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Full text of "Encyclopædia americana; a popular dictionary of arts, sciences, literature, history, politics, and biography, brought down to the present time; including a copious collection of original articles in American biography; on the basis of the seventh edition of the German conversations-lexicon"

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ENCYCLOPAEDIA AMERICANA. 



A 

POPlJLiAR DICTIONARY 

OP 

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE, HISTORY, POLITICS, AND 

BIOGRAPHY, 

BR0D6HT DOWN TO THE PRESENT TUCE; 

IKGLVDING 

A COPIOUS OOLLECnON OF ORIGINAL ARTICLES 

nr 

AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY; 

ON 

THE BASIS OF THE SEVENTH EDITION Or THE GERMAN 



XDITBD'BT 

FRANCIS LIEBEB, 

AflttlTBD Wt 

E. WI6GLESW0RTH AMD T. 6. BRADFORD^ 



Vot.IV. 



HEW EDITIOir. 



9lill«)rel9li{8: 

THOMAS, COWPERTHWAIT, * CO. 



188a 



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ENCYCLOPAEDIA AMERICANA. 



V^mAKTABi (Gaelic, entm tarMl; the 
cross of siiame, because, says sir Walter 
Scott, in Ilia oote on the pasHage of the 
Lady of the Lake (canto 3), in which he 
has made such a fine use of it, disoliedi- 
eace to what the symbol implied, infer- 
red infamy. Tiie Uigfalandera of Scot- 
land appear to have kmrrowed it from die 
anrient Scandinavians, of the use of it 
4in€90g whom, ft>r rousiug the people to 
ffn*«fi, Glaus Magnus gives a particular 
«.<,oouiit. As late as the insurrection in 
1745, the crcmtoro, or ikry crq^ was jcir- 
"'jHteii IB Scotland, antf, on one ornision. 
It passed tiut>u£h the district of Breadai- 
Imne, a tract of 33 miJes, in three hours. 
Aficr Cliarles Edwanl had manthed into 
Engjaml, two of tlie king's (rigates tlireat- 
•fied die coast with a descent. The tnm' 
Vara, was sent throtigh the district of Af)- 
iiitie by Alexander Stuatt of Inveniahvle 
(who retaled the circumstance to sir Wal- 
ter Seott), and, in a fkw hours, a sufficient 
force was collected to render the attempt 
of the English bopeteas. 

Ceave; a light, transparent stuff, fike 
gauze, made of raw silk, gummed and 
twisted on the mill, woven witbout cross« 
ing,and much used in mourning. Crapes 
are eitlier craped (i. e., cris|jed) or smooth. 
The silk desdned for the first is more 
«wi8ted than tliat for th# second, it being 
the greater or less degree of twisting, 
especially of the warp, which ptoduees 
tiie crisping given to it, when taken out of 
die loom, steeped in clear water, and rub- 
bed widi a piece of wax for the pur|x>8e. 
Crapes are all dyed raw. This stuff came 
originally from Bologna; but, till of late 
years, Lyons is said to have had the chief 
manufacture of it. It is now manufactur- 
ed m various jparta of Qreat Britain. The 



crape brought fh>m China is of a mora 
aubetantial falaic. 

Crapelbt ; father and son ; two printers 
The father, Charies, l)om at Bouruiont, 
Nov. J3, 17(fi2, esbiblislied his fNfintanff' 
ofHce in 47^. and diM Oct. 19, 18C9. He 
might be ^ikA die trtnt^ BoikirviBe. 
Like this primer^ be endeavored lo unita 
tlie greatest simiilicit^ with elegance, to 
deliver the an of printing from the hetenn 
genemis ornaments with which it was so 
overlpHded, pardcidarly in France, and 
from which even Didoc cotttd iwt-eiiiireiy* ' 
'ihse biniHelf ; Hut he surpassed his model 
is the form of his ryfies and the regularity 
of his work. His ediUons are no less cor- 
rect than neat and beautiful. He has also 
been successful in printing on {Mrctimeut, 
and has shown his skill by producing an 
impressiott in gold (13 ca]n<» of Aude* 
lien's CHaeaux doris, Paris, 18G2, 2 vols,, 
ibiio).— A. G. Crapelet has extended his 
father's bmhiess, and lias even excelled 
him in elegance. His Lafontaine (1814), 
Montesquieu (1816), Rousseau and Vo^ 
taire (both 1819), are inonuments of his 
taste; and the large vellum-tiaiier^Mes 
are truly splendid works. The words 
** De Pimprimerie de CrapdeT are a great 
retomniendatien. Renouard has had all 
the editions publistied at his expense 
primed by Crapelet, who, in 18C0, em- 
ph>ved 29 (iresses. 

Crassus. Two Romans of this name 
are here to be mentioned. 1. Lucius Li- 
ciuiiis Crasstis, who was niaiie consul 
A. U. C. 658 (B. C. 96), and passed for the 
ipeatcst orator of his time. He was dis- 
tmgiiiahed for talent, presence of mind 
ami integrity. 3. M. Licinius CrassuSySiir- 
named Dhtf (the rich), so called, like ma- 
ny of his family, on account of his vast 



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CRA8SUS--CRAVAT. 



riches. He pCNsaeflsed a fortune equal to 
95,000,0(XX He once care an entertain- 
ment to the whole people, in which 10,000 
tables were set, and, besides this, distrib- 
uted corn enough to last each familythree 
months. In the years of Rome 683 and 
€96, he was a colleague of Pompey, in the 
consulship, and, in 688, censor. As he 
was one of the most influendal men in 
Rome, and very ambidous, his friendship 
was sourht by Ciesar, who formed, witn 
him and Pom|iey, the famous triumvirate. 
He perished, with a great part of his army, 
in an expedition against the Partliians, 
undertaken from motives of avarice and 
ambition, B. C. 5a 

Crateil (See Volcano,) 

Cravat; an unhealthy, uncQmforta})le, 
unliecomine article of European and 
American mress. The ancients were un- 
acquainted with this ridiculous and injuri- 
ous style of bundling up the neck. They 
left uBconfined diat important region of 
the body, through which so many vessels 
pass, and in which are situated so many 
organs, which will endure no constraint 
with impunity. In some cases, hideed, 
they defended themselves fivm the cold by 
a woollen, cotton or silk band, called, in 
Ijatin,ybcale, from faiucts, throat. But no 
one could venture to use tliis contrivance 
publicly, unless he was sick; in which 
case he might cover his head, and the 
upper part of ^o shoOlders, mud wen 
wear breeches (q. v.^ without disgrace. 
** PalUolumf sieui fascias et focdict^ says 
Quuictilian, ^adaexcusturt potest vaUtudo J" 
It was allowable, indeed, to cover the 
neck with the toga in bad weather, or to 
hold the hand over it, for (he preservation 
or restoration of the natural teujperature. 
The Poles never wear any thing round 
the neck, notwithstanding tlie severity of 
their winters. The same custom prevails 
among the Orientals, by whom a white, 
round neck is coinpared to the beauty of 
an ivory tower. The Imre neck gradually 
became unfiishionalile in Eun)f)e. It was 
at first surrounded, but not constrained, by 
a starched bond of fine linen, on the up|)er 
edge of the shirt, falling back natiiml- 
ly upon th& bust, where it was fastened 
by a small cord. This w«s Uie origin of 
all the different species of collars since 
used — the innocent parent of those thick, 
hot folds, in which the neck was destined 
to be afterwards muffled. Ruffs, stiffened 
or plaited, single or ki many rows, — an 
inconvenient, indeed, but not a dangerous 
omament,-^a(l their turn, and lasted as 
long as short hinir was in fashion. They 
were abandoned, when Louis XIll allow- 



ed his hau* to grow: then standinf^ collan^ 
embroidered and |anked, the plaited col- 
larettes, the neck-band, plain or laced and 
pointed, encompassed the neck chin-deep; 
and, when Louis XIV adopted those enor- 
mous perivngs, which hardly left the throat 
visible, all these splendid envelopes gave 
way to ribands, tied in brilliant bowet. 
Next came the epoch of the dangerous 
subjection of the neck to constriction and 
compression, from which it had hitherto 
been exempt. In 1660, a foreign regiment 
arrived in France, composed of Croats, in 
whose singular costume one thing was 
genendly admired and imitated. It was a. 
Bandage about the neck, consisting of 
common stuff for the soldiers, and of 
muslin or silk for the officers. The ends 
were disnoeed in a bow, or garnished 
with A tuft or a tassel, and humr not un- 
gracefullv over the breasL Tnis new 
article of dress was at first called a croofe, 
and afterwards, by corruption, a crataL 
The military and the rich, at that time, 
wore very fine cravats, witli the bonier 
embroidered, or edged with broad lace. 
Those of the sokliers consisted of a scrap 
of cloth, of cotton, or, at the best, of black, 
plaited tafteta, bound round the neck by 
two small corda Afterwards, the place 
of these cords was supplied by clnsps or a 
buckle, and then cravats took the name of 
stocks. Under Louis XVI, tbe stocks 
yielded to the cravats d la chanceliert. 
The last flourished but for a moment: the 
revolution came, and with it disappeared 
cravats, and even tight breeches. Soon 
after this epoch (1706), the cravat recov- 
ered its popularity, and increased to an 
incredible degree of extravagance. Some 
persons enveloped the neck with whole 
pieces of muslin ; others, with a padded 
cushion, on which were %vrapped numer- 
ous folds. In this way, the neck was 
puffed out so as to be larger than the head, 
with which it was imi)ereeptibly con- 
founded. The shiit-collar arose above 
the ears, and the U])|)er edge of the cra- 
vat buried up the chin and the mouth 
nose-deep; so that the visage, bristling on 
either side with a grove of bushy whis- 
kers, and its upfMt regions ensconced to tlie 
eyes by the hair flattened down over tlie 
brows, absolutely showed nothing except 
the nose, projecting in all its plenitude. 
The exquisites tl»us cravatted resembled 
any thing rather than men, and affordeii 
excellrnt subjects for rarcaturcs. If they 
wished to look any way except straiglit 
forward, they were obliged to turn the 
whole tnink, with whirh the neck and 
bead formed but one piece. It was Im- 



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CRAVAT-CRAWFIgH. 



poeaible to incline the head in any direc- 
tion. Most fasliiond have been invented 
to hide an infinnity or a deformity : large 
cravatB were proliably first, used to conceal 
0onie disa^eable scare, or some unlucky 
malformation. A singer or a public speak- 
er cannot use his voice to advantage dur- 
ing tJie time when his cravat is tied too 
tignt Tlie habit of wearing large cravats 
renders the neck very liable to m affected 
by exposure. By unooveiing die neck 
impmdeutly when heated, severe and 
dangerous diseases have often been con- 
tracted. A young man or young lady, on 
leaving a par^ in a wann afiartment, 
should be careful to protect the neck and 
breast from cold. 

Craven, Elizabeth, lady; margravine 
of Ansfiach, youngest daughter of the earl 
of Berkeley ; born in 1750, and married in 
I7e>7, to William, last eai4 of Craven, by 
whom she had seven children. But, afler 
a connexion of 14 years, in consequence 
of his ill-treatment, a separation was 
a^^ed upon in 1781. Lady Craven, after 
this, lived successively at the courts of 
Versailles, Madrid, Lisbon, Vienna, Berlin^ 
Constantinople, Warsaw, St. Petersburg, 
Rome, Florence and Naples; tlien in An- 
spach, where she became acquainted with 
the margrave Christian Frederic Charles 
Alexander, a nephew of Frederic the 
Great. On this tour, in 1787, she was 
persuaded by tlie count Choiseul-Gouffier, 
French ambassador to Constantinople, to 
descend into the grotto of Anti|>aros, 
which no woman had ever before visited. 
Afler the death of lord Craven, at Lisbon, 
in 1791, the margrave married her, sur- 
rendered his estates to tlie king of Piiisida 
for a yeariy pension, and went, with Ids 
consort, to England, where be purchased 
an estate (Bnindeiiburg^ not far from 
Hammersmith, and died in 1606. From 
that time, lady Cmven has lived partly in 
England, partly in Naples. The account 
of her travels through the Crimea to Con- 
stantinopie, in a series of letters, was first 
published in 1789. A new enlarged edi- 
tion ap|)eared in 1814. Besides these, 
she has written poems, plKys and roman- 
ces ; also her own memoirs (Memoirs of 
the Margravine of Anspach, formerly Lady 
Craven, &c., London, 1825). These are 
interesting on account of her intercourse 
with Catharine II, Joseph II, and other 
princes. 

Crawfiss (astaaiSfFiA}.)', a crustaceous 
genus, belonging to the family decapoda 
mdcroiara (ten legged, long tailed), charac- 
terized by having the anterior part of the 
elongated seuii-cylindric superior shell 



prodoced to form a rostrum or beak ; th« 
atxlomen large, slichtly attenuated poste- 
riorly, com|K)8ed of six joints, fonning a 
tail quite os long, when extended, as the 
body, and terminating in five broad-fiing- 
ed, swimming apix^ndages, which fold 
laterally upon each other. In both sexes, 
the under fwrt of the abdomen is generally 
provided with five imirs of false claws, 
each terminated by two plates or |>ia« 
mcnts. The exterior jaw-feet are mostly 
narrow, elongated, and do not entirely 
cover the other parts of the mouth. The 
gills are pyramidal, bnish-Kha|ied, or 
plume-like, separated from each other by 
tendinous slifis, and situated beneatli the 
sides of the great superior shell, over the 
external base of the feet. Of the latter, 
the second and third nairs are ekmgated, 
slender, and funiishea at the last joint, 
which is movable, with small pincers; 
the fourth and fiflh pairs have the last 
joints simply pointed or hooked» The 
sexual organs are placed, in botli sexes, in 
the basal joint of tlie last pair of feet. 
The 8))ecies l>e]onging to this genus, as 
at present restricted, do not exceed six. 
Some of these kinds are peculiar to salt 
and others to fresh water. Of the former, 
tlie most celebrated is the lobster (atiaicv* 
gammarus), so prominent among the lux- 
uries of New Yotk, and our other eastern 
maiftitne cities. In their modes of living, 
the crawfish generally resemble the aquat- 
ic oralis (see Crab\ feeding on putrefying 
aniinal matter, s|)ending their time on the 
sandy or rocky bottom of deep watena, 
and only approaching the shallows when 
impelled by the necessity of undergoing 
tlieir change of shell, or wlien under tlie 
sexual influence. The common fobster is 
the largest species, and grows to a size 
which may well appear wonderful to per- 
sons accustomed to see none but small 
ones. They are brought to the New York 
market more than two feet in length, and 
weighing 20 pounds and upwards. Such 
individuals, however, are not preferred for 
the table, as tlieir size is a good indication 
of their age, and their period of life is 
stated to extend to 20 years and more. The 
smaller, or half-sized lobsters, are consid- 
ered the best. The quite small, or young 
ones, which are cominonly sold in New 
Haven (Connecticut), as too small for the 
New York market, are, in our opinion, far 
sur)erior to either — ^The fresh-water craw- 
fish, of which one species {agtacui barfnoU) 
is very common in most of the fresh- 
water streams and brooks from Pennsyl- 
vania southward, aflbrds us the best op- 
|K)rtunity for observing their habit& We 



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CRAWFISH— CREAM OF TARTAR. 



find them inhabiting excavations of con- 
siderable de])th along llie bordei^ or a 
short distance wiihin the current of the 
stream, at the bottom of which lliey lie 
hid. In the spring of the year, by cau- 
tiotisly approacliing, and remaining quietiy 
on tJie margin of such a stream, we may 
see the crawfish industriously bringing 
from tlie lower ])art of tlieir caves the dirt 
accumulated there ; and this enables us to 
comprelien<l tlie manner in which tliey 
originally made their retreats. U{K>n the 
two great claws, folded towards each oth- 
er, and tints forming, with the front of the 
bo<ly, a sort of shelf, the dirt is carefully 
brought to the surface, and tJirown down 
just where the current wiU sweep it away. 
As the substances tlius brought up are 
very light, it re(|uires a very gentle move- 
ment of tlie ammal to avoid 8|>illing, or 
rather washhig off his lading; and he 
tlicrefbre rises in the gentlest and most 
circumspect manner. We can testify to 
the ]iatience with which this labor is con- 
tinued, as, with the view of observing tlie 
operation, we have oflen quietly puslied 
in tlie earth from tiic edge of the water, 
which they as often have toiled on to 
remove. It is upon these fresh-water 
species that the observations have been 
made, relative to the re-production of 
limbs or claws violently broken off. But 
a short time elapses before a growth or 
vegetation occurs at the stump or broken 
part, and a new limb, similar to tlie origi- 
nal, though sometimes rather smaller, is 
soon formed. This facility of re-produc- 
tion is found to extend througliout tJie 
crustaceous class. Fresh-^vater crawfish 
are regarded bv many as fumislijn^ a del- 
icate dish for the table, though their small 
size, and the trouble of collecting a suffi- 
cient num))er of them, are great obsULcles 
to their l)eiug extensively employed in this 
way. They are preyed ujwn by various 
animals, especially by certain hints, whose 
long bills are adapted to picking them out 
from the bottom of their dens. 

Crayer, Gasfiar, a Dutch painter, bom 
in 1582, at Antwerp, was a pupil of Raph- 
ael Coxie, and became, by tlie smdy of 
nature, one of the greatest historical and 
jiortmit painters. At the S|ianish court in 
Brussels, he painted the fiortnut of the 
cardinal Ferdinand, brother of the king, 
and received a fiension. He establisliecl 
himself in Ghent, where he constantly 
executed works for the court He labored 
with industnr and iierseverance till his 
86th year. When Rubens saw his finest 
painting in tlie refectory of tlie abbey of 
Afflegbem, he cried out, ''Crayei^ Crayer, 



nobody will ever surpass thee!" Tli« 
city of Ghent alone had 2] altar-pieces by 
him. Li Flanders and Brnbant ore many 
of his works, and some oi' his pictures are 
in the public collections at Vienna and 
Munich. His fjaintings are praised for 
fidelity to nature, exrelk^nt drawing, and a 
coloring approaching the manner of A^nn- 
dyke. The laner was his fric nd, and took 
his likeness. Crayer died in KAjS). 

Crayons ; a general name for oil color- 
ed stones, earths, or other minerals and 
substances used in designing or painting 
in ))aste1, whether they have been beaten, 
and reduced to a |)aste, or are used in their 
primitive consistence, after being sawn or 
cut into long, narrow sti{)8. The sticks of 
dry colors which go under this name, and 
which are cemented into a friable mass, by 
means of gum or size, and sometimes of 
clay,af!bnl a very sininle means of apply- 
ing colors, Ijeing merely niblK?d upon pa- 
|)er, afler which the shades are blended or 
softened by means of a stump or small 
roll of leather or pafier. The dra\\'ings 
require to be protected by a glass covering, 
to save them from being defiiced, uiiIpss 
some means have been ado])ted to fix 
them, so that they may not be liable to lie 
rubl)ed off. This may be done by linish- 
ing the Liack of the pajier with a strong 
solution of isinglass, or by passing the 
drawing tlirou^h a ]iowerful press, in con- 
tact witli a moist paper. 

Cream op Tartar (pdoisit wjferiar^ 
trtts; cremor turiari). lliis salt exists in 
grapes Olid in tamarinds, llie dregs of 
wine also contain a consndernble quantity 
of it Cream of tartai* contains a very 
considerable proi)ortion of suner-tartrate 
of |)Otassa, aliout seven or eight liundredths 
of tartrate of lime, and a small ({uniitity of 
silica, albumen, iron, &c. It is insoluble 
in alcohol, but may lie di8Solve<l in 15 
])arts of boiling and* 60 of cold water. It 
may be rendered much more soluble by 
mixing with it a certain quantity of Im)- 
racic acid or borate of soda, which ren- 
ders the cream of tartar soluble in its own 
weight of cold water, and in the half only 
of diis menstmum when boiling. This 
preparation is known by the name of solu- 
oU crecan of tartar. Its aqueous solution is 
soon decomiioscd by ihe contact of the 
air. It is obtained by dissolving in boil- 
ing water the common tartar — a white or 
reddish cr}'stalline matter, which Ibnns on 
the internal sides of the vessels hi which 
wine has been kejit — mixing witii it some 
clay, which precijiitates the coloring mat- 
ter, and then permitting the liquor to 
crystallize. The action of this substance 



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CREAM OP TARTAIU-€REBILLON. 



I aocordinff to the dose in which it is 
administered, in small doses, it is ab- 
8Qrt)edf and acts as a temperent ; and, in 
this quality, it is employed in jaundice, 
foulness of the stomach and intestines, &c. 
In iBiner doses, it principally spendis its 
action on tlie mucous intestinal membrane, 
and induces alvine evacuationsi especially 
when ffiven in powder. Its taste being 
rather less unpleasant than that of some 
other neutral salts used in medicine, and 
its operation being of a very gentle nature, 
it is veiy frequently administered. In 
France, the soluble cream of tartar is gen- 
erally preferred. 

Cacbillon, Prosper Jolyot de, the 
elder, a vrriter of tragedy, who is com- 
pared, by bis countrymen, even to ^sehy- 
lus, bom at Dijon, Feb. 15, 1674, early 
manifested talent at the school of the Jesu- 
its in his nadve town, but, at the same 
time, a Imistsrous and heedless temper. 
Being designed for the profession of law, 
he was placed witlb an attorney named 
Prieur at Paris ; but they were both lov- 
ers of the theatre, so that the youth made 
little progress in his studies. The attor- 
ney perceived, too, that his pupil was dis- 
qualified for the profession by his passion- 
ate temperament, but showed penetration 
and judgment in his criticisms on- dra- 
matic perfonnances : he therefore advised 
him, though he had, as yet, written poth- 
ing but some trifling songs and scraps of 
veree, to applv himself to dramatic com- 
position. Crebillon did so; but his first 
piece, Lbl Mart des En/ana de Bndua, was 
rejected by the players. He burnt the 
manuscript, and resolved to have no more 
to do vdth the drama ; but, sulisequentiy, 
at the persuasion of Prieur, he wrote IdonU^ 
n^ which, in 1705, was brought upon the 
stage. The fiiults of the plav were over- 
looked in connderation of the youth of 
the audior, and the promising talent 
which it displayed ; and the promptness 
with which the author in five davs wrote 
anew the last act, which had displeased at 
the fint representation, drew the attention 
of the public to the young poet, whose 
talents, after the appearance of his Mrie^ 
in 1707, were loudly applauded. Prieur, 
tiiough sick, requested to be carried to the 
theatre, and said to the young tragedian, 
** I die content ; I have made you a poet, 
and leave in vou a man who belongs to 
the nation." A strange taste for uimatnral 
declamation had been excited by the Rfun 
dbgnne, and this manner was carried to 
excess by Cr^billon, in the Mr^e. In 1709 
appeared his EUetnj which is as declain- 
atoiy and as intricate as bis eariier plays; 



yet it suited the taste of the age. His 
ehef d^cnwrt, at least according to La 
Harpe, is his Bhadamistt (1711). But Boi- 
leau, on his death-bed, neariii^ the first 
scenes of this tragedy read to him by Le- 
verrier, could not help exclaiming to his 
friends, ^Heavens! do you wish to hasten 
my death ? Why, the Biyere and Pradons 
were suns to this author ! I shall be more 
willing to leave the world, since our n^re 
is becoming inundated widi silly trasb." 
Most persons of the jiresent day would 
probably agree with Boileau. In ei^ht 
days, the maJamisU passed through two 
editions, and Paris and Versailles vied 
with each other in aduiirinff it. Cr&billon 
had been told that his tiuent lay in the 
terrible, and thought, therefore, tiiat be 
could not exert himself too much in scpnes 
of horror, and hence was called the (cTri- 
hU, Xerxes (1714} exceeded, in this re- 
spect, all that he nad before written, but 
soon disamieared from the stage. Semir- 
amis (1717), the mother enamoured of her 
son, and not cure<l of her passion by the 
discovery of his ielationshi|>, was severely 
censured. It was not till nine years after 
this that his Pyrrhua appeared (172o), and 
met with a good reception, contrary to the 
exfiectation of the author, who, in tins 
work, had abstained fh>m the fHglitful 
and shocking. Domestic distress and 
poverty seem, from this time, to have 
crippled the powers of his genius. His 
small patrimony was alisorlMd by debts 
and law expenses. A father and a beloved 
wife were taken from him wiUiin a short 
time. Amidst the einbarrassments in 
which he was involved, he refused, with 
characteristic inflexibility, all the offers of 
assistance which were made him. When 
madame de Pom])adour wished to humble 
Vohaire, Cr^billon was thought of as a fit 
instrument for her purpose. Tlie king 
gave him the office of censor of the police, 
a yearly pension of 1000 francs, and an 
appointment in tiie library. Thus freed 
fipom anxiety, he fiuished his CotUxnej 
which was represented, at the kini^s ex- 
pense, in 1749, with all the pomp that the 
court theatre could display. This piece, 
overrated by the party opposed to Vol- 
taire, is undervalued by La Haqie. To 
make some atonement to the character of 
Cicero, which was thought to have been 
wronged in his CaiiUne, he wrote, at 76, 
tbe IMunmrate, or the I>eath of Cicero, 
which was brought upon the stage in his 
8l8t year. The defects of the piece were 
overiooked, from respect to the age of the 
author. Thus much for his dramatic 
eompoBitiona. In general|Ci^billon shows 



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crebillon-<:rei>it. 



nok^^ of the true elevation of the tragic 
ar:, bat only an iniitation, sometimes a 
h&{y»i3 one, of the maimer struck out hy 
CoRieille. He was a man of a proud and 
indeftendent character, disdained to flatter 
tlie great, and pasBed much of his life in a 
con£tion bordering on poverty. More 
fortunate circumstances miffht have given 
more amenity to his- spirit ; l)ut, neglected, 
as he imagined, by mankind, he sought 
consolation in the company of dogs and 
cats, which he picked up in the streets 
(the poorest ana most sickly were tliose 
whicn he preferred), and found a species 
of enjoyment in an irregular manner of 
living. In 1731, he became a member of 
tlie academy. Cr^billon jlied June 17, 
1762, at tlie age of 88. Louis XV erected 
a magnificent monument to him in the 
church of St Gervais, which, however, 
was never entirely completed till it was 
removed to the museum of French monu- 
ments (aux pdits •^tfgugtins). Besides the 
splendid edition of Ci^^hillon's works pub- 
lished by the order of Louis XV, for tlie 
benefit of tlie author, after the successful 
perfonnance of CatUine ((Etmres de Cri- 
billon, imprmerie R, da Lwxrt, 1750, 2 
vols. 4to.), there is another published by 
Didot the elder, 1812, 3 vols., in both of 
which, however, six verses are omitted in 
Catiline^ which had been left out in the 
representation, as applicable to madame 
de Pompadour. 

C&EBiLLOif, Claude Prosper Jolyot de, 
the younger, son of the preceding, bom 
at Paris in 1707, succeeded as an author 
in an age of licentiousness. By the exhi- 
bition of gross ideas, covered only with a 
thin veil, and by the subtleties with which 
h^ excuses licentious principles, Cr^hillon 
contributed to diffuse a general corruption 
ef manners, before ^connned to the higher 
circles of Parisian society. In later times, 
the French taste has been so much chang- 
ed, especially by the revolution, that such 
indelicacies as are found in his works 
would not be tolerated at the present day. 
His own morals, however, apiiear to have 
been the opposite of those which he por- 
trayed. We are told of his cheerfulness, 
his rectitude of principle, and his blame- 
less life. In the circle of tlie Dominicmtx 
(a Sunday society), be was a favorite, and 
the caveau where Piron, Gallet, Coll^, 
wrote Uieir songs and uttered their jests^ 
was made respectable by his company. 
Of his works, the heat are — Lettres de kt 
Marquijte * * * uu C<mU6 de*** (1732, 2 
vols., 12mo.); Tomxai et Nea'ianU (less 
licentious, but fnii of now unintelligible 
alluaionB) ; Lef igaremaiB da Caw et dt 



P^^sprit (Hague, 1736^ 3 vols.1 perhaps the 
most succe^ul, but unfinished. One of 
his most voluptuous pieces is Le Sopha 
(1745, 2 vols.). In the same licentious 
strain are most of his other writings com- 
posed. It is still a disputed point whether 
he was the author of the Ldtrea de la Mar- 
quise de Pompadow. They are not in- 
cluded in the edition of 1779, 7 vols., 
12ino. Cr^billon held a small ofiice in^' 
the censorship of the press. He died at 
Paris, Ajiril 12, 1777. 

Crect or Cresst en Pontuieu ; a 
town hi France, in Somme ; 10 miles N. 
of Abbeville, and ICO N. of Paris ; fX)pu- 
lation, 1650. It is celebrated on account 
of a batde fought here Aug. 26, 1346, be- 
tween the English and French. Edward 
III and his son, the Black Prince, were 
boUt engaged, and the French were de- 
feated with great slaughter, 30,000 foot 
and 1200 horse being lefl dead in the 
field ; among whom were tlie king of Bo- 
hemia, the count of Alen^on, Louis count 
of Flanders, with many others of the 
French nobility. 

Credit, in economy, is the postpone- 
ment affreed on by the parties or the pay- 
ment of a debt to a future day. It im- 
plies confidence of tlie creditor in the 
debtor ; and a " credit system" is one of gen- 
eral confidence of people in each oiher*^ 
honesty, solvency and resources. Credit 
is not confined to civilized countries ; Mn 
Park mentions instances of it among the 
Africans; but it will not prevail exten- 
sively where the laws do not protect prop* 
erty, and enforce the fulfilment of prom- 
isea Public cvedit is founded upon a 
confidence in the resources, good faith 
and stability of the government ; and it 
does not always flourish or decline at the 
same time and rate as private credit ; for 
the people may have eitiier greater or less 
conndence in the government than in 
each other : still there is some sympathy 
and correspondence between the two ; for 
a general individual confidence can rarely, 
if ever, take place in the midst of distrust 
of the government; and, vice versa, a firm 
reliance upon the government promotes 
a corresponding individual confidence 
among the citizens. The history of eveiy 
industrious and commercial community, 
under a stable government, will present 
successive alternate periods of credit and 
distnist, following each other with a good 
deal of regularity. A general feeling of 
prosperity produces extension and facili- 
ties of credit The mere opinion or im- 
agination of a prevailing success has, of 
its own force, a most powerful influence 



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CREDIT--CREED. 



n exc>tmg the entefpriae, and quickening 
Me iridiisuy, of a community. The fifst 
•equiBite to industiy is a stock of instru- 
i^«eats, and of matmrials on wiiich to em- 
pJojr them: a very busy and productive 
community requires a ^reat stock of both. 
Now if this stock, being ever ao great, 
were hoarded up ; if the posBessoiv would 
neither use, let, nor seJl it, as long as 
it should lie so withdrawn from circu- 
lation, it woukl have no etfect upon the 
^neral activity and productiveness. This 
B partially the case when a general dis- 
trust and impression of decay and decline 
cause tlie possessors of the stock and ma- 
terials to be scrupulous about putting them 
out of their hands, by sale or otherwise, 
to be used by others ; and othere, again, 
having no confidence tn the markets, and 
seeing no prospect of profits, hesitate to 
purchase materials, or to buy or hire the 
implements, miils^ ships, &c., of othere, or 
to use their own in the prooesses of pro- 
duction and transportation. This state of 
surplusage and distrust is sure to be fol- 
lowed by a reduction of money prices ; 
and every one who has a stock on hand, 
and whose possessions are estimated in 
money, is considered to be growing poorer 
and poorer every day. But when prices 
have reached their lowest point, and begin 
regularly to rise, every l)ody b^;ins to 
esteem himself and othere as being pros- 
^rcKis, and the <^xinlon contributes pow- 
erlttlly to verify itaelfl Credit begins to 
expand ; all the stores of the commu- 
nity are unlocked, and the whole of its 
resources is thrown open to enterprise. 
£very one is able readily to command a 
sufficiency of means for the employment 
of his industry ; capital is easily procured, 
and services are readily rondered, each 
one relying upon the success of the others, 
and their readiness to meet their engage- 
ments ; and the acceleration of industry, 
and the extension of credit, ^ on until a 
sinplus and stagnation are agam produced. 
Tlie af&ire of every industrious and ac- 
tive community are always revolving in 
this c'uvie, in travereing which, general 
creflit passes through its [leriodical ebbs 
and flows. This facility and extension of 
crpdit constitutes what is commonly called 
firiUioug cajfitaL The fiction consists in 
many indiviflua!s being supposed to be 
})0S4essed of a greater amount of clear 
capital tlian they are actually worth. The 
roost striking instance of this fictitious- 
ness of capital, or, in other words, excess 
of credit, appeare in the immense amounts 
of negotiable paper, that some individuals 
and companies spread in the community, 



or of paper currency, where the issuing 
of notes for supplyii^ currency by com- 
panies or individuals is permitted. Indi- 
viduals or comiMuiies thus draw into their 
hands an immense capital, and it is by no 
means a fictitious capital when it comes 
into their possession, but actual money, 
goods, lands, &c ; but, if they are in a 
bad, losing business, the capital, as soon 
as they are intrusted with it, becomes fic- 
titious in respect to tliose who trusted 
them with it, since they will not again 
realize it Extensive credits, both in sales 
and the issuing of paper, in new and 
growing communities, which have a small 
stock and great industry, grow out of their 
necessities, and thus become habitual and 
customary, of which the U. States hith- 
erto have given a striking example. 

Creech, Thomas, a scholar of some 
eminence for his classical translations, was 
bom in 1G50. He took the degree of 
M. A. at Oxford in 168!), having tlie pre- 
ceding year established his reputation as a 
scholar, by printing his translation of Lu- 
cretius. He abo translate<] several other 
of the ancient jioets, wholly or in part, 
comprising selections from Homer and 
Virgil, nearly the whole of Horace, tlio 
thirteenth Satire of Juvenal, the Idyls 
of Theocritus, and several of Plutarrli*s 
Lives. He likewise published an edition 
of Lucretius in the original, with inter|n^ 
tadoiis and annotations. He put an end 
to his life at Oxford, in 1700. Various 
causes are assigned for this rash act, but 
they are purely coigectural. He owes bis 
fame almost exclusively to his translation 
of Lucretius, the poetical merit of which 
is very small, although, in the vereification 
of the argumenuitiveand mechanical {lartSy 
some skill is exhibited. As an editor of 
Lucretius, he is chiefly valuable for his 
explanation of the Epicurean philosophy, 
for which, however, he was largely *m- 
debted to Gessendi. 

Creed ; a summary of belief ; fh)m the 
Latin credo (I believe), with which the 
Afiostles* Creed begins. In the Eastern 
church, a summary of this sort was called 
ndQn^a (the lesson), because it was learn- 
ed by tlie catechumens ; y^^^ (l'»e writ- 
uig), or irdvwr (the nile). Rut the most com- 
mon name in the Greek church was 
vbn&o\ov (the sym^K)!, q. v.), which has also 
passed into the Western church. Numer- 
ous ancient formularies of faith are pre- 
served in the writinsis of the early ftthere, 
Irenseus, Origen, Tertullian, &c., which 
agree in substance, though with some di- 
vereity of expression. The history of 
creeds would be the history of the churchy 



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CREE6. 



I of its mdancholy abenvdons finom 
simple doctrines of Jesus. Into this 
cresting, but humiliating history we 
mot now enter, but must confine ow- 
^es to a rapid view of a few of its 
St prominent features. Of the earlier 
eds, tliere are three which require |iar- 
ilar attention. I. The JipariUs* Creed ia 
»lled from its hayin|f been formerly con* 
ered as the work ot the apostles them- 
^es. Tliis notion is now acknowledged 
be without foundation. When and by 
om it was drawn up, is not known. It 
I only be traced to the 4th centuiy. It 
itaiiis a profession of belief in< the 
ly GiuMt, m the divinity of Jesus, his 
icent uito hell, and his ascension into 
iven, in the resurrection of the body, 
life everlasting, &c. II. The JS/lcen^ 
iedj so called liecause it was adopted at 
I council of Nice, A. D. 325, lield to 
3ose tlie Arian heresy. It therefore 
itains an explanation of the article of 
I A|)08tles' Creed — ^ I believe in Jesus 
rist, tlie only Son,** &c., which is as 
lows : ^ The only Son of God, begotten 
the Father, tliat is to say, of the 8ul>- 
iice of the Father, God of God, light 
light, veiy God of veiy God, begotten 
i not made, consubstantial with the 
ther, through whom eveVy tiling has 
in made in heaven and on earth." 
icedonius^ bishop ^ of Constuutinuple, 
ving denied the divinity of the Holy 
lost, it became necessaiy to settle this 
nt, which was done by the comioil of 
nstantinople, A. D. 381, who added the 
rds which follow **I believe in the 
•ly Ghost;'* viz. "the Lord and Giver 
hfe, who proceedeth fiiem the Father 
nd the Son' was afterward inserted by 
! Spanisli bishops), who, with the Fa- 
ir and tlie Son together, is worshipped 
1 glorified, who spake by the prophets." 
le insertion of the words ** and the Son" 
s finallysanctioned by the Roman 
irch in o83, but has never been receiv- 
by the Greek church. III. The Mm- 
nan Creed is now acknowledged not to 
ve been the work of Athanasius (q. v.), 
lose name it bears. It was probably 
itten in Latin, in the sixth century. In 
i 10th century, it was genemlly received 
the Western church, and, at the refor- 
tion, was adopted by the Protestants. It 
isists of an introduction and two poei- 
18, witli their proofs, deductions and con- 
sioDs. The introduction declares, that 
hosoever will be saved must hold the 
bolic faith." The first position then 
es, "The Catholic faith is this— that we 
rship one God in Trinity, and Trinity in 



Unity, neither confounding the persona^ 
nor dividing the substance." For (to pive 
briefly tlie remainder of tiiis position) there 
are three penons, but one Godhead. The 
Father, Son and Holy Ghost are uncreate, 
incomprehenmble, etemiU, ahnighty, Gocf, 
Lord ; yet there are not three Lords, Gode, 
almighty, eternal, incomprehensible, un- 
created, but one. The Father is neither 
made, created nor begotten: the Son is 
of the Father ak)ne, not made, nor creat* 
ed, but begotten. The Holy Ghost is of 
the Fatb«r and the Son, neither made, nor 
created, nor be^tten, but proceeding; 
and in tins Trinity none is afore or after 
another ; none is ffreater or less than an- 
other. He, therefore, that will be saved 
must thus diuik of the Trinity. The n^o- 
ond position establishes the doctrine of 
Christ's incarnation. It is necessary to 
everlasting salvation, that we believe 
rightly in the incarnation of our Lord 
Jesus Christ. The right faith is, that he 
is the Son of Crod, God and man ; |ierfect 
God and perfect man ; yet not two, liut 
one Christ ; one, not by conversion of tiie 
Godhead into flesh, Imt by taking of tiie 
manliood into God ; one ahogether, not 
by confusion of sulietanee, but by unity 
of person. Tliis is the Catholic faith, 
which except a man believe faithflilly, lie 
cannot be saved. 

Besides these creecls, there are numer- 
euaCon^cMum^ o/'/W<A, which have l)eeo 
adoptecl by different churches, as stand 
ards to which the ministers in the resfiec- 
tive communions are -required to conform. 
I. The Greek church (q. v.| pre8ente<l the 
CaiUesmon of the true and sincere FaiOt 
to Mohammed II, in 1453; but in 1643, 
the Orthodox Confession of the Catholic 
and apostolic Greek CAtireft, composed by 
Mogila, metropolitan of Kiow, was af>- 
proved with great solemnity by the pa- 
triarchs of Constantinople, Alexandria, 
Antioch and Jenisalem, and for a long 
time was the standard of the principles of 
the Russian Greek churcli : it has been 
superee<ied by the Summary of Christian 
Divinity, com|)osed in 1765, by the nif^rro- 
politan of Moscow (translated into Eng- 
lish, Edinburgh, 1814). IL The church of 
Rome has alwavs rece$?ed the AfKwtles', 
the Nicene and the Athanasian Creeds ; 
iHit a public authoritative symbol was first 
fixed uy the council of Trent A sum- 
mary of the doctrines contained in the 
canons of that council is given in the 
creed published by Pius IV (1564), in the 
form of a bull. It is introduced by the 
Nicene Creed, to which it ad<is twelve 
articles, containing those dootriaes which 



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CREED-caEMNrra. 



u 



the eburefa of Rome finally adopted after 
her contro?enifi8 with refbrmen. III. The 
Lutherans caU their standard books of 
fidth and discipline LSbn l^fmboUei JBecfe- 
ntt Evamgdic^ They contain the three 
creeds above mentioned, the Augsburg 
ConfessBon (q. vX the Apology for that 
confession by Melancdion, the Articles 
of Smalcalden, drawn up by Luther, the 
Catecliisins of Lutlier, and, in many 
churches, the Form of Concord or Book of 
Torgau. The best edition is fay Tittmann 
(Leipsic, 1817). The Saxon (con^wsed 
by Melancthon), W&rteraberv, Suabian, 
Pomeranian, Manafeldtian and Copenha- 
gen Confessions agree in general with 
the aymboiical books of the Lutherans^ 
but are of authority only in the countries, 
fiom which they are respecdvely called. 
IV. The confessbns of the Calvinistic 
churches are numerous. The following 
are the principal : L The Helvetic Confea- 
aioiia are three— that of Basle (1530) ; the 
Summary and Confessioh of Faith of the 
Helvetic churches (Bade, 1596); and the 
JBxpomtio tumpUx^ &c. (1566), attributed 
to BuiUnger. 2. The Tetrapolitan Con- 
feasion (»bf«burg, 1531), which derives 
its name fiK>m the four dties of Sdfvsburg, 
Constance, Menmiingen and Lindau, b^ 
the €ieputies of wliKh it was signed, is 
attributed to Bucer. It diiie» from the 
aymbolica] books of the Lutherans in the 
doetrine of the sacraments, and especially 
in its exposition of the eucharist S. The 
PalatiBe or Heidelbeig Confeasion was 
fiamed at Heidelberg by older of the 
elecfor paladne, John Casimir (1575). 
4 The Confession of die Gallic Churches 
was accepted at the first synod hekl by 
the reformed at Paris, in 1559. Inthefol- 
bwing year, it was presented to Francis II, 
and, in 1501, it was presented by Beza to 
OarlcsIX. 5. The Confession of the Re- 
foined Cliurches in Belgium was drawn 
np in 1559, and approved in 156L a The 
Confession of Faith of the Kirk of Scot- 
kmL The ecclesiastical discipline and 
doctrine of the church of €}eneva were 
ad<wted in Scotland ftom the lieginnii^ 
of die reformation there. In 1^1, die 
Scotch nation subscribed a General Con- 
ftflsion, together with a Solemn League 
and Covenant to defend tlie Protesiani re- 
ligion and Presbyterian government The 
Scotch oovenanten afVerwards adopted 
die Westminster Confossion, in the com- 
pibtioB of which some delegates from 
their genend assembly had assisted. In 
1688^ that oonfoarion was receive as the 
standard of the national fkith, which all 
mitntan, aadtheoffioemof the Scotch uni« 



yendties, are required to subscribe. Widi 
this are generally connected the catechisms 
of their assembly. 7. Confession of Fnith 
of the Anglican Church. In the beginning 
of the reign of queen Elizabeth, she gave 
her assent to thir^-ntne ardcles agreed up- 
on in the convocation held at D>ndon m 
1553. They were drawn up in Latin ; but, 
in 1571, they were revised and subscribed 
both in Latin and English, They were 
adopted b^ the Episcopal church in the 
U. States m 1801, with some alteration^ 
and the rejection of the Athanasian Creed. 
The first five contain the doctrines of 
the Anglican church concerning the 
Father, Son and Holy Ghost ; in the sixthi 
seventh and eighth, the rule of faith m 
established ; the next 10 relate to Chris- 
tians as individuals, and the remaining 21 
relate to them as members of a religious 
society. (See Corpu$ et Swtagma Conr 
fesnonum Fidti, Geneva, 1612 and 1654 ; 
Skfttioge Cwtfe$9umam^ Oxford, 1804 ; But- 
ler's .^cotttif of Omfessums of FaitL) 

Creeks, or Muscogees ; Indians in the 
western part of Georeia and the eastern 
part of Alabama, in the coimtry watered 
by the Chatahoochee, TaUapoosa and Coo^ 
sa« The number of warriors is about 6000|L 
and of souls about 20,000. They suffered 
severely in 1813 and 1814, in the war with 
the U. States. (See Sbmnofu). They are ac- 
counted the most warlike tribe found east 
of the Misfflssippi. Some of their towns 
contain from 150 to 200 houses. The^ 
have made considerable progress in agn- 
euhure, and raise horses, catue, fowls and 
hogs, and cultivate tobacco, rice and corn« 

Crees, or KmsTENAUx; Indians in 
North America, residing about Ion. 105^ 
12^ W. ; ht. 55^ N. They are of moder- 
ate stature, well proportioned, active, hare 
keen black eyes and open countenances; 

CiiEPELD ; a city in the Prussian prov- 
ince of Cleves-Berg,with 1543 houses and 
16,000 inhabitants, of whom 700 are Men- 
nonites ; above 12,000 are manufactur- 
ers. The city is built in the Dutch taste. 
The chief manufactories are of velvet cloth 
and ribands. The former is made prin- 
cipally in the city, the latter in the envi- 
rons. Silk goods of various kinds, flannel^ 
woollen stockings, cotton and linen goods, 
&C., are also made here. Crefeld Ukewise 
contains tanneries, sugar refineries, dis- 
tiHeries, manufactories of soap. Of late^ 
it has exported much to America. 

CaXMTfiTZ, or Kremnitz ; a free roya|' 
city in Hungary, in Barsch, mtuated oii 
the nde of a hill; 100 miles £. Vienna i 
Ion. I^13f E.; lat 48^45'N.; pop"*-'-- 
9700; houMB, 1200. It is 



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13 



CREMNITZ--CREOLE. 



]o% oiotmtaiBS, and contains one Luther- 
an, one'Caivinist, and one Catholic church, 
and a Lutheran gymnasium. It is cele- 
brated for its mines of gold and silver, and 
is the oldest mining town in Hungary. 
The situation is elevated, and the air is veiy 
cold. The town itself is very small, not 
containing 50 houses, but the faubaurgs 
are of great ejctent The ducats which 
bear the name of Cremnitz have enjoyed, 
fbr a long time, the reputation of very fine 
cold. 'Hiey are to be known by the two 
Ktters K. B. {Ktrmecz ^anya, Cremnitz 
mines), between which is the image of 
the sovereign. Much gold and silver fix>m 
these mines is coined in Vienna. 

Cremoita ; a city of the Lombardo- 
Venetian kingdom, capital of the province 
and district, in a beautiful situation. It is 
about five miles in circumference, and 
has spacious and regular streets, with sev- 
eral squares, but the bouses are in geneFal 
ill built Here are 44 churches ahd chap- 
els, 43 convents, and an obscure universi- 
W. It is the see of a bishop. The cathe- 
and 18 a massy structure, with a facade of 
beautifiil white and red marble, ornament- 
ed, in the interior, with various paintings 
and pictures in fresco. The tower of 
Cremona, built by Frederic Barbaroesa, in 
the 12th century, is a very curious edifice, 
consisting of two octagonal obelisks, sur- 
mounted by a cross, and, in all, 372 feet 
In height The silk manufactures of this 

eace are considerable, and it has long 
»en noted for its superior violins. This 
city is of great antiquity, having been 
created a Roman colony B. C. 291. The 
Venetians possessed it a longtime; and, 
tmder Napoleon, it was, until 1814, capi- 
tal of the department of Alto Pa Popu- 
lation, 23,000; 38 miles S. E. Milan ; Ion. 
ia>2'12"E.; lat 45° 7' 43" N. 

Creole (from the Spanish CrioUo) is 
the name which was originally given to 
all the descendants of Spaniards bom 
in America and the West Indies. Jt 
is also used for the descendants of other 
Europeans, as French, Banes, in which 
case we say, Drmck-CreoU, ^anuh-Cre^ 
oU. Since tiie native Spaniards have 
been expelled from tlie former Spanish 
American colonies, the term Cndt is 
comparatively litde used, in speaking 
of thoise parts of America, it being seC 
dom neceasaiy as a term of distinction ; 
but, in speaking of the French, Danish 
and Snanisb poasessions in the West In- 
dies, the word occurs more frequently. 
In the U. States, it is oflea used for the 
descendants ofthe French and &|paniards 
in Louisiaaa (many of tba latter having 



settled there ih>m Spanish America), in 
contradistinction to Amaicant^ meaning, 
by the hitter term, people bom in the other 
states, or their descendanta. In 1776, 
Charies III, king of Spain, declared the 
Creoles capable of civil, military, and ec- 
clesiastical offices, from which, till then, 
they had been excluded. Native Sfian- 
iards, however, still continued to have the 
preference, and the Creoles were treated 
with the arrogance which too oflen dis- 
tinguishes the conduct ofthe natives of a 
parent country towards colonists; and the 
consequence was great exacerbation of 
feeling on the part ofthe Creoles.^ In the 
West Indies, tne Creoles have always en- 
ioyed equal rights with native Europeans. 
Before the declaration of independence 
by the colonies of Spanish America, there 
existed marked lines of distinction between 
the different classes, founded on difference 
of birth. The Chapdomu were Europeans 
by birth) and first in rank and nower; 
the Cnoie$ were the second ; the Jmdattoes 
and Mutizoei (descendants of white and 
black, or white and Indian parents) form" 
ed the third class ; Negroes and mdians, 
the fourth. At present, they are all en- 
titled to equal privilege by the constitu- 
tions. Some of Bolivar's generals are 
dark Mulattoes, and Paez is a Llanero. 
The Llaneros are converted Indians. The 
native Spaniards formerly avoided asso- 
ciating with the Creoles, and formed the 
first class. In Venezuela, there existed a 
kind of Creole nobility, unknown in other 
parts of South America. They were call- 
ed MantwmMj and divided themselves 
into those of iSb^fre Azul (bhie blood), de- 
scendants of the first Spanish conquerors, 
and those of Sanfre Mexdada (mixed 
blood], . Creole families of a later origin, 
who nad intermarried vrith Spaniards or 
Frenchmen. The Creoles, in general, be- 
fore the revolution, were very lazy, leav- 
ing the mechanical arts and husbandly 
altoj^ether to the Mulattoes, Negroes or 
Indians; and, even now, the mechanics 
are mostly colored or black persons. The 
ladies are of a saltow complexion, have 
beautiful teeth, hurg^ dark eyes, and are, 
like the men, veiy finely fanned. — (htoU 
diaUcU are those jar^pons which have 
originated fhim the mixture of different 
languages in the West Indies. They are 
moken by die slaves, who have destroyed 
tne ^le grammatical construction of the 
European languages, and have intermixed 
with them some original African words. 
According to the European huigua|e 
which pievails in a Creole dialect, it is 
called IVmik^CrhUf D miih CrtoUj &c. 



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CllEOLE— CRESCENT. 



13 



In St Thomrts, for instance, the latter is 
Sfioken ; in Hay ti, French-Creole. Among 
the numerous comiptions of Euroiiean 
words and constructions, we find, very 
generaiiy, in the Creole dialects, ttje cor- 
ruptions of ipainmar common amone 
children ; for mstance, me is used instead 
of /. Often DO distinction is made be- 
tween the possessive pronoun and the 
|)ereonnl ; e. g., me house for my house, or 
wimassra for our master. The infinitive 
is used for the finite tenses, as mot domtar 
fur je dmvne. It is well known that Ho- 
mer has several deviations from grammar 
which are now peculiar to children ; and 
the Creole dialects have several peculiari- 
ties in common with tliose used by Ho- 
mer. The mixture of words from differ- 
eni languages is often considerable in these 
dialects ; tnit most of them can be under- 
stood, without a great deal of diflliculty, 
by a man acquainted with English, Da- 
nish, French and Simiiish. We will give 
an example of the rapimento language — 
a Creole dialect spoken in St Thomas — 
from a work sxtracted from tlie four Gos- 
peh^ entiiied Da 7Vi va wi Massra eii 
Hdpiman Jesus Christus, so leki wifiwK 
dtdH na tnni dem fo EvangdisU: Mat- 
theusy Marcus^ Lucas en JohanneSy 1816 
(The Stoiy of our Lord and Savior Jesus 
Christ, as we find it in the four Evange- 
lists, &C.) A part of the fint chapter of 
the Gospel of St John, from the 4th to 
the 8th verse, is given in this work, as fol- 
lows : — Libi ben de na inm va hem, Kaha 
da fibi ben de Kandera va somma. Kaba 
da Kandera de krun na dungru, ma dungru 
no 6en tcld da Kandera. Gako ben senni 
wsn, sommay dem kali JoJumnes, dissi ben 
Konun va takki vo da Kandera, va dem 
somma Komm bnbi na da Kandera. Hem 
srfi no da Kandera, ma a ben Komm va 
iakJd na somma vo da Kandera, This 
s|ieciinen will ffive an idea of the stranore 
mixture of woros, and of the clumsy peri- 
phrases used to express ideas, e. g^ libi 
btndena inm va htm ; of the poverty, e. g., 
bm for been, has been, has, was, and had, &c. 
Ttiere are, however, in all languages, 
heavy periphrases, our familiarity with 
Wiiicli presents us from being sensible of 
litem ; e. g^ i« vewus de chez mot, orhets 
dftoiil to set out on a journey ; which, if we 
bad one wonl for underiakbig a journey, 
snd a tense for exfvessing the intention, 
migiit be expressed in one word. That a 
eareful investigation of the Creole dialects 
w'ouki lead to several interesting discovcr- 
ir>s resiiecting the origin of some gram- 
inaticat fomiations and modes of ex])res- 
slon, is hardly to be doubted. When the 
\oh. IV. 2 



allied armies invaded France, and the 
Russian and German soldiers were often 
under the necessity of communicating 
with each other, and with the French, a 
kind of iargon came into use among them, 
in wbicii the writer observed that mi — ^the 
Low Gennan for me, and pretty nearly 
resembling the French moi — was used \jy 
all parties to exprera the first ])er8on sin- 
gular. The infinitive was oHao used in- 
stead of the fuiite modes, expressing only 
the gross idea of action witliout modtfica- 
tJoii. Flesh, from the German Fleisch 
(meat), dobri, from the Russian, for good^ 
were also em])loyed by all ^rties, as was 
also the word cemui, to signify broken doton, 
spoiled, &c. This last won! is mill in use 
among the lower classes of I^orth Germa- 
ny. Mijlesh caput meant, in this military 
dialect, my meat is spoiled. Several of tlie 
modem £uroi)ean languages nmst have 
originated in this way, after the irruption 
of the nordiem tiibes into the Roman 
empire. 

Crescendo, or Cres. (RaL) By the 
term crescendo, tlie Italians siginfy that the 
notes of the |)assage. over which it is 
placed are to be gradually swelled. This 
oneration is not of mo<lem invention. 
The ancient Romans, as we learn frotn a 
passage in Cicero, were aware of its beau- 
ty, and practised it continually. — Cresc^ylf^ 
is also the name of a musical instniment, 
invented in 1778, by the counsellor Bauer, 
in Berlin, which is played Hke a piano, and, 
Uke diis, is furnished witli wire strings. 

Crescent (cre*cen*, Lat) ; an emblem, 
representing the moon in her state of 
increase. This emblem of the Ottomans 
is of very high antiquity. The Egyptians 
had tlieir Isis, the Greeks their Diana, and> 
it is easy to conceive that tlie ch'scent 
which announced the reluming light of 
the moon, soon became an object of wor- 
ship with such people. Thus Isis, Diand, 
and the bull Apis, are decorated with tliis 
cinblem ; which is also found on medals 
of Alexander, and other ancient monu- 
ments of art. The citizens of Athens of 
illustrious birth wore crescrnts of ivory 
and silver u]X)n their buskins; and the 
same mark of distinction was granted to 
the patricians and senators of Konic. 
They were called lumdati calcei. The cres- 
cent was oflen used by females as an orna- 
ment for the head; an example of which 
nmv be seen on a bust of Marciana, in the 
Villa Pamfili. On many medals of querns, 
the bust is supported by a crescent, ex- 

1>ressive of tlie relation they bore to their 
nisliands, who, as kings, were as the sun, 
while they were as tiie moon. It is also 



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14 



CRESCENT— CRESCIMBENI. 



an emblem of the. eternity of an empire. 
The god Lunus bears it upon his shoul* 
der; and the^iont of the Lucretian fum- 
ily have it acconifNinied by the Seven Stars 
of the nortliem hemisphere. It is also 
found on medals of many cities, particu- 
larly of Byzantium, from whence it is sup- 
posed to have been borrowed by the Otto- 
mans. Since their establishment in Eu- 
it>|)e, it has been the universal emblem of 
their empire. It decorates their minarets, 
their turlNins, their ensigns, their insignia ; 
every thing appertaining to the Mussul- 
mans is characterized by this sign, and 
their stated are desig^iated as the Empire of 
the Crescent. During the crusades, par- 
ticularly, the crescent was tJie distinguish- 
ing symbol of the Mussuhnans, as tiie cross 
was of the Christians. 

Crcscenzi, Pietro, or Petrus de, the 
restorer of the scientific study of agricul- 
ture in Europe, bom at Bologna, in 1230, 
was an attorney and magistrate, till he 
was obliged, by civil troubles, to leave his 
native country. He travelled through 
Italy, and collected useful observations. It 
was not dll afler 30 yean of absence, when 
order was at length restored to his native 
city, that he was permitted to return ; and, 
at the age of 70, he was made senator. 
He now carried into execution his princi- 

i)les of agriculture, on an estate near Bo- 
ogna, in tlie cultivation of which he pass- 
ed the remainder of his life. See his 
essay on agHculture (Ruralium Conuno- 
dorum, 12 booksi which he composed at 
the desire of Cliarles II. He submitted 
his work to the examination of learned 
men in Bologna, by whom it was coirect- 
ed and improved. It is a remarkable 
monument of his dme, of which it is far in 
advance. Apostolo Zeno has proved that 
tliese 12 books, in the arrangement of 
which the author seems to have followed 
Columella, were written originally in Lat- 
in. There exists an Italian translation 
{R Ubro deUa JIgricvUura di P, Crescent 
Hoy Florence, 1^^ et seq.), which is es- 
teemed very highly, on accomit of tlie 
purity of the language, and has given rise 
to the opinion that Urescenzi wrote in his 
native tongue. He understood the ao- 
cients, and made use of them. His prin- 
ciples are simple, founded upon experi- 
ence, and free from many prejudices, 
which continued to prevail in Europe for 
centuries afler. His work was no sooner 
published, than it spread throughout Eu- 
rope. It was translated into several Eu- 
ropean languages, particularly for Charles 
V of France, in a splendid manuscript 
(1373), which is stiU extant; and no soon- 



er was the art of prindng invented, than 
copies of tiiis work were greatly multipli* 
ed. The oldest known edition, which is 
now very rare, appeared at Augsburg, in 
1471, in folio. The eariiest Italian trans- 
lation, tlie author of which is supposed to 
be Lorenzo Beuvenuti, of St Geminiano, 
and which is accounted among the mod- 
els of language, is contuned in the collec- 
tion of tlje (Stutici ttaliam (Milan, 18C5). 
A more exact, but a less esteemed trans- 
lation, was made by Sansovino. We are 
indebted for much information concerning 
Crescenzi and his work to professor Filip- 
po Re, at Bolonia. 

Crescerzi, D. Juan Baptista, nuuquia 
de la Torre, born at Rome towards the 
end of the Kkh century, studied the ait 
of paintine under Pomerancias. Some 
of hia early compositions attracted the 
attention of the ()ope, Paul V, who intrust- 
ed him with the dv'coration of the Pauline 
chafieU Cardinal Zapata^ took him to 
Spain in 1617f where he obtained the 
fiivor of Philip III. Some flower-pieces 
occasioned his receiving the commission 
to build die sepulchral monument in the 
Escurial, the 8|)lendor and finished ele- 
gance of which place it among the most 
remarkable monuments of Europe. (See 
Santo's History of the Escwialj with cop- 
perplates.) The bronze figures were exe- 
cuted by Roman artists. Philip IV made 
him a grandee of Castile, with the tide of 
marquis de la Thrre, aiid conferred upon 
him other marks of distinction. His house, 
which contained rich treasures in eveiy 
branch of art, was ever open to artists. 
He died in 1660. 

Crescimbeni, Giovanni Maria, a scholar 
and poet, was lx)m at Macerata, in the 
Mark of Anco»ia, OcL 9, 1663. When 
but a child, he displayed an inclination for 
poetry. Ariosto's verses, in purticular, 
were impressed on his memory ny an edi- 
tion of Orlando Furioso, with copper- 
plates, in which he used to search for and 
peruse the passages to which tiie engrav- 
mgs referred. In the Jesuits' college, at 
Macerata, he wrote, at 13, a tragedy — DtL- 
rius. At 15, he was a member of an acad- 
emy, and, at 16, doctor of laws. His 
father sent him, in 1681, to Rome, to per- 
fect himself in the knowledge of law ; but 
he applied himself, widi still more zeal, to 
poetry. Some cmixoni of Filicaja, in 1^, 
gave him correct views of the character 
of the poetry then in vogue. Dissatisfied 
with all that he had formerly attempted, 
he felt himself at once constrained to imi- 
tate only the ancient models, and to rec- 
ommend their simple and natural manner 



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CR£SCIMB£NI--CR£ST. 



15 



10 lus coiitemfK>raries. Crescimbeni be- 
longed to all the throe academies in Rome, 
which jivalled each other in wretched 
veraesl Out of these, he selected cer- 
tain members, whose views harmonized 
with his own, and formed a new acad- 
emy» which wa^ sportively called the 
,^rc€utut^in allusion to the rural taste of 
the founder. (See ^cadiana.) lie was 
the first autode of this academy, under 
the name of jSlfesikeo CariOf and was re- 
elected to the office for several succes- 
sive Olympiads. Crescimlieni, delighted 
with the success of his plan, was not tiie 
least active among his fellow poets. In 
1698 appeared iiis htoria deila volgar Poe* 
da — a^work of vast iuduBtry, but destitute 
of method and criticism. He next pub- 
lished his Trattato dtUa Bdkxza delta vol- 
gar Poaia (Rome, 1700, 4to.), which 
passed, in a short time, through tliree 
editions, and, like the earlier work, was 
fifst nmde capable of being understood 
and enjoyed oy the Commentarj intomo 
aUa ^ria deua volgar Poesia (Rome, 
1702, 5 volumes, 4to.). The favor of 
Clement XI placed hirn m an easy situa- 
tion. In the tranquillity of his caiioni- 
cate, disturbed only by the disputes of the 
Arcadians, the number of his works rap- 
idly increased. He made a translation of 
Nostradamus's Lives of the Provencal 
Poets, with additions, enlarged his own 
Commentaries with four valuable vol- 
umes, and wrote a History of the Arcadia, 
and Lives of the Arcadian Poets. About 
this time, also, appeared the two fiiM vol- 
umes of veises (Rime^ of his Arcadia, 
which were well received. Clement V 
and Benedict XIII rewarded his labors 
with ecclesiastical honors; and John V 
of Portugal presented the Arcadia with 
some funds. The society erected a thea- 
tre, still existing, on the Janiculum, and 
their first Olympic games were celebrated 
Sept. 9, 1726, m honor of the king of 
Portugal. The poems which Crescim- 
beni read on that occasion were received 
with lively approbation. Meanwhile his 
constitution was yielding to a disorder of 
the breast. Afler being admitted, at his 
request, into the order of the Jesuits, in 
whose garb lie wished to die, he expired, 
March 8, 17%. During his Ufetime, he 
had caused his monument to be erect- 
ed in the church of Santa Maria Mag- 
giore, with the inscription — I. M. C. P. 
ARC. C. (Joannes Mariug Cnscunbemua^ 
Paslorum Arcadtua Custos), and bearing 
the Arcadian pipe. He was of a gentle 
disposition, benevolent, affable and mod- 
erate. Among his numerous works, oc- 



casiona] compositions and eulogies, those 
already mentioned are all that deserve a 
high rank in the literature of bis country. 
A biography of him is prefixed to his 
History of Arcadia (Rome, 1712, 12mo.), 
by the canon Mancurti of Imela. 

Crespi, Giusep|ie Maria, suniamed U 
SpagnuolOf a pamter of tlie Bologiiese 
school, bom at Bologna, in 1665, studied 
tlie masterpieces in the monastery of Son 
Michaele in Bosco^ and particularly imi- 
tated the Caracci, whose works he also 
copied. He received uistruction from 
Caimti, then from Cignani, afterwards 
studied in Venice and Purma, and finally 
came out with his own productions in his 
native city. His first work was tlie Com- 
bat of Hercules with Ajitaeus. From tiiis 
time he had continual employment He 
painted, for cardinal Ottoboni, the Seven 
Sacraments, now in the Dresden gallery ; 
several pieces for prince Eugene of Savoy, 
for the elector of the Palatinate, for die 
grand-duke of Tuscany, and for curiiua] 
Laiubertiiii, his patron, who afterwards, 
when pope Benedict XIV, conferred on 
him the honor of kuightliood. Crespi, 
however, has been frequently censured for 
the singular ideas which he often uitro- 
duced into his |>aiutings ; e. g. he repre- 
sents Chiren giving his pupil Achilles a 
kick for some fault that he had committed. 
Moreover he (wiuted every thing aprimOj 
with strong, lx)ld strokes, in tlie manner 
of Caravaggio, and has become a man- 
nerist from a desire to be constantly new. 
He had many scholars, among whom were 
his two sous, Autouio and Luigi Cres|>i. 
The latter distinguished himself by his 
vnritingH on painting. Crespi died in 1747. 

Cressy. (See Creof,) 

Crest (from the Latin crista) is used 
to signify tlie rising on the defensive 
armor of the head, also the ornament 
frequently affixed to the helmet, such 
as a plume or tufl of feathers, a bunch 
of horse-hair, &c. Warriors have al- 
ways been in the habit of adorning their 
[)erson8; and tlie helmet, from its conspicu- 
ousness, is veir naturally chosen as the 
place of one of the principal ornaments. 
We learn from Homer (//. iji, 33(i) that the 
crests of the earlier Greeks were of horsi*- 
hair; afterwards plumes, especially red 
ones, were adopted. (Viro. .£». ix, 50, 
271, 808.) To gain an enemy^s crest was 
accounted an honorable achievement, as 
it was reckoned among the spolicu The 
Greeks called the crest ^a'Ao; and ^^^r, 
but some are of opinion that these wonls 
mean different things, ^/iXo; signifying the 
raised part of tlie helmet (conus\ and 



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16 



CREST-CRETINISM. 



K6fos, the real crest The crests of com- 
manders (a/i^(^Xoi), of course, were gen- 
erally larger than those of common sol- 
diers. Tlie iCginetan statues (see JEgi' 
netan SiuU) have crests of horse-hair. In 
the miiulle ages, when rank and honors 
l)ecame hereditary, and particular heraldic 
devices were appropriated to particular 
families, the crest became a distinguishing 
„ hereditary murk of honor. ' It denotes, in 
heraldry, a figure placed upon a wreatli, 
coronet, or cap of maintenance, above both 
helmet and shield ; as, for ujstance, tlie 
crest of a bishop is the mitre. I'lie cix'st 
KB considered a greater criterion of nobility 
than the armor generally. It is commonly 
a piece of tlie anus, as that of Castile is 
a castle. Crests, dierefoiie, fonn an ini- 
porrant subject in the unimportant science 
of heraldry. 

Crete. (See Candia,) 

Creticus. (See Rhfthmta.) 

Cretinism makes a very close ap- 
proach V. rickets in its general symptoms. 
It dift'ifcf principally in its tendency to 
thn! fieculiar enlargement of the thyroid 
giand, which, in F ranee, is denominated 
goilre, and hi the mental imiiecility which 
accompanies it from the first. The en- 
largement of the gland does not always, 
however, accompany the otlier ^mptoiiis, 
though it does generally. Cretinism was 
first distinctly noticed and descril)ed by 
Plater, about tiie middle of the 17tli centu- 
ry, ns occurring among tlie fieasaiits in Ca- 
nntliia and the Valais. It was aih:rwards 
found, in a still severer degree, in other 
valleys of Switzerland, and the Al|)s gen- 
erally. It has since lieen detected in vari- 
ous other regions, where the country ex- 
hibits similar features, as among a miser- 
able race called CagotSy inhabiting the hol- 
lows of the Pyrenees, whose district and 
history have been dcscrilied by Mr. Ray- 
mond ; and in Chinese Tartary, where it 
Is re))resejited as exisdng by sir Geoi^e 
Staimtoii. On the first discovery of cre- 
tinism, it was ascribed by some to the use 
of snow-water, and by otliers to tlie use 
of water impregnated with calcareous 
earth, both which opinions are without 
foundation. The first is sufficiently dis- 
proved by the fact diat persons bom in 
places contiguous to the glaciers, and who 
drink no otlier water tlian what flows 
from the melting of ice and snow, are 
not subject to this disorder ; and, on the 
contrary, that the disorder is olmeiTcd hi 
places where snow is unknown. The 
second is contradicted by the fact, that the 
common water of Switzerland, instead 
of being impregnated with calcareous 



matter, excels that of most other conn- 
tries in £uro{ie in purity and flavor. The 
water usualW drank at La Batia and 
Martigny is from the river Dranse, which 
flows from the glacier of St Bcnianl,and 
falls into die Rhone. It is remarkably 
free from earthy matter, and well tasted. 
At Berne, the water is extremely pure-, 
yet, as Haller remarks, swellings of the 
throat are not uncommon in both sexes, 
though cretinism is rare. As comfortable 
am] congenial warmth forms one of the 
hesx auxiliaries in attempting the cure of 
both cretinism and rickets, there c^in be 
no doubt Uiat .the chill of snow-water 
must consfderal)]y add to the general de- 
bility of the system when laboring under 
either of these diseases, though there 
seems no reason for suppoang that it 
would ^ve rise to either. It is not diffi- 
cult to explain why water impregnated 
with calcareous earth should have been 
regarded as the cause ; for in cretinism, as 
in rickets, the calcareous earth, designed 
by nature for the formation of the bones, is 
oflcn separated, and floats loose in various 
fluids of the body, for want of a sufficien- 
cy of phosphoric acid to convert it into a 
phosphate of lime, and give it solidity. 
And as it is, in consequence, pretty freely 
dischar^l in the urine, this seems to have 
given nse to the o])inion tliat such calca- 
reous earth was introduced into the s>'s- 
teni with tlie common water of the lakes 
or rivers, and thus produced the moihid 
symptoms. M. de Saussure has assigned 
the real cause of the disease. The val- 
leys of the Al|w, he tells us, are surround- 
ed by very high mountains, slieltered 
from currents of fresh air, and exposed 
to the direct, and, what is worse, the re- 
flected rays of die sun. They are marshy, 
and hence the atmosphere is humid, close 
and opprpR^ive ; and when to these causes 
we add the meager, iimutritious food of 
the poor of these districts, their indolence 
and uncleunliness, witli a pre(Iis])osition 
to the disease, from a hereditary taint of 
many generations, we can sufficiently ac- 
count for the prevalence of cretinism in 
such places, and for the humiliating char- 
acter which it assumes. Tlie general 
8Ym]>toms of cretinism are the same as 
those of rickets ; but the disease shoe's 
itself earlier, oflen at birth, and not uufre- 
quently liefore this jieriod, apparendy com- 
mencing widi the procreation ofdiefcBtus, 
and aflonting the most evident proofs of 
ancestral contamination. The child, if not 
defonned and diseased at birtli, soon be- 
comes so ; the liody is stinted in Its growth, 
and the organs in their developement. 



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CREUSA— CREUZER. 



17 



Creusa ; the name of several celebrat- 
ed females of antiquity. 1. Daughter of 
Erectheua, wlio, before she was married 
to Xutliiis, gave birth to Ion, the fruit of 
an amour with A|)oIla To her second 
husiiand she bore Achseus. 2. The daugh- 
ter of Priam and Heculia, wife to i£ue- 
as, and mother of Ascaiiius. In the tu- 
mult of the conflagration of Troy, when 
^neas fled with the images of his gods, 
with his &ther and son, he lost her, aud, 
after he had sought her a long time ui vain, 
her spirit appeared to him, saying that tlie 
mother of the gods had taken her to her- 
self, because she was not willing diat she 
sliould leave Phrygia. 

Creittz, Gustavus Philip, count of; a 
Swedish poet and statesman, was bom 
in Finland in 1726. He was a member 
of the learned and elegant circle, which 
surrounded the queen of Sweden, Louisa 
Uhrica, sister of Frederic the Great ; and 
his JtU og CamiUOf an erotic poem in 
i^ve cantos, published at Stockholm (1761), 
grew out or the meetings of tliis society. 
This poem and his Letter to Daphne are 
considered as masterpieces in Swedish 
poetry. He was aiipoiuted minister to 
Madrid, and, at a taler period, to Paris, 
where he remained twenty yeani, and be- 
came perticularlv acquainted with Mar- 
montel and Gnfetry. April 3, 1783, he 
signed, with doctor Franklin, a treaty of 
amity between the United States and 
Sweden. He was afterwards placed at 
the head of the department of foreign af- 
&ira in Stockholm, but he could not en- 
dure the climate of his country, and died in 

1785. His works and those of his friend 
Gyllenboiv are published together, under 
the title FUUrhks ArhtUn of Crtutz og 
Giftenbcrgy Stockholm, 1795. At a chap- 
ter of the Seraphim order, April 28, 

1786, king Gustavus himself read the 
eubgy of Creutz. 

Creuzer, Georee Frederic (in his late 
publications called simply Frederic), pro- 
fessor at the universirir of Heidelbei^, 
a philologist and aiitiouariau, bora at 
Marburg, m Hesse, March 10, 1771, was 
devoted, fit>m his eariiest youth, to the an- 
cient classics. He studied at the univer- 
sities of Marburg and Jena, and after- 
wards lived in and near Giessen, occupied 
with the study of the Greek historians, and 
at the same time with teaching. About 
this time, be published his first literary 
producdon, Herodotus vni Thucydides ; 
Venuck einer naherm WurcHgung Virer 
Hisiorischen Chrundsatze (Essay toward 
determining the Historical Principles of 
Herodotus and Thucvdides), Leipsic, 1796 



and 1803, which was received with ap- 
probation, as W{is also his siibeecfuent pub- 
lication, De XenopkonU Histonco (1799). 
In 1802, he was made professor of elo- 
quence in the university at Marburg, and, 
in 1804, professor of philology and an- 
cient history, at Heidelbei^. His Diomf^ 
sus sive CommenUUiorus Acadtmic4t de 
Rtrum Bacchicarwn Origmibus (Heidel- 
berg, 1808) may be considered as tlie ftrat 
specimen of his views on the connexion 
of tlie nivthological trHdidons of tlie an- 
cient world. According to Creuzer, there 
existed, in tlie most ancieni 'imes of 
Greece, a body of Grecian poetry bcTt)w- 
ed from the East Homer, and mors 
pardcularly Hesiod, instead of beinc the 
authors of the religion, or even of the 
mythology, of their country, merely intro- 
duce us to a previously existing worid of 
poetry, philosophy and theology. The 
most ancient Greek poetry contained 
the symbolical and even the Magian and 
allegorical ideas ; and tiiough this {loetry, 
which was introduced from the East, 
changed its forms at different times, it 
was never substantially lost amon^ the 
Greeks. It was preserved in tlie hierar- 
chical institutions and mysteries, and waa 
in later times an object for the investiga- 
tion of historians and philosophei-s ; but 
the traces which reinaui are only suffi- 
cient to enable us to determine and de- 
scribe its most essential features. Accord- 
ing to Creuzer, diis ancient wisdom was 
received first from the Pelasp, who were, 
if not altogether a ruling tnbe of priests, 
yet a tribe with' ruling priests. But ex- 
clusive hierarchical institutions could not 
Prosper upon the soil of Greece. The 
*elasgi were expelled by the Hellenes. 
Afler the ancient races had become ex- 
tinct, the Hellenic spirit departed more 
and more from the spuit of the East. 
Families of priests had united into castes, 
and what remained of the old and relig- 
ious poetry was confined to die mysteries. 
In Homer and Hesiod tliere are evident 
traces of a misunderstanding of the elder 
notions and traditions ; yet there are also 
evidences that they were not ignorant of 
the ancient theology. The first germ of 
the more profound tbeok>gical doctrines 
can therefore be found only in a revela- 
tion from above, to which we must refer 
the religious belief of different nations^ 
and we must conclude that similar sym- 
bols and allegories are founded upon sim- 
ilar primitive views. Creuzer developed 
these principles in his SymboUk uni Ah- 
thologie der dUm Vdlherj besonders Jir 
Griecken (Leipsic and Darmstadt, 181d— 



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CREUZER-^RICHTON. 



1821, 5 volumes, with an atlos). Ho has 
met with much opposition. G. Hermann, 
bi his Briefe Uber Homer uni Hesiod, vor- 
ziiglick uber dU TheogonU (Heideltjerg, 
lbi8j, ami in a letter midressed to Creu- 
zer, Uber das Wtsen und dU Bthandiung 
dtr Mi/tkologie (Lei|)sic, 1819), op|K>8ed 
him with much iierspicuilr and force of 
argument 1. H. Voss declared open war 
against Creuzer, in the ' Litteraturzeilung 
of Jena, and nublislied his Ardisymbclik 
(Stuttgait, 1824), wliich was followed by 
replies from Wolfg. Menzel and others. 
The study of the tlieories of Creuzer, 
which are elaborated in his S^mJMik with 
the most extensive learning, has been 
facilitated by u uerspicuous al^tract, t^us- 
zug dtr Symbolxk und M\fihdogit nLei|)sic 
and Donnstadt, 1822, 1 volume). In 1809, 
Creuzer accepted the professorship of 
philology in li;yden ; but, before entering 
on the office, he felt the injurious influence 
of the Dutch climate upon his health, 
and returned in October of the same year 
to Heidelberg. He lias since published 
an edition of PloHnus de Ptdchritudine^ 
acced. Procli Disp. de PtdchritudiM et Urn- 
iaiey JSTicephxni JVcdhanadis Jhdiihdicus 
(Heidelberg, 1814). Guigniaut has iNutly 
translated, partly recomposed, Creuzer^) 
l^mbolik in his work Rdigiana de tAn- 
hquiU considiries princtpalemtnt dans Uur 
Ihrmcs Si/mholiques et Mjthologiqiies (Pa- 
ris, 1624). The academy of iiiHcripdons, 
at Paris, chose Creuzer a foreign member 
in 1825. 

Crevenna, Pietro Antonio (commonly 
called Bclongaro Crevenna,\ a bibliogra- 
pher, bom in die middle of the 18tli century, 
at Milan, received from his father-in-law 
Bolongoro (whose name he took) a large 
fortune, and lived mostly m Holland. 
liOve for the sciences, in particular for 
literary history, induced him to devote his 
hours of leisure, from an extensive com- 
mercial businesE^ to literary pursuits, and 
to collect a choice library. The learned 
catalogues of his lK)oks, prepared by him- 
self and others, have given to the works 
which belonged to him great value in 
the eyes of amateurs, and tlie catalogues 
themselves have bibliographical authority. 
His Catalogtie RaisowU de la CoUectian 
des Livrea de M. CrSvetma (Amsterdam, 
177G, 6 vols., 4to.) conbiins an exact de- 
scription of tlie hicunainda, with colki- 
tions of rare books, and letters of many 
learned men of the 17th and 18th centu- 
ries, printed there for the first time. To 
understand tlie importance of tlie Creven- 
nian library, it is necessary to compare 
with tliis catak)gue another, the Catalogue 



dea lAvres de la BUd, de M, Crevenna 
(Amsterdam, 1789, 6 vols.). In 1790, he 
sold the greatest part of his library by 
public auction. What he retained may be 
known by tlie Catalogue de la Bibl. defeu 
M. Crhetma (Amsterdam, 1793). Towwtis 
the end of !iis life, he left Holland, and 
died in Rome, Oct. 8, 1792. 

Cribbaoe; a game at cards, wlierein 
no cards are to be thrown out, and the set 
to make 61 ; and, as it is an advantage to 
deal, by reason of the crib, it is proper to 
Hit for it, and he that has the least caird 
deals. 

Crichton, James, was bom in Scot- 
land, in 1551, or, according to some ac- 
counts, in 1560, of a noble family. On 
account of his remarkable endowments, 
both of body and mind, he obtained the 
surname of the Admirable, He was edu- 
cated at tlie university of St, Andrew, 
and, before his 20th year, had run throuffh 
the whole circle of tlie sciences, could 
B{)eak and write to i)erfection 10 different 
languages, and was equally distinguished 
for his skill in riding, dancing, singing, 
and playuig upon all sorts of instruments. 
Thus accomplished, he set out on his 
travels, and is said to have gone to Paris, 
where he offered to dispute in any art or 
science, and to answer whatever should 
be pro|jo8ed to him in any of these 12 lan- 
guages— Hebrew, Syriac, Arabic, Greek, 
Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, English, 
Dutch, Flemish and Sclavonic ; and this 
either in prose or verse, at the option of 
his antagonist On the day fixed, he is 
said to have maintahied the contest fit>m 
nine o'clock in the morning until six at 
night, to the great admiration of the spec- 
tatoi's, who saluted him ss the ** admirable 
Crichton.** Before and after the dispute, 
he was engaged m tilting, vaulting, &c^ 
or ill balls, concerts, and otlier similar 
amusements. This account is probably de- 
rived from the following letter, which has 
generally been applied to Crichton. •* There 
came to tlie college of Navarre a young 
man of 20 years of age, who was perfectly 
well skilled in all the sciences, as the 
most learned masters of the university 
acknowledged. In vocal and instrumental 
music, none could excel him. In paint- 
hig and drawing in colors, none could 
equal him. In all military feats, he was 
most expert, and could play with the 
sword so dexterously, with hoth his hands, 
that no man could fight him. When be 
saw his enemy, he would throw himself 
upon him at one jump of 20 or 24 feet 
distance. He was a master of arts, and 
disputed wiili us, ui the schools of the 



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CRICHTON-X:nWCKET. 



19 



college, in medicine, the civil and canon 
law, and theology ; and, although we 
were above 50 in number, besides above 
3000 that were present, bo pointedly and 
learnedly he answered to all the questions 
inoposed, that none but eye-witnesses can 
believe. He spake Latin, Greek, Hebrew, 
and other languages^ most politely. He 
was a most excellent horseman ; and, tru- 
ly, if a man should live a hundred years , 
without eating, drinking or sleeping, he 
could not attain to this man^ knowledse, 
which struck us with a panic ; for he 
knew more than human nature can well 
bear. He overcame four of the doctore 
of the church, for, in learning, none could 
contest with him, and he was thought to 
be AntichrisL*' Whoever this astonisliing 
youdi may have been, it could not, says 
doctor Kippis, have been Crichton; for 
Pasquier, from whose Bedurchu de la 
France this letter is taken, says, expressly, 
that this young man made his appearance 
in 1445, about a century before Crichton's 
birth. After similar exhibitions at Rome 
and Venice, we find him, in 1581, at Pa- 
dua, exposing the errors of Aristotle, as- 
tonishing his hearers with his ingenuity 
and ele^mce in an extempcHe oration In 
Piaise of Ignorance ; and, finally, to con- 
found bis enemies, ofiering to prove the 
fallacies of Aristotle, and the ignorance of 
his cofflmentatorB, to dispute in all the 
sciences, to answer aH that should be pro- 
posed or objected, in the common logical 
way, or by numbers and mathematical 
figures, or in a hundred sorts of verses, 
and, during three days, sustaining this 
contest with a spirit and enei^, with 
such kaming and skill, as to obtain the 
praises and admiration of all men. His 
next exploit was at Mantua. There was 
in that city a famous gladiator, who had 
fi>iied the most skilful fencers in Europe, 
and had lately killed three persons, who 
had entered the lists with him. Crichton 
ofiered to fight him for 1500 pistoles, and, 
having slain him in the cont^ he distrib- 
uted his prize among the widows of the 
three persons above-mentioned* The duke 
of Mantua, in consequence of his wonder- 
ful performances, chose him preceptor to 
fajs son — a youth of a dissolute life and 
riotous temper. To amuse his patron, 
Crichton composed a comedy, ridiculmg 
the weokneases of men in all employ- 
ments, and sustained 15 characten in his 
own play, *< setting before the eyes of the 
spectators the overweening monarch, the 
peevish swain, the superficial courfier, the 
proud warrior, the dissembled churcliman, 
the cozening lavvyer, the lying traveller, 



the covetous merchant, the rude seaman, 
the ]jedantic scholar, and tlie tricksy ser- 
vant," &c. During tiie carnival (1583), 
while amusing himself with his guitar, he 
was attacked by half a dozen persons in 
masks. He defended himself, and, dis- 
arming tlieir leader, found him to lie his 
own pupil. Crichton fell on his knees, 
and presented his own swonl to tlie prince, 
who immediately stablied him to the hc^rt. 
The motives which impelled his pupil to 
the commission of so savfige a deed are 
unknown. It is difiicuh to decide wiJi 
certainty on tlie merits of Criditoii. The 
works which he has left us, consisting of 
a few Latin odes, and some sketches of 
scliolasiic reasoning, do not give us a very 
elevated idea of his talents ; and the origi- 
nal sources, fix>m which our information 
is derived, are not of tlie most indubitable 
character. It apfiears, from the usual 
account, that, at 20 years of age, he was 
acquainted with all sciences, and was 
master of 12 languages. His death tork 
place 13 years after, during which (icriod 
we do not find that he ])erformed any 
thing worthy of his early fame. The liest 
account of him is contained in the Bio- 
graphia £rtfaimtca,and the folk>wing sen- 
tence is passed upon him there : — **• What, 
then, is the opinion which we are to form 
of the admunble Crichton ? It is evident 
that he was a youth of such parts as ex- 
cited a4iniratiQn of his present attainments, 
and great expectations of liis future per- 
formances. He appears to have haid a 
fine person, to have been adroit in his 
bodily exercises, to have possessed a 
peculiar faculty in learning languages, to 
have enjoyed a remarkably quick and re- 
tentive memory, and to have excelled in 
power of declamation, fluency of sfieech, 
and readiness of reply. His knowkdge, 
likewise, was> prolmbly very uncommon 
for his years; and this, in coniunction with 
his other qualities, enabled him to shine 
in public disputation. But whetlier his 
knowledge and learning were accurate or 
profound, mav justly lie questioned ; and 
It may equally be doubted, whetlier he 
could have risen to any great eminence in 
the literary world." 

Cricket (gryllus, Lin. ; achdtOj Fab.) ; a 
^enus of orthopterous or straight-winded 
insects, belon^ng to the gryUoid family, 
which comprises the giassnoppers, mole- 
crickets, cnckets proper. This family, 
like all other orthoptera, do not undergo 
a complete transformation. They are 
hatched fiom eg^ symmetrically stuck 
together by a viscous material, either 
upon vegetables, or placed under ground ; 



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20 



CRICKET. 



and, from the moment of escaping from 
^c egg? the young are sufficiently vi^rous 
to seek their own food, which consists of 
organized substances. While yet v»-iy 
soil, tliey are perfectly fbrme^, with the ex- 
ception of the rudiments of the eltftra and 
wings. These, in some species, are never 
developed. As the insect grows, the skin 
becomes too small, and requires to be 
changed as often as seven or ei|^ht times, 
before the insect attains its full size. The 
crickets are distinguished from the other 
members of this family by their long, 
silken amiemut^ by having but three joints 
to their iarsiy and by the comparative 
sniallness of their tiiighs. Their bodies 
are short, thick-set and soft, with the head, 
corselet and alxlomen immediately applied, 
and of equal length and breadth. The 
head is thick, rounded above, and nearly 
vertical Between the eyes, which are 
^ widely separated and reticulated on the 
surface, there are two hnXXmii sttmmaUu 
The corselet is quadrangular, somewhat 
larger transversely, and rounded at the 
edges. The dytroj which do not com- 
pletely cover the belly, are curved square- 
ly, and are not roof-shaped, as in the 
locust and grasshopper. In the winged 
species, the wines exceed the dytra^ and 
even abdomen, beyond which tney pro- 
ject, in the form of a sort of bifid tail In 
addition to the lyro flexible abdominal 
appendages common to both sexes, the 
females have a long borer or oviduct, 
which is a stiff, square tube, formed of 
two pieces, separable, and five at the point, 
sometimes seeming to be split, and termi- 
nating by a slight enlargement — The 
noise, for which ul crickets are remarka- 
ble, and usually called chirpings is pro- 
duced by tlie fnction of the na^ of their 
elytra, or wing-cases, against each other, 
these parts being curiously adapted to 
produce tliis sound. Both sexes have the 
diftra longitudinal, divided into two por- 
tions, one of which is vertical or lateral^ 
covering the sides, and the other dorsal, 
covering the back. These portions, in 
tlie female, have their nervures alike, run- 
ning obliquely in two directions, forming, 
by their intersection, numerous smaU 
meshes, which are of a rhomboidal or 
lozenge shape. The diftra of the females 
have an elevation at the base. The ver- 
tical portion in the males does not materi- 
ally differ from that of the females, but, in 
the horizontal part, the base of each dy- 
trum is so elevated as to form a cavity 
beneath. The nervures are stronger, and 
very irregular in their course, with various 
inflexions, curved, spiral, Sui^ producing a 



variety of diflerent sized and sliaped 
meshes, generally larger than in tlie fe- 
male: towards the extremity of the wing, 
particularly, there is a nearly circular 
space, surrounded bv one nervure, and 
divided into two meshes by another. I'he 
friction of tiie nervures of the convex 
surface of the base of the left or under- 
most dytrum against those of the concave 
surface of the base of the right one.f 
causes vibrations of the membranous 
areas of an intensity propoitioned to the 
rapidity of the friction. In fact, the insect 
may be regarded as perfonning on a sort 
of violin, the base of one djftrum serving 
for a liow, and tiie cords of the other as 
the strings of the instrument. The reader, 
who may wish to enter upon a veiy mi- 
nute study of this and similar insects' con- 
trivances for producingsounds, may ad van- 
tageouslv consult De Geer (vol. iii, p. 5121 
and Kirby and Spence (24th letter, vol. 2, 
p. 375 et seq.) The chirping of the do- 
mestic cricket [acheta dtmestica) is by 
many regarded as pleasant or musical, 
and their presence in holes is regarded as 
a good omen by some people. Where 
they are numerous, certainly, to our earn, 
then* noise is any thing but agreeable ; and 
it requires considerable habituation to it to 
be able to sleep undisturbed by it They 
are very harmless, taking up their abode 
near chimneys, fire-places, and other warm 
simations, whence they come out, when 
the inmates of the house have retired to 
■rest, and commence their monotonous 
song. If a light be brought, they speedily 
rttreat, leaping lightiy to their holes, the 
length and peculiar structure of their long 
thighs especially fitting them for this 
mode of progression. One action which 
we have observed them perform with the 
atitemuB shows the delicacy and perfec- 
tion of the muscles. They move the long 
silken appendages, as if cleaning or polish- 
ing them, somewhat as we see birds do 
with their feathera The field crickets 
(^. campestri$\ are as loud And noisy in the 
day as tnose above-mentioned are at night, 
and largely contribute to the music of the 
fields, so delightful to the ear of the stu- 
dent of nature. Both species have attract- 
ed the attention of poets, who have cele* 
brated their simple but lively notes in 
verse of various degrees of excellence. 
Both species are equally innoxious, sub- 
sisting on small particles of otvanized 
matter, which might otherwise become 
troublesome from accumulation ; while, • 
from their numbers, birds and other ani- 
mals of higher rank in the scale of being 
obtain a part of their supply of food. 



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CRILLON— CRIME. 



31 



Crilloiv, Louis de Balbe, one of the 
greatest warrioiB of the 16tb century, and 
the friend of Henry IV, was bom in 1541, 
at Mure, ID Provence, of a re8|)ectable 
&]nily of Piedmont. Being a younger 
son, the name of CnUon was given liim 
from an estate belonging to the ftmtly — a 
name which be so ennobled by his ex- 
ploits and virtues, that the heads of the 
nalbe fiiiiiily adopted it for their own. 
The army called Crillon the ntan mihoui 
fiar (Cbomme. sans pew). Charles 1 X, He n- 
ly III and queen Margaret called him sim- 
I^y U brave ; but Henrv IV gave him the sur- 
name of /e 6rave </<» Jrovetf. His indepen- 
dence and nobipness of spirit were equal 
to bis bra very, and his humanity and vir- 
tue were not less famous than bis heroic 
achievements. He was distiiiguisbed in 
five successive reigns— those of Henry II, 
Francis II, Charles IX, Henrv III, and, 
above all, in that of Heniy IV. In his 
first cani|Miip] ( 1557), he contributed much 
to the sfieeay conquest of Caliiis, by a bokl 
deed of arms. He was the first to storm 
the breach. Here lie encountered the 
commander of the fort, grappled with him, 
and threw bim into the moat The Eng- 
lish had employed 11 months in the re- 
duction of the place. The French retook 
it in 8 davs. Crillon subsequently distiu- 
euished himself in the Inttles of Dreux 
(15()1), Jarnac (1563), and Moncontour (in 
156^), against the Huguenots. As a knight 
of Malta, the youiig hero gained renown 
in tiie crusades against the Turks. Selim 
II had taken Cyprus from the Venetians. 
The terror of tlie Moslem arms filled all 
Europe ; a coalition was formed, and tJie 
famout» naval battle of Lepanto fi>ught in 
1571. Crillon, in this action, dis|)laved 
prodigies of valor, and, though won tided, 
was appointed to carry the tidings of the 
great victory to the pom and the king of 
France. Pope Pius V and the king of 
France (Charles IX) loaded liim with 
honors and fiivors. The massacre of St. 
Bartholomew (1572), the pre|)arations for 
which bad lieen carefully concealed from 
Crillon, was loudly reprol»ted by him. 
We find him, the tbllowiiig year, at the 
celebrated siege of Rochelle, and, subse- 
quently, in various military operations, 
where diere was need of courage and en- 
terprise. Henry III ventured to propose 
to him the nmrder of the duke or Guise, 
which bad been resolved upon by the 
estates of Bloia ** I cannot stain my hon- 
or with a deed of shame** was his answer. 
He fought heroically for Henry IV against 
the leoff ue. After the battle of Arqnes, in 
Nofmandy, Henry wrote to hiin— ** Peiids- 



iot, hravt CnUan, nous avotis amibaUu a 
Ar<pu9 et iu rCy ilais pas, JUitUf brave 
CnUon, Je vous ainus a tort el a trovers.^ 
He succeeded in tlirowing himself into 
Quillebeeuf) which was definded bv a 
small force against marshal Villars. Vil- 
lars summoned tJie city to siimndcr, rep- 
resenting to Crillon that it was impossible 
for him, in an almost open place, with a 
comfiaratively feeble garrison, to hold out 
against his army: Crillon's answer was, 
" Crilion est dedans^ et ViUars est dehors.'^ 
Villars onlered an assault, hut wns reptds- 
e<l, and the siege was raised. The young 
duke of Guise, who wits with Crillon at 
Marseilles, when a S|>anish fleet was 
cmising liefore the place, indulged in a 
frolic, which afforded new pruof of the 
heroism of Crillon. Guise rusbecl, wiih 
some of his young friends, aliout midnight, 
into tlie warrior's sleeping a|Nirtnieiit, 
They hastily awaked him, and exclaimed 
that all was lost ; diat die Spanianis had 
made themselves masters of the hari'or, 
and of all tlie ini|)ortant points in the citv : 
rescue was impoiwible. The yonng duke 
BOW proposes to Crillon to make their 
e8cai)e togetlier. Crillon rejects the pro- 
posal with indignation. *^ It is liettf r,** lie 
cries, *^ to die with arms in our hands than 
to survive the loss of tins place." He anus 
himself, and ruslies down stairs, when the 
laugh of the young duke discovers the 
iest that had tieen played upon hiiri. Cril- 
lon turned with a serious air, seized the 
duke by the arm, and said, ** Young man, 
never ajniise yourself with trying the cour- 
age of a brave man. By Heaven, hud you 
found me weak, I woitltl have pluiigt>d 
diis dagger into your breast!" Finally, 
when the wars which had shaken Europe 
were teniitnated by the |)eace with Snvoy, 
Crillon returned to Avignon, where hedie<l 
in 1616, in his 75th year. History repre- 
sents this hero as a brilliant warrior, a wise 
counsellor, Urue to his word, and faithful 
to every duty. He did not desert Htiiry 
III when his crown seemed to Ihs litst. 
He was faithful to Henry IV when he hud 
nothing but in prosfiect. Neverthelesw, his 
iii(le|)endence sometimes became rudeneKs. 
He was excee<iingly sensitive on die point 
of honor, and any phrase which lookeil Tike 
an insult would make him draw his sword. 
He was remai>kable for his profanity, and, 
in die last days of his life, swore with his 
favorite oath never to swear again. Next 
to Bayard, Crillon is die greatest character 
of liis'^class, to lie found in French history. 
Crime. [The present article is fi*oiii the 
German, and, of counse, was writun by a 
European lawyer, and has reference to 



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22 



CRIME. 



the jiirispnidence of the European conti- 
DeiiL] Crime is generally used to desig- 
nate an act of guilt, which offends the 
laws both of God and man. It implies 
fi«edom of will, and a power of dis- 
tinguishing between right and .wron^. 
Hence young children, madmen and idi- 
ots cannot commit crimes, neither can 
persons in a state of great intoxication.* 
But tlie circumstances under which full im- 
putability or responsibility shall commence 
cannot be decided by general rules, but 
each case must be jud^d by itself. To 
constitute a crime, there must be an inten- 
tion manifested by an outward act. If 
the intention be wanting, the act is merely 
accidental. If the outward act is want- 
ing, there is nothing for human tribunals 
to punish. Merje intention does not come 
under dieir cognizance. There are, more- 
over, many acts of ^ilt committed, in ev- 
ery community, which are not of a nature 
to be made the subject of legislation, and 
cannot be brought before the courts. On 
the other hand, there are, in every state, 
certain actions, ^i themselves naturally 
Indifferent, but which are forbidden and 
piinished as injurious to the community. 
These form the greater part of the class 
of mere offences against the police regula- 
tions. . Many actions, in themselves indif- 
ferent, may, however, by reason of the 
heavy penalties attached to them, be class- 
ed among crimes in the technical and 
juridical sense. The degree of punish- 
ment imposed on any crime should be 
proportioned to the degree of injury vol- 
untarily inflicted. It is a matter of impor- 
tance to decide whether an, uninterrupted 
series of illicit acts is to be considered as 
the continuation of a single crime (delictum 
conHnuatum), or as several crimes of the 
same kind {deiictum reHeratum). In the 
former case, there would be only one 
punishment; in the latter, several. But 
the award of several punishments, if capi- 
tal, cannot be executed by more ihan one 
punishment of death ; and, if the punish- 
ment consist in a deprivation of freedom, 
the confinement can only be prolonged. 
According to the scientinc principles of 
law, it would be„ perhafis, most correct to 
consider tlie several crimes as constituting 
a whole, deserving only one punishment, to 
be pro{)ortioned to tlie amount of guilt (j90s- 
na nie^or ahsorbel mtnorem), altliough the 
majonty of learned jurists is, at present, of 
another opinion. — Quasiddida are injuries 
which must be re^iaired by tlieir authors, 

* Drunkenness is not admiUed as a ground of 
icquiital, or even of mitigaliou of punishment, 
either iii England or the U. Stales. 



though the intention to perpetrate an illicit 
act need not be evident The Roman law 
has made such provisions in various cases. 
(See CrittUnal Lmo,) Punishments them- 
selves may be divided into criminal or 
civil, or police punishments. The crimi- 
nal or severe punisliments nre such as 
have ffreat crimes for their object They 
may be divided into, 1. capital punish- 
ments (see Deathy PurUshmeni of): 2. de- 
privation of libeity simply ^as m the case 
of imprisonment, and exile from the coun- 
try), or accompanied with hard labor (for 
instance, labor in a work -house, a tread- 
mill, &C.), or sharpened by the infliction 
of pain (for instance, the punishment of 
laboring in the work-house, with stripes at 
the entrance and exit, or hard labor, with 
an iron chain round the neck): 3. pun- 
ishments inflicting mere bodily pains, or 
corporeal punishments, such as mutila- 
tion (whicn, however, is discarded in 
well ordered states) and whipping (the 
latter is frequently applied in inferior 
crimes, or on young persons not yet en- 
tirelv corrupted): 4. punishments anecting 
the honor. All punishments of crime, in- 
deed, have this character; but, in some 
cases, the punishment consists mainly in 
the degradation. Of this latter sort are, 
1. such punishments as have for their 
object to work complete degradation ; for 
instance, the breaking of tlie armorial 
bearings of a noble family by the hang- 
man, branding, and the public flogging 
usually connected with it, deprivation of 
decent burial, civil death, hanginff in 
efiigy : 2. such as are intended merely to 
withdraw some particular civil honor ; as 
loss of nobility, exclusion from guilds and 
corporations, removal from office : 3. such 
as nave for their object merely humilia- 
tion and chastisement The latter sort 
may, according to the rank of the crimi- 
nal and the magnitude of the crime, be 
connected with corjioreal punishiuent ; 
for instance, the pillory, &c.: or they may 
be of a different Kind ; as susjiension from 
office, church penances, judicial repri- 
mands, begginff of pardon, recantation of 
injuries, &c. This latter class of punish- 
ments is intended chiefly for tlie rorrec- 
tion of the jierson chastised. The highest 
degree of degrading punishments is always 
to be considered as equal to loss of life. 
4. CSml death is a fiction of law (^ficHo 
juns\ by means of which an individual 
can be considered as really dead, with 
regard to all or some of the common legal 
privileges. This is not always to be con 
sidered as a degrading punishment, since 
any one can give occasion to a sen{^uce 



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CRIM£. 



23 



of civil death by absence or neglect 
This, however, in such instances, hc^ no 
effect beyond the case which jjave occa- 
SBon to the sentence. 5. Fines m money 
are not always attended with, a loss or 
dimbiution of honor. They are imposed 
nincipaHy on usurers, counterfeiters, libel- 
kra, adultereiiB, forestallers, persons guil^ 
of finauds against tlie revenue, and other 
finauds, of lululterating wine, of canying 
on trades which tiiey are not entitled to 
exercise, and on many offenders against 
the police regulations and the feudal insti- 
tutions. Except in the case of high trea- 
son, fines or confiscations do not usually 
embrace the whole fortune of the offender, 
and are mostly limited to the histruments 
with which the crimes were perpetrated. 
A colorable transfer of property wliich has 
become liable to confiscation will not pro- 
tect It. Civil and police punishments are 
such as are inflicted for petty ofiences, and 
can be imposed by the civil judge. They 
are chiefly — 1. fines ; yet a corporeal pun- 
ishment, when changed by the sovereign 
into a fine, retains tlie character of a crim- 
inal punishment, without being generally 
connected with ignominy; 2. imprison- 
ment ; for instance, civil confinement, ar- 
rest, which is not connected with criminal 
imprisonment; 3. such fines as are nei- 
ther equivalent to a corporeal punicAiment, 
nor can be chanced mto one ; 4. con- 
demnation to mechanical and agricultural 
labors, or chastisement with stripes,-coh- 
finement within jail limits^ or confinement 
to a country, city or district, by which a 
pereon is laid under an obligation not to 
pass over certain limits ; 5. removal from 
ofiice without infamy ; 6. temporaiy sus- 
pension fix>m ofiice ; / . reprimand from the 
court ; S^ recantation before the court, or 
publicly ; 9. apologies ordered by the court, 
runisbment can be inflicted only upon the 
perpetrator of a crime, and his accomplices. 
Fuies, which have not been imposed dur- 
ing the life-time of the criminal, cannot be 
exacted after his death, unless, iu order to 
escape punishment, he commits suicide, 
or endeavors to delay the judgment in 
other unlawful ways; If the laws of the 
place where the crime has been com- 
mitted, differ from those where the crimi- 
nal is tried, the milder punishment is 
usually preferred to the more severe. The 
severity of the laws of a country ought not 
to add to the severity of the punishment 
of a crime committed abroad. In the 
case of crimes of a very deep die, the pun- 
ishment is determined by the general law. 
Punishments are also divided into ordinary 
or legiJ, and discretionoiy punishmeatB. 



The former are expressly provided by the 
law for any case that may occur ; the lat- 
ter are pronounced by the judge, in cases 
in which the legal puniahnient cannot take 
efiect, or in which the punishment is left 
to his discretion. Alterations in the legal 
punishments take place, 1. when the ob- 
ject of the punishment would not lie ob- 
tained by its application; 2. when the exe- 
cution is impossible, or, at least, very difli- 
cult ; 3. when the execution wouki be 
injurious not so much to the criminal as 
to some innocent individual ; 4. when the 
rank or die iiersonal relations of the crim- 
inal reqture an exception. Before making 
such an alteration, however, die hiferior 
court or jud^ must first obtain the opin- 
ion of the higher court Punishments do 
not take effect in case, 1. of unlimited re- 
mission or pardon ; 3. of a mitigation of 
the sentence ; 3. of entire al)olttion,or tiie 
stopping of all proceedings, by the sove- 
reign power ; 4. of the expiration of the 
period witiiin which process can be insti- 
tuted, which is generally 20 years ; 5. of 
the restoration of the offender to his for- 
mer rank ; 6. where die party is provis- 
ionally discharged, but remains liable to 
bo. put again on trial, if new evidence 
should be produced ; 7. of the death of 
the criminal, unless he was convicted of 
high treason, or unless the case was one in 
which the punishment was to have been 
executed in efligy ; 8. in the case of small 
offences, die punishment ma^ be remitted 
upon an accommodation takuig place be- 
tween the parties, or upon a request for 
rxlon coming from the offended |Nuty ; 
corporeal punishments are remitted, in 
general, when the criminal, before Uie ex- 
ecution of die sentence, liecomes insane 
or sick, to such a degree, that die inflic- 
tion of the punishment might prove fatal 
to him. In such a case, fines are usually 
substituted for cor|K>real punishments. 
The ol>ligation to re|)air the injury done 
to the ofiended partv, does not liecome ex- 
tinct with the punishment. — [The forego- 
ipg article contains a summary view of 
the tlieory of crimes, and of the princi- 
ples applicable to them, derived from the 
civil law, or the jurisprudence of conti- 
nental Europe. 'I'he admission of drunk- 
ards into the class of persons not res|ion- 
sible for die acts which they commit, on 
the ground that the injuries which tliey 
commit are not accomfianied with a ra- 
tional intention, is liable to much objection. 
The common law has decided that, as it is 
a voluntary madness, residting from the 
vice of the party, he sliall not excuse one 
ofifence by setting up another. But a dis- 



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24 



CRIME. 



tincdon is taken between a crime com- 
mitted when tlie party is in a state of 
actual intoxication, and a crime com- 
mitted when he is insane, and his insanity 
is remotely caused by an indulgence in 
habits of di-uukenne8& In tlie former 
case, he is deemed culpable, in tlie latter, 
not. The principle that there are degrees 
in crime, is not always sufficiently attend- 
ed to, and codes of penal law often assign 
very disproportionate punishments to of- 
fences. Tiie criminal code of England 
has been justly stigmatized as sanguinaiy, 
as it punishes capitally crimes of very 
different magnitudea It seems to have 
been regulated, in a great measure, by 
the principle of ttrror, and not of reform. 
In the U. States, ptmishments are com- 
paradvely mild. There are very few 
crimes punished with death. No state 
punishes capitally more than 10 or 12 
offences. The other punishments are 
^nerally fine, imprisonment, confinement 
m a house of correction, hard labor, &C., 
in {>cnitentiaries for a term of years or 
for life ; and the punishments are pro|)or- 
tioned, boUi in length of time and decree, 
to the ofience. In many of the Amencau 
8tatc», the punishment by the pilloiy is 
abolished ; and in all, the tendency is to 
avoid disgraceful punishments which are 
cnieL The consdtution of the U. States 
has expressly declared, that excessive 
fines shall not be imposed, n«>r cijel and 
unusual punishments inflicted. The com- 
mon law provides that every offence, 
which is not punishable by law in any 
other manner, shall be punished by fine 
or imprisonment, or both, at the discretion 
of the court before which the conviction 
is had, according to the aggravation of the 
ofTbnce.] (For more information on this 
subje/'.t, see Cnnwnal Law.) 

Crimtt the ^atisHcs of. This forms a 
veiy interesting subject, which has not 
been as yet sufficiently investigated to en- 
a!)le us to give as accurate an account as 
we cou\d wish of the comparative amount 
of crime in different countries, and of the 
numerical proportion of the different 
kinds of crime. In deducing inferences 
from such views, we shomd keep in 
mind the general condition of different 
countries, and not argue, for instance, 
against the moral 9tate of a rich and 
pof)uIous countiy, liecatise many crimes 
against pro})erty are committed therein, 
nor against that of a poor and thinly |^eo- 
pled region, because it affiirds compara- 
tively numerous^ iustanoes of personal 
violence. For the study of the statistics 
of crime in France, we would recommend 



the CompU ^hiiraU de PAdminislration de 
la Justice cnmineUe en fVance^ which had 
been published annuaHy, since 1825, by 
the keeper of the seals. It gives an ex- 
cellent viQW of all the criminal processes 
in France. For England, we have the re- 
turns to parliament, of which an abstract 
has appeared, for two yeais past, in tlie 
Companion to the British Almanac, pub- 
lished under the direction of the society 
for the diffiision of usefid knowledge 
(London). For America, we do not know 
of anv more complete statement, than 
that given in the Annual Reports of the 
Prison Discipline Society (Boston), though 
it has not yet been in die power of this 
praiseworthy institution to give a com- 
plete view of tlie nature of crimes in 
all the states. Respecting Germany and 
many other parts of the European conti- 
nent, much mformation is to he found in 
die Jakrbucher der Straf- und Besaenmgs^ 
AnsUdien (Annals of Establishments for 
Punishment and Correction), by Nicholas 
Henry Julius (Berlin), publisned in montii- 
ly numbers— a very Excellent work, em- 
bracing a wide extent of information. 
The same writer has collected, ip a high- 
ly judicious manner, a great number of 
statements respecting crimes, prisons, 
houses of correction, common schools, 
&C., both in Europe and America, in his 
VorUmngm iiher GefungnisS'Kundt, &c. 
(Lectures on the Subject of Prisons), by 
doctor N. H. Julius, Berlin, 1828. The 
last report of the keeper of the seals in 
France, for 1828, contains the following 
infonnation. The courts of assize de- 
cided within the year G3Q6 cases. The 
number of individuals accused was 7d9(i, 
being an increase of 467 al)ove those of 
1827. The proportion of the pereons ac- 
cused to die whole population, was, in 
1827, as 1 to 4593, and in 1828, as 1 to 
4307. Among the 7396 persons brought 
to the bar of the courts of assize, 5970 
were men, and 1426 women, being in tiie 
proportion of 100 to 24. Among tlipse, 
4166 could neither read nor write ; 1858 
could write and read but im|)erfectiy ; 
780 were weU instructed in die first ele- 
ments of knowledge ; and 118 had receiv- 
ed an education in colleges, or otherwise 
sunerior to that sui)plied by ])rimary 
schools. Of tlie 7396 prisoners, 2845 
were.acquitted, and 4551 convicted. Of 
the latter, 114 were condemned to death, 
268 to hard labor for life, 1142 to hanl la- 
bor for different teniis, 1228 to solitary 
imprisonment, and the rest to dificnnt 
kinds of correctional pcuaitics. TJie pro- 
portion of acquittals to convictions is us 39 



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CRIME. 



S5 



1o 61. Of the persons convicted and con- 
demned, 3833 appealed to the court of 
cassation against their sentences. Among 
the 114 condemned to capital punishment, 
17 were persons who had aheady^ been 
sentenced to penalties less severe. The 
chambers of the first instance discharged, 
before trial, 16,409 persons who had teen 
arrested, or against whom informations 
had been lodged. The police cases or 
charges, decided within tlie year, amount- 
ed to 95,589, including 132,169 persona 
This is an excess of 9162 over those of 
the preceding year. Among the facts, of 
which justice was called upon to verify 
and state the causes, were 4855 accidental 
deaths, 1754 suicides, and 86 duels, of 
which 29 were &taL Late reports to the 
E^ngljsh parliament contain the following 

Return of the Jfumber of Persons charged 
wUh Criminal. Offences eomnUUedfor TruUj 
whether eonvietedor acquitted^ ajidthe J^um- 
her executed in England and IVaieSj with a 
sintilar Return for Jrslandy in the years 
lc27 and ii^. 

Enolaud Arm Wales. 



Committed for trial 
Males, . . 
Females, 



1897. leas. 

15,151 . . 13,832 

2,770 . . 2,732 

17,921 . . ^6,564 

Convicted, 12,564 . . 11,723 

Acquitted, 3,407 . . 3,169 

No bills found, and 7 , qk^ i ««, 

not prosecuted, i - 1,950 .. 1,67-^ 

17,921 . . 16,564 

Of whom were executed, 70 79 

Ireland. 

Committed for trial 1897. 1898. 

Males, . . . 14,598 . . 11,919 

Females, . . 3,433 . , 2,764 

18,031 . . 14,683 

Convicted, 10,207 . . 9,269 

Acquitted, 3,059 . . 2,245 

No bills found, 4,461 . . 3,078 

Bailed and not prosecute d, 304 . . 91 

18,031 . . 14,683 
Of whom were executed, 37 . . 21 

Retumofthe ffumher of Male Convicts went to 
Jfew South Wales and Van Dieman's Lund, 
in 1896 and 1827, with the total Expense of 
their Gmveysjiee, and the average per head, 

Nwnhcr. Tnlal Expanw. Avmn abnat 

1826 . . 2097 . . £53,349 5 2 £25 8 10 
1827 . . 3393 . . 81,682 17 8 24 1 6 

VOL. lY 3 



A report of a committee of the house 
of commons, in 1828, contains the follow- 
ing statement of the comparative amount 
of crime in England ana France in the 
year 1826. 
In France, the total number of accused 

was . 6,968 

Acquitted, 2,640 

Convicted, 4,348 

6,988 

In England, committed for trial, . . 16,147 

Acquitted, 3,266 

Not prosecuted, or no > , .^q^ 

bills found, >..lj786 

5,052 

Convicted, 11,095 

16,147 

Of 4,348 convicted in France, were oon> 

demned to death, 150 

In England, of 11,095 1,200 

Of those condemned to death in France, 
it would appear that the greater part were 
executed : in Eneland, of 1,200, only 57 
were executed.— Of the crimes for which 
the punishment of death was inflicted, 
we nnd, in the French statement, mur- 
der, 11 ; attempt to murder, 88 ; parricide, 
4; infanticide, 6; poisoning, 11; folse 
money, 9 ; robheiy on a public road, 1 ; 
other robberies, 2 ; arson of houses, 17 ; 
areon of other descriptions, 1. The Eng- 
lish statement, besides the crimes contain- 
ed above, contains, burglary, 10; forg- 
ery, 1; horse-stealing, 7; larceny in a 
dwelling-house to the valueof 408h)llingi«, 
5; rape, 2; sheep-stealing, 3. In France, 
it anpears to be the pracuce to condemn, 
in die first instance, to the punishment in- 
tended to be inflicted. For instance, in 
France, robbery on the highway givecs 
condemned to death, 1 ; hard labor for 
life, 30 ; for a term, 8 ; solitary confine- 
ment, 5; correctional punishments, 22. 
The Englisii gives, robbenr on person, on 
the highway and other places, sentenced 
to death, 144; executed, 15.— Of secon- 
dary punishments, France gives, hard 
labor for life, 281 ; for a term, 1139; soli- 
tary confinenjent, 1228 ; to the pillory, 5 ; 
banishment, 1 ; degradation from civil 
rights, 1 ; correctional punishments, 1478. 
In England, we have transportation for 
life, 133; for 14 years, 1&5; for 7 years. 
1945; imprisonment 5 years, none: 3 
years, 11 ; 2 years, and above 1 year, 297 ; 
1 year, 1201 ; 6 months and ynder, 5813 ; 
whipping and fine, 310.— With respect to 
terms of imprisonment, we find in tlie 
French statement, 
For 20.yearB, 46 



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28 



CRIME. 



For 15 years, 59 u&ctures tend to iDcrease depredations on 

10 175 property, and to diminish acts of violence 

5 857 against the person. — In Pnissia, 9646 

From 1 to 5 years, 512 crimes were committed in 1817. The 

6 months to 1 year, .... 68 proportion of crimes to the population 

Less than 6 months, 104 was ereatest in Berlin, in which it was as 

¥« !?«.««« ♦!,« »..in»K^..»r...^.ia^^ ■»,««» ;« 1 to 297. In the Rhenish provinces, the 

lL^^:.^^nf^^l!u^f^^ proportion was 1 to 400; in Siksirand 

^;?Trrcc!;id"tie?r^^^^^ If s ^r;\o\t'±;reS^ 

s^i^'^XtCdXatf^^ crdirrismtJ'ofci^^^^^ 

^before the corJ^cdond trihunaJs in TuT oT^^c^ciV^n? on^^^^^^^ 

Fnmce are of a graver characer than ^ to 135,414 inhabitentsf For a fuU 

lf^^7™"^/^3^^^^^^ ^^n^r J^i '^^<^o"°t of the statistics of crime in Pms- 

ll^ Fn"^«LrrF^irrHJr?^^ ^^^^ the above-mentioned Ge/ar^gv^ 

^r^ J .r^^^n^ JTSvYi^^l^. ^^ by doctor Juliu8.-In the Nlther- 

S^l i^hZk fw «^n^^r ^tJ^rZ ^'^^ '» 1825, when the inhabitants were 

tide t«faS^ 107^^ 6,157,286,the^ wero440(rcriminalsin the 

™L^.i-X^' h^ '^ fnf« P"8ons, 2400 in houses of correction, and 

were punished by imprisonment for a hgo nVilitaiy prisonere. See Vaslakvan 

lead is, in FiTuice, of accused, 1907; un- ^j^^^Jf^^!!^^^ 

derthelotter 0988:1^^^^^ ^^^^^Tof^"^^^^ 

former Auni^ would be reduced to 1821, ^ J^ ^^ Meeting of the Netherland 

Je latter to 6939. In England, including ,^^ ^^ ^ ^^ Improvement of th* 

the same class of crimes, die number are, Condition of Prisonere, held in Amstenlam 

Against the person, .531 fccWRussia presents, from 1823 to 1827 

Against property, 15,616 ^^h inclusive. 

But adding to the 6939, 10,796, the num- 353 thefts and robberies, 

bers would be 5^817 munlers. 

For France, against the person, . . 1,821 5J263 suicides, 

property, 17,735 95 cases of exposed children, 

For England, against the person, . 531 -.^ Qg^ \ whole number of criminals^ 
r- property, 15,616 ' \ ineludmg deserters. 

Without pretending to any great exact- — ^In Spain, in 1826, according to official 

ness on tnis subject, it may be inferred reports, in which, however, no information 

that tiie whole quantity of crime is greater, is contained respecting the state of crime 

in proportion to the population, in Eng- in Arragon, Valencia and the Balearic isl- 

lond than in France ; but that of offences ands, the number of criminals amounted 

against the person, there are more, both in to 12,937, which, if the population is 

proportion to the whole number of offen- 11,447,629, would give one crime for 885 

CM, and to the popuhttion, in France than persons. 

in England. The general conclusion The following table shows the number 

from this and other facts seems to be, and offences of the convicts in the Massa- 

that crowded towns and flourishing man- chusetts Pi'ison fTx>m 1820 to 1628 inclusive : 

Crimes. 1890. i83i. 1893. leas. iea4. 18S5. isss. issr. leas. 

Stealing, shopti{ling,&c., 244 207 ... 230 222 199 192 180 186 

Counterfeit money, 16 13 . . . 22 26 35 30 23 18 

Burglary, .19 17 ... 15 16 16 17 16 18 

Forgery, 3 9 . . . 8 11 11 8 7 9 

Robbery, 3 3... 5 4 2 1 1 1 

Anion, 5 7 ... 8 5 6 65 4 

Assault, 2 4 ... 3 2 3 

Attempt to commit rape, ..... 4 5 . . . 7 7 11 10. 10 7 

Adultery, &^ 3 1 ..^ 1 3 3 

Attempt to murder, 1 6 . . . 6 6 9 10 11 10 

Conspiracy, . • . 3 2 ... . . r 



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27 



Crimes. uao. nai. i9sa, lasx i8B4. laas. lase. i8S7. laas. 

Manslaughter, 1 1 3 3 14 

Bestiality, 1 1 

Fraiitl, 3 3 1 

Maiiiiiug cattle, 1 1 

Perjury, , • ... 1 ... 1 

RobbingbaDk. 1 1 ... 1 1 1 

Coiriinoii cheat, 3 2 1 ... 

Cominoo tliief, 8 30 16 20 

Assault and botteiv, 1 

Murder committed, 2 2 2 2 

Attempt to rescue convicts, 2 1 1 ... 

0{jen and otobs lewdness, 2 2 

Horae-stealiug, . . • . , 1 1 1 

Maiming, 2 

Receiving stolen goods, 1 4 1 1 

Escape vom house of correction, 1 1 1 ... 

Cons()iracy to <lefniud, 1 

Accessory to tliiev'mg, ... . .^ 2 ... 

The four reports, which have been published by the prison discipline society above- 
mentioned, contain many interesting tacts respecting other prisons, but do not enable 
us to ffive a general view of the state of crime m the U. States. (See the article Prison.) 
The toliowing is an abstract of the state of crime in several countries, such as we 
should wish to be able to give of all civilized countries : — 

Manber of Crimes bnmght before Courts ofJ^stice, 



Scodaiul, 1806—1811, 
In^land, 1805—1810, 
Wales, 1805—1811, 
England, 1805-1811, j 



GkIMSB AGAintT CkIMM ACAllfBT 

Pkabon*. Phopbbtt. 

Whole No. Per a. W.No. Per a. 




ri805, 



England, \^ 
11828; 



C 1823-1825, 

London, 2 182lfl, 

C 1827, 



France, < 



Before courts 5 1825, 
of ossizes, } 1826, 

Of correction- J 1825, 
aliiolice, ) 1826, 

Of local po- 5 182.-1, 
lice, ) 1826, 

Total, I jggg^ 



2066 29 5168 71 
1907 27 5081 73 



^™^Wn!i^V''' \ 181»-1826, « 52,583 30 132,549 70 

/-Assizes, 182^-26, « 23 27 

^^"^^^°^ 1 1822-26, « S5 48 

Local police, 1822 — 26, ** , 

Total, 1822-26, « 



s m 



Totfil. 

