh (1). s. ; -y.] Formetl 
of meslies or network ; like net-work ; re- 

•' Noiv with >«rb'il-h<Kik. or mcOtii net. they try 
From qiiietlBotAls tu liniij the scalv fry." 

llwtn: Orliiiiit'j fi'rioso, \ii. 

mes'-i-al, «. [Gr. ^tVo? {mtsos) = mi'.hlle.J 
Mi.klle' i 

" In the fi'Wiil forms the ixefial eyes are much liirger 
ill i.rui'urti'iii ■ — n/m-.i, XuV. 2, 1S81. 

mesial -aspect, s. 

Aiuft. : The aspeet of an organ directed 
towards the mesial plane. 

meslal-llne, s. [Median-line, s.] • 

mesial -plane, s. 

Amit. : An imaginary plane dividing the 
head, neck, and trunk into similar halves, 
towards right and left. 

mesial-pTatc, 5. [Visckral-plates.] 

mes'-i-date, s. (Eng. mesiil(lc); -ate.] 
Ch'in. : A salt of mesidie acid. 

me-sid'-ic. f*. [Erg. m€su1{im) ; -Ic.l Derived 
tiuiii liiesldiiie. 

mesidic-acid, s. 

■ Vhem. : (-'gHaOj = CfiH3(Cn3XCOoH>2. A 
dibiisic add, intermediate in coniposition be- 
tween niesitylenie acid, CyHioO->, and trimesic 
arid, CgHfiUrt, prejiared by oxidizing niesity- 
lenic aeiil with a mixture of pntassimn dichrn- 
mate and snlphnric acid. It crystallizes in 
c")lourless siiining needles, insohible in cold 
water, slightly soluble in boiling water, but 
very solidde in alcohol and ether. It melts 
at 'J87''-2S)5\ Its potassium salt, C9Hg04Ko, 
crystallizes in sinning laminae, very soluble in 
water. The silver salt is insoluble in cold, 
but very solul.h- In b tiling water. Ethyl nie- 
siilate, *-'i,Hfi( ijfL'oHf,).., is a colourless radio- 
crystalline mass, insoluble in water but soluble 
in alcohol. 

mes'-i-dine, ^\ [Eng. ines{\ty1enf) ; {am)id(p- 
yen), and sutf. -hie (Chem.).'] 

Chem.: CjiHnCNH^) = C6Hi<NH2)-(CH3):j. 
Amidomesitylene. A colourless oily liiiuid, 
obtained by boiling nitromesitylene with tin 
:ind liydrochloric acid, and separating from 
the hydrochloride by means of ammonia. It is 
insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol and 
ether. The hydrochloride, C9Hii(NH2)-HCl, 
forms feathery crystals, soluble in water and 
alcohol. The stannous chloride, 2(C9Hi3N'' 
liCO'SnClo, forms needle-shaped crystals, 
which are decomposed by water. 

me'-site, s. [Gr. fxda-o^ (niesos) =■ the middle.] 

Chcm. : C^HioO.!. An oxygenated oil ol). 

taiiied by distilling lignone with sulphuric 

acid. It boils at 72°, and is slightly soluble 

in water. 

mc-sit'-ic, f. [Eng. mf.s(7(*/0»' -'<^-] Cnutained 
in or derived from niesityl (ti-V.)- 

mesitic-alcohol, s. 

ChviH. : A name given to acetone on the 
supjxisition that it is an alcohol cnntaining 
the radical mesityl, C3H5, isomeric with allyl. 

mesitic-aldehyde, s. 

Chem.: e':jHiO. A body isomeric with 
acrolein, prepared by henting acetone with 
strongnitric acid. It is lighti-r than water, Ii;is 
a sweet pungent odour, and iliss-.lves readily 
in caustic potash, yielding a brown liquid. 

me sitic- ether, s. 

Ckem. : CtjHiuO. Oxide of mesityl. Pro- 
duced by the action of alcoholic on 
chloride of mesityl. It is a mobile, colour- 
less liquid, of a peppermint odour, boiling 
at 133°, and having a sp. gi'. of 0848 at 23 . 
It is insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol 
and etlip]'. 

me^'-i-tine, mes-i-tite, .*. [Gr. (jteatm? 
{mrsltcs) = a g<»-betwet'n ; Ger. mesitin.] 

Mill. : A rbombf)hedral mineral, having a 
perfect rliombohedral cleavage. Hanlness, 
4 to 4'5 ; sp. gr. 3*3;5 to 3-30 ; lustre, vitreous, 
sometimes pearly; colour, yellowish-white to 
yellowish-brown. Compos. ; carbonate of 
iiiagnesia, .09-2 ; c.irbonat* of irori,4iVS = loo ; 
rei>resented by the formula SMgOCOo + 
I'e<.)COo. Occurs with quartz and niagu'-titc 
at Traversella, Piedmont: and with j-ynli"- 
titeand quartzat Morro Velho, Brazil. N;im.'d 
mesitine because intermediate in composition 
between magnesiteand siderite (q.v.). Called 
also niesitine-spar. 

mesitine -spar, s. 

Min. : The same as ?ie>;itine (q.v.). 

mes-it-ol, ft\ [Eiig. mcsil(!iileiie), and Lat. 

Chan. : CyHi20 = Ci,Hu"0H. An oily 
body obtaiiRil by fusing potassium mesity- 
lenesulphonate with potassium hydroxide, 
acidulating the fused mass with suliihnric 
acid, and distilling with water. Itissohible 
in alcohol, ttlicr, and benzene, floats on water, 
ami has a stmng oilour of phenol. It boils at 
220", and dissolves in the hxed alkalis. 

mes'-it-yl, 5. [Formed from some of the 
letters of Eng. methyl, and acetone, with sufl'. 
-,jl (q.v.).] 

Chem.: A hypothetical monatomic radical, 
supposed by Kane to exist m acetone, 

II )"• 
mesityl-oxide, s. 

Chnii.: C'tjHiftO. Formed by the action of 
zinc methyl or zinc ethyl on acetone, or by 
the distillation of diacetonamine. Strong 
sulphuric acid converts it into niesitybne, 
and, by boiling with dilute nitric acid, it is 
converted into acetic and oxalic acids. 

me-sit-y-len'-a-mido, *. [Eng. mesitij!en{i), 
anil iiinkJe.] 

Chan.: Ci,H<,0-NH-2. A crystalline body 
obtained by gently heating a mixture of me- 
sitylene and phosphorus pcntachUnide. add- 
ing the product to strong ammonia, washing 
the resulting crystalline mass with dilute 
ammonia, and re-cryst;dlizing from boiling 
water. It crystallizes in long needltjs, soluble 
in boiling water, and in alcohol and ether, 
melts at 133% and sublimes without decom- 

me-sit'-y-lene, -'. [Eng. viesityl ; -ene.] 

Chem. : CyHj.. -= Ctill:i(CaH3)3. Mesitylol. 
A trimethyl benzene, isomeric with cnnieue, 
fonned when two volumes of acetone are 
distilled with one volume of sulphuric acid 
in a retort half filled with sand. It is a light 
colourless liquid, of high refractive power, 
and pleasant odour, boiling at 1^3°, and burn- 
ing with a bright but smoky flame. With bro- 
mine, chlorine, nitric and hydrochloric acids 
it forms crystalline substitution products. 

mesitylene-acediamine, s. 

Chna.: Ci,Uio(^ii'C-2l^3p)2- A body pre- 
pared by boiling mesitylene-diamine, CgHjo 
(XHo)2. with glacial acetic acid. It melts at 
a temperature above 300% and is insoluble in 
water and dilute hydiochloric acid. 

mesitylene sulphonic-acid, s. 

Chem. : C9Hu(S03H) = C6H.2(CH3):,(S0.20H). 
An acid pro(hiced by the action of ordinary 
sulphuric acid on mesitylene. It crystallizes 
in coarse iamin;e, melts at 00% and at a higher 
temi'erature is resolved into mesitylene and 
snlphurie acid. It forms salts called niesity- 
lene-sulphoiiates, most of which ai-e crystal- 
line and soluVile in water and alcohol. 

mesitylene sulphuric-acid. s. 

Chem. : C^HjoSOs. Sulphomesitylic acid. 
A brown acid liquid obtained by dissolving 
mesitylene in fuming sulphuric acid. On 
exposure to the air it gradually solidifies to a 
crystalline mass. 

me-sit-yl-en'-ic, a. [Eng., &c. mesityUn{e); 
■ ir. I Contained in or derived from mesitylene 

mesitylenic-acid, s. 

C/icm. ; CgHioOa^CfiHs- CH3 A mono- 
basic, aromatic acid formed by the oxidation 

of mesitylene with dilute nitric acid. It i* 
sparingly .soluble in water, but very soluble 
in alcoliol, from which it crystallizes in huge 
nionnelinic crystals, melting at 1*10% and 
subliming without decomposition. Ily oxi<la- 
tioii with chromic acid it is converted nito 
the dil'iisie uvitic add, CgHgOj, and finally 
into the tribasic trimesic aeid, C^HfiOu- All 
its salts are more or less soluble in water. 

me-sit'-^~ldl, .''. [Eng. viesityl, and Lat. 
ot{t:mn) = oil (?).] [Mk-sitvlksk.] 

me^'-jld, s. [Arab. =: a itlace of worshii>.l A 


* mes-kei'-to, ■«. [.sp. me.vinita.] A mosque 

"The verj' MMioiiietMns . . . liRve tlicir Hf|>ulchre» 
ne»r tlio mwAfi (»."—/</«. JJtill : Morts. v. ail. 

* me^'-Un, " mas-lin, * mast-lin. ' mes- 
llne. ' mis-cel-in, * mis-oel-ine» 

* mlS-sel-ane, s. [O. Fr. vieslilton, from 
Low Lat. viestiltiu = Uiixed grain, from Lat. 
viistus = mixed.] 

1. Mixed corn or gram : as, wheat and rye 

" Tiike thee, therefore, hH khula of i;miii. wlient, Rtxl 
hurley, iviid tie-ins, »iiil IciitUes, Hiid nt<.0ie8, nii<l imc. 
tlieiti nil together, iiiiil lUHke bread of this rntnline.' — 
Bp. UiiU : Hard Ivxft ; Jiukiel iv. 9. 

2. Bread made of mixed corn. 

"Then it ia uauied niiaceli)i, that is, bread limde nt 
mint'lc<l 4Mriiv."—tIuliiishtnl: Descrip. of Shi/., hk. ii., 
ch. vi. 

3. Mixed metal : as, brass or bronze. 

"Nor bmsii, iior copper, nur nmsrihi.uut iiiiiienl. " 
Jirewer: Liiijiiit, iv. L 

mes-mer-ee% s. [Eng. mfsnier ; -ee.] A ]ier 
son placed under the influence of mesmerism . 
a person on whoin'a mesmerist operates. 

me^-mer'-ic, "" mej-mer'-i-cal, n. [Eng. 

mt:iiner ; -ic] Of or pertaining to mesmerism ; 
produced by mesmerism. 

mes'-mer-i^m, s. [For etym. see def.] 

lUsf. (i- Med. : The system popularised by 
Franz Anton Mesmer (1733-1815), a Swiss 
phy.sician, and by him called Animal Mag- 
ntdism. He believed that the stars exercisett 
nn influence over men, and, identifying thifS 
witli magnetism, sought to effect cures by 
stroking bis patients with magnets. Finding 
that Gassner, a Swabian priest, effected cure* 
by stroking with his hand, Mesiner abandoned 
the use of magnets, jiersuaded that some 
mysterious force present in himself was the 
means by which cures were effected. Tiie 
French government oft'ered him ^0,000 francs 
for his secret, but he refused ; and ii comnns- 
sion was appointed to examine into the cures 
said to have been eflVcted by liim. They 
admitted many of the facts, but declincl to 
admit that such an agentas animal magnetism 
existed. Mesmer delighted in mysttiious 
surroundings, and aflected a strange weird 
style of dress ; but one of bis disciples, the 
Marquis de Puysegur, showed that sleep 
might be induced by gentle manipulation 
alone, thus removing mesmerism from the 
sphere of mystery to one where it might b>* 
subjected to scientific investigation. In 1843, 
Mr. Braid, a surgeon of Manchester, inves- 
tigated the subject. [Hypnotism.] In 1843, 
Baron von Reichenl>ach made public his views 
as to oilyl (q.v.). The phenomena of 
magnetism, electrobiology, hypnotism, mes- 
merism, and odylic force are jiracticjUly tlie 
same. Within the last few years they have 
been scii-Htifically investigated, notably by 
Dr. Cari'eiiter in England and by Prof. Wein- 
hold and Dr. Heidenhain on the Continent. 
The chief phenomena are a hypnotic state 
induced by the patient gazing fixedly at some 
bright object, or by passes made by the 
oi)eiator ; muscidar rigidity, .sometimes U> 
such an extent as to admit of the body rest- 
ing supported only by the head and heels on 
two chairs, insensibility to pain, and per- 
verted sensation, as exhibited in a slightly 
hypnotized patient drinking water and iimigin- 
it to be rhlicious wine or nauseous meibcine 
at the will of the operator. (Kncyr. lirit.) Sca 
also Dr. CVirjienfcr: Hnvmn Physiol., pp. OSti, 
692, 804. and Meiital Physiol.) 

mei^'-mer-ist, s. [Eng. vicsmer; -is'.] One 
who practises or believes in mesmerism. 

mes-mer-i-za -tion, .f. [Eng. mesnuri^e): 
•fiti-m.] The act of mesmerizing ; the state ot 

being mesnicnzcil. 

boil, boy ; pout, jowl ; cat. 9eU, chorus, 9hin. bench ; go, gem : thin, this ; sin, as ; expect. Xenophon. exist, -ihg, 
-.Dian. -tian = shan. -tion. -sion = shun ; -tion, -sion = zhun, -cious. -tious, -sious ^ shus. -ble. -die, ^c. = bel, d?/. 


meamerize— mesoplodon 

yluiv uiiilrr th» ihfliKiicc nf iiifMiutrrUm ; to 
tUn>w ur ]>ut Intu a lutwiur ric sltH!|). 

Bl6f mer i xer. *. [Eii^*. nufmrrls(f); •«r.] 
Ml,. »!(.• lut-.^ijK ri2u« ; II lurtmeriiiU 

* m6m nAl ItS^ (< Nil^nt). 5. (Me*.NE.] A 


' mea nftl-tj^ <« Mtcnt), 

n^lit >'f the nifiiue (ii.v). 

nesna (s »il«nt). <i. (Xonn. Fr. = middle, 
!i lit Lat. Hf-iiidMifji, fiuiii irir<f{ti« = luitUllv.] 

L'Hc : Mi'Ullf, iiit.-iiiit''linU\ iiitcnvniii;: : 
a*, n iDi'Mif lord, tlmt lA, un*' who hi>l<U 1aii<ls 
'•r II siiptrlur, uhioh or |>iii'C <>f whicli hu 
niMctn t" annttier |>en(4iii ; in tliiti cahv he iii- 
t<rictn'^ U'tW(f» the two, K'inn n tenant of 
lUe kuptthor lunJ, auj lunl to ibeir iufcrior 

meane-lord. s. [Mcbse.] 

mesne procoss. > 

TIi,.I I. lit ..f 

Kiiit wliich Inttivetu- 
I'lix-t-HK or writ ami the 

tht> iirnceediiiK^ i" & 
W-lwcen the urinimil 
; tlfiiil itistio, niid which 
Utttv.H, i>endlnK the suit, on ijoiiie rullalenil 
n.allvr : suiucliiiieii it is undei-ntoud to be the 
Mhule proce«8 preceding thtj execution. 

mesne -profits, 5. j'l. 

/^tic: IJiL- pruiilM of an estate wlndi accrue 
tM .1 t^-iiiuit in i">i. Ml itftfi- the demise of 
(lie IfSMor. All iirtioit of mesne iirutlts is one 
lirttiifiht to recover pixiliLs dt^rived from land 
%^hilst the |>niist-HHtoii of it 1ms been Jniiiro- 
J erly withheld, that is, Ilie yejirly value of 
tlie preniiseii. It in lironglit after a judymei^t 
f'T the idaintiir in a suit of ejectment which 
n cc'Vtred pi>8session of the hind. 

middle.) A preflx frequently used m scien- 
tillc term)!, (iciivid from the tiretik, to signify 
jx-dUiou in the middlu, 

meso-camptaoric aoid« s. 

Citri,!.: Cii.ll],;' )^. A diK'tsic acid formed 
hy heating I" i:>u a mixture of dextro-cam- 
I'hohc acid and concentiated hydrochloric 
acid. It co'''t«"'zt's in interlaced needles, 
iiiidls at 113% aud in stduble iu water. 

mCB' d-blast, 5. IPrcf. me^o-, and Gr. ^\a<r- 
To-i ('^/<^^/'.J) = a gorm.) 

I'Uysiol. : The intermediate layer of the tri- 
l:iniinat« blastoderm of an ovum. It ^'ives 
.■ise tt» Uie muscles, bones, connective tissues, 
au'l dermis, the cereln-o-spimil sympathetic 
inTvea, thegenito-urinary, vasculiir, ;ind chylu- 
p"iftie sysleins. (Varjieitter.) 

mes-^-bl&St'-ic, a. [Cng. viesoblast; -ic] 
<-"mp«.sc"l of, derive*! from, or iu any way 
counected with ine-soltlast (q.v,). 

"■ A tbUrd Mt of tuttMitMtlc tiletueuU mny be derlvetl 
(Ti.Mi . . Uie bUutwlvriJi. '— Vu<im; Anatomy (1882i, 

mesoblastic somites, s. pi. 

I'hifiiiK : A nnV'.t \\t.[i dehiied.darkiHUadri- 
l.ileral ma-isfs in the meaoblast, on eadi bide 
tin- ilorwal ridges in the embryo. Tliey are 
si-iaratfd by linear intervals. Called also 

mda 6 fdph a lods, 1. (Mt:8o^t^HALlC.l 
m6s-6-obll. mos^ ohil'-I-ilm. «. [Pref. 

meso-, and dr. \tiAo? {chtUof) = a lip.) 

IM.: The central division of an orchid lip 
when the latter is ch-ft inl4i three. 

-Qin, t. [MesncHiL.] 

[Tref. nxeso; and £iiig., &c. 

mfis-d chll 

mes ^-c6 -16n, a. 

AiMt. : A name pven to the dtiplicature.s of 
the peritoneum, which tlx the tlillcrent parts 
of the colon (ij.v.) to the abdominal parietes. 

mSs'-^-derm, $■ 1 Pref. .Tneso>, and Gr. fiepjaa 
(ihniKi) = the skin. J 

1. Aiiink. Physiol.: Tlie same as Mesoblast 


2. Bot. : The middh; layer of tissue in the 
shell of the spore-case of an Urn-moss. 

m€8-6~des'~ma, s. [Pre'f. vuso-^ and Gr. 
5e(rM« UUsnui) = a* bond, a ligament ; fiew (deo) 
= to bind.] 

Zoci. : A genus of Conchifera, family Tel- 
Hnidiu. The valves of the shell are thick, 
triangular, closed ; the ligament is inteiiial, 
and thereare lateral teeth iu each valve ; the si- 
plional fold is small, and the muscular im- 
pressions deep. Thirty-one s]iecies are known, 
from the West Indies,"Chili, and the Mediter- 

mes-d-gsis'-tric, a. 

(^(.vfcii'j Pertaiiiing 

[Pref. vieso; and Eng. 
to the mesogastrium 

s. [Mod. Lat., 

= the 

(Pref. meso; and Kng 

mds-d-fse'-ciim, s. 

Anat. : X name given t« a duplieature of 
the jieritoneuni at the posterior jiart of the 
ci'-um (q.v.). It is not universally present; 
the ciecuni being soinetim':'s attached by 
ai'-nlur tissue to the fascia covering the right 
iliac muscle. 

mos -O'Carp, 5. [Pref. mcso-, and Gr. *capjro« 
(/.(i>7>'>s) = (ruit.I 

liot. : llie pai-t of a i)ericarp lying between 
the outer and inner iuteguiiieiits or skins 
When ticshy. it is called the surcocarii. 

mis-^-^e -phM -f c, mes - 6- (eph'-a-loUs, 

II. [Pref. wit#i>-, and En-, ixihalic] 

Antkrop. : a tenn applied to skulls with a 
cai«city of from l^ibO to 1,460 cubic ccnti- 

^'■^' Used also of races ix)sses8ing such 


mds-6-^eph'-a-l6n, s. [Pref. me5o-,and Gr. 
xc<^aA>i {krjihdU)^ the head.] 

Annt. : The name given by Chaussier to the 
pons Varolii, or tuber annulare of other 


pref. iitcsv-, and Gr. 
A )uitoniy : 

1. The umbilical region. [Abdomen.] 

2. A median membi-aucous, or riidimciitary 
mesentery, which, iu early foetal develnjuueut. 
connects the alinicntary canal with the rest uf 
the embryo. 

me sog'-na-thOiis, «. [Pref. nmo-, and Gr. 
yioBo-i {<jiaUho!i)-= the jaw.] 

Aiithrop. : A term applied to skulls having 
a gnathic index of from ys to 103. Used also 
of races possessing such skulls. 

mes-6-hip'-pus, s. [Pref. meso-, and Gr. 
in-n-os (/tiyyw-) = a horse.] 

Tuln'ont.: A genus of fo.ssil Equidi^, from 
the L"w«;r Miocene of North America. The 
species aj'e about tlie size of a sheep, but with 
longer legs. The feet ai-e three-toed; "the 
fore-feet have a sjtiint-bone (rudimentary 
iiietacaipal) representing the little finger. 
Two of the pra;molars entirely resemble the 

mes'~o-labo, s. [Gr. jutVos (mMos) = middle, 
and Aa07J_ (/,.?,.")= a grip, a hold, a handle, 
li-iim Aa^eif (lahain), 'I aor. infin. of kafji/Sdi'ia 
(h>ml)a)w)=tn take, to hold.] An instrnmeut 
euiployed for the finding of two mean i.nq.or- 
tiuiials between two given lines ; it was used 
in solviug the problem of the duplieature of 
the cube. 

mes'-ole. s. [Gr. jaeVo? (meso!') = middle.] 
Mill. : A mineral belonging to the group of 
zeolites (q.v.). It occurs in spherical aggre- 
gations of lamellar crystids, with radial struc- 
ture and pearly lustre. It has been referred 
to tliomsonite (q.v.), but contains a larger 
percentage of silica. Compos. : a hydrated 
silicate of alumina, lime, and soda. Found 
associiitod with stilbite, apophylite, and eha- 
hasile, iu the Faroe Islands aud the Island of 

mes-o-lep'-is, s. [Pref. mcso-, and Gr. A«7ris 
(/'y'f-^) = ascale.] 

I'uUcont. : A genus of Ganoid fishes, family 
Platysomida', from Carboniferous and Per- 
mian formations. 

' mes-o-leu'-cos, 5. [Lat., from Gr 
AruKOi {/'(o(./f*(/:os); pref. mcso-, ami Gr. 
(;(7(/.M.s)= white] A precious stone, 
with a streak of white in the middle. 

mes- 6 -line, s. [Eng., &c. mesoI(c): suff. 
-t»c (Mill.).] 

Mill. : A white granular mineral, occurring 
m small cavities iu au amygduloidal rock iu 
the Faroe Islands. Conipus. : a hydntted 
silicate of alumina, lime, aud soda. Dana 


includes it under levynite(q.v.), but says that 
it may be chabazite. , 

me^'-o-lite, s. [Pref. -mcso-, and Gr. \i9oK 
(litlf'S) — a stone ; Ger. viesolU.] 

Min. : A member of the zeolite groui> of 
miuerals. iutermediat*! in comi^ositiou be- 
tween uatrolite aud scoleeite (q.v.). Acctird 
ing to Des Cluizcaux it is probably tiirlmlc. 
but Liidecke makes it monoclinic iu ciysiailj- 
zation. Lustre of crystals, vitreous ; of librous 
kintis, more or less silky ; fragile. Compos, : 
■.silicfl, 45 '(i ; alumina, 20 -0 ; lime, y'5 ; soda, 
o'2 ; water. 13"7 = 100. Occurs in amygda- 
loidal rocks. 

mes-d-l6'-bar, n. [Eng. mwo;o(/(t;); -ar.] Of 
or pertaining to the mesolobc : as, viesolobar 

mes'-d-16be, s. [Pref. iiic^o-, and Eng. lobe 
Aiiat. : The Corpus eallosum (q.v.). 

** mes-O'ldg'-a-rithm, s. [Pref. laeso-,. and 
Eng,, (u>jarithm(q.v.).] 

Math. : A logaiithm of the cosine or co- 
tangent. (So designated by Kepler.) 

* me-som'-e-l^s, s. [Lat., from Gr. /xeVos 

()ui,so.s)= middle, aud fi.i\as (wie/as) = black.) 
A precious stone with a black vein parting 
e\ery colour iu the middle. 

mes-6-my'-d-di, s. 3)?. [Mi.d. Lat., from 
l>ref. mcso-, aud Gr. fiu? (mus) = muscle.] 

Oniith. : A uame suggested by Mr. Garrod 
for those Passerine birds in wliich Ihe muscles 
of the voice-organ are inserted into the middle 
parts of the bronchial semi-rings. 

" The metomyodi fall into two gruiips, Hccovding tu 
the situtitiuu uC the maiu artery uf tlie leg.'—Proc. 
ZwL Sue, 1S"0. p. 517. 

mes-o-mSr-o'-di-an, a. [Mesomyodi.] Be- 
longing to, or having the charaeleristies of the 
Passerine giouj) Mesomyodi (q.v.). 


— /•/ 

hvTge iiylleetion of viexomi/oUiau birds 1 

C. Zuul. .Sue, 1876, p. 518. 

mes-0-u6'-tum^ s. [Pref. meso-, and Gr. 
■VMTo^ {iiotos), ^wTov (iLoton) = the back.] 
Aiiat. : The middle i)art of that half of the 

segment which covers the back. 

lato. nit. 

rare, amidst, what, faU, father; we. wet, here, camel, her. there; 

mes-d-phloe'-um, s. [Pref. meso-, aud Gr. 
i/)Aoi6! (j.'hlulos) — the riud or bark of trees.] 

Bat. : The name given by Link to what is 
more commonly called the cellular integumeut 
of bark overlying the liber and underlying the 
epiphloeum. The cells are usually green, and 
jilaced in a ditlereiit direction from those of 
the ei'iphloeum. Sometime.^ as in the Cork- 
tree, they contain cellular coiicivtiims, 

mes -6-phyll, mes-o-phyl- liim. me- 
soph-yl-lum, s. [Pref. jaeso-.audGr. ■AuAAoc 

{l>ht(llon) = ii\i.'u.f.] 

JU>t. : The interior parenchyma of a leaf 
lying between the two skins. 

mes-d-phyl'-liim, s. [Mesophyll.] 

mes-o-phy'-tum, s. [Pref. meso-y and Gr. 

'/juToi' (jjhiitun) = a plant.] 

Hot. : The name given by Gaudichaud to 
the line of demarcation between trie lamina 
and the petiole. 

mes-6p'-ic, n. [Pref. meso-, and Gr. 6./»is 

{02'sis) = the face, the visage.] 

Anthrop. : A term applied to individuals or 
races having the naso-iualar index between 
lUT-.'i and no, as is the case with the Negroid 

races. [Nimo'iiutlar Iiulfix.] 

mes-o-pi-the'-cus, s. [Pref. nieso-, and Gr. 
Tri0ijKo? (pithekos) = au ape.] 

PahcoHt. : A genus of Catarhine Monkeys 
from the Upper Miocene of Greece, considered 
by Wagner intermediate between Hylobates 
and Semnopithecus. From the jdace whei-e 
the rcmaius were found, the base of Penteli- 
cou, the sole species has been named by 
Gaudry Mempithecui PctUdicL 

mes'-6-plast, s. [Pref. mcso-, and Gr 
TrAacrros ipla^tos) = formed, moulded ; TrKdaao. 

(plasso) = to form.] 
Physiol : The nucleus of a cell. 

mes-op'-l6~ddn, s. [Pref. -nm-: Gr. on-Ao: 
(hopjoii) — arms, arruour. and o6ov<; (odous^ 
geuit. oSoi'To? (udontos) = a tooth.] 

or. wore, wolf; wbrk. wli6, s6n : mute. cub. ciire. unite, cur. rule, rtll 

pme, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, poi, 
try, Syrian. £e, OB = e : ey = a ; qu = kw. 

mesopodium— messenger 


1. Zool. : Agenus of Xiphioid WhalfS, some- 
times refened to tbe fauuly Rliyucoceti. 
The best estitblished species are Mcsnploilun 
iii>leiis (sometimes called M. Sowcrbieiisis, or 
S'tweiby's Whale, which has two teetb in the 
Inwev and noneiL^ the upper jaw), .1/. europwus, 
M. ilen^iirostris, M. Lananli, M. trratji, and 
M. U'vtori. Gengraphical range ia northern 
jiinl sunt liiiin hemispheres, but more abundant 
jti tlie hitter. 

2. PuUcont. : Abundant in Later Miocene 
and Plioct'ne age; tlie long, cylindrical ros- 
ttinn is (if frequent occurrence in tlie boce-bed 
;it tlie base of the Red Crags of Suflolk. 

mes-o-pd'-di-iixn, s. [Pref. »kwo-, and Gr. 
TTovs (pons), genit. iroSds (j'odos) = & foot.] 

Zool. : The middle portion of the foot of 

mes-or'-chi-um, s. [Pref. vKso-y and Gr. 
opxts (orchis) = a testicle.] 

Anat. : A duplicature of the serous meiii- 
braue of the testicle. 

mes-o-rec'-tum, s. [Pref. weso-, and Eng., 
A:c. ndiini (q.v.).] 

AiuU. : A triangular reflection, formed by 
the peritoneum between the posterior surface 
of the rectum and the anterior surface of the 
sacrum. The inferior mesenteric vessels ter- 
niiitjite in the layers of the mesorectuni. 

mes'-d-rliiiie, «. [Pref. meso-, and Gr. pi's 
(ihis), genit. pirds {rhinos) = the nose.] 

Anthrop. : A term applied to skulls having 
a nasal index ranging from 4S to 53. Used 
also of ratres possessing such skulls. [^Yasu- 
maUir index.] 

mes-o-se'-mx-a, s. [Pref. meso-, and Gr. 
tn](LLeioi' (s'7*H(.(t)») = a mark.] 

Entoin. : A South American genus of Eryciii- 
ida.'. It consists of many species of brown 
or blue butterflies, marked witli black lines, 
especially on the liind wings ; and uearly all 
have a large roui^d black spot in the middlt? 
of the fore wings, marked with two or more 
white dots. 

mes' - 6 - Sperm, s. [Pref. meso-, and Gr. 
crnipfia {^pci'iiu') =■ ix seed.] 
Ijot. : The same as Saucoderm (c(,.v.). 

mes-o-ster'-num, s. [Pref. meso-, and Lat. 
sterninii., IVnm Gr. trrepvav (steriwn) = the 

Anat. : The middle part of that half of the 
sternum which covers the breast (Owen): 
the ensiform process of the sternum or breast- 
bone constituting its sixth segment. In mojst 
tases it remains cartilaginous till the age t>f 
pubertv, and in a few instances till advanced 
life. (Qaain.) 

mes-o-tar'-i-a, ^'. [Pref. mcs-, and Mod. Lat., 
&c. vtariii. (q.v.'). j 

Pakmnt. : A phocine genus, allied to Otaria. 
It was founded by Prof. P. J. van Beneden on 
snini^ fragmentary remains fioni the Pliocene 
of Flandt'rs. He called the species Mfsotaritt, 

mes-o-tar-tar'-ic, «. [Pref. meso-, and Eng. 
tailaru:.] (See the compound.) 

mesotartarlcacid, s. 

i'hi-ui. : Inactive tartaric acid. [Tautaric- 

mes-o-the'-^i-um, s. [Pref. meso-, and Gr. 
dr\Kiov {tkckiun), dimin. of Q^kt^ (theke) = a 

Bot. : According to Schleiden, an inner coat 
in a young anther. It becomes the second 
cuat in an adult one. 

mes-O'ther'-i-um, s. [Pref. meso-, and Gr. 
Br)(iiov ithcfion) — a wild animal.] 

Pakeunt. : X genus of fossil rodents from 
South America. The lower jaw has four in- 
cisor teeth. The bi'oad middle pair of teeth 
have an elongated ring of enamel around them, 
instead of having tlie clge worn away with a 
chisel-like form ; and hence Mr. Alston has 
created for this one genus a section of the 
Kodt'ut Older, and called it Hebetideutata or 
lilunt-toothed Rodents. Me^otheriutn crisUc- 
Inm is found in the Pliocene of the Pampas 
■ of La Plata. 

" me-soth'-e-sis, s. [Gr. fxeVo? (mesos) = 
middle, and fle'o-is {thrsis)=ix placing; Tiflinut 

(tithi'mi) = to place] Middle, mean. (Cole- 

mes-o-thor'-iix, .•'. [Pref. nieso-, and Eng. 

Entoin. : The middle ring of the three con- 
stituting the thorax. It is situated between 
the i)rothMrax in front of it, and the meta- 
thtnax behind it. 

mes'-6-type, s. [Gr. ^cVo? (niesos)= in the 
nnddlc, and tuttos {lupos)= form ; Ger. mesotyp.] 
Mia. : A name formeidy used for a number 
of niineials supposed to belong to the zeolite 
group. Subsequently it was divided into lime- 
mesotype, soda-mesutype, and lime-and-soda 
mesotype. These are nowdesignated Scoiecite, 
Natrolite, and Mesolite respectively. (See these 

mes-6-var'-i-um, s. [Pi'ef. mes-, and Mod. 
Lat. of((/'(((/u (q.v.).] 

Aaat. : A fi id of the peritoneal membrane, 
corresponding in the female to the mesorchium 
in tlie male. 

mes-ox-il'-ic, c [Pref. ineso-, and Eng. 
uxalh:\ t'ontiiined in or derived from alloxan. 

mesoxalic-aoid, d'. 

Chein. : C-ilUO^,OH-2. A dibasic ketonic 
arid, obtained by boiling alloxan or alloxanic 
acid with aqueous alkalis. It has a strong 
acid reaction, is very soluble in water, ami 
its solution is not decomposed by boiling. 
The barium salt, C:jBa.205, which crystallizes 
in yellow lamime, is prepared by boiling a 
saturated solution of baric alloxanate. The 
silversalt, C;jAgo(>5, is produced when mesox- 
alic acid and ammonia are added to argentic 

mes-o-z6'-a, s. pi. [Pref. meso-, and Gr. 
i^wa (z'Ju), pi. uf ^(Jyi/ (20071) = an animal. J 

Zuol. : A term proposed by Van Beneden 
for parasites in which no mesoderm is de- 
veloped, nor any trace of an alimentaiy ap- 
paratus present. 

"I am dianosed to agree with Van Beneden that 
tlie Dicyeuiiaa sIiuiiUl bo recarded as the reiireaeutii- 
tives uf 11 diutliict divUioii, tlie Jfusozoa, ^utel■Uledi.^te 
between the Protozo-i. and the Metazoa." — Huxley : 
Anat. InvurC. Animaft, p. 07«. 

mes-o-zo'-ic, «. [Pref. meso-; Gr. ^a)»J (201) 
= life, and Eng. sntf. -tc] 

Cetjl. : A teini introduced by Prof. Phillips 
ia lieu of the wm-d Secondary. It is modelled 
on the word Paheozoic (q.v.), applied to older 
strata. Though Mesozoic is largely used, yet 
Sir Charles Lyell preferred the older and 
simpler word Secondary. 

mes-pi-lo-daph'-ne, *. [Lat. inespihis, and 
dupkiw ; Gr. 6a»/)r»] (dajjhnc) = a laurel tree.] 

Bot. : A genus of Lauracea?. It consists of 
Brazilian tiees with netted leaves ; flowers in 
axillary panicles, with nine to twelve stamens. 
Mispihi(hij>line pretiom, the Casca pretiusa of 
tlie Portuguese, furnishes a kind of cinnamon. 

mes'-pi'liis, s. [Lat. = a medlar ; Gr. fieo-- 
itiAtj (inespiff) = the medlar tree ; pdoTriKov 
(nunipilon) = its fruit.] 

Bot.: A genus of Pomacea? (Appleworts) ; 
or, according to Sir Joseph Hooker, a sub- 
genus of Pyrus. The fruit is large, tive-celled ; 
the cells one-seeded; the endocarp bony, the 
fluwers solitiu-y. Mespilus (or Prtinus) gcr- 
iiuuiica is the Medlar (q.v.). 

* mes'-pri^e, •= mes' prize, s. [0. Fr. (Fr. 

iiirpn's), fi(.iii iiit^si>riscr (Fr. rncpriier) = to 
despise.] [MiSFRizi-:.] 

1, Contempt, scorn, insolence. 

" And eke reward the wretch for his mesprlse." 
A'/je;«rcr.- P. y.. 111. is. 9. 

2. Mistake. 

"Thiuutih ffreiitdiaad venture or me/ipHze 
Her life hvid roune iniu thiit liaztu-dize." 

mess (1). ■■ mease, ''messe.d'. [O. F. ines = 
a disli, a at table (Fr. vu-ts), orig. pa. 
par. of iiitttre = to place ; Lat. )aitto = to send ; 
Ital. ineaso ~ a course of dishes at table.] 

" 1. A dish or a portion of food sent to or 
set on a table at one tune ; food prepared for 
a person or party of persons. 

" He took and sent nw^s-'s unto them : but Beu; 
jaiuin a wens was five tlnieti ay much aa any uf theirs. ' 
-^tien. xliii. a;. 
2. As Uiuch provender or fodder as is given 
to a beast at once. 

" 'Tla only a page that carols unseen, 
Crumbling your huunda their mew^w." 

lirowniwj: J'ippa Passc.i, u. 

3. A number of persons who sit down to 
table together, or the food provided for them ; 
specif., a conn>any or number of Dttleers or men, 
bi lunging to the same regiment or ship, who 
Uikc their meals together, 

* 4. A set or party of four : from the com- 
pany at great feasts being arranged or divided 
into sets of four. Applied— 

(1) To persons. 

"\Vher« are your nwu of B0U3 [/.<t.. the following 
four, Edward. Ocur^c, Iticlinnl, and Kdmuiid)to buck 
you now?"— Aft(iAcji/». .' 3 Hcnfy VI., i. 4. 

(2) Of things. 

"Th-'re Iiieksa fourth thinK to nink« up the met8.'~ 
Lilt tint: r : Acrinonv. 

1[ In the Inns of Courts a vu-ss still consists 
of ibur persons. 

* 5. A small piece ; a small quantity. 

"I will ch'H> her into mcaeai."~-.'ihaketp. : Otficlla, 

i\. 1, 

mess-deckf &-. 

Ki'hL: The deck on which a ship's crew 


mesS'kit, s. That portion of camp equip- 
age cunsi.sting uf cooking utensils. 

mess-taMe, 5. The table at which the 
members uf a mess take their meals. 

mess (2), s. [A variant of vmsh (q.v.).] 

1. Lit. : A nuxture of things in disorder; 
a state of dirt and disorder; a jumble; any- 
thing dirty. 

2. Fig.: A situation or position of difficulty, 
embarrassment, trouble, or distress ; a mud- 
dle, a diffictdty, a trouble. 

' mess (3), " messc, s. [Mass (2), s.] 

mess (1), v.i. & (. [Mess (1), s.] 

A. Intraus. : To take meals together, aa 
members of a mess ; to associate at the same 
table ; said espec. of naval or military officers 
or men ; to associate generally. 

B. Trans. : To supply or provide with a 
mess ; to sujiply with food. 

mess (2), v.t. [Mess (2), s.] To make in a 
niLSs; to make dirty or foul; to dirty, to 

mess'-age, ^<. [Fr., from Low Lat. missati' 
c-iiiii = a message, from Lat. missus, pa. jiar. 
oS viitto = to send.] 

1. A notice or coramunicatSon sent from one 
person to another either verbally or in writing. 

"[He], swift aaan express. 
Reports a measuyc with a pleafting grace." 

CifWpfr: Trutli, 205. 

2. Specif. : An ollicial communication sent 
through an olficial messenger : as, a message 
liX'Ui the Queen to Parliament. 

*3. A messenger. 

"A iiictttfjv fro that meyny hem moldez t*' seche." 
Karfy Mug. AlliC. Puciiu ; Cleunneti. Hi. 

" mess'-age, r.t. [Message, s.] To carry or 
deliver as a messenger. 

" He dyd in expressed commnuud to me mataffe his 
errand." Htanyhunt : Virgil ; JinviU iv. 3T7. 

" mess-ag-er. " messagere, ;:. [Eng. mes- 
so<j{l'); -cr.] A nies.smgei (.j.v.). 

" The rayubowt i» hir massagcr." 

Gviver: C. A., v. 

Mes-sa'-li-an, s. [From the Syriac name 
— those who pray.] 

Church Hist. tO Eccksiol. (PL) : The same as 
EucHJtTEs (q.v.). 

mes'-san, mes'-sin, a. & s. [O. Fr.mastin; 

Fr. iiuHin — a niastilf.] 

A. As adj. : Currish, UH>ngrel. {ScotcJi.) 

B. As subst. : A mongrel dog, a cur, a dog 
of no breed. (Scotch.) 

"No, Miss Lucy, you need never think it I You 
would not i;oiisent to put forth your father'^ poor dog, 

I I.I ^.. ...A ..>...... tl.u.. u ........... >'' .\.l' • 

and would yuu u«e i 
Guff Mannering, ch. . 

3 wauj- tliau tt »ivuu» $ ' — icoH .' 

*^ messe (1), s. [Mess (1), 5.] 

^messe (2), s. [Mass (2), *■.] 

moss' -en- ger, s. [A corrupt, of Mid. Eng. 
nu'smijKr (q.v.), the n being excrescent, as in 
scavenger for scavager, ^nisscnger for pas^ayer, 
&c. ; Fr, viessitgej-; Ital. mussagiere ; Bp. iMUr 
sagcro: Port, metisageiro.] 
I, Ordinarg Language: 
1. One who carries a message ; one who is 
sent on an errand ; one who bears a written 
or verbal notice, communieation, or mussftgo 
from one persun to another. 

boil» boy ; pout, jowl : cat. 9ell, chorus, 5hin, ben^h ; go, gem ; thin, this : sin, a^ ; expect, ^enophon, exist, ph - C 
-cian, -tian = sh^n. -tion, -siojn = shun ; -tion, -§iou = zhun. -cious, -tlous, -sious - shus. -ble, -die, i;c. - bel, d^i. 



mosset— metabolian 

« oti.- »l r tliiit which foiVHhailrtws IT 

|«: a hari.injifr, a i.recur*«r, ft fore- 

•I. Liw; A iMTHoii nppoint'Ml to jwrform 

rrTUUi iiiliii^uriiil antif* ill Uu.kruptcy ->i 

,ii, :v.n'-v. v; Ji nt to tftko chftr>iP of [In- 

ipt itr iimolvent, ntui l'» 

liiticHiii n-rerviico ti>Un- 

.m|tlcy or in ius^'lvem-y. 

" .Vrtii/ ; A ni|»e jw-winK fh>m the capstan 
tahe cable to which It is f««teiu-.l ».y iiti»pfrs. 
TIip wimimj; of the iiifjt-i.-iii;tfr >m thi' capstan 
haiiU lit Ih.* cablf, ftii.I tlh- iiipi'crs an- mic- 
crwivrly taken utf that i«rt --f tin- cJiMe tlmt 
M appn^chin- tho rapmaii, ami jmt upon 
Uiat i^rt wliicli has Jiwt como inboard, 
thruuifh the ha«M* lit>h'. 

^ (1) Kiiiij's (or Qitfm's) Mf.**fiijn' : An orfl- 
clal empl'-yc'l uml-r llio Se<ri'taii<'.s of Stat*- 
to carry ih-siiatchcs to foix'lgn courts. 

(2) Jif/A«eM<^''-n/-^rm.t : 

tients Law: An otHcer app<ii?itf.l l«y and 
umli-r the control of Lyon kinti-al-arnia, to 
rxcciile all summonscjt ami letters nf dili- 
(tciicr In connection with the Courts of Session 
nnd Justiciary. 

' mSs'-sdt. •■ [M»>WAS.J A mongrel dog, a 
cur, a nies-san ('(.v.). 

* Mis-si'-acI, f>- t'^'roin ^lessiah, on the 
nniii<>t;> oflliml. I.usiiid, A:c.l An epic pocui 
having tlie .Messiah for itt hero ; s|K!C., an 
epic iKKtm on the Hutfeiings and tvitiniphs of 
Christ, written by Klopstock. 

MSs-si'-ah. tUJSs-8i'-&8. s. [Heb. n>i'o 
(mashioi'hh) — anointed, a verbal nonn .-md 
|tarlicipl«3, from n\j)0 {uuuiJutch) = to .smear 
t\ith colours, to anoint; Gr. Mecrcriac {Mes- 
• -as)-} 

1. Jeiriih Hist, ,t Faith : The Anointed One ; 
ft certiin Personjige or Being regarding wlmni 
Daniel pn'phesied. He was called " tlie 
Prince." was apparently i<lentified with the 
"must Huly" |'->nej, was to api)ear at the 
end of "seven weeks and three score and tun 
weeks" fron» the issue of the decree to rebuild 
Jenisaleni, wa.s in sixty-two weeks to be *'ciil 
off but not for himself," after which Jeru.-)a- 
lem was to be destroyed by fi)reigu invaders 
(Dull. ix. 2.j. 2'i). In Psalm ii. '2, the Lord 
and liis anointed might be<rcndered the Lord 
and his Messiah. Tliree classes of men wenr 
officially anointed under the Jewish dispensa- 
tion : (1) Priests, and especially high priests 
(Exo<l. xxxiii. 41 ; Levit iv. 3, 5, IG ; Num. 
XXXV. 'i5 : (2) Kings (1 H&uu ix. Itf, xvi. 3 ; ■! 
tjam. xii. 7; 1 Kings i. 'M, xix. 16): (3) Pro- 
phets ; Elijali, before liis translation, was di- 
rected to anoint Klisha^ his successor (1 Kings 
xix. liJ; cf. also Isaiah Ixi. 1-3). Presumably 
then the Messiah spoken of by Daniel would 
discharge priestly, kingly, or prophetic func- 
tions, ur two <iut of the three, or all the three. 
Tlie name "the Prince" would suggest that 
kingly functions would Ih" specially prominent. 
During the later and more calamitous period 
of the old Hebrew monarchy, there were in- 
creasingly ardent desires for the coming of the 
Messiah, who was regardeil chiefly as a de- 
liverer from foreign oppressors. In Jewisli 
belief that advent is still to be expected. 

2. Christian Uisi. & Fnitk: The Anointed 
One is in Greek Xptaro^ (Christos), from xp'" 
(cArio) = to anoint. So throughly are the 
words identified, that the Heb. rrtTO (mcu^hi- 
tiehh), which occurs thirty-nine times in the 
Old Testament, is in every case rendered in 
thcSej'tutigint xptaro^ (rhristos). When Jesus 
of Nnzan-th consented to accept the appella- 
" the Christ," or 8imi>ly " Christ," as his olh- 
ciftl designation, he claimed to be the Messiah 
of Itaniel's prophecy (Matt i. 10, xvi. 20, xxvi. 
63 ; Mark viil. 29, xiv. 01 ; Luke iii. 15, ix. 20, 
xxii. rt7; John i. 41. vi. tV.i, Ac.). All Christen- 
dom has acknowledged the claim. (Christ.) 

3. Fig. : Tlie highly-giltcd leader of a nation, 
CftjMible. if properly appreciated and followed, 
of leading it to the gr.-atest prosjjcrity. Thus, 
(I j'mpos of the assassination of Julius Cwsar, 
Napoleon III. siiid of nations in general, 
"They crucify their Messiah." 

nies - si- ah - Bhip, mes-i-ah-ship. £. 

(Eng. McMinh ; -fhip.] The state, ulfice, or 
position of the Messiah. 

mdB-si-ftn'-IO, «. [Low Ijit Messinmcus; 
Fr. .W.^'Muii./ri^l Kelutingt<» the Messiah: as, 
A/cwinuie psalms, Messittiiic prophecy. 

U Many Old Testiment prophecies are re- 
gan.led by the great majority of Christian as 
Messianic, even though the iiersonage pre- 
dicted nniy not Iw formally termed the Jles- 
aiali. Among them aix* the following :— 

0»[i.l lit. li. xll. ». xxit 19. xxvj 4 xxvlll. U. xlix. 
10; l>.uLxvai.lB; PwUiiii 11.. mIL. Uix. Uxli, ex . 
ImUaIi U 1-4. ix. 1-T. xl. !-*>. xxxti- 1. 2. xxx^.. xl. 

ixUi. •; l>w.i«l vii. 13. II. a;, x. ii-i' J.wl. U. 3»- 
3S : Mlcnh iv. 1-4 ; V. a : HugiM 11. 7 ; Zech. U- 9. xl. IJ. 
IS. xlll. C. T ; M(il«;lil lit. l-ii. Iv. 5. 0. 

t Mea-Bi-&s, *. lMF.sstAH.1 

M6s'-8i-dor. .«. (l-'r., from I^t wessis^ 
h.'U vest, and Or. iCtpov (./onor) = a gift. Pro- 
iK-rlv meaning corn hiirvest.| The nnme given 
in OcUiber, 17lt:i, by the French Convention 
to the tenth month of the Kepublican year. 
It c<nnnienced on June 19, and was the lirst 
stimnier mouth. 

messieurs (as mes'-yur$). ■';. pi [Fr., pi. 

of monsieur (q.v.).J Sirs; gentlemen. It is 
used in Euglisli as the plural of Mr., and is 
generally contracted to ilessre. 

Mes-si-nese', a. & -«. Mcssin(a); -esc] 
A- -■!■* u'O- • ^^ '"' pprtainiug t(t Messina in 

Sicily, or its inhabitants. 
B. As snhst. : A native or inhabitant of 

Messina ; as a plural, the people of Messina. 

• mess'-mak-ing, *. [Eng. mms (l). s., and 
vuikiii,j.\ The act or practice of eating to- 

"ThUfriendshiplwgan by meM»iw*insfin the Temple 
hHll."— Ao'VA : J.i/e oj lord Uuilfurd, i. 6X 

meSS'-mate, s. [Eug. mess (l), s., and mate.] 

I. f)n{. Lang. : One who eats at the same 
mess ; a member of the same mess ; an asso- 
ciate, a mate. 

" Mfiiynatei, liear n lirother BKilor 
SiiiK th« (Iftiigers o( the nen." 

U. A. atevem : The Storm. 

II. Technically: 

1, Zoni. : A name given by Beneden to a 
class of parasites wlio do not actually feed on 
the body of tlieir host. 

"The ntftsttutte does not live nt the expense of his 
hoat ; nil thfvt he deairea in a boioe. or nis fiieud'a 
fluperfluities."— rail Beneden : Avimal Faraaite», p. i. 

2. lint.: Eiimlyptus obliq-ita. (Tnas. o/Bot.) 
messrs.. contr. [Mkssieubs.] 

mes-su^ge (su as sw), •mes-uage, s. 

[O. Fr. 'vicsnage = a manor-house ; ef. Low 
I^t. viesiiagium, wessnaginm = a closely 
connected with, if not the same word as 
O. Fr. viasagCf masaige = a tenement, from 
mas, mes, wim, metz = a messuage, a tenement, 
from Low Lat. vwm, mifsm ^ a small farm 
with a liouse, from Lat. nwiJisn, fein. sing, of 
mansus, pa. par. of viaiieo = to remain.] 

Law: A dwelling-house with the adjacent 
buildings and curtilage appropriated to tlie 
use of tiie household ; a manor-house. 

• meste, a. & ndv. [Most.] 

mes'-tee', znus-tee'p s. [Mestizo.] The 
child of u white and a quadroon. (Wt-d 

mes-teqiie' (ciue ns k), s. [Kiexican.] A 

native name lor the tlnest kinds of the 
cochineal insect. 

" meat - full, '■'. ILat mn-5?(»s) = sad, and 
Eng. /((/(.] cjad, gloomy. 

^^ mes'-tive, «. [Lat. nwKjf^Hs^sad.] Sad, 
sonowful, gloomy. 

" Now have they sciiVd thir meitivr moiintaine top." 
Ihii'ict: Holy JCoode, p. lf>. 

mes-ti'-zo, mes-ti'-no, s. [Sp. mestizo, 
from Lat. luixfxs, pa. p:u'. of mi'scco = to mix, 
to mingle; O. Fr. i>u.<ttis; Fr. vuUis.] The 
olVspring of a Spaniard or Creole and an 
American Indian. 

" Hated by Creole* and Indiana, Mestizos and Quad- 
roons." — J/acuufa^ : Eiat. Eng,, ch. xxiii. 

' mest'-ling. s. [JIesmn.] Yellow metal ; 
brass used for the manufacture of cliuieh 
vessels and ornaments in the Middle Ages. 

mes'-u-a, a [Xamed after two Arabian phy- 
sician's called Mesne. They were father and 
son, and flourished at Damascus in the eighth 
and ninth centuries.] 

Hot. : A genus of Clusiacea-. tribe Calopn^.- 
lea-. Mesna fcrrta is a midtile-sized ever- 
green tree, growing in the south of India and 
Ceylon, the east of Bengal, the Eastern Penin- 
sula and the Andaman Island.s. The fruit, 
which is wrinkled and has a rind like a chest- 
nut, is eaten by the natives. Tlie fragrant 
blossoms are sold under the name of nagesar 
ur negekesar in Indian bazaars : they are 
stinmlant, astringent, and stomachic, useful 
in thirst, stomach irritation, and excessive 
l^erspiriitiou. An attir is prepared Irom them. 
If made with butter and sugar into a paste, 
they tend to stop bleeding piles. The bark is 
a mild astringent .and aromatic. A thick and 
dark-colouretl oil expressed from the kernels 
is used in India as an external application in 
itch and sores, and as an embrocation in rheu- 
matism. It is alsti burnt in lamps. iCalcuttn 
Kxhib. Report, &c.) 

- mcs'-UT-a-ble (s as zh), a. [Measurable. J 

mes'-ure (s as zh), 5. & v. [SlEASunF, 
d. & v.] 
' me-sym'-ni-cum, >•■. [Gr. fxitro^ (met^o^) — 

middle, and il/ji'O? (/nniuios) — a hymn, a so^l,^.l 
.■indent Poetry: A repetition at the end ut 
each stanzas ; a burden. 

met (1). pret. £ pa. par. of v. [Meet, v.] 

' met (2), i»'e^ dt 2^0. par. ofv, [Mete, v.] 

met, s. [Mete, v.] A measure of any kind ; 
a busliel, a barrel. 

met-a-, pre/. [Gr. = among, with, after; 
eogn. with A.S. miil ; Goth, mith; Ger. mit — 
with.] A prefix frequently used with word.s 
deriveil from the Greek, and denoting beyond^ 
over, after, with, between, and frequently changtr 
or transposition. 

meta-compoiinds, s. pi. 

Chnn. : As applied to inorganic substances^ 
it refers to bodies having a similar composition 
to the ortho-compounds, but in which an 
obscure change has taken place affecting their 
cheiniral properties. In organic chemistry 
it applies to compounds of identical percent- 
age, composition, and molecular weight, iir 
which tlie carbon-neuclei are united to one. 
another by an atom of a polyvalent element, 
such as nitrogen ; e.g. :— 

f G4H9 CC.JH5 . ,ii-ethvl- 
Butybmine=x|H ^'|c,H5 = { ;;;,^^f;;>^ 

(Ortho.) (Meta.) 

meta-cresol, s. [Cresol.] 

meta-oleic, o. [Metoleic] 

me - tab'- a - sis, s. [Pref. vieta-, and Gr. 
fid<Ti<; {biisi's) = a going ; ^aiVto (bnino) =■ to go.] 

1. Med. : A change of remedy or treatment.. 

2. Ilhct, : A passing from one thing to 
anotlier ; transition. 

met-a-bis-muth'-ic, a. [Pref. weta-, and 
Vai'ji,' hi^„ti'thk.] Derived from or coutaiuiug. 


metabismuthic-acid, .<;. 

Cheni. : BiOoHO. An acid obtained as rt 
red deposit by passing chlorine through a 
solution of potassic hydrate, containing bis- 
muthous oxide in suspension. It is solublii 
in a hot solution of potassic hydrate. 

me*tab'-o-la (1), s. [Gr. ^.tra^oXr^ (metabole), 
from jLLCTa^aAAw (inetaballo) = to throw over, 
to change.] 

Med. : A change of sonie sort, as of air, 
time, or disease. 

me-tab'-o-la (2), s. j)/. [Neut. pi. of Gr. /^e- 
Ta^6Aos {metdbolos) = changeable.] 

Eiitom. : A sub-class of Insects, containing 
those having complete metamorphosis. The 
larva, pupa, and imago are all verydilferentiw 
appearance, and these several states constitute 
three quite distinct phases of life. The larva 
is known as a maggot, a grub, or a cateriiillai. 
The pupa, which is always quiescent, is some- 
times called a chrysalis. Dallas divides it 
into two sections : Mandibulata, containing 
the orders Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, and 
Neuroptera; and Haustellata, containing the 
orders Lepidoptera, Diptera, andAphauiptera. 

met-a-bo'-li-an, s. [Metabola.] 
Entom. : One of the Metabola (q.v.). 

late, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father ; we. wet, here, camel, her, there : pine, pit, sire, sir, marine : go. pot; 
or. wore, wplt work, who, son ; mute, cub, ciire, unite, cur, inile, fiill : try, Syrian. », co = e ; ey := a ; qu = Uw. 

metabolic— metagenesis 


met-a-bdl'-lC, «. [Gr. Mero^oAtKoy (mrta- 
bolik'os) = changeable.] [Metabola.] 

1. Livl. : Affected by, nr exhibiting, ineta- 

2. Phys. : Acted upon by chemical affinity 
operating in circumstances or conditions 
whicli present themselves iu living beings 
only. [Metabolic-force.] 

3. Zoology : 

(1) Of, belonging to, or undergoing nieta- 

(•2) Pulymorphic ; assuming different elia- 

metabolic -force, s. [Vital-affinity.) 

me-t^b'-o-lism, s. [Ger. metubolismus.] 


1. TheoL : The doctrinal views of Ignatius, 
Justin, and Irenteus on the Eucharist. They 
stand midway between transubstantiationand 
the merely symbolical view. 

2. Eiiiovi. : Metamorphosis. 

3. Biology : 

(1) Tlie sum of the chemical changes within 
the body, or within any single cell of the 
ln)dy. by wliioh the protoplasm is renewed or 
changed to perform special functions, or 
broken up and prepared for excretion. 

(2) A change from a higher or more com- 
plex to a lower or simpler substance. 

met-a-bor'-ic, a. [Pief. meta-. and Eng, 
bori<:.] I'erivcd from or containing boiic acid. 

metaboric-acid, s. [Boric-acid.] 

met-a-brush ~ite, 5. [Pref. vieta-. and Eng. 


Min. : A monoclinic mineral found in crys- 
tals in the guano and altered coral rock in tlie 
island of Sombrero, Lesser Antilles. Cleavage, 
clinodiagonal, perfect; hardness, i'S to 3 ; sp. 
gr. 2-288 to 2-3t32 ; lustre, feeble, but on cleav- 
age face pearly ; colour, pale yellcw ; traushi- 
ct'iit to transparent ; compos. : pliosphoric 
acid, 41-90 ; lime, 35'42 ; water, 20-68 = 100. 

met -a- car '-pal, a. [Metacahpus.] 

AiiuL : ttf or pertaining to the metacarpus. 
metacarpal -saw. 5. 

Sun}. : A nai-row-bladed saw, for dividing 
the long bones of the liand or foot. 

met-a-car-po-, pre/. [Metacarpus.] 

Aunt. : l)t* or belonging to the metacarpus. 

metacarpo phalangeal, a. 

Anat. : Of ur belonging to the jthalanges, 
and to the metacarpus. There ai-e vietacarpo- 
^.'kalangeal articulations. 

met-a-car'-pus, s. [Pref. meta-, and Lat. 

car}nis, front Gr. «apjros (karpos) = the wrist.] 

Aitdt. : Tiie bony structure of the palm of 

the hand, between the wrist and the lingers. 

It comprises five shafted bones. 

met-a-^en'-tre (tre as ter), s. [Pref. mcta-, 

and Eiig. ccntir.] 

Hydros. : The point of intersection of the 
vertical line jiassing through the centre of 
gravity of a floating body in e'luilibrio, and a 
vertical line through the centre of gravity of 
tlie fluid displaced, if the body be turned 
through a small angle, so that the axis takes a 
jiosition inclined to tlie vertical. If the meta- 
centre is above the centre of gravity, the posi- 
tion of the body is stable, if below it, it is un- 

met-a-9et'-a-mide. s. [Pref. me/a-, and 
Eng. acvtamide.] [Pbopionamide.] 

met-a9'-e-t6ne, s. [Pref. met-, and Eng. 

Cliem. : CgHinO. A substance obtTined in 
the dry distillation of sugar or starch with 
lime. It is acidourlessoil, liaving an agreeable 
odour, insoluble in water, but very soluble iu 
ether aud alcohol. 

met-a9-e-t6n'-ic, a. [Eng. met(tcetoji(e): -ic] 
Deiived from nr contained in metacetonicacid. 

metacetonic-acid, s. [Propionic-acid.] 
met-&9-e-t6n'-i-trile, s. [Pref. met-, and 

Eng. (tcftoiiilrili:.] [PropioNITRILE.] 

met-a-chl6r'-al, s. [Pref meta-, and Eng. 

Chan. : C^HClaO. Insoluble chloral. A 
solii], white amorphous substance, formed 
when chloral is acti'd on by sulphuric acid. 
It is insoluble in water, alcohol, and ether. 
Wlien heated to ISO", it is reconverted into 
onlinary chloral. 

met~a-chldr'-ite, s. [Gr.ju.e'To(HieM) = after, 
and Eng. chlorite] 

Min. : A foliated columnar mineral of a dull, 
leek-green colour, and pearly lustre. Hard- 
ness. 2'5 ; compos. : silica, 23'"; alumina. 
]t)'43 ; protoxide of iron, 40-36; magnesia, 
3-10 ; lime, 0"74 ; potash and soda, l*4o ; water, 
13'75 = 99-60. Found in veins iu a green rock 
at Biiclieiiberg, near Elbingerode, Harz. 

met-a-Chrom'-ic, a. [Pref. meta-, and Eng. 

chn»'iiic.\ Derived from ur containing chromic 

metachromic- oxide, s. 

Clicm. : A term applied by Fremy to the 
oxide of chromium which is precipitated by 
ammonia from a violet chromic salt, aud is 
soluble in acetic acid, potash, and excess of 
ammonia, in o]>positiou to the oxide, which, 
by the action of boiling water, is rendered in- 
soluble in these li(iuids. 

^ met-ach -ron-i^m, s. [Gr. /lera imcta) = 
after, and xpo>'0? (t'/i'-o?tos)= time.] An error 
in chronology by assigning an event to a date 
after the true one. 

met-a-9in~na~bar'-ite, s. [Pref. -nuta-; 
Ew^.ciiDuiUir, and sutl". -itc (Min.).'] 

Min.: A grayish-black amorphous mineral. 
Hardness, 3; 770 to 7*748; lustre, 
metallic ; streak, black ; fracture, uneven. 
Compos. : sulphide of mercury, formula Hg.M. 
Differs from cinnabar (q.v.) in colour, streak', 
density, ami lustre, being identical in tliesc 
respects with the artificial mineral. Found 
at the Redingtou juiiie, Lake Co., California. 

met-a-9in'-na-mein, s. [Pref. meta-, and 
Eng. ciiDiainciii.] 

Chcm. : Ci6Ui402 = Q^^{^ ]■ O. A crys- 
talline substance, isomeric with cinnamein. 
produced by keeping cinnamein under water 
for tliree or four weeks. It melts between 12' 
aud 15°, resolidifying on cooling, but after 
solution in boiling alcohol it cannot be again 
obtained in the crystalline form. 

met-a-9m'-na-mene, s, [Pref. meta-, and 
Eng. cinnamcne.] 

Clicni. .- CjiH^. Metastyrolene. A white, 
transparent, highly refractive, solid substance, 
isomeric with cinnameue, formed, together 
with ciiniamene and other products, by heating 
phenylbromethyl with an alcoliolic solution 
of i)otassic cyanide. By distillation iu a small 
retort, it yields pure liquid cinnamene. 

* met'-a-9i^i]Il, 5. [Lat. metacisrmis, from Gr. 
fjifTaKKTfio^ {mcti.(Jiismos).1 A defect in the 
pionunciatiun of the letter 7».; a too frequent 
rejietition of the letter vi, 

met-a-c6-paiv'-ic, a. [Pref. ituta-, and 
Eng. copaivic] Derived from or contained in 
copaiba (q.v.), 

metacopaivic-acld, s. 

Chem. : C^y-^lliuOi. An acid discovered by 
Strauss in 1800 iu the balsam of copaiba, im- 
ported from Maraeaibo. It crystallizes in 
laiiunie, insoluble in water, but is soluble in 
idcohid aud etlier, and melts at 205''-206°. 
It has a bitter taste, an acid reaction, and 
decomposes carbonates. Its neutral solution 
in ammonia forms white precipitates with the 
salts of calcium, barium, and lead. 

met-ac'-ro-lein, s. [Pref. met-, and Eng. 


Chem. : CgHioO.i = 3C3H4O. A crystalline 
body polymeric with acrolein, obtained by 
heating the hydrochloride of acrolein with 
potassium hydrate. It forms colourless 
needle-shaped crystals, insoluble in water, 
but soluble in alcohol and ether. It melts at 
50°, but at a liiglier temperature is changed 
into acrolein. 

met-a-9y-an-aii*-i-line, s. [Pref. 7ncta-; 

Eng. cyan("gt:n), and iDtilinc.] 

Chem.: CiiHn'Si= \ . A 

C(NH) - NHiC^Hs) 
modification of cyananiline, obtained by dis- 

tilling nramido-benzi.ic acid with a fflirth of 
its wuight of phosphoric anliydride. It melts 
at 54°. 

met~a-9y'-meno, s. [Pref. mcta-, aud Eng. 
cymme.] [Cv.mknk.] 

inet-a-di-9y-an d-benr-zene, s. [Prefs. 

mi-ta- and 'lirt/i'tnn-, and Eng. lnuzcnc] 

Chnn. : C,;H4(('X>.. A crystalline subsUnco 
obtaincl liy dislilhiig thr puta.ssium salt nf 
bt-n/i'ue-nietadisulplinuic aiid with j)otaasium 
cyanide. It is vciy soluble iu water, aud 
melts at 156". 

met-a-fer'-ric, a. [Pref. victn-, and Eng. 
ferric] Derived from or contained iu ferric 

me taferrlc -oxide, s. 

i'hrw. : l'VM).[ll„n, An insoluble modiflca- 
tinn of fL-rric hyiliate jiroduced by boiling the 
ordinary yellow hydrate in water for six or 
seven hours. It is then nearly insoluble in 
strong boiling nitric acid. 

met-a-fiir'-fti-rol, s. [Pref. meta-, and Eng. 

Chem. : C5H4O2. An aromatic oil, always 
juvseut in crude furfund. It has a higlR-r 
bailing point than fm-furol, aud oxidizes very 
readily into a brown resin. 

met~^gal'-late, s. [Pref. meta-, and Eng. 

Chem. : A salt of metagallic-acid. 

met-a-gal'-lKc, a. [Pref. vieta-, and Eng. 
gallic] Derivtid from or contained in gallic- 
acid (q.^'.). 

metagalUc-acld, s. 

Chem.: CfiH^O^. A black shining mass rt 
sembling charcoal, obtaineil by heating dry 
gallic acid rapidly to 250". It is insoluble in 
water, but soluble in the alkalis, from which 
it is again precipitated by the addition of an 
acid. It forms insoluble salts with several of 
the metals. 

"met' -age, 5. [Eng. viet(e), v. ; -age.] Me- 

1. The act of nieasui-ing; measurement, es- 
pecially of coal. 

" All Hft . . . iu relntioii to the Rclnieiudirenieiit or 
Vietu'je of c<JA\f.:'—l)f/oc • Tour Thru liriUUii. li. \\b 

2. The charge or toll charged for measuring. 

met-a-gel'-a-tine, s. [Pref. meta-, aud Eng. 

Photog. : Gelatine whicli has been deprived 
of its setting power, usually by boiling with 
ammonia. It is sometimes used in preference 
to ordinary gelatine in tlie earlier stages of 
compounding a gelatine emulsion. 

met-a-gen'-e-sis, s. [Pref. meta-, and Eng., 
iSic. genesis (q.v.).J 

Biol. : A term introduced by Prof. Owen, 
ami defined by him as — 

" The ctinnKci of form which the representative of a, 
species of ftiiliiml or i»l.iiit uiiUo-yofs in jiftasiug by a 
series of aucceaslvely K*:iK'i'iitoil iutlivlUunLs (rum the 
egg to the mature or iriisgo state. It Is UlatingulBhed 
from metamoruhosin, iu whicli those changes nre 
midergono iu tlie name individual" — Comp. Anat, 
Invert. Ariitit. (Glossary.) 

To show the distinction between metamor- 
phosis and metagenesis, he carefully traces the 
course of development of the Lenia-an parasite 
of the perch, and points out that metamnr- 
])hosis '* is attended with the casting-off of a 
certain proportion of the precedent individual," 
or the new animal may bo said to creexi out 
from tlie old ; while in metagenesis 

" the outer case and all tliat gave form and character 
to the iireoedout iudividunl perish and are caat uff; 
they are not chHuged into the corresnoudlng parts of 
the uew individual. These are due to n new and dis- 
tinct devfloiiiiientiil prwceae, roudered possible thruut'h 
the retention of a certain proportion of the unchaiik'eil 
germ-cells. Tho nrocesa is essentially the same as thut 
which developes the ccrcurifnriii laivn ut tho bistonut 
within the Kiogftriuiforni one, or the external bud 
from the Hydra, or the internal hiid from the Aiihls. 
It ia ft fliiglitly minlitli-d parthenugenesl* ; and tho 
phases by which the locomotive HneUIJous larva of ths 
Lenireiipfisscs through theeutitiuoetnicuusstage bifford 
retrograding to the final coudltlun of the uvioaruiis, 
liuibfess, bloated, and rooted parasite, are mucli nmrw 
tliose of a matai/»n0tiii than a iiietjiuioi'iihosls."'-C'i"itp. 
Anat. InvgrU Aninu, lect. xili. 

Herbert Spencer {Principles of ninlogy'\o\. i., 
cli. vii.), adopts the term as one of tho three 
divisions of his agamogenesis, and divides it 
into (1) external, where '*the new individuals 
bud out, not from any specialized reprodm-tive 
organs, but from unsiu'cialized parts of thy 
parent;" and (1') internal, as in the case of 

b6il, bo^ : pout, jo^l ; cat, 9eU, chorus, 9liin, ben^h ; go, gem ; thin, this : sin, as ; expect, Xenophon, exist. -Ing, 
-clan, -tian = shan. -tion, -sion = shun ; -tion, -sion = zhun. -clous, -tlous, -sious = shiis. -hie, -die, &c. = b^l, deL 


metagenetic— metallic 

Uk: " Kin^i's-yclhnv wuriu" itrvxlucinl in lln- 
rjTK of Uistoma. It incivases in size, ami tlie 
pivattT part I'f its innor substance is trans- 
frtnneil into O'l-cariie (tho lan-ie of Dist'Hiiu,), 
until at lengtii it Wconies little more than a 
iivini; sac, full of liviiij,' otfspring. In Distnma 
paeijica, tlie brond arising by internal genuna- 
ticnareof the same ftirniasthrir pju'ent, theni- 
sc.lvfs pnxUicing CeiTariffi alter the siinie 
muuncr at a subscqut-ut period. 

met-a-ge-nef-lc, met-a-gen'-ic, a. (Me- 
TAGESEsis,} Belonging to or connected with 
metagenesis (q.v.). 

"This secumi phaso or form In the mttngen^ic pro- 
pvM u( the eiituzix>u."^^U'bft: Conip. Aiutt, invert. 
Anim. (oi. 2inU, i». 90. 

taSt~&g-n6a'-tiOBt s. [Pref. meta-, and Gr. 
yvCr<n<; (guOsi^) = knowledge.] A synonym for 
tnetapliysics, because it transcends ordinary 
knowledge. (McClintock tt Strong.) 

•met-a-gr3,m'-ma-tism, 5. [Gr. ij.erd 

{meta) = l>t.-yoiid, ovt-i-, au'd ypdfj.fia (rintynnw), 
genit. ypdfj.fjiaro'i {'jmmmaUis) = a letter.] The 
same as Anagrammatism (q.v.), 

" AofwrHminAtism or mefagratnmafitm. la a tllssn- 
Intioi) of a nnme Utto its let.tei-s, as its elemeuts. and n. 
i»ew coitiiectiun i.f it l>y artificial traiispi'sitiou, with- 
out aililittoii. aulitractioii. ortlmnee u(aiiy K-tter Into 
ditfi-reiit wonia, making sume ji^rtect sense applicnMe 
to tlie [>ei-si.iii xiAuwil."— Camden : Jietiutinet. 

met-a-hsB'-md-glo-bin, s. [Pref. meta-, 

and Eng. Iuei)a>ijl<.ibiit.] 

Chem. : A mixture of hrematin and an albu- 
minons substance resembling serum-albunnn. 
jnodaced by the decomposition of hsemo- 
Rlcbin, when a concentrated solutiim of this 
snVifttance is left to itself, at ordinary tem- 
peratures. It ha.-^ an acid reaction. 

met'-al, * met-tal. * met-taU, * met-tle. 

s. & 'n. [Fr. ntftat, from Lat, metaUum-= n 
mine, metal ; Gr. fidraWov (»ietaHoii) = a pit, 
a mine, a mineral, a metal.] 

A. As substantive : 

J, Ordina)-y LaiiQuage: 

1, LitertiUy: 

* (1) -^ mine. 

■* It was impoBsible to live without onr kiiig, but as 
datfes live, tnat is auch who are visibly deail, and 
)«-jr3ons coudeiuned to inetais^'—Jer. Taylor: Doctor 
DuintnntUim, (Ep. Dedic) 

(2) In the same sense as II. 4. 

"Where one veine is discovered, there la another 
slwKyea found not farotf : which is a rule oljserved n"l 
tu mines of silver ouely, hut idso iu all others of whiit 
mettall soever; and hereupon it seenieth that the 
Greeks doe call theiu mefaJla (fLCTo. ra oAAo)." — 
J*. noKaitd : Plinie, bk. xixiii.. ch. vi. 

* 2. Fig. : Courage, spirit, mettle. (Xow 
only written Tnettle.) 

"Being glad to find their conijianions had so niuih 
wtetitl. alter a long debate the major part carried it."— 
CUirendoii: CivU War. 

n. Technically : 

1. Chem. (PL): A tprm applied, in popidar 
lausnage, to a number of elementiiry sub- 
stances which agree in presenting in various 
def3*es certain well-defined physical charac- 
ters, such as lustre, malleability, and ductility, 
ami of which substauces gold and silver may 
Jw regarded as tyi>ical representatives. In a 
strictly chemical sense the definition is inade- 
quate, as there are several metallic substances 
to which it has only a slight and relative ap- 

2. Civil Engineering : 

(1) Broken stone for roads, according to 
the McAdam principle. 

(2) Broken stone around and beneath the 
wooden ties of a i-ailway ; ballast. 

3. Fonnding: The workman's term for cast- 

4. Geol. : Some geologists have supposrd 
ttiat tin is of higher antiquity than cnppt r, 
ct»pi'er tJian lead or silver, and all of them 
more ancient than gold. But later observa- 
tion has brought together facts inconsistent 
with this hypothesis. 

5. Glass : The technical name for the molten 
^as& in readiness for blowing or casting. 

6. MetaU. : [Metallurgy]. 

7. Cfnln. : The effective power of the guns 
of a vessel expressed in the suinof the weights 
of the solid shot. 

8. lUtHengin. (PL): The rails of a railroad. 

"The paaseneer locomotive dashed with great force. 
CTimiiletely ernl>edding itself In the tender of the 
train engine, lifting it from the met'tlg. and doing con- 
aidentble damage to the foremost carriagea." — Otiilt/ 
TvUirrapIt, Dec 30, 1S34. 

B. As't.lj.: Made nf metal; mcUllic. 

% (I) BinutatlL^n: 

Ciirrency : The legal obliijation of a national 
mint to ruin b->tli g<dd and silver at a fixed 
ratio betuieu tin- two metals, coupled with a 
law giving debtors the powtM", unless prevented 
by special contract, to satisfy their creditors 
by payment in either c)f the metals thus cniueil. 
This system wa.s tlrst introiluced in lSi.i;i by 
the French law of 7 Gerniiuul, year xi., which 
enacted that 5 grammes weight of silver, 
nine-tenths tine, should be coincil into tlie 
monetary unit of one franc. The kilogiammii 
of standard silver was therefore cnjned into 
•200 francs. The same law provided for tho 
kilogranmie of standaiii gold, lune-tenths fine, 
being eoineil into 155 pieces of 20 francs, equal 
to 3,100 ft-ancs, or at the ntte of 5 gi-amim's 
weight of standard g'dd into Vi^ francs, 
thus establishing the mint ratio of 15^ to 1 
(i.e., V.i"^ \vhich still remains the proportifU- 
ate weight and comparative mint value, in 
France, of any given sum in French-coined 
silver and gold respectively. The mint regu- 
lations alone could not. however, make tins 
ratio immutable. Demand and supply, and 
relative scarcity or abundance of either of the 
two metals, would cause fluctuations in the 
ratio of nominal value theoretically fixed by 
the mint law, if it had not been supplemented 
by the privilege accorded to delators in France 
of paying their creditors eiilier in silver or 
gnld coin, under Art. 1190 of the Code Na- 

(J) P-imfitfiUist : One who is in favour of Bi- 
metallism (q.v.). 

(3) Hand metal : Tlie same as Metal, s., A. 
II. 1. (1). 

metal-broker, s. One who deals or 

Iratles in metals. 

metal-casting, s. Tlie act or process of 
producing casts in metal by pouring it into 
moulds while in a state of fusion. 

metal-furniture, s. 

Print. : Tlie metallic portion of the pieces 
used in tilling up blanks, iS:c., in chases. It 
includes reglet. side sticks, head and foot 
sticks, quotation furniture (liollow pieces of 
metal used to till up blank spaces), and hollow 
quadrats. [Furniture.] 

metal-gauge, 5. A gauge fbr determin- 
ing the thickness of sheet metal. 

metal-plane, s. A form of plane for 
facing soft nietjil plates by taking a line shav- 
ing tberefroni. The angle of the plane with 
the sole is adapted to the hardness of the 
metal being worked. 

metal-saw, s. A fine-toothed, hard, 
steel saw stretched in a frame, and used for 
sawing metal ; a hack-saw. 

met'-^l, v.t. [Mktal, s.] To cover with 
metal ; to lay metal on, as roads with broken 
granite, &c. 

met-al'-de-hyde, s. [Pref. met-, and Eng. 

Chem. : C0H4O = -j pq^ -^^ isomeric mo- 
dification of aldehyde, formed by the action 
nf dilute acids, calcic chloride, &c., on alde- 
hyde cooled to a temperature below 0". It 
crystallizes in needles or prisms, insoluble in 
water, but slightly soluble iu alcohol and 
ether. It sublimes at 100°, and at a higher 
temperature is partly reconverted into alde- 

met-a-lep'-wte, s. [Gr. ^participation, from 

fjicTa (imta) = with, and Xjji^is (fcpsis) = a 
taking, from A>ji//0( (lepsomai), fut. of \a^L■ 
^dv(a (Uimhano) = to take.] 

Rhet. : The continuation of a trope to one 
word through a succession of significations, or 
the union of two or more tropes of a diffeieiit 
kind in one word, so that several gi"adations 
or intervening senses come between the word 
expressed and the thing intended by it : as, 
"In one Ciesar there are many Mariuses ; " 
here Marius, by a synecdoche or autonomasia. 
is put for any ambitious, turbulent man, and 
this, liy a metonymy of the cause, for the ill 
effects of sucli a temper to the public. 



met-a-lep'-tic, met-a-lep'-ttc-al, n. 

[Gr. ^eTaATjTTTKo? (iiuialrptik<i:<) = capable of 
partaking or receiving.] [Metalepsis.] 

I. Ordinnry Language : 

1. Pertaining to a metalepsis or participa- 
tion ; translative. 

2. Transvei'se : as, the metaJeptic motion of 
a muscle. 

II. CJiem. : A term suggested by Dumas to 
express the substitution of chlorine for hydro- 
gen, atom for atom, in organic compounds. 

met-a-lep'-tic-al-ly, culv. [Eng. nu-tnhp- 
tiatl'; -h/.] In a nietaleptic manner ; by trans- 

met'-al-ine, «. [Kng. metal; -iiic.] A ciim- 
piiuiiU I'oi- journal-l'oxes of metal, metallic 
oxide, organic matter, redu(!e<l to powder aud 
comiiounded with wax, gum, or fatty matters. 

met'-alled, a. [Eng. metal; -ed.] 
I. Ordinary Language : 

I. Lit. : Coated or covered with metil, as a 
ship of war. 

'2. Fig.: Full of mettle or spirit ; mettled, 

II, Civil Eiigin.: Covered or overlaid with 
metal, as a road. 

me-t3l'-Uc, * me-tai'-lick, " me-tal'-lxc- 

al, a. [Lat. metfiUicus, from inrtniium — a 
mine, a metal; Gr. ^fToAAi/ed? (uutallilci!.) ; 
Fr. mct^dique ; Ital. vutallico; Sy. metaliat.] 

1. Pertaining to a metal t >t metals ; consisting 
of or containing metal ; having the naturn or 
properties of a metiil ; resembling a metal. 

" Iu Ills womb wiva hid vKtallic ore, 
The work of sulphur." .Milton : P. L.. i. n73. 

2. Sounding as metal would sound if struck ; 

"A distiuct. hollow, metallic, and clangorous, yet 
apparently muffled reTerberation." — E. A. Poe : Fall 
of the Houic of Usher. 

^ BlmdaHic: Pertainingto or characteristic 
of Bimetallism. [Metal, 5. ■[ (I). J 

metallic -barometer, $. A form of 
metal barometer, as contradistinguished from 
an instrument in wliidi a fluid is employed. 
Also known as a holosteric barometer. Vidi 
invented the diaphi-agm form. [Aneroid.] 
Bourdon invented the bent-tube form ; a 
flattened, curved, exhausted tube, one end of 
which is fixed and the other geared to an 
index-pointer wliich traverses a giadnated 
arc. Changes of pressure of the atmosphere 
affect the curvatm-e of the tube, and so move 
the finger. 

metallic-cartridge, .^. A cartridge in 
wliich tlie charge is contained in a metallic 
capsule, in contradistinction to the paper car- 

metallic cuckoo-shrikes, ^«. pi 

Oniith. : The genus Camjii>]ihaga. consisting 
of ,\fiicau cuckoo-shrikes witli metallic plum- 

metallic-elements, s. pK 

Chem. : Those elements which possess cer- 
tain properties in a greater or less degree, such 
as lustre, malleability, ductility, and conduc- 
tivity for the electric current. The most im- 
portant are : potassium, sodium, magnesium, 
barium, strontium, calcium, aluminium, chro- 
mium, zinc, manganese, cobalt, uickel, tin, 
grild, ]datinum, lead, mercury, silver, copper, 
cadmium, bismuth, arsenic, and antimony. 

metallic-lustre, s. [Lustre.] 

metallic- oxide, $. A compound of 
metal and oxygen. 

metallic-packing, s. Piston-packing, 
consisting of a ring or several rings of iron or 
other metal cast so as to possess elasticity in 
til em.'ie Ives, or cut into segments and pressed 
against the interior of the cylinder by spring.s. 

metallic-paper, s. Paper for memo- 
randum-books, adapted to take an indelible 
mark from a lea!len or pewter pencil. The 
paper is surfaced with a solution of lime, 
whiting, and size. 

metallic-pencil, 5. A pencil made with 
a tii> or point tif lead or pewter, and used for 
writing on metallic paper. 

metallic-salts, s. pL 

Chem. : Compounds formed by the substitu- 
tion of a metal or metals for one or more of 
the displacealile hydrogen atoms in an acid. 

metallic-tinkling, s. 

Path. : A sound as of tinkling metal heard 

f^te, fEt, faxBf amidst, what, f^ll, father ; tve, "wet, here, camel, her, there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine : go, pdt» 
or, wore, wqU^ work, who, son ; mute, ciib, ciire, unite, cur, rule, full ; try, Syrian, se, oe = e ; ey = a ; qu = k\ir. 

metallifacture— metamorphosis 


by nicaus of the stetlmscope, psppi-tally if 
Miccussiun lie piuutised wIumi, in tlio piiciiiuo- 
tliumx, air is niiuglfd witli liquid in a cell. 

metallic-tissue loom, £. A loom for 
weaviiiij; with luetaUic threads, as in inakinj; 
gold and silver lace, braid, &e., eutirely uf 
metal, without any mixture uf silk or other 
tltieads. These looms aie also used iu making 
tissiues in which the waip is of silk or thread 
an<l the weft of gold or silver wire or silk 
thread covered with a flattened silver wire 
wliieh has beau gilt. 

metallic-tractors, 5. pi 

llisi. d- Mtd.: Pliites of metal, which, ac- 
coiding to Dr. Elisha Perkins, of Plaintield, 
Connecticut, post .^sed the power, wheri ap- 
plied to a diseased part, of removing pain, 
and etJecting a cure. Dr. Perkins had an 
agent iu England, and the success claimed 
for the tractors led to the investigation men- 
tioned in the extract. 

■■ [>r. HiiVL,-7irth of Bath (iu conjunction with Mr. 
Kiili;ira Miiitli of Bristol) tested the value of Ferkiiia 
till t'l/Ur Crwton by substituting two piecea of wootl, 
IMiiiteil in iuittitiou uf theui, or even h \)airof t«it- 
]n-nuj- UHtls disguised with Bealiiik'-Wiix. or a couple 
of sliite-peiicils; which they found to possess nil the 
virtues that wei-e claiiued for the real iustrumeuts."* — 
Ciirpeiiter : Btiimin P/i!/shl.,p. 8Sa. (Kute.) 

*me-tal-li-fac'-ture» s. [Lat. metuUwni = 
a mine, a metul, and factura = & making; 
/(U(u = to make.] Tlie manufactui-o of metals. 

met-al-lif -er-OUS, a. [Lat. imtaUi/er = 
jutiducing metal : vwtallum = a mine, a metal ; 
/ero — to bear, to produce, and Eng. adj. sutl'. 
•07IS ; Fr. metaUiferc ; Ital. inetaUifero ; Sju 
vidnlifero.] Producing metal, ^'ieldiug metals ■ 
as, a metalliferous district. 

me- 1^'- 11 - form, «. [Lat. mctaUum = a 
mine, a metal, anil forma = form, shape ; Fr. 
mj'-tatlifoniie.] Having the form of metal ; 
resembling metal. 

met -al-line, n. [Fr. inetallin: Ital. vietul- 
llnoi'iiii. mduUno.] Pertaiuing to a metal or 
metals ; containing or consisting of metal ; 

"The quicksilver was by this means brought to 
api-eHr a very ch-se Jind lovely metullitte cylinder, not 
iiiU-iTU|)tedby iiiteraijeraed bubbles aa before." — Buj/lv: 
H'frks, i. 4a. 

met'-al-ling, s. [Eng. metul; -ing.] 

1. The act or system of covering with metal, 

as roads. 

2. The materials, as broken stoues, &c., 
with which roads are metalled. 

* met'-al-list, s. [Fr. metulUste.] A worker 
in liieta'ls ; one who is skilled iu metals and 
their properties. 

'■ Ignomnt metallists, which cast away the precious 
ore lieciuse they cauuot seiiarate the gold from the 
tirosae. "— /f/). Sull. {/iU-hurdson.} 

* met-al-U-za'-tion, s. [Eng. metalUz{e) ; 
-ati'in ; Fr. metuUisatiun.} The act or process 
of nieta,llizing or forming into a metal. 

* met'-al-lize, v.t. [Eng. mdal ; -he ; Fr. 
TiuitaUlser; Sp. iiutalizui:^ To fonn into a 
metal; to give proper metallic properties to. 

me-tal'-lo-clirome, "* me-tal'-ld-chro- 

my, s. |Gr. /j.eVoAAoi' (mttallon) = a metal, 
and xpiijti.a (chroiiui) = colour.] A colouring 
of metals by means of galvanism. It is an 
invention of Nobili, and consists in depositing 
thin films of a metal on nietallic bodies by 
means of a galvanic battery, so as to form a 
iiumljer of rings. As the deposited rings are 
not everywhere ofthe same thickness, they pro- 
duce elevations and dejiressions, which, though 
not visible to the naked eye, nevertheless 
cause a refraction of the rays of light, thus 
giving rise to the formation of prismatic 

met-al-log'- ra - phist, s. [Eng. wetulh- 
i]nr/>'}i(ji): -ist.] A writer upou metallography 
ov tlie science of metals. 

met-al-log'-ra-pliy, s. [Gr. ^eVaXAoc 

{inft'ifloii) = metal, and ypd<i>(i} (graphn) = to 
write, to describe ; Fr. victaltographie.] 

1. The science of metals ; an account of 
metals or metallic substances. 

2. A juTicess invented by xVbate. in 1851. 
It consists in printing from wooden blocks 
U|"in metallic surfaces, so as to produce imi- 
tations of the grain of the wood. A veneer of 
wood is wetted with a solution of hydrochloric 
or sulphuiic acid, and is then imjiressed upon 

the metal so as to cause the deposition of a 
coloured metallic oxide. Or the inijiressinn is 
taken on calico, which is then in a condition 
to transfer it to the metal under pressure. 

3. A substitute fur lithogra]»liy in which 
metallic plates ai'e substituted fur the litho- 
graphic stone.'-al-loid, a. &. s. [Or. /le'TaAXof (1neU.1l- 
lon) =■ metal, and e'fios (eidos) = form, ai>- 
pearance ; Fr. ■tnitallouU:] 

A, As cuij. : Having the form or appearance 
of a metiil ; like, relating, or pertiiuing to 

B. As substantive : 

Cltem.iPL): Non-metallic elements. A term 
applied by Berzelius, in isil, to distinguish 
the non-metallic eleilientary substances from 
the metals, in which sense it has been com- 
monly used to the present time. The non- 
metailic elements are : oxygen, sulphur, 
chlorine, bromine, iodine, fluorine, nitrogen, 
phosjthorus, carlton, boron, silicon, hydrogen, 
selenium, and tellurium. 

* met-al-loid'-al, a. [Eng. metalloid j -ti/.] 
The sa'mc as Metalloid, A. (q.v.). 

met-al-lur -gic, metal-lur -gic-al, a. 

[Eng. vutaHurgiy) ; -ic, -ical ; Fr. miii^illur- 
giquc ; Ital. vidallurgico.] Of or pertainnig 
to metallurgy or the art of working metals. 

metallur^c-chemistry, 5. 

Cheni. : The term embraces the application 
of chemical principles, as distinct from me- 
chanical means, in the separation of metale 
from their ores and compounds. It includes 
melting by reduction, as when hydrocarbons 
are brought into contact with uietallic oxides at 
a high tenijierature ; melting by oxidation of 
impurities; separation by soiveuts, as when 
lead is employed to recover silver and gold 
from their sulphides ; and the precipitation of 
one metal by another, as in the case of the 
deposition of copper from its solution by 
metallic iron, together with the apj>lication 
of the laws of electricity in the important 
process of electro-plating, &c. 

met'-al-lur-gist, s. [Eng. meiaUurg(y) ; -Ut ; 
Ywrnnhdlurgiste,] A worker in metals ; onewho 
lurities, reUues, and prepares metals for use. 

met -al-lur-gy, s. [Fr. metallurgie, from 
Low Lat. * nietallurgiu, from Gr. fieTaWovoyos 
{metallourgos) = wovkhig in metals, mining; 
fjL€TaX\ovpy€u) (m€t((Uoii rgeo) = to work metals ; 
fieraWov (metallon) = metal, and ipyov (ergon) 
= work; Ital. metallurgia ; Sp. metuhirgio.] 
The art of separating metals from their ores 
or from impurities ; comprehending the jiro- 
cesses of smelting, reducing, refining, alloy- 
ing, parting, plating, &c. 

*- met'-al-man, if. [Eng. -metal, and imnu] A 
worker in metals, a smith. 

* met-gr-l6g'-ic-al, a. [Pref. yneta-, and Eng. 

logicaL] Beyond the province of logic. 

met-a-lu'-min-a, s. [Pref. met-, and Eng. 

Ch'Uii. : A name applied to the soluble dihy- 
drate of alumina, obtained by dialysing a 
solution of acetate altered by heat. The so- 
lution is tasteless, and neutral to test paper. 

met-^'-y-SiS, s. [Pref. -met-, and Eug. (an)ft- 

Chcm. : Ddbereiner'snameforCatalysi8(q.v.). 

met-a-mar-gar'-ic, a. [Pref. wicta-, and 
Eng." viargaric. ] Contained in or derived ft'om 
margaric acid. 

metamargaric-acid, s. 

Chan. : An acid oiiee supposed to be iso- 
meric with margaric acid, but now known to 
be a mixture of stearic and palmitic acids. 

met-a-me-c6n'-ic, c. [Pref. meta-, and Eng. 
mtcconic] Contained in or derived from me- 

metameconic-acid, s. rCoMENic-AciD.] 

met'-a-mere, s. [Gr. ^cTa (metn) = with, 
among, and fj-ipos (vieras) = a part.] 

Cumi). Ajutt. : One of a series of similar parts. 

met-a-mer'-ic, a. [Metamerism.] 

Ch^M. : Referring to the quality of meta- 

me-t&m -er-tf m. .*. [Pref. mrJa- ; Gr. ^tpoc 
(irui"») = a pari, and Eug. suff. -uui.J IIaom- 


met-a-mor'-phio, a. [Eng. T»«tanu/t7Jk{aru) ; 


1. Ord, lAtng. : Producing or causing meta^ 
inorphosis ; transforming; uauaing cluui^ ia 
form or structure. 

2. Geol. : (See the compound). 

metamorphlo-Umestone, s. 

Ca-!.: Crystalline or, as it was called l»y 
the 'ilder geologists. Primary Limestone. Iu 
general it occurs in thin bedn foniiing a 
fi'iiated scliist, resembling gneiss or mica- 
schist, and alternating with those rocks, in 
wliicli case it often contains crystals of mica, 
sometimes with quartz, hornblende, tak. 
chlorite, garnet, &c. At other tiine-s, it is a 
white, crystalline, granular marble, e.iiabli: ot 
being used for sculpture. It is lai^ely dei-eJ- 
oped in the Alps, and more siiaringly in Oie 
hypogene districts of Norway, Sweden, aud 

metamorphic-rocks, metamorpMc- 
strata, n. j-i. 

i-ieol. : The term— first proposed by Lyell 
iu 1B33, and since univer.sally adopted— for 
the .stratified crystalline rocks— that is, rt)cks 
which have been presumably laid down ori- 
ginally by the action of water, and tJum 
transformed by fire, chemical agency, pres- 
sure, or all combined. JIetaiuori)hic action 
is divided into local— atlecti ug only small 
portions of rock, or small areas, and regional 
— atfecting rocks over considerable regions. 
The metamorphic rocks constitute one oi tlw 
five great classes of rocks. Tlie chief are gneiss, 
eurite, hninblende schist, serpentine, actjno- 
lite schist, mica-scliist or micaceous schist, 
clay slate, argillaceous schist or ar^illite. 
chlorite schist, quartzite or ([uartz rock, and 
crystalline ormetamoriiliicliinestone. Besides 
these which Were I'robably at lirst .sedimentary, 
the other classes of rocks have in places 
undergone metamorphosis, 

met-a-mor'-pliine, s. [Pref. mela-, ami 
Eng. morjihiiic.] 

Chtm. : An opium base obtained fVom the 
residue in the prejiaration of opium tiucturc 
It crystallizes fi-oni alcohol iu stellate gfoaps 
of prisms. It is not bitter; dissolves in GOO 
parts cold water, and in nine parts boiling 
alcohol. It is nearly insoluble in ether. 

met-a-mor'-phl^m, 5. [Eng. mctamor2>h(ose); 

1. Ord. Lang. : The act or process of meta.- 
Diorpliosing or changing the form orstruciiin: 
of anything. 

2. Heol. : Tlie changes, chemical, minerali>- 
gical, aud tcUural, which have been producetl 
in the rocks, called, in consequence, meti- 
mor])hic. [MirrAMORPHic-BOCKs.] 

met-a-mor'-pliist,£. [Eng. 7iieta.7M>r}ih(<uis): 


Church Hist. : A name given to certain sarra- 
nieutarians of tlie fifteenth century, who 
alfirnied that Christ's natural body with which 
he ascended was wholly deified, and |i-»l 
entirely lost its humanity. (Shipley.) 

* met-a-mor'-phize, v.t. [Eng. nwinnwr- 
2'li{v»i^): -i:t\] To transform, to change, to 

met-a-mor'-pbose, i'.(. [Fr. mctamorphoxr.J 
[Metamorphosis.] To transform ; to change 
into a ditferent form ; to change t3ie forui, 
shape, or character of; to transmute. 

"Ciiu tmiisultstjuitlftte. utctamorphot^^ 
And chtirm whole herda of beasui. like On>h'"DS-' 
nitftrr: JfuccUaiieout Thou^ktt. 

* met-a-mor'-phose.A'. [Metamokphose, r.] 
A change of f.uni or character; a metauor- 
Iihosis, a transformation. 

" Wlint o<]fous chnnge, 
WTjat mctatnorphoti; strikes the dubious eye?" 

Th'Jtni/ton : Hickness, II L 

* met-^mor'-pho-ser, ii. [Eng. ifw^nwr- 
2>li< >s-(t) : -rr.] One who or that which meia- 
m'iri>hoses, changes, or trauafonns. 

met-a-mor'-ptaO-sic, a. [Eng. mrfomor- 
2)hos(c); 'ic] Of or jiertaining to luetamor- 
lihosis ; changing the form or cliaiact«;r; 

met-a mor -pho sis, s. (Lat., from Or. 

fifTafiop<liu)<7i'i {mifamorphosis) = a transfi>rma- 

boil, boy ; pout, Jo^l ; cat, gell, chorus. 9bin, benpb : go, gem ; thin, this ; sin, as ; expect, ^enophon, exist, ph = £ 
-cian, -tian - shan. -tion, -sion = shun ; -tion, -sion = zbun. -clous, -tious. -slous ^ shiis. -ble, -die, &c. = bol, del. 

metamorphoatical— metaphysics 


tion. from iitratiop^oonai {mttnmorphoomai) = 
to change, to bo transfonufd : («Td {metu) = 
flenotiiig change, nnd fiop<i>ow {morphoo) = to 
fona ; m^P^T {moi-phi) - form, shape ; Fr. 
nietamorj^hose ; Ital. 7T(emmcir/i>,if ; Sp. 7i«(a- 


L Ord, Lnng. : A change or trnnsformalion 
in llie fonn, shape, strnclure or character of 

••Tlicrtf »rf prwljftbU maclilneit In «plc poems, where 
the bikIb »re iiu lew actors thmi the iiieu ; but tlie lw» 
cretlible ai.>rt. auch us mttamorphote4, Are (at mure 
ntrc,'— //roomc; VntKeOdyuey, 

IL Technically: 

1, iJo(. ; A change, especially of an almonnal 
character, in an organ. It may be progressive 
,^.r retrogressive. Calyx, corolla, stamens, and 
l-istils are all transformed leaves. This in- 
teresting discovery— foreshadowed by Jung 
or Jungiiis in 107S, Linmcus in 1763, and 
Caspar Friedrich Woltf in 1759— was first 
clearly enunciatt^d by Goethe in 1790. In 
tlie Peony, }'a-onia albifiom, a whole series 
of connecting links may be observed between 
tlie form of the lower leaves and that of the 

lotals, the higher leaves and then the bracts 
.eing the connecting links. In the Wliite 
Water-lily, N'jmphtpa alba, a similar gratlatinn 
may l*e observed between petals and stamens. 
Ill the double-flowered cherry the pistils will 
sometimes be found to have reverted to the 
ai'pearance of leaves. 

2. Entom. : A senes of transformations 
which insects undergo in their progress from 
the egg to full maturity. Macleay divided 
metamorphosis into obtect, as in Lepidoptera 
and Trichoptera; coarctate, as in Hymeimp- 
tera and Diptei-a ; incomplete, as in Coleop- 
tera ami Aptera ; and semi-complete, as in 
Orthoptera and Hemiptera. Now only two 
divisions are generally recognized — viz., jier- 
fect when the pupa is inactive, and imperfect 
when it is the reverse. In the Lepidoptera 
(Butterflies and Moths), the metamorphosis is 
complete. They may stand as types in this 
respect of the whole class. The animal 
emerges from the egg as a caterpillar with 
six legs, which will become the futnre legs 
of the perfect insect, and some prolegs, 
destined to disappear. Its function in the 
larval state is to eat, which it does with such 
vigour and persistency that its skin, time after 
time, becomestoo small to contain its expand- 
ing body, and has to be renewed. When the 
caterpillar is full giown it ceases to eat, 
becomes quiescent, and has developed aionnd 
it a horny case, in which it lies like a corpse 
in its coffin. In due time it makes its way 
out of its chrysalis as a fully-developed winged 
animal. There are analogous changes more 
or less complete in the other orders. 

3. Z<}»I. : Metamorphosis takes place in 
many other animals besides insects. Thus a 
barnacle (Lepas) or an acorn-shell (Balanus) 
is at lirst a free and swinnning creature, which 
ultimately becomes sedentary and attached to 
rocks or ships' bottoms. Metamorphosis exists 
also in Annelids, in Molluscs, in Hydrozoa, 
&1.-. [Metagenesis] 

• met-a-mor-phos-tic-al, a. [Eng. vieta- 
vwri^hos(i-): ( cnniiertiv.'.aiui siiff. -icai] Per- 
taining to ur produced by metamorphosis. 

xnot-a-mor-pliot'-ic, «. [Metamorphosis.] 
Ki'tom. : An epithet api>Iied to a system 
originated by Swamnierdam for the classitica- 
tion of insects. 

"The mctamor photic system illvldes insects Into 
those thnt undergo complete and incomplete metii- 
nn.rphoses,'— /.""'■tfc iirit. (e.1 9th). iiil. UT. 

met-&m'-y-lene, s. [Pref. met-, and Eng. 

Chem. : CooH^o- A compound polymeric 
with amylene, contained in the higher portion 
of the distillate produced by heating amylic 
alcohol with sulphuric acid. 

Met-an-gis-mon' i-tse. s. pJ. [Gr. fxerd 

{mrta)=m; (1776101/ ((in'jijrinii) = K vessel, a 
receptacle, and noi'o? imoa'>s) = alone, only.] 
Church Hist. : A sect of heretics of the 
third century, who maintained that the union 
l>etween the Father and the Son in the Trinity 
^vas effected by the S<m, entering into the 
Father, as a lesser vessel may be placed in a 
greater. {Blunt.) 

met-3jl-ti-m6n -ic, a. [Pref. met-, and Eng. 
antimoiiic] Derived from antimony. 

metantimonlc-acid. .<:. 

Chcm. : SbO-^HO. A white powder obtained 

bv the action of nitric acid, containing a 
little hydrochloric acid on metallic antimony. 
It is sparingly soluble in water, and its solu- 
tion reddens litmus. 

met-a-pec'-tate, s. [Eng. vietapect(,tc); -atr. 

them. : A salt of metapectic acid. 

mgt-^-pec'-tic, a. [Prt'f. Tii'(a-, and Eng. 
jHcti'c] Derived from pectic acid. 
metap«ctio-acld, s. 

Chan.: CglluO;, (?>. Acide cellulique. An 
amorplums mass olitained by builmg i>pclic 
acid with caustic alkali. It is deliquescent, 
soluble in w.iter, and destitute of mtatory 
power. The metapectates, except the basic 
saltfi, are all soluble in water. 

met-a-pSc'-tin, s. [Pref. meta-, and Eng. 

Chnn. : An isomeric modiflcatiou of pectin 

me-tSph'-er-^, s. [Gr. m<to«^<'p«^ {metapheyo) 
— tu carry over, to transfer : pref. vieta-, and 
Gr. <f)('p«) {pherG) = to bear, to carry.] 
hot. : Displacement of organs. 

met'-a-phor, * met - a - pliore» 5. [Fr. 
vutaphore, from Lat. inetayhora, from Gr. 
^(Ta<f>opd (metaphora) = a transferring of a 
word from its proper signification to another, 
from ^eTa(f)tpw (nutaphero) = to transfer, to 
carry over : fj-erd (meta) = ovei-, beyond, and 
4,epu> (i)/iero) = to bear, to carry ; Sp. & Ital. 

Rhet. : A figure of si^eech by which a word 
is transferred from an objeet tu which it pro- 
perly belongs to another, in such a manner 
that a comparison is implied though not 
formally expressed ; a simile without any 
word implying comparison ; a short simile. 
Thus, " that man is a fox," is a metaphor ; but 
"tliat man is like a fox," is a simile. "He 
bridles his temper," is a metaphor, expressing 
that a man restrains or controls his temper, 
as a bridle serves to restrain or control a 

" Analogies ure used in aid of conviction ; metaphort 
ns means of illustration."— Co/««</yu: Aidt to Reflec- 
tion (18ai»), I). 149. 

met-a-phor' -ic, met-a-phor'-ic-al, « . 

[Fr. metaphorique, from Gr. /^eTa'/>opiK6s {meta- 
j>h"rikos), (rnm neraijyopo. (mctaphura) = a met'i- 
phor; Ital. & Sp. metuiyhorico.] Pertaining to 
or of the nature of a metaphor ; containing a 
metaphor ; not litei-al ; not to be understood 

•'Thia di»es not. at the very first sight. a])pear to bea 
metiiphorUul exjareBsiou." — &>i(/A.* Sennom. vol. v., 
Ber. '. 

met-a-phor'-ic-al-l^, n(f r. [Eng. metaphor- 
ical; -ly.] In a* metaphorical manner; in 
metaphors ; not literally. 

" I make bold tiius to tnlk -inftaphorirnUy for the 
ripening of the wits of young readeia, '— Buit^tOi ." PH- 
grim't t'rogrets, pt. li. 

* mef-a-phor-ist, s. [Eng. metaphor; -ist] 
One wl'io makes or uses metaphors. 

met-a-phos'-phateB/ s. i>?. [Pref. meta-, 
and Eng. phosphates.] 

Chem. : The salts of metaphosphoric acid, 
obtained by igniting the dihydric phosphate 
of a fixed base. 

met-a-phos-phor'-ic, a. [Pref. mctd-, and 
Ens', phosrphoric] I>erived from phosphoric- 
metaphosphoric-acid, .':. 
Chem. : PO^HO. A aci<l formed by dis- 
solving phosphoric anhydride in cold water. 
It is very soluble in water, and its solution 
coagnlates albumen. 

* met'-a-phras©» s- [Gr. fi€Ta.<i>pa<Ti^ (meta- 
2>krasis)^=a, paraphi-asing. from fierd {meta) = 
denoting change, and i^paai? (p/tr(wis) = a 
saying, a phrase.] 

1. A literal or verU-il translation; a trans- 
lation from one language into another, word 
for word, or phrase for phrase. 

" Hia }yiefaphrnte of the Psalnies is still in our 
hands."— fl;*. Nail : To .Mr. S. linrton. 

2. A phrase replying to another ; a repartee. 
" I'm dull atill iu tlie manly nrt 

Of phrase and uietit phra»c." 

E. B. Browning: Aurora Leigh, vlii. 

* niet'-g.-plirase, v.t. [Metaphrask, s.] To 
translate literally ; to render word for woi-cl. 

* met'-a-plir&St, S. [Gr. y,eja.<f>pd<Jr(\<i {meta' 
2-hrastC^) = itnQ \\\\o translates from mie liin- 
gnagc into another ; Fr. mctaphrastc.] A lite- 
ral translator; one who translates from one 
language into another word for word. 

"(Jeorite Sandys. Esq., the famous traveller and ex. 
eellent iH>etlo&l metaphrait."— Wood: Fatti UxQiiiennt, 
p. t.2»5. 

* met-a-phrds'-tic, * met-a-plir&s -ile- 
al, ('." [Eng. mrtaphra.^t ; -ic. -icat ] CloM-ly 
or literally translated ; translated word tov 

".Mnnlmus Planudes, who has the merit of havliig 
familiarised to Wh countrymen many Latin clasMicn ni 
the lower eini'ire. bv»iff(i/)^ru*ricveniloua,"— If « /■(<;«.■ 
Jlitt. Eng. rattry. li. 103. 

t met -g,-phre'- 11611, 5. [Gr. fitrdi^afvov 
(metapKrenon) (see def ): pref. vieta-, and Gr. 
</)piJf (p?ire») = the midriff.] 

Anot.: The ])arts behind the midriff— i.e., 
tlie back from the neck to the loins. 

t met-a-phyf ic» * met-a-phyf -ike. n. 

& s. [Lat. vietaphysicHS = metaphysical ; mvtu- 
physica = metaphysics, from Gi-. /xera to 
>i}v<TiKd {meta ta phusika) ~ after physics; be- 
cause the study of metaphysics was sniijiosed 
fitly to follow that of physics or natuial 

A* As adjective : 

1. Of or pertaining to metaphysics ; ab- 
stract, general ; existing only iu thought, and 
not in reality. 

2. According to the rules or principles of 

3. Supernatural, preternatural. 
B. As suhst. : Metaj^ihysics. 

" Of logike. of naturall philautia, of metapMiike,"— 
TyntUiU: Hortcj, p. lot 

II The form metaphysic as a substantive 
is growing in favour, especially among the 
students of German }ihilosophy. 

met-a-phy^'-ic-al, a. [Eng. metaphysic; 
-a/.]" The same as Metaphysic (q.v.). 

"Language move precise and lumin-His than ha* 
ever been employed by any other metaphytivai writer." 
— .Vruaiilai/ Hint. Eng., ch. ii. 

inet-a-pll^§'-lC-al-l^, adv. [Eng. v^eta■ 
jihysical ; -ly.] In a metaphysical manner; 
according to the rules or principles of meta- 

'■ Those who discourse metaphytimVii of the nature 
of truth."— Jionr/i .■ Scrmcmj. vol. vii.. eer. 5. 

met-a-phy-Si'-cian, s. [Eng. vietaphysic ; 
-ian.'] One who studies or is versed in the 
science of meta]>hysics. 

* met-a-phy-§i'-clan-i5m» s. [Eng. meta- 

jyhysician ; -is))t.] The seieuce of metaphysics. 
•■ Phreiiologj- and inetaph!/siciuniim."—E. A. Pot: 
Jinpofthc Pvrverse. 

met-a-phy^-i-co-, pre/. [Met.vphvsic] 

metaphysico - tbeological, n. Em- 
bracing metaphysics and tlit-i-l.-gy. 

met-a-phy? ics, met-a-phy^'-ic, " met- 
a-phy§'-icUs, s. [Mctaphvsic] 

1. Hi^t. (f- Philos. : A term i>opularly em- 
]tluyed to denote a science de.iling with sub- 
jects incapable of being dealt with by physical 
research. Broadly viewed, the Aristotelian 
metaphysic was the science of the first prin- 
ciples of being, the science of the first principles 
of knowing, and the science of God, as the lie- 
giniiing and ending of all things ; and these 
three were the foundation of scholastic philo- 
sophy, which found its highest expression iu 
Thomas Aquinas (circ. 12'J5-1274). jMeta- 
physics *' is made by him conversant wiih 
being as such and its'inodifications. In itself 
each ens is res and iinnm ; in distinction from 
others it is ali'piid ; as in harmony with the 
action of the knowing faculties, it is vermn ; 
and as liarmonizingwith the will, it isfcou»ni." 
The Roman metaphysic of the present day is, 
to a great extent, Thomist. and is divided into 
General, or Ontology, and Special, embracing 
Cnsmologv, Psychology, and Natural (as dis- 
tinguished from Moral and Dogmatic) Theo- 
logy. The Leibnitzo-Wolfian metaphysic is 
noteworthy for its rationalistic tendency. 
Its ontology treats of the existent in general ; 
its rational psychology, of the soul as a simple 
non-extended substance ; its cosmology, of the 
world as a wliole ; and its rational theology 
of the existence and attributes of God. The 
Metaphysic of Kant was rationalist. Sum- 

i&te, f&t, fare, amidst, what, fall, father ; we, wet, here, camel, her. there ; pine, pit, sire, sir. marine : go, pot, 
or, wore, wolf, work, who, son ; mute, cub, ciire, unite, cur, rule. fuU ; try, Syrian, se, oe = e : ey = a ; qu =^ kw. 

metaphysis— mete 


mariziiij; tlie remarks accompanyiug liis uoticc 
gf tlie conrsu for 17ij5, Wallace says : 

"III the cuiirse on MuU)<)iyBic« tlie eitrly lectum 
would ileiU with exiwriuiitiHl Pbycliulinjy, whftf. 
.-iVuUliiig nil ineittiuii o( il bouI, a, reJisoiied ftccuinit 
would Iwi ^tveii o( the tm-ta or phuiiniiiLMiA uf tlie 
uitiiitjil life. Ouliii,' ou utjxl to the theory o( living 
bovlies (the BiuI..By ol the iktio.!). n,ii.l Ihinily to C.-s. 
iiii'hitfy, or the theory of tiiw lutiteriiil world, lie wuuUI 
oiiiiK- III the fniirth i.hioe to diitology, which PXiHiiinde 
tht gtiiernl i>n>i>ei-lles of thiiig!!, ftud includes ratioiml 
l'M>Lli..log\ iwliert- the idea of boiiI .)r spirit In hroujiht 
ill). :^i.d »^llKl teniiiiiAte with nitiounl Theology."— 

Sir William Hamilton (17SS-1850) gives the 
fullowiiig dtffmitiou : 

'■Science and Philosophy are couversftnt either 
AlMut Miiid ornlKiiit Matter. The Joriiier uf tlieae is 
Phll.isDiihy iiroi>erly so chilled. With the latterwehave 
iiuthiiij; 1." do, except in so far as it uiny enable us to 
tlirnw litrht Tipou the furiiier. furiuetaphysK-s, in what- 
ever latitude the term be t^ken, is a science, or cuiiiple- 
nient of science*, exclusively occuiiieU with mind."— 
J.Kt. on Mvtatihytivt. i. 121. 

Aiiguste Comte, the founder of the Positivist 
philo.sophy, excluded nietapliysics from his 
jjystem, substitnting for it the teacliings tif 
positive science- One of the latestautlmvities 
■on the subject, Prof. Ferrier uf St. Andrews, 
S3i.y&{InstUnks^ pp. 30, 'Si) : 

"Metivphysic is the auhstitution of true Ideas— that 
18, of neccsiJiry truths of n-asoii— in tlie phue uf the 
ovemiglit.s of )>upulRr opinion and the errors uf psycho- 
logical BCleiices. 

Tlie tliree divisions of his pliilosophy— for he 
ijrefers that t<;rmti> nietaphysic— are, "(l)The 
Episteniology, or theory of knowledge ; (•J)the 
Agnoiolngy, or theory of i^Miorance, and (3) the 
Ontohigy, ur theory of being." 
* 2. Supernatural arts, (tockemm.) 

*■ me-t&pll'-^-sis, s. (Gr. fxrra (tiieki), de- 
noting cliange, and (fuJai? (y/ittsis) = nature ; 
(J>u(u (plntu) = to grow.] Change of foriil or 
character; transformation; metamorphosis. 

* met'-a-plcisin, s. [Lat. vietaplasmtis, frnm 
Gr. ^eTairAa<T^ds (metaplasmos), from fiera- 
■nXd<TiTuj('nttapI<issi~i) = tii transforni, tochange : 
fieTo. {meta), denoting change, and TrAdaffio 
(liliisso)— to form, to mould ; Fr. vUtiqilastin: ; 
Jtal. & Sp. metai>lusnw.] 

dmm. : The change or transforniatinn of a 
word by the addition, transpositiou, or taking 
away of a letter or syllable. 

met-a-po'-di-iim, s. [Pref. vieta-, and Gr. 
TTov? {ftOKs). genit. jro5ds {podvs)=: a foul.] 

Zo'A. : The posterior lobe of the foot in the 
Jlollusca. It is often called the operculigeruus 
lobe, because it develops the operculum, when 
that structure is present. 

■net-a-poph'-j^-sis, s. [Pref. met-, and Eng., 
&(-. ai'Ojihysis.] 

Aiuit. (Fl.) : Owen's name for the niamndl- 
lary processes of the vertebrw. 

met-ap-ter'-y-goid, s. [Pref. mda-, and 


Idithit. : A ni.i,uiica.t&n of the malleus bone 
in osseous (ishes. 

l*l5t-ap-t6'-SLSt s. [Pref. meta-, and Eng., 
ie. i'U'sis (q.v.).J 

Med. : Any change in the form or seat of a 

laet-fi.r'-a-bin, 5. [Pref. met-, and Eng. 

Chem. : CioHjsOu. A substance obtained 
ijy heating arabin to ISO'-UO". It is insoluble 
in water, but swells ui» ononnously in it. By 
treating it with a solution of jintassichyclrate, 
or lime water, it forms the metallic deriva- 
tives of ordinary arabin. 

met-ar-sen'-ic, a. [Pref. met-, and Eng. 
cnsoiif.] Derived fmm arsenic, 

xnetarsenic-acid, 5. 

Chem. : ,\s()-jm). A white narreons mass, 
obtained by heating arsenic acid to 206°. It 
<yin only exist in the .solid state. When dis- 
solved, it is at once converted into ortliarsenic 

met'-a-some, met a-s6'-ma, s. [Pref. 
vu'ta-, and Gr. o-io^a (soma) = the body.] 

Zool. : The hinder portion of the body in a 
i-ephalopodtius ninllusc. It is enveloped in 
the mantle and contains the viscera. 

met-a-stan'-nic, a. [Pref. vieta-, and Eng. 
staujiic.j Deiived from tin. 

metastannic-acid, s. 

Chem.: Sn505ll<>io. An acid polymeric 

with Mtjinnic acid, prejiared by oxidizing tin 
with nitric acid, and diying the product at 
loo'. It is insoluble in water. 

me-t^'-ta-sis, s. [Gr., from fierd (metn) ~ 
over, chaifge, and (TTaffi? (stasis) = a standing, 
position ; »<7T7]ja((/us^'THi) = to place, tostand.] 

1. Mai. : A c-hange in the seat of a disease, 
attiibuted by the Humorists to the transla- 
tion of morbilic matter t"» a ]):irt ditlerent from 
that which it had previously occupied, and 
by the Solidists to the displacement of the 

2. But. : A change produced upon a sub- 
stance designed for the nutriment of a plant, 
to make its assimilati<ui more easy. Thus, 
when the starch funned in the leaf of a polaln 
has to be tiansferred to the tubers as a 
depot of nutritial material, it is lirst chauged 
into a soluble substance- glucose. 

met-a-St&t'-ic, a. [Metastasis.] Pertaining 
or re'latirig to metastasis. 

met-a-ster'-niim, s. [Pref. nuta-, and Gr. 
tnepvoy (,<:tt:rnuii) — the chest.) 

Anat. : The sixth segment of the .sternum 
(liioast-bone), generally remaining cartilagi- 
nous up to the period of puberty, and some- 
times ]iartially so even tu an advanced age. 
Called also the ensifonn process. 

me-t&s'-to-zna, s. [Pref. vuta-, and Gr. 
vTOfia (stoma) =^ a mouth.] 

Zool.: A post-oral plate, or process bound- 
ing the hinder i>art of the aperture of the 
mouth in the various Crustacea, as the lobster, 
the species of fossil Eurypterida, Sac. 

met-a-sty'-rol, s. [Pref. meta-, and Eng. 
stifroL] [] 

met-a-sty'-ro-lene, s. [Eng. vidastyrol ; 
■enc] [Metalinnamene.] 

met-a-tar'-sal, a. & s. [Mod. Lat. vieta- 
/a;i('/(,v); Eng.' adj. suff. nil] 

A. As adj. : Of or i»ertaiiiing to the meta- 
tarsus : as, the metatarsal artery, inetatarsttl 

B. As sulistantivc : 

A nat, : Any bone of the metatarsus : as, tlie 
third metatarsal. 

met-a-tar-SO-, pre/. [Metatarsus.] Of or 
belniiging to the metatarsus. 

metatarso-digital, a. Of or belonging 
to the metatarsus .nnd the digits. Tlieie are 
itu'ttttarso-digital articulations of the foot. 

met-a-tar'-siis, s. [Pref. mcta-, and Lnt., 
&c. tarsus (q.v.).] 

Anat.: That pait of tlie foot situated be- 
tween the tarsus and the toes. It conesponds 
to the «ietaear]ius, ami is comjiosed of five 
jiarallel bones, one to each toe. It exists also 
in the higher vertebrates. 

met-a-ther'-i-a» s. pi. [Pref. mcta- (here = 
intermediate), and Gr. 6-qpCa (thcria), pi. of 
6-qpiov (OiKrioH) = a wild animal.] 

Zool. : A name jToposed by Prof. Huxley, 
and a(b:)]ited by Prof. Flower in bis aiTiele 
" Mannnalia," in tlie Eucijclopaidla Britunuica 
(ed. 0th), for a liyi>othetical grouii of early 
mamiHals, and theii' successors in time (the 

" We have the mammalian ty\K in a higher ata^e of 
evolution than thut presented hy the Prototlieria and 
the JIetaCheria."—Proc. Zool. Soc. 18S0. p. 657. 

met-a-tlier'-i-an, a. & s. [Metatheria.] 

A. --Is adj. : Belonging to or jmsspssing tlw 
characteristics of Huxley's niammalian group 
Jletatliena (q.v.). 

•'There is no knowii maraupial which tiaa not far 
more widely departed from the Jletaihcriun tyjie." — 
J'roc Zool. .Soc., 1880. p. f.ST. 

B. As suhst. : Any iiidividual of the group 
Metatheria (q.v.). 

me-tS-tll'-e-KLS, s. [Lat., from Gr. mTd0e(ri<; 
(mrt'ithrM.-^), from fj.eTd{virfa), denoting rh.TUge, 
and Octrt^ (thesis) = a placing ; W^fti (titltemi) 
=: to place ; Fr. victathhe.] 

1. Gravi. : Tlie transposition of the letters 
of a word : as, A.S. n-n-ps = wasp ; twctaii, 
acs'uni= ask ; hrtd = bird, &c. 

2. Svrg. : An operation by which a morbific 
agent is removed from one plaee to another, 
wliere it may produce less disturltance ; as. 
for instance, when a calculus in the urethra is 
jiuslied back into the bladder. 

met-a-thet-lo, met-a-thiSt'-ic-al, n. 

[Mi.TATHiisi.s.] Pertaining to inelatheBla ; 
lurmed by nietathe.sis. 

met-a-thOP'-ix. s. [Pref. mtta-, and Gr. 
6uipa$ (thtjrux) =the breiUit. ] 

Entom. : The hinclmost of the three rings or 
Rogim-nts of which the thorax of an intiecl is 

met -a-tdme, s. [Gr. jucra (m^f«) = beyond, 
il ft or, and Toixrj (lomc) = a cutting ; i^vu> (tcmno) 
= to cut.] 
Arch.: The space between two dentils. 

met-a~vdlt'-ine, s. [Pref. mcta- ; Eng., &c. 
vuUa^itc), and sutl. -i/tc (.Vni.).] 

Mill. : A suliiliur-yellow mineral occurring 
ill aggregates uf hexagonal scales at Madent 
Zakli, Persia. Dichroic. Hardness, 2'h; sp. 
gr. 2'53 : ctunpos. : sulphuric acid, 4090 ; 
.sesquioxide of iron, 21*20 ; jn'otoxide of iron, 
•l-i*2\ potash, y-87 ; soda, 4"t)5 : water, 14-5S. 
Much uf the mineral called Misy belongs tu 
lliis siiecies. 

me-t^X'-ite, s. [Gr. fiira^a (mdaxa) — silk ; 
sufl". -itc (Mill.); Ger. mcUixitf.] 

Mill.: A variety of serpentine, included by 
Dana with the variety Picndite (q.v.) ; colour, 
greenish-white, with weak and silky lustre. 
Found at Schwarzenberg, Saxony. 

zne-tax'-d-ite, s. [Gr. ^cVafa (metoxa)=^ 
silk ; SUIT, -rate (Miii.); Ger. vutiixoit.] 

Mill. : A greenish-blue to nearly white 
variety of chonierite (q.v.). Sp. gr. 2*IiS to 
2'0l. The oxygen ratio for bases, silica and 
water, is 5 : : 3. Found near Lujnkko, Fin- 
land. Named metaxoite from its nearness to 

me-ta'-yer, s. & a. [Fr., from Low Lat. mt- 
ilictarius, from mfdictas= the state of being 
ill the middle ; medius = the middle.] 

A. As suhst. : A cultivator who cultivates 
the soil under an engagement with his land- 
lord, not paying a lixed rent, either in nmney 
or in kind, but a certain jiroportiou. generally 
one-half, of the produce, the landlord furnish- 
ing the whole or jiart of the stock, tools, &c. 

B, As adj. : A tenn api'lied to the system 
of land-cultivation described in A. 

mct-a-zo'-a, 5. jil. [Metazoon.1 

znet-a-z6'-ic, a. [Eng. vi€ta^o(nn) ; -ic.) Be- 
longing to or characteristic of Prof. UuJEley's 
division Metazoa. [Metazoos.] 

■■ What diEtintpiicliea the inetaziic afrgTegat« ia thut 
Its coiiiiKjiient Idas toiii errs . . . remain united int<> 
one niort>hological whole." — Jluxlei/: Aiiat. Invert. Ani- 
vuils, p. 47. 

met-a-zd'-on, s. [Pref. mda-^ and Gr. ^wov 
(roi_i»')= an animal.) 
Zoology : 

1. .Sing. : Any individual belonging to the 
division Slefazoa. ['J.J 

"It IH quite possible to conceive o( an adult mrtaroo'i 
hnviii); the Btruttun.* of u epoiige embryo."— //uj/r> .* 
Anat. Invert. Anitmtti, p. 684. 

