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Gift of 

John Raw I Ings 



Gift of 

John Raw) ings 









edidoo, pabllihed in thrtt voIobmi, 

1768— 1771. 


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1777— 1784. 


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X830— 1849. 


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1875— 1889. 


), i|inth edition and davaa 


tppwrnenteiy volnflMii 




,, pvblialMd in twtntyHdM ToloflMib 

19X&— X9XX* 













Copyright, in the United States of America, 1910, 

The Encyclopaedia Britaonica Company. 




Aa Aa K* 


A. P. P. 

A. Go.* 





A. 1.6. 


AmxBim Alcock Rakbaut, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S., F.R.A.S. f 

Radcliffe Observer, Oxford. Professoi of Astrodomy in the Untver^ty of Dublin A GltBt, Rotert* 
and Royal Astronomer of Ireland, 1892-1897. L 

Albert Charles Sewasd, M^^ F.R.S. f 

Professor of Botany in the University of Cambridse. Hon. Fellow of Emmanuel -{ Gynuiospttlllla 
College, Cambridge. President of the Yorkshire Naturaliau' Union, 1910. L 

Albert Frederick Pollaro, M.A., F.R.Hxst.S. f 

Fellow of All Souls Colle]g;e. Oxford. Professor of Enelisb History in the Uoiversity J erindat 
of London. Assistant Editor of the Dictionary of National Biographyt 1803-1901. \ *■"*«»<• 
Author of England under the Protector Somersdi Life of Thomas Cranmer ; Ac. I 

Rev. Alexander Gordon, M.A. fGrynaeus, Simos; 

lecturer on Church History in the University of Manchester. \ HlAtur. 

Hon. Archxbalo GKAEffE Bell, M.Inst.C.E. f 

Director of Public Works and Inspector of Mines, Trinidad. Member of Executive S GttUlUI. 
and Legislative Councils, Inst.C.E. L 

Sir a. Houtum-Schindler, CLE. / GOin; w«" i ffiW ^, 

General in the Persian Army. Author of Eastern Persian Irak. I 

Arthur Hervey. r 

Formerly Musical Critic to Morning Post and Vanity Fair. Author of Masters -l GouBOd. 
of French Music; French Music in the XIX. Centkry. [^ 

See the biographical article. SaVce, A. H. \ «*»»"»'. «Jnfc 

Rev. Alexander James Grieve, M.A., B.D. 
Professor of New Testament and Church Histc 
Bradford. Sometime 
Educational Service. 

Grieve, M.A., B.D. r 

ment and Church History at the United Independent College. J n»gg«i (in a^w) 

Registrar of Madras University and Member of Mysore! "■»••' ^*'* For»;, 

Harmonium (m ^r/)* 

A. J. H. Alfred James Hipkins. 

Formerty Member of Council and Hon. Curator of ftoyal CoUege of Music. Member 
of Committee of the Inventions and Music Exhibition, 1885; of the Vienna' 
Exhibition, 1 893 ; and of the Paris ExhU)ition, 190Q; Auth9r pf Music^ Instruments ; 
A Description and History of the Pianoforte; &c. 

A.L. Andrew Lang. ^. , . , , ^ /GunMy. Edmwid. 

See the bwgraphkal article, Lanc, Andrew. \ vwiwjr, wuuhuu. 

Agnes Mary Clerke. /haHav namnn 

See the biograpbkal article, Clerks, A. M. I "•**^' nwpen. 

Goatsveker; Godwif; 
GoMflooh; Goom; 
Gos-Hawk; Grackle; 
Grebe^ Gnenflnch; 
Graensliank; Grosbeak; 
Grouse; Guacharo; Gnaw; 
Guillemot; Gulnea-Fowl; 
Gun, Bammer-Kop. 

A.Rt. Alexander Kesbitt, F.S.A. ffti.^ ix;,#^. -r 

Author of the Introduction to A Deseriptioe CataloguM 0/ the Class Vessels in South < "*^ "Ktory of 
Kensington Museum. { Manufacture Km parl^ 

A. 8. C Alan Summerly Cole, C.B. r 

Assistant Secretary for Art, Board of Education, I900>i9o8. Author of Ancient ■{ QpU Mid SUvor nmd 
Heedle Point and Pillow Lace ; Embroidery and Lau ; Ornament in European Silks ; &c. [ ' 

A. Ef. Arthur Sywons. J Goneourt, De; 

See the biographical article, Symons, A. \ Hardyt ThomM* 

* A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume. 

A. v. Altred Newton, F.R.S. 

See the biographical article, Newton, Alfred. 


A. W. H.* Arthur William Holland. f Godfrey of Vlterbo; 

Formerly Scholar of St John's College, Oxford. Bacon Scholar of Gray's Inn, 1900. \ Golden Bull; HahsblVgi 

A. W. It Alexander Wood Renton, M.A., LL.B. f rw^„^ n.-,. 

Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of Ceylon. Editor of Encyclopaedia, of the \ „ "?■"•"» 
Law of England. [^ lUlldwrltllig. 

A. W. W. Adolphus Wiluam Ward, LL.D., Lirr.D. S ri— «a b.i^^ 

Sec the biographical article. Ward A. W. \ Uwene^ HObert. 

C F. A. Charles Francis Atkinson. f Grand Alliance, War of tlie; 

Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Captain, 1st City of London (Royal \ Grant, Ulysses S. {in port)'t 
Fusiliers). Author oT The WUdemcss and Cold Hat bour. 1 Great Rebellion. 

C. Gr. Charles Gross, A.M., Ph.D., LL.D. C1S57-1909). f 

Professor of History at Harvard University,. 1 88^-1909. Author of Tka Cild-\ GUdS. 
Merchant ; Sources and IMcratnro of English History \ Sic I 

C. IL* Sir C. Holroto. /i».j.« ei. v « 

Sec the biographical article, Holroyd. Sir C. \ H»aen, Sir F. C 

C. H. C. Charles H. Coote. 


RLES H. COOTE. , J D VI «* r- A- A 

Formerly of Map Department, British Museum. \ "»»»wyt w« pan), 

Carlton Huntley Hayes, A.M., Ph.D. f r«»i»rtf. p-*,- wnt «a 

Assistant Professor of History in Columbia Univcfsity, New York City. . Member \ *'V„7 n-iw* 
of the American Historical Association. t » '*■■■•"■ 


C. J. L. Sir Charles Tames Lyall, K.C.S.I., C.I.E., LL.D (Edin.) 

Secretary, Judicial and Public Department, India Office. Fellow of King's College, 
London. Secretary to Government of India in Home Department, 1889*1894. 
Chief Commissioner, Central Provinces, India, 1895-1898. Author oif Translations 
of Ancient Arabic Poetry; Sec 

C. L.* Charles Lapworth, M.Sc.^ LL.p., F.R.S., F.C.S. 

Professor of 
of Afonograi 

'Glendower, Owen; 

Professor of Geology ana Physiography in the University of Birmingham. Editor < GraptoBtOS. 
raph on British Craptol*tes, Palaeontographical bocicty, 1900-1908. \ 

C. L. K. Charles L^hbridce Kingsford, M.A., F.R.Hist.S., F.S.A. 

Assistant Secretary to the Board of Education. Author of Life of Henry V. 
Editor of Chronicies of London^ and Stow's Survey of London, 

Gloucester, Humphrey^ 

Duke of; 
Hallam, Bishop; 
Hardyns* Jolui* 

C. M. Carl Theodor Mirbt, D.Tr. r 

Professor of Church History in the University of Marburg. Author of Publizistih \ Gregory VIL 
im ZtiuUter Cregor VIL; Quellen zur Ceschichte des Papstthums; &c. t 

C. ML ChedohiiTle Mijatovich. f 

Senator of the Kingdom of Servia. Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni- . GOOdQllOll. 
potcntiary of the King of Servia to the Court of St Jarats', 1895-1900 and 1902- 1 
1903. I 

C. H. W. Sir Charles Moore Watson, K.C.M.G., C.B. f 

Colonel, Royal Engineers. Deputv- Inspector-General of Fortifications, 1896-1902. < Gordon, GeneraL 
Served under General Gordon in the Soudan, 1874-1875. i, 

C. Pf. Christian Pfister, D.-is-L. fcrMEorf St of Toun* 

Professor at the Sorbonne, Paris.- Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author ■< o..-*i.A* ^t c.k ^ _-. 

of £tu4es sur le rigne de Robert le Pieux. [ Gunthcr of Schwarzbui^ 

Gomez; Hakluyt 
(m par^. 

C. R. B. Charles. Raymond Beazley, M.A., D.Litt., F.R.G:S., F.R.Hist.S. 

Professor of Modem History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow 
of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography. 
Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of 
Henry the Navigator ; The Dawn of Modern Geography; &c. 

CWe* CEaL Weatherly. r^** 

Fonncrfy Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. \ ^"™w. 

C. W. E. Charles Wruam Euot. f ^^„ . . 

Sec the biographical article, Eliot, C. W. -J^^ray, Asa. 

D. C. To. RjCV. Duncan CR6OKES TOVEY, M. A. Jcraw Thomas. 

Editor of The Letters of Thomas Cray ; Ac \ ^^' ^ ""°*^ 

D. F. T. Donald Francis Tovey. f 

Author of Essays in Musical Analysis: comprising The Classical Concerto, 7Tie-\ Gluck; HandeL 
Goldberg Variations^ and analysis of many other classical works. t 

D. G. H. David George Hocarth, M.A. 

Keeper of the Ashmolcan Museum, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. 
Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 18^; Naucratis, 1899 and 
1903; Ephesus, I904-KK)5; Assiut, 1906-1007: Director, British School at Athens, 
l897''l9D0; Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, i8s9. 

Ca David HannaV. f Si»?frirj.l^""!; 



riy British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short Hilary of Royal Navy, ' 
08S: Life of Emilio Caslelar; &c. 

Grand Alliance, War M 
Ibe: Naval Opnations\ 
iGuichen; Hamilton, Emml. 


Dl U. T. Damiel Llepter Thomas. f 

Barrister-at-taw, Lincoln's Inn. Stipendiary Magistnite at Pontypridd and *{ GhunoiCtOShin; Gttmr. 

Rhondda. I 

D. Hn. Rev. Ducaid Macfadyen, M.A. JgUl Johni 

Minister of South Grove Congregational Church. Highgate. Author of Constmcthe i ri&sMas.^^ 
jOoHgregaticmal iieais ; &c. I uifl-nn. 

B. H. W. Snt Donald Mackenzie Wallace, K.C.I.E.. K.C.V.O. 

Extra Croom-ia- Waiting to H.M. King Ccoree V. Director of Che Foreign Depart^ 

mcnt of Th€ Times, 1891-1899. Member 01 In^titut de Droit international and <| CiaR* Cnreliakiiv 

Officicr de I'lnstniction Publique of France. Joint-editor of new volumes (loth ] * uun;iiM«iT. 

edition) of the Encyclopaedia BriUinnua. Author of Rtutia ; Eiy^ and tke Egyptian 

Qnesium; The Web of Empire; Ac 

B. A. ?• Edward Augustus Freeman, LL.D. f n^,*/^ t-, -^^ 

See the biographical article, Freeman, E. A. -J^WiBi \tn porij. 

B. A. J. E. Alfred Jones. 

Author of OU Entlisk Cold PlaU: Old Church Plate of the Isle of Man; Old SUver 
Sacramental Vessels of Foreign ProUslant Churches in England; Illustrated Catalogue 
of Leopold de Rothschild's Collection of OU Plate; A Private Catalogue of The Royal 
PlaU at Windsor Castle; &c 

B. B.* Ernest Charles Francois Babelom. 

Professor at the College de France. Keeper of the department of Medals and 
Antiquities at the Bibhothdque Nationalc. Member of tne Acaddmie des Inscrip- , 
tions ei Belles Lcttres, Pans. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of 
Descriptions historiques des monnaies de la ripuNiaue romaine; Traitis des monnaies 
precques et romaines; Catalogue des comics de la bioliothkque nQtionale. 

B. Br. Ernest Barker, M.A. ( 

Fellow and Lecturer in Modern History at Sc John's College, Oxford. Formerly < Godfrey of BouUIOII. 
Fdlow and Tutor of Merton College. Craven Scholar. 1 895. [ 

B. 0. a Rt. Rev. Edward Cuthbert Butler, O.S.B., M.A.. D.Litt. (Dublin). f Gilbert of Semprincliaiii, 

Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath. Author of " The Lausaic History of Palladlus " -{ St ; 
in Cambridge Texts and Studies, voL vi. [ GnililniOlltllies; Groot. 







Golden Rote (m part)* 

Edwin Francis Gay, Ph.D. 

Professor of Economics and Dean of the Graduate School of Busincaa Administration, -{ Bauettlc LtiCIM. 
Harvard University. 

Rev. Edward Clarke SpiceR, M.A. J 

New College, Oxford. Geographical Scholar, 1900. \ Gmder. 

Lady Dilke. f amui^ 

See the biographical article, Dilke, Sir C. W., Bart. \ "*^""^- 

Edmund Gosse, LL.D. /#»«*«^ 

See the biographical article, Gosse, E- \ OBOmo. 

EoWARD'IflENRY PaLMER, M.A. f __- 

Sec the biographical article, PALMER, E. H. \ ""•■• 

Edward John Payne, M.A. (1844-1Q04). f 

Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. Editor of the Select Worhs of J ^ ,,. _, . 

Burke. Author of History of European Colonies; History of the New World called 1 "ley, 200 BKL 

America; The Colonies, in the " British Citizen " Series; &c. L 

W. M. EouARD Meyer, Ph.D., D.Lirt. (Oxon), LL.D. (Chicago). f 

Professor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Author of Ceschichte ■{ GotaizeS. 
dies AUerthums ; Ceschichte des alien Aegyptens ; Die JsraelUen und ihre Nachbarstdmme. i 

E. H. W. Rev. Edward MEwsintN Walker, M.A. f Greece: Hitlary,. Amientf 

Fellow, Senior Tutor and Librarian of Quccn*s College, Oxford. \ f^ g^ bx:. 

E. 0.* Edmund Owen. M.B., F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.Sc. 

Consulting Surgeon to St Mary's Hospital, London, and to the Children's Hospital. 
Great Ormona Street. London. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Late 
Examiner in Surgery at the Universities of Cambridge, London and Durham. Author 
of A Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students, 


Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature in the University of Manchester. 
Examiner in Portuguese in the Universities of London, Manchester, &c. Commen- 
dador, Portuguese Order of S. Thiago. Corresponding Member of Lisbon Roval ' 
Academy of Sciences, Lisbon Geographical Society, &c. Editor of Letters of a 
Portuguese Nun; Aturara's Chronicle of Guinea; &c. 

t, H, Lord Lochee ot Gowrie (Edmund Robertson), P.C, LL.D., K.C. f « «« n 

Civil Lord of the Admiralty. 1892-1895. Secretary to the Admiralty, 1905-1908. < Haliaiai» WDiy. 
M.P. for Dundee, 1885-1909. Fellow of Corpus Cnristi College, Oxford. L 

B-S.6. Edwin Stephen Goodrich, M. A., F.R.S. f 

Pcllov and Librarian of Merton College, Oxford. Aldrichian Demonstrator of x HapMrlU. 
Comparative Anatomy, University Museum. Oxford. ^ 

'• €. C Frederick Cornwalus Conybeare, M.A., D.Th. (Giessen). r 

Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Fellow of University College. Oxford. ■{ Grecory tbe HhUIllliatOr* 
Author of The Ancient Armenian Texts of Aristotle; Myth, Magic and Morals; &c. [^ 

F. G. H. B. Frederick George Meeson Beck. M.A. J Goths {in pari). 

Fellow and Lecturer in Classics. Clare College, Cambridge. \ 

Goltro; HaoBoirltoidk 

Goes, Damllo De; 



erly Art Critic of the Athenaeum. Author oC Artists at ffoms; Ceorte Cruik- J rnhM4 ci» isAm 
i; Memorials of W, Mulready; French and flemish Piaures, Sir E. landseer;\ *»"^'^ "" '«"• 
Hook,RA.;&c. I 

F. G. S. F. G. Stephens. 

shanh; j 
r. C. Hook, R A 

F. H. D* Rzv. Frcoeiiick Homes Duddek, D.D. J 

Fellow, Tutor and Lecturer in Theology, Lincoln Colfegc, Oxford. Au^or of "{ uKgOiy L 

Gregory the Great, his Place in History aM Thought; &c. I 

P. H. H. Franklin Henry Hooper. | HmcocIl WlnlMd Scott. 

Assistant Editor of the Ctf»<»ry iPicitoaary. j^ »«•*»»»■, «*uuraM ovwh* 

F. J. R« FRANas John Haverheu), M.A., LL.D., F.S.A. f 

Camden Profc^or of Ancient History in the University of Oxford. Fellow of J GnhgQi'g IMn, 
Brasenosc College. Fellow of the Bntish Academy. Author of Monographs on | 

Roman History, especially Roman Britain; &c. ^ 

F. If. Frxdtjof Nansen. / Gnenluid 

See the biographical article, Nansbn, FridtjOp. \ «•««•. 

F.R.C. Frank R. Cana. J«^m «^^ 

Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union. \ '*®" **•■'• 

F. S. P. Francis Sauuel Phildrick, A.M., Ph.D. 

P. W. «.• 

>;cis Sauuel Phildrick, A.M., Ph.D. f 

Formerly Scholar and Resident FcUow of Harvard University. Member of < HRmOtAB. Aksmndsr 

American Historical Association. t «wwiiuor. 

Frederick William Rudler, I.S.O., F.G.S. f 

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1 879-1902. -j GypSUDi Bldinitfla. 
President of the Geologists* Association, 1887-1889. L 

GujanUi and Rajasthuii. 

G. A. Gr. George Abraham Grierson, C.I.E., Ph.D., D.Lirr. (Dublin). 

Member of the Indian Civil Service, 1873-1903. In charge of Linguistic Survey of 
India, 1898-1902. Gold Medallist, Royal Asiatic Society, 1009. Vice-President' 
of the Royal Asiatic Society. Formerly Fellow of Calcutta University. Author 
of Tke Languages of India; &c. 

G. C. IL George Campbell Macavlay, M.A. f 

Lecturer in English in the University of Cambridge. Formerly Professor of English J QowOf JobD* 
Language and Literature in the University of Wales. Editor of the Works of John 1 ' 

Gowcr; &c. ^ 

0. C W» George Charles Wiluamson, Litt.D. f 

Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Portrait Miniatures; Life of Richard J Gnco^ BL 
Qmoay, R.A.; George Engleheart; Portrait Drawings; Ac Editor of new edition of I 
Bryan s Dictionary of Painters and Engravers. ^ 

0. P. Z. George Frederick Zimmer, A.M.Inst.C.E. / nnnariM 

Author of Mechanical Handling of MaUrial. \ ^™»™»- 

G. 0. Sir Aitred George Greenhill, M.A., F.R.S. 

Formerly Professor of Mathematics in the Ordnance College, Woolwich. Examiner 
in the University of Wales. Member of the Aeronautical Committee. Author 
of /\fates on Dynamics; Hydrostatics; Differential and Integral Calculus, with A plica- 
tions ; &c. 

0. SiL Grant Showerman, A.M., Ph.D. r 

Professor of Latin in the University of Wisconsin. Member of the Archaeological , 
Institute of America. Member of American Philol<^ica! Association. Author of 
With the Professor ; The Great Mother of the Gods ; Sec. 

6. S. C» Sir George Sydenham Clarke, G.C.M.G., G.C.I.E., F.R.S. f ,. « 

Governor of Bombay. Author of Imperial Defence; Russia's Great Sea Power;-\ GrBCO-TUTEish War, 1807. 
The Last Great Naval War; Ac. I 

0. W. E. R Rt. Hon. George Wiluam Erskine Russell, P.C, M.A., LL.D. f 

Under-Secretary of State for the Home Department. 1894-1895 ; for India, 1891-.J Gladstone, W. B. 
1894. M.P. for Aylcsbxiry. 1880-188^; for North Beds., 1892-J895. Author of I 
Life of W. E. Gladstone; Collections and Recollections ; &c ^ 

0. W. T* Rev. Griphths Wheeler Thatcher, M. A., B.D. J 5^/^*2*' Hamadblnl; 

Warden of Camden College, Sydney. N.S.W. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew tnd Old i H«™«u; Hammao 
Testament History at Maiisficid College, Oxford. lat^Mwlya; HaiuL 

B. A. de C» Henry Anselm de Colyar, K.C. . « .. / Au&niidMi 

Author of The Law of Guarantees and of Principal and Surety, Ac \ »»««w»we. 

R. B. Wo* Horace Bolingbroke Woodward, F.R.S., F.G.S. f n mi w v 

Formerly Assistant Director of the Geological Survey of England and Wales. Presi- ■{ Baloinger, W. K. 
dent. Geologists' Association, 1893-1894. Wollaston Medallist, 1908. I 

Gyioscope and Gyrottat 

Great MottMr of Um Gods. 

H* Ch. Hitch CmsnoLM, M.A. _ 

Formeriy Scholar of Corpus Christi Concgc, Oxford. Editor of the ilth edition ol . 
the Encyclopaedia Britannica; co-editor of the 10th edition. 

H. Do. HiiPpOLVTE Delehaye, S. J. 

' Gosehen, Ist Viscount; 
GranviUe, 2nd Barl; 
HamiltoD, Alexander 

(in perl); 
Haitourt, Sir WIUiaOL 

fOtVTE Delehaye, S. J. .... ..«..,. f 

Assistant in the compilation of the Bollandist pnblicationt: Andecla Bellasulutna J qq^ s|. Hagiolofy. 
tftd Atia sanctorum. L 

&G«B» Horatio Gordon Hotchinson. f* .» 

Amateur Golf Champion. 1886-1887. Author of Hints on Golf} Go{f (Badnu'nton < GolL 
Library) ; Book of Golf and Gelfei^s ; Ac ( 





B« I«* Bm 






H. W. B.* 









Hauy Jamm Powell, F.CS. 

Of Mcssn Jaroc* Powell 8c Sons, Whitcfrian Glaae Works, London. Member of 
Committee of six appointed by Board of Education to prepare the scheme for the re* 
arrangement of the Art Collection of the Victoria and Albert Museum. Author 

HoiACE Lamb, M.A.. LL.D., D.Sc., F.R.S. 

Professor of Mathematics, Universiw of Manchester. Fonnerly Fellow and 
Assistant Tutor of Triaity CoUese, Cambridte. Member of Council of Royal 
Society. i894>i89& Royal Medallist, 1903. President of London Mathematical 
Society, 190^-1904. AuUior of Hydrodynamics; &c. 

Hakuet L. Hennessy, L.R.C.S1., L.R.CP.I., M.D. (Brux.) 

Hbctor Mtnnto Cbadwicx, M.A. 

Librarian and Fellow of Clare College, Cambridge. Author of Sludits on Angfo- 
Saxon In$HlMti^n$. 

Hakold Mellor Woodcock, D.Sc. 

Assistant to the Professor of Proto-Zoology, London University. Fellow of 
University College. London Author of HaemoflageUates in Sir £. Ray Lankcs* 
ter*s Treatise of Zo^ogy, and of various tckotific papers 

BxKtvt Reeve, D.CL. 

See the biographical article, Rkbvb. Hmtv. 

Heniy Sweet, M.A., Ph.D., LL.D. 

University Reader in Phonetics, Oxford. Member of the Academies of Munich. 
Berlin, Copenhagen and Hclsincfors. Author of A History of English Sounds since 
Ike Earliest Period; A Handbook of Phonetics; &c. 

Sn Henry Seton-Kars, C.M.G., M.A. 

M.P. for St. Helen's, 1885-1906^ Author of My Sporting Holidays; &c 

Henry Wiluam Carless Davis, M.A. 

Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fclbw of Alt Souls College. Oxford, 
1 895-1903. Author of Eu^amd under the Normans and Angevins; Charlemagne. 

Rev. Henry Wheeler Robinson, M.A. 

Professor of Church History in Rawdon College, Leeds. SenicM* Kcnnicott Scholar, 
Oiibid University, 1901. Author of Hebrew Psychology in Relation to Pauline 
Anthropology (in Mansfield College Essays) ; Ac " 

SRAEL Abrahams, M.A. 

Reader in Talmodic and Rabbinic Literature. University of Cambridge. President, 
Jewish Historical Society of England. Author oS A Short History of fewish Litera- 
ture; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages. 

OBN Alexander Fuller Maitland, M.A., F.S.A. 

Musical Critic of The Times. Author of Life of Schumann; The Musician's Pilgrim- 
age; Masters of Qerman Music; English Mustc in the Nineteenth Century; The Age 
ef Bach amd Has^UL Editor of aew edition of Grove's Dictionary of Music ; &c. 

OBN Allen Howe, B.Sc. 

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Pnctical Geology, London. Author of 
The Geology of Building Stones. 

OBN AnoiNCTON Symonds, LL.D. 

See the biographical article, Symonds, J. A. 

AMES Blyth, M.A., LL.D. 

Formerly Professor of Natural Philosophy, Glasgow and West of Scotland Technical 
College. Editor of Ferguson's Electricity. 


Lecturer on Construction, Architecture^ Sanitation, Quantities, &c., King's Collc^, 
London. Member of Society of Architects, Institute of Junior Engineers, Quantity 
Surveyors' Association. Author of Quantities. 

AXES David Bourchier, M.A., F.R.G.S. 

King's College, Cambridge. Corre s pondent of 7^ Times in South-Eastcm Europe. 
Commander of the Orders of Prince Danilo of Montenegro and of the Saviour of 
Greece, and Officer of the Order of St Alexander of Bulgaria. 

OBN Edwin Sandys, M.A., Litt.D., LL.D. 

Public Orator in the University of Cambridge. Fellow of St John's College, Cam- 
bridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of History of Classical Scholar- 
shipi &c 


S«e thcbiographical article, Fiskb, J. 

OBN Georce Clark Anderson, M.A. 

Censor and Tutor of Christ Church. Oxford. Formeriy FeDow of Lincoln College. 
Craven Fellow (Oxford), 1896. Conington Prizeman, 1893. 

ont Gborge Robertson, M.A., Ph.D. 

Profe ss or of German Language and Literature, University of London. Author of 
History of German Literature; Schiller after a Century; &c. Editor of the Modern 
Language Journal. 


Formerly Fellow of St John's CoOq^, Cambridge. 


j Htrmonle Anatyita. 


Goihs: Gothic Language. 

Gregvin0s; BMrnospodtfl^.. 


Iculiot iin part). 

{OrimiB, J. L C; 
Grimm* WOlwlm Cut 


fGinMrt. Foliot; 

-J Gloaoaster, Robert^ KbtI of; 



fGneti; Htbdali', 
^ HaUkba; HalevI; 
[ Haptara; Harisi. 


Own, Sir 0«oisb. 

rGlBclBl mMr, 


i Gnduitlon. 


GrMw: Ceography an* 

History: Modem; 
Qrttk Utorattm: UL 


Greek Law. 

Grant, Ulysses S. 


Goethe; GrUlparsar. 

{Graochos; GiatJaa; 
Hadrian (in part). 



John Henry Hessels, M.A. /#»t-^ «• •».k.^ 

Author of Gutenberg: an Hislwical ItnestitfUimu \ «'^*»5 CttlillBttf. 

J. H. P. John Henry Poyntinc, D.Sc., F.R.S. f 

Professor of Physics and Dean of the Faculty of Science in the University of Bir- J rrswiteMnn f •*«■ aa»i\ 
mineham. Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Joint-author of Text- | «»^»"»» ^"» f«^»- 
Book of Physics, I 

J. HL B. John Holland Ross, M.A., Lrrr.D. f 

Lecturer on Modem History to the Cambridge University Local Lectures Syndicate. J r <kn*i».n4 »•>«« 
Author of Life of Napoleon /.; Napoleonic Studies; The Development of the European 1 eouigtBfl, BMOB. 
Nations: The Life ofPiUi&c I 

J. L. W. Miss Jessie Laidlay Weston. fCfail. Tbe Holy; 

Author of Arthurian Romances unrepresented in Malory. \ GoeiMVera. 

J. M. M. John Malcolm Mitchell. f Grote; 

Sometime Scholar of Queen's College. Oxford. Lecturer in Classics, East London •{ HamUtOD, Sir WilUam, 
College (Universit/ oTLondon). Joint-editor of Grote's History of Greece. I Bart* (i » part) ' Harem. 

J. S.P. John Smith Flett, D.Sc., F.G.S. fClaueoiiite: Gneiss: 

Petrographer to the Gcoloekal Survey. .Formeriv Lecturer on Petrology in Edin- I q^j^^. CranuUle: 
burgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Bigsby I z, ,* J^ , J .^ 

Medallist of the Geological Society of London. ' I Gravel; Greben; GreywiclM. 

J. T. Be. John T. Bealby. f 

Joint author of Stanford's Europe. Formerly Editor of the Scottish Geofraphieal 4 GoM. 
liaiOMine, Translator of Svcn Hedin's Through Asia, Central Asia and Tibet', &c. i. 

• ••* T ^ o *^ f GoMen Rose (m part); 

J. T. S.* James Thomson Shotwell, Ph.D. J collad* 

Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City. | q«ijq** (,•„ a^^a 

K. 0. J. KiNGSLEY Garland Jayne. f 

Sometime Scholar of Wadham College, Oxford. Matthew Arnold Prizeman, 1903. i Goa. 
Author of Vaseo da Cama and his Successors. I 

K. Kr. Karl Krumbacher. f Greek Litenture: 

See the biographical article, Krumdacuer, Carl. \ u. BytarUine. 

K.S. Miss Kathleen Schlesinger. . ' 

Editor of the Portfolio of Musical Archacdogy, Author of The Instruments of the 
Orchestra; &c. 

L. D.* Louis Duchesne. 

Glockenspiel; Gong; 
Guitar; Gttitar Fiddle; 
Gusia; Harmonica; 
. Harmonium {in part). 


See the biographical article, Duchesne. L. M. O. | Gregory: Popes, IL-W. 

L. F. D. LEvns Foreman Day, F.S.A. (1845-1909). r 

Formerly Vice-President f the Society of Arts. Past Master of the Art Workers' J GlaSS, Stained. 

Gild. Author of Windows, a booh about Stained Class ; &c. 



L. P. V.-H. Lbveson Franos Vernon-Harcourt, M.A., M.Ixst.C.E. (1839-1907). 

Formerly Professor of Civil Engineering at University College, London. Author . 
of Rivers and Can4Us; Harbours and Dochs; CivU Engineering as applied in Cou' 
stmclion; &c. 

L. J. 8. Leonard James Spencer, M.A. 

Assistant in the Department of Mineralogy, British Museum. Formerly Scholar 
of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. Editor of the 
Mineralogical Magazine. 

L. R. F. Lewis Richard Farnell, M.A., Lrrr.D. 

Fellow and Senior Tutor of Exeter College, Oxford ; Univcrnty Lecturer in Classical . 
Archaeology; Wilde Lecturer in Comparative Religion. Author of Cults of the 
Greeh Stales; EvoliUion of Religion. 

H. Lo»D Macavlay. . .. „ ^„w „ / Goldsmltfc. OUver. 

See the biographical article, Macaulay, T. 8. M.. Baron. \ *~"»™»* ^'""• 

H. 6. Moses Gaster^ Ph.D. 

Chief Rabbi of the Scphardic Communities of England. Vice>PresIdent, Zionist 
Congress, 1898. 1890, 1900. llchester Lecturer at Oxford on Slavonic and Byzantine < 
Literature, 1886 and 1691. President, Folk-lore Society of England. Vice> President, 
Anglo-JewiUi Asaodatioo. Author oif History cf Rumtttiian Popular Literature; Sue. 

Goniometer; GAtlilte;. 
Graphite Un part); 

Greek Beligion. 


Gilbert* Alfred; 
Greenanay, Kate 

H. H. 8. Marion H. Snelmann. F.S.A. 

Formerly Editor of the Maganne of Art. Member of Fine Art Committee of Inter- 
national Exhibitions of Brussels, Paris, Buenos Aires, Rome and the Franco* 
British Exhibition, London. Author of History of "Punch"; British Portrait' 
Painting to the opening of the Nineteenth Century; Worhs of G. F. Watts, RA.; 
Briiish Sculpture and Sadplon ef To^y; HenrietU Ronner; &c 

M. Ja. Morris Jastrow, Jun., Ph.D. r^.. ^ -rt. ^. 

Professor of Semitic Unguages, University of Pennsylvania. U.S.A- Author of 4 •"?•■'••■• ^" • 
Religion of the Babylonians astd Atsynasu; Ac. \ Guku 

■. M. Max Arthur MACAtrum. r 

Formerly Divisional Judge in the Punjab. Author of The Sihh Rdinon, its Gurus, J nnnih 
Sacred Writings end Authors; &c. Editor dlLtfe of Gum Nomk, W tlw FiuOaUl *"""* 
laqguage. I 







P. A. 





P. 0. T. 



R.C. J. 




IIaicus Nisburs Too. M.A. 

F^low and Tutor of Orid College, Osford. Univcnity Lecturer in Epignphy. 
Joint-aathcr of Catatoi$ie o/ the Sparta Museum 

lifAxnouAN Ono Bismarck Caspari, M.A. 

Reader in Ancient History at London University. Lectuier in Greek at Birming- 
ham University, 1909-1908. 

Kaxk Pattbon. 

See the biographical article, Pattison, Mark. 

Leon Jacques Maxxke Prinet. 

Formerly Archivist to the French Natbnal Archives. Auxiliary of the Institute 
of France (Academy of Moral and Political Sciences). 

Oswald Barron. F.S.A. 

Edhor of Tkg Ancestor, tgoa-vjos. Hon. Genealogist to Standing CooncO of the 
Honourable Society of the Baroocttge. 

Pavl DAMiEt Alpband£ry. 

Professor of the History of Dogma, Ecole Pratique dcs Hautcs Etudes, Sorbonne, 
Palis. Author of Les IdUs morales eke* les kitirodoxes lalines au dibut 4u Xllle sihk. 

Pnur A. AsRWORTR, M.A., Doc. Juris. 

New Cbllege, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Translator of H. R. von Gneist's History 
eflhiEngftsk ConstiiuHou. 

Phxiip Chesney Yorxe, M.A. 
Magdakn CoKege, Oxford. 

Percy Gardner, M.A. 

See the biographical article. Gardner. Percy. 

Peter Giles, M.A., LL.D., Lrrr.D. 

Fellow and Classical Lecturer of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and University 
Reader in Comparative Philology. Formerly Secretary of the Cambridge Philo- 
kgical Society. Author of Manual of Comparathe Fkilohgy. 

Paitl George Konody. 

Art Critic of the Observer and the Daily MaU. Formeriy Editor of The Artist. 
Author oi The Art of Waller Crane; Velasques, Life and Work; &c 

Peter Guthrie Tait, LL.D. 

See the biographical article, Tazt, Petbr Guthrie. 

Philip Lake, M.A., F.G.S. 

Lecturer on Hiysical and Regional Geoeraphy in Cambridge University. Formerly 
of the. Geological Survey of India. Author of Mono^apk of BriHsh Cambrian 
TrUehites. Translator ami Editor of Kayscr's Comparuttwe Geology. 

Primrose McConnell, F.G.S. 

Member of the Royal Agricultural Society. Author of Diary efa Working Farmer ; &c. 

Colonel Robert Alexander Wahab. C.B., C.M.G.^ CLE. 

Formerly H. M. Commissioner, Aden Boundary Dcltmitation. Served with Tirah 
ExpediUooaiy Foioe, 1897-1898, and on the Anglo-Russian Boundary Commission. 
Pamirs, 1895. 

Robert Alexander Stewart Macalister, M.A., F.S.A. 

St John's College, Cambridge. Director of Excavations for the Palestine Explora- 
tion Fund. 

Sir Richard Claverbouse Jebb, L.L.D., D.CL. 
See the biographical article. Jebb, Sir R. C. 



fGraatt: History. 
14^ bjc. 1800 AJ}.; 
Hamlloar Bsm; 


GoDflltr; Baieonrt 

Ron^o John McNeill, M.A. 

Christ Church. Oxford. Barristtr^t-Law. 
CazeUe, London. 

Formedy Editor of the 51 James's 

Richard Lydekxer, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S. 

Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India, 1874-1882. Author of 
Calaloptes of Fossil Mammals, ReMtles and Birds in Briiisk Museum ; Tke Deer of 
all Lands; tke Came Animals of Africa; &c. 

Robert Nisbr Bain (d. i9po)> 

Assistant Librarian. British Museum. 1883-1909. 

Author of Seandinamat tke 

Political History d/ Denmark, Norway and Sweden,' litj-t goo; Tke First Romanoos, 
i6ii't72K; Skuonic Europe, tke Political History of r aland and Rsissia from 2469 
to 1769; be. 


Gouslo de Bereso. 


Gonpowdsr Plot; 
HalUax, 1st Marquess of; 
HamUtoD* 1st Duke oL 

Greek Art. 

Greek Laafuage; 

Bali, Fraos. 

HaraUtoQ, Sir WilUam 

Greece: Geology. 

Giais and Grassland. 


GUead; Gllial; 

Greek Literature: 
L Ancient. 

f Gowrte^ 3rd Earl of 
Gratton, Henry; 
Green Ribbon Club; 
Harconrt, 1st Vlseonnt; 
BardiriekB, 1st Barf ot 

TGIraire; Glutton; 
J Glyptodon; Goat; 
[Gorilla; Hamster; Hm. 

GoUtsoin, Boris, Dmitry, 

and Vasily; 
Golovin, Count; 
GolovMn, Count; 
GSrts, Baron von; 
GriUnifeldt, Count; 
Gustavus I., and IV. 
Hall, C. a 


Ralph Stockman Tarr. 

Professor of Physioaf Geography. Cornell Univcnity. 


Grand Canyon. 







T. H. H.* 








RiCHASo Webster, A.M. (Princeton). f 

Fonnerly Fdlow in Clawica, Princctoa Univenity. Editor of The EUgies of\ Gnat Awakanmg* 
Maximianui't Sue I 

SXAKLEY Arthur Cook, M.A. f 

Editor for Palestine Exploration Fund. Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac, and 1 
formerly Fellow, Gonville and Caiut College, Cambridge. Examiner in Hebrew and J gmmh 
Aramaic, London University, 1904-1908. Author of Glossary of Aramaic Instrip- | *»■•*'•*• 
tionsx TheLaws of Moses ana the Code ofHammurabi\ Critical Notes on Old Testanunt I 

\ Htllgrimsson. 

History I Rdigion of AncietU Paiesliue; Stc 

SiCFVS BlAndal. 

Librarian of the University of Copenhagen. 

Sidney Colvin, LL.D. 

See the biographical article. Colvin, Sidney. 

Viscount St. Cyres. 

Sec the biographical article. IddeslbzCH, rST Earl OP. 

SiuoN Newcomb, LL.D., D.Sc. 

See the biographical article, Newcomb, SufON. 

Thomas Ashby, M.A., D.Lnr., F.S.A. 

Director of the British School of Archaeology at Rome. Ccrrenonding Member 
of the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Formerly scholar of Christ 
Church. Oxford. Craven Fellow, Oxford, 1897. Author of The Classical Topo- 
trapky of the Roman Campagna ; &c. 

TtaoHAS AtHOL Joyce, M.A. f 

Assistant in Department of Ethnography, British Museum. Hon. See.. Royal i Bamille RaCM (!.)• 
Anthropological Institute. L 

Sir Thouas Barclay, M.P. r 

Member of the Institute of Intematbnal Law. Member of the Supreme Council J ^MAMflia 
of the Congo Free State. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Author of Problems j w»W"«l»« 
of IntematiotttU Practice and Diplomacy; Sec M.P. for Blackburn, 1910. I 

TBoicas Erskine Holland, K.C., D.C.L., LL.D. 

Fellow of the British Academy. Fellow of All Souls College. OxTord. 

•[ Giorgione; Giotto, 
/Cnyoiiy Madame. 
/Gnvttaaon On part). 

GIzscnti; Gnatla; 
Gnimentuin; Gubbio; 
Hadria; Halaesa, 

^ . Professor 

of International Law in the University of Oxford, 1874-4910. Bencher of Lincoln's 
Inn. Author of Studies in International Law; The Elements of Jurisprudent', 
Alberiei GtntiUsdejure belli', The Law of War on Land; Neutral Unties in a Maritime 
War; Su:. 

Hall, WIUIamB. 

/ Gregory: Popcf, 
\ XUL— XV. 

Theodore Freyungruysen Coluer, Ph.D. 

AssiaUnt Professor of History, Williams College, WilU&mstown, Mass., U.S.A. 

Sir Thomas Hungerford Holdich, K.C.M.G., K.C.I.E., D.Sc., F.R.G.S. f 

Colonel in the Royal Engineers. Superintendent Frontier Surveys, India, 1892- j GUglt; 
1898. Gold Medallist, R.C.S. (London), 1887. H.M. Commissioner for the Persa- | Harf-Rud. 
Beluch Boundary, 1896. Author of The Indian Borderland; The Cotes of India; &c. I 

Thouas Kirkup, M.A., LL.D. 

Author of An Inquiry into Socialism ; Primer of Socialism ; &c. 

TBOmas Seccoube, M.A. 

Lecturer in History, East London and Birkbcck Colleges, University of Loudon. 
' Stanhope Prizeman, Oxford, 1B87. Formerly Assistant Editor of Dictionary of' 
National Biography,, 1891-1901. Author of The Age of Johnson; &c. ; Joint-author 
of The Bpokman History of English Literature. 

Rev. Vincent Henry Stanton» M^., D.D. 

Ely Professor of Divinity in the University of Cambridge. Canon of Elv and Fellow . 
of Trinity College, Cambridge. Author of The Gospels as Historical Documents; 
The Jewish and the Christian Messiahs; &c 

-[Hadrian {in pari). 

GUberW Sir W. 8. 


Rev. Willum Augustus Brevoort Coolidce, M.A., F.R.G.S., Pb.D. (Bern). 
Fellow of Magdalen Collwe, Oxford. Professor of English History, St David's 
College, Lampeter, 1880-1881. Author of Guide du Haut Dauphini; The Mange of 
the Tidi; Guide toGrindelwald; Guide to Switntrtand; The Alps in Nature and in 
History; &c. Editor of The Alpine Journal, 1880-1889; &c. 

Walter Alison Phillips, M.A. 

Formerly Exhibitioner of Merton College and Senior Scholar of St John's Ccdleg^ 
Oxford. Author of Modem Europe ; Sec 

Glanis; Goldast Ab 

Grasso; Gronoblo; 
GriodfllwaUl; Grisoos; 
GraDAri G. S.; Gruy^rt, 

fGIrondisiB; Goethe: 

\ Descendants of; 

[Cfock Indepeodenee, War oL 

•I GnosUcism. 


Professor of New Testament Exegesis in the University of Cdttingen. Author of • 
Das Wosen der Rdigion; The Antichrist Legend; Stc 

William Burnside, M.A., D.Sc., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Professor of Mathematics, Royal Naval College, Greenwich. Hon. Follow of J GitDQIM* ThaOTJ Of* 
Pembroke College, Cambrklge. Mthor oS The Thtory of Croups ef FiniU Order* 


Barrister-at'Law, Inner Temple. Lecturer on Criminal Law, King's College, 
London. Author of Craies on Statute Law. Editor of Archbold's Criminal Pieadtng ' 
(33rd edition). 


{Bfibeas Corpm; 

Walter George McMillan, F.C.S., M.I.M.E. (d. 1904). 

Formerly Secretary of the Institute of Electrical Engineers and Lecturer on Metal* 
luxfy. Mason College, Birmingham. Author of A Treatise on Electro-Metallurgy, 

i GimpUte (m fori). 


W. H. P.* 

W. J. V. 





w. w. «.• 



Rxv. William Hunt, M.A., Lirr.D. 

President of Royal Hutorical Society, I905-*iqo9. Author of History of Entluk 
VZ'tgod; The Chunk o/ Entfand tm lit MiddU Ag^si Political History o/ 

Gomtr; Ham. 

Churchy 59Z- 

William Henbic Dennett, ^-^a ^t^'* I^-Lrrr. (Cantab.). 

PrefeMor of Old Testament Excsesift in New and Hackney Colleges, London. 
Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge. Lecturer in Hebrew at Firth 
College. Sheffield. Author of Religion of the Post-Exitie Prophets ; &c. 

William Henby Fairbbotheb, M.A., f 

Formeriy Fellow and Lecturer. Lincoln College, Oxford. Author of Philosophy i GnUk, Tlwnias HOL 
qf Thomas HiU Grten. I 

WiLLUM Justice Fobd (d. 1904). 


Gtmb J. B. 

Formerly Scholar of St Johiii s' Colkge, Cambridge. Headmaster of Leamington \ Qtms, W. 




Reader in Mental Philosophy in the Univ-ernty of Oxford. Author of A 
of Physiological Psychology; An Introductiom to Social 

Psychology; Ac. 

W. Max MOller, Pb.D. 

Professor of Exegesis in the R.E. Seminary. Philadelphia. Author of Asiou und 
Europa nach den Aegpiischen Denhmalem; ax. 

William Michael Rossetti. 

See the biographical article, Rossetti, Dante G. 

Prtsner <| HalloeiOlttOD. 


IL Languages. 

/GIdUo RoDumo; GomB; 
IGoldo II011L 

Onj, Sir George. 

Ljeut.-Colonel Wiluam Patbick Andebson, M.Inst C.E., F.R.G.S. f 

Chief En^neer, Department of Marine and Fisheries of Canada. Member of the \ GTMt Uin. 
Geographic Board of Canada. Piut President of Canadian Society of Ciyil Engineers. I 

Hon. William Pembeb Reeves. 

Director of Lond<An School of Economics. Agent-General and High Commissioner 
for New Zealand, 1896-1009. Minister of Education, Labour and Justice, New' 
Zealand, 1891-1896. Author of The Long WhiU Cloud: a History 0/ New Zealand; 

WmTELAW Reid, LL.D. 

See the biographical articfe. Rbid. Wbitslaw. 

William Ridoeway. M.A.. D.Sc. 

Professoi'of Archaeology, Cambridge University, and Brereton Reader in Classics. 
Fellow of Gonville anoCaius Collcce, Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy. 
President of Royal Anthropological Institute. 1908. President of Anthropological 
Section. British Association, 1908. Author of The Early Age of Creoca; &c 




Rosenhain, D.Sc. J -,,___ , . ^^^ 

Superintendent of the McuUuxgical Department. National Physical Laboratory \ ^'"^ ^*" '°^'' 

Wynoham Rowland Dunstan, M.A., LL.D., F R.S., F C.S. r 

Director of the Imperial Institute. Pnudent oSthe International Aswdatioo of Tropiail < Gott^Fvehl. 
Agriculture. Meoaber of the Advisoiy Committee for Tropical Agriculture, Cdonial Office. [ 

Wiluam Richabd Eaton Hoockinson. Ph.D.. F.R.S. (Edin.). F.CS. f „ s^^aa^. 

Pntemor of Chemutry and Physics, Ordnance College, Woolwich. Formerly J 2^ CottOli; 
Professor of Chemistry and Physics, R.M.A., Woolwich. Part-author of Valentin- j Oimpovdir. 
Hodgldnaofi's Practical Chemistry; &c. t 

William Robebtson Smith, LL.D. 

See the biographical article. Smith, William Robebtson. 

William Ralston Sheooen-Ralston, M.A. 

Assistant in the Department of Printed Books. British Museum. 
Folk Tales; Ac 

William Walkeb Rockwell, Lic.Thbol. 

Assistant Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, New York. 

/Haggil UnparO' 

Author of Russian \ 0«goL 






Gilqnaland BMt and 



















Gnelphs and GhlbelUnes. 



Grain Itade. 









Gillie* House ol 

Hampton Roads. 


Great SaK Lake. 







61CHTBU JOHAKN 6B0R0 (1638-1710), German mystic, 
was born at Regensburg, where his father was a member of 
senate, on the 14th of March 1638. Having acquired at school 
as acquaintance with Greek:, Hebrew, Syriac and even Arabic, 
he proceeded to Strassburg to study theology; but finding 
the theological prelections of J. S. Schmidt and P. J. Spener 
distasteful, he entered the faculty of law. He was admitted 
an advocate, first at Spires, and then at Regensburg; but 
having become acquainted with the baron Justim'anus von 
Welta (1621-1668), a Hungarian nobleman who cherished 
schemes for the reunion of Christendom and the conversion 
of the world, and having himself become acquainted with 
another world in dreams and visions, he abandoned all interest 
in his profession, and became an energetic promoter of the 
*' Ckrislerbaulkke Jesusgeseilschaft,** or Christian Edification 
Society of Jesus. The movement in its beginnings provoked at 
least no active hostility; but when Gichtel began to attack the 
teaching of the Lutheran clergy and church, especially upon the 
fundamental doctrine of justification by faith, he exposed him- 
self to a prosecution which resulted in sentence of banishment 
and confiscation (1665). After many months of wandering and 
occasionally romantic adventure, he reached Holland in January 
1667, and settled at Zwollc, where he co-operated with Friedrich 
Breckling (1629-1711), who shared his views and aspirations. 
Having become involved in the troubles of this friend, Gichtel, 
after a period of imprisonment, was banished for a term of years 
from ZwoUe, but finally in 1668 found a home in Amsterdam, 
where he made the acquaintance of Antoinette Bourignon 
(1616-X680), and in a state of poverty (which, however, never 
became destitution) lived out his strange life of visions and 
day-dreams, of prophecy and prayer. He became an ardent 
disciple of Jakob Boehme, whose works he published in 1682 
(Amsterdam, 2 vols.); but before the time of his death, on the 
3ist of January xyio, he had attracted to himself a small band 
of followers known as Gichtellans or Brethren of the Angels, who 
propagated certain views at which he had arrived independently 
of Boehme. Seeking ever to hear the authoritative voice of 
God within them, and endeavouring to attain to a life altogether 
free from carnal desires, like that of *' the angels in heaven, who 
neither marry nor are given in marriage," they claimed to 
exercise a priesthood " after the order of Mclchlzedek," appeasing 
(he wrath of God, and ransoming the souls of the lost by sufferings 
endured vicariously after the example of Christ. While, however, 
Boehme " desired. to remain a faithful son of the Church," the 

Gicbtelians became Separatists (cf. J. A. Domer, History of 
ProUsiant Tkeology, ii. p. 185). 

Gkhtel's correspondence was published without his knowledge 
by Gottfried Arnold, a diaciple, in 1701 (2 voh.), and again in 1708 
() vols.). 1 1 has been frequently reprinted under the title Theosopkia 
practica. The seventh volume of tne Berlin edition (1768) contains 
a notice of Gichtel's life. See also G. C. A. von Harless, Jak<^ 
B6hm€ und dU Akhimisten- (1870, 2nd ed. 1882); artkle in AU' 
fftmeiiu deul$Aht BiographU. 

6IDDINGS. JOSHUA RBBD (1795-1864), American statesman, 
prominent in the anti-slavery conflict, was bom at Tioga Point, 
now Athens, Bradford county, Pennsylvania, on the 6th of 
October 1795. In 1806 his parents removed to Ashtabula 
county, Ohio, then sparsely settled and almost a wilderness. 
The son worked on his father's farm, and, though he received 
no systematic education, devoted much time to study and 
reading. For several years after 1814 he was a school teacher, 
but in February 1821 he was admitted to the Ohio bar and soon 
obtained a large practice, particularly in criminal cases. From 
I S3 1 to 1837 he was in partnership with Benjamin F. Wade. 
He served in the lower house of the state legislature in 1826-1828, 
and from December 1838 until March 1859 was a member of 
the national House of Representatives, first as a Whig, then 
as a Free-soiier, and finally as a I^publican. Recognizing that 
slavery was a state institution, with which the Federal govern- 
ment had no authority to interfere, he contended that slavery 
could only exist by a specific state enactment, that therefore 
slavery in the District of Columbia and in the Territories was un- 
lawful and should be abolished, that the coastwise slave-trade in 
vessels flying the national flag, like the international slave-trade, 
should be rigidly suppressed, and that Congress had no power to 
pass any act which in any way could be construed as a recognition 
of slavery as a national institution. His attitude in the so-called 
" Creole Case " attracted particular attention. In 1841 some 
slavu who were being carried in the brig ■' Creole " from 
Hampton Roads, Virginia, to New Orleans, revolted, killed the 
captain, gained possession of the vessel, and soon afterwards 
entered the British port of Nassau. Thereupon, accoiding to 
British law, they became free. The minority who had taken an 
active part in the revolt were arrested on a charge of murder, 
and the others were liberated. Efforts were made by the United 
States government to recover the slaves, Daniel Webster, then 
secretary of state, asserting that on an American ship they were 
under the jurisdiction of the United States and that they were 
legally property. On the 21st of March 1842, before the case 



was settled, Giddings introduced in the House of Representatives 
a series of resolutions, in which he asserted that " in resuming 
their natural rights of personal liberty " the slaves " violated no law 
of the United States." For offering these resolutions Giddings 
was attacked with rancour, and was formally censured by the 
House. Thereupon he resigned, appealed to his constituents, 
and was immediately re-elected by a large majority. In 
1859 he was not renominated, and retired from Congress after 
a continuous service of more than twenty years. From 1861 
until his death, at Montreal, on the 27th of May 1864, he 
was U.S. consul-general in Canada. Giddings published a series 
of political essays signed "Pacificus" (1843); Speeches in 
Congress (1853); The Exiles of Florida (1858); and a History 

of the Rebellion: Hi Authors arui Causes (1864). 

See The Life of Joshua R. Codings (Chicago. 1893). bV liis aon-io- 
law, George Washington Julian (1817-189^, a Free-soil IcAdcranda 
representative in Congress in 1849-1851,3 Republican representative 
in Congress in 1861-1871, a Liberal Republican in the campaign of 
1873, and afterwards a Democrat. 

GIDEON (in Hebrew, perhaps •'fewer*' ♦r "w4rti©r")» 
liberator, reformer and " judge " of if^ael, -Was ttie son of J^ash, 
of the Manassite clan of Abiczcr, and had his home at Ophrah 
near Shechem. His name occurs in Hcb. xi. 33, in a list of those 
who became heroes by faith; but, except in Judges vi.-^ik, 
is not to be met with elsewhere in the Old Testament. He lived 
at a time when the nomad tribes of the south and east made 
inroads upon Israel, destroying all that they could not carry 
away. Two accounts of his deeds are preserved (see Judges). 
According to one (Judges vi. 11-34) Yahweh appeared under 
the holy tree which was in the possession of Joash and summoned , 
Gideon to undertake, in dependence 6n supernatural direction 
and help, the work of liberating his country from its long oppres- 
sion, and, in token that he accepted the mission, he erected in 
Ophrah an altar which he called " Yahweh-Shalom " (Yahweh 
is peace). According to another account (vi. 35-32) Gideon was 
a great reformer who was commanded by Yahweh to destroy 
the altar of Baal belonging to his father and the ashirah or 
sacred post by its side. The townsmen diisooveved the sacrilege 
and demanded his death. His father, who, as guardian of the 
sacred place, was priest <rf Baal, enjdned the men not to take 
up Baal's quarrel, for " if Baal be a god, let him contend (rib) for 
himselL" Hence Gideon received the name Jerubbaal.* From 
this latter name appearing regularly in the older narrative 
(cf. ix.), and from the varying usage in vi.-viii., it has been held 
that stories of two distinct heroes (Gideon and Jerubbaal) have 
been fused in the complicated account which follows.' 

The great gathering of the Midianites and their allies on the 
north side of the plain of Jezreel; the general muster first of 
Abiezer, then of all Manasseh, and lastly of the neighbouring 
tribes of Asber, Zebuluii and Naphtali; the signs by which the 
wavering faith of Gideon was steadied; the methods by which 
an unwieldy mob was rcdi^d to a small but ttusty band of 
energetic and determined men; and the stratagem by which 
the vast army of Midian was swprised and routed by the handful 
of Israelites descending from " above Endor," are indicated 
fully in the narratives, and need not be detailed here. The 
difficulties in the account of the subsequent flight oi the Midian- 
ites appear to have arisen from the composite character of 
the narratives, and there arc signs that in one of them Gideon 
was accompanied only by his own clansmen (vi. 34). So* when 
the Midianites arc put to flights acc<»ding to one representation, 
the Ephraimites are called out to intercept them, and the two 
chiefs, Or€b (" raven ") and Ze£b (" wolf "), in making for the 
fords of the Jordan, are slain at "the raven's rock" and " the 
wolf's press " respectively. As the sequel of this we are told 
that the Ephraimites quarrelled with Gideon because their 
assistance had not been iuvoked earlier, and their anger was 

*" Baal contends " (or Jeru-baal, " Baal foufld*." cf. Jeru-el). 
but artificially explained in the narrative to mean " let Baal contend 
against him. or " let Baal contend for himself," v. ^i. In 3 Sam. 
XI. 31 he is called Jcrubbe»heth, in accordance wtth the custom 
explained in the article Baal. 

" Sec, on this. Chcyne, Ency. Bib. col. 1719 acq.; Ed. Meyer, Die 
JsraeliieH, pp. 483 seq. 

only appeased by his tactful reply (vtii. 1-3; contrast sit i-Q. 
The other narrative speaks of the pursuit of the Midianite cfaieb 
Zebah and Zalmunna' across the northern end of Jordan, past 
Succoth and Penuel to the unidentified place |$LarVor. Having 
taken relentless vengeance on the men of Penuel and Succoth, 
who had shown a timid neutrality when the patriotic struggle 
was at its crisis, Gideon puts the two chiefs to death to avenge 
his brothers whom they had killed at Tabor.* The overthrow 
of Midian (cf. Is. ix. 4, x. 36; Ps. Ixxxiii. 9-12) induced " Israel'* 
to offer Gideon the kingdom. It was refused — out of religious 
scruples (viii. 33 seq.; cf. i Sam. viii. 7, x. 19, xii. 13, 17, 19), an. 1 
the ephod idol which he set up, at Ophrah in commemoration 
of the victory was regarded by a later editor (0. 37) as a cause 
of aoo^asylo the people and 9. snare to Gideon andJus house; 
sce,^oivever, Efhoo. t^ideon's ichievemeits .would naturally 
gfvehim a more than mereiyiota! authoitty, and after his death 
the attempt was made by one of his sons to set himself up as 
chief (see Abimelech). 

See further Jsw% seetion i ; and the literature to the book of 
Judges.' (S.A.C) 

German zoologist and palaeontologist, was bom on the 13th of 
September 1830 at Quedlinburg in Saxony, and educated at 
the university of HaUe, where he graduated Ph. D. in 1845. In 
1858 he became professor of zoology and director of the museum 
ia the university of Halle. He died at HaUe on the Z4th of 
November i38i. His chief publications were PalAozoologie 
(1846); Fauna der Vonoelt (1847-1856); DeutscUands Pelre- 
facten (1853); Odmtcgraphit (1855); Ukrbuch dtf Zo^gie 
(1857); Thesawtts ornithologiae (1873-1877). 

OIEM, a town of central France, capital of an axrendissemcnt 
in the department of Loiret, situated on the right bank of the 
Ixrire, 39 m. E.S.E. of Orleans by rail. Pop. (1906) 6325. Gien 
is a picturesque and interesting town and haa many curious old 
houses. The Loire is. here crossed by a stone bridge of twelve 
archesy built by Anne de Beaujeu, daughter of Louis XI., about 
the end of the 15th ceptury. Near it stands a statue of Ver- 
cingetorix. The principal building is the old castle used as a 
law-court, constructed of brick and stone arranged in geometrical 
patterns, and built in 1494 by Anne de Beaujeu. The church 
of St Pierre possesses a square tower dating from the end of the 
15th century. Porcelain is manufactured. 

GIBBS, NICHOLAS KARLOVICH DE (i82o-x895)> Russian 
statesman, was born on the 21st of May 1820. Like his pre- 
decessor. Prince Gorchakov, he was educated at the lyceum of 
Tsarskoye Selo, near St Petersburg, but his career was much less 
rapid, because he had no influential protectors, and was handi- 
capped by being a Protestant of Teutonic origin. At the age 
of eighteen he entered the service of the Eastern dq>axtment 
of the ministry of foreign affairs, and spent more than twenty 
years in subordinate posts, chiefly in 90Uth*eastern Europe, 
until he was promoted in 1863 to the post oi minister pleni- 
potentiary in Persia. Here he remained for six years, and, 
after serving as a minister in Swhzerland and Sweden, he was 
appointed in 187$ director of the Eastern department and 
assistant minister for foreign affairs under Prince Gorchakov, 
whose niece he had married. No sooner had he entered on his 
new duties than his great capacity for arduous work was put 
to a severe test. Besides events in central Asia, to which he 
had to devote much attention, the Hcrzcgovinian insurrection 
had broken out, and he could perceive from secret official papers 
that the incident bad far-reaching ramifications unknown to 
the general public. Soon this became apparent to all the world. 
While the Austrian officials in Dalmatia, with hardly a pretence 
of concealment, were assisting the insurgents, Russian volunteers 
were flocking to Scrvia with the connivance of the Russian and 
Austrian governments, and General Ignatiev, as ambassador in 

' The names are vocalized to suggest the fanciful interpretations 
" victim " and " protection withheld." 

* As the account of this has been lost and the narrative is concerned 
not with the plain of Jeired but rather with Shechem, it has been 
inferred that the episode implies the existence of a distinct ttoiy 
wbefein Gideon's pursuit is such an act of vengeance* . 


Coasuuitiiiopfe, was urgiDK his governmeot to take advantage 
of the palpable weakness o£ Turkey for bringiiig about a radical 
s<dution of the Eastern question. Prince Gorcliakov did not wtant 
a radical solution involving a great Eun^ieatt war, but he was too 
fond ci ephcmeial popularity to stem the current of popular 
excitement. Alexander II., personally atverse from war, was 
not insensiUe to the (Mtriotic enthusiasm, and halted between 
two opinions. M. de Giers was one of the few who gauged the 
situation accurately. As an oflkial and a man of non-Russian 
extraction he had to be extremely reticent, but to his intimate 
friends he condemned severdy the ignoianoe and li^t-hearted 
recklessness oi those around him. The event justified his sombre 
previsions, but did not pure the recklessness of the soHmlled 
patriots. They wished to defy Europe in order to maintain 
intact the treaty of San Stefano, and a^n M. de Giers found 
himself in an unpopular minority. He had to remain in the back- 
ground, btit alt the infhience he possessed was thrown into the 
scale of peace. His views, energetically supported by Count 
Shttva]o<v, finally prevailed, and the European congress assembled 
at Berlin. He was not present at the congress, and consequently 
escaped the popular odium for the concessions which Russia 
had to make to Greaf Britain and Austria. From that time he 
was practically minister of foreign affairs, for Prince Gorchakov 
was no longer capaUe of continued intellectual exertion, and 
lived mostly abroad. On the death of Alexander II. in 1881 it 
was generally expected that M. de Giers woold be dismissed 
as deficient in Russian nationalist feelings for Alexander III. 
was credited with strong anti-German Slavophil tendencies. 
In reality the young tsar had no intention of embarldng on wild 
political adventures, and was fully determined not to let his hand 
be forced by men less cautious than himself. What he wanted 
was a minister of foreign affairs who would be at once vigilant 
and prudent, active and obedient, and who would relieve him 
from the trouble and worry of rmitine woric while allowjng him 
to control the main lines, and occasionally the details, of the 
national poKcy. M. de Gieis was exactly what he wanted, 
and accordingly the tsar not only appointed him minister of 
foreign affairs on the rctinement of Prince Gorchakov in 1883, 
but retained him to the end of his re^ in 1894. In accordance 
with the desire of his august master, M. de Giers followed system- 
atically a pacific policy. Accepting as B,Jcii oeeomfli the cxbience 
of the triple aUiance, created by Bismarck for the purpose of 
resisting any aggressive action on the part of Russia and France, 
he sought to establish more friendly lehtioas with the cabinets 
of Berlin, Vienna and Rome. To the advances of the French 
government he at first turned a deaf ear, but when the rapproche^ 
menl between the two countries was effected with little or no 
cooperation on his part, he utilized it for restraining France and 
promoting Russian interests. He died on the 26th of January 
189s. soon after the accession of Nicholas H. <D. M. W.) 

GIESEBRBCHT. WlLaELH VOH (1814-1889), German 
historian, was a son of Kari Gtesebvecht (d. 1832), and a nephew 
of the poet Ludwig Giesebrtcht (i79a't873). Bom m Berlin 
on the 5th of March 18x4, he studied under Leopold von Ranke, 
and hb first important work, GtsckickUOttosIF.t was contributed 
to Rankc's JakrbUcket diS dadscken Rtieks tmUr dim sibshsistken 
House (Beriin, 1837-1840). In 1841 he published his JakrhUcher 
des Kloslcrs AUaich, a reconstructfon of the lost Annala Atia- 
henses, a medieval source of which fragments only were known 
to be extant, and these were obscured In other chronicles. The 
brilliance of this performance was shown in 1867, when a copy 
of the original chronicle was found, and it was seen that Gicse- 
brecht's text was substantially torrect. In the meantime he had 
been appointed Obertekrer in the Joachimsthaler Gymnasium 
in Beriin; had paid a visit to Italy, and as a result of his re- 
searches there had published De litterofum studiis apud Jtahs 
primis nudii aevi seculis (Berlin, 1845), a study UP<>° the^rvival' 
of culture in Italian cities during the middle ages, and also 
leveral critical essays upon the sources for the early history of 
the popes. In 1851 apipeared his translation of the Historuu 
of Gregory of Tours, which is the standard German translation. 
Four ymn later app^and the first volume of his great wori^ 

Cesekickte dtr deuisckett Koisemitt the fifth volume of which 
was published in x8S8. This work was the first in which the 
results of the scientific methods of research were thrown open to 
the world at large. Largeness of style and brilliance <^ port rayal 
were joined to an absolute mastery of the sources in a way 
hitherto unachieved by any German historian. Yet later 
German historians have severely criticized his glorification of 
the imperial era with its Italian entanglements, in which the 
interests of Germany were sacrificed for idk glory. Gieselvecht's 
history, however, appeared when the new German empire was 
in the making, and became popular owing both to its patriotic 
tone and its intrinsic merits. In 1857 he went to Kdnigsbcig as 
professor Mdinarius, and in 1862 succeeded H. von Sybel as 
professor of history in the university of Munich. The Bavarian 
government honoured him in various ways, and he died at Munich 
on the 1 7th of December 1889. In addition to the works already 
mentioned, Giesebrecht published a good monograph on Arnold 
of Brescia (Munich, 1873), a collection of essays under the title 
Dculxke Redeu (Munich, 1871), and was an active member 
of the group of schdars who took over the directi<m of the 
MoHummla GermanuM historicc m 1875. In 1895 B. von 
Simson added a sixth volume to the CtsckickU der deuUcken 
KaiaeneU, thus bringing the work down to the death of the 
emperor Frederick I. in 1 190. 