89 
2,644 

72 
4,777 



Proportion to 
PopuUtion. 

1:20,279 
1: 1,702 
1: 8,436 
1: 1,988 



4,527 
16,147 
17,921 
16,564' 1 



3,457? , 
3,381s 



7,234 
6,988 
141,733 
159,740 
13i>,944 
141,021 
288,911 
308,749 



185,132 
817 



212^4 
252,679 



1: 1,951 

1: 763 

721 

403 

380 



7,744 1 



4,424 
4,4.-36 
219 
194 
222 
221 
107 
104 

427 

6,6(16 

276 

51 
42 



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39 



GRIME. 



C&pgrieUd Criminals, 



Scotland, 1823, 

?1810— 1826, 2,539 

England,}!^;:;;;;;;;;;;:; ;;;;; 

11828, 

LcmdoDy 1827, 

ri815, 

1823, 

1827, 

.1828, 

1825, 



For CriiuM For Crimes 
Bgaiost Pen. against Prop. 



119,349 



Ireland, 



France, < 



Correctional 
police. 

Local police. 



• 1826,. 
il825,. 

1826,. 

1825,. 

1826,. 
;i825,. 
11826,. 



1,046 
1,459 



3,548 
3,451 



Total, 

Pays de Yaud, 1826, 

C Old proi^ce^ ..... 
Pruasia, < Rhenish nrovinces, . 

( The whole countiy, . 
Sleswic Holstein, in 1820, .... 

Norwav J ^^^ centiim, in 1821, 
i^orway, <fp.^-i ^otA loc^ 



Spain, 



\ Total, 1814—1826, 
I Total, in 1826, .... 
I Per centum, in 1826, 



827 
110 
937 

10 



37 



8,048 

3,307 

11,355 

90 



63 



Tola!. 

288 

121,888 

11,C95 

12,564 

11,723 

2,300 

2,319 

7,923 

10,307 

11,919 

4,594 

4,910 

118,251 

134,384 

119,C91 

119,746 

241,936 

259,040 

79 

8,875 

3,417 

12,292 

1,089 

100 

9,740 

12,^37 

100 



Pitoportlon to 
Popalatlbn^ 

1:9,649 



Sentences ofDeaUu 

Sentenced. 
Scotland, 1806—1811, annual average . . 74 



England and Wales, 1805—1811, « 

Ireland, 1805-1810, « 

Scotland, 1821—1823, total. 

England, 1810—1826, « 

London, 1731—1740, « 

C 1810—1826, •« 

France, } 1825, 

( 1826, « 

C Old provinces, 1818—1827, « 

Prussia, < Rhenish prov., «* " 

(Total, « *^ 

Spain, 1826, ~ 

Executions, 



375i 

85 

49 

15,653 

531 

2,755 

176 

150 

140 

70 

210 

167 



9C2 
1,C82 
1,019 



1: 587 
1:2^C3 
1: 820 
1: 666 
1: 570 

1 : 6,748 
1:6,313 



262 
231 
260 
259 
128 
120 



1:2,151 
1: 924 
1: 543 

1: 818 

1:6^1 

1:1,403 
1: 885 



Ezeented. 

3i 
56 

48 

28 

1,384 

316 

350 

111 

110 

77 

10 

87 



Scotland, 



'1768—1775, 

1776-1780, 

^827, 



England, j}|^;;;; ; 

(1731—1740, 
1749-1780, 
1781-1806, 
1827, 



Fur Crimea 
against Pera. 

11 

2 



46 

112 

61 



For Crimea 
against Prop. 

21 

7 



270 



726 



Totel. 

32 

9 

13 

57 

70 

316 

1,001 I 

787 ( 

17 



Proportion to 
Population. 



169,271 
210,526 
182,857 

30,CCO 
79,412 



Digitized by 



Google 



CRIMK 



29 



For Crimw 
against Pen. 

^1815 — 1819 (annual averacel .... 

France, ^1825, .... 

082G, .... 

C Old provinces, 1818—1827, 
PrufiBfta, •< Rhenish pro v., " .... 

<J Whole couutiy, " .... 



For Criroet 
against Frop. 



Total. 

3C3 
111 
110 

77 
10 
87 

Number. 



«%^^t1«Ml 5 ^®^' including debtors, 8^378 

ScoUBnd, ^ ^ ^^^^^j j^j^j^ g|y^ 



Pmpnrtion to 
Populntiiin. 

: 90,9C9 
: 27f)^79 
: 28] ,818 
: 1^4X50 
:2,371,CC0 
: 1,354,140 

Proportion to 
Pupulati >n. 



{Endand, April 29, 1826, 
Wdes, « « « . 
Scotiand, « « « . 
Ireland, « « a , 
France, 1821, 



2,864 

" - 73 

« « 216 

" « 663 

41,307 

Southern Netherlands 5 ifllo ]\'l^ 

(ciTil and miUt. prisoners), ^ |^j| [['////[ 10557 



1 1821, , 



Prussia, H???* 



» 1826, 

Pruseian \ 1826, standing army, 

army, \ ** militia, 

Prussia, civil and mOitaiy, . . . . 
Sleswic Holstein^ 1819, ...... 

C 1821, 

Norway, 2 1826, 

( 1814-1886, 

Sweden, 1824, 



2,179 

5,300 

1,124 

724 

8,100 

622 

693 

633 

7,740 



2(J2 

»>^ 

4,187 

10,411 

10,1^5 

11,011 

778 

512 

528 

568 

3,671 

2,396 

111 

122 

1,550 

112 

1,399 

1,200 

1,371 

1,600 



Though the number of persons committed 
for trial has progressively increased, in 
England, for a series of years, it by no 
means follows that the quantity of crime 
has increased ; and it is perfectly certain, 
that crimes of the most atrocious chanu> 
ter have diminished. Thus, tbouffh the 
parliamentary returns of the number of 
criminal offenders committed for trial in 
lc<27 be greater, by 1774, tlian those of 
1826, we should nimutely investigate the 
nature of the oflfences with which these 
persons are charged, before we affirm 
that the morals of the people generally 
were more unsound in 1827 than in 1826. 
*• Offences," say a committee of the house 
of conunons, m a report on the criminal 
commitments and convictions, ** which 
were formerly either passed over entirely, 
or were visited with a summary chastise- 
ment on the spot, are now made occasions 
of commitment to jail and regular trial. 
Mr. Dealtry — a magistrate for the West 
Riding of tlie county of York — says, * I 
think one reason we may give for the 
increase of crime, or the greater exliibition 
of it to public view, is the seizure and de- 
livery to the police of att those who com- 
mit offences, that are styled offences at alL 
3* 



I remember, in former days, persons were 
taken and pumped upon, or something of 
that sort ; but now ttiey are handed over 
to tlie police and tried.' Sir Thomas Bar- 
ing, and other witnesses, gave a similar 
testimony. The malicious trespass act, 
the act for paying prosecutors tlieir ex- 
penses in cases of misdemeanor, and other 
acts not necessary to mention, have tended 
to fill the prisons, without any positive 
increase of crime. The magistrates, like- 
wise, are more ready to commit than they 
used to be." There is a fact, which is 
most iinportant to keep in view, namely, 
that, iu England, and in every other coun- 
try rapidly advancing in civilization, offen- 
ces against the person are diminished pre- 
cisely in the proportion that the means of 
education are enlarged. The most numer- 
ous class of offences has been found, not 
only in that countr}', but in France, in the 
U. States, and in Switzerland, to be that 
of the smaller offences against property ; 
for example, in London and Middlesex, as 
stated bv Mr. Peel in the house of com- 
mons, the number of commitments, in 
1820, was 2773; in 1826,3457; increase 
of commitments, 684. In 1820, of these 
commitment's, the number for larceny waa 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



^^SQ 



i^^ 



30 



CRIME. 



1384; in J 826, 2118; increase of commit- 
ments for larceny, 734. Thus we see 
that, whilst, in 1826, there was a large 
increase of offences against property, there 
was an actual diminution of crimes a^inst 
tlie person. The repoit of the committee 
before-mentioned states, that ^ the numbers 
of iiereous convicted of murder, from the 
year 1821 to 1827 inclusive, adding there- 
to those convicted of shooting at, stabbing, 
and administering poison with intent to 
munler, were respectively, 35, 57, 26, ^ 
29, 27, 47. The numbers charged with 
iiiurder, shooting at, stabbing, ana admin- 
istering poison with intent to murder, 
were, from 1821 to 1827, 232, 241, 239, 
253,273, 245, 288.. The whole number 
of persons tried for offences against the 
person, in 1827, including robbery of tiie 
i)er8on, which ought not property to have 
been included, was under 1000. The 
criminal calendar of London and Middle- 
sex exhibits, for the respective periods 
from 1811 to 1817, and from 1821 to 1827, 
an average increase of committals in the 
latter seven years, equal to 48 per cent 
The convictions, during an average of the 
«ime jMiriods, have increased 55 iier cent. 
The population of London and Middlesex 
has been computed to have increased 19 
, per cent ; therefore, of the convictions, 36 
per cent remains to be accounted for by 
other causes than the increase of popula- 
tion. That large increase, afflicting as it 
is, may be attributed to the brge increase 



of petty offences, of stealing from the 
bouse, or the person, * goods which are 
easily transported, and may be quickly 
converted into money,' and to the greater 
vigilance of the jiolice, which rendera 
prosecutions more certain. Moreover, the 
number of those sentenced to deatli has 
increased only 4 per cent ; but, the pop- 
ulation having increased 19 per cent., 
tliere is thus a positive diminution of 15 
per cent upon the higher ofl'ences, subject 
to the penalty of death generally. For the 
higher crimes against the person, such as 
murder, manslaughter, shooting, stabbing 
and poisoning, tLe nuDil)er of convic- 
tions Allowed by sentence of death has 
decreased 50 per cent. For some of the 
moat atrocious offences against property, 
such as arson and mainihig of cattle, tlie 
number of convictions followed by sen- 
tence of death has decreased 50 per cent 
For the offences of coining and foi^ry, 
uttering base coin, &c., the number of 
convictions has decreased 22 per cent, 
and tlie nunjber of jthose sentenced to 
death has decreased 43 per (^nt This 
particular decrease is principally to be 
attributed to tlie withdrawal of small notes 
of the iMink of England from circulation. 
The great increase of convictions has, 
therefore, been in the class of frauds, and 
larcenies of all descriptions. This result 
for London and Middlesex is also true, as 
will be seen from the following table, with 
reference to all England and Wales. 





Total 


Total 


Yearly 


Yearly Inc. of 


Yearly Inc. of 


Years. 


Convictions. 


Convictions 


Increatw of 


Convictions 


Convictions not 




for Ijirceny. 
6,629 


Convictions. 


for Larceny. 


for f^irceny. 


1821 


8,788 






.... 


1822 


8,209 


6,424 








.... 


1823 


8,204 


6,452 


..... 


26 


.... 


1824 


9,425 


7,550 


1,221 


1,068' 


123 


1825 


9f)6i 


8,011 


539 


461 


78 


1626 


11,095 


8,9()2 


1,131 


951 


180 


1827 


12,564 


9,803 


1,4(59 


841 


628 



Much of the large increase of convictions 
not for larceny, in 1827, may be distinctly 
referred to the passing of the act for pay- 
ing prosecutors their expenses in cases of 
misdemeanor. The increase, in 1824, 
lgS5 and 1826, is also to be referred to 
changes in legislation and temporary 
causes. Oflfences against the game laws 
have greatly multiplied the nninher of 
commitments. From 1820 to 1826, 12,000 
persons were committed to the county 
IHisons on the charge of poaching. From 
the returns for England and Wales, of 
which we have thus given the results, it 
appears that, since 1821, the convictions 



for larceny (that is, for robbery and tlieft 
of all descriptions) have increased .50 per 
cent, while the {)opulation has increased, 
by computation, about 16 per cent We 
have thus 34 per cent of tliis increase of 
crimes against property unaccounte<l for 
by the increase of iK>pulation. Some of 
this increase is real, and some only more 
apparent — With reference to the real and 
ap))arent increase of the smaller crimes 
aeainst property,xbe greater multiplication 
of property, in a higSily-civilized state of 
society, oners a ready solution why such 
a growing tendency to theft may exist, 
notwithstanding tlie progress of education. 



CRIME— CRIMINAL LAW. 



31 



The number of tLieves increases from the 
constant addition to tlie number of the ob- 
jects of temptation, from tlie greater luxu- 
ries with which every individual is sur- 
roundef 1^ from the increased rapidity with 
which goods may be transported to distant 
pans of the country, and from the more 
easy communication with tlie continent 
Add oU these causes, and many others^ to 
a more vigilant administration of justice, 
which produces committals for the most 
trifling offences against property, and we 
shall easily understand how the return of 
committals may be increased, while the 
great bulk of the people is becoming 
more intelligent and more, prudent* — M. 
Lucas, an lulvocate in the rojal court at 
Paris, has collected, with mvtAi accuracy, 
a body of facts relating to France, Great 
Britain, the cantons of Geneva and Vaud, 
and the U. States, all of which tend to 
confirm the principles we have endeavored 
to estalilish — that the higher crimes are 
lessened as men become more civilized 
and enlightened ; and that, though offences 
against property may increase, crimes 
against the person are invariably dimin- 
ii^ed. With regard to France, this fact 
has been clearly proved by the calculations 
of M. Charles Dupin. In the northern 
departments of that coimtry, where the 
inhabitants are the best instructed, the 
Mgher crimes against the person are rare ; 
in the southern, where the people are very 
ignorant, tlie most firiglitful crimes are 
twice as numerous. But, again, it is re- 
markable, that, in the north — the richest 
and most enlightened portion of France — 
the crime9 against property exceeded, in 
1826 and 1827, those in the south by 917. 
Of those crimes, however, the south ex- 
hibits the greatest niunber of atrocious ex- 
amples, having 207 highway robberies, 
while the north had only 82. In the can- 
ton of Vaud, from 1803 to 1826, the total 
number of offences was 1914. Of these, 
there were only 52 of the highest crimes 
against the person. Of the oflences against 
property, only 75 were of the gravest 
character of crime, such as burglary and 
highway robbery. In the canton of Ge- 
neva, from 1815 to 1826, there were 212 
criminal processes, of which 27 only were 
fbr crimes against the person. The num- 
ber of offences against property was 185, 
of wliich 145 were simple larcenies. In 
the state of Pennsvlvania, firom 1787 to 
1825, the total number of convictions was 
7397, of which 628 were for offences 
agauist the persoiL Of the remaining 
6769 offences against property, 5338 were 
laroenies. In Spain, the catalogue of 



crimes against the permn for one year 
amounts to 3436, amongst which are the 
following :^- 

Horaicides, 1233 

Infanticides, 13 

Poisonings, 5 

Anthro|)ophagy, 1 

Cutting and maiming, 1773.* 

We thus see that, in Spain, die greater 
quantity of crime is precisc^ly of an op|K>- 
site character to that which exists in 
France, Great Briuiin, Switzerland and 
Pennsylvania. On the other hand, tlie 
crimes against pro|)erty amount oiilv to 
2379. From tliese data, we may conclude 
that the greater pro|K)rtion of offences 
amongst an ignorant people are tliose 
which proceed from the licentious and 
revengeful passions, unsubdued by the 
cultivation of the understanding, and the 
subjection of tlie will to true morality and 
pure religion. The greater portion of of- 
fences among a rich and highly-cultivated 
people, are of that sort which proceed 
from the temptations of pro|)erty, tlie ac- 
cumulation of which is the result of capi- 
tal and intellectual energy. (For furtlier 
uiformation, see PrisoUy and SchooL] 

Crimka. (See Taurida,) 

Criminal Law. [This article, to the 
paragraph on page 34, is fix)m the Gennan 
Lexicon.] In no de[>artment of legal sci- 
ence do so many different views prevail 
among jurisconsults, and in none have 
these ¥iews exercised so great an influence 
upon the theory and practice, as in this. 
The doctrine of tlie criminal law is, tliat 
the individual committing an unlawful act, 
must not only make amends to the party 
uijured, but also be punished by the su- 
preme authority of the state. The first 
Question is, whether and how far tlie state 
is authorized to inflict punishment. This 
question cannot be decided by positive 
rules of kw, because the object of the 
inquiiy is to reconcile these rules widi 
naturM justice. States hove, indeed, at all 
times, exercised the power of punishment, 
vrithout waiting for or regarding such the- 
oretical investigations, liecause it is obvi- 
ous that, without the right of punishing, 
no state could exist The different sys- 
ten^ which have attempted to establish 
theoretically the right of punishment, may 
be brought under die following heads : — 

I. The system of vejtgeance. From the 

• This comparative statement of offences in 
France, Swii-zeriaiid^ the U. Slates and iSpatn, 
rests u^n the authority of an article in the BiUU- 
tin Unirersel, for September. The precise year 
taken for Spain is not meuiiopvd.^ ^ ^ ■ ^ 
JigitizedbyVjOOQlc 



^^ 



m' ¥ j'^r ^ I 



32 



CRIMINAL LAW. 



opinion that lie who has injured another, 
cannot complain of injustice, if a similar 
evil is inflicted u|)on himself, and the in- 
jured f)ei:son, or, in case of murder, his 
family, would bedis^ced, if they did not 
obtain satisfaction, arises the rude system 
of retaliation, which we meet with in 
so many nations ; but, whilst those who 
take revenge must beware not to exceed 
the measure of the injury received, lest 
they become aggressors in their turn, 
they will be obli^ to adhere literally to 
the nde of " an eye for an eye, a tooth for 
a tooth ;" and in tliis state we fuid the 
criminal law sulisisting among nations for 
a considerable time, and bloody revenge 
and retaliation become a conmion right 
and duty. (See Michaelis, On the Mosaic 
Law,) In this state of things, the punish- 
nieut of offences against the law belongs 
not to the community, but to the individ- 
ual, and the public authority is active 
onl^ in putting limits to the continual ex- 
ercise of revenge, and in providing means 
for terminating tJie hostilities among fam- 
ilies, which tlireaten the nation itself with 
destruction. From this arises the system 
of composition. Offences are estimated 
at certain rates in money ; and not only 
is the offender forced to {)ay the sum fixed, 
but the offended party nmst also receive 
it in satisfaction. With this degree of 
progress is connecteil the idea of a nation- 
al peace, which is developed in various 
fonns and relations, as the peace of the 
king, the peace of the court, &c., involv- 
ing, at the same time, the acknowledg- 
ment of a public power, whose duty it is 
to protect and judge. We find the law 
of composition among the- old Germans, 
as well as the nations of the Indian archi- 
pelago, and the tribes of American sava- 
ges. The next step is the acknowledg- 
ment of the principle, that the commtmity 
is bound to prevent crimes. The right 
of revenge passes into the hands of the 
state, which does not wait for the com- 
plaint of the offended (>arty, but takes up- 
on itself the duty of the accuser. The 
theory which next succeeds is, 

II. The system of deterring. By the 
punishment of the offender, others are to 
be deterred from similar acts. The pun- 
ishment is, therefore, infhcted publicly; 
and the more horrible the cnme, the 
more eflfbrt is made to confirm the popu- 
lar abhorrence of it by severe penalties. 
This system is liable to the most weighty 
objections. It cannot he allowable to tor- 
ment or put to death a human being, sim- 
ply with the view that others may receive 
from his sufferings such an impression, as 



to be proof against the temptation to com- 
mit crime. In point of fact, this end has 
never been attained, and would require a 
scale of punishments offensive to sound 
reason. The mere fear of punishment is 
of very little weight. Men are kept from 
crime princi[)ally by the natural abhor- 
rence of wrong, heightened by a good 
education and good example. If the plan 
of deterring should be carried through* 
consistently, it would compel us to propor- 
tion punishment rather to the temptation 
to commit crimes than to their magnitude. 
{See Feuerbach's Revision der Grundsatzt 
des peird. Rechts, Erfurt, 1799 — ^Rievision 
of the Principles of Penal Law.) With 
regard to capital punishments, more par- 
ticulariy, the system of deterring fell by 
degrees into disrepute, after the marquis 
Beccaria (On Crimes and Punishments, 
London, 1770), and a great many other 
learned men, had declared themselves 
for, 

III. The system of iwwenHbn, which is 
ingeniously defended by the Hessian 
minister Von Groiman [Grundsatze der 
Criminalrechiswissenschfi/UnjGksscn, 1798 
— Principles of the Science of Criminal 
Lawj. Every crime contains, if man is 
considered as a consistent being, the ex- 
pression of a principle of conduct, and, 
accordingly, besides the present transgres- 
sion of tlie law. a threat of a rey^etition of 
the offence. Tne community is, therefwre, 
entitled to take measures of prevention 
against it, which, if the injury done is irrep- 
arable, may extend to the dcj>ri>aiion of 
life. This system may be said to afford 
the true reason for punishment in general 
It may, however, l)e objected to it, that 
this provision against future crimes is not 
really punishment, and that the punish- 
ment must needs be omitted, if tliis pre- 
sumption of the future offences is refuted 
by the |)articulur circumstances of the case. 
This prinri])le, moreover, admits of no 
scale of punishment, because the means 
of effectual prevention must always be 
the same— death or imprisonment for life. 
The direction which the science of natural 
law had taken, at this ()eriod, seeking for 
the foundation of every right in a contract, 
led to, 

IV. The system of compact^ which as- 
serts that, by becoming a memlier of the 
state, every individual has, by tacit com- 
pact, bound himself to submit to punish- 
ment, if the society choose to inflict it. 
As, however, no one can be bound by a 
contract to any thing which is not right in 
itself, the lawfulness of punishment cannot 
be shown in this manner. Fichte, there- 



CRIMINAL LAW. 



33 



fore, in his original way, modified this 
theory. He fHOceeded upon the principle 
^at, by trespassing unon the right of others, 
the criminal deprivea himself of the claim 
to be treated as a rational being, since 
the rights of a free agent depend on his 
respect for those of others. Every crime, 
therefore^ he savs, justifies the expulsion 
of tlie offender 'from human society. The 
compact, by which tlie punisiiment is de- 
tennined, is consequently in favor of those 
who receive a lighter punishment than 
such expulsion. They acquire a ririit, by 
suffering some detennined evil, to be ad- 
mitted again into civil society. Much of 
this theory h true, but tlie real existence 
of such a compact seems to be wanting. 

V. At the same time, the theory of 
atonemenl was introduced by Klein and 
others. The criminal does injury in two 
ways; 1. to the person who is the imme- 
diate subject of the wrong, for which he 
has to make him amends according to the 
niles of private law ; and, 2. by the bad 
example afforded by the diminished re- 
spect fbr the laws of the state, for which 
he is answerable to the community. This 
latter injury is compensated by the pun> 
ishment, which vindicates the authority 
of the law in the minds of the people. 
This theory has, in later times, been fur- 
ther developed, with great ingenuity, by 
Bchultz (Enhmchtlung der jffkUasopk, Prvn- 
cipien dis brftrgerl, una petrU, ReaUsy 1813 
— ^Dcvelopementof the philosophical Prin- 
ciples of Civil and Criminal Law), and 
by Martin (Lekrbuch des CrinUnaLrechta, 
1819 — ISaS—Compendium of Criminal 
Law). 

VI. The theory of psychological con^ 
draint, by Feuerbach, is founded u|)on the 
system o"f deterring, with tl|e addition of 
the position — that the threatening of pun- 
ishment, in general, is lawful, because it 
forbids no one to do any thing which he 
can have a right to do ; and this menace 
renders punishment lawful in case of an 
offence occurring, because the individual 
knew beforehand what he had to ex|)ect 
This theory is exposed to most of the ob- 
jections against the theory of deterring, 
and the grounds on which it rests often 
&il in particular cases. 

VII. The principle of moral comdumy 
has been little used as the basis of tlie 
tight to punish. It has for its eiid to cor- 
rect, by punishment, in the criminal him- 
self those unlawful propensities whieh 
impelled him to crime, it is undeniably 
correct, so fkr as this, that the punishment 
ought never to be such as to make the 
moral correction of the criminal impossi- 



ble, by the annihilation of his sense of 
honor, by exposing him to corruption in 
the society of^other criminals, and destroy- 
ing his ability to support himself in an 
honest manner. But it is evident, on the 
other hand, that the sentiments of men, 
and their moral reformation, cannot be th^ 
direct object of legislation, from the veiy 
circumstance, that this effect is not of a 
kind to he ascertained; but to produce 
an outwaid habit (fbr instance, to dispose 
the idle to labor, the drunkard to sobriety, 
&C.), is practicable. 

Finally, VIll. The theory of rdaUatum 
has been adopted, since the time of Kant, 
by almost all the German phik)sopherB, 
but, at the same time, by very few law- 
yers. It is founded upon the principles, 
that the state ought to suffer no wrong 
within itself; that every unlawful action 
ought to be annihilated, and is annihilated 
when made to revert on the author ; and 
that the latter suffers no injustice by being 
treated in the same way as he has treated 
others. This retaliation is not, however, a 
literal one. It inflicts not the same evil on 
the criminal whicli he has done to anoth« 
er ; but it seeks for a generic notion of the 
offence, and ai^lics, accordin^^ to this, the 
principle of the criminal agamst himself. 
Phis afferds, at the same time, a measure 
for punishment, which no other principle 
of penal law affords, though it still requires 
that tlie <legree of punishment, in particular 
cases, should be fixed by positive law. 

We have thus set forth the tlieorics 
on the subject of crimuial legislation. In 
no branch of law has legislation been at 
all times so active as in this. The 
influence of theory has extended even 
to the forms of proems, and the civili- 
zation of nations always manifests itself 
early by the improvement of the criminal 
law. Criminal law was first treated sci- 
entifically in Italy, but remained in a very 
rude state till the middle of the 16th cen- 
tury. The dreadful abuses in the admin- 
istration of criminal justice in Germany 
and France, gave occasion to the two 
great reforms introduced by the penal 
code of Charles V, of 1532, and the crim- 
inal ordinance of Francis 1, of 1539. This 
liranch of jurisprudence now assumed a 
more systematic character. The ordinance 
of Charles V greatly improved the forms 
of process, but retained, acconling to the 
spirit of the times, cruel punishments, and 
even torture. Of the points of criminal 
law, which, in i^ecent times, have given 
rise to much diversity of opinion, the 
following are of particular practical iinfior- 
tance :~1. The right of punishing flagrant 



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CRIMINAL LAW. 



crimes without the authority of an exprefls 
law. Those who ackuowledge the au- 
thority of a natural ]aw, aliirm the exist- 
ence of such a right, and divide criminal 
actions into those which are had in them- 
selves {ddieta juria naharalis\ or, as the 
English hiw terms them, mala in «e, and 
actions wiiich are of themselves indiffer- 
ent, but are subjected to a penalty by par- 
ticular laws {ddida juris pontivi), or, as 
the English law terms them, nuda prohab- 
iia. Crimes of the firat class, as murder, 
thefl, &C., must be every where punislied, 
even without a positive law ; but those of 
the second, as contraband trade, are pun- 
isha>))e only when made penal by express 
enactment Feuerbach and others, how- 
ever, acknowledge no right of punishment 
without an express law. 2. Witli the pre- 
ceding is nearly connected the questi^m 
— \\ovt far it is the right or duty of the 
state to punish crimes, which have been 
committed in foreign countries. On this 
point, in addition to the difficulties attend- 
mg the main question, there exists a great 
difference of opinion as to the laws by 
which such crimes are to be judged, wheth- 
er by tlie laws of the foreign countiy, or of 
* that to which the individual belongs. 
3. What power should be given to Uie 
judge to vary the punislimeut according 
to the different circumstances attending 
the offence .' The tendency, in modem 
times, is to define crimes and their punish- 
ments so exactly as to leave notliing to 
the discretion of the judge, and to enable 
every jiian to see what he has to expect 
from a violation of the law. It is doubt- 
ful whether so much precision is gener- 
ally a«lvantageous, since it almost necessa- 
rily produces an unef|ual distribution of 
punislirnent, the question whether it sliall 
be light or severe frequently dejiending 
on a little difference in the age of the 
offender, the amount of property stolen, 
&c. ; so that a |)enuy more or less may 
make a diflerence of several years' con- 
finement in a penitentiary ; or tlie differ- 
ence of a day, in the age of tlie culprit, 
may decide whether he shall be punislied 
Willi a few stripes, or deprived of his lib- 
erty for years, or of his life. 4. One of the 
most difficult fioints is the just estimation 
of injuries done to the honor of another, 
which involves the great question of the 
hlierty of the press. The most important 
differences of opinion, however, are those 
which prevail with regard to criminal 
process. From the representation given 
above of the principles and the devel- 
0|)enient of penal law, it is evident tliat 
criminal proceedings have always been 



founded at first upon private accusations^ 
in regard to which almost the same princi- 
ples prevail as those observed in civil ac- 
tiona In the course of time, this mode is 
superseded by a public accusation on the 
part of the state, appearing by an attorney, 
to prosecute the onence. Upon tliis prin- 
ciple are founded the criminal proceed- 
ings of the English courts, and of the 
French courts since the revolution. With 
tliis may be united the public trial by jury, 
which has found so many adherents in 
modem times. Its fundamental character 
consists in this, that the party accused 
remains merely passive, and waits for the 
charge to be proved. The consequence 
is, tliat the sentence must be pronounced 
from a view of probabilities, and deiiends, 
therefore, more on a knowledge of men, 
and tlie deductions of a sound judgment, 
than on technical rules. It has been con- 
sidered the safest mode of trying offences, 
m particular, as it prevents the dangers 
arisuig from the influence of the higher 
officers of tlie state over judges deriving 
their salaries from the sovereign, by refer- 
ring the question of guilt or innocence to 
the verdict of men taken immediately from 
among the people, i. e. Jurors. Tlie Ger- 
man criminal proceedings are directed 
principally, it may be said solely, to the 
end of obtainhig from the accused a con- 
fession of tlie deed, and of its circuni* 
stances, by inquisitory process. This ad- 
mits neither of an accuser nor of a public 
trial, but tlie judge must inquire of tlie 
accused himself, and obtain from him, if 
possible, by a skilful combination of the 
circumstances, as well as by awakening, 
the voice of conscience, complete tmth. 
What is in Germany the chief business of 
tlie judge, belongs, in France, to the jugt 
instrvcUwy and, in England, to justices of 
the jieace, as fiolice officers, whose inves- 
tigations aflbnl, in common cuses, the ma- 
terials for tlie final trial. The ofiponents 
of the trial by jury allege, as a chief reason 
for tlieiropj)osition,that, when the prepar- 
atory process affords no certain results, the 
subsequent trial is attended by the same 
uncertainty. 

To the preceding article, taken from 
the German Lexicon, we have to add a 
few suggestions growing out of the prac- 
tice of the common law, which constitutes 
the liasis of tlie institutions of the U. States, 
as well as of England. The general tlie- 
ory of the common law is, tliat all wrongs 
are divisible into two sfiecies ; first, civil 
or private wrongs ; secondly, critninnl or 
public wrongs* The foririer are to be 
redressed by private .suits, or re»iie(lies in- 



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fidtuted by the parties injured. The latter 
are refhfssed by the state, acting in its 
BQvereign capacity. The general descrip- 
tion of private wrongs is, that they com- 
prehend thoee injuries which affect the 
rights and property of the individual, and 
tenninate there; that of public wrongs 
or ofiences is, that they comprehend such 
acts as injure, not merely individuals, but 
die community at large, by endangering 
the peace, the comfort, the good order, the 
policy, and even the existence of socie- 
ty. The exact boundaries between tliese 
classes are not, perhaps, always easy to be 
discerned, even in theory; for there are 
few private wrongs wliich may not and do 
not exert an influence beyond the individ- 
ual whom they direcdy injure. In doubt^ 
fid cases, the legislature usually interferes, 
and prescribes a positive rule. In clear 
cases, the right of punishment on the part 
of the state is assumed as a deduction 
from natural justice and the duty of the 
state to protect all its subjects. Hence, in 
the common hiw, two classes of offences 
are distinctly traced out. The first em- 
braces thoee which rest upon legislative 
enactmeDCs. The second embraces those 
which, independently of any such enact- 
ment, are deemed, from their veiy nature, 
injiuies to the pubhc. The offences be- 
longing to this last class are not, periiape, 
cafMible of a perfect enumei-ation ; and the 
test by which they are ascertained is left 
to the judgment of judges, as cases arise, 
tt> be frx^, not acconung to theur oym 
discretion, but by analogy and apprecia- 
tion of the principles and cases already 
well setded by former adjudications. 
When, therefore, a non-enumerated wrong 
arises, which does not Ml under any 
known former rule, the question which is 
discussed is, how far it falls under the 
principles already established respecting 
public crimes. If reasoning furnishes a 
strong analogy, it is deemed a public of- 
fence ; if otherwise, it is left for the legis- 
lature to declare that it shall be such. 
Treason, murder, setting fire to a dwelling 
house in a large city, riots disturbing the 
general peace, poisoning public wells, &c., 
it wUl be readily admitted, naturally en- 
danger die cood order and safety of the 
state, and therefore are properly to be 
punished by die state. But it is not so 
easy to trace the same principle in mere 
secret thefU, or a private fight, and yet 
deny its existence m violent seizures of 
private property, and private quarrels pro- 
ducing defamation of character. The 
common law considers the great object 
o[ the public punjahmeut of crimes to be 



the prevention of offences, by deterring 
both the offender and others from a re|>e- 
tition of the same. Its object is not so 
much an atonement for, or expiation of, 
tlie offences, as a precaution against tiieir 
recurrence. This naturally includes, not 
as a primary motive, but as an incident, 
the reformation of the criminal himself; 
for, so &r as that is effected, it prevents 
offences. That system of punishments is 
indeed mcnt desirable, which attains its 
object by such a reformation. But it is 
obvious, that reformation cannot always 
be relied upon as a sufficient security for 
society. Hence arises the necessity or 
pohcy of capital punishment, which, by 
cutting off the offender, not only operates 
as a terror to others, but secures society 
agamst the possible peqietration of the 
same offence by him. Undoubtedly it 
ought never to be .resorted to except in 
cases of atrocious guilt, and where less 
punishments are manifesdy inadequate to 
produce securinr. Some persons, indeed, 
doubt the lawfulness of capital punish- 
ment altogether; but the divine law has 
certainly sanctioned it Others, who do 
not question its lawfulness, doubt or deny 
its policy. It is certain that the frequency 
of capitsJ punishment has some tendency 
to abate its terrors ; and it is by no means 
as ceitain that capital punishments have a 
tendency to prevent the occurrence of the 
crime, or to secure a conviction. There 
is a natural repupiance to punish, with so 
much severity, shght offences ; and judges 
and juries, as well as the public, under 
such circumstances, lean against prosecu- 
tions and in favor of acquittiOs. Hence the 
probability of conviction is sometimes in 
proportion to the moderation of punish- 
ments. On the other lumd, it is found by 
experience, that the punishment of death 
is not sufficient to deter men from the 
commission of offences to which tfiey are 
strongly tempted by their passions or their 
wants.* The tendency of modem legis- 
lation has, therefore, almost uniformly 
been in favor of relaxing the severity of 
the penal code. . In England, capital pun- 
ishments are very extensively provided 
for by statute. There are more than 160 
capital offences in her code. (4 Bl. Qnnm. 
la) In the U. States, there has been a 
constant effort to diminish the number of 
capital offences. There are but 9 in the 
criimual code of the U. States ; and the 
codes of the respective states do not gen 

* Tndeed^ the Mveritv of the punishment some, 
times induces the oflencfer to become more savage 
and atrocious. Thus, where robbery is punishaUe 
with death, it is often aiteaded with muxder. 



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erally embrace a larger number. Treason, 
murder, rape, argon pr buniinj; of a dwel- 
ling houae, are generally punishable with 
death; and sometinies robbery, bui^lary 
or breaking into a dwelling house in 
the night time with intent to steal. The 
code of the U. States also includes piracy, 
the slave-trade, fraudulently casting away 
ships on the sea, robbeiy of the mail, 
burning public ships of war, and the res- 
cue of convicts capitally convicted when 
the sentence is about to be executed. The 
punishment of other offences is, for those 
of great enormity, solitary confinement or 
hai^ labor in a penitemiaxy or prison 
erected for that purpose ; and for those of 
a lower degree, fine or imprisonment, or 
both, according to the nature and aggm- 
vation of the offence. Li the U. States, 
no capital punishments are inflicted unless 
by the injunctions of some positive statute. 
In England, the same rule prevails to a 
limited extent A few offences are pun- 
ished by the common law with death, 
without any statute to direct it, founded 
either upon the notion of conformiQr to the 
divine law, or upon some positive law 
whose existence cannot now be traced. 
Such are murder, rape, robbeiy, burglaiy, 
and certain other felonies at the common 
law. In resfiect to other offences, for 
wliich no statute has prescribed any pun- 
ishment, the general rule of the common 
law is, that they are punishable by fine or 
imprisonment, or bv both. Considerinff 
the infinite variety of pircumstances which 
may occur to extenuate or aggravate the 
offence, not only the common law, but the 
legislature has left much of the decree of 
punishment to the discretion of the judges 
who try the case. That discretion must 
be exercised in public; and experience 
has proved that it is, on the whole, wiser 
and safer to leave it to the natural opera- 
tions of judicial responsibility, than, by any 
attempts to define and limit the exact de- 
fX^e of pimishment, to run tlie hazard of 
mtroducing other mischiefs by excluding 
mercy where it might be most desirable. 
No code of laws could be sufiSciently mi- 
nute to embrace all circumstances; and 
none could, tlierefbve, provide for a perfect 
uniformity of punishments, according to 
the absolute nature of the offence. Anoth- 
er inquiiy is, Who are, in a legal sense, 
capable of committing crimes, so as to be 
amenable to punishment? The general 
rule of the common law is, that all per- 
sons are punishable for disobedience to, 
and infiractions of the law. The excep- 
tions are few, and are clearly defined. 
They are such as presuppose a defect of 



reason and underetsndinf^, or of intention. 
A defect of understandmg exists in the 
case of injuries conmiitted by persons in a 
state of in&ncy, lunacy, idiocy, or intoxi- 
cation. A defect of intention exists in the 
ease of offences committed by chance, 
mistake and ignorance, wholly without or 
against the intention of the party. In 
respect to want of capacity, idiots, mad- 
men, and other persons not at the time in 
possession of reason, such as somnambu- 
lists, are generally excused, whatever in- 
juries they may commit But the com- 
mon law does not extend this indulgence to 
crimes committed by persons who are in 
a state of voluntary intoxication. It con- 
sideiB this circumstance rather in the light 
of an aggravation of the ofifence. But a 
distinction is here to be made. If the 
paity be, at the time of the offence, drunk 
tnr the use of strong liquors, he is punish- 
able, though he may be thereby reduced^ 
at the time, to a state of insanity. But if 
drunkenness be only the remote cause of 
die insanity, and the party be not, at the 
time, under the influence of intoxicating 
hquors, the law treats his case Kke that of 
any other insane person. It does not look 
back to the original and remote cause of 
the insanity, to ascertain whether it has 
been produced bv criminal indulgence, or 
n^lect of duty, but to the immediate and 
operating cause, at the time when the 
crime is committed. The exception, 
therefbre, of the case of insanity by imme- 
diate intoxication, is carved out of the 
general exception in favor of insanity, and 
arises frem, or at least is countenanced 
by, motives of public policy, to prevent 
the dangerous eflfects arising from indul- 
gence in strong liquors. The common 
uiw is, in this particular, more severe than 
the civil law. The latter never punished 
capitally for an offence committed under 
such circumstances. (4 BL Comm. 1^.)— ■ 
As to crimes committed by infants. Tliere 
are various ages of infancy, in the com- 
mon law, for different purposes. TTie 
^neral age of majority for all purposes is, 
m our law, 21 yeara ; in the civil law, 25 
years. Children under 7 years of age are 
deemed without discretion, and are uni- 
versally exempted, by our law, from pun- 
islimeut Between 7 and 14 yeare, they 
are said to be in a dubious stage, in point 
of discretion. If they, in fact, possess it, 
if they appear to have judgment, and un- 
derstanding, and a sense of crime, they 
are liable to punishment ; otherwise not 
Generally, the rule of presumption is in 
&vor or mercy, that an infant under 
14 is daU iftctqtax ; but this presomption 



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may be remoyed l^ facts esta})Ii8]iing a 
clear sense of the difference between good 
and evil, togetlier with niaiice and sit])e- 
rior cunning. (4 BL Conim, 22, 23.) How- 
ever, it deserves consideration, whether 
this is a sufficient test of rational discern- 
ment of the nature of crime ami duty ; 
and judges may well lean against convic- 
tious in such cases, uiK)n principles not 
merely of humanity, but of philoso|>liical 
responsibility. After 14, the general jire- 
sumption is in iavor of an infant being 
doU capax, and therefore he generally 
stands u|x>n grounds similar to tliose of 
adults, until his actual incaiwcity is proved. 
— ^As to crimes committed by lunatics and 
idi'Jts, the exception on account of want 
of cajmcity obviously applies only to 
r,kses where it exists at the time of die 
umimission of the offence. Hence it is 
no excuse, if a person who has been in- 
sane commits an offence in a lucid inter- 
val, or at a time when his reason is clearly 
lestored. So, on tlie other hand, a por- 
son may not be an absolute idiot, so as to 
have no discernment whatsoever, and yet 
may lie excusable from mmishment if his 
capacity be so weak mat he does not, 
thougii an adult, understand clearly tlie 
distinctions between right and wrong. Ex- 
treme old age sometimes reduces {lersons 
to a state ^most of fatuity, and exposes 
them to be iini)08ed upon, and even se- 
'Inced to the commission of offences, 
dnder circumstances where they would 
be held no more liable to ]n]nishment 
dian infants. Every thing deiiends upon 
soundness of mind and real discretion 
at the time of committing the offence. 
When a ])erson becomes insane after tlie 
commission of an offence, and before trial, 
he is not, by tlie common law, ever al- 
lowed to be brought to trial, until he is 
lestored to his reason. At whatever stage 
of a public prosecution tiie insanity occurs, 
it operates as a suS|)ension of all further* 
proceedings. Thus, if it occurs before 
arraignment, the jmrty ought not to be 
arraigned for tlie offence ; if afler arraign- 
ment, be oifght not to be required to plead ; 
if a&r plea, he ought not to be ]>ut to 
trial ; if after trial, he ought not to have 
judgment or sentence pronounced against 
bini ; if afler judgment, execution of the 
Kntence ought to oe stayed. The ground 
upon which this rule of law is commonly 
6up]]06ed to stand is, that it ought never 
to be presumed that the party, if sane, 
might not suggest some defence that, In 
reason or justice, would entitle him to 
mercy, or to exemption from punishment 
A reason quite as satisfactory is, that the 

VOL. IV. 4 



punishment of an insane person can pnh 
duce no good result, either to refonn the 
offender or as a miblic example. It would 
sliock all the feelings of humanity to inflict 
punishment on tliose whom die visitation 
of Providence had already made objects 
of wretchedness and of compassion. In 
all cases where it is doubtful wheUier the 
])arty Ije insane or not, die fact is, bv the 
common law, to be tried by a jury. — In re- 
sj)ect to injuries committeil without die in- 
tention of die party, as dirough misfortune 
or chance. Where an accidental i nisei i ief 
hapi^ens in the performance of a lawful 
act, in tlie doing of which the iwrty uses 
reasonable care and diligence, he is whol- 
ly free from guilt, and it is deemed his 
misfortune ; but if he does not use rea- 
sonable care and diligence, he is liable to 
punishment acconling to the nature and 
extent 6f his negligence. If guilty of gross 
negligence, he is sometimes ])unisliable u) 
the same manner as if die act were inten- 
tionally committed; if guilty of slight 
negligence only, he escapes with a more 
moderate punishment If the mischief 
happens in die jieiformance of an unlaw- 
ful act, and a consc(iiience ensues which 
was not iiitendetl or Ibivseen, the party is 
not free from guilt But die degree of 
punishment ought to depend u])on the 
nature of the unlawful act itself, /^dis- 
ttnction is taken, in the common law^ 
between c&ses where the original act is 
wrong and unlawful in itself (m5/um;>cr *c), 
and where it is merely prohibited by stat- 
ute (malum prohibilmn). In die former 
case, die party is resi)oiisible for all hici- 
dental consequences of the unhmilil act ; 
in the latter, not An illustration of diese 
principles may be found in cases com- 
monly put in our treatises on criminal 
law: If a mnn lie nt work widi a hatchet, 
and the head flies off, and kills a staiuler- 
by, diis is not any offence, for the party 
was doing a lavvftil act, widiout any ui- 
tention of hurt. So a ^Mireiit may mod- 
erately correct a child, and if^ in so doin^ 
death hapiiens, against his intention, it is 
mere misadventure. But if he coiTccts 
die chiUl immodcmtcly, or uses an instni- 
ment which is dangerous to life, or is 
wanting in reasonable caution, he is guiltv 
either of manslaughter or iiiunler, acconf- 
ingto the circumstances and the degree of 
the punishment If a man, riding a horse 
with reasonable care, accitlentally runs 
over a child and kills him, he is not guilty 
of any offence. If he rides him fuiiouslv 
in a street where diere may lie duiiger^ 
and die like mischief liapi>eiisjie is guilty 
of manslaughter at least If lie rides liini 



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furiously into a crowd, either fiora wan- 
tonness or thoughtlessness, and the like 
accident happens, it will be murder. If a 
perbon in England, duly qualified by law to 
kill game, accidentally ki^ another while 
so doing, he is guilty of no offevce. If a 
person he prohibited by statute from kill- 
ing ^ame, and the like accident happens 
by his shooting, he is not answerable in 
any other maimer than a person duly 
qualified. This last case illustrates the 
disdncdon as to cases of malum prohUntwiu 
On tlie other hand, if a person, shooting 
at poultry belonging to another person, 
by accident kills a man, if his intention 
was to steal the poultry, it will be murder, 
by reason of the felonious intent : if his 
intention was not to steal, but it was an 
act of mere wantonness, it will be man- 
daughter onl}r. In these last cases, the 
act IS malum in se. — ^In respect to injuries 
committed through ignorance or mistake. 
This may arise when a man, intending to 
do a lawful act, does what is unlaw^fuL 
An illustration commonly put is that of a 
man intending to kill a thief or house- 
breaker, in his own house, who, by mis- 
take, kills one of his own family. In this 
case, if he acted under circumstances of 
reasonable belief that the party killed was 
the thief or housebreaker, there is no 
ground to impute crinotinality to him. His 
conduct was founded in a mistake of &ct, 
that is, of the person ; for it is sometimes 
lawful, by the common law, to kill a 
housebreaker found in your house. But 
a mistake, or ignorance of law wiU not 
juptity an act of the like nature. If a per- 
ron supposes he has a right to kill a tres- 
pateer or outlaw, or excommunicated per- 
son, and he does so, he is guilty of murder. — 
In respect to crimes committed by compul- 
sion or force. The common law reco^ises 
but few cases in which the authoiity or 
command ^f a superior furnishes any ex- 
cuse for the commission of an offence. In 
the case of children or servants, the com- 
mands of the master or parent furnish no 
etcuse. In the case of a wife who com- 
mits a crime in company with her husband, 
she is deemed, by the benignity of our law, 
to act under compulsion, and therefore 
she is excused in all cases except murder, 
manslaughter and treason. These excep- 
tions are founded ujion the peculiar dan- 
ger and atrocity of the offences, and the 
public policy of discouragixtff eveiy motive 
to commit them. Where uie wife com- 
mits the offence alone, without the com- 
pany or compulsion of her husband, she 
IB personally responsible in the same man- 
ner as if she were unmarried. There are 



other species of compulsion recognised in 
the common law, wliioh may excuse the 
commission of offences. Thus where a 
pen*on commits an offence in consequence 
of threats or menaces, which induce a fear 
of death or other bodily barm. This is 
called dures9 per mmas. But the fear 
which compels a man to do an illegal act 
must be just and well grounded, such as. 
may intimidate a firm and resolute man, 
and not merely of such a nature as may 
operate upon the timid and irresolute, oth- 
erwise it will constitute no excuse. Thus, 
in time of war or rebellion, a man may 
\ie excused for doing treasonable acts, if 
they are caused by the compulsion of the 
enemy or rebels. But the compulsion 
must not be a mei-e threat to do injury to 
property, nor even slight injury to the 
person, but a just fear either of death or 
of great bodily injury ; and even in such 
case, it is the duty of the party to avoid 
doing such acts as soon as he safely may, 
by escape or otherwise ;> for if he does not, 
he will be liable to punishment as a vol- 
unteer. But even tnis excuse is not al- 
lowed in all cases, but seems principally 
confined to crimes positively created by 
society ; for no man can justiiy or excuse 
himself for murdeiing an innocent person, 
under the pretence of fear or necessity, 
though he certainly may kill another in 
necessaiy self-defence. Another case of 
compulsion or necessity often occurs in the 
reasoning of speculative writers, whether 
a person in extreme want of food is excu- 
sable for stealing to satisfy his hunger. 
Whatever rfiay be the doctrine of foreign 
jurists, or the opinion of publicists, it is 
certain that no such excuse is now admit- 
ted in the common law. If the offence 
should be committed under circumstances 
of extraordinary suffering, the case would 
rarely be brou^t before any tribunal of 
justice ; and if it should be, the power of 
pardon in the government, and the human- 
ity of the court itself, would either annul or 
mitigate the punishment There is another 
case often put, where two persons at sea 
are shipwrecked, and get on a single 
plank, and it cannot support botli, but 
Doth must be drowned unless one is dis- 
placed : what is then to be done ? In such 
a case, the law of self-preservation has 
been supposed to justify either party in a 
forcible dispossession of the other. The 
common law seems to recognise this prin- 
ciple, and, an such a deplorable calamity, 
imputes no blame to the survivor. — We 
now proceed to notice another important 
disdnction, which the common law acts 
upon in relation to crimes. It is the dis- 



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tinction in guilt and punishment which is 
made between principals and accessories. 
Peifioos are called principals in the first 
d^rte^ who are the actors or perpetrators 
or the ofience. Persens who are present, 
aiding and abetting the perpetrator, are 
called principals in Sie second degree. This 
presence may be either in &ct, as where 
the parties are immediately standing by, 
or are within sight and hearing ; or con- 
structive, as when tlie party, tnough not 
within si^ht or bearing, is on the watch 
at a convenient distance, ready to assist, 
and near enough to do so, if required. 
There are cases, too, in which a person 
may be the principal in construcuon of 
law, although he is absent, and the fiict is 
done through the instrumentality of anoth- 
er; as, in case of murder by poisoning, 
a man may be the principal felon b]^ pre- 
paring or laying the poison, witli an inten- 
tion that it ^ould be taken, or by employ- 
ing an innocent person to administer it, 
under false pretences, although he is not 
personally present when it is taken or 
admiiusterecL Many cases of tlie like 
nature may be easily pm. An aecessoiy 
is he who is not the chief actor in the ot- 
fence, nor present at its perpetration, in 
the sense above stated, but who is in some 
manner concerned in it, either before or 
after the fact is committed. If he irror 
cures, counsels, abets or commands the 
crime, and is absent at its commission, he 
is deemed an accessory before the feet 
l€, without any such participation in it, he 
knows that the crime nas been committed, 
and aflerwards relieves, assists, comforts 
or receives the offender, he is deemed an 
accessory after the &ct Thus, if he fluds 
the offender to escape, or rescues him from 
arrest, or conceals oV supports him, he is 
deemed an accessory imer the &ct; so 
if he buys or receives stolen goods, know- 
ing them to be stolen. There are certain 
classes of offences at the common law 
which admit of no accessories. Thus, in 
treason, all the parties concerned are deem- 
ed principals propter odium delicti ; and in , 
offences which are under the degree of fel- 
ony, and in trespasses, all persons con- 
cerned are deemed principals, for an opfio- 
site reason, because the law will not con- 
descend, in petty crimes, to ascertain the 
dif]ferent degrees of guilt In all other 
offences, that its in all except the higliest 
and the lowest, there may be, technically 
speaking, accessories. It follows as a 
maxim, that, in such cases, the accest-ory 
cannot be guilty of a higher offence than 
bis princi|ML In respect to puiii^hmetit, 
the ancient common law did not make any 



distinction between accensories and princi- 
pals ; but by statute, many distinctions are 
now made, and especially regarding ac- 
cessories after the met In tlie U. States, 
few of our crimuial codes have failed to 
mark out very strong differences in the 
punishment There are, in fact, many 
reasons which require the distinction be- 
tween principals and accessories to be 
constantly kept in view. In the first pbce, 
in many instances, a man cannot be tried 
as accessory until after the trial and con- 
viction of the priuci|ial. In the next 
place, if a man be indicted as accessory 
and acquitted, he may still be indicted as 
principal. In the tliird plaee, as a natural 
mference from tlie other considerations, 
the defence of the accused may, and often 
must, turn upon very different princinlea, 
where he is accused as accessory, from 
what might or could arise if he were 
accused as principal. — ^In respect to the 
mode of presentment and tnal for of- 
fences. In England, no person can be 
brought to trial, for any capital offence or 
felony, except upon the presentment or 
indictment of a grand jury ; but for infe- 
rior offences or misdemeanors, an informa- 
tion, in the namre of an indictment, may 
be filed by tlie king's attorney-general, or 
other proper officer, upon which.the party 
may be put upon trial Even in such 
cases, an indictment also Kes. In the U. 
States, informations are rarely resorted to 
in any of the states in such cases ; and 
the usual, and, in many cases, tlie only 
constitutional course is an indictment by a 
grand jury. All offences, whether chai^ged 
by indictment or information, are, by the 
common law, to be tried by a jury com- 
posed of 12 men, and tfaetr verdict is con- 
clusive upon tlie fects. In the U. States^ 
this privilege of trial by jury is generally 
secured by the constitutions of tlie slate 
and national governments. A privilege 
often quite as valuable to the accused, is 
that of being assisted by counsel in the 
management of his defence. It is a cu* 
nous anomaly in the English jurispru- 
, dence, tliat counsel are admissible in the 
argument of facts to the jury only in tlie 
highest cmd lowest offences; in treason, 
by the express provision of statute, and in 
mere misdemeanors, by the common law. 
In all capital cases, except treason, the ac- 
cused is denied this privilege ; and, how- 
ever important and useful such a privilege 
may lie, tlie introduction of it has been 
hitlierto successfully resisted in the British 
parliament In the U. States, a far differ- 
ent, and, lis we think, wiser and more hu- 
mane n^le prevails. In all cnminal cases, 



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CRIMINAI. LAW-CROCODILE. 



the accused k entitled, as of right, to the 
assistance of counsel in his defence ; and 
this right, also, is generally secured by the 
state and national constitutions of govern- 
ment This is not the place for a discus- 
sion of tlie value of such a right, though 
to us it seems recommended by principles 
of pohcy as well as of justice and human- 
ity. The mode of im])anneling juries, the 
ri^t of challenge, and other incidents of 
cnminal trials, belong more appropriately 
to other heads. (See Crime^ CourU, and 
Juru.) 

Crisis (from x^vttv, to decide), in medi- 
cine ; a point in a disease, at which a de- 
cj<ied change for the better or the wor^ 
takes place. The crisis is most strongly 
marked in the case of acute diseases, and 
with strong patients, particularly if the 
course of the disease is not checked by 
energetic treatment. At the approach of 
a crisis, the disease appears to take a more 
violent character, and the disturbance of 
the system reaches the highest p>oint. If 
the change is for the better, the violent 
symptoms cease with a copious perspira- 
tion, or some other discharge from the 
system. In cases where the discharge 
may have been too violent, and the nobler 
orffans have been greatly deranged, or 
where the constitution is too weak to re- 
siKt the disease, the patient's condition 
becomes worse. In regular fevers, the 
crisis takes place on regular day^ wliich 
are called enticed days (the 7th, 14th and 
21st); sometimes, however, a little sooner 
or later, according to the climate and tlie 
constitution of the patient A bad turn 
often produces a crisis somewhat sooner. 
When the turn is favorable, the crisis fre- 
quently occurs a litde later. After a salu- 
tary cnsis, the patient feels himself relieved, 
and tlie dangerous symptoms cease. — It 
hardly need be mentioned, tliat tlie word 
crigis is figuratively used for a decisive 
point in any important affair or business, 
for instance, in politics. 

Crispin; tlie name of two legendary 
sainUi, whose festival is celebrated on the 
125th of October. They are said to hava 
been bom at Rome, aliout 303 A. D., and 
to have travelled to Finance to proiiagate 
Christianity, where they died as martyrs. 
During their niission, tliey maintained 
themselves by shoemakiug; hence they 
are the patrons of shoemakers. 

Critical Puilosopht. (See Kant, and 
PhiUaophy,) 

Croatia ; a kingdom of the Austrian 
monarchy, connected with Hungary. It 
is divided into Civil aixl Military Croatia, 
rhe former coutiyns 36G5 square miles, 



441,000 inhabitants, 7 cities, 16 market 
towns, 1827 villages, and consists of the 
three counties of Agram, Creutz, and the 
Hungarian Littorale (of which the princi- 

gd place is Fiume). It is watered by the 
rave. Save, Culpa and Unna, and liound- 
ed by Hungary, Sclavonia, Bosnia, Dal- 
matia, IlJyria and Styria. Military Croa- 
tia (see Military Districis) contains 61 GO, 
according to some, 4^, square miles, 
with 414,800 inhabitants, in 6 cities, 6 
inai^et towns, and 1241 villages. The 
inhabitants are Croats and Rascians, mix- 
ed with a few Germans and Hungarians. 
The Croats, a Sclavonic tribe, are Roman 
Catholics, and are known as good sol- 
diei-s, but have made litde progress in 
science and the arts'; nay, they have not 
among them even all of tlie ordinary 
mechanics. Their langua^ is the Slave- 
no-Horwatic dialect In Turkish Croatia 
(on the Unna and near Biliatsch), they 
are Greek Catholics. Civil Croatia is 
fertile, and intersected by heights of very 
moderate elevation, extending down from 
Styria and Camiola. Military Croatia, 
however, towards Bosnia and Duimatia, 
has mountains rising to tlie height of 
5400 feet ; as, for instance, Wellebit, die 
Plissivicza mountains, and tlie mountains 
of Zrin. The climate is healdiier tlian 
tliat of the neighboring Sclavonia, and 
mild. The country produces chiefly wine, 
tobaccO| grain of various sorts, including 
maize, fruits, particularly plums, wood, 
caule, horses, sheep, swine, game, fish, 
bees, iron, copper, and sulphur. 

Crocodile (crocodUua) ; a genus of 
saurian, or lizard-like reptile, species of 
which are found in tlie old and new 
world. That inhabiting the Nile and 
otlier rivera of Afrfca has lieen known 
for many ages, and celebrated, from the 
remotest antiquity, for qualities which 
render it terrible* to .mankind. As the 
largest reptile known,* and as the most 
ferocious and destructive of the inhabi- 
tants of the waters, it could not but com- 
mand tlie attention, and excite the fears, 
of those who were near enougii to observe 
its pecuharities. Few persons have read 
tlie sublime book of Job, wiUiout being 
struck wiUi the magnificent and tenible 
descrif>tioii of the attributes of leviatlian 
to wluch alone tlie characters of the 
croco<iile corres^iond. It is not surprising 
that the Egypuans, who deified aliimst 

* The skeletons of much larger reptiles have 
beeu discovered within the last half cciiiury j but, 
from lliv strata in \%'hioh tlicy were found, it is 
certain they had become extinct long before the 
earth was iuhabited by man. 



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CROCODILE. 



41 



every thing, should place among their 
gods aiiiitiais so powerttil and destructive, 
though a better reason is to be found in 
the defence which they afforded against 
the uicursions of Arabs and other robbers, 
who were not fond of adventuring across 
' canals and rivers frequented by cr^Mxiiles. 
A rv^gular priesthood and worship were 
consecrated to tliis ferocious deinr, and in 
the tetnpie of Memphis a sacred individ- 
ual of the species was reared with great 
care, being abundantly fed, adorned with 
iewel^ and lodged in a spacious basin, 
having offerings ai^d sacrifices made to 
luni. Being thus fed and managed, the 
terrible reptile became sufficiently mild 
and tnirtable to be led about in ceremo- 
nial processions. When he died, the 
priests embahned his body, and buried it 
in the royal sepulchre ! So much for the 
wisdom of the nation which is commonly 
regarded as the most enlightened of an- 
tiquity ! The most ancient description of 
the crocodile is that given by Herodotus, 
in his observations on Egypt, in his first 
book. This account, though mingled 
with a considerable share of mble, is gen- 
erally correct ; and some of the errors still 
in existence concerning this animal, ap- 
pear to be derived from his statement: 
such are the stories of the bird which 
picks the crocodile's teeth, and that the 
animal moves only the upper jaw. The 
kuter assertion, though utterly incorrect, 
is repeated, even at uiis day, by persons 
who have had opportunities of knowing 
better from actual observation, had they 
not been too much blinded by preiudice 
to profit thereby. The genus is cbarac- 
Cerized by the follovTing peculiarities : The 
tail is compressed or broadest vertically ; 
the posterior feet are whojly or partly 
palmated; the tofrgue attached to the 
mouth, even to its very edges, without 
being in the least extensible; a single 
range of simple pointed teeth ; the male 
oigan single. There are five toes on the 
front, four on the hind feet, only three 
toes of each foot being provided with 
claws. The body, above and below, and 
the entire length of the tail^ are covered 
with square scales or plates, most of those 
on the back having ridges or spines of 
various lengths: the flanks are only pro- 
tected by small round scales. Two rang- 
es of spines, forming a double dentat^ 
fine, are placed at the base of the tail, 
which subsequently unite or form a single 
ridge on the remainder of its length. The 
ears are externally closed by two fleshy 
slipe; the nostrils form a long narrow 
canal, which only opens interioriy at the 



back of the throat The eyep :.rp provid- 
ed with tiiree lids ; and under tlie throat . 
there are two smnll pouches, which se- 
crete a strongly musky suljstance. Cuvier 
has divided the genus into three sub-gen- 
era, viz. gamcUs, having an elongated nar- 
row beak or snout ; ccasnutM^ or alligators, 
with broad snouts, and having four lower 
teeth to fit into botes excavated for them 
in the upper jaw, and crocodUes proper, 
having the head oblong, twice as long as 
broad, and tlie four long lower jaw teeth 
passing by grooves, and not entering into 
cavities in the U[)i)er jaw. The ga vials 
are most common in, if not peculiar to, 
the great rivers of India. The alligaton 
are confined to the new continent, and the 
crocodile proper, with a single excepdon, 
to Africa. These reptiles are truly for- 
midable, from their great size and strength, 
and, if they were not rendered unwieldy 
by the length of the Iwdy and tail, might 
become as dreadful on land as in the 
Water, where they can act to the greatest 
advantage. Where they abound, it is ex- 
tremely dangerous to venture into the 
rivers for die purpose of bathing, or to be 
carelessly exposed in a small boat On 
shore, their shonness of limb, great length 
of body, and difficulty of turning, or of 
advancing otherwise than directly" for- 
vrard, enable men and animals readily to 
esca[>e pursuit For a crocodile of 1^ 
]5, or lo feet in length, to turn fairiy, k 
must necessarily describe a very large 
circle. In the water, the vast force it can 
exert by means of the long oar-like tail, 
amply compensates for want of flexibility, 
and renders the animal more than a 
match for any of its enemies. The force 
with which it darts through the water, in 
pursnit of prey, resembles the flight of an' 
arrow rather than the progression of a 
huge animal, and, when engaged in rude 
gambols, or in combating widi others of 
its kind, the waves are lashed into foariL 
and may be truly said to ** boil like a pot" 
The mouth, when expanded, forms a hor- 
rible chasm, extending even to the earn, 
and, armed around its bonier by strong 
pointed teeth. This construction, with 
the absence of lips, arid the confined posi- 
tion of the tongue, show that the acdon of 
the mouth is confined simply to seizing 
and tearing the food. These animals are 
exclusively carnivorous, feeding on such 
animals as frequent the waters, on fish, or 
carcasses thrown into the streams they 
inhabit They always prefer their food 
in a certain state of putrefaction, and ar6 
found to keep animals killed by them- 
selves in the mud, until this process has 



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CROCODrLE—CROISADE. 



begun. In regard to the ^neral chamc- 
ter and habits of crocodiles, we might 
safely refer to the account given in the 
first volume of this work, under the title 
MigatoTj which has been more carefully 
observed. Tliey are so similar in every 
respect, that what is said of the American 
B|)ecies, with very sJi^ht modification, will 
hold good of the Afncan. The crocodile 
of Egy|)t is no longer found, except in the 
upi)pr i>arts of that countiy, where tlie 
heat is greatest, and the population least 
mimerous. Anciently, the species was 
common nearly to the outlet of the Nile ; 
and it is stated by Pliny, that they used to 
puss the winter months buried in the 
mud, in a state of torpidity. They are 
still common enough in the river Senegal, 
the Jaire, JoUba, ^c. The size to which 
these creatures grow is very remarkable, 
and would lead us to l>elieve that they live 
to a vast age. It is stated by excellent au- 
tliorities, tliat individuals have been killed 
in Ipfier Egypt measuring 30 feet hi 
length. 51. Cloquet, who was one of the 
French institute, engaged in exploring 
that country, while the armies of the re- 
public were present, saw a crocodile '25 
feet long. A little reflection upon the 
muscular power, of such a reptile will 
serve to convince us of its ability to com- 
mit extensive ravages on the lives of other 
creatures. There are numerous particu- 
lars connected with the anatomy of these 
beings, which are very curious and inter- 
esting. Such are tlie articulations of the 
lower jaw with the upper, tlie joint being 
so far back as to cause almost every inci- 
dental observer to believe that the upper, 
not the lower jaw, is moved in opening 
the mouth ; tlie lateral spines on tiie ver- 
tebrae, which prevent (lie tuniing of the 
body, except in a large circle ; the curious 
set of ribs designed exclusively for the 
protection of the belly, aided by two 
broad bones standing on the anterior edge 
of the pelvis, which may be compared 
with the ossa TnarsupiaHa of certain quad- 
nipeds ; the construction of the external 
ears ; the apparatus for the protection of 
the eye, &c., &c But for such <letails, 
we are under the necessity of referring 
the reader to treatises especially devoted 
to their illustration. The species of croc- 
odile admitte<i by Cuvier, in the excellent 
researches contained in the 10th and 12th 
volumes of the Atmalta du Musiwa, are 
the following : 1. the common crocodile 
of Egypt (C. vulfi^aris); 2. the double- 
crested (C bworcatus); 3. the lozenge 
crocodile (C. rhymbifer) ; 4. the two-plate 
crocodile (C. InscukUus) ; and 5. the Hay- 



tian (C, aciUua\ the only true crocodile 
found in the new world, according to his 
definition. The memoirs above referred 
to contain very minute and satisfiictory 
accounts of the discriminating marks of 
these species, and to that source tlie read- 
er who desires such information may refer 
with great advantage. 

CaoBsuB, the last king of Lydia, lived 
in the sixth century Itefore Christ. He 
vras brave, and augmented his empire by 
the conquest of many provinces of Asia 
Minor. His riches, which he obtained 
chiefly from mines, and the gold dust of 
the river Pactolus, were greater thau 
those of any king before him; and the 
expression ** riches of CrcBsus" came to 
signify unbounded wealth. Proud of bis 
treasures, he carried his love of splendor 
to extravagance, and thought himself the 
happiest of men. Herodotus telLs us that 
Solon visited him at his court, and, on 
being asked by him who was the happiest 
man he knew, mentioned, ftrst, Tellus, 
then Cleobis and Biton, all three humble 
individuals of Greece, who had died in 
the midst of a virtuous career. The stoiy 
of these individuals, as related bv Solon, 
is one of the most affecting and channing 
passages in the work of the father of his- 
tory. Cix]e8us manifested displeasure that 
the choice of the sage had not fallen upon 
him ; but Solon reminded him that no one 
can be safely pronounced happy until his 
death; and Croesus was soon forced to 
acknowledge the truth of the reflection, 
having lost two beloved sons by violent 
death, and having been conquered him- 
self by Cyrus, against whom he had 
waged war for the benefit of the Baby- 
k)nians. He was taken prisoner in his 
capital, Sardis, and, having been placed 
on a pile in order to be burnt, he three 
times exclaimed, "Oh, Solon!" Cyrus, 
ha\ing learned the meaning of his ex- 
clamation, was much moved, ordered him 
to descend, took him as his companion in 
his wars, and treated him well. The 
time of the deatli of Crcesus is not known. 
He was alive in the reign of Cambyses, 
the son and successor c3* Cyrus. He is 
represented as one of the most pious 
among the ancients, constandy ]abi>ring 
to please the gods. Some historians deny 
the interview with Solon ; others do not 
mention his having been sentenced to be 
burnt : at all events, the history, as it is 
told in Herodotus, is equalled by few nar- 
ratives, true or fictitious, in touching sim- 
plicity. 

Crocus. (See Saffivn). 

CaoiSADE. (See Vruaade). 



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43 



C&oix, Saint, is the name of many riv- 
ers and places, as is also Santa Croce in 
Italian, Atnia Cruz in Spanish, and the 
compositions with Knuz in German. 
Amoiig the many St. Croix are : 

iSL Croix, or SJwodic, or Pas$anuxquoidy ; 
a river of North America, which diviiJes 
Maine from New Brunswick, and flows 
into Passamaquoddy bay. It is navigable 
for ships 25 miles. 

iS3L Croix; a river in the North-West 
Territory, which runs into the Mississippi 
90 miles below St. Anthony's &ils. It is 
navigable for boats about 100 miles. 

SL Croix; a river of Canada, which 
runs into the river Sl Maurice 33 miles 
above Quebec. 

Choker, John W.; first secretary to the 
board of admiralty, member of tlie Brit- 
ish pariiameut, a poet, and an active con- 
tributor to tlie Quarterly Review. He 
was bom in Dubtiu, 1781, and, afler hav- 
ing studied in Trinity college, in that 
city, was entered at Lincohi's Inn, and, in 
1802, admitted to the Irish bar. . In 1807, 
be was chosen meuiber of parliament for 
Bownpatrick (Ireland), and has ever since 
retained a seat in that body. In 1809, he 
distinguished himself by his activity in 
the a&ir of the duke of Yotk and Mrs. 
Clarke, and was rewarded with the ap- 
pointment of secretary for Ireland dur- 
ing the al«3nce of sir Arthur VVelleslev 
(duke of Wellington), and soon afler with 
that of first secretaiy to the admiralty. 
In parliament, he is a fluent speaker, and 
an eflficient supporter of tlie ministry. Mr. 
Croker has published several literary 
works of some merit, which appeared 
anonymously. Among them are, Famil- 
iar Epistles on the Irish Stage (poetical, 
1803) ; an Intercepted Letter from China 
(1805), a Satirical Sketch ; State of Ire- 
land, past and present (1807) ; the Baule 
of Talavera, a poem, in which the battle 
is described with much fire (1809). He 
has been one of the most lively and popu- 
lar of the regular contributors to the 
Quarterly Review. His articles have 
been more commonly on literary than 
political subjects, and show much tact 
and considerable talent His favorite 
weapon is sarcasm. The most of the ar- 
ticles on French literature are from his 
pen, and display much illiberal preju- 
dice, with not a litde ignorance of the 
subject 

Cbomlecb, or Cromleh, in British an- 
tiquities; huge, broad, flat stones, lying 
upon other stones set up on end. They 
are common in the isle of Anglesea. 
These monuments are described by Mr. 



Rowland, Dr. Borlase, &c., under the 
name of artSy or altars. Mr. Rowland, 
however, is divided in his opinion, sup- 
posing them to have been originally tomlis, 
but that, in afler times, saeritices were per 
formed upon them to the heroes deposit- 
ed within. There is an account of king 
Harold having been uiterre<l beneath a 
monument of this kind, in Denmark ; and 
Mr. Wright discovered, in Ireland, a skel- 
eton deposited in one of tliem. Mr. To- 
land mentions a cromlech in Neverii par- 
ish, in Pembrokeshire, South Wales, hav- 
ing the middle stone 18 feet high and 9 
broad towards the base, but narrowuig up- 
wards ; and by it tliere lay a broken niece, 
10 feet in length, which seemed to be of 
a weight heavier tlian 20 oxen could 
draw. But at Poitiers, in France, there is 
one supported by five lesser stones, much 
exceeding all in tlie British islands, as it is 
50 feet in circumference. This he con- 
ceives to have been a ^^ rocking-stone.** 
At Boudoyr, in Anglesea, there is a noble 
cromlech, ^lany of the stones being 30 
tons in weight 

Cromwell, Oliver, protector of the 
commonwealth of England, Scotland and 
Ireland, one of the most powerful charac- 
ters ttiat ever rose from a revolution ; a 
statesman and general, who, with the Bl 
ble in one hand, and the sword in the 
other, raised and ruled the stormy ele- 
ments of political and religious fanati- 
cism ; with a bold, yet artful ambition, 
achieved great enterprises, and planned 
still greater; admired, feared, and cahuiHii- 
ated by bis contemporaries, and first truly 
appreciated by afler ages, — was bom at 
Huntingdon, April 25, 1599, and descend- 
ed from a family which traced its geneal- 
ogy til rough Richard Williams, who as- 
sumed the name of Cromwell from his 
maternal uncle, Thomas Cromwell, secre- 
tary of state to Henry VIII, and through 
William ap Yevan, up to the barons of 
the 11th century. His father, Robert 
Cromwell, proprietor of the borough of 
Huntingdon, had a seat in parliament, 
but, at die same time, to support a numer- 
ous family, undertook a large brewing 
estabhshment Oliver receiv^ a careful 
education. Anticipations of future great- 
ness early seized upon his imagination. 
When a child, he met with several hair- 
breadth escapes. During his infiuicy, a 
large ape snatched liim out of his cradle, 
and, to the terror of the family, mounted 
with him to the roof of the house. Some 
years afler, he was rescued by a clergy- 
man from drowning. The unusually 
strict discipline of the grammar school at 

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CROMWELL. 



which he was educated, created a di8|riist 
in the ainUtious boy for all prescribed 
tasks. While at school, he performed 
witti great enthusiasm, in the old play of 
Lingua, the part of Tactus, who finds a 
erowu and purple mantle. He retained 
an impression, in after life, of having seen, 
in his youtli, an apparition of a gigantic 
wotiiau ut his bedside, who told him that 
he would become the greatest man in the 
kingdom. In his 17tli year, be went to 
Cambridge, where he studied with zeal, 
but, at the same time, carried his fondness 
for atliletic exercises even to a love of 
brawls and combats. After staying there 
a year, his motlier sent him to rtudy law 
hi London, where he became a member 
of Lincohi's Inn, and spent most of his 
time m dissipated com{)any. After re- 
maining here a short time, be returned to 
reside upon his paternal pro|)erty, where 
he continued his dissolute habits, ajid had 
a quarrel with his uncle. Tliere was a 
restlessness in his nature, which made 
strong excitements necessary to him ; but 
he 6ariy renounced tlie vices and follies 
of his youth, when, at 21, he espoused 
Elizabeth, daughter of sir James Bour- 
chier, a womau whose conduct was ever 
vreproachable. His change of character 
was owing, however, in a great measure, to 
his close connexion with a religious sect, 
which afterwards became formidnl>le, in a 
political view, under tlie name of Puriton^ 
aud htJepenienis. At the same time, he 
became a student of theologicd and mili- 
tary works. In 1625, he was member of 
parliament, under the reign of Charles I, 
from the borough of Huntingdon. Here 
he saw, with indignation, the abuses 
of public administration, and, by the \n:r- 
suasion of the famous Hamixlen and St. 
John, his relations, took tlie side of the 
o[>)M)sitiou. Both of them hated the es- 
tablished church, and their sentiments 
were embraced by Cromwell, whose 
spirit was early inclined to enthusiasm. 
Ills heated imagination often made him 
believe lliat he was dying, and the physi- 
cians pronounced him a " vaporous and 
fanciful hypochoiidriac." No one but the 
}>enetrating Hampden had a correct idea 
of his great talents. In the parfiament of 
1628, he distinguished himself by his zeal 
against poj^ry. After this, he retired to 
a farm, made f^stitution of some money 
that he had won in earlier years by gam- 
ing, and, from 1635, devoted himself whol- 
ly to agriculture at Ely, where he had in- 
herited an estate. While in this place, he 
prevented the draining; of the fens, and 
thereby made himself so popular with the 



peo])le of tlie place, that they gave him the 
title of ** lord of the fens." He afterwards 
])atrouised this measure during his protec- 
torate. The storm was lUready at hand 
which was to shake the repose of England. 
The king wished to reign without a par- 
liament, and tlie artiitrary manner in which 
he im{)osed taxes, assisted by the prevail- 
ing rehgious feeling and sectarian ani- 
mosity, inflamed tlie passions of men, and* 
urged them into political cx>nflict The 
op{M>nentsof the arbitrary measures of the 
government had so little idea of the im- 
])euding convuMcn, that several of them 
were making arrangements to embark, 
with tlieir families, for New fkigland. 
Among those already engaged in this 
scheme were Cromwell, Hampden, Pym, 
Hasulrigg and other men, afterwards so 
formidable in the revolution; but the 
government forbade their emigration, as 
the icing yns fearftil that they >Vould help 
to widen the breach that already existed 
between the colonies and the English 
church. Thus did Charies himSelf coun- 
teract the movements of fortune in his 
favor. Cromwell returned to Ely, where 
he lived, for a time, a quiet and pious life. 
It was at this {leriod that he wrote to iiis 
friend St John, tliat **he was ready to do 
and to sufter for the cause of his God." 
He also held meetings of the sectaries at his 
house, and not unfrequentiy preached and 
prayed himself before them. At len^h,the 
king was compelled, by the state ol aftbiis 
in Scotland, to summon a jiarliament. 
Cromwell (who was returned member by 
the town of Cambridge) and others were 
so loud in their comphiints of abuses in 
church and state, that Charles prorogued 
the parliament, but, six months after, 
Novemlier, 1640, was obliged to reassem- 
ble it In this parliament, called the long 
parliament (from November, 1640, to April, 
1653) Cromwell attracted notice chiefly by 
his rustic and slovenly dress, and by the 
vehemence of his oratoir, often degenerat- 
ing into coarseness. " That sloven," said 
Hampden of him, '* that sloven hath no 
ornament in his s^ieech, but he will be 
the greatest man in England, if we should 
over come to a breach witli the king." In 
the declaration of grievances called tlie 
Rsmonstratiet, which was passed by a 
small majority, and which brought on 
the civil war, Cromwell took an active 
part He was at this time a sincere Puri- 
tan ; but his crafty nature soon led him 
into the windings of intrigue. On tlic 
breaking out of the war in 1642, beine 
appointed captain, and afterwards colonel, 
he raised a troop of horse composed of 



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CROMWELL. 



45 



zealous Puritans, who were ready to risk 
all for the cause of Grod. The address 
Willi which he infused his own spirit into 
his soldiera, and the strict discipline which 
he maintained, gave proof of the sagacity 
with which he afterwards ruled three 
kingdoms. His first military exploit was 
the occuiJation of Cambridge, where, with 
puritanical zeal, he seized tlie university 
plate, in tlje name of God, to defray the 
expenses of the wai-. He then routed 
the royalists, and made hunself master of 
their supplies. This success very much 
fiicilitateci the pariiament's levies, wliUe it 
had the opposite eftect on those of the roy- 
alists. His troops behaved with remark- 
able order, except on occasions when 
their religious feeiingH were excited. He 
laid the foundation of his miiitaxy fame 
by the relief of Gainsborough. From 
that time, he rivalled in boldness, in decis- 
ion, and in presence of mind, the most 
practised warriors. At Marston Moor, 
July 2, 1644, the cavalry which he had 
trained, and which was commanded by 
Fairfax and himseli^ decided the victo- 
ry. And now his political influence be- 
gan. Both a Puritan and a republican, he 
diought with Ireton and Hampden, but 
spoke out more boldly and distinctly, and 
thus became the prominent leader of tlie 
pany that was resolved to carry matters 
to the last extremity. But amid all his 
real and fei^ed honesty, he was al- 
ready beginnmg to play tlie secret part, 
for which his sagacity and knowledge of 
human mature soon suggested the most 

E>litic course. He constantly served, as 
obt)es remarks, the strongest party, as 
well as he was able, and carried matters 
with it as far as it wished. Once, indeed, 
when he had charged lord Manchester 
with cowardice, before parliament, be- 
cause, afler the batde of Newbury (1643), 
he would not pennit the cavahy to charge 
the enemy on their retreat, from fear that, 
if routed, they would all be treated as 
rebels and traitors, the earl publicly ac- 
cused him of an intention of putting hinv 
self at the head of the army, and giving 
the law to king and parliament Fortu- 
nately for Cromwell, the influence of the 
}ude|)endents (q. v.) preventerl a thorough 
investigation of the matter. From that 
time, however, the English Presbyterians 
regarded him as a dangerous man ; and 
the commander-in-chief, Essex, joined 
with the Scots, who hated Cromwell for 
his contemptuous treatment of them, in 
seeking his downfall. Upon this, Crom- 
well, in concert with his friends, planne<l 
a measure which may be regarded as the 



masteistroke of his polidcal conning. 
On fast day, he induced the London cler- 
ffy to preach on the necessity of the par- 
liament ireeuig itself from the charge of 
seltish ends, which could be done only by 
its meml)erB resigning all their lucrative 
offices, civil and mihtaiy, and leaving it 
to the Lord to choose other instruments 
for bringing to a concluaion so glorious a 
worit. In consequence of tliis, the fiar- 
liament passed wliat was called the self- 
dtnying orUiiumce^ in accordance with 
which sir Harry Vane, Cromwell, and 
others, gave in their resignations, because 
the anny, as they said, stood in neetl of a 
stricter discipline, and, above all, of more 
Christian leaders. The project was car- 
ried through ; Essex was dismissed, and 
the zealous, but irresolute sir Thomas 
Fairfax was put in his place. As the 
honorable but weak Fairfax did not feel 
himself qualified for tlie duties of general, 
he obtained an exemption from the aliove- 
mentioned ordinance for Cromwell, who, 
uniting ability with boldness, was again 
placed under him, with the command of 
tlie cavahy. Cromwell now introduced 
into the whole anny the excellent disci- 
pline in which he had already trained a 
part of it, and gained the decisive battle 
of Nuseby (June 14, 1645), in which the 
king was routed witli great loss. Crom- 
well got [KMscssion of the correspondence 
of Charles 1 with tlie queen, from which 
the parliament published all the passages 
which would injure the king and queen 
in public opinion. After this victory, and 
the capture of Bristol, Cromwell wrote to 
the parliament, in that affectedly humble 
and sancdfied strain, with which he dis- 
guised his ambitious designs; ^This is 
none other but the hand of God, and to 
him alone belongs the glory." The spirit 
in the army, which the officers, and es- 
pecially Cromwell, excited by tlieir ser- 
mons and prayers, had now risen to fanat- 
icism ; at the same time that good ortler 
and morality were so well maintained, 
that profauinr, drunkenness, robbery, and 
the like offences, hardly ever • occurred. 
By this coune, Cromwell succeeded in 
crushing the last efforts of the royal party, 
which he persecuted witli fanatical bit- 
terness. Charles I at UuA took refuge 
with the Scotch army ; but was sold by 
tliem to the parliament (May 5, 1646) for 
their arrears of pay, on which occasion 
Cromwell was one of the commissioners. 
Contrary to the expectation of the people, 
Charies was treated as a prisoner bv the 
leaders of the war party and the Inde- 
pendents) who carried their cruelty so fur 



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CROMWELL. 



as even to deny him the consolation of 
having one of his chaplains with him. 
The iiarliament was now in poBses^ion of 
the supreme power. It distributed re- 
wards to its adherents^ and Cromwell re- 
ceived £3500 a year, from the estates of 
the marquis of Worcester. But when the 
parliament wished to disband the army, 
which was infected with the ianaticai 
spirit of the Independents, the soldiers 
appointed, from the creatures of Cromwell 
and the wildest visionaries, a council of 
officers and a body of subalterns and pri- 
vates, coiled agttaUfrSj who iusolendy de- 
clared to tlie {Nirliatnent, tliat they would 
not lay down their anns till the freedom 
of the nation was established. Some of 
the soldiers conducted with so much 
lioldness, tiiat the fmrljament ordered tlieir 
arrest ; on which occasion Cromwell not 
only sup|x>rted the house, but, with tears 
m his eyes, deplored the seditious temper 
of the troo|)s, which, he said, had even put 
his own life in danger. Some of the 
niemljers, however, saw in him the secret 
mover of those measures, and accordingly 
proposed his afiprehension ; but, on that 
very day, Cromwell refiaired to the army, 
in order, as he wrote to the lower house, 
to restore t[ie deluded soldtera to their 
duty, and, at the same time, requested 
that Fairfax and tlie other officers would 
cooperate with him to this end. On tlie 
same day (June 3, 1647), one of the agi- 
tators, Joyce, forcibly carried off the king 
from Iloltnby, and delivered him into the 
hands of the anny. Cromwell seems at 
this time to have contemplated the restor- 
ation of the kuig. But he was convhiced, 
on a nearer view of the fanatical spirit 
that reigned in the anny, that he could 
not venture such a measure without dan- 
ger of his life ; besides, be was only 
second in command, and could not reckon 
on the assistance of the most iufluendal 
men, some of whom, as Vane and St. 
John, were his equals in cunning, and 
others, as I^idlow, Haselrigg, and many 
more, his equals in courage. They were 
all zealous republicans, and iinnly resolv- 
ed to destroy monarchy with tlie mon- 
arch. Cromwell seems, too, to have feared 
the |K>litica] principles of his son-in-law, 
Ireton. Thus he was finally obliged to 
continue in the course which he had 
begun, and, in onler to preserve the 
favor of die army, to make a hyiiocriti- 
cal show of sentiments which he no 
longer felti He iiersonally res))ecteil tlie 
king as an upright and conscientious man. 
He is said to have coniiivetl at his flight 
from Hampton court, and to have wished 



that he might escape from the kingdom ; 

and spoke with tears of his first meeting 
with his children ; for Cromwell, in pri- 
vate life, was mild and noble in bis tem- 
per; At last, yielding to the force of cir- 
cumstances, be united himself entirely to 
the commonwealth party, and, in their 
deliberations about tne tiiture form of 
government, feebly advocated a monar- 
chy, wlijch this iMuty called a mischief 
and a nn, because they regarded God 
alone as their Lord and King. Cromwell 
had now learned the diqiosition of his 
people, and, with that coarse levity which 
was a leading trait in bis character, he 
concluded a conference by throwmg a 
cushion at Ludlow^s bead, and running 
down stairs, where another was thrown 
after him in return. The next day, he 
said to Ludlow, that he thought the aboli- 
tion of tiie monarchy was desirable, but 
hardly practicalile. Soon after, Cromwell 
had a proof of the strengtli of his party. 
Major Huntingdon accusing him, in par- 
Uarnent, of a design to raise, in concert 
with Ireton, an anny against the parlia- 
ment, and establish a military government 
under the name of the king, the influence 
of the Independents outweighed tliat of 
the Presliyterians ; and, as 3ie insurrec- 
tions of tlie Welsh and Scotch were to be 
subdued, tl^ie parliament did not dare to con- 
demn or dismiss a general whose services 
were so necessary-. UiK>n tliis, Cromwell 
reduced Wales by a sudden attack ; and, as 
Fairfax, from Presbyterian scruples, de- 
clined the command of tlie expedition 
against Scotland, he undertook it with tiie 
more eagerness, as be knew tlie weak 
condition of the Scotch anny, and bad, 
for many years, heartily hated die Scotch 
lieople. With a much inferior force, he 
defeated them at Preston, and was re- 
ceived in Edinburgh as a deliverer. 
Now followed the tragedy of tlie king's 
execudon (see Charles /), who was be- 
headed Jan. 29, 1649. Cromwell was 
induced to consent to this act by tlie 
advice of Ireton, and took a consiiicuous 
]Mut in it, as be had not tlie courage or 
tlie power to prevent it. He carried bis 
want of feeling so far, as not only to l)e a 
sfiectator of the execution i'rom a window 
fitted up for him, but even to have the 
body in tlie coffin shown to him. The 
republic was established, and Cromwell, 
as a proof of his republican virtue, resolved 
on the deadi of lord Cafiel, because, as be 
said, the friendship which he felt for iliis 
loyal adherent of the king must be sacri- 
ficed to public dutv. Yet Cromwell was 
not natui^ly cruel. He shed blood firom 



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a poKtic calculation of his own interest 
He was more afraid of his old friend^ the 
levellers, than of the royalists. At last, he 
succeeded in putting down the former 
by strong measures, and then, to the aston- 
ishment of his enemies, who wished for 
nothing more than his absence, he led his 
army to Ireland. Victory was now to 
raise him still higher in the fevor of the 
people. He took Drogheda by storm 
(SepL, 1649), where he gave orders tliat 
nothing should be spared. '^This bit- 
terness," he said, ''will save much effu- 
sion of blood, through the goodness of 
God." Most of the cities opened iheur 
gates without resistance, and Cromwell, 
trusting to the terror of his name, though 
his army was greatly weakened by sicK- 
nesa, marched lx>ldly into the interior,where 
cowardice and treachecy every where 
yielded him a submissive welcome. With- 
in six months, the myalist party in Ireland 
was wholly crushed. Resigning the com- 
mand to Ireton, he now undertook, at the 
request of the parliament, a similiar ex- 
pedition against Scotland, where Charles 
Stuart, afbrwards Charles II, had been 
prockimed kin^. Cromwell had, at first, 
desired that Fau-fax should take the com- 
mand of the army; but Fair&x had taken 
the covenants (see Cofvewfnt^ and would 
not fight against the Scotch. Cromwell 
was therefore appointed commander-in- 
chie( and marched into Scotland. Being 
ignorant of the nature of the country, and 
of the situation of the Scotch forces, his 
supplies were cut off, his army became 
sickly, his retreat was intercepted, and he 
roust have been forced to surrender at 
Dunbar, had the Scotch avoided a battle. 
When he saw them advance, he exclaimed, 
''The Lord hath delivered them into our 
hands !" The wtory at Dunbar (Sept 3, 
1650) rid the fortu^iate genend of his ene- 
mies the Presbyterians. He then marched 
into Edinburgh. Meanwhile king Charles 
had collected new forces; but CromwelL 
by skilful marches near Stirling, cut him off 
from his points of support, when, contrary 
to hb expectation, the king entered Eng- 
land, and threatened London itself. Every 
thing was done to strengthen the army 
of Cromwell, who conducted like an active 
and reacdute general, while, in the royal 
camp, irresolution and discord prevailed. 
Gharlee was totally defeated at Worces- 
ter, Sept. 3, 1651. This victory, which 
Cromwell called the croK^ittng mercu of God, 
gave the commonwealth party full power 
over three kingdoms. Cromwell already 
exerted a we^ty influence on the su- 
preme direction of public afiairs. He 



succeeded in restoring the continental rela- 
tions of England, which liad been almost 
entirely dissolved, and regulated tiiem so 
as to promote the interests of conunerce. 
The navigation act, from which may be 
dated tlie rise of the naval power of Eng- 
land, was fhimed upon his suggestion, and 
passed in 1651. At the same time, tlie 
general, who was honored by the city of 
London as the father of his country, was 
aiming at sole sovereignty. The only man 
whom he feared, Ireioii, was dead. At a 
consultation with some iitembers of |mr- 
liament, and tlie most disanguiahed offi- 
cers, on the form of govenunent to lie 
establislied, he recommended a sficcies 
of mouarcliy, but was silent when some 
lawyers in the convention proposed tlie 
young duke of Gloucester for king. Mean- 
time the long ])arliament, which wad 
aiming to establisl) its own power, was 
growing more and more unpopular, in 
consequence of its undisguised tyranny, 
the war which it had provoked wiih tlie 
Dutch, and its treatment of the prisoners 
taken at Worcester, some of whom were 
put to death in prison, and others sold for 
slaves in the colonies. A frightful tem- 
pest, too, which occurred on the day of 
the execution of a London clergyman by 
the name of Love, made a deep impres- 
sion on tlie people. And now Cromwell 
broke silence, lie spoke o|)enly to his 
friends of the ambition, the godlessuess 
and injustice of the parliaihent. Encour- 
aged by their support, he at last hazarded 
a decisive step, ami, with 300 soldiers, (h»- 
persed that body, " for the glory of God 
and the good of the nation." He tlien 
summon^ a council of war, in which the 
officers finally chose a parUamciit of 128 
persons, selected from tlie three kingdoms, 
which, from Praiae-Go<l Barebone, one of 
the principal characters in it, by trade a 
leather-se!ler, was nicknamed Praxst-Gad 
Barfkowi's parUcanenL Cromwell himself 
opened the session with a speech, in 
which he said, that the day had come, on 
which the saints were to commence their 
reign upon earth. Fifteen montlis after, a 
new annual parliament was chosen ; but, 
after a sesnon of five montlis, Cromwell 
prevailed on this body, who were totally 
incapable of governing, to place tiie charge 
of the commonwealth in his hamls. The 
chief power now devolving again upon 
the council of officers (Dec. 12, 1653), 
they declared Oliver Cromwell sole gov- 
ernor of the commonwealth, under the 
name of lord protectory with an assistant 
council of 21 men. The new protector 
behaved with dignity and firmness. With 



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CROMWELL. 



the aid of general Lambert, he foimed a 
constitution, called the hutrumeiit cf Chv- 
emment^ by which tlie protector was in- 
vested with tlie power of peace and war, 
and was to summon a parliament once 
every three years, which he should not 
dissolve under five months ; bills presented 
to him were to have tlie force of laws if 
not ratified by him witliin 20 days ; and, 
on the other hand, he had power to enact 
laws, with the consent of his council, 
which should be binding in the intervals 
of tlie sessions of parliament In case of 
his deatli, the council were immediately 
to choose a new protector ; but no protec- 
tor after him was to command the army. 
Cromwell, having concluded peace with 
Poitugal, turned the resources of the state 
to the enlargement of its navy and com- 
merce. France and Spain courted the 
friendship of the fortunate protector, who 
at length united with cardinal Mazarin, in 
order to increase the colonial power of 
Encland. To make a thorough reduction 
of Scotland, he gave orders to general 
Monk to plunder every place that made 
resistance, and put the garrison to the 
sword— K)rder8 which were so rigorously 
executed by Monk, iliat terror ensured the 
most implicit submission. The nobles 
feared, ilie clergy hated the protector, 
while the people, whom he treated with 
equity and kindness, loved him, because 
they enjoyed much more liberty under 
liim than before. The protector treated 
Ireland with great severity. His act of 
pardon was, in reality, a desperate reme- 
dy for a desperate evil. The surviving 
inhabitants of an island wasted by fire, 
sword and ])estilence, were compelled to 
remove, on iienalty of death, to a barren 
tract of the province of Connaught, which 
was divided among them ; the rest of the 
island became tlie proiierty of the con- 
querors. Such was tlie bitter hatred oc- 
casioned by the unceasing quarrels of the 
Protestants and Catholica. Here, how- 
ever, 88 in Scotland, the protector estab- 
lished an equitable form of government, 
which, in tlie course of a few generations, 
would have very much improved the 
state of the island. But, in England, tlie 
situation of the protector was far from 
beinff secure. A member of parliament 
loudly declared, that he could not brook, 
afler the oveitlirow of one tyrant, to see 
tlie liberties of the nation shackled by 
another, whose prerogative had no meas- 
ure but the len^h of his sword; and 
Cromwell met with so much opposition, 
that, after the first five months, he dissolved 
the jiariiament. On the whole, his political 



administration was masterly, and adapted 
to the circumstances of his situation. 
He established large magazines of pro- 
visions ; the pay of the soldiers was regu- 
lariy delivered to them a mouth in ad- 
vance; the public revenues were strictly 
and economically managed, without any 
additional imposts. He apiiointed for 
judges the most upright and distinguished 
men. Among tliese was the famous sir 
Mattbew Hale. He never interfered with 
the proceedings of the courts of jusdce. 
In religion, he acted 6n the principle of 
toleration. Every man had liberty of 
conscience, in other things, too, Crom- 
well, as his own correct judgment prompt- 
ed, would have governed with mildness 
and justice, promoted the arts and sci- 
ences, and healed the wounds of the na- 
tion ; but he was obliged to maintain his 
power, as he had ac(|uired it, against his 
tetter will, by a seventy often amounting 
to tyranny. Equally afraid of die royalists 
and the levellers, he could not rely upon 
the officers of the army ; he did not place 
confidence even in the soldiers, and would 
have taken a regiment of Swiss for his 
body-guard, had he not been fearful of 
making himself unpopular, and betraying 
his suspicions, by so doing. With tlie 
help of the fanatics, he kept the royalists 
in check ; and the latter served as a coun- 
terpoise to the former. For this reason 
he rejected, as much from policy as from 
principle, the propoation, which was re- 
peatedly made in the council of war, to 
massacre all the royalista They were 
obliged, however, to give up a tenth nart 
of their property, were always looKed 
upon as enemies, and were denied the 
common privileges of a court of justice. 
In order to collect the fines imposed on the 
royalists, to prosecute those whom he sus- 
pected, perhaps also to disunite the army, 
the protector divided England into 12 
military jurisdictions, and placed over each 
a major-general with absolute power, from 
whose decisions there was no appeal, ex- 
cejit to tlie protector himself; but he specd- 
ily broke up this odious ffoveniment of 
pachas. On the other hand, he strength- 
ened the British navy. The ftimoiis admi- 
ral Blake, and other naval heroes, fought 
several well-contested battles with the 
Dutch fleets, under De Ruyter, Tromp 
and others. In the peace with Holland 
(April 15, 1654), England maintained the 
honor ofher flag, and t he navigation act gave 
a new impulse to the colonial trade. The 
skilful and fortunate conduct of the war with 
Spain, from 1655 to 1658, in which Jamaica 
and Dunkirk were tiiken, made the new par- 



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llament, from which Cromwell liad care- 
fully excluded all republicans, so obsequi- 
ous, that they at last offered him the title 
of king. Some individuals, among whom 
was Lambert, the second in c5mmand of 
the army, who was in hopes of being pro- 
tector after Cromwell, .and the majority 
of the officers, opposed the measure so 
resolutely, that Cromwell, fearing the fete 
of Csesar, declined the title. His brother- 
in-law, Desborough, and his son-in-law, 
Fleetwood, also dissuaded him from ac- 
cepting iL For tliis, the parliament, by an 
act entitled Humble Petition and Aimce^ 
gave him the title of kigkness, and the right 
of appointing his succensor ; and he was 
a second time solemnly invested by the 
speaker with the ensigns of his office — a 
velvet mantle of purple color, symbolical 
of justice and mercy, the Bible, the staff 
and the sword. CromweU received from 
all quarters marks of the highest respect; 
yet the incense of admiration did not in- 
to.ticate Ills understanding : he saw things 
in their true light, with a calm, clear and 
careful eye. Shakspeare himself has 
portrayed no situation more dramatic 
than that of Cromwell; but, unlike the 
stupified and despairing Macbeth, the pro- 
tector rose in spirit as he rose in fortune. 
He renounced the principles with which 
he had set out, as untenable. Gladl v would 
he have repaired the past mischief; but 
the men whom he had hitherto used as 
instruments were opjwsed to him, and 
the blood of the king was inexpiable, 
Charles Stuart, son of the late king, of- 
fered to allow him to make his own terms, 
if he would place him on the throne; and 
Cromwell's wife urged him to accept the 
proposal ; but he answered, " If Charles 
Stuart can forgive me all that I have done 
against him and his family, he does not 
deserve to wear the crown of England." 
Cromwell, the lord of three kingdoms, the 
mightiest potentate in Europe, the great- 
est man in an age of great men, and wor- 
thier than any otiier of his high station, 
had he risen by upright means, was un- 
happy in the last years of his life. In his 
h^rt, he wished to govern on mild and 
constitutional principles; but self-preser- 
vation compelled him to be severe and 
suspicious. A usurper must be a des- 
pot He at last governed without a par- 
liament, since none was pliant enough for 
him ; and the bigots, who once extolled 
him, now called him a shameful tyrant 
Their conspiracies against his life kept 
him in continual alarm. He never went 
out without a guard ; no one knew what 
route he would take ; he usually turned 

VOL. IV. 5 



back after stortmg, and took another direc- 
tion ; he wore a shirt of mail under his 
dress, and seldom slept two nights suc- 
cessively in the same room. According 
to Ludlow's account, he expressed, on his 
death-bed, some fears that bis memory 
would be insulted, and his remains tram- 
pled upon. He asked his preacher, wheth - 
er it was true that the elect could never 
finally fall ; and, when assured that it w:is 
so, Cromwell rejoined, " Then I am safe ; 
for I am sjire that once I was in a state of 
grace." The powerful medicines which 
were administered to him, while his body 
was weakened by the tertian ague, brought 
on a kifid of insanity. He assured his 
physicians, os tlie fanatics about him had 
persuaded him to believe, that he should 
not die, whatever they might think of his 
situation ; " for God was far above nature, 
and God had promised his people his 
recovery." His last words appeared to 
be those of a person interceding with God 
for the people. Cromwell died Sept 3, 
1658, at the age of 59, and was buried in 
Westminster abbey. Most of the Euro- 
pean courts went into mourning for him, 
even tliat of Versailles. Great as a gen- 
eral, Cromwell was still gi-eater as a civil 
ruler. He lived in a simple and retired 
way, like a private man, without any 
parade or ostentation. He was abstemi- 
ous, temperate, indefatigably indiistiious, 
and exact in his official duties. His exte- 
rior inspired neither love nor confidence ; 
his figm-c had neither dignity nor grace ; 
his conversation and mannera were rude 
and vulgar ; his voice was harsh ; in bis 
public speeches, he expressed himself 'wiili 
force and fire, but without method or taste. 
On the other hand, he possessed extraor- 
dinary penetration and knowledge of hu- 
man nature ; no one knew so well as ho 
tlie artof winnins: men and using them to 
his purposes. He devised the boldest 
plans with a quickness, equalled only by 
the decision nnd intrepidity with which 
he executed them. No obstacle deterred 
him ; and he was never at a loss for ex- 
pedients. His coins bore the motto Pax 
qtuErUur bdlo. Cool and reserved, but full 
of great projects, he patiently waited for 
the favorable moment, and failed not to 
make use of it Under the guise of piety 
and virtue, he practised the most subtle 
Machiavellism ; yet he was, iii tnith, an 
upright and tolerant Calvinist As his 
political interest was often at variance witli 
his real sentiments, he sometimes showed 
himself crtiel, sometimes moderate, even 
towards his avowed enemies. In his in- 
tercourse with others, he often indulged in 



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50 



CROMWELL. 



low and scun'ilous jests, frivolity and 
coarseness, which agreed as ill with his 
iron sternness of character, as with the 
noble spirit whicli brtjathes in some of his 
speeches, and Avith tlie force of his orator}', 
which swayed not only the ignorant and 
fanatical soldiery, but also the more en- 
lightened parliament His elevation was 
the fruit of injustice and deceit ; and, on 
his death, his family soon sunk into ob- 
scurity. He had appointed his eldest son, 
Richard, his successor ; but the republican 
and religious fanaticism of the army and 
officers, with Fleetwood at their head, 
now subverted, as it had formerly served, 
the projects of Cromwell. Thetinild and 
virtuous Richard was compelled, by tlie 
mutinous officers, to dissolve tlie parlia- 
ment ; and, a few days after, conscious of 
his inca|)acity, he voluntarily abdicated 
the protectorship, April 22, 1659. His 
brotlier Henry, who had talent, bravery 
and mildness of temper, and who, from 
1(354, had governed Ireland in tranquillity, 
improved its trade, and won the affections 
of the people by his upright administra- 
tion, followed the example of Richard, 
and died in privacy in England. Richard 
lived in narrow circumstances, his projicr- 
ty being nearly exhausted in the expenses 
of his other's ftmeral. At tlie restoration, 
he went to the continent, and returned to 
England in 1680, and, assuming the name 
of Clark, passed the remainder of his days 
in tranquil seclusion, at Cheshunt, in Hert- 
fordshire. He died in 1712, at the age of 
86. His father^s corpse, by the command 
of Charles II, was dug up in 1661, hanged, 
and buried under the gallows. — For fur- 
ther information respecting the life of 
Cromwell, the reader may consult Claren- 
don and Hume, Ludlow's Memoirs, and 
those of Whitelocke and Noble ; also the 
accounts of him by Banks, Jeudy Dugour 
(Paris, 1795), and Villemain's Histoire de 
Cromwdl (Paiis, 1819, 2 vols.) ; besides 
these, the collections of Cromwell's let- 
ters and state papers, bv Carte, 1736, and 
Nichols, 1743, published at London. A de- 
scendant of the family, Oliver Cromwell, 
published Memoirs of the Protector Oliver 
Cromwell, and of his Sons, Richard and 
Heniy (London, 1820, 4to.). Su the fd- 
lowing article, 

Cromwell, Oliver, a gentleman re- 
cently deceased, was the great-grandson 
of Heniy Cromwell, son of the protector. 
He practised as a solicitor in Essex street 
(liondon] for several yean, and was clerk 
to St Tnomas's hospital He succeeded 
to the estate of Theobald's, which de- 
scended to him through the children of 



Richard Cromwell, eldest son of the pro- 
tector, and died at Cheshunt park, Hert- 
fordshire, Mfty 31, 1821, aged 79. He 
\^TOte the Mcmoiis of the Protector, Oli- 
ver Cromwell, and his Sons, Ricliard and 
Henry, illustrated by Original Letters and 
other Family Papers (London, 1820, 4to.). 
Cromwell, Thomas, earl of Essex, 
was the son of a blacksmith at Putney, in 
Surrey, and was bom about the year 1490. 
In his youth, he was employed as clerk to 
. the English factory at Antwerp. In 1510, 
he went to Rome, and, on his return to 
England, became the confidential servant 
of cardinal Wolsey. On his maker's dis- 
grace, in 1529, Cromwell defended him 
with great spirit, in the house of com- 
mons, of which he was then a member, 
and effectually opposed the articles of trea- 
son brought against Wolsey. After the 
cardinal's death, he was taken into the 
king's service, into which he entered with 
zea^ but with Uttle consideration or re- 
gard for others. He was knighted and 
made a privy counsellor, and, in 1534, be- 
came principal secretary of state and 
master of the rolls. In 1535, he was ap- 
pointed visitor-general of all the monas- 
teries in England, in order to suppress 
them. In this office, he acted with great 
severity and iniustice. His services were 
rewarded by the situation of lord keeper 
of the privy seal, and a seat in the house 
of peers, with the title of baron Cromwell 
of Okcham. On tlie abolition of the 
pope's supremacy, he was created king's 
vicar-general, and used all his influence 
to promote the reformation. He caused 
articles of religion to be published by the 
royal authority, acknowledging only three 
sacraments, and speaking doubtfully of 
purgatory. He was made chief justice 
Itinerant of tlie forests beyond Trent, 
knight of the garter, and ftnaliy, in 15^^ 
earl of Essex, and lord high chamberlain. 
He at length fell into disgrace with the 
king, for the interest he took in promoting 
his marriage with Anne of CJeves. Her 
])erson jiroved disagreeable to Henry, 
who fell in love with Catharine Howard, 
a lady allied to the principal CathoUt 
families ; and, in consequence of her in- 
fluence and the royal displeasure, Crom- 
well was arrested at the council table on 
a charge of treason, committed to the 
Tower, and condemned without a hearing 
He was beheaded on Tower-hill, July J^, 
1540, declaring that he died in the faith 
of the Cathohc church, from which he 
confessed he had been seduced. He 
bore his good fortune with moderation, 
was charitable to the poor, and willing to 



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51 



benefit the deseiriiig. The Protestants 
praiae him for his hidustir and solidity, aiid 
all the qualities which fitted him ibr the 
■aauagement of important affaire ; while 
the Papists dwell on his violence, ambition 
and injusiace. lie always^teftilly return- 
ed any fiivors he liad received while in an 
humble condition. He left a son, who was 
created lord Cromwell, which title remain- 
ed in the family for several generations. 

Cronion. (See JupUer.) 

C&O90S. (See Sattum.) 

CaoNSTADT, orBuRZENLAND (in Hun- 
garian, Brassau) ; a free royal city of Tran- 
sylvania, in the Land of the Saxons, 25 
leagues E. S. E. of Hermanstadt, 31 N. 
N. W. of Bucharest, with a citadel ; lat 
45°3G' 30" N. ; Ion. 25° 43' 47" E. It con- 
tains six Lutheran, one Roman Catholic, 
two Greek Catholic churches, one Luther- 
an gymnasium, one normal school ; 25,000 
inhabitants. Its commerce, chiefly with 
Walachia, is very brisk. 

Cro^stadt, or Kro.nschtat; a sea- 
port and fortress of Russia, in the govern- 
ment of St. Petersburg, situated on the 
south-eastern extremity of the island of 
Retusari, in the gulf of Finland, two miles 
from the const of Ingria, and eight irom 
that of Carelia, at the mouth of the Neva. 
It was founded by Peter I in 1710. Some 
of the streets are tolerably regular; but 
the houses are in genei-al built of wood, 
and there is scarcely any pavement. The 
principal public buildings are the imperial 
hospital n>r sailors, the civil hospital, the 
barracks, the English and German church- 
es, See, The population amounts to about 
40,000, of whom at least 10,000 are sail- 
ors. The harbor is very spacious, and 
consists of the three divisions of the mer- 
chants' harbor, the war harbor, and the 
man of war's mole. The war harbor is 
the principal station of the Russian fleet. 
JVdjoining it are the docks for building 
and careening ships of war. They can 
hold ten men of war, and are faced with 
stone and paved with granite: they are 
40 feet deep and 105 broad. The man 
of war's mole is an interesting structure, 
enclosed by a strong ramfiart of granite, 
built in the sea, under the direction of the 
late admiral Greig. Here is a foundery for 
casting cannon, and a rope walk for manu- 
facturing cables of all sizes, with "great 
magazines of naval stores. Cronstfl.lt is 
defended towards the sea by two fortifi- 
cations, called Cronschiot, on the Neva, 
where this river is 2000 paces wide, 
and towards the land by ramparts and 
bastions. About 11 GO vessels enter and 
leave the port annually. The princii>al 



exports from tliis harbor are iron, flax, 
hemp, linseed, oil and tar. 22 miles west 
St. Petereburg. Lon. 29° 49^ 30" E. ; lat. 
59° 59' 26'' N. 

Crosier ; a taD staff of silver or gold, 
curved at tlie upper end, which is car- 
ried before bishops, abbots and abbesses, 
as an ensign expressive of their dignit}', 
while they are exercising the functions of 
their office ; and the figure of which is 
also borne in their coat of arms. When 
bestowing the blessing upon the people, 
they take the staff into their own hands. 
It was ori^nally a shepherd's crook, the 
bishops being regarded as the pastors of 
their dioceses. By degrees the humble 
emblem became highly adorned, and was 
made of costly materials. Artists like 
Benvenuto Cellini and Giovanni da Bo- 
logna were employed to make it. The 
invfesdture of the bishop is indicated by 
the delivery of the crosier. Some say 
that die crosier was originally only a sim- 
ple staff, which, from the earliest times, has 
been given as an emblem of authority to 
judges, kings, &c. In conformity to this 
explanation, St. Isidore says that bishops 
bear the staff because they have the right 
to correct the enring, and the duty to su{>- 
port the weak. The excess of splendor 
lavished in later times upon tliis uistru- 
ment, gave occasion to the following sa- 
tirical Enes : 

Au temps paasi du ti^cU tPor, 
Cros$t <U boiSf evetqut (for : 
MairUenant changent Us loiXf 
Crosse (Por^ evesque de bois. 

Cross ; one straight body laid at any 
angle upon another; the ensign or em- 
blem of the Christian religion, as being a 
representation of the instrument of pun- 
ishment, on which /esus Christ suffered 
deaUi from the Jews ; the form in which 
many churches and cathedrals are built. 
The cross of the ancients was simply a 
piece of wood, fastened across a tree or 
upright post,' on which were executed 
criminals of the very worst class. After 
the crucifixion of Jesus, and tlie exten- 
sion of the Christian religion, the cross was 
assumed as the ensign of his followers. 
The cross was used emblematically be- 
fore the Christian era. Upon a multitude 
of medals and ancient monuments, ai-e to 
be found crosses placed in the hands of 
statues of Victory, and of figures of em- 
perors. It was also placed ui)on a globe, 
which, ever since the days of Augustus, 
has l)een tlie sign of the empire of the 
world and the image of victory. The 
shields, the cuirasses, the helmets, the im- 
perial cap, were all thus decorated. The 



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52 



CROSS. 



cross has also been often stamped upon 
tlie reverses of money, as is proved by 
the old English game of cross and pile. 
The coins struck at Constantinople, and 
those of the Franks from the time of 
Clovis, were also thus marked. ' Exam- 
ples of these are given in the dissertation 
l>y Ducange, Sur les MidaiUes Byzantrnts, 
and in the treatise by Le Blanc, Swr les 
Moimaies dt France, The cross is now 
the universal Christian emblem, being 
used upon the arms and banners of the 
soldier, the vestments of the priest, and 
in the armorial bearings of nobles. The 
foiTOS of cathedrals, and often the pat- 
terns of their pavements, are adapted to 
the representation of the cross, which is 
also sculptured and elevated upon tomlis 
juid sepulchres. Sculptured crosses of 
various descriptions, elevated upon hand- 
some pedestals, were formerly erected in 
cemeteries and market-places, ta designate 
peculiar events ; as the queen's crosses at 
JN'orthampton, Waltham, &c. Very fine 
ones are still to be seen in many parts of 
Great Britain, and particularly in Ireland. 
In order to understand the meaning of 
tlie sign of the cross among the first 
Christians, it must be kept in mind, that 
the cross was in their time an instrument 
of infamous punishment, Jike the gallows 
at present, and that they assumed this 
sign to show that they gloried in being 
the followers of Christ, notwithstanding 
the infamy which bad been attempted to 
be thrown upon him, by the manner of 
his execution. The custom of making 
the sign of the cross, in memory of Jesus, 
may be traced to the 3d century of our era. 
Constantine the Great had crosses erected 
in public places, m palaces and churches. 
This emperor is generally supposed to 
have been the firet who onlered the 
cross to be used as the sign or emblem 
under which he would fight and con- 
quer, irt' remembrance of the miraculous 
ap|)earance of a cross in the heavens. 
A certain legend relates that, before his 
battle with Maxentius, a cross appeared to 
him, bearing the wonis Tourv vikH (Under 
this thou slmlt conquer. In hoc signo vince8\ 
in consequence of which he had a stand- 
ard made bearing this image, and called 
labanim. It was customary, in his time, to 
paint a cross at the entrance of a house, 
to denote that it l)eIonged to a Christian. 
Subsequentiy, the churches were, for the 
greater part, built in die fonn of this in- 
strument. But it did not become an ob- 
ject of adoration, until the empress Hele- 
na (Constantine's mother) found a cross 
in Palestine, which was believed to be 



tlie one on whidi Christ suffered, and 
conveyed a .part of it to Constantinople. 
This 18 die origin of the festival of the 
finding of the cross^ which the Catholic 
church celebrates on the third of May. 
Standards and weafions were now orna- 
mented w^itii it, and the emperor Henic- 
lius thouffht he had recovered the palla- 
dium of his empire, when he gained pos- 
session of a piece of the tine cross, in G28, 
which had fallen into the hands of the Per- 
sians, in 616. In memory of this event, the 
festival of the exaltation of the cross waa 
instituted, Heraclius having caused the 
cross to be erected at Jerusalem, on mount 
Calvary. This festival is celebrated on 
the 14th of September. It is remarkable 
how this holy relic became multiplied. 
Numberless churches possessed some 
pans of it, the miraculous power of which 
was said to have been proved by tiie most 
astonishing facts ; and many persons ac- 
tually believed that it could be infinitely 
divided without decreasing. It was in 
vain that the Iconoclasts, w'ho condemned 
the wonship of images, attempted to over- 
throw the adoration of the cross. The 
crucifix was considered as a principal ob- 
ject of worship, in preference to the im- 
ages of the saints, and, in compliance with 
the teaching of John of Damascus, was 
adored, dunng the 7th century, in all the 
churches of the East That the West 
also ascribed a mysterious power to this 
symbol, is evident from the use which 
was made of it in the trials ** by the judg- 
ment of God," in the middle ages. There 
never has existed any sign, which has 
been so often repeated in works of art as 
the cross. This may be ascribed, in peit^ 
to its form being applicable to many more 
purposes than those of other emblems; 
sudi, for instance, as the crescent. The 
distinguishufig cipher of the Jesuits is 

I1(S, wlilch signifies In hoc cruet solus, or 

Jesi^y in Greek letters, and abbreviated. 
Crosses have been die badge of uuuiljer- 
less orders, military and civil. To make 
the sign of the cross, is tliought by many 
people, in Catholic countries, a defence 
against evil spirits, evil influences, &c. 
The Greeks make this sign constandy, 
hardly taking a glass of raJy without 
signfng the cross over it. Catholic bish- 
ops, archbishops, abbots and abbesses 
wear a small golden cross. The Catiiolic 
oenediction is generally performed by 
making die sign of the cross over the 
object. There are different kinds of 
crosses, as the common cross, f , St. An- 
drew's cross, X J &ۥ (See the article Ad- 



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CROSS— CROTCH. 



53 



oratioTL) Two sorts of crosses are used 
for the forms of churches, the Greek and 
tlie Latin. The Greek cross has its arms 
at right angles, aud all of equal Icngtli ; 
whereas the Latin cross has one of its 
limbs much longer tlian the other three. 
Bramante originally designed St. Peter's 
for a Latin cross ; Michael Angelo reduced 
it to the proportions of the Greek cross ; 
but Carlo Mademo again elongated it to 
the original dimensions of i3ramante. 
The cathedral of St PauFs, London, is a 
Latin cross, with its base spread by a sort 
of second transept, wliich increases the 
hreadth of the western front 

CrosSy in baptism. In tlie administra- 
tion of the ordmance of baptism, the 
practice of making tlie sign of the 
cross on the forehead of the pereon bap- 
tizedf was adopted at an early period, 
though not enjoined by any express 
command, or sanctioned by any known 
example in scripture. The ljo of the 
cross, indeed, war, very frequent in the 
primitive ages of Christianity. . Such was 
the respect paid to it, that it formed, 
iii one mode or anotlier, a distinguishing 
part of tlie civil and religious ceremonies 
of those times. The first Christian writer 
who mentions it in connexion with bap- 
tism, is Tertullian, who wrote after the 
middle of the 2*1 century. This writer 
says (De Cov, Mil. r. 2), that "at every 
setting out, or entry ui)on business, when- 
ever we come in or go out from any 
place, when we dress for a journey, when 
we go into a bath, when we go to meat, 
when tlie candles are brought in, when 
we lie down or sit dowir, and whatever 
business we have, we make on our fore- 
lieads the sign of the cross ;" and, speak- 
ing of baptism, in his treatise De Cam. 
Besur^ he says, " the flesh is signed that 
tiie soul may be fortified." 

CyosS'hearer (porie-croiXf cruciger)^ in 
the Roman Catholic church, the chaplain 
of an arehhisho]), or a primate, who bears 
a cross before him on solemn occasions. 
The pope has the cross home before him 
every where ; a patriarch any where out 
of Rome; and primates, metropolitans, 
and those who have a right to the pallium^ 
throughout their respective jurisdictions. 
Gregory XI forbade all patriarchs and 
prelates to have it borne in the presence 
of cardinals. A prelate bears a single 
cross, a patriarch a double cross, and the 
pope a triple one on his arms. 

Cross-bar Shot are shots with iron 
bars crossing through them, sometimes 
standing out 6 or 8 inches at both sides. 
They are used at sea for injuring die ene- 



my's ringing, and in sieges, for destroying 
the palisades in tlie covert-way, ditches, 
&c. 

Cross-Bow, or Arbalist ; formerly a 
^•ery common weapon for shooting, but not 
long used in war after the invention of 
fire-arms. It is a strong wooden or steel 
bow, fixed to a stock, stretched by the 
sjjanner, and shot off by die trigger fixed 
to the stock. All kinds of weapons, in 
which the bow was fastened to the stock, 
were called cross-bows, some of which 
were attached to carnages, and drawn by 
horses. There was a small kirrJ, from 
wliich were shot littie balls. To the 
larger sort were attached instruments for 
liending the bow. There are some socie- 
ties still existing in Gcnnany, who exer- 
cise with the cross-bow ; for instance, in 
Aix-la-Chapelle. (See Archery.) 

Cross Examiivation ; the examination 
of a witness called by one party, by the 
opposite party or his counsel. 

Cross Fire, in the art of war, is when 
the lines of fire, from two or more parts 
of a work, cross one another. It is 
frequendy made use of to prevent an 
enemy's passing through a defile. The 
ftanks, as well as the faces of two adjoin- 
ing liastions, aflTord the means of cross 
fire, as do also tlie feces of two adjoining 
redoubts. 