2. PL : According to Prof. Huxley, the 
second and higher division of the animal 
kingdom, the first and hiwer lieing Protozoa. 
(pROTozoos.] The whole of the metazoa may. 
Ik* regarded as motlilications of one actual or 
ideal jjrimitive type, which is a sac with a 
double cellular wall, enclosing a central cavity, 
and open at one en<l. This is what IlacCkel 
terms a gastra-a. The tirst change which 
takes place in the development of ihc cmbr}''i 
from the impregnated ovum is tin* division 
<if the ovum, and the simidestform of ilivision 
i-csults in the formation of a apheni)<lal 
of blastomeres. The morula thus fonned 
generally acquires a central cavity, and be- 
comes a hollow vesicle, the wall of which is 
the blastoderm, the cells of which give rise to 
the liistologicai elements of the adult body. 
Reproduction is normally sexunL and very 
generally the male element has the form of 
fililorni •spermatozoa. The sponges arc the 
lowest of the Metazoa, under which designa- 
tifui the Vertebrata are included, and those 
Invertebrata pos-sessing a notochord, and 
having the Irimk dividetl into segments in 
the adult state. (Huxley : Anat. Invert. Ani- 

* mete (1), " meate, v.t. & f. [A.S. metan, 

gcvi€fan = to measure ; cogn. with Dut. vutcn; 
Icel. mc/a = to tax, to vahie ; bw. nt(ita=to 
measure; Gnth. viitan ; Ger. mrsfoi ; from 

fa*-e, fat. fare, amidst, what, fall, father : we, wet, here, camel, her. there : pino, pU. sire, sir, marine ; go, p6t, 
or, wore, woU; work. who. son ; mute, cub, ciire, unite, cur, rule, full ; try, Syrian, ae. oe = e ; cy = a ; qn = kw. 


mete— meteoric 

tlie same ront as I^at. vio'hts = a iiioasuro ; 
fneti'<r =: t<i im-asare ; Gr. tif&u (nu''/.i) = to 
rule; w^Tpor(Mt(rmi) = '""<'''™"=; Eug. mocfc, 
vioitcrak, A:c.l 

A. Transitive : 

1. To measure ; to asoertaili the incasure- 
nient, cliniensions, or cajmeity of. 

" His (.Tncc iii\i9t vifte tlie lives o( utlnjr». 
TimiiUij I'lwt evllB to iwlviiutiiges." 

ti}Mkotj<. : 2 Uenri/If .. Iv. 4. 

2. To distribute Viy measure. 

" F.T wltli thf sniiie iiienavire tlmt ye metr wItliiU it 
sliall iK' measured to you afc'uiu."— /.ttfto vi. »8. 

3. To be the exact measure or equivalent 
of ; to define exactly. 

B. Inlrans. : To measure with the eye ; to 

"Let the niivrk have ft priek on t, to mete at. — 
MiUfJ/'. ■ Lom lMb"in-i l.;it. iv. I. 

* mete-rod, ' meet-rodde, s. A uipa- 
suriug rod or i»olc. 

'■ The meet-rodde that he batUle in his hande. w as 
Byxe cuhytea louye ftud a airnune."— £2t'A;(0i xl. (15i.l.) 

* mete (2), r.(. (Mbet, t.] 

» mete (3), * met-en, v.t. [A.S. mdtan^ To 

"Meteti aswevene." Fieri Plowman, lu-ol. 11- 

»mete(l), s. (Mkat, s.] 

• mete-borde, s. Au eating or diuing- 

mete (2), s. [A.S. met, mat: oogn. with Icel. 
wjvt ; O. H. Ger. vie: ; Ger. mass = a measure ; 
O. Fi-. 7a«»(r = a boundary, from Lat. mda — 
goal.) Auicasure, a boundary, a limit (Gene- 
rally used in the i>lural.) (JIete (1), v.] 

"(Tlieyl demanded that the frontier should lie set 
out I»y metes and bounds."— J/acauZfli/." HiBt. Eitg.. 
ch. xviiL 

* mete, a. [Meet, o.] 

* mete^com, s. [Eng. mate (1), v. ; and 


Feud. Law : A measure or portion of corn 
given by a lord to customary tenants as a 
reward and eucouragemeut for laboiu* and 
faithful service. 

* mete-gav-el, s. [Mid. Eng. 7i!e(c = meat, 
and ,u(U-rf = a tribute, a tax.] A tribute, tax, 
or rent paid in food. 

* mete-les, a. (Mid. Eng. mete = meat ; -les 
= -less.] Witliout food. 

*' Thre d;iwes & thre nygt melelei hii wuste hem so. _^ 

Tliat hii nuate liou on take, ne w.-vt vor hunger do. 

liobert ef Gloucester, p. 170. 

*meteles, *met-els, s. [A.S. mtt'to)i = to 
dream.] A dream. 

■•mcte-ly, a. (Mid. Eng. mete = meet, a. ; 
-bj.] Fit, proportionate. 

met^em-pir'-ic, met-em-pir'-i-9ist, f. 

[METE.MPIRICAL.) One who believes in or sn]i- 
ports metempirical or transcendental philo- 

met-em-pir'-io-al, n. [Gr. /jera (victa) = 
beyi-rnd, and efxTreipia {cmpciria) = expevieuce.] 
Meta-ph. : Transcendental, beyond the limits 
of experience. 

met-em-pir'-i-9ism, s. [Eng. metcminric ; 

Metaph. : A system of philosophy hased on 
a jiriori reasoning ; transcendentalism. 

♦me-temp'-sy-cho^e (or p silent), v.t. 
IMetempsvcbosis.] To translate or transfer 
from one body to another, as the soul. 

"The souls of usiu-ers after their dejith Luciau af- 
firms to be 7>i'-tcmpS!/ehosed, or translated into tlie 
bodies of asaes."— /'e(ic/(«ii( .' On Blaximing. 

me-temp-sy-cho'-sis (or p silent), s. [Gr. 
/xeTefxif/ux'oCT't? (mc(ci((/>i'J*c/io.^ts), from fiere/i- 
d/uxow (metempinichofi) = to transfer the soul 
from one body to another : fierd (mcta), de- 
noting change"; en (cm) for ei/ (cii) = in, and 
,/n<xi) (psiic'ic) = the soul.) [Transmigration.] 

* me-temp'-sy-cho-size (or p silent), v.t. 

[Eng. inetempsuclws(is) ; -i:e.] To cause the 
soul to change from one body to another. 

" Metempst/ehnsized Into a Uo^."Southey : The 
Doctor, eh. ecxii. 

met-emp-to'-sis (or p silent), s. [Gr. litri 

(met") = beyond, and etiirroiaK (emptosis) = a 
falling ujion : en (fin) for iy (ni) = in, on, and 
iTTiiiris {ptosis) = a falling ; iriuTu (.pipto) = to 

Clinm. : Tin- solar eiination necessary to 
prevent the new moon fiMjm happening a day 
too late, or the suppression of tin' bissextile 
once in 1;14 years. Tlic opposite to this is tlie 
jiroemplosis, or the addition of a day every 
a:in years, and anotlicr every 2,400 years. 

met-en-5eph'-a-l6n, s. [Frcf. met-, ami 
Gr. tyKe<l>ai\ov (e'ngkephuhn) =* thebi-ain.) 

Anat. : A term Introduced by Quain foi- the 
aft<T-brain (the nnchhirn of German embiyol- 
iigists). It contains the medulla oblongata, 
till- vi'iitiiclc, and the anilitory m-rvc. 
Both tlir Miitc neiphalon and the eiicnceplialon 
develoi' li"in tin- )iost<'rior primai-y vesicle. 
(.-innl. (Sth ed.), ii. T.M.) 

* met-en-so-ma-to -sis, .«. (Gr. utTi (uii(.i), 

= au cmbu.lyin" fioni .> (.cm) for h (ea) = in, 
and aoifxa (■^Omii), gciiit. oroijuaTo? (somctos) = a 
Iwnly.l The transference of the elements of 
one body into another body, and their C"U- 
viision into its substance, as by decomposi- 
tion and assimilation. 
me'-te-or, s. [Fr. viftiwc, from Gr. )je"ujpos 
(mctc'inis) = raised above the earth, soai-ing in 
the air ; (lerewpov (meteoion) = a meteor, from 
nera (nir(i») = among ; iiipa (mra) = anything 
suspended; aeipuj (acirc;)= to lift ; Sp. me- 
teoro; Ital. meteora.] 

1. l.itemlbj: A luminous body appearing 
for a few moments in the sky, (ind then dis- 
appearing, exploding or descending tt" tlie 
cai'tli ; a shooting star. On any clear night 
an occasional meteor may be seen, but the 
most brilliant displays are confined to parti- 
cular dates. A very noUible one is on Nov. 13 
or 14. In lSii4, Prof. H. A. Newton, of Yale 
College, predicteit a display in ISUO, and 
determined the lengtli of the meteoric cycle, 
the annual period, and the probable orbit 
round the sun of the November stream. The 
display which came on Nov. 13, 1880, was 
splendid. It was seen all over Europe, at tin- 
Cape of Good Hope, and elsewhere. About 
eight thousand meteors were counted at Green- 
wich, and it is supposed that another thousand 
may have escaped observation. They came 
from a radiant point 149° 12' of right ascension, 
and 23° 1' of north decliuation, lietween y and 
e Leonis, just north of the bright star Regn- 
lus. On an average, each meteor was visible 
about three seconds, and drew a cord of silver 
radiance ffom twenty to forty degrees in 
length. In Nov., 180" and ISOS, considerable 
star showers were seen in the United States. 
Similar displays have been seen in the Nov. 
of the vears 902, 931, 9.14, 1002, 1101, 1202, 
1300, 1533, 1002, 109S, 1799, 1832, and 1833. 
That of Nov. 12, 1709, was one of the finest. 
It was seen by Hnniboldt and Bonpland at 
Cumana, in South America. Prof. Adams 
places the more magnificent displays at in- 
tei-v.als of thirtv-threc and a quarter years 
apart, and brilliant showers were expected in 
1S99, but little was seen of them. It is believed 
that a ring of meteors revolves round the sun. 
portions of it very thickly studded with 
them, while at others they are only .sjinrsrly 
scattered. Every year the earth's orbit cuts 
through the ring, though only at intervals of 
about thirty-three yeai-s through the part 
where they are most crowded. The meteors 
themselves are of iron, which, striking the 
atmosphere of the approaching earth with 
planetary velocity, ignite and go to dust. 
Leverrier considei-s that in a.d. 127 the attrac- 
tion of the planet Uranus brought tliem into 
their present orbit. Heis and Alexander 
Her.schel recognise about a hundred other 
meteor systems ; hence it has been found 
needful to distinguish them by names. The 
November meteors coining from the constella- 
tion Leo are called Leonids. The next in 
importance appear about August 10, and come 
from the constellation Perseus. They are 
therefore named Perseids. Of old they were 
railed the Tears of St. Lawrence. Tliey 
appear generally much earlier in the evening 
than the Leonids. In 1800 Prof. Alexander 
Herschel, son of Sir John Herschel, studying 
the August meteors with a spectiosiope, 
found some of them to consist in large ima- 
sure of sodium vapour, and to be "nothing 
else but soda Hames." There are .also Lyiids, 
Geniinids, Orioniils, Draconids, Aqu!in:ids, 
Andromedes, &c. Prof. Schiaparelli, of Milan, 
has shown that the orbits of i.aiticoliu comets 
often wonderfully coincide with those of iiie- 
teoric rings. A small comet, calleil Templi's, 

invisible to the naked eye coincides with the 
orbit of the November meteors, and a large 
one, called Tuttli''s comet, visible to the naked 
eye in 1802 with that of the Perseids. 

1[ Viewing the temi uiet<'or8 as n generic 
word, the committee of the british Associa- 
tion on Luminous Meteors range under it what 
may be called the following s|iccies : 

1. Telescopic .Vetcors. only i-cmlered visible to the 
naked eye by the aid of telescopes. 

■J ^Iciutin't-^t'irs. viaible tu the naked eye. and com. 
piiral.l.' to the dirtereut npi»arent iimBnltudea of the 
IKeil ^tals in briylitneas. 

;! liiituics and Firebulh, or very lumiuous meteors, 
comparable in brilliancy to the planets .luplter and 

VenUH, and to the dillclcnt pliasea of tlic .and 

Botnotlmes even rivalling tile sun by Hpi«--ailnu with 
niilch si.lend'iiir in broa»l dayliyht, the toini htjlnleit 
beiiii,' uaiially applied to the suialler, and fireballs to 
the larger kinds, 

4, tictooutio'i or "Areolitic' Meteors, fireballs which 
produce Jul auiiible explosion, like a distant cannon, a 
Itfal of thunder, or an eaitli.|ii ik.s aliock. by their 
concussion with the air. anil diiUr accordnigly 
from the last (as "forked'" liulitiiiiig often docs from 
distant and "sheet" liglitiilnel only liy the tliinider- 
elap that not unfrefiucntly reverlwrates from flrcl)ftUs 
of the largest and brightest class ; or, finally, as 

5. sloucfatlsMxA Iron/alls (the latter very rare occur, 
renees), or the falls of meteorites, either singly or u) a 
shower, it may be of many tliousaiula of fnigtnents. 
from a fireball, which, especially if seen in tlie day- 
time, when these occurrences arc usually observed, is 
almost always a large meteor of the last.iialned de- 
scription, iarit. Assoc. Uejm-t (18T8I, p. 371.) 

2. Fig. : Anything which transiently or 
momentarily dazzles, allures, or strikes with 

" The meteor of conquest allured me too far." 

Byron : t!a}>oleons Farewell. 

meteor-Cloud, meteoric - cloud, .'. 

An expanse of space thickly stmldcd with 
meteors or meteoric iiarticles. 

meteor-current, s. The current or 
stieaiii of meteors moving together in the 
same orbit. 

meteor-like, aHv. Like a meteor. 

" Though bent on earth tliilie evil eye, 
As oiete ,r-Iil^c thou glidcst by. 

tiyron: Giaour. 

meteor-powder, s. [Meteok-steel.] 

meteor-ring, meteoric-ring, s. The 

orbit of a i^ystem of meteors. 
meteor shower, meteoric-shower, 

s. Sliowers of iiieteois wliru the eaith in hor 
orbit intersects that of a meteoric ring. [Me- 

meteor-spectroscope, s. A spectro- 
scope speciallj adapted for observing meteors. 

meteor-steel, s. An alloyed steel which 
has a wavy appearance, resembling Damascus 
steel. An' alloy of zinc, 80 ; nickel, 10 ; siher, 
4 = 100, is phiced in a black-lead crucible, 
covered with charcoal, and melted. It is 
rendered friable by pouring it into cold water, 
is reduced to powder, called meteor-powder, 
and is added to steel in a crucible. 

meteor-streak, s. A streak of light 
whirli various meteors leave behind them lor 
a few seconds after they have vanished. 

meteor-stream, s. (Meteor-current.] 

meteor system, meteoric-system, 

s. A eouiitless nunilier of meteors moving 
togetlier in a stream though each is inde- 
pendently following out its own elliptic orbit. 

meteor-track, s. The track of a meteor 
in the sky. It is probably from an ascertain- 
able radiant point, or, at least, radiant region 
me-te-6r'-ic, fi. (Eng. mcfeoHc; -ic] 

1. Lit. : Pertaining to a meteor or meteors ; 
consisting of meteors ; resembling or par- 
taking of the nature or properties of a meteor : 
as, a meteoric shower. 

2. Fig. : Flashing or appearing bright and 
illustrious for a brief time ; transiently or 
irregularly brilliant. 

meteoric-astronomy, s. Tlie branch 
of astroniiniy wliicli treats of meteors. 

" Some papers .n, .Uctcortc .t.\t>onmni/."—llcit .issoc. 
ncp. |lS7l), p. 27. 

meteoric-date, meteoric epoch, s. 

A date or an ejioch in any year when meteors 
may be expected. The cliief are, Jan. 1, 2, 
April 10-21, Aug. 5-12 (and especially 10th). 
Nov. 12-15, and Dec. 11-13. (Brit. Assoc- 
r,cp. (ISCO), p. 217 ; (1870), p. 78.) 

meteoric-iron, s. Iron coming to the 
earth friim a meteorie ring. 

meteoric-paper, s. Sheets or layers of ■ 

mte, fat. fare, amidst, what, fall, father ; we, wet, here, camel, her, there : pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, pot, 
or. wore, wolf, work, who, son; mute, cub. ciire. unite, cur. rule, fill; try, Syrian, te. oe = e; ey ^a; qn = kw. 

meteorical —method 


intpnvoven cnnftM'Vi\-, ilijitonis, infusoria, &c., 
f.minl on tlie siii laci' of rncks after an inunda- 
tion. Tliey sonu'iiMiis fall from tliL' air, and 
\vt^\T at one time tlioiight to he of nicti'oric 
/irigin. Now it is coiisidiTtd that they have 
be-'H caught up from the gnuuid by small 
whirlwinds, and then allowed again to fall. 
Akin to Natural Flannel. {G^^ffith it Hen/rey.) 
meteoric shower, s. [Meteor-shower.] 

meteoric stones, 


J)/. [AfiltOLlTE, 

* me-te-or'-ic-al, n. [Eng. meteoric; -al.] 
The same as MtliwRir (4. v.). 

'■ I aee n reseiul>Iiuice uf Unit meteorical liglit wlileh 
npiK'iii-s ill iiiaoriHli ;i1hl-i^». tlmt s«euia ttrv. but la 
iiolliiiiKliHtJifliiusygUttoriiib'exhaliitiuU."— il;j. lltitl : 

S<W->'iiiy VI. 

mg'-te-6r-ism, s. [Eng. mdeor; -xsm.] 
Med. : Tin* same as Tvmpanitis (q.v.). 

me'-te-or-ite, -';. [Eng. meteor; 'ite; Fr. 
vuUoritc] A meteoric stone, a compound of 
eartliy and nietalUe matter wliicli has fallen to 
the earth ; a meteorolite. [JIeteor, % 5.] 

me -te 6r-ize, r.i. [Gr. tiereupi^ui (metmrico) 
= tn i:iise to a height; fitTiMpo^ {mettvros) = 
raisf'l in the air; Vr. se victrnrisci.] To take 
the form of a mettor ; to ascend in vapour 
like a meteoi'. 

me'-te-6r-d-graph. 5. [JlETKORocRAmv.] 

An apjiaratuji tnr ir;,'istering meteorological 
]thi'tiomena. It was invented by an Itiilian, 
Father Secchi of Rome, who obtained a jtrlze 
for it at the Paris International Exhibition 

of isor. 

me-te-6r-6-graph-ic, a. [Eng. meteoro- 
grai'hi!/) ; -;l-.J IVrtaiiiing or relating to me- 
teorograph y. 

me-te-6r-6g'-ra-phy, s. [Gr. ^eTeuipoi- 

{inercdron) = n meteor, and ypd^ui(gn<}>hCi) = to 
write.] Meteorology ; the registration of 
meteorologieal plienouiena. 

jue'_te_or-6id, n. & s. [Eng. vieteort and Gr. 

et6o5 {'.idos) = form, appearance.] 

A. As lulj. : Having tlie form or appear- 
ance of a meteor. 

B, As suhstanthfe : 

1. Gen. : Any moving body in tlie sky which 
has the form or appearance of a meteor. 

2. Spec. (PI.): Used by Schiaparelli for par- 
ticles of a nebular mass or cloud destined 
ultimatelv to become a meteoric ring revolviTig 
round the sun. (Brit. Ass-jc. Hep. (1871), p. 40.) 

me'-te-dr-O-lite, s. [Gi'. jnerewpo? (mcteoros) 
= raised iu the air, and \Ldos{lithos) = astonc.] 
The same as Mete'-'Riti; (q.v.). 

me-te-6r-6-l6g' ic, me-te-or-o-log- 

ic-al, a. [Eng. >nrteorolog(y) ; -ic, -icul ; Fr. 
iii'l'i'iohglquc.] Pertaining or relating to tlie 
atmosphere and its phenomena ; pertaining 
to the science of meteorology ; used iu me- 
teorology : as, meteorological instruments, me- 
teorologictd observations, &c. 

meteorological -tables or register, 

5. A rt^.iiister or account of the stat-' of the 
atiriDsi'here in legard tu temperature, dryness, 
moisture, weight, winds, &c., as ascertaiueii 
by vari'tus meteorological instruments, such 
as the barometer, thermometer, anemometer, 
hygiometer, &c. 

me-te-6r-6l'-0-gist, s. [Eng. meteorolog(y) ; 
■ ist ; Fr. meteorologists; Sj'. meteorologista.] 
One who studies or is versed in meteorology. 

"Tlie mi^teoroloffUts observe, amoiiL'st the four 
elements which ;ire the ingredients of ftll subliiiiary 

me-te-6r-6l'-o-gy, s, [Gr. t^freujpoXoyCa 

(mef>:droluijia), from fiCTe'tupor {mvteoron) = a 
meteor, and h6yo<i (logos) = a discourse, a 
treatise ; Fr, meteorologie ; Ital. & Sp. me- 

Phys. Science : That branch of science which 
observes, registers, classifies, and compares 
the various and varying phenomena of our 
atmosphere. It remarks, at the same time, 
the connection of those phenomena with 
heavenly bodies, and with the solid and liquid 
materials of the earth, in reference to their 
reciprocal and combined influence in deter- 
mining the character of difTerent climates, 
and with the view of learning the meteoric 

history of every region of our globe, of 
ultimately investigating the laws of atmo- 
siiheric cliange and the plan of meteoric ac- 
tion ; the theory, in fact, of meteorological 
phenomena, on which depends essontially the 
litncss (if the various portions of the earth'^ 
surl'ace for tlie production of diH'erent vege- 
table and other substances, and for tlie 
support of animal life. 

" In tiunilr}' :uiinmlH ^vo dvny not n kind o( nntuml 
meteomlajjii . or iiinnte presontittloli Iwth «( wlnil and 
weather.''— flroMtit-; Vulgnr Krfoin-x. bk. lit., ch. x, 

* me'-te-6r-6-min-5^, s- IGr. ^crewpoi' 

(mvtvdron) = a meteor, and ixavreia. (menteia) = 
pro]»hecy, divination.] Divination among 
the Uonians by meteoric phenomena, as by 
tlmnder and lightning. 

me-te-6r-6m'-e-ter, s. [Eng. meteor; 
connect., and meter.] 

Teleg. : An apparatus for receiving, at a 
local station, tmnsmitting to a central station, 
by telegraph-wires, and there reeordin^c tli>- 
direction and velocity of the wind, condition 
of the barometer and thermometer, and amount 
of rainfall. 

me-te-6r'-6 -scope, s. [Gr. neT^bipoi (meteO- 
TO.-;) == raised iu the air, and trKonttu (skopco) = 
to see, to observe.] An instrument used for 
taking angles, and making measurements of 
the heavenly bodies. 

me-te-6r-6s'-c6-p^, s, [Eng. meteoroscop^e) ; 
-y.] The taking of observations with the 
nictcoroscMp,- (([.v.). 

* me~te' -or-oiis, a. [Eng. meteor; 'ous.] 
Having the nature uf a meteor; resembling a 

" The cherubim descended, on the ground 
Gliding mcteorous, as evening mist." 

MUtun: I\ i., xiL 029. 

met'-er(l), *meet'-er, s. [Eng. 'Hie;c(i) v., 
-tr.] One who or that which metes or mea- 
sures ; a measurer; a measuring instrument 
or apparatus. When used simply, it is equi- 
valent to a gas-meter (q.v.), but it generally 
occurs in comjwsition : as c<m\-iiicter, &c. 

"But the nulnager, the weigher, the meetrr of 
pijiiits. will not suffer us in aeqnJexce in the iudgiiient 
uf the prince."— Bwrte .■ Letter to a SfuOic tor '^ 

* met'-er (2), s. [Metre (1).] 

me'-ter, v.t. [Mktek (l).] To measure or 
test by means of a meter. 

*met', s. [Eng. 7HertT(l); -age.] 

1. Tlie act of measuring. 

2. The measurement itself. 

3. Tlie price paid for measurement. 

met'-er-er, s. [Eng. meter (2) ; -er.] One 

who \\rites in metre ; a poet. 

mete-stick, s. [Eng. mete (l). v., and stick.] 
K((ut. : A stick fixed on a board at right 
angles, to measure thf height of the hold of a 
ship, and to level the ballast. 

* mete-wand, * met-wand, s. [Eng. 
mete (1), v., and wand.] A measuring rod, 
staff, or pole. 

" Now the snme is called a yard, or a metieami. &c." 
—Sttnc: Jicnry !. (an. 111)2). 

* mete-yard. s. [Eng. mete (l), v., and yard.] 

A yanl, stall, or rod used for measnhug. 

'■ T.ikf tliuu the bill, give nie thy mcteyard, and 
Hpme not \\\<i."—Shakefp. : Taming of the. Shrew, Iv. 3. 

meth-a-cr3?l'-ic, a. [Eng. meth(yl), and 
£(crj//(c.'] Derived from or contained in acrylic- 
methacrylic-acld, s. 

Chevi. : C4HUO2. An acid isomeric with cro- 
touic acid, obtained in the form of its ethylic 
salt by the action of phosphorus trichloride on 
the etliylic salt of hydroxy-isobutyric acid. 
The free acid is a colourless oil, solid at 0% 
having an odour of pyrogallic acid, and a strong 
acid reaction. Its salts are \eiy unstable. 

meth'-al, s. [Eng. meth(yl ether), and al(cO' 


meth'-anej s. [Eng. metJ^yl); -anc] [Maksh- 


me-theg'-lin, s. [Wei. meddyghjn = mead ; 
lit. =mead-liquor.frofni mead = mead, and Uyn 
— liquor.] The same as Meai> (q.v.). 

•' O'er our parch'd tougue the rich nn<(hi-ffUn glide*." 
Gap : To a l.ady. Ep. i. 

meth'-ene, s. [Kng. mtth{yl); -tnr.\ 

Chnn. : (JH^.. Methylene, a diatomic radical 
unknown in "the five state. It fornix ethers 
analogous U* ethylene, but the series is much 
less conq'lete, (See comi'ounds.) 

methene-dlacetate, s. 

Chrm. : tH-..:(<>-C-..li3(>>j. It is prc]iared by 
acting on melhene diioiJide with argentic 
acetate and aectic acid. It boils at ITO'. 

metheno dlbromlde, s. 

I hem. : L'U-jl\\>>. tHdained by the action of 
bromine on iodide of methyl. It forms a 
heavy litpiid, wliich lolls at 80°. It has a sp. 
gr. of 2-004. 

methene-dicbloride, 5. 

Ch.m.: L'H.jClj, Obtained by the action of 
elil'iiiin.' on methyhc chloride, t'HsCI + Cl2 = 
(llMCl-^-f HCl. It is a colourless and volatile 
liitiiid of .1 sweet and penetrating odour. It 
bulls at :;l , au'l is nearly insoluble in water. 

methene-diiodlde, &'■ 

( 'hum. : CII.jLj. Frepared by heating iodoform 
for several houi"s with hydriodic acid. It is a 
Colourless sweet-smelling oil, which boils at 
1.S2 , and crystallizes in the cold in brilliant 
leaves, which melt at tj . Its sp. gr. is 3*346. 

methene-dimethylate, s. 

CItcm. : CH2(0L'II;j)o. Methylal. Formal. A 
inoduct obtained by heating methylic alcohol 
with binoxide of manganese and snljthuric 
acid. It is a cohturlcss liquid, Itoiling at i~\ 
and linving a sp. gr. of 'fiSo. It disanlves in 
three jiarts of water, and in all proportions in 
ether and alcoliol. 

methene-diphenyl, «. 

Chem. : CH-. 

It is obttuncd by the 

action of sulphuric acid on benzolic al(H)hol. 
It crystallizes in needles, wliiidi melt at 2iV 
and boil at 261°. It has the smell of oning«s. 

metnene disulphonic-acid, .';■ 

Chem. : CIl-j(?<o^(>ll>j. Mtthionic acid. It 
is readily obtained by licating acetamide with 
Nordhausen sulphuric acid. It crystallizes in 
long deliquescent needles. 

me thene -oxide, s. [Foim aldehyde, 

meth'-ide, s. [Eng. vnth^yl); -ide.] (See tlic 

methide-aluminic, s. 

Cliem.: AIC3H9 = Al(CH3>j. A compound 
obtained by heating mercuric methide with 
aluminium in a sealed tube. It is a colourless 
nioliiU- liquid, which congeals at 0" and boils 
at \'Mi\ It takes fire on exposure to the air, 
ami is decomi>osed I'y water with explosive 
\ ioli'jice. 

metbide-borlc, s. [Methylic-bobide.] 

me-thinks, im}^. v. [A.S. vie thyncedh, from 
mt, dative of the personal pronoun /, and thy)i- 
cau (impers. v.) to seem.] [Think.] It seems, 
to me ; it ajipears to me ; 1 think, mcscem.s. 
(Only used in jioetry or elevated writing.) 
" Verily, methinks 
Wisduni is ofttiinea nearer when we atooj>.*' 

WurtUwurth : Kxt-tirtton, bk. IH. 

meth-i-dn'-Kc, n. [Eng. mc(thyl); Gr. Btlov 
(//(.ii(JH)=:suli>liur, and Eng. suff. -ic] (See 
the compound.) 

m.ethionlc-acid, s. [Methene-disuli- 


meth -od, s. [Fr. viHhnde, from Lat. victhoihts. 
iii'tholos, from Gr. fj.t-9oSo^{melhodos). from fit6- 
(/11.//1), tor fieTo. (inetu) = nhiii; and bS6q(h<i(hs) 
= a way. Puttenham in loS9 mnkcd this 
among the words of i-ccent introduction into 

I. Ordinary Language : 

1. A way, mode, or course by which an aim 
or object is or may be atUiined ; a mode or 
manner of i)rocedui-e; chai-acteristic uioimer 
or mode of procedure. 

" Let such jwraonii . . . not quaiTel wltli the groal 
jthyalcinn of at>u!» fi>r having cured tlieni by cft*y and 
gentle inethod»."~fi"uth : Serrnonx. vol. i\.. KT. i. 

2. Systematic or orderly jirocedure ; sys- 
tem ; a manner of action based on rules ; 
order and regularity of procedure. 

" Where this habit o( methwl i* pnest-nt and cffrrtlve. 
thiiigH the iiio«'t remote and diverwe hi time. j>lnc«. 
ainl oiitwanl elrcnni»ta.nce are brought into menial 
conttgnitv and Hiirccft>fon, the nioro strlkluu lU tbv 
lewt exiwcttfd."— Co?<Tirf</«.' McOiiM. nee. il. 

boil, boy ; pout, jo^l ; cat, 9eU, chorus, 9hin, bengh ; go, gem ; thin, this ; sin, as ; expect, ^enophon, e^t. ph = t 
-clan, -tian = shau. -tion, -sion ^ shim ; -tion, -§ion = zhun. -clous, -tious, -sious = shus. -ble, -die, &c. = bol, d^U 


methodical— methyl 

n. TechnicnU'j : 

I. Ii>yic: A loi;ical or scientitlc arrange- 
lueiit or itiixli! ol procedure ; the art uf dis- 
Vn'sing orarmnging wt-U a st-ries of thoughts 
cither forthee]ucidationordisc4>very of truth, 
or for tfle proof of a truth iiln-ady known. 

•■ Methotl. which is luually iltacrilwd lu th^ fourth 
lArt ul Lo^ii". is »T» «. coini.l<;tc innclK^il I-"lil'-; ■ - ■ 
Jlrth-jd U iiitlitr n (luwrr *.r »iiiril of tlit lulvHeit, 
(.erviuliiiit ftlt tlmt it lUws. thuii it« ljiiiBll>le (.riMhut. 
UeiKe we j.ut in the i-hi«o( iii!« (oi .U.Moif .urn |«rt 
*-! Lut!lc, ail Ai.vUwl Lo((k. whuli ^h..«» umlcr «hiit 
ii.iulltluiia ill the scvenil rritiuU* tif lii'|"lry tlio thrcf 
itta vt thuught limy W wtlcly j-trfurmeil. mhI huw (ar 
TiilcB cull ftVftil to iliretl the iiilml in tlie lue ij( them 
lo inutltjilile or l.eftuti(ul reoulta."— rAo»ri«.n; luuvttf 
Jhouiiht illitrotl). f 44. 

•_'. .Vtif. .sc(t)ic« : A i>rincii>le or systoni of 
I iiissiliL-atioti. Used specially in connection 
uitli the two systems of lM>tanical classillea- 
tinns— the Arlihcial, or Linnieifti Metliod, and 
tilt' Natnral Method of Classillcation. 

me-ttaod-ic-al. ' metliod-ic. «. IFr. 

iiuUiodi'iiiC, fiiini mttlwiic = niL-thud.} 

1. Characterized l>y or exhibiting nu-thod ; 
proceeding or ))ased on a systematic and 
orderly disposition and arrangement ; syste- 
matic, orderly. 

"A inftii of mrthndiciit iiuhietry JUid houourahle 
yunxiita.'—CoUridst: Mrthud,i2. 

2. Acting oil method or a systematic mode 
of i-rocedure. 

•■ (.'iinrlea Reade vna Hot mtthoilir In the dlspositiou 
uf Ilia luiiiers.— /'<iH Jfnil Gautte. Jiiue 20. 188*. 

me-thod-ic-al-ly, (idv. (Eug. metkoiUcaJ : 
'hj-l In a me'tliodical manner; according to 
inetliod ; systematically. 

" Let it 1>e tJ^iuttiit theui systeiiuitieally mid methodi- 
cuUy.''—Pvr(eui : :>cr)noni, vol, i.. oer. y. 

* xne-thod-ics, s. [Methodic] The science 
uf method. 

I2eth'-6d-isin, s. [Eng. method; -isin.] 

Church Hist. <£■ Eccles. : One of the leading 
religious systems of English-speaking races. 
A religious si>ciety existed at Oxford in the 
year 17:!7, among the members of which were 
jnhn ami Charles Wesley and George White- 
lield. young men studying for orders. Tliey 
and tlieir associates were lialf-dcrisively callecl 
the "Godly," or the " Sacramentarian Club" 
(because they went through a mocking crowd 
to communicate at St. Mary's), and, linally, 
Wethodists, from the methodical way in which 
they performed their religious duties. John 
"Wesley, the second son of the Rev. Samuel 
Wesley, was born at Epwoith, in Lincolii- 
shiie, June IT, 1703. On Oct. 14, 1735, John 
and Charles Wesley sailed for Geoi-gia as 
agents of the Society for the Propagation of 
tlie Gospel, but their mission was a failure. 
In 1736 Charles, and in 173^ John, returned to 
England. His friend George Whitefield had 
already on Februaiy 17, 173'J. commenced 
I. pen-air preaching near Bristol. Wesley 
f.illuwed at the same place; but, unlike 
Whitetield, oi-ganized his converts Into so- 
cieties, the first being formed in tlmt year. 
The first meeting-house was built in Bristol 
in 1740 ; the Foundry in Moortields, London, 
hired for a term of year.s, was fitted up 
as a preaching-house. In Wesley's absence, 
his schoolmaster, Thomas Maxlield, presumed 
to iireach in the Foundry. Wesley hastened 
to London lo silence him, but, by his mother's 
jiclvice, he was persuaded to listen before he 
jicted, was convinced that she was right, for- 
bcn-e to interfere, and consented to the rise 
t f an order of lay preachers. In 1741, Wesley 
itnd Whitefield ceased to act togetlier, their 
views on the decrees of God difft-ring, Wesley 
Icing Arminian and Whitefield Calvinistic. 
Though Whitefield had not the mganizing 
^iftof Wesley, his preaching laid the fi.unda- 
tion of two denominations — Cah inistir Me tin i- 
<lists(q.v.)andLa<ly Huntingdon's Cunnexiun. 
d Huntingdon.] He died iii America on Sept. 
17, 1770. In 1744 the first conference was 
held ; it was attended by six persons, all 
rlerpymen. At the conference lield at Leeds 
in 175.^. the Ke]\ii-ation between itinerant and 
local preachers was made broader : the furiner 
were to be supported by the cnntributions-nf 
the societies ; the latter to support them- 
"Selves by their ordinary callings, preaching 
iluring liours of leisure. By 17ti7 there were 
thirty-two of the former and some hundreds of 
the latter ; in 1791 the former numbered 312. 

Charles Wesley, who luul rendered the Me- 
thodists, and the English Churches generally, 
great Bervice by his hymns, died in 178S, 
and John, at the age of nearly eighty-eiglit, 
on March 2, 1701. 

In 17S4 John Wesley had executed a deed 
pull in Chancery, which, reserving his rights 
and those of Ills brother, provided that on his 
death his place should be supplied by a i-er- 
inanent body of one hundred ministers, meet- 
ing at the conference, and called the Legal 
Hundred. They still constitute the supreme 
governing body of the Wesleyan Methodists. 
When it meets, it fills up by co-oi.tati<'n all 
vacancies which may have ari.sen during the 
vear. John Wesley strongly felt that a minister 
should not administer the sacraments unless 
he were duly ordained. In the absence nf a 
bishop, he would sanction ordination by I'le.s- 
bvtei-s, and had himself, in 17S4. ordained tw.. 
niinisters for America. With all his infiu<Ti(e, 
he found it dittlcult to repress the desire of 
the preachers to ailminister the saciameuts, 
and in 17i»5 the liberty was etmcedeil where- 
ever a congi-egation sought it for their pastor. 
In 1797 a schism took place, originating The 
Methodist New Connexion (q.v.). (Xew, H.) 
In ISIO arose the Piiinitive Methodists C«l-^ ■) : 
in ISli, the Bible Christians(q.v.); inlS2S, the 
Protestant Methodists ; in 1S34. the Wesleyan 
Methodist Association ; in lS41t. the Wesleyan 
Uefoiiii Assnci:iti"u((i.v.), the last three now 
lombiiied together and called the United Me- 
thodist Free Churches. The annual confer- 
ence, dining the consideration of spiritual 
questions, is composed of ministers only ; but 
during the discut-sion of financial matters it 
consists of 240 ministers and 240 laymen. A 
iKUverful Jlethodist church in the United 
States is under Episcopal Government. 

xnath'-o-dist, s. t a. [Eng. methuil ; -ist.] 
A. As substantive: 
* I. Ordinary Language: 

1. Those philosophers who adopted a certain 
niethmlical manner in their sjieculatuiiis. 

" Tlie finest utethodistt, fiCL-oidinf to Aristotle s 
cohltn rule of Jiitilli;inl l>ouiids. cumleuiu geouielricJil 
inecepts in .irithiiietic or aritliuietiejil viecej.ts in 
geometry ns irregular luid abusive."— «. J/urcei/ : 
Pierce't Suptrcrogatioii, \>. 117. 

2. One who practises self-examination. 

" All of us. who have some or other tender iwirts of 
out- suuls. which we canuot endure should he migeiitly 
touched ; every man must be his own muthoditt to find 
tliem vut."—Jac)ct<in : Jiutifyiifj Faith, bk. iv., ch. \. 

3. One of a sect of ancient physicians who 
tn-actised by theory or method. 

"Theiuisou and Ids old sect of mffhodistg resolved 
that the l.ixmii mid strittuin . . . weie the luinLipleo 
and orit'iualB of all diseases iu the v/orid."~Bam>non<i: 
n'ort*. vol. iv., p. ST7. 
n. Church Hist. £ Eccles. : 
" 1. The name given in the seventeenth 
century to certain Roman Catholic contro- 
versialists, mostly French, who, in conduct- 
ing disputes with Protest;ints, required from 
them express scripture for evei-y attestation 
they made, refusing tu allow them to estab- 
lish any position by argumentation, inference, 
or necessary consequence. Among them were 
Francis Veron, a Jesuit, Bishop BarthoM 
Nihusius, and his bnjther Wahleiiburg. (Jl/c- 
sheiin: Church Hist., cent, xvii., sec. ii., j't. 
i., § 15.) 

2. A follower of Wesley or Whitefield, or 
one who adheres lo the system of dnctrine and 
churcli government called Jlethodism (q.v.). 
B. As adj.: Methodistic (q.v.). 

■■ fioiiie of the elder ones »lio belonjied t" the methn- 
dist i:hurch."— J/ri. Stotcc . incle Turn s Cibiii. l1i. x».vi. 

metho-dist-ic, metho-dist -ic-al. «. 

[Eng. mcthodiit; -ic, -iail.] Pertaining to 
method or the Methodists; resembling the 
Methodists; following the strictness ..f the 
Jlethodists. (Frequently used in contempt 
or irony.) 

■•In connection with the Mrlh-dintic revivaL"— 
Jtaav T-iyl-r : Utile}/ * Melhodistn. \i. 106. 

meth-6-dist'-ic-al-l3^, adr. [Eng. vietho- 
di^tical ; -/</] In a metliodistical manner. 

me-thod-i-za'-tion, s. [Eng. methndiz(e): 
->ition.] The act or process of methodizing ; 
the state of being reduced to method. 

meth'-od-ize. v.t. & i. [Eug. method : -ize.] 

A. Trans. : To reduce to method ; to ar- 
ran;;c or dispose in order ; to arrange syste- 
matically. (Pope : Essay on Criticisiiiy 80.) 

B. Intrans.: To act systematically or ac- 
cording to method; to follow a system or 

■'The Mind ... is disjirtsed to generalize and 
methodite to excess,"— Col erid^fe ; Methwt. § J. 

ineth'-od-iz-er, .t. [Eng. method! z(<:) ; -er.} 
One who methodizes. 

meth odo-log-ic-al, re. [Eng. method- 
Kt-'Uh), -f-'d.] u{ ur pertaining to method- 

meth-dd-oi-O-giSt, •■>•. [Eng. methodt)iog(y) ; 
-ist.] One who treats of, or is versed in, 

• meth-dd-ol'-o- gjr, s. [Gr. m'^oSo? 
(vtcth'idos) - a method, and \6yo% [togas) = a 
discourse, a treatise.) 

'1. A discourse concerning method. 
2. The science of method or classification. 
me-thon -i-ca, s. [Latinised from the native 

Malabar name^l 

Bol. : A genus of Liliitceo', tribe Tulii>ea', 
or, according- to Dr. Wight, of MehmthaceH;. 
It is a synonym of Ghuiosa, and Methoniai 
.su}ierha is better known as iiloriusa superiia. 
It is a climbing plant from India, cultivated 
in greenhouses in Great Britain, as are M. 
grandijlora and M. virescens. 

me -thought (ought as at), pret. of v. 
[ML-rniNKs.l It seemed to me; it ajipeared 
to me ; I thought. 

•■ And one. the jienaive Blannadnke. 
.Methuit'jht. was yieldiuK inwardly." 

Wordtieorth : WhUt Jloe c/ J^yUfour. If. 

meth-ox-^-a-9ef-ic, 't. [ Eng. meih( yl) ; 
ojujOjt'ii), and accti'-.] Derived from or con- 
taining methyl and oxygen. 

methoxyacetic-acid. s. 

r— CH3O 

Oiem. : CHo . Methyl glycollie acid. 

A coltunless liquitl jirepared by decomposing 
:i elihu-aeetate with sodic inethylate. It ha*i 
a sp. gi-. of 1-lS, and boils at lyii'. 

meth-ul'-inene, s. [F:ng. iutfh{yl); nhn(in), 
and sutl'. -etie.] 

Chem. : C'sH^. A substance obtained, to- 
gether with methulinic acid, by the action of 
.sodium and inethylic alcohol nn chloroform. 
It is a Itrown nncryst;illizable hm\y , leseinbliiig 
one of the ulmic compounds, and is only known 
in combination. 

zneth-ul'-mic, a. [Eng. viethulm(ene) : -ic] 
Derived fnnn or contained in methulmene. 

methulmlc-acld, 5. 

Chein. : CsHaOo. A dark-yellow nncrystalli- 
zable substance, insolublein water, but soluble 
in ether. By the action of bromine il is con- 
verted into a black semi-fluid, dibroniomelhul- 
iiiic aciil, CsHfiBrsOo. 

meth'-yl. s. [Gi-. nfBv (methu) = wine, and 
iiArf ihidc) = wood.] 

Chem. : CH3. The radical of methylic alco- 
hol, known in combination as dimethyl, 

I"'S^ !-, a compound formed by heating zinc 
Lrlg ) ' 

methyl and methyl iodide in sealed tubes at 
methyl-aldehyde, s. [Formaldehyde, 


methyl-alizarine, s- 

Uu-m : C15II10O4 - ChHj ^^ > C6H(0H>> 
CHg. It is obtained by the actii>n of nitric 
arid on methyl anthracene, and after-treat- 
ment with sulphuric acid an<l potash. It 
crvstallizes in I'ed needles, wluch sublime at 

methyl-aniline, .«. 

I'hem. : X(f,;H5)CH:tH. Methyl-pheuyla- 
mine. Obtained by the action nf aniline on 
iodide of methyl, ami after-treatment with 
potash. It boils at 102°. 

Methyl -a nUine green : [Methyl-green]. 

methyl-anthracene, ^''. 

Chem. : C15H12 = C,Jh4^,JJ> CuII:;(CH3). 

It is formed by passing the vapour of ditidyl 
methane thiough red-hot tubes tilled with 
pumice. It forms yellow or colourless leafy 
crystals melting about 200^, and is only soluble 
in chloroform, bisulphide of carbon, and 

methyl-anthraquinone, 5. 

Chem. : CisHi^n.^ C6H4;j:;;-}'C6H3-CH3 A 

crystalline substuice obtained l)y the action 
of'strong nitric acid on an alcoholic solution 

fate, fat, fare, amidst, what. faU, father: we, wet, here, camel, her, there: pine, pit, sire, sir, marine: go. p6t, 
.or, wore, woU; work, who, son ; mute, cub, ciire, unite, cur, rule, fuil : try, Syrian, se. oe ^ e ; ey = a ; qu ^ kw. 

methylal— metonymic 


cf metiiyl anthracene. It crystallizes in 
needles and plates winch melt at 10J'-103". 

methyl caproyl, s. [Methyl oexyl.] 

methyl glycollic-acld, s. [Methoxv- 

methyl-green, s. 

Chfm. : CooHi6(CU3)3Xs(CH3Cl)2HoO. Mo- 

tlivl-.iniliiie t;iecn. A green dye. obtained Ity 

Jjealiug Paris violet with niethyl-chlnride. It 

s fiencrally nsod in coiul)infltion with zinc 

chloride, iii which st;ite it is very soluble. 

methyl-guanldlne, s. IMethvl-ura- 

methyl-hexyl, s. 

Chem. : LVHjs^CHa-CfiHjs. Methyl-caprnyl. 
An oily liquid obtained by the electrolysis of 
a mixture of acetate :ind oenantliylat** of 
pntassiuin. Its vapour density is 3'42G. 

methyl -hydride, s. [Mabsh-gas] 

methyl hydrobromlc-ether, s. 

Chem. : [MKTiiVLic-BROMii'f:]. 

methyl hydrochloric-ether, s. 

Chtm. : l>U:THVl.R-rHLORIDE]. 

methyl - nitrophenidine, 5. [Nitra- 
methyl - phenylamine, s. (Methyl- 


methyl-phosphine, 5. 

Chem. : P~''S^. One of the primary phos- 

phinea prepared "by heating in a sealed glass 
tube a mixture of I'hosplioric iodide, zinc 
oxide, and methylic iodide, and afterwards 
decomposing the resulting compound with 
water. It is a colourless gas, which at -20°, or 
under a pressure of 2\ atmospheres, condenses 
to a mobile liquid. It possesses a fearful 
(•ilonr, and exposed to the air often in- 
flames spontaneously. Dimethyl phosphine, 

*'Z^'"h^^"' ^^^^^ ^^ "*" -^°' ""^ *''^ tri-methyl 
lihosphine, P(CH3)3, at -f 40'. Both compouiids 
take tire on exposure to the air. 

methyl-pyrocatechin, s. [Guaiacol.] 

methyl succinic acid, s. [Pvrotar- 


methyl-uramine. n. 

Chem.: C =v ^. Methyl-giianidine. 

■ XHo 

It is prci>ared by acting on cyanamide with 
the hydrochloride of methylamine. It is 
strongly alkaline, and fonus a crystalline 
deliquescent mass, liaving an ammoniacal 

meth'-y-lil, 5. [Eng. methyl, and n?(co7jo/).] 


meth-yl'-a-mine, s. [Eng. methyl, and 
Chemistry : 

1. N -] ir^- Monomethylamine. A com- 
pound in which one of the hydrogen atoms in 
ammonia is replaced by methyl- It can be 
jtrepared by boiling methyl isocyanate with 
potassic hydrate. ^ It is a colourless gas, 
wliicli becomes liquid a few degrees below 0", 
and has somewliat the odour of putrid tish. 
It burns readily with a yellow flame, and is 
int. re soluble in water than any other gas. It 
behaves with metallic salts like anmionia. 
Liiniethylamine (NH(CH3)2, nietameric with 
ethylaniine, boils at 8'. Trimethylamine 
>'(CH3)3, occurs ready formed in herring 
pickle, from which it can be separated by 
distillation with potash. It dissolves in water, 
boils at 9'S\ and smells of heirings. 

2. {PL): [Methylammoniums]. 

meth-yl-Sm-mo'-ni-um, s. [Eng. vurhyi, 

and amHio?iiJ(»).] 

Cltem. (PI): Metliylaraines. Organic l^ses 
formed on the tvpe'NH4 by partial or total 
substitution of methyl (CH3) for H. Tetni- 
inethylammonium N(CH3)4. The iodide of 
this base is produced by the action of iodide 
<if methyl ou trimethylamine. It is cr^s- 

meth'-y-late, r.t. [Eng. methyl; -at€.\ To 
mix with n\ethylated spirit. 

meth - y-lat-ed» jvi. par. urn. [.Mtn^nvLATE.] 
methylated spirit, s. 

Chem. : A Commercial product sold free of 
excise duty, and consisting of a mixture of 
one volume of crude wood-spirit, of sp. pr. 
■S55, ami nine volumes of spirits of wine, 
the latter being thus rendered so nauseous 
as to lie unfit lor use as a beveiage. It is 
used largely in the arts as a solvent for 
resins, and for other purposes. 

meth-jf'-la'-tion, s. [Eng. vuthyla{te); -tion.] 
The act of mcthjjating. 

meth'-J-la-tdr. s. [Eng. methylat{ion) ; -or.) 
One wlio makes methylaled spirits. 

s. [Eng. methyl ; -ene.] 

meth- j^l-ene, 


meth-y-len'-it-an, s. [Eng. viethylcn(e) ; 
(mann)it(€), and suit, -cut.] 

Chem. : CVHijOfi. A saccharine substance 
produced by the action of strong bases on di- 
■ ixyniethylene. It is soluble in water and 
alculiol, has a slight acid reaction, and is 
colcjiiied yellow by alkalis. It does not fer- 
luent with yeast, has no rotatory power ; but 
rcil uces an alkaline cupric solution when heated 
with it. 

me-thyl'-i-a, -«. fLatinised from Eng. methyl 
(.M-v.)-J [Methylamine.] 

me-thyl'-io, a. [Eng. methyl; -ic] Derived 
from or contained in methyl (q.v.). 

methylic- acetate, .''. 

stance occurs ready formecl in crude wood 
spirit. It boils at 50% and has a sp. gi". uf 
■yoO at 0°. 
methylic- alcohol, s. 

Chem.: CH4O ^C 


Cavbinol. Pyr- 

I — OH. 
oxylic spirit. Wood-spirit. An alcohol ob- 
tained by the dry distillation of wood. The 
aqueous distillate is treated with lime to tix 
oiganic acids, and again distilled. The first 
tenth iiart which comes over is collected apart. 
This contains the methylic alcohol, mixed 
with acetone and other bodies. The distillate 
is added to fused chloride of calcium, which 
combines with the alcohol, and the whole is 
evaporated on a water bath. On mixing the 
lesidue with water, the alcohol is set free, and 
by repeated distillation from quicklime is ob- 
tained anhydrous. It is a colourless, mobile, 
.kliirituous-smelling liquid, boiling at 60°, and 
having a specific gravity of '814 at 4°. It 
mixes in every proportion with water, alcohol, 
and ether, in the first case with diminished 
volume, and agiees generally with common 
alcohol in its solvent power and other prop- 
methylic-aldehyde, s. [Methyl-al- 


methylic amido-cyanurate, s. [Me- 


methyUc-ammelide, s. 

Chem. : C5H8X4O0 = C3N3 - OCHa. We- 

( NHo 
thylic amido-cyanurate. Obtflinedfrom methy- 
lic cyanurate by heating with ammonia. It 
crystallizes in rhombic tables which melt at 
212° ; is slightly soluble in cold water and 
ether ; more soluble in hot water and alcohol. 

methylic boride, s. 

Chem.: IKCH^j)^. Boric methide. Bor- 
niethyl. -A gaseous compound, prepared by 
the action of zinc methyl on borate of ethyl. 
Under pressure, at I0\ it condenses to a 
mobile liquid. It has a highly i>ungent odour. 

methylic-bromide, s. 

Chem. : CH^Br. Metliyl-hydrobromic ether. 
A colourless Injuid, boilingat 13% sp. gr. 1-664, 
and vapour density 3"29:i. It acts violently 
on cacodyl, forming bronnde of cacodyl and 
bromide of tetnimethyl-arsenium. 

methylic-carhamate, :t. 

Chem.: NHi;COO(CH3). Produced by heat- 
ing urea with niethylic alcohol in sealed tubes. 
It forms hygroscopic tables, which melt at .'15° 
and boil at 177'. 

methylic -chloride, s. 

(Vi. m..' CH3CI. .Munochlurniethane. Methy- 
hydroihloiic ether. A cohturless gas. pit-l 
pared by heating a mixture uf Hodiuni chlo- 
ride, wood-spirit, and utrong sulphuric acid. 
It is soluble in one-fourth of its volume "f 
water, has an ethereal odour, a sweet taste, 
and bums with a white llanie, green at tliu 
edge. Its vajmur density is r730, and it dota 
nt-^t condense at — IS . 

methylic- cyanide, .>:. lAcETONiTuitK.i 
methylic -ether, s. 

Chan. : C-^l^O = O ■[ J\J}f. Methylic ox- 
ide. It is prepared by distilling a ndxturo of 
wood-spirit and f(mr times its weight of snl- 
phuricacid, and passing the gas formed through 
a solution of potash into u freezing mixture. 
Below— 21% it is a mobile, colotuless liquid, 
but at ordinary temperature it is an ethereal 
smelling gas. One volunie of water dlssoh'ea 
thirty-five volumes of the gas. 

methylic-iodlde, s. 

Chem. : CH3I. Obtained by distilling me- 
thylic alcohol HI piesenceof itMline and amor- 
phous phosphorus. It is a colourless, sweet- 
smelling liquid, nearly insoluble iti water. It 
boils at 44'. 

methylic mercaptan, .<. 

Chem.: !^<^h*'^- ^"ll'l'-l'y'li'ate of methyl. 
It is obtained by distilling a mixture of me- 
thylic potassic sulphate with potassic sulph- 
liydrate. It is a mobile liquid having a garlio 
odour and boiling at 20% 

methylic-oxlde, s. [Methyi,ic-ether.] 
methylic -salicylate, 5. 

Chem. : Ct;H4(OH)L'0-U{CH3). A colourless 
oil, occurring naturally in gaultheria oil. li 
is formed by treating a mixtuie of salicylic 
acid, sulphuric acid, and methylic alcohol. It 
has an aromatic odour, boils at 224% and gives 
a violet coluur with ferric salts. 

methyllc-selenide, s. [SELESMtmivL ] 

me-thjrs'-ti-5in, s. [Mod. Lat. vtethystic^um); 
surt. -ill. (Chem.).] 

Chem. : A crystalline substance obtained 
from Kawa-root, the root of Piper jiiethysticitm. 
{Watts: Did. Chem.) 

t met'-ic, 3. [Gr. fitVoijeoy (metoikos) = chang- 
ing one's abode, emigrating : ^rro (iHetu), 
denoting change, and ooeos {<nkos) = a house ; 
Lat. metcecus ; Fr. metke, inctcjuc.] Inancient 
Greece a resident stmnger in a Greek city or 
country ; a sojourner. 

■• It . . . has led to the con jecttire that slie wiw. » 
yjriHD metic."—f\irrar .■ tit. I'aul, i. M^. (NoW-f 

' me-tic'-U-lous, «. [Lat. vuHcuIosus, fr<-)m 
inctus = {i'av ; Fr. vuticuleux.] Timid, fearful. 

" me-tic'-n-lous-lj?", adv. [Eng. vieticulous; 
■h/.] In a'timid, fearful manner; timidly. 

"^ me'-ti-er, 5. [Fr.] Profession, speciality, 

me'-tif, s. [Fr., from Low Lat. viixtivus, from 
Lat. miJtus, jia. par. <tf »ii'.-.r('o = to iriix.l A 
half-breed, between a white and a quadroon. 

Me-tis, s. [Gr.l 

1. Astron. : [Asteroid, 9]. 

2, Miith. : The daughter of Occanus, nnd 
the first wife of Jupiter. She was regiuded 
as the personification of Prudence. 

met'-o-che, .«. [Gr.= a sharing, from ^rrf'xw 
(mft(chd) — U} share: pref. mtiu- = with, and 
cxw (echO) = to share.) 

.rlrcft. : Tlie interval between the dentils in 
the louic entablature. 

met-6-le'-ic, «. [Pref. met-, and Eng. o/^tc] 

Contained in or derived from oil. 

metoleio-acid, s. 

chem. : An oily acid i>rod«ced bytlic action 
of water on snlphotic acid. It is very slightly 
soluble in alcohol, easily in ctlicr. 

me-ton'-Jc, a. [See def.] Of or i*rfnining 

!■' Mrtnu, an astrou'inier of Athens. 

metonio - cycle, metonic - year, <. 


met-o-nj^'-ic, mfit-d-nSrm'-ic-al, «. 

[Eng. mtt<-iiyju(ii); -i'- : -"-(W.j uf i>r iHTtiiin- 

boil, b^ ; po^t, jo^l ; cat, 9ell, chorus, jhin, bcnQh ; go. gem ; thin, this : sin, a§ ; expect, Xenophon. e^t, -in«, 
-oian, -tiau = shan, -tion. -sion = shun ; -tion, -jion = zhun, -clous, -tlous. -sious = shus. -ble, -die, ic. = bel, d^l. 


metonymically— metropolis 

lug to mrtonyiny ; used by mctrmyniy for 
^Sinnethiiig I'lsu. 

" lutrtcftt« turiiliigi, l>y a traiiBumi>tU-i> nnd ntefo- 
*)yiiifi-ii/ kluJ uf ii|N^'\.-li. lire i-HlUtl iiintiKlen."— /Jrij j*- 
tun lUttamvitd t" KitKj lleurif. (Note :^) 

met-o-njhn -ic-al-1^, (fdr. [Eiig. mctonirnii- 
oil : -/t/.J III u tia-luiiyiuical uiiiiiiier ; by way 
ol luetoiiyiuy. 

•■ llip ili»|>i«itioii also u( the coloured boily. a* that 
liiiKhlti.'« tlkv lit,-ht, ii>K> hv c:Ul«d li) that iiuuii: IcuWuiJ 
tit- IviiymiC'ilt^.' —tiv^le : PtVrt*, i. GTl. 

me-tdn -j^-my, ' me-ton-ym-le. j>. [Lat. 

a L-liaiige ol" naiiifs, the use of (ine word lor 
another : nerd {meUt), deiiuting cliaiige, and 
wofia (rvjioiiHi) = a name ; Fr. mctonyinit ; llal. 
& .Si". vietoHtmiu.] 

Ilhtt. : A ligmt of sjieech by which one 
■wiird is put iir used for another : as when the 
etlcct is substituted f*)r the cause, the inventor 
fur the tiling invented, the material for the 
thing made, 6:c. : as when we say, a man keeps 
a guod table — i.e., fimd, provisions, entertain- 
intnt ; urwe read rirgil—i.e., Vii-gil's writings 
or iiiifms/ iS:e. 

"To truifva, fouuilcd iiu tlieae sevcml rrlatiouB, of 
caiuM Hud etfect, cuiititiuer and coiiUil lied, al;^ and 
tiling' iii^iitied, in Klvt^it the iiaiiie uf inetvny^nti-' — 
iUair: iihvtoric, VoL i. iecL 14. 

met'-o-pe, s. [Gr. fj.€T6.{vuta) = \\'\i\\, between, 
and owt) (opt) ; an opening, a hole ; Fr. inttopt ; 
L;tt., llal., & Sji. vietoj^a.] 

Arch.: The sj'ace between the triglyphs in 
the frieze of the Doric order. 

"Tile centnim ... of the Partlienon tnetopet 
Iiiive a U'utAl or n seusiuJ exiireasiwu." — J/un*u^. 
i-itik ifciilftiire. 

me -to' -pi- as, 5. [Gr. /lerwirtas (vutdjnas) = 
li.ivmg a broad i>r high forelieiid.] 

Patwont. : A genus of Labyriuthodonts, 
fiiniily Euglypta, founded by Yon jVIeyer on 
I'l nijtins from upper beds of the Keujier Sand- 
stone iu Wurteniberg. Remains liave also 
been found in the Uhsetic of Aust Cliff, near 
Bristol. {Brit. Assoc. Eep., 1ST4, p. 157.) 

me-tdp'-ic, n. [Gr. ^ttTwiroc (Hte/o;)on) = the 
li-u-hi-ad; Eng. suH". -icj Pertiiining to the 


metopic-suture, s. 

Aiait. : Tlie same as Frontal-si"TL'Re(4.v.). 

met'-O-pO-lIlSjl-Cy, S. [Gr. /iexajn-oi' (mct- 
(jj)ii») = tlie countenance, and fiatn^Laiwanttia) 
=z divination.] Divination by looking at a 
person's face. 

"Geoujancy, cliiromaucj-. and -mi^tfjpoinditcy."— 
Vrqtthart : linbctaiii, bk. iii.. ch, xxv. 

* met-o-p6-sc6p'-ic, *met-6-p6-sc6p'- 

i-cal, o. [Eng. i)ietoposcnj>{y) ; -ic ; -ico.1.] 
l\itaiiiiiig or relatiug to luetoposcopy (q-v.). 

* met-o-pos'-co-pist, s. [Eng. m€toposco])(y) ; 

-if-f.] One wliu is versed iu luetoposcopy or 

* met-O-pOS-CO-py, ». [Gr. fLe-nonov (viHo- 
jion) = the forehead, and trKondia (skojieo)^ to 
see. to obseiTe ; Fi'. vietojioscapie ; Ital. & Sp. 
riietoposcopia.\ The study of physiognomy ; the 
art or science of detenniniiig the characters 
of men by the countenance or features. 

"Other sigus {of inelaticboly] there are takeu from 
physiognwiiiy. metopotcopy, chirumaiicy." — Burton : 
A iittt. of MclaiKholy. p. 35. 

met'-ra, s. [Gr. pi. of ti^rpov (metron)r=a. 

Phys. Science: An instrument, a conibina- 
tion of the thennometer, clinometer, goni- 
ometer, level, magnifying lens, measiu-e for 
wire gauze, I'luinmet, platinu scales, anemo- 
meter, &c., by which the temperature, direc- 
tion, and dip of rocks, the angles of cleavage 
and crystallization, the level nf workings, the 
latitude, &c., can be determined. 

* me'-tre (tre as ter), *mi-tre, v.t. [Metre, 
i.] To write in uietrt or verse. 

' [He] cuiu|)03ed a wliole booke in riil^ai verse, in 
\*liicli he mitrt-d aU those things vulgaihe epoken of 
this Walliise." — Jlotinthed: Ilitt. ticAtaud luu. 13u5). 

me -tre (tre as ter), *mee-ter, s. [Fr. 
vtetre, from Lat. vietrum; Gr. tiirpov (inetroii) 
= a measure, metre. Front the same root as 
mctc (1), I*.] 

1, Pros. : The rhythmical arrangement of 
syllables into verses, stanzas, strophes, &c. ; 
riiytbm, verse. 

" RhjTne being . . . but theinventionof abarbarons 
age. to set off wretched matter aud I'uue nu:eUr."— 
Milton. P.L. (Pref.) 

2. Mcitsi're: The Fremdi standard mea.sure 
of length, being the ten-milUouth jiart of the 
distam.-e fi'om the equator to tlie north pole, 
as ascertained by the actual measurement of 
un arc of the meridian. 

"A m*-tre is = I'OysflSSll jards or 39'S7(>.*32 Inches, 
the Htaiidiiid meirt betny tatceii aa eonectat V>V.. and 
t..e stMndard yunl lu correct nt 1G|^C'."— ^'pin-ff . 
C. U. .SL :ititteni tff Vnits. 

3. Miis.: A term used with various signidca- 
tions : (1) A foot, as a suUlivision of a bar or 
irieasure ; ('2) the rehitiou between two feet 
liaMug the siime sulxlivisions of time-units, 
but in a difl'erent older of succession ; (:j) the 
]iroper groujiing of a uumber of consecutive 

metre-seven, s. A method recommended 
b\ a iniiiniiltte of the IJritish Association 
for wiitiug 10' metres. (See extract.) 

"The approximate lenifth of a <i\iiulraut of one of 
the earth's uieridiaiu ia a nietrt^-aceeu or a eeutiinetre- 
uiue.'—nrport Itrit. Attvc. (Ibia), p. 'JSi. 

met'-ric,met'-nc-al»(i. (Fr. virtrique, fiom 

Lat. iiulricus; Gr. fjierpiKos (metrikot-), from 
/ieTpof (mitnni) = a nieasmc, metre ; Ital. i 
Sp. metrico.] 

1. Of or jiertaining to measuring ; employed 
iu measiu-ing. 

*2. Of or pertaining to metre, measure, or 

" So %-iirying atill their niouds. observing yet in all 
Their quantities, their rests, their ceit-mes uutri- 
cal. ' Drujflun : I'oly-Ulbiun, a. 4. 

3. Comi>osed in or consisting of vei-se ; 


metric-system, 5. The system adopted 
by tlie French conveiition in 17115, in which 
ail measures of length, area, capacity, Slid 
wtright are based upouthe length of a quadrant 
of tlie meridian measured between the equator 
aud the jiole. The ten-millionth part of this 
quadrantal arc was adopted to be tlie linear 
ineasuring unit, which they called "metre, " 
applying it equally to superficial and solid 
measures, taking for the unit of the former 
the square of the decuple, and for that of the 
latter the cube of the tenth part of the metre. 
They chose also for the measuring unit of 
weight the quantity of distilled water equal 
in bulk to the same cube at a certain teuij -era- 
lure. They also decided tbat the midtipks 
and sub-multiples of each kind of measm'e, 
whether of weight, CJipacity, surface, or 
length, shall be always taken in the decimal 
or decuple proportion, as the most simple, 
natural, aud easy for calculation. The metie 
is the basis of calculation ; from it are de- 
rived ; Of area : the are, 1 square decametre ; 
of capacity : the litre, 1 cubic decimetre ; of 
weight : the gruvime, 1 cubic centimetre of 
water. The names of the graduations below 
the unit are formed from the Latin, and above 
the uuit are formed from the Greek. 

met'-ric-al-ly, adv. [Eng. luetriml; -Jy.] 
in a juetrical manner. 

*me-tii'-cian, *me-tri-ci-en, 5. [Fr. 

■laetricien.] A writer or composer of verse; 
a poet, a metrist, a veisilier. 

"Aud in especially because he ueuer beseged dtie 
before, but either it waa yeldeu, or takeu, of tlie tyuie 
of this siege a metrician made these veises," — Ball ; 
Bvnry 17//. (au. 23). 

Biet-ri-5ist, s. [Eng. 7jw?rtc; -ist.] The same 
as Metkist (q.v.). 

" It is singular that the only metridst who ever 
attempted it wafi John Thelwall.' — Mheiueitm, May i. 
ISBt, p. 565. 

* met'-ri-9ize, v. t. [Eng. metric; -tze.] To 
adapt to the metric system ; to express ic 
terms of the metric system. 

" A graphic representfttiun of the size of the dif- 
ferent metriciz*^ intasures as uompaied with the old 
ones is given in a chart at the end of the vulume." — 
brit. Iputrtei-ly JlcvU-w. Ivii. 54T. 

met-ri-fi-ca'-tion, s. [Eng. metrify; c con- 
nective, and sutl". -atton.] The act of metrify- 
iug or com] losing verses. 

" Should 1 flounder awhile without a tumble 
Through this }ni.triftcatiu}i of Catullus." 

Teitiiyii07i : BeudfcaxyUabics. 
*" met'-ri-f i-er, s. [Eng. mttri/y; -er.] One 
who composes verses ; a versifier, a metrieist. 

[Eng. metre; -fy.] To com- 

• met'-ri-?y, i 

pose verses. 

" Where vpon he metrifivd after his mynde." 

Skclloit: Crotot 0/ Laurell, 

*me'-trist, s. [Eng. metr(c): -ist.] A writer 
ur com]'Oser of veises ; a versifier. 

" Such other blind popish poetes and dirtye 
Tnetrittet." — Bale: Itiiaue. pt. ii. 

mS-tri'-tiS, s. [Gr. ii.-qTpa{mHra) = the Womb, 
and suff. -itU, denoting iutlaiuiuatiou.] 

Pathol. : Inflammation of the paienchyma of 
the utei us. as distinguished from endometritis, 
catan'hal inflammation of its lining membrane. 
Other forms arc I'ammetritis and Ferimetritis. 

met'-rd-clir6me» 5. [Gr. ^eVpor (imtron)=. 
a measure, aud xC'^^*-<^ (i.7n(}/aa) = colour.] An 
instrument for measuring colour. It consists 
of three lioUow wedges of glass, of exactly tlie 
same angle and capacity, and accurately 
gi-aduated on the edge of the same uumber o'f 
etpial degrees. These wedges ai'c so aiTanged 
bitween two screens that any jiorlion of their 
tajieriug sides may be presented at will to an 
aperture through which a direct view may be 
had, or a ray of light thrown. 

met -ro-g^aph, s. [Gr. ^eVpor (m^Jro/)) = a 

m. ;isini', au<\ y(>di\)uy {'J ri' }<}!<'•) = i') write.] An 
apparatus to be attached to a locomotive, in- 
dicating on a tiuie-paper the speed with the 
number and duration of the various stoj'pages. 

* me-trol'-O-gy, s. [Gr. /leVpof (inetron) = a 

measure, aud Aoyos (logos) = a, treatise, a dis- 

1. .\ treatise on or account of weights and 

2. The art and science of mensuratiou. 

' met-ro-ma -ni-a, s. [Eng. metre, and Gr. 
/iai'ia (h(( ;((■[()= madness.] Au imiuodeiute 
eagerness for writing verses. 

* miet- ro - ma- ni- ac, «. [Metromaxia]. 

buttering from metromania ; mad after metrical 

"With almost mctrvtnauiac eagerness." — Taylor: 

Surrey German Povtry, i 


me-trom'-e-ter, s. [Gr. ftcTpoj- (mctron) = 
a nieasme, and Eng. vieter.] 

1. Sttrg. : Au instrmnent for measuring the 
size of the womb ; a hysterometer. 

2. Mus. : A metronome (q.v.). 

met-ro-nome, s. [Fr., from Gr. ^erpor 
{vutrou) = a, measme, aud »'o^os (noinos) = a. 
law ; Ital. metronomo.] 

Mns. : An instrument for beating and divid- 
ing the time in music ; a musical time-keeper. 
It has a small pendulum which, being set iu 
motion by clock-work, beats audibly a certain 
number of times in a minute ; and this 
number may be altered by moving a sliding 
weiglit so as to give it the speed required. To 
be correct, the metronome should beat seconds 
when set at 60. The invention of the instru- 
ment is claimed for John Maebiel, by whom it 
was pateuted in England on Dec. 5, 1S15, but 
his claim to the invention rests on very 
diiubtful authority ; the piiuciple he worked 
upon was that which had been carried out 
nearly 100 years before he was boi-n. Small 
pocket metronomes have since been invented. 

me-tron'-o-my. s. [Eng. metronom(e); -y.} 
'llic act of measuring time in music by meaus 
of a metronome. 

me-tro-per-i-to-ni'-tis, s. [Gr. firirpa 

(iUL^(')=thewumb, andEng.jpert(0Juiw(q.v.),J 
Pathol. : Pelvic peritonitis, inflammation of 
the peritoneum covering the uterus and its 
ai^pendages. Called also Pelvi-i)eritonitis, 
Perimetritis, &c. 

* met'-ro-ple, * met'-ro-pole, s. [Met- 


me-trop'-o-lis, s. [Lat., from Gr. jUjjTp^TroAi? 

(i)i'~tn}jiohs) = a. mother-state ; ecclesiastically 
the city of a jirimate, fiom^i^T7)p()»i*^(t'r), genit. 
/inrpo? (metros) = a mother, ami roAcs (potis) =■ 
a city ; Fr. vietropoh.] 

I. Ord. Lang. : The chief town or capital of 
a country, state, or kingdom, as London tif 
Great Britain, Paris of Fmnce. 

"We stopped at Pa via, that was once the metropolis 
of a kingdom, but at present a poor town."— Addison . 
On Itulff. 

IL 7'echnicaUy : 

1. Eccles. : The seat or see of a metropolitan 

"The precedency in each province was aitalgQed to 
the Biahop of the Metropolis. —Barrow: Oti the Popi'6 

2. Geog. & Biol. : A point so situated within 
an area through which a genus is distributed, 

, that iu whatever direction from it one goes, 
tlie species diminish. (S. P. Woodward : Mol- 
lii^ca (ed. 1S75), p 52.) 

iate, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father : we, -wet, here, camel, her, there : pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, pot, 
or, wore, wolf, work, who, son ; mute, ciih, ciire, unite, cur, rule, full ; try, Syrian* je, oe = e ; ey — a ; qu = kw. 

metropolitan— Mexican 


met-ro- pol'-it-an, a. & s. [Lat. metmpoU- 
ttiinis, from uKtropvUs = a liletritpnlis ; Fr. 
>iu}(r<>po!itii.iii ; lUil. &. Sp. nu'tropoliUitw.] 

A, As wljective : 

I, Ordinary Language: 

1. Of or l>eliiiigiiig to a metropolis; residing 
in it metropolis. 

■■ ()n>%-es . . . i-reftrred t<i smuke, to tlic ecUiwe 
Tliiit inetroiiolitan vuluuuocn uinke." 

CotDfM-r : Tiittfc, lii. "ST. 

2. Having the position or rnnk of a metro- 
polis ; as, a metropolitan city. 

II. Et-dcs. : Having the authority of a metro- 
politan ; proceeding from a metropolitan. 

" A bishop fit thrtt time lind jiowur in liis own dio- 
cese over a11 ntber uiini»tft'3 there. ;uui a irn-lmp'ilitim 
bishop sundry prcheiiiineiioes alt.ive ulhtr bishMpa. "— 
Hooker: Kcvlesuijitit^ttl Polith; Ifk. viii,, j S. 

B, As sitbstnntire : 

'" 1. A bi-sliop resident in a metrnpoli.*?. 
2. A bishop having authority over the other 
bisliops of a pi-ovinee ; an archbisliop. 

■ The ArchbUhopriukeof Ouiterltiiry. MriroiwHOmf, 

id rpiii ■ -■■■-■ • ■ ' - 

(an. 456). 


.■uid Tpiuiate of ;ill Euglimd."— Sfow.- Kcntith Saxons 

■[ A metropolitan was at first one whose 
episcopal functions were extended over a 
metropolis and the country of wliich it was 
the seat of government. That metropolis, 
once the chief city of an independent state, 
iiiighc have sunk into a provincial capit^il— 
i.i'., tlie capital of a i)rovince of the Roman 
Empire. When the bishnjts of that piovinee 
met in a provincial council, tire metropolitan 
presided. Under Constaiitine, the provinces 
over which they ruled were made as much as 
possible conterminous with those gtivermd 
by civil rulers of corresponding rank. The 
leading metropolitans in the fourth century 
were those of Rome, Antioch, and Alexandria. 
The last two developed into patriarchs, and 
the first into the pai»acy. In England the 
Archbishops of Canterbury aiid York are tlie 
metropolitans of their respective provinces. 

3. In the Greek I'hurch the title of a digni- 
tary intermediate between an archbishop and 
a i>atriiirch. 

* 4. A chief ruler. 
" Let hiiu your rubric and your feasts prescribe, 
Gnuid Mftropolit'tn of Jill the tribe. 

C'owper Pro'jraiu nf Error, 1S6, 

t met-ro-pol'-it-an-ate, s. [Eng. mHro- 
pohtiin : -f'/c. 1 The ottice or see of a metro- 
pulitau bishop. 

* me-trop'-6-lite, s. & a. fFr. mrtmpnUtr ; 

Lat. tt Ital. niefropolita ; Gr. ^TjTpoTroAtTTj? 

A, As subst. : A metropolitan. 

B. As adj. : Metropolitan. 

■' The whole couutrey of Russia is temteci by some 
by the u.iuie of 3Ios€outii, the mvlropulitt city."— 
Um-khiyC : Voyages, i. il'i. 

• xne-tro-pdl'-it-ic, ' met-ro-po-lit'-ic- 

al« '(. [Metropolis.] 

1. Ord. Lanij. : Of or peilaining to a metro- 
polis ; metropolitan. 

2. Eccks. : Pertaining to a metropolitan. 

" The nietropolitiail church of Jerusalem." — ^p. 
Buriley : SermriuB, Vol. i., ser. 8. 

me-tro-rrhag-i-a, s. [Gr. ix-qTpa{mitra) = 
the wuml», and pj^yii/^t {rhiijn iimi) = to break ; 
cf. paya? (r/i<»!/as), pay»j (rha^fe) = a rent.] 

I'hysiol. : A loss of blood during the inter- 
vals of regular menstruation, or o( snch an 
jrregidar nature that no monthly periodicity 
can be detected. A fietxuent cause is tumours, 
ulceration, &c. 

met'-ro-scope* s. [Gr. i^-qTpa (nutra) = the 
wuiiib, and aKon-ew (skopeu) — to see.] 

■)>iirg. : An instrument invented by M. 
Nauche, for listening to the sounds of the 
heait of the foetus in utero-gest-ation. Tlie 
extremity was suggested by the stethoscope 
of Laeunec, and is introduced through the 
vagina ami applied against the neck of the 
uterus. It is used when the sounds and 
movements are imperceptible tlirough the 
parietes of the abdomen. 

Xae-tro-sid'-er-ds, s. [Gr. /n^Tpa (mctra) — 
a womb, thir heart of a trei-, and o-<.'6»ipo« (sid- 
eras) = iron ; so named from the hardness of 
its wood.] 

Bot. : A genus of Myrtaceae, tribe Lepto- 
spenneje. It consists of plant*', many of 
which climb, wliilst the Myrtaceie of other 
genera are erect. Metrosideros polymnrpha, or 
some allied species, is supposed to furnish the 

hard, heavy, dark-brown timber fnnn whiih 
the South Sea Islanders nnike tln-ir clubs. 
M. roUwita and .V. fo?nt/i/oat are used in New 
Zealand for shiiibuilding. 

met' rd-tome, ^^ [Gr. n-ftrpa. (mutm) = the 

wonilt, au"i -totxT) (tonie) — a cutting. 1 

Sunj. : An instrument like a bistoury cacln-, 
which is introcluced into the cavity of the 
uterus, where the knife is unslu-athcil and 
cuts cm withftrawing. Its purpose is to divide 
the neck of the uterus ; a liysterotome. 

me-trox'-Sr-lon,-". [Gr. ti-ijTpa(ni?tra)= . . . 
the pith ur heart of a tree, and fuAoi' (xuion) 
= wood.] 

Bot. : A genns of Palms, tribe Calameie. It 
i.-i sometimes made a synonym of Sagus 
(q.v.), but V(ui Martins retains the mime 
Jletro.xylon, and divides the genus into two 
sub-genera, Sagus and PigafettJi. MHroxyhm 
(Sagiis) h've and Af. (Sagus) Rumphii furnish 
sago (q.v.). [Saoo-palm.] 

met'-tle, s. [The same word as Metal (q-v.).] 
* 1. Metal. 

*"2. Stuff, material ; the .substance of whidi 
a thing is composed. 

* 3. Quality, character. 

" Shew UB here 
The mettle of your pastui-e." 

ShtikeMp. : llftirg \'., iii. 1. 

4. Disposition, temper, spirit, constitutional 
ardmu- ; high courage or spirit ; lire. 

■' But Uullcw men. like horses hot at hiiiid. 
Make gallant show and promise of their mettle.' 
a'A<(Am;', : Julius Ctesar, iv. :;. 

^ To put a nmii oii or to his mettle : To ex- 
cite or arouse a man to do his utmost ; to 
place a man in a position where he must use 
his utmost exertions. 

met -tied (tied as teld), o. [Eng. mc«?(f) ; 
-((/.] Kull of mettle or spirit ; high-spirited, 
tieiy, ardent. 

" A horseman darting from the crowd 
Spura ou hia mettled courser proud." 

Scott: Marmion, \. 3. 

met'- tie -some, a. [Eng. victtk; -sonw.] 
Full of mettle, fiery, spirited, eagei-. 

" But their force differs from true spirit, as much as 
a \icioU3 from a itiettletctme huTw/'—Ttit/er, So. Cl. 

met'-tle-some-l^?", adv. [Eng. mettksnme ; 
'lij.\ In a metTlesonie manner; with mettle 
(II' higli spirit. 

met'-tle-some-ness, s. [Eng. mcttlesomr ; 
-a>:^$.] The .piiility or state of being mettle- 
some ; mettle, .■spirit. 

m.e-tu'-Sl-^t, s. [Gr. jLtcTOucria {metoxaia) = 
a shaiing, a comnumicating.] One who holds 
the doctrine of transubstantiation. 

"The mittnsiafts and Papists." — liogers: Thirty- 
u'me Article*, p. -JSy. 

*met-wand, s. [Metewand.] 

metz-ger -i-a, s. [Named after John Metzger, 
who died in 1S5*_'.] 

U'<t. : The typical genus of the family Metz- 
gerid;e (q.v.). The fronds are forked; the 
iVnit springs from the under side of tlie mid- 
I ib, and has a one-celled involucre. Mttzijvria 
fmcata is common on trees, rocks, &c. It is 
liairy beneath and smoutltabove. M.pubescen.s 
is largei', and is hairy ouTjoth sides. 

metz-ger'-i-dSB, s. pi. [Mod. Lat. mctzgcr- 
{Lit); Lat. leni. pi. adj. sutf. -ida:.] 

Bot. : A family of Jungermanniacea?, sub- 
order Jungermannete. 

meu, s. [Mew (4).] 

me'-iim (I), .«. [Lat., from Gr. fj-rjov (mcou) — 
MtutiL athamantivum or M. Matthioli.] 

Bot. : Meu, Bald Money, or Spiguel ; a 
genus of Umbellifers, family Seselinida*. The 
fruit is elliptical, with live prominent, carinale, 
eipial libs, and many vittte in the interstii'es ; 
the petals entire, elliptical, with the tips in- 
curved ; the partial invohu-re of many leaves. 
Menm nthamanticum, the Meu or Uald Mom-y, 
is found in the alpine parts of Scotland and 
tlie north of England. It has a setaeeo- 
niultilid leaf, and yellowish, i)owerfuUy-aro- 
matic flowers. The roots of M. atluiwantifimi 
and ^f. MtctdHna are aromatic and carniina- 
tive. They are eaten by the Scotch Hi^di- 
landers. They enter as an ingredient into 
Venice treacle. 

me'-iim (2), i. [Ljit. neut. sing, of tnfi'x = 
mine.) Mine; that which in mine or belongs 
tome. Only used in the phrase nu-um >'n<l 
tuum = my propi-ity and your-w, or another's ; 
a.s, He does not make any distinction between 
metim and tHum. 

' meut«, s. [Low Ijit. mi((rt.I A mew for 
biiwks. [Mew (3), $.\ 

*mev-a-ble, a. [Movable.] 

*meve, v.t. [Move, v.] 

mew (ew as u) (1), ' mawo, s. [A.S. nUw; 
ct'gn. with liiit. met uir; Icel. mdr ; Dan. 
mua^fr; Sw. make ; Gcr. mij\oe ; all tiiken fiom 
tlie cry of the bird.] A sea-mew, a gull. 

mew (ew as u) (2), 5. [Mew (2). v.] The cry 

of a cat. 

" I'd r.ilher Iwakitt^'U and cry »u-w." 

B a kitt<-n and cry i 
Sh»kt*i>. : 1 llr, 

ry n:. Ill, I. 

* mew (ew as u) (3), * mewe, * meuwe, 

' mue, .<. [Fr. ni((c = a changing or moult- 
ing nt the feathers, from tnuer; Lat. niuto = 
to change.] 

1. A ciige for hawks or other birds whilst 
moulting ; a coop for fowls. 

" Italy, ^imin. Artois, and now o( late France Ibu'lf, 
provides nt-Hts. and perches, and nunori, for tliL»e 
birds."— /(/>. Jlatl : t^uo I'atiU / i 23. 

2. A place of confinement; au inclosed 

"Forth cuuiiug from her darksome mfw." 

Spfiucr: F. y., I. y. 2). 

3. A den. {Spenser: F. Q., V. ix. 14.) 

4. (PI): [Mews]. 

mew (ew as u) (4), 5. [Mei;m (1).] 

Bot. : The genus Meum(4.v.), and especially 
Meuyn athanututicnm. 

mew (ew as u) (I), v.t. & i. [Mew (3), *•.] 

A. Ti'tnsitivt: : 

' 1. To change, to moult, to slied, to cast. 

"The king Iihs inc(f«/ 
All his gray beard." Font : Hr^jkcu Heart, ii. 1. 

2. To shut up, to enclose, to coiiline. 
" I suffered in your abseuce, meweil up here." 
Beaum. A Ftct. : i/iiuuutroiu Lifuttitant, iv. 9. 

B, Intrans. : To movdt ; to cast or shed the 
feathers ; hence, to change ; to assume a new 

"One only »"'* to his back, which now is meicmt I " 
Jieaum. A Flvt. : J/orictt .Miuin Fortimv.'w i. 

mew (ew as a) (2), * maw, * meaw, r.i. 
[«,>( imiUitive origin ; cf. Ters. jauu' = the 
niewing of a cat ; Wei. mtwian ; Ger. miaucn 
— to mew.] To cry as a cat. 

* mewe, s. [Mew (:i), 5.] 

In mewe : In secret. 

* mewes, s. pi. [Mews.] 

* mew-et, a. [Mite.] 

mewl (ew as u), i\L [Fr. miaukr.] [Mew 
(2), v.\ To cry or squall as a child. 

"Tlie infant 
Mealing and pukiuK in the nurae s anus. ' 

Shaktsi/. : At i'tnt Like It, li. 7 

mewl (ewas u), a [JIewl, v.] The cry or 

S'pbdl of a child. 

mewl'-er (ew as u), s. (Eng. uwwl, s. ; -tr.l 
One wlio mewls, eiies, or .s<[U;iUs. 

mew§ (ew as a), * mewes, »-■ ;>/. [M^w 

(3), 5.] 

1. (P''i9-)' The royal stables in London; 
hence, a place where CJtrriage-hoi-ses.arestable(I 
in towns. 

" On the North side uf ChariUK Crum stand tho 
royal stiibWit, called from the uiiuitial ukv uf the bulld- 
{u^» on thfir 8it«, the mewt : having i-m-n umkI for 
keviiinii.' tht^ ktng's ftdcous, at least fr<>ui the time of 
RitliJU-d U"~l'ennunt: London, p. 151. 

2. (via' a sing.): A lane or alley iu wliich 
mews or stables are situated. 

mex'-cal, mex'-i~cal. >-. [Sp. ; cf. nuidg, 
= mixture ; mczctur =■ to mix.J [Mescal.] 

Meat-i-C^n, a. & s. [bee def.] 

A. Am adj.: Of or pertaining to Mexico, or 

its inhabitants. 

B. .4s subst. : A native or inhabitant uf 


Mexican blue-jay, s. 

Ornitli. : The popular name for (1) Cyano* 
cilta attrmatu, and (2) C. diinkmuttt, the latter 
Iteing I'robably rather a variety tlian aspccies. 

"hniU bo^ ; poiit, j6^1 ; cat, 9ell, cboms. 9IUI1, benqh : go, gem ; thin, this ; sin. as ; expect, ^enophon, exist, ph - C 
-cij*n, -tlan — shan. -tion, -sion = shun ; -tion, -?ion = zhun. -cious, -tious, -sious = shus. -ble, -dlo, »^;c. = b? 1, d^U 


meymacite— mica 

Mexican brush-turkey, s. 

Vrnifli. : M''>'t"jris mfjciaina. 

Moxican-llly. 5. 

i:.f. ; A'li-inillU regince. 

Mexican-mugwort, j. 

Jkt. : ,-l»7. .vii-sj"-' in'-iic'ina. 

Mexican sub-region, s. 

deo't. .{■ Zool. : A comparatively small sub- 
region, consisting of tlie irregular neck of 
lan.l, .iliout l.Sno miles long, wliieh connects 
the Noitli ami S'Hith Arnericaii continents. 

Mexican-tea, jt. 

/."'( .■ /'.-iOfM/i't 'jlandtdosa. 
Mexican tiger-flower, 5. 

i;>'t. : Ti'jri.iUi ravonio. 

Mexican tree -porcupine, ■<^. 
Zo'-I. : Sphin'jnnis mcxiaiint:^. It has a ]»re- 
hensilf tail, anil climbs trees with gieat ease. 

Mexican-turkey, s. 

(trfiidi. : Mi'lecgris mcjrioina. 

niey'-nia-9ite, s. [N'amed after the place 
uheie it" was fuinul,] [See clef.] 

Mill.: A yellow or greenish-yellow mineral 
resulting from the alteration of scheelite 
((j.v.). Friable. Sp. gr. 3-S0to4-54; compos.: 
a liydrated tungstic acid, having the formula 
Wd;(*2PH ). Found, with wolfram and scheelitt, 
at Mfymac, Correze, France. 

' meynt. pret. & %xt. pnr. nf v. [Mbkge.] 
Mingled, niixed. (Spenser: Sheji^teards Calen- 
der; July.) 

mez'-cal, y. [Mexcal.] 

me-zer'-e-6n, me-zer'-e-um, <;. [Fr. 

rii^^treoii : Sp. viercreon, Irom Pers. &, Arab. 
viasrigoii Ji.] 

Hot. : Daphne Mezereum, a small shrub with 
deciduous obovate or spathulate lanceolate 
leaves : fiowei-s generally in threes ; silky-pink 
or white; very fi-ngrant. Berries red, ovoid. 
FoutkI perhajis wild in the south of England ; 
a denizen elsewhere. Acrid and poisonous ; 
the berries are cathartic ; the leaves used as 
a vesicant. 

mezereum -bark, 5. 

Fharm. : The bark of mezereum. It is used 
in England as an ingredient in the compnund 
rlecoctiou of sarsaparilla, in chronic rheumat- 
ism, toothache, scrofula, skin diseases, and 
sypliilis. and externally with nuistard, in th«i 
compound mustard liniment, as au irritant 
and vesicant. Au ointment of it is used in 

mez'-za-nine (mez as metz), s. [Fr., from 
Ital. mezzanino, from viezzo =■ middle.] 

1. Arch. : A low window occurring in attics 
and entresols. Sometimes applied to an entve- 
s(d. A mezzanine story is a half story; one 
lower than the stories above and below it. 

2. Thi-atriccd: 

(1) A floor between the stage and the bottom 
of the deep cellars of large theatres, from 
which floor the short scenes and traps are 
worked, the large scenes going down througli 
openings into tlie cellar. Hence the name, 
from lieing midway between the stage and 
cellar floor. 

(2)'Tlie space beneath the. st;ige. between it 
antl(l)as ground floor may mean either the 
floor itself or the room on the ground floor. 

mezzo, mez'-za (mez as metz), nt^i-. 

Mimic: Half or medium, as, mezza bravura, 
semi bravura style; mezzo soprano, a voice 
lower in range than a .soprano and higlier than 
a contralto; mezzo tenore, a voice of tenor 
ipi;ility and baritone range, &c. 

mezzo ri-li-e-vo (mez as metz), 5. [Ital.] 

mez'-zo-tint, mez -zo- tin- to (mez a-: 

metz), s. [Ital. 7iiec;(' = half, and (i*tYo = tint 
(q,v.).J A process of engraving on copper. 
The smooth plate is abraded with a roughened 
tile-like tool, and myriads of tiny points are 
raised over the surlace of the plate. These 
lioints catch and hold the ink, and au impres- 
sion taken from a plate in this condition would 
give a soft velvety mass of black without 
variety of light and shade. A burnisher is 
next used to get rid of the raised points where 

half tones and lights are wanted. Sometimes 
where very brilliant high lights are required, 
they are cut away so as to ensure a smooth 
surface of copper. Uy means of this burnish- 
ing ])rr>, all gradations of light and shade 
are obtaine<l from the white of the smooth 
copper to the black of the roughened plate. 
The process dates frimi about the niidiUe of 
the seventeenth century. 

mez -zo-tint-er (mez :is metz), ■!. [Bug. 

mt-zzntint ; -fi:] ()iie wlio practises or is skilled 

ill luezzotinlo eir.;raviiig. {Fall Midi (iazette, 

3Iay 11", 1S>S4. 
mezzo-tin -to (moz as metz), s. [Ital.] 


mez -z6- tin -to. mez -zo- tint (mez as 
metz), v.t. [MtzzoTiNTO, s.J To engrave in 

"Tlio jilcture w;is «fterwanU inetiotinted very in- 
AitivrenUy." — HtuchwooU's Muj/atiiie, Svv. 1B81, i>, Ouu- 

M. F. [Seedef.] 

Music: Jlezzo forte. [Mezzo.] 

M.G. [Seeder] 

Music : An alibreviatiou of main gauche (Fr.) 
= the left hand. 

mi, s. [Ital.i 

Music : 

1. A syllable used to indicate e, the third 
note in the scale of c. 

2. In sobnisation IMi always indicates the 
leading note. 

mi b^mol. s. The note f. flat. 

mi b^mol majeur 01 mineur, s. The 

key of K flat major or minor. 

mi contra fa. *■ The name given by 
tlie old contrapuntists to the tritone, which 
was always to be avoided— " mi contra fa est 

nu-a'-n^ (l), s. [Gr. /xtaiVw (miaino) = to 
stain. (Aiiassiz.y] 

Eutnm. : Agenus of moths, group Xoctuina, 
f iiiiily Apamidre. It contains literosa, 
the Rosy Minor, so called from a rosy liue 
with which its gray fore wings are tinged, and 
M. furuncuht, which flies in numbers iu the 
afternoon iu England. 

Mi-a'-na (2), s. [See def.] 

Gc«fj. : A town in Persia, province Azerbijan. 

Miana-bug, s. 

Zool. : A tifk. Argas persiciis, the bite of 
which is very severe, and in some cases is 
said to prove fatal. 

mi-ar-gy- rite, s. [Gr. fxeCiav (meidn) = less, 
and apyvpo^(argyros) = silver; Ger. miargyrit.] 
Milt. : A rare mineral occurring only iu 
crystals, wiiich are thick, tabular, or short; 
prismatic in habit; crystallization, monoclinic ; 
liardness, 2 to 'lb ; sp. gr. 5"2 to 5*-i ; lustre, 
sulunetallic ; colour, iron-black, but in thin 
sidinters by transmitted light, a deep blood- 
red ; streak, dark-red ; fi-acture, subconchoi- 
dal ; compos. : sulphur, 21 'S ; antimony, 41'5 ; 
silver, 3i57 = 100, represented by the formula 
AgS + SbiSs. Found associated with otlier 
silver minerals at Freiberg, Saxony ; Przibram, 
Bohemia, and other silver-iuoducing localities. 

mi'-as, s. [For etym. see def. and extract.] 
Zool. : Tlie Malayan name of the Oi-ang- 
utan, introduced into zoological literature by 
Mr. A. R. Wallace. 

" I . . . will now give some ftcconnt of my experience 
ill huntiiit; tlie Oraug-ut-iu. or Mia*, rs it is cniled by 
tlie iiiilivea ; and, as this nnme is short ami easily i>ri>- 
uouiiceJ, I shnll geueiJiUv uae it in pvefereiice to Shnia 
ftti/riLs or Orjxug-uiau." ~ Afaluy Archipelago (1872). 
1.. 40. 

mi'-ask-ite, mi'-asc-ite, s. [Xamed from 

Miask in the Ural Mountains where it occurs.] 

Petrol. : A granular slaty rock resembling 

granite, but having the quartz replaced by 


mi-^^m', "" mi-^'-ma (pi. ^mi-a^ms, 
mi-as'-ma^, mi-a^'-ma-ta), s. [Gr. 
/i.itto'/j.a (miiisma), genit. /j-tao-^iaTos (miasmatn::>) 
= pollution, stain, fnun ^tau-io {miai)in)=to 
stain ; Fr. miusme.] The etflnvia or fine jmr- 
ticles of any jiutrefying matter, rising and 
floating in tlie atmosphere, and dangerous to 
health ; noxious exhalations, emanations, or 
eftluvia ; malai-ia; infectious substances float- 
ing in the air. 

nu-S,s'-mal, «. [Eng. miasm; -nl] Of th« 
natuV of 'miasma ; containing miasma ; mias- 

*' \\> re-njioiid with our miatmnt tog 
And caU it uiuniitiiig higher." 

E. ii, Urowniiig: Aurora Leigh, vll 

mi-^-md.t'-ic, mi-a^-mat -ic-al, a. [Or. 

^ta<7/ja iMi'<^>iw), genit. ^::-i<T)u.aTOs {minsnui- 
In^); Eng. adj. sufl". -ic, -ta(^] Peiijuning to 
miasma; having the nature or qualities of 
miasmatic remittent-fever, s. 

Piith. : A name us.-d by Tanner {I'ractice of 
M'd. (ed. 7th). i. ;trj) lor remittent fever. lie 
calls it also malarial remittetit-fever, denotinj; 
that it origiuates from miasuia or malaria. 

mi-S^'-ma-tist, s. [Gr. fiiatrna (miasmaX 
u''-iiit. ^i.itT^taTo? (miosmotos) : Eng, suff. -f'sf.J 
(jiie wiio i.s versed in tlie nature, properties, 
an<l character of miasmatic exhalations ; nna 
who has studied and understands the cha- 
racter of miasmata. 

mi-as-mol'-d-gj^, .«. [Eng. miasvia, and Gr. 
\6y ok {luiji>s)= a. woixl, a discourse.! A treatise 
on miasmatic exhalations ; the science of uti- 

mi-d.s'-tor, s. [Gr. masTTuip (miastor)= a. 
guilty wretch, one who brings pollution ; 
fiiaii'iMi ()niaind)= to stain, to defile.] 

Kntivn. : A remarkable genus of the dipter- 
ous family Cecidomyid;e, created in 1860 by 
Dr. AVaguer, jnofessor in the University of 
Kasan. The larvie live under the bark of 
trees, and develop organs similar to ovaries, 
in which hirvte are produced ; these, having 
literally devoured their parents, break out, 
leaving nothhig but the empty skin. This 
process is repeated during theautunm, winter, 
and spring. In the summer the genera- 
tion undergo a change to the pupa sUte, .nnd 
from the pupa perfect males and females 
emerge ; the latter, after impregnation, deposit 
their eggs, and the larva; jnoduced commence 
a fresh series of organic broods. 

miaul (1 as y), v.i. [Fr. miauler.] To cry 
like a cat ; to mew. 

mi'-ca, s. [Lat. wa'crt = a crumb; Fr. & Sp. 
m ii-it . Not related to Lat. mico =■ to shine, to 

Mui. : A name originallygivento the shining, 
sciily constituent of many rocks and earths. 
The great diversity of chemical composition 
and other characters led to its division into 
several species, which were su]iposed to have 
distinctive crystallograpliic and chemical cha- 
racters. The wiu'd is now used to rlesignate 
a group of minerals liaving certain characters 
in common, the most important of which is 
the eminently perfect basal cleavage, which 
alfords very tiiin, tough, and shining lamina^. 
The species hitherto distinguished are, Phlo- 
gopite, Lepidolite and Cryophyllite (regarded 
as orthorhombic) ; Biotite (hexagonal); Lepi- 
donielane (hexagonal ?) ; Astroidiyllite and 
Muscovite (ortlKjrhombic. but with monoclinic 
habit). Tschernuik, who has recently optically 
investigated this ditlicult group of minerals, 
refers them all to the niomjclinic system, his 
examinations showing that the axis of elas- 
ticity is inclined a few degrees to the normal 
to the plane of cleavage, Rauer confirms 
these results. Tschermak divides the micas 
into two groups : those which are characterized 
by having the ojitic-axial plane peri>cndicular 
to the plane of symmetry, which includes 
Anomite, Lepidolite, Muscovite, Paragonite, 
and Margarite ; and those which have the 
optic-axial plane parallel to the plane of sjnn- 
metry, and whicli embraces Meroxene, Lepi- 
domelane, Phlogopite, and Ziniiwaldite. Ram- 
melsberg, as tlie result of a chcmicid investi- 
gation of this group, divides them into the 
alkali micas, magnesium mica, iron-magnesium 
mica, lithium-iron mica, and barium mica. 
The species and varieties belonging to this 
important group are, Anomite, Astrophyllite, 
Biotite, Cryophyllite, Euchlorit*, Fuchsite, 
Haughtonite, Lepidolite, Lepidonielane, Mar- 
garite, Margarodite, Sleroxene, Muscovite, 
Uellacherite, Paragonite, Phengite, Phlogo- 
pite, Siderophyllite, and Zinnwaldite. (See 
these words.) 

mica-basalt, $• 

retrot. : Any basalt rich in mica, those of 
the normal type having it only in small quan- 
tity, and as a mere accessory. 

I&te. fat, fkre, amidst, what, fall, father ; we, wet, here, camel, her. there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, p5t, 
or, wore, wolf, work, who, son ; mute, cub, ciire, unite, cur. rule, full ; try, Syrian, se, ce = e; ey = a ; qu = kw. 

micaceo — micrastur 


mica chlorite, >. 

Mill. : Tli'/ same as RirtDitLiTF (ii.v,). 

xnlca - schist, micaceous - schist, 
mlcaslate, ^. 

i.'k"!. .(■ I'etrol. : A slnty inetainorpluc rock 
cuiiipn>fil (if mica ami quartz. The mica is 
usiKilly iiiiiscovitt.'(i>i)tash mica), though some- 
times It is Miilite (iii:i;.' mica). '1' he rock 
usually splits aluif; tlie micaceous folia. Ur- 
casionally mica seems to constitute tlio whuh- 
mass of tlie rock. Next tn gneiss, mica-schist 
is the most common nietamnrphic rock. It 
sometimes passes graduiilly into others of the 
same series. The addition of makin-,' 
it become gneiss, and a decrease in the amount 
of quartz witli an increase of cldorite makes it 
chlorite schist. Sorby has seen traces of lip- 
jtle rocks. Various imbe<lded minerals occui", 
as quartz, garnet, &c. 

mica-syenite, s. 

i'drol. : A rock consisting of orthnnlaso, 
sometimes more or less plagioclastic felspar, 
biaxial magncsian mica, hornblende, occasiiui- 
allv with aiv.Mte. &c. Occurs in veins or dykes, 
chiefly in C;ilal.ria. {Rntley.) 

' mlca-trap, s. 

Petrol. : A name of a vnlciinic rock, now 
distinguished into two : viz., Minette and 
Kersantite (q.v.). 

mi-ca-ce-o- (ce as she), i^ref. [>ficACEoi's.] 

+ micaceo-calcareous, a. Calcareous 
with mica m layers. 

mi-ca'-ceoiis (ce ;is sh), mi-ca- clous, ". 

IKiig. mkia) ; -owon^.] Pertaining to or of 
the nature of mica ; containing or resembling 
mi<-a ; hence, sparkling. 

"The sparkling i>r ntic<tcion» fstjle] poasesaed liy 
HRzJitt."— .v>i(rAfi/.- The Ooitor, Intercli. xxii. 

micaceous - felstone, «. A felstone 
having nmch mica in its composition. It 

cli's-ly api-roailies sotue ^>f tho line-grained 

micaceous iron-ore, s. 

Miti. : A variety uf h;pmatite (q.v.), occur- 
ring in thin tables or as aggregated folia, mica- 

+ micaceous -rocks, s. pi. Rocks hav- 
ing miia in layers, i.r intei'spersed— as mica- 
schist and gneiss. 

mlcaceouS'Sandstone, '^. 

Peti-"!. <{■ C'.'o!. : .Samlstnne with thin silvery 
]>lates of mica arrang-^d in layers parallel to 
the planes of stratiticatinn, making the rock 
slaty. It was formed under running water, and 
is occasionally ripidc-markedand sun-cracked. 

micaceous-schist, s. [Mica-schist.] 

mi-ca-fi'-lite, s. [Micaphilite.] 

Ml'-cah. s. [Heb. rO^O (Mikhak), for ^n;Tp 

{^[ik■halJdhu) = Who is like Jehovah? Sept. 

Gr. Mixo"i5 {M ic}udas),'\ 

1. Scrip. Bior}. : Various persons with their 
names spelled Micah, Michah (1 Chron. xxiv. 
24, 35), or Jlicha (2 Sam. ix. 12), are mentioned 
in the Old Testament. Specially : (1) A priest 
(Jmlges xvii.. xviii.) believed to have been a 
descendant of Sloses, written Manasseh (xviii. 
30). (2) The prophet called Micah the Sloias- 
thite, perhaps to distinguish him from Micaiah, 
the son of Inilah, who lived in the reign of 
Ahab. Hlorasthite means nf Moreslieth, pro- 
bably Moresheth-gatli (Jlicah i. 14). Scarcely 
anything is known nf him, except what may 
be gathered from his prophecies. 

2. Old Test. Canon : The sixth in order of tho 
*' minor prophets," i.e.. of the minor prophetic 
books. The title states that "the word of 
the Lord came to Micah theMorasthite in the 
days of Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of 
.Jndah." The visions seen, liowever, were con- 
cerning Samaria and Jerusalem, the cajntal nf 
the ten tribes, it will be observed, standing 
before that of the two (i. 1). Jeremiah attri- 
butes at least the i<rophecy in Jlicah iii. 12 to 
the reign of Hezekiah (Jer. xxvi. IS. 19). The 
corrnjitions of the ten tribes and of the two are 
denounced ; and the pro]iliet foretells the de- 
struction of both feamaria and Jerusalem (i. o, 
G ; iii. S-12) ; the captivity in Babylon (iv. In) ; 
ihe world-wide spiritual influence to be ulti- 
mately exercised by Jerusalem and Zion, and 
the rise of a ruler to be boni in Betlilehem, 
"whose goings forth have been from of old, 



ch. i 





ii. D. 



everlasting" (v. 1, 2). The most natural 
ion of the book is into three sections, 
-ii., iii. -v., ami vi.-vii.. each Iteginnin- 
a formula calling on the people to h<-ar 
iii. 1). Passages in Micah I'esemble 
•s in Isaiah (cf. .Micah iv. 1-5 with Isu. ii. 
Micah is quoted or alluded to in Matt, 
fi, X. :{j, 3<i : Mark xiii. 12 ; Luke xii. i>:\ ; 
vii. 42. The canonical authority of the 
iias never been doubted. 

mi-ca-phi lite, mi cafi-lite, mi-ca- 
phyl-lite, .-■. [Fiom Kng. mmt .- Or. <i,i\Q<; 
{philos)= friend, and sulf. -ite (Min.).] 
Min. : The same as Axdalusite (q.v.). 

mi-ca-phyl'-lite, v'^. [MiLAruiLixE.] 

mi-ca-relle, mi-ca-rel -lite, 5. [Eng. 

liiUu'; suir. -rclU, -rtllUe {Min.).] 
Mineralogy : 

1. A name used to designate the original 
nnneral (wliicli is at present unknown), from 
which the pinite of Stolpeu, near Neustadt, 
was tlerivcd. 

2. The nnca which is pseud omorplious after 
scapolite from Arendal, Norway. Colour 
greenish-white ; hardness, 2 toy ; sp. gr. 2'S3:> ; 
It is a potash mica, conUuning from j"7 to ti"7 
per cent. Occurs embedded in quartz. 



mi9e, 5. pL [Mouse.] 

* mice-eyed, «. Keen-eyed. 

" .A tegiou of inice-ei/ed detiplitfrers." — Xashe : Lcili'n 

mi9h, V. i. [MicHE.l 

mi'-Chael, s. [See def.] A fine variety of 
sweet orange, from the islaud of St. Michael, 
(pne of the Azores. 

mi'-chael-ite, s. [Named from St. Michael, 

Azores, where it was found ; sulf. -ite (Min.).] 

Min. : A variety of siliceous sinter (q.v.), 

occurring as capillary nr hiiform snow-white 

encrustations ; somewhat pearly in lustre. 

Mich' - ael - mas, * Mich - el - messe, 
^ Mych-el-me'sse, ■•;. [From the proper 
name Michael ; Fr. Michel, from Heb. "rsil'p 
(Mikhail) = Who is like unto God? Eng. 
-mas, 'Jiusse ; A.S. niCESse ■=■ mass (q.v.).] 

1. The feast of St. Michael the Archangel, 
which is celebrated on September 2!^. It is 
one of the regular quarter-days iu England. 

2. Autunni. 

Michaelmas- daisy, s. 
Lot. it llort. : 

1. A gardener's name for Aster Tradescanti 
and other species of Aster. 

2. Aster Trifolium, theSeaStarwort, a i>]ant 
frequently found wild in some .salt-marshes in 

Michaelmas head-court, 5. The an- 
nual meeting of the fii-LlioIdeis and comiuis- 
sjnneis I'f snpi'ly of a count)-, held at 
Micliaehnas, fur various county piu'poses. 


Michaelmas- term, s. 

Lav: A term b.-;,'iniiing on the 2nd and 
ending on the 25th of November. 

mi'-chael-sdn-ite. s. [Named after Michael- 
sitn, who analyzed it ; sulf. -ite (Min.).^ 

Min. : An orthite-like mineral grouped by 
Dana with muroniontite (q.v.). It appears to 
be a silicate of lanthanum, didyiniuui, cerium, 
lime, zirconia, glucina, sesquioxide of iron, 
and a little alumina. Found with nielinophane 
near Brevig, Norway. 

mi9he, *mi9h, * mee9h, * mit9h, 

mooch, mOUCh, r.i. [O. Vv. muivr, iiuicicr. 
)ii Hi-hier [Vv. mtissey) = to hide, to lurk about.] 

1. To hide, to skulk, to retire or hide from 

"Straggle up and ilowu the country, or mieh in cor- 
ners niiiui)};st their Irieiids idlely."— S/wmer: l'icio<</ 
tht atiite i\f Ireliiml. 

2. To play the truant, (local) 

3. To be guilty of anything done in secret, 
as an illicit amour, &c. 

mi'9hel'-i-a, s. [Named after Pietro Antonio 
Jficheli. a Florentine botanist, who died in 
Bot. : A genus of Magnoliaces, tribe Magno- 

heiv. It is akin to Magnol0, but has axillary 
tlowers, lesser carpels, and more numerous 
ovules. Mifhelin VhitiujHica or Tsjumpac ia 
the Chnnipaca (q.v.). All ^taitM of tt are 
strongly stimulant. The bitter aromatic bark 
has been used in low intermittent fevers. It in 
a good substitute for guaiacuni. The Iwrk of 
,)/. tn')M^Mn(has properties like cascarilla-barli, 
but is less bitter. That of M. gr<icUis has a 
strong snudl of camphor. M. DoltsojMi, a tre.- 
growing in Nepaul, has fl*agrant wood much 
used in that country for building. 

mi9h-el-in'-i-a, ■?. [Latinised from a French 
proper name, Michel] 

I'tdtrniit. : .V genus of tabulate cnraLs, from 
the lJcv(Uiian and Carboniferous formations. 
The corallnm is very like that of Favosites, 
l>ut the epitlieca is often ftirnished with ront- 
like prolongations, tin; tabula- arched, and 
the niui-al pores very irregularly distributed. 

mi9h'-er, * mee9h'-er, * much-are, .<t. 

[Eng. hiirh : -fr.] One who miches, skulks, 
or hides (uit of sight ; a truant, a petly thief, 
a jtiirerer. 

"Slmll the Meased nun of Iienven prove a miiVAjt. 
aiide/it hliicklwrrles J"— .'iA<iA-«^>. .■ l Jienrt/ IV.. ii. 4. 

■ mi9h'-er-:y, ' mich-er-ie, s. [Eng. mic/i; 
•(■/•I/.) 'J'lielt. thic\ing, jiilfering. 

•■ V.iw th.iii .sh.ilt full N.>n- jil.ic 
Tliiit like sttlthc uf »uW«W<-.'" Ooieer : C. A., v. 

mi9h ~ing, 'mee9h'-ing, o. [Mjche.) 

Skulking ; keeping out of sight ; mean. 

"Sure she has some (HC'-cAinff nwcal hi her houM.'— 
Beuinn. d- FUt. : .•kornful huly, iv. L 

mic -kle, "mlch el, mik el. " moch-el, 
' much-el, ' zuuc-kle, muk el, c 

[A.S. inycfi, micel ; cogn. with Icel. viikill, 
viykill; Goth, mikils; M. H. Ger. michel ; 
O. H. Ger. mikil ; Gr. ^eydAos (megalos) :=. 
gi'cat.] Much, great. [Much.] 

" It Wutt Tiiilhiii uiickle toil 
Ti> drive liiiii l.ut a Sottish mile." 

^•ort : Lay of the Littt .Vimtrcl. iv. 12. 

mi-CO'-ni-a, s. [Named after Dr. D. Micon. 
a ."Spanish physician and botanist.] 

Bot. : The typical genus of the sub-tribe 
Miconeae. The fruit of Micnnia lonijifolia i^ 
used in tropical Aniericji for dyeing black, and 
that uf .U. f(j(crona for dyeing ycUow. 

mi-c6-ni-e-aB, 5. J)/. [Mod. Uit. miconi(a) ; 
Lat. pi. ailj. sntf. -etv..] 

Bot. : A sub-tribe of Melastomaceie, tribe 

micr-, i')>/. [Micro-.] 

mi-cra-ba'-9i-g^ s. [Pref. vjicr-, ami Gr. 
a^af {nbiu:), geuit. ajSa/cos (abakos) = b slab, a 

I'ttla'ont. : A genus of Aporose Zoantharia. 
of the family Fungid;e, from tlie Cietaceoufi 
series. There is no ejutheca, and the basal 
wall is perforated. 

mi-cra-c^'-thus. s. [Pref. micr-, and Lat. 
ucaitlhns, from Gr. a«at^o (akaHtha) = a> spine, 
a prickle.] 

lehthy. : An African genus of Acantho- 
pterygian fishes, family Labyrinthici. It has 
been recently discovered in the tributaries of 
the river Ogoone. (tJunther) 

mi-cran -dra, s. [Pref. micr-, and Gr. oiTJp 
(,'""''"), o'''uit. ai'fipd? ((tndros) = a man.] 

Bot. : A genus of Euphorbiaceie, tribe Cro- 
toneic. Micrundrd Sfphotioidcs, and .U. minnr, 
nativesof the regions bordering the Hio Negm, 
furnish part of the Puni caoutchouc; it is their 
inspissated milky juice. 

mi-cr^'-thes. t-. [Pref. niter-, and Gr. ivBo^ 
{unthos)^: a llower.] 

Bot. : A sub-genus of Saxifraga. The flowers 
are iu dense eymcs, and the petals white. It 
includes Saxi/ragu (Micmnthts) nimlis, a 
British-Alpine plant. 

mi-crJis'-ter. *. [Pref. niter-, and Gr. d<rrr)p 

Polo-out. : A genus of Echinodea, family 
SpatangidEB. It is very abundant in the Chalk 

mi-cras'-tur, s. [Pref. micr-, and Lat. osfiir 
= a kind of hawk.] 

Ornith. : A genus of raptorial birds, family 
Fah-oiiiilje. Micmftnr s^mitorfjuntus is tlie 
Harrier Hawk— aconnecting-link between the 

boil, boy : pout, jowl ; cat, 9ell. chorus. 9hin, bengh ; go, gem ; thin, this ; sin, as ; expect, Xcnophon, e^lst. -Ing. 
-clan, -tlan = shan. -tion, -sion = shun ; -tion, -sion = zhun« -clous, -tious, -sious - shus, -blc, -die, A:c. = bet, d$L. 


micrathene— microlestes 

harriyrs and tlie goshawks. It iuhabits forests 
in Mexico. 

mi-ora-the' ne, s. [Pref. micr-, and Gr. 

xetiin) i.ltfu'iu) = the i;«)ddes9 Minerva, to 
wli.iiii tliL' owl was sacix'd.l 

Ornith : A gt-nus of Strigidae erected by 
Coues. It Iiitii but on« species, Mtcmthfuc 
whitntyi, the smallest owl known. Length 
about "six iiichf.s. wing-*?xpjuise Trmu fourtetMi 
to sixti'i-n inches. Above, giayish olivc- 
biowii, with imlo rusty sitots, whitish nuchal 
collar. Beneath, wliite. with large rusty 
Muti-hes. Habitat, Colorado and Western 

mi-cro-, pirf. [Gr. fnKpds (Ha/:)-cj4')= little, 

1. A prolix denoting sniallness or littleness. 

2. Aiuonj^ electricians and on the C. G. .S. 
system, ilivisitm liv a million, (lirit. At>soc. 
J:ei>:>rt, lS7:i, ).. .'2-l') 

mlcro-lepldoptera. s. pL A division 
of the Le[ii<liipt.rra with rej,'ard to size; it is 
of little or no scientitlc value. 

mi'-crobe, s. [Fr., from Gr. luiKpos (»itA;ros) 
= small, and ^los (bios) — life.] 

lUuL : A term jmiposed by Kedillot. in 1S7S, 
for anylninutf oiganism, vegetable oi- 
MitTobcs, cidlectively, are equivalent to the 
Miciozymes (q.v.) of Bechamp. 

•' We siliJill iiiiike iiwe of tlie term microbe ns tlie 
Kciifful ilvsit-'iiKduti of nil tlie iiiiiiiite urun nixed Ijciiii;!. 
wliii'li Jiie fuiiiikl oil tlm buulifiliuiil bctwi^eii jiiiiiii:ils 
.-vimI plum.-..' — A'. L Troue^iitrl : JJicruOfS. Fcniicuts. .t 

M-uliU. p. G. 

mi-cro-brom'-ite, .«. [Pref. mkro-, and 
Kn^;., &c. biuiiiite (q.v.), ] 

Min. : A variety of embolite (q.v.), contain- 
ing a small aiiumiit nf bromide compared with 
tlu- chloride of silver. [Meuabromite.]'-rys, s. [Pref. xj/crrt-, and Lat. 
auiti ys = parched barley ; a catkin.] 

Hot. : A genus of Pinaceae, tribe Abietcse. 

mi-cro-^e-phal'-ic, a. [Pref. micro-, and 
Ellg, <:ci'halii:.] 

Anthrnp. ; A term applied to skulls having 
a capacity below 1,300 cubic eenlimeties. 

jni-cro-9eph'-a'lou8* «. [Pref. jiitV.-ro-, and 
Eng. t:rpiiiitous.] Having a small or imper- 
fectlv-develiipeii head ; hence, deficient in iii- 
telk-Lt. (l;hi,:k: Mir. of a I'huctoii, ch.xxv.) 

mi-cro-chirop'-ter-a, s. pL [Pref. micro-, 
and Eng., A:c. chirnpterd.] 

Zool. : A name proposed by Dobson for a 
sub order of Bats. [Lnsectivoka, 1. (2).J 

mi-cro-cliro-nom -e-ter, j. [Pref. micro-, 
and Eng. chrono)iidi:r (q.v.).] A micrononi- 

ftL-r (q.v.). 

jni'-cro-clase, s. [Pref. micro-, and Gr, 
(tAuut? (/.^(iiN)=i cleavage ; Ger. viikroklas.] 

Mill. : A name given by Wilk to a potash- 
soda felspar, fmm the St. Gntthanl, Switzer- 
land. Cryst'dlization tricliuie. Uccurs inter- 
crystallized with orthoelaseina similar manner 
to tliat of albitu with niicrocline. (See these 

mi'- cro - cline, s. [Pref. -micro-, and Gr. 
kAu'cu {kliiii'>)—to bend, to Incline; Ger. mi- 

Min.: A name originally given by Breit- 
haupt to a felspar which gave the angle nf 
90" 22' to itO° "jy between the two cleavage 
planes instead (»f 00°. Des Cloizeaux has re- 
ferred this felsiiar, however, to orthordase, 
but has adopted the name for a new species 
of felspar, having tlie following characters. 
Cryst;illization trielinic, with ]»plysynthetic 
twinning. A section cut parallel with the 
base shows a peculiar reticulated structure, 
due to the regular intergi-owth of twin la- 
mellae ; it encloses irregular bands of albite. 
Compos. : silica, 04*30; alunnna, lO'TO; scsqui- 
oxide of iron, 0"74 : potash. 15(io : soda, 0'4S ; 
loss on ignition, 0':J5 = lOl'l" ; represented 
by the forn.ula, K.j[Al2]SigOi6. A large part 
of felspar, liitherto legarded as oithoclase. is 
included in this species, as also much of the 
amazoustone and chesterlite (q.v.). 

mi-cro-coc'-cus, s. [Pref. micro-, and Gr. 
KnKKo<; {koKkos)^ a berry.] 
Bvt. : A genus of Schizomycetes, distin- 

guished by the minute organisms being gh»bu- 
lar iiisti-ad of linear. Tlie species have been 
divided into three gi'oups : (1) Chnnnogentuis ; 
{-) Zymogenous, producing various kinds of 
fermeutiition ; and (a) Pathogenous, producing 
contiigious diseases, {(iriffith .f Hcnfrey.) 

mi-crOHJOn'-olllls, s. [Pref. micro-, and Gr. 
Kofxn ikowjchi) = it. shell.] [Spikoiibis.! 

ml'-cro-cdam, s- (Fr. microcusme, from I,at. 
mirrocosvu's. from Gr. juiKp6*coo-f*o« (mikntl^ixfs- 
mvs)-& little wnrhl, from /*ocpd« {mikro!f) = 
small, and koo-mos ikv^mujs) = a world.] 

* 1. A little world or cosmos ; a term fanci- 
fully appliid to man, as supposed to be an 
epitxime of the macrocosux or universe. It 
was so used by Paracelsus. 

■■ There wt-re Bdiiie alBo. that utftld imt here ; but 
went ImthiT. tiiKl hel.l. that If the 8|iirlt uf 111.111 
(whom they oill the mirriK-ntm) do yivc a fit touch f^- 
Iho f.i.irlt of the worhl. l»y stioiiK innmiiiatiuiiit and 
iH-leefem, It might coiuiuaud uutuie."— /fucu'i; yat. 

nut., s 1*00. 
2. A little cojumunity or society. 

n. i-cr 6-005 '-mic, nii-crd-c6§'-mic-al. c 

[Eng. ),\\ciw"^m ; -h\ -iwJ.\ Peit^uuing to 
man or the ndcrocosm. 

"This opinion coiitiriiied would iituch advance the 

mici-oiMsmU'id conceit." — Browne: Vulvar Errours, 

hW. ii:, ch. lit. 

microcosmiC'Salt. .^. 

Chm. : (XH4)Xaliro4-4H.j(). Ammonio- 
sndic pliosphaic, u^^■d as a tln>. in blowpipe 
experiments. [STEUCuurrt;.] 

mi-cro-cd^-mog'-i'a-pliy, s. [Gr. ^iKp6- 
Kocrfi.o<; (^iiiikrukosmos) = a microcosm, and 
ypa4>ui igriiphfi) = to write, to describe.] The 
description of man as a microcosm. 

mi-cr6-c6u8'-tic, n. & s. [Pref. Hticro-, and 
Eng. (M)ajf(ii(tc.] 

A. As lulj. : Serving to increase small or 
indistinct sounds; of or pertaining to a mi- 
crocoustic. [B.l 

B. Assiibst.: Au aural instrument for col- 
lecting sounds for the partially deaf; au 
auricle or speaking-trumpet. 

mi'-cro-critll, s. [Pref. micro-, and Eng. 

Chcm. : The weight t'f an atom of hydrogen. 

mi-cro-crys'-tal-line, a. [Pref. micro-, 
and Eng. crystalUi'te.] 

Petrol. : The name given by Rosenbusch to 
the parts of poi-pliyritic ground-matter wdiich 
are aggregates of elements minei-alogirally le- 
cognizable. It is opposed to cryptocrysialline, 
in which they are unrecognizable. 

mi-cro-der-ma-tous, a. [Gr. ftiKpo? (mik- 

ro.^) = siiiall. and dtftfj-a (dcrj/tct), genit. Btpna- 
Tos {ttermatos) = the skin.] 

Vatlifil. : (if, belonging to, or cousisting of 
minute portions of skin. 

mi-cro-dis'-CUS, s. [Pref. micro-, and Gr. 
SitTKos {iliakos) — a disc] 

PaUeoiit. : A genus of Trilobites, family 
Agnost;idie (sometimes referred to the Trinu- 
cleidse), from the Upper Cambrian. There 
are no facial sutures or eyes ; four body rings 
are present, and the tail is segmented. 

mi'-crd-ddn, s. [Pref. micr-, and Gr. o6ous 
('"7n/',i), j^L-nit. ofiorros {adoiLtut<):= a tooth.] 

J'aUnuul. : A genus of fossil teeth, believed 
to belong to Pycnodont lishes. Prof. Morris, 
in lSo4, enumerated three species fronx the 
Chalk and one from the Purbeck beds. 

mi-cro-don'-ta, .*. [Microdon.] 

EnUuii. : A genus of Moths, family Xoto- 
dontidie. Microdonta bicolora, a snow-white 
moth, with orange spots on the fore wings, is 
rare in England. 

mi-cr6-fS,r'-ad, s. [Pref. micro-, ami Eng., 
&c. .ftn-a./.] 

Electrn-viarimticfi : The millionth part of a 
fararl. The fai-od being too large for practical 
pui'poses, the nucrofarad is employed in its 
room. (pA'crctt : C. U. S. System of Units: 
Londo]i (lS7o), p. 70.) 

mi-cro-fel'-site, s. [Pref. micro-, and Eng. 


I'cirol. : The name given by Rosenbusch to 
a Cfdourless. grayish, or brownish substance, 
made up of minute scales or fibres occurring 
at the bases of some porphyries. 

ml-CPO-fel-alt'-Ic, o. [Eng. microfelsU{v) ; 
suit, -ic] Ot, belonging to, or consisting of 
mlcrofelsitlo -basis, v-. 

r-livl. : Au alternative name given by Ho- 
sclilaiSL-h to microfelsitf (q.v.). 

microfelsi tic -matter, s. 

r>tn>l. : .\I.itt< r consisting of microfelsite 
(<l.v.). (lluth-y.) 

mi-cro gas'-ter, «. [Pref. mijcro-, ami Gr. 
yaO'T)jp (<jiistei) — the belly.] 

lintonu: A genus of Eutoniophaga. family 
Ichneumonidie. MicrniKUfterijhmu'nttasi^ para- 
sitic on the caterpillars of the common white 
butterfly. The larvie burst forth from tllo 
body of the caterpillar when it is ready to 
change, and form round its empty skin a little 
heap of yellowish cocoons. 

tti-cr6-ge-6-l6g'-i-cal, a, [Eng. micro- 
tjeolog(y); -icul.] (Jf or pertaining to micio- 
geology ; derived fiom the use of the nncro- 
scnpe in relation to geology. 

mi-cro-ge-ol'-o-gy. *• [Pref. micro-, and 
Eiig. 'jv'b'ijii (q.v.).J That department of the 
science of geology whose facts are ascertained 
by the use of the microscope. 

mi-cro-glos'-SUS, *". [Pi'ef. micro-, and Gr. 