See S. Riezlcr, CedddUmisrede a^ Wilkdm mm CieUbnckt (M unlch, 
1891): and Lord Acton in the English Historical Raiew, vol. v. 
(London, 1890}. 

OIBSBLBR. JOHANN RARI« LUDWIQ (1792-1854), German 
writer on church history, was bora on the 3id of Mardi 1 792 at 
Petershagen, near Minden, where his father, Georg Cbristof 
Friedrich, was preacher. In his tenth year he entered the 
orphanage atHalle, whence he duly passed to the university, 
his studies being interrupted, however, from October 2813 till 
the peace of 1815 by a period of military service, during which 
he was enrolled as a volunteer in a regiment of chasseurs. On 
the conclusion of peace (18x5) he returned to Halle, and, having 
in 1817 taken his degree in philosophy, he in the same year 
became assistant head master {Cowector) in the Minden gym- 
nasium, and in 181S was appointed director of the gymnasium 
at Cleves. Here he published his earliest work (Historisch- 
kritiscker Versuck Uber die EtUsUkung u. die Jriikeslen SckicksaU 
der sckriJUicken Evangelien), a treatise which had considerable 
influence on subsequent investigations as to the origin of the 
gospels. In 1 8 19 Gicsclcr was appointed a professor ordinarius 
in theology in the newly founded university of Bonn, wjicre, 
besides lecturing on church history, he made important con* 
tributions to the literature of that subject in Ernst Rosenmullcr*s 
RePertoriutHt K. F. Staudlin and H. G. Tschimer's Arckiv, 
and in various university " programs." The first part of the 
first volume of his well-known Ckurck History appeared in 1824. 
In X63X he accepted a call to G5ttingen as successor to J. G. 
Planck. He lectured on church history, the history of dogma, and 
dogmatic theology. In 1837 he was appointed a Consistorial- 
raik, and shortly afterwards was created a knight of the Guelphic 
order. He died on the 8th of July 1854. The fourth and fifth 
volumes of the Kirckengesckickle^ embracing the period sub- 
sequent to i8i4» were published posthumously in 1855 by £. R. 
Redepenning (1810-1883); and they were followed in 1856 by 
a DogtiUMgesckickU, which is sometimes reckoned as the sixth 
volume of the Ckurck History. Among church historians 
Gieseler continues to hold a high place. Less vivid and pictur- 
esque in style than Karl Hase, conspicuously deficient in 
Neander's deep and sympathetic Insight into the more spiritual 
forces by which church life is pervaded, he exceb these and all 
other contemporaries in the fulness and accuracy of his informa- 
tion. His Lekrbuck der KirchengBsckickte, with its copk>us 
references to original authorities, is of great value to the student: 
" Gieseler wishMi that each age shoukl speak for itself, since 
only by this means can the pcooliarity of its Ideas be fully 
appreciated " (Otto Pffeidcrer, I^adopment of Tkiology, p. 284). 
The work, which has passed through several editions ih Germany, 
has partially appeared also in two English translations. That 


published in New York {Texi Book of BccUsiastkal History, 
5 vols.) brings the work down to the peace of Westphalia, while 
that published in " Clark's Theological Library " (Compendium 
of Ecclesiastical History^ Edinburgh, 5 vols.) closes with the 
beginning of the Reformation. Giesdcr was not only a devoted 
student but also an energetic man of business. He frequently 
held the office of pro-rector of the university, and did much 
useful work as a member of several of its committees. 

GIESSEN, a town of Germany, capital of the province of 
Upper Hesse, in the grand-duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt, is situated 
in a beautiful and fruitful valley at the confluence of the Wieseck 
with the Lahn, 41 m. N.N.W. of Frankfort-on-Main on the 
railway to Cassel, and at the junction of important lines to 
Cologne and Coblenz. Pop. (1885) 18,836; (1905) 39,149. In 
the oki part of the town the streets are narrow and irregular. 
Besides the university, the principal buildings are the Stadt- 
kirche, the provincial government offices, comprising a portion 
of the old castle dating from the 12th century, the arsenal (now 
barmcks) and the town-hall (containing an historical collection). 
The university, foxmded in 1607 by Louis V , landgrave of Hesse, 
has a Urge and valuable library, a botanic garden, an observatory, 
medical schools, a museum of natural history, a chemical 
laboratory which was directed by Justus von Liebig, professor 
here from 1824 to 1852, and an agricultural college. The 
industries include the manufacture of woollen and cotton cloth 
of various kinds, machines, leather, candles, tobacco and beer. 

Giessen,the name of which is probably derived from the streams 
which pour (xiessen) their waters here into the Lakn, was formed 
in the X2th century out of the villages Sdters, Aster and 
Kroppach, for whose protection Count William of Gleiberg built 
the castle of Giessen. Through marriage the town came, in 1 203, 
into the possession of the count palatine; Rud<dph of Tubingen, 
who sold it in 1265 to the landgrave Henry of Hease. It was 
surrounded with fortifications in 1530, which were demolished 
in 1547, but rebuilt in 1560. In 1805 they were finally pulled 
down, and their site converted into promenades. 

See O. Buchner, FHhrer fUr Giessen und ias Lakntal (1891); and 
Aus Giesaens Vergangenheit (1885). 

QIFFARD, GODFREY (c. x 335-1302), chancellor of England 
and bishop of Worcester, was a son of Hugh Giffard of Boyton, 
Wiltshire. Having entered the church he speedily obtained 
valuable preferments owing to the influence of his brother 
Waiter, who' became chancellor of England in 1265. In 1266 
Godfrey became chancellor of the exchequer, succeeding Walter 
as chancellor of England when, in the same year, the latter was 
made archbishop of York. In 1268 he was chosen bishop of 
Worcester, resigning the chancellorship shortly afterwards; 
and both before and after 1279, when he inKerited the valuable 
property 0/ his brother the archbishop, he was employed on 
public business by Edward I. His main energies, however, 
were devoted to the affairs of his see. He had one long dispute 
with the monks of Worcester, another with the abbot of West- 
minster, and was vigilant in guarding his material interests. 
The bishop died on the 26th of January 1302, and was buried 
in his cathedral. Giffard, although inclined to nepotism, was 
a benefactor to his cathedral, and completed and fortified the 
episcopal castle at Hartlebury. 

Sec W. Thomas, Survey of Worcester Cathedral; Episcopal Renslers ; 
Rttister of Bishop Godfrey Giffard, edited by J. W. Willis-Bund 
(Oxford, 1898-1899): and the AnnaU of Worcester in the AnKoles 
monastici, vol. iv., edited by H. R. Luard (London, 1869). 

GIFFARD, WALTER (d. 1279), chancellor of England and. 
archbishop of Yoik, was a son of Hugh Giffard of Boyton, 
Wiltshire, and after serving as canon and archdeacon of Wdls, 
was chosen bishop of Bath and Wells in May 1 264. In August 
1265 Henry III. appointed him chancellor of England, and he 
was one of the arbitrators who drew up the dictum de Keniiworth 
in 1266. Later in this year FOpe Clement IV. named him arch- 
bishop of York, and having resigned the chancelk>rship he was 
an able and diligent ruler of his see, although in spite of bis 
great wealth he was frequently in pccimiaiy difficultica. When 

Henry III. died in November 1272 the archbishopric of Canter- 
bury was vacant, and consequently the great seal was delivered 
to the archbishop of York, who was the chief of the three regents 
who successfully governed the kingdom until the return of 
Edward I. in August 1 274* Having again acted in this capacity 
during the king's absence in 1275, Giffard died in April 1279, 
and was buried in. his cathedraL 

See FasH Eboracenses, edited by J. Raine (London. 1 863). Gtffaid's 
Register from ia66 to 1279 has been edited for the Surtees Society by 
W. Brown. 

GIFFARD, WILUAH (d. 1129), bishop of Winchester, was 
chancellor of William II. and received his see, in succession to 
Bishop Walkelin, from Henry I. (i too). He was oneof the bishops 
elect whom Anselm refused to consecrate (iioi) as having been 
nominated and invested by the by power. During the investi- 
tures dispute Giffard was on friendly terms with Ansebn, and 
drew upon himself a sentence of banishment through declining 
to accept consecration from the archbishop of York (i 103). He 
was, however, one of the bishops who pressed Anselm, in x 106, 
to give way to the king. He was consecrated after the settle- 
ment of 1 107. He became a close friend of Anselm, aided the 
first Cistercians to settle in England, and restored Winc^ter 
cathedral with great magnificence. 

See Eadroer, Historia mo o or um, edited by M. Rule (London, 
1884): and S. H. Caas, Bishops ^ Winchester (London, 1827). 

GIFFBH. SIR ROBERT (1837-19x0), British statistician and 
economist, was born at Strathaven, Lanarkshire. He entered 
a solicitor's office in Glasgow, and while in that city attended 
courses at the university. He drifted into journalism, and after 
woridng for the SHrlint Journal he went to London in 1862 and 
joined thestaff of the Globe. He alsoassistcd Mr John (afterwards 
Lord) Morley, when the latter edited the Fortnightly Renew. 
In t868 he became Walter Bagehot's assistant-editor on the 
Economist; and his services were also secured in 1873 as city- 
editor of the DaUy News, and later of The Times. His high 
reputation as a financial journalist and statistician, gained in 
these years, led to his appointment in 1876 as head of the 
statistical department in the Board of Trade, and subsequently 
he became assistant secretary (1882) and finally controller- 
general (1892), retiring in X897. In connexion with his position 
as chief statistical adviser to the government, he was consti^tty 
employed in drawing up reports, giving evidence before commis- 
sions of inquiry, and acting as a government auditor, besides 
publishing a number olf important 'essays on financial subjects. 
His principal puUications were Essays on Finance (1879 and 
X884), The Progress of the Working Classes (1884), The Growth 
of Capital (1890), The Case against Bimetallism (1892), and 
Economic Inquiries and Studies (1904). He was president of the 
Statistical Society (1882-1884); and after being made a C.B. 
in X89X was created K.C.B. in 1895. In 1892 he was elected a 
Fellow of the Royal Society. Sir Robert Giffcn continued in 
later yeafs to Uke a leading part in all public controversies 
connected with finance and taxation, and his high authority 
and practical experience were universally recognized. He died 
somewhat suddenly in Scotland on the xath of April 1910. 

GIFFORD, ROBERT SWAIN (1840-1905). American marine 
and landscape painter, was bom on Nausbon Island, Massa- 
chnsetts,.on the 23rd of December 1840. He studied art with 
the Dutch marine painter Albert van Beest, who had a studio 
in New Bedford, and in 1864 he opened a studio for himself in 
Boston, subsequently settling in New York, where he was elected 
an associate of the National Academy of Design in 1867 and an 
academician in 1878. He was also a charter member of the 
American Water Odor Society and the Society of American 
Artists. From 1878 until 1896 he was teacher of painting 
and . chief master of the Woman's Art School of Cooper 
Union, New York, and from X896 until his death he was director. 
Gifford painted longshore' views, sand dunes and landscapes 
generally, with charm and poetry. Hewasanetcherof conkider- 
able repatatnn, a member of the Society of American Etchers, 
and an honorary member of the Society of Painter-Etchers oi 
London. He died In New York on the 13th oi Janiiaiy 1905. 


OIPFORa SAXDfORO BOBIHSOM (1833-1880), American 
landscape pailnter, was born at Greenfield, New York, on the xoth 
of July 1823. He studied (1842-184$) at Brown University, then 
went to New York, and entered the art schools oC the National 
Academy of Design, of which organization he was elected an 
associate in 1851, and an academician in 1854. Subsequently 
he studied in Paris and Rome. He was one of the best known 
of the Hudson River school group, though it was at Lake George 
that he found most of his themes. In his day he oijoyed an 
enormous popularity, and his canvases are in many well-known 
American collections. He died in New York City on the agth of 
August 1880. 

OIFFORD, WIUIAH (1756-1826), English publicist and man 
of letters, was bom at Ashburton, Devon, in April 1756. His 
father was a glazier of indifferent character, and before he 
was thirteen William had lost both parents. The business was 
seized by his godfather, on whom William and his brother, a 
child of two, became enttrdy dependent. For about three 
months William was allowed to remain at the free school of the 
town. He was then put to follow the plough, but after a day's 
trial he proved unequal to the task, and was sent to sea with the 
Brixhvjn fishermen. After a year at sea his godfather, driven 
by the opinion of the townsfolk, put the boy to school once more. 
He made rapid progress, especially in mathematics, and began 
to assist the master. In x 77 2 he was apprenticed to a shoemaker, 
and when he wished to pursue his mathematical studies, he was 
obliged to work his problems ^ith an awl on beaten leather. 
By the kindness of an Ashburton surgeon, William Cooksley, 
a subscription was raised to enable him to return to school. 
Ultimately he proceeded in his twenty-third year to Oxford, 
where be was appointed a Bible clerk in Exeter College. Leaving 
the university shortly after graduation in x 782, he found a generous 
patron U the first Earl Gxosvenor, who undertook to provide 
for him, and sent him on two prolonged continental touts in the 
capacity of tutor to his son, Lord Belgrave.. Settling in London, 
Glfford published in 1794 his first work, a clever satirical piece, 
after Persius, entitled the Banad^ aimed at a coterie of second' 
rate writers at Florence, then popularly known as the Delia 
Cniscans, of which Mrs Piozzi was the leader. A second satire 
of a similar description, the Maeviad, directed against the corrup- 
tions of the drama, appeared in X795. About this time Gifford 
became acquainted with Canning, with whose help he in August 
1797 origihated a weekly newspaper of Conservative politics 
entitled the AtUi-Jac^bin, which, howf^rer, in the following 
year ceased to be published. An English version of Juvenal, 
on which be had been for many years engaged, appear«l in 1802; 
to this an autobiographical notice of the translator, reproduced 
ia Nichol's lUuOralioHs of Litarature, was prefixed. Two years 
afterwards Gifford published an annotated edition of the plays 
of Massanger; and in 1809, when the Quarlerly Review was 
ivojected, be was made editor. The success which attended the 
Quarterly from the outset was due in no small degree to the 
ability and tact with which Gifford discharged hb editorial 
duties. He took, however, considerable liberties with the 
articles he inserted, and Southey, who was one of his regular 
contributors, said that Gifford looked on authors as Izaak 
Walton did on worms. His bitter oppontion to Radicals and 
hb onslaughts on new writers, con^icuous among which was 
the article on KeaU's Endymion, called forth Hazlitt's Letter 
te W. Gifford in X819. His connexion with the Renew continued 
until within about two years of his death, which took i^ace in 
London on the 31st of December 1826. Besides numerous 
contributioA to the Quarterly during the last fifteen years of his 
life^ he wrote a metiical translation of Persius, which appeared 
ia 182X. Gifford also edited the dramas o^ Ben Jonson in x8i6, 
and his edition of Ford appeared posthumously in 1827. His 
notes on Shirley were incorporated in Dyce*s edition in 1833. 
His political services were acknowledged by the appointments 
of commissioner of the lottery and paymaster of the gentle- 
nuu pensioners. He left a considerable fortune, the bulk 
of whJkJi went to the son of his fint benefactor, William 

GIFT (a common Teutonic word, cf. Ger. dU Gift, gift, dot 
Gift, poison, formed from the Teut. stem gab-, to give, cf. Dutch 
geven, Ger. geben; in O. Eng. the word appears with initial y, 
the guttural of Uter English is due to Scandinavian influence), a 
general English term for a present or thing bestowed, i^ an 
alienation of property otherwise than for a legal consideration, 
although in law it is often used to signify alienation with or 
without consideration. By analogy the terms "gift" and 
" gifted " are also used to signify the natural endowment of 
some special ability, or a miraculous power, in a person, as being 
not acquired in the ordinary way. The legal effect of a gratuit- 
ous gift only need be considered here. Formeriy in English 
law property in land could be conveyed by one person to another 
by a verbal gift of the estate accompanied by delivery of posses- 
sion. The Statute of Frauds required all such conveyances to 
be in writing, and a Uter statute (8 & 9 Vict. c. xo6) reqmrea 
them to be by deed. Personal property may be effeaually 
transferred from one person to another by a simple verbal gift 
accompanied by delivery. If A delivers a chattel to B, saying 
or signifying that he does so by way of gift, the property passes, 
and the chattel belongs to B. But unless the actual thing is 
bodily handed over to the donee, the mere verbal expression ot 
the donor's desire or intention has no legal effect whatever. 
The persons are in the position of parties to an agreement which 
is void as being without consideration. When the nature of 
the thing is such that it cannot be bodily handed over, it will 
be sufficient to put the donee in such a position as to enable him 
to deal with it as the ownor. For example, when goods are in a 
warehouse, the delivery of the key will make a verbal gift of 
them effectual; but it seems that part delivery of goods which 
are capid>le of actual delivery will not validate a verbal gift of 
the part undelivered. So when goods are in the possession of a 
warehouseman, the handing over of a delivery order might, by 
special custom (but not otherwise, it appears), be sufficient to 
pass the property in the goods, although dcUvery of a bill of 
lading for goods at sea is equivalent to an actual delivery of the 
goods themselves. 

6IFU (IsfAlzuui), a city of Japan, capital of the ken (govern- 
ment) of Central Nippon, which comprises the two provinces 
of Mino and Hida. Pop. about 41 ,000. It lies E. by N. of Lake 
Biwa, on the Central railway, on a tributary of the river Kiso, 
which flows to the Bay of Miya Uro. Manufactures of silk and 
paper goods are carried on. The ken has an area of about 
4000 sq. m. and is thickly peopled, the population exceeding 
1 ,000,000. The whole district is subject to frequent earthquakes. 

010, apparently an onomatopoeic word for any li^t whirling 
object, and so used of a top, as in Shakespeare's Lau*s Labour's 
Lostf v. t. 70 ('* Goe whip thy gigge "), or of a revolving lure 
made of feathers for snaring birds. The word is now chiefly 
used of a li^t two-wheeled cart or carriage for one horse, and 
of a narrow, light, ship's boat for oars or sails, and also of a 
clinker-built rowing-boat used for rowing on the Thames. 
" Gig " is further applied, in mining, to a wooden chamber or 
box divided in the centre and used to draw miners up and down 
a pit or shaft, and to a textile machine, the "gig-mill" or 
" PSSii^S machine," M^ch raises the nap on cloth by means 
of teazels. A " gig " or " fish-gig " (properly " fiz-gig," possibly 
an adaptation of Span, fisga, harpoon) is an instrument 
used for spearing fish. 

6I0LI0 (anc. IgUium), an island of Italy, off the S.W. coast 
of Italy, in the province of Grosseto, 11 m. to the W. of Monte 
Argentario, the nearest point on the coast. It measures about 
5 m. by 3 and its highest point is 1634 ft. above tea-level. Pop. 
(1901) 3062. It is partly composed of granite, which was 
quarried here by the Romans, and is still used; the island is 
fertile, and produces wine and fruit, the cultivation of which has 
taken the place of the forests of which RutlHus spoke {Itin. i. 
325, " eminus Igilii silvosa cacumina miror "). Julius Caesar 
mentions its sailors in the fleet of Domitius Ahenobarbus. In 
Rutilius's time it served as a place of Tefuge from the barbarian 
invaders. Charlemagne gave it to the abbey of Tre Fontane at 
Rome. In the 14th century it belonged to Pba, then to Floience, 


then, after being seized by the Spanish fleet, it was ceded to 
Antonio Piccolomini, nephew of Pius II. In 1558 it was 
sold to the wife of Cosimo I. of Florence. 

See^Archduke Ludwig Salvator, Di€ Insel Giglio (Prague, 1900). 

OUON, a seaport of northern Spain, in the province of Oviedo; 
on the Bay of Biscay, and at the terminus of railways from 
Avil£s, Oviedo and Langreo. Pop. (1900) 47,544. The older 
parts of Gij6n, which are partly enclosed by ancient walls, 
occupy the upper slopes of a peninsular headland, Santa Catalina 
Point; while its more modern suburbs extend along the shore 
to Cape Torres, on the west, and Cape San Lorenzo, on the east. 
These suburbs contain the town-hall, theatre, markets, and a 
bull-ring with seats for 1 2,000 spectators. Few of the buildings 
of Gij6n are noteworthy for any architectural merit ,^ except 
perhaps the isth-century parish church of San Pedro, which 
has a triple row of aisles on each side, the palace of the mar- 
quesses of Revillajigcdo (or Revilla Gigedo), and the Asturian 
Institute or Jovellanos Institute. The last named has a very 
fine collection of drawings by Spanish and other artists, a good 
library and classes for instruction in seamanship, mathematics 
and languages. It was founded in 1797 by the poet and states* 
man Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos (i744'x8xi). Jovellanos, 
a native of Gij6n, is buried in San Pedro. 

The Bay of Gij6n is the most important roadstead on the 
Spanish coast between Ferrol and Santander. Its first quay 
was constructed by means of a grant from Charles V. in 155a- 
1554; and its arsenal, added in the reign of Philip II. (1556- 
1598), was used in 1588 as a repairing station for the surviving 
•hips of the Invincible Armada. A new quay was built in 
1766-1768, and extended in 1859; the harbour was further 
unproved in 1864, and after 1892, when the Musel harbour of 
refuge was created at the extremity of the bay. It was, how- 
ever, the establishment of railway communication in 1884 which 
brought the town its modem prosperity, by rendering it tht chief 
port of shipment for the products of Langreo and other mining 
centres in Oviedo. A rapid commercial development followed. 
Besides large tobacco, glass and porcelain factories, Oij6n 
possesses iron foundries and petroleum refineries; while its, 
minor iiKlustries include fisheries, and the manufacture of pre- 
served foods, soap, chocolate, candles and liqueurs. In 1903 
the harbour accommodated 2189 vessels of 358,375 tons. Ia 
the same year the imports, consbting chiefly of machinery, iron, 
wood and food-stuffs, were valued at £660,889; while the 
exports, comprising zinc, copper, iron and other minerals, with 
fish, nuts and farm produce, were valued at £100,941. 

Gij6n is usually identified with the Gigia of the Romans, which, 
however, occupied the site of the adjoining suburb of Cima 
de Villa. £ariy in the 8th century Gij6n was captured and 
strengthened by the Moors, who used the stones of the Roman 
city for their fortificati<»s, but were expelled by King Pclayo 
(720-737). In 844 Gij6n successfully resisted a Norman raid; in 
Z395 it was burned down; but thenceforward it gradually ns^ 
to commercial importance. 

OiL&N (Ghilan, Guilan), one of the three small but important 
Caspian provinces of Persia, lying along the south-western shore 
of the Caspian Sea between 48* 50' and 50** 30' £. with a breadth 
varying from 15 to 50 m. It has an area of about 5000 
sq. m. and a population of about 250,000. It is separated from 
Russia by the little river Astara, which flows into the Caspian, 
and bounded W. by AzerbAIjin, S. by Kazvin and £. by Mazan- 
daran. The greater portion of the province is a lowland region 
extending inland from the sea to the base of the mountains of the 
Elburz range and, though the Scfid Rod (White river), which ia 
called Kizil Uzain in its upper course and has its principal 
sources in the hilb of Persian Kurdistan, is the only river oi any 
size, the province is abundantly watered by many streams 
and aa exceptionally great rainfall (in some years 50 in.). 

The vegetation is very much like that of southern Europe, 
but in consequence of the great humidity and the mild climate 
almost tropically luxuriant, aiui the forests from the shore of 
the sea up to an altitude of neariy 5000 ft. on the mountain 
the tea are as dense as an Indian juagle. Tbo 

prevailing types of trees are the oak, maple, hornbeam, beech, 
ash and elm. The box tree comes to rare perfection, but in 
consequence of indiscriminate cutting for export during many 
years, is now becoming scarce. Of fruit trees the apple, pear, 
plum, cherry, medlar, pomegranate, fig, quince, as well as two 
kinds of vine, grow wild; oranges, sweet and bitter, and other 
Aurantiaceae thrive well in gardens and plantations. The fauna 
also is well represented, but tigers which once were frequently 
seen are now very scarce; panther, hyena, jackal, wild boar, 
deer (Cfrvus moral) are common; pheasant, woodcock, ducks, 
teal, geese and various waterfowl abound; the fisheries are very 
productive and are leased to a Russian firm. The ordinary 
cattle of the province is the small humped kind, Bm indicus, 
and forms an article of export to Russia, the humps, smoked, 
being much in demand as a delicacy. Rice of a kind xiot much 
appreciated in Persia, but much esteemed in Gdin and Russia, 
is largely cultivated and a quantity valued at about £120,000 
was exported to Russia during 1904-1905. Tea plantations, 
with seeds and plants from Assam, Ceylon and the Himalayas, 
were started in the early part of 1900 on the slopes <rf the hiUs 
south of Resht at an altitude of about xooo ft. llie results were 
excellent and very good tea was produced in 1904 and 1905, 
but the Persian government gave no support and the enterprise 
was neglected. The olive thrives well at Rfidbir and Manjfl 
in the Sefid Rfid valley and the oil extracted from it by a Pro- 
vencal for some years until 1896, when he was murdered, was of 
very good quality and found a ready market at Baku. Since 
then the oil has been, as before, only used for the manufacture of 
soap. Tobacco from Turkish seed, cultivated since 1875, grows 
well, and a considerable quantity of it is exported. The most 
valuable produce of the province is silk. In 1866 it was vaiucd 
At £743,000 and about two-thirds of it was exported. The silk- 
worm disease appeared in 1864 and the crops decreased in con- 
sequence until 1893 when the value of the silk exported was no 
more than £6500. Since then there has been a steady improve* 
ment, and in 1905-1906 the value of the produce was estimated 
at £300,000 and that of the quantity exported at £200,000. 
The eggs of the silk-worms, formerly obtained from Japan, are 
now imported principally from Brusa by Greeks under French 
protection and from France. 

There is only one good road in the province, that from Enzeli 
to Kazvin by way of Rcsht; in other parts communication is 
by narrow and frequently impassable lanes through the thick 
forest, or by intricate ^thways through the dense undergrowth. 

The province is divided into the following administrative 
districu; Rcsht (with the capital and its immediate neigUMur- 
hood), Fumen (with Tulam and Mcsula, where are iron mines), 
Gesker, Talish (with Sharidarman, Kcrganrud, Asalim, Gil- 
Dulab, Talish-Dulab), Enzeli (the port of Resht), Sheft, Manjfl 
(with Rahmetabad and Amarlu), Lahijan (with Langanid, 
Rfidsar and Ranehkuh), Dilman and Lasbtnisha. The revenue 
derived from taxes and customs is about £80,000. The crown 
lands have been mudi neglected and the revenue from them 
amounts to hardly £3000 per aimum.- The value of the exports 
and imports from and into GlUn, much of them in transit, is 
dose upon £2/900,000. 

Gll&n was an independent khanate until 1567 when Khan 
Ahmed, the last of the Kargia dynasty, which had reigned 
205 years, was deposed by Tahmasp I., the second Safawid shah 
of Persia (1524-X576). It was occupied by a Russian force in 
the early part of 1723; and Tahmasp III., the tenth Safawid shah 
(1722-1731), then without a throne and his country occupied 
by the Afghans, ceded it, together with Mazandaran and Astara- 
bad, to Peter the Great by a treaty of the X2th of September of 
the same year. Russian troops remained in Gllla until 1734, 
when they were compelled to evacuate it. 

The derivation of the name GiUn from the modem Persian 
word gil meaning mud (hence " land of mud ") is incorrect 
It probably means " land of the GU," ftn ancient tribe which 
classical writers mention as the Gclae. (A. H.*S.) 

QILBART, JAMES WILUAM (1794-1863), EngUsh writer on 
banking, was bom in London on the ^xst of March x 724* From 


iSij'to 1815 he was derk in a Londoii bank. After a two yean' 
Rfldence in Biradnghani, he was appmnted manager ei the 
Kilkenny branch of the Ptovindal Bank of Ireland, and in 1829 
he was promoted to the Waterford branch. In 1834 he became 
manager of the London and Westminster Bank ; and he did mudi 
to develop the system of joint-stock banking. On note than 
one occasion he rendered valuable services to the joint-stock 
baidLs by his evidence before committees of the House of 
Commons; and, on the renewal of the bank charter in 1844, 
he procured the insertion of a clause granting to joint^tock 
bai^ the power of suing by their public officer, and also the 
light of accepting bills at less than six months' date. In 1846 he 
was elected a fellow of the Royal Sodety. He died in London on 
the 8th of August 1863. The Gilbart Icauxes on banking at 

King's CoUefse are called after him. 

The following are his principal wocks on banking, moat of which 
have passed throogh more than one edition: Practical Treatist on 

BoHktng (1837): The History and PnncitUs of Banking (1834); 
The History ej Banking in America (1837) ; Le^ures on tkt History 
and Pri$ictfUs of Anettni Comnuru (IB47): Logic for tht Million 

(1851): and Logic of Banking (1837). 

OILBBRT, ALFRED (1854- ), British inalptor and 
gQkbmith, bom in London, was the son of Alfred Gilbert, 
musician. He recdved his education mainly in Paris (ficole 
des Beaux-Arts, under Cavelier), mnd studied in Rome and 
Florence where the significance of the Renaissance made a 
lasting impression upon him and his ait. He also worked in 
the studio of Sir J. Edgar Boehm, R.A. His first work of 
importance was the charming group oi the " Mother and Child," 
then " The Kiss of Victory," followed by " Peiscus Arming " 
(1883), produced directly under the influence of the Florentine 
masterpieces he had studied. Its suneas was great, and Lord 
Leighton fovthwith commisdon«d ** Icarus," which was ex- 
hibited at the Royal Academy in 1884, along with a remarkable 
" Study of a Head," and was received with general applause. 
Then followed " The Enchanted Chair/' which, along with many 
other works deemed by the artist incomplete or unworthy of 
his powers, was ultimatdy broken by the sculptor's own hand. 
The next year Mr Gilbert was occnpied with the Shaftesbury 
Memorial Fountain, in Piccadilly, London, a work of great 
originality and beauty, yet shorn of some of the intended effect 
throuj^ restrictions put upon the artist. In 1888 was produced 
the statue of H.M. Queen Victoria, set up at Winchester, in its 
main design and in the details of its ornamentation the most 
remarkable work of its kind produced in Great Britain, and 
perhaps, it may be added, in any other country in modem times. 
Other statues of great beauty, at once novd in treatment and 
fine in design, are those set up to Lord Reay in Bombay, and 
John Howard at Bedford (1898), the highly original pedestal 
kA which did much to direct into a better channel what are 
apt to be the eccentricities of what is called the "New Art" 
Scho(4. The sculptor rose to the full height of his powers in hb 
" Memorial to the Duke of Clarence," and his fast developing 
fancy and imagination, which are the main characteristics of all 
his work, are seen in bis ''Memorial Candelabrum to Lord Arthur 
Russell " and " Memorial Font to the son of the 4th MaVquess of 
Bath." Gilbert's sense of decoration is paramount in all he does, 
and although in addition to the work klready dted he pro- 
duced busts of extraordinary excellence of Cyril Flower, John 
R. Clayton (smce broken up by the artist — ^the fate of much of 
his admirable work), G. F. Watts, Sir Henry Tate, Sir George 
Birdwood, Sir Richard Owen^ Sir George Grove and various 
othen, it is on his goldsmithery that the artist would rest his 
reputation; on his mayoral chain for Preston» the epergne for 
Queen Victoria, the figurines of " Victory " (a statuette d^gned 
for the orb in the hand of the Winchester statue), " St Michad " 
and "St George," as well as smaller objects such aa seals, keys 
Mid the like. Mr Gilbert was chosen associate of the Royal 
Academy in 1887, full member in 189a (resigned 1909), and 
professor of sculpture (afterwards resigned) in r90o. In 1889 he 
won the Grand Prix at the Paris International Exhibition. He 
was cMated a member of the Victorian Order in 1897. (See 

JoMpb HattoQ {Art Journal Office. 1903). (M. H. S.) 

GILBERT, ANN (183X-X904), American actress, was bom at 
Rochdale, Lancashire, on the 21st of October xSax, her maiden 
name being Hartley. At fifteen she was a pupil at the 
ballet school connected with the Haymarket theatre, (x>nducted 
by Paul Taglioni, and became a dancer on the stage. In 1846 
she married George H. Gilbert (d. x866), a performer in the 
company of which she was a member. Together they filled 
many engagements in English theatres, moving to America in 
1849. Mrs Gilbert's first success in a qieaking part was in 1857 
as Wichavenda in Brougham's Pocahontas. In 1869 she joined 
Daly's company, playing for many years wives to James Lewis's 
husbands, and old women's parts, in which she had no equal. 
Mrs. Gilbert held a unique position on the American stage, on 
account of the admiration, esteem and affection which she 
enjoyed both in front and behind the footlights. She died at 
Chicago on the and of December 1904. 

See Mrs Gilbert* s ^ge Bominiscontes (1901). 

GILBERT, GROVE KARL (1843- ), American geologist, 
was bora at Rochester, N.Y., on the 6th of May 1843. In i86q 
he was attached to the Geological Survey of Ohio and in 
1879 he became a member of the United States Geological 
Survey, being engaged on parts of the Rocky Mountains, in 
Nevada, Utah, California and Arizona. He is distinguished 
for his researches on mountain-structure and on the Great Lakes, 
as well as on gladal phenomena, recent earth movements, and 
on topographic features generally. His report on the Geology 
of the Henry Mountains (1877), in which the volcanic stractuxe 
known as a laccolite was first described; his History of tka 
Niagara Rioer (1890) and Lake BormevHU (1891 — the first of 
the Monographs issued by the United States Geological Survey) 
are specially important. He was awarded the WoUaston medal 
by the Geological Society of London in 1900. 

GILBERT, SIR HUMPHREY (c. 1539-1583), English soldier, 
navigator and pioneer colonist in America, was the second son of 
Otho Gilbert, of Compton, near Dartmouth, Devon, and step- 
brother of Sir Walter Raleigh. He was educated at Eton and 
Oxford; intended for the law; introduced at court by Raleigh's 
aunt, Catherine Ashley, and appointed (July 1566) captain in 
the army of Irdond under Sir Henry Sidney. In April 1566 
he had already joined with Antony Jenkinson in a petition 
to Elisabeth for the discovery of the North-East Passage; in 
November following he presented an independent petition iat 
the ** discovering of a passage by the north to go to Cataia." In 
October 1569 he became governor of Mtmster; on the xst of 
January 1570 he was knighted; in 1571 he was returned M.P. 
for Hymouth; in X573 he campaigned in the Netherlands 
against Spain without much success; from X573 to X578 he 
lived in retirement at limehouse, devoting himself especially 
to the advocacy of a North- West Passage (his famous Discourse 
on this subject was published in X576). Gilbert's arguments, 
widely drculated even before 1575, were apparently of weight 
in promoting the Frobisher enterprises of X576«xs78. On the 
xith of June 1578, Sir Humphrey obtained his long-coveted 
charter for North-Westera discovery and colonisation, authoxia- 
ing him, his heirs and assigns, to discbver, occupy and posseaa 
such remote "heathen lands not actually possessed of any 
Christian prince or pec^e, as should seem good to him or them." 
Disposing not only of his patrimony but also of the estates in 
Kent which he had through his wife, daughter of John Aucher 
of OUerden, he fitted out an expedition which Idt Dartmouth 
on the a3rd of September X578, and returned in May 1579, 
having accomplished nothing. In 1579 Gilbert aided the 
government in Ireland; and in 1583, after nsany struggles^ 
illustrated by l^is appeal to Walsingbam on the xxth of Jidy 
158a, for the payment of moneys due to him from government, 
and by his agreement with the Southampton venturecs^-he 
succeeded in equipping another fleet for " Western Planting." 
On the nth of June 1583, he sailed from Plymouth with five 
ships and the queen's blessing; on the 13th of July the *' Ark 
Raleigh," built and manned at his brother's expen|e< deaertcd 



'the fleet; on the 30th of July he was off the north coast of 
Newfoundland; on the 3rd of August he arrived off the present 
St John's, and selected this site as the centre of his operations; 
on the 5th of August he began the plantation of the first English 
colony in North America. Proceeding southwards with three 
v^ds, exploring and prospecting, he lost the largest near Cape 
Breton (29th of August); immediately after (31st of August) 
he started to return to England with the " Colden Hind " and 
the " Squirrel," of forty and ten tons respectively. Obstinately 
refuang to leave the " frigate " and sail in his " great ship," 
he shared the former's fate in a tempest off the Arores. ** Monday 
the 9th of September," reports Hayes, the captain of the *' Hind," 

"the frigate was near cast away yet at that time recovered; 

and, giving forth signs of joy, the general, sitting abaft with a 
book in Us hand, cried out unto us in the' Hind,' ' We are as near 
to heaven by sea as by land. '. . . . The same Monday night, about 
twelve, the frigate bein^ ahead of us in the ' Golden Hind/ 
suddenly her lights were out, .... in that moment the frigate 
was devoured and swallowed up of the 8ea.'\ 

See Hakluyt, Principal NavigtUicns (1599). vol. iti. ppT l;35-i8i ; 
Gilbert's Discourse of a Diuovery for a New Posuimb to Caiata^ pub- 
lished by George Gascoignc in 1576, with additions, probably 
without Gilbert^ authority; Hooker's SuppUmetU to Holinshed s 
Irish Chronide; Roger Williams, The Actions of the Low Countries 
(1618); State Papers, Domestic (1577-1583): Wood's Alhenae 
Oxoni€»ses; North British Review, No. 45; Fox Bourne's Entjiish 
Seamen under the Tudors; Carios Slafter, Sir H. CylberU and his 
Enterprise (Boston, 1903), with all imfwrtant documents. Gilbert's 
interesting writings on the need of a university for London.anticipat- 
ing in many ways not only the modern London University but also 
the British Museum library and its compulsory sustenance through 
the provisions of the Copyright Act, have been printed by Fumivall 
(Quien Elizabeth*s Achademy) in the.Eariy English Text Society 
Publications, extra series, No. vili. 

GILBERT, JOHN (1810-1889), American actor^'whose' real 
name was Gibbs, was bom in Boston, Massachusetts, on the 
27th of February i8zo, and made his first appearance there 
as Jafficr in Veniu Preserved, He soon found that his true vein 
was in comedy, particularly in old-men parts. When in London 
in 1847 he was well received both by press and public, and played 
with Macrcady. He was the leading actor at Wallack's from 
Z861-1888. He died on the 17th of June 1889. 

See William Winter's Life of John CUbert (New York, 1890). 

GILBERT, SIR JOHN (18x7-1897), English painter and 
illustrator, one of the eight children of George Felix Gilbert, 
a member of a Derbyshire family, was born at Blackheath on 
the 2xst of July 1817. He went to school there, and even in 
childhood displayed an extraordinary fondness for drawing and 
painting. Nevertheless, his 'father's lack of means compelled 
him to accept employment for the boy in the office of Messn 
Dickson & Bell, estate agents, in Charlotte Row, London. 
Yielding, however, to his natural bent, his parents agreed that 
he should take up art in his own way, which included but little 
advice from others, his only teacher being Haydon's pupil, George 
Lance, the fruit painter. This artist gave him bri^ instructions 
in the use of colour. In 1836 Gilbert appeared in public for 
the first time. This was at the gkllery of the Society of British 
Artists, where he sent drawings, the subjects of which were 
characteristic, being " The Arrest of Lord Hastings," from 
Shakespeare, and "Abbot Boniface,", from The Monastery of 
ScotL "Inez de Castro^' was in the same gallery in the next 
year; it was the first of a long series of works in the same 
medium, representing similar themes, and was accompanied, 
from 1837, by a still greater number of works in oil which were 
exhibited at the British Institution. These included "Don 
Quixote giving advice to Sancho Panza," 1841; " Brunette 
and Phillts," from The Spectator, 1844; " The King's ArtiUcry 
at Marston Moor," i860; and " Don Quixote comes back for 
the last time to his Home and Family," 1867. In that year the 
Institution was finally closed. Gilbert exhibited at the Royal 
Academy from 1838, beginning with the " Portrait of a Gentle- 
man," and continuing, except between 1851 and 1867, till his 
death to exhibit there many of his best and more ambitious 
icorks.' 3toe.*included-au£h<vcapital instances -as "Holbein 

painting the Portrait of Anne Boleyn," ^''Don Quixote's first 
Interview with the Duke and Duchess,". 1842, "Charlemagne 
visiting the Schools," 1846. "Touchstone and the Shepherd," 
and "Rembrai)dt," a very fine piece, were both there' in 2867; 
and in 1873 " Naseby," one of his finest and most picturesque 
designs, was also at the Royal Academy. Gilbert was elected 
A.R.A. 29th January 1872, and R.A. 29th June 1876. Besides 
these mostly large and powerful works, the artist's triie arena 
of display was undoubtedly the gallery of the Old Water Colour 
Society, to which from 1852, when he was elected an Associate 
exhibitor, till he died forty-five years later, he contributed not 
fewer thaii 270 drawings, most of them admirable because of the 
largeness of their style, massive coloration, broad chiaroscuro, 
and the surpassing vigour of their designs. These qualities 
induced the leading critics to claim for him opportunities for 
painting mural pictures of great historic themes as decorations of 
national buildings. " The Trumpeter,"" The Standard-Bearer," 
" Richard II. resigning his Crown " (now at Liverpool), " The 
Drug Baxaar at Constantinople," " The Merchant of Venice " 
and " The Turkish Water-Canicr " are but examples of that 
wealth of aii which added to the attractions of the galleiyin 
Pall MaU. There Gilbert was elected a full Member in 1855, 
and president of the Society in 1871, shortly after which he. was 
knighted. As an illustrator of books, magazines and periodicals 
of every kind he was most prolific To the success of the 
Illusiraled London News his designs lent powerful aid, and he 
was eminently serviceable in illustrating the Shakespeare of Mr 
Howard Suunton. . He died on the 6th of October 1897. 


GILBERT, SIR JOSEPH HENRY (18x7-1901), English 
chemist, was bom at Hull on the xst of August 18x7. He 
studied chemistry first at Glasgow under Thomas Thomson; 
then at University College, London, in the laboratory of A. T. 
Thomson (x 778-1 849), the professor of medical jurisprudence, 
also attending Thomas Graham's lectures; and finally at Giessen 
under Liebig. On his return to England from Germany he 
acted for a year or so as assistant to his old master A. T. Thomson 
at University College, and in x 843, after spending a short time in 
the study of calico dyeing and printing near Manchester, accepted 
the directorship of the chemical laboratory at the famous 
experimental station established by Sir J. B. LaWes at 
Rothamsted, near St Albans, for the systematic and scientific 
study of agriculture. This position he held for fifty-eight years, 
until his death on the 23rd of December X90X. The work which 
be carried out during that long period in collaboration with 
Lawes was of a most comprehensive character, involving the 
application of many branches of science, such as chemistry, 
meteorology, botany, animal and vegetable physiology, and 
geology; and its influence in improving the methods of practical 
agriculture extended all over the civilized world. Gilbert was 
chosen a fellow of the Royal Society in x86o, and in 1867 was 
awarded a royal medal jointly with Lawes. In x 880 he presided 
over the Chemical Section of the British Association at its 
meeting at Swansea, and in 1882 he was president of the London 
Chemical Society, of which he had been a member almost from 
its foundation in x84'z. For six years from 1884. he filled the 
Sibthorpian chair of rural economy at Oxford, and he was also 
an honorary professor tt the Royal Agricultural College, Qren- 
cester. He was knighted in 1893, the year in which the jubilee 
of the Rothamsted experiments was celebrated. 

MoNTEZ "1 (x8x8-i86x), dancer and adventuress, the daughter 
of a British army officer, was born at Limerick, Ireland, in x8i8. 
Her father dying in India when she was seven years old, and her 
mother marrying again, the child was sent to Europe to be 
educated, subsequently joining her mother at Bath. In 1837 
she made a runaway match with a Captain James of the Indian 
army, and accompanied him to India. In 1842 she returned 
to England, and shortly afterwards her husband obtained a 
decree nisi for divorce. She then studied dancing, making an 
unsuccessful first appearance at Her Majesty's theatre, London, 
in 1843, biUed as " Lola Montez, Spanish dancer." Subaequently 


fhe a p p or ed with oomadenble succeat in Gcrauny, Pdand and 
Ruasim. Thence she went to Paris, and in 1847 appeared at 
Munich, where she became the mistress of the old king of Bavariai 
Ludwig I.; she was naturalized, created comtesse de Landsfeld, 
and given an income of £2000 a year. She soon proved hersdf 
the i«al ruler of Bavaria, adopting a liberal and anti-Jcsuit 
policy. Her political opponents proved, however, too strong 
for her, and in 1848 she was banished. In 1849 she came to 
England, and in the same year was married to George Heald, a 
young officer in the Guards. Her husband's guardian instituted 
a prosecution lor bigamy against her on the ground that her 
divorce frara Captain James had not been made absolute, and 
she fled with Heald to Spain. In 2851 she appeued at the 
Broadway theatre. New Yoik, and in the following year at 
the Walnut Street theatre, Philadelphia. In 1853 Heald was 
drowned at Lisbon, abd in the same year she married the 
proprietor of a San Frandsco newspaper, but did not live long 
with him. Subsequently she appeared in Australia, but returned, 
in i8s7, to act in America, and to lecture on gallantry. Her 
health having broken down, she devoted the rest of her life to 
visiting the outcasts of her own sex in New York, where, 
stricken with paralysis, she died on the xyth of January i86x. 

See E. B. D'Auvergne, Lola Montea (New York, 1909). 

GILBBBT. mCOUS JOSEPH LAURENT (1751-1780), French 
poet, was bom at Fontenay^le-ChAteau in Lorraine in 1751. 
Having completed his education at the college of Ddle, he 
devoted himself for a time to a half-scholastic, half-literary life 
at Nancy, but in 1774 he found his way to the capitaL As an 
opponent of the Encyclopaedists and a panegyrist of Louis 
XV., he received considerable pensions. He died in Paris on 
the 13th of November 1780 from the results of a fall from his 
horse. The satiric force of one or two of his pieces, as' M<m 
Apdogie (1778) Bod Lt Di»4uiUiim€ SiicU (1775}, would alone 
be sufficient to pieserve his reputation, which has been further 
increased by modem wiitezs, who, like Alfred de Vigny in his 
Stilh (chaps. 7*13), considered him a victim to the spite of his 
philosophic opponents. His best-known verses are the Ode 
mitte de fluneitn pnu$mes, usually entitled Adieux dlatU, 

Among his other worics may be mentioned JUs FamUUs de Darius 
€t i'Mnaamef kistoire persane (1770), L$ Carnavat dcs autews 
(1773), Odes nomdles et patriotiques (1775). Gilbert's (Euores 
ampmes were fint published in 1788, and they have since been 
edited by Mastrella (Paris, 1823), by Charles Nodier (1817 or i8as), 
sad by M. de Lescure (1862). 

OILIBIIT (or Gtlbeboz), WILUAH (1544*1603), the most 
distinguished man of science in England during the reign of 
(2ueen Eliaabeth, and the father of electric and magnetic science, 
was a member of an andent Suffolk family, long resident in 
Clare, and was bom on the S4th of May 1544 at Colchester, 
where hto father, Hierome Gilbert, became reconler. Educated 
at Colchester school, he entered St John's College, Cambridge, 
m 1558, and after taking the degrees of B.A. and M.A. in due 
course, graduated M.D. in 1569, in which year he was elected 
s senior fellow of his college. Scion afterwards he left Cambridge, 
and after ^lending three years in Italy and other parts of Europe, 
Kttled in 1573 in London, where he practised as a physidan with 
" great success and appUuse." He was admitted to the College 
of Phyiidaiis probably about 1576, and from 1581 to 1590 was 
one of the censors. In 1587 he became treasurer, holding the 
office till 1 593, and in 1 589 he was one of the committee appointed 
to snperintoid the preparation of the Pkarmacop&eia Londinensis 
which the college in that yeai decided to issue, but which did not 
sctuaUy appear till 16x8. In 1597 he was again chosen treasurer, 
becoming at the same time consUliarius, and in 1599 he succeeded 
to the presidency. Two years later he waa appointed physician 
to (2ueen Elizabeth, with the usual emolument of £xoo a year. 
After this time he seems to have removed to the court, vacating 
his residence, Wingfield House, which was on Peter's Hill, 
between Upper Thames Street and Little Knightrider Street, 
and close to the house of the College ol Physicians. On the death 
of the queen in 1603 he was reappointed by her successor; but 
be did not long enjoy the honour, for be died, probably of the 
plague, 00 the 30th of Novemba (10th of December* N.S.) 

1603, either in London or in Colchester. He was buried in the 
latter town, in the chancel of Holy Trinity ■ church, where a 
monument was erected to his memory. To the College of 
Physicians he left his books, globes, instruments and minerals, 
but they were destroyed in the great fire of London. 

Gilbert's principal work is his treatise on magnetism, entitled 
De magnete, magneticitpie carporihust et de magna magneU 
kUnre (London, 1600; later editions— Stettin, 1628, 1633; 
Frankfort, 1629, 1638). This work, which embodied the results 
of many yeazs' research, was distinguished by its strict adherence 
to the scientific method of investigation by experiment, and by 
the originality of its matter, containing, as it does, an account 
of the author's eiperiments on magnets and magnetical bodies 
and on electrical attractions, and aLo his great conception that 
the earth is nothing but a large magnet, and that it is this which 
ezphuns, not only the direction of the magnetic needle north and 
south, but also the variation and dipping or inclination of the 
needle. Gilbert's is therefore not merely the first, but the most 
important, systematic contribution to the sciences of electricity 
and magnetism. A posthumous work of Gilbert's was edited 
by his brother, also called William, from two MSS. in the posses- 
sion of Sir WiUiam Boswell; its title is De mundo nostra 
sMunan philosaphia noea (Amsterdam, 1651). He is the 
reputed inventor besides of two instruments to enable sailors 
" to find out the latitude without seeing of sun, moon or stars," 
an account of which is given in Thomas Blondeville's Tkeoriques 
of the Planets (London, i6oa). He was also the first advocate 
of (}opemican views in England, and he concluded that the fixed 
stars are not all at the same distance from the earth. 

It is a matter of great regret for the historian of chemistry 
that Gilbert left nothing on that branch of sciedce, to which Ke 
was deeply devoted," attaining to great exactness therein." So 
at least says Thomas Fuller, ^o in his Worthies of England pro- 
phesied truly how he would be afterwards known: " Mahomet's 
tomb at Mecca," he says, "is said strangely to hang up, 
attracted by some invisible loadstone; but the memory of this 
doctor will never fall to the ground, which his incomparable 
book De magnete will support to eternity." 

An En^ah translation of the De magnete was published by P. F. 
Mottelay in 1^3, and another, with notes by S. P. Thompson, was 
issued by the Cubert Club of London in 1900. 

GILBERT, SIR WILUAM 8CHWENK (1836- ). English 
playwright and humorist, son of William Gilbert (a descendant 
of Sir Humphrey Gilbert), was bom in London on the i8th of 
November 1836. His father was the author of a number of novels, 
the best-known of which were Shirley Hall Asylum (1863) ^nd 
Dr Austin's Guests (1866). Several of these novels— which were 
characterued by a singular acutcness and lucidity of style, by 
a dry, subacid humour, by a fund of humanitarian feeling and by 
a considerable medical knowledge, especially in regard to the 
psychology of lunatics and monomaniacs— were illustrated by 
his son, who developed a talent for whimsical draughtsmanship. 
W. S. Gilbert was educated at Boulogne, at Ealing and at King's 
College, graduating B.A. from the university of London in 1856. 
The termination of the Crimean War was fatal to his project of 
competing for a commission in the Royal Artillery, but he 
obtained a post in the education department of the privy council 
office (1857-1861). Disliking the routine work, he left the Civil 
Service, entered the Inner Temple, was called to the bar in 
November 2864, and joined the northern circuit. His practice 
was inconsiderable, and his military and legal ambitions were 
eventually satisfied by a captaincy in the volunteers and appoint- 
ment as a magistrate for Middlesex (June 1891). In 1861 the 
comic journal Pun was started by H. J. Byron, and Gilbert 
became from the first a valued contributor. Failing to obtain an 
enlrie to Punch, he continued •**"^'>g excellent comic verse 
to Pun, with humorous illustrations, the work of his own pen, 
over the signature of " Bab." A collection of these lyrics, in 
whkh deft craftsmanship tuiites a titillating satire on the 
deccptiveness of appearances with the irrepressible nonsense 
of a Lewis Carroll, was issued separately in 1869 under the title 
of Bab Ballads, and was followed by More Bab Ballads, The 



two collections and Songs of a Savoyard were united in a volume 
issued in 1898, witli many new illustrations. The best of the 
old cuts, such as those depicting the " Bishop of Rum-ti-Foo " 
and the " Discontented Sugar Broker," were preserved intact. 

While remaining a staunch supporter of Fun, Gilbert was soon 
immersed in other journalistic work, and his position as dramatic 
critic to the IttustraUd Times turned his attention to the stage. 
He had not to wait long for an opportunity. Early in December 
1866 T. W. Robertson was aske4 by Miss Herbert, ksseeof the St 
James's theatre, to find some one who could turn out a bright 
Christmas piece in a fortnight, and suggested Gilbert; the latter 
promptly produced Dulcamara, a burlesque of UElisire d^amore, 
written in ten days, rehearsed in a week, and duly performed at 
Christmas. He sold the piece outright for £30, a piece of rashness 
which he had cause to regret, for it turned out a commercial 
success. In 1870 he was commissioned by Buckstone to write a 
blank verse fairy comedy, based upon Le Palais de la viriU, 
the novel by Madame de Genlis. The result was The Palace 
of Truth, a fairy drama, poor in structure but clever in workman- 
fihip, wMch served the purpose of Mr and Mrs Kendal in 1870 
at the Haymarket. This was followed in 1871 by Pygmaium 
and Galatea, another three-act "mythological comedy," a clever 
and effective but artificial piece. Another fairy com'edy, The 
Wicked World, written for Buckstone and the Kcndals, was 
followed in March 1873 by a burlesque ver^on, in collaboration 
with Gilbert k Beckett, entitled The Happy Land. Gilbert's 
next dramatic ventures inclined more to the conventional 
pattern, combining sentiment and a cynical humour in a manner 
strongly reminiscent of his father's style. Of these pieces. 
Sweethearts was given at the Prince of Wales's theatre, 7th 
November 1874; Tom Cobb at the St James's, 34th April 
1875; Broken Hearts at the Court, 9th December 1875; Dan't 
Druu (a dranut in darker vein, suggested to some extent by 
SUas Mamer) at the Haymarket, nth September 1876; and 
Engaged at the Haymarket, 3rd October 1877. The first and 
last of these proved decidedly popular. Gretchen, a verse drama 
in four acts, appeared in 1879. A one-act piece, called Comedy 
and Tragedy, was produced at the Lyceum, a6th January, 1884. 
Two dramatic trifles of later date were Foggertys Fairy and 
Rozenkrantz and Guildenstem, a travesty of Hamlet, performed 
at the Vaudeville in June 1891. Several of these dramas were 
based upon short stories by Gilbert, a number of which had 
appeared ifrom time to time in the Christmas numbers ci various 
periodicals. The best of them have been collected in the volume 
entitled Foggertys Fairy, and other Stories. In the autumn of 
1 87 1 Gilbert commenced his memorable collaboration (which 
lasted over twenty years) with Sir Arthur Sullivan. The first 
two comic operas, Thespis; or The Cods grown Old (26th 
September X87X) and Trial by Jury (Royalty, asth March 1875) 
were merely essays. Like one or two of their successors, they 
were, as regards plot, little more than extended " Bab Ballads." 
Later (especially in the Yeomen of the Cuard), much more elabora- 
tion was attempted. The next piece was produced at the Opera 
Comique (17th November 1877) as The Sorcerer. At the same 
theatre were successfully given H.MS. Pinafore (»sth May 
1878), The Pirates of Pentance; or The Slave of Duly (3rd April 
1880), and Patience; or Bunthome*s Bride (a3rd April 1881). In 
October x88i the successful Patience was removed to a new 
theatre, the Savoy, spedally built for the Gilbett and Sullivan 
operas by Richanl D'Oyly Carte. Patience was followed, on 
35th November 1882, by Tolanthe; or The Peer and the Peri; 
and then came, on sth January 1884, Pruicess Ida; or 
Castle Adamant, a re-cast of a charming and witty fantasia 
which Gilbert had written some years previously, and had then 
described as a " respectful perversion of Mr. Tennyson's exquisite 
poem." The impulse reached its fullest development in the 
operas that followed next in order — The Mikado; or The Town 
of Titipu (14th March 1885); Ruddigore (32nd January 1887); 
The Yeomen of the Guard (3rd October 1888); and The Gondoliers 
(7th December 1889). After the appearance of The Gondoliers 
a coolness occurred between the composer and librettist, owing 
to Gilbert's considering that SoHivan had not supported him in 

a business disagreement with D'Oyly Carte. But the estrange* 
ment was only temporary. Gilbert wrote several more librettos, 
and of these Vlopia Limited (1893) and the exceptionally witty 
Grand Duke (1896) were written in conjunction with Sullivan. 
As a master of metre Gilbert had shown himself consummate, 
as a dealer in quips and paradoxes and ludicrous dilemmas, 
unrivalled. Even for the music of the operas he deserves some 
credit, for the rhythms were frequently his own (as in " I have a 
Song to Sing, O "), and the metres were in many cases invented 
by himself. One or two of his librettos, such as that of Patience, 
are virtually flawless. Enthusiasts are divided only as to the 
comparative merit of the operas. Princess Ida and Patience 
are in some respects the daintiest. Theie is a genuine vein of 
poetry in The Yeomen of the Guard. Some of the drollest songs 
are in Pinafore and Ruddigore. The Gondoliers shows the most 
charming lightness of touch, while with ihe general public The 
Mikado proved the favourite. The enduring popularity of the 
Gilbert and Sullivan operas was abundantly proved by later 
revivals. Among the burthday honours in June 1907 Gilbert was 
given a knighthood. In 1909 his Fallen Pakies (music by 
Edward (krman) was produced at the Savoy. (T. Sc.) 

GILBERT DE LA PORR£e, frequently known as Gilbertus 
Porretanus or Pictaviensis (1070-1x54), scholastic logician and 
theologian, was bom at Poitiers. He was educated under 
Bernard of Chartres and Anselm of Laon. After teadimg for 
about twenty years in Chartres, he lectured on dialectics and 
theology in Paris (from 1137) and in 1x41 returned to Poitiers, 
being elected bishop in the following year. His heterodox 
opinions regarding the doctrine of the Trinity drew upon his 
works the condemnation of the church. The synod of Reims 
in 1x48 prociued papal sanction for four propositions opposed 
to certain of Gilbert's tenets, and his' works were condemned 
until they should be corrected in accordance ^with the principles 
of the church. Gilbert seems to have submitted quietly to this 
judgment; he yielded assent to the four propositions, and 
remained on friendly terms with his antagonists till his death 
on the 4th of September 1x54. Gilbert is almost the only 
logician of the X3th century who is quoted by the greater 
scholastics of the succeeding age. His chief logical work, the 
treatise De sex principiis, was regarded with a reverence almost 
equal to that paid to Aristotle, and furnished matter for numerous 
commentators, amongst them Albertus Magnus. Owing to the 
fame of this work, he is mentioned by Dante as the Magistor 
sex principiarum. The treatise itself is a discussion of the 
Aristotelian categories, specially of the six subordinate modes. 
Gilbert distinguishes in the ten categories two classes, one 
essential, the other derivative. Essential or' inhering {formae 
inhaerentes) in the objects themselves are only substance, quantity, 
quality and relation in the stricter sense of that term. The 
remaining six, when, where, action, passion, position and hiMt, 
are relative and subordinate (formae assi^er^es). This suggestion 
has some interest, but is of no great value, either in logic or in 
the theory of knowledge. More important in the history of 
scholasticism are the theological consequences to which Gilbert's 
realism led him . In the commentary on the treatise De Trinitato 
(erroneoudy attributed to BoCtius) he proceeds from the 
metaphysical notion that pure or abstract being is prior in nature 
to that which is. This pure being is God, and must be distin- 
guished from the triune God as luwwn to us. God is incompre- 
hensible, and the categories cannot be applied to determine his 
enstence. In (knl there is no distinction or difference, whereas 
in all substances or things there is duality, arising from the 
element of matter. Between pure being and substances stand 
the ideas or forms, which subsist, though they are not substances. 
These forms, when materialized, are called formae substantiates 
or formae nativae; they are the essences of things, and in them- 
selves have no relation to the accidents of things. Things are 
temporal, the ideas perpetual, God eternal. The pure form 
of existence, that by which (jod is (jod, must be distin- 
guished from the three persons who are C*od by participation 
in this form. The form or essence is one, the persons or 
substances three. It was this distinction between Deltas Of 



DtviniUM and Deo that kd to the oondeninatioD of Gilbert^ 


De sex primapm Mad oomineataiy on the D0 Trimitalt in Migne, 
Patroiogia Latvia, lav. USS *nd dzxxviii. 1257; aee also Abbe 
Berthaud, Gilberi dt la forrit (Poitiers, 1892); B. Haur6au. 
De la phUosopkk seetasti^tu, pp. 204-318; R. Schmid'a article 
"Gflbeit Porretamis" in Henoe-Hauck, Realmcyk. f, protest 
TheoL (voL 6. 18^): Piantl, Cesckieku d. Logik, ii. ais; Bach, 
Dogmieugtsckifkte, iL 133; article Scholasticism. 

GILHBRT OF SBMPRDieHAII, R. founder of the GilbertiiMS, 

the only idigioas ofder of Eni^iish origin, waa born at Sempiiog- 

ham in Linoolnahiic, c, 1083-1089. He waa educated in France, 

and ordained in 1123, being preaented by his father to the living 

of SempringhauL About 1 135 be establiahed there a convent for 

nnns; and to perform the heavy work and cultivate the fields 

he formed m nnmber of labourers into a society of lay brothers 

attached to the convent. Similar establishments were founded 

ckcwhcfe, and in 1 147 Gilbert tried to get them incorporated in 

the Qsterdan oordcr. Failing in this, he proceeded to form 

commttnities of pricsta and clerics to perform the spiritual 

Btnistrations needed by the nuns. The women lived according 

to the Benedictine rule as interpreted by the Cistercians; the 

men according to the rule of St Augustine, and were canons 

regular. The special constitutions of the order were largely 

taken from those of the Premonstratensian canons and of the 

Cistercians. Like Fontevrault (q.v.) it was a double order, the 

communitks of men and women living side by side; but, though 

the property all belonged to the nuns, the superior of the canons 

was the head of the wbde establishment, and the general superior 

was a canon, called " Master of Sempringham " The general 

chapter was a mixed assembly composed of two canons and two 

nuns from each house; the nuns had to travel to the chapter 

in closed carts. The office was celebrated together in the church, 

a high stone screen separating the two choirs of canons and nuns. 

Tbe order received papal approbation in 1148. By Gilbert's 

death (1x89) there were, nine double moimsteries and four of 

canons only, containing about 700 canons and 1000 nuns in all. 

At the dissolution there were some 95 monasteries, whereof 4 

ranked among the greater monasteries (see list in F. A. Gasquet^s 

Kn^ish Monastic Life), The order never spread beyond En^and. 

The habit of the Gilbertines was black, with a white doak. 

See BoUandiats' Acta Sanctorum (4th of Feb.); William Dugdale, 
Monasticcn (1846); Helyot, Hist, des ordres rdititux (1714), 
iL c. 39. The best modem account is St Gilbert of SempHnikam, 
and Uu Giiberlimes, by Rose Graham (1901). The art. in Dictionary 
«/ NaOomal Bit^apky gives abundant information on St Gilbert, 
Dot b unsatisfactory on tbe order, as it might easily convey the 
impreanoa that the canons and nuns lived together, whereas they 
wcze most carefully separated; and altogether undue prominence is 
given to a nngle scandal. Miss Graham declares that the reputation 
of the order was good until tbe end. (E. C. B.) 

eiLBBBT fOUOT (d. 1x87), bishop of Hereford, and of 
London, is first mentioned as a monk of Quny, whence he was 
called in 1136 to plead the cause of the empress Matilda against 
Stephen at the Roman court. Shortly afterwards be became 
prior of Quny; tben prior of Abb6ville, a house dependent upon 
Quny. In 1139 he was elected abbot of Gloucester. The 
appointment was confirmed by Stephen, and from the ecclesi- 
astical point of view was unexceptionable. But the new abbot 
proved himself a valuable ally of the empress, and her ablest 
controversialist. Gilbert's reputation grew rq>idly. He was 
respected at Rome; and he acted as the representative of the 
primate, Theobald, in the supervision of the Welsh church. In 
1148, on being nominated by the pope to the see of Hereford, 
Gilbert with characteristic wariness sought confirmation both 
from Henry of Anjou and from Stephen. But he was an 
Angevin at heart, and after 1154 was treated by Henry U. with 
every mark of consideration. He was Socket's rival for the 
primacy, and the only bishop who protested against the king's 
choice. Becket, with rare forbearance, endeavoured to win his 
friendship by procuring for him the see of London (1163). But 
Gilbert evaded the customary profesaion of obedience to the 
primate, and apparently aspired to make bis see independent 
of Canterbury. On the questions raised by the Constitutions 
of Clarendon he sided with the king, whose confessor he iMd now 

become. He urged Becket to yield, and, when this 
rejected, eooouraged his fellow-bishops to repudiate the authority 
of the aichbadiop. In the years of controversy which followed 
Becfcet's flight the king depended much upon the bishop's 
skill as a disputant and diplomatist. Gilbert was twice ex* 
communicated by Becket, but both on these andon other occasions 
he showed great deiterity in douching the pope from the cause 
of the exile. To him it was chieOy due that Henry avoided an 
c^ea tooMct with Rome of the kind which John afterwards 
provoked. Gilbert was one of the bishops whose excommunica- 
tion in 1 1 70 provoked the lung's knights to murder Becket; 
but he cannot be reproached with any share in the crime. His 
later years were uneventful, though he enjoyed great influence 
with the king and among hb f ellow-btshops. Scholarly, dignified, 
ascetic in his private life, devoted to the service of the Church, 
he was neverthdesa more respected than loved. His nature waa 
cold; he made few friends; and the taint of a cakulating 
ambition runs through his whole career. He died in the spring 
of Z187. 

See Gilbert's LeIUrs, ed. J. A. Giles (Oxfocd, 1845); lialeriaU 
for Ike History of Tkomas Becket, ed. J. C. Robertson (Rolls series. 
1875-X885); and Miss K. Nocgate's Emdand under Ae Angevin 
i:«i«i (1887). (H.W.C.D.) 