Crotch, William, in his infancy a mu- 
sical prodigy', was bom at Norwich, Eng., 
July 5, 1775. His fadier, a carpenter, had 
made a httie organ for his amusement, 
and, one evening, when a friend was play- 
ing on the instrument, and singing at tfie 
satne time, the child became so excited, 
that the parents were anxious to account 
for the cause : their surprise was extreme, 
when they remarked the delight with 
which the child touched the keys, when 
his mother carried him to the organ 
The following morning, his father placed 
liim at the instrument, when he repeated 
several passages irotn airs which he had 
Iieard performed. After this, the boy was 
permitted to play on the organ, when- 
ever he was inclined, lie learnt different 
airs with facility, and often intermixed 
passages of his owTi composition, which 
were always harmonious, as he had a 
natural aversion to discorcls. This prodi- 
gy of two years old was fi^quently called 
on to amuse the public by his extraordina- 
ry talent In November, 1778, his mother 
took him to Cambridge, and, in December, 
to London, where the boy excited universal 
astonishment by his performance on the 
organ. In 1779, he played before the 
court of St James with great applause, 



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54 



CROTCH— CROUP. 



his infantine, playful manner prepossess- 
ing every one in his favor. Whatever he had 
once heard he could repeat, and often with 
variations. In every other respect, Crotch 
was a perfect child, animated, petulant, 
Bometiiiiea obstinate, and of a weak frame. 
He now received regidar instruction, first 
at Canibridofe, then in the college of St 
Mar>% at Oxford. Here he was chosen 
organist, in his 18th year, and likewise 
studiod drawing and painting, in which 
he made rapid progress. Alter he liad 
l)een appointed doctor and professor in 
Oxfonl, he pix)ceeded to London, where 
he delivered lectures on music in the 
Royal and Surry institurion, and gave 
lessons on the piano during 20 years. He 
now lives at rulham, near London, and 
has not appeared in uubiic for several 
years. He is a well informed and modest 
man. His musical publications consist of 
arrangements of compositions for the pi- 
ano-fbrUJ from the first masters, and an in- 
teresting collection of characteristic pieces 
for tlj€ ttii!erent musical styles of conipo- 
sitiofi, entitled Specimens of various Styles 
of Music (3 vols., folio). Only one work 
of his Ui-^ created a sensation amongst the 
music*! connoisseurs in England — his ora- 
torio called Palestine, It is evident that 
Crotch has more capacity for acquiring 
than inventing. 

Crotona, also Croto, in ancient ge- 
ography; a Greek republic in Magna 
Gnccia, or South Italy. Ijivy gives tlie 
circumference of tlie city of Crotona at 
12,000 paces. This city was famous for 
pix)ducing the strongest aUdeta, Milo, 
e. g., was bom here. Under the Ro- 
mans, Crotona was infamous for luxury 
and dissoluteness. The ruins of this 
place are still to be seen above Capo della 
Colonna. 

Croton Oil is expressed from the 
seeds of an East Indian plant, the croton 
tigliuni, and is one of the most valuable 
ot the late additions to the materia medi- 
ca. It is so strongly purgative, that one 
drop is a full dose, and half a drop will 
sometimes produce a powerful effect It 
is also found to produce the same effect 
when rubbed upon the tongue, or even 
upon the skin. It is so active, tiiat it 
should never be used but under the direc- 
tion of an experienced physician. In the 
hands of such, it is of groat value, as its 
small bulk and insipid taste render it ser- 
viceable in cases m which no common 
medicine can be used, and its groat power 
makes it operate when other medicines 
fail. It has been given to the extent of 
8 or 10 drops, in a bad case of Hens, which 



it cured, without producing any bad symp- 
toms. It should, however, be used with 
great caution. 

Croup; a disease that mostly attacks 
infants, who are suddenly seized with a 
difficulty of breathing and a crouping 
noise ; it is an inflammation of the mu- 
cous membrane of the windpipe, induc- 
ing the secretion of a very tenacious, 
coagulable lymph, which lines the air 
passages and impedes respiration. Tho 
croup does not ai)pcar to be contagious, 
whatever some physicians may think to 
tiic contrary; but it sometimes pre\'ails 
epidemically. It seems, however, pecu- 
har to some families ; and a child, having 
once been attacked, is very liable to a 
return. It is confined to young children, 
and has never been known to attack a 
person arrived at the age of puberty. The 
application of cold seems to be the gen- 
eral cause which produces this disonler, 
and therefore it occurs more frequently in 
the winter and spring than in the otlier 
seasons. It has been said, tliat it is most 
prevalent near the sea-coast; but it is 
frequently met with in inland situations, 
ancl particularly those which are marshy. 
Some days preWous to an attack of the 
disease, the child appears drowsy, inac- 
tive and fretful; the eyes are somewhat 
suffused and heavy ; and there is a cough, 
which, from the first, has a pecuharly 
shrill sound ; this, in the course of two 
days, becomes more violent and trouble- 
some, and likewise more shrill. Every 
fit of coughing agitates the patient veiy 
much; tlie face is flushed and swelled, 
the eyes are protuberant, a general tremor 
takes place, and there is a kind of convul- 
sive endeavor to renew respiration at the 
close of each fit As tlie disease ad- 
vances, a constant difliculty of breathing 
prevails, and the head is thrown back in 
the agony of attemptmg to escape suffo- 
cadon. There is not only an unusual 
sound produced by the cough (something 
between the yelping and barking of a dog\ 
but respiration is performed wii£ a hissing 
noise, as if the windpipe was closed up 
by some slight, spongy substance. The 
cough is generally dry ; but if any thing 
is spit up, it has either a purulent appear- 
ance, or seems to consist of films resem- 
bling portions of a membrane. Where 
great nausea and frequent retchings pre- 
vail, coagulated matter of the same nature 
is brought up. With these symptoms, 
there is much thirst, and an uneasy sense 
of heat over the whole body, a continual 
inclination to change from place to place, 
great restlessness, and frequency of the 



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CROUP— CROW. 



pulse. In an advanced stage of the dis- 
ease, respiration becomes more striduious, 
and is performed with still greater diffi- 
culty, being repeated at longer periods, 
and with greater exertions, until, at last, it 
ceases entirely; The croup frequently 
proves fatal by suffocation, induced eitlier 
by spasm aftectuig the glottis, or by a 
quantity of matter blocking up the air pas- 
sages ; but when it terminates in health, 
it is by a resoli^tion of the inflammation, 
by a ceasing of tlie spasms, and by a free 
expectoration of tlie matter exuding from 
tiie trachea, or of the crusts formed there. 
The disease has, in a few instances, ter- 
minated fatally within ^ hours after its 
attack ; but it more usually happens, that 
where it proves fatal, it nins on to the 
4th or 5th day. Where considerable por- 
tions of the membranous films, formed on 
the surface of the trachea, are thrown up, 
life is sometimes protracted for a day or 
two longer than would otherwise nave 
happened. Dissections of children, who 
have died of the croup, have mostly shown 
a preternatural membrane, lining the whole 
internal surface of the upper part of the 
trachea, which may always be easily sep- 
arated from the proper membrane. There 
is likewise usually found a good deal of 
mucus, with a mixture of pus, in the wind- 
pipe and its ramifications. The treat- 
ment of this disease must be conducted on 
the strictly .antiphlogistic plan. It will 
commonly be proper, where the patient is 
not veiy young, to begin by taking blood 
finom the arm or the jugular vein ; several 
leeches should be appued along the fore 
part of the neck. It will then be right to 
give a nauseating emetic, ipecacuanha 
with tartarized antimony, or with squill, in 
divided doses ; this may be foUowed up 
by cathartics, diaphoretics, di^talis, &c. 
I^ge blisters ou^t to be applied near the 
affected part, and a discharge kept up by 
savin cerate, or other stimulant dressing. 
Mercury, carried speedily to salivation, 
has in several instances arrested the prog- 
ress of the disease, when it appeared pro- 
ceeding to a &ta] termmation. As the 
inflammation is declining, it is very im- 
portant that free expiectoration should take 
place. This may be promoted by nauseat- 
ing medicines, by inhaling steam, and by 
stimulating gargles, for which tiie decoc- 
tion of seneka is particularly recommend- 
ed. Where there is much wheezing, an 
occasional emetic may relieve the patient 
considerably, and, under symptoms of 
threatening suffocation, the operation of 
bronchotomy has sometimes saved life. 
Should fits of spasmodic difficulty of 



breathing occur in the latter periods of 
the disease, opium, joined with diapho- 
retics, would be most likely to do sood. 
Napoleon, on die occasion of the death 
of his nephew, the prince of Holland, of 
this disease, offered a premium of 12,000 
frames for tlie best treatise on the croup. 
Of 8^3 essays, which were presented to the 
committee of 12 members assembled for 
the examination at Paris, in 1811, two 
were acknowledged as the best, one by 
lurine, in Geneva, and die other by Aibers, 
of Bremen, between whom the prize was 
divided. 

Crousaz, John Peter de, a celebrated 
mathematician and philosopher, was bom 
at Lausanne, in 1660. He early distm- 
guished himself by his progress in mathe- 
matics and philosophy, under able pro- 
fessors at Geneva and Lausanne, apply- 
ing himself particularly to the writings of 
Descartes. In 1682, be went to the uni- 
versity of Leyden, and thence proceeded 
to Paris, where he became acquainted 
with the celebrated fiither Malebianche, 
who, with other celebrated men, vainly 
endeavored to convert him to the Catholic 
religion. On returning to his native coun- 
try, he was ordained minister, appointed 
honorary professor, and remained pastor 
of the church at Lausanne. In 1699, he 
was made professor of Greek and of phi- 
losophy in the academy of Lausanne, ap- 
pointed rector in 1706, and again in 171221 
In 1724, he was chosen mathematical and 
philosophical professor at the university at 
Groningen. In 1732, he was nominated 
counsellor of embassies to the king of 
Sweden, and, in 1737, elected pro&sor 
of philosophy and mathematics at Lau- 
sanne. His works are distinguished for 
learnings liberality and acuteness. The 
principal are, A S3rstem of Reflections that 
may contribute to the Illustration and fix- 
tension of Knowledge, or a new Essay on 
Logic (in 6 vols., l2mo., 1741]; Summa 
Logica (1724) ; a Treatise on Education ; 
Examen du Piprrhonisme ancien d nuh- 
dtme; G69mHne de» lAgnes d du Surfaces 
redUignes d circvlaires ; Examen de PEs- 
sai de M, Pope ; Commentaire sur la Tra- 
dudion de VEssai de M, Pope^deVAhbi du 
Resnd; TraiU du Beau; a Treatise on 
the Human Understanding. 

Crow (corvus, L.) ; a genus of buds 
remarkable for their gregarious and preda- 
tory habits, distinguish^ by the following 
characters: The bill is stnight, convex 
and compressed, being covered at its base 
by incumbent, bristly feathers ; the upper 
mandible is curved at tip, the lower is a 
littie shorter, carinated on both sides, and 



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56 



CROW. 



sljghtly ascending at the extremity ; the 
nostrils are placed on tlic base of the bill, 
and are patulous, though covered by the 
incumbent feathers; tlie tongue is short, 
cartilaginous, acute and bifid at tip ; the 
tarsus scarcely exceeds the middle toe in 
length ; the toes are separated almost to 
the base, andthe middle one is the lonsest ; 
the nails are moderate, pointed, hollow 
beneath, and sharp-edged, the hind one 
being generally longest; the wings are 
subeTongated, acute, the first primary short, 
third or fourdi longest ; the tail consists of 
twelve featliers. Four sjjecies of this 
genus, as at present restricted, are found 
in North America — ^the raven { C. corax); 
the crow (C. coron£\; fish-crow (C ossi- 
Jragus); and Clark^s crow (C cdufrMa- 
nus). These and other members of the 
genus are very extensively spread oyer 
uie globe, and areahnost equally distin- 
guished for their remarkable sagacity, and 
uie amount of mischief which they occa- 
sion where they are very numerous. The 
raven is by no means common in the Mid- 
dle Stales of the Union, but is found in 
con^derable numbers, in the vicinity of 
the northern lakes, and the interior of the 
Union. This is the largest species of its 
tribe, very little inferior in size to a com- 
mon cock, being 26 inches in length, and 
more than 3 feet Irom the tip of one wing 
to Uiat of the other. The plumage is of a 
very glossy black, with some reflections 
of bluish purple on the back. The female 
is leas purely black than the male, and a 
litde smaller. The raven, when on the 
ground, marches at a grave and stately 
pace : his iavorite haunts are the vast soli- 
tudes of rocks and forests, whence he sel- 
dom emerges except called by hunger, 
and tlien never in large fiock8,«like the 
crows. The ordinaty food of the raven, 
and that which he prefers, is putrefying 
animal matter, which this bird discovers, 
by the acuteness of his sense of smelling, 
at great distances, and flies to the feast 
witn unerring precision. When carrion 
is not attainable, the raven feeds on various 
fruits, insects, dead fish, &c. Jud^ng by 
the habits of the crow and other kindred 
species, there is no question but the m- 
ven, when pressed by hunger, will kill 
small birds or other animals coming with- 
in its reach. They have been known to 
pluck the eyes out of the heads of lamlis 
and sick animals unable to drive them 
away. Birds so voracious and destruc- 
tive cannot be regarded otlierwise than 
injurious in a poor country, though in a 
rich one, their services, as scavengers and 
destroyers of the larves of noxious uisects, 



might more than counterbalance their 
mischief.* Like most of their tribe, ra- 
vens have a considerable talent for imi- 
tating sounds, and may be taught to pro- 
nounce words with remarkable distinct- 
ness. When domesticated, they become 
very bold and impudent, fearless of dogs 
or cats, and fighting fiercely with them 
when provoked : sometimes, indeed, their 
insolence renders them dangerous inmates, ' 
as they will wound children, and even 
grown persons, with their powerful bill. 
They also participate in the disposition 
common to most of then: fraternity, to 
steal and hide pieces of money, plate, and 
other shining objects, which cannot be of 
the slightest use to the purloiner. The 
raven is a model of conjugal fidelity, hav- 
ing but one female, to whom he remains 
attached, most probably, for life. Obser- 
vations were made on one pair by lord 
Ross, during 30 years, and there can be 
but littie doubt, that the union was only 
interrupted by deatli. Their nests are 
commonly placed in chinks of rocks, lofty 
old walls, or the tops of tall, insulated 
trees, and are made extemally of roots 
and branches of shrubs; a second layer is 
then formed of animal bones, or other hard 
materials, and this is covered with a bed 
of sofl grass or moss. About the month 
of Mareh, the female lays 5 or 6 pale- 
green and bluish eggs, speckled with very 
numerous spots and touches of a darker 
color. The incubation continues for 20 
days, and both parents |)articipate in it. 
The male also defends the nest courage- 
ously against the approach of hawks and 
other birds of prey, and provides for the 
subsistence of his companion. The young 
remain with the parents throughout the 
summer succeeding their hatching, and, 
when able to provide for themselves, are 
sent off to establish new colonies else- 
where. The flight of the raven is veiy 
lofly, and its power of wing great, so that 
it is able to pass over immense spaces in a 
short time. — Few birds are more numerous 
and annoying to the farmers of the Atlan- 
tic States than the coinmon crow (C co- 
rfme\ which, throughout a considerable 
part of the year, collects in astonishingly 
large flocks, and makes destructive descents 
upon newly-planted maize and other giuin. 
In tliis species, it seems as if all the evil 
propensities of the race were united and 
augmented. Exceedingly cunning in de- 

* In EnglaJid. ihe rook tC. fn/giJegvs) ifl not 
allowdl lo DC killed, and a lai^e rookery is con- 
sidered a valuable appendage to an estate. The 
young are obtained Irom the nest, and considered 
very fine for the table. 



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CROW. 



57 



tecting every contriyance intended for their 
destruction/they are rarely destroyed to any 
great extent, except in seasons of excessive 
and long-protracted cold weather. Then 
(as during the winter of 1828 — 9) vast num- 
bers {)erish from starvation, since, t>ie earth, 
brooks, rivers and bays being completely 
locked up, all their sources of supply are 
cut off. At such times, their hunger is so 
digressing as to force them to the most 
extraordinary exertions, and they devour 
sulwta^ices, which nothing but excessive 
hunger could induce any animal to swal- 
low. During the hard winter alluded 
to, immense flocks were olwerved passing 
from tlie direction of the famous roosting 
place in the vicinity of Bristol, Pa. (partic- 
ularly noted by Wilson), towards the 
shores of the sea and bay, and returning 
regularly in the afternoon.. Thousands 
upon tliousands, for several hours, moved 
heavily along in a broad, irregular line; 
and, from the numbers found dead in the 
fields, it is most probable that, during the 
severest weather, but little benefit resulted 
from their long diurnal pilgrimage. The 
common crow is voracious at all times, 
and nearly, if not quite, as omnivorous as 
the brown rat Grain of all sorts, but 
especially IncHan corn, insects, carrion, 
eggs, fish, young birds, the young of vari- 
ous domestic fowls, and even young pigs, 
are sought for eagerly, and devoured with 
avidity. This species, from the peculiar 
excellence of its sight, smell and hearing, 
by which it is very early warned of ap- 
proaching danger, is very audacious, fre- 
quently coming close to the fiurn-houses 
in search of prey, and persevering in ef- 
forts to rob the hens of their chickens, 
until successful. The writer has wit- 
nessed several times, in the state of Ma- 
n-land, where crows are far too abun- 
dant, the pertinacity of one of these rob- 
bers in attempting to seize a young chick- 
en, notwithstanding the fierce defence 
made by the hen. His approaches ap- 
peared to have in view the withdrawal of 
the hen to a little distance from the brood ; 
then, taking advantage of his wings, he 
would fly suddenly over her, and seize the 
chick. The same attempts were fre- 
quenrfy made upon the goose, with a view 
to seize her goslins, but the vigilant gan- 
der, though sorely fatigued by his strug- 
gles, never failed to defeat a single crow : 
it was otherwise, however, when two or 
more united for the purpose of feasting on 
the young. It is not an uncommon thing 
for formers to be under the necessity of 
replanting corn several times in the spring, 
and, when it is just rising above the ground, 



to be obliged to keep several persons con- 
tinually on guard in the fields. When the 
com has shot up an inch or two above the 
surface, a host of these black-coatedAplun- 
derers invade the fields, and, having posted 
sentinels in several commanding sitna* 
tions, march regukirly along tlie cornr 
rows, drawing up the grain, pulling skil- 
fully by the shoot, and then swallowing 
the germinating com. Among the most 
successful experiments made to prevent 
the crows firom doing this mischiei is that 
of coating the seed corn with a mixture 
of tar, oil, and a small quantity of slacked 
lime, in powder. The ingredients being 
mixed in a tub, the seed com is stirred in 
it until each grain receives a thorough 
coating of the mixture. This preparation, 
as it necessarily keeps the grain fiiom 
being readily affected by moisture, is found 
to retard the germination about three days. 
In tlie instance we witnessed of the trial 
of this preventive, it was fully successful ; 
for, although the field was dally visited bv 
hosts of crows, they were content with 
pulling up enough com, in various places, 
to be satisfied that it was, throughout, 
equally unpalatable. During their breed- 
ing season, which is in the spring months, 
the flocks spread over a great extent of 
country, and buikl their nests of small 
sticks, lined with grass, in lofly trees, 
choosing the most remote and difficult of 
approach. The young, generally, are two 
in number, and, until fully fledged, are 
most solicitously protected by their pa- 
rents. When the young crows first begin 
to receive lessons in flying, nothing is 
more remarkable and anecting than the 
efforts made to preserve them, by the 
parents, when a gunner approaches the 
vicinity. Every artifice is employed to 
caU attention away from the young, which 
seem to comprehend the directions or calls 
of their parents, and remain perfectly 
silent and motionless. In the mean while, 
the father and mother fly towards the 
gunner, taking care not to remain an in- 
stant in one place, and, by the must vo- 
ciferous outcries, deprecate his cruelty. 
These efforts being continued, their vol- 
untary exposure, and the eagerness with 
which they fly about a particular spot, are 
almost always successfiil in withdrawing 
the spoilsman from the place where the 
young actually are. As soon as they have 
succeeded in leading him to a sufficient 
distance, they cease their accents of dis- 
tress, fly a httle farther from their young, 
and from a lofly perch, which enables 
them to watch all around, utter an occa- 
sional ciy, which one may readily im- 



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58 



CROW— CROWN. 



a^ne to be intended for tlie direction and 
encouragement of their offspring. The 
most successful mode of destroying crows, 
la that of invading them in their extensive 
donnitories during the night When tliey 
liave selected a pine thicket, or other dense 
piece of wood, for a roosting place, they 
repau: tliither with great regularity. Every 
evening, vast flocks come sailing to the 
retreat, and the trees are literally covered 
and bowed down. When the state of 
Maryland received crow scalps in pay- 
ment of taxes, at tliree cents each, parties 
were frequently made to attack the crow 
roosts. Gunners were stationed at various 
parts, surrounding the roosts, and all tliose 
of one division fired at once ; the slaughter 
was necessarily dreadful, and those re- 
maining unhurt, bewildered by the dark- 
ness, the flashing and report of the guns, 
and the distressing cries of their compan- 
ions, flew but to a little distance, and set- 
tled near another portv of gunners. As 
soon as they were fairly at rest, the same 
tragedy was reacted and repeated, until 
the approach of day or the fatigue of 
their destroyers caused a cessation. The 
wounded were then despatched bv knock- 
ing them on the head or wringing their 
necks, and the bill, with so much of the 
skull as passed for a scalp, was cut off 
and strung for the payment of tlie tax- 
gatherer. The poor people, who had no 
taxes to pay, disposed of tlieir crow scalps 
to the store-keqters, who purchased them 
at rather a lower rate. This premium has 
long been discontinued, and the number 
of mese marauders is, in many parts of 
that state, quite large enough to require its 
reCstablishinent 

Crown. In the early ages, when men 
were fond of expressing all their feelings 
by outward signs, a wreath of flowers or 
leaves was naturally one of the first em- 
blems of honor or of joy. Such was the 
ornament of the priest in tlie performance 
of sacriifice, of die hero on his return from 
victory, of the bride at her nuptials, and 
of the guests at a feast The ancient my- 
thology, which gave every thing a distinct 
lieginning and a poetical ori^i, ascribes 
the invention of wreaths to Prometheus, 
who imitated, with flowers, the fetters 
which he had borne for his love to man- 
kind, whom he had created. According 
to Pliny, wreatlis were first made of ivj', 
and Bacchus first wore tliem. In {irocess 
of time, they were made of very different 
materials. Those worn by the Greeks at 
feasts in honor of a divinity, were made 
of the flowers of the plant consecrated to 
the god. Wreaths of roses aAcrwards 



became very common. In some cases, 
wreaths were even made , of wool. 
Wreaths of ivy and ametliyst were worn, 
by tlie Greek^, on the head, neck and 
breast, at entertainments, with a view to 
prevent drunkenness. Mnesitheus and 
CaUimachus, two Greek physicians, wrote 
entire txK)ks on wreaths, and their medi- 
cal virtues. Corpses were covered with 
wiieaths and green branches. Lovers 
adorned vnth Wreaths and flowers the 
doors of their mistresses, and even cap- 
tives, who were to be sold as slaves, wore 
wreaths ; hence the phrase 9vb corona. ve^ 
ntre or wndere. The beasts sacrificed to 
the gods were also crowned. Wreaths, 
in process of time, were made of metal, in 
imitation of flowers, or of the fillet wliicli 
the priest wore round his head when he 
sacrificed, which was called itdirifta. This 
attribute of distinction was early adopted 
by the kings, when they united in Uieir 
persons the temporal and spiritual power. 
Among the various crowns and WTcaths 
in use among the Greeks and Romans, 
were the following : 

Corona agonoV^tarum ; the reward of 
the victor in the great gymnastic games. 

Corona aurea (the eolden crown) ; the 
reward of remarkable bravery. 

Corona castrensis ; given to him who 
first entered the camp of the enemy. 

Corona civica (see Civic Crovm) ; one of 
the highest military rewards. It was given 
to him who had saved the life of a citizen. 

Corona convivalis ; the wreath worn at 



Corona muralis; given by the general 
to the soldier who fij^ scaled the enemy's 
wall. 

Corona natalUia ; a wreath which pa- 
rents hung up before the door at tlie birtii 
of a child. It was made of olive-branches 
if the child was a boy, and of wool if a 
giri. 

Corona navalis, the next in rank aflcr 
the civic crown, was given to hmi who 
first boarded and took an enemy's vessel. 

Corona nuptialis ; a crown or wreath 
woni by brides. The bridegroom, also, 
and his relations, on tlie day of tlie wed- 
ding, adorned themselves with wreaths. 
At first, the corona nuptialis was of flow- 
ers ; aflerwards, of gold or silver and pre- 
cious stones. 

Corona ohsidioTudis ; a reward given to 
him who delivered a besieged town, or a 
blockaded army. It was one of the high- 
est military honors, and very seldom ob- 
tained. It was made of grass; if possible, 
of such as grew on the (felivered place. 

Corona irivanphalia ; a wreath of laurel 



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CROWN— CROWN OFFICE. 



59 



which was givcD, by the army, to the im- 
perator. He wore it on his head at the 
celebration of his triumph. Another 
crown of gold, the material of which 
(coronarium aunan) was furnished by the 
conquered cities, was carried over the 
head of the general. The wreaths, con- 
ferred at the great games ©f Greece, were 
of difibrent kinds ; at tlie Olympic games, 
of wild olive ; at tlie Pythian games, of 
fauirel ; at the Nemean games, fust of 
oiive, dien of parsley ; at the Isthmian 
games, a wreath of pine leaves, afterwards 
of parsley ; '^subsequendy pine leaves were 
resumed. 

In the middle a^es, crowns became ex- 
ehisively appropriated to tlie roval and 
impeiial dienity ; the coronets of nobles 
were only borne in their coats of arms. 
(See Corimet, also 7\arcu) From tlie Jew- 
ish king being called, in the Scriptures, the 
amnaUd of the Lord^ a kind of religious 
mystery and awe became attached to 
crowned heads, which, in most countries 
continues to the present day, though his- 
tory has shown us abundantly that crowns 
often cover the heads of very weak or veiy 
wicked individuals, and tliat there is no 
great mystery about their origin ; some 
having been obtained by purchase, some 
by cnme, some by grants from a more 
powerfid prince, some by contract, some 
by choice, but, on the whole, compara- 
tively few in an honest way. The iron 
crown of Loraberdy, preserved at Monza, 
in the territory of Milan, is a ^Iden crown 
set with precious stones, with which in 
former times the Lombarrl kings vrere 
crowned, and, at a later period, the Ro- 
man-German emperors, when they wished 
to manifest their claims as kings of Lorn- 
bardy. An iron circle, made, according to 
the legend, out of a nail of Christ's cross, 
which is fixed inside, gave rise to the 
namp. Agilulf, king of Lombardy, was 
the first person crowned vnth it (in 590V 
Charlemagne was crowned with it in 774. 
Napoleon put it on his head in 1805, and 
established the order of the iron crown. 
In 1815, when Austria estabhshed the 
Lombardo- Venetian kingdom, the empe- 
ror admitted the order of the iron crown 
among those of the Austrian empire. — 
Gmon is used, figuratively, for the royal 
power, in contradistinction either to the 
pi^rson of tiie monareh, or to the bodv of 
the nation, with its representatives, mte- 
rests, &C. Thus, in modem times, the 
word crowa is used, on the European con- 
tinent, to express the rights and preroga- 
tives of the monarch considered as a part of 
the state, which includes all powers — ^the 



legislative, judicial, &c. Thus the crown 
domains are distinguished frona the state 
or national domains. In France, a diiTer- 
ence is even made between the crown do- 
mains and the private domains of the 
king; the former are inalienable, and be- 
long to the reigning. monarch, whilst the 
second may be treated like any othvr pri- 
vate property. The distinction between 
crown and state, of course, does not exist in 
perfectly arbitrary governments. — CVoion- 
ofBjcera are certain officers at the courts of 
European sovereigns. Formerly, when 
the different branches of government were 
not accurately defined, they were oflen, or 
generally, also state officers, as in the old 
German empire, and still in Hungaiy. 
The offices were generallv hereditary ; but, 
of late vears, they are almost exclusively 
attached to the court, the title, in a few 
cases, being connected with military digni- 
ties, as, for instance, in France, where civil 
and military grand oflScers of the crown 
have always existed. (See Ihgnitarits,) 

Croum, in commerce ; a common name 
for coins of several nations, which are 
about the value of a dollar. (See Gnnt, 
Table of.) 

CrowTij in an ecclesiastical sense, is used 
for the tonsure, the shaven spot on the 
head of the Roman Catholic priests, where 
they received the ointment of consecra- 
tion. (See Tonsure,) 

Croww Glass, the best kind of win- 
dow-giass^ the hardest and most colorless, 
is made almost entirely of sand and al- 
kali and a litde lime, without lead or 
any metallic oxide, except a ver^ small 
quantity of manganese, and sometimes of 
cobalt Crovm glass is used, in connex- 
ion with flint glass, for dioptric instru- 
ments, in order to destroy the disagreeable 
effect of the aberration of colors. Bodi 
kinds of glass are now made, in the high- 
est perfection, in Benedictbeum (q. v.)^ 
where Reichenbach's fiunous manumctory 
of optical instruments is atuated. 

Crown OrncE. The court of king's 
bench is divided into the plea side and the 
croum side. In the plea side, it takes cog- 
nizance of civil causes ; in tlie crown side, 
it takes cognizance of criminal causes, 
and is thereupon called the croum of- 
fice. In the crown office are exhibited 
informations in the name of the king, 
of which there are two kinds : 1. those 
which are tndy the king's own suits, 
and filed, ex officio, by his own inunediate 
officer, the attorney-general ; 2. those in 
which, though the king is the nominal 
prosecutor, yet some private . person, as a 
common informer, is the real one : these 



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60 



CROWN OFFICE-CRUSADES. 



are filed by the king's coroner and attorney, 
usually called master of the crown office, 

Caowrf Point ; a post-town in Essex 
county, New York, on lake Champlain 3 
12 rniles N. Ticondero^, 96 N. Albany ; 
population, in 1820, 1522 ; lat 44° 3^ N. ; 
Ion. 72° 29' W. This town received its 
name from a noted fortress, much cele- 
brated in the history of the American 
l?irars. The fortress, which is now in ru- 
ins, is situated in the north-east part of the 
township, on a point of land projecting 
some distance into the lake, elevated 47 
feet above the surface, and 15 miles north 
of fort Ticonderoga. It was an exten- 
sive and regular K>rtification, about X500 
yards square, surrounded by a deep and 
broad ditch, cut in rock, with immense 
labor. The walls were of wood and earth, 
22 feet thick and 16 high, and are only 
partially decayed. 

Crozat, Joseph Antony, marquis du 
Chd.tel, born in 1696, at Toulouse, a great 
lover and coUector of works of art, in- 
herited a large fortune from his fatlicr 
(who was a financier during the last years 
of the reign of Louis XI VjL^ was counsel- 
lor of the parliament of Toulouse, and 
subsequently reader to the king. The 
whole of his life was dedicated to the 
works of art which he had collected, and 
to the artists who wished to profit by 
them. The sketches in his collection ex- 
ceeded 19,000, and he had expended above' 
450,000 livres in this particular branch. 
During the 60 years which he employed 
in collecting, no cabinet was sold in any 
part of Europe, of which some part was not 
purchased by him. Crozat went to Italy, 
in 1714, for the purpose of increasing his 
collection. Corn. Vermeulen came yearly 
fh)m Antwerp to Paris, to bring him the 
works of the artists of the Netherlands. He 
was also presented with several valuable 
collections. His cabinet of antiques and 
sculpture, particularly of gems, was equal- 
ly valuable, and contained about 1400 
pieces. This treasure became more fii- 
mous from the description which Mariette 
ffave of it, when in the possession of the 
duke of Orleans, in 1742. It is at pres- 
ent at St. Petersburg. On Crozat's death 
(1740), his collection came into the pos- 
session of his brother, the marquis du 
Chatel. Mariette^ Descriptkni somnudre 
des Collections de M. Crozatj avec des Ri- 
fiexions svr la Manikre, de Dessiner des 
prineipaux Maitres (Paris, 1741), is the 
only account we now have of this great 
museum* 

Cruisers, in naval affairs ; vessels, as 
the name imports, employed on a cruise. 



The name is commonly given to ouall 
men of war, made use of to secure iner- 
chant ships and vessels from the enemy's 
small frigates and privateers. They are 
generally formed for fast sailing, and well 
manned. 

Crusades are the wars which were 
carried on by the Christian nations of the 
West, from ibe end of the 11th to the end 
of the 13th century, for the conquest of 
Palestine. They were called crusades be- 
cause all the warriors who followed the 
holy banner (crusaders\ wore the sign of 
the cross. The Christian and Moham- 
medan nations had been, during a long 
period, in a state of war, not only in Asia, 
but also in Europe, where the Moons 
Mohammedans by religion, had taken 
possession of part of the Spanish penin- 
sula. The nations of the West were 
grieved that the Holy Land, where Jesus 
had lived, taught, and died for mankind, 
w^here pious pilgrims resorted to pour out 
their sorrows, and ask for aid from above, at 
the tomb of their Savior, should be in Uie 
power of unbelievers. The pilgrims, on 
their return, related the dangers diey had 
encountered. The caliph Hakem was 
particularly described as a second Nero. 
Being the son of a Christian woman, he 
shed the blood of Christians without mer- 
cy, to prevent the suspicion of his being 
secretly attached to tliat religion. These 
representations kindled the religious zeal 
of^ Christian Europe into a flame, and 
a general ardor was awnakened to de- 
liver the sepulchre of Christ f^om the 
hands of the infidels. In order to undei"- 
stand this general excitement, we must 
remember toat, at this period, the conf 11- 
sion and desolation, which hsid followed 
the imipdon of the barbarians into the 
south and west of Europe, had ceased, and 
the dawn of civilization and intellectual 
cultivation had commenced. In this men- 
tal twilight, men were just in a state to 
receive a strong religious excitement, 
^he idea of the Virpn, too, harmonized 
well with the Teutonic reverence for tlie 
female sex ; and to fight in her cause was 
gratifying to the spirit of chivalry. The 
undisciplined minds of men were bent 
upon adventure, and their imaginations 
were easily roused by the reports of the 
riches of the East The joys of paradise 
were the sure reward of all who fell in 
the holy cause. Thus a crowd of the 
strongest feehngs, chivalrous devotion to 
the female sex, the hope of adventure, 
of wealth, of honor and of heaven, 
stirred up the spirit of Europe, and im- 
peUed her sons into the East (See Qkiv- 



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CRUSADES. 



61 



abyJ) The pope coosidered the invanon 
of Asia as the means of promoting Chris- 
tianity amongst the infideis, and of win- 
ning whole nations to the bosom of the 
church ; monarchs expected victory and 
increase of dominion ; the peasant, who, 
in the greater part of JSurope, was strug- 
^ng with wretchedness in the degrading 
condition of bondage, was ready to foUow 
to a country which was pictured as a par- 
adise. ^ The East has always had a poeti- 
cal charm for the people of the West, 
which has by no means ceased in our 
time. The crusades, and the ardor with 
which whole nations engaged in them, 
must be attributed to the above causes. 
Peter of Amiens, or Peter the Hermit, was 
the immediate cause of the first crusade. 
In 1093, he had joined other pilgrims on 
a journey to Jerusalem. On his return, 
he gave pope Urban II a description of 
the unhappy situation of Christians in the 
East, and presented a petition from the 
patriarch of Jerusalem, in which he anx- 
iously entreatecf the assistance of the 
Western Christians for their suffering 
brethren. The pope disclosed to the 
council which was held at Piacenaui, in 
1095, in the -open air, on account of the 
number of people assembled, the message 
which Christ harl sent, through Peter the 
Hermit, caused the ambassadors of the 
Greek emperor Alexius to describe the 
condition of Christianity in the East, and 
induced many to promise their assistance 
for the relief of their oppressed brethren. 
The sensation which he produced at the 
council assembled at Clermont, in 1096, 
where ambassadors from all nations were 
present, was still greater ; he inspired the 
whole assembly so completely in favor 
of his plan, that they unanimously ex- 
claimed, afler he had described the mis- 
erable condition of the Oriental Christians, 
and called upon the West for aid, Deus 
vuU (It is God's will) ! In the same year, 
numberless annies went forth in different 
divisions. This is considered the first 
crusade. Many of these armies, being 
ignorant of military discipline, and unpro- 
vided with the necessaries for such an ex- 
pedition, were completely destroyed in 
the different countries through which tliey 
bad to pass before reaching Constantino- 
ple, which had been chosen for tlieir 
place of meeting. A superficial knowl- 
edge of these holy vrsis throws a false 
glare ronnd the character of the crusading 
armies. They contained, indeed, some 
men of elevated character; but the great- 
er part consisted of crazy fanatics and 
wretches bent on plunder. A well con- 

YOU IV. 6 



ducted, regular army, however, of 80,000 
men, was headed by Godfrav of Boulogne, 
duke of Lower LorroiDe, Hugh, brotlier 
to Philip king of France, Bald win, brother 
of Godfrey, Robert of Flanders, Raymond 
of Toulouse, Bohemond, Tancred of Apu- 
lia, and other heroes. WitJi this army, 
the experienced commanders traversed 
Germany and Hungary, passed over the 
strait of Gallipoli, conquered Nice in 1097, 
Antioch and Edessa in 1098, and, lastly, 
Jerusalem in 1099. Godfrey of Boulogne 
was chosen king of Jerusalem, but died in 
1 100. The news of the conquest of Jeru- 
salem renewed the zeal of the West In 
U02, an army of 260,000 men lefl Europe, 
which, however, perished partly ou the 
march, and partly bv the sword of the sul- 
tan of Iconium. The Genoese, and other 
commercial nations, undertook several ex- 
peditions by sea. The second great and 
regularlv conducted crusade was occa- 
sioned by the loss of Edessa, which the 
Saracens conquered in 1149. The news 
of this loss produced great consternation 
in Europe, and it was apfHvhended that 
the other acquisitions, including Jemsa- 
lem, would fall again into the hands of 
the infidels. In consequence of these 
fears, pope Eugene III, as^sted by St 
Bernard of Clairvaux, exhorted the Ger- 
man emperor, Conrad HI, and the king 
of France, Louis VII, to defend the cross. 
Both these monarchs obeyed the call in 
1147, and led large bodies of forces to the 
East; but their enterprise was not suc- 
cessful, and they were compelled to with- 
draw, leaving the kingdom of Jerusalem 
in a much weaker condition than they 
had found it When sultan Saladin, in 
1187, took Jerusalem from the Christians^ 
the zeal of the West Ijecame still more 
ardent than at the commencement of the 
crusades ; and the monarchs of the three 
principal European countries — ^Frederic 
I, emperor of Germany, Philip Augus- 
tus, kin? of France, and Richard I, king 
of Engtend — determined to lead their ar- 
mies in person against tlie infidels (1189). 
This is regarded as the third cnisade. 
Frederic's enterprise was unsuccessful ; 
but the kings of France and England 
succeeded in gaining possession of Acre, 
or Ptolemais, which, until the entire ter- 
mmation of the crUsadefl, remained the 
bulwark of the Christians in the East. 
The fourth crusade was conducted by the 
king of Hungary, Andrew n, in 1217, by 
sea. The emperor Frederic II, compelled 
by the pope, who wished for his destnic- 
tion, to fulfil a promise iiwde in early 
youth, undertook th|^ fiflh crusade, and 



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63 



CRUSADES— CRUZADA. 



succeeded in regaining Jerusalem, al- 
though he could not secure the perma- 
nent possession of the country. The list 
of heroes who conducted the crusades is 
honorably closed with St Louis, king of 
France (who conducted the sixth crusade, 
commencing in 1348), although fate frus- 
trated his plan, which was ably conceived 
and bravely executed. While Louis was 
still in Egypt (for he proposed concmering 
the Holy Land by an invasion of Egypt, 
the seat, at that time, of the rulers of 
Palestine), a revolution broke out in that 
country, which proved decisive with re- 
card to the possession of the Holy Land. 
The house of Saladin was dethroned, 
and the dominion of the Mamehikes and 
sultans established. These directed their 
efforts against the possessions of the 
Christians in Palestine. Tripoli, Tyre,/ 
Berytus, fell into their hands successively, 
and, on the fall of Acre, or Ptolemais, 
the last bulwark and the last remains of 
the Christian empire on the continent of 
Asia, were overthrown. By means of 
these joint enterprises, the European na- 
tions became more connected with each 
other, tiie class of citizens increased in 
influence, partly because the nobility suf- 
fered by extravagant contributions to the 
crusades, and jmrtly because a commer- 
cial intercourse took place throughout 
Europe, and greatly augmented the 
wealtn of the cities ; the human mind ex- 
pended, and a number of arts and scien^ 
ces, till then unknown in Europe, were in- 
troduced there. The present civUkation . 
of the European world is, in a great de- 
gree, the result of these cnisades. It be- 
longs to a histoiy of poetry to describe 
how much contemporary poetry was af- 
fected by the crusades, and the extent to 
which they have given currency to a cer- 
tain class of ideas that has prevailed ever 
since. Some of the best works on the 
cnisades are Frederic Wilken*s (ksehidUt 
dor Kreuzsciige nock mveenS^mdischm und 
abmdlandisf^B(Tkhtmjheipe\c (the three 
first volumes appeared in 1807 — 19 : vol- 
ume 4, which treats of the period from 
1188 to 1195, appeare.d in 1896) ; HUtoire 
des CraiscideSy by De Michaud, a member 
of the French academy, foiuth edition, 
Paris, 1825; Charles Mills's History of 
the Crusades, London, 1820; Heeren's 
Versuch emer ErUtrickdun^ der Fod^ der 
Kremx^tfar Uuropo^Gdttingen, 1808. 

Crusade, and Crusada. (See cruzo- 
cb, M and new, in the article Cwna, under 
the division Ptjrtagal, 

Crusca, Acaoemia della. (See Acadr 
emtef.) 



Crustaceovs Animals, in natural liis- 
toiy ; tliose covered with shells, consist- 
ing of several pieces or scales, as crabs, 
lobsters, &c. Their shells are generally 
softer than the sheUs of the testaceous 
kind, which consist of but few pieces or 
valves, such as those of the oyster, scal- 
lop, cockle. 

Cruz, Santa (Spanish; Holy Cross). 
Among the various places of this name, 
the most important are, 1. An island in 
the West Indies, belonging to Denmark, 
the most southerly of the Virgin isles; 
lat 17° 45^ N. ; Ion. 64° 35^ W. It is 
about 24 miles in length, witli an area of 
84 square miles, and contains 33,000 in- 
habitants, of which 30,000 .are slaves. 
The countiy is mostly level, the climate 
unhealthy at certain seasons, the water 
scarce and bad. The soil is fertile, produc- 
ing cotton, sugar-cane, some coffee and in- 
digo, and tropical fruits. About 9,000,000 
^llons of rum are annually exported. 
The best ports are Christianstadt and 
Frederickstadt The former, situated on 
the nortliem coast of the island, is the 
capital of all the Danish West Indies. Af- 
ter having been successively in the hands 
of the Dutch, English, French, and Span- 
iards, Santa Cruz was ceded to Denmark 
in 1733. In 1807, H was taken by the 
English, but was restored to the Danes b^ 
the peace of Paris, in 1814. 2. A city on 
the island of Teneriffe; lat. 28° 28^ N. • 
Ion. 16^ Wf W. The road is much visited 
by European vessels, on their way to the 
Indies and to America, fbr water and mxv< 
visions. The population is 8400. The 
principal article of export is Tenerifie 
wine. (See TenerWt.) 

Cruzada (Spamsk), A bull called the 
IvU ^f tht crusade, is a source of consider- • 
able revenue to the Spanish crown. Pope ■ 
Calixtus III first issued this bull, during 
the reign of king Henry of Castile, in 
1457, granting an absolution fbr past of- 
fences to all who would fight against infi- 
dels, or pay a certain sum (200 maravedis), 
to aid the crown in carrying on war 
against them ; and, as this bull is granted 
only for five years, the king has the power 
of renewing it It confers also certain 
inmiunities, such as the right to eat some 
kinds of prohibited food in Lent. It has not 
been customary to renew the grant since 
1753. These bulls were formerly sold, in 
a printed form, by priests and monks, who 
very often abusea their authority, and 
would not confess people, or give them 
extreme unction, unless they would buy 
the bulls. The revenue thus received by 
the crown ynoi estimated, for Spain and 



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CRUZADA-CRYPTOGRAPHY. 



<53 



S|ianish America, at $1,500,000. Portugal 
abo received sucii a bull in 1591, for Uie 
support of her fortifications in Africa. 
Mendoza, in one chapter of his Vida de 
Lazantio de TormeSy describes the abuses 
by which the huUarios, or sellers of bulls, 
eztoited money from the people., 

Crtpt, in architecture ; a hollow place 
or vault constructed under ground. The 
tombs of the Christian martyrs also were 
so called, where the eariy Christians met 
to perform their devotions, for fear of per- 
secution. Hence crypt came to signify 
a church under ground, or the lower 
story, like that of St Paul's, London, 
LastiDgham priory, and many of the 
ancient ecclesiastical edifices of Eitgland, 
Germany and France. When crypts are 
on a large scale, like those of Rome, Na- 
ples and Paris, tliey are then called cata- 
combs. (See Catacombs,) Bartoli and 
Bellori have published engravings of 
paintings foiind in the crypts of Rome, of 
which there are several editions. The 
one of 1738 is in Latin. 

Crypto; a prefix from the Greek 
«fw«rof (secret), used in several compounds ; 
for instance, cryptography (g. v.), cryp- 
U^amy (q. v.), CryptO'Valvvnists (q. v.) 
When the Jesuits were dissolved by a 
papal bull, much was said of Crypto^ts- 
rats. In France, we hear sometimes of 
crypto-repMicans, &c. 

Crtpto-Calvinists [crypto from the 
Greek k^titos, secret^; a name given to 
the favorers of CalvmLsm m Saxony, on 
account of their secret aHachm q uttu the 
Grenevan doctrine and discipline. (See 
Ckmcord, Form of,] 

Crtptogabiia, in botany; the 24th 
and last class of the sexual system of 
Linnceus, including several very numerous 
families of plants, in which the parts es- 
sential to their fructification have not been 
sufiiciently ascertained, or are too small 
to admit of their being accurately de- 
scribed and referred to any of the other 
classes. 

Crtptoqrapht (from the Greek Kpvnrtt, 
secret, and yfw^«», to writej; the art of 
transmitting secret information by means 
of writing, which is intended to be illegi- 
ble, except by the person for whom it is 
destined. The ancients sometimes shaved 
the head of a slave, and wrote upon the 
skin with some indelible coloring matter, 
and tiien sent him, afler his hair had 
^wn affain, to tiie place of his destina- 
tion. Tnis is not, however, properly 
secret writing, but only a concealment of 
writing. Another sort, which corresponds 
better with the name, is the following, used 



by the ancients. They took a small stick, 
and wound around it bark, or papyrus. 
Upon which they wrote. The bark was 
then unrolled, and sent to the correspond- 
ent, who was furnished with a stick of the 
same size. He wound the bark again 
round this, and thus was enabled to read 
what had been written. This mode of 
concealment is evidently very imperfect. 
Cryptography properly consists in writing 
with signs, which are legible only to him 
for whom the writing is intended, or who 
has a key, or explanation of the signs. 
The most simple method is to choose for 
every letter of^the alphabet some sign, or 
only another letter. But this sort of cryp- 
tography (chiffire) is also easy to be deci- 
phered without a key. Hence many illu- 
sions are used. No separation is made 
between the words, or signs of no meaning 
are inserted among those of real meaning. 
Various keys likewise are used, according 
to rules before agreed upon. By this 
means, the deciphering of the writing be- 
comes difiSculr for a third person, not 
initiated ; but it is likewise extremely 
troublesome for the correspondents them- 
selves ; and a slight mistake often makes 
it illegible, even by them. Another mode 
of communicating intelli^nce secretly, 
viz^ to agree upon some pnnted book, and 
mark the words out, is also troublesome, 
and not at all safe. The method of con- 
cealing the words which are to convey the 
information intended in matter of a very 
diflTerent character, in a lon^ letter, which 
■ the wiiwpo ndeBtris euabled'to read^by 
applying a paper to it, with holes corre^f 
Bponding to the places of the significant 
words, is attended with many disadvan- 
tages : the paper may be lost ; the repeti- 
tion of certain words may lead to discov- 
ery ; and the difficulty of connecting the 
important with the unimportant matter, so 
as to give the whole the appearance of an 
ordin^ letter, is considerable. If this is 
effected, however^thismode has the advan- 
tage of concealing the fact tiiat any secrecy 
is intended. Writing with sympathetic ink, 
or viilk, lemon-juice, &c., is unsafe, be- 
cause the agents to make the letters visible 
are too generallv known. Hence the chiffire 
quarri, or chigoe ifuUchiffirabUy so called, 
has come very much into use, because it 
is easily applied, difficult to be deciphered, 
and the key may be prescrveii in the 
memory merely, and easilv changed. It 
consists of a table, in whicn the letters of 
the alphabet, or any other signs agreed 
Ufjon, are arranged under one another, 
thus: — 



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64 



CRYPTOGRAPHY— CUBA. 



z 
a 

17 

c 

T 

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a 

c 
e 

T 

g 
h 


b 
c 

T 

e 

T 

h 
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g 
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g 
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¥ 
III 


h 
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¥ 
1 

III 
n 


k 

1 
m 


k 
1 

m 
n 


1 

ni 
II 
o 


ni 
11 
o 

T 


n 
o 

y 

q 


o 
T 

r 


_P_ 

r 


_q_ 

r 

s 
t 


r 

8 

T 

u 


8 

T 

u 

V 


t 

u 

V 
W 


U 
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w 

X 


V 

w 

X 

y 


w 

X 

y 

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y 

z 
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y 
z 
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z ' 

a 

c ' 


n 

C) 




T 


_P 

q 


_q_ 

r 


r 

8 


8 

T 


t 
11 


u 

V 


V 

w 


w 

X 


X 

y 


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z 


z 
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b 
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¥ 


e 


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m 


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y 


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Jl_ 
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m 
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o 


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r 


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s 

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X 

y 


X 

y 
z 


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z 
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c 


b 
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d 
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g 


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g 
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g 
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h 

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m 


m 
n 


n 
o 


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"P 


q 


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f 

g 
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Any word is now taken foEotkey ; Pctris, 
for example. Tbis i8 a 8hort wor8, and, 
for the sake of secrecy, it would be well 
to choose for the key some one or more 
words less striking. Suppose we wish to 
write in this cipher, with this key, the 
phrase " We lost a battle ;** we must write 
jPom over the phrase, repeating it as often 
as is necessary, thus : — 

Pa risPa r isPar 

We lost a battle. 
We now take, as a cipher for ir, tlvB letter 
which we find in the squaie opposite w in 
the left marginal column, and under j? on 
the top, which is nu Instead of f, we 
take the letter opposite e and under «, 
which 19 f; for /, the letter opposite / and 
under r, and so on. Proceeding thus, we 
should obtain tlie following series of let- 

' mfcxlibtkmimw 

The person who receives the epistle 
writes the key over the letters ; as, 

. P ar % aPar i a Pa r 

mfcxlibtkmimw 
He How goes down in the perpendicular 
line, at the top of which is p, until fae 



meets tfi, opposite to which, in the left 
marginal column, he finds w. Next, going 
in the line of a down to /, he finds on the 
left «. In the same way, r gives /, i gives 
0, and so on. Or you may reverse the 
process; begin with o, in the left marginal 
column, and look along horizontally till 
you find m, over which, in tlie top line, 
you will find w. It is easily seen, that tlie 
same letter is not always designated by 
the same cipher; thus, e and a occur 
twice in the phrase selected, and they are 
designated respectively by the ci]»lier8 / 
and IT, 6 and h Thus the posgibility of 
finding out the secret writing is almost 
excluaed. The key may he changed from 
time to time, and a difterent key may be 
used with each correspondent ' The ut- 
most accuracy is necessary, because one 
character, accidentally omitted, changes 
the whole cipher. The correspondi^nt, 
however, may ascertain this with consid- 
erable trouble. (See Deciphering.) 

Cuba ; the largest and most westerly 
of the Antilles. Its configuration, extent, 
geographical position, great number of 
ports, fertility and climate, contribute to 



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CUBA. 



65 



render it one of the most interesting 
countries of America. Its length, fix>m 
cape St. Antonio to point Maisi, in a direc- 
tion from W. S. W. to E. N. E., and then 
from W. N. W. to E. S. E., is 257 leagues, 
and its greatest width, in the direction 
north to south, is 38 leagues. The learned 
geographer don Felipe fiausa calculated, 
in June, 1825, that the surface of Cuba 
contained 3615 square marine leagues (20 
to a degree). Cuba is situated between 
Ion. 73P 56^ and 85*^ W. and between lat. 
19° 48^ 30" and 23° 12f 45" N. It lies 14 
leagues west from cape Nicolas, in the 
island of St Domingo, 34 south from 
point Monmt, in Jamaica, 27 east from 
cape Catoche, and 37 south from cape 
Florida. The gulf of Mexico, which is 
very nearly of a circular form, of more 
than 250 leagues in circumference, is closed 
by the island of Cuba, with the exception 
of two narrow passages, the one to the 
south, between cape Catoche and cape 
St. Antonio, and the other to the north, 
between Bahia Honda and the Florida 
shoalsL Along the coast of Cuba are 
many keys and small islands, which are 
included in the same government with 
the large island. The navigation of the 
coast is very unsafe on account of the 
rocks and shoals which encompass it al- 
most without interruption, and often ex- 
tend from 2 to 3 miles into the sea. The 
broken outline of this vast extent of coast, 
however, aflbrds more than 50 ports and an- 
choring places, which are equally safe and 
easy of access. The most remarkable, in 
a commercial point of view, are those or 
Havanna, Matanzas, Nuevitas, Jibara and 
Baracoa,on the nofth; St. Jago, Manza- 
niUo, Trinidad, Jagua and Batabano, on 
the south side of the island. There is 
another port between Manzanillo and 
Trinidad, called Santa Cruz^ which, in 
February, 1829, was declared a free port, 
and which, undoubtedly, will be much 
frequented, Aimishing gr&X facilities for 
trading with Puerto Principe (the second 
city in Cuba in point of population)^ being 
the only good harbor in its vicinity on the 
south «de of the island, and distant from 
it but 20 leagues. The harbors of Bahia 
Honda, Nipe, Naranjo and Guantanamo 
also deserve to be mentioned, as they are 
very spacious, and have plenty of water 
for such large vessels as may be in want 
of a sale port. A ridge of mountains 
traverses the whole of the island, from the 
east to the west, dividing it into two 
parts. At the foot of these, the country 
opens into extensive savannas. A canad- 
erable number of small streams from 
6* 



these heights water the island on both 
sides. These streams abound in frsh of 
different kinds, and are said to bring down 
considerable quantities of gold. There are 
likewise many salt ponds, which furnish 
abundance of fish and game ; also several 
springs of mineral water, which have 
proved very useful for the cure of many 
diseases. The most remarkable are those 
of St Diego, 40 leagues west of Havan- 
na ; those of Madruga, 14 leagues S. W. 
of the said city ; those of the town of 
Guanabacoa ; and those of Camugiro, 1^ 
league from Puerto Principe. Those of 
St Diego are the only ones which have 
been analysed. They consist of two 
wells (Tigre and Tempiado), and, accord- 
ing to the analysis of seiior Esteves, a 
pound of the water contains 0.46 grains 
of sulphureted hvdrogen gas, 10.5 of sul- 
phate of lime, 1.0 of hydrochlorate of 
magnesia, and one grain of carbonate of 
magnesia. They are particularly useful 
in cases of scrofula, cutaneous diseases, 
&c. The island is very rich in minerals, 
particularly In copper, iron and loadstone. 
In 1813, some persons endeavored to 
work a mine which they found near the 
city of Trinidad, and from which they 
obtained good gold and silver. They 
were, however, obliged, firom want of 
funds, to desist, though it was highly 
probable that, with a sufficient capital, it 
could have been made profitable. For 
the same reason, together with the want 
of protection from t& government, a very 
rich mine of coal, which was opened in 
1816, near Bacuranao, was abandoned. 
In 1827, a silver mine was discovered, 
yielding 7.5 of pure silver to a quintal of 
ore. Iron seems to be abundant, as it 
shows itself in parts of the great Cordil- 
lera of Sierra Maestra. IxMidstone is 
found in the mountains of Paragua and 
on the northern coast Marbles of various 
kinds, seipentine, chalcedony of excellent 
qualiijr, quartz, mineral bitumen, &c., are 
likewise found in the island. Our knowl- 
edge of the geological and nineralogical 
structure of Cuba, however, is compara- 
tively small, on account of the thickness 
of the forests and the asperity of the 
mountains, particularly on the eastern 
part Most that we know on this subject 
IS derived fix>m the researches of Alexan- 
der yon Humboldt The soil of Cuba is so 
productive that it yields two, and even three 
crops of com in a year. The fields, dur- 
ing the whole year, are covered with aro- 
matic plants and trees in blossom. The 
climate is dry and warm. In the months 
of July and August, the thermometer 



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CUBA. 



nuiges from HSP to 29° Reaumur (95® to 
97^ Fahrenheit), and in those of December 
and J|^uary, which are tlie coldest, com- 
monly between 17° and 21° of Reaumm' 
(70° and 79° Fahrenheit.) It never freez- 
es, not even on the highest mountains. 
The coasts of the island are well known 
to be unhealthy ; but this is not the case 
with the mountains. Among the animals 
indigenous in tlie island or 3ie surround- 
ing sea, are the cayman or alhgator (q. v.), 
the manati or sea cow, the iguana (a 
species of lizard), the turtle, &c Many 
of the domestic animals of Europe have 
been introduced. A great number of 
swine, and also of bees, are raised. Late- 
ly the breeding of mules has been carried 
on to a considerable extent. Birds are 
numerous in the forests. Among them 
are the canary-bird, the linnet, also a binl 
resembling the nightingale, tlie cardinal 
gross-beak, the bunting, &c. The rivers, 
Uiough they have but a short courae, and 
are deficient in water, abound, at certain 
seasons, with excellent Ush. -Reptiles are 
extremely numerous. Among the insects, 
of which there are vei-y many, are the 
mosquitoes, verdadercanenU unaplaga que 
infesta los cayos, costcts y terrenos pantanO' 
«of , to use the words of the Cuadro EstadU- 
tico mentioned below. They are divided 
into dififerent species — mosquito proper, co- 
racif zancudo, rodador,iaguey and kmcetero. 
In the rainy season, they follow men and 
beasts into the interior of the island. The 
gregen, which is almost invisible, is ex- 
ceedingly numerous and very trouble- 
some. Among the spiders, the pdiuia is 
the most disagreeable in appearance, and 
its bite produces fever, yet without dan- 
ger to liie. There are other kinds partic- 
ularly troublesome to particular animals. 
The vegetable kingdom of Cuba is ex- 
tremely rich. Here are to be found the 
mahogany-tree, the cedar, liguum-vitse, 
various kinds of ebony, besides numerous 
woods suitable for building houses, ships, 
&C.; also palm-trees, among which tne 
palina reed is remarkable for the utihty 
of every part to man and various ani- 
mals ; sarsaparilla and many other plants 
useful in medicine ; also the chestnut, the 
pine-apple, the annona or custardrapple, 
the medlar, plantain, orange, and various 
kinds of melons. Among the agricultural 
plants, maize is the most important ; rice, 
beans, peas, gmifanzoa are also cultivated. 
The culture of wheat is abandoned. The 
true riches of the coikntiy consist in its 
great articles of export-*-sugar, coffee, to- 
bacco, wax, cacao, molasses,, rum, noudze, 



&c. According to a very recent and 
complete official publication — Cuadro Es- 
tadistico de la siemprtfid Ida de Cuba oor- 
respondknte al aiio de 1827, fonnado por 
una ComUdoti de Gefes y OJkiales de wdtn 
y h(^o de la Direccion del Excd*^' S^' 
Capitan General D. Fr. Dioniaio ViveSj 
HabanOy 1829 — the export of sugar, in 
1827, was 5,878,924i arrobas (an arroba is 
equal to 25 pounds), or, including tare, 
&c., 6,d00,GOO arrobas. The whole 
amount produced was 8,091,837 arrobas ; 
consumed on the island, 1,791,837. Of 
coffee, the export, in the same year, was 
2,001,583i arrobas, and the amount con- 
sumed in the island, 881,944|. Of tobac- 
co, the amounts have not been so well 
ascertained. This article pays a duty of 
six per cent to tlie king (ordinance of 
Oct. 8, 1827). In 1827, there were ex- 
ported 61,898 cargas, or about 500,000 ar- 
robas, of which 79,106i were en ramajm 
the leaf). Of wax, the export, in 1827, 
was 22,4021 arrobas ; tlie whole produc- 
tion, 63,160. Of cotton, the export, in the 
same year, was 23,414 arrolNis; whole 
quantity raised, 38,142. Of cacao, the 
export was only 1953 arrobas, while the 
whole quiantity raised was 23,806 arrobas. 
Indigo began to be cultivated in 1795, but 
little has as yet been raised— 4n 1827, only 
56 arrobas — and of wheat only 120 arro- 
bas. The export of molasses, in 1827, 
was 74,083 bacoyes (hoesheads) ; of rum 
(a^uardienle de cana}i 2457 pipes. Rice is 
raised in large quantity, but not enough to 
.supply the great home consumption. In 
182/, 520,897 arrobas were produced on 
the island, and 590,820i| arrobas imported. 
Of maize, 1,617,806 fanegas were raised 
(a fanega is about 100 pounds), and yet 
there were imported 70,497 arrobas of the 
com, and 4,9& barrels of the meal. Of 
beans (frijoUesy there were produced, in 
1827, 134,185 arrobas, and imported, 
58,418^. Notwithstanding this great pro- 
duction, it is believed that only a seventh 
part of aU the land suitable for cultivation 
IS actually brought into use. The com- 
merce of the countiy has increased lately 
very much. The island enjoys great 
privileges in comparison with other coun- 
.tries under the yoke of Spain. The 
trade of Cuba is carried on chiefly through 
Havanna, the capital. There have been 
times when the exports of the island 
amounted to $12,000,000, and its unporta 
were over $15,000,000. In the year 1827, 
17,352,854 dollars' worth of merehan- 
dise was imported, and 3,561,887 dollars* 
worth exported, making the consumptiou 



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CUBA. 



amount to $13,791^)67, which, after the 
aubtraction of articles of food import- 
ed for the slaves, leaves $12,291,^^ 
for the value of imported articles con- 
sumed bv the 337,128 white and 106^494 
colored tree persons, which gives $28 as 
the average consumption of each individ- 
ual during the year. The total value of 
the produce of the island was lately esd- 
mated at $44,634,343. In 1827, the com- 
merce of Havanna contributed to the royal 
revenue $4,383,262, whilst, in 1815, it paid 
only $l,726,963ii. The interior adminis- 
tradons furnished to the revenue, in 1827, 
$2,^2,808. The whole revenue of the 
island has been estimated a^ $7,500,000, 
and the expenses of the government at 
$6y500,000. According to the Bonanza Jf4sr- 
cantU of Havanna, for the year 1829, it ap- 
peals, that the imports in American vessels 
from the U. States into Havanna, in 1829, 
amounted to the sum of . . $4,086,230 69 

France, $1,048,965 63 

H^f-j 913,60100 

DenmariK, 12,962 75 

England, 1,548,779 37 

Italy, 29,773 12 

Netheriands, 289,758 88 

Portugal, 56,144 88 



$234,922 



^7,664 tons. 



6,172 



^20,133 



^^{t^W ^mm 



$3,899,985 53 



Of which imports, one^ 
fourth, at least, was I 
brought in American | 
bottoms— say j 

From Spain in foreign 
bottoma,$3,097,d90 SS, 
of which two thuidB, 
at least, were under 
the U. States' flag. 

Making a total of im- 
ports, in 1829, under 
the American flag, in- 
cluding the imports 
fiom me U. States in 
Spanish vessels, of 

The whole value of ira- ^ 

e>rt9 for 1829, into> 
avanna, ^ 

Supplied by the U. ^ 
states and by Ameri- > 
can vessels, ) 

Leaving, for all other ^ 
flags, including the v 
Spanish, ) 



The tonnage duty paid by ? 

American vessels was, \ 
Thus, fiom the 

U. States alone 

(American ton 

nage) came 
One fourth of 

foreign ton 

nage from oth 

er countries, 
Two thinls of 

tonnage of for- 
eign vessels 

from Spain, 
Total American 

tonnage, 

From the above notes, it seems that the U. 
Suites and her ships have supplied more 
than 50 per cent of the entire imports of 
Havanna for the last year.— The island is 
subject to the king of^ Spain, and, for the 
purposes of goveinment,is divided into two 
political divisiona That on the west is 
under tlie immediate control of the captain- 
general residing in Havanna. The other is 
under a governor appointed by the king, 
but subject, in many respects, to the cap- 
tain-generaL It is also divided into two ec- 
clesiasdcal jurisdictions, the one governed 
by an archbishop, who resides at St. Jago, 
the other one by a bishop, who resides at 
Havanna. These jurisdictions have their 
liniits 20 leagues east of the town of £s- 
piritu Santo. Since the beginnmg of 
1826, the island has been divided, for the 
purpose of defence, into three militaiy de- 
partments ; these again into districts, and 
the districts into .sections. The depart- 
ments are commanded by a general offi- 
cer. The eastern department embraces 
the districts of St. Jago, Baracoa, Holguin, 

2,065,060 24 Jibara, Jiguani, Oobre, Tiguabos, Manza- 
nillo and Bavamo ; tho central, those of 
Puerto Princfoe, Nuevitas, Trinidad, Espi- 
ritu Saoto^ Villa de Santa Clara and St 
Juan de los Remedies ; the- ^n^em, those 
of Havanna, St Antonio die Compomela, St 
$ 7,737,064 49 FeUpe, and St Jago del Btejucafst Anto- 

' nio Abad de los Banes, Gtianajay, GuaOa- 

bacoa, Fihpina, Janice, Guinea. Matanzas 
and Guamutas. These same divisions serve 
as Umits for the jurisdictions of the three 
intendencies which are established for 
the collection and administration of the 
public revenue, and the heads of which 
reside at Havanna, Puerto Principe and 
St Jago, the capital cities of the three 
departments. Education is in a very low 

.^.««cww. « *^^®' **"*» accoidJng to Abbot's Letters 

7,188^330 01 on Cuba (Boston, 1829), it is improving. 

The monus of the people are loose ; the 



974,996 44 



14,925^414 50 

7,737,084 49 



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CUBA- 



police is weak or inactive : murders are 
frequent The laws are very numerous 
and contradictory, and much bribery and 
corruption prevail in the administration 
of justice. In 1821, the importation of 
slaves was prohibited by law ; and, though 
it is yet carried on, and tolerated by the 
authorities of Cuba, in spite of the laws 
a^^inst it, there is no doubt that it has 
diminished a great deal, in consequence 
of the efibrtsand vigilance of the English 
cruisers. The emancipation of Colom- 
bia, Mexico, and the Spanish part of St. 
Domingo, has brought to Cuba almost all 
the Spaniards who were settled in those 
countries, together with many of the Cre- 
oles. The number of the aboriginal popu- 
lation cannot now be ascertained. The 
European and African population, in 1511, 
did not include more than 300 persons. 
Within the last 52 years, the population 
has more than quadrupled : the colored 
population has increased fiister than the 
white. According to the census of 1^7, 
given in the Spanish report mentioned 
above, the population then stood thus : 

Males. Females. Total. 

Whites, 168,653 142,398 311,051 

Free Mulattoes, 28,058 29,456 57,514 
Free Negroes, . 23,904 250,76 48,980 

''NSSsla^llS3^ 103,652^6^ 

Grand total, 704,487 
of which 311,051 are white, and 393,436 
are colored. 

It is generally believed, that the inhabi- 
tants are not desirous of separating fiom 
the Spanish government, pieutly l^cause 
Spain treats them tolerably welL| and part- 
ly because of the distracted condition in 
which they behold those parts of Span- 
ish America which have shaken off the 
Spanish yoke. A conspiracy was discov- 
ered, however, in 1830, the object of 
which was the independence of the 
island. A ridiculous expedition was sent 
fiom Cuba, in 1829, against Mexico, under 
geneml Barradas, who was forced to ca- 
pitulate at Tampico, on September 11 of 
that year. The principal cities of the 
island are the capital, Havanna (siemprefi' 
ddisima ciudad de S. Cristobal de lit Ha- 
haiui)y with 237,828 uihabitants, St. Jago 
de Cuba, St Salvador, St Carlos de Am- 
tanzas, St Maria de Puerto Princi[)e, &c 
(See these articles.)— For further informa- 
tion respecting the island, the reader is 
referred to Humboldt's Personal Mtrra- 
tivey and the Cuadro Estadisiico already 
mentioned. 

Cuba was discovered, in 1492, by 
Christopher Columbusi In 1511, don 



Diego Velasquez sailed from 9L Domingo, 
with four vessels and about 300 men, for 
the oonauest of the island. He landed, 
on the 25ch of July, near the bay of St 
Jago, to which be gave its name. The 
natives, commanded by the cacique Hat- 
uey, who had fled fix>m St. Domingo, his 
native country, on account of the cruel- 
ties of the Spaniards, in vain endeavored , 
to oppose the progress bf the invaders.' 
The noise of the me-atms was sufficient 
to' disperse the poor Indians. Hatuey 
was taiken prisoner and condemned to bo 
burned alive, which sentence was execut- 
ed after he had refused to be baptized. 
This diabolical act filled all the oth^ 
caciques with terror, and they hastened 
to pay homage to Velasquez, who met 
with no more opposition. The conquest 
of Cuba did not cost the Spaniards a sin- 
gle man. The conquerors, not finding 
the mines sufficiently rich to induce them 
to worit them, mdually exterminated the 
natives, whom wey could not employ. Af- 
ter the conquest of Cuba, more than two 
centuries elapsed without the occunence 
of any memorable incident In 1741, the 
E^^ish admiral Vernon sailed, in July, 
from Jamaica, and entered the bay of Gu- 
antanamo, which he named CSanberiand. 
He landed his troops 20 miles up the river, 
where they remained in perfect inaction 
until November, when they went back to 
Jamaica. Notwithstanding the disastrous 
termination of this expedition, the English 
government did not relinquish the idea of 
taking possession of Cuba. In 1762, 
they sent from England a formidable ex- 
pedition, which, after its junction witli the 
naval force which had been already serv- 
ing in the West Indies, consisted of 19 
ships of the line, 18 small vessels of war, 
and 150 transpoits, which conveyed 12,000 
troops. The whole of the fleet appeared 
off Havanna June 6. 4000 more troops 
went from North America, in July, to 
reinforce them. The Spaniards used 
every effort to defend the city. The 
English were several times repelled, but 
at last the Spaniards surrendered, Augiist 
13. The booty obtained by the English 
was ^at About three millions of dol- 
lars in specie, and a large quantity of 
goods, fblt into their hands, besides a great 
quantity of munitions of war, 9 ships of 
the line, and 4 fiigates. In 1763, the con- 
querors, notwithstanding the high opinion 
that they had of the importance of Cuba, 
restored it to Spain, in exchange for the 
Floridas. Since then, Cuba has been a 
Spanish island, and has been so well forti- 
fied, that it is now not in much danger fix>m 



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CUBA— CUCKOO. 



09 



any attack ftat can be made upon it The 
forces of the island consist of 9886 regulai- 
troop6» and 14,560 militia. The navy 
contains 2 seventy-fours^ 3 frigates of 50 
guns, 1 of 40, 1 sloop of war, and 2 brigs 
of 22 guns each, 1 brig of ^, one of 16, 
and 6 schooners mounting 13 guns. 

CuBATURE OF A SoLiD, In geometry; 
the measuring of the space contained in 
it, or finding the solid content of it 

Cube, in geometry ; a solid body, con- 
sisting of six equal square sides. The 
solidity of any cube is found by multiply- 
ing the supei^cial area of one of the sides 
by the height. Cubies are to one another 
in the triplicate ratio of their diagonals ; 
and a cube is supposed to be generated by 
the motion of a square plane along a line 
equal to one of its sides, and at rieht 
angles thereto; whence it follows, that 
the planes of all sections, parallel to the 
base, are squares equal thereto, and, con^ 
sequently, to one another. 

Cube, or Cubic Number, in aritlimetic; 
that which is produced by the multiplica- 
tion of a square number by its root ; thus 
64 is a cube number, and arises by multi- 
plying 16, the square of 4, by the root, 
4. 

Cube, of Cubic Quantitt, in algebra ; 
the third power in a series of geometrical 
propoitionals coadnued ; as, a is the root, 
a a the square, and a a a the cube. 

Cube Root of any number or quantity is 
a number or quantity, which, if multiplied 
into ilbdf, and tlien again by the product 
thence arising, gives a product equal to 
the number or quantity whereof it is the 
cube root ; as, 2 is the cube root of 8, be- 
cause twice 2 are 4, and twice 4 are 8. 

Cubic Foot of any substance ; so much 
of it as is contained in a cube whose side 
is one foot, (See Cube,) 

Cubit, in the mensuration of the an- 
cients ; a long measure, equal to the length 
of a man's arm, fix)m the elbow to the tip 
of the fingers. Doctor Arbuthnot makes 
the English cubit equal to 18 inches, the 
Roman cubit equal to 1 foot, 5.406 inches, 
and the cubit of scripture equal to 1 foot, 
9.888 inches. 

Cuckingstool ; an ancient instrument 
of punishment, described, in Doomsday 
Book, as cathedra Hercoris. Scolds, cheat- 
ing bakers or brewers, and other petty 
of&nders, were led to this stool, ana im- 
merged over head and ears in siercon^ or 
stinking water. 

Cuckoo J^cucvhu, Lin.) ; a genus of 
btnls, characterized by a bill of moderate 
size, short tarsi, and tail composed of 10 
feathers. The bill is compressed, and 



slightly arched. The greater number of 
species belonging to this genus are found 
on the ancient continent Only one spe- 
cies is a native of Great Britain, and very 
few belong to Europe. In America, no 
true cuckoos aie found, for the genus coc- 
cyzuB differs very essentially from them in 
its habits. The cuckoos are especially 
distinguished by their habit of laying their 
e^p in the nests of other, and, generally, 
much smaller birds. What is still more 
singular, it has been found, by very care- 
ful observations, that the yoimg cuckoo. 
Shortly afler l)eing hatched, throws out of 
the nest all the other young or eggs, and 
thus engrosses to itself the whole parental 
care of the bird in whose nest it has been 
lodged. The manner in which this eject- 
ment is efiected is thus described by Jen- 
ner, in the second part of the Philosoph- 
ical Transactions for 1788, article 14: — 
" The litde animal, with the assistance of 
its rump and wings, contrived to get the 
bird on its back, and, making a lodg- 
ment for the burden by elevating its 
elbows, clambered backwards vnth it up 
the idde of the nest, till it reached the top, 
where, resting for a moment, it threw on 
its load i/iith a jerk, and c|nite disengaged 
it from the nest It remained in this situ- 
ation a short time; feeling about vrith the 
extremity of its wings, as if to be convinc- 
ed whether the business was property ex- 
ecuted, and then dropped into the nest 
again. With these (the extremities of its 
wings) I have oflen seen it examine^ as it 
were, an e^^ or nestling before ft beean 
its operations ; and the nice sensibiuty 
which these parts appeared to possess 
seemed sufficient to compensate the want 
of sight, which, as yet, it was destiUitc of. 
I afterwards put in an e^^^ and this, by a 
similar process, was conveyed to the edge 
of the nest, and thrown out These exper- 
iments I have since repeated sevend times 
in different nests, and have always found 
the young cuckoo disposed to act in the 
same manner. In climbing up the nest, 
it sometimes drops its burden, and thus 
is foiled in its endeavors ; but, after a llttie 
respite, the worit is resumed, and goes on 
almost incessantly till it id effected. It is 
wonderful to see the extraordinary exer- 
tion of the young cuckoo, when it is only 
two or three days old, if a bird be put in 
the nest with it, that is too weighty for it 
to lift out In this state, it seems ever 
restless and uneasy. But this disposition 
for turning out its companions begins to 
decline firom the time it is two or three 
till it is twelve days old ; when, as far as 1 
have seen, it ceases. Indeed, the dispoai- 



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70 



CUCKOO— CUCUMBER. 



tion for throwing out the egg appears to 
cease a few days sooner; for I have fre- 
quently seen the young cuckoo, afler it has 
been hatched 9 or 10 days, remove a nest- 
ling that had been placed in the nest with 
it, when it suffered an egg, put there at 
the same time, to remain unmolested. 
The singularity of its shape is well adapt- 
ed to these purposes; for, different from 
other newly-hatched birds, its back, from 
the scapulse downwards, is very broad, 
with a considerable depression in the 
middle. This depression seems formed 
by nature for the purpose of giving a 
more secure lodgment to the egg of the 
hedge-sparrow or its young one, when the 
young cuckoo is employ^ in removing 
either of them from the nest When it is 
about 12 days old, this cavity is quite filled 
up, and then the back assumes the shape 
of nestling birds in general. A young 
cuckoo, that had been hatched by a hedge- 
sparrow about four hours, was confined 
in the nest in such a manner, that it could 
not possibly turn out t^ie young hedge- 
sparrows, which were hatched at the same 
time, though it was almost incessantly 
making attempts to effect it The conse- 
quence was, the old birds fed the whole 
alike, and appeared, in every respect, to pay 
the same attention to the young cuckoo 
as to their own young, until the 13th day, 
when the nest was unfortunately plunder- 
ed. The smallness of the cuckoo's egg, 
in proportion to the size of the bird^ is a 
circumstance that hitherto, I believe, has 
escaped thcTiGtiee'of the ornithologist So 
great is the disproportion, that it is, in gen- 
eral, smaller than that of the house-spar- 
row ; whereas, the difference in the size 
of the birds is nearly as five to one. I 
have used the term in general, because 
eggs produced at different times by the 
same bird, vary very much in size. I 
have found a cuckooes egg so light, that it 
weighed only 43 grains, and one so heavy, 
that it weighed 5§ grains. The color of 
the cuckoo's eggs is extremely variable. 
Some, both in ground and penciling, very 
much resemble the house-sparrow's; some 
are indistinctly covered with bran-colored 
spots ; and others are marked with lines 
of black, resembling, in some measure, 
the eggs of the yellow-hammer." The 
cause of this singular habit of the common 
cuckoo of Europe (cuculus cano/nis) has 
been long a subject of discussion, without 
having been very satisfactorily determined. 
The opinion of the observer above cited 
appears to be as near the tnith as we may 
hope to arrive. He attributes it to the 
short stay made by the bird in the coun- 



tiy where it is under the necessity of 
propagating its species. Were it not to 
resort to some such expedient, it would 
be impossible that the species could be 
continued. The cuckoo first appears in 
England about the 17th of April Its egg 
is not ready for incubation sooner tlian 
the middle of May. A fbnni^ht is taken 
up by the sitting bird in hatching the egg. 
The bird generally continues three weeks 
in the nest before it flies. The foster 
parents feed it for more than five weeks 
after this period ; so that, if the cuckoo 
took care of its own egcs and young, the 
newly-hatched bird would not be fit to pro- 
vide for itself before its parent would be 
instinctively directed to seek a new resi- 
dence, and be thus compelled to abandon 
its young one ; for the old cuckoos take 
tlieir final leave before the first week in 
July. The young cuckoos forsake the 
nest as soon as fufiy fledged, and capable 
of providing for themselves. Their mi- 
grations from Europe are thought to be 
chiefly directed towards Africa ; thence 
they regularly return with the sprint, and, 
from some dead tree or bare bough, tiie 
male pours forth his monotonous song, 
cuckoo ! cuckoo ! — ^In America, there is 
a bird of a very different genus, which 
resembles the cuckoo in depositing its 
egg in the nests of other birds, to be fos- 
tered by them. Comprehended under 
the term Etnberiza. 

Cucumber. The genus cucumUf to 
which the common cucumber belongs. ' 
contains 17'8pef!ie6, several of which are 
of considerable importance. Cucumis co- 
loiwMsy producing the medicine called 
cowqumtukiy is a native of Africa. CVou- 
mis angyriOf the round, prickly cucumber, 
is a native of the West Indies, where it is 
used, with other vegetables, in soups. CSi- 
curnis mdo, the common melon, is supposed 
to be a native of Persia: it was cultivated 
in Europe m the 16tli century. Cucwnis 
sativus, the common cucumber, is a native 
of the East Indies. The varieties of this, as 
well as of the melon, are eaaly produced. 
Those with the smoothest rind and fewest 
seeds are most esteemed. Cucumis angui- 
nus, the snake cucumber, bears fruit some- 
times from three to four feet long. It is 
only raised as a curiosity, the flavor being 
bitter. Several other species produce 
fruits that are eaten by the inhabitants of 
the countries of which they are natives. 
The cucumber was one of the luxuries of 
which Tiberius was particularly fond ; and, 
by the dexterous management of his beds, 
he procured , one every day^at all seasons 
of tjieyear. — ^The common cucumber (ci«- 



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CUCUMBEIU-CUEVA, 



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ns saHmu) is an oblong, rough and 
coo)in|^ fiuit, supposed to have been orig- 
inally unpolled iuto Europe from some part 
of the Levant. It belongs to the 22d class 
of Linnieus, and is a tFaiunff and climbing 
planL The fruit is generally eaten cut in 
slices, with vinegar, pepper, &.c. Some 
people think it unwholesome. Sometimes 
cucumbers are eaten stewed. When 
young, they are pickled (in England under 
the name of gerkxMy which is connected 
with the Grerman gurhm)y with vinegar 
and spices, or preserved in sirup as a 
sweetmeat It is better to lay the fruit on 
slate or tiles than upon the bare ground.' 
Cucumbers are raised in England in very 
fireat quantity. The village of Sandy, in 
Bedfordshire, has been known to furnish 
10,000 bushels of pickling cucumbers in 
one week. In March, cucumbers have 
been known to fetch, in the London mar- 
ket, a guinea a dozen; in August and 
September, one pennv a dozen. 

CuctrrA (Basaria de CwvJth\ a toviT) in 
Colombia, 40 miles north of Pamplona, 
known by the congress which assembled 
liere May 1st, 1821, and finished its sit- 
tings in October of the same year. It 
was this body which framed the constitu- 
tion of Colombia ; and it is considered as 
the first Colombian congress, being the first 
convened under the fundamental law for 
uniting Venezuela and New Grenada into 
a single republic. 

CuDwoRTH, Ralph, a learned English 
divine and philosopher, was bom at AUer, 
in Someisetshire, of which parish his fa- 
ther was rector, in 1617. He was admit- 
ted a pensioner of Emanuel college, Cam- 
bridge, at the age of 13. His diligence as 
an academical student was very great; 
and, in 16^, he took the degree of M. A., 
and was elected fellow of his college. He 
became so eminent as a tutor, that the 
number of his pupils exceeded all prece- 
dent, and in due time he was presented, 
by bis college, to the rectory of North 
<jadbuiy, in Somersetshire. In the year 
1642, he published a Discourse concerning 
the true Nature of the Lord's Supper, and 
The Union of Christ and the Chureh shad- 
owed, or in a Shadow. The first of those 
productions, which maintained that the 
Loid's supper is a feast upon a sacrifice, 
product considerable controversy long 
after the author's death. In 1644, he took 
the degree of B. D., and was chosen mas- 
ter of Clare-hall, and, in the following 
year, was made regius professor of- He- 
brew. In 1651, he was made D. D., and 
in 1654, chosen master of Christ's college, 
Cambridge; where, having taken a wife, 



he spent the remainder of his days. In 
1678, he published his grand work, en- 
titled The true Intellectual System of the 
Universe ; the First Part, wherein all tlie 
Reason and Philosophy of Atheism is 
confuted, and its Impossibility demon- 
strated (folio). This work, which is an 
immense storehouse of ancient learning, 
was intended, in the first instance, to he 
an essav against the doctrine of necessity 
only ; but perceiving that this doctrine 
was maintained by several persons upon 
different principles, he distribuud their 
opinions under three different heads, 
which lie intended to treat of in three 
books ; but his Intellectual System relates 
only to the first, viz. "The material Ne- 
cessity of all Things without a God, or 
absolute Atheism." It is a work of great 
power and erudition, although the attach- 
ment of the author to the Platonism of 
the Alexandrian school has led him to 
advance some opinions which border on 
incomprehensibility and mysticism. The 
moral as well as intellectual character of 
this eminent scholar stood very high ; and 
he died universally respected, in 1688, in 
the 7l6t year of his age. 

CcENZA (anciently Canca) ; a city of 
Spain, in New Casdle, capital of a prov- 
ince ; 28 leagues E. S. E. Madrid ; Ion. 
2° 16^ W. ; lat. 40^ lO' N. ; population, 
6000. It is a bishop's see. It contains a 
cathedral, 13 parishes, 6 monasteries, an 
hospital, a seminary, and 3 colleges. It 
was built by the Moors, on a high and 
craggy hill, between the rivers Xucar and 
Huescar, which makes it naturallv strong. 
Here the painter Salmeron, and the fii- 
mous Jesuit Molina, were bom. The 
north and east part of the province is 
mountainous, and fit only for sheep pas- 
ture ; the other parts are fertile, producing 
com, hemp, fruit, &c. Population of the 
province, 296,650; square miles, 11,884. 

CuENZA, or Bamba ; a town of Colom- 
bia, in Quito, capital of a province ; 150 
miles S. Quito ; Ion. 79P \9 W. ; lat. 
2° Sy S. ; population, 15 or 20,000. The 
streets are straight and broad, and the 
houses mostly of adoheB, or unbumt bricks. 
The environs are very fertile and pleasant. 
The town contains 3 churches, 4 con- 
vents, 2 nunneries, an hospital, a chamber 
of finance, &c. 

CuENZA, Sierra de ; a chain of moun- 
tains which mns through the province of 
the same name. (See Cumzcu) 

CuEVA, John de la ; a poet, bom in Se- 
ville, about the middle of the 16th centuiy. 
A great facility in the composition of 
verses, in which Ovid was his model, 



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72 



CUEVA-CUFIC WRITING AND CUFIC COINS. 



detemimed him to . apply himself to the 
dramatic art, in which Torres Naharro 
had successfully resisted the attempts of 
some learned theatrical amateurs to force 
the Greek and Latin drama upon the 
people. In connexion with Naharro, 
Lope de Ruedra, and Christopher de Cas- 
tillejo, he confirmed the old division into 
comei&as divvnas y kumanas, while he 
made his pieces more interesting than 
those of his predecessors, b^ introducing 
greater variety in the dramaha ptrwn^ by 
more finished verses, and by the division 
into three jomadasy or act& His works, 
which ale now rare in Spain, may be 
found in the Pamaso Eapahol (vol. 8. 16). 
The earliest of his compositions are Poe- 
stas lAfricas (Seville, 1582), of the same 
character with the Corofebeo de Ron^aneea 
histariaUM (Seville, 1588). His heroic po- 
em. La Conquista de la Belica, in 20 can- 
tos (Seville, 1602, also in Fernandez's 
collection, vols. 14 — 15), has beauties 
enough io the execution to make amends 
for the defects of the plan. The Come- 
dias y Tragediaa, published at Seville, in 
1588| were received with applause, in their 
tiiae, in this poetical city, but offended, 
even then, by the introduction of alle- 
gorical personages in tlie action. In the 
Ptamaso Espahol there is a work of Cue- 
va's, written in terzets, on the art of poetry, 
which contains many interesting facts 
with regard to the old Spanish drama. 
Cueva died at the conunencement of the 
17th cenmry. 

CuFic Writing and Cufic Coins. 
The written characters of which the Ara- 
bians now make use, and with which we 
meet in printed works, viz., the Neskhi 
characten, are an invention of the 4th 
century of the Hegira. Before this time, 
the Cktfie characters, so called from the 
town of Cufa, where they are said to have 
been invented, were in use. These old 
characters have so much resemblance to 
the ancient Syriac writing, the Estrongel, 
that it hardly admits of a doubt, that the 
Arabians borrowed them from the inhdb- 
itants of Syria. Historical traditions con- 
firm this supposition. The Cufic charac- 
ters, and, perhaps, others at an earlier date, 
which essentially fesembled them, were 
probably first introduced among tiie Ara- 
bians a short time before Mohammed. 
Although we are, at present, ignorant of 
the charactere which were previously in 
use among them, and although the imper- 
fect accounts of the Mussulman wnters 
throw very little light upon the subject, 
yet it is scarcely credible that the Arabians 
remained destitute of a written character 



until the 6th century of the Christian eta. 
Perhaps traces of the earlier character are 
to be found in the Palmyrene and Phce- 
nician inscriptions, and also on the coins 
of the Sassanides. We find the transition 
of the Cufic to the Neskhi on the ruins of 
Chilminar. The influence which the 
school of Cufa exerted on Islamism 
caused the use of the character which 
proceeded from it ^ and when the otlien 
nad fiillen into oblivion, Cufic tmiting was 
the name commonly applied to all Kinds 
of Arabic writing, previous to the change 
made by £bn Mokla. A knowledge of it is 
important on account of the many monu- 
ments in which it is preserved ; especially 
the coins inscribed vnth Cufic charactera 
and made in the finit centuries of the He- 
gira. Under the name of Cufic coins are 
comprehended the ancient coins of the 
Mohammedan princes, generally without 
emblems, inscnbed and circumscribed on 
both sides, which have been found, in 
modem times, to be important documents 
fbr illustrating the history, languages and 
religions of tiie East. The little art dis- 
played in the impression of these coins, 
IS the reason why the earlier travellera 
through the E^ast too often overlooked 
them. These coins are some of sold (di^ 
nar)y others of silver (dirhem), ana othera 
of brass {Jvk). The sil ver coins, however, 
are the most frequent, and die discoveiy 
of large treasures of them on the shores 
of the Baltic has particulariy attracted to 
them the attention of learned men. Their 
form was borrowed by the Arabian ca- 
liphs from that of the Byzantine and 
Chosroean silver and copper coins. They 
are to be considered as the earliest of 
this class of coins, now daily increasing. 
Agreeably to Adlei^s suggestion, who first 
accurately investij^ted tiiese coins (Must' 
urn Ct^^cumBorgumum), they are divided, 
aceormng to the dynasties under which 
they were made, into 12 classes, in which, 
without any reference to the countiy to 
which they belong, eveiy thing which 
ought to be connected with them is com- 
bined. In the countries around the Baltic, 
as well as in the central provinces of Eu- 
ropean Russia, the silver coins most fre- 
quently found are those of the caliphs, 
the Ommiades as well as the Abbassides ; 
then those of the emirs of the Sofiarides, 
the Buwaihides, &c, but especially of 
the dynasty of the Samanides, which were 
struck between the middle of the 7th cen- 
tury of the Christian era, and the begin- 
ning of the 11th. Those of the 10th cen- 
tury are the most conunon. This &ct 
has not been aatisfiictorily explained. 



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CUFIC WRITING AND CUFIC COINS-CUIRASS. 



73 



Amber, girls for the haram, as well as 
costly furs, which the Russians at that 
time" brotight for sale to the Wolga, ac- 
cording to Fosslan's account of a journey 
at the beginning of the 10th century of the 
Christian era, appear to have been most 
frequently exchanged for them. Gold, in 
this commerce, was used only in bare; 
and, in order to make payments, in their 
transactions, with CTeater facility, or in 
order to have a medium of exchange for 
things of little value, tlie coins were 
broken, of which we have abtmdant evi- 
dence. By accurate investigations in the 
countries where this money is found, the 
diligence and leanting of the Orientalists 
Adier, Reiske, Ol. Tychsen, Silv. de Sa- 
cy, Hallenberg, Malmstrom, Rasmusson, 
FriLhn, Castiglioni (who has published a 
▼aluable work upon the Cufic coins of the 
imperial museum at Milan], Miinter and 
Th- Tychsen, have succeeaed in arrang- 
ing a tolerably perfect series of the several 
dynasties. Th. Tychsen's treatise Dt Jh- 
ftctSbvs Rn ATumarict Muhammedanor. (in 
the 5th volume of the CommeTiL Soc, GotL 
receniior.), will enable the student to un- 
derstand the deficiences of this science. 
Fr&hn, of Petersburg, now counsellor of 
state (author of a commentary upon the 
cabinet of the Mohammedan coins in the 
Asiatic museum at Petersburg], has been 
reputed to be the most thorough judge of 
this department, having had at his disposal 
the collections of tlie imperial academy, as 
well as tlioflc of private individuals, much 
exceeding in richness any to be found 
ebewhere. In connexion "with these 
coins ape to be considered the small pieces 
of glass, which were introduced, particu- 
lariy in Sicily, under the dominion of the 
Mohammedans, instead of money, or, per- 
haps, under the sanction of public author- 
ity, obtained currency as standards of the 
weight of coins. Among Cufic coins, 
ttkoee are particulariy sought for which 
bear images, because the forms repre- 
sented upon them appear to be opposed 
to the precepts of the Koran. But their 
commerce with the Greeks may, at first, 
have made the engravers of the Moham- 
medan coins less strict ; and, in the course 
of time, they ventured to give them figures 
agreeable to the peculiarities of the Ori- 
ental taste; in doin? which, they were 
aided by the armorial bearings (tamghas) 
of the princes of the Turkish fkSiily. 
Finally, they marked them with zodiacal 
and planetary figures, to which they at- 
tributed the power of amulets. (This 
reminds us of the renowned Nurmahal- 
rupees.) The original use of these coins is 
vox- IV. 7 



made still more manifest from inscriptions 
in many languages ; even Russian- Arabic 
coins are found in rich cabinets. Every 
day adds to our information in this de- 
partment Ol. Tychsen's fntroduetio in 
Item Alcmor. Mvhammedanor. (Rest., 1794), 
has, therefore, ceased to be complete. 
The abbe Reinaud, in the Journal Mai- 
ique (1823), has communicated many ex- 
cellent observations concerning the study 
of Arabic coins. A work by him, con- 
cerning this branch of numismatics, with 
a historical explanation of the coins in the 
cabinet of the duke of Blacas, and in the 
royal French collections, has also appeared. 
Cuirass ; an article of defensive armor, 
protecting the body both before and be- 
hind. Meyrick, in his dissertation on an- 
cient armor, has thus distinguished the 
cuirasses of different nations : — 1. Leath- 
ern, with a belt of the same material, worn 
by the Medes and Persians, before the 
reign of Cyrus the Great 2. Plumated 
or scaled loric<E of steel, of which the fore- 
part covered the breaat, the front of the 
thighs, and foreparts of the hands and 
legs; the posterior part, the back, necJi, 
and whole of the head ; both parts being 
united by fibvl(B on the sides : these be- 
longed to tne Parthian cavalr}'. 3. Scales 
made of horses' hoofs, sewed together with 
the sinew^ of oxen, were worn by the 
Sarmatians. 4. The /iirpa, padded with 
wool, covered with flat rings or square 
pieces of bras?, fastened at the sides, and 
cot round at tlie loins ; the Owpa(, or gor- 
get; the iamip, or girdle, to which was 
appended the ^w/io, a kind of petticoat, — 
belonged to the Homeric chiefs. 5. The 
Etruscans wore plain, scaled, laminated, 
ringed or quilted cuishes, with straps de- 
pending from them, either of leather sole- 
ly, or plated with metal ; and these straps^ 
as well as the cuirasses, were adopted by 
die Romans, who termed them lorictt^ 
On the Trajan colunon, the Unvaz of the 
hasiati and jnrndves (the two first ranks) 
consist of several metal bands wrapped 
half round die body, and fastened before 
and behind, over a leathern or quilted 
tunic. Sometimes the Roman cuirass was 
enriched with embossed fibres. The fo- 
ric<E of the triani (the third rank) wore 
of leather only. Domitian, according to 
Martial, adopted the Sarmatian cuirass, 
which he made of the hoofs of boars. 
The Roman cavaby of the early period 
did not wear hric<B ; but even before the 
cataphrades of Constantine (who wore 
flexible armor of scales and plates and 
rings, held together by hooks and chains, 
the lorica hamata of Virgil— Loriccwii con- 



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74 



CUIRASS— CULLEN. 



sertam hamis auroque trilicem^ Mn. iii. 
467), we read of horsemen who were 
loricatu Among the modems, the Anglo- 
Saxons wore leathern cuirasses (corieUt\ 
which, towards the end of the 9th century, 
were formed of hides fitted close to the 
body, and jagged or cut into the shape of 
leaves helow. The leathern cuirass, cov- 
ered with rings, was aripropriated to the 
blood royal, or chiefs of high rank : it was 
borrowed from the Gauls, and called nuzd, 
whence our coat of meal. The cuirass 
appears to have been disused in England 
in the time of Charles II, when bullet- 
proof silk was introd'uceii The lance 
navin^, of late years, again become an 
offensive weapon, the cuirass has been 
revived among the European cavalry. 
The finest part of Napoleon's cavalry 
were cuirassiers ; and the weight of these 
heavily-armed soldiers gave great mo- 
mentum to their charge. The cuirass 
leaves many vulnerable parts exposed, but, 
as it protects almost all the trunk, it mate- 
rially diminishes the chance of wounds, 
and gives confidence to the soldier. 

CujAs, Jacques, or Cujacius; son of 
Cujaus, a tanner in Toulouse ; l)om in 
15^0. While yet a student of law under 
Amould Ferrier, he attracted attention by 
his industry and talents. After having 
delivered private lectures at Toulouse, he 
received an invitation to be professor of 
law at Cahors in 1554 ; but he had been 
there only a year, wlien Margaret de Va- 
lois invited him, through her chancellor 
PHopital, to Bourges, where he lectured 
till 1567. He then went to Valence, and 
cave great reputation to the university of 
mat place by his instructions. On ac- 
count of tlie civil commotions in France, 
be returned to Bourges in 1575, fl*d re- 
mained tliere, afler a short stay at Paris, 
as teacher of the law, notwithstanding the 
most advantageous invitations to Bologna. 
Cujas o\ved his creat re])Utation to his 
profound study of the original works on 
the Roman law, of which he had collected 
more than 500 manuscripts. The correc- 
tions which he m(ide in ancient works on 
the law (to say hotliing of a great many 
Greek and Latin works on other subjects) 
were remarkable for number and acute- 
ness. In fact, he may be considered as 
the founder of scientific jurisprudence. 
He made himself popular, also, by the 
interest wliich he took in the personal for- 
tunes of his disciples, by his prudence in 
regard to the theological quarrels of his 
time [MtkU hoc ad edidum prcdoria was 
his maxim), and his faithfiil adherence to 
the cause of Henry IV. His grief for the 



afflictions of his country is said, to have 
accelerated his death (Oct 4, 1590). He 
was in tlie habit of studying and writing 
Iving on the ground. The booksellers at 
Lyons purchased his manuscripts for 
waste paper. The edition of his works, 
which he published himself in 1577, is 
correct, but incomplete; that by Fabrot 
(Paris, 1658, 10 vols, folio) is complete. 
The Prvmfititah^mi Operum lac Cujaeix, 
audore Dam. ^Ibuntnsi (Naples, 1763, 2 
vols, folio), is of great assistance in the 
study of this collection. His children by 
two marriages acquired a sort of celebrity 
by their immorality. (See Cujas and his 
Contemporaries^ by E. spangenberg.) 

CuLDEEs ; a religious order, which^ at 
one period, had considerable establish- 
ments in almost evmr part of Great 
Britain and Ireland. The name is of 
uncertain etymology ; some derive it from 
the Latin cuUor Dei (a worshipper of 
God), while others think they discover 
its origin in the Gaelic kyldee (from cyUtj 
a cell, and dee, a house), a building com- 
posed of cells. The history of the Cul- 
dees has acquired a factitious importance 
in the quarrels of the Episcopalians and 
Presbyterians ; the latter asserting t^at 
tliey were of veiy great antiquity, and 
were Presbyterians in their ecclesiastical 
policy ; the former maintaining that nei- 
ther of these positions is correct, that there 
is no menticHi of them in the early British 
writers, but that they are first spoken of 
subsequent to the year 854, and that they 
then ap[)car in the attitude of maintaining 
their right to confirm the election of the 
bishoDs of the several sees where they had 
establishments. Their ori^ is, by some, 
attributed to St Columlia, in the middle 
of the 6th century. After having exer- 
cised a great influence throughout the 
country, uiey are said to hare Men over- 
thrown by the increase of the papal 
power, and thiB institution of monasteries 
more congenial to the aspiring views of 
the see of Rome. 

CuLLEir (William), a celebrated physi- 
cian and medical writer, was bom in the 
county of Lanark, in Scotland, in 1712. 
He was apprenticed to a surgeon and 
apothecary at Glasgow, after which he 
made some voyages to the West Indies as 
surgeon to a merchant vessel. He subse- 
quently settled as a medical practitioner at 
Hamilton, where he formed a partnership 
with William Hunter, who afterwards be- 
came so distinguished. The object of 
their connexion was not so much present 
emolument as professional improvement. 
Each, therefore, in turn, was allowed to 



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CULLEN— CUMA- 



75 



attend metropolitan lectures, whilst the 
other prosecuted the business for their 
joint benefit In 1740, Cullen took the 
degree of M. D., and, settling at Glasgow, 
he was, in 1746, appointed lecturer on 
chemistry at the university there. In 
1751, he was chosen regius professor of 
medicine. In 1756, he was invited to take 
Che chemical professorship in the univer- 
sity of Edinburgh. In 1760. he was made 
lecturer on the materia meaica there, and 
subsequently resigned tlie chemical chair 
to his pupil, doctor Black. From 1766 to 
1773, he gave, alternately with doctor 
Gregory, anoual courses of lectures on 
the theory and practice of physic^^an ar- 
langement which continued till the death 
of doctor Gregoiy, in 1773, left liis rival 
in complete possession of the medical 
chair. As a lecturer on medicine, doctor 
CuUen exercised a great influence over 
the state of opinion relative to the mystery 
of that science. He successfully combated 
tlie specious doctrines of Boerhaave, de- 
pending on the humoral pathology ; though 
lie has not been equally successful in es- 
tablishing his own system, which is found- 
ed on an enlarged view of the principles 
of Frederic Hoffmann. His death took 
place Feb. 5, 1790. His principal works 
are Lectures on the Materia Medica ; 
S^nqtais Maologia PraeHca ; and First 
Lmes of the Practice of Physic, which 
must be considered as his magman opus, 
and which, amidst aU the recent fluctua- 
tions of opinion on medical theory, has 
retained its value. 

CcLLODEN MuiR ; a heath in Scotland, 
4 miles east of Inverness. It is celebrated 
for a victory obtained in the year 1746, by 
the duke of Cumberland, over the pam- 
sans of the house of Stuart The batde 
of CuUoden was the last batde fought on 
Britiab soil, and the termination of the at- 
tempts of the Stuart family to recover the 
throne of England. [SeeEtkoardiChmiea, 
Great Britaiiij and James IIL) The son 
of James III, ChaHcs Ekiward, in his 
daring expedition in 1745, had contended, 
with various success, against the English, 
and, indeed, was at one time only about 
100 miles ftom London, where terror and 
consternation prevailed. But, by a com- 
bination of unmvorable circumstances, he 
was compelled to retreat to Scotland, 
where fortune again seemed to smile on 
him at the batde of Falkirk. But the 
duke of Cumberland, marchmg against 
him, baffled the whole enterprise by the 
decisive victory of Culloden, April ?7 
(16th, O. S.), 1746. Edward's anny was 
defident in subordination. Though his 



troops were faint with &dgue and hunger 
when the batde began, they fought with 
spirit The impetuoua bravery of the 
Highlanders, however, at length yielded 
to the well-served artillery of the English. 
The victors massacred the wounded Scots 
on tlie field of batde. Charles Edward 
was exposed, in his flight,^to a diousand 
dangers, but at length escaped. His fol- 
lowers suffered the vengeance of the vic- 
tors. The most distinguished of them 
died on the scaflbld, and the districts 
which had been the theatre of the rebel- 
lion were laid waste. The English gov- 
enimeat henceforward took measures to 
prevent the recurrence of similar attempts. 
Finduig that the attachment of the High- 
landers to the old royal line arose princi- 
pally from the peculiarity of their customs 
and mode of life, they resolved to abolish 
their institutions. Since that period, the 
primitive Scottish manners and usages 
have been continually dwindling away and 
disappearing. 

Culm ; a village in Bohemia, 3 leagues 
east of the well-known watering-place of 
Tepljtz, and near the finontier of Saxony; 
famous on account of the battle of Aug. 
30, 1813, in which the French, under 
Vandamme, were beaten by the Prussians 
and Russians. Vandamme was taken 
i^soner, with 3 generals and 10,000 men. 
The battle was one of the bloodiest in the 
whole war. The allies had, a few days 
previous (Aug. 26), hi«n, repulsed by Na- 
poleon in their attack on Dresden. Dn 
tlie 2S>th, a bloody batde took place be- 
tween Vandamme and the allies, who de- 
fended the fiontiers of Bohemia, to cover 
the retreat of the Russians. The night 
put an end to the batde. On the 30th, it 
was linewed with fury, and ended with 
the victory of Culm. This victory was 
decisive ; for the allies were enabled to 
save Bohemia, on which Napoleon was 
pressing with all his might A few days 
before (Aug. 26), on the same day with the 
batde at Dresden, the French had been 
beaten by Blucher on the Katzbach ; and 
from diis time, the series of disasters is to 
be dated, which ended with tlie dethrone- 
ment of die French emperor. 

C(7LMiNATioN, in astronomv ; the pass- 
ing of a star through the meridian, liecause 
it has at that moment reached the highest 
point (culmen) of its path, with reference 
to the observer. Hence culminaiion is 
used, metaphorically, for the condition of 
any person or thing arrived at the most 
brilliant or important point of its progress. 

CuMA, or Cyme ; die largest and most 
important city of JSohs (Asia Minor), and, 



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76 



CUMA— CUIilBERLAND. 



at the same time, one of the most ancient 
places on the Mgeean sea. From this 
place the Cumsean Sibyl took her name. 
Hesiod was bom here. According to 
Strabo, the inhabitants of Cuma were con- 
sidered OS somewhat deficient in talent 

CuM£, a veiy ancient city in Campa- 
nia, and the oldest colony of the Greeks 
in Italy, was founded about 1030 B. C. by 
Chalcis of £uboea,and peopled by Asiatic 
Cumseans and by Phocians. The com- 
mon belief of the inhabitants made it the 
residence of the Cumsean sibyl, though 
her home was really in Asia, (See ^ 
preceding article.) The Grotto of Truth 
was situated in the wood sacred to the 
goddess Trivia, and in its neighborhood 
was the Acherusian lake. In this region 
Cicero had a country-seat Cumae had a 
considerable territory, and a naval force in 
her port, Puteoll She founded Naples 
(NeapoKs), and, in Sicily, Zancle or Mes- 
Kina. In 430 B. C, Cumee was taken by 
the Oampanians, and came with them 
imder the power of Rome (345 B. C). It 
was destroyed A. D. 1207. 

CuMAifA ; a provmce of Colombia, 
hounded N. and £. by the Caribbean sea, 
S. by the Orinoco. In the westera part, 
towards the coast, the soil is tolerably fer- 
tile. The eastern part is diy and sandy, 
affording nothing out an inexhaustible 
mine of marine and mineral salt On the 
Orinoco, the countiy is fit only for pas- 
turage : other parts are exceedingly fertile. 
In tne mtenor is a range of mountains, of 
which Tumeriquisi, the most elevated, is 
5900 feet high. 

CuMANA, or New Cordova ; a town of 
Colombia, and capital of a province of the 
same name; Ion. 64° lO' W.; lat 10° 28^ 
N. : population, estimated by Hum^ldt at 
18 or 19,000 ; by Depons, at 24,000. It is 
situated near the moudi of the gulf of 
Cariaco, about a mile from the sea, on an 
arid, sandy plain. The climate is hot, 
earthqufikes are frequent, and the houses 
low, and lightly built On the 14th Dec, 
1797, more than tliree fourths of them 
were destroyed by an earthquake. The 
inhabitants cany on a considerable trade 
in cacao, and other productions of the 
country. The road is commodious for its 
depth, and of a semicur^ular form, which 
defends it from the violence of the vnnds. 

Cumberland, duke of; second son of 
George II of England; bom in 1721, and 
died Oct 30, 1765. At the battle of Det- 
tingeu, he was wounded, when fighting at 
the side of his father. At Fontenoy, he 
was compelled to yield to the superior 
experience of marshal Saxe ; but rose in 



reputadon by subduing the insurrection 
in Scotland, caused by the landing of 
Charles Edward Stuart (see CuUoden and 
Urfuwrf), 1745 ; which, however, was more 
in consequence of the discord and irreso- 
lution prevailing in the camp of his brave 
antagonists, than from any disdnguished 
talent exhibited by him. Charles Edwand, 
when only two days' march from London, 
commenced his retreat into Scotland from 
Carlisle (January, 1746), and was com- 
pletely defeated (April, 1746) at Cnlloden. 
(q. v.) The duke obsciued his famie by 
the cruel abuse which ^he made, or suf- 
fered his soldiers to make, of the victory ; 
which was tlie more dishonorable, as the 
followera of the pretender, on their march 
through the Scotch Lowlands and in Eng- 
land, had evinced the greatest humanity 
and forbearance. In 1747, Cumberland 
was defeated by marshal Saxe, at Lafeld. 
In 1757, he lost the battle of Hastenbeck, 
against D'Esti^^es, and, Sept 8, concluded 
the convention at Closter-Seven, upon 
which he was recalled, and Ferdinand, 
duke of Brunswick, received the com^ 
mand of the allied army. 

Cumberland (Ernest Augustus), duke 
of, brother to George IV, king of Eng- 
land, fbuith son of George III, was bom 
June 5, 1771. The duke has almost 
always lived abroad, and is little known in 
England, except for his unsuccessful at- 
tempt to obtain an addition to his sdpend, 
after he had married Frederica Sophia 
Carolina, daughter of the duke of Meck- 
lenburg-Strelitz, and widow of the prince 
of Solms. He generally resides at Beriin, 
where he leads a dissipated life. His 
son, George Frederic Alexander Charles 
Ernest Augustus, waa bom May 27, 1819. 
When the duke was in England,* in 1815| 
'his wife was not admitted at court 

Cumberland, Richard, a dramatic and 
miscellaneous writer, son of the reverend 
Denison Cumberland, bishop of Cionfert, 
by the daughter of doctor Bentle^, was 
bom in the master's lodge, in Trinity col- 
le^, Cambridge, Feb. 19, 1732. He re- 
ceived his early education at Westminster, 
and, in his 14th year, was admitted of 
Trinity college, where he studied veiy 
closely, and obtained his bachelor's degree 
at the age of 18, and soon after was elect- 
ed fellow. He liecame private secretary 
to lord Hatifrx, and made his first offering 
to the press in a small poem, entitled an 
Elegy written on St Mark's Eve, which 
obtained but little notice. His tragedy 
eptitied the Banishment of Cicero was 
rejected by Garrick, and printed by tlie 
author in 1761. In 1769, he was married, 



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77 



and, his patron being made lord-Ueutenant 
of Ireland, be accompanied him to that 
kingdom. When lord Halifax became 
secretary of state, he procured nothing 
better for Cumberland tnan the clerkship 
of reports in the office of trade and plan- 
tations. In tlie course of the next twp or 
three years, he wrote an opera, entided 
the SummeF's Tale, and his comedy of 
the Brothers. His West Indian, which 
was brought out by Ganick in 1771, prov- 
ed eminently successful. The Fashiona- 
ble Lover not obtaining the success of 
the West Indian, he exhibited tiiat sore- 
ness of character which exposed him to 
the satire of Sheridan, in his sketch of 
Sir Fretful Plagiary, and which induced 
Garrick to call him tlie man wUhoutaskin. 
The Choleric Man, the Note of Hand, 
and the Battle of Hastings, were his next 
productions. On the accession of lord 
George Gennaine to office, he was made 
secretary to the board of trade. In 1780, 
he was employed on a confidential mis- 
aon to the courts of Lisbon and Madrid, 
which, owing to some dissatisfaction on 
the part of the ministry, involved him in 
great distress, as they withheld the reim- 
bursement of his expenses to the amount 
of £5000, which rendered it necessary for 
him to dispose of the whole of his hered- 
itary property. To add to his misfortune, 
the boara of trade was broken up, and he 
retired with a very inadequate pension, 
and devoted himself enturely to literature. 
The first works which he published^ after 
his return fiom Spain, were his entertain- 
ing Anecdotes or Spanish Painters, and 
the most distinguished of his collection of 
essays, entitled the Observer. To these 
may be added tlie novels of Arundel, 
Henry, and John de Lancaster, the poem 
of Calvary^ the Exodiad (in conjunction 
with sir James Bland Burgess), and, lastly, 
a poem called Retrospection, and the Me- 
moirs of his own Life. He also edited 
the London Review, in which the critics 
gave their names^ and which soon expir- 
ed. His latter days were chiefly spent in 
London, where he died. May 7, 1811. The 
comic drama was liis forte : and, although 
he wrote much, even of comedy, that was 
very iodififerent, the merit of the West 
Indian, the Fashionable Lover, the Jew, 
and the Wheel of Fortune, is of no com- 
mon deemption. His Observer, since his 
acknowledcment of his obligations to doc- 
tor Bentley^s manuscripts, no longer sup- 
ports his reputation as a Greek critic ; and 
as a poet^ he was never more than a ver- 
sifier. 
CuvberIiANd; a post-town, and capital 
7* 



of Alleghany county, Maryland, on the 
Potomac, at the Junction of Will's creek, 
70 miles W. Hagerstown, 130 E. S. E. 
Wheeling, 150 W. by N. Baltimore. It is 
a considerable town, and contains a court- 
house, a jail, a market-house, a bank, and 
four houses of public worship— one for 
Lutherans, one for Roman Catholics, one 
for Methodists, and one built jointly by 
the Presbyterians and Episcopalians. The 
mountains in the vicinity alx>und in stone- 
coal, great quantities of which are trans- 
ported down the Potomac in flat and keel 
i)oat& The Cumberland or Grreat Western 
road extends from this town to the banks 
of the Ohio at Wheeling. It was made 
by the government of the U. States, at the 
expense of $1,800,000; and a sufvey hat 
been made from dience to the Mississippi, 
600 miles farther. 

CuMBERLAirn MouNTAiifs, in Tennes- 
see. The range commences in the S. W. 
part of Pennsylvania, and, in Virginia, it 
takes the name of Laurel numwtainf passes 
through the S. E. part of Kentucky, and 
terminates in Teimessee, 80 miles S. E, 
Nashville. A considerable jrardon of this 
mountain in Tennessee is composed of 
stupendous piles of craggy rocks. It is 
thinly covered with trees, and has springs 
impregnated with alum. Lime-stone m 
found on both sides of it 

Cumberlaitd; a river which rises in 
the Cumberland mountains, ViiTpnia, and 
runs through Kentuckv and Tennessee 
into the Ohio, 60 miles froi^ the Mississip* 
pi. It is navigable for steam-boats to 
Nashville, near SdO miles, and for boats of 
15 tons, 300 miles farther. At certain 
seasons, vessels of 400 tons may descend 
400 miles, to the Ohio. 

CuMMASSE, or CooMASsiE ; a tovm of 
Afiica, capital of Ashantee ; 130 miles 
N. N. W. Cape Coast Casde ; Ion. 2° 6^ W. ; 
lat 6° SO' N. : population estimated by Mr. 
Bowdich, in 1818, at 15,000 ; suited by the 
inhabitants at 100,000. It is situated in a 
vale, surrounded by an unbroken mass 
of the deepest verdure. Four of the prin- 
cipal streets are half a mile long, and from 
50 to 100 yards broad. The houses are 
low and small, •fa square or oblong form, 
coi^pc^dp^f caues wattled together, and 
plastered with clay and sand. The town 
nas considerable trade. The king's harem 
is said to contain 3333 women ! 

CuNDiNAMARCA ; the northern part of 
New Grenada. It forms a department 
of the republic of Colombia, and compre* 
bends the provinces of Bogota, Antioquia, 
Mariquita and Neiva, with 371,000 inhabit- 
ants. The chiefplace is Santa FedeBogotA. 



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CUNERSDORF--CUPOLA. 



CuNERSDORF ; a village near Frankfoit 
on the Oder, known on account of the 
bk>odv battle in which Frederic the Great 
was defeated, Aug. 12, 1759. It is only 
about 50 miles distant from Berlin, his ca|>- 
ital. Opposed to him were the Rossians 
imder Soltikoff, and the Auslrians under 
Laudon. Victory seemed, at first, likely 
to declare in favor of Frederic, but, event- 
ually, he lost all his artillery and 20,000 
men. (See Seven Years' 9Far,) The king 
at first gave up all hopc^ but soon recov- 
ered his spirits, when SoltikoflT, with in- 
conceivable tai^diness, neglected to folk>w 
up his victory. 

CtjpEL ; a shallow earthen vessel, some- 
what resembling a cup, from which it 
derives its name. It is formed of bone- 
aabes, and is extremely porous. It is used 
in assays, to separate the precious metals 
from their alloys.. The process of cvpel- 
lation consists in fusing an alloy of a pre- 
cious metal, along with a quantity of lead, 
in a cupel. The le^ is exti^eraely sus- 
ceptible of oxidation, aiid, at the same 
time, it promotes the oxidation of other 
metals, and vitrifies with their oxides. 
The foreign metal^ are tlius removed; 
the vitrified matter is absorbed by the 
cupel, or is driven off by the blast of the 
l)eilow8, as it collects on the surface; 
and the precious metal at length remams 
nearly pure. 

CuPELLATioN. (See Cupd,) 

CupicA ; a Beaix>rc and bay of Colombia, 
on tlie S. £. aiae of Panama, following 
the coast of tlie Pacific ocean, from cape 
St Miguel to cape Corrientes. This is 
thought by Humboldt the most fiivorable 
point for connecting the Atlantic and Pa- 
cific oceans by a canal. From the bay of 
Cupica, there is a passage of only 15 or 18 
miles, over a country quite level, and 
suited to a canal, to the head of naviga- 
tion of the river Naipi, a branch of the 
river Atrato, which flows into the Atlan- 
tic. Gogueneche, a Biscayan pilot, is said 
to have first pohited out this spot as almost 
the only place where the chain of the 
Andes is completely interrupted, and a 
eanal tlius made practicable. 

Cupid ; a celebrated deity among the 
ancients ; the god of lovfe, and love iteelf. 
There are difrerent traditions coiiceniing 
his parents. Cicero mentions three Cu- 
inds; one, son of Mercury and Diana; 
another, son of Mercury and Venus; and 
the third, son of Mars and Venus. Plato 
mentions two* Hesiod, the most ancient 
theogonist, epeaks only of one, who, as he 
says, was produced at the same time as 
Chaoe and the Earth. There are, accord- 



ing to the more received opinions, two 
Cupids, one of whom is a hvely, ingen- 
ious youth, son of Jupiter and Venus, 
whilst tlie other, son of Nox and Erebus, 
is distinguished by his debauchery and 
riotous disposition. Cupid is represented 
as a winged infant, naked, armed with a 
bow, and a quiver full of arrows. On 
gems and all other antiques, he is rep- 
resented as amusing himself with some 
childish diversion. Sometimes he appean 
driving a hoop, throwing a quoit, playing 
with a nymph, catching a butterfly, or 
with a lighted torch in his hand. At other 
times, he plays upon a horn before his 
mother, or closely embraces a swan, or, 
with one foot raised in the air, he, in a 
musing posture, seems to meditate some 
trick. Sometimes, like a conqueror, he 
marches triumphantly, with a helmet on 
his head, a spear on his shoulder, and 
a buckler on his arm, intimating that 
even Mars himself owns the superiority 
of love. His power was generally shown 
by his riding on the back of a lion, or oo 
a dolphin, or breaking to pieces the thun- 
der-bolts of Jupiter. Among the ancients, 
he was worshipfied with the same solem- 
nity as his mother, Venus, and his influ- 
ence WQS extended over the heavens, the 
sea, and the earth, and even the empire 
of the dead. His divinity was univetfially 
acknowledged, and vows, prayers and 
sacrifices were daily ofifered to him. Ac- 
cording to some accounts, the union of 
Cupid with C%aoe gave birth to men, 
and all the animals which inhabit the 
earth ; and even the gods themselves were 
the offspring of love, befi>re the founda- 
tion of the world. (See Amor,) 

Cupola (BaL), in architecture ; a hem- 
ispherical roof, often used as the summit 
of a building. The Italian word cupola 
signifies a hemispherical roof, which cov- 
ers a circular building, like tlie Pantheon 
at Rome, and the round templa at Tivoli. 
Many of the ancient Roman temples were 
circular; and the most natural form for a 
roof for such a building was that of a half 
globe, or a cup reversed. The inventwn, 
or at least the first usC) of the cupola be- 
longs to the Romans; and it has never 
been used with greater effect than by 
them. The greater part of modem cupo- 
las (unlike those of the ancients, which 
are mostly hemispherical) are semi-ellipti- 
cal, cut through their shortest diameter. 
The ancients seldom had any other open- 
ing than a large cucle m the centre, called 
the eye of the cupola ; while the modems 
elevate lanterns on their top^ and perfo- 
rate them with lutiiem and dormant win- 



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CUPOLA— CURDS. 



79 



^WB, and other disfigurements. The 9n* 
cientB constructed their cupolas of stone ; 
the ofiodems, of timber, covered with lead 
or copper. Of cupolas, the finest, without 
any comparison, ancient or modem, is that 
of the Kotundo or Pantheon at Rome. 
Of modem constructions, some of the 
handsomest are the cupola on the bank 
of England, that of St Peter's at Rome, 
tltoee of St. Paul's, London, the Hotel des 
Invalides, and the church of St. Genevieve 
at Pans, Santa Maria da Fieri at Flor- 
ence, and St Sophia at Constantinople. 

CtiftAQAO ; an island in the Caribbean 
sea, about 75 miles fiK>m the continent of 
South America, belonging to the Nether- 
lauds ; 30 mUes long, and 10 broad ; pro- 
ducing sugar and tobacco, also lai^e and 
small cattle ; but not generaU^ ferule. It 
has several good ports» paruculariy one 
on the southern coast, called iSLBeniorfi, 
where a great trade was formerly carried 
on by the Dutch in Afirican slaves. Lon. 
(2^a(y W.; latl2?N.; population, 850a 
The principal towns are Curasao and 
Williamstadt The city of Curasao is 
well situated, and elegantly built It is 
full of storehouses, and provided with 
eveiy species of merchandise. William- 
stadt is considered the capitaL 

CuRASSOA Oranoes (ourttfvtia ctmiMO- 
vedia), or small onoges fiillen from the 
tree lonjg before their maturity, have prop- 
erties mmilar to those of the orange-peel : 
they are, however, more bitter and acrid. 
They are used in the U. States and in 
England for the same purposes as the 
onnge-peel, and also as issue peas. 