■yAwo-cra (•jlossa) =■ a ttJUgUe.J 

Ornith. : A genus of Psittacidse, fi"om the 
Papuan district ami Niu'th Australia. John 
M;tcL;illivi'ay O'oytuje of the Jiiittlcsnake, i. a2l) 
speaks of the Microijlossus ati.rrinins as " an 
enormous black pan-ot with crimson cheeks. 
At Cape York it feeds upon the ealjbaj-e of 
various palms, stripping down the sheath at 
tlie base of the leaves with its powerful, 
acutely-hooked upper mandible," It is piqiu- 
laily known as the Black Cockatoo. An ex- 
eellfiit lietailed description of the bird has 
be.n given by A. R. Wallace (^MaUiy Archi- 
pelago, 1S72. itp. 446-448). 

mi' - cro - graph, s. [Gr. /lotp^? (nt(7.To.«) = 

small, and -ypd^w (grcphn) = to write, to draw.] 
An instrument inventeil by Mr. Webb rif Lon- 
don, for e.vecutiug exlrcmidy mmute writing 
and engraving ; its geuerai la-mcii-de is that of 

the pantograph. 

mi-crdg -ra-pher, s. [Eng. micrograph; 

rtc] tJue versed or skilled in micrography. 

mi-cro -graph'-ic, a. [Eng. microgmj'hOi) ; 
-ic] Pertaining or relating to micrography. 

mi-crog'-ra-phy, s. [Eng. micrograph ; -y.] 
Ihe de.->ciip"tion <.if things t(»o minute to he seen 
without the aid of the microscope. 

'• A euiioua ilescriiition and figure of the stiug see 
in Mr. Hook's micrvt/raj/h^." — Ortito: JUutteum. 

mi-cro -hi' -er-ax, -*. [Pref. micro-, and Gr. 
iepa^ (hi'jra.r) — a hawk, a falcon.] 

Oniith. : A genus of Falconidae, sub-family 
Faleonime. It contains the Falconets. [Fal- 

mi'-crohm, s. [Pref. mic7--, and Eng., &.c. 
ohm (ij.v.).] 

Ehctrlcitu: The millionth part of an ohm. 

mi-crol'-a-bis, t^. [Pref. micro-, and Gr. 
Aa^LS {lab'is) = a pair of pincers.] 

Pidii'ont. : A carboniferous genus of .\rach- 
nida; it is believed to be most nearly allied 
to the Pseudoscorpionidai (q.v.). 

mi-cro-lae'-na, s. [Pref. micro-, and Gr. 
Afjeos (tim's) ='wool ; so called from the small 
woolly Uower-stalk.] 


I. A genus of Byttneriaceic. The fibrous 
tissue of the bark of Microkvua sjtectaOllis is 
suit;ible for cordage. 

;>. A genus of grasses, tribe Oryzese. 

mi-cro-les'-tes, s. [Pref. micro-, and Gr. 
Aijo-Tij? {Icstiis) =*a pirate, a buccaneer ; Aijorcuw 
{k.^tcno) = to be a x'obber or pirate.] 

Vohvont. : A genus founded on the remains 
of Uicrokdes antupLus, the earliest known 
mammal. Only a few teeth have as yet been 
discovered. "The eailiest horizon on which 
.Microlestes occurs is in a boue-bed in the 
Keuper [Upper Trias] of Wurtemberg ; but it 
has also been detected in the higher Rhsetic 
beds." (Nicholson.) It is unpossible lo decide 
whether Microlestes was placental or mar- 
supial. Most probably it was marsupial ; and 

fate, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father : we, wet. here, camel, her, there : pine. pit. sire, sir, marine : go. pot, 
or, wore, wplf, work, who. son ; mute, cub, ciire, vmite, cur, rule, full ; try, Syrian, se, ce = e ; ey = a ; qu = kw. 

microlite— microsauria 


it appears to b<' clusfly allied to the recent 
Aiistialiaii liaiuled Ant-eater. (Macroi'Cs, 

3ni -cro-lite, &. [Gr. (xtKpdc (jnikivs) = small, 
ami Mdoi (/if/io.-:) = a stoiie.] 

Mitt. : A iniuenil Dccuiriiijj in exceedingly 
simill nctaliedial crystjils, lieiice the naine. II 
lias lately Iweii fuund in well-detined crystals 
vip tu an inrh and a half in diameter, and 
lai-ger imperfect ones up to 4 lbs. in weight. 
Crystallization, isometric ; hardness, (3 ; sp. t:r. 
■'•"050 ; lustre, resinous; colour, wax-yellovv to 
brown ; streiik, paleochreous yellow; fracture, 
(Mincliuidal; brittle. Compos. : a coiunil»)-tan- 
t.'date of lime, with some glucina, oxide of 
tin, magnesia, sesi|nioxide of uranium, yttria, 
Huoriiie, &c. Probable formula 3(Cn.>Ta-U7) + 
CboKs. Found with albit€, &c., at Cfu-ster- 
tield, Massachusetts ; Uto, Sweden ; and at 
tht.' iiiira mines, Amelia Co., Virginia. 

mi -9r6-litll, 5. [Pref. wu'cro-, and Gr. Aiflos 
(/(f/tu.v) = a stone.] 

Crtistalloiji-aph)! : One of the mii-ioscopic 
stony bodies rendering the material iu which 
they occur all but crystalline. 

3ni-cr6-lith.'-ic, <(. [Pref. micro-, and Eng. 


1. Onl. Lang. ; Composed of small stones. 

2. Anthrop. : A term applied to a particular 
style of funeral monuments, in wliich ex- 
tjt-mely small stones are used. They are 
nearly always squared or hewn, and the 
builders sought to produce etlect by construu- 
liiin, not by the exliibitiou of mere force. 

"Tlie eugiiate extimple^ iii the microUthic styles 
iitfiiril IK very little iuii)i&tMice,"—Feiyu4ton : /iude 
StviL' Miiiiitiiieiils. II. 47. 

DU - crol' - o - gjr, s.' [Gr. /ii»cpds (mikros) = 
small, and Ad-yos {loijoii)=z a word, a discourse.] 

1. Lit. : Micrography ; tlmt part of science 
depending upon the use of tlie microscope. 

* 2. Fitf. : Undue attention to insigiiiticant 
or unimportant matters ; minuteness about 
words ; hair-splitting, 

"There is less microtoji/ . . . iu his erudition." — 
Jiobbcrd* : Life qf 11'. Tut/lor. it. 146. 

mi-cro-mer -i-a, s. [Pref. mi4;ro; and Gr. 

fj.^pi'i {mcris) = a part.] 

Hot. : A genus of Labiates, tribe Melisseie. 
Micioiiieiia cupitdla, a small plant growing in 
tlie Neelgheny Hills, the Western Ghauts, 
Ac, has the properties of Peppennint. 

mi-crdm-e-ter, s. [Pref. vilcro-, and Eng. 
iiu:ti:i-.\ An instrument used with a telescope 
or niicrosct)pe to measure small distances, or 
the apjiareut diametei-s of objects wtiich sub- 
tend very small angles. Micrometens are va- 
riously constructed. The field of the telescope 
may be provided with a graduated sciile, or a 
metallic ring, or a diaphragm having parallel 
and intersecting spider-lines or line wires. 
The microuieter with a giuduated scale is 
used for measuring distances by direct com- 

^ See also Double-image micrometer, tioublc' 
refraction viicrotiuter, ^ntair-»i(Ciw)W/*r, posi- 
lioji-micrometcr, ri}Uf-micromet€i; scale- inicro- 
7iteUr. [Filar.] 

micrometer -balance, 5. A balance 

fill' a---c>.-i taiunig nunut<: ditVerences iu weight. 

micrometer-microscope, s. An in- 
strument used forreaiUug anil sulxlividingthe 
Uivisions of lajge astrouomic;il and geodetieal 

micrometer- screw, s. A screw attached 
1" optical and niatheijiaticiil instruments as a 
means for exact measurement of very small 
angles. The gi'Cat spare through wh'ich the 
lever uf the screw passes, in comparison with 
the longitudinal motion due to the pitcli, 
affords the mejuis for a positive motion which 
is imperceptible on the object moved, tlmugh 
ai'preciable in its results. If the thread of a 
micrometer-screw in an instrument has 5ii 
threads to an inch, and ciirriesa pointeruhich 
traverses a graduateil circle dividecl into 2iJ 
equal parts, the revolution of the micrometer- 
screw for a distance equ;d to one of the divi- 
sions will move the object to which the screw 
is attached x^^jj of an inch ; that is, 20 x 50 
= 1,000. 

mi-crd-met'-ric, mi-crd-met'-ric-fiLl, o. 

[Eng. micrometer : -<'. . -iail.] Of or i>erta*ining 
to the micrometer ; ;is, micrometric measure- 

mi-cro-met'-ric-al-l^, wlv. (Eng. micro- 

mttriad ; -ly.] By "means of a micrmiicter. 
'■TliemvJi wflthhi wlikli the l'n»y<r wiut written wn* 
I'jicrumi'fm-nHvverlrtvtl l>y Ur. J. J. Womhvftnl, C'ultvil 
bUt*8 Aniij. wliw (omul tlint it atnl tlu- liiacriiiliwi 
^K^l■l coiiUiiieil wltliiii n si«oe A of tui Uich nquare." 
— liiii'ihl : JJtcti<jnar>/ of J/i-cAuiitcf. 

mi crom-e-trj^, s. [Eng. mieronwter; -y.] 
I'lic act or art of nieastu'iiig nunute objects or 
distances by means Of a micrometer. 

mi'-cro-mJ^S, s. [Pref. viicro-^ andfiOs (ijiius) 
= a mouse.] 

ZmL : A genus of Murida*, constructed to 
contain the Harvest Mouse 0|.v.). 

mi-crd-ni''8us. s. [Pref. micro-, and Lat. 
Aicd.-. ; (Jr. Niffos (.Ykno3) = a king of Megara, 
fabled to have been charged into a sparrow- 
hawk. (Ofiti ; Mill. viii. S, jfy/.).] 

Oniith. : A genus of Falc()ni(he, sub-family 
Accipitrinai (cpv.). Micronistis biuiitis is the 
^5hikl•a, found in India, where it is trained for 
purposes of falconry. 

micrd-nom-e-ter, s. [A contraction of 

micrwhroauittikr {i\.\.).'] A species of watch 
intended for nicasuiiug short intervals of time, 
as the flight of a projectile, &c. After being 
wuund m) in the ordinary way, it is set iu 
nnition by pressing a spring with the linger, 
upon withdrawing which it is instantaneously 


mi-cro-pdji'-td-g^apli, 5. [Pi-ef. micro-, and 
Eng. jKintucinii'li ("i.v.).] An instrument in- 
\eiited in lSo2 by Mr. Peters, an English 
banker and microscopist, for minute writing. 
By means of it the Lord's Prayer, containing 
\12.i letters (amen being omitted), has been 
written on glass within the space of yj^foQ of 
a square inch. 

mi-croph'-o-lis, s. [Pref. 7(iicro-, and Gr. 
(/joAis (j*/io^tri) = a lioriiy scale.] 

I'ahcont. : Agemisof Labyrintliodonts. family 
Brachyoiiina. It was founded by Huxley on 
remains from the Kiiroo-bed at' the foot of 
Rhenosterberg, S<juth AfriM. He called the 
^ingle sjiecies Microphoti^ StowU, after its dis- 
coverer, {(^uar. Jour. iJeoL Hoc, .w. 642-19.) 

mi'-cro-plidne, .^. [Gr. ^Kcpd? (inikros) — 
small, and ifuwioj (/t/to»t') = sound ; Fr. mlcw- 
phuiu:.] An in.strumeiit for increasing the in- 
tensity of low sounds by communicating their 
vibrations to a more sonoi'ous body whicli 
emits a more audible sound. It is variously 
constmoted, the most usual method being 
with a piece of charcoal held loosely between 
two other pieces iu such a manner that it is 
affected by the slightest vibrations conveyed 
to it by the air or any other medium. The 
two external pieces are placed in ccumectiou 
with a telephone, and, when the ear isf'placed 
at the ear-piece of the telephone, the slightest 
sound on the woudeii support of the micro- 
]ihonc is so magnified that even the tread of a 
fly ajipears as loud as the tramp of a horse. 

mi-cro-phda'-ics, s. [SIicrophone.] The 

siieiice or art of augmeuting weak or small 

mi-crdph'~d-no^S, c [Eng. microphonie) ; 
-nus.] Having the ju-operty or power of aug- 
menting Weak sounds ; microcoustic. 

' mi-croph'-o-ny, s. [MicnorHONE.] Weak- 
ness uf voice. 

mi-cro-pho-tog-ra-phy. 5. [Pref. micro-, 

and Eug. i-hoto<jnt}ihfi (m-V.).] A photographic 
jirocess by which an object is reduced in size, 
while its exact form is retained. By means 
of this instrument lett«ra can oe reduced to a 
minute sjjace, and afterwards either enlarged 
by photography or ixtad with a microscope. 
Practical use of the proix'ss was made during 
the siege of Paris in 1S70, in order to commu- 
nicate with those insi<le that city by means of 
nie.ssages conveyed by carrier-pigeons, the 
transcript being tfikeu on paper of extreme 
thiiiiiess, so tJiat the pigeons were able to 
carry a considerable number of messages. 

mi-croph-th&l'-mi-a, mx-croph'-tlial' 

m5r. ^^. [Pref. micrioy, and Eng. ophthaluiia, 
* ophtlialmy.] 
PaOioL: A morbid smallness of the eye. 

mi-crd-phs^l'-lite, v. (Gr. Mt«p<« (ma-ro*) = 

little, and ^wAAoi- (j>AuWo*() = a leaf ; Ger. mi- 

Min. : One of two imletenuinable mineraU 
enclosed in labnulorite. (Michui-i.akiti;.) It 
ocrui^ in crystaliiue scales from -06 to 1 mm. 
ill IcMigth. 

mi-ordph'-j^l-10il8, a. (Prof, micro- ; Gr. 
^iJAAof {phiillon) = a leaf, and Eng. adj. auff. 
•ous. ] 
Lot. : Having small leaves. 

mi'^cro-phyte. s. [Pref. micro-, and Gr. 
<.iiroi' (/-/M*/i-/i) = a plant.) A microscopic 
I'laiit, especially one parasitic in its liabits. 

micro pld.k'-ite, s. [Gr. ^orpd? {mikros)z=. 
little; TTAdf {phix), genit. wAoxd? (p/aAw) = 
flat, and suff. -i(e (Afiiu).] 

Mm. : A mineral occurring iu tliin mintite 
rectangular tables, enclosed in lubradorito 
(ij.v.). Colour by transmitleil light giavish- 
yellow to brownish, by reflected light reddish- 
green to green and blue. The nature of these 
tables is yet uncertain, but most of their 
characters resemble those of magnetite (<i.v.). 

micro -po-gon, s. [Pref. micro-, and Gr. 
nutywi- U'(^yo;i) = the beard.] 

Ithihij. : A genus of Scia-nidai ((i.v.), closely 
allied to Pogonias, but with conical jtharyngeal 
teeth. Two species are known, from the 
western parts uf the Atlantic. 

mi - crop"- ter - lis, s. [I'ref. micro-, and 

Trrepov (ptcrun) = a wing.] 

Oriiitk. : A genus of Anatidse. MicropUrus 
hiachiipUriis is the Steanicr-duck or Hace- 
liorsc. Found in the Straits of Magellan, A:c. 

mi-cr6p-ter-yg'-i-d», s. yi. [Mod. Lat 
micivpUnjx, genit. micropUryg{is) ; Lat. fenu 
pi. adj. sufl". -ida:\ 

Eittom. : A family of moths, group Tineina. 
The head is rough ; the antenna; shorter than 
the anterior wings, these and the hinder ones 
somewhat transparent. Larva; without feet, 
mining so as to juoduce blotches in leaves. 
Only une genus, Micropteryx (q.v.). 

mi-crop -ter-yx, s. [Gr. fUKpomepv^ (mi- 
kiKi'kru.i.) =:\vi{]i small wings: pref. micro-, 
and Gr. nre'pu^ (ptenu) = a wing, a tin. J 

1. Eiitom. : The typical and only genus of 
the family Micrupterygidie. There are twelve 
British species. 

2. Ichthy. : A genus of Carangidae (Horse- 
Mackerel). The bodj-- much compiesse<J ; no 
detached linlets. Small teeth on vomer and 
palatine bones. Micropteryx chnfsuru:s is a 
semi-pelagic (ish, very conniion in the tropical 
Atlantic, so in the Indian Ocean. 

mi'-cro-pus, s. [Pref. micro-, and Gr. jroi/t 
{puus) =a foot.] 

1. Ichthy. : A genus of Acanthopterygians, 
family Scori>86nidie. They are exceedingly 
small, about an inch and a half iu length. 
Twu species are known, from the neighbour- 
hood of the coral reefs of the Pacilic. 

" 2. Ornith. : A genus of Brachypodinae, 
short-footed Thrushes, founded by Swainsou. 

mi'-cro-pyle, s. [Pref. /nicro-, and Gr. irv\t] 
ipult) = an opening.] 

1, Animal PhysioL : (See extract). 

'Tn the rtaseoua Fishea it hna been shown by Dr. 
Rausuiu th.-tt the n\)vTinMiizon imaa thruUtfli a uniiut« 
t^j-eiiiiifc' iu the ext*-riuil lueiiihraue ut the civ*. teriued 
the }iiicro/'i/li: .\ siiuilnr o|>enliiK' h** been olnt-rred 
by MuUt-rmiil uthi-nt hi iiisectj*. nCf\ih«loU9 uioHu-cm, 
Riid iu several ecliinoderuiAtA ; Kud ita lue. iw I>r. Allru 
Tlioiiiiisou )i;ut 8Ugn<aiU-d, is prob«ljI>- Ut (Rvllltnte ths 
fecundation u( i>vh pwsseMed u( very thick exteriud 
coveriugs, A mhropj/le has iiut l«cu »eeii iu Auy of 
the ummmaWn.''— Carpenter ■ llutnan /'hj/tiot.. i>. hii&. 

2. Vegetable Physiol. ; The foramen iu a ripo 
seed. It is formed by the united exostoine 
and endostoiue. It is always opposite the 
embryo. The i)ositionof the latter can tliere- 
fore be detA^rmiued by the inspection of the 

mi-cr6-rhe-6-mSt'-ri-cal,a. (Pref. micro-; 
Eng. lUeouutriciMulHutl'. -u'l.] A term ai>plied 
to a method of iletermining the nature of 
b("lics in .sfdution, when flowing through 
small or capillary tubes. 

mi-cro-sau'-zi-a, s. 3)?. [Pref. micro-, and 
Gr. <ravpo<; (suuros) = a lizai-d.] 

Ptihront. : A group of Labyrintliodonts, 
founded by Dawson. Thoracic plates uii- 
knriwn ; ossiflcation of limb bones incomplete. 
Dentine nearly or entirely nnn-plieate ; pulp- 
tavity lai-ge. Tlirec geiiera ; bendreri'etou 
Uylonoinus, Ilylerpetou. 

l>6il, >>6y ; pout, jo^l ; cat, cell, chorus, chin, henph : go, gem ; thin, this ; sin, as : expect, ^cnophon, exist, ph = 1 
-clan, 'tian = shan. -tion. -slon — shun ; -tion, -sion — zhun. -clous, -tlous, -sious — shus. -blc, -die, vc. - bel, deL 



microschorlite— mid 

mi-cr6-s?horr-ite (o as o). ;. [Pref inicro. 
= liUU-Tt."T. S.7.'../ = schorl (q.v.), aud suH. 
■ ilrl..Mi»)-] 

Mill.: A iianio i;iv«i to a kiml nf crystalliti' 
olwiTVeil in tlif kaoliiiite of Tliuiiligui, au.l 
wliicli is |.rolialily toununline. 

- oro- scope, s. [Gr. nncpds (Mikrn») = 

null, aii.l (TKoir.uj (sl-op<-o) = to see, to oliseive ; 

Fr. micivsmi't : Ital. & Sp. Mici-osmjtii.] 

Oi4iai : All optical instniiiiPiit^ liy 


nl.jt'rts arc so iiiasuilie.l that details invisil.k' 
or' indistinct to the llal;ed eye are elearly 
seen In a simple inieiTwci>pe the laagiMfyms 
putter is iiiterjioscd directly lietween the eye 
'lu.l the object, in the manner of a magnifying 
glass ; ami though the power may consist ot 
several lenses, they combine as one. In a 
compound microscope, an aerial magiiilieil 
image of tlie object is projected by one lens in 
the manner of amagie lantern, and this image 
is looked at and fmthennagniliea bya secoml 
power as in tlie simple niieroscoiw. The lirst 
lens is called the object-glass (q.v.), or objee- 
tive ; the second the ocular or eye-piece, llie 
most important by far is the object-glass. 
The shorter its focus the larger is the image 
produced, and at one time objectives were 
eonstrueted r>f as high power as -^tli of an 
iiii-h • l)Ut it was subsetjuently discovered 
Ihat the power of separating minute detail 
depended far more upon the aperture of the 
lens than upon its power, and the best work 
is niitt- done bv objectives not less than ^jtn 
or -'-th in. focus, made with the utmost re- 
lineil'ient so as to bear a further inagnihcation 
bv the eve-piece ot tliirty or forty times- Tlie 
eve-pieces are also made of various powers, 
flie iiistrunieut further requires a stage on 
which the objects can be placed and held, 
uii.lerueatli ttdiich must be a mirror for direct- 
in" the light to the object when viewed 
transp.irently. In using high powers, tine 
mech.anieal moveiiients are employed to adjust 
tlie object ; and a linely -adjustable siib-st.age, 
for the use of various ilUiiiiinatiug apparatus, 
and especially for focussing accurately upon 
the object, by an achromatic combination 
called a condenser, an image of the flame, so 
that light-rays and image-rays may coincide. 
An instrument which presents, an image to 
only one eye is called a mcmocular micro- 
scope ; but there are several methods of 
dividing by prisms the pencil of rays from 
tie- idijective into two sets, which diverge to 
eye-pieces so placed, that both eyes can be 
used • such an instriinient is called a binocular 
microscope. In all tlic usual forms of micro- 
scope, the image of the object appears in- 
verted, and fur most objects this is of no 
consequence. For dissecting instruments are 
constructed which, by prisms or. lenses, re- 
invert or right the object ; such are calletl 
erecting microscopes. In the solar micro- 
scope a lens condenses the sun's rays up'm 
an object, which is thus so intensely illu- 
miiuited the objective can project a 
greatly enlarged image upon a white screen. 
In the electric microscope the rays from the 
electric light are similarly used, and in this 
way inieroseopic photographs of long mes- 
sages, on tiny slips of collodion, were enlarged 
and transcribed during the siege of Paris in 
1.S70. The oxy-hydrogen microscope simi- 
larly employs the light from lime made in- 
candescent by the oxy-hydingen flame. \ cry 
lately this form of microscope lias been so 
greatly iniproveil that magniflcations of 1,200 
to 2,000 diameters can be obtained with it. 

•"T., the iierfonnnuce of every luuscular iiiutioii. In 
Broiter imiumls nt least, there lire nut fewer clistiiict 
in\rt3 concerned than niHuy unlhona ul iminou* luiU 

• 3. Ues.inblilig a microscope in the power 
of seeing minute objects. 

" Why h/w not nwn ft microtc^t'ie'c vyv T" 

/•o/H*; A'M'*j/ on -tf'Oi. 1- 13^- 

4. Very small or minute, so as to be visible 
only with a microscoiie. 

•■ Snch m;cro«-o/n> proof of skill anil itower. 
A., hid from iige-s li««t. Ilod now ili«idiij-». 

Coir/n'i- : rin)eiiii"o(.th(. . 

5. Exceedingly «"'»" '"' niiuutc. 

6. Very close or minute ; as, a laicroscojiicn! 

microscopic -animals, s- pi- 

■/.„.>] ■ \ nanio sonielimes given to the In- 
fusoria' becans,-, allhongh some of them are 
visible to the naked eye, the majority require 
a lens or a compound microscope for their 
detection and exaniiiiation. 

mi-oro-scop-ic-al-ljr. '"'i'- [Eiig. "uVro- 

smpinil ■ -ITi.] liv means of a microscope ; 

'with minute investigation ; in very minute 

size or degree. 
mi-cros'-o6-pist, s. (Eng. 7nicr(is<:o;)(i;) ; 

-isl.] line skiUeil or versed in microscopy. 

mi-cro-soo-pium, .s. [A Latinised form 

of Eng. microscope (q.v.).] 
Aslron ■ One of Lacaille's twenty-seven 

southern constellations. It is situated above 

Grus and Indus, at the junction of Capri- 

coriius and Sagittarius. 
mi-cros'-co-py, s. [Eng. viicroxoiKf) : -y-] 

Tlie act or art of using a microscope ; investi- 
gatiou with a microscope. 

mi-cros-cr-lS, ."- IPref- micro-, and Gr. 

trepis {seris) = a kind of endive, succory.] 
not ■ A genus of Composites, tribe Ciclior- 

accie The fleshy Hbres of the roots of Micro- 

sn-ii Forsferi are eaten by the natives of Port 

Philip ill Australia. 
mi-cro-som'-mite, ». [Pref. micro-, and 

Eng., &c. soiiiiiLitc] 
-Vln. : A mineral found in the bombs 

ejected from Vesuvius, and in leucitic lava, 

where it has been fonned by sublimation. 

Crystals, hexagonal and exceedingly minute. 

with vertical striatioiis. Hardness, ; s]i. gr. 

■2-00 ; colourless and transparent. Compos. . 

silica, 33-0 : alumina, 29-0 ; lime, 11-2 ; potash, 

ll-ri;, 8 7; chlorine, 91 ; sulphuric acid, 

1-7 = 104-'. Near sodalite ill composition. 

mi-cro-spec'-tro-sodpe. »- [Eng. m-icro- 

iscoite), aud sfiectrosco^ie (q.v.).] A spectro- 
scope placed in conuectiou with a microscope, 
in order that the absorption lines may be the 
more .accurately measured. The eyepiece 
contains prisms so placed as to enable the 
reflected ray to pass in a direct line to the eye. 

mi-cro-spo-ran-gi-a, s. 2>l- [P^cf. viicro-, 
and .Mod. Lat., \c. siioruiigta (q.v.).J 

Bot. : Small seed-vessels in the Marsileacea; 
and Saiviniaceic, containing microspores. 

mt-oro-Bty -lar, (•■ [Pref. micro-, and Eng. 


■trrli ■ Having a small style or column; 

an epithet applied to a style of arehitectnie 

in which there is a separate small order to 

each floor. 
mi-cros -y-6ps, s. fPref. micro-,- Gr. <ri„ 

(su<) = .1 pig, and will (oi«) = the face, the 


I'alimnl. : A genus of Limnothcrida-, from 

the Eocene of America. 

mi-cro-ta-sim-e-ter. .<. IPref. micro-- 
Gr. TaTis" (MM.-) = stretching, tension, and 
MfTpor (iiirlniii) = a ineasnre.] An ilistrumelit 
mveiitod by Mr. T. A. Edison, and announeed 
by him in 1S7S. In it he uses tlie lu-inciple ut 
the carbon microphone to measure inlinitesi- 
nial pressure. 

mi- oro -there, s. iMicbotheriim.I -Sny 
individual of the genus Microtherium (ipv.). 

"The amnlty of the microthcrea to the chevfotjuni 
U. nevertheles-H, \ery close.'— Owfo . t'otixtnit.- !►. a,-- 

mi-cro-ther-i-um, s. (Pref- micro-, and 
Gr. SijpJoe (,lhcrioii)=n wild animal.l 

I'aliroiil. : A genus of artiodactyle Uiigu- 
lata, from the Miocene Tertiary of Europe. 
Entire crania, from the lacustrine calcarcou.s 
marls of Puy-de-Uome, are in the Natural 
History section of the British Museum, and 
show that it difl'ered from the Tragulidie in 
jiossessing a complete series of incisors. 

mi- oro -tome, s. [Gr. ^nxpos (mitros) = 
small, and ronij (foiiif) = a cutting; Tcfiecu 
(rcoiii") = to cut.) A knife for nial;iiig tlini 
sections for microscopic examination ; a pair 
of parallel knives in a single haft. [PARALi-iit- 


[Pref. micro-, 
Ger. mil:iwei'- 

these visihle through a micrnicopn. 
Creation, \ii. i. 

- Jiui/ .- On the 

• mi'-cro-scope, r-t. (Micboscope, s.] To 
exainilie with a microscope. 

' mi-cro-so6-pi-al, a. [Eng. microscoj)(c) ; 
-Id/.] Microscopical, minute ; very close. 

" It is a vulear remark that the works of art do not 
\K^i\r i^iiicemicrotcopittl iusiiectiou."— BerAefei/.* SirU, 

mi-cro-scop -ic, * mi-cro-scop-ick, 
mi-Cro-SCOp'-lC-al, a. [Eng. micrt- 
scopie); ~ic, -icat : Fr. microscopiiiue ; Ital. & 
Sp. microscopico.] 

1. Of or iiertaining to a microscope ; made 
or determined by the aid of a microscope. 

" So ho- ns micriilro}}ic an.alysia would enahle us to 
decide this iiuestiou."— IW(f i Bowiiian: J'tiytial. 
Aiiat., ii. 301. 

' 2. Using a microscope ; assisted by a 

mi-cro-sporc, s. [Pref. micro-, and Eng. 
spore (q.v.).] 

/;,( • The smaller of two kinds of spores 
found ill the M.irsileaceie and Salviniacea;. 

mi-cros'-po-ron, s. [Pref. micro-, and Gr. 
o-iropd {spam) or (TTropos (sporos) = a seed.] 

Bot ■ A genus of Fuiigals. il/icrosjioroii 
meiituiiropkytes is believed to be identical 
with Trichophiiton toiiswrans; it exists as a 
whitish powder at the root of the hairs of the 
beard in a skin disease, Twm sijcosis. M. 
furfur produces T. versicolor on the body, and 
.V. Amioiiiiu the baldness on the head arising 
from T. ikcalvaiLS. 
mi-cros' -then-a, s. J)?. [Pref. viicro-, and 

Gr. (reeeo? (.ff/ifllos) = strength.) 

Zoot. : The third order of mammals in the 
arrangement of J. D. Dana. (Megastkesa.) 

mi-cros-thene?, .«. pi- [Micbosthexa.] 
Z.ujI. : The English rendering of Micros- 
tlielia (q-v.). 

" Among the inicrntth^nes the rise in nvuk on this 
principle is no less apiiareut."— -Inter. Joitrii. aceocc. 

Jan. rsea, p. 7i. 
mi-cros-then'-io, a. [Eng. mt'crosHca(es) ; 
-ic.l Belonging to m- having the characteristics 
of the Miciostiieiia (q.v.). 

"A geueml structural characteristic may yet he 

detected corresponding to these. . . inicrmtheni - 

ities."— .^. /J. D'liiit - On CejiliitJ izat ion, p. 8. 


;ipplied. —Ihixify 


mi-crd-ver-mic'-u-lite, « 
and Eng., i:c. vermicuUte ; 

Mill. : A vermiform mineral observed in the 
kaoliiiite of Thuringia, and believed to belong 
to the Veriuiculites (q.v.). 

mi-cro-volt, s. [Pref. micro-, and Eng. ro!(.l 

A ijiiUionth part of a volt (q.v.). 
mi-cro-zo'-a, s. pi. [Pref. micro-, and Gr. 

^iZa(zdii), pi.' of ^woi' (;uon) = an aniiual.] 
Zuo;. ; The same as Micbozoarea (q.v.). 

t mi-cro-zo-ar'-i-a, s. pl._ [Pref. micro- ; 
Gr. (lid (roo), pi- of iwov (:5ou) = an animal, 
and Lat. neut. pi. adj.' sutf. -ariii; Fr. micro- 
con irts. J 

Zool. : A name proposed by De Blainville 
for a group including the Rotifera and the In- 

mi -cro-zymes, .s. pi. [Pref. micro-, and Gr. 
t,'u/xTj (ciimc) = .\east.] 

Jliimnii j;- Ciiinp. Phijsiol. : The smallest and 
least organized of living beings. They may 
be either globular, rod-shaped, egg-shaped, 
or fllamentons ; but the must coinnion loriu 
is that of jointed rods moving with rapidity, 
in size aliout ao'jij of an inch. Many idiysiolo- 
gists at home and abroad contend that infec- 
tious diseases depend on the presence of these 
organisms in the blood. They have been 
found in variolous blood, humau aud ovine, 
in human bhlod in scarlet fever and measles, 
and, according to Dr. Koch, in cholera ; and 
in the blood of sheep and cattle which have 
died of splenic apoplexy. Called also Bacteri.i 
and Vibrioiies. [Gebm-theobv.] 

■'E\I)eriments have proved that two of the ni<«t 
desti active oi epi/ooto: ,lise;wes,sh,cin>o\ aii.l Klander^. 
are als., .h-pendeiit I'.o- their cM.-teOLe ami their |0o- 
eMieioely sioiiU 1.1 ii.K >ohd parli.'lti 

Ci-Ui,/ui^.i .t .UUtrensin 11873). li. iUi. 

t mi-cry-phan'-tej, s. [Pref. micr-, and Gr. 

iiijiaui^ (liiiphniiw) = to weave.] 
Bntom. : The same as Walckesaeka (q.v.). 
mic'-tu-rate. v.i. [Formed irreg. from mic- 

turio.i [MicTURiTiox.] To pass urine. 

mic-tu-ri -tion, s. [Lat. mie<urio = to de- 
sin- to make water, desid. from mictus, pa. of miiijo = to make water.) 

Med. : The act of making water ; a morbid 
frequency in the passage of urine. 

mid, * midde, a. & »■- [A.S. mid, midil; cogii. 
with Dut. mil'- (used in composition as mii'- 
i/io? = mid-dav) ; IceL midkr ; Sw. & Dan. 

rate, fit, fare, amidst, what, fal!, father; we. wet, here, camel, her, there ; pine, pit, ^^^- .^■'•' "^"";;^ ^_\„ 
or. wbre. wolf. w6rk, who. s6n ; miite. cub. ciire, unite, cur, rule, fuU ; try, Syrian. «, <« - e , ey-a,qu-kw. 


mid— middle 


vii'I- (in cnmpositit'it); Gutli. mUlJa : O. H. 
Cut. initti ; Llit. im.'iii's; Cii. ^eVos (i/ttsc.-.) ; 
S.iiis<'. vHtdliya = iiiiiltUf.] 

A. .4s a<0'. •■ Mul'Ile; situated between cx- 
tifuu's ; interveniiii;. 

■ B, As subst. : The iiiiiUlle, the midst. 

" Alioiit tlie Mi<l I'f iiigbt." 

AAirAvf/j. ; Htchard III., v. 3. 

•I .Ui(/ is largely used in composition ti> 
imiicute position, point of time, i:c., betwixMi 
extremes : as, mul-otje, mid-aii% mid-a.iiTt-i\ 
}iiul-chuiin€l, mid-earth, mid-furrow, mid-lMi- 
vest, mUl-oceitn, mid-period, vtid-space, &c. 

mld-couples, ^'. pi. 

S'-"f-< Lav: Til'' writings by which an heir, 
assignt-'e, '>r aflju<lgt*r, is connected with a 
precept of sasiue granted in favour of his 
predecessor or author, which, when such heir, 
&c., t^ikes intVftnit-nt in virtue of such pre- 
cept, must be deduced in the instrument of 

mid-course. ^«. 

1. The middle of the course, way, or pro- 

2. A middle coiiise ><T mode of procedure. 

mid-day, " myd-dai, a. & s. 

A. As adj. : Pertaining to noon; meridional ; 
at nonu. 

" His hour of rnid-dn;/ rest is nearly over." 

Byrmt: Cuin, iii. 1, 

B. .15 suhst. : The middle of the day ; noon. 

" As if God. with the brond eye of mid-dui/, 
C'lejirer Wukeil in :ittlie wiiiduwa.' 

Loii'jfeUow : Children o/the Lord's Supper. 

Mid-day Jloicer : 

Bot. : An Australian popular name for 

mid-feather, ^^ 

Stonn-cuiii'^e : A water-bridge in a steam- 
boik-r furnace wbieli occui)ies a middle posi- 
tion ill the tine-space or tirebox. 

mid-heaven, s. 

1. Ord. Lang.: The middle of the sky or 

" Frara mid-hearen already she 
Hnth wituessetl their eaiitivity." 

Wordsworth : H'Ai/f Doi: of liytstone, iv. 

'i. Af4ron. : Tliat point of the ecliptic whicli 
is on tlie meridian at any given moment. 

* mid-hour, 5. The middle part of the 
day ; mid-day. 

mid-impediment, .-^. 

So'ts Lav : An inteniiediate bar to the com- 
pletiun of ;i right. 

* mid-main, 5. The mitblle of the sea; 
mid-ocean ; ;i point or position far out at sea. 

mid-noon, s. 

1. Lit.: Mid-dav, noon. (Milton: P. L., 
v. :U1.) 

* 2. Fig. : The middle point, the height. 

" The :vi)i>roved assistiiit of au arduous course 
Frutii his mid-noon ot iii.iiiliood to old nge '." 

Wordstoorfh : Excuraon, bk. vi. 

mid-Off, 5. [MiD-WICKET.] 

mid'On, s. [Mid-wicket.] 

■ mid-sky, adv. In the middle of the 

mid-superior, s. 

Scots Lmc : One wlio is superior to those 
below him, and vassal to those above him. 

mid-Wicket, s. 

Crkket: A fielder who is stationed about 
midway, right or left, between the wickets. 
Mid-wicket ott" (connnonly abbreviated to 
mid-off) stands to the right of the wicket- 
keeper ; mid-wicket on (or mid-on) to his left. 

* mid (1), -prep. [.\.S. mid, midh ; Icel. viedk ; 
Ootli, mith; O. H. Ger. wn'/, miii; Ger. viit.] 

'■ Mid him he hadde n stronge axe." 

nobcrt ^Gloucester. 17. 

mid (2). prc)\ [A contract, of amid (q.v.).] 
Amid, amidst. 

mid, 5. A contract, of midshipman (q.v.). 

mi-da, s. [Beas-flv.] 

mi -das, s. iGr. Mi5a? (Midaii)=a king of 
Pln-y.LiJa and son of Gorgias. noted for his 
wealth, and fabled to have had ass's ears.] 

Zml. : Tamarin ; a genus of American 
monkeys, family Arctopitheeini, from Panama, 

Peru, and the Hi-azils. Tlie upper frcnit teetli 
are close together, and the lower, which ;ire 
broad and truncated, project. They are rest- 
less and active ; their metliod of ciindiing i.s 
nmrc like that of the squirrels than of true 

monkeys ; the thumbs are not opposable. 
Chief species : Miiias koiUnns, witli a long 
bn>wn mane, and all the appearance of a little 
lion ; M. ursulus, the Negro Tamarin ; jV. 
Ik'Villii, Deville's Midas ; M. argentatum, said 
by Bates to be the rarest of the American 
monkeys ; and M. rosalia, the Silky Tamarin. 

Midas's ear, s. [Auricula Mid.e.] 

mid'-den, s. [ ; cogn. with Dut. 
tif'hlh'tg, vi6gdifnge~& dungdieap, from mog 
= muck ; dyngc ~ a heap.] A dunghill. 

midden-crow, s, A provincial name for 

the common crow. 

midden-hole, o. A gutter at the bottom 

of a dunghill. (Scotch.) 

" (She| run thro' vtidden-hofe nn' a" 
All' i>rii>*d wi' zeal an' fervour." 

Burns: Bnltoieeen, 

mldden-stead, s. A dunghill. 

"Sir Peter Penperbrand . . . wouhl have 8teeke<l 
you. 1 ike a imddocK, ou h is owu barooial iniddcn-tlcud." 
—Scott: Anti-^uary, ch. ix. 

* mid-des, s. [Midst.] 

* mid'-dest, a. [The superlative of mid, a. 
(q.v.).] Midmost. 

" Yet the stout fairy 'mongst the tniddest crowd, 
Thuiij^ht all their iflory vain iu knightly view." 
SifHiser: /'. (^.. I. iv. i5. 

''mxd'-dest. *myd-dest, s. [Midst.] The 
middle, the midst. 

"Oalidore . . . 
Him overtook in middutt of liis race." 

Hpenser : F. <l., VI. iii, 25. 

mid-die, * mid-del, ' mid-dell. '' myd- 

del, ' myd-dle, a. & 5. [A.S. midih-J, from 
'mid = middle; cogn. with Dut. rnidde' — 
middle ; Ger. viittel = means ; O. H. Ger. 
?)i(7(i7 = middle ; Icel. viedhel = amoh'^ ; Dan. 
nicUem ; Sw. 7ae?/on, = between.] 

A. -'15 adjective: 

1. Situated, placed, or standing equally 
distant fi'om the extremes. 

" Tliein'-' uj) he flew, and on the tree of life. 
The III idUlr tree, the highest there that grew, 
.Sat like .t c<jrnioraut." Milton : P. L., iv. 19. 

2. Forming a mean. 

■ * That middle course to steer. 
To cowardice and craft ao dear." 

Scott : Rokeby, L 22, 

3. Intermediate, intervening. 
*4, Indifferent, humble. 

*■ My !ulvenfrou8 bod^. 
That with no middh- fli^-ht intends to suar 
Above th .\ouian Mount, " MUtou : P. L.. \. U. 

B. As substantive : 

1. The point or part equally distant from 
the extremes. 

"And wonne the titi/ddel of thjrs londe to Bedeford 
anon." Itnliert o/ (Jloucester, \>. i2*J. 

2. The waist. 

" .\ln.ut hir middt^ll tweiitie score 
Of hors tialterH, and weU iiio 
Tlier hangeu." Oowcr : C. A., iv. 

3. An inter^-ening point or jiart in space, 
or time, or order ; something intermediate ; a 

"I . . . with capacious mind 
Considered all thui^fs visible in lienven. 
Or earth, or middU.' Milton . /'. L., \\. C03. 

middle-age. s. & a. 

A. .[.^■•■nhst.: The middle of life; mid-age. 

B. -1^ adj.: Pertaining or relating to the 

Midill.- a-L-s; medi;eval. 

middle-aged, a. Having reached the 
middle ;ige ot life; generally taken as from 
thirty-live to forty-live years of age. 



Middle Ages, -■. pi. A term rather in- 

d' iiiiiii-ly ii>i d Willi refirrence to ditleifut 
nations.' HaUam applies it tothe peniwl fmm 
the invasion of France by Clovis, a.u. 4Sit, to 
the invasion of Najdes by Charles VIIL, in 
A.u. 14'.>5. In Kngland it may be eousideivd 
as r«.* preset! ting the interval between the 
^axon invasion, a.u. 44'.), and the aC('essiott of 
lienry VII., A.D. 1485. Generally it may Iib 
considered as the period of time connecting 
what are called tlie ancient and moderit 
I)eriods of history, and extending from the 
ilecline of the U«iman Empire till the revival 
of h'tters in Europe. ^, 
The epithet of llie ~"fr 
Dark Ages w:is fre- 
quently apiilied lo 
tlie .^ame period. 

middle C, .^. 

jUhsi'c- The note 
standing on the itist 
legcr line above the 
Iwse stave, aiid the tirst leger line btdow the 
treble stave. [fSiAVi:.] 

middle 'Class, &. &ia. 

A. As snbst. : That class of society which 
occupies a middle jjosition between the wmk- 
ing classes and the aristocracy. It inclmles 
}>rofessional men. merchants, large farmers, 
smaller landed proi>rietors, &c. 

If Its numbers are to those of the upper 
class nearly as 40 to I, and to those of the 
lower classes, that of so-called working men, 
nearly as 7 to 23, a little less than 1 to 3. 
Dudley Baxter divided it into three sections, 
their numbers standing to each other nearly 
as 15, tiO, and 130. 

B. -4s adj. : Of or pertaining to the middle- 

Middle-class examinations : Examinations 
held by one of the universities for jiersons 
who are not members. Certiticates of etti- 
ciency, or, as in the case of the Oxford Lo<;;d 
Examinations, diplomas of Associate of Arts 
(A. A.), are granted to the successful candi- 
dates. The subjects range from reading, writ- 
ing, tS:e., to the ancient and modern languages, 
chemistry, botany, zoology, mathematics, geol- 
ogy, and other branches of science. 

Middle-class school : A school est-ablished 
for the education of the ehihlren of the 
middle-classes, and intermediate between pri- 
mary, or elementary schools, and the great 
public schools. 

middle-cut file, 5. A file wliose tectli 
have ii gra<le of coarseness between the rough 
and bitstarJ. 

middle-deck, 5. 

Naut. : That deck of a three-decked vessel 
which is between the other two; the maiu 

middle -distance, 5. 

Art : The central ])ortion of a landscape ; 
also ealletl middle-ground. 

* middle - earth, ' middle - erd, 
* middel-serd. ' middle-erd, " mid- 

den-erd, --. The earth, the w.-iM, reganUd 
as situated midway between heaven and earth. 

middleground. 5. 

Art : The same as MiDDLE-DISTANCE (q.v.). 

middle -latitude, 5. 

Nacig. : Till- miildle latitude of two points 
on the surface of a sphere or si>heroid, is the 
Iialf sum of the two latitudes when both are 
of the same name, or the half ditlerence of 
the latitudes when both are not of the same 
name. The middle latitude is alfected with 
tlie name of the greater. If we agree to call 
north latitudes positive, and south latitudes ne- 
gative, the middle latitude in all cases is equal 
to half the algebiaic sum of the two latitudt.s. 

Middle-latitude sailing : 

Navig. : The method of computing cases in 
sailing, by means of the middle-latitude, by a 
cond)ination of the principles of plane and 
l)arallel sailing. This method is onlyapproxi- 
mately correct. The departure is eonsidcred 
as the meridional distance for the middle 
latitude of the place sailed from and the place 
sailed to. The results are tlie nmiv accurate 
us the two places are near the equator. 

middle-man, s. 

I, Ordinary Language : 

1. A person who acts as an agent or intcr- 

boil, boy: pout, jowl: cat, 9ell, chorus, 9hin. bench: go, gem: thin, this: sin, as; expect, Xcnophon. exist, -ing. 

-ciaa, -tian = Shan. -tion. -sion-shun; -tion, -sion = zhun. -cious, -tious, -sious = shus, -blc, -die, ^ - 'ccl, d^L 


middle— midshipman 

mediary In'tweeii twn parties, as between the 
iimnulai-timT ami fxporter of hockIs, or be- 
tween a wlK'lesale and a retail dealer ; siiecif.. 
in Irehiinl. a persim who rent^ lands from the 
landowner iti lar^'e traeU. and lets it out in 
smaller ]>oi tionsat auincreased rt-nt ; orin U»n- 
don and larj;o towns generally, one who tukts 
house prr>]'ei1y from the landlord, reletting it, 
often in tenements, at a much higher rate. 

' 2. A man belonging to the piiddle classes ; 
a commoner. 

n. -Vf'. : The man who stands in the middle 
of ii hi.' nf s.ddiei-s. 

middle-passage, s. That part of the 
Atlantic Ocean between Africa and the West 

•I The expi-ession was often used in the 
d;iys nf the slave trade in connection with the 
transjiortation of negroes from Africa to 

middle-post, s. 

t'arp. : A king-post in a tiniss (q.v.), 

middle-quarters, 5. ;)/. 

Ardi. : A ]i;ime given to the four quarters 
ol" a cuhnnn divided by horizontal sections, 
f'Tniiii^: angles of 45' on the plan. 

middle-rail, $. 

Carp. : The rail of a door level with the 
hand, on which the lock is usually fixed ; also 
called the ht>-k-rail. 

middle-sized, a. Of a middle or average 

middle-term, s. 

Loffic : That term of a categorical syllogism 
with which the two extremes of the conclu- 
sion are separately compared. [Syllooissi.] 

"A syllogism will coutAin tbree nutlons and no 
more. Uftunjly. the two whose agreement or iliaagrte- 
ineut we strive to ascertain, autl the third which we 
ein[di->y &s a means of doine 8o. They are called tenus; 
and the third uotiun. iuterposed lietween the othtrs 
Id order to compare them, is the niidtlle-tenn, whilst 
the other two may be «Jled, from their place in the 
cuDcliidiue judgment of the Byllo|;iam, the subject and 
ineiUcate. —Thomson' Laws of Thought, J 93. 

middle-tint, s. 

A rt : A mixed tint in which bright colours 
never in-edominate. 

middle-Toice, s. 

<ireek Gmia.: That voice the function of 
which is to express that the subject does or 
lias done something to himself. It is thus 
middle, or midway between the active voice, 
in which the subject does something to an 
object, and the passive, in which something is 
done to the subject. 

mid-die, v.t. [Middle, a.] 
* I. Iti i nary Language: 

1. To set or place in the middle. 

2. To balance, to compromise. 

"Xow to midflle the matter between both." — 
Itichardson : ClarU»a. i. 192. 

IT. FootbaH : To kick or drive (the ball) 
into the middle, so that it may be kicked 
through the goal. 

mid'-dle-moBt, a. [Eng. viiddle ; -most.] 
Situated or being in the middle, or nearest 
the middle of a number of things which are 
near the middle ; midmost. 

" The middtemosl from the ground. "—£zeWeI xlii. 6. 

* mid-dler, "mld-del-er, s. [Eng. 
iiiidiUie) ; -er.] One who goes between or in 
che middle ; a mediator. 

" He being here mediatour or middefer betwene Ood 
and uieu." — Isayc xxviit. (1551). 

mid'-dle-ton-ite, s. [Named from the place 
where found, Middleton Collieries ; suff. -Ue 

Min. : A native hydrocarbon, occurring in 
small rounded masses and layers between 
coal laminee. near Leeds. Brittle. Sp. gr. 
1'6 ; lustre, resinous; colour, reddish-brown, 
deep red by transmitted light. Compos. : 
carbon, SO'33 ; hydrogen, 7'92; oxj'gen, 5'7d. 

mid'-dling, a. & s. [Eng. 7niddl(e); -ing.} 

A. As rulj. : Of middle or medium rank, 
station, or quality; medium, mediocre; not 
going to an extreme ; about equally distant 
from extremes ; moderate. 

■' A jjeaaant who does his duty is a nobler character 
than ft king of even middling iep\iia.t\ou."— Goldtmitk : 
The Bee. No. 2. 

B. As snhsiantive : 

1. {Sing.): That portion of a gun-stock be- 

tween the grasp and the tul-pipe or ramrod- 

2. (/'?.): The coarser part of flour; the 
intermcdiat'- jundurt ni" ground wheat. 

• middling gossip, ,i. .\ go-between. 

mid'-dling-l^t "*'''• [Eng. mUhllhuj; -ly.] 

In a ijitddling manner; indifferently. 

t mid'-dling-ness, s. [Eng, middling; -ness.] 

" I make It a virtue to he content with my midiUi'ii/' 
TUsa."—Q. Eltot ; Ikinitl l>erondit, ch. xxxv. 

mid'-d3^. s. [See def.] A familiar corruption 
iif Midshipman (q.v.). 

Mid-gard, 5. [Icel. = lit. mid-yard.] 

Srand. Myth.: The abode of the human 
race, forniecl out of the eye-brows of Vmir, 
one iif the fii-st giants, and joined to Asgard, 
or the abode of the gods, by the rainbow- 

midge, 'migge, 'myge, mygge, s. [A.S. 

niir.j.' ; cogii. With I'ut. mii-j^ii gnat; Low 
Gel', mugge ; Hw. mygg ; Dan. myg; Icel. mig ; 
Ger. miicke; O. H. (ier. muccd, muggd.] 
Entomology : 

1. (Sing): A popular name for the gnat 
(Cnhx pipiens) or any insect resembling tliat 
species, especially in the habit of collecting 
in swarms and dancing in the air. 

"The midges that the s«n-bliuk brings out, and the 
evening wind sweeps away." — Scott : Jfeart of Mid- 
Lothian, ch. xiv. 

2. (Ft): The dipterous family Chironomidfe. 

"They do not, however, in general, possess the for- 
miilable offensive weapons of the gnats, and most of 

them are quite harmless. The best English name for 
them is that of midga." — IK. S. Dallas, in CastclCs 
S,tL nut., vL 77. 

midg'-et, s. [A dimin. of midge (q.v.).] 

1. A little midge ; a very diminutive creature. 

2. The Canadian name for the Sand-fly. 
Bfid'-i-a-nite, s. & a. [Eng., &c.. Midian; 

■ite. Heb.yi'0{Muik~yd7i) = strife, contention. 
Xamed after a son of Abraham by Keturah 
(Gen. XXV. 2 ; 1 Chron. i. 32).] 

A. .4s subst. (PL): The inhabitants of Mi- 
dian. [B.] 

" To hide it from the .Vidianitex." — Judges vl. 11. 

B. As adj. : Of or belonging to the land of 
Midian, north of Ai'abia, and east of Palestine. 

• mxd'-knowl-edge (l- silent), s. [Eng. )?tij, 
a., and kiiowle-iige.] A partial or intermediate 

"Betwixt which two some have placed a third, a 
midknowledge of future conditioiiate contingents. "— 
Bp. Ball : ChrUtian Moderation, hk, ii.. $ 6. 

mid'-land, n. & s, [Eng. viid, a., and kind.] 

A. As adjective : 

1. Situated or being in the middle or in- 
terior of a country : as, the Midland counties. 

2. Surrounded by land ; Mediterranean. 

" There was the Plymouth squadron new come in . . . 
Which twice on Biscay's working Iwy had beeu. 
And ou the midland sea the French had awed." 

Dryden: Annus Mirabilis. clxxi. 

B, As subst. : The interior of a countiy. 
(Used in the plural for the central counties of 

*^mld'-leg, s. & adv. [Eng. mid, a., and leg.] 

A. As subst. : The middle of the leg ; the 

B. As adv,: Up to the middle of the leg ; 

" Ay, more than once I've seen him tnidl^ deep.' 
Wordrworth : The Brothers. 

Mid'-lent, s. [A.S. midkngten.] Tlie middle 
uf Lent (([.v.). 

Midlent Sunday, s. 

Ecdes. : The fourth Sunday in Lent. [Moth- 

*mid'-less, *mid-les3e, a. [Eng. mid, a. ; 
■leas.] Witliout a niidi.lle. 

"An uubegiuning, midletse, endlesse balle." 

:<ffli!etter : Da Bttrtas. wk. 1, day 1, 3i3. 

*mid'-Ufe, s. [Eng. mid, a., and life.] The 
middle uf life ; mid-age. 

* mid'-mor-row, * mid-mor-owe, 

' mid -morn, 5. [Eng. mid, and morrow, 
morn.] The middle of the morning. 

"It was nought iiassed yet midmorowe." 

Gower : C. A., \iii. 

mid' -most, *myd-most, a. [Eng. mid, a,, 
and iimst.] Tlic n.Mifst to the middle ; in the 
very iiiiddlc ; midilh-most. 

" "fhe midmost bore a man : the outward two 
Secured each Bide." 

/'ope: ffomer ; Odysseu Ix. 509. 

Mid-na^pore', 5. & a. [See def. ] 

Geog. : A town and British district in Lower 

Midnapore- creeper, s. 

Lvt. : liiixa hoHU. no.,:. 

mid night (!//t silent), *myd-nygt,*myd- 
night, .^. tS: a. [Eng. mtd, a., and itii/ht ) 

A. Assuhst.: The middle hour of the night; 
twelve o'clock at night. 

" That's the way ; for wonieu are light at midnight." 
—shiiheiiii. : Meiisure for Measure, v. i. 

B. As adjective: 

1, Being or occurring in the middle of the 

" By the solemn gleam of midnight lamjui. 
The world is poised." 

Thotnson: Castle <^ Indolence, ii. 58. 

2. Dark as midnight ; very dark ; as, mid- 
night gloom. 

"nud' -night {/jh silent), v.t. [Midnight, s] 

To darken. 

"[It) cannot but most midnight the soul of him that 
is tiihi."~reltham : A'csolves, p 94. 

mid'-r^h. s. [Heb. ir^ip (midrash) = the 
study, the exposition of Scripture. It is the 
intinitive of Aram. TTil (darash) = to search 
into, to examine.] 

Hehreio Literature: Tlie oldest Jewish expo- 
sition of the Old Testament. It was of two 
kinds — theHalachic or fjegaland the Hagadic 
or Homiletic interpretation. The rules regu- 
lating those two kinds of exegesis were ccd- 
leeted and systematized by Elieserben Jose, a 
Galilean, in the second century. (Ginsburg.) 

mid'-rib, s. [Eng. mid, a., and rib.] 

Bot. : The large vein or princi[>al nerve 
which passes from the petiole to the apex of 
a leaf. Called also lib and costa. 

mid'-rifif, * mid'-rif, • myd-ryf. s. [A.S, 

midrif, from mid-= middle, and/tr(/= thebelly, 
the womb; Dut. rif= a carcase; O. H. Ger. 
href= a body; O. Fris. midref = midriff.] 
Anat. : The diaphragm (q.v.). 

" It hath much sympathy with the brain, so that if 
the midriff be inflamed, present madness ensues it"— 
P. Fletcher: J'urplc Island, iv. (Note Li.J 

mid'-sea, s. [Eng. mid, a,, and sea.] The 
middle sea ; specif, the Mediterranean. 

" Fish that, with their fins, and ebiiiiug scales. 
Glide under the green wave, in sculls that oft 
Bank the midsca." Milton: P. L., viL 403. 

mid'-ship, rt., adv., & s. [Eng. miil, a., and 


A, --Is adj. : Situated or being in the middle 
of a ship ; belonging to the middle of a ship ; 
as, a midxhip beam. 

B, As adv. : In the middle of a ship ; raid- 

C, As subst. : The middle portion of a ship. 

"Whose ship hatl in her prow a lion, a goat in the 
midship, and a drajroii in the stem."— J!aleigh : BiMt, 
World, hk. ii., ch. xiii.. § 13. 

midship-beam, 5?. 

Shiphnild. : The longest beam in the middle 
of a sliip. 

midship-bend, 5. 

Shiphnild. : Tht- largest Of the cross-sectious 
of a ship. \Mien the middle of the ship has 
a portion of a uniform cross-section, tliat 
section is called the midship-body. 

midship-ft-ame, s. The frame at the 

midship or largest section of a vessel, 

mid' -ship-man, s. [Ens- midship ; -jnan.] 
Xav'd : The highest in rank of the petty 
officers in the royal navy. Before being ap- 
jtointed to this rank he must liave served at 
least one year as a cadet, and have passed the 
prescribed examinations. After six years' ser- 
vice, and the passing of further examinations, 
he is promoted to the rank of sub-lieutenant. 
He receives instruction, literary and profes- 
sional, on board, and his special duties are to 
I'ass on the orders of the superior officers to 
the men, and to superintend the carrying out 
of them. 

" [The] schoolboy midshipman that, standing by, 
Strains hia shrill pipe as irood or iU l>etide^" 

Bvroii : Childe Harold. 11. 18. 

f3.te, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father : we, w^et, here, camel, her, there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, pot, 
or, wore, wolf, work, who, son ; mute, cub, ciire, unite, cur, rule, full ; try, Syrian. £e, ce = e ; ey = a ; qu = kw. 

midships— mignonette 


midshlptnan's-butter. ."<. 

J:nt. : TliL' liutl vi I'Kisai 'jnitissima. 

mid-ships, ciiic. [A cmtracti'm nf amid- 
shij>^ {>\.y.)-] lu the midUK- of the ship. 

' mid -side, t". [Eug. mut, a., and siiif.J The 
mi".Ulk' of the side. 

■■ StMiiden iu «at«r to mittside." — lielig. Antiq., L 222. 

midst. * middes, ' mid-dest, ' myd- 

dest, s.. ".. \' '"''■. (riupf.'rly »(('/'/('.>■. iii5 ill 
•ill miiUh's t\\y St-;" the t bfilig excresct-iit. 
as in whilst, auiongsf. The s is the adverbial 
A. A^ siihst. : The middle. 
'■ AikI wlieii tlie Jevil bad throwu biin iu the miiUt. 
lie ctuue out of him." — Luke iv. So. 

*B. Asculj.: Middle. 
• C, -4* (ulv. : In the middle. 
" 1)11 tairtli join all ye cientures to extol 
Him Ih-st. Him last, Him tnitlsc. and without eud." 
Jliltou : P. L.. V. 1G5. 

5i (1) hi the ini'lst of: Aiuoug ; surrouudcd 
by 01- involved iu. 

(2) In 0(U\ your, their midst: In the uiiibit 
of (nr amongst) us, you, them. 

midst, prep. [A contraction oi amidst (q.v.).] 
Aiuidst, amongst, iu the middle of. 

"They left me midtt my euemies." 

Shakegj). : I Henri/ VI., i. 2. 

mid-stream, 5. [Em;, mid, a., aud stream.] 

The niiadlc- of a stieum. 

mid-siim mer. mid-som-er. * mid- 
som-mer, myd som-er. ^. A: a. [A.s. 

midsuiiur, from mid = middle, aud siimer = 

A. As subst. : The middle of summer; the 
summer solstice, about Juue 21. 

"Aud laette hem after mj/ilsomer the feste of Seyn 
Jou." Itobert of Gloucester, p. 302. 

B. As adj. : Happeniug or being iu the 
middle of summer. 

midsummer-chafer, s. 

Enfnm. : i:hizvtnj.vi6 ^"Istitialls. 

midsummer-day. s. The feast of the 

Nativity i>f .St. Juhu the Baptist, celebrated 
nil J iiiii' '24. It is one nf the regular quarter- 
days in England. Iu former times it was tlie 
custnm to light tires or boutires on the eve of 
St. Jnhn's day. [Beltane.] 

midsummer-eve, 5. The evening pre- 
C'diii;:; iiiid.summer-d:iy. The suiiuuer solstice 
is, Innvevt-r, on June 21. 

midsummer-men, s. pi 

Hot. : .'<alinn Tt'ki-hinm. 

*mid-ter-ra'-ne-an, a. [Eng. mid, a., and 
Lat. tiiiu — tlte t.artli.] MediteiTauean. 

" MhiU-rr<ijtea)i sea." Sylvt'ster : ColonU-s, 86. 

*mid-ward, «''i-, [A.S. middcweard.] In, 
on, "r tuuiiids the middle. 

"This chaiion toke his oole. with sorry grace, 
And laid it iihuue on the tnidurnrd 
Of the ui-osselct."' CJiaucer : C. T., 16.G59 

mid-way. 'mid wei, s., a., & adv. [Eng. 
^nid, a., and (/■"//.] 

A. As subst. : A middle way, j'ath, or course. 

" No midifai/ twixt these extremes at all." 

:ilmkcsp. : Aittoni/ 1- Cleopatra, UL 4. 

B. Asadj. : Situated or being in the middle 
of the way or distance ; halfway. 

" The crows aud choughs that wing the mklway air. 
Show scarce so gross as beetles." 

Shakesp. : Lear, iv, 6. 

C. As adv. : In the middle of the way or 
distance ; lialfway. 

" She SAW him rashly spring. 
And miUteai/ up iu danger cling." 

Jluure: Fire- Worsliippcrs. 

mid -wife, * mead- wife, *mede-wif, 
' mede-wife. mide-wif, mid-wif, 
* myde-wyf, ' myd-wiif. ^. [A..S. mid = 
witli, and »(/= woman ; cf. Sp. comadrc = a, 
cu-UH'tliei', a midwife, from co = hat. nun = 
with, and mulre = Lat. viater — mother.] A 
woman who assists other women at childbii-tii ; 
a tVmale practitioner of the obstetric art. 

[Mll», j>/*C;».] 

" But send the midwife presently to me." 

Shakesp. : Titus .Xudronicut, ix. 2. 

* mid -wife, * mid -wive, v,i. & u [Mid- 

w-iKi;, .s.] 

A. liitrans. : lo perform the office of a 
midwife ; tu practise midwifery. 

B. Transitive: 

1. lit. : Tn assist in childbirth. 

2. I'iij- • 1" iissist in bringing into exist- 
ence ; to aid iu bringing to tigltt. 

" Being designed to inidwire a pylutld, mixt. ring- 
strakcd pi-ng^ny <>f clmrL-li ^uvvriiorn Into the world." 
—.'iuulh : Sei->n„iis. \i.l. Vlt., Str. -L 

mid -wife-ri^. mid'-wif-rj^, s. [Eng. mtrf- 
wij'e; -yy.] 
I. JMf'rally: 

1. The act or practice of assisting women in 
childbirth : obstetrics (q.v.). 

2. Assistance at childbirth. 

* II. I''i'j. : Aid, assistance ; co-operatiou iu 

" Hiisty fruits, aud too ambitious flowers, 
Scorning the midwifery of ripening showers." 

Stepney : To thu Karl of Carlisle. 

mid'-wif-ish, a. [Eng. midwific); -ish.] 
Pertaining to a midwife or her duties; like a 

mid -win-ter, * myde-wyn-ter, s. [En^'. 

iiti'l, and i''i liter. \ 'i']n- ^vllltL■r st.dstice, i_ir 
Ik'CL-nil-ier 21 ; the peiiud about the winter 
'■ He seude alter hys harouye, at mydewynter mj'd 
hym to be." Jiolcrt of Qlouveteer, p. 34a. 

mi'-em-ite, s. [Named from Miemo, where 
lonud ; siitr. -t7e (A/tu.).] 

Mill. : A variety of dolomite (q.v.), of a pale, 
yellowish-green colour, occui-ring iu columnar, 
gj-anidar, and coarsely-jiisulitic forms, some- 
times m crystals, at Miemo, Tuscany. 

mien, meane. " meen, ;;. [Fi-. mine, from 
Ital. iniim ; Old ital. vicna = behaviour, 
manners, carriage of a man, from Lo\V Lat. 
mlno = to lead (Fr. vientr).'} External air or 
manner ; demeanour, bearing, api>eai-ance, 
carriage, department, manner. 

mi'-e^-ite, s. [Named from Mies, where 
found ; sutt'. -iti: (iVtu.).] 

Mi n. : A variety of pyi'o^orphite (q.v.), con- 
taining phosjihate of lime. Occurs iu globular 
or iiKuiimillary groups, with fibrous, radiating 
stiuiture, and brown colour, at Mies, Bo- 

* mieve, v.t. & i. [Move, v.} 

miflf, s, & 0. [Cf. Prov. Ger. mw/=suUeu- 
uess ; vmfeii = to sulk.] 

A, As subst. : A slight degree of resent- 
ment ; a slight falling out or quarrel ; a titf. 

"When a little iiuane] or vtiff, as it is vulgaily 
called, arose between them."— Fielding : I'oin Jones, 
hk. iii.. cli, vi, 

"" B. -.4s adj. : Miffed, displeased, vexed. 

■■ Being mi/with him myself."— ir. Taylor: Memoirs 
by U-jbberds, i. 417. 

mlfif, I'.t. [Miff, s.] To cause displeasure to ; 
to oll'eud, to displease. 

might {(jh silent), pret. of v. [A.S. miUe, 
lia. t. of mtifjan ~ to be able.] [May, v.] 

might (gh silent), *miht, 'myht.'6-. [A.S. 
viihe, mcht, mceht, vio.iht ; cugu. w itli Dut. 
mafjt ; Icel. vuettr ; Dan. & Sw. mvgt ; Gotli. 
maht^; Gtv. macht ; O. H. Gt:r. vutht ; Russ. 
mochc] Power, strength, force, whether bodily, 
physical, or mental. [Mav, r.] 

" England shall doiilile gild his treble guilt. 
England shall give him otfice. honour, tni^/it." 

S Henry IV., iv. 5. 

^ With might and main : With all one's 
strength or power ; with the utmost exertion. 

"Toward Wiiceater he com with niyiiht and mayn." 
Ji'jbert de lirunne, p. 56, 

*might-ful('//i silent), "mygt-vol,H. [Eng. 
might, s. ; -JnlH) J Full of might or power; 
mighty, powerful. 

" My lords, you know, aa do the ^nightful gods." 
Shakesp. : Titus Andronieiu, iv. 4. 

might' -i-ly {gh silent), adv. [Eng. mighty; 


1. With great might, power, force, or 
strength ; powerfully, strongly. 

" And he cried mif/ktHy with a stroi 
Babylon the great is fallen."— /ftrp. xvii 

2. With great effect or result. 

'"For he minhtHy convinced the Jews, and that 
publickly, 'hcHiiig by the scriptures that Jesus was 
Christ."— .^^f J xviii, is. 

3. With vehemence or energy ; fiercely. 

"Do as adversaries do in Uw, stri^'e mightUy. hut 
eat and drink as friends."— 5A<tA.y«^. .' Tatning t^ the 
bhrew, I, 2. 

4. To or iu a great degree ; very greatly, 
very much. 

"1 would we could do so; for her benefits are 
miii'itilij nu>.\.U-:v<\: —Ahuketp. . At Vuii Like It, L 1. 

might-i-n^SS (i/Zi aileut), s. [Eng. mighty; 


1. The <piality or state of being mighty ; 
power, might, gi-eutnesa ; liigh dignity. 

" III n moment bcv 
Uow soou tho mightiMvtM inceU mlHery.'* 

lihaixsp.: Uenrif Hit. |Prul,f 

2. A title of dignity. 

" Wiirt pleasi- your minhttneu to wnith your haiidi?" 
— .S/niAw/y. . Tanuii'jof the .Hire tc. (Indutt. iii.) 

* might -less (gh aikut), * myght-les. n. 

[Eng. might, s. ; -less.} Wiliiuut might ui 
power; pc^werless. 

"Thu rose is myghtlet, the ncttille npredis ov«r fer." 
livbcrl de UruHuv, p. 2WJ. 

might'-na (y/i silent), r. [«ee def.] Miglit 

iml. (.scu/c/t.) 

mighty {gh sil-ni), * mag-ti, * migh-ti, 

■ mig-ti, * myght-le,". .v "-/'■. [a.>. .mhifj, 
ini:-'h>i.<i ; O. U. Oer. iiuihtigcr; Gulli. wtc/i- 
tcigs ; Iccl. mdhtagr.] 
A. As adjective : 

1. Strong, jiowerful; having great strength, 
power, or might. 

"And I wUl briug you out from tho people . . . 
with u mighty hiuid, aud with u stretched uutarm."— 
Ez>.kte( XX. ai. 

2. Powerful in iuflueuce, importance, or 

3. Characterized by or exliibitiug might, 
power, or strength. 

" The mightiest work of human ijower." 

Scott: JIarmiQii, ii. (Introd.) 

4. Strongly armed or equipped ; strong m 
numbers, quality, aud equipment. 

"No mi'/htier aiiuoment had ever appeared in the 
British Chajinel.'— .l/ucuufuj/ . //w/, £iig., en. xviii. 

5. Vast, important, niumentous. 
" ril sing of heroes aud of kings. 

In mights/ nmubere mighty tilings." Cowley. 

G. Impetuous, violent, furious. 

"And the Lord turned a mighty strong west wind, 
which took away the locusts."— i'xoi/iw x. I'j. 

7. Very great, exceedingly great ; excessive. 

"There arose a mighty famine iu the land,"- inAi* 
XV. 14. 

8. Forcible, efficacious. 

9. Strong ; powerful in intellect ; great in 

10. Brave, undaunted, fearless, heroic 

" Beneath a ttUTct. on his shield reclined. 
He stood, aud questioned thus his mighty mind." 
I'ujie : Homer; tUad iLX^i. 137. 

* 11. Well versed, well read. 

12. Very great, excellent, or fine ; capital. 
{Colloquial, and generally ironical.) 

13. Very large, huge, immense. 

" A mighty rock." Hhaketp. : Comedy of Errors, i. L 

14. Used as an epithet of honour, applied 
to persons of high rank. 

"Most mightf/ duke, vouchsafe me 8[>eak a word." 
Shakesp. : Comedy of Errors, v. 
B, As adv. : In or to a great degi'ee ; very 
much ; exceedhigly, mightily. {CoUvguial.) 

'■ He reigns: How long? Till some usurper rise. 
And lie too mighty thoughtful, mighty wise: 
Studies new lines. ' Prior. 

^ mi'-gnar-ize (gn as ny), v.t. [Prob. for 
miguiardise (q.A.J.j To soothe; to treat or 
handle gently. 

"When they are mignarized and stroked gently."- 
Backet : Life of \V illii.i,yns, 1. '.'6. 

* mi'-gniard, ^mi gnard(gn as ny), ". 

[Fr. mig\\ard.\ Suit, daiiily, delicate, elteim- 
nate. [Miniun.] 

■^ " Love ia brought up with those soft mionUird houd- 
linga."— /fe/i Jonsoii : Th« Hevil is a« Ass, L 2. 

* mi -gniard-i^c (gn as ny). ' min'-iard- 

ise (i as y), .s. [Fr. viignnnlisr. tr.'iii i„c 

gwn-d.] Iiaintiness, delicacy, soft u.sagc, pam- 
pering caresses. 

" With all the migninrdUe and iiimtut caresses 
You aui put on them. " 

hen Jo iMti . .'<tu/il. •</ .Veun, lil. 1. 

^ mi-gnlard'ise, * mi -gnlard-ize (gn 
as ny), ' min -lard-i^e (i as y), v.t. [Mi- 
(jNi.MtDisE, ii. Cf. Fr. Hii^/iHrticr= to affect 
soft manners or delicacy.] To render delicate, 
soft, or effeminate. 

" That did miniardisi; aud make tho languatfe mora 
dainty and feiulnluf."- Zfowc^ : Lrttcrt,b\i. iv..l«L U. 

' mi -gnion (gn as ny), s. (Minion.] 

mi gnon-ctte (gn as ny). s. [Fr. mignon- 

;u7ft =;(!) a ji'iuig gill ; (.■-) \iiiious plants; 

boil, boy ; pout, jowl ; cat, 9ell, chorus. 9hin, ben^h ; go, gem ; thin, this ; sin, as ; expect, ^enophon, exist, ph = C 
-clan, -tian = shan. -tion, -sion — shiin ; -tion» -^ion - zhun. -cious, -tious, -sious = shus. -ble, -die, ^c. = bel, d^L 


mignumite— mild 

I fcin. of miijiivn = a dai- 

(iiiiiin. uf mujnvnnt 

itotany tC Horticulture : 

1. /;<«</« (x/ocn/n. It is a well-known and 
lii^ilily ft-.ignuit tluwi-r. inilij^enoiis in nortlifvii 
ana north-eastern Afiiea. There is a viiiii-ty 
culleU li.frutcscfit^, Tree-Mignonette. Imuight 
Iroin Egypt, now cultivated in England. 

2. The jienus Reseda (q.v.). 
mig'-nu-mite, .t. (Etym. doubtful, bnt prob. 

liom tir. ^x^yl1<^l^ (mi'jnumi) = to mix, in alln- 

ftioii to thf composition.] 
M,n. : The same as Maosltite (q.v.). 
ml gralne, »'. [MEtmiM, II. 2.] 
mi grant, a. & s. [I-nt. migrans, pr. i>ar. of 

„,,.;/<' = to mit'rate(M.v.).] 

A. As adj. : Migrating, migratory. 

B. As snbst. : One who or that which tni- 
^iiit«.-s ; specif., a migratory bird or other 

"Tlies© we true miarmits ; but«mimberof other 
LinlM visit lis. (iinl tiui only Ik; classeil 

j stniKjleifi."- 

Wttltacc: Oto<}. /Jul. Animuli. i. 19. 

mi-grate, v.i. [Lat. migratns, pa. par. of 
„(Mf!" = to wander; liaX. migrare.] To pass 
or remove from one place of re-sidenet- to 
juiotlicr ; to change one s re-sidence or jilat*- ><( 
;ilio(U', especially from onecomilry to anntlni ; 
spueif., of birds, &c., to pass from a colder to 
a wanner climate in the autumn, returning in 
the spring. 

■ Tlie i)eoi>le of Cavaii migrated in oue body to Eii- 
iiiBkillcii.'— J/itcii(ii<ii/ : Wirt. Jiiuff-. ch. xiL 

mi-gra'-tion, s. [Fr., from Lat. migrationcm, 
atxus. of minnitio, from iitigratus, pa. par. of 
nKyco = to migrate (q.v.) ; Ital. migiaziojic.] 
I, Ordinary Language : 
1. The act of migrating, or removing from 
one place of residence to another, especially 
friim one country or state to another ; change 
of abode or residence. 

'■ Adventures that beguiled and cheered 

; Excurtion, bk. vii. 

• 2. Change of place or position ; removal. 

"Such alterations, trnHBitioiia. migratiom. uf tlie 
centre uf giavity, anil elevations of new ialaiids, hiwl 
jictually hai)i>eued."— Wooilward : Natural Jliatory. 

' ' 3. Residence in a foreign country ; banish- 

"Wo is me. too too lou^lMiiiiahed from the Cliristiim 

■world, with such imiiuosity, as if it were the woi-st of 

entiiiies. ami meet to be adjudged toa iJeri.etual mi- 

^rnUour—Dp. BfiU: Jnouible ii'ortd. (The EiJistle.) 

11. Tichnicalhj: 

1. ZooL, Orniih., ffc. ; A term applied to 
the periodical or irregular movements of all 
animals, especially to those of birds and fishes, 
for although the movements of some mammals 
correspond in some degree to those of birds, 
tliey are rather incursions than true migiii- 
lioiis. In all the temperate parts of the globu 
there are many genera and species of binls 
which reside only a part of the year, arriving 
and leaving at tolerably fixed epochs. The 
fieldfare, red-wing, snow-bunting, and nume- 
rous ducks and waders visit England in the 
winter ; and in the suunner the cuckoo, the 
swifts and swallows, and numerous warblers 
appear, build their nests and rear their young, 
and then depart. Most of tlte birds that 
spend their spring and summer in the tem- 
perate parts of Europe pass the winter in 
North Africa and Western Asia ; the winter 
visitants pass the summer in the extreme 
north of Europe and Asia, some of them 
breeding in Lapland. It is probable that what 
(for want of a l>etter term) may be called " the 
instinct of migi-ation " in such birds has arisen 
from the habit of wandering in search of food, 
greatly exaggerated by the powers of flight, 
and by the necessity for procuring a large 
amount of soft insect food for their untledgf d 
young. Many sea-fishes migrate to a limited 
extent for the purpose of depositing their 
spawn in favourable situations. {IVallace : 
iieoij. Dist. Animals, i. 10-34.) 

2. Bot. : Many seeds have downy or feathery 
appendages which when wind blows infiuence 
tli'.ir motion through the air; others are 
1h>;ited down rivers to alluvial .sands near their 
months ; the ocean may cast them on distant 
shores, or regions, now disconnected, may at a 
fninier geological period have been united. 
Their seeds may have been transpoi-t«d say 
from the Arctic- circle to the tops of Britisli 
liigliland hills, or they may have been eaten 
by birds, and, remaining undigested, have, 
been voided at a distance from their original 

mi'-gra-t6r-3?, a. [As if from a Lat. vugnt- 
tortus,' from migmtus, pa. par. of migro = to 
migmte (q.v.); Fr. migmtoirc; Ital. & Sp. 
I. Ortlinary Language : 

1. Itemoving or passin" from one place of 
residence or resort to anotlier ; changing one's 

2. Wandering in habits ; roving, nomadic, 
unsettled : as, To lead a migratory life. 

3. I*ertaining or disposed to migration. 

"This punwtte ia Bomctlines carrii'd on hyaeortof 
miuni/wru instinct, aunietiuies by the «i>li;it uf cn- 
•liWau'—Uttrke : Abridg. of Eog. Hut., bk. li.. cli. o. 

U. y.QoL, Ornith., tCc. : A t«rm appli<'d tr> 
animals, and more esjiecially to bints, which 
reside in their oidinaiy habitat only <luring a 
period of the year, migniting at ceitain sea- 
sons to uther countries where the leiiiperature 
niul surroundings are more in consonance 
with their general habits. 

•■Tlie same siiecles is often se^leutary in one jmrt of 

EtiroiN^. and mi-jrutorg in anotlier.' — H'(i»iittf.- Ovo'j. 

JJUI. AiKJiiitU. 1. JO. 

migratory-cells, s. pi A term applied 
mnler certain circumstances to the colourless 
corpuscles of the blood. 

-By menus of the aiiiabnfd movement of their 
nrotoplaani, the pale lurim^iks nn.icr nouie fircun'- 

'■ - *' * i.leiiiit: oreniib-nitiiif 

iiig liftweeii the ele- 
\)\n Tii;iiiiii>r tliey Jiud 
111.- tissiif,'-, iind lieuce 
iiit'i tlif" .nuiiiu'iu'i'iiifiils .»i thv Iviiipliiitii.'?^. Cells 
like th^^^e. wlmli api.^-ar tn l.f %s;indtrmg Uidepeu- 
dently ill tl'f tishU.-t. and (..iruculavly in the connec- 
tive tissue, are known as miifrator!/ uella, —(^iiaiii : 
Anatomy ilSt2). ii., V. au. 

migratory-locust, s. 

Kit.t",a.: d-Alipuda migratoria. [LocuST.] 

migratory-pigeon, 5. 

Ornith.: Columha {EctO'plstes) migratoria, 
the Passenger-pigeon (q.v.). 

Mi'-guel-ite?, s. 3>;. [See def.] 

jlist. : A Portuguese faction which sup- 
ported Don Miguel, the third son of John III., 
who from 18:10 to 1S34 made abortive etiorts 
to exclude liis sister Donna Maria from the 

stances possesu tlie imjwci 
from the lilood-vessels, t 

nienta of thi.-ir coats, lu 

mih'-rab, s. [Arab. = a praying-place.] An 
ornamented recess or alcove in the centre of 
the exterior wall of a mosque, having the 
mimbar or pulpit to the right. It always 
marks the direction of Mecca, and tlie people 
jn-ay in front of it. In it a copy of the Koran 
is kept. A similar place is found in Jewish 
synagogues, iiointing towards Jerusalem, and 
cuntaiiiiug a copy of the Law. 

mi-ka'-do, s. [Japanese = the Venerable.] 
The Emperor of Japan, the spiritual as well 
as temporal liead of the Empire. From 1192 
tip to the revolution in IgtiS, the temporal 
power was in the hands, of the Tycoon or 
generalissimo of the army, the spiritual power 
only being vested in the Mikado, who lived in 
almost perfect seclusion. The government 
now is a constitutional one, and the Mikado 
appears amongst his subjects. 

mi-ka'-m-a, s. [Named by Willdenow, after 
Professor Mikan of Prague.] 

Hot. : A genus of Composites, tribe Eu- 
patoriacesD, sub-tribe Adenostylea-. The he;id 
has four flowers, there are four invohieral 
leaves, with a bractlet at their base ; the 
papi>usin one row. rough and hairy. Mlkania 
officinalis is a handsome plant growing in 
Brazil. An extract or decoction of the leaves, 
which contjun a bitter principle and au aro- 
matic oil, are given in remittent fevers and 
atonic dyspepsia. M. Guaco is the Guaco 
jilant (q.v.). M. opifera, a smooth climbing 
plant found in Brazil. It is given in cases of 
snake Itite. 

* mil-age, .^•. [Mileage.] 

Mil'-an, ^^ (Ital. Milano, from Lat. Mediola- 

Ciioq. t A city in what once was Austrian 
Italy, and is now part of the Italian kingilom. 

Milan-decree, s. 

IU>^t. : A decree issued by Napoleon L from 
Milan, Feb. IS, 1801, for cutting off Britain 
from all connertiou with the continent. [Cos- 


Milan- edict, s. 

Hist. : An edict issued by Constantine the 
Great from Milan, a.d. 313, granting toleration 

to Chri>tiiinity and all other religions in th'/ 
Uontan empire. 
MU-an-e^e. <'■ A: s. [Eng. Milan ; -ese.] 

A As iitlj. : Of or pertaining to Milan. :i 
city "in the n'orthof Italy, or to its inhabitantN. 

B« As substantive : 

I. Ord. Lang.: A native or inhabitant of 
Milan ; as a plural, the inhabitants of Milan. 

*2. ('Vof/. ; A division of Italy, roughly 
corresponding to the old Duchy of Mihm. 

•■Seizing by Burprise, or force, Heveral pldces lu the 
Milum-te. —iiobcrttvn: C/iiirlca r., l>k. ii. 

mil-an-ite. s. [Named after Prince Milan ; 

Min. : A variety of halloysite (q.v.), said to 
contain 21)*J0 per cent, of water. Found at 
Maidanpek, Servia. 

mil'-ar-ite, s. [Named after the Valley of 
Mil.-iV ; sulf. -iteiMin.).] 

Min. : A mincKil oceurring in hexagonal 
prisms, which De Cloizeaux and others show 
to be due to a twinnii.g similar to that of 
aiagoiiite ; the crystallization is, therefore, 
ortliorhomhic. Hardness, o'j to ; lustre, 
vitreous ; colourless to greenish ; brittle. 
Compos. : silica, T^-tiii ; alumina, 10*30 ; lime, 
ir;iO; potash, ■4-74 ; water, U'lil = 100, corre- 
sponding to the formula, HKCaoAUSiis^au- 
Found, with adularia, kc, in Val Uiut, 
Grawbundten, Switzerland. Named mihirite 
because stated to have been found in Val 
Milar. which was incorrect. The name Giulite 
in lieu thereof is suggested. 

mOoh. * mylche, a. [A softened form of 
inilk (q.v.); Icel. vijolkr = milk; milkr, 
mjolkr— milk-giving; Ger. j/ic//.* = milch.] 

1. ;,("(.: Giving nnlk ; kept for milking; 
api)lied only to beasts. 

"Take two milch kine, on which there hath come 
no yoke."— 1 Ham. vi. 7. 

* 2. Fig.: Weeping; shedding tears. 

" Tlie instant bui-st of clamour that slie lu.ide, 
Would have made mUi:h the burning eyes of heav'n." 
s/iitktKiK : Hnmiet, ii. •!. 

^ In this instance Halliwell and otliei-s 
prefer to explain the word as white, \\ Jiie 
Douce, with some probability, refers it to 
Mid. Eng. milce, miisc (A.H. milds, iniltii) = 


, mikh ; 


* mn?li'-y. a [Eng. 

" There miMty goats come freely to the luiile. " 

JIvath : Odes v/ Iloracv. hpode IC 

mild, *' milde, «. & *■• [A.S. mikh-; cogn. 
with Dut. mild; Icel. inildr; Dan. & ft^w. 
vLild; Ger. mitd; O. H. Gei'. milti ; Guih. 
milds, in composition.] 
A. As adjective : 

1. Tender and gentle in manners, temper, 
or disposition ; kind, coinpa.ssionate, meici- 
ful, indulgent; not easily provokeil or of- 

" So mild a master never shall I find : 
Less dear the paieuU wjiom I left liehind." 

Pojjv: Homer; (A/^Mi-tf \iv. ICO. 

2. Gentle, calm ; not fierce or angry ; kind. 

" Ah ! deai-est friend ! in whom the gods hinl joind 
The mildest manners with the bravest mind." 

Pope: Iiomiir;Jliud xxiv. 90:;. 

3. Characterized by gentleness or kindness ; 
placid, bland, pleasant; as, a mild look. 

4. AHecting the senses gently and plea- 
santly ; pleasant, soft; not rough or violent: 
as, a mild air, a mild climate. 

5. Not severe or sharp : as, a mild winter. 

* 6. Gentle ; not arduous or dilftcult. 

•• Vi)on a mUd declivity of hill." 

iii/run : Vhilde J/nrold, iv. 67. 

7. Not sharp, acid, sour, or bitter ; moder- 
ately sweet. 

" The Irish were tr.T.nsiihinted . . , that. like fruit 

trees, they miglitifrow the ji "' ' " 

and aweeter fiuit, - "-■■■■-- 

8. Not acrid, pung 
mulcent, lenitive. 

■■ Their qualities are changed by renderint; them ac- 
rimonious or mild." ~ ArbiitiiiKit : On Aliiiifnts. 

9. Operating gently ; not violent or strong 
in its efiects : as, a mild aperient. 

10. Nor vigorous or strong ; weak, feeble : 
as, iii(7(/ efforts. 

* B. ^5 snbst. : Pity, compassion, tender- 

" The cruel crabbed heart 
Which was not movde witli tnildv." 

Gascoigni:: Comi.Utint of Philomene, 

Obvious compounds : mild-hearted, mild- 
spirited, mild-spoken, mild-tempered, kc. 

; and lM:ar the betttr 
On Itthind. 

ent, or corrosive ; de- 

late, tat, fare, amidst, what. fall, father ; we, wet. here, camel, her. there : pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, pot. 
or. wore, wolf, work, who, son ; mute. cub. ciire, unite, cur, rule, full : try. Syrian, re, oe ^ e ; ey = a ; qu = kw. 

milden— militancy 


* mild'-en« v.t. & L [Eng. miJd ; -f».] 

A. Trniis.: To make iniUl or less liarsli, 
severe, rit^orous, or stringent. 

B. Intiinis. : To ln'coiiie iiiilil ; to grow less 
liarsli, srvei-e, rigorous, or stringent. 

• znil'-der, v.L [Moi-lder, r.] 
mil-dew, ■ mSl-dew (ew as u), .«. fA.s. 

tiu'h-ih'dir = liMiu'\ mU'w, froiii tlie slirii>-, 
liuncy-Iike appearance nf some kinils of blight, 
#.f/., nu linie trees. Cf. (). H. Ger. mlUldi'' = 
«niUlcw ; Goth. wt7(/^'.* = honey ; Ir. 7*1(7 = 
Jioney ; milaoij = niiUlew ; Lat. vicl ; Gr. 
^e'Ai (in€li)= honey. J 
L Ordimirij Language : 

1. In the same sense as 11. 1. 

2. The tlark sjiots ai>peariug on linen kept 
in damp places. Berkeley believt-s tliat thty 
Jire ihii! to a fungus, Ckidosporiuiii Leabucenm. 

II. 2\chiiicaUn : 

1. Vegdable Pathol. : Morhid ajipearauccs 
I'lotluceil upon jjlants by the ravages of 
I'.iiasitieal fungi or other fjiuse, nr tlie para- 
sitical fungus itself wliich produces the 
moibitl ii|ii)earanL'e. Such fungi are always 
minute, ami smiietinies microscopic. Different 
genera and species attack different plants. 
Thus, wheat iniltlew is Pnccinia grfuainis ; P. 
<v7'0}iat(t also attiicks cereals. Another siiecies 
anjuring wheat is the Bunt or Pepperbrand, 
Tdktia caries. Rn:stelia corotmta attacks the 

^ish, R. Uicerata the hawthorn, and K. ant- 
cellata the pear. These three are sometimes 
i)laced in the genus .Ecidium. (Jidiuin Tuckcri 
constitutes the true mildew. Oidiuui fructi- 
geituni forms little concentric tufts on pears, 
apples, &c. These may be only early stages 
of some other fungus. Erineimi, a pseudo- 
genus of Fnngals is now known to be only 
a diseased state of the plants on wliicli it 
ai)pears ; Ertneitui anrcnui or I'uphria aiwiu 
iiccurs on poplar leaves. All the foregoing 
iiie parasites which attack the plants inter- 
nally, and then force their way to the surface. 
Other mildews are produced by fungi whicli 
^'row on the surface of plants, as L'nUndro- 
s/inniiii rnncentrictim on the cabbage. Knisiphe 
t>>/("/fi?/(cot) pninwsa is the Rose mildew; 
j:. pa)iii')sa the Hop mildew. These fungi, 
gi-owing (ui the surface of leaves, fruits, &c., 
(hi not establish themselves till tlie plant on 
wliich they grow lias become unhealtliy from 
other causes. [Bi^nt, Ergot, Rust, Smut.] 

" One talks of miidi'w nad of frost." 

C'nojjvr: I'ffirli/ DUtress. 

2. Hot. : Tlie genus Erycibe and various 
Rubigos. (Londoiu) 

3. Script. : Mildew. Heb. f\p'V_ (y(mqoii\ 
seems correctly rendered in the Authorised 
Version. It is always combined witli blasting, 
jind implies that phmts are so blighted that 
they tend to assume the same jiallid colour 
which a man does under the influence of 
tiight (Deut. xxviii. 32, 1 Kings \iii. 37, 
2 (Jhriin. vi. 2S, Amos iv. 9, Hag. ii. 17). 

imir-dew (ew as u), v.t. & i. [JIildew, s.] 

A. Tnuts. : To taint with mildew, 

"It detnnis valuable papk.iges of books at the 
Custom House till the pages are iiiilUewetl."— Macau- 
lay: Jiitl. Eiiij.,k\\. xxi, 

B. I lit IV Hs. : To be attacked or tainteil 
with mildew. 

mil'-dew-y (ew as u), n. [Eng. villdev; ->t.] 

Attackrtl or tainted with inildew ; covered 
with mildew; mouldy; resembling mildew. 
"Tiie damp niilil.'w;/ smell which jiervades the 
l>\Ace."—lfii:kens : .•ikcfcluis by Boz ; I'rlvate I'htarres. 

anild' - 1^, * milde - liche, * milde - ly 
■ myld-lye. adr. [Eng. wild; -in.] in a 
iiuld irianin-r ; gt'ntlv, kindly, tenderly; n<.t 
rnughly or lit-rci-ly : as, To speak md'dh/, t<< 
'i[i(-iate mildlg. 

mild'-ness, ' milde -nesse, ' mylde- 
nesse, ^'. [Eng. mild; -ness.] 

1. The quality or stateof being mild, gentle, 
kindly or tender ; kindness, gentleness, meek- 

" Slie. far hehiiul him in the race uf years, 
Yet keeiinig her first mildnexn.' 

Wordsworth: Kxciirsion, bk. vU. 

2. Free<lom from harshness, acidity, pun- 
genoif, or acrimony. 

J. Freedom from severity, harshness, or 
inclemency : as, the mildness of a climate. 

mile. «. [A.S. mil (pi. Villa, milr), from I^it. 
milia, viillia (proji. = thoumnds) ~ a mile, 
from mille (passn^), milk (pas.siiuin)=^a thou- 

sand (i>accs); Ger. mrilc ; O. II. Ger. mikt ; 
I)ut. mijl.] A measure of lengtli or distance 
in use in almost all Eurojiean countries. The 
Knglisli statute mile contains 8 furh)ngs, or 
y2(J poles, or 1,7(10 yanls or j,2S0 feet ; in sur- 
\eying it measures SO clyiins. A geogmphieal 
mile is <i,07J teet (nearly), <n- I'lj statute miles. 
.V square milt- is (1,400 s(|uare chains, (tr i»40 
acres. The English statute mile = 100l)'yi4i> 
Kn-ncli metres. [,Mktre.] A league is :{ 
miles. The nauticjil mile is 2,028 yards, or 
1,014 fathoms. The Iloman mile was 1,000 
liaces of 5 fi*et eacli, and the Roman foot 
bring llMl'J English inches, the Roman 
milf was therefore = 1,(114 English yards, ur 
(about) f.J of an English statute mile. The 
(dd Scottish mile was = 1,'JS4 yards, or 1'127 
English nule. The Irish mile is = 2,240 
yards, or 1-273 English mile. The German 
short mile is = ;i*S!i7 English miles. The 
German long nule = 5'703 English mile. 

' mile - mark, * mile - marke, 5. a 

milestiuir ol' iriih'-pust. 

" Loinlnii-sl.iiiic H Inch I tiike td have been u iuilli:iry, 
or »«//«-'H(i;A<. ■■—/'. Holland: Camden. \i. i^l'i. 

mile-post, s. A post set up to mark the 
miles along the roail. 

mile'-age, 'mil'-age, s. & a. [Eng. mih; 

A. As substantive: 

1. The total or aggregate number of miles 
ill a railway, canal, or other system of com- 
munication measured by miles. 

" Iiiterestiiiy: detailx as to the nii7f(i»7c completed." 
— Dail// lWi-;irHph, Jau. 5, 1885, 

2. The aggregate number of miles traversed 
by vehicles, as on a railway, tramway, &c. 

3. A fee or allowance by the mile paid to 
meet the expenses of travelling, as the travel- 
ling expenses allowed to witnesses, sheriffs, 
bailifl's, &c., for attendance in a court of law. 
In America the allowance paid to members 
to meet the expenses of travelling to and 
from Congress. 

B, --Is (((//. : Charged on or by the mileage 

" But it wuultl have I>eeii ... far fairer had a 
viilfii;/<- duty been cliarced uu the coach or waggon."— 
Brit, t^ttnrt. Keview, I87a, i), 197. 

Mi-le'-si-an (s as zh) (1), a. & s. [From 
^Miltsins, ,1 legendary king of Spain, whose 
sons aif said to liave conquered Ireland about 
1:^00 B.C.] 

A, A^ adj. : Of or pertaining to Ireland or 
the ancient Irish people. 

B. As snbst. : A native of Ireland ; an 

Mi-le -si-an (s as zh) (2), a. & s. [Lat. Mile- 


A, --J s (ff //.' : Of or pertaining to Miletus, a 
city of Asia Min<u'. 

B, As sidjst. : A native or inhabitant of 


mile'-Stone, s. lEng. mile, and .t^ont'.] A 
stone set up to mark the miles on a road, 
railway, &c. 

*"Tlie second tnih'itonc fronts the pirden gate." 
Cotvper: Jivtirement. 460. 

mi-le'-tiis, s. [From Miletus, the capital of 
uneient Ionia.] 

Eiitoni. : A genus of Butterflies, family 
Lycienidje. Miletus syinethis is a siiuiH browii 
butterfly, with a white spot on tlie forewings. 
Common in the East Indies, where it is said to 
inhabit ants' nests, 

mil-foil, mil-le-foil, s. [Fr. mille = a 
ttmiisau'l. aiiil <). Fr. /nil, f,iil = a. leaf; Fr. 

lilt llcJ'fK ilk' ; .Sp. iiiillefoUo; Poit. milfulhas ; 
Ital. viille/oglic ; Lat. miUe/olinm, milkfolia : 
■i}iiUc=a thousand, and folium = a. leaf or 
/o/ia = leaves. There aie not a thousand, or 
many leaves. The reference is to the number 
of segments into wliich eaeh single leaf is 
Botani/ : 

1. Achillea Millefolium, so called because 
the leaves are thriee ijinnatitid. They are 
linear oblong, and have linear axile segments. 
The flowers are white, pink, or purple. It 
j.osscsscs an ethere;d oil, and a bitter, resinous 
iirattt-r ill its haves. It is considered to be 
hi-li!y astiiiigent. The Scotch Highlanders 
make it int'i an ointn.ent, used for lieiding 
wounds. [Aliiillka ; Yabkow.] 

2. The gi-nus Afhillea. {Loudon.) 

f Hooded MUfoH is tin- genus Utricnlflria ; 
Water Milfoil, (1) the genus Myriophyllum ; 
(2) Hottonia jxdttstris. 

mil-i-ar'-l-ai, *. [Fem. sing, and neut. pi. of 
Lat. mi/mr'iKs = of or behmging to millet, 
IVdiii milia)ii= millet.] 

1. Ornitk. : Acc<niling to Swain.son, n sub- 
genus of ricctrophanes. He includes in it 
Miliaria cnroiiu':i, generally called Embcriza 
miliaria, the Common Hunting, and M. citri. 
uilkt, generally called Emheriza, vitrinrlUi, the 
Yellow Amnier or Yellow Hunting, 

2. Pathol. : An eruption of miliary vesicles, 
apjiearing ti'wards the favourable termination 
of many acut<! and chronic diseases. They 
are fouml ujion the trunk and exti'cnuties, 
and are akin to Sudamina (q.v.). 

mil'-i-ar-^, ff. [Lat. viillarius, fi'om miliuni, 
= a m'illet-secd ; Vr. miliaire.] 

1. Lot. : Granulate, resembling an aggrega- 
tion of millet seeds. 

2. Pathology: 

(1) Resembling millet-seeds: as, a miliary 

(2) Attende<l by an eruption like niillet- 
seeils ; as, a millarn Uvvr. 

miliary-glands, ^-. j-i. 

1. Anat. : The same a:*SEB.A,CEOUS-GLANT)s 

2. Lot. : The same as Stomate.s (q.v,) 
miliary-tubercle, .<:. 

Ptiih.: A grayisli-white, translucent, non- 
vascular body of firm consistence and well- 
delined spherical outline, ustiully about the 
size of a millet-seed, common in tlie lungs 
and the, nuniliranes of the brain. When it 
softens, it is usually called Yelhiw or Crude 
Tuliercle. Within the last few years a special 
baeillus has been demonstrated in tubercle, 

*mil'-i9e. s. [Fr.] A militia. 

"The t«n-iiiid twfiiticth of the prince's iige is the 
time jissigiii-d liy then- cimstitutious for hU entering 
n|>oii tliv iml.hrk ib^uK'fH o( their »*i/tcc."— 7*<r»Ji>fe.- 

War hi thr l.uw Cm nines. 

t mi-li-o-ba -tis» 


m,il-i-6 -la, .«. [Mod. Lat., from Lat. miliwni 
= millet, from the small size of the species.] 

1. Zool. : The typical genus of the family 
Miliolida(q.v.). Tlie shell is extremely vari- 
able in form, but consists tyi'ically of a series 
of chambers wound round an axis, s<i that 
each embraces half the entire circumference. 

2. Palasoiit. : Range in time, from the Lias 


mil iol-i-da, mil-i-ol' i-dae, s. pi. [Mod. 
Lat. miliol{a); Lat. neut. pi. adj. sutf. -/(/«, or 
fem. «^f.] 

1. ZooL: A family of Imperfoi-ate Foraniini- 
feia. The test is ojiafiue, porcellanous, uni- 
locular or multilocular, and extremely variable 
in sha]ie, the oval aiierture simple and un- 
divided, or formed by numerous poies. Chief 
genera : Cornuspira. Nubecnlaria. Miliola 
(with its sub-generic fovm Quiinpieloculina), 
Peneroplis, Alveolina, (Jrbitolites, and the 
sub-family Dactyloporidie. 

2. Paln;ont. : The family ranges from the 
Lias to tlie recent period inclusive. 

ma'-i-6-lite, .'«•. [Mod. Lat. miliol(a); Gr. 

\ieo<; (/;7/*os)=astone.] 

Pahront.: A f.s^il iiiilinla ((|. v.). 

miliolitc-limestone, .^. 

GeoL : A roek consi.'sting chiefly of micro- 
scopic shells of miliola. It is found in the 
Middle Eoi-ene of France, and is used as a 
building stone. 

mil-i-6-Ut'-ic, ". (Eng. milioHtO); -ic] 
Kehtting to or composed of foraminiferous 
shells, especially of the genus Miliola (tj.v.), 

" This miliolitir stone lievpr ocoirn hi the FRhinii or 
Upiri iMiwcent- strata il KritUiny and Touralue."— 
I.ijvll: L'Uineuti H8C6J, p. 3ol. 

mil'- J- tan -5^, s. [Eng. viUHant; -cy.] 
' 1. Ord. Long. : Warfare, militarism. 

"CoiiBtltutwl in a fttntv of coiititnial vtaitancy."— 
Mounla'jue : /Jrruiitv A>*(i.v», ]it 1., tr. x.. ( T. 

2. Sociol. : That social contlition of a nation 
or tribe ideally organized for" war. In sucli a 
state of society the tendency is for the lH»iy 
of waiTiors to bear the largest jmicticable 
ratio to the body t)f workers; in4iividuality 
beeomes merged in theconimunity ; despotisni 

boil, boy : pout, jowl ; cat, 9eU, chorus, 9liiii, bcn^h ; go, gem ; thin, this ; sin, as ; expect, Xcnophon, exist, -inff. 
-cian, -tian = shan. -tion, -sion = shun ; -tion. -sion - zhun. -cious, -tious, -sious = shiis. -ble, -die. .Vc = bel, d^L 


militant— milk 

ami centmliz«tinn ensue, and n ])nic«'>;'^ of 
regimentation n«»es on even in civil life ; ftee- 
dom of niiivt'nient from place to nlnce is 
ivstrii'tt'd ; st.tte ors-inizatinns take the idace 
of private eonibJuatious ; and such a society 
usiuiUy evolves, or endeavours to evolve, a 
self-sulficient sustaining organization, draw- 
ing as much as possible all supplies from its 
own resources, tliis course of action leading 
to a protectionist policy. 

"The sevom) trnits whtoh of iirceiialty mlUfnnf,'/ 

tenil« to prixluce."— /fffrfrcrt SjMfnetr: I'rinciiJ^-* li'' 

Sociolvi/i/. i 547. 

mil' i-tant, n. [Lat. militans, pr. i>ar. of 
iiulir'i ~ to light; iJiiVcs (genit. viillti^) ■= a 
soldier ; Fr. milttant ; Ital. & Sp. militantc] 

1, Fighting ; engaged in war ; serving as a 
soldier ; warlike, military. 

" He hnd uuitlivr iucllnntion nor mty kind uf !ik1uc«- 
roeiit t-> Hilu[>t a milituut i>o\icy"— Hail y Telegraph, 
Jait. Vi, l^SJ. 

2. An epithet emidoyed by Herbert Spencer 
to denote a type of society distiuguislied by 
militancy (qv.). 

" Under tbo mlUtant type the indlviduAl la owned 
by tlw State."— Hcrbart ^ipencer : ^Yin. qf Sucinlogu. 

S 55-:. 

•[ Church militant: The Church of Christ 
on earth, regarded as engaged in constant 
warfare against its enemies. It is opposed Iv 
the Cliurch trUinuihaut, or in heaven. 

" I thiitki- liee oiu nut prooia- tint tlmt S. Ptmles 
Myini; U veritle<1 of tht- Church, tliivt i^ here miUtmit, 
and not wf tlie Ciiurcb triu»n>hnjit."— iarHc* ; M'orkc^, 
p. Ibii. 

* mil'-i-t^T, a. [Lat. miUlarls, from miles 
(gt'iiit. militis) = a. soldier; Fr. militaire.] 

"Altliaugh he were a prince in miVrfar vertne ap- 
primed. jeitluua of the honour of the Englisti niitioii, 
and Mkewise a good hiw-maker. fur the ease and swiace 
of the common iteople," — Bacon: Henrjf VII. 

t mll'-i-tar-i-lS^, adv. [Eng. militar{y) ; ~ly.] 

1. In a military manner ; like a soldier. 

2. With reference t j matters of war. 

"The wolicy of the Hapslmi^ monarchy is noted, 
both dlplomaticany and militarHy, absolutely free,"— 
Public Opinion. July 7, 1877, p. 9. 

mfl'-i-tar-ism, s, [Eng. miHtar(i/); -ism; 
Fr. mHitarisiih'.] That system or policy which 
causes nations to keeji up great armies, and 
to pay excessive attention to military atl'airs. 

■' Ah ! thie milUari«ni is a terrible master I " — Daily 
Nem. May 29. isn. 

mil -X- tar -is t* s. [Eng. miHtar(y); -ist.] 

* 1. A military man, a soldier ; a proflcient 
in tlie art uf war. 

"Thia is Monsieur ParoHes, the gallant mUitariJif 
(thnt waahis ownphraae)."— S/'dtesp. ; All's Well That 
£n(U Well. iv. 3. 

2. One who advocates militarism, or a war- 
like policy. 

mil'-i-tar-y, o. & s. [Lat. viilitans, from 
?it//..-;(u'''ii:i. »u7t(is) = a soldier; Fr. villUaire; 
Ital. -iniliixre. ; Sp, militar.] 

A. As adjective: 

1. Of or pertaining to soldiers, or the pro- 
fession of a soldier ; pertaining or relating to 
the science of war ; becoming or suitable to a 
soldier; soldierly, warlike, martial. 

"Though courageous in brawls and duels, lie knew 
nothing of ynilitury duty."— J/(ic«ui«//; Hist. En-j., 
ch. vi. 

2. Engaged in war ; serving a.s a soldier. 

"He will maintain his ai^uuient as well as any niili- 
tary man in the world."— SAaA<?»/j. ; Ilenry I'., iii, j. 

B. Assiibst.: Soldiers generally ; the army, 
soldiery, ti'oops : as, The military were called 

military-courts, s. pi. The court of 

chi\-alry and coui-ts-martial. 

^military-feuds, s. pi. The original 
feuds, which were in the hands of military 
men, who held them under Military-tenure 

military-law, s. The same as Martial 


military - offences, s. ph Offences 
whicli are co;;iiizable by the military couits ; 
offences wliicli cume within the Mutiny Act. 

* military-tenure, s. A tenure of land 
on condition of perforuiing military service. 

''military-testament, s. 

Roman Ijni' : A nuncupative will by which 
a soldier migiit dispose of his goods without 
tlie forms and solemnities required by the law 
in other cases. [Nuncupative.] 

mil-i'tatO, r.i. (Ijit. militntus, jm. par. of 
militu == to serve as a soldier, to light; miks 
(genit. mi/iVfj*) = a soldier; Fr. militer; Sp. 
militar ; Ital. tmVifaj/Y.l To Ik* or staml nj)- 
posed : to ha\e woiglit or inlluence (Ui the 
opjHisite side ; to weigli. (Said uf arguments or 

" This couolderatloii would mitifatf with more effect 

n^mlnnt his hyjiothesis, than a thoUaand BylloKlsnis."— 

Btaiskbnnu : Voi\fet»iottal. 

mi-U'-ti^ (ti as sh), s. [Lat. = (1) warfare, 
(2) troops, from mih» (gen. militis) = a soldier ; 
Fr. viilice; Sp. wiiVtcui ; Ital. viHizia.] 

1. Literally : 

*1. Military service ; warfare. 

2. The constitutional force of Rngland. first 
formed a.d. 12S5. liaised originally by the 
Lordsdiyuteuants of counties, and considered 
a couuterixiise to the standing army. Re- 
cruited by compulsory service by ballot, a law 
which is still in existence thougli not put in 
force. It was permanently embodied from 
1792 to 1S03, during the threat of French in- 
vasion ; but it was afterwards considerably 
reduced, until 1852, when S0,000 men were 
raised by voluntary enlistment. During the 
Russian war it was a valuable source of re- 
cruiting for the line battalions on active ser- 
vice, and many militia regiments did duty in 
the Mediterranean garrisons. Later on it was 
placed more directly under the War Office, and 
the first appointments of officers were taken 
away from the Lords-lieutenants. Permanent 
stalls of regular soldiers and officers were also 
added, and the value of the fr)rce thus mate- 
rially increased. Later on the command of 
the militia was transferred from tlie Lords- 
lieutenants of counties, and ]daced directly 
uniitT the command of the War Office. Per- 
manent staffs of regular soldiers and officers 
were added, and greater attention jiaid to 
tlie training of both militia officers and men. 
By the Localisation of the Forces Act of 1872, 
the militia regiments were numbered as bat- 
talions of the county regiment.s. Recruits 
are now enlisted for six years, but they may 
be enlisted for further jTeriods of four years 
at a time, until they attain the age of forty- 
five years. Of late years the bounty has been 
increased, and in 1902 special powers were 
granted the Secretary of State for the purpose 
of forming reserve divisions. In that year 
the strength was 109,800, and the cost of the 
f«)n-e .£iJ2J.0O0. 

IL Fi'j. : A tioop, a body, a number. 

militia-man, s. A man belonging to 


*mil-i-ti-ate (ti as shi), v.i. [Militia,*.] 

1. To raise militia. 

2. To serve as a soldier ; to be warlike. 

"The iniliiiatinfi apirits of my country.'— .S(fmf; 
Trivtram Shumli/, iii. 177. 

mil'-i-iim, s. [Lat. = millet.] 

Bot. : ^lillet-grass. A genus of grasses, tribe 
Panjcefe. The flowers are in a sin-eading pan- 
icle. Two empty glumes, the flower glumes 
shortly pedicelled, both awnless ; ovary glab- 
rous, styles short, stigmas feathery, fruit 
terete. Known species eight. One species. 
Milium effusuvi, the Spreading Millet-grass, 
is British. 

mil-i-u'-sa. mil-i-U'-si-a, s. [Named after 
jMilius, a liotaiiist of the sixteenth century.] 

Hot. : A genus of Anonacea*. trilje Bocageie. 
Millusa vchuimt is a tree growing in Burinah 
and India. The wood is used for carts and 
agricultural implements, spear shafts, and 

milk, * melk, * melke, * milche, 
*mylche, ^ mylck, ^ mylk, 5. [A.s. 

* viilc, meolc, vieoluc ; cogn. with Dut. vieU: ; 
Icel. vtjolk : Dan. melk ; Sw. vijolk ; Goth. 
milnks; Ger. viUch = milk; melkeu (pa. t. 
moU;) = to milk ; O. H. Ger. mflchmi = to 
milk; cf. Lat. 7ntilgeu = to milk; Gr. a/ieA-yu* 
I. Ordinary Language : 

I. k 2. In the same sense as II. 1, 2. 

3. The white juice of certain plants. 

4. An emulsion, made by bruising seeds : 
as, the milk of almonds. 

II. Techniccdbj : 

1. Food.if^c: The fluid secreted by all female 
mauimals for the nourishment of their 
ycmng. As an alimentary substance, it may 

be regarded as a ]ir'rfcct food. It consists 
cssentiuUy of a solution of sugar, albuminou!' 
and saline matter, and holds in snsiiension a 
certnn ]'ro]iortion of fat in the form of very 
minute ghibules. The same constituents are 
found in the milk of all the mammals, but 
they differ considerably in the proporticm in 
which they are ]iresenl in each kind. Mare's 
milk contains a larger in-oportiou of sngar» 
while that of the ewe is very much richer ii> 
albuminous and fatty const itueiits, the milk 
of the cow having its composition more evenly 
adjusted. The non fatty solids of cow's milk, 
which consist of casein, albumin, sugar, and 
inintral salts, vary from about a to 11 per 
cent., and the fat from 2 to 7 per cent. ; ^ 
parts of the non-fatty solids consist on the 
average of 3 ]tarts of casein, 1 of albumin,. 
4-2 of milk sugar, and '8 of mineral salts. 
The mineral matter consists (dncfly of plios- 
l)liates of lime and potasli, with a little 
chloride of sodium. Milk spontaneously fer- 
ments, the sugar being convei-ted into lactic 
acid, alcohol, and e^arbonic acid gas. When 
an artificial ferment has been used, a larger 
projiortion of alcohol ia generated, and the 
milk is converted into a jiroduct to which the 
name of koumiss has been given. The chief 
adulterant added to milk is water ; but sugar, 
carbonate of soda, salt, salicylic aciil, and 
borax are also occasionally used. These latter 
are obviously added, not to increase the 
quantity of the milk, but to cover the addition 
of water or in order to prevent the milk turn- 
ing sour. 

^ Condensed milk consists of cow's or goat's 
milk which lias been evaporated by the aid of 
steam pipes or a vacuum pan to one-fourth of 
its volume, refined sugar being added during 
the boiling in the proportion of l4 lb. in the 
quart of condensed milk produced. It is also 
prepared without sugar, but its keeping pro- 
perties are much less than the sweetene'l 
article. Both kinds form a wholesome article 
of food. 

2. Human Physiol. : Milk is the secretion of 
the mammary glands, whose activity liegins 
at delivery, and continues for a jieriod of nine 
months as a rule, but, if encouraged, may 
persist for a longer time. The fluid secreted 
contains all that is requisite for the nourish- 
ment and the development of the child. It 
contains 90 per cent, of water and 10 per cent, 
of solids (casein, fat, sugar, and a trace of 
salts). The first milk secreted is colostrum ; 
it acts as a natural purgative to the child. 
That the mind exerts an influence both on 
the quantity and quality of secretion is cer- 
tain. Violent emotions, as fear, rage, &c., 
render it unwholesome. 

^ (1) Mdk-aud-water : Tasteless, insipid, 
without character or distinguishing feature, 
wishy-washy. {Collogiiial.) 

(2) Milk of sidjihur : 

Chevi. dPharm. : Preeij>itated sulphur. Five 
ounces of sublimed sulphur and three ounces 
of slaked lime are jtut into a ]>int and a half 
of water, and by adding hydrochloric acid. 
a precipitate is thrown down. Used as a 
stimulant, as a laxative, and as a coufectiou. 

milk-abscess, s. 

Pi.'tli'iL : All abscess which sometimes forms 
on tlie fcinaie breast after childbirth. It is 
produced by redundancy of milk. 

milk -bush, 5. 

Lot : The genus Synadeninm (q.v.). 

* milk-dame, s. A foster-nurse, a wet- 

milk-dentition, 5. 

Anat. : The system of temporary teeth in 
man or in any of the lower animals. 

" It is obvious that the milk-fifiitifion has geuemlly 
been suppressed in the mure modified forms."— Proc. 

Zuol. Soc, I8SL1, p. 6tij. 

milk-drinker, s. [Molokan.] 
milk-fever, s. 

rathoL : A fever which sometimes arises in 
females when first milk is secreted after child- 

milk-glass, s. [Crvo lite-class.] 

. milk-hedge, s. 

Bvt. : Euphorbia Tirftca^U (q. v.), commonly 
nsed in India for hedges. The plant, being 
full of acrid milk, tends to blister the skin of 
any one breaking through the hedges. 

fate, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father : we, wet, here, camel, her, there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, pot, 
or, wore, wolf, work, who, son ; mute, ciib, ciire, unite, cur, rule, full ; try, Syrian, se, ce = e ; ey = a ; qu = kw. 

milk— mill 


milk-leg, . 

PathoL : Wliite-swelliuj;, PhkgDUvsUi ilolen^. 

'milk-livered. ~ milke livered, ". 

(AiwavUy, timii-l. liiiinrons. 

■■ MitK-!hvr\l uMt. 
Th:it 1'e,ir St Ji Llieek for bluws, n heiul f jf wiuiigs, " 
:ihaJxjtf. -" Lcttr, iv. 2. 

" milk-madget s, A inilkmaid. 
*m.ilk-meats, i^. 2*1. Butter, cheese, i:o. 

'■ Al'-i.iiimii.' iiuiii fleali ami milk-meats."— liailci/ 

/■>,>«»...*. V i:i. 

milk-molar, s. One of the first set of 
iiiMlais. Tlit-y are shed by maimnals wlien 
^(■ry young. 

* milk-pap, s. Tlie teat or nipple of a 
\vtiniau. (S/«'/l«.>j>. : T'tnion of Athens, iv. 3.) 

milk-parsley, s. 

}'"it. : r'.inr'hiinntt patu^itre. The popular 
iiiiiiR- reltn-s ii> its milky juice. {H-^'il-r.) 

milk -porridge. * milk -pottage, ^. 

Ffiiul made by boiling milk with water and 

milk-punch, s. A drink made of spirits 
mixed witli milk and sweetened. 

milk quartz, s. [Qlartz.] 

milk-rack, .^. A series of shelves in a 
daii'v iM In 'Id milk-pans. 

milk-sickness, s. 

]',:t. Mnl. : A fatal spasmodic disease, pecu- 
bar t': the western Stales of America, said ti> 
in- itwing to astringent salts contained iti the 
s.iil and waters of these regions. It attacks 
cattle, but is often connnnnicated to those 
who drink the milk or eat the beef of animals 
aMectt-'d with it. {PAirtktt.) 

milk-snake, s. 

Zool. : Oi>hiohohis exinuus, a harmless snake 
of a grayish ash colour, with three rows of 
dark sjiots along the back and sides. It is 
found in the northern and middle United 

"Glidiu^ likea lovely and iuuoceut "u7A--«iaAc out 
of his sr.\s\)."—/Jret Uarle : iln. Skeggt'a Huibands. 

milk-sugar, s. 

i.'luDH. : Ci:;Ho.jOii. Lactin. An important 
and characteristic constituent of inilk. It is 
obtained frcun the whey by evaporation, and, 
afltr liaving lieen purilied by animal charcoal 
and recrystallized, it tinally appears as hard, 
sonii-transiiarent, trimetric crystals, lia\ing 
the same composition as cane-sugar, and 
nearly the same specific gravity, 1'52. It is 
snlnble in water, but insoluble in absolute 
aleoliol and ether. Jlilk-sugar has a rotatory 
angle of 59"5° [a]j, and a. copper-reducing 
power seven-tenths that of dextrose. By 
boiling with sulphuric acid it is converted 
into a mixture of dextrose and galactose. 

milk-teeth, s. jtl. [Milk-tooth.] 

milk-thistle, £. 

Pot. : Silhyum marianum, called also Car- 
dnns mo. r kin IIS. So named from the milky 
whiteness of the veins. 

'■ Then the luilk-fltktle Imde those herds demand 
Tlirtre tiiuea n d.iy the i»vil aiid welcome haiid." 
iyordviaorth : Dctcriptive Sketches. 

milk-thrush, s. 

Pathol. : The .same as Thri'SH (q.v.). 

milk-tie, s. 

Anthrop. : Relationship based on fostei'age. 
So real is this relationship considered among 
snuie races that maiTiage between foster- 
children is forbidden. 

"Tlie streii^h of the foster-feeliug. the m!lk-tU\ 
among the Scutcli Highlanders is a familiar iiistjuice 
of a mode of regarding relatioiishii' very dilt'erent 
fioiii that prevalent among us."— i»Mtfct; On;/, of 
Civil iaaii'ju (li^-2}. \<. 145. 

milk-tooth, 5. 

1. Ord. Lang. : One of the first set of teeth 
in mammals. 

1i The milk-teeth in man are twenty in 
number, ten in each jaw. They are called 
also temporary or deciduous teeth. 

2. Farriery: The fore-tooth of a foal, which 
comes at the age of about three months, and 
is cast within two or three years. 

milk-tree, s. 

Lot.: (1) Gnloctodcmlron tit He ; (2) Ton- 
ahi)iia locturia. 

milk-vat, -. a *hvp pan Ibr .setting milk 
t.' lai^'- cri;uii nr curdle for cheese. 

milk-vessel, .<;. 

1. Old. Lang. : A vessel for liolding milk. 

2. Pot. (PL): Vessels or tubes containing 
the milky Htuds in plants. LCixen"., 

milk-vetch, .'. 

Jiot. : Tlie genus A.stragalus (q.v.). 

milk-walk, .*. The district or streets of 
a town supplied by one milkman. 

milk-warm, ". )i\'arm as milk in its 
natural state, as it comes from the breast or 

milk-white, 0. 

1. 0/'/. Lung.: White as milk; of a pure 
white cdour. 

■' Meek as that enihlem of her lowly heart 
Tlie milk-white laiiilt which in a line she leil." 
Wortlnvorth : White Doi- of ItiiUtom:. (liitrod.) 

2. Pot., &c. : Dull white, verging to blue. 

milk, I'.t. & i. [Milk, s.] 
A, Transitive : 
I, Litcnilhj : 

I. To draw milk from the breasts or udder 
by the hand. 

" Tliou wilt not find my shepherdessea idly piijiiig 
oil oaten reeds, hut mUkins the kine."— Uaj .- lihtp- 
herd's Wei'k. (Prweme.) 

* 2. To suck. 

" I have given suck, and know 
How teuder 'tis to love the habc that tnilka me." 
Shiikesp. : Macbeth, i. 7. 

3. To supply with milk ; to add milk to. 

II. Figuratively : 

1. To plunder, to rob, to extract money 

" And to ayd the kyuge iu hj-s right must the coni- 
nioiis l>e inrtked till they bleede agayne." — Tyndall: 
Workci, \i. 365. 

2. In horse-racing slang, to lay or bet 
against a horse wliich is one's own property, 
and which is not intended to win. 

' B. Intransitive : 

1. To draw milk, to suck. 

2. To give milk, to suckle. 

" For lich a mother she cau cherish. 
And milken as doth a norice." 

iiomaunt of the Hose. 

"milk' -en, a. [Eng. milk; -en.] Consisting 
of milk ; milky. 

' milken-way, s. Tlie Jlilky-way (q.v.). 

milk-er. .^. [Eng. milk, v, ; -er.] 

1. One who or that which milks : specif., 
an apparatus for milking cows mechanically. 

" His kiue. with swelliug uddei-s, ready stjoid. 
And, lowing for the )iail, invite the vulker'a hand." 
Brydmi : Virgil; Ueorgic ii. ~0i. 

2. A cow or other animal which gives milk. 

" A cow that is a poor tnilker fails to give hex owner 
that larger jjortiou of iiruht."— Sheldon ; Dairy-farm- 
ing, p. 17. 

' milk'-fiil, ^ milk'-full, a. [Eng. milk, and 
/<(//.] Flnwing with milk ; fruitful, fertile. 
" O milkftdl vales with hiQidied hrooks indented." 
Si/lvester. Th-; /lecatf, 1,053. 

* milk'-i-ly, (xdi\ [Eng. milkij ; -?;/.] After 
tlu' manner of milk ; like milk ; lacteally. 

milk'-i-ness, s. [Eng. milky; -ness.] 

1. The quality or state of being milky or 
having a colour or consistence like milk. 

2. Softness, geutleness, mildness. 

*' Would I could share the balmy, even temper, 
.And niilkhte&a K>i blood." Drjjdeu : Cleomencs. i. 1, 

milk-maid, 5. [Eng. milk, and maid.] A 
woman employed to milk cows ; a dairy-maid. 

milk' -man, s. [Eng. milk, and m«».] A 
man who sells nulk or carries milk about for 


milk' -pall, 5. [Eng. 7»i?t, andjHii/.] A pail 
or vessel into which cows are milked. 

"That veiT sulistince which Inst week was gi;azinK 
iu the field, waving iu the tnilk-iHtH. or growiug in the 
pii-iten. is now become pait of the uiau."— ir.i^fs 
Improvement of the Mind- 

milk'-pan, s. (Eng. milk, and pan.] A 
vessel in which milk is kept in the dairy. 

" For when the maids spilt the mUkiuins, or kept 
auy racket, they would lay it upon Rubin."— Buckm •" 

milk -room, .v (Kng. mUk, and v'>vm,\ .\ 
iiiniii Ml a dairy where milk is kept in the 

mUk -sop, * milk-soppe, $. [Eng. milk, 

1. A i»ieci' of bread f>i>aki.'d in milk. 

2. A soft, cfleminate, fi'eble-nun<Ied pci-sou; 
one who is devoid of all nninliness. 

" U'lyn. niK-B, bnufirartit, Jnckji. HiWJtw/«." 

Shaketp. : Much .Adu About .VoltiiHi/. V. L 

milk' -weed, s. [Eng. milk, and «ve(/.J 
Pot. : Tlie genus Asclejiias (q.v.). 
% Green Milkweed is the genus Acerates. 

milk'-wpm-an, s. (Eng. milk, and imm«ii.] 
A woman w lio carries alMUit milk fttr sale. 