GILBERT (KlNGSUiu.) ISLANDS, an extensive archipelago 
belonging to Great Britain in the mid-western Pacific Ocean, 
lying N. and S. of the equator, and between 170" and x8o" £. 
There are sixteen islands, all coral reefs or atolls, extending in 
crescent form over about five degrees of latitude. The principal 
is Taputenea or Drummond laiUnd. The soil, mostly of coral 
sand, is productive of little dse than the coco-nut palm, and the 
chief source of food supply is the sea. The population of these 
islands presents a remarkable phenomenon; in spite of adverse 
conditions of environment and complete barbarism it is exceed- 
ingly dense, in strong contradistinction to that of many other 
more favoured islands. The hmd area of the group is oiily x66 m., 
yet the population is about 30,000. The Gilbert islanders are 
a dark aiMi coarse typo of the Polynesian race, and show signs 
of much crossing. They are tall and stout, with an average height 
(tf S ^^ S io*t uid are of a vigorous, energetic temperament. 
They are ncariy always naked, but wear a conical hat of pandanus 
leaf. In war they have an armour of i^ted coco-nut fibres. 
They ate fierce fif^ters, their chief weapon being a sword armed 
with sharks' teeth. Their canoes are well made of coco-nut wood 
boards sewn ikeatly together and fastened on frames. British 
and American missionary work has been prosecuted with some 
success. The large population led to the introduction of natives 
from these islands into Hawaii as labourers in 1878-1884, but 
they were ix>t found satisfactory. The islands were discovered 
by John Byron in X76S (one of them bearing his name) ; Captains 
Gilbert and Marshall visited them in 1788; and they were 
aimexed by Great Brit ain in 1892. 

GILBEY, SIR WALTER, zsr Bart. (X83X- ), EngUsh 
wine-merchant, was bom at Bishop Stortford, Heitford^ire, 
in X831. His Esther, the owner and frequently the driver of the 
daily coach between Bishop Stortford and London, died when 
he was eleven years old, and young Gilbey was shortly afterwards 
plaixd in the office of an esUte agent at Tring, subsequently 
obtaining a clerkship in a firm of parliamentary agents in London. 
On the outbreak of the Crimean War, Walter Gilbey and his 
younger brother, Alfred, voltmteered for civilian service at the 
front, and were employed at a convalescent hospital on the 
Dardandles. Returning to London on the declaration of peace, 
Walter and Alfred Gilbey, on the advice of their eldest brother, 
Henry Gilbey, a whole^e wine-merchant, started in the retail 
wine and spirit trade. The heavy duty then levied by the 
British government on French, Portuguese and Spanish wineS 
was prohibitive of a sale among the EngUsh xniddle classes, and 
espedaUy lower middle classes, whose usual alcoholic beverage 
was according beer. Henry Gilbey was of opinion that these 
classes would fiaiAly drink wine if they could get it at a moderate 
price, and by his advice Walter and Alfred determined to push 
the salea of colonial, and particularly of Cape, wines, on which 



the duty was comparatively light. Backed by capital obtained 
through Henry GUbey, they accordingly opened in 1857 a small 
retail business in a basement in Oxford Street, London. The 
Cape wines proved popular, and within three years the brothers 
had 30,000 customers on their books. The creation of the 
off-licence system by Mr Gladstone, then chancellor of the 
exchequer, in x86o, followed by the large reduction in the duty 
on French wines effected by the commercial treaty between 
England and France in i86x, revolutionixed their trade and 
laid the foundation of their fortunes. Three provincial grocers, 
who had been granted the new off-licence, applied to be appointed 
the Gilbeys' agents in their respective districts, and many 
similar applications followed. These were granted, and before 
very long a leading local grocer was acting as the firm's agents 
in every district in England. The grocer who dealt in the 
Gilbeys' wines and spirits was not allowed to sell those of any 
other firm, and the Gilbeys in return handed over to him aU 
their existing customers in his district. This arrangement was 
of mutual advantage, and the Gilbeys' business increased so 
rapidly that in 1864 Henry Gilbey abandoned his own under- 
taking to join his brothers. In 2867 the three brothers secured 
the old Pantheon theatre and concert hall in Oxford Street for 
their headquarters. In 1875 the firm purchased a large claret- 
producing estate in MM6c, on the banks of the Gironde, and 
became also the proprietors of two large whisky-distiUeries in 
Scotland. In 1893 the business was converted, for family 
reasons, into a private limited liability company, of which Walter 
Gilbey, who in the same year was created a baronet, was chair- 
man. Sir Walter Gilbey also became well known as a breeder 
of shire horses, and he did much to improve the breed of English 
horses (other than race-horses) generally, and wrote extensively 
on the subject. He became president of the Shire Horse Society, 
of the Haduiey Horse Society, and of the Hunters' Improve- 
ment Society, and he was the founder and chairman of the 
London Cart Horse Parade Sodcty. He was also a practical 
agriculturist, and president of the Royal Agricultural Society. 

GILDAS, or GxLOixs (e. 516-570), . the earliest of British 
historians (see Celt: Literature^" Welsh"), suroamed by some 
Sapiens, and by others Badonicus, seems to have been bom in 
the year 516. Regarding him little certain is known, beyond 
some isolated particulars that may be gathered from hints 
dropped in the course of his work. Two short treatises exist, 
purporting to be lives of Gildas, and ascribed respectively to the 
nth and 12th centuries; but the writers of both aro believed to 
have confounded two, if not more, persons that had borne the 
name. It is from an incidental remark of his own, namely, that 
the year of the siege of Mount Badon — one of the battles fought 
between the Saxons and the Britons — ^was also the year of his 
own nativity, that the date of his birth has been derived; the 
place, however, is not mentioned. His assertion that he was 
moved to undertake his task mainly by " zeal for God's house and 
for His holy law," and the very free use he has made of quotations 
from the Bible, leave scarcely a doubt that hb was an ecclesiastic 
of some order or other. In addition, we learn that be went 
abroad, probably to France, in his thirty-fourth year, where, 
after 10 years of hesitation and preparation, he composed, about 
560, the work bearing his name. His materials, he tells us, 
were collected from foreign rather than native sources, the 
Utter of which had been put beyond his reach by circumstances. 
The Cambrian Annals give 570 as the year of his death. 

The writings of Gildas have come down to ns under the title 
of CUdae Sapieniis de excidio Britanniae liber querttlus. Though 
at first written consecutively, the work is now usually divided 
into three portions, — a preface, the history proper, and an 
epistle,— the last, which is largely made up of passages and 
texts of Scripture brought together for the purpose of condemning 
the vices of his countrymen and their rulers, being the least 
important, though by far the longest of the three. In the second 
he passes in brief review the history of Britain fibm its invasion 
by the Romans till his own times. Among other matters refer- 
ence is made to the introduction of Christianity in the reign of 
Tiberius; the penecution under Diocletian; the spraid of the 

Arian heresy; the election of Maximus as emperor by the legions 
in Britain, and his subsequent death at Aquileia; the incursions 
of the Picts and Scots into the southern part of the island; the 
temporary assistance rendered to the harassed Britons by the 
Romans; the final abandonment of the island by the latter; 
the coming of the Saxons and their reception by Guortigem 
(Vortigem); and, finally, the conflicts between the Britons, led 
by a noble Roman, Ambrosius Aurelianus, and the new invaders. 
Unfortunately, on almost every point on which he touches, the 
statements of Gildas aro vague and obscure. With one exnp- 
tion already alluded to, no dates are given, and events are not 
always taken up in the order of their occurrence. These faults 
are of less importance during the period when Greek and Roman 
writers notice the affairs of Britain; but they become more 
serious when, as is the case from nearly the beginning of the 5th 
century to the date of his death, Gildas's brief narrative is our 
only authority for most of what passes current as the history of 
our island during those years. Thus it is on his sole, though in 
this instance perhaps trustworthy, testimony that the famous 
letter rests, said to have been sent to Rome in 446 by the despair- 
ing Britons, commencing: — ** To Agitius (Aetius), consul for 
the third time, the groans of the Britons." 

Gildas's treatise was first published in 1525 fay Pdydore Vetgii, 
but with many avowed alterations and omissions. In 1568 J<Min 
Josseline, secretary to Archbishop Parker, issued a new edition of it 
more in conformity with manuscript authority; and in 1691 a 
still more carefully revised edition appeared at Oxfonl by Thomas 
Gale. It was frequently reprinted on the Continent ourins; the 
X6th century, and once or twice since. The next English ecUtion, 
described by Potthast as edilio pessimal was that pubushed by the 
English Historical Society in 1838, and edited by the Rev. J. Steven- 
son. The text of Gildas founded on Gale's eidition collated with 
two other MSS., with elaborate introductions, is included in the 
MoHumenta hisUnica Britannicat edited by Petrie and Sharpe 
(London, 1848). Another edition is in A. W. Haddan and W. 
Stubbs, Councils and Eccles. Documents relating to Great Britain 
(Oxford, 1869); the latest edition is that by Theodor Mommsen in 
Monum* Germ. hist. aucL antiq. xiiL (Chronica min. iii.), 1894. 

GILDER, RICHARD WATSON (1844-2909), American editor 
and poet, was bom in Bordentown, New Jersey, on Uie 8th of 
February 1844, a brother of William Henry Gilder (1838-1900), 
the Arctic explorer. He was educated at Bellevue Seminary, 
an institution conducted by his father, the Rev. William Henry 
Gilder (z8i 2-1864), in Flushing, Long Island. After three years 
(1865-1868) on the Newark, New Jersey, Daily Advertiser, he 
founded; with Newton Crane, the Newark Morning Register, In 
1869 he became editor of Hours at Home, and in 2870 assistant 
editor of Scribner^s Monthly (eleven years later re-named Tke 
Century Magazine), of which he became editor in 1882. He was 
one of the founders of the Free Art League, of the International 
Copyright League, and of the Authors' Qub; was chairxnan of 
the New York Tenement House Commission in 2894; and was a 
prominent member of the National Institute of Arts and Letters, 
of the Council of the National Civil Service Reform League, and 
.of the executive committee of the Citizens' Union of New York 
City. His poems, which are essentially lyrical, have been collected 
in various volumes, including Five Books of Song (1894), Jn 
Palatine and other Poems (2898), Poems and Inscriptionsd^i), 
and In the Heights (2905). A complete edition of his poems was 
published in 2908. He idso edited " Sonnets from tke Portuguese ** 
and other Poems by Elizabeth Barrett Browning; "One Word 
More" and other Poems by Robert Browning (2905). He died in 
New York on the 28th of November 2909. His wife, Helena 
de Kay, a grand-daughter of Joseph Rodman Drake, assisted, 
with Saint Gaudcns and others, in founding the Society of 
American Artists, now merged in the National Academy, 
and the Art Students' League of New York. She translated 
Sensier's biography of Millet, and painted, before her marriage 
in 2874, studies in flowers and idol heads, much admired for 
their feeling and delicate colouring. 

classical scholar, was bom in Charleston, South Carolina, on the 
23rd of October 2832, ton of Benjamin Gildcrsleeve (2792-2875,) 
a Presbyterian evangelist) and editor of the Charleston Christian 
Observer in 1826-2845, of the Richmond (Va.) Watchman and 



Oftacrvcr la 184S-18S6, and of TktkCtnlrai Prtsbyttrian in 1856- 
i860. The ton graduated at Princeton in 1849, studied under 
Frnns in Beriui, under Friedrich Ritschl at Bonn and under 
Schneidewin at G5ttingen» where he received his doctor's degree 
in 1853. From 1856 to 1876 be was professor of Greek in the 
Univenity of Virginia, hokUng the chair of Latin also in t86i- 
1866; and in 1876 he became professor of Greek in the newly 
founded Johns Hopkins University. In 1880 The Awterican 
Journal of PkUoUgft a quarterly publisbed by the Johns Hopkins 
University, was established under his editorial diarge, and his 
strong personality was expressed in the department of the Journal 
headed ** Brief Report " or " Lanx Satura," and in the earliest 
years of its puUicatioD every petty detail was in his hands. 
Hia style in it, as elsewhere, is in striking contrast to that of the 
typical rlassirwl schobr, and accords with his conviction that the 
true aim of scholarship is " that which is." He piAlished a 
Laiim Grammar (1867 ; revised with the cooperation of Gonsales 
B. Lodge, 1894 and 1899) and a Latin Series for use in secondary 
schools (1875), both marked by lucidity of order and mastery of 
grammatical theory and methods. His edition of Ptrshu ( 1875) 
is of great value. But his bient was rather toward Gredc than 
Latin. His special interest in Christian Greek was partly the 
cause of his editing in 1877 Tko Apologies of Jusfm Martyr, 
" which " (to use his own words) " I used unblushlngly as a 
repository tot my ^ntactical formulae." Gildetsleeve's studies 
under Frans had no doubt quickened his interest in Greek 
syntax, and his bgic, untrammelled by previous categories, and 
his marvellous sympathy with the language were displayed in 
this most unlikely of places. His Syntax ofOassk Creek (Part L, 
1900, with C W. E. MilIer)collects these formulae. Gildersleeve 
edited la 1885 The Olympian and Pythian Odes of Pindar, with 
a brilliant and valuable introduction. His views on the function 
of grammar were summarized in a paper en The Spiritual Rights 
of Minute Research delivered at Bryn Mawr on the i6th of June 
1895. His collected contributions to literary periodicals appeared 
in 1890 under the Hilt- Essays and Studies Educatioiul and 

OILDIVO, the art of spreading gold, either by mechanical, 
or by diemical means, over the surface of a body for the purpose 
of ornament. The art of gilding was known to the ancients. 
According to Herodotus, the Egyptians were accustomed to gild 
wood and metals; and gilding by means of gold plates isfrcquently 
mentioned in the Old Testament. Pliny informs us that the first 
gilding seen at Rome was after the destruction of Carthage, under 
the censorship of Lucius Mummius, when the Romans began to 
gild the ceilings of their temples and palaces, the Capitol being the 
first place on which this enrichment was bestowed. But he adds 
that luxury advanced on them so rapidly that in a little time you 
might see all, even private and poor persons, gild the walls, vaults, 
and other parts of their dwelUngs. Owing to the comparative 
thickness of the gold-leaf used in andentgilding, the traces of it 
which yet remain are remarkably brilliant and solid. Gilding 
has in all times occupied an important place in the ornamental 
arts of Oriental countries; and the ifltive processes pursued in 
India at the present day may be taken as typical of the arts as 
practised from the earliest periods. For the gilding of copper, 
employed in the decoration of temple domes and other large 
works, the following is an outline of the processes employed. 
The metal surface is thoroughly scraped, cleaned and polished, and 
next heated in a fire sufficiently to remove any traces of grease or 
other impurity which may remain from the operation of polishing. 
It is then dipped in an add solution prepared from dried unripe 
apricots, and rubbed with pumice or brick powder. Next, the 
surface is rubbed over with mercury which forms a superfidal 
amalgam with the copper, after which it is lef t«ome hours in dean 
water, again washed with the add solution, and dried. It is 
now ready for recdving the gold, which Is laid on In leaf, and, on 
adhering, assumes a grey appearance from combining with the 
mercury, but on the application of heat the latter metal volatilizes, 
leaving the gold a dull greyish hue. The colour is brought up 
by means of nibbing with agate burnishers. The weight of 
jnercuiy used in this process is double that of the gold laid oB| 

and the thickness of the gilding is regulated by the dicumstances 
or necessities of the case. For the gilding of iron or steel, the 
surface is first scratched over with chequered h'nes, then washed 
in a hot solution of greeo apricots, dried and heated just short 
of red-heat. The gold-leaf is then laid on, and rubbed in with 
agate burnishers, when it adheres by catching Into the prepared 
scratched surface. 

Modern gilding is applied to nufflcrotis and diveiae surfaces 
and by various <Ustinct processes, so that the art is prosecuted 
in many ways, and is part of widdy different ornamental and 
usdul arts. It forms an.important and essential' part of frame- 
making (see Casving and Gilding); it is largdy employed 
in connexion with cabinet-work, decorative painting and house 
ornamentation; and it also bulks largely in bookbinding and 
ornamental leather work. Further, ^ding is much employed 
for coating baser metals, as in button-making, in the gilt toy trade, 
in electro-gilt reproductions and in dectro-plating; and it is 
also a characteristic feature in thedecoration of pottery, porcelain 
and glass. The various processes fall under one or other of two 
heads — mechanical gilding and gilding by chemical agency. 

Mechanical CUding embraces all the operations by which gold- 
leaf is prepared (see Golobeating),' and the several processes 
by which it is mechanically attached to the surfaces it is intended 
to cover. It thus embra c es the burnish or water-gilding and the 
oil-gildii^ of the carver and gilder, and the gildii^ operations of 
the bouse decorator, the sign-painter, the bookbinder, the paper- 
stainer and several others. Polished iron, steel and other metals 
are gilt mcchanicalty by applying gold-leaf to the metallic surface 
at a te mp erature just under red^noit, preaing the leaf on with a 
burnisher and rehcatine, when additional mi may. be laid on. 
The process is complctca by cold burnishing. 

Chemical Citding embraces those processes in which the gold 
used is at some stage in a state of chemical combination. -Of these 
the following are the prindpal:— > 

Cold CUdtng. — In -this process the gold is obtained in a state of 
extremely fine division, and aoplied oy mechanical means. Cold 
gilding on silver is performed oy a solution of gold in aqua-rcgia, 
applira bv dipping a linen rag mto the solution; burninK it, and 
rubbing the black and heavy ashes on the silver with the finger 
or a piece of leather or cork. Wet gilding b effected by means of 
a dilute solution of chloride of gold with twice its quantity of ether. 
The liquids arc agitated and allowed to rest, when tne ether separates 
and floats on the surface of the acid. The whole mixture is then 
poured into a funnel with a smaH aperture, and allowed to rest 
lor some time, when the acid is run off and the ether separated. 
The ether will bC found to have laken-up all the gold from the acid, 
and may be used for gilding iron or steel, for which purpose the 
metal is polished with the finest emery and spirits of wine. The 
ether is then applied with a small brush, and as it evaporates it 
deposits the gold, which can now be heated and polisned. For 
small delicate figures a pen or a fine brush mav be used (or laying 
on the ether solution. Fire-gilding or Wash-gilding is a process by 
which an amalgam of gold is applied to metallic surfaces, the mercury 
bdng subsequently volatiliaed, leaving a film of gold or an amalgam 
containing from 13 to 16% of mercury. In the preparation of the 
amalgam the gold must first be reduced to thin plates or graios, 
which arc heated red hot, and thrown into mercury previously heated, 
tin it begins to smoke. Upon stirring the mercury with an Iron 
rod, the gold totally disappears. The proportion of mercury to 
gold is generally as six or dght to one. • when the amalgam is 
cdd it IS squcoed through chamois leather for the purpose of 
separating toe superfluous mercury; the gold, with about twice 
its weight of mercury, remains behind, forming a yellowish silvery 
mass m the consistence of butter. When the metal to be gilt is 
wrought or chased, it ought to be covered with mercury bdore 
the amalgam is applied, that this may be more easily spread : but 
when the surface 01 the metal is plain, the amalgam may be applied 
to it direct. When no such preparation is applied, the surface to be 
gilded is simply bitten and cleaned with nitric acid. A deposit of 
mercury is oouined on a metallic surface by means of " quicksilver 
water, a sdution of nitrate of mercury, — ^the nitric acid attacking 
the metal to which it is api^ied. and thus leaving a film of free 
metallic mercury^ The amalgam being equally spread over the 
prepared surface of the metal, thfe roercuiy is then sublimed by a 
heat just suffident for that purpose; for, if it is too great, part of 
the gold may be driven off. or it may run together and leave some 
of the surface of the metal bare. When the mercury has evaporated, 
whk:h is known by the surface having entirely become of a dull 
yellow colour, the metal must undergo other operations, by which the 
nne gold colour is given tb it. First, the gilded surface is rubbed 
with a scratch brush of brass wire, until its surface be smooth: then 
it is covered over with a composition called " gilding wax," and 
again exposed to the fire until the wax is burnt off. This wax is 
oonpoaed of beeswax mixed with some of the folk»wing substances. 



viz. red ochre, verdqcris. copper acalM. alum, vitriol, bonx. By 
this operation the colour of the KikJin^ is heightened; and the 
effect seems to be produced by a perfect dissipation of some mercurv 
remaining after the former operation. Tne dissipation is well 
effected by this equable application of heat. The gilt surface is then 
covered over with nitre, alum or other salts, ground togedier. and 
mixed up into a paste with water or weak ammonia. The piece of 
metal thus covered is exposed to a certain degree of heat, and then 
quenched in water. By this method its colour is further improved 
and brought nearer to that of gold, probably by removing any 
particles of copper that may have been on the gift surface. This 
process, when skilfully carried out. produces gilding of great solidity 
and beauty: but owine to the exposure of the workmen to mercurial 
fumes, it is very unhealthy, and further there is much loss of mercury. 
Numerous contrivances have been introduced toobviate these serious 
evils. Gilt brass buttons used for uniforms are gilt by this process, 
and there is an act of parliament (1796) yet unrepealed which pre- 
scribes 5 grains of gold as the smallest quantity that may be used . 
for the gilding of 12 dozen of buttons 1 in. in diameter. 

aiding of PolUr^ and Porcelain. '^The Quantity of gold consumed 
for these purposes is very large. The gold used is dissolved in aqua* 
regia, and the acid is driven oflf by heat, or the gold may be precipi- 
tated by means of sulphate of iron. In this pulverulent state the 
gold is mixed with ^th of its weight of oxide of bismuth, together 
with a small quantity of borax and gum water. The mixture is 
applied to the articles with a camel's hair pencil, and after passing 
tnrough the fire the gold is of a dingy colour, bul the lustre is brought 
out by burnishing with agate and bloodstone, and afterwards 
cleaning with vinegar or white-lead. 

GILDS, or Guilds. Medieval gilds were voluntary associations 
formed for the mutual aid and protection of their members. 
Among the gildsmen there was a strong spirit of fraternal co- 
opcraiioa or Christian brotherhood, with a mixture of worldly 
and religious ideals — the support of the body and the salvation of 
the soul. Early meanings of the root gild or geld were expiation, 
penalty, sacrifice or worship, feast or banquet, and contribution 
or payment; it is difficult to determine which is the earliest 
meaning, and wc are not certain whether the gildsmen were 
originally those who contributed to a common fund or those who 
worshipped or feasted together. Their fraternities or societies 
may be divided into three classes: religious or benevolent, 
merchant and craft gilds. The last two categories, which do not 
become prominent anywhere in Europe until the 12th century, 
bad, like all gilds, a religious tinge, but their aims were primarily 
worldly, and their functions were mainly of an economic character. 

I. Origin. — Various theories have been advanced concerning 
the origin of gilds. Some writers regard them as a continuation of 
the Roman collegia and sodalitates, but there is little evidence to 
prove the unbroken continuity of existence of the Roman and 
Germanic fraternities. A more widely accepted theory derives 
gilds wholly or in part from the early Germanic or Scandinavian 
sacrificial banquets. Much influence is ascribed to this heathen 
element by Lujo Brentano, Karl Hegel, W. E. Wilda and other 
writers. This view does not seem to be tenable, for the old 
sacrificial carousals lack two of the essential elements of the gilds, 
namely corporative solidarity or permanent association and the 
spirit of Christian brotherhood. Dr Max Pappenheiro has 
ascribed the origin of Germanic gilds to the northern " foster- 
brotherhood " or ** sworn-brotherhood,*' which was an artificial 
bond of union between two or more persons. After intermingling 
their blood In the earth and performingolhcr peculiar ceremonies, 
the two contracting parties with grasped hands swore to avenge 
any injury done to either of them. The objections to this 
theory are fully stated by Hegel {StddU urtd Cilden, i. 250-253). 
The foster-brotherhood seems to have been unknown to the 
Franks and the Anglo-Saxons, the nations in which medieval 
gilds first appear; and hence Dr Pappenhcim's conclusions, 
if tenable at all, apply only to Denmark or Scandinavia. 

No theory on this subject can be satisfactory which wholly 
ignores the influence of the Christian church. Imbued with the 
idea of the brotherhood of man, the church naturally fostered 
the early growth of gilds and tried to make them displace the 
old heathen banquets. The work of the church was, however, 
directive rather than creative. Gilds were a natural manifesta- 
tion of the associative spirit which is inherent in mankind. The 
same needs produce in different ages associations which have 
striking resemblances, but those of each age have peculiarities 

which indicate a spontaneous growth. It Is not oecessaiy to 
seek the germ of gilds in any antecedent age or institution. 
When the old kin-bond or maegtk was beginning to weaken or 
dissolve, and the state did not yet a£ford adequate protection to 
its citiaeos, individuals naturally united for mutual help. 

Gilds are first mentioned in the Carolingian capitulanes of 
779 and 789, and in the enactments made by the synod of Nantes 
early in the 9ih century, the text of which has been preserved 
in the ecclesiastical ordinances of Hincmar of Rheims (AJX852). 
The capitularies of 805 and 821 also contain vague references 
to sworn unions of some sort, and a capitulary of 884 prohibits 
villeins from forming associations " vulgarly called gilds " 
against those who have despoiled them. The Carc^ngiaas 
evidently regarded such "conjurations" as "conspirations" 
dangerous to., the state. The gilds of Norway, Denmark and 
Sweden are finA. mentioned in the zitb, 12th and 14th centuries 
respect! vdy; those of France and the Netherlands hi the 

Many writers believe that the earUest references to gilds come 
from England. The laws of Ine speak of gegHdan who help each 
other pay the toergeld, but it is not entirely certain that they 
were members of gild fraternities in the later sense. These are 
more clearly referred to in England in the second half of the 
Qth century, though we have little information concerning 
them before the xith century. To the first half of that century 
belong the statutes of the fraternities of Cambridge, Abbotsbury 
and Exeter. They are important because they form the oldest 
body of gild ordinances extant in Europe. The ibanes' gild at 
Cambridge afforded help in blood-feucb, and provided for the 
payment of the wcridd in case a member killed any one. The 
religious element was more prominent in Grey's gild at Abbots- 
bury and in the fraternity at Exeter; their orditiances exhibit 
much solicitude for the salvation of the brethren's souls. The 
Exeter gild also gave assistance when property was destroyed 
by fire. Prayers for the dead, attendance at funerals of gildsmen, 
periodical banquets, the solemn entrance oath, fines (or neglect 
of duty and for improper conduct, contributions to a common 
^purse. mutual assistance in distress* periodical meetings in (he 
gildhall, — in short, all the characteristic features of the later 
gilds already appear in the sututes of these Anglo-Saxon 
fraternities. Some continental writers, in dealing with the 
origin of municipal government throughout western Europe, 
have, however, ascribed too raucli importance to the Anglo-Saxon 
gilds, exaggerating their prevalence and contending that they 
form the germ of medieval municipal government. This view 
rests almost entirely on conjecture; there is no good evidence 
to show that there was any organic connexion between gilds 
and municipal government in England before the coming of the 
Normans. It should also be noted that there is no trace ol the 
existence of cither craft or merchant gilds in England before 
the Norman Conquest. Commerce and industry were not yet 
sufficiently developed to call for the creation of such associations. 

2. JUlifious Gilds ajter tlie Norman Conquest. — Though we 
have not much information concerning the religious gilds in 
the X3th centiiry, they doubtless flourished under the Anglo- 
Norman kings, and we know that they were nimwrotis, especially 
in the boroughs, from the 13th century onward. In 1388 
parliament ordered that every sheriff in England should call 
upon the masters and wardens of all gilds and brotherhoods 
to send to the king's council in Chancery, before the and of 
February 1389, full returns regarding iheir foundation, ordin- 
ances and property. Many of these returns were edited by 
J. Toulmin Smith (181^1869). and they throw much light on the 
functions of the gilds. Their ordinances are similar to those of 
the above-mentioned Anglo-Saxon fraternities. Each member 
look an oath of admission, paid an entrance-fee, and made a 
small annual contribution to the (x>mmon fund. The brethreu 
were aided in old age, sickness and poverty, often also in cases 
of loss by robbery, shipwreck and conflagration; for example, 
any member of the gild of St Catherine, Aldersgate, was to be 
assisted if he " fall into poverty or be injured through age, or 
through fire or water, thieves or sickness." Alms were often 



given even to noti-giMsinMi; lights mtn supported at cenam 
altars; feasts and processions were lield periodkally; the 
funerab of brethren were attended; and masses for the dead 
were provided from the 'common pucae or from special contribu- 
tions made by the giJdsmen. Some of the religious gilds 
supported schools, or helped to maintain roads, bridges and 
town-waUs, or even- came, in course of time, to be closely con- 
nected with the government of the borough; but, as a rtile, 
they were simply private societies with a limited sphere of 
activity. They are important because they played a prominent 
r6ie in the social life of England, especially as eleemosynary 
institutions, down to the time of their suppression in 1547. 
Religious gilds, closely resembling those of England, also 
flourished on the continent during the middle ages. 

3. Tke Gild Mackamt. — The merchant and craft fraternities 
are particularly interesting to students of economic and municipal 
history. The gild merchant came into existence in England 
soon after the Norman Conquest, as a result of the increuing 
importance of trade, and it may have been transplanted from 
Normandy. Until clearer evidence of foreign influence is found, 
it may, however, be safer to regard it simply as a new application 
of the old gild principle, though this new application may have 
been stimulated by continental example. The evidence seems 
to indicate the pre<existence of the gild merchant in Normandy, 
but it is not mentioned anywhere on the continent before the 
nth century. It spread rapidly in England, and from the 
reign of John onward wc have evidence of its existence in many 
English boroughs. But in some prominent towns, notably 
London, C<rfchester, Norwich and the Cinque Ports, it seems 
never to have been adopted. In fact it played a more conspicuous 
rAlc in the small boroughs than in the large ones. It was regarded 
by the townsmen as one of their raost important privileges. 
lis chief function was to regulate the trade monopoly conveyed 
to the borough by the royal grant of giU^ nureatoria. A grant 
of this sort implied that the gildsmen had the right to trade 
freely in the town, and to impose payments and restrictions 
upon others who desired to exercise that privilege. The ordin- 
ances of a gild merchant thus aim to protect the brethren from 
the commercial competition of strangers or i^on-gildsmen. 
More freedom of trade was allowed at all times in the selling of 
wares by wholesale, and also in retail dealings during the lime 
of markets and fairs. The ordinances were enforced by an 
alderman with the assistance of two or more deputies, or by one 
or two masters, wardens or keepers. The iforwempcc/ies were 
periodical meetings at which the brethren feasted, revised their 
ordinances, admitted new members, elected officers and trans- 
acted other business* 

It has often been asserted that the gUd merchant and the 
borough were identical^ awd that the former was the basis of the 
whole municipal constitution. But recent research has dis* 
credited this theory both in England and on the continent. 
Much evidence has been produced to show t hat gild and borough, 
gildsmen and burgesses, were originally distinct conceptions, 
and that they continued to be discruninated in most towns 
throughout the middle ages. Admission to the gild was not 
restricted to burgesses; nor did the brethren form an aristocratic 
body having control over the whole municipal polity. No good 
evidence has, moreover, been advanced to prove that tlds or 
any other kind of gild was the germ of the municipal constitution. 
On the other hand, the gild merchant was certainly an official 
organ or department of the borough administration, and it 
exerted considerable influence upon the economic and corporative 
growth of the English municipalities. 

Histodans have expressed divergent views regarding the 
early rdations of the craftsmen and their fraternities to the gild 
merchant. One of the main questions in depute is whether 
artisans were excluded from the gild merchant. Many of them 
seem to have been admitted to membership. They were regarded 
as merchants, for they bought raw material and sold the manu- 
factured commodity; no sharp line of demarcation was drawn 
bet ween the two classes in the nth and x3Ch centuries. Separate 
aocieties of craftsmen were formed in England soon after the 

gild merchant came into existence: but at first they were few 
in number. The gild merchant did not give birth to craft 
fraternities or have ansrthing to do with their origin; nor did 
it delegate its authority to them. In fact, there seems to have 
been little or no organic connexion between the two classes of 
gilds. As has already been intimated, however, many artisans 
probably bek>nged both tothdrown craft fraternity and to the gild 
merchant, and the latter, owing to its great power in the town, 
may have exercised some sort of supervision over the craftsmen 
and their societies. When the king bestowed upon the tanners 
or weavers or any other body of artisans the right to hi^^e a 
gild, they secured the monopoly of working and trading in their 
branch of industry. Thu»wit h every creation of a craft fraternity 
the gild merchant was weakened and its sphere of activity was 
diminished, though the new bodies were subsidiary to the older 
and larger fraternity. The greater the commercial and industrial 
prosperity of a town, the more rapid was the multiplication of 
craft gilds, which was a natural result of the ever-increasing 
division of labour. The old gild merchant remained longest 
intact and powerful in the smaller borou^s, in which, owing 
to the predominance of agriculture, few or no craft gilds were 
formed. In some of the larger towns the crafts were prominent 
already in the ijlh century, but they became much more pro- 
minent in the first half of the 14th century. Their increase in 
number and power was particularly rapid in the time of Edward 
III., whose reign marks an era of industrial progress. . Many 
master craftsmen now became wealthy employers of labour, 
dealing extensively in the wares which they produced. The class 
of dealcfs or raerchanli, as distinguished from trading artisans, 
also greatly increased and established separate fraternities. 
When these various unions of dealers and of craftsmen embraced 
all the trades and branches of production in the town, little or 
no vitality remained in the old gild merchant; it ceased to have 
an independent sphere of activity. The tendency was for the 
single organization, with a general monopoly of trade, to be 
replaced by a number of separate Organuations representing 
the various trades and handicrafts. In short, the function of 
guarding and supervising the trade monopoly split up into 
various fragments, the aggregate of the crafts superseding the 
old general gild merchant. This transference of the authority 
of the latter to a number of distinct bodies and the consequent 
disintegration of the old organization was a gradual spontaneous 
movement, — a process of slow displacement, or natural growth 
and decay, due to the play of economic forces, — which, generally 
speaking, may be assigned to the i4lh and isth centuries, the 
very period in which the craft gilds attained the zenith of their 
power. While in most (owns the name and the old organization 
of the gild merchant thus disappeared and the institution was 
displaced by the aggregate of the crafts towards the close of the 
middle ages, in some places it survived long after the 15th 
century either as a religious fraternity, shorn of its old functions, 
or as a periodical feast, or as a vague term applied to the whole 
municipal corporation. 

On the continent of Europe the medieval gild merchant played 
a less important r61e than in England. In Germany, France 
and the Netherlands it occupies a less prominent place in the 
town charters and in the municipal polity, and often corresponds 
to the later fraternities of English dealers established either to 
carry on foreign commerce or to regulate a particular part of the 
local trade monopoly. 

4. Craft Gilds. — A craft gUd usually comprised all the artisans 
in a single branch of industry in a particular town. Such a 
fraternity was commonly called a " mistery " or " company " 
in the isth and x6th centuries, though the old term "gild" 
was not yet obsolete. " Gild " was also a common designation 
in north Germany, while the corresponding term in south 
Germany was Zunfi, and in France mitier. These societies are 
not clearly visible in England or on the continent before the early 
part of the 12th century. With the expansion of trade and 
industry the number of artisans increased, and they banded 
together for mutual protection. Some German writers have 
maintaioed that these craft organizations emanated from 



manorial groups of workmen, but strong arguments have been 
advanced against the validity of this theory (notably by F. 
Kcutgen). It is unnecessary to daborate any profound theory 
regarding the origin of the craft gilds. The union of men of the 
same occupation was a natural tendency of the age. In the 
13th century the trade of England continued to expand and 
the number of craft gilds increased. In the 14th century they 
were fully developed and in a flourishing condition; by that time 
each branch of industry in every large town had its gild. The 
development of these societies was even more rapid on the con- 
tinent than in England. 

Their organi2ation and aims were in general the same through- 
out western Europe. Officers, commonly called wardens in 
England, were elected by the members, and their chief function 
was to supervise the quality of the wares produced, so as to 
secure good and honest workmanship. Therefore, ordinances 
were made regulating the hours of labour and tne terms of 
admission to the gild, including apprenticeship. Other ordin- 
ances required members to make periodical payments to a 
common fund, and to participate in certain common religious 
observances, festivities and pageants. But the regulation of 
industry was always paramount to social and religious aims; 
the chief object of the craft gild was to supervise the processes 
of manufacture and to control the monopoly of working and 
dealing in a particular branch of industry. 

We have already called attention to' the gradual displacement 
of the gild merchant by the craft organizations. The relatioas 
of the former to the latter must now be considered more in 
detail. There was at no time a general struggle in England 
between the gild merchant and the craft gilds, though in a few 
towns there seems to have been some friction between merchants 
and artisans. There is noexaa parallel in England to the conflict 
between these two classes in Scotland in the i6th century, or to 
the great continental revolution of the 13th and i4tfa centuries, 
by which the crafts threw off the yoke of patrician .government 
and secured more independence in the management of their own 
affairs and more participation in the civic administration. The 
main causes of these conflicts on the continent were the monopoly 
of power by the patricians, acts of violence committed by them, 
their bad management of the finances and their partisan admini- 
stration of justice. In some towns the victory of the artisans 
in the 14th century was so complete that the whole civic con- 
stitution was remodelled with the craft fraternities as a basis. 
A widespread movement of this sort would scarcely be found in 
England, where trade and industry were less developed than on 
the continent, and where the motives of a class conflict between 
merchants and craftsmen were less potent. Moreover, borough 
government in England seems to have been mainly democratic 
until the 14th or 15th century; there was no oligarchy to be 
depressed or suppressed. Even if there had been motives for 
uprisings of artisans such as took place in Germany and the 
Netherlands, the English kings would probably have intervened 
True, there were p<^ular uprisings in England, but they were 
usually conflicts between the poor and the rich; the crafts as 
such seldom took part in these tumults. While many continental 
municipalities were becoming more democratic in the 14th 
century, those of England were drifting towards oligarchy, 
towards government by a close " select body.'* As a rule the 
craft gilds secured no dominant influence in the boroughs of 
England, but remained subordinate to the town government. 
Whatever power they did secure, whether as potent subsidiary 
organs of the municipal polity for the regulation of trade, or as 
the chief or sole medium for the acquisition of citizenship, or as 
integral parts of the common council, was, generally speaking, 
the logical sequence of a gradual economic development, and 
not the outgrowth of a revolutionary movement by which 
oppressed craftsmen endeavoured to throw off the yoke of an 
arrogant patrician gild merchant. 

Two new kinds of craft fraternities appear in the 14th century 
and become more prominent in the isth, namely, the merchants' 
and the journeymen's companies. The inisteries or companies 
of merchants traded in one or more kinds of wares^ They were 

pre-eminently dealers, who soM what others ptoduced. Henft 
they should not be confused with the old gild merchant, which 
originally comprised both merchants and artisans, and had the 
whole monopoly of the trade of the town. In most cases, the 
company of merehants was merely one of the craft organisations 
which superseded the gild merchanL 

In the 14th century the journeymen or yeomen began to set 
up fraternities in defence of their rights. The formation of these 
societies marks a cleft within the ranks of some particular class 
of artisans — a conflict between employers, or master artisans, 
and workmen. The journeymen combined to protect their 
spedal interests, notably as regards hours of work and rates of 
wages, and they fought with the masters over the labour question 
in all its aspects. The resulting struggle of organized bodies 
of masters and journeymen was widespread throughout western 
Europe, J>ut it was more prominent in Germany than in France or 
England. This conflict aras indeed one of the main features ol 
German industrial life in the 15th century. In England the 
fraternities of journeymen, after struggling a while for complete 
independence, seem to have fallen under the supervision and 
control of the masters' gilds; in othet words, they became 
subsidiary or aflliliated organs of the older craft fraternities. 

An interesting phenomenon in connexion with the organisa- 
tion of crafts is their tendency to amalgamate, which is occasion* 
ally visible in England in the isth century, and more frequently 
in the 16th and 17th. A similar tendency is visible in the 
Netherlands and in some other parts of the continent already 
in the '14th century. Several fraternities — old gilds or new 
companies, with their respective cognate or heterogeneous 
branches of industry and trade — were fused into one Uxly. In 
some towns all the crafts were thus consolidated into a single 
fraternity, in this case a body was reprctduced which regulated 
the whole trade monopoly of the borough, and hence bore some 
resemblance to the old gild merchant. 

In dealing briefly with the modern history of craft gilds, we may 
confine our attenu'on to England. In the Tudor period the 
policy of the crown was to bring them under public or national 
controL Laws were passed, for example in 1 503, requiring that 
new ordinances of " fellowships of crafts or misteries'" should be 
approved' by the royal justices or by other crown officers; and 
the authority of the companies to fix the price of wares was thus 
restricted. The statute of 5 Elizabeth, b. 4, also curtailed thdr 
jurisdiction over journesrmen and apprentices^ (see Appbentice- 

The craft fraternities were not suppressed by the statute of 
1547 (i Edward VI.). They were indeed expressly exempted 
from its general operation. Such portions of their revenues as 
were devoted to dcfiuite religious observances were, however, 
appropriated by the crown. The revenues confiscated were those 
used for " the finding, maintaining or sustentation of any priest 
or of any anniversary, or obit, lamp, light or other such things." 
This has been aptly called ** the disendowment of the religion 
of the misteries." Edward VI. 's statute marks no break of 
continuity in the life of the craft organi^tions. Even before the 
Reformation, however, signs of decay had already begun to 
appear, and these multiplied in the 16th and 17th centuries. The 
old gild system was breaking down under the action of new 
economic forces. Its dissolution was due especially to the 
introduction of new industries, organized on a more modem 
basis, and to the extension of the domestic system of manufacture. 
Thus the companies gradually lost control over the regulation of 
industry, though they still retained their old monopoly in the 
X7th century, and in many cases even in the i8th. In fact, many 
craft fraternities still survived in the second half of the i8th 
century, but their usefulness had disappeared. The medieval 
form of association was incompatible with the new ideas of in- 
dividual liberty and free competition, with the greater separation 
of capital and industry, employers and workmen, and with the 
introduction of the factory system. Intent only on promoting 
their o%m interests and disregarding the welfare of the community, 
the old companies bad become an unmitigated evil. Attempu 
have been mad* to find in them the progenitors of the trades 


unions, but there seems to be no immediate connexion between 
the latter and the craft gilds. The privileges of the old frater- 
nities were not formally abolished until 283 s; and the sub- 
stantial remaios or speclr^ forms of some are still visible in other 
towns besides London. 

BieiriOGkAPHY.— W. £. Witda. Dns CUdemseun im UUUUdUr 
(Halle, i85i!|: E. Lcvasacur, Histoire des classes otarikres en France 
(a v'oU.. I^ris, 1859, new ed. 1900): Gustav von Schdnberg. " Zur 
wirthachaftlichen Bedeutunf des dcutschen Zunftwcsens im MittcU 
alter," in Jakrbucker fitr Nationatdkonomie und Statistik. cd. B. 
Hildebrand. vol. ix. pp. 1*72, 97*169 Oena. 1867); Joshua Toulmin 
Smiih, English Gilds, u-Itn Lu|o Brcntano's introductory essay on 
the History and Development of Gilds (London, 1870) : Max Pappcn- 
heim. Die aUddnischfn Sckuttgilden (Brcslau. 1885); W. J. Ashley, 
Iniroduetion to English Economic History (2 vols., London, 1888- 
1893: 3nl ed. of vol. i., 1894): C. Gross, The Gild Merchant (a vols., 
Oxford, 1890); Karl Hcgcl, StddU und Gilden der germanischen 
Volker (2 vols., Lctpziff. 1891); J. Malct Lambert, Two Thousand 
Years of Old Life (Hull. iSoi); Alfred Dorcn, Untersuckungen xur 
Geuhidde der Kanfmannsgilden (Leipzig. 1893); H. Vandcr Linden. 
Les GiUes marckandes dans les Pays-Bos an moyen Ags (Ghent, 
1896); B. Martin Saint-L6on, Histoire des corporations de nUtiert 
(Paris, 1897) : C. Nyrop, Danmarks Gilde- og Lavsskraaer fra middel- 
alderen (2 vols., Copenhagen, 189(>-I904): F. Kcutgcn, Amter und 
Z^nfte (Jena, 1903); George Unwin, Industrial Organization in Ike 
Sixieentm and Seventeenth Centuries (Oxford, 1904). For biblio- 
gtaphks of ^Ids. see H. Blanc. BiNiof,rapkie des corporations 
ouvrieres (Pans, 1885); G. Gonctta, Bibltogra/ia delle corporashni 
f arti e meslieri (Rome. 1891); C. Gross. Btbliography of British 
Municipal History, including Gilds (New York. 1897); W. Stieda, 
in Handtporlerbuck der Staatswissenschaften^ ed. J. Conrad (2nd ed., 
Jena. 1901. under " Zunftweten "). (C. Ga.) 

GIUAD (l.«. " hard " or " rugged," a name sometimes used, 
both in earlier and in later writers, to denote the whole of the 
territory occupied by the Israelites eastward of Jordan, extending 
from the Arnon to the southern base of Hermon (Deut. xxxiv. x; 
Judg. XX. i; Jos. AtU. xii. 8. 3, 4). More precisely, however, 
it was the usiul name of that picturesque hill country which b 
bounded on the N by the Hieromax (Yarmuk), on the W. by 
the Jordan, on the S by the Arnon, and on the £. by a line which 
may be said to follow the meridian of AmmSn (Philadelphia or 
Rabbath-Ammon). It thus lies wholly within ^i** 2^ and 32" 
43' N. lat. and 35^ 34' and 36'' £. long., and is cut in two by the 
Jabbok. Excluding the narrow strip of low-lying plain along 
the Jordan, it has an average elevation of 2500 ft. above the 
Mediterranean; but, as seen from the west, the relative hei^t 
is very much increased by the depression of the Jordan valley. 
The range from the same point of view presents a singularly uni- 
form outline, having the appearance of an unbroken wall; in 
reah'ty, however, it is traversed by a number of deep ravines 
(wadis), of which the most important are the Yfibis, the AjlQn, 
the Rftjib, the Zerka (Jabbok), the Keshan, and the Zerka Ma'In. 
The great mass of the Gilead range b formed of Jura limestone, 
the base slopes bdng sandstone partly covered by white marls. 
The eastern slopes are comparatively bare of trees; but the 
western are well supplied with oak, terebinth and pine. The 
pastures arc everywhere luxuriant, and the wooded heights and 
winding glens, in which the tangled shrubbery is here and there 
broken up by open glades and flat meadows of green turf, exhibit 
a beauty of vegetation such as is hardly to be seen in any other 
district of Palestine. 

The first biblical mention of " Mount Gilead " occurs in 
connexion with the reconcilement of Jacob and Laban (Genesis 
xxxi.). The composite nature of the story makes an identifica^ 
tion of the exact site difficult, but one of the narrators (E) seems 
to have in mind the ridge of what is now known as Jebel AjlQn, 
probably not far from Ma^neh (Mahanaira), near the head of the 
wadi Ytbis. Some investigators incline to SQf, or to the Jebel 
KafkaCa. At the period of the Israelite conquest the portion of 
Gilead northward of the Jabbok (Zerka) belonged to the dominions 
of Og, king of Bashan, while the southern half was ruled by Sihon; 
king of the Amorites, having been at an earlier date wrested from 
Moab (Numb. xxi. 34; Deut. iii. 12-16). These two sections 
were allotted respectivdy to Manasseh and to Reuben and Gad, 
both districts being peculiarly suited to the pastoral and nomadic 
character of these tribes. A somewhat wild Bedouin disposition, 
fostered by their surroundings, was retained by the Israelite in- 

xu I* 


habitants of Gilead to a late period of their history, and seems 
to be to some extent discernible in what we read alike of Jephthah, 
of David's Gadites, and of the prophet Elijah. As the eastern 
frontier of Palestine, Gilead bore the first .brunt of Syrian and 
Assyrian attacks. 

After the close of the Old Testament history the word Gilead 
seldom occurs. It seems to have soon passed out of use as a 
precise geographical designation; for though occasionally 
mentioned by Apocryphal writers, by Josephus, and by Eusebius, 
the allusions are all vague, and show that those who made them 
had no deAnite knowledge of Gilead proper. In Josephus and 
the New Testament the namq Pcraea or wkpop roD 'lop&hvw is 
most frequently used; and the country is sometimes spoken 
of by Josephus as divided into small provinces called after the 
capitals in which Greek colonists had esUblished themselves 
during the reign of the Selcucidae. At present Gilead south of 
the Jabbok alone is known by the name of Jebel Jilad (Mount 
Gilead), the northern portion between the Jabbok and the 
Yarmuk being called Jebel AjlQn. Jebel Jilad includes Jebel 
Osha, and has for ite capital the town of £s-Salt. The 
cities of Gilead expressly mentioned in the Old Testament arc 
Ramoth, Jabesh and Jazer. The first of these has been variously 
identified with Es-Salt, with Relmun, with Jerash or Gerasa, 
with er-Remtha, and with ^alhad. Opinions are also divided 
on the question of its identity with Mizpeh-Gilead (see Encyc. 
BiUica, art. " Ramoth-Gilead "). Jabesh is perhaps to be 
found at Meriamin, less probably at ed-Deir; Jazer, at Yajus 
near Jogbehah, rather than at Sar. The city named Gilead (Judg. 
X. 17, xii. 7; Hos. vi. 8, xii. 11) has hardly been satisfactorily 
explained; perhaps the text has suffered. 

The "balm" (Heb. fort) for which Gilead was so noted 
(Gen. xlvii. xi; Jer. viii. 32, xlvi. xi; Ezek. xxvii, 17), is probably 
to be identified with mastic (Gen. xxxvii. 35, R.V. marg.) i^. 
the resin yielded by the Pislackia Leniiscus, The modern 
"balm of Gilead" or "Mecca balsam," an • aromatic gum 
produced by the Balsamodendron opobalsamumi is more likely 
the Hebrew fndr, which the English Bible wrongly renders 
" myrrh." 

See G. A. Smith, Hist. Geog. xxiv. folL (R. A. S. M.) 

GILES (Gil, GaLEs), ST, the name given to an abbot whose 
festival is celebrated on the xst of September. According to 
the legend, he was an Athenian (AtYldios, Aegidius) of royal 
descent. After the death of his parents he distributed his 
possessions among the poor, took ship, and landed at Marseilles. 
Thence he went to Aries, where he remained for two years with 
St Caesarius. He then retired into a neighbouring desert, 
where he lived upon herbs and upon the milk of a hind which 
came to him at stated hours. He was discovered there one day 
by Flavins, the king of the Goths, who built a monastery on the 
place, of which he was the first abbot. Scholars are very much 
divided as to the. date of his life, some holding that he lived in 
the 6th century, others in the 7th or 8th. It may be regarded 
as certain that St Giles was btiried in the hermitage which he 
had founded in a spot which was afterwards the town of St- 
GiUes (diocese irf Nimes, department of Gard). His reputation 
for sanctity attracted many pilgrims. Important gifts were 
made to the church which contained his body, and a monastery 
grew up hard by. It is probable that the Visigothic princes who 
were in possession of the country [HVtected and enriched this 
monastery, and that it was destroyed by the Saracens at the 
time of their invasion in 731. But there are no authentic data 
before the 9th century concerning his history. In 808 Charles 
magne took the abbey of St-Gilles under his protection, and 
it is mentioned among the monasteries from which only prayers 
for the prince and the state were due. In the X3th century the 
pilgrimages to St-Gilles are cited as among the most celebrated 
of the time. The cult of the saint, who came to be regarded as 
the special patron of lepers, beggsrs and cripples, spread very 
extensively over Europe, especially in England, Scotland, 
France, Belgium and Germany. The church of St Giles, 
Cripplegate, London, was built about 1090, while the ho^tital lor 
lepers at St Giles-in-the-Fields (near New Oxford Street) was 



fooaded by Queen Matilda in 1 117. In England alone there 
are about 150 churches dedicated to this saint. In Edinburgh 
the cfattrch of St Giles could boast the possession of an ami*bone 
of its patron. RepresenUtions of St Giles are very frequently 
met with in early French and German art, but are much less 
common in Italy and Spain. 

See Ada Sanclorim (September), i. 284>299; Devic and ValaaeCe, 
Histaire fjhUraU de Laniuedoc, pp. 514-5^3 (Toulouse. 1876); 
E. Rembry, Saint CilUs, savie, ses reliquts, smi cuiie en Belgt^ue el 
dans U nord de la France (Bruges, 1881) : F. Arnold- Forster, Studies 
in Church Dedications, or England's Patron Saints, ii. 46-51 • !"• 'Si 
363-365 (1899); A. Jameson, Sacred and Lefendary ArU 768-770 
(1896) : A. Bell, Lives and Legends of Ike English Buhops and Kings, 
Medieval Monks, and other later Saints, pp. 61, 70, 74-78, 84. 197 
(1904). (H. Db.) 

OiLFIUAN. QEOROB (1813-1878), Scottish author, was 
bom on the 30th of January 18x3, at Comrie, Perthshire, where 
his father, the Rev. Samuel Gilfillan, the author of some theo- 
logical works, was for many years minister of a Secession con- 
gregation. After an education at Glasgow University, in March 
1836 he was ordained pastor of a Secession congregation in 
Dundee. He published a volume of his discourses in 1839, 
and shortly afterwards another sermon on "Hades," which 
brought him under the scrutiny of his oo-presbyters, and was 
ultimately withdrawn from circulation. GilfiUan next contri- 
buted a series of sketches of celebrated contemporary authors 
to the Dumfries Herald^ then edited by Thomas Aird; and these, 
with several new ones, formed his first Cailery of Literary PortraitSt 
wUch appealed in 1846, and had a wide circulation. It was 
quickly followed by a Second and a Third Gallery. In 1851 his 
most successful work, the Bards of Ike Bible^ appeared. His 
aim was that it should be " a poem on the Bible "; and it was 
far more rhapsodical than critical. His Martyrs and Heroes of 
tke Scottish Covenant appeared in 1832, and in 1856 he produced 
a partly autobiographical, partly fabulous. History of a Man. 
For thirty years he was engaged upon a long poem, on Night, 
which was published in 1867, but its theme was too vast, vague 
and unmanageable, and the result was a failure. He. also 
edited an edition of the British Poets. As a lecturer and as a 
preacher he drew large crowds, but his literary reputation has 
not proved permanent. He died on the 13th of August 1878. 
He had just finished a new life of Bums designed bo accompany 
a new edition of the works of that poet. 

GILGAL (Heb. for " drde " of sacred stones), the name of 
several places in Palestine, mentioned in the Old Testament. 
The name is not found cast of the Jordan. 

X. The first and most important was situated " in the east 
border of Jericho" (Josh. iv. 19), on the border between 
Judah and Benjamin (Josh. xv. 7). Josephus {Ant. v. x. 4) 
places it so stadia from Jordan and xo from Jericho (the 
New TesUment site). Jerome {Onomasticon, s.v. " Galgal ") 
places GUgal s Roman miles from Jericho, and speaks of It 
as a deserted place held in wonderful veneration {** miro cultu " ) 
by the natives. This site, which in the middle ages appears to 
have been lost — (jilgal being shown farther north — was in 
1865 recovered by a German traveller (Hermann Zschokke), 
and fijrad by the English survey party, though not beyond 
dispute. It is about a m. east of the site of Byzantine 
Jericho, and i m. from modern er-Riha. A fine tamarisk, 
traces of a church (which is mentioned in the 8th century), and 
a Urge reservoir, now'filled up with mud, remain. The place is 
called JiljOlieh, and its position north of the valley of Achor 
(Wad! Kelt) and east of Jericho agrees well with the biblical 
indications above mentioned. A tradition connected with the 
fall of Jericho is atUched to the site (see C. R. Conder, Tent 
Work, 203 ff.). This sanctuary and camp of Israel held a high 
place in the lutional regard, and is often mentioned in Judges 
and Samuel. But whether this is the Gilgsl spoken of by Amos 
and Hosea in coxmexion with Bethel is by no means certain 
[see (3) bclowl. 

2. Gilgal, mentioned in Josh. xii. 93 in connexion with Dor, 
appears to have been ntuated in the maritime plain. Jerome 
{OnomasHcoH, s.v. " Gelgd ") speaks of a town of the name 

6 Roman miles north of Antipatris (Ras el *Ain). This is 
apparently the modem Kalkilia, but about 4 m. north of Anti- 
patris is a large village called JiljQlieh, which is more probab^ 
the bibhcal town. 

3. The third Gilgal (2 Kings iv. 38) was in the mountains 
(compare x Sam. vii. x6, 3 Kings ii. x-3) near Bethel Jerome 
mentions this pbce also (Onomasticonf s.v. " Galgah "). It 
appears to be the present village of Jiljilia, about 7 English 
miles north of Beitin (Bethel). It may have absorbed- the old 
shrine of Shilofa and been the sanctuary famous in the days of 
Amos and Hosea. 

4. Dcut. xi. 30 seems to imply a Gilgal near Gerixim, and there 
is still a place called Julcijil on the plain of Makhna, 2| m. S. £. 
of Shechem. This may have been Amos's Gilgal and was 
almost certainly that of x Mace. ix. 2. 

5. The Gilgal described in Josh. xv. 7 is the same as the 
Beth-Gilgal of Neh. xii. 29; its site is not known. (R. A. S. M.) 

GIL6AMESH, EPIC OF, the title given to one of the most 
important literary products of Babylonia, from the name of the 
chief personage in the series of talcs of which it is composed. 

Though the Gilgamesh Epic is known to us chiefly from the 
fragments found in the royal collection of tablets made by 
Assur-bani-pal, the king of Assyria (668-626 B.C.) for his palace 
at Nineveh, internal evidence points to the high antiquity of at 
least some portions of it, and the discovery of a fragment of the 
epic in the older form of the Babylonian script, which can be 
dated as sooo b.c., confirms this view. Equally certain is a 
second observation of a general character that the epic origiMting 
as the greater portion of the literature in Assur-bani-pal's collec- 
tion in Babylonia is a composite product, that is to say, it consists 
of a number of independent stories or myths originating at 
different times, and united to fonh a continuous narrative with 
Gilgamesh as the central figure. This view naturally raises the 
question whether the independent stories were all told of 
Gilgamesh or, as almost always happens in the case of aiKient 
tales, were transferred to Gilgamesh as a favourite popular 
hero. Internal evidence again comes to our aid to head its 
weight to the latter theory. 

While the existence of such a personage as Gilgamesh nuy 
be admitted, he belongs to an age that could only have prc^rved 
a dim recollection of his achievements and adventures through 
oral traditions. The name^ is not Babylonian, and what 
evidence as to his origin there is points to his having come from 
Elam, to the east of Babylonia. He may have belonged to the 
people known as the Ka»ites who at the beginning of the i8th 
century B.C. entered Babylonia from Elam, and obtained contn4 
of the Euphrates valley. Why and how he came to be a popular 
hero in Babylonia cannot with our present material be deter- 
mined, but the epic indicates that he came as a conqueror and 
established himself at Erech. In so far we have embodied in 
the first part of the epic dim recollections of aaual events, but 
we soon leave the solid ground of fact and find ourselves soaring 
to the heights of genuine myth. Gilgamesh becomes a god, aiul 
in certain portions of the epic deariy plays the part of the sun- 
god of the spring-time, taking the place apparently of Tammua 
or Adonis, the youthful sun-god, though the story shows traits 
that differentiate it from the ordinary Tammua myths. A 
separate stratum in the Gilgamesh epic is formed by the story of 
Eabani— introduced as the friend of Gilgamesh, who joins him 
in his adventures. There can be no doubt that Eabani, who 
symbolizes primeval man, was a figure originally entirely inde- 
pendent of Gilgamesh, but his story was incorporated into the 
epic by that natural process to be observed in the national epics 
of other peoples, which tends to connect the favourite hero with 
all kinds of tales that for one reason or the other become em- 
bedded in the popuhir mind. Another stratum is represented 
by the story of a favourite of the gods known as Ut-Napishtim, 
who is saved from a destructive storm and flood that destroys 

* The name of the hero, written always ideographicatly, was for a 
long time provisionally read ladiAar; but a tablet discovered by 
T. G. Pinches gave the equivalent Ciltamesk (aee Jasttow, iiridgsm 
BeAytonia and Assyria, p. 468}, 



the Barofkil group over the main Hindu Kush ivaterihed. The 
Aahkuman is beaded by the Gazar and Kora Bobrt paHCs, leading 
to the valley of the Ab-i-Punja; and the Hunza by the Kittk and 
Mtntaka, the connecting links between the Taghdumbash Pamir 
and the Cilgit basin. They are all about the same height— 15.000 ft. 
All are passable at certain times of the year to small parties, and all 
are uncertain. In no case do they present insuperable difficulties 
in themselves, glaciers and snow-fiekis and mountain staircases 
being common to all; but the gorges and precipices which distin* 
guiMi the approachcM to them from the south, the slippery sides of 
shelving spurs whose feet are washed by raging torrents, the perpetual 
weary monotony of ascent and descent over successive ridges 
multiplying the gradient indefinitely — these form the real obstacles 
blocking the way to these northern passes. 

CiigU Statia*.— The pretty tittle station of Gilgit (ateoft-above sea) 
spreaids itself in tenaces above the right bank 01 toe river neariy 
opposite the opening leading to Hunza, almost nestling under the 
cuns of the Hindu Koh, which separates it on the south from the 
savage mountain wilderness of Dard and Kohistan. It includes 
a rcsulcncy for the British |>olitkal oflker, with about half a doaeo 
homes for the aocommodatioii of officials, bamcks suitable for a 
battalion of Kashmir troops, and a hospitaL Evidences of Buddhist 
occupation are not wanting in Gilgit, though they ace few and un- 
important. Such as they are, they appear to prove that Gilgit 
was once a Buddhist centre, and that the old Buddhist route between 
Gilgit and the Peshawar plain passed through the goiges and clefts 
of the uaexi^red Dard valley to Thakot under the northern qwrs 
of the Black Mountain. 

Coumexiom with India, — The Giljsit river joins the Indus a few 
mila above the little post of Bunji, where an excellent suspension 
bridge spans the river. The valley is low and hot, and the scenery 
between Gilgit and Bunji is monotonous; but the road b now 
maintained in excellent condition. A little below Bunji the Astor 
river joins the Indus from the south-east, and this deep pine-clad 
valley indkates the continuation of the highroad from Gilgit to 
Kashmir via the Tragbal and Burzil passes. Another well-known 
route connecting Gilgtt with the Abbottabad frontier of the Punjab 
lies acrote the Babusar pass (13,000 ft.), Unking the lovely Hazara 
\-aUey of Raghan to Chilas; Chilas (4150 ft.) being on the Indus, 
some so nu twlow BanjI. This is a more direct connexion between 
Gilitit and the plains of the Punjab than that a£Forded by the Kashmir 
route via Gurais and Astor, which latter route involves two con- 
siderable passes— the Tragbal (11.400) and the Burzil (13,500); 
but the intervening strip of absolutely independent territory (in- 
dependent alike of Kashmir and the runjab), whkh includes the 
hilb bordering the road from the Babusdr pass to Chilas, renders 
it a risky route for travellers unprotected by a military escort. 
Like the Kashmir route, it is now defined by a good military road. 

History. -—The Dards are located by Ptolemy with surprising 
accucacy (Daradae) on the west of the Upper Indus, beyond the 
head- waters of the Swat river {Soastus), and north of theCaffiora^, 
ix. the Gandharis, who occupied Peshawar and the country north 
of it. The Dardas and Chiwu also appear in many of the old 
Pauxanic lists of peoples, the latter probably representing the 
Skin branch of the Daids. This region was traversed by two 
of the Chinese pilgrims of the early centuries of our era, who have 
left records of their journeys, viz. Fahien, coming from the north, 
c 400, and Usilan Tsang, ascending from Swat, c 631. The 
latter says: " Perilous were the roads, and dark the gorges. 
Sometimes the pilgrim had to pass by loose cords, sometimes by 
light stretched iron chains. Here there were ledges hanging in 
mid-air; there flying bridges across abysses; eUewhere paths 
cut with the chisel, or footings to climb by." Yet even in 
these inaccessible regkms were found great convents, and 
miraculous images of Buddha. How old the name of CUgjit 
is we do not know, but it occurs in the writings o£ the great 
Mahommcdan savaikt al-Biruni, in his notices of Indian 
geography. Speaking of Kashmir, he says: " Leaving the 
ravine by which you enter Kashmir and entering the plateau, 
then you have for a march of two more days on your left the 
mountains ol Bolor and Shamilan, Turkish tribes who are 
called BkaUavaryan. Their king has the title Bhatta-Shah. 
Their towns aie CUgfi, Aawira and Shiltash, and their language 
is the Turkish. Kashmir suffers much from their inroads " 
(Trs. Sacfaau, i. 307). There are difficult matters for discussion 
here. It is impossible to say what ground the writer had for 
calling the people Twks, But it is curious that the Skins say 
they are all of the same nee as the Moguls of India, whatever 
th^r may metn by that. Gilgit, as far back as tradition goes, 
was ruled by rajas of a family called Trakane. When this family 
became extinct the valley was dewtated by lu c o muv e invasions 

of nei^bouring rajas, and in the so or 30 years ending with 184 a 
there had been five dynastic revolutions. The most prominent 
Character in the history was a certain Gaur Rahman or Gauhar 
Aman, chief of Yasin, a cruel savage and man-seller, of whom 
many evil deeds are told. Being remonstrated with for selling 
a muUah, he said, " Why not ? The Koran, the word of God, is 
sold; why not sell the expounder thereof ?** The Sikhs entered 
Gilgit about 1843, and kept a garrison there. When Kashmir 
was made over to Maharaja Gulah Singh of Jammu in 1846, 
by Lord Hardinge, the Gilgit claims were transferred with it. 
And when a commission was sent to lay down boundaries of the 
tracts made over, Mr Vans Agnew (afterwards murdered at 
Multan) and Lieut. Ralph Young of the Engineers visited Gilgit. 
the first Englishmen who did so. The Dogras (Gulab Singh's 
race) had much ado to hold their grotmd, and in 1852 a cata- 
strophe occurred, parallel on a smaller scale to that of the English 
troops at Kabul. Neariy 2000 men of theirs were exterminated 
by Gaur Rahman and a (x>mbination of the Dards; only one 
person, a soldier's wife, escaped, and the Dogras were driven 
away for eight years. Gulab Singh would not again cross the 
Indus, but after his death (in 1857) Maharaja Ranbir Singh 
longed to recover lost prestige. In x86o he sent a force into 
Gilgit. Gaur Rahman just then died, and there was little re- 
sistance. The Dogras after that took Yasin twice, but did not 
hold it. They also, in x866, invaded Darel, one of the most 
secluded Dard sUtes, to the south of the Gilgit basin, but with- 
drew again. In 1889, in order to guard against the advance of 
Russia, the British government, acting as the suzerain power of 
Kashmir, esUblished the Gilgit agency; in 1901, on the forma- 
tion of the North-West Frontier province, the rearrangement 
was made as stated above. 