CuBDs; a wandering people, divided 
mto many tribes, and dwelling in the 
country which lies between the foot of 
mount Caucasus and the Black sea, and 
stretches to the sources of the Tigris and 
Euphrates. Their incursions into the 
Russian territories have been checked by 
the trooDS <m the firontier, and thev have 
preferred to leave Persia rather than to 
oecome settled and tributary to the shah. 
'Diey are Mohammedans, but neither of the 
Turkish nor Persian sect The most un- 
principled part of the Curds are the Yezides, 
who esteem the plunder of caravans, mur- 
der, theft and incest lawfiiL There are 
no Armenian Christians among thistpeo- 
pfe, who, in spite of the repeataa demands 
of the pacha, have never paid to the 
Porte either poll-tax or taxes on their 
property (mtn). They, however, aome- 
times propose to the Porte the persons 
whom they wish as pachas and beys, and 
the Porte has never ftdled to comply with 
*heir request. It is said that the Curds 



are descended from the Usbeck Turtam 
or from the Mongols ; but their external 
appearance is veiy unlike that of tlie Tar- 
tars. The Curds wear a ck>ak of black 
goatskin, and, instead of a turban, a high, 
red cap. The Turkish dress is never 
worn, because they consider that it would 
mark them as vassals of the sulun. The 
young men wear mustachios ; the old 
men eaSer their beards to grow. Tlie 
Curd is a eood rider, and uses his lance 
with skill He is fond of mtisic, and sings 
in ballads the exploits of his nation. There 
are some of this people settled in the plains 
of Armenia, but no branch acknowledges 
itself tributary to the Porte. If the winter 
among the highlands proves too cold for 
the wild mountain Curd, he descends to 
these plains, and lives in low tents of dark, 
coane Uiien. An enclosure made of reeds, 
near his tent, surrounds the place where 
he keeps his cattle, which he has brought 
finom the mountains. This people, who 
live by plunder, reepect the rights of hos- 
pitality, and usually make their guest 
some present when be departs. The pa- 
triarehalauthoriiy of parents is very great 
A son never marries without their con- 
sent Although otherwise so deficient in 
moral princiole, they believe that no one 
can refuse the request of an unfortunate 
man without being punished by God* 
Mithridates, king of Pontus, took admn- 
tage of this belief to supply the losses of 
his army in his wan with the Romans* 
The more wonderful the escapes of the 
unfortunate individual, the more cmifident 
are they that he will experience a change 
of foitune. On this account, these moun- 
tains are the refuge of the enemies of the 
Turkish pachas; and they oflen return 
from them more formidable than they 
were before. Pottase, milk and honey 
form the principal food of the Curds. 
They drive annually to Constantinople 
alone 1,500,000 slieep, and goats in flocks 
of 1500—2000, the shepherds being from 
15 to 18 months on the road, in going and 
returning. Northern Cuidistan produces 
graui, sulf^ur and altmi: the southern 
and warmer parts of the country produce 
com, rice, sesaasum, fruits, cotton, tobacco, 
hotkeys wtx, manna and gall-nuts, exported 
by the way of Smyrna. Curdistan has 
sannacks at Bayazid, Mouch, Van, Jula- 
men, Amadia, Soleihmanieh, Kara-Djio- 
lan and Zahou. Of all these sanffiacks, 
the Porte appoints only that or Van. 
Each sangiack ^verns a number of the 
tribes of his nation, who obey his com- 
mands in war, but are wholly indepep- 
dent of him in time of peace. The Chris- 



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CURDS— CURIA. 



tiaps, who constitute the principal popu- 
lation of the plains of Annenia, suffer 
eveiy year from the incuFsions of the 
Curds, and, the Porte being unable to pro- 
tect them, they are compelled continually 
to remove fiuiher to the south, where they 
are also liable to be plundered by the 
Bedouins or Wechabites. Their only 
hope is in the increasing power of the 
Russian amr^ on the Tuixish, Curdish 
and Persian nontiers, and in the expecta- 
tion that tlie Russians will at last put an 
end to the robberies of the Turks and the 
oppression of the pachas. 
CuRETES. (See CorubanUs.) 
Curia, Papal, is a collective appellation 
of aU the authorities in Rome, which exer- 
cise the rights and privileges which the 
pope enjoys as first bishop, superintendent 
and pastor of Roman Catholic Christen- 
dom. The right to grant or confirm 
ecclesiastical appointments is exercised 
by tlie dakaitu (q. v.) This body receives 
petitions, draws up answers, and collects 
the revenues of the pope for the paUioj 
spoUa, benefices, annatea^ &c It is a lu- 
cradve branch of the papal government, 
and part of the receipts go to die apostoUc 
chamber. There is more difficulty at- 
tending the business of the rata (q. v.^, the 
high court, of appeal In former times, 
the cardinal grand penitentiary, as presi- 
dent of the Defwfenzima, had a very great 
influence. He issues all dispensations 
and absolutions in respect to vows, pen- 
ances, fasts, &C., in rejjputl to which the 
pope has reserved to himself the dispens- 
ing power; also with respect to marriages 
witmn the degrees prohibited to Cathohcs. 
Besides these authorities^ whose powers 
extend over all Catholic Christendom, there 
are, in Rome, several others, occupied 
only with the government of the Roman 
state ; as the sagra coMuUoy the chief 
criminal court, in which the cardinal sec- 
retary of state presides ; the signatura di 
gku&siay a court for civil cases, consisting 
of 12 prelates, over which the cardatc£' 
prowediton^ or minister of justice of the 
pope, presides, and with which the sig' 
natura di graxia coneurs; the apostouc 
chamber, in whioh 13 prelates are em- 
ployed, under the cardinale camerUngo, 
administering the property of the church 
and the papiu domains, and receiving the 
revenue which belongs to the pope as 
temporal and spirituiu sovereign of the 
Roman state ; also that which he derives 
firom other countries which stand imme- 
diately under him, and are his fie&. Be- 
sides these, there is a number of governors, 
prefects, procuratori^ 6cc^ in the diiferent 



branches of the administration. The 
drawing up of bullsy answers and decrees, 
which are issued by the pope himself^ or 
by these authorities, is done by the papal 
chancery, consisting of a vice-chancellor 
and 12 abbreviatori (q. v.), aansted by sev- 
eral hundred secretaries : the brevea only 
are excepted, and are drawn up by a par- 
ticular cardinal. AU these offices are, 
filled by clergymen ; and many of them ' 
are so lucrative, that considerable sums 
are paid for them, somewhat in the same 
manner as commisaons are purchased in 
the English army. At the death of Six- 
tus V, there existed 4000 venal offices of 
this kind ; but this number has since been 
diminisheid, and many abuses have been 
abolished. The highest council of the 
pope, corresponding, in some measure, to 
the privy council of a monarch, is the col- 
lege of the cardinals, convened whenever 
the pope thinks fit. The sessions of this 
senate, which presides over all the other 
authorities in Rome, are called con8iti4irU8, 
They are of three different kinda The 
secret consistory is held, generally, twice a 
month, after the pope has given private 
audience to every cardinal In these ses- 
sions, bishops are elected, paBia grant- 
ed, ecclesiastical and political afiairs of 
importance transacted, and resolutions 
adopted on the reports of the congre^- 
tions delegated by the consistory : testifi- 
cations and canonizations also originate in 
this body. DiflTerent fi:om the secret con- 
sistories are the semi-secret ones, whose 
deliberations relate principally to political 
afi[airB, and the results of them are com- 
mimicated to the ambassadors of foreign 
powers. The public consistories are sel- 
dom held, and are, principally, ceremo- 
nial assemblies : in these the pope receives 
ambassadors, and makes known important 
resolutions, canonizations, establishments 
of orders, &c. According to rule, all car- 
dinals residing in Rome should take part 
in the consistories ; but, in point of met, 
no one appears without being especially 
summoned by the )>ope. The pope, if 
able to do so, always presides in persmi, 
and-the cardinal secretary of state (who is 
minister of the interior and of foreign 
affiurs) is always present, as are likewise 
the cardinals presidents of the authorities. 
At presenti diere are 22 congregations of 
cardinals at Rome: 1. the holy Roman 
and general inquisition, or holy office (m»- 
to cmcio) ; 2. vuiia cgpostoUca ; 3. contUkh- 
rime; 4. vescovi reg€lari; 5. de €onciUo 
(tridetitino) ; d rtaidataa di MMoot ; 7. tm- 
mumtaecmsiaiUca; ^.propaganda; 9.m- 
did (of prohibited booKs) ; 10. Bogri riH 



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(ofthe holy rites); 11. ceremomole ; VLdig- 
c^tUna regoUtrt (orders of monks) ; 13. tn- 
dulgenzt e soffre rekufuie; 14. t$ame dei 
veteom ; 15. eorrezUmx dti libri deila ddesa 
OnentaU ; 16. fabbrica di S. Pidro (who 
have charge of the repairs of St Pe- 
ter's) ; 17. cofutdta ; 18. Bwmgovemo^ ; 
19. horttto ; 20. hydraulic woiks and the 
Pontine marshes ; 21. eamomica ; 22. ex- 
traordinary ecclesiastical affiurs. Few, 
however, of these congregations, are fully 
supplied with officers. 

Cuaix ; certain divisions of the Roman 
people, which Romulus is said to have 
established. According to Liv. i. 13, he 
divided Rome into 30 cunts, and assigned 
to each a separate place, where they might 
celebrate their fbasts, under their particu- 
lar priest (curio). At the condtiaj ue peo- 
ple assemUed in curue, to vote on impoiv 
tant matters. The whole Roman people 
were divided by Romulus (IHonys, Hdic. 
ii. c €2) into three tribes, each tribe into 
10 curuBy each curia into 10 dtcwrut. To 
vote ewrialimy therefore, is to vote by curue. 
The division into curue was founded on 
locality, and therefore contradistinguished 
from the division according to tribes (a 
number of fiimilies of the same descent). 
Niebuhr, in his Roman History, treats this 
subject with uncommon erudition and 
perspicuity in vol. i, chapter Tht Patridan 
Hotue^ and the CuritB, — Curia also si^i- 
fied a puUic building ; as, curia fmmictpar 
lis, &C. 

CuRiATii. (See HoraHL) 

CuRf us Dentatus, Marcus Annius ; an 
illustrious Roman, who was three times 
consul, and twice obtained the honors of a 
triumph. He vanquished the Samnites, 
Sabines and Lucanians, and defeated 
Pyrrhus, near Tarentum, B. C. 272. When 
the deputies of the Samnites appeared 
before him for the purpose of concluding 
a peace, thev found him on his farm, boil- 
ing vegetables in an earthen pot They 
attempted to purchase his &vor by offering 
him vessels of gold, but the noble Roman 
dbdainiuUv re&ed their offers. <* I pre- 
fer," said he, ** my earthen pot» to your 
vases of gold. 1 have no desire for wealth, 
and am satisfied to live in poverty, and 
rule over the rich." 

Curlew (numemus, Briss.) ; a genus 
of birds belonging to the order grotfice, or 
waden, and family KmicoUty wlK)se most 
remarkable characteristic is, that the bill 
is wholly or partially covered by a sofl, 
sensitive skin, which enables them to ob- 
tain their food fix>m the mud with facility, 
though unable to discover it by sight 
The genus is characterized by a very long, 



slender, almost cylindrical, compressed 
and arcuated bill, having the upper man- 
dible longer than the lower, furrowed for 
three fourths of its length, vad dilated and 
rounded towards the tip. The nostrils 
are situated in the furrow, at the base, and 
are lateral, longitudinal and oblong. The 
tongue is very short and acuto. The f^t 
are rather long, slender, and fmu^loed; 
the taisus is one half longer than the mid- 
dle toe. The fore toes are connected, at 
the base, by a short membrane, to the first 
joint The nails are compressed, curved, 
acute, and the cutting edge of the middle 
one is entire. The first primary is ^e 
longest; the tail, which is somewhat 
rounded, consists of 12 feathere. The 
plumage of the curlew is generally dull, 
being grayish-brown, rusty-whito and 
blackish, in both sexes, which are similar 
in size. The young bird also difftrs veir 
little fit>m the parents, except that the bill 
is much shorter and straighter. Their 
favorite resorts are marshy and muddy 
places, in the vicinity of water, over which 
they run with great quickness. They feed 
on various worms, small fishes, insects 
and molluscous animals, and are very shy, 
wary and vigilant of the approach of man. 
They are mcHiogamous, and pass most of 
their time separate from the rest of their 
species. Their nests are built on tufbs or 
tussocks in the marshes, and, during incu- 
bation, both parents assiduously devote 
themselves to th^r charge. The eggs are 
usually four, being much larger at one 
end than the other, or pyriform in shape. 
The young, as soon as hatched, leave the 
nest to seek their own subsistence. At 
the oeriod of migration, the curiews mute 
to form large flocks, and their flight is 
high, rapid and protracted. They utter a 
loud, whistling noto, easily recognised 
when once heutl, but not easy to be char- 
acterized by description. Three species 
of curlew are inhabitants of this continent 
— the long-billed curlew (JV*. Umgirostrify 
Wils.), the Esquimaux curlew (A*. Hud- 
sctneuSf Lath.) and the boreal curlew (JV*. 
hcre4di$. Lath.). The two first are com- 
mon in spring and autumn, in the Middle 
States of the iFnion : the last is lare in the 
U. States. 

CuRRAN, John Philpot, a celebrated 
Irish advocate, of humble ori^, was bom 
at Newmaricet, near Cork, in 1750. He 
was educated at Trinity college, Dublin, 
afler which he repaired to London, and 
studied at one of the inns of court In 
due time, he was called to the bar ; shortly 
after which he married Miss 0*Dell, an 
Irish lady of a very respectable family 



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CURRAN— CURRANTS. 



By the influence of bis talents, he gradual- 
ly rose to great reputation ; and, during 
the administration of the duke of Portland, 
he obtained a silk gown. In 1784, he was 
chosen a member of the Irish house of 
commons. His abilities now displayed 
themselves to advantage, and he became 
the most popular advocate of his age and 
countiy. During the distracted state of 
Ireland, towards the close of the last cen- 
tiuy, it was often his lot to defend persons 
accused of political offenc^ when Mr. 
Fitzgibbon (afterwards lord Clare), then 
attorney-general, was his opponent The 
professional rivahy of tliese gendemen 
degenerated into personal rancor, which 
at length occasioned a duel^ the result of 
which was not fatal to eitlaer party. On 
a cliange of ministiy durinff die vice-roy- 
alty of the duke of Bedford, Mr. Curran's 
patriodsm was rewarded with the office 
of master of the rolls. This situadon he 
held till 1814, when he resigned it, and 
obtained a pension of £3000 a year. With 
this he retired to England, apd resided 
chiefly in tlie neighborhood of London. 
He died in consequence of a paralytic 
attack, at Brompton, Nov. 1^ 1817, at the 
age of 67. — Curran possessed talents of 
the highest order : his wit, his drollery, his 
eloquence, his pathos, were irresistible; 
and the splendid and daring style of his 
onitoiy formed a striking contrast widi his 
personal appearance, wliich was mean 
and diminutive. As a companion, he 
could be extremely asreeable; and his 
conversation was often nighly fiiscinating. 
In his domestic relations, he was very 
unfortunate; and he seems to have laid 
himself open to censure. The infidelity 
of his wife, which was establislied by a 
legal verdict, is said to have been a subiect 
on which he chose to display his w'it, m a 
manner that betrayed a strange insensi- 
bility to one of the sharpest miseries which 
k man can suffer. Mr. Curran appears 
never to have committed any thing to the 
press, but he is said to have produced 
some poetical pieces of considerable merit. 
A collection of his forensic speeches was 
published in 1805 (1 vol. 8vo.). Memoirs . 
of his life have been published Iw his son, 
by Mr. Charles Phillips, and by Mr. O'Re- 
gan. 

CuRRAivTS. Red currants, black cur- 
rants and gooseberries are the fruit of 
well known shrubs, which are cultivated 
in gardens, and which also grow wild, in 
woods or tiiickets, in various parts of Eu- 
rope and America. The utility of all these 
ihiits in domestic economy has long Yteen 
astablisbed. The juice of'^the red species, 



if boiled with an equal weight of loaf 
sugar, forms an agreeable substance, 
called currant jelbfy which is much em- 
ployed in sauces and for other culinary 
purposes, and also in the cure of sore 
throats and colda The French frequent- 
ly mix it with suw and water, and thus 
Ibrm an agreeable beverage. The juice 
of currants is a valuable remedy in ob- 
structions of the bowels ; and, in febrile 
complaints, it is useful, on account of its 
readily quenching thirst, and for hs cool- 
ing eflfect on the stomach. This juice, 
fermented with a proper quantity of sugar, 
becomes a jpalatable wine, which is much 
improved by keeping, and which, with 
care, may be kept for 20 years. The in- 
ner bark of all the species, boiled with 
water, is a popular remedy in jaundice, 
and, by some medical men, has been ad- 
ministered in dropsical complaints. White 
and flesh-colored currants have, in evety 
respect, the same qualities as tiie red spe- 
cies. The berries of the black currant 
are lai^r than those of the red, and, in 
some parts of Siberia, are even said to 
attain the size of a hazel-nut They are 
occasionally made into wine, jelly, rob, or 
sirup. The two latter are frequently em- 
ployed in the cure of sore diroats ; and, 
horn the sreat use of black currants in 
quinsies, they have sometimes been de- 
nominated squtnanciff or quinsy berries. 
The leaves are fragrant, and have been 
recommended for their medicmal virtues* 
An infusion of them in the manner of tea 
is very erateful, and, by many persons, is 
prefeirea to tea. The tender leaves tinge 
common spirits so as to resemble brandy ; 
and an infusion of the young roots is use- 
ful in fevers of the eruptive kind. The 
dried currants of the shops do not belonc 
to this family, but are a small kind of 
grape. None of these fruits are so much 
esteemed for the table as gooseberries. 
For culinaiy purposes, gooseberries are 
ffeneraliy employed before they are ripe ; 
but this is founded on erroneous notions 
of their chemical properties, since, either 
for sauces or wine, tiiough they are more 
cool and refreshing, Uiey do not possess 
the delicate flavor and rich saccharine 
qualities which belong to the ripe fruit. 
Wine made of gooseberries has great 
resemblance to Champagne. The skins 
of the fruit, after the juice has been 
expressed, afibrd, by distillation, a spirit 
somewhat resembling brandy. Vinegar 
may be made from gooseberries. Some 
of the kinds are bottled while green, and 
kept for whiter use ; and others are, for 
the same purpose, preserved with sugar. 



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CURRANTS-CURRENTS. 



83 



Gooseberries vaiy much in color, size and 
quality. Some are smooth, and others 
hairy. Some are red, others green, and 
others yeUow or amber-colored. Wild 
IFooscberries are greatly inferior in size to 
Uiose which are cultivated in gardens. 
CuRREifCT. (See Ciradtding Medium,) 
Currents, in the ocean, are continual 
movements of its waters in a particular 
direction. In laL 39° N., Ion. 13° AQf W., 
we begin to feel the effects of the current 
which flows from the Azores to the straits 
of Gibraltar and the Canaries. Between 
the tropics, from Senegal to the Caribbean 
sea, the general current, and that longest 
known, flows from east to west Its 
average rapidity is from 9 to 10 nautical 
miles in 42 houis. It is tliis current 
which is known by the name of equatorial 
current It appears to be caused by the 
impulse which the trade- winds give to the 
surface of the water. In tlie channel 
which the Atlantic has hollowed between 
Guiana and Guinea, under the meridian 
of 18° or 21° W., from 8° or 9° to 2° or 
3° N. laL, where the trade- winds are often 
interrupted by winds which blow from 
the south and soutli-west, the equatorial 
current is less uniform in its direction. 
Near the coast of Africa, vessels are often 
drawn to the south-east, whilst, near the 
bay of All Saints and cape St. Augus- 
tine, upon the coast of America, the gen- 
eral direction of the waters is interrupted 
by a particular current, the effects of 
which extend from cape St Roche to 
Trinity island. It ftows towards the north- 
west, at the rate of one foot, or one foot 
five inches, a second. The eauatorial cur- 
rent is felt, although slightly, even be- 
yond the tropic, in latitude 28° north. In 
the basin of the Adantic ocean, 6 or 700 
leagues from the coast of Africa, vessels, 
whose course is from Europe to the West 
Indies, find their progress accelerated be- 
fore they arrive at the torrid zone. Far- 
ther north, between the parallels of Tene- 
rifife and Ceuta, in longitude 44° to 46° W., 
no unifonn motion is observed. A zone 
of 140 leagues separates the equatorial 
current from that great mass of water 
flowing to the east, which is distinguished 
by its elevated temperature, and oi which 
we shall now speak particularly. The 
equatorial current impels the waters of 
the Atlantic ocean towards the Musquito 
shore and the coast of Honduras, in tho 
Caribbean sea. The new continent op- 
poses this current ; tlie waters flow to tlie 
north-west, and, passing into the gulf of 
Mexico, by the strait which is formed by 
cape Catoche (Yucatan) and cape Su An- 



toine (Cuba), they follow the windings of 
the American coast to the shallows west of 
the southern extremity of Florida. Then 
the current turns again to the north, flow- 
ing into the Bahama channel. In the 
month of May, 1804, A. von Humboldt 
observed in it a rapidity of 5 feet a second, 
although the nortn wind blew violently. 
Under the parallel of cape Canaveral, the 
current flows to the north-east Its rapid- 
ity is then sometimes five nautical miles on 
hour. This current, called the gutfitreaan^ 
is knoiKH by the elevated temperamre of 
its waters, by their great salmess, by their 
indigo-blue color, by the train of sea-weed 
which covers their surface, and by the 
heat of the surrounding atmosphere, which 
is very perceptible in winter. Its rapidity 
diminishes towards the north, at the same 
time that its breadth increases. Near the 
Bahama bank, the breadth is 15 leagues ; 
in lat 28° 30^ N. it is 17 leagues, and, under 
the parallel of Charleston, from 40 to 50 
leagues. To the east of the port of Boston, 
and under the meridian of Halifiut, the cur- 
rent is almost 80 marine leagues in breadth. 
There it turns suddenly to the east, and 
crazes the southern extremitv of the great 
bank of Newfoundland. The waters of 
this bank have a temperature of from 
8° 7 to 10^ centigrade (7° to 8° IL, 16° to 
18° Fahr.), which offers a striking contrast 
to the waters of the torrid zone, impelled 
to the north Iw the gulf stream, and tho 
temperature of'^which is from 21° to 22° 5 
(17° to 18° it, 38° to 40i° Fahr.). The 
waters of the bank are 16° 9^ Fahr. colder 
than those of the neighboring ocean, and 
these are 5° 4' Fahr. colder than those of 
the current They cannot be equalised, 
because each has a cause of heat or cold 
which is peculiar to it, and of which the 
influence is permanent. From the bank 
of Newfoundland to the Azores, the gulf 
stiream flows to the E. or £. S. £. 
The waters still preserve there a part of 
the impulse received in the strait ot Flori- 
da. Under the meridian of the islands 
of Corvo and Flores, the current has a 
breadth of 160 leagues. In lat 33°, the 
equatorial current approaches very near 
the gulf stream. From the Azores, the 
current flows towards Gibraltar, the island 
of Madeira and the Canaries. South of 
that island, the current flows to the S. E. 
and S. S. E., towards the coast of Afiica. 
In kt 25° and 26°, tlie current flows first 
S., then S. W. Cape Blanc appears to 
influence this direction, and in its latitude 
the waters mingle with the great current 
of tlie tropics. Blagden, Benjamin Frank- 
lin and Jonathan Williams fiitft made 



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CURRENTS— CUEHYING. 



known the elevated temperature of the 
gulf stream, and the eoldness of the shal- 
E>ws, where the lower strata unite with 
the upper, upon the borders or edges of 
the bank. A. Ton Humboldt coUected 
much information, to enable him to trace, 
upon his chart of the Atlantic ocean, the 
course of this current The gulf stream 
changes its place and direction according 
to the season. Its force and its direction 
are modified, in high latitudes, by the 
variable winds of the temperate zone, and 
the collection of ice at die north pole. A 
drop of water of the current would take 
2 years and 10 months, to return to the 
place fix>m which it should depart A 
txMit, not acted on by the wind, would go 
from the Canaries to the coast of Caracas 
in 13 months ; in 10 months, would make 
tlie tour of the gulf of Mexico ; and, in 40 
or 50 days, would go from Florida to the 
bank of Newfoundland. The gulf stream 
furnished to Christopher Columbus indi- 
cations of the existence of land to the 
west This current had carried upon the 
Azores the bodies of two men of an 
unknown race, and pieces of bamboo of 
enormous size. In lat 45° or 50°, near 
Bonnet Flamand, an arm of the gulf 
stream flows from the S. W. to tlie N. E., 
towards the coast of Europe. It deposits 
upon the coasts of Ireland and Norway 
trees and fruits belonging to die torrid 
zone. Remains of a vessel (the Tilbury), 
burnt at Jamaica, were found on the coast 
of Scotland. It is likewise this river of 
the Adantic, which annually throws the 
fruits of the West Indies upon the shore 
of Norway* — ^The causes of currents are 
very numerous. The waters may be put 
in motion Iw an external impulse, by a 
difference of heat and salmess, by the in- 
equality of evaporation in diflTerent lati- 
tudes, and by the change in the pressure 
at different points of the surface of the 
ocean. The existence of cold strata, which 
have been met with at ^at depths in low 
latitudes, proves the existence of a lower 
current, which runs fh)m the pole to the 
equator. It proves, Ukewise, that saline 
substances are distributed in the ocean, in 
a manner not to destroy die effect pro- 
duced by different temfieratures. The 
polar currents, in the two hemispheres, 
tend to the east, probably on account of 
the uniformity of west winds in high lati- 
tudes. It is very probable that tiiere may 
be, in some places, a double local current ; 
the one above, near the surface of the 
water, the other at the bottom. Several 
facts seem to confirm diis hypothesis, 
which was first proved by the celebrated 



Halley. In the West Indian seds, there 
are some places where a vessel may moor 
herself in the midst of a cuirent by drop- 
ping a cable, with a sounding lead at* 
tached, to a certain known depth. At 
that depth, there must, unquestionably, be 
a current contriuy to the one at the surface 
of the water. Similar circumstances have 
been observed in the Sound. There is 
reason to beUeve, tiiat the Mediterranean 
discharges its waters by an inferior or 
concealed current Such a mass of ocean 
water, flowing constandy from the torrid 
zoiie towards the northern pole, and, at 
any given latitude, heated many degrees 
above the temperamre of the adjacent 
ocean, must exert great influence on the 
atmo4)here. An interesting table, in Dar- 
by^ View of die U. States, Philadelphia, 
1828 (page 964), slio^vs this influence in a 
striking way. (See Malte-Bnm's Gcogp- 
rapky^ vol. i, and Humboldt's Personal 
JvarraHve,) 

CuRRYiwo is the art of dressing cow- 
hides, calves'-skins, seal-skins, &c., princi- 
pally for shoes ; and this is done either 
upon die flesh or the grain. In dressing 
leather for shoes upon the flesh, die first 
operation is soaking the leather in water 
until it is thorough] v wet ; then the flesh 
side is shaved on a beam about seven or 
eight inches broad, with a knife of a pe- 
culiar construction, to a proper substance, 
according to the custom of the country 
and the uses to which it is to be applied. 
This is one of the most curious and labo- 
rious operations in the whole business of 
currying. The knife used for this pur- 
pose is of a rectangular fonn, with two 
nandles, one at each end, and a double 
ed^. After the leather is properly shaved, 
it IS thrown into the water again, and 
scoured upon a board or stone commonly 
appropriated to that use. Scouring is per- 
formed by rubbing the grain or hair side 
with a piece of pumice stone, or with 
some other stone of a good grit These 
stones force out of the leadier a white 
substance, called (he bloom, produced by 
the oak bark in tanning. The hide or 
skin is dien conveyed to die shade or dry- 
ing place, where the oily substances are 
applied, termed stuffing or dubhing. When 
it is tlioroughly dry, an instrument, with 
teeth on the under side, called agraining- 
board, is first appUed to the flesh-side, 
which is called graining; then to the 
grain-side, called brtdsing. The whole 
of this operation is intended to soften the 
leather to which it is applied. Whiten- 
ing, or paring, succeeds, which is {)er- 
formed with a fine edge to the knife 



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aliready described, and used in taking off 
the ffrease fix>m the flesh. It is then 
boarded up, or grained again, by applyins 
the graining-booid first to the grain, and 
then to the flesh. It is now fit for wax- 
ing, which is performed first by coloring. 
This is effected by rubbing, with a bruui 
dipped in a composition of oil and lamp^ 
black, on the flesh, till it be thoroughly 
black : it is then sized, called Uacksixivg, 
with a brush or sponge, dried and tallow- 
ed ; and, when dry, this sort of leather, 
called vfcaed, or hUu:k on the flesh, is cur- 
ried. The currying leather on the hair or 
grain side, called Uack on Ihe grain, is the 
same with currying on the fleSh, until we 
come to the operation of scouring. Then 
the first black is applied to it while wet ; 
which black is a solution of the sulphate 
of iron called copperas, in fidr water, or in 
the water in whicn the skins, as they come 
from the tanner, have been soaked. This 
18 first put upon the grain after it has been 
rubbed with a stone ; then rubbed over 
with a brush dipped in Stale urine; tlie 
skin is then stuned, and, when dry, it is 
seasoned, that is, rubbed over with a brush 
dipped in copperas water, on the grain, 
till it is perfectly black. After this, tlie 
|irain is raised with a fine graining-board. 
When it is thoroughly dry, it is whitened, 
bruised again, and grained in two or three 
different ways, and, when oiled upon the 
^in, with a mixture of oil and tallow, it 
IS finished. 

CcRRT-PowDER. (See Thirmeric,) 

CuRTius, Marcus ; a noble Roman 
youth, known by the heroic manner in 
which, according to ti-adition, he sacrificed 
himself for the good of his country. In 
the year of Rome 392 (B. C. 362), it is 
said, a chasm opened m the Roman fo- 
rum, from which issued pestilential vapors. 
The oracle declared tliat the chasm would 
close whenever that which constituted the 
dory of Rome should be thro>\Ti into it 
Curdus asked if any thing in Rome was 
more precious than*arms and valor; and, 
being answered in the negative, he arrayed 
himself in armor, mounted a horse splen- 
didly equipped, solemnly devoted himself 
to death, in presence of the Roman peo- 
ple, and sprang into the abyss, which in- 
stantly closed over him. 

CuRTius RuFUS, Quintus, the author 
of a History of Alexander the Great, in 
ten books, the two first of which are lost, 
has been supposed to be the son of a 
ffladiator. He recommended himself by 
his knowledge to Tiberius, and, during his 
reign, received the pretorsbip ; under Clau- 
dius, tlie consulship, also the emperor's 

yoL, IT. 8 



consent to celebrate a triumph, and finally 
the proconsulship of Africa. He died in 
Africa, A. D. 69, at an advanced age. We 
should have had more complete accounts 
concerning him, if the first books of his 
work had been preserved. Curtius de- 
serves no great praise as a historian. His 
style is florid, and his narratives have 
more of romance than of historical cer- 
tainty. The lost parts have been supplied 
by Cfhristopher Bruno, a Bavarian monk, 
in a short and dry manner ; by Freinshe- 
mius, in a difiuse style ; and by Christopher 
Cellarius, in a style which forms a medi- 
um between the two. The best edidon 
is by Snakenburg (Leyden, 1724, 4to.)k 
Among the new editions are that by 
8chmieder (Gottingen, 1814). Buttmann, 
Hilt, and Niebuhr (the Roman historian^ 
have written treatises on his life. The 
last named gentleman read, in 1821, be- 
fore the academy of Berlin, a disquisition 
on the period of Curtius — a performance 
distingmshed for critical acumen and eru- 
dition. Niebuhr thinks that the work was 
written under Severus, and not under 
Vespasian. The essay is to be found in 
his Kkine kistariscne und pkUohsische 
SchriJUn, erste Samndun^ (Bonn, 18^). 

Curves (from the Latm curvus, crooKed, 
bent), in geometry. The simplest objects 
are die most difficult to be defined, and 
mathematicians have never succeeded in 
gi\nng a definition, satisfactory to them- 
selves, of a line. It is equally difficult to 
give a satisfactory definition of a curve^ 
rcrhaps the simplest explanation of it is, 
aline which is not a straight line, nor mctde 
vp of straight lines. This definition, how- 
ever, is deficient in mathematical precis- 
ion. Since Descartes' application of al- 
gebra to geometry, the theory of the curves 
has received a considerable extension. 
The study of the curves known to the 
ancients has become much easier, and 
new ones have been investigated. Curves 
form, at present, one of the most interest- 
ing and most important subjects of ge- 
ometry. Such as have not all their parts 
in the same plane, are called curves of a 
dovhle curvature. The simplest of all 
curves is the circle. The spiral of Ar- 
chimedes, the conchoid of Nicomedcs, 
the cissoid of Diodes, the quadratrix of 
Dinostratus, &c., are celebrated curves. 

Cusco, or Cuzco ; a city of Peru, capi- 
tal of an intendency of the same name, 
the ancient capital of the Peruvian em- 
pire ; 550 miles E. S. E. Lima; Ion, 71® 
4' W. ; lat. 13^ 42^ S. ; population stated 
from 20 to 32,000. It is a bishop's see. 
It was founded, according to tradition, in 



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CUSC<>-CUSTOS ROTULORUM. 



1043, by MaDco Capac, the flm inca of 
Peru, on a rough and unequ^il plain, 
formed by the skirts of various inountaina, 
which are washed by the small river Gua- 
tanav. The wall was of an extraordinary 
height, and built of stone, with astonishing 
neatness. The Spaniards, in 1534, fouBd 
the houses built of stone; among diem 
a temple of the sun, and .a great number 
of magnificent palaces, whose principal 
ornaments were of gold and silver, which 
glittered on the walls. Cusco is, at present, 
a large city : the houses are built of stone, 
and covered with red tiles; the apart- 
ments are weU distributed ; the mould- 
ings of the doors are gilt, and the furni- 
ture not less magnificent. The cathedral 
church is large, built of stone, and of an 
elegant and noble architecture. About 
three fourths of the inhabitants are Indians. 
CusHiNo, Thomas, was bom at Boston, 
in 1725, and finished his education at the 
college of Cambridge (New England), in 
1744. Both his grandfather and father 
had i^ent a considerable portion of tlieir 
lives in the public service, the latter hav- 
ing been, for several years previous to his 
death, speaker of the house of representa- 
tives in Massachusetts. He engaged early 
in political hfe, and was sent, by the city 
of Boston, as its representative to the gen- 
eral court, where he displayed such quali- 
fications for the despatch of business, that, 
when governor Bernard^ in 1763, nega- 
tived James Otis, tlie father, as speaker, 
he was chosen in his place, and continued 
in the station for many consecutive years. 
Whilst he was in the chair, he had Se- 
quent opportunities of evincing his patri- 
otism and aversion to the arbitfaiy course 
of the English eovemmc^t ; and, as his 
name was signed to all the public docu- 
ments, in consequence of his office, he 
acquired great celebrity, and was generally 
supposed to exert a much greater influ- 
ence in affiiirs than he actually did. This 
circumstance led doctor Johnson, in his 
pamphlet Taxation no Tyranny, to make 
this foolish remark — ** One object of the 
Americans is said to be, to adorn the 
brows of Mr. Gushing with a diadem." 
Though dfscidedly patriotic in his princi- 
ples, Mr. Gushing was moderate and con- 
ciliatory in his conduct, by which he was 
enabled to efifect a great deal of good as 
a mediator between the two contending 
parties. He was an active and efficient 
member of the two first continental con- 
gresses, and, on his return to his state, 
was chosen a member of the council. 
He was also appointed judge of the courts 
<Kf common pleas and of probate in the 



county of SufiS>lk, which stations he oe- 
cupied until the present constitution was 
adopted, when he was elected lieutenant- 
governor of the state, and continued so 
until his death, which took place Feb. 19, 
1788, in the 63d year of his age, in conse- 
quence of gout. 

GusTiPfE, Adam Philip, count of, bom 
at Metz, 174P, served as captain in the 
seven years' war. (q. v.) Through the in^ 
fiuence of the duke of Choiseul, he oj)- 
tained, in 1762, a reipment of dragoons, 
which was called by his name. In 178(h 
ho exchanged this for the regiment of 
Saintonge, which was on the point of 
going to America, to the aid of the North 
American colonies. On his return, he 
was appointed marichd de camp. In 1789, 
he was deputy of the nobihty of Metz, 
and was one of the first who declared for 
the popular party. He subsequeptly en- 
terea the army of the North, and, in May, 
1793, made himself master of the pass 
of Porentruy. In June, he received the 
command of the army of the Lower Rhine, 
and opened the campaini by taking pos- 
session of Spire, Sept JS. Meeting with 
feeble opposition, he took Worms, and, 
Oct 21, the fortress of Mentz capitulated. 
On the 23d, he took possession of Frank- 
fort on the Maine, on which he laid heavy 
contribqtions. Thence, escaping the pur- 
suit of the Prussians, he threw himself 
into Mentz, which he caused to be forti- 
fied. With the opening of the campaign 
of 1793, he left Mentz, which the allies 
were besieging, and retired to Alsace. 
He was now denounced, and, in April, 
received his dismission ; but the conven- 
tion, in May, invested him with the com- 
mand of the northern army. But he had 
hardly time to visit the posts. Marat and 
Varennes were unceasing in their accu- 
sations against him, and at last prevailed 
on tlie committee of safety to recall him 
to Paris. The revolutionary tribunal be- 
gan his trial Au^. 15. He made a spirited 
defence; but his death was determined 
upon. He wm condemned Aug. 27, ^d 
guillotined on the 28th. 

GusTOMS. (See Revembe,) 

Gustos Rotulorum ; an ofiicer, in 
England, who has the custody of the rolls 
and records of the sessions of the peace, 
and also of the commission of the peace 
itself. He is usually a nobleman, and al- 
ways a justice of the peace, of the quorum 
in ue county where he is appointed. He 
may execute his office by a deputy, and 
is empowered to appoint the clerk of the 
peace ; but he is prohibited from selling 
his office under divers penalties. 



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CusTUN (m Grennan, K&strin) ; a fbr- 
tresB in the province of Brandenbui^, 
PnisBia, at the coiifluence of the Warte 
and Oder, containing 460 houses and 6000 
inhabitants. In 18&, it was disgracefully 
surrendered to the French, and garrisoned 
by them Hntil 1814, when it surrendered 
to the Prussians. 

Cuticle (from cutiada^ the Latin di- 
minudve of cutiSf skin) is a thin, pellucid, 
insensible membrane, of a white color, 
that covers and defends the true skin, with 
which it is connected by the hairs, ex- 
haling and inhaling vessels, and the rete 
mucoswtL 

CuTuiss; a short sword used by sea- 
men. The art of fencing with it is differ- 
ent from that with the small sword or 
broad sword. A guard over the hand is 
an advantage. It is, if well understood, a 
very effectual weapon in close contest : on 
account of its shortness, it can be handled 
easily, and yet is long enough to protect a 
skilful swonisman. 

Cutler, Timothy, president of Yale 
coUece, was the son of major John Cutler, 
of Cnarlestown, Massachusetts. He was 
graduated at Harvard college in 1701, and 
in Januaiy, 1709, was ordained minister 
of Stratford, Conn., where he acquired 
the reputation of being the most eloquent 
preacher of the province. After remain- 
ing in that situation during ten yeivrs, he 
was elected, in 1719, successor to Mr. 
PieiBon, as president of Yale college. In 
the interval between the death of his 
predecessor and his own accession, the 
college had been removed to New Haven. 
For 3na station he was eminently qualified 
by his profound and extensive learning, 
Ins dignified ajipearance, and the hign 
respect which his character was calculated 
to iaspire. In 1722, having renounced 
the communion of the Congregational 
churches, the trustees of the college passed 
a resolve dispensing vnth his services, and 
requiring of future rectors satisfactory ev- 
idence of ibeir faith in opposition to Ar- 
minian and prelatical corruptions. A 
short time subsequently, he went to Eng- 
land, where he was ordained priest, and 
received the degree of doctor of divinity 
from Oxford. In July, 1763, he returned 
to Boston, where he soon after became 
rector of Christ church, and in that sta- 
tion died, Aug. 17, 1765, in the 82d year 
of his age. Doctor Cutler was particularly 
distinguished for his knowledge of the 
Oriental languages and literature. He 
abo spoke I^dn with great fluency, and 
was well versed in mond philosophy and 
theology. He published two sermons. 



Cutlery. Though cutlery, in the ^n- 
eral sense, comprises all those articles 
denominated edge tools, it is more partic- 
ularly confined to the manufacture of 
knives, forks, scissois, penknives, razors 
and swords. Damascus was anciently 
famed for its razors, sabres and swords. 
The latter are said to possess all the ad- 
vantages of flexibility, elasticity and hard- 
ness. These united distinctions are said 
to have been efiected by blending alter- 
nate portions of iron and steel in such a 
manner, that the softness and tenacity of 
the former could prevent the breaking of 
the latter. AU tiiose articles of cuuexy 
which do not require a fine polish, and 
are of low price, are made fit>m blistered 
steel. Those articles which require the 
edge to possess great tenacity, at the same 
time that superior hardness is not re- 
quired, are made from sheer steel. The 
finer kinds of cudery are made frvm steel 
which has been in a state of fusion, and 
which is termed ccui sled, no other kinds 
being susceptible of a fine polish. (See 
the article SteeL) Table knives are 
mostly made of sheer steel; forks are 
made almost altogether by the aid of the 
stamp and appropriate dies ; the prongs 
only are hardened and tempered. Almost 
all razors are made of cast steel, the qual- 
ity of which should be very good, the 
edge of a' razor requiring the combined 
advantages of great hardness and tenacity. 
After the razor blade is forged, it is hard- 
ened, by gradually heating it to bright red 
heat, and plunging it into cold water. It 
18 tempered by heatinl^ it afterwards till a 
brightened part appears of a straw color. 
Though this is generally performed by 
placing them upon the open fire, it would 
be more equally effected by sand, or, what 
is still better, in hot oil, or fusible mixture, 
consisting of 8 parts of bismuth, 5 of lead 
and 3 of tin ; a thermometer being placed 
in the liquid at the time the razors are 
immersed, for the purpose of indicating 
the proper temperatm^, which is about 
500^ of Fahrenheit. Razors are ground 
crosswise, upon stones from 4 to 7 inciies 
in diameter, a small stone being necessary 
to make the sides concave. They are 
afterwards smoothed and polished. The 
handles of high-priced razors are made of 
ivory and tortoise-shell, but in general 
they are of polished horn, which is pre- 
ferred on account of its cheapness and 
durability. The horn is cut into pieces, 
and placed between two corresponding 
dies, having a recess of die shape of the 
handle. The dies are previously heated 
to about 500^ of Fahrenheit, and placed. 



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CUTLERY— CUVIER. 



with the hom, in a press of such pow- 
er, that, allowing a man's strength to be 
200 pounds, it will be equal to 43,000 
pounds. By this process, the hom re- 
ceives considerable extension. If the hom 
is not previously black, the handles are 
dyed black by nie^s of a bath of logwood 
and green vitriol. The clear hom handles 
are sometimes stained so as to imitate the 
tortoise-shell — ^The manufacture of pen- 
knives is divided into three departments : 
the first is the forging of the blades, the 
spring and the iron scales; the second, 
the grinding and polishing of tlie blades ; 
and the thinl, the handling, which consists 
in fittingup all the parts, and finishing the 
knife. The blades are made of the best 
cast steel, and hardened and tempered to 
about the same degree with that of razors. 
In grinding, tliey are made a little more 
concave on one side than the other: in 
oth^r respects, they are treated in a amilar 
way to razors. The handles are covered 
with hom, ivory, and sometimes wood ; 
but the most durable covering is stag-hom. 
The most general fault in penknives is 
that of being too soft The temper ought 
to be not h^her than a straw color, as it 
seldom hap|iena that a penknife is so hard 
as to snap on the edge. — The beauty and 
elegance of polished steel is nowhere dis- 
played to more advantage than in the 
manufacture of the finer kinds of scissors. 
The steel employed for the more valuable 
scissors should be cast steel of the choicest 
qualities: it must possess hardness and 
uniformity of texture, for the sake of as- 
suming a fine polish ; and great tenacity 
when hot, for the purpose of forming the 
bow or ring of the scissors, which requires 
to be extended fh)m a solid piece, having 
a hole previously .punched through it 
It ought also to be veij tenacious when 
cold, to allow that debcacy of form ob- 
served in those scissors termed Uu&ea^ 
scisaors, Afler the scissors are forged as 
near to the same size as the eye of the 
workman can ascertain, they are paired, 
and the two sides fitted together. The 
bov^ and some other parts are filed to 
their intended form ; the blades are also 
roughly ground, and the two sides prop- 
erly adjusted to each other, afler being 
bound together with wire, and hardened 
up to the bows. They are aflei-wards 
hea'^d till they become of a purple color, 
which indicates their proper temper. Al- 
most all the reoiauiing part of the woric is 
performed at the grinding mill, with the 
stone, the lap, the polisher and the bmsh. 
The very large scwsors are partly of iron 
and partly of steel, the shanks and bows 



being of the former. These, as well as 
those all of steel, which are not hardened 
all over, cannot be polished: an inferior 
sort of lustre, however, is given to them 
hy means of a burnish of hardened, pol- 
ished steel, which is very easily distin- 
guished from the real polish by the irregu- 
larity of the surface. (For swords, see 
SworcL) 

Cutter ; a small vessel, fumijshed with 
one mast, and ringed as a sloop. Many 
of these fast-sailmg vessels are used by 
smugglers, and are also employed for the 
purpose of apprehending them. lo the 
latter case, they are called reoetme cuiUn, 
The dipperit — a kind of vessels built at 
Baltimore — are particularl)r adapted for fast 
sailing, but recjuire great skill in navigating 
them, to avoid bemg upset. (See Boat^ 

Cuttt-Stoox* ; a low stool ; the stool 
of repentance ; a sn^l gallery in the 
Scottish kirks, placed near the roof, and 
painted black, in which ofienders against 
chastity sit during service, professing re- 
pentance, and listening to the minister's 
rebukes. 

Cut- Water ; the sharp part of the head 
of a ship below the beak, so called because 
it cuts or divides the water before it comes 
to the bow, that it may not come too sud- 
denly to the breadth of the ship, which 
would retard it 

CuviER, George Leopold Christian 
Frederic Dagobert, baron of| bom Aug. 
25, 1769, at Montb^liard, then betonging 
to the duchy of Wfirtemburg. His bril- 
liant talents very early excited great ex- 
pectations. His father was an officer. As 
the son's health was too foeble to allow 
him to become a soldier, he resolved to 
be a clergyman. He was obliged to pass 
an examination for the stipend, by the 
help of which he expected to study at 
T&bingen. A malicious examiner rejected 
hun. The afilair, however, was madked 
by 6o much injustice, that prince Frederic, 
brother of the duke, and governor of the 
district, thought it his du^ to compensate 
Cuvier by a place in the Charles academy 
at Stuttgart Here he gave up his inten- 
tion of becoming a dergyman* In Stutt- 
gart, he studied at first die science of law^ 
though he was particulariy fond of natural 
history. To this period of his life he is 
indebted for his accurate knowledge of 
the German language and hteiature. The 
narrow circumstances of his parents com- 
pelled him to accept the ofiSce of private 
mstructer in the family of count D'Hericy, 
in Normandy. Here he was at liberty to 
devote his leisure to natural science. Cu- 



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yier soon perceived that zodlogy was fiir 
from that perfection to which Lannseus 
had carried botany, and to which miner- 
alogy had been carried by the. united 
labors of the [^ilosopheis of Germany and 
France. The first desideratum was a 
careful observation of all the organs of 
animals, in order to ascertain their mutual 
dependence, and thar influence on animal 
life ; then a confutation of the fanciful 
systems which had obscured rather than 
iUustnited the study. Examinations of 
the marine productions, with Which the 
neighboring ocean abundantly supplied 
him, served him as a suitable preparation. 
A natural classification of the numerous 
classes of vtrmes (Unn.) was his first labor, 
and the clearness with which he gave an 
account of his observations and ingenious 
views, procured him an acquaintance wiUi 
all the naniralists of Paris. Geoffiy St 
Hilaire invited him to Paris, opened to 
him the collections of natural history, over 
which he presided, took part with him in 
the publication of several works on the 
claasification of the mammdUoj and placed 
him at the central school in Paris, May, 
1795. The institute, being reestablished 
the sanie year, received him as a member 
of the firat class. For the use of the cen- 
tral school, he wrote his Tableau Mimtn- 
taxrt dt rSSatoire J^atureUe des Animaux 
(1796), by which he laid the foundation 
of his future fame. From this time, he 
was coQAdered one of the first zodlogists 
of Europe. He soon afler displayed his 
brilliant talents as professor of comparative 
anatomy. Ilis profound knowledge was 
not less remarkable than his elevated 
views, and the elegance with which he 
HlustFBted them before a mixed audience. 
In the lecture-room of the Z>yc^e, where 
be lectured several yean on natural his- 
tory, was assembled all the accomplished 
society of Paris, attracted by the ingenu- 
ity erf* his dassifications, and by his exten-* 
sive surveys of all the kingdoms of nature. 
In January, 1800, be justly received the 
place formerly occupied by D'Aubenton, 
in the cdl^e de France. His merits did 
not escape Uie sagacity of Napoleon. In 
the department of public instruction, in 
which, one afier another, he filled the 
most important offices, he exercised much 
influence bv bis useful improvements and 
indefatigable activitv. lie delivered a 
report very honorable to Grermany, in 
1811, when he returned from a joumev in 
Holland and Germany, as superintendent 
of instruction. He was accompanied, in 
this journey, by No<!l. In 1813, the emperor 
appoinUMi him maUredes requites to the 
8 * 



council of state, and committed to his 
care the most important affairs in Mentz. 
Louis XVIII confirmed him in his former 
offices, and raised him to the rank of 
counsellor. As such, he belonged at first 
to the committee of legislation, and after- 
wards to that of the interior. As a poli- 
tician, he drew upon himself the re- 
proaches of the liberals. In general, the 
political courae of Cuvier forms such a con- 
trast witii his scientific one, and is, besides, 
of so littie importance, that we are veiy 
willing to pass it by in silence. The meas- 
ures of the abb6 Frayssinous, then chan- 
cellor of the university of Paris, determin- 
ed him to resign the ofiSce of universitv- 
counsellor, in December, 1822. Notwith- 
standing his political engagements, Cuvier 
devotea himself continually to the studv 
of natural history, i^ich he has extend- 
ed by his discoveries. We mention only 
bis Recherches wur les Ossemens Fbssiles^ 
1821—24; 3d edition, 1826, 5 vols., 4to., 
with plates (the classical introduction 
to this work is printed separately) ; IHs- 
cours mr les lUvohdions de la Surface du 
dobe,^ ei 8ur lea Changefnena an^dles onl 
produU dans le lUgne ammcH (m editioiif, 
Paris, 1825) ; also, Le Rkgne animal 
(1817, 4 vols.] ; Lepms d*Ani3omie Com- 
parity recvteUhes par DtmUrU et Duvemoy 
(1805,5 vols.); Rechetckes anafoTniques sx/r 
les RepiUes riffardis encore comme dtniieux 
(1807, 4to.) ; Mhunrespour servir h PHis^ 
toire de PJlnaiomie des MoUustmes (1816^ 
4to.). As perpetual secretary, &c., of the 
academy, in tiie class of physical sciences, 
he has pronounced dofes on the deceased 
members of the institute. The RecueU 
d*Mo^ Historiques (Paris, 1819, 2 vols.) 
contains models worthy of imitation. The 
French academy received him, in conse- 
quence, among their 40 members. Almost 
all the learned societies of the worid have 
sent him honorary diplomas. France is 
indebted to him for the eetaUishment of a 
cabinet of comparative anaton^, which is 
the finept osteological collection in £u« 
rope. 

CuxHAVEN ; a village in RCitzebflttel, a 
bailiwick of Hamburg, at the mouth of 
the river Elbe. It is important for all 
navigatore going to Bremen or Hambutv. 
Its lighthouse is 8° 43^ 1" E. Ion., and SS^ 
53^ 51" N. lat., 61 miles W.N. W. of Ham- 
burg. The harbor is huge and commodi- 
ous, one of the safest on the coast, and is 
resorted to in cases of danger. Here ves- 
sels generally take pilots to go up the 
river to Hamburg, &c. These pilots are 
privileged, and, by their stamtes, are com- 
pelled always to keep a yacht out at sea, 



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CUXHAVEN-€YCLE. 



near the outermost buoy, called the red 
hucnfy with men ready to conduct any 
vessel which may demand assistance. 
These pilots very often go as far as the 
channel, and even through it, to meet 
vessels. From this village, there is a reg- 
ular packet line, maintained by the Eng- 
lish government, to Harwich. Here is 
also a quarantine, where vessels are often 
subjected to much unnecessaiy delay ; 
sent to Norway, for instance, to take an 
airing, when they are bound to Hamburg. 
A bathing-house has been established here, 
with many other improvements, by the sen- 
ator Abendroth. In the middle ages, a 
fiunily named Lappen were in the habit 
of sailing ftom this place for the commis- 
sion of piracy. Hamburg con^ered it in 
the 14tli century. With this city, it came 
under the French dominion, and, in 1814, 
was again declared a province of Ham- 
bui^. The whole bailiwick of R(itzeb(it- 
tel is subject to, not a component part of^ 
Hamburg. 

City ABA, or Jesus de Cuyaba ; a town 
of Brazil, capital of M atto Grosso, on the 
river Cuyaba, nearly 300 miles above its 
entrance into the Paraguay ; 280 miles W. 
Villa Rica ; population, 30,000. In the 
neighborhood of this town are the most 
western mining stations in Brazil, long 
celebrated for the quantity of gold they 
produce. The town is well provided with 
meat, fruits and vegetables, and the sur- 
rounding countiT is fruitful. 
Ctanooen. (See Pruasic Acid,\ 
Ctbele was originally a particular god- 
dess of the Phrygians, like Isis, the sym- 
bol of the moon, and, what is nearly con- 
nected with this, of the fruitfulness of the 
earth ; for which reason she is confounded 
with Rhea, whose worship originated in 
Crete, and in whom personified nature 
was revered. When the worship of Cy- 
bele was introduced among the Greeks, 
the goddess was already surrounded with 
a cloud of mythological traditions. Ac- 
cording to Diodorus, Cybele was the 
daughter of the Phrygian king Mseon, and 
his wife Dindyma. At her birth, her 
father, vexed that the child was not a boy, 
exposed her upon mount Cybelus, where 
she was nursed by lions and panthers, and 
afterwards found and brought up by the 
wives of the herdsmen. She invented 
fifes and drums, with which she cured 
the diseases of beasts and children, be- 
caipe intimate with Marsyas, and fell vio- 
lently in love with Atys. (See Aiys.) She 
was afterwards recognised and received 
byther parents. Her father, discovering 
lieriorB for Atys, had him seized and ex- 



ecuted, and left his body unburied. The 
grief of Cybele, on this occasion, deranged 
her understanding. She wandered about, 
in search of Atys, with dishevelled hair, 
escorted) by the sound of the drums and 
fifes which she had invented, through 
various countries, even to the Hyperbore- 
ans, the most distant inhabitants of the 
North. During her absence, a famine 
arose in Phrygia, which did not cease 
until divine honors were paid to Cybele, 
by the command of the oracle, and the 
statue of Atys interred, as his body could 
not be found. Some traditions sav that 
Atya» in a fit of insanity, emasculatecf him- 
self. Other traditions give a different 
account of the cause of his misfortune. 
In memory of him, the priests of Cybele 
were eunuchs. Her worship was cele- 
brated with a violent noise of instruments, 
and rambling tlirough fields and woods. 
In Crete, she was confounded with Rhea. 
She was also blended with the old Latin 
goddess Ops. Hex original statue was 
nothing but a dark, quadrangular stone. 
Afterwards she was represented as a 
matron, with a mural crown on her head, 
in reference to the improved condition of 
men, arising firom agriculture, and their 
union into cities. A common attribute of 
the goddess is the veil about her head, 
which refers to the mysterious and incom- 
prehensible in nature. In her right hand 
she often holds a stafiT, as an einblem of 
her power, and, in her left, a Phrygian 
drum. Sometimes a iew ears of com 
stand near her. The sun, also, is some- 
times represented in her right hand, and 
the crescent of the moon in her left We 
sometimes see her in a chariot, drawn by 
lions ; or else she sits upon a lion, and, as 
omnipotent nature, she holds a thunder- 
bolt ; or a lion lies near her. (See Atc^ 
Uanifu) These symbols are all representa- 
tions of her dominion, and of the intro- 
duction of civilization, by her means, ju 
the period of barbarism. 

CrcLADES, in ancient eeography ; a 
group of islands in the Archipelago, S. £. 
of EubcBa and Attica, inhabited mosdy by 
Greeka Nearly in the middle lies the 
largest island, Naxos. (q. v.) The most 
southerly is Melos. (q. v.) Paros (q. v.) 
also is one of tliis fertile and charming 
group. 

Cycle (Greek kvicXo;, a drdt) is used 
for every uniformly returning succession 
of the same events. On such successions 
or cycles of years rests all chronology, 
particularly the calendar. Our common 
solar year, determined by the periodical 
return of the sun to the same point in the 



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ecliptic, eveiy body knows, contains 52 
weeks and 1 day, and leap-year a day 
more. Consequently, in different years, 
the same day of the year cannot fall upon 
the same day of the week ; but, as, for ex- 
ample, the year 1814 began with Saturday, 
1815 with Sunday, 1816 with Monday; 
but 1817, because preceded by a leap- 
year, began, not with Tuesday, but with 
Wedne^y. If we count only common 
years, it is manifest that, from seven Years 
to seven years, every year would begin 
again with the same day of the week as 
tlie seventh year before ; or, to express the 
same in other words, after seven years, 
the dominical letter (q. v.) would return 
in the same order. But as every fourth 
year, instead of a common year, is a leap- 
year, this can only take i)lace after 4X7, 
or 28 years. Such a period c^28 years is 
called a solar cycle, and serves to show 
the day of tlie week falling on the first day 
of January in every year. For this pur- 
pose, it is only requisite to know, with 
what day of the week a particular year 
began, and then to prepare a table fi)r tbe 
first days of tb« 27 mllowing years, Jt is 
the custom now to fix the beginning of 
the solar cycle at the ninth year B. C, 
which was a leap-year, and began with 
Monday. If you wish to know what day 
of the week the new-year's day of any 
year of our reckoning is, you have only to 
add nine to the number of the year, and 
then, after dividing this sum by 28, the 
quotient gives, of course, the number of 
complete cycles, and the remainder shows 
what year of the solar period tbe given 
year is, of which the table above-mention- 
ed gives the day of the week witii which 
it logins. But this reckoning is only 
adapted to the Julian calendar. In the 
Gregorian, it is interrupted by the circum- 
stance that, in 400 years, the last year of 
the century is three times a common year. 
Hence this reckoning will not give the 
day of the week for the first day of the 
year ; but, from 1582 (the commencement 
of the Gregorian calendar) to 1700, for the- 
llth, from 1700 to 1800 for tiie 12th, in 
the 19th century for the 13th day of the 
year, and so on, fixHn which we must then 
reckon back to the new-year's day. Hence 
it is far more convenient to prepare a 
table for the bennning of a century (for 
xample, for 1801, which 'began with 
rhursdayl and divide by 28 the number 
of years mm that to the ^ven year, and, 
with the remainder, seek m the table the 
day of the week for the first day of the 
year. Besides this, another circle is neces- 
sary for the detttminatioQ of'^festival days, 



by the aid of which tbe feast of Easter, by 
which all tiie movable feasts are regulated, 
is to be reckoned. Easter depends on the 
first full moon after the vernal equinox. 
(See Calendar,) The lunar cycle is a pe- 
riod of 19 years, after which the new 
moon foils again on the same day of the 
month. January 2, 1813, there was a new 
moon ; January 2, 1832, there will be a new 
moon again. As die time from one new 
moon to another, as astronomy. teaches, is 
about 29^ days, a table of the new moons 
for 19 years may be very easily prepared. 
It is only necessary to observe that this 
lunar cycle always begins with a year, of 
wliich the first new moon falls on the first 
of January, and that this was the case the 
first year B. C. Divide by 19 die num- 
ber of the year plus 1, and the remainder 
will show what year in the lunar period 
the given year is. The number of the 
year is called the golden number, (See 
Calendar, and Epad.) Besides these two 
cycles, which are indispensable for the 
calculations of the calendar, there are 
some others, several of them known by 
the name oi periods, ^ee the accounts 
given under the heads Calendar and Ercu) 
— ^The Germans make much use of the 
word CydvLS in science, meaning by it 
any series of events, works, observations, 
&C., which forms a whole in itself^ and 
reminds us of a circle ; thus they speak 
of the Cuclus of works in a certain science, 
and Cyaus of discoveries by a philosopher, 
&C.,, wherever the series forms a well-con- 
nected whole. 

CrcLtc Poets. (See Greek LUeratureJ) 
Cycloid ; the line described by a mov- 
ing wheel. Imagine a circle which is 
rolled perpendicularly along a straight line, 
till the point first at rest is brought to rest 
again, afler an entire revolution. The 
curve, thus described by this point, is call- 
ed a cydoidj because every point in the 
circumference of^a revolvmg wheel de- 
scribes a similar curve. The circle is called 
the genero^ng- circle ; the line on which it 
is described, the base of the cydoid. The 
length of the cycloid is always four times 
the diameter of the generatinir circle, and 
its area three times £e area of this circle. 
This line is very important in the higher 
branches of mechanics. Imagine a pen- 
dulum suspended by a thread, in such a 
way that, in the swinging of die pendulum 
between two plates, each of which is bent 
in th^ form or a cycloid, the thread rolls 
and unrolls itself. Then the longest vibra- 
tions will be performed in the same time 
as the shortest, producing an isochronism, 
and the cycloid is hence called an iio- 



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CYCLOID— CYMBALS. 



chrone or taniockrone. The name- df 
hrachystockrone has also been given to the 
cycloid, because it is tlie line in which a 
heavy body, falling in a direction oblique 
to the horizon, would pass in the ahortest 
time between two ]K>iuts. 

CrcLOPiEDiA. (See Encydopadia.) 
CrcLOPEAN Works, in ancient archi- 
tecture ; masonry performed with huge 
blocks of stone, much of which is to be 
seen in Sicily, said, by the ignorant, to be 
the works of an ancient and fabulous 
gigantic race of people ; as Stonehenge is 
said by the country people to have been 
built by the devil. Some of these works, 
called Cyclopeeuij were the walls of Argos 
and Sicyone. Near to Nauplea, in Argo- 
lis, there were caverns which, according 
to Strabo, were called Cydopean. As.ser- 
vants of Vulcan, the Cyclops were cele- 
brated in mythology and fabulous history 
for their marvellous works. (See Cvdops,) 
Cyclops ; the name of celebrated giants 
in the mythology of Greece. They are 
of two kinds : the former are the sons of 
Neptune, and the latter the sons of Ura- 
nus and 6aia (Heaven and Earth). The 
latter, tliree in number, Arges, Brontes, 
Steropes (Thunder and Liglttning), were 
those powerful giants who forged thun- 
derbolts for Jupiter, in the workshop of 
Vulcan, for which Apollo killed them. 
Wholly different from these are the sons 
of Neptune, of whom some enumerate 7 ; 
others, near 100. The most distinguished 
of them is Polyphemus. With him is 
connected the whole nation of the Cyclops, 
who are described in the Odyssey (ix, 106 
et seq.) as wandering savages, uncoutlr 
giants, without agriculture or civil union, 
dwelling in mountain caves, and support- 
ing themselves by the breeding of cattle. 
According to Homer, they resided on the 
west side of Sicily, near the dark Cim- 
meria. As geo^phical knowledge in- 
creased, the region of Cimmerian dark- 
ness was placed at a greater distance, and 
this nation was described as dwelling on 
the Riphcean mountains, rich in be£ of 
metal. The one-eyed people, sometimes 
called Cydops^ sometimes •^rimaspians, 
dug up the Ttiphaean ores, and wrouffht 
them, though disturbed by the grifhns 
which watched the gold. From this time, 
the two classes of Cyclops are confounded. 
A part of these Cyclops forged Jupiter's 
thunderbolts ; another |>art went on an ad- 
venture to Grpece, where they left several 
buildings, as monuments of Cyclopean 
art. (O. Muller understands, by the Cy- 
clops, whole nations, united under an ec- 
clesiastical govemmenL This wall-build- 



ing people might have been humble peas- 
ants in the Pelasgian plains of Argos 
(which is esfiecially called the Cydomcm 
region), tributary to the Achieans.) When 
men's acquaintance with the surfiice of 
the earth became still more increased, the 
fabled Ripheean hills were carried still 
farther into the undiscovered nij?ht of the 
North ; and here the history of the one- 
eyed nation is wrapped in confusion.^ 
Some authors place them still on the 
Ripheean hills to the North : most writers, 
however, treat tliem as dwelling again in 
Sicily, engaged in the service of Vulcan, 
but workmg under iEtna, or among the 
flaming crags of the Lipari islands. The 
mountains emitting fire were their forces ; 
and the roaring within them, the sound of 
their hammers. How they acquired the 
character of being one-eyed is unknown, 
as their name only attributes to them 
round eyesi Polyphemus, in many fig- 
wres, is represented vrith two eyes. 
Among the Greek |>astoral poets, we find 
the Cyclops exhibited in a rustic and 
natural character. — Cydo^s is likewise a 
nama which zoologists give to a certain 
minute aquatic animal. 

Ctder. (See Cider,) 

Cylinder ; the name of a geometrical 
solid, formed by twa parallel circular sur- 
faces, called the superior base and the in- 
ferior base, and a convex surface terminat- 
ed by them. There is a distinction be> 
tween rectangular cylinders and oblique 
cylinders. In the first case, the axis, tnat 
is, the straight line joining the centre of 
the two opposite bases, must be perpen- 
dicular; in the second, the axis must 
form an angle with the inferior base. Tlie 
solidity of a cylinder is equal to the pro- 
duct of the base by the altitude. Aitdii- 
medes found that tne solidity of a sphere 
inscribed in an equilateral cytinder, that 
is, of a sphere whose diameter is equal to 
the heieht, and also to the diameter of the 
base of the cylinder, is equal to two 
thirds of the soUdity of the cylinder. The 
cylinder is one of those figures which are 
constantly in use for the most various pur- 
poses. 

Cylinder Glass* (See Glass). 

Cymbals, among the ancients ; musical 
instruments consisting of two hollow ba- 
sins of brass, which emitted a ringing 
sound when sljuck together. The brazen 
instruments which are now used in mili- 
tary music, and have been borrowed by 
Europeans from the East, seem to have 
taken their rise from these. The inven- 
tion of them, according to some writers, 
must be referred to the worship of C^bele. 



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CYNICS-CYPRIANS. 



Ctnics. After the Greeks had explored, 
with unparalleled rapidity, all the regions 
of philosophy, and sects of the most va- 
lious kinds had formed themselves, it was 
not unnatural that a school should arise 
which condemned speculation, and de- 
voted itself to the moral reformation of 
society. The Cynics were founded hy 
Antisthenes, a scholar of Socrates, at 
Athens, about 380 B. C. The character 
of this philosophy lor the most part re- 
mained true to the Socratic, particularly 
in making practical morals its chief, or 
rather its omy object, and in despising all 
speculation. There were some noble fea- 
tures in the doctrines of the Cynics. They 
made virtue to consist in self-denial and 
independence of external circunistances, 
b^ which, asthev thought, man assimilates 
hunaelf to God. This simplicity of life, 
however, was soon, carried so fiir by the 
Cynics, that it degenerated into careless- 
ness, and even neslect of decency. In 
their attempts at uving conformably to 
nature, they brought themselves down to 
the level of savages, and even of brutes. 
No wonder, then, that the Cynics soon 
became objects of contempt. The most 
famous of their number were, besides 
their founder, the ingenious zealot IMoffe- 
nes of Sinope, Crates of Thebes, with his 
wife Hipparchia, and Menippus, who was 
the last of them. Aiier him, this philoso- 
phy merged in the Stoic, a more worthy 
and honorable sect — ^The word cynicism 
is s^U used to mark an uncommon con- 
tempt or neglect of all external things. 

Ctnosura; a nymph of mount Ida, 
who educated Jupiter, and was afterwards 
placed in the constellation of the Litde 
Bear. By this star, the Phcsnicians direct- 
ed their couzse in their voyages. — Cyno- 
narc, in a figurative sense, is hence used as 
synonymous with paUstar, or guide. 

Ctnthius ; a surname of Apollo, from 
mount Cynthua^ on the island of Delos, 
at the foot of which he had a temple, 
and on which he was bom. Diana, his 
sister, is called Cynthia, from the same 
mountain, because it was also her birth- 
place. 

CrpHESS. The cypress-tree (cvprtssua 
sempervirens) is a dark-colored eveiigreen, 
a native of the Levant, the leaves of which 
are extremely small, and entirely cover 
the dender branches, lying close upon 
them, so as to give them a somewhat 
quadrangular shape. In some of the 
trees, tlie branches diminish gradually in 
length, from the bottom to the top, in such 
a manner as to form a neariy pyramidal 
In many of the old gardens in 



Europe, cypress-trees are stil! to be found ; 
but their generally sombre and gloomy 
appearance has caused them, of late years, 
to be much neglected. They are, how- 
ever, very valuable, on account of tlieir 
wood, which is hard, compact and dura- 
ble, of a pale or reddish color, with deep 
veins and a pleasant smell. We are in- 
fonned by Pliny, that the doors of th« 
famous temple of Diana, at Ephesus, 
were of cypress-wood, and, though 400 
yeais old at the time that he wrote, ap- 
peared to be neariy as fresh as when new. 
Indeed, this wood was so much esteemed 
by the ancients, that the image of Jupiter, 
in the capitol, was made of it The 
gates of St Peter's church, at Rome, are 
stated to have been of cypress, and to 
have lasted more than 1000 years, fit>m 
the time of the emperor Constaatine until 
that of pope Eugenius IV, when gates of 
brass were erected in their stead. As this 
wood, in addition to its other Qualities, 
takes a fine polish, and is not liable to the 
attacks of insects, it was formerly much 
esteemed for cabinet furniture. By the 
Greeks, in the time of Thucydides, it was 
used for the coffins of eminent warriore ; 
and many of the chests which enclose 
Egyptian mummies are made of it The 
latter afford very decisive proof of its 
almost incorruptible nature. The name 
of this tree is derived from the island 
of Cvprus, in the Mediterranean, where 
it still grows in Kreat luxuriance. Its 
eloomy hue caused it to be consecrated, 
by the ancients, to Pluto, and to be used 
at the funerals of people of eminence. 
Pliny states tliat, in his time, it was cus- 
tomary to place branches of cypress-tree 
before those houses in which any person 
lay dead. Its perpetual verdure served 
the poets as the image of eternity, as its 
dark and silent leaf, unmoved by gehde 
breezes, is, perhaps, a proper symbol of 
melancholy. Large collections of cypress- 
es, as they are often seen surrounding 
Turkish minarets, have a gloomy and in- 
teresting ap|)earance. In the western 
parts of the U. States, upon the Mississip- 
pi and other rivers, the cypress consdtutes 
lar^ forests of a most sombre and pe- 
culiar character. The dark, dense na- 
ture of their foliage, the shad^ impenetra- 
ble to the sun, which they form, render 
them the fit abode of wild beasts and 
reptiles, and almost inaccessible to man. 
They cover tracts hundreds of miles in 
extent, and are visited only by the travel- 
ler and the wood-cutter. 

CrpRiANS ; a term used for courtesans, 
like that of Corinthians (q. v.), because 



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CYPRIANS-ST. CYR 



Venufl, the Cyprian goddess, was particu- 
larly worabipped on the island of Cy- 
prus. 

CrpRiAir, St, bom A. D. 200, at Car- 
thage, was descended from a respectable 
fanuiy, and was a teacher of rhetoric 
there. In 246, he was converted to Chris- 
tianity, distributed his property among the 
poor, and hved in the greatest abstinence. 
The church, in Carthaee, soon chose him 
presbyter, and, in 248, he was made bish- 
op. He was the light of the cler^, and 
the comfort of the people. Dunng the 
persecution under the emperor Decius, he 
fled, but constantly exhorted his church 
to continue firm in the Christian faith. 
In 251, he summoned a council, at Car- 
thage, to decide concerning those who 
had abandoned their faith during the per- 
secution, but desired to be readmitted 
through penance. When the persecution 
of the Christians was renewed, A. D. 257, 
he was banished to Curubis, 12 leagues 
from Carthage. Sept 14, 258, he was 
beheaded, at Carthage, because, in oppo- 
sition to the orders of the government, he 
had preaehed the gospel in his gardens, 
near Carthage. Lactantius calls him 
one of the first eloquent Christian authors. 
His style, however, retained something of 
the hardness of his teacher, Tertulhan. 
We have from him an explanation of the 
Lord^ pmver, and 81 letters, affordm^ 
valuable illustrations of the ecclesiastics 
history of his time. Baluze published his 
works complete (Paris, 1726, fol.). 

Cypris (Cifpria); a surname of Venus, 
from the island of Cyprus, where was her 
first temple. 

Cyprus; an island in the Mediterra- 
nean, between Asia Minor and Syria, fii- 
mous, in antiquity, for its uncommon fer- 
tility and its mild chmate. It contains- 
7264 square miles, and 120,000 inhabi- 
tants, of whom 40,000 are Greeks. Cy- 
prus is the native place of the cauliflow- 
er. Wine, oil, honey, wool, &c., are still, 
as formerly, the principal productions. 
The country is distinguished by re- 
markable places and mountains; as Pa- 
phos, Amathusia, Salamis and Olympus, 
once adorned with a rich temple of Venus. ' 
Venus was particularly venerated here, 
because, according to tradition, the de- 
lightful shores of Cyprus received her 
when she emerged fh>m the foam of the 
sea. The oldest history of this island is 
lost in the darkness of antiquity. When 
Amasis brought it under the Egyptian 
yoke, 550 B. C, Ionian and Phoenician 
' colonists had formed several small states 
in the island. It remained an Egyptian 



province till 58 B. C, when it was con- 
quered by the Romans. After the division 
of the Roman territories, Cyprus continu- 
ed subject to the Eastern empire, and was 
ruled by its own governors of ro^al blood, 
of whom Comnenus I made himself in- 
dependent, and his fimiily sat upon the 
tlirone till 1191, whra Richard of England 
rewarded the family of Lusignan wiui the 
sceptre. After the extinction of the le^d- 
mate male line of Lusignan, James^ an ille- 
gitimate descendant, came to the govern- 
ment His wifb was a Venetian (Catha- 
rine Comaro, q. v.), and, as she had no 
children at his death, the Venetians took 
advantage of tliis circumstance to make 
themselves masters of the island (1473). 
They enjoyed tlie undisturbed possession 
of it till 1571, when Amurath III, not- 
^vithstanding the bravest resistance on the 
part of Marco Antonio Bragadino, who 
defended Famagusta 1 1 months, conquer- 
ed Cyprus, and joined it to the empire of 
Turkey. Nicosia, the chief city, is the 
seat of the Turkish governor, a Greek 
archbishop and an Armenian bishop. 
The wines of Cyprus are red when they 
first come from the press ; but after five 
or six years, they grow pale. Only the 
Muscatel wine is white at first ; and even 
this, as it grows okler, becomes redder, 
till, after a tew years, it attains the thick- 
ness of sirup. It is very sweet The 
wines of Cyprus are not equally agreeable 
at all seasons of the year : they are best 
in spring and sunmier. Excessive cold 
injures them, and destroys their flavor and 
color. They are put up at first in leather 
ba^ covered witli pitch, whence they ac- 
quire a strong pitchy flavor which is sev- 
eral years in escaping. They are brought 
to the continent in casks, but cannot be 
kept unless drawn off after some time into 
bottles. The best is distinguished by the 
name of Cmnmandtry. (See Fcmtfj. 

Ctr, St ; a French villa^ in the de- 
partment of the Seine-and-Oise,one league 
west of Versailles (population, 1000), fa- 
mous for the seminary which Louis XIV 
founded here, at tlie perSiiasioii of mad- 
anie Maintenon, in 168G. Here 250 noble 
ladies wero educated, free of expense, 
until their 20th year. Forty females of 
the order of St Augustine instructed the 
scholars. Madame Maintenon gave all 
her attention to this establishment She 
is buried at St Cyr. During the revo^ 
lution, this institution was overturned, and 
a military preparatory school was founded 
by Na|>oleon, which survived his fall, and 
educates 300 pupils. Na|K>leon estab- 
lished la maiton impiriaU cP^kxmen, on in- 



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ST.CYR-CYRIL 



96 



adtiition similar to the one at St Cyr, and 
placed madame Campan at the head 
of it 

Cyrenaica (originally a Phosnician col- 
ony), once a powerful Greek state in the 
noftfa of Africa, west of Egypt, comprising 
five cities (Pentapolisl among which was 
Cyrene, a Spartan colony, is at present a 
vast, but unexplored field of antiquities. 
The ancient site of Cyrene is now called 
Grtmu or Ccynn^ in the countiy of Bar- 
ca, in the dominion of TripolL Till the 
fifth century, Cyrenaica was the seat of 
the Giiosdcs. fq. v.) The antiquities 
there are described by the physician P. 
Delia Cella, in his work Viagpo da Tri- 
poli di Barbarie alU Drontien OcciderUali 
ddP EgiUo, fatto nd 1817 (Genoa, 1819, 
8vo.). J. R. Pacho, who has travelled 
over Africa since 1819, made many obser- 
vations, likewise, in Cyrenaica, for which 
he received the geographical prize of 3000 
francs, on his return to Paris, in 1826. 
( Voyage de ML Padu> dans la Cyrenciique,) 
Of the famous inscription found among 
the ruins of Cyrene, and brought to Malta, 
some account has been given by Gesenius 
(Halle, 1825, 4to.), and Hamacker, pro- 
fessor at Leyden (Leyden, 1825, 4to.). 
At present, the country is called, by the 
Arabians, Bjebd Mhdaar^ or Grun nishr 
land. Surrounded by sterile and dry 
countries, Cyrenaica itself is very fertile 
and well watered. Its hills are covered 
with wood, and exhibit many melancholy 
traces of former cultivation. In ancient 
times, the inhabitants suffered much from 
the attacks of the people of the interior 
and the Carthaginians. The ruins of Cy- 
rene have given rise among the present 
inhabitants, to a belief in a petrified city. 
There are at present about 40,000 people 
in Djebel Akhdar. 

Ctrenaics ,* a philosophical sect, whose 
founder was Aristippus (q. v.), bom in 
Cyrene, a pupil of Socrates. (See Aris- 
imw.) The most distinguished of his 
followers were Hegesias, i^niceris, Theo- 
dore the Atheist, who, for his denial of 
the existence of virtue and the Deity, was 
banished fix>m Athens. 
Ctrens. (See CyrencAca.) 
Ctril. Ecclesiastical history mentions 
three saints of this name : — 1. Cyril of Je- 
rusalem, bom there about the year 315, 
was ortlained presbyter in 345, and, afler 
the death of St Maximus, in 350, became 
patriarch of Jerusalem. Being a zealous 
Catliolic, he engaged in a warm contro- 
versy with Acacius, the Arian bishop of 
Ceenirea. In addition to their dispute 
upon doctrinal points, Acacius accused 



him of having sold some valuable church 
ornaments, which he had indeed done, 
but for the laudable purpose of supporting 
the needy during a famine. A councu 
assembled at Csesarea, by Acacius, in 357, 
deposed Cyril ; but the council of Seleueia, 
in 359, restored him and deposed his per- 
secutor. Acacius, by his artifices, suc- 
ceeded in depriving him again of his dig- 
nity the next year, and, afler the emperor 
Constantius, on his accession to the throne, 
had once more recalled him, he was a 
third time deposed by the emperor Valens, 
afler whose death he finally returned to 
Jerusalem. In 381, the council of Con- 
stantinople confirmed him. He died in 
386. We have 23 catecheses composed 
by him, in a clear and simple style, which 
are esteemed the oldest and liest outiine 
of the Christian dogmas (Paris, 1720, folio.) 
— 2. Cyril of Alexandria was educated by 
his uncle Theophilus, patriarch of Alex- 
andria ; spent five years in the monaste- 
ries of Nitria, where he was instructed by 
die abbot Serapion. He then went to 
Alexandria, where his graceful form and 
pleasing delivery gained him so many 
adherents, that, afler his uncle's death, in 
4.12, he succeeded him in the patriarohal 
dignity. Full of zeal and ambition, he 
was not satisfied witii ecclesiastical honor 
alone, but exeroised secular dominion alsa 
To punish the Jews, by whom Christian 
blood had been shed, during an insurrec- 
tion, he assailed them, at tlie head of the 
]K)pulace, destroyed their houses and their 
furniture, and drove tbcm out of the city. 
Orestes, the prefect of Egypt, who com- 
plained of such lawless violence, so incon- 
sistent with the character of a bishop, was 
soon afler attacked in die streets by 500 
furious monks, one of whom, having 
wounded Orestes, was apprehended, con- 
demned to death, and expired under the 
blows of the Uctors. Cyril caused his 
body to be carried in a solemn procession 
to tne cathedral, gave him the name of 
Thaumaaiu3f and extolled him as a mai^ 
tyr and a saint The assassination of 
Hypatia, the leamed daughter of Theon, 
the mathematician, who had excited the 
envy of Cyril, by the applause which slie 
had gained by her knowledge of geome- 
try and philosophy, took place at his insti- 
gation. In the notorious synod of 403, in 
concuirence with his uncle, he had plan- 
ned the condenmation of St Chrysostom, 
and it was only afler an obstinate resist- 
ance, tiiat he was persuaded to submit to 
the decrees of the Catholic church, in 
respect to that prelate. Still more fierce 
were his disputes with Nestorius, the sue 



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CYRII^-CYRUS. 



cessor of Chiysostom, who disdnguiBfaed 
between the divine and human nature of 
Christ, acknowledging Maiy as the mother 
of Christ, but refusmg to her the appellation 
of mother of God, Cyril contended long 
and violently against these doctrines, and 
appointed pope Celestine umpire, who 
immediately condemned them. He drew 
up 12 anathemas, directed against John, 
patriarch of Antioch, which, in the opin- 
ion even of theologians, are not wholly 
fiiee from heresy, and called upon Nesto- 
rius to subscribe them. To settle the dis- 
pute between these two prelates, the coun- 
cil of Ephesus was summoned. Both 
pardes appeared with a great number of 
adherents and servants, between whom 
innumerable disputes arose. Cyril opened 
the council before the arrival of tlie patri- 
arch of Antioch ; and, although Nestorius 
refused to recognise his enemies as judges ; 
although 68 bishops were in his &vor, and 
a magistrate, in the name of the emperor, 
demanded a delay of four days; yet, in a 
single day, Nestorius was condemned, 
. deposed, and declared to be a second Ju- 
das. Soon after, the patriarch of Antioch 
arrived, and held a fiynod of 50 bisliops, 
who, with equal haste, condemned Cyril 
as guilty of heresy, and declared him a 
monster born for the ruin of the church. 
Both parties rush^ to arms : the streets 
of the city, and the cathedral itself, became 
the theatre of their fury, and were polluted 
with blood. The emperor Theodosius 
sent troops to Ephesus, to disperse this 
pugnacious council. This measure, how- 
ever, only changed the theatre of the war; 
for it was continued three years longer, 
between John of Antioch and Cyril. 
Soon after, Nestorius, not less violent than 
C3rril, obtained from the emperor a com- 
mand for Cyril to appear again before a 
council at Ephesus. Both parties appear- 
ed, with their adherents, in arms. Cyril 
was maltreated, and even imprisoned. He 
escaped from his keepers, however, and 
fled to Alexandria. From that place, he 
contrived, by distributing bribes, to excite 
an insuraection in Constantinople, which 
stnick terror into the timid emperor. Ne- 
gotiations were begun : Cyril was prevail- 
ed upon to mitigate his anathema^ and, 
against his will, to acknowledge a two- 
fold nature in Christ. But Nestorius, as 
he was determined never to renounce his 
opinions, was compelled to lay down bis 
offices, and to retire to a monastery. He 
was afterwards banished to Thebais. In 
839 or 340, he died. Cyril closed his 
restless career in 344. His opinions pre- 
vailed both in tlie Eastern and Western 



empire, and the church gave him a p<ace 
among the saints. The best edition «of 
his wortei, in which there is neither clear- 
ness nor accuracy of style, is that of 1638, 
in folioi — 3. St. C^l, a native of Thessa- 
lonica, b^ way of*^ distinction, was called 
ConsUmtviity and, at Constantinople, where 
he studied, received the name of tlie Phir 
losopher. At the recommendation of St 
Ignatius, the emperor Michael III sent 
bim to the Chazars— ^ people of the stock 
of the Huns. He conv^ted the khan, 
after whose example the whole nation 
were baptized. He then preached the 
gospel, with Methodius, to the Bulgari- 
ans, and baptized then king Bojaris, A. D. 
860. They had the same success in Mo- 
ravia and Bohemia. Still later, they went 
to Rome, where they both died. Accord- 
ing to Dohrowskv, Cjrril died in 868 : ac- 
cording to Xav. iUchter, he died in 871 or 
872. The two apostles were both declar- 
ed saints. The Greeks and Russians cele- 
brate the festival of St. Cyril on Feb. 14. 
He was the inventor of the Cyrillian 
Letters (q. v.), which took their name fix)m 
him, and is probably the author of the 
Apologies which bear his name. 

Ctrillian Letters ; characters called, 
In Sclavonic, Czuraliza; one of the modes 
of vniting the Scjavonic language, of 
which tliere are three : — 1. Roman or Ger- 
man letters, used by the people of Poland, 
Bohemia and Lusatia ; 2. CmUianj so 
caUed from their inventor, Cy rill us. They 
are much used by the Russians. 3. From 
these Cyrillian characters, probably 
through the artifices of calligraphy, a pe- 
culiar alphabet was formed, which is 
sometimes used in printed books, but no 
where in common life. 

Ctrus ; a celebrated conqueror. The 
only two original authorities concerning 
him — ^Herodotus and Xenophon— difier so 
greatly, that they cannot be reconciled. 
According to Herodotus, he was the son 
of Cambyses, a distinguished Persian, and 
of Mandane, daughter of the Median king 
Astyages. He founded the Persian mon- 
aichy. (See ./JMryriflu) A short time be- 
fore his birdi, the soothsayers at the court 
of Astyaffes divined from a dream of his, 
that his nituro grandson was to dethrone 
him. Upon this, he gave orders that Cy- 
rus should be destroyed immediately after 
his birth. For this purpose, he was deliv- 
ered to a herdsman, who, moved with 
compassion, brought him up, and named 
him Cyrus. His courage and spirit be- 
trayed his descent to the king. On ooe 
occasion, playing with other boys, being 
chosen king by lii3 companions, he caused 



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CYRUS— CZAR. 



97 



the son of one of the fitBt men in the na- 
tion to be beaten. The father of the boy 
complained to Ast^-ages, who reprimanded 
young Cyrus. But he appeaJed to his 
right as king of his conipanions, and 
replied with so much boldness and good 
sense, diat Astyages became interested in 
him, and instituted inquiries, which led to 
the discovery of his birth. The majji 
having succeeded in quieting the uneasi- 
ness which the discovery occasioned him, 
he eent Cynxs to his parents in Persia, 
with marks of his &vor. But the young 
man soon drew together a formidable 
army of Persians, and conquered his 
grandfather, B. C. 560. A similar fate 
befell Cnssus, the rich and powerfiil king 
of Lydia, and Nabonadius, king of Baby- 
k>n, whose capital he took, after a sie^ 
of two years. He also subdued Phcenicia 
and Palestine, to which he caused the 
Jews to return from the Babylonish cap- 
tivity. While Asia, from the Hellespont 
to the Indies, was under his dominion, he 
engaged in an unjust war against the Mas- 
sagetse — a people of Scythia, north-east of 
the Caspian sea, beyond the Amxes, then 
ruled by a queen named Tormfris. In 
the fir^t hattie, he conquered by stratagem ; 
but, in the second, he experienced a total 
defeat, and was himself dain, B. C. 529, 
after a reifn of 29 years. He was suc- 
ceeded by his son Cambyses. The stories 
related by Xenophon (q. v.), in the Cyro- 
P^dia ( Accowit of the Life and remarkable 
Traits in the Character of Cyrus), that he 
received a splendid education at tiie court 
of Astyages, inherited his kingdom, and 
ruled like a genuine philosopher, are 
either mere romance, deserving not the 
least historical credit (Xenophon's design 
being to represent the model of a king, 
without regard to liistorical truth, and, in 
this way, perhaps, to exhibit to his coun- 
tiymen the advantages of a monarchy), or 
etee the two accounts are founded on dif- 
lerent traditions, perhaps of two diferent 
persons named C]yn«.-»-'Another Cyrus 
was the youngest son of Darius Nothus, or 
Ochus, who hved nearly 150 years later 
than the former. In the l6ih year of his 

J 5, he obtained the supreme power over 
tiie provinces of Asia Minor. Hisam- 
bitioD early displayed itself; and when, 
after his father's death, his eldest brother, 
Artaxerxes Mnemon, ascended the throne, 
Cyrus formed a conspiracy against him, 
which was, however, discovert before it 
came to maturity. Instead of causing the 
sentence of death to be executed upon 
him, his brother kindly released him, and 
*nade him governor of Asia Minolr. Here 
▼01*. IV. 9 



Cyrus assembled a numerous army, to 
make war upon Artaxerxes, and detiirone 
him. Among his forces were 13,000 
Greek auxiliaries, who were ignorant, 
however, of the object of the expedition. 
Being informed of his brother's design, 
Artaxerxes marched against him with a 
much larger army. In the plains of Cy- 
naxa, in the province of Babylon, tiie two 
armies encountered each other. After a 
brave resistance, especiaUy on the part of 
the Greeks, the army of Cyrus was over- 
come, and he himself slain by the hand of 
Artaxerxes. 

Ctthera (now Cerigo ; population, 
8000), one of the seven Ionian islands, sep- 
arated by a narrow strait from the south 
shore of Laconia, was particularly celebrat- 
ed for the worship of Venus Urania, whose 
temple in Cythera, the chief city, was the 
oldest and most splendid of her temples in 
Greece. The ancient Cythera is now de- 
molished, and exhibits nothing but a few 
ruins. On the shore of this island, accord- 
ing to one tradition, Venus first ascended 
from the sea, and took poss^ession of tlje 
land ; i. e., Phoenician navigators here first 
introduced the worship of Venus into 
Greece. The island is rocky and unfruit- 
fhl. From tiiis place, Venus has her 
name Cythena. 

Czar, Zar, or Zaar; a tide of the au- 
tocrat of Russia. The word is of old 
Sclavonic origin, and is nearly equivalent 
to king. The emperor is called, in the 
same language, ketsar. Until the 16th 
centuiy, the rulers of tlie several Russian 
provinces were called grand-princes (toe- 
wfci knaes). Thus there were grand- 
princes of^ Wladimir, Kiev, Moscow, &c 
The grand-prince Wasilie first received, 
in 1505, the tide of samodersheta, which is 
equivalent to die Greek word autocrat. 
(q. V.) The son of Wasilie, Ivan II, 
adopted, in 1579, the title of Czar of 
Moscow, which his descendants l)ore for a 
long time. In 1721, the senate and clergy 
conferred on Peter I, in the name of the 
nation, the tide of emperor of Russia, for 
which, in Russia, the Latin word imperch 
tor is used. Several European powers 
declined to acknowledge this title, until 
the middle of the last century. The eld- 
est son and presumptive heir of the czar 
was called czareviz (czar's son); but, with 
the unfortunate Alexis, son of Peter I, this 
tide ceased, and dll the princes of the im- 
perial house have been since called grand- 
prinees. The emperor Paul I renewed 
the title czareviz, or czcarewitch, in 1799, fbr 
his second son, Constantino, (q. v.) The 
rulers of Georgia and Imiretta, now under 



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96 



CZAR-DACH. 



the RuflBUUK sceptre, called themselves 
czars, 

CZENSTOCHOW, OF CZENSTOCHOWA ; a 

fortified roonastery, belonging to tlie order 
of St Paul the Hermit, in roland, province 
of Kalisch, near the Wanha and the fron- 
tiens of Silesia. In this fortification, wrell 
provided with artillery, the monks former- 
ly had their own ganison, and chose com- 
mandants from their own nmnber. In 
the diet of 1765, however, it was deter- 
mined to occupy this place with a secular 



force. Frequent pilgrimages are made to 
the miraculous image of the Virgin, in the 
church of the monasteir. At tlie foot of 
the mountain lies New Czenstochow, with 
a population of 1300, and, a few miles 
di^ant, Old Czenstochow, with a popula- 
tion of 1700. In 1812, Czenstochow was 
occupied by a garrison of French soldiers, 
who were compelled to surrender to the 
Russians in January, 1813. 

CzERMT George. (See Seroia,) 

CziEKHiTz. (See ZirknUz,) 



D. 



mJ ; the fourth letter in our alphabet, of 
the order of mutea (See Consorumt,) Ac- 
cording to M. Champo]lion's recent dis- 
coveries, the (4 in the hieroglyphic writing 
of the old Egyptians, corresponding to the 
dau of the Copts, is a segment of a circle, 
similar to a O . The Greek delta was a 
triangle, A, from which the Roman D 
has l^en borrowed. D, as an initial letter 
on medals, indicates the names of coun- 
tries, cities and persons, as Deciu$ ; also 
the words devotus, degignatus, divusy domi- 
nu8, &c ; D. M., dits mambus ; D. O. M., 
Deo opHmo maxmo. The Greek A repre- 
sented the number four. Among Roman 
numerals, D si^ifies 500, but was not 
used as a numerical designation until 1500 
years after Christ. The Romans desig- 
nated a thousand in this way, — ^C 1 3. The 
early printers, it is said, thought it best to 
express 500 by half the character of 1000, 
and therefore introduced 13, which soon 
grew into D. If a line was marked over 
it, it signified 5000. In inscriptions and 
manuscripts, D is veiy often found in tlie 
place of JB and h\dt8 for hes, dacknmuz for 
lackraiiuB. In dedications, D., thrice re- 
peated, signifies Doty Danaty Dicatj or Dot, 
Dicatf Dedicat. As an abbreviation of the 

Srists, D signifies the pandects (Dieesta), 
stands for dodor in M. D. ; m D. T., 
doctor of thujiflgy ; LL. D., dodor of laws, 
&c. D., on French coins, signifies Lwms f 
on Prussian, Aurich; on Austrian, Uratz, 
In music, D designiOes the second note in 
the natural diatonic scale of C, to which 
Guide applied the monosvUable re. 

Da Capo (Bal, ; frodi the bead or begin- 
ning) ; an expression written at the end of 
a movement, to acquaint the performer 



that he is to return to, and end with, the 
first strain. It is also a call or acclamation 
to the singer or musician, in theatres or 
concerts, to repeat a piece which he has 
just finished — a request vexy often made 
mercilessly by the public, vrithout regard 
to the fatigue caused by a performance. 

Dacca Jelai,pore; an extensive and 
rich district of Bengal, situated principaUj 
between 23^ and 24° of N. lat It is 
intersected by the Ganges and Brahma- 
pootra, two of the largest rivers in In- 
dia, which, with their various branches, 
form a complete inland navigation, extend- 
ing to eveiy part of the countiy ; so that, 
eveiy town having its river or canal, the 
general mode of travelling or conveying 
goods is by water. 

Dacca ; a large city, capital of the above- 
named district, and, for 80 years, the cap- 
ital of BengoL It is situated on the north- 
ern bonk of a deep and broad river, called 
tlie Boor Gunga (Old Granges), at the d^ 
tance of 100 irAes fix>m the sea. In this 
city, or its vicinity, are manufactured 
beautiful musUn% which are exported to 
every part of the civilized world. It has 
also an extensive manu&cture of shell 
bracelets, much worn by the Hindoo 
women. The neighborhood of the city 
abounds with game of all sorts, from the 
tiger to the quail, and is, on this account, 
a great resort of Europeans, during die 
three cold months. 180 miles from Cal- 
cutta by land; Ion. 90^ 17' £.; lot 23^ 
42'N. 

Dach, Simon, a German poet of tho 
17th centuijr, bom at Memel, July 29, 
1605, lived m an humble condition, until 
he was appointed professor of poetiy in 



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DACH'-DACIER. 



the umveraitv of K6nig8berg. He remain- 
ed in this omce until his death, April 15, 
1659. His secular songs are lively and 
natural. His sacred songs are distinguish- 
ed for deep and quiet feeling. 

Dacia. The country wluch anciendy 
bore this name, according to Ptolemy's 
description, comprised the present Banat, 
a part of Lower Hungary, as fiir as the 
Carpathian mountains on the west, Tran- 
sylvania, Moldavia, Walachia and Bessa- 
rabia. Some include Bulgaria and Servia, 
vrith Bosnia, or tlie ancient Upper and 
Lower Mcesia. The inhabitants of this 
country, called Daci, also Davij made 
themselves, for a lon^ time, terrible to the 
Romans. When Trajan conquered Dacia, 
in the second century, he divided it into, 

1. Dacid Biparia or Rmenaia (the present 
Banat, and a part of Hungary), so called 
because it was bounded on the west by 
the TheisB, and on the east bythe Danube ; 

2. Dacia Mediterranea (now Transvlvania), 
so called, because it was situated between 
the two others ; and, 3. Dacia Tywualpina 
(now Walachia, Moldavia and Bessarabia), 
or that part of Dacia lying beyond the 
Carpathian mountains. He governed each 
of these three provinces by a prefect, es- 
tablished colonies in them, and sent colo- 
nists fixmi other parts of the Roman em- 
}Nie, to people them, and supply cultiva- 
tors of the BoiL When Constantine the 
Great divided the Roman empire anew, 
Dacia became a pturt of the Ulyrian pre- 
fecture, and was divided into five prov- 
inces or districts. Upon the fall of the 
Roman empire, it was gradually overrun 
l^ the Goths, Huns, Gepide and Avars. 
Since that time, the history of this coun- 
try, which then lost the name of Dacia, is 
to be sought for in that of the provinces 
of which it formerly consisted. 

Dacier, Andr^, bom at Castres, in 
Upper Lan^edoc, 1651, of Protestant 
parents, studied at Saumiir, under Tanilb- 
guy-Lef^vre, whose daughter Anna was 
associated in his studies.: After the death 
of Lefevre, in 1672, he went to Paris. 
The duke of Montausier, to whom his 
learning was known, intrusted him with 
the editing of Pompeius Festus (in usum 
ddphiaiy The intimacy growing out of 
their mutual love of literature led to a 
marriage between him and Anna Lefe- 
vre, in 1683, and, two years afler, they 
both embraced the Catholic religion. 
lliey received fit>m the king considerable 
pensions. In 1695, Dacier was elected a 
member of the academy of inscriptions, 
and of the French academy: of the latter 
he was afterwards perpetual secretary. 



The care of the cabinet in the Louvre was 
intrusted to him. He died in 1722. Da- 
cier wrote several indifierent translations 
of the Greek and Latin authora. Besides 
the edition of Pompeius Festus, and the 
(Euvres d'Horace, en Latin et en Fran- 
pais, with the ji/ouveaux Adaireissemens 
svr ks Giuvres d^Horact, and tlie Abuve^Ze 
Traduction d*Horace, with critical annota- 
tions, he prepared an edition of Valerius 
Flaccus, a translation of Marcus Antoni- 
nus, of £pictetus, of Aristotle^ Art of Po- 
etry, with annotations,, of the Lives of 
Plutarch, of the CEklipus and Electra of 
Sophocles, of the works of Hippocrates^ 
and of several dialogues of Plato. 

Dacier, Anna Lefl^vre; wife of the 
preceding; bom at Saumur, in 1651. Af- 
ter the deatli of her learned father, who 
had instructed her, and cultivated her tal- 
ents, she went to Paris, where she dis- 
played her learning by an edition of Calli- 
machus (1675), which she inscribed to 
Huet, the under tutor of the dauphin. 
The duke of Montausier, in consequence, 
intrusted her with the care of several edi- 
tions of the classics (in usum delphini). 
She first edited Florus (q. v.), with a com- 
mentary. Her learned works were not 
interrupted by her marriage. Her feeble 
translation of Homer attracted a good deal 
of attention, and led to a dispute between 
her and Lamotte, in which it appeared 
that madame Dacier understood much 
less of logic, than Lamotte of the Greek 
language. In her Considerations swr Us 
Causes de la Corruption du Chut, she de- 
fended Homer with the acuteness of a 
profound commentator, and Lamotte re- 
pUed with a great deal oi wit and elegance $ 
on wliich account it was said, Lamotte 
wrote like an inffenious woman, madame 
Dacier like a learned man. Lamotte 
introduced her to the notice of queen 
Christina, who persuaded her to embrace 
the Catholic reheion. In her Homtre de- 
Jfendu, she showed little mercy to Hardouin, 
who had written a satirical eulogy of this 
poet. On this occasion, she was said to 
have uttered more invectives against the 
reviler of Homer, than the poet himself 
had placed in the mouths of all his heix>es. 
She translated Terence, and three pieces 
of Plautus, in the prologue of which she 
treats of the origin, the cultivation and 
changes of dramatic poetry with acuteness. 
Her translation of the Plutusand the Clouds 
of Aristophanes, deserves indulgence, as 
the first translation of the Greek comic 
poet Her translation of Anacreon and 
Sappho, wiUi a defence of the latter, met 
with success. She flso wrote annotations 



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100 



DACBGR— DACTYUOTHECA. 



on the Bible, but did not publish them. 
Her life was entirely devoted to literaturei 
and her domestic duties. She died in 
]72D. Equally estimable for her charac- 
ter and her talents, she gained as many 
admirers by her virtue, her constancy and 
lier equanimity, as by her works. She 
was chosen member of several academies, 

Dacttle. (See Rhythm.) 

Dacttliotheca (Greek); a collection 
of engraved gem& Tlie art of engraving 
gems was no where carried to greater 
]ierfection than in Greece, where they 
were worn not only in rings (from which 
the name of iaxTtXioi, ring|, but in seals, 
and were much used for otlier ornamental 
purposes. The Romans were far behind 
the Greeks in tliis art ; but tliey were tlie 
first who made collections of {)recious 
stones. Scaurus, the son-in-law of Sylla, 
introduced the custom (Pliny, Hist JVerf., 
37, 5). Pompey tlic Great transferred the 
collection of Mitliridates to Rome, and 
placed it in the capitol. A much larger 
collection was exhibited by CsBsar in the 
temple of Venus Genitiix, and, ailer- 
waids, under Augustus, by M. Marcellus, 
in the temple of Apollo Palatinus. In 
modem times, the princes of Italy vied 
with each other in collecting these treas- 
ures of art The family of Gonzaga es- 
tabhshed the first dactylioOieci^ and was 
followed by the fiunily of Este at Modena, 
that of Famese, and by Lorenzo de' Me- 
dici in Florence. The gems collected by 
him are marked with iZr., or Lor, cEe* M^ 
or with M. alone. His collection was di- 
vided and scattered, but the Medici estab- 
lished a new one, the foundation of the 
present D. Florentina^ the most important 
existing, as it contains about 4000 gems. 
Li Rome, collections of no great value 
were made under Julius II and Leo X. 
Maria Piccolomini, a Roman prelate, had 
the best in that city ; and Lucio Odescal- 
chi, afterwards duke of Bragiani, inherited 
that of Christina queen of Sweden. Rome 
afterwards received the collections of the 
Vatican (formed more at random than on 
any connected plan), of the Baiberini, and 
of the Strozzi (containing some master- 
pieces of the art, now in St. Petersburg). 
The D, Ludovma^ belonging to the prince 
of Piombino, and that of the cardinal Borgia 
at Velletri, famous for its Egyptian gems 
and sccarabiti, are still celebrated. Naples 
has beautiful gems in the cabinet at Por- 
tici and at Capo di Monte. The prince 
Piscari formed a collection at Catanea, in 
Sicily, consisting entirely of gems found 
in Sicily. In France, the first collection 
was begun by Francis I, but was dispersed 



in the civil war. In the ^ign of Louis 
XIV, Louvois kiid the foundation of tho 
present fine collection of antiques in the 
royal library. The collection of the duko 
of Orleans, which he inherited from the 
Palatinate, was celebrated. Besides these, 
there were several private collections of 
value. The most celebrated in England 
arc those of tlie dukes of Devonshire, 
Bedfoni and Marlborough, and tlie earls 
of Carlisle and Desborougb. Geimany 
also has collections. In the palace of 
Sans Souci, at Potsdam, near Berlin, sev- 
eral are united, among which is that of 
Muzel Stosch, rendered famous by the 
description of Winckelmann. Vienna has 
a separate cabinet of gems. The collec- 
tion of Dresden is good. The city library 
of Leipsic possesses some good gems. 
The collection at Cassel is extensive, but 
not very valuable. Munich has some 
beautiful pieces. There are also many 
private collections. In the Netherlands, 
the cabinet of the king is valuable. In 
the royal palace at Copenhagen, there are 
some vases inlaid with gems ; and Peters- 
burg has, besides the imperud collection, 
the foundation of which was that of the 
engraver Natter, the rich collection of 
count Poniatowski. To multiply elegant 
and ingenious or remarkable designs oa 
gems, engravings or casts are taken. Thus 
not only sLugle designs, but all those of 
the same class, or those of a whole cabi- 
net, are represented by engravings. The 
impressions of various classes of gems 
have been collected. Beliori collected 
the Dortraits of philosophers and others ; 
Chimet, abraxas stones (see JlhraxaSy and 
Gnosis) ; Gori, gems engraved with stars ; 
Ficoroni, gems with inscriptions ; Stosch, 
gems beanng the names of the artists. 
Representations of whole collections have 
lieen given ; as, by Gori, of those contained 
in the Museum Floreniiman ; by Wicar and 
Mongez, of those in the gallery of Flor- 
ence ; by Mariette, of the former French 
collections ; by i<eblond and Lachaux, of 
that of the duke of Orleans ; by Eckhel, 
of that of Vienna. We might also men- 
tion the copies of the Museum (TOdescal- 
ckif of the cabinets of Gravelle, Stosch, 
Bossi, and the duke of Marlborough. But, 
although some of these impressions are 
very beautiful, the preference ought to be 
given to die casts. The collections of 
such casts are also called dach^ioiheca ; 
for instance, tlie deuiyliMeca of Lippert, 
consisting of 3000 pieces. Tassie, in Lon- 
don, has executed the largest collection of 
casts yet known, amountmg to 15,000. 
These are important aids in the study of 



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DACTYLIOTHECA— DAENDELS. 



101 



the branch of antiquities with which they 
are connected. 

DAGTTI.IOHANCT (from &Mcrtf>fo(, a ring, 
and lumta, divination) ; the pretended art 
of divining by means of rings. 

DACTTLOI.OOT, OF Dacttlonomt (fit>m 
jtfcTvX0(,the finger), is the art (^ numbering 
with the fingers ; or, in a wider sense, of 
expressing one's thoughts in general with 
the fingers. It is usually taught in insd- 
tutions for the education of the deaf and 
dumbu 

DAnncHtrs (Latin ; AaOx^, Greek) ; lit- 
cmUy a torch-bearer, but applied as an 
epithet to many of the ancient divinides, 
who were always represented as bearing 
a tench or fiambeau. Daduchi were also 
those persons, who, in certain ceremo- 
nies anid religious processions, carried the 
fhunbeaus or sacred torches. The Dadu- 
chic duties are Ceres, when represented 
as searching for her lost daughter Proser- 
pine ; IMana, Luna, Hecate and Sol, when 
in their cars, employed in the business of 
lighting the earth ; Venus, Cupid and Hy- 
men, when bearing the torch of love; 
Rhea or Cybele, and Vesta, in the temples 
where the vestals guarded the sacred fire 
of those ^[oddesses; Vulcan, in whose 
hiHior, conjointly with Prometheus and 
Pallas as Daduchi, the Athenians instituted 
a festival, which they called Lampadq^horia, 
Aa^aiif^yla (sce Jjomatodephoria); IfeUona, 
the Furies, Aurora, Hymen, Peace (on a 
medal of Vespasian] ; Comus (in an an- 
cient painting described by Philostratus) ; 
Night, Sleep, and Death, or Thanatus, 

D^DALUS {AatSaXoi). The uamo of 
Bttdali is given to fiill-length figures or 
images, with the feet in an advancing pos- 
ture. But whence this appellation is de- 
rived, is a contested point. Winckel- 
mann, following Pahephatus and Diodorus, 
says, ** Daedalus began to separate the 
lower part of the Hermes into legs ; and 
the fii^ statues are said to have received 
fiom him the name of D<BdaHJ* The 
common opinion is, tliat Dtedalus first 
aeparated tne legs of the statues in an 
advancing posture, which explains the 
saying t^t his stames moved, since all 
previous sculptors formed their statues 
with the arms hanging down» not* di- 
vided from the Ixxfy, and the less not 
aroaiBted, like the mummy-shaped figures 
of the Egyptians. According to Pausa- 
nias, Daedalus received his name fimn the 
statoes (the name of which is said to have 
been derived fi^otn i^aiaXXtiv, to work vrith 
skiUJL B6ttiger (m his Lectures on Ar- 
chaeokigy, Dresden, 1806) supposes that 



DiBdahu is not a proper name, but the 
common appellation or all the first archi- 
tects, metallurgists and sculptors in Gre- 
cian antiquity ; alsoy in general, an artist, as 
datdalic signifies arfifieialf skUfvL In early 
periods, every art is confined to the family 
and fiiends of the inventor, and the disci- 
ples are called »on». Thus the ancients 
speak of the Dcedalian fiimily of artists, 
including Talos, Perdix, Diopoenos, Scyilis 
and others. According to the common 
opmion, Daedalus lived three generadons 
before the Trojan war, was distinguished for 
his talents in architecture, sculptuiie and 
engraving, and the inventor of many in- 
struments ; for instance, the axe, the saw, 
the plummet, the auger ; also of glue, and 
masts and yards for ships. As a sculptor, 
he wrought mostly in wood, and was the 
first who made the eyes of his statues 
open. This he did in Athens, which he 
was compelled to leave on account of the 
murder of his disciple Talos, of whose 
skill he was jealous. He built the fiunous 
labyrinth in Crete ; executed for Ariadne a 
group of male and female dancers, of 
white stone, and for Pasiphae the notorious 
wooden cow. Being imprisoned with his 
son Icarus, he inventea instruments for 
flying. The wings were composed of 
hnen, or, according to Ovid, of feathers, 
and fastened with wax, which caused tlie 
death of Icarus ; whence the Icarian sea is 
said to have received its name. Daedalus 
himself reached Sicily, on the southern 
coast of which a place was called, after 
him, Dculalium, A festival called Dado- 
la (image-festival) was celebrated in Boeo- 
tia, mostly at Platsea. We must not con^ 
fi>und this Daedalus with a later sculp- 
tor, Daedalus of Sicyon. Many stories 
of different artists have, probably, been 
blended to ferm the character of Daeda- 
lus. 
Daenoels, Hermann William, a Dutch 

general, bom in 1762, at Hattem, in Guei- 
erland, took an important part in the 
troubles which ^jegan in Holland, in 1787, 
on the side of tbe patriots, and, with many 
of his countrymen of the same party, was 
compelled Vj take refuge in France, where 
he engaged in commercial speculations, 
in Dunkirk. In 17!^ Be was appointed 
colonel in the new legion of volunteers, 
lY'ffie itranfer^ and viras of great service 
to Dumounez, in his expedition against 
Holland. He rendered still greater services 
to Pichegru, in the campaign of 1794, 
which maide the French commander mas- 
ter of all Holland. Daendels now became 
lieutenant-general in the service of the 
Batavian r^ublic, and took an important 



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DAENDELS-DAISY. 



part in the change of the govenunent. 
When Louia Bonaparte ascended the 
throne, he loaded him with honors, and 
appointed him govemor-general of Bata- 
via. AAer tlie union of Holland with 
France, Napoleon recalled him. Daen- 
dels arrived in Europe in the summer of 
18152. He employed his leisure time in 
publishinir a CompU rendu of his govern- 
ment ill Java (4 vols., folio), in which he 
tlirows much light on tlie statistics and 
general condition of that country. He 
was afterwards appointed, by the king of 
the Netherlands, to organize the restored 
colonies on the coast of Africa. Here he 
displayed his usual energy ; he promoted 
peace between tlie neighboring Negro 
states, encouraged the establbhment of 
new plantations on the West India plan, 
and checked the slave-trade, until the 
time of his death. » 

Daffodil. (See JSTctrcisstts.) 
Daoh; a Persian word, signifying 
mountain — ^Daghistan, land of mountains, 
Daoobert I (called the Great on ac- 
count of his military successes), king of the 
Franks, of the Merovingian race, in 628 
succeeded his &ther, Ck>tliaire II, who 
had reOnited the divided members of the 
French empire. He waged war with 
success against the Sclavonians, Saxons, 
Gascons and Bretons ; but he stained the 
splendor of his victories by cruelty, vio- 
lence and licentiousness. After he had 
conquered the Saxons, it is said that he 
caused all tliose whose stature exceeded 
the lengtli of his sword to be put to death. 
He deserves praise for his improvement 
of the laws of the Franks. He died at 
Epinay, 638, at the age of 32 years, and 
was buried in St Denis, which he had 
founded six years before. 
D'AouEssEAU. (See Jlgueaaeau,) 
Dahl, John Christian, landscape paint- 
er, since 1820 member of the academy of 
Dresden, bom Feb. 24, 1788, at Bergen, 
in Norway, was first destined for theology ; 
but, liaving neither the inclination nor the 
means to pursue that study, he was bound 
apprentice to a painter in his native 
town. He soon diistin^ished himself by 
his sea-views, and enjoys, at preaent, the 
reputation of one*bf the first, if not the 
firat, of living painters in this department 
Some of his paintings are truly gnmd. 
He lives at present in Dresden. 

Dahlia ; the name of a genus of plants 
behmging to the natural order compomttB^ or 
compound flowers. The D.;m»uito, within 
a few years, has become common in the 
gardens of the Northern and Middle States, 
where it is cultivated aa an ornament, and 



is very conspicuous in the latter part of the 
season. The root is perennial, composed of 
fascicles of tubers, which are oblong and 
tapering at each end, and about 6 inches 
m length. The stem is straight, branch- 
ing, thick, and reaches the height of 7 
feet and upwards. The leaves are oppo- 
site, connate, and simply or doubly pin- 
nated. The flowers are solitary, at tlie 
extremity of long, simple branches, deep 
purple, with a yellow centre : by cultiva- 
tion, however, they have Ijeen doubled, 
and made to assume a variety of colors. 
The roots are a wholesome article of food, 
much eaten by the Mexicans, ttiough the 
taste is not very agreeable. It is repro- 
duced from the seed, or by the division of 
the roots, which is the most approved 
mode. It requires fiiequent watering. In 
autumn, the roots should be taken out 
of the ground, covered with dry sand, and 
kept out of the reach of frost during the 
winter. All the species are natives of 
Mexico. 

Dahomet; a kingdom in the interior of 
Western Africa, behind the Slave Coast 
The country is very little known to Euro- 
peans. The parts which have been visited 
are very beautifiil and fertile, and rise, for 
about 150 miles, with a gradual slope, but 
without any great elevation. The soil is 
a deep, rich clay, yielding maize, millet 
and Guinea com in abundance. The 
inhabitants are warlike and ferocious. 
The government is an absolute despotism. 
The ferocity which prevails among this 
nation almost surpasses belief. Human 
skulls form the favorite ornament in the 
construction of the palaces and temples. 
The kxn^s sleeping-chamber has the floor 
paved with the skuUs, and the roof orna- 
mented with the jaw-bones, of diiefs whom 
he has overcome in batde. 

Dairs, or Dairo. (See Jcapan,) 

Dairt (fit>ra dy, an old English word 
for m3k)\ a builmng appropriated to the 
purpose of preserving and managing milk, 
skimming cream, making butter, cheese, 
&C., with sometimes the addition of pleas- 
ure rooms for partaking the luxunes of 
the dairy, as syllabubs, cream with ihiit, 
iced creams, &c 

Daist ; the name of a plant which is 
very familiar, and a great favorite in Eu- 
rope (bdiis peremtu, L.). It is one of the 
earfiest in spring, and its elegant ftowers, 
appearing at intervals in the green sward, 
have been compared to pearls. During 
cknidy weather, and at nig^t, they doee. 
It continues flowering dnring the whole 
season, and is not vSed for rood by any 
It belongs to the natural order 



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108 



conqtaaiUB. The leaves are all radical, 
spatliulate, obtuse, more or less dentate, 
Slightly hairy, and spread upon the ground. 
Its naked stem is a few inches high, and 
terminated by a white flower, having a 
tinge of red, and a yellow centre. In the 
U. States, it is only seen cultivated in gar- 
dens. One species of bdlis (B. inJtegrifo' 
Uoy Mx.) inhabits the U. States, but is a 
rare plant, and only found in the South- 
western States, in Tennessee and Arkan- 
sas. 

Dal ; a Swedish word, si^ifying, like 
the German Thal, vaUey^ as m Uaieciuiia, 

Dalai Lama. (See Lama.) 

Dalbbeo, fiunily of the barons of; also 
Dalburo. * Is there no Dalberg present ?' 
the imperial herald was formerly obliged 
to demand, at every coronation of the Ger- 
man emperors \ and the Dalberg present 
bent his knee before the new sovereign, 
and received the accolade as the m«t 
knight of the empire. So illustrious were 
the ancestors of the present Dalbergs, the 
ancient chamberiains of Worms! The 
fiunily obtained the rank of barons of the 
empire in the I7th century. Many Dai- 
bergs have distinguished themselves as 
patrons of German literature. 

Dalberq, Charles Theodore Anthony 
Maria, of the noble family of Dalberg, 
barons of the German empire, was cham- 
berlain of Worms, elector of Mentz, arch- 
cfaanceUor, and subsequently prince-pri- 
mate of the confederation of the Rhine, and 
grand-duke of Frankfort ; finally archbish- 
op of Ratisbon and bishop of Worms and 
ConstaBce ; bom Feb. 8, 1744, at Hems- 
heim, near Worms. In 1772, he became 
mivy-counsellor and governor at Erfurt 
During many years' residence in that 
place, he was distinguished for industry, 
regulari^ and punctuality in the discharge 
of his dudes. An incorruptible love of 
justice, and inflexible firmness in main- 
taining what he considered just and pol- 
itic, animated him. He encouraged sci- 
ence and the arts by his patronage of 
learned men and artists, and wrote sever- 
al learned treatises and ingenious woriLS. 
In 1802, after the death of the elector of 
Mentz, he was made elector and arch- 
chancellor of the German empire. By 
the new political changes in Germany in 
1803, he came into possession of Ratis- 
bon, Aschafienburg and Wetzlar. In 1806, 
he was made prince-primate of the con- 
gelation of the Rhine. At Ratisbon, he 
erected the first monument to the fanious 
Kepler. In 1810, he resigned the prind- 
pahty of Ratisbon to Bavaria, and obtain- 
ed, as coiopenBBtion, a coDttderabAe part 



of the principalities of Fulda and Hanau, 
and was made grand-duke. In 1813, he 
voluntarily resigned all his possesBions 
as a sovereign prince, and returned to 
private hfe, retaining only his ecclesias- 
tical dignity of archbishop. He retired to 
Ratisbon. He was a member of the 
French national institute. His works are 
mostly philosophical. Among tliem are 
the Reflections on the Universe (5th edi- 
tion, 1805), the Principles of iEsthetica 
(Eriangen, 1791), and Fericles, or the In- 
fluence of the Liberal Arts on Public Hap- 
piness (Erfiirt, 1806). He wrote several 
of his works in French. He is also the 
author of several legal treatises. Although 
he was fond of theoretical speculationa, 

J ret he devoted his attention more particu- 
ariy to practical studies, such as the phi- 
losophy of the arts, mathematics, physics, 
chemistry, botany, mineralo^, scientific 
agriculture, &c. Dalberg died Feb. 10, 
1817. 

Dalberg, Emmerich Joseph, duke of; 
peer of France, nephew of the prince-pri- 
mate, and son of the well-knovm autnor 
Wol&ang Heribert, baron of Dalberg ; bom 
May Si, 1773, at Mentz. He began his 
career in pubUc life under the eyes of his 
uncle, at Erfurt, and was also for a time in 
the diplomatic service of Bavaria, until he 
was appointed, in 1803, envoy of the maiv- 
grave of Baden at Paris. He funned an 
intimacy with the prince of Benevento 
(see TaBewrand'Pengmii)j who married 
him, in 1807, to mUe. de BrignoUes, of a 
distinguished Genoese &mily. During the 
campaign of 1809, he received the port- 
fdio of foreign affairs in Baden, vrithout 
resigning his ofiice of ambassador in Paris. 
After the peace, he returned to France, 
where he became a citizen of France, and 
was subsequently created duke and coun- 
seUor of state. After the marriage of Na* 
poleon with the archduchess Maria Louisa, 
on which occasion Dalberg is said to have 
opened the preliminary negotiations with 
prince Schvrarzenbeig, he received a do- 
nation of 4,000,000 nancs on the princi- 
pality of Baireuth, of which Franee had 
the disposal by the trea^ of Vienna, and 
the king of Bavaria paid him almost the 
whole sum. When the prince of Bene- 
vento fell into disgrace, Dalberg retired 
vrith his patron. In April, 1814, Talley- 
rand, at the head of the provisional gov- 
ernment, nrade the duke one of the five 
members of that government, who pro* 
moted the reatoiation of the Bourbons. 
Dalberg was present at the congress of 
Vienna, as French minister plenipoten- 
tiary, and signed, 1815, the declaratioa 



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104 



DALBERGf— DALLAS. 



against his former master and bene&c- 
tor. Napoleon, on this account^ includ- 
ed him, afler his return, among the 
twelve whom he banished, and whose es- 
tates were confiscated. After the second 
restoration of the royal government, Dal- 
berg recovered his property, was appoint- 
ed minister of state and peer, received an 
embassy to the court of Turin, and lives 
now in Paris. 