"Even ynu- niitkwo'naii and your nnixery-niRids 
h/ne ;i U-lU-w ivi.-Vnie:—j\rbuthnm : llitt- of John UuiL 

milk'-wood, s. [Eng. milk, and wood.\ 

Puta ny : 

1. Pseudolmeditt, formerly Brosimumspitrinm, 
an evergreen shrnh growing in Jamaicji ; but 
Jamaica Milkwood is Sapitim lauri/ulium. 

2. Sideroxylon incrme. 

milk'-WOrt, s. [Eng. viilk, and wort.] 

Pvtany : 

1. .Swif7. ; The genus Polygala (q.v.). Com- 
mon Milkwort is Polii!j"J'.t vulgaris: Austrian 
MilkvYort, P. ullginosa or uustriuca, botli tlicse 
are Britisli ; Sea Milkwort is the genus Glaux, 
and specially Glaxx maritivia. 

2. L'l. : The naujc given by Lindley to the 
order Pulygalacea^ (q-v.). 

milk'-j^,«. [Eng. viilk ; -y.] 

1. ' of milk ; consisting or composed of 

" The i>ails high foaming with a ynitkr/ floml." 

J'upe: Iloiner i Iliad \\i. 79-\ 

2. Resembling milk ; of the nature of milk. 

"Some phaib), upon breaking their vessels, yield a 
mitki/ juice." — Ai-l)n!hnut: Un Alimenti. 

* Z. Yielding nulk. 

" PerhapH my passion he disdains, 
And courts the viilky mothers of the plains." 

4. M'hite, milk-white. 

" ^VHinse viUki/ features please them more 
Thaa ours of jet thus burnish d bright." 

C'rabbe: Wotnan. 

* 0. Soft, mild, tender, gentle, timid. 

" This milky geutleness and course of youi-a," 

Shaketp. : Lear, L 4. 

milky-juices, s. pi. 

Pot. : Juices, resembling milk in appearance, 
in the laticiferous vessels of plants. Found 
in many Eu]thorbiacca?, Asclepiadaceae, 4:e. 

milky quartz, s. [Qlaktz.] 

milky-way, s. [Galaxy.] 

mill(l), s. [Lat. m)7/c= a thousand.] A money 
of account in the United States, being the 
tIiou.saiulth part of a dollar, or the tentli 
l»art of a cent., and therefore equal to about i 
of an English farthing. 

mill (-2) melle, 'miln, "mulle, ''mulne. 
'myln, mylne, c:. [A-.-s. mi/ln, mykH, 
from Lat. molina = a mill, from hmla =a mill, 
from flio/o = to grind; Icel. myhia=a luiU ; 
Wei. mdin ; fr. moaUn; Dut. vwltn.] 
I. Ordina}-y Langntige : 

1. Literally: 

(1) A machine for gi-inding grain, fruit, or 
otlier substances, and reducing them to a tine 

" The lierries crackle, and the mill turus round," 
J'opv: Jtape of the L(H:k, ill. lOC, 

(2) A lapidary's giinding-wheel, known as a 
roughing- »n7/, cIoth-j»i7/, &c. 

(3) A machine, or complication of engines 
or machinery, for working up raw material, 
and pieparing it for immediate use or for em- 
ployment in a further .stage of manufacture: 
as, a cotton-»ii7?, a spinning-i;n7/, a saw-Hn7/, 
an oil-»n7/, &c. 

(4) The buildings or factory containing such 

("») A stamping-press for coin. 

" His new Invention for coining gold and silver with 
tlie milt and pies^i." — U'alpotc : A necdotes of Painting, 
vol. ii.. ch. ill. 

((J) A treadmill (q.v.). 

2. Fig.: A pugiUstic encounter; a prize 
light. (Slung.) 

"He had treated her in. 
Because she refused t<> go down to a mill.' 

lI'tMd : J/iM Kihnattsfg^. 

boil, boy ; pout, jowl ; cat, ^ell, chorus, 9liin, bench ; go, gem ; thin, this : sin, as : expect, ^enophon, exist, ph — £ 
-clan, -tian - shan. -tion, -sion = shun ; -tion, -^ion = zhnn. -cious, -tlous, -sloas — shus. -ble, -die, A;c. = bel. deL 



II. I'ir--iinkinij : Tlio Imnlcni-*! stcrl mlliT 
liHviiij; tilt* tU'sii;ii in cameo, ami used for im- 
invssiiig ill iiita;^'lin a jtljiti', as in tlu- Iwiik- 
iiiitc system ()t'i.'ii;^mviiiK; oiacnjiiR-rcylimU'i', 
as in "the iirucess uX eiigi-aving cyliudeis for 

H (1) lUirkcrs mill : 

Mdvh. : A glass vessel containing water, and 
capable (if moving about on its vertical axis. 
In the lower i>art is a tube bent horizuntjiUy 
at the two ends in oii|>osUo directiuiis. The 
water issuing makes it revolve on itj» axis, 
tailed also the Hydi-aulie Tourniquet. 

(2) Light viill: IHADioMhTERj. 

mill-1>ax. s. 

[i-ni-f"rK.'< : The rough l«ir, as <lrawn out 
by tiif juidtUer's rolls, as distinguished from 

znlU-boaTd, .■!. A str)ut jwistelRwrd nmile 
ol strong materials, such as refuse Hnx, cotton, 
ami hemp, rojie, or lagging; and used lor the 
still" portion of book-rovers, and for other 
liurposes. It is also used for lacking between 
the Manges of pipes, being previously soaked 
m oil. 

Mm-hfKird cutter: A machine for cutting 
heavy board, for book-covers and pasteboard 

mill -cake, .''. 

1. Till' incorporated materials for gun- 
jKiwder, in the cake form, previous to granu- 

2. The mass of hulls and imrenchyma re- 
maining alter the expression of linseed-oil. 

* mill-doll, r.i. To beat hemp (an old 
form of "liaid labour"). 

" I niu spiit hither to mill-doll."— Fk'ldiiiff : Amelia, 


ch. X. 

* miU-doUy, .'=. (Seedef.) 

" ruuislit lit hj\nl liiboui' hi Brklewel. which lieatiiig 
of heiiip, thf thitvts will Mitl-Uuny:— Smith : liotn o/ 
IIkjUwiiiiiiuu, 1. lua. 

mill-eye, s. The eye or opening in the 
caries (if a mill at which the meal is let out. 

mill-furnace, .^. 

M'tulL: A ii'lieating furnace; a furnace 
where tlie i)uddled metal is reheateil, prc- 
l-aratoiy to again passing through the rolls. 

mill-gang, s. In warping, that jiart of 
the wavp whicli is made by a descending and 
ascending course of the threads round the 

mill-gearing, s. The shafts, wheels, 
i<.(i., by whicli the motion of the lirst moving 
jinwer is communicated to the manutacturing 

mill-hand, s. A person, male or'female, 
engaged in a mill. 

mill-head, .->'■ The liead of water by which 
n mill-wheel is turned. 

mill-holm, -■•■. A low inea<low or field in 
tlie vicinity of a mill ; a watery place about a 


mill-hopper, s. The hopper of a mill. 


null-leat, ' milleat, s. a trench that 
cnnvey.s water to a mill, 

mill-mountain, s. 

I'.'-l. : Mountain-flax {Linnm catkarticnm). 

mill-pick, s. A miller's tool for ilressing 

millstones, giving to the burrs tlie slightly-ser- 
jat-il snrfaci', an niiftation known as cracking. 

mill-pool, .". A millpond. 

mill-rind, mill-rynd, s. 

Ilcr. : A nioline {<\.\\). 

" mill -sixpence, milled-sixpence, 

s. An old English coin, lirst issued in lOUl. 
"Ay. hy tliese ykives, clkt he (or I wouhl I might 
iifver come in iiiiue own great chniiiher ngaiu else), nf 
Mi veil triojtts ill titill-sixiieiti:es."—Shaketp. : Merry 
Wii'vi of WimUor. i. 1. 

mill-Spindle, s. The vertical spindle of 
a LTrinding-mill, on which the runner is sup- 


mill-tail, t. The tail-i-aee of a mill which 
comlncts the water away from the wheel. 

mill-tooth, s. A grinder or molar-tooth. 

" The hest iiistnniieiitji for cmcking hones iinil nuts 

;iie griiiilerfi or milt-tcct!t."—ArbutIuwt: On Alhnvnts. 

' mill-ward. s. The keeper of a mill. 

mill wheel, s. The wat'-r-wheel wlncli 
impeLs the machinery of a mill. 

•■ Til. .11 ihii st \ flit tiiy Kioiiiis. 

A> :i» luill-wheclt nllik*-.- 

tiluik<'»ii, : Toinjivit. i. 2. 

mill -work, s. 

1. Tlie machinery of a mill. 

'J. The art i>r operation of constructing mills. 

mill-wrlght, .•>■. A wright or mechanic 
whose uccu|Mition is to construct and npair 
the machinery of mills. 

mill(l), r.r. [MillCJ), .9.] 
I. Literally: 

I. To grind, as in a mill ; to comminute ; to 
reduce to jiower. 

■"TIshtfie; thia.iViillwx well fill. I 
With 1«at totwicvo, lliiely mitCii." 

Vowiier : J'o the /ieo. H'iUiiim Hull. 

'J. To iiass through a machine ; to sliaj r 

linish in a machine, as metal-work. 

3. To stamp, as coin in a mint, .so as to raise 
the edge .slightly, afterwards serrating oi- 
ilenting the edges. 

"Woods hnlf-|)eiice arc not milled, and therefore 
luoi-e ejisily cuunterft^ited. "— .Swi^' .' Uni/iierK Letters. 

4. To throw, as undyeti silk. 

5. To full, as cloth. 

" 6. To beat nji aiul froth. 

" Hnving hreiikfa.sti;d on n ciiji of milled chotohite." 
— //. /liLoku: Fovloftiiialitu, i. ::35. 

II. LifJ. : To beat severely with the fists ; 
to thrash, to pummel. 

" He hail inilli-d a iioliceniaii."— 37j«cA'tr((i/ ; Shabby 
Oeiitccl atory, ch. viii. 

mill (2), v.i. [Etym. doubtful.] To swim under 
water. A term used of whales among whale- 


mill-cog, s. [Eng. viiU (2), s., and cog.] The 
ciig of a mill-wheel. 

"The tiiiil>er is useful for viillco!/s."—.Vorti}ncr: 

null'-dd,m, " mill-damh, 'i. [Eng. mill (2), 

and d«,n.] 

1. A wall or bank across the course of a 
stieani to raise the level of the water and 
divert it into a millracc. 

" Xot so where, scornful of a check, it 1e.i.|i8 
The milUl.nn." Cvtopcr: Task, v, 102. 

2. A millpond. 

milled,^. [MiLL(l),t'.l Having passed through 
a niill ; having the edges serrated, or trans- 
versely groo\et I, as a shilling, a sovereign, &.c. ; 
fulletl, as cloth. 

" That Sinn in good milled silyei\"—Macaulajj : lUM. 
Ei»ii.. cli. xxiii. 

milled-cloth, s. 

Fiihric : WuiAU-n cloth which lias been 
fulled or felted by beating, to thicken it. It 
is called doiilile-milled when the operation 
has been repeated to increase its density. 

milled-lead, s. Lead which lias been 
spread int<i a sheet in the rolling-mill, in con- 
tradistinction to lead whicli i^ levelled while 

in a melted condition. 

milled-money,.-. Coinedmoney. {U'lwi- 


milled-Slate, s. Slates sawn out of 
blocks by machinery, instead of being split 

into lamiiue. 

mil-le-fi-br'-e, ft. [Ital., from milk. = a 
thon.sand, ami fivn' = flowers.J (?jee the com- 

millefiore -glass, s. A species of mosaic 
eiAilnpLMl in a transparent bulb. A number 
ot jiitces of tlligree, or tubes of glass enamel, 
are fused together, their sections representing 
stars, flowers, and other ornaments. Sections 
of these tubes are imbedded in white trans- 
juirent flint-glass, forming pajier-weights. 

mil-le-nar-i-an, mil-len-nar i-an.a. & 

s. [L;it. ini!l<'.iuii-iiis, from inilli: — atlniUsand ; 
Fl-. milli:nniri:.\ 

A. --Is mlj. : Consisting of a thousand ; 
esjiec, consisting of a thousand years; per- 
taining to the millennium. 

" Iianit-I, in tlif ii>nsti uetinii of the favourers of the 
viilh-nariiiti opinion. Is iiruteiidi-d to H|ie)ik iiiiitii;ii- 
hirly .if tilt- tyiannii-al reign of antichrist" —B;>. //a/? .■ 
The JUnmlutiim Cnnt'ealcil. 

B. As siibst. : One who believes in the mil- 
lennium, or reign of Christ upon earth lor a 
thousand years. [Millexnu'-m.] 

"The hearts of ^niins ns well rs mUlntarians 
answer 'True,' "—C, liiuijslvy : Vviut, ch. xvii. 

mil-le-nar -i an ism, ' millen-ar-ism, 

ji. [Kng. millriiari-n, ; -isut.] The doctrine 

fir tenets of the .Milleiiarians. Called al»o 

"The InnL-.shice condeiiiiifd coucoit^ of an ohl, (utd 
■" ^' -lli>. Uatt: livvfta. 

* mil'-len-ar-Sr, a. &:;. [Lat. millcnarUis ; Fr. 


A, As mljedivc : 

1. Consisting of a thousand; lasting for a 
tliousand years. 

" Weai-eapt todi-eaui tlnit Ood will make Iilxsniiite 
rclgii lieic iw kings in u tnittenavi/ kiiiiidoui."— /f/i. 
TayluT : ,'<eniioni(, vol. ii., ser, 12. 

2. Pertaining to the milleniiiuiu. 

" For I foictcU tlie uiilh-narn yem." 

/>rydc,i : I'alamuu & Arcitv. (Dtdicl 

B, As suhstaiitivf : 

1. The s]»ace of a thousand years ; a millen- 

'■ Where to ttx tlie heghniint; of that niarveUous wil- 
Jetuiri/, ami where the end. —Up, Hall : /{reatltintfa •>/ 
tht: /icvoiit fiaitl, § 15. 

2. One who looks for the ndllennium ; a 


millenary-petition, s. 

Chiirdi Hist.: A petition named from the 
number of signatures appended to it (though 
they actually fell shoit of a thousand), pre- 
sented by the Puritans to James I. in Hiii;(. 
The petitioners desired to be relie\ed from 
the use of the sign of the cross in baptism, the 
ring in the marriage service, continuation, and 
bowing at the name of Jesus. The jietition 
also treated of (1) objections to the Church 
sei-vice ; (2) plui-alitii's, non-residence, and 
clergy who did not i)reach, though they were 
resident ; (;') the better maintenance of the 
Itai'ocliial clergy; and (4) redress of Church 
discipline. The Hampton Court Conference 
was the outcome of this petition. [Cosfer- 

ENCK, 1].] 

mil-len'-ni-al, n. [Lat. m.!llc~a. thousand, 
and (t»ii?(s=*a year, on analogy of hu'iminl, 
&.C. ] Lasting for a thousand years ; peilaining 
to the millennium. 

" Tobe kings and juiests unto God, is the character- 
istic of those who ivre to enjoy the millennial hiixi) I- 
tienn.— Hi If ltd. 

t mil-len'-ni-al-ist, ^'i. [Eng. miUcnial ; -ist.] 
A millenarian 

* mil-len'-ni-an-i§m, s. [Lat. vUUeniiim.] 
Millenarianism ; the doctrine or tenets ut the 

"Tis sjiid that he [Sir W. Ralegh|wrote .i tmct'.f 
111 dli-^tiiu Ilium." — Wood: Athenw Oxuu., vol. ii. 

^ mil-len'-ni-ar-i§m, 



' mil'-len-mst, s-. [Lat. mUlcnniitm) ; Eng. 
suit, -isi.] A millenarian. 

mil-len'-ni-um, s. [Lat. = a pei-iod of a 
tliousand years, from iuiik=.i\. thousand, ami 
((;ij(.»s = a year.) 

1. Script. : A period of a thousand years, 
during which Satan shall be contined to the 
bottomless pit, having tirst been bound by an 
angel with a great chain (Rev. xx. 1-3), 
whilst the souls uf those who luive been " be- 
headed for the witness of Jesus," and have not; 
worshijiped the beast or his image, or re- 
ceived his mark uiion their foreheads or their 
hiuids, shall live and reign with Christ for a 
thousand years (Rev. xx. 1-0). 

2. Church Hist. : During the first three cen- 
turies, when Christians were at intervals in 
danger of maityrdom, and many actually 
surtered death, the millennium loomed hirgely 
before their minds : the second advent of 
Christ, interpreted literally, w:is consideretl to 
be pre-niillennial, and the millennium to lie a 
literal reign of him and tlie martyrs. The 
Christian fathers, Papias, Justin Martyr, and 
Iremeus, with the heretical Cerinlhians, .Mar- 
eionites, Montanists, and Melitians, held these 
views, as did Papias ami Irenanis with rather 
extravagant accompaniments. Towards the 
end of the second century, Cains, a presbyter 
of Rome, led the way in opjtosing their mil- 
lennial conceptiniis, and, in the tliird, oi igen 
considered the millennium as consisting of 
spiritual delights to be enjoyed by souls raised 
to perfection in the world to come. Jeinmc 
also gave a spiritual intei'inetation to the 
]>assage in Revelation. On the triumph of 
Christianity over Paganism, in the fonrfh 
century, the view gradually arose that mil- 

fate, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father ; we, wet, here, camel, her, there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, pot, 
or, wore, wolf, work, who, son ; miite, cub, ciire, unite, cur, rule, full ; try, Syrian. «, oe = e ; ey = a ; qu = kw. 

milleped— millingtoniacese 


leiinial yb^ry liad alrt-ady bej^un. The perse- 
cuteil Christians liaa risen, and werespiritiiully 
reigning with Jl-sus unseen. His visible re- 
aiipearance wouhl not be till the consumma- 
tiiin of all things, Avhen he would come to 
Judge the worhb From about the year '.'60 
"yet another opinion arose and gained extensive 
credence. The millennium, to be liemld.d by 
the coming of Jesus, began with his lirst 
advent, an<l was now about closing. Many 
landetl proprietors, therefore, believed tliey 
should no h)ngrr require their estates, and 
might atone for their sins by giving tlu-m over 
tu the church, tliedt-ed of bcijufst coninieut uig 
with thewoi\\sA2U"'"P'<"li<"i'f'^ mmuU tcnniiio 
(As t Uf t-nd of the wurhl is approaehing), and 
thf rstati's were not returned when it was 
fuund that the world outlasted the year 1000. 
Two opinions are now held : one, that the 
advent of Christ will be pre-millennial, and 
that a literal reign of martyrs and saints shall 
take place with him on earth ; the other is. 
that the niillenuiuni will be brought on by 
the blessing of the Holy Spirit on the means 
<nii>hiye<If(ir tin.- conversion of tlie world, and 
that during the contiiuiance of tlie prouusetl 
years Jesus shall reign in the hearts of nearly 
all mankind, and shall not nturu visibly till 
he comes as Judge. JIany iuteii'vctfrs, liold- 
ing that in prophecy a day stiinds fnr a yeai-, 
consider that the 1,200 days mentioned in 
Rev. xii. 0, &c., mean 1,2(50 years ; yet they 
<lefni the 1,000 vears to lie literal years. The 
rwison junbably is that they are iiilluenced by 
thu Jewish tradition that the st-venth thousand 
years from tlie creation of man shall be a 
Sabbatic thousand. Hugh Miller, who accepted 
the view that a prophetic day means a year, 
and, being a geologist, was not startled by 
very large numbers, considered the millennium 
to be 300,000 years. 

•' We must Give a full jtcwnnt of tlmt state ciUetlthe 
7i!i/rriiiiii"ii."—/iiii-iur : Tlii-ory irf (he Earth, 

mil-le-ped. mil-li-pede, s. [Lat. milk- 
p,f,}a — ilic woodlouse, or direcily from inxUf^ 
= a tltousand, and jjes (genit. pedis) = a foot.] 

Zonl-gy : 

1. The genus lulus, or the family lulidje 


2. (PL) The order Chilognatha Oi-v.). So 
called from the numerous fet-t. 

anil-lep'-or-a, ^s'. [Lat. milk — a. thousand, 

and purii.s — a passage, a channel.] 

Zoul. : The typical genus of the family Mil- 
lei'oiidie (<i.v.). It consists of a Ciileareous 
skeleton with a foliaceous or laminar expan- 
sion, studded with minute ajiertures of tw.i 
sizes. Till! colony consists of two kinds of 
zooids, the one with four to six knobbed ten- 
taules, inhabiting the larger, and the second 
with the to twenty-live tentacles, the smaller 

mil -le-pbre,^''. IMiLLi^rouA.] An indiviilual 
of till.- genus Millepora (4. v.). 

mil-le-por'-i-dae, s. j>!. [Moth Lat. viilk- 
j>vi-{ii); Lat. fern. pi. adj. sutl'. -ida'.] 

Zoul. : A family of Hydroeoralliua, type 
Millepora (q.v.). Tlifv "help to cimstitute 
coral reefs in the West Indies. 

mil -ler, mel-lere, ' mul-nere, myl- 
lere, myl-nere, ■>■. [Eng. mill; -er.] 

I. (ird. I.niui. : One who keeps or attends to 
a mill, espticially a Hour mill. 

" Wliftt man, more wftt«i- i^tiileth by the mill 
Tbiui wuts the mil/Ln- uf." 

fihakcsp- : Titus Andronicus. ii. 1. 

II. Technitxdly : 

1. Kntom-. : A moth of the family Bomby- 
cida'. It is all dusted over like a miller 

with fl o u r , ,v^ whence the name. 

2.1chthij.: :^^ The Eagle-ray, My- 
liobi'thiiiiaitii. ^^^«^ _ 

[MviIoLtATlS.] ^ _-"^^^^ 

dog, ». 

hhthif. : Coleiis cnn 
the IVnny Dog or Coi 

ninn Tope. [Toi-K.l 

miller'sthumb, . 

Irhthi/. : CnttiLf ijobtO, 
the River liulllicad. 

"The name <if .\/nrcr'».lhii<nh Is said to liave refer- 
ence to tlie form uf thf head. . . . Tills is emootti, 
hr.«nl, ami like tlie thunihof a miller, which 
l:as heeu mijilelleil lua iieiMJiar and euiii^tiint action y( 
tlie iiiiiscles in the t-verLisi; •■in... must imiKirtiint 
1 art uf his ucL-nijation."— J'lirrW/: liritifh FhJus, ii. .In. 


mil-ler-i-a, ". (N'nnnd after Philip Miller 
(U>!il-1771),'a l)otanist.] 

r,ot, : The typical genus of the sub-tribe 

mil-ler-i-e'-8B. .f. j>?. [Mod. Lat. milkri{fi); 
Lat. fem. pi. a^U. suft'. -co-.] 

J'.nt. : A sub- tribe of composites^ tribe Sene- 

Mil'-ler-ism, s, [See def.] 

t'lmn-h Hist.: The pre-millennial doctrines 
of the Milhrites (q.v.). (IkirtkU.) 

mil -ler-Ite (1), s. [Named after the eminent 
iivstallographer, W. H. Miller; sulf. -ite 

Mill.: A rhombohedral mineral, mostly oc- 
curring in small tufts and groups of interlai-ing 
eapillary crystals, also in Kbrons and radiatnig 
crusts." Hardness, 3 to :;-5 ; sp. gr. 40 t'> 
:.(J5 ; lustre, metallic ; cohiur, brass- to bronze- 
y<Ilo\v, sometimes tiiruished ; streak, bright ; 
brittle. Compos. : sulphur, aj'l ; nickel, 
(;4-!)=100; corresponding to the fomuila, 
NiS. found in crevicfs in the clay-ironstone 
of Merthyr Tydvil. Soutli Wales, and in crusts 
at the Sterling mine, Antwerp, New York ; 
also in small amount at a few otlier localities. 

Mil'-ler-ite (2), s. [See def. J 

Ch'nvh Hist. : A follower of William Miller, 
an American ]ire-nnlleunialist, who eiipected 
the inunediate return of Jesus to reign upon 
the earth. Relieving in tin- literal fullilment 
of the iMcqiheL-ifs, the Millerites asserted that 
the first judgnient would lake place in 1S43. 
Subsequently otlur periods were named ; and 
so firm was the faith of many that they dis- 
posed of all tlieir worldly goods, ja-ovided 
themselves with "ascension robes," iindwaiteil 
with anxiety for the souniling of the last 
trumpet— the signal for their elevation. Many 
lieeame insane through excitement and fear ; 
others, finding that they were repeatedly dis- 
app tinted, gave up their expectations, and 
tlie sect is nearly, if not quite, extinct." 
{Lartktt, ed. 1S77.) 

mil-les'-im-al, «. [Lat. mlUesiinvs, from 
m-dk — a thousiind.] Thousandth ; consisting 

of tliousandth parts. 

mil'-let, s. [Fr., dimin. of m(7 = mill, millet, 
from Lat. viiliurti; A.S. (aU= millet ; Gr. 
/leAuT) {mcUni}).^ 

1. Ord. Laii'j., Hot, Agric, &c.: Pankuvi 
■mi I it ax It III and P. viUiare, with some other 
speeies of small-seed corn. They are exten- 
sively grown in India, iu parts of wluch the 
former is called wassee and the latter bhadlee. 

" Little living creatures, in a quantity of water uo 
biyjfer than agraiu wf •niUlvt."—Uuy: On thv Creation, 

pt. 1. 

If German millet is a variety of Setaria ittt- 
licit ; Indian millet is Sorghtim vnlgare ; Italian 
millet, Srtaria italica ; and Texas millet, 6or- 
gliiiin t'crninnii. 

2. Millet-gi-ass. 

millet-beer, s. A fermented liquor made 
in Ibmmania, and the neighbouring districts, 

from millet-seed. 

millet- grass, «. 

JJot. : The genus Milium (q.v.). 

mill'-horse» -?. [Eng. mill, and horse.] A 
horse employed to turn a mill. 

"But nl ia oue to you, a hurse mill & n millfuirMP. 
dviiike ere ye gue. & goe ere you liviuke."— Sir T. More : 
II orks, i». 2a8. 

mil-li-, ill comp. [Lat. mill': = a thousanil.] A 
thousand ; a thousand fold. 

mil'-li-ard, s. [Fr.] A thousand millions: 
as, a milliard of francs = £40,000,000 sterling, 

' mil-ll-ar-y, <(- & s. [Lat. miUi(irhis= per- 
taining to a tliousand, comprising a thousaii<l 
liaees,"or a Roman mile ; milk=R thousand.) 

A, As ndj. : Pertaining to or connected 
with the Ro'nian mile of jwces, or j,000 
Knman feet : as, a millidrii column. 

B, -4.S- shhst. : [Lat. miUiin-inm..] A mile- 
stone. (See the example under Mile-mahk.) 

" mil'-U-fold, n. [Pref. utiUi-, and Eng. 
/old.] Thousandfold. 

"His kisses jni»;W.f 
Eewr.-iy his loue and louing dili>:ence." 

mn-li-gr&m, mil -U-grainme» .s [Kr. 

mi7/M/n«-/(PH', from Lat. m(7/f = ;» tliousaml. tnul 
Fr. (/niPin*!*- = a gram (n.v.).j In the Fivncli 
system of weights auu measures, the tlmu- 
siindth part of a gram, eijual to -OlM of an 
Knglish grain, or a cubic millimetre of water. 

mil'-li-li -tre (tre as ter), «. [Fr., from Lat. 
milk = a th.insand, and Ir. /i(re = a litre.) A 
French measure i.f capacity, coiitaiiiiiig the 
thousamlth part of a litre, equal "UOlOy of a 
cubic inch. 

mil'-U-me-tre (tre as ter), s. \Vt., fiom 

Lat. mill =-A tliMUsjMul : Fr. i?it'f;r = nieti-c 
((l.v.).] A Freiieh lineal measure eipial to the 
tlnuisaiidtli part of a metre, or '\iWSl of an 
Knglish inch. 

mil-lin er, mil-lan-er, ' mil len-er, 

■ mil - len - 1 - er, >. ll'mb. a cnn.iiii. 'if 
.V. /../(./■ hum Milan in Italy.l 

■ 1. A haberdasher ; a dealer in small wares. 
(Originally of the mule sex.) 

" He h:ith muii^'h for iiiiin or woman, r>f all ttleeH ; tio 
»i(W/iiec can so lit his cUBtoiuei»withBluveB.' — tUmkut/j.: 
}yinter'i Tate. iv. a. 

2. A person whose occupation is to make 
and sell head-dresses, hats, bonnets, &c., for 
females. (Now genei-ally a woman.) 

"The thonsand-i of cleikBaiid tuil/incrs wlio are now 
thrown into raiiturew hy the sight uf lyucli Katrine. — 
.Uiicauliti/ : lli»t. Eu-j., ch. \\\\. 

mil'-lin-er-^, s. [Eng. vnlliner: -y.] 

1 1. The occupation or busiiu'ss of a milliner. 
2. The articles made nnd .sold by a milliner, 
such as head-dresses, liats, bonnets, laces, 
libbons, Arc 

miU'-ing, j)r. ^xir., a., k s. [Mill(1), v.] 
A. i^ B. As pr. pai: d: yarticip. vdj. : (See 
the verb). 
C. ^l.--" snhstaniice : 
I. Oidiaanj Language: 

1. LU. : The act or process of grinding or 
passing through a mill. 

2. A thrashing. 

"One blootl gi^es t'other hlooil a HiiV/iriff." 

Cvntbc : Ur. tit/ntttjc, ii. 2. 

IL Tedmiadhj: 

1. Coining : The term is applied : 

(1) To an action sucli as that which up.sets 
the edge of a cob), making the raised llauges 
which protect the ornaments in relief on the 
(ib\erseand reverse sides of the coin. Milling 
in tins sense is performed upon an object in a 
lathe by the ]»ressure of a burnisher or wheel, 
wliich turns over or ui>sets an edge, as in tin- 
case of the feather-edge on a tulie or bezel 
which holds a lens or a jewel iu its .seat or 

(2) ,To an action such as that which gives a 
fluting or crenation to the edge of the eoin. 

(3) The indented or milled edge lui coins. 

2. Chtli : A fulling process which condenses 
and thickens cloth. 

3. Porcdoiii : Tli** mastication and grinding 
of slip for porcelahi, giving it the filial wink- 
ing to devcloji jilasticity. 

^ jMiUlng in the d.ukmans : Murder by 
night. (SK-okli.) 

"Men were men then, anil fought othiT in the open 
field, and tlieVe was nae tnitlinf/ in the Uarkmant."-' 
Scuff (.■»// .Mnii-ierh-n. c\>. wvjii. 

milling-machine, '-. 

Much.: A machine for dressing melal-work 
to shape bv ]>assing it on a travelling-bed 
U'lieatb a rotating seriated cylindrical cutter. 

milling-tool, Jf. A small indented r(dler 
monnt.-.i 111 a stork and used I0 nnrl objects, 
such as Tlie edges (if screw heads, by pressure 
against the btter when they are rotating in a 
latlie ; a nulling toul. 

mil'-ling-tO'-ni-a, .>■■. (Named after Sir T. 
Millingion, professor of Ijotaiiy at Oxhird.) 

1. The tyi'ical genus of the order Milling- 
totiiaceif (q.v.). It is synonymous with Mefi- 

2. A genus of Bignoiiiaceje. MiUingfoma 
h>rteni>is. called also PAgnunia tuberoim, is tbu 
cork tree of India. 

mil-liiig t6~ni-a-9e-se, s.p!. [Mod. Lat. 
iaiUinijt«iii(u); Lat. fern. pi. adj. su(V. •aero:] 
Jiot. : An order of hvpogynous exogeiis, 
established by Wight and Arnott. Thusjwcica 

are now referjed t" Sabi;ic-e:e. 

boil, boy : pout, jowl : cat. 9011, chorus, 9hin, ben?h ; go, gem : thin, this : sin, as ; expect. Xenophon, exist, ihg. 
-cian, tian - shan. tion. -sion = shun : -tion, -^ion = zhun. -cious. tious, sious = shiis. -ble, -die. \c. ^ bel, del. 


million— mime 

mil -lion (1 as y), ' mil-lloun, s. [Fr 
miiiion, Uviix Low U\t. luHHotnm, acciis. of 
millio, from L;it. luHU — a Ihousaiid.] 

I. lAL : Tlie nuiiilwr of a thousand thou- 

" O pimluii : Miicv fi crookotl Hgure mKy 
AttcvU In lUtlr jtilnce. mnlllUm." 

^ffiakviiJ. .■ Ilenru 1*. (IlitnxL) 

II. Firfiiratiirbi : 

1. An indellnitely great number. 

2. With the detinitv article, the muUitudt-, 
the puVilic ; the gi'eat body of the peuple ; 
tlie masses. 

" .\i-rivwJ. n iiU'lit like irnou bIib seea. 
Ami hem Otv villion hum. " 

Coie/i^r: QiweiiM i'UU to Lnndon. 

miH-ion-aire, " mill -lon-nalre (Ion as 

yon). .';. [l-V. ,nUr<nn,v<u-f: It;il. «rdinw>n(>: 
Sp. iniknuii-i",] III Kiigland. a man wmtli a 
niillituisterlini^; a luTsoiiof very great wealth. 
In America tlie term is applied to a person 
wnith II uiilllou dollars. 

mill ion-ar-y (1 as y), a. {?r. ■niiUinnairc] 
r.Tlaniintj't" niilliuns; consistinj;of milUoiis. 

' mil'~ll6ned (I as y), o. tEng. viiU'wn ; -ed.) 

1. I'lissfssin;; millions ; millionaire ; ex- 
ceedingly wealthy. 

" The milliom-d merchtmt seeks Iier fHonour I In hi-i 
goKl.' P. iVhitehead: Honour. 1174"). 

2. Multiplied a million-fold ; innumerable, 

" Time. wlii)<ie millloned Accidents 
Creei> in 'twixt ioms." Sh<ikc»p. : :ionnet H5. 

* mil -lion-ist (i as y), s. [Eng. million; 
-i^f.] A uiiUmnaire. 

" A coiiiuiercial millioiiUt." — Southey: Doctor, ch. 

mil-liontll (iasy),n. &s. [Eng.million: -th.] 

A. A^ titii. : Constituting one of a million ; 
a tlmusand thousandth. 

B. As snhsf. : One of a million parts ; the 
quotient of one divided by a million. 

"Theac^ne seemed always the same, yet every m(7- 
lionth uf ft iiiinntt: iHtfereiit."— J/wnCimer CoUiiie : 
aiackjuni'.h * Scholar, ch. viii, 

mil-li-pede, s. [Milleped.] 

"■ mil'-lo-crat, s. [From mill, on analogy of 
i:ristttcnU, &c.] A wealthy mill-owner. 

" The true blood-suckers, the reuomouft tniilocivts.' 
— Li/tton . Cazfons, bk. ii., ch. iv. 

" mill -o-crat-x^m, s. [Eng. millocrat; -ism.] 
Government by millocrats. 

"The iiiiser>- which accuuiiiaines the Teigii of TniUo- 
crntism.'—Liittiyii : Cuxtons, hk. xiii., ch, iv. 

Millon (as MT-yon), s. [From Millon, a 
1 ifiicluiKin, its discoverer.] (See the com- 


Millon's-test, Millon's test-liquid, ^. 

Chcm. : A nitric and nitrous solution of pro- 
tonitrate and i>eriiitrat« of mercury. It de- 
te(^ts the presence of proteine or its allied 
compounds by the production of a more or 
less deep rose colour. The test liquid is made 
by dissolving metallic mercury in an equal 
weight of strong nitric acid. The sul>stance 
to be tested is plunged in the liquid and heat 
applied, (Griffith (f Henfmj.) 

mill' -pond, s. [Eng. viill, and pond.] A pond 
oi- ivs(_-r\<'ir of water employed to drive a null. 

mill'-ra9e, s. [Eng. mill, and raw.] The 
canal til leat by which water is conveyed to 
a niill-wlieel. Below the wheel the water is 
conducted away liy the mill-tail or tail-race. 

millrea, mill -ree, s. [Milreis.] A 
pseudu singular form of mih-eis (q.v.). 

mill-sail, s. [Eng. ynill, and sail] The sail 

nfu wiiHliilill. 

t millsail- shaped, <.t. 

But. : ll;t\ iijg many wings projecting from 
a convex surface, as the fruit of some mn- 
belliferous plants and of moringa. (Limlley.) 

mill -stone, '^ myln-stone, *myl-stone, 

.-. IKii- lulll, and .sf.yjK.] One of a pair of 
(.■yliinlilral stones for crushing grain in grind- 
ing nnlLs. Tlie stone is peculiar, and comes 
mostly from France and from Georgia. [Bvhr- 
STONE.] Tlie stones arc the bed and runner, 
the upper tieing usually the moving stone, the 
lower being stationary. The relation of bed 
and runner is, however, sometimes reversed. 

"They had demolished houses, cut down fruit trees, 
burned Ashing bunts, brukeu mUlalones." — Macaulay .• 
Eist. Eitg.. ch. xiii. 

millstone - l>alance. ^^ a weight so 

placctl as to luiUince otlier inequalities of 
weight in a stone, so that it may run true. 

millstone bosom, .-^. The sunken space 

in iIh '■-■ntiv III a luillstcne, round the eye. 

millstone bridge, ;■. The lar across 
the eye id a milLsiuur by which it is supported 
on tlie head of the spindle. 

millstone- draft, *-. The degree of de- 
fleciion 'if the fmnovs of n millstone from a 
radial lUrectinn. Thus in a 7-inch draft the 
track -(-dges art' tangential to a 7-incIi circle. 

millstone- dress, $. 


1. The arrangement and disposition of the 
furrows in the face of a nullstone. The fur- 
rows lead from the bosom, around the eye, 
to the sUirt of the nullstone— that is to say, 
to its pei-ii)bery. 

2. Tin- draft given to the furrows on a 

millstone-dresser, £. A machine for 
cutting grooves in the gi'inding-face of a mill- 

millstone -grit, s. 

(io.'l. : A course unartzose sandstone used 
fi ir niillstniit_'.s. It underlies the coal measvn-es, 
and -verlies the Carboniferous Limestone, con- 
stituting the seeon<l of the three divisions of 
the Carboniferous formations. It is well de- 
veloped in South Wales ; in many other places 
it is feebly represented. Its Scotch equiva- 
lent is the Moor rock. A bed of shale 400 
feet thick, ranked witli the Millstone-grit, is 
called by miners Farewell rock. 

millstone-hammer, millstone- 
pick, .x a fill' furrowing millstones. 

millstone -lava, 5. 

Petrol. t£' Ccol. : A very vesicular kind of 
uepheline basalt, found on the Eifel, &c. 

millstone-maker, s. a maker of mill- 


M a I stone-makers' jihthisis : 

Pathol. : Phthisis produced in the makers 
of millstone, in masons, &c., by the inhala- 
tion of minute fragments of stone. 

millstone -ventilator, s. An arrange- 
ment fur couducling a blast through the eye 
ol the runner and out at the skirt, to cool the 
rtoor and facilitate delivery. 

mi-lord', s. [Sec def.] 

1. A foreign corruption of the address " iny 


2. A lord or notability ; as, an English 
milord. (Continental English.) 

mil'-dsQli'ine, mil'-osph-ite, 5. [Named 
after Prince Jli'.oschi ; suit', -inc, ■ite(Min.).2 
Min. : A compact mineral, havingan indigo 
blue to a celandine-green colour. Hardness, 
1'5 to 2; sp. gr. 2'131. Compos. : a liydrated 
silicate of alunnna and sesquioxide of chio- 
niiuni. Found at Rudniak, Servia. The 
Brit. Mus. Cat. makes it a %ariety of Allo- 
jihane (q.v.), and Dana calls it a chroniiferons 
allophane, containing only half as much water. 

mil'-reis, s. [Port, mil = a thousand, and 
reis, pi. of real, a small coin.] 

1. The unit of value in Portugal, gold, 
weight r7735 granunes, value 4s. 5|d. 

2. The unit of value in Brazil, value 2s. 3d. 

mil'-sey. s. [A coiTupt. of milk, and sieve.] 
A sieve for straining milk. (Scotch.) 

milt (1), ^ mllte, s. [A.S. milte; cogn. with 
Dut. viilt ; Icel. milti; Dan. milt; Sw. m^alte; 
Ger. milz.] 
Anat. : The spleen (q.v.). 

milt (2), " melt, s. [a corrupt of milk (q.v.), 
frnm tlie milky appearance of the soft roe of 
lislu-s ; Sw. nnjolk = milk, mjolke = milt of 
lishes : Dan. Jiske-melk = soft roe, lit.= fish- 
milk ; Ger. milch = (1) milk, (2) milt of fishes.] 
The soft roe of fishes ; the spermatic organ of 
the male lish. 

'■ You shall scarce, or never, take a male carp M'ith- 
out a mvlt."^\ya/ton : Anjler, \it. i., ch. ix. 

milt, ^-.t. [MiLT (2), s.] To impregnate or 
fertilize the roe or spawn of the female lish. 

" A female gave HR ecga. which were milted from a 
male of the s.ime hybrid mce."—Ficld, Dec 6, 1884. 

milt'-er, * melt'-er, s. [Dan. milter ^vl 
male ; Ger. mikha:] A male lish ; a lish 
having a milt. 

•■That thej- might do bo fhy Ijreedlug] hd had. aa the 
rule in. )iut m tliive melteniiiv oue flitiiwucr." — Wat- 
ton : Aiiijler. pt. i.. cli. Ix. 

Mil-ton -ic, o. [Eng. Milton; -ic.] Pei-tain- 
ing tn Miltou or Ids writings. 

milt -waste, s. [Eng. milt (l), and v-a.^t^'. 
Fi'oin being formerly supjtosedto be a reme'ly 
for wasting or disease of the si'leen.] 
B<it. : A name for a fern, Cetcrach ojicinarum. 


mil-va'-gd, s. [Lat. = a flying-fish.] 

Ornith. : A genus of Polyboiiniv.'. MHvago 
chimango is a small hawk-like bird which fre- 
quents slaughterlionses in La Plata, feeding 
on carrion. 

mil-vi'-nsB, s. pi. [Lat. milviis ; feni. pi. adj. 
SUtl". -inic] 

Ornith. : Kites ; a sub-family of Faleonidje, 
with bills not so curved as in the Hawks. 
The wings, which are pointed, and the tail, 
which is forked, are both very long. 

mil'- vine, a. k s. [Lat. milrinus, from milvus 
= a kite.] 

A. As adj. : Belonging to or resembling 
birds of the Kite family. 

B, As subst. : A bird belonging to the Kite 

mir-VU-liis, s. [Mod. Lat., diniin. of Lat. 
milvn^ = a kite, a glede.] 

Ornith. : A genus of Jluscicapida, or, ac- 
cording to Baird of Tyraniiids, Milvnlvs iy- 
rann lis, tlie Fork-tailed Fly-catcher, is whitish- 
ash above, with black rump^ tail-feathers 
rose-white, tipped with black ; shoulders and 
belly light \ ermillion. M. forjicatiis, the Scis- 
sor-tail or Swallow-tail Fly-catcher, has the 
head and tail black, the latter edged with 
white ; Ijack ashy ; under surface pure white. 
Both species are natives of Central America. 

mil-viis, s. [Lat. = a kite.] 

1. Ornith. : A genus of Faleonidje, sub- 
family Aquilinie. Beidt straight at base, 
curved from cere to point ; nostrils oval, 
oblique ; wings long, tail long, forked. Legs 
short ; tues short and strong, the outer united 
at its base with the nuddle toe. Claws 
moderately long and curved. Habitat, the 
Old "World and Australia. Six species are 
known. Milvus ictinns is the Common Kite. 
[Kite (1), s.] 

2. Falceont. : Remains of this genus have 
been found in the Miocene beds of France 
and Central Europe. 

mim, a. [Frob. a variant of mum = silent.] 
Prim; affectedly meek and modest; demure. 

" See, up he's got the word o" God, 
All iiieek dii' inim has view'd it." 

JJurm: iloty Fair. 

mim-moued, a. 

1. Attectedly modest or demure in conver- 

2. Affectedly moderate in eating. 

Mi' -mas, s. [Lat. & Or. = a Trojan born on 
the same night as Paris.] 
Astron. : The first satellite of Saturn. 

[Arab.] A pulpit in a mosque. 

mim -bar, ^ 


''mime, s. [Lat. mimus; Gr. /iijuos (mimos); 
Fr. mhue.] 

1. A kind of farce or dramatic representa- 
tion among the Greeks and Romans, in which 
incidents of real life were represented in a 
ludicrous or farcical fashion. Tlieyresembled 
the modern farce or vaudeville, but were often 
of a coarse and even indecent character. 

" And this we know in Laertius, that the inimi^s of 
Sophruu were of such reckoning with Plato, i\s to t;tke 
them uitchtly to read ou, iiiid Jifter make them his 
pillow, Sculiger describes a »Hif«ctobea poem, imi- 
tatiug any actiou to stir w\> laughter."— J/i(fo»i .■ Apol- 
ogy/or Smcrtymnuus. 

2. An actor in such a performance ; a buftbon. 

"Ami wheras he tells us that sciinilous mime was a 
])ersoiinted grim lowriug fool, lua foolitih laiigiiaKe im- 
wittiugly writes Fool upou his owu frleud."— J/iWo^c 
Apoloyy for Smectymnitus. 

* mime, v.i. [Mime, s.] To act the mime or 
butlbon ; to numic. 

"In the fit 
Of miming, gets th' opiiiiun ni « wit." 

Bun Jonion : Spig. 115. 

fate, fat, fare, amidst, what, iall, father : we, wet, here, camel, her, there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, pot, 
or, wore, wolf, work, who. son ; mute, cub, ciire. unite, cur, riile, full : try, Syrian. », oe = e : ey - a : qu ^ kw. 

mimer— mimusops 


* mim'-er, s. [Eng. mtm(t); -cr.] A miinf. ;i 
iiuiiiic, a biitloon. 

mi-me'-sis, .^■. [Gr. = imitation.] 

1. Rhit, : Imitation of the voice or j^estwres 
of aiiotlier. 

2. Zi'ol. : The same as Mimicry (q.v.). 
mi'-xnet-ene, s. [MiMtTiTE.] 

mi -met-e^e, s. [Mimetite.] 
mi-met -es-ite, s. [Mimetite.] 
mi-met'-ic, mi-met' -ic-al, a. [Gr. mn-qTi.- 

Kot; (iniiiutikvs), from M^MT^i^ (;»n((r?':>) = an 
iiiiilatur, frnm fiifios (»ti(uo^) = a iiiiiiiic.] 

* I. Onl. Lang.: Apt to imitate or niinnc ; 
given to imitation ; imitative. 

"If I were comiKisiiig a Jialogue iii the ulJ »ij'ne((- 
cal. vr [joetic form, I aliuulil tell yuii, peilKips, the 
uocnaiou tlmt led us iutu tliis truck of culivei-sjvtiou. ' 
~Hurd : On Foreign Traeel, Uiul. T. 

II. Teduiicidly : 

1. Zool. : A term applied to animals wiiich 
resemble others not so liable to fall a prey to 
(■neuiies. or whii-h resemble their natural sur- 
ii'iuidings so closely a.s scarcely to be dis- 
tinguished therefrom, as is the case with the 
Phusniidue. [Mimicrv.] 

2. Bot. : A term sometimes used of a plant 
belonging to one order when it has a cei-tain 
siiperlicial resemblance to a plant of another 
oi-der. [Mimicry.] 

mi'-met-ism, .«. [Mimetic.] The act or habit 
vt imitatii'iL,' ; mimicry. [Mimicry, II.] 

mi'-met-ite, s. [Gr. fnn7)T7J<; (mimitcs) = an 
imitator; sutf. -Ue (Min.).^ 

Mi>i.: A mineral closely resembling pyro- 
morphite (q.v.), and graduating into it. Hard- 
ness, 'i'b ; si». gr.T"0 to 7*25 ; lustre, resinous; 
ctdour, shades of yellow and brown, also 
wliite to colourless ; streak, white. Compos. : 
ai senate of lead, 90'6li ; chloride of lead, 
\'-di ; the arsenic acid is frequently partly 
replaced by pliosphoric acid. Dana recognises 
tliree varieties :— I. Ordinary : (a) in crystals; 
(li) capillaiy ; ('•) concretionary. 2. Calcifer- 
ims : the same as IIedyphane (q.v.). 3. Cam- 
p\Iite(<i.v.), containing much phosphoric acid. 
cVjstallizatiou hitherto regarded as hexagoiuil, 
but according to Bertrand it is optically biaxial 
when pure, the angle dimiiiisliiug as the 
amount of phosjilioric acid inereases, the pure 
plio.spliate of lead being uniaxial. Formerly 
found in exceedingly line crystals at Johann- 
yeorgenstadt, Saxnny, also in Cornwall, Cum- 
beiland, and in Pennsylvania, iSrc. 

xnim'-ic, * mim'-lCk, n. & s. [Lat. mimicus 
— farcical, from Gr. /ut^cos (»i(7/it7,-us) = per- 
taining to or like a nnmic ; fxl/xo'; (viimos) =. a 
mime; Fi". niiviique; Ital. & Sp. mimico.] 

A. As a(>jective: 

1. Inclined or given to imitation ; imitative ; 
inclined to imitate or ape. 

" Oft iu her nbseuce mimic faucy wakea 
To imitate her." JJUCoii : P. L., v. 110. 

2. Consisting of imitation ; done or made 
in imitation; imitating; counterfeit. (Gene- 
rally applied to some insigniticant or diminu- 
tive imitation.) 

" Dnwu the wet atreeta 
Sail their mimic fleets," 

Lunafellow : Rain in Summer. 

B. As substanth'e : 

I, Onllitary Language : 

1. One who imitates, apes, or mimics ; 
espec, one who imitates or apes the manner, 
gesture, or voice of another so as to excite 

'■ It i vdiiityl is the worst of vices, atid the occasional 
miinivk of them all." — Burke: To a Member of th^ 
A'(tt. Assvmbli/. 

* 2, An actor, a mime. 

" Aiiuu voia Thitibe must be auswered, 
Aiid forth my rni>nic coaies." 

.sluikesp. : Midautntncr Xtffht's Dream, iii. 2. 

* 3. A mean or servile imitator. 

* 4. Auytliing made or done in imitation of 
something else. 

" The mule which Hadriau re-trd on hiub, 
Imjierial mimic of uUl Egj'pt a piles."" 

Itt/ron : Chihle Sarold. iv. 1&2, 

XL Nat. Hist. : A plant or animal that mimics. 
mimic-beetles, s. ;/• 

Entom. : Beetles of tlie sub-tribe Helocera, 
wliicli, wlien alarnieii, counterfeit death, as do 
some of tlie Byu'hida: and Uisterida:;. 

mixn'-io, v.t. [Mimic, a.] 

1, Onl. Lang. : To imitate, to ape; to cojiy 
the manner, gesture, or voice of another in 
order to excite laughter ; to c;uicature. 

" N'ext her the butTuon aiie, as atheists UBe, 
Mimick'it all sect*, ami lind hi» own to chnose." 
Ori/dvn : Hind * Panther, i. 40. 

2. Zool. : To assume as certain animals do 
the dress of otlicr species or a close resem- 
blance to natural objects. It is to be borne 
in mind tjiat there is no evidence that such 
action is voluntary. [Mimicry.] 

t mim'-xc-al, «. [Eng, mimic; -al.] The same 
as Ml.MIu, (I. (.q.v.). 

" Mail is t.f aU creatures the most jnimictd."~/icli- 
'iuiieW'uttuniatiie, ji, 63. 

t mim'-ic-al-ly, a(?r. IEuq. mimical ; -ly.] In 
a mimic or'imitative manner ; by imitation or 

"Tnie it is, iudeed, which a gi'cM writer hath loiiy 
Iwfore t'lught ua. that mijuicalli/iv imitate their ueigh- 
bums" iiiuletien."— South : Sermotts. vul. v., ser. y. 

** mim'-ic-al-ness, 5. (Eng. mimical; -ncss.] 

The liualily or siah- uf being mimical. 

mim'-ick-er, s. [Eng. )iumic, v., -tr.} One 
who mimics ; a mimic. 

tmim-ic-ry, * mim'-ick-ry, s. [Eng. 

uiimic : -ry.] 

I. Ord. Lang. : The act or habit of mimick- 
ing or imitating ; imitating or aping for sport 
or ridicule ; burlesque imitation. 

II, Technically : 

1. Zool. : A term introduced by Mr. H. W. 
Bates to denote that "close external likeness 
wliich causes things really quite unlike to be 
mistaken for each other," which exists in the 
animal kingdom ; but it slmuld be borne in 
mind that there is no evidence that such 
mimicry is in the slightest degree voluntary. 
It may be regarded as the liighest form of 
protective imitation or resemblance, or as that 
imitation or resemblance carried to its extreme 
limits. Mr. A. R. Wallace, who has brought 
together probably the largest collection of 
facts on this subject in the language (Wcst- 
vtiiislcr Review, July, 1867, pp. 1-43), says, 
that the ithenomena of mimicry "have been 
shown to follow certain definite laws, which 
again all indicate their dependence on the more 
general law of the JSiu'vival of the Fittest." 
These laws are ;— 

(1) That iu an overwhelmiug majority uf cases of 
iiiituicry, the auimals (ur the p'oui>s) which resemble 
each other inhabit the same cuuiitry, the same district, 
and iu must cases are to be fuuud together uu the same 


l'2) That these resemhlauces are not iudiscriuiiuate, 
but !ire limited tu certain gi-uups, which iu every case 
aie iLbimdaiit iu species aud iudiviiluals, and oiu he 
oftfu asceiiaiued to have some special protection. 

Ci) That the species which resemble or mimic these 
doiiiiiiaiit groups aie cumi>aratively less abimdaut in 
illdi^'idmLls, ami are often very rare. 

t 2. Rot. : The term is sometimes used of 
jilants belonging to one order when in their 
general features they resemble sjiecies belong- 
to another order ; as, for iustance, certain 
foreign Euphorbiacea; which bear a close 
superficial resemblance, though no atfinity, to 
Cactacese. Professor Tliiselton Dyer con- 
siders tliat there is no gt-nuine nunnery in the 
Vcgt'tablc Kingdom, and terms the phenome- 
non now described Homoiilasmy. 

mi-mi'-n£e, -''. pt [Lat. miin(us), from Gr. 
i^lfioq (minios) ~ an actor, a niiniic ; Lat. feni. 
pi. iidj. sutf. -ino;.] 

Oniith. : American Babblers, a family of 
Tiiuelidfe. The bill is slender or long and 
arehed, the feet strong, tail rounded and 
slightly giaduated. 

mim-ma'-tlon. .■^. [See def.] An excessive 

ur to.j frequent use uf the letter m. 

* mi-mdg' -ra-pher, $. [Gr. isinoypd4}o^ 
(iiiim">ir'tpho.-.), fi'um ^ll^lo^; (»i/j?io.s) = a mime, 
aud ypdifju} {gnipliii) = to write.] A writer of 
mimes or farc<'s. 

" For the liest idea that can now be formed of the 
uiniiuer of thin famous tninKxjmiiher, we muet have 
rtcourae. I believe, tutlie rlfteeuth idyl of Theocritus. " 
— rwiniwj ; Aristotle; Trcatitt: on Poetry, vol. L 

mi'-mon, s. [Mimus.] 

ZtioL : A genus ofPliyllostomidse, sub-faunly 
Phyllostoniinfce, akin to the ty]»ical genus 
Phyllostoma (q.v.). from which it is mainly 
distinguished by the different form of the 
chin-warts. Two species aie kmiwu from 
tropical America, Minwii Bcniuitiii and M. 

xni-tXi6-aa, ». (From Gr. fitnoi (mim^<) = an 

iuiitutor, ;in actor, so named because some of 
the sensitive species mimic animal sensibility.] 
Bot. : The typical genus of the auboider 
Mimosea' and the tribe Eumimoseie. As con- 
stituted by l.iiuueus. it includecl the Acaeia 
and nearly all the uther genera of the niodiMU 
sub-order Slimosie (i|.v.). The stameiiH, whi< K 
are delinite, arc not i.mre than twice the 
nnmbir of the ]ietals ; the anthers are not 
tipped by a gland, and the \alvis of the 
legume, breaking iiito transverse joints or 
remaining entire, leave the rim pei-sistent 
on the peduncle. About 2UU are known, the 
ma^jority from Ameiicji, the rest frr)m India 
ami Africa. They are i>rickly herbs or sliiubs, 
sometimes climbing ; the leaves are bipinnate, 
and in some specicii sensitive. Mimosa pudiai 
and M. scusitiva are the sensitive plants. The 
former is naturalized over India; the leaves 
are prescribed in piles and listula. The brui-sect 
leaves vf M. ni^jicavi^jiaie applied to burns, lis 
root is charred for guniiowder charcoal. The 
legumes of M. saponariu, or Acacia concinmi, 
are saj'onacecius and are an article of com- 
merce iu India. 

" For not Mimosa'i teud'T tree 
t>hnnks sooner frum the touch than he." 

iico((.- Marmion, iv. (Intrud.) 

mi-mo '-se-se, 5. pi. [Mod. Lat. 7uimos(a); 
Lat. fem. pi. adj. sulf. -to/.J 

l!<'t.: A sub-order of Legiuninosie, equi- 
valent in ia,nk to Papilionaceie and 
liiiiieie. The corolla is valvatc in lestivatioii. 
Tlie corolla is regular and often gamopetalous ; 
thesUunens, which are either coherent or free, 
are sometimes very numerous ; the leaves are 
often replaced by i»hyllodes. Chielly from 
Australia, the East Indies, Africa, ami America. 
None are Eui-openn. Ihe ^enus Acacia is well 
represented in Australia, Mimosa not at all ; 
its metropolis is America. 

mi-mo-t^'-nic, a. [Pref. Gr. ^1^0 (inimo) 
= imitating, resembling, and Eng. (a?i»ic.l 
Rcsembliny taunic-acid. 

mimotannic - acid, s. [Calechu-tannic 


mim,'-U-liis, s. [Lat. dim. of mimiis (q.v.). ; 
so nained from the shape of the flowers.] 

Bot. : Monkey-tlower, a genus of Scroph- 
ulariacete, sub-tribe Eugratioleae. It consists 
of herbaceous plants, with opposite leaves, 
solitary axillary flowers ; calyx, tubular, five- 
angled, tive-toothetl ; corolla, two-lipped, the 
upper two-lobed the lower three-lobed, the 
throat with two swellings; capsule, two- 
celled ; seeds, minute. Mimttlus lutcns is 
naturalized in iwiits of Britaiu. The leaves of 
.1/. guUattis are eaten as salad. 

mi'-miis, s. [Lat., from Jr. /ii/ios (mimoa) = 
a mimic actor, a mime.] 

Ornith. : A genus of Turdidie. Tliere are 
short bristles at the base of the bill ; nostrils 
oval. Tarsi with broad scales in Inmt. 
Habitat, America, from Canaik. to Patagonia, 
the AVest Indies, and the Galapagos. Wullare 
says "twenty species are known." The most 
noteworthy is Mimus jfulyglottusy UiGUiui:kuiK- 

nix-mii'-sopSy ^^. [Gr. /xi/jmi (»< im&) = an ape. 
and 101^ ('j^is) = the eyes, face, conntenauee ; 
so named because the flowers were supposed 
to resemble an a]ie's face.] 

1. Bot. : A genus of Sapittaccte. Calj-x, six 
to eight-parted ; corolla with an outer Vow of 
six to sixteen and the inner of six to eight 
petals ; ovary, six to eight-celled. Mivnisojii 
Kaki. has an astringent bark, yields a gmn, 
and bears a sweet fruit eaten by the natives of 
India. M. Elcnrji is a large evergreen tree 
largely enltivateil in India. During the lu't 
season it produces many small, fragi'ant 
flowers, which fall plentifully. Tlie snuilt, 
oval berries are eaten by the ]>oorer Hindoo.s. 
Tlie saji-wootl is large, whitish, and very hard, 
the heait-woi.>d red. It is used for "house- 
building, carts, and cabinet-work. That of 
M. imiiixi^ which grows oidy above san<lstone, 
is used for sugar-mill Iwams, oil-presses, 
house-posts, and turnery. .1/. Uttontlis, which 
grows in the Andaman Islands, is used for 
bridges and hr)Use-jK>.sts. The berries of M. 
liejxtmlra are eaten in Imlin. Most species of 
the genus yield gums and their seeds oils. 
M. Elcniji yields the Pagoda gum of India, .M. 
gluhosa the American gum Batata. The Imrk 
of .V. Ktcngl is used in India for tanning ; 
boiled, it yields a brown dye used with myia- 

boii bo^ ; poiit, jo^l ; cat, 96X1, chorus, ^hin, benph ; go. gem ; thin, this : sin, as ; expect, ^cnophon, exist, pn = C 

clan, -tian — shan. -tion, -sion — shun ; tlon. -§lon ~ zhun. -clous, -tious. -sious — shus. -bic, -die. ^^. = bcl. d^L 


mina— mind 

liolnns : lliat of M. Iitti>mlis, n red ilyc usimI in 
the AiulniiKins. {Otlciitta Exhih. Rep., &c.) 

2. I'harm. : The bnrks of Mbnusfips Kletifii 
arnl nf ^f. hfjrtintlra are astrinyeiil tniiics ; thi; 
tU'C(H;tinn of the former is a jpii->,'h' which pro- 
duces sjdivatinii. Water distilled from tlie 
Mowers is a stimulant nieiliciiieaiid .1 ]>erl'inm'. 
Tlie powdered see<ls of jV. A'rtAi are usetl in 
(tphthnhuia, the milk in inflammation ut tlie 
ear and ciuijunetivitis. 

ini'-na(l). >'■ [l^t., from Gr. ^m (MUJn).] A 
(.iiei'k coin and weight. As a weight it was 
i-.iual to 100 di-achma', or \o oz. 8;i} i;''a">«- 
As a piece of money, the Attic mina was also 
eipial to 100 drachmas or £4 Is. yd. sterling; ; 
the ^l^inetan mina, to £0 14s. 7d. Sixty 
iiiime went to the talent. 

zni-na (2), mi -no. my-nah. 5. (Nativf 

tirxUh.: Ci-tu-iila reUgiosa. IGracula.] 
mlna-bird, 5. [Misa (2) ] 

• min'-a-'ble, n. [Eng. minf, v., -able.] Cap- 
al'l"'or'liein*inuned ; titorsuitalde for nnniny. 

■•He Ifgaii U> uinkTiiiiiie it (t1ii<liiii; the eiutli ivll 
jiImjuL Vfiy miimbhl.'—.Vurth: I'tulitriti, p. US. 

mi-na-ccio §6 (ccl as ^h\ (nh: [Ital.] 
M,i:>ic ; In a luonacing, threateninj^ manner. 

* mi-na'-ciOllS. «. (Lat. minai (genlt. Diimi- 
lis), IV'tm minor = to threaten; wu'we = 
llneats.] Threatening, menacing-. 

"A luvsteriuns ;ii»I minacioitt iiuuouuceuieiit," — 
Cliiinh Timirn, i'vU. Si, I9!il 

" mi-na^'-i-t^, s. [Lat. viinax (gf'nit. mimi- 
citt) = threatening.] A disposition to use 
threat.s or menaces. ■=!.■ .-^ - --r^ — r- — -tt- 

nun -a-ret, .^. fSp. 

Ul.l /M(,-''f . , fVl'lIl 

Aral>. .iin/MM.if, 
mu H dr = a liyli t - 
; house, a ndtiarrt. 
: I'om 7;ia r = t n 
shine; Fr. viiiion!.] 
Arch.: A lofty 
slender turret on a 
iiiosfiue. It lisfs 
liy dirt'erent stasis 
fir stories, sni- 
rounded l»y one nr 
nun-e projeetin.!,' lat- 
conies, from wliith 
the muezzin (q.v.) 
summons the peo- 
I>le to pi-ayers at certain houi-s of the day. 

" Qi'iuk na the wunl— thej* seized him eiicli ;i torch, 
-f*ml lire the duuie frwm uthutn-t to \tunli.' 

ilyron : Cttftuit\ ii. 5. 

min-ar'-gent, s. [En^. (ahi)min{lvm); I«it. 
i-riifiii(inn} = silver.] A kind of aluiuinium 
lnoiizr, oiinsistiny; of copper, 1,000; nickel, 
To I ; tun;^sten, oo ; alununium, 10. 

" nkin-a-tor'-i-al, *■'. fHat. viiiuitorins = 

iiiiiial'iiy ('i-v.) ] "Minatory, threatening. 

* nun-a-t6r'-i-al-ly,^''c. [Eng. viiuatoritiJ ; 
-///.] in a minatory or threatening manner; 

" min'-a-tor-i-lj^, odv. [Eng. vnnatnrit ; -ly.] 
Til a 'jinnatory manner ; with tlireats or 


t min'-a-tor-y, n, [Lat. viinatorius, from 
nil lU'tii's, ]ia. jiai', of juidor = to tlireaten ; 
Ital. mhuitorio.] Threatening, menacing. 

"Tlie kiiiK iii:ule II statute liiwliitiiry ftiitl »ihftt',ru. 
tnwfiiils jll^tit■e» i.f itfHce. thut they should duly 
fXeLiiic their (jtHct.'"— /I'iroH : Henry VIJ., p. 73. 

mi-naul', s. [Mosai i..] 

mince, vj. & i. [O. Fr. mincer, from minrc — 
small; cf. A.S. ini)}sian=-Xo become .small, 
to fail, from i^int = small ; O. S., O. H. Ger., 
\' o. Fris. mini; Icel. minin.] 

A, Tifinsitii'e : 

L OrtUnary Lutiguage: 

1. Lit. : To cut into pieces ; to cut or chop 

" A '>nstnr(l. whom the omcie 
Hath doHlitfuUy proiiuuiicea thy tliroat shMll cut, 
And mj'tic'ti It smuis remorse." 

SJiukctp. : Timon o/Atheiti, iv. 3. 

2. Figinv.tivcly : 

(1) To cut .short in speaking; to cut out or 
omit a portion or ]>art of for the purpose 

i-f suppressing the truth or extenuating a 


matter; to extenuate; to state imperfectly; 
to jialliate ; to gloss over. 

■■ Tliy liui)e»ty mid love doth Tnincc thin matter. 
MtiiviUb' it llh'ht- ■ ah'tkei/K : Othello. lU. 2. 

*(-) To pronouuee atfectedly ; hence, toaltect, 
to make a i>arade of on the slightest ocuision. 

" Brhulit yund RimiHrrln^' lUiiie, 
WliiMe Idt-e Iwtweeu her lurks pre»Ages miow ; 
Thnt iniiia-M virtue, mid does shnke the hriul 
Ti) he«r of plenBure'jt iiRiiie." iiA«A*««/>. ; liiur, iv. 6. 
II. Ciiolrry: 

1. To chitp or cut up into very line pieces : 
as, To mimr meat. 

* 2. To carve. (Used only of certain birds.) 

" llre-ik tlutt goose, frust Unit ehitkeii. ejioil thnt 
hell, !Si»Ufc that ea[»ou. inince llwt xdovei. — Aiiiy / 
Arf of Cookery, let. 6. 

B* Intransitive : 

1. To talk with affected elegance ; to speak 
with affectation. 

"(Hlsl m(/i((H7 dirtlect Hlwiiiida 
111 huuiM Jiud hiUia ;uid hHlf-formed bouiuU." 
J,l"i/U : KpiiUc to J. IS.. />/. 

' 2. To make short, small steps ; to walk in 
a prim and aflected manner; to affect delicacy 
in walking. 

•■ Wnlkliig and mhtciny as they go."— Tsiiialt iii. 16. 

mlnce-meat, minced meat, ^. 

I. Litcralbj: 

1. Meat chopped line. 

2. A sweetiueat eomiiound of suet, beef, 
raisins, currants, peel, and apples, chopped 
up line. 

II. Fig. : Very fine or small pieces ; as, lie 
was cut into mince-mcat. 

mlnce-pie, minced pie» i. A pie made 
of mince-meat. 

min^e, 5. [Mixce, r.] 
1. Lit. : Minced meat. 

* 2. Fig. : Affected manner. 

"To see thee yoiig yet maungeso thine ai-mes. 
Uiiveu iiierL-iii'iiill tnincc. mid martial I hHUds." 
Daniel: A i'tinieniiiiu In J'rini:c Jl-jiiri/. 

mm9ed, j'ft. j!>rtr. & 0. [Mince, r.] 
A. -Is jMt. pttr. ; (See the verb). 
S* As (uljective : 

1. Lit. : Chopped or cut up into very fine 
- 2. Fig. : Affected. 

"A Hitiiceti mail."— .S/». .■ TroUu^A Cressida. i. 2. 

minced-coUops»^'^. IMiuced beef, minced 


nunc'-ing, * mync-ynge, j^r. iHic, «., & s. 

[MlNCK, v.] 

A. As'jir. jxfr. : (See the verb). 

B. As adject ice: 

L Lit. : Chopping or cuttiugiiito verj- fine 
*IL Figunttively : 

1. Speaking or walking affectedly ; affected. 

'■ With the mincing Dryades." 

.MittMii . Comut, 9M. 

2. Affected aflectedly elegant. 

"I'll turn two mincin-j steps, 
luto a manly stride,"' 

A'Artfa'sp. .■ Merchant of Venice, iii. \. 

C. As substantive : 

I, lit. : The act of chopping or cutting into 
very line pieces. 

" Ml-nciTiq of meat, as In iiies . . ■ SAveth the 
griudiui; o( the teetli. "— fiacon .- Sat. Hist., § 54 

n. Figuratively : 

1. The act of extenuating, palliating, or 
glossing over a matter ; the suppression of 
part of anything. 

" Ami therfoie shall the comuieu i>eople take im 
liariiie. thouv'h themselfe cumeniilivr trtasi'ii or 
liereaye, full iH.t by siiche bookea to the myncyngv of 
suche maltera,'* — Sir T. More : Workes, p. 9S4. 

^ 2. The act or habit of speaking or acting 
affectedly ; affectation. 

" Which gifU 
(Saving your mincing) the capacity 
Of your soft uheveril coiiseieiiee would receiA-e." 
Shukesf- ■ Nfitry VIJ/., ii. 3. 

mincing -knife, 5. A knife with a curved 
blade nr lihnbs tor mincing meat and fruit 

in a wiiodeii liuwl. 

mincing-macliine, s. a machine for 
chopping In. Ill into small li-agments; a 

''min5'-ing-l3^, (ca*. [Eng. mincing; -ly.] ^ 
1. In little parts ; imperfectly, not fully. 

" Justice recniireth nothing minciugty. Init all with 
pre<tsed and heaped, and eveuover-enlai-ged measure." 
—Uo''kcr: Aw/ti- /'vHty 

2. Ill an affected manner ; with affectation : 

■■ To her dear mothrr'B ht-eaat. as mincinQJy sh© 
triii;i-!.." Jtrnytuu : J'uly-Oll/iuH, § 27. 

mind. ' mynd, *mynde, 5. [A.'ti. gemymi 
= memory, lumd, thought, fnmi m»(um = 
to think, (/eHi»7M(it = to remendier ; cogn. with 
Icel. Hiuuii = memory, from ?aH(ia = to re- 
member; Dan. 7atJ«/c = memory ; Goth, gam- 
mumfs, f/rnat'nMi = remembrance, fi'om gam- 
itiiau = to remember; I^t. HU'»s(gen. mentis) 
— mind, mcmini = to remember ; Lith. mintis 
(in comp. isz-»tiH^s = intelligence, from min- 
€ti = to think; Riiss. j«[-mm/e= memory, 
]W-m}) itc =^ to rememl)er ; Gr. h^to; (metit^) = 
wisdom, titfo'i (mcnos) = the mind ; iSansc. 
mauas = the mind, man = to tliink.] 
I. Ordinary Language: 

1. The intelligent power in man ; that power 
by which lie conceives, jiulges, reasons, wills, 
imagines, reuRMnbers, or performs any other 
inttdlectnal operation ; the understanding, 
the intellect, the soul. 

" I au) H very foolish, foud old timii ; 
I fear I am imt iu luy perfect tnintt." 

:ihttke»ii. : Lvai; iv, 7. 

2. Intellectual capacity. 

"Tweie stnuiye in nuler rank to fiud 
Such louka, ^iicli uianiierd, and such mind." 
IScoU : Lady of tfte Lake. i. 30. 

3. A disposition ; a cast of thought or feel- 
ing; sentiments. 

" that you liOre the mind that I do." 

Shakesp. : 7'- luf.est, ii. L. 

4. Reflection, thoughts, contemplation. 

" Your 7iUnil is tossing on the ocean." 

.Vuikcs/i. : .flercJiaut of Venice, i, L 

0. Recollection, memory, remembrance. 

" Live iu the awe-struck mindi of men," 

Moiire : Fire- H'urgltip iters. 

6. That which a pei'son thinks; thoughts, 

*' He tells you flatly what his mind is." 

."ihakexp. : Taming of the ahrew, i, 2. 

7. Will, desire, intention, purpose. 

" Tu vou iiur minds we will unfold." 

.shiikcufi. : Jlidmimmer .Yight's lircam, i. 1. 

8. Inclination, disposition. 

" For the people had a iniiid to work,"— .Veftciiiih 
iv. c. 

9. Courage, spint. 

?I(1) To he in tico minds : To be in doubt, to 

(2) To have half a miwi : To be half inclined 
to ; to be pretty well disposed to. 

(:i) To put in mind: To recall to one's re- 
collection ; to remind. 

" It were well the general were pat in mind of it." 

Sluiki-sii. : OthfUo. ii. 3. 

* (4) To make mind : To record, to make 

" As the hokes muken mynde." 

liuuier: C. A., vii. 

II. I'sychoL : In popular language mind is 
sometimes used as opposed to heait. Meta- 
]iliysicians of the normal type, as a rule, con- 
tradistinguish it not from heart, but only 
from matter or body. They regard it as i>os- 
sessing emotions as well as intellectual powers ; 
the former manifesting themselves in feeliny, 
the latter in thought. Its existence is sup- 
posed to be established liy the consciousness 
of the thinking individual, one notable school 
of psychology consideiing that it is not mind 
but external nature, the existence of which 
can be doubted. Till about the middle of the 
present century, mind was almost nniversjilly 
held to be jiossessed by none of the inferior 
animals ; any api»arent intelligence on their 
part was attributed to instinct. Herbert 
Spencer led the way in introducing new views 
on the sulijeet. Availing himself not merely 
of the metal ihysicians' chief mode of inquirj', 
liis own consciousness, but of the facts ac- 
cumulated by jihysicists and phy.siologists, he 
considered that in the case of each ainni!!! 
ot^anism on earth, from the humble monad 
to man, there is an incessant interaction be- 
tween the organism and its enviromuent ; a 
continuous adjustment of its internal to its 
4'xternal relations, the magniticent liumaii 
unilei-standing itself having resulted from 
their interaction or atljustinent carried on 
through limitless ages. Following iu the same 
direction, Mr. Danvin declared that the intel- 
lect and even tlie moral powers of man did 
not differ in kind, though very greatly in de- 
gree, from the rudiments of them exliibiteu 
by the lower animals. Not denying the latter 
instincts, he sought to estiblish that they had 
reason too, and that the sujieriority was the 
result chiefly of natural selection carried on 

fate, fat. fare, amidst, what, fall, father ; we, wet, here, camel, her, there ; pme, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, pot, 
or, wore, wolf, work, who. son ; mute. cub. ciire. unite, cur, rule, full ; try, Syrian, se, ce = e ; ey = a ; qu = Uw. 

mind— mineral 

tliroiiixli ciisiuif periinlsof tiiiu'. Both .if th.-s ■ 
aiitJii;<MiisTic scliuols of tliDUyht have thL'ir 
w.iiiii ;i(lviicates. 

Tlind. v.f. & i. [A.S. dcmyndgiaii ~ to rv- 
imiiiltcr.] (Mind, s.] 

A. Tnnisitivf : 

1. Til lix the thouf;hts on ; to atU-tut in ; tc 
ruyanl with attention ; to heed. 

" Let us iuiml the SRiiitt tiling."— /'A(7i>;jitiii< iii. W. 

2. Tti remind ; to put in mind. 

'• Nut tlieii inistiust, but tender love, enjoins, 
Thnt I aliouM luiitil tliee uft : lunt iniiul thou nte." 
Milton: P. /. , i\. :i5S- 

3. To attend to ; to heed ; to take notice (if; 
to care for. 

" You »Io not -mind the l>lny." 

Shaken/i.: Tamitiff of tha SJtrew. I 1. 

4. Tn liave in the mind; to think of; to re- 
nienibrr. (I'rovhirint.) 

"5. To intend ; to design ; to ptn-pose ; tn 

C. To take care of; to look after : as, Tu 
viiml a house. iCoUoqitial.) 

B. Intiviisitive : 

1. To heed ; to care : as, He does not mind. 
*9.. To intend; to design; to purpose; to 
have in mind. 

•' I shortly miiirf to leave you." 

,Sliake»p.: 'i Jlenry I'/.iv.. 1. 

3. To rememher ; to recollect. (Scotch.) 

mind -ed, f. [Eng. mind, s. ; -ed.] 

1. Disposed, inclined; liaving a desire or 

"Joseiih . . . was Tniiided to put her awiiy 
\ri\.i]y:~.v,inheie i. li>. 

2. Having a disposition or mind ; now only 
in cniiipoHition. 

"If nil were mincl€<l so. the times should cease." 

Shakcsp. : Honnet 11. 

*mind-ed-iiess. .'?. [Eng. minded; -ncs.'^.] 
The .[u;ilit>' or state of being minded or dis- 
pMs.'d ; dispnsition, inelination ; only in coni- 

mind'-er, s. [Eug. mind : -cr.]' 

1. One wlio minds or luolis after any person 
or thing. 

"2. An oi-plian entru.sted by a poor-law 
board to tlie care of a private person. 

min-der-er'-us, >■. [Latinised from Miuderer, 

uli.i liist .•\hibit.'.l it. (.Vcyitf.)] (See etym.) 

mlndereri-spiritus, s. 

i'hi'nti. : Acetate of annnonia solution. 

mind'-ful. n. [Eng. m/Hr?, s. ; -/»?(/).] Atten- 
tive, heedful ; having memory ; remembering. 
" Mhnlfitl of Cyclops ami his hutnnu foml." 

J\tl»i : Jtoiiter ; Otlysm-t/ X. 22,i. 

1 Mindful respects that wliich we wisli 
fioni otheis ; rt-'jardfid respects that which 
in itself demands regaid or serious thought; 
ohserrant respects both that whicli is com- 
ninnicated, or that which carries its own 
obligatitpus with itself. 

* mind -ful-ly, f'dt\ [Eng. miiiA^fid; -li/.] 
In a iiiiridhd niaiuier ; attentively, heedfully. 

* mind'-ful-ness* .^ [Eng. mimlpd : -ness.] 
Tlie quality nv state of being mindful ; atten- 
tion, lieed, regard. 

" '.'here wns no mlnd/alnesst mnoucst them of run- 
niny nwnic' —1/olhtsheU : JIi«t. hntj.Jaw. 1010.) 

mlnd'-mg, -pr. jjar., o. & s. [Mind, v.] 

A. ."^ B, As -pw -par. d; partici}). adj. : (See 
the \erli). 

C. An siihst. : The act or state of heeding 
or piiying attention; heed, care, reganl. 

■■ riie Imsi »iu.,j;,(,;.jf tliviiii. List thiuiw."— .?*> 7". 

' minding -school, s. A house in wliich 
mitiilers ait- kept. IMinl>cr, 5., 2.] 

mind-less, ^mind-lesse,a. [Eng. viind, a. ; 

1. Destitute of a mind ; not endowed with 
a mind. 

"Oml first made angela bodiless, pure minds ; 
Then utLei' tbinipf, which uiinUlasg hotlics he " 

Otivks: Immort. of Ok: Soul. 

* 2. Stupid, dull, nuthinking, silly. 

" A gross lout, a tnhullfgt slave," 

aittikfup. : Winter's TaJe. i. -2. 

' 3., heedless, regardless, furget- 
ful, unmindful, inattentive. 

*■ Min'Hrng of finiil. or love, whose idensiu? reigu 
Suulhes Weary life, luid sdfteiis hiniuiu I'.ini?" 

J'o/'f.- IJ;iin-r; J/r,U \\\\. \f.r.. 

'mind-sicU. ' mind sicke,". [Ktv'.nimf, 
and ><'■!..] I)i.s..rden-d tn tlie mtelleet. 

" M.'uiie L-uriou^ iniittinick'- iiermma utterlie curi- 
dentue it. — //y/fiiaAtrii .■ ih:ti:riiit. Kii-j., bk. 11,. eli. L 

mino, ' min,«(. or j>oss. pmn. [A.S. min, from 
min, gfiiit. case of the 1st pers. jtron. ; cogn. 
with Goth. ?fwiHS= mine, from 7?t*?tiw(, genit. of pers. jn-on. ; O. Sax., O. Fris., & O. H. 
Ger. will ; Dan. & S\v. min ; Icei. minn ; Dut. 
mijn ; Ger. mcin. My is a shortened form uf 
min^.] Belonging to me ; my. (Mv.] 

"Wherefore klcke ye at my sairilice and nt mi»o 
ofTering. which I have commiiuded r "— I Ham. ii. •2u. 

*\ Mine was formerly used regularly before 
words hegiiniing with a vowel ur silent h, my 
liefore words In-ginning with a consonant. 
Mine is, however, m)t now used ailjecti\ely 
with nouns except in poetry, its place being 
taken by my. Mine is undl absolutely or inde- 
l)endently, like tldnf, his, yours, &c.,"aiid may 
SL-rvi- cither as a nominative or an objective: 
as, This is mine ; look at mine. 

mine, '' myne, ■'. [Fr. mine, from Low Lat. 
mina; Sp., Port, &. Ital. mina.] [Mini:, v.] 
L Ordinary Langmtgc: 

1. LitcrnUy: 

(1) A subterraneous passage from which 
coal, metals, and metallic ores are obtained. 

" \Vliii3e viitue shiues 
Oil hills, when briijliten i)lauetfi are abroad : 
Thine privately, like niiuers' lamps in miiii-»." 

Iktvenant : Ooiidibert. iii. 5. ' 

(2) Crude irnnstone, known as raw-mine, 
green-»i(i(f, burnt-?)ii»i.', &c. 

2. Fifj. : A source or store of wealth or 
anything precious. 

" They are a rii:h mhte. which the Greatest wit and 
dili^'erice may dig iu for ever." -Houth: Sermons, vol. 
iii., Mer. 6. 

II. Fort. : An excavation toward or under 
the ranipartof a fortress to contain an explo- 
si\e charge, to destroy or etfect a breach in an 
enemy's works. The place of deposit is the 
chamber, and the pa.ssage leading thereto the 
gallery. Military mines are known a.s, com- 
mon ; double ; triple ; defensive, or counter- 
mines; ott'ensive ; eon,iuiict (several acting 
simultaneously); suffocating, or camoutk't ; 
underchargfd (producing a crater whose radius 
is less than the line of least resistance) ; and 
overcharged or surcharged (producing a cratei- 
whose radius is greater than the line of least 

"He called to hyni his myiiers. to thyntent thnt 
they shnld make a mj/nc vnder all the wallea.'— flt-j-. 
ners: Frumurt ; Croni/clc. \o^ i., ch. cix. 

mine-captaln, :)\ The overseer of a 

mine-chamber, 5. The place of deposit 
of the charge. 

mine-dial, -'^. A kind of magnetic com- 

p;iss used by miners. 

* mine-digger, s. A miner. 
'^ mine-man, .s. A nuner. 

"The mh>.-->acii ^\u not find auy thing of tliat 
niet-il,"— iio,v/L' ; Wurks, iii. 9'J. 

mine, myne, v.i. & t. [Fr. miner, from 
Low JjUt. mino = to conduct, to lead along a 
lode or vein of metal; Ital. mvnare ; Sp. & 
Port, minar.l 

A. Intransitive: 
I. Literally : 

1. To dig a mine or pit in the earth, for the 
] either of obtaining minerals or i)f 
depositing gunjjowder or other explosive ma- 
terial to blow up anything. 

"The enemy miiieil. and they countermined." — /.'«- 
h-i-jh : Hint. World, bk. v., ch. iii.. 5 n>. 

2. To form a burrow or hrde in the earth hy 
scratching; to form a subten-aneous tunnel, 
gallery, or liole ; to burrow. 

"^ II. Fig. : To practise secret or undei-hand 
means of doing iiyury. 

" The rival battel's anil the lover inines." 

Johngt.ui: Vanity of Human Withes, 'asi. 

B, Transitive : 

1. Lit.: To dig away or remove the .sub- 
stratum or foundation from ; to undermine. 

" Rank corruption, ininiiiff all within. 
Infects uuseen." Shakesp. : f/andet. iii. 4. 

2. Fig. : To sap ; to destroy hy undei-hand 
or slow degrees ; to ruin by secret or in- 
sidious means; to undermine. 

* mine'-a-We, «. [Eng. mine, v.; -obk.] The 
same as'MiNABLE (q.v.). 

"Generall Nnrris hauing . . '. . found one idace 
thereuf mine-ihir did piesently set wurkmeii ill uaiul 
\-\i\i:\\\: —llitrkluyt : Voyages. li. 14(J. 

mine loss, ". [Eng. mine; -IrAH.] DeMtilute 
ot a mini- or mines ; wllhuuta mine. 

" MaieUvt make their tumbling wain ^l yield ' 

Syltwtler: Litttn liartat. i<A. 

• mln-o-on, .s. [Miniun.J 

min'-er, * min'-our, s. [Fr. minenr.\ 
I. I.itnalhj; 

1. One who digs or mines for minernls or 
me tills. 

"The »ii/ifl)'*are out of danger of dniniw when they 
come to water."— /.''i,v.- 0» thv Vn-atioit. pt. 1. 

2. One who forms mines under the walls of 
a fort, town, &c. 

* II. Ft//. : One who tries to iiyure by 
underiiand-or secret means. 

" A-* thi' bomlianli^r levels Ids mischief at cities, 
tbv i.thier I.iisif> liMiiisLlf in rulniijc pri\ate huiwe-'*.' — 

miner's-asthma, s. 

I'ltthol. : A kind of ]ilithisis produec^d among 
miners by inluding lamp smoke, and coal dust 
in the pit. Called also Carbumiceous Bron- 
chitis and lilaek Phthisis. 

min'-er-al, * mm -er-all, ' myn-er-al, 

s. & II. (Fr. miui-rni, from miner = to mine ; 
Sp. minvnd ; Hal. minerale.] 

A* As snbstautire: 

I. Ordinary Lanijnage: 

1. Ill the same sense as II. 

* 2. A mine. 

" Like some ore 
Amoug a inincral uf meUils ba.'*e.* 

tifutkffif. : JInmlet. iv. 1. 

IL Mincmlogy, Geology, Petrology, tC*;. ; 
^ 1. Gen. : Any stony substance, homoge- 
neous or the reverse, constituting part of tlie 
earth's crust. The term was ai>plied both to 
, minerals in sense 2 and to i-ucks. 

"AH stones, iiietiils, and mhitfrah are real vet'c 
tjibles ; that Is. gruw oi-ganicjilly ivt-iu [iruiier need-, iis 
wellaa plantB."— AocAn." p:icmeids Xat. IIt»t. ,t:h. viu. 

2. .^pec. : An inoi-gjuiic body, homogeneous 
in structure, and having a detinite chenueal 
composition. It is sometimes called a simple 
mineral, and is distinguished from a rock, 
whieh in nmst cases is an aggregate of mure- 
siniide minerals than one. 

B. Astidjvclire: 

1. Pertaining to or consisting of minerals. 

" The lufty lines abound with endless store 

Of "i«'/«-i-.(/ treasure." St'ivktnure: Crvittimt. iii. 

2. Impregnated with minerals or mineral 
matter : as, mineral waters. 

^ -Arineial-adipocti-e. Mineral - tallow — 
Ih' ; Miiicral-caoutchouc — Ehdirit'' : 
Mineral-oil =Si'phthn and Vetrolenm; Mmeral- 
\niii\i — I'lttiisphnH and As^thdtnm; MiiieiaU 
resin = .-Iw6cr, Andfrttc, Anthrncoxenite, Ifn- 
C'lrnnmugitr, Cijxtlite, l)o}}pli;rite, Dysodtli', 
Ifircife, Krantzitr, Middhdnnitc, Pyroretinitt-, 
P.fussinite, Ilcjchhdrrifv, ."^rldnnUe, Sderetinit.; 
SI'uu'}:ife,T<tsini'uite,iind H'alchoivitc ; Miiieral- 
t:\v = Pittn.^i-h'tlt. 

mlneral-^cids, .s-. pi. 

Vliem. : Aci'ls of inorganic origin. The term 
is ciiieliy ajiplied to the stronger acids, sid- 
phurie, hydiodiloric, nitric, i>hosphorie, &e. 

mineral -alkali, .->. 

CIu:in. : An old name for soda. 

mineral -black, s. A native oxide of 

mineral-blue, ^. 

Clii'iK. : A teiin sometimes applied to a mix- 
ture of Prussian blue ;ind gyiisum. It pos- 
sesses a light-blue colour. 

mineral- candles, s. pi Candles mnde 
of jiaralhn obtained trom the native bitu- 

mineral'Caoutchouc, s (Elatekitf-I 

mineral carbon, s. 

M'iik: The .same as Mineh.ii.-chaiko.m- 

mineral- chameleon, s 

Chein. : Pot;issium niangaiiate. When it is 
dissuh'cd in water, its solution, at lirst green, 
]»asses gradually through all the coloured rays 
to the red. These changes of colour are very 
remarkable, and have procured for the iiian- 
ganate its pojuilar name. 

mineral-charcoal, s. 

Mi'i. : A siift. lilii-ons, chareoal-like variety 
of (■.'.il I..U111I in laviTs in nuneral-cual, and 
usually kno«u as mother-coal. 

boii, boy ; pout, jowl : cat, cell, chorus, ghin, bcngh ; go, gem ; thin, this : sin, as ; expect, Xenophon. exist, -ing. 
-cian, -tian = sban. -tion, -sion = shun ; -tion, -sion = zhun. -cious, -tious, -sious — shus. -blc, -die, v^^c. = bel, dei. 


mineralist— ming 

mineral coal, 5. 

.W.,,. ; AiiuiiKa.ioiit'.a by Dana for the whole 
f xhv tim* cohIs ; l>y olhtis ii;gaiUwl as a 
s>nuii>Hi of aiitiimrite (<;.v.). 

mineral cotton. <. A fibre formed l»y 
allowing; a jtt ot sttum t<» esrapi' Ihroiigli u 
.stream c.f li.iuiil sing, by wliirh it in bluwn 
iiitu line wlitte thri-aiU, sonictinios Iwo or 
three feet in leiiyth. These DueaiU rcntlily 
l:rtak up inlo siinilK'r ones, an»l. the coh^ur »i' 
the substance bi-ing white, tlie iippearanee is 
tliat of ft mass uf cotton, lleinj; a i-oor con- 
iliictor uf heat, owiny; to the retention nf ;iir 
111 its intei-stices, it is used as a covering f«tr 
st.Miii-lK'ilers ;uul pipes. 

mineral-green, .«. IScheele's cjueen.] 

mineral-lndlgo, «. 

i-lu,n. : A t.rniiipplie<lby Keller to the TtUie 
oxi.le uf niolylj.leiuim. foriiie<l by the reducing 
action of tin or stJinnons chloritle on reeeutly- 
precipitated niolybdic acid, (ii'atts.) 

mineral kermes. ^s. 

(Vr. j/i. ; Aiii.'ii'li')usinsulphide of antimony. 

mineral-kingdom. ^«. 

Xitt. Srimre: The rendering of the Latin 
words UfjKHDi iMp'ulcuin, used by Linmeus in 
his .Sij.stema XatHrin for the "stony" or in- 
organic kingdom of Nature. He included 
under it simple minerals, as miai ; rocks, lus 
^'ranito ; and fossils, as MiUepora. 

mineral-oils. ?. pi. [Petroleum ] 

mineral pitch, s. [Bitimes.] 

mineral-purple, s-. A preparation of 
-III and till ustd l..r eidnuring glass and por- 
celain. Called also the Purple of Cassius. 

mineral-salt. ^<. 

Ch'.'ii. : The salt ff a niineial acid. 
mineral- solution. 5. Arsenical liquor 

mineral-surveyor, s. A surveyor of 
mines ; one \vln> is versed iu the nature, value, 
and working of lodes. 

mineral-tar, s. Bitumen of a tarry con- 

mineral -veins, >. pi. [Veins.] 

mineral-waters, ^. ph 

1, CI" Ki. : Waters so far impregnated with 
mineral matter as to give them ii peculiar taste 
or smell, and speeilie medicinal properties. 
They are usually divided into four classes— 
carbonetted, or those containing free carbonic. 
acid gas; chalybeate, or those impregnated 
with iron ; saline, such as contain considerable 
tpiantities of neutral sidts, ;is sulphate of 
magnesia, chloride of .sodium, &c. ; and sul- 
phurous, or watei-s containing sulphuretted 
hydrogen. The sulphurous waters are readily 
retrogiiised by their disngrtealile smell, and 
their property of Uirnishinu' silver. Artificial 
mineral waters are frequently prepared in the 
laboratory, in imitation of the natural waters. 
The term mineral waters is also applied to 
artitirial aerated waters, contiuning minute 
quantities of tlie salts of soda, potash, or lithia. 

2. deol. : Xatui-ul nutieral watei-s are gene- 
ra'.Iy connected with recent ^r extinct volea- 
Il(H■"^^, and they are most connnon iu volcanic 
regii'Us. Some are thennul. 

mineral-'vrax. s. 

Min. : A name applieil to Jjcheererite and 
to the wax-like minerals of the PaiiiJtin group. 
(Para t FIX, 2.] 

mineral-yellow, s. 

Clitiii. : A term i»oiiietimes apjdied to the 
yellow oxychlorides of lead, used as pigments. 
Sometimes called Patent yellow. 

* min'-er-al-ist, .*. [Em:, miiurfd ; -isf.) One 
skilled in liiinerals ; a mineralogist. 

min-er-al-i-za'-tion, s. [Eng. «u?ifm/i2(e),- 
-'(ti'in.\ *Theact or proeess of mineralizing; 
the process or state of being converted into a 

min'-er-al-ize. v.t. & i. [Eng. niiiitral ; -izc] 
A. Tiniis. ; To convert into a mineral ; to 
give mineral (lualities or properties to ; to ini- 
jTegnale with mineral substances or matter. 
Water cont lining c;Ucarcons or siliceous 
matter in sohition can replai-e decaying ani- 
mal or vegetable matter lying at the bottom 
or flitating, by substituting for them calca- 

reons or -siliceous matter, the latter es|>ecially 
redlining not merely the extern. d and internal 
cast of a sliell. but even the medullary rays of 
exogenous wo«>d. 

B, Intfuns. : To make excursions for the 
purpose of eoUecting siK'cimens of minerals ; 
to go on mirieralogical excursions. 

min-er'al-is-er, .":. lEng. minemlisie); -er.} 
A substance which lias the power or property 
of mineralizing : a sulistauce which combines 
with ft metal to form an ore. 

min-er-a-log'-xc, min-er-a-log ic-al, 

K. (Eng. >uui':iv!n,,(,,): -tV. -io'.l.] Of or per- 
taining to minenilogy, or the science of min- 

•' Mhclilof tloiu- to a Iwivutifnl object u«r tills plnce 
l)y nuiuc mincnih^jkal Uninots."—»oiUhe^ : Lettert. 
:\. i;Jl. 

mxn-er-a-l6g -ic-al-ly. adv. [Eng. mUi- 
rrolnpiml: 4y.\ According to the principles 
of mineralogy ; with reference to mineralogy. 

min-er-al'-O-gist, s. [Eng. mtnemlog{ii) ; 
-i.^f : Fr. iiLinrral'iijhte ; Sp. & Ital. vumndo- 

1. Ord. Lan'j. : One who is versed in miner- 
alogy ; one who treats or discourses on the 
nature and properties of minerals. 

"Tliei-e [lii-el h1»o nmiiv authure that deuy it, ami 
tlie exacteat tmncrat-ifiiitA have reiected \i."— Browne: 
I'lili/fir Hi'rourt, bk. ii., eh. i. 

2. Zool. : A name given by collectors to tlie 
gasteropodous molluscs of the genus Phorus 
(q.v.), which attach stones to the margin of 
their shells. (S. /'. Woodward.) 

min-er-al'-6-gize, v.i. [Eng. muieralogdi) ; 
-trv.l To collect or study minei-als. 

" He was Iwtaiiiziiigor ntiiteriUo;tiziiifi with O'Tuole's 
chaplain." — .Vi«s t'dgvworth: £nnui, ch. \i. 

min-er-al'-O-g^, s. [Eng. mineral, and Gr. 
Aoyo5 (hufo:^) = ii. discourse, 3 treatise; Fr. 
miacrahijit: ; Ital. & Sp. viineralogUt.] 

Xat. Iflst. : A science treating <^f those natu- 
ral inoi-ganic products of tlie earth which pos- 
sess dehnite physical and chemical chanictei's. 
Its objects are to point out the various means 
tn be adopte«l t<i ascertain the chemical com- 
position and jiliysical characters of inorganic 
subst;inces, to determine tlieir specific rela- 
tiuus, to examine into their modes of occur- 
rence, and their associations, with a view to 
establishing a systematic dassili cation. 

Simple minerals appear to have been known 
from very early tinier ; but little or no pro- 
gress, however, seems to have been made 
towards establishing any well-detined char- 
acters by which they could be recognised, 
till in 1009 Nicolaus Steno, a Dane, made 
the discovery that iu crystals of quartz the 
angles of inclination of adjoining faces were 
constant, and that the number of faces and 
their grouping, imtwithstanding vaiiations in 
size, were always the same. In this year also 
the doubly -refracting proi)erty of Iceland ^>par 
was observed. In 1072, quartz, which Iiud 
been alreatly designated by the Arabiims 
crystai(clear ice), was shown by Robert Boyle 
to be heavier than an eipial bulk of water by 
more than two to one, ice being bidk for 
bulk lighter than water. In 177*2 Rome de 
risle announced tluit the various shapes of 
crystals of the same product were intimately 
related. He showed that all the forms then 
knowii could lie derived from one of six, 
which he called ]irimitive forms. The Abbe 
Haiiy in 17S4 dis<-overe<l that ten forms, in- 
cluding the six of de I'lsle, could be pro- 
duced from various minerals by cleavage, and 
that these must be the true primitive forms. 
Haiiy also iiropoundcd a theory of the struc- 
ture" of crystals, as to the relations of the 
secondary j'lanes to those of the primitive 
form. Prof. Weiss, of Berlin (1S09-1S15), es- 
tablished fundamental lines, which he called 
axes, and to which he showed liow all the 
primitive forms and secondaiy planes were 
related. Subsequently, though indepeiidentlv. 
Mohs (lS-iU-l825) arrived at a division i.f 
crystals into four systems of crystallization 
which coincided with the four axial gmups of 
Weiss. He also anmmnced two other systems 
of crystallization, in consequence of mure ]»ri'- 
cise measurements being obtainable by the use 
of the reflective goniometer. The di.scovery by 
Mains in 180S that a ray of ordinary light re- 
flected at a certain angle from a glass plate pos- 
sessed the .<tame properties as that which em- 
erged from Iceland Spar, enabled Brewster in 
1819 to point out the intimate relation which 

existed between the cleavage form of a nunerai 
and its action upon light. Brewster's clussi- 
tlciition of crvstals on optical grounds agreed 
with that of Weiss and M.-hs on geometrical 
ones, with the exception of two of the systems. 
The existence of the two additional systems 
of crystallization formerly announceil by 
Mohs was, however, now established through 
their ditference in optical characters from the 
other systems. Thus, six natural systems of 
cry.-itJiHizatiou are shown to include all possible 
cryst;d forms. The early attempts at cla.ssili- 
cation were very vague, ami were founded on 
supposed external ditlerenres, being divided 
into Earths, Stones, and .Metals. Cronstedt's 
}w^sii'il\7'}S) was the (irst fore.'ihadowing of ft 
primiple in a system of classihcation. The 
earths he classed as Calcareous, Siliceous, 
Argillaceuiis, and so ou. Werner's last system, 
published in 1S17, after his death, <livided 
lossils (as minerals were then called) into 
four classes : viz. , Earthy, Saline, Combustible, 
and Metallic. The system of Haiiy (ISOl), 
like that of Werner, was a mixed one, but it 
was the first to direct attention to the im- 
portance of crystallographic form to a system 
of classiflcatio'n. In ISIO Berzelius pnblishetl 
a system founded on the view that all 
chemical compounds consisted of an electro- 
positive and an electro-negative pait, the 
former being the metal and the latter the 
acid. The discovery of isomorphism by 
Mit^cherlich eventually rendered this system 
unworkable. In 1820 Mohs published his 
Xutural H'uitory System of Miiiemlo'jy, in which 
the chemical composition was ignored, and 
the arrangement leased on crystalline form 
(together with cleavage), hardness, and ipe- 
ciHc gravity. Molis selected a suite of ten 
minerals, which lie numbered in their order of 
increasing hardness, and willed it the Scale of 
Hardness, so that that quality in a mic-ral 
could be designatea by 3, 4-5, &,c. This .scale 
is still eniidoyed. [Hardness, II. :i.| The 
most peifect but mixed system is that pub- 
hshed by Gustav Rose iu 1S52. It combines 
a chemical with a crystallographic arrange- 
ment. In this system natural groups of 
minerals, also the isomorphons, diinorphoua, 
and trimorphous series, are brought together. 
It forms the basis of the systems t*f arrange- 
ment adopted iu many large collections at the 
present time. 

llE-ner'-va, s. [Lat., from the same root as 
iiieas = miiul, vicniiiti — to remember, &.C.] 

Rom. Mythol. : The Latin goddess corre- 
sponding to, and frequently confounded with, 
the Grecian Pallas or Athene (q.v.). At Rome 
she had three temples : one on the Capitol, 
which she shared with Jupiter and Juno ; a 
second on the Avcntine ; and a third on the 
Cielian mount. She was represented as a 
young woman, with a grave and noble counte- 
nance, clothed in armour, and having on her 
breast the tegis with a border of serpents, and 
the Medusa's head in the centre. 

Minerva-press, s. 

lilblioij. : The name of a printing-press for- 
merly existing in Leadenhall Street, London ; 
also the name given to a series of ultra-senti- 
mental novels issued from this pre.-^s at the 
close of the eighteenth and the beginning of 
this century. 

* mi-ner'-val, s. [JIinerva.] A gift from a 
scholar to a 'master. 

■• The cliief miiteri'nt which he bestowed upon that 
swiety."—/tackeC : Life qf WUIiuuis. i. 96. 

* min'-er-y, s. [Eng. mine; -ry.) A collec- 
tion or number of mines ; a mining district. 

" But churches, houses, and gitnleiis are free from 
thi» custom of tlieminerj/."—/''uller: Worthict : Derbg' 

mi-nette'. s. [Fr.] 

Petrol. : One of the mica traps. It contains 
magnesium, mica, some free quartz, and some 
hornblende or agate. It occurs In dykes. The 
term miuette is applied especially to the more 
crystalline kinds. Others may be felstones. 
(l.ycIL) A felsitic matrix, containing much 
mica, and sometimes distinct crystals of horu- 
Idende. (VotUt.) 

min'-e-ver, s. [Miniver.] 

'^ ming, * myng. v.t. [A.S. nicngaii.] 

1. To mix, to mingle (q.v.). 

"Tlie Imsybee, Lerhiiuyeuowshe minxes" 

Surrey: Hctcript. uf Spring. 

2. To mention. 

"To minj/ethy father'?. oilUms name." 

//.I'/; Sariv'is. IV. ii. SO. 

fate, fat. f^e. amidst, what, ^11, father ; we, wet. here, camel, her, there : pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, pot, 
or, wore, wolf, work, -vho, son ; mute, cub, ciire, unite, cur, rule, full : try, Syrian, se. oe = e ; ey = a ; qu = kw. 

mingle— mining 


mingle. ^ myn-gell, v.t. & L [A {ve>\. 
tiuiii )liil. Kii;^. iniiKj, tiitfuj niiiiglo, tn 
mix; A.y. memjuii, itieiwijan, mieitijun = tn 
mix, to become mixeil ; cogii. witli Dut. incti'ii ■ 
It n =■ to luinglti ; owycit = to mix; O. Kii.s. 
jH**f;/((t = to mix; Icel. tueinja ; Ger. utcuijin. 
From the same voota^untong, monger, nwngixl.] 

A. Trmisitive : 

1. To mix up together, so as to unite in one 
whole ; to combint!, to compound, to blend. 

" Wc tiike wliit«. imil miifjliwj it witli ivJ, miiku a. 
tliinl (listitiL't oluui'." — A'uufA; Asrumns, vol. vii., 
st;r. I. 

* 1. To mix up ; to confuse. 

"Come on, let va desceiHlf, mid mj/tii/ell tliejT tunije 
eiieu."— <>aft4»u xL (l^^lj 

' 3. To join in society ; to associate. 
"The skipjtiiig kUit; . . ■ 
Jlinyled Ills ri>y;^ty with i^aiieriug fuuls." 

Sttukosp. : 1 Henry J\'., iii. 2. 

* i. To debajic by mixture ; to contaminate. 

B. Intnins. : To be or become mixed, united, 
joined, or associated. 

" But, uh, ima4,'iue Fiite t" liave wiiited long 
^\u hour like this, and iniitgled iu the thruug." 

Otwui/ : W'unUur Cattle. 

*min'-gle, s. [Mingle, v.] A mixture ; a con- 
Itiacd m.iss or body ; a medley. 
With hrazeii din hhist yuu the uitv'ji ear, 
Miike miiigla with our mttliiiy t^iiHiuriues." 

^hakvsi'. : Antony & Clcopan-it, Iv. ?, 

mingle-mangle, 'myngle- 
mangle, •■■. A mrdl-y, a iKiteh-potcii ; a 
ci'uliLSi'd luas.s. 

" Let the luntteTG tliat bnue io times past beue made 
H niin^ife-nutitffle, be allied iiijnytie to tue tme si|Uiire 
ofOod's v/vn\v."—(iurttner : o/ True ObcUicnci:. p. 3J. 

'mingle-mangle, i\t. To confuse; to 
ttialu- a nicilU-y of. 

■■ He fithL-i- U' iiiKniiiLth the l.-vwe, ill that it correct, 
etb Hut fylthiucd. it b;u.-khiteth it :us though it ueiv 
to mucbe mi/iiyle-inuni/leU, aud wiUowyshe."— f<i:('; 
Janiet iv. 

" mingle- mangleness, s. Confusion. 

■■I»i-li v.Mio.ulJst^f id done, which fMroddJiv. 
f'iii'it. -raii(('//f..f-.i,i, ;iiid i lUl-uf-tlie-wiiyiiesa miiy \ ie 
\m;1i .uiviliuii; hi«o ever preceded it. '—.s'cuV/f // .- 
Li:tt.:i\s. IV. jti. 

* min -gle-a-ble, a. [Eng. mingle, v. ; -able] 
Capable uf being mixed. 

" Quicksilver lujiy. iu cuiiveuieiit vessels. Ije reduced 
\itt I&tst iuj,'re!it ynri) into ii thin !i>iiiur like water, 

aud min'jteablc with it."— U^njle : Wutks. 1. 52a. 

min'-gled (gled as geld), pa. par. or a. 

[MlNULE, C] 

min'-gled-ly (gled as geld), p'Jv. [Eng. 

inii'<ih:'l : -/'/.] Ill a mixed ^r confused man- 
ner ; cunfnse'ily. 

* mm'-gle-ment, ,•;. [Eng. mintjle, v. ; -meut.] 
The act of mingling ; Uie state of being 
mingleil or mixed. 

min'-gler, s. [Eng. miu<jl{<); -er.J One who 
mingles or mixes. 

"Such brewers aud minglcrs of wiue." — Ilurinar : 
Beza. p. Jaw. 

min -glihg, pr. par., a., & s. [Mingle, v.] 
A. \" B. As pr. piir. i£" 2Xirticip. adj. : (See 
tliH verb), 

C. As snbst. : The act of mixing together ; 
the state of being mingled or mixed. 

"S.iiitid i« likewise meliMDiteit by the mingling vt 
upeii •■iir « ith pent air."— Z/tt«iH ; Sat. Jlist., § 2S2, 

* min'-gling-ly, mlc. [Eng, miagliiKj ; 4y.] 
In a iiniigliiig i_ir confusing manner. 

Min-gre'-li-g,n. «. & s. [See def.] 

A. As adj. : Of ur iiertaining to Mingrelia. 
[B. 2.] 

B. As substantive : 

1. Onl. Lang. : A native or inhabitant of 

2. Chnrch Hist. (PL): Greek Cliristinn.';, na- 
tives of Mingreliii, a jKirt uf Old Georgia, and 
followers of Cyrillus ami Metlmdins. Thev 
do not baptize their children till the eiulith 
year, and observe otlier peculiarities uf ritual 
and disLipline. {:Shiplty.) 

* min'-iard (i as y), &c, [Migxiard, i-c] 

* min'-i-ate, I'.t. [r,at. minintus, pa. par. of 
miiiio, from mniii/m = redlead or vermilion.] 
To paint or tinge with red or vermilion. 

"ThecttpitaU ni the Unly of the text are miniattiU 
with a pell."— tyartvn . HUt. Englit,h I'uetry. vul iii, 

* min'-i-ate, «. [Miniate, x\] Painted or 
tinged with red (t vermilion ; illuminated. 

• mm-i-a-tor-e, .-;, [Ital.] An illumiuutor, 
a miniaturist. [.MiNiAruRE, s., A. :;,] 

"The minintore Ethelwuld."' 
7", B. Aldrich : Frinr Jteotiies Oeauti/ul Book. 

min' ia-tiire, .-<. & a. [Ital. miniatiim=a. 
minialine. from miniato, jia. par. of ininitire 
= to dye or I'aint with red lead or vermilion ; 
Lat. Illinium =red lead ; Fr. miniature] 

A. As substantive : 

' 1. Red leati, cinnaliar, vermilion. 
' 2. Lettering in red lead or vermilion for 
distinctness ; red letter ; rubrical distinction. 

■' If the nnnies of other Haiiit^ aredistliii.'uisbed with 
miniiUun: hers [the bleiMed V'itgiuaj ought to sliiuc 
iu gohl.*'— /yic*ci .■ .Scr'dufM, ii. 72, 

*3. The art of drawing pictures iu little, 
being done with red lead. (lilmint.) 

i. A painting, generally a portrait, of small 
(limensiinis, executed for the most part on 
ivory, vellum, or paper, of a thick and tine 
quality ; a niiuute picture, whether delineating 
lan<lseape or figures, or a copy of a larger 

o. Anything represented on a greatly re- 
duced scale. 

"Tnife-edy is the minuUttre of human life; an opick 
Iweiii is the di-au^jht at leiiKtli,' — /irwden; I'iruil : 
.£iitiid. (UtMl.) 

t>. A greatly reduced scale, style, or form. 

■' We limy reasouiihly presume it [the gitrdeu of 
Edt-ii) to lijive heeii the eiirtb iu miniature. —JJoriiL : 
WorU. vol, iv.. dis. 2. 

* 7. Distinctive or particular trait of features. 

B. As ailj. : In miniature ; on a very small 
scale ; greatly reduced in size. 

" Here sh.-dl the peucil bid its colours flow, 
-^ud make a miiiialui't: ore.ttioii grow." 

Uiii/ : The Fan, i. 
' min'-ia-tiire, v.t. [Miniature, s.] To re- 
pn-suiit or depict iu miniature or ou a small 

* min-ia-tiir-ist, 6*. [Eng, iniuiu,tur(e) ; -Ut.] 
(Jne who paints uiiniatuies. 

* min'-i-bus, s. [From Lat. miiior = less, 

with Mitf. -lias, in imitation of omnibns.] A 
light stirt of vehicle or carriage to accommo- 
date foiu" persons, and drawn by one horse. 

min'-ie, s. [From Captain Minie, an instruc- 
tor uf the French iSehuul uf Musketry at Vin- 
cennes, ] (See tlie compounds.) 

minie-bullet, minie-ball, s. A form 
of bullet invented liy Capt. Minie, iu 1S47, It 
wjis cylindricid, with an ogival imint, with 
an iron cup placed in a cavity at its base, and 
was slightly smaller than the bore of tlie 
existing rifle ; but by the explosion of the 
charge the cup was forced up into the hollow 
aud thus expanded the lower part of the pro- 
jectile, wljich pressed into the grooves of tlie 
rithng. It was afterwards applied to any 

minie-rifle, s. a rifled musket with a 
niiuie-buUet, cylindro-et)n{»idaI in form, was 
intioduceil into the British army in ISol. It 
weigheil 10 lbs, Sj uz., had a bore of "702 inches, 
and was siglited up to 1,000 yards, [Rifle,] 

*min'-i-fy, v.t. [Lat. /jtijiHs = less ; Eng. 
autr. -/;/.] To make little or less. 

" min'-i-kin, «. & s. [Prob. a dimin. from 
»ii/i(u/£ ^q.v.) ; Dut. «t£/t/uA:(//t =a eupid.] 
-A. As adj. : Small, diminutive, dainty. 

"And foroue blast of thy minikin mouth, 
Thy aheep shall take no harm." 

ShaJietp. : Lear, iii. s. 

B. As substantive : 
I. Ordinary Language : 

1. A darling, a favourite, a luiuion, a pet. 

2. A small sort of piu. 

II. Mus. : A small sort of gut string formerly 
used in the lute, viol, and other stringed 

min'-im, * min-ime, * min-um, ' min- 

ume, ^'- & ('. [Fr. ininiiiw, from Lat. mini- 
mum, miniimum, Accus. oi minimum, minumus 
= very small.] 
A. As substantive : 

* I. Ordinary Language: 

1. A little man or being ; a dwarf, a pigmy. 

■■ .Minima of nature," JIUtott : P. L., vii. 1S2. 

2, A minnow (q, v.). 

* 3. A short ]>oem. 

" To make one minime of thypoore handmayd." 

•VjOtfmcr ; F. y., VI. x. 28. 

II. TcdinicaUn: 

1. Ec'.lcs. li- Church //us/, (PL): The popular 
name of the Minim-Hermits founded by Ht. 
Francis of Paula (1410-1.jOT), The rule and 
<bess closely re.sendile those of the Francis- 
cans, but the life le<l by the memlnrs is in 
great measure contemplative. They were 
called Minims by their founder to humble 
tln*m beluw the Franciscans, who call them- 
selves Friars Minor. The order consists of 
monks, nuns, aud tertiaries (q.v.). (AkUHs *t 

2. Mrd. : The smallest li<iuid measure, 
generally regarded as equal to oue drop, 
Sixty minims make one liuid drachni, 

3. Mas. : A time characterof tlie value of two 
crotchets. In modern music it is .second in 
value to the semibreve n<iw held to be Ihc 
time standard, but in ancient music it was, 
as its name implies, of the slmiix'st duration, 
Morley (Introd. to Practimll Mii.>ii:h', lOol) as- 
cribes tlie lirst use, if not the invention, 
of the minim t^> Philippo de Vitriiicct, a 
musician of the fourteenth century, who is 
also credited with tlie inventiou of the 

^'i. Print. : A small kind of type ; miuion. 
B. As adj. : Very little. 

"Turned ruuud each minim pretthieBO of fuca" 

TcmiaiU : Antler f\tir, vi. CO. 

^min-ime, s. [Minim.] 

' min'-i-ment (1), s-. [Muniment,] 

^ mjtn'-i-ment (2), ^<. [Lat. ?)iLritmifni. = the 
least.] .\ jewel, a trinket, a trifle, a toy. 

" upon a iliiy iis she him sato beside. 
By chuuce he ceitaiue minimvntt furtli drew.' 
Speiucr : F. <i., IV. vlii, C. 

" min-im-if '- i-^enfe, s. [ Formed from Lat 
minimus = least, in imitation uf niugniji- 
cencc] Little doings. 

" When all yourinn^uiDceDces.'vndniy muitmr/Jcedcct 
are tiuiahed."— n'u^po/u. Letters, iL 122. 

* min'-x-mi-ness, s, [Lat. mnN*?/iws= least ; 
Eng. sutt". -ness.] Extreme sinallness, 

"The very jnimminctf, as I may say, vt it," — An- 
drewea : Il'crfo, i. ICD. 

nun'-i-mize, v.t. [Eng. viiniin(um); -/r<-,] 
Io reduce to a miiiinnim ; to make as little as 
possible in size, degree, ur importauce. 

"It was a bold exuerimeut, hut every means was 
taken to vtinimite the pxiicriiiieutal feutui-es ill the 
designs,"— firtf. quart. lievtew, Ivll. 91. 

min'-i-miim, 5. [Lat,] The smallest amount 
or degree ; the assignable quantity in a 
given ease ; opposed to iiM.xiiimin (q.v,). 

minimum-thermometer, 5, A ther- 

m<uneter enii.structed to register the 
point reached between observations. [Tuer- 


♦min'-i-mus, s. [Lat, = least] A being of 
the smallest size ; anything very small, 

" Get you gone, you dwarf. 
Vuu minimus, of liitid'riu^ knot^^ntss luade." 
."i/iuhixjr. : JliiUnmnicr .Sights Droam, iii 2, 

min'-ing, * myn-ynge, pr. par.^ a., & s. 
[Mine, v.] 

A. As pr. par. ; (See the verb). 

B. As adjective: 
I, Literally: 

1. Burrowing in the earth ; forming mines. 

2. Vaiiil in the construction of mines; used 
by miners : as, mining toids. 

3. Occupied in the construction and carry- 
ing ou of mines : as, a mining cumiMiny. 

4. Full of mines : as, a mining district. 

' II. Fig. : Working by underhand or secret 
means ; insidious. 

" Uate. wbutto mining depths no int«rveue, 
That they cait meet no more." 

Byron : chUde Harold, til. Di 

C. .4s substantive: 

I. Ord. Lung. : The act of constructing 
mines ; the act or habit of burrowing in the 

IL Tcdtnically : 

1. Hist. : Dr. Birch places the discovery l>y 
the Egvptians of a mine of "mafka" (tur- 
quiiise ?) at Wady Magara, in the Peninsula 
of Sinai, in the fourth iMemohite dynasty, 
between 3,000 and 2,000 B.c. Tubal Cain was 
an instructor uf every artillcer in brass (cop- 
jier) and iron. It was said of Canaan, "out 
of whose hills thou mayesttlig briss" (copper) 
(Dent viii. it), and Job refers to mining and 
metallurgy (xxviii. 1, 2, &c.). Uerodotus says 

boil, bd^ : pout, jowl ; cat, cell, chorus, 9hin, bengh : go, gem : thin, this ; sin, as ; expect, ^cnophon, exist, ph = £. 
-cian, -tian = shan. -tion, -sion = shun ; -tion, sion = zhun. -cious, -tious, -sious ~ shiis. -ble, -die, ie. = bel, d§L 



minion— ministering 


that llie Plianiciiuis li.itl quit* boreil throiis'i 
a iitotintatii iu th.' I^lamt nf Tlinsns (vi. 4ii, 
47). As I'nrly as tin' fnnrlli century b.c. the 
silvernuiH'sof Lanriuni, in Attica, were wnrked 
l>y tlie Atlieiiiaus. The U-nrmiis, whfu tiny 
licM Spain, worked the iiuicksiiver iiiincs nf 
AhnadL'ii. The Pha-niciaiis nf Gadi's (Cadiz), 
accnrtliii;; to Stralio. tradi-d with thf Cussi- 
teridos Aicilly Islands) I'lU- tin and lead. Urn- 
ing the Uotnan occupation of IJritain. niinini,' 
was carried on ; it afterwards declined, and, 
when revived, it was chielly in the hands of 
tlie Jews. In the ivign ofQueeu Klizalicth. 
German miners were eucouniged to settle in 
Hritain, but soon native skill and indnsiry 
rendered foreij^u aid unnecessary. About MjM, 
blasting ri>ck by ;,'unpowder coinmencctl ; in 
tlie next century the steam enj^ine was intro- 
duced, and in ItJlj there followed, for coal 
mines, the Davy lamp. 

2. Art <C OiicrntioH.'i : Mining is prosecuted 
with the view of obtaining metallic ores for 
smelting, or other mineral deposits— as coal, 
rock-salt, diamonds, or other precious stones. 
Sometimes these are found on the surface, 
especially will-re dills are'd; di;nnr)nds. 
gold-dust, .S;e., are sunietimes o})tainablc fiuiu 
gravels overlying tlie mure solid rocks, but, as 
a rule, niiuingoperations cannot be prosecuted 
successfully except by sinking shafts and 
carrying on subterranean operations. Coal 
seams, which were originally liorizontal, and 
even nr)\v may dip at only a low angle, are 
more easily reached than metallic h>des oc- 
curring in Veins and fissures which, as a rule, 
descend at a liigh angle, or even vertically to 
theinteriorof theeartli. [Veix.1 Inbothcases 
a Shaft or shafts must be sunk, the roof, when 
nndermined supported, and galleries run to 
reach or follow the course of the vein or senni. 

3. Law: Mines Iwlong to the owner in fee 
simple of the land, except gold and silver 
mines, wliicb are the sovereign's by virtue of 
the royal prerogative. A tenant for life may 
work old mines on the land he occupies, but 
not open new ones. If a man follows a lode 
from his own land under that of his neighbour, 
he C'inimits a trespass. 

mining-companies, s. ?''. The name 
gi\cn to tlie ci'iiipanii's termed in Britain in 
l82"i for working niities in Jlexieo and Soutli 
America, many of whicdi came to a disastrous 
end. Afterwards it was extended to all ctim- 
paiiies of a similar kind. 

min'-ion (i as y)(l), s. & a. [Fr. mignnn ; 
ital. iiii'j)Kme,.fvom M. H. Ger. miniic; O. H. 
Ger. mimui, minnl = memory, vemcmbranco, 
A. As suhsta^Uive : 

1. Ordinary Language: 

^ 1. A darling, a favourite (in a good sense). 

•• iji/ni^tiji in tlieir Mnkei-'sslcht." 

Stirling: Domvs-dity, Tiofl/Ch Jlourc 

2. An i.nworthy favourite; a creature; a 
servile dependant. 

■'The Tninion of JefiVeys was. as might have been 
exi>ect«tl. preferred by James." — Macaulay: Hint. 
Eiig., ch, Iv. 

*3. A favourite fancy, liking, or disposition. 

" The iiarticiilar minion of his atTectious was world- 
linew."— SoH^ft: Sermons, vol. iii., ser. 6. 

II. Tecltnica}}]! : 

1. Print. : A size of type between nonpareil 
and brevier. 

This line is printed iu Miniou tyi)e. 

* 2. Ordn. : An old 4-pnunder gnu, about 
seven feet long. {Marlowt: 1 Tamburkiine, 
iii. 3.) 

*B, As adj. : Dainty, small, delicate, fine, 

•■ On bU niijtion harpf full well iiliiye he can.' 

J'k'iaauiife Pittliwaie, Ac. C. iiij. 

% Minions of the moon: Highwaymen, foot- 
pads. (Shakesp. : 1 Henry IK, i. 2.) 

min'-ion (i as y) (2), s. [Etym. doubtful.] 
The sittings of ironstone alter calcination at 

thr iruii liirnace^s. {U'eale.) 

* pi in -ion (i as y) (3), ■<• [Lat. minium.] 
Red lead, vermilion, cinnabar. 

" Lft thi'uniainttht'irfjiret within nnVjjj und ceruse." 
— linrton : Amif. of Mvlmcholy. p. 173. 

piiTi -ion-ettc' (1 as y),s. i:a. [Eng. minion ; 
dimin. suH'. 'Cttt'.] 
A. As suhsiantive : 
Print. : A small fancy type. (American.) 

* B. As adj. : Delicate, etleminate. 

*' Uis mi'iioitette f-ice." — WaJpoJe: Letters, i. 205. 

*min'-ldn ing(i asy), .•;. (Eng. minion (I); 
•in^.] Kind treatment. 

"Willi sweet K-hnviuur and »o(t mluiontng." 

MaTfton : Atnlconlanf , iv. 3. 

* min'-ion ize (i as y), v.t. [Eng. minion (I) ; 

-ir-.l Tu favour. 

"Wlimi . . , Ilia tjrat-e did mi»i(UHfie-"—/)<i('ic<; 
/ful>, l!;,.<l.: p. 2ft. 

*mm -ion like. ■ mm'-ion-ly (i a^ y), 

adv. lEiig. )iuni<>n{\); -Hki- ; -ly.] 

1. Like a miiuoti. 

2. Daintily, hnely, affectedly. 

" Hithert'i will our nimrkfull youth XnnaU uL tlioU' 
great-gmudfiitliLT*' Eiiifliih. who hud more cnre to do 
Wfl than tu rtiicak miniinUike."— Camden : Kemiiinei, 
Iu, io. 

' min 'ion-ship (i as y), .?. [Eng. minion 
(1); -shij:] The iiuality or state of being a 

"Tlie favourite Luiuea utreiit'tliiieth himself inor-j 
ill his miiiionihii>"—ilounil(: lettert, lik. i.. j I, let. i. 

min-i-op'-ter-i, s. pL [MisiorrEiius.] 

Xool. : .\ group of bats, of the Vespertilio- 
niiie aUiance, family Vespertilionid;e (q.v.). 
It eontuins two genem, Miniopterus and 
Natalus, chamctertzed by the great elevation 
of the crown of the head above the face-line, 
and by the separation of the upper incisors 
from the canines and from each other. 

min-x-op'-ter-us, .•'. [Mod. Lat. from Gr. 
' nu-uoi (minims), assumed by grammarians as 
the root of i^iiwuBu} (nUnnthO) = to lessen, to 
curtail, and nrepov (ptcrun) = a wing.] 

Zool. : The typical genus of the group 
Miiiiopteri (i|.v.). The crown of the bead is 
aliiiiptly raised from the face, the upper iu- 
cisDi.s iu pairs, separated from the canines; 
ears separate, the outer margin extending 
forward nearly to the month ; nostrils simple ; 
tail as long as the head and body, and entirely 
enclosed witliin the interfemoral membrane. 
It lias a wide geogi-aphica,l lunge, through -the 
Eastern Archipelago to Austi-alia, westward 
thrnugh Burmah and Ceylon, to Madagascar, 
Africa, Asia Minor, and Southern Europe, as 
far north as Switzerland and Austria. Brown, 
grayish or black to reddish-gray or reihlish- 
bi-own. Jl/()i(Oj)?('r?(s.Sc/irei'ijcrsaisSchreiber's 
Bat. an inhabitant of caves ; M. tristis is from 
the Philippine, M. aitstralis from the Loyalty 
Islands, and M. blepotis is an ea.steru species. 