Atn'ROKiTiBS.— Biddulph, Tke Tribes eflhe Hindu Kush (Calcutta, 
1880); W. Lawrence, Th* Kashmir Valley (London. 1895); Tanner, 
" Our Present Knowledge of the Himala>-a," Proc. R.G.S. \xA. xiii.. 

Pamuis and Adjacent Countries," Proe. R.G.S. vol. xiv.. 1802; 
Curzon, " Panin," Jour. Jt.G.5. vol. viiL, 1896; Leitn«r, Dardistan 
(i877). (T. H. H.»> 

Oim JOEH (1697-177 1), English Nonconformist divine, 
was bom at Kettering, Northamptonshire. His parents were 
poor and he owed his education chiefly to his own perseverance. 
In November 1716 he was baptized and began to preach at 
Uigham Femes and Kettering, until the beginning of 1719, 
when he became pastor of the Baptist congregation at Horsley- 
down in Southwark. There he continued till 1757, when he 
removed to a chapel near London Bridge. From 1729 to 1756 
he was Wednesday evening lecturer in Great Eastcheap. In 1 748 
he received the degree of D J>. from the university of Aberdeen. 
He died at Camberwell on the 14th of October 1771. GUI was 
a great Hebrew scholar, and in his theology a stuitdy Calvinist. 

His principal works are BxposiHon 0/ tko Song of Solomon (1728) : 
The Prophecies of the OUl Testament respecting tho Messiah (1728): 

binacal books and MSS.; Tho Antiquity of tho Hebrew Language 
Letters, Vowel Points^ and Accents (1767); A Body of Doctrinal 
Divinity (1767}: A Body of Practical Divtnity (1770); and Sermons 
and Tracts^ with a memoir of hu life (1773). An edition of his 
Exposition o^ the Bible appeared in 1816 with a memoir by John 
Rippon, whKh has also appeared separately. 

GILL (i) One of the branchiae which form the breathing 
apparatus of fishes and other animals that live in the water. 
The word is also applied to the branckute of some kinds of worm 
and arachnids, and by transference to objects resembling the 
branchiae of fishes, such as the wattles of a fowl, or the radiating 
films on the under side of fungi. The word is of obscure origin. 
Danish has g^aeOe^ and Swedish gjOl with the same meaning. 
The root which appears in " yawn," " chasm," has been suggested. 
If this be correct, the word wQl be in origin the same as ** gill," 
often spelled " f^yll," meaning a glen or ravine, common In 
northern English dialects and also in Kent and Surrey. The g 
in both ibese words Is hoed, (a) A liquid measure usually holding 



one-fourth of a pint. The woid comes through the O. Fr. geUe, 
from Low Lat. geUo or giUOf a measure for wine. It is thus con- 
nected with " gdlon." The g is soft. (3) An abbreviation of the 
feminine name Gillian, also often spelled Jill, as it is pronounced. 
Like Jack for a boy, with which it is often coupled, as in the 
nursery rhyme, it is used as a homely generic name for a girl. 

QILLES DB ROYB, or Ecioius oe Rova (d. 1478). Flemish 
chronicler, was born probably at Montdidicr, and became a 
Cistercian monk. He was afterwards professor of theology in 
Paris and abbot of the monastery of Royaumont at Asniires* 
sur-Oise, retiring about 1458 to the convent of Notre Dame des 
Dunes, near Furnes, and devoting his time to study. Giilcs 
wrote the Chronicon Dunense or Annalet Bdgici, a r£sum£ and 
continuation of the work of another monk, Jean Brandon (d. 
1428), which deab with the history of Flanders, and also with 

events in Germany, Italy and £li>gland from 702 to 1478. 

The Chronicle was published by F. R. Swcert in the Rerum Beln- 
carum annaUs (Franluort, i62o)j and the earlier part of it by C. B. 
Kervyn de Lettenhove in the Chroniques reiatioes d I'kistoire de la 
Beigiqae (Bruaaeb, 1 870). 

OILLES U MUISffit or le MtnsBt (e. t373-t3S3), French 
chronicler, was bom probably at Tonmai, and in 1280 entered 
the Benedictine abbey of St Martin in his native city, becoming 
prior of this house in 1327, and abbot four years later. He only 
secured the latter position after a contest with a competitor, 
but he appears to have been a wise ruler of the abbey. Gilles 
wrote two Latin chronicles, Ckromcon majus and Ckronicon 
minus, dealing with the history of the world from the creation 
until X349. This work, which was continued by another writer 
to 1352, is valuable for the history of northern France, and 
Flafiders during the first half of the I4tfa century. It is published 
by J. J. de Senet in the Corpus chronUorum Flandrioe, tome ii. 
(Brussels, 1841). Gilles also wrote some French poems, and 
these Poisies de Gilles U Muisis have been published by Baron 
Kervyn de Lettenhove (Louvain, 1882). 

See A. Molinier, Les Sources de Vkistoire de Franu, tomeiii. (Paris, 

6ILLESPIB, GEORGE (1613-1648}, Scottish divine, was bom 

at Kirkcaldy, where his father, John Gilleq>ie, was parish 
minister, on the 21st of January 1613, and entered the university 
of St Andrews as a " presbytery bursar " in 1629. On the 
completion of a brilliant student career, he became domestic 
chaplain to John Gordon, xst Viscount Kenmure (d. 1634), 
and afterwards to John Kennedy, earl of Cassillis, his conscience 
not permitting him to accept the episcopal ordhution which 
was at that time in Scotland an indispensable condition of 
induction to a parish. While with the earl of Cassillis he wrote 
his first work, A Dispute againsi the English Popish Ceremonies 
obtruded upon the Church of Scotland, which, opportunely pub- 
lished shortly after the " Jenny (jeddes " incident (but without 
the author's name) in the summer of 1637, attracted considerable 
attention, and within a few months had been found by the 
ixivy council to be so damaging that by their orders all available 
copies were called in and burnt. In April 1638, soon after the 
authority of the bishops had been set aside by the nation, 
Gillespie was ordained minister of Wemyss (Fife) by the 
presbytery of Kirkcaldy, and in the same year was a member 
of the famous Glasgow Assembly, before which he preached 
(November 21st) a sermon against royal interference in matters 
ecclesiastical so pronounced, as to call for some remonstrance 
on the part of Argyll, the lord high commissioner. In 1642 
Gillespie was translated to Edinburgh; but the brief remainder 
of his life was chiefly spent in the conduct of public business 
in London. Already, in 1640, he had accompanied the commis- 
sioners of the peace to England as one of their chaplains; and 
in 1643 he was appointed by the Scottish Church one of the four 
commissioners to the Westmins er Assembly. Here, though 
the youngest member of the Assembly, he took a prominent 
part in almost all the protracted discussions on church govern- 
ment, discipline and worship, supporting Presbyterianism by 
numerous controversial writings, as well as by an unusual 
fluency and readiness in debate. Tradition long preserved and 
probably enhanced the record of his victories in debate, and 

especially of his encounter, with John Selden on Matt, zvifi. 
15-17. In 1645 he returned to Scotland, and is said to have 
drawn the act of assembly sanaioning the directory of public 
worship. On his return to London he had a hand in drafting 
the Westminster confession of faith, especially chap. i. Gillespie 
was elected moderator of the Assembly in 1648, but the laborious 
duties of that oflice (the court continued to sit from the 12th 
of July to the izth of August) told fatally on an overtaxed 
constitution; be fell into consumption, and, after many weeks 
of great weakness, he died at Kirkcaldy on the X7th of Deoember 
1648. In acknowledgment of his great public services, a sum 
of £1000 Scots was voted, though destined never to be paid, to 
his widow and children by the committee of estates. A simple 
tombstone, which had been erected to his memory in Kirkcaldy 
parish church, was in 166 1 publicly broken at the cross by the 
hand of the common hangman, but was restored in 1746. 

His principal publications were controversial and chiefly against 
Erastianism: Three sermons against Thonuis Coleman; A ^rmeu 
before the House of Lords (August 27th), on Matt. iii. 2, l^ikU Re- 
spondem and Mcie Audis; Aaron's Rod Biossomiug, or ike Divine 
Ordinance 0/ Church-governmeni vindicated (1646), which is de- 
servedly regarded as a really able statement of the case for an 
exclusive spiritual jurisdictioa in the church; One Hundred and 
Eleven Propositions concerning the Minvttr^ and Gover n ment of the 
Church (Edinburgh, 1647). The following were posthumously 

?ubUshea by his brother: A Treatise of Miueilany Questions (,16^): 
'he Arh of the New Testament (2 vols., 1661-1667}; Notes of DAates 
and Proceedings of the Assembly of Divines at Westminster, from 
February 1&44 to January 1645. See Worhs, with memoir, publulued 
by Hetnerinigton (Edinburgh, 1843-1846). 

GILLESPIE, THOMAS (1708-1774). Scottish divine, was bora 
at Clearburn, in the parish of Duddingston, Midlothian, in 
1708. He was educated at the university of Edinburgh, and 
studied divinity first at a small theological seminary at Perth, 
and afterwards for a brief period under Philip Doddridge at 
Northampton, where he received ordination in January 1741. 
In September of the same year he was admitted minister of the 
parish of Camock, Fife, the presbytery of Dunfermline agreeing 
not only to sustain as valid the ordination he had received in 
England, but also to allow a qualification of his subscription 
to the church's doctrinal symbol, so far as it had reference to the 
sphere of the civil magistrate in matters of religion. Having 
on conscientious grounds persistently absented himself from the 
meetings of presbytery held for the purpose of ordaining one 
Andrew Richardson, an unacceptable presentee, as minister of 
Inverkeithing, he was, after an unobtmsive but useful ministry 
of ten years, deposed by the Assembly of 1752 for maintaining 
that the refusal of the local presbytery to act in this case was 
justified. He continued, however, to preach, first at Carnock, 
and afterwards In Dunfermline, where a large congregation 
gathered round him. His conduct under the sentence of deposi- 
tion produced a reaaion in his favour, and an effort was made 
to have him reinstated; this he declined unless the policy of the 
church were reversed. In 1^61, in conjunction with Thomas 
Boston of Jedburgh and Colh'er of Colinsburgh, he formed a dis- 
tinct communion under the name of '* The Presbytery of Relief,'* 
— relief, that is to say, *' from the yoke of patronage and the 
tyranny of the church courts." The Relief Church eventually 
became one of the commum'ons combining to form the United 
Presbyterian Church. -He died on the 19th of January 1774, 
His only literary efforts were an Essay on the Continuation ojf 
Immediate Revelations in the Church, and a Practical Treatise on 
Temptation. Both works appeared posthumously (1774). In 
the former he argues that immediate revelations are no longer 
vouchsafed to the church, in the latter he traces temptation to 

the work of a personal devil. 

See Lindsay's Life and Times of the Rev. Thomas GiUespie; 
Smithen's History of the Relief Church; for the Relief Church sec 


GILUE (from the Gael, gille, Irish giUe or gioUa, a servant 
or boy), an attendant on a Gaelic chieftain; in this sense its use, 
save historically, is rare. The name is now applied in the 
Highlands of Scotland to the man-servant who attends a sports^ 
man in shooting or fishing. A gillie-wetfool, a term now obsolete 
(a translation of gUlie^aifiiuch, from the Gaelic cas, foot, and 



jKmek, wet)» was the gillie whose duty it was to carry his master 
over streams. It became a term of contempt among the Low- 
Laiiden lor the "tail" (as his attendants were called) of a 
Highland chief. 

OILUBS, JOHN (1747-1836), Scottish historian and classical 
scholar, was bom at Brechin, in Forfarshire, on the x8tb of 
January 1747. He was educated at Glasgow University, where, 
at the age of twenty, he acted for a short time as substitute for 
the professor of Greek. In 1784 he completed his History of 
Ancient Greece, its Colonies and Conquests (published 1786). 
This work, valuable at a time when the study of Greek history 
was in its infancy, and translated into French and Genaan, 
was written from a strong Whig bias, and is now entirely super* 
seded (see Gkeece: Ancient History, ** Authorities "). On the 
death of William Robertson (x7»~i793)» Gillies was appointed 
historiographer-nqral for Sootlaiui. In his old age he retired to 
Clapham, where he died on the xsth of February 1836. 

Of hb other works, none of which are much read, the principal 
are: Viem tf the Reign of Frederic 11. of Fmssia, tritk a PmroUel 
between that Prince ond PMip II. of Macedon (i789)« rather a pane- 
yric than a critical kisto^; translations ot Aristotle's Rhetoric 

~ * * •"•• •"•'*-• ' -"' * of the Orations of 

from Alexander 

, _ _ . was com*> 

mended for its learning and research. 

6ILLI1I0HAM, a market town in the northern p arfiamentary 
division of Dorsetshire, England, 10$ m. W.S.W. from London 
by the London & South- Western ruiway. Pop. (1901) 538ow 
The church of St Mary the Virgin has a Decorated chancel. 
There is a large agricultural trade, and maaufactuies of bricks 
and tiles, cord, sacking and silk, brewing and bacon-curing are 
carried on. The rich unduhuing district in which Gillittgham 
is situated was a forest preserved by King John and hissuccessors, 
and the site otf their lodge is traceable near the town. 

GILUNOHAM, a municipal borough of Kent, England, in 
the parliamentary borough of Chatham and the mid'division 
of the county, on the Medway immediately east of Chatham, 
on the South-Eastern & Chatham railway. Fop. (1891) 37*809; 
(x9ot) 43,530. Its population is largely industrial, employed 
in the Chatham dockyards, and in cement and brick works in the 
neighbourhood. The chuich of St Maiy Magdalene ranges in date 
from Early English to Ferpendioular, retuning also traces of 
Norman work and some early brasses. A great battle between 
Edmund Ironside and Canute, c. 1016, is placed here; and there 
was formerly a palace of the archbishops of Canterbury. Gilling- 
hara was incorporated in 1903, and is governed by a mayor, 6 
aldermen and 18 councillors. The borough indudes the populous 
districts of Brompton and New Brompton. Area, 4355 acres. 

GILLOT, CLAUDB (1673-1722), French painter, best known 
as the master of Watteau and Lancret, was bom at Langres. 
His sportive mythological landscape pieces, with such titles 
as " Feast of Pan " and "Feast of Bacchus," opened the Academy 
of Painting at Paris to him in 17x5; and he then adapted his 
art to the fashionable tastes of the day, and introduced the 
decorative /fte* ckampHres, in, which he was afterwards surpassed 
by his pupils. He was also closely connected with the opera 
and theatre as a designer of scenery and costiunes. 

OILLOTT, J08KPH (1799-1873), Ens^ pen-maker, was bom 
at Sheffield on the nth of October 1799. For some time he was 
a working cutler there, but in i8si removed to Birmingham, 
where he found employment in the "steel toy" trade, the 
technical name for the manufacture of steel buckles, chains and 
light ornamental steel-woilt generally. About 2830 he ttuned 
hb attention to the manufacture of steel pens by machinery, 
and in 1831 patented a process for placing elongated points on 
the nibs of pens. Subsequently he invented other improvements, 
getting rid of the hardness and lack of flexibility, which had been 
a serious defect in nibs, by cutting, in addition to the centre slit, 
side slits, and cross grinding the points. By 1859 he had built up 
a very laiige business. GQlott was a liberal art-patron, and 
one of the fitst to recognise the merits of J. M. W. Turner. He 
died at Birmmfj^am on the sth of January 1873. His collection 
of pictures, sold after bis death, realized £170,000^ 

QILLOW* BOBBBT (d. 1773), the founder at Lancaster 
of a distinguished firm of English cabinet-makers and furniture 
designers whose books begin in 1731. He wis succeeded by his 
eldest son Richard (1734-18x1), who after being educated at the 
Roman Catholic seminary at Douai was taken into partnership 
about X757, when the firm became GiUow & Barton, and his 
younger sons Robert and Thomas, and the business was continued 
by his grandson Richard (i 778^x866). In its early days the firm 
of GiBow were architects as well as cabinetHnakers, and the first 
Richard Gillow designed the dassical Custom House at Lancaster. 
In the middle of the x8th century the business was extended to 
London, and about X761 premises were opened m Oxford Street 
on a site which was continuously occupied until 1906. For a 
kmg pexiod the GiUows were the best-known makers of English 
furoiture—aieraton and Heppelwhite-both designed for them, 
and repUcBS are still made of pieces from the drawings of Robert 
Adam. Between 2760 and X770 they invented the origiiud 
form of the billiard-table; they were the patentees (about 
x8oo) of the telescopic dining-taUe which has long been universal 
in Enfl^fish houses; for a Captain Davenport they made, if they 
did not invent, the first writing-table ci that name. Their vogue 
is indicated by references to them in the works of Jsne Austen, 
Thackeray and the fixst Lord Lytton, and more recently in one 
of Gilbert and Sullivan's comic operas. 

ftlUJIAY, JAMBS (x7S7-x8x5), English caricaturist, was bom 
at Chelsea in 1757. His father, a native of Lanark, had served 
as a soldier, lo^g an arm at Fontemqr, and was admitted first 
as an inmate, and afterwards as an outdoor pensioner, at Chelsea 
hospital. Gillray commenced life by learning letter-engraving, 
in which he soon became an adept. This employment, however, 
proving irksome, he wandered about for a time with a company 
of strolling playos. After a very checkered experience he 
returned to London, and was admitted a student m the Royal 
Academy, supporting himself by engraving, and probably issuing 
a considerable number of caricatures under fictitious names. 
Hogarth's works were the delight and study of his eaxly years. 
" Paddy on Horseback," which appeared in 1779, is the first 
caricature which is certainly bis. Two caricatures on Rodney's 
naval victory, issued in 1782, were among the first of the memor- 
able series of his political sketches. The name of Gillny's 
publisher and printseller. Miss Humphrey— whose shop was first 
at 327 Strand, then in New Bond Street, then in Old Bond Street, 
and finally in. St James's Street — ^is inextricably associated with 
that of the caricaturist. Gillary lived with Miss (often called 
Mrs) Humphrey during all the period of his fame. It b believed 
that he several times thought of marrying her, and that on one 
occasion the pair were on their way to the church, when Gillray 
said: " This is a foolish 'affair, methinks. Miss Hum{Arey. 
We live very comfortably together; we had better let well 
alone." Thete is no evidence, however, to support the stories 
which scandalmongeis invented about their relations. Gillray's 
plates were exposed in Humphrey's shop window, where eager 
crowds examined them. A number of his most trenchant satires 
are directed against George JI|., who, after examining some of 
Gillray's sketches, said, with chax^teristic ignorance and blind- 
ness to merit, " I don't understand these caricatures." Gillray 
revenged himself for this utterance by his splendid caricature 
entitled, " A Connoisseur Examining a Cooper," which he is 
doing by means of a candle on a " save-all "; so that the sketch 
satirizes at once the king's pretensions to knowledge of art and 
his miserly habits. 

The excesses of the French Revolution made Gillray conserva- 
tive; and he issued caricature after caricature, ridiculing the 
French and Napoleon, and glorifying John Bull. He is not, 
however, to be thought of as a keen political adherent of either 
the Whig or the Tory party; he dealt his blows pretty freely 
all round. His last work, from a. design by Bunbury, is 
entitled " Interior of a Barber's Shop in Assize Time," and 
is dated x8xi. While he was engaged on it he became 
mad, although he had occasional intervals of sanity, which he 
employed on his last work. The approach of madness must 
have been hastened by his intemperate habits. Gillray died on 



the 1st of June 1615, and was buried in St James's churdiyard, 

The limes in which Gillray lived were peculiarly favourable 
to the growth of a great school of caricature. Party warfare was 
carried on with great vigour and not a little bitterness; and 
personalities were fredy indulged in on both sides. Gillcay's 
incomparable wit and humour, knowledge of life, fertility of 
resource, keen sense of the ludicrous, and bounty of execution, 
at once gave him the first place among caricaturists. He b 
honourably distinguished in the history of caricature by the fact 
that his sketches are real works of art. The ideas embodied in 
some of them are sublime and poetically magnificent in their 
intensity of meaning; while the coarseness by which others are 
disfigured is to be explained by the genenl freedom of treatment 
common in all intdlectual departments in the i8th century. 
The historical value of GiUray's work has been recognized by 
accurate students of history. As has been well remarked: 
" Lord Stanhope has turned GiUray to account as a veracious 
reporter of speeches, as well as a suggestive illustrator of events." 
His contemporaiy political influence is borne witness to in a letter 
from Lord Bateman, dated November 3, 1798. " The Opposi* 
tion," he writes to Gillray, " are as low as we can wish them. 
You have been of infinite service in towering them, and making 
them ridictdous." Gillray's extraordinary industry may be 
inferred from the fact that nearly zoqo caricatures have been 
attributed to him; while some consider him the author of 1600 
or 1700. He is invaluable to the student of English manners 
as well as to the political studenL He attacks tlie social follies 
of the time with scathing satire; and nothing escapes his notice, 
not even a trifling change of fashion in drns. The great tact 
Gilhray displays in hitting on the ludicrous side of any subject 
is only equalled by the exquisite finish of his sketches— the finest 
of wUch reach an epic grandeur and Miltonic sublimity of con- 

Gillfay*s caricatures are divided into twq danes, the political 
series and the social. The political caricatures form really the best 
history extant of the latter part of the reign of Georsc III. They 
were circulated not only over Britain but throujKnout Europe, 
and exerted a powerful influence. In this series, Georae III., the 
queen, the prince of Wales, Fox, Pitt, Burke and Napoleon are the 
most prominent figures. In 1788 appeared two fine caricatures by 
Gillray. " Blood on Thunder fording the Red Sea " represents 
Lord Thuriow carrying Warren Hastmgs through a sea of gore: 
Hastings looks very comfortable, and is carrying two large bags of 
money. ** Market-Day " pictures the ministeriaUsts of the time as 
homed cattle for sale. Among Gillray's best satires on the king 
are : " Farmer George and his Wife," two companion plates, in one 01 
which the king is toasting muffins for brealuast, and in the other 
the queen is fiying sprats; "The Anti-Saccharites," where the royal 
pair propose to dispense with sugar, to the great horror of the 
family; ^' A Connoisseur Examimng^a Cooper"; "Temperance 
enjoying a Frugal Meal"; " Royal AffabiUty " ; "A Lespon in 
Apple UumpUngs "; and " The Pigs Possessed. Among his other 
political caricatures may be mentioned: *' Britannia between Scylla 
and Charybdis," a picture in which Pitt, so often Gillray's butt, 
fissures in a favourable Ught: " The Bridal Night"; " The Apothe- 
osis of Hoche," which concentrates the ntcfssrs of the French 
Revolution in one view: " The Nursery with Britannia reponng in 
Peace "; ** The First Kiss these Ten Years '* (1801). another satire 
on the peace, which is said to have greatly amused Napoleon : " The 
Handwriting upon the Wall "j " The Confederated Coalition/' a 

^k* -. * S_ ••*.• _ t_t 1_ _1 J *.t_ A _S _B» * • • * 

Costume'"; " Comforu of a Bed of Roses ";^' View of the Hustings 
in Covent Garden"; "Pha«thon Alarmed"; and "Pandora 
opening her Box." The miscellaneous series of caricatures, although 
tney have scarcely the historical importance of the political scries, 
are more readily intelligible, and are even more amusing. Among 
the finest are: ^' Shakespeare Sacrificed "; " Flemish Characters " 
(two plates); "Twopenny Whist"; '*OhI that thu too solid 
Aesh would melt "; " Sandwich Carrou "; " The Gout "; " Comfort 
to the Corns": "Begone Dull Care"; "The Cow-Pock." which 
gives humorous expression to the popular dread of vaccination ; 
"Dilletanti Theatricals"; and "Harmony before Matrimony'^ 
and " Matrimonial Harmonics " t w o nwwdingly good sketches in 
violent contrast to each other. 

A selection of Gillray's works appeared in parts in 1818: but 
the first good edition was Thomas M'Lean's, which was published, 
with a key, in t85a A somewhat bitter attack, not only on Gillray's 
ch a r acte r , but even on his gcnias, appeased in the Alkmattm lot 

October 1, 1831, which was successfully refuted by J. Landaev 

in the Athenaeum a fortnight later. In 1851 Henry G. Bohn put 
out an edition, from the original plates, in a handsome folio, the 
coarser sketches being published in a separate volume. For thu 
edition Thomas Wright and R. H. Evans wrote a valuable com- 
mentary, which is a good history of the times embraced by the 
caricatures. The next edition, entitled The Works of James CtUray, 
Ike Caricaturist: vnlh ike Story 0/ his Life and Times (Chatto ft 
Windus, 1874), was the woric of Thomas Wright, and, by its popular 
exposition and narrative, introduced Gillray to a very large dirle 
formerly Ignorant of him. This edition, which is complete in one 
volume, contains two portraits of GiUray, and upwards of 400 
illustrations. Mr J. J. Cartwright, in a letter to the Academy (Feb. 
28, 1874). drew attention to the existence of a MS. volume, in the 
British Museum, containing letters to and from Gillray, and other 
Ulustrativedocuments. The extracts he gave were used m a valuable 
article in the Quarterly Review for April 1874. See also the Academy 
for Feb. 21 and May 16, 1874. 

There is a good account of Gillray in Wright's Histery §f Can- 
catun and Grotesque in Literature and Art (1865). See auo the 
article Carxcaturx. 

QUiLYFU)WBR, a popular name applied to various flowers, 
but prindpally to the clove, Diantkus CaryopkyUus, of which 
the carnation is a cultivated variety, and to the stock, Uattkida 
ittcana, a well-known garden favourite. The word is sometimes 
written gilliflower or gilloflower, and is reputedly a corruption 
of July-flower, " so called from the month they blow in." Henry 
Phillips (1775-1838), in his Flora histarica^ remarics that Turner 
(1568) " calls it gelouer, to which he adds the word ttock, as 
we would say gelouers that grow on a stem or stock, to distin> 
gulsh them from the dovo-gdouers and the wall-gelouers. Gerard, 
who succeeded Turner, and after him Parkinson, calls it gillo* 
flower, and thus it traveUod from its original orthography until 
it was called July-flower by those who knew not whence it was 
derived." Dr Prior, in his useful volume on the Papular Names 
of British Plants, very distinctly shows the origin of the name. 
He remarks that it was "formerly spdt gyllofer and gUofre 
with the long, from the French giroflU, Italian garofalc (M. Lat. 
ganojC/ifiii), cormpted from theLatin Caryopk^um, and referring 
to the spicy odour of the flower, which seems to have been used 
in flavouring wine and other liquors to replace the more costly 
dove of India. The name was originally given in Italy to plants 
of the pink tribe, espedally the carnation, but has in England 
been transferred of late years to several cruciferous -pluils." 
The gillyflower of Chaucer and Spenser and Shakespeare was, 
as in Italy, Diantkus Caryapkyllus; that of later writers and of 
gardeners, Mattkiola. MucJx of the confusion in the names of 
plants has doubtless arisen from the vague use of the French 
terms giroflie, aiUet and tudclte, which were all applied to 
flowers of the pink tribe, but in England were subsequently 
extended and finally restricted to very different plants. The 
use made of the flowers to impart a spicy flavour to ale and wine 
is alluded to by Chaucer, who writes: 

" And many a clove gilofre 
To put in ale"; 

also by Spenser, who refers to them by the name of sops in wine, 
which was applied in consequence of their bdng steeped in the 
liquor. In both these cases, however, it b the dove-pUyflower 
which is intended, as it is also in the passage from Gerard, in 
which he states that the conserve made of the flowers with sugar 
" is exceeding cordiall, and wonderfully above meastire doth 
comfort the heart, bdng eaten now and then." The prindpal 
other plants which bear the name are the wallflower, Cktircnikus 
Ckeiri, called wall-gillyflower in old books; the dame's violet, 
Hesperis matroualis, ttlled variously the queen's, the rogue's 
and the winter gillyflower; the Tt^cA-tohm,Lycknis Flos-aHcuU, 
called marsh-gillyflower and cuckoo-gillyflower; the waters 
violet, HoUonia palustrisy called water-gillyflower; and the 
thrift, Armeria wlgaris, called sea-gillyflower. As a separate 
designation it is nowadays usually applied to the wallflower. 

GILMAN. DANIEL COIT (1831-1908), American education, 
ist, was b«»n in Norwich, Connecticut, on the 6th of July 1831. 
He graduated at Yale in rSss, studied in Berlin, was assistant 
librarian of Yale in x8s6-i8s8 and librarian in 1858-1865, and 
was professor of physical and pohucat geography in the Shdfidd 
Sdentific School of Yale Univenity and a monber of the 



Govenung Board of this Sdwol in 1863-1 87». From 1856 to 
1^0 he vraa a nneinber of the school board of New Haven, and 
from August 186$ to January 1867 secretary of the Connecticut 
Board of Eduation. In 1873 be became president of the 
University of California at Berkeley. On the 30th of December 
1874 he was elected first president of Johns Hopkins University 
(q.v.) at Baltimore. He entered upon his duties on the ist of 
May i875«and was formally inaugurated on the a and of February 
1876. Thb post he filled until 1901. From 1901 to 1904 he 
was the first president of the Carnegie Institution at Washington, 
D.C. He died at Norwich, Conn., on the 13th of October 1908. 
He received the honorary degree of LL.D. from Harvard, St 
John's, Columbia, Yale, North Carolina, Princeton, Toronto, 
Wisconsin and Clark Universities, and Williamand. Mary College. 
His influence upon higher education in America was great, 
especially at Johns Hopkins, where many wise details of ad- 
ministratk>n, the plan of bringing to the university as lecturers 
for a part of the year scholars from other colleges, the choice of 
a singularly brilliant and able faculty, and the marked willing* 
ness to recognise workers in new branches of science were all 
largely due to him. To the organization of the Johns Hopkins 
hospital, of which he was made director in 1889, he contributed 
greatly. He was a singularly good judge of men and an able 
administrator, and under him Johns Hopkins bad an immense 
influence, especially in the promotion of original and productive 
research. lie was always deeply interested in the researches 
of the professors at J<rfins Hopkins, and it has been said of him 
that his attention as president was turned inside and not outside 
the university. He was instrumental in determining the policy 
of the Sheffield Scientific School of Yale University while he 
was a member of Its governing board; on the 28th of October 
1897 he delivered at New Haven a semi-centennial discourse 
on the school, which appears in his University Problems. He was 
a prominent member of the American Archaeological Society 
and of the American Oriental Society; vras one of the original 
trustees of the John F. Slater Fund (for a tjmc he was secretary, 
and from 1893 until his death was president of the board); 
from 1 891 until his death was a trustee of thi" Peabody Educa- 
tional Fund (being the .vice-president of the board); and was 
an original member of the General Education Board (1902) 
and a trustee of the Russell Sage Foundation for Social Better- 
ment ( 1 907). In 1896- 1 897 he served on the Venezuela Boundary 
Commission appointed by Preadent Cleveland. In 1901 he 
succeeded Carl Schurs as president of the National Civil Service 
Reform League and served until 1907. Some of his papers 
and addresses are collected in a volume entitled Untpcrsily 
Problems in the United Stales (1888). He wrote, besides, James 
Monroe (1883), in the American Statesmen Series; a Life of 
James D, Dana, the geologist (1899); Science and Letters at 
Yale (1901), and The Launching of a University (1906), an 
account of the early years of Johns Hopkins. 

OIUIORB, PATRICK SAR$FIELD (1839-1892), American 
bandmaster, was bom in Ireland, and settled in America about 
1850. He had been in the band of an Irish regiment, and he had 
great success as leader of a military band at Salem, Massachu- 
setts, and subsequently (1859) in Boston. He increased his 
repuution during the Civil War, particularly by organizing a 
monster orchestra of massed bands for a festival at New Orleans 
in 1864; and at Boston in 1869 aikd 1872 he gave similar per- 
formances. He was enormously popular as a bandmaster, and 
composed or arranged a large variety of pieces for orchestra. 
He died at St Louis on the 24th of September 1892 

GILPIN, BERNARD (1517-1583), the " Apostle of the North,'' 
was descended from a Westmorland family, and was bom at 
Kentmcre in 15x7. He was educated at Queen's College,, 
Oxford, graduating B.A. in 1540, M.A. in 1542 and B.D. in XS49. 
He was elected fellow of Queen's and ordained in 1542; subse- 
quently be was elected student of Christ Church. At Oxford he 
first adhered to the conservative side, and defended the doctrines 
of the church against Hooper; but his confidence was somewhat 
shaken by another public disputation which he had with Peter 
Martyr. In 1552 he preached before King Edward VI. a sermon 

on sacrilege, which was duly published, and dhplays the high 
Ideal which even then he had formed of the clerical ofike; and 
about the same time he was presented to the vicarage of Norton, 
in the diocese of Durham, and obtained a licence, through 
William Cecil, as a general preacher throughout the kingdom 
as long as the king lived. On Mary's accession he went abroad 
to pursue his theological investigations at Louvain, Antwerp 
and Paris; and from a letter of his own, dated Louvain, 1554. 
we get a c^impse of the quiet student rejoidng in an " excellent 
h'brary bdonging to a monastery of Minorites." Returning to 
England towards the close of Qneen Mary's reign, he was invested 
by his mother's uncle, Tunstall, bishop of Durham, with the 
archdeaconry of Durham, to which the rectory of Easinglon 
was annexed. The freedom of his attacks .on the vices, and 
especially the clerical vices, of his tirnqs excited hostility against 
him, and he was formally brought before the bishop on a charge 
consisting of thirteen articles. Tunstall. however, not only 
dismissed the case, but presented the offender with the rich 
living of Houghlott-le-Spring; and when the accusation was 
again brought forward, he again protected him. Enraged at 
this defeat, Gilpin's enemies laid their complaint before Bonner, 
bishop of London, who secured a royal warrant for his apprehen- 
sion. Upon this Gilpin prepared for martyrdom; and, having 
ordered his house-steward to provide him with a long garment, 
that he might " goe the more comely to the stake," he set out 
for London. Fortunately, however, for him, he broke his leg 
on the journey, and his arrival was thus delayed till the newK 
of Queen Mary's death freed him from further danger. He at 
once returned to Houghton, and there he continued to labour 
till his death on the 4th of March 1583. When the Roman 
Catholic bishops were deprived he was offered the see of Carlisle; 
but he declined this honour and also the provostship of Queen's, 
which was offered him in 1560. At Houghton his course of life 
was a ceaseless round of benevolent activity. In June 1560 he 
entertained Cecil and Dr Nicholas Wotton on their way to 
Edinburgh. His hospitable manner of living was the admiration 
of all. His living was a comparatively rich one, his house was 
better than many bishops' palaces, and his position was that 
of a clerical magnate. In his household he si>ent " every 
fortnight 40 bushels of corn, 20 bushels of malt and an ox, 
besides a proportional quantity of other kinds of provisions." 
Strangers and travellers found a ready reception; and even 
their horses were treated with so much care that it was humor- 
ously said that, if one were turned loose in any part of the cduntry, 
it would immediately make its way to the rector of Houghton. 
Every Sunday from Michaelmas till Easter was a public day 
with Gilpin. For the reception of his parishioners he had three 
tables well covered — one for gentlemen, the second for husband- 
men, the third for day-labourers; and this piece of hospitality 
he never omitted, even when losses or scarcity made its continu- 
ance^'difficult.' ,He built and endowed a grammar-school at a 
cost of upwards of £500, educated and maintained a large number 
of poor children at his own charge, and provided the more 
promising pupils with means of studying at the universities. 
So many young people, indeed, flocked to his school that there 
was not accommodation for them in Houghton, and he had to fit 
up part of his house as a boarding establishment. Grieved at 
the ignorance and superstition which the remissness of the clergy 
permitted to flourish in the neighbouring parishes, he used 
every year to visit the most neglected parts of Northumberland, 
Yorkshire, Cheshire, Westmorland and Cumberland; and that 
his own flock might not suffer, he was at the expense of a constant 
assistant. ■ Among his parishioners he was looked up to as a 
judge, and did great service in preventing law-suits amongst 
them. If an industrious man suffered a loss, he delighted to 
make it good; if the harvest was bad, he was liberal in the 
remission of tithes. The boldness which he could display at 
need is well illustrated by his action in regard to duelling. Find- 
ing one day a challenge-glove stuck up on the door of a church 
where he was to preach, he took it down with his own hand, and 
proceeded to the pulpit to inveigh against the unchristian 
custom. His theological position was not in accord with any of 



the religious parties of bis age, and Gladstone tiiought that 
the catholicity oC the Anglican Church was better exemplified 
in his career than in those of more prominent ecclcstaslics 
(prcf. to A. W. Hutton's edition of S. R. Maitland's Essays 
OH the Rejormalian). He was not satisfied with the Elizabethan 
settlement, had great respect for the Fathers, and was with 
difficulty induced to subscribe. Archbishop Sandys' views on 
the Eucharist horrified him; but on the other hand he main- 
tained friendly relations with Bishop Pilkington and Thomas 

Lever, and the Puritans had some hope of his support. 

A life of Bernard Gilpin, written by George Carleton, bishop of 
Chichester, who had been a pupil of Gilpin's at Houghton, will be 
found in Bates's Vitae sclectorum aliquot virorum, &c. (London, 
1681). A transbtion of this sketch by William Freake, minister, 
was published at London. 1639; and m 1852 it was reprinted in 
Glasgow, with an introductory essay by Edward Irving. It forms 
one of the lives in ChnitophtrWordsMforth'sEccItsiaslical Biography 
(vol. iii.. 4th ed.), having been compared with (jarleton's Latin 
text. Another biography of Gilpin, which, however, adds little to 
Bishop Carleton's, was written by William Gilpin. M.A.. prebendary 
of Ailsbury (London, 1753 and 1854). Sec also Did. Nat. Biog. 

GILSONITE (so named after S. H. Gilson of Salt Lake City), 
or UiNTAHiTE, or UiNTAiTE, a description of asphalt occurring in 
masses several inches in diameter in the Uinta (or Uintah) 
valley, near Fort Duchesne, Utah. It is of black colour; its 
fracture is conchoidal, and it has a lustrous surface. When 
warmed it becomes plastic, and on further heating fuses perfectly. 
It has a specific gravity of 1-065 to 1*070. It dissolves freely 
in hot oil of turpentine. The output amounted to 10,9x6 short 
tons for the year 1905, and the value was $4-31 per ton. 

GILYAKS, a hybrid people, originally widespread throughout 
the Lower Amur district, but now confined to the Amur delta 
and the north of Sakhalin. They have been affiliated by some 
authorities to the Ainu of Sakhalin and Yezo; but they are more 
probably a mongrel people, and Dr A. Anuchin states that 
there are two tjrpes, a Mongoloid with sparse beard, high chcek- 
l>ones and flat face, and a Caucasic with bushy beard and more 
regular features. The Chinese call them Yupilaise, " Fish>skin- 
clad people," from their wearing a peculiar dress made from 

salmon skin. 

See E. G. Ravenstein, Tlie Russians on the Amur (1861); Dr A. 
Anuchin, Mem. Imp. Soc. Nat. Sc. xx.. Supplement (Moscow, 1877); 
H. von Siebold, Vher die Aino (Bcriin, 1881); J. Dcnikcr in Revue 
d'ethnographi* (Paris, 1884); L. Schcenck, Du V6lker des Amur- 
iandes (St Petersburg, 1891). 

GIMBAU a mechanical device for hanging some object so 
that it shcKild keep a horizontal and constant position, while 
the body from which it is suspended is in free motion, so that 
the motion of the supporting body is. not communicated to it. 
It is thus used particularly for the suspension of compasses or 
chronometers and lamps at sea, and usually consists of a ring 
freely moving on an axis, within which the object swings on an 
Aiis at right angles to the ring. 

The word is derived from the 0. Fr. genult from Lat. gemellus^ 
diminutive of geminus, a twin, and appears also in gimmd or 
iimbd and as gcmelt especially as a term for a ring formed of two 
hoops linked together and capable of separation, used in the 
16th and 17th centuries as betrothal and keepsake rings. They 
sometimes were made of three or more hoops linked together. 

GIMLET (from the 0. Fr. guimbelet, probably a diminutive 
of the O.E. wimble, and the Scandinavian vammle, to bore or 
twist; the modern French is gibclct)^ a tool used for boring small 
holes. It is made of steel, with a shaft having a hollow side, 
and a screw at the end for boring the wood; the handle of wood 
is fixed transversely to the shaft. A gimlet is always a small 
tool. A similar tool of large size is called an " auger " (see 

GlMUfin Scandinavian mythology, the great ball of heaven 
whither the righteous will go to H)cnd eternity. 

GIMP* or Gymp. (i) (Of somewhat doubtful origin, but prob- 
ably a nasal form of the Fr. guipure, from guiper, to cover or 
" whip " a cord over with silk), a stiff trimming made of silk 
or cotton woven around a firm cord, often further ornamented 
by a metal cord running through it. It is also sometimes 
covered with bugles, beads or other listening ornaments. The 

trimming employed by upholsterers to edge curtains, draperies, 
the seats of chairs, &c., is also called gimp; and in lace work 
it is the firmer or coarser thread which outlines the pattern and 
strengthens the material (t) A shortened form of gimple (the 
O.E. wimpic), the kerchief worn by a nun around her thioat, 
sometimes also applied to a nun's stomacher. 

GIN. an aromatized or compounded potable spirit, the char- 
acteristic flavour of which is derived from the juniper berry. 
The word "gin" is an abbreviation of Geneva, both being 
primarily derived from the Fr. genitvre (juniper). The use of 
the juniper for flavouring alcoholic beverages may be traced to 
the invention, or perfecting, by Count de Morret, son of Henry 
IV. of France, of jtmiper wine. It was the custom in the eariy 
days of the spirit industry, in distilling spirit from fermented 
liquors, to add in the working some aromatic ingredients, such 
as ginger, grains of paradise, &c., to take off the nauseous 
flavour of the crude spirits then made. The invention of juniper 
wine, no doubt, led some one to try the juniper berry for this 
purpose, and as this flavouring agent was found not only to 
yield an agreeable beverage, but also to impart a valuable 
medicinal quality to the spirit, it was generally made use of by 
makers of aromatized spirits thereafter. It is probaUe that the 
use of grains of paradise, pepper and so on, in the early days of 
spirit manufacture, for the object mentioned above, indirectly 
gave rise to the statements which are still found in current tdt- 
books and works of reference as to the use of Cayenne pepper, 
cocculus indicus, sulphuric add iind so on, for the purpose of 
adulterating spirits. It is quite certain that such materials are 
not used nowadays, and it would indeed, in view of modem 
conditions of manufacture and of public taste, be hard to find a 
reason for their tise. The same applies to the suggestions that 
such substances as acetate of lead, alum or sulphate of zinc are 
employed for the fining of gin. 

There are two distinct types of gin, namely, the Dutch gemOa 
or koHcitds aiid the British gin. Each of these types exists in 
the shape of numerous sub-varieties. Broadly speaking, British 
gin is prepared with a highly rectified s|»rit, whereas in the 
manufacture of Dutch gin a preliminary rectification is not an 
integral part of the process. The old-fashioned Hollands is 
prepared much after the following fashion. A mash consisting 
of about one-third of malted barley or here and two-thirds rye- 
meal is prepared, and infused at a somewhat high temperature. 
After cooling, the whole is set to ferment with a small quantity 
of yeasL After two to three days the attenuation is complete, 
and the wash so obtained is distilled, and the resulting distillate 
(the low wines) is redistilled, with the addition of the flavouring 
matter Guniper berries, &c.) and a little salt. Originally the 
juniper berries ^ere ground with the malt, but this practice no 
longer obtains, but some distillers, it is believed, still mix the 
juniper berries with the wort and subject the whole to fermenta- 
ttbn. When the redistillation over juniper is repeated, the 
product is termed double (geneva, &c.). There are numerous 
variations in the process described, wheat being frequently, 
emi^oyed in lieu of rye. In the manufacture of British gin,' 
a highly rectified Spirit (see Spiuts) is redistilled in the presence 
of the flavouring matter (principally juniper and coriander), 
and frequently this operation is repeated several times. The 
product so obtained constitutes the " dry " gin of commerce. 
Sweetened or cordialized gin is obtained by adding sugar and 

* The precise origin of the term " Old Tom," as applied to un* 
sweetenoj gin, appears to be somewhat obscure. In the English 
case of Board & M v. Huddart (1903). in which the plaintiffs estab- 
lished, their right to the " Cat Brand " trade-mark, it was proved 
before Mr Justice Swinfcn Eady that this firni had first adopted 
about 1849 the punning association of the picture of a Tom cat 
on a barrel with the name of " Old Tom "; and it was at one time 
supposed that thb was due to a tradition that a cat had fallen into 
one of the vats, the gin from which was highly esteemed. But the 
term " Old Tom '* had been known before that. and Messrs Boord A 
Son inform us that previously " Old Tom " had been a man, namdy 
"old Thomas Chamberiain of Hodge's distillery"; an old labd 
book in their possession (1909) shows a label and bill-head with a 
picture of " Old Tom "" the man on it. and another label shows a 
picture of a sailor lad on shipboard described as " Young Tom." 

mittet (junipec, corUudtt, ingfllci, St.) to the dry 
nfeiim quiJilici of gin •» tnadcb)' simply adding 
Is IopUinipirit,lbe<litIil1itDnpi«cj3 being oiniliFd, 
jal 4kI of juniper a & powerfuJ (Uunlic, uid gin ii 

It 0[in( 

It ]rd oT Stptcm 


sppEed to gingtr, 

;d in the middle 

ilcd Ihit the spin 

ly o[ Mecca. Muco Polo sec: 

both Id India and China bdwe 

r Bohnma ii 

ivdy it 

hisloriol malcriBi, btcaioe 

of Pragul and Btddvisl S 

Prague on the 14th of Octi 

Us GtsckichK ia drtisii(jMr![i 

which has been translated int 

and hit bittorical nptk is mainly 

Thirty Vtari- War. Perhaps the 

DthR milu are: CactuUe ii 

iSjT-iSjS); Raid} II. tmd seine ZeU (1B61-1 

cism ol WaOenstein, WMiltin ailiietul itint. 

(1SS6). He note a biilory of Belhlen Gat 

and edited the Umamcnia hiiiaiae Sok 

porthumcui notk, Ccickuiu da (kinirejirm 

•as edilnl by T. Ttipeii (lag,). 
Set the AUinmiie lt<Jtrke Bwirapiie. Band 
OUIOALL. o[ JtKtuL (HindoitiDi janjal). s 

natives throughout [be East, usuaUy a light 


>t Prague 

-earch ol 

ruf-t (Prague, 7S69-1880), 
• glish (New York, iM,): 
lined with the period of the 
important at ha ruimetous 
imistieit BraJer (Friguc, 

\<) (Uipiig. 1904)' 
gun used by the 

OIHGER (Fr. lingtinltre, Cer. /ngver), the [hiiome or under- 
ground stem of Zjntiber ofieinate (nat. ord. ZingiberBceae), t 
perennial reed-like pbnt groiring from j to 4 It. high. The 
flovers and kavet are borne on separate stems, th»e of the 
lorambMngshorier than those ol the latter, and svem^ng Iron 
i la 1 > in. The Ikunrs ihemselves are borne at the apex of the 




enclMing a »ng1e sm,U sessQ 


l«ves )^ aliemai 

and arranged in t-o rows, 

bright gi 

unoolh, Upetiog a 

both ends, with very short a 

alks and 

ihunhs which Stan 

away from the stem and end 

rounded auricles. 

The plant rarely flonen ant 

the Iru 

not found in a wUd state, it 


mlh very good rea; 


■een cultivated from an eaily p 


rliiume impoTtid I 

to England. From Asia the pi 

into the West Ind 

es, South America, western t 

opical A 

is commonly giown in botanic garde 

The use of ginger as a spice has been known from very early 
limes; it was suppowd by the Creeks and Romans 10 be a 
product of Eoutbcrn Arabia,^ and was received by them by way 
ol tfae Red Seal in India it has also been known Irom a very 

the Sanskrit. FlUckigei and Hanbury, in Ihcli i'AarnucBira^'ri, 
give the EollowlDg notes on the history of ginger. On the 
luihoiily o( Vincent's Cammcrie ami Nacitfain tj On Aieitali, 
it is slated that in the Bst of Imports from the Red Sea into 
Aleiandria, which in the second century of our era were there 
IbbEe to the Roman fiscal duly, ginger occurs aitwng Alher 
Indian spices. So frequent is the mention ol ginger in sTmiUr 
lists during the middle ages, that it e\'ideni1y constituted an 
important ilcm in the commerce betncn Europe and the East. 
Ii thus appears in the larill ol duties levied at Acre in Patesline 
about II7J, in that of Barcelona in Hit, Maneilles in i»S 
and Pans in TJ96. Ginger seems to have been weU known in 
England even before the Norman Conquest, being alien referred 
io in the Anglo-Saxon leech-books of the nth century. It was 
vciy common in the ijlh and ulh centuries, ranking neil In 
value to pepper, which was then the commonest of i& spices, 
ud coaling on an average about is. 7d. per lb. Three kinds of 
ginger were known among the merchants of Italy about the 
luddle ol the ulh century: (i) Belleii or Biladi. an Aralnc 

quenlly a 


description of the plant, andrelers to the fact of t1 
being dug up and transported. Nicolo di Conlo, a Vf 
merchant In the early part ol the ijth century, also de 
the plant and the coUecIionol the root, as seen by him in 
Though the Venetians received ^nger by way 0! Egypt, s> 
the iMperior kinds were taken Irom India overland by the 
Sea. The ipice is said to have been introduced into A 

Ginger is known ii 
respectively coated and uncoated ginger, as having or wantin 
the epidermis. For the fitsl , the |»eccs, which are called " races 
or " hands." Irom their irregular palmate form, are wished an 
simply dried in the sun. In this form ginger presents a browi 
mote or less irregularly wrinkled or striated surlace, and whe 
broken shows a dark brownish fracture, hard, and somellmi 
homy and resinous. To produce uncoated ^nger the thizomi 
are washed, scraped and sun.dried. and are often subjccte 
ol bleaching, eilhec fmi ' ' 

ihur 01 by In 

i lime. The 

rt time 
'ashed appearat 

ling and water, or even c 

: that 



lime. This artificial coating Is supposed by some to give the 
ginger a better appearance; it often, however, covers an inferior 
quality, and can readily be detected by the ease with which it 
rubs off, or by its leaving a white powdery substance at the bottom 
of the jar in which it is contained. Uncoated ginger, as seen 
in trade, varies from single joints an inch or less in length to 
flattish irregularly branched pieces of several joints, the '* races ** 
or " hands," and from 3 to 4 in. long; each branch has a depres- 
sion at its summit showing the former attachment of a leafy 
stem. The colour, when not whitewashed, is a pale buff; it is 
somewhat rough or fibrous, breaking with a short mealy fracture, 
and presenting on the surfaces of the broken parts numerous short 
bristly fibres. 

The principal constituents of ginger are starch, volatile oil (to 
which the characteristic odour of the spice is due) and resin (to 
which is attributed its pungency). Its chief use is as a condiment 
or spice, but as an aromatic and stomachic medicine |t is also used 
internally. " The stimulant, aromatic and carminative properties 
render it of much value in atonic dyspepsia, especially if accom- 
panied with much flatulence, and as an adjunct to purgative medi- 
cines to correct griping." Externally applied as a rubefacient, it 
has been found to relieve headache and toothache. The rhizomes, 
collected in a young green state, washed, scraped and preserved in 
syrup, form a delicious preserve, which is largely exported both 
from the West Indies and from China. * Cut up into pieces like 
lozenges and preserved in sugar, ginger also forms a very agreeable 

GINGHAM, a cotton or linen cloth, for the name of which 
several origins are suggested. It is said to have been made at 
Guingamp, a town in Brittany; the New English Dictionary 
derives the word from Malay ging-gang, meaning "striped." 
The cloth is now of a light or medium weight, and woven of dyed 
or white yams either in a single colour or different colours, and 
in stripes, checks or plaids. ' It is made in Lancashire and 
in Glasgow, and also to a large extent in the United States. 
Imitations of it are obtained by calico-printing. It is used for 
dresses, &c. 

GINGI, or GiNCEE, a rock fortress of southern India, in the 
South Arcot district of Madras. It consists of three hills, con- 
nected by walls enclosing an area of 7 sq. m., and practically 
impregnable to assault. The origin of the fortress is shrouded 
in legend. When occupied by the Mahrattas at the end of the 
1 7lh century, it withstood a siege of eight years against the armies 
of Aurangzeb. In 1750 it was captured by the French, who held 
it with a strong force for eleven years. It surrendered to the 
English in 1761, in the words of Orme» " terminated the long 
hostilities between the two rival European powers in Coromandel, 
and left not a sini^e ensign of the French nation avowed by the 
authority of its government in any part of India." 

GINGUBNt. PIERRB LOUIS (174S-1815), French author, 
was bom on the 37th of April 1748 at Rcnnes, in Brittany. He 
was educated at a Jesuit college in his native town, and came 
to Paris in 1772. He wrote criticisms for the Mercute de Prance, 
and composed a comic opera, Pomponin (i777)< The Satire des 
satires (1778) and the Confession de Zulmi (1779) followed. 
The Confession was claimed by six or seven different authors, and 
though the value of the piece is not very great, it obtained great 
success. His defence of Piccini against the partisans of Gluck 
made him still more widely known. He hailed the first symptoms 
of the Revolution, joined Giuseppe Cerutti, the author of the 
Mimoire pour le peuple fran^ais (1788), and others in producing 
the FeuiUe viUageoise, a weekly paper addressed to the villages 
uf France. He also celebrated in an indifferent ode the opening 
of the states-general. In his Lellres sur Us confessions de J.-J. 
Rousseau (1791) he defended the life and principles of his author. 
He was imprisoned during the Terror, and only escaped with 
life by the downfall of Robespierre. Some time after his release 
he assisted, as director-general of the " commission executive 
de rinstruction publique," in reorganizing the system of public 
instruction, and he was an original member of the Institute of 
France. In ^707 the directory appointed him minister pleni- 
potentiary to the king of Sardinia. After fulfilling his duties 
for seven months, very little to the satisfaction of his employers, 
Ginguen6 retired for a time to his country house of St Prix, in 

the valley of Montmorency. He was appointed a member of 
the tribunate, but Napoleon, finding that he was not sufficiently 
tractable, had him expelled at the first " purge," and Ginguen^ 
returned to his literary pursuits. He was one of the commission 
charged to continue the Hisioire liUiraire de la France, and he 
contributed to the volumes of this series which appeared in 1814, 
iS 1 7 and 1820. Gingueni's most important work is the Histoire 
liUiraire d'ltalit (14 vols., X81Z-X835). He was putting the 
finishing touches to the eighth and ninth volumes when he died 
on the. zith of November 18x5. The last five volumes were 
written by Francesco Salfi and revised by Pierre Daunou. 

In the composition of his history of Italian literature he was 
guided for the most part by the great work of Girolamo Tiraboschi, 
but he avoids the prejudices and party views of his modeL 

Ginguend edited the Decade pkilosopkiquet pditi^ et liUiraire 
till it was suppressed by Napoleon in 1807. He contributed largely 
to the Biographie universeiU, the Mercure de France and the. £11- 
cyclopidie mitkodique; and he edited the works of Chamfort and of 
Lcbrun. Among his minor productions are an opera, Pomponin 
ou le tuteur mvst^/li (1777); La Satire des satires (1778); Do 
VautoriU de Rabelais dans la rivolulion pristnte (1791); De M. 
N^kar <I79$); Fables nouvrlles (1810); Fables inidites (1814). See 
" Etoge de Ginguen6 " by Dacicr, in the Mimoires de f.institut, torn, 
vti.; " Discours " by M. Daunou, prefixed to the 2nd ed. of the 
Hist. liU. d'llalie; ID. J. Garat, Notice sur la vie et Us outrages de 
P. L. Guingeni, prefuced to a catalogue of his library (Paris, 1817). 

GINKEU GODART VAN (1630-1703), ist eari of Athlooe, 
Dutch general in the service of England, was born at Utrecht 
in 1630. He came of a noble family, and bore the title of Baron 
van Reede, being the eldest son of Godart Adrian van Reede, 
Baron Ginkel. In his youth he entered the Dutch army, and in 
1 638 he followed Wilh'am, prince of Orange, in his expedition to 
England. Tn the following year he distinguished himself by 
a memorable exploit — the pursuit, defeat and capture of a Scottish 
regiment which had mutinied at Ipswich, and was marching 
northward across the fens. It was the alarm excited by this 
mutiny that facilitated the passing of the first Mutiny Act. In 
1690 Ginkel accompanied William III. to Ireland, and com- 
manded a body of Dutch cavalry at the battle of the Boyne. 
On the king's return to England General Ginkel was entrusted 
with the conduct of the war. He took the field in the spring of 
U691, and established his headquarters at Mullingar. Among 
those who held a command under him was the marquis of 
Ruvigny, the recognized chief of the Huguenot refugees. Early in 
June Ginkel took the fortress of Ballymore, capturing the whole 
garrison of xooo men. The English lost only 8 men. After 
reconstructing the fortifications of Ballymore the army marched 
to Athlone, then one of the most important of the fortified towns 
of Ireland. The Irish defenders of the place were commanded 
by a distinguished French general, Saint-Ruth. The firing 
began on June 19th, and on the 30th the town was stormed, 
the Irish army retreating towards Galway, and taking up their 
position at Aughrim. Having strengthened the fortifications 
of Athlone and left a garrison there, Ginkel led the English, 
on July 1 2th, to Aughrim. An immediate attack was resolved 
on, and, after a severe and at one time doubtful contest, the 
crisis was precipitated by the fall of Saint-Ruth, and the 
disorganized Irish were defeated and fled. A horrible slaughter 
ol the Irish followed the struggle, and 4000 corpses were left 
unburied on the field, besides a multitude of others that lay 
along the Ime of the retreat. Galway next capitulated, its 
garrison being permitted to retire to Limerick. There the viceroy. 
Tyrconnel was in command of a large force, but his sudden death 
early in August left the command in the hands of General Sars- 
field and the Frenchman D'Usson. The English came in sight of 
the town on the day olTyrconncl's death, and the bombardment 
was immediately begun. Ginkel, by a bold device, crossed the 
Shannon and captured the camp of the Irish cavalry. A few days 
later he stormed the fort on Thomond Bridge, and after diflicult 
negotiations a capitulation was signed, the terms of which were 
divided into a civil and a military treaty. Thus was completed 
the conquest or pacification of Ireland, and the services of the 
Dutch general were amply recognized and rewarded. He re- 
ceived the formal thanks of the House of Commons, and wa« 



cicatcd by the king itt eari of AtUone and baron of Aughrim. 
The immense forfeited esUtes of the earl of Limerick were given 
to him, but the grant was a few years later revoked by the English 
parliament. The earl continued to ser^ in the Engli^ army, 
and accompanied the king to the continent in 1693. He fought 
at the sieges of Namur and the battle of Neerwinden, and 
assisted in destroying the French magazine at Givet. In xyos, 
waiving his own claims to the position of commander-in-chief, 
he a>mmanded the Dutch serving under the duke of Marlborough. 
He died at Utrecht on the nth of February 1703, and was 
succeeded by his son the 2nd earl (x66S-x7z9), a distinguished 
soldier in the reigns of William III. and Anne. On the death 
of ahe 9th earl without issue in 1844, the title became extinct. 

6IHSBURO. CHBI8TIAN DAVID (1831- ), Hebrew scholar, 
was bom at Warsaw on the tsth of December 1831. Coming to 
England shortly after the completion of his education in the 
Rabbink G>Uege at Warsaw, Dr Ginsburg continued his study 
<rf the Hebrew Scriptures, with ^>ecial attention to the Megilloth. 
The first result of these studies was a translation of the Song 
of Songs, with a commentary historical and critical, published 
in 1857. A similar trandation of Ecdesiastes, followed by 
ueatises on the Karaites, on the Essencs and on the Kabbala, 
kept the author prominently before biblical st-udents while he 
was preparing the first secti<Mis of his magnum 0^, the critical 
study of the Maasorah. Beginning in 1867 with the publication 
of Jacob ben Chajim's Introduction to the Rabbinic Bible, 
Hebrew and English, with notices, and the Jdaasoreth Ha- 
Masaoreth <^ Ellas Levita, in Hebrew, with translation and 
commentary, Dr Ginsburg took rank as an eminent Hebrew 
scholar. In 1870 he was appointed one of the first members 
of the committee for the revision of the English version of the 
Old Testament. Hn life-work culminated in the publication 
of the Massorah, in three volumes folio (i88o-x886), followed 
by the Maaoretico-critical edition of the Hebrew Bible (1894), 
and the'daborate introduction to it (1897). Dr Ginsburg had 
one predecessor in the field, the learned Jacob ben Chajim, who 
in 1524--1535 published the second Rabbinic Bible, containing 
what has ever since been known as the Massorah; but neither 
were the materials available nor was criticism sul&dently 
advanced for a complete edition. Dr Ginsburg took up the 
subject abnost where it was left by those early pioneers, and 
collected portions of the Massorah from the countless MSS. 
scattered throughout Europe and the East. More recently 
Dr Ginsburg has published PauimUes «/ MoaimcH^ tf tie 
Hebrew Bible (1897 and 1898). and Tke Text ofUu Hebrem Bible 
im Abbremaiiom (1903), in addition to a critical treatise " on the 
relationship of the so-called Codes Babylonicus of a.d. 9x6 to 
the Eastern Recension of the Hebrew Text " <x899, for private 
circulation). In the last-mentioned work he seeks to prove that 
the St Petersburg Codex, for so many years accepted as the 
genuine text of the Babylonian school, is in reality a Palestiniui 
text carefully altered so as to render it conformable to the 
Babylonian recension. He subsequently undertook the preparar 
tion of a new editioi^ of the Hebrew Bible for the British and 
Foreign Bible Society. He also contributed many articles to 
J. Xitto's Encyclopaedia, W. Smith's Dictionary of Christian 
Biography and the Encyclopaedia Britanniea, 

0IN8B1IG, the root of a spedes of Panax iPjCinseng)^ native of 
Manchuria and Korea, belonging to the natural order Araliaceae, 
used in China as a medidne. Other roots are substituted for it, 
notably that of Panax quinqwfolittm, distinguished as American 
ginseng, and imported from the United States. At one time 
the ginseng obtained from Manchuria was considered to be the 
finest quality, and in consequence became so scarce that an 
imperiaJ edict was issued prohibiting its collection. That 
prepared in Korea is now the most esteemed variety. The root of 
the wild plant is preferred to that of cultivated ginseng, and the 
older the plant the better is the quality of the root considered to 
be. Great care is taken in the preparation of the drug. The 
account given by Koempfer of the preparation of nin<bin, the 
root of Stum ninsi, in Korea, will give a good idea of the prepara- 
tion of ginseng, ninsi being a similar drug of supposed weaker 

virtue, obtained from a different plant, and often confounded 
with ginseng. '* In the beginning of winter nearly all the 
population of Sjansai turn out to collect the root, and make 
preparations for sleeping in the fidds. The root, when collected, 
is macerated for three days in fresh water, or water in which 
rice has been boiled twice; it is then suspended in a closed 
vessd over the fixe, and afterwards dried, until from the base to 
the middle it assumes a hard, resinous and translucent appear- 
ance, which is considered a proof of its good quality." 

Ginseng of good quality generally occurs- in hard, rather 
brittle, translucent pieces, about the size of the little finger, 
and varying in length from a to 4 in. The taste is mucilaginous, 
sweetish and slightly bitter and aromatic. The root is frequently 
forked, and it is probably owing to this drcumstaoce that 
medicinal properties were in the first place attributed to it, 
its resemblance to the body of a man being supposed to indicate 
that it could restore virile power to the aged and impotent. 
In price it varies from 6 or xs dollars to the enormous sum of 
300 or 400 dollars an ounce. 

Lockbart gives a graphic description of a visit to a ginseng mer- 
chant. Owning the outer box, the merchant removed sevcrafpaper 
parcels which appeared to fill the box, but under them was a second 
box, or perhaps two small boxes, which, when taken out, showed 
tiie bottom of the kuge box and all the intervening space filled with 
more paper parcels. These parcels, he said, " contained qaickUme, 
for the purpose of absorbing any moisture and keeping the boxes 
quite dry, tnc lime being packed m paper for the sake ofcleanlincss. 
The smaller box, whichlield the ginseng, was lined with sheet-lead ; 
the ginseng further enclosed in «lk wrappers was kept in little silken- 
covered bm«s. Taking up a piece, he would request hu visitor not 
to breathe upon it, nor handle it; he would dilate upon the many 
merits of the drug and the cures it had effected. The cover of the 
root, according to its qualitv, was silk, either embroidered or plain, 
cotton doth or paper." In China the ginseng is often sent to 
friends as a valuable present; in such cases, "accompanying the 
medicine u usually given a small, beautifully-finished doubk kettle, 
in which the ginseng is prepared as follows. The inner kettle is 
made of silver, and between this and the outnde vessel, which is a 
coiaper Jacket, is a small space for holding water. The silver kettle, 
which nts on a ring near tne top of the outer covering, has a cup-like 
cover in which rice is placed with a little water; the cinseog is put 
in the inner vessel with water, a cover is placed over the whole, and 
the appaiatus is put on the fire. When the rice in the cover is suffi- 
ciently cooked, the medicine is ready, and is then eaten by the 
patient, who drinks the ginseng tea at the same time." The dose 
of the root is from 60 to 90 grains. During the use of the drug tea- 
drinking is forbidden for at least a month, but no other cbanse is 
made in the diet. It is taken in the morning before breakfast, from 
three to oght days together,, and sometimes it is taken in the evening 
before going to bed. 