Dale, Richard, an American naval com- 
mander, vras bom in Virginia, Nov. 6, 
1756. At 12 years of age, he was sent to 
sea, and, in 1775, he took the command 
of a merchant vessel. In 1776, he enter- 
ed, as a midshipman, on board of the 
American brig of war Lexington, com- 
manded by captain John Barry. In her 
he cruised on the British coast the follow- 
ing year, and was taken by a British cut- 
ter. After a confinement of more than a 
^ear in Mill prison, he effected his escape 
mto France, where he joined, in the char- 
acter of master's mate, the celebrated Paul 
Jones, then commanding the American 
ship Bon Homme Richard. Jones soon 
raised Dale to the rank of his first lieuten- 
ant, in which character he signalized him- 
self in the sanguinary and desperate 
engagement between the Bon Homme 
Richard and the English frigate Serapis. 
He was the first man who reached the 
deck of the latter when she was boarded 
and taken. In 1781, he returned to Amer- 
ica, and, in June of that year, was appoint- 
ed to the Trumbull fiigate, commanded 
by captain James Nicholson, and soon af- 
terwards captured. From 1790 to 1794, 
he served as captain in the East India 
trade. At the end of this period, die gov- 
ernment of the U. States made him a cap- 
tain in the navy. In 1801, he took the 
command of die American squadron of 
observation, which sailed, in June of that 
year, from Hampton roads to the Mediter- 
ranean. His broad pendant was hoisted 
on board the frigate President Efficient 
protection was given by Dale to the 
American trade and other interests in the 
Mediterranean. In April, 1808, he reach- 
ed Hampton roads again. He passed the 
remainder of his life in Philadelphia, in 
the enjoyment of a competent estate, and 
of the esteem of all his feDow-citizens. 
He died Feb. 24, 1826. Captain Dale was 
a thorough, brave and intelligent seaman. 
He was several times severely wounded 
in battle. The adventures of hia early 
years were of the most romantic and 
perilous cast. No man could lay claim 
to a more honorable and honest char- 
acter. 



Dalecarlia ; a province of Sweden. 
(See Sweden,) 

Dalin, Olof or Olaus of; the father of 
modem Swedish literature, in the 18th 
century. He exerted much influence by 
his periodical paper, The Swedish Ai^gus 
(1733—34), and still more by his spirited 
poems, paiticularly Satires (1729), an ex- 
cellent poem on the liber^ of Sweden 
(1742), many songs, epigrams and fables. ' 
The best edidon of his poetical works ap- 
peared at Stockholm, 1782-— 83, in 2 vols. 
He acquired equal reputation by his able 
histoiy of Sweden (Stockhobn 1777, 3 
vols. Jto., translated into German by Ben- 
zelstiema and Ddlmert, Greifswalde, 4 
vols., 4to.), on which account he was ap- 
pointed historiographer of the kingdom 
(1756). He also pardcipated in the foun- 
dation of the academy of belles-lettres by 
Ulrica Eleonora (1753). He was bom in 
the district of Winberga m.Halland (1708^ 
and died chancellor of the court of Swe- 
den, in 1763. 

Dallas, Alexander James, waa bom, 
June 1, 1759, in the island of Jamaica. 
When quite young, he vnis sent to school 
at Edinburgh, and afterwards at West- 
minster. His father was an eminent and 
wealthy physician in the island of Jamai- 
ca. In 1781, afler the deatli of his father, 
he left England for Jamaica. It was 
found that the whole of Mr. Dallas's pro- 
perty was lefl at the disposal of his widow, 
who married again, and no part of it ever 
came to the rest of the &miJy. The sub- 
ject of this article lefl Jamaica in April, 
1783, and arrived at New York June 7, 
and at Philadelphia a week afler. June 
17, he took the oath of allegiance to the 
state of Pennsylvania. In July, 1785, 
he was admitted to practise in the su- 
preme court of Penn^lvania, and, in the 
course of four or five years, became a 
practitioner in the courts of the U. States. 
During this period, his practice not being 
extensive, he prepared his Reports for the 

EresB, and occuped hunselt in various 
teraiy undertakings. He wrote much in. 
the magazines of the day. Of the Co- 
lumbian Magazine he was at one time ed- 
itor. His essays will bear a comparison 
with those of his contemporaries; and 
this is no small praise, for Franklin, Rush 
and Hopkinson were of the number. 
Jan. 19, 1791, he was appointed secretary 
of Pennsylvania by governor Mifflin. In 
December, 1793, his commission was re- 
newed. Not long after, he was appoint- 
ed paymaster-general of the forces that 
marched to the west, and he accompanied 
the expedition to Pittsburg. In Decern- 



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DALLA&^DALMATLL 



105 



ber, 1796, the office of secietarj was again 
confided to him. While he held this of- 
fice, he inibljshed an edition of the laws 
of the commonwealth, with notes. Upon 
the election of Mr. Jefiezson, in 1601, he 
was appointed attomej of the U. States 
for the eastern district of Penni^lvania, 
and he continued in this office until. his 
removal to Washington. October 6, he 
was appointed secretary of the treasury 
of the U. States. The circumstances un- 
der which he entered this difficult situa- 
tion, the boldness with which he assumed 
its responsibtlities, his energy of character, 
and the general confidence and ap{m>baR 
tion with which his career was accompa- 
nied, belong to the history of the times. 
March 13, 1815, he undertook the addi- 
tional trust of secretary of war, and per- 
formed witli success the delicate task of 
reducing the army of the U. States. In 
November, 1816, peace being restored, the 
finances arranged, the embarrassment of 
the circulating medium daily diminishing, 
and soon to disappear under the influence 
of the national bank, which it bad so long 
been his effort to establish, Mr. Dallas re* 
signed his honorable station, and returned 
to the practice of the law in Philadel- 
phia. His business was considerable, and 
his talents as an advocate were employed, 
not only at home, but fit)m almost eveiy 
quarter of the Union. In the midst of his 
brilliant prospects, exposure to cold, and 
great professional exertions in a veiy im- 
poitant cause, brought on an attack of the 
gout in his stomach, at Trenton, of which 
he died, Jan. 16, 1817. 

Dau^as, Robert Charles, bom in Ja- 
maica, studied law in the Inner Temple. 
W^hen he came of age, he married, and 
went to Jamaica, where he had received 
a lucrative appointment, but was obliged 
to leave the island on account of the ill 
health of his wife. He went to France, 
then to America, with a view to settle 
there, but, being disappointed, returned, 
and devoted himself to literature. His 
productions, including translations, are nu- 
merous. His novels have been collected 
and published in 7 volumes, 12mo. Lord 
Byron, as appears firom Moore's life of the 
poet, vms in the habit of consulting him, 
and made him a present of the copyright 
of Childe Harold and some other of his 
early works, which afforded him much 
pecuniary advantage. 

Dai*matia; an Austrian kingdom, in- 
cluding four circles — Zara, Spalatro and 
Macarsca, Raffusa, Cattaro— lying on the 
Adriatic sea, bounded by Croatia, Bosnia 
and Albania, and having several islands 



belonging to it. Since 1814, with the ex- 
ception of the Turkish part, it has been 
entirely subject to the emperor of Aus- 
tria, and contains 5800 square miles, 
320,000 inhabitants, in 23 towns, S3 bor- 
oughs and 914 viUages. Dalmatia, for^* 
meriy an important kingdom, was, after 
many unsuccessful attempts, subjected by 
the Romans under Augustus. After the 
decline of the Western Empire, it was first 
under the dominion of the Goths, then 
under that of the Eastern emperors. In 
the first half of the 7th century, it was 
conquered by the Sclavonians, who erect- 
ed it into a kingdom, which lasted till 
1030, when it was, in part, united with 
Hungary, under king St. Ladislaus; an- 
other part placed itself imder the protec- 
tion of the then powerful republic of 
Venice, for security against the attacks of 
the Tudcs, who, however, afterwards, 
took a part fiom the Venetians. By the 
peace of Campo-Formio (Oct 17, 1797]^ 
the Venetian part of Dalmatia, as well as 
Venice itselfj was made over to Austria ; 
but, by the treaty of Presburg, in 1805, 
Austria ceded it to the French emperor, 
who first united it with the kingdom of 
Italy, and in 1810, with Ulyria, although 
be caused it to be governed bv a general'- 
prowedUere* — ^The causes of the small 
peculation of this fertile but poorly culti- 
vated country, are the excessive use of 
spirituous liquors, the noxious exhalations 
of the marshes in various districts, the 
finequent emigrations, and the habit of 
private revenge, which extends even to 
the third and fourth generations. It con- 
tains impenetrable forests, and regions 
covered with marshes. The Dalmatians 
are a handsome race, bold seamen, and 
good soldiers if they are well commanded. 
The former military power of Venice rest- 
ed entirely upon this province. The Dal- 
matians, in general, are accused, and prob- 
ably not unjustly, of deceitfulness and ra- 
pacity : the desire of independence is al- 
most universal. A peculiar feature of their 
character is, that many of them prefer the 
heroic death (as they term it) by the spear, 
to a natural and peaceful death in the 
midst of their fiunily. They speak a 
Sclavonic dialect. The Moriachians, who 
dwell in the interior of the country, and 
among tiie mountains, and in the Turicish 
government of Heneck, constitute but a 
part of the nation. They are excellent 
soldiers, but have a strong inclination for 
robbery and drinldng ; yet they are hos- 
pitable, benevolent and faithful in their 
promises. Averse to every kind of re- 
straint, they live in a sort of natural con- 



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DALMATIA— DAMASCENUS. 



dition. They have always been a good 
waJl against tbe attacks of the Tuiics. — 
The inhabitants of the islands are princi- 
pally employed in fishing, and are ser- 
vants on the continent, or sailoxs in mer- 
chant-ships. The islands are not very 
productive. Several have good haibors, 
and afibrd much timber for ship-building. 
The inhabitants of the continent are em* 
ployed in agriculture and the breeding of 
catde. They have some commerce, and 
devote themselves chiefly to the sea. As 
long as theur soil produces no more than 
it does at present, their trade and industry 
cannot be important, more particularly 
since the great commons, according to the 
ancient Dalmatian custom, are not sepa- 
rated, and the overgrown landed estates 
of individuals are not divided on their 
decease. The Dalmatians export tallow, 
hare-skins (which latter are brought from 
Bosnia), some oil, figs, wuie, brandy, wax, 
and salt fish, fit)m different ports ; and re- 
ceive, in exchange, linen, cloth, coffee and 
sugar, but onlv in small quantities, so that 
the money-b^ance is on their side. There 
are gold, uon and coal mines in the coun- 
try, but they remain unwroughL Zara, 
the capital, and the seat of the governor, 
has 50(X),SpaIatro 6800, inhabitants. The 
district of Uattaro, which is under the do- 
minion of Austria, is sometimes comprised 
in Daimatiaj but properly belones to Al- 
bania, and hes, in a semicircukr form, 
round the gulf. The 13 &mous inlets 
(Bocche di €aUaro) form the safest harbors 
on the Adriatic sea, and present some fine 
prospects. The inhabitants of the dis- 
trict are estimated at 30,000. They are 
excellent seamen, and were inclineo, un- 
der the lax government of the Venetians, 
to robbery, particularly by sea. By land, 
their resolution and boldness render them 
the most formidable enemies of tlie Turks 
in that quarter. The steep, rough and 
barren heights of Montenegro surround 
this province in a semicurcular form. — 
The Turkish part of Dalmatia, which ex- 
tends from Bosnia to Albania, and belongs 
to Bosnia, contains the province of Herze- 
govina, with the town of that name, and 
the towns of Scardona and Trevigno. 
See the Travds to Dalmatia mid RaptsOy 
by E. F. Germar (Leipsic, 1817), winch is 
particularly rich in natural histoiy. The 
splendid work on Dalmatia by general 
Dejearo (Paris, 1825) exhibits the ento- 
mological wealth of Dalmatia. 

Dalhatica ; a long, white gown, with 
white sleeves, fonnerly worn by the Dal- 
matians, and, since the time of pope Syl- 
vester I, by the Roinaq CathoMp deacons, 



over the dSba and jtolo. — ^Also, a put of 
die ornamental dress formerly worn by 
the Crerman emperor at the time of his 
coronation. It was kqit in Ntirembeig, 
and pat on in Frankfort. 

Dal segno (Ralian) meansyhMit (ht sign. 
In music, this expression denotes, that the 
singer or player ought to recommence at 
the former place, where the same mari^ 
is put. 

Dajlziel, Thomas; a Scotch officer, 
taken prisoner at the bottle of Worcester, 
and confined in the Tower, from which he 
escaped to Russia, where the czar made 
him a general. At the restoration, he re- 
turned to England, and Charles II made 
him commander-in-chief of his forces in 
Scotland. He was singular in his dress 
and appearance. After the death of 
Charles I, he never shaved his beard, 
which grew white and bushy, and de- 
scended to his middle. He generally went 
to London once or twice a year to kiss the 
king's hand, and the singularity of his ap- 
pearance diew crowds of boys after him. 
He is mentioned by Scott in his descrip- 
tion of the defeat of the Covenanters in 
Old Mortahty. 

Dam, Damm; the end of many Qer- 
man and Dutch geographical words, ag- 
nifying a dam or dvict ; as in AmgUrdaSij 
the sluices of the Amstel. 

Damaoe-feasamt. Beasts are said to 
be damage-feasaiit, or doirw damage^ when 
those of one person aro found upon the 
land of another without his peitnission and 
without his fault ; for if the o^ner of a 
field or enclosure adjoining upon another 
enclosure neglects to repair his fences, and 
the beasts pass through, he cannot seize 
them as damage- feasant. But if the beasts 
break into a close from the highway, 
where they were wrongfully lefl to run at 
large, the owner of the close may take 
them up, or distrain them as dainage- 
feasant, though the fence of the close on 
die side next the liighway was defective ; 
for the owner is not obliged to make a 
fence against beasts where they cannot be 
lawfully lefl at large. The owner of land 
has a right to sue the owner of the beasts 
in trespass for the damage done by them 
to his crops, &c., but the law gives him 
also the means of stopping the damaee, 
for he may distrain and impound Uie 



Damascenus, John ; John of Damas- 
cus, aflerwards called also John Ckruaor" 
rhoas ; author of the first system of Chris- 
tian theology in the Eastern churoh, or 
the founder of scientific dogmatics. He 
first endeavored to give a full system of 



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dogmatics, founded on reason and the Bi- 
ble, which had hitherto been elaborated in 
the Grreek church only in parts, as eccle- 
siasdcal oontroversies arose. His explana- 
tion of the orthodox faith, in four volumes, 
enjoyed, in the Greek church, a great rep- 
utation. He also wrote Dialectics, a sys- 
tem of k)gic on the principles of Anistotle, 
and prepajned a collection of philosophical 
paaaages, extracted finom ancient works, in 
alpJiaSetioil order, &c The best edition 
or bis Greek worits is that by P. Mich. 
Lequien (Paris, 1712, 2 vols., foiy Afier 
being in the service of a caliph, he became 
a monk in the convent of Saba, near Je- 
nmalem, and died about 760. He must 
not be confounded with Nicholas of Da- 



Damascus ; a city of Syria, the capital 
of the pochalic of the same name, situated 
in a fertile plain amidst extensive gardens, 
forming a circuit of between 25 and 30 
miles. The streets are in general narrow, 
of regular width, though not in sdmight 
lines : they are well paved, and have de- 
vated footpaths on each side. Damascus 
contains aliove 500 large and magnificent 
houses, which are entitled to the name of 
palaces : each house has a canal or foun- 
tain. Tbe mosques and chi^pels are also 
numerous, and the grand mosque is of 
great extent and magnificence. An hos- 
pital for the indigent sick is attached to 
tbe edifice. This mosque is said to have 
been, originally, a Christian church, and the 
cathedral of Damascus. The mosques are 
mostly fix)nted by a court One mosque 
IS beautifully adorned with all kinds of 
fine marble, like mosaic pavement ; and 
the tower or minaret of another is entire- 
ly cased with pantiles. There are several 
. hospitals here, of which the finest is that 
constructed by the sultan Selim, consisting 
of a spacious quadrangle, lined by an in- 
terior colonnade, which is entirely roofed 
by 40 small domes, covered with lead. 
On the south side of the court is a mosque, 
with a magnificent portico and two fine 
minarets, which is surmounted by a spa- 
cious cupola. There is a Greek, Maron- 
ite, Syrian and Armenian church. There 
are eight synagogues of the Jews. The 
castle, situated towards the south-west 
part of the city, and about three quarters 
of a mile in circuit, is a fine rustic edifice, 
with three square towers in front, and ^ve 
on each side. This city is the seat of a 
considerable trade. It was celebrated for 
the manufacture of sabres, of such pecu- 
liar qualitv as to be perfisctly elastic and 
very hard. Extensive manufactures are 
caiiied on in silk and cotton Btu& Leath- 



er 18 likewise an article of manufacture 
here, but no linen is made. A great 
quantity of soap is fiibricated, and export- 
ed to Egypt Dried fruits and sweet- 
meats are sent to Turkey. Cotton cloths, 
handkerchiefs, elippenv copper ketdes, 
horae-shoe nails, tobacco-pipes, and spice- 
ries, shawls, and the rich fitbrics of Surat, 
are brought through Bagdad ; iron, lead, 
tin, cochineal, broadcloth, sugar, and such 
other European articles as are required in 
die city, come through Saida, Bairout and 
Tripoh* Commerce is carried on chiefly 
by caravans, of which the principal is that 
in which the [nlgrims annually proceed to 
Mecca. Three caravans besides, each ac- 
companied by above 2500 armed men, go 
thrice a vear to Bagdad, the journey oc- 
cupying 90 days; those to Aleppo travel 
twice or thrice a month ; besides which, 
there are many to different parts of Syria. 
Damascus is a place of great antiquity, 
and is alluded to m tlie account of the time 
of Abraham. The population amounts, 
according to Burckhardt, in his Travels 
through Arabia, to 250,000, including ma- 
ny Catholics and Jews ; the remainmg 
inhabitants are Mohanmiedans. 136 miles 
N. Jerusalem. Lon. 36° 30^ £. ; lat 38° 
30'N. 

Damask ; an ingeniouslv manufactured 
stufi^ the ground of which is bright and 
flossy, with vines, flowers, and figures 
mterwoven. At firat, it was made onlv of 
silk, but afterwards of linen and woollen, 
as, for example, damask table-cloth. Ac- 
cording to the opinion of some, this kind 
of weaving was derived fifom the Bab^ 
lonians ; according to others, invented at a 
later period, b^the inhabitants of Damas- 
cus, from which latter place it is thought 
to have derived its name. The true 
damasks are of a single color. If they 
consist of variegated colors, they are 
called ras de SicSe. The gauze damask 
also belongs to the silk damask. In mod- 
em times, the Italians and Dutch first 
made damask ; and Egrope was supplied, 
as late as the 17th century, from Italy 
alone, chiefly from Genoa. But the 
French soon miitated it, and now surpass 
the Italiana Damask is also brought 
from India and China, which is very well 
imitated by the English. At present, 
damask is made in great quantities in 
Germany, of three diflerent kinds, Dutch, 
French and Italian. 

DAHASKEEiriifG, or Damaskino, tiie art 
of inlaying iron or steel with other metals, 
especially gold and silver, is of great an- 
tiquity. It is principally used *at present 
for sword-blades, guards, gripes, cocks of 



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DAMASKEENING— DAMPIER. 



jnstols, &C. Herodotus mentions a saucer 
so onuuneDted : so also were the shields 
of some of the forces of the Samnites 
which fought against Rome. It was a 
favorite manufacture with the ancients. 
We know not at what time it so flourished 
at Damascus as to have derived its name 
from this city. 

Damiens, Robert Francis ; notorious for 
Yob attempt to assassinate Louis XV ; bom 
in 1715, in the village of TieuUoy, in the 
former province of Artois ; the son of a 
poor fiurmer. His vicious inclinations 
earlT obtained him the name of Bobert-le-' 
diaue. He twice enlisted as a soldier, 
and was afterwards a servant {cuistn) in 
the college of the Jesuits at Paris, but, in 
1738, left tfiis service in oider to many. 
He then served in different houses of the 
capital, poisoned one of his masters, stoie 
240 louB-d'or firom another, and saved 
himself by flight. He then lived five 
months at St Omer, Dunkirk and Brus- 
sels, and expressed himself in the most 
violent manner concerning the dissensions 
between the king and the pariiament 
At Poperingue, a litde village near Ypres, 
he was heard to say, **!? I retium to 
France, I shall die ; but the flm of the 
land will die also, and you will liear of 
me." His mind was disordered when he 
returned to Paris, at the end of 1756. In 
the beginning of the next year, he went 
to Versailles, took opium for two or three 
days, and prepared for the crime, which 
he attempted January 5. As Louis XV 
was en the point of getting into his car- 
riage, to return from Versailles to Tria- 
non, Damiens stabbed him, although he 
was surrounded by his tnun, in the right 
side, with a knife. The assassin was 
seized. The most cruel tortures he bore 
with resolution, and could not be induced 
to confess that he had any accomplices. 
He asserted that he should not have com- 
mitted the act had he been bled, as he re- 
^[uested, and that he thought it merito- 
noua He was condemned to be torn in 
quarters by horses, and the sentence was 
executed March 28, 1757, on the Place 
de Grhfe at Paris. 

Dahiettjl, or Damtat ; a large city of 
Lower B^gypt, first built at the east mouth 
of the Nue, and called Thamiatis, under 
the government of the Lower Empire ; 85 
miks N. N. E. Cairo ; k>n. 31^ 45" E.; 
lat 3P 25^ N.: population, according to 
Binosy 30,000 ; according to Savary, 80,000. 
Damietta daily increased as Pelusium de- 
clined. The chief disadvan(|ige of Da- 
mietta is tlie want of a harbor ; yet it is 
the empcmum of commerce between 



Egypt and Syria, situated on the Pfaat- 
metic branch of the Nile. The city is 
without walls, built in the foim of a cres- 
cent, on the winding bank of the river, 
six miles from the sea. It is laiger and 
not less agreeable than Rosetta, and has 
several squares. Bazais filled with mer- 
chandise, okals, or khans, under the por- 
ticoes of which are Indian stuf%, ralks 
from mount Lebanon, sal ammoniac, and 
quantities of rice, bespeak it a ccnnmer- 
cial place. The houses, e^roeciallv near 
the river, are very high. Most of them 
have pleasuit saloons built on the terra- 
ces; fiom which charmmg places, open 
to eveiy wind, there is a view of the 
grand lake lying on the other side, amd 
of the Nile, which tmverses a rich coun- 
try between them botli. Various grand 
mosques, with high minarets, ornament 
the city. The public baths, faced with 
maible, are similar to those of Cairo. 
Multitudes of boats and small vessels in- 
cessantly fill the port of Damietta. Some, 
named tharm^ serve to k>ad and unload 
the ships that anchor in the road ; others 
are coasting pilot-boats. There is a great 
trade between this city and Syria, Cyprus 
and Turkey. 

Damoh and Ptthias ; two illustrious 
Syracusans, celebrated as models of c<m- 
stant fiiendship. Pytliias had been un« 
justly condemned to death bv Dionysius, 
tyrant of Sicily, but obtained permission 
to arrange his affiure in a nein^boring 
place, on condition that his firiend should 
remain as a pledge of his return. Damon 
surrendered himself at the prison, ready 
to sufler death instead of P^ias, if he 
did not return at a fixed time. Unex- 
pected impediments detained him. Da- 
mon, still fully convinced of the faithful- 
ness of his friend, is already on Uie way 
to the place of execution; already the 
people begin to murmur, and to pity his 
credulity, when Pythias suddenly nishes 
through die crowd into the arms of his 
friend. While they demand each to die 
for the other, the spectators melt into 
teara, and Dionysius himself approaches, 
pardons them, and entreats them to admit 
him a third in then- friendship. Schiller 
has described this adventure in an excel- 
lent balhul (DU BUr^ichaftX, and it is die 
subject of a popular JSngbsn tragedy. 

Dampers; certain movable parts in 
the internal frame of a piano-forte, which 
are covered with clotli, and, by means of 
a pedal, are brought into contact with the 
wires, in order to deaden the vibration. 

Dautpier, William, a celebrated f^ff- 
lish navigator, was bom in 1653. He 



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DAMPIER— DAMPS. 



109 



was descended from a good family in 
Someraetshire ; but, losing his father when 
young, he was sent to sea, and soon distin- 
guished himself as an able mariner. In 
1G73, he served in the Dutch war, and was 
subsequently an overseer to a plantation 
in Jamaica. He next visited the bay 
of Campeachy as a logwood-cutter, and, 
after once more visiting England, engaged 
in a band of privateers, as they called 
themselves, ^although in reality pirates, 
with whom he roved on the Peruvian 
coasts. He next engaged, in Virginia, in 
an expedition against the Spanish settle- 
ments in the South seas. They accord- 
ingly sailed in August, 1683^ and, after 
taking several prizes on the coasts of Pe- 
ru and Chili, the party experienced va- 
rious fortune, but no veiy signal success. 
Dampier, wishing to obtain some knowl- 
edge of the northern coast of Mexico, 
joined the crew of a captain Swan, who 
cruised in the hopes of meeting the an- 
nual royal Manilla ship, which, however, 
escaped them. Swan and Dampier were 
resolved to steer for the East Indies, and 
they accordingly sailed to the Piscadores, 
to Bouton island, to New HoUand and to 
Nicobar, where Dampier and others were 
left ashore to recover their health. Their 
numbers gave them hopes of being able 
to navigate a canoe to Achin, in which 
they succeeded, after encountering a 
storm, which Dampier has described with 
great force and nature.* After making 
several trading voyages with a captain 
Weldon, he entered, as a gunner, the 
English factoiy at Bencoolen. Upon this 
coast he remained until 1G91, when he 
found means to return home, and, being 
in want of money, sold his property in 
a curiously painted or tattooed Indian 
prince, who was shown as a curiosity, 
and who ultimately died of the small- 
pox at Oxford. He is next heard of as a 
commander, in the king's service, of a 
sloop of war of 12 guns and 50 men, 
probably fttted out for a voyage of dis- 
covery. After experiencing a variety of 
adventures with a discontented crew, this 
vessel foundered oft* the Isl6 of Asoen- 
aon, his men with difticulty reaching 
land. They were released from this 
island by an East India ship, in which 
Dampier came to England. Here ends 
his own account of his extraordinary ad- 
ventures ; but it seems that he afterwards 
oommanded a ship in the South seas, as 
also that he accompanied the well-known 
expedition of captain Woodes Rogers as 
pilot. Dampier's Voyages, in three vol- 
umes, have oeen many times reprinted. 

VOL, IV, 10 



They are written by himself in a strongly 
descriptive style, bearing all the marks of 
fidelity ; and the nautical remarks display 
much professional and even philosophical 
knowledge. His observations on natural 
objects are also extremely clear and par- 
ticular ; and he writes like a man of good 
principles, although he kept so much ij2- 
difterent company. 

Damps are certain deleterious gases 
which are extricated in nunes. They are 
distinguished by miners under the names 
of ckoke-damp and fire-damp. The former 
is found in tne deepest parts of mines. It 
extinguishes candles, and often proves 
fatal when it has been suffered to accumu- 
late in large quantities. It consists for the 
most part of carbonic acid gas. The fire- 
damp, which prevails ahnost exclusively 
in coal mines, is a mixture of light car- 
bureted hydrogen and atmospheric air, 
which explodes with tremendous violence 
whenever it comes in contact with flame. 
The injuries which formerly occurred so 
irequentljr, both to the machinery and the 
lives of miners, arising ftom the fire-damp, 
are now almast completely obviated by 
the fine invention of sir Humphrey Davy, 
the safety-lamp. It condsts of a cylin- 
der of wire gauze, about four inches in 
diameter and a foot in length, having a 
double top, securely fastened by doublmg 
over to a brass rim, which screws on to 
the lamp itself below. The whole of the 
wire gauze is protected, and rendered con- 
venient for carrying, by a triangular wire 
ftnme and a ring at the top. Thciwire 
gauze is made either of iron or copper, 
the vtdre being at least one thirtieth ot an 
inch in diameter, and woven togetlier so 
as to leave 625 apertures in a square inch. 
The body of the lamp is of riveted cop- 
per, or of massy cast brass or cast iron, 
the screws fitting so completely as to 
leave no aperture into the body of the 
lamp. When the lamp is lighted, it afibrds 
the miner all the light which he requires, 
and renders liim perfectly secure, even 
though entirely enveloped with the ex- 
plosive mixture, which, with an ordinary 
light, would immediately prove fatal. The 
first cfiect of the fire-damp atmosphere is 
to increase the length and size of the 
fiame. When the carbureted hydrogen 
fonns as iDUch as one twelfth of the vol- 
ume of the air, the gauze cylinder be- 
comes filled with a feeble blue fiarae, but 
the flame of the wick appears burning 
brightly within the blue flame, and the 
light of the wick augments until the in- 
flammable gas increases to one sixth or one 
fifth, when it is lost in the flame of the 



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110 



DAMPS— DANCING. 



lire -damp, which now fills the cylinder 
with a pretty strong light. As long as 
this explosive mixture of gas exists in 
contact with the lamp, so long it will 
give light ; and when it is extinguished, 
which happens when the foul air consti- 
tutes as much as one third of the volume 
of the atmosphere, the air is no longer 
proper for respiration ; for though animal 
life wiU continue when flame is extin- 
guished, yet it is always witli suffering. 
A coil of platinum wire being fixed above 
the wick of the lamp, within the gauze 
cylinder, tlie metal continues to glow 
long after the lamp is extinguished, and 
affords a^ sufficient light to enable the mi- 
ner tojD^e Ilia escape. The effect of 
the 8a^Hk|ip is supposed to depend on 
the cotj^^^ency of the wire ^uze, ex- 
erted oJHpfportionof gas bummg within 
the cylin3fer. Hence a lamp may be se- 
cure where there is no current of an ex- 
plosive mixture to occasion its being 
strongly heated, and yet not safe when 
the current passes through it with great 
rapidity. But any atmosphere, however 
explosive, may be rendered harmless by 
increasing the cooling surface, which may 
be done either by diminisliing the size 
of the apertures, or by increasing their 
depth, both of which are perfecdy within 
the |K)wer of the manufacturer of the 
wire gauze. 

Dan (perhaps from dommu8, like the 
Spanish don, and the Italian efonna, from 
damina) ; the old term of honor for men, 
as we now say master. It is used by 
Shakspeare, Prior, Spenser. . 

Dan (Hebrew ; inesmng judgment); one 
of the 12 patriarchs, the 5tli son of Jacob. 
The Danites were one of the 12 tribes of 
Israel. 

Danae; daughter of Acrisius, king of 
Argos. She was shut up by her father in 
ti brazen tower, because an oracle had 
declared that a son of his daughter should 
put him to death. But Jupiter, inflamed 
with passion for tlie charming virgin, 
transformed himself into a goldenshower, 
and descended through the apertures of 
the roof into her embraces. When Acri- 
sius discovered that his daughter had be- 
come a mother, he exposed ner, with her 
child, in a fi^l boat, to the violence of the 
waves. But the sea-soddesses, anxious 
for the preservation of the son of Jove, 
commanded the bDlows to wafl the skiff 
safety to Seriphoe, one of the Cyclades. 
Polydectes, or rather Dictys, the governor 
of the island, received her, and educated 
the child, which he named Perseus, (q.v.) 

DanaIdes ; the 50 daughteisof Danatis, 



who was a son of Belus, aod, at first, lived 
in Libya, with his brother iEgyptus, who 
had 50 sons. In conseouence of a quar- 
rel with his brother, Danaiis, with his 
daughters, fled to Ar^os. The 50 sons of 
iCgyptus followed him thither, expressed 
a desire for a reconciliation, ana asked 
the dauffhters of Danaiis in marriage. He 
was obfiged to consent to the proposal; 
but, as be put no confidence in bis neph- 
ews, and had, moreover, been inform^ 
by an oracle, that one of his sons-in-law 
should slay him, he bound his daughters, 
by a solemn oath, to murder their hus- 
bands on their bridal night. They all 
kept their promise except H}'permnestra, 
who saved the life of her husband Lyn- 
ceus. As a punishment for their crime, 
the daughters of Danaiis, in the infernal 
world, were condenmed perpetually to 
draw water in sieves. Of^this tradition 
the ancients gave the following historical 
explanation : — The daughters of Danaiis 
were said to have discovered fountains in 
the dry country of Argolis, and constructed 
cisterns there. 

Dancinq. The disposition to ihythm 
and measured motion, is deeply implanted 
in human nature. As soon as man, in a 
rude state, wishes to express elevated feel- 
ings, whatever be their cause — joy, devo- 
tion, patriotism — ^he makes use of rhythm, 
or measured language, and tlie dance, or 
measured movements. This is the origin 
of the symbolical dance, which, among all 
nations, in die first stages of civilization, 
is used as an expression of excited feeling. 
The operation of the principle of imita- 
tion, which led to the invention of the 
drama, gave birth also to the imitative 
dance — the pantomime. Dancing, in the 
course of time, took the character of an 
art Grace became one of its chief ob- 
jects, and it was much cultivated as an 
elegant amusement in the intercourse of 
society, and an elegant spectacle in pubhc 
entertainments. Its ancient character, how- 
ever, of an expression of religious or patri- 
otic feeling, gradually declined, as the prog- 
ress of refmementand civilization produc- 
ed its invariable eflect of restraimng the 
full expression of the feelinss and emotions. 
This circumstance, added to the chas- 
tened and didactic character of the Chris- 
tian religion, probably prevented the dance 
from bemg admitted among the rites of the 
Christian reli^on ; but it 1^ always been 
cultivated among Christians, as an a^e- 
able amusement and elegant exhibition. 
As an amusement of social assemblages, 
the dance has sunk much below the charac- 
ter of an art The polite assemblies of the 



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uiw u nt day are too much crowded to 
teftTe room for graceful dancing, and, in 
England and the U. States, one kind of 
dance, being kept up during a whole eve- 
ning, of course tends to produce tedious- 
neaa. But national dances, as thoae of 
the Bohemian, Polish, Hungarian, Italian, 
Spanish peasanny, still retain the expres- 
sion of joyous feeling, and often exhibit 
much imitative power. 

There is reason to 8UfqM)ee that the 
dance bad a place among the religious 
rites of the Jews; to what extent, however, 
is not known, and some persons deny the 
6ct altogether; but it appears pretty evi- 
dent that this doubt is unfounded, and its 
admission may be easily explained by the 
origin which we have ascribed to dancing 
in general. With the Greeks and Ro- 
mans, regulated movements, quick or slow, 
L e., dancing, were introduced in most 
religious celeorations. The Greeks, de- 
veloping the element of the beautiful in 
every branch of art, were also masters in 
the leligious dance. In the exhibidons of 
the th^ure, thev united the dance with 
many other performances, and the dances 
of the ancients which commemorated the 
adventures of Achilles, Alexander, the 
loves of Venus and Mars, &.C., are to be 
understood as pantomimic perfbrmances, 
the word aattare, with the Romans, hav- 
ing a veiy extensive meaning, and ^x^/trcc, 
with the Greeks, including the mimic art 
in general. From the Romans, the dance 
was transmitted to the national theatre of 
the Italians. As early as the 16th centu- 
rv, several Italians (Rinaldo Corso, Fabric 
daroso, &c.) wrote on dancing. They 
and the French have cultivated the mod- 
em art of dancing to the degree of perfec- 
tion in which we find it; so that the ballet 
of the Parisian opera was long considered 
the highest perfection of the art of danc- 
ing, and, in some respects, still is. There 
exist, at present, two difterent schools — 
the Italian and French. That of the lat- 
ter, who may be called, by way of emi- 
nence, the graceful nation, is the more 
perfect Much is said against the modem 
French ballet, and,' no doubt, it sometimes 
degenerates to a mere display of skill and 
agUitv, at the expense of grace and beauty, 
which ought always to remain the chief 
oljject of dancing ; yet we consider the 
French ballet, as it exists at present, in a 
very perfect state, and no country has 
probably ever had a more finished theat- 
rical dance, the foundation of which was 
laid by Beauchamp, under Louis XIY. 
This art owes still more to the famous 
Noverre (q. v.), whose writings on this sub- 



ject much surpaflB thoae of D'Aibeau and 
Kameau. A general woric on danoingv 
treating the religioua and secular dances 
of the different nations, would be interest^ 
ing. As regards the European dances^ 
ancient and modem, and that of the Jews, 
the following woriu are some of the best: 
Bourdelot's HisUnrt dt la Dante taeree d 
jnrofaney tes Progris el «ef Rivoluiiong de- 
pms son Origine^ &c. (Paris, 1724, 12mo.), 
and Cahusac's TVaiU de la Dan$e one. ei 
iiuMieme (Paris, 1753, 3 vols., 12mo.). For 
the dances of the Greeks and Romans, see 
also Potter's Arehaologta Graea ; Zelmer 
De Chortxi vet, Judaorum Diss. (Ahori^ 
1726, 4to.]^ and Renz*s work, De Ediguh- 
sis SaUationibus veL Jud<Borvm (Leipsic, 
1738, 4to.) ; Memoires sur Us Danses Chi- 
noises, in the Variitts litUraires (vol. 1 and 
2) ; Lafiteau's Moturs des Sauvages (vol. 1). 
Since Noverre, few good treatises have 
been wrinen, sivinginstmcdons on the art 
of dancing. We mention only the Essai 
sur la Danse cmUqu/e et modeme (Paris, 
1823, by mad. Elise \oiaxi\ and i|Mm>n'8 
Entretiens sur la Danse ancienno^in»demej 
religituse, civile et thdatraU (Paris, 1825). 
The only Christian sect, that has admitted 
dancing among its religious ceremonies, 
are the Shakers, so called. 

Daivcocrt, Florent Carton; a French 
actor and comic ooet; bom in 1661, at 
Fontainebleau, of^ a respectable fiunily. 
At the age of 23> he became enamored of 
an actress, and lefl every other employ- 
ment for the stage. Although he person- 
ated the first charactera in high comedy, 
he succeeded best, as an author, in low 
comedy. He displaved much ingenuity 
and wit in introducmg upon the stage 
amusing subjects of real occurrence in his 
time. Louis XIV was very fond of hu- 
morous pieces, and Dancourt oflen used 
to read his productions to the king before 
they were played. He lefl the tlieatre in 
1718, and died in 1726. A good edition 
of his complete works app^ired in 12 
volumes, 12mo., 1760. 

Daitdelion. (See Leontodon,) 
Dandolo, Henry, one of the most il- 
lustrious of the doges of Venice, was 
chosen to that office, in 1192, at the ad- 
vanced age of 84. He had a defect of 
sight, approaching nearly to blindness; 
but neither that circumstance nor his age 
impaired the vigor of his administration, 
the events of his government being among 
tlie principal causes of the Venetian great- 
ness. On the formation of the league for 
the fourth crusade, under Baldwin, earl 
of Flandera, Dandolo induced the senate 
to join in it, and by his poUcy the finst hos- 



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DANDOLO— DANIEL. 



tilities of the armament were directed 
against Zara, which had revolted from 
Venice. On the storming of Constantino- 
ple, the afed doge, stanmng on the prow 
of his giuley, with the great standard of 
St Mark borne before nim, commanded 
his men to run up to the walls, and was 
the first who leaped on shore. After va- 
rious changes in the imperial throne, suc- 
ceeded by a second siege, in which Con- 
stantinople was stormed and pillaged by 
the crusaders, the latter proceeded to the 
election of an emperor, and Dandolo was 
£iist nominated, although, in consequence 
of his age, and the incompatible character 
of dose, the choice ultimately fell on 
Baldwm. In the sharing of the imperial 
dominions, Venice obtained a full moiety, 
and Dandolo was solemnly invested with 
the title of despot of Romania, He ended 
his eventful lire at Constantinople, in 1205 
(if the records are to be trusted), at the 
advanced age of 97. 

Dandolo, Andrew, doge of Venice, and 
one of the earliest Italian historians, was 
bom about 1310, and made doge in 1343. 
He carried on a war against the Turks with 
various success, and greatly extended Vene- 
tian commerce, by opening a trading con- 
nexion with Egypt The jealousy enter- 
tained by the Genoese of this new trade 
produced a war between the two states^ 
which gave rise to a correspondence be- 
tween the doge and Petrarch, who exhorted 
him to peace. He died in September, 1354. 
To Andrew Dandolo is ascribed the compi- 
lation of the sixth book of Venetian stat- 
utes ; but he is most distinguished for his 
Chronicle of Venice, whicii is written in 
Latin, and comprehends the history of the 
republic from its commencement to 1342. 
It is praised for its impartiality, and for its 
judicious use of authentic documents, and 
was first publLshed bv Muratori in his col- 
lection of^original Ittmau writers of history. 

Daneoelt (from the Saxon eeU, mon- 
ey), an ancient aimual tax of the Anglo- 
Saxons, to maintain forces to resist the 
Danes. 

Danforth's Speeder, in cotton ma- 
chinery; a roving frame, in which the 
bobbins are not turned by the rotation of 
their axis, but by friction applied to their 
surface by small wooden cylinders, which 
revolve in contact with them. By tliis 
contrivance, the velocity of the surface of 
the bobbin will always be the same, what- 
ever mav be its growth from the accumu- 
lation of roiing, so that the winding goes 
on at an equable rate. The s])eeder re- 
ceived its name from Mr. Danforth, of 
Massachusetts, the inventor. 



Daniel, the p^phet, a contemponiy 
of Ezekiel, was bom of a distinguished 
Hebrew family. In his youth, B. C. 600, 
he was carried captive to Babylon, and 
educated in the Babylonish court, for the 
service of king Nebuchadnezzar. Ailer 
tliree years, he entered into the service of 
this monarch, and discharged liis employ- 
ments with much credit to himself*, and 
without violating his conscience. A de- 
cree of the king, which he could not con- 
scientiously ooev, occasioned his being 
thrown into the lions' den. Preserved by 
a miraculous Providence, he lived after- 
wards in happiness and honor. He was 
elevated to the office of governor and 
prime-minister in the court of the Persian 
king Darius. Cyrus finally gave him per- 
mission to return, with his people, to Pal- 
estine. Daniel was a man of high mental 
cultivation and strict virtue. IQ^ing well 
acquainted with the government and con- 
dition of all the great kingdoms then known 
in the world, and particularly favored by 
the Deity, he could foresee coming events 
with the greatest accuracy, and, for this 
reason, deservedlv received the name of 
JSTabi (prophet), although most of the Jews 
exclude him from the number of the 
prophets. His prophecv has come down 
to posterity, and is included in the He- 
brew canon. Probably onlv the second 
part of it is by him. It is wholly s^inbol- 
ical, full of dreams and visions. The 
hand-writing on the wall of Belshazzar's 
palace was interpreted by Daniel 

Daniel, Gabriel ; one of the French 
historians, bom at Rouen, in 1649. At the 
age of 18, he entered the Jesuits' college, 
instructed in severalplaces with much suc- 
cess, and died in 1728. ** He sought," as 
the German Bouterwek says of him, ** in 
his history of his own country, which has 
earned him his reputation''" (HutotT^ de 
France, of which many editions have ap- 
peared since 1713, particularly that of 
Paris, 1755 — 1757, in 17 vols., 4to. ; also 
numerous abridgments, and a German 
translation, Nuremberg, 1756 — 65, 16 vols., 
4to.), "to connect tlie flatteiy of the court, 
the nobility and the clergy with the dudes 
of a histonan." We often feel tlie want of 
profound research and historical fidelity m 
his work. He seems to have been destitute 
of the ait of historical description. His 
thoughts on the proper mode of writing 
history, he has ^ven to the world in 
the somewhat tedious introduction to his 
TOolix narrative. His Histoire de la MUice 
Jhmfoise is still known : less so is his Re- 
cueil des Ouvrages PhUosopkiques, TTUo- 
logiques, ^pologiiigues, &c (1724, 4to.)^ 



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DANIEL— DANNECKER. 



113 



which contains his Voyage da Monde de 
Descariea (fifst published separately, and 
tnmslated into English and Italian) — a 
causdc satire on the opinions of this phi- 
ksopher. 

Dahiel, Samuel, an Enslish historian 
and poet, contempoFBiy wiin Shakspeare, 
was bom 15G2. lie had an appointment 
at the court of queen Elizabeth, and 
also of Anne (wife of James I) ; but he 
commonly lived in the counoy, employed 
in literary pursuits. As a historical poet, 
he seems to have taken Liican for his 
pattern. He employed his brilliant tal- 
ents in writing an epic on the most re- 
mailEable occurrences in the histonr of his 
countxy. He bestowed much labor on 
the poem which describes, in eight books, 
the civil wars between the houses of York 
and Lancaster (Histoiy of the Civil Wars 
between the Houses of YoriL and Lancas- 
ter, reprinted with the Rest of the poetical 
Works of this Author, and some Account 
of his Life, in Anderson's British Poets, vol. 
4). The poetical value of this work^ as 
of Lucan's, consists in a beautiful style. 
Daniel contributed much to the improve- 
ment of the poetical diction of Eng- 
land His stanzas, formed with a careful 
attention to the Italian octave, have more 
dignity and euphony than most versesof this 
sort in English fitemture, in the first half of 
the 17th century. He is not wanting in rhe- 
torical beauty and force. He was also the 
audior of some poetical epistles, pastorals, 
57 sonnets, and a few tragedies. The 
first seem to bave excited much attention. 
During the reign of queen Elizabefli, he 
wrote a sketch of the histoiy of England, 
till the time of Edward III — a work Team- 
ed and clear, without ostentation, and con- 
taining useful and acute views. Daniel 
died in 1619. 

DAinsH Lahouaoe, Litebature aivd 
Aat. (See Denmark,) 

DAinsHMEND ; a Turkish ecclesiBstic of 
low rank ; also a talionan. 

Dahitegksb, John Henry von ; pro- 
fessor of sculpture at Stuttgard ; one or the 
most enunent of modem sculptors. He 
was bora at Stutteard, Oct 15, 1756, of 
poor parents : his rather was a groom of 
the duke of Wlrtemberg, and the son 
grew up wHhout any other education than 
the condition of his parents would allow. 
He eariy exhibited a strong inclination for 
drawing, which he seoetly indulged, and, 
beioff^stitttte of paper, covered the ma- 
terial of a neighbomig stone-cutter with 
his designs, rrovidence, however, unex- 
pectedly afiR>rded this remarkable genius 
an opportunity fi>r rising firom obscurity. 



On Easter-day, 1771, DanneckePs father 
came home, and mentioned that the duke 
would receive the chiklren of his servants 
into his military school, and added, angri- 
ly, that he had cast his eyes on the lx>y. 
The child declared tliat he would go to 
the duke that very day ; and, to prevent 
him, his &ther shut him up in a closet. 
Having collected the boys m the street 
before the apartment in which he was 
confined, he jumped out of the window, 
and, without hesitation, went with them 
straightway to the castie, where the £ter- 
les€7ir-a national feast of the people — ^had 
assembled the court They addressed 
themselves to the servants with this re- 
ouest — *^ We shouM like to be received into 
the Charies's school.'' The duke was in- 
formed of their petition, and came imme- 
diately forth to examine the little baud. 
He looked at them keenly, and, at length, 
took one after the other fix>m the crowd, 
and placed him to the right of himself; 
finally, there remained only Dannecker 
with two others on the left. The poor 
boys believed themselves rejected, and 
Dannecker wonki willinglv have sunk 
into the earth. But these three were, in 
fact, the selected ones, and the others 
were dismissed. After an examination of 
his talents, young Dannecker was des- 
tined to be an artist In hb 16th year, he 
obtained a prize for his Milo of Crotona, 
The composition of this Milo would not 
disgrace bis ripened ability. In this acad- 
emy, Dannecker formed an intimate fiiend- 
ship with Schiller, then one of the most 
distinguished scholars at that place, and 
to whom, in later days, he erected a mon- 
ument He left the academy at the same 
time with him in 1780, and was appointed 
statuary to the court, by the duke, with a 
yearly salary of 300 florina Three years 
afterwards, he obtained permission to 
travel to Paris, yet without any further 
assistance tiian an increase of 100 florins to 
his salaiy during his second year in Paris, 
With this small provision, Dannecker, in 
1783, travelled on foot to Paris. Love for 
his art enabled the young man to bear with 
content the severest privations, and the 
contemplation of splendid woriss of genius 
often caused him to fo^t his hunger. 
Dannecker found here, in the celebrated 
and honest Pajou, a valuable master. In 
1785, he left Paris, and proceeded on foot 
to Rome. Here he became acqftainted 
with Canova (bom in 1757), who, at that 
time, was beginning to obtain distinc- 
tion, and was employed on Ganganel- 
li^s monument Canova soon conceived 
an affection for the German artist, was 



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DANNECKERr— DANTE. 



serviceable to him in liis studies, visited 
him often in liis labors, and improved 
him by his remaiks. Dannecker com- 
menced his labors in marble at Rome, 
where he made a Ceres and a Bacchus. 
These statues procured his admission into 
the academies of Bologna and Milan. He 
returned to his country in 1790, after an 
abode of five years in Rome, and duke 
Charles made him professor of the fine 
arts in his academy. The first work 
which he completed for the patron of his 
Youth, was a maiden mourning over a 
bird. He now labored principally upon 
sketches and designs for the duke. In 
1796, he began again to work in marble, 
and, among other things, produced a Sap- 
pho (now in Monrepos); in 1797, two 
priestesses of plaster (at present in the Fa- 
vorite, at Louisberg); and many studies. 
The elector Frederic H (afterwards king] 
now employed him upon a greater work — 
Weeping Friendship leaning upon a Cof- 
fin — ^for the monument of his noble friend, 
the count Zeppelin. This he finished in 
marble, in 1804, and it was long the object 
of admiration, in the mausoleum of the 
count, in the pork at Louisberg. MThile 
ho was modelling this figure, the idea of 
his Ariadne suggested itself to his mind. 
He had, in 1797, executed a bust after 
nature, and as large as life, of his fiiend 
Schiller, during his residence in Stuttgard. 
He now prepared a second, of colossal 
size, of Carrara marble — an offering of love 
and grief to his deceased fiiend. Tiiis bust 
adorns the artist's study, and only casts in 
plaster have been given to the world, of 
which one adorns the library of the univer- 
sity of G6ttiugen. After many other works, 
he at length began, in marble, in 1809, 
his Ariadne riding upon a panther, as the 
bride of Bacchus ; and, in 1816, this was 
sent to Mr. de Biethmann, at Frankfort 
It is one of the most beautifiil works of 
modem times. In 1812, the artist was 
again employed by king Frederic upon a 
new work. This was a Cupid, the aesign 
of which was furnished by the monarch. 
The head of the little sod was to be in- 
clined towards the eartn, in a meditating 
embarrassment, vrith an empty quiver and 
an unstrunff bow. But the artist threw 
into the piece a more ideal character. 
Under liis chisel, it became a heavenly 
Cupid, represented at die moment when 
Psyche has let fall the heated oil upon 
his shoulder. General Murmy, an Eng- 
lishman, saw this exquisite specimen of 
sculpture, finished in marble, in 1814, and 
wished it to be repeated for himself. In- 
1 of complying with this wish, Dan- 



necker offered to complete for him a pen* 
dant, and executed bis Psyche, a pure 
being, intended to represent heavenly in- 
nocence. But the &vorite subject of the 
artist, which for 8 years occupied his 
thoughts, is his Christ, for the idea of 
which he is indebted to an inspiring dream. 
This colossal statue was finished in 1824, 
and sent to St Petersburg, to the empress- 
mother of Russia, who made a present of 
it to the emperor Alexander. Dannecker 
wished, in this piece of art, to represent 
the Mediator between God and man. He 
was afterwards employed, in 1825, upon a 
stame of the evangelist John, seven feet in 
height, for the royal chapel at Rothen- 
berg. Dannecker labors, unweariedly, 
from mominff to evening, with the activity 
of youth. The openness and nmphcity 
of his character have gained him the love 
of all who know him, and his life has 
been so undisturbed, that Canova sur- 
named him U beato. 

DArrTE (properly, Diarante AUghieri), 
one of the most distinguished men oi 
whom histoiy makes mention, was bom 
in Florence, m 1265. Of the first years of 
this greatest and earliest of the modern 
poets of Ital^, we know little more than 
that (as he himself tells us, in his htfemo, 
XV, 8th) he was a scholar of Brunetto La- 
tini, a Florentine, distinguished as a poet, 
a scholar, and a poUtician. His very early 
love for Beatrice Portinari (who died in 
1290) aroused his spirit, and afiforded im- 
ages and figures to his poetical mind, as long 
as it created. He studied philosophy at 
Florence, Bologna and Padua, and after- 
wards theok)^ at Paris. He was also 
familiar with Latin literature, and wrote 
the lanj^age well for that time. While 
he cultivated his mind, he, at the same 
time, served his country as a soldier and 
a statesman. In 1289, he fought in the 
memorable battie at Campaldino against 
the Ghibelines of Arezzo, and, in 1290, 
at Caprona, against the Pisans. He went 
on several embassies fi^m the Florentine 
republic to Rome, and to the courts of 
different sovereigns. In 1291, he married 
Gemma, the daughter of Manetto Donati, 
by whom he had several children. This 
marriage was not happy, and a separation 
finally ensued. In 190O, Dante was, unfor- 
mnately for himself, made one of the pri- 
ors, or superior magistrates, of his native 
city. Florence was, at that time, divided 
between two parties — the Bianchi and 
Neri (tiie White and Black)L The fonner, 
being the weaker, sought assistance fiix»n 
pope Boni&oe VIII ; and the pope deter- 
mined to send Charles of Vak>iB, brother 



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of Philip IV of France, who was at that 
time in Rome, to quiet the troubles in 
Florence. Dante, aa prior of the city, re- 
msted this interference, apprehending dan- 
gerous conseijuences to the state, and was 
Sierefore banished, in 1302, tosether with 
the leaders of tlie Bianchi, and his prop- 
erty confiscated, because he was unable 
to pay a fine of 8000 lire, which was im- 
posed upon him. His life was now an 
almost uninterrupted series of misfortunes. 
He and his companions in adversity, ac- 
coixling to some writers, joined the jMuty 
of the Ghibelines, or adlierents of the 
emperor, through whose assistance alone 
they could hope to rotum to their country. 
The proofe or this are found in numerous 
passages in his poems, which contain the 
bitterest invectives against Boniface, the 
head of the church, whom he places in 
heU. Dante then lived some time in Arez- 
zo ; but, the attempt of the Bianchi, in 
1304, to force their way back to Florence, 
having failed, he left Tuscany, and took 
refuge in Verona, with Alboin delia Scala, 
who had gained among his contempora- 
ries the name of the Great, firom the sup- 
port which talent and merit always found 
ID him. But Dante, constantly in a state 
of inquietude, and in expectation of his 
recall, could not, as Petrarch relates, con- 
ceal his dejection and bitterness from his 
benefiictors ; and this seems to be the rea- 
son why he nowhere found a permanent 
residence. He speaks in a very touching 
manner, in his huamo, of the pain of hav- 
ing to ** ascend the stairs of other men," 
as he describes his state of dependence. 
On this account, several cities could pre- 
tend to the honor of having had the Dm- 
na Commedia composed wiUiin their walls. 
Beodes visiting many places of Italy, Dante 
likewise went to Paris. He endeavored, 
at length, to eflfect his restoration to Flor- 
ence, by means of the emperor Henry 
VU, then in Italy, on which occasion, he 
wrote a work on monarchy, De Monorchia, 
about the year 1309 (Ba^il, 1559 ; also con- 
tained in 4 vols., in the Venetian edition 
of his works) ; but this hope was disap- 
pointed. During the last years of his life, 
Le resided at Ravenna, with Guido Novel* 
lo da Polenta, the lord of that city, who, 
as a friend of the muses, willingly afforded 
h\m protection. His death took place in 
this city, Sept 14, 1321, and he was buried 
in the church of the Minorites, where, in 
1483, a Venetian nobleman, Bernardo 
Bembo, father of the celebrated cardinal 
of that name, erected a splendid monu- 
ment to his memory. The Florentines, 
who had banished and persecuted their 



great countryman, now, like the Athenians 
after the execution of Socrates, endeavored 
to expiate their injustice, by paying that 
honor to his memorv which they hiui de- 
nied to him during his life. They caused 
his portrait, paint^ by Giotto, to be hung 
up in a public place in the city, demand- 
ed, although in vain, his remains from the 
inhabitants of Ravenna, and appointed 
distinguished scholars to lecture on his 
poem. Boccaccio, in his Vita di Danie^ 
describes him as a man of firm, but vet 
gentle and engaging character, altogether 
diflerent from the account of Giovanni 
VillaiiL His face, of which many por- 
traits exist, is characterized by the sharp- 
ness and extenuation of the features, and 
the stem melancholy of the expression. 
Of the six children whom Dante left, 
his two eldest sons, Pietro and Jacopo, 
made themselves known as scholars, and, 
among other works, wrote a commentary 
upon the poem of their father, which has 
not, however, been published. This great 
poem, since the year 1472, has p^sed 
through nearly 60 editions, and has had a 
greater number of commentaton than any 
other work since the revival of letters. 
Early in the 17th century, an edition was 
projected, in a hundred volumes, by Cio- 
nacci, a Florentine noble, wherein he pur- 
posed, by appropriating a volume to each 
canto, to comprise, in chronological or- 
der, all the commentaries then existing, 
together with a Latin translation in the 
Strozzi library. Since that period, new 
editions have repeatedly made their ap- 
pearance. The last is that of Gabriele 
Kosetti, to be completed in six volumes, 
two of which (London, 1826, compriaong 
VInftmo) are published. In many re- 
spects, this last must be considered a sin- 
^nilar commentary. The greatness of 
Dante is very oflen measured by the im- 
mense variety of commentators on his 
work, and their declaration that they be- 
lieve Dante yet imperfectly understood.' 
We do not Uiink so, nor conceive that 
the passages which are most unintelligible 
shed the greatest lustre on the author. A 
passage which has beem differendy under- 
stood by every interpreter for centuries, 
and allows every one to assign a new 
meaning to it, naturally induces a doubt 
whether the writer himself attached to it 
any clear idea, or whether the idea was 
not so distorted as not to admit of being 
traced. Should we consider the SibyUine 
books as containing profound treasures of 
wisdom, because their obscure prophecies 
admitted of any interpretation? or the Ko- 
ran, because it has had thousands of comr- 



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116 



DANTE. 



mentators ? or do we think that law in a 
code the wii«Bt, about the meaning of 
which there has been most dispute ? The 
poem of Dante, like so many productions 
of antiquity, is, on the whole, a grand ex- 
hibition of genius; and, therefore, commen- 
tators have felt themselves obliged to seek 
perBeveringly for a meaning to every pas- 
sage ; and a commentary, once made, was 
a fruitful source of more, by stimulating 
men's vanity to discover new interpreta- 
tions, the human mind, as we all know, 
being often much more busily employed 
in displaying its ingenuity than \n sin- 
cerely seeking for truth. Dante describes, 
in his Hell, the sufferings of the damned 
with an inexhaustible ingenuity and a tru- 
ly poetical penetration into human life and 
character. In the Purgatory, he portrays 
the state of souls between heaven and hell, 
and in his Heaven, tlie state of the happy. 
The Doem, like every great poetic produc- 
tion, bears a decisive stamp of the most 
characteristic features of the time when it 
was composed. It is essentially allegori- 
cal : it displays an ardent love for the learn- 
ing of the ancients, and treats the Romans 
as forefathers, with whom the Italians of 
the authoi^s age were in views and senti- 
ments still intimately connected. Hence 
arises the fiequent refer^ice to the ancient 
mythology, and the constant blending of 
it with the sacred writings. Why he 
chose Viigil as his guide through hell and 
purgatory, is easy to explain. It was be- 
cause he was a Roman, and the greatest 
epic poet then known (Homer being com- 
paratively Kttle read, and it being not then 
undeistood how much Vurgil copied from 
Homer), and because Virgil manifests a 
constant reverence for the emperor — an 
impoitant point in Dante's view, who, as 
an inveterate Ghibeline, wi^ed all power 
and splendor to centre in the emperor, and 
hated the Oaelphs and the po{w. Not a 
single pope or cardinal has been admitted 
into his heaven, whilst hosts of them are 
to be found in the helL Viitue and vice 
are the basis upon which reward and pun- 
ishment are distributed in the poem ; but 
the standard by which Dante measures 
these, the forms in which he clothes them, 
the images under which the poet repre- 
sents his abstract ideas, are taken from the 
character of his time, w his personal char- 
acter and 'theological views. Dante show- 
ed immense power in the compoation of 
an epic on an entirely imaginfory subject, 
and filled widi learning, which yet keeps 
the interest of the reader awake through- 
out Other great epics are founded on 
tales or historical inQt% prtserved in ihe 



memoiy of the poet's countrymen ; but, 
with him, the whole was fiction, at least 
every thing beyond the common dogma 
of hell, purgatoiy and heaven. At the 
same time, it cannot be denied, that his 
learning sometimes, though seldom, ren- 
ders him unpoetical ; for instance, when 
he gives long astronomical descriptions. 
It has often been said, and often denied, 
that, in his Heaven, the interest diminishes. * 
We must assent to the first opinion, which 
is founded, indeed, on human nature ; for 
evil and sufiTering are far more exciting, 
and, on this account, more interesting than 
tranquil happiness. Does not every com- 
edy close as soon as the couple are united, 
and the tragedy, when the wicked are 
punished ?— ^he name CommetHa is deriv- 
ed from Dante's idea concerning the forma 
of eloquence, which were, in lus opinion, 
tragic, comic and elegiac, as he relates in 
liis work De vulgari EtoquenitOf which 
was probably first written in Latin. What 
he called tragethf was a piece commencing 
with happy and peaceful scenes, and end- 
ing vrith events of a painful and terrible 
clmracter ; and what he called comedy was 
a piece which, beginning unpleasantly, 
terminated happily. The qualifying word 
dwtna was, however, added by others; 
but, in the oldest editions, the poet himself 
veas called by the appellations of U Dvomo 
and R TeoU^, The poem of Dante has 
been considered, by some persons, but, in 
our opinion, unworthily, to have taken its 
rise from the author's circumstances. We 
may also mention the opinion maintained 
in 1753, by Bottari, that Dante made use 
of the Vision of Alberico, a monk who 
Uved in the first part of the 1^ century, 
in a monastery on Monte Cassino, in 
Naples. There have been manv such 
visions, fixim the earliest ages of'^ Chris- 
tianity ; as, for instance, the vision of an 
English monk, which Matthew Paris men- 
tions, in his history of England (in the year 
lldGJ, and which resembled Dante's poem 
much more than the vision of Alberico, pub- 
Bshed by OancelHeri, in 1814, at Rome, 
vrith observations ( Osiervctzxoni intomo aUa 
^hitgtione sopra la OrigirudiUh deUa Dmna 
Vommedia m DanU) ; and, moreover, the 
vision of a gentleman named Tundafl, in 
Ireland, which also falls in the first part of 
the 12th century. It is, therefore, v«y pos- 
sible that Dante here and there may have 
borrowed a tfaou^t or image fit>m those 
visions; but this is no fiiuh: the recollec- 
tions of great men are sparks which serve 
to kindle mighty fiames. — ^There is no iioet 
who ben* so distinctly the impress of his 
age, and yet rises so high alx>ve it, as 



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Dante. The Italians jusdy regaid him as 
the creator of their poetical language, and 
the &tber of tlieir poetry, which, regulated 
and controlled by hia genius, at once as- 
sumed a purer and &r nobler form than it 
had previously worn. The terzina first 
reached its perfection in the time of Dante, 
on which account he has been erroneous- 
ly regarded as the inventor of it — ^The best 
editions of the LHvina Commedia are those 
of Lombardi (Rome, 1791, 3 vols^ 4toX 
and the edition of Milan (in 1804, in 3 
vols.). Of the former, a second and much 
improved edition appeared in 1815 — 17, 
at Rome, published by Romano de' Ro- 
inani, in wiiich the Vision of Alberico is 
also contained. In 1821, Luigi Fantoni 
published an edition of the Divma Comme- 
dioj stated to have been printed from a 
manuscript in the hand-writing of Boccac- 
cio. An Italian professor at Paris, Biagio- 
li, also published an edition of this poem, 
from the text of the Crusca edition, in 
1818, together with a eood commentary, 
in 3 volumes. Dante^ complete works 
appeared in Venice in 1757 — 58, published 
by Zatta (in 5 vols., 4to.). His lyric po- 
ems, sonnets and canzonets, of which 
some are beautiful, others dull and heavy, 
were written at (Afferent periods of his 
life. We have yet to mention his Banquet 
{11 Comnto)—a prose work, worthy, says 
Bouterwek, to stand by the mde of the 
best worics of antiquity. It contains the 
substance of all his knowled^ and expe- 
rience, and thus illustrates his poetiy and 
his life. The marquis Trivulzio edited a 
new edition of' it, in 1826, in Milan. A 
woriK containing much valuable matter to 
elucidate Dante is Dd VeUro Megorico tU 
JkmU (Florence, 1826, 8vo., with an inter- 
esting ap})endix), extracted from a very 
old Codex Mediceus^ belonging, at present, 
to the BiblioUca LaurenzUtnOy marked No. 
vui, bench xxix. Among the best modem 
commentaries on Dante are the treatises 
of doctor Witte in the Hermes, and also in 
the Silesian Prowanal^BlalUerny in 1825. 
There is a good English translation of the 
Dimna Commedia, by Mr. Carey (London, 
1819, 3 vols., 8vo.). — ^In one respect, Dante 
stands unrivalled by any man, as he, we 
might almost say, created the language, 
which he elevated at once to its highest 
perfection. Before him, very little was 
written in Italian, Latin being the literary 
language ; but no one attempted to use the 
Itngua voljgan for the purposes of dignified 
compoation. The poet, indeed, thought 
it neceaaary to excuse himself for having 
<vritten in Italian, after hav^g attempted 
to compose his poem in Latin. Thus ho 



is to be regarded as the founder of Italian 
literature. One of the strangest produc- 
tions of Dante is his Z^ Monorchia, ahieady 
mentioned. He labors, in this woric, to 
prove that the emperor ought to have 
universal authority, and draws his argu- 
ments from the Sacred Scriptures and from 
profane writers, which, in this book, appear 
very often with equal authority. The 
dialectics of the schoolmen are here ex- 
hibited in a most characteristic way. The 
De Monorchia is valuable as a source of 
information respecting tiie great stniegle 
of the Guelphs and Ghibelines, and its 
influence upon the Christian world at that 
time. This strug^e was a part of the 
great convulsion attending the separation 
of the civil power from the ecclesiastical, 
with which, in the earliest ages, it ia al- 
ways united. On the whole, Dante's 
works are important chiefly in three re- 
spects — as the productions of one of the 
greatest men that ever lived, as one of the 
keys to the history of his time, and as ex- 
hibiting the state of learning, theology and 
politics in that age. To understand Dante, 
It is necessary to be acquainted with the 
history and spirit of his time, particularly 
with tiie struggle of the Guelphs and Ghi- 
belines, the state of the noith of Italy, and 
the excitement caused by tlie beginmng of 
the study of the ancients ; also to have stud- 
ied the Catholic theology and die history 
of the court of Rome, and to keep always 
in mind that Dante was an exile, deprived 
of home and happiness. The Gennans, 
at present, pay much attention to Dante. 
They have some excellent translations, by 
Kannegiesser and Streckfuss, and valuable 
works on the poet by Abeken, in Berlin, 
and others. Mr. Uhde, a few yeara ago, 
delivered lectures on Dante in the univer- 
sity of Berlin, which showed great study 
of the poet and his time. 

Pietro Vincenzio, of the family of Rai- 
naldi, was sumamed Dante, because he 
endeavored to imitate this great poet Ho 
and his whole family were celebrated for 
their knowledge of mathematical science. 
—Giovanni Battista Dante, of Perugia, 
probably belonging to the same family, is 
well known by die suraame of Dtedalus, 
which he obtained on account of his me- 
chanical ingenuity. In the 15th century, 
he made an attempt to fly. and is said to 
have succeeded in' passing tlie lake of 
Penigia. 

Daivton, George James, an advocate 
by profession, was bom at Arcis-sur- Aube 
Oct 26, 1759, and beheaded April 5, 
1794. He played a very important part 
during the nrst yeara of the French revo- 



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DANTON— DANTZIC. 



lutkniy of which he was an active and 
zealous promoter. His external appear* 
ance was striking ; his stature was colos- 
sal ; his frame athletic ; his features harsh, 
large and disagreeable; bis voice shook 
the dome of the chamber of the assembly ; 
his eloquence was vehement; and his 
imagination was as gigantic as his person, 
which made every one recoil, and **at 
which,*' says St Just, " Freedom herself 
trembled.'' These qualities contributed 
to extend his influence, and he became 
one of the finmders of the club of the 
Cordetiers. (q. v.) After the imprison- 
ment of Jjouis at Yarennes, he took the 
lead in the meeting of the Champ-de-Mars, 
which demanded the dethronement of the 
kic^. In November, he was appointed 
assistant to the procurator of tne com- 
mune of 'Paris. His importance in the 
capital increased in 1792, where lie be- 
came one of the instigators of the events 
of Jime 20th, and a l^uler on the 10th of 
August. After the fall of Louis XVI, 
Danton was a member of the provisional 
executive council, was made minister of 
justice, and usurped the appointment of 
officers in the army and departments. He 
thus raised up a great number of creatures 
entirely devoted to his views. Money 
^wed from all sides into the hands of 
the minister, and was as profusely squan- 
dered on Ills tools and partisana His 
violent measures led to the bloody scenes 
of September* He endeavored, by the 
terrors of proscription, to annihilate all 
hope of resistance on the part of the roy- 
alists. Tlie invasion of Champagne by 
the Prusaans, Sept. 3d, spread consterna- 
tion through the capital, and among the 
members of the government The minis- 
ters, the most distinguished deputies, and 
even Robespierre himself, who was, at 
that time, in fear of Brissot, now assem- 
bled around Danton, who alone preserved 
his courage. He assumed the adminis- 
tration of Uie state, and prepared measures 
of defence : he called on all Frenchmen, 
capable of bearing arras, to march against 
the enemy, and prevented the removal 
of the assembly beyond the Loire. Dan- 
ton showed, on this occasion, undaunted 
courage. From this time forward, he was 
hated by Robespierre, who could never 
pardon the supmority which Danton had 
shown on that occasion. Being called on 
to render an account of tlie secret ex- 
penditures during his ministry, Danton 
maintained that the ministers should give 
in their reports collectively ; and this view 
vns adopted. He voted for the capital 
punSshment of all returoing emigrants, 



and undertook the defence of rel^ious 
worship. The contest between the Gi- 
rondists and the Mountain daily assiuned 
a more serious aspect, and Danton ap- 
peared to fear the consequences of these 
dissensions. The 26th of November, on 
the occasion of the festival of reason, in 
which the adherents of Hubert acted a 
conspicuous part, he declared himself 
anew against the attack on the ministers 
of religion, and subsequendy united with 
Robespierre to bring H6bert and his parti- 
sans to the scaffold. But their connexion 
was not of long duration, and the secret 
hate which had long existed between 
them soon became pubhc. Danton wished 
to overthrow the despotism of Robespierre,, 
and the crafty Robespieire endeavored to 
undermine him, in order to get rid of a 
dangerous rival. St. Just denounced him 
to the committee of safety, and Danton 
was arrested on the night of March 31, 
together with those who were called his 
accomphces. Being thrown into prison 
in the Luxembourg, he maintained the 
appearance of serenity. When he was 
transferred into the Concierfferie, his coun- 
tenance became dark, and he appeared 
mortified at having been the dupe of 
Robespierre. All his discourses were a 
Strang mixture of sorrow and pride. At 
his tnal, he answered, with peHect compo- 
sure, ''I am Danton, sufficiently known 
in the revolution; I shall soon pass to 
nothingness, but my name will live in the 
Pantheon of history." April 5, the rev- 
olutionary tribunal condemned him to 
death, as on accomplice in a conspiracy 
lor the restoration or monarchv, and eoa^ 
iiscated his large property. He mounted 
the fatal car witn courage, and withoat 
resistance; his head was elevated; his 
lode commanding and full of pride. Be- 
fore ascending the scaffi^ld, he was, for a 
moment, softened : *^ O my wife, my dear 
vrife, lEdiall I never see you again?" ha 
exclaimed ; but checked himself hastily, 
and, calluig out, " Danton, no weakness," 
ascended Uie scaffi)ld. — ^Danton was one 
of the most remarkable characters of the 
French revolution — a strange mixture of 
magnanimity, ability and courage, with 
cruelty, avarice and weakness. He was 
35 years t)ld at the time of his death. 

Dantzic (Danzig)] a commercial city 
and fortress on the west bank of the Vis- 
tula, about five miles fi-om the Baltic, in the 
government of the same name, in the 
Prussian province of West Prussia, and 
300 miles fieom Berlin. It has a very 
agreeable sit^tion, in the midst of a beau- 
tiful country. Exclusive of the suburban 



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DANTZIC. 



119 



it is about 2i miles in circuit, and is net- 
ther regularly nor handsomely built In- 
cluding the suburbs, it contains 5172 
houses, and 54,75G inhabitants, of whom 
2148 are Jews. Its fine harbor and ad- 
vantageous situation have procured it an 
extensive commerce by land and sea. It 
was an important member of the Hanse- 
atic lesgue, and was oflen called the 
grananf of the Mnih, As early as the 10th 
century, it was called Gedance ( Gedanak). 
For a long period, it continued to change 
masteiB, with the territoiy in which it 
lies. The Danes, Swedes, Pomeranians 
and Teutonic knights contended for its 
possession. In 1310, it fell into the hands 
of the last. The industry of the inhab- 
itants soon restored its importance and 
prosperity, which had been diminished 
Dv me frequent wars, and inspired the 
citizens with such eneigy, that, in 1454, 
Dantzic declar^ itself independent, and 
was soon afier recognised as such by the 
republic of Poland. The city then struck 
Its own coins, with the image of the king 
of Poland, maintained a secretary at War- 
saw, and voted in the diets of the king- 
dom, and at the election of king, by a 
deputy. In 1772, the city was almost 
sunounded by the Prussian dominions; 
its trade, industiy and population continu- 
ally declined, and the last king c^ Poland 
declared that he must leave Dantzic to its 
file. May 28, 1703, the PmssianB took 
possession of the outworks: the people 
immediately flew to arms, and a short 
struggle ensued, which, after a few days, 
terminated with the surrender of the city. 
It soon afier regained its former proflperity 
under the Prussian government, and con- 
tinued to flourish till the breaking out of the 
war between France and Prussia. March 
7, 1807, Dantzic was besieged by marahal 
JLeft vre, and surrendered on the 24th of 
May. The marshal was afterwards re- 
warded with the title of duke of Dantac 
A military contribution of 20,000,000 of 
fianc^ to be paid by iasuUments, was 
levied on the city. By the peace of Tilsit, 
however, Dantzic was recognised, as a 
free dty, with a jurisdiction of 2 leagues 
In extent, which was afterwards enlaiged 
to 10 miles by Napoleon, under the pro- 
tection of France, Prussia and Saxony; 
but, being occupied by a French gairison, 
it was not allowed to enjoy its indepen- 
dence. A French governor, general Rapp, 
continued in the garrison. In 1808, the 
Code N'apMmr was introduced ; and, by 
the continental system, its most important 
branch of support, the commerce with 
Pff gly^j was cut off. Under such un&- 



vorable circumstances, the vearl812 drew 
nigh, bringing the heavy burdens of the 
Russian war. December 31, the city was 
declared in a state of bk>ckade. After a 
very obstinate defence of neariy a year's 
continuance, a capitulation was entered 
into, Jan. 1, 1814. On this day, all the 
Poles and Germans were dismissed, and, 
<m the 2d, the French marched out, to be 
conducted, as prisonen of war, to the in- 
terior of Russia. During this blockade 
and siege, 309 houses uid warehouses 
were burnt, 1115 buildings damaged, and 
90 men perished by hunger. Feb. 3, 
1814, Dantzic fell again under the domin- 
ion of Prussia. Dm. 6, 1815, great dam- 
age was done by the e^iloeion of a pow- 
der magazine. — ^There are, in this city, 
important manufactures of gold and silver 
hice, doth, woollen stufis and Cordovan 
leather : the dye-houses, sugar-refineries, 
brandy and other distilleries, vitriol, pot- 
ash, &c. manufactories, are likewise con- 
siderable. An important article of com- 
merce in Dantzic is com, which is brought 
down the Vistula from Poland, and ex- 
ported to England, Holland and the ILmse 
towns. Other articles of export are tim- 
ber, leather, wool, furs, butter, tallow, wax, 
honey, potash, hemp and flax. The prin- 
cipal edifices worthy of mention are, the 
high church of St. Mark (in which is the 
Judgment Day, by Van Eyck), the syna- 
gogue, the academical gymnasium, the 
marine institute, the buildings of the 
aociety of natural history, including thear 
obscTvatory. This society celebrated its 
^th anniversary Jan. 2, 1826. It has 
published memoirs. In 1823> there were 
747 ships entered, and 758 cleared, at this 

C On the side of the city between the 
da and Nogat, is the fertile island of 
Werder, which supports numerous herds 
of cattle ; and at the mouth of the fiuiner 
lies the fort of MOnde, which defends the 
roads of Dantzic, called J^oMmooioer. 
April 9, 1829, the Vistula, swollen by die 
melting of the snow in the interior, and 
choked by masses of kse, broke throuck 
the dyke, which extends 25 miles up the 
river, overwhehnini; 50 villages. The 
k> wer town of Dantzic was inundated, and 
the houses filled to the roofs. The torrent 
swept over the city, carrying away many 
houses, and whatever diey contained. On 
die 12th, the waten began to abate ; but, 
as late as the 14th, many suffierere were 
still remaining on the roofs of the houses, 
unable to obtain relief and destitute of 
food. (For an accountofthe last siege of 
tliis city, see the RMiion dt la DHam 
de Jkmbae m 1813, Paris, 1820; andak^ 



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190 



DANTZIC— DAPHNIS. 



the MUkay Annals of Aiutria^ 1825, 8th 
aDd 9th editions. ) 

Danube (in Gerroan, DonaUf i. e. de^ 
water); a river, which was caJled by the 
Romans, from its sources to Vienna, Dor- 
nubia, and lower down» bter. It has three 
sources, the Brege, Brigaeh, and a little 
fountain in the yard of the castle of prince 
Bonaueschingin, in Baden, 2050 feet above 
the level of the sea (Ion. 10° 90^ 15^' £., lat 
47° 58^ N.), near which the united watera 
receive the name of Danube, After its 
junction with the Uler, above Ulm, it be- 
comes navigable, being from 8 to 12 feet 
deep, runs diroueh the kingdom of Bava- 
ria, then fiom £ngelhartszeli to Orsowa 
(644 milesi, through Austria, and finally 
through xui^ey, until it fiills into the 
Black sea, after a course of 1547 miles, 
and after having received 30 navigable 
rivers and 90 other streams. It discharges 
itself through five mouths, called Aut, 
Salxnty Kedrilio, Poriesaa and Mawa Bo- 
gasL The first is the chief and the deep- 
est outlet, and is now within the domin- 
ions of Russia, since Bessarabia (q. v.) 
was ceded to this power by the Turks. 
The finurth and fifth mouths are likewise 
navigable. The Danube discharges so 
much water into the Black sea, that the 
addition is perceptible in the latter, even 
at the distance of 46 miles. Its current 
embraces the vvraters of the Schwarzwald 
(the Black forest), the Bohmerwald (the 
Bohemian forest), the Alps of Tyrol, Sti- 
ria, Carinthia and Camiola, and the Mor- 
lachian, Carpathian and Bulgarian moun- 
taina The whiripools have been render- 
ed less dangerous by the labor of man in 
Germany and Hungary, but the shallows of 
Orsowa, and the tyrannical restrictions of 
the Turkish government, obstruct the sub- 
sequent navigation. Many qiecies . of fish 
are taken in the river. The most known 
is the sturgeon. From the times of the 
Romans, through the period of the middle 
ages, down to the time of Napoleon, the 
shores of the Danube have been the scene 
of momentous conflicts. At Ulm, the 
navigation of this river begins, and is 
continued to its mouth in me divisions, 
occasioned by political separations — ^fiiom 
Ulm to Ratisbon, thence to Vienna, thence 
to Pest, thence to Belgrade, thence to 
Galacz and Kilianova, where the river 
empties itself. The navigation is almost 
entirely downwards, without the aid of 
sails or oars. Such vessels as move 
against the stream are drawn by horses, 
five tons being allowed for each horae, if 
the river is not swollen. As the greater 
part of the vessels are cnily calculated to 



float down, and then to be sold as wood, 
they are, of coune, little better than rafts. 
The congress of Vienna, in 1815, declared 
the navigation of all the German rivers 
^e; but this fiieedom does not as yet ex- 
ist, and the custom lines of Wfirtemberg 
Bavaria and Austria prevent the naviga- 
tion of the Danube m>m attaining the ex- 
tent which it would easily reach if left 
firee. From France, many goods are sent 
to Ulm, and fit)m thence to Turiiey. At 
Pest, about 8000 vessels and rafts arrive 
annually. Austria subjects the navigation 
of the nver to very oppressive restrictions. 
Thus the boatmen mm Ratisbon are on- 
ly allowed to go to Vienna ; and they are 
only allowed to take from thence wine. 
In Vienna, these boatmen are incorporated. 
Charlemagne entertained the grand idea 
of uniting the Rhine and Danube, by a ca- 
nal between the Altmtihl and the Maine, 
near Nuremberg. If the«navigation were 
fi'ee, the introduction of steam-boats would 
make it increase with a rapidity equal to 
that of the Mississippi. (See DmTa ffall,) 

Daphne ; a daughter of the river-goa 
Peneus, beloved by Apollo, by whose con- 
trivance her lover, Leucippus, was slain. 
The nymph, deaf to the suit of the god, 
and flying firom hin^, besought the earth 
to swallow her up. According to some, 
she besought her ftither or Jupiter to pro- 
tect her. Her prayer was heard ; for, at 
the moment when Apollo was about to 
encircle her in his arms, her flight was 
suddenly arrested, her feet took root in the 
earth, her arms became branches, and, in- 
stead of the nymph, Apollo embraced a 
laurel, which was thenceforth consecrated 
to him. — D<mhnt was also the name of a 
daughter of Tiresias. She was priestess 
in the temple of Delphi. — A grove near 
Antioch was likewise so called. 

Daphnin ; the bitter principle ofDaphr 
nt Mpina, From the alcoholic infusion 
of the bark of this plant, the resin was 
separated b^ partial evaporation, and the 
remaining tmcture, on being diluted with 
water and filtered, aftbrded, on the addi- 
tion of acetate of lead, a yellow precipi- 
tate, fit>m which sulphureted hydrogen 
disunited the lead, and left the daphnin in 
small trani^rent ciystals. They are hard, 
of a grayish color, a bitter taste; when 
heated, evaporate in acrid acid vapora ; 
and are sparingly soluble in cold, and 
but moderately so in boiling water. 

Daphnis ; the son of Mercury by a 
nymph, educated among the nymphs, and 
celebrated in tlie Sicilian traditions as the 
author of Bucolic poetir, and also as a 
performer on the shepherd's pipe. He 



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121 



pastured his kiiie upon mount iGuieu 
The nymph Echenaia, who Joved the 
youth, threatened him with blindness if 
he should love anotJier ; but, being intox- 
icated with wine by the daughter of a Si- 
cilian prince, he forgot her warnings, and 
thus brought upon himself the threatened 
punishment. Some say that he died of 
ffiief ; others, that the nyinph transformed 
faim into a stone. All the nymphs be- 
wailed his death, and Mercuiy raised him 
to the heaven& On the spot where he 
died flowed a fountain, at which the Si- 
cilians afterwards performed yearly sacri- 



Darcet, John ; an eminent French 
physician and chemist, Ixhh, in 1725, at 
Douazit, in Guienne. He preferred the 
study of mediciue to that of the law ; in 
consequence of which, having been dis- 
carded by his fadier, he was obliged to 
teach Latin for his support, while pursu- 
ing his studies at Bordeaux. He accom- 
panied the celebrated Montesquieu to 
Paris in 1742, and remained with him till 
his death as a literary assistant He afler- 
wards devoted himself to chemistry, and 
went to Gennany, in 1757, with the comit 
de Lauraguais, and visited the mines of the 
Hartz, in Hanover. On the restoration 
of peace, they applied themselves to tech- 
nical chemistry, especially to the improve- 
ment of the manufacture of porcelain. 
Darcet made many experiments with this 
view, of which he drew up an account in 
several memoirs presented to the academy 
of sciences, in 1766 and 1768. He tried 
the efiect of fire on the various kinds of 
earths, and demonstrated the combustibil- 
i^ of the diamond ; on which subjects he 
presented memoirs to the academy in 
1770. In 1774, he travelled over the ryr- 
enees, to study the geology of those 
mountains, on which he delivered a dis- 
course at the college of France, which 
was published in 1776. On the death of 
Macquer, be succeeded him as a member 
of the academy of sciences, and director 
of the manu&ctory of S«^vres.' He was 
afterwards appointed inspector-general of 
the assay of coin, and inspector of the 
Gobelin manu&ctory. He made several 
important chemical discoveries, and con- 
tributed much to the present improved 
state of the sdence. During the reign of 
terror, his life was preserved by Fourcroy, 
who procured the obliteration of his name 
from a list of persons destined by Robes- 
pierre to destruction. He died in 1801, at 
which period he was a member of the in- 
sdtute, and of the conservative senate. 

Dakcet, John Peter Joseph, an exoel- 

VOL. IV. 11 



lent practical chemist, bom at Paris in 
1787, has very successfully applied the 
discoveries in his science to the promo- 
tion of French industry. His fadier, -who 
died in 1601, in the office of director-gen- 
eral of the porcelain manufactory at Sevres, 
also ^stinguisbed himself as a practi- 
cal chemist ; and his grandfather was the 
celebrated Bouelle, the restorer of chem- 
istry in France. Darcet entered early 
upon his career, after having laid tlie 
foundation of his eminence by the study 
of mathematics and natural philosophy. 
In his 24th year, he was made assayer of 
the mint ; and, after introducing, among 
other discoveries, a new process for the 
preparation of powder on a lar^ scale, he 
made experiments on the addition of sea- 
salt in the manufacture, and essentially 
improved the preparation of the hydrate 
of the protoxide of^barytes. These exper- 
iments led to new discoveries respectins 
elective affinity ; but the decomposition of 
sea-salt was of the greatest importance, 
and eventually led to the establishment 
of the manumcture of artificial natron 
(soda). Among his other discoveries, we 
may notice the extraction of alkali from 
chestnuts, and the preparation of su^ 
from the same matenal, and the extraction 
of jelly firom bones by means of an acid. 
The hospital of Louis at Paris is indebt- 
ed to him for the excellent footing on 
which he put its baths and chimneys, and 
for the process which he introduced for 
bleaching the linen of the hospitals. He 
also made anotiier discoveiy of great im- 
portance, whereby he obtained tne prize 
of 3000 francs, wliich Ravrio had provid- 
ed for the discovery of the means of pro- 
tection against the fine dust of quicksilver, 
which had been so unhealthy to the gild- 
ere. Darcet's discovery completely attain- 
ed the object, and this branch of French 
industry has since increased greatiy in 
importance. He has also offered a plan 
for preserving the health of those con- 
cerned in tl]^ manufacture of Prussian 
blue. 

Daroanelles are the four strong cas- 
tles built on the European and Asiatic 
coasts of the Hellespont, opposite to each 
other, and commanding that strait, which 
is about 12 leajgues long, and called, fiiom 
them, the i^rmt of Me DardandUe, so that 
they are looked upon as the key of Con- 
stantinople. Their name is probably de- 
rived mm the old city of Dardanum. 
The entrance to the Hellespont is defend- 
ed by two castles, which are called the 
new autUiy because they were buik (sub- 
sequenUy to the two othera, called thesM 



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DARDANELLES. 



easUu), in tlie middle of the 17th century, 
under Mohaiumed IV, to aObrd protection 
to the Turkisli fleets against the Vene- 
tians. The distance of one from tlie oth- 
er is about two miles and a quarter. Four 
hours' sail farther to the nortJi lie the old 
castles, built by Mohammed II, immedi- 
ately after the conquest of Constantinople, 
which are not more than 1500 yards apart 
Farther on still, the channel becomes nar- 
rower, and, at an hour and a holPs sail 
from the old castles, two promontories ap- 
pear suddenly, about 750 yards distant one 
from the otlier, and form that strait ren- 
dered famous by Leander's nightly visit to 
Hero, by Xerxes' bridge, and by Soly- 
man's passage upon a bare raft. This is 
not provided with fortifications. It leads 
into the sea of Mannora, at the north- 
eastern end of which hes Constantinople, 
the capital of the Ottoman empire, u|>- 
on another chamiel, which connects tlie 
Black sea witli the sea of Marmora. The 
late lord Byron, in the moutli of March, 
1810, swam from the castle of Sestos, in 
Europe, to tlie fort of Abydos, in Asia, in 
company Avith lieutenant Ekenhead, an 
Euglisli naval officer, and mentions the feat 
in his works with evident satisfaction. The 
same feat has been repeatedly performed 
in modem times. The negligent Turks, 
confiding in the celebrity of tlie casdes of 
tlie Dardanelles, have taken so liale care 
to keep tliem in a state of defence^ that in 
1770 they were completely in ruuis, and 
upon the Asiatic side there was but a sin- 
gle battery standing, and tliat half fUled 
with rubbish. On the 20th of July of that 
year, when the squadron of die Russian 
admiral Elphinstone, consisting of three 
ships of the line and four frigates, in pur- 
suit of two Turieish ships of the line, ap- 
peared before the first casdes, tlie Turkish 
batteries, from want of ammunition, were 
oblised to cease firing, after one genend 
discharge of their ordnance, and Elphin- 
stone sailed by without receiving more 
than a single shot* But, the other ships 
not following him, he contented liimself 
with continuing his course, not minding 
the Tuiicish batteries, and cast anchor in 
the channel. From hence he returned to 
his fleet, notwithstanding a contrary wind, 
with drums and trumpets sounding, as 
much to conceal his own fear as to deride 
the weakness of the Ottomans. Warned 
by this unexpected circumstance, the 
Porte accepted the offer of baron De Tott 
(q. V.) to restore the castles to their former 
condition ; and he rendered them, in a 
short time, impregnable. But the Turks 
were too indoleat to preserve them long in 



this condition ; for, in 1796, Eton, an Eng- 
lishman, who was for a considerable time 
resident in Turkey, in a description of this 
empire, declared that, at that time, a fleet 
might easily pass the Dardanelles. *^ These 
castles," he says, ** may be beaten down by 
batteries erected on shore, or by see, firom 
situations where the great artillery cannot 
bear on sliips. There are, on each side 
of the water, 14 great guns, which fire 
granite balls. These guns are of brass, 
with chamben, like mortars, 22 English 
feet long, and 28 inches diameter of the 
bore. A gentleman who has measured 
them smce I did, says they are only 23 
inches in diameter: one of us must have 
made a mistake. They are very near the 
level of the surfiice of the water, in arched 
port-holes or embrasures, with iron doors, 
which are omned only when they are to 
be fired. Tne balls cross the water fix>ni 
side to side, as they are a Utde elevated. 
These monstrous cannon are not mount- 
ed, but lie on the paved floor, with their 
breech against a wall. They cannot be 
pouited, and the gunner must wait till the 
vessel he intends to fire at is opposite the 
mouth ; and they are at least half an hour 
in loading one of these guns." That this 
account is accurate there is no doubt, for 
it is confirmed by admiral Duckworth, an 
Englishman, who, on the 19th of Febru- 
aiy, 1807, with eight ships of the line and 
four frigates, together with fire-ships and 
gun-boats, effected a passage through the 
Dardanelles without loss, and appeared, 
on the next day, before Constantinople, 
which, till then, had never seen an ene- 
my's fleet Then: presence was intended 
to influence the negotiations then inprog- 
ress, but was of litUe avail, for the Turlu, 
during the course of the discussions, under 
the du^ction of the French ambassador 
Sebastiani, were zealously employed in 
fortifying Constantinople and repairing the 
castles of the Dardanelles; so that Duck- 
worth, on the 2d of March, could not re- 
turn without loss, &«., according to his 
own confession. If he had remained eight 
days later, his return would have been al- 
together impossible. — ^The new casdes are 
much less strong than the old ones, which 
are generally understood when the Dar- 
danelles simply are spoken of The latter 
are called Chana KaUgn (said to mean 
pottery castles, fit>m a pottery near thera), 
or, more elegandy, Su&anei KalissL The 
new casde on the Asiatic side is called 
Kbuai Kali, or casUe in the sand^ from the 
character of the shore in that place. In 
the immediate vicinity of Koum Kal^ 
the ruins of the Troad are, by the common 



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opinion of travellerB at tlie present day, 
flupposed to be found. The old castle, on 
the Asiatic side, is the residence of the 
governor of the four castles, and at this 
place there is an ill-built but considerable 
Turkish city, called Chana Kalissu The 
environs of this town are beautiful, partic- 
ularly a fine promenade of plane-trees on 
the banks of the Rhodius^ supposed to be 
one of the nine Homeric rivers which de- 
scend firom mount Ida. The old castle on 
the Asiatic side is poorly defended on the 
land quarter, and mi^ht easily be surpris- 
ed by a small force disembarked above or 
below. Large quantities of marble balls, 
made from the ruins of the city of the 
Troad, are piled up for use in the couits 
of the fortress. A ponderous shot of this 
kind, which struck one of the masts of 
admiral Duckworth's ship, was brought 
home by that officer, and made the pedes- 
tal of a table. So firmly ]3ersuaded are 
the Turks that these castles are impregna- 
ble, that they believed the governor was 
bribed by admiral Duckworth, and be- 
headed him accordingly. Commodore 
Bainbridge, m the Amencan frigate George 
Washington, passed the Dardanelles, under 
cover of the smoke of a salute, in Febnia- 
ly, 180L This is the only American ship 
of war that ever passed thib strait 

DARnANUs, the progenitor of the Tro- 
jan kings, and tlie son of Jupiter and 
Electra, tlie daughter of Atlas, emigrated 
from Samothrace (according to otliers, 
from Arcadia, Crete, &c.), and settled in 
Phrygia, in the country which was after- 
wards called Troas. Here he built a 
city, which, from him, was called Darda- 
num or Dardanus, By Bateia, the daugh- 
ter of Teucer, who had previously emi- 
grated hither from Attica, he had a son, 
called ErickthomuB, His descendants are 
called, by tlie poets, Dardamans, It has 
been lately supposed, that this is the name 
of an Arcadian tribe, whose history is 
related in the fiible of Dardanus. 

Darfur, or Darfoor (Country ofFoor) ; 
a considerable kingdom of Central Africa, 
occupying a large portion of the wide inter- 
val between Abyssinia and Bomou, the most 
eastern part of Nigritia. It is difficult to fix 
its limits, as it is known to us almost solely 
by the journey of Mr. Browne, one of the 
niost enterprisuig of modem travellers. 
On the east, it has Kordofan, and the 
country of the Shillux, which separate it 
from Sennaar and Abyssinia ; on the west, 
Bergoo, which divides it from Begherme 
and Bomou; while the regions to the 
south are occupied by barbarous nations, 
extending to and inhabiting the Mountains 



of the Moon. With respect to its climate, 
productions, tlie animan it contains, and 
also tlie manners of its inhabitants, and 
its government, it nearly resembles other 
countries in Africa. The people are semi- 
barbarous ; their government is a des|)ot- 
ism, and their occupation chiefly agricul- 
ture. The mechanical arts are at a low 
ebb, and their houses are rudely con- 
structed of clay, with a coating of plaster, 
and with proportionably scanty accommo- 
dations. Its commerce is extensive. The 
grand intercourse is with E^pt, and is 
carried on entirely by tlie Afncan system 
of caravans. There is no regular caravan, 
as between Fezzan and Cairo. The mo- 
tions of that from Fur are extremely un- 
certain, and two, or even three years 
sometimes elapse without one. The cara- 
van gohig to Egypt consists often of 3000 
camels and ICOO men. Among the ex- 
ports, the most important are slaves, male 
and female, taken in tlie Negro countries 
to the south ; camels, ivory, the boras, 
teeth and hide of the rhinoceros and hip- 
popotamus, ostrich featliers, gum, pimen- 
to, parroquets in abundance, and a small 
quantity of white copper. The imports 
are extremely various, comprising beads 
of all sorts, toys, glass, arms, light cloths 
of different kinds, chiefly made in Egypt, 
with some of French manufacture, red 
Barbary caps, small carpets, silks, wrought 
and uuwrought shoes, and a considerable 
quantity of writing paper. The Darfoor 
people submit their daughters to excision. 
They are Mohammedans, but, in spite of 
the prophet, much given to intoxicate 
tliemselves with a certain beverage called 
merissak. Unlimited polygainy is allowed, 
and the nearest relationship is no obstacle 
to marriage. Fathera often marry their 
daughters, and brotliers their sisters. The 
amiy is calculated at 70,000 men. The 
soldiers endure thirst and fetigue with un- 
common patience. 

Daria, or Deria, signifies river, in the 
Tartar languages ; as Kizil-Daria, red- 
river. 

Darien ; a post-town of Georgia, capi- 
tal of Mlntosh county, on the north and 
principal channel of the Alatamaha, near 
its entrance into St Simon's sound, 12 
miles from the bar, 62 S. S. W. Savannah, 
185 S. E. Milledgeville ; Ion. 81° 37' W. ; 
lat. 31° 23^ N. ; population in 1827, ac- 
cording to Sherwood, only 500. It stands 
on a high, sandy blufl| and contains a 
court-house, a jail, an academy, a Presby- 
terian meeting-house, a bank and a print- 
ing-office. It is a place of considerable 
trade in cotton. At the bar, there are but 



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0ABIEN— DARIUS. 



14 feet of watac» so that large vessels can- 
not come up to the town ; but the obstruc- 
tions to the navigation are expected, before 
long, to be removed, that Darien may be 
accessible to large ships, and become tlie 
emporium of the fertile country watered 
by the Oakmulgee and Oconee, branches 
of the AlatamaluL 

Darien, Gulf of ; on the coast of tlie 
province of Darien ; 26 leagues from N. to 
S., and 9 from E. to W. Several rivers 
flow into it, the lar^t of which is the 
Atrato. The coast is full of sharp and 
inaccessible shoals, and only towanls the 
west and south are there fit places for dis- 
embarking. The timita of the gulf are 
sometimes extended to the sea that washes 
the shores of the provinces of Panama and 
Darien. 

Darien, Isthmus of ; a neck of land, 
which unites North and South Ailierica, 
composed of the provinces of Panama and 
Veragua, which belong to the republic of 
Colombia. It Hes in 3ie form of a cres- 
cent, about the great bay of Panama on 
the south, and having the gulf of Mexico 
on the north. It is 900 miles long, and 
gmerally about 60 wide, but, where nar- 
rowest, between the ports of Porto Bello 
and Panama, only 37. This part is some- 
times called the lathmua of Panama. The 
countiy here is made up of sickly vaJleys 
and stupendous mountains, which seem 
to be placed as eternal barriers between 
the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, which 
can be distinctly seen at the same time 
fix>m the summits. These mountains 
here forbid the idea of a canal ; but, by go- 
ing to latitude 12° N., and joming the Lead 
of the lake Nicaragua to a small river 
which runs into the Pacific ocean, and 
forming a canal 30 miles long, through a 
low, level countiy, a communication be- 
tween the two seas becomes practicable. 

Darius ; the name of several Persian 
kings, or, according to some writers, the 
royal title itself. Among the most distin- 
guished individuals of this name, are— 1. 
Darius, the fourth king of Persia, the son 
of Hystaspes, satrap of Persis. He joined 
the conspiracy against the Pseudo-Smer- 
dis, who had possessed himself of the Per- 
sian throne. After the conspirators had 
succeeded in getting rid of the usurper, 
they agreed to meet eariy the next morn- 
ing, on horseback, and to appoint him 
king, whose horse should nei^h first after 
sunrise. The groom of Danus, apprized 
of this project, led his master's horse, in 
the night, with a mare, to the appointed 
place, and, in consequence of this strata- 
gem, the horse of Darius neighed first the 



next morning. Darius was, therefore, 
saluted king, and the nation approved the 
choice. Ins reign was marked by many 
important events. The city of Babylon 
revolted, partlv on account of burdensome 
impositions of tribute, and partly because 
the royal residence, under Cyrus, had been 
transferred from thence to Susa. Darius 
besieged the city nearly two years with- 
out success, and was on the point of aban- 
doning the siege, when Zopyrus, one of 
his generals, by a heroic sacrifice, placed 
the city in his possession. The mode was 
this: he mutilated himself in the most 
shocking manner, and fled to the Babylo- 
nians, pretending to them that he had 
suflered this cruel treatment from Darius, 
and that he wished for vengeance. The 
Babylonians gave him a command ; and, 
after many successfiil sallies, by which he 
gained their confidence, tliey intrusted 
to him tlie charge of the whole city, wliich 
he immediately surrendered to Dariusii 
After the subjection of Babylon, Darius 
undertook an expedition, vrith an army of 
700,000 men, against the Scythians on the 
Danube (513 B. C), who enticed him so 
far into their inhospitable countiy, by theur 
prMended flight, that he succeeded with 
difliculty in extricating himself and his 
army, edUer sufifering great losses. Leav- 
ing a part of his forces, under the com- 
mand of Megabyzus, in Thrace, to conquer 
that countiy and Macedonia, he retunied 
vrith the remainder to Asia, to recruit at 
Sardis. He next turned his arms against 
the Indians, part of whom he subjected 
(508 B. C). In the year 501 B. C, a dis- 
turbance at Naxos, in which the Persians 
had taken part, occ^oned a revolt of the 
Ionian cities, which the Athenians en- 
deavored to promote, but which was sup- 
pressed by the capture and punishment of 
Miletus, m 496. To revenge himself 
upon the Athenians, Darius sent Maido- 
nius with an army, by the way of Thiace 
and Macedonia, against Greece, and pre- 
pared a fleet to make a descent upon its 
coasts. But his ships were scattered and 
destroyed by a storm, in doubling mount 
Athos, and the army was almost entirelj 
cut to pieces by the Thraciana. Darius, 
however, collected another army of 500,000 
men, and fitted out a second fleet of GOO 
ships. Naxos was conquered, and Eretria, 
in Euboea, sacked. Thence the army, 
under Datis and Artaphemes, proceeded 
to Attica, and was led, by Hippiea, to the 
plains of Marathon. The Athenians had, 
m vain, besought assistance fix)m their 
neighbons, and were obliged to depend 
upon theu* own resources alone. They 



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DARIUS-DARMSTADT. 



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marched forth, 10,000 strong, under the 
command of Miltiades, to meet the Per- 
«an army, and, animated hy the reflectioD 
tliat they were fighting for fireedom and 
their country, obtamed a complete victory 
(B. C. 490). Darius now determined to 
take the command of a new army in 
person, but was prevented by domestic 
troubles, and died B. C. 485. This prince 
did much to improve tlie internal admin- 
istration of his kingdom. In the year 
506 Bw C, he sent his admiral Scylax to 
explore the river Indus, and he encour- 
aged oonmierce and arts by useful institu- 
tions and laws. His successor was Xerxes, 
(q. V.) — 2. Darius III, sumamed Codom- 
a9UUy son of Arsanes and Sysigambis, and 
great-grandson of Darius II, or Ochus 
(who reigned firom 424 to 404 B. C), was 
the 12th and last king of Persia. He 
ascended the throne B. C. 336, when the 
kingdom had been weakened by luxury, 
and the tyranny of the satraps under Jus 
predecessors, and could not resist tlie at- 
tacks of a powerful invader. Such was Al- 
exander of Macedon ; and the army, which 
was sent against him by Darius, was totally 
routed, on the bonks of the Granicus, in 
Asia Minor. Darius then advanced, with 
400,000 soldiers, to the plains of Mesopo- 
tamia. The Grecian mercenaries advised 
him to await the enemy here, as the level 
country would enable him to draw out his 
forces to advantage ; but Darius hastened 
forward to meet Alexander in the moun- 
tainous CiUcia. Curtjus describes the 
splendor of his march. Darius was a 
second time totally routed, near the Issus, 
R O. 3^ He himself escaped, under 
cover of the night, to the mountains. His 
mother, liis wi^ and three of his children, 
fell into the hands of the conqueror, who 
treated them with great generosity. Alex- 
ander loaded 7000 camels with the spoil 
taken here and at Damoscua Darius was 
so far from bemg discouraged by these de- 
feats, that he wrote a haughtv letter to Al- 
exander, in which he offei«d him a ransom 
for the prisoners, and invited him to a new 
engagement, or, if he did not choose that, 
granted him pennission to retire into Ma- 
cedonia. Alexander then laid siege to 
Tyre, on which Darius wrote him another 
letter, offering him not only the title of 
kiigf whichne had before refused to do, 
bat also 10,000 talents ransom, and all the 
countries of Asia as far as the Euphrates, 
together with his daughter Soitira in mar- 
riage. These propositions, however, were 
unavailing. Alexander subjected Egypt, 
and Darius found himself once more obhg- 
ed to cdlect an anny, which most writeis 
11* 



estimate at 1,000,000 men. He led his 
forces from Babylon to Nineveh, while 
Alexander was encamped on tlio banks of 
the Tigris. The two armies met between 
Arbela and Gaugamela, and, after a Uoodv 
engagement, Darius was compelled to seek 
safety in flight (331 B. C). Alexander 
took possession of his capital, Susa, cap- 
tured Persepolis, and reduced all Persia. 
Darius meanwhile arrived at Ecbatana, iu 
Media, where he had another army of 
30,000 men, among whom were 4000 
Greeks, who remained true to the end* 
besides 4000 slingers and 3000 hojrse, 
commanded by Bessus, the governor of 
Bactrio. With these he wislied to march 
against the conqueror, but a conspiracy 
oi Nabazanes and Bessus frustrated his 
plan. The magnanimous prince would 
not credit tlie rejiort of tlie conspiracy, 
wliich reached his ears, and, at tlie same 
time, observed tliat his death could not be 
premature, if liis subiects considered him 
unworthy of life. The traitors soon afler 
took possession of his person, and carried 
h im, m obains, to Bactria. Here he refused 
to accompany them any farther, and they 
transfixed him witli their javelins, and left 
him to his fate. A Macedonian, named 
Polystratus, saw the chariot of Darius, and, 
as he was drinking at a neighboring foun- 
tain, hoard the groans of a dying person. 
He approached the chariot, and found the 
king in the agonies of death. Darius beg- 
ged for some water, on receiving which 
he requested Polystratus to thank Alexan- 
der, in his name, for the generosity vrith 
which he had treated the captive prin- 
cesses. Scarcely had Darius expired, 
when Alexander came up. He melted into 
teara at the sight of the corpse, caused it 
to be embalmed, and sent it to Sysigam- 
bis, that it mifdit be depoated by the side 
of the other Persian monarchs. Darius 
died (330 B. C.) in the 50th year of his 
age, with the reputation of a humane, 
peaceful and just sovereign. 

Darmstadt, capital and residence of 
the grand-duke of^ Hesse-Darmstadt, has 
1279 houses (amone which are 53 public 
buildings) and 20,000 inhabitants, mostly 
Lutherans, exclusive of the garrison. It is, 
of course, the seat of the highest authori- 
ties, and of a court of appeal ; has a muse- 
um, Hbrary (with 90,0(X) volumes), drawing- 
school, gymnasium, an opera-house, the- 
atre, &C. The house in which the sol- 
diers are drilled is 319 feet long, 157 feet 
wide, and 83 feet high ; so that a travel- 
ler renuuked that the drilling-house was 
larger than the duchy. LaL49°5G'24''N.; 
km. 8° 34' 49" E. 



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DARMSTAI>T--DA]tWIN. 



Darmstadt, or Hssse-Darmstadt. 

(See Hesae.) 

Dartmoor; an extensive, nigged, 
mountainous tract in England, in the 
western part of Devonshire, usually called 
the /ore** of Dartmoor, but at present hav- 
ing no appearance of a forest, except what 
is afforded by an assemblage of dwarf 
oaks, intennixed with ash and willow; 
reaching fi-om Brent S., to Oakhampton 
N^ 20 miles, and 5 to 15 wide, and occu- 
pying 53,644 acres ; in all wliich space is 
no town, and only 2 villages. Here is a 
large prison, where many prisoners of war 
are frequently confined. 

Dartmouth ; a seaport town of Eng- 
land, county of Devon, situated near the 
confluence of the river Dart with the Brit- 
ish channel. It has a good harbor, with 
deep water, defended by a castle and two 
placforms of cannon. The chief occupa- 
tion of the inhabitants consists in the 
Newfoundland and other fislieries, where- 
in about 350 vessels are engaged. Dart- 
mouth is a boroiigh, sending two members 
to parliament. The entrance to the har- 
bor is defended by a casde. Population, 
4485. 30 miles S. Exeter. 

Dartmouth College. (See Hwnonar, 
M K) 

Daru, Pierre Antoine Noel Bruno, 
count, a peer of France, and one of the 
ablest French statesmen of the school of the 
revolution and Napoleon, was bom in the 
Year 1767, at Montpellier. He commenced 
his military career in his 16tli year, after 
having received an excellent education. 
At the breaking out of the revolution, he 
adopted its principles, like other young 
men of talent He never relinquished his 
poetical and literary pursuits, even in the 
camp, amidst the most uncongenial labors. 
His reputation as a poet was established 
by his masterly translation of Horace. 
The first edition appeared in 1800. About 
the same time appeared his CHapidUj or 
Theory of Literary Reputation — a poem 
fiill of elegance and animation. The 
penetrating eye of Napoleon soon distin- 
guished him fix>m the multimde, and 
showed him peculiar favor, while Daru 
attached himself^ with unbounded zeal, to 
that extraordinary man. He was intrust- 
ed ^th the most important affiurs, and 
executed these trusts witli fidelity to the 
interest of France and the emperor, by 
which he drew upon himself tlie hatred 
of the opposite party. This is particularly 
evident in his administration as jeeneru 
intendant, in 1805, 1806 and lS09, in 
Austria and Prussia. While in the coun- 
cil of state, Daru was considered the most 



diligent and laborious member of that 
body except the emperor. There vrore few 
important posts in the higher departments 
of the administration wiiich he did not 
fill; and the first restoration found him 
in possession of the port-folio of the de- 
partment of war. Bldcher displayed his 
enmity to him by sequestering his estate 
at Meulan ; but this measure was imme- 
diately reversed by the allied monarcha. 
In 1818, Daru was called to the chamber 
of peers by Louis XVIH. In 1805, he 
was chosen a member of the national in- 
stitute. Not having been called to any 
other public poet after the restoration, Daru 
devoted himself particularly to historical 
studies ; and we are indebted to him for 
two important woiics — the Life of Sully 
and the History of Venice. The last of 
these is one of the most important pro- 
ductions of modem literature in the de- 
partment of history. It appeared, in 
1819, m seven volumes; second edition, 
in 1821, in eight volumes, and the third 
edition in 18&. As a member of the 
chamber of peers, Daru was one of the 
most zealous defenders of the principles 
introduced by the revolution. He died 
near the end of 1829. 

Darwiit, Erasmus, a physician and 
poet, was bom at Elton, near Newaiic, 
Nottinghamshire, Dec. 12, 1721. He was 
educated at Cambridge, took his doctor's 
degree at Edinburgh, and commenced 
his practice as a physician at Litchfield. 
Li 1781, he made himself known as a 
poet by the publication of his Botanic 
GardeiL This poem consists of two 
parts, in the first of which the author 
treats of the economy of vegetables, and 
in the second of what he calls 7%e Idmes 
q/* the Plants, being a sort of allegorical 
exposition of the sexual system of Lin- 
nfeus. The ingenuity and novelty of 
much of the personmcation, and still 
more the brilliant and figurative diction in 
which it is conveyed, rendered this pro- 
duction very popular for a time ; but its 
unvarying polish, want of light and shade, 
and of human interest, rapidly reduced its 
reputation. To this result, the pleasant 
ridicule of Mr. Frere's Loves of the Tri- 
angles,, also, in no small degree, contribu- 
ted. In 1793, doctor Darwin published the 
first volume of his 2jodnamiia, or the Laws 
of Organic Life, 4to., which work excited 
great expectation from the known origi- 
nality of the author. It teaches that all 
animated nature, as men, beasts, and 
ve^tables, takes its origin from single 
hvmg filaments, susceptible of irritatiooy 
which is the agent that sets them in mo- 



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tion. This doctzine was refSited by Brcrnn 
and several other writen, and, being fbtind- 
ed on a mere assumption, rapidly fol- 
lowed the fate of all such systems. The 
second volume, which completed the 
author's plan, was printed in 1796. In 

1801, he published his Phytologia, or Phi- 
kwojphy of A^culture and Gardening. 
Various papers in the Philosophical Trans- 
actions are likewise fix>m the pen of doc- 
tor Darwin, who died suddenly, April 18, 

1802, leaving behind him the character of 
an able man, of considerable eccentricity, 
both in opinion and conduct The bias 
of his politics, and the tendency of his the- 
ories to materialism, excited a powerful 
feeling a^inst him, which much exag- 
gerated his peculiarities. His son, 

Darwin, Charles, deserves to be noticed 
for discovering, while studying at Edin- 
burgh, a test for distinguishing pus fitmi 
mucus, for which the gold medal was 
assigned him by the university. This 
promising young man died during his 
studies, at Edinburgh, in May, 1778. 

DAScHKOFr, Catharine Komanowna, 
princess of. This celebrated lady, de- 
scended from the noble family of Woron- 
zoS; and the early friend and confidant of 
the empress Catharine, was bom in 1744, 
and became a vridow at 18 years of age. 
She endeavored to effect the accession of 
Catharine to the throng but, at the same 
time, was in favor of a constitutional 
limitation of the imperial power. In a 
military dress, and on horseback, she 
led a body of troops to the presence of 
Catharine, who placed herself at their 
head, and precipitated her husband from 
the throne. The request of the princess 
Daschkoflf to receive the command of the 
imperial regiment of guards, was refused. 
She did not long remain about the person 
of Catharine. Study became her nvorite 
employment From the Greek and Ro- 
man authors she had acquired the high 
spirit of antiquity. After her return from 
atnoad, in 1782. she was made director of 
the academy of sciences, and president of 
the newly estabUsbed Russian academy. 
She wrote much in the Russian languafpe ; 
among other jproductions, some comedie& 
She also actively promoted the miblica- 
tion of the dictionaiy of the Russian 
academy. Her death to<^ place in 1810, 
at Moscow. 

Data&ia ; the papal chancery at Rome, 
from whidi all bulls (q. v.) are issued. It 
has its name from the common subscrip- 
tion, DaJtum apud Sanctum Petrvmj that is 
in the Vatican. (See Curjoj PcqHd,) 

Date (Latin, dahan, given) ; that ad- 



dition to a writing, which specifies the 
time when it was executed. Under the 
Roman emperors, this word was used to 
signify the day on which the bearers of 
the imperial despatches to the provinces 
received them, or that on which thev de- 
livered them. It was also used in docu- 
ments in the time of the French Mero- 
vingian kings. 

Date ; the fruit of the date palm, a tree 
of the natural order palnMy inhabiting 
the north of Africa, from Morocco to 
Egypt, Syria, Persia, the Levant and In- 
dia, and which is also cultivated in Italy 
and Spain. Dates fcnrm the principal 
nutriment of the inhabitants of some of 
the above countries, and are an important 
article of commerce. This fruit is an 
oval, soft, fleshy drupe, having a very 
hard stone, vrith a longitudinal mrrow on 
one side, and, when fi^h, possesses a de- 
licious perfume and taste. Dates are su- 
gary, very nourishing, wholesome, and 
require no preparation ; but when dried, 
and a little old, as they usually are when 
imported into Europe and the U. States, 
they are not much esteemed, and are little 
used in the countries where they grow. 
The best fruits have firm flesh of a yellow 
color. They are varied, however, by cul- 
ture, in size and shape : some varieties are 
very large, succulent, and without stones. 
The inhabitants of Tunis and several 
other countries, every year, journey in 
crowds, into Biledulgerid to procure dates. 
The bunches, weighing from 30 to 25 
pounds, when of gixnl quality, are sold af 
fix)m 60 to 80 cents each. Cattle and 
grain are received in exchange. Almost 
every part of this valuable tree is convert- 
ed to some use. The wood is very hard, 
almost incorruptible, and is used for build- 
ing. The Jeaves, after beinff macerated 
in water, become supple, and are mani>- 
factured into hats, mats and basketa The 
pedoles afibrd fibres from which cordage 
is made. The nutSy after being burnt, are 
used by the Chinese, in the composition 
of India ink. Palm wine is made from 
the trunk. For this purpose, the leaves 
are cut oflT, and a circular incision made a 
little below the summit of the tree, then a 
deep vertical fissure, and a vase is placed 
below to receive the juice, which is pro- 
tected firom evaporation. The date palm 
is a majestic tree, rising 60 feet and up- 
wards ; the trunk is straight, simple, scaly, 
elegantly divided by rings, and crowned 
at me summit bv a tuft of very long pen* 
dent leaves. The leaves are 10 or 12 fret 
long, composed of alternate narrow foli- 
oles, fokled kmgitndinally. The male ecod 



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DATE— DAUN. 



female flowers are upon differeot trees. 
The fruit is disposed in 10 or 12 veiy long 
pendent bunches. The date palm is re- 
produced from the roots, or from shoots, 
or by planting the axil of the leaves in 
the earth, which is the most approved 
mode, as female plants may be selected, 
while a few males, scattered here and 
there, are sufficient Care is taken to 
water them frequendy, and to protect 
them from the rays of the sun till they 
have taken root Plants raised by this 
method will bear finit in five or six 
years, while for those raised from the seed, 
15 or 20 years are required. When the 
male plant is in bloom, the pollen is col- 
lecteci and scattered over the female 
flowers. Each female produces 10 or 12 
bunches every yeai*, which, when gathered, 
are hung up m a dry place until so much 
of their moisture is evaporated as to allow 
of their being packed. Dates, in general, 
are of a yellowish color ; but some are black, 
some white, and others brown ; some, also, 
are sweet, and others bitter. The time of 
{)lanting is early in the spring. Situa- 
tions aTOunding m springs are selected, the 
trees are plac^ 15 or 20 feet apart, and 
a little trench is dug at the root of each, 
' which is filled with water at pleasure, by 
means of channels excavated m the sand. 
The Arabs pretend that they attain the 
age of 200 or 300 years. This valuable 
tree would undoubtedly succeed in the 
southern parts of the U. States. The 
wood, though of spongy texture, is em- 
ployed for the beams and raflers of houses, 
and for implements of husbandry, which 
are said to be very durable. The pith of 
the young trees is eaten, as well as the 
young and tender leaves. A considera- 
ble tiafic is carried on in these leaves, 
which, under the name of palmsj are sent 
to Italy, to be used in the grand religious 
ceremonies of Palm Sunday. In Persia, 
an ardent spirit is distilled from the fruit ; 
and, in many places, the stones are ground 
to make oil, and the paste that is left is 
fpyen as food to cattle and sheep. 

Datholite; a species in mineralogy 
found massive and crystallized in the 
form of oblique rhombic prisms, which 
are often much modified oy secondaiy 
planes. It has a shining, resinous lustre ; 
M of a white, greenish or yellowish-white 
color, and translucent ^fore the blow- 
pipe, it melts with intumescence. It con- 
sists, according to Klaproth, of 96.5 of si- 
lex, 35 of lime, 24 of boracic acid, and 4 
of water ; and hence is sometimes denomi- 
nated a nlicious borate of lime. It is 
found in small quantity in the trap rocks 



of Patterson, New Jersey ; also in Nor- 
way, where, besides the other varieties, 
one is found in botiyoidal masses, and 
therefore called hotryoltte, 

Daubenton, or D'Aubenton, Louis 
Jean Marie ; a naturalist and physician, 
bom at Montbar, in 1716 ; celebrated for 
his participation in the Natural History of 
Quadrupeds by his early friend and compan- 
ion, Bunbn ; tne anatomical part of which ^ 
was prepared by Daubenton with great, 
accuracy, clearness and sagacity. He re- 
fused his assistance in the latter part of 
the work, offended at the publication of 
an edition of the first part by Buffi>n, iu 
which the anatomical portion was omit- 
ted. The cabinet of natural history, in 
Paris, of which he was made keeper, in 
1745, was, by the united exertions of 
Daubenton and BufiTon, rendered one of 
the most valuable institutions in the capi- 
taL In 1744, he was chosen member of 
the academy of sciences, and enriched its 
publications by a number of anatomical 
discoveries, and also by researches con- 
cerning the species of animals and their 
varieties, the improvement of wool, and 
the treatment of^the diseases of animals. 
He threw much light upon mineralogy, 
botany and agriculture, and proposed 
a new method for the classification of 
minerals. He contributed to the depart- 
inent of natural history in the Encydopt' 
die. He is, besides, the author of nume- 
rous works of general utility ; for exam- 
ple, hutrudion pour les Bergers^ third 
edition, 1796 (translated into German by A. 
Wichmann), Mhnmre sur ks huUgeskong 
(new edition, 1798), and many others. 
Unseduced by Bufion's hypotheses, he 
was a most fiuthful observer of nature. 
During the reign of terror, when every 
one was requir^ to give some evidence 
of patriotic spirit, he was represented to 
his section as employed in introducing 
the Spanish flocks into France. He a£ 
terwards continued to apply himself quiet- 
ly to his studies; and, though liis con- 
stitution was naturally weak, the temper- 
ance and tranquillity of his life enabled 
him to reach the age of 84 years. Decem- 
ber 81, 1799, he was present, for the first 
time, at the sitting of the senate, and fell 
senseless into tlie arms of his fiiends, fiom 
a stroke of the apoplexy. 