* min'-i-oiis, a. [Lat. irdnium = red-lead, 
vermilion. J Red. 

"They hold the aea receiveth a red and inhii'nn 
tinctiirt' from spriiii.'s. wells, and currents, that f;ill 
nitu it."~/lrowne: i'lthjitr Krroiirs, bk. vi., ch. ix. 

" min'-ish, ' men~us-en, * myn-ysshe, 

i\t. [Kr.iJic;ia(5Pr = to diminish, to extenuate, 
from Low Lat. * ^ninntio, ■niinnto = to reduce 
to fragments; Lat. vi inn tin; = fragments, from 
mimitus= small, mimite ; Ital. minuzzitre] 
To lessen, to diminish, to cut off, to reduce. 

"Ye shall not minish ought from your bricks of 
your daily task." — Exodus vi. 19. 

* min'-ish-ment, s. [Eng. minish ; -m^nt.] 
The act of diminishing ; diminution, lessen- 

1). IVo. 

" min-is-tel'-16, s. [Minmster, s.] A petty 

'■ What pitiful MinixteVm, what pigmy Presbyters I" 
—Gauden : Tears of the C/turch, \>. liu. 

nun'-is-ter. ' min-is-tre, ^ myn-ys-tre, 

A-. [Fi-. mi.iii^trf, from Lat. min'slnihi . accns. 
of mini.<tijr — a, servant, fi'oiii tlic same rm.t 
as minor, minimns, viiniin, ; Sp., I'ort., & 
Ital. viinistro.] 

I. Ordinary Language: 

I. A .servant, an attendant ; one who acts 
under the mders and authority of another. 

2. A servant or messenger from God. 

"Angels and ministers of grace, defend ua." 

Sluikcsp. : JIamlet. i. 4. 

3. One who is employed to a certain end ; 
an agent, a medium, an instrument. 

" Demons acenrs'd. dire ministers of woe." 

/'ojiv lliiiiier : Odyssey xi, T'5. 

4. Anj-thing employed or used as a means 
to an end; a medium, a means, an instrument ; 
one who or that which supidies anything ; a 

" Mucli conversant with Heaven, she often holds. 
> With those fair viinislers of light to man .... 
Sweet conference." Vowper : Tusk, v, &nf,. 

5. One to wliom is entrusted the adminis- 
tration or dircM-tiou of affairs of state ; (Uie 
employed in the administration of a branch 
of the government. 

"Very dlirerent tr.iinlng was necessary to for a 
great minister (or foreign altali^."— .l/uc(tu/<(,'/; Just. 
>;»;/.. ch. xl. 

6. A delegate, an ambassador, the repre- 
sentative of a sovereign at a foreign court. 

7. The ])astor of a eliurch, duly authorizetl 
or licensed to preach and administer the 

II. Eccles. a; Church Hist. (PI): Five assist- 
ants to the General of the Jesuits, elected by 
the general congregation, and empowered to 
represent to the bead of the Order anything 
irregular which they may have observed in hts 

% Ministers of the Sick : 

Eccles. (C Church Hist. : A congregation of 
priests and lay-brothers, ° founded by St. 
Camillus of Lellis in 15S0, and raised to the 
rank of a religious order in 1591 by Pope 
Gregory XIV. Th^ir special work is the care 
of the sick in hospitals. The dress is that of 
sei' jniests, with a large brown eross on 
the soutane and on the cloak. (Adilis £r 

minister-general, >:. 

Eccles. <C Church JUst.: The title given to 
the head of fllie Order by the Frauciacaus and 

mini f> ter-pro Vinci al, s. 

i:r.dcs.,(- Clinrch Hist.: The h'-ad of a pm- 
vinee among the Fi'anciscans and Ca]iucliins. 

minister, ' min-is-tre. * myn-is- 
tre, " myn-ys-tre, v.t. & i. [u. Fr. niin- 
istrcr, fioin Lat. viinistro, from viimster = i\ 
servant, a minister; Sp. & Port, ministrar ; 
ItAl. viinistrare.] 

A. 7'ransitive : 

1. To afford, to supply, to give, to present, 
to suggest. 

" If you three will but viini^ter such a-wistnuce." 
.'i/mfa-s/J : Much Ado About Xothiiiff, ii. 1. 

2. To perform, to execute, to render. 
* 3. To administer, to direct. 

"One alime iniuistreth all things."— CAaiicer.- Ooe- 
i7iius, bk. iii. 

■i. To administer medicinally. 

" A poison which the friar subtly hath minii^eered." 
HhakesiJ. : Jlomeu & Juliet, iv. j. 

B. Intransitive: 

1. To perforin the duties of a servant or 
attendant ; to perform service ; to act as au 

2. To perform the duties of a priest. 
"There they shall lay their garments wlierein they 

minister."— i:zckiel xlii. 14. 

3. To supply things needful ; to furnisli or 
provide things necessary. 

4. To supply remedies. 

" Canst thou nut minister to a mind diseased V 

Mhakesp. : Macbeth, v. 3. 

min-is-ter'-i-al, a. [Fr. ministdriel, from 
lui iiistn- — 3. minister (l-v.) ; Hi*, ministerial ; 
Ital. minislcriide.] 

1. Of or pertaining to ministering or the 
performance of services ; attemiaiit for ser- 
vice ; acting at connnand. 

2. Pertaining to a minister of state , acting 
as a minister ; pertaining to executive offices, 
as distinct from judicial. 

" It was his part to direct and order well, but the 
part of others to perform the ministerial offices." — 
linker: Charles /. (an. 1028). 

'^ 3. Pertaining to ministers of the gospel ; 
sacerdotal; used iu divine worship : as, min- 
isterial dress. 

i. Occupied by niinistei's of state. 

" Very solid and very brilli-int talents distinguished 
the ministerial benclies." — liurke : Apjjeal from the. 
Jt'ew to the Old Whiffs. 

* 5. Tending to promote, aid, or advance a 
result or end ; aiding, promoting. 

min-is-ter'-i-al-ist, s. [Eng. viinistcriid : 

-/.s/.] Ill polities, a supporter of the ministry 

in olltce. 

min-is-ter'-i-al-ly, adv. [Eng. ministerial ; 
■/;/.] In a mini'steiial manner or character. 

min-is-ter-ing, j'r, ;)cir, & a. [Minister, v.] 
A. -Is pr. 2Ha: : (See the verb). 

f^te, fat, fare, amidst, what, i^ll, father : we, wet, here, camel, her, there ; pine, pit. sire, sir. marine ; £ 
or. wore, wolf, work, who, son : mute, cuh, ciire, unite, cur, rule, full ; try, Syrian, se, oe = e ; ey = a ; qu = 

3. pot, 

tninistery— minor 


B. As f(fO'. • Acting or serving as a subor- 
( jij^fiit; serving; under supeiior autlio- 
rity : lu-li-in^'. temlint;. 

■■ An- tliey luit all iJu'jiM/criHj; spirits ? "—//cl'. i. U. 

' min is ter-^» s. [Ministry.] 

s. [Lat. ministmti'j = 

n. [Eng. minister; -al.] 
I ft minister; ministerial. 


' min - is - tra - 9y, 

luilll^tl;Hi<'u (>i.v.).J 

• min -is-tral, 

nr pel t;tiiii!i,L; U> 

• min -is-trant, «. & s. [Lat. yninistrans, pa. 
par. ..f miiiisti-o = to serve, to niiuister ^v.); 

A. -Is (n{i. : Peiforming the duties or part 
of ail attendant or minister; ministering; 
acting under cnnnnand ; attendant. 

" Swift flights of iiiig«U viinisfmiif 
AnnyW in gWry ou my cuv to atteiia." 

Miltou: P. A'., ii. 385. 

B. As suhst.: One who ministers; a ser- 
vant, a ministtT. 

* min is-tra -tion, * min-is-tra-ci-oun, 
' min-is-tra cy~oun. min-is-tra- 

cy on, ■ myn ys tra-ci-oun, s. [L;it. 

1. Tlie act of i.Lifnrming services as a ser- 
vant i>r a sultnrdinate agent ; agency or inter- 
ventiiiu fur aid or service. 

"I think tliey »re most ordiimrily done by the 
mini.itr<tri''n «f migeU."— /7(tft.'.- Orig. of Mankiml. 

2. Administration, rule. 

■' If the ministyation of death .... was glorir.ns 
.... how shall not the iiuniitrurion of the Spirit be 
r.Uher glorious."— 2 Corinth, ill. 7, 8. 

3. Service as a priest ; ecclesiastical or 
sricerdotal service or function. 

" A? soon i\s the days of hia ministrationweTe accom- 
].lisho(l. he departed to liis owu house."— Ante i. 23. 

* min'-is-tra-tive» c [Lat. ministratns, pa. 
) ar, ot )»;iii^tr'< = to minister (q.v.).] Afford- 
iii;4 ^<■rvice, hell', or assistance ; helping. 

' min-is-tra-tor, .';, [Lat. ministrotvs, pa, 
par. of vtinistru =■ to minister (q.v.).] An 

"Tlie law and the miuistrators of it."— ^Vor^ft; 

Exittntn, p. 74. 

' mln-is-tre, 5. 

* min is-tre, r. 

* min -is- tress, 

[Minister, s.\ 
[Minister, i*.] 

[Eng. tiiimsicr ; -ess.] A 
female tliat ministers. 

" Thus was beauty ^eiit fronx Heaven 
The lovely minisfress of truth and good." 

Akfimde : Pleumrex of J magi mil ion, bk. i. 

min -is-try, * mm -is-ter-j^, " myn-ys- 

ter-ie, ■■'■. I Lat. mhnsltiium, iiommiin^ter = 
a minister (q-v.) ; Fr. ministerc; Sp., Poit., .i 
Ital. ministi'rio.] 

* 1. The act of ministering ; service, attend- 

" To see kind hands .attending day and night. 
With tender inttiisiri/. from place to pUce." 

Tfiotntoit : C<istte of Indolence, ii. 73, 

* 2. Instrumentality, means, mediumship, 

" To all but thee in fits he seemed to go. 
And 'twas my ministi-i/ to deal tlie Lluw." 

Parnell: The Hermit. 

* 3. Administration, rule. 

" If the niyn\''tra(.i'innofdanipnacinunwa3inglorie, 
mych mure tbt- .n */».'/«'*' nc of rightuysiiease is plen- 
teous inglurie."— irj/i7'ye.- 2 Corinth, iii. 

4. Service in sacred things ; ecclesiastical 
functi<ins ; the office, duties, or functions of a 
minister of the Gospel. 

" Rvery one that to do the service of tlie 
7wi;Nj(?cv, and the service of the Imrden in the taber- 
□acle of the congregation." — Jfumbars iv. 47. 

5. The officers of state who compose the 
executive government ; the ministers of state 

"The first English ministry wna gT.idually fonned ; 
nor is it possible to say (juite precisely when it began 
to exist. But, on the whole, the d.ite from which the 
eiii of niinintrics niiiy most properly be reckoned is 
thfi diiy of the meeting of tne Pftrliament .Tfter thw 
general election of l69b."—.Vacauhit/ : niat. £nff., ch. 

6. The period during which the First Minis- 
ter of the Crown holds office : as, The Act was 
passed during the Ministry of Pitt. 

*7. Business, employment, profession, oc- 

* ministry -ship, s. Tlie office of a 
minister ; ministry. 

min'-i-um, s. [Lat. = vermilion.] 
1. Miiicmlonii : 
(1) The same as Cinnabar (q.v.). 

(2) A pulverulent mineral of a hright red 
coltutr. Hardness, '2 to 3 ; sp. gr. 4*0 ; lustre 
duU ; streak, orange-yellow ; opaque. Compos. : 
oxvgen, 0-:i4; lead, itO'ijii = loo, yielding tlie 
formula PbsU^. Occurs mostly associated 
with gaU'tia. Known in Gernmny under tliu 
name of Mennige. 

2. Chrm. : [Lf.ap-oxioeI. 

min -i-ver. ' men-e-verj * men-y-ver, 
min-e-vere. * min-i-vere, " myn-i- 

ver, ■>". iV ". (O. Fr. vicmiver, mcnuvcir, wn'- 
iiin\th\ from vif)Lii (Lat. mijr«(t(s) = small, 
and rinr= fur.] 

A. .!s-.-;i(M. ; The Siherian snnirrel. nntml 
fur its line fm- ; also the fur itself. 

"nil hi-* rijrht and left those sufTmgansof Canter- 
l.iir\' who lifid taken the oatUa were ranged in gorgeous 
vtAtimiits of scarlet and ininioei-.'—Mucaultiy : Jliit. 

A'fj., I'll. xiv. 

B. As adj. : Made of the fur of the Siberian 

,\ik1 for a TO'fKtfiPcr mantel, ho made leel matrinionye 

Dcpai-to erdeth i 

IHers Plow 

, p. 3J'J. 

min'-i-vet, s. [Etym. doubtful.] 

Oniith. (PL): A name for the Cuckoo 
Shrikes. [Pericrocotus, Shrike.] 

mlnjac-tankawan, s. [Native name] 

(7(^/11. : A vegetable fat, olitaiiietl from the 
fruit ofa tree growing in Borneu andSumatra. 
It consists of stearin, palmitin, and olein, 
togetlier with free stearic and palmitic acids. 

mink, tminx, s. [Etym. doubtful ; possibly 
North Aiui-riean Indian, or a corruption of 

Eng. 7« (»,(■.] 

i!ool. : A popular nam£ for several species 
of the genus Putorius (qlj-.), which are found 
in the noi-thern parts ot lioth hemispheres, 
and are valuable as fur-producing animals. 
Putorius lutreoln is the Emopean, and P. vison 
the American Mink. The body is stouter than 
that of a stoat or weasel, and from fifteen to 


eighteen inclies long. The colour varies from 
dull yellowish-brown to dark chocolate brown ; 
the upper lip is usually white in the Euio- 
pean, dark in the American species. The 
scent-glands are well-develoiied, and their 
secretion is only second in ofiensiveness to 
that of the skunk. It is aquatic in its haltits, 
and feeds chietly upon fish and amphi- 
ous animals, preying largely also on smaller 
mammals. In America the Mink is domesti- 
cated and trained as a ratcatcher. [Minx.] 

min'-ne-sihg-er§, s. j??. [Ger., from O. Ger. 
miiuie ~ love, remembrance, and singer-=^Q. 
singer.] Tie German name for poets of the 
troubatlour cliaracter, who devoted their 
talents to the production of love songs. They 
enjnyed a eertaiu amount of popularity in the 
higher grarles of society for more than two 
hundred years (1138-13-17), wlien they fell out 
of ptqmlar estimation, and wore succeeded by 
the meistersingers (q.v.). [Troubadours.] 

min'-nie, s. [See def.] An infantine word 
fur mamma or mother. (Scotch.) 

"But my minnie saiil. I iiiann be .sure to get twevity 

ehillinvTs."— .")Vvfr / Anli'jmtri/. ch. xv. 

min'-ndw» min'-im« " men-awe, ' men- 

OIV, ' men-OUn, ^. [.-V.S. inyne, from inin 
= small.] 

hUthyolugn : 

1. Lencisc\is phoxiiuis, common all over 
Euroi>e. Dr. Gimther .says that it grows to 
a length of seven inches in favourable lo- 
calities ; its average size in the British Isles 
is about three inches. It is generally found 

in the same streams with trout, preferring 
gravelly bottoms, and swinuuing in scliools. 
The ton of the head and the back ui'e 
duskv niive, mottled, and lighter in colour on 
the sides ; belly white, rosy in summer, 
whence it is sometimes called tho Pink* 
Known also as the Minim. 

2. A popular name in America for tho 
small (ishes of many genera of Cyprinidie. 

mi'-no, i'. [Mixa(2).] 

min'-dr, «. & s. [Lat. = less, smaller ; a word 
liaving no positive, but serving as tlie com- 
parative of HiifdHuis.] [Minim. j 
A* As luljedivc : 

1. Ordinary Lnngitagc : 

i. Less, smaller; used absolutely, in oppo- 
sition to viajor. 

2. Small ; of little, or comparatively little, 
importance ; petty, unimpoi-tant. 

* 3. Under age ; in a state of pupillarity. 
\ "At which time the king vas minijr."~Hacon : 
Henry VII., p. H&. 

II. Music : 

1. Intervals are said to be minor when they 
contain one semitone less than major. 

2. A scale is said to be in the minor mode 
when its third and sixth are minor. Formerly 

1 a minor scale was described as " with the 
'lesser third." 

B. As substantive : 
I. Ordinary Language : 

1. A person who is under age ; one of either 
sex who is under a cei-tain age, and therefore 
legally incapacitated for the performance of 
certain acts. 

2. A Minorite ; a Franciscan (q.v.). 
II. TcchnicaUy : 

1. Logic: The minor term, or the minor 

2. Music : The minor key. 

3. Scots Law ; A term used to express a 
person above the age of iniinllarity (twelve in 
females and fourteen in males) and under that 
of majority, of twenty-one. 

4. PiOinan Church (Pi): [Minor-orders]. 

^, Fhitr tninnr : Klein flute, a small flute- 
stop on (hu ui'gan, of 4 ft. or 2 if,, pitch. 

minor-axis, s. [Axis II., l.j 

minor-canon, s. 

Kcch:sinl. : An oflicial of a cathedral or col- 
It-i-'iate iliurcli in priest's orders, ranking next 
X<\ till- iiTebendaries or cam-ns. In tlie "old 
f-'Vuiihitii'U " Ciitliedrals, with the name of 
priest vicars, or vicars choral, they liave been 
corporations, and liave held their own pro- 
perty ; in the " new foundation " Cathedrals, 
they have been and still are stipendaries of 
the chapters, their incomes in both cases 
varying from £150 to £300 a year. Those 
cathedrals which have been created within 
the last few years have no such officials, with 
the exception of Southwell, which has one, the 
last remnant of the old collegiate foundation. 
Originally they were eipuil iu number with 
the canons, and in the old foundations every 
prebendary had hi« own vicar. For more than 
two centuries, however, they were iu all. 
throughout England and Wales, about 152 in 
number, till the Cathedral Act (3 & 4 Vict., 
c. lbs) reduced them still further to 117. 
Their duty is to chant the daily services, and 
to preach occasionally ; and as the j'recentor 
or succentor is chosen from them, they must 
also have an adequate knowledge of cathedral 
music. The oftiee is much sought after, not 
only for the connection with a c^ithedrul, but 
as certain to lead to preferment, 

minor-chord, s. 

Miif:ic: A inin-u- triad, or common chord, 
consisting ofa note, its minor third, and per- 
fect tifth. 

minor-key, s. 

Music : The minor mode of any scale. It is 
called a relative niiiun- when it commences on 
the sixth degree of the corresponding relative 
major. A minor scale commencing on the 
same note as a niajjor scale is called its t<inic 
minor. There are three forms of the minor 
scale in 

minor-orders, s. ]*l 

Poman Church : Orders beneath Holy Onlers 
in dignity. TJiey are four in number ; acolyte. 

boil, boy ; pout, jowl ; cat, 9ell, chorus, 9hin, bengh ; go, gem ; thin, this : sin. as ; expect, Xcnophon, exist. -Ing. 
-cian, -tian = shan. -i^lon, -sion - shun ; -tion, -sion = zhun. -clous, -tlous, -slous = shus. -ble. -die, .vc. = bel, dcL 

minorate— minuscule 

exon-ist. loctor. ainl nstiiuiiis. Tliey are usu- 
ally ci>nft'ric(l at tlio muuc tune. 

minor -plxuiet. >-■ 

A.<tr':u. : All a-^tt-r.iia (q.v.). [Planlt.] 
minor-premiss, s. 

/..'./(< ; T)i;n wliifli contains the minor term. 
minor term. ^. 

L'-"ji'- : The siil'Jfct of the conclusion of a 
categorical s) Uogisni. 

■ nun'-or-ate, i-.^ [Lat. »u»K>r«/t(«, pa. pnr. 
t>l' w[iuiru = ii> make less ; minor = less; Ital. 
minorare ; Sp. miuomr.j To make less, to 
lessen, to diminish. 

'■ DlstAiioe minrinttei the ohlect.' — Olanvili : Sccimi 
Scii-itlijiru. oh. vlil. 

' min*6r-a'-tion, s. [Mikorate.] The act 
"i lessoning or i.limiuisiiing; dimiuution, de- 

*' Wtf hop« the luoroles of Ood will ooiisldor our 
de|feuemWu inttvrlty iiiilo anino miuorfUhn of our 
ustriicn'^. '— /irowiini : Vulsar Krrouri, lik. i., cli. li. 

" min-6r-a-tive, s. [Eng. mhioratie) ; -ive.] 
(See extract.) 

"For A mitvjratiw or gentle potiou he touk four 
hiimlred imund w-alght of culoi>honiac scaiamoiiy." — 
Cr-iuhart : /^ubet<iU, bk. U.. cli. xxxill. 

' min'-or-ess, s. [Eng. vUnor; -ess.] 

1. A female under age. 

2. A nun of the Oixler of St. Clare. [Poor 

min'-or ite, s. [Fr.l 

1. A Franciscan friar. [Franciscan.] 

* 2. An inferior, a subordinate. 

"Some mtnorite among the ulergy."— ^ucAa( : Li/e 
tif WilUanu, ii. 202. 

min-6r'-i-t^, 5. [Fr. inUioriU, from Lat. 
miiuis =. less. J 

1. Ordinary Language : 

* 1. The quality or state of being less or 

"From tills narrow time of gesbition miiy ensue 
minority, or smnllueiis In the exclusiou."— flrowiie; 
Vuigar Brrours, bk. iji., ch. vi. 

2. The smaller number out of a whole 
divided into two parts. 

" That minori'!/ of the Scottish nation by the aid of 
which tlie b'ovemmeiit had hitherto held the majority 
down." — Macaiiiay : Hut. Eng., ch. vi. 

3. The state of being a minor or under 
age, and therefore legally incapacitated for 
the performance of certain acts. 

* 4. A state of immaturity, 

"If there be evidence that it is not many ages since 
nature was in her lainoriti/, this may be t:iken for 
a good [n»of that she is not eternal." — Burnet : Theory 
of the Earth. 

II. Law. : 

1. English Law: The period or interval 
before a person attains his or her nia^jority or 
comes to full age, that is, generally, to the age 
of twenty-one years. 

2. Scots Law : Tlie interval or period between 
puiiillaiity and majority. [JVIixoR, B. II. 3.] 

* mi'-ndr-Ship, s. [Eng. minor; -sldp.] The 
state of being a minor ; minority. 

Min'-o-taur, s. [Lat. Minotauivis.] 

Class. Myth'-K : A monster having the head 
of a bull and the rest of the body human. 
He was killed by Theseus. 

* min-our, * myn-our, s. [Mj.ver.] 

* mins -ic-al, (F. [Eng. mbice; -ical.] Deli- 

"A wom;in of a mittsicat couuteuance."— Sidney ; 
lyanstcud riay. p. 6ia, 

mins-ter. ' myns-ter, * myns-tere, 

* myns-tre, s. [A.S. myiiskr, from Lafc, 
monasteriuiii = a monastery; Ger. miinstcr ; 
Dut. momter.] A monastery; the church of 
a monastery ; a cathedral church. The name 
is given to several cathedral cluirches in 
England, as York minster, Beverley mintitcr, 
and also occurs in the name of several places 
where there were originally monasteries and 
minsters, as Westwinsfer, Leominster, &c. 

" Some old mintter'M venerable pile " 
n\,r<Uu>nrlh: Thanksgiving Ode, Jan. IB, ISlt 

* min-stral-cie, s. [Minstrelsy.] 
minstrel, * minstral, ' min-is-tral, 

* myn-Stral, >*. [O. Fr. raemstrel^ mcncs- 
tral. frulii L^w Lat. ministntUs, ministcrialis 
= an artizan. a servant, a retainer, from Lat. 
mi)iisteria>ii=^AnYVice; minister =ii. servant ; 

Port, uietifstrtl, tiu-nijitrel ; Sp. menistnO, Jiienes- 
triL] A singer and ]>erfornicr on musical in- 
struments. Minstrels in the middle a;^es wno 
a class of uien who lived by the aits »it poetry 
and music. The minstrels or jongleurs only 
recited or chanted pnems. but did not write t-r 
invent them ; or perhaps accompanied on s(tnie 
instrument the troubadour who sang his own 
compositions. It was not an unusual thing 
for a trouljadour to have several minstrels or 
jongleurs in his service. The minstrels in 
later times formed a se^tarate guild, uniting 
for the purijosea of mutual i>rotcetion and 
snpptirt. They became exceedingly popular 
in England ; their persons were sacred ; their 
jirofession alone was a sufficient passpurt, an<l 
they were on all oceasions welcome guests 
at the houses of the rich. Witli the decline 
of chivalry, the profession of the min.strel 
also declineil, and eventually sank so low that 
they are classed amongst vagabonds and 
beggars in statutes of the reign of Elizabeth. 

" Wake ye from your sleep of death, 
Minttnlt and bards of other days !" 

Scott: Surd's I ncitnt'tt ion. 

^ Obvious compounds : miiistnl'boy, niia- 
strel-hire, niimtrel-lay, miiistrel-strain, niin- 
strel-tale^ (&c. 

min'-strel-sj^, "* min-stral-cie» * myn- 

Strel-sy, .-■. [Eng. minstrei ; -\v.J 

1. The ait, oceupation, or jnofession c^f 
minstrels ; music and singing. 

" When golden Midns judg'd their tnitutreJty." \ 

lieauin. A Flat. : Faithful S/iepfienleu, iv. 1. 

2. A number or body of minstrels ; minstrels 

" Miiiisteriug spirits, tmined up in feast and song— 

Such bast thou arm d, the mitutretsi/ of heaven. " 

Milton: P. L.. vi. 168. 

*3. Musical instruments used by minstrels. 

" Fur siirwe of which he brake bis minstralcie. 
Both harp and lute, yitenie, aud aautrie." 

Chaucer : C. T., 17.214. 

4, A body or collection of ballad poetry 
suitable for" singing, as the mUistrdsy of the 
Scottish border. 

mint(l), 'mynt(2), "menet, s. [k.^. my act, 

mynyt, nienvt = a c.'in, fruux Lat. moncta = 
(1) a mint, (2) muney, from yfonetn, a surname 
of Juno, in whose temple at Rome money was 
coined ; Moneta, lit. = the Warning One, from 
?n^neo=to warn; Dut. munt; Ger. miinze; 
Dan. «iyn( = coin. Mint and money ave thus 
I. Literally: 

I. A place where money is coined by public 
authority. The coining of money is a royal 
prerogative in England. The Mint is situated 
on Tower Hill in London. 

"The operations of the .Vint were, upon this account, 
somewliat like the web of Peuelope."— Smith : tVeiilth 
of A'atiaits, bk. iv., ch. vi. 

* 2. A place of privilege in South wark, near 
the Queen's prison, where persons took refuge 
from justice, under the pretence that It had 
formerly been a royal palace. 

II. Figuratively : 

1. A source of invention or fabrication. 

2. A great quantity, supply, or amount : as, 
a mint of money, a mint of trouble. 

^ * Master of the Mint: A public official 
who formerly presided over the Mint. The 
office is now abolished, tlie Mint being under 
the direct authority of the Chaucellor of the 

mint-mark, s. a mark put upon coins 
to identify the place of coiuing. i 

* mint-master, s. ' 

1. L(f. : < Mie who manages the coinage ; the 
Master of the Jlint. 

* 2, Fig. : One who invents, forges, or fab- 

* mint-warden, s. The same as Mint- 

llASTEE (4. v.). 

mint (2), * mynt (2), * mynte, * minth, s. 

[A.S. minte, from Lat. vienta, mcntha, imm Gr. 
nivda, fiiyOo^ (moithit, mintiius) ; Ger. munzv.] 
Botany ; 

1, Sing. : The genus Mentha (q.v.). 

2. PL A name for the order Menthaceae. 

T[ Of British Menthas. Corn Mint is Mentha 
art^ensis; Plea Mint, M. Pulegium [Pennv- 
hoval] ; the Horse or Brook Mint. M. syl- 
vestris ; the Marsh Whorled Mint, Af. sativa ; 
the Round-leaved Mint. M. rot nwli folia ; the 
Pepper Mint, M. piperita ; the Water-capitate 
Mint, M. aqiMtim ; and the Bergamot Mint is 

M. L-itrata, a variety of the sub-species M. 
hirxuta, aud the species .1/. a<iaaticn. The 
Spear Mint or Gartieu Mint, M. viridis, is a 
denizen. The Cat Mint is Nepeta Cataria, 
al.sii British. 

mint -julep, «. A drink made of spirits, 
su^'ar, ;ind puuuded ice, with an infusion of 


mint-sauce, 5. Mint chopped up fine 
and mixed with vinegar and sugar, and used 
as a llavuuriiig for lamb. 

mint-tree, s. 

b-it. : rrostantkcra violacea (or lasianthus). 

mint (1), v.t. [Mint (l), s.] 

1. Lit. : To coin, to stamp, as money. 

' Had aU the money in King Charles II. ami King 

'Mt«u a " * ■■ ■ 

, ouosial. 

Locks : of the Lowering of Interest 

James [I.'s time been minted acci-rdin^ to this ii 
^irouosal, this rals'd money wuiild have been youe."- 

* 2. Fig. : To invent, to forge, to fabricate, 
to fashion, to produce. 

" Look into tlie title whereby they hold these new 
portions of the crown, aud you will dud tbeiu uf sucb 
natures as may be easily minted." — Bacon : Jlenry \'1I. 

* mint (2), * mynt, v.i. [A.S. myntan =to 
resolve, to propose, to intend.] 

1. To aim, to purpose, to intend, to en- 

2. To hint, to suggest, to insinuate. (Scotch.) 
mint-age, .■*. (Eng. mint (1), s., -age.] 

1. That which is minted, coined, or slamped ; 

2. The duty or fee paid for minting or 

3. The act of coining. 

" 3y this mintage they are something worth." 

Donnv: A Valediction of Weeping. 

AEin-ta'-ka, s. [Corrupted Arabic] 

Ast,-on. : A lixed star, 6 Oiionis, the most 
westerly star in the belt uf Orion. 

mint'-er, s. [Eng. mint (1), v. ; -a:] One 
who mints or coins ; a coiner. 

"The "(iiUor must adde of other weight seventeen- 
pence halfpenny farthing, if the sUuer be ao pure." — 
Camden: Jieniaines, p. 2vi4. 

* minth, s. [Mint (2), s.] 

*' mint'-man, s. [Eng. mint (1), aud tnan.] 
One who is engaged in a mint ; a coiner. 

'■ Let suili. as are to iufonne counsels out of their 
urufessions (as lawyei-s, sea-men. miutmen. and the 
like) be tlrst heard before committees," — Bacon: £s- 
says : Of Coutuel. 

^ min'-u-end, s. [Lat. mimmulns, fut. part, 
of iniiiao=-t<j lessen, to diminish.] 
Math. : The quantity from which another is 

to be subtracted. 

nun'-u-et, * men'-u-et, s. [Fr. mcniiet = 
small, pretty ; dimin.'of */i(;/iH(Lat. minutus)=^ 
small ; Ital. iniiiuettu.] 

1. The name of a graceful dance said to 
have been invented in Puitou about the mid- 
dle of the seventeenth century, and pciformed 
in J or ~ time. It continued to be fashionable 
until the reign of George IIL 

" Her authority was gu]ireme iu .ill matters of good 
breeding, from a duel to a min»et." — Macnut^iy . llut. 
Eng., ch, iii. 

2. A tune or air suited for the dance so 
called, or composed to the same time. 

" min'-um, s. [Minim.] 

min-iis, s. & a. [Lat., neut. sing, of »ttiior = 

A, As subst. : Less. A term applied to the 
sign of subtraction — , which, when placeil 
between two quantities signilies that the latter 
is to be subtracted or taken from the former ; 
thus, a — h (read a iniuus b) means that b is to 
be subtracted from a. 

B. As adj. : A term applied to quantities 
which have the sign — , or minus, before them, 
as, — a, — '3b, &c. Also called negative quan- 

mi-nus'-cu-l^ s. [Lat. minuscidus.) Tlie 
same as Mini'scule, s. (q.v.). 

mi-nus'-cule, a. & s. [Lat. minusculus = 
very small, 'from ?*inu(S=: less.] 

* A, As adj. : Very small ; minute ; applied 
to letters so called. 

B. As subst. : A minute kind of letter or 
character used in the medieval MSS. 

"Written in more or leas regular pointed minus- 
cules."— 3. Sweet: Old English Charters, p. 423. 

fate, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father ; we, wet, here, camel, her. there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go. pd*;, 
or, wore, wglf, work, who, son ; mute, cub, ciire, unite, cur, rule, full ; try, Syrian. », ce — e ; ey = a ; qu = kw. 

minutary— mirabilite 


* min'-U-tar-^ (u as i), n. [Lat. minutus.] 
Ci'iisisting (tf iiiiiuitt'S. 

" Gdtlieriiig up tho crnin of tiuie, presciitiiu' 
till- nuitutaifi fr-ictums iXivtvul." — Fuller : Wurthi- > . 

minute (as n. k adv. mi-nute', as s. min - 
it), 'xnynute, c. n'h: k s. [Lat. minHin.< 
= small, iiiitiuto (l.ow Lat. ininvtd =■ a small 
luiitiiiii, a mite of mnney), prop. i>a. iMir. "f 
jiiiuiio =: to lessen, to make siuall, from the 
same root as minor, viimts ; A.S. min, &c. ; 
Ital. viinwhi ; Hp. menmio ; Vort. mindo ; Fr. 
ijWJMf = small, minute; Ital. & Sp. minuto ; 
Fi*. miiiHtc = a ^-ery small portion, a minute.) 
A. As adjective: 

1. Very small ; of a very small size or Vmlk ; 

'■ We iL-vve also ^]iu«es aiul means to see siiiaH .-unl 
ininuti- iMxlies iwriectly au*l diatiuotly,' — flacw/i yew 

2. Of very little consequence or importance ; 
petty : as, mi7ivt€ details. 

3. Cliaracterized by attention to verj' small 
niattei's ; very precise and accurate ; circum- 
stantial, detailed ; entering into the smallest 
details. (.Said of things.) 

"[The] i)riv.T,te iustructiouswith which hefuinished 
those iwrsous could not be minute, but were hi^'hly 
jutUciuus." — .'/rtcmi/iij/ .' Hilt. Eti'j.. ch. xvij. 

* 4. Attentive to the smallest details ; pre- 
cise, particular, exact. (Said of persons.) 

" These minute philosophers (since that is their true 
naiiie) are a sort of piiiites, who plunder all that uome 
ill their way." — Bcrkvl^y : Th<e Minute Philosopher. 
dial. I. 

* B. As adv. : Minutely ; in great detail. 

" Ah, muse ! forhear to speak 
Afiiitite the hoiTors that eusuet^l." 
Cotrp^: Death t,/ Mrs. Tltrockmorton's Bui! finch. 
C. As substantive : 
I. Ordinary Language: 

* 1. A minute poi-tion of aujlhiug, as, fur 
instance, of money ; a mite. 

" But whaiine a pure M'idewe was come, ache cast two 
mymitis. that is a farthiinf. '— WycUffa : Mark xii. 42. 

* 2. A thing of slight importance ; a tritie ; 
a petty detail. 

"The^eare hut minufes, in respect of the ruin pre- 
pared for the Uviny temples."— y. Tayior : Sermon on 
the OunpoicJer Treasjn. 

3. Specif., the sixtieth part of an hour ; 
sixty seconds ; hence, used loosely and in- 
delinitely lor a very sliort period of time, 

4. (PI.) : A shoil sketch of an agieemeut, 
meeting, &c., taken in writing; notes to re- 
curd and preserve the memory of auj-thing. 

5. A memorandum ; an official note. 
IL TccknicaUy : 

1. Arch. : The sixtieth part of the lower 
diameter of the shaft of a column. 

2. Gcog.: The sixtieth part of a degi-ee. 

3. '/'OjH, : The sixtieth pail of a degree of a 
cirele : it is denoted by the sign '. 

minute-bell, s. A bell tolled regularly 
at intervals of one mintite, usually to give 
notice of a death or a funeral. [Passing- 

minute-book, s. A book in which the 

minutes 'if ineetin;^s are recorded. 

minute-glass, s. The sand-glass run- 
ning sixty secuU'-U. 

minute-gun, s. A gun fired regularly at 
iuter\als uf one minute from a ship at sea as 
a signal of distress. 

minute-hand, s. The hand pointing to 
minutes on the dial of a cluck or watch, and 
traversing the circle iu one hour. 

minute-jack, $. 

1. HorrA. : A fanciful little figure which 
strikes the gong in some clocks at the pre- 
sciibed times. 

* 2. Fig. : One who changes his mind every 
minute ; a fickle person. 

"Cap-aud-kuee slaves, v.'ipours. nud minute-J-tcKt. 

Shakegp. : Timon of Athens, iii. fi. 

minute-men, s. pi. Soldiers enlisted fur 
service wherever required, and ready to start 
at a ni'inient's notice. (American.) 

"CiileJ >7iinHff>nen, as tJiey are to be ready at ii 
minute s wuruiu^ ' — iValpolv : Letters, iv. 2. 

minute-tithes, 5. jd. 

haw : Small tithes such as usually belong to 
a vicar, as of wool, lambs, pigs, butler, cheese, 
honey, &c. (Whorton.) 

minute 'tringa, $. 

Crnltfi.: Selby"s name for the Little Stint, 

Triii'ja inijiuta. 

' minute -watch, .•;. A watch on which 

tin' miuut--s are UKirUed. 

minute-Wheel, s. 

Horol. : due of the wheels placed between 
the pillar-t.late ,.f a watch and the dial. Also 
called a dial-wheel. 

• minute-While, s. A minute. 

" Tlitj wjtik il ;»l"nil me every mlntitr.iehi/tr." 

S}ta/ctisp. : 1 Ilenrif 17.. 1. 4. 

+ minute (as min'-it), v.t. [Minltk, o.) To 
set down in a shoit Sketch or note; to write 
minutes of; to make a note of. 

minutely, a. & adv. [Eng. minute, a. ; -ly.] 

A. As adj. (as mln'-it-lp) : Happening every 
minute ; constant, unceasing. 

"Throwing them^eh'ea .-ibBohitely upon OotVs mi- 
nutely i)rovldeuce for the aiistaiuinif of them."— //am- 
monU: It'orfta, i. 472. ., 

B. As adverb : 

1. In a minute manner; with close atten- 
tion to details; nicely, exactly; with minute- 
ness. (Prou. ml-nnie'-lp.) 

" He ratlier tAxes Uomer with painting them too 
mimitely.'—Pope : IJomer : Odyssey. (Post.) 

* 2. Every minute; with little time inter- 
vening; const-antly. (Pron. viln'-it-ii/.) 

mi-nute'-ness, s. [Eng. minute; -ness.] 

1. Tlie quality or state of being minute, 
or of very small size or bulk ; extreme sinall- 
ness, fineness, or sleuderness ; insignificance, 

2. Close attention to minutiie or details ; 
critical exactness ; precision. 

mi-nu'-ti-ee (t as sh), s. pi, [Lat., from 
ininntKs =: nihmtti (q.v.).] Small, minor, or 
unimportant details or particulars. 

"The Omnipoteut . . . 
From mere minntitE luu educe 
Events of a most Important use." 

Cowper : To Liulj/ Atisten. 

*mi-nu'-ti-6se (t as sh), «. [Minuti.e.] 
Attending closely to minutia; or minor de- 
tails ; nunute, precise, exact. 

"An expression like 7m)tutiote Investigations."— 
Filz-Eiiward Uall : Modern English, p. 168. 

minx, s. [Pi'ob. a corrupt, of O. Dut. minne- 
keii = my love, or Eng. minion.] [Minnikin, 


1. A pert igirl, a wanton, woman, a baggage, 
a quean, u jade. 

" Damn her, lewd minxi 0. damn her," 

aiinketp. : Othello, iii. 3. 

* 2. A she puppy, a lap-dog. 

"Little iHi'iarcs or pupees."- tVai.- Apophth. of 
Erasmus, p. 143. 

3. A mink (q.v.). 
minx-otter, s. The mink (q.v.). 

* min-y, «(. [Eng. mi)i(e), s. ; -y.] 

1. Abounding with mines. 

2. Of the natuie of a mine or hollow in the 

" The miny caverns, hhizing ou the day." 

Thomson : Autumn, 709. 

min-3?'-a-di'-n8B, s. pi. [Mod. Lat. minyas, 
genit. 'minyad(is); Lat. fern. pi. ailj. suit". 

Zool. : A sub-family of Actinidie. They do 
not lix tliemselves by their base, or foot, but 
by contracting it, form a hollow space, into 
which they take air, enabling them to Hoat, 
which they do with their mouth and tentacles 

min'-y-as, s. [Lat. =a fabulous herb with 
magical properties.] 

Zool. : The tyj'ical genus of the sub-family 
Minyadiute (q.v.). Minyas ccertdea is found 
at the Cape of Good Hope. 

mi-o-ba-sil'-e-iis, s. [Gr. fseCiov (m€idTi)=. 
less, aiid /Sao-iAeus (haslleus) = a king.] 

Pala'ont. : A genus of perissodactyle mam- 
mals, from the Miocene of North America. It 
is more or less synonymous with Bronto- 
therium. [Broktothekid.e.] 

mi-o-^ene, *mei-6-9ene, s. & a. [Or. 

fxeituy (incion) = less, and «aifos (Kixitiot') = 
new, recent.] 

A. As substantive: 

Gcolugif : A term introduced in 1S35 by Sir 
Charles I.vell to designate the beds foinif.-rly 
called Middle Tertiary. Tlie term MiocL-ne 
denote.s that only a minority uf the shells 

belong to recent specle.s. (EtyuL] He f<junded 
it on the Faluns of Fi-an<'e, which, according 
to M. Deshayes, have seventeen per cent. "I 
their shell species leeent. Svibuequent di>- 
covery ha.s slightly modilled the number, espe- 
cially aa other beds than the Faluns have then 
own proportions of recent and fossil shelU. 
Beyrich .sepnraterl from it its l.iwer purlion, 
and, combining this with the Upi»er Eocen.', 
founded a new division, the (Migocene (q.v.). 
No British strata are nnequivueally Miorene, 
Great Britain and lielaud having i)rot)ably 
been dry land during tlie period. The Hfujii- 
stead beds, tliose of Bovey Tracey, and the 
leaf beds of the Isle of Mull, were "classed by 
Lyell as late as 1871 as Lower Miocene, but 
the first of these are now considered Uligi)- 
cojie, and the second and third Middle Eocene. 
So also, iierhaps, are the leaf-bearing beds of 
the Giants' (Causeway. The foreign represen- 
tatives of the Miocene are the Faluns of 
Touiaine, those of Bordeaux, the freshwater 
strata of Gers, tlie tEningen beds, and the 
Marine Molasse of Switzerland, the Vienna 
and Mayenee basins, the beds of the Superga, 
near Turin, the Miocene of the Western 
Territories in the United States, tlio Marine 
Jliocene of India, Egypt, the West Indies, 
and Australia. The strata of the Siwalik 
Hills, iu India, foiiiierly deemed Miocene, 
are now considered to be older Pliocene. The 
shells of the Miocene show a somewhat 
warmer climate than that of the same parts 
of Europe now. Of vertebrates there are in 
the Eastern Hemisphere. Dinotherlum gigan- 
teum, Mastodun angustidens, Hhinoccros.'ickleir- 
viacheri, Machuirodus cultrid^ns, &c. Uf 
quadrumaua there are two genera, Pliopithe- 
cus, allied to the Gibbon, and Dryopithecus, 
allied to the Gorilla, to the Chimpanzee, and 
to Man. Among the American mammals are 
Mesohi]ipus, Miohij'pus, akin to the Horse, 
Perchttrus and Elotherium (Pigs), and Hyie- 
nodon (a Carnivore). Abundant plants and 
insect remains have been found at (Eningen, 
many of the former reseinblirig modern North 
American plants more than those of Europe. 
Volcanic rocks of Miocene age exist in Ma- 
deira, the Azores, and Australia. (Lyell,) 

B. As adj. : Of or belonging to the strata 
described under A. 

"Miocene strata of ltely."—Lycll: Students EU-m. 
of Ueol. (1885), p. 193. 

mi-o-hip'-pus, s. [Eng. Mio(cene); and Gr. 
in-jTos (hij^jxjs) = a horse.] 

I'alKont. : A geims of fossil Equidte, fi-oni 
the Upper Miocene of North America. The 
siiecies are rather larger than a sheep. All 
the feet have three toes, nearly equal in size. 
As in Mesuhippus the little finger is repre- 
sented by a spUnt-bone. 

mi-6-stem'-6n-ou8, a. [Meiostemonous.] 

mir, s. [Uuss.] A communal division in 

' Mir'-a, 5. [Lat. fern, of TJtirni = wouderfiU 

(supply Stella = star).] 

Aatron. : A fixed star, o Ceti, or Mira Ceti, 
situated in the neck ot Cetus. it is variable 
or periodic, sometimes reaching the second 
magnitude and tlien again diminishing to the 
twelfth. Its periodic time is ;i31-J3ti days, 
about two months of which it is invisible to 
the naked eye. Its variability >\as tirst 
discovered by Fabricius in 1570. 

* mi-rab'-il-ar-Sr, s. [Lat. mirahil(is): 
= wonderful ; Eng. a(,l.j. suff. -iiry.] One whu 
relates wonderful stories ; a work on wonders. 

" To t^ivecnutentmeut to the appi;tlt« of CtirioliHUiiii 
vain will, lut the niiinner of mirattilariet u) to du."— 
Bacon : On Learning, bk. ll. 

mi-rab'-l-lis, s. [Lat.= wonderful, from tlie 
handsome flowers.] 

Bot. : A genus of Nyctaginaceffi. The 
curulla is tubular ; the fruit one nutdike seed, 
invested with the indurated tulx; of the 
corcflla. Mirabilis Julajia was onee errone- 
ously sujiposed to be the true jolap plant. 
M. dichotoma, the Marvel of I'eru, called iu 
the West Indies the four o'clock flower, and 
.1/. longijlora aie very drastic. 3/. simvcohn^, 
a species having the flavour of anise, is gi^en 
in .Mexico against dinrrha:a and rlieumatism, 

mi-r&b'-i-lite, s. (Lat. ml mlrahik = .i 
strange or wonderful salt, an expression said 
to have been used by Glauber, because of 
the unexpected result of an experiment with 
sulphuric acid and conouon salt,] 

bSli, boy ; po^t. jo^l : cat, cell, chorus, ^hin, bench : go, gem ; thin, this : sin. as : expect, ^enophon, e^tst. ph = f. 
-cian, -tian = shan. -tion, -sion = shiin ; -tion, -sion = zhun. -clous, -tious, -sious = shus. -ble, -die, &c. = beU dpL 


mirable -mirror 

Mill. : A monoclinic inimnil, rniely ohsi-rvcil 
in crystals (except artitlciiilly). Iml usmiUy iu 
Vtnon'sceiit crusU. llardiicss, 1*6 to *J ; fi\^. gi: 
H81 ; lustre, vitreous; colour, white ; taste, 
c*tol, feeblv saline, and bitter. Conivus. : 
soda, 103 ;"snli'huricaci(l,24-S; water. 56-lt = 
100. Occurs abuiuKintly at Carlsbad. Koheniia, 
in the water of the hot si>rings, at the salt 
mines of Ischl and Hallstadt, Austria, and as 
efflorescences at several places iu the United 
* mir'-a-We, n. [O. Fr., from Lat. mirabilis 
= wonderful, from miror= to wonder, tr) ad- 
mire; Ital. miwbile.] Wonderful, adniitable. 
'• Hot Nwiiitoleiiiui BO utirnblr." 

StHiketp. : Troitiu A Crcuida. iv, 5. 

Mir-&ch, s. ICorrupt. Amb.] 

A.<tron. : A fixed star, ^ AiidromediP. 
mir'-a-Cle, s. [Fr., from miruculum^ 
st)Uie"thiiii; wonderful, from miror = to wonder 
at ; minis = wouderful ; O. Sp. miraclo; Ital. 

1. A wonder, a wonderftd tiling; anything 
which excites wonder, surprise, or astonish- 
ment ; a marvel. 

" I hftve T»cheM tbe Ephesiaii's mirntJc— 
Its i-uluiuua strfw tlie wilderuess." 

tiyroii: Clulde Harold, iv. 153. 

* 2. A niii-acle-play ; a dramatic performance 
based on events iu tiie life of Our Lord, or uf 
tlie saints. 

3. An act or effect sensibly deviating from 
the known laws of nature, wrought nr su]i- 
iM.sed to be wrought by the direct interposi- 
tion, aid, or permission of a sui>ernaiural 
being ; a supernatural event or act. 

" A miracU I t.-ike tn l>e a K-nsUtle operation, whicli. 
beiiik' above tlic coiiii'reheiifiioii uf tlie spectAtor, and 
ill hia opiuiou coiitnii->' to the estiblislied course of 
luaure, is tJiketi by meii to be divine."— tocfa;: A tiU- 
course n/ .Viraclet. 

II The Controivrsy regarding viirades: 
Mental Phil., Theol, Church Flist., <fc. ; This 
was conimeuced by David Hume, who, iu 1750, 
published, as the tenth section of his /»- 
iiuirif Concerning llnmayi Understanding, an 
essay lieaded, " Of Miracles," and asserted 

■■ A miracle is a violatiou of the lawe of nature, aiid, 
as n firm aud unalterable exiterieuce has eslftblinhed 
tliese laws, the proof atraiiiBta miiacle from the very 
nature uf tbe fact is as entire as any argument from 
exi>erieuce can iHJsaibly be imagined. Again, " That 
no testimony is sufficient to establish a miracle, unless 
the testimony be of sucb it kind that its faJBehuod 
would be iiioi-e miraculous tlian the fact which it 
eude.'ivours to establish, and, even in that case, there 
is a mutual destruction of arguments, and the 
suiterior only gives us an aasumnce suitable to that 
degree of force which remains alter deducting tlie 
inferior." ( Work* (ed. 1809), |>i'- 120-126.) 

Many replies were given on the Christian 
side to Hume's argument, one of tlie most 
uoted being A Dissertation on Miracles, by 
George Campbell, U.D., F.U.S.. Principal tif 
Marischal College, Aberdeen. His contention 
(ir-jcArs (ed. 1840), i. 29-39), in wliich he was 
.sm)ported long afterwards by Archbishop 
"Wliately, was, that there was a want of pre- 
eisiou in Hume's use of the word experience. 
Wliately showed that the word may have 
three meanings: personal experience, which 
would not be iniportant for Hume's purpose ; 
universal experience, regarding which it would 
be a petitio principii to assert that it was 
against the occuiTence at any period of tlie 
world's history of miracles; or something 
itttrrmediate between the two, viz., the expe- 
ience of the generality, which is not enough 
t«" establish Hume's propositiou. (Whatihj: 
Loqic (Appendix I, viii.), Exi^rience.) Some 
no\v hold the view that a miracle is not a vio- 
lation of the laws of nature, but the operation 
nf a liigher law overriding that of a lower, as 
\vhat may be termed the law of life suspends 
the chemical action of tlie gastric juices (Ui the 
stomach itstlf during life, leaving them free to 
aL-t at dtath. 

* miracle-monger, s. An impostor who 
pretends to work miracles. 

■'Tbese vuritcJc-ino»pm have alarmed the world 
round about them to a discern meut of their tricks,"— 

>'[y»M. Scrmoiis, vol. iiL, ser. 11. 

miracle-play, s. [Miracle, s., 2.] 

' miracle-prooi^ a. Not to be per- 
suaded even by miracles. 

"He is ^niriiclcijroof. and beyond the reach of per- 
Bii.ision ; and not like to heooiivuiced tillitis too'bite." 
—South: Sfrmoiii. vol. Ix., ser. 8. 

*mir'-a-cle, ''myr-a-cle, v.t. [Miraclf., .';.] 
To make into a miracle ; to render miraculous. 

'■ I'm not their father, yet who this should be 
Doth ^iiiraclc itseif, loved l>efore me." 

Hhakenp. : Cinn-hetiuc. iv. 2. 

• ml-r&C'-U-lize, r.r. IKng. miracle; -izt..] 
Ti> rej'rescnt as a niirach- ; to attribute any 
event to supernatui-al intervention. 

n^-rfto'-U-lo&S, ". [Fr. miracnlcux ; Sp. & 
Tort, miiacuhsv : Ital. mir^icoh'so.] 

1. Of the nature of a miracle; exhibiting, 
involving, or performed by a ].i.wer more than 
natural ; cfl'ected by the direct intervention 
or agency cf God. 

" Again, there i« nothing in the world, but what is 
indeed doubly miracHloiu.—Orew: t'wnno. Sacra, 
bk. iv.. ch. V. 

2. Wonderful, marvellous, extraordinary, 
exceeilingly surprising, almost incredible : as, 
a mintcHloHS feat, a miraculous escape. 

miraculous gifts, s. ;>/. [Girr.l 

mi-r&c'-u-lous-ly, adv. [Eng. mimculotis; 


1. By nu'ans of a miracle ; by power above 
that of nature. 

"Some cheats have pretended to cure diseases »u- 
raculotulu-"—fortfut: Works, vol. ii., leet, 14, 

2. In a miraculous manner or degree ; won- 
derfully, extraordinarily. 

" Mustle and nerve miraculouslj/ spun." 

iCowfier : /ietironfttt. b9, 

mi-rS-C'-U-lOUS-ness, s. [Eng. miraculous; 
-ittss.] The quality or sUte of being miracu- 
lous ; the state of being eflected by miracle. 
" The miraculoutneas of such .ippearances will l»e no 
longer used as iin argument against their possibility. 
— iVaet: On thu /:eturTe-:Cioii, 5 13.. 

mir-a-dor', s. [Sp., from mirar = to look.] 
A balcony ; a belvedere or gallery command- 
ing au extensive view, 

*' Mean time your valiant son, who had l»efore 
Gaiu'd fame, rode round to every miriidor." 

Drydiin: 1 Conguat uf llranada, I. I. 

mi-rage' (ge as zll)» 5. [Fr., from mire.r = to 
hiuk at, from Low Lat. viiru^ta behold, 
from Lat. miror = to wonder at.] Au optical 
illusion by which images of distant objects 
are seen as if inverted, below the ground or 
raised in the atmosphere. The plienomenon 
is best observed in the Egyptian or other 
desei-ts, though occasionally seen elsewhere, 
aud the inverted images so much resemble 
those made in water as to create the illusion 
that a lake is really near. The soldiers of 
Napoleon L, when in Egypt, were much 
tantalised by the mirage ; and Monge, who 
accompanied the expedition, was the first to 
explain the illusion. The layers of air in 
contact with the heated soil are rarefied and 
expanded more than those immediately above 
their ; a ray of light from an elevated object 
has to traverse strata of air less and less re- 
fracting, aud the angle of incidence con- 
tinually increases in amount till refraction 
gives place to internal reflection. According 
to the varying density of the several strata of 
air the mirage varies its chai"acter. In 1822, 
Captain Scoresby, sailing in the Polar regions, 
saw the mirage of a ship inverted in the air. 
He recognised it as his fatlier's vessel, the 
Faine, and found afterwards that she was at 
the time thirty miles off. The mirage is 
sometimes reflected sideways. By this means 
the French coast has at times been made to 
appear in comparative proximity to our own. 
The luii-age was known in ancient Jewish 
times ; it is mentioned in Isaiali xxxv. 7, " And 
the parched ground shall become a pool and 
the thirsty land (Heb. y^^ {sharahii) = t\ie 
inii'3ge)springs of water." Tlie Fata Morgana, 
what sailors call the ''loomings," the F'lying 
Dutchman, the Enchanted Island, Cai>e Fly- 
away, &c., are all produced by the mirage. 

mir-bane, s. [Etym. doubtful.] [Nitro- 


mir-bel'-i-a, 5. [Named after C. F. Brisseau 
Mirbel, a botanicnl physiologist, director of 
the Jardiu de Roi, at Paris.] 

Bot. : The typical genus of the sub-tribe 
Mirbelieas (q.v.). 

mir-bel-i-e'-se, s. p?. [Mod. Lat. mirheliip) 
(4. v.). ; Lat. feui. pi. adj. suti". -tte.] 

Bot. : A sub-tribe of papilionaceous plants, 
tribe Podalyricie. 

mire (l). * myre, s. [Icel. myrr, mi^rf = a bog, 
a swamp ; cngn. with Sw, myra = a bog ; Dan. 
viyr, vujn: ; O. Dut. ')noer= mud, mire ; O. H. 
Ger. viios, M. H. Ger. jnics = moss, swamp.] 
SVet. clayey soil ; mud, dirt. 

"Thy feet are sunk in the ynire. and they are turned 
away hiicii."— Jeremiah xxxviii. 2i. 

mire-crow, ". The sea-crow, laughing- 

^'iill, -T I'Cfwit-guII, I.tinis ridilmndus. 

mire - drum, * mire - drombylle, 
* myre-drommylle, ' myre dromble, 

.■;. Till- bitt.-iii. tr.'Mi its liot<-, and habit ot 
frc'picnting miiy jilacL-s. 

mire (l), v.t. A: i. [Mike, 5.] 
A. Transitive: 

1. To iilunge, set, or stick fast in mire : as, 
A h'oisc or cart is mired when it has sunk so 
deep in the mud that it cannot be moved. 

* 2 To stain or soil with any foul matter. 
(Lit. a; Fig.) 

" Uer iMilfrey's flanks were mirrd and Iwtlied in sweat." 
.Vatthi-w Arnold : Trittrnm A IsfuU. iii. 

* B. Intraus.: To sink in mud; to sink so 
deep as to be unable to move. 

'• Paint till a horse may miri- upon your face. 

Shaketp. . Timon of Athens, iv. :!. 

*niire (2), s. [.\.S. mire; Da. myre; Icel. 
vmur; Ger. mierc = a,n ant.] An ant; a 
liismire (q.v.). 

'mire (2), ""myre, v.L [Lat. miror.] To 

" He mj/rcd what course may be warelye taken. " 
Stanyhurtt : Mrgil; ,fc"neW iv. 292. 

Mir'-f&ck, s. [Corrupted Arabic] 
Astron. : A fixed star, a Persei. 

"-mi-rif'-ic, * mi-rif -ic-al, o. [Lat. Tiii- 

rijicus, from mints ■= wunderfid, and facia =■ 
to do.] Performing or working wonders; 

"Move numerous, wonder-work iug. aud mirific."— 
Vrquhart : Jiabdais, bk. iii.. ch. iv. 

* mi-rif'-i-cent,o. [Lat. mirus= Avonderful, 
aud facieas, pr. par. of faciu = to do, to make, ] 
Wonder-working ; causing wonder ; wouderful. 

" Encbnntmeut Agripi)a defines to be nothing but 
tbe conveyance of a certain mirificent power into the 
thing encliaaited."— //. More: Myttery of Iniquity, 
bk. i., ch. xviil.. § 3. 

miir'-i-ness, s. [Eng. m/n/; -Jiess.] The 
quality or state of being miry ; dirtiuess, 

mi-ri'-quid-ite, s. [Namei' after the ohl 
Miriiiuidi Foi'est, Saxon Erzgebirge ; sutf. -ite 
(Uin.); Ger. viiriquidit.] 

Min.: A rhombohedral mineral, occurring 
in very minute crystals, and sometimes mas- 
sive. Colour of crystiils, bUiL-kish-brown ; of 
massive varieties, yellowish t" red dish -brown ; 
streak, ochre-yellow ; lustre, vitreous ; brittle; 
hardness, 4*0. Contains arsenic and phos- 
phoric acids, sesquioxide of iron, protoxide of 
lead, and water. Found at Schneeberg, Sax- 
ony, associated with vjirioiis other minerals. 

mirk, murk, * merke, * mirke, a. & s. 

[A,^*. mure, mirce, mgrce; Icel. myrkr ; Dan. 
& Sw. mork — murky (q.v.).] 

A. Asiuij.: Dark, murky, gloomy. 
^Fit-mirk: A corruption uf pitch-mirk = 

as dark as iiitcli. 

"Its pit-mirk; but there's lio an ill turn on the 
road." — .Scott : ijuy Mannering, xi. 

B. As suhst. : Darkness, gloom. 

*' A weiTeour that were wys. desceyt siild euer drede. 
Well more on the nygbt. than ojkju tbe day. 
In mirke witbouten siglit withe enmys make afllrtvy." 
liobtrt tic tiruiine, \y. ItC 

*mirk'-i-ness, s. [Eng. mirky; -ness.] 
Darkness, gloominess, gloom. 

'mirk-some, ^ mirke'-some, «. [Eng. 

mirk ; -some.] Dark, gloomy, darksome, 

"Through mlrkesome aire hir ready way she makes." 
tSpcnser: F. V., I. v. 2S, 

'^ mirk'- some -ness, s. [Eng. mirksovie; 
■ mss.] The quality or state of being miik- 
some ; gloominess, glocun, darkness. 

"Clearly comprehend all the darkest mirktom^yjessc 
therein."— .l/oH/)f'<?"c .■ Appcttlc to (Jtesar, ch. viii. 

mirk'-y, *merk-ie. a. [Eng. mirk; -(/.] 
DarU, gloomy, murky. 

His nostril wide into the inerkie air." 

Milton: P. /... x. 29ft. 

mir'-ll-goes, s. p7. [Etym. doubtful.] Dizzi- 
ness, incgiiiits iu tlie head. 

" Mv bead's sae dinzy wi' the mirligoei."^ Scott I 
Old .M'urtality, ch. xxviii. 

*mlr-oir, s. [Mirror.] 

mir-ror, " mir-oir, " mir-our, *" mir- 
rour, myr our, ' myr-oure, ' myr- 
ror, ' myr- r our. -•;. l<>. Fr. lain.or (Fr. 

fate, lat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father ; we, wet, here, camel, her, there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, pot, 
or, wore, wolf, work, who, son ; mute, cub, ciire, unite, cur, rule, full : try, Syrian, ae, ce — g ; ey = a ; qu = kw. 

mirror— misapprehend 

vuiuir), hmn i\ l^it. ^ mini tori tun, fioiii Lnw 
L;it. miro= to lielmUi ; L:it. iniroi=^ to wuikKt 
at; Ital. mlratntr, vunulvn:] 
I. Ordinari/ I.uii(jnaije : 

1. Lit. : A lt-niking-y;lass, a speculum ; any 
glass or iiolislieil substJiuce wliich foiiii.s 
images by the ifHectiuu of tlic rays of lij^ht. 
Aiiumt^tit tlie ancients, iiiiriors woii- niaik' of 
\aiious int.'tals, as brtmzf, steel, silver, &v. 
MiiTors of polished nietjil art; now called 
^pecoila. [Spkculum.] The date of the in- 
\eutiiin of glass niiirors is not reitiiiidy 
JiiiMwn. From the accnunt of Pliny, it w.uihl 
•weem that they had been foiriieily made at 
ithe celebrated glass-limises <if Srdon. The 
inethod of coating with tinfoil was known 
as eailyas the sixteenth century, atMinaiio, 
where it was tirst practised. Mirrors are 
either plane, concave, or convex. Plane 
mirn)rs represent objects of their natural 
size ; concave mirrors, or those having a 
•liollow surface, collect the rays, reflecting 
them til a focus in front of the miri-or, and 
conseiiiiently enlarge the image of the object ; 
convex mirrors disjicrse the rays, and tliere- 
forc diminish tlie size of the image of the 

*" lu lier Imml slie lieltl a ijiirrftHrltriKlit, 
Wlierein lier luce she often viewed fayre," 

.S/WIUCI-: /■. v., I. iv. 10. 

2. Fifj. : Tliat on which we ought to lix our 
eyes ; that which presents a true image or re- 
jHcseiitation ; a pattern, :in example, au ex- 
emplar, a model. 

'■ Mirror ot tnitU. reverM and iiiourii'd !" 

toite: JIvmer: Odystei/\y. C20. 

II. A'rch. : A stuall oval ornament cut into 
deei' mouldings, and seiiarated by wreaths of 

^ xnirror-stone, s. A stone whicli le- 
llectsasa mirror; a kind of transparent stone. 

mir'-ror, f.L [Mirror, s.] 

' 1. Lit. : To furnish or provide with a 
mirror ur mirroi's. 
2. Fig. : To reflect, as in a mirror. 

* mir-rour, s. [Mirror, s.] 

jnirth, ' merthe. ■ mirthe, " murthe. ^. 

[A.S. viynjdh, inijnlk, miilulh, initi<jilli, 
allied to menj = merry. From a Celtic source ; 
cf. Gael. viirca(lh= play, niirth, minx,} = 
mirth; Ir. mireog ; Gael. 7/iirt'aj/ = a frolic.) 

1, Merriment, jollity, gaiety, hilarity, social 
liner riment. 

" Go tu tiiiw, I will prove tliee wjtli miX/t, therefore 
eiijuy pleauure." — Eccles. ii. l. 

* 2. A subject of merriment. 

" I'll use yen fiT my mlrtJi," 

iShak'sp. J Jutius Casar, iv, 3. 

■" xnirthe-less» «. [Mirthless.] 

jmirth-ful. a. [Eng. mirth; -/''?(0-] 

1. Full of niirth ; merry, gay, jovial, fes- 

■' When ruuiid tlie mirthful board tlie liarp is bunie." 
}\'cst : tiljimiiii: Viiet of PinU<ir. ode 1. 

2. Exciting or causing mirth or merriment. 

•■The rest . . . 
Tell mirthful tales iu course tliat till the ruuui 
With laufhter. ' 

ISeaum. & Flct. : Maul's Tragcily, i, 1. 

mirth'-ful-ly, ndi\ [Eng. mirthful; -ly.] In 
a niirtliful manner; merrily, jovially, jollity ; 
in mirth or joke. 

xairth'-fiil-ness, s. [Eng. mirthful; -ness.] 
The ipiality or state of being mii-thfnl ; niirth, 
merrinieid, festivity. 

* mirth'-less, ". [Eng. mirth; -less.] Devoid 
ol mirth or merriment ; joyless, cheerless, 

" Whilst his ^iiiiesuiiie cut-tiiil'd cur 
With liiN iitirlltlcus iiiasitei' iilays." 

Drai/ton : :i/iv //herd's Sirena. 

' mirth -less-ness, -'-. [Eng. viirthtfss; -mss.] 
Till' .jiiality i>r state of being mirthless ; cheer- 

Icssiicss, joylessness. 

miry, 'mier-ie. ' myr-ie, a. [Eng. mire 
(1), s. ; -i/-] 

1. Full of mud or inire ; muddy ; deep in 

"Thou ahould'st have heard in how miry n. place, 
how sh". was heiiiolled. "— iAuAcs/j. ; Tamiuo of the 
Hhreu', iv, I. 

2. Consisting of inire or mud. 

•■They are atiiii'd like meadows, yet not dry, 
With iniry Hiime left oii them fiy a tluud.' 

SUiikcsf/. : Titus .iiulrimicui:. Hi. 1. 

3. Covered with mire or mud ; muddy. 

mir'-za, ^. [Pers., from »(u -(Kii'/t. IVoni imr 
{(■mir)-= i)rince,andj(«/c7/ = sou. ) The common 
title (if honour in Persia, when It preceth'S tin' 
surname of an indi\'idnal ; when it is appended 
to the name it is eipiivalent to prince. 

mis-, prrf. [See dof.] A common prefix to 
Knglish wr>rds, and having the force of wnmg, 
defect, negation, failure, &c. It has two 
origins : — 

1. English and Scandinavian = A.S. mis-; 
Dut., Dan. & Icel. »ii^-;Sw. m(^^-,'(.ier. miss-; 
Goth, missel' : as in ;juVdeeil, mistake. 

2. French, frmii Ijitin ; the proper oM spell- 
ing was Hics-, as in (>. Fr. HUiichlef = mischief, 
from Lat. minus =. less. 

* mis, v.i. [Miss, v.] 

^ mis, (tdv. & s. [Miss, adi\] 

A. As adv. : Amiss, wrong, ill, 

B. As suhst. : A wrong. 

mis-^C-9ep-ta'-tion, .«. fPref. mis-, ami 
En^'. "rrrj^t'iliuii ('[.v.),J The act of taking ur 
undi'istamliiig in a wrong sense. 

• mJS-^C-9ep'-tioil, s. [Pref. mfs-, andEng. 
(ffLTjituiii ("i.v.).J The same as Misaccepta- 

TION (q.V.). 

"The apostle . . . couteiuiiiiig all impotent mig- 
accvjjdoiis calls them what he tiiiils them, a forward 
L'etieratiuii. "— «^. Hall: HvniioH preauht to the LonU, 

Kl-Ij. 18, KVM. 

' mis-ac-compt, i\t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
O'X-oiniit (ii.v.).j To miscalculate, to miscount, 
to jiiisreckon. 

" He thought he miina.-om,,lr,l liad his diiy." 

(.huur.r Tr-./h's ,1- <:-e.^<inl„. hk. V. 

^ xnis-a^hieve -ment, mis-at^liieve'- 
ment, i. jl'rcf. mis-, and Kng. luhiiCtmnU 
('l.v.).J Wrong doing. 

' mis-act', v.t. fPi'sf- "tiV, and Eng. oxi 
(4. v.). J To act badly. 

* mis-ad-jiist', I'.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
adjiiu'iii.v.).] To ail,)ust, arrange, or disjiosc 
badly or wrongly ; to put out of adjustment. 

* misad meas -ure-ment (^ iis zh), s. 

[Pref. mis-, and Eng. i>ilinciisurtrni-:nt {'[.y.).] 
Wrong measurement, 

"Through merft minadnmasun-ment of its luopin- 
quity."— A'. A. J'oc: Siihinx. 

mis-ad-v6n-ture, ' mess-a-ven-ture, 
" mis-a-ven-ture, * mis-a-ven-toure, 

5. [O. Fr. mr.ftfrrntiny; Vr. niisan iffmr. \vn\i 
O. Fr. wu'^"- = Lat. j/ii*i»5, and ;;ief£/(//c =: ad- 
venture.] Mischance ; ill luck ; bad fortune ; 
au unlucky chance or accident. 

" Wliat iniKudKfiititrc is so efirly up, 
Tlmt calls our jtersuN (r^m uur iiioriiiiig's rest ? ■ 

bJiukci/j. : Jiijiueo A Jalivt, v. 3. 

TI Homicide Inj Diisculveuture : Also called 
excusable liomicide, is when a person, while 
doing a lawful act, without any intentir)n of 
injury, unfortunately kills another. [Hu.mi- 


" mis-ad-ven'-tured, a, [Eng. misadivn- 

t'n-{,-)'; -Cf/.] Unfortunate. 

" A pair i.f «.tivcro9t lovers take their life ; 
Wliuse iiiimili-i-Mfiir'd piteous overthrows 
Do with their death bury their p:ireut's strife." 

.•^^hakes/j. : Uuiueo & Juliet. (Prol.) 

* mis-ad- ven'-tu-rous, a. [Pref. vtis-, and 
Eng. Itdveuturoiiii' (q.v.).j Uiifoitunate, un- 

'■ The tidiii^'s of our minndi'enfurous syiio(\." 

Tiiylor : Edwin the Fair, iv. I. 

' mis-ad- ver'-ten9e, s. [Pref. mis-, ami 
Eng. udctrlrnrt: (ij.\'.).] Inadvertence, care- 
lessness ; heedlessness. 

"Once hy miuulportcncc Merlin sat 
111 his own cliaii-.'^ Tviiiiyeuii : lluly Grail. 

* mis-ad-vT9e', ^^ [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
adrici: (q.v.).J III advice; bad advice or 


* mis-ad- vi§e', ' mis-a-vi^e', v.t. [Pref. 
mis-, and Eng. advise (q.v.).] ' To ad\ise 
wrongly ; to j^ve bad advice to. 

' mis- ad- vised', a. [Pref. mis-, ami Eng. ad- 
vi^nl(i[.y.).] Ill-advised, ill-direct.'d. 

mis-ad- vis'-6d-ly,t(./.'. [Kng. misudtixd; 
■hi.] Inconsiderately ; not ailvisedly. 

'■ III- liiili»cret<.-Iy. "t'<'<t('i*'>«>'V"''(!^^v''^>'^''^''t>^^^*'-~ 
~r<l'il: /.uke l\, 

■ mis-af feet; v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. of- 
J'xt (ii.V.),] To dislike. 

'■ That i>eace which you have hitherto so iwrvcrscly 
mUnffcf:tfil."~.U ilttiii : /Uiuoitft. lUfciice. 

' mis-af-fect'-ed, «. [Pref. hhV, ami Eng. 

«2l'.-ri,'.J tq.v.).J 111-allected, ill-disi.osed. 

•■ Tli.iiit'li he nit Jit ease, he in no mis^vctixt."— Bur- 
ton: .inat'jiiiy ^f Mihtmhuly, It. lel. 

■ mis-af-fec'-tion. s. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
oga-tinn Oi-V.). J A wrong atlection, liking, or 

" Karthly-iud (trosae with tniMtfffctiout. it uchin the 
fleiih of slijfull coui-bts. "—///>. Jiall : C/utractcr 1/ Man. 

' mis-af-firm', r.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
('/ft//<(\'i.v.).J To atflrin, assei-t, or decline 
wrongly or incon^ectly. 

'•The triitli of what they theiiiBelves know toheliero 
nti»affirm'd."~Mitlu>i : /■Uf.unvklattcs. (I'ref.) 

" mis-31-le-ga'-tion, *-. [Pref. mis-, and 
Kng idl"j>d,i-,( (ti.v.).] A false, erroneous, or 
incorrect allegation or statement. 

"I hiu] objected tu them, miialttyatioiit, mi^inttr- 
pretatioux, iiii.sjiifereiice8."— ///<. ttatt ; Jut. tu (ft* 
t'intliatdon of tiiiwctymnuus. (Pref.) 

■ mis-al-legc', mis-al-ledge', v.t. [Pref. 

tiii!<-, and Kng. iillcgc {'i-X.).] To allege, state, 
or cite erroneously. 

"Those two inimlledoid authors. '-fl/.. llaU : iJoa- 
our of Married Vlvrou. % It'- 

mis-al-li'-an9e, s. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
i<Uiaifx{*[.\.).\ An improper alliance or asso- 
ciation ; .-specif., an improper alliance by mar- 
riage. (In the latter sense generally written 
in the French form mestdlmuce.) 

"The eR'ect of which mlmlUancc was to discover 
and expose tlie iiiikedue-ss of the {iuthiu,"—Muid: Ou 
Vhiialry & Jlomaiice, let 8. 

t mis-al-lied', «. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. al- 
lied (i|"\'.).] Improperly or wrongly allied or 

■■Tliev are .1 miMifUi-d and dis)Ktniged branch of the 
hoiisL- ui Snixi'M.'—llurke : Letter to a AoWc Lord. 

' mis-al-lot'-ment, s. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
(tlhtiiiLiit (q.v.).j A wrong allotment. 

mis-al-ter, r.^ [Pief. mis-, and Eng. a/(tT 
(4.v.).j To alter or change for the worse. 

'•These are all whicli have so luiaaltcml the litur- 
gy."— W^a Hull : Am. tu )' indie, nf Hmertytnnuut, S H. 

mis'- an- thr ope, v. ['ir. jmo-arflptuTros {mis- 
<'i(f//M7/f<-,s) ~ hiiting mankind ; fj-to-nij {misa'')-=- 
to Iijite ; jLLiaos (//n'.s'.i.s) = li;ite, and ai-Bptairos 
(<.inthrojti>s)= a man.] A hater of mankind. 

" Alas, poor lU-aii 1 his only scmw 
Was to be held a iniAniiihro/'r." 

fin Ihc iH'nIh uf fii: .Swiff. 

mis-anthrop ~ic, mis-an-throp -ic-al, 

a. jEng. mi.^tuthru,,(.'); -iV, -,'.■.(/.) llatuig 
mankind ; having a dislike to mankind. 

" Whnt can be more (gloomy and mitnnthropiet"— 

Obsen-er, No. K.n. 

mis-^Ji'-tliro-pist, s. [Eng. misanthroji(i) ; 

• ist.] A niisanthrMpp. 

* mis-an'-thro-pize, r.t. [Kng. miscui- 

thn'i^i): -i:c.\ To render misanthroi>ic. 

mis- an'- thro -py, >■. [Gv. tJna-avBpuima (mis- 

uiithrupia), from fxttrai'OpuiTTOi; (wi.Miuthrupvs).^ 

Hatred of cjr dislike to maiddnd. 

" .Misatithrofiy Issues more from the morbid con- 
RciouMtess of self than (rum the Kon-iiwnl opiiiinu 
formed of others."— iewea ." IHtt. *if Phih f/ihy, 1. C7. 

mis-ap-pli-ca'-tion, s. [Pref. mis-, ami 
Eng. aj'i'iicatinii (f\.\.).] A wrong appliav* 
tiou ; aiiplication to a wrong purpose. 

"We should . . . inrrish, not for want, but for him- 
fif'fiUcittiiiii lit the means of life."— i&uurA ; Hcrnwtu, 
vol. xi., ser. :). 

mis-ap-ply', v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. (r;);'/i/ 
{q.v.'XJ To apply wrongly; to apply to a 
wrong jmrpose. 

mis-ap-pre -ci-ate (ei ns shi), r.t. [Pr. r. 
wi.-; and Eng. ui<j>nAi"tr (.|.v.). j To aj-pn- 
ciale imiierlectly ; not lo appreciate rightly 
or fully. 

mis-^p-pre-hend.i-./. [Pief. mis-, and Eng. 
apprdn'iul (q.v.).] To understand wrongly; 
tu misunderstand ; to take in a wrong sense. 

" He pi-otested that he hud been misaji/irvticmlcd."-- 
.!/<(. lulaij : Jlift. r.n-j.. cb. x. _ . 

b^ll, boy ; pout, jowl ; cat, 90!!, chorus, 9hin, toencli ; go, gem ; thin, this ; sin, as ; expect, Xenophon, exist, -ing. 
-cion, -tian = sban. -tion, -sion = shun : -tion, -sion = zhun. -cious, -tious, -sious = shus. -hie, -die, ic. = bel, del. 


misapprehension— miscellanarian 

mis ap-pro-hen'-sion, *■■ [Prt-f. mis-, and 

Ku'^. "yinrh'-nsion ('[.v.).^ A lilistukiug, a 
iiiisiakf ; wron^; ai']'ieIit*iision of a i>ei-scni's 
luuuiiing ; iiiiscoiiC('i>tion, nii^unilerAtnntlitig. 

" Pntieut aliitif n luxy wiuit peace tlirc>U|th uiisUkes 
anil n,inipi'>^/u:iui<,its ui Guii. ~StUii»afl^4t : HVrAa. 
VyI. lit., »cr. S, 

* mis ap'pre-hen'-sive-l^. adv. [Pref. 
Hji.v-, jiiui En^. oi'j'nfuitsivilif {iiA-.y] By mls- 
aj'jTt'lieiisiuu or mistake. 

mis-ap-pro'-pri-ate, v.t. [Picf. '»'«-. and 

f^ii;^' aypropriatt: ("i-v.).] To appropriate 
wrongly or wrongfully; to turn or put to a 
Avroiig purpose. 

mis-ap-pro-pri-a'-tion, s. [Pref. mis-, and 
Kiil;? apjiropviation (ii-V.).l The act of niisap- 
]>ropriating or turning to a wrong piu'pose. 

mis-ar-range', v.t. [PreL vtis-, ami Eng. 
(F/;/, (m-v.).] To disarrange ; to put out of 
ordur or arridij^fUienl. 

mis-ar-range'-ment, 5. [Pref. mis-, and 
:E,ng'.arnin(ieine)it(q.v.).} A ^viong or disorderly 
airaiigt-'inent ; want of order. 

* mis-gx-ray', s. [Pref. mis-, and Eug. array 
('l.v.).j Wsurder, confusion. 

" Tlieii »i>ru)ir wilil and mttarray 
JIftrr'il the iair form of festal tlay." 

Scott: Ladu of the Utke. v. 27. 

* mis-a-scribe', v.t. [Tref. mis-, and Eng. 
lucrihc (i-v.). j To ascribe falsely or wTungly. 

* mis-as-say', v.t. [Pief, mis-, and Eng. 
ifs*ii/(q.v.).J To try wrongly or unsuccess- 

" Hast tliou any sheep-cure mitnuaied J" 

Browne: WilUei Old Wennock. 

* nus~as-sign' (a silent), v.t. [Pref. mi5-, and 
Eng. assign (q.v.).] "" -— ■— ■<■■ 

To assign ^\Tungly or er- 


*', v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
(i?f(.(i(Z\<i.v.).] To disrogard, to neglect. 

" Tliey shall recover the tnitattended words of Christ 
to the sincerity of their true suvse."— Milton : Doctrine 
(if Divorce, bk. ii., ch. xxii. 

* mis-a-ven'-ture» 5. [Misadventure.] 

*mis-a-ver', I'.i. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. aver 
(q.v.).^ To assert wrongly. 

"Job hath miiaverred" 

bi/ipeittir : Job Triumphant, Iv. 215. 

* mi»-a-vise'» v.t. tMis.u>vi«E.] 

* mis-bear', * mis-bere, v.t. [Pref. 7711s-, 

and Eng. hear, v. (q.v.).J To bear or behave 
%vroDgly or improperly ; to misbehave. 

•'Ye \\a.vemishnm y on, and txe8i>assed unto me." — 
Chaucer: Tate o/ Jlelibcut. 

mis-be -come', v.t. [Pref. 7?iis-, and Eng. 
become (q.v.).] Not to become ; not to suit ; 
to suit or become ill. 

"Pri-'Vided only thiit it were such dnidgery as did 
not misbfxome &iihvuiiitiiiaa."— Macaulay : Uitt.Eny., 
ch. xiv. 

mis-be-c6m'-ing, a. [Pref. mis-^ and Eng. 
becoming (qv.).] Not becoming ; unbecom- 
ing, improper, indecorous. 

'■ Stir the consUmt luood of her calm tlioughts. 
And iiut theui into miibvco^ning plight." 

MUton : Coinua. 372. 

mis-be-c6m'-ing-ly, «(^''. [Eng. misheconi' 
in>j ; -In.] lu a misbecoming manner ; not be- 

■ " Those darker humours that 
Stick misbecomingly on uthcrs." 

Tico Jfoble Kiiumcn, i. 2. 

* mis-be -com' -ing-ness, s. [Eng. viishe- 

comoiij ; -iifss.] Tlie quality or state of being 
misbecoming ; unbeconiinguess. 

"These mere luoml failings, whose unfitness or niis- 
lecomiiiyneM makeaaU theyuilt," — £oi/le : H'wrt«,vi. 24. 

* mis-bede, v.t. & i. [A.S. misbeddan.] 

A. Trans. : To wrong by word or deed ; to 
injure, to insult. 

"Or who liath you mitbodm or offended? 
Du tell me if that it may be amended." 

Chaucer: C. T.. 911. 

B. Intrafis.: To act wrongly or insultingly 

" Whjm Lowys herd that sawe, that Roliert was so dede, 
Ageyn right k lawe, tille Henry ht- tniihed^:' 

Ji'ibert o/ Jirunne, p. 104. 

* mis-be-fall', v.i. LP*"^^- '"^i-*^-, and Eug. 
hc/all (q.v.).J To turn out badly or unfortu- 

" For ellee but a man do so 
Him male fuU ufte rixiibt'/all." 

Hotter : C. A.,i. 

mis-be-fit'-ting, a. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
hcfittlno ('l.^■.)■] 111 belittiug ; unbecoming, 


■ mis-be-gef, >■.(. [Pref. mi$-, and Eng. h^ott 
(q.v.).j Til beget wrongly. 

mxs-be-got -ten, " mis-bS-gSt', a. [Pief. 

mis-, and En-i." bff)nt. h-'^inff.n (q.v.).J liegot- 

ten wruugly ov unhiwfullj ; oi a kul origin. 

'■ Which, indeed, 
la valour miibcgot." tA'tJitsp. : Timon, iii. 6. 

mis-be-have', r.t. & (. [Prof, mis-, and Eng. 
btliave (q.v.).] 

A. Intrans. : To Ijehave ill or improperly. 

B, Trans. : To U'havo or conduct ill. (Fol- 
lowed by a rellexive pronoun.) 

" If aiilc i^ne dooofTeiide or tnitbfluiut hiaiMiUe. he is 
to be ourrt-cted and in\m»li'ai."~IIooker : Supplito/ the 
Jriih Chronic'.es (an. ISOS), 

mis-be-haved', a, [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
behaved {<L\.\\).'] Behaving ill or imjiroperly ; 
ill-conducted, ill-bred ; guilty of misbeha- 
" Like a mithchaved and sullen wench, 
Thou pout'at upon thy fortiuie and thv love." 

Shaketp. : Itoim-o i Juliet, iii. .1. 

mis-be-ha'-viouT (i as y), s. [Pref. mis-, 
and Eng, hehavioin \<\.\.).\ Bad behaviour ; 
ill-conduct, misconduct. 

"The cause of XAiis miibchaviour and unworthy de- 
portment waa their not underBlauduiit the designs of 
mercy," — Hoitth: Scnnont, Vwl. ix., ser. i. 

mis-be-bold'-en, a. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
btholden (q.v.).] Offensive, unkind. (Proc.) 

mis-be-Uef ', * mis-be-leefe, " mis-be- 
lieve, s. [Pref. mis-, and En,'. ?JL?j'.y (q.v.).] 
l-alse or erroneous belief; unbelief; false re- 

mis-be-lieve', v.i. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. be- 
lieve (q.v.).] To believe falsely or erronefmsly. 

"[She] chyde at him that made her misMu-iv." 

Spcntcr: /'. V-. I^'- ^b. 26. 

* mis-be-lieved', * mys-by-lyved, o. 

[Eng. mi.-^bt'lic/; -cd.] Holding a false or er- 
roneous belief or faith ; unbelieving. 
"And wj'thout i>eryl sykeioi-e. then to hyleue there 
Among mysbylyucde men." 

llubeH of OloKCtHlcr, p. 239, 

mis-be-liev'-er, s. [Eng. misbdiev(e) ; -er.] 
One who believes wrongly ; one who holds a 
false religion. 

" Men have been so curious to sIgniSe miibellcrers." 
—Up. Taylor : Scrinons, voL ii., Ser. 22. 

mis-be -lie V'-ing, a. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
believing (q.v.).] Believing wrongly or falsely ; 
holding a false faith j unbelieving. 

* mis-be-seem', v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
beseeiii (q.v.).] To misbecome ; to suit itl ; not 
to betit or beseem. 

"Too much mifbcs-.'cmhiff a generous nature."— /^a- 
ieiffh : Hist. iVorld, bk. iii.. ch. ui-, S ■*. 

* mis-be-seem'-ing, o. [Pref. mis-, and 
Eug. htS':€>ning (q.v.).] Misbecoming, unbe- 
coming, unfit, improper. 

"Neither in discoursing thus do we lay any mitbe- 
tei^ning imputation uix)n God." — Surrout: ^^nnoim. 
Vol. ii., ser. 15. 

*', v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eug. 
bcstoiv (q.v.).] To bestow improperly or 
vrongly ; to misapply. 

"To take the »/iM6w!(ww"rf wealth which they were 
cheated of from those our prelates," — JJillon: Aniniad. 
upon tfie Rernunttrants Defence. 

■ mis -birth, s. [Pref. mis-, and Eug. birth 
(q.v.).] An abortion. 

"A scandalous mwfciX/f of nature."— Cacfj/'c: Letters 
* Speeches of Cromwell, iii. 232. 

^ mis-bod-en, 3>a, jwr. [Misbede.] 

* mis-born', ^ mis-bore, a. [Pref. mis-, 
and Eug. horn (q.v. J.] Born to evil. 

"A pooie childe, and in the name 
Of thilke, whiche is so niisb-re. ' 
Wetoke." Uawer: C. .1., Ii. 

* mis-bdrce', a. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. burnc 
(q.v.).] :Misbehaved. 

mis-cal'-cu-late, v.t. & i. [Pref. mis-, and 
Eng. calcvlate (q.v.).] 

A. Trans. : To calculate wrongly ; to reckon 
wrong ; to make a wrong calculation or guess 

•'After all the care I have taken, there may Iw, in 
such a juultitude of iiassages, several misquoted . , . 
and tni^valculated." — Arbuthiiot: On Coins. 

B. Intrans.: To calculateor reckon wrongly. 

mis-cal-cu-la'-tion, s. [Pref. viis-, and 
Eng. calculation (q.v.).] An erroueons cal- 
culation, reekoniug, or guessing. 

mis-call', v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. call 


1. To call by a ^\Tong name; to name 
wrongly or improperly. 

"Tliat great sen tnfurnWwi the Pacific. "—flanc/K.- 
V'f/aff'- /{"iirtd the tVorld, ch. xvlii. 

' 2. To give a bad name or character to ; to 
3. Tt) abuse. 
" Whom she with leasings lewdly did jnitcall." 

:iprnser: F. <?., IV. vliL 24. 

' mis-cape', v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. scape, 
for escape (q.v.).] To escape througli inad- 

"Tliouyhtes misc.iped me in my \yte."—Fither : 
Sermons, i. Sb'J. 

mis-car'-riage, s. [Pref. viis-, and Eng. 
mrriage (q.v.).] 
I. Ordinary Language : 

1. An unfortunate issue or result of an 
undL'rtakiiig ; failure, non-succees. 

"Tlie delays and miscarriaffes which had been all 
but U<.Ui]."~.\facaulay : Bist. Ewj.. ch. xii. 

2. Ill-success, bad fortune, misfortune. 

3. Ill-conduct ; evil or improjier behaviour ; 

■■ Eefleoting on our past mitcarriafjtt, and inquiring 
into their causes."— i'urrt'iw.- Sermons, vuL Ii. ser. l. 

II. Med. : The act of bringing forth before 
the time; spec, the expulsion of the foetus 
from the uterus within six months after con- 
ception. [Abortion.] 

* mis-car ~riage-a-ble, a. [Eug. tniscar- 
riage; -able.] Liable to niiscan-y. 

" Why should we be more mitcarriaoeahle by such 
possibilities or hopes than others. "—Z(/a Dall : a Short 

mis-car -ry, * mis- car- 1 -en, * mys- 
car-ye, v.(. [Pref. mis-, and Eug. carry 


I. Oidi nary Language: 

1. To be carried to the wi'ong jdace ; to fail 
to reach its destination. 

"A letter which hath accideutxilly miscarried." — 
Shitkesp. : Love's Labour's Lost, iv. 2. 

2, To be driven or forced to the wrong place. 

"My ships have all misctirried,"~Sha?cesp. : Mer- 
chant of Venice, iii. 2. 

* 3. To fail ; not to succeed ; to be unsuc- 
cessful. (Siaid of persons.) 

" Up once again ; put spirit in the French ; 
If they mtscan-y, we miscarry too." 

Shaketp. ■ Kinff John, v. 4. 

4. To fail of the intended etfect or result ; 
not to succeed ; to prove unsuccessful. (Said 
of things.) 

*■ For what miscan-iet 
Shall be the general s fault, though he perform 
Tu th' utmost " ."itiiikesp. ■ Coi'iolanus, i. 1. 

II. -1M7, : To bring forth before the time ; 
to expel the fcetus within si.Kuiouthsaftercon- 

* mis-casf , v.t. [Pref. viis-, and Eug. cast 

1. To turn or cast wrongly, {lower : C. A.y 

2. To cast up or calculate wrongly ; to mis- 

"The number is somewhat wiiacort by Folybius." — 
Jialeiyh : Hist. World, bk. v.. ch. ii., § 8. 

"mis-cast', s. [Miscast, r.] An erroneous 
reckoning or calculation. 

* mis-ca^'-u-al-ty, s. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
msualtij (.q.v.)*] An incident which tui'us 
out unluckily or unlortunately. 

" Miscarri.iges of children, miscasualties, unquiet 
nesse." — Bp. Doll : Character of Mmi. 

^ nus-cath'-o-lic, " mis-cath-o-like, a. 

[Pi-ef. mis-, and Eng. catholic (q.v.).] Hetero- 
dox. {Bp. Hall: honour of Married Clergy, 
bk. iii., § 3.) 

mis-cee, s. [Missi.] 

' mis-9e-gen-a'-tioii, mis-9e-gexi-i'- 
tion, -^. [Lat. wiciceo = to mix, and grnits = 
a race.] A mingling or ama]g;un;ttiou of races. 

" A tyjie produced by a fusiou of diflereut races pro- 
ducetl alter a iieriod of inisceyenition and climacteric 
(? climatic) influences."— CocptT.^ Munumeiitai liist.qf 
J^aypf, P- 11. 

* mis-jel-la-nar'-i-an, a, & s. [Eng. mis- 

ceUaii{ij); -arian.] 

A. Asaflj. : Of or belonging to miscellanies; 

B. As snbst. : A -nTiter of miscellanies. 

fate, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father ; we, wet, here, camel, her, there 
oi, wore, wolf, work, who, son ; mute, cub, ciire, unite, cur, rule, full ; try, 

pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, pot. 
Syrian, ae, oe = e ; ey = a ; cu = kw. 

miscellane— miaeonceived 


* mis'-cel-lane, ■'>■. [A corrupt of mestlin or 
mL^rrllin.] A mixture of two or more sorts of 
grain ; iiiestliii. 

1 " It is tliiJiiJtlit to be of use to iimke some mhceHanr 
iu C'ini : as if ynii sow a few benus willi wheat, your 
whent will be tiic better."— tfciroH ; .Vtif. Hit(. 

mis-9el-la'-ne-a, s. pi. [Lat. neut. i>l. nf 
»i(ji>Y7ai(t'i',v = miscellaneous (q.v.)-] A col- 
lection of niiscollaneous matters of any kind ; 

; a coUectioti of miscelhineous literary com- 
jinsitions ; miscellanies. 

mis-9el-la-ne-ae. s. pi. [Fem. pi. of Lat. 

in i Sir!!:' liens = mixed, miscellaneous.] 

Tint. : A temporary nnler established by 
Linnaeus for those genera which he could not 
properly classify. 

mis-yel-la'-ne-ous, a. [Lat. miscellaneus, 
fioni iiils:rUii-i — mixed, from misceo= to mix.] 

1. Mixed, mingled; consisting of several 
kinds ; diversified. 

"The mijK-t'lJnjieoiis nwitter I propose to give m 
these aheet*."— Oftjrtvi'tfr, No. 1, 

2. Producing things of various kinds. 

"An eleenut ftml tniaccJI'tneoua writer." — Brotone: 
Tul'j'tr Err-ttm, bk. i.. ch. viii. 

mis-9el-la'-ne-ous-ly, adv. [Eng. mis- 
irVani'nHS ; ■!>/.] In a miscellaneous manner; 
l>runiiscuMusly ; with variety. 

mis-9el-la-ne-ous-ness, s. [Eng. mis- 
ceUaneous ; -ness.] Tlie quality or state of 
being miscellaneous ; variety, diversity. 

" inis-9el'-lan-ist, s. [Eng. m{iiceUan(ij) ; 
-ist.] A wri'ter of miscellanies; a miscellan- 

inis-9el'-lan-5?'» s- & <^- [Fi"- miscellanee, mis- 
ci!hi.ii'.'€s, hum Lat. viiscellanea, neut. pi. of 
miiiCcUancus = miscellaneous (q.v.).] 
A. As suhstantii't' : 

1. A mixture or mass composed of various 

2. Specif. : A book or magazine containing 
a number of compositions on miscellaneous 
subjects ; a collection of various kinds of 
treatises, essays, &c. 

" S|^>rat, Carew, Sedley, and a hnndred more, 
Like twiiikliui,' stars the misceUauies u'er." 

Pope: Satires, v. 110. 

"' B. .4s adj. : Miscellaneous, vaiious, di- 


* miscellany-madame, s. A female 
deali-r 111 miscellaneous articles, as of female 
attire, ornaments, &c. 

"As a ynisccUeiny-madanu;, I woiUd invent new 

tyre3,"— fli » J'-ns'j'i : Cynthia's Revels, iv. 1. 

* mis-9en -sure (s as sh), v,t. [Pref. mis-, 
and Eny. censure (q.v.).] To misjudge. 

"If we miacenture youi- a-tiuua," — Daniel: But. 
Eng.. p. 101. 

' mis-9en'-tre (tre as ter), v.t. [Pref. mis-, 
nnd Eng. centre (q.v,).] To centre or concen- 
trate y^>n a wrong object ; to direct or lix 

"They had misplaced, miscentred their hopes." — 
Donne : Derothn, p. 131. 

* ims-9hal'-lenge. s. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
challi'ii-i>: (u.v.").J A false challenge. 

" The lueeJe of thy ntischaUnuge and abet." 

Spenser. F. i^., IV. iii. u, 

t mis-9han9e', * mes-chance» * mis- 

chaunce, «. [O. Fr. nusdmnvc] Tliat which 
chain es ill ; ill-luck, misfortune, mishap', 
misadventure, disaster. 

" Make youi-self ready iu your cabin for the mis- 
chance of the \wVLT." —SItakesp. : Tempest, i. 1. 

nus-9han9e', * mis-chaunce, v.i. [Pref. 
mis-, and Eng. chance (q.v.).] To happen or 
turn out wrongly or unfortumttely. 
" still it hath miachautu'ed." 

Spotter : Mother lliibbei'ds Tale. 

* ims-9lian9e'-ful, a. [Eng. viisdio.nce ; -/hL] 

* inis-9han -9y, a. [Eng. misclawi^^) ; -y.] 

"If ever I sh'>uld be ao miachiincy.'—Reade : Clois- 
ter i JJearth, ch. xi\. 

* n^s-char'-ac-ter-izo, r.(. [Pref. mis-, 
and Eng. charade ri::e (q.v.).] To characterize 
wrongly or erroueou-sly ; Iu give or attribute 
a false or erroneous character to. 

mis ' 9harge', v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
charge (q.v.).] To charge wrongly ; to make 

a mistake in charging; as, To jiiischnrgr nii 

inis-9harge', -«. [MisrHARnE, v.] A mistake 
in charging ; a wrong or eiToneoiis charge: 
as, Ti' make a mischariji; in an acc<tunt. 

* mis-chefe, >. [MisfHiKF.] 

" mis-^hev a-blei ". [Mischief.] 

1. Unfortunate. 

2. Mischievous, hurtful. 

mis 9liief. * mes chief, * mis-chefe, 

^ mis cheve, ' mis chiefe, . [". Fr 

m''.s€hit:/, from mc>t (l^at. mimi.s), and <'/(»'/(Ijat. 
C'(j'»0 = ''^'"^8'^I ; cf. H]'. & Port, men'isealfi, fiom 
menos = Lat. viinits, and cto = Lat. caput.] 

L Harm, hui-t, injury, damage, whether 
intentional or unintentional. 

"And both theso kings' hearts shall be to da mis- 
cJi {'■/."— Dan. xi. 27. 

2. Misfortune, calamity, mishap, 

" I win heap miicMafs upon them ; I vill .spend mine 
arrows upon them."— /'i-u^ xxxii, 2a. 

3. That which causes harm, hurt, injury, <'r 

4. A source of trouble, vexation, nr annoy- 
ance ; a vexatious or annoying affair or matter. 

5. The doing of harm ; the causing of annoy- 
ance or slight injury ; WTOng doing ; as, He is 
always in mischief. 

* 6. A worker of mischief ; a mischief-maker. 
^ To -play the mischief: To cause great 

damage, hurt, or Injury. 

" These move slowly through the camp, their eentrl- 
fiig.'vl force playing tha ininchie/, blowing eieiytliing 
to pieces, knocking duwn tents, carrying them oft' lixi 
yards, and generally causing a good deal of biid lan- 
guage."— .l/ur«j/y Post, Feb. 5, 1885. 

mischief-maker, s. One who makes 
mischief; specif., one who stirs up ill-will, ill- 
feeling, or quarrels. 

" Her resentment was studiously kept alive by mis- 
chirf-mn'.ers of no oummon dexterity,"— .l/aoait/a^.- 
Hist. £iiii.. ch. XV. 

mischief-making, o. Making mischief ; 

sjieeif., stirring up ill-\\ill, ill-feelings, or 

*^ mis'-9hief, *mes~cheve, "mischieve, 

v.t. [MiscHiKf^ 5.] To cause mischief to; to 
hurt, to harm, to injure, tn annoy. 

" Grant, I may ever love, and rather woo 
Tliose that wiiuld mwcAu/me, than those that do." 
SfttiAt'jp. .■ Timoii of Athens, iv. 3. 

* mis'-9hief-fiil, a. [Eng. mischief; -fuL] 

" For mischieffid mfitters there wasn't a more in. 
geniuus lad in the school. ' — Fo'ite : The yahob. iii. 

mis -9hiev-ous, *mis-cheev-ous, 'mis- 
Chev-ous, '(. [Eny. viiffchief; -oi'S. For- 
meily pionounced vils-chicv'-ous, a jtronuncia- 
tion wliich, as well as mls-chiev'-i-oiis, still 
lingers among the uneducated.] 

1. Hurtful, harmful ; causing harm, hurt, 
-, or injury ; noxious, pernicious. 

"The deploi-ed and mischievous effect." 

Cotepcr: Task, iv. G16. 

2. Having the power to do harm, hurt, oi- 

" But he was . , . eo miscfiievous an eneni.v. that he 
was frequently courted."— J/ucuuru.v . //ist. tlnj., ch. iv. 

3. Inclined to mischief; fond of mischief: 
as, He is a ^eiy mixchievoxis boy, 

mis'-9hiev-oiis-lj^, adv. [Eng. viischievous; 


1. In a mischievous maimer; so as to cause 
misLliief, hurt, or Injury ; hurtfuUy. 

"Too oft«n and misrJiievously mistaken fur it." — 
South: Semtotu, vol. ill., ser. 4. 

2. With intent to do mischief, hurt, or in- 
jury : as, He did it mischicvouslii. 

mis -9hiev-ous-iiess, * mis-chev-ous- 

nesse, s. [Eng. mischievous ; -ness.] 

1. The quality or state of being mischievous; 
liurtfulness, harmfulness. 

" The mischievotumess, . . . the impudence, the false- 
hoi^d, ,ind the cuufirmed obstiuaey luund in an aged, 
long-pntctiaed siiuier. '— &)u(A- Serynviis. 

2. Disposition to do mischief, harm, or injury. 
m,isQh'-zLa, s. [Mishna.] 

mis-9ho6se, v.t. it L [Pref. viis-j and Eng. 


t A. Trans. : To choose wrongly ; to make 
a wrong choice in. 

" We ntM(-Ao"5'' the dale."— Sfowc tlizabethtan. i:,%i 

* B. Int]-an^. : To make a wrong choice. 

* mis Chris -ten (' silent), r./. [Pref. mi*-, 
ari'l I'.Mii. i-hrishii (»i.v.).*] To christen wrongly 

or iiiijuTlrctly. 

* mis-9i-'bD'~i-tj^. J. [Fr. miscihtUte, from 
■); = niisrililL'(q.v.).] The quality or state 
of bfing miscible ; capability of being mixed. 

•* mis'-9i-ble, a. [Fr., from Lat. vtisrco = tt> 
mix; Jip. miscibh : Ital. mUcibife.] Capable 
of being mixed or united by mixture. 

* miS'9i-ta'-tion, ■«. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
cii-iii'iH (q.v.).] A false or erroneous citation ; 

"What a mi»cUati'm it i)\it\"— Bp. HaJI : Content- 
platium. bk. Iv. 

*mi0-9Xte', r.'. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. cite 
(cj-v.).] To cite or quote falsely or eiTo- 
neonsly ; to misquote. 

"If Satan have miacited the Pnalma."— fliJ. Halt : 
II"U'-nr "f Married Clrrjy, bk. i., ser. 1. 

* mis-claim', .f. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. claim 

(q.v.). J A false or mistaken claim. 

* mis-cog -ni'Zant (or g silent). <i. [Pref. 
mis-, and Eng. i'"ijnizan( {(i.w)."] Not cogni- 
zant; ignorant of; unacquainted with. 

* mis-COg-nize', v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
cogiiizc (q.v.).] To misunderstand. 

"Thi't'ood never in tervert, nox misc'}gnize the favour 
and benefit which tliey have received, '—V. Holland : 
PhitarvJi. p. 8M. 

* mis-col-lect', v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
collect (q.v.).J To collect wrongly. 

* mis-c6l-lec'-tion, s. [Prof, mis-, and Eng. 
cuUectiun (ii.v.).j A wrong, faulty, or im- 
perfect collection or gathering. 

"1 rind hoth a. mi nrriirf'ti'iTi and a wrong charge."— 
/i//. Hull: Apol. itj'iinst Urowttists. 

^ mis-c6l-lo-ca -tion, s. [Pref. mis-, and 
Eng. cvll'jf-ition (q v.).J Wrong collocation. 

* mis-col'-our, v.t. [Pref. mi*-, and Eng. 
colour, V. (q.v.),] To give a wrong colour or 
meaning U>. 

* mis -com- fort, • mys- com -forte, v- 

[Pref, nii^:-. and Eng. couifcrt (q.v.).j l.'is- 
comfort, dii^i^artening. 

" To hea\^[<or 7>iyieoit>fitrte of my chere." 

C'.aucer: Testament qf Love, bk. t. 

* mis- com' -fort, v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
coiiifur! (11- V.).] To cause discomfort to. 

*" mis-c6m-mit', v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
comviit (q-^'.).] To do amiss. 

^ mis -com -plain', v.i. [Pref. mis- and Eng. 
eoinj-lam (q.v.).] To coiuplaiu wrongly. 

" \'ij\ d uf kiiLiwledfe'e j-et, yet mutcmnplain." 

.N>/(v«fer .■ J-jb Triumphant, iv. 25a, 

' nus-com-pre-hend', v.t. [Pref. mis-, 
and Eiii,'. c>jmj'rthcn>i (q.v.).] To understand 
wrungl)- or erioueously ; to misunderstand. 

* mis-c6m.-pute', v.t. [Pref. viis-. and Eng. 
compute (q.v.).] To compute wrongly ; to mis- 

* mis -o6m-pute, «. [Miscompute, r.] a 
miscalculation, a misreckouiug, a mii>coni- 

" Budileus de Asse correcting their yniscominttr of 
\nll.i."—Lruu-jic : Wit-jar i^rruun, hk. % ii., ch. xvili, 

* mis-c6n-9eit', v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
coHceitf v. (q.v.).] To misconceive. 

"If you would not misconceit that I studioualy in- 
tended your defamation."— jVuaAe ,* Lenten Stujfe. 

^ mis' -con- 9eit, ' mis - con - ceipt, .-•. 
[Pref. mis-, and Eng. ojuccit, s. (q.v.).J Mis- 

"That general misconrrit of tho J«wb, about tht 
kinL:dum of the UesAiah."— iSoufA; Sermoiu, \ol- vU., 
8c r. 2. 

mis-con-9eive', v.t. & i. [Pref. mis-, and 

Eng. n.;uTa-(.'(q.V.).] 

A. Trfuis. : To mi^udge ; to have a false 
notion or conception of. 

B. Intratis. : To have or entertain false or 
erroneous notions or ideas ; to misjudge, to 

• mi8-c6n-9eived', ' mis-con-ceyved. a. 

[Misconceive.] Mistaken, erring; having a 
wrong or erroneous concei»tion. 

" No. mijtcoMcciwvf ,' Joan of Arc hath been 
A virvlu liom her tender iulHUcy." 

Sliakesp. : 1 Benry 17., v. t 

bSil, bo^ ; pout, jowl : cat, 9ell, chorus, 9hin, benph ; go. gem ; thin, this : sin, as ; expect. :^enophon, e^t. ph = t 
-cian, -tian = shan. -tion, -sion = shun ; -tlon, -gion ^ zhun. -cious, -tious. -sious = shus. -ble, -die, i:c. = bel, del. 


misconceiver— misdemeanour 

* mis-con-gelv -er, s. lEng. viiscnncfiiic): 
■ i..\ MiiL' Willi iiiiscoiiccivfs, jnisjuilges, or 

Afiiurii, .t tUrt. . J'ii*tioualii Miiiiinan, It. 1. 

xnis-c6n'0ep'-tlon, •<. [ Pref. mi.i-, nnd Kn;:. 
conw^'/io)i(ii.v.).] A false or fmuieous con- 
ceplinn, hU-a, or notion ; inis»|'iireheiision, 

■■ It ciuumt W. Mmt mir kiiowlwlije ■houhl lie oth^T 
tlmii nil hwtiiof miaroiitvpliun muI eriur."— tf/u/Ji-jH ." 
y<inirj/((f Vo-jmutixtHg. cli. vlll. 

• mis-cdn-olu'-Bion, •'. [Pref. miS', and 
Kiig. <T-»r7('.-;('..(t (f|.v.).J A false or erront'outi 
cuiichision or inlVrfncf. 

"Away, tlieii. with !i.U tlie f.iUe poaltiitiia mid mh- 
coiKliiaiom.'—fl/: Unit: Futhiont of trt4i trorltt. 

mis-con' -duct, .«. [Pref. imV, «nd Eng. 

^ /"W, s. (n-v.).] 

1. Wrong ur improper conduct; niislMJ- 

" L«t wi»dom tw liy piwt inh<y>tidiirt IcAniwI." 

JVctxK'ffi ; Vault! <if lHUtA*:n<x, il. 70, 

2. Mi<iii:iii;i^fiijent. 

mis-con-duct', r.f. [Pref. mis-, nnd En^. 
comhtct (4.V.). j 

1. To conduct or ni.inaj,'e wrongly or badly 
to niisniauage. 

2. To niislwliave (used rcflexivfly) : as, He 
miaconiUtcteil himself. 

• mis-con'-fi-dent, ". {Vvi'T. viis-, and 
Eng. coiiji' (<|.v.).1 Wrongly conlideut ; 
conlident witliout reasfin or grounds, 

" 31y eves are so lyiicenii, na t« nee ymi so jirfiutlly 
mismnfitUiit.'—nt,. Hall: Amwcr to the fhittictUion 
of ^iiiiectyfiiUHiix. 

"mis-con-Jec'-ture, ". fPref- ""'■% ^'I'l 
Eiig. >:n,ri.rt<nr. s. (.|.v.).] A wroug or erm- 
nt-t'us coujfcture nr gui'ss. 

" I hoiN! tliey will pUuflilily leceive our atteinptfl, 
or cauditlly correct our tnhconjccturct." — Browne: 
Vtil'jar Erroixrt. 

* mis-con-jec'-ture, i^.t. & i. [Pref. i;i;.s-, 

.ind Eng. ajiijf'rtiin , s. (q.v.).] 

A, Ti'nis. : To make a wrong guess as to ; 
to niiscalculate, t<p misconceive. 

B, Iiitrans. : To gues.s wron~ly, to mis- 

'■ Persons do mlicotijcftnre of tlie Iminours of men 
In autliority."— /iiicfjii ; Vn V/mrch C'oiitruircr»iet. 

' mis-con'-se-crate, '■./. [Pref. mis-, and 
Eng. n\,i.w-rfiti'{n.\.).} To consecrate wrongly 
or imjiroiK'rly. 

■' Tlie gust tlutt tore their mitcoitxecrtited flnga nml 
sayles,"— /?i>. J/all: Di-fctt »>/ Critcltie. 

' mis-con -se-quenge, s. [Pref. diw, and 
ETig. fO/'.-;'''V"*''NV'(ii.v.).J A false or erroneous 
Consequence or conclusion. 

"SjitftU iind the imifftiie world are very Inventive 
cf hucli shajwa rtiid colouru iis nuvy make truth tHlioii.t. 
drawing iiioiiBtroiiit niitiriinKquKticca out of It. '— 
L'siiihton : O'lii. fin I'ctir iii. 8. 

• mis-c6n'-Ster, v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
•:(>,i:.U-r ((j.v.).] To misconstrue, to misjudge, 
to misappreliend. 

'■ He mUcontter* nil that you have done." 

iHuikenp. : At }'oti l.ika It, i. C. 

' mis-con'-stru-a-ble, ". [Eng. w'tsmn- 
sii-H{y): -"hl.-.\ (';i]i;(hIcof nr liable to iiiiscun- 
structinii. {Soi'th: Kivnu-n, \>. US.) 

' mis -con- Struct', v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 

1. To construct wrongly. 

2. To misconstrue, to niisappreliend. 

mis-con-struc'-tion, s. [Pref. vils--, and 
Kiig. -uiistri'itin,, ((|.v.).] The act of miscm- 
sliuiiig; wioiig inLeipretiition of wm-tls or 
things; a miseoiiceptiun, a misunderstanding, 
a misapprehension. 

'• The itilncniixfrr'rfhn to which this represeiitntJon 
was liable."— /'rt?'-y . K'-rtiwus, 'i<K 

mis-con-strue, mis-con-strue', 
*.misse-con-strewe, '■./. [Pref. mis-, and 
Eng. i-',its.t,-uc ((|.v.). : To cnstrue uv interpret 
wrongly; to nti.-.takf the meaning of; to mis- 
conceive, to misa)>pri'lii-ud. 

" From it> harmless glee, 
The wretch inifcuuKtriiril villaiiy." 

Hcoft : nokehl/, Iv. 21, 

inis-c6n'-stru-er,s, [Eng. m(S(o;).s/r»(fi);-er.] 
Kixm wliu misconstrues, misconceives, or in- 
terprets wrongly. 

■' Which those v\iiuon*tmerg are fain to understand 
of the distinct iiutlttcatloiiN t;lveii to the iiiigeU, ""—/(/». 
Uull: Cases 0/ C'jtisciciite. dec. 3. cli. x. 

• niis-cdn tent , ' mls-con-tente, ■<• |< >■ Ei . 

,„'.-runl,i<f : Er. iwrnutrnt.] Discoliteilted, 
dispU-asod. dissatislied. 

"Shu wfu. iii.t iinxi-^iiilriiti- that he Mined Utel U> 
ret-ardf J;koI.« v. k:\W- ' - I'tUil : John i\. 

•mis-con-tSnt-ed.". [Pn-f. m-V.andEug. 
couUnttd Oi.v.).J Discontented, di-ssalistled. 
"Thinking that h« would be rnUvvnttntcd Uivie- 
vit\\"—Ca<3: Joint Iii. 

" mis-con-tent'-ment, s, [Pref. vus-, and 
Eng. .u„i,-,itm.>,( (.[.v.).] Discontent. 

■■ I hav,- nM ..i.i-.l.iMv ..f the kliit'rt niHje»tes mj/tcon- 
tei<tm.:nt:—fi<ir,in.r T<> I'n'jft. ISlC 

mis-con-tin'-u-anfe, ^';. [Pi'cf- '«'«-. »"*! 
Eng. coiitinumice (q.v.).] 

* 1. Ord. Lang. : Cessation, discontinuance. 
2. laiv: Continuance by an improper 

* mis-cop '-j^, s. [Pref. iiiis; and Eng. coyy 

(q.v.).] An incorrect cojiy. 

"It uiltfht Iw a iiilB|irint or }nUcopu."~Atlnurir 

• mis-cop' -3^, t\t. [Pref. "lis-, and Eng. cojni 

(-) C'l-v) J To copy wrongly. 

" WurdH mincujiied .'—Atintitic Monthly (1881), !>. 478. 

'mis-cord', v.t. [Pref. mis; and Eng. conl 
((l.v.).] To disagi-ee ; to be disconhmt. 

" He was a man ritfht exjjerte in reaaouR. and eweete 
inhl8w..nle» and the weikes }niKorden."—<,'lutiii:er: 
Ttst. 0/ Lofc, hk. ii. 

"■ mis-cor-rect', v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
mnri-i, v. (q.v.). ] To ci>iTect wroiigly ; t" 
nii>stake in coirccting another. 

' mis-coun'-seL, v.t. [Pref, jkiV, ami Eng. 
(.'woiN''/ (i[.v.).j To ill. 

" Tilings tniacoitiigi-tled niiiHtneed»i uiifuvenil." 

Spetucr : Mother llnhbt-rds Tale. 

mis-count', r.t. & i. [O. Er. wesconter.] 

A^tTransitice : 

1, To count wrongly or incorrectly; to 
make a mistake in counting. 

^2. To misconstrue, to misjudge, to mis- 

B, Intransitive: 

1. To count or reckon wrongly ; to make a 
false count or calculation. 

•■ In their conii>utjn:ion they had mistaken and 
mitvuiilKd in their nomber an liundrellt yerejs."— 
Hall: llinry 17//. (a». 15). 

*2. To misjudge, to mistake. 

" And if 8u be. that he mincottnUth, 
To make in his auswere a faile." 

Oowir: C. A., l- 

mis-COtint', s. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. CO Mil r, s. 
(q.v.). J A mistake in counting or reckoning. 

" mis-coV-et-ing, s. [Pref. viis-, and Eng. 
,-nr'iin>] (q.v.).] Coveting or desiring wrong- 
fully. ' 

" Through robherie or miscovetiitff." 

Itomaunt of thf lioBe. 

■ mis' - ere - an9e, ' mis' - ere - an - 9y, 
" mis-cre-aunce, ■-■. ["- Er. m>- onur*-.] 

False b.-bi-licr, UUi: religion, inlidelity, h.-rcsy. 


" But through this and other their mitcrcnunce, 
Tluy niakeu many n. wroocclievisaunc© 
Heiiiiiiig iiji waves of wealtli and woe." 

>:j'ri).trr : .ftu-pheardcs Calender ; May. 

mis'-cre-ant, s. & o. [O.Er. viescreant, from 
„if .-;- = mis-, and vrwut — believing ; Lat. credo; 
Er. mik-rvant; Ittih viiscredentc] 
A* As suhstiintive : 

'\. Originally, one believing wrongly; an 
intulel, a inisbeliever. 

" The consort and the principal wrvanta of Solinian 
h^d i-eun hononnildy restored without ninsoni ; and 
tlie fiiiiieroi's gf iieroBity to the migrrvrine was iiiter- 
jirctf"! ii.s trwisoii t<i the Christian ciiuae."— W(6iw« .' 
Ji.L-liw A- fiUl. ch. Ivlii. 

2. A vile wretch, a scoundrel, a detestable 

B. As adjective : 

* 1. Misbelieving, infidel. 

" ,\1 luUi-vitiit ixiinyim-, nl false Jewes, al false 
heretikes, ami al sediciouasci.^matikes."— Atr T. Mon- : 
iVorkca. \>. 774. 

2. Abandoned, vile. 

" P>ir men like these nn earth he shall nut find 

111 nil tlic i;,(*.-r."iit/ race ..f liuiiian kind." 

J'Kjir : Ih.nivr: UdyniKy \\\\. (>(•'. 

mis-cre-ate', ' mis~cre-at'-ed, «. [Pref. 
mis-, and Eng. crrftof (q.v.).] 

1. Created or formed unnaturally, oi' impro- 
perly ; deformed, shapeless. 

"What art thou, execrable aliaiw ! 
That darcnt. thoiiuh grim ivud terrible, advance 
Thy n.Mcmi/ci/ fioi.t::" MiUun: 1'. /... ii. i^gn. 

2. Illegitimate. 

•• with oiwnlng titles mitrr>-ilr. wlii«e right 
8uit« nut in native col"iir« w Ith lh« Irnlh, 

Sh'tKvti'. : Henry ('.. i. 2. 

■mis-cre-a'-tlon. «. [Pn-f. wis-, and Eng. 

tn;<llun (q.v.). , Wrong making. 

• I1111.B uf uiir ..wii uiixereathii.'—C. Kliiifile//: Life, 

■ mis-cre-a'-tive, ". [Pivf. mis-, and Eng. 
</r'i/iiT (q.v.).] Creating or forming wrongly 
or amiss. 

"mis-cre'-dent, s. [Pref. mis-, and Lat. 
(■/«■-/»/,<, pr. 'par. of cif</ii = to believe.) A 
misbeliever, an intidel, a miscreant. 

"Your sermon to us of a <Iungi'on appointed for 
nflTenders and inUfredentii."~'J/olhtiihvd : Detcription 
of Ireland, c\i. iv. 

** mis-cred'-it, r.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
(i>'/.7, V. (q.v.).] To disbelieve. 

" The iniM-n-ditrd twelve hasten hack."— C(iW///c; 
Frcin-h lUroliili'in, pt. i., bk. vii,. ch. vii. 

* mis-cre-du'-li-ty, s. [Pref. ^tiis-, a)i<l Eng. 

rndiilitii (<|.v.).l Erroneous or wrongly 
directed credulity or belief; misbelief. 

" We aiiiiKit but justly tax the mifcrednlify of those 
who will riithcr trnst to the Church than to the scrip- 
tiire-'— ///A Hull: Select Thoii'jhtg. 5 C. 

* mis-creed', s. [Pref. mis-, and Eiig. creed 
(q.v.).J A false creed or religion. 

" SiM)i! his creation for a fierce mitcreeil." 

Keati. lA'inandale.) 

*mis-dain', r.t. [Pref. Hir.s-, and Eng. dain = 
deign. I To misdeem, to n.isrepresent. 

mis-date', v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. date, s. 
(q.v.).] To date wrongly; to affix a wrong 
date to. 

•■ 111 hoary youth Metliiisalema may die; 
t p bow misdated on their flattering tombs 1 " 

Vmiwj : Si'iht TliuiKjIitg. V. "77. 

mis-date', R. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. date, s. 
(q.v.). J A wrong date. 

* mis-daub', ^'.t. [Pref. mi.t-, and Eng. danh, 
v. (q.v,).] To datib unskilfully; to spoil by 

■■ MiMliiuhed with some uiitemiiered and lately-laid 
ni.irfcu. "—/;;>. Hall: Letter to a Worthy Kiii'jht. 

mis- deal', J'.f. & i. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
dml, v. (q.v.).] 

A. Trans. : To divide wrongly; not to divide 
proi)erly amongst the players. 

B. Intrans. : To make a misdeal. 

mis-deal', *-. [Misdeal, v.] 

Ci'rd^: A wrong or false deal; a deal in 
wliieh the cards are not divided properly 
amongst the iihiycis. 

mis-de-fi'-§ion, .*. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. drci- 
^/"/l (q.\.).^ A winiig 1 ir eiTOueous decision. 

mis-deed', mls-dede, s. [A.S. ntisdo^d; 
cogn. with Dul. misdaad ; Goth. inlss<idrils; 
Ger. missethat ; O.H.Gcr. WiissiVn"^] A wrong 
or evil action, an evil deed, a wicked action, 
a crime. 

" 1 am clear from this mitdeed of Edward's," 

.'ihakegp. : S llvnry 17., iii. 3. 

mis-deem', mis deme, '•. ^ & '. [Pief. 
7/1;.-, and En- ./-■-■», (q.v.); Icel. misda-mn.] 

A. Tnu's. : To judge wrongly ; to mi.sjudge. 

" [Hfl Hjvw his filtrnds tnisdeem'd in crowds resort. 
Tu bask beneath tlie suntuhine of the Court." 

Lewi»: .\tatiiis: Tliebaid ii. 

B. Intrans.: To misjudge, to mistake, to 

" MUdenii not. then, 
If MK'h afTioiit I lalM.ui t-. jivtrt till.' alMui.-." M,n,.„ : /'. /... i\. 30j. 

* mis-de-mean, ' mis-de-meane, v.r. 
[Pref. mis-, and Eng. di-mrn,i{»[.\:).] To mi.s- 
conduct. {Used reflex iveli/.) 

" From frailty 
And want of wisdoni. you. bset abould teach us, 
Have i;N«.(ciHt<(/t'.( joiuself." 

.shakesp. : Itenry Vlll., v. 3. 

mis- de -mean' -ant, s. [Eng. viisdememi ; 

'i'.,tt.\ One wlio coinniits a niisdcnieannnr. 

mis-demean' our, mis demean'-6r, 

.s. I Pref. mi^s-, and Eng. dcnudnonr (q.v.).] 
~ I. Ordiiinry Langtatfjr : 

1. ^Misbehaviour, niisctniduct ; an offence or 
crime ; a misileud. 

"G(m1 tiikes a particular notice of our pei-soiml uiU- 
demeanors."— ."South : Senuniis. vol, ix.. aer. Ii 

2. Mismanagement, mistrealment. 

II. Iaiw : An olfenoe against the l.nv.s of a 

fete, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father ; we, wet, here, camel, her, there 
or. wore, wolf, work, who, son : mute, cub. ciire, unite, cur, rule, full : try, 

; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, pot, 
Syrian, se, cb = e ; ey =; a ; qu - kw. 

mis depart —miserably 


less Iieinous uatmc than a crime Siimller 
faults are cotiiiiriscil uinler the gentler name 
of '■ niisdenieannurs" only, and me so desiy- 
iiatfd in cniitradistinctinu to feUmies, the 
fiHiiifr class cumiircheniUnK all indictable 
utleiu-es whii'li ilo not fall within the other, 
Biicii as assaults, nuisances, non-rejiair nf a 
highway, and the like. (Blackstont : Comment., 
Ilk. iv.. ch. 1.) 

■" mis-de-part', r.t. [Pref. was-, and Eng. ik- 
jHtrt ('|.v.)-] To share or divide wrongly or 

"Thou bUnieBt ('ri»t and sayst ful l>ltt«rl>- 
He mUde/mrlrlh lictiesse temiorHl." 

CVt-i.ucr. C. T.. 4..'.3T. 

" mis-de-rive', v.U [Pref. hk*--, and Eiig. 

1. To derive wrongly: as, To misdcrive a 

2. To divert into a wrong channel ; to mis- 

" Mitderivinij the well-mefttit <levotl<»ii9 o(>le 
ftiid [liuiia Boiils into a wrong cliauuel." — Uishop Hull : 
C(ues ()/ Coiitciciu-f, tlvc ;(, wise 7. 

t mis-de-scribe', v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
ikticrihe ('i.v.).j To describe wrongly or 

* mis-de-sert', s. [Pref. 1U15-, and Eng. de- 

sert, s. (q.v.).J Ill-desert. 

" My liaplesse cnse 
le not occaiiioiied through my miaietert." 

.Sfjcnivr: F. 1J.. VI. i. 12. 

* mis-de-VO'-tion, .';. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 

ilei'otion (q.v.),J Mistaken piety ; misplaced 

"We cry out sacrilege .ind rnhdevotion against thoae 
who in zeal liave deuiolishM tlie dens and cages of lier 
unclean wallowings."— .^h Ajtoloyy /or Hmevli/inHuui. 

* mis-di'-et, v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. diet, v. 

(i[ v.) 1 i'o diet iniprn]ierly or irregularly; 
lo supply with inijiroper food. 

"(Vrtainly this great body, by mitdii^tiny ami 
willful! disKider. contracted these spiritUAll diseases." 
— lU^hoi, ll,ill : liithn of Gilead. 