The action of the drug appears to be entirely psychic, and com- 
parable to that of the maodrake of the Hebrews. There is no 
evidence that it possesses any pharmacolos^cal or therapeutic 

See Porter Smith, Chinese Materia Uedica, p. 103; Reports on 
Trade at the Treaty Ports of China (1868), p. 6x', Lockhart. Med, 
Missionary in China (2nd cd.)« p. 107 ; Bull, de la Sociiti Imptrude 
de Nat. de Mescou (1865), No. 1, pp. 70-76; PharmaceiUical Journal 
(a), vol. iii. pp. 197, 333> (3)i vol. uc p. 77; Lewis, Materia Medico, 
p. 334; Geottroy, Tract, de matihre midicaie, t. u. p. lis ; Kaempfer, 

GIOBERTI, VnfCBMZO (xSox-xSss), Italian phflosopher, 
publidst and politidan, was bom in Turin on the 5th of April 
x8ox. He was educated by the fathers of the Oratory with a 
view to the priesthood and ordained in 1825. At first he led a 
-very retired life; but gradually took more and more interest 
in the affairs of his country and the new political ideas as well 
as in the literature of the day. Partly under the influence of 
Mazzini, the freedom of Italy became his ruling motive in life,— 
its emancipation, not only from foreign masters, but from modes 
of thought alien, to its genius, and detrimental to its European 
authority. This authority was in his mind connected with 
papal supremacy, though in a way quite novel— intellectual 
rather than political. This must be remembered in considering 
nearly all his writings, and also in estimating his position, both 
in relation to the tiding clerical party^the Jesuits— and also 
to the politics of the court of Piedmont after the accession of 
Charles Albert in 183 x. He was now noticed by the king and 
made one of his chaplains. . His popukrity and private influence, 
however, were reasons enough for the court party to mark him 


larexQe; be waa not aiiBOll)Kiii,tnd could not bcdtptndtd on- 
Knowing Ihli, he reaigDcd hit office in 1S31, but wu luddtnly 
armted on ■ charge of conipiiacy, and, illei an inpiisonincni of 
'19, waa brmiahed without a trial. Gioberti GnC mat 

IT later, 

aching philoaophy, and Issuting a friend in the work 
of a private school. Me neverlhclai found lime 10 write many 
woib of philoaopbical importiDCe, with ipecial reference 10 hii 
country and its poiitioo. An amoeity having been declared 
by Charin Albert la 1846, Gioberti (who was again in Fairi) 
wu at liberty to return to Italy, but ref uaed to do 10 till the end 
of 1847. On hii entrance Into Turin on the iglh of April 1848 
he was received with the gieitot enlbusiasm. He refuted the 
dignity of senator offered him by Chulea Albeit, ptefi 

nl hit na 

of Victi 

ie Chamber of D 

, ofw 

■849. hi 

a abort lime indeed he held a seat In the 
cabinet, though without a portfolio; but an irreconcilable 
disagreement soon followed, and hit removal from Turin was 
accomplished by his appointment on a miasion to Paris, whence 
he never returned. There, reluaing the penaion which had been 
oSeied him and all ccclesiailicol pfcf;nnent, he lived {lugally, 
and spent his days and nights as at Brussels in tileraiy labour. 
He died fuddenly, of apoplciy, on the afttb of October 1851. 

Gioberti'i writingc are more important than hii political carver. 
In thegeneralhiilofv of European phPoaophy they Kard apart. Aa 
the speculations of Roanum.Serbati, against which he wrote, have 

modem achoola of thought. 

Cioberti, known aa ," Ootohsfiam*" i 

orks, la unrelated toolh 

irmony with the Ronan Cadiolic faith wL... . 

Coudn to decbre that "Italian philoacnfar wa> slill in the bo. _. 
theology," and tbarCiobeiti w» » pbitoiopher. Method is wii 

^ js the betfnning of phiknophy. Gmbeni ii in aome 

Rspecli ■ Plalonitl. He ideirtiBea iiligian with dvlUallsn. and in 
hia tieitJH Dd primau maraU t etnOi ii^i lUtiani anivcs at Ibc 
conclusion that (he chinch la the uia on which the well-being of 
haman life revolveL inil beafirms the Idea cf the iupremacy of 
iBlr, brouhl abont by the rcMontion of the ptpa^ as a moral 
doaunlon, founded 00 religion and public o^inn, in hia Ller works, 
the JtHUKHifliM and tbc FrtMafia, he is thought by tone 10 have 
ihifud his gmind under the InaiieiKe ol evcnia. Hia ftrat work. 
written when kc waa thbty-wen, had a penonal reason for its 
euileiic& A young faUow-aile and frleiuir Paolo Pallia, having 
many doisbts and nai^vings as to the reality of revrialion and a 
lutilfe lile. Osbenl at once set to work irilh La TteHa id unaa- 
Hlmle, which wis lus Snt publicBlwa (iBjS). After this, philo- 
soohlcal trcatisea followed in rapid auccnsion. llie Tarita waa 
foOowcd hy Iwlrtin^BV ^iB UuMb idlt fliaajia m Ihiei vohinin 
(t8w-lB40). In this work he stales hia reamni for requinne a new 
metlwd and new temiashity- Hen he biingi out the doctrine 
tlut Rligton is the direct eapnadon cd the iAea In this Hfe. and i* 
one WTib true d^^liaatkn in Ustcfy. GviliiatioB is a conditioned 
medial* lendency to peclKclon, to which celiglan is tbe final com- 
plctiofl if caiiiedouClil Is the end of the second cnle cupresicd by 

liahed tin 1846) on (he lighter and more popular subjects, Dtl betlo 
and D4I btnt. followed (he Imlnitawm. Dd priiuiU miiriili e 
dtik ittfi luiiani and tbe FralcgiBiiii la the same, and soon aiier- 
wards his triumphant eipoeurv of the Jesuits. H Gumita nodtrna. 

of Italy, The 

(hodoi, and aided in diawing the libenl cieny Into the 
which his resuHed rince hii^me in the mUicMlo- -< ■ 
Jefuilt, however, closed round the pcpc more firnil 
o Rome, and in (he end Giobcrtj's writings we 
1. Oter dii VmuiBliiv 

■I <in J. Kleutgen. I7kr iU ¥• 
*dcn*nti«aSIiai. 1S67J. The r 

. The emir* wtiiingial 

•.\..^^i„. via it V.Cabt, 


• abtili (Flotence. 1848]: A. Ronninl. 

lUiiMo (Milan- 184^: C. B. Smyth. 

" ^veua. Li Filet^ ii CiBbrrii 

vUa t itUt fiptrt ii V. CitUrIi 

I e r tmtaiotiimo (Naples, 1867) ; 

«a itniMaa (NapJe., tSM-lfi)^); 

Near the t 

liSjS _.___.,, 

_ ,..,.. ,.„ YT.r. „i,.- (p,Hs. l86«}: C Werner. 

,..._ ....-no.LaPkiUupkit 

.» M«~,, R. Sevdd's ohaustive article in 
AUiemtiiie Encydopaiit, The centenary of 
several monographs in l(aly. 
a town of Calabria, Italy, in tb< province 

Quarltrh Efpicm (Boston, MassO, iii ■ R- M 

Ench and'crT 
Gisbeni called 


Pop- (.91 

I of Calabii* 

, m- below the town to tbe S.E., the remains of a theatre 
■elonging to the Roman period were discovered in 1883; the 
tchi3trawu46 ft. in diameter (NtHtie iitli imPi, 1SS3, p-tij). 

it which does not seem clear, aie described {ib. 1884. p- >;>). 

OIOJA, MELCHIOIIRE (i767-iS]q), Italian writer on philo- 
ophy and politii ' . - ~. . -. - 

icmber 1767. Originally intended fo 

be church, be took 

rhe arrival ol Napoleon in Italy d 
He advocated a republic under (be d 
1 pamphlet / Talaclii, i Framali, td 1 
ludcr the Cisalpine Republic he wi 
md director of statistics. He waa 1 

fundamental idea is the value of staiisti 
facts. Philotsphyilaeiliawithhi 
of ideas. Logic he regarded a* 1 

a publicist. 

ifruclrd teois. Ir 

and systematic ^ 

The iVMsao Pi 
although long I 


■ ioHjUfrem ili-an- 
tbam gecenlly, and 
■n (181S) ia a cleu 

w of social ethics from the utilitariau principle. 

ly thi^ avidity lor fads produced better Mt*. 

piUe diUe Hum ixininmitke (i8ij-igi]), 

[ins much valuable maleriaL The author 
rongiy favours association as a means nl pn>- 

I of the s 

. pc^icy 

n tho 

ling power 

tion. He must be credited with the finest and most orighiaL 
lieatment of division of labour aince the Wtallk a/ Natiaia. 
Much of what Babbage (aught later on 11)6 tobject of comblDed 
work i> iniicipaled by Cioja- His theory of inoduclion b alio 

and gives due pnminence to immaterial goods. Tbroushout 

life, and a<!ords the clearest insight into hii aim and method in 

philoupby both theoietical a!nd piactlcal. 
See monogTaphs by C, D- Romaenoti (I8Jp>, F. Fafco (ii66Ji 

C. Pecrhio, SloTM JeU' ffoaoMW p«tWi(a ia /lo/ie (iSrol, andaiticle 

' " ' ' 'Amber's AUinriH fiuyilD^ii; for Gioja'sphilo- 
i. Eliai lai fkislairc ie Ii phileicpliii n floiii aa 
S69): Uel"^rw«'ii Hist, cf P*i/«Df*» (Ei». tt,. 
A. Rosmini-Sefluli. Op^iali flcufici. Ih- h*4*\ 
■tuck OB Cicja's " ammalism "J i (or his palibau 

ippendis ■■ 



cooncMny, liM of works in J. Conrad's HaMiwMtrHek 4«f Sioatt- 
vissensek^em (189a); L, Coasa. IiUrod. to PoL Bcmt. (Eny. tram., 
p. 488). Gioja • complete works were published at Lugano (1832- 
1S49). He was one of the founders of the AnnaH nnmrsalt di 

GIOUTTI, OIOVAimi (1843- ), Italian sUtesman, was 
bom at Mondovi on the ayth of October 1842. After a rapid 
career in the financial administiation he was, in x88a, appointed 
councillor of state and elected to paiiiamcnt. As deputy he 
chiefly acquired prominence by attacks on Magliani, treasury 
minister in the Depretis cabinet, and on the 9th of March 1889 
was hindfidf select^l as treasury minister by Crispi. On the iall 
of the Rttdin! cabinet in May 1892, GioUtti, with the help of a 
court clique, succeeded to the premiership. His term of office 
was marked by misforttme and misgovernment. The building 
crisis and the commercial rupture with France had impaired the 
situation of the state banks, of which one, the Banca Romana, 
had been further undermined by maladministration. A bank 
law, passed by Giolitti failed to effect an improvement. More- 
over, he irritated public opinion by raising to senatorial rank the 
director-general of the Banca Romaim, Signor Tanlongo, whose 
irregular practices had become a byword. The senate declined 
to admit Tanlongo, whom Giolitti, in consequence of an inter^ 
pellation in parliament upon the condition of the Banca Romana, 
was obliged to arrest and prosecute. During the prosecution 
Gblitti abused his position as premier to abstract documents 
bearing on the case. Simultaneously a parliamentary commission 
of inquiry investigated the condition of the state banks. Its 
report, though acquitting Giolitti of personal dishonesty, proved 
disastrous to his political position, and obliged him to resign. 
His fall kft the finances x>f the state disorganized, the pensions 
fund depleted, diplomatic relations with France strained in 
consequence of the massacre of Italian workmen at .Mgucs- 
Mortes, and Sicily and the Lum'giana in a state of revolt, which 
he had proved impotent to suppress. After his resignation he 
was impeached for abuse of power as minister, but thfc supreme 
court quashed the impeachment by denying the competence of 
the ordinary tribunals to judge ministerial acts. For several 
years he was compelled to play a passive part, having lost all 
credit. But by keeping in the background and giving public 
opinion time to forget his past, as well as by parliamentary 
intrigue, he gradually regained much of hb former influence. 
He made capital of the Socialist agitation and of the repression 
to which other statesmen resorted, and gave the agitators to 
understand that were he premier they would be allowed a free 
hand. Thus he gained their favour, and on the faU of the 
Pelloux cabinet he became minister of the Interior in Zanardelli's 
administration, of which he was the real bead. His policy of 
never interfering in strikes and leaving evin violent demonstra- 
tions undisturbed at first proved successful, but indiscipline 
and disorder grew to such a pitch that 2^nardelli, already in 
bad health, resigned, and Giolitti succeeded him as prime minister 
(November 1903). But during his tenure of office he, too, had to 
resort to strong measures in repressing some serious disorders in 
various parts of Italy,and thus he lost the favour of the Socialists. 
In March 1905, feeling himself no longer secure, he resigned, 
jidicating Fort is as his successor. When Soanino became 
premier in February 1906, Giolitti did riot openly oppose him, 
but his followers did, and Sonnino was defeated in May, Giolitti 
becoming prime minister once more. 

GIORDANO, LUCA (1632-2705), Italian painter, was born in 
Naples, son of a very indifferent painter, Antonio, who imparted 
to him the first rudiments of drawing. Nature predestined him 
for the art, and at the age of eight he painted a cherub into one 
of his father's pictures, a feat which was at once noised abroad, 
and induced the viceroy of Naples to recommend the child to 
Ribera. His father afterwards took him to Rome, to study under 
PietTO da Cortona. Heacquired the nickname of Luca Fa-presto 
(Luke Work-fast). One might suppose this nickname to be 
derived merely from the almost miraculous celerity with which 
from an early age and throughout his life he handled the brush; 
but it is said to have had a more express origin. The. father, 
we art Cold, poverty-stricken and greedy of gain, was perpetually 


urging his boy to exertioa with the phrase, " Luca, fi presto. 
The youth obeyed his parent to the letter, and would acttially 
not so much as pause to snatch a hasty meal, but received into 
his mouth, while he still worked on, the food which his father's 
hand supplied. He copied nearly twenty times the " Battle of 
Constaatine" by Julio Romano, and with proportwnate frequency 
several of the great works of Raphael and Michelangelo. His 
rapidity, which belonged as much to invention as to mere handi- 
work, and his versatility, which enabled him to imitate other 
painters deceptively, earned for him two other epithets, " The 
Thunderbolt " (Fulmine), and " The Proteus," of Painting. He 
shortly visited all the main seats of the Italian school of art, 
and formed for himself a style combining in a certain measure 
the ornamental pomp of Paul Veronese and the contrasting com- 
positions and large schemes of chiaroKuro of Pietro da Cortona. 
He was noted also for lively and showy colour. Retum^ig to 
Naples, and accepting every sort of commission by which money 
was to be made, he practised his art with so much apphiuse that 
Charles II. of Spain towards 1687 invited him over to Madrid, 
where he remained thirteen years. Giordano was veiy popuUr 
at the Spanish court, being a sprightly talker along with his other 
marvellously facile gifts, and the king created him a cavaliere. 
One anecdote of his rapidity of work is that the queen of Spain 
having one day made some inquiry about his wife, he at once 
showed Her Majesty what the lady was like by painting her 
portrait ihto the picture on which he was engaged. Soon after 
the death, of Charles in 1700 Giordano, gorged with wealth, 
returned to Naples. He spent large sums in acts of munificence, 
and was particularly liberal to his poorer brethren of the art. He 
again visited various parts of Italy, and died in Naples on the 
X2th of January 1705, his last words being ** O NapoU, sospiro 
mio " (O Naples, my heart's love I) . One of his maxi ms was that 
the good painter is the one whom the public like, and that the 
public are attracted more by colour than by design. 

Giordano had an astonishing readiness and facility, in spite 
of the general commonness and superficiality of his performances. 
He left many works in Rome, and far more in Naples. Of the 
latter one of the most renowned is " Christ expelling the Traders 
from the Temple," in the church of the Padri Girolamini, a 
colossal work, full of expressive laxzaroni; also the frescoes 
of S. Martino, and those in the Tesoro delU Ccrtosaj including 
the subject of " Moses and the Brazen Serpent "; and the cupola- 
paintings in the Church of S. Brigida, which contains tlve artist's 
own tomb. In Spain he executed a surprising number of works, 
— continuing in the Escorial the series commenced by Cambiasi, 
and painting frescoes of the " Triumphs of the Church," the 
" Genealogy and Life of the Madonna," the stories of Moses, 
Gideon, David and Solomon, and the. " Celebrated Women of 
Scripture," all works of large dimensions. His pupils, Aniello 
Rossi and Matteo Pacelli, assisted him in Spain. In Madrid he 
m>rked more in oil-cdour, a Nativity there being one of his best 
productions. Other superior examples are the " Judgment oi 
Paris " in the Berlin Museum, and " Christ with the Doctors in 
the Temple," in the Corsini Gallery of Rome. In Florence, in 
his closing days, ke painted the Cappella Corsini, the Galleria 
Riccardi and other works. In youth he etched with considerable 
skill some of his own paintings, such as the " Slaughter of the 
Priests of Baal." He also painted much on the crystal borderings 
of looking-glasses, cabinets, Ac, seen in many Italian palaces, and 
was, in this form of art, the master of Pietro Garofolo. His best 
pupil, in painting of the ordinary kind, was Paolo de Matteis. 

Bellori, in his Vile ic' pUtori modemi^ is a leadin]|( authority 
regarding Luca Giordano. P. Benvenuto (1883) has written a work 
on the Riccardi paiatiiq;s. 

GIORQIONB (1477^15x0), Italian painter, was bom at Castel- 
franco in 1477. In contemporary documents he is always called 
(according to the Venetian manner of pronunciation and spelling) 
Zorzi, Zorso or Zorzon of Castelfranco. A tradition, having 
its origin in the X7th century, represented him as the natural 
son of some member of the great local family of the Barbarclll, 
by a peasant girl of the neighbouring village of Vedelago; 
consequently he is commonly referred to in histories and. 



catalogues under the name of Giorpo BarbarelU or Barbardla. 
This tradition has, however, on dose examination been proved 
baseless. On the other hand mention has been found in a 
contemporary document of an earlier Zorzon, a native of 
VedeUgo, living in Castelfranco in Z46a Vasari, who wrote 
before the Barbarella legend had sprung up, says tluit Giorgione 
was of very humble origin. It seems probable that he was 
simply the son or grandson of the afore-mcntioned Zorzon the 
elder; that the after-claim of the BarbarelU to kindred with him 
was a mere piece of family vanity, vety likely suggested by the 
analogous case of Leonardo da Vind; and that, this daim once 
put abroad, the peasant-mother of Vedelago was invented on 
the ground of some dim knowledge that his real progenitors 
came from that village. 

Of the facts of his life we are almost as meagrely informed as 
of the circumstances of his birth. The little dty, or large 
fortiW village, for it is scarcely more, of Castelfranco in the 
Trevisan stands in the midst of a rich and bn^en plain at some 
distance from the last spurs of the Venetian Alps. From the 
natural surroundings of Giorgione's childhood was no doubt 
derived his ideal of pastoral scenery, the country of pleasant 
copses, glades, brooks and hills amid which his personages love 
to wander or recline with lute and pipe. How early in boyhood 
he went to Venice we do not know, but internal evidence 
supports the statement of Ridolfi that be served his apprentice- 
ship there under Giovanni Bdltni; and there he made his fame 
and had his home. That his gifts were early recognized we 
know from the facts, recorded in contemporary documents, 
that in 1500, when he was only twenty-three (that b if Vasari 
gives rightly the Sfre at which he died), he was chosen to paint 
portraits of the Doge Agostino Barbcrigo and the condottiere 
Consalvo Ferrante; that in 1504 he was commis^ned to paint 
an altarpiece in memory of Matteo Costanzo in the cathedral 
of his native town, Castelfranco; that in 1507 he received at the 
order of the Council of Ten part payment for a picture (subject 
not mientioned) on which be was engaged for the Hall of the 
Audience in the ducal palace; and that in 1507-1508 he was 
employed, with other artists of his own generation, to decorate 
with frescoes the exterior of the newly rebuilt Fondaco dd 
Tedeschi or Gennan merchants' hall at Venice^ having already 
done similar work on the exterior of the Casa Soranzo, the Casa 
Grimani alii Servi and other Venetian palaces. Vasari gives 
also as an important event in Giorgione's Ufe, and one which had 
influence on his work, his meeting with Leonardo da Vind on 
the occasion of the Tuscan master's visit to Venice in 1500. In 
September or October 15 10 he died of the plague then raging 
in the city, and within a few days of his death we find the great 
art-patroness and amateur, Isabella d'Este, writing from Mantua 
and trying in vain to secure for her collection a night-piece by 
bis hand of which the fame had reached her. 

All accounts agree in representing Giorgione as a personage 
of distinguished and romantic chaim, a great lover, a great 
musidan, made to enjoy in life and to express in art to the 
uttermost the delight, the splendour, the sensuous and imaginative 
grace and fulness, not untinged with poetic melancholy, of the 
Venetian existence of his time. They represent him further as 
having made in Venetian painting an advance analogous to that 
made in Tuscan painting by Leonardo more than twenty years 
before; that is as having released the art from the last shackles 
of archaic rigidity and placed it in possession of full freedom 
and the full mastery of its means. He also introduced a new 
range of subjects. Besides altarpieces and portraits he painted 
pictures that told no story, whether biblical or classical, or if 
they professed to tell such, neglected the action and simply 
embodied in form and colour moods of lyrical or romantic 
feeling, much as a musician might embody them in sounds. 
Innovating with the courage and felicity of genius, he had for 
a time an overwhdming influence on his contemporaries and 
immediate successors in the Venetian school, including Titian, 
Sebastian del Piombo, the elder Palma, Cariani and the two 
Campagnolas, and not a little even on seniors of long-standing 
fAinfi. such as Giovanni Bdlini. His name and mwrk have 

exercised, and continue to exercise, no less a spell on posterity. 
But to identify and define, among the relics of his age and school, 
precisdy what that work is, and to distinguish it from the 
kindred work of other men whom his influence inspired, is a 
veiy difficult matter. There are indusive critics who still 
claim for Giorgione nearly every painting of the time that at 
all resembles his manner, and there are exdusive critics who pare 
down to some ten or a dosen the list of extant piaures which 
they will admit to be actually his. 

To name first those which are dther certain or command 
the most general acceptance, placing them in something like 
an approximate and probable order of date. In the Uffizi at 
Florence are two companion pieces of the '* Trial of Moses " 
and the "Judgment of Solomon," the latter the finer and 
better preserved of the two, which pass, no doubt justly, as 
typical works of Giorgione's youth, and exhUiit, though not yet 
ripely, his spedal qualities of colour-richness and landscape 
romance, the peculiar fadal types of his predilection, with the 
pure form of forehead, fine oval of cheek, and somewhat close-set 
eyes and eyebrows, and the intensity of that still and brcxKting 
sentiment with which, rather than with dramatic life and 
movement, he instinctivdy invests his figures. Probably the 
earliest of the portraits by common consent called his is the 
beautiful one of a young man at Berlin. His earlicat devotional 
picture would seem to be the highly finished " Christ bearing 
his Cross" (the bead and shoukieis only, with a peculiarly 
serene and high>bred cast of features) formerly at Vicenxa and 
now in the collection of Mrs Gardner at Boston. Other versions 
of this picture exist, and it has been daimed that one in private 
possession at Vienna is the true original: erroneously in the 
judgment of the present writer. Another " Christ bearing the 
Cross," with a Jew dragging at the rope round his neck, in the 
church of San Rocco at Venice, is a ruined but genuine wwk, 
quoted by Vasari and Kidolfi, and copied with the name of 
Giorgione appended, by Van Dyck in that master's Chataworth 
sketch-book. (Vasari gives it to Giorgione in his first and to 
Titian in his second edition.) The composition of a lost eariy 
picture of the birth of Paris is preserved in an engravings of the 
' Teniers Gallery " series, and an old copy of part of the same 
picture is at Budapest. In the Giovanelli Palace at Venice 
is that fascinating and enigmatical mythology or allegory, 
known to the Anonimo Morclliano, who saw it in 1 550 in the house 
of Gabriel Vcndramin, simply as "the small landscape with 
the storm, the gipsy woman and the soldier "; the picture is 
conjecturally interpreted by modern authorities as illustrating 
a passage in Statins which describes the meeting of Adrastus 
with Hypsipyle when she was serving as nurse with the king of 
Nemea. Still bdonging to the earlier part of the painter's 
brief career is a t>eautiful, virginally pensive Judith at St Peters- 
burg! which passed under various alien names, as Raphael, 
Moretto, &c., until its kindred with the unquestioned work of 
Giorpone was in late years firmly established. The great 
(Castelfranco altarpiece, still, in spite Of many restorations, 
one of the most classically pure and radiantly impressive works 
of Renaissance painting, may be taken as closing the earlier 
phase of the young master's work (1504). It shows the Virgin 
loftily enthroned on a plain, sparely draped stone structure with 
St Francis and a warrior saint (St Libe'rale) standing in attitudes 
of great simplidty on cither side of the foot of the throne, a 
high parapet behind them, and a beautiful landscape of the 
master's usual type seen above it. Neariy akin to this master- 
piece, not in shape or composition but by the type of the Virgin 
and the very Bellinesque St Francis, is the altarpiece nt the 
Madonna with St Francis and St Roch at Madrid. Of the 
master's fully ripened time is the fine and again enigmatical 
picture formerly in the house of Taddeo Contarini at Venice, 
described by contemporary witnesses as the "Three Philosophers,*' 
and now, on slender enough grounds, supposed to represent 
Evander showing Aeneas the site of Troy as narrated in the 
dghth Aendd. * The portrait of a knight of Malta in the Ufiid at 
Florence has more power and authority, if less sentiment, than 
the earlier example at Berlin, and may be taken to be of thr 



mastei't middle time. Most entirely centnl and typical o( «U 
Gioivoae's extant works Is the Sleeping Venus at Dresden, 
first recognized by MoreUI, and now universally accepted^ as 
being the same as the picture seen by the Anonimo and later 
by Ridolfi in the Casa Marcello at Venice. An exquisitely pure 
and severe rhythm of line and contour chastens the sensuous 
richness of the presentment: the sweep of white drapery on 
which the goddess lies, and of glowing landscape that fills the 
space behind her, most harmoniously frame her divinity. It is 
recorded that the roaster left this piece unfinished and that 
the landscape, with a Cupid which subsequent restoration has 
removed, were completed after his death by Titian. The picture 
is the prototype of Titian's own Venus at the Uffizi and of many 
more by other painters of the school; but none of them attained 
the quality of the first exemplar. Of such small scenes of mixed 
classical mythology and landscape as early writers attribute in 
consderable number to Giorgione, there have survived at least 
two which bear strong evidences of his handiwork, though the 
action is in both of unwonted liveliness, namely the Apollo and 
Daphne of the Seminario at Venice and the Orpheus and Eurydice 
of Bergamo. The portrait of Antonio Grocardo at Budapest 
represents his fullest and most penetrating power in that branch 
of art. In his last years the purity and relative slenderness of 
form which mark his earlier female nudes, including the Dresden 
Venus, gave way to ideab of ampler mould, more nearly approach- 
ing those of Titian and his successors in Venetian art; as b 
proved by those last remaining fragments of the frescoes on the 
Grand Canal front of the Fondaco dei Tcdeschi which were seen 
and engraved by Zanetti in 1760, bat have now totally dis- 
appeared. Such change of ideal is apparent enough in the 
famous " Concert " or." Pastoral Symphony " of the Louvre, 
probably the latest, and certainly one of the most characteristic 
and harmoniously splendid, of Giorgione's creations that has 
come down to us, and has caused some critics too hastily to 
doubt its authenticity. 

We pass now to pictures for which some affirm and others 
deny the right to bear Giorgionc's name. As youthful in style 
as the two early pictures in the Uffizi, and closely allied to them 
in feeling, though less so in colour, is an unexplained subject 
in the National Gallery, sometimes called for want of a better 
title the *' Golden Age "; this is offidaily and by many critics 
^venonly to the " school of " Giorgione, but may not unreasonably 
be claimed for hisown work (No. x 173). There isalso in Enghind 
a group of three paintings which are certainly by one hand, 
and that a hand very closely related to Giorgione if not actually 
his own. namely the small oblong " Adoration of the Magi " 
In the National Gallery (No. xi6o), the "Adoration of the 
Shepherds " belonging to Lord AUendalc (with its somewhat 
Inferior but still attractive replica at Vienna), and the small 
*' Holy Family " in the collection of Mr R. H. Benson. The 
type of the Madonna in all these three pieces is different from 
that customary with the master, but there seems no reason why 
he should not at some particular moment have changed his 
modeL The sentiment and gestures of the figures, the cast of 
draperies, the technical handling, and especially, in Lord Allen- 
dale's picture, the romantic richness of the landscape, all incline 
us to accept the group as original, notwithstanding the deviation 
of type already mentioned and certain weaknesses of drawing 
and proportion which we should have hardly looked for. Better 
known to European students in general arc the two fine pictures 
commonly given to the roaster at the Pitti gallery in Florence, 
namely the " Three Ages " and the " Concert." Both are very 
Giorgionesque, the " Three Ages " leaning rather towards the 
early manner of Lorenzo Lotto, to whom by some critics It is 
actually given. The " Concert " is held on technical grounds 
by some of the best judges rather to bear the character of Titian 
at the moment when the inspiration of Giorgione was strongest 
on him, at least so far as concerns the extremely beautiful and 
expressive central figure of the monk playing on the clavichord 
with reverted head, a very incarnation of musical rapture juid 
yearning*~the other figures are too much injured to judge. 

There are at least two famous single portraito as to which 

critics win probably never agree whether they are among the 
later works of Giorgione or among the earliest of Titian under 
his influence: these are the jovial and splendid half-length of 
Catherine Comaro (or a stout lady much resembling her) with 
a bas-relief, in the collection of Signor Crespi at Milan, and the 
so-called "Ariosto" from Lord Darnley's collection acquired 
for the National Gallery in 1904. Ancient and half-effaced 
inscriptions, of which there is no cause to doubt the genuineness, 
ascribe them both to Titian; both, to the mind of the present 
writer at least, arc more nearly akin *to such undoubted early 
Titians as the " Man with the Book " at Hampton Court and 
the " Man with the Glove " at the Louvre than to any authen- 
ticated work of Giorgione. At the same time it should be 
remembered that Giorgione Is known to have actually enjoyed 
the patronage of Catherine Comoro and to have painted her 
portrait. The Giorgionesque influence and feeling, to a degree 
almost of sentimental exaggeration, encounter us again in another 
beautiful Venetian portrait at the National Gallery which has 
sometimes been claimed for him, that of a man in crimson velvet 
with whltepleatedshiTt and a background of bays, k>ng attributed 
to the elder Palma (No. 636). The same qualities are presimt 
with more virility in a very striking portrait of a young man 
at Temple Newsam, which stands indeed nearer than any other 
extant example to the Brocanlo portrait at Budapest. ' The 
full-face portrait of a woman in the Borghese gallery at Rome 
has the marks of the master's design and ins{uration, but in its 
present sadly damaged condition can hardly be claimed for his 
handiwork. The head of a boy with a pipe at Hampton Court, 
a little over life size, has been enthusiastically claimed as Gior- 
gione's workmanslitp, but is surely tuo slack and soft in handling 
to be anything more than an early copy of a lost work, analogous 
to, though better than, the similar copy at Vienna of a young 
man with an ^rrow, a subject he is known to have painted. 
The early records prove indeed that not a few such copies of 
Giorgionc's more admired works were produced in his own time 
or shortly afterwards. One of the most interesting and un- 
mistakable such copies still extant is the |ucture formerly in the 
Manfrin collection at Venice, afterwards in that of Mr Barker in 
London* and now at Dresden, which is commonly called " The 
Horoscope," and represents a woman seated near a classic ruin 
with a young child at her feet, an armed youth standing looking 
down at them, and a turbancd sage seated near with compasses, 
disk and book. Of important subject pictures belonging to the 
debatable borderland between Giorgione and his imitators arc the 
large and interesting unfinished *' Judgment of S(^mon " at 
Kingston Lacy, whidi must certainly be the same that Ridolfi 
saw and attributed to him in the Casa Grimani at Venice, but 
has weaknesses of design and drawing sufficiently bafiUng to 
criticism; and the " Woman taken in Adultery " in the public 
gallery at Glasgow, a picture truly Giorgionesque in richness of 
colour, but betraying in its awkward composition, the relative 
coarseness of its types and the. insincere, mechanical animation 
of its movements, the hand of some lesser master of the school, 
almost certainly (by comparison with his existing engravings 
and woodcuts) that of Domenico Campagnola. It seems un- 
necessary to refer, in the present notice, to any of the numerous 
other and inferior works which have been claimed for Giorgione 
by a criticism unable to distinguish between a living voice and its 

Bibliography.— Morelli, Nolizie, &c. (ed. Frizzoni, 1884): Vasari 
(ed. Milancsi), vol. iv.; Ridolfi, Le Maranetie deW arUt vol. i.; 
Zanetti, Varie Piltnre (1760) ; Crowc-Cavalcasclle, History ofPainling 
in North Jtalv; Morelli, Kunstkritische Studirn; Gronau, Zorton da. 
Castclfranco, la sua origtne, &c. (1894); Herbert Cook. Ciortioru (in 
*• Great Masters " series, IQOO); Ugo Monncret de Villard, Ciorjiione 
da CastHJranco (1905). The two last-named works are critically 
far too inclusive, but useful as going over the whole ground of 
dlKussion, with full references to earlier authorities, &c. (S. C.) 

GIOTTINO (1324-1357), an early Florentine painter. Vasari 
is the princlpd authority in regard to this artist; but it is not by 
any means easy to bring the details of his narrative into harmony 
with such facts as can now be verified. It would appear that there 
was a painter of the name of Tommaso (or Maso) di Stefano 



. > .. I • I >iii> <•. I ilii iihilliuiiul VttHAri in said to have been 
I ... t . . I >.. I |.. i,.iu iih «] early, of consumption, in 1357,— 
I lull liiiiit U »iy.ut|fd aa open to considerable doubt. 

I. |.>M., III! Ldluiut iommaao, was himself a celebrated painter 
)h ilii . .»il> itfvival oi art; his naturalism was indeed so highly 
Mi'ptt ( Ml I'll by contemporaries as to earn him the appellation of 
I ' in iniia della Nalura " (ape of nature). He, it seems, instructed 
his son, who, however, applied himself with greater predilection 
to studying the works of the great Giotto, formed his style on 
ihtac, and hence was called Giottino. It is even said that 
Giottino was really the son (others say the great-grandson) of 
Giotto. To thisstatement littleor no importance can be attached. 
To Maso di Stefano, or Giottino, Vasari and Ghiberti attribute 
the frescoes in the chapel of S. Silvestro (or of the Bardi family) 
in the Florentine church of S. Croce; these represent the miracles 
of Pope S. Silvestro as narrated in the " Golden Legend," one 
conspicuous subject being the scaling of the lips of a malignant 
dragon. These works are animated and firm in drawing, with 
naturalism carried further than by Giotto. From the evidence 
of style, some modern connoisseurs assign to the same hand the 
paintings in the funeral vault of the Strozzi family, below the 
Cappelia degli SpagnuoU in the church of S. Maria Novella, 
representing the crucifixion and other subjects. Vasari ascribes 
also to his Giottino the frescoes of the life of St Nicholas in the 
lower church of Assisi. This series, however, is not really in that 
part of the church which Vasari designates, but is in the chapel of 
the Sacrament; and the works in that chapel are understood 
to be by Giotto di Stefano, who worked in the second half of 
the 14th century — very excellent productions of their period. 
They are much damaged, and the style is hardly similar to that of 
the Sylvester frescoes. It might hence be inferred that two 
different men produced the works which are unitedly fathered 
upon the half-legendary " Giottino," the consumptive youth, 
solitary and melancholic,, but passionately devoted to his art. 
A large number of other works have been attributed to the same 
hand; we need only mention an " Apparition of the Virgin to 
St Bernard," in the Florentine Academy; a lost painting; very 
popular in its day, commemorating the expubton, which took 
place in 1343, of the duke of Athens from Florence; and a 
marble statue erected on the Florentine campanile. Vasari 
particularly praises Giottino for well-blended chiaroscuro. 

OIOTTO [Giotto di BondoneM (1267 ?-i337), Italian painter, 
was born at Vespignano in the Mugello, a few miles north of 
Florence, according to one account in 1276, and according to 
another, which from the few known circumstances of his life seems 
more likely to be correct* in z 266 or 1 267. His father was a land- 
owner at Colle in the commune of Vespignano, described in a 
contemporary document as vir ^aeclorus, but by biographers 
both early and late as a poor peasant; probably therefore a 
peasant proprietor of no large possessions but of reputable stock 
and descent. It is impossible to tell whether there is any truth 
in the legend of Giotto's boyhood which relates how he first 
showed his disposition for art, and attracted the attention of 
Cimabue, by being found drawing one of his father's sheep with 
a sharp stone on the face of a smooth stone or slate. With his 
father's consent, the story goes on, Cimabue carried off the boy 
to be his apprentice, and it was under Cimabue's tuition that 
Giotto took his first steps in the art of which he was afterwards 
to be the' great emancipator and renovator. The place where 
these early steps can still, according to tradition, be traced, is 
in the first and second, reckoning downwards, of the three 
courses of frescoes which adorn the walls of the nave in the Upper 
Church of St Francis at Assisi^ These frescoes represent subjects 
of the Old and New Testament, and great iabour, too probably 
futile, has been spent in trying to pick out those in which the 
youthful handiwork of Giotto can be discerned, as it is imagined, 
among that of Cimabue and his other pupils. But the truth 
is that the figure of Cimabue himself, in spite of Dante's testimony 
to his having been the foremost painter of Italy until Giotto 
arose, has under the search-light of modern criticism melted into 

' Not to bo eonfufled with Giotto di Buondone, a contemporary 
citizen and pd^itician of Siena. 

almost mythical vagueness. His accepted position m Giottoli 
instructor and the pioneer of reform in his art has been attacked 
from several sides as a mere invention of Florentine *vriters for 
the glorification of their own city. One group of critics maintain 
that the real advance in Tuscan painting before Giotto was the 
work of the Sienese school and not of the Florentine. Another 
group contend that the best painting done in Italy down to the 
last decade of the 13th century was not done by Tuscan hands at 
all, but by Roman craftsmen trained in the inherited principles 
of Italo-Byzantine decoration in mosaic and fresco, and that 
from such Roman craftsmen alone could Giotto have learnt 
anything worth his learning. The debate thus opened is far 
from closed, and considering how scanty, ambiguous and often 
defaced are the materials existing for discussion, it is perhaps 
never likely to be closed. But there is no debate as to the general 
nature of the reform effected by the genius of Giotto himself. 
He was the great humanizer of painting; it is his glory to have 
been the first among his countrymen to breathe life into wall- 
pictures and altar-pieces, and to quicken the dead conventional- 
ism of inherited practice with the fire of natural action and 
natural feeling. Upon yet another point there is no question; 
and that is that the reform thus effected by Giotto in painting 
had been anticipated in the sister art of sculpture by nearly 
a whole generation. About the middle of the 13th century 
Nicola Pisano had renewed that art, first by strict imitation of 
classical models, and later by infusing into his work a fresh 
spirit of nature and humanity, perhaps partly caught from the 
Gothic schools of France. His son Giovanni had carried the same 
re-vitalising of sculpture a great deal further; and hence to some 
critics it would seem that the real inspirer and precursor of Giotto 
was Giovanni Pisano the sculptor, and not any painter or wall- 
decorator, whether of Florence, Siena or Rome. 

In this division of opinion it is safer to regard the revival ol 
painting in Giotto's hands simply as part of the general awaken- 
ing of the time, and to remember that, as of all Italian com> 
munilies Florence was the keenest in every form of activity 
both intellectual and practical, so it was natural that a son of 
Florence should be Ihe chief agent in such an awakening. And 
in considering his career the question of his possible participation 
in the primitive frescoes of the upper courses at Assisi is b^t left 
out of account, the more so because of the deplorable condition 
in which they now exist. But with reference to the lowest 
course of paintings on the same walls, those illustrating the life 
of St Francis according to the narrative of St Bonaventura, 
no one has any doubt, at least in regard to nineteen or twenty 
of the twenty-eight subjects which compose the series, that Giotto 
hitnself was their designer and chief executant. In these, sadly 
as they too have suffered from time and wholesale repair, there 
can nevertheless be discerned the unmistakable spirit of the 
young Florentine master as we know him in his other works— 
his shrewd realistic and dramatic vigour, the deep sincerity and 
humanity of feeling which he knows how to express in every 
gesture of his figures without breaking up the harmony of their 
grouping or the grandeur of their linear design, qualities in- 
herited from the earlier schools of impressive but lifdiess hieratic 
decoration. The " Renunciation of the Saint by his Father." 
the " Pope's Dream of the Saint upholding the tottering Church," 
the " Saint before the Sultan," the " Miracle of the Spring of 
Water," the " Death of the Nobleman of Celano," the " Saint 
preaching before Pope Honorius "—these are some of the most 
noted and best preserved examples of the painter's power in this 
series. Where doubt begins again is as to the relations of date 
and sequence which the series bears to other works by the master 
executed at Assisi and at Rome in the same early period of his 
career, that is» probably between 1295 and 1300. Giotto's 
remaining undisputed works at Assisi are the four celebrated 
allegorical compositi6ns in honour of St. Francis in the vaulting 
of the Lower Church,— the " Marriage of St Francis to Poverty," 
the "Allegory of Chastity," the "Allegory of Obedience" 
and the " Vision of St Francis in Glory." These worka are 
scarcely at all retouched, and relatively little dimmed by time; 
they are of a singular beauty, at once severe and teDder» both 



in colour and design ; the compoeitjoos, especially the fim thr^, 
fitted with admixable art intolhe cramped spaces of the vaulting, 
the subjects, no doubt in the main dictated to the artist by his 
Franciscan employers, treated in no cold or mechanical spirit 
but with a full measure of vital humanity and original feeUni^ 
Had the career and influence of St Francis had no other of their 
vast and far>reaching effecU in the world than that of inspiring 
these noble works of art, they would^still have been entitled 
to no small gratitude from mankind. Other frorks at Assisi 
which most modern critics, but not all, attribute to Giotto him* 
self are three miracles of St Francis and portions of a group of 
frescoes illustrating the history of Mary Magdalene, both in the 
Lower Church; and again, in one of the transepts of the same 
Lower Church, a series of ten frescoes of the Life of the Virgin 
and Christ, concluding with the Crucifixion, It is to be remarked 
as to this transept scries that several of the frescoes present not 
only the same subjects, but with a certain degree of variation 
the same compositions, as are found in the master's great scries 
executed in the Arena chapel at Padua in the fullness of his 
powers about 1306; and thai the versions in the Assisi transept 
show a relatively greater degree of technical accomplishment 
than the Faduan versions, with a more attractive charm and 
more abundance of accessory ornament, but a proportionately 
less degree of that simple grandeur in composition and direct 
strength of human naotive which are the special notes of Giotto's 
style. Therefore a minority of critics refuse to accept the 
modem attribution of this transept scries to Giotto himself, 
and see In it later work by an acconiplished pupil softening and 
refining upon his master's original creations at Padua. Others, 
insisting that these unquestionably beautiful works must be 
by the hand of Giotto and none but Giotto, maintain that in 
comparison with the Paduan examples they illustrate a gradual 
progress, which can be traced in other of his extant works, from 
the relatively ornate and soft to the austerely grand and simple. 
This argiunent is enforced by comparison with early work of the 
roaster's at Rome as to the date of which we have positive 
evidence. In 1298 Giotto completed for Cardinal Stefancschi 
for the price of 2ioo gold ducats a mosaic of Christ saving St 
Peter from the waves (the celebrated " Navicella ") ; this is 
still to be seen, but in a completely restored and transformed 
state, in the vestibule of St Peter's. For the same patron he 
executed^ probably just before the " Navicella," an elaborate 
ciborium or altar-piece for the high altar of St Peter's , for which 
be received 800 ducats. It represents on the principal face a 
colossal Christ enthroned with adoring angels beside him and 
a kneeling donor at his feet, and the martyrdoms of St Peter and 
St Paul on separate panels to right and left; on the reverse is 
St Peter attended by St George and other saints, receiving from 
the donor a model of his gift, with stately full-length figures of 
two apostles to right and two to left, besides various accessory 
scenes and figures in the predcllas and the margins. The 
separated parts of this altar-piece arc still to be seen, in a quite 
genuine though somewhat tarnished condition, in the sacristy 
of St Peter's. A third work by the master at Rome is a repainted 
fragment at the Lateran of a fresco of Pope Boniface. VIII. 
proclaiming the jubilee of 1300. The " Navicella " and the 
Lateran fragment are too much ruined to argue from; but the 
ciborium panels, it is contended, combine with the aspects of 
majesty and strength a quality of ornate charm and suavity 
such as is remarked in the transept frescoes of Assisi. The 
sequence proposed for these several works is accordingly, first 
the St Peter's ciborium, next the allegories in the vaulting of the 
Lower Church, next the three frescoes of St Francis' miracles 
in the north transept, next the St Francis series in the Upper 
Church; and last, perhaps after an interval and with the help 
of pupils, the scenes from the life of Mary Magdalene in her 
chapel in the Lower Church. This involves a complete reversal 
of (he prevailing view, which regards the unequal and sometimes 
clumsy compositions of this St Francis scries as the earliest 
independent work of the master. It must be admitted that 
there is something paradoxical in the idea of a progress from 
the manner of the Lower Church transept series of the life of 

Christ to the much ruder manner of the Upper Church series 
of St Francis. 

A kindred obscurity and little less conflict of opinion await 
the inquirer at almost all stages of Giotto's career. In 1841 
there were partially recovered from the whitewash that had 
overlain them a series of frescoes executed in the chapel of the 
Magdalene, in the Bargello or Palace of the Podestd at Florence, 
to celebrate (as was supposed) a pacification between the Black 
and White parlies in the state eflected by the Cardinal d'Acqua* 
sparta as delegate of the pope in 130a. In them are depicted a 
series of Bible scenes, besides great compositions of Hell and 
Paradise, and in the Paradise are introduced portraits of Dante, 
Bnmetto Latini and Corso Donato. These recovered fragments, 
freely " restored " as soon as they were disclosed, were acclaimed 
as the work of Giotto and long held in especial regard for the 
sake of the portrait of Dante. Latterly it has been shown that 
if Giotto ever executed them at all, which is doubtful, it must 
have been at a later date than the supposed pacification, and 
that they must have suflered grievous injury in the fire which 
destroyed a great part of the building in 1332, and been after- 
wards repainted by some well-trained follower of the school. 
To about 1302 or 1303 would belong, if there is truth in it, the 
familiar story of Giotto's O. Pope Benedict XL, the successor 
of Boniface VII I., sent, as the tale runs, a messenger to bring 
him proofs of the painter's powers. Giotto would give no other 
sample of his talent than an O drawn with a free sweep of the 
brush from the elbow; but the pope was satisfied ahd engaged 
him at a great salary to go and adorn with frescoes the papal 
residence at Avignon. Benedict, however, dying at this time 
(uo5)> nothing came of this commission; and the remains of 
Italian 14th-century frescoes still to be seen at Avignon are now 
recognized as the work, not, as was long supposed, of Giotto^ 
but of the Siencse Simone Martini and his school. 
. At this point in Giotto's life we come to the greatest by far of 
his undestroyed and undisputed enterprises, and one which can 
with some certainty be dated. This is the series of frescoes 
with which he decorated the entire internal walls of the chapel 
built at Padua in honour of the Virgin of the Annunciation by a 
rich citizen of the town, Enrico Scrovegni, perhaps in order to 
atone for the sins of his father, a notorious usurer whom Dante 
places in the seventh circle of hell. The building is on the site 
of an ancient amphitheatre, and is therefore generally called 
the chapel of the Arena. Since it is recorded that Dante was 
Giotto's guest at Padua, and since we know that it was in 1306 
that the poet came from Bologna to that city, we may conclude 
that to the same year, 1306, belongs the beginning of Giotto's 
great undertaking in the Arena chapel. The scheme includes a 
Saviour in Glory over the altar, a Last Judgment, full of various 
and impressive incident, occupying the whole of the entrance wall, 
with a scries of subjects from the Old and New Testament and 
the apocryphal Life of Christ painted in three tiers on either side 
wall, and lowest of all a fourth tier with emblematic Virtues and 
Vices in monochrome; the Virtues being on the side of the chapel 
next the incidents of redemption in the entrance fresco of the 
Last Judgment, the Vices on the side next the incidents of perdi- 
tion. A not improbable tradition asserts that Giotto was helped 
by Dante in the choice and disposition of the subjects. The 
frescoes, though not free from injury and retouching, are upon 
the whole in good condition, and nowhere else can the highest 
powers of the Italian mind and hand at the beginning of the 14th 
century be so well studied as here. At the dose of the middle 
ages we find Giotto laying the foundation upon which all the 
progress of the Renaissance was afterwards securely based, 
in bis day the knowledge possessed by painters of the human 
frame and its structure rested only upon general oteervation 
and not upon detailed or scientific study; while to facts other 
than those of humanity their observation had never been closely 
directed. Of linear perspective they possessed but elementary 
and empirical ideas, and their endeavours to express aerial per- 
spective and deal with the problems of light and shade were rare 
and partial. As far as painting could possibly be carried under 
these conditions, it was carried by Giotto. In its choice of 



subjects, his art is entirely subservient to the religloos spirit of 
his age. Even in its mode of conceiving and arranging those 
subjects it is in part still trammelled by the rules and consecrated 
traditions of the pa^t. Many of those truths of nature to which 
the painters of succeeding generations learned to give accurate 
and complete expression, Giotto was only able to express by way 
of imperfect symbol and suggestion. But among the elements of 
art over which he has control he maintains so just a balance that 
his work produces in the spectator less sense of imperfection 
than that of many later and more accomplished masters. In 
some particulars his mature painting, as we see it in the Arena 
chapel, has never been surpassed — in mastery of concise and 
expressive generalized line and of inventive and harmonious 
decorative tint; in the judicious division of the field and massing, 
and scattering of groups; in the combination of high gravity 
with complete frankness in conception, and the union of noble 
dignity in the types with direct and vital truth in the gestures 
of the personages. 

The frescoes of the Arena chapel must have been a labour 
of years, and of the date of their termination we have no proof. 
Of many other works said to have been executed by Giotto at 
Padua, all that remains consists of some scarce recognizable traces 
in the chapter-house of the great Franciscan church of St Antonio. 
For twenty years or more we lose all authentic data as to Giotto's 
doings and movements. Vasari, indeed, sends him on a giddy 
but in the main evidently fabulous round of travels, indudmg a 
sojourn in France, which it is certain he never made. Besides 
Padua, he is said to have resided and left great works at Ferrara, 
Ravenna, Urbino^ Rimini, Facnza, Lucca and other cities; in 
some of them paintings of his school arc still shown, but nothing 
which can fairly be claimed to be by his hand. It is recorded 
also that he was much employed in his native city of Florence; 
but the vandalism of later generations has effaced nearly all that 
he did there. Among works whitewashed over by posterity 
were the frescoes with which he covered no less than five chapels 
in the church of Santa Croce. Two of these, the chapels of the 
Bardi and the Peruzzi families, were scraped in the early part 
of the 19th century, and very important remains were uncovered 
and immediately subjected to a process of restoration which 
has robbed them of half their authenticity. But through the 
ruins of lime we can trace in some of these Santa Croce frescoes 
all the qualities of Giotto's work at an even higher and more 
mature development than in the best examples at Assisi or Padua. 
The frescoes of the Bardi chapel tell again the story of St Francis, 
to which so much of his best power had already been devoted ; 
those of the Peruzzi chapel deal with the lives of St John the 
Baptist and St John the Evangelist. Such scenes as the Funeral 
of St Francis, the Dance of Herodias's Daughter, and the Re- 
surrection of St John the Evangelist, which have to some extent 
escaped the disfigurements of the restorer, arc among acknow- 
ledged classics of the world's art. The only dues to the dates 
of any of these wotks are to be found in the facts that among the 
figures in the Bardi chapel occurs that of 3t Loub of Toulouse, 
who was not canonized till 13x7, therefore the painting must be 
subsequent to that year, and that the " Dance of Salome " must 
have been painted belTore 1331, when it was copied by the Loren- 
zetti at Siena. The only other extant works of Giotto at Florence 
are a fine " Crucifix," not undisputed, at San Marco, and the 
majestic but somewhat heavy altar-piece of the Madonna, prob- 
ably an early work, which is placed in the Academy beside a 
more primitive Madonna supposed to be the work of Cimabue. 

Towards the end of Giotto's life we escape again from confused 
legend, and from the tantalizing record of works which have 
not survived for us to verify, Into the region of authentic docu- 
ment and fact. It appears that Giotto had come under the notice 
of Duke Charles of Calabria, son of King Robert of Naples, during 
the visits of the duke to Florence which took place between 
1326 and 1338, in which year he died. Soon afterwards Giotto 
must have gone to King Robert's court at Naples, where he was 
enrolled as an honoured guest and member of the household by 
a royal decree dated the 20th of January 1330. Another docu- 
Aent shows him to have been still at Naples two years later. 

Tradition says much about the friendship of the king for the 
painter and the freedom of speech and jest allowed him; much 
also of the works he carried out at Naples in the Castel Nuovo, 
the Castd dell' Uovo, and the church and convent of Sta Chiara. 
Not a trace of these works remains; and others which later 
criticism have claimed for him in a hall which formerly bdonged 
to the convent of Sta Chiara have been proved not to be his. 

Meantime Giotto had been advancing, not only in years and 
worldly fame, but In prosperity. He was married young, and 
had, so far as is recorded, three sons, Francesco, Niccola and 
Donato, and three daughters, Bice, Caterina and Lucia. He 
had added by successive purchases to the plot of land inherited 
from his father at Vespignano. H is fellow-citizens of all occupa- 
tions and degrees delighted to honour him. And now, in his sixty- 
eighth year (if we accept the birth-date 1266/7), o^ his return 
from Naples by way of Gaeta, he received the final and official 
testimony to the esteem in which he was held at Florence. By 
a solemn decree of the Priori on the Z3th of April 1334, he was 
appointed master of the works of the cathedral of Sta Reparata 
(later and better known as Sta Maria del Fiore) and offidal 
architect of the city walls and the towns within her territory. 
What training as a practical architect his earlier tkreer had 
afforded him we do not know, but his interest in the art from 
the beginning is made clear by the carefully studied architectural 
backgrounds of many of his frescoes. Dying on the 8th of 
January 1336 (old style 1337), Giotto only enjoyed his new 
dignities for two years. But in the course of them he had found 
time not only to make an excursion to Milan, on the invitation 
of Azzo Visconti and with the sanction of his own government, 
but to plan two great architectural works at Florence and 
superintend the beginning of their execution, namely the west 
front of the cathedral and its detached campanile or bell-tower. 
The unfinished enrichments of the cathedral front were stripped 
away in a later age. The foundation-stone of the Campanile was 
laid with solemn ceremony in the presence of a great concourse 
of magistrates and people on the i8th of July 1334. Its lower 
courses seem to have been completed from Giotto's design, and 
the first course of its sculptured ornaments (the famous series of 
primitive Arts and Industries) actually by his own hand, before 
his death. It is not dear what modifications of his design were 
made by Andrea Pisano, who was appointed to succeed him, 
or again by Francesco Talenti, to whom the work was next 
entrusted; but the incomparable structure as we now see it 
stands justly in the world's esteem as the most fitting monument 
to the genius who first conceived and directed it. 

The art of painting, as re-created by Giotto, was carried 
on throughout Italy by his pupils and successors with little 
change or development for nearly a hundred years, until a new 
impulse was given to art by the combined influences of naturalism 
and classicism in the hands of men like Donatello and Masaccio. 
Most of the anecdotes related of the master are probably in- 
accurate in detail, but the general character both as artist and 
man which tradition has agreed in giving him can never be 
assailed. He was from the first a kind of popular hero. He is 
celebrated by the poet Petrarch and by the historian Villani. 
He is made the subject of tales and anecdotes by Boccaccio 
and by Franco Sacchetti. From these notices, as well as from 
Vasari, we gain a distinct picture of the man, as one whose 
nature was in keeping with his country origin; whose sturdy 
frame and plain features corresponded to a character rather 
distinguished for shrewd and genial strength than for sublimcr 
or more ascetic qualities; a master craftsman, to whose strong 
combining and inventing powers nothing came amiss; conscious 
of his own deserts, never at a loss either in the things of art or in 
the things of life, and equally ready and efiident whether he has 
to design the scheme of some great spiritual allegory in colour 
or imF>erishable monument in stone, or whether he has to show 
his wit in the encounter of practical jest and repartee. From his 
own hand we have a contribution to literature which helps to 
substantiate this conception of his character. A large part of 
Giotto's fame as painter was won in the scrviceof the Franciscans, 
and hi the pictorial celebration of the life and ordinances of 



thdr founder. As is weD known, it was a part of the ordinances 
of Francis that his disdples should follow his own example in 
worshipiMng and being wedded to poverty, — ^poverty idealized 
and personified as a spiritual bride and mistress. Giotto, having 
on the commis»on of the order given the noblest pictorial 
embodiment to this and other aspects of the Franciscan doctrine, 
presently wrote an ode in which his own views on poverty are 
expressed; and in this he shows that, if on the one hand his 
genius was at the service of the ideals of his time, and his imagina- 
tion open to their significance, on the other hand his judgment 
was shrewdly and humorously awake to their practical dangers 
and exaggerations. 

Authorities. — Ghtberti, Commentari; Vasari, Le Vite, vol. i.; 
Crowe-Cavalcasellc, History o^ Painting in Ilaiy^ ed. Langton 
Douglas (1903); H. Tbode, CioUo (1899); M. G. Zimmermann. 
Ci(^io una die Kunst lUiliens im MitlelalUr (1899); B. Bcrcnson, 
Florentine Painters of the Renaissance; F. Mason Pcrkin, CioUo 
(in "Great Masters scries) (1902} ; Basil de S^Uncourt, Giotto 

(190s). (S-C.) 

GIPSIES, or Gypsies, a wandering folk scattered through 
every European land, over the greater part of western Asia 
and Siberia; found also in Egypt and the northern coast of 
Africa, in America and even in Australia. No correct estimate 
of their numbers outside of Europe can be given, and even in 
Europe the information derived from oflicial statistics is often 
contradictory and unreliable. The only country in which the 
figures have been given correctly is Hungary. In 1893 there 
were 274,940 in Transleilhania, of whom 243,432 were settled, 
20,406 only partly settled and 8938 nomads. Of these 91,603 
spoke the Gipsy language in 1890, but the rest had already been 
assimilated. Next in numbers stands Rumania, the number 
varying between 250,000 and 200,000 (1895). Turkey in Europe 
counted 117,000 (1903), of whom 51,000 were in Bulgaria and 
Eastern Rumelia, 22,000 In the vilayet of Adrianople and 3500 in 
the vilayet of Kossovo. In Asiatic Turkey the estimates vary 
between 67,000 and 200,000^ Scrvia has 41,000; Bosnia and 
Herzegovina, 18,000; Greece, 10,000; Austria (Cisleithania), 
16,000, of whom 13,500 are in Bohemia and Moravia; Germany, 
2000; France, 2000 (5000?); Basque Provinces, 500 to 700; 
Italy, 32,000; Spain, 40,000; Russia, 58,000; Poland, 15,000; 
Sweden and Norway, 1500; Denmark and Holland, 5000; 
Persia, 1 5,000; Transcaucasia, 3000. The rest is mere guesswork. 
For Africa, America and Australia the numbers are estimated 
between 135,000 and 166,000. The estimate given by Miklosich 
(1878) of 700,000 fairly agrees with the above statistics. No 
statistics are forthcoming for the number in the British Isles. 
Some estimate their number at 12,000. 
• The Gip»es are known principally by two names, which 
have been modified by the nations with whom they came in 
contact, but which can easily be traced to either the one or the 
other of these two distinct stems. The one group, embracing 
the majority of Gipsies in Europe, the compact masses living 
in the BaUcan Peninsula, Rumania and Transylvania and 
extending also as far as Germany and Italy, are known by the 
name Atxigan or Alsigatiy whidi becomes in time Tshingian 
(Turkey and Greece), T«gan (Bulgarian, Servian, Rumanian), 
Czigany (Hungarian), Zigeuner (Germany), Zingari (Italian), 
and it b not unlikely that the English word Tinker or Tinkler 
(the latter no doubt due to a popular etymology connecting the 
gaudy gipsy with the tinkling coins or the metal wares which 
he carried on his back as a smith and tinker) may be a local 
transformation of the German Zigeuner* The second name, 
partly known in the East, where the word, however, is used as an 
expression of contempt, whilst Zigan is not felt by the gipsies 
as an insult, is Egyptian; in England, Gipsy; in some German 
documents of the x6th century Aegypter\ Spanish Ciiano; 
modem Greek CyflUos, They are also known by the parallel 
expressions Fo/aon (Rumanian) and Phdrao Nepkka (Hungarian) 
or Pharaoh's people, which are only variations connected with 
the Egyptian origin. In France they are known as Bohimiem, 
a word the importance of which will appear later. To the same 
category belong other names bestowed upon them, such as 
Wakchi, Sacaceni, Agartni, Nublani, &c. They were also known 

by the name of Tartars, given to them in Germany, or as 
" Heathen," Heydens. All these latter must be considered as 
nicknantes without thereby denoting their probable origin. 
The same may have now been the case with the first name 
with which they appear in history, Atzigan. Much ingenuity 
has.been displayed in attempts to explain the name, for it was 
felt that a true explanation might help to settle the question of 
their origin and the date of their arrival in Europe. Here 
again two extreme theories have been propounded, the one 
supported by Bataillard, who connected them with the Sigynnoi 
of Herodotus and identified them with the Komodromoi of the 
later Byzantine writers, known already in the 6th ccntur>'. 
Others bring them to Europe as late as the 14th century; and 
the name has also been explained by de (k>eje from the Persian 
Chang, a kind of harp or zither, or the Persian Zang, black, 
swarthy. Rienzi (1832) and Trumpp (1872) have connected 
the name with the Changars of North-East India, but all have 
omitted to notice that the real form was Atzigan or (more correct) 
Atzingan and not Tsigan. I1ie best explanation remains that sug- 
gested by Miklosich, who derives the word from the Athinganoi, 
a name originally belonging to a peculiar heretical sect living 
in Asia Minor near Phrygia and Lycaonia, known also as the 
Melki-Zedekites. The members of this sect observed very strict 
rules of purity, as they were afraid to be defiled by the touch 
of other people whom they considered unclean. They therefore 
acquired the name of Athinganoi {i.e. " Touch-me-nols "). 

Miklosich has collected seven passages where the Byzantine 
historians of the 9th century describe the Athinganoi as sooth- 
sayers, magicians and serpent-charmers. From these descrip- 
tions nothing definite can be proved as to the identity of the 
Athinganoi with the Gipsies, or the reason why this name was 
given to soothsayers, charmers, &c. But the inner history of the 
Byzantine empire of that period may easily give a clue to it 
and explain how it came about that such a nickname was given 
to a new sect or to a new race which suddenly appeared in the 
Greek Empure at that period. In the history of the Church wc 
find them mentioned ii^one breath with the Pauiicians and other 
heretical sects which were transplanted in their tens of thousands 
from Asia Minor to the Greek empire and settled especially in 
Rumelia, near Adrianople and Philippopolis. The Greeks called 
these heretical sects by all kinds of names, derived from ancient 
Church traditions, and gave to each sect such names as first struck 
them, on the scantiest of imaginary similarities. One sect was 
called Paulician, another Melki-Zedekite; so also these were 
called Athingan(n, probably being considered the descendants 
of the outcast Samer, who, according to ancient tradition, was 
a goldsmith and the maker of the Golden Calf in the desert. 
For this sin Samer was banished and compelled to live apart 
from human beings and even to avoid their touch (Athtnganos: 
" Touch-me-not "). Travelling from East to West these heretical 
sects obtained different names in different countries, in accord- 
ance with the local traditions or to imaginary origins. The 
Bogomils and Patarenes became Bulgarians in France, and so 
the gypsies Bob€miens, a name which was also connected with 
the heretical sect of the Bohemian brothers {Bdhmische Briider). 
Curiously enough the Kutzo-Vlachs living in Macedonia {q.v.) 
and Rumelia are also known by the nickname Tsintsari, a word 
that has not yet been explained. Very likely it stands in close 
connexion with Zingari, the name having been transferred from 
one people to the other without the Justification of any common 
ethnical origin, except that the Kutzo-Vlachs, like the Zingari, 
differed from their Greek neighbours in race, as in language, 
habits and customs; while they probably followed similar 
pursuits to those of the Zingari, as smiths, &c. As to the other 
name, Egyptians,. this is derived from a peculiar tale which the 
gipsies spread when appearing in the west of Europe. They 
alleged that they had come from a country of their own called 
Little Egypt, cither a confusion between Little Armenia and 
Egypt or the Peloponnesus. 

Attention may bedrawn to a mnarkabfo passage in the Syriap 
version of the apocryphal Book of Adam, known as the Cave of 
Treasures and compiled probably in the 6th century: "And 



of the seed of Caiuan were as I said the Aegyptians; and, lo, 
they, were scaltercd all over the earth and served as slaves of 
slaves " (ed. Bezold, German translation, p. 25). No reference 
to such a scattering and serfdom of the Egyptians is mentioned 
anywhere else. This must have been a legend, current in Asia 
Minor, and hence probably transferred to the swarthy Gipsies. 

A new explanation may now be ventured upon as to the name 
which the Gipsies of Europe give to themselves, which, it must 
be emphasized, is not known to the Gipsies outside of Europe. 
Only those who starting from the ancient Byzantine empire 
have travelled westwards and spread over Europe, America and 
Australia call themselves by the name of Rom, the woman being 
Rpmni and a stranger Gaii. Many etymologies have been sug- 
gested for the word Rom. Paspati derived it from the word 
Droma (Indian), and Miklosich had identified it with Poma or 
Pomba, a " low caste musician," rather an extraordinary name 
for a nation to call itself by. Having no home and bo country 
of their own and no political traditions literature, they 
would naturally try to identify themselves with the people in 
whose midst they lived, and would call themselves by the same 
name as other inhabitants of the Greek empire, known also as 
the Empire of New Rom, or of the Romaioi, Romeliots, Romanoi, 
as the Byzantines used to call themselves before they assumed 
the prouder name of Hellenes. The Gipsies would therefore 
call themselves also Rom, a much more natural name, more 
flattering to their vanity, and geographically and politically 
more correct than if they called themselves "low caste 
musicians." This Greek origin of the name would explain why 
it is limited to the European Gipsies, and why it is not found 
among that stock of Gipsies which has migrated from Asia 
Minor southwards and taken a different route to reach Egypt 
and North Africa. 

Appearance in Europe. — Leaving aside the doubtful passages 
in the Byzantine writers where the Athinganoi are mentioned, 
the first appearance of Gipsies in Europe cannot be traced 
positively further back than the beginning of the 14th century. 
Some have hitherto believed that a passage in what was errone- 
ously called the Rhymed Version of Genesis of Vienna, but which 
turns' out to be the work of a writer before the year 112a, 
and found only in the Klagenfurt manuscript (edited by Ditmar, 
1862), referred to the Gipsies. It runs as f<dlows: Gen. xlii. 15 — 
" Hagar had a son from whom were born the Chaltsmide. When 
Hagar had that child, she named it Ismael, from whom the 
Ismacliles descend who journey through the land, and we call 
them Chaltsmide, may evil befall them! They sell only things 
with blemishes, and for whatever they sell they always ask more 
than its real value. They cheat the people to whom they sell. 
They have no home, no country, they are satisfied to live in 
tents, they wander over the country, they deceive the people,- 
they cheat men but rob no one noisily." 