Daun, Leopold Joseph Maria, count, 
an Austrian general, was bom in 1705, 
and died in 1766. His grandfather and 
fa^er had served with distinction in 
the Austrian army. He gain&d his first 
laurels in the Turkish war, 1737 to 
1739, in which be was major-genenily 



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m 



and disdnguished himself also in the war 
of the Austrian succession. His skilful 
passage of the Rhine, and his marriage 
with the countess of Fux, a favorite of 
Maria Theresa, procured for him the post 
of master-general of the ordnance, and, in 
1757, that of general field-marshal. In 
this capacity, he commanded the Austrian 
army during the seven years' war. He 
advanced to Kolin against the king of 
Prussia, who was at that time besieeing 
Prague (q. v.), and gave him battle, June 

18. 1757, compelling the king to raise the 
siege, and evacuate Bohemia. Although 
he conducted with the greatest prudence 
and precaution, he was defeated at Leu- 
then, Torgau, and several other places. 
Except the battle of Kolin, his most 
memorable achievement was the surprise 
at Hochkirchen, on the niffht of October 

14. 1758. Here he would nave destroyed 
the whole Prussian army, had not the 
prince of Duriach come up too late with 
his column. At Torgau, Nov. 3, 1760, 
the victory, which seemed to be within his 
grasp, was snatched from him in conse- 
quence of his wounds and the resolution 
of Ziethen. He compelled the Prussian 
general Fink to surrender, with 11,000 
men, Nov. 21, 1759. Daun's plan of de- 
lay, and of venturing on decisive steps 
rarely, and only on great occasions, has 
been unjusdy censured. He could not bet- 
ter resist a general like Frederic the Great, 
who was not accountable to a superior, 
and who, surrounded by enemies whom 
he could oppose successfully only by a 
rapid succession of victories over the sepa- 
rate armies, was obliged to adopt the boldest 
expedients. Frederic himself knew what 
a dangerous antagonist he had in Daun. 
Daun is more open to the charge of not 
having sufficiently followed up his advan- 
tages. Many improvements in the Aus- 
trian infantry are ascribed to him. 

Dauphin ; the title of the eldest son of 
the king of France. In 1349, Humbert 
II, dauphin of Viennois, being childless, 
transferred his estate, called the Dmxphxnyy 
to Philip of Valois, on condition that the 
eldest son of the king of France should, 
in future, be styled the dauphin^ and gov- 
ern this teiritoiy. The dauphin, however, 
retains only the title, the estates having 
been united with the crown lands. On 
the death of the dauphin, his eldest son 
inherits this title ; if he has no son, his 
eldest brother succeeds him. If the king 
has no son, then the title o^ dauphin is not 
bestowed on any one, as was the case in 
the reign of Louis XVIII ; for it is never 
bestowed upon the next prince of the 



bk>od, and presumptive heir, even if he 
is the king's brother. The wife of the 
dauphin is called daujfivmtSM Utavpkmt), 
The editions of the classics which were 
made for the use of the dauphin are 
entitled m iimm de^j^nnL 

DAt7PHiEfT ; one of the principal prov- 
inces of France befbre the revolution, was 
divided into Upper and Lower Dauphin^. 
It forms, at present, the departments of 
the Dr6me, the High Alps and the Isere. 
Grenoble was the capital (See Dauphin^ 
and DqHtrtment,) 

DAVEifANT, sir William, an English 
poet of the 17th century, was the son dT 
an innkeeper at Oxford, where he was 
bom, in 1005. After some previous edu- 
cation at a gnimmar school, he became a 
student at Lincoln college ; but he soon 
lefl the university, and obtained the office 
of page to the duchess of Richmond, fiom 
whose household he removed into that of 
GreviDe, lord Brooke, a nobleman emi- 
nent for his literary attainmentSw He was 
employed in preparing several masques 
for the entertainment of the court ; and, 
on the death of Ben Jonson, in 1637, he 
succeeded to the vacant laurel. On hos- 
tilities iMpeaking oat between Charles I 
and the parliament, Davenant displayed 
his attachment to the royal cause. Being 
suspected of a conspiracy against the au- 
thority of the parliament, in 1641, he was 
arrested, but, making his escape, went to 
France. Thence he returned, with mili- 
tary stores sent by the queen, and was 
made lieutenant-general of ordnance, un- 
der the duke of Newcastle— a post for 
which he does not appear to have been 

Suahfied by any previous service. At 
le siege of Gloucester, in 1643, he was 
knighted by the king ; and, on tlie subse- 
quent dechne of the royal cause, he again 
retired to France, where he became a Ro- 
man Catholic In 1646, he was sent to 
Eneland on a mission from the queen ; 
and, on his return to Paris, he began the 
composition of his principal work, a 
heroic poem, entitled Gondibeft. An at- 
tempt which he aflerwards made to lead 
a French colony to Virgiiua, had nearly 

Gved fiital to him. The ship, in which he 
[ sailed from Normandy, was captured 
by a cruiser in the service of the English 
parliament, and caiiied into the Isle of 
Wight, where Davenant was imprisoned 
in Cowes castle. In this foriom captivity, 
from which he had but little hope of 
escapinff alive, he composed the 3d book 
of Gondibert In October, 1650, he was 
removed to London for trial before the 
high commisBiGn court Uis life is said 



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DAVENANT— DAVID. 



to have been preseired by the interposi- 
tion of Milton. There is a correspoudinff 
tradition, that Davenant repaid the good 
offices of Milton, by protecting the repub- 
lican poet after the restoration. After two 
years' imprisonment, sir William was set 
at liberty, when, witli the connivance of 
those in power, he set on ftx>t, in the 
metropolis, a species of dramatic enter- 
tainments. On the return of Charles II 
to England, the stage was reestablished 
with renewed splendor, and Davenant be- 
came patentee of a theatre in Lincoln's- 
Inn-Fields. He continued to employ his 
pen and his talents as a tlieatrical writer 
and manager till his death, which took 
place April 17, 1668. Gondibert, the 
principal production of this writer, was 
never finished. It contains some truly 
poetical passages, but is, upon tlie whole, 
possessed of too little interest to require 
any paiticular notice. • 

David, king of Israel, the youngest son 
of Jesse, an inhabitant of ^thlehem, of 
the tribe of Judah, distinguished himself 
by his prudence, courage and exploits, 
particularly bv his combat with Goliath, 
the gigantic Philistine ; so that Samuel, the 
high priest, anointed and consecrated him 
as king, during the li fe of SauL At home, 
he tended his father's flocks, and was 
instructed in the knowledge of that period, 
and in music. Saul, who regarded him as 
his enemy, persecuted hina ;. and thus arose 
a civil war, which continued till the death 
of SauL David then ascended the throne of 
Judah, but the remaining tribes had chosen 
Saul's son Ishboshetli ror their king, after 
whose death David came into possession 
of the whole kingdom, which he governed 
from 1055 till 1015 years B. C. His first 
expedition was against the Jebusites, who 
dwelt in the centre of Palestine. He con- 
quered the citadel Zion, and made Jerusa- 
lem his residence, and the citadel the 
abode of the Most High. He then re- 
duced the Philistines, Amalekites, Edom- 
ites, Moabites, Ammonites, and especially 
the Syrians. His kingdom now extended 
f]X)m the Euphrates to the Mediterranean, 
and from Phoenicia to the Arabian gulf, 
and contained more than 5,000,000 inhab- 
itants. He promoted navigation and com- 
merce, and endeavored to refine his people 
by the cultivation of the arts, especially 
that of architecture. He built at Jerusa- 
lem a palace for himself, and made the 
worship of God more splendid, by the 
appointment of sacred poets and singers. 
The magnificent temple which he had 
projected was completed by his son and 
successor. He hinoaelf carried lyric po- 



etry to the highest perfection, which it had 
ever reached smone the Israelites, by his 
Psalms, (q. v.) He also improved the 
mihtaiy, judicial and financial systems. 
The ardor of his temperament led him, 
however, to the commission of several 
cruelties, for which his repentance was not 
able to atone; and jealousy among his 
sons by different mothers, at lencth gave 
rise to rebellion in his own family. His 
son Absalom sought to dethrone him, and 
made war upon him with tliis design, but 
unsuccessfully. He left the flourishing 
kingdom of Israel to his son Solomon. 
The crimes of David the Scriptures do not 
extenuate, but they represent him as hav- 
ing endeavored to atone for them by nv 
pentance. His advice to his son, on his 
death-bed, seems to leave a dark stain 
upon his memory, tliough commentators 
have endeavored to put a favorable con- 
struction upon it. 

David, Jacques Louis, the founder and 
greatest painter of the modem French 
school, which he brought back to the 
study of nature. David was bom at Paris 
in 1750, and went, in 1774, to Rome, 
where he devoted himself particularly to 
historical painting. His talents for this 
species of painting soon displayed them- 
selves. He visited Rome a second time 
in 1784, and finished his masteroiece, 
the Oath of the Horatii, which Louis 
XVI had commissioned him to design 
fix>m a scene in the Horaces of CoraeilTe. 
Connoisseurs declared that this piece was 
unequalled, and breathed the spirit of 
a Raphael. In the same year, he painted 
his Belisarius; in 1787, the Death of Soc- 
rates; and, in 1788, Paris and Helen. 
His Imputation was now veiy great in 
Paris; and, having begun to be distin- 
guished as a portrait painter also, he 
might have enioyed a tranquil and bril- 
liant career, if he had not taken an active 
part in the revolution. Seized with an 
ardent zeal for liberty, he finished, in 
1789, a large painting, representing Brutus 
condemning his sons to death. He also 
furnished Uie designs of the numerous 
monuments and repubPican festivals of 
that time. In 1792, he was chosen an 
elector in Paris ; afterwards a deputy in 
the national convention ; and, during the 
reign of terror, he was one of tlie most 
zealous Jacobins, and wholly devoted to 
Robesfuerre. He proposed to erect a 
colossal monument of the nation, on the 
Pont-Neuf^ from the materials of the 
king's statue. At the trial of Louis XVI, 
he voted for his death. In January, 1794, 
he presided in the convention. After tlie 



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DAVBD^DAVIE. 



131 



ftfl of Robespierre, he ivas in ^reat 
danger, and his reputation as a painter 
alone preserved him fix)m the guillotine. 
Among the scenes of the revolution which 
David strove to immortalize by his pencil, 
are the murders of Marat and Lepelletier, 
and particularly the oath in the tennis- 
court, and the entrance of Louis into tlie 
national assembly, February 4, whidi, 
in 1790, he presented to the legislative 
assembly. In 1799, he executed the Rape 
of the Sijbine Women (the masterpiece 
of his genius), from the exliibition of 
which he received, as it is said, 100,000 
fiancs. In 1804, the emperor appointed 
him his first painter, and directed him to 
execute four pieces, among which the Coro- 
nation of Napoleon was particularly dis- 
tinguished. Among his finest works of 
this period were many representations of 
the emperor; particularly that in which 
the first consul was represented on horse- 
back, on mount Bemtird, pointing out to 
his troops the path to glory. This piece 
is now in Beriin. In 1814, David painted 
Leonidas, his last paintingin Pans. When 
Napoleon returned fiiom Elba, he appoint- 
ed David a commander of the legion of 
honor. After die second restoration of 
Louis XVIII, he was included in the 
decree which banished all regicides fiiom 
France. He then established himself at 
Brussels ; and, upon the new organization 
of the institute, he was excluded fix>m 
this body, in April, 1816. In Brussels, he 
painted Cupid leaving the arms of Psy- 
che. The latest of his productions — Ve- 
nus, Cupid and the Graces disarming 
Mars— which he finished at Brussels in 
1S24, was much admired at Paris. David 
died in exile, at Brussels, Dec. 29, 1825. 
The opinions of the merits of this artist 
are various; but the praise of correct 
delineation and happy coloring is univer- 
sally conceded to him. He found, in the 
history of his time, in the commotions of 
which he took an active part, the materi- 
als of his representations. The engraver 
Moreau has immortalized the best of his 
works, by his excellent engravings. The 
most celebrated of his paintings, as the 
Oath of tlie Homtii and the Rape of the 
Sabine Women, have been purchased by 
the French government, and placed in 
the gallery of the Luxembourg. 

Davidson, Lucretia Maria, a remark- 
able instance of eariy genius, was bom at 
Plattsburg, on lake Champlain, Sept. 27, 
1808. When she was only 4 years old, a 
number of her litUe books were found 
filled with rude drawings, and accompa- 
nied by a number of verses in explanation 



of them, written in the characters of the 
printed alphabet As her parents were in 
straitened circumstances, she was, fix)m an 
early age, much employed in domestic 
services; but every moment of leisure 
was devoted to reading. A tender heart, 
a warm sensibility, an ardent and vivid 
imagination, an eager denre for knowl- 
edge, characterize her eariier effusions; 
the later are marked with the melancholy 
traces of a wasting firame, and a dejected 

Spirit feeling the fatal approaches of 
eath. We know of no instance of so 
earlv, so ardent, and so fatal a pursuit of 
intellectual advancement, except in the 
cases of Chatterton and Kirke Wliite. 
In October, 1824, a gentieman, who was 
informed of her ardent desire for educa- 
tion, placed her at a female seminary, 
where her incessant application soon de- 
stroyed her constitution, already debilitated 
by previous disease. Her letters at this 
period exhibit, in a striking manner, the 
extremes of despondency and hope. 
Gradually sinking under her malady, she 
died August 27, 1825, before completing 
her 17th year. Her person was singularly 
beautifiil ; her prevailing expression, mel- 
ancholy. Her poetical writings, which 
have been collected, amount to S^8 pieces, 
some written at the age of nine years ; be- 
sides which, she destroved a great number 
of her pieces. (See Amir Juian and other 
Poems, wUh a Biographical SkdcK, New 
Yorit, 1829.) 

Davie, William Richardson, who held 
a high rank among the revolutionary 
worthies of South Carolina, vras bom in 
England, June 20, 1756w He was brought 
to America at the a^ of six years, received 
the rudiments of his education in North 
Carolina, and was graduated at the college 
of Nassau Hall, New Jersey, in the year 
1776. He returned to North Carolina, 
and commenced the study of the law ; but 
he soon yielded to the military spirit 
which was excited by the war of inde- 
pendence. He obtained the command of 
a company attached to count Pulaski's 
legion, quicklv rose in rank, and greatly 
distinguished himself by his zeal, courage 
and tuents as an officer. During the ar- 
duous and sanguinary war in the South, 
he was constantly useful and energetic, 
and a principal favorite of generals Sump- 
ter and Greene. At the end of the revo- 
lutionary struggle, he devoted himself^ 
with signal success, to the profession of 
the law. In 1787, he was chosen, by the 
legislature of South Carolina, to represent 
that state in the convention tiiat met in 
Philadelphia to fimme a federal constitu- 



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DAVlE— DAVOUST. 



uon. SicknesB in his familv required his 
presence at home before the work was 
completed, and, dierefore, his name is not 
in the list of the signers. In the state 
convention in North Carolina, assembled 
to accept or reject the instrument, he was 
the ablest and most ardent of its advocatea 
The establishment of the university of 
North Carolina is ascribed to his enuffht- 
ened zeal for learning: In the year 1799, 
he was elected ^vemor<^that state, and, 
soon after, appomted by president Adams 
envoy to France, along with chief-justice 
Ellsworth and Mr. Murray. On his re- 
turn, he fixed bis residence at Tivoli — a 
beautiful estate on the Catawba river. 
South Carolina. He died at Camden, in 
the year 1820. General Davie possessed 
a commanding figure, a noble, patriotic 
spirit, masculme, ready eloquence, and 
rendered a variety of valuable services to 
his country. 

Da VIES, Samuel, president of Nassau 
hall, was bom in Delaware, Nov. 3, 1724, 
and educated in Pennsylvania for the 
Presbyterian ministiy. He labored for 
some years as a pastor in Virginia, where 
Episcopacy was the religion established 
and supported by law, and the ^act of 
uniformity" was enforced with great rigor. 
The ^act of toleration'^ had been passed 
in England especially for the relief of the 
Protestant dissenters ; but it was disputed 
in Virginia, whether it was intended to 
extend to the colonies. Mr. Davies main- 
tained that it did, in opposition to tlie 
king's attorney-general, Peyton Randolph, 
afterwards the president or the first conti- 
nental congress, and in opposition to the 
general court of the colony. When he 
went to England, to solicit benefactions 
for Nassau hall, he obtained a declara- 
ti(»], under authority, that the provisions 
of the act of toleration did extend to the 
colony of Virginia. Mr. Davies is to be 
regarded as the founder of the first pres- 
bytery in Virginia. In 1759, he was ap- 
S>inted president of Nassau hall, but he 
ed Feb. 4, 1762, in the 36th year of his 
age, after holding the ofSce only 18 months. 
Doctor Green has written an account of 
his life. His 3 volumes of posthumous ser- 
mons have passed throuf^ many editions, 
both in Great Britain and the U. States. 

Davila, Arrigo Caterino, an Italian 
statesman and historian, was bom in 1576. 
He was the son of a Cypriot of distin- 
guished family. His fiither, who fled to 
Venice after the conquest of Cyprus by 
the Turks, in 1571, introduced hun to the 
French court, where he was made page ; 
he afterwards entered the French service, 



in which he highly dsflttngnished himseUI 
At the desire of his father, he returned 
to Italy, in 1599, entered the Venetian 
service, gradually rose to the post of atar- 
emor of^Dalmatia, Friuli, and the isumd 
of Candia, and was esteemed at Venice 
the first man in the republic after the 
doge. While travelling, in 1631, on pub- 
Uc business, he wbs shot by a man from 
whom he demanded carriages to continue 
his journey. He is princiiMdly celebrated 
for his History of the Civil Wars of France, 
fi^m 1559 to 1598 (Sloria ddle Guerrt 
CwiU di IVanda, Venice, 1630). This has 
been translated into several languages, and 
deserves a place near the worics of Guicci- 
ardini and Machiavelli. 

Davis, John ; an English navigator, 
bom at Sandridge, in Devonshire. He 
went to sea when young, and, in 1585, 
was sent vritii two vessels to discover a 
north-west passage. He was unable to 
land on the southerly cape of Greenland, 
on account of the ice, and, steering a 
north-west course, discovered a counti^'^ 
surrounded with green islands, laL 64^ 15^, 
the inhabitants of which informed him 
that there was a great sea to the north and 
west Under lat. 66° 4(y, he reached a 
coast entirely fi«e from ice, tlie most 
southerly point of which he called cope 
^ God's Mercy, Sailing west, he entered 
a strait, from 20 to 30 leagues wide, 
where he expected to find the passage; 
but, the weather being unfavorable, and 
the wind contrary, after six days of unsuc- 
cessful efiTort, he set sail for England. 
The strait has since received and retained 
bis name. Davis made two more voyages 
for the same purpose, Imt was prevented 
by the ice m>m attaining his object, in 
the prosecution of whidi BafSn aftei^ 
wards distinguished himself. In 1605, Da- 
vis was killed by Japanese pirates in the 
Indian seas. 

Davis's Straits ; a narrow sea which 
divides Greenland from New Britain, and 
unites BafiSn's bay with the Atiantic 
ocean ; lat 63^ — 7(r N. In the narrowest 
part, between cape Dyer and the island 
called Ifkite-Back, it is 80 leagues wide. 
(See Dfwis,) 

Davit, in a ship ; a long beam of tim- 
ber, used as a crane, whereby to hoist the 
flukes of the anchor to the top of the bow, 
without injuring the sides of the vessel as 
it ascends — an operation which is called, 
by mariners, /bAu^rt^ anchor, 

DAvousT,LouisNicolas; dukeof Auer- 
m&dt and prince of Eckmiihl, marshal 
and peer or France ; bom in 1770, at An- 
noux, in the former province of Burgundy. 



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DAVOUST— DAVY. 



133 



He was of a noble family, and studied nt 
the same time with Bonaparte, in the 
military school at Brienne. He distin- 
guished himself under Dumouriez, in the 
battles of Jemappe and Ncerwinden. 
When Dumouriez, after tlie battle of 
Neerwinden, treated with Coburg, Da- 
voust conceived the bold desicn of seizing 
tlie former in the midst of his army, and 
nearly succeeded in tlie attempt In June, 
1793,' he was made general; but the de- 
cree, which removed the ex-nobles from 
the service, deprived him of his command. 
The 9th Thermidor restored liim to the 
army. He was present at the siege of 
Luxembourg, and afterwards on the 
Rhine, under Pichegru. He was taken 
prisoner in Manheim, but was soon ex- 
changed, and distinguished himself hi 
1797, at the passage of the Rliine, by his 
prudence and courage. In the Italian 
campaigns, under Bonaparte, be became 
zealously attached to that general. He 
accompanied him to EgjT)t, where he dis- 
tinguished himself by his intrepidity. It 
was he who, after the battle of Aboukir, 
attacked and conquered the village. He 
embarked for France from Alexandria, 
with Desaix, after the convention of El- 
Arish. They were captured by an Eng- 
lish frigate, near the iliercs. Bonaparte 
afterwardd gave him the chief coimnand 
of the cavalry in the army of Italy. After 
the l)attle of Marengo, he was made chief 
of the grenadiers of the consular guard, 
which, from this battle, was called the 
gramie columns. When Napoleon ascend- 
ed the throne (1804)^ he created Davoust 
marshal of the empire, grand cross of the 
legion of honor, and colonel-general of 
the imperial fuard of grenadiers. In the 
campaign of 1805, he showed himself 
worthy of his appointment, paiticularly at 
the battle of Austerlitz, where he com- 
manded tlie right wing of the army. In 
1806, he marched at the head of liis corps 
into Saxony, and, at Auerst&dt, where he 
commanded the right wing, contributed 
so much to the success of the day, by his 
skilftil manoBuvpea, tliat Napoleon created 
hun duke of Aueret&dt After the peace 
of Tilsit, he was made commander-in- 
chief of the army of the Rhine. In the 
war of 1809 against Austria, his marches 
through the Upper Palatinate, and tlie en- 
gagement at Katisbon, were hazardous 
enterprises. He had an important share 
in the victory at Eckmuhl. In the battle 
of Aspem, only one of his four divisions 
■was engaged, die greatest part of which, 
with its general, St. Hilaire, perished on 
the left bank of die Danube. In the batde 

VOL. IT. 12 



of Wa^ram, Davoust commanded the 
right wmg, to the manoeuvres of which 
the retreat of die Austrians was mainly 
owing. After the peace. Napoleon cre- 
ated him prince of Eckmuhl, and, in 
1811, appointed him governor-general of 
the Hanseadc departments. In Russia 
(1812), his division was defeated on the 
retreat from Moscow. In 1813, he com- 
manded 50,000 men, French and Danes, 
in Mecklenbure ; but was soon besieged 
in Hamburg, which sufiered, at diat time, 
veiy severely. Davoust was in a cridcal 
situadon, and could support his army only 
at die expense of the cidzens. He lost, 
during the siege, as many as 11,000 men. 
In 1814, he pubUshed, at Paris, a defence 
of himself irom the cliarge of cruelty 
towards Hamburg. On die refum of Na- 
poleon to Paris, in March, 1815, he was 
made minister of war. When the allies 
advanced to Paris, after the batde of Wa- 
terloo, Davoust, as cx>mmander-in-chief, 
concluded a military convendon with 
Bliicher and Wellington, in compliance 
with which he led the French army be- 
yond the Loire. He submitted to Louis 
aVIII, exhortuig the army to follow his 
example, and, in obedience to an onler of 
die king, surrendered the command to 
marshal Macdonald. For this service, 
he was afterwards employed by die court 
Davoust died June 1, 18^. Firmness of 
character, personal bravery, and a military 
ri^or often approaching to cruelty, were 
his characteristics. Davoust left two 
daughtei^ and a son of 30 years of age, 
who inherited the rank of a peer. 

Davt, sir Humphrey, barL, one of th« 
n^ost disdnguished cliemists of the age, 
was bom at Penzance (Cornwall), Dec. 
17, 1779. After having received the rudi- 
ments of a classical educadon, he was 
placed with a surgeon and ajiothecary, 
who pronounced him an ^ idle and incor- 
rigible boy." He had, however, already 
disdnguished himself at school, and a 
taste ior chemistry, which he displayed in 
some experiments on the air contahied in 
sea-weed, attracted the attendon of Mr. 
Gilbert (now president of the royal soci- 
ety), and doctor Beddoes. The latter 
who had just establislied a pneuinatical in- 
sdtution at Bristol, oftered him the place of 
assistant in his laboratory. Here Davy dis- 
covered the respiraliifity and exhilanidns 
eftect of the nitrous oxide. He published 
the results of his experiments, under the 
dtle of Chemical and Philosophical Re- 
searches, &c. (London, 1800). This work 
immediately obtained him the place of 
professor of chemistry in the royal insdtu 



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DAVY— DAY, 



tioD, at the age of 22. In 1803^ lie was 
choeen a tnember of the ro^al society, 
liis lectures at the royal uistitutioii were 
attended by crowded and brilliant audi- 
cDcefl, attracted by the novelty and variety 
of his eicperiments, tlie eloquence of his 
manner, and the clearness of his exposi- 
tion. His discoveries with the galvanic 
battery, his decomposition of die earths 
and aikalies, and ascertaining their metallic 
bases, his deraonsti-ation of the simple na- 
ture of the oxymuriatic acid (to which 
he gave the name of chlorine), &c., obtain- 
ed him an extensive reputation ; and, in 
1810, he received the prize of the French 
institute. In 1814, he was elected a cor- 
responding member of that body. Hav- 
ing been elected professor of chemistry to 
the board of agriculture, he delivered lec- 
tures on agricultural chemistry during 10 
successive years, and, in 1813, published 
his valuable Elements of AgricuUural 
Chemistry. His next discovery was of no 
less importance to humanity than his for- 
mer researches had been valuable to sci- 
ence. The numerous accidents arising 
from fire-damp in mines led him to enter 
upon a series of experiments on tlie nature 
of tlie explosive gas, the result of which 
was the invention of his safety-lamp. 
(See Damps,) In 1818 and 1819, he visit- 
ed Ital}', and made some unsuccessful 
attempts to unrol the Herculanean man- 
uscripts. In 1820, ho succeeded sir J. 
Banks as president of the royal society. 
In 1824, he visited Norway for the pur- 
pose of making some scientific investi- 
gations. On tliis voyage, he proved the 
efficacy of his plan for preserving the 
copper of ships, by covering it in part with 
a certain quantity of iron. At the same 
time, tlie trigonometrical measurements of 
Denmark and Hanover were connected, 
under his direction, by chronometrical ob- 
servations, with the measurements in 
England. This distinguished philosopher 
died May 29, 1829, at Geneva, whither he 
had gone for the benefit of his health. Be- 
sides the works already mentioned, the most 
important are Electro-Chemical Research- 
es ; Elements of Chemical Philosophy (vol. 
1, 1802) ; Bakerian Lectures (1807—1811) ; 
Researches on the Oxj'muriatic Acid 
(1810); On the Fire-Damp (I8I6). He 
also contributed some valuable papers to 
the Philosophical Transactions, and the 
journals of Nicholson and Tilloch. 

Day, properly speaking, is the time of a 
revolution orthe earth round its axis (si- 
dereal day, see Sidereal Time\ or the time 
between two pessagea of the centre of the 
sun through the same meridian (solar day, 



see Solar JSmey—B. time a little dififering 
firom the one first mentioned. In common 
parlance, day is opposed to nighty and sig- 
nifies the time between sunrise and sun- 
set, or the time during which the sun 
remains above the horizon. This is caUed 
the natural dav. Thus we have three dif- 
ferent days — ^tne natural, the astronomical 
(reckoned fix>m one culmination to anoth- 
er, or from one noon to another), and the 
civil day (which is reckoned from mid- 
night to midnight). The 24 houn of the 
astronomical day are numbered in succes- 
sion fix>m 1 to iiy whilst the civil day, in 
most countries, is divided into two por- 
tions, of 12 hours each.* The first hour, 
therefore, after midnight, which is one 
o'clock A. M. of the civil day, makes the 
13th hour of the astropomlcal day, and 
the fir^ hour of the astronomical day is 
one o'clock, P. M. of the civil day. The 
abbreviations P. M. and A. M. hhe first 
signifying post meruMem, Latin ror ctfUr^ 
noon ; the latter, ante meridiem,forenoon) are 
requisite, in consequence of our division 
of the day into two periods of 12 hours 
each. In tills respec^ the mode of num- 
bering the hours from 1 to 24 consecutive- 
ly has an advantage. If we take a day ac- 
cording to the first definition given of it, its 
length, of course, is the same tiiroughout 
the year. According to the second igni- 
tion, however, the day, in consequence of 
the difSsrent rapidity of the earth in its 
orbit, is difi[erent at dififerent times, and tliis 
difiference is uniform throughout the earth ; 
but the time of the natural day is dififerent 
at die different points of the earth, accord- 
ing to their distance fix)m the equator. The 
daily apparent revolution of the sun takes 
place in circles parallel to the equator. 
If the equator and ecliptic coincided, tlie 
circle bounding light and darkness would 
alwa3^s divide, not merely the equator, but 
all its parallels, into two eoual parts, and 
the days and nights would be equal in all 
the parallels through the year ; but at the 
pole^ there would be no night Owing to 
the inclination of the earth's axis to tiie 
plane of its orbit (the ecliptic), the parallel 
of latitude in which the sun appears to 
move is continually changing; and, there- 
fore, the equator alone (teing a great cir- 
cle) always remains bisected by the circle 

* In Italy, Ihe latter division is called the 
French mode^hecause the French introdaced it 
into that country during the wars of the revolu- 
tion ; but the people in we south of Italy still ad- 
here to the old division of the day into 24 hours, 
beginning always at sunset ; so that one o'clock is 
one hour after sunset, or, as the bells are tolled at 
sunset, to summon the people to prayer, one hour 
after Ave Maria, (q. v.) 



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DAY— DEACON. 



135 



dividing light from darkoesB ; so that the 
days and nights here are always equal; 
white the parallels of latitude, not being 
great circles, are not equally divided by 
me circle separating light from dark- 
nessy except at the time of the equinox, 
when the sun is moving in the equa- 
tor; and, of course, at this time only are 
the days and nights equal in those par- 
allels. As you approach tlie poles, the 
inequality between the days and nights 
becomes continually greater, till, at the 
poles themselves, a (ky of six months 
alternates with a night of equal duration. 
The most distant parallel circles which 
the sun describes north and south from 
the equator are, as is well known, only 
23^^ from it. The distance between the 
polar circles and the poles is tlie same. 
Therefore, as a Tittle reflection will show, 
when the sun is in one of the tropics, all 
the polar circle in tlie same hemisphere 
will be within the illuminated region (be- 
cause it will be witliin 90° of the sun) 
during the whole of a diurnal revolution, 
while the other polar circle will be in 
the region of darkness. These circles, 
therefore, have one day of 24 hours, and 
one ni^t of the same length, in each 
year. From the polar ciicles to the poles, 
the time of the longest day increases fast, 
and, in the same measure, the length of 
the longest niglit. ■Notwithstanding the 
inequality of the periods of light and 
darkneffi in the different parts of tlie earth, 
each portion of the earth's surface has the 
sun above its horizon, every year, precisely 
ax months, and below it the same length 
of time. (For information on the common 
way of computing time, see Solar Time ; 
see also Sidereal Time) * 

Day, Thomas, an ingenious writer, of a 
benevolent, independent, but eccentric 
spirit, was bom at London, in 1748. His 
father, who was a collector of the cus- 
toms, died whilst he was an infant, leav- 
ing him a considerable fortune. He was 
educated at the charter-house and at Ox- 
ford. In 1765, he was called to the bar. 
With a view to. study mankind, he resid- 
ed in various parts of the continent, and, 
having been disappointed in an eany af- 
fection, took under his protection two 
^ndling girls, with a view of educating 
them on a principle of his own, in order 
to make one of them his wife. His plan, 
which was kindred in spirit to some of 
the reveries of Rousseau, utterly failed, al- 
though both of the females turned out de- 
serving women. He gave them small 
portions, and eligibly united them to re- 
spectiJble tFodesmen. In 1778, he mar- 



ried miss Esther Milnes, a lady of a hip^hly 
cultivated understanding. His principles 
led him to renounce most of tne indul- 
gences of a man of fortune, that he might 
bestow his superfluities upon those who 
wanted necessaries ; and he also express- 
ed a great contempt for forms and artifi- 
cial restraint of all kinds. He wrote sev- 
eral pieces, in prose and verse, on the 
struggle with America, also other political 
pami)hlets of temporary interest, but final- 
ly dedicated himself to tlie composition of 
books for youth, of which the well-known 
work entitled Sandford and Merton is an 
able specimen, although it [mrtakes too 
much of the tiieorctical spirit of Rousseau 
for general application. Mr. Day at length 
became a victim to his enthusiastic benev- 
olence, beins killed by a fall from a young 
horse, wliicn he would not allow to be 
trained in the usual manner. Sept 28, 
X789. 

Days of Grace are days allowed for 
tlie payment of a promissory note or bill 
of exchange after it becomes due. The 
time varies in different countries. (See 
BUI of Elxchange.) 

Deacon (diaconus^ from the Greek Bia- 
Ko»9i) ; a pei«on who belongs to the infe- 
rior order of ministers in the Christian 
church. Seven were first instituted by 
the apostles (jids^ chap, vi), which num- 
ber was retained a long time in several 
churches. Their duty waa to serve in the 
agapa (q. v.), to distribute the bread and 
wine to the communicants, and to dis- 
pense alms. The office of the deacons, 
at first, merely concerned things temporal. 
Soon after the apostohc age, or perhaps 
sooner, the deacons were admitted to as- 
sist in the inferior parts of the church 
service.-*I>eac(m, in the Roman Catholic 
church, is an inferior ecclesiastic, the sec- 
ond of the sacred orders. He serves at 
the altar, in the celebration of the holy 
mysteries. He is also allowed to baptize 
and to preaoh vrith the permission of the 
bishop. . Formerly, deacons were allowed 
to many, hut this was prohibited to them 
very early ; and at present the pope dis- 
penses with this prohibition only for very 
important reasons. In such cases, they 
re-enter the condition of laymen. There 
are 18 cardimdrdtaeons^ so called, in Itome, 
who have the charge of the temporal in- 
terests and the revenues of the church. 
A person, to be consecrated deacon, must 
be 23 years old. — ^Iii the English church, 
deacons are also ecclesiastics, who can 
perform all the offices of a priest, except 
the consecration of the elements of the 
Lord's supper, and tiie pronouncing of ab* 



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136 



DEACON— DEAD SEA. 



solution. In this church, also, no person 
can be ordained deacon before he is 23 
years old, except by dispensation from the 
archbishop of Canterbury. — The office of 
deacons, ui Presbyterian and Independ- 
ent churches, is to distribute the bread 
and wine to communicants. In the latter, 
they are elected by the members of the 
church. In Scotland, this name is given 
to overseers of the poor and masters of in- 
corporated companies. In German Prot- 
estant churches, the assistant ministers are 
generally called deacojis. If there are two 
assistant ministers, the first of tliem is 
called archikfKon, 

Deaconess. This name was given to 
women, in the early church, wbo conse- 
crated themselves to the service of the 
church, and rendered those offices to fe- 
males which could not be decently per- 
fonned by men. They also had tlie care 
of the poor, the sick, &c. 

Dead-Ete, or Dead Man's Ete ; a sort 
of round, flattish, wooden block, encircled 
with a rope, or with an iron band, and 
pierced whh three holes through the flat 
part, in order to receive a rope called the 
tamard, wjiich, corresponding with three 
holes in another deaa-eye, creates a pur- 
chase, employed for various uses, but 
chiefly to extend the shix)uds and stays, 
otherwise called the standing rigging. 

Dead Reckoning ; the judgment or es- 
timation which is made of the place 
where a ship is situated, without any ob- 
servation of the heavenly bqdies. It is 
obtained by keeping an account of tlie 
distance which the ship has run by the 
log, and of her course steered by the com- 
pass, and by rectifying these data by the 
usual allowances for drift, lee-way, &c., 
according to the ship's known trim. This 
reckoning is, however, always to be cor- 
rected as oflen as any good observation 
of the sun can be obtained. 

Dead Ropes are tlioee which do not 
run in any block. 

Dead Sea, or Asphaltites, i. e. the 
lake of Bitumen ; anciently called, also, the 
sea of Sodom, Salt sea, and lake Sirbon, 
and now, by the Arabs, Bahheret-LiU, i. e. 
tlie sea of Lai', a lake in Palestine, about 
60 or 70 miles long from N. to S., and 10 
or 15 wide ; according to Mariti, 180 miles 
in circuit ; but its dimensions are stated 
with considerable diversity. It is border- 
ed on the E. by lofty hills, having rugged 
and frightful precipices ; on the N. by the 
plain of Jencho, through which it re- 
ceives the river Jordan. Other streams 
flow into it ; but it has no visible outlet. 
Copious evaporation, caused by the sub- 



terraneous heat, supplies the place of one. 
The water is clear and limpid, unconv- 
monly salt, and even bitter, and of greater 
speciSc gravity than any other hitherto 
discovered. The proportion of the weight 
of the salts held in solution to tlie whole 
weight of the water varies, according to 
different experiments bv chemical aimlj^> 
sis, &om 25 to neajly 50 per cent, llus 
very great portion of saline matter 
explains the difficulty of diving in this 
lake, and the sluggish motion of the 
waves, comparatively undisturbed by the 
wind. From the depths of the lake rises 
asphaltum or mineral pitch, or, as the 
Germans call it, JewpUch, which is melt- 
ed by the heat of the bottom of the lake, 
and again condensed by the water, and 
of which Seetz^n tells us that there are 
pieces large enough for camel loads. Ac- 
cording to the same traveller, it is porous, 
and is thrown out only in stormy weather. 
There is also another kind of pitch, dug 
on the shore, where it is found mixed 
with small pieces of salt, pebbles and 
earth. It is used, puri£ed» for the anti- 
dote called theriaca. The whole northern 
shore of the lake appears to be covered 
with this substance, called anotanon, As- 
phaltum is used for theriaca, for embalm- 
mg, calking, sculpture, and the coloring 
of wool and therefore is an important ar- 
ticle of^ commerce. The limestone im- 
pregnated with bitumen, and in which the 
inflammable substance is so concealed, 
that it can be brought out only by rubbing, 
can be heated so as to glow like a coal 
without being consumed, and has been 
used for amulets since ancient times* A 
gi-eat part of those found in the catacombs 
at Sakkarah are made of this substance ; 
and large quantities of rosaries are yearly 
prepared from it in Jerusalem. Accord- 
mg to the Scriptures, the beautiful valley 
of Siddim, with Sodom, Gomorrah, and 
otlier places, were buried here by a vol- 
canic eruption. The immediate vicinity 
is destitute of vegetation, dull, cheerless, 
and inanimate ; hence, pi-obably, its name 
of Dead secu Among the absurd fables 
formerly circulated respecting this sea, it 
was affirmed, that the pestiferous vapors 
hovering over it were fatal to birds at- 
temptmff to fiy across. But this is con- 
tradicted by various recent travellers. 
Clarke says, " the lake swarms with 
fishes, shells abound on its shores, and 
its exhalations are most insalubrious." 
Madden, however, who visited it in 1827, 
says, "the waters appeared to him to 
contain no fish." He also says, ** the sa- 
line matter in the lake is 19.& per ceat" 



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DEAF AND DUMB— DEATH. 



137 



DcAT AND DuBTB. (See Dumb.) 
Deal. (See Pine,) 

Dean ; a corruption from deccmua^ Latin, 
fit>in decejn^ ten, because a deeanus com- 
manded ten men, as the cerUurio did a 
hundred. This word, however, has ac- 
quired a much more extended meaning. 
Dean is, in England, a dignitary in most 
cathedral and collegiate cnurches, being 
usually the president of the chapter. He 
is called so because supposed to preside 
over ten canons or prebendaries at least 
Dean is also a title given in England to 
several heads of peculiar churches or 
chapters, as, the dean of the king's chapel. 
Deans of colleges are, in English univer- 
sities, officers appointed to superintend 
the behavior of tne members, and to en- 
force discipline^ — Rural deansy or urban 
dumSy were, in the early ages of the 
church, ecclesiastics who presided over ten 
churches or parishes, either in the coun- 
try or city within wliich they exercised 
jurisdiction. — The French corruption of 
deeanus is drnfen^ and has no ecclesiastical 
meaning. Dwfcn d'dge is the eldest of a 
society. In the chamber of deputies, 
the d(»fen d^dee presides until the cham- 
ber is regulany organized. In the acade- 
my of sciences, there are doyens in the 
different divisions. — In Germany, the head 
of each of the faculties of law, theology, 
medicine and philosophy, in the univer- 
aties, is called deeanus, and is changed, 
like the rector of the university, annually. 
Death, in common language, is oppos- 
ed to Mfe^ and considered as me cessation 
of it. It is only, however, the organic Ufe 
of the individual which becomes extinct ; 
for nather the mind nor the matter which 
constituted that individual can perish. 
That view of nature which considers the 
whole as pervaded throughout by the 
breath of hfe, admits only of changes 
from one mode of existence to another. 
This change, which is called death, does 
not take place so quickly as is generally 
believed. It is usually preceded and 
caused by disease or thq natural decay of 
old age. The state called death takes 
place suddenly only when the heart or the 
braia is injured in certain parta Prob- 
ably the brain and the heart are the parts 
from which, properiy speaking, death pro- 
ceeds ; but, as the cessation of their func- 
tions 18 not so obvious as the cessation of 
the breath, which depends on them, the 
latter event is generally considered as 
indicatiiig the moment when death takes 
place. & the organs of sense and mo- 
tion, the consequences of death first be- 
come apparent; the muscles become 
12* 



stiff; coldness and paleness spread over 
the whole body ; tlie eye loses its bright- 
ness, the flesh its elasticity ; yet it is not 
perfectly safe to conclude, from these cir- 
cumstances, that death has taken place, in 
any given case, because experience shows 
that there may be a state of the body hi 
which all these circumstances may con- 
cur, without the extinction of life. This 
state is called asphyxia, (q. v.) The com- 
mencement of putre&ction, in ordinary 
cases, affords the first certain evidence of 
death. This begins in the bowels and 
genitals, which swell, become soft and 
looBBj and change color; the skin, also, 
begins to change, and becomes red in 
various places ; blisters show themselves ; 
the Mood becomes more fluid, and dis- 
charges itself from the mouth, nose, eyes, 
ears and anus. By degrees, also, the 
other parts are decomposed, and, last of 
all, the teeth and bones. In the begin- 
ning of decomposition, azote and ammo- 
nia are produced: in the progress of it, 
hydrogen, compounded with carbon, sul- 
phur and phosphorus, is the prevailing 
product, which causes an offensi^^ smell, 
and the light which is sometimes ob- 
served about putrefying bodies. At last, 
only carbonic acid gas is produced, and 
the putrefying body llien smells like earth 
newly dug. A fat, greasy earth remains, 
and a slimy, soap-like substance, which 
mixes with the ground, and contributes, 
vrith the preceding decompositions, to the 
fertility of it Even in these remains of 
organized existence, organic life is not 
entirely extinct; and they contribute to 
produce new ve^table and animal struc- 
tures. Putre&ction is much influenced 
by external circumstances, particularly air, 
heat, and vrater. When the body is pro- 
tected from the action of such agents, it 
changes into adqfocire (q. v.) ; but this 
process requires a much longer time than 
common putrefaction. In veiy dry situa- 
tions, the oody is converted into a mum- 
my, in which state bodies are found in the 
arid deserts of Africa, and on the moun- 
tains in Peru. Some vaults are remark- 
able for preserving corpses from putrefac- 
tion. It is well known to eveiy reader, 
that particular substances counteract pu- 
trefaction ; for instance, those used in tan- 
ning, and in embalming munmiies. 

Death, Agony of, is me state which im- 
mediately precedes death, and in which 
life and death are considered as strug- 
gling v^th each other. This state dififers 
according to the cause producing it 
Sometimes it is a complete exhaustion ; 
sometimes a violent struggle, and very ir- 



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138 



DEATH— DEATH, CIVIL. 



regular activitj, which, at last, after a 
short pause, terminates in death. In 
same cases, consciousness is extinguished 
long before death arrives ; in other cases, 
it continues during tlie whole period, and 
terminates only with life. The person in 
this condition has already somewhat the 
appearance of a corpse ; the face is pale 
and sallow, the eyes are sunken, the skin 
of the forehead is tense, the nose pointed 
and white, the ears are relaxed, and the 
temples fallen in ; a clanmiy sweat cov- 
ers the forehead and the extremities, the 
alvine discharges and that of the urine 
take place involuntarily, tlie respiration 
becomes rattling, interrupted, and, at 
length, ceases entirely. At this moment, 
death is considered to take place. This 
state is of veiy different length; some- 
times continuing for minutes only, some- 
times for days. When the patient is in 
this condition, nothing should be attempt- 
ed but to comfort and soothe him by 
prayer, by consoling assurances, by direct- 
ing his attention to his speedy union with 
departed friends, by presenting him the 
crucifix, if he be a Catholic, or allowing 
him to put on the gown of a religious or- 
der, if he thinks it will contribute to his 
salvation; but a dying fellow creature 
Hhould not be disturbed in relation to his 
particular mode of belief, at a moment 
when he has hardly sufficient strength to 
collect all the ideas which have been long 
famihar to him. The writer once saw a 
dyinff Mohammedan (an Albanian) suffer- 
ing from the mistimed zeal of a Greek 
priest, who was near him, holding a cruci- 
fix to his mouth, and conjuring him to 
kiss it The Mohammedan was evidently 
tormented, particularly as he was unaMe 
to resist The writer begged the priest to 
leave him, and then tried to comfort the 
dying roan, by presenting ideas and con- 
ceptions with which he was familiar, and 
a smile from his pale lips showed that the 
words were not entirely in vain. Re- 
markable statements are sometimes made 
by dying persons, in the intervals of the 
final struggle, that they have heard heav- 
enly music, or seen departed friends, and 
can now die auietly. As long tos the dying 
person is able to swallow, wine or other 
cordials may be given from time to time. 
It is a grateful duty to minister to the 
sufferings of those we love ; and, where 
there is no hope, these offices have the ad- 
ditional interest that Haey are the latest^ 
we can pay. We have described how 
the violent struggle oreceding deaih mani- 
fests itself, particulariy on the human 
face, that taUet of all expression. Aiier 



death, however, it not unfrequently hap- 
pens that the countenance regains its most 
natural expression, and the saying is com- 
mon — " How natural, how like himself!" 
The mind seems for a moment to have 
regained its influence over what it has 
so long informed, and to shed over the 
countenance its most beautiful light, to 
cheer the hearts of the friends who have 
wimessed the distortion of death, and af- 
ford an earnest of its own immortality. 

Death, civil, is the entire loss of civil 
rights. If a i)erHon is civilly dead, his 
marriage is considered dissolved ; he can- 
not inherit nor bequeath; his testament 
is opened, and his property distributed 
among his heirs ; be cannot bear witness, 
&c. If he is required to do certain legal 
acts, he must do them through a guardian. 
Formeriy, when the German empire was 
still in existence, a person put und» the 
ban of the empire {AchiserkUirung) became 
civilly dead, and was declared out of the 
protection of the law (corresponding, in a 
civil point of view, to Catholic excommu- 
nication, in regard to a man^s reUgious 
rights). The ban went so far as to de- 
clare the outlaw vogdfrei (free as a bird), 
which meant that any body might even 
kill him, without notice being taken of it 
by law. But civil death was not received 
into the German law in other respects, and 
therefore, has not existed since the abo- 
lition of the empire. Most countries allow 
a person sentenced to death to make a will, 
except in particular cases, in which confis- 
cation is part of the punishment In France, 
however, the institution of civil death still 
exists {Co(k NapoUtm, a. 22 ; Codt P4rudj 
a. 18), and takes effect in the case of every 
one who is sentenced to death, to tlie ^- 
leys for life (irawmxforcSg), or to deporta- 
tion, even if the person is convicted m 
contumaciam that is, m default of appear- 
ance on a legal summons. In England, a 
Serson outlawed (see (hMawry) on an in- 
ictment fi>r treason or ielonj^, is consid- 
ered'to be civilly dead (cwUtUr mortu)ua\ 
being, in such case, considered to be 
guilty of the offence with which he is 
charged, as much as if a verdict had been 
found against him. Anciently, an out- 
lawed felon was said to have a wolf^ 
head (awut l%qnnum\ and might be knock- 
ed on the h^ by any one that should 
meet him. The outlawry was decreed, 
in case the accused did not appear, on 
being summoned with certain forms, a 
certain number of times, and in difierent 
counties, to appear and answer to the 
indictment ; so that the case is the same 
as the French laws denominate eonhtmaey. 



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In such case^ under an indictment for 
crimes of either of these descriptions, he 
was considered as having renounced all 
laW) and was to be dealt with as in a state 
of nature, when eveiy one who found 
him might slay him. But, in modem 
times, it has been held that no man is 
entitled to kill him wantonly and wilfully, 
but in so doing is guil^ of murder, unless 
it be in endesYonng to apprehend him; 
for any one may arrest him, on a criminal 
prosecution, ** either of his own head," or 
on writ or warrant, in order to bring hun 
to execution. So a peison banished the 
realm or transported for life, as a punish- 
ment for crime, forfeits all his civd rights 
as much as if he were dead. His wife 
may marry again, and his estate will be 
administered upon as if he were deceased. 
A will made by such a person, afler incur- 
ring this civil disability, is void ; and so are 
all acts done by him m the exercise of any 
civil rightd — ^The stamtes of New York 
provide that a convict sentenced to the 
state's prison for Ufe shall be considered 
as thereby becoming civilly dead. AH 
suits to which he is a party will, accord- 
ingly, abate, as in case of his natural 
decease (2 Jokiu. Co. 408), and his wifo 
may marry again, his estate be adminis- 
teied upon, and his heirs will succeed to 
the inhmtance ; and, though he may be 
afterwaids pardoned, this will not defeat 
the proceeoingB which took place during 
his civil disability (4 John$on^a Bepmis^ 
232). The statutes passed in some of the 
United States against conspirators and 
afasantees, at the commencement of the 
revolution, stripped them of all civil rights, 
and provided that their estates should be 
confiscated, or partly confiscated, to tlie 
state, and in part appUed to the support 
of dependent relatives, or assigned to the 
wife as dower. These statutes were of a 
temporary and occasional character, and 
their operation has ceased with the occa- 
sion which gave rise to them. 

Death, in mythology. The representa- 
tion of death, among nations in tneir ear- 
lier stages, depends upon the ideas which 
they form of the state of man after this 
life, and of the disposition of their gods 
towards mankind. In this respect, the 
smdy of these representations is very in- 
terasdng. Of later ages the same cannot 
be said, because imitations of representa- 
tions previously adopted are very often 
the suqects of the plastic arts in sueh pe- 
riods. However^ these representations do 
not altogether depend on the causes above 
mentioned, as the general disposition of a 
nation (for instance, that of the Greeks, 



who beautified every object) has also a 
great influence upon them ; and it is re- 
markable that the Greeks, whose concep- 
tions of on after-life were so gloomy, rep- 
resented death as a pleasing, gentle being, 
a beautiful youth, whilst the Christians, 
whose religion teaches them to consider 
death as a release fiY>m bondage, a change 
from misery to happiness, give him the 
most frightml, and even disgusting shape. 
One reason of this may be, that the call 
to repentance is a prominent feamre in 
the Christian religion ; and to arm death 
with terrors may have been supposed to 
give weight to the summons. 

The Greeks had many gods of death, 
the KtipK and Oavarvc; the former wero the 
ffoddesses of fiite, Uke the Valkyrise in the 
Northern mythology. Untimely deaths^ 
in particular, were ascribed to them ; the 
latter, aavaroc, represented namral death. 
Accordinff to Homer, Sleep and Death are 
twins, ana Hesiod calls them the mms of 
JVighL They are often portrayed together 
on cameos^ &;c. During the most flour- 
ishing period of the arts. Death was ropro- 
sented on tombs as a firiendly genius, with 
an inverted torch, and hokunf^ a wreath 
in his hand ; or as a sleeping child, winged, 
with an inverted torch resting on his 
wreath. Sleep was represented in the 
same manner, except that the toroh and 
the wreath were omitted. According to 
an idea originating in the East, death in 
the bloom of youtn was attributed to the 
attachment of some particular deity, who 
snatched his favorite to a better wond. It 
was ascribed, for instance, to Jupiter, or to 
his eagle, if the death was occasioned by 
lightning, as in the case of Ganymede ; 
to the n3rmphs, if the individiml was 
drowned, as m the case of Hylas ; to Au- 
rora, if the death happened in the morn- 
ing; to Sefene, if at night (Cephalus and 
Endymion), &c. These replantations 
were more adapted to reheve the minds 
of surviving fiiends, than the pictures of 
horror dmwn by later poets and artists. 
(See the chueical treatises of Lessing, 
S&mmS, Schrifient vol- 10, and Herdei^s 
WiedkMendmTodfdMeL) Euripides, 
in his Alcestis, even mtroduced Death on 
the stage, in a black robe, with a steel 
instrument in his hand, to cut off^ the hair 
of his victims, and thus devote them to the 
infernal gods. The later Roman poets rep» 
resent I^th under more horrible forms, 
gnashing his teeth, and marking his vic- 
tims with bloody nails, a monster over- 
shadowing whole fields of battle. The 
Hebrews, likewise, had a fearful angel of 
death, called Samad^ and prinu of ike 



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vwidy and coinciding with the devil ; but 
he removes with a kiss those who die in 
early youth. Enoch was taken up to 
heaven alive. The disgusting representa- 
tions of Death common among Christians, 
originated in the 14th centuiy ; for the 
representation of Death as a skeleton 
merely covered with skin, on the monu- 
ment at Cumffi, was only an exception to 
the figure conunonly ascribed to him 
among the ancients. In recent times, 
Death has again been represented as a 
beautiful youto — certainly a more Christian 
image tlian the skeleton with tlie sithe. 
The monument made by Canova, which 
George IV erected in honor of die Stuarts, 
in St. Peter's church at Rome, represents 
Death as a beautiful youth. He is some- 
times portrayed under the figure of a 
dying lion. 

Death, Dance of ; an allegorical pic- 
ture, in which are represented the vanous 
fibres and appearances of death m the 
difiTerent relations of life, as a dance 
where Death takes the lead. The idea of 
such a dance appears to be originally Ger- 
man, and to belong to poetry. In later 
times, it was used, also, in England and 
France, by poets and artists. The French 
have such a dance— Xia Danst Macabre — 
derived, it is said, fitim a poet called Mac- 
aber, but little known. A dance of Death 
was painted on the walls of the church- 
yard of the Innocents, at Paris, about the 
middle of the 15th centuiy, which the 
chapter of St Paul's, in London, caused to 
be copied, to adorn the walls of its monas- 
tery. Gabriel Peignot, m the Rechenhes 
9ttr lei Danses des Moris et sur rChigine 
dee Cixrtes ajauer (Dijon and Paris, i»26], 
investigated the origin of the dance of 
Death in France, and thus explained the 
dancing positions of the skeletons ; that, 
according to the relations of old chronicles, 
those who were attacked by the plague 
ran fix>m their houses, making vio^nt 
efibrts to restore their rapidly-declining 
strength by all kinds of morbid move- 
ments. Odiers derive the origin of this rep- 
resentation fipom the masquerade. These 
dances are often found painted on the walls 
of Catholic burial-places. The most re- 
markable dance of Death was painted, in 
£"6800, on the walls of the church^yard, in 
the suburb of St. John, at Basle, which 
was injured, in early times, by being 
washed over, and is now entirely de- 
stroyed. This piece has been ascribed to 
the celebrated Hans Holbein; but it has 
long nnce been proved that it existed 60 
yean before his birth. It was painted at 
Basle, in the year 1431, by an unknown 



artist, in commemoration of the plague, 
which prevailed there at that time; the 
council was t)^en sitting, and several of its 
members were carried off by it It repre- 
sented Death as summoning to the dance 
persons of all ranks, from the pope and 
the emperor down to the beggar, which 
was explained by edifying rhymes. That 
piece contained about 60 figures as large 
as life. Besides being ascribed to Hol- 
bein, as was before stated, it has also been 
ascribed to a painter named Glauber^ but 
without foundation. Holbein perhiqia 
conceived, from this picture, the idea of 
his dance of Death, the original drawings 
of which are in the cabinet of the empress 
of Russia, Catharine II. Some say that 
Holbein himself made the wood-cuts of it. 
The latest engravings of this picture of 
Holbein are in 33 plates, in the (Euvres de 
Jean Holbein, par Chr, de Meckd (1st vol- 
ume, Basil, 1780). Similar representa- 
tions were paintedf, in the 15th centuiy, in 
other cities of Switzerland. (See Miiller's 
Geschichie der Schwevxr — ^Histoiy of Swit- 
zerland — 4 vols.) The dance of Death in 
St. Mary's churcn at Lubeck, was complet- 
ed in 1463. On the walls of the church- 
yard of the Neustidt of Dresden, there is, 
even at the present time, to be seen a 
similar dance of Death. It consists of 27 
hoMo-relievo figures, worked on sand-stone, 
and includes persons of both sexes, and of 
all, ranks. Tne labor of the sculptor has 
more merit than the unpoetical rhymes 
which were afterwards added. (See Fio- 
rillo's Geschichie der zeichnejiden KiinsU in 
Devischland und den Mcdedandeny 4 vol- 
umes.) 

Death, Punishment of. The ques- 
tions most commonly discussed by philos- 
ophers and jurists under tliis head are, 
1. as to the nght of governments to inflict 
the punishment of death ; 2. as to the 
expediency of such punishment; 3. as 
to the crimes to which, if anv, it may be 
most properly confined ana limited; 4, 
as to the manner in which it should be 
inflicted. A few words will be said on 
each of these points. 

1. As to tlie right of inflicting the pun- 
ishment of death. This has been doubted 
by some distinguished persons ; and the 
doubt is often the accompaniment of a 
highly cultivated mind, inclined to the 
indulgence of a romantic sensibility, and 
believing in human perfectibility. The 
right of society to punish offences against 
its safety and good order will scarcely be 
doubted by any considerate peison. In a 
state of nature, individuals have a right to 
guard themselves fi^m injury, and to 



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repel all aggresaioDS by a force or precautkm 
adequate to the object. This results from 
the right of self-preservation. If a peraon 
attempts to take away my life, I have, 
doubtless, a right to protect myself against 
the attempt by all reasonable means. If I 
cannot secure myself but by taking the 
lite of the assailant, I have a right to take 
it. It would otherwise follow, that I 
must submit to a wron^, and lose my 
life, rather than preserve it by the means 
adequate to maintun iL It cannot, then, 
be denied that, in a state of nature, men 
may repel force by force, and may even 
justly take away life, if necessary to pre- 
serve their own. When men enter socie- 
ty, the right to protect themselves from 
injuiy and to redress wrongs is transfer- 
red, generally, from the individuals to the 
community. We say that it is generally 
so, because it must be olivious that, in 
many cases, the natural right of self-de- 
fence must remain. If a robber attacks 
one on the highway, or attempts to mur- 
der him, it is clear that he has a ri^t to 
repel the assault, and to take the life of the 
assailant, if necessary for his safety ; since 
society, in such a case, could not afford 
him any adequate and prompt redress. 
The necessity of instant relief, and of 
instant application of force, justifies the 
act, and is recognised in all civilized com- 
munities. Wben the right of society is 
once admitted to punish for offences, it 
seems difficult to assign any limits to tlie 
exercise of that right, short of what the 
ezigenoies of society require. If a state 
have a right to protect itself and its citizens 
in the enjoyment of its privileges and its 
peace, it must have aright to apply means 
adequate to this object The object of 
human punishments is, or may be, three- 
fold; first, to reform the offender; sec- 
ondly, to deter others from offending; 
and, lasdy, to secure the safety of the com- 
munity, by depriving the offender of the 
power of dcHiig mischiefl The first 
consideration rarely enters into human 
legislation, because of the inadequacy of 
our means to produce great moral results 
by the infliction of punishment. The 
two latter considerations enter largely in- 
to the tbeoiT and practice of legislation. 
Who is to be the judge, in such cases, 
what b the adequate punishment for any 
ofl^nce? Certainly, punishments ought 
not to be inflicted, which are utteriy dis- 
proportionate to the offence, and beyond 
the exigencies of society. No govern- 
ment has a right to punish cruelly and 
wantonly, and firom mere revenge ; but, 
still, the discretion must be vested some- 



where, to say what «ha]l be the degree of 
punishment to be etm^aed to a particular 
offence. That discretion must be, fi'Om 
its nature, jusdy a part of the legislative 
power, and to be exercised according to 
the actual state of society. It may, nay, it 
must be differently exercised in different 
ages, and in different countries ; for the 
same punishment which, in one age or 
country, may be sufficient to suppress an 
offence, or render it comparatively harm- 
less, may, in another age or country, 
wholly feil of the effect if mild punish- 
ments fail of effect, more severe must be 
resorted to, if the offence be of a nature 
which affects society in its vital principles, 
or safety, or interests. The very frequen- 
cy of a crime must often furnish a veiy 
strong ground for severe punishment, not 
only as it furnishes proof tliat the present 
punishment is insufficient to deter men 
from committing it, but from the increas- 
ed necessity of protecting society against 
dangerous crimes. But it is oflen said, 
that life is the gift of God, and dierefore 
it cannot iustly be taken away, either by 
the party himself, or another. If he can- 
not take it away, he cannot confer that 
I)ower on others. But the fallacy of tliis 
aiTument is obvious. Life is no more the 
gift of God than other personal endow- 
ments or rights. A man has, by the gift of 
God, a right to personal lilierty and locomo- 
tion, as well as to life ; to eat and drink 
and breathe at large, as well as to exist ; 
yet no one doubts that, by way of punish- 
ment, he may be confined in a solitary 
cell; that he may be perpetually impris- 
oned or deprived of freie air, or compelled 
to live on bread and water. In short, no 
one doubiB that he may ))e restrained in 
the exercise of any privileges or natural 
rights short of taking his life. Yet the 
reasoning, if worth any thing, extends to 
all these cases in an equal degree. If, by 
his crimes, a man may justly forfeit his 
personal rights, why not his life ? But we 
have seen that it is not true, even in a 
state of nature, that a man's life may not 
be taken away by another, if the necessity 
of the case requires it Wliy, then, may 
not society do the same, if its own safety 
requires it ? Is die safety of one person 
more important tlian the safety of the 
whole community ? Then, again, as to a 
man's inability to confer on others a right 
which he does not liimself possess. Sup- 
]X)6e it is so ; tlie consequence which is 
deduced from this does not, in fact, arise. 
Blackstone, indeed, in his Commentaries 
(4 CommenL 8), seems to deduce the right 
of society to punish ca|Htal offences^ in 



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DEATH, PUNISHMENT OF. 



certain cases (that is, in cases oftiudaprO' 
MbitOj and not mala in m), from the con- 
sent of the offendei^. The marquis Bec- 
caria, on the other hand, denies that any 
such consent can confer the right, and 
therefore objects to its existence. But the 
notion of consent is, in nearly all cases, a 
mere theory, having no foundation in fact 
If a foreigner comes into a country, and 
' commits a crime at his first entrance, it is 
a very forced construction to say that 
he consents to be bound b^ its laws. If a 
pirate commits piracy, it is almost absurd 
to say that he consents to tlie rieht of all 
nations to punish him for it. The true 
and rational sround on which the right 
rests, is not Sie consent of the offender, 
but the right of every society to protect its 
own peace, and interests, and property, 
and institutions, and the utter want of any 
right, in other persons, to disturb, or de- 
stroy, or subtract them. The riffht flows, 
not from consent, but fix>m the legitimate 
institution of societv. If men have a right 
to form a society for mutual benefit and 
security, they have a ri^t to punish other 
persons who would overthrow it There 
are many cases where a state authorizes 
life to be taken away, the lawfulness of 
which is not doubted. No reasonable 
man doubts the right of a nation, in a just 
war, especially of self-defence, to repel 
force by force, and to take away the lives 
of its enemies. And this right is not con- 
fined to repelling present force, but it 
extends to precaimonary measures, which 
are necessary for the ultimate safety of the 
nation. In such a war, a nation may 
justly insist upon the sacrifice of the lives 
of its own citizens, however innocent, for 
the purpose of ensuring its own safety. 
Accordingly, we find that all nations enrol 
militia and employ troops for war, and 
require them to hazard their lives for the 

{)reservation of the state. In these cases, 
ife is fieely sacrificed by the nation ; and 
the laws enacted for such purposes are 
deemed just exercises of power. If so, 
why may not life be taken away by way 
of punishment, if the safety of society 
requires it? If a nation may authorize, 
in war, the destruction of thousands, why 
may it not authorize the destruction of a 
single lif^, if self-preservation require it ? 
The mistake, however, is in supposing that 
Ufe cannot be taken away without the 
consent of the party. If the foregoing 
reasoning is correct, such consent is 
neither supposed nor necessaiy. In truth, 
the supposition of an original compact 
between all the persons who are subiect 
to the regulations of a society, by their 



own free consent, as the necesauy and 
proper basis on which all the rights of 
sucn society depend, is, at best, a gratu- 
itous 6up(X)8ition ; and it sometimes leads 
to very incorrect results. It may be addcd^ 
that the Scriptures most clearly recognize 
and jusdfy the infliction of capital pimish- 
ments in certain casea 

2. As to the expediency of capital pun- 
ishment This opens a wide field for 
discussion. Some able men, who do not 
doubt the right, do still deny the expedi- 
ency of inflicting it It may be admitted, 
that a vrise legislature ought to be slow in 
affixing such a punishment to any but 
very enormous and dangerous crimes. 
The frequency of a crime is not, of itself^ 
a sufficient reason for resorting to such a 
punishment It should be a crime of 
great atrocity and danger to society, and 
which cannot otherwise be effectually 
guarded against In affixing punishments 
to any offence, we should connder what 
are the objects and ends of punishment It 
is clear that capital punishment can have 
no effect to reform the offender himsel£ 
It may have, and ordinarily does have, the 
eflect to deter others from committing a 
like offence ) but, still, human experience 
shows that even tliis punishment, when 
infficted for small ofrences, which are 
easily perpetrated, and to which there is 
great temptation, does not always operate 
as an effectual terror. Men sometimes 
are hardened by the frequent spectacles 
of capital punishmente, and grow indiffer- 
ent to them. Familiarity deprives them 
of their horror. The bloodiest codes are 
not those which have most effectually 
suppressed offences. Besides, public opin- 
ion has great weight ui producing the 
acquittal or condemnation of ofifenders. 
If a punishment be grossly disproportion- 
ate to the offence, if it shock human 
feelings, there arises, insensibly, a sympa- 
thy for the victim, and a desire to screen 
him from punishment; so that, as far as 
certainty of punishment operates to deter 
from crimes, the object of the legislature 
is often thus defeated. It may be added, 
that a reasonable doubt may &iriy be en- 
tertained, whether any society can law- 
fully exercise the power of punishing, be- 
yond what the just exigencies of that so- 
ciety require. On the other hand, a total 
aboution of capital punishments would, in 
some cases at least, expose society to the 
chances of deep and vital injuries. A man 
who has committed murder deliberately, 
has proved himself unfit for society, and 
regardless of all the duties which belong 
to it In his case, the lex tdvonis can 



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btfdly be deemed unjust. The safety 
of societ;^ is most eflfectually guarded by 
cutting him off from the power of doing 
ilirther mischief. If his life be not taken 
aviray, the only other means left are, con- 
finement for life, or transportation and 
exile for Hfe. Neither of these is a perfect 
security against the commission of other 
crimes, and may not always be within the 
power of a nation without great inconve- 
nience and great expense ,to itself. It is 
true that the latter punishments leave open 
the chance of reform to the offender, 
which is, indeed, but too oflen a mere 
delusion ; but, on the other hand, they 
gready diminish tlie influence of another 
salutary principle, the deterring of otliers 
from committing Uke crimes. It seems to 
us, therefore, that it is difficult to maintain 
the proposition that capital punishments 
are, at all times and imder all circum- 
stances, inexpedient It may rather be 
affirmed that, in some cases, they are 
absolutely indisp^isable to the safety and 
good order of society. We should incline 
to say that, as a general rule, every nation, 
in its legislation on this subject, must be 
governed very much by the manners, 
customs, habits of thinking, and state of 
opinion, among the people upon whom it 
is to operate. In a rude and barbarous 
state of society, summary and almost vin- 
dictive punishments seem more necessaiy 
than in a highly polished and civilized 
state of society. 

3l As to the crimes to which capital 
punishments may, most properly, be lim- 
ited. From what has been already said, 
this must depend upon the particular cir- 
cumstances of eveiy age and nation ; and 
much must be left to the exercise of a 
sound discretion on the part of the legisla- 
ture. As a genera] rule, humanity forbids 
such punishments to be applied to any hut 
crimes of very great enormity, and danger 
to individuals or the state. If any crimes 
can be effectually suppressed by moderate 
means, these ought, certainly, to be first 
resorted to. The experience, however, 
of most nations, if we may judge from the 
nature and extent of tiieir criminal legis- 
ktion, seems to disprove the opinion so 
often indulged by philanthropists, that 
moderate punishments are sufficient to 
suppress crimes, and that capital punish- 
ments are rarely necessary. The codes 
of most civilized nations abound with 
capita] punishments. That of Great Brit- 
ain, a nation in which the public legis- 
lation has a deep infusion of popular 
opinion, is thought to be uncommonly 
ssnguinary. Blackstone, in his Commea- 



taries (vol. iv, 18), admits that, in his time, 
not less than one hundred and sixty crimes 
were, by the English law, punishable with 
death. In the code of the U. States, only 
nine crimes are so punishable, viz., treason, 
murder, arson, rape, robbeiy of the mail, 
fraudulent casting away ships, rescue of 
criminals capitally convicted auring execu- 
tion, and piracy, one species of which is 
the African slave-trade. In die codes of 
the several states of the Union, still fewer 
crimes are generally punishable with 
death. It remains yet to be proved, 
whether the general mildness of our penal 
code has afforded us any greater security 
against crimes than exists in other na- 
tions. Hitherto, the temptations to com- 
mit them have been less here, than in 
other countries less abundantly and cheap- 
ly supplied with the necessaries of lire. 
It is still a question, fit to exercise the 
solicitude and ingenuity of our statesmen 
and philanthropists, whether we can safely 
carry on so mild a system in a more cor- 
rupt and dense state of society. If we 
can, it must be by a very sparing use of 
tlie power of pardoning ; so tiiat the cer- 
tainty of absolute, unmitigated punishment 
shall follow upon the onence. Beccaria, 
with his characteristic humanity and sa- 
gacity, has strongly urged that the certain- 
3r of punishment is more important to 
eter from crimes than the severity of it. 
At present, tiiere is great danger that the 
pardoning power, in our fi«e forms of 
government, will, in a great measure, over- 
tiirow this salutary principle. Its exer- 
cise, therefore, ought to be watched with 
the greatest jealousy and care, lest the 
abuse of it should lead to tiie introduction 
either of absolute impunity for offences, 
or of more extensive capitid punishments. 
It will probably be found, from the expe- 
rience of most nations, that capital punish- 
ment ought not wholly to be dispensed 
with. On the other hand, it ma^ ^ safely 
affirmed, that there is no positive neces- 
sity to apply it to a very lai-ge number of 
crimes. Treason, murder, anon, piracy, 
highway robbery, burglary, rape, and 
some other offences of great enormi^, and 
of a kindred character, are not uncom- 
monly punished in this manner ; but 
beyond these, it is extremely questionable 
whedier there is any necessity or expedi- 
ency of applying so great a severity. Still, 
however, as has been abready intimated, 
much must dei)end upon the opinion and 
character of the age, and the prevailing 
habits of die people, and upon the sound 
exercise of legislative discretion. What 
may be deemed uselessly severe in one 



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DEATH, PUNISHMENT OF. 



age or country, maybe positiyely required 
by the circumstances of another age or 
country. 

4. Ab to the maimer of inflicting the 
punishment of death. This has been 
different in diflTerent countries, and in dif- 
ferent stages of civilization in the same 
countries. Barbarous nations are general- 
ly inclined to severe and vindictive pun- 
ishments, and, where they punish virith 
death, to aggravate it l^ prolonging the 
sufierinijps of the victim v^ith in^^ous 
devices m cruelty. And even in civUized 
countries, in cases of a political nature, or 
of very great atrocity, the punishment has 
been sometimes inflicted with many hor- 
rible accompaniments. Tearing the crim- 
inal to pieces, inercing bis breast with a 
pointed pole, {Hnching to death vrith red- 
hot pincers, standing him to death, break- 
ing his limbs upon the wheel, pressing 
him to death in a slow and hngering 
manner, burning him at the stake, cruci- 
fixion, sawing him to pieces, quartering 
him alive, exposing him to be torn to 
pieces by wild ben^ts, and other savage 
pimishments, have been sometimes resort- 
ed to for the purposes of vengeance, or 
public example, or public terror. Com- 
pared with these, the infliction of death 
oy drowning, by strangling, by poisoning, 
by bleeding, by beheading, by shooting, 
by hanging, is a moderate punishment In 
modem times, the public opinion is strong- 
ly disposed to idiscountenance the pun- 
isliment of death by any but simple means ; 
and the infliction of tcHture is almost uni- 
versally reprobated. Even in govern- 
ments where it is still comitenanced by 
the laws, it is rarely resorted to ; and the 
sentence is remitted, by the policy of the 

Srince, beyond the simple infliction of 
eath. In Prussia, where atrocious crim- 
inals are required, by the penal code, to be 
broken upon the wheel, the king always 
issues an order to the executioner to stran- 
gle the criminal (which is done by a small 
cord not easily seen) before his limbs 
are broken. So, in the same country, 
where larceny, attended with destruction 
of life, is punished by burning alive, the 
fagots are so arranged as to fona a 
kind of cell, in which the criminal is suf- 
focated by the fumes of sulphur, or other 
means, before the flame can reach him. 
In England, in high treason, the criminal 
is sentenced to be drawn to die gallows, 
to be hanged by the neck, and cut down 
alive, to have his entrails taken out and 
burned while he is yet alive, to have his 
bead cutoff, and his body divided into 
four partem and these to be at the king's 



disposal. But, generally, all tbe punish' 
ment is remitted by the crown, except the 
hanging and beheading: and when it is 
not, by connivance of the oflicers, the 
criminal is drawn on a hurdle to the place 
of execution, and is not disembowelled 
until actually dead. In other cases, the 
punishment is now simply by hanging, or, 
m the military and naval service, by foot- 
ing. In France, formeriy, the punishment 
of death was often inflicted by breaking 
the criminal on the wheel. (Damiens was 
torn to pieces by horses, after he had been 
tormented with red-hot pincers, and had 
suffered other horrid tortures.^ The usual 
punishment now is beheaoing by the 
jl^illotine. In cases of parricide, the crim- 
mal is conducted, barafooted, and covered 
with a black veil, to the place of execu- 
tion, where his right hand is cut off just 
before he is beb^ed. In Austria, the 
j^neral mode of punishment is by faang- 
mg. In Prussia, nanging is rarely inflict- 
ed ; but the usual punishment is behead- 
ing vrith a heavy axe, the criminal's head 
being flrst tied to a block. In other Ger- 
man states, the uncertain mode of execu- 
tion by the sword still exists. Sand was 
executed in this manner. It should be 
remarked, however, that, in GSennany, 
hanging has always been deemed the 
most inftunous sort of punishment; and 
the sentence has often been commuted for 
beheading by the sword, as a milder mode 
of punishment In the U. States of Amer- 
ica, hanging is the universal mode of 
capital punishment ; and, indeed, the con- 
stitution of the U. States contains a pro- 
vision, declaring that ^ cruel and unusual 
punishments shaU not be inflicted.'' In 
China, murderers are cut to pieces ; rob- 
bers, not In Russia, the punishment of 
death has been frequendy inflicted by 
the knout In Turkey, strangling, and 
sewing the criminal up in a bag, and 
throwing him into the sea, are common 
modes of punishment In the Roman 
code, many severe and cruel punishments 
were prescribed. During the favored 
times of the republic, many of these were 
abolished or mitigated. But again, under 
the emperors, they were revived with full 
severity. In the ancient Checian states, 
the modes of punishment were also se- 
vere, and often cruel. But the most gen* 
eral mode of punishment, in ordinaiy 
cases, seems, both in Greece and Rome, 
to have been by hanging. Whether the 
ancient Greek mode of capital punish- 
ment, by taking poison at such hour as the 
condemned party should choose, has ever 
been adopteid in any modem nation, we 



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DEATH, PUNISHMENT OF— DEBTOR AND CREDITOIL 145 



are unable to say. As far as we have 
been able to leam, it is not in use anions 
any Christiaii people; and the idea of 
suicide connected with it would probably 
prevent any such nadon from adopting it. 

Whether executions ought to be in pub- 
lic or in private, has been a question much 
discussed, and upon which a great diver- 
sity of opinion exists among intelligent 
etatesmen. On the one hand, it is said 
that public spectacles of this sort have a 
tendency to bnitaUze and harden the peo- 
ple, or to make them indifferent to the 
punishment ; and the conraffe and firm- 
neffi, with which the criminu oflen meets 
death, have a tendency to awaken feelings 
of syii^mtfay, and even of admiration, and 
to teke away much of tlie horror of the 
ofience, as well as of the punishment. On 
the nther hand, it is said that the great 
influence of punishment, in deterring 
others from the like offence, cannot be 
obtained in any other way. It is die only 
means to bring home to the mass of the 
people a salutaiy dread and warning; 
and it is a public admonition of the cer- 
tainty of punishment following upon 
crimes. It is also added, that all punish- 
ments ought to be subjected to the public 
scrutiny, so that it may be known diat all 
the law requires, and no more, has been 
done. If punishments were inflicted in 
private, it could never be known whether 
they were jusdy and properiy inflicted 
upon the penons condemned ; or whether, 
indeed, innocent persons might not be- 
come the victims. 

In Enffhmd, the court before which the 
trial is had, declares the sentence, and 
directs the execution of it ; and its war- 
ruit is a sufficient authority to the proper 
officer to execute it In the courts of the 
U. States, there is a Uke authority ; but 
in the laws of many of the states, there is 
a provision that the execution shall not 
take place except by a warrant from the 
governor, or other executive authority. 
In cases of murder and other atrocious 
crimes, the punislmient in England is 
usually infficted at a very short interval 
after the sentence. In America, there is 
usually allowed a very considerable inter- 
val, varying from one month to six months. 
In England and America, there lies no 
appeal from the verdict of a jury and the 
sentence of a court, in capital cases. In 
France, there may be a review of it in the 
court erf" cassation, (q. v.) In Germanv, 
there is, in criminal as in civil cases, a rijpt 
of appall ; hence, in that country, row 
innocent persons have suflered capitally 
■nee tiie 16ih century; and in England 

vol* IV. 13 



and America, the very fact that the verdict 
and sentence are flnal, produces peat cau- 
tion and deliberation in the admmistration 
of criminal justice, and a strong leaninar 
towards the prisoner on trial. Capittu 
punisl^ment cannot be inflicted, by the 
general humanity of the laws of modem 
nations, upon persons who are insane or 
who are presnant, until the latter are 
delivered and the former become sane. 
It is said that Frederic the Great required 
all judgments of his courts, condemning 
persons to death, to be written on blue 
paper ; thus he was constandy reminded 
of them as they lay on his table among 
other papers, from which they were 
readily distinguished. He usually took a 
long time to consider such cases, and thus 
set an excellent example to sovereigns of 
their duty. 

Death-watch; a species of tennes, so 
called on account of an old snperstition 
that its beating or ticking in a sick room 
is a sure sign of death. 
DsBEirruRE. (See Drawback,) 
Debt, National. (See ^Tational Debt) 
Debtor and Creditor, Laws of. One 
of tlie first steps, in a community, towards 
industry and wealth, is the institution of the 
individual riffht to property. The guaran- 
tee of the individual's earnings to himself 
is the strongest stimulus to his exertions ; 
and this measure is so obvious, and the one 
in which every member of a community ^as 
so evident an interest, that it is of univer- 
sal adoption among rude as well as civil- 
ized nations, and even precedes the estab- 
lishment of a regular government; for 
men will sell, and, as far as they are able, 
enforoe their exclusive right to the fruits 
of their own labor, before they are in a 
condition to establish ^neral laws. But, 
though this principle is so obviously just, 
and of so early adoption, its extension 
and application to complicated affairs, and 
various species of property, and divisions, 
and modifications of rights to, and interest 
in, possessions of all sorts, are among the 
most difficult subjects of legislation. The 
right of property being once established, 
the conditions on which the owner will 
port with and transfer it are, as a natural 
and necessary consequence, left to his o^vn 
determination, with some ffew exceptions ; 
especially one usually made in favor of 
the government, or, rather, of the whole 
collective comraunitv, who reserve tlie 
right of taking individual property for the 
public use, without the consent of the pro- 
prietor, and upon such terms as tlie gov- 
ernment itself^ shall prescribe. But, even 
in this case, a debt or obligation on the 



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146 



DEBTOR AND CREDITOR. 



part of the government or community 
arises in favor of the proprietor w^hose 
property has been taken. So that we 
may lay it down as a general doctrine, 
that, where one parts with and transfers 
to another any property, or right, of which, 
bv the laws of the community, he was ex- 
clusively possessed, this transfer is tlie 
basis or meritorious consideration of a 
promise or obligation on tlie part of the 
person to whom the transfer is made, to 
return some equivalent, or what may be 
agreed on as an equivalent by the parties. 
Whether this return be stipulated for in 
money, lands, ffoods, or personal services, 
or any thin^ of which the value can be 
estimated, is immaterial in respect to the 
force of the obligation, which will be the 
same in either case. The validity of the 
obligation thus arising is recognised by the 
laws of all civilized states. But, then, the 
question arises — and it is one which has 
much perplexed legislators — What degree 
of force or saci-edness shall be assigned to 
this obligation, and by what sanctions and 
penalties shall it be guarded? The per- 
sonal rights of citizens are, in general, 
more scrupulously guarded and vindicated 
by the laws, than tliose of property, or 
those the value of which, in money or ex- 
change, admits of an exact estimate. The 
lives of men, for instance, are generally 
protected by inflicting the extreme pen- 
alty of death for the crime of muixler. 
Such a punishment is only commensurate 
with the crime, and its justice is univer- 
sally acknowledged ; but a law which 
should inflict the same punishment for a 
mere assault on tlie person, attended by 
no serious injury, would excite the abhor- 
rence of all men ; for, though men are 
under an undoubted obligation not to 
commit an unprovoked assault, though 
not attended by a serious wound, yet such 
a penalty would be at once pronounced 
to be out of ail proportion to the force 
and sacredness of the obligation which 
it would be designed to protect The 
question then occurs — How forcible, how 
bindln|r, how sacred, is this promise and 
obligauon to pay a sum of money or de- 
liver an article of property ? Is it so sa- 
cred that the debtor ought to be put to 
death, sent to the galleys, put into the pil- 
lory, or the stocks, or whipped, or impris- 
oned, in case of his failing to fulfll it? In 
one point aU communities agree, namely, 
as far as the property of the debtor goes, 
it ought to answer to this obligation ; for 
the vuue he has received has been absorb- 
ed in that which he posBeases, and consti- 
tutes a pan of its amount, or, at least, may 



be presumed to have contributed to it lo 
short, the property of the debtor may be 
considered to belong to his creditors, to 
the extent of their demands. The laws 
of different countries, accordingly, a^ree in 
the principle that the creditor shall have 
the means of getting possession and dis- 

C'ng of the debtors property to satisfy 
demands. Theboundls prescribed for 
the exercise of this well established and 
universally acknowledged right, vaiy very 
considerably in different countries and 
periods. As long ago as the time of So- 
lon, the necessaiy implements of husband- 
ry were exempted m>m this right The 
civil law makes an exemption of necessaiy 
implements of trade and articles of flirni- 
ture, and this distinction is adopted very 
generally, if not universally, throughout 
uie civUized world. The right of the 
creditor, then, accordmf to the laws and 
practice of the whole civilized world, does 
not extend to the whole of the property 
and possessions of the debtor ; and the 
exception affords a rule for measuring the 
extent and force of this obligation of debt, 
in the general estimation of nations ; since, 
in enforcing this obligation, all the laws in 
this respect stop at Uie point where indi- 
vidual 8ufl[ering commences. Though the 
law adopts the principle, that the goods 
of the debtor, in effect;' belong to the cred- 
itor, yet it makes a compromise, even of 
this right, between the creditor, and debtor, 
and the community; for the community 
may be said to be aflected by, and to feel 
the distresses or good fortune of eveiy one 
of its membere ; and, accordingly, the cred- 
itor is here made to compromise his rights 
as a creditor, out of regaird to his obli|^- 
tions as a member of the community. 
The law says to him, ^^ Though you stricUy 
have a right to the tools your debtor uses, 
the clotlies he and his family wear, and 
the beds they sleep upon — ^for they may 
have been procured by the very money or 
goods f]x>m which the debt arose ; yet, on 
me other hand, you owe some obli|[ations 
to the community, and the commumty has 
some obligations to your debtor; you shall 
not, therefore, turn him and his family 
naked into the streets, even by reclaiming 
the very, articles you may have sold him. 
Such is the limit which the laws have, by 
general consent, put to the extent of the 
creditor's right over the debtor's property ; 
and, to this extent, eveiy code ought to 
give as easy, cheap and expeditious a 
remedy as can be allowed consistently 
with a just settlement of the validity and 
amount of the creditor's claim ; and such 
a remedy it is the object of legislaton 



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DEBTOR AND CREDTTOB. 



147 



generaDy to givct Upon the principle 
already stated, namely, that the debtor's 
property belongs to his creditora, to the 
amount of their claims, it should follow, 
that, when his property is inadequate to 
the full satisfiiction of the debts, all the 
creditors ought to share it proportionally ; 
and this has been the practical rule under 
the civil law, and in all the countries 
where it has been adopted as the common 
law. Such is the practical rule in Eng- 
land and the greater part of tlie U. States ; 
and it is a rule so obviously just, and re- 
sults BO directly from the universally re- 
ceived principles, in relation to the rights 
of creditors, that it is surprising that any 
country, in the least advanced in civil pol- 
ity, and having made any progress in civ- 
ihzadon, should form an exception to such 
a rule, and permit some one creditor, or 
some few, no more deserving, and perhaps 
much less so, than the rest, to seize upon 
the whole property of the debtor, and en- 
tirely defeat the claims of the others ; yet 
such a defect does exist in the laws of 
4 out of the 25 U. States, at the time of 
writing this article' (1830), viz., Maine, 
New Hampshire, Vermont and Massachu- 
setts. These states are all eminently com- 
mercial, and by no means deficient in 
general intelli^nce and improvement, 
which renders it the more remarkable tliat 
they should, in this respect, make an ex- 
ception to the practice of all the rest of 
Christendom. The defect arises partly 
from a deep-rooted prejudice upon this 
subject, which mistakes a regulation and 
reformation of this branch of law for a 
weakening of the obligation of contracts, 
and an impairing of the rights of creditors ; 
but still more from a timid spirit of legis- 
lation, which feara to undertoice an impor- 
tant improvement of this branch of law, 
although the justice and great utility of 
such an improvement, among a trading 
people especially, are acknowledged by 
much the greater number. When the 
laws provide for a proportionate distribu- 
tion of an insolvent's estate in general, still 
they reserve some few preferences. Thus, 
in the cessio hanorumj and the various 
laws of insolvency of different states, of 
which that has been the model, a prefer- 
ence is usually ^ven to the ^vernment 
as a creditor, which is fully satisfied for its 
demands before any part of the claims of 
individual creditors is paid. This prefer- 
ence is just, where the claim of the gov- 
ernment can be viewed in the li^ht of a 
hen on tiie property ; and, where this is the 
ease, the giving it a priority to those of 
creditors w;ho have no hen, is, in fact, only 



putting the govemm^it upon the same 
footing with other creditors ; for any one, 
having a mortgage or pledge, is always 
preferred to the extent of his pledse ; but, 
where the claim cannot be considered in 
that hght, the preference seems not to be 
just Some other claims are preferred, 
from motives of humanity and general 
policy, on the same principle <m which 
necessary articles of furniture, implements 
of the debtor's trade, and the hke, are ex- 
empted from seizure. Thus some laws, 
notwithstanduig the insolvency of the es- 
tate of a deceaseid debtor, still allow the full 
payment of the expenses of his last sick- 
ness and funeral, and also assign some 
articles, of greater or leas amount, to the 
use of his widow and family. Some 
codes of laws Umit the claims of the cred- 
itor to the debtor's property for satisfac- 
tion. Others go beyond Uiis point The 
ancient laws of Rome permitted the sell- 
ing of debtors into servitude for the bene- 
fit of their creditors ; and such are the laws 
of modem times among some of the Afri- 
can tribes. Solon remarked upon the 
inconsistency of laws which exempted the 
implements of trade, and articles of neces- 
sity of the debtor, from the creditor's d«> 
mand, and yet subjected his body to sale 
or imprisonment ; and, considering the 
rights of the debtor, as a citizen of Athens, 
to be paitunoimt to those of his creditor 
over his person, he provided against the 
violation of a citizen's liberty on account 
of his debts. But the imprisonment of the 
debtor ought to be allowed as a means of 
compelling him to surrender his property 
for the benefit of his creditors ; and, for 
this purpose, the civil law, and the laws 
of England and most of the U. States, 
permit it, but only until he has made a 
surrender of all his property, unless he is 
proved to have acted fiuudulentiy, in 
which case the imprisonment is continued 
as a punishment To tiiis rule, however, 
the four of the U. States above-mentioned 
form an exception ; for, in those states, the 
imprisonment may be inflicted by the 
creditor, although the debtor has no means 
of satisfying the debt, and although his 
insolvency may have been occasioned by 
an unforeseen and inevitable misfortune. 
It is true, that, in such a* case, not many 
creditors will wantonly avail themselves 
of such a right to inflict suffering without 
any motive of interest But it is equally 
true, that, if the whole population were at 
hberty to inflict any kina ouf suflering upon 
otiiers with impunity, not many persons 
would avail themselves of the Ucense ; but 
some would, and thb is a reason for not 



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DEBTOR AND CREDITOR— DEOANDOLLE. 



giving the liceoBe. The laws of England 
and Fiance, and of most of tlie U. States, 
now make a distinction between cases of 
fi:aud and misfortune, and aim at punish- 
ment only in the fonner. This is a dis- 
tinction not difficult to make, and one 
which does not require any extraord'mary 
legislative skill and sagacity. Its omission 
in any code of lav^ Ujerefore, indicates a 
rude and impeifect legislation in this par- 
ticular, — In the article Bankrupt, the in- 
terposition of the law to discharge debtors 
absolDtely from all liability to their credit- 
ors, on their surrendering all tlieir proper- 
ty, has been treated of. This inteqiosition 
has, however, been extended only to cases 
of insolvent merchants. The insolvent 
laws, as distinguislied from bankrupt laws, 
apply to debtors who are not merchants^ 
and provide for a ratable distribution of 
their efiects among their creditors, and 
exempt the person of the debtor from im- 
prisonment, on the surrender of the whole 
of his property, but do not discharge the 
debt any further than satisfaction is made 
by payment A question very naturally 
arises why this distinction is made between 
traders and others. A cultivator or me- 
chanic, in enterprising communities, is 
scarcely less hable to the misfortunes and 
disappointments which result in insolven- 
cy than traders, and their future industry 
and unembarrassed enterprise is of no less 
importance to the communi^. Why should 
the future earnings of a farmer, or con- 
ductor of any branch of industiy, whose 
insolvency has been occasioned by a 
drought, a change in the markets, or the 
bankruptcy of a merchant whom he had 
tnieted, be held for the payment of his 
debts, to the last farthing, any more than 
those of the merchant ? Is it true that, in 
other pursuits than those of trade, insol- 
vency is more frequenUy the conseauence 
of fiT&ud, extravagance or imprudence.^ 
(See Bankrupt, Capias, hatdven^.) 

Debure, Guillaume and Uuillaume 
Francois ; two cousins, distinguished bib- 
liographers^ The former prepared the first 
division of the catalogue of the excellent 
library of the duke de la Valli^re (17^ 
3 vols.). The latter, a bookseller, bom 
1731, and died 1782, opened a new pioh 
for bibliographers, by reducing to a sys- 
tem what had before been left merely to 
tact, in his BtbUofro^jkU inaiructive, cu 
TraiU de la Cotmazaaance dts Lwres rares 
et auiguUera (Paris, 1763—68, 7 vols.} 
Lemercier and others attacked the worx 
severely; yet it must be considered of 
much value. (See Ebert's BMiograpki- 
ackea Lexicon, vol. i, p. 452.) Among his 



other works is to be mentioned Stmii- 
meM h la BibHogrmhie inatrudive, ou Cat- 
alogue dea laxrea m Cabinet de M. Gatg- 
not (Paris, 1769, 2 vols.). To these two 
works, that of Nee de la Rochelie, ThJtie 
deatiiUe hfacUiier la Becherche dea JJvres 
anomftnea, etc. (1782), forms a lOtli volume. 
The sons of Debure, advantageously known 
in the world of letters as Debure Frhea, 
have distinguished themselves as bibUog- 
raphere by the catalogue of the ricli and 
valuable library of coimt Mac-Carthy 
Reagh (1817). 

Decade (LaL deata, from the Greek 6U,:) 
is sometimes used for the number ten, or 
for an aggregate of ten, and decadea for 
an enumeration by tens. The books of 
Livy are divided into decades. In the 
French revolution, decades took the place 
of weeks, in the division of the year. ( See 
Calendar.) In the French system of 
weights and measures, the Greek word 
Hko is used to increase the value of the 
designations ten-fold; thus decagramme 

1a weight of 10 grammes), decaktre (10 
itres), decametre (10 metres), decare (10 
ares). 

Decaoon (decagonum), in geometry ; a 
figure of 10 sides and angles. 

Decalooue (from iiKOf ten, and \6yvt, 
the word) ; the ten commandments, which, 
according to Exod., chap. xx. and Deut., 
chap, v., were given on two tables, by 
God to Moses. The Jews call them, by 
way of eminence, the ten worda; hence 
their name, DecaioffM, Jevre and Chris- 
tians have divided the ten commandments 
differently ; and, in some Catholic cate- 
chisms, the second commandment has 
been united, in an abridged form, with the 
first, and the tenth has been divided into 
two. Catechisms generally contain the 
ten commandments, not verbally, as they 
stand in the Bible, but abridged. 

Decameron (Greek ; from bUa, ten, and 
hiU^y day) ; a book in which the author 
relates the events, &c. of ten day& The 
Decameron of Boccaccio (q.v.) is the his- 
tory of a gay company of ten persons, who, 
on ten different aiays, relate ten tales each 
day. The Decameron of Dibdin treats 
of bibUographical curiosities. 

Decahdolle, Augusun Pyrame, one of 
the first botanists in Europe, htmi at Ge- 
neva, in 1778, was descended from a family 
distinguished, as early as the l^h century, 
in the republic of letters. While professor 
of botany at Montpelher, he raised the 
botanical garden to its present flourishing 
condition. His enemies availed them- 
selves of the cireumstance that he had 
retained his place after the return of Na- 



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DECANDOLLE— DECATUR. 



149 



poleon fiom Elba, to lender Iiim sus- 
pected by the government ; and the ultras 
at length obliged him to retire from his 
chair. His native city established a bo- 
tanical garden, in 181^ with the direction 
of which he was intrusted, and a profes- 
sorBhip of botany, which was bestowed on 
him. His Thiorie UhnenUdre de la Battp- 
nime (1813) is well known. Amonc his 
other writings are, Planianim succuUnta- 
rum lEgtoria (1799, 4 vols., folio and 4to.), 
frith plates by Redout^; ^stragalogiOf 
likewise with plates (1803); FUnrt i^ort- 
poue (1809 — 15, 6 vols.), in which he was 
assisted b]^ Lanmrque ; Cataiogus PUmtct- 
rum Horti botanici MontpeUienna (1813). 
He has also published some observations 
on the theoiy of light, which have been 
confirmed by later experiments. 

Decapitation. (See Death, Punishr 
mento/,) 

D£CAin>RiA, in botany ; the tenth class 
of plants, with hermaphrodite flowers and 
ten stamina, or male pans, in each. 

Decafolis, in ancient geography; a 
country of Palestine, which contained ten 



eun-shot on the starboard bow, and all the 
batteries on shore were opened upon the 
assailants. Decatur set nre to the frigate, 
and continued alongside until her destruc- 
tion was certain. For this exploit, the 
American congress voted him thanks and 
a sword, and the president immediately 
sent him a captaincy. The n«xt spring. 
It being resolved to make an attack on 
Tripoli, commodore Preble equipped six 
gun-boats and two bombards, formed them 
into two divisions, and gave the command 
of one of them to captain Decatur. The 
enemv's ffun-boats were moored along the 
mouth of tiie harbor, under the batteries, 
and within musket shot Captain Decatur 
determined to board the enemv's eastern 
division, consisting of nine, lie boarded 
in his own boat, and carried two of the 
enemy's boots in succession. When he 
boarded the second boat, he immediately 
attacked her commander, who was his 
superior in size and strength, and, his 
sword being broken, he seized the Turk, 
when a violent scuffle ensued. The Turk 
threw him, and drew a dirk for the pur^ 



principal cities, some on this, some on the pose of stabbing him, when Decatur, hav- 

other side of Jordan, whence its name, in, " -*-*-' -- *-*- --*-* — ^— * *—*■ 

Pliny enumerates the following : — Sey 



thopolis, Philadelphia, Raphanie, Gadara, 
Hippos, Dion, PeUa, Gerasa, Canatha and 
Damascus. Others reckon them difl[er- 
ently. They were chiefly inhabited by 
Gentiles, though some of them might be 
within the region of Judea. 

Decatur, Stephen, a celebrated Amer- 
ican naval officer, was bom, Jan. 5, 1779, 
on the eastern shore of Maryland, whith- 
er his parents had retired while the Brit- 
ish were in Philadelphia. He entered the 
American navy in March, 1798, and was 
soon promoted to the rank of first Ueuten- 
ant While at Syracuse, attached to the 
squadron of commodore Preble, he was 
first informed of the fate of the American 
frigate Philadelphia, which, in pursuing 
a Tripolitan corsair, ran on a rock about 
four and a half miles from Tripoli, and 
was taken by the Tripolitans, and towed 
into the harbor. Lieutenant Decatur con- 
ceived the project of attempting her re- 



g a small pistol in his right pocket, took 
hold of it, and, turning it as well as he 



could, so as to take effect upon his antag- 
onist, cocked it, fired through his pockot, 
and killed him. When commodore Pre- 
ble was superseded in the command of 
the squadron, he gave the firigate Consti* 
tution to Decanir, who was afterwards 
removed to the Congress, and retnnied 
home in her when peace was concluded 
with Tripoli. He succeeded commodore 
Barron in the command of the Chesa- 
peake, after the attack made upon her by 
the British man-of-war Leopard. He was 
afterwards transferred to the frigate United 
States. In the war between Great Britain 
and the U. States, while commanding* the 
frigate United States, he fell in, Oct. 25, 
1812, with the Macedonian, mountitig 49 
carriage-guns, one of the finest of the 
British vessels of her class, and captured 
her after an engagement of an hour and 
a half. When captain Garden, the com- 
mander of the Macedonian, tendered him 



capture or aestruction. He selected, for his sword, he observed that he could not 

this purpose, a ketch, and manned her think of taking the sword of an officer 
with 70 volunteers. Feb. 16, 1804, at 7* who had defended his ship so gallantly, 

o'clock at night, he entered the harbor of but should be happy to take him by the 

Tripoli, boarded the frigate, though she hand. In a letter written five days after 

had all her guns mounted and charged, the capture, he says, <* I need not tell you 

and was lying within half-gun-shot of the that I have done eveiy thing in my power 

bashaw's casde and of his principal bat- to soothe and console captain Garden ; for. 



teiy. Two Tripolitan cruisers were lyinsr 
within two cables' length, on the starboard 
quaiter, and several gun-boats within half- 
13* 



really, one half the pleasure of this little 
victory is destroyed in witnessing the 
mortification of a brave man, who deserv* 



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DECATUIl-D£CAZEa 



ed success quite as much as we did who 
obtained it^ In January, 1814, commo- 
dore Decatur, in the United States, with 
his prize the Macedonian, then equipped 
as an American frigate, was blockaded at 
New London by a British squadron great- 
ly superior in force. A challenge which 
he sent to the comnumder of the British 
squadron, sir Thomas Hardy, offering to 
meet two of the British frigates with his 
two ships, was declined. In January, 
1815, he attempted to set sail from New 
York, which was blockaded by four Brit- 
ish ships ; but the frigate under his com- 
mand, the President, was injured in pass- 
ing the bar, and was captured by the 
whole squadron, after having maintained 
a running fight of two hours and a half 
with one of the frigates, the Endvmion, 
which was dismantled and silenced. Af- 
ter the conclusion of peace, he was re- 
stored to his country, in 1815. The con- 
duct of the Barbary powers, and of Algiers 
in particular, having been insulting to the 
United States, on the ratification of peace 
with Great Britain, war was declared 
against Algiers, and a squadron was fitted 
out, under the command of commodore 
Decatur, for the puqxjse of obtaining re- 
dress. In the spring of 1815, he set sail, 
and, June 17, off cape de Gatt, captured 
an Algerine fri^te, afler a running fight 
of 25 minutes, m which the famous admi- 
ral Rais Hammida, who had long been 
the terror of the Mediterranean sea, fell. 
The American squadron arrived at Al- 

S'ers June 28. In less than 48 hours, 
ecatur terrified the regency into his own 
terms, which were, mainly, that no tribute 
should ever be required, by Algiers, from 
the U. States of America ; that all Amer- 
icans in slaveiy should be given up with- 
out ransom ; that compensation should be 
made for American profierty seized ; that 
all cidzens of the U. States, taken in war, 
should be treated as prisoners of war are by 
other nations, and not as slaves, but held 
subject to an exchange without ransom.. 
After concluding this trea^, he proceeded 
to Tunis, where he obtamed indemnity 
for the outrages exercised or permitted by 
the bashaw. Thence he went to Tripoli, 
where he made a mmilar demand with 
like success, and procured the release of 
10 captives, Danes and Neapolitans. He 
arrived in the U. States Nov. IS; 1815, 
was subsequently appointed one of the 
board of navy commissionera, and was re- 
siding at Washington, in that capacity, 
when he was killed in a duel vritli com- 
modore Bairon, March 22, 1820, occasion- 
ed by his aniinadveraioDs on the conduct 



of the latter. Couraffo, sagacity, energy, 
self-possession, and a nigh sense of honor, 
were the characterisdc traits of Decatur. 
From his boyhpod, he was remarkable for 
the Qualities which presage eminence in 
naval warfare. He enjoy^ the sea as his 
element He possessed an active, muscu- 
lar frame, a quick and penetrating eye, 
and a bold, adventurous and ambitious 
spirit 

Decazes, Elie, duke, peer of France, 
duke of Glticksburg in Denmark, was 
bom at St Martin-de-Laye, near Liboume, 
in 1780, of a family ennobled by Henry 
IV, and studied law in the college Ven- 
ddme. In 1806, he became judge of the 
tribunal of the first instance in the depart- 
ment of the Seine; in 1810, counsellor of 
the court of appeals ; and afterwards coim- 
sellor of Louis, king of Hdkmd. After 
the return of Napoleon from Elba, he 
openly declared himself in fiivor of Louis 
AVni, and was ordered not to approach 
within 40 leagues of Paris. On the re- 
turn of the kii^, he was appointed prefect 
of the police, dissolved tne chamber of 
representatives, and received a place in 
the council of state. In his connexions 
vrith the commanders of the allied troops 
and the journalists of Paris, he showed 
himself cautious and prudent, and, in the 
trials of Lab^doy^re and Ney, and after 
the dismission of'Fouch^, in the capacity of 
minister of the police, he was energetic in his 
measures relating to the leaders of the last 
revolution, and the preservation of public 
order. In 1818, he was made count, and 
married mile, de St Aulaire, granddaugh- 
ter of the sister of the late duke of Uol- 
stein-GIficksburg, in consequence of which 
be was created duke of GMcksburg by 
the king of Denmark. He had ah^ady 
been created peer of France, and, in 1820, 
was made duke. As minister of police, 
to which place the royalists had recom- 
mended him, Decazes strengthened his 
influence with the king by the diacov- 
eiy and destruction of certain papers of 
the greatest importance, respecting the 
king personaUy, so that the lavor of the 
king could never be entirely withdrawn 
from him. With the ultras, he made 
himself unpopular b^ advising the kinr to 
\ abolish the chambre tntnnwable, (q. v.) His 
moderation exposed him to the attacks of 
the right and the left side at once. **" Hoyor 
U§er la iiOtiony noHonaliter U royaUamt^ he 
at that time declared to be the object of the 
government But the charter received no 
tegal security, and the laws of exception, 
violating personal liberty and the liberty 
of the press, softened as they were by De* 



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DECAZEa 



151 



cazea, were a dangerous exercise of arbi- 
trary power. Decazes and the minister 
of war, Gouvion St Cyr, declared them- 
selves, in 1818, BO warmly against the 
proposition of Richelieu for the change of 
the laws of election of Feb. 5, 1817, that 
the latter and Lain^ retired from the min- 
istry. The king then appointed Decazes 
to the mimstiy of the interior (Dec. 29, 
1818), with which he continued to hold 
the ministry of the police, and, at tlie same 
time, the ministry of public instniction and 
public worship. From motives of pru- 
dence, he left the presidency of the min* 
isteriai council to the marquis DesoUes. 
(q. V.) This ministry acted against the 
principles of the ultra opposition as much 
as it thought requisite to carry its meas- 
ures, and as much, perhaps, as its situa- 
tion allowed. See Guizot, Du Gouoeme" 
ment de la Fhmce demds la RestauraUon d 
du M/dslere adud (Paris, 1620), and Des 
Moyens dt Chuvemement d de POpponHon 
dans Vitat adud dt la Ihmee (Paris, Oct 
1821). The oh^rchical opposition in the 
chamber, to which belonged Villele, Cor- 
bieres, de- la Bourdonnaye, Clausel de 
Coussergues, Lain^ &c., and in the cham- 
ber of peers, particularly Ch&teaubriand 
and Fitz- James, opposed in vain the in- 
fluence of the minister. Decazes effect- 
ed a mitigation of the ordinance of 1816 
against the regicides, and frustrated the 
attempts of £urth^lemy to change the 
election law, and introduce the ^stem of 
indirect elections, by the nomination of 70 
new peers, Msrch, 1819. His three laws 
against the abuses of the press (see De 
&ms) established thto censorship only for 
a short time. The establishment (August, 
1819) of an exhibition of French indus- 
try was more permanent France is also 
indebted to him for the councils of com- 
merce and manu&ctures, for many agri- 
ccdtural societies, and for an institution for 
encouraging the mechanical arts, and ed- 
ucating young frrmers at the expense of 
the state. The hatred of the court party 
and of the ultras against the fiivored min- 
ister, particulariy since his discovery of 
the wkUe eofuptrocy, so called, the investi- 
gation of which was suppressed, continaed 
to increase. His most irreconcilable ene* 
my was baron Vitrolles. When the liber- 
als, strengthened by the result of the elec- 
tions of 1819, thrnitened to become too 
powerfyl for the government, Decazes 
showed himself alternately inclined to the 
court and constitutional parties, and en* 
deavored to check the farther extension 
of liberal institutions. This balancing be- 
tween coD8tituti<Mial and absolute prmci- 



ples^the bofcuZe jyitaMy as it was called 
(see Bascide), not only threw the ukrar 
liberals into the opposition, but also alien- 
ated the constitutional ministers Desolles, 
Gouvion St Cyr and Louis, who resigned 
then: seats in the ministry after the altera- 
tion in the law of elections. The new 
ministnr of Nov. 19, 1819, in which Pas- 
quier, Latour-Maubourg and Roy occupi- 
ed the seats thus vac^ed, and Decazes 
was named president, was not more har- 
monious. De Serre prepared the nnjd 
of a new law of elections, in whicn De- 
cazes consented to the introduction of the 
upper electoral colleges, but would not al- 
low the double vote. (See Elediony Laws 
of.) The proposed laws respecting the 
censorship of the press, and the arrest of 
public disturbers, met with objections in 
the ministerial council, and still more from 
many members of the ri^ht side and of 
the centre, whilst the liberals opposed 
them entirely. The murder <it the duk^ 
of Bern (q. v.), Feb. 13, 1820, inflamed the 
ultra-rojralists against Decazes, who favor- 
ed the hberal ideas which they accused as 
the cause of that murder, and the deputy 
Clausel de Coussei^fues openly cbaiged 
him with being an accomplice in tbe as- 
sassination. Decazes, finding the propos- 
ed law of Feb. 15 disapproved by all par- 
ties, and the royal family also desirous of 
his dismission, — ^given up by the liberals, 
who could not trust him any longer, at- 
tacked bv the ultras, and subjected to the 
basest calumnies, — ^resigned his place, Feb. 
18, and proposed the duke of^ Richelieu 
as his successor.' The king consented, 
Feb. 20, but bestowed on him the title of 
dtiibe, and appointed him ambassador at 
the court of St James, and priw-coun- 
sellor. In 1820, he arrived in London, 
where he resided in great splendor. The 
new law of election had fiUed the cham« 
her witbthe most violent opposets of the 
ministnr. Decazes, apprehensive of his 
own &Il, gave in his resignation, and re- 
turned to Paris. On the occasion of the 
deliberations of the congress of Laybach, 
Decazes had given lord Castlereagh the 
most decided assurances of the neutrality 
of France vrith regard to Naples ; never- 
theless, the French ministers at Laybach 
acceded to the plans of Austria, and, after 
an explanation vrith Castlereagh, Decazes 
was informed by Pasquier that the French 
ministers at Laybach had received secret 
instructions. While the duke was in 
Paris, the liberal party made an efibrt to 
unite him vrith Talleyrand f<x the over- 
throw of the ministry, but the attempt 
was unsuccessfiil, <m account of his con^ 



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DECAZES— DECIPHERma 



nexion with Richelieu and De Serre. He 
retii^d to his estates, where he devoted 
himself to agriculture, the improvement 
of which, in the department of the Gi- 
ronde, is principally owing to him. He 
also established, at Liboume, a society for 
the promotion of agriculture, a museum, 
and a school for mutual instruction. Mean- 
while, tlie party of Villele triumphed over 
the friends of Decazes, in the change of 
the ministry, Dec. 4, 1821. Chateaubri- 
and (q. V.) succeeded him as ambassador 
in London. In 1822, the duke returned 
to Paris, but took litde share in the debates 
of the chamber of peers. During the life 
of Louis XVIU, the party of Decazes, 
whose organ was the Journal dt Paris, 
was hated as much as it was feared by the 
loyalists, particulariy by the friends of the 
minister of finance, Vill^Ie. In the cham- 
ber of peers, it consisted of Bastard de 
Lestang, Lally-Tolendal, Barante, Mol^, 
&fts. ; in the chamber of deputies, of most 
of the dodrinmresy andof many of the left 
side. The Uberals entertained anew the 
hope of paining Decazes when Talleyrand 
united himself with the docbrinaires ; but 
the union of Talleyrand and Decazes was 

{)revented by the extreme caution of the 
atter. As a politician, Decazes possesses 
neither the pnnofound views of a Turgot, 
nor the eloquence of a De Serre. His 
speeches always contain some striking 
passages, but display neither that talent 
for debate, nor boldness of ideas and ex- 
pression, for which De Serre was distin- 
guished. Decazes is, however, a man of 
much talent, which is agreeably displayed 
in conversation, and of captivating man- 
ners. The merit of honest intentions and 
fidelity towards his king, cannot be denied 
him. 

Deccan, or the Count rt of the 
South ; an extensive countiy of Hindos- 
tan, bounded N. by the Nerbuddali, and 
S. by the Kistnah, extending across tlie 
peninsula fix>m sea to sea. Diuing tlie 
reign of the sreat mogul Aurungzebe, i. e., 
in the latter half of the 17th centuiy, this 
country was annexed to the kingdom of 
Delhi, and divided into six governments — 
Candeish, Amednagur, Beeder, CSoleonda, 
Bejapore and Berar. The capitals were 
Biirhampour, Aurungabad, Hidberga, Be- 
japore and Hydenibu). 

Deceh (LaHn; ten) ; a word which is 
found in several compound and derivative 
words in Enfffish ; as December, to deci- 
mate, decimal Sactions, &c 

December ; the twelfth month of our 
year, from the Latin decern, ten, because, 
in the Roman year instituted by Romulus, 



it constituted the tenth month, tlie year 
beginning with March. In December, the 
sun enters the tropic of Capricorn, and 
passes our winter solstice. This month 
was under the protection of Vesta. 

Decemvirs. (See ^;?ptii« Claudiiu,) 

Decimal Arithmetic ; a kind of cal- 
culation in which no other finctions are 
used than tenths, hundredths, thousandths, 
&c., which are consequently called deci- ' 
mal fractions. Job. Regiomontanus first 
made use of it in his Tables of the Sines. 
It affords great facilities in calculation. 
As, in our system of notation, the values 
of figures are determined bv their places, 
so that the figure on the left is always of 
ten times more value than the next at the 
right hand ; so in decimal finctions, which 
must be considered as an extension of the 
decimal system (described in the article 
JS/otation), the place of the numerator de- 
termines the value of the denominator of 
the fraction, which need not, therefore, be 
expressed. The integers are separated 
from the fractional numbers by a period, 
so that this period, placed between sev- 
eral numbers, is the characteristic sign of 
a decimal fraction. For instance, 5.36 is 
5 whole numbers, 3 tenths and 6 hun- 
dredths, or 36 hunihredths ; 5.009 is 5 whole 
numbers and 9 thousandths. If the divis- 
ions of money and measures be in a 
decimal ratio, as is the case with those 
adopted durinff the French revolution, the 
ease of calculation is greatly increased, 
almost all operations being reduced to ad- 
dition and subtraction. 

Decimai. Measure ; the division of the 
unit of measure (whatever it be, as a foot, 
a rod, &c^ into ten equal parts. The 
quadrant of^a circle has also been divided 
into ten equal parts. In this case, the 
tenth part of such a quadrant is called a 
decimal degree. The French mathemati- 
cians, however, call the hundredth part of 
such a quadrant a decimal degree, and the 
hundredth part of such a degree a decimal 
mxnuU. 

Decimatt ; to exact the tithe. The 
collection or the payment of the tithe is 
called decimation. In war, dedmaiion sig- 
nifies the selection of the tenth man of a 
corps, by lot, for punishment, as in case 
of revolt It was enily practised by the 
Romans. Sometimes every tenth man is 
executed ; sometimes only one man of 
each company, the tenth in order, as was 
tlie case when the Saxons revolted against 
Bhicher, before the batde of Waterloo. 

Deciphering, Art of ; the art of dis- 
covering the contents of a writing in 
which secret characters are used (often 



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DECIPHERING— DECOMPOSITION. 



153 



cipheis ; faenoe the term 
First, the vowels must be determine 
This is done in the following wav : — 1. All 
the words of two letters are selected and 
written down together ; then those words 
are selected which are divided at the end of 
a line, so that only two letters of the word 
remain, one of which must necessarily be 
a vowel. Then the five (or whatever may 
be the number of the vowels in a lan- 
guage) lettera are taken which occur the 
most frequently. 2. It is necessary to see 
if some one of these five letters is con- 
tained in every word of the secret writing. 
If there is any word in which none of 
them is contained, the signs of the vowels 
are not yet all discovered, and it remains 
to make the attempt again. When the 
vowels are found, they must, 3. be distin- 
guished from each other. For this pur- 
pose, it should be determined which vowel 
occurs most frequently in tlie language in 
which the manuscript is supposed to be 
written. In every language, particular 
rules for determinmg the vowels may be 
laid down. All the ordinaiy modes of 
deciphering fail in the case of those secret 
writings in which dictionaries are used as 
the ba^ and whole words, and even 
short sentences, are denoted by single 
ciphers, and where, also, the order of 3ie 
ciphers, 1, 2, 3, &c, does not correspond 
to the alphabetical arrangement or the 
words in the dlctiouaiy, but is made as 
irregular as possible, and wm^oaUura^ as 
they are called, are made use of; tliat is, 
ciphers without signification, which are 
intermixed with tlie vaUvra^ or those ci- 
phers which supply the place of words. 
The old modes of secret writing have 
been almost entirely superseded, and the 
old modes of deciphering have been made 
almost entirely useless by the modem 
species of cryptography, in which, accord- 
ing to a simple rule, which may be com- 
municated verbally and retained in mem- 
ory, the signs for the letters may be con- 
tinually uianged. This is the chiffre 
quarr^, or chifie indichiffrabU, used, if not 
universally, yet by most courts. (See 
Crvptogra^.) 

Dec I us Mus, Publius; a Roman con- 
sul, who, in a war against the Latins, B. 
C. 340, devoted himself to death for his 
country. His example was followed by 
his son and his grandson. Such acts of 
self-devotion ((kvotionu) were not unusual 
at that time, when patriotism and |nety ex- 
erted a powerful influence, and were per^ 
formed with great solemnity. He who 
^levoted himself, after performing certain 
religbus rites, rushed into the midst of the 



enemy, clothed in splendid armor, to show 
his countrymen how a brave man ouffht 
to die for his country. — ^Decius was also 
the name of a Roman emperor, who 
reigned fixmi A. D. 249 till December, 
251. He persecuted the Christians, and 
perished, with his anny, in a bloody bat- 
tle in Moosia against the Goths. 

Deck. (See Ship,) 

Decker relates to the rate of a ship of 
force ; as a two-decker, a three-decker ; i. e. 
carrying two entire tiers or ranges of can- 
non, or three such tiers. 

Declination of the Sun, of a Star, 
or A Planet, is its distance from the equi- 
noctial, northward or southward. When 
the sun is m the equinoctial, he has no 
declination, and enlightens half the globe 
from pole to pole. As he increases iu 
north declination, he gradually shines far- 
ther over the north pole, and leaves the 
south pole in darkness. In a similar man- 
ner, when he has south deelination, he 
shines over the south pole, and leaves the 
north pole in darknesa 23P 2d^ is the 
sun's greatest declination north or south. 

Decomposition, Chemical, is the reso- 
lution of a compound substance into its 
constituent parts, which are exhibited 
either separate, or in some new combina- 
tion. The compounds which are sponta- 
neouslv formed by organic bodies, both 
vegetable and animal, are of a different 
nature from those which exist in tuiorgan* 
ized matter. They are the peculiar re- 
sults of vital processes, and neither their 
structure nor composition can be imitated 
by art During life, the elements of or- 
ganic bodies are held together by vital af- 
finities, under the influence of ^mich they 
were originally combined. But no soon- 
er does life cease, than these elements be- 
come subject to the laws of inert matter. 
The original affinities, which had been 
modified or suspended during life, are 
brought into operation; the elemental^ 
atoms react upon each other, new combi- 
nations are formed, and the organized 
structure passes, sooner or later, into de- 
cay. The rapidity with which decompo- 
sition takes place in organic bodies de- 
pends upon the nature of the particular 
substance, and upon the circumstances 
under which it is placed. Temperature, 
moisture, and the presence of decompos- 
ing agents, gready affect both the period 
ai^ extent of this process. By regulat- 
ing or preventing the operation of these 
causes, the duration of most substances 
may be prolonged, and many materials are 
rendered useful, which, if left to them- 
selves, would be perishid)le and worthless. 



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DECOMPOSITION— DEED. 



The preservation of timber, of fibrous sub- 
stances, of leather, of food, and of various 
objects of art, is a subject of the highest 
importance, and has received, at various 
times, much attention fi^m scientific ex- 
perimentalists. 

Decot, among fowlers ; a place made 
for catching wild-fowl. A decoy is gene- 
rally made where there is a large pond 
surrounded with wood, and beyond that a 
marshy and uncultivated countiy. If the 
piece of water is not thus surrounded, it 
will be subjected to noises and other ac- 
cidents, which may be expected to frighten 
the wild-fowl from the haunt, where they 
would otherwise sleep in the day-time. 
If these noises or disturbances are wilful, 
it has been held that an action will lie 
against the disturber. As soon as the 
evening sets in, the decoy-birds rise, as the 
wild-fowl feed during the night If the 
evening is still, the noise of £eir wings, 
during their flight, is heard at a very great 
distance, and is a pleasing, though rather 
melancholy sound. — Dtcoy, in military af- 
fairs ; a stratagem to lure the enemy into 
an ambush, &c. 

Decree, in general ; an order, edict or 
law made by a superior, as a rule to gov- 
ern inferiors. It is used for a judicial 
decision in the court of chancery ; also for 
the edicts of ecclesiastical councils. In 
the civil law, it signified a determination 
or judgment of the emperor on a suit be- 
tween parties. The compilation of the 
older papal decretals and the decrees of 
the councils, made by the monk Gratia- 
nus in the 11th century, is called the Dt- 
cretum GratianL (See Canon Late,) In 
the former German empire, the resolu- 
tions of the emperor, declared to the es- 
tates of the empire, were called dscreea. — 
The old name of royal ordere, in France, 
was ordonnances or UUres. The national 
convention, while it possessed sovereign 
power, used the expression Im convention 
naiimude (Ucriie, During the period of 
the directory, and under the consular gov- 
ernment, the expressions arrit and arreter 
were customary ; but the imperial govern- 
ment used the words ina^erud decree, for 
instance, in the famous decrees of Berlin 
and of Milan. 

Decrepitation is the crackling noise, 
accompanied by a violent exfoliation of 
their particles, which is made by several 
salts and earthy compounds, on being sud- 
denly exposed to heat It appears to be 
referable to the same cause which occa- 
sions the cracking of glass and cast-iron 
vessels, when they are incautiously heated ; 
viz., the unequal expansion of the UmxMB 



which compose them, in cotsequence of 
their imperfect power ef conducting heat 

Decrescendo ; an Italian term in mu- 
sic, which denotes the gradual weakening 
of the sound. 

Decretajl ; a general name for the pa- 
pal decrees, comprehending the rescripts 
(answers to inquiries and petitions), de- 
crees (judicial decisions by the rtAa Roma- 
na\ mandates (ofi[icial instructions for ec- 
clesiastical ofiicers, courts, &c.), edicts 
(papal ordinances in general), and gen- 
eral resolutions of the councils. The old- 
est collection was made by Isidore, arch- 
bishop of Seville (who died 636), which 
is yet extant in manuscript An enlarged 
collection was made in the 9th century, 
probably on the Rhine (perhaps by Ben- 
edictus Levita). This contained many 
pieces which have since been shown to 
be spurious. In modem times, it has, 
therefore, been called the pseudo-bidorian 
collection. In the Corpus Juris Canonici^ 
the collection of decretals which Greg- 
ory IX fwho died 1241) caused to be 
made by Raimond of Pennafort (ofiicially 
published in 1234 at Paris, 1235 at Bo- 
logna), constitutes the second division, 
succeedine the decretum. It is divided 
into five books, and is quoted under the 
name ExtrcL, because it contains the de- 
cretals not in the decretum. A sixth book 
of later decretals (Zither sexlus Decretalium) 
was added, in 1298, by Boniface VIIL 
(See Canon Law.) 