*■ mis-di'-et, s. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. diet 
(ipv,).] improper diet or foiul. 

" And a drie dropsle through his flesh did flow. 
Which by mindict ilaily greater grew," 

Spenser : f. Q., I. iv. 23. 

** mis-dight' ('.l^i silent), a. [Pref. mis-, and 
F^ng. ditjht ('l-v.).] Badly dressed, prepared, 
or provided. 

" Despis'd nature suit them once aright, 
Tlieir boilie to their coate. Imth now mUdvjht." 
Bishop Halt: &itiret, iii. 7. 

niis-di-rect', v. t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 


1. To give a wrong direction to ; to send or 
turn in a wrong direction. 

2. To direct or address to a Avrong person or 
jilace : as, To misdirect a letter. 

3. To turn to a wrong use or purpose ; to 

" .\n energy and intelligence which, even when jhiji- 
dirifted. have justly entitled theiu to be vailed a great 
people."— .>/'ii(tM/(i^ ; Hist. Eng., ch. i. 

4. To give wrong directions or instructions 
t" ; as, A judge misdirects a jnrj'. 

mis-di-rec'-tion, s. [Pref. vUs-, and Eng. 

direction (<l.V.).] 

1. Ord. Loiuj. : A wrong or false direction. 

2. 7.(1 w : The act of a judge in directing a 
jury wrongly as to points of law. 

*mis-dis-p6-§l'-ti0Il, s. [Pref. mis-, and 
Eng. di.-ipositlon Oi-V.).] A bad disposition, 
direction, or inclination. 

"ThrouL'h tlie Mihdi-<pofition of the medicine." — 
/litfi'.p Hall : IJicvit •>/ .1 i.t^-ar.iiicv. 

* mis-dis-tin'-guish (u as w), v.i. [Pref. 
viis', and Eng. distinguish (q.v.).J To distin- 
guish wrongly; to make false or erroneous dis- 

" If we imagine a difference where there la none, ite- 
cnu»e «e distinguish wliere we xliould not, it may iirit 
l)e denied that we mudUtingtiUh." — Hooker: £ci:lc», 
Pulitic, bk. iii., § a. 

'■mis-di-vide', i\t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
divide (4.V.).] To divide wrongly or im- 

t mis-do', ' mis-don, v.t. & i. [Pref. mi'i., 
and Eng. do (q-v.); iJut. misdoen; Ger. mis:- 

A. Trails. : To do wrongly or 

B, Intrans. : To act annss; to commit a 
crime or offence. « 

* mis-do -er, * mis doo er. * mys-do- 

ere, .v. : Pref. mis-, una Kiig. du^r (<j.v.).J 
One who does wrong ; fme wlio acts aniLss ; a 
wrongdoer, an otlender. 

" Weru they not contained in duty with n fenr of 
law, which iuflictetli Mharj) puniHliiiientn to tuUdoen, 
Human should ctijoy any thing."— .'^;ii*(«'r.- On Ireland. 

mis-do'-ing. mis doo-ing, s. [Pref. 
mis-, and Eiig. doing (q.v.).J 

1. The act or habit of doing wrong ; wrong- 

2. A wrong done; a crime, an otTence, a 

"To ri'forme hls>ni$d<joinjt."— HoHiuhed : King John 
(an. 1:111). 

* mis-doom', v.t. [Pref. viis-, and Eng. doom 
Ol.v.).] To misjudge. 

"To doom them right who others (rash) ynitdooni." 
^i/tccittrr: Job Triumphant, ii. :w:. 

" miS-dou1>t' {b silent), s. [Pref. mis-, and 
Eng. donbt, s. (q.v.).] 

1, Doubt, hesitation, irresolution. 

"York, steel thy fearful thouglita. 
And change mixduubt to resulullon." 

HhtikfJip. : 2 Henry i'l., iii. 1. 

2. Suspicion of crime or danger. 

"He cannot so precisely weed this land. 
As his }nitduutift present occasion." 

Shtikeip. : 2 Henry If'., iv. i. 

* mis-doiibt' (& silent), v.t. & i. [Pref. mis-, 
and Eng. doubt, v. (q.v.).J 

A. Trails. : To mistrust, to doubt; to sus- 
pect of deceit or danger. 

"Much I mUdoubt this wayward boy 
Will one day work me more annoy." 

Hyron : tiridc 0/ Altydos, i. 5. 

B. Intrans. : To be suspicious or mistrust- 

"Misdoubting much, and fearful of th* event." 

Itryden Wife 0/ Baths Tale. IIC. 

' mis-doubt'-ful ('' silent), a. [Eng. mis- 
do nbt ; -JuL] Mistrustful, suspicious, mis- 

" She gau to cast bo her miadouht/ut mind." 

Spenser: F. V-. V. vi. 3. 

* mis-draw', v.i. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. draw 

(i[.v.).] To draw or drag the wrong way. 

"A yoke of misdrawynget in divers paitea." — 
Chaucer: Boethiaa, bk. iii. 

* mis-dread', s. [Pref. -mis-, and Eng. dread, 

s. ('i.\'.).j Dread of evil ; mistrust. 

"The passions of the mind. 
That hnve their first conception by mitdread. 
Have alter-uourishmeut iind life by care." - 

Shakeap. : J'ericle$, t 2. 

""mise, 5. [Norm. Fr., Fr. mi^- pa. par. of 
vietire = to place, from Lat. viitto = to send.] 

1. In. Law : The issue in real actions, espe- 
cially in a writ of right. 

" A court which may try the niise joined upon a wTit 
of right."— »'- yelson: Lex JIatieriorum, p. 36. (1726.) 

2. A tax or tallage. 

3. Cost, expense, outlay. 

4. A mease or messuage. 

5. In Wales, an liomaaiy gift of the people 
to a new king or prince of Wales ; also, a 
triVpute paid in the county palatine of Chester 
at the change of the owner of the earldom. 

6. A treaty, an agreement : as, the Mise of 
LeMes, 1"_'G4. 

mise-money, s. 

I.aiv : Money paid by way of contract or 
composition to purchase any liberty, A:c. 

* mis-ease', * mis-ese, ' myeise, s. [Pref. 
■mis-, and Eng. ease, s. (q.v.).] Uneasiness, 
discomfort, pain. 

" So that he moste for myteac awei at the ende." 

liobert 0/ liloiiccjifer, p. 3t. 

"nus-eas'-^, n. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. easy 
(*l.v.).] 'Uneasy, uncomfortable. 

" Vnueath luide I ligge for pure miaeaxie sorowe." 
Chanter: Teat, of L'n'c. hk, i. 

^ mis-eat' -ing, 5. [Pref. mi$; and Eng. eat- 
in<j.] Wroiiglul eating. 

"The migeating of a certain fruit." 

Sylvester : The Imimntare. <9T. 

* mis-e-di'-tion, s. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
editioii (q.v.).] A spurious or incorrect 

•■ Following a mUcditian of the %'ulgat, which per- 
verts tlic sense."— J5;). Hall: C*ue* of Conteience, dec 
iii.. CJLSC 10. 

'^ mis-ed'-U-cat€, v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
aiii-ntr (([.v.).] To educate wrongly or im- 


mis- em-ploy', i-.'. [Pref. viis-, and Eng. 
■"'i*'"V. V. (q.v.).] To use or employ wrongly ' 

to turn to wrong purposes ; to misapply, to 

" Twere wild profusion all, and Itoutleu wwtv 
I'uwi-r ntue iiipluyd." Cowp€r : Tirocinium, M. 

mis em-pl^'-mSnt, «. [Pref. mis-, and 
Eng. tmpli>iinunt(ii.v.).] Wrong employment, 
use, or application ; misuse; application to a 
wrong or useless purpose. 

"An improvident exi>ence. nud mitemptnymenf i>I 
their time and faculties."— //n/o ; Urig. ^4 Mankind. 

mi'-se-nite, s. [Named from Miscno, where found ; suft". -ite (.Vfu.).J 

Uitx. : A mineral with an acid and bitter 
taste, occurring in white silky libres. Soluble 
in water. Compos. : sulphuric acid, 6t'"it;i ; 
potasli, ;ir<'.'»7 ; alumina, u*ai>; water, 01^ = 
lou. Found in the tirotta di Miseno, near 

* mis-en-roll', v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
enruil (q.v.),j To enndl wrongly. 

" I should thee miaenmll 
In booke of life." JJaviei : Musea Saerljtte, p. Gt. 

m,is-eil'-ter, r.f. [Pref. in t^-, and Eng. enter 
{q.v.).J To enter wrongly, incorreetly, or 
fiioiifously : as, To mistnttr an it^^m in an 


* mis-en- treat', v.t. [Pref mi.^-, and Eng. 
entreat (q.v.).J To treat wrongly or wrong- 

miS-en'-tr^, s. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. entry 
(q.v.).] An en-oueous or incorrect entry or 


* mis-e-pis'-cd-pist, 5. [Gr. ftitrdui (mifto) 
=: to lialc. and t'jTitTxo;ro? (episkupos) = a 
bishop.] A hater of bishops or episcfqiacy. 

"These misepiscv/ii»t» envied and denyod tliat 
hononr,"— Oaw/eK ; Tears of the Church, p. My. 

mi'-ser, "mys-er, s. [Lat. miser= wretched: 
cf. l^p. -Jc Ital. viiscro = wretclied, avaricious.) 

I. Ordiuari) Language: 

* 1. A wretched man, a miserable jier-son. 

" Becmae thou sayest, that I am rich and enricl)ed 
and lack notlnug, and knowett not thttt tliou art a 
tniaer nud miaeraule .luJ i»oor and blind joid naked."— 
Ilevelation iii. IT. (Rheini».) 

* 2. A wretch, a mean fellow. 

3. A person extremely covetous ; a sordid, 
niggardly person ; a niggard ; a mean, penu- 
rious person. 

"The miaer will forego the comforts, the couve- 
niencies, iiml almost the necessaries, of existence."— 
Home : tt'orka. vol. v., di8. l. 

II. U'ell-sinkliig, .I'c. : A large au^er for 
excavating i-arth in wet situations, as in sink- 
ing hfiles for pier tVtundatinns. It is of cylin- 
drical form, has a protruding lip, to enable it 
t'l scrape up the soil as it is rotated, atid is 
lifted to the surface to discharge its load. 

mi'-ser, i'.(. [Miser, s.) To collect in the in* 
terior of a miser or boring-tool. 

mis'-er-a-llle, «. & *. [Fi'-, from Lat. miser- 
ulnlis = pitiable, from miseror = to pity ; Port. 
niiseravel ; lta.\. viisembile ; Sy. misoxible.] 
A. As adjective: 

1. Vei-y wretched or unhappy ; suffering 
misery ; abject. 

"On me exercise not 
Thy hatred .... me than thy»elf 
More inucrabte:' .Uillvn : P. I... x. "iVi. 

2. Filled with misery; causing wretchedness 
or extreme discomfort : as, a mistrtxbU night. 

* 3. Niggardly, miserly. 

"The lil>end-hejirted man is, by the opinion of the 
prodigal, nuaernble.xavA, by the JtnlKiuent of the miaer- 
able, Livish."— i/ooAcr.- £cclva. Pohty, bk. v., ch. Ixv. 

4. Very poor or mean ; pitiable, wretched, 

"A vft^liond and uselew trib* there ejit 
Their miserable meal." Cowper: 7'<i»k, i. 561. 

5. Poor, mean, despicable, petty. 

"It was mitfrabte economy indeei] to gJrdge » re- 
ward of H few tliousandH to one who luul made the 
Stat« richer by millious." — Jtacaulay : Hitt. £ng., oh. 

* B. --Is : A wretch. 

"Tia a cruel journey to nmd a few vtiacrablea." — 
.Sterne: Scntinu-ntal Journey : Montrcuit. 

■ mis'-er-a-ble-ness, s. [Eng. misembte; 
■ in\'s.] The quality or state of being miserable ; 

Hath brought in di»treiw.'" 

.'<kcllon : M'hf/ Cvme J'c Sot to Courte f 

mis'-er-a-blS?, adv. [Eng. mlseix^le) ; -ly.] 
1. In u mi.serable manner; wretchedly, 


bou, boy ; pout, jo^l ; cat, 9011, chorus, 9hin, ben^h ; go, gem ; thin, this ; sin, as ; expect, Xenophon, exist, -ing. 
-cian, -tian - shan. -tion, -sion - shun ; -tion, -^ion = zhun. -clous, -tious, -sious = sbus. -We, -die, ^c. = bel, dcL 


miseration— mis gracious 

2. Calaiiiitou'ily. 

•■H." will iNwerciW. 
J/aflhrtr xxl. 41. 

3. Wreti'hwily, meanly, poorly. 
' 4. Covetously ; like a miser. 

* mif-^r-a'-tion, $- [Lat. miwm/io, fmm 
mi^tfitiis. pa. par. of miseror := to pity.) 
CoinTniscratiiin, pity. 

" 0»k1 of bis mheraHon 
Sciut twtU-r refnniLicion.'* 
SJteftov : iVhj/ Ooma J« .Vot T<* CoKrt* / 

• mis-e rect',v.r fPi-ef. infV.amlEng. fivr/.v. 
('i-\ .V " To erect wronglv or for a wi-ong p»r- 

*■ Crtuse tlioae mit^i't^t^ nMxn to Ite lient*n ilowii Ut 
tlie jfTomnl. "—/)/>. JfiH: Ifartt Texii: Amm ill. 15. 

mi^-er-ep'-e, 5. [Lat. = pity, have pity ; 
iiiipor. sing, of 7»ii5f7-for = to liave piiy.] 

1. A name given to a psalm in the Roman 
Catholic .service, taken trom the Slst Psalm 
ill the Vulgate, beginning Miserere ittci, Ihus 
(Have mercy on me, O God). It was frequently 
given as a test by tlie ordinary to malefactor.s 
sentenced to death who had benefit of clergy 
allowed them. [N'bckvebse.] 

2. A lamentation, 

" What loud lament ax>A dUmnl SfUrrere 
Will iiilugle Willi theirftwful symplioiues !" 

LonafeUow : Artenttl ut SprlngfieUt. 

3. A piece of music composed to the 
Uisera-e, or 51st Psalm. 

i. A small bracketed projection in the 
under-side of the seat of a stall in chnrches, 
designed to afford some degree of rest to the 


{From Jlcnrif Vfl.'s Chajml, in West^nimter Abbey.) 

person, making a compromise between sitting 
and standing. They were frequently elabor- 
ately decorated witb wood-carviug, occasion- 
ally of a grotesque character. 

* mis'-er-i-corde, 5. [Fr., from Lat. miseri- 
cordia = pity, mercy.) 

1. Ord. Long.: Mercy, pity, coramisei-ation. 

"Thevertiieof mitcricorde." Cower; C. A., iii. 

2. Old Arm. : A siuall, straight dagger, ori- 
ginally without guard, which, with its sheath, 
was usually ricldy ornamented. It obtained 
its name from its use, which was that of 
iiillictiug the " mercy-stroke" upon a wounded 
antagonist which deprived him of life, fur 
which ]>urpose it had a thin, sharp blade 
ca]'able of penetrating the junctures of a suit 
nf armour. It was worn cm the right side, 
secured by a short chain to the hiji-belt. The 
handle being much heavier than the blade, it 
liung generally in an iui'erted positiou. 

mia-er-i-cor'-di-a, s. [Lat.] 

1. Arch. : The same as Miserere, 4. 

2. Law: An arbitrary fine imposed on any 
person for an offence ; so called because the 
amercement ought to be but small, and less 
than that required by Magna Charta. 

3. Old Arm. : The same as Misericorde, 2. 

mi'-ser-ly, a. [Eng. miser ; -ly.] Of or per- 
taining to a miser ; like a miser in habits ; 
penurious, niggardly, parsimonious ; charac- 
teristic of a miser; as, a miserly person, 
viiserbj habits. 

mis'-er-j^. " mis-er-ie, s. [0. Fr. miserie, 
froni Lat. viisrria, from miser = WTetched ; 
Sp., Port., t.^ Ital. miscria; Fr. mtsere.] 

* 1. Niggardliness, penuriousness, parsi- 
mony, miserliness, covetousuess. 

" But Brutus, scorning his (Octavlua Cafsar's) mhcn/ 
anil 11 i ggartlliuess. g'lve uut^ every band a ikuuibi:r of 
wetUers to wcrtflge. ■ — .Vf rfft : Plutarch, p. cio. 

2. Great unhappiness or WTetchedness ; ex- 
treme pain of mind or body ; gi'eat distress. 
" Jliicry markiihitu of our kimi." 

3. Calamity, misfortune, distress. 

" I will not wlali vp half my mitfHft." 

!(h'tltap.: Bf:nrg Vlll.. 111. 1. 

mis ese. >. IMi^kase.] 

mis - es - teem', s. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
f.s7ai/i, s. (q.v.).j Want of esteem ; disregard, 
slight, disresiwct. 

' mis- es'-ti- mate, 1^^ [Pivf. mu<-, and 
Eng. fstimate, v. (q.v.).] To estimate falsely 
or erroneously ; to mi.sjudge; to misconceive. 

* mis-ex -poSnd, vJ. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
fxpoiind (<\.v.).j To expound wrongly or 

' mis-ex-press -Ion (ss as sh), s. [Pref. 
7((),s-, autl En^'. cri>rcssion (q.v.).] Wrong or 
inipr.iptr ONpression. 

' mis-f&ith', 5. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. faith.] 
Want of faith or trxist ; distrust, mistrust. 
"Some sudden turu of anger, boni 
Ot yova minfaith." 

Tenni/ion : Merlin i- Viviott. 382. 

' mis-fall', v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. /«/^ v. 
('i.v.),j To befall unluckily. 

"T'l upbrayd that cluiunce which him mi^feU." 

Spenser: /'. Q., V. v. 10. 

' mis-fare', v.i. [Pi-ef. mis-, and Eng. fare, v. 
(q.v.).] To fare ill or badly; to be unfortunate; 
to go wrong. 

* mis-fare', 5. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. fare, s. 
(q.v.).^ 1 11 -fare ; ill-fortune; misfortune. 

" The whMle occasion of his hitfe misfarr." 

Spenser: F. <i., \'. xi. 43. 

* mis-far'-ing, s. [Misfare, v.] 

\. Misfortune. 
2. Evil-doing. 

" Yet their own tnitfarhig will not see." 

Spenser: Colin Clout. 

' mis-fash -ion, v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
fashion, v. (q.v.). J To form or fashion wrongly. 

"A thing in reason imiiossible. through their mis- 
/•lihiotied iirecouceit, appeared uuto tbem no less cer- 
t.iiii." — Hakewill : On Providence. 

* mis-f^te', s. [Pref. mis-, and Eng fate, s. 
(i|.v.).] Misfortune. 

■■Throw their own mixftitr." 

Sylvester: I'anaretus. Ii9h. 

mis - f ea§ - an9e, * mis - f eaz - ance, ^''■ 
[Fr. mis- = O. Fr. mes, and Fr, faisance, from 
faire = to do.] 

Lf'w : A trespass ; a wrong done ; the im- 
pr<q>er performance of some lawful act. 

mis-fea^'-ant, mis-feaz'-ant, s. [Mis- 
Law : A trespasser, a misfeazor. 

mis - fea^' - sor, mis - feaz - or, 5. [Mis- 

yEAS.^NXE. ] 

Lute : A trespasser. 

* mis-feaz -an^e, s. [Misfeasance.] 

* mis-feign' (eign as an), v.i. [Pref. mis-, 
and En;i. feign (q.v.).] Tn feign or pretend 
with evil designs ; to pretend wrongfully. 

" So misfeiffninj her true kuij^ht to bee." 

Spenser: F. <i.. I. iii. 40. 

mis-fit', .«. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. ^(, s. (q.v.).] 
A bad fit ; a bad match. 

* m,is-fdnd', a. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. fond 

(q.v.).] Foolishly fnnd, 

* mis - for - give', * mis - for - yeve, v.t. 

[Pref. viis-, and Eng. forgive (q.v.).j To mis- 

* mis-form', v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. form, 
V. (q.v.).j To form or fashion wrongly or 


■■ With that mis/ormed spright he bucke returned 
.■isaiue." Speitter : F. Q., I. i. 55, 

mis-for-ma'-tion, s. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
/or»ut(io/i (q.v.). j An iiTegular or unnatural 
formation ; a malformation. 

mis-for'-tu-nate, a. [Pref. viis-, and Eng. 
fortunate '(q.v').] Unfortunate, unlucky. 


" That misfortunatc wasting of his strength." 
Taylor : 2 Philip Van Arteoelde, iv. 4 

* mis-for'-tune, v.i. [Pi-ef. mis-, and Eng. 
fortunA: ((\.\.].'\ To turn out or result unfor- 
tunate ; to fail. 

■■ The Queene. .ifter mariace. was couceiue<i wUU 
chiUle, but it »iU\f-jrtHned:'—iitrja: Jmtalx. (Pref.) 

mis- for' -tune, .•'. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. for- 
tune, s. (q.v.).J Had or ill fortune; ill luck; 
a calamity ; an nidurky or unfortunate acci- 
dent or event ; a mishap ; adi.»;aster. 

■' WhenBO her fiither dcare 
Should of his dearest dnuehter's hard mif/orturie 
heat«." Sponser: F. <i.. III. iii. 6. 

II To have a misfortmie : To become the 
mother of an illegitimate child. 

If you iileaae. ua'aiii, / had a mUfortiine. ma'ani,' 

ed the girl, cafltiiiir C ' " "-- 

Siulshipman Eniy. ch. iii. 

" mis-f or' -tuned, a. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
fortuned (q.\').] Unfortunate, unlucky. 

'^ mia-ftame', ""misse-Arame, r.;. [Pref. 

mis-, and Eng. /ao«o, a". (q.v.).J To frame or 
fashion wrongly or improperly. 

"The ■niissef ranting of hys matter more tow.irde 
diuisiou thau'vuitje, —Sir T. More: Worke$, p. 874. 

* mis-ges'-tnred, a. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
gesture (q.v.).'] Awkward in outward bearing. 

•■To be miagestitred in our prayers."— Ball : Con- 
tempi. ; Fvyle of A matek. 

* mis-get', r./. [Pref. intV, and Eng. g€^(q.v.).] 

To get wrongfully or improperly ; to gain by 
unlawful means. 

" Of that tnel were first misget." 

Oower : C. A., viii. 

* mis-gie', v.t. [Misgive.] 

mis-give', v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. give 

* 1. To give amiss ; to bestow wrongly or 

2. To fill with doubt or suspicion; to de- 
prive of confidence; to raise doubt or mis- 
trust in. 

'■ But the minds of the Questioners niisgaw them 
that the guide was not liie rude clown thRt he 
seemed."— J/<(cn»/<i^; lii^st. Eng., ch, v. 

mxs-giv'-ihg, s. [Eng. Dii'igitie) ; -ing.] A 
di'ubt ; a failing of confidence or trust ; mis- 
trust, distrust ; a feeling of doubt or distrust. 

'■ It was not without maiiy niisgivinpa that James 
had determined to call the Estates oi his realm tv- 
gether."— J/acait?uif -■ Jiist. Eng., ch. iv. 

*mis-g6', V.i. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. go (q.v.).J 

1. Tu go wrong ; to go astray ; to go out of 
the way. 

" I wot wel by the cradel I have misgo 
Hen lith the miller and his wit also." 

Cfmuccr: C. T., 4,253. 

2. To miscarry. 

" Some whole fleets of cargoes . . . had ruinously 
misg-inc." — Carlylc: /ietnijiiscencet, 1. 1C3. 

' mis-got -ten, a. [Pref. inis', and Eng. got- 
ten (q.\'.).] 'Gut or gained by improper, un- 
lawful, or unjust means. 

'■ Leave, faytor. miickely that tnisgotten weft 
To him that hath it better justityde." 

Spenser : F. Q., VI. i. IS. 

mis-gov'-ern, v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
ij"fern (q.v.).] To govern ill ; to administer 

'■ Nuw if any {misgoverning their own witteai du 
furtuue tj use that fur a spurre. which I had beero 
apjjointed for a bridle. I can none otherwise lament 
it. '—Uiiscoigne : To the Readers generallu- 

* mis-g6v'-er-nan9e, s. [Pref. mis-, and 

governance {(\.\.).^ Ill-government, misgoveni- 
ment, disorder, misconduct, misbehaviour. 

" Had never worldly man so high degrae 
Aa Adam, til he for misginiernnnce 
Was driven out of his iirosperitee." 

Chaucer: C. T., 14,018. 

mis-goV-erned, a. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
gover>ied (q.v.).] 

1. Badly governed or admiuistered : ill- 

* 2. Ill-behaved, rude, rough. 

" Rude >niggot'erned hands, from wmdow'a torn, 
Threw dust and rubbish on King Richanl's nead: ■' 
S/iukesp. : Richard II., v. 2. 

mis-goT'-ern-ment, i. [Pref. mis-, and 
Eng. government (q.v.).] 

1. Bad government ; ill administration or 
management of public or i>rivate affairs. 

■■ To such a temper had eighteen years of -nxisgovern- 
ment brought the most loy-al parlmment that had ever 
met in Kugland." — Macaidity : JJist-. Eng., ch. ii. 

*2. Waut of self-constraint ; loose conduct, 
misconduct, misbehaviour. 

■' Eschew betimes the whirlpoole of mlsgovernment." 
—Gascoigne : To Che I'outh of England. 

* mis-gra'-cions, ft. [Pref. tnis-, and Eng. 

j/rncious (q.v.).J Xot gracious; disagreeable, 

His [Vulc.anua) figure 
Fiud uf stature, 
iisjraci(ju.s." Giytoer : C. .<.. v. 

^te, fSt, f^re, amidst, what, fall, father ; we, wet, here, camel, her, there 
or, wore, wolf, work, who, son ; mute, ciib, ciire, unite, cur, rule, full : try. 

pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; gOt p5t, 
Syrian, se, ce = e ; ey = a ; qu = kw. 

misgrafiT— misjoin 


•mis-graff. ' mis-graft » v.t. [Pnf. mi^-, 
and EiiK'. !/'«/, 3't'/i! W-v.).J To yralt amiss 
or un a wrong or unsuitable stock. 

■' Miinrnffed ill respect uf yeai-s." 

.ih'ikvsp.: MUtu(mi>tvr Sii/hl's Dri'am, i. 1. 

" mis-groiiiid'-ed, «. [Pief. mis-, ami Eng. 
cirou)u.kd (m-v.).] Ill or badly grouudcd ; 
badly founded ur based. 

" From me, uu pulpit, uur misffroitnded law, 
.Nor sciiiid;iU taktii shall this cross witli.lniw." 
Uoiine: The Cross. 

mis growth', *■. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. groicth 
Iq.v.) J A bail growth ; a distortion v{ suine- 
tliing good in itself. 

"MeilK-Bval uliarity ami chastity are manifestly »"«- 
growths ... of tlie iilwis Lif kiiiiliieis ami puitjiitAs."— 
MaWu!w AriiiM: Imt Esti^t/s. (?ref.) 

•mis-guess', * mysse-gesse, v.i. [Pref. 
hus-, and Eng.i/(it^5 t4.v.>J To guess wrongly 
or erroneously. 

'■ Some falae shrewes there be hee mysscg-'tscth 
aiiiunge."— «/»■ T, J/orc : Wurkvs, p. 97'i. 

mis-gug^-gle, mis-gog-gle. mis-gru- 
gle. r.t. lEtyni. doulithil] To niaii-a-, to 
disligure, to disorder, to disarrange. 

•■ UuiiftUl Uiul been mifjiig-jlcd Ity aiie of these 
doctorii about I'aiia."— 5ci>« .* IVaverlcif, ch. xviii. 

mis-guid'-an9e» s. [Pref. »iis-, and Eng. 
giiiilana' (q'v.).] Wrong or false guidance; 
guidance into error. 

" By rausiiig an evrour iu the great guule of his 
actions, Ilia jiiilifitieut. to t-anse an ernmr lu his i-lmice 
too. the iiti.'iyu*(^»i«;tf of whicli must ii.itiually eli^,':iye 
him ill those courses that tliiettly tend to \na de&trUk:- 
tiuii "—iSoufh : :ii;riu'jiix. Vol. i., Ser. 12. 

" mis-guide', s. [Misguide, v.] Misguidance, 
sin, oifence. 

" HiLke auieuils for man's mUguUU:" 

.S^ftucr .■ Hinnne vf tleaven^ff Lore. 

mis-guide', -mis-guyde. v.t. i: i. [Pref. 

,nu^-. and En- ijuak, v. Oi-V.).J 
A, rraiisiticc : 

1. To guide or direct wrongly ; to lead 
wrung or astray ; to direct to a wrong ijurpose 
or end. 

"Vanity is more apt to mUffuUle men than false 
Teiifioiiiiig." — OulUsinith : On J'ttlite Learning, ch. vlii. 

2. Ill-use, to ill-treat. (Scotch.) 

'B, IittniiLs. : To go wrong, to trespass. 

" .M ieduuhtmg but Ue should jmxgtiiile." 

Sjieitscr: F. q., VI. ill. 47. 

mis-guid-ed, a. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
ijtii'k'l (ii.v.).J Led astray by evil counsels 
or wrong direetions. 

" Ken wrote to implore mercy for the }nix'jaidid 
people."— J/«cnni(t.y,- nut. Eng., ch. v. 

*'-ed-ly, adv. [Eng. viisgnided ; 
• ly.\ In a niisgui<,led manner; under the in- 
fluence of wrong counsels. 

" The eoutroUei-s have to resist any effort the country 
may tninDuidedljf make for picmatuie emiiUcilnitiou." 
— Times. Au^'ust 22, 1&61. 

mis-guid'-ing, pr. par. or a. [Misguide, v.] 

mis-guid-xhg-ly, adv. [Eng. misguiding: 
-iy.l in a way to iuisguide or mislead ; so as 
to mislead. 

mis' - gum, s. [Fr. misgiwne ; Germ. Jisch- 
guirn ; see Grimni, s.v. Beiszker.] 

Ichthy. ; Lacepede's name for Misgurnns 
fossilis. (D'Orbi'jny.) 

mis-gur'-nus, 5. [Mod. Lat., from misgurn. 


Ichthy. : A genus nf Cyprinidae, group Cobi- 
tidlna (Loaches). The body is elongate and 
compressed ; no sub-orbital spine. Ten or 
twelve barbels, four on the mandible ; dorsal 
fin opposite tlie ventrals, caudal rounded. 
Four species, from Europe aud Asia. Mis- 
gurnus foasilis is the largest of Euro^'can 
loaches ; it occurs in stagnant waters of 
eastern and southern Germany an<l nortlKiii 
Asia. M. (uiguillicaudaUt, an eiiually large 
si'eeies, is from Japan. 

*mis-gye, v.t. [Pref. wii^-, aud Mid. Eng. ;/^c 
(i[.v.).j To misguide. 

* mis -hal' -lowed, a. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
hallowed (4.^'.).] Devoted to evil uses with 
magic lites ; unhallowed. 

•' Hia inithaVowvd and anointed steel." 

A. C. ^teiiiOuriie : Tvittruuivf LyoiiQiic, i. 

mis-b^xi-dle, * mysse - han - del, i-.'. 

[Pref. iiiis; and Eng. handle, v. (<i.v.).J Toill- 
treat, to maltreat. 

'■ Verye fewe be ouermaiiye to l)e so wronpefullye 
muisukandeicd and puiiyaheil."— i'l'r 2'. More: Worka, 

p. 81)9. 

mi shant-er, mis - (hdnt - er. ^. [Fr. 

iniMantni\ IVoni prt-f. nui.-, aud Mid. Eng. 
*nNi^-/- = adventure.] A misadventure, a mis- 
fortune, an unlucky chance. {Scotch.) 

mis-hap', " mis happe, s. [Pref. mis-, and 
Eng. /u(/', s. (i|.\'-).J A mischance, a mis- 
fortune; ;in unlucky chance ; ill-luck. 

'■ If on life's uncertiiin main 
Muhaji shall mar my saiL" 

Svvtl : Lady oflhc Lake, it. 3. 

' mis'-hdppe, 1'.'. [Pref. »ii^-, and Eng. hap 
(,i|.v.).^ lo be unlucky ; to fare unluckily. 

" For iiiany * vice, as saith the cleike, 
There buni^en vpon slouthes lapi)e. 
Of auche as make a man inis/iit/j/ie." 

Gower : C. A., iv. 

^ mis-hap -pen, v.i. [Fret, mis-, aud Eng. 

haj't'^u ci.y.).^ 

1. To happen unluckily ; to tui'U out ill. 

2. To fare ill ; to be unlucky. 

" Boste and deignouse iiride and ille aviaement 
JJi«kapiies ufteutide. Jiobart da iiruntu; p. 289. 

' mis-hap'-pi-ness, 5. [Pref. mia-, and 
Eng. happltuss (q.V.).] Misery, WTetchedness. 

■• What wit haue wordea so prest and forceable, 
That may containe my great nii«hapfjittCKS f" 

Wi/att : Complaint vpon Low-, ic. 

^ mis-hcip'-py, a. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. happy 
(4.v.).J L'iih;qiiiy, miserable, wretched, sad. 
•■ Si.rwi-f id ami mishappii is the couditloa of a poui-e 
befgar.'— C/j((((ct'r.- Tale of JIelibt:us. 

" mis'-hear', v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. h^ar 
(tl.v.).j To liear wrongly; to mistake in 

"Thou hiist mifb;>oke. inUheard." 

Shakenp. : King John, lii, 1. 

* mis-heed', s. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. heeil 
(<l.v.).j Carelessness. 

" By migJieed or by luishftp." 

S)/'H<^3-cr: Jtiip of Man, 3Vi. 

mish'-m^Sll, ■■;. [A reduplication of mash 
(il.v,).J A mingle-mangle, a hotch-potch, a 

Mish'-mee, Mish'-mi, s. [Seedef.] 

Of'i[!. : A chain of mountains east of Assam. 

mishmee-hitter, >. 

Fhariii, : The dried root of Copies Teeta, the 
Mishmi Tita, called in Assam Tita, and iJi 
Jiind, Mahmira. It is a pure bitter tonic, use- 
ful in general debility, convalescence after 
fevers, nervous diseases, atonic dyspepsia, and 
mild forms of intermittent fever. The jdant 
itself, discovered by Griffith in the Mishmee 
mountains, is imperfectly known. 

mish'-na, mish'-nah, s. [Heb. nrs^'O {mish- 

nah), fr.-ni n:C*ts/u(/aiA), to repeat, learn, teach. 
Prop, repetition, instruction, or study.] 
Jewish Literature ; 

1. The second, or oral Law (SeuTepwo-t?). 
supposed to have been given to to be 
transnutted to the doctors of the written Law 
in all ages. 

2. The collection of the traditional laws, 
each one iif which is likewise called Mishna, 
or Halacha. The name Mishna is especially 
given to the canonical work edited by R. 
Jeluidah, the Prince, also called the Holy 
(born circa a.d. IJO). It contains an abstract 
uf the more ancient Halacha collections made 
by his pretlecessoi's. It consists of six orders 
or books, divided into sixty treatises and 52o 
chapters : Order 1 treats on seeds ; 2, on festi- 
vals ; 3, on women ; 4, on damages ; 5, on holy 
things, and tj on purilieations. The Misluia 
has been translated into Liitin and into almost 
all European languages. [Talmud.] 

mish-nic, a. [Eng. viishn(a); -ic] Of or 
pertaining to the Mishna. 

* mis-i-m^g-i-na'-tion, 5. [Pref. mis-, and 
Eng. iinaiiiiutiion (>[.\'.l} Wrong or false im- 
agination or concei'tinn ; misconception. 

" Piodifcjies which this misimaginntimt produces in 
that other sex." — fl/j. Hall : Jtighteoiis Mammon. 

* mis-im-prove', v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 

improve (q.v.).] To fail to improve or make 
good use of: to fail to turn to good account ; 
to misapply, to misemploy, 

" If a spiritual t-ileut Ix.' niiiimprooeil. it must be 
tjikeu away,"— .SwkM : Sernwtu, vol. xi., ser. 12. 

* mis-im-prove'-ment, 5. [Pref. mis-, and 

Eng. i in J' rove lilt at (<i.v.).] Ill use or emiilov- 
ment ; misuse, misapplication ; application 
to a bad purpose. 

"Their neglect ami mitimprovemetit oi that season," 
South : Sermoiu, vol. xi.. ser. 12. 

' mi^ in-oline', v.t. [Pref. mis-, aud Eng. 
inclim; V. (<i.v.).] To incline, dispose, or turu 
wrongly ; to give n bad inclination to. 

" Our juikmeuts an- jn-rvt-i ted. our wilU depraved, 
and uui' .ilTi^ctioua initi'i'lirud."— South: Utirmout, 
vol, X,, ser. 1. 

mis-in-fer , *mls-in-ferre, v.t. & t. [Prof. 

luis-, and Eng. iti/er (q.v.).J 

A. Tnins. : To infer wrongly or enxjneously ; 
to di-aw a wrong inference from. 

".N'estoriuH ti'iichhiK rinhtly. tlmt Rod and man tiro 
distinct liatuiL-«. did tIierLiin<>ii»i/ji(ii/('j-. that lli Cliriht 
those nuturvB can by uu coii|uiiction make uuu pt-iMin. ' 
—//oi.kcr: AiWw. /V«((0. bk. v., J ai 

B. lutrans.: To draw a wrong inference; 

tu infer wrongly. 

mis-in-form. 'mis en forme ' mis in- 

forme, rJ. cc i. [Prel. ,/ao-. and Li.^. lh- 


A. Trans. : To inform wrongly : to give 
false or erruiieou-s information to; to c-oin- 
municate an incorrect statement of facts to. 

"That he ini^lit not thlou(j;h any mlattike mitiii- 
form \uv:—Uoah: Worki. i. 6S1. 

* B. Inlrans.: To give wrong. information ; 
to make an incorrect statement. 

"Vou minin/ormu in;nin»t him for eoncludilig with 
iikv l>:ipists."— .l/'/((<(f<(y((t' . Appvaie to Ctztar, ch. xxii. 

" mis-in-form'-ant, 5. [Pref. ini^-, and Eng. 

iiijonni'.it (q.v.), I One who luisiufoi'ins, or 
gives false inlonnatiou. 

mis-in-for-ma -tion, s. [Pref. mis-, and 
Eng. wt/'.i/jmifit*it (q.v.).] Wrong orinconect 
information ; an erroneous statement of lacts. 

" Let not ancb be discouraged as deserve well, by 
miniit/iiniiatiun of othera. perhaps out of euvy or 
tieathery." — Itacon : Advice to Villlera. 

mis-in-form'- er, s. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
informer ('iv.).J One wlio niisinfiirins ; one 
who gives false or incorrect information. 

* mis-in-struct', i'-^ [Pref. mis-, aud Eng. 
iiidru>:t (q.v.).] To instruct badly or in- 
coirectly ; to teach ajuiss. 

" Let us not think that our .Savioiu" did niitintfruvt 
his disciples."— //ooAcr.- EllIcb. J'vfitie, bk. v., 5 i'j. 

* nus-in-striic'-tion, s. [Pref. miS', and 
Eng. instrndion (q.v.).J Wrong or improper 

"CViviectiuy . . . the errors of their MiMiiMirucd'o/i." 
—,'iharjj: IVurks, vol. ii. ; JJiac. •.•/ the Co/wcie/ar. 

mis-in-ter-li-gen9e, s. [Pref. mis-, and 
Eng. intdligcncc (q.v.).] 

1. False or eriitneuus inforinatiou ; misin- 

2. Disagreement, misunderstanding. 

* mis-in-tend', v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
intend (q.v.). J To inisdirtct ; to aim ill. 

•■ The damzell brwke lils tnitintcmlvd dart." 

Spviucr : ^iviuiet IC 

mis-m-ter'-pret, r.t. [Pief. mis-, and Eng. 
interpret (q.v.).J To interpret wrongly; to 
jnit a wrong or erroneous inteiiuetatjon on ; 
to niisuuderstand, to misconstrue, to mis- 

" You did make him misintrrpret me." 

.Shakv^p. : hitig Ihdtard II. , iii. 1. 

'' mis-in-ter'-pret-a-lile, a. [Pref. mis-, 
and Eng. interjtrctuhli: (q.v.).] Capable of or 
liable to misinterinetatiuii. 

mis-in-ter-pre-ta'-tion, s. [Pief. mis-, and 
Eng. iiUvrjtretalioK (q.v.). J Tlie act uf mis- 
interpreting; an erioiieons inteipietation or 
idea ; misconception, misconstruction. 

"In M. miiuner lea« liable to interpretation."— Stc 
wart: Fhitus. Ki»ays, eas. i., ch. iiL 

mis-in-ter'-pre-ter, s. [Eng. misinterpret ; 
-i;,] Uiie who misinterprets ; one who in- 
terprets erroneously. 

" Whom as a niitinti-rpreter of ChrUt I ojienly pro- 
test ii^MUbt. —MiUvH : Dwt. uf Divorce: To I'arlia- 

* mis-in- treat', v.t. [Misentreat.] 

mis-join', v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. join, v. 
\. Ord. Lang. : To join htuWy or impi-vperly. 

" Luther, im.ire uiiHtfikin^ what he rejul. 
Mtvoint the »iacnnl butly with thn liread." 

/irgdcn . Hind .t Panther. II Hi 

2. Laiv : To join in or make a party to a suit 

" For ill Hctionn of toit the plnintiff may alw^yn 
remedy a mixjoimler of defcndiuiUi, by vuturui^ a nolle 
proteoHi. ixa to the luirty mitjoined. otheiwlw nt tlie 
trial he will be aciiuitted."— i5fuc**(o<io.- Comment., 
bk. ill., eh. 2. 

hoil. boy ; pout, jowl ; cat, jeU. chorus, 9hin, toen^h ; go, gem ; thin, this ; sin. as ; expect, ^enophon, exist, ph - f. 
-ciai., -tian = shan. -tion, -sion = shun ; -tion, -sioa = zhun. -cious, -tious, -sious - shus. -ble, -die, vS:c. = Del, del. 

misjoinder— misnumber 

ni>s-3^n'-^©ri s- IPivf. mis-, ami Eng. joiji- 

l.ow: The joining of parties in a suit or 
action wlio onglit not to be so joined. 

■' The iioiii.>imlKV or tnitjnimlrr ut n plnltitlff iimy U- 
niin-mlt^l.'"— /;7*icJljf«»«. Com»n«itr. bk. ill., cli. U. 

mis jiidge', r.t. & i. [Pref. mis-, ami Eng. 

...'.;.■ (.l.v.).] 

A. Trutis. : To jiKlge ill or wrongly of; to 
jniljie c-rroneotislx; to misconstrue, to mis- 

•■l'l»rfinlon might n\hlu<lff<* tho motive of his rc- 
thviiiPiit. "— yoAdiwH ; o/ the J'oett ; W'allirr. 

B. Intntus. : To make a mistake in juilging ; 
to L*rr in judgment. 

-The mttiitdoinQ frii'inN of llWity miiiht hnii: have 
reKTetted . . . the golclpuuiii-.rtiiiiity which lia<l Well 
MirtV-retl to eswipe.' — J/iJcnuf-iy . llitt. Kttff.. uh. li. 

mis-jiidg'-ment, s. [Prof, mis-, and Eng. 
jnihiinnit (4 V.)., The art of misjudgnig ; a 
minatiou; misinterpretation, misfonstruetion. 

■• Mi»Jiidytne)it in owes of a iwoniinry (Iniunge."— 
Bp. h-iH : Case* qf Coiuciencc. lUf. li., viiae o. 

* mis-keep; r.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. leap 
Ol.v.).; To keep wrongly. 

* mis keep ing, ' mis-kep-ing, ■. f^'f f- 

„>.,s-, and Kiig. kfcpunj (-i.v.).] Bad or caie- 
U-ss keeping. 

" To lese his love by mhlrptnfj." 

Chaiwer: Tt»t. of Love, 111. 

mis-ken', v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. l:en, v. 
(viv.).] To be ignorant of; not to know. 

' mis -ken, 5. [O. Eng. metathesis ioxmixat. 
= niik^:',i 1 A iiiixen, a dungliiU. 

' mis-ken -ning, s. [Misken, r.l 

Lav: : Wrongful citation. QVharton.) 

" mis'-kin, s. [Etym. doubtful ; perhaps fmni 
Kr. uinse — a pipe, and Eng. dim. sutl'. 'kin.\ 
A little bagpipe. [Musette.] 

* mis-kin'-dle, r.(. [Pref. -inis-^ and Eng. 
I'lnAh. (4 V.).] To kindle, heat, or excite 
wmngly or erroneously. 

"Such is the MiiskhuUed heat of some vehement 
spiiits."— fi/>. //alt: Mischief of F^tclion. 

* mis-know' ('>■ silent), v.t. k, i. [Pref. mis-, 
and Eiig.fcjiow(q.v.).] 

A, Trans. : Not to know; to misapprehend, 
to misunderstand. 

■■There ia nothing in the woiUI that they more mi-t- 
knnw thiui themselves/*— /J/j. J/all : Wicke'lni-ss vf 
JMKiiUf a F7-iii'ful L'liul ISarrcn. 

B, intrans. : To know wrongly ; to be mis- 
infoimed ; to mi.sapprehend. 

■' It is often woi-se to ?;.i*fr)ioi(i or to misjudge th;iii 
to lie wliully iglior;Hit."— fiz-iV. (Jiiayf. Hceii.-w. Oct.. 

* mis-knowl'-edge ik silent), s. [Pref. 

ui'iS', and Eng. knoivkdyc («i.v.).] "VN'ant of 
knowledge ; imperfect knowledge ; ignorance. 

■•This sham of knowledge liAil been flat mitknoic- 
lnhje.'—Carlijle : Jiemiitiscences. i. 77. 

mis-laid', pa. par. or a. [Mislay.] 

mis-lay', v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. lay,v. (q-v.). J 
* 1. T" lay or set in a wrong place. 

■' If the )>utler be » ti'll-tftle, HiM/nj/ ji sijoon, so .is h« 
iii:iy iievtv fiml it."— Swift : directions tu Servants. 

2. To lay or deposit in some place not re- 

mis-lay'-er, 'mis-lai-er, s. (Eng. viisUiy; 
-...] one who nn.slays ; one who sets in a 
wrung pKice. 

■■ Tlie mitJnypr of a mere stone is to blnme : but tlu" 
iiiijn-.t jiuice is the enpital rtmover of l;uidniarlta, 
\» lull lie ilefineth huuss o£ lauiU."— /fa ro» .■ Eisayj. 

mis -le (le as el), s. [Misle, v.] Fine, close 
iloii ; a drizzle. 

mis'-le (le as el), rj. [A frequent, from 
vtist C'l-v.).] To rain in fine drops, to mizzle. 

■'A-i ))ustiii'j drops hard flints In time doe irearse," 
(.'Kt'oij/Jio: A iieinembranvi: 

mis-lead, 'mis-lede, r.t. iFref. viis-, aiul 
Eng. ln'il, V. (q.v.).] 'I'o lead in a wrong direc- 
tion or patli ; to lead astray, to cause to en , 
to guide into error. 

■'To excite their feelinga.ind to mislnad their jiulij- 
iueut."—M<icaiiiay : Hist. En'j., ch. v. 

mis-lead'-er, s. [Eng. mislead; -er.] One 
whfi misleads; one who leads another astray. 
{.•ihuke^fp. : 1 Henry IV., ii. 4.) 

mis-lead'-ing, a. [Pref. viis-, and Eng. 
If'liiHj {i\.\\).\ Leading into error ; leading 
;t>iray ; deceptive. 

mis-leared, <t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. leared 
= taught.] Ill tiiught, ill bred, mistaught. 

"Ye tire hnt a »»iW<(irVf person to &\wr for hex in 
sic a manner, ■—.Sct.K: UIU .Uarltitity. cli. xxxix. 

* mis-learn', v.t. [Pref. viis-, and Eng. learn 

(.(.v.).] To h';irn wmngly or amiss. 

* mis - learned', ■ mis - learn' - ed, c 

H'lcr. Hiis; and Eng. hnrn<id Oi.v.).J Not 
really learned ; imperfectly learned. 

*■ Whom it neem« a mittenriied advocate would faiiie 
bear ni>.-— Zip. IIuU : Vntei of Comciencc ; Add. C<ise. 1 

mis-led', iw. jk"*. or a. [Mislead.] 
' mls-lede, v.t. [Mislead.] 
"mis-len, 5. [Meslin.] 

mis'-tle (tie as el), s. [Mistletoe.] Mistle- 


" If snowe do contiii'ie. aheepe hardly that faro 
Crave miitlo i\iid ivie for tlieni for t-. spare." 

Tiuser: Huilxtitdi-f. 

■^mis'-lc-toe (le as el). " mis'-sel-to. 

* mis'-tle-to (tie as el). 5. [Mistletoe.] 

mis-lie', v.i. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. lie {2), v. 
(.l.v.).j To lie wrong; to be placed in a 
wrong position. 

" Oft he louteth, for his hed mislay." 

Chancer: C. T., 3,64S. 

* mis-light' ('//i silent), v.t. [Pref. wis-, and 

Kiig. Ihdd V. ('i.v.).] To light amiss ; to mis- 
lead by a fals*; light. 

" No will o' the wispe mislight thee." 

IJerrivk: JIttperidfS, p. 232. 

mis-like', v.t. & i. [A.S. mislican.'\ 

A. Trans. : Not to like, to dislike ; to have 
an avei-sion to ; to disajiprove. 

■■ MigHkc me not for my complexion, 
Tlie ahadow"d livery of tbe burnish d snn. 

Shakesp. : .Merchant of VenicL-, ii, 1. 

B. Intrants. : To entertain dislike, avi;rsion, 
or disapprobation. 

" mis-Uke', s- [Mislike, v.] A dislike, a dis- 
t.i.ste, an aversion ; a feeling of dialike, aver- 
sion, or disapprobation. 

" Settini; yuur sconia and your mitf^f-et aside." 

^ilutkesp. : a Ueiti j 17., iv. 1, 

** mis-like'-ness, s. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
likeness (q.v.).J A bad likeness. 

" So oft by rascally miiilikeness wrong'd." 

Hoiithey : To A. Cunninohivn. 

' miS-lik'-er, s. [Eng. misUk{e); -er.] One 
who dislikes or disapproves. 

mis-lxk'-ing, s. & a. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 

liking {.-x.y.).] 

A. As snhsiantive : 

1. A dislike, a mislike. 

2. Indignation, displeasure. (Palsgmve.) 

B. As adj. : Displeasing, unpleasant. 

mis-lin, s. [Meslin.] 
mis-ling, "mys-el-yng. s. [Misle, v.] 
Fiue, close rain; a drizzle. 

" As the myseJyng uiwu the 'imh&i."— Deuteronomy 
xxxii. (1551.) 

mis-lip'-pen, v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 


1. To disajtpoint. 

2. To deceive, to delude. 

3. To suspect, to distrust. 

4. To neglect, to omit to perform. 

• mis-live, *mls-leve, v.i. [Pref. mis-, 
and Eng. Uvp, v. (ij.v.). J To live ill ; to spend 
one's life wrongly or wickedly. 

" If he iniilive in leudness and lust. 
Little l>oot8 all the wealth and the trust." 

Spenser: Shepheards Calender ; May. 

• mis-lived', o. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. lived, 
a. tq.v.).] Living wickedly or wrongly. 

■' O old, unwholsome .-uid mixlieed man." 

Chaucer: TroilusA Cretiida, ir. 

^ mis-liv -er, s. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. liver 
(q.v.).] An evil liver. 

" As mialyners obatin.ite." 

Jicde Me and be nott Wrothc. p. 121. 

" mis-lodge', v.t. [Pref. mts-, and Eng. ?m/ye, 

v. (q.v.). J To lodge amiss. 

• mis -look, ' miS-loke, s. [Pref. mis-, and 
Kng. look, s. (q.v.).] A looking wrongly or im- 

"Ovide telleth in hislwke 
Ena-ample touchend of niisloVe.' 

GQtoer: C. A., i. 

* mis-luck', s. [Pref. mis-, and Eng, luck 
(•I.v.).] Ill-luck, badduck, misfortune. 

*mis-l<ick', r.i. [MisLUCK, s.] To miscarry; 
to be unlucky. 

■■ If out- mi'Jutk there may still l»e another to mske 
terma."— (Vd-Ii/fc.- MiiKeilaniet, iv. aia. 

'mi^-lj?, n. [Eng. misKe); -y.] Mizzling; 
raining in line drops. 

•mis-make', v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
make (q.v.).j To make amiss or wrongly. 

mis-man'-age, v.t. & i. [Pref. mis-^ and 
Eng. mniui'je (q.v.).] 

A. Trans.: To manage ill; to administer 
imi'roperly ; to spoil by bad inanageinent. 

•■Til-- debatesof princes' councils would be indaucer 
tohe>»i*>nana'}ed."—locke: Ilttman Understanding. 



B. hitfuis. : To manage business or affairs 

ill or badly. 

mis-man' -age-ment. s. [Pref. mis-, an-l 
Kiig. m<in(iij>'!iient (q.v.).] Bad management; 
inipinper administration or conduct. 

mis-man'-ag-er, j^. [Eng. viismanagie) ; 
-tc] One who mismanages. 

'^ mis-man '-ner§, s. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
mtninas (q.v.).] Bad manners, ill-breeding; 
want of manners. 

■■ I hoiie your honour will excuse my mismanners to 
whisper before you ; it was only to give some orders." 
— Vanbragh: The Uehipse. iv, 1. 

* mis-mark , * misse-mark, v.t. [Pref. 
■Hiii--, and Eng. mark (q.v.),] To mark witli 
the wrong token ; to mark wrongly. 

'■ In a side after viissemarked with the uoumher of 
"49 wliicli sbuulil haue lieen marked tlieuoumljer vi 
.•lb-X"—S>r T. More: IVorkes. p. 1,13J. 

miS'mat9h', v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
mdtch, V. (q.v.).] To match badly or unsuit- 

* mis - mS,t9li'- ment, s. [Eng. viismatch; 
-mcnt.] A bad or unsuitable matc!i ; a mis- 

* mis-mate', v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. mate 
(q.v.).] To mate or match unsuitably; to 


" Not quite misni'ited with a yawning clown." 

J'eiinysoa : Oeraint tt Kniil, 1,275. 

" mis-mea§'-ure (§ as zh), v.t. [Pref. mis-, 
and Eng. measure, v. (q.v.).J To nieasur;i 
wrongly or incorrectly ; to form au erroneous 
estimate of; to miscalculate. 

"With aim nusmeasured and impetuous apeed." 
i'onng : Sight Thoughts, v. 734. 

* mis-meas'-iire-ment (§ as zh), s. [Pref. 

mis-, and Ku-. mcn^vrcmtnt (q.v.).] Wrong 
or incorrect nitnsurenient. 

* mis-me -tre (tre aster), ' misse-me-tre, 

v.t. [Pref. mis; and Eng. mdrr. (q.v.).] Tl> 
spoil thj metre or rhythm of. 

" So 1 pray to God that none niiswrite thee, 
Nk the misseinetre, for defaut of tong." 

Chaucer : Tmilut J: Creuida. v. 

mis-name', v.t. [Pref. viis-, and Eng. name, 
V. (q.v.).] To name wrongly ; to call by the 
wrong name ; to miscall. 

" And that thing made of sound and show 
Which mortals have misntimed n, l)eau." 

lieattie: Wolf £ Shepherds. 

mxs-ndm'-er, s. [O. Fr. misnommer, froin 
mcs ( miui(s)= badly, and itommer— to 
nanii.- (Lat. noniino).'] 

1. Ord. J,07ig. : A mistaken or misapplied 
name or designation ; an incorrect temi ; au 
inapplicable or unsuitable denomination. 

*' lint, male for female is a trope. 
A rather liold misnomer." 

Cowper: Mistake in TransL of Homer. 

2. Laiv : (See extract). 

■• A plea in alcitement may !« for a misnomer, or a 
f.dsi.- addition to the prisoner. As. If James Allen, 
trentleiiiau, is indict«d by the name of John Allen. 
^^■|iiiie. he may plead that he has the name of J:»uie~. 
and I'f Jiihii ; and that he is a gentleman, and n-u 
iine.Mp'in' F rin r!v, if either fact was fouud by tht; 

jury, tl:. • < I'litfd: but. in tlie end, there 

iv.-isiit; I.- iiiinj,' til tht; prisoner ; l>ei:;aise 

a new m.i .. ! ! i,,,-ht be framed. .\nd such pleas 

are in iH.iLim- unr^WMun ; Jis the court may now amend 
all sncli dciecU. '— fiiacA:a(o»t!.- Comment., bk. iv.. 
ch. 26. 

* mis - nom'- cr, v.t. [Misnomer, s.] To 
designate by a wrong name or description ; to 

mis-num'-ber, v.t. 

mnnber, v. (q.v.).] 

[Pref. viis; and Eng 

fete. fat. fare, amidst, what, fall, father; we, wet, here, camel, her. there 
or, wore, wolf; work, who, son ; mute, cub, ciire, unite, cur, rule, full ; try, 

; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine: go, pot. 
Syrian, as, ce = e ; ey = a ; qu = kw. 

misnurture— misproud 


1. To imniiHT or reckon wrongly; to cal- 
culatf. wrongly. 

" Whlcli inli:ht well ninke it suspected that tlie 
nniiie-s Viy aed, Iwfore anukeii of. were juiiuiimftercii."— 
Jlultii/h : nUl. Ho(/<i. l.k. v.. ch. i.. S S. 

2. To attix wrong numbers to : as, The 
houses were misntmibcred. 

' mis-nur'-ture, r.^ [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
iiiirlni' (ii.v.)".J To nurture or briny up amiss. 

•■He wiJiiltl |.iiiii«li the -[mrctxts niis»iir(iirin-i their 
chihireu with tht- tl<M\tU i.f those chihiieu."— fl^. null : 
Contempt. ; AViVm vurstiia the Children. 

* mis-6-be'-di-en5e» .^. [Pref. mis-, and 
Eng. <:hi'di<. !(<■•■ ("'i-v.).] Erroneous or faulty 
obi'ilirncp ; disobedience. 

* mis-6b serve', v-'u [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
obt<:rf- (>i.\'.).] To observe wrongly, uuic- 
curatfly, or imperfectly. 

■' If 1 »iwi(K<'riv not, thev love to be treitted as ra- 
tional creatines suuueithau is imjigiued."— /.ofA-f .- Vf 

" mis-ob-serv'-er, s. [Eng. mUohscnie); 
■<:i\] ( inr wli.mbserves wrongly, inaccurately, 

(,'!■ iiiipfflY'L-tly. 

* mis-o-dere', «. [Gr. p-Laitii {mlseo)-=tv> 
hate, and KA»jpot {Ideroi) = the clergy.] Hating 
the clergy. 

"Suiue »i(i-oc/frc courtiers."— /*<iHer.* Church IJUt.. 

IV. iii. U. 

miS-Og'-a-mist, s. [Gr. fiitT6yafi.o<; (nilsoga- 
7/U'^), tmin ixiiTtu} (i*n'sco) = to hate, and 711^0? 
(^gamos) = marriage ; Fr. misogaiiie.] One wlu. 
liates man-iage. 

mig-og'-a-my', s. [Fr. viis'^gamic] Ahatred 
uf niarriag'.-. L^I'^'-'Oamist.] 

* mis - 6 - gram- ma - tist, ^^ [Gr. nio-eio 

()jn'.-iu) = to liate, ainl Vpan^ci (i/''^''^""'). genit. 
ypaixnaTo<; {•jriiriiiii"tos) — a. letter.] A hater 
of letters or learning. 

"Wilt Tyler . . . being n ^nisojrammiitist."—riiUi'r: 
Wort/lies. ii. all. 

miS-Og'-y-nist, s. [Gr. fj.t<royvyyi<; (misnfiinn'.-'), 
fmni ixttriu} {)nised) =to hate, and ■yui-^ {<iinir) 
=: a wunuin ; Fi\ misogync] A we>nian-hater. 

mis-Og'-y-njr, s. [Gr. ixLa-oyvviaimisngunia) ; 
Fr. misognnu-.] Hatred of women. [Misogy- 
nist. ] 

i mis-6l'-6-gy, 5. [Gr ^Lo-okoyia. (misolngki) 
= luitied ot argument : uice'ct) (viiseo) -=■ to 
hate, and A0705 (logos) = a i»roposition.] A con- 
tempt for logic. 

"Tlmt Bruiio'9 scorn sprang from no misdlogfi his 
own varied erudition proves.' —G. //. /.ewta; Uiat. 0/ 
rhilol.. ii. 108. 

* miso-pin'-ion (i as y), s. [Pref. viis-, 
and Kn-. •■/Hnivii (q.v.).l A false or errone- 
ous njiinion. 

" But where the heart is forestalled with mixopinloti. 
ablative ilirectious are first iieedfull to unteach ern-r, 
ere We cau leanie truth,"— Bjj. Sail : Sermun (Sept. 

■'-der, v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. order, 
V. (i| V.)] To order, regulate, or manage 

"If the child raiss either in forgetting a word or 
niiMiiilt:riii'j the senteULe. I would not have the luaoter 

ii\,\\ii."—.Ucliitiu : fi'.hotcmaster. 

* mis-or'-der, s. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. order, 
s. (q.v.).] Disorder, irregularity; want cf 

" falplinniius being thus at quiet on that side 
intt-iided w hulie ti. refunue all mUunlers amongst tlie 
hrilnxn^:'—ni'lhi>.ln-d: JlUt. Scotland; Etlwdius. 

" mis-or'-dered, a. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
ord<'rtd.] Uut of order ; irregular, disorderly. 

"He [David] pinged his conrt also iu such wise of 
all vifioHs rule and 'ndKonUred custcmea, that his 
whole fauiilie was giuen onelie to the exercise of 
virtue."— 7/o/0(«/i.,(Z JIUt. HvotUind : Oaoid. 

* mis-or'-der-ly» ". [Pref. i»/.s-, and Eng. 
ordiihj (q.v.).] Dis<nderly, iriegular. 

■■ His nviT-niuch fearing of you drives him to seek 
souif misorUerli/ shift." — Atcluim-' Hchotemasler, bk. i, 

* mis-or-di-na'-tion, s. [Pref. viis-, and 
Kng. nrdiiKft'mn (.(.v.).] Wrung, faulty, or 
ino't^rfect ordinatiun. 

' mis-o-the'-ism, ?. [Gr. ntviui (miseo) = to 
iuiu-, and eto'i (tluos) = God.J Hatred of God. 

* mis-own', v.i. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. own, 

V. (m-^' ) J To own, acknowledge, or avow 
wrungly or falsely. 

"He abiured all articles belonging to the crafte of 
negromaucie or misou'iuiisj to the faith," — atow: JJenry 

yj. (an. mv). 

- mis - paint; r.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
]«u,it. V. I'l-v.).] To paint wrongly or in 
wrong cuioms. 

* mis-pdss'-idn (SB as sh). s. [ Pref. w is-, and 

Eng.;H'ss(oH(ci.v.).] Wiong passion or feeling. 

" The iiiwanl mUtuuuion of the heart."— flM'rj/> Hull i 
Ifitrd Iriti: .Matt. V. 'ii 

' mis-pa,tched', c [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
yatdud t'l-v.).] Having patches in the wrong 

" .Vijr/MifcftAf, yawning, stretching."- /tk-ftnj-ifsJd • 
Clarititi, \\i\. 13s. 

^ mis pay*, vd. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. pny 
(y\.\\). To displeiise, to dissatisfy, to dis- 

■■ I can not of enuie flnde. 
That I niiapoke hauu*. ought behjnide. 
Whcieol loua ought ue mispuidc:' 

(lower: C. A., iL 

* miS-psll', V.t. [MlSSPF.LL.] 

* mis-pend, r.t. [Mlssj-end.] 

' mis-pense, ■>■. [Misspence.] 

mis-per-9ep-tion, .':. [Pref. ijiis-, and Eng. 
j,crcri>tinn (.'i v.).] A wrong or erroneous per- 

' mis-per-suado (a as w), *^ mis-per- 

SWade, r.t. , i'lrf. mia-, :ind Eng. j<cys(C((?f 
(q.v.).j To persnade wrongly or anass ; to 

" Poor seduced souls . . . were mixpcnwadel to hate 
aud condemn u:i."—lSi4!->j> Hull: F,:--e I'risxner. 

* mis-per-suas i-ble-ness (u as w), ". 

[Pref. "(IS-, and Eng. ■pfrsmtslblf)u-ss{i:[.v.).j 
The quality of not being persuadable. 

" Sons of )tiispi-rsnasilth;iifsit. that will not be drawn 
or veis"aded hv the teudereil mercies of God."— 
Lii-jhtoii : Vummviit'iry ; i'cter \. 14, 16. 

^ mis - per - sua' - sion (u as w), 5. [Pref. 
v\is-, and Eng. persuimoii (q.v.).] A wrong or 
false persuasion ; a false notion. 

" Whether the man that is thus mispersuaded is to 
be lilamed, "i- not blamed, for bis niUpersiutsion."— 
K/uirp: Works; Uisc. i»/ Conscience. 

mis'-pick-el, s. [Etym. doubtful ; a miner's 
term, which formerly included several kinds 
of pyrites ; O. Ger. mistpuckcL] 
Mill. : The same as Absenopyrite (q.v.). 

mis-pla^e', v.t. & i. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
■place, V. (q.V.).J 

A, Trans. : To put in a wrong place ; to 
mislay ; to set or confer upon an improper, 
unsuitable, or undeserving object. 

" See weiilth abusod, and dignities misplaced." 

Cow per : 2'irociniuui, 815. 

* B. Intrans. : To misapply terms. 

" Do you hear how he misphices / " — Shafcesp. : Mea- 
sure for Measure, ii. 1. 

mis-pla9ed'. pa. par. &: a. [Misplaced, r.] 
misplaced-gout, .^. 

i'l'thx!. : Anomalous or atonic gout, charac- 
teiizi-d by dysjiepsia, jialpitation of the heart, 
irritability of temper, grimling of the teetli, 
&c., and often terminating in death. 

mis-pla9e -ment, s. [Kng. misplace : -ment.] 
Tlie act of iKisidacing ; the state of being mis- 

* mis -plead', v.i. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
i'lend, V. (»i.v.).] 

Law : To plead wrongly ; to err in pleading. 

mis- plead' -ing, s. [PrGf. mis-, and Eng. 


Laio : An eiror in pleading. 

" The mispleading of a word shall forfeit all."— 
Adam: Works, ii. 43-2. 

' mis -point', v.t [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
jiniiii. V. (q.v.).] To point or punctuate im- 


" mis - p6r - X - 9y , s. [Pref. m?>, and Eng. 
j.o/nv(ii.v.).J Wrong or injudicious policy; 

" lu the schools of irreligion and inispolicy."— 
Southey : Thv Doctor, ch. xcvi. 

mis - pric' - ti9e, .';. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
pnirtu;- {i\.\.)y\ WroHg practice; misdeed, 

mis-print, * mysse-prynt. r.?. [Pref. 

■mU; and Kng. pnnf, v. (q.v.).j To print 
wrongly or incorrectly. 

■■ By mvMcpr//uti/ti'je those figures of algorismt.' — 
Sir T. More: tforitw. p. 772. 

mis-print', a". [Pref. .vtis-, and Eng. print, s. 
(q.^'.}.J A mistake iu'prtnting; a dexiatiuii 
from the copy. 

mis-print'-ing, s. [Mispuist, r.j Thosaim; 

as MlSl'KlNT, i. (q.v.). 

"The K-HikB . . , have. I Wllove. ninny ermta, or 
iniiiprinlinjs in them.' —;/«(«. titiiuitie Ulttri. 11. 'i;;. 

* mls-pri^e' (l), i:t. [O. Fr. m^spriser (Fr. 
mcprisrr) ; from mcs = Lat. minus = Iwdly : 
Low Lat. j);t^'o = tr) prize, to value; Lat. 
jtrvtitini = a price.] To undervalue, to sliglit, 
to despise, t" scorn. 

" Your reputation -diail not thereforu be miitfrised." 
—.•^hakiiif. : .la iou Like It. i. a. 

■ mis-pri^e' (2), v.t [O. Fr. mcs=. Lat. minus 
:= badly ; prensio, jtrehi^nsio :=■ a taking, from 
2)n'nsus, pa. par. of pr-^hi^ndo — to take.] To 
mistake ; to take wrongly ; to misconceive. 

" You spend your pasHJon on a mixprised mood." 

fihakcsp. : JJiiUutnmcr .\i'jht'» Dream. 111. S. 

" mis-pri'-sion (1), c«. [Misprise (l),r.] The 
act <>l ^Ild^l \aUung, slighting, or despising;. 
scorti, eoiiti-nipt. 

"Thi.u ilijflt in vile mhprision shackle up 
My love." 

ti'mkaip. : All's Well That End* Well. ill. 3. 

mis-pri'-slon (2), ^. [Mispiuse (2), v.] 

- I. i.h-d. Long. : A mistaldn;^ onu thing for 
another; mistake, misconception, misunder- 

"There is some misprision in the princes." 

a/utkrtp. : Much Ado About A'othini/, Iv. 1. 

II. £a:ho : Misprisions are all such high 
offences as are under the degree of capital, but 
nearly bordering thereon : and it is said that 
a misprision is contiiined in every treason and 
felony whatsoever: and that, if the crown so 
plea.s"e, the otfender may be proceeiled against 
for the misprision only. Misprisions are 
either negative, which consist in the conceal- 
ment of somethingwhich ought to be revealed ; 
or positive, which consist in the commission 
of something which ought not to be done. Of 
the lirst or negative kind, is what is called 
misprision of treason, consisting in the bare 
knowledge and concealment of treason, with- 
out any degree of assent thereto, for any 
assent niakt's the party a traitor. The punish- 
ment of this ollVnce is loss of the prolits of 
lands during life, forfeiture of goods, and im- 
prisonment during life. Misprision of felony in- 
also the coiicralmeiit of a felony which a man 
knows, but never assented to, for if he as- 
sented, this makes him either principal (U- 
accessory. The punishment is imprisonment 
and hue at the royal pleasure. The concealing 
the treasure-trove is also a misprision, which 
was formerly punishable by death, but now 
only by tine and imprisimment. Misprisions, 
which are positive, are generally denoininate<l 
contempts or high niisdemeanoi s, of which the 
pri ncipal is the nial-ad ministration of suclihigli 
utticers asare in j.ubUc trust and employment. 

* mis-pr6-9eed'-ihg, s. [Pref. mis-, and 
Eng. proceeding (q.v.).J A wrong or faulty 

"Which errors and mitprocecdings they i}oe fortify 
and intieni-h. — /fatwi." Church Controversies. 

* ims-pro-fess', v'.t. & i. [Pi'ef. mis-, and 
Eiig. j»r(Vm(q.v.).l 

A. Trans. : To profess wrongly or falsely. 

*■ Wlio misprqfess arts of healing the ao\x\." — Oouite : 

Ih-i.iif)i'ns, p. 8B. 

B. Intrans. : To make false professions. 
mis-pro-n6^9e', r.t. & i. [Pref. mis-, and 

Kng. jn-'ntoinu'f (q.v.).j 

A, Tnuts.: To pronounce wrongly or iu- 

B. Intram. : To pronounce incorrectly. 

'■They mispr<mnui).vd aud I mlsliked." — Jfj/ron .- 

mis -pro -nun -91- a' -tlon, s. [Pref. mis-^ 
and Eng. pronunci'dion (q.v.).] Wrong or in- 
correct pronunciation. 

mis - pro - p6r' - tlon. r.t. [Pref. mis-, ainl 
Enu'. i'rnj.nrtn>n, v. (q.v.).] To prouorti<3n 
wrongly ; to muke a mistake in the propor- 
tioning of things. 

mis-pro-por -tioned, a. [Pref. mis-, and 
Eng. /i)"^'"WMMi»-/(q.v.).] Nut in proportion; 
nut piopcily proportioned. 

* mis-proiid'. a. [Pref. mis-, ami Eng. 2)roit(? 
(q.v.). j Viciously pnmd ; over-proud. 

" Thy tnisproud ninliltious clan." 

ticott : Liidj/ 0/ the Lake. V. 20. 

boil, boy; poTit. jowl; cat, 9eU, chorus, 9liiu, benQh; go, gem; thin, this; sin, a?; expect, Xcnophon, exist, infe. 
-clan, -tian = Shan. -tion. -slon = shun ; -tion. -§lon = zbun. -clous, -tious, -sious = shus. -ble. -die, .Vc. = bel, deL 


misp unc tuat e —miss 

^ mis-piinc -tudte, vj. [Pief. mis-, and 
Kui^. iJiiiuiiiute (>i.v.). To punctuate wronj;!}'. 

" The wriUr wtio iirKl^cta puiictUAtinii, or mixpunc- 
tuat«; i» liiiljtc U> U) luimii-ivral^Md."— £. .i, i'oe : 
ilaryinuUtt, v. 

* mis-pur- suit'. >«. [Pref. mis-, and Kiij,'. 
j>ai\-iiii («(.v.).J A wrong or misUkeu pursuit. 

" Full i>t iiivie §or(Iitt luiHlx-lief^. tnUfurtuitt, urnl 
iiiiMfMilt^.'— CiWyd-: Life ••/ Slcrliit'j, tAi. vUi. 

* mis-quezne', v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Kng. 
7«i»i<; («i.v.).j Tu displease. 

"If auy luau th«i% i»u'/Ui'mr." 
j 7Vie /7vMr,fu,i'« 2'a/t-. |it Hi. 

mlSyquo-ta'-tioil, s. [Pref. «us-, and Eng. 
'yr'ii^{(iu/i(ii.v.). j Anincon-cct or false quota- 

mis-quote', f.f. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. yKofe 


1. To quote falsely or incorrectly ; to cite 

"Tnkc liiickii(.-yb<l jokes from Miller, got by rote, 
Aud Just viiuuijb of ItutniJug to mifrjuotr. 

Itifvon tin'jtitJt UttrUs <t 6co(ch /iciftcweys. 

* 2. To misinterpret ; to misconstrue. 
" Lui.k Ituw we cnii. ur sad. or merrily. 
Iiilirt')ii'vUitiuu win utinijiiote our louk;)." 

Shakcup. : 1 Unnry /I'., v. 2. 

* mis-ral^e; v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eug. raise 
(q.\.).] T'l raise, rouse, or excite wrongly or 
witli'Uit due cause. 

" Heie «<■ Here uiit of dmiKemf ihU 'iiisruueil fui y." 
~Bp. liitU: The Fne t'rUoner. § 0. 

" mts-rate', v.t. [Pref. hks-, and Eng. rutc, v. 
(q.\-.).] To rate, value, or estimate wrongly 
or insufficiently. 

" A;>biuuiii{^ false, or miarating true .id^-aiitageu,"— 
liarruio : ^icvtnoiit. vol. iii., ser. 23. 

mis-read', v.t. [Pref. itxis-, and Eng. rm<l 
(q.v.),J To read incorrectly; to mistake the 
meaning of. 

* mis-re'9eive'. v.t. [Pref. nis-, and En-. 

;>.(.t(rt (q. V.J.J To receive amiss. 

* nUs-re-9it-al, s. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
recital (q.\-.).J An incorrect or faulty recital. 

" Reject tlie tnisrecital as surplusage." — Uat*^ : 
Pleax. of the Crown, cli. xxiv. 

* mis - re - 9ite', v.t. [Pref. mis-y and Eng. 
recite (q.v,).] Torecite wrongly or incorrectly. 

•■ [They] mUreciie the sense of tlie author they 
quote."— £oif/«;.- Workt, ii. 47". 

'mis-reck-on, v.t. [Pref. mis-, juid Eng. 

r.,l<., (q.V.).J 

1. Tm euunt or compute wrong, to miscal- 

"It is A fftiuilinr error in Jnsephus to mitreckon 
times"— lUtleii/h : Ui*t. of Wordt. bk. ii, cU. xvil., f w. 

2. To lead astray in reekouing or calculation. 

"His heart mUreckotu iiiin," ~ South : Sermons, 
vol. VI.. ser. \\. 

*mis-rec-6l-lec'-tion, s. [Pref. i^*^-, and 
Eng. reroUn-tion (q.v.).J Erroneous or imper- 
fect recollectinii, 

' mis-re-fer', miss-re-ferre, r.i. [Pref. 
7/1 (V, and Eng. r'7(y(q.v.).j To refer or report 

"Which often mi«niprehend and mitier^erre."— 
Davieit : J/irum i)i .MoiUttn, p. 12. 

* mis-re-flect", v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. reft^t 

(q.v.).] To reflect wrongly, to misrepiesfiit. 

'mis-re-form', v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
reform (q.v.).J To reform ^v^ongly or iin- 

*mis-re-gard', .?. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. re- 
a-n-il (q.v.). ] Misconstruction, misconcep- 
tion ; want of attention orcjire. 

" When ;is these riines he 
With uusi-ciinrd." Spenser: F, Q., IV. viii. 2t>. 

• mis-reg-u-late, v.t. [Pref w/5-,and Eng. 

rajulute (q.v.J.] To regulate amiss or im- 

' mis-re-hearse', i\t. [Pref. miV, and Eng. 
rthmrst: (ti.v.).] To rehearse, recite, or quote 
■wron::ly or erroneously. 

"I both »i f-«)'.-'(fa«e and misconstrue."— Sfrr..l/orc,- 
H'lirkig, p. i.ooa, 

'mis-re-late', v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
nhftr (> [. V. ), ] To relate falsely or inaccurately. 

* mis-re-la'-tion, s. [Pref. niw-. and Eng. 

reldtioii (q.v.).] The act of relating wrongly ; 
a false or incorrect relation or narrative. 

• mis-re-lig'-idn, .■=. [Pref- "»(«-, and Eng. 
rditjiini (»(.v.).] False religion. 

"The infamy ..fa Piufwulsh mitrelijfk>n.~—Oj>. Uall: 
Contanp. ; 1 At Ti-n Lepvrt. 

\ mis-re-mem' -ber. v.t, & i. [Pref. mis-, 

and Eng, rtuuinbir (q.v.;.] 

A, 7Va».s-. : Not to remember; toremeniber 
imperfectly ; to forget. 

*■ .Uiarinn^inbcrinj one worOe ol hi»."— Sir T. JJore : 
ti'vrlccs, p. l.Uu. 

B. hitraiis.: To remember imperfectly; to 
mistJike in Jenienil>ering. 

"lljiviiig vmiuired how long he had kept the wood 
in BtMa-iiti'.ig bvfiire 1 hml the murUir.,hr HUHW«rvil lue 
(if 1 itMicli fuisixnieniOer not) twenty vuira. "—Oouli:: 
Harks. 1. 44i>. 

mis-ren'-der. v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
reiulr.r {{[.v.).] To render, construe, ortrans- 
late incorrectly. 

" Pollslied imd fitshiuuitble expressfuua in their own 
lau^uni^e, how carsely soever they have been mitrcn- 
dercd in unm.' — Boyle : It'arA:*, ii. 3ii7. 

mis-re-pbrt". v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. re- 
port, V.(q.V.).l 

1. To report wrongly or falsely, to give a 
false or incorrect account of. 

" Thiit none sliould mi»rep<'rt or dispute the actions 
uf tlie Uuke of York."— B«Avr : Uvnry Vl. (an. HSy). 

*■ 2. To Speak ill of, to slander. 

" A mnu that never yet 
Did. .i& lie voucliwifes, mienijort your KFAce." 

Shakctp. : Measure/or JJeaaure, v. 1. 

mis-re-p6rt', «. [Pref. mw-, and Eng. re- 
port, s. tq.v.),] A lalse report or misrepre- 


"mis-re-port'-er, s. [Eng. misrcpurt; -er.] 
Uue wliu niisreports, 

■■ We find you shnmefiil liajs .-md tnUicporters."— 
Philputt: W'orkct, p. lis. 

mis-rep'-re-sent. v.t. & L [Pref. mis-, and 

Elig. ,-.>',*o;,/(?(q.V.).J 

A. Trnu^. : To represent falsely or incor- 
rectly; to L:i\'e a false, incoriect, or imjjerfect 
rt-pifsentiition or account of, either inten- 
tionally or from carelessness. 

" A writer lies imder uo very presiding temptation 
to tnixrepresunt transatiCiuus oi aucluit diite."— J/ocun- 
lau : Hist. £nf/., ch. L 

*B, fntrnns. : To present false or incorrect 
representation or images. 

" Do my eyes misrepn-gciitt" 

Jlilton: Sanuion Agnniates, 124. 

mis-rep-re-senta -tlon, s. [Pref. mis-, 

iiinl Eng. r^iirtLSciitatioii (q.v.).] 

1. The act of misrepresenting or inisre- 
porting ; the giving a false or incorrect repre- 

'■ By how much the worse, and more scandalous the 
mhrrfirfifiifiithm is. by so mvich the grosser aud inure 
intolerali'e must be the idolatry.'" — South : Sermons, 
Vol. il.. ser, 4. 

2. A or incorrect representation nr 
account, made either intentionally or througli 
ciuelfssnes^ or ignorunre. 

*mis-rep-re-sent'-a-tive, ". & s. [Pref. 
mis-, and Eir^.' r>;prtsent^itive (q.v.).] 

A. As adj. : Tending to misrepresent or 
convey a representation or impression; 

B. .4s si(h,<it. : One who should represent, 
but who really misrepresents his constituents. 

"A better reply fr^m that mlgre/mscntatitie of 
ludL-uta."— .Vew yorb 7'rilntne, Jon. 26, lecj, 

mis-re p-re -sent '-er, s. [Eng. viisrepj-esent ; 
-(/■.J One who misrepresents. 

'mis-re-pute', v.t. [Pref. inis-, and Eng. 
n-f.ittr, V. (q.v.).] To repute or estimate 
wrongly ; to liold in wrong estimation. 

■• Vindicate the niixreputed honour of God." — Mil- 
ton : Doctrine of Dteorce, bk. iL. ch, xxii. 

'^mis-re-sem'-blan9e. s. [Pref. mis-, and 
Eng. rL'S':mblance(f\.x.).^ A bad likeness. 

" The P'lti-h i>oet'3 mieretenihlancct" — Southey : 
To .1. Cuniun.jham. 

' mis-re-siilt', f [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
f.^tiU (q.v.).] A ^Vl■ong or unlucky result. 
(See extract under Mispuhsvit.) 

nus-rule", .1. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. rule, s. 
(q.v.).] Bad rule, disorder, confusion, tumult, 

"Load mi* rule 
Of chaos far removed." JlilCon : P. L., vii, 271. 

•[ Lord of Misrule : [Lord, s., ^ (3)]. 

'mis-rule', v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. rnh\ v. 
(ti-v.). ] To rule badly or amiss ; tomisgovern. 

" The »tJite of Ireliuid at the iwce^iion of the Ttidoii 
was tlint of a miaruUd dependency."— if rtf. t^tnirt. 
lleview, p. 6uJ. 

■mis-rul'-^^, a. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. ruUj 
(q.v.). J Unruly, ungovernable. 

'" Curb the rnuuge of his uiisrulu tongue." 

Dp. IlaU : S<ttite». vl. 1. 

miss (1), misse, 5. [A contract, of mistress 
(q.v.). J 

I. Ordinary Lunguagc : 

1. An unmarried female, a girl, a young 
woman or girl. 

" Aud how does mitt aud madam dof ' 

C'Quiper : yearti/ Distress. 

2. A title of address prefixed to the name of 
an unmarried female ; a form of adtbesa lo 
an unmarried female. 

" Fie, tnitl, how you bawl !" 

Congreoe : Laotfor Love, iii, 

*3. A kept mistress, a concubine. 

■■ She bf in^ taken to l>e the Earle of Oxford s iniuc." 
—Evelyn : Mar/j, 9th Jan., 16^2. 

"4. A strumpet, a prostitute. 

" A mtM is a new name which llie civility of tbisage 
bestows oil one that our uiimaunerJy aiicest<ii's culled 
whore and strumpet. "—rAc Charucti-r uf u Town Mist 
(IGTo). p.3. 

II. Cards: An extra hand dealt aside on 
the table in three-card loo, for which a player 
is at liberty to exchange his hand. 

miss, '* misse, v.t. & i. [A.S. missnn, mis- 
siait; cogn. with Dut. inwse/i = to miss, from 
mis = a.i\ error, a mistiike ; Icel. missa = lo 
miss, lose ; mis = amiss : Dan. miste = to lose ; 
Hw. mista — to lose ; viiste = wrongly, amiss ; 
Goth. Hussa = wrongly ; 51. H. (Jer. misseii ; 
O. H. Ger. mlssun = to miss ; M. H. Ger. 
missc = an error.] 
A. Trnnsitive: 

1. To fail to reach, gain, obtain, or find. 

" Felicity no soul shall misse." 

Robert of Oioucesler. p. 584. 

2. To fail to bit. 

" He could uot niita it." Shakegp. : Tempest, ii. 1. 

3. To fail to understand or catch mentallv. 

4. To fail to keep or observe ; to omit, to 
neglect ; to pass by or over ; to go without. 

"So iiiucli as to mist a meal by way of puuishment 
for his faulta."— ilitf^ of Man. 

* 5. To be without ; to do without ; to dis- 
pense with. 

'■ We ciuinut mis* him : he does make our fire 
Take in our wood, and serves in olSoes 
That profit us." S/)abc*ji. : Tempest, L 2. 

6. To feel or perceive the want of; to dis- 
cover or notice the absence, want, or omission 
of ; to desiderate. 

"Every month his native laud remembers aud 
mmcjf liimdess."— J/ncaw/a^ ; HitL £it!/., ch. v. 

B. Iiitraitsitive : 

* 1. To go astray ; to err. 

" What wonder theu, if one of w-ouien nil did mist ! " 
SpeiiSL-r: r. v.. Ill, ix. 2. 

2. To fail to hit, reach, or attain the mark ; 
to miscarry. 

" Tb' invention alladmir'd, and each, how he 
To be th" inveutor miss'd." Jiitton : P. L.. vi. 49!>. 

*f[ It was loriuerly followed by of. 

"Grittus mi*Kinq of th^ Molda\iau fell upon May- 
\At:-~linoUes: HisL of the Tiirkes. 

1 (1) To be vtissiuy : To be lost or wanting ; 
uot to be found. 
(■J) To mi:>s stays : 
Xaiit. : [St,4V, s.]. 

miss (2). ' mis, * mys, - misse (2), .v-. 
[Miss, v.] 

I. Ordiiuiry Language: 

* 1. A fault, an ofteuce ; a failure of duty. 

•■ To meud my misse." William of Palerne. 532, 

* 2. A mistake, an error. 

" He did without any very great mis* in the hardest 
pumtsoi grammar."— .4«cft<z/«.' .'iihoolmaster. 

* 3. Harm or hurt from mistake. 

And though one fall tfirough heedless haste. 
Vet is his mitte not mickle." 

Spetiter: ShepUeardt Calender. 

i. A failure to hit, reach, obtain, &c. : as. 
Tct make a miss in firing at a target. 

'' 5. A feeling of the loss, absence, or wr.nt 
of something. 

" I should have a hea\y miu of thee." 

Slcakesp. : 1 Henry /!"., v. 4. 

' 6. Loss, absence. 

•'Tliu^e that mourn for the miwof others."'— Suftun ; 
Le-irn to hii- yeA. 184«f, p, 184. 

II. liilUunts: A stroke in which the player's 

late, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father ; we, wet. here, camel, her. there 
or, wore, w^lf, work, who, son ; mute, cub, ciire, unite, cur, rule, full ; try, 

pine, pit, sire, sir, marine : go, pot, 
Syrian, se, ce — e ; ey = a ; qu — kw. 

missaid— mission 


ball does not hit anothtr ball, or, iu pool, 
hits tlie wrong ball. 

mis-sald' (ai as c), 7>o. jxir. or a. [Missay.] 

mis' sal, ^. -S; ". [I^ou- T^t. missuk, from mUsn 
— n iiKis.-. ; (). Fr. missel, 7ncsscl ; Fr. missel; 
S]-. mi^d ; Ital. 7j«'5snit.] 

A. As substantive : 

Ecclcs. <C Church Hist. : The b:ok cnntninlnj; 
the whole service of the mass iihrnughout the 
year. In its present arrangement it dat's 
from about the middle of the fourtei-iith 
century. The Roman missal is used generally 
tluovigiiont the Roman Church, tluiugh the 
Ambrosiau obtains in the diocese of Milan, 
and many religicms orders have their own 
missals, diftering only in unimiiortaiU par- 
ticiilai-s from the Roman. Edstcrn Christians 
of the Communion with Rome have missals 
peculiar to their own rite. [Rite, II.] Mis- 
sals from which mass is said are, of course, 
in the ecclesiastical languages ; those for 
the use of the laity have a translation in the 
vernacular, side by side with the Latin or 
other ecelesiastical language. 

"B. .1.'; fifJj. : Pertaining to the mass. (Bp. 
Ilnll: Old livligioit, ch. v.) 

' miss-an'-swer, * misse-an-swer {w 

siU'ut), ;;. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. aii:>wei', s. 
(ij.v.).J A failure. 

■'AfWr tlie mioeantwr of the oue talent"— Up. 
ll.tU: t\.ntempt.; V aylc of Alotet. 

' mis-sat -ic-al» «. [Lat. missa = mass.] Of 
or pertaining to tlie mass. 

"The mitsaticai coiTa)ition of their piiestliootl."'— 
Backtt : Lije u/ nuiiauu, i. l<il. 

• mis-say'» * mis sale, i'.(. & i. [Pref. viis-, 

and Eng. say, v. ('pv.).] 

A, Tnuisiticv : 

1. To say or speak wrongly or amiss. 

2. To speak ill of ; to slander. 

B, Intransitive: 

1. To say wrong ; to make a mistake in 
what oue says. 

" Diggon Davie. I bid hergodday. 
Or Digguti her is. or I mixsau." 
Spt-iuer : Hhepheardt Calendar ; September, 

2. To speak ill or abusively. 

" Nathless her Umgue not to her will obey'd. 
But brought forth aijceches iiiyld wheiishe would 

havt) ininS'iyd,'' 

.Spviticr . F. (I., IV. vi. 27. 

* mis-say'-er. * missay-ere, s. [Pref. 
viis-, and Eng. scjicr (q.v.).] Oue who mis- 
aays ; an evil-si)eaker. 

•■ Aud if that any mUtaucre 
Desiiiae wouieii. that tliou nrniBt here, 
bliiuie tiiui, aud bid hiiu hold him still." 

Jlomaurit of the Hose. 

' mis- script', s. [Pref. mis-, and Lat. scrip- 
tuni = a thing written ; scribo = to write.] A 
word wrongly or incoiTectly written. 

" Thexe mM*.i(>/j luok as if desceiidtviita of ai'aAv^co 
aud iTapa\vC^ui."—J-'iiz-£Uward Hall: JJudcrn Ewj- 
lith, !>. i7j. 

* missG, V.t. &. i, [Miss, v.] 

miS'See', v. i. [Pref. viis-, and Eng. see (q.v.).] 
To take a wrong view. 

'• Heri-iu he fuudaiueuially mistook, mitaatv, aud 
laisvteut."— Curls/la : JlisccUaniet, iv. 23C. 

* mis-seek', * mis-seke, v.t. [Pref. viis-, 
and Eiig. b'-.k (tj.v.).] To seek or search fur 
wrongly, or in a wrong direction. 

" And vet the thiug, tliat most is your desire, 
You do nUtxeke." 

Wffatl : Of the mcanc and sure Kstate. 

* mis-seem', v.i. [Pref. vlIs-, aud Eng. scan 


1. To make a false ai)pearauce. 

2. To be unljecoming; to misbecome. 

* mis-seem'-ing, a, & s. [Eng.- missecm ; 

A. As (ulj. : UnbegDming, misbecoming. 

" For uever kuight I saw in such mUsceminf; pMgbV 
kpeitter : F. V-, i. ix. 23. 

B. .-Is suhst. : Deceit ; false show or aj'pear- 

" With her witchcraft and miueeming swetrte.^ 

Sfjetiser: F. f^., I. vU. &). 

miS'-Sel, S. [MiSTLKTOE.] 

Ornith. : The same as Missel-thrvsh. 
• missel-blrd« s. [MissEL-THRrsn.] 
missel-thrusb, " missel-bird, s. 

Ornith.: Tuntiis vi^civorv^ ; called also the 
Hulm-tlirubli, from its paiti.dity to thr liolni- 

oak (Qtwrt'.Ks llrx), or fit.iu its feeding on the 
berries of the Ilnteher's broom {Ruscus acu- 
laitns), known as hobn-lKMiii-s ; and the 
Storm-cock from its .sin-ing bciih Ik f.],' and 
during wind and r.tin. Tlie naiii'- .Miss.l-tlnnsli 
is derived from th.' fact tliat tli-' bud feeds nn 
the Iwrries of the mistletoe. Upper surface, 
nearly uniform ch)ve-brown ; under, yellowish- 
white with black spots ; Uiil slightly forked. 
Length of adult bird about eleven inches ; the 
males and females exhibit Httle ditlerence in 
si/.e or plumage. The missel-thrush is com- 
mon in England and in Central Europe. 
(VarrclL) [Tiiuusu.J 

* mis'-sel-dine, s. [Mistletoe.] 

' mis'-sel-to, s. [Mistletoe.] 

' mis-sem'-blan9e, s. [Pref. viis-, and Eng. 
si'iiihliiiff (.4-v,;.j A false semblance or le- 

*■ mlsse-me-tre, v.t [Mismetre.] 

mis-send', v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. send 
(il.v.).j Ti. send wrongly or amiss: as, To 
mi&mnd a paicel. 

' mis-sense', v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. sense 
(i|.v.).J To confuse, to confound, tomisunder- 

■■ J/Mst'iMiJiy hia Uuea." —Felt ham : Jlva-jloet, i>. 107. 

mis-sent', pa. par. or a. [Missend.] 

' mis-8en'-ten9e. s. [Pref. mis-, and Eug. 
dciili m-c (ii-v.). j A wrong sentence. 

"Tlmt mitavtitctici! wliich . . . would appear niott 
gross and i>HlpHble."—^iK-A:«;e.' Lifcof tyUiUtina, i. 72. 

* miS-serve', v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. serve 
((|.v.).] To serve wrongly or uufaithtully ; to 
fail ill serving. 

" VuH ahaU inquire wliether the good statute be ob- 
served, wheivby a luau umy have wuat he thiiiltdh he 
hath, niid not be abused or mUscreeU iu that he buys." 
—Hiuon: JtiUiciul Cliuri/i:. 

■ mis-set', V.t. I Pref. mis-, and Eug. set, v. 
(i[.v.}.j To :iet in the wrong place or position ; 
to misplace. 

"If, therefore, that bouudarv of suita [au oath] be 
taken awfty. or t/iMucf, w here shul be the eud."— &icwh ; 
Judicial Vluiiijc. 

mis-set', a. [Misset, v.] Put out of sorts. 

■■ Our Hi limie'saair miMet, after her ordiuair."— Sco« .- 
IJeart vf Midluthiun, ch. xviii. 

mis-shape', v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. shape, 
V. (m.v.).J Tti shape ill ; to give au ill-shapc 
or form to ; to deform. 

•* Our meddling intellect 
Jlmltiipes the be.iiiteous foiiUH of things.'* 

M'ordnwvrth : The Tables Turned. 

mis-shape', s. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. skojif, 
s. (q.v.).] An ill or incorrect shape or form ; 

" The oue of them . . . did Beeui to looke askew 
That her mUshape much lieliit. " 

Sf/enter : F. Q., V. xii. 2D. 

mis-shap'-en, pa. par. or a. ^Misshape.] 
Ill shaped, ill-formed, deformed. 

' mis-shap-en-ly, adr. [Eng. misslmpen ; 
-l>/.\ In a niissliaiien manner. 

mis-shap'-en-neas, s. [Eng. missMpen; 
-iicss.] The quality or state of being mis- 
sliaiien ; deforimty. 

^ mis-Sheathe', v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
shcntlie (q.v.).] To sheathe amiss or iu a 
wrong place. 

"This dftgjier hath mista'en . . . 
Aud is .'..mheitrheU iu uiy daughter's bosom." 

.S/W(t(W/j. .- JiomcQ * Juliet, v. 3. 

' mis-sif-i-cate, v.i. [Low Lat. missa = 
mass, and Lat. Jacio do.] To celebrate 

"Ci'Uceive hlin, readers, he [Bp. Andrews] would 
mUgifita/e."—JtUton : /teuton of Church OoveminciU, 
bk. i., ch. V. L 

mis'-sile, a. & $. [Ijat. missilis = that can be 
thrown ; neut. missile (teUim) = (a weapon) 
that can be thrown, from missus, pa. par. of 
mitlo= to send.] 

A. As adjective : 

1. Cajtable of being thrown or hurled ; fit 
for being Imrled or projected from the baud, 
or an instrument, or engine. 

*' To raise the mast, the miaai/f dart to winp. 
Aud send wwift anows fn»iii the lM)Hiidiiii,' strinp." 
Pope; Iluincr ; <)di/ssr<i \i\. 2h\. 

" 2. Having the jirjwer of pmjticting. (An 
incorrect use v( the word.) 

"It t^iok the regular niiiMkph>cr two or thrM mlna- 
tM t<j alUT bl» mistiltr weA|,ou [a tiiuakct] lutua wwil^jn 
«lth which hf could oncnuntvr an oueuiy hauiJ to 
\iM\K\."—Slacaulay : ilitt. Ewj.. cli. xHi. 

B. As suhst. : A weapon or jiriijectHe tlimwii 
or intended to be thrown or hurled from thu 
liand, or an instrument, or engine ; as, a dart, 
an arrow, a bullet 

mxss'-ing, a. (Miss, I'.] Lost, ndssod, want- 
ing ; not to be found in the place where it wna 
expected to be found. 

" II by any uieans he bo mSsihig, then shnlt thy !!/• 
be lor his Hie."— 1 KUvji xx. 3». 

" miss'-ing-ly, ai7i'. [Eng. missing; -ly.] 
With regret ; with a feeling of regret. 

" I huve, miiaiwjty, noted, he is of Iat« much rotlr«il 
from court."— .ViuAc*/^. ; Wiiiter'n Talo, l\: 1. 

miss-ion (sa as sh), s. &,a. [ Lat. missio = a 
sending, fronu/n:^-*(W, pa. par.of»u"«o=t0 8end.I 
A. -Is substitutive : 

I. Ordinary Languarje : 

1. The act of sending; a sending, a despatch- 

' 2. Dismissal, dismission, discharge. 

3. The state of being sent or delegated by 

i. Persons sent or delegated by authority to 
pi'i-form any service or commission ; spec, 
persons sent on piditical busines.s, or to pro- 
pagate religion. 

" Tliere should be n miiainn uf three of the fellows, or 
brethreu of Salomon's ilouse. — /iocy/j .- Seui AtlantU. 

5. The business on which a i»eison or agent 
is sent ; that duty with which the jiersons sent 
are charged ; a coimnissiou ; a charge or duty 

"Pronounce— what Is thy mtttion / ' 

H]/ron : Mttiifred, til. 4. 

6. The duty or object which one has to ful- 
fil in life; the object of a persou's or thing's 

"How to l>egin. bow toaccomiiUsh best 
His end ol beUig on eartli, ftud mitaiou high." 

Jliltm: P. ;;.,ll. IH. 

7. A station or residence of mlssionnries; 
the missionaries connected with such station. 

II, Eccles. £ Church History ; 

1. Singular: 

(1) The act of appointing to the cure of souls 
by a lawful superior. In tin- Homan Cliurch 
the mission of a priest is derived from his 
bishop, who receives his niissi(ui from the 
Pope. There are two "views as to mission iu 
the Anglican Church : (1) that mission is con- 
ferred with consecration ; and (2) that it is 
derived from the Crown. The fornu-r view is 
the one more generally held ; though the sup- 
pollers of the hitter might eflectively quote 
the words in which an Anglican bishop does 
homage to the sovereign for his .see. Among 
non-episcopal denominations, mission is gene- 
rally the act of a governing body. 

(2) A quasi-parish. In countries not in com- 
munion with the Roman Chui-eii, priests are 
appointed to missions, and are removable at 
tlie will of the bishop. Since tlie establish- 
ment of the Roman hierarchy in England in 
1850 — known at that time as the " Pai^al 
Aggression "—the charge of certain important 
missions has conferred quasi-parochial riglits. 


(3) The holding of special services in any 
particular district with the view of stirring 
up the inhabitants to a more activj spiritual 

2, Plural: 

(1) Foreign Missions: The imui.ction of 
Jesus which renders the duty of instituting 
missions imperative on the CliHstian L'hurch 
is found in Matt, xxviii. 1S-2U and Mark xvi. 
15-18. The hitter version of the c»>nnnand 
belongs to that portion of the hist clmptcr of 
Mark whicli is of doubtful authenticity 
[Makk]. The Acts of the Apostles narrate 
the Pentecostal descent of the Holy Spirit 
accompanied by the gift of tontjues, this 
miraculous endowment being evidently de- 
signed for missionary purjioses (Acts ii.). 
They tell also how Peter and John (ii. 14, v. 
&c.), and subsequently Saul, or Paul, fullilled 
the final command of Jesus (xiii. -xxviii). Th« 
revelation made to IVter that no man. Gentile 
or Jew, was common or unelean, having re- 
moved the prejudice against the propagation 
of the gospel among the Gentiles (x.), St. Paul 
becime thtir ^pe^■ial ;ipostle, while St. Peter 

boil, bop' ; pout, jowl ; cat, ^ell, chorus, 9hin, ben^h ; go. gem ; thin, this ; sin, as ; expect, ::N:enophon, eifiat, ph = t 
-clan, -tiaa = shan. -tion, -sion = shun ; -tion, -|ion = zhun. -cious. -tious, -sious - shiis. -ble, -<ile, Ac. - bel, deL 



mission— misstep 

had fiU- his cliicf diar^:!' th'* Jews. Tra»iiti<tn is 
lirolmlily i-oricct ill iiiakinji every aimstle a 
iiiis!*ii>uary, th>mgh details as W their several 
spheres are not trustworthy. In ante-Nicent- 
times a series of zealous missionaries la1ioiire<l 
to spread the gos]»el. A curtidn tacit com- 
]iit)mise witii the urior faiths took place in 
Tarious rtssjK-cts, riic jki^h festivals in par- 
ticular showed intense tt*nai-ity of life, and 
as a rule it w;is found needful to give thfiii a 
Christian varnish, and adopt them into th>- 
new relii;ion. <.>n the establishment of Chris- 
tianity nndt^r Constantine in the fourth i-en- 
tury, the civil power concerned itself about 
the sjjiead uf Christianity, and early in the 
ninth Charlemagne effected the conversion of 
the Saxons by a series of blt)ody wars. But 
genuine missionaries appeared. Thus, St. 
Tatriek, who laboured in the lifth centuiy, is 
called the " Apostle of Ireland ; " Winifred, or 
Uoniface, in the eighth century, the "Apostle 
of Cerniany." Christianity had reached Bri- 
tain in Iloman tinies, but the early British 
churches having been trampled out by the 
pagan Anglo-Saxons, Augustine and forty 
monks were sent to Canterbury. He becjime 
tlie "Ain>stle of England," and the lirst Eng- 
lish primate. In tlie East, tlie Nestorians, 
from the eighth to the fourteenth centuries, 
prosecuted missions in Tartary and other 
larts of Asias their zeal and devotion eliciting 
the admiration of Giblxtn. The Hrst Spaiuards 
in America and the Portuguese in India made 
it a prominent object to spread Christianity, 
using, however, force for tlie purpose. In the 
sixtf-enth century, the order of Jesuits w;is 
«stablislied, to spread the Roman Catholic 
faith abroad as well as defend it at home. 
This order established missions in India, 
China, Jajtan, and South America. Thegreatest 
name was Francis Xavier (150l>-152"2), the 
"Apostle of the Indies." The zeal of the 
Jesuits stirred up the Dominicans, the Fran- 
ciscans, and otlier orders. The Society de 
l*ropaganda Fide was instituted in 102:2. 
The Protestjint churches, whilst in contlict 
with Rome during the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries, had little energy to spare for 
missions. In 1701 there arose the Society for 
the Propagation of the Gospel ; about 17:J2 
the Moravian Itrethren were very zealous for 
missions; in ITSO the M-.tli'iilist Missi<Mi;try 
Society, in 1792 the Baptist Missionary So- 
ciety, in 1795 the I^ondon Missiuiiavy Society, 
in 17yti the Glasgow, and in 1790 tlie Scottish 
JMissionary Society ; in 1799 the Church Mis- 
sionary Society, in 1810 the Wesleyan Metho- 
dist Missionary Society, and in lS30the Church 
of Scotland mission, and in 1S43 that of tin; 
Free Church came into being, with several 
others. The Church tif England has varifuis 
missionary bishops, the lirst ordained being the 
Bishop uf Jeruadem, in 1.S41, The Scotti,sh 
Missions are conducted by the churclies with- 
out the intervention of societies. America has 
largely aided in the work of missions, one of 
the agents it has sent forth, Adoniram Jnd- 
son, iKjiiig sonietimes called the "Apostle of 
Burmah." The Evangelical body in Germany 
have by means of many institutions sent forth 
a large luimber of missionaries, 

(2) Hoyne Missions : The taunt, " Why send 
so much money abroad when there are prac- 
tically so many heathen at home?" helped to 
create home missions, which are now prose- 
cuted with ardour in nearly every city and 
town in Britain. One of the earliest was the 
London City Mission, established in 18:iO. 

(3) Jewish Missions : The London Society 
for promoting Christianity among the Jews 
was founded in 1S09 ; the Church of Scotland 
Mission to the Jews began in 1S37; the Free 
Church mission in 1S43, 

B. As mij. : Of or pertaining to missions or 

"They hiul erected a, clmrch and school, and h:\il 
Hindu 9(jitit; [irugreaa with 7niSfioH work.."— £cAu, Ja>i. 
6. 1892. 

' miss' 'ion (SS as sh), v.t. [Mission, s.] To 

send on a mission ; to commission, to delegate, 

" Me AU&h and the Prophet tnisaion here." 

».mthey ThuUibit, v. 

•misa'-lon-ar-i-nsss (ss as sh), ,•;. lEng. 

MUisi'iiiavn ;''ni:i!i.\ i'lie quality tn-state<ifa 
missionary ; litness or aptitude for tlie posi- 
tion or office of a missionary. 

" Their rai.iJ iiisitjht nml tine ii|ititiule, 

PiirtitiulAr wurLli iiiul geiier-il jiiimioiiarincjs 
As lyliy Jia thej' keeiJ nuiet by tlic lire " 
^ /.'. a. liroton'tuj : Aurora Leigh, i. 

miss -ion -a -ry (ss as si), s. & a. [Eng. 
iiLisiioti ; -fi-i'ij ', Fr. misswnairc,\ 

A, .)>• S7('i*f. ; One who is sent upon a re- 
ligious mission ; one who is m-nt to [triipagate 

" Hlti frlciuU nnhl thnth^ ha<lt><M-M a mfxn'itciry; hin 
t>iK-iiiliM th»t he hud htMJii ii hufCiUicer."— J/iu'tiM/fitf . 
Jlin. /.Hi/,, ch. XX, 

B. M atij. : Of or pertaining to religious 
niissi<ins or missionaries, * 

•• That B*ctU>ii of tlie I*rot«ttJHlt« who iiloiie noMt-sawl 
mitti^'iiitri/ imwer."— //fir (^mtrf. /ftfPitfW (18"3), 5u3. 

mlsBlonary-reotor, 5. 

J-WI,-s. ,t- Church Jlist.: The title given to 
certain Roman priests in each diocese in Eng- 
land, from their having charge of missions 
more than ordinarily important, either on 
acc<nmt of their having Iw-en long establisheil 
or from the size of the eoii;<r(gation. Missionary 
rectors were instituted by a decree of the Sacred 
Congregation of Propaganda of April 21, iS.VJ, 
which decree was promulgated intJie First Pro- 
vincial Council of Westminster (July, 1852). 

missionary - religions, s. pL A term 
employed by Prof. Max Muller, in his lecture 
on Missions in Westminster Abbey (Dee. :i, 
1873), to distinguish Buddhism, Muhammad- 
anism, and Christianity, from Judaism, 
Brrdimanism, ancl Zoroastrianism, which he 
called non-missit»nary. 

"By mifioiiary-reiiginnt I nieAiit those in wtiich 
the itprea<UiiK uf the truth lUii) tlie uoiivertdoii uf lui- 
believers are nilsetl tu the rank of » Hiicretl duty by 
the founder or liia iiiiiiiedt.'ite succes^ora." — Max 
Miiller: Chipt/romit GrTinait H'orJt*Ao/*, iv. ai8. 

miss'-lon-atc (ss as sh), '•. ;. | Eng. mission ; 

•at''.] To art or go on a mission. 

miss'-l6n-er (S3ass2l)..s. [Eng. missimi ; -er.] 
One who is sent on a mission; a missionary. 
" Tliin ex traord Unity conduct wtw due. iis the pricBta 
liMf|{e, tu the uctlou of certitiu Gertuiin inisgii/nvrt," — 
i.'c/io, Jrtti. S, 1882. 

* miss'-ish, a. (Eng, viiss (1), s. ; -ish.] Like 
amiss; prim, alfected. lackadaisical. 

"You are not ^oiiit; to he miuUh, I hope." — Mitt 
AutUn : J'ride A I'ri-judicc, ch. IvlL 

* miss'-ish-neSS, s. [Eng, missish ; -Tiess.] 
The airs or altectiitioa of a young miss ; prim- 
ness, atfeetation. 

"I hnve lost him by my own want of decision— my 
own }niari»hifi]u nitber, in liking to li:(ve luvem. in 
order to teazetlieui.'—r. t/uok : All in the H'r»«y, ch ii. 

Mis-sis-sip'-pi, s. [Xati\'e name = the great 
water. 1 

Ct'orj. : The large river traversing the centre 
of the North American continent. 

Mississippi-alligator* s. 

ZiM'l. : Attigati/rliicius, sometimes called the 
Pike-headed Alligator. Length, from fourteen 
to lifteen feet; deep greenish-brown aliove, 
yellow behtw, with the sides more or less 
striped. Fish forms their staple food,, but it 
is s;iid that they sometimes attack large quad- 
rupeds, and even human beings. 

*■ mis-sit', t'.f. [Pref. 7)1(5-, and Eng. si((q.v.).] 
'lo sit ill upon ; to misbecome. 

xniss'-ive, «. & s. [Fr,, from Ijat. viissus, pa 
par. of initio = to send.] 

* A. As adjectiee : 

1, Sent or proceeding from an authoritative 

"The klrg grunts a licence under the creat eeal, 
called a coK^e JVslire. in elect the ifersou he liaa lio- 
uilnnted bj liis letters mitxitie."—A}iliffc : Purer^joit. 

2. Fitted or intemied to be thrown, hurled, 
or projected ; missile. 

" Atri(l«8 flrat diacbarg'd the miativc apear." 

I'opK : Ilotner ; Iluui xi. 399. 

B, As suhstantive : 

L Ordinary Language: 

I. Tliat which is sent or despatched ; an 
announcement or injunction sent by a mes- 
senger ; a message, a letter, 

* 2. A person sent ; a messenger. 

" While I stood nipt in the wonder of it, came mis- 
sions from the king, who alhhaLl'd me Thane of L'aw- 
d>ir."—Sh<ikesiJ. : Macbeth, i, 5. 

II. Scots Law: A letter interchanged be- 
tween parties, in which the one party offers to 
buy or sell, or enter into any contract on cer- 
tain conditions, and the other party accepts 
the olfer eompleting the contract. 

* nuss-maze, s. [Mizmaze.] 

' mxs-soUnd', v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
sonnd (f{.y.).} To sound or pronounce wrongly 
or amiss, 

" Thei called them Crakers, which, by missnumlynrj^ 
w.xa comniunly called Krakera. '^Ilall : Henry VIIL 
(an. IC). 

Blis-SOU'-ri, .^. [Native Indian name,] 

GeiKf. : The name of a centnd State of tho 
American Union, also of a river jiassinji 
through that State. 

Missouri Compromise, s. 

Uist. : A name p<ipularly given to an Act of 
the American Congress, i>assed in 1S20, and 
intended to reconcile the Pro- and Anti- 
slavery iiarties. By this Act, it was deter- 
mined that Missouri should be adniitte<l int<> 
the Union as a slavehoUling State, but that 
.slavery should never be established in any- 
State, to Ik- formed in the future, lying north 
of latitude 3ir :j(j'. 

Missouri -rattlesnake, s. 

Ziinl. : Crotiiliis cnnj!inntiis{iin.y). A slender 
snake, from two to three leet long. It is* 
found from California to Ut-di, but the Yellow- 
stone is its favourite locality. 

mis-soy', s. [M.\ssov.] 

* mis-speak', * mis-speak e, 'mis- 
peak, v.i. & t. [Pref. VLts; and Eng. speak 


A. Intransitive : 

1. To speak wrongly or amiss; to err in 

"It is notao; thou hiv^t miM/xtke, misheard." 

:ifi'ike.ip. : hing John, iii. 1. 

2. To Speak ill of anybody. 

" Who but mistpeaki of Thee, he spets at Heaven." 
Syt»e»tcr : The Uecas/, 600, 

B. Intransitive : 

1. To speak or utter wrongly or incorrectly. 

" A mother which delii^ht^ to heare 
Her early child misspeake hnlf utter d words." 

Dunne , I'uetiu. y. 177. 

2. To Speak amies. 

" I ctniiot of euule t^ude, 
That I jiiisp"ke haue <mglit behynde, 
Whereof luuft'ouyht be luisiMvid." 

(Jtfwer : C. A., ii. 

* mis-Speech', ■• mls-peche, «. [Pref. mis-, 

and Eng, spccdi (q.v.).j Spea,king wrongly or 

" And otherwise of no misi>f<'hc 
My cuuitciencu for to .■eche." Oower : C. A., ii- 

mis-Spell', v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. jjjW/, v. 
tq.\'.).J To sjiell wrongly or incorivctly. 

mis-spell'-ing, s. [Misspell.] A wrong 
spelling of a word. 

mis-spend', tmis-pend, v.t. [Pref. mis-, 
and Eng. spind (q.v.).J To spend ill ; to 
waste ; lo consume to no puri)ose ; to spend 
uselessly or wastefuUy. 

"The genial moisture, due 
To apples, uther»i!ie miapfmU itself." 

J. J'hitips: Cider. 

' mis-spend' -er, s. [Eng. viisspend ; -e;-.] 
One who misspends or wastes prodigally oir 

* mis - spense', ' mis - spence', * mis - 
pen^e , 5. [Missi-kxd.] A misspending ; 
a siteuding uselessly ; waste, 

"The inispence uf niouey. and tliat wMch farre 
tmiiBceiids alt trwisure.i, of jiretious peerelesae time." 
— I'ryiine : 1 I/istriij-Miutrtj, ii. 

mis-spent', 2>a. jmiv. &, a. [Misspend.] 

' mis-Spoke', ' mis-spok'-en, pa. par. o? 

(I. [Misspeak.] 

mis-state', r.l. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. state 
(i|.v.).j To st-iite wrongly or iucoiTwctly ; to 

mis-state'-ment, s. [Pref, mis-, and Eng. 
statement (ii.v.).'] A false or incorrect st^ite- 
ment ; an incorrect representation of the facta ; 
a misrepresentation. 

mis-stay', v.i. [Eng. miss^ v., and stay, s. 

Nnut. : To miss stays; to fail of going 
about from one tack to another wlieii tacking, 
but not used of wearing, [Stay, s.] 

mis-stayed', a. [Eng. miss^ni/ ; -ed.] 

Naiit. : Ha\ ing missed .'>tays. 

* mis-step', ' mis-steppe, v.i. [Pref. mis: 
and step (q.v.).J To step, to move, to go 
wrongly or astray, 

" Whereso aa euer his Inne go. 
She shall not with lier litell to 
Miasteppc" Oower: C. A., v. 

* mis-step', s. [Misstep, v.] A v/rong cr 

false steji. 

fate, fat, fare, amidst, what, 1^11, father ; we, wet, hers, camel, her, there ,* pme. pit, sire, sir, marine : go, pot, 
or» wore, wolf, worl:, v/ho. son ; mute, ciib, ciire. T.^nite, cur, rule, full ; try, Syrian, £9» oe = c ; ey = a ; qu — kw. 

missucceed — mistion 

• mis-SUC-^eed", (■■'. [Pref. mt5-, and Eiig. 
sMcr,;<} ((i.v.).J To turn mit ill. 

"lly tlitf tiiiMUtf€cdi/ij of iiintttiTS ~—FuUgr: H'or- 
iKif^. 11.7. 

• mis-SUC-9eSS', s. [Pref. niis; and Kw^. 
sua.-tss (q.v.).] lU-suci-ess. 

"9.>Mit' shifting Rlclipniiatthit casts rII the fault of 
his »M«.u-.r« uiwiii Ilia glii.HM or hU (uruiice. ~Op_ 
hull- .'tfrinou itt Court, Aug. S- 

• mis-BUggeBt-ldn (1 as y), 5. [Pref. mis-, 
and Kri|;. ^fj.jestinn ^q.v.).] A wrong or evil 

"These cheaters .... that woulJ fftiii win you 
from lis with iin"i-e tricks of mitt't'j-jrition."—lip. Hall: 
A Letler I'urixiieliciil. 

• mis-SUlt', vJ, [Pref. mis-, and Eng. snit, v. 
(q.v.).J T.I .suit ill. 

*M/iM(u(Mi.;« srent man moat" _ 

JJrt. llniwrting : A'apoleon III. iii Itail/. 

' mis- sum-ma '-tion, s. [Pref. mis-, and 
Kn^i. suiiimuli»n (q.v.).] A wrong smnmation. 

"A tniuiiinttfion iu a flttt^l accuuut."— 5oo« .■ Itob 
Jto!/. ch. ii. 

• mis' -sure (sure as sliur), s. [Lat. missunts, 

fut. j.,ir. of )nifti> — t<i send.] A mission. 
■The mixstire I send yo^.'—Adarm: Workt. ii. 110. 

" mis-sway', I'.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. sivay 
(q.v.). j 'fit misrule. 

"Tlirough misttoayiiig It aeem'd to decline." 

iMtoieM: JlicnjcoatTutt. p. 60. 

• mis-swear', v.i. [Pref. mi^-, and Eng. 
suritr (q.v.).] To swear falsely; to forswear 
one's sflf. 

• mis'-swbrn, pa. par. or a. [Misswear.] 

• mis'-sjr, <». [Eng. vus$(\) s. ; -y.] Missish, 
atierted, sentimental. 

"The common nambj-ijamby little misss/ phrase."— 
MUt Kilffcteurlh : Helen, ch. xxviii, 

mist, * myist, * myst, * myste, s. [A.S. 

viist = glouin, <larkness ; t-ogn. with loel. 
inistr = mist ; Sw. mist = foggy weather ; Dut. 
mist ~ fog ; Ger. mist = dung.] 

1. Lit. : Visible watery vapour suspended 
ill tlie atmosphere at or near the surface of the 
earth ; thi- fall of rain or water in almost im- 
percei'tibiy line drnjis. 

"The mini and rain wliioh the we-ttwiiitl brings up 
from a hoiuidless ocean,"— J/uc«u?aif.' Jfist. Eng., ch. 

*I A dense mist is called a fog (q.v.). 

2. Fig. : Anything which dims, obscures, 
or darkens. 

"All viist from thence 
Purge and dlsperae." Milton ; P.L., iil. 53. 

mist-flower, 5. 

Hot. : Conoeliniuni, a genus of Composites. 
One species, ConocliniHui ctdestiniivi, is a 
weed with fragrant blue or purple flowers, 
growing in the United States. 

mist, v.t. & i. [Mist, s.) 

A, Tmns. : To cover as with mist; to 
cloud, to dim. 

" Lend me n lookinR-^lass; 
If that her hrenth wiU mnt or utain the atone. 
Why tUen she lives." Shaketp. : Leur. v. 3. 

B. Inlmiis. : To be misty ; to drizzle. 
mis-ta'en', a. [Mist.\ken.] 

mis-tak'-a-ble, mis-take'-a-ble, a. 

(Kng. mistakie): ■n}de.\ Capable of being mis- 
taken ; liable to be mistaken; liable to mis- 

"They are set forth in minor and leas mUtakeablc 
uuuibera."— Bj-owne; Vul'j<ir Erroun. bk, vi., ch. i. 

mis-take', v.t. ii i. [Icel. mts(aia = to take 
by mistake.] 
A. Transitive : 

* 1. To take away wrongly or improperly. 

" Mitmk- them away, 
Aiid Jisk a fee fur cuniinj;." Dunne : Satires, v. 

* 2. Til take in error. 

"But your true trick, rascal, wuHt be. to be ever 
hiL-»y, and viistukea.w.\y the buttles and caiw. in h;v*te. 
before they be hiilf drunk ott"— flen Jonton : liarthu- 
tomt^w Fitir, iii. -. 

3. To take or understand wTongly ; to con- 
ceive or understand erroneously ; to misap- 
prehend, to misunderstand; to misconceive. 

" My fathers purpiiaej* liave been mistook." 

Shttkenp. : 2 l/enry /I'., iv. 2. 

4. To tiike one person or thing for another ; 
to imagine erroneously one person or thing to 
be another. 

"Men ... are apt to mittnkf a want of vigour iu 
tlieir imatfiimtions f.>r a (lelicacy in their Judguienta." 
~}'imfj -On l.:ir>r Pnrfr'/. 

B. Intransitire : 

1. To make a mistake in .judgment ; to mis- 
judge, to lie in error ; to Ije under a misappre- 

" Why. sir, who baile you otll herT 
Your w.irtUiii. »ir ; ur olw I fni4took." 

.Shake^p. : Ttm Ot-ntUtnen u/ Verona, IL I. 

• 2. To transgress ; to commit a fault. 

mis-take', s. [Mistake, v.] 

1. An error of judgment or opinion ; a mis- 
toncei»tion ; a misapprehension, a luisuuder- 
stfliiding, a blunder. 

" Rectify the v\islakei of h lato r ian a. "—Jf ay .' On the 
Creution, (it. i. 

2. A fault, an error, a blunder ; a wrong act 
done unintentionally. 

"A sentiment, in iUnolf amiable and re8]>ect«ble. 
led him to coiniuit the ureateat mistake of liia whole 
life."— J/rtcai(/iitf : Jlist. Eng.. ch. xxlv. 

•1 Xnvtistakr: Heycmd all doubt or ques- 
tion ; unquestionably, certainly, without fail. 

mis-tak'-en, a. [Mistake, v.] 

1. Erroneous, incorrect. 

"The fallacious and mistuke/i reports of Benae."— 
South : Serinuns. vol. Ii.. ser. 2. 

2. Labouring under a mistake or miscon- 
ception ; wrong. 

•' She, mistaken, aeems to dote on me." 

.Shtiketp.; Twet/th .S'ight, ii. 2. 
^ To be mistaken : 

1. To be misunderstood, misconceived, or 

2. To be in error ; to make a mistake ; to 
be under a misapprehension. 

" you are too much miafakefi in this king." 

Shaketp. : Uenry ( ., ii. i. 

miS-tak'-en-ly', adv. [Eng. mistaken; -/i/.] 
By mistak'e ; mistakingly. 

mis-tak'-er, 5. ['E.n^.miatdk^e); -erJ] One who 
makes a mistake ; one who misundei'stiintls. 

"The \vell-uie«ningif{uomiice of some inittakers."— 
lip. Ha'l : Apot. Advt. to the Header. 

mis-tak'-ing, s. [Mistake, v.] A mistake, 
an error, a blunder. 

" Now. I perceive, thou art a reverend father ; 
Pardon, I pray thee, for my mml tnisf'ikhig." 

.•iluikeip. : Turning of the Shreio. iv. 5. 

mis-tak'-ing-ly, adv. [Eng. mistaking ; -ly.] 
By mistake ; mistakenly, erroneously. 

" That we may not miniakingjy rear up the walls of 
Batwl whllt' we intend Jerusalem."— J5p. ifoU; Jfi^iferi/ 
(./ Uodlim-Mc. lEi'latle prefixed.) 

mis-taught (aught as at), pa. par. or n. 


* mis-tea9h', * mls-teche, v.t. [Pref. mis-, 
and Eng. teach (q.v.).] To teach wrongly ; U) 
give wrong instruction to. 

" More ahauie for those who have mistaught them." 
~~Jlilton : Animad. o/i Eemonitrant't Defence. 

* mis-tell', v.t. [Pref. wtiV, and Eng. /^^/(q.T.).] 

1. To tell wTongly or incorrectly ; to mis- 

2. To miscount. 

"Their prayers are by the dozen, when if 'C(\ey m\.%%eU 
one. they thiiike all tne reat lout.'— Breron.- Slratige 
Aewes, p. 5. 

* mis-tem'-per, v.t- [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
temper, v. (q.v.).J To disorder, to disturb, to 

" Nor hiialtand's weale nor children's woe mittempered 
my head." 

Warner: Albiom England, bk. viL, ch. xxiv. 

" mis-tem'-pered, a. [Mistemper, v.] 

1. Disordered, diseased, irritated, ill-tem- 

" This inundation of jn f jfrnHpcrW humour 
Kettts by you only to l>e iiuallfled." 

Shakeip. : Ki/ig John. v. 1. 

2. Badly tempered ; tempered to a bad pur- 
pose or end. 

■■ Throw your mitttfmpered weapons to the ground." 
Shaketp. : Romeo Jt Juliet, i. 1. 

mis'-ter (1). s- [The same word as master 
(q.v.).] Master, sir; the common fonn of 
address loan a<iult male. It is now always 
abbieviated in wiiting to the form Mr. 

* mis'-ter (2), ' mis-tere, s. [O. Fr, masHer 
(Fr. virfi'-r), Iri'ni K:it. j/H'(iia7tTii(m = aservice; 
minister = a servant. Mister and minibtry are 
thus doublets.] [Minister.] 

1, A trade, an art, an occupation, an em- 

" In youth he lernwl iTadde a good t)iWmv. 
He waa a wel Kuwd w right, a canwntere." 

Chaucer: C. T., filS. 

2, Manner, kiml, .sort. 
" The reilcroju. knight toward him crowiwl fast. 
To weet what muter wUht wa» wi ilUma)- d." 

.Spvtutr : f. (/.. I. Ix- 2i 

mis'-ter (3). .«. [Etym. doubtful.] Need, 
necessity. (S'utrh.) 

"World* K'-^vr *-nn honcef". waril thf leiwl of h.T 
care. . . m^r wiw It likely t" l«o muckleher mr<(*r.*— 
:icott : Heart ■}/ Midlothian, ch. xllv. 

'mis'-ter, * mis-tre, v.t. & i. [Mister {'2), s.\ 

A, Trans. : To occasion loss to. 

B. Intmns. : To need, to be neoesaary, to 


" As for my lUimo It mdtreth not t> tell." 