This reference to the Chaltsmide (not goldsmiths, but very 
likely ironworkers, smiths) has wrongly been applied to the 
Gipsies. For it is important to note that at least three centuries 
before historical evidence proves the immigration of the genMine 
Gipsy, there had been wayfaring smiths, travelling from country 
to country, and practically paving the way for their successors, 
the Gipsies, who not only took up their crafts but who probably 
have also assimilated a good proportion of these vagrants of 
the west of Europe. The name given to the former, who pro- 
bably were Oriental or Greek smiths and pedlars, was then 
transferred to the new-comers. The Komodromoi mentioned 
by Thcophancs (ysS-SiS), who speaks under the date 554 of one 
bailing from Italy, and by other Byzantine writers, are no 
doubt the same as the Chaltsmide of the German writer of the 
1 2th century translated by Ducange as Chattdroneurs. We 
are on surer ground in the X4th century. Hopf has proved the 
existence of Gipsies in Corfu before 1326. Before 1346 the 
empress Catherine de Valois granted to the governor of Corfu 
authority to reduce to vassalage certain vagrants who came 
from the mainland; and in 1386, under the Venetians, they 
formed the Fcudum Acindanorum, which lasted for many 
centuries. About 1378 the Venetian governor of Nauplia 

confirmed to the " Adngani " of that colony the privflegei 
granted by his predecessor to their leader John. It is even 
possible to identify the people described by Friar Simon in his 
Ithierarium, who, speaking of his stay in Crete in 1333, says: 
" We saw there a people outside the city who declare themselves 
to be of the race of Ham and who worship according to the Greek 
rite. They wander like a cursed people froih place to place, not 
stopping at all or rarely in one place longer than thirty days; 
they live in tents like the Arabs, a little oblong black tent." 
But their name is not mentioned, and although the similarity 
is great between these " children of Ham " and the Gipsies, 
the identification has only the value of an hypothesis, fiy the 
end of the i5(h century they must have been settled for a 
sufficiently long time in the Balkan Peninsula and the countries 
north of the Danube,such as Transylvania and Walachia, to have 
been reduced to the same state of serfdom as they evidently 
occupied in Corfu in the second half of the X4th century. The 
voivode Mircea I. of Walachia confirms the grant made by his 
uncle Vladislav Voivode to the monastery of St Anthony of 
Vodilsa as to forty families of " Atsigane," for whom no taxes 
should be paid to the prince. They were considered crown 
property. The same gift is renewed in the year 1424 by the 
voivode Dan, who repeats the very same words (i Adglne, m, 
£cliudi. da su slobodni ot vstkih rabot i dankov) (H&jdAu, 
Arkiva, i. 20). At that time there must already have been 
in Walachia settled Gipsies treated as serfs, and migrating 
Gipsies ikying their trade as smiths, musicians, dancers, sooth- 
sayers, horse-dealers, &c., for wc find the voivode Alexander of 
Moldavia granting these Gipsies in the year 1478 " freedom of 
air and soil to wander about and free fire and iron for their 
smithy. " But a certain portion, probably the largest, became 
serfs, who could be sold, exchanged, bartered and inherited. 
It may be mentioned here that in tJae 17 th century a family 
when sold fetched forty Hungarian florins, and in the xSth 
century the price. was sometimes as high as 700 Rumanian 
piastres, about £8, los. As late as 1845 an auction of 200 
families of Gipsies took place in Bucharest, where they were sold 
in batches of no less than 5 families and offered at a " ducat " 
cheaper per head than elsewhere. The Gipsies followed at least 
four distinct pursuits in Rumania and Transylvania, where they 
lived in large masses. A goodly proportion of them were tied 
to the soil; in consequence their position was different from that 
of the Gipsies who had started westwards and who are nowhere 
found to have obtained a permanent abode for any length of 
time, or to have been treated, except for a very short period, 
with any consideration of humam'ty. 

Their appearance, in the West is first noted by chioniders 
early in the x 5th century. In X414 they are said to have already 
arrived in Hesse. This date is contested, but for 14x7 the reports 
are unanimous of their appearance in Germany. Some count 
their number to have been as high as X400, which of course is 
exaggeration. In X418 they reached Hamburg, X419 Augsburg, 
X428 Switzerland. In X4a7 they had already entered France 
(Provence). A troupe is said to have reached Bologna in 1433, 
whence they are said to have gone to Rome, on a pilgrimage 
alleged to have been undertaken for some act of apostasy. After 
this first immigration a second and larger one seems to have 
followed in its wake, led by Zumbcl. The Gipsies spread over 
Germany, Italy and France between the years X438 and xsi2. 
About 1500 they must have reached England. On the 5th of 
July X505 James IV. of Scotland gave to " Antonius Gaginae," 
count of Little Egypt, letters of recommendation to the king of 
Denmark; and special privileges were granted by James V. 
on the X5th of February X540 to " oure louit johnne Faw Lord 
and Erie of Litill Egypt," to whose son and successor he granted 
authority to hang and punish all Egyptians within the realm 
(May 26, X540). 

It is interesting to bear what the first writers who witnessed 
their appearance have to tell us; for ever since the Gipsies 
have remained the same. Albert Krantzius (Krantz), in his 
Saxonia (xi. 2), was the first to give a full description, which was 
afterwards repeated by Munster in his Cosmograpkia (iiL 5). 



He says that in the year 1417 there appeared for the first time 
in Germany a people uncouth, black, dirty, barbarous, called 
in Italian '* Ciani," who indulge speci4aUy in thieving and cheat- 
ing. They had among them a count and a few knights vfe)l 
dressed, others followed afoot. The women and children 
travelled in carts. They also carried with them letters of safe- 
conduct from the emperor Sigismund and other princes, and they 
professed that they were engaged on a pilgrimage of expiation 
for some act of apostasy. 

The guilt of the Gipsies varies in the different versions of the 
story, but all agree that the Gipsies asserted that they came from 
their own country called " Litill Egypt,'* and they had to go 
to Rome, to obtain pardon for that alleged sin of their fore- 
fathers. According to one account it was because they had not 
shown mercy to Joseph and Mary when they had sought refuge 
in Egypt from the persecuti<Mi of Herod (Basel Chronicle). 
According to another, because they had forsaken the Christian 
faith for a while (RhaetiOf 1656), &:c. But these were fables, 
no doubt connected with the legend of Cartaphylus or the 
Wandering Jew. 

Krantz's narrative continues as follows: This people have 
no country and travel through the land. They live like dogs and 
have no religion although they allow themselves to be baptized 
in the Christian faith. They live without care and gather unto 
themselves also other vagrants, men and women. Their old 
women practise fortune-telling, and whilst they are telling men 
of their future they pick their pockets. Thus far Krantz. It 
is curious that he should use the name by which these people 
were called in Italy, " Ciani." Similarly Crusius, the authorof the 
Annales Suevici, knows their Italian name Ztgani and the French 
Bckimietis. Not one of these oldest writers mentions them 
as copi>crsmiths or farriers or musicians. The immunity which 
they enjoyed during their first appearance in western Europe 
is due to the letter of safe-conduct of the emperor. As it is of 
extreme importance for the history of civilization as well as the 
history of the Gipsies, it may fmd a place here. It is taken from 
the compilation of Felix Oefelius, Rcrum Boicarum scriphres 
(Augsburg, 1765), ii. 15, who reproduces the " Diarium 
sexennale " of " Andreas Presbyter," the contemporary of the 
first appearance of the Gipsies in Germany. 

" Sigismundus Dei gratia Romanorum Rex semper Augustus, 
ac Hungariac, Bohemiae, Dalmatiae, Croatiaci &c. Rex 
Fidelibus nostris universis Nobilibus, Militibus, Castellanis, 
Officialibus, Tributariis, civitatibus liberis, opidis et eorum 
iudicibus in Regno et sub domino nostro constitutes ex existenti- 
bus salutcm cum dilcctione. Fideles nostri adierunt in prae- 
sent'iam personaliter Ladislaus Wayuoda Ciganorum cum aliis ad 
ipsum spcctanribus, nobis humilimas porrcxerunt supplicationcs, 
hue in sepus in nostra praesentia supplicationum precum cum 
instantii, ut ipsis. gratis nostra ubcriori providere dignaremur 
Undc nos illorum supplicationc illecti eisdem hanc libertatem 
duximus conccdendam, qua re quandocunque idem Ladislaus 
Wayuoda et sua gens ad dicta nostra dominia videlicet civitates 
vel oppida pcrvcnerint, ex tunc vcstris fidclitatibus praescntibus 
firmitcr committimus et mandamus ut cosdem Ladislaum 
.Wayuodam et Ciganos sibi subicctos omni sine impedimento ac 
perturbationc aliquali fovcre ac conservarc dcbcatis, immo 
ab omnibus impctitionibus seu offensionibus tucri vclitis: Si 
autem inter ipsos aliqua Zizania .seu perturbatio cvcnerit ex 
parte, quorumcunquc ex tunc non. vos ncc aliquis alter vcstrum, 
sed idem Ladislaus Wayuoda iudicandi et libcrandl habeat 
faculiatem. Praescntes autem post earum lecturam semper 
rcddi iubemus pracsentanti. 

"Datum in Sepus Dominica die ante festum St Georgii Martyris 
Anno Domini MCCCCXXIII., Rcgnorum nostrorum anno 
Hungar. XXXVI., Romanorum vcro XII., Bohemiae tcrlio." 
"Freely translated this reads: "We Sigismund by the grace 
of God emperor of Rome, king of Hungary, Bohemia, &c. unto 
all true and loyal subjects, noble soldiers, commanders, castellans, 
open districts, free towns and their judges in our kingdom 
established and under our sovereignty, kind greetings. Our 
faithful \roivode of the Tsigani with others belonging to him has 

humbly requested us that we might graciously grant them our 
abundant favour. We grant them their supplication, we have 
vouchsafed unto them this liberty. Whenever therefore this 
voivode Ladislaus and his people should come to any part of our 
realm in any town, village or place, we commit them by these 
presents, strongly to your loyalty and we command you to pro- 
tect in every way the same voivode Ladislaus and the Tsigani 
his subjects without hindrance, and you should show kindness 
unto them and you should protect them from every trouble and 
persecution. But should any trouble or discord happen among 
them from whichever side it may be, then none of you nor any* 
one else belonging to you should interfere, but this voivode 
Ladislaus alone should have the right of punishing and pardoning. 
And we moreover command you to return these presents always 
after having read them. Given in our court on Sunday the day 
before the Feast of St George in the year of our Lord 1423. The 
36th year of our kingdom of Hungary, the X2th of our being 
emperor of Rome and the 3rd of our being king of Bohemia." 

There is no reason to doubt the authenticity of this document, 
which is in no way remarkable considering that at that time the 
Gipsies must have formed a very considerable portion of the 
inhabitants of Hungary, whose king Sigismund was. They may 
have presented the emperor's grant of favours to Alexander 
prince of Moldavia in 1472, and obtained from him safe-conduct 
and protection, as mentioned above. 

No one has yet at tempted to explain the reason why the Gipsies 
should have startc<d in the 14th and especially in the first half 
of the 15th century on their march westwards. But if, as has 
been assumed above, the Gipsies had lived for some length of 
time in Rumclia, and afterwards spread thence across the Danube 
and the plains of Transylvania, the incursion of the Turks into 
Europe, their successive occupation of those very provinces, 
the overthrow of the Servian and Bulgarian kingdoms and the 
dislocation of the native population, would account to a remark- 
able degree for the movement of the Gipsies: and this movement 
increases in volume with the greater successes of the Turks and 
with the peopling of the country by immigrants from Asia Minor. 
The first to be driven from their homes would no doubt be the 
nomadic element, which felt itself ill at ease in its new surround- 
ings, and found it more profitable first to settle in larger numbers 
in Walachia and Transylvania and thence to spread to the western 
countries of Europe. But their immunity from persecution did 
not last long. 

Later History.— Less than fifty years from the time that they 
emerge out of Hungary, or even from the date of the Charter of 
the emperor Sigismund, they found themselves exposed to the 
fury and the prejudices of the people whose good faith they had 
abused, whose purses they had lightened, whose barns they had 
emptied, and on whose credulity they had lived with ease and 
comfort. Their inborn tendency to roaming made them the 
terror of the peasantry and the despair of every legislator who 
tried to settle them on the land. Their foreign appearance, their 
unknown tongue and their unscrupulous habits forced the legis- 
lators of many Countries to class them with rogues and vagabonds, 
to declare them outlaws and felons and to treat them with 
extreme severity. More than one juflicial murder has been com- 
mitted against them. In some places they were suspected as 
Turkish spies and treated accordingly, and the murderer of a 
Gipsy was often regarded as innocent of any crime. 

Wcissenbruch describes the wholesale murder of a group of 
Gipsies, of whom five men were broken on the wheel, nine perished 
on the gallows, and three men and eight women were decapitated. 
This took place on the X4th and xsth of November 1726. Acts 
and edicts were issued in many countries from the end of the 
X 5th century onwards sentencing the " Egyptians " to exile under 
pain of death. Nor was this an empty threat. In Edinburgh 
four "Faas" were hanged in 161 x "for abyding within the 
kingdome, they being Egiptienis," and in 1636 at Haddington 
the Egyptians were ordered " the men to be hangied and the 
weomen to be drowned, and suche of the weomen as hes children 
to be scourgit throw the burg and burnt in the cheeks." The 
burning on the cheek or on the back was a common penalty. 



In 1693 four Estremadttra Gipsies caught by the Inquisition were 
charged with cannibalism and made to own that they had eaten 
a friar, a pilgrim and even a woman of their own tribe, for which 
they suffered the penalty of death. And as late as 1782, 45 
Hungarian Gipsies were charged with a similar monstrous crime, 
and when the supposed victims of a supposed murder could not be 
found on the spot indicated by the Gipsies, they owned under 
torture and said on the rack, " We ate them." Of course they 
were forthwith beheaded or hanged. The emperor Joseph II., 
>i((ho was also the author of one of the first edicts in favour of the 
Gipsies, and who abolished serfdom throughout the Empire, 
ordered an inquiry into the incident; it was then discovered that 
no murder had been committed, except that of the victims of 
this monstrous accusation. 

The history of the legal status of the Gipsies, of their treatment 
in various countries and of the penalties and inflictions to which 
they have been subjected, would form a remarkable chapter in 
the history of modern civilization. The materials are slowly 
accumulating, and it is interesting to note as one of the latest 
instances, that not further back than the year 1907 a " drive " 
was undertaken in Germany against the Gipsies, which fact may 
account for the appearance of some German Gipsies in England 
in that year, and that in 1904 the Prussian Landtag adopted 
unanimously a proposition to examine anew the question of 
granting peddling licences to German Gipsies; that on the 17th 
of February 1906 the Prussian minister issued special instructions 
to combat the Gipsy nuisance; and that in various parts of 
Germany and Austria a special register is kept for the tracing of 
the genealogy of vagrant and sedentary Gipsy families. 

Different has been (he history of the Gipsies in what originally 
formed the Turkish empire of Europe, notably in Rumania, 
i.e. Walachia and Moldavia, and a careful search in the archives 
of Rumania would offer rich materials for the history of the 
Gipsies in a country where they enjoyed exceptional treatment 
almost from the beginning' of their settlement. They wfcre 
divided mainly into two classes, (i) Robi or Serfs, who were 
settled on the land and deprived of all individual liberty, being 
the property of the nobles and of churches or monastic establish* 
ments, and (2) the Nomadic vagrants. They were subdivided 
into four classes according to their occupation, such as the 
lingurari (woodcarvers; lit. "spoonmakers"), Caldarari (tinkers, 
coppersmiths and ironworkers), Ursari (lit. " bear drivers ") 
and Rudari (miners), also called Aurari (gold- washers), who used 
formerly to wash the gold out of the auriferous rrver-sands 
of Walachia. A separate and smaller class consisted of .the 
Gipsy LSeshi or Vilrashi (settled on a homestead or " having 
a fireplace " of their own). Each shaira or Gipsy communily 
was placed under the authority of a judge or leaddr, known in 
Rumania as jude^ in Hungary as aga\ these officials were 
subordinate to the buluhasha or voivdd, who was himself under 
the direct control of the yutbasha (or governor appointed by the 
prince from among his nobles). The yuzbaska was responsible 
for the regular income to be derived from the vagrant Gipsies, 
who were considered and treated as the prince's property. 
These voivodi or yuzbashi who were not Gipsies by origin often 
treated the Gipsies with great tyranny. In Hungary down to 
1648 they belonged to the aristocracy. The last Polish Kroleslvo 
cyganskie or Gipsy king died in 1 790. The Robi could be bought 
and sold, freely exchanged and inherited, and were treated 
as the negroes in America down to 1856, when their final freedom 
in Moldavia was proclaimed. In Hungary and in Transylvania 
the abolition of servitude in 1 781-1782 carried with it the 
freedom of the Gipsies. In the i8ih and X9th centuries many 
attempts were made to settle and to educate the roaming Gipsies; 
in Austria this was undertaken by the empress Maria Theresa 
and the emperor Francis II. (1761-1783), in Spain by Charles III. 
(1788). In Poland (1791) the attempt succeeded. In England 
(1827). and in Germany (1850) societies were formed for the 
reclamation of the Gipsies, but nothing was accomplished in 
either case. In other countries, however, definite progress was 
made. Since 1866 ihb Gipsies have become Rumanian citizens, 
and the latest official statistics no longer distinguish between 

the Rumanians and the Gipsies, who are becoming thoroughly 
assimilated, forgetting their language, and being slowly absorbed 
by the native population. In Bulgaria the Gipsies were declared 
citizens, enjoying equal political rights in accordance with the 
treaty of Berlin in 1878, but through an arbitrary interpretation 
they were deprived of that right, and on the 6th of January 1906 
the first Gipsy Congress was held in Sofia, for the purpose of 
claiming political rights for the Turkish Gipsies or Gopti as they 
call themselves. Ramadan Alicf, the tzari-bashi (».e. the head 
of the Gipsies in Sofia), addressed the Gipsies assembled; they 
decided to protest and subsequently sent a petition to the 
Sobranye, demanding the recognition of their political rights. 
A curious reawakening, and an interesting chapter in the 
history of this peculiar race. 

Origin and Language of the Gipsies. — Tlie real key to their 
origin is, however, the Gipsy language. The scientific study 
of that language began in the middle of the X9th century with 
the work of Pott, and was brought to a high state of perfection 
by Miklosich. From that time on monographs have multiplied 
and minute researches have been carried on in many parts ol 
the world, all tending to elucidate the true origin of the Gipsy 
language. It must remain for the time being an open question 
whether the Gipsies were originally a pure race. Many a strange 
element has contributed to swell their ranks and to introduce 
discordant elements into their vocabulary. Rucdigcr (1783), 
Grellniann (1783) and Marsdcn (1783) almost simultaneously 
and independently of one another came to the siune conclusion, 
that the language of the Gipsies, until then considered a thieves* 
jargon, was in reality a language closely allied with some Indian 
speech. Sinqe then the two principal problems to be solved 
have been, firstly, to which of the languages of India the 
original Giftsy speech was most closely allied, and secondly, by 
which route the people speaking that language had reached 
Europe and then spread westwards. Despite the rapid increase 
in our knowledge of Indian Lmguagcs, no solution has yet been 
found to the first problem, nor is it likely to be found. For the 
language of the Gipsies, as shown now by recent studies of the 
Armenian Gipsies, has undergone such a profound change and 
involves so many difTicultics, that it is impossible to compare 
the modern Gipsy with any modern Indian dialed owing to the 
inner developments which the Gipsy language has undergone 
in the course of centuries. All that is known, moreover, of the 
Gipsy lariguagc, and all that rests on reliable texts, is quite 
modern, scarcely earlier than the middle of the 19th century. 
Followed up in the various dialects into which that language 
has split, it shows such a thorough change from dialcCt to dialect, 
that except as regards general outUncs and principles of inflexion, 
nothing would be more misleading than to draw conclusions 
from apparent similarities between Gipsy, or any Gipsy dialect, 
and any Indian language; especially as the Gipsies must have 
been separated from the Indian races for a much longer period 
than has elapsed since their arrival in Europe and since the forma- 
tion of their European dialects. It must also be borne in mind 
that the Indian languages have also undergone profound changes 
of their own, under influences totally different from those to 
which the Gipsy language has been subjected. The problem 
would stand differently if by any chance an ancient vocabulary 
were discovered representing the oldest form of the common 
stock from which the European dialects have sprung; for there 
can be no doubt of the unity of the language of the European 
Gipsies. The question whether Gipsy stands close to Sanskrit 
or Prakrit, or shows forms more akin to Hindi disdects, specially 
those of the North-Wcst frontier, or Dardestan and Kafirislan, 
to which may be added now the dialects of the Pis2ca language 
(Grierson, 1906), is affected by the fact established by Fink that 
the dialect of the Armenian Gipsies shows much closer resem- 
blance to Prakrit than the language of the European Gipsies, 
and that the dialects of Gipsy spoken throughout Syria and Asia 
Minor differ profoundly in every respect from the European 
Gipsy, taken as a whole spoken. The only explanation possible 
is that the European Gipsy represents the first wave of the 
Westward movement of an Indian tribe or caste which, dislocated 



at a certain period by political distuHMuices, had traveUed 
through Persia, making a very short stay there, thence to Armenia 
staying there a little longer, and then possibly to the Byzantine 
Empire at an indefinite period between iioo and xzoo; and that 
another clan had follow^ in their wake, passing through Persia, 
settling in Armenia and then going farther down to Syria, Egypt 
and North Africa. These two tribes though of a common 
remote Indian origin must, however, be kept strictly apart 
from one another in our investigation, for they stand to each 
other in the same relation as they stand to the various dialects 
in India. The linguistic proof of origin can therefore now not 
go further than to estabhsh the fact that the Gipsy language 
is in its very e»eace an originally Indian dialect, enriched in its 
vocabulary from the languages of the peoples among whom 
the Gipsies had sojourned, whilst in its grammatical inflection 
it has slowly been modified, to such an extent that in some 
cases, Kke the English or the Servian, barely a skeleton has 

Notwithstanding the statements to the contrary, a Gipsy 
from Greece or Rumania could no longer understand a Gipsy 
of England or Germany, so profound is the difference. But the 
words which have entered into the Gipsy language, borrowed as 
they were from the Greeks, Hungarians, Rumanians, &c., are not 
only an Indication of the route taken — and this is the only use 
that has hitherto been made of the vocabulary — but they are 
of the highest importance for fixing the time when the Gipsies 
had come in contact with these languages. The absence of Arabic 
is a positive proof that sot only did the Gipsies not come via 
Arabia (as maintained by De Goeje) before they reached Europe, 
but that they could not even have been living for any length of 
time in Persia after the Mahommedan conquest, or at any rate 
that they could not have come in contact with such elements of 
the population as had already adopted Arabic in addition to 
Persian. But the form of the Persian words found among 
Eur<q>ean Gipsies, and similarly the form of the Armenian words 
found in that language, are a dear indication that the Gipsies 
could not have come in contact with these languages before 
Persian had assumed its modem form and before Armenian had 
been changed from the old to the modem form of language. 
Still more strong and clear is the evidence in the case of the Greek 
and Rumanian words. If the Gipsies had lived in Greece, assome 
contend, from very ancient times, some at least of the old Greek 
words would be found in their language, and similarly the Slavonic 
words would be of an archaic character, whilst on the contrary 
We find medieval Byzantine forms, nay, modem Greek forms, 
among the Gipsy vocabulary collected from Gipsies in Germany 
or Italy, England or France; a proof positive that they could not 
have been in Europe much earlier than the approximate date 
given above of the i ith or x ath century. We then find from a 
grammatical point of view the same deterioration, say among the 
English or Spanish Gipsies, as has been noticed in the Gipsy 
diaiiKt of Armenia. It is no longer Gipsy, but a corrupt English 
or Spanish adapted to some remnants of Gipsy inflections. The 
purest form has been preserved among the Greek Gipsies and 
to a certain extent among the Rumanian. Notably through 
Miklosich's researches and comparative studies, it is possible 
to f<^w the riow change step by step and to prove, at any rate, 
that, as far as Europe is concerned, the language of these Gipsies 
was one and the same, and that it was slowly split up into a 
number of dialects (13 Miklosich, 14 Cok)cd) which shade off 
into one another, and which by their transitional forms mark 
the way in which the Gipsies have travelled, as also proved by 
histori^ evidence. The Welsh dialect, known by few, has 
retained, through its isolation, some of the ancient forms. 

Rtli^ioH, Habits and Customs.— Thoet who have lived among 
the Gipsies will readily testify that their religious views are a 
strange medley ot the local faith, which they everywhere embrace, 
and some old-world superstitions which they have in common 
with many nations. Among the Greeks they belong to the Greek 
Church, among the Mahommedans they are Mahommedans, in 
Rumania they belong to the National Church. In Hungary they 
Mxt mostly Catholics, according to the faith of the inhabitants of 

that conntry. They hnvt no ethical principles and they do not 
recognize the obligations of the Ten Commandments. There is 
extreme moral laxity in the relation of the two sexes, and on the 
whole they take life easUy, and are complete fatalists. At the 
same time they axe great cowards, and they play the r61e of the 
fool or the jester in the popular anecdotes of eastern Europe. 
There the poltroon is always a Gipsy, but he is good-humoured 
and not so malicious as those Gipsies who had endured the 
hardships of outlawry in the west of Europe. 

There is nothing specifically of an Oriental ori^ in their 
religious vocabubry, and the words Devla (God), Bang (devil) 
or Truskul (Cross), in spite of some remote similarity, must be 
taken as later adaptations, and not as remnants of an old Sky- 
worship or Serpent-worship. In general their beliefs, customs, 
tales, ftc. belong to the common stock of general folklore, and 
niany of their symbolical expressions find their exact counterpart 
in Rumanian and modem Greek, and often read as if they were 
direct translations from these languages. Although they love 
their children, it sometimes happens thata Gipsy mother win hold 
her child by the legs and beat the father with it. In Rumania 
and Turkey among the settled Gipsies a good number arc carriers 
and bricklayers; and the women take their full share in every 
kind of work, no matter how hard it may be. The nomadic 
Gipsies cany on the ancient craft of coppersmiths, or workers in 
metal; they also make sieves and traps, but in the East they arc 
seldom farriers or horse^ealers. They are far-famed for their 
music, in which art they are unsurpassed. The Gipsy musicians 
belong mostly tothe class who originally were serfs. They were 
retained at the courts of the boyars for their special talent in 
reciting old ballads and love songs and their deftness in playing, 
notably the guitar and the fiddle. The former was used as an 
accompaniment to the singing of either love ditties and popular 
songs or more especially in recital or heroic ballads and epic 
songs; the latter for dances and other amusements. They 
were the troubadours and minstrels of eastern Europe; the 
largest collection of Rumanian popular ballads and songs was 
gathered by G. Dem. Teodorescu from a Gipsy minstrel, Petre 
Sholkan; and not a few of the songs of the guslars among the 
Servians and other Slavonic nations in the Balkans come also 
from the Gipsies. They have also retained the andent tunes 
and airs, from the dreamy " doina " of the Rumanian to the 
fiery " czardas " of the Hungarian or the stately " bora " of the 
Bulgarian. Liszt went so far as to ascribe to the Gipsies the origin 
of the Hungarian national music This is an exaggeration, as 
seen by the comparison of the Gipsy music in other parts of south- 
east Europe; but they undoubtedly have given the most 
faithful expression to the national temperament. Equally famous 
is the Gipsy woman for her knowledge of occult practices. She 
is the real witch; she knows charms to injure the enemy or to 
help a friend. She can break the charm if made by 6thcrs. 
But neither in the one case nor in the other, and in fact as little 
as in their songs, do they use the Gipsy language. It is either 
the local language of the natives as in the case of charms, or a 
slightly Romanized form of Greek, Rumanian or Slavonic. The 
old Gipsy woman is also known for her skill in palmistry and 
fortune-telling by means of a special set of cards, the well-known 
Tarokof the Gipsies. They have also a large stock of fairy taks 
resembling in each country the local fairy tales, m Greece agreeing 
with the Greek, and in Rumania with the Rumanian fairy tales. 
It is doubtful, however, whether they have contributed to the 
dissemination of these tales throughout Europe, for a large 
number of Gipsy tales can be shown to have been known in 
Europe long before the appearance of the Gipsies, and others are 
so much like those of other nations that the boixowing may be 
by the Gipsy from the Greek, Slav or Rumanian. It is, however, 
possible that playing-cards mig^t have been introduced to 
Europe throuj^ the Gipsies. "The oldest reference to cards is 
found in the Chronicle of Nicolaus of Cavellazso, who says that 
the cards were first brought into A^terbo in 1379 from the land 
of the Saracens, probably from Asia Minor or the Balkans. 
They spread very quickly, but iu> one has been able as jret to trace 
definitely the source whence they were first brought. Without 

CDlering ben inlo tbc hiitoiy of tbc pUyiD|-cu<b ud oi tbe 

dJQcreat fomii ol the Tica ajid of tbc lymboLicK] muaiug of Ibe 
<Mucnl dcsigu, one nay uiune tatcly llul tbe cudi, I ' 
tbry wrtv utcd For mere pulime or for guubllaf , tnay origiiuUy 
have hid i myilical meiniDg ind beto lued u sarin in vbiwus 
combiulioDi. To Ibis veiy day Ibe oldest form ia known by the 
hitherto uneipEaioed Dame of Tacock, played in Bologna at the 
bcgjnjungof the istbceatuiy and tetoiDed by the French unde 
Ihe tona Tamt, connected direcl with the Gisait*, " Le Tarot de 
Bohimiem." It waj noted above that the oldol chronicle 
(Pmbytet) who dooibeg Ibc appeaiance of the Gipiiei in 141I 
in Gcnniny knows them by their ItaUan name " Ciaoas,' 
BO evidently he must have knowa of Ibeir eiiiicnce ia Italy 
previous to any date recorded bilhcto anywhere, ajid [t ia tben- 
~ impouible that coming from Italy they biought with 


10 thcii booh a( divic 

Piyiiad Ctiiraiuriilki.—Ai a race U»ey 
vio^n« m colaut (mm the daik tan ol Ibe Anb te the vhiiiih 
hue of the Secviaa and the Pole. In fact ibete arc aoaDC white- 
(olourcd Gipsia, apccially in Servia ind Dalmatla, and the« 
aie oilen not easily diilitiguiBhable from the native peopls, 
eieept that tbey are more lithe and linewy, belter propeationed 
and more <cUc in Ibeir movemcnti than the thick-iel Slavs and 
the miud ract of the RutnuiiaDi. By one feature, however, 
tbey are easily distinguishablE and recogniie one another, vir. 
bythelustreol ibeir eyesand the whiteneasol their teeth. Some 
are well buUli olben have tbe fcaluiei of a mongrel race, due 
no doubt 10 inieitnaniige with ouicaits of other races. The 
women age very quldily and Ihe mortality amang tbe Gipsies 
11 great, especially among chiJdreai among adults it is chiefly 
due to pul m o n ary diseases. Tbey love dupby and Oriental 

red and giecn are the coloun mostly favoured by the Gipsies 
in the EasL Along with a sbowy handkerchief or some shining 
gold coins round their necki, tbey will wear lom petticoats and 
DO covering on their feet. And even after they have been 
assimilated and have forgolten their own language they itill 
retain some of the promineat features of their chuacler, such 
as the bve of inordinate display and gorgeous dress; and their 
moral defecu not only remain for a long lime as glaring as azoong 
those who live the bfe of vagrants, but even become more pio- 
nounced. The Gipsy of tonjay is no longer what bis fore- 
lathers have beeiL The assimilation with the nations in the 
near East and the steps taken for the suppression of vagrancy 
m the West, combine to dcnatioDaliie tbe Gipsy and to make 

BtlLlocaArBV.— Tbe icieDlilk: study of the GlMy 
iu ohpn, as well as tbe oitkal history ot the Gips, . 

Kth tbs potable esceptkv ol Gcellmann} aLnott entirely from 
I's rescaicbes in 1944. 

I. CMtOitni tf DxnmtMU, Gi«.— Lisu of older publialions 
Bppeand in the boolu o( Pott, Mikkwdiaiid l!ie archduke JOKph; 
Air Mkb a critical appreciation □( tbe adeniibc value at the books 
etiuventc^ See also VtntUknU wis Wrrken itmd Aujsdian . . , 
Mir Hi GucUtUi nd Spradit itr Zitnmer. £rc.,i4eEninei( L^eipiii, 
list); J. Hpny, " Adafckok a oigiinyokiil si6l^[>odalanih«."n 
llaou K t m j t mml i (BudapeB. iSirf; Ch. G. Uland, A CoUalisn 
•f CMusfl , , . njaftnl to Cyfna (lSl4-l»9l). beOinlbed by 
lua to the Bridib Museum. See also tbe (VsmMiKbr/atmiinclt; 
ed. MaUrf (Beriio, 1887 R.]- 

II. Binsrr^a) The fini appearance of the Gipaics in Europe. 
Sonrm: A. F. OdcUus. Sim Bncomi Kn'Mnni, 6rc. (Auiiburg. 
irej): M. Fieher, Aninot FmiyUrl . . . tlatmiian A SanAu 

aawuf (l«oi); S. UddsIb, Caimmpliia In. (Buel, 

luj); J. Thurmaier, jliiinfiai Jswf mi Tflrt KpUm, ed. T. Zie. 
ilenis (Iinolstad, 1]S4): M. Cmsius, iIhhoIb Stt^i, Grc. (Fr 
lurt, iS9S'is«6), jaWUifht Ckmik . . . (Fran" 
A.Kiuu,5aMila{Cofa«c,ISM)iS<inon5iaHO«, / 
ed. I. Nauiih <Dimbrl4e. \n*t <H Oiigia and 
ulp^C. 17SJ-. ind ed., CMtingcD, I7S7); EoEliih by M. Roper 
(Lnidoa, 1787: Jnd ed., Londnq. i»07), entitled DiuerSiliiiii en tti 
aptia. en.; Carl wn Heiaer, fttaoinifUidu . . . NaUim MtT 
Air Z iifu mt t fKaniaiberT, 1A4J}. ■ &ird and frestly improved 
c^tioo of GnumanD and tbe bat book el its kind up to that dstc i 
A.F. Patt.IN<ZiHln>crnewv«anJ.1>i<il (> vola, Halle. iSu- 
lt4S). the Gnt uSi^aily work with complete and critical tnbHo- 
pnphy. detailed gramnar, etynjologlca] dictionary aud ImportaDt 

Z>Ii^ivr i> Emrrpa (Golha. 

, . ^^Akadtw^u^kSl^ 

(Vienna. 1874-1878). ■■ Ober die Mundarten und die Wandeniinn 
der Zlgeuncr Europas," i.->ii., ia Dnkuhrtjm <L Witiur Aliii£ d. 

IViiinubirH (1871-1880). Goejc. fl.jiraj. b,l J, f- 
sckinUna irr Zitf.iuri (Smntliim. 187:)- CoEliih tianilatloa by 
MacRilchie.^cunfn/IftlGipiHis/rii/u (London. 1SS6): Zedkl, 
Uimtrtat-Lertam, vol. laii., r.r. ^^iituner." pp. uo-344 con- 
lainint a rich bibUecnphy; many publications of f. £uillard 
fmn 1844 to 188s; A. tdlocei, Sana if ui fiptit •rriiole. wilN 
illustralions. mapaodCipiy-ltal. and ltal..Ci«y clOHaries (Turin. 
■°-'" " "— me.-ThcGypsie^'-inE.«n. AfodM ' 

i./i d<id 7*>.rJK I1891), and an. "GipiM." in Eniydol 
--• ■" '-lE ed.. 1879); C. Ain«ro, BaUmiau, fiirai 

r (Berlin. 18J7; German inns.. ! 

id. iu. (1844-184S)— 
' M andX^Hc 

. ._ ..... td.. 1879): C. Am«i 
a (Paris. 1S9O1 M. Koiilnllicha 
- -' '-. A»>(iu iis CitaiHi (Bcrlio. 1 

lipMS in Polandi I. Kounicki and JVMayer, Ovat 
tynma luiraid t^^c^Stii) (1876)— <« tbs hisuiy 
L d Gabciaa gipsies; I'sroriscjbe jtslijriuJis JfiUriJin 

■" ■ -' - ■ ■ ■ ■ iHkalj • 


customs el Galiciaa gipsies; Untflnsdu rietisUiciK Uitk 

vol. UL (Budapest, iBMKcoMaiiuag tbe best suliHkallnrt..... 

on the Cipiiesr V. Ditlricb, A lufy-iAu oiffKytt (Buda 

1S4S): T. H. Schwicker, " IKe Zigc 
lUrgen," in vol. Mi. of PH ""■■- 
iBi}, and in MilUilunffn i. 
Vienna. i8g&): Dr I.PoJVk.Ot^^ip 

—. ., jjj^ Zijeune 

Hiaitrl Jakn 17 
, 1873). Dii VMtriUmi 

1. of'f»"?i*S~5itofS[*'iSrs™i'(vi^niiji 

' - - ipliiiiiai Gatllul-ap 

Srt. (Vienna,, 18 

18^); A. Dumbarton, Cypiy Li/* 

niicben Zigeunei," in Uimn'irei ir TAcai. Imp. 

S\ Peteisburi, 1007I. lAunria-HunEaryJ. R. 
u%dpn it, ilonluohH Z.1MKT (Coiii^gcii, 


(Piajue, iSll); P. ]o»f Jeiini, anuMi C* (in Ciech, 

, rmau. iSec); G. Ihnatko, Cntiny nw/Rnn (Losonron. 

1677): A.Kalina, £alon(H<ki7-»ia«ii(si>iaui(PDsen, 1BS1): 
the an:tidukc joieph. Cjlfiny n^ilam (Budapeu, 1888); H. van 

IfirazilJ. A.T. deMelloktoracs,(7ALj»JHAiwBraaif (Riodelaneiro, 
1886). IFraTKc, Ihe B^nun). A. Baudrfmoni. VKataJain lie la 
fsniae da BMmitHi Aehlo'l Ici pays basqtKi-fnniau (Bordeaui, 
i8bi). IGerrMnyj, R. Pischd, BeiMre lar JCmUHU de- ' - ' 

. " W»tterbiich des Dialekts de 


, , y|, R. Pitchd, Beitrai 

(Halle. i«M);R. von Sows." 
icuucpen Zigeuner,'* in ^Masdfiinrea r. «. ntmaca. MDTErwaiwo. 
d. I, very valuable (Lcipiij, 1898); F. N. Finck, UMmck dtt 
"yiaUkts aer dfniwhen Zittuvr — very valuable (Marburv. toot). 
Great BHtun, Acj, Ch. G. Leland. Tie EiifUik Ci^riti ojwl lk«r 
:dsfiist< (LosdoD and New York, 187}; ind ed.. 1874), nr CjpiikT 
/ Jujna, Xulru. Ex^^. Ayiaua. tfc. (London^ 1881)— Ihe 

\. ]. ^rdlon, f*e'^,ILl o/Sr'Eatl^* CyA>i« (iwj ^.,'Ufldon, 
87JI ; G. Boimw, Rtmaite laatiii (London. 1874, looj), Usct^et, 
d.F. il.GrDonie (London, ISOQ). [Rumanial, S. (fooManlinescu, 
'niic di Iiiwhl a liUralura fifunifDr din Xandnia (BuchareV. 
97S). [RuiaiB. BcHarabial. O. BoetMinEk, Dbtr iit SpraJu irr 

Jiininrr in Rmi$land (St Petenburg, iSu; lupplEmenl. i8u). 

[RusBa, Ciueasuij. K. Badn<iuni,^i<»>y. WiknIUe died a HrHi- 

'jaijki {1900). JsJmS! G. H. Borrow^r^t l.W,>J"m J?'«w 
erikCifutus/ Spain (Umdos, iSll, an' ... 

R. Campumno. Oifnt . . , da la G 



in tht boolB cnnmenttd above, whtrt Ihty Are maacly fccompawd 
by nani nubtiaaL S<c *]■> Ch. G. Ldud, E. K, Fdne *4kI 
T. Tiickcy, E*^uk Gipiy Smtt in Amuhv, vHk M ' ' ' " ' 
TVoKrfBtoit (London. 1875); C, Smith. Ci»i]i Liji. 
1880); M. RtMnTdd, twlirifcr^iiniMr fllSl): ( 
rt( CyprtMM (BoHon, MuL, 11811. CvplT Strltry 
T^Umm ILat^Do, Ifni): H. ma Wliilncki. Uirdttit 
»IIU^HHKk» 2if>mr (Berlin, iSM)— wnuinug 6< uIhl 

lu/axBiriitIm Ziccmrt (Wniii, lafo)— loan. UlliSTdiiinii, 
rnrvntnind 100 Ills: Van iMtonJn ZiiHimtlki (Hi 
1890}! Iran »f WtrkmttAttu tit ZatA^Imm lui ia 
hmtbuiitmZifavutliiai): Aut deio inoena Ltfben dcr Zii 

in EHmtU^tdu ullialunti' (BcrUn, 1B9I): R. Fixhct, 

Mtr WlalacM tern nndendn ZitnaimMt (C«ningcii. itanl— * 
■tTDflv cntiruni of WliikiclbV nKUod. Ac: F- H- Grooaie, Gypty 
■pd Uim ni j iUHF canFctun r4 7i parr ulei from many cDuolcin; 
Kaudi. Cff-Uu pmu] (Logman, 1407); M. Cuur, Zipmur- 
mSrclim am RioiiaTiien (iMl); "'nranii, «t," in Kaula finba 
/liorK, &C.. i. p.j69S. <BurhaMt, iMj): " GyjHV F«ify-T»k»J']B 

l£4J} wu rrvivFd in Livprpnal in 1 w. 

V. Lerai SlalMS.—^ (cw of the boati in vlilcli ihc [qriT sti 
Ih.- r.l»». I«<h» >ln» or in COniurxlJnn .ilh " v^nn^r 
nl of vje<f 

iry [< Ibc iritl in 1716. ]. B. WeMcnbnich, A-a^Mitlu 
liat (M iirftmiaen Ziftn^rr-D^lia-ittri mud Riuif (Fiaak- 
and Ldpoic. i?'?}'- A- Ch- Thcnutiua. TtofJotU inndia it 
iittOt. a-t a»'p"ie, 173'): F. Ch. B. Avt-Lallmsol, Dm 

..., ^ ,.._ ^. ---l.: -^..1. ., -"-tachM.ia 

chuL Ztm 
G.' StiK- 

tBOscit cSmiMHiuii, frr. {Lfifuig- iSjS-lBfa); 
pDriai ^ FmiKi U ^Esfsfu (Pjiru. 1876); 

Dii i^'iniiHT Hid it' dtuUdit Sliuil (Wil ^ 

lumen, CoikUhU dtr iaUidm KalUa (Leip^ 

'. de RochH. Ln 

• CbuchuL Zim 

. . . : R. BiniluiuH, 

Slaal (Wgnbutg. 1907); f- '*•--- 

fllBAPPS, I comiptioa of Zarifak, the Arabic 
tiUoI of all munnuils, and Ihe lyiucal i^icKnUllvc ol llw 
baHj Girafijat, the diitinctiw characlcra o( which ue given 
la the utide Fzcou, where the lyitematic position of tbe 
fToup it indicated. The dauic term " cameiopard," probably 
introduced when these animals were brought from Nonh 
Africa to Ibc Roman amphitheatre, has fallen into complete 

In common with the okapi, ^raftcs have alun-covered homi 
on the head, but in theK animals, which form tbe genua Ciraffa, 
these appendages are present in both sens; and Iheie is often 
an unpoiml one In advioce of tbe pair on the forehead. Among 
oiIkc chatacteristici o{ these animab may he noticed the greil 
length o( the neck and limbs, the complete absence ol lateral 
toes and the long and tufted tail. The tongue is remarkable 
for its great length, measuring about 17 in- in the dead animal, 
tod for its great elasticity and power of muscular conttaclion 
whale living. It is covered with numerous large pnpiltae, and 
forms, like the trunk of Ihe elephant, an adoiinble organ for 
the examination and prehension of food. GinSes are inhabit- 
ants of operi country, and OHing Eo Ebeir length of neck and long 
deiible tongues are enabled to browse on tall trees, mimosas 
being Cavourilcs. To drink or graze they are obliged to str^dle 
tbe lore-legs apart; but they seldom feed oa grass and are 
capable ol going long without water. When standing among 

arc difficult of detection. Formerly giraffes were found in large 
hffda. but pelseculion has reduced their number and led to their 
eilemiiiutioB ftom many dislricla. Although in late Tertiary 
limes widely spread over soulhcm Europe and India, giraSes are 
now confined to Africa south of the Sahara. 

Apart from (he distinct Somali giraffe {Cira^a reticviata), 
chatacleTi«d by its dtcp Ever-red colour marked with a very 

ol tbe ordirvary giraffe {Giiaja canuliifiirdalii). The norlhem 
ncei. such as the Nubian G, t. lypiia and the Kardolan G. e. 
tuti^uontm, are characterized by the large frnnlal horn of Ihe 
bulls, the while legs, (he network type of cototatioD and the pile 
(int. The latter feature is specially developed in the N'igniin 
C.(.>eriiUa,whIchislikewiseof thenorthemlype, TheBaringo 
C. c toOuckUdi also has a large frontal horn and white legs, but 
the tfou in (he bulls are very dark and those of the females 
iigfid. In the KiUmanjaro G. c. litfdskadd the frontal born 

is often devd(^ied In the buUa, but Ihe kgi la bvfaaaiy tpotted 
u> (he fetlocks. Fxlbet south the front*] bom tends to dis- 
appear moee or Icn conpletdy, as in the Angola C. (.swifaifli, 
theTrsBtvulCcnrrfiaadthe Cape C. c Mf«HU, wlnle tk 
fully spotted and tbe cok>ur-paltem on the body 

(cqiedslly in tbe Isit-nsnud] is 

blnchnl type, that 

Tbe North Al 

fawn ground, ingtesd of 
if light lines 00 a dark ground. 
For details, see a paper on Ihe pubapeCKSof^'ffffaaiicdMaPlMiJ, 
by R. Lydekker in tbe l>>gu>dHCI >/ Uu ZtoltticalSciiiilj o/Indfli 
'or 1901. , (R. I.*) 

nJSl (i4;9-iSS"). Ilalian scholar and poet, was bom 00 the 
:41h ol June 1479, al Ferrara, where he early distinguished 
limself by his talents and acquirements. On the completion 

ilcrary cc 

noved to Naples, 

with Jovianus Pontanus and I 

Loobardy, where he enjoyed the favour of the 

ly. At Milan in 1507 he studied Greek under 

■ shortly afierwMds, at Modena, be beome 

erwards Cardinal) Rangone. About the year 

emovea 10 Rome, whenr, under Clement VU., he held 

of apostolic protonolary; but having in the sack of that 

7), which almost coincided wilb the death of his patron 

Rangone, lost all fus property, he returned in poverty 

V to Mirandola. whence again he ■« driven by (he 

xase(|uent on the usassinaiion of the reigning pHnce in 

he rest of his life was one long stiug^ with ill-bea1(h, 

poverty and neglect; and he la alluded to with sonowiul regret 

by Montaigne in one of his fijia/j (i. 34), as hsving. lite SehiiiiaB 

Caslallo, ended his days in utter destitution. He died at Ferran 

February 1551; and his epitaph makes touching and graceful 

Alirandola far 
Chalcondylis; a 


extensive emdition; «ad namerous testimonies to his profundity 

and accuracy have been given both by contemporary and by 

Uter scholars. His Historia de diis geiUium marked a distinctly 

forward stq> in the systematic study of classical mythology; 

and by his treatises De annis d mensib$iSt and on the Caleit' 

darium Ramanum et CraecuMt he contributed to bring about the 

reform of the calendar, which was ultimately effected by Pope 

Gregory XIII. His Progymnasma adversus literas et lileratos 

deserves mention at least among the curiosities of literature; 

and among his other works to which reference is still occasionally 

made are Historiae poHarum Grauorum ac Latittarum; De 

poUis suorum temporum; and De sepultura ac vario sepdiendi 

ritu. Giraldi was also an elegant Latin poet. 
His Opera omnia were published at Leiden in 1696. 

GIRALDI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA (1504-1573), sumamed 
Cynthius, CiMTmo or Cintio, Italian novelist and poet, born 
at Ferrara in November 1504, was educated at the university 
of his native town, where in 1535 he became professor of natural 
philosophy, and, twelve years afterwards, succeeded Cello 
Calcagnini in the chair of belles-lettres. Between 1 543 and 1 560 
he acted as private secretary, first to Ercole II. and afterwards 
to Alphonso II. of Este; but having, in connexion with a literary 
quarrel in which he had got involved, lost the favour of his 
patron in the latter year, he removed to Mondovi, where he 
remained as a teacher of literature till 1568. Subsequently, 
.on the invitation of the senate of Bifilan, he occupied the chair 
of rhetoric at Pa via till 1573, when, in search of health, he 
returned to his native town, where on the 30th of December he 
died. Besides an epic entitled ErcM (i557), in twenty-six 
cantos, Giraldi wrote nine tragedies, the best known of which, 
Orbeccke^ was produced in 1 541. The sanguinary and disgusting 
character of the plot of this play, and the general poverty of 
its style, are, in the opinion of many of its critics, almost fully 
redeemed by occasional bursts of genuine and impassioned 
poetry; of one scene in the third act in particular it has even 
been affirmed that, if it alone were sufficient to decide the 
question, the Orbecche would be the finest play in the world. 
Of the prose works of Giraldi the most important is the Hecaiom- 
wiiiki or Bcalomiii, a collection of tales told somewhat after the 
manner of Boccaccio, but still more closely resembling the novels 
of Giraldi^s contemporary Bandello, only much inferior in work- 
manship to the productions of either author in vigour, liveliness 
and local colour. Something, but not much, however, may be 
said in favour of their professed claim to represent a higher 
standard of morality. Originally published at Monteregale, 
Sicily, in 1565, they were frequently reprinted in Italy, while a 
French translation by Chappuys appeared in 1583 and one in 
Spanish in 1590. They have a peculiar interest to students of 
English literature, as having furnished, whether directly or in- 
directly, the plots of Measure for Measure and Olkeilo, That 
of the latter, which is to be found in the HecaUnnmitki (iii. 7), 
is conjectured to have reached Shakespeare through the French 
translation; while that of the former (Hecal. viii. 5) is probably 
to be traced to Whetstone's Promos and Cassandra (1578), an 
adaptation of Cinthio's story, and to his Heptamcrone (1583), 
which contains a direct En'glish translation. To Giraldi also 
must be attributed the plot of Beaumont and Fletcher's Custom 
oj the Country. 

GIRALDU8 CAMBRENSI8 (ii46?-x3ao), medieval historian, 
also called Gesaio de Baku, was bom in Pembrokeshire. He 
was the son of William de Barn and Augharat, a daughter of 
Gerald, the ancestors of the Fitq^eralds and the Welsh princess, 
Nesta, formerly mistress of King Henry I. Falling under the 
influence of his uncle, David Fitzgerald, bishc^ of St David's, 
he determined to enter the church. He studied at Paris, and his 
works show that he had applied himself closely to the study of 
the Latin poets. In 11 72 he was appointed to collect tithe in 
Wales, and showed such vigour that he was made archdeacon. 
In 1 1 76 an attempt was made to elect him bish<^ of St David's, 
but Henry II. was unwilling to see any one with powerful native 
connexions a bishop in Wales. In 1 180, after another visit to 
Paris, he was appointed commissiary to the bishop of St David's, 


who had ceased to reside. But Giraldus threw up his post, 

indignant at the indifference of the bishop to the welfare of his 

see. In 1 184 he was made one of the king's chi^lains, and was 

elected to accompany Prince John on Ids voyage to Ireland. 

While there be wrote a Topographia Hibernica, which is full of 

information, and a stron^y prejudiced history of the conquest* 

the ExpugnaHo Hibemica. In x x86 he read his work with great 

applause before the masters and scholars of Oxford. In 1x88 

he was sent into Wales with the primate Baldwin to preach 

the Third Crusade. Giraldus declares that the mission was 

highly successful; in any case it gave him the material for his 

Itinerarium Camirense, which is, after the ExpugnatiOf his best 

known work. He accompanied the archbishop, who intended 

him to be the historian of the Crusade, to the continent, with the 

intention of going to the Holy Land. But in xxSg he was sent 

back to Wales by the king, who knew his influence was great, 

to keep order among his coimtrymen. Soon after he was absolved 

from his crusading vow. According to his own statements, 

which often tend to exaggeration, he was offered both the sees of 

Bangor and Uandaff, but refused them. From 1192 to 1x98 

he lived in retirement at Lincoln and devoted himself to literature. 

It is probably during this period that he wrote the Gemma 

ecclesiastica (discusang disputed points of doctrine, ritual, &c.) 

and the Vila S. Remigii. In X198 he was elected bishop of St 

David's. But Hubert Walter, the archbishop of. Canterbury, 

was determined to have in that position no Welshman who 

would dilute the metropolitan pretensions of the English 

primates. The king, for political reasons, supported Hubert 

Walter. For four years Giraldus exerted himself to get his 

election confirmed, and to vindicate the independence of St 

David's from Canterbury. He went three times to Rome. 

He wrote the De jure Meneoiensis ecclesiae in support of the 

claims of his diocese. He made alliances with the princes of 

North and South Wales. He called a general synod of his diocese. 

He was accused of stirring up rebellion among the Welsh, and 

the justiciar proceeded against him. At length in x 303 the pope 

annulled all previous elections, and ordered a new one. The 

prior of Llanthony was finally elected. Gerald was immediately 

reconciled to the king and archbishop; the utmost favour was 

shown to him; even the expenses of his unsuccessful election 

were paid. He spent the rest of his life in retirement, though 

there was some talk of his being made a cardinaL He certainly 

survived John. 

The works of Giraldus are partly polemical and partly historical. 

His value as a historian is marred by his violent party spirit; 

some of his historical tracts, such as the Liber de instrudione 

principum and the Vita Calfridi Arckiepiscopi Eboruensis^ 

seem to have been designed as political pamphlets. Henry II., 

Hubert Walter and William Longchamp, the chancellor of 

Richard I., are the objects of his worst invectives. His own 

pretensions to the see of St David are the motive of many of his 

misrepresentations. But he is one of the most vivid and witty 

of our medieval historians. 

See the Rolls edition of his works, ed. J. S. Brewer, J. F. Dimock 
and G. F. Warner in 8 vols. (London, 1861-1891), some of which 
have valuable introductions. 

GIRANDOLE (from the Ital. girandole), an ornamental 
branched candlestick of several lights. It came into use about 
the second half of the 17th century, and was commonly made 
and used in pairs. It has always been, comparatively speaking, 
a luxurious appliance for lighting, and in the great 18th-century 
period of French house decoration the famous ciselcurs designed 
some exceedingly beautiful examples. A great variety of metals 
has been used for the purpose — sometimes, as in the case of the 
candlestick, girandoles have been made in hard woods. Gilded 
bronze has been a very frequent medium, but for table purposes 
silver is still the favourite material. 

GIRARD. JBAN BAPTISTB [known as "Le Pere Girard" 
or" LePercGregoire "l(i 765-1850), French-Swisseducalionalist, 
was born at Fribourg and educated for the priesthood at Lucerne. 
He was the fifth child in a family of fourteen, and his gift for 
teaching was early shown at home in helping his mother with the 



jToun^r children; and after passing through his noviciate he 

spent some time as an instructor in convents, notaUy at WUrs- 

hurg (r 785-1 788). Then for ten years he was busy with 

religious duty. In 1798, full of Kantian ideas, he publi^ed an 

essay outlining a scheme of national Swiss education; and in 

1 804 he began his career as a public teacher, first in the elementary 

school at Fribourg (i 805-1 823), then (being driven away by 

Jesuit hostility) in the gymnasium at Lucerne till 1834, vhta 

he retired to Fribourg and devoted himself with the production 

of his books- on education, De PenseignemetU rigulUr de la 

langue matenuUe (1834, 9th ed. 1894; Eng. trans, by Lord 

Ebrington, The MtOker TangHe, 1847), and Cours UuaUif (1844'- 

1846). Father Girard's reputation and influence as an enthusiast 

in the cause of education became potent not only in Switxerland, 

where he was hailed as a second Pestalo2zi,.but in other countries. 

He had a genius for teaching, his method of stimulating the 

intelligence of the children at Fribourg and interesting them 

actively in learning, and not merely cramming them with rules 

and facts, being warmly praised by the Swiss educationalist 

Francois Naville (1784-1846) in his treatise on public education 

(1832). His undogmatic method and his Liberal Christianity 

brou^t him into conflict with the Jesuits, but his aim was, 

in all his teaching, to introduce the moral idea into the minds of 

his pupils by familiarizing them with the right or wrong working 

of the facts he brought to their attention, and thus to elevate 

character all through the educational curriculum. 

GIRARD. PHIUPPE HENRI DB (i 775-1845), French 
mechanician, was bom at Lourroarin, Vauduse, on the ist.of 
February 1775. He is chiefly known in connexion with flax- 
spinning machinery. Napoleon having in x8io decreed a reward 
of one million francs to the inventor of the best machine for 
spinning flax, Girard succeeded in producing what was required. 
But he never received the promised reward, although in 1853, 
sfter his death, a comparatively small pension was voted to hU 
heirs, and having relied on the money to pay the expenses of 
hb invention he got into serious financial difficulties. He was 
obliged, in 1815, to abandon the flax mills he had established 
in France, and at the invitation of the emperor of Austria 
founded a flax mill and a factory for his machines at Hirtenberg. 
In 1825, at the invitation of the emperor Alexander I. of Russia, 
he went to Poland, and erected near Warsaw a flax manufactory, 
round which grew up a village which received the name of 
Girsrdow. In x&i8 he built a steamer to run on the Danube. 
He did not return to Paris till 1844, where he still found some 
of his old creditors ready to press their claims, and he died in 
that city on the a6th of August 1845. He was also the author 
of numerous minor iaventions. 

GIRARD, 8TBPHEN (1750-1831), American financier and 
philanthropist, founder of Girard College in Philadelphia, was 
bom in a suburb of Bordeaux, France, on the soth ol May 1750. 
He lost the sight of his right eye at the age of eight and had little 
education. His father was a sea captain, and the son cruised 
to the West Indies and back during x 764-1773, was licensed 
captain in 1773, visited New York in 1774, and ^ence with the 
assbtance of a New York merchant began to trade to and from 
New Orleans and Port au Prince. In May 1776 he was driven, 
into the port of Philadelphia by a British fleet and settled there as 
a merehaBt; in June of th^ next year he married Mary (Polly) 
Lttffl, daughter of a shipbuilder, who, two yean later, after 
Girard's becoming a dtiaen of Pennsylvania (1778), built for him 
the " Water Witch," the first of a fleet trading with New Orleans 
and the West Indie»— most of Girard's ships being named after 
his favourite French authors, such as " Rousseau," " Voltaire," 
" Helv€Uua " and " Montesquieu." His beautiful young wife 
became Insane and spent the years from 1790 to her death in 
18x5 in the Peimsylvania I^ispitd. In x8io Girard used about 
a million dollars deposited t>y him with the Barings of London 
for the pttrchaae of shares of the much depreciated stock of 
the Bank of the United States — a purchase of great assistance 
to the United States foVemment in bolsterhig European confi- 
dence in its securities. When the Bank was not rechartered the 
building and the caahier'B house in Philadelphia were purchased 

at a third of the original cost by Girard, who in May tSis 
established the Bank of Stephen Girard. He subscribed in 
x8i4 for about 95% of the government's war loan of $5,000,000, 
of which only $20,000 besides had been taken, and he generously 
offered at par shares which upon his purchase had gone to a 
premium. He pursued his business vigorously in person until 
the 1 2th of February 1830, when he was injured in the street 
by a truck; he died on the 36th of December X83X. His public 
spirit had been diown during his life not only financially but 
personally; in r793, during the plague of yellow fever in Phil- 
adelphia, he volunteered to act as manager of the wretched 
hospital at Bush Hill, and with the assistance of Peter Helm 
had the hospital cleansed and its work systematized; again 
during the yellow fever epidemic of r 797-1798 he took the lead 
in relieving the poor and caring for the skk. Even more was hb 
philanthropy shown in his ^position by will of his estate, 
which was valued at about $7,500,000, and doubtless the greatest 
fortune accumulated by any individual in America up to that 
time. Of his fortune he bequeathed $116,000 to various 
Philadelphia charities, $500,000 to the same city for the im- 
provement of the Delaware water front, $300,000 to Pennsyl- 
vania for internal improvements, and the bulk of his estate to 
Philadelphia, to be used in founding a school or college, in 
providing a better police system, and in making municipal 
improvements and lessening tazatioiL Most of his bequest 
to the dty was to be used for building and maintaining a school 
"to provide for such a number of poor male white orphan 
children ... a better education as well as a more comfortable 
maintenance than they usually receive from the application of 
the public funds." His will planned most minutely for the 
erection of this school, giving details as to the windows, doors, 
walls, &c.; and it contained the following phrase: "I enjoin 
and require that no ecclesiastic, missionary or minister of any 
sect whatsoever, shall ever hold or exercise any duty whatsoever 
in the said college; nor shall any such person ever be admitted 
for any purpose, or as a visitor, within the premises appropriated 
to the purposes of the said college. ... I desire to keep the 
tender miiKis of orphans . . . free from the excitements which 
clashing doctrines and sectarian controversy are so apt to 
produce." Girard's heirs-at-law contested the will in 1836, and 
they were greatly helped by a public prejudice aroused by the 
clause dted; in the Supreme Court of the United States in 1844. 
Daniel Webster, appearing for the heirs, made a famous plea 
for the Christian religion, but Justice Joseph Story handed dowQ 
an opinion adverse to the hdrs {Vidais v. Ginurd*s Execmlors). 
Webster was opposed in this suit by John Sergeant and Horace 
Binney. Girard specified that those admitted to the college 
must be white male orphans, of legitimate birth and good 
character, between the ages of six and ten; that no boy was 
to be permitted to stay after his eighteenth year; and that as 
regards admissions preference was to be shown, fiiat to orphans 
bom in Philadelphia, second to orphans b<Mrn in any other part of 
Pennsylvania, third to orphans bom in New York City, and 
fourth to orphans bora in New Orleans. Work upon the build- 
ings was begun in 1833, and the college was opened on the ist 
of January 1848, a technical point of law making instruction 
conditioned upon the completion of the five buildings, of which 
the principal one, planned by Thomas Ustick Walter (1804-1887), 
has been called " the most perfect Greek temple in existence." 
To a sarcophagus in this main btiilding the remains of Stephen 
Girard were- removed in X85X. In the 40 acres of the college 
grounds there were in X909 x8 buildings (valued at $3,350,000), 
15x3 pupils, and a total "population," including students, 
teachers and all employes, of X907. The value of the Girard 
esUte in the year X907 was $3SfOOO,ooo, of which $550^000 
was devoted to other charities than (xirard College. The contrql 
of the college was under a board chosen by the city councils 
until 1869, when by act of the legislature it was trai»f erred to 
trustees appointed by the Common Pleas judges of the city of 
Philadelphia. Hie course of training is partly industrial^for 
a long time graduates were indentured till they came of 
but it is also preparatory to college entzanoe* 



See H. A. Ingraro, Tks Lifie ami CkordeUr of Slepken Cirard 
(Philadelphia. 1884), and George P. Rupp, "Stephen Ginird— 
Merchant and Mariner,'* in 1840-1808: Semi-CenUnnial of Cirard 
Celkge (PhiUdelphia. 1898). 

GIBARDIN. DELPHINB DB (1804-1855), French author, 

was born at Aix-la-Chapelle on the 26th of January 1804. Her 

mother, the well-known Madame Sophie Gay, brought her up 

in the midst of a brilliant literary society. She published two 

volumes of miscellaneous pieces, Esfois potiiqucs (1824) and 

Nouveaux Essais poiliques (1825). A visit to Italy iii 1827, 

during which she was enthusiastically welcomed by the literati 

of Rome and even crowned in the capitol, was productive of 

various poems, of which the most ambitious was Napoline (1833). 

Her marriage in 1831 to £mile de Girardin (see below) opened 

up a new literary career. The contemporary sketches which 

she contributed from 1836 to 1839 to the feuilleton of La Presu, 

under the nom de plume of Chiles de Launay, were collected 

under the title of Letlres parisiennes (1843), ^^ obtained a 

brilliant success, ConUs d*unc vieille fiUe d sts neoeux (1832), 

La Cannede Monsieur de BaUac (1836) and // nefaut pasjouer 

avec la douleur (1853) are ansong the best-known of her- rpo^ances; 

and her dramatic pieces in prose and verse include L*£cole des 

f'ownalistes (1840), Judith (2843), CUopdtre (1847), Lady Tarlufe 

{1853), and the one-act comedies, Cest lafaute du mart (X851), 

La Joiefail peur (18^), Le Chapeau d^un horhger (1854) and Utu 

Femme qui diteste son mart, which did not appear UU after the 

author's death. In the literary society of her time Madame 

Girardin exercised no small personal ixufluence, and among the 

frequenters of her drawing-room were Tb£ophile Gautier and 

Balaac, Alfred de Musset and Victor Hugo. She died on the 

29th of June 1855. Her collected works were published in six 

volumes (i8do-i86x). 

See Sainte-Beuve, Causeries du lundi, t. iil; G. de Molftnes, 
"Les Fcmmes pontes," in Revue jdes deux mondes Outy 1842); 
Tanle [>elord, Let Maiiuies liUiraires (i860): L' Esprit de Madame 
Girofdin, avu une pr^ace par M. Lamarline (1862); G. d'Heilly, 
Madame de Girardtu, savieet us aueres (1868)2 laUjcrt dt Saint 
Amaod, Mme de Girardin (187^. 

eiRARDIX, telLB DB (i|b2*x88i), French puUldst, was 
bom,. not in Switzerland in x8o6 of unknown parents, but (as 
was recognised in 2837) in Paris in xSoa, the son of Gcnenl 
Alexandre de Girardin and of Madame Diqmy, wife of a Parisian 
advocate. His first publication was a novel, ^mtle,* dealing 
with his birth and early life, and appeared under the name of 
Girardin in 1827. '. He became inspector of fine arts tmder the 
Martignafi mlnistzy just before the revolution of 1830, and 
was an energetic and passionate journalist. Besides Iris work 
on the daily press be issued ndscellaneous publications whidi 
attained an enormous circulation. His Journal des eontiais' 
sauces utiks had 120,000 subecrfbcrs, and^the initial edition of 
hb Almanack de Prance (1834) ran to a million copies. In X836 
he inaugurated che^ journalism in a popular Conservative 
organ. La Presse, the subscription to which was only forty 
fruics a year. This undertaking invdved him in a duel with 
Armand Carrel, the fatal resoH off which made him refuse satis* 
faction to later opponents. In 1839 he was exchided from the 
Chamber of Deputies, to which he had been four times elected, 
on the plea of his foreign birth, but was admitted in 1842. He 
resigned early In February 1847, and on the 24th of Febniary 
X848 sent a note to Louis Philippe demanding his resignation and 
the regency of the duchess of Orleans. In the Legislative 
Assembly he voted with the Mountain. He pressed eagerly in 
his paper for the election of Prince Louis Napoleon, of wfaom he 
afterwards became one of the most violent opponents. In 1856 
he sold la Pressst only to resume it in 1862, but its vogue was 
over, and Glrard^ started a new journal, La Liberti, the sale 
of which was forbidden in the public streets. He supported 
Cmile OUivier and the Liberal Empire, but plunged into vdiement 
journalism again to advocate war agsinst Prussia. Of his 
many subee<|uent enterprises the most successful was the purdiase 
of £e PsHil yoMfiM/. which served to advocate the policy of Thiers^ 
though he himself did not contribute. . The crisli of the x6th 
of May 1877, when Jules Simon fell from power, made him 

resume his pen to attack MacMahon and the party of reaction 
in La France and in Le Pelit Journal. £mile de Girardin married 
in 183X Delphine Gay (see above), and after her death in 1855 
Guillemette Josephine Brunold, countess von TicfTenbach, 
widow of Prince Frederick of Nassau. He was divorced from 
his second wife in 1872. 

journalisme (i&i2) ; Lt Droit au travail au Luxembourietdl'Asscmtbiie 
Nationate (2 vols., 1848); Les Cinquante-deux (18^9, &c.). a series 
of articles on current pariiamcntary questions; La Politique «ni« 
verseUe, dicrets de I'avenir (Brussels, 1852); Le CondamrU du 6 mars 
(1867), an account of hb own differences with the ffovernment in 
1867 when he was fined 5000 fr. for an article in La Ldberli: Le 
Dossier de la guerre (1877). a collection of ofRcial documents; Ques' 
tions de mon temps, i8jo a 1856, articles extracted from the daily 
and weekly press (12 vols., 1858). 