Dee ; a river of Scotland, county of 
Aberdeen, which rises on the north side 
of the mountain Caimtoul, and runs into 
the Grerman ocean, at the town of Aber- 
deen, after a direct course of 90 miles. 

Dee ; a river of Scotland, county of 
Kirkcudbright, which flows into the Sol- 
way fritli. 

Dee ; a river of Ireland, which trar- 
erses the county of Louth, and runs into 
the bay of Dundalk. 

Deed is a written contract, sealed and 
delivered. It must be written before the 
sealing and delivery, otherwise it is no 
deed ; and, after it is once formally exe- 
cuted by the parties, notliing can be add- 
ed or interlined ; and, therefore, if a deed 
be sealed and delivered, with a blank left 
for the sum, which the obligee fills up 
after sealing and delivery, this will make 
tlie deed void. A deed must be made by 
I)arties capable of contracting, and upon a 
good consideration, and the subject mat- 
ter must be legally and formally set out. 
The formal parts of a deed are, the prem- 
ises, couiaining the number, names, addi- 
tions and titles of the parties; tlie cove- 



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DEED— DEER. 



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nanta, which are clauses of agreement 
contained in the deed, whereby the con- 
tracting parties stipulate for the trutli of 
certain facts, or bind tliemselves to the 
performance of some specific acts ; the 
conclusion, which mentions the execution 
and date of the deed, or the time of its 
bein^ giren or executed, either expressly, 
or with reference to some day and year 
before mentioned. Every deed must be 
founded upon good and sufhcient consid- 
eration ; not upon an usurious contract, 
nor upon fraud or collusion, either to de- 
ceive hcna Jidt purchasers, or just and 
lawful credited ; any of which considera- 
tions will vacate the deed, and subject the 
parties to forfeiture, and in some cases to 
miprisonmenL A deed, also, without any 
consideration is void. A deed must be exe- 
cuted by the party himself, or by another for 
him in his presence, or with his direction ; 
or, in his absence, by an agent authorized 
so to do by another deed, also under seal ; 
and in every such case, the deed must be 
made and executed in the name of the 
principal A deed takes eflfect only from 
the day of delivery ; and therefore, if it 
have no date, or a date impossible, the de- 
livery will, in all cases, ascertain the date 
of it; and if another party seal the deed, 
yet, if the party Meliver it himself, he 
thereby adopts the sealing and signine, 
and, by such deliveiy, makes them bodi 
his own. The delivery of a deed may be 
alleged at any time afier the date ; but, un- 
less it be sealed and regularly delivered, 
it 18 no deed. Another requisite of a deed 
is, that it be properly witnessed or attest- 
ed: the attestation is, however, necessary 
rather for preserving the evidence, than as 
intrinsically essential to the validity of the 
instrument. There are four principles 
adopted by the courts of law for the expo- 
sition of deeds, viz., 1. that they be bene- 
ficial to the grantee, or person in whose 
favor they are intended to operate ; 2. that 
where the words may be employed to 
some intent, they shall not be void ; 3. that 
the words be construed according to the 
meaning of the porties, and the intent of 
the parties be carried into effect, provided 
such intent can possibly stand at law; 
4. that they are to be expounded conso- 
nantly to the rules of law, and reasonably, 
without injury to the ffrantor, and to the 
greatest advantage of Uie grantee. 

Deer {cervu^ These beautiful and 
well known quadrupeds belong to the 
order pecora, or ruminating animals. 
They ore distinguished from the antelopes 
(q.v.) by their horns, which are composed 
of a bcmy substance, caducous, or falling 



off annuaDy, and again renewed of a 
larger size than in Uie preceding year. 
These boms or antlers always exist on the 
head of the male, and sometimes on that 
of the female. In dieir first or young 
state, they are covered by a velvet-like 
membrane, through which the blood cir- 
culates with great freedom. At this time, 
the horn is extremely sensitive, the animal 
suffering much pain when it is roughly 
handled or struck. Afler the horn has 
attained its full growth, tlie base becomes 
surrounded with an irregular, tuberculous 
ring, called the burr, audthe blood-vessels 
gradually contract and diminish, until they 
cease to convey blood to the velvet mem- 
brane, which then dries, loses its sensi- 
tiveness, and finally flakes off. The fonn 
of the horns is various. Sometimes they 
spread into broad palms, which send out 
sharp snags around their outer ed^ ; 
sometimes they divide fiintastically into 
branches, some of which project over the 
forehead, whilst others are reared upwards 
in the air, or they may be so reclined 
backwards, that the animal seems almost 
forced to carry his head in a stifT^ erect 
posture. Yet they communicate an air 
of grandeur, seeming like trees planted on 
the head of a hving animal. The various 
species of deer, as well as the antelopes, 
invariablv remain in their original situa- 
tions, when lefl to themselves. Two 
species are common to the north of the 
old and new continents; five belong to 
North America; four to America south 
of the equator ; four to Europe and the 
continent of Asia ; and fourteen to India, 
China and the Asiatic archipelagos. The 
writings of naturalists exhibit much con- 
fusion in relation to the North American 
species. This has arisen, in a great meas- 
ure, from the loose manner in which 
species have been proposed on the author- 
ity of travellers, wholly incompetent to 
distinguish between mere varieties and 
those permanent characteristics indicative 
of specific constitution. The following 
are the only well authenticated species 
inhabiting this countiy; all the others, 
named as distinct, being mere varieties: 
moose (C. alcea) ; reindeer (C. tarandus) ; 
American elk (C. Canadmsia)', common 
deer (C. Virginianus) \ black-tailed deer 
( C. macrotia) ; long-tailed deer ( C. leucurus) ; 
Mexican deer (C. Mexicanusy It should 
be remarked, that few American quadru- 
peds have been found precisely smilar to 
their European representatives, and that 
recent writers have doubted whether tiie 
moose and reindeer of this country are 
identical with those of Scandinavia. No 



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satisfactory comparisons of the animals 
from the two continents have yet been 
made, and hence the distinguishing char- 
acters, if any exist, are still wiknown. — 
The Moose, or Orienal of the Canadians, 
is, perhaps, the only deer whose general 
appearance can be called ungraceful, or 
whose proportions, at first sight, impress 
the beholder unfavorably. Its large head 
terminates in a square muzzle, having the 
nostrils protruded over the sides of the 
mouth; the neck, which is furnished with 
a short, thick mane, is not lon^r than the 
head, which, in the males, is rendered 
still more cumbrous and unwieldy by 
large palmated horns ; under the throat is 
an excrescence, fit>m which issues a tuft of 
long hair ; the body, which is short and 
thick, is mounted on tall legs, ffivin^ a 
very ungainly aspect to the animiu, which 
is not diminished when it is in motion, as 
its ^t is a sort of shambling trot, very 
efficient, however, from the great length 
of its limbs. The moose inhabits the 
northern parts of both continents. In 
America, it has been found as far north as 
the country has been explored ; its south- 
em range, at former penods, extended to 
the shores of the great lakes, and through- 
out the New England States. Du Pratz 
mentions that, in his time, they occurred 
on the Ohio. At present, however, they 
are seldom heard of to the south of the 
state of Maine, where, also, they are be- 
coming scarce. But in Nova Scotia, 
around the bay of Fundy, and in the Hud- 
son's bay company's possessions, they are 
found in considerable numbers. Their 
flesh is more relished by the Indians, and 
persons resident in the fur countries, than 
that of any other animal. It b^rs a 
greater resemblance, in its flavor, to beef 
Sian to venison. The large and gristly 
extremity of the nose is accounted an 
epicurean treat Heame states that the 
external fat is soft, like that of a breast of 
mutton, and, when put into a bladder, is 
as fine as marrow. In this it differs fi^om 
all the other species of deer, of which the 
external fat is hard. The moose attains a 
large size, particularly the male, which 
sometimes weighs eleven or twelve hun- 
dred pounds. Their skins, when pro|)erly 
dressed, make a soft, thick, pliable leather, 
which tlie Indians prepare bv scraping 
them to an equal thickness, and removing 
the hair: they are then smeared with the 
brains of the animal, until tliey feel soft 
and spongy; and, lastly, they are suspended 
over a ^n made of rotten wood, until they 
are well impregnated with the smoke.— 
Reindeer. These animals inhabit the 



aretic islands of Spitzbeiigen, and the 
northern extremity of the old continent, 
never having extended, according to Cu- 
vier, to the southward of the Baltic. They 
have long been domesticated, and their 
appearance and habits are well described 
by naturalists. The American reindeer or 
caribou, are much less perfectly known : 
they have, however, so strong a resem- 
blance, in form and manners, to the Lap- 
land deer, that they have always been 
considered to be the same species, with- 
out the fact having ever been completely 
established. The American Indians have 
never profited by the docilltjr of this ani- 
mal, to aid them in transportmg their fami- 
lies and property, though they annually 
destroy great numbers for their flesh and 
hides. There appear to be several varie- 
ties of this useful quadruped {Peculiar to 
the high northemregionsof the American 
continent, which are ably described by 
doctor Richardson, one of the compan- 
ions of captain Franklin in his hazardous 
attempt to reach the north pole by land. 
The closeness of the hair of tlie caribou, 
and the lighmessof its skin when properly 
dressed, render it the most appropriate 
article far winter clothing in the high lati- 
tudes. The hoofs of the reindeer are 
verv large, and spread greatly, and thus 
enable it to cross the yielcung snows 
without sinking. During the summer 
months, diis deer feeds upon every species 
of green herbage ; but in winter, his whole 
food is the lichen or moss, which he in- 
stinctively seeks under the snow. It is a 
singular, but now a well established fact, 
that the reindeer vrill eat, with avidity, the 
lemming or mountain-rat, presenting one 
of the WW instances of a ruminating ani- 
mal being, in any degree, carnivorous. 
Reindeer have several times been trans- 
ported to England and Scodand in large 
numbers, but they have invariably die^ 
although they were attended by Laplan- 
ders, and could procure plenty of their 
natural food. Whether the failure arose, 
however, fit>m a want of pn»per atten- 
tion to the peculiar habits of the animal, 
or was the natural result of the tenacity 
vrith which die deer tribe adhere to thea- 
original geographical position as a law of 
nature, is a question not easy to be decid- 
ed.— »^merieanEZiL This stately and beau- 
tiful aimnal was, until very recently, con- 
fowided with the moose, from its com- 
mon English name being the same as that 
applied to the European moose. The 
size and appearance of the elk are very 
imposing ; bis air denotes confidence of 
gr^ strength, wliilst liia towering horns 



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BEER— DEFENDER OF THE FAITH. 



157 



exhibit weapons capable of doing much 
iiijuiy. The eik, at one period, ranged 
over the greater part of this continent, and 
is stili occasionally found in the remote 
and thinly settled parts of Pennsylvania ; 
but the number is small. Doctor Rich- 
ardson states that its northern range is 
about tlie 56th or 57th parallel of latitude. 
The elk has been sometimes domesticat- 
ed to a certain decree ; but, at the same 
time, from its warlike disposition, it is not 
likely that it could be advantageously sub- 
stituted for tlie reindeer. — Common Iker, 
This well known quadruped is found 
throughout the country between Canada 
and the banks of the Orinoco. In vari- 
ous parts of this extensive range, it presents 
considerable varieties in size and color. 
Judging by the quantity of skins brought 
to our markets, we may form some idea of 
the aggregate number and productiveness 
of these animals, which, notwithstand- 
ing the extensive destruction of them, 
«lo not appear to be very rapidly dimin- 
ishing, except in the immediate vicinities 
of very tliickly peopled districts. The 
common deer is possessed of keen senses, 
especially of bearing and smelling: the 
sight, though good, does not appear to 
equal in power the senses just named. 
It is necessary for a hunter to approach a 
deer against the wind, otherwise he is 
tiiscovered by the scent. The slightest 
noise, also, appeara to excite its feara 
more than any other cause ; while, on the 
contraiy, the sight of unaccustomed ob- 
jects seems rather to arouse curiosity than 
produce terror. The female commonly 
has one or two, and sometimes three, fitwns 
at a birth, which are of a hght cinnamon 
color, spotted with white. In the latter 
part of the summer, they lose the white 
spots, and in winter the hair grows longer 
and grayish: this '^ succeeded, in the 
following June, by a coat of a reddish 
color, which changes, in August, to a 
daricish blue, which agai6 gradually as- 
sumes a gray tint The skin is toughest 
in the red, thickest in the blue, and tliin- 
nest in the gray state. They shed their 
horns in February. — Btack-tatled Deer. 
This species is peculiar to the countiy 
west oi the Missouri., and in the neighbor- 
hood of the Rocky mountains. Thefiret 
information of this fine animal was given 
by Lewis and Clarke, and it was after- 
wards fully described by Mr. Say. Its 
ears are of great length, equalling that of 
the head ; its tail is terminated by a black 
Uih, whence its common name. From 
the form of its hoofs, which resemble 
those of the goat, it is enabled to Uve 
voju IV. 14 



among die rocky cliffs of the mountains. 
It does not run like the common deer, but 
bounds along, raising all its feet from the 
ground at the same time. — Long-iafkd 
iker. We owe the description of this ani- 
mal to Mr. Douglass, who states that it is 
not found on the east side of the Rockv 
mountains, except in their immediate vi- 
cinity, but is the most common deer in 
the districts about the Columbia river. 
ItB gait is two ambling steps and a bound 
exceeding twice the length of the st^is- 
In nmning, the tail is erect, waggins from 
side to side, and, from its unusual length 
(13 to 17 inches), is the most remarkable 
characteristic about the animal. It goea 
in herds, from November to April and 
May, when the female secretes herself to 
bring forth. The young are spotted with 
white until the middle of the first winter, 
when they change to the same color as 
the most aged. This deer, however, ap- 
proaches very near to the conunon sj>e- 
cies in all its characters, and may, eventu- 
ally, prove to be only a variety.-— JIfexican 
Deer. Of this species very little is known, 
except that it inhabits Mexico and the 
adjoining countries. It may possibly be 
ouly a variety of the common deer, as 
tlie differences exist principally in the 
disposition of the antiers, which is an ex- 
tremely fiillacious guide in the discrimi- 
nation of the different species of deer. 
The arrangement of the teeth of the deer 
is, incisora J, canine ft ft or ^ 1 molai* 
f t = total,32or34. 

De Facto (Ltztin ; in fact) ; a term used 
in contradistinction to de jvre (by right). 
Thus, for instance, it is said don Miguel i& 
de facto ruler of PortugaL In some cases, 
the distinction is clear enough, but very 
often not Napoleon's government waa 
called, by the Englisli, £ facto, and that 
of tlie Bourbons de jure ; yet every Iwdy 
knows that Hugh Capet obtained pos- 
session of tiie crown of rrance by violence. 
When did his successora begin to nde de 
jtaref Charles XIV is called, by many, 
the ruler of Sweden de factoy yet he was 
chosen king by the nation ; and who can 
be more property a ruler dejtare than a 
king chosen by the nation ? This consid- 
eration has led some politicians to assert 
that there is no government de jure, but 
only governments defaxio^ which may be 
better or worse. On the other hand, it is 
asserted that there is but one kind of gov- 
ernment de jure ; that is, such as receives 
its sanction and authority from the people 
who constitute die state. 
Defamation. (See Slander^ 
Defexvpek of the Faith (Iidei Deferir 



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DEFENDER OF THE FAITH— DEFOE. 



for) ; a title belonging to the king of Eng- 
land, as CathoUcas to the king of Spain, 
Christiamjtsimtis to the king of France, 
Jlpostolicu9 to the king of Hungary, &c. 
Leo X bestowed tlie title of Defender of 
jOht Faith, on Henry VIH on account of 
his memorable book against Luther; and 
the bull conferring it bears date quxnio 
idus Odob. 1521. Clement VII connrmecl 
the title. Chamberlayne says that the 
title was only renewed by Leo X; as 
•ApostdicuSj for instance, was renewed in 
the case of Maria Theresa, being, in &ct, 
a very old title. (See ^postolicus,) 

Deffand, Marie du; a French lady, 
distinguished alike for her talents and her 
intercourse with the literati of the last 
century. She was bom in 1696, of a no- 
ble family, and received an education 
suitable to her rank. Her acquirements 
were very considerable, but no care seems 
to have been taken to regulate her tem[>er 
and disposition, which were marked by a 
degree of selfishness which was conspicu- 
ous throughout her life. In 1718, she was 
married to J. B. J. du Deffand, marquis de 
la Lande, colonel of a regiment of dra- 
goons. During the latter part of her long 
fife, she became the centre of a literary 
coterie, which included some of the great- 
est geniuses of the age. Among the fe- 
males remarkable for their wit and talents 
in the 18th century, madame du Def!<u)d 
claims a distinguished place, though she 
left no monument of her abilities except 
her e])istolary correspondence, which has 
been highly praised by her friend D'Alem- 
bert, as affording a model of style in that 
species of composition. She died in 1780, 
having reached the ace of 84, during the 
last 30 years of which she had been af- 
flicted with blindness. In 1810 was pub- 
lished Correspondance irUdite de Madame 
du Dejfcmd avec d^Alemberty Montesquieu, 
le Pristdent HhiauUy la Dtuhesse du Maine ; 
Mesdames de Choisevlf de Stail; h Mar- 

nd^Jtrgens, U Chevcdier d^Jhfdie, &c., 
»ls. 8vo. Her letteni to the celebrated 
Horace Walpole have likewise been 
printed. 

Defile ; a narrow wav^ admitting only 
a few persons abreast tlie term is oflen 
erroneously confined to mountain passes. 
As they delay the march of troops, and 
expose them to the fire of the enemy, they 
must be avoided if possible, particularly by 
artillety and wagons. A defile is defend- 
ed in'dififerent ways. When it is formed 
by heights (paiticuJariy if they are covered 
with wood), it is advisable to occupy the 
entrance, and station the troops en masse 
behind: when this is not the case, the b^t 



way will be to render the passage as im- 
practicable as possible, and to make a 
stand behind the outlet of the defile, so 
that the enemies advancing from it may 
be checked by an efifectual fire, and pre- 
vented firom developmg themselves. A 
position before the defile, for the purpose 
of defending it, is only to be thought of 
when the passase of another division is to 
be covered. This method may be more 
or less varied in the defence of bridges. 
In passing a defile in sight of the enemy, 
afler tlie usual precautions of patrols, &c., 
the van-guard must first mardi rapidly 
through, and take a position before the 
outlet, so as to cover the developement 
of the succeeding masses, the preventing 
of which will be the object of Uie enemy. 
To defile is, therefore, to pass through a 
nan'ow passage. To march before any 
one with a narrow front, that is, en cdonne^ 
or by files, is also called d^Hxn^. 

Definition (from the Latin definHio) 
of a thing signifies, in lexicography, a 
concise account of its essential and char- 
acteristic pointa A definition should 
embrace all the essential properties of the 
object intended to be defined, and not ad- 
mit any which do not belong to it, which 
is oflen extremely difficult, on account of 
the shades and gradations by which dif- 
ferent things are blended. A strictly ac- 
curate definition can be given of only a 
few objects. The most simple things are 
the least capable of definiuon, from the 
difficulty of finding terms more simple 
and intelligible than the one to be defined. 
Of course, every lai^ dictionary abounds 
with definitions which explain nothing, 
since the thing defined cannot be made 
clearer by any definition. A good defini- 
tion must give the mark of the genus (nota 
genendis seu genus) and of the species 
(noia specialis seu differenUa specified) ; for 
instance, a bam is a building (nota gen- 
eralis) for the purpose of preserving com, 
&c. (nota specudis), A definition may be 
analytic or syntlietic. 

Deflagration, and Deflaorator. 
(See Galvamsm.) 

Deflection of the Rats of Light 
is a property which doctor Hooke ob- 
served in 1674 — 5. He says he found it 
different from both reflection and refrac- 
tion, and that it took place towards the 
sur&ce of the opacous body perpendicu- 
larly. This is tne same property which 
Newton calls {faction. It is called, by 
others, diffraction, 

Defoe, Daniel, a vmter of ffreat inge- 
nui^ and fertility, was bom at London in 
16^ His &thei^8 name was simply Foe. 



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DEFOE-DEGRADATION. 



15» 



He received his education at an academy 
at Newington Green, and he is not sup- 
posed to have attained to much ciassical 
acquirement. He commenced author at 
the age of 21, by a Treatise a^inst the 
Turks, joined the insurrection ot the duke 
of Monmouth, and had the good fortune 
to escape to London, where ne engaged, 
first as a hor8e-iiictor,and then as a raalcer 
of bricks at Tilbury fort His commercial 
speculations, however, failing, he became 
insolvent ; and it is to his credit, that, hav- 
ing cleared his debts by a composition, he 
subsequently paid most of them in full, 
when his circumstances were amended. 
In 1697, he wrote an Essay on Projects. 
In 1701, appeared his satire, tlie True- 
bom Englishman, the object of which 
was to show the folly of the popular ob- 
jection to king William, as a foreigner, by 
a people who were themselves a mixture 
of so many races. In 1702, when the 
high church party seemed dis|x>sed to 
carry matters stronely against the Dissen- 
ters, he published the Shortest Way with 
the Dissenters, being an ironical recom- 
mendation of persecution, so gravely cov- 
ered that many persons were deceived by 
it It was, however, voted a seditious 
libel by the house of commons ; and, the 
author avowing himself, to secure his 
printer and publisher, he was prosecuted 
to conviction, and sentenced to fine, im- 
prisonment, and the pillory. He under- 
went the latter punishment with great 
equanimity, and was so far fi^m being 
ashamed of it, that he wrote a Hymn to 
the Pillory, alluding to this circumstance. 
In February, 1703, while in Newpite, he 
commenced the Review, which is sup- 
poeed to have given Steele the hint for 
his Tatler. He was at length liberated 
from Newgate by the interposition of 
Harley, and the queen herself sent money 
to his wife and faniily. In 1706^ he puly- 
lished his largest poem, entitled Jure Dwi- 
no, a satire on the doctrine of divine 
right When the accession of the house 
of Hanover became an interesting topic, 
be wrote in its favor ; but so obmse waft 
the public to his irony, that he was im- 
prisoned for his productions as libels in 
fiivor of the pretender. The accession of 
George I produced him no fiirther patron- 
age, and he began another line of compo- 
sition. In 1715, he published the Fami- 
ly Instructor, a work inculcating moral 
and religious duties m a lively manner, by 
narration and dialogue. To this work his 
well-known Religious Courtship, publish- 
ed in 1722, formed a third volume. In 
1719, appeared the most popular of all his 



performances— the Liie and Surprising 
Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, tlie fa- 
vorable reception of which was imme- 
diate and universal. It is unnecessary to 
dwell upon a work which eveiy body has 
read, and which has beeu translated into 
all the languages of Europe ; but it may be 
proper to mention, that the imputation of 
his founding it upon the papers of Alex- 
ander Selkirk, the Scottish mariner, left 
on the island of Juan Fernandez, appears 
to be altogether untrue. The success of 
Defoe in tiiis performance induced him ta 
write a number of other lives and adven- 
tures in character ; as Moll Flanders, Cap- 
tain Singleton, Roxalana, Duncan Camp- 
bell, and the. Adventures of a Cavalier. 
In 1722, he published a Journal of the 
Plague in 1665, in the person of a citizen 
su|>posed to have been a witness of it 
The natural manner in which it is writ- 
ten deceived the celebrated doctor Mead, 
who thought it genuine. In 1724, he 
published the Great Law of Subordina- 
tion, and, in 1726, his Political History of 
the Devil, to which he afterwards added, 
in the same style of reasoning, wit and 
ridicule, a System of Magic. He is also 
author of a Tour tiirough die Island of 
Great Britain, the Complete English 
Tradesman, a Plan of English Com- 
merce, and various other productions. 
He died in April, 1731. A work has 
been lately published, called Memoirs of 
the Life and Times of Daniel Defoe, by 
Walter Wilson, three volumes, London, 
1830. 

Defterdar, in the Turkish empire; 
the minister of the finances, and high- 
treasurer of the empire. He is different 
from the kasnadcar-haschi, the treasurer of 
the 8ultan*s private purse. 
Deoerando. (See Gercmdo,) 
Degradation. The ecclesiastical cen- 
sure, by which a clergyman is divested 
of his holy orders, is termed degradation. 
The ceremony consists chiefly in stripping 
off his clerical vestments. Geliot, in his 
Indice armorid, describes the degradation 
of Franget, a Gascon captain, for surren- 
dering Fontarabia under Francis I. The 
accusation of treason was pronounced be- 
fore 20 or 30 cavaliers. The culprit was 
armed at alt points, and his shield, rever- 
sed, was suspended on a stake befbre him. 
By his side, twelve priests chanted the vig- 
ils of the dead. At the pause after each 
psalm, the officers stripped the knight of a 
piece of his armor, till he was quite bare. 
His shield was tiien broken into three 
pieces, and the kin^ at arms poured a basin 
of hot water on his head. The criminaJ 



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DEGRADATION— D£6R£E. 



xna afterwards let down from the scaifold, 
by ropes under his arms, and, beuiff placed 
on a Dier, covered with grave-clothes, and 
preceded by a priest chanting a mass for 
the dead, was deUvered to the civil judge 
and the executioner. His life, however, 
eventually was spared, since life, under 
such circumstances, was considered more 
bitter than deatli. 

Degree, in algebra, a term applied to 
equations, to distinguish the highest pow- 
er of the unknown quantity. Thus, if 
the index of that power be 3 or 4, tlie 
equation is respecuvely of the 3d or 4th 
dec 



EGREE, m geometry or trigonometry, is 
die 360th part of the circumference of any 
circle ; eveiy circle being considered as di- 
vided into 360 parts, called degrees, which 
are marked by a small ° near the top of 
the figure ; thua^ 45^ is 45 degrees. The 
degree is subdivided into 60 smaller parts, 
caUed minuUs ; the minute into 60 othere, 
called secotuh ; the second mto GO thirds, 
&c Thus 45«> IS' W is 45 degrees, 
12 minutes, 20 seconds. The magnitude 
or quantity of angles is estimated in de- 
grees ; for, because of the unifcmn curva- 
ture of a circle in all its parts, equal an- 
gles at the centre are subtended by equal 



arcs, and by similar arcs in peripheries of 
different diameters ; and an angle is said 
to be of so many degrees as are contained 
in the arc of any circle comprehended 
between the legs of the angle, and having 
the angular point for its centre. Thus we 
say " an ancle of 90^," or " of 45® 24'." It 
is also usual to say, ''such a star is elevat- 
ed so many degrees above the horizon," 
or ''declines so many degrees from the 
equator ;" or " such a town is situated in 
80 many degrees of latitude or longitude." 
A sign of the ecliptic or zodiac contains 
30 degrees. 

Degree of LatUude is the space or dis- 
tance, on the meridian, through which an 
observer must move to vary his latitude 
by one degree, or to increase or diminish 
the distance of a star from the zenith by 
one degree ; and which, on the supposi- 
tion of the perfect S|)hericity of tlie earth, 
is the SGOtli part of the meridian. The 
length of a degree of a meridian, or 
other great circle, on the surface of the 
earth, is variously determined by different 
observers, and the methods made use of 
are also various ; and, therefore, without 
entering into the history of all attempts 
of this kind, we shall present our readeiB 
with tlie following 



Tabu of the di^^rent Lengths of a Degru, cls measured in various Parts of ih€ 
Earth, the Time of Us Measurement, the LatUude of Us middle Point, tfc. 











Extent in Eiig- 


Date. 




Latitude. 




Ikhroileeaiid 
decimals. 


1525 


49° 20i' 


N. 


68.763 


1620 


52 


4 


N. 


66.091 


1635 


53 


15 


N. 


69.545 


1644 








75.066 


1669) 
1718J 


49 


22 


N. 


568.945 
^69.119 


1737 


66 


20 


N. 


69.403 




49 


22 


N. 


69.121 1 
69.092 ( 


1740 


45 


00 


N. 










C 68.751 


1744 










^68.732 
^68.713 


1752 


33 


184 


S. 


69.076 


1755 


43 





N. 


t)0.«ft70 


1764 


44 


44 


N. 


69.061 


1766 


47 


40 


N. 


69.142 


1768 


39 


12 


N. 


68.893 


1802 


51 


29 54iN. 


69.146 


1803 


66 


20i 


N. 


69.292 




12 


32 


N. 


68.743 


1808 


44 


521 


N. 


68.769 



M. Femel 

Snellius 

Norwood 

Riccioli 

Picaid , 

Cassini 

Maupertuis, &c. . . 

Cassini and La Caille 

Juan and Ulloa .... 

Bouffuer 

Cpndamine 

La Caille 

Boscovich . 

Beccaria 

Liesganig 

Mason and Dixon . . 
Lieut-col. Mudge . . 

Swanberg,&c 

Lambton 

Biot, Arago, &c. . . . 



CountrieiL 



France. 
Holland. 
England. 
Italy. 

France. 

Laffland. 

France. 

Peru. 

Cape of Good 
Hope. 

Italy. 

Germany. 

U. States. 

England. 

Lapland. 

Mysore. 

France. 



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DEGREE— DEGREES, MEASUREMENT OF. 

EB^fUciiies of (he Eartiij txfrtsatd ui Porta of its equatorial 
Duuneter. 



161 



AntbGn. 


EDipticlUei. 


Principiflfc 


Huyghens, . . . 
NewtoD, 




Theory of gravity. 


Maupertuis, &c 




Mensuration of area 


Swanbe^y • • . 


TJ23?oe5 




Clairauty .... 


"nrfry 


Rotatory motion. 




rfr 


Vibrations of the pendulum. 


Treisnsoker, . . 


"siv 


Occultations of the fixed stars. 


Laplace, 




Precession, nutation, pendu- 
lum, theory of tlie moon, &c. 



Degree of Loi^itude is the space be- according to the latitude. The following 

tween two meridians that make an angle table expresses the length of a degree of 

of P with each other at the poles, me k>ngitude in different latitudes, supposing 

quantity or length of which is variable, the earth topoasess a perfect sphericity : — 



peg. 


EnCl'Hh 


Deg. 


Encltab 


DSR. 


English 


Def. 


English 


Deg. 


English 


Ltt. 


miles. 


Let 


miles. 


LSL 


mUes. 


Lat. 


miles. 


Ul. 


miles. 





69.07 


20 


64.84 


40 


52.85 


60 


34.50 


80 


11.98 


1 


69.06 


21 


64.42 


41 


52.07 


61 


3a45 


81 


10.79 


2 


69.03 


22 


63.97 


42 


5L27 


62 


32.40 


82 


9.59 


3 


68i)7 


23 


63.51 


43 


50.46 


63 


31.33 


83 


8.41 


4 


68.90 


24 


63.03 


44 


49.63 


64 


30.24 


84 


7.21 


5 


68.81 


25 


6253 


45 


48.74 


65 


29.15 


85 


6.09 


6 


68.62 


26 


62.02 


46 


47.93 


66 


28.06 


86 


4.81 


7 


68.48 


27 


61.48 


47 


47.06 


67 


26.96 


87 


3.61 


8 


68.31 


28 


60.93 


48 


46.16 


68 


25.85 


88 


2.41 


9 


68.15 


29 


60.35 


49 


45J36 


69 


24.73 


89 


1.21 


10 


67.95 


30 


59.75 


50 


44.35 


70 


23.60 


90 


0.00 


11 


67.73 


31 


59.13 


51 


4a42 


71 


22.47 






12 


67.48 


32 


58.51 


52 


43.48 


72 


21.32 






13 


67.21 


33 


57.87 


53 


41.53 


73 


20.17 






14 


66.95 


34 


57i» 


54 


40.56 


74 


19.02 






15 


66.65 


35 


56.51 


55 


39.58 


75 


17.86 






16 


66.31 


36 


55.81 


56 


88.58 


76 


16.70 






17 


65.98 


37 


55.10 


57 


37.58 


77 


15.52 






18 


65.62 


38 


54.37 


58 


36.57 


78 


14.85 






19 


6554 


39 


53.62 


59 


35.54 


79 


13.17 







Degress, MEASuREMEifr of. After 
the immortal Newton had taught that the 
earth, on account of its motion round its 
axis, must be highest near the equator, 
and that the diameter of the equator must 
be longer, by one 230th part, than the 
diameter from pole to pole, the French 
wished to investigate the subject fiuther 
by actual measurement Newton gave 
them warning that the difference between 
a degree at Myonne and one at Dunkiris 
was so trifling that it could not be detect- 
ed at all wi3i the imperfect instruments 
Ih^i in use ; and was, in fiict, afraid that 
14* 



they might come to a result directly op- 
pioeite to what he conceived to be coirect, 
and brin^ confusion into science. But 
his wanungs were of no avail The 
measurement was begun, and the fear of 
the great philosopher was realized ; for 
the result was, tliat the axis of the poles 
was longer than a diameter of the equator, 
and that the earth was, in form, more like 
a lemon than an orange. For 40 years, 
disputes were maintained on this point, 
without settUng the question ; and, at 
last, the academy of sciences resolved, on 
the proposition of Condamine (q. v.), to 



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162 



DEGREES, BIEASUREMENT OF. 



have a degree measured at tlie equator 
(the expedition went to South America in 
1735), and one in Lapland (Kittis and 
Tomea being the extreme stations to 
which the expedition was sent in 1736). 
It was found tnat tlie northern degree was 
ereater than that under the equator, and 
Uiat Newton's conjecture was right But 
the question still remained, How |;reat is 
the flattening of our planet ? The theory 
said, one 230th part, if the earth had been, 
in a perfectly hquid state, when if, began 
its rotation. The calculations, however, 
always gave different results, varying ac- 
cording to the different measurements 
adopted as the basis of them ; for meas- 
urements had been made, not only in 
America and Lapland, but also in France, 
England, Hungary, and Italy. It was 
concluded, that the earth was not a re^- 
lar body, but had great local inequalities. 
Though this was possible, yet the conclu- 
sion was too hasty, because these suppos- 
ed ine(]ualities might be caused by the 
msufSciency of the instruments, and by 
the smallness of the arcs measured. 
When the French established their new 
and admirable system of measures and 
weights upon the basis of the metre, 
which was to be the ten miUionth put of 
the distance from the equator to tiie pole 
(^tW^t English leet ; see Measures), it 
was necessaiy to know, with accuracy, 
the circumference and the flattening of 
the earth. A measurement, therefore, 
took place in France, not of one degree, 
but of 10 degrees, from Dunkirk to For- 
mentera. (See Dekanhre.) In Sweden, 
in 1802, the degree, whicn, 80 years be- 
fore, had been measured by Maupertuis, 
was now measured again, with better in- 
struments, and thus the drcumference 
and flattening of the earth were pretty 
weU ascertained. After the peace, the 
measurements of decrees, which were 
made in England, under general Roy, by 
lieutenant-colonel Mudge,were connected 
with those in France ; and thus an arc of 
SO degrees, from the Balearic islands, near 
the coast of Spain, over France and 
Ekigland, to the Orcades, has been meas- 
ured, and the flattening of the earth has 
been determmed as accurately as it can 
be done in Europe. The flattening has 
been found to be one 304th. In India, 
Lambton has begun the measurement of 
a degree. These measurements of de- 

rM are among those enterprises which 
mankind much honor, because they 
are not undertaken for the sake of imme- 
diate profit, nor of bare utifity, but flx)m 
an ardent desire of knowing the truth, 



flt>m the same deep thirst for knowledge, 
which has so often impelled men to ex- 
plore the icy seas of the poles and the 
burning deserts of Africa, The history 
of such expeditions is better fitted to 
awaken a generous spirit in youth than 
the oft-repeated tale of conquest and 
bloodshed. 

Measurement of a Decree of Longitude, 
The degrees of longituoe are largest un- 
der tlie equator, and diminish continually 
towards the pole. Under the equator, a 
degree of longitude contains 60 geogranhi- 
cal, 69^ statute miles. If the form of the 
eaith is not entirely regular, the degrees 
of longitude on the same jiarallel of lati- 
tude cannot all be of the same length ; 
and it has been proposed to investigate 
this by actual measurement This task is, 
in the trigonometric part, as easy as the 
measurement of. a degree of latitude ; but 
in the astronomical part, it is 15 times 
more diflicult. The difference of the lon- 
gitude of two pkices is determined by the 
difference of the hour of the day, at the 
same point of time in the two; as a place, 
situated 15 degrees to the east of another, 
has noon a whole hour earlier. One hour, 
therefore, corresponds to 15 degrees, or 
1042^ statute miles under the equator, or 
5,504,400 feet ; a minute of time, to 91,740 
feet, and a second of time, to 1529 feet A 
mistake of a second of time, therefore, in 
calculating the longitude of two places, 
makes a corresponding error in space. To 
determine time, within two or three sec- 
onds, by means of rockets, at a distance of 
1042i miles, is impossible ; and, whilst the 
measurement of an arc, corresponding to 
this distance, trigonometrically, may be at- 
tended with an error to the amount of 200 
feet, an astronomical measurement would 
leave an uncertainty of 2000 feet The 
earlier measurements of the French were 
directed, in the North, by Maupertuis -, in 
the South, by Bouguer. Detailed notices 
on the measurements of degrees are given 
by Delambre, in his ^^stnmomie, iii, chap. 
35. A pq)ular description is given in the 
exceUent work, ArdeUung zur AOfemeinen 
Kenntnisa d, Erdkugd (Introduction to a 
general Knowledge of the Globe, second 
edition, Berlm, 1803), bjr Bode. The la- 
test information respectmff this subject m 
given by captain Edward Sabine. He 
made observations with the pendulum, 
fiDm lat 13° S. to lat 80° N. He calcu- 
lates the flattenmg of the eiuth to be 
?iVt 1 <^^ '^ ^® measurements of Sa- 
bine; Kater, and the modem French ones 
by Biot, are connected, and the mean of 
the whole taken, the flattening will be 



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DEGREES, MEASUREMENT OF-^DELAMBRK 



163 



foond to be t^Vt* (^^ Sabine's Account 
of ExperimenU to deUnmne the Figure ojT 
&e Earthy by Means of the Pendmvm vi- 
brating Seconds in difirent Latitudes^ Lon- 
don, 1835, 4to.) 

Dkgree, in universities, denotes a dis- 
tinction conferred on the students or 
members thereof, as a testimony of their 
proficiency in the arts or sciences, and 
entitling tnem to certain {Hirileges. The 
degrees are much the same in all univer- 
sities ; but the laws thereof, and the pre- 
vious discipline or exercise, differ. The 
degrees are, bachelor, master and doctor; 
in^ead of which last, in some foreign uni- 
versities, is licentiate. 

Deioamxa (Deida3mda)\ daughter of 
Lycomedes : she bore Pyrrhus and Onites 
to Achilles, during his abode at Seyms. 

Dei Gratia (6y the grace of God) ; a 
formula which sovereigns add to their 
tide. The expression is taken from an 
Episde of the apostle Paul, and was used 
firat by the clei^ in the dme of Constan- 
tine the GreaL In the umes of the Carlo- 
vingian race, the secular princes also a»- 
sumed it The high clergy of the Catho- 
lic church used it with an addidon : ^ By 
the grace of God and the apostolic see." 

Deiotarus, tetrarch of Galatia, received 
from the Roman senate the title of king 
of that province and Armenia Minor, on 
account of services rendered to the Ro- 
mans in the Asiatic wars. In the civil 
war, he joined the party of Pompey.. Coe- 
Bar took from him Armenia, obliged him 
to march with him against Phamaces, and 
left him nothing but the tide of royalty. 
He was accused of having plotted against 
the life of Cflesar, from which charge 
CSoero defended him in an oration yet 
extant After the murder of Csesar, he 
returned to his dominions, joined Brutus, 
aiid afterwards Augustus. He died, at 
an advanced age, 30 B. C. 

Deir; an Arabian word signifying Aoitfe; 
as, Deir-el-Kamar, the house of the moon. 
It often occuiB in geographical compounds. 

Deism (from the Latm deus\ as a philo- 
sophical system ; that which ilnda in God 
the cause of all thinss. It is, as such, 
opposed to atheism. In a religious point 
of view, it is used for the belief in natural 
religion, contradistinguiBhed from the belief 
n revelation, and is considered, by many 
persona, almost equivalent to atheism, 
&iough this opinion can only be caused 
by ignonmce. Theism has the same sig- 
nification, and is derived fit>m the Greek 
$$o( (god). In India, there is a sect of 
pore deiirts, called Seiks. 

DsJAifiRA; daughter of OSneus, king 



of Calydon, a city of iGtolia ; according 
to others, of Bacchus and Altbcea, who, 
with her sister Gorgo, alone retained her 
form, when her other sisters were trans- 
formed, while mourning for their brother. 
She was betrothed to Acheloiis, the god 
of the river of the same name, who, on her 
account, engaged in a combat with Her- 
cules. Acheloiis was overcome, and the 
maiden became the prize of the victor, 
who, on his return to his countrv, was 
stopped in his way by the river J^venus, 
winch had overftowed its banks. In this 
emeivency, the Centaur Nessus offered to 
take Dejanira across the river on his back. 
Hercules readily consented, and passed 
over the river first; but, when he had 
reached tlie opposite bank, he saw that the 
Centaur was attempting to ofifer her vio- 
lence. Enraged at die sight, he pierced 
him with an arrow, which had been dip- 
ped in the blood of the hydra. Nessus, 
perceiving his death approaching, wished 
to be revenged, and gave to D^anin his 
bloody tunic, telliiiff her that, if her hus- 
band was unfaithful, she should persuade 
him to put this on, and it would reclaim 
hun from his unlawful passion. The 
creduloud Dejanira accepted the present 
Hearing, subaequendy, that Hercules was 
captivated by the charms of lole, the daugh- 
ter of Eurytus of Euboea, she sent him the 
tunic of Nessus by a young slave, named 
Lichas, with the tenderest messages. Her- 
cules joyfully accepted the ftital present, 
and hastened to make use of it ; but was 
thrown into the most violent agony. In 
his fury, he hurled Lichas into the sea, 
>¥here, by the compassion of the gods, he 
was changed into a rock. Then, having 
hewed down some trees on mount (Eta, 
and erected a funeral pile, he ascended 
the pile, and begffed bis fiiend Phikictetes 
to set fire to it When Dejanira heard of 
the death of Hercules, she vras so overcome 
by anguish, that she destroyed herself 

Deken, A^the ; a Dutch authoress, 
bom in 1741, m the village of Amstelveen, 
near Amsterdam. She wrote Dutch novels 
and poems of merit ; amonff others, lAede- 
renvoordenB<Brvensiand, She died in 1804. 

Delambre; one of the most distin- 
guished astronomers of our time, bora at 
Amiens, in 1749 'y studied under the abb^ 
DehUe, who always remained his friend. 
He first applied himself to the language6, 
particularly most of the livinff ones, and 
made himself one of the best Hellenists in 
France. His studies were not directed to 
astronomy until his 36di year. He en- 
riched the writings of Lalande with a 
commentary, and became the firiend and 



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164 



DELAMBRE--^D£LAWAR£. 



pupil of the author, who proudly called 
him his best xoork. In 1790, eight years 
after the discovery of Herschel, Delainbre 
published tlie tables of that planet, although 
ID that period, it had performed but a small 
part of its 80 years' course. He also con- 
structed tables of Jupiter and Saturn, and 
of the satellites of Jupiter, which, with 
several treatises, procured him a reception 
into the national institute. He was en- 
^ed with M^chain, from 1792 till 1799, 
m measuring an arc of the meridian from 
Barcelona to Dunkirk for tlie veiiiica- 
tion of which he measured two bases of 
6000 toises, one near Melun, the other 
near Perpignan. (See his Bast du ^' 
Ume Milrique dicimal, ou Meswrt de VJtrc 
J du MeridUn compris entre Us ParaUiles 
de Jhmkerqtie et Jaarcelorme, Paris, 3 vols., 
4to. ; and RecueU d^Observat, Gtodisiques 
fcdsant Suite au Sme vol. de la Base du 
SysL Mtir. ridigi par Biol et Jirago). He 
was made member of the bureau des hm- 
gUudes, In 1802, Napoleon appointed 
nim inspecteur-girUral des Hvdes^ which 
post he resigned when chosen perpetual 
secretary of the class of mathematical sci- 
ences (1803). His first tables of the sun 
were published in 1792 ; in 1806, appeared 
his new ones. In 1807, he succeeded La- 
lande in the colUge de France^ and wrote 
his T^raiU d^Jlstronomie VUorique et prati- 
que (3 vols., 4to., 1814), Histoire de V Astro- 
mmiedumoyen age (1819), Hist, de PAslron. 
tnodeme (1821, 2 vols.) and Hist de VAstron, 
du 18me. iSt^c^ (2 vols.) ; a coUection of 
works such as no other nation can show. 
Delambre also distinguished himself, as 
perpetual secretary of the institute, by 
the justice and elegance of his iUutes. 
He (hed in 1822. 

Delavigne, Jean Francois Casimir ; a 
dramatic poet, bom in 1794, at Havre. 
He commenced his poetical career while 
a youth, by the dithyramb on the birdi 
of the king of Rome (1811). His poem 
on the discovery of vaccination received, 
in 1814, the first of tlie secondaiy prizes 
from the French academy. He then ap- 
phed himself to dramatic poetry, and pub- 
lished his first tragedy, Les Vepres SicUi- 
ennes (1821), which was received with 
general applause ; and has since ^litten a 
second, Lt Paria. The first piece, not- 
withstanding many faults in the plan and 
the dehneation of most of the characters, 
displayed remarkable poetic genius : the 
vigorous sketch of the chief character, by 
which the whole action is animated, and 
his fine dioughts expressed in brilhant 
language, atone for many feeble passages 
and some &ise splendor. At the first 



representation of this piece at the Odion 
(1819), some verses against arbitraiy gov- 
ernments and the insolence of ministers 
produced so much disturbance, that the 
police forbade the repetition of them ; but 
they were still iqiplauded, and this strug- 
gle between the pohce and the audience 
contributed not a litde to give popularity 
to the production. In the second piece, 
tlie improvement of the poet is visible :i 
he displays a great brilliancy of coloring, 
harmony of versification, and richness of 
ideas and images, though it is j ustly objected 
tliat he had not studied his subject pro- 
foundly, nor given it all the interest of which 
it is susceptible. In his elegies, Les trois 
MessMenMSy Delavigne bewailed the mis- 
fortunes of France. In 1819, followed 
two elegies Sur la Vie et la Mori de Jeanne 
d*Arc. His comedy Les Comidiens^ 5 
acts in verse, in the style of the Metromame^ 
is directed against the principles of the 
old French stage. His JVouveUes Mes- 
shaermes (1822) were produced by the 
Greek revolution. In 1823, his comedy 
Vjtcole des VteUlards was received with 
general applause. In a new Messhaenne^ 
Delavigne expresses the grief of Europe 
at the death of lord Byron. It is in the 
10th edition of his MessMennes et Poisies 
dxoerses (Paris, 1824, 2 vols.). In 1824, 
Delavigne was made member of the 
French academy, and, in 1825, was of- 
fered a pension of 1200 fianca from the 
civil list, which, however, as well as the 
cross of the legion of honor, be dechued, 
that he might preserve his independence. 
(For his pohtical correspondence with 
Lamartine, see Lamartine.) 

Delaware ; one of the United States, 
bounded N. by Pennsylvania, £. by Dela- 
ware river and bay, S. and W. by Mary- 
land; Ion. 74° 56^ to 75° 40^ W. ; lot 38* 
29^ to 39° 47' N.; 92 miles long, and 23 
broad ; square miles, 2120 : population, in 
1790, 59,094; in 1800, 64,272; in 1810, 
72,674; in 1820, 72,749; white males, 
27,904 ; white females, 27,377 ; fiiee blacks, 
12^958; slaves, 4509. It is divided into 
three counties, which are subdivided into 
25 hundreds. Dover is the seat of gov- 
ernment Wilmington is the lai^gest town. 
The other most considerable towns are 
Newcastle, Georgetown, Smyrna, Milford 
and Lewistown. Presbyterians are the 
most numerous denomination of Chris- 
tians: there are, besides, a considenU)le 
number of Methodists. The legislature 
consists of a tenate, chosen for three years, 
and a hoase of representatives, chosen 
annually on the first Tuesday in October. 
The governor is chosen by the people for 



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D£LAWARE--D£LAWAR£ BREAKWATER. 



165 



three yean, but can hold die office only 
three years in ax. The principal rivers 
besides tlie Delaware, which forms a part 
of the boundary, are Bruidywine creek, 
Christiana creek, Duck creek, Mispillion 
creek, Indian river, Choptank and Nanti- 
coke. Delaware is, next to Rhode Island, 
the smallest state in extent in the Union, 
and the least diversified in surface. The 
general aspect of ttie greater part is that 
of an extended plain, though the north- 
western part of the county of Newcasde 
is hilly or uneven. The heiglits of Chris- 
tiana are lofly and commanding, and the 
hills of Brandy wine are rough and stony ; 
but in die lower ceunny, there is very 
little diversity of level. The highest ridge 
between Delaware and Chesapeake bays 
passes through this state. On the sunrmiit 
of the ridge, there is a chain of swamps, 
fiom which a number of waters descend 
on tlie west to Chesapeake bay, and on 
the east to the river Delaware. Along the 
Delaware river, and for about 9 miles into 
the interior, the soil is generally a rich 
clay, which produces large timber, and is 
well adapted to the purposes of agricul- 
ture; but, between this tract and the 
swamps, the soil is light, sandy, and of an 
inferior quality. In- the coun^ of New- 
casde, the soil is a strong clay ; in Kent, it 
is mixed with pand ; and in Sussex, the 
Band gready predominates. The principal 
articles of produce are wheat, Indian corn, 
rye, bariey, oats, dax, buck-wheat and 
potatoes^ The county of Sussex contains 
some excellent grazing lands ; and it ex- 
ports great quantities of timber, obtained 
from Cypress swamp, on Indian river, 
which extends about 6 miles from £. to 
W., and nearly 12 from N. to S. The 
staple commodity is wheat, which is of a 
superior quality, and is highly esteemed 
for its uncommon softness and whiteness, 
and is preferred in foreign markets. Large 
establishments have been erected for man- 
uiacturinff wheat into flour. Of these, the 
Brandywrae mills, in the vicinity of Wil- 
mington, are the most important These 
are die finest collection of mills in the U. 
States, and are celebrated both for the 
exceUence and the quantity of flour which 
they manufacture. Delaware contains 
veiy few minerals. In the county of Sus- 
sex, and among the branches of the Nan- 
ticoke, are laree quantities of bog iron ore, 
well adapted for casting. Before the rev- 
olution, it was wrought to a great extent ; 
but since that event, the business has 
declined. — ^Delaware was settled by the 
Swedes and Finns as early as 1627. The 
cdony was formed under the auspices of 



Gustavus Adolphus, kingof Sweden, who 
named the country ^YavaSuedcL Hoai^ 
kill (now Lewi8toum\ was founded in 
1630, but, the Dutch claiming the country, 
it passed under their power in 1655. In 
1664, the colony on the Delaware fell, 
with other parts of New Amsterdam, into 
the hands of the English, and was granted 
by Charles II to his brother James, duke 
of York, who, in 1682, conveyed it, as far 
as cape Henlopen, to William Penn. In 
1704, Delaware, though under the same 
proprietor, became a sefiarate colonial 
estfiiblishment, and remained such until 
the revolution. Its constitution was 
formed in 1776. The Chesapeake and 
Delaware canal crosses this state. As a 
manufaoturing state, Delaware holds a 
rank far above its relative extent and pop- 
ulation. The works near Wilmington are 
extensive and highly valuable. As early 
as 1810, the value of the various manufac- 
tures exceeded $1,733,000. 

Delaware ; a river of the U. States, 
which rises in Catskill mountains, in New 
York. In its course, it separates Pennsyl- 
vania from New York and New Jersey, 
and loses itself in Delaware bay, aliout 5 
miles below Newcastle. It is navigable 
for a 74 gun ship to Philadelphia, 55 miles 
above the head of the bay, and about 120 
from the ocean ; for sloops to the head of 
the tide, at Trenton, 35 miles above Phila- 
delphia; and for boats about 100 miles 
farther, though the boat navigation above 
Easton is very difficult. Its two most 
important tributaries are the Schuylkill 
and the Lehigh. The whole length, from 
its souree to die bay, is about 300 miles. 
The principal towns on the Delaware, 
besides Philadelphia, are Easton and Bri»- 
tol, Pa., Trenton, Bordentown and Bur- 
lington, N. J. 

Delaware Bat; a large bay or arm 
of the sea, between the states of Delaware 
and New Jersey, formed by the mouth 
of the Delaware river and several other 
sm^er ones. It is 65 miles long, and, in 
the centre, about 30 miles across, and 
about 18 at its mouth, from cape Henlo- 
pen, m lat 38° 47' N., Ion. 75° 6' W., to 
cape May, in lat 389 57' N., kin. 74° 52^ 
W. 

Delaware Breakwater. The Dela- 
ware breakwater is situated at the en- 
trance into the bay of Delaware, near cape 
Henlopen. The anchorage ground, or 
roadstead, is formed by a cove in the 
BOtithem shore, direcdy west of the pitch 
of the cape and the seaward end of an 
extensive shoal called the shears ; the tail 
of which makes out firom the shore about 



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166 



DELAWARE BREAKWATERr-DELFT. 



fire miles up the bay, near the mouth of 
Broadkill creek, fix>m wheoce it extends 
eastward, and terminates at a point about 
two miles to die northward of the shore at 
the cape. The breakwater consists of an 
insulated dike or wall of stone, the trans- 
versal section of wliich is a trapezium, tlie 
base resting on the bottom, whilst the 
sununit line forms die top of the woric 
The other sides represent die inner and 
outer slopes of the work, tliat to the sea- 
ward being much greater than the other. 
The inwand slope is 45 degrees ; the top 
is horizontal, 22 feet in breadth, and raised 
5k feet above the highest spring tide ; the 
outward or sea slope is 39 feet ui altitude, 
upon a base of 1051 feet ; both these di- 
mensions being measiu«d in relation to a 
horizontal plane passing by a point 27 feet 
below the lowest spring tide. The base 
bears to the altitude nearly the same ratio 
as similar lines in the profiles of the 
Cherbourg and Plymoutli breakwaters. 
The openmg or entrance from the ocean 
is 650 yards in width between tlie north 

Eoint of the cape and the east end of the 
reakwater. At this entrance, the harbor 
will be accessible during all winds coming 
from the sea. The dike is formed in a 
straight line from E. S. E. to W. N. W.: 
1200 yards is the leneth of this portion of 
the work, which is destined to ser\'e the 
purposes of a breakwater. At the distance 
of 350 yards from the upper or western 
end of the breakwater (which space forms 
the upper entranT^e), a similar clike, of 500 
yards in length, is projected in a direct 
Lne, W. by S. ^ S., forming an angle of 
146® 15^ with the breakwater. This work 
is designed more particularly as an ice- 
breaker. The whole lengUi of the two 
dikes above described, which are now 
partly commenced, will be 1700 yards: 
they will contain, when finished, 900,000 
cubic yards of stone, composed of pieces 
of basaltic rock and granite, weicliing from 
a quarter of a ton to three tons and upwaitls. 
The depth of water, at low tide, is from 
four to six fadioms throughout the harbor, 
which will be formed by these works and 
die cove of the southern shore, and which 
is calculated to afford a perfect shelter 
over a space or water surface of seven 
tenths of^ a square mile. The great ob- 
jects to he gained by the construction of 
an anificial harbor in this roadstead are, 
to shelter vesseb from the action of waves 
caused by the winds blowing from the 
E. to the N. W., round by die N., and 
also to protect diem against injuries arising 
from floating ice descendmg the bay from 
the N. W. 



Deleoatk. (See Ddegaiwn.) 
Delegates, Court of, is so called be- 
cause the judges thereof are delegated, by 
the king's commission under the great 
seal, to near and determine appeals in the 
three following cases : — 1. Where a sen- 
tence is given in any ecclesiastical cause, 
by the archbishop, or his official ; 2. 
when any sentence is given in any eccle- 
siasdcal cause, in the places exempt; 3. 
when a sentence is given in the admind's 
court, in suits civil and marine, by order 
of die civil law. This commission is 
usually filled with lords spiritual and tem- 
poral, judges of the courts at Westminster, 
and doctors of the civil law. 

Delegation ; the investuig with au- 
thority to act for another. Hence the 
name has been ffiven to a body Of persons 
thus deputed. Before the present consti- 
tution of the United States was adopted, 
the persons constituting the congress at 
Philadelphia were called ddegatesj and the 
body of representadves of a state in con- 
gress are sdll called the deU^ation of a 
state. In Maryland and Virginia, the most 
numerous branch of the state legislatures, 
which, in most of the other states, is 
called house of rtprtscnUjiiveSy has the 
name of houit of ddegates. (See Con- 
stUvtion.) The name of dekgale is also 
given to the representative^ sent to the con- 
gress of the U. States from territories not 
yet formed into states. In Italy, branches 
of government are often called ddegazione^ 
and their members dd^(Ui, Thus daere 
exist in the Lombardo- Venetian kingdom 
nine ddercaiom for Lombardy, and eight 
for the Venetian part of the government, 
consisting of one ddeeaioj a vict-ddeeato^ 
and an adjunct — In me civil law, ddeea- 
tion is that act by which a debtor trausfera 
to another person the duty to pay, or a 
creditor transfers to another person the 
right to receive payment 

Delft ; the name of some celebrated 
Dutch painters, particularly of James (bom 
1619, died 1661) and WilUam Delfl (to- 
wards the end of the sixteenth century). 
Both were bom at Delfl, were portrait 
pcdnters, and relations to the celebrated 
Mirevelt, also a native of this town. 

Delft ; a considerable town of South 
Holland, between Rotterdam and Leyden, 
traversed by a canal wliich communicates 
with the Maese. Delft is tolerably well 
built, but dark ; most of the streets are 
divided by narrow, stagnant canals, except 
in the centre of the town, where diere are 
two spacious streets, with broad canals 
bordered witii trees. The fh>nt of tlie 
stadthouse is extensive and curious, and 



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DELFT— DELHI. 



167 



the interior contains some valuable paint- 
ings. In the old church are the monu- 
ments of the admirals Van Tromp and 
Pieter Heyn. Not far from it is the build- 
ing where William I of Orange was mur- 
dered, in 1584. In the new church, which 
has a celebrated set of chiming bells, is 
the splendid monument erected in his hon- 
or, and, also, the monument of Hugo 
Grotius, who was bom in Delft. The 
town has 13,000 inhabitants, and contains 
an aitiliery and en^neer school. The 
manufiicture of a kmd of earthen ware 
called Ddft'tDore, in this place, is import- 
ant Here likewise are made several kinds 
of fine cloth and carpets. Butter, and, 
next to it, beer, are the principal objects 
of the wholesale trade ; tobacco-pipes, 
also, are made in great (quantities. 9 miles 
N. W. Rotterdam. 

Delftshaven; a small, fortified town 
of Holland, on tlie Maese ; population, 
2700; 2 miles S. W. Rotterdam. 

Delft- Ware is a kind of pottery cov- 
ered with an enamel or white glazing, 
which gives it the appearance and neat- 
BeSB of porcelain. Some kinds of tliis 
enamelled pottery differ much from others, 
either in sustaining sudden heat witiiout 
breaking, or in tlie beauty and regularity 
of their forms, of their enamel, and of the 
painting with which they are ornamented, 
in general, the fine and beautiful enamel- 
led ware, which approaches the nearest 
to porcelain in external appearance, is that 
which least resists a brisk fire. Again, 
those which sustain a sudden heat are 
coarse, and resemble common pottery. 
This lund of ware has its name finom Delft, 
in Holland, where it is made in large 
quantities. 

Delhi ; a province of Hindostan ; 
bounded N. W. by Lahore, N. by the 
Himaleh mountains, which separate it 
fiiom Thibet, E. by Kemaoon and Oude, 
S. bv Agra, and W. by Agimere and 
Moultan ; lying chieflv between lat 28^ 
and 3P N. ; about 250 miles long, and 
180 broad ; population estimated at about 
5,000,000— Hindoos, Mohammedans, and 
Seiks. The chief towns are Delhi, Se- 
haurunpour, Sirhind, Tanaser, and Anop- 
riieer. The principal rivere are the Gan- 
ges and Jumnab. A great part of it is 
sterile for want of water. It was formeriy 
much more wealthy and populous than 
at present Having been the seat of 
various wars, it has been miserably laid 
waste, and in some parts almost depopu- 
lated. The most fertile parts yield good 
Cire, wheat, barley, and sugar-cane, 
poit east of the Jumnah, with a con- 



siderable district rotmd the city of Delhi, 
belongs, in fact, to the British ; but its rev- 
enues are allotted to support the family 
and establishments of tlie emperor, or 
great mogul, now reduced to the huniili- 
ating state of dependence on a foreign 
power. The southern part is posseased 
by native chiefs in alliance with the Brit- 
ish. The coiintiy north-west of tiie Jum- 
nah, and south of the Setiedge, is occupied 
by a number of petty Seik chiefs. 

Delhi ; a city of Hindostan ; capital of 
the province of DeUii, and for many yeare 
of Hindostan ; on the Jumnah ; 92 N. N. W. 
Agra, 300 N. W. Allahabad; Ion. 77« ^ 
E. ; lat. 28° 4!3f N. ; population variously 
estimated, fiiom 100 to 200,000. The an- 
cient name was hubraput, Inderput, or M- 
dtrprest ; tiie Mohammedan name is Shah' 
JehanabcuL It was for a long time the 
capital of Hindostan, the seat of the great 
mogul, the boast of India ; and, during the 
era of its splendor, is said to have occupied 
a site 20 miles in lengtli, and the ruins 
now cover nearly as great a space. It 
was taken, in 1193, by the Mohammedans, 
under Cuttubaddeen Khan, who fixed his 
residence here ; and, on his succeeding to 
the throne, it became the capital of Hin- 
dostan. In 1398, it was taken, pillaged, 
and reduced to a heap of ruins, by Tamer- 
lane. It afterwards partially recovered, 
till towards the end or the 16th century, 
when Akbar transferred die seat of royalty 
to Agra. In 1631, the emperor Shah Jehan 
founded the new city of Delhi, on the west 
bank of the Jumnah, near the ruins of the 
old city, and gave it the name of Shahje- 
hanabad. During the reign of Aureng- 
zebe, the third son of Shall Jehan, the rev- 
enue of the city amounted to £3,813,594, 
and its population was computed at 
2,000,000— probably an exaggeration. It 
continued to increase in splendor and im- 
portance till the invasion of Nadir Shah, 
m 1739, when 100,000 inhabitants were 
massacred, and £62,000,000 steriing of 
plunder are said to have been collected. 
It was again pillage<l and depopulated in 
1756, 1759, and 1760, by Ahmed Ab- 
dallah. Since 1803, it has been in re- 
ality subject to the British government, 
though still the residence of the emperor 
or great mogul, who has a nominal author- 
ity, but is virtually dependent on the Brit- 
ish. Modem Delhi contains die remains 
of many splendid palaces, and is adorned 
witii many beautiful mosques, still in good 
repair, die most remarkable of which is 
called JuTmuEh Mu^etd, This mosque is 
261 feet long, the whole firont faced with 
white marble, surrounded at top with three 



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168 



DELHI—DELILLIL 



magnificent domes of white maible, flank- 
ed by two minarets. The city has two 
spacious streets, leading from die palace 
to the principal gates, and many good 
houses built of brick. ^The inhabited 
part of Delhi," says bishop Ueber, in 
his Narrative, ^is about seven miles in 
circuit, seated on a rocky range of hiDs, 
and surrounded by an embatded wail, 
which the En^ish eovemment have put 
into repair. The houses are many of 
them large and high. There are a great 
number of mosques, witii high minarets 
and gilded domes, and above all are 
seen the palace, a veiy high and exten- 
sive cluster of* Gothic towers and bat- 
tlements, and the Junmah Musjeed, the 
largest and handsomest place of Mussul- 
man worship in India. Tlie chief material 
of all these fine buildings is red ffianite, 
inlaid, in some of the ornamental parts, 
with white marble ; and the general style 
of building is of a simple and impressive 
character.'' Most of the streets are narrow 
and irregular, and the houses built with- 
out order, of brick, mud, bamboos and 
mats, geneFolly covered with thatch, re- 
sembling a motley group of villages, rather 
than an extensive town. The baMrs are 
but indifferently furnished. Cotton clollis 
and indigo are manufactured in the town 
and neighborhood. In the vicinity, on 
the banl^of the Jumnah,com, rice, millet 
and indigo are principally cultivated. The 
Baptists have a missionaiy here. 

Delille, Jacques (also Ddiak, de 
LiUe) ; the most distinguished of the 
French didactic poets of modem times; 
bom in 1738, at Aigueperse, in Auvergne. 
His name after the revolution was Monta- 
nier-Delille. He resembled Pope (who 
was his model) in personal deformi^, as 
well as in exquisite versificaUon. In the 
college of Lisieux, at Paris, he distinguished 
himself by his precocious talents ; and in 
the colleoe of Amiens, he began liis metri- 
cal translation of Virgil's Georgics. He 
had translated this work by the end of his 
23d year, but spent many years in re- 
touching it It was published in 1770, 
with a Discours pr^fu7imatre,'and nume- 
rous annotations, which gave him also an 
honacable place among the French prose 
writers. NotwithstanmnjB^ the jealousy of 
his rivals, Delilie was invited to Paris, and 
was made professor at the colUge de la 
Marchej and afterwards at the colligt de 
Ihmce ; and his translations were ranked 
by the French among their clasmcs. De- 
lilie translated, also, the iEneid of Virgil 
(1803V and was received, in his 37tb year, 
into tne academy. Befbre this time, he 



had produced his didactic poem, Les JcoT' 
dins, <m VArt d^embeUirks Paysages (^ans^ 
17862), in four cantos. This was consid- 
ered the best didactic poem in the French 
language, though inferior to his translation 
of Virgil. Delilie received the lower or- 
dinations, to be enabled to hold a benefice, 
from which, together with his salaries as 
professor, and member of the academy, 
and his own foitune, he derived, before 
the revolution, an annual income of 30,000 
livres, of which he preserved, at a later 
period, only 600. He was also made a 
member of die national institute. Though 
an adherent of the old system, Roliespieire 
spared him on ever^ occasion. At his 
request, Delilie wrote, in twenty-four hours, 
the Diihframbe sur Vhrnmortaliit de VAme^ 
to be sung on the occasion of the public 
acknowledgment of the Deity. This per- 
formance made an impression even on the 
members of the committee of safety, but 
was not sung. In 1794, he withdrew from 
Paris, and gave himself up to the sublime 
scenery of the Vosges, to meditations on 
the destiny of man, and on the laws of 
poetry. In Switzerland, he finished his 
jHomnte dea Champs^ a didactic poem on 
the charms of ru^ life, called also G^- 
gifpus FVanfCMes, which may be consid- 
ered as a moral sequel to Viigil's Georgicsi 
Delilie labored on it for twenty years, 
principally during the reign of terror, in 
the vales of die Vosges, in 1794 and 1795 ; 
hence the deep melancholy of many pas- 
sages. The sufferings of bis country 
produced Le Malheur et la PitU, four 
cantos (Lond. 1803), full of lovely and 
touching pictures, in harmonious verse. 
At London, he married (1802) mademoi- 
selle Vaudchamps, for a long time the 
companion of his travels. Here he trans- 
lated, in 15 months, Milton's Paradise Lose, 
perhaps the most poetical of all his works ; 
but the exertion brought on a stroke of 
the apoplexy. Afler his return to France, 
he wrote his Jhns Bkgnea de la Aoturr, 
and the admired poem La Conversatiim, 
a subject of which he was master. Its 
poetical character is the same as that of 
his other works. Lively feeling, richncBs 
of conception, animated descriptions, puri- 
ty and ^eat elegance of expression, har- 
monious and easy versification, are its 
chief excellences. Bouterwek jusdy re- 
marics, ^A didactic work, like DeliUe's 
elegant Homme de^ Champs^ may have 
many charms of diction, without being a 
poem." Delilie composed in his head, 
without writing, even the 30,000 verses of 
his translation of the iEneid, and, like 
Tasso, trusted them with more confidence 



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DELILLE-4)ELOLMl!. 



109 



to bia memory than to his tablets. But his 
bodily vigor dmiinished, as his mental pow- 
ers increased. He grew blind, and died 
the first of May, 1813. In a poem not 
committed to paper, he bad sung of old 
age, and his approaching death ; of the 
vanities of the j)re6ent, and the happiness 
of the future life. He was universally la- 
mented, on account of his amiable charac- 
ter, as well as of his talents. After his deadi 
appeared Le D^art iPEden (I*aris). 

Delisle, or De L'Isle, Guillaume ; a 
geo^pher, bom at Paris, in 1675. He 
-woA instructed by Cassini, and soon con- 
ceived the idea of reforming the whole 
system of geography. He published, in 
hb 25th year, a map of the world, maps 
of Europe, Asia and Africa, a celestial 
and terrestrial globe of a foot in diameter. 
By rejecting Ptolemy's statements of lon- 
gitude, or rather by comparing them with 
the astronomical observations and die 
statements of modem travellers, he found- 
ed the modern system of geography. The 
number of his geographical maps of the 
old and new world amounts to 100. His 
last edition of his map of the world was 
published in 1724 These maps are valu- 
able even at the present day. His brother 
Joseph ,Nicdas, bom, in 1688, at Paris, 
devoted himself in his earliest youth to 
astronomy, under tlie direction of Lieu- 
taud and Cassini, and was admitted into 
the academy of sciences. His obsen^a- 
tions on the transit of Mercury over the 
sun, in 1723, and of the eclipse of die 
sun, in 1724, increased his reputation. 
The empress Catharine I invited him to 
Petersburg, to establish a school for astron- 
omy, to which the fame of Delisle soon 
gave celebrity. His leisure time was em- 
ployed in travelling, for the purpose of 
making interesting collections in natural 
science and geography. On his return, 
his collections were purchased by the 
king, and Delisle himself was appointed 
inspector of them. He continued his ob- 
servations till his death, in 1768. Among 
his pupils were Lalande and Messier. 
His most important geographical work, 
Mimoires star lea rumveUes D^counjertes au 
Mn-d de la Mer du Sud (1752), contains the 
results of the Russian voyages to discover 
a passage from the Pacific ocean into the 
waters north of America. His Mhrunrts 
wntr sermr h VHxgtoirt d cntx Progrh de 
V^^strononde, de la Giographie et de la 
Pkysi^ (1738) remain unfinished. His 
•^eriissement aux Jbitronomies sur Vidipse 
annrdaire du SoleS que Von attend le 25 
Mn, 1748, gives a comi^ete history of all 
annular eclipses of the 8un« 

vou IV. 15 



Della Maria, Dominique, a French 
composer, descended fiom an Italian 
family, was bom at Marseilles, in 1778, 
composed, in his 18th year, an opera 
which was performed, with applause, in 
his native city, and went afterwards to 
Italy, where he enjoyed the instmction of 
se^reral great masters, particularly of Pae- 
siello, and composed six comic operas, of 
which B Maestro di Cappdla is the most 
distinguished. After his retum to Paris, 
his opera Le Prisormier increased his rep- 
utation, and the airs of his Oph-a Comique 
became national favorites. In his works, 
the song is easy and agreeable, die ^le 
pure and elegant, the expression natural, 
the accompaniment eas^, original, and 
pleasing. He played with extraordinary 
skill on the piano and the violoncello. He 
di^d in his 29ih year (1806). 

Delolme, John Louis, bom at Geneva, 
1740 (according to some, in 1745J, was a 
lawyer in his native city, and the part 
which he took in its internal commotions 
by a work entitled Examen des trois Points 
de Droit, obliged him to repair to England, 
where he oassed some years in great indi- 
gence. He wrote for journals, frequented 
low tavems, was devoted to gaming and 
pleasure, and lived in such obscurity, that, 
when he became known by his worik on 
the English Constitution, and some people 
of distinction were desirous of relieving 
him, it was impossible to discover his 

Elace of residence. His pride was gratified 
y tills kind of low independence, and he 
rejected all assistance, excepting some aid 
from the literary fund, to enable him to 
retum to his country. This was probably 
in 1775, since, firom that time, he calls 
himself member of the council of the 
two hundred in Geneva. Among his pe- 
culiarities was this, that, altliough princi- 
pally occupied with political law, he was 
never present at a session of parliament 
At the time of his arrival in England, 
aristocratical arro^nce and turbulence 
had reached its highest pitch in Sweden 
and Poland, and it was reared, not with- 
out reason, in England, that the same 
evils threatened that country. Delolme 
entered into an investigation of this sub- 
ject Hence bjiginated bis famous work. 
Constitution de PAn^eterre, ou ikd du 
Gouvemement ,^nglais compart avec* la 
Forme r^publicaine et avec les autres Mo- 
narchies de V Europe (Amsterdam, 1771); 
and a work in English, called A Parallel 
between the Engfish Govemment and 
the former Govemment of Sweden (Lon- 
don, 1772\. In both, his principal object 
was to illustrate the excellence and sta- 



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DELOLME— DELOS. 



bility of the English constitution. Its 
character of a spirited eulogiura is un- 
doubtedly the reason that the first politi- 
cians of England, lord Chatham, the 
marquis of Camden, and the author of the 
celebrated Letters of Junius, spoke so 
highly of this work of a foreigner. It is 
not a coiilplete 8}'stem of tlie political 
law of England, and has been reproached 
as being superficial ; but it contains much 
ingenious reflection on die EngUsh con- 
stitution, on the energy arising from a 
happy union of royal power wiUi popular 
liberty, and particularly on the value of 
an independent judiciary and the freedom 
of the press, subjected to penal laws, but not 
to a censorship. This work, translated by 
the author himself into English, in 1772 
(fourth English edition, 1784, with obser- 
vations by doctor Charles Coote), is still 
considered, in England, one of the most 
ingenious works on the English constitu- 
tion. Delolme also published, in Englisli, 
hrj Histoiy of the Flagellants, or Me- 
morials of human Superstition (1783, in 
quarto); An Essay on the Union with 
Scotland (London, 1796, 4t6.). On the 
occasion of tlie will of Mr. Thellusson, he 
wrote his Olisen^ations on the Power of 
Individuals to prescribe, by testamentary 
Dispositions, the particular future Uses to 
be made of their Property (London, 1798, 
4to.). He died in July, 1^ at a village 
in Switzerland. 

Delorme, Marion, bom in 1612, at 
Chalons, in Champagne, was the mistress 
of the seditious Cinq-Mars. (See Riche- 
lieu. Cardinal.) Even before the death 
of her lover, she formed new connexions, 
and her house was the rendezvous of the 
young courtiers. She permitted herself, 
m 1650, to be involved in the affair of 
the discontented princes. She escaped 
arrest only by a real or pretended sick- 
ness, and soon afterwards spread a report 
of her own death. She is said to have 
seen her own funeral from a window. 
She tlien went to England, married a rich 
lord, and, while returning, a widow, with a 
large fortune, was attacked by robbers, 
and forced to many tiieir captain. After 
becoming a widow a second time, she 
married a man named Lebrun, in the 
Franche-Comt6, with whom she after- 
wards went to Paris, where, afler the death 
of her friend, the famous Ninon de l^Bn- 
clos, she died in 1706, in great mdigence. 
La Borde, hi the appendix to the Letters 
of Ninon, which he published (Paris, 1816, 
3 vols.], has related the adventurous life 
of Manon. 

DfiLOs ; the central island of the Cycla- 



des, in the ^gean sea, the birth-place of 
Apollo, and of Diana. Delos, according 
to tlie poets, was once a naked rock, float- 
ing about in the ocean, and was accident- 
ally driven by the waves into the centre of 
the Cyclades. The earth had promised 
Juno^ with an oath, not to grant a resting- 
place to the fugitive Latona (q. v.), where 
she might be delivered. The unhappy 
woman wandered restlessly over tlie earth, 
until she perceived the floating island. As 
this was not stationary, it wos not com- 
prehended in tlie oath of the earth, and 
oftered her on asylum. She vowed to 
build a temple on its rocks, to which all 
nations should bring ofierings. On the 
rude cliffs, under a shadowing tree, Latona 
bore the infant gods Apollo (who waa 
hence called Ddios) and Diana (who was 
called Ddia\ Botn were, in after times, 
particularly worshipped on tlie island. 
Delos was thenceforward no longer the 
sport of tlie winds ; from the foundation 
of the earth arose columns which support- 
ed it, and the fame of the isle spread over 
the world. Thus far mvthological tradi- 
tion. — ^At first, the island had lungs of its 
own, who also held the sacerdot^ oflSce. 
In the course of time, it came under the 
dominion of Athens. Nothing was tole- 
rated upon it, which bore the traces of 
death or war. The dead were buried in 
the adjacent island Rhenea. After the 
destruction of Corinth, the rich Corinthi- 
ans fled hither, and made Delos the seat 
of a flourishing commerce. The greatest 
curiosity of the island was the temple and 
oracle of Apollo. The temple, founded 
by ErisichUion, son of Cecn™, and em- 
bellished successively by dinerent states 
of Greece, was built of Parian marble, and 
contained, besides the beautiful statue of 
the god, a remaricable altar, from which 
the Delian prohlemy as it is called, had its 
name. The inhabitants, having consulted 
the oracle concerning the remedy of a 
plague which raged in Delos, were order- 
ed to double the altar of Apollo, which 
was a cube. This famous geometrical 
problem of the duphcation of the cube 
was solved in different ways, by several 
of the ancient mathematicians and philos- 
ophers. The oracles which Apollo ut- 
tered here were thought the most intelli- 
gible and sure. They were delivered only 
in summer; in vrinter, Apollo gave hjs 
responses in Patara, m Lprcia. The Gre- 
cians celebrated the Dehan festival here 
eveiy five years ; and the Athenians per- 
formed annually the beautiful pilgrimage, 
called theoria, with processions and dances. 
Delos was held to be a place of so great a 



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DELOS—BELPHI. 



m 



sanctity, that the Pereians, when they made 
war agauist Greece, and had sent to Delos 
a navy of a thousand saiJ, out of rever- 
ence to the patron deities, forbore attack- 
ing the island. Delos was celebrated, in 
ancient times, for the number and the ex- 
cellence of its artists, and the school which 
it founded. Pliny says that its bronze 
was excellent, and much esteemed. It 
was also celebrated for tlie fineness of its 
silver, which the Delians used with great 
skill and taste, in the formation of various 
utensils, vessels, statues of their gods, of 
heroes, animals. The statue of Jupiter 
Tonans, in the Capitol, was of Delian 
bronze. Cicero, in his oration for Roscius, 
has many eulogiums upon the fine vases 
of Delos and Corinth. The temple of* 
Apollo, at Delos, was one of the most 
celebrated of its time in all Greece. Delos, 
now called lUgi, is uninhabited, or is only 
the haunt of pirates ; but splendid ruins of 
its former magnificence yet exist 

Delphi, the seat of the most &mous 
oracle of ancient Greece, was situated in 
Pbocis, on the southern side of Parnassus. 
Apollo, according to fable, having killed 
the serpent Python (some call it Ddphine)^ 
and determining to build his sanctuary 
herey perceived a merchant-vessel fit)m 
Crete sailing by. He immediately leaped 
into the sea, in the form of an immense 
dolphin (hence he is called Dehfhin\ took 
possession of the vessel, and forced it to 
pass by Pylos, and to enter the harbor of 
Crissa. After the Cretans had landed, he 
assumed the figure of a beautiful youth, 
and told them that they must not return 
to their country, but should serve as 
priests in his temple. Inspired, and sing- 
mg hymns, the Cretans followed the god 
to his sanctuary, on the rocky declivity of 
Parnassus ; but, discouraged by the steril- 
ity of the country, they implored Apollo 
to save them from famine and poverty. 
The god, smiling, declared to them the ad- 
vantage which they would derive from 
serving as his priests. They then built 
Delphi, calling the city at first Piflho\ 
from the serpent which Apollo had killed 
at this place. The oracles were delivered 
from a cave, called Pythium. Tradidon 
ascribes its discovery to a shepherd, who 
pastured his flocks at the foot of Parnas- 
sus, and was filled with prophetic inspi- 
ration by the intoxicating vapor which 
arose from it Over the cave, which 
was contained in a temple, was placed 
the holy tripod, upon which the priestess, 
called PyUwu, by whose mouth Apollo 
was to speak, received the vapors as- 
cending from beneath, and with them the 



inspiration of the Delphian god, and pro- 
claimed the oracles* (hence the proverb, 
to speak ex tripoikj used of obscure sen- 
tences, dogmatically pronounced). After 
having first bathed heraelf, and particularly 
her hair, in tlie neighboring fountain of 
Castalia, and crowned her bead with laurel, 
she seated herself on tlie tripod, which 
was also crowned with a wreath of tlie 
same; then, shaking the laurel tree, and 
eating perhaps some leaves of it, she was 
seized with a fit of enthusiasm. Her face 
changed color, a shudder ran through her 
limbs, and cries and long protracted groans 
issued from her mouth. This excite- 
ment soon increased to fury. Her eyes 
sparkled, her mouth foamed, her hair 
stood on end, and, almost suffocated by 
the ascending vapor, the priests were 
obliged to retain the struggling priestess 
on her seat by force ; when uie began, 
with dreadful bowlings, to pour forth de- 
tached words, which the priests collected 
with care, arranged them, and delivered 
them in writing to the inquirer. At first, 
the answers were given in verse, but in 
later times, the authority of the oracle 
being diminished, they contented them- 
selves with delivering them in prose. 
This oracle was always obscure and am- 
biguous ; yet it served, in earlier times, in 
the hands of the priests, to regulate and 
uphold the political, civil and religious 
relations of Gfreece. It enjoyed the repu- 
tation of infallibility for a long time ; for 
the Dorians, the first inhabitants of the 
place, who soon setded in all parts of 
Greece, spread an unbounded reverence 
for it At first, only one month in the 
year was assigned for the delivery of or- 
acles ; afterwards, one day in each month ; 
but none who asked the god for counsel 
dared approach him without gifts. Hence 
the splendid temple possessed immense 
treasures, and the city was adofaed with 
numerous statues and other works of art, 
the offerings of gratitude. Del])h) was 
at the samd time the bank, in which the 
rich deposited their treasures, under the 
protection of Apollo, though this did not 

Erevcnt it from being repeatedly plundered 
y the Greeks and barbarians. The an- 
cients believed Delphi to be the centre of 
the earth : this, they said, was determined 
by Jupiter, who let loose two eagles, tlie 
one fi:om the east and the other m>m the 
west, which met here. The tomb of 
Neoptolemus (or Pyrrhus), tlie son of 
Achilles, who was killed here by Orestes, 
was also at Delphi. Not far fixim the 
tomb was the famous Lesche, adorned by 
Polygnotus with the history of the Trojan 



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172 



DELPHI— DEMARARA. 



war. (See Pafygnoius,) In the plain be- 
tween Delphi and Cirrha, the Pythian 
mm€s{q. v.) were celebrated, in the month 
Targelion. These nadonal games, and 
the protection of the Amphictyons, gave 
Delptu a lasting splendor. It is now a vil- 
lage called Castn, 

Delphini, Iff UsuM. (See Dauphin,) 

Delta ; A* a Greek letter, answering to 
D. The resemblance of the island formed 
by the alluvion, between the two mouths 
or the Nile, to a A, is the reason why it 
was called by the Greeks Ddia. It con- 
tained Sais, Pelusium, and Alexandria. 
It was divided into the great and small 
Delta. Islands at tlie mouths of other 
rivers, shaped like a A, have the same 
name : thus we speak of tlie Delta of the 
Mississippi. 

Deluc, Jean Andr6, a geologist and me- 
teorologist, bom in 1726, at Geneva, where 
bis father was a watch-Aiaker, passed his 
whole life in geological investigations, for 
the sake of which he made numerous jour- 
neys. He enriched science with very im- 
portant discoveries. His theories and hy- 
potheses, which he endeavored to accom- 
modate to the historical accounts con- 
tained in the Holy Scripmres, have met 
with violent opponents. (See Geology.) 
He passed some time in England, as read- 
er to the queen, and died in 1817, at 
WindK>r. Among his numerous writings 
are his Ruherches 8ur les Modificationa dt 
V^momhhre (Geneva^ 1772, 2 vols. 4to.); 
Mntveues Idiea sur la MSt^orotoeie (Lon- 
don, 1786, 2 vols.) ; and his TraM^ ^nm- 
tairede G^o^o^ (Paris, 1810, 8 vo.). 

Deluge (from the Latin diluvies^ dUu- 
viuro, from dUuere^ to wash awayh the 
universal inundation, which, accoraing to 
the 3f osaic history, took place to punish 
the great iniquity of mankind. It was 
produced, according to Genesis, by a rain 
of forty days, and a breaking up of <^the 
fountains of the great deep," and covered 
the earth fifteen cubits above the tops of the 
highest mountains, and killed every living 
creature, except Noah, with his family,' 
and the animals which entered the ark, 
by tbe command of God. Afler the flood 
had prevailed upon the earth a hundred 
and ^fly days, and had decreased for an 
equal time^ making its whole duration 
somewhat less than a year, Noah became 
convinced that the land had spun emerg- 
ed, by the return of a dove w% an olive- 
branch, and landed on mount Ararat, in 
Armenia. The time v^en this chastise- 
ment took place was, accoiding to die 
common computation, in tlie 16S>tli year 
cf the world ; according to Pettivius, 2327 



B. C; accoitling to Mfiller, 3547 R C 
Many other nations mention, in the myth- 
olo^cal part of their history, inundations, 
which, in their essential particulars, agree 
with the scriptural account of NcMih's 
preservation. Hence many persons have 
inferred the universality of this inundation. 
Fohi in the Chinese mythology, Sottivrata 
or Satya\Tata in the Indian, Xisuthnis 
in the Chaldeean, Ogyges and Deucalion 
in tlie Greek, have each been recognised 
by many as the Noah of the Sacred 
Scriptures, under a different name. Even 
the American Indians have a tradition of 
a similar deluge, and a renewal of tbe 
human race from the family of one indi- 
vidual. All these individuals are said by 
their respective nations to have been saved, 
and to have become a second father of 
mankind. The many skeletons, also, 
found petrified on tlie tope, or in the inte- 
rior of mountains, the remains of animals 
of hot climates in countries now cold, have 
been alleged as confirmadons of a uni- 
versal revolution on our planet, occasioned 
by the violent action of water, as the 
Mosaic relation states it to have been. 
On the other hand, raiionaHits and deists 
have objected, that such a general destruc- 
tion of mankind, by which the innocent 
must have been punished like the guilty, 
is unworthy of the justice of God, the 
Fadier of his creatures ; that the great ad- 
vancement of civilization, and large popu- 
lation which history shows to have existed 
a few yeare afler Noah, is inconsistent 
with such a general inundation ; and that 
aH the information which we have of it 
was written down at least 1000 years afler 
it took place, so as to leave the uni venality 
of the flood a matter of great doubt — ^An 
interestiiif work on this subject has l>een 
latelv published, entided Veber dtn Mvtkos 
der SundfltOh (2d edition, Berim, 1819, by 
Buttmanii). This subject is of gieat in- 
terest, whether considered in connexion 
with sacred history and theology, with 
civil history, or with natural history. The 
works treating of it are far too numerous 
to be mendoned here. 

Deharara, orDEMERART; a province 
of English Guiana, which derives its name 
from tJie river Demarara or Deineraiy. 
(q. V.) It originally belonged to the Dutch, 
and was ceded to Great Britain in 1814. 
It extends about 100 miles along the coast, 
lying on the eastof Essequibo, and on the 
west of fierbice. The soil is very fertile, 
producing abundant crops of sugar, coffee, 
cotton, rice, &c. The climate resembles 
that of South Carolina. For 20 miles up 
the river, the country consists of extensive 



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DEllARAltA— DEMIGODS. 



173 



meadows, and is pRrfeetly level; then 
appear some sand-hills; afterwaids the 
country becomes mountainous and broken. 
Chiertown, Stabroek. (For further in- 
formation, see Guiofio.) 

Demarcation, Line or; every line 
drawn for determining a bonier, which is 
not to be passed by foreign powers, or by 
such as are at war with each other. Thus 
the pope drew a line of demarcation through 
the ocean, to settle the disputes between 
the Spanish and Portuguese, after the first 
discoveries in the fifteenth century. Ac- 
cording to a treaty between the French 
republic and the king of Prussia, con- 
cluded at Basle, May 17, 1795, a line of 
neutrality was established, which removed 
the theatre of war from northern Grerma- 
ny. Also in the armistice of Pleswitz 
(1813), such an ardiicial limit was fixed 
between the French and the allied troops 
of Russia and Prussia. 

Dehbea ; a large lake of Abyssinia, in a 
province of the same name, in the west 
part of that country. It is supposed to be 
450 miles in circumference, and contains 
many islands, one of which is a place of 
confinement for state prisoners. The 
Bahr-el-Azrek, the Abyssinian Nile, flows 
through it. 

Demebakt, or Demarara ; a liver of 
South AmeiicBLf in English Guiana, which, 
after a course of about 200 miles, flows 
mto the Atlantic, Ion. 58° 25^ W., lat 
6° 40^ N. It is two miles wide at its 
mouth, and is navigable for ships of con- 
Hderable burden nearly 100 miles. It 
afibrds an excellent harbor, but the bar 
will not admit vessels drawing more than 
18 feet 

Debcesne. fSee Domatru) 

Demeter ; tne Greek name of the god- 
dess called by the Romans Ceres, (q. v.) 

Demetrhts ; the name of several kings 
of Macedonia and Syria. Demetrius I, 
sumamed Poliorcetes (the conqueror of 
cities), kiiu; of Macedonia, son of Antigo- 
Dus, waged several wars, in particular vnth 
Ptolemy Lagus. He appeared before 
Athens with a fleet, expelled Demetrius 
Phalereus, who had been appointed gov- 
ernor of the place by Cassander, and 
testored to the people their ancient form 
of govenmient Having lost the battle of 
Ipsus, against Seleucus, Cassander and 
Lysimachus (301 B< C), he fled to Ephe- 
Bus, and thence to Athens, where he was 
not permitted to enter. Passing over to 
Corinth, he embarked on an expedition 
against the Thracian dominions of Ly- 
simachus. He then went to Asia, to lie- 
stow his daughter, Stratonice, in marriage 
15* 



on Seleucus, and on his wav took posses- 
sion ' of Cilicia, by which his friendship 
with Seleucus was broken off*. He con- 
quered Macedonia (294 B. C), and reigned 
seven years, but lost this country by his 
arbitrary conduct Deserted by his sol- 
diers, he surrendered himself, at length, to 
his son-in-law, who exiled him to Pelia, in 
Svria, where he died (284 B. C.) at the age 
of 54 years. The above-mentioned Deme- 
trius Phalereus, a celebrated Greek orator, 
disciple of Theophrastus, devoted his first 
years to rhetoric and pliilosophy, but, to- 
wards the end of the reign of Alexander 
the Great, entered into the career of politics. 
He was made Macedonian governor of 
Adiens, and archon (309 B. C.), and em- 
bellished the city by magnificent edifices. 
The gratitude of the Athenians, over whom 
he ruled, ei^ected him as many statues as 
there are days in the year. But the envy 
of his enemies produced an excitement 
against him, and he was condemned to 
death, and his statues destit>yed. He fled 
to Egypt, to the court of the Ptolemies, 
where he is swd to have promoted the es- 
tablishment of tiie library, and of the muse- 
um, the superintendence of wliich Ptolemy 
Lagus intrusted to him. Under the follow- 
ing king, Ptolemy Philadelphus, he fell into 
dii^grace, and was banished to a remote 
fortress, where he died from the bite of 
an asp. Demetrius was among the most 
learned of the Peripatetics, and wrote on 
several subjects of philosophical and polit- 
ical science. But the woric on rhetoric, 
which has come to us under his name, 
belongs to a later age. 

Dehidoff, Nicolaus, count of, a mem- 
ber of the ancient family of Demidofi^ 
which discovered and wrought the iron, 
copper, gold and silver mines in Siberia, 
and thus first introduced civilization into 
that country, was bom in 1774, at Pe- 
tersburg, was made privy-counsellor and 
chamberlain of the emperor Alexander, 
entered the mihtaiy service at an early 
age, and retired with the rank of colonel 
He visited all parts of Europe, for the 
purpose of introducing the arts of civili- 
zation into Russia, and established many 
manu&ctories with this view. In 1812, 
he levied a regiment at his own expense, 
with which he acted against the French, 
till thev were entirely expelled from Rus- 
sia. He then devoted himself to study, 
and to the improvement of his manufiic- 
tories. The university of Moscow having 
lost all its collections of natural history by 
fire, he jMresented to it his own rich cab- 
inet 

Demiqods. (See Heroes.) 



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m 



DEBfME--D£MOCRITUS. 



Demme, Hermann Christoph Gottfried, 
WQS born at Miihlhausen, in 1760, and 
died at Altenburg, in Saxony, in 1822. 
He waa one of the most practical Gierman 
theologians, and his sermons are much 
esteemed. He also wrote many other 
works, of a practical moral tendency. 

Demochact. (See Crovemmeni, Forma 



)emocritus, a philosopher of the new 
Eleatic school, a native of Abdera, flour- 
ished in the 72d Olympiad, and was bom 
about 494 B. C. Some Magi and Chal- 
deans, whom Xerxes left on his return 
from his Grecian expedition, are said to 
have excited in Democritus tlie first incli- 
nation for philosophy. After the death of 
his fatlier, he travelled to Eg>'pt, where he 
studied geometry, and probably visited 
other countries, to extend his knowledge 
of nature. Among the Greek philoso- 
phers, he enjoyed the instruction of Leu- 
cippus. He afterwards returned to his 
native city, where he was placed at the 
head of public affiurs. Indignant at the 
follies of^ the Abderites, he resigned his 
office, and retired to solitude, to devote 
himself exclusively to philosophical stu- 
dies. We pass over the fables which 
have been related of Democritus,, such as 
that he laughed continually at the follies 
of mankind (in contrast to the weeping 
Heraclitus), and give a short summary 
of his phikjsophical opinions. In his sys- 
tem, he developed still further the me- 
chanical or atomical theory of his master, 
Leucippus. Thus he explained the origin 
of the world by the eternal motion of an 
infinite number of invisible and indivisible 
bodies, atoms, which differ from one an- 
other in form, position and arrangement, 
and are alternately separated and com- 
bined by their motions in inftnite space. 
In this way the universe was formed, for- 
tuitously, vnthout the interposition of a 
First Cause. The eternal existence of 
atoms (of matter in general) he inferred 
from the consideration, that time could be 
conceived only as eternal, and without 
beginning. Their indivisibility he attempt- 
ed to prove in the following manner: If 
bodies are infinitely divisible, it must be 
allowed that their division must be per- 
ceptible. After the division has been 
made, there remains either something ex- 
tended, or points without any extent, or 
nothing. In the first case, division would 
not be finished ; in the second case, the 
combination of points without extension 
could never produce something extended, 
and if there remained nothing, me material 
world wotdd also be nothing ; consequent- 



ly, there muH exist simple, indivisiUe 
bodies (atoms). From his {josition of the 
etenial change of tlie separating and com- 
bining atoms, follows also the other, that 
there are numberless worlds continually 
arising and perishing. In the atoms he 
distinguished figure, size, gravity, and im- 
penetrability. All things have the same 
elementary parts, and dieir difference de- 
pends only oi\ the different figure, order 
and situation of the atoms, of which every 
thing is composed. This difference of 
the atoms is mfinite, hke their number: 
hence the variety of things is infinitely 
great Fire consists, according to him, of 
active globules, and spreads, like a light 
envelope, round the earth. The air is 
moved by the continual rising of the atoms 
from the lower regions, and becomes a 
rapid stream, which caiTies along with it 
the stars formed in its bosom. The fbl- 
lowinff doctrines of his, concerning the 
soul, deserve to be mentioned : The soul 
consists, in as far as it is a moving power, 
of igneous atoms; but, since it is ac- 
quainted with the other elements, and any 
tning can be known only by its equal, it 
must be composed in part, also, from the 
other elements. The sense of feeling is 
the fundamental sense, and the least de- 
ceitful of all ; for that alone can be tine 
and real in the objects, which belonss to 
the atoms themselves, and this we Team 
with the greatest certainty by our feeling. 
The other senses show more the acci- 
dental qualities of things, and are conse- 
quently less to be relied upon. The im- 
pressions produced on the five senses are 
effected, pardy by the different compofii- 
tion of tlie atoms in the organs of sense, 
pardy by the difierent influence- exerted 
by external bodies, which varies with the 
arrangement of the atoms of which they 
consist. In the act of vision, images sep- 
arate from the external bodv, and enter 
the eye. The motion of a body (for in- 
stance, of the lips in speaking) divides the 
air, and gives it a motion, varying accord- 
ing to tlie direction of the moving body. 
The parts of air thus put in motion arrive 
at the ear, and produce hearing. In a 
similar way arise tlie sensations of tasting 
and smelling. The images of the objects 
received by the eye amve through it to 
the soul, and produce within us notions. 
If, therefore, no notions come to the soul 
by means of the eye, its activity ceases, as 
is the case in sleep. The knowledge con- 
vened by the senses is obscure and de- 
ceitful, and represents mere motions of 
the exterior bodies. What we know by 
the way of reason has a higher degree of 



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DEMOCRITU&~DEMON. 



175 



eettunty, yet it is not beyond doubt The 
continuation of the soul after deatli was 
denied by Democritus, who believed it to 
be composed of aftoms. He divided it 
into two parts ; into the rational port, 
which has its seat in the breast, and the 
sensual part, which is diifused tlm)Uffh 
the whole body. Both constitute oiily 
one substance. The freaXesL good, ac- 
cording to Deraocritus, is a tranquil mind. 
He applied his atomical theory, also, to 
natural philosophy and astronomy. The 
popular notious of the gods he connected 
with his system, perhaps merely to ac- 
commodate himself to the prevailing creed. 
Even the gods he considered to have 
arisen from atoms, and to be perishable 
like the rest of things existing. Democri- 
tus is said to have written a great deal, of 
which, however, nodiing has come to us. 
He died 370 B. C, at an advanced age. 
His school was supplanted by that of 
Epicurus. 

Demoiv&e, Abraham ; a inathematioian 
of tlie last century. He was a native of 
Yitri, in Champagne, and was driven ilrom 
his nadve country by the revocation of 
the edict of Nantes. He settled in Lon- 
don, and gained a livelihood by becoming 
a teacher of mathematics. He was par- 
ticularly celebrated for his skill and accu- 
racy as a calculator, whence he is thus 
referred to by Pope : — 

" Sure as Demoivre, without rule or line." 

He died in 1754, at die age of ei^h^-ax. 
His works are, MsceUanea Arudyttca, 4to. ; 
The Doctrine of Chances, or a Method 
of calculating die Probabilities of Events 
at Play, 4ta; and a work on annuities; 
besides papers in the Transactioua of the 
royal society, of which he was a fellow. 
Demon, Deuoniac, Demonoloot, 
(Greek and Oriental). Good and evil, 
wisdom and folly, piety and superstition, 
have been connected with the behef in 
spirits. The name demons (Saindna, iai- 
futvK, genii), by which diose spirits which 
are sud to have some influence upon the 
destiny of men are generally called, directs 
us to Greece. We find demons spoken of 
by Homer. He. called his gods demons : 
they address each other by this tide, and 
iutitirtos is SO often synonymous with go<l- 
Wx^ that the derivation of the word dmon 
from iai^uv, inteUigent, wise, is highly 
probable. Hesiod uses it in a different 
sense. Plutarch says, that Hesiod admit- 
ted four classes of rational beings— -gods, 
demons, heroes and men. (Hes. (^. €t 
Dies. 121—126.) A strict classification 
was not made until the popular bdief 



had been introduced into the schools of 
die philosophers. Aristode divides the 
immortals into gods and demons; the 
mortals into heroes and men. In the 
Greek philosophy, these demons early 
played an important part Thales and 
Pythagoras, Socrates and Xenophon, £m- 
pedocles and the Stoics, invented many 
fictions concerning diem, each in his own 
way. The poetic Plato, however, goes 
further dian any of the others. In the 
Banquet, the character of die demons is 
thus explained: ** Demons are intenne- 
diate between God and mortals; their 
function is to interpret and convey to the 
gods what comes from men, and to men 
what conies from the gods ; the prayers 
and offerings of die one, and the com- 
mands of the odieis. These demons are 
the source of all prophecy, and of die art 
of the priests, in relation to sacrifices, 
consecrations, conjurations^ &c. ; for God 
has no immediate intercourae with men, 
but all the intercourse and conversation 
between the gods and mortals is carried 
on by means of the demons, both in 
waking and in sleepuig. There are many 
kinds of such demons, or spirits." In 
other places, he says of them, they are 
clothed vrith air, wander over heaven, 
hover over the stars, and abide on the 
earth ; they behold unveiled the secrets of 
the time to come, and regulate^events ac- 
cording to theu- pleasure: every nK>rtal 
receives at birth a particular demon, who 
accompanies him until his end, and con- 
ducts his soul to the place of purification 
and punishment The people generally 
understood by them the godhead, as &r as 
it guides the destinies of men, and divided 
diem, in reference to the eflfects ascribed 
to diem, into good and bad spirits-^Aga- 
thodemons and Cacodemons. The Ro- 
mans stiU further developed the Greek 
demonology, with less, however, of a poet- 
ical character, and mixed with Etruscan 
notions. We perceive in all this die ori- 
ginal idea : wherever an inexplicable 
power operates in nature, there exists some 
demon. This idea was developed by the 
philosophers, who endeavored to regulate 
the popular beUefJ and to reconcile reason 
with this belief. In order to represent the 
idea of deity in its purity, they were com- 
pelled to displace, by degrees, the mytho- 
logical notions of the people ; and this 
could not be done in a less perceptible and 
obnoxious way, than by the introduction 
of demon& But, although Greek philos- 
ophers did this for Greece, we must not 
believe that these ideas, like the word 
demoUf are of Greek origin : it ia much 



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DEMON. 



more credible, that the whole doctrine of 
demons was only transplanted into Greece. 
We ought to look for their real origin in 
tlie East The Hindoos reckon, besides 
the highest being, Parama, 33,000 gods, 
to which they add an infinite number of 
8erva]its of the gods. The highest rank 
among these gods was ascribed to the 
trinity, Brama, Vishnu, and Seeva, who, 
in eternal change, create, preserve and 
destroy. When the adorers of tlie de- 
stroyer die, he sends his seiTants to con> 
vey them to his presence, that he may 
make them participators in his happiness. 
The demons diere are the Devetas. We 
iind tl)is doctrine systematically set forth 
in the religion of Zoroaster, or tlie Chal- 
daic-Persian magic, or doctrine of the 
ina^, which is to be looked upon as a 
chief source of denionology. In order 
to explain the origin of evil, Zoroaster 
adopted, besides a good principle, a bad 
one also, and made tlie two tlie sources 
of all good and evil, explaining his ideas 
thus : There is a kingdom of Ught, and a 
kingdom of darkness. Ormuzd, the author 
of all good, resides in tlie first ; in the 
other, Ahriman, the source of all evil, moral 
as well as physical. Around tlie throne 
of Ormuzd stand the seven Amshaspands 

i archangels), the princes of light. The 
zeds, the genii of all tliat is good, of 
whateve^ kind, are subordinate to them ; 
and to these the Feruers. In the same 
way tlie kingdom of darkness under Ahri- 
man is arranged. His throne is surround- 
ed by the seven superior Dives, die princes 
of evil, and an innumerable multitude of 
inferior Dives stand under them, like the 
Izeds under the Amshaspands. The two 
kingdoms carry on an everlasting war ; but 
Ahriman will eventually be conquered, and 
the kingdom of darkness will be entirely 
destroyed. Heeren endeavored to show, 
that these systems are formed according to 
the constitutions of the Asiatic monar- 
chies, but all evidently modified according 
to die place where, and the circumstances 
of the time at which, the lawgiver and foun- 
der of religion appeared. Zoroaster carried 
his general idea of the division between 
the kingdoms of good and evil into detail 
All rational and irrational, hving and dead 
beings, he classed under one or tlie other 
of these kingdoms ; the pure men, ani- 
mals and plants belonged to Orrouzd's, 
the impure (poisonous, pernicious), to Ah- 
riman's kingdom. In ti i is manner demon- 
ology, in the Parsee system, had attained 
an extent, and a systematical connexion, 
such as it had not elsewhere. The opin- 
ba of Horn (BiUische Gnosis^ that the 



Egyptians borrowed their notion of de- 
mons fitim the Parsees, deserves a closer 
investigation. We find, indeed, with the 
Egyptians, the moon, water, earth and 
an* filled with demons, superintending the 
elements and bodies. Stones, metals and 
plants are under dieir influence, and hu- 
man souls in their power — surely a very 
extensive kingdom of demons, but not 
presenting the striking dualism and par-< 
allelism of the system of Zoroaster. But 
supposing that die Egyptian and Persico- 
Chaldee demonologies are not derived from 
the same source ; they afterwards combined 
to form togedier a new one. Though the 
doctrine of demons came in dincrent 
ways through Western Asia into Greece, 
yet Egypt was the chief source of the 
higher demonology of the Greeks, among 
whom it was spread by die Orphic hymns 
and the mysteries, and was cultivated by 
the philosophere until die birdi of Christ 
The rcUionalistSy as they are called, who 
explain every thing in the Sacred Scrip- 
tures in a historical or natiual way, say that, 
while it came in this way to the Greeks, 
the Hebrews received it in two other ways. 
At the time of the Babylonish captivity, 
diey derived it firom the source of the 
Chaldaic-Persian magic ; and, even sup- 
posing that they were previously acquaint- 
ed with the Elohim, or angete (it is re- 
markable diat the latter are first mentioned 
in the history of the Chaldce Abraham, 
and that die earUer prophets do not speak 
at all of them, while Daniel, on the con- 
trary, mentions them frequendy), yet the 
doctrine of these was first systeniaticaUv 
developed during and aflcr die Babylonish 
captivity. The same dualism, which we 
find in the system of Zoroaster, is here, 
also, perceived: there are good and bad 
demons : they are classified, and receive 
proper names. There are also seven good 
demons, composing the council of Jeho- 
vah, and standing continually before his 
throne. (Job xii. 15.) As for the second 
source of the demonology of the Hebrews, 
diis nation had, during the reigns of die 
Seleucides and Ptolemies, a more active 
intercourse with Eprpt and the Greeks, 
chiefly in Alexandria ; and to the notions 
adopted firom the system of the magi, or 
the Parsees, they united Eg3rptico-Greek 
ones; which connexion is chiefly per- 
ceivable in the New Testament It was 
impossible to prevent die intermingling of 
Greek speculations. The voice of the 
prophets was already silent under Ezra 
and Nehemiah. Study and inquiries 
commenced; the popular belief and phi- 
losophy separated, and even the philofio- 



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DEMON— DEMOSTHENES. 



in 



pbers divided themselves into several 
sects. Opposed to the ancient Pharisees 
we perceive the Sadduceesand Essens, and 
no high priest nor sanhedrim could pre- 
vent the nation (which was already op- 
posed by the Samaritans) from dividing 
itself into parties. This was the state of 
things when Christ appeared. Pythago- 
rean and Platonic notions, intermingled 
with Oriental doctrines, had already un- 
folded the germ which produced the 
Hellenistic philosophy of the Jews, and a 
cabalism existed (cherished by the finest 
minds of the nation), in addition to the 
philosophy of the nilibins. — ^It may be 
observed, in reference to the doctrine of 
niirits, that the expressions of cfemon and 
demofnaad are more especially used to 
indicate bad, tormenting spirits. This is 
the origin of those ideas of demons as 
spirits which enter mto the bodies of 
wicked men, and torment them, and of 
the means to be used against them, for 
instance, miraculous herbs, by means of 
which we are able to expel the demons. 
Thus the demons appear as inferior spirits 
of a ( Persian ) Satan, a passionate, malicious, 
tormenting spirit. The Christian authors 
made this bad meaning of demons the 
ruling one, so that the £nuyns were oppo- 
site to the angds. By this opposition, the 
doctrine of spirits was transformed into 
angelology, that is, the doctrine of good 
angels, and demonology, the doctrine of 
bad angels; and the Jewish and Greek 
notions on the subject have been often 
blended together in Christianity. As Pla- 
to's mythology was an inexhaustible source 
of doctrines for the new Platonist, so demo- 
nology became an endless source of ingen- 
ious s|)eculation among many of the early 
sects.* (See Swtdamrg^ Angdj Genit, 
and Gabaiia,) 

Demona, Val di ; a province of Sicily, 
occupying the N. E. part of the country, 
extending from the straits of Messina to 
Catania ; about 112 miles long, and fiiom 
60 to 70 broad in its widest part; pop- 
ulation, as lately stated, 531,000. The 
LJparian islands are considered to belong 
to this part of the country. Silk is one of 
the chief productions of this valley, which 
yields, likewise, hemp, fiax, olives, lemons, 
oranges, figs, currants and pistachio nuts. 
Sulphur is found in considerable quantity 
towards mount iEtna. Messina, the capi- 
tal of Sicily, is situated in this province. 

* A book of much interest, as showing the firm 
belief in demons at a comparatively recent peri- 
od, is doctor Cotton Mather's Magnolia Christi 
Americana (London . 1 702 ) . Doctor Mather was a 
minister of Boston, Mass. 



The other prmcipal towns on the coast 
are Melazzo, Cefcuu and Taormina. 

Demonstratioxt, in military language; 
a movement towards any place tor ikte 
purpose of deceiving the enemy, and con- 
cealing the true design. 

Demosthenes, the most fiunotis orator 
of antiquity, was the son of a sword-cuUer 
at Athens, where he was bom in 381 (ac- 
cording to some, in 375) B. C. His fatlier 
left him a considerable fortune, of which 
his guardians attempted to defraud him: 
Demosthenes, at the age of 17 years, con- 
ducted a suit against them himself, and 
gained his cause. He studied rhetoric 
and philosophy in the schools of Callistra- 
tus, beeus, Isocmtes and Plato. But nature 
had placed great obstacles in his wa^, 
and bis first attempts to speak in pubhc 
were attended with derision. He not only 
had veiy weak limgs and a shrill voice, 
but was unable to pronounce the letter r. 
These natural defects he endeavored to 
remedy by die greatest exertions. He 
succeeded by the advice of the actor Setv- 
rus, who advised him to recite with peb- 
bles in his mouth, on the roughest and 
steepest places. To strengthen his voice, 
he exercised himself in speaking aloud on 
the sea-shore, • amidst the noise of the 
waves. At other times, he shut himself 
up for months in a subterranean room, 
with his head half shaved, that he might 
not be tempted to go out, and endeavored 
to acquire dignity of manner by practising 
before a mirror, and transcribed the liistoiy 
of Thucydides eight times, for the purpose 
of forming his style. After such a labo- 
rious preparation, he composed and de- 
Uvered his masterly speeches, of which his 
enemies said that they smelt of the lamp, 
but to which posterity has assigned the 
firat rank among the models of eloquence — 
speeches in which he openly opposed the 
foolish wishes of tiie multitude, censured 
their fiiults, and inflamed their courage, 
their sense of honor, and their patriotism. 
He thundered against Philip of Macedon, 
and instilled into his fellow-citizens the 
hatred which animated his own bosom. 
The first of those orations, so fiunous un- 
der the name of Philippics, was delivered 
when Philip took possession of the pass of 
Thermopyte. The orator insisted on the 
necessity of immediately preparing a fleet 
and an army; urging the Athenians to 
begin the war themselves ; to make Mace- 
donia the theatre, and to terminate it only 
by an advantageous treaty or a decisive 
battie. They admired and approved his 
plans, but did not execute them. The 
celebrated Phocion, who knew the wedc- 



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178 



DEMOSTHENES— DEMURRAGE. 



ness of Athens, unceasingly advised peace, 
Demosthenes went twice to the court of 
Philip to negotiate, but without success. 
On his return, he recommended war, and 
endeavored to ann not only Athens, but 
all Greece. When Philip had finally 
penetrated into Phocis, through the pass 
of Thennopylce,aud had talc en possession 
of the city of Elatea, to tlie terror of Ath- 
ens, Demostlienes obtained a decree of the 
people for fitting out a fleet of 300 vessels, 
marching an army to Eleusis, and sending 
amlwssadors to all the cities of Greece, 
for the purpose of formuig a universal 
confederacy against Philip. He was 
himself among the ambassadors, and pre- 
vailed on the Thebans to receive an 
Athenian anny within their walls. He 
also exerted himself actively throughout 
Bceotia^ and, by his efforts, a numerous 
army was collected to act against Philip. 
A battle was fought near Cherouea, and 
tlie Greeks were vanquished. Demos- 
thenes was among tlie first who fled. 
Nevertheless, he was desirous of deliver- 
ing a funeral oration over tliose who had 
fallen in battle. iEscliines, his rival, did 
not &il to attack hun on tliis account. 
The hostility between the two orators was 
the occasion of the spee«h pro corona (for 
the crown), which resulted m the triumph 
of Demosthenes and the exile of his ad- 
versary. Philip having been, soon after, 
assassinated, Demosthenes thought that 
Athens would be better able to maintain its 
liberty ; but Alexander's dreadful chastise- 
ment of Thebes fiUed the Athenians with 
such terror that they sued for mercy. It 
was with difficulty that Alexander could 
be persuaded to desist from his demand 
of the surrender of Demosthenes and some 
other orators ; for the Macedonians feared 
Demosthenes more than they did the ar- 
mies of Athens. He was atlerward fined 
50 talents for bribery, and, neglecting the 
payment of it, was thrown into prison, 
from which he escaped, and fled to Mg\n&, 
where he remained till the death of Alex- 
ander. Then followed the war with An- 
tipater. Demosthenes ^gain appeared in 
public, and endeavored to persuade tlie 
small Grecian states to unite against Mace- 
donia. The Athenians received him witli 
honor ; but the war was unsuccessful, and 
Antipater insisted upon his being surren- 
dered to him. Demosthenes fled to tlie 
temple of Neptune, in the island of Calau- 
ria, on the coast of Argolis ; but finding 
himself not secure, he took poison, which 
he always carried about with him. He 
died 319 B. C. (according to some, 322 
B. C), at the age of 60 or 62 years. His 



character was not entirely fiee fixim vani- 
ty, ambition and avarice. Cicero pro- 
nounces him to be tlie most perfect of all 
orators. He always spoke as circum- 
stances required, and was, by turns, calm, 
vehement or elevated. He carried the 
Greek language to a decree of perfection 
which it never before had reached. In 
energy and power of persuasion, in pene- 
tration and power of reasoning, in the 
adaptation of the parts to tlie whole, in 
beauty and vigor of expression, in strong 
and melodious language, he surpassed all 
his predecessors. Every thing in his 
speeches is natural, vigorous, concise, 
symmetrical. This alone can explain his 
great influence over his contemporaries. 
We have under his' name 61 orations, 65 
exordiums, and 6 lettei^ some of which 
are not genuine. Among the oldest edi- 
tions of the orations, tlie best is that of 
Paris, 1570, in folio, with the commenta- 
ries of Ulpian. The first edition of liis 
complete works, Greek and Latin, was 
edited by Hieronyraus Wolf (liasil, 1549 ; 
reprinted 1572 ; and Frankfort, 1604, in 
foUo). His orations are also contained 
in Reiake's edition of the Greek ora- 
tors. 

Demotic or Enchoriai. Alphabet, 
from iriitos (the people), is tlie name given 
by antiquarians to tliat alphabet which is 
used by the {leople, in contradistinction to 
an alphabet used by a certain class or caste ; 
as, for instance, among the Egyptians. 
Thus we And on the famous Rosetta stone, 
which seems to have become, by the 
exertions of Young, Ackerblad, Zoega, De 
Sacy and Champdlion, the key to ml the 
hieroglyphical documents handed down 
to us by the Egyptians, a Greek and two 
Egyptian inscriptions, one of which is 
written in the hieroglyphical, the other in 
the demotic alphaliet 

Demoustier, Charles Albert, a French 
poet, bom at Villers-Cotterets, in 1760, 
was, at first, a successful lawyer. He 
wrote comedies, 0{)er&s and poems. They 
are full of affected wit and false brilliancy. 
His Lettera to Emilie on mythology have 
made him known in Europe. It may be 
justly objected to them, that they are 
superficial, affected, and written in what 
the French call style de madrigal; yet 
they are, at the same time, distinguished 
for spirit, delicacy and ease. Of his plays, 
Le Conciliateur^ Lea Ftmmts and Lt ToU- 
rant have maintained a place on the 
stage. He died March 2, 1801. 

Demurrage, in law, is tlie detention of 
a ship ; and is also, and more frequently, 
used to signify the amount to be paid. 



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DEMURRAGE—ZODIAC OF DENDERAH. 



179 



by the charterer to the owner of a ship^ for 
voluntary delay beyond a specified time. 
If the captain chooses to wait a longer 
time than that a^eed upon for a cargo, 
the owner can claim demurrage only un- 
til the cargo is taken on board and the 
ship ready to sail, and not for th^ subse- 
quent detention from other causes, al- 
though this would not have happened but 
for the detention for a cargo. Thus when 
a vessel was to he loaded at St. Peters- 
burg for Leith, by the 1st of September, 
but tlie master waited until October 29 for 
a caiigo, when he sailed from Cronstadt, 
but was soon driven back by unfavorable 
winds, and the frost, setting in, detained 
him there until the 11th of Mav following ; 
after much litigation in Scotland, it was 
decided by tlie house of lords of Great 
Britain, that demurrage could be claimed 
only to October 29. It is to be observed, 
however, in this case, that the captain was 
at liberty to sail on tlie 1st of September, 
the time limited in the charter-party. The 
time of delay in port for a cargo, for con- 
voy, &C., is usuaHy stipulated m tlie char- 
ter-party, and also tlie allowance to be 
maae in case of longer delay for those 
objects ; and this time is sometimes speci- 
fied in working-days or lay-days, as dis- 
tinguished from hofydays, when no cargo 
can be put on board. When a charter- 
party, made in England, relates to a delay 
in the river Thames, for a certain number 
of days, it will, in pursuance of a particu- 
lar custom, be construed to mean working- 
days. But if the charter-party be made 
elsewhere, or, if made in England, relating 
to demurrage at any other place, if the 
intention is that it should allow a certain 
number of working-days, it ought to be 
80 expressed. 

Demurrer ; a pause or stop put to the 
proceedings of an action upon a point of 
difficulty, which must be determined by 
the court before any further proceedings 
can be had therein. He that demurs in 
law confesses the facts to be true, as 
stated by the opposite party, but denies 
that, by the law arising upon those facts, 
any injury' is. done to the party, or that 
he has made out a lawful excuse. 

Dew (Souum, valley, or woody ground), 
when added to the names of places, de- 
notes that tiiey are in a v€dley, or near 
woods. « 

Denarius ; 1. a Roman silver coin, 
equal, at first, to 10 asses, whence its name ; 
2. a weight The librOj or Roman pound, 
contained 96, the ounce 8, denarii; and 
the denarius 3 scruples. In modem gov- 
^nments, the denarius has also been intro- 



duced as a weight A French denare con- 
tained 63 grains.* 

Dende RAH, Zodiac OF. NearDenderah, 
a village of tiie Tliebai's, surrounded with 
palms, and lying about a league west of 
the Nile, die traveller from Cairo to 
Upper Egypt first acquires a distinct no- 
tion of an architecture such as no other 
country can show. Denderah hes under 
the 26th degree of norUi latitude, on the 
borders of Uie desert, upon the last tal>le- 
land of the Lybian mountains, to which 
the inundation of the Nile extends. Its 
name is derived from the ancient Tentyni 
or Tentyris, the magnificent remains of 
which, called by die Arabians Berbi (the 
ruhis), are a mile or two distant from it 
We are indebted, for our knowledge of 
them, to die memorable campaign of the 
French in Egypt, whose enthusiastic de- 
scriptions and accurate investigations ]\fi,ye 
drawn general attention to them. Throu gh 
a portal half buried by rubbish, covered 
with hieroglyphics, and constructed of 

* The value of the denarius is g[iven incor- 
rectly by several modem German writers, as by 
Schleusner, in his Lexicon of the New Testament ; 
by RosenmQiler, in his Scholia on the New Tes- 
tament ; and by Kuinol, in his Commentary on 
the Historical fiooks of the New Testament. It 
is reckoned by them as equal to the eighth part 
of a reichsthaler (rix dollar) or 3 groschcn, that is, 
about 9 cents, American money . The mistake f 
may be thus accounted for: The writers men- 
tioned refer to Eisenschmidius, De Ponderibus et 
Mensuru veterum necnon de Valore Pecunim 
veteris, published in 1708, reprinted 1737. The 
author of this work (p. 136) estimates 7^ denarii 
as equal to an imperial or rix dollar, meaning the 
old rix dollar of the empire, a coin which, by 
proclamation of queen Anne, in 1704, was de- 
clared equal to is. 6d. sterling. He thus makes the 
value of the denarius 13^ cents — as near an ap- 

Eroximation as, perhaps, was to be expected from 
is imperfect modes of computation. But the 
writers above referred to, in following him, have 
substituted the present rix dollar of account, eaual 
to about 72 cents, for the coin intended, and tJien 
reckoning the denarius loosely as the eighth part 
of a rix dollar, have thus estimated its value at 
about 9 cents. Winer, in his Biblisches Real" 
10 nrterbuch, and Wahl, in his Lexicon of the 
New Testament, estimate its vtdue at about 4 
groschen. or 12 cents j Jahn, in his Archceologia 
Biblicaj at 24^ creutzers, of which 90 make a rix 
dollar, consequently at about 19<| cents. For 
these mistakes it is not easy to account. There 
being uo considerable difference in the estimate 
of the average weight of silver in the consu- 
lar denarius, all these different estimates of its 
value are unfounded. That given in Arbutb- 
net's Tables, namely, l\d. steriinff, about 14^ 
cents, is sufficiently correct, and commonlv 
adopted by Endisn i\Titers. In Robin8on[s 
translation of Wanl's Lexicon, the erroneous esti- 
mate of 9| cents is given, in addition to the cor- 
rect, or nearly correct one of 14 ceiiU. Both 
estimates are also given in the valuable Greek 
Lexicon of Mr. Pickering. 