.sprtiter: E. V.. HL vlL SI. 

" mls-tere, s. [Mistek (2), s.\ 

mis-term', v.t. [Pref. viis-, and Eng. Term 
(q.v.).] To term or designate erroneously ; to 
miscidl, to misname. 

" Worlds exile is death : then banlaheil 
la death misteniu\l." 

."ihakesp. : Romeo * JuHet. ill. a. 

* mis'-ter-Ship. ■■>■. [Kng, viister(\); -sliip.] 
The state or quality of being a mister (q.v,). 
(Shakesp, : Titns Andronic^is, iv. 4.) 

* mis'-ter-j^, * m^s'-ter-Sr. " mys-ter-le, 

s. [L;it. tninisteriuin.] A trade, an occupa- 
tion, a business. [Mister (2), s.] 

" That which is the noblest mi/iteri^ 
Brings to reproach and i-omnion infamy." 

Upemer : MoUter ItubbenU Tate, 

" mist'-fiil, a, [Eng. mist ; /uHr).^ Clouded 
or dimmed with tears, as with mist. 
"Here they are but felt, and seen with mittful ey»a." 
^ .Shakejp. : I'ericlei. 1. *, 

** mis-think', " mls-thinke, v.i. «S: ^ [Pref. 
mis-, and Eiig. think (q.v.).J 

A, Intrans. : To think wrongly. 

" Whan they mittkinke, they lightly let it patae." 
Chaucer: Court of love. 

B. TraiLs. : To misjudge, to think ill of. 

" How will the country for the-se woful chances, 
Mitthink the king, and not be satisfied I" 

Shakesp. : S Henry IV., iL 6, 

* mis-thought' (ought as at), pa. par. or 


''mis-thought (ought as at), s. [^Pref. 
inis; and Eng. fhmniht, s. (q.v.).] Wrong 
thoughts or ideas ; an en'oneous notion ; mis- 

•* Through error and miithought.' 

Sp^mter : E. V.. IV. vlli. 58. 

^mis-thrive', v,i. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
thrive (q.v.).j Not to thrive ; to fare or suc- 
ceed ill. 

*mis-thr6w', '•.'. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. tkrou; 
V. (qv.). j To throw or cast wrongly. 

"Hiiat thou thyneie ought mitthrowe /' 

tiower: C. A., blc L 

miS'-ti-CO, s. [Turk, mistigo. {Uttre.y] 

Nant, : A small Mediterranean vessel, be- 
tween a zebeca and a felucca. 

* mis-tide', v.i. [A.S. mistidan.] 

1. To betide ill or amiss ; to turn out ill or 

2, To fare ill, to be unfortunate. 

" Attc iHste he shul mishapp© and mUtide." — Chau- 
cer: Tale of Mel i be 14 1. 

' mist'-i-head, * mist-1-heed. s. (Eng. 
viiMy : -head.] The sUite of being misty; 

" What meaneth this, what is this miiHA^ed?" 

Chfiucer: Complaint vf Man A rcnitt. 

mist'-i-l^, <'dv. [Eng. misty; -ly.] In a misty 
manner ; dindy, d;irkly, obscurely. 

" Thiwe phlloftoph^ri'" »i>eki- so mittilf/ 
Iu this cruft, tluvt ni.'*n uiiinot coins thereby. 
For any wit that men have now mlaye«," 

Chaucer : C. T.. 1C.8C2. 

mis-time', v.i i t. [A.S. mistiinan.] 

'A. Intrans. : To turu out ill, to happen 

annss ; to miatide. 
B. Trans. : To time wrongly ; not to adapt 

or adjust the time to. 

mis-timed', «. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. timed 
(q.v.),] Out of time or place ; inappropriate; 
ii'it suited to the time or occasion ; as, a mis- 
timed l>oast. 

mist'-i-ness, .«. [Eng. misty ;_ -ims.] The 
quality or state of Ijeing misty; darkness, 
dimness, obscurity. 

"The very mittineiiM of the Pn— MlQbter'i own 
words."- ."tfdfKdirU, June 31, 1»91. 

* mist'-ion (i as y), s, [Lat. mixtio = a intx- 
ing, a mixture, from mixtus, pa. par. otmifceu 

hoil, boy: pout, jowl ; cat. cell, chorus. 9hin. bench: go. gem; thin, this: sin. as; eicpect. Xenophon, eyist. -ing. 
-cian. -tian = sh<an. -tion, -sion = shun ; -tlon, -sion = zhun. -cious, -tious. -sious = shus. -ble. -die, i:c. = bel, d*L 


mistitle— misunderstanding 

= t,. mix.) A mixuiic, a mixing, a blending 

•■ Bull. bo<lle« do. ny Ihe n<>« If xt'ire r««»Uliie If""" miitioii. produce culout. ■-«»»'« ■ On Col^uri. 

mis-ti'-tlo, .■./. [Pief. mis., and Eng. liUe, v. 
(.jv.).] IV. call or desigiiato by the wrong 
title of name. 

^ Combe . />r. .<yii(cir ; Tour. I. 21. 

mis -tie (tie as ol), I'.i. [a Croquent. from 
„' ,(, V. (ii-v.).] To mist, to mizzle, to drizzle. 


' mist 'leas, n 

fitiUi mist. 

[Eng. mlsl, and las.] Free 

.l/i»J«i in noon, and Iresh aa mornlug."-a^(«i 
Biviit^: rmttte.cii.xiv. 

mis'-tle-toe (tie as el), s. [A.S.mistMw; 

ln\ mUlclleiii : Dut. Mtstelhoom ; Dan., hw., 
i:.r. viUld, fr.mi Ger. mu!( = manure, dirt, 
mist, fog ; the element tne is believed by Skeat 
to be A.S. (an = a twig.) 

Bot. ; Vixum album, a plant parasitic on the 
ainde and other fniit trees, on the thorn, tlic 
o'lk the poolar, the lime, tlie ash, the Scotch 
fir '&c. It sometimes kills the branch or 
even the tree on which it is a parasite. It 
occui-s as a yellow-green glabrous pendent 
bush one to four feet long, with the tllires of 
the roots insinuated into tlie wood of the tree 
on which it preys ; its branches dichotoinous, 
knotted; its leaves, one to three, glabrous; its 
flowers in threes, inconspicuous, green ; its 
berries globose or ovoid, yellow, viscid. 
Found in Britain, also in continental Europe 
and the north of Asia. In the Middle Ages 
the mistletoe was believed to be of use in 
epilepsy, a view since abandoned. Bird- 
lime (q.v.) is made from tlie berries. It was 
deemed sacred by the Druids, and still finds a 
large market when preparation is being made 
for Christmas festivities and sports (H). 

U Kissing wider tht mistletoe : 

Scandinaman MythoL: The wicked spirit, 
Loki, hated Balder, the favourite of the gods, 
and. making an arrow of mistletoe, gave it to 
Hader the god of darkness and himself blind, 
to test'. He shot the arrow and killed Balder. 
He was restored to life, and the mistletoe 
given to the goddess of love to keep, every 
one passing under it receiving a kiss as a 
proof that it was the emblem of love, and not 
of death. (Bremr.) 
mist'-lllie, a. [Eng. mist, and like.] Kesem- 
bling a mist, like a mist. 

"Tlie brcHth of heart-sick groftna ^ 
JtMlUce iiilold me from the search of eyes. 

tihake^p. : Jiumec i Jidiel, in. 3. 

mis-told', jw. ■par. or a. [Mistell.] 

mis-took', fret. & ya. jiar. of v. [Mistake, v.] 

•mis-tra-di'-tlon, s. [Pref. mis., and Eng. 
fraciifioii (q-v.).] Wrong tradition. 

" Mousteta of mittrnditi^m." 

T'-nnyS'»t : Qiteen itary, IV. 2- 

'mis -train', ♦mys-trayn, v.t. [Pref. 

TO1S-, and Eng. fruili, V. (q.v.).J To tram 
wrongly or badly. 
•■With corruptfull bribes ia to untruth myitraitmed." 
.Sfie/uer: F. Q.. V. XI. 51. 

mis'-tral, s. [Prov. Fr. for mastral, from 
mosfrc ■= a master.) A violent cold north- 
west wind experienced in the Mediterranean 
provinces of France, destroying fruit, blos- 
soms, crops, 4c. It blows most fiercely in 
the autumn, winter, and eariy spring. 

mis-trans-late, • misse-trans-late, r.i. 

[Pref. mis-, and Eng- translate (q.v.).] To 
translate wrongly, to misrender. 

■■Eusebius by tbeiii mUM-tramraUd." — Sp. Bait: 
Jtonijur of ilarrud Clir'JV. bk- i-, § 25. 


translation (q.v.).] i\ 
lation ; a misrenderin 

[Pref. mis; and Eng. 

translation (q.v.).] A false or incoiTCct trans- 
a misrende: 

*mis-trans-pbrt'-ed, a. [Pref. mis-, and 
Eng. trans}Mrted (q.v.).] Carried or borne 
away from one's self wrongly ; misled by pas- 
sion or strong feeling. 

So farre mistrnx.Mvortfd as to condemn A good 
prayer because as it la iu his heart, soft is m his 
book too "Sp. Ball : .in Bumble Jtemuiixtrancc. 

* mis-tread'-ing, s. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
treading (q.v.).] A wToiig or false step, a sin, 
a fault, a inisgoing ; misbehaviour. 

'■ Fcr the hot vengt'ance and the rod of Heaven. 

To punish my TTuKrcidinj;*." 

Shaketp. : 3 Bcnri/ /I .. uu 2. 

•mis-treat, v.'. Pref. «"■<-, and Eng. Irrat 
(q.v.),] To treat wrongly or ill; to lU-treiit, 
to maltreat. 

" i>oor mUtreated democratic beast" 

' Southei/. .\ondeKript1,\v. 

mis-treat'-mont, .<. [Pref. "■"•, nn'l Eng. 
f,.,i/i,i.-ii( (q.v.).l Wrong, improper, or un- 
kind treatment ; ill-tivatincnt. 

mis -tress. • mals tress, ♦ mals-tresse. 

[O Fr. maistiesse ; Fr. mailrcsse, from 
maistre ; Fr. maitre = a master ; Lat. majistcr: 
Sp. & Ital. maestro ; Port, mestre.] [Master, s.J 
L Ordinary Language: 
1 A woman who governs ; a woman who 
has power, authority, or command ; tlie 
female head of an establishment, as a school, 
a funiily, &c. The correlative of sermnt or 

" The maids officious round theb- mUlreu "ai'- 

Pope: Bomtr: Iliad In. 52C. 

2. A female owner. 

" rU use thee kindly for thy mittreti sake." 

Sluiketp. : Tico Gentlemett of 1 eronrt, iv. 4- 

3. A woman skilled in anything. 
4 A wiinian courted and beloved ; a sweet- 

liea'rt ; a woman who has command over one s 
heart. . , , ., 

" My mlltreti brovre are raven black. 

■' Slmkeap : Sonnet 127. 

5. A concubine; a woman who tilhj the 
place but has not the rights of a wife. 

" But soon his wrath being o'er, be took 
Another mutreu. or new book. 

Syron . ifaieppa. iv, 

6 A title of address applied to a married 
ladv nearly equivalent to madam. Formerly 
it was appl'ied to married or unmarried women 
indiscriminately. It is now written in the 
abbreviated form Mrs. (pronounced rnu-ts). 
■■ JIUtrm. 'tis well, your choice agrees with mine." 
ahakcsp. ; Pericles, n. 6. 

*7. A lady. 

" To meet some mtttrest fine ^ 
When mutresaes from common sense are hid. 

Shaketp. : Loee'i Labour i Lett, i. 1. 

IL Technieally: 

1. Laic: The proper style of the wife of an 
esquire or of a gentleman. (irAartoii.) 

2. Bowls : The small ball used in the game 
of bowls, now called the Jack. 

" So 80, rub on and kiss the mistresj." 

::hakeap. : Troilue & Crctsida, 111. 2. 

» mistress-piece, s. A chief perform- 
ance of a woman. Formed on analogy ol 
master-piece (q.v.). 

mistress-ship, s. 

1. The position of a mistress ; rule or do- 

"If any of them shall usurp a miatress.sliip cv^ the 
rest, or make herself a queen over them. —ap. Hull . 
Jleiolutioia for /teliglon. 

* 2. A style of address to ladies ; ladyship. 

* mis'-tress, v.i. [Mistress, s.] To wait or 
attend upon a mistress ; to com-t. 

" Thy idleness ; which yet thou canst not fly _ 
Bv dressiUK, mutreulng. and compliment. 
■' Berber! : Church Porch. 

•mis'- tress -ly, a. [Eng. mistress: .hj.] 
Pertaining to the mistress of a household. 
" Will be take from me the mittregsty manage- 
ment f—Aic?iardsoii; ClarUsu. i. 2118. 

» mis-tri'-al, s. [Pref. mis., and Eng. trial 

iaif ; A trial which from some defect in the 
process or the triers is eiToneous or abortive ; 
a false trial. 

* mis-trist', v.t. [Mistrust, v.] 

* mis- trow'- ing, t mis - trow - yng, s. 

[Pref. mis-, and Eng. troieimj (q.v.).J Mis- 
trusting, distrust. 

mis-trust -ful, a. [Eng. mistrust; -/"'(OJ 
Full of doiilit, suspicion, or mistrust; uiin- 
delit, suspicious, iloubtful. 

•■ He. who most excels In fact of anna. • ■ • . 
ilMru,lfal. grouud. his couiiige on despair 

Mtlton ; /'. /.., 11- 120. 

xnis-triist'-ful-lSf, "<'''■ lE"b'- mUlnmlJul ; 
■Uj.\ 111 IV tUstrusll'ul, doubting, or suspicious 
iiKinner ; witli mistrust. 

■■Mi4triutfuUy\if: tnihteth. aud he dreMUiiglvdiddare.' 
Warner : Alt/ions i.'/ighiiid,h\t. xwlii. 

mis trust -fulness, ' mis- trust-fW- 
nesse, s. [Kng. mistrnstjid ; -h.',v.-.1 llie 
iiuality ur state of being mistrustful ; doubt, 
suspicion, mistrust. 

" A i»m''»l>emente for thy mittrmf/ubieue M^t this 
leiil (Wclivri-d. '■— niai ; Luke i. 

ml:itntst ; -ing.] 

"For espyftll and mUtrowt/nges 
Thei did than siii;he tliyugey, 
That every man might other know. 

Ootoer : C. A,, vi. 

mis-triist'. s. [Pref. -nxis; and Eng. imst, s. 
(q.v.).] Distrust, suspicion, want of conti- 
dence or trust. 

"Yet your mUtTUMt cannot make nie atruitor." 

Sliukt^li. : At I'ou Like It, i. 3. 

mis'-trust', v.t. [Pref. viis; and Eng. trvst, 
V (q.v.).] To feel distrust, suspicion, or 
doubt regarding ; to doubt, to suspect, to 

"I am ever ready to mittnttt a proraisiog title.' — 
GoldsJiiUh : Bee, No. 4. 

mis-triist'-er. s. [Eng. misintsi ; -cr.] One 
who mistrusts or distrusts. 

" You iiifldellea aud mittrmtert of GoiX."— Barnes : 
•Worki. p. a54. 


mis-trust'-ing, a. [Eng 
Mistrustful, suspicious. 

* mis-trust' -ing-ly, aJr. [Eng. misiruslino ; 
■hi.] In ;i dtiubting or mistrustful manner; 
iiiistrustfuUy, suspiciously. 

mis-trust -less, a. [Eng. mistrust: -less.] 
Free frum mistrust, suspicion, or doubt; un- 
suspicious, unsuspecting, trustful. 

" The awjtiii inittruttleu of his smutted face. 
While secret laughter tittered round the iihice, 

yolclimitk: Ucsci-teU I tUage. 

mis-tr^St'. v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. tryst 
(,|.v.). J To disappoint by bre<ikiiig an engage- 
meat ; to deceive, to use ill. 

■■■Diey are sair mittri/tted yonder iu their Parka- 
meiit House. "—Sco«." Rob Roy, ch. xiv. 

*mis-tune', v.L [Pref. mis-, and Eng. tune^ 
V. (q.v.).] 

1. Lit. : To tune wrongly or incorrectly ; to 
put, play, or sing out of tune. 

" Hymn mistujied and muttered i^rayer 
The victim for hU fate prepare. " 

,Sico« ; Lord (tf the Itles, v. 28. 

2. Fig. : To disorder ; to put out of order. 

" From the body, by long ails mistuned. 
These evils sprung." . „ ..t 

Amutroiig : The Art o/ Preacrvtng Health. 

mis-tiir'-a (i>l. mis-tiir'-ae), s. [L:it.] 

I'hanii.': A mixture. There are a Mi^tura 
Aiamoniaci, a Mistura Camphonr, aud about 
ten others iu the modern i'hanna(.'«)p"-ii^ 

"mis-tum', ^mis-tourne. *mys-tume, 

(■./. & i. [Pref. mis-, aud Eng. turn, v. (q.v.).] 

A. Trans. : To turn wrongly ; to pervert, to 

•' Ther beeu aumme that troublen you. and wolen 
mvKturne [invertere] the evangehe of Criat. — H ]/■ 
d'iff'e: GalatUtnsi. 

B. Intntns. : To turn or go -vsTong; to be 

" And whaii this littel worlde mittounieth. 
The great worlde aU overtoiueth." ^ ,^ , , 
Gower.C.A. (ProL) 

* mis-tu'-tor, v.t. [Pref. ttiis-, and Eng. 
tutor (q.v.). J To teach or instruct amiss. 

" Mistiitored youths, who ue'er the charm 
Of Virtue hear, nor wait at W isdum s door. 

Edwardi : Sonnet 28. 

mist'-y (1), (f. [A.S. mistig, from mis( = gloom.] 

1. Lit. : Covered, obscured or hidden with 
mist ; characterized or accompanied by mist ; 
overspread with mist. 

■' The dripping rock, the mountain's niisti/ top 
Swell oil the sight." lliovuon : Stnnintr, 51 

2. Fig. : Obscure, clouded ; difficult to un- 
derstand : as, A misty writer. 

Tl In the figurative use of this word there 
is no doubt a confusion with miaty {'.i). 

*mist'-Sr (2), ^myst'-y, a. [Lat. viysticus 
= mystic (q.v.).] Mystic, dark. 

" Jfyjfv or prevey to maunys wytte. J^wftcu*."— 
Prompt Piiiv. 

mis-un-der-stand', v.t. [Pref. mis-, and 
Eiig. iiiidcrstaml (q.v.).] Not to understand ; 
to misconceive, to mistake, to misjudge, to 

•* There is one part, however, of these pajiers, in 
which I conceive I have beeu misu/tderstuod.'—OO- 
seroer. No. Io2. 

*mis-iiii-der-stand'-er, s. [Eng. vxisiuid- 
erstaiul; -er.] One who misunderstands. 

" But divera and many texts aa farre seme<i uuto 
the miimnderstandert to spe.ike agaluat purgatory. — 
air T. More: ll'orAes. p. 3^4. 

mis-un-der-stand' -ing, ^« 

Ens. uiulerstanding (q.v.).] 

[PreC JHW-, and 

1. A misconception, a misapprehension ; a 
mistake of the meaning or intent. 

'• Sometiuies the ntisunderstnnding of a word has 
scattered and destroyed those who have l>een in posses- 
sion of victory."— Sour'i .■ ierDions, vul. i., aer. 3. 

fate fat fare, amidst, what, faU, father: we, wet, here, camel, her. there: pine, pit, sire, sir, marine: go pot, 
or,' wore, woU, work, who, son ; mixte, cub. cUre. unite, cur, rule, fuU ; try, Syrian, ae. ce =^ e; ey = a; qu = kw. 

misunderstood— mitigate 


'2. A falling out, ii (li!i:t<:reoinfut, a tiitTer- 
enee : as, a mUiuukrstaiuiituj among friends. 

mis-un-der-stood, jtret. & ya. par, [Mis- 


mis-u-ra'-to, adv. [Ital.] 

Mii.<l': : III measured or strict time, 

mis-u^'-age, s. [Fret mis-, and Eng. 1*503': 

1. Bad or improper use ; bad conduct. 

"The fame •( their mUusaie so prevented them. 
Hint thf \H.-<-\>W ot tlmt Pliitre ,iIso. offemled thereby, 
wuiild liiiiig III III) w;iic3.' — //!tcAfui/(; I'o^njc*. iL 21. 

2. Ill-tifatmeut, ill-us!ige. 

* mis-US -anje, s. [Eng. vusiis(_K); -ance.] 

Misns;i;j:c, misuse. 

■■ He hftd cliiii'ed fit their misusanee."— Backet : Life 
of \y,llianu. i. 2U2 

mis-u^', v.t. [Pref. mis-f and Eng. nse, v. 

1. To use or treat improperly ; to apply to 
a bad or wrong use. 

" He fell from good, miSKSivj liis free will." 

Hj/roin: Li/c £ Dctith. 

2. To ill-treat, to maltreat, to abuse. 

" He Umt did wertr this Uend was one 
That pilgrims illd misiue" 

Banyan : I'il'jritn's ProijreUi pt. U. 

mis-use', s. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. iise, s. 

1, Improper use ; misapplication ; eniploy- 
nient for a bad or ini]'iuper purpose ; abuse. 

•■ How much uiimea tiketi for thiu'.;a are npt to mis- 
lend the miderstjunlim;. the ntteiitive reading "t 
philosophical writers w-uV\ ;.biiiHl!uitly diacuvur; 
aiid thiit, perhaps, lu words little su-speuted for any 
such iHwiwe."— iucftc. Uf Jiuman L'nUcrstantlitig, bk. 
iii,. ch. X., § 15. , 

* 2. Ill-treatment, cruel treatment, abuse. 

"UlKin whose deiul corpses there was such 7tiisutc . . . 
By those Welsh women done, ua may not be 
(Without much sbfuue) retold or spokeu ol' 

Sfitikesp. : 1 Uenrn /!'., 1. 1. 

* mis-u§e'~ment, s. [Eng. misuse; •vietit.\ 
Misusf, niisusage. 

"And Darius coulde not bee otherwise persuaded 
but that shee was slayii. l>eoiuBe she woidd uot couseut 
to her misJtieini!nt."—lircud<: : Quinttu Curtiug, fo. 52. 

mis-us'-er, s. [Pref. mis-, and Eug. user 


1. Oi'd. Lang. : One who misuses. 

2. Law: Abuse of any liberty or benefit 
■which works a forfeiture of it. 

" An office either public or private, may be perfected 
by 7ui»u-3tr ur abuse, as If a judge takes a bril>e, ^a- a 
pjtrk-keeper kills deer withuut authority." — Black- 
stviie : Comment., bk. U,, ch. 10, 

*IIllS-vS.r-ue, v.t. [Pref. viis; and Eng. 
viduc, V. (q.v.).] To value wrongly or in- 
sufficiently ; to underrate ; to estimate at too 
low a value. 

" But. fi.r I am so yong. I dread my wai-ke 
"Wol be misvaliied both of old and yong." 

Browne: young WUtieiOld Wernock. 

* mis-vou^ll't V.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
vvuch (q.v.).] To vouch ur allege falsely. 

" Aud that very text or saying of ilutiauus, which 
was the orlyiuaf of this opinion is misnoaclicd."— 
Jiacoii : Tiiie Oreatnes* of Britain. 

' mis-wan'-der, v.i. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
iruHiU-r (4.V.).] Tu wander or stray from the 
way ; to go astray. 

"The miswandrynae errour, niisledetfa faim into 
false goodes."— CV*(("C(.T ." Dotxiut, bk. iii. 

* m!s-way', " mis-waie, s. [Pref. mis-, and 

Eng. u-t'-ii (q-v.)-] A wrong way. 

"Who so seeketh sothe by a. deepe thought and 
cmu'lteth tobeeudeceiued, by no mf»«Juici."—C7ni ««■>-.■ 
Huccius. bk. iii. 

*inis-wear', v.t. [Pref. viis-, and Eng. wear 
(q.v.).] To wear badly or ill. 

" which is miswrDUj^ht will tnUtovar," — Bacon : 
Judicial Charge. 

* mis-wed', ^^^ [Pref. mis; and Eng. urd 

(q.v.).j To wed wrongly or improperly. 

*m,is-'ween', ^'.i. [Pi'ef. mis-, and Eng. wccn 
Ol.v.).J To mistrust, to misjudge ; to be mis- 
takf u ; to fall into error. 

"Full liappie nitiii imiiweemng mvich) was hee. 
bo rich a apoile withiii his piiwer t» see." 

ithui his i)i>»ei' t<> see. 
Spenter : lJ<ke/tiL L<ty of Clorindn. 

*mis-wend', v.i. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. u-end 
(q.\).J To go wrong; to go astray. 

" And eclie in his complainte telleth, 
\ How that the worlde is miitwtntl." 

iiotoer: C. .1. (Prol.) 

•mis- went', ]"""'. yf^y. or i.i. [Miswknd.] 

* mis-wom-an, .s. [Prtf. mh-. and Eng. 
wo»;iafi (<i.v.).'j A bad, wicked woman. 

" Fly the miiwotnan, lea«t she thcc dccciue." 

Chaucer: Jiemtr./y of Love. 

* mis-wont -ing, s. [Pref. mU-, and Eng. 

woiU ; -iny.l Want of use, habit, or custom; 

" Fur these feeble beginnliiirs of lukewarme grace 
. , . by miiuKintiuff, perish. —Bith'jp Hall: Divina 
Meditattun. ch. vii. 

* mis-word', s. [Pref. miS; and Eng. word 

(q.v.).] A cross, wrong, or awkward word, 

*mis-wdr-8llip, s. [Pref. viis-, and Eng. 
worship. 3. (q.v.).J Woi^sliip of a wrong object ; 
false worship ; idolatry. 

" lu resiiect of tnisuiorship, he was the sou of the 
fii^st Jereboham, who made Israel to slii."—Biihop 
Ball: Contempt. ; JoathKilH Misha Dj/imj. 

' mis-WOr'-ship, r.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng, 
in'r.^hip. V. (q.v.).] To worship wrongly, 
falsely, or corruptly. 

"There have not wanted nations (and thoee not of 
the savayest) which have 7iiitwiirghipp«d it[the hoaven] 
fi)r their God. '—Uiihop Hall : T/ie Houl'a farvtocU to 
L'arth, § 3, 

* mis-w6r'-Sllip-per, s. [Pref. viis-, and 

Eng. wurshipjwr (q.v.).] One who luiswor- 
ships ; one who worships false gods. 

" God is made our idol, aud we the misworshippers of 
W\m.~Bi»h-ip UiiU : Sermon at Whitehall, Whit- 
sunday, IG-IU. 

* Dcds-WTenQh, v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
vicnch, V. (q.v.).] To wrench, twist, or turn 
out of the right line or course. 

" The wardes of the church keie 
Throujih mishandling ben misiereint." 

OvuKr : C A., V- 

■^ mis-write', *^mysse-write, v.t. [Pref. 
Viis-, and Eng. write (q.v.).] To write or set 
down incorrectly or improperly. 

" He did HiMHTiftf some number of yeais."—JiiUeigh : 
Ilcse. iVurlU. bk. ii.. ch. xxii., § C. 

t mis-writ'-ihe, s. [M(s write.] A mistake 
in writing ; a clerical en'or. 

"The text of the Chronicle luis three years, but it 
seems clear that this m u»t be a >M/»(rr(fi»y lor thirteen." 

-A-. A. /> 


'I : Old EnylisK lUtiori/. ch. vii.. p. 

•^ mis- wrought' (ought as at), a. [Pref. 
7»(s-,andEng.w'?-0(/(//t(!(q.v.).] Badly wrought, 
made, or fashioned. 

mi'-s^, s. [Ger. viisy, from Gr. fiitrv (vilsii) = 
vitriolic earth. ] 

Mill. : The same as Copiapite and Jarosite 

* mis-yoke', v.t. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. yol^c, 

V. (q.v.).] To yoke or join iniiiroperly. 

" By misynkin<i with a diversity of nattire aa well as 
of religiou." — JiiUon: Doctrine of Liojrcc., bk. ii., 
ch. xix, 

* mis-zeal' -oils, a. [Pref. mis-, and Eng. 
zealous (q.v.).] Actuated by false or mis- 
taken zeal. 

"Go 00 now, ye iniacalout spirits."— flwAop nail: 
yvah's Dove. 

'^ mit'-aine, s. [Fr.] a mitten, a glove. 

" mit9be, s. [Fr. miche.\ A loaf of fine bread ; 
a nianchet. 

•• He that hath mitchei tweiue." 

liomaunt of the Hose, 

mit^h'-ell, s. [Frob. from some proper name.] 
Build.: A I'iece of hewn Purbeck stone, 
from fifteen to tweuty-four inches square, used 
in building. 

mit-chel'-la. s. [Xamed after John Mitchell, 
anEnglishman, wlio wrote on Virginian plants.] 
Bot. : A genus of Ciuclionitce*. family 
Guettardida'. It has a funnel-shaped corolla 
with a four-lobed limb aud a four-lobcd ovary, 
and succulent fruit with four nr eight stones. 
Humboldt says that Mitchella re}ieiis is the 
plant must extensively spread in North Amc- 
lica, covering the surface from lat. 28' to 
lat. (J9' N. 

mite (1), s. [A.S. rnite ; cogn. with Low Ger. 
Hitfe = a mite; O. H, Ger. mira = a mite, 
a midge.] 

L Ordinary Language : 

1, In the same sense, as II, 1 or-,i. 

2. The name is improperly given to Dust- 
lice of the insect genus Psocus (q.v.). 

IL Zoology : 

1. Su}'j. : The genus Acarus (q.v.). 

2. I'lurxl: 

(1) The family Acarida* (q.v.). 

(2) The order Acarina (q.v.). Tlie alKlomcn, 
in wliii.h segiufnts are indiscernible, is united 
with the ci-plialothorax, so as to form a Mingle 
mass. Ucspiratinii is by tracheie. Wlien per- 
feet, mites liave eight legs. Tlu-y aivgcnenilly 
very small. Many are para-sit^^s upon animals ; 
some occur in old cheese, in flour, under the 
bark of trees, &.C., and others are ot^uatic. 

"That chuese uf itself br«eds nUtea or mat^gots, 1 
iXeny.'—Itay : Oh the Cr«atiun, pt. il. 

mite (2), "myte, s. [O. Dnt. mijt, viiU, myte 
a small coin ; from the same voolaaminute, a. 

1. The smallest coin ; a coin formerly cur- 
rent, and equal to about one-third of a ftir- 

" I'll shuw you those in troubles n-lgn' 
Losing a "life, a mountain i;ain." 

atmketp. : Pwrivlft, iL iOoucT.) 

2. A small weight, equal to about the 
twentieth of a grain. 

3. Anything very small or minute ; a very 
small particle or quantity. 

The. ants thrust In their stingrs. aud Instil into 

mi-tel'-la, s. [Lat. =a head-band, a kind of 
turban ; 'dimin. of mitra. Named from the 
form of its capsule.] [Mitrr.] 

Bot.: False Sanicle ; Bishop's Cap. A genus 
of Saxifragaceie, consisting of low, slender 
plants with wliitish or gieeiiish flowers. Found 
in North America. 

mith'-er, s. [Mother.] 

* mith'-ic, ft. [Mythic] 

Mith'-ras, Mith'-ra, s. [Zend.] 

Comixir. lieliy. : Tlie principal god of the 

Farsees or Persians, the god of the Sun ; the 

Sun itself as an object of worship. 
^ Manes, the founder of tlie Mauichaiau 

sect, wished to identify Christ with Mithi-as. 

* mith'-ri-date,s. [Named after Jlithridatea, 

king of Pontus, who was supposed to havtf 
made himself poison-proof.] 

rhann. : An antidote against poison ; a 
composition used either as a remedy for or a 
preservative against poison. 

"In initkridate or Just perfumes. 
Where all good things being met, no cue presumes 
To govern, or to triumph on th« rest" 
Donne: I'rv-jreas of the Soul : Second AyuUvertary. 

mlthridate-mustard, 5. 

But. : The same as Pennv-cuess (q.v:). 

mith-ri-d&t'-ic, a, [Lat. mithridaticns, from 
Mithiidates, king of Pontus.] Of or pertain- 
ing to mithridates or a mithridate (q.v.). 

* mith-ri-da'-ti-on, s. [See extract.] An 
uiudentilied plant. 

" Cratevas hittli ascribed the invention of one hear'ie 
to King Mitliridiites himselfe c-'i.lled after his mime 
Mithridation.'—i: Holland: rUnie, bk. xxv., ch. vi. 

* mit'-ig~a-ble, «. [Lat. mitigabilis, from 
viitigo= to mitigate (q.v.).] Cajiable of being 

" The rigour of that ceremonious law waa mitiffablc' 
— Barrow: Sermons, vol. ii.. ser. 15. 

* mit'-i-gant, «. [Lat. mitigans, \>r. par. of 

mitigo = (o mitigate (q.v.).] Softening, miti- 
gating, soothing, lenitive. 

mit'-i-gate, " mit-i-gat, r.t. & i. [Lat. miti- 
gatus, pa. par. ^>f mitigo ^to make gentle: 
mi(is = soft, gentle, and oyo = to make; Fr. 
mitiger; Sp. mitigar; Ilah viitigare.} 
A. Tnuisitiir : 

1. To make less rigorous, severe, or harsh ; 
to relax. 

"How cometh ft then that the iwpe for so many 
hinidred thousands that miftcury, will neither brrako 
ll»' onliuauuoe or mitigitt it.'—Tyndall: JVvrixt, 
p. ai6. 

2. To make less severe, painful, or hard. 

" I may mitigate their doom. 
On me deriVLtl. " .Hilton : P. L., X. Tfi. 

3. To assuage, to lessen, to abate, to soften. 

"Grief which is nither to lie jnitigatvd by comfort 
than encroktcd aud exasperated by blame."— Aarrvir . 
Sernwnt. vol. 1., ser. 21. 

• 4. To cool, to temper, to moderate. 

".\ mau lias frei(U«ut opportunity uf mitijatina the 
Hi-rceness of a imrty."~Addi»on : Spectator. 

' 0. To soften ; to mollify ; to make mild or 

boil, bo^ ; pout, jowl ; cat, 9eU, chorus, 9hin, benph ; go, gem ; thin, this : Bin, as ; expect, ^enophon, exist, ph - f. 
-eian, -tian - shan. -tion, -sion = shun ; -tion, -slon = zhun. -clous, -tious, -sious = shus. -ble, -dlo, &c. = bel, deL 


mitigation— mitreing 

B. Intransitivt : 

1. To relax or soften the rigour, barshness, 
or severity of anything. 

" A mitigatimj cIiium; wn* mltleil tiy wnj- of rider."— 
Jianiulay: Uitt. t>ig.. th. xl. 

' 2. To become softened, cooled, assujiged, 
or lessened. 

" Ah his yonn iiicrriwc. Iiln t\rvH lUAUnK^. 
Ailny v»itit tiiiif. liuti mitii/ittf wltli iipo." 

Urvokc* : Jcrutiilem iJelieercd, bk. L 

mit-i-ga'-tlon, ' mlt-1-ga-ol-oun, *■. 

[Fr. Mli7^(7((^('n, from Lut. miti<jo(i''nrm,;ircns. 
of mtftw'rio, from mitiijnttts, i>ji. I'lir. uf im7i;f'< 
= to niitiKate (q.v.) ; Sj'. mi/w/dciod ; Ital. 
mi/i(/nrio»f.] The act of mitigjiting, ii)>atini;, 
relaxing, or nioderatiiig; aU'iteiiientordimiim- 
tion of anything painful, harsh, severe, or 

" Tlieiie Bharc mall's general lot 
Witli llttk' tttiliitarion:' 

tt'vrdsKorth : Sxettnion, Itk. v. 

* mif-i-ga-tive, «. & s- [O. Fr. mitigati/, 
from Lat. mitlyafivus, from initigatus, jia. pai. 

of )nitigo = to mitigate (q.v.).] 

A. -is adj.: Mitigating, alleviating, or 
abating ; lenitive. 

B, -Is suhst, : Anything which alleviates, 
abates, or niodemtes ; a lenitive. 

" Which may llie fLTiiciice u( loue aalake 
To the louefi, aaa tuiri'jatii'r," 

dKincer : Jlemcdic of Loue. (Prol, ) 

mit'-i-ga-tor, s. lEng. vdtigulie): -or.] 
One who or that which mitigates, alleviates, 
or moderates. 

* mif-i-ga-tdr-^, a. ks. [Lat. mitigatorius, 
fioni mitimitus, j>a. par. of viitigo miti- 
gate (q.v.).] 

A, As<uij.: Tending to mitigate J mitigative. 

B, As subst. : A mitigation. 

"ill cases of life Rud uucli mittj/atoriet" — Xorth: 
£x(intcn. II. 316. 

* mit'-ing, s. [En^. m(V(t) (2) ; -iiig.] A little 
one ; a term of endearment. 

mit'-kul, A-. (Native word.] A money of 
account in Morocco, value about 3s. Id. 

mi'-tra, s. [Lat., from Gr. fiirpa (m itm) = an 
Asiatic bead-dress, a coif, a turban.] 

1. ZooL: Mitrrshcll. Bishop's Mitrr, Tiara; 
a genus of jimsohraiichiatr liolostoiuatons 
gasterojiods, family Muricida-. Tlie sj)ire is 
elevated, the apex acute ; the shell thick, 
Avith small aperture, and notched in front ; 
the columella obliipiely plaited, and the ojier- 

culum very small. Tlie auimal has a long 
jiroboscis ; and when irritated emits a purple 
liquid of nauseous odour. The popular names 
have reference to the shape of the shell and 
its ornamentation. Known Kiiecies420, mostly 
from tropical seas, ranging from low- water to 
eiglity fathoms, Mitra fpiscojMiUs is one of 
the commonest species ; M. regina is the most 
Tieautiful ; the most valuable is M. stamfo7-thii, 
an example of which is valued at £10 ; and 
there is only one specimen in England of M. 
zonata, brought u]) from deep water off Nice, 
jTnd descrilwd by Manyatt in the L'mncecui 
Transactiojis of IblT. 

2. Palcront. : Tlie genus appears for the first 
time in the Cretaceous jioriod, but the fossil 
species are mainly distributed through the 
Tertiary formations. {Nicholson.) 

mi'-trse-form, a. [Mitriform.] 

tmxt'-rail, * mit'-rallle, s. [Fr.= small 
pieces of iron, copper, &c., grape-shot, from 
O. Fr. niitaillej from mite — a small piece, a 
mite.] An old name for grape f»r case shot, 
or for charges of fragments of metal that were 
sometimes lired from guns. [Mite, 2,] 

ditraiUeur, s. [Mitrailleuse.] 

mitrailleuse (as mi-tra-y ez )» ' mitrall- 
leur (as mi-tra-yer'). ^■. [Fr.] [Mi- 


Ord. : A weapon designed to fire a large 
number of cartridges in a short time. Tlie 
name is given chiefly to those which are in- 
tended for use against men, tiring, therefore, 

ordinary rlMe bullets; but w.-ai)oiis of higher 
calibi-e, designed to discharge heavier jiro- 
jei-tiles against " mat^Jrial," are usually called 
" machine gnus." In each instance, however, 
the weapon is a bi-eechloader, and the shot is 
carried in a metJil caitridge. The earliest 
forms were the French mitrailleuse and the 
Belgian Montigny mitrailh'U.*.e, both U-ing 
composed of a numl>ei- of barrels fastened in a 
gnm]) surrounded by a metal casing, tUe 
cai-tridges being contained in steel Idocks. 
which are dropjted successively intt* a "slot" 
or Ripening in the breech, and replaced, when 
discharged, by a fresh plate. The rate of 
liring of the Montigny was about 444 shots 
Iicr minute, of the 'French piece 300 per 
minute. The Gatling. with Vn revolving 
barrels, and the light Nordenfeldt ami 
Gardner patterns, with lixed barrels, are 
fed from a drum containing cartridges, 
which is I'laced over a slot on the upper 
surface of the case covering the barrels. A 
scattering arrangement is usually litted to 
the mitrailleuse, which causes the barrels to 
move from side to side while the piece is 
Vieing discharged. The nuicbine guns tiring 
shot large enough to peiietiate even thin 
inm plates are the Gatling (calibre, 'fiS-incb), 
the Nordenfeldt (calibre, 1-inch), and the 
Hotchkiss (calibre, l-4(5-inch), and all these 
have lixed barrels without any scatterin;; 
machinerj'. The hrst- mentioned lires 200 
rounds a minute; the Nonb-ufeMt. 100 rounds 
in the same time. In the Holehkiss there 
is a single lock for all live barrels ; and ths 
motion of the barrels is intermittent. The 
Nordenfeldt pattern consists of four barrels 
fastened side by side horizontally in a frame. 
It is fed from a ciirrier on top of the breech 
of the machine, which is filled by hand as it 
becomes empty. In the Hotchkiss gun the 
barrels, live in number, revolve, and iii addi- 
tion to solid cast-iron and steel shots, it fires 
explosive shells and canister, at the rate of 
25 per minute. This weapon will penetrate 
Y;r-ineli steel plates up to 2,000 yards range. 
The Maxim gun is of the same nature, but 
is not so liable to jam as the others. 

"" mi'-tral, * nu'-trall, n. [Fr.] Pertaining 
to a mitre ; resembling a mitre. 

••Wholly omitted in the mitrall crown.'*— firotrac; 
Garden o/ Ci/riis, ch. ii. 

mitral-valve» s. 

1. Aruit. : A valve situated at the left auri- 
cular oiieuing of the heart. Called also the 
Bicuspid valve. 

2. Pathol. : The chief diseases of the mitral 
valve are mitral-obstruction, mitral-regnrgi- 
tant disease, and mitral-valvular disease. 

mi'-tre (tre as ter), * mi-ter, ' mi-tere, 

' my-ter, s. [Fr. wiid-f, from Lat. viitra — a. 
Ciip, from Gr. /itVpa {mitra) = a belt, a girdle, 
a head-band, a fillet, a turban ; Ital. & Sp. 
L Ordinary Language : 

1. A form of head-dress worn by the inhabi- 
tants of Asia Minor ; a bead-band. 

2. In the same sense as II. 2. 

"In this oiihiion many politicians concurred, who 
hnd no dislike to rochets and iitUres."^Jliicaulau : 
Jlisf. Kng.. ch. xUi. 

3. The office, rank, or position of a bishop. 
IT, Technically: 

1. Carp. : A mitre-joint (q.v.). 

2. Iteligiotis: 

(1) Jewish : The divinely-appointed head- 
dress of the Jewisli High Priest. It had on it 
a golden plate, inscribed "Holiness to the 
Lord." (Exfid. xxxix. 2S-30.) 

(2) Christian: The head-dress of a bishop. 
Mitres are supposed to have been first worn 
lietween the seventh century and the tenth. 
Cardinals at first wore them too, till the Coun- 
cil of Lyons, in 1245, enjoined them to use 
bats. The episcopal mitre was doubtless 
suggested by that of the Jewish High Priesr. 
It is, however, considered to symbolize the 
" cloven tongues as of fire" which descended 
on the early church on the day of Pentecost. 

* 3. Nuviis. : A counterfeit coin, made 
abroad and imported into England in the 
reign of Edward I. It was worth about a 

i. Zool. : [Mitre-shell]. 

mitre-block, 5. 

Joincrii : A block arranged for sawing pieces 
to an angle of 45". 


mitre-box, tf. 

1. i'rijil.: A box in which lules arc jdaced 
while the ends arc cut oliliipiely, so as to make 
a niitrc-joint with another rule. 

2. Carp. : A trough with vertical kerf.s, 
which intersect the sides at an angle of -i:, , 
to form guides for a .saw in sawing the ends 
of j'ieccs to make mitre-joints. 

mltredovetaU, s. 

Joiiwrti : A form of concealed dovet-aJl 
which presents only a single joint line, and 
that on the angle. [Duvktail.] 

mitre-drain, f^. The li-ansverse drain in 
the metalling ot ji road. 

mitre-gauge, s. A gauge to determine 
the angle of a mitrejoiut in picture-lVamea, 
mouldings, A:c. 

mitre-lron, .';. 

J-'org. : A number of bars of angular .«hape 

wedged together 
iiisiile a hoop to 
form a faggot for 
a large forging. 

mitre -joint, 

s. Ajoiut ttirmed 

by the meeting 

of matching 

pieces in a frame, 

the parts uniting on a line bisecting the angle. 

which is usually but not necessarily itU . 

mitre -mushroom, s. 

Lot. : MorvhcUa csciiknta. [MuRKL.] 

mitre-plane, £. 

Joinertj : 

1. A plane the bit of which is set obliquely 
•across the face of the stock, so as to make a 

draw- cut. 

2. A plane running in a I'ace bearing a 
certain angular relation to the fences or gauges 
which hold and present the stuff. 

mitre-post, .>:. 

Ilijdraul. Knijtn. : The outer vertical edge 
rif a canal-lock gate, obliquely chamfereil to 
lit againsta similar surface on the conijianion- 

mitre-shell, s. 

Zool. : The popular name of any species of 
the genus Mitra (q.v.). 

mitre-sill, 5. 

Hijdraul. Kiigin. : A raised step on the floor 
of a lock-lay against which the feet of the 
lock-gates shut. 

mitre-square, s. A bevel-square whose 
blades are set imniovably at an angle of 40° 
with each other. The term is used somewhat 
loosely to denote a square whose blade is 
adjustable to any angle ; a heve\. 

mitre-valve, .'^. A valve whose rim fonns 
a mitre-joint, with the face fif the seat at an 
angle of 45° with the axis of the valve-disc 


mitre-'Wheel, s. One of two bevel- 
wheels of equal diameter, and whose work- 
ing-faces have an eijual obli<iuity to their 
axes, usually 40". 

mi'*tre (tre as ter), ^ my- tre, v.t. [ M itre, s. ] 

1. Ord, Lang. : To aiinrii with a mitre ; to 
raise to a ]iosition or rank entitling the person 
raised to wear a mitre. 

2. Carp. : To join witli a mitre-joint. 

mi'-tred(tredasterd), (f. [Eng.Hu/r(«);-e(?.l 
I, Ord. Lang.: Adorned with <^ir wearing a 
mitre ", entitled to wear a mitre ; of episcopal 

" From snch iipostics, O ye mitrrd^. 

Preserve the church '. " Coicpcr : Task, il. 093. 
IL Technically: 

1. Bookbind. : A term applied to fillet orna- 
mentation when the lines unite exactly at 
their junction without overrunning. 

2. Carp. : United with a mitre-joint. 

mitred-border, .". The edging around 
the sUbstone of a hearth. 

mi'-tre-ing (tre as ter), pr. par. or a. 

[MiTBE, v.] 

mitreing-maohine, .':. 

L Print.: A machine for mitreing printers" 
rules, so that their ends may meet at a mitre- 

fate, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father ; we, wet, here, camel, her, there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, pot, 
or, wore, wolf, work, who, son ; mute, cub, ciire, unite, cur, rule, full ; try, Syrian, ae, ce = e ; ey = a ; qu = kw. 

mitrewort— mixtiform 


2. Joinery: A niacliine foriiiitreiiiij'orslaiit- 
iii;^' tlif riuis of pit'Ct'S whicli aiL- U> be unitfd 
Iiy :i mitiv-joilit. 

mi'-txe-wort (tre ns ter), s. [Eiii;. mitie, 

ami sufl".-in'?7 Oi.v.).] 

/;.<(. : Tlie guiius MiteUa(q.v.). 

^i False Mitrewoit is the yciius Tiarella. 

jni -tri-forin« t mi'-trsB-form, n. [I^t. 

miitm = a. mitre. ;iiul/or»ut = fmiii, shape.] 

J'.ot. : Foinied Jike a initn', ctmical. Used 
<if the Gilyi'tia c»f :i moss when it is turn 
away equally fnnii the base, so as to liang 
equally over the s]ioraiit;iuni. 

■f mi-tri'-nsa, [Lat. milm, ami fem. iil. 
adj. sulf. -iti'i:] 

/.ool. : A sub -family of 
Vuhitida-, type Mitni(q.v.). 

ani'-try, a. [Eng. viitiie); 

Her. : Charged with eight 
mitres. (Said of a bordure.) 

mitt, s. [An abbreviation 

of uiilten (q.v.).] A mitten ; mituy. 

:i eovering for the hand 

and the wrist only, but not fur the fingers. 

mit'-ten, *mlt-aine, ^mlt-tain, s. [Fr. 
mitaiiir. a wtird of disputed origin : perhaps 
from M. H. Ger. viittejuo, mi((a;jio = the 
mid<lle; Gael, miotag ; Ir. miotog = A mitten; 
<jael. & Ir. viiitati = a muff, a thick glove.) 

1. A hand-covenng, generally of worsted, 
worn as a protection against cold or otlier 
injury. It differs from a glove in not having 

siepar'ate and distinct cells for each linger, the 

thumb alone being separate. 

" With his mighty w»rclub l>r"k*)ii. 
Aud his inUieiis Utrii ftiul tattered." 

Lonifftlliiw: Jliuu'iirha, ix. 

2. A covering for the forearm only. 

1[ (1) To get the mitten : To be jilted or dis- 
■carded, as a lover. 

(li) T') give one the mittai: To jilt, to discard, 
as a lover. 

(3) To handle without mittens: To handle 

•» imlt'-tent, a. [X^t. mittens, pr. par. of m if to 
= to send.] Sending out or forth ; emitting. 
"The fliixiiiii i)rcici;e(lcth from humours i^ccant in 
quantity or muility, thrust Inrth by the part mirtcnC 
upou the inferior weak imrts,'"— U'lJiffrmm; Surgery. 

xnit'-ti-mus,. 5. [Lat. = we send ; 1st pers. 
pi. pres. indie. o{viitto=. to send.] 
Law : 

1. A precept or command in writing given 
by a justice of the peace, or other; proper 
officer, directed to the keeper of 'a prison, 
requiring him to receive and hold in safe 
keeping an offender charged with any crime 
until he be delivered by due course of la\y ; a 
wan-ant of conunitment to prison. 

2. A writ for removing records from one 
court to another. 

mi'-tu, s. [Brazilian, viitu porajiga.] 

Ornith. : Ourax viitii, one of the Cracidte 
(Curassows). It is found in South America. 


mit-y, rf. [Eng. nut(c)(\); -y.] Full of or 
aliounding with mites : as, mity oheese. 

mix, v.t. & i. [By metatliesis for viisk, from 
A.S. miscan = to mix ; cogn. with Ger. 
misrhen^to mix; O. H. Ger. misknn; Wei. 
mysgn ; Gael, measg; Ir. vimsgaim : Russ. 
mieslitite ; Lith. maiszyti ; Lat. viiscco ; Gr. 
^C<ryo> {inisgo).'] 
A. Transitiiv: 

1. To unite or blend into one mass or com- 
pouii'I ; to mingle promiscuously ; to blend, 
10 compound. 

•■ There driiickea the nectar with .imbroaia mixt." 
Sl>eriicr: Hhephetirds Calender : Sovember. 

2. To form or prnrluce by mingling or blend- 
ing two or more ingredients. 

" Hadst th"ii no poison mixed t" 

:ihakesp. : Itbmco * Juliet, iii. 3, 

3. To join, to unite, to mingle, to inter- 

•' That hath been thy craft. 
Bv uiiiiiig somewliat true tu veiit more lies." 
' " Milt.,n: P. A'., i. ^33. 

^4. To join, to associate, to unite. 

- Ephraim hath niixed himself among the people."— 

B. Intransitive : 

1. To become united. Ideniled, or mingled 
in one compound : as, Oil and water will not 


2. To join, to associate, to mingle, to inter- 

" Ntihly dt<*tiiit:inNhecl nbt)Vtf ttU the nix 
By xWviU ill wliich the worhl iiiii!-t never ynti." 
Ciw/mt: I'liijreu ••/ Error, irS. 

• mix'-^-ble, *mix'-i-ble, ". [Eng. dmj; 

-«'*/(■.] Capable of being mixed or com- 
lioundnl ; mixablc, niiscible. 

" Mixioti nnll«5 thingn miribtf by rliaiige." 

Ihivirt: Summit ToK.tii. p. 0, 

mixed, ' mixt, )»>. j»ir. k a. [Mix 1 

A, .-Is jm. jiar. : (See the veib). 

B. -lis atljcctivc : 

I. Onlihtirn Langiinge : 

1. United, or blended into one compound or 

2. Consisting of various kinds, qualities, or 
varieties ; promiscuous. 

"The com|>any ia " mixed ' (the iihrasc I qunte Is 
As much assaying, they're below yonr notice)," 
/ti/rim : Heppo. Iviii. 

^ (1) Mixed ratio or proportion : 
Moth. : A ratio or proportion in which the 
sum of the antecedent ami consequent is com- 
].aied with the difrereiice of the antecedent 
and (-(msefiuent : thus, ifa:b::c:d, then 
a-)rh: a-b : : c + d : c-d is the mixed ratio 
or )*rof>ortion. 

(2) Mixed subjects of property: Such as fall 
within the definition ol things i-eal, but which, 
nevertheless, are attended with some of the 
legal qualities <if things j-ersonal, or vice 

mixed action, s. 

Lair: 1A«tion]. 

mlxed-arcUtectiire, s. 

Jrrh. : The name given by Dallaway to the 
style of Gothic arcliitecture jirevalent from 
A.D. 1170 to 12-^0. 

mixed- cadence, s. 

Mtf^ic: An old name for a cadence, consist- 
ing of a subdominant followed by a dominant 
and tonic chord ; so called because the 
chniacteristic cliords of the plagal and au- 
thentic cadences succeed each other. 

mixed-choir, 5. A choir consisting of 
male and femah' voices. [Mixkd-voices.] 

mlxed-contract, s. 

Civil Law : A contract in which one party 
confers a beneht on another, but requires a 
lesser benefit from him, as when he leaves 
liim a legacy, burdened with the obligation of 
paying from it a lesser one. 

nUxed-fabrlcs, s. pL Tliose in which 
two or more fibres are combined. The varie- 
ties are numerous, as tweeds, poplins, cas- 
sinets, &c. 

mixed -government, s. 

FoHtics: A govt-rnmeTit not solely monarch- 
ical, aristocratical, or democratical, but a mix- 
ture of all the three. Typical example, the 
British Government. 

mixed-larceny, 5. 

Law: Larcriiy of an aggravated type, as 
when it is attended by violence to the person 
or theft from a Imnse. 

mixed-laws, s. pL Laws which concern 
both person and jnupcrty. 

mixed-marriages, ^«. ;'/. 

Roman Theol. : Marriages between persons 
of different religions. A marriage between a 
baptised and an unbaptised person is ecclesi- 
astically invalid. t)ne between a member of 
the Roman Church and of any other Christian 
communion is valid, but illicit, unless a dispen- 
sation is first obtained. In the eighteenth cen- 
tury mixed marriages led to .sei ions dissensions 
on the Continent ; and opposition to them, in 
obedience to Papal briefs, to the imprisonment 
of the Archbi.slu'p of Cologne in 1837, and of 
the Archbishr)p nf n in is:i!>. If a Roman 
Catholic ami a Protestant ib-sire to marr>- in 
England, they must imMiiise Ihat the chihlren 
shall 1* brought up in the Roman communion ; 
the bishop may then grant a dispensation, and 
the marri:ige, without the nuptial bem-dic- 
tion, must take place in a Roman Catholic 
church, witlnmt any repetition of the cere- 
mony iu any church uf the Kstablishtnent, as 

the Anglican chrgv arc not now obligatory 
registrars, (.iddis ,i- Ana-Id.) 

mixed-number, ■*. A number eonslnt- 
ing nf a \ number and a fraction, as 2J. 

mixed-property, ■■•-. 

Laiv : A •■umpniMid of realty and personalty. 

mixed - questions, s. j.L QuentionB 
arising from the coullict of foreign ami do- 
mestic laws. 

■[ There are also mixed questions of law 
and fact, in which the jury establish tlic facts 
and the Coiut declaiTS the law, 

m.ixed- tithes, .•<. pi. Tithes consisting of 
animals or material products, but in j'art nur- 
tured or prescrvi'd by the care of man. Ex- 
ample, pigs, woul, milk. 

mixed-voices, s. pL Male and female 
voices united in tlie same performance. 

mix'-ed-l^, ' mixt'-l^, adv. [Kng. mixed, 
' mixt : -hj.] In a mixeil manner. 

"With a commiHxhm not t<i pmccetl preclnely, «ir 
merely acc<'rOln(j Uy the Ihwh unci cuitonii cither of 
EnKliimi .ir Scotlaml, hut mixtli/."—lt<tC',n: Cnhn </ 
JiiitfUt till i .Scotland. 

mix-en, * myx-en, " myx-ene, s. [A.s. 

mixen, from mix, »j«()j = thing, filth.] A dung- 
hill, a dung-heap. 

"The Sonne thatflliinethouthe jn**C(ic."— rftrtnctr.- 
PersoHUi Tttle. 

mix'-er, s. [Eng. mix; -cr.} One who or 
that which mixes. 

"To the sewere nnil eiiiku 
Wlthnnimch t)riii1(6. 
Ami after them tnmhie the mli*r." 

Lou'j/eltow . C'ttnvba irine, 

• mix'-i-ble, a. [MixABLE.) 

mix'-ing, v'- ?'"''■» o-i & s. [Mix.j 

A. ■!*; B. -Is }»'• i'O'". (i" particip. adj. : (See 
the verb). 

C. As substantive ; 

1. Ord. Lang. : The act of mingling or c<uu- 
pounding two or more ingi'eilients into one 
body, mass, or compound ; mixture. 

2, Cloth : The uniting of wool of different 
colours for mixed cloth, called medleys. 

mixing-sieve, •'■. A sieve by which in- 
gredients are intimately comVuiied by sifting 
*mix'-l6n (X as ksh), s. [Lat. mixux, \}r\. 
par. of inisceo = to mix.) A mixing ; mixture. 
[See example under Mixable.] 

mix'-ite, s. [Named by Hchrauf after A. 
Mixa ; sulf. -itciMin.); Ger. inixit.] 

Mill.: A nuneral occurring as an encrusta- 
tion on bismite (q.v.), sometimes spherical, 
with concentric, fibrous structure ; also ci-ys- 
talline to crypt*icrystalline. Crystallization, 
monoelinic or trielinic. Hardness. :i to 4 ; 
sp. gr. 2'06 : colour, shades of emerald-green ; 
translucent to transparent. Analysis yielded . 
jihnsphoric and arsenic acids, 30"45 ; sesqui- 
nxide of bisnutth. 13-07 ; i>nitoxidc of copper, 
4:;-21 ; water, 11"07 ; pnitoxide of iron, I'b'Jt; 
lime, 0-S3 = lUO'liJ. Found at Joachimsthal, 

nux-dg'-a-mous, a. [Gr. /un'^ts imixis), in 
comp. ixiio- {mixf) = !i mingling, connnunion, 
and ydfj-os (gamos) = marriage] (For tlef. see 

"Tile majority of TeleoBttl are mixoffamnuM ; tliatis, 
the males and fciiialts rontfrognU; on the miawnlng- 
beilR. and the nnmlx-r '■( thv furm-.T iK-lng In eit-eiw, 
Beveral mules att«ml to the same leniale. frt^iuvntly 
changing from one female to Hnwther. Thi- same hahit 
hn.« hfen ubucrvcd in Lepiilonteiio,"— Gu'ifAcr .■ Stud/f 
of fit/us, 1*. 17T. 

mix-6-lj?d'-l-an, a. [Gr. ^n'fi? (mixis). in 
comp. tiL^O' (inixn-) = a mingling, and Kng. 
Li/dian (q.v.).J 

Miislr: The e])ithet applied to the seventh 
ecclesiastical mode (q.v.). 

' mixt, pa. 2^ay' or a. [Mix.] 
mix' -tie, mix'-t^, a. (See the com]>outid.) 
mixtie-maxtie, mixty-maxty. 

Coiifu.'^edly nnxed or mingled 



"Yon mfxtie-marfle, oncer hotch-l>'iU:h 
Tlic Coairtlon." 

iiurtu: Crif* /'rayrr. 
' mix'- ti- form, a. [Lat. ni/j:fH.< = nnxed, 
and fiiniia = form. J Of mixed shapes. 

iizr(/<ir}f» Nntloiiiil AMexnhl y."- Car I i/te : 

■•That s 
rr. /tcpi/l., \'i. i.. hk. \ii., ch. ix. 

boil, bo^ ; pout, jo^l ; cat, 9ell, chorus, 5hin, bengh ; go. gem : thin, this : sin. as ; expect, Xcnophon. exist, -ing. 
-cian, -tian = shan. -tion, -sion = shun ; -tion, -^ion - zhun. -cious. -tious, sious - shiis. ^ble. -die. .^c. = bol, d?!. 

mixtilineal— moat 

mix ti-Un 6-al,mix ti-lin-e-ar. ". 

[Lilt. miMu.*, pa. |>ai-. «'f tuUcfo — to mix. ;iU'l 
linea — a lint'.) Consisting of ii mixture or 
combination of lines, riglit, curved, Sec. 

mix'-tlon (X as o), .^. {IaL mixth, fl-om 
mixiits. \ni. par. of »n-s«o = to mix ; Fr. mix- 
tion; Sp. miction; Ital. ?/ti«((OH»'.l 

• 1. Orrf. Lang. : The act of mixing ; a 
mixtin-e ; a promiscunus assemblage. 

" Tlie next matter of all mUtiont ur composition "— 
//«» ; Oris/, of Mankind. |t. S-jO. 
2. ^rf: A t«rm used by Fn-nch artists to 
dfsignate the medium or mordant used Im' 
artixing leaf-gold to wood or (list^-nijier pic- 
tures, and formed by a mixture nf one imund 
of :iinber with four ounces nf pure mastic 
ainl <ine of Jew's pitch or asphaltum. 

* mixt'-lj^, Oih. [MiXEPLV.] 

mix' -tare. 5. [I^at. mixtnrfi, from mixturm, 
int. i>;ir. uf mijfceo = to mix; Fr. vitxtiirc; 
Ital. & Sp. viistnra.] 
X. Ordinary Language : 

1. Tlie act of mixing or blending together ; 
the state of being mixed or bleiuled together ; 

"The wine of the \Trnth of Ootl, which is poui-ed out 
without inirfnrtt iiito the cup of hla jmligimtloii."— 
liepfhilion xiv, 10. 

2. That which is mixed or blended with 
other things ; the ingredient added and mixed. 

" Cicero doubts whether it were iHisHihle for a com- 
muuity to exist, lluit had not a prevailing mixtitre of 
piety in its coiiBtitutiou."— .(i/rf*»oii ; Freeholder. 

3. The result of the act of mixing ; a mixed 
body, mess, or compound. 

" What if thia mixture do imt work at all ?" 

ShuKeip.: liomeu A Jalicl, iv. 3. 

II. Technically : 

1. Chem. : A composition of different 
chemical substances wliieh remain iiiialtrivd 
m their character even when thorouglily 

2. Music: An organ stop, consisting of seve- 
ral ranks of pipes to each note. It is only 
used in combination with the foundation and 
compound stops, as it consists of high har- 
monics of the ground tone. 

3. Pknrm. (PL) : Mistura?. Insoluble prin- 
ciples suspended in water by means of gninniy 
or similar substances contained in the medi- 
cines, or added to them by mixture. More 
rarely, soluble substances dissolved in the 
wiiter or other liquid. 

Mi'-zar, s. [Arabic] 

Aslron. : A fixed star, ^ Ursa; Majoris. 

miz'-en, s. & a. [Mizzen.] 

' miz -maze. * mizz-mazz. s. [A rednp. 

of maze (q.v,).] A maze, a labyrinth. 

"The clue to lead them through the tniztrtftze oi 
variety of opinions nnd authnr-j to truth, "—/-vctc: 
C-jittluct o/ the Cnderslamliiig. § 20. 

miz'-zen, miz'-en, * mls-en. • mys-son, 

s. & a. [Fr. misaine, from Ital. ytiezzana^ from 
Low Lat. TfW/i«[nU5= middle, of middle size, 
from Lat. wwdtiis= middle. The name was 
probably t-aken from its mid-position between 
the bowsprit and main-mast, for it was once a 
foresail. {Skeat.)] 
A. As sMhstaniive : 

1. The aftermost of the fore-and-aft sails of 
a ship : called also the spanker or spencer. 

"The mizen la a large sail of an ohlong figure ex- 
tended upon the mizeu-mjist."— /'o/co»ier.- Hhipwrcuk, 
ch. ii., note 6. 

2. The aftermost mast in a three-niaste<l 
ship, or in those two-masted ships in which 
the forward mast is the larger, such as the 
ketch and yawl. The main is always the 


larger mast. When the larger ma=;t in a two- 
masted vessel is forward, the one abaft is the 
iiiizzen ; when the larger mast i.^ abaft., tlie 
one nearer the bows is the fure-mast. The 
word mizzen indicates the relation of many 

parts, as Tiii'rj^'n-top. iHirrcJi-shrouds, mizz-^n- 
rigging, kc. The bonaventurc wizzcM is a 
second or additional mizziMi-uiast eniployed in 
snmc sliips with four masts. 

B. Ax (vlj. : < )f nr perUiiuing to the mizzen : 
as, (;n',~rt»-yards, A:o. 

mlzzen-mast, s. {Mizzrn, A. 2.] 

miz'-zlC, r. t, l.\ frequent, from miA( (*1-'^'-)- J 

1. Lit. : To rain in very tine drops ; to misle, 
to drizzle. 

2. Fig. : To disappear suddenly ; to decamp. 

"Eh! what! ho has mt«/«(, has liv*"- A! Hnslmm : 
Fortune's Frolic, 1. I. 

miz-zle, s. [Mizzle, v.] Very small, fine rain. 

miz'-zled (zled as zeld), a. [Etym. doubt- 
ful.] ^pnitL'd; of dillriviit colours. (IScotch.) 

mizz'-6n-ite (zz as tz), s. [Gr. ^ci^wr 
(me(20)i)= greater ; suff. -ife (.^fin.). ] 

Min. : A tetragonal mineral belonging to 
the scapolite group of unisilicates of Dana, 
and closely resembling nieionite (q.v.). Crys- 
tals very small. Hardness, 5-5 to ; sp. gr. 
2-023 ; lustre, vitreous ; colourless ; trans- 
parent. An analysis yielded : silica, 64-7r» ; 
alumina. 23'80 ; magnesia, 0'22 ; lime, 877 : 
.soda, 0S3 ; potash, 214 ; by ignition, O'Li 
= 99'j9. Occurs on Monte Somma, Vesuvius. 

miz'-zy, 5. [Etym. doubtful.] A bog, a quag- 
mire. (J'rov.) 

mne-mon'-ic, mne-mon-io-al (initial m 
mute), a. [Mnemonics.] Of or pertaining to 
mnemonics ; tending or intended to assist the 

"That would engace and fix th? memory of those 
characters alone, and thereby hinder the further usa 
oi the inneinottical table,"— fly#*e." H'orkt, vi. 3M. 

*'miie~mdzi-i'-cian (initinl »» mute), 5. [Eiig. 
luncmonic : -inn.] Out' skilled in mnemonics ; 
a teacher or professor of uuiemonics. 

mue-mdn'-xcs (initial m mute), s. [Gr. fitnf- 
tiOVLKOL (nmeiiwnika), neut. |d. of,KOi 
{niiLeiiioiiikos) = pertaining to memory ; ju.i't}- 
fj.uii' (iniieiiidn), genit. fiv^fxovo^ (iniiimoiiofi) = 
mindful; fj.i'dofj.aL {m)uio)iiii)—to reiuimbei-; 
Fr. mnemoniqtiE.] Tlie art of memory ; the 
principles and rules of some method to assist 
tUe memory. 

t mne'-mo-teoh-mcs (initial m mute), s. 
[MNEMOTEcaMY.] Mueiounics (q.v). 

"On what priuciide of miiemyrwhiiict the ideas 
werecuunectea with the knuta and colour we are very 
much in tli« dtxik-'—Biinton : Mytht of (he .Vttw 
World, ch. L 

*mne'-md-tecli-ny (initial m mute), s. [Or. 
/ic^firj i^iiineine) = memory, and t€x»''7 (techiic) 
= art.] The same as Mnemonics (q.v.). 

Mne-mos'-y-ne (initial m mute), s. [Gr. i= 
lU'^mory, from fxi-riiiMf {ninenwn) = mindful.] 

1. Class. Antiq. : The daughter of Coelus 
and Terra, and mother of the nine Muses. 

2. Astroii. : [Asteroid, 57J. 

mni-a'-5©-se (m mute), s. pi. [Mod. Lat. 
mn^inm) ; Lat. fcm. pi. atlj. suff. -acff.] 

Bot. : A tribe of Mnioideic. They have the 
habit of Brytim, but with firm, rigid, .ind 
usually undulated leaves, generally increasing 
in size towards the summit of the stem. 
British genera, Ciuclidium, Muium, Georgia, 
and Timniia. 

mni'a-del-pha'-9e-8e (m mute), s. ]>l. 
(Mod. Lat. vinium ; Gr. aSf\^6i {adelpkns)^ 
a brother, and Lat. fem. pi. adj. sulT. -acete.] 

Bot. : A family of Plcuroearpous Mosses 
having the leaves in four or more .series, with 
the smaller cells pellucid, the larger dark- 
tinged. One British genus, Daltonia. 

mni-6i'-de-se (»i mute), s. pi. [Gr. fi-viov 
imiiion); 6t5os {eidos) =furm, appearance, and 
Lat. fem. ailj. suff. -e(C.] 

Bot. : A family of Operculate Mosses, gener- 
ally apocarpous, rarely pleurocarpous. Leaves 
broadly oval, si)athulate, oval, ur lanceolate, 
fliittisli, with a thick, very prominent. <lorsal 
nerve. It is divided into two tribes, Muiace* 
and Polytri.:haceie. 

mni - 6 - til' - ta (m mute). .?. [Gr. fjijnoy 

(iiniion) = moss, and tiAtoi; (fUto.'!) ~ plucked ; 
TtArw (liltO) = to pluck.] 

Oniilh. : The typical genus nf the family 
Mniotiltida^ (q.v.). But one species is known, 
MniotiUa varia, the MotarUla varin of Lin- 
nanis. General colour black, broadly edged 
with white. It is popularly known in America 
as the Black-and-white Creeper. It builds on 
the ground, and its nest is a favourite recej)- 
tacle for the parasitic eggs of the Cow-bird, 
Molothrus jyecoris. [Molothrus.] 

mni-o-til'-ti-daa ("i mute), .«. pi. [Mod. 
Lat. mniotiltia) ; Jjit. fem. pi. adj. suff. -idir.] 
Ornitk. : Wood-warblers, a passerine family, 
allied to the Ca^rebida?, or Sugar-birds, the 
Greenlets, and probably to the Warblers and 
Tits of Euro])e. They range over all North 
America, from Panama to the Arctic regions, 
but do not extend far beyond the tropics in 
South America. {IVallace : Geog. Dist. Ani- 

mni'-iim (initial m mute), s. [Latinised from 
(.iv. fiuioi- {ianio}i) =^ inos&, sea-weed.] 

Bot. : The typical genus of the tribe Mnia- 
cese, and the family Mnioideie. It resembles 
Bryum, but diflVis in habit. Mniinii horniim 
(Di-yum honunii) and M. undtdatam are com- 

* mo, a. & adv. [A.S. md.] More. 

mo'-a, 5. [Maoi-i.] The name given by tho 
natiVes of New Zealand to any member of the 
extinct genus Dinornis (q.v.). 

moan, * mene, *mone, v.i. & t. [ 
vucnan, from »tdn = wicked, wickedness.] 
A* Intransitive : 

1. To utter a low, dull, and prolonged sound, 
under the influence of pain, grief, or sori'nw ; 
to make lamentation ; to grieve, to groan. ■ 

" And through the ancient oaks o'erhead 
mysterious voices moaneil and fled." 
loiis/i-lloto : Ta/esqfa lias/aide Jtin. (Prel.) 

2. To produce or give out a low dull sountl 
like a moan. 

" [She] listens to a lieavy sound. 
That moans tlie luossy turrets round." 

Scott : Lay of the Liist Slinttrct, 1. 12. 

* 3. To munnur. 

" Than they of the towne began to mone, and 8.ayd. 
thisdedeouKlituattoljesufri'ed.' — Bernera : Froiisai't ; 
Croni/cle. vol, i,, ch. cccxlvlii. 

B. Transitive : 

t 1. To lament, to deplore; to moan or 
groan over. 

"Moan the expense of luauy a vanislied aight." 
Shakt-sp ■ S'inmf 3'\ 

* 2. To cause to lament or grieve ; to atfliet, 
to distress. 

moan, * mone, 5. [Moan, v.] 

1. A low, dull and prolonged sound, as from 
one in pain or grief; a low or suppressed 
groan ; lamentation. 

" Ye walls, that echo'd to hie frantic moan. 
Guard the due records, uf thia grateful atone." 
liayles : Inacription on Monument to Collins. 
"* 2. Grief, sorrow. 

■■ Thine being but a moiety of my moan." 

Shakeai'. : Richard III., ii. a 

3. A low, dull sound like that made by a 
person moaning : as, the nvian of the wind. 

*moan'-ful, mone-fule, n. [Eng. moan; 
fiil{!).] Full of moaning or grief; sorrowing, 

" He saw a mnnefule sort 
Of people, clustering round abuut tlieir yet uuoon- 
qiiered port." 

Warner : Albions Kngland. bk. i.. ch. iv, 

* moan'-ful-ly, adv. [Eng. vwanfal ; -bj.] In 
a moanful, sad manner ; with moans or la- 

"This our uoets are ever moatifuHp siuglu^, this 
our philosupnera do gravely inculcate."— Harrow ; 
Hennons, vol. iii,, ser. 8. 

M6-ar'-i-a, s. [From Maoii moa (q.v.).] 

Geol. : A name sometimes given to a southern 
continent assumed by Dr. Mantell to have been 
submerged, leaving as the culminating points 
Philip and Norfolk Islands, Chatham and 
Auckland Islands, and New Zealand. Over 
this continent Dr. Mantell believes that the 
Moa roamed. (Mantell: Petrifactions £ tlieir 
Teachings, p, 132.) 

moat, ^ moate, * mote, s. [O. Fr. vwte (Fr. 
innttc) ; Low Lat. mota =a mound consisting 
of the earth dug from a tieneh for water. 
'•Just as in the case of dike and ditch, the 
word vwat originally meant either the trench 
dug out or the embankment thrown up." 

late, fat. fare, amidst, what, fS,ll, father ; we, wet, here, camel, her, there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine : go, pot, 
or, wore, wolf, work, who, son ; miite, cub, ciire, unite, ciir, rule, full ; try, Syrian, se, oe ^ e ; ey = a ; qu = kw. 

moat— mock 


Fort. : A deep ditch or trei)ch round a f<'i i, 
&ti., gciHTHlly lilled with water. 

" llie «ftll to scAle, llio mmtf to cpnas," 

Sc9tt : /iokeliy, iii. ST. 

moat, vJ. [Fr. viottrr.] T'> surround or pro- 
t>Tt with a ninat. [Moat, s.] 

" A LTeftt CMstle nefir VRll.iiliilid. 
.i/.'uf'-i/ itiid liigli, luiil liy f.'tir wmhUiukIs liiil." 

Londfifilifto : TJu-oivji<in» I'liif. 

' moate, i\t. (Mutk, i\\ To void excreiueiit, 
as liirds ; to mute. 

m6at-ed,a. [Eng. moat ; •cd.] Furiiishtd 
or suriouinled witti a inoat. 

" Then', nt tlie monteii gmiige, reaides this itejectiil 
Mai'iium." — .Sh>iKesp. : Mfosure for JJeatttye, i'li 1. 

Mo at -ta lite. 


mob (1), " mobb, 5. [a contr. for mobile in 
tlie Lat. ]'hruse mobile vulgus = tlie ficUk' 
common pyople. [Mobile.] Introduced into 
the English language during tlie latter part 
of the roign of Charles II. Speaking of tlie 
Green Ribbon Club, Nnrtli, in 1740, says ; 
" It was their beast of burden, an<l called tirst 
m->liih' I'lthpts. but fi'lt naturally into the con- 
trat-ti.m nf mte syllable, and ever since is 
lii'C'inii' pri>|it-r English." {Era»wj)., p. 574.)] A 
disorderly crowd ; a pronii.-scuous assemblage 
of rough, riotous persons ; a rabble. 

" Nrtiie wei-e keener iwjjiiust it tlinji the Gliisgow folk, 
wi' tlii-ir nibbliiijts niitTtlieir risiu^j's. iwid tlieir tn'>fi». 
m tliey ca' tlieui uow-R-daya."— Scott : Rob Kuy, 
ch. xwii. 

* mob -driver, 5. A demagogue, an 

■'(\il.iiiel MiMmay, au old Riimper, (Uiii late tnob- 
drif-r 111 Essex." — .Vorth : Ex'nnen, p. 120. 

mob-law, s. The rule of the mob ; rough 
aiiil r<; adnunistratiou of justice by the 
mob : 1\ nch-law. 

A ilemagogue. 
An ignorant 

or il- 


' mob-reader, 

literate leader. 

* mob-Story. -«. A vulgar story or tale 

curr'-nt among the common people. 

mob (2), s. [Dut. mop vi)(tb = a woman ani^lit 
cap; Jii()7> = a woman -i 
coi f.] A mob-cap 
" Slie CDuld Imniugiie w itli 
wuiiirroiia gTiice. 
Oil y"wii3. mill "'"^* fiiJ 
Clips, aiul Inoe." 
Ltof/il : Spiritof Cun 

mob-cap, .^ A 

cap ,r head-diess 1 n 

*' Tlie moon la chariiiiui^ 
so i>erli(it>s 
Are (iretty maideiia in 
iii'ib cn/is." 
Pracd : Count ff Ball, g 

mob (1). t'.^ [Mob (1), mob-cap. 

.•;. 1 To attack in a 
mob ; to crowd roughly round and annoy. 

" mob (2), v.t. [Mob (2), s.] To wrap up or 
cover in a cowl or vclI ; to muffle up. 

" Having most o( tlietu cbiue as suiooth ixa women's. 
iLiiil their face» tmibil in liootli and luug like 
pettiioats." — More: On thu Seven Churches. (Pief.) 

mob; -fy.] To mob; 

* mob -bi-fly. rJ. [Eng 

to crowd round. 

" J/o66*/v out at electioua conformable loyal >rentle- 
men, whom we will wy dowu for High Men." — .Wirth .- 
J-^xaiHcn, i>. U45. 

* mob'-blsh, a. [Eng. mob; -ish.] Like or 
consisting of a mob; characteristic of a nioh ; 
rough, tumultuous, vulgar, mean, low. 

"These commiinwealtlis, fonueily so waiUke ami 
am)>iti'>iis. manitanied . . . h small city gU:U'il, tu pve- 
veut iiKjbbith d isuidei's, " — Hume: Eaai/s, pLii., ejss, \i. 

mob-by, mab'-by, 5. [Prob.ofuativeorigin.l 

1. A sort of drink i>repared in America from 

2. Tlie juice of apples and peiiches, distilh-d 
to make ajiplc or peach brandy. 

mo -bed, s. [Zend & Pers. WiO»6erf.] A priest 
ul the Zi.troastrian faith. 

mo-bee', ^. [Mobbv.] A fermented liquor 
made by the negroes of the West Indies from 
sugar, ginger, and snakeroot. 

mo'-bile, ' mo'-bil, a. & .■:. [Fr., from Lat. 
mohilis {for mori/^'/uf) = easy to be moved; 
wiorco = to move; Ital. vwbiU; Sp. moblc, 

A. -I* (uljcctitv : 

* 1. Capable of being moved ; movable; not 

" To tr«nto of auj" •tnr 
Fyxt orelo ntobU." 
Ski-ttoH : IVhi/ come i/e not to Court I 

2. Easily moved, changed, or altered : as, 
mobile features. 

* 3. Fickle, changeable. 

"The vnder hydde malice and nuicoiire of inirposinco 
euxiie (orm-cnut and vina^ned. in dlAtnioti>in <.A viuhu 
m'o]ili?. shcwetl mieuly. " — Chaucer : TeitaiiH-jiC •>/ Louc, 
bk. i. 

" B. A.-i ^iihst. : The mob, the common 
people, the iM)pulace. [Mob(1). s.] 

" .i/iif. (makUii; np to tho tnubite). Good i>eopIe, hero 
yo'j are met together."— />rtfd((ii ; Dtn Sebiulian, iv. I. 

% {I) Mobile fjuilibri urn: [EyuiLiBRiUM]^ 
(2) Primuiii mobile : [Primum]. 

mob-i-li-^a'-tlon, .^., midb'-i-li§ie, v. 

(MoUll.lZATliJ.V, MoniLIZK.] 

mo-bfl'-i-ty, s. [Fr. mobility, from Lat. 
mobilittitcni, aecus. of mobilit<fs. from mobtUs 
= mobile (q.v.) ; Ital, mabillta.; Ital. mo- 

1: Capability of being moved; susceptibility 
of motion. (In Bot. sometimes used for tlie 
susceptibility of motion possessed by sensitive 

■"That extreme mofti/Wj/ which helongs only to the 
fluid »Uite."—Htrr»vh€l : Attranotny, § ^86, 

2. Aptitutle for motion ; readiness to move 
or change : as, mobility of features. 

* 3. Activity, fleetness. 

* 4. Fickleness, changeability, inconstancy. 

* o. Tlie mob, the populace. (A use sug- 
gested by nobility.) 

"She sliii,'led yon out with her eye. »a commander- 
in-oliief of tlie mobHity.' — Drydeii: Don Sebattian, 
iv. 1. 

mob-i-li-za'-tlon, s. [Fr. mobilisation, from 
nwbiliscr = to mobilize (q.v.).j 

Mil. : The act of mobilizing; the state of 
being mobilized; the calling of troops into 
active service ; the placing of an army on a 
war-footing or readiness for active service. 
It includes the calling out of the reserve ;lnd 
men on furlough, the organizing of the.a.rtil- 
lery, medical, cominissarJat, and transjiort 
ser\'ii-es, the accumulation of provisions, 
munitions, &c. 

mdb'-i-lize, v.t. [Fr. mdbxUser, from mobile 
= movable.] 

1. Ord. Lanij. : To put in a state of readi- 
ness for service. 

"To equalize, mobilize, aud drill hito a sort of uni- 
formity tlie whole claaa of agricultuivil Libourera.""— 
Times, Nov. Ui, IdTo. 

2. Mil. : To put in a state of readiness for 
active seiTice, as troops ; to call out for 
active service. 

" mo'-ble, v.t. [A freq. from mob (2), v. (q.v.).] 
To wrap or muffle up, as in a hood ; to mob. 

■' But w ho. oh ! wlio hath seen the mobled iiueen. 
Kun Imrefoot up and down." Shakesp. : Uamlit, ii. £. 

mo'-ble^, s. ])/. [See def.] 

Law : A corruption of movables (q.v.). 

mob-OC'-ra-^y", s. (Eng. mob (l), s. ; con- 
nective, antl (Jr. Kparos (krutos) = strength, 
iiught.l Tlie rule or authority of the mob; 
the tyranny of the mob ; mob-law. 

"Who asserted it waa rather a 7nobocraci/."—JIad. 
D'Arblai/: Diary, v. T6. 

* mob-o-crit'-ic, a. [MouocRAcy.J Of or 

lu.-ituiiiiiig to niobocracy. 

mobs'-man. s. [Eng. viob (1), s., and num.] 
A mem l)er of 
the swell mob; 
a tiii.'kpocket, a 
thief, a swindler. 

moc -ca-sin, 
moc -ca-son. 
moc -a^ sin, 
moc -cas-sin, 

s. [A North- MOCCASIN. 

American Indian 

word ; Algonquin mahissin.\ 

1. Ord. Lang. : A deer-skin sandal, the sole 
and upper of which are formed of one piece 
of leatlier. It is the ordinary foot-covering 
worn by the Nojth-Ainerican Indians. 

" He hiul moecnsitii rnchauted, 
Matfic mocc'ttijii o( dcer-skiu." 

i^mg/ellow : Jliaioutha, iv. 

2. Zool. : [Mocassik-snakbJ. 

moccasin snake, '. 

Zoology : 

1. Ceiichris pisdvorm, ol the family Crota- 
lidie, sometimes called the Waler-vipor, from 
its frciiueiiting marshy places. It in a lish- 
rating snake, as its specillr name rb-ricttes. 
Habitat, Nortli Carolina, the country to the 
south, and across to the Rocky Mount^tins. 

2. The name is 80metim<*ft, but Improperly, 
applied t(j 'rriijonori-ph'dux coutortriT, tlie 
Copper-head Snake. Both these reptiles are 
extremely poisonous, but neither possesses 11 

Mo-cha, s. (Aral).] 

1. Gtoj. : A fortiUed sea-jiort town of Arabia. 

2. Entom. : Kphyra omirmn/irca, a whitish 
straw-coloured moth, the larva of which is 
found in .Jim.' and September on the maple. 

Mocha stone, s. 

Mil}. : A variety nf chalcedony enclosing 
dendritic forms of binoxide of manganese and 
]iproxide of iron. These frecpienlly i)resfnt 
a reni,irkable resembhinoe to organic forms, 
especially to those of confervoid ]ilants, but 
their mineral origin has now been plavied 
beyond doubt. [Aoate.J 

mdch'-a~d6. s. [Mockado.] 

mOQhe, s. [Fr.] A bale of raw silk, as im- 

* moch-el, *moche. 'moch-11, a. & ndc 

[Mi. Ki.K.j 

A. As^idJ. : Great in quantity, number, or 
degree ; much. 

B. As adv. : Much, greatly. 

mo'-chr^iiS, s. [Arab. Moclut-ras = the sap of 
Mocha.] Three dye-stutfs : (1) a mahogany- 
coloured gum of rounded, convoluted, lioUow 
])icees. obtained from Bombax maUibaricum ; 
(2) a lieavy, light mahogany-coloured gum in 
large, solid bars, pale-coloure<I interiorly, ob- 
tained from Moringn ptfnjijusiirnnn ; (3) curi- 
ously convoluted, yellowisii, opaque pieces of 
resinous substance, obtained from Anca Ca- 

mock, ''mokke, ^mocke, v.t. k i. [O. Fr. 

niucqucr (Fr. mnqucr), from the same root as 
Ger. miickcii =- to muniblo, to mutter ; Sw. 
mucku ; Ital. viocca = a grimace ; moa-ai'e = to 
nnick ; Gael. nt«3=to scoff", to deride; Wei. 
iitorcio = to mimic ; late Gr. fiaiKot (mohos) = 
mockery; Lat. 7micciw=a butloou.] 

A, Transitive: 

1. To deride, to laugh at ; to treat with 
scorn, ridicule, or contempt. 

" Elijah mocked them and s;iid, Cty aloud.' — I King$. 
win. 27. 

2. To set at nought ; to defy, to ignore. 

" Fill our bowls oucB more. 
Let's mock tlie midnight hell." 

Shukeip. : .ttituiii/ * Cleopatra, ill. 13. 

3. To imitate or mimic, especially in conr 
teni])t, ridicule, or derision ; to deride by 
mimicry, to ridicule. 

" Pray, do not mnek me : 
I am a very foolish fond old man." 

aiutketp. : Ltar, iv. T. 

■4. To illude, to deceive, to disappoint ; to 
fool, to beguile. 

" Fidae Jacohitea who had mocked their banished 
sovereign yciu- iifltr yei^ with inofeBKiona o( atUu-h- 
nieuL"— J/aC£iu?ay ; Uitt. Eny., ch. xxll. 

* 5. To imitate, to mimic, to resemble. 

" To see the life us lively mocked, as ever 
.'Still sleep inwK'-.l .leath." 

Siittkcsp. : Winter's Talc, v. C. 

' C. To pretend, to feign. 

" He mocks the iwiues that he makes." 

iihtUa:9p. : Antony A CfcujMtra. v, l, 

B. Intro.ns. : To make use of ridicule lu- 
derision ; to make sport, to jeer, to ridicule, 
to speak jestingly. (Genei-ally followed by at.) 

"TliL' lulverMiries saw Iter, aad did mxk at hor 
sabUiths, "— jLa"»fjim/»o*« 1, 7. 

mock, s. & a. [Mock, v. J 

A. Ai substantive : 

1. The act of mocking; lidicnle, derision, 
sneer, gibe, jeer. 

"The loud world's mudom mock." 

Tennyson: Witt, i. 

2. Imitation, mimicry, mockery. 

B. As adj. : False, counterfeit, assumed, 
sham ; not genuine or real. 

"This mock royalty wm of short diirntlou. "— J/ac 
auUiy: fftnt. ling., c\\. 1. 

boil, boy : po^t, jowl ; cat, 9ell, chorus, 9hin. ben^h ; go, gem ; thin, this : sin, as : expect, ^enophon, exist, ph = f. 
-cian, -tlan ~ shan. -tion, -sion - shun ; -tion, -slon = zhun. -clous, -tious, -sious - shus. -blc, -die, A:c. - bel, del. 


mockable— model 

mock-apple, s. 

IM. : A Caiiiuliuii name fur Ethmixysta 

mook-dlsease, s A qimsi-disease, raiised 
i.r vxaggfrati-.l l.y niorbia fani-y, ns liystcria, 

• mook-God. «. A ilnrider of God. 

■■ Vmu n.-IisU-re, jwunieni. aliil moc*-God».'"— M'.Jni.- 

mock'berolc, «. Burlesquiug the heroic 

in i-liiii-ictir, action, &c. 
mocU lead, mock-ore, s. [Blexde.I 
mock-orange, >'. 

m.: I%ih,Mi'l"" •■"•■"'""'"'■'■ i' ■'' socallod 
bewiuse its lavnf, civaii.y-wli.ti- fl..\v,.-is iny.- a 
luiwerfiU <«l"ur soin.'wliat r.siMnl.lnii; tliat .'f 
;.raiii;e-l.lossni,.s. Tliu tlavcur of tlic leaves is 
like tliat i.f cii.uiiil.ei-s. It IS cultivated m 
slinil.l.eries aii.l .-..ttage gai-deus. 

mock-plane. < 

£..(..■ Aar I'seii'luPhitunus. 

mock-privet, s. 

/;.-( • I'hilliirea rirffala, more cmiinimily 
calle.i ' l.y the book-liauie of Privet-leaved 

mock-sun, s. A iiarhelionOi.v.). 

mock-tnrtle, s. A snup prepared from 
calfs head, in iiiiitation of turtle-suup. 

mock-velvet, «. A fabric made in iniita- 
tidii ..f velvet. 

• mock-ar-We, n. (Eng. utoct; -ahk.] Ex- 
pose.l to 'derision; ridiculous. 

" Tlie behaviour of tlie country i.* most mockatilc at 
co\iTt:—!ih<iketp. : M J'o« iiA* It, 111. 2. 

mock-a-do, s. (SIock, v.\ 

1 Afabric made in imitation of velvet; 
moek-velvet. It was made specially in Queen 
Elizabeth's time. 

2 Mockerv. 

•■Wliat yxackado 1« thiaf-Zricftai-iifon; Pamela. 
ii. 3T. 

' mock-age, s. (Eng. mod; ; -fije.) Mockery, 
ridicule. ' 

■■ Thus spe-iketl. the Propliete by au irotiye, that" 
in JpTisiui. or moc*U!/e."-2 CroixKla iviii. (Note.l 

* mock-bird, 1. (Eng. moct, and6ird.] The 

jnock-er, s. [Eng. mocJ:; -er.J 

1. One who mocks ; a scotfer, a ridiculer, a 

"There should >« mixkert in the List time, who 
should ".dk alter their o»u uugodly lusts. -Jade IS. 

2. One who mocks, illu.les, or disappoints. 

"■'lI thou .Hest lielore 1 come, thou art a ^nockc^ ol 
my hibimr."— .SA.ito-*/. .■ .<< >o« Like It, 11. 6. 

mocker-nut, s. 

V.nt. : Jiirflniis tomeiitnsa, called also Wliite- 
liearted Hickory, or Common Hickory (q.v.). 

mock-er-y, s. & a. [Fr. vwiuerie, from 
nio.^iifc = to mock.] 
A. As svlstontiiK : 

1. The act of mocking or ridiculing. 

■■ Mockers and when exercised uirai the 
Scril.ture-s. . . . lall within the mischiel ol tlie l.iw 
which the iir.ilai.atioii ol God 8 mime. — i'.ilej. ; 
Morid J', v.. ch. ix. 

2. Ridicule, gibing, jeering. 

3. The subject of ridicule, laughter, or .le- 
Tision ; a butt. 

'■ ol the holy i.lace they m-ide a mockery."— 2 J/./cc.i- 
brei viti. 17. 

4. Mimicry ; connterteit appearance ; delu- 
sive imitation. 

" Unreal mockery, hence ! " ,. 

aftoft^/.. ; Jliichcfh. IIL 4. 

5. A vain elTort ; a fruitless eft'ort or at- 

* B. -Is «<'j- •■ Mock, counterfeit. 

" As il we were a mockert/ king in state." 

yuril : Pcrkin H'arbeck, L 1. 

mock-es-on, s. [Moccasis.] 

mock-ing, ;»■. jmr., a., &. s. [Mock, v.] 

A. & B. A. i>r. par. i: nxirticip. adj. : (See 
the verb). 

C. -^5 slthstantire : 

1. The act of liilicnling, deriding, or jeering ; 

2. An imitation, a counterfeit- 

•• It is a pretty ifwcking ol the life." _ 

.•itutkeap.: Tinion f>f Altiem. i. 1. 

mocking-bird, s. 

tirintli. : The l.i.pular name of .\;imiis )i"'w- 
nWIuj. A.shy brown above, white beneath ; 
wings black, varied with white, tail black. 
Its ranee in America, of which it is native, is 
from 40" north to Mexico. It is also said to 
occur in Cuba. 

■•Tl.e vocal i.iwer«..l the meiekinflUrd exceed Wth 
i.. their i...t»- .ii.d in their nalur.l ...i.K. 
tl.o« ol any ..thcr ...-.Tie.. Tl.e wild scream of the 

";^..,;dt'!i!;.oii..oa,.,i «» ..iue.i,ir.i "« 71:1;'^ 

...11. exai-tnes.. and »llh aiipare.,tly "1""'. !»;'!'-'>,• 
w i.e 1.. !..r^^ and s»ecu.e». tl.e ,„^-b,rj 
v„ U-.. i...,.r,.ve U|..n tl.e ..ricim.!. Tl.e natund 
1., t«. are lw.1.1 ilth. and lull, ami arc varie< al......t 

Ir.tTi'.ut limU:.V.un-~«<urd. Ilretner. i- y.-«l»«a» . 
.VorfA .(..u-ricun IlirtU. 

' mocking-Stock, s. A butt for merri- 
ment; a laughing-stuck. 

••Philip . . . W.U1 taken by the consul imaile a 
..m-*i..»-<Iool ; and sent away prisoner to Home. — 
JUlei&li: UUt. World, hk. v., ch. v.. i ,. 

m6ck'-ing-l«, "'ic. lEng. iMcKing ; -ty] In 
a ;i...ckiiig. Jeering manlier ; with mockery ; 
jeeriiigly. derisively. 

■•• Lets meetc.' quoth Eccl.o. inoct.Wv." 

H-ar,ier :AUnru Enaldud. bk. li., ch. xlv. 

• mock-isb, n. [Eng. moct; -is/i.] Mock, 
sliaiii, ct.uiit^Tfeit. 

•■ Alter this ...ort^Jceleccion, then was he crowned.^' 
—.Sir T. More . Workr*. p. 117. 

mo'-CO, s. IThc Brazilian name.) 

Zool. : Curia rupestrU, the Rock Cavy. 
mod'-al. a. tEng. »OT<f(e) ; -nl ; Fr. vmlnle.] 
Of t.. a mode or moo.1 ; relating 
to the form or mode, not the essence. 
modal-proposition, s. 
/,o:;ic : A jiroposition which affirms or denies 
with a iiualitication or limitation. 

mo'-dal-ism, s. lEng. mo.fni; -ism.] 

The'ol. : The doctrine that the three Persons 

of the Trinity are ditterent m.ides of being. 
mod-al-ist, s. [Eng. vimial ; -ist,] One 

who professes modalisin. 

mo-dal-ist'-ic, a. [Eng. modalist ; -ic.J 

Perta'ining t.> ino.lalism. 
mo-dal -i-ty, s. [Eng. vuxial ; -ilv-l 

* 1. Old. Lang. : Tlie quality or state of being 

modal ; accidental dilTerence. 

•• By their wodaHtiet. sui.ltositalities . . . and twenty 
other such chimeras. •■— .•»«('»■ ^crK.o.u. vol. IV --r . 

o Fhihs. : One of the four divisions of the 
K-aiitian Categories. It embraces Possibility, 
Existence, and Necessity, with their opposit.s 
Impossibility, Non-exisjcl.ce, and Contin- 
gency. [Kantian Philosophy.) 

mode (1), * mood, ■ moode, s. [Fr. mo.'.. 

fi.mi Lat. modus = a nie.isure, liianner, way ; 
cogii. with Gr. ^iSo! iiiUdos) = a plan ; ^.jSo^oi 
(nie.(ouiai) = to plan.) 

L Ordinanj Limgiicige : 

1. A manner, method, way, or style of doing 

•• The sevend jfiodet in which we m.^vy weaken or even 
destroy tl.e mor^l and relifious princil.les ol every sm- 
cere Christian. •—I'orlciu. 11 ortf. vol. 11.. lect. 10. 

* 2. Gradation, degree, measure. 

••In ample jnode, 
A robe ol military puri'Ie Bowd 
O'er all his Inline." 

J'o/ic : Itomer ; Odi/ufi/ xlx. 262. 

* 3. Fashion, custom ; prevailing style. 

* 4. A kind of silk. 
IL TKkiiicaUii: 
» 1. Gram. : The same as Mood (1), II. 1 


* 2. iojic ; The same as Mood (1), II. 2 

•• Tindall w.iuld be layi.e wit in what figure it is 
made : he shal tinde in tl.e tlrat Hgnre and in the third 
itwde:'~Sir T. More: irarkc.^. p. So*. 

3. Philos. ; The lirst of the three heads 
(with two divisions. Simple and Mi.'ied) to 
which Locke reduce.l his Complex Ideas. 

" WodcA 1 c.ll such otnplex ideas, which, however 
compounded, c.iitain not in thein the sui.lK.sltu.l. ol 
BUlMistini: hy themselves, hut are considered -is deiwn- 
de..cies o^ii. ..r atTeotions of substances : such are the 
ideas sinnified hy tl.e words Triangle, Gratitude, Mur. 
ther ic . . ol these Mwlet there are two sorts. 
KimL there .ire sounr^^l.ich are only variations, or dil- 
lerent combinations ol tl.e same simple nlea, with'.ut 
the n.ixtuie ..I any other, as a Dozen, a Score whicl. 
are i.othiiik' but tl.e ideiu. ol so many distinct units 
added toi'et'her ; and these I call simple .Iloric*. as being 
conUined within the Is.mids of one sin.ple idea, rhere 
are others comis.uTldedoI simple ideas of several kinds, 
put together, to make one complex one : i-.ff. Beauty, 
consisting ol certain composition ,.l colour hgiire 
causing delight in tl.e beholder ; and these 1 call n.lxed 
Wodes —Ituman rnderstundinir. bk. 11.. ch. XIL. §5 

4 Ui..<i>: A name given to the ancient 
Gn-'ek scales, and also to the ohl Church- 
s.'ales fomi.le.l on them, as Dorian laorfe, 
Phrvgian mo,te, lee. In iiio.lein music a 
species of scale, of which two kiiiils are 
now rei^ognize.l, viz., the miijor-lu.nle anil 
the minor-mo.le. A is that 
division of the octave by which the inter- 
vals between the thir.l ami fourth aii.l bi^tweeu 
the seventh and eighth are half-tones, all the 
other ilitfrvals being whole tones. The inilior- 
niodc is that division by which the intervals 
between the second an.l thir.l an.l the tifth 
and sixth are half-tunes. [Major, Minor.) 

* mode-book, «. A fashion-book. 

"Her hwul dress cannot be descrilwd ; it was like 
nothing in tl.e ...orfe-ftooA or out ol it"— J/rs. 11 oo.^ 
/ Lyiiiie. cli. vil. 

» mode (2), s. [Mood (2), A.) 

* mode, f.i. [Moi.k (l), s.) To follow the 
mo.le or fashion ; tu be fashionable. 

■■ He could not nioiie it with tl.e Italliins."- /'i.Her : 
Il'orlA.Vs. ii. 33S. 

mo-dec'r«a, s. [Latinised from the East 
Indian naine.) 

Bot ■ A genus of Papayacere, accor.ling to 
Lindley ; by others consideie.l a genus of 
Passifloiaceie. Moilecca )Hdmata, a plant like 
bryony, • grows in tropical Asia. The root, 
rubbed down with oils, is a corroborant, and, 
mixed with the milk of the cocoa-nut, is useil 
in pains of the chest. The leaves of Jf. iiileijri- 
/..lid lioiled with biitt*r are iise.l for piles; 
the juice is thought to assist labour. (i'm(- 
m6-dec'-9e-8B, s. ;>;. [Mod. Lat. iiwifccoi; 
Lat. fciii. pi. lulj. sutr. -lOT.) 

Hot, : A tribe of Passilloracese. (Trens. 0/ 

mod'-eL * mod-ell, s [0. Fr. modrlle (Fr. 
mMlel't), from Ital. modeUo, from Lat. ' mmltl- 
lim a diniiu. of modulus = a standard, itself a 
din'iin. of nwiiiis= a measure ; Sp. malelo.] 

1. Ordinnry Language: 

•- 1. Originally, as the etymology suggests, 
a little exemplar ; a small sample. 

"That Buiidl mode; ol the barren earth 
Which servea as pimte and cover to iKiiies. 

^ihakt^p. : JUchitrd It.. 111. 2. 

2. All imitation ; a copy in niiniatuie of 
s.jmethiiig already made or existing. 

"In cartes, in luappes. and eke il. nowlefs made."' 

iiiiMoigne: I'oj/a'Je into /lolUttide. Il3._.l 

3. A form or pattern in.niiiiiatnre of soiiie- 
thiiig to be made on a larger scale ; a copy 
of a particular form, shape, or construction 
intended to be imitated. 

4. All image, a copy, a counterfeit. 

•• My lather's signet 
Which was the model ol that Danish seal," 

Shaketp. : Itumtet. v. 2. 

5. A standard ; that by which a thing is 

6. A pattern ; an example to be imitated. 

•• This mother is your tiiodel." 

Ten>i!/$oi> : Princeit. vii. 315. 

7. Anything serving or deserving to serve 
as a pattern ; an example, an exemplar. 

" Tvrconnel once admired by maids ol honour as the 
model of n.iinly vigour and beauty. "—J/<(c<iul<iy ; lift. 
Enff.. ch. XVI. 

8. A system, a plan. 

" He prefeiTed the epiacoml to the synodical model." 
—M<ieitutan : Hist. £iia . cli. xxi. 

II Art : Everj- object which the artist pro- 
pose's to imitate. The term is used in an abso- 
loti- sense by the sculptor or painter to express 
the living model, male or female, from which 
he st ndies an.l executes a figure. The sculptor 
also applies the term to the original of a work 
moilelled in clay, which he intends afterwards 
t.. execute in marble, and also the plaster 
liio.lel from this first figure. The clay model 
is the work directly from the liaml of the 
sculptor, and, properly speaking, is the origi- work, of which the marble work is the 

model-Tvood, s. 

Bot. : Xaucka cordlfolia. 

mod -el, r.(. & i. (Model, s.) 

A.''fV<i.i.«. ; To plan, form, construct or 
carry out a»t*r some model or pattern ; to form 
or construct to serve as a model or pattern ; 
to mould, to shape. 

•■ M..iiy a ship that sailed the main 
Was modelled o'er and o'er again." 

Lona/ettow ; /InHdimj rf the Sh*p. 

ate fat fare, amidst, what. fall, father; we, wet. here, camel, her. there; pine, pit, sire, sir. marine; go. pot, 
or." ^e^^ work! who. son; mute, ciib. cixre, unite, cur, rule, full; try, Syrian. ^, «e = e ; ey = a; gu = kw. 

inodelize— modernity 

B. Iitlmiis. : To make a model or moil. Is • 
to construct roprosent^itious of things in clnv' 
or ti> take ciists tljcrelVoni as moulds for re- 

' mod'-el-ize, r.l. (Eng. vwdt! : -fee.) To 
ft.iMi or Miod.l aft<.T a jiattern ; to give sliaiie 
to ; to mould. 

" WMcli «.ii«e siny srtliits niHt i1«voilt liiliiL'len< will 
uiiilerntkti Ui iiiiiinu^e lUiU tnu<leliM.'—Uauden : Teart 
lifrhv Chitrrh. ].. ««. 

mod -el-ler, s. [Euk. mwW; -cr.) One wlio 
njod^-ls; especially one who moulds in clay, 
j'Uister, or wax. 

.,."-\8reAt pni|Mi9ft|.iimkeriu;ii i),o<lettor ot stjit*- ■— 
l^oott: Atftciitg Uzoti ; Lilbfittrtic. 

mod-el-ling, pr. par., a., & s. [Model, t'.] 
A. .t B. Aspr. par. d: pnrtkin. adj. : (See 
the verb). 

C. As suhst. : The act or art nf making 
models ; the aet of forming or anrving out 
after a moilel ; the art (.f eonstrnetiiig repre- 
sentations of things in ehiy, or of taking casts 
therefrcim, as moulds for reproductions. 

modelUng board. »■. A lioard used in 
h^cni-in.iuMio^- to -ive shajKi to the mould. 

modelling-loft, s. The same as .Mould- 
Lorr ('[.v.). 

modelling -plane, is. A short plane 
used 111 planing rouniliiig surfaces. It h,as a 
length of from 1 inch to 6 iin-hes, a width 
of from J inch to 2 inches. The irons are from 
1'„ inch to IJ inches wide. 

M6 -den-ef e, a. & s. (See def.] 

A. -Is ni(,. ; Of or belonging to Modena, or 
Its inhabitants. 

B. -Js srihst.: A native or inhabitant of 
Jlodeiia; as a plural, the iuhabitants of JIo- 

•mo-der, *mo-dre, s. [Mother.) 

'mod-er, r.i. mo<(.T..r = to moderate 
Cil-v.).J T„ moderate, t.i calm, to quiet. 

" These tydyiigei mulertd dyiiera Inennes 
T"" ."*''"'■'"■■ ^'-ui*jKtrC: Cr.,<itfc/f. vol. li.. cli. 

' mod'-er-a-ble, ». [Lat. rtmUraliiUs, from 
j,i,«(f,-., = to moderate (q.v.).] Temperate, 

• mod-er'-an^e, s. [Lat. moderantia, from 

Nirnhnnts, |.r. of 7ii«(croi- = to moderate 
(q.v.).J Moderation. 

• mod-er-ant'-ism, s. [Lat. morhrans, pa. 
I'ar. of 7iwiteror = to moderate (q.v.); Eiig. 
sulf. -ism.] Moderation in opinion or mea- 
sures, especially political. 

mod -er-atc, * mod-er-at, n. & «. [Lat 
uiH.dmdw, pa. par. of uu.i/cto,- = to fix a mea- 
sure, to regulate, to control; MO((iis=a mea- 
sure; Fr. vmlerc; Ital. mudcrato; Sp. mod- 

A. As adjective ; 

1. Ofprrsoiis: Xot going to extremes ; keep- 
ing withm bounds; temper.nte ; not extreme 
111 practice, sentiments, or opinion : as, aiiu»/er- 
ate eater, a moderate politician, &c. Applied to 
tlie Conservative party in municipal politics. 

2. Of things: 
i\) Not carried or pushed to excess ; not 

extreme, violent, or rigorous. 

,Jli?„*"''^,'''"'?" '"?}"''^ to » niild !a,i moderate 
policy. —.Mncaulay : JIut. Eitj.. cli. xv. 

(2) Of medium or mediocre quautity ; not 
excessive, medium. 

•• A nutJrrMe . . . .h»re.-— .V,7(oii .■ Comtu, :ro. 

(3) Fair, not excessively high. 

ofeislit per cent. ■•-J/.<cau;„y /!i,t. Enn.. cli. xx 

(4) Mot too luxurious or expensive : as, a 
moderate table. 

(5) Not too severe, tolerably mild. 
"The milile ayre with seaaon mndrr'ttr." 

A^c.uer. /'.(,».. II, xii 51. 

B. As substnntive : 

1. One who is moderate in opinion or action ■ 
one opposed to drastic measures, especiallv in' 
politics or religion. The name is applied" t^i 
members of the C.mservative party in inuni- 
eipal politics. [Pbogressive.) 

2. Chureh Hist. (PI.): A party in the F,stab- 
lished Cliurch of Scotland which claimed to 
avoid extremes of doctrine, discipline. Ac. 
The germ of mnderatislu began to develoii 
soon after the Revolution Settlement of 1G89 • 

It w.-us slreiigtlieiied by the Alt of rarliaiiieiit 
p.issed in 1712, reintrodu.iiig patronage, of 
which the miKleral* jiarty iiltimattdy became 
tlic warm defenders. Some of them were 
men of literary culture, Priiiciiuil Uolierl- 
son, author of Charles V.. the History of 
Aineriia, &c., lieing their leader from alioiit 
I . .-1 to 1 , SI. In 17>.l(; the General Assembly, 
under moderate guidance, declined to take 
any st.qis in favour of Foreign Missions 
»i-om the time of the French Keigii of Tenor 
111 l.'.ia, the evangelical jiarty, with which the 
iiiiHlerates had long lieen in conlliet, gained 
yearly an accession of strength, till, on May 
27, IS:i4, the moderate party was defeated by 
JS4 to 13S votes, on a motion giving a certain 
veto oil the settlement of an uiuiceept;iblc 
minister [Veto], and the moderate ascen- 
dency was temporarily overthrown. Uurin- 
the ten years' conflict, which ended in tli? 
disruption of 1S43, the moderate party in 
arge measure, apiiroved of the action o'f'tlic 
law courts, and when the evangelical iiartv 
.seceded from the Church, tliev regained their 
old aseeudeney in the Scottish establishment 
Since then their views have becmiie coii- 
sulerably modiHed, .nnd at their earnest re- 
quest patronage (q.v.) has been abolished. 

ai6d'-er-ate, i-.(. & i. [Fr. modfrer; Ital. 
innderarc ; Sji. modcrar.\ [Moderate, «.] 
A* Transitive: 

1. To restrain from excess of any kind • to 
reduce from a state of violence, excess or 
intensity; to repress, to quiet, to temper 
to still. ^ ' 

" To moderate stiff Inhiils ilisiioseil ta Btrlve." 

iil>rmer : K v.. 3. 

2. To temper, to qualify, to abate, to mitigate. 

•■By it.a.<triiigeutquHllty it .>i«Jer„K, the relaxluij 
.|u;ilityiif ««r.i.«„ter.-.lrt„M„„j.- On Aliom,!,. 

* 3. To decide as a moderator. 
B. IntratLsitive: 

1. To become less violent, intense, fierce 
harsh, or severe ; to aljate ; to quiet or settle 

" When his pri.llt moderated 
The fm-y ot liis heart atjiited." 

Sutler: Hudibras, jii. 2. 

2. To preside as a moderator 
H To moderate in. a call: 
Presiyteriaiiism: To be moderator that is 

to preside, at a meeting of a Presbyterian 
coiigregration, summoned by direction" of the 
Presbytery to call a minister. 

mod-er-ate-ly, adv. (Eng. utorfcrate,- -?,/.] 
Ill a moderate maiiner, degree, extent, 'or 
amount; not excessively. 

•• Therefore, love moderaldn ; long love doth so - 
^ ShaAesft. :^l:omeo A Jutiet. il. 1. 

tmod'-er-ate-ness, .«. [Eng. ^mderutc ; 
"IS.. 1 I lie .jiiality or state of being moderate ■ 
iiiMderation, trmi.erateness ; a middle state 
between extremes. 

mod-er-a-tlon. .?. (Fr., from Lat. modcra- 
Iwiicm, aceus. of moderatio, from modrratus 
pa. par. of vuxleror = to moderate (q.v.) ; Ital' 
vwikrazione; Sp. iiuxfemcioii.J 

1. The act of moderating, tempering, re- 
straining, or repressing. 

2. The quality or state of being moderate ■ 
a medium state between extremes ; freedom 
from excess ; temperateness, temperance 

„,",,Vt >'o"r moderation he Itiiowii mito all men "— 
I'hdiiipntm IV. s, 

*3. Equanimity, calmness of mind. 

" Eiiually imnv,! 
ny modernftnn either state t.i liear 
Prosperous or adverse." Jfdton :' p. L.. xi. 36C 

4. Frugality, economy. 

5. Theact of presiding over, as a moderator. 

6. (/'(.) At Urford University: The first 
public exai»ination for degrees. (Generally 
contracted to Mods.) 

•; Mmlrration in a call: The aet of mode- 
rating in a call. [.M0DER.1TE, V. %.\ 

mod'-er-at-ism, s. [Eng. iiiodera((<:) ; .{mi] 

1. Ord. Lang. : Moderation in opinions or 

2. Eccles. : The principles of the party in 
the Church nf Scotland known as Moderates. 

mo-de-ra'-to, aiiv. [ital.] 

.Vii.iic: In moderate time; neither too 
quickly nor too slowdy. 

mod'-er-a-tor, s. [Lat., from modrratus, pa. 
ji:ir. of mnilrrnr = to moderate ((|.v,).^ 

I. Ordiuar:, l.a„.j,iu,,e: 

I. One who or that wliicli moderates, calms 

restrains, or represses. 

...,'i 'i"'}'"' ,";»"• """ !»llou. .tudr. a CTlliier of uie 
unlet Oiouk-l.l,. a ,nod,ral.,r o( i«i»il„i,^ a„d . ,,,". 

•2. A judge. 

3. One who jiresides at a meeting or dispii. 
tatioii ; si.ecir., the pn-siding „lll,.cr at meet- 
ings or courts of the Presbyterian Clinrcll. 

tn'l J''<"" ■'""I'l'"'. »h,.,„ all ...hlrewl l,y hi. leiiemhl. 
title ol iiuxtenaor. -Uril. (/uar. Neelei, u.i;, ,,, ,„ 

II This sense was borrowed from the French 

4. A moderator-lamp (q.v.). 

II. Techniailly : 

1. Optics : A device, known as Ralne\'s 
consisting of an opal glass or ground glass to 
ni.alenite and dllluse the light passing fr.,1,1 a 
laiiii. to an object on the atjiud of the micro- 

2. Universities: 

(1) Jl Oi^ford: An examiiier for moderations 

(2) /!( Ctoii(,nV-7e; Aimblicofflcerappoinled 
to sniierintend the examinations for degrees 
and honours ; so called because formerly ihev 
pres-ided 111 the exercises publicly prescril«-d 
111 the schools Ij^tween nndergi-.iduate candi- 
dates for th .grce of liaeliehTr of Arts. 

(:i)^( nnidi,, : The candidates for the degree 
of liachelor of .irts who pass out llrst and 
second in hoiiouis, the lirst being called the 
!5eiiior, .and the second the Juiih.r moderator. 

3. rreshyteriani.'<m: One who moderates in 
a call. [Moderate, v. HJ 

moderator-lamp, .•■. A lamp for burn- 
ing "ll. pal-afhli, &,:, in which the oil is foree.l 
through a tube up to the wic'k bv a i.istoi, 
piessingoii its surface, to which a downwai.l 
impulse is communicateil by a siiiral siiriic 
situated Istiveeli it and the to,, „f the llan.l 
or a.dy of the lamp. The «,,«. „f the oil is 
moderated, or made nnib.rm, by an arraii -e- 
nielit inside the tulie. ° 

"°,4-f'"-a-tO''-Shlp. .•!. [Eng. mn,lrn,l,„ ■ 
-sliip.] ihe office, position, or rank of a mod- 

• mod -er-a-tress, • mod -er a-trix. » 

Itiig. mvihnil,.,; -,.,s ; Im. i/i,../, ;„r, ,\r ] v 
Woman who moderates or govcni.s. 

■The dehate »,ui tlo«e.l. ami referrnl I., Mrs. Shirley 
a._.,«a/era,„.r. -IMurd,,,,: Sir C: UraZi«„"'l 

mod'-em, a. & .«. [P,-. modcmr, from Lit 
ui.«^ri,KS=of the lue.sent mode or fashion' 
modern : from m^^lns = a measure ; cf wod,'. 
= .lUst now ; Hal. & Sp. wini/ei-iio.J 

A. ^5 adjective : 

1. Belonging or pertaining to the 
time or time not long lassed ; late, recent 
not ancient ; not remote in of time 

"''Tho';S,f^'"''''''v,"7'"'"",'""" '"" •Irangeha,, 
thought. l^tirlu,,/: liomettta) : .<,>«,//„„,, 

•2. Common, eommonplaee, trite. 

.,..,. •■ The Justice. 

l-.,'ii 7" "''"' "'"I '"»"' "' '"""al CM. 
*iinor wise aawsaiid moilern iiisUiices ' 

.VA'fAes^. .■ Al J'OH /./*,( Ji. il. 7, 

* 3. Trivial, slight. 

"Alas : that were no modern coDsefjuenoe." 

tien Jonton : Pitelaitrr, V. ". 

B, Assubst. : A person of modern times, as 
opposed to ancient. 

" **'"*'' V* np'o'ig the aiiclenU rise Ut fame 
or slitk witli modern* t.i eout^iu|.t and siiame*'^ 
rrancU: i/orttee, eiKi. 

mod'-em-ism. s. [Eng. mwlrm ; -tea.) 
1. Deviation from the ancient and classical 
manner or ]iractice ; anything recently made 
ormtroduced; esjiec., a modern phrase," idiom 
or mode of expression. 

>er«e. » th alK.iiilnahle eiirti liiim and quaint 
fr...«ou.' -.Win. TlieUallleo.rU,il,,,tM. 

• 2. Modern character; inmlern metliml or 
way of thinking or regarding matters. 

• mod-em-ist, s. [Eng. mor/irn,-. .;s(.] a 
Mi|.pi,rtcr or admirer of inodein ways or 
fashions. , ' 

liii.^!.''~.""'? Ids broUier modemW, themselves. 
r,.4 i!f^ * '■" "" '""d.^-Me.yir . Talt 0/ a 

• mo-dorn-I-ty, ... [Kng. modern ; -i/u.) 
The .piality . .r state of la-ing miirlern ; modern 
character. (U'aljial' : hrllrrs. iy. 207.) 

=^ tian-shan. -t.on. -s.on = shun ; -non, -slon = zhun. -clous, -tious, -slous = shu3. -bio. -die. ic. = bel. d^L 


modernization— modulate 

mod-em-i-za-tlon, s. (Eng. mmlmiu^): 
Hid'ori.) Tilt' act of lutHlontiziiig ; tlmt which 
is modernized ; a inodenii^in. 

mod'-ern-Izo, r.^ [Eng. modem; .««.] To 
ni.-ike in.idiTii : to give u luoJom cast, eh;ir- 
actcr, orappearuiu'e to ; to conlonn to modorii 
style, ideas, fajihioiis, or ways ; to adapt to 
nioderrt persona or times. 

" A Juuililc . . . with L»tiu wonis modarnlted."— 
Ccimbriil'je : The .Scribliii'iad, bk. It. 

mod'-em-iz-er, 5. [Eng. 7nocUrni3(c) ; -er.] 
One wlio iiuidernizes. 

" No iiiiaiicci«9fiil mtxterniter of tlie Lstiu sntlrlsts." 
— WaJifjUld : Jlvnioirt. p. 75. 

* mod -eni-ly,'f(it'. tEng, modern; -ly.] In 

iimtK-rn Iiii]i_'S. 

mod'-ern-ness, .«. [Eng. viodern; -ums.] 
Tlie .[u.ility or st:ite of being modern ; receut- 
iiL'SS, noveUy. 

mod'-est, n. [Kr. modeste, from Lat. modes- 
tus = \n-e\Ajy^ within hounds, modest, from 
modus = a measure ; Itah & Sp. nwdcsto.] 

1. Not presumptuous, boh!, or arrogant; 
restrained by a sense of propriety ; not for- 
ward or boastful ; unobtru.sive, dillldent, 
bashful, retiiing. 

" la she nut a ino<i*'gt young lady?" 

Sh(tJcei/>. : Jfnch Ado Aivut Xothinff. i. 1. 

2. Indii'ativeof or characterized by modesty 
in the author or actor; not marked by pre- 
sumptioH or boldness; not extreme; moderate. 

" Further to boaat were neither true nor modmst." 

Shiikcsp. : Ci/mbeTine, v. 6. 

3. Free from indecency or lewdness ; marked 
by chastity ; chaste, decent. 

" Mrs. Ponl. the honest woman, the moJext wife, 
the virtuous creature."— SAitfti^. : Merry Wiu^s vf 
Windsor, iv. 2. 

4. Moderate in amount; not excessive; 

If Diffidence is much the same as shyness, 
and both arise from timidity. Modesty, apart 
from its special application to women, may 
arise from a proper respect for the rights of 
others or from a proud reserve. 

' mod -est -less, «. [Eng. vwdcst ; -less.] 

WantiUp' III iii.idi.'sty. 

" Uow f.-iithltaa and how inodestleM." 

SylvctUr : l^'irst Day, Pint Wcekc, 410, 

mod'-est-ly, a'7f. [Eng. modest; -ly.] 

1. In a modest manner; not bohlly, arro- 
gantly, or obtrusively ; with due respect. 

" Kuuw then, and niodcsO'j let fall your eyes," 

Cowpcr : Conovraation, i. 485. 

2. Quietly ; without show or ostentation. 

" These like a deluge with Imuetuous forue, 
Tliose wiudiiig inodcsflu a silent course." 

Cviopur : Jietireinmit, 78. 

3. Not excessively or extravagantly ; moder- 

4. Not loosely or wantonly ; chastely, de- 
cently ; with modest, becoming wordi. 

" She modvitly iirepmes to let them know." 

Sh'ikcsp. : iiupv of Lncrece, 1.60". 

mod'-es-ty, " mod-es-tiCp s. [Fr. vwd^tie, 
from Lat. modentixi , from iiwdestus = modest ; 
Ital. &. Sp. modestla.] 

1. The quality or state of being modest; a 
sense of propriety ; freedom from arrogance, 
bohlness, or ]iresumption ; unobtrusiveness, 
bashfubiess, diffidence ; bashful reserve. 

'■ True modest!/ proceeds from a juat discernment of 
projiriety, and la frequently connected with exalted 
ideiw of genuine merit." — Cogan: Ethical TreaCist; 
dis. i.. ch. It. 

2. Jloderation ; freedoui from excess, ex- 
ti-avagance, or exaggeration. 

3. Chastity ; purity of manners ; decency ; 
freedom from lewdness or unchastity. 

" Her sad eyes, still fast'ned on the ground, 
Are governed with goodly modetty.' 

Spciuer: Epithnlamion. 

* modesty-bit, s. The same as Modestv- 
PlEct (q.v.). 

" Your great-ffrandmothers wore Urgehoops. peaked 
stomachers, and m jdcst!/-biCs."—Soullieu : The Doctor, 
ch. Ivi. 

* modesty-piece, s. A part of a woman's 
dress (q.v.). 

■' .\ narrow lace which runs along the upper part of 
the stays before, being a part of the tucker, is called 
the modt^sty-pU-ce." — Addison. 

* mo-di5'-i-t^, s. [Fr. modicitCy fi-om Lat. 
mo'/icius = moderate.] Moderation, moderate- 
ness, smallness, meanness. 

mod -i-CUm, s. [Lat. neut. sing, of modi/^ra 
= mudriate, from nwdus — measure.] A small 

portion or quantity ; a little ; a scanty allow. 
auce; a pitumce. 

" But thin is sure— the hniul of intght . . . 
Ulvv« liim a, modicum of llgliC." 

Coxcper : The Glauaoorm. 

m6d-i-fi-a-bU'-i-tj^. s. [Eng. modinnhh- ; 
-i(y.) The quality or state of being modilt- 
able ; suHCoptibility or capability of moditi- 

•■ PlaBtlcttyif thought. and m^rf/rtifct/Hi/of opinion." 
—Grata AU^n : F^trlnightly Itafi-Uf, Jiin.. ISW, p. 96. 

mod'-i-fi-a-ble, «. [Eng. modify; -ahU.] 
Capable of' being mo.litled or fliver-sifled by 
various forms and ditferences ; susceptible of 
or liable to moditicittion, 

■■ It aiiwara to me more difficult to conceive a dis- 
tinct. vinU.Ii- iiujieo in tho uuifunn. lnvari.iblc esseuco 
.if Gild, than in v.irioualy moliji-tblc matter."— ioctf ; 
Exam. t>/ .U<tlel>ranch€. 

• mod-i-fio-a-bil-i-t^, s. [Eng. viodijic- 
afile : -ifi/.J Modiliability ; capability of being 

'' mod'-i-fic-a-ble, a. [Modificate.] Cup- 
able of being modified ; jnodifiable. 

" mod'-lf-i-cate, v.t. [Lat. modi^Hcatus, i>a. 
pur. of viodijico = to modify, to qualify, from 
modiis = measure, and facio = to make.] To 

"The inolificated eternity of hla medintorabip." — 
Pearson : Uu flic CrveU. ;irt. G. 

mdd-i-f i-ca'-tion, s. [Fr., from Lat. m^dl- 
ficalionem, ace. ofvwdificatlo, from m- tdijicutiis. 
pa. i>ar. of modi^co^ to modify, to quidify : 
•modits — measure, and facio = to make ; Sp. 
mcdijlcacion ; Ital. modljica^ione.] 
I. Ordinary Language : 

1. The act of modifying or of giving a new 
f')rm, appearance, or character to ; the state 
of being modified ; change, alteration. 

" Episcopacy could, under any ■uiodificati-m, have 
been maintttined."— -I/'ukh/hv ' //'«'. Enj., ch. xiii, 

2. A change ; an alteration made : as, To 
introduce modifications into anything. 

3. A particular form or manner of being ; a 

" Neither matter, nor any modification of matter," 
Clarke : Le^tt, to Mr. Dod*iocll. 

II. Scots Law : A decree of the teind court 
awarding a suitable stipend to the minister of 
a pari.Hli, 

'" mod'-i-fi-cat-ive, s. [Eng. modificat(c) : 
-Ive.] That which modifies, or tends to modify 
or qualify. 

"The aforesaid 7>iodiftcittii'ftii [almo.'^t and very nigh]." 
—Fuller U'orthiet : Enjlani, vol. 1., ch. xxi. 