GIRARDON, FRANCOIS (1628-1715), French sculptor, was 
bom at Troyes on the 17th of March 1628. As a boy he had for 
master a joiner and wood-carver of his native town, named 
Baudesson, under whom he is said to have worked at the ch&teau 
of Li6bault, where he attracted the notice of Chancellor Siguier. 
By the chancellor's influence Girardon was first removed to 
Paris and placed in the studio of Francois Anguier, and afterwards 
sent to Rome. In 1652 he was back in France, and seems at 
once to have addressed himself with something like ignoble 
subserviency to the task of conciliating the court painter Charles 
Le Brun. Girardon is reported to have declared himself incap- 
able of composing a group, whether with truth or from motives of 
policy it is impossible to say. This much is certain, that a very 
large proportion of his work was carried out from designs by 
Le Brun, and shows the merits and defects of Le Brun's manner — 
a great command of ceremonial pomp in presenting his subject, 
coupled with a large treatment of forms which if it were more 
expressive might be imposing. The court wMch Girardon paid 
to the ** premier peintre du roi " was rewarded. An immense 
quantity of work at Versailles was entrusted to him, and in 
recognition of the successful execution of four figures for the 
Bains d'Apollon, Le Brun induced the king to present bis prot6g6 
personally with a purse of 306 louls, as a distinguishing mark 
of royal favour. Jn 'x6so Girardon was made member of the 
Academy, in 1659 professor, in 1674 "adjoint au recteur,*' 
and finally in 1695 chancellor. Five years before <x6go), on the 
death of Le Brun, he had also been appointed "inspecteur 
ginfxal des ouvrages de sctilpture " — a place of power and profit. 
In r699 he completed the bronse equestrian statue of Louis 
XIV., erected by the town of Paris on the Place Louis le Grand. 
This statue was melted down during the Revolution, and is 
known to us only by a small bronxe model (Louvre) finished 
by Girardon hhnself. His Tomb of Richelieu (church of the 
Sorbonne) was saved from destruction by Alexandre. Lenoir, 
who received a bayonet thrust in protecting the head of the 
cardinal from mutilation. It is a capital example of Girardoh*s 
work, and the theatrical pomp of its style fs typical of the funeral 
sculpture of the reigns of Louis XIV. and LooiaX V. ; but amongst 
other important spedmens yet remaining may also be cited the 
Tomb of Louvois (St Eustache), that of Bignon, the king's 
Itbrarian, executed in x6s6 (St Nicolas du Chardonneret), and 
decorative sculptures in the Galerie d'Apollon and Chambre du 
roi in the Louvre. Mention should not be omitted of the group, 
signed and dated 1699, '* The Rape of Proserpine " at Versailles, 
which also conuins the " Bull of Apollo.'* Although chiefly 
occupied at Paris Girardon never forgot his native Troyes, the 
musetmi of which town contains some of his best works, induding 
the marble busts of Lows XIV. and Maria Theresa. In the 
h6tel de ville is still shown a medallion of Louis XIV., and in the 
church of St Rtoy a bi^onze crucifix of some in^nrtance— both 
works by his hand. He died in Paxls in 1715. 

See Canard de Breban, Notiea smlasiesiles enmes Ss Ginrdom 

eiRART Dl ROmSILLOir, an epic figure of the Carolingian 
cycle of romance. In the genealogy of romance he is a son of 
Doon de Maycnce, and he appears in different and irvcooodlable 



drciuBStaaoes in many of tlie ckans&Hs it gtsU. The legend of 
drart de Rouasillon is conuined in a YUa Girardi de Rtusiilhn 
(cd. P. Meyer, in Romania^ 1878), dating from the begimung 
of the lath century and written probably by a monk of the abbey 
of Pothi^s or of Veselai, both of which were founded in 860 by 
Girart; in Girarl it R<mssilhHt a ehansmi d« gesie written early 
in the lath century in a dialect midway between French and 
Proven^!, and apparently based on an earlier Burgundian 
poem; in a 14th century romance in aleiandrines (ed. T. J. A. P. 
Mignard, Paris and Dij<», 1878); and in a prose romance by 
Jehan Wauquelin in 1447 (^- L* ^ Montille, Paris, 1880). The 
historical Girard, son of Leuthard and Grimildis, was a 
Burgundian chief who was count of Paris in 83 7^ and embraced 
the cause <A Lothair against Charles the Bald. He fought at 
Fontenay in 841, and doubtless followed Lothair to Aiz. In 
85s he became governor of Provence lor Lothair's son Charles, 
king of Provence (d. 863). His wife Bertha defended Vienne 
unsuccessfully against Charles the Bald In 870, and Girard, 
who had perhaps aspired to be the titular ruler of the northern 
part of Provence, which he had continued to administer under 
Lothair II. until that prince's death in 869, retired with his wife 
to Avignon, where he died probaUy in 877, certainly before 879. 
The tndition of his piety, of the heroism of ha wife Bertha, 
and of his wars with Charles parsed into romance; but the 
historical facts are so distorted that in Girart de RoussUtau the 
irowire makes him the opjponent of Charles Martel, to whom 
he stands in the relation of brother-in-law. He is nowhere 
described in authentic htstoric sources as of RoussiUon. The 
title is derived from his castle built on Mount Lassois, near 
Ch&tiUon-sor-Seine. Southern traditions concerning Count 
Girart, in which he is made the son of Garin de Monglane, art 
embodied in Girart de Viane (13th century) by Bertrand de 
Bar-sur-rAube, and in the Aspramante of Andrea da Barberino, 
based on the French chanson of Asprenumt , where he figures as. 
Girart de Frete or de Fratte.^ Girart de Viane is the recital of 
a siege of Vienne by Charlemagne, and in AspramonU Girart de 
Frstte leads an army of infidels against Chariemagne. Girart de 
RoussiUan was long held to be of Provencal origin, and to be 
a proof of the existence of an independent Provencal epic, 
but its Burgundian oriein may be taken as proved. 

See F. Michel, Gerard de RossiUon . , . ptMU en fntncais ei en 
proeemfol d'npris Us MSS. de Paris et de Londres (Pans. 1856); 
P. Meyer. Girart de RoussiUon (1884), atrenslation in modern French 
with a comprehensive introduction. For Girart de Viane (cd. P^ 
Tarb^, Reims, 1850) see L. Gautier, Bpopies franfaises, vol. iv.; 
F. A. WnlfF, Notiee snr ks sagas de Magus et de Geirard (Lund, 1874). 

QIRAUl^ 0I0VAN1II» Coumt (1776^1834), luKan dramatist, 
of French origin, was bom at Rome, and showed a precocious 
passion for the theatre. His first play, VOneOA non si vince, 
was successfully produced in 1798. He took part in politics 
IS an active' supporter of Plus VI., but was mainly occupied with 
the production of Ms i^ays, and in 1809 became director-general 
of the Italian theatres. He died at Naples in 1834. Cbunt 
Giraud's comedies, the best of which are Gdosie per equiooco 
(1S07) and VAjoneU* imbarauo (1824), wete bright and amusing 
on the stage, but of no particular literary quah'ty. 

Hi» Goltected comedies were publiBbed ia 1833 and his Teairo 
iemestiea in 1825. 

OIRDLB (O. Eng. gyrdd, from gyrdan, to gird; cf. Ger. COrlel, 
Dutch gorid, from gMen and g/srden ; *' gird " and its doublet 
" girth " together with the other Teutonic cognates have been 
referred by some to the root ghor*-iQ seise, endose, seen in 
Gr. TcAp, hand, Lat. hortuSy garden, and aiso EnglLrii yard, 
garden, garth, 8k.), a band of leather or other material worn 
round the waist, either to confine the loose and flowing outer 
robes so as to allow freedom of movement, or to fasten alid 
support the garments of the wearer. Among the Romans it 
was used to confine the tunica, and it formed part of the dress 
of the soldier; when a man quitted military service he was said, 

* It is of iRtcrest to note that Freta was the old name for the 
towB of Saint Remy* and that it is close to the site of she ancient 
town of Glamim, the name of which is possibly preserved in Garia 
de Monglane, the ancestor of the heroes of the cycle of Guillaume 

dngulum deponere, to (ay aside die girdle. Money being Carried 
in the girdle, tonani perdere signified to lose one's pursfe, and, 
among the Greeks, to cut the girdle was to rob a nuin of his 

Girdles and girdle-buckles are not often found in Galio-Ronaaa 
graves, but in the graves of Franks and Burgundians they are 
constantly present, dften oinamented with bosses of silver or 
bronze, diased or inlaid. Sidonius Apollinaris qieaks of the 
Franks as belted round the waist, and Gregory of Tours in the 
6th century says that a dagger war carried in the Prankish 

In the Anglo-Saxon dress the girdle makes an unimportant 
figure, and the Norman knights, as a rule, woro their belts under 
their hauberks. After the Conquest, however, the artificera 
gave more attention to a piece whose buckle and tongue invited 
the work of the goldsmith. Girdles of varying ridum are seen 
on most of the western medieval effigies. That of Queen Beren- 
garia lets the long pendant hang below the knee, following a 
fashion which frequently rei^ipears. 

In the latter part of the 13th century the knight's snrooat 
is girdled with a narrow cord at the waist, while the great belt, 
which had become the pride of the well-equipped cavalier, 
loops across the hips carrying the heavy sword aslant over the 
thighs or somewhat t« the left of the wearer. 

But it is in the second half of the following century that the 
knightly bek takes its most splendid form. Under the year 
1356 the continuator of the chronicle of Nangis notes that the 
increase of jewelled belts had mightily enhanced the price of 
pearls The bdt b then worn, as a rule, girdling the hips at 
some distance bekm the waist, bdng probably supported by 
books as is the belt of a modern infantry soldier. The end of the 
bdt, after bdng drawn through the buckle, is knotted or caught 
up after the fashion of the tang of the Garter. The waist girdle 
either disappears from sight or as a narrow and ornamented 
strap is worn diagonally to help in the support of the bdt. A 
mass of beautiful ornament covers the whole bdt, commonly 
seen as an unbroken, line of bosses enriched with curiously 
worked rouadds or loaenges which, when the loose strap^nd 
is abandoned, meet in a splendid morse or clasp on whidi the 
enameller and jeweller had wrought their best. About 1430 
this fashion tends to disappear, the loose Ubards worn over 
armour in the jousting-yard hindering its display. The belt 
- never regams itaimportance as an ornament, and, at the beghming 
of the x6th century, sword and dagger are sometimes seen hanging 
at- the knighl's sides without visible support. 

In dvil dicss the magnificent bdt of the. 14th century is 
worn by men of rank over the hips of the tight short-skirted 
coat, and in that century and in the 15th and x6th there are 
sumptuary laws to check the extravagance of rich girdles worn 
by men and women whose htunble station made them unseemly. 
Even priests must be rebuked for their silver girdles with basdards 
hanging from them. Purses, dagger^ kesrs, penners and inkhoms, 
beads and even books, dangled from girdles in the xsth and 
early i6th centuries. Afterwards the girdle goes on as a mere 
strap for holding up the clothing or as a sword-belt. At the 
Restoration men contrasted the fashion of the court, a light 
rapier hung from a broad shoulder-belt, with the fashion of the 
countryside, where a heavy weapon was supported by a narrow 
waistbelt. Soon afterwards both fashions diasppeared. Sword- 
hangers were concealed by the skirt, and the bdt, save in certain 
military and sporting costumes, has no more been in sight in 
England. Even as a support for breeches or trousers, the use 
of braces has gradually supplanted the ^rdle during the past 

In most of those parts of the Continent — Brittany, for example 
•^wherc the peasantry maintains old fashions in clothing, the 
belt or girdle is still an important part of the dothing. Italian 
noncommissioned officers find that the Sicib'an recnut's main 
objection to the first bath of his life-time lies in the fact that he 
must lay down the cherished belt which carries his few valuables. 
With the Circassian the bdt still buckles on an arsenal of pistols 


girdle. BlnkrupU it one time puI il oH Id open court; Fmich 
bir nfmed anulatia the li^l to nnt it; Stint GBlblu: 
cuts out devils by buddinf hit girdle round a posseued hub; 
■n cul il " k belted eiri " lilice the dtyi iibes tbc pultiog on 
of A girdle via part of the ceieniony of hii oetlion; uid faity 
ifirm of t*»lf tlie naliona d^ witfa giidka which give inviaibility 
tothenuet. (O. Ba.) 

GIROA. or GncEH, a town of Upper ^ypt on the W. buk 
of Ute Nile, ]I3 m. S.S.E. of Cairo by rail and about lo m. NJI^ 
of liie ruini of Ahyiloa. Fop. (190;) iij,Saj, at whom about 
One-third are Copts. Hie town pieunta a picturcaque appearance 
fKun the Nile, which at tiiis poinl ma^ea a ihaip bend. A 
ruined moaque with a tall minaret atanda by Ibe river.biink. 
Many of the housa are of brkk decanted with ^aied tilei. 
The town ia Doled lor ibt acellence of its polleiy. Giiga b 
the Mat ol a Ct^Iic bishop. It also potsetsea a Roman Calbolic 

lately as the middle of lb 

the ti 


n Ibe a 

M, ;.(.), a town of Sicily, 
its same, and an epiicopai 
E. of Paleimo direct and &4I 

OIHQEin'I (anc. Apitcnb 
of the province which bean 

r>il. Population (1901) ij^oi*. '11k town u tnuit cm me 
wfslem aumimt of the ridge which farmed the DOrtlietD portion 
of the andnit tile; the main itreet runs Irom K to W. on 
tbc level, but the aide slreela are sleep and nanow. Tbc catbcdnl 
occupiei the highest point in the (own; it was not founded till 
the ijth century, taking the place e[ the lo-cillnl temple ol 
Concord. The campanile still preaetves poTtbns ol iU original 
architecture, but the interior has been modemiMd. In the 
diapler-house a famous sarcophagui, with scenes iUujlialing 
tbe myth of Elippolytus, is preserved. There arc other seal lered 

IE ao-called oratoi 
church of S. Nicolo. A mull mu 

Philirii, is the Norn 
tn the town contain 
The port ol Girgenii, „ 
Empcdocle (population in looi, 11,519), as tbe principal ptaci 
of shipment for aulphvr, the mining district b e gi n ni n g i 
ately north of Girgenii '^ 

QIRllHK. a village and fort of Afghanii 

(T. As.) 
II stands on 
the right bank of lfa~c Helmund )8 m."w. of Kandahar on the 
road to Heraii jS«i ti. »bove the «e». The fort, ithich is 
garrisoned fnim Kandahar and is the rcsidencF ol tbc governor 
of the district (Pushl-i-Rud], has little mililary value. II 
commands the lords of the Helmund and the it»d to SeiiUn, 

rich agricullutnl district. Girishk was occupied by Ihc British 
during (he Brst Afghan War; and a small garrison of lepoya, 
under a native officer, audcessfuUy withtiood a litge of nine 
months by»novtr»helBiing Afghan force. The Dashi-iBakwa 
■t relcbes beyond Giri^k lowaids Fanfa, a level plain of consider- 
able width, iriiich Indiiion asaigns as the field of Ibe £d*1 
earnest for supremacy between Russia and £iiglat>cL 

OIRHAR, a ucnd biU in Western India, in the peninsula 
of KalhUwar, 10 m. E. of Junapth town. It consilli of 
five peaks, rising about jsoe ft. above the sea, on which are 
numerous old Jain teni[dcs. much frequented by pilgrims. 
At the foot of the hill ii ■ rock, with an inscription of Aaoka 

and 455 X.D ) of great historiol importance. 
aiBODBT DB ROOUT, AHHB LOOK (1767-1814). French 

on the 5lh of Januaiy 17^;. HekMt hit parenU in early youtb, 
and the art of hit fortune and educilion Idl to the lot of his 
gu«rdl«n,M.Trioson,"mMecindem(sdames,"bywham he was 
in later life adopted. Alter aorae prdiminuy ttndlei under 1 
painter nuned Luquin, Giiodet (ntered tbe Khool of David, 

and al the age (d twenty-two he saeceidiifly Coopcud for tfcc 
Prii de Rome. At Rome he eucuted.hii " Uippocnttc refusant 
lespr£sentsd'Artaxen^"and" Endymion dormant " (Louvre), 
a work which was hailed with acclamation at tbe Salon of i7«i. 
The peculiarities which mark Cirodei't position as tbe her^ 

The ISim-aet lonns, tbe grey cold colour, ibe hardneat of ihe 
ciecutioB an fmptt b> one trained m ibe school of David, but 
these c ha tact eriatica harmtHiise ill with Ihe literary, lentimental 
and picturesque auggeationt which the painter hat sought to 
render. The same incongruity nurksGircdeI'>"Dtaag" and hit 
" Qutlre Saiaona," executed for the king of Spain (repealed lor 
Compile), and thaws itself to a ludicrous eiteot in his " Fingal " 
(St Petersburg, Leudilentierga>llmlon),euculedfo( Napoleon 
I. in iSoi. This work unites Ibe defecU of Ihe clastic and 
romutic schoots, for Girodel'i imagiiuilion ardently and ei- 
duaivdy pursued the ideas eidted by varied reading both of 
classic and ol modem lilentuie, and the impreationt which be 
received rrom the eitenwi world ttforded him liitle ttimului or 
duck; he consequently rctamed the mannerisms of hit master's 
ptactice whilst rejecting all restnint on choice of tubjed. llie 
ctedil lost by"Fingal"Girodet regained in igo6,wheiiheeihihi(ed 
" Seine de Dfluge " (Louvre), to which (in competition with tbe 
"SaUiHS"of David) wat awarded the decennial piiie. Thitsuccess 
wtsfoUowedupiniSogby the production ollbc" Rcddilion de 

p(^ularity, by a happy choice of subject, 
dam from the theatricality of Girodet's 

hit " Rfvolte de Caire " (1810). His powers now b^in lo fail, 
and his hahil of working al nighl and other eiceues told upon 
hit contlitution; in Ibe Salon of iSii he exhibited only a 
" TCte de Vicrge ": in iBir) " Pygmalion et Galttte " showed I slill 
further declbie of strength; and in 1S14— Ihe year in which he 
produced hit portraits of Calhelineau and Bonchamps — Girodct 
died on Ihe 9th of December. 

d*M."53Su«. in S 

rpartmeni of louth-westeia France, 
lormeo tram tour divisioDS of the old province of Guyennc, via. 
Borddais, Datadais, and parts of Pfrigord ai>d Agenais. Aif4, 
4140 sq. m. Pop. (1906} Sii^is. It i> bounded N. by the 
department ol Charenle.Infirieure, E. by those of Dordogne 
and Lot-et-Gtmnne, S. by thai of L«ndc<, and W. by the Bay 
ol Biscay. It lakes its name from the rivet or esluaiy of Ihe 
Cirande formed by the union of the Caranoe and Dordogne. 
The department divides ilaclf natuiBlly into t western and an 
easlcm portion. Tbe former, which it termed the Lan^ti (q.c), 
occupies more than s third of the department, and consjsla 
chieRy of monss or sandy plain, thickly planted with pines and 

planted with pines, which, by binding the sand together wilb 

fllBOHDB. ■ 

s, preven 

it from drift ini 


On tbe east the dunes are fringed for some 
diitance by two eilensive lakes, Caicans and Lacanlu, CDmmuni- 
oilng with each niher and with the Bay of Arcacbon, near Ihe 
southern extremity ol Ihe department. The Bay of ArcichoD 
conlaini numerous ishinds, and on ihe land tide farms a vast 
shallow bgoon, s contidenble [portion of which, however, has 
been drained and converted into arable land. The eatteni 
pDrtion ol the department coniiiti chiefly of a succession ol hill 
ami dale, and, especially in Ihi: valley of Ihe Gironde, b very 
fertile. Tbe csiimiy of the Gironde is about 45 m. in length, 
and variciin breadth from 1 to6 m. Ii presents 1 succeitioa of 
itbnds and mud bankt which divide il inio two channeh and 
render navigaiian Mmewhal difficult. II is, however. wcD 



bttoyed and lighted, and has a mean depth of 3x ft. There are 
extensive nurahes on the right bank to the north of Blaye, and 
the shores on the left are characterised, especially towaida the 
mouth, by low-lying polders protected by dikes and composed 
of fertile salt marshes. At the mouth of the Gironde siixiSs the 
famous tower of Cordouan, one of the finest lighthouses of the 
French coast. It was built between the years 1585 and c6ix 
by the architect and engineer Louis de Foix, ahd added to 
towards the end of the i8th century. The principal afl9uent of 
the Dordogne in this department is the Isle. The feeders of the 
Garonne are, with the exception of the Dropt, all small. West 
of the Garonne the only tiver of importance is the Lcyre, which 
flows into the Bay of Arcachon. The climate is humid and 
mild and very hot in summer. Wheat, rye, maize, oats and 
tobacco are grown to a considerable extent. The corn produced, 
however, does not meet the wants of the inhabitants. The 
culture of the vine is by far the most important branch of industry 
carried on (see Wikc), the vineyards occupying about one-seventh 
of the surface of the department. The wine-growing districts 
are }he MMoc, Graves, C6tes, Palus, Entre-deux-Mers and 
Sauternes. The M6doc is a region of 50 m. in length by about 
6 m. in breadth, bordering the left banks of the Garonne and the 
Gironde between Bordeaux and the sea. The Graves country 
forms a aone 30 m. in extent, stretching along the left bank of 
the Garonne from the neighbourhood of Bordeaux to Baisac. 
The Sauternes country lies to the S.E. of the Graves. The 
C6tes lie on the right bank of the Dordogne and Gironde, 
between it and the Garonne, and on the left bank of the Garonne. 
The produce -of the Pahis, the alluvial land of the valleys, and of 
the Entr&>deux-Mcrs, situated on the left bank of the Dordogne, 
is inferior. Fruits and vegetables are extensively cultivated, 
the peaches and pears being especially fine. Cattle are exten- 
arvely raised, the Bazadais breed of oxen and the Bordelais breed 
of mikfa-cows being well known. Oyster-breeding is carried on 
on a large scale in the Bay of Arcachon. La^ supplies of resin, 
pitch and turpentine are obtained from the pine woods, which 
also supply vine-props, and there are well-known quarries of 
limestone. The manufactures are various, and, with the general 
trade, are chiefly carried on at Bordeaux (^.v.), the chief town 
and third port in France. Pauillac, BUye, Liboume and Arcachon 
are minor ports. Gironde is divided into the arrondissements of 
Bordeaux, Blaye, Lesparrc, Liboume, Baaas and La R&de, 
with 49 cantons and 554 communes. The department it served 
by five lailwajTs, the chief of which are those of the Orleans and 
Southern companies. It forms part of the circumscription of 
the archbishoprici the appeal-court and the acadimie (educational 
division) of Bordeaux, and of the region of the XVIU. army 
corps, the headquarters of which are at that dty. Besides 
Bordeaux, Liboume, La Rtele, 3azas, Blaye, Arcachon, St 
Emilion and St Macaire are the most noteworthy towns and 
receive separate treatment. Among the other places of interest 
the chief are Cadillac, on the right bank of the Garonne, where 
there is a castle of the i6th century, surrounded by fortifications 
of the Z4th century; Labrede, with a feudal chMeau in which 
Montesquieu was bom and lived; Villandiaut, where there is a 
mined castle of the xjth ccnttuy; Uzeste, which has a church 
b^un in 13x0 by Pope Clement V.; Maasdres with an imposing 
castk of the X4th century; La Sauve, which has a church 
<ixth and xath centuries)' and other remains of a Benedictine 
abbey; and Ste Foy-Ia-Grande, a bastide created in 1355 and 
afterwards a centre of Protestantism, which is still strong there. 
La Teste (pop. in 1906, 5699) was the capital in the middle ages 
ol the famous lords of Buch. 

GIRONDISTS (Fr. Cirondins), the name given to a political 
party in the Legislative Assembly and National Convention 
daring the French Revolution (i79i'i793). The Girondists 
were, indeed, rather a group of individuals holding certain 
opinions and principles in common than an organised political 
party, and the name was at first somewhat loosely applied to 
them owing to the fact that the most brilliant exponents of their 
point of view were deputies from the Gironde. These deputies 
vc/e twelve in number, six of wbom--the lawyers Vergniaud, 

Guadet, Gensonne, Grangeneuve and Jay, and the tradesman 
Jean Francois Duoos— sat both in the Legislative Assembly 
and the National O>nvention. In the Legislative Assembly these 
represented a compact body of opinion which, though not as yet 
definitely republican, was considerably more advanced than the 
moderate royalism of the majority of the Parisian deputies. 
Associated with these views was a group of deputies from other 
parts of France, of whom the most notable were Condorcet, 
Fauchet, Lasource, Isnard, Kersaint, Henri Lariviire, and, 
above all, Jacques Pierre Brissot, Roland and Pftion, elected 
mayor of Paris in succession to Bailly on the x6th of November 
1 791- On the spirit and policy of the Girondists Madame Roland, 
whose salon became their gathering-place, exercised a powerful 
influence (see Roland); but such party cohesion as they 
possessed they owed to the energy of Brissot (q.v.), who came 
to be regarded as their mouthpiece in the Assembly and the 
Jacobin Club. Hence the name Brissolins, coined by Camille 
Desmoulins, which was sometimes substituted for that of 
Cirondins, sometimes ck>sely coupled with it. As strictly party 
designations these first came into use after the assembling of the 
National Convention (September 20th, X792), to which a large 
proportion of the deputies from the Gironde who had sat m the 
Legislative Assembly were returned. Both were used as terms 
of opprobrium by the orators of the Jacobin Club, who freely 
denounced " the Royalists, the Federalists, the Brissotins, the 
Girondins and all the enemies of the'democracy " (F. Aulard, 
Soe. des Joeabim, vf. 531). 

In the Legislative Assembly the Girondists' represented the 
principle of democratic revolution within and of patriotic 
defiance to the European powers without. They were all- 
powerful in the Jacobin Club (see Jacobin^), where Brissot's 
inflnence had not yet been ousted by Robespierre, and they 
did not hesitate to use this advantage to stir up popidar passion 
and intimidate those who sought to stay the progress of the 
Revolution. They compelled the king in x 79a to choose a ministry 
composed of their partisans— among them Roland, Dumouriez, 
Clavi^ and Servan; and it was they who forced the declaration 
of war against Austria. In all this there was no apparent 
line of cleavage between "La (Hronde" and the Mountain. 
Montagttords and (jirondists alike were fundamentally opposed 
to the monarchy*, both were democrats as well as republicans; 
both were prepared to appeal to force in order to realise their 
ideals; in H>itt of the accusation of " federalism " fredy brought 
against them, the Girondists desired as little as the Montagnards 
to break* up the uiuty of France. Yet from the first the leaders 
of the two parties stood in avowed opposition, in the Jacobin 
Club as in the Assembly. It was largely a question of tempera- 
ment. The Girondists were Idealists, dk>ctrinaires and theorists 
rather than men of action; they encouraged, it is tme, the 
"armed petitions" which resulted, to their dismay, in the 
itruute of the 20th of June; but Roland, turning the ministry of 
the interior into a publishing office for tracts on the civic virtues, 
while in the provhices riotou* mobs were burning the chiteaux 
unchecked, is more tjrpical of their spirit. With the feiodous 
fanaticism or the ruthless opportunism of the future organizers 
of the Terror they had nothing in common. As the Revolution 
developed they trembled at the anarchic forces they had helped 
to unchain, and tried in vain to curb them. The overthrow 
of the monarchy on the xoth of August and the massacres of 
September were not their work, though, they claimed credit 
for the results achieved. 

Tne crisis of their fate was not slow in coming. It was they 
who proposed the suspension of the king and the summoning 
of the National Convention; but they had only consented to 
overthrow the kingship when they found that Louis XVL was 
impervious to their counsels, and, the republic once established, 
they were axudous to arrest the revolutionary movement which 
they had helped to set in motion. As Daunou shrewdly observes 
in his Mimoires, they were too cultivated and too polished to 
retain their popularity long in times of disturbance, and were 
therefore the more inclined to work for the establishment 
of order, which • would mean the guarantee of their own 




powcr.^ Thus the Girondists, who had been the Radicals of the 
Legislative Assembly, became the Conservatives of the Convene 
tion. But they were soon to have practical experience of the fate 
that overtakes those who attempt to arrest in mid-career a revolu- 
tion they themselves have set in motion. The ignorant populace, 
for whom the promised social millennium had by no means 
dawned, saw in an attitude seemingly so inconsistent obvious 
proof of corrupt motives, and there were plenty of prophets 
of misrule to encourage the delusion — orators of the clubs and 
the street corners, for whom the restoration of order would have 
meant well-deserved obscurity. Moreover, the SepUmbriseurs — 
Robespierre, Danton, Marat and their lesser satellites— realized 
that not only their influence but their safety depended on keeping 
the Revolution alive. Robespierre, who hated the Girondists, 
whose lustre had so long obscured his own, had proposed to 
include them in the proscription lists of September; the Mountain 
to a man desired their overthrow. 

The crisis came in March 1793. The Girondists, who had 
a majority in the Convention, controlled the executive council 
and filled the ministry, believed themselves invincible. Their 
orators had no serious rivals in the hostile camp; their system 
was established in the purest reason. But the Montagnards 
made up by their fanatical, or desperate, energy and boldness 
for what they lacked in talent or in numbers. They had behind 
them the revolutionary Commune, the Sections and the National 
Guard of Paris, and they had gained control of the Jacobin club, 
where Brissot, absorbed in departmental work, had been super- 
seded by Robespierre. And as the motive power of this formid- 
able mechanism of force they could rely on the native suspicious- 
ness of the Parisian populace, exaggerated now into madness by 
famine and the menace of foreign invasion. The Girondists 
l^yed into their hands. At the trial of Louis XVI. the bulk 
of them had voted for the " appeal to the people," and so laid 
themselves open to the charge of " royalism "; they denounced 
the domination of Paris and summoned provincial levies to their 
aid, and so fell under suspicion of " federalism," though they 
rejected Bozot's proposal to transfer the Convention to Versailles. 
They strengthened the revduttonary Commune by decreeing 
its abolition, and then withdrawing the decree at the first sign 
of pc^ular oi^position^ they increased the prestige of Marat by 
prosecuting him before the Revolutionary Tribunal* whew his 
acquittal was a foregone conclusion. In the suspicious temper 
of the times this vacillating policy was doubly fatal Marat 
never ceased his denunciations of the "Jacium des Momma 
d*£iat" by which France was being betrayed to her ruin, and 
his parrot cry of ** Nous sommes trakul" was re-echoed from 
group to group in the streets of Paris. The Girondists, for 
all their fine phrases, were sold to the enemy, as Lafayette, 
Dumouriez and a hundred others— once popular favouritei — 
had been sold. 

T%e hostility of Paris to the Girondists received a fateful 
advertisement by the dection, on the 15th of February 1793, 
of the ex-Girondist Jean Nicolas Pache (i 746-1823) to the 
mayoralty.' Pache had twice been minister of war in the 
Girondist government; but his incompetence had laid him open 
to strong criticism, and on the 4th of February be had been 
superseded by a vote of the Convention. This was enough to 
secure him the suffrages of the Paris electors ten days later, 
and the Mountain was strengthened by the accession of an ally 
whose one idea was to use his new power to revenge himself 
on his former colleagues. Pache, with Chaumette, procureur of 
the Commune, and Hubert, deputy procureur, controUed the 
armed organization of the Paris Sections, and prepared to 
turn this against the Convention. The abortive inteuk of the 
loth of March warned the Girondists of their danger, but the 
Commission of Twelve appointed on the i8th of May, the arrest 
of Marat and Hubert, and other precautionary measures,. were 
defeated by the popular risings of the a7th and 31st of May, 
and, finally, on the and of June, Hanriot with the National 

* Daunou, " MiSmotres pour aervir & I'hist. de la Convention 
NatioioJe," p. 409, vol. xii. of M. Fr. Barri^, BiH. da mim. rel d 
rkisi. d€ ia Fmma, &c. (Paris. 1863). 

Guards purged the Convention of the Girondists. Isaaid*i 
threat, uttered on the 35th of May, to march France upon Paris 
had been met by Paris marching upon the Convention. 

The list drawn up by Hanriot, and endorsed by a decree 
of the intimidated Convention, included twenty-two Girondist 
deputies and ten members of the Commission of Twelve, who 
were ordered to be detained at their lodgings ** under the safe- 
guard of the people." Some submitted, among them Gensonn^, 
Guadet, Vergniaud, Pollen, Birotteau and Boyer-Fonfrdde. 
Others, including Brissot, Lou vet, Buzot, Lasource, Grangencuve, 
Larividre and Bergoing, escaped from Paris and, joined later 
by Guadet, Potion and Birotteau, set to work to organize a 
movement of the provinces against the capital. This attempt 
to stir up civil war determined the wavering and frightened 
Convention. On the 13th of June it voted that the city of 
Paris had deserved well of the country, and ordered the imprison- 
ment of the detained deputies, the filling up of their places in 
the Assembly by their suppliants, and the initiation of vigorous 
measures against the movement in the provinces. The excuse 
for the Terror that followed was the imminent peril of France, 
menaced on the east by the advance of the armies of the Coalition, 
on the west by the Royalist insurrection of La Vendue, and the 
need for preventing at all costs the outbreak of another civil 
war. The assassination of Marat by Charlotte Corday (9. v.) 
only served to increase the unpopularity of the Girondists 
and to seal their fate. On the 28th of July a decree of the 
Convention proscribed, as traitors and enemies of their country, 
twenty-one deputies, the final list of those sent for trial comprising 
the names of Antiboul, Boilleau the younger, Boyer-Fonfrede, 
Brissot, Carra, Duchaistel, the younger Ducos, Dufriche de 
Valaz^, Duprat, Fauchct, Gardien, Gensonn6, Lacaxe, Lasource, 
Lauze-Deperret, Lehardi, Lesterpt-Beauvais, the elder Minvielle, 
SiUery, Vergniaud and Viger, of whom five were deputies from 
the Gironde. The names of thirty-nine others were included in 
the final acU d'accusatioHf accepted by the Convention on the 
a4th of October, which stated the crimes for which they were 
(o be tried as their perfidious ambition, their hatred of Paris, 
their " federalism " and, above all, their responsibility for the 
attempt of their escaped colleagues to provcriie civil war. 

The trial of the twenty-one, which began before the Revplu* 

tionary Tribunal on the a4th of October, was a mere farce, the 

verdia a foregone conclusion. On thie 31st they were borne 

to the guillotine in five tumbrils, the corpse of Dufriche de 

Valaz6—who had killed himself— being carried with them. 

Jhey met death with great courage, singing the refrain " PluiU 

fa mart pie I'esclttvage/ " Of those who escaped to the provinces 

the greater number, after wandering about singly or in groups, 

were either captured and executed or committed suicide, among 

them Barbaroux, Buzot, Condorcet, Grangeneuve, Guadet, 

Kersaint, Potion, Rabaut de Saint-£tienne and Rebecqui. 

Rohuid had killed himself at Rouen on the xsth of November, 

a week after the execution of his wife. Among the very few 

who finally escaped was Jean Baptiste Louvet, whose Mimoires 

give a thrilling picture of the sufferings of the fugitives. In* 

cidentally they prove, too, that the sentiment of France was 

for the time against the Girondists, who were proscribed even 

in their chief centre, the city of Bordeaux. The survivoiB of 

the party made an effort to re-enter the Convention after the 

fall of Robespierre, but it was not untS the 5th of March 1795 

that they were formally reinstated. On the 3rd of October 

of the same year (11 Vendimiaire, year III.) a solemn Uie in 

honour of the Girondist " martyrs of liberty " was celebrated 

in the Convention. See also the article Fsench Revolutiom 

and separate biographies. 

Of the special works on the Cirondbts Lamartinc's Bistoire da 
Cirondins (2 vols., Paris, 1847, new ed. 1902, in 6 vols.) i* rhetoric 
rather than history and is untrustworthy; the Hisloire des Cirondins, 
by A. Gramier de Cassagnac (Paris, 1800) led to the publicaton of a 
ProUstatUm by J. Guadet, a nephew of the Girondist orator, which 
was followed by his Lu Cirondins^ lew vie prioie, lew vie tuhlipu, 
lew proscription el lew mort (2 vols., Paris, 1861, new eo. 1890); 
with which cf. Alary, Les Cirondins par Cuadet (Bordeaux, 1863); 
also Charles Vatcl, CkarlotU de Corday et les Cirondins: pieces 
dassies et annoUa (3 vols., Paris, 1864-1S72); Reckereka kislorifua 



tw Us GiwmtiiMS (2 v0tt.. f(. 187s); Dtioof. Lei Trots Cifondima 
(Madame Roland, Charlotte Corday. Madame Bouquey) tt Us 
Cirondins {ib. 1 896) ; Edmond Bird, La Ligertde its Girowns (Paris, 
1881, new cd. 1896); also-Hclen Maria Williams, State of Manners 
and Opinions in tke French Republic towards the dose of Uto i8th 
CenluTTf (a vols.. London. 1 801 ). Memoirs or {ragments 61 memoirs 
also exist by particular Girondists, eg, Barbaroux, Pdtion, Louvet, 
Madame Roland. Seei further, the bibliography to the article 
French Revolution. (W. A. P.) 

GIRTIN. THOMAS (x775-i8o3), English painter and etcher, 
was the son of a well-to-do cordage maker in Soathwark, London. 
His father died while Thomas was a child, and his widow married 
Mr Vaughan, a patterii-draughtsman. Girtin learnt drawing 
as a boy, and was apprenticed to Edward Doyes (1763-1804), 
the mezzotint engraver, and he soon made J. M. W. Turner's 
acquaintance. His architectural and topographical sketches 
and drawings soon established his reputation, his use of water* 
colour for landscapes being such as to give him the credit of 
having created modem water-colour painting, as opposed to 
mere " tinting." His etchings also were characteristic of his 
artistic genius. His early death from consumption (gth of 
November 1802) led indeed to Turner saying that " had Tom 
Girtin lived I should have starved." From 1794 to his death 
he was an exhibitor at the Royal Academy; and some fine 
examples of his work have been bequeathed by private owners 
to the British Museum and the Victoria and Albert Museum. 

GIRVAN, a police burgh, market and fishing town of Ayishire, 
Scotland, at the mouth of the Glrvan, 91 m. S.W. of Ayr, and 
63 m. S.W. of Glasgow by the Glasgow & South- Western railway. 
Pop. (1901) 4034. The principal industry was weaving, but the 
substitution of the power-loom for the hand-loom nearly put 
an end to it. The herring fishery has developed to considerable 
proportions, the harbour having been enlarged and protected 
by piers and a breakwater. Moreover, the town has grown in 
repute as a health and hob'day resort, its situatk>n being one of 
the finest in the west of Scotland. There is exoelloit sea- 
bathing, and a good golf-couiae. The vale of Gxrvan, one of 
the most fertile tracts in the shire, is made so by the Water of 
Girvan, which rises in the loch of Glrvan Eye, pursues a very 
tortuous course of 36 m. and empties into the sea. Girvan Is 
the point of communication with Ailsa Craig. About 13 m. 
S.W. at the mouth of the Stinchar is the fishing village of 
Ballantrae (pop. 511). 

GIRT (JSAN Maue Joseph), ARTHUR (1848-1899), French 
historian, was bom at Trfvouz (Ain) on the 39th of Febraary 
1848. Alter rapidly completing his classical studies at the lycie 
at Chartres, he spent some time in the administrative service 
and in journalism. He then entered the £cole des Chartes, 
where, under the influence of J. (^icherat, he developed a strong 
inclination to the study of the middle ages. The lectures at the 
£cole des Hautcs Etudes, which he attended from its foundation 
itf x868, revealed his true bent; and henceforth he devoted 
himself almost entirely to scholarship. He began modestly by 
the study of the municipal charters of St Omer. Having been 
appointed assistant lecturer and afterwards full lecturer at the 
£coIe des Hautes £tudcs, it was to the town of St Omer that he 
devoted his first lectures and his first important work, Uistmre 
de la vUle de Saint-Omcr ct de ses institutions jusqu^au XI V* 
siicle (1877). He, however, soon realized that the charters of 
one town can only be understood by comparing them with those 
of other towns, and he was gradnaliy led to continue the work 
which Augusfin Thierry had broadly outhned in his studies on 
the Tiers £iat. A minute knowledge of printed books and a 
methodical examination of departmental and communal archives 
furnished him with material for a long course of successful 
lectures, which gav^ rise to some important works on municipal 
history and led to a great revival of interest In the origins and 
significance of the urban communities in France. Giry himself 
publbhed Les £lablissemenisde Rouen (1885-1885), a study, based 
on very minute researches, of the charter granted to the capital 
of Normandy by Henry II., king of England, and of the diffusion 
of similar charters throughout the French dominions of the 
Hantagenets; 4 collection of Documents swr Us relations de 

la royauU mu Us tUhs do Pranu de iiBo d 1314 (1885); and 
£tude star les origines de la commune de Saint-QstenHn (1887). 

About this time personal considerations induced Giry to 
devote the greater part (rf his activity to the study of diplomatic, 
which had been much n^ected at the £cole des Chartes, but 
had made great strides in Germany. As assistant (1883) and 
successor (z88s) to Louis de Mas Latrie, Giry restored the study 
of diplomatic, which had been founded in France by Dom Jean 
Mabillon, to its legitimate importance. In 1894 be published 
his Manuel de difhmatique, a monument of ludd and well* 
arranged erudition, whidi contained the fruits .of his long 
experience of archives, original documents and tesctual criticism; 
and his pupils, especially those at the £cole des Hautcs l^tudcs, 
soon caught his enthusiasm. With their collaboration he under- 
took the preparation of an inventory and, subsequently, of a 
critical edition of the (^anrfingian diplomas. By arrani^ment 
with £. Mtthlbacher and the editors of the Monumenta Cermaniae 
historicCt this part of the joint work was reserved for Giry. 
Simultaneously with this work he carried on the publication 
of the annals of the Carolingian epoch on the model of the German 
JakrbUcker, reserving for himself the reign of Charles the Bald. 
Of this series his pupils produced in his lifetime Les DernUrs 
CaroUngiens (by F. Lot, 1891), Eudes^ comte de Paris et roi de 
France (by £. Favre, 1893), and Charles U SimpU (by Eckel, 
1899). The biographies of Louis IV. and Hugh Capet and the 
history of the kingdom of Provence were not published until 
after his death, and his own unfinished history of Charles the 
Bald was left to be completed by his pupils. The preliminary 
work on the Carolingian diplomas involved such lengthy and 
costly researches that the Acad^mie des Inscriptions et Belles- 
Lettres took over the expenses after Giiy's dcalh. 

In the midst of these multifarious labours Giry found time 
for extensive archaeological researches, and made a special 
study of the medieval treatises dealing with the technical 
processes emi^oyed in the arts and mdustries. He prepared 
a new edition of the monk Theophilus's celebrated treatise, 
Diversarum ortium schedula, and for several years devoted his 
Saturday mMmngs to laboratory research with the chemist 
Aim£ Girard at the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers, the results 
of which were utilized by MarcelUn Berthelot in the first volimie 
( 1 894) of his Chimie au moyen Age. Giry took an energetic part in 
the Collection de textes reUUifs d I'hisloire du moyen Age, which! 
was due in great measure to his initiative. He was ^pointed 
director of the section of French history in La Grande Bncych- 
pAHCf and contributed more than a hundred articles, many of 
which, e,g. " Archives " and " Diplomatique," were original 
works. In ooUaboration with his pupil Andr6 R^ville, be wrote 
the chapten on " L'£mancipation des villes, les communes et les 
bourgeoisies " and " Le Commerce et rindustrie au moyen Age " 
for the Histoire gfiniraU of Lavisse and Rambaud. Giry took 
a keen interest in politics, joining the republican party and 
writing numerous articles in the republican newspapers, mainly 
on historical subjects. He was intensely interested in the Dreyfus 
case, but his robust constitution was undermined by the anxieties 
and disappointments occasioned by the Zola trial and the Renues 
court-martial, and he died in Paris on the X3th of November 1899. 

For details of Giry's life and works see the funeral orations pub- 
lbhed in the Bibliotaique de rEcole des Charles, and afterwards in a 
pamphlet (1899). Sec also the biography by Ferdinand Lot in the 
A nnvaire de I'EcoU des Hautes Atudes for 1901 ; and the bibliography 
of his works by Henry Maistre in the Correspondancs historipie et 
archMogigue (1899 and 1900)^ 

GISBORNE, a seaport of New Zealand, in (}ook county, 
provincial district of Auckland, on Poverty Bay of the east 
coast of North Island. Pop. (1901) 3733; (1906)5664. Woof, 
frozen mutton and agricultural produce are exported from the 
rich district surrounding. Petroleum has been discovered in- 
the neighbourhood^ and about 40 m. from the town there are 
warm medicinal springs. Near the »te of Gisborae Captain 
Cook landed in 1769, and gave Poverty Bay Its name from his 
inability to obtain supplies owing to the hostility of the natives. 
Young Nick's Head, the southern born of the bay, was named 
from Nicholas Young, his ship's boy, who first observed it. 



GISLBBBRT (or Gilbert) OP MONS (e. 1x50-1325), Flemish 

chronider, became a clerk, and obtained the positions of provost 

of the churches of St Germanus at Mons and St Alban at Namur, 

in addition to several other ecclesiastical appointments. In 

official documents he is described as chaplain, chancellor or 

notary^ of Baldwin V., count of Hainaut (d. X195), who employed 

him on important business. After Z20o Gislebert wrote the 

Ckronkon Hanoni^ue, a history of Hainaut and the neighbouring 

lands from about X050 to 1195, which is specially valuable for 

the latter part of the X2th century, and for the life and times of 

Baldwin V. 

The chronicle is published in Band Jod. of the MomtiwuHla Cer^ 
maniae historiea (Hanover. 1826 fot.)i and separately with intro- 

translation by G. McnilKlaifie (Tournat, 1874). 

See W. Meyer, Das wtrk des KantUrs CisUhert von Mons als 
verfassungsgesckickUiche Quelle (Kdnigsbcrg. 1888); K. Huygens, 
Sur la valeur kistorique de la ckronique Gislebert ie Mons (Ghent, 
1889); and W. Wattcnbach, Deuiscklands CeukicktsqutUen, Band ii. 
(Berlin, 1894). 

0I50RS, a town of France, in the department of Eure, situated 
in the pleasant valley of the Epte, 44 m. N.W. of Paris on the 
railway to Dieppe. Pop. (1906) 4345. Gisors is dominated by 
a feudal stronghold built chiefly by the kings of England in the 
1 1 th and 1 2th centuries. The outer enceinte, to which is attached 
a cylindrical donjon erected by Philip Augustus, king of France, 
embraces an area of over 7 acres. On a mound in the centre of 
this space rises an older donjon, octagonal in shape, protected 
by another enceinte. The outer ramparts and the ground they 
enclose have been converted into promenades. The church of 
St Gervais dates in its oldest parts — the central tower, the choir 
and parts of the aisles— from the middle of the ijth century, 
when it was founded by Blanche of Castile. The rest of the 
church belongs to the Renaissance period. The Gothic and 
Renaissance styles mingle in the west fagade, which, like the 
interior of the building, is adorned with a profusion of sculptures; 
the fine carving on the wooden doors of the north and west 
portals is particularly noticeable. The less interesting buildings 
of the town include a wooden house of the Renaissance era, 
an old convent now used as an hfttd de ville, and a handsome 
modem hospital. There is a statue of General de Blanmont, 
bom at Gisors in 1770. Among the industries of Gisors are 
felt manufacture, bleaching, dyeing and leather-dressing. 

In the middle ages Gisors was capital of the Vexin. Its 
position on the frontier of Normandy caused its possession to 
be hotly contested by the kings of England and France during 
the 1 2th century, at the end of which it and the dependent 
fortresses of Neaufles and Dangu were ceded by Richanl Cocur 
de Lion to Philip Augustus. During the wars of religion of the 
x6th century it was occupied by the duke of Mayenne en behalf 
of the League, and in the Z7th century, during the Fronde, by 
the duke of Longueville. Gisors was given to Charles Auguste 
Fouquet in X718 in exchange for Belle-Ile-en-Mer and made a 
duchy in 1742. It afterwards came into the possession of the 
count of Eu and the duke of Penthidvre. 

OISSING, GEORGE ROBERT (1857-1903), English novelist, 
was born at Wakefield on the 22nd of November 1857. He was 
educated at the Quaker boarding-school of Alderlcy Edge and 
at Owens College, Manchester. His life, especially its earlier 
period, was spent in great poverty, mainly in London, though 
he was for a time also in the United States, supporting him- 
self chiefly by private teaching. He published his first novel, 
Workers in tke Dawn, in 1880. Tkc Vndassed (1884) and Isahd 
Clarendon (1886) followed. Demos (1886), a novel dealing with 
socialistic ideas, was, however, the first to attract attention. It 
was followed by a series of novels remarkable for their pictures 
of lower middle class life. Gissing's own experiences had pre- 
occupied him with poverty and its brutalizing effects on char- 
acter. He made no attempt at popular writing, and for a long 
time the sincerity of his work was appredatcd only by a limited 
public. Among his more characteristic novels were: Tkyrta 
(1887). A life's Monini (1888), Tke Nether World (1889), Nem 

Crvh Street (X891), Bom in EsaU (1892), Tke Odd Women (1893), 
In the Year of Jubilee (1894), Tke Whirlpool (1897). Others, 
e.g. The Town Traveller (1901), indicate a humorous faculty, 
but the prevailing note of his novels is that of the struggling 
life of the shabby-gented and lower dasses and the conflict 
between education and circumstances. Hie quasi-autobio- 
graphical Private Papers, of Henry Ryecroft (1903) reflects 
throughout Gissing's studious and retiring tastes. He was a 
good classical scholar and had a minute acquaintance with the 
late Latin historians, and with Italian antiquities; and his 
posthumous Veranilda (1904), a historical romance of Italy in 
the time of Theodoric the Goth, was the outcome of his favourite 
studies. Gissing's powers as a literary critic are shown in his 
admirable study on Charles Dickens (1898). A book of travel. 
By Ike Ionian Sea, appeared in 1901. He died at St Jean de 
Luz in the Pyrenees on the 28th of December 1903. 

See also the introductory essay by T. Soccombe to Tke House of 
Cobwebs (1906), a posthumous volume of Gissing's short stories. 

GITSCHIN (Czech Jiliu), a town ol Bohemia, Austria, 65 m. 
N.E. of Prague by rail. Pop. (1900) 9790, mostly Czech. The 
parish church was begun by Wallenstein after the modd of 
the pilgrims' church of Santiago de Compostela in Spain, but 
not completed till 1655. The castle, which stands next to the 
church, was built by Wallenstein and fim'shcd in 1630. It was 
here that the emperor Frands I. of Austria signed the treaty of 
1813 by which he threw in his lot with the Allies against Napoleon. 
Wallenstein was interred at the ndghbouring Carthusian mon- 
astery, but in 1639 the head and right hand were taken by 
General Ban6r to Sweden, and in 1702 the other remains were 
removed by Count Vincent of Waldstdn to his hereditary 
burying ground at MUnchengriitz. Gitschin was originally the 
village of ZidinSves and received its present name when it was 
raised to the dignity of a town by Wenceslaus II. in X302. The 
place belonged to various noble Bohemian famiUcs, and in the 
17th century came into the hands of Wallenstein, who made it 
the capital of the duchy of Fricdland and did much to improve 
and extend it. His murder, and the miseries of the Thirty 
Years' War, brought it very low; and it passed through several 
hands before it was bought by Prince Traultmannsdorf, to 
whose family it still belongs. On the 39th of June 1866 the 
Prussiaib gained here a great victory over the Austrians. This 
victory made possible the junction of the first and second 
Prussian army corps, and had as an ultimate result the AvsUian 
defeat at KdniggraU. 

GIUDICI. PAOLO EMIUANO (1812-1872), ItaUan writer, 
was bom in Sicily. His History of Italian Literature (1844) 
brought him to the front, and in 2848 he became professor of 
Italian literature at Pisa, but after a few months was deprived 
of the chair on account of his liberal views in politics. On the 
re-establishment of the Italian kingdom he became professor of 
aesthetics (resigning X862) and secretary of the Academy of 
Fine Arts at Florence, and in 1867 was dectcd to the chamber 
of deputies. He held a prominent place as an historian, his 
works induding a Storia del tealro (i860), and Sloria dei amtuui 
iUUiani (i86x), besides a translation of Macaulay's History of 
England (1856). He died at Tonbridge in England, on the 8lh of 
September 1872. 

A Life appeared at Florence in 1874. 

GIUUO ROMANO, or Giuuo Pippi (c. 1493-1 S46). the head 
of the Roman schod of painting in succession to RaphaeL 
This prdific painter, modeller, architect and engineer recdvcA 
his common appellation from the place of his birth — ^Rome, 
in the Macello die* Corbi. His name in full was Giulio di Pietro 
de Fib'ppo de' Giannuzzi — Giannuzzt being the true family name, 
and Pippi (which has practically superseded Giannuszi) bdng 
an abbreviation from the name of his grandfather Filippo. 
The date of Giulio's birth is a little uncertain. Vasari (who 
knew him personally) speaks of him as fifty-four years old at 
the date of his death, ist November 1546; thus he would have 
been bom in 1492. Other accounts assign 1498 as the date of 
birth. This would make Giulio young indeed in the eariy and 
in such case most preoodous stages of his artistic career, and 



would show him as dying, after au mfinity of bard work, at the 
comparatively early age of forty-eight. 

Gitilio must at all events have been quite youthful when he 
first became the pupil of Raphael, and at Raphael's death in 
1520 he was at the utmost twenty-eight years of age. Raphael 
had loved him as a son, and had employed him in some leading 
works, especially in the Loggie of the Vatican'; the series there 
popularly termed " Raphael's Bible " is done in large measure 
by Giulio, — as for instance the subjects of the " Creation of Adam 
and Eve/' " Noah's Ark/' and " Moses in the Bulrushes." In 
the saloon of the "Inccndio del Borgo," also, the figures of 
" Benefactors of the Church " (Charlemagne, &c.) are Giulio's 
handiwork. It would appear that in subjects of this kind 
Raphael simply furnished the design, and committed the execu- 
tion of it to some assistant, such as Ciulio, — taking heed, however, 
to bring it up, by final retouching, to his own standard of style 
and type. Giulio at a later date followed out exactly the same 
plan; so that in both instances inferiorities of method, in the 
general blocking-out and even in the details of the work, are not 
to be precisely charged upon tlic capoicuola. Amid the multitude 
of Raphael's pupils, Giulio was eminent in pursuing his style, and 
showed universal aptitude; he did, among other things, a large 
amount of architectural planning for his chief. Raphael be- 
queathed to Giulio, and to his fellow-pupil Gianfrancesco Penni 
("II Fattore"), his implements and works of art; and upon 
them it devolved to bring to completion the vast fresco-work of 
the *' Hall of Constant ine " in the Vatican — consisting, along 
with much minor matter, of the four large subjects, the " Battle of 
Constantine," the " Apparition of the Cross," the " Baptism of 
Constantine " and the " Donation of Rome to the Pope." The 
two former compositions were executed by Pippi, the two latter 
by Pemu. The whole of this onerous undertaking was com- 
pleted within a period of only three years, — which is the more 
remarkable as, during some part of the interval since Raphael's 
decease, the Fleming, Adrian VI., had been pope, and his anti- 
aesthetic pontificate bad left art and artists almost in a state of 
inanition. Clement VII. had now, however, succeeded to the 
popedom. By this time Giulio was regarded as the first painter 
in Rome; but his Roman career was fated to have no further 

Towards the end of 1524 his friend the celebrated writer 
Baldassar Castiglione seconded with success the uigcnt request 
of the duke of Mantua, Federigo Gonzaga, that Giulio should 
migrate to that city, and enter the duke's service for the purpose 
of carrying out his projects in archilecture and pictorial decora- 
tion. These projects were already considerable, and under 
Giulio's management they became far more extensive sliU. 
The duke treated his painter munificcnlly as to house, table, 
horses and whatever was in request; and soon a very cordial 
attachment sprang up between them. In Pippi's multifarious 
work in Mantua three principal undertakings should be noted, 
(i) In the Castello he painted the ** History of Troy," along with 
other subjects. (2) In the suburban ducal residence named 
the Palazzo del Te (this designation being apparently derived 
from the form of the roads which led towards the edifice) he 
rapidly carried out a rebuilding on a vastly enlarged scale, — 
the materials being brick and terra-cotta, as there is no local 
stone, — and decorated the rooms with his most celebrated, 
worths in oil and fresco painting — the story of Psyche, Icarus, 
the fiiU of the Utans, ami the portraits of the ducal horses and 
hounds. The foreground figures of Titans are from la to 14 ft. 
high; the room, even in its structural details, is made to subserve 
the general artistic purpose) and many of its architectural 
features »re dbtorted accordingly. Greatly admired though these 
pre-eminent worics Iiave always been, and at most times even 
more than can now be fully ratified, they have suffered severely 
at the bands of restorers, and modem eyes see them only through 
a dull and deadening fog of renovation. The whole of the work 
on the Palazao del Te, wtuch is of the DoHc order of architecture, 
occupied about five years, (3) Pippi recast and almost rebuilt the 
cathedral of Mantua; erected his own mansion, replete with 
numerous antiques and other articles of vertu; reconstructed 

the street architecture to a very huge eitent, ind made the city, 
sapped as it is by the shallows of the Mincio, comparatively 
healthy; and at Marmiruolo, some 5 m.. distant from Mantua, 
he worked out other important buildings and paintings. He 
was in fact, for nearly a quarter of a century, a sort of Demiurgus 
of the arts of design in the Mantuan territory. 

Giulio's activity was interiiupted but not terminated by the 
death of Duke Federigo. The duke's brother, a cardinal who 
became regent, retained him in full employment. For a while he 
went to Bologna, and constructed the facade of the church of 
S. Petronio in that city. He- was afterwards invited to succeed 
Antonio Sangallo as architect of St Peter's in Rome, — ^a splendid 
appointment, which, notwithstanding the strenuous opposition 
of his wife and of the cardinal re^nt, he had almost resolved 
to accept, when a fever overtook him, and, acting upon a con- 
stitution somewhat enfeebled by worry and labour, caused. his 
death on the ist of November x 546. He was buried in the church 
of S. Bamaba in Mantua. At the time of his death Giulio 
enjoyed an annual income of more than xooo ducats, accruing 
from the liberalities of his patrons. He left a widow, and a son 
and daughter. The son, named Raffaello, studied painting, 
but died before he could produce any work of importance; the 
daughter, Virginia, married Ercole Malatesta. 

Wide and soUd knowledge of design, combined with a prompti- 
tude of composition that was never at fault, formed the chief 
motive power and merit of Giulio Romano's art. Whatever 
was wanted, he produced it at once, throwing off, as Vasari says, 
a large design in an hour; and he may in that sense, though not 
equally so when an imaginative or ideal test is applied, be called 
a great inventor. It would be difficult to name any other artist 
who, working as an architect, and as the plastic and pictorial 
embellisher of his architecture, produced a total of work so fully 
and homogeneously his own; hence he has been named " the 
prince of decorators." He had great knowledge of the human 
frame, and represented it with force and truth, though some- 
times with an excess of movement; he was also learned in other 
mat tecs, especially in medals, and in the plans of ancient buildings. 
In design he was more strong and emphatic than graceful, and 
worked a great deal from his accumulated stores of knowledge, 
without consulting nature direct. As a general rule, his designs 
are finer and freer than his paintings, whether in fresco or in oil 
— his easel pictures being comparatively few, and some of them 
the reverse of decent; his colouring is marked by an excess of 
blackish and heavy tints. 

Giulio Romano introduced the style of Raphael into Mantua, 
and established there a considerable school of art, which surpassed 
in development that of his predecessor Mantcgna, and almost 
rivalled that of Rome. Very many engravings— more thaii 
three hundred are mentioned— were made conteniporaneously 
from his works; and this not only in Italy, but in France and 
FUnders as well. His plan of entrusting principally to assistants 
the pictorial execution of his cartoons has already been referred 
to; Primaticcio was one of the leading coadjutors. Rinaldo 
Mantovano, a man of great ability who died young, was the 
chief executant of the " Fall of the Giants "; he also co-operated 
with Benedetto Pagni da Pescia in painting the remarkable 
scries of horses and hounds, and the story of Psyche. Another 
pupil was Fermo Ginsoni, who remained settled in Mantua. 
The oil pictures of GiuUo Romano are not generally of high 
importance; two leading ones are the " Martyrdom of Stephen," 
in the church of that saint in Genoa, and a "Holy Family" 
in the Dresden Gallery. Among his architectural works not 
already mentioned is the Villa Madama in Rome, with a fresco 
of Polyphemus, and boys and satyrs; the Ionic facade of this 
building may have been sketched out by Raphael. 

Vasari gives a pleasing impression of the character of Gitilio. 
He was very loving to his friends, genial, affable, well-bred, 
temperate in the pleasures of the table, but liking fine apparel 
and a handsome scale of living. He was good-looking, of 
middle height, with black curly hair and dark eyes, and an 
ample beard; his portrait, painted by himself, b in the 



Beaidet Vatari, Lana and other historians of art, the following 
works may be mentioned: C. D. Arco, Vita di G. Pip^ (iSaS): 
G. C. von Murr, Notice sur Us estampts gravies a^ls desstns a* Jules 
Remain (1865); R. Sanxio, two works on Euhings and Paintings 
(1800, X836). (W. M. R.) 

OIUNTA PISANO, the earliest Italian painter whose name is 
found inscribed on an extant work. He is said to have exercised 
his art from 1202 to 1236. He may perhaps have been bom 
towards x 180 in Pisa, and died in or soon after 1236; but other 
accounts give 1202 as the date of his birth, and 1258 or there- 
abouts for his death. There Is some ground for thinking that 
his family name was Capiteno. The inscribed work above 
referred to, one of his earliest, is a *' Crucifix," long in the kitchen 
of the convent of St Anne in Pisa. Other Pisan works of like 
date are very barbarous, and some of them may be also from 
the hand of Giunta. It is said that he painted in the upper 
church of Assist, — in especial a "Crucifixion " dated X236,with a 
figure of Father Ellas, the general of the Franciscans, embracing 
the foot of the cross. In the sacristy is a portrait of 3t Francis, 
also ascribed to Giunta; but it more probably belongs to the 
close of the X3th century. He was in the practice of painting 
upon doth stretched on wood, and prepared with plaster. 

GIURGBVO {Giwgiu)t the capital of the department of 
Vlashca, Rumania; situated amid mud-flats and marshes on 
the left bank of the Danube. Pop. (1900) 13,977. Three small 
islands face the town, and a larger one shelters its port, Smarda, 
a} m. E. The rich corn-lands on the north are traversed by a 
railway to Bucharest, the first line opened in Rumania, wUch 
was bttUt in X869 and afterwards extended to Smarda. Steamers 
ply to Rustchuk, 2} m. S.W. on the Bulgarian shore, linking 
the Rumanian railway system to the chief Bulgarian line north 
of the Balkans (Rustchuk-Vama). Thus Giurgevo, besides 
having a considerable trade with the home ports lower down 
the Danube, is the headquarters of commerce between Bulgaria 
and Rumania. It exports timber, grain, salt and petroleum; 
importing coal, iron and textiles. There are also large saw-mills. 

Giurgevo occupies the site of Theodorapolis, a dty built 
by the Roman emperor Justinian (a.d. 483'>565). It was 
founded in the 14th century by Genoese merchant adventurers, 
who esublish^ a bank, and a trade in silks and velvets. They 
caUed the town, after the patron saint of Genoa, San Giorgio 
(St George); and hence comes its present name. As a fortified 
town, Giurgevo figured often in the wars for the conquest of the 
lower Danube; espedally in the struggle of Michael the Brave 
(i$93-x6oi) against the Turks, and in the later Russo-Turkish 
Wars. It was burned in 1659. In X829, its fortifications were 
finally razed, the only defence left being a castle on the island of 
SlobMia, united to the shore by a bridge. 

0IU8TI, OIUSEPPB (1809-1850), Tuscan satirical poet, was 
bom at Monsummano, a small viUage of the Vaidinievole, on 
the X2th of May 1809. His father, a cultivated and rich man, 
accustomed his scm from childhood to study, and himself taught 
him, among other subjects, the first rudiments of music After- 
wards, in order to curb his too vivadous di^iosition, he placed 
the boy under the charge of a priest near the village, whose 
severity did perhaps more evil than good. At twdve Giusti 
was sent to school at Florence, and afterwards to Pistoia and to 
Lucca; and dtiring those years he wrote his first verses. In 
x8a6 he went to study law at Pisa; but, disliking the study, 
he spent eight years in the course, instead of the customary four. 
He lived gaily, however, though his father kept him short of 
money, and teamed to know the world, seeing the vices of 
society, and the folly of certain laws and customs from which 
his country was suffering. The experience thus gained he turned 
to good account in the use he made of it in his satire. 

His father had in the meantime changed his place of abode 
to Pesda; but Giiiseppe did worse there, and in November 
1832, his father having paid his debts, he returned to study at 
Pisa, seriously enamoured of a woman whom he could not marry, 
but now commencing to write in real earnest in behalf of his 
country. With the poem called La GkiglioUina (the gidilotioe), 
Giusti began to stoke out a path for himsdf , and thus revealed 
his great genius. From this time he showed himielf the Italian 

B6ranger, and even surpassed the Frenchman in richness of 
language, refinement of humour and depth of satirical conception. 
In Bfranger there is more feeling for what is needed for popular 
poetry. His poetry is less studied, its vivacity perhaps more 
boisterous, more spontaneous; but Giusti, in both manner and 
conception, is perhaps more elegant, more refined, more pene- 
trating. In 1834 Giusti, having at last entered the legal profes- 
sion, left Pisa to go to Florence, nominally to practise with the 
advocate Capoquadri, but really to enjoy life in the capital of 
Tuscany. He fell seriously in love a second time, and as before 
was abandoned by his love. It 'was then be wrote his finest 
verses, by means of which, although his poetry was not yet 
collected in a volume, but for some years passed from hand to 
hand, his name gradually became famous. The greater part 
of his poems were published dandestincly at Lugano, at no 
little risk, as the work was destined to undermine the Austrian 
rule in Italy. After the publication of a volume of verses at 
Bastia, Giusti thoroughly establbhed his fame by his Gingiltino, 
the best In moral tone as well as the most vigorous and effective 
of his poems. The poet sets himself to represent the vileness 
of the treasury ofiidals, and the base means they used to conceal 
the necessities of the state. The GingiUino has all the character 
of a dassic satire. When first issued in Tuscany, it struck all 
as too impassioned and personal. Giusti entered heart and soul 
into the political movements of X847 and 1848, served in the 
xuttional guard, sat in the parliament for Tuscany; but finding 
that there was more talk than action, that to the tyranny of 
princes had succeeded the tyranny of demagogues, he began to 
fear, and to express the fear, that for luly evil rather than 
good had resulted. He fell, In consequence, from the high 
position he had held in public estimation, and in 1848 was 
regarded as a reactionary. His friendship for the marquis 
Gino Capponi, who had taken him into his house during the last 
years of his life, and who published after Giusti's death a volume 
of illustrated proverbs, was enough to compromise him in the 
eyes of such men as Guerrazzi, Montanelli and NiccoUni. On 
the 31st of May 1850 he died at Florence In the palace of his 

The poetry of Giusti, under a light trivial aspect, has a lofty 
dvilizing significance. The type of his satire is entirely original, 
and it had also the great merit of appearing at the right moment, 
of wounding Judidously, of sustaining the part of the comedy 
that " castigat ridendo mores." Hence his verse, apparently 
jovial, was recdvcd by the scholars and poHtidans of Italy in 
all seriousness. Alexander ManzonI in some of his letters showed 
a hearty admiration of the genius of Giusti; and the weak 
Austrian and Bourbon governments regarded them as of the 
gravest importance. * 

His poems have often been reprinted, the best editions being those 
of Lc Monnicr, Carducci (1859; 3rd ed., 1879). Fiorctti (1876) and 
BcB^ (1890). Besides the poems and the proverbs alreadiy men- 
tioned, we have a volume of select letters, full of vigour and written 
in the best Tuscan language, and a fine critical discourse on Giuse|)pe 
Parini, the satirical ooct. In some of his compositions the elegiac 
rather than the satincal poet is seen. Many of his verses have been 
excellently translated into German by Paul Heyse. Good English 
translations were published in thtAtUnaewn by Mrs T. A. Trollope, 
and some by W. D. Howells are in his Modern Italian Poets (1887). 

OIUSTUflANI. the tmmt of a promineat Italian family which 
originally belonged to Venice, bot eaUblished itself subsequently 
in Genoa also, and at varknis times had representatives in 
Naples, Corsica and several of the islands of the Archlpelafo. 
In the Venetian line the foUowingan most worthy of melltion^— 
X. LoECNZO (X38&-X46S), the LAUxcntius Justinianus of the 
Roman calendar, at an ear^ age entered the congregatka of 
the canons of St Geocge in Alga, and in 1433 became general 
of that Older. About the same time he was made by Eugenios 
IV. bishop of Venice; and his qnscopate was marked by con* 
siderable activity in church extension and reform. On the 
lemoval of the patriarchate from Gxado to Venice by Nicholas V. 
in X45X, Giustiniani was promoted to that dignity, whkh he 
hdd for fourteen years. He died on January 8, X46S, was 
canonised by Pope Alezawkr VUI., his icsaval (senuHiupla) 



being ted by Znaocent XII. for September 5th, tbe anni- 
veraary of his elevation to the bishopric Uis works, consisting 
of sermons, letters and ascetic treatises, have been frequently 
rq>iinted,--lhe best' edition being that of the Benedictine 
P. N. A. Giustiniani, published at Venice in 3 vols, folio, X75X. 
They are wholly devoid of h'tcnury morit. His life has been 
written by Bernard Giustiniani, by Maffei and also by the 

3. Leonaboo (r389-i446), brother of the preceding, was for 
some years a senator of Venice, and in 1443 was chosen procurator 
cf Si Mark. He transhted into Italian Pluurch's lifes of 
Citma atid IaicuUus, and was the author of some poetical pieces, 
amatory and tt^ovik^slramboUi and auttoneUi'-'-*^ well as 
of rhetorical prase compositions. Some of the popular songs 
set to music by Mm became known as Giustiniani. 

3. BEaNABOO (X408-1489), son of Leonardo, was a pupil of 
Guariao and of George of Trebixond, and entered the Venetian 
senate at an early age. He served on several important diplo- 
matic missions both to France and Rome, and about 1485 
becaaoe one of the coundl of ten. His orations and letters 
were published in 1492; but his title to any measure of fame 
he possesses rests vpon his history of Venice, De origins wbi* 
VenetiaruM rebMsqut a& ipia gestis historia (1492), which was 
translated into Italian by Domenichi in 1545, and which at the 
time of its appearance was undoubtedly the best work upon the 
subject of which It treated. It is to be found in voL i. of the 
Tkeiaunu of Graevius. 

4. FiETBO, also a senator, lived in the x6th century, and 
wrote on Historia rerum VeneUu^um in continuation of that of 
Bernardo. He was also the author of chronicles De gestis Petri 
Moctnigi and De beUo Venetorum cum Carolo VIII, The latter 
has been rqwinted in the ScripL rer, ItaL vol. xxi. 

Of the Genoese branch of the family the most prominent 
members were the foUowing>— 

5. Paolo, ox Monicua (X444-X503), a member of the order 
of Dominicans, was, from a comparatively early age, prior of 
their convent at Genoa. As a preacher he was very successful, 
and his talents were fully recognised by successive popes, by 
whom he was made master of the sacred palace, inquisitor- 
general f<x all the Genoese dominions, and ultimately bishop 
of Sdo and Himgaiian legate. He was the author of a number of 
Biblical oommenuries (no longer extant), n^hich are said to 
have been characterized by great erudition. 

6. Aooshno (x470'I536) was bom at Genoa, and spent 
some wild years in Valencia, Spain. Having in X487 joined the 
Dom in ica n order, he gave himsdf with great energy to the 
study of Greek, Hebrew, Chaldce and Arabic, and in 15x4 
began the preparation of a polyglot edition of the Bible. As 
bishop of Nebbio in Corsica, he took part in some of the earlier 
sittings of the Lateran council (xsxt^xsxj), but, in consequence 
of par^ comidications, withdrew to his diocese, and ultimately 
to France, where he became a pensioner of Francis I., and was 
the first to occupy a chair of Hebrew and Arabic in the university 
of Parisw After an absence from Corsica for a period of five 
years, during which he visited England and the Low Countries, 
and became acquainted with Erasmus and More, he returned 
to Nebbio, about X522, and there remained, with comparatively 
iittk intcmiasion, till in .1536, when, while returning from a 
visit to Genoa, he perished m a storm at sea. He was the 
posMSBor of a very fine library, which he bequeathed to the 
republic of Genoa. Of his projected polyglot only the Psalter 
was published {Psdterium Hebraeunit Craecum, Arabicunif el 
CkaUaicum, Genoa, x6i6). Besides the Hebrew text, the LXX. 
translation, the Chaldee paraphrase, and an Arabic version, it 
eoDtams the Vulgate transhition, a new Latin translation by 
the editor, a Latin txansUtion of the Chaldee, and a collection 
of scholia. Giustiniani printed 2000 copies at his own expense, 
including fifty in vellum for presentation to the sovereigns of 
Europe and Asia; but the sale of the work did not encourage 
him to proceed with the New Testament, which he had also 
p tcpai e J for tbe press. Besides an editwn of the book of Job, 
eootaaning tbe or^oal text, the Vulgate, tad a new txansktion, 

he published a Latin version of the Uorek Newekim of Maimonides 
{Director dubilanlium aut perplexorum, X520), and also edited in 
Latin the Auretu libellus of Aeneas Platonicus, and the Timaeus 
of Chalcidius. His aimals of Genoa (CasUgatissimi annali di 
Genova) were published posthumously in 1537. 
The following are also noteworthy >— 

7. PoifPEio (X569-X616), a native of Corsica, who served under 
Alessandro Famese and the marquis of Spinola in the Low 
Countries, where he lost an arm, and, from the artificial substitute 
which he wore, came to be known by the sobriquet Bras de Fer. 
He also defended Crete against the Turks; and subsequently was 
killed in a reconnaissance at Friuli. He left in Italian a personal 
narrative of the war in Flanders, which has been repeatedly 
published in a Latin translation (Bellum Bdgifum, Antwerp, 

8. Giovanni (1513-1556), bom in Candia, translator of 
Terence's Andria and Eunuchus, of Cicero's In Verrem, and of 
Virgil's Aeneidf viiL 

9. Orsatto (z53d-x6o3>, Venetian senator, translator of the 
Oedipus Tyrannus of Sophocles and author of a collection of 
Kime, in imitation of Petrarch. He is regarded as one of the 
latest representatives of the classic Italian schooL 

10. Gekonimo, a Genoese, flourished during the latter half 
of the 16th century. He translated the AUestis cf Euripides 
and three of the.pla>'s of Sophocles; and wrote two original 
tragedies, Jephte and Christo in Passume, 

XX. ViNCENZO, who in the beginning of the 17th century 
built the Roman palace and made the art collection which are 
still associated with his name (see Galleria Giustiniana, Rome, 
X63X). The collection was removed in 1807 to Paris, where it 
was to some extent broken up. In 18x5 all that remained of it, 
about X70 pictures, was purchased by the king of Prussia and 
removed to Berlin, where it forms a portion of the royal museum. 

QIUSTO DA GUANTO IJodocus, or Justus, of Ghent] 
(fl. X465-X475), Flemish painter. The public records of the city 
of Ghent have been diligently searched, but in vain, for a clue 
to the history of Justus or Jodocus, whom Vasari and Guicdardini 
called Giusto da Guanto. Flemish aimalists of the x6th century 
have enlarged upon the scanty statements of Vasari,«nd described 
Jodocus as a pupil of Hubert Van Eyck. But there is no source 
to which this fable can be traced. The registers of St Luke's 
gild at Ghent comprise six masters of the name of Joos or 
Jodocus who practised at Ghent in the X5th century. But none 
of tbe works of these masters has been preserved, and it is 
impossible to compare their style with that of Giusto. It was 
between X465 and X474 that this artist executed the" Communion 
of the Apostles " which Vasari has described, and modem critics 
now see to the best advantage in the museum of Urbino. It 
was painted for the brotherhood of Corpus Christi at the bidding 
of Frederick of Montefeltro, who was introduced into the iHcture 
as the companion of Caterino Zeno, a Persian envoy at that 
time on a mission to the court of Urbino. From this curious 
production it may be seen that Giusto, far from being a pupil of 
Hubert Van Eyck, was merely a disciple of a later and less 
gifted master, who took to Italy some of the peculiarities of his 
native schools, and forthwith comanikgled them with those of 
his adopted country. As a composer and draughtsman Giusto 
compares unfavourably with the better-known painters of 
Flanders; though his portraits are good, his ideal figures are 
not remarkable for elevation of type or for subtlety of character 
and expression. His work is technically on a level with that of 
Gerard of St John, whose pictures are preserved in the Belvedere 
at Vieima. Vespasian, a Florentine bookseller who contributed 
much to form the antiquarian taste of Frederick of Montefeltro, 
states that thb duke sent to the Netherlands for a capable artist 
to paint a series of " ancient worthies " for a library recently 
erected in the palace of Urbino. It has been conjectured that 
the author of these " worthies," irfiich are still In existence 
at- the Louvre and in the Barberini palace at Rome, was Giusto, 
Yet there a re notable divergences betweeen these pictures and the 
** Communion of the Apostles." Still, it is not beyond the range 
of probability that Giusto should have been able, aftera cerUin 



time, to temper his Flettxish style by studying the mastCTiMeces 
of Santi and Melozzo, and so to acquire the mixed manner of the 
Flemings and Italians which these portraits of worthies dispby. 
Such an assimilation, if it really took place, might justify the 
Flemings in the indulgence of a certain pride, considering that 
Raphad not only admired these worthies, but c<^ied them in 
the sketch-book which is now the ornament of the Venetian 
Academy. There is no ground for presuming that Giusto ad 
Guanto is identical with Justus d'AlIamagna who painted the 
" Annunciation " (1451) in the cloisters of Santa Maria di Castello 
at Genoa. The drawing and colouring of this wall painting 
shows that Justus d'AlIamagna was as surely a native of south 
Germany as his homonym at Urbino was a bom Netherlander. 

GIVBT» a town of northern France, in the department of 
Ardennes, 40 m. N. by £. of M^eres on the Eastern railway 
between the town and Namur. Pop. (1906) town, 5x10; 
commtme, 7468.- Givet lies on the Meuse about i m. from the 
Belgian frontier, and was formerly a fortress of considerable 
importance. It is divided into three portions — the citadel 
called Charlemont and Grand Givet on the left bank of the river, 
and on the opposite bank Petit Givet, connected with Grand 
Givet by a stone bridge of five arches. The fortress of Charle- 
mont, atuated at the top of a precipitous rock 705 ft. high, was 
founded by thr. emperor Charles V. in the i6th century, and 
further fortified by Vauban at the end of the X7th century; it 
is the only survival of the fortifications of the town, the rest 
of which were destroyed in 1893. In Grand Givet there are a 
church and a town-hall built by Vauban, and a statue of the 
composer £tienne Mehul stands in the fine square named after 
him. Petit Givet, the industrial quarter, is traversed by a 
small tributary of the Meuse, the Houille, which is bordered by 
tanneries and glue factories. Pencils and tobacco-pipes are 
also manufactured. The town has considerable river traffic, 
consisting chiefly of coal, copper and stone. There is a chamber 
of arts and manufactures. 

GIV0R5, a manufacturing town of south-eastern France, in 
the department of Rh6ne, on the railway between Lyons and 
St £tienne, 14 m. S. of Lyon. Pop. (1906) 11,444. It is situated 
on the right bank of the Rhone, here crossed by a suspension 
bridge, at its confluence with the Gier and the canal of Givors, 
which starts at Grand Croix on the Gier, some 13 m. distant. 
The chief indmtrics arc metal-working, engineering-construction 
and glass-working. There are coal mines in the vicinity. On the 
hill overlooking the town are the ruins of the ch&teau of St 
Gerald and of the convent of St Ferr£ol, remains of the old 
town destroyed in 1594. 

QJALLAR, in Scandinavian mythology, the horn Of Heimdall, 
the guardian of the rainbow bridge by which the gods pass and 
repass between earth and heaven. This horn had to be blown 
whenever a stranger approached the bridge. ■ 

QLABRIO. X. Manxus Aciuus Glabrio, Roman statesman 
and general, member of a plebeian family. When consul in 
191 B.C. he defeated Antiochus the Great of Syria at Thermopylae, 
and compelled him to leave Greece. He then turned his attention 
to the Aetolians, who had persuaded Antiochus to declare war 
against Rome, and was only prevented from crushing them by 
the intercession of T. Quinctius Flamininus. In 189 Glabrio 
was a candidate for the censorship, but was bitterly opposed 
by the nobles. He was accused by the tribunes of having 
concealed a portion of the Syrian spoils in. his own house; his 
legate gave evidence against him, and he withdrew his candi- 
dature. It is probable that he was the author of the law which 
left it to the discretion of the pontiffs to insert or omit the 
intercaUrv month of the year. 

Censortnus, P« die natali, xx.; Macrobiui, Salunuliat i. 13; 
index to Livy; Appian, Syr, 17-21. 

3. Manius Aauvs Glabsio, Roman statesman and general, 
grandson of the famous Jurist P; Mucins Scaevola. Wbeti 
praetor urbanus (70 b.c.) he presided at the trial of Verres. 
According to Dio Cassius (xxxvi. 38), in conjunction with 
L. Calpumiua Piso, his colleague in the consulship (67), he 
brought forward a severe law (Lex Adlia Calpumia) a^sinst 

illegal canvasung at dections. In the same year lie ims a{^ 

pointed to supersede L. Lucullus in the government of Cilicia 

and the command of the War against Mithradates, but as he did 

absolutely nothing and was unable to control the soldiery, 

he was in turn superseded by Pompey according to the provisions 

of the Manilian law. Little else Is known of him except that 

he declared in favour of the death punishment for the CatiliBarian 


Dio Cassius xxxvi. 14, 16. 24; Ckero, Pro lege ManiUa, 3. 9; 
Appian, Mithrid, 90. 

OLACB BAY, a dty and port of entry of Cape Breton county, 
Nova Scotia, Canada, on the Atlantic Ocean, 14 m. £. of Sydney, 
with which it is connected both by steam and dectric railway. 
It is the centre of the properties of the Dominion Coal Company 
(founded 1893), which produce most of the coal of Kova Scotia. 
Though it has a fair haxbour, most of the shipping is done from 
Sydney in summer and from LOuisburg in winter. Fop, (1893) 
2000; (190X) 6945; («0o6) 13,000. 

GLACIAL PERIOD, in geology, the name usually given, by 
English and American writers, to that comparativdy recent 
time when all parts of the world suflfered a marked lowering 
of temperature, accompanied in northern Europe and North 
America by glacial conditions, not unlike those which now 
characterize the Polar regions. This period, which is also 
known as the " Great Ice Age " (German Dm EisMeii), is 
synchronous with the Pleistocene period, the earGer of the Post- 
Tertiary or (^ternary divisions of geological time. Although 
" Glacial period " and ** Pleistocene " iq.9.) are often used 
ssynonymously it is convenient to consider them separately, 
inasmuch as not a few Pleistocene formati<nis have no causal 
relationship with conditions of gladation. Not until the begin- 
ning of the 19th century did the deposits now generally recog- 
nized as the result of ice action receive serious attention; the 
tendency was to regard such superficial and irregular material 
as mere rubbish. Early ideas upon the subject usually assigned 
floods as the formative agency, and this ^'^ew is still not without 
its supporters (see Sir H. H. Howorth, The Glacial Nifjhlmare 
and the Flood). Doubtless this attitude was in part due to the 
comparative rarity of glaciers and ice-fields where the work of 
ice could be directly observed. It was luitund therefore that the 
first scientific references to ghcial action should have been 
stimulated by the Alpine regions of Switzerland, which called 
forth the writings of J. J. Scheuchzer, B. F. Kuhn, H. B. de 
Saussuie, F. G. Hugi, and particularly those of J. Venetz, J. G. 
von Charpentier and L. Aggasiz. Canon Rendu, J. Forbes 
and others had studied the cause of motion of glaciers, while 
keen observers, notably Sir James Hall, A. Brongniart and 
J. Playfair, had noted the occuxtence ol travelled and scratched 

The result of these efforts was the conception of great ice-sheets 
flowing over the land, grinding the rock surfaces and transporting 
rock debris in the manner to be observed in the existing ^aciers. 
However, before this view had become established Sir C. LyeU 
evolved the " drift theory " to explain the widely spread pheno- 
menon of transported blocks, boulder clay and the allied deposits; 
in this he was supported by Sir H. de la Bcche, Charles Darwin, 
Sir R. I. Murchison and many others. According to the drift 
theory, the transport and distribution of " erratic blocks," &c, 
had been effected by floating icebergs; this view naturally 
involved a ccmsidcrable and widcj^rcad submergence of tho 
land, an assumption which appeared to receive support from 
the occasional presence of marine shells at high levds in the 
" drift " deposits. So great was the influence of those who 
favoured the drift theory that even to-day it cannot be said to 
have lost complete hold; we still speak of " drift " deposits in 
EngUnd and America, and the belief in one or more great sub- 
mergences during the Glacial period is still held more firmly 
by certain geologists than the evidence would seem to warrant. 
The case against the drift theory was most dearly expressed 
by Sir A. C Ramsay for England and Sootland, and by the 
Swedish scientist (Xto Torell. Since then the labours of Professor 
James Gdkie, Sir Archibald Gcikie, Prefiessor P. KaidaU and 



Mhcn b Eisludi VOD VtRuit, H. Cndncr, dc Cccr, £. 
Cdniu, A. NelUnd, JcnUxli. K. KeUhuk, A. Pcock, U. 
Schrtdci, F. Wuhoichiac in Sundiiuvu ud G«nuiDy; T. C 
Chwnbcilio, W. Upbam, C. F. Wri^L in Monh America, Uvt 
■U Icndcd to (on&na Ifac vim tlut il i* to [he movement of 
gUden and ia-thMt> that n roast knk u the predominant 
■geu of transport and abniiOD ia tliis period. Tbe three ita(« 
thioufh which our knowledge ol glacial work has advanced 
may ^ui be lummarized: {i) the diluvial hypothesis, deposits 
fofoied by floods; (a) the drift kypolhcsis, deposits formed 
mainly by icebergs and floating ice; (ji the icc4hett hypothesis, 
depotiu fornicd directly oi indiRcIly thioiigh the agency, ol 
Sowing ice. 

EMaua. — Tbe evidenct rrikd npoo by geolaiblt tor the 
[aimct nistence ol the gteat ke-«hMli which liavrriH) the 
■KKlhcrn R^oiu ol Euiope and Amttica ii mainly ol two kindi: 
(i| tbe pccutiat eioaon ef the otdei rocks by ice and ice-borne 
nones, and (i) Ihe italuic and dispOHtion of ice-boine todi 
dfbris. Afiet havinc established the criteria, by wbich the wotk 
ol moving ice is to be recogaiied in regioDs of active gLuiation, 
the task of identifying the isulli ol tailict gUcialion ekcwhete 
has been earned on with unabated energy Eraian, — Alibough iheie a e certain pomu of difFeitme 
between Ihc wock ol glacieis and b<oad tce^bceti the loimcr 

being more or less nstiicted liteially by the valleya io which 
Ibey flow, tbe general results of IhcLr passage over the locky 
Aooi an csscDtlally [irailai. Smooth rounded oulline* are 
irpp^rtrd to the rocks, marke<Ily contrasting with the piimaded 
and irregular surfaces produced by ordinary weathering; where 
these rounded surfaces have been formed on a minor scale the 
well-known features of rvcjbeJ nkwftffin^ (Cennan XifiwfA^jIcr) 
arc created; on a larger scale we have the eroaion-fotm luiown 
as " crag and Uil," when tbe Ice-sheet hii overridden ground 
with more pipnouncet! contour*, the tide of the hill facing the 
advancing ice being rounded and gently curved (German 
Slisiicilt), and the opposte tide {LtatiU} ateep,. abrupt and 
much less smooth. Such fenluies are never asioclated with the 
erosion ol water. The rounding of rock surfacta is regularly 
accompanied by grooving and itrialion (German Sdrammai, 
ScUiffe) caused oy tbe grinding action of stones and boulders 
embedded io tbe moving ice. Tiicse " gUdal striae " are ol 
great value in determlDtng the latest path of the vanished icc- 
tbeets (see map). Several other erosion-feature* an generally 
amodated with ice action; sucb are the circuEar-beaded valleyi, 
" cirijues " or " conies " (German Zirtus) of mountain diitricls; 
tbe pot-hole^ giants' kettles (SliuddlScIai, RitmUfJi) , familiarly 
eienqiliGed in the Gletschcigartcn near Lucerne; tlie "rock- 
basin*" (PtbiteiattTi) of mountainoui regions are also believed 
to be asDguable to this cause on account of their {lequcnl 
aaodition with other glacial phenomena, but it i< more than 
preSable that the icUod of running water (waterialb, JSk.) — 

iaaueoced DO doubt by the diiporillon «t the ice-^u* had much 

to do with these forms of erosion. A* regards rock-basina, 
gMlogiati are still divided in opinion: Sir A. C. Ramsay, j! 
GelkJc, Tyndall, Helland, H. Ilesi, A. Penck, and others have 
aed themselves in favour of a glacial origin; while A. 
, F. Supff, T. Kjerulf, L. BOtimeyer and many othct* 
have ittongly opposed this view. 

I. Glacial deposits may be nwghly dassifed in two groups: 
those that have been farmed direclly by Ihe action of the ice, 
and those formed through the agency of water Bowing under, 
upon, and from Ihe ice-theets, or in Uieams and lakes —^i'H 
by the presence of the ice. To diSerenllaie ia practice between 
the results of these two agendes ia a matter of some difliculty 
'i the case of imslratified deposits; but the boulder clay may 

c taken as the typical formation of tbe glader or ice-sheet, 

'helher il has been left u a Icrmiaal metaiai al Ihe limit of 
gladation or a* a ir^ni maraiiu beneath the ice. A stnli£cd 
fjrm ol boulder day, which not infrequently rests upon, and Is 
therefore younger than, the' more typical variety, is usually 
regarded as a deposit formed by water from the material 
{tntloiial, itntnmarilii) held In suspension within the ice, and 
set free during the process ol mdting. Besides the iimumerable 
boulileit, large and small, embedded io the boukler clay, isolated 
masses of rock, often of enormous liie, have been borne by ice- 
thcels far ttom their ori^oal home and stranded when the ice 
roclied. These "emtic blocki," "perched blocks" (German 
F'udiixti) are familiar objects in the Alpine glacier districts, 
where they have frequently cecdved individual name*, but they 
are just as easily recognised in region* from which the glader* 
that brought them there have long since been banished. Not 
only did tbe ice-transport blacks of hard rock, granite and the 
hke, but huge maases of auaiiGed rock were torn from their 
bed by the same agency; the masses of cbalk in tbe cUSs near 
Cromer are well known ; near Berlin, at Fiikenwald, there is ■ 

ransported mass of cbalk eeiimaled la be at least s.oocsoco 
cubic metres in bulk, which ha* liaveUed probably ij kllanKtie* 

rom its otigiiul site; a block of Lincolnshire oallle is recorded 
by C. Foi-Strangwnya ncaj Melton in Ldeestershlre, which i* 
ya yds. long and loo yds. broad if no more; and '""'"f of • 
sjmilaj kind might be multiplied. 

bewildering variety of stratified and partially bedded deposits 
of gravel, sand and day, OKUrring sepaistdy or in every 
conceivable condirion lA association. Some of these deposits 
have ncdved distincrive names; such «« tbe " Kames " ol 
Scotland, which are represented in Irdsnd by " Esken," and In 
Scandinavia by " Asar." Another Ijipe of hiDocky deposit is 
exemplified .by the " drums " or " drumUns.^' Everywbere 
beyond tbe margiu of the advancing or retreating ice-aheets 
these deposits were being formed; stream* bore away coarse anii 
fine materials and iptead them out upon alluvial plains or upon 
Ihe floors of iimumetable lakes, many ol which were directly 
caused by the damming of the ordinary water-courses by Ihe ice. 
A* the level of such lakes was changed new beach-Iinei were 
produced, such a* are siill evident in Ihe great lake tcgioa of 
North America, In the parallel roads of Glen Roy, and the 
" Slrandlinien " of many part* of northern Europe. 

Viewed in rebiion to man's position on Ibe earth, no geological 
change* have had a more profound importance than those of lbs 
Glacial period. The wjiole of the glaciated region bears evideoca 
of remarkable modiflcstlon of topographic features; in parts 
of Scotland or Norway or CflniHa tbe old rocks are bared of 
son, rounded and smoothed a* fat as the eye can see. The old 
sffil and subsoil, tbe product of ages of ordinary weatlieiing. 
were removed from vast areas to be deposited and concentrated 
in others. Old valley* were filled— often to a great depth, 
joo-400 fu; rivers were diverted from their old courses, never 
tn return; lake* of vast size were caused by Ihe damming of old 
outleU (Lake Lahonlan, Lake Agusii, lie., in North America), 
while an mfinlte number of shifting lakelets— with their depodla 
—played an important part along the ice-front at alt tuges 
of its csreec. The InaucDcc of Ibis period upon the present 



distribution of plant and anima! life in northern latitudes can 
hardly be overestimated. 

Much stress has been laid upon supposed great changes in 
the level of the land in northern regions during the Glacial 
period. The occurrence of marine shells at an elevaUon of 
1350 ft. at Moel Tryfaen in north Wales, and at 1200 ft. near 
Macclesfield in Cheshire, has been cited as evidence of profound 
submergence by some geologists, though others see in these 
and similar occurrences only the transporting action of ice-sheets 
that have traversed the floor of the adjoining seas. Marine 
shells in stratified materials have been found on the coast of 
Scotland at xoo ft. and over, in S. Scandinavia at 600 to 800 ft., 
and in the " Champlain " deposits of North America at various 
heights. The dead shells of the " Yoldia clay " cover wide areas 
at the bottom of the North Atlantic at depths from 500 to 1300 
fathoms, though the same mollusc is now found living in Arctic 
Kas at the depth of 5 to 15 fathoms. .This has been looked upon 
as a proof that in the N.W. European region the lithosphere 
stood about -3600 ft. higher than it does now (BrOgger, Nansen, 
&c.), and it has been suggested that a union of the mainland of 
Europe with that of North America — ^forming a northern con- 
tinental mass, " Prosarctis " — may have been achieved by way 
of Iceland, Jan Mayen Land 'uid Greenland. The pre-glacial 
valleys and fjords of Norway and Scotland, with their deeply 
submerged seaward ends, .are regarded as proofs of former 
elevation. The great depth of alluvium in some places (236 
metres at Bremen) points in the same direction. Evidences of 
dianges of level occur in eariy, middle and late Pleistocene 
formations, and the nature of the evidence is such that it is on 
the whole safer to assume the existence only of the more moderate 
degree of change. 

Tke Cause of the Glacial Period. — ^Many attempts have been 
made to formulate a satisfactory hypothesis that shall conform 
with the known facts and explain the great change in climatic 
conditions which set in towards the dose of the Tertiary era, 
and culminated during the Glacial period. .Some of the more 
prominent hypotheses may be mentioned, but space will not 
permit of a detailed analysis of theories, most of which rest 
upon somewhat unsubstantial ground. The principal facts 
to be taken into consideration are (x) the great lowering of 
temperature over the whole earth; (2) the localization of 
extreme gladation in north-west Europe and north-east America; 
and (3) the local retrogression of the ice-sheets, once or more 
times repeated. 

Some have suggested the simple solution of a change ih the 
earth's axis, and have indicated that the pole may have travelled 
through some 15" to 20* of laUtude; thus, the polar glaciation, 
as it now exists,might have been in this way transferred to indude 
north-west Europe and North America; but modem views on 
the rigidity of the earth's body, together with the lack of any 
evidence of the correlative movement of climatic zones in other 
parts of the world, render this hypothesis quite untenable. 
On similar grounds a change in the earth's centre of gravity is 
unthinkable. Theories based upon the variations in the obliqiuity 
of the ecliptic or eccentridty of the earth's orbit, or on the 
passage of the solar system through cold regions of space, or 
upon the known variations in the heat emitted by the sun, are 
aU insecure and unsatisfactory. The hypothesis elaborated by 
James Croll {Phil. Mag., 1864, 28, p. 121; Climate and Time, 
X875; and Discussion on Oimate and Cosmology, 1889) was 
founded upon the assumption that with the earth's eccentridty 
at its mnximum and winter in the north at aphelion, there would 
be a tendency in northern latitudes for the accumulation of snow 
and ice, whidi would be accentuated indirectly by the formation 
of fogs and a modifieation of the trade winds. The shifting of 
the thermal equator, and with it the direction of the trade winds, 
would divert some of the warm ocean currents from the cold 
regions, and this effect was greatly enhanced, he considered, 
by the configuration of the Atlantic Ocean. CrolFs hypothesis 
was supported by Sir R. Ball {The Cause of tke Great Ice Age, 
tSgz), and It met with very general acceptance; but it has 
been destructivdy criticized by Professor S. Newcomb (Phil, 

Mag., 1876, X883, 1884) and by E. P. Cttlverwell (PkU, Mag,, 
X894, p. S4I* and Geol. Mag., 1895, pp. 3 and 55). The difficulties 
in the way of Croll's theory are: (x) the fundamental assump* 
tion, that midwinter and midsummer temperatures are dlirectly 
proportional to the sun's heat at those periods, is not in accord- 
ance with observed facts; (3) the gladal periods would be 
limited in duration to an appropriate fraction of the precessional 
period (31,000 years), which appears to be too short a time for 
the work that was actually done by ice agency; and (3) CroU's 
gladal periods would alternate between the northern and 
southern hemispheres, affecting first one then the otlier. Sir 
C. Lyell and others have advocated the view that great elevation 
of the land in polar regions would be condudve to gladal condi- 
tions; this is doubtle^ true, but the evidence that the Glacial 
period was primarily due to this cause is not well established. 
Other writers have endeavoured to support the elevation theory 
by combining with it various astronomical and meteorologiaU 
agencies. More recently several hypotheses have been advanced 
to explain the gladal period as the result of changes in the 
atmosphere; F. W. Harmer (*' The Influence of Winds upon the 
Climate during the Pleistocene Epoch," Q.J.G.S., xgoi, 57, 
p. 405) has shown the importance of the ixifluence of winds in 
certain circumstances; Marsden Manson ("The Evolution of 
Ch'mate," American Geologist, 1899, 24, p. 93) has laid stress 
upon the influence of clouds; but ndther of these theories 
grapples successfully with the fundamental difficulties. Othen 
again have requisitioned the variability in the amount of the 
carbon dioxide in the atmosphere — hypotheses which depend 
upon the efficiency of this gas as a thermal absorbent. The 
supply of carbon dioxide may be increased from time to time, 
as by the emanations from volcanoes (S. Arrhenius and A. G. 
Hogbom), or it may be decreased by absorption into sea-water, 
and by the carbonation of rocks. Professor T. C. Chamberlia 
based a theory of gladation on the depiction of the carbon 
dioxide of the air (" An Attempt to frame a Working Hypothesis 
of the cause of Glacial Periods on an Atmospheric Basis," JL 
Geol., X899, vii. 752-771; see also Chamberlin and Salisbury, 
Geology, 1906, ii. 674 and iii. 432). The outline of this 
hypothesis is as follows: The general conditions for gladation 
were (i) that the oceanic circulation was interrupted by the 
existence of land; (2) that vertical drculation of the atmosphere 
was accelerated by continental and other influences; (3) that 
the thermal blanketing of the earth was reduced by a depletion 
of the moisture and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, and that 
hence the average temperature of the surface of the earth and 
of the body of the ocean was reduced, and diversity in the 
distribution of heat and moisture introduced. The localization 
of glaciation is assignable to the two great areas of permanent 
atmospheric depression that have thdr present centres near 
Greenland and the Aleutian Islands respectively. The periodidty 
of glacial advances and retreats, demanded by those who believe 
in the validity of so-called " intergladal " epochs, is explained 
by a series of complicated processes involving the alternate 
depletion and completion of the normal charge of carbon dioxide 
in the air. 

Whatever may be the ultimate verdict upon this difficult 
subject, it is tolerably dear that no simple cause of gladal 
conditions Is likely to be discovered, but rather it will appear 
that these conditions resulted from the interaction of a compli- 
cated series of factors; and further, until a greater degree of 
unanimity can be approached in the interpretation of ol^rved 
facta, particularly as regards the substantlah'ty of intergladal 
epochs, the very foundations of a sound working hypothesis 
are wanting. 

Classification of Glacial Deposits — Intergladal Epochs. — ^Had 
the deposits of gladated regions consisted solely of boulder 
day little difficulty might have been experienced in dealing 
with their classification. But there are intercalated in the boulder 
days those irregular stratified and partially stratified masses 
of sand, gravel and loam, frequently containing marine or 
freshwater shells and layers of peat with plant remains, which 
have given rise to the conception of '' intergladal epochs "— 



pidMi ts tfce ii(0niii* caaiUoat ol |'«^«*'i", wben (be in- 
■beeU dwindled ulnigit CDticdy iVir; vliik pluls ud uumili 
re-BUbliifat<liliemKtvc<ontbeiieir1ycipowd*oiL' GkckiUu 
may be nnfcd in two tchooU: tboM wbo b«liev< that one or 
more pluses of foildfr dinuiic OHkditMMU broke Up tbe vbol* 
Gladal period ioto ilienutinc epocb* ol tftciitloB Hid "de- 
(kciitios "; and lime who believe tlut tbe loteialiUd 
depoeiu npiBCDt nthir the Uaiiud nccauoiw) movemcnli 
ol the jcc-ibeet8 withio ooe liDgle peiiod of fUcUtioD- In 
addition to tbe atntitied depuaiti and tbciz cODtenta, ImpoitanC 
cvidCDCe In flioiu ol islei^adal epocha occuii is the pmence 
of weaibcnd Miiaft* on tb« ti^ t^ oldei boulder dajn, which 
ue Ibcmadvei covtnd by younger ^adal dquiita. 

The eame of the latenlacU byvothcA Inh bees laort ardotlr 
fliarapiiiMil ia Es^Dd bv fndaH Jmrna Ceikie; who bat ta- 
dravouird la ibov clut tnere were in Europe uc diatioct eluial 
epcxlu within tbe Ctadalpcriod, separated by five eijocba of more 
modsmlc lempcnturT. Thnr an enumnatnl bekiw: 

tth ClidaJ epoch. Upper TuifauiaH, indioatal by the depodta of 
peal whieh u<£Uc^thenDw<T lucd beacbta. 

Jlh tMtnduial tfBik, U^ptr Fmilua. 

Sib Gtadal epeefa. Ldwit Tuiluriin, bdlcato) by peat depoelta 
ovcriyirw the lower foreai-bed, by iTie mted bcacnea and cine- 
ekiy* a( Scodaad. aad In piil by the Uunju-dayi ol Scandinavia. 

4ih lnurilaaal tttik. Lnir fenattn, the lowir fsmu unds 
ptil bed>, Ste AmtfiMt-bKlt ol the gieat fmhmer Bilik lake and 
tbe Lilfdrma-dayi of Scandinatoa, 

4th Glacial epoch, MfcklenburEiaq, npmeiHed by the moraEnea 
of the lait great Baltic [iader, which reach Iheir aoolhcm Limit la 
"--■-■--'- lie loo-ft. terrace of ScDtlaod and the yaUu-bedi of 

5rd Inier^ocvl ebock, Heudftiinn, Intercjtationi of marine and 
freihwater deposits In the bouldcrciayBoftfic tour hem Baltic coasls- 

3rd Gladal epoch. PaUndian, glacial and fluvio-gboaLfonnatiaiii 
ol tbe niiior ScandinaviaB ia-ahiet; and tlia " upper boolder clay" 
ol MHtbcm and wEncm Europe 

ind tmitrAadat tpKt. IltbalM, iolcrEbdal beds ol Britain and 

aad Glacial epoch, Sasniati, depaaita ol the period ol maitnniB 
Adatioa whea the aonbem ice^bcet nachcd the low gnond ol 
Suaoy, wid the Alplae gladera fonned the DUlernKst nurainn 

IK lUwIuJol tfirli, VtrfMlaii, the lomi-bcd lerin of Norfolk. 

lit Glac&l epoch. Seanlan, TepreteBled ohIt in the aouih ot Swnlin, 
--lc(b^. The ChiUnfonl 

lie Arctic hods oiay b 
^"rafestor Chamberlln _ . _ 
rd the followinf ttagea in 

The'champlaln, marine tubttage. 

Tbe GLacio-lac4utrine tubttage. 

The later Wtcontin (6th glaclil). 

Thi Ml* Mrr^aaal. 

Tha earlier WMOtia fnh gbdal). 

ni ^Mrte <4fk faln^Eii]). 

The lowifl (4th gtadal). 

Tie 5aiiHitas (iri itltrAuialJ. 

The IIKnoba (Jn) riaciatJT 

Tht YarmaUk n Aiiatan imJ bttBgaiiii^i. 

The KaoKii (and glacialt. 

Til Afmia* frti nuit^iali. 

Tbe lub-Altofuan or JerseyaB (tit glacial). 
AlltuHigh it B admitted that no strict correlallaa ol the Europctn 
and North American tlnget it possible, it has been suggetted that 
the Allonian may be the equivalent si the Hdveiian: the Kanian 
■lay repRaeni the Saaonian; the lowan, tbe Polandian; the 
ttneyani the ScanLan; the early Witconsin, the Mecldenbur^n. 

{oSd'tchcme (or"—' 
three flacial aid 

Poit<;iadal epoch 

Ind Intp^vial epoc Including the Cr^/iHi.clay, 
fnd Glacial epoch, ihe maiirnvm glacution. 
lat luurfiadal epotk. 
lat Cla(4a] epoch, " older boitldw clay." 

toia, i* the Alpa bar iHngliidal cpodM ham baaa Rcct^aad; 

while in EnaUnd there an many who are wUUng lo concede one 
'i. tnoMfh even for this the ev' 

II flaciiiitta {< 

{SI W? 

Lamplugh, AddiiB, Sectio 

_. .._. — , ^ ia doquat ef Ihe diKculuea ol the 

Lhjflct: It m impoatible not Lo aee that the dlacovery dJ inierglaciat 
iDchi bearaacloaerclatTaDahlp to the ori^ of certain hypotheaei 
Che came of glacialioaj while It it t^slficajil that lEiDae who 

ana ol climate, thart those i^ have fouodcd their viewa upon tbe 

Eiliof 1^ Claciaf Difsiilr.— From evideBce of tbe Uod dtcd above, 
.. appears that during tha aiacial period a acriea of great ice>ihceta 

covered enormoua areas in North AiBciica and nortrhwest Europe, 
rvered during tl- = ' r.v. :_ u.. u^Z. 

iQ~^i^nh A^ieiica and 6} mi 
aq. mj In Europe 

In Europe thJet great cei 

" . _t! ," " .'. ,'ii tbe Itli'in 

irregular teriea ol lobei along the SchiefeneUrge, Han, 
igetwahL EngeUtge aod Rieaeiigebhie, anf tht nortbcm 

of the Carpalhiant towards Cracow. Down the valley of 

tbe Dnieper a lobe ol the ice^beet pniecled at tar as 4D* sa* N.; 
anotbet- lobe ealended down the Doa valley aa jar as yi* W.j iheao 
•■■- >-■ indary rant nottb^atcerty towardi the Urab and die Kan 
rhe British Islaods CDOiIituted the tenlic tecood b import- 
" bat tbe aoutbern pan ol England 
.. _^ On thawew the k»;iheeu reached 

Scandinavia. The third European centre was the Alpine tegioii: 
it it abondantly clear from the manes of montnic delrftut and 
pgcbed btocka that here, in the tjine of matlniiim tlKiation, the 

vhich Kill remain in the Fxlnlngglaclen. All tbe vaUeya wan filled 
A. i, :i moving ice ; thus the Rhone glacier at Its mudmum filled Uka 
Ccn.^va aniflfie plain between the Bemcie Oberland and the Jura; 
ii 4^von overrode the latter and advanced towards Detancoti. Ea- 
ten'^ive Klocialioji was not limiipd lo the aforeaaid regiodt. for all 
ihL nccu of high ground had th<ir independent gloaert stivwly 
diT'.bped; the Pyrenca, th>: <'ntr>l higliUndi of FranccTtU 
Vo^^rt, Black Forest, Apenniii''^ and Caucasus were cenljes cd 
minur but trill iniportani glaciarint. 

Tbe grealest eipandon of Ice-tMeta waa kcatcd on tbh North 
American coniineni; here. loo. than wan thne principal ceama 
of outllow: Ihe " CordUleran '' icfrsheel in Ok ITW., the " Kee- 
naiin " iheei. nilisiing from Ihe (eatnl Canadian pWns, and the 
Mitem '■ Labrador " or " Laurenikle " sliett. From each of tbeae 
fcntns the ire poured outwardt in ewy dlrectlo>4 bot the ptiac^ 

hamA ir. . ■ 'K .III..: .-. I riini ai an irregular line along tbe 
W V I f the continent. Ilfence H roTlovs 

-' ■■ — 'tb with the Ohio {■ ' 

DC uiiTEuoa « New Jersey. Atiakurope, 

_ .., — jf North America produced their owo local 

iders: ia the Rockia, the Ofympics and Sierras, the Bighorn 
oaatalaa ol Wyoiaia|. lheUjaaMonalal»n<Utah,ac. Ahlkiugh 

in South 

took place, I 

America. New Zaiand,~Ai 

downlhevalteyi' ' ' 

below the existing limlta, and even where 

ifChinaandEaiteinSiberia. T 

ubatigutu, poUthed ani 
■ermiaa Breccia of Sbi 

rcglaaaof all 

.... llngliaills, and even where n 

In Asia tbe evldencn of a former eateni 
lyu, and iKTthwa '' 


S40a ft. below their modem limit. In Icebnd and 

I MH.H :■■ f h* Antarctic, then appean to be evidence 

of the ice. Iliaeiinunat to note thai 

lies in Wiseontla. Themaidnumfladaiionof 
' - nnred anmnd (he North Aitantic. 
C rstogiia l Artsdi.— Shiee Raaiany 
ItU (" On tbeoccnrremof aafular, 


SbKuhire. We 

Ai;.£. ilW, PP- iS^^. ■ (ood deal etattemloa hat beaa p^ 
such tormalnn. It & aow genenlly acknasriedicd that tbe 
rmourbonifemia congloinerates with striated Gouldors and 

ioulh Africa, tbe Tal 




sbdal condltkmi at that oeriod on the great Indo-Auftfafon 
continent. A glacial origin bas been tuggested for numerous other 
conglomeratic formations, such as the Pre-Cambrian Tomdonian of 
Scotland, and " Geisaschichten" of Norway: the bantl Carboniferous 
conglomerate of parts of England ; the Permian breccias of England 
and parts of Europe: the Trias of Devonshire; the coane con- 
glomerates in the Tertttry Flysch in central Europe ; and the Miocene 
conglomerates of the Ligurian Apennines. In regard to the glacial 
nature of all these formations there b, however, great divergence of 
opinion (see A. Heim. " Zur Frage der exotischen BlScke in Flysch," 
Eclot^ itolopau HdotHae, vol. ix. No. 3, 1007, pp. yy^A)- , . 
AuTROiXTiss.— The literature dealing directly with the Gucal 
period has reached enormous dimenaons; in addition to the works 
already mentioned the following may be taken as a guide to the 
genenl outline of the stfbjcct: J. Geikie. The Great Ice Ate {xrd ed., 
London. 1904). also Earth Sculpture (1898); G. F. Wri«ht, TA« Ice 
Age in North America (4th ed., New York, 1905) and Man and the 
Glacial Period (1892)^; F. E. Geinitz, Die Eisuit (Braunschweig, 
1906) : A. Penck and E. Brflckner, Die Alpen im Eiszeitalter (Leipzig, 
1901-1906. uncompleted). Many references to the literature wiU be 
found in Sir A. Geikie's Texthooh ofGeohry, vol. ii. (dth ed.. 1903); 
Chambetlin and Salisbury. Geotoey,'\o\. in. (1906). As an example 
of glacial theories carried t)eyoiid the usual limits, see M.Gugenhan, 
Die Ertletscheruttg der. Erde von Pol tu Pot (Berlin, 1906). See also 
Zeitsehriftfar Gletscherhunde (Berlin, 1906 and onwards quarterly): 
Sir H. H. Howorth (opposing accepted glacial theories), The Glacial 
Nightman and the Flood, i., li. (London, 1893), /<« ^"d Water, x., iL 
(London, 1903), The Mammoth and the Flood (London. 1887). 

(J. A. H.) 

OLACIBR (adopted from the French; from glace t ice, Lat. 
gfacies), a mass of compacted ice originating in a snow-field. 
Gladen are formed on any portion of the earth's surface that 
is permanently above the snow-line. This line varies locally 
in the same latitudes, being in some places higher than in others, 
but in the main it may be described as an elliptical shell surround- 
ixw the earth with its longest diameter in the tropics and its 
shortest in the polar regions, where it touches sea-level. From 
the extreme regions of the fistXxc and Antarctic circles this cold 
shell swells upwards into a broad dome, from is>ooo to x 8,000 ft. 
high over the tropics, truncating, as it rises, a number of peaks 
and mountain ranges whose upper portions like all regions 
above this thermal shell receive all their moisture in the form of 
snow. Since the temperature above the snow-line is below 
freezing point evaporation b very slight, and as the snow b 
acrfid it tends to accumulate in snow-fiel<b, where the snow of 
one year b covered by that of the next, and these are wrapped 
over many deeper layers that have fallen in previous years. 
If these piles of snow- were rigid and immovable they would 
increase in height until the whole field rose above the sone of 
ordinaiy atmospheric precipitation, and the polar ice-caps would 
i^dd a load to these regions that wotdd produce far-reaching 
results. The mountain regions also would rise some miles in 
height, and all their features would be buried in domes of snow 
some miles in thickness. When, however, there b sufficient 
weight the mass yields to pressure and flows outwards and 
downwards. Thus a balance of weight and height is established, 
and the ice-field is disintegrated principally at the edges, the 
surplus in polar regions being carried off in the form of icebergs, 
and in mountain regions by streams that flow from ths melting 
ends of the gladers. 

Farimi/tMi.— The formation of glaciect b in all cases due to 
similar causes, namely, to periodical and intermittent faUs of 
snow. After a snow-fall there b a period of rest during which 
the snow becomes compacted by pressure and assumes the 
well-known gmnular character seen in banks and patches of 
ordinary snow that lie longest upon the ground when the snow 
b melting. Thb b' the )Krn or nM. The next fall of snow covers 
and conceab the n£v£, but the* light fresh crysub of thb new 
snow In turn become compacted to the coarsely crystalline 
granular form of the underlying byer and become n£v6 in turn. 
The process goes on continually; the lower Jay ers become subject 
to greater and greater pressure, and in consequence become 
gradually compacted into dense clear ice, which, however, retains 
its granular crystalline texture throughout. The upper layers 
of nfv6 are usually stratified, owing to some individual peculiarity 
in the fall, or to the accumulation of dust or d6brb upon the 
nirlace befon it b covered by fresh snow. Thb itntificatioa 

b of ten vbibfc on the emerging ghider, though it b to be diMlDp 
gubhed from the foliation planes caused by shearing movemokt 
hi the body of the gUcier ice. 

Ty^f.— The snow-field upon which a glacier depends b 
idways formed when snow-fall b greater than snow-waste. TUs 
occurs under varying conditions with a differently restilting 
type of gUder. There are limited fidds of snow in many 
mountain regions giving rise to long tongues of ice moving 
slowly down the vaDeys imd therefore called " valley gUdcrs." 
The greater part of Greenland b covered by an ice-cap extending 
over nearly 400,000 sq. m., forming a kind of enormous continuous 
glader on its lower slopes. The Antarctic ice region b bdieved 
to extend over more than 3^000,000 aq. m. Each of these 
continental fidds, besides producing blodi ss distinguished 
from tongue gladers, sends into the sea a great number of ice- 
bergs during the summer season. These ice-caps covering 
great regions are by far the most Important types. Between 
these " pobr " or " continental gladers " and the " alpine " 
type there are many grades. Smaller deUched ice-caps may 
rest upon hi^ pbteaus as in Iceland, or several tongues of ice 
coming down neighbouring valleys may splay out into convergent 
lobes on lower ground and form a " piedmont glader " such as 
the Malaspina Glader in Alaska. When the snow-fidd lies in a 
small depression the glader may remain suspended in the 
hoUow and advance no farther than the edge of the snow-field. 
Thb b called a " cUff-glader," and b not uncommon in mountain 
regions. The end of a larger glader, or the edge of an ice-sheet, 
may reach a precipitous diff, where the ice will break from the 
edge of the advancing mass and fall in blocks to the lower ground, 
where a " reconstructed glader " will be formed from the frag- 
ments and advance farther down the slope. 

When a gUdcr originates upon a dome-shaped or a level 
suxf ace the ice will deploy radially in all directions. When a 
snow-fidd b formed above steep valleys separated by high 
ridges the ice will flow downwards in long streams. If the 
vaUcys under the snow-fields arc wide and shallow the resultant 
glaciers will broaden out and partially fill them, and In all cases, 
since the conditions of glacier formation are similar, the resultant 
form and the direction of motion will depend upon the amount 
of ice and the form of the surface over which the glacier flows. 
A ^ader flowing down a narrow goige to an open valley, or on 
to a plain, will spread at its foot into a fan-shaped lobe as the 
ice ^reads outwards while moving downwards. An ice-cap 
b In the main thickest at the centre, and thins out at the edges. 
A valley glacier b thickest at wait point between its source 
and Its end, but nearer to its source than to its termination, 
but its thickness at various portions vrill depend upon the 
contour of the valley floor over which the glacier rides, and 
may reach many hundreds of feet. At its centre the Greenland 
ice-cap is estimated to be over 5000 ft. thick. In all cases the 
glader ends where the waste of ice is greater than the supply, 
and since the relationship varies in different years, or cycles of 
years, the end of a g}acicr may advance or retreat in harmony 
with greater or less snow-fall or with cooler or hotter summers. 
There seems to be a cyde of Indusive contraction and expansion 
of from 35 to 40 or 50 years. At present the ends of the Swiss 
glaciers arc cradled in a mass of moraine-stuff due to former 
extension of the glaciers, and Investigations in India show that 
in some parts of the Himalayas the gladers are retreating as 
they are in North America and even in the southern hemisphere 
{Nature, January 2, xgoS, p. 30i). 

Movement.— -ThciAct that a glader moves b easily demon- 
strated; the cause of the movement b pressure upon a yielding 
mass; the nature of the movement is still under discussion. 
Rows of stakes or stones placed in h'ne across a gbdcr are found 
to change their position with respect to objects on the bank and 
also with regard to each other. The posts in the centre of the 
ice-stream gradually move away from those at the side, proving 
that the centre moves faster than the sides. It has also been 
proved that the surface portlor4S move more rapidly than the 
deeper Uyers and that the motion b slowest at the sides and 
bottom where friction b greatest. 



Hie xate pf motion past the same spot is aot miif onn. Heat 
accelerates it, cold arrests it, and the pressure of a Urge amount 
o£ water stimulates the flow. The rate of flow under the same 
conditions varies at different parts of the glacier directly as the 
thtrknrw of ice, the steepness of slope and the smoothness of 
rocky floor. Generally spealung, the rate of motion depends 
upon the amount of ice that forms the " head " pressure, the 
slope of the under surface and of the upper surface, the nature 
of the floor, the ten^perature and the amount of water present 
in the ice. The ordinary rate of motion is very slow. In Switzer- 
land it is from x or a in. to 4 ft. per day, in Alaska 7 ft., in Green- 
land 50 to 60 ft., and occasionally xoo fL per day in the height 
t>f sununer under exceptional conditions of quantity of ice and 
of water and slope. Measurements of Swiss gladecs show that 
near the ice foot where wastage is great there is veiy little 
movement, and observations upon theinland border of Greenland 
ice show that it is almost stationary over long distances. In 
many aspects the motion <rf a body of ice resembles that of a 
bcdy of water, and an alpine glacier is often called an ice-river, 
since like a river it moves faster in the centre than at the sides 
and at the top faster than at the bottom. A gUder follows a 
curve in the same way as a river, and there appear to be ice 
swirls and eddies as well as an upward creep on slielving curves 
recalling many features of stream action. The rate of motion 
of both ice-stream and river is accelerated by quantity and 
ste^ness of slope and retarded by roughness of bed, but here 
the oomparison ends, for temperature does not affect the rate 
of water motion, nor will a liquid crack into crevasses as a glacier 
does, or move upwards over an adverse slope as a gladcr always 
does when there is suflkient ** head " of ice above it. So that 
although in many Ksptcts ice behaves as a viscous fluid the 
comparison with such a fluid is not perfect. The cause of glacier 
motion must be based upon some more or less complex considera- 
tions. The flakes of snow are gradually transformed into 
granules because the points and angles of the original flakes 
melt and evi^xnate more readily than the more solid central 
portions, which become aggregated round some master flake 
that continues to grow in the n£v6 at the expense of its smaller 
nei^bours, and increases in size until finally ehe gbder ice is 
omnposed of a mass of interlocked crystalline gramdes, some ta 
large as n walnut, closely compacted under pressure with the 
principal crystalline axes in various directions. In the upper 
portions of the grader movement due to pressure probably 
takes place by the gliding of one granule over another. In this 
connexion it must be noted that pressure lowers the melting 
point of ice while tension raises it, and at all points of pressure 
there is therefore a tendency to momentary melting, and also 
to some evaporation due to the heat caused by pressure, and at 
the intermediate tension spaces between the points of pressure 
this resultant liquid and vapour will be at once re^frozen and 
become sc^d. lie granular movement is thus greatly facilitated, 
while the body of ice remains in a crystalline solid condition. 
In this connexion it is well to remember that the pressure of 
the glader upon its floor will have the same result, but the 
effect here is a mass-effect and facilitates the gliding of the ice 
over obstades, since the friction produces heat and the pressure 
lowers the mdting point, so that the two causes tend to liquefy 
the portkm where pressure is greatest and so to " lubricate " 
the prominences and enable the glader to slide more easily over 
them, while the liquid thus produced is re-frozen when the 
pressure is xemoved. 

In polar regions of very low temperature a very oonsideraUe 
amount of pressure must be necessary before the ice granules 
yield to momentary liquefaction at the points of pressure, and 
this probably aocoonts for the extreme thicknrss of the Arctic 
and Antarctic ioe<ap8 where the slopes are moderate, for although 
equally low temperatures are fomtd in hi^ Alpine snow-fidds 
the slopes there are exceedingly steep and motion is therefore 
more aaaily produced. 

Observations made upon the Greenland gladers indicate 
a considerable amount of " shearing " movement in the lower 
portions of a glacier. Where obstades in the bed of the 

arrest the movement of the Ice immedlatdy above it, or where 
the lower portion of the glader Is choked by debris, the upper 
ice glides over the lower in shearing planes that are sometimes 
strongly marked by d£btis caught and pushed forwards along 
these planes of foliation. It must be remembered that there 
is a solid push from behind upon the lower portion of a glader, 
quite different from the pressure of a body of water upon any 
point, for the pressure of a fluid is equal in all directions, and 
also that this push will tend to set the crystalline granules in 
positltms in which their crystalline axes are paralld along the 
gliding planes. The production of gliding planes is in some 
cases faciliuted by the descent into the glacier o^ water melted 
duxiog summer, where it expands in freezing and pushes the 
adjacent ice away from it, forming a surface iJong which move- 
ment is readily established. 

If under all circumstances the glader melted imder pressure 
at (he bottom, gladal abrasion would be nearly impossible, since 
every small stone and fragment of rock would rotate in a liquid 
shell as the ioe moved forward, but since the pressure is not 
alwasrs sufiident to produce mdting, the glader sometimes 
remains dry at its base; rock fragments are hdd firmly; and 
a dry glader may thus become a graving tool of enormous 
power. Whatever views may be adopted as to the causes of 
glader motion, the peculiar character of gUder ice as distinct 
from homogeneous river or pond ice must be kept In view, as 
well as the characteristic tendency of water toezpand in freezing, 
the lowering of the mdting point of ice under pressure, the 
raising of the melting point under tension, the production of 
gliding or shearing planes under pressure ^m above, the 
presence in summer of a considerable quantity of water in the 
lower portions of the glader which are thus loosened, the cracking 
of ice (as into crevasses), under sudden strain, and the regelation 
of ice in contact. A result of this last process is that fissures 
are not permanent, but having been produced by the passage 
of ice over an obstruction, they subsequently become healed 
when the ice proceeds ovisr s flatter bed. Finally it must be 
remembered that although glacier ice behaves in some sense 
like a viscous fluid its condition is totally different, since " a 
glader Is a crystalline rock of the purest and simplest type, and 
it never has other than the crystalline state.'* 

Ckaraderistia, — ^The general appearance of a glader varies 
according to its environment of position and temperature. 
The upper portion is hidden by n^vl and often by freshly fallen 
snow, and is smooth and unbrokeiL During the summer, when 
little snow falls, the body of the glader moves away from the 
snow-fidd and a gaping crevasse of great depth is usually 
established called the bergsckrmidf which Is sometimes taken 
as the upper limit of the gjacier. The glader as it moves down 
the valley may become " loaded " in various ways. Rock-falls 
send periodical' showers of stones upon it from the hdghts, and 
these are spread out into long lines at the glader sides as the ice 
moves downwards carrying the rock fragments with it These 
are the ** lateral moraines." When two or more gladers descend- 
ing adjacent valleys converge Into one glader one or more sides 
of the higher valleys disappear, and the Ice that was contained 
in several valleys is now carried by one. In the simplest case 
where two valleys converge into one the two iimer lateral 
moraines meet and continue to stream down the larger valley 
as one " median moraine." Where several valleys meet there 
are several such parallel median moraines, and so long as the ice 
remains unbroken these will be carried upon the surface of the 
glader and finally tif^ied over the end. There is, however, 
diffoential heating of rode and ice, and if the stones carried 
are thin they tend to sink Into the Ice because they absorb 
heat readily and melt the ice under them. Dust has the 
same effect and produces *' dust wells " that honeycomb the 
upper surface of the Ice with holes into which the dust dnks. 
If the moraine rocks are thick they prevent the ice under 
them from mdting In sunlight, and isolated blocks often 
remain supported upon ke-pillars in the form of ice tables, 
which finally collapse, so that such rocks msy be scattered 
out of the line of the moraine. As the glader descends iMo 



the lower valleys it is more stronsjly bested, and suxfaoe 
streams are established in consequence that flow into channrh 
caused by unequal melting o£ the ice and finally plunge into 
crevasses. These crevasses are formed by strains established 
as the central parts drag away from the sides of the glacier and 
the upper surface from the lower, and more markedly by the 
tension due to a sydden bend in the glacier caused by an in- 
equality in its bed which must be over-ridden. These crevasses 
are developed at right angles to the strain and often produce 
intersecting fissures in several directions. The moraihic material 
is gradually dispersed by the inequalities produced, and is 
further distributed by the action of superficial streams until the 
whole surface is strewn with stones and debris, and presents, 
as in the lower portions of the Mer de Glace, an exceedingly 
dirty appearance. Many blocks of stone fall into the gaping 
crevasses and much loose rock is carried down as " engladal 
material " in the body of the glacier. Some of it reaches the 
bottom and becomes part of the "ground moraine" which 
underlies the glader, at least from the bergscknind to the " snout," 
where much of it is carried away by the issuing stream and 
spread finally on to the plains below. It appears that a very 
considerable amount of degradation is caused under the berg^ 
schrund by the mass (kf ice " plucking " and dragging great 
blocks of rock from the side of the mountain valley where the 
great head of ice rests in winter and whence it be^ns to move 
in summer. These blocks and many smaller fragments are 
carried downwards wedged in the ice and cause powerful abnsion 
upon the rocky floor, rasping and sooiing the channel, producing 
conspicuous striae, polishing and rounding the rock surfaces, 
and grinding the contained fragments as well as the surface 
over which it passes into small fragments and fine powder, 
from which " boulder clay " or " till " is finally produced. 
Emerging, then, from the snow-field as pure granular ice the 
glader gradually becomes strewn and fiUed with fordgn material, 
not only from above but also, as is very evident in some Greenland 
glaciers, occasionally from bdow by masses of fragments that 
move upwards along gliding planes) or are forced upwards by 
slow swirls in the ice itself. 

As a glader is a very brittle body any abrupt change in gradient 
will produce a number of crevasses, and these, together with 
those produced by dragging strains, will frequently wedge the 
grader into a mass of pinnades or siracs that may be partially 
healed but are usually evident when the mdting end of the 
glacier emerges suddenly from a steep vaUey. Here the streams 
widen the weaker portions and the moraine rocks fall from the 
end to produce the " terminal " moraine, which usually lies in 
a xrescentic heap endrcUng the glader snout, whence it can 
only be moved by a further advance of the glader or by the 
ordinary slow process of atmospheric denudation. 

In cases where no rock faUs upon the surface- there is a con- 
siderable amount of engladal mateiial due to upturning dther 
over accumulated ground d6bris or over structural inequalities 
in the rock floor. This is well seen at the steep sides and ends 
of Greenland gladers, where material frequently comes to the 
surface of the mdting ice and produces median and lateral 
moraines, besides appearing in enormous ** eyes " surrounded 
in the glacial body by contorted and foliated ice and sometimes 
produdng heaps and embankments as it is pushed out at the 
end of the mdting ice. 

The environment of temperature requires consideration. 
At the upper or dorsal portion of the glacier there is a zone 
of variable (winter and summer) temperature, beneath which, 
if the ice is thick enough, there is a sone of constant temperature 
which will be about the mean annual temperature of the region 
of the snow-fidd. Underlying this there is a more or less constant 
ventral or ground temperature, depending mainly iqMn the 
internal heat of the earth, whidi is conducted to the under 
surface of the glader where it slowly mdts the ice, the more 
readily because the pressure lowers the mdting point consider- 
ably, so that streams of water run constantly from beneath many 
ghders, adding their volume to the springs which issue from the 
lock. The middle aone of constant temperature is wcdgs-shaped 

in " alpine t* gladers, the apex pointing downwards to the none 
of waste. The upper cone of variable temperature is thinnest 
in the snow-field where the mean temperature is lowest, and 
entirdy dominant in the snout end of the glacier where the zone 
of constant temperature disappears. Two temperature wedges 
are thus superposed base to point, the one being thickest where 
the other is tldnnest, and both these lie upon the basal film of 
temperature where the escaping earth*heat is strengthened 
by that due to friction and pressure. The cold wave of winter 
may pass right through a thin glader, or the constant temperature 
may be too low to permit of the ice mdting at the base, in which 
cases the glader is " diy " and has great eroding power. But 
in the lower warmer portions water running through crevassel 
will raise the temperature, and increase the strength of the 
downward heat wave, while the mean annual temperature 
being there higher, the combined result will be that the gladef 
will gradually bcconae " wet " at the base and have little eroding 
power, and it will become more and more wet as it moves down 
the lower valley zone of ice-waste, until at last the balance 
is reached between waste and supply and the glader finally 

If the mean annual temperature be ao^ F., and the mean 
winter temperature be - la** F., as in parts of Greenland, all 
the ice must be considerably bdow the melting point, since the 
pressure of ice a mile in depth k>wen the melting point only 
to 30** F., and the earth-heat is only suffident to