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180 



ZODIAC OF DENDERAH. 



huge blocks of eandstoDe, you come in 
sight of a temple, which forms the back 
ground of this splendid picture. All tliat 
you see here, say the French writers, from 
the colossal figures of Isis, which sup* 
port the entablature of the vestibule, to 
the smallest hieroglyphic, appears to have 
come from faiiy land. Neitlier Greece 
nor Rome, nor the rest of Europe, has 
produced any thing similar. So universal 
was this impression, that the meanest sol- 
diers of the anny paused to examine these 
sacred relics, and declared with one voice, 
that this si^ht alone was enough to indem- 
nify tliem tor the fatigues of the campaign. 
The monuments of Thebes, witli which 
they afterward became acquainted, could 
not efiace tliis first impression; and the 
magnificent temple of Isis still appeared 
to tbem the most perfect monument of 
Eey4)tian art. Of tlie ancient Tentyrah, 
which may have existed in the times 
of Strabo and Theodosius, a TSfphaumj 
similar to that of Edfuh, but larger, is yet 
standing. It is west of the nortliem gate, 
so buried under rubbish that the dif- 
ferent sides are scarcely to be distin- 
guished. But the admiration of the 
French was chiefly excited by the great 
temple, the whole of which is nearly in 
the shape of a T. The view is obstructed 
by ruins only on the eastern side. On 
account of the figures of Isis, of every size, 
which it contains, it is thought to have 
been an hatum. Without the aid of 
drawings, anv description of its vestibules, 
halls and cells, which are all covered with 
hieroglyphics, would be unintelligible. 
On the ceiling of the portico of this btE- 
urn, astronomical figures and emblems 
were found nailed on the soffits : on the 
two extreme soffits were the 12 signs of 
the zodiac. This representation was 
repeated on the ceiling of an apartment in 
the upper story, on the left side of the ves- 
tibule. Like the others, this room was 
covered with hieroglvphics, and the plani- 
sphere, on the left side as you enter, occu- 
pied onlv half of the ceiling. It was first 
observed by general Desaix, who directed 
the attention of his companions to it. 
This is the planisphere of which so much 
has been written. Behind this large 
building, towards the south, is another 
temple, which was, perhaps, dedicated to 
Isis and Honis. Its exterior reminds us 
less forcibly than the banan^ how many 
generations must have existed, before a 
nation could flourish possessed of suffi- 
cient courage, knowledge and elevation 
of mind for the invention of such works ; 
and how many centuries must have 



elapsed, before all this could have been 
forgotten, and men have sunk back to the 
rudeness of the present Arab inhabitants of 
these ruins. But the figures on tlie plani- 
spheres particularly attracted the attention 
of tlie learned Europeans, on account of 
theur supposed connexion with the pre- 
cession of tlie equinoxes. (See Preces- 
sion,) In both, it was observed that the 
lion was represented as the first sign. This 
order it was supposed must have been 
adopted by design ; for in the larger plani- 
sphere, on the ceiling of the portico, the 
signs are represented on two stripes, one 
of which runs in a direction toward the 
interior of the temple, the other toward 
the exterior ; on the smaller (that of the 
upper apartment, now in Paris), the signs 
are represented in a spiral line, in the 
order m which we now place them r Vir- 
go, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn, 
Aquarius, Pisces, Aries, Taurus, Gemini, 
Cancer. Leo appeared, consequently, to 
be placed, intentionally, afler the point 
of intersection of the ecliptic and equator. 
On the situation of those points of inter- 
section, however, depends the place of the 
solstice, which must be half way lictween 
them. In tlie planisphere of benderah, 
it is drawn in Cancer. If this is the win- 
ter solstice, as some suppose, the vernal 
equinox was then in Libra. At present, 
however, it is in Pisces, and consequently 
7 signs, or 210°, farther back. As it is 
known that 2152 years of uniform motion 
are necessaiy for the recession of one sign, 
it follows tliat, to recede from Libra to 
Pisces, 7 times 2152, or about 15,000 years 
are necessary. This would be, accord- 
ingly, the minimum of tlie a^ of this 
zc^ac, if we suppose tliat it is founded on 
real astronomical observations, and is not 
to be considered a mere astronomical 
problem. (See Rhode, Ferswh uber das 
Mer des TTderkreises und den Ursprung der 
StembUdar, Berlin, 1809, 4to.) Other as- 
tronomers, in particular Littrow (Wientr 
Zeiischrijl, 1822, No. 53, 54), and, yet ear- 
lier, tlie autliors of the great description 
of Egypt, thought the solstice on tlie zo- 
diac of Tentyra to be the summer solstice. 
The vernal equinox would then fall be- 
tween Taurus and Aries, consequently 
45° farther forward than at present. 
From this it would follow, that the zodiac 
would be as old as 45 times 71 1 years, or 
3228 years. This last supposition would 
bejustified if the constellation which is the 
first in the zodiac were that which the sun 
must enter first afler the heliacal rise of 
Siriua There are many reasons which 
induce us to beUeve this. The appear* 



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ZODIAC OF DENDERAH. 



181 



ance of Sirius followed a few days after 
tlie summer solstice : it was a sign of the 
rising of the Nile, and of the beginning 
of the agricultural year in Egypt. This 
reference to the beginning of the agricul- 
tural year adds great force to this suppo- 
sition. The accompanying hieroglyphics, 
as the child on the lotus flower near Aries, 
the rising sun, tlie point of the vernal 
equinox, are additional arguments. Con- 
fflderations drawn from astronomy and the 
progress of the arts, induced E. G. Vis- 
conti to believe this planisphere and the 
whole temple, wliich undoubtedly were 
executed at the same time, to be of a far 
more recent origin. He assigned this 
building to the time when the uncertaui 
ThoOi, the commencement of the uncer- 
tain Egvptian year, coincided with the 
sign of Leo, which was the case from tlie 
year 12 to the ^ear 132 of our era. (See 
Notice 8ommatre des deux Zodiaques de 
Teniyra, in the 2d volume of Larcher's 
Herodote, page 567 et seq.) To this date, 
belonging to the first years of the Roman 
dominion, the authors of the great descrip- 
tion of Egypt have opposed strong reasons. 
In case this hypotliesis should not be 
approved, Visconti had another ready. 
Proceeding on the theory of De la Nauze, 
who took an Egyptian Normal year as the 
basis of his calculation, he assigned these 
monuments to the period of the Ptolemies. 
A single Greek inscription, in an obscure 
place in the baum, was not a very con- 
clusive arginnent in favor of this hypothe- 
sis^ which, besides, is exposed to strong 
objections, if we comjiare the architecture 
of these buildings with other monuments 
of that period. They are executed in so 
pure an Egyptian style, that they exclude 
every idea of foreign influence hostile to 
the religion of the country. No one, 
therefore, can think of ascribing them to 
the old enemies of the Egy[)tian worship, 
the Persians, those destroyers of temi)les. 
There is, then, no alternative but to refer 
their origin to a period when the country 
vras under its native kings. Putting out 
of view the astronomical reprcsentations, 
the authors of the description of Egypt 
are inclined to assign the building of^the 
temple, whose execution hai-mouizes bo 
accurately with the original plan as to be 
evidently the creation of the same time, 
to that period when the E^ptian art 
appears to have reached its highest per* 
fection, the period between Necho and 
Amasis, when magnificent edifices were 
erected in the Delta, and Memphis was in 
its 8|>Iendor. The dispute concerning the 
antiquity of this monument is not yet fin- 

VOL. IV, 16 



ished, and was by no means brought 
nearer to a decision bjK mutilating the 
whole, and carrying a piece of it to Europe. 
Preconceived opinions have affected the 
discussion of this subject Thus an essay 
of Dupuy on this zodiac was suppressed 
by the police of Paris, as tending to pro- 
mote inndelity (August, 1822). A young 
Frenchman, S. Saulnier, whose ambition 
was excited by the rich spoils carried off 
by the English, conceived the idea of pro- 
curing this zodiac for his native country. 
As he was prevented fix)m going to Egypt 
{lersonally, he left the transportation of it 
to his friend H. Lelorrain, who embariced, 
in 1820, for Alexandria, provided with the 
necessary instruments. Mohammed All 
showed a deplorable readiness to permit 
the sacred monuments of Tentyra to be 
mutilated. Upon the roof of the temple 
Arabians had, in earlier times, flxed their 
abodes ; it was necessary to remove their 
deserted huts ; and their rubbish, together 
witii that already ac4:;umulated, formed 
a plane upon which the blocks of sand- 
stone could slide down to the banks of the 
Nile. A vehicle of the invention of M. 
Lelorrain was used for this purpose. Le* 
lorrain selected the small circular zodiac 
in the upper apartment. As the whole 
stone on which the zodiac was repre- 
sented was too large to be carried oflj 
extending, as it did, the whole width or 
the ceiling, and i^estiiig on the walls on 
each side, M. Lelorrain contented himself 
with the portion covered by the zodiac, a 
small part of which, projecting over the 
main stone, and contained on a contigu- 
ous one, he lefl, not thinking it worth the 
trouble of removing. The removal was 
effected by means of chisels, saws and 
gunpowder. The stone was exceedingly 
well preserved, only blackened by soot, 
perliaps of the time when the mysteries 
and the worship of animals were solem- 
nized in these sanctuaries. This smoke 
may also have destroyed the colors by 
which, it is probable, the hieroglyphics 
were formerly distinguished. The stone 
is of tiie same kind of sand-stone of which 
all the monuments lietween Phyte and 
Denderah are composed. Scarcely was 
this work of destruction finished, when 
another explorer, Mr. Salt, the English 
consul, laid claims to the booty, assert- 
ing prior rights to eveiy thing "dug up 
at Tentyra. The bafiliaw of Egypt 
decided for the Frenchman, because tlie 
zodiac was taken from the roof Le- 
lorrain at length arrived safe with his 
booty at Marseilles. Here a compari- 
son with the plates in the great woik on 



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182 



ZODIAC OF DENDERAH— DENINA. 



Eg3rpt showed that every tiling was in its 
right place, but that tlie drawing hod been 
embeUished in a way which was not con- 
firmed by the monument. In January, 
1822, he arrived at Paris, where tlie pro- 
prietors caused a drawing to be taken by 
Oau, containing all the discernible figures. 
The French government purchased tlie 
planisphere for 150,000 francs. The dis- 
putes relative to tlie epoch of its origin 
were renewed with fresli ardor. St. Mar- 
tin, in his NUice avar le Zodiaque de Den- 
derah, etc., maintains that the monument 
was erected as early as 569, and not ear- 
lier than 900 B. C. ; but his opinion is not 
satisfactorily proved; nor is that of Mr. 
Biot, wliich Jomard has controverted in 
the Rev. EncycL (1822). On the odier 
hand, Letronne, in his Critical and Archae- 
olomcal Observations on the Signs of the 
Zodiac (Paris, 1823), maintains that there 
is no monument among the signs of the 
Egypdan, Greek and Roman zodiacs older 
than the common era. With this opinion 
^ntses also that of the abb^ Halma, in his 
Sxamen et Explication du Zodiaqivt de 
Dendtrah, etc. (3 vols., Paris, 1822, with 
copper-plates). Letronne considers the 
zodiacs of Esn^. and Denderah as astro- 
logical curiosities of tlie times of the Ro- 
man emperors. The weight of opinion 
at present is, that these figures are inscrip- 
tions of about tlie same antiquity as the 
Christian era. 

Dendrites, or ARB0RIZATI02VS ; an ap- 
pellation given to figures of vegetables 
observed in fossil substances, and which 
are of two kinds, the one superficial, the 
other internal The first are chiefly found 
on the surface of stones, and between tlie 
strata and the fissures of those of a calca- 
reous nature. They are mostly brown, 
changing gradually to reddish-yellow. 
The internal dendrites are of a deep black. 
The most esteemed sorts are those found 
in agates, and particularly in the sardo- 
nyx, cornelian, and other precious stones 
brought from the East, and which are 
commonly denominated Moka stones. 
Dengue Fever. (See Fever,) 
Denham, Dixon, lieutenant-colonel, 
well known by his expedition into Central 
Africa, was bom at London, in 1786, and^ 
after fmishing his studies at school, was 
placed with a solicitor, but, in 1811, en- 
tered the army as a volunteer, and served 
in the peninsular eampaigna After the 
general peace, he was reduced to half pay 
on the pNeace establishment, and, in lold, 
was admitted into the senior department 
of the royal military college at FainhanfL 
In 1823 — 4, he was engaged, in com- 



pany with captain Clapperton and doctor 
Oudney, in exploring the central regions 
of Africa. fFor an account of tlieir expe 
ditions, see Clappetion,) His courage, ad 
di'ess, ftnnness, perseverance and modera- 
tion, his bold, fi^k, energeuc dis})ositiQn, 
and his conciliating manners, peculiarly fit- 
ted him for such an undertaking. The nar- 
rative of tlie discoveries of the travellers 
was prepared by Denham. In 1826, he 
went to Sierra Leone, as superintendent 
of the liberated Africans, and, m 1828, was 
appointed heutenant-govemor of the colo- 
ny ; but, on the 9th of June of the same 
year, he died of a fever, after an illness of 
a few days. 

Denham, sir John, a poet, was bom at 
Dubhn, in 1615, the son of sir John Den- 
ham, chief baron of the exchequer m Ire- 
land. He was educated in London and 
at Oxford. Although dissipated and ir- 
regular at the university, he passed his 
exammation for a bachelor's degree, and 
then removed to Lincoln's Inn to study 
law. In 1641, he first became known by 
his tragedy of tlie Sophy. This piece was 
so much admired, that Waller observed, 
*' Denham had broken out like the Irish 
rebellion, 60,000 strong, when no person 
suspected it." At the commencement of 
the civil war, he received a military com- 
mand ; but, not liking a soldier's life, he 
give' it ui), and attended the court at 
xford, where, in 1643, he published the 
first edition of his most celebrated poem, 
called Cooper^s ESJL He was subsequent- 
ly intrusted with several confidential com- 
missions by the king's party, one of which 
was to collect pecuniary aid from the 
Scottish residents in Poland. He returned 
to England in 15*52 ; but how he employed 
himself until the restoration, does not ap- 
pear. Upon that event, he obtained tlie 
office of surveyor of the king's buildings, 
and was created a knight of the Bath, and 
a fellow of the newly-formed royal society. 
A second marriage, at an advanced age, 
caused him much disquiet, and a tempo- 
rary derangement ; but he recovered, and 
retained the esteem of the lettered and the 
courtly undl his deatli, in 1688, when his re- 
mains were interred m Westminster abbey. 

Denina, Giacomo Carlo, a historian, 
bom in 1731, at Revel, in Piedmont, stud- 
ied belles-lettres at Turin, and received 
the professorship of himaanity at the royal 
school at Pignerol. When the chair of 
rhetoric at the superior college of Turin 
was vacant, Denina was made professor in 
the college and university. He now pub- 
)l3hed the three first volumes of his His- 
tory of the Italian Revolutions (Turin, 



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DENINA— DENMARK. 



183 



1769, 3 vols., quarto]), containing a general 
history of Italy, which subjected him to 
some inconveniences, by exciting the ill 
will of the defenders of the privileges of 
the clergy. In 1777, he travelled, on 
account of his health, to Rome, made a 
stay at Florence, received an invitation to 
Prussia, went to Berlin in September, 
1782, was presented to the king by the 
marquis Luccbesini, and appointed a 
member of the academy, with a salary of 
1200 Prussian dollars. He had several 
conversations with Frederic tlie Great, an 
account of whose hfe and reign he after- 
wards wrote. He also published Xio Prua- 
M UtUraxn sous Fredaric II (3 volumes). 
In 1791, he made a journey to Piedmont, 
and published, on his return to Berlin, the 
Guide litUraire. As early as 1760, his 
Discorso sopra It Vicende della Litteratttra 
appeared in Berlin. It is a valuable con- 
tribution to the history of literature, and 
has been translated into German and 
French. Most of his works were written 
at Berlin ; as, for instance, his Histoiy of 
Piedmont and of the other Sardinian 
States ; Polidcal and Literarv History of 
Greece; and Letters from Brandenburg. 
After the battle of Marengo, the council 
of administration appointed him librarian 
at the university of Turin. Before he 
entered upon this office, he wrote his 
CUf des Lairmies, ou Observatums, etc., 
which he deaicated to the first consul. 
He received, in return, an honorable letter 
and a gold snufi^-box, through Duroc. 
This favor was followed by the offer of 
the place of librarian to the emperor, upon 
which he repaired to Paris. In 1805 
appealed his Historico-statisdcal Picture 
of Upper Italy. He died in ISia 

I)«KisorDErnrs,ST.,ABBETOF ; achurch 
celebrated in histoiy. The saint (Dionys- 
ius) to whom it is consecrated, havuig 
been sent finom Rome into Gaul to preach 
the gospel, died by the hand of the public 
executioner, about the end of the 3d cen- 
tury. CatuUa, a heathen lady, affected 
by the martyr's constancv, obtained his 
body, which had been thrown into the 
Seine, buried it in her garden, became a 
Chiisdan, and erected a small chapel over 
his tomb, which was afterwards reouilt on 
a more extensive plan, by St Genevieve, 
and became, in the 6th century, one of the 
most flouridiing abbeys. This large edi- 
fice is sdll standing, a noble structure, the 
oldest Christian clnut;h in France. On 
the left was the principal entrance, a large 
door with two small doors at the sides, 
ornamented with statues of the ancient 
eaintB and French kings, carved in stone. 



The interior of the church was enriched 
with pious offerings and works of art. In 
the large vaults under the choir reposed 
the remains of several kings of the first 
and second races, and all tlie rulers of the 
third race, fiiom Hugh Capet to Louis XVI. 
At present, the hei^ of all the saints and 
kinffs at tlie entrance are wanting, and the 
vaults are vacant, all the bodies having 
been removed during tlie revolution. 
Oct 16, 1793, at the time when the queen 
was beheaded in Paris, the coffin of 
Louis XV was taken out of the vaults of 
St. Denis, and, after a stormy deliate, it 
was decided to tlirow the remains of all the 
kings, even tliose of Henry IV and Louis 
XIV, which were yet, in a good degree, pre- 
served entire, and recognised with perfect 
certainty, into a pit, to melt down their 
leaden coffins on the spot, and to take 
away and melt into bullets whatever lead 
there was besides in the church (the whole 
roof, for example). Napoleon's decree of 
the 20th Febniary, 1806, made St. Denis 
again the burial-place of the reigning 
family of Fraiice ; the church was repair- 
ed and ornamented, and marked with the 
emblems of the new dynasty, particularly 
the large N. Napoleon had selected a 
vaulted room for the tomb of himself and 
his consort Louis XVIIl obliterated from 
St. Denis all traces of Napoleon's rule, 
buried whatever bones of his ancestors 
could be found, especially the relics of 
Louis XVI and his family, in the ancient 
sepulchre of the kings, and instituted 
canons, whose duty it is to protect the 
tombs witljin. These canons of St. De- 
nis are the most disdnguished in France, 
and form a convent, the abbot of which is 
a bishop. 

Denizen. In England, a denizen is an 
alien bom, who has obtained letters patent 
whereby he is constituted an English sub- 
ject. A denizen is in a middle state be- 
tween an alien and a natural bom or nat- 
uralized subject, partaking of tlie nature 
of both. He may take lands by purchase, 
or derive a title by descent through his pa- 
rents or any ancestor, tiiough they be aliens. 

Denmark; the smallest of die northern 
European kingdoms. The oldest inhab- 
itants of Denmark were Gennans, brave 
and spirited men, who gained their sup- 
port from the sea. The Cimbri, who 
derived their origin from Uiem, dwelt in 
the peninsula of Jutland, the Chersonestu 
Cimbrica of the Romans. They first 
struck terror into the Romans by their in- 
curaion, with the Teutones, into the rich 
provinces of Gaul. After this, led by the 
mysterious Odin, the Goths broke into 



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lii 



DENMARK. 



Seandioavia, and appointed chlefi fit)m 
tbeir own nation over Denmark, Norway 
and Sweden. Skiold is said to have been 
the first ruler of Denmark. His liistory, 
however, and that of his posterity, is in- 
volved in fable. All we know with cer- 
tainty is, that Denmark was divided, at 
this time, into many small states, that the 
inhabitants gained their subsistence by 
piracy, and spread terror through every 
sea, and along every coast to which they 
came. When the power of the Romans 
began to decline, the Danes and Normans 
became conspicuous in the South by their 
incursions upon the shores, which were 
formerly protected by tlie guard-ships of 
the Romana The Normans (compre- 
hending the people of Denmark, Sweden 
and Norway) landed m England A. D. 
Kfi2, and established there two kincdoms. 
Under Rollo, in 911, thev made a descent 
on the French coasts in Normandy, occu- 
pied the Faroe isles, the Orcades, the Shet- 
land isles, Iceland, and a part of Ireland, and 
thence proceeded to Spain, Italy and Sicily. 
Wherever they came, they spread terror 
hy their valor, ferocity and rapacity. 
These expeditions made little cliange m 
their national government : it still contin- 
ued a federative system of many clans or 
tribes, each of which had its own head, 
and all were united under one severely 
When the German kinps of the Carlovm- 
gian race attempted to interfere with their 
domestic affairs, the tribes entered into a 
closer union, and the Norwegians and 
Danes formed two separate states. Gorm 
the Old first subdued Jutland, in 863, and 
united all the small Danish states under 
his sceptre till 920. Flis grandson Sweyn, 
a warlike prince, subdued a part of Nor- 
way in 1000, and England in 1014. His 
son Canute, in 1016, not only completed 
the conquest of England, but also subdued 
a pan of Scotland, and, in 1030, all Nor- 
way. Under him the power of Denmaric 
reached its highest pitch. Political mo- 
tives led him to embrace the Christian 
religion, and to introduce it into Denmark ; 
upon which a great change took place in 
the character of tlie people. Canute died 
in 1036, and left a powerful kingdom to 
his successors, who, in 1042, lost England, 
and, in 1047, Norway. The Danish king- 
dom was, after this, very much weaken^ 
by intestine broils. Sweyn Magnus Es- 
tritson ascended the throne in 1047, and 
established a new dynasty ; but the feudal 
system, introduced by the wars of Sweyn 
and Canute, robbed the kingdom of all its 
strength under this dynasty, which fur- 
nish^ not a single worthy prince except 



the neat Waldemar, lefl the princes de- 
pendent on the choice of the bishops and 
nobility, plunged the peasants into bond- 
age, caused the decay of agriculture, and 
abandoned commerce to the Hanse towns 
of Germany. With Waldemar III, in 
1376, the male line of the &mily of Estrit- 
son became extinct. His politic daughter 
Margaret, afler the death of her son Olave 
IV, A. D. 1387, took the helm of the 
Danish government, ascended die throne 
of Sweden and Norway, and establisbetl 
the union of Calmar (q. v.), in 1397. After 
the extinction of the princes of the family 
of Skiold, the Danes elected Christian J, 
count of Oldenburg, to succeed him, in 
1448. This Christian was the founder of 
the royal Danish family, which has, ever 
since, kept possession of the throne, and 
from which, in modem times, Russia, 
Sweden and Oldenburg have received 
their rulers. He connected Norway, 
Sleswic and Holstein with the crown of 
Denmark, but was so fettered by his capit- 
ulations, that he seemed to be rather tiie 
head of the royal council than a sovereign 
king. His son, king John, was bound by 
a still more strict capituladon, in Den- 
maric, 1481. In Norway, too, his power 
was more circumscribed. Holstein and 
Sleswic he shared with Frederic, his 
brother. King Christian II (q. v.), son of 
John, a wicked and cruel, but bv no 
means weak, prince, attempted to throw 
off bis depenaence on the states; but, in 
doing it, he lost Sweden, which broke the 
union of Calmar in 1523 ; and, soon after, 
he was deprived of both his other crowns. 
Denmark and fiorwsy elevated his &- 
ther's brotiier, Frederic I, to the throne. 
Under this prince, the aristocracy gained 
the entire superiority ;. bondage was estab- 
lished by law ; the reformation was intro- 
duced ; and, in 1522, Norway was united 
with Denmark. Christian III, his eldest 
son, divided Sleswic and Holstein with hia 
brothers, John and Adolpfaus, the latter 
of whom founded the house of Holstein- 
Gottorp ; but this division was the ground 
of long and bitter disputes. He was suc- 
ceeded, in 1559, by king Frederic II, who 
conquered the Ditmars, and became in- 
volved in a war with Sweden respecting 
the possession of Livonia. This war was 
concluded by the peace of Stettin, 1570. 
Christian IV, who succeeded in 1588, took 
part in the tiiirty years' war, and twice 
engaged in a war with Sweden ; the last 
time with such unhappy consequences, 
that, by the peace of Bromsebro, in 1645, 
Denmark had to cede to Sweden Jsmipt- 
land, Herjedalen beyond the mountains. 



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D^BNMARK. 



105. 



Gothland and Oesel, provinces which it 
had retained ever since the union ; besides 
puttiug Halland in her hands for !)0 years. 
The fauHs of the Danish fonn of goveni- 
ment, and the restraints on the crown, had 
principally contributed to make the Dan- 
ish arms unsuccessful The same inisfbr- 
time attended them also in tlie new war, 
begun with Sweden by king Frederic III, 
in 1657. In the peace of Roschild, in 
1658, and that of Copenhagen, in 1660, he 
lost Schonen, Bleckingen, Bohua and Hal- 
land. This caused the abolition, in 1660, 
of the constitution of the states: the 
nation itself granted the king absolute 
power, and rendered the crown hereditary. 
Norway did the same in 1661. The 
Danish - nobility, however, retained the 
most important offices of state, and the 
result did not answer the expectations 
which had been entertained or the new 
arrangement. Christian V and Frederic 
IV were conquered in the war with 
Charles XII. Denmark, however, after 
the &11 of Charles XII, gained by tlie 
peace of 1720, at Fredericsburg, the toll 
on the Sound, and maintained possession 
of Sleswic. After this, the state enjoyed 
a long repose; but the wounds inflicted 
by its ill successes and its defective form 
of government, could uot.be healed by the 
peaceful system now adopted. Demnark, 
having but few resources, can prosper only 
by wise moderation and careful manage- 
menL The political macliine, once <£s- 
ordered, requires a long time for restora- 
tion. In 17^ Denmark united witli the 
crown die county of Ranzau; in 1761, 
Holstein-Plon ; and, in 1773, Holstein-Got- 
torp. In return for the latter, by a treaty 
with Russia, it ceded the counties of Ol- 
denbuig and Delmenhorst, which were 
acquired in 1667. In 1730, Christian VI 
succeeded Frederic IV, and left his crown, 
in 1746, 10 his son Frederic V. Christian 
VII (q. V.) received the sceptre in 1766. 
He governed entirely by his ministers. 
(See the article StrueTiste.) The present 
king, Frederic VI (q. v.) was declared of 
age at 16 years, and, in April 14, 1784, was 
appointed regent on account of the insani- 
ty of his father, whom he succeeded, after 
his death, A. D. 1808. In consequence 
of the defensive alliance with Russia, in 
1788, a Danish auxiliary corps marched 
into Sweden v^thout opposition ; but, on 
the representations of England and Prus- 
sia, an annisdce was concluded a fortnight 
after the commencement of hostilities. 
Thus ended diis fruitless campaign, which 
imposed on the impoverished finances a 
biuden of 7,000,000 riz dollars. Denmark 
16* 



maintained her neutrality with more suc- 
cess, in 1792, when the allied powers 
wished her to take [lart in the war against 
France. But, by her accession to the 
Northern confederacy, in 1800, she was 
uivolved in a war with Great Britain, in 
which the Danish fteet was defeated at 
Copenhagen, April 2, 1801. The courage 
of the Danes, however, obtained for tliem 
a truce, upon which Denmark acceded to 
the treaty of Russia with England, com- 
pleted July 20, evacuated Hamburg and 
Lfibeck, of which she had possession, and 
received back her own colonies. At 
length, in 1807, this state was included in 
Napoleoirs continental policy. A French 
army stood on the bonders of Denmark, 
Russia had adopted the continental sys- 
tem at the peace of Tilsit, and England 
thought it her duty to prevent the acces- 
sion of Denmark to this alliance. A fteet 
of 23 ships of the line was sent up the 
Sound, August 3, which demanded of 
Denmark a defensive alliance, or the sur- 
render of her fleet, as a pledge of her neu- 
trality. Both were denied. Upon this, a 
British army landed, consisting of 25,000 
men, under lord Catbcart ; and, after an 
unsuccessful resistance on the part of the 
Danes, who were unprepared for such an 
attack, Copenhagen was surrounded Au- 
gust 17. As the government repeatedly 
refused to yield to the British demands, 
the capital was bombarded for three days, 
and 400 houses laid in ashes, in the ruins 
of wliich 1300 of the inhabitants perished. 
September 7, Copenhagen capitulated, and 
the whole fleet, completely equipped, and 
including 18 ships of the line, 15 frigates, 
&c., was delivered up to the British, and 
carried off* in triumph. The crevra, who 
had fought on those days with distinguished 
bravery, were made prisoners of war. 
Great Britain now offered tlie crown- 
prince neutrality or an alliance. If he 
accepted the first, the Danish fleet was to 
be restored in tluee years after the cen 
eral peace, and the island of Heligoland 
was to be ceded to the British crown. 
The crown-prince, however, rejected all 
proposals, declared war against Great 
Britain in October, 1807, and entered into 
a treaty with Napoleon, at Fontainebleau, 
October 31. Upon this, Bemadotte occu- 
pied the lianish islands with 30,000 men, 
in order to land in Sweden, against which 
Denmark had declared war in April, 1808. 
This plan was defeated by the war with 
Austria, in 1809, and tlie hostilides against 
Sweden in Norway ceased the same year. 
The demand made by the court of Stock- 
hohn, in 1813^ of a transfer of Norway fo 



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DENMARK. 



Sweden, was followed by a new war with 
this crown, and a new alliance with Napo- 
leon, July 10, 1813. On this account, 
after the battle of Leipsic, the northern 
powers, who were united against France, 
occupied Holstein and Sleswic. Gl&ck- 
stadt and other fortifications were cap- 
tured, and the Danish troops driven beyond 
Fiensburg. Denmark now concluded a 
peace with England and Sweden, Jan. 14, 
1814, at Kiel. She also entered into an 
alliance against France, and contributed a 
bcKly of troops to the allied forces. She 
was obliged to cede Heligoland to Great 
Britain (receiving in exchange the West 
India islands), and Norway to Sweden (for 
which she was compensated by Swedish 
Ponierania and Ru^n). A peace was 
concluded with Russia in February, 1614. 
Jan. 14, 1815) Denmark ceded Swedish 
Pomerania and Rugen to Prussia, and 
received for them Lauenburg and a pecu- 
niary compensation. June 8, 1815, the 
king entered into tlie German confedera- 
cy with Holstein and Lauenburg, and 
received in it the tenth place, and three 
votes in the general assembly (tlie plenum) ; 
after which, by the appointment of a de- 
cemviral commission, preliminary meas- 
ures were taken to introduce a representa- 
tive government into Holstein. 

Denmark consists of tlie islands of Zea- 
land, Ftihncn, Langeland, Laaland, Fal- 
8ter, Bomholm and Moen, the peninsula 
of Jutland and the duchy of Sleswic. To 
the Danish kingdom belong also two states 
of the German confederacy, the duchies 
of Holstein and Lauenburg ; likewise the 
Faroe islands, Iceland, the western coast 
of Greenland, some places in Guinea, and 
the city and territory of Tranquebar, in the 
East Indies. Denmark Proper and Sles- 
wic contain only 17,375 square miles; 
Iceland and the Faroe islands, 30,270; 
the German states, 3665 ; and the colonies, 
7173. The whole kingdom, with its de- 
pendencies, contains 58,500 square miles, 
of which Iceland and the coast of Green- 
land compose 36,128. Denmark Proper is 
estimated to contain 1,230,000 inhabitants ; 
Holstein and Lauenburg, 370,000; Ice- 
land, in the year 1823, 49,269 ; the Faroe 
islands, 5300; and the rest of the colonies, 
101,000 ; so that the whole kingdom con- 
tains 1,750,000, or, according to some ac- 
counts, 1,864,534 inhabitants. The peo- 
ple, partly Danes and partly Germans, 
speak Danish in Denmark Proper, Norse 
in Iceland and the Faroe islands, and 
German in the high and low German and 
Frisian dialects. Bondage no longer pre- 
Mls among the peasants, but they con- 



tinue to be attached to the' soil in Den- 
mark Projier. The principal island, Zea« 
land (Dan. SaUand), is separated by the 
Sound (q.v.) ftt)m Sweden, tlie island Fiili- 
nen (Dan. /Ven) by the Great Belt, from 
Zealand, and by the Little Belt from the 
peninsula of Jutland (Dan. Jylland): these 
three straits form the passage from the 
Grerman ocean to the Baltic sea. The 
country is pei-feclly level, with the excep- 
tion of a single ridge of moderate eleva- 
tion, which runs through the duchies. 
The coasts are low, and, ibr the most part, 
protected against the encroachments of the 
waves by flats, and require artificial dykes 
only on tlie side of the German ocean. 
The soil consists fjartly of marshes and 
partly of heaths, and the country is mod- 
erately fruitful. By tlie improvident ex- 
tirpation of the woods, which protected the 
northern and north-western coasts of Jut- 
land against the sea, vast extents of fruitful 
territory have become barren and aandy 
deserts. The church at Skagen, in tlie 
most northern parish of Jutland, at present 
lies almost buried in heaps of sand, driven 
up by the sea. An attempt has lately been 
made to check this devastation, by planting 
ftra, birches, &c., also certain liertis that 
flourish best in sand ; by which means a 
great part of tliose sandy regions have 
once more put on a verdant dress. Be- 
sides the Elbe, the boundary stream of the 
kingdom, it has only a f^w rivers on the 
coast. There are many lakes in tlie inte- 
rior, as the Schall and the Ratzebiirger 
lakes in Lauenburg, Ploner and Selenrer 
lakes in Holstein ; and several bays, the 
most considerable of which is situated in 
North Jutland, called the LanfiortL The 
Cattegat or Skaggcrack, between the coasts 
of Jutland and Sweden, is considered by 
some as a bay : it is connected with the 
Baltic by the Sound and the two Belte. 
The chmate, for the most part, is temper- 
ate, but very wet The staple produc- 
tions of Denmark are grain, rape-seed, 
tobacco, &c. : 4,000,000 pounds of the last 
are raised annually, and sold mostly in 
foreign countries. Hemp and flax are not 
raised in suflScient quantities to satisfy the 
demand of the people : the same is the 
case with madder (which, however, thrives 
very well), and with hops. Horticulture is 
neglected in Denmark Proper. Sea-weed 
is used for stufling cushions, &C., instead 
of horse-hair. Forests are rare, and the 
price of wood high ; turf, however, is very 
abundant The breeding of cattle fur- 
nishes the only unportant article of expor- 
tation : for example, every year Denmark 
Proper exports 16,000 horses and 700O 



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0ENMARK. 



187 



ozeiL Olofien fixes tlie number of homed 
cattle, not including those raised in the 
duchies, at 1,484,000 head: the sheep 
amount to 1,3SBB,000 head, including 90,000 
merinos. Swine and pouitrv, too, are 
Fused in hige numben^ The larger kinds 
of game are very nire» The fisheries sup- 
ply a pott of North Germany with herring, 
oyatera, lobsters, d&c. Among the miner- 
als are clay, iron, copper, alum, Ume (in 
Segeberg), and salt (less than is wanted) 
from salt-springs. The manufactures are 
few, and cairi^ on principally in Copen* 
iiageu and Altona : the Banish gloves, 
which come from Jutland, are esteemed 
in Germany. Trade, especially to the 
West Indies, and navigation, have begun 
to revive. The Holstein canalioins the 
Baltic sea and the North sea. The char- 
ter of the Astatic company was extended, 
in 1812, to 30 years after the peace ; but 
the shares have fallen. Dennuuk now 
without including Iceland and 



the Faroe islands, 100 cities, 37 boromrhs, 
2305 parishes and 5500 villages. The 
government is an absolute monarchr. 
The crown is hereditary both in the male 
and female line. The king's oldest son 
is styled the crownrjnince ; the other min- 
ces of the blood are called prineea of Very- 
work. Copenhagen is the royal residence. 
The title of the sovereign, since Jan. 1^ 
lew, has been, king of Denmarky of (ht 
Vtmdals and M Goths, diJce of SUswie, 
SbbUinj SUmnam, the Ditmanh, and vf 
LoMoibwrg and OUUnbwg. The orders of 
knighthood are the order of the elephant 
and the order of the Danebrog (order of 
the royal banner). In Denmark Proper 
there are no estatesi The highest council 
of state is the privy council, to which the 
administraiion of domestic affairs has be- 
longed since 1814. The Lutheran is the 
prevailing religion, but unlinuted tolera** 
tion Is extended to every religious sect, 
not excepting the Jews. There are two 
universities (at Copenhagen and Kiel). 
There is also an academy of arts, a royal 
society of sciences, and many private in- 
stitutions and societies of learned men, 
40gifnma9ia, and 13 seminaries of teach- 
ers. Lancastrian or monitorial schools 
were first established in Denmark in 1823 ; 
but their progress has been rapid beyond 
example. In 1823, the system was intro- 
duced into 244 schools : in 1824, the num- 
ber was 605; m 1825, 1143; in 1826, 
1543; in 1827, 2003; in 1828, 2302; 
and in 1829, the additions made would 
carry it to 2616. The Sound dues now 
tffi>nl a revenue of more than 450,000 
doyaxs. The pubhc debt, it is ocmjec- 



tured, amounts in silver to 10 million rix 
dollars banco of foreign, and 100 milUotw 
of domestic debt, including two recent 
loans in Hamburg and London. The 
value of bank-bills in circuladofi, in 1823, 
a little exceeded 21,325,000 rix dollars 
banco. Paper money is worth about 40 
per cent, in comparison with specie ; and 
a bank dollar in silver is worth 1^ Ham- 
burg marks banco. The land force con- 
sisted, in 1823, of 30,838 men, cxclusire 
of the miUtio. The marine is subject to 
a board of admiralty, or commisHariate. 
In 1826, the navy consisted of 4 ships of 
the line, 7 frigates, 4 corvettes, 5 brigs, 1 
schooner, and 80 gun-boats. 

Danish Language, Literature and ^rts* 
The Danish language is a daughter of the 
Low German and the original Nonnan, 
which was, in the 10th century, driven to 
Iceland. It is believed by many, that the 
Anglo-Saxon tankage is, in fact, the 
Danish, and that it has been reiained in 
its purity by the Irish. The first culti- 
vators of tliis language in Denmark, as in 
Sweden and Norway, were the Scalds, 
who wrote poems in the pure Grerman 
dialect, and, following their princos and 

Senerals, sung in rhymeless verse the 
cities and ex jiloits of their nation. After 
the introduction of Christianity (about 
1000), historical poems only continued to 
be composed (till 1265). For the intro- 
duction of this religion into Denmark, at 
the same time with the art of writing, the 
foundation was laid by the German mis- 
sionary, Anschar. (See^nsgar.) Canute 
the Great (1015->1036|, msptred by his 
wife, Emma, with zeal for Christianity, 
and a liberal spirit towards the clergv, 
sent Anglo-Saxon teachers to Denmarx, 
established tiie bishoprics of Schonen, 
Zealand, and FCihnen, and spread Chris- 
tianity through all the rest of the North. 
He sought to promote trade and com- 
merce, coined new money, and established 
more fixed laws. Immediately after Chris- 
tianity, chivalry, also, was introduced into 
Scandinavia, particularly by the French 
crusades, and found an easy reception 
amonff the inhalntants, who were extreme- 
ly fond of bold adventures. Tournaments 
were so common at the Danish court, that 
every stranger who visited it was obliged 
to break a spear with some of the cour- 
tiers. The Danes engaged in the first 
crusade. This new spirit of chivalry had 
necessarily a favorable influence on poetry. 
The oldest Danish poetry extant is the 
epic of the Skyldingians, first publisljed 
complete by ThorkeUn (De Danorum ret. 
GesL SeeuL HI d IV, Poema Dan. DiaUd. 



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DENMARK. 



•^n^-tSSoEXon, etc. Copenhagen, 1815, 4to.). 
Of a much later date (16th century) is the 
collection of the heroic ballads and ro- 
mances of love (IQemneviaer and Elskovsvi- 
a«r), pubUshed by Wedel and Syv, and 
latest by Abrahamson, Nyenip and Rab> 
beck, IB12^~14, in 5 vols., which has been 
translated into German by W. L. Grimm, 
who has done much for the northern 
poetry (JRldamackt HektenUtder, Balladen^ 
xmdMfirchm, Heidelburg, 1811). Nyerup 
and Rahbeck likewise published, a short 
time shice, a selection from the manu- 
script Danish poems of the middle ages, 
with valuable commentaries. Their poet- 
ical value, hideed, is very unequal; but 
most of them contain genuine poetry, and 
much national spirit The latest Danish 
dramatists have drawn much from these 
storehouses. Among the heroic poems, 
many illustrate the cycle of the old Helden- 
hiclu (q. V.) The first Danisli historians are 
Sueno (Svend) Aagesen (about 1188), and 
the celebrated Saxo-Grammaticus, prop- 
erly Lang, of Schonen (who died in 1204), 
bo&i of whom, by the suggestion of Absa- 
lon, archbishop of Lund, wrote, the former 
a concise history of the Danish kings from 
300 to 1186 (Suenoms ^goms Opuseula, 
ed. Stephan. Sora, 1642), the latter a com- 
plete history of Denmark (HistoruE^ Libb, 
xvL ed. Stephanins Sora, 1644 ; Klotzius, 
1771, 4to.), to the year 1186, in 16 vols, in 
a correct Latin style. The reformation, 
introduced in 1527, and still more tlie ex- 
tension of trade, had a great influence on 
the intellectual progress of Denmark. In 
consequence of the reformation, the CJer- 
mans obtained an important influence over 
the church and the literature of Denmark. 
The Danes studied in Germany. German 
was the language of the court, and Latin 
the language of tlie learned. The at- 
tempts of authors in their vernacular 
tongue were as yet insignificant. A Da- 
nish translation of the New Testament was 
made in 1524, on the model of Luther^s. 
Danisii became the language of literature, 
partly in the 16th, and still more in the 
17tli century, and was distinguished for 
its softness and euphony, and for the ex- 
pressiveness of its abstract terms. The 
language of poetry seems, at present, to 
have left prose far in the rear. The flrst 
Danish grammar was edited by Erich 
Pontoppidan (Copenhagen, 1668). Many 
useful grammars were aflerwfuids pre- 
pared by James Baden and others, and, in 
the 16th century, some Danish-I^atin dic- 
tionaries. (See the lAttratura antupiissi- 
mOj of Olaf Worm, a Dane (Copenhagen, 
1651 ), and others.) The Danish is the only 



Teutonic language wfaicb has a real pas- 
sive voice. In regard to prose, the Danish 
language has been highly enriched by 
Holberg (q. v.J, who, in one view, may 
justly be callea the father of modem Da- 
nish literature, having applied it to many 
branches of literature, and particularly to 
the drama. Much has been done for the 
improvement of the public taste by J. 
Wielandt (died 1730)^ J. Sch. Sneedorfi 
(died 1764), in their journals, and by J. 
Baden (died 1804), who paid particular 
attention to the purity of tlie lanj^iage, 
and discharged with success the office of 
a critic Literary institutions were, mere- 
over, established and supported by Fred- 
eric V, and Christian VII, which greatly 
promoted the native literatufe of the coun- 
try. T. Rothe, P. F. Suhm (a Danish 
historian, who died in 1799), an excellent 
prose writer still living, Cnud Lyne Rah- 
beck (professor, and kiiight of the order 
of the Danebrog, who published various 
literary works, 1785—9^, in three parts, 
consisting of dramatic works and narra- 
tives, and who exerted no Small influence 
upon the Danish national taste, as editor 
of tlie Northern Minerva and Danisii 
Spectator), J. Ch» Bastholm, Birkner, Ras- 
mus, Nyerup, Anders Gamborg, Frederic 
M (inter, and Baggesen, have well founded 
claims to the reputation of clear, strong, 
and agreeable writers. In practical sci- 
ence and natural philoAphy, the Danes 
have distinguished themselves most. We 
must not omit the renowned astronomer, 
Tycho de Brahe (see 7)fcho\ and the 
mineralogist, Olaf Worm, who died in 
1654. Much has been done for the cause 
of education in Denmark, in modem times^ 
by the establishment of schools, univer^- 
ties and literary societies. There are also 
institutions for instmction in gymnastic 
exercises, such as swimming, for instance, 
well worthy of general imitation. Geog- 
raphy and practical astronomy are under 
great obligations to Thomas Bugge (q^ v.), 
who was invited to Paris in 1798, by the 
French directory, to take part in the es- 
tabUshment of the new system of weights 
and measures. Many learned men, wliom' 
he drew from obscurinr, have contributed 
to give value to the Transactions of the 
scientific society at Copenhagen (now 
fttnounting to 24 vols.: the latest series 
is called Det Kongdige Danakt Videngsu 
Sdskaber Skrifter). The late convulsed 
state of Europe excited in Denmark 
much attention to the military art, and 
all the foreign improvements were adopt- 
ed. Denmark has always been more dis- 
tinguished for its naval than its land 



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DENMARK. 



im 



forces. The Danish admiralty deseryes 
the general gratitude for the publication of 
tlie charts prepared under the direction of 
Paul de L6wen6ra, and ^atly increased in 
▼alue by learned illustrations. Further im- 
provements were made in this department 
by U. S. Rosenwinge, who died in 1820. 
The numerous editions of Lous's nautical 
works, among a people who despise all 
theory, if it cannot be reduced to practice, 
bear witness to their practical excellence. 
The investigation of the antiquities of the 
country has received much attention from 
the following scholars, some of whom are 
still living :— Viboi^, N. E. P. Grundtvig, 
Sandtvig, Thorkelin, Thoriacius, Nyerup 
and Rhabeck. The two last published 
Contributions to the History of Danish 
Poetry (Copenhagen, 1800—8 in 4 vols.), 
and, with Abrahamson, the Collection of 
Poems of the Middle Ages. The poetiy 
of the Danes, in modem times, has been 
splendid. It began with religious pieces 
and national songs, of which the Danes 
have a great number, and may be consid- 
ered as having commenced with Andr. Chr. 
Arreboe, who died in 1637. The Hexaem- 
eron of Arreboe is extremely heavy. Andr. 
Hording (died 1677) took Opitz for bis 
pattern. Poetic vigor, however, is want- 
ing in him and in his successors, Jens 
Steno Schestedt (died 1698), Paul Petter- 
sen, the poet of the people, William Hek, 
who flourished about 1703, Nicholas Kingo 
(died 1703, while bishop), who celebrated 
the achievements of the Danish kings in 
a heroic poem, and George Lorterap (died 
1722). Much improvement was intro- 
duced, about the middle of the 18th cen- 
tury, by the anient enthusiasm of Louis 
Hotberg, a Norwegian. He deserves to 
be pardcularly mentioned here, as an 
original comic and satirical poet. (For 
a further account of his works, see IM- 
herg,) The society established in 1758, for 
the advancement of the fine arts, and the 
improvement of taste, brought into notice 
the works of men of talents, among whom 
the original Ch. B. Tuilin (who died in 
1765) was most distinguished. In the 
second half of the 18th century, a warm 
literary controversy commenced, and many 
estimable poets, including several Norwe- 
gians, made successftil attempts in various 
departments of literature. Even at pres- 
ent, however, they are much given to the 
imitation of foreign models. Among late 
poets most distinguished, are the tragedian 
and Ijrric poet, John Ewald (q. v.), N. 
Weyer (1788, a poet of much talent ; he 
is the author of Pod. Ihrs^g, Copenha- 
gen, 1789), the lyric poet and dramatist, 



Rahbeck, the satirical and comic poets, 
Guldberg, John. Herm. Weasel (died 1786), 
the next comic writer after Holberg, and 
famous ibr his comedy, Love without 
Stockings, and many cornic poems. Rah- 
beck published the 4th edition of his po- 
ems in 1817. Other distinguished poets 
are P. A, Heiberg, En. de Falsen (died 
1808), the lyric and dramatic Brun, Th. 
Thaarup (q. vA who wrote much for the 
stage, J. C. Tode, Ch. Lovinus, Sandef-, 
Pram, the successful poet of the people, 
Friraann, Rein-Storm (the last are Nor- 
wegians), a female writer named Brun 
(q. v.), who has written spirited poetry in 
the German language, Jens Baggesen 
(q. v.), a lyric poet, full of animation leind 
strength, though at times heavy, and 
Oehlenschlager. (q. v.) His best pieces 
are Hakon Jari, Ptanatoke, Jtcd una Wd- 
burgy Cwre^gio, Maddiii, The Sktphard*8 
Boy, The last mentioned poets are to be 
numbered, also, among Grerman authors, as 
they all write in that language likewise. 
B. S. Ingemann (a. v.) now shares the 
public favor with Oehlenschldger. Of late 
years, much has been translated from the 
German. An epic poem, called the Deliv- 
erance of Israel, in 18 cantos, by J. M. 
Herz, which obtained the prize of tlie 
society of fine arts, notwithstanding this 
honor, seems to have met but a cold re- 
ception fix>m the public. Copenhagen 
could probably boast of the youngest au- 
thoress in Europe. VirgiHa Christ Lund, 
at the age of only ten years, published, in 
1820, a piece called Two for One, and 
subsequently a small dramatic piece, The 
faithless Maid discovered. The irritability 
of poets is nowhere more striking than in 
Denmark, where they are constantly quar- 
relluig. This polemical spirit is very 
strong in N. F. Sev. Gruntvig, by whom 
two quarto volumes of the Chronicles of 
Denmark, by Saxo Grammaticus, have 
been translated into Danish (Copenhagen, 
1818—19), and given to the public. 

The musical productions of Denmark 
have l)een inferior in richness and abun- 
dance to the literary. Thorwaldsen (q. v.) 
has roused the ambition of his country to 
aspire to excel in the fine arts. Under his 
direction, many promising Danish youth, 
as, for instance, Freund, have been and are 
still receiving instruction. Lahde hasjmb- 
lished sketches of the works of Thor- 
waldsen, with poetical explanations by 
Oehlenschl%sr. Intellectual activity is 
kept up, in Denmark, by many excellent 
periodicals. There are many well-ordered 
literary societies ; and lately the study of 
the Scandinavian language and antiquities 



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DENMARK-*D£NNI£. 



has grown so fashionable, that a Scandi- 
navian literaiy society was instituted at 
the commencement of the present cen- 
tury. Tlie Transactions of this society 
amount already to 16 vols. (Copenhagen, 
1819), and contain a variety of excellent 
treatises. The Amae-Magneean commis- 
sion, and the royal society for the pre- 
servation of antiquities, protect the mon- 
uments of antiquity that belons to the 
country; and the promotion of mental 
cultivation is intrusted to the northern 
society of science, the society for the 
encouragement of the fine arts and of 
taste, tlie society of medicine and rural 
economy. All these attempts of the Da- 
nish literati have been encouraged by the 
government The measurement of a de- 
gree from Lauenbuigh to Sca^n has 
been continued without intermission, un- 
der the direction of professor Schumacher. 
It is conducted on strictly scientific ynn- 
ciples, and the instruments are excellent, 
made by Reichenbach, and furnished by 
the government. This measurement will 

Serhaps determine, at last, whether confi- 
ence ought to be placed in the French 
surveyors^ or the English under Mudge, 
or in neitker of them. The government 
assist in the publication of many excellent 
works, because the Danish public is so 
small that they would not pa^ the ex- 
pense of printing them. In this way the 
J*lara DamcOy for example, is published ; 
also Thorlacius and Werlaufs editions of 
the Norwegian Histoiy of Snorro Sturle- 
son, and tlie LatW of Lagaboter Guletbing, 
by king MagBUS. The inquiries uito tlie 
origin of the northern languages, which 
Kask (q. v.), it is well known, has sought 
for on Uaucasus itself, were encouraged by 
the government, wliich also promoted the 
publication of Nyerup's CML Jjibrorum 
Samscritanorumy qaoa BihL Univ. Hafni^n- 
sis vel dedii vd paramt NaOu WUlich (Co- 
penhagen, 1821). The collection of med- 
als at Copenhagen received ite present 
importance from the care jof the reigning 
king. The fund cul usia publicos is ap- 
pli^ to the.J9upf)ort of distinguished young 
men on scientific journeys. In the year 
1829, Mr. Bowring was in Copenhagen, 
collecting materials for an English trans- 
lation of ancient Danish ballads, and the 
most celebrated lyrical pieces of modem 
Danish poets. 

Denner, Baltliaser, a celebrated portrait 
painter, was bom at Hamburg in 1685, 
and died at Rostock in 1749. He was 
es|)ecially distinguished for tlie remarka- 
ble exacmess of his execution, or rather 
tlie almost microscopic accuracy of his 



paintings. He learned to draw at Altona, 
and to paint in oil at Dantzic, and after- 
wards travelled. All the northern princes 
invited him to tlieir courts to paint their 
portraits. The emperor Charies VI paid 
nim 4700 florins for tlie head of an aged 
woman. It is now in the imperial gallery 
at Vienna. Denner likewise painted the 
head of an old man for tlie same prince, a 
pendant of the former, which is also a 
masterpiece. There are some beautiful 
portraits painted by him in Munich. 

Denner, Jolm Christian, invented the 
clarinet. He was bom at Leipsic in 
1655, and went to Nuremberg with his 
parents in his eighth year, where he was 
employed in making wind instruments, 
especially flutes. He died in 1707. 

Dennewitz ; a small town in the march 
of Brandenburg, famous for the battle be- 
tween the French and Pmssians, Sept. 6^ 
1813, tlie former commanded by Ney 
(under whom were Oudinot, Bertrand, 
Re^er and Airighi), the latter by Tau- 
enzien and Billow. 40,000 Prussians 
maintained tlieir ground for several houra 
against 80,000 French ;-and, on the arrival 
of the Russian and Swedish battalions, 
victory declared in favor of the allies, 
who, after the Russians and Swedes came 
up, were far superior in numbers. The 
t rench were defeated, and fled in disor- 
der, with their auxiliaries, consisting of 
Bavarians, Wurtembergiansy Saxons and 
Poles. This batde was a consequence of 
the battle at Grosbeeren. (q. v.) 

DEi^NiE, Joseph, bom in Boston, Auff. 
30, 1708, was the son of a respectabfe 
merchant He early evinced a decided 
fondness for polite literature, and entered 
Harvard college in 1787. He left this 
institution in 1790, and entered the office 
of a lawyer at Charleston, N. H. At the 
expiration of three yeais, he made a suc- 
cessful dibui at the bar. From Cliarles- 
ton he soon removed to Walpole, where 
he opened an office, but gained very litde 
business, owing to his literary taste and 
irregular habits. For four inontlis, he 
officiated as reader of prayera for an 
Episcopalian congre^tion at ClaremonL 
In the sprine of 17SS, he endeavored to 
establish, at Boston, a weekly paper under 
the tide of The TaUeL This, however, 
survived but a short time. Not long after, 
he returned to Walpole, to act as editor 
of the Farmer's Museum, a journal in 
which he publislied a series of essays, 
with the signature of The Lay Preadier. 
In 1799, he went to Philadelphia, in con- 
sequence of being appointed a clerk in the 
office of the secretary of state. On the 



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DENNIE— DBNON. 



191 



dismissal of his patron, Mr. Pickerings he 
Jeft the department, and engaged in the 
conduct or a literary journal, the Port 
Folio, for which his name and talents 
acquired considerable patronage and ce- 
lebrity. His reputation, his colloquial 
powers, and amiable disposition, attracted 
to him a large number of literary disciples 
and coadjutors. With industry and dis^ 
cretion, he might have gained indepen- 
dence and permanent h«)pine8s ; but he 
was deficient in both qualities, and grad- 
ually destroyed, by his imprudence, his 
bodily constitution, as well as all hopes of 
fortune. Jan« 7, 1812, he died — a victim 
to anxiety and complicated disease. Mr. 
Bennie possessed a brilliant genius, a del- 
icate taste, a beautiful style, a ready pen, 
a rich fund of elegant literature, an excel- 
lent heart, and a captivating countenance 
and manner, and, with a proper exercise 
of industry and judgment^ might have 
acquired a lasting reputation. 

Dennis, John; an English dramatist 
and critic He was the son of a citizen of 
London, where he was bom in 1657. 
Having completed his studies at Cam- 
bridge, he made the tour of France and 
Italy, and, on his return, devoted himself 
to uterary occupations, living upon his 
fortune^ which had been lefl him by an 
uncle. In 1697, he produced a comedy, 
entitled Plot and no Plot, which was fol- 
lowed fa¥ several dramatic pieces and 
poems of little value. He also became a 
political writer for the whig party. The 
urritability of his disposition, heightened, 
probably, by the unprosperous state of his 
nnances, involved him in perpetual broils, 
and made him a sort of standing jest with 
the wits of his time. Having written a 
tragedy entitled Liberty Asserted, which 
be^me popular during the war with Louis 
XIV, in consequence of the abuse of the 
French with which it abounded, Dennis 
thought that monarch would never forgive 
the insult : when, therefore, the treaty of 
tJtrecht was about to be concluded, he 
entreated the duke of Marlborough to 
save him from being delivered up to the 
French government, as a state criminal. 
The duke told him that he thought he 
might make himself easy ; for though he 
had, he conceived, done as much hfmn to 
the French as Mr. Dennis, he had not 
thought it necessary to seek for personal 
indemnity. When his Appius and Vir- 
ginia was performed, he introduced a new 
method ot imitating thunder, said to be 
still used at the theatre. The tragedy was 
aoon set aside ; but some time afler, Dennis, 
being present at the representation of Mac- 



beth, perceived that his new invention had 
been adopted; on which he exclainied, 
^ S'death ! bow these rascals use me ; 
they will not let my play run, yet they 
steal my thunder." He wrote some severe 
strictures on Adilison's Cato and Pope's 
Rape of the Lock. Pope, in return, gave 
him a place in the Dunciad, and, in con- 
junction with Swiflk, prcMluced a sarcastic 
tract, entitled A Narrative of the deplora- 
ble Frenzy of Mr. John Dennis. After 
he had dissipated his fortune, the duke of 
Mariborougn procured him tiie place of 
land waiter at tlie custom-house. This 
he disposed of, reserving only a t»mi)oniry 
annui^ ; and in his old age, his necessitiea 
were relieved by a benefit at the Hay- 
market theatre, to which his former an- 
tagonist. Pope, contributed a prf>logue. 
He died soon afler, January 6, 17iM. 

Denon, Dominique Vivant, bnron de, 
was bom Feb. 4, 1747, at Chaloiis-sur- 
Saone, of a noble family. He was des- 
tined to study law at Paiis, where he was 
fiivorably received in societ}' ; and histtUeiit 
and Inclination led him to devote liiniself 
to the arts. A comedy which he wrote, 
called the Good F\xther, gained Inin the 
favor of the ladies. His arnial)le nmnnera 
made him a favorite of Louis XV, who 
appointed him gentUhomme ordinaire aliout 
his person. ¥k was aflenvanls attached 
to an embassy at St. PeterslHirg, where 
Catharine, however, observed liiiii vnth a 
jealous eye. Subsequently he was uitnist- 
ed with a diplomatic mission to Switzer- 
land. On this occasion, he drew Voltaire's 
Ukeness (engraved by St. Aiihiii)} and the 
well known picture Im Dejeuner de Fer- 
no/. He then occupied, during seven 
years, a place in the French emlHusKy at 
Kaples. His residence in this city, and 
repeated visits to Sicily and Malta, gave 
him an opportunity of exercising his taJent 
for drawing and engraving. Denon had 
the princi|Ml direction of the artists en- 
ffagchi in preparing die ahb^ St. Non's 
rouage piUoresque de JStapUs et de iSSctfe, 
ana me text was chiefly taken trom his 
journal. This elegant work appeared at 
Paris, in 1788. The remainder of Denou's 
journal, relating to. Sicily and Malta, ap- 
peared separately, in 17^. His career at 
Naples was interrupted by the death of 
tlie minister Vergennes, his patron, or, 
according to some, by the displeasure of 
the queen, Maria Caroline. But still his 
love for the study of the great masters de- 
tained him in Italy. He resided at Venice 
during several years, where he shone in 
the circles of the countess Albrizzi, who 
yns distinguished for her annable and in- 



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DENON—DENSiry OF THE EARTH. 



telligent character, and lovod to be sur- 
rounded by men of talents Denon was 
not forgotten in her RittratU, where she 
bestows llie greatest praise on his charac- 
ter, his passion for the aits, his cheerful- 
ness and amiable disposition, and excuses 
the raillery with which he attacked the 
foibles of others. The observation and 
restraint, to which the revolution subjected 
Frenchmen in foreign countries, compelled 
him to leave Venice. After a short stay in 
Florence and Switzerland, he was obliged 
to return to France during the reign of 
terror; but he made himself agreeable to 
Robespieire, and was, in consequence, sub- 
semiendy accused of devotion, at that time, 
to Jacobin principles. During this period, 
he exercised himself in engraving. At 
last, he became acquainted with Bonaparte, 
and immediately united himself with him. 
He accompanied the general in his cam- 
paigns to Italy and Egypt, and Desaix to 
Upper Egypt The work which was the 
result of this journey, was an addition to 
Benon's &me, pardcularlv the engravings 
which ornament it (Pans, 1802, 2 vofe. 
fol., and 3 vols. 12mo^ without engravings). 
Denon, in this, has shown himself a ver^ 
able artist Nature, animate and inam- 
mate, the monaments of centuries, and 
the Arabian il^g through the Desert, are 
represMited with great fidehty. When he 
returned to Paris with Bonaparte, he was 
appointed ffeneral director of the muse- 
ums, and all tlie works of art executed in 
honor of the French successes^monu- 
ments, coins, the erection of the triumphal 
pillar in the Place de Vendome, &c. He 
accompanied Napoleon in all his cam- 
paigns, and employed himself in draw- 
ing, and in selecting those masterpieces 
in the conquered countries, which were 
taken to Paris as trophies. In 1815, he 
was compelled to witness the restoration 
of the spoils. After the abdication of 
the emperor, he retained his office, but 
was deprived of it in 1815, in consequence, 
of havinff joined Napoleon on his return 
from Elba. He retained, however, his 
place in the institute. From that time 
ne lived retired, and the preparation of 
enffravings and lithographs of his splendid 
collection of works of art, formed the 
occupation of his last yeara. He died'at 
Parisi April, 28, 1825. His mind was 
acti ve to the last Denon much resembled 
Voltaire in his old age. In 1826 appeared 
at Paris the Descnptum det Olfds d^Ari 
con^pasani le Cabmet defm M, U Bar. V. 
Denony in 3 vols. (Alotitffit«n« anK^uet, 
tableaux d eatampes). The cabinet was 
sold by auction. 



Densitt, strictly speaking, denotes vi- 
cinity or closeness of particles; but in 
mechanical scieuce, it is used as a term of 
comparison, expressing the proportion of 
the number of equtd niojecuue, or the 
quantity of matter in one body to the 
number of equal moUctdtt in the same 
bulk of another body. Density, therefore, 
is direcdy as the quantity of matter, and 
inversely as the magnitude of the body. 
Since it may be shown experimentally, 
that the quantities of matter, or the masses 
in different bodies, are proportional to 
their weight ; of consequence, the density 
of any bcnly is directly as its weight, and 
inversely as its magnitude ; or the inverse 
ratio of the magnitudes of two bodi^ 
having experimentally equal weight (in 
the same place), constitutes the ratio of 
their densities. No body is absolutely or 
perfecdy full of matter, so as to have no 
vacuity or interstices: on the contrary, it 
is the opinion of Newton, that even the 
densest bodies, as ^old, &c., contain but a 
smaU portion of matter, and a great por- 
tion of vacuity; or that they contain a 
great deal more pores or empty qiaee 
than real substance. 

Density OF the Eaeth. The determi- 
nation of the density of the earth, as com- 
pared with that of vrater, or any other 
known body, is a subject which has ex- 
cited considerable interest amongst modem 
mathematicians ; and nothing can, at first 
sight, seem more beyond the reach of hu- 
man science, than the due solution of this 
problem; yet this has been determined, 
and on such principles, that, if it be not 
correctly true, it is proliably an extremely 
near approximation. The first idea of 
determining the density of the eartli was 
suggested by M. Bouguer, in consequence 
of the attracdon of Chimbonizo, which 
affected his plumb-line while engaged 
with Condamme in measuring a degree 
of the meridian, near Quito, in Peru. 
This led to the experiments on die moun- 
tain Scheballien, in Scodand, which were 
carried on under the direction of doctor 
Maskelyne, and afterwards submitted to 
calculation by doctor Hutton, who deter- 
mined the density of the eardi to be to that 
of water as 4^ to 1. But, in consequence 
of die specific gravity of the mountain 
being assumed rather less than it ought to 
have been, the above resuk is less than 
the true density, as has since been shown 
by doctor Hutton and professor Play&ir, 
the former of whom makes it, in his cor- 
rected paper, as 99 to 20, or neariy as 5 to 1. 
The same problem has been attempted 
on simikir principles, but in a totally di£- 



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DENSITY OF THE EARTH— DEODAND. 



193 



ferent manner, by the late Mr. Caven^sh, 
who found the density of the earth to be 
to that of water, as 5.48 to 1. Taking a 
mean of all these, we have the density of 
tlie earth to that of water, as 5.24 to 1, 
and which, as we before observed, is 
probably an extremely near approxi- 
mation. 

Dentifrice ; a preparation for clean- 
ing the teeth, of which there are various 
kinds : generally, however, they are made 
of eartliy substances mixed with alum. 
Those formed of acids are very pernicious. 

Dbodajnd (Deo daiidum); a thing to 
be given or dedicated to God. Persons 
who have attended trials for homicide 
will have observed that the indictment, in 
setting forth the manner of the death, 
alleges it to have been occasioned by a 
blow with a ceitain weapon, &C., ^ of the 
value of," &c. This allegation of the 
value of the thing which caused the 
death, arose from the English law of deo- 
danda. It is provided in the Mosaical 
law, (Exod, xxi. 28), that " If an ox gore 
a man, that he die, the ox shall be stoned, 
and his flesh shall not be eaten." So, by 
the law of Atliena, whatever was tlie cause 
of a Dianas death, by falling U(K>n him, was 
de8tit>yed, or cast out of the territory of the 
republic This, says Mr. Christian, in his 
notes upon Blackstone^s Commentaries, 
was one of Dmco^s laws ; and perhaps we 
may think the judgment that a statue 
should be thrown into the sea for having 
fallen upon a man, less absurd, when we 
reflect that there is sound policy in teach- 
ing the mind to contemplate with horror 
the privation of human life, and that 
fiuniliarity even with an insensible object, 
which has been the occasion of death, 
may lessen that sentiment This reflec- 
tion, suggested by Mr. Christian in refer- 
ence to the Athenian law, does not seem 
to be the motive for the rule of the com- 
mon law of England, that whatever 
chattel causes the deatli of a person, 
shall be forfeited. It is an ancient doc- 
trine mentio|i8d by Bracton (Omnia qua 
mnfeni ad m/oidem avmt Deo danda. 1. 3. 
c 5.), and its origin is attributed to the 
notion, that where a man was sud- 
denly cut off in his sins, expiation ought 
to be made for the benefit of his soul ; 
and, accordingly, the chattel, which 
occasioned his death, should be for- 
feited to the king, to be devoted by 
him to pious uses. The statute of 4 Ed- 
ward I, St. 2, relating to coroners, pro- 
vides that ^horses, boats, carts, mills, 
&c^ whereby any are slain, that properly 
are called deod/ands, shall be valued and 

vol.. IV 17 



delivered unto the towns," which there- 
upon became answerable to the king for 
their value ; in whose behalf the sherifT 
might levy the amount upon the inhabit- 
ants of the town. Accordingly, in all 
indictments for homicide, in England, the 
grand jiuy specify the instrument that 
immediately caused the death, and its 
value, that the king may claim the deo- 
dand; for it is no deodand unless it is 
so found by the jury, and brace the 
practice of finding tlie instntment and 
Its value, in indictments m the United 
States, or at least in some of them, al- 
tliough they have no deodands. Though 
these forfeitures were origmally incur- 
red to the king, yet he might grant 
them away to tlie lord of the manor or 
territory upon which the death happen- 
ed, as he was accustomed to grant the 
right of wai& and wrecks. The deo- 
dands have been generally so granted ; 
and these grants may probably be the 
reason that this ancient singularity has so 
long remained a part of the EUnglish law ; 
for the right to the forfeimre has thus be- 
come a subject of private property, and so 
not liable to be impaired by the legislature 
witliout compensation to the parties inter- 
ested. The old books contain a good deal 
of quaint and curious law on this subject. 
It will be observed, that no distinction is 
made, whetlier the death is felonious, ex- 
cusable, justifial>le, or purely accidental, 
or whether tlie instrument, by which it is 
occasioned, belongs to the person commit- 
ting the homicide or to another ; for, savs 
the Doctor and Student, if a man kills 
another with my sword, still the sword is 
forfeited; but if a person be killed by 
falUng fh>m a thing standing still, as a 
cart, it is not forfeit^ ; if, on the contrary, 
a horse, ox, or other animal kill a iierson 
by its own motion, by running over him 
or otherwise, it is a deodand. It is said, 
however, that if the instrument of the 
death is standing still, only the yori which 
immediately occasioned the death is for- 
feited ; as, if one attempts to climb up the 
wheel of a cart that is standing; still, and 
falls, and is thereby killed, only the wheel 
is forfeited ; but if it be ui motion, the 
entire cart is a deodand. Only chattels 
are forfeited ; any thing attached to the 
freehold, as the vrheel of a mill, or a bell 
hanging in a steeple, is not so ; and no 
deodand occurs, unless the death haptiens 
witliin a year and a dav after the acoiaeut. 
A sale of tlie article does not exempt it 
frem forfeiture ; as if a horse strikes a 
man, and is afterwards sold, and the man 
dies within the year and day, tlie hone 



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194 



DEODAND—D'EON. 



is forfeited. It is not suqmsing that so 
whimsical a law should be very negligently 
executed ; the juries aitj veiy apt to miti- 
gate tlie forfeitures by finding that only 
some trivial thing, or only a part of an 
entire thing, was the occasion of the death ; 
and the court has generally refused to 
interfere in behalf of the lorcl of the fran- 
chise, to assist him in enforcing his claim 
to the whole article. There are no deo- 
dands on the high seas, tiiough it has 
been said, tliat, if a man tail overboard from 
a vessel in a fresh water river, and is 
drowned, the vessel and cargo are strictly 
a deodand ; and the above statute of Ed- 
virard I, we observe, mentions boats as one 
species of deodand. But in this case the 
juiy would probably find the death to 
have been occasioned by the winds or the 
water, and would have a precedent suffi- 
ciently analogous ; for the books maintain 
that if a man, riding over a river, is throvim 
off his horse by the violence of the water, 
and drowned, the horse is not a deodand, 
for the death was occasioned by the cur- 
rent 

D'EoN (the chevalier). Eon de Beau- 
mont, Charles Genevieve Louise Auguste 
Andi^ Timoth^e d', equerry to Louis XV, 
chevalier, doctor of law, parliaraentaiy 
advocate, niilitaiy officer, royal censor, di- 
plomatist, &c., known until 1777 by the 
name of the chemUer (TJBon, was bom at 
Tonnerre, in 1728. His brilliant qualities 
enabled him to act a conspicuous part in 
the world. He gained a greater notoriety 
b^ the mysteiy long kept up in regard to 
his sex. While an advocate, he studied, 
in his leisure hours, politics and belles- 
lettres, and wrote an Eased kistorique sur 
Us diffirentes Situations de la France, par 
Rcmport aux FinanceSy followed by two 
volumes, entitled Consxdh'atums politiques 
sur VMmmistratian des PeupUs anciens et 
modtmes. To these works he owed the 
honor of being proposed, by the prince of 
Conti, minister of Louis X v, as envoy on 
a difficult mission to the Russian court 
Here his insinuating manners gained him 
the favor of the empress Elizabeth, and 
for ^ve years he was the medium of a 
secret correspondence between her and the 
kinfr of France. In consequence of his 
services at this court, he was made succes- 
sively lieutenant and captain of dragoons, 
and received a pension of 3400 Uvresr 
He returned to France in 1758, and sub- 
sequently distinguished himself in the 
military service. After the conclusion of 
peace, he went to London as secretary of 
Kgation, under the duke of Nivemois, and 
oMained posseflsion of some important pa^ 



pers. On the return of the duke, he re 
mained as resident, and afterwards as min 
ister plenipotentiary in London. Ever) 
thing seemed to favor him, when secrei 
intrigues suddenly disappointed his fail 
prospects. France had concluded a dis- 
advantageous peace with England, and 
the negotiatois of it were fearful of having 
their conduct exposed. The chevalier 
was the confidant of Louis XV, and might 
make the dreaded disclosure& This was 
reason enough for ruining him. He was 
dismissed from his employment, and lived 
14 years at London, in a kind of banish- 
ment Though the king had consented 
to his disgrace, he assijmed him a pen- 
sion of 1200 livres. D'Eon still remained 
true to his native land, and rejected several 
offers of the English court The king 
heard of his conduct, and wished to re- 
store him, but the chevalier insisted on 
having his innocence publicly acknowl- 
edged, before accepting .any favors. In 
the mean time, Louis XV died. During 
the residence of D*Eon in England, sus- 
picions arose as to his sex, which led to 
several extraordinary wagers. In July, 
1777, a curious trial took place before 
lord chief-jusdce Mansfield, on an action 
brought against Mr. Jaques, a broker, 
who had received several premiums of 15 
guineas, to return 100, whenever it should 
be proved that the chevalier was a woman. 
M. Louis Legoux and M. de Morande, on 
the trial, deposed to this as a fact, which 
was supposed to be so well established, 
that the defendant's counsel pleaded that 
the plaintiff, at the time of laying the 
wager, knew that the court of France, 
relative to the grant of a pension, had 
treated with D'Eon as a woman; and 
thence inferred that the wager was unfair. 
This objection was not held good, and 
Hayes, the plaintiff, obtained a verdict 
It was, however, afterwards set aside, on 
the ground of the illegality of the wager. 
After the decision of this cause^ D'Eon 
put on female attire, and continued to 
wear it till his death. In 1777, he returned 
to France, and made his appearance at 
Versailles, where the minister honorably 
received him, but on condition that he 
should wear in future the female dress. 
D'Eon, however, went to Tonnerre, with- 
out observing the dommand, and did not 
appear as la aaoBaliiTt d'Eon till his second 
return to Paris. His change of dress 
drew him into a quarrel at the opera, and, 
for fear of the consequences, he was sent 
to Dijon, where he was treated with re- 
spect In 1783, he went to London. 
Meanwhile the French revolution broke 



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D'EON— DEPARTMENT. 



196 



out, and deprived him of his peoaioDs; 
U|iun which he returned to France, offered 
h^ aervicen to the national asBemblv in 
17S2, was rejected, went back to England, 
and was put, as an absentee, on the emi- 
grant list From this time misfortunes 
crowded upon him. He lived in great 
poverty, and attempted to support himself 
oy givuig lessons in fencing, out was not 
very successful, and depended in a great 
measure for subsistence on the aid of his 
friends. Among these was EUs^e, first 
surgeon of Louis XVllI, who aided him 
till his death in London, in 1810, and 
attended the dissection of his body. The 
account of this wimess, with other unde- 
manle evidence, leaves it beyond doubt, 
that D'Eon was of the male sex. What 
political reasons could have induced a 
soldier and a knight of Sl Louis to assume 
female attire, is not known. In 1775 ap- 
peared the Loiairs du Chevalier D^Eon, in 
14 vols. 8vo. L^Espion Chinois, 6 vols. 
12mo., has also been ascribed to him. 

Department ; the distribution of a tiling 
into several parts; thus, in France, Le 
diparUmeni des totUw, des quariiers, &c. ; 
that is, a distribution of the public taxes, or 
an allotment of quarters to the soldiery, &c. 
Hence it is used, secondly, to denote a dis- 
tribution of employments, and especially 



the divisions of the ministiy. Finally, it 
is applied to territorial divisions. In this 
sense, it has become important in modem 
statistics. At the time of the French revo- 
lution, when the former division of the 
kingdom into provinces was abolished, 
and succeeded by a division of it into de- 
partments, this division was determined 
partly by the number of inhabitants, partly 
by extent of territory, and partly by the 
amount of direct taxes. A decree for this 
purpose was adopted November 4th, 17^, 
by the constituent assembly ; and the abb6 
Si^yes drew up the plan, uitended to ex- 
tinguish the old spirit of hatred among the 
provinces. The whole kingdom was at 
first divided into 83 departments, which 
were subsequently increased, by tlie grad- 
ual extension of the empire, to 130, and 
were reduced by the peace of 1814 to 86. 
(See Prefecturate^ and Dranee,) Each 
department is subdivided into cantons, 
and these again into communes. This 
division of territory has been adopted in 
the states of Bavaria, Wiirtemberg, Ba- 
den and others. The representatives in 
the French chambera are elected by the 
departments. The following list contains 
the names of all the departments, and the 

Srovinces to which they formerly be- 
mged:^- 



Region du Nord. 



Flanders. . 
Artois. . . 
Picaxdy. . 



Normandy. 



Be-de-Fnince. 



Crhampagne. < 



Lomine. 



Nord 

Pas-de-Calais. 
Somme. .... 



' Seine-Inf^rieure. . 

Eure. 

Calvados. 

Manche 

Ome 



Seine 

Seine-et-Oise. • 
Seine-et-Mame. 

Oise 

Aisne. 

(Ardennes.. . . . 
Mame 
Aube 
Haute-Mame. . 

iMeuse 
Moselle 
Meurthe 
Voeges. 



TMP^ 


Pv-t-^ 


962,648 
642,969 
526,282 


3,208 
1,978 
1,697 


688,295 
421,665 
500,956 
611,206 
434,379 


2,137 
1,405 
1,776 
1,808 
1,361 


1,013,373 
440,871 
318,209 
385,124 
489,560 


46,062 
1,536 
1,060 
1,266 
1,305 


281,624 
325,045 
241,7SJ 
244,823 


1,005 
766 
805 
753 


306,339 
409,155 
403,0r« 
379,839 


975 
1,410 
1,567 
1,287 



Line. 

Arras. 

Amiens. 

Rouen. 

j^vreux. 

Caen. 

Saint-Ld. 

Alen^on. 

Paris. 

Versailles. 

Meiun. 

Beauvais. 

Laon. 

M^zi^res. 

Chilons-sur-Mame. 

Troyes. 

ChaumonL 

Bar-le-Duc. 
Metz. 

Nancy. 
&pinaL 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



)fc 



DEPARTMENT. 



Region du Centre. 



Orl^annois. . 

Touraine. . 
Berry. . . . . 



f Loiret 

< £iue-et-Loir. . 
(^ Loir-€t-Cher. . 

I Indre-et-Loire . 



Nivemais. . . 
fiourbonnais,. 
Marche 



Indre. • 
Cher. . 
Ni^vre. 
AlKer. . 
Creuae. 



Limousin. 
Auvei^e. 



J Haute- Vienne. 
I Corr^ze. . . . 

SPuy-de-D6me. 
Cautal 



304,228 
277,782 
230,666 


869 
904 

688 


290,160 


892 


237,628 

248,589 


644 
Qd6 


271,777 
285,302 
252,932 


730 
764 

848 


276,351 

284,882 


976 
961 


566,573. 
262,013 


1,333 
1,027 



Orl^ns. 

Chaitrea. 

Bioifl. 

Tours. 

Chdteaurouz. 

Bouiges. 

Nevers. 

Moulins. 

Gu^reL 

Limoges. 
Tulle. 

CleniMmt-Ferrand. 
Aurillac 



Region 



Maine. J Sarth« 

} Mayenne 

Anjou I Maine-et-Loiife. . . 

' Ille-et-Vilaine. . . . 
Cdtes-du-Nord. . . . 

Bretagne. < Finist^re 

Morbihan 

^ Loire-Iuf^rieure. • . 

{Vienne .r . . 
Deux Sevres. .... 
Vendue 

Aunis. — Haintonge ^ Charente Inf^ricure. 
et Angoumoia ( Charente. 



de r Guest 




446,519 
354,138 


1,373 
1,287 


458,674 


1,197 


553,453 
581,684 
502,851 
427,453 
457,090 


1^1 
1,615 
1,389 
1^ 
1,193 


267,670 
288,260 
322,826 


731 
900 
891 


424,147 
353,653 


1,158 
1,178 



Le Mans. 
LavaJ. 

Angers. 

Rennes. 

St. Brieuc. 

Quimper. 

Vannes. 

Nantes. 

PoitierB. 

Niort 

Bourbon- Vend^ 

La RocheUe. 

Angoul^me. 



Alsace. 



R6gum 

5 Haut-Rhin 

• • • J Bas-Rhin 

['Haute-Sadne 

Fzanche-Comt^. . i Doubs. 

[jura. 

(Yonne 
Cdte-d'Or. 
Saone-et-Loire. . . . 
Ain. 



de VEst, 



Lyonnais.. 



^Rh6ne. 
I Loire. . 



408,741 
535,467 


2,043 
2,231 


327,641 
254,314 
310,262 


1,178 

956 

1,146 


342,116 
370,943 
515,776 
341,628 


870 

799 

1,153 

1,260 


416,575 
369;298 


2,833 
1,442 



Coimar. 

Btrasburg. 

VesouL 

Besan^on. 

Lons-le-Saulnier. 

Auxerre. 

Dijon. 

Macon. 

Bourg. 

Lyons, 
Mdntbrison* 



RSgion du Sud, 



Languedoc. 



'Haute-Loire. . . 

Ard^che 

Loz^re. 

Gord 

H^rault 

Tarn. 

Aude. 

.Haute-Garonne. 



285,673 


1,175 


328,419 


1,368 


138,778 


510 


347,550 


1,198 


339,560 


1,041 


327,655 


1,170 


2654»1 


828 


407,016 


1,312 



LePuy. 

Privas. 

Mende. 

Nlmes. 

MontpeUier. 

Alby. 

CarcasBonne. 

Toulouse. 



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DEPARTMENT—DEPOSITION. 



197 



Guienne-et-Gas- 
couy 



Roussillon Pyrtn^es-Orientales. 

Comt^-de-Foix« . Ariege 

Doidogne. 

Gironde 

Lot-et-Garonne . « 

Lot 

Tame-et-Graronne. . 

Aveyron 

Landes. 

Gen. 

Hautes-Pyr^n^es. . 

B^ara I Basses-Pyi^o^es. . . 

risere. 

Dauphiny. . . . . «J Drome 

V Hautes-AIpes. . . . 
Cointat'Veoaiaain \ 

et Comtat d'A-> > Vaucluae* 

vignon J 

^ Basses- Alpes. . . . 

Provence i Bouches-du-Rhdne. 

iVar. 

Corsica. | Corse 

Dephlooisticated Air. (See Oxygen,) 
Depi^oy ; to display, to spread ouL A 
column is said to deploy, when the divis- 
ions open or extend to form line on any 
given division. 

Depo RTATi ON ; a kind of banishment in 
use oven among the Romans (first intro- 
duced by Augustus) ; by virtue of which 
the condemned pecaon was sent to a foreign 
uninhabited countrv, usually an island, 
his estate confiscated, and himself depriv- 
ed of the rights of a Roman citizen. This 
punishment differs from other -kinds of 
iMLnishment in this, that the person thus 
punished is not permitted to choose his 
place of exile. During the French revo- 
ludon, this punishment was revived in 
lieu of the guillotine. The merit of its 
restoration has been at different times as- 
cribed to Boulay, to the bishop of Autun, 
and to TaloL For the most part, the con- 
denmed were transported to Cayenne 
or to Port-Marat (Po/i-Daupkin) on the 
island of Madagascar. Towards the end 
of Robespierre^s administration, this pun- 
ishment was most frequent Acconling 
to the French penal code of 12th Februa- 
17, 1810, deportation is even now one of 
the punishments established by law in 
France ; but, nevertheless, it is not easily 
put in execution. It is ranked as the third 
degree of in&mous punishments (only 
capital punishment and consignment to 
labor for life, together with iraiUng the 
baU^ as it is called, are ranked before it), 
and gives rise to civil death. The person 
17* 



T\AdPep, 


Pop.t^l. 


ChyfUaem. 


151,372 


688 


Perpignan. 


247,932 


1,011 


Foix. 


464,074 


973 


P^rigueux. 
Bordfeaux. 


538,151 


978 


336,886 


1,161 


Agen, 


280,515 


1,038 


Cahors. 


241,586 


1,220 


Moutauban. 


350,014 


755 


Rhodez. 


265,309 


553 


Mont-de-MarBan. 


307,601 


896 


Auch. 


222,059 


902 


Tarbes. 


412,469 


1,018 


Pau. 


525,984 


1,160 


Grenoble. 


285,791 


850 


Valence. 


125,329 


545 


Gap. 


233,048 


1,259 


Avignon. 


153,063 


560 


Digne. 


^26,302 


1,226 


Marseilles. 


311,095 


818 


Draguignan. 


185,079 


420 


Ajaccio. 



deported loses the control of his property, 
is deprived of the power of making con- 
tracts, and his heirs enter into possession 
of his estate in the same manner as tliough 
he were actually deceased ; yet the govern- 
ment can grant him, in the place of his 
banishment, which is always assigned with- 
out the main land of European France, 
the ordinary civil privileges, or a portion of 
the same. If a person deported return to 
France without tlie leave of the govern- 
ment, he is immediately condenmed to 
the before-mentioned punishment of hard 
labor for life. If he have fled to a foreign 
countiy and soil, and ever comes again 
into the power of the French govern- 
ment, he is again remitted to the place of 
his banishment Deportation, or transpor- 
tation, is dlso one of the legal punishments 
in England. (See Mw South WaU».) 
(For tlie number of persons transported to 
New South Wales, see CWme, tht Statistics 
0/, page 24.)^ , ^ 

Deposition, in law ; testimony given m 
court by a witness upon oath. It is also 
used to signify tlie attested written testi- 
mony of a witness by way of answer to 
interrogatories. These interrogatories are 
usually put in writing, and must be short 
and pertinent, and not such as will lead 
the witness to give a turn to his answer 
favorable to one of the parties. The 
witnesses are examined before magistrates, 
having a general autiiority given them by 
statute to take depositions, by commis- 
nonera appointed by the court which has 



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196 



DEPOSITION— DERPLINGER. 



cognizance of the case. If the witnesses 
are foreigners, residing beyond sea, they 
are examined upon oath, through skiliii] 
sworn interpreters. The deposition of a 
heathen, who believes in the Supreme 
Being, taken by commission according to 
tlie forms used in his country in giving 
evidence, is admissible. By die practice 
of some countries, the commissionei^ are 
sworn to secrecy, and the deposition can- 
not be made public till the papers con- 
taining it are opened in court After a 
witness is fully examined, the examina- 
tions are read over to him, and he is at 
liberty to alter or annul any tiling ; and 
then the examinations are complete. — 
Depositions are frequently taken condi- 
tionally, or de bene esse, as it is called ; for 
instance, when the parties are sick, aged, 
or going abroad, depositions are taken, to 
be read in court, incase of their death or 
departure before the trial comes on. So 
depositions in perpduam menwriam rn, or 
for the purpose or perpetuating testimony, 
are taken under tiie direction of a court 
of chancery, or, in some of the U, States, 
witiiout any application to chancery, by 
inasistrates authorized by statute. 

Deppino, George Bemhard ; a learned 
German, residing at Paris, bom at M(in- 
fiter, in Westphalia, in 1784. He has 
written various works, including several 
for the instruction of youth, and has su- 
perintended the publication of many oth- 
ers. His Histoire gMrcde de VEspagnt^ 
commenced in 1811, has not been com- 
pleted. He assists in the Biographit 
JlniversdUy in the Revue Encydopidx^tpu^ 
the continuation of the chronological 
work Art de viriper Us DateSj &c. We 
are also indebtecl to him for a collection 
of the best Spanish Romances ; La 
Suisse (Paris, 1822, 4 vols.); La Grhce 
(Paris, 1823, 4 vols.); Voyage tTtm ^i*- 
diant dans les 5 Parties Ju Monde (Paris, 
1822, 2 vols.) 

Deptford; a town of England, county 
of Kent, at the confluence of the Ravens- 
bourne with the Thames. , It is very ir- 
regularly built, and contains two churches, 
besides several places of worship for dis- 
senters. There is a royal dock-yard here, 
with fine wet docks, and numerous build- 
ing for the manufacture and preservation 
of*^ naval stores. There are also several 
private docks in the neighborhood, for 
building and repairing merchantmen. 
There are two hospitals belonging to the 
society of the Trinity-house. This so- 
ciety was founded in the reign of Henry 
VIII, by sir Thomas Spert, for the in- 
crease and eucouFogement of navigation, 



and for the good government of the sea- 
men, and tiie better security of merchant 
ships on the coasts. Population, including 
Greenwich, 40,574. 4 miles K. London. 

Deputies, Chamber of. (See Charte 
QmsiUuiionneUeS^ 

Derbt ; a county in the north of Eng- 
land. Derbyshire is noted for its mineral 
productions — ^lead, iron, coal, iime and 
Derbyshire spar. It has extensive quarries 
of grit, which afford excellent mill-stones. 
A singular kind of lead ore is found in a 
verticd position, wliich, on being probed 
by a sharp-pointed instrument, emits a 
crackling noise, and explodes violentiy in 
a few minutes. A remarkable substance, 
called elastic bitumen, is exclusively the 
product of Derbyshire. Many chasms 
and spacious caverns are found here. 

Derbt ; a town of England, the capital 
of Derbyshire, on the Derwent, whicli is 
crossed b^ a stone bridge. The cburdi 
of All Saints has a tower rising 180 feet, 
in rich Gothic. Its architecture is greatlv 
and justiy admired. Besides the parish 
churches, there are places of divine wor- 
ship for Presbyterians, Independents, Bap- 
tists, Methodists, Roman Catholics, Qua- 
kers, Swedenborgians, and Revivalists, or 
Primitive Methodista Manufactures to a 
large extent are carried on in tiiis town, 
particularly in silk and cotton, porcelain 
and spar. There are, besides, manufac- 
tures of iron, lead pipes, lead shot, white 
and red lead, tin plate, and other commod- 
ities. It returns two members to parlia- 
ment Population, 17,423 ; 120 miles 
N. W. by N. London ; ton. P 25^ W. ; 
lat. 52° SB' N. 

Derbyshire Spar. (See Fluate of 
Lime, in article Lime,) 

Derflixger, George, baron of (origin- 
ally D<ir/ling)j a field-marshal of Prussian 
Brandenburg, and one of the first heroes 
of the Prussian military state, founded by 
Frederic William, the great elector, was 
bom in 1606, according to some authois 
in an Austrian village near the Eta, but 
according to Pauli, was the son of a Prot- 
estant peasant in Bohemia. He was at 
first a tailor, and wished to remove to 
Beriin, on account of the distorbanoes in 
Bohemia, to avoid the religious oppression 
exercised after the batde at the Weisse- 
bcrge. But, not being able to ^et ferried 
across the Elbe, on account of his want 
of money, ho tlirew his bundle into the 
stream, and betook himself to the swonL 
He served a long time as a soldier under 

General Thurn, and, while yet only a 
ragoon, indulged the hope of becoming 
a general He then entered the Swedfah 



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DfiRFUNGERr-DERTlSE. 



199 



service, under Oustavus AdolpiniSy and 
afterwards served under Baner (q. v!) and 
TorBteoaohn. Having carried queen Chria- 
tiiia intelligence of me victory at Leiiiaic 
(1642), to which his regiment of horae had 
greatly contributed^ he was appointed by 
her a major-geneiaL Afler the peace, he 
was dismissed, as a foreigner, from the 
Swedish army, went to Brandenbura, and 
entered the service of the elector, Fred- 
eric William, in 1654, as major-general of 
the cavalry. He disdnguished himself in all 
the campaigns of the great elector against 
the Poles, Swedes and French, by his 
sagacity, activity and valor. He was also 
employed in embassies ; and the emperor 
Leopold, at the request of his sovereign, 
raised him, in 1674, to the rank of baron 
of the empire. He died in 1695. 

DfiRscHAWTN, Gabriel Romanowich, 
bom in 1743, at Kasan, belongs, with the 
lately deceased Cheraskoif and the tragic 
poet Oserofi; among the most eminent 
poets of Russia. In 1760, he entered a 
corps of engineeia, as a common soldier, 
and distinguished himself in the field, par- 
ticularly in 1774, agauist the rebel Pngat- 
scheff. Even at thu time, his poetic gen- 
ius began to dawn. Under Catharine, he 
rose, in 1800, to be treasurer of the empire, 
and, in 1802, became minister of justice. 
But he soon retired from business, and 
devoted his life to the muses. His Ode 
to God is much celebrated, and was trans- 
lated into Latin by Czeniky, at Wihia, in 
1819. The emperor of China caused it 
to be translated into Chinese, and hung 
up in an apartment of his palace, printed 
on silk, in letters of gold. His WaterfUl 
has also great merit In other poems, his 
loftiness sometimes degenerates into bom- 
bast Some of his poems have been trans- 
lated into £kigiish ny Bowring. (See his 
i^pec«men9 of Russian Poetry.) Derscha- 
win's poems appeared in 1808, in four 
volumes. He also wrote political and to- 
pographical works. Derscha win died July 

Dervise (Persian ; poor) ; the name of 
a certain class of religious persons in 
Asia. It denotes the same amongst Mo- 
hammedans as numk with the Christians. 
The observanceof strict forms, fasting, and 
acts of piety, give them a character of 
sanctity amongst the people. They live 
partly together, m monasteries, partly alone, 
and from their number the Imans (a. v.) 
are generally chosen. Throughout Tur- 
key, they are freely received, even at the 
tables of peraooB of the highest rank. 
Among the Hindoos, these monks are 
eaUedyaJtirv. There are, throughout Asia, 



multitudes of these devotees, monasdc and 
ascetic, not only among the Mohamme- 
dans, but also among the followers of Brar* 
ma. There aro thirtv-two religious orders 
now existing in the Turkisli empire, many 
of which are scarcely known ueyond its 
limits ; but others, such as the Nacshl^en- 
dies and Mevlevies, are common in Persia 
and India. All these communities aro 
properly stationary, though some of them 
send out a pordon of their members to 
collect alms. The regularly itinerant der- 
vises in Turkey are ail foreigners, or out- 
casts, who, though expelled from their 
orders for misconduct, find their profes- 
sion too agreeable and profitable to be 
abandoned, and therefore set up for them- 
selves, and, under color of sanctity, fleece 
honest people. All these orders, except 
the Nacshbendies, are considered as liv- 
ing in seclusion firom the world ; but that 
Older is entirely composed of persons who, 
without quitting the world, bind them- 
selves to a strict observance of certain 
forms of devotion, and meet once a week 
to perform them together. Esich order 
has its peculiar statutes, exercises and 
habits. Most of them impose a novitiate, 
the lenffth of which depends upon the 
spiritual state of the candidate, who is 
sometimes kept for a whole year under 
this kind of (iiscipline. In the order of 
the Mevlevies, the novice perfects his 
spiritual knowledge in the kitchen of 
the convent. Dancing, or something like 
it, forms an essential part of the duties of 
some of the orders. The dances of the 
greater number are called dew (eirole), 
because they consist in a movement 
forwards of the right foot, accompanied 
with violent contortions of the body, 
all the perfbrmers joining hand in hand, 
and standing in a circle. The longer the 
dance, and die louder the shout of Yd Hu, 
or Ya Mahy the greater is the merit : these 
exercises are therefore often persevered in 
till a fitinting fit or spitting of blood con- 
cludes the exhibition. The exhibitions 
of the Rufaries are the longest, and most 
comprehensive of alL Towards the close 
of them, the performers are worked up into 
a sort of frenzy. Previous to this time, 
two of the dervises put spits, swords, dag- 
geia, &C., into the fire, that they may bis 
presented red hot to the sheikh or chie^ 
when the excitement reaches its highest 
pitch. The sheikh blows upon them, 
just touches them with his mouth, and 
delivers them to the most eager of the fra- 
ternity : they are seized, licked, gnawed, 
and held in the mouth till the glow disap- 
pean. Othera of the fiaternity seize the 



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DERVISE— DESAULT. 



swords, cutlasses, &c^ which are hanging 
on the waUs of the room, and slRsti dieir 
sides, arms and legs unmercifully. The 
sheikh concludes the whole by going 
round, examining the wounds, blowing 
upon them, and anointing them with his 
saliva, which, together with a few prayers, 
effects a cure in twenty-four hours ! The 
sheikhs of all orders have the credit of 
possessing miraculous powers. The in- 
terpretation of dreams, the cure of dis- 
eases, and the removal of barrenness, are 
tlie giits for which the dervises are most 
in repute. 

Derwent Water, or the Lake of Kes- 
wick ; a beautiful lake in the county of 
Cumberland, England, in the vale of Kes- 
wick, lying between the mountain of 
Skiddaw on the north, and the craggy 
hills of Borrowdale on the south, whence 
it derives its chief supplies of water. 

Desaix^ de Votoocx, Louis Charles 
Antoine, a French general, bom in 1768, 
at St Hilaire d'Ayat, of a noble family, 
entered the regiment of Bretagne, in 1784, 
as under-lieutenant. He contributed, Dec. 

1793, to the capture of the Haguenau lines, 
which tlie left wing, where he was sta- 
tioned, first broke through. He served, in 

1794, in the nortfiem army, under Piche- 
gru, and repeatedly distinffuished himself 
Attached to the army of the Rhine, under 
Moreau, 1796, he defended the bridge of 
Kehl in November of that year. In 1797, 
he accompanied Bonaparte to Egypt, con- 
tributed to his first victory, and was thence 
sent to the conquest of Upper Egypt, 
where Mured Bey, notwithstanding his 
defeat, incessantly harassed his conqueror. 
Bonaparte soon returned to Europe, as 
did Desaix himself, afler the trea^ of El- 
Arish, concluded by him with the Turks 
and English. On his arrival in France, 
he learned that Bonaparte had departed 
for Italy, hastened to join him, and took 
command of the corps of reserve. A third 
part of the French army was already dis- 
abled, when Desaix's corps arrived (June 
14, 1800) on the field of Marengo, (q. v.) 
He immediately advanced to the charge, 
but fell, mortally wounded by a cannon- 
ball, just as victory declared for the French. 
His body was carried to Milan, embalmed, 
and conveyed to the hospitium on the St. 
Bernard, where a monument is erected to 
him. (See Bernard, SL) Another monu- 
ment, erected to him on tlie plains of Ma- 
rengo, where he foil, was destroyed by 
the Austrians, in 1814. Desau was as 
iust and disinterested as he was brave. 
The inhabitants of Cairo gave him the title 
of the just 9UUan, 



Desatir is a lately discovered colleo 
tion of sixteen sacred books, consisiing 
of tlje fifteen old Persian prophets, togeth- 
er with a book of Zoroaster. This, at least, 
is what the book itself pretends to be. 
The collection is written in a language 
not spoken at present any where, and 
equally different from the Zend, the Pelvi 
and modem Persian. The last of the 
fifieen prophets, Sasan, who lived at the ^ 
time of the downfall of the Sassanides, 
when the Arabians conquered the coun- 
try, literally translated the Desatir, and 
accompanied it with commentaries. This 
work w^ afterwards, until the 17th cen- 
tury, one of the chief sources of the an- 
cient Persian religious doctrines, inter- 
woven with astrology and demonology; 
and, after having been forgotten for alwut 
a century and a half, a learned Parsee 
discovered it at Ispahan. His son, Molla 
Firuz, was induced by the marquis of 
Hastings to publish an edition of the De- 
satir at Bombay, in 1830, to which Ersktne 
added an English translation. Enkine, 
however, considers the collection as spu- 
rious ; and Sylvester de Sacy {Journal des 
Savants, Feb., 1821) believes that the De- 
satir is the work of a Parsee in the 4th 
century of the Hegira, who, as he thinks, 
invented the languag^, in order to give to 
the collection, which is itself an assemblage 
of old traditions and significant mysteries, 
an air of genuineness. Joseph von Ham- 
mer, on the contrary, is said to consider it 
as genuine. At all events, it is interesting 
to learn from this work, with greater ac- 
curacy, an old religious eystem of the 
East, in which are to be found, with pao- 
deemonism and the metempsychosis, the 
elements of the worship of Uie stara, of 
astrology, the ihturgu, the doctrine of 
amulets^ as well as the elements of the 
Hindoo religion, particularly the system 
of castes, and many elements of the Chris- 
tian religion. Yetno trace of any connex- 
ion with the Zendavesta and the magic of 
the Parsees has been found in the Desatir. 

Desaclt, Peter Joseph ; one of the 
most celebrated surgeons of France ; bom 
Feb. 6, 1744, at Magny-Vemais, in the 
former Franche-Comt^. He was de- 
signed for the church, early studied math- 
ematics and philosophy, and was led by 
his inclination to the surgical profession ; 
in consequence of which he entered the 
militaiy hospital at B^fort, where his dili- 
gence and talent for observation supplied 
the defects of a suitable instruction ; and 
his situation was favorable for obtaining a 
knowledge of the treatment of wounds 
from fire-arms, in which department he 



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DESAULT— DESCARTES. 



9D1 



afterwnrds rose to mat etninence. He 
went to Paris in 1764, and was one of the 
numerous scholars of die celehrated Petit. 
Two years afterwards, he became a lec- 
turer, and, though liis delivery was bad, 
he floon became celebrated by introducing 
a new method of teaching anatomy. 
While lecmring on the parts of the hu- 
man body, he treated of the diseases inci- 
dent to each. Alter having been several 
years principal surgeon of the hospital de 
la duariU, where he increased his reputa- 
tion by introducing new methods of treat- 
ment, or by improving and simplifying 
those ahneady in use, he was pot at the 
head of the great HdUl-Dieu in Paris, in 
1788. Here he founded a surgical school, 
in which have been educat^ many of 
the most eminent surgeons of Europe. 
His principal merits were, that he brought 
accuracy and method into the study of 
surgeiy ; improved the treatment of fitic- 
tarSd bones, by adopting improved ban- 
dages; first introduced into France the 
clinical method of instruction in surgery, 
and infijsed into his scholars a generous 
attachment to their profession. He was 
distinguished for the skill and boldness 
with which he perfbrmed operations. 
This happy natural talent, this surmcal 
instinct, that guided him in the most diffi- 
cult cases, compensated for his want of 
profesnonal learning, to which he was $o 
mdiflferent, that, in his later years, he read 
very little ; and, as he 'was entirely igno- 
rant of internal diseases, he was in<hgnant, 
when, at the foundation of the ^cofe de 
modi, in which he became professor of 
clinical surgery, the study of medicine 
and surgery were connected. He died, 
while attending upon the son of Louis 
XVI, in the Temple, of a violent fever, 
June 1, 1795. Desault wrote only two 
small treatises ; but the Journal de Chirur- 
rit, in which his scholars published his 
tectures delivered hi the Hutel-Dieu, and 
the (Eucres Cfdrurgiades, edited by Bicbat 
under Desault's name, contain his whole 
system. 

Descartes, Ren6 (Renatus Cartesius^ 
an original thhiker, and refonner of phi- 
losophy, with whom the modem or new 
philosophy is often considered as com- 
mencing, was bom in 1596, at La Haye, 
in Toureine, and died at Stockholm, in 
1650. Wlule pursuing his education in 
the Jesuits* school at La Fleche, where 
he studied philology, mathematics and 
astronomy, his superior intellect manifest- 
ed itself. After having read much, with- 
out coming to any certain conclusions, be 
travelled. Both his Imth and inclination 



led him to embrace the military profession, 
and he fought as a vohinteer at the siege 
of Rochelle, and in Holland under prince 
Maurice. While he served in Holland, 
a matliematical problem in Dutch, pasted 
up in the streets of Breda, met his eye. 
Not being acquainted with the language, he 
asked a man who stood near him to trans- 
late the problem to him. This man hap- 
pened to be professor Beecman, princiiJAl 
of the university of Doit, and himself a 
.mathematician. He smiled at the ques- 
tion of the young officer, and was greatly 
surprised, the next morning, to find that 
he had solved it From hence Descartes 
went to Gennany, and entered the Bava- 
rian service. His ntuation, however, af- 
fording him little opportuni^ for pursuing 
his favorite studies, he left the army in 
1621, and visited Moravia, Silesia, Poland, 
Pomerania, and the shores of the Baltic. 
In order to see West Friesland with ad- 
vantage, he purchased a boat, and em- 
barked with a single valet The sailors, 
thinking him a foreign merchant, with 
much money in his baggage, resolved to 
kill him. Imagining him ignorant of their 
language, they conversed of their plan 
o()enly. Descartes, seeing his danger, 
drew his sword, addressed them in their 
ovm tongue, and threatened to stab the 
first man that should offer him violence. 
Tlie sailors were overawed, and gave up 
their design. After a variety of travels, 
he remained in Holland, where he com- 
posed most of his vmtings, from 1629 to 
1649, drew about him many scholars, and 
was engaged in many learned controver- 
sies, especially with theologians. His 
celebrated system abounds in sin^larities 
and originalities; but a spirit of indepen- 
dent thought prevails throughout it, and 
has contributed to excite the same spirit 
in others. It has done much to give to 
philosophic&l inquiries a new direction, 
and found many adherents, especially in 
England, France and Gennany. Des- 
cartes founds his belief of the existence of 
a thinking being on the consciousness of 
thought: "I think, therefore I exist" 
[cogUo^ ergo sum). He developed his sys- 
tem with much ingenuity, in opposition to 
the empiric philosophy of the English, 
and the Aristotelian scliolastics, and adopt- 
ed the rigorous, systematic or mathematical 
method of reasoning. From his system 
originated tlie notion among the modems, 
that the very existence and certainty of 
philosophy consists in definitions, argu- 
ments, and a methodical arrangement of 
them. The thinking being, says Des- 
cartes, or the soul, evidently differs frofn 



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DESCARTKS— DESCENT. 



the body, whose existence consists in 
space or extension, by its simplicity and 
immateriality (whence, also, its immortal- 
ity), and by the freedom that pertains to 
it. But every perception of the soul is 
not clear and aistiuct; it is in a great 
degree involved in doubt, and is so fiir 
an imperfect, finite bein^. This imper- 
fection of its own leads it to the idea of 
an absolutely perfect being. (He, there- 
fore, here makes use of the (so called) 
orUological proof of the existence of God, 
in a different manner from that in which 
Anselm of Canterbury had, somewhat 
earlier, employed the same; and hence 
tlie name of the "Cartesian proof.) He 
placed at tlie head of his S)r8tem the idea 
of an absolutely perf^ot being, which he 
considers as an innate idea, and deduces 
from it all further knowledge of truth. 
The princiiMd problems of metaphysics he 
conceived to be substantiality and causality. 
He contributed greatly to the advancement 
of mathematics and physics. He made 
use of the discoveries and observations of 
others, defining them accurately, and as- 
sijzning them their place in his s}'stem. 
The hiffher departments of geometry (to 
which ne successfully applied analysis), 
as well as optics, dioptrics and mechanics, 
were gready extended by him, their method 
simphfied, and thereby the way prepared 
for the great discoveries made in the sci- 
ences by Newton and Leibnitz; for in- 
stance, he contributed much to define and 
illustrate the true law of refraction. His 
system of the universe attracted great at- 
tention in his time, but has been long 
since exploded. It rests on the strange 
faypotliesis of the heavenly vortices, im- 
mense currents of ethereal matter, with 
which space is filled, and by wliich he 
accounted for the motion of the planets. 
He labored much to extend the Coper- 
nican system of astronomy. Descartes 
loved independence ; he nevertheless suf- 
fered himself to be perauaded to go to 
Stockholm, upon the invitation of queen 
Christina, who was very desirous of his 
society. He died at that place, 4 months 
after his arrival. His body was carried to 
Paris in 1666, and interred anew m the 
church of St Genevieve du Mont Des- 
cart^ was never married, but had one 
natural daughter, Francina, who died in 
his arms, in ner fiflh year, and whose loss 
he felt acutely. His works have at vari- 
ous times been published, singly and to- 
gether; as, for Ulstance, at Amsterdam, 
1692, 9 vols. 4to. Bailie and Tarpelius 
have written his life. (See his letters; 
also the eulogies on him by GaiUard, 



Thomas and Mercier, and Leibnitz^ ac- 
count of him in his letters.) 

Descent, in law, is the transmission of 
tlie right and title to lands to the heu*, on 
the decease of the proprietory by the mere 
operation of law. A title by descent is 
distinguished from a title by purchase, 
which latter includes title by aevise, as 
well as by grant The law of descent is, 
accordin^y, the law relating to and regu- 
lating the inheritance of estates. Wherev- 
er there is an exclusive property in lands 
possessed by individuals, or, in other 
words, wherever the soil is held by dis- 
tinct, permanent proprietaries, the law 
provides for the disposition of the posses- 
sion in cose of the aeath of the proprietor, 
without any designation of heirs by him- 
selfl It is a theory of all states, that the 
title to lands is originally in tlie govern- 
ment Thus, m all the American states, 
the government granted the title ori^nally ; 
and, in case of a vacant possession, the 
tide now reverts, by escheat, to this ori- 
^al grantor. The government considers 
Itself to be the heir to all its subjects or 
ciuzend, who leave no other heir. In 
some countries, as in Egypt, particulariy, 
tiie government is the perpetual and prac- 
tical owner of the soil, and stands in the 
relation of landlord to all the cultivators, 
who are its tenants, and pay regular rents. 
It is a theory of the tenures of lands in 
England, that they are generally held, di- 
recdy or indirectly, of the king, as superior 
lord. This is only the theoretical rem- 
nant of the principle, that the property in 
the soil belongs originally to the sovereign ; 
and the title is held by tlie subject in 
England upon certain conditions ; for the 
lands of a traitor are forfeited, which 
makes allegiance one of the conditions of 
the tenure* Though there are countries 
in which the sovereign is the sole landed 
proprietor, while in others he is the heir 
of the landed proprietors, whose estates 
ore accordingly for life, yet most countries 
provide for die transmission or descent of 
property in lands to the heirs of the pro- 

Iirietor; one distinction in the different 
aws being, that some codes, or the pro- 
visions relating to some particular kinds 
of estate, do not permit the occupant or 
proprietor, for the time beiug, to aJter the 
disposition made by the law. Thus, be- 
fore the conouest, lands were devisable in 
England, and the proprietor could appoint 
by will who should inherit them ailer his 
deatli ; but it was one part of the policy 
of the feudal law, which was introduced 
into Enj^land after the conquest, to take 
away this power, and make lands descend 



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DESCENT. 



203 



only according to a prescribed rule. Bttt 
expedients have been resorted to in Eng- 
land to break entails, and ^ve the present 
proprietor tlie power of disposing of the 
lands during bis lifetime. These expe^ 
dients are denominated a fint and a torn- 
mon recovery. In tlie case of entailed es- 
tates, the successive possessors do not, in 
fiu;t, come in as inheritors to the preceding 
occupiers, but in virtue of the grant or 
original constitution of the estate ; and 
these grants make the law for these 
perticumr species of estates. Estates of 
this description were formerly much 
more numerous in the U. States than at 
present. But they were never much fa- 
vored, and after the revolution, the laws 
leaned still more against tliem, so tlmt at 
present thev are but few. But in Great 
Britain and the continent of Europe, a 
very large jiart of the soil is held by this 
species of title. The rule determining 
to whom an estate belongs, on the decease 
of the proprietor, is that of consanguinity, 
or relationship by blood, tliough wiui some 
exceptions, as in the case of the portion 
or the use of a portion of a man's prop- 
erty, ffiven, by the laws of England and 
the United States, to his widow. The 
rules of descent, designating what rela- 
tions shall inherit, and their respective 
sliares, will be determined by the genius 
and policy of the government and institu- 
tions. Hence the practice of entailments 
in the feudal system. And wherever the 
government is founded in family privi- 
kges, or very intimately connected with 
them, as is the case in all governments 
where the hereditarily aristocratical part 
of the community have a great prepon- 
derance, the sustaining of families will 
veiy probably be a characteristic feature 
in the code of laws. Thus, in England, 
all the lands of the father, unless otherwise 
directed bv will, go to the eld^t son ; and 
accorduigfy all the eldest sons, who re- 
ceive any benefit from this law of descent, 
are naturally the supporters of aristocrat- 
ical privileges. It has accordingly been 
predicted, that the provision introduced 
into the French laws, since the revolution, 
for equalizing inheritances, and thus di- 
viding estates, and forming a numerous 
body of small proprietors, will have a ranid 
and powerful influence in giving a popular 
character to the government and institu- 
tions of the country. Some remnant of 
tills &mily policy, which prevails so gen- 
erally in Europe, appears in the eariy 
laws of tiie American colonies and prov- 
inces, in the preference given to eldest 
SODS, by assigniog them a double portion 



of the inheritance. This distinction prob- 
ably resulted veiy much from the mere 
force of habit and custom. It is, how- 
ever, not improbable that a reverence for 
the Leviticai code might have led some 
of the colonies to this distinction in favor 
of the first-bom. This is an argument 
made use of in the pragmatic sanction, 
published by the Spanish king, March 
29, 1890, annulling tne rule of the Salic 
law, which excludes females from the 
succession. In this decree, an argument 
is cited fix>m the petition of the cortes of 
1789, in favor of the right of the eldest, 
which is vindicated, 1. from the/ order of 
nature; 2. from the Old Testament; 3. 
from usage; from all which the petition 
infers, that ** tiie advantage of being the 
fiist-bom is a particular mark of the love 
of God." But the distinction in favor of 
the eldest son, which existed in the colo- 
nies now constituting the U. States, has 
been abolished since the establishment of 
independence. A compendious notice of 
the various laws of the several U. States 
on the subject of the descent of real es* 
tate, will be found in the first volume of 
the American Jurist and Law Magazine. 
These laws are founded upon the princi- 
ple of equal distribution, both of real and 
personal estates, among li^irs of the nearest 
surviving degree, and the representatives 
of deceased heirs of the same degree ; the 
representatives of a deceased heir who, 
when alive, was of the same decree with the 
nearest that survive, being entitled collect- 
ively to the share which would have come 
to such deceased heir, had he been living. 
This general principle is adopted from the 
English statutes of die 22d and 23d of 
Charies 11, relating to the distribution of per- 
sonal property ; ror the English law makes 
a great distinction as to the descent of real 
and personal estate, whereas, in the U. 
Stat^ they descend and are distributed 
upon the same /eneral principle, though 
there are some difierences in the particu- 
lar provisions. But this ri^ht ot takin|; 
by represents'jon is very variously modi- 
fied in the c'jfierent states. To make the 
subject beti«r understood, a word ought 
to be sCd on tlie subject of affinity, or 
degrees of consanguinity, which is veiy 
lucidly treated in Blackstone's Commen- 
taries. Kindred in blood are divided into 
three general classes, viz. 1. descendants ; 
2. ancestois; 3. collateral relatives, that 
is, those who have descended from the 
same common ancestor. The civil law 
computes the degrees by counting the 
generations up to the common ancestor, as 
Sither, granduither, great grandfather ; or 



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DESCENT--DE SERRE. 



mother, gnuidinother, ffreat gmndniotber ; 
aud from him or her down to the collat- 
eral relative, as brother, cousui, &c, mak- 
ing the degree of relationship the sum of 
these two series of genei-ations. Every 
person has two sets of ancestors, the pa- 
tema] and maternal, and theirdfore two 
sets of coliateFal relatives. There is ajso 
a distinction of collateral kindred, into 
those of the whole blood, and those of the 
half blood. Our limits will not allow us 
to state the various regulations in England 
and the U. States, as to the rules of inher- 
itance among kindred of these different 
kinds; they are tlius generally noticed, 
merely fbr the purpose of intimating some 
general dlvei-sities in the rules of descent 
Thus in England and France, it is a rule, 
that real estate cannot ascend, that is, can- 
not go to father, grandfather, &c on the 
decease of the son, grandson, &c.; for 
which the quaint reason is given by Brae- 
ton, that the weight of the inheritance 
makes it descend. Notwithstanding this 
supposed dovrawaid tendency of an in- 
heritance in land, it is, in defect of de- 
scendants, made by the American laws to 
ascend, as well as to fiass off collaterally ; 
and this is tlie rule respecting personal 
estate, both in England and the U. States. 
Another distinctibn is made by the EM^liah 
laws, between collateral reladves of the 
whole and half blood, as the latter cannot 
inherit real estate ; but in respect to per- 
sonal estate in England, and bpth personal 
and real estate in tfie U. States, no distinc- 
tion of this sort is made. Another diver- 
sity in tlie laws of inlieritance relates to 
the distinction of male and female heirs. 
The Jewish law preferred the male beirs^ 
and the present laws of Vermont (1830) 
give a similar preference. But the laws 
of the U. States generally, in regard both to 
real and personal estate, and those of Eng- 
land respecting the latter, make no dis- 
tinction on accoimt of the mx of the heirs. 

DSSKADA, DEBIlUnA, OT. DsSIOEiUDA ; 

the first of the Caribbee islands discovered 
by Columbus in the year 1494 ; belonging 
to France, about 10 miles long, and hfudly 
5 broad. The soil is, in some plac^ 
black and good ; in othera, sandy and un- 
productive ; 16 miles E, Guadaloupe : 
Ion. 61° la' W. ; hit 16° W N. ; popuU- 
tion, about 1000. 

Db Seree, Hercule, count, a French 
rainbter of state, who, in 1822, was ap- 
pointed ambassador at tlie court of Naples, 
was bom at Metz, in 1774, of a noblq 
family of Lorraine. In 1791, he emi- 
pated, and served in several campaigns, 
in the army of the prince of Cond6. He 



then lived a lonff time in Germany, in 
Biberach, a smaU place in Suabia, as a 
schoohuaster. Here he acquired hia per- 
fect knowledge of the German language 
and literature. He afterward obtained 
permission to return to France, and be- 
came a lawyer. Napoleon appointed him 
avocat-giniral to the court of appeal at 
Metz, and first president cf Uie court of 
appeal at Hambur^^, where he acquhed 
esteem by his integrinr, talents and mode- 
ration. He left Hamburg just before the 
siege, m 18ia In 1814, Louis XVIII 
appointed him first president of the court 
of i^jpeal at Colmar. During the hundred 
days, he resided with the kmg in Ghent 
Being chosen a deputy by the department 
of the Upper Rhine, in 1815, the energy 
with which he opposed the ultra-royaluBt 
majority attracted the attention of the 
ministiy, and. gained him the confidence 
of the nation. From 1816 to 1818, he 
^led the chaur of president of the cham- 
ber of deputies with dignity and impar- 
tiality ; at the same time he was a mem- 
ber of the committee of legisladon in tlie 
council of state. In December, 1818, the 
king appointed him keeper of the seab 
and minister of justice. He pursued the 
policy of Decazes, and distinguished him- 
self, in 1819, by his defence of the three 
laws proposed for the regulation of the 
press, 17th May, 26th May, 9th June, 
wliicb took the place of the censorship 
then existing. He also opposed, with 
vigor, the change of the law of electiona. 
In his speech, March 23, 1819, he de- 
nounced the party spirit of the ultras as 
the cause that the crimes committed in the 
south of France, in 1815, had remained 
i^ipunished. He of^posed, however, the 
demands of the Uberals for the restoradon 
of the regicides, by his famous Jamau 
(17di May, 1819). He afterwards se|ia- 
mted himself fix>m the dodrvntdreB^ whose 
principles h6 had hitherto maintained, and 
supported the proposal of Decazes, of 
February, 1820, to change the law of 
election of 1817. When the excitement 
of parties in regard to the three projects 
of the la^ premier had reached its height, 
he completed the triumph of the ministry 
and die moderate right side, by advocating 
the amendments of the proposed new law 
of election (9di June, 1820). As the prin- 
cipal supporter of the new law of election, 
in 1820, he was of the greatest service to 
the royalists, but lost the favor of the lib- 
erals. The king created him a count, 
and bestowed on his son an income of 
20,000 francs per annum. De Serre him- 
self had no fbrtime and a numerous family. 



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JDiE SERRE— DESHOULIERES. 



90S 



The new elecdons of 1620 and 1^1 
brought a great number of ultra-royalists 
into the chamber of deputies, and a strong 
opposition was fonned, on the part of the 
nglit side, a^nst the ministry. The 
leaders, Corbiere and Villele, endeavored 
to obtain seats in the ministry, and tlieir 
Influence finally effected the change of the 
14tli Dec, 1821 ; De Serre, Posquier, La- 
tour-Maubourg, Simeon, Portal and Roy 
left the ininistiy, and Peyronnet succeeded 
De Serre as minister of justice and keeper 
of the seals. De Serre is said to have con- 
tributed, himself, to the nomination of the 
latter. He did not join the opposition, 
though he was adverse to the olau of the 
new ministry for abolishing ttie jury in 
trials for abuses of the press ; and he de- 
clared, in the chamber of deputies (Feb- 
ruaiy, 1823), through his friend Froc de la 
Boulaye, that he was more fully convinced 
than ever of die expediency of a jury. 
The ministiy, however, succeeded in its 
object. Innrm health prevented count 
De Serre from taking part in the discus- 
aions on this occasion. In May, 1822, he 
was sent ambassador to Naples, where he 
died July 21, 1824. 

Desebter ; a soldier who quits his 
regiment without leave. If an armed 
Bokiier deserts a post where he is placed 
on duty, the offence, we believe, in all 
annies, is punished with death ; but sim- 
ple desertion, not. In the English army, 
however, death is the punishment for de- 
sertion in any shape. In the U. States, the 
same law exists, but it will, probably, soon 
be changed. 

Deseze, Raymond, the advocate who 
defended Louis XVI before the bar of the 
national convention, belongs to an ancient 
fiimily. His father was a celebrated par- 
liamentaiy advocate at Bordeaux, in which 
town Raymond was born, in 1750. Ray- 
mond Deseze studied the law from