' mod'-i-fi-cat-or-j^, a. [Eng. viodificai(e); 
-ury.] Modifying or tending to modify or 


"We are hound to account for the modificatory 
letters."— J/oj Muller : iielectcd EtBtiys, i. 01. 

mod'-i-fi-er, s. [Eng. modify; -er.] One 
wlio or that which modifies. 

"Sovereign maker and tnnlifier ot the universe."— 
Hume: Sat. Hat. of Jialijioii, § T. 

mod'-i-fy, * m.od'i-fie, v.i. & I. [Fr. miyii- 
jlcr, fi-om Lat. modijlro, from 7(IJ(/(« = measure, 
and facio — to make ; 8p. modlficar; Itah modi- 

A. Transitive : 

L To change or alter the external qualities 
or accidents of any thing ; to vary, to alter ; 
to give a new form, character, force, or appear- 
ance to, 

" The xvi. statute doth me great greuaunce. 
But ye must that leleasse ur modifiiC." 

Cfiaiiccr : Court of J.ouc. 

2. To qualify, to moderate ; to reduce in 
degree or quality. 

" The modified submission which they had consented 
to make."— .l/iiciii(i'itf .■ lltst. Eny., ch. viii. 

* B. Inti-ans. : To extenuate, 1o qualify. 

" After all this diflcuitiuLj and jnodifyiixg upon the 

matter."— i'i's(rH'(;/e. 

mo'dil-lion (11 as y), * mo-diglion 
(diglion as dil-yiin), * mo-dil-lon, s. 

[Fr. modiUoa, from Lat. mod.iilKS, dimin. of 
viodiis = a measure ; Ital. modiglionc] 
Architectxire : 

1. An ornamental console beneath the 
corona in some orders. 

2. One of the largo flowers in a soffit or 
coved ceiling. 

"Architrave, frieee, cornice, triglyphs. metopes, mo- 
digliont. and the rest, have each a use.or appeamnce of 
use. iu giving firmness and union to the building. '-U. 
Berkeley ." Alciphron, Dial, iii., 5 D. 

mO'di -o-la» a. [Mod. Lat.. from Lat. morfio- 
liu, dimin. 'of n\odius= the Roman e<irM mea- 
sure, a peck 1 

1. Dot. : A genus of Malvacejp, tribe .Mulvefe. 

2. 2ool. : Horse-mussel; a genus of Mytil- 
idie ; it is distinguished from the edilile nnis- 
sel by its habit of burrowing. It occurs fmm 
low water to a depth of 100 fathoms. The 
shell is oblong and inflated, but the umboncs 
are not situated at the extremities, as they are 
in Mytilus (q.v.). Seventy species are known, 
ft-om tropicid seas. 

3. PalfPOHt. : One hundred and fifty fossil 
species Iiave been described from the Lias on- 

m5-di'-6-lar, a.. [Lat. mndlolus; Eng. adf. 
.sutf. -ar.] Sliaped like a bushel measure. 

mo-di-ol'-i-form, c. [Lat. modiolus ((i.\.), 
ix\\i\ forma = foi-m.] 

B'lt. : Shapeil like the nave of a wheel ; hol- 
low, rouiul, depressed, with a very narrow 
oiittce, as the fruit of Gualtheria. Called also 

m,d-di-ol-op'-8is, s. [Mod. Lat. mQdlol(n), 
ami Gr, ot^is (npsis) = outwaid ajipeuianee, 

Pakeont. : A Silurian genus of Mytilidie 
(q.v.). Shell inequivalve, very inequihitetal, 
tlie beaks anterior, the surface smooth, or 
marked by fine concentric lines of growth. 
The siiell is thin ; the posterior end consider- 
ably broadeithan the anterior. Hinge edentu- 
lous ; a ligamental groove, beginning in front 
of the beak, extends to the posteiior extremity. 

m6-di'-6-liis, s. [Lat., dimin. o{ 7nodlus — a 

Anal.: Tlie central column or axis around 
whicli the cochlea of the ear winds. 

* mod-ish, a. [Eng. mode (l) ; -ish.] In ac- 
Cr-rdance with the mode or fashion; fashion- 

"The sarcisniH which modi»h vice loves to dart .it 
obsolete virtue."— J/acaniai/ .■ UiiC. Eng., uli. U. 

* mod'-ish-ly, adv. [Eng. modWi; -ly.] In 
a modish or fashionable manner. 

"Young children should not he much perplexed 
about putting off their hats, and making legs Tnod- 
ishly."—L'jckc: On Education. 

^ mdd'-ish-ness, $■ ['Euq. modish :-ness.] The 
quality or state of being modish ; afiectation 
of the mode or faslii(ui. 

* m6d'-ist» s. [Eng. mod'.e) (1); -ist.] A fol- 
lower of the mode or fashion. 

m.6-diste', s. [Fr.] A woman who makes and 
di.'als in articles of ladies' dress ; a milliner, a 

mo'-di-US, 5. [Lat.] 

Horn. Antiq. : A Jry mea-sure, containing 
nnc-third of the amphora, or nearly two Eng- 
lish gallons. 

mod'-u-lar, a. [Eug. modul(e); -ar.] Per- 
taining to modulation, or to a module or 


modular proportion, s. 

Arch. : That wliich is regulated by a module. 

modular-ratio, s. 

Math. : A term applied to that ratio or num- 
ber whose logarithm is called the modulus 
(q.v.). This ratio is that of 1 to 0-3t>7S7P4-lllTl, 

mod'-u-late, v.t. [Lat. modulatus, pa. par. of 
modul'or=. to measure according to a standard ; 
modiilus:=- a standard, dimin. of vwdus — a 
measure; Fr. moduler ; Sp. modidar ; Ital. 

A. Transitive : 

I. Ordinary Language : 

1. To proportion, to adjust, to to 
a standard. 

2. To regulate. 

" May the nightly power 
Which whispers on my slumbers, ce^iae to breathe 
Her modulaliny impulse through my soul." 

n^ijnpgon : Sickness, v. 

3. To vary or inflect the sound of, so as to 
give expression to that which is uttered ; to 
vary in tone. 

" In all vocal muslck [the tongue] helpeth the wind- 
pipe to m>dutate tlje sounds."— Grew; Cosmo. Sacra, 
bk. i.. ch. v., § Hi. 

II. Music : To change the key of; to trans- 
pose from one key to another. 

fate, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father : we, wet, here, camel, her, there : pine, pit, sire, sir, marine : go, pot, 
or, wore, wolf, work, who, son ; miite, cub, ciire, unite, cur, rule, full ; try, Syrian, ee, co = e ; ey = a ; qu = kw. 

modulation— mohria 


B. Intransitiix ; 

Music : To i> fnnn one key to another, or 
fium the major into the minor mode. 

mod-u-la'-tion, s. (Fr., from Lat. moditla- 
liuiiti'n, incus, of jiwditlatiii, from moduhttns, 
l»a. pur. of vuKudor — to measure, to modulate 
(([.v.); Sp. moilulacion ; Ital. vu)du.lazionc.] 
I. Oitimary Lamjuage: 

1. The aut or process of inodulatiug, adjust- 
ing, or adapting. 

" The poets of Elizabeth had attalued an art of moUu- 
lalioii wlilcli w;is afWrwartla ueKtei.'t«d .-lud fuF^i'tUiU." 
—Juh}iaon: Livct uif the I'-jeU ; Waller. 

2. The act of varying or inflecting the sound 
of, so as to give expression to \vh;it is uttere-i. 

" For the various modtilatiom of tlie voice, the iipjier 
eiid of thtf wiud-fiiw is endued with sevenil cartihiifes 
ami muscles. "—A'a.v : On the Creation, pt. li. 

* 3. Modulated sound ; melody. 

" IimmiierouB songsters, iu the fresheuing shade . . . 
of iiew-siinni^ K-aves, their moitutatioits mix, 
Meliifluous." TftQUUQii: Upriiiy. iS)9. 

n. TcchnimUy: 

1. Arch.: The proportion of the diflereut 
parts of au order according to modules. 

2. Music: 

(i) Movement or graduation of sound. 

(•2) A change of key. 

TI Modulation is of tliree kinds ;— (1) Dia- 
tonic, (2) Chromatic, and (3) Enharmonio. 
The tirst of tliese is sometimes called natural ; 
the last two, artificial. 

in6d'-U-la-t6r» *■. [Lat., from modulatu^, pa. 
par. of modtdor = to modulate (q..v.); Fr. 
vwdidiUeur ; Ital. nuxltdatoie.] 

1. Ord. Lang. : One who or that which 

"The artful modulntor of our voice, the uecessary 
servant of masticatiou. swaHowiug, suckiu;;, aud a 
great dml besides."— Zfcrftam: Phytico-Theoloify. bk. 
V . ch. V. 

2. Music: Iu the tonic sol-fa system, a sort 
of map of musical sounds representing the 
relative intervals of the notes of a scale, its 
chromatics, audits more closely related scales. 

mod'-ule, s. [Fr., from Lat. vwdulus = a 
standard; dimin. of wio£(its = a measure.] 

* I. Ordinary Language : 

1, A little measure ; a small quantity. 

2. A model, a pattern, a mould, a counter- 

■■ Shall we liave this dialogue between the fool and 
the soldier? Come, bring forth this counterfeit moti- 
uU:—;Shiikc»ii. : AU't Welt that Ends Well. iv. a, 

II. Arch. : Ameasuie of proportion by which 
the parts of an order or of a building are regu- 
lated iu classical architecture ; considered 
generally as the diameter or semi-diameter nf 
tlie lower end of the shaft of the column ; in 
other words, semi-diameter of the column, or 
thirty minutes. 

" mod'-ule, v.t. [Fr. vioduUr.'] [Module, s.] 

1. To model, to shape. 

'■ would I could my father's cunning use I 
And souls into well tnodaled clay infuse ' 

Sandys: Ovid; JItCamoif/hvscx i. 

2. To modulate, to regulate, to adapt, toad- 

" That charmer of the night 
That modulelfi hor tunes so admintblv rare." 

I>rayton: J'olyOlbiun, s. 13. 

* mod'-U-let, s. [A dimin. from module (q.v.).] 

A little model or pattern. 

"The little world's admired modalef." 

.Si/tvvster: tfeiejUA Day, first Wvekf. ~\'. 

* mod'-U-lize, v.t. [Eng. moihl; -lze.\ To 

"To his inward sight did modulUe 
His Tabernacle's admirable fonn." 

Hyloetter: The Laice. l.US. 

Xndd'-u-lus, 5. [Lat., dimin. of modus = a 

^lath. £ Physics. : A term denoting some 
constant multiplier, coefficient, or parameter 
involved in a given function of a variable 
quantity, by means of which tlie function is 
accommodated to a particular sys-tem or base. 

II (1) Modulns of a system of logarithvis : A 
number by which all the logarithms iu one 
system of notation must be multiplied to adapt 
them to the same number in another system. 

(2) Mi^nlus of elasticity: The measure of 
the elastic fonn of any substance, expressed 
by the ratio of a pressure on a given unit of 
the substauce to the accompanying compies- 
sion. Or an expression of the force which 
would be necessary to elongate a prismatic 

body of a tnmsverse section equal to a givi-u 
nuit, or to compress it. within tlie limits of its 

(:t) Modulus uf a vutchine : A formula ex- 
pressing the work which a given macliine caH 
perform under the conditions iuvolved in its 

(4) Modulus of rupture : The measure of the 
foice necessary to, break, a given substance. 

md-dum -ite, s. [Named after Modura, Nor- 
way ; suff. -itt (.Viiu).] 
Mi'ii. : The same asSKUTTEBUDiTE (q.v.). 

* mod'-USi 6'. [Lat. = a measure] 

1. Law : 

(1) The arrangement or expression of the 
terms of a covenant or contract. 

(•J) A modilication ; a variation or departure 
from a geneial form or lule in the way of 
eitlier resti'iction or enhirgemt'nt, as in au 
agreement between parties, the will of a 
donor, &c. 

(:;) An abbreviation of moilus decimandi, a 
lieculiar custom by which lands become ex- 
empted from payment of tithes on paying 
som*! composition or equivalent. 

"Oue terrible circmnstAuce of this bill, is turuiiig 
the tithe of tlax aud hemp into what the lawyci-s otll 
A ntijdug, or a certain sum iu lieu of a teutU pait of 
the I'roduet."— A'wirt. 

2. Music: 

(1) A scale, as Dorian mode, &c. 

(2) 6nc of the three-dlnsious of mensurable 
music. Modus major was tlie division of a 
maxim {notula maxima) into longs ; modus 
minor the division uf a long into breves. The 
niudiis major was perfect when tlie maxim 
contained three longs, iuiperfect wheu it con- 
tained two. The modus minor was perfect 
when the long contained three breves, im- 
perfect wheu it contained two. 

modus operandi, phr. The plan or 
nietliod uf working or operating. 

modus Vivendi, phr. A means or 
manner of living on terms of an agreement 
with others. 

mod -wall, mud-wall, s. [Eng. mud, and 

u\di (;).} 
Urnith. : The bee-eater (.Uero^s aj)iai(er).^ 

* mod'-^, a, [Eng. vwd(e) (1), s. ; -y.] Fash- 
ionable, modish. 

"You make me too rich and too mody." — Richard- 
ton : I'amtla, i, 12S. 

* mde, a. [Mo, More.] 

^ moe, s. [Mow, s.] A grimace. 

' moe, v.i. [Mow (2), I'.] To make faces or 

moeh-rin'-gi-a, moh-rin'-gi-a (o as e), 

ci. [Named by Liun;eus after Piiul Henry 
Gerard Moehring, a ]'hysician, author ot 
Hortt'S Froprius, a.d. 1780.] 

Bot. : Formerly regarded as a genus of 
Caryophyllacere, tribe Alsineae. Now the 
British species Mothriitgia tri)ieiTis is called 
Arenaria ti'iiiervis. 

mo'-el-lon, s. [Fr.] 

Build. : Rubble stone filled in between the 
fiicing walls of a structure, or between the 
spandrels of a bridge. It consists of clean, 
broken stone, and where it holds an impor- 
tant position, as in tiie latter-men tioued case, 
it is laid in mortar, and by hardening becomes 
equal to a solid mass of stone. 

moen'-chi-a, s. [Named after Conrad 
Moeiich, I'rofessor of botanj* at Marburg.] 

Botany : 

* 1. A genus of Caryoiihyllnceie, sub-order 
Alsiuacea;. It has four sepals and petals, and 
four or eight stamens, while Cerastium has 
live sepals, five petals, and ten stamens. Uue 
British species, Moenchia erecta. (Hooker d" 

2. A sub-genus or section of Cerastium. The 
sepals are acuminate, longer than tlie entire 
petals. There is one British species. Cerastium 
iiuaternellum, a small plant two to six inches 
high, dicUotomously branched. (Sir Joseph 

Moe-sd-, pref. [Lat. 3/a»fcits= of or belong- 
ing to Masia or Mysia, a region of ancient 

Europe, lioundeti on the north by ihe Uanulw, 
on the east by the Euxine, anil on tht^ w.'«t 
by Pannoniiu] (See etym.) 

Moeso gotb, a. [Goth.] 

Moeso-gothio, a. &. s. [Gothic.] 

mdfE^ fi. [Nntl%'0 name.] A silk sturr niiinu- 
factured in Caucasia. 

md'f&s'-sil, mof-fuS'Sil. >. (Hind, mu- 
fassid = the country, as ili.siingnihhed fioni 
tlie ttjwn.] An Anglo-Indian term for any 
part of India, except the thix-e capitals, Cal- 
cutta, Bombay, and Madras. 

mo-gar, s. [Native West Indian.] The dried 
stick of the sugar-cane. 

' The stick or body uf the cniic after iirnumni was 
dried, and, under the nainu vt nuMurt, wiu> ummJ to 
feed the fires. "—.l/wr«iHj/ Vhriifilcl<\ March la. lB5i. 

mog'-er-a, s. [Etym. doubt ful ; perhaps from 
Gr, fjioyfpo^ (mogero:i) =■ wretched, distressed ; 
or a conniption of the native name.] 

/iool. : A genus of Talpida?, established by 
Poinel for tho Woogura M<de, TaljHt woognra, 
from Japan. It resembles the European Mole 
in form and habits, but the fur is of a dingy 
tawny hue, the nose jtrnlonged, and it has 
two incisors less in the lower jaw than 2'. 

mog'-gan, s. [QacK & Ir. 'mogan.\ A stock- 
ing without the foot, worn over a boot. 

AXd - gra- bi - an, a. &l s. [Arab, k Turk. 
moghreb = the west, Nurth-west Africa.] 

A, --Is tulj. : Of or pertiiiuing to North or 
North-west Africa. 

B. A» subst. : A native or inhabitant of 
North or Nortli-west Africa. 

Mo-giil', s. [Pers. Mogh6l = a Mongolian.] 
A Mongolian. 

^ The Great Mogul : The popular name for 
the sovereign of the empire which was 
founded in Hindustan by the Mongols under 
Babir in Ijl'j, and lasted till ISUti. 

M6-giin'-tine, a. [Lat. Mnguntia, Mognn- 
tiacum^ the ancient name of the town.] Of or 
pei-tainitig to Mentz, iu Germany. 

mo'-ha, s. [Fr. molui; remoter etym. doubt- 
ful.] ' 
But. : Setaria itidica. 

mo-hair, * mo-haire, i=. (O. Fr. vwUaire 
(Fr. moire), moh'erc, mouhaircj from Arab. 

1. The hair of the Angora goat. 

2. A fabric made from the fme, white, silky 
hair of the Angom goat and allied species. 
Sometimes called camlet. The hair is said to 
be produced in jiertect quality in no iijace 
excepting Angora in Asia Minor, and has long 
been a valuable article of export Irom that 

3. A wool and cotton fabric made in imita- 
tion of the above, in mixed colours or plain. 

mohair-Shell, s. 

Zoo}.: A species of Volnta, witii a tinely re- 
ticulated surface like mohair. 

Mo-ham' -me-dan, a. & s. 

11 For this word and derivatives, see Mf- 


Mo-hawk, Mo'-hock, s. [North-Aniericau 

1, The name of a tribe of North-Aniericnn 

* 2. A name given to certain rutlians who 
infested the streets of London towards the 
end of the seventeenth century. 

mo-hoe, mo-haut, «. [The West Indian 

Bvt. : Hibiscus arboreus, called also raritium 
tiliaceum. In the days of slavery the negroes 
were flogged with whips made of its flbrea. 

mohr'-i-a, s. [Named after Molir, a botanical 

Bot. : A genus of ferns, order Polypodiacn>. 
The sori, which are few, are situated near the 
revolute margins of the pinnules. Only known 
species Mohriti thurifera. It smells of benzoin. 
It is found in iSouth Africa and the Mascareu 

boil, boy ; pout, jowl ; cat, 9ell. chorus, 9hin, ben^h ; go, gem ; thin, this : sin, as ; expect, ^onophon, exist, ph = f, 
-cian, -tlan — shan. -tlon, -sion = shun ; -tion, -§ion == zhun, -clous, -tious, -sious — shus, -ble, -die, >S:c. — bel, del. 

mohsine— molasse 

mohs ~ine. s. [Nnmc'l aftt>r tlir Gi'nii;m 
iiiirurulujjist, F. Mods; sutt'. -ine (Min.).} 
Mill.: The sanie as Lollinuitk and Leu- 

ii.IVlUTK t'l-V.). 

molL^ ite, .«. [N'airu'fi after the German 
luint-ralogist, F. Muhs; sutt. -UeiMin.).] 

Mill.: A vanety nf nienacfanite uccurriiii; 
in tliiii iilatt'i; more (ii- Ifss liexayoiial, 
(.iateil with albiU: anil (jiiartz, at St.Chribtoi>hi', 
IstMT, France. 

xno -bur, s. It'ers. mnkur, viuhr.] A gnhl 
o-'iii ot ilritisli liniia, value liftceu rupec^s, or 
til 'J.s. L'id. stciling. 

mo hur-rum, .<. [Arab.] 

1. Tlie liist niontli of tlie Muhaniniadan year. 

2. One of the greatest of the Muhaninmdaii 
festivals. It is lield in coninienioration nf 
thf so-ailled inartynloni of Hiissun and Ho- 
sein, sons uf Ali, and nephews of Muhauinuid, 
which nccurred in the forly-sixth year of the 
Hegira. It ct»nin»enees the evening on whiili 
tlie new moon becomes visible in the month 
Mnhnrrnm, and continues fully ten tlays. 
Wliile the festival continues, the people light 
tires every evening in pits, fencing across them 
with sticks or swords and leaping across en- 
even through them, crying out Ya All, Ya Ali 
(Oh Ali, Uh Ali). Hliah Hussnn. Shah Hosein 
(Nnble Hussun, N'.-M.' Hosein), <&c. They form 
nlluins or faesinules of Hoseitra banner of 
copper, brass, steel, or even silver or gold, 
and hnaiiy carry I'ast in procession beautiful 
talMiots or tombs, which, in India at least, are 
ultimately thrown into some river. There are 
many other ceremonies. 

mohlirrum-fallir, 5. Fakirs or religious 
nn'iidicjtiits, dressed up in peculiar ways to 
take i>art in the Moluirrnni. Jaffur Shnrreef 
enumerates forty-seven kinds of them, all with 
distinctive names, among wliich figure paddy 
birds, pilgrim fool and pilgrim idiot, tiger, 
king chaling-dish, king blanket, king tent- 
I'Cg. dig and bury, tatterdauialiou ur king 

moi'-der, v.i. k t. [Moither.j 

A. Intrntis.: To work or labour hard; to 

B. Tnins. : To spend in toil or hard work. 

moi'-dbre* ■«. [Port, mochi iVouro, vweda de 
(i;(/'i, iruiii Lat. moiieta = money ; de =; of, aud 

avrum = gold.] A Portuguese gold coin, 
M.iith 4,ono reis, or about £1 Is. 3d. sterling. 

moi-e-ty, ^ moltie, .'^-. [Fr. vioUic = a. half, 
tr-iui Lat. vifilu'tntcm, accus. of medietas =^ si 
middle course, a lialf ; mp</(H^ ^ middle.] 

1. A half; the half part or share; one uf 
twu cipial i«rts, 

" He slinU slinxe 
The moitie of my at.'xU"." 

Ileautn. .fr Flet. : Spaniih Curate, v. 2. 

* 2. A portion ; a part in general. 

"The luve I dedicate to your Iiinlship is without 
♦•ml: wliereiif this imtnphlet. without begimiiiig, is 
lii:t ;i -"UiH-TflU'iUa idoiefy."— a'A(iAe#/i. . liapeo/ Lucrece. 


moil, 'molle, 'moyle, v.t. & i. [O. Fr. 

iifiUer, hioilfi; iii'iillicr (¥r. moniller)=i to "wet, 
lo iTioisten, from Low Lat.* mollio^ to soften, 
Iroiii I^at. mollis =^ soil.] 
' A. Trausftive : 

1. To moisten, to wet, to sprinkle. 

"A inouk . . , rnniltid al his p,-\rti9.* 

Tate of Beryn, (lutrod., p. 6.1 

2. To daub, to soil, to foul, to make dirty. 

■■ Heo iiitied the ceutiiiels so too mot/lcd aud wette." 
— //ucMiti/l : Wit/aijes. iii. 334. 

' 3. To weaiy ; to wear out. 

"No more tug one another thus nor »nor/?c yourselves." 
Chapmati : Homer ; 7/iuU xxiiL 

B. Intratisitivc : 

* 1. To wallow. 

" A simple soule much like myse>.c dyd once a seri>cnt 

Whicli (almost dead with cold) lay TJioyVm;) in the 
loyre." (itiscoiyin- : Cotistmicic v/ n 1,'iVfr. 

2, To labour, to toil, t<i work hard. 

" WhUom with tho- twiu Marlnii'ri di>!irdel%-ht 
To twjtt nU ility. HiiU tiivrry make nt nighL ' 

Ouff : .Shcfjheanit Wtfk ; Tueidiit/. 

mOil(l), s. [Moil, r.] A spot, a defllement. 

* moil (2), ^ moyle. &-. [Mule] 

* molle (1), s. [Etyni. doubtful.] A dish of 
marrow aud grat<Ml bread. 

' moile (2). 5. [Fr. mule ; Ital. mula = a 
.slipper, from .Lat. mulleus (ailcevs) = a red 
(slipper), from muUiis — a re<l tnullct.) A kind 
nf liigh shoe formerly worn by high per- 

moile^, s. [Etym. doubtful.] The metallic 
oxide adhering lo the glass which is knocked 
' from the end of the blow-i'ipe. 

* moll-lere, 5. [Lat. mulier.] A woman. 

mol'-noan (eau as 6), .''. [Fr.] 

Fort.: A small, Hat ba.stion raised in front 
of an intended fortilication, to defend it 
against attack by small-arms. 

molr^(as mwar'-e),''moyre,5. [Fr.] [Mo- 
hair.] Watered or cloudeil silk. The silk is 
dampetl, folded in a i>eculiar manner^ and 
subjected to a pressure of from 00 to 100 tons. 

"Green watered Jnnyre."—I'epyt: Itiary, 16*). 

moir^- antique, s. 

t'ahric : A heavy, watered silk. 

molr^-m^talllque, 5. Tin plate acted 
on by an acid, so as t(j display by reflected 
light the crystalline texture of the tin. 

''moi-son, s. [Fr. iiuiisson, from Lat. tii^s- 
^i'liicm, accus. of viessio = a reaping, from 
messxA, pa. par. of msto r=to reap.] Harvest, 

" And Borae ther utsen of mnis<m." 
That drowe uigh to hir se&son." 

Jit»naitnt of the Rose. 

moist, "■ molste, «. [O. Fr. moiste (Fr. vwite) 
= moist. li<iuiti, wet, from 7ni(sri(s= of or 
pertaining to new wine, or vinsteiis ■= new , 
tVesh, from musttivi-= new wine, ueut, sing, of 
vuijitus = young, fresh, new.] 

* 1, New, fresh. 

" By c'>ri>Hs domini hut I have triacle 
Ur else a, draught of viuitt aud coniie ale." 

Chaucer: C. T., 12,219. 

2. Moderately wet. damp, not dry, humid. 

" Whj- were the moi»t In Dumber so outdone 
That to a thousand dry. they ure but one ? " 

Blaekitwre: Creation. L 

* 3. Juicy, succulent. 

moist-eyed, a. Having eyes wet with 

* moist-star, s. The moon. 

■' The moUtstar, 
t'pon wHiiBe influence Neptuue'a empire st-inds, 
W as sick idmost Xa> dooULsday with eclipse." 

bhakcgp. : Hamlet, i. I. 

'm^St, ^moiste, t'.f. [Moist, n.] To moisten, 
to make moist or wet. 

'■ Sche attwHl behynde besides hise feet : and bigan to 
Id litte hise feet with teeris."— n\j/t7(/rc.' Litkn vii, 

moist' -^Xl(f silent), v.t. &, i. [Eng. vioist ; -en.] 

A. Transitive : 

1. To make moist, damp, or humid ; to 

" One paste of flesh on all degrees bestowed. 
Aud kiie»ded up alike with mniitt'niwj blood." 

Drjfden : ^iifjumonda lE (iuitcarUo, 502. 

* 2. To soften ; to make soft or tender. 

3. To till with tears. 

"The nujUrened eye. the trembling lip. 
Are not the aigus of d»ul>t or fear." 

lAingffUow: Jtuildini/ of the Ship. 

B. Intrans. : To become moist or wet. 

moist' -en-er {( silent), s. [Eng. 7iioistev ; ~er.] 
One wllo or that which moistens. 

' moist'-f^ a. [Eng. moi^r; -fnl(l).'\ Moist, 
" Her tiioUtfu! temples bovmd with wreaths of quiver- 
ing reeds." Drayton : I'oly-Olbioti. a. is, 

'^ moist' -i-fy, v.t. [Eng. vwist; i connective, 
aud sutf. -Jy.] To moist-en. 

" Scotland, my auld, resjwcted Mither ; 
Tho' whyles ye moixtify your leather. " 

Burns : /"ottscript to Earnest Cr;/. 

' moist'-less, *' moyst-les, n. [Eng. vwist; 
-kss.] Free from moisture, dampness, or wet; 

" .Some clouds give snow, thnt lights and lies 
A moisture inoT/xtU-t." 
IViirtur: Albions England, bk, viii.. ch. xxix. 

moist -ness, *moyst-nes. s. [Eng. ttioi^;; 

-b^jw.] The quality or state of being moist, 
damp, or humid ; dampness, humidity. 

" I'leivMure Ixith kiixls take in the moittuMs Alid 
density of the air."— Biicort ; Jk'atvral Uittory. 

* moist' -rjlr, 5. (Eng. vwisi; -ry.] Moisture. 

moist'-ure. • moyst-er. s. [O. Fr. mou- 

tenr, moif^tour; Vv. moiteur.] 

1. That which gives the quality or property 
of being moist or damp ; damp, wetness, 
hunudity, luoistness, 

" What comes from you Is but a -moisture drvwne 
from the earth, which gathers into a cloud, &ud fiil.d 
backe ui>on the earth."— tfucwn; JJenry Yil.. p. *j. 
• 2. A liquid. 

"Did he not diwh the uiitiated moiiture from him?" 
AddUon: Cato. (Todd.) 

' moist'-ure. * moyst-ure* v.t. [Moisxi re, 

s.] To moisten, to wet. 

" It wntereth aud mof/stureth the drye aud barea 
ground."— ./06 xxxviiL, notes. (15&L) 

moist' -ure-less, a. [Eng. moisture; -less.] 
Free from moisture, moistness, or damp ; dry 

* moist -y, * moist-ie, ' moyst-ye, «. 

[Eng. mviit; -y.] 

1. New, fresh. 

" For were it win or old or moisf)/ ale. 
That he h.ith droiike he siieketb In hia nose.** 

C/uiiicer: C. T.. 17,009. 

2. Moist, wet, full of moisture. 

■■The wynde sometime moystye and thicke. some- 
time drj'e and smootbe." — Ascham: Toxuphitus, bk. li 

moi-ther, mo^-ther, v.i. &. t. [Etym. 

A. Iiitrans. : To labour or toil hard. 

B. Transitive : 

1. To spend in labour. 

2. To muddle, to confuse, to distract. 

* mok'-a-dor, * mock-a~dour, .*:. [S}i. 

vujikidor, from Lat. mucus = mucus; Fr. mou- 
choir.] A handkerchief, u bib. 

mo'-kah, s. [Turk.] The title of a doctor of 

law ill Turkey. 

moke {!), s. [Etym. doubtful.] A mesh of a 

moke (2), s. [Perhaps connected with Icel. 
mol:a=to doze ; ^)i6/t= dozing.] A donkey. 

"The one who rides from market on a moke."— 
Thackerny ; Seusconie*, ch. X\X. 

" mdk'-^, t(. [Cf. Icel. ytwkkr = a dense cloud ; 
7)ioA-ATt = a cloud or mist.] Muggy, dark, 
murky : as, vwLy weather. 

md'-lar (1). "mo-lare, o. & s. [Lat. vwiaris 

=: jieVtaining to a mill; mvla-=a mill; mulo 
— to grind.] 

A. .-15 adj. : Having power to grind ; in- 
tended for grinding. 

■■ Persona, who wrtntiug their mo^are teeth must 
make use of their gums for grinders." — /'u/Iki' . 
Worthies: Cheshire. 

B. As suhstitntive : 
Anatomy (PI.): 

(1) Human: Tlie grinding teeth or grinders. 
They are twelve in number, and arranged 
liehiucl the bicuspid teeth, three on each side 
above and below. They have a large crown, 
and the grinding surface is very wide. There 
is a gi-adation in their size, the first being the 
largest and the third the smallest. 

(2) Compar. : The teeth in mammals whiiU 
arc not pieceded by a milk set. 

molar-glands, s. 2>l. 

Aiiiif. : Two or three glands between the 
mnsseter and buccinator muscles. an<l opening 
by separate ducts near the last molar tooth. 

md'-lar (2), a. [Lat. vwles = a mass ; Eng. 
adj. sutf. -«>-.] Of or pertaining to a mass or 
body as a wliole. 

mo-lar'-es, s. j??. [Molar.] 

mo-lasse', 5. [Fr., from viol = soft.) 

(icoL : A soft, colierent, greenish sandstone, 
occujiying the countiy between the Aljis an«l 
tlie Jura. Part of it is Miocene, and i»art 
Oligocene. It lias been divided into : 

(1) An Upper Miocene freshwater Molasse, 
found at Qiniiigen, aud consisting of a series 
of sandstones, marls, aud limestones, some uf 

fete, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father ; we, wet, here, camel, her, there 
or, wore, wolf, work, who. son : mate, cub, ciire, unite, cur, rule, full ; try, 

; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, pot, 
Syrian, ee, ce = e ; ey — a ; qu = kWo 

molasses— molecular 


tluMii Hiiokly l;nniiKitt.-il. Tlie strata seem to 
iiiive I'ft'ii 'ik'i>i>sitctl in a l're,sli«'iitei- ];ik<' 
ImUliu^ ciirlioiiate of lime in solution. Tlie 
great sulamaniler, at lii-st mistaken for Imman 
remains, hiuI liesi^rilnMl in suIht seriousnt-s!* 
by Scheiichzer as " Ilomn ililiivii testis," was 
fuun<l in c»ne 1»<I. Camper discovered its 
reptilian character, and tiivier reco^'uised it 
as a salamander. Other fossils are the fossil- 
fox of (Knin^'en (Calenjuns nuiimjensis), Mii!>fu- 
don toitiioith-s, a tish nf the genus Leuri-,i;us, 
844 species nf inse<tts with, many plant re- 
mains, including LiquidamKir, Cinnainununii, 
and variiius Prnteaceii; (?), &c. 

(•_') The MidiUe or Marine Mit^ne Molasse, 
corresponding in age to the FaTims of Tuu- 
raine. It eoflj^ns a Dryopithecus, 

(M) The Lower Molasse of Switzerlanil 
(Aqnitani;in). Most of the be<is are fresli- 
water. >!orf thnn .500 species of plaifts haM? 
been found, irnduding iwVifs jwpnUiia, the 
l)alm genern, I'lal.elltnin and J'lio'nicite.-i, the 
tlie i)ine grnns Sentuiia, &e. The tloni has an 
American farii-.s. 

mo-lda'-se^, ' mo-los'-sea. s. [Port, mehirn 
:= moUissf.s, from Lat. mf/ZooifS = made witli 
honey, fmni vwl = honey; Sp. melazu.] 

Food : Trea<-le. The brown u n cry stall izable 
syrup ohtaineti in the reliniiig of sugar. This 
term is now more geni'r;dly ai'i'li-'d to tlie 
syrup imi'orted from sug;ir-producing coun- 
tries, whilst that produced by the home maun- 
I'aeturer is called treacle. Mtdasses consists, 
on the average, of '20 i>er cent, water, ;i6 per 
Cent, erystdllizable sugar, 'A6 per cent, inverted 
sugar, tt per cent, organie acids and extractive, 
ami 3 per cent, nuueral matter. 

mold, v.t. [Moi'LD, v.] 

' mold (1). ' molde, 5. [Mould (1), s.] 

mold (2), .-•. [MorLD(2), s.l 

' mold (3), 5. [Mole (1), s.\ A mark, a sjKjt. 

■■ A little purple moid. 
Tli/it like ft ruse lier silken lejives Jiil f.tire unfold." 
S/>eiiter : J-'. V-, VL xii. 7. 

mol'-da-vite, s. [From Moldawa, Hungary ; 
.surf. -I'leiMin.).] 

Mill. : A name given to the bottle-green 
mineral formerly referred to obsidian (q.v.). 
It is now shown to be an artiticial glass. 

mdld - warp, * mold - werp, ^ moiUd - 
warp, .-;- tMid. Etv^. hiuhl, iiiotde = mould, 
e.iltli, and mtcj»ph = to throw, to cast ; heuee, 
the animal that c:ists np mould or earth ; O. 
i)ut. ynulniiri); Dut. Hio( = ann)le; Icel. viohf- 
varpti — a mole.] A mole. [Mole (5), s., 1.) 

"Telliug iiie of the tnuldimrp iiiul the Jtiit." 

Shak'-tp. : 1 Henry IV,. \\\. \. 

mole (1), * mold, s. [.\.S. wui/, maat = a 
spot; cogii. with Dut. tiund ; Sw. »ifi/; U. H. 
<_ii'i-. met!; G'-r. miuil ; Goth, mail; Lat. »ni- 
iiiilii.] A spot, mark, .or small permanent 
pnitul'erance on the Itody ; spec, a dark- 
coloured patch on tlie skin, covered with hair. 

" The nmduui peucil hiiply hit the nutlc." 

Whitehead : On j:idiciite. 

' mole (2), s. [Lat. mo?«(s'(/j«f) = the(saMOeake 
used in sarrilices.l A cake used in sacriliees. 

" She with the mole nU in her hnudes devoute 
tiliAle ue.ire the imlter." 

Siirrr;/ : Virgilc ; ^neid'w. 

mole (3), s. [Lat. moht = a false conception.] 
Mill. jKi'i.^.. I'lnisinl., ,Cr. ; A shapeless mass 
of Itfshy substance in the uterus. Moles are 
of two Uimls : (1) Tiue, eineloped in a mem- 
brane, generally lilled with l)h>od, though 
occasionally dry. On cutting into the true 
mcde, jiarts resembling an imperfect fa-tns 
will lip observed. It is always the result of 
(■oiiiT]>tion. ('!) False, a term applied to tlie 
coiigula which sometimes accompany men- 
struation. They are imt the products of con- 
ception, nor havt; the enveh)ping membi-an-.' 
or the rteshy texture uf the true mole. 

mole (4), ■^. [Fr. »io/f = apier, a breakwater, 
fv.iui Lat. mvlum, accus. of moles = a great 

1. Mariliuie Eiigin. : (1) A jetty or structure 
erected before a port so as to partially enclose 
a harbotu' or am-horage, ami protect it from 
the violence of the waves in the offing. (2) A 
]iier of masonr\- ; one is tlescribed by Hert>- 
dotus as extending around the harbour of 

" With Jisphnltick slime the gatherd b&ich 
They fiLiten d ; .lud the mute iiimieiiHe wruui^ht on." 
JJUlvti: 1'. L.. X. 

Iloniitn Anti'i, : A nmusuleuui uf pcculiui 

i.St. Aii'jelo, Home.) 

form, as the Mole of Hadrian, now known as 
the Castle of St. Aiigch), Home. 

mole (5), * moule, s. [Au abbreviation gf 
vtolthi'iirp ('i.v.).] 

1, Zooloijy: 

(\) Simj. : The genus Talpa, and siwcially 
T>il}it europtra, the Cnniinon Mole, though 
the name is sometimes loosely apjilied to any 
tnnlergnuniil burrowing mammal. The Common 
Moleisabont six inches in length (including 
tlie tail, rather more than an inch) ; the body 
(■yliiidrical, nuizzle long and iminted, eyes 
minute ; no ear-conches ; the fore-feet broad 
and fossorial, hind-feet long and narrow. Fur, 
black, soft, and velvety, with gi-ayisli, tinge ; 
but lighter .shades qjten occur, and pure white 
individuals have been observed. The normal 
food of the mole is the earthworm. It is very 
voraci<ms, an*l no kind of tlesh seems to come 
amiss to it, but it will not touch vegetables. 
It takes readily to the water. Geograpliical 
range, from England to Jai»an. In Britain it 
occurs as far north as Caithness, but is un- 
known in Ireland. [Golden-mole, Tali'a, 

(2) /•;. : The fannly Talpidffi (q.v.). 

2. Hushpwlry : A cylindrical plug of iron, 
three or four inches in diameter, and with a 
sharp point, dr;iwn or driven through the sub- 
soil to make a drain. 

mole-amblystoma, .«. 

Zool. : A tailed amphibian (Ambhjstcnn/i 
tuliKiiJea), fannly Amblystomida^, from the 
islands on the coast of Kouth Carolina. 

mole -but, s. 

Ichthij. : A popular name for Orthagoriscns 
viola, tiie Short Sun-tish. Common round the 
British coasts. They generally appear floating 
oil one side, i)resenting the broad siuface of 
the other t<i view. (Yarrell.) 

mole-cast, 5. The mould thrown up by 
a mole ; a nuile-hill. 

" 111 8i>ring,let the rnote-caars I»e apreml. liecauae they 
hinder the mowers."— Jlorfiwu-r . llutbandrj/. 

mole 'Catcher, 5. One whose occupa- 
tion is to catch moles. 

" Uet vi.-nlfC'iti-h-T cuniiiiiyly inoiile for to kill. 
.\ ikI hiirruw uml cnat abruaU every hlM. " 

Tiiiuer : JIuibandric. 

mole -cricket, s. 

Kntom. : Any individual of the genus Grjd- 
lotaljia (q.v.), especially <iryUi>tnIj>a vu1g<(ri,<, 
which may be » * taken as a type. 

It is about an \ / inch and a half 

long, dark \ / brown in co- 
lour. In the y-i^y ^"'■'^ ^^o**' there 
is a strong an- U jtM^lff idogy with the 
moles, the tibiai B^Bf (^''^ parts em 
l)loyedindig-^^^J|H3i^i^ Si»b') ^eiu 

to the axis of 
terminated by 
]i roc esses, 
by the mole- 
cognizable by 
the vegetation, 
and withered, 
ln-iiig cat 


the body, and 

fonr linger -like 

Lands infested 

cricket are re- 

the colour of 

MOLE-ciucKET. wliicli is ycUow 

fiom the roots 

tt by the insect in its burrowing 

not for food, as its diet is chieHy 

underground insects and worms. It Hies oc- 
ca.sioiiidly iu the evening, and its stridulation 
pnKlui'cs a note siunewhat like that of the 
Goat-sucker. Tin* larva-, when llrst hat<;heii, 
are white, and they are said to be three years 
iu arriving at maturity. 

mole-eyed, n. Having very small eyes ; 
liavin;: iiiipctfect vision. 

mole-MU, -s. A little hill or hillock of 

mold. I tlii'MUM up by a moh* wlii>u burrowing 
niMUwground ; hence, tigurativcly usetl for any 
very small hill, or anything *>f very slight hn- 
.portance as comimreil with something larger 
or nu>re important. 

% To makf ti movutitin out o/a mole'hill : To 
exaggerate some very tritling matter. 

mole-hole, >% The burrow of a mole. 

xnole plough, s. The mole-jdough has 
a iioiutid uon ^hoc, which is attjurhcd to the 
end of a stiiudard and drawn along under- 
ground, making a track like that of a mole, 
establishing a duct in leail water fmni the 
subsoil, pressing the earth away without 
disttubiug the surface. 

mole-rat. .■:. 


1. .s'tKf/. : Sptdux typhlns, a mouse-like ro- 
dent, found in the soutli-east of Europe, 
ranging eastward into Asia. The eyes are 
rudimentary and covered with skin, s<i that 
the animal is quite blind ; the tail is also 
rudimentary. The toes are furnished with 
]iowerful claws, which the animals use in ex- 
cavating their burrows. Colour, yellowish- 
brown, tinged with ashy-gray, the lower sur- 
face with white stravks and sjiots. 

2. ri. : The family Spalacidie (q.v.). 
mole-Shrew, ^-. 

Xool. : Urotrichus, a genus of Desmans 
(Myogalidie). The Hairy-tailed Mole-shrew 
(U rot rich us ttdpiiitlc!^) la found in Japan, and 
Gibbs Mole-shrew (£/. Oibbsii) in Norlli 

mole-track, 5. Tlie course of a mole 

" TliL' tktt-trap ia a deep enrtlien verael set in the 
gniuiul, >t ith tht- hriiii uveii with the buttuiu i>( tho 
jiioU-rritcAs.'—JIurti'iior: Uutbundrif. 

mole-tree, $. 

lW)t. : A popnhir name for the Caper-sinirge 
{Euphorbia Lothyrit>), an escape in Biitaiu. 

mole-warp, s. [Moldwaki'.] 

* mole, vJ. [Mole (i>), s.] 

1. To clear of moles or mole-hills. 

2. To burrow in ; to form holes in, as a 

• mo -lech, .«. [Moloch.] 

mo-lec'-U-lar, n. [Eng. mokcril(e): -ar.] Of 
or ]iertaining to molecules ; consisting of 

" Ttie ni)eotm of these varioualy coiwlitnted mole- 
cules .-tre very detitiite, ntid. for the mtuie Uejiive of 
fwilrculttr CMUiplextty, lift*e ft stmiiKe fntnUy hkeuvs* 
to each otlier."— rOi/cJ. Ai>rll 20, 1S7.S. 

^ The solid, the liquid, and the giuseoiis 
states arc considered to be molecular states 
of bodies. 

molecular-attraction, ■«. 

J'hy.'^ixs: An altrarlion tending to draw 
together molecules of the same body. It is 
exerted only at infinitely small distances, and 
liroduces cohesion, allinity, or adhesion. 

molecular combination, s. 

Chrm. : Tlie combination of molecules with- 
out the alteration of the active atomicity <>f 
any of their constituents. Water of crystal- 
lization contained in any salt is a combination 
of this nature. 

molecular-forces, s. ;>f. 

rhy.^irs : Certain attractions and repulsiiuis 
whicii keep molecules of matter together 
without touching each other. 

molecular-formula, .«. 

Chan. : A formula in which tlie atomic com- 
position of a molecule is expressed, without 
reference to the manner in which the elements 
are combined with i-ach other : thus the mole- 
cular-fornnda of fen*ic hydrate is Fe^Il^Uj;. 


molecular- motion, s. 

riiynica: ^Motion seen to take place when 

boll, \^6y ; poiit. j6wl ; cat, 9eU, choruc. chin, bengh ; go, gem ; thin, this : sin, as ; c:cpect, Xcnophon, exist, ing, 
-cian. -tian = shan. -tion, -slon = shun ; -tion, -sion = zhun. -cious, -tious, -sious = shua. -blc, -die, .Sic. = bel, doL 


mple^ularity— mollugo 

txtifimly small piiitiLles o( any subsUiict* 
iiuinersed in wati-r. or oXhw litiuitl, art' t-x- 
amiiicd under the iiik-iDSfoi-e. 11 is on 
accoiuit of luolfculiir motion in snmll jar- 
ticU'S of miui ill 11 turbid I'oud thai thu 
water is so long iu becuiniug clt*ar. 

molecular -quantities, a. i>l. 
(Acm. ; ljuantilits taUru in the proportiuii 
ul'tluir mitlf.ular wt-lglits. 

molecular -Tolume, y. 

i.'htin. : The nlativi' vnlumt! which molecular 
i|uantities (H'cupy. It is found by dividinj^ 
the molecular ^\ eight by the spt'cilic gravity. 

molecular-weight, s. 

Chfiti.: The wfiL;hi of the smallest partiele 
of a compound uliiih can exist. It is found 
by adding together the \\eights of all tlie 
atoms of the several elements whieh have 
unit-ed to form the molecules of the compound 
iKidv. The molecular weight of acetic acid, 
C^H.,t>2 = GO. 

mo-lec-u-lar'-i-t^, s. [Eng. mohcvJar ; -ity.] 
The quality or state of being molecular or 
consisting of molecules. 

mol'-e-cule, s. [Fr., from Lat. moles = a 

,Chem. : The smallest quantity of an ele- 
ni|ent or compound which is capable f»f sepa-i 
rale existence, or which can exist iu the free 
or lincombined state. 

"I could iiever 3ee tlie difference between the auti- 
quattfd system of utonis and Buffou's organic mulc- 
Lule.'."~J'alei/ : SatunU Theoh-jy, cL. Jtxil. 

mo-len-di-na -ceoiis (ce as sli),mdl-en' 

di-nar'-i-OUS, ". [Lat. iwAendinaria^'^, 
from mokiuliiium = a mill-liouse, from vtvla ~ 
a mill.] 

Hot. : Having many wings projecting from 
a convex surface, as the fruit of some umbel- 
liferous plants, and of moringa. Called also 
Mill-sail shaped. 

mole'-sklU, s. & a. [From its being soft, like 
the skin of a mole.] 

A. As substantive: 

Fabric: A strong cotton twilled goods for 
men's wear. A kind of fustian, cropped or 
shorn before dyeing ; beaverteen. 

B, .-Is adj. : Made of the material dest:ribed 
in A. 

molest, v.t. [Ft. vwlester, from Lat. molesto 
— to annoy, from molestus = troublesome ; Sp. 
vioh-star ; Ital. molestare.] To trouble, to dis- 
turb, to vex, to annoy, to iucomniodej to in- 
terfere with. 

•■ Clareudou was informed that, while he led a quiet 
ruTM,! life, he slumld not be molvtted." — Macaulay : 
Uist. Ln-j., ch. xvii. 

• molest'. 

[Molest, v.'] Trouble. 

■■ The country life niid least mvlett." 
Or-:ene : {From the Jloritiny Gar^nent), p. S09. 

mol-es-ta'-tion, 5. [Fr., fi-om rwlester— to 

1. Onl. Lawj. : The act of molesting or dis- 
turliing ; disturbance, annoyance, interfer- 
ence ; the state of being molested or dis- 

" From outward nuilcstntion free." 

Wortiswoytfi : Excursion, hk. vi, 

2. Scots Law : The troubling or interfering 
with one in the jutssession of his lan<ls. An 
action of molestation arises cliiefly in ques- 
tions of conmicmty or of controverted marches 
or boundaries. 

mo-lest'-er, s, [Eng. moUst ; -er.] One who 
or that wliich molests, disturbs, or annoys ; a 

•• The displeaser and rm>?''*?er of thousands." — Milton: 
C/tiirvh Uvvennnciit , l>k. iL (Prui.) 

* md-lest'-fal» * mo-lest^fuU, a. [^Eng. 
molest; -/id(l).j Causing molestation; trouble- 
some, annoying, harassing. 

"Pride . . . is hated as jno/c«f/nW and mischievous, " 
—Sarroic: Sertaoiu, vol. i., aer. 32. 

' mo-lest'-ie, s. [Lat. violestia, from molestus 
= troublesome.] Molestation, trouble. 

•■ Power furteleth and mole»tie \iTiketh." —Chaucer : 
Boethius, hk. iii. 

* mo-lest'-i-ous, a. [>Ustus.] Trouble- 
some, annoying. (I'eniier: Via Recta, p. 42.) 

mol'-gu-la, s. [>lod. Lat., from Gr. noAyds 
{ninhjos) = a hide, a skin ; probably from 
' fitkyiu (melgo) — to strip oti;,] 

Z'-vL : A genus i.f Ascidiad;i- (q.v.). Tlie 
body is attJiched or free, and more or less 
t;hibnlar. The orilices are veiy contractile, 
the oral has six and the atrial four lobes. 
They occur between tide-marks and down to 
a depth- of twenty-live fathoms, .surface 
inenibianous, usually covered with extmneous 
substaiiLcs. Five species ioi'e recorded. 

t mo-li-men, .«. [Lat.] 

A nut. <£■ Physiol. : Great effort (Use spec, 
of men.struation.) 

"The efTect I't the meuatnml molimen is frit by tlid 
wln>lt; sjsteiu."— /V(H»i*rr.- t'rac, qf JlctlU-ine. 11. 35a. 

' mo-lim'-l-nous, a. [Lat. nioUmcn (genit. 
mii/hiiiiiis) = gj'eat exertion, from malior = to 
toil, to exert one's self, from ntoles ='a heap.] 
Massive, weighty, important, grave. 

" Prophecies of so vast aiul motiminou* cvlicemment 
to the world."— tf. Jtore. Mystvrff of OoUllueMS. 

mo' -line, s. [Lat. vwUnns = pertaining to a 
mill ; mvla = a mill.] The crossed iron sunk 
in the centre of the upper millstone for receiv- 
ing the spindle hxedin the lower stone ; amiU- 

moline-cross, 5. 

Her. : A cross so called from its resembling 
a mill-rynd in shape. It is borne both in- 
verted and rebated, and sometime saltire-wise 
or in saltire. 

md~lin'~i-a, s. [Xamed after Dr. Molina who 
wi'ote in 17S2 on Chilian plants.] 

Biit. : A genus of grasses, tnbe Festucea?, 
family Bromidii-. The spikelets are nearly 
terete, in a slender panicle, with one to four 
flowers, the ul)perniost imperfect. The flower 
glumes awnless, with three very strong 
nerves ; fruit nearly tetragouous. Known 
species four, from the Noith Tem]>erate 
Zone. Oiii^yMolina ctErulen, is British. There 
are two varieties : M. cn-rulea 'proper, and 
M. (leiKiuperata : the latter is sometimes made 
a distinct species. M. varia is said by EndU- 
cher to be deleterious to. cattle. 

Mo'-lin-ism, s. {Seedef.J 

Church Hist. : The tenets of Lewis Molina, 
a Sjiauish Jesuit, who taught in the Portu- 
guese monastery of Evora, and in 15SS pub- 
lislied a book on the union of grace and free 
will. It gave otfence to the Dominicans and 
others, and a Congregation in Rome was ap- 
pointed to examine the work. In their third 
Session they, on Jan. 16, 159S, tlius sUxted 
its teaching. 

" (li A reaaoli or ground of Uod's predestination is to 
be found in mau'x riyht use or his free will. CZ) That 
the grace which God hestowa to enable men to perse- 
vere ill reli^'i'in may V-cnuie the gift of i)er3everauce, 
it is necessary tli^it ttiey lie foreseen as coiiseutinij and 
co-oiwratini; w itli the <\i\ nie Jissuraiice offered tneni, 
which U a. Ihin^ «ithiii their i)ower. (3) There in a 
mediate prescience which is neither the free nor the 
u.-itural knowledxe oi God, and by which He knows 
future contingent events before He forms His decree." 

Frequent conferences sul>sequently took 
place between the Jesuits and the Domini- 
cans on the disputed points. These meetings 
were called Congregations ou the Aids, i.e., 
on the aids of divine grace. 

M6'-lin-ist. s. [See def.] 

Church Hist. (PL): The followers of Lewis 
Molina. [Molixism.] 

* mol'-i-ture, s. [Multure.] 



mol'-lah, £. [Turk.] An honorary title given 
ti. any Muhannuadan who has acquired con- 
sidei-ation by the purity of his life, or who 
liolds some post relating to worship or the 
application of the principles of the Koran. 

mol'-le, s. [Lat. neut. sing, of mollis = soft.] 
Music: A term applied in mediaeval music 
to B Hat as opposed to B natural, which was 
called B durum. Hence, the term came to 
sigiiify major and minor mode, as in tlie 
German, e.g., A dur, the key of A major ; A 
moll, the key of A minor. Hence, too, the 
French formed the word beraol, a flat. 

mol'-le-'bart, s. [Flem. moHbacrt.] 

A'jric. : A Flemish implement consistingof 
a large shovel drawn by a horse and guided 
by a man. 

* mdl'-le-moke, s. [Mallemock.] 

m.dlle'-ton, s. [Fr.] Swan-skin; a kind of 
woollen blanketing used by printers. 

* mol'-li-ate, v.t. [Lat, mollis = soft.] To 
make 8uft or easy. 

" iSuou will you mt,Ui<itc your way." 

The I'uet Bantered (1702), p, 2S. 

mol-U-en-e'-si-a, s. [Mod Lat., from Gr. 
^oAtic (mohin) — to go, and vJivo'i {msos) = an 

hhthy. : A genus of mud-eating Cvprino- 
donts from trojiicid .\nierica, closely allied to 
Piecilia (q.v.), but with a larger dorsal lin, of 
twelve or more rays. Five species arc known. 
The males are beautifully coloured.' and their 
doi-sal tin much enlarged. In MoJtienesia 
hclkrti, the lower caudal rays of the niatme 
male are prolonged into a swortl-shaped, 
generally black and yellow, appendage. 

* mdl'-li-ent, a. [Lat. molUens, pr. jiar. of 
inollio = to soft<:n ; mollis = soil.] Softening, 
easing, assuaging. 

*• mol'-U-ent-l^?, adv. [Eng. molHent; -ly.] 
In an assuaging or easing tuauuer ; so as to 
assuage or ease. 

mdl'-li-fi-a-We, a. [Eng. mollify; -able] 
Capable of 'being mollified or softened. 

* mol-li-f i-ca'-tion, s. [Fr., from Lat. mol- 

lijitutu^, pa. jiar. of muUijlco = to mollify 
(q.v.); Sp. vu>liJii:acion ; Ital. mullijicazione.] 

1. The aot of mollifying or softening. 

" F»>r induration or moUifivati-m. it is to he inquired 
what will make uietHls harder and harder. '"—fiacoii 
I'/iyiioloificiU Renutins. 

2. Pacification, mitigation, appeasing. 

" I am to hull here alittle longer. Some uMliificntion 
for your giant, sweet lady." — Shakctp. : Tiocl/thSii/ht. 
i. a. 

mol -li-f i-er, s. [Eng. mollify; -er.] 

1. One who or that which mollifies. 

■"The root hath a tender, dainty beat ; which, when 
it cuuietb above ground to the sun and air, vimisbeth ; 
f .r it is a grciit mollifier." — Bacon : Sut. J/Ul., S i6'J. 

2. One who pacifies, mitigates, or appeases. 

m6l-li-f!y, * mol-e-fy, '' mol-i-fy, v.t. & i. 
[Fr. moUijier, from Lat. hiollijicn, from mollis 
= soft, and /(U'tu=to make; Sp. m'lijiair; 
Ital. nwllijj,care.\ 

A. Transitive : 

' 1. To soften ; to make soft or tender. 

2. To soften, ease, or assuage, as X'uiu. 

■■ They have not been closed.- neither bound up, 
ntitlier mollified with ointment"— /auta/t, t 6. 

S. To pacify, to appeiise, to soothe, to quiet. 

" t'hiron mollified his eruel lulnd 

With art." iirj/dtiii : Ovid ; Art of Love, i. 

4. To qualify, to temper ; to lessen any- 
thing harsli or buidensonie ; to tone down ; 
to moderate. 

" The erleof Flaunders MW^vd thematei-as moche 
as he ui\^hX,."—ISvrni:is: FroLssart i C'ronycli:, voh i, 
ch. eiccwiv. 

■ 5. To make pleasant. 

■* The vocal flut«, . . . 
Crowns his delight, and m^Uifi t the aceue," 

Shetisio7if : The Jiuiued .ilbeif. 

' P. Iiitrans : To become soft. 

" I tbynke his herte wyll uat be so indurate . . . 
but that Ills hert wyll tmilify." — Uerners: Froiaurt ; 
CronffcU; vol. i., ch. cccxcviii. 

mol'-ll-net, s. [Fr. mouUnet.] A mill of 
small size. 

moll'-ite, s. [Named after C. E. von Moll; 
siilf. -Ite (,1/iU.).J 
Mill. : The same as Lazulitk (q.v.). 

mol-lit'-i-e^ (t as sh), s. [Lat. = moveable- 
ness, flexibility, pliability, softness ; from 
vwllis = tender, pliable, soft,] 

Path. : Softening : as Mollities ossium = 
softening of the bones. [Softemsg.] 

t mol-li'-tious, a. [Lat. violli(s) = luxm-ious, 
with Eng. sutl. -tious.] Luxurious, inviting 
to repose. 

" HollUiout alcoves gilt 
Sui>erb as Byzaat domes thttt devUa built.' 

UruWniii'j: Sordello, ill. 

* mdl'-li-tude,£. [Lat. inuiruudo, from mollis 
= s'ift.J Softness, weakness, eflcminacy. 

mol-lu-gin'-e-se, s. pi- [Mod. Lat. moUugo, 
genit." ?no//H(/i»((s); Lat. fem. pi. adj. suH. -««'.] 
But. : A tribe of Caryophyllaceie. The 
sepals, which are nearly or quite distinct, 
alternate with the stameiis when both are the 
same in number. 

mol-lu'-go, s. [Lat. = Galium Mollugo.] 

Hot. : The typical genus of the tribe MoUu- 

fate, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father : we, wet, here, camel, her, there ; pme, pit, sire, sir, marine : go, pot, 
or, wore, wolf, work, who, son ; mute, cub, ciire, unite, cur, rule, full ; try, Syrian, a. oe = e ; ey = a ; qu = kw. 

as o 
3 § 


63 =: .— . 
=^3 2 
5 G* E* 

^ a. 

c ^ 

•I >^ 

CD n 

<^ -TV 

g'i. o 

clctq - 


pi P. 


5 3 

mollusc — molothrus 


Siiieie ('i-v.). It I'onsists of iiic(nis]iicnnus 
plants witli ilicliotomous stems, vcrtii-illato 
li'aves. juid cyiiu'.s of smail tiowfiH. Kiiuii<l 
ill the \Yaiiner pai'ts of both liciiiisiilicivs. 
Accniding to Dv. Dyinok, the species aiv 
I'itter and expel bile. The dried jdant of 
Mnlltitfo hirta is prescribed in Sind in cases of 

mol lusc, ' mol -lusk, s. [Mollusca.] 

/•>f>l, : All animal uf the class Mollnsca. 

mol lus'-ca, s. j}l. [Xeut. jil. of I,at. mo!- 
^(^>■(^s = soft, from mollis —soft.] 

1. Zool. : Accordin:j;to Limneus, an onler of 
Vermes, distinct IVoni Test^ieea, which ini- 
iMi'iliately follows it. He }>laced nnder it a 
TniseeUaiieous assemblage of Sfneni which he 
(leseribed as naked, not inclmled in a sliell, 
funiislied with limbs. They were : Actinia. 
Ascidia, Liinax. Holothuria, Sepia. Aphr<»dit;i. 
N Meis, &c. (Sysitnui KaturfU (ed. 1707), i. 
l,ii7'J.) Cnvier made the lloUusca (hh* of the 
f'ltir i^reat "divisions" ur ,snb-kiiiyd<ims nf 
tlie Animal Kingdom, of eitual rank witli the 
Vertebi-ata, the Articnlata, and the Kadiata. 
lli'siibdt\ ides it intosixclasses : Ci'plialopoda, 
rti-roitoda. Gasteropoda, Acephala. lirachio- 
pnda, and Cirrliopoda. (Aiii)iuil Kin'f<loin 
(ed. Grimth). i. CI, xii. 4-5.) Except that the 
last class has now been meiged in Crustacea, 
.md placed with the Artieulata or Annulosa, 
ihr rss.-iitial fcatui'es of Cuvier's ari-angement 
have still l)een preserved. In 1S4:J Prof. Owen 
;in:ingfd the Mollnscii in an Acephalons divi- 
sion, containing the orders Tunieata, Bracliio- 
poda, and Lamellibranchia, and an Eiieepha- 
inus division, with tlie orders Pteropoda, 
<;:isteropoda, and Cephalopoda. (Com/vn. 
Anat. Jncert. Aniuutls (ed. 1S43), p. 209.) 
Mr. a. P. Woodward recognised six classes : 
Cephalopoda, Gasteropoda, Pteropoda, Biachi- 
opoda, Conchifera, and Tinii(ata. {Manual uf 
tlie Molhisca (ed. ISiil, i>-S.) Prof. Huxley 
separates from the already limited class Mol- 
liiscii a class Mulluscoida (q.v.). {lutrod. to 
('hi:i:f!f. of Animah (ed. ISO!'), p. 82.) Dr. 
Henry WomUvard <lefines the JJollusea as 
animals with a soft body, without segments, 
naked or covered with a shell of one or two 
calves composed of carbtniate of lime secreted 
by a fold of the skin^the mantle. They have 
a brain mass, and foot and mantle ganglia. 
JSonie have an internal liard shell or cartilage. 
The synnuetry of the body is l>ilateial. Ex- 
ample, the cuttlefish, the snail, the oystei-, 
&c. He makes Tunieata and the Molluscoida 
an "intermediate group," and divides thi? 
sub-kingdom into four (dasses : Cephaln[i..(Ia, 
Gasteropoda, Pteropoda, and ConeliilVra 
(CasscH'sNiU. nist.,v.lo-i~i.) Manythonsand 
recent Mollnsca are kin)wn. distributed 
ilnoughout every climate and nearly every 
part uf the world. 

2. l\iUKonL: The shells of the 
lieing all but indestructible, and easy of 
identification, atlVird us a reliable means f<)r 
asceitaining the relative age of strata. As 
some, moreover, inhabit fresh water, otliers 
the land, besides the laige numbers which 
Jind their home in salt water, they often 
iiettle the fresli-water or marine oiigin uf a 
stratum. The marine ones being iHstribnted 
also in certain zones uf salt water, tln-y 
Irequently allord materials fur sounding a se i 
which passed away ages ago. Next tt> the 
Proto:!oa, the oldest fossils known are Mt)l- 
iusea. They have abounded from Cnmlnian 
times till now. Tlie longevity of molluscuiis 
species (not individuals) is much greater than 
that of the Mammalia. Hence, Lyell's ar- 
rangemeut of tlie tertiary formations in ac- 
cordance with the relative percent^ige of recent 
and fctssil species must not be extended beyond 
the Mollusca. 

xn6l~lu3'-can, n.. & s. [Mod. Lat. moUn.-<'\„): 
Eng. sufl. -int.] 

A, As wlj. : Of ur belonging to the class 

B, As siihst. : A mollusc. 

mo.-lus'-coid, 5. & n. [Molluscoidea,] 

A. .4s s^ubstantive : 

Zool. : A member of the group Molluscoidea. 

"The comieitiiJij link l)etween the molluscs itroiJcr 
and the ino//«afjH(^. "— ITuud ; Sat. Uitt., p. 6ti3. 

B. An adjective : 

1. Mollusc:ons. 

" MoUiigfiiitl niiiiiiHln feel tlie Jar of those rapid 
uiiduUtiotui/'— //. .S;w((cc>' I'sffcJtolofft/, ell. iv., p. all. 

2. Belonging to the Molluscoidea. 

mol lus-coid'-a, «. pi. [Moi-i.t-sroinKA.] 

mdl-lus-coxd'-al, -«. iMtu.LusioiuKA.] Mol- 

"Tilt: hi):li08t IUI1I \ov/vnl ntolltuatiilitl itiilitiitU . . . 
nwHrmcU iu uumbera."— Miriffiti : Oiijin iff ajieciet, 
L'li. xi. 

mol-lus-coid'-e-^, mol-liis coid'-a, a. 

I L;it. mollusc jini), and Gr. el6o>; (lul'os) =. 

1. Znol. : A liranch of the animal kingdom 
instituted in ISN by Henry Milne-Kdwatds 
for certain animals which were fumierly 
classed with the Mollusca, ami some of which 
liad ceitain resemblances, chiefly external, 
to them. The name has been used by many 
writers, and iu dillercnt signihcations. At 
first it included the Biachiojmda, ur Lamp 
Shells, the Polyzoa or Bryozua, and the 
'riiiiiciita. Then it was lesti'icted to tlie 
I'uly/nii and the TunicaUi, but in IStiO tlie 
M-rtcbrate alfinities of the latter were recog- 
nized. The name was next given to a grouji 
<-untaining the Brachiopoda and the Pulyzoa ; 
and now it is geneiuily restricted to the 

2. Paheont. : The Brachiopoda range from 
Canibriau times till now. 

mol-lus-c6id'-e-g.n, a. &, s. [Mollus- 


A, As adj. : Belonging to the Molluscoidea. 

B. .4s siibst. : Any iiplividual of tlie Mol- 
Itisonidea (in any of the senses of that word). 

mol lus'-COUS,a. |Rng. moHusr; -oks.] Per- 
t:iiiiing to the mollusiwi ; having the qualities 
ur cliaracteristics of the mollusca. 

"Among tile molltucutLt or aoft-budieU luiimiiU."— 
J'uttuiion : Zo;tifj</, p. J7. 

molluscous animals, $. pi. 

/(jul. : The Midlu.seu (q v.). 

mdl'liis'-cum, s. [Neut. sing, of Lat. mol- 
lusens = soft.] 
t 1. Ord. Laii'j. : A mollusc (q.v.). 

" May prove thnt intui is only the evohitlou of a 
iiiotlusuiiin'—HamiUon : J.ncturai on ^eUtphyxict. i. ~i. 

2. J'atltol. : A skin disease, consisting of 
one or more small tunmurs, from the size of a 
pea to that of a jilgeon's egg. There is a true 
niulhiscum, which is coutiigious, and u false, 
which is noii-cuntagious. 

' mol -lusk, s. [MoLi.T's'-.] 

mdl-lus-kig-er-ous, n. [Eug. visllusk; 
I euiuicctive, ;Mid Lat. ycro^to bear.] Pro- 
ducing molluscs. Used by Huxley to denote 
the elongated tubular sacs sini.etimes found 
attached to an intestinal vessel of Sijnapla 
dlijititla, and containing ova or embryos of a 
jtarasitic mollusc 

t mol-lusk'-ite, s. [Lat. inolUisc[ns) ; suff. 
-(7c {I'aUeont .).] 

I'ulii'.ont. : Black carbonucenns animal mat- 
ter occurring in contrast with other colours 
in Slime kinds of marble. 

M6l-ly (1). s. [See def.] A familiar form of 
til-' name J[aiy, fni nierly in general use. 

Molly Maguires, s. "pl. 
History, cL"C. .* 

\. A secret society formed in Ireland, in 
184:1, to intimidate bailiffs or process-sei'vers 
distraining for rent, or others impounding 
tile cattle of those who were unable or un- 
willing to i>ay rent. The members of the 
association were young men dressed up in 
female attire, and having their faces black- 

"These .l/o??y .}ftt^,iire» wero generally stout nctlve 
vouiii; men. ilresaed aj> In wyniL'ua ulothen, with Iiicf» 
nliioAfliied Of uttierwiati <)isb'iiiseil: ooiiiotiiut-s they 
w.ire cniiw wvev their Lviuuteiimices. sometiiiK's tln-v 
Hiiit'iired tliemKelvet in tin,- moHt (rDitJUttic manner with 
ri'inil cork :On,\it thi-ir t-yfM. mouth, mxl <.'hf<7ks. In 
_ this st.'ite tlit-y used suddenly t<> ^nrprine tlie uiir.>rtu- 
iiRte tnipp^r". keepers, ui' [ii-oi:es.5-sen era. and either 
iliK'k tli>-iii ill l-jg-liol<M. or heat them lu the iiiont 

in 11 Hill i.i tnut;r,sothiitthe .!/"//«/ .>/'(.(7'('><'« liee^une 

thi' tiiiMi 1,1 111! our offlcml.H.'— Z'rc/u/» .y.'cu/id'f* ((/ 
Irish i.i/i, 'Ai, \i. 
2. A similar society formed in 1S77 in the 
mining districts of Pennsylvania. The mom- 
Ihm's sought to effect their purpose by intiini- 
ilation, carried in some crises to murder. 
Se\'eial were brought I0. justice and executed. 

Mdl'-l3^ (2), .-:. [Mallrmokk.] 
Vrniik. : The fulmar {q.v.). 

mdl'-lj^-cdd-dle. «. [Fnini MoUy, n female 
name, an<t OHldle (q.v.).] An etrcniinutu 

person. {SUfwj.) 

"Hiieha thill lei^'vcilijllyfvlluwu Ml uncle IVUet- 
II m.fh,.:ul,ih\ In fiul, *■-(.> .n/e t:ii,^t . JJiU .,., rA« 

Mo-lficb. ■Mo Idob. MD o^m. M&l- 

cliam, ». IGr. Mo\6x {Molwh), from lleb. 
T]Vo (MOltch). in the Old Teslainciit, oxeepl 
in I Kings xi. 7, with n (fto) = " Ihu " pre- 

fixed = the king ; cf. "^'^9 (mi^lcl.) = king.J 
I, Ordinari/ I.un<jiuuje : 

1. Lit. : In the same sense as 11. I. 

2. i'o/. : Some dread or irresistible inlluenco 
or passion, at the shrine of which evcrythhig 
would be saerillced. 

II. Technicallji ; 

1. Comjxir. Uelitj. : The distinctive idol of the 
Ammonites n Kings xi. 7). The (rommunetit 
spelling uf the word is Mulcch (Lev. xx. 2, ;t, 
.ler. xxxii. 35.) Amos has Moloch (v. 2(>). 
Tn show that .Moloch and Milcom are the 
.same, cf. 1 Kings xi. .'., 7. The Mak-ham uf 
Zejih. 1, 5 much resembles Milcum : in 
Hebrew it means *' their king." Perhaps it 
means Molech in 2 Sam. xii, 30, and Jer. 
xlix. 1, 3. Molech was the Ammonite tin 
god. He had a connection witli the plnncl 
S;iturn (the Cliiun (?) of Amos v. 20). Though 
the ulU-ring of children to Muloch was for- 
bidden ill the Musiiic law (Lev. xx. 2, :(), it 
was introduced not htter tlian the reign uf 
Solomon. Its special seat during the Hebrew 
monarchy was in the Valley uf Hinnuni. 
[Gehknna, Toi'Het.] Probably at first tin- 
children were phiced in the lire, and hit 
there till they were consunied (Lev. xx. 2, ;i ; 
Jer. vil. 21) ; then after humanity, perhaps at 
the instance uf the mothers, began to assert 
itself over cruel supei-stition, the chihlrcn 
were passed hastily Ihi'Uigh the fire, so as to 
give them at least some liope of lile (Lev. 
xviii. 21 ; Jer. xxxii. 35). [NttuKiKE.] 

2. Z'lol. : A genus of I.,izards, family 
Aganiida.'. It contains but one species, Molot-Ji 
hurridns, fiom Austmlia. It is about six 
inches in length, aimed on the head, body, 
limbs, and tail, with spines of large siiic, 
whence its popular name, Thorn-devil. 

Mo-lO'kan (pi. Mo-lo-ka'-ni), s. (Kuss. 
»i'j^i/:(i = milk.] Milk-di inker; <ine of a serf 
ill Russia who olwt^ive the laws of Moses ic 
gai'ding meat, forbid the use of images ui 
the sign of the cross, and consider all wais 
unlawful. Tliey derive their name from the 
quantity of niilk-food eaten by them. 

mO'lo -pe^,5. pi. [Gr. /iwAui^ (iiwlOps), genii. 
(jnokMTTos (moldpos) = the mark of a stripe, a 
]'afhot. : Petechiic (q.v.). 



mO'los'-si, s. 2'1. [MoLossi's.] 

Zoul. : A group formed by Dr. Dobson, " fur 
the reception of tlirce genera of Kmballonu- 
ridic : Molossus, Nyetinomns, and Glieiro- 
meles." (i'roc. ZooL :ioc., lS7i3, iq>. 702-7JJ.) 

md-los-si'-nse, s. pi. [Mod. Lat. wu)/o*j(jis); 

Lat. fen., pi. adj. sulf. -ituc.] 

/■"•!. : A sub-family uf Kmballonurid;r. It 
cuiiljuis two groups ; Molussi and Mystacinar. 

mo lOS-SUS, .s. IGr. MoAo<r<r6s (.U'j/'Wjww) = 
laduining to Molussia, a district of Kpints. 
celebrated fur i>roducing a kind of wolf-dog 
used by Hheiiherds.J 

1. Gr. £ Lat. I'rosody : A foot of thi"ee long 

2. Zool. : The typical genus of the grtuip 
Molnssi. Kars close, or united at luisc of 
inner margin; tmgus very short; extremity 
ofmuzzle bruad, obtuse or obliquely trunwi ted ; 
lips smooth, or with very indistinct vertical 
wrinkles; back i»f toes covered witli lung 
curved hair. Itaiige : tropical and sub-tropi- 
ciil regions of America. Dr. Dobson cnunicr- 
atcji nine sjiecies. 

mSl'-d-tbr^ s. [Etyni. doubtful; Agassiz 
gives Gr. fxwAoc (mo/os) = toil, and 0pov^ 
(thrc'is) =0. cunfnse*! noise; McXiculI gives 
^oAeii' (mi'lriii) = lo transjihinl. Oili(iiiis 
suggests that vntlolhriis is a mistjike ; and that 
Gr. /i.oAoj3pd« (motohroa) ■= a glutton, was in- 
tended by Swainson.] 
Ornith. : A genus of Ict«rid(e, with s|H!eics 

boil, bo^ : poiit. jowl ; cat, 9ell, chorus, 9hin, bench : go, gem I thin, this : sin, as : expect, ^enophon. exist, ph = t 
-ciau, -tian - shan. -tion, -slon = shun ; -tion. -sion = zhiln. -cious, -tious, -sious = shas. -bio, -die, Ac. = beU del. 


molotto— momentousness 

itinghig frnm Lit Pl.'itii to tlip Xorthent United 
fcjtJites. Uill slmit ami stmit. latenil tm*s 
nearly otniiil, claws nither small ; tail lu-aily 
I'Veii ; winjis \<>u-^, puintKil. As fur as is 
known, they make no m-st, Imt depusit their 
(■^';,'s iu llu' nests of otluT (usually smaller) 
liirils. The best known s(ti'cii'S is Mulotliru.t 
jtevoris, jiopularly Uiiown as tlie (Jow-biril lu* 
Cow lihirkbird, "fiorii their keeping about 
that animal, and finding, either from her 
j)arasiti^ insects or her dr-ippiiigs. opjiortuni- 
lies for f(M»d." Tlie male has tiie neck, head, 
and anferior half of the breist light chocolate 
blown ; rest of the body bjai-k, with nu;tallic 
lustre. Tlie female is light olivaceous luuwii 
all over. liill antl feet black iu both sexes. 
{Uiiint, Brewer, &. liidijwtuj.) 

' mO-lot'-tO, S. [Ml'LATTO.] 

' molt, 
' molt. 

molte,j"r/. & ii(i.})nr. 
■./. IMol-LT.] 

ofr. [Melt.] 

molt'-a-ble, ". [Eng. moU ; -tthl'.] Capable 
ol Liein;^ imlted ; melta.ble. 

fmdlf-en. pa. ^wn. or a. [Melt.] Melted; 

lii;ide of irielted metal. 

" Ami lie iii-'ule .1 tiinHiir sen, ten cubits froiu the tme 
l>i hii lu tlie utlier."— 1 Kiitjs \U. 2'S. 

mol'-to, (ch: [Itab] 

Music : Much, very : as, moHo ailagln, very 
slow ; iiinlto allegro, very quick ; nwltosoateiiKto. 
mueli sustained. 

Mo-luc'-ca, .*. [See def.] 

'!c(>'h (/'/.); All alternative name for the 
^^l>i(■e Islaiids in the Asiatic Archipelargo. 

Molucca-balm, ^. 

ij(j(. : !Molucella, a geiins of Labiatie. 

Molucca-bat, ;^. 

Zool. : Iliirpn'm cppholotes, tlie Harpy ISat. 
It was called the Mohieea bat by Pennant and 
iSliaw. It is found in the islands of Celebes 
and Ainboyna. 

mol'-vai, s. [Etym. doubtful.] 

IchUti/. : A genus of Gadidie, erected for the 
iTcei'tiou of the Ling, ,V(j/(v( i-n!ffarh, otlier- 
wise I.'ittt mnlva. It ililfers fioni Lota inlia\iiig 
seveial teeth in the lower jaw and on tlie 

mo'-li?, .v\ [Lat., from Gr. fiw\v {mdhi), from 
fjutt}\vui (tn'Vito) = to mitigate.] 

1. A fabulous plant, to which were ascribed 
magic propmties. It had a black roi)tantta 
white hlussom, and was given by Hermes to 
Ulysses to countei'act the spells of Circe. 

■■ £la(.'k M.1S tlie root, but milky white the flower ; 
Jful;/ the inline, to iiiurt.ils hunt to fiml." 

J'opc: Homer: Odi/aiey x. SO-'j. 

2. Wild Garlic, AUin,ii Moly. 

% Mwarf Moly is Allium Ckamcaiioln; 
H'>nier"s Mrdy is -4. viagicum. 

mo-lyb'-date, .«. [Eng. nwlijhl(iv); -ate.] 
CIn-ui. : A salt of niolybdic acid. 
molybdate of iron, .«. 

Mi'i. : A mixtuie.if ini'lvbditew'ith limonite 


molybdate of lead, s. 

Min. : The siiiiie as Wulkexite (q.v.). 
mo-lyb -den-a, s. [Molybdenum.] 

mo-lyb'-den-ite, .^. [Eng. Molybdenum ; 
sutf. -(7f (.U(;i.).] 

Mill. : A soft mineral occurring mostly iu 
foliated masses, or as aggregates of minute 
scales, rarely in tabular, hexagonal crystals. 
Crystallization, yet nncertaiii ; hardness, 1 to 
I'O; sp. gr. 4*-t to 4S; lustre, metallic ; colour, 
lead-gray, opaque ; laminae, flexible, seetile ; 
leaves a gray trace on paper. Compos. : sub 
I'hur. 41-0; molybdenuin, 59*0 = lUO, cnire- 
]iMiiding with the formula M0S2. Found dis- 
tiibuted through cryst^xUiiie rocks, sometimes 
in considerable amount. Called also Molyb- 

mo-lyb'-de-niim, s. [Lat. vw/nlxhr-na; Gr. 

/loAu^oaii'a {molulxhiiiifi) = galena (q.V.), from 
Lat. hiubihdus: Gr. ^loAu^Sos {niolubdos), and 
/xoAu^Sis (molubdi^) = lead. 

Cliciii. : A Tnetallic, hexad element, dis- 
covered by Hjelni iu 17S-J ; symbol, Mo ; 
atomic weight, 95'5 ; molecular weight nn- 
knnwu ; sp. gr. S'O, It is of rare occurrence, 
liut is found iu combination, with sulphur as 

nu'Iybdenile. MoS".j; with oxygen iu ni'dyli- 
denniu oelire, Mo()-j; and as lead molvlidate, 
M'.OoPbO, ill wultV-iiile. The metal" is ob- 
tained by heatiuj^ imdybdic anhydride, (Utine 
of the cidoriiles. tn redness in a current <it' 
hyilrugen. It is a silver-white, brittle, alini>st 
iiifusilile nu't;il, permanent in air at ordinary 
tempeiMlures, but wln-u Iieale<l it oxiiii/cs, 
and is nltiiiiatelv n.nveited itdn nmlvlidi.- 
anhydride. It is not atlack.-d by .lilute liytlin- 
chl'itic iir sulphuiie acids, but is readily dis- 
s<d\e 1 in aqua-regia, or in hot cotieentnited 
sulphuric - acid. Molybdeiiuiii Ininis with 
ox\gi-u the fnilowiiig oxides : li\ [.nmoh lidoiis 
o\idc, :\Io() ; diniulvbdnus trii.xide. .Sln..O-i; 
uii.IvIhIous uxi.le. M. )().,, and mulvltdie auliv- 
diide, MoO.i, all of rehittvciv sli;4ht import- 
ance. It f(n"ms four chlorides, MnfU, M0..CI,;, 
MnClj, aiKlMtiCls; and three sulpludes. Mo??.., 
MoSj, and M(.S4, tlie last Iw.i being acid sul- 
phides, and iuiniing sulphur salts. 

molybdenum -oxide, .-•. [Molvudite.] 

molybdenum sulphide, >. [Molvb- 

Vi.Sii t:.l 

mo lyb -die, mo-lyb doiis, «. [Eng. wo- 
liih<l{viniiii): -"'. -lo/.s-.j Pertaining to or derived 

fiulil luniybdi'nuiu. 

molybdic acid, a. 

llirni.: M'..0:.(_)II-j. It separates as a white 
crystalhne powder, when bydmchlorie or 
nitric acid is added to a solution of a molyb- 
ilate. It is insolulile in water. l»ut soluble in 
an excess of an acid, and is uwd, in combina- 
tion with ammonia and nitric acid iu testing 
for uiinnte qnantiiies (.if phosphoric acid. 

xnolyb die -ochre, s. [Mulv«uite.] 

molybdic-silver, s. 

Mill. : The s:ime as Wehrlite (q.v.). 

mo-lyb'-dine, ■-^. [MoLvnDrrt:.] 
mo-lyb'-dite, mo lyb-dine, .•;. [Eng. 

nfli/h'l(^r„Hm); suit, -ih; -hif {Min.): Ger. 

Mill. : An orthoihombic mineral occurring 
in giiiups of capillary ciy>rtids, or as an 
earthy encrustation. Hardness, 1 to :i ; sji, 
gr. 4*40 to 4'JU ; colour, straw-yellow. Com- 
]ins. : oxygen, .ii"2ii ; tnolybdeiinm, tj5'71 = 
IDU, corresponiliiig with tin- f'Tiimla M0O3. 
Also formed in crystals at tilici;illy. C'alle*! 
al.-to Molybdenum-oxide aiul .Molybdic-t)ehre, 

mb-lyb-do-me'-nite, .<;. [Gr. /hoAu^So? = 
lead; fxijvi) t(iR','ir)= tlie moon, and sutf. -itc 

Mill. : A mineral occurring in very thin and 
fi;igile lamella-. Crystallizaliou.orthorhnmbic 
{':). Compos. ; a selenate of had. PouikI 
with elialcomeiiite and cobalti>menit'' in the 
Cerro de CacltfUta, south-cast of Mendoza, 
Ai'geiitine Republic. 

m,6'-ly-§ite, s. [Gr. n6\vai<; (iiiolusis) = a 
stain ; Ger. molysit.] 

Mill.: A minenil foi'ming brownish-red ti> 
yellow encrustations on the lavas of Vesuvius. 
Compos. : chloritie. 00"j ; iron, :t4'5 = lUO, 
corresponding with the formula PeoCl^. 

' mome, s. [O. Fr. mnmf, viomme, from Liit 
iiintiiiis,; Gr. M(I»/ios (iUi7Hioi') = the god of rail- 
lery or mockery.) 

1, A clown, a butfooii. 

2. A stupid, dull fellow ; a blockhead. 

" M-tinr, uiatthurse, cjiiioii. cuxcotnb, idiot. jMitch." 
.Shakesp. : Comctt'/ of Ermrt, iii, 1, 

mo'-ment, s. [Fr., from Lat. nnomeiituin. (for 
luovimfittiiiK) =■ a uioveMient, an instant, mov- 
ing force, weight, from nioveo =■ to nujve ; Ital. 
& r<p. muinento.] 

1. Onliiiary Language : 

1. Momentum; impulsive power or weight. 

"TtMich with lightest moiiienl <if iui|>ulse 
Hus £ree-\vill.^ Mitlmi : P. /,.. x, 45. 

2. Ciiusequeiice, importance, weight, value, 
intluenee, cnusiiU'iatiou. 

" Jljitters of pivrtt vioment." 

Shakvip.: liichnrd HI-, iii. 7. 

* ,3. An essential element ; an important 
4. The smallest portion of time ; an instant. 

•■ So soon swift i^tiie her lost ground regMiiM, 
One lentil, uct; tnouifnt, \y.v\ the nure ubttviii'tl." 

/'ope. Homvr ; /Hot/ xxiii. 606. 
II. Techiiically: 

■ 1. Math. : An increment or decrement ; an 
iuflnitesiinal change in a varial)le (piantity. 

2. Mechaiiirs: 

The )ii(i)dent 11/ n force is: — 

(1) iri/ft re-tjierf to a point : The ]irodnct of 
the force into the distainc of this point tntiu 
its line of action. 

(■2) With rcspirt (n a line: The product of 
the c<impom-nt of the fnrcc which is perpen- 
dicular tn the line, into the shortest distam-.- 
between the line auil the direction nf tld.-. 

(:i) }\'ith respect to a plune : The jiroduct of 
the force into the ijcrpeiidicular distance of its 
point of application from the plane. 

^ (1) Moment of a oiipfe : The product of 
either of the furces into the perpendicular be- 
tween them. 

(2) Moment of inertia: The sum of the pro- 
<bicts ot the mass of each particle of a rotating 
IhkIv into the square of its distance from the 
axis of rotation. 

(.1) .Stiitiiiil moment : The moment of eipuli- 
briuui between opposite forces. 

(4) I'irtnal viamcut of a force : The product 
of the intensity of the ftuce into the virtual 
velocity of its point of application. 

(5) Moment of a magnet : The product of tlie 
strength of either of its poles by the distance 
between them. Or more rigoiuusly, a quan- 
tity wliich. when multiplied liv the" inten.sity 
of a nniform liehl, gives the couple which the 
magnet txperiences when held with its axis 
jieriieHdiciilar to the line <if force in this held. 
{Everett : C. (./. .S. .System of L'nit.<: (iSTa), p. 5S.) 

(tj) Moment of momentum : [Momen'ti'm, ^]. 

mo'-ment, r.t. [Mo.ment, s.] To ariange 
to a nioiiient. 

" All.-iocideiitsiire niiiuiteil .inil ma'nc»te\i hy Divine 


. xn. 

^ mo-ment'-al, c (Eng. ■ ; -a!.] 

1. Lasting only for a moment ; momentary ; 
very briel. 

" Not uuc innmentni tniiiute dotlL&he swerve" 

tttetun : Sir I', Sidnfi/'sOurituia. IIC'C.) 

2. Slomcntous. 

■ mo-ment'-al-ly, of?r. [Eit^. mmnental ; -ly.} 
l-'ui a moment ; momentarily. 

"Air liiit >no)iu-ntntti/ i-euutining in our )>udies, liatU 
iiu pruiiurtiuiiHlile si>at.-e for its uou vent ion." — Itrvwne 
i'n/jitr J-Jrrunrs. 

' md-men-ta'-ne-ous, ' mo-men'-tane^ 

" mo -men-tan-y, o. [Lat. m^imvalfnci'.-, 

fri-ni iH'iinindiin = ;i mument ; I'r. momiutuuif.l 
Lasting but a moment ; momeiitaiy. 

mo nxent - an - i - ness. mo-ment-^ 

an-i-neSSe, ^. [Eng. nin„u?ntn,ni ; -urss.\ 

" Howe iluth tlie inoinfittiintneue ot this misery udili 
to the niisfiy."— /((»ft«i/> UaU: Churaater 0/ .Man. 

' mo-men -tan-y, a. [Momentaxeocs.] 

mo-ment-ar-i-ly, adv. [Eng. viomentory r 


1. Ft)r a moment ; so as to last only z 

2. Kveiy moment ; from mouifiutto moment 

mo-ment-ar-i-ness, ^. [Eng. momentary: 
-nesti.\ The' quality or state of being mo- 
mentary ; brief duration. 

mo'-ment-ar-Sr, a. [Lat. mpmentarins.fitwr^ 
moiiiriitinn =n mument (q.v.).J Lasting only 
for a moment ; done or jiast In a mument. 
■■ The tit is u.oiwiitfti-y." S/i<tkcsp. : Macbeth, iii. 4. 

' mo'-ment -ly, iulr. [Eng. moment; •ly.\ 
FiHiii uionient to moment; every moment; 

" I hear ye moi}m>ttg .-vlioee. l>e!ieRHi, 
Cl;t:sli with ii frc({r.ent i-ouUiut- ' 

liKraii : Manfred, i. 2. 

md-ment'-OUS, a. [I-at. OiiomentosiiS, fiMJii 
m'liitfDtiim =a nmmeut (q..v,).] Of niomeiit ; 
of weight or consequence ; weighty, im- 

" A motne'ifcm question which Hilmltted uf no 
(leljiy. ■— .t/.i.v((.f-(// Jlrst. f/iy., cli. xi. 

mo-ment'-OUS-ly, adv. [Eng. i)iomeutouf=: 
•ly.] iu a momentous degree; weightily; 
witli great weight, consequence, or importance. 

mo-ment'-ous-ness, s. [Eng. womenlovL- : 
• w.s.'t.] The (piality or state uf being luomeut- 
ous ; importance, weight, moment. 

flte, fS-t, fare, amidst, w^hat, fall, father ; we, wet. here, camel, her, there : pine, pit, sire, sir, marine : go, p^c, 
or, wore, wolf, work, who, son ; mute, cub, ciire, unite, cur, rule, full ; try, Syrian, se, ce — e ; ey — a ; q.u — Ur/.. 

momentum— monad 


mo - ment- uxn, s. [Lat. for viovimentinn, 
lioiii ini>veo= to move.] 
I. Oifliiiary I.anijuage : 
1. An ini]uilse. an inii'etns. 

"Thnt )ii<»ii.-iiru'<i lit ik-ii-imnce. rTuhiifss, pivhiiiiii)- 

tiiiii, Hiiil lust of )i|iiiiiler »liicti iiuthtii^ lnu* imtuii itbU' 

to realtl."— //'"•*'■ , O'l the French Kepotulhii. 

'2. A I'onstitiieiit or essential element. 

IL Mtrh. : The force possessed by matter 

ill motion ; the protlnet of the mass by the 

\ elority of a body. Thus ;i Kill of four pounds 

wei;;ht movinj^ uniforiuly at the ratt- of 

eighteen feet in a second would liave doublf 

the momentum that one of three pounds 

weight mov iiit; at the rate of twelve feet jter 

second would possess, for 4 x IS is 7*2, aiul 

3 X 1L»= yo, or lialf as much. The force of 

j>ercussion, that is, the force with whieh a 

movinj; body strikes an object, is the same in 

amount as thf momeiitmu of tlie former. 

" 1( L aUiids fur leiiL-th. T for time. «ml M fur miuw. 

tlieii tnonteiititvi is 


-Epejftt: C. G.S. Sff»U-> 

rnits aSTS), ch. i., 1). 5. 

if Aii'jiihr vwnientuni: The product of 
moment of inertia by angular velocity, or 
the product of momentum by leuj^tli. If M 
stamls for nuiss, L for length, and T for time, 

then au','uLar momentum is —-. Called also 

Moment of Jlomentum. (Ecevett : C. (;. iy. 
.sv/c-ft^Ht of ihiits (lS7o), ch. i., p. 6.) 

zno -mi-er, s. [Fr.. from O. Fr. momer = to 
mun>m, tn mask oneself.] A name given in 
contempt or ridicule by the Fi-ench and Swiss 
Calvini^ts, in ISIS, to certain persons, chieHy 
tfwiss, who seceded from their communion. 

• mom -ish. t. (Eng. momi*'); -ish.] Foolish. 

" Di-soovereU lyps to m-inig/t luouthea." 

Vcriet fjr.jijTcd to Gooffc't Kglo'js. 

* mom -mer-3?^, s. [Mlmmerv.] 

md~mor'-di-ca» 6". [From Lat. T\wrdco (perf. 
moiuunli) = to bite, because the seeds look as 
if bitten.] 

But. : A genus of Cucurbitaccfe, tribe Cu- 
cmbite;r. The leaves are lobed or compound, 
the flowei-s white or yellow, monoecious or 
dinecious. Males with three stamens and 
zigzag antliers, two of them two-celled, the 
thiril one-celled. Fruit fleshy, prickly, or 
wai-ty. Found in the liotter pai-t-s of both 
hemispheres. Momfmlicn Charantia has a 
bright orange-yellow fruit, one to six inches 
long. It is cultivated throughout India. Two 
varieties of it are known in Bengal. After 
lieing washed in hot water to diminish its 
bitterness, it is eaten by the Hindoos in their 
unrries. It is used in India internally as a 
laxative, and as an ointment for sores ; the 
juice ns a mild piii"gative for children ; the 
astringent ror)t in hvemorrhoids. The fruit 
and leaves are used as an autlielmintic, also 
in piles, leprosy, and jaundice. The former 
is tonic, stomachic, and given in diseases of 
the spleen and liver. M. tlioica grows wild in 
India, where the young and tender fruit is 
eaten by the natives with the tuberous roots 
of the female i>lant. The root is used also to 
stop bleeding from piles, and in bowel com- 
I'laints. Aiuslie says that wheti mixed witli 
C'iC'Kinut, I'epper, and red sandal-wood anil 
n|>pli.-d in the form of a liniment it relieves 
headaihe M. cochinchinAHisis is eaten. The 
fruit of M. Balsinnina has a smooth orange or 
yellow fruit, one to four inches long. Pickled 
or steejied in oil, it is a vidncran,'. M. Elate- 
Tiim. cnllcd also Echalium aip-este, is the Squirt- 
ing (_'ucuni\«ir (q.v.). M. npcrcuiata is a drastic 
purgative. Tlie fruit of jl/. vwiiddeJplia, called 
also I'occiiiid iiuUcd, is eaten by the natives 
uf India ill their curries. 

md-mor'-cU-fine. s. [Mod. Lat. vwrnor- 
diii'i): sufI". -inr (Chem.).'] 

Cln'iii.: The same as Elaterix (q.v.). 

mo'-m.dt, s. [MuTMOT.] 

mo-mot i-dpg, '''. />'. (Mod. Lat. vuiinot(ii.^) ; 
L;it. fern. pi. adj. -i'l'i:.] 

Oniith.: Motmots ; a family of tissiroslral 
liicarian birds, ranging from Mexico to Para- 
guay, and to the west coast of Ecuador, but 
having their hea<.l-<niarter3 in Central America. 
f?i\ gciifiti are known. 

m6-m6'-tUS,5, [Latinised fronu)U)(»M)((«i. v.). ] 

0,-uith. : Motniot, the tvpical genus of the 

fanulyMnniutid:e(q.v.). T<Mispeciesareknown, 

ranging from Mexico tn Brazil anil IJulivia. 
one species extending to Tolwgo, mid one tt> 
Western Rcnadnr. Tlie general plumage is 
Kreen.aml most of the species have the strange 
habit of denuding the central rectrices of tlie 
web with their Ix-aks. [Spatule, 2.] 

md'-mtis, >■. H-iv, fxCifiot (momos) =(1) ridicule, 


1. <:i: Muth.: Uidii'ulo personified; the 
critic god, tlie son of Night. (Ilesiod : Tlteog., 
■JI.) He bhimed Vulcan for not having placed 
a window in the huuuiu breast. 

■ 2. Ord. Lajuj. : One who carps at every- 
thing ; a querulou.s person. 

*[ Momus' lattice : An imaginary window in 
the human breast that the thoughts might be 

" Were .l/ftmiM' Inttice in our breasts. 
My Soul iiiiglit brook to upen it more widely 
Tliiui thiiu'. Byron : Werner, iii. 1. 

mon-* ynon-o-, jjr**/. [Gr. fj.ovo'; (monos) = 
al'iii.-, suit-.] A common prefix in words 
di-rivrii IV. im the Greek, and signifying unity 
or singleness. 

md'-n^, s. [Si>. & Ital. = an old woman.] 

Xiiol. : Cercopithecus moiin, a monkey from 
Senegal. It is remarkable for its brilliant 
coloration ; the head being olive-yellow, 
with a black stripe on the forehead; yellowish 
whiskers and a purple face. The back is 
chestnut-brown, and there is a white spot on 
fMch side near the root of the tail, which is 
black. (Mivfrt.) 

mdli-a-c&Il'-thiis, s. [Pref. vwn-, and Or. 
aKav&a {•ihinth") = a spine.] 

Irhthii. : A genus of plectognathous fishes, 
family Sclerodermati, group Balistina. There 
is only one dtut;d spine, and the rough scales 
are so small as to give the skin a velvety ap- 
jiearance. Adult males of some species have 
minute spines arranged in rows on each side 
of the tail, or the spines of the scales de- 
veloped into bristles. Common in the Atlan- 
tic, sometimes wandering to the British 
coasts. Fifty species are known, 

mon-ac'-e-tin, s. [Pref. ynoji-, and Eng. nofiui,] 
Ch.'m.. : C:,H5(OH)^(0-CoH;jO). Glyceryl di- 
liydrate acetate. A colourless oily liquid 
obtained by heating gly(;erine witli glacial 
acetic acid for some time, to a temperature of 
100°. It is miscible with a small quantity of 
water, but is decomposed by a large quantity. 

■ m on.'- a- chal» a. [Eccles. Lat. monachalis, 
in-m inninirhus = a^monk (q.v.); Fr. & Sp. 
iiK'nnnil ; Ital. momicate.] Pertaining or rela- 
ting to monks or monastic life ; monastic. 

mdn'-a-clusm, s. [Fr. inonachistne, from 
Eccles. Lat* mo II fi-:hus = a monk. J The system 
of monastic life ; monkery, monkishuess. 

"What Itiboiiris t<» IteeiidureJ turning over vol iiuies 
f>f rubbish iu tlie re-st, Florence of WorLest*;r. Huiitiuy- 
tloii, Simeon of Purliiim, Uoveden, Miitthew of Weat- 
niinster. .ind many otht-rs of obscurer not*, with aU 
their mo}iiichitiiitt, is a iHrniiuce to think. '—JIUtoii : 
Hut, E/ig.. bk. iv. 

5 The ultimate fact on which monachism 
rests is that many people are born with a 
teuilency tr) contemplation ratlier than to 
active exertion, and, if pious, consider that 
they will be more free from temptiition to sin 
by retiring from the ordinary world. Hot 
climates tend to strengthen these feelings, 
and monachism has flourishedmorelnxuriautly 
iu Asia, Africa, and Southern Europe, than iu 
the collier north. 

(1) Ethnic Monachism: The most gigantic 
di'velopnientof monacliism the world has ever 
SI en was that of IJooddhisni (q.v.), and it was 
the earliest iu point of date. The Jain system 
is also monastic. Brahnuuism possessed it 
to a less, but still to a considerable extent. 
Of the Hindoo Triad the worship of Brahma 
scarcely exists; connected with that of 
Vishnu and Siva there are many ni'-nastir 
orders or sects. Of the former, Uv. Ib-rice 
Ilayman Wilson enumerates nineteen, and of 
the* latter eleven, with fourteen others, some 
sub-.iivided {Works (lSti2), i. 12). Curiously 
enough, most of tliem arose about the same 
tlates as the leading religious ordei-s uf 
Christendom were instituted, as if Oriental 
mid Western minds advanced equally, or some 
can-^e had <q>emted simultaneously both in 
the East and the West. 

(2) Jewish MonnchUm: Tlic Xazarites were 
an ascetic sect temporarily under vows, but 

iii't biimid to ctdilwicy. whidi Is nowhere 
eiijf.ined even on iirieMts under the Mosaic 
law. Khjtth and John the Baptist hati moua.H- 
tic tendencies (1 Kings xvii. ;i, 4, xix. !-'.»; 
2 Kings i. S; Matt. iii. 4). But genuine 
Jewish mounstlcisni. with its celibacy as well 
as its asceticism and sechision from society, 
seems to have begun with the Kssenes (q.v,). 
au'l to have been coutinm>d by the Theraii-utic 

(3) Christum Afotmrhism : In the second 
century certjiin ivrsons who aiuu-d at stricter 
jiiety than their neighlMiurs, often held con- 
verse together without quite separating from 
society. They weit- called ascetics, ami wen- 
the successors oft he TherapeulH", who prepared 
the way for the rise of mnniicliisni. In tin- 
third century Paul ranged thnuigh the desert 
of Thebais in Uj'per Egyjit during the Di-ciiin 
I'-i~iTtitii)iis. He ami (tthers who act'd 
Miiiil.irly were cidle<l Anachorets or .\ti- 
ehcrites, or persons who i-elire from society, 
i"eclusea. solitaries I Anchor itkI, also ere- 
mites or hermits, that is, persons who live 
in the desert. (Krejiitk.) They frecjuently 
ri'si'iiil in caves. In ;105 Anthony, an 
E;,'y|itian monk, collected many uf the ere- 
mit'•^ Milo communities. These were called 
cieniibites from their living in common. Iu 
111 is he was largely assisted by his disciple 
Pacbomius. The same discipline spread 
tlnougli Western Asia and Euiope. From 
among the Eremites who lived apart from 
each oflifr sjirung the ??arabaites and Gyro- 
vagi (Vagalnmd monks), disrepuUible races, 
tin- ^t>lit's, ur Pillar Saints, associated for ever 
with the name of Simeon, who died in 461, 
with other ramifications. At all the 
mniiaslic .-stablishments followed the rule of 
Pachoniius, but in the early part of the sixth 
century St. Benedict intriHUieeil new regula- 
tions, aud all the monastic oniers for wnne 
centuries were Benedictine. Many onlinary 
monks becoming enmipt, the new Order of 
Canons was instituted in the twelfth century, 
aud, as the great wealth which their com- 
munities had acquired was believed to be one 
of the main causes of that corruption, there 
arose, in the beginning of the tliirt^'enth 
century, different mcndic;tnt orders, the mem- 
bers oi" which vowed poverty. IMksuuant- 
okdeks.] At first all the monks were laymen ; 
now they consist of three classes.: (1) priests ; 
{■_•) choir monks, in minor orders ; and (;i) lay- 
ijrotlieis, who act as servants and labourers. 
Originally they were under the jurisdiction of 
the bisliop, but ultimately they weie exempt 
from all authority excei>t that of the Holy 
See. The influence of the mendicant onb-rs 
was on the wane at the Keformation, and tlu^ 
Jesuits took their jdace. At that date numy 
monasteiies in Englaiul and elsewhere wen? 
deprived of their endowments and suppressed. 
Those of France were swept away in the first 
liev'dntion. Though since restored, they have 
not attained their former iun)ort;ince. (Mon- 
ASTERV, Monk, Xvn.] 

mon'-a-Ch&S, s. [Lat., from Gr. /ioraxo'f 

(iDiiiiiuhos) = a monk.] 

Zoof. : A genus of Phocidaj, called by F. 
Cuvier Pelagius. Momicku.t nlhiventfr is tin* 
Monk-seal (q.v.). M. tropicalis, a Jamaican 
species, is ju'obably distinct. 

mon-dc-tin-el-li-dse, >. j»/. [Pref. vwh-; 
Mod. Lat. net i net la —a little ray, and Lat, 
fem. pi. ad.], snlf. -ifUr.] 

Zonl. : A name usually given to a sub-onler 
of Silicispongise, more projierly called Monax- 
onidie (q.v.), since they aie characterized by 
being uni-uxial, not by being one-rayed. 

mon-^d, 8. [Lat. vwnas (genit. vvinadis) = i\ 

unit, from Or. tkova^ (mojmj!t)=:ft unit, from 
/ioi'Of (»tOfio:<) = alone, single; Sp. wouada; 
Ital. nwnadc] 

I. Onl. lAiufj. ; An tiltimate atom or mole- 
cule ; a simple substance without jiarts ; a 
primary constituent of matter. 

"But that whicli U of niorv rmimentyrt: wr)ia\P 

thp .\uthi.'rity uf Ki:|>hHiitun a famous Pythayoti-Aii (or 

tlilH, that r>'tliH4tunui hill uionatU, ftu tiivicli tMlk<sl of. 

wt-rr imtliin^- elae but cor^wrvnl ittuuuk" — C'uittturih: 

Jiirrf. Snilrin, \t. 13. < 

IL Tccknicfdly: 

1. Chrm. : Univalentclemcnt. Annmegivon 
to those elements whi<di can dirrclly unite 
witli, or replace, one atom of hydrogen in n 
compound. Tlie monad elements an* hydro- 
gen, chlorine, bromine, iodine, finorine, 
lithium, 8o<liiini, potassium, ruthenium, cae- 
sium, aud silver. 

boil, boy: pout, jowl ; cat, 9ell, chorus, 9hin. bcnph: go, gem; thin, this: sin. as: expect. Xenophon. exist, -ing. 
-clan, -tian = shan. tion. -sion = shun : tion. -sion = zhun. cious, tious, sious shus. -blc. -die, -vc ^ hcl, dcL 


monadaria— monarcliy 

2. PhiloL : A jiinnosyllnV-ic wunl or r'»A\ 
specif, a inonosyilaWc root of tlie isolating 
I'lass of languages. 

3 Fhilos.: A term first used by Giordano 
Bnino (circ. lo4S-li3U0), and adopted iu a 
sUglitlv different sense and Itmuglit into 
]>roni ill once by Leibnitz (l'J4S-17Hi). To avoid 
the Atomism of Gassendi. he conceived a 
number of true unities, without extension, but 
endowed witli the of an iuternal life, 
thus distinguishing them from atoms. Qlerz.) 

•• Monnd is the term given by Leibiiltx to eiiiivle jiii- 
exteiidwl sul'staiice ; tliat is a aubstance which \\:v^ 
the Tiowerof nctiuii ... All mou<id.i have M.-ns. Imt 
the ide^is ..f the different mona U are of aLil.-r,.-i.t 
decrees of cleariiesa. God is the priuntive mon vl. t\u- 
rniiiao- subatiiuce ; aU other m-inada n.\e its fultrtuii^ 
tious God has iioue but adequjite ideas. Every suul 
is a monad. Plants and miuemla are, as it were. 8leei>- 
iug monnda witli unconscious ideas. In plauta these 
idriu are formative vital forces : in animals they take 
■ the form of seusatioo and memory ; m humim souls 
they disclose themselves in consciousness, reason ; 
they approach, thougli they do not attain, the cleai-- 
iiess of the adequate ideas possessed by God. —Hist. 
/•unthaUm. 11. 207, 2o8. 

4. Zool : (See extract). 

'•No better illustration of the impossibility of 
dmwiiig any sharply defined distiiitition bet«-eeu 
animals and plants can be found, than that which is 
supplied by the history of what are termed Mounds. 
The name of Monad has been commonly applied to 
minute free or fixed, rounded or oval bodies, provided 
with one or more long cilia, and usu:iUy provided with 
a nucleus and a contractile vacuole. . . . Some are 
locomotive conditions of indubittble plants ; others 
are embryonic conditions of as indubitable aniru.' 
Yet othei-s are embi^ouic forms of orgauisms vvhich 
appear to be as much animals as piauts ; and of others 
' it is impoasilvle to say whetlier they should be re- 
giirded as animals or as plaxiii.' '— Suzie!/ : Anat. 
Inwrt. Animals, pp. W, 45. 

monad-radical, s. 

Chfm. : A compound radical which can re- 
j.lace one atom of hydrogen, or which requires 
only one equivalent of a monad element to 
satisfy its active atomicity. 

^ m6n~a-dar-i-a, s. rl. [Lat. monas, geuit. 
monadOii); neut. pi. ailj. sutf. -aria.] 

Zool. : De Blaiuville's name for tlie In- 

mon-a-d^l'-phi-a, s. jjL [Pref. irwn- (q.v.) ; 
Ur. a6e\>i>6<; iaddj-jkos) = a. brother, and Lat. 
iieut. pi. adj. sutf. -ia.] 

Bot. : The sixteenth class in Linnaeos's 
system. The stamens constitute a single 
••'brotherhood" or bundle, being united with 
a single tube. There are seven orders, Trian- 
diia, Pentandiia, Heptandria, Octandria, Dec- 
andria, Dudecandria, and Polyandria (q.v.). 

t mon-S^del'-phi-an, «. & s. [Mod. Lat. 
monadeljjhi(a) ; Eng? suff. -an.] 

Botany : 

A. ^45 adj. : The same as MoSADELpnous 

B. -4s snhst. : A plant of the Linnfean class 
Monadelphia (q.v.). 

mon-a-der-phon, s. [Monadelphia.] 

Bot. : A culumu of stamens united iuto a 

mon-a-del'-phous, a. [Mod. Lat. monadel- 
■ph{'o); Eng. suff. -ous.] 

Bot.: Combined into one "brotherhood," 
or bundle; having all the stamens united 
into a single tube, as iu the Malvaceae. 

* mon-ad'-ic, * mon-ad'-ic-al, a. [Eng. 

moiuul; -ic; -kal.] Having the nature or 
character of a monad. 

'"The nionadical consistency of the matter being lost 
in the production of the aether."— More : Defence of 
PhU. Cabbala (App.), ch. ix. 

mon-ad-i-dse, mon-a-di'-na, s. pi. [Lat. 
vwjins (genit. vi'-<nad(is) ; fem. pi. adj. suff. 
-idee, or neut. -ina.] 

Zool. : A family of Flagellate Infusorians, 
free-swimming, and without a lorica. They 
have a single terminal flagelluut, a nucleus, 
one or more contractile vacuoles, but no oral 
apt-rture. Tliey are developed in organic in- 
fusions, especially in those of decaying anim;d 

tmon-ad-i-form, a. [Lat. tiiotios (genit. 
monndis) = a monad, and /orma = form, ap- 
pearance.] Having the form or appearance of 
a monad. (Owen.) 

mon-a-di'-na, s. pi. [Monadid.*.] 

mon-S-d-ol'-o-gJ^, s. [Fr. Im. Monadologie, 
tlie title of a sketch written by Leibnitz in 
1714, and intended for Prince Eugene of Savoy. 

ir \va^ not published till 1720 (iu a Gennan 
translation), and the original French did imt 
ajipear till lS:tO. Gr. jLioi-a? (niomts), g-'iiit. 
fj.6vaio^ (moimdos) = a unit, and ^oyoi {logos) 
= a discourse.] 

Philos. : The name given to that portion of 
the jdiilosophical system of Leibnitz which 
considers physical bodies as aggregates of par- 
ticles or atoms. 

■• Modern biology presents na with an illustration of 
the monmiotom/. in its c.>nception of the organism iw 
constituted by" an Infliiit* nuint'er of cells, each cell 
having an Independent life of it»..wM-ongin, develoi^ 
Tiient, and de.ilh. Tlie compound result of all these 
separate lives Is the life of the organism. —G. //■ 
Lcwca: Hist, PhHos. (16S0), p. 2S7. 

xno-nal', s. [Native name.] 

Oritith. : [Impevax-pheasast.] 

mon-am'-ide, s. [Pref. «wu-, and Eng. amide] 
Chem. : A name given to organic nitrogenous 
bodies, derived from one molecule of am- 
monia, the hydrogen being replaced wholly 
or i>art!y by acid radiijals. 

m6n-am'-ine,s. [Pref. 7710^-, and Eng. amaic] 
Chem. : A term applied to certain organic 
bases, derived from ammonia by the replace- 
ment of one or more atoms of hydrogen by 
inonad positive radici\ls. 

t mon-an'-der, s. [Mqsasdbia.] 

Bot. : A plant belonging to the Liumeau 
class Monaudria (q.v.). 

mon-S-n'-dri-a, s. pi. [Mod. Lat., from pref. 
vioR; and Gr.'di'^p {aiier), genit. av6p6s (aiL- 
dros) = a man.] 

Bot. : The first class in Linnpeus's system. 
It consists of plants with only one stixmen. 
There are two orders, Monogynia and Digy- 

mon-an'-dri-an, a. & s. [Mod. Lat. moaan- 
Jrut(q.v.); Eng. suff. -an.] 
Botany : 

A. ^sot^. :ThesameasMoNASDROU9(q.v.). 

B, As sid'st. : A plant of the Linnffian class 
Monaudria (q.v.). 

mon-an'-dric, a. [Eng. monandr(y): -ic] 
Belonging tu or iu any way connected with 
the luactice of monandry ; practising mon- 
andry (q.v.). 

" Such customs as prevailed in ancient Britain, and 
their perpetuation Jtlter marriage had become monnn- 

aric." !. F. MacLtiitnait: Studies in Ancient I/ist., 

p- 2"-i (Note.) 

mon-an'-drous, a. [Mod. Lat., &c. monan- 

diila); Eng. suff. -om.] 

Bot. : Having only one stamen ; of or be- 
longing to the class Monaudria (q.v.). 

mon-an'-drj^, s. [Gr. ^loco? (monos) = alone, 
single, and aiojp {anPr), genit. ai'Spos {andros) 
= a man, a husband.] 

Aittkrop. : That form of marriage in which 
cue man espouses one woman. [Marriage, 

'■ We thus see exhibited in Snart.1.. at one and 
the same time, promiscuity in its highest polyandric 
form, aud lingering round a growing practice of mon- 
andr!/."—J- /'■ MacLe?ina'i : Studies in Ancient His- 
tory, p. 273. 

mon-an'-thotis, a. [Gr. ts.6vo^ (moms) = 
aluue, single, and icflos (anthos) = a flower.] 

Bot. : Producing but one flower ; applied to 
a plant or peduncle. 

mon'-arch, s. & a. [Fr. monarqne, from Lat. 
monarcha, from Gr. fj.ovipx-q'i ("Wnnrchcs) = a 
monarch : ijl6vo<: (monos) = alon--, and apx^ 
(arc/to) = to rule, to govern; Ital. & Sp. mun- 

A. As substantive : 

1. A sole ruler, a supreme governor; one 
invested with supreme authority, as an 
emperor, a king or queen, a prince, &c. ; a 

■* The prince whom I now call (as I haue often before) 
the monarch of England, King or Queene."— Smie^i .- 
Common- uieaUli, bk. ii., cb. iv. 

2. One who or that which is superior to all 
others of the same kind. 

" Mont Blanc is the monarch of mountains : 
They crowa'd him long ago." 

Dyron : Manfred. L 1. 

3. One who presides ; the president, patron, 
or presiding genius. 

" Come, thou monarch of the vine, 
Plumpy Bacchus, with pink eyue." 

ahijkcsp. : Antony ± Cleopatra, U, 7. 

B. As adj. : Supreme, ruling. 

mo-nar -clia. s. (Or. fxoi'apxv (monarcJi^ = n 
governess, a'feiuale ruler.] 

Oniitb. : A genus of Muscicapid?e ; twenty- 
eight species are known, from Australia, Tas- 
mania. theMuUiccas, Caroline, and Marquesas 
Islands. The plumage is brilliant ; Mrmarch'i 
loricata is black and white, the throat scal.-il 
with metallic blue ; M. chrysomeJn, biilliant 
black and bright orange; M. tdcsn<phlli-'l- 
iimta, the Spectacled Flycatcher, is pure white 
and velvety black, with a broad azure fleshy 
ring round the eye. The last two were found 
in New Guinea by the naturalists of tin- 

' mo-nar'-clial, a. [Eng. monarch ; -al] liv 
tilting a niona'ich ; princely, sovereign, regal. 

" Satan . ■ . with monarcJial inide. 
Conscious of highest worth, unmovd thus Bpakc. 
Milton : P. L.. if. V2^- 

* mon'-ar-chess. s- [Eng. vwnarch; -c^■^.I 
A female monareli. 

^ mo-nar'-clii-al, a. [Eng. monarch; -in!.] 

mo-nar'-chi-an, a. & s. [Lat. mowtrchiu : 
Gi. fioi'apxia ('*i'^»fO'e/ii«) = monarchy ; Eng. 
suff. -an.] 

A. As OA-ljedive : 

1. Ord. Lang. : Of or belonging to monarchy. 

2. Church Hist. : Of or belonging to the sect 
described under B. 

B, As substantive : 

Church Hist. (Ft.) : The followers of Praxeas, 
a celebrated man and confessor who lived at 
Rome iu the second century. He rejected the 
distinction of three Persons in the Divine 
Essence, and according to Tertullian (Liber 
contra Praxeam) contended for the monarchy 
of God. Christ was regarded as the Son of 
God. to whom the Father so joined himself as 
to be crucified along with the Sou, whence 
the Monarchians were called also Patripas- 
sians (q.v.). (Mosheim: Church Hist., cent, 
ii., pt. ii., ch. v., § 20, &c.) 

mo-nar -chic, mo-nar'-cliic-al, "^ mo- 
nar'-Chick, a. [Fr. ■)nonarchiquc, from Gr. 
/lor-apxtKos (vwnarch ikos), from /joi-ap^os (mo- 
narchos) = ruling alone.] 

1. Vested iu a single ruler ; presided over by 
a single governor. 

" Monarchical their St.ite. 
But prudently confined, and mingled wise 
Of each harmonious puwer." 

2'hoinson: Liberty, iv. 695. 

2. Of or pertaining to monarchy. 

■"The inonarchi-^k. and aristocr;itical and popular 
l>.irti3jms have been jointly laying their axes to the 
loot of all govern nient, and have in tlieir turns prove*! 
eacli other absurd and mcouvcuient."— i'"rAe.- r«i- 
dicativn of ya.aral Sjciety. 

mo-nar'-Cllic-al-ly, adv. [Eug. monar- 
chical; -ly.] In a"momirclucal manner; after 
the manner of a monarchy. 

* mon -arcll'isill* s. [Eng. moimrch; -ism.] 
The jiriliciples of inunarcliy ; love of or per- 
ference for monarchy. ^ 

* mon'-arcll-ist, s. [Eng. monarch; -i^t.] 
An advocate or supporter of monarchism. 

■• I ijroceed to exaiuine the next supixisition of the 
cliurch monarchists."— Harrow : Vf tht; Pope's Suprc- 

* mon'-arcli-ize, v.t. & i. [Eng. monarch; 

A, Trans. : To rule over as a monarch. 

" Britaiu-foundmg Brute first monarchied the land." 
Drayton : Poly-Otbion, s. ,i. 

B. Intrans. : To act the monai'ch; to play 

the king. 

■■ A humor of m^narchizhig und nothing else it is. 
—T. .Yashe : Terrors of the Xt'jlit. 

* mon'-arcli iz-er, t ni6n'-arch-is-«r, s. 

[Eng. monarchiz(e) ; -en] An advocate of 
monarchical government ; a monarchist. 
'■ Let the pride 
Of these our irreligioiia inonarchiscrs 
Be crown'd in blood." 

Baywood: Jlape of Litcrece. ili. 

* mon'-ar-chd, s. [Monarch.] A crack- 
brained Englishman affecting the airs of an 

■• A phantasm, a J/ona? cfio. and one tiiat makes sport." 

Shakesp. : Love's Labour's Ljst. iv. I 

mon'-ar~chy, * monarche, * monarcMe, 

s. [Fr. moiiarchie, from Lat. monarcMa ; Gr. 
^ovapx'-tJ- ('nonarchia) = a. kingdom; ^ovapx^ 
(monarchos) = ruling alone : moi'os (monos) — 
alone, and opx" (archo) — to rule ; Sp. mo7iar- 
quia; Ital. monaTChia.] 

fate, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father ; we, wet, here, camel, her, there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, pot, 
or. wore, wolf, work, who, son ; mute, cuto, ciire. unite, cur, rule, fuU ; try, Syrian, ee, o3 :^ e ; ey ^ a ; qu = kw. 

monarda— oionetary 


1. TIic system of goveriiriifiit in wliicli the 
sui>a'iiie power is iu the hands of a single 

" The fli-st, the most .inci«ut, most ^iieml. itiul innst 
Atipritveil. WAS tile K-ivcniiiu'itt ■■( one ruliiic liy jimt 
lawa. cjilk-d moutitchi/."—ilai€igh : Hist, tt'orlil, Uk. i.. 
ch. i\,. I 2. 

2. A state or govcrnnient in which tlie sii- 
prenic i>ower is in the liaiulsuf a sin^'le person. 

" Owr theorj' afibiMB a iirosiimption, thnt tlie oitrlicHt 
froYi^niliiflit^ wfru iHoti, I rrhi'», lifcatiso tlii- poveiii. 
lut'iita of fiiuiilioH and ot iiriuics, frum nliiL-h, nc- 
coi-Jin^ to om* HVcouut. otvil ^Mveriimeiit derived its 
institution, nud i>i*o))a1>ly its furiii. is univi^i>utl1y muu- 
Krcliiciil."— /'aJey; S<it. PhiloMfihy, bk. vi., ch. i. 

3. A kingdoui. an empire. 

"Thissitmtl inhcritnucfi 
C'outtnteth me. iiiid'a woitli i\ itmnarvhji," 

SliiikfKp. : 2 Uenrn 17.. iv. lo. 

* 4. Supreme power. 

"Theif Alexander put them viider 
\Vhii;h Mi'oght of Hnties uiiuty & woiidor 
So thiit the monurchie lefte 
With C.rekea." Oower : C. A. (Piol.) 

^(1) Absolute monnrchy : A government in 
which the nidniirch is invested witli absolute 
or despLitii; power. 

(li) Despotic vwnarchy : The same as,46sf'?(((t' 

(3) Elective vwnarchy : A government in 
wliich the ehoice of tlie monarch or ruler is 
vested in tlie people. 

(4) Fifth monarchy men : [Fifth]. 

(5) Hereditary monarchy : A monarchy in 
which tlie sovereignty descends directly from 
the holder to the heir by blood. 

(0) Limited monarchy : [Limited, \ (3)]. 

mdn- ar'- da., s. [Named after Nicolas 
Mi-naidez, a* physieiau, of Seville, in the 
sixteenth century.] 

Hot. : The typical ^enus of the menthaceous 
tribe ilouardeie. The leaves of Monanhi 
ditlyma, an American species, are used for 
tea. [OswEGo-TEA.] Its rtowers are a brdtiant 
scaTlft. Monardii fist nloM, an American herb 
with a sweet scent, is a febrifuge ; M. puiictala 
yields a kind of camphor. 

monarda-camphor, .":. 

Vhem. : t'lylijiO. The camphor or stearop- 
tene vf Mnunnla punctata. It forms shining 
crystals, whicli nieltut4S°, and resolidify at 38'. 

•mnti ar da-oU , b'. 

Chfvi. : (CioHi4).-)0. The essential oil of 
Monarda punctata. It is a yellowish-red 
liquid, having an odour of thyme, boiling at 
224", and easily aequiriug the consistency of 
resin by oxidation. 

m6n-ar'-de-8B, s. ]>L [Mod. Lat. monard(a); 
Lat. fcm. pi. adj. sulf. -ew.] 

But. : A tribe of Labiatie. It is divided into 
three families : Salvidie, Rosinarinidse, and 

mon'-as, 5. [Gr. juofas (monas)= a unit.] 

/.""I. : A genus of Flagellata, sub-order 
Pantostoniata. Moaas Dtdlingeri, ^^n iuch 
in length, has one flagellum, flexible at first, 
and becoming rigid towards the base in old 

mon-as-ter' i-al, a. [Lat. monastenulis, 
fiom 'mona:>teriiim^ a. monastery (q. v.) ; Ital. 
monastcrialc] Of ui pertaining toa monastery. 

** mon-as-ter'-i-al-ly, adv. [Eng. monaster- 
ial ; -/(/.] ilonastieally. 

" Maiiy being jimn'tn'criallj/ accoutred," — Crijii/iart ; 
R.ibi.-lai$, bk. L (Proi.) 

mon'-as-ter-y, 5. [Lat. moimsterium, from 
Gr. n'oi'aT-njfuow (momistcrion)^ a, minster, or 
moiuistej y, from fioi/aarri^ (monastrs) — dwel- 
ling alone, from /iovdf(u(mou((ro)=to be alone; 
Mot'os ();toJw>s) = alone, single; Fr. 7hohiw(*'cc; 
lUil. mouutero, Jiwnasterio ; Sp. laommtcrio.] 
Comparative Religions: 

1. Ethnic: For details as to the Booddhi>t 
ami Jain monasteries, see the articles Booddh- 


BooDDHisT and Jai.xism. 

2. Christian. : The ecclesiastical Latin mon- 
asteriam = the home of a religious communily 
of men, was in general use in the Church im- 
seveial centuries, when it was displaced by 
convL-ntus = a connuunity (of men or women), 
bound by rule, and practising the counsels of 
jierfectiim. By Roman ecclesia-stical writers 
the word monastery is iisually restricted to 
Benedictine houses, ami houses of Orders 
practising some modification of the Benedic- 
tine rule : as, a Carthusian inonwftvnj, a Cis- 

tercian monastery ; but a Franciscan or a 
Dominican convent. 

"Tlii-re Is R mottattei-y two uillra utT, 
.\ud theie wc will nljiilo. ' 

ah-ikvtp. : ilrrituitit •■/ VtuUt. ill. i. 

xno-n^'-tio, ((. -S: s. [Gr. fiofaanKo^ {moua^- 
tikoA) = living in solitude, from /iocao-Tijc 
{mnnastis) = dwelling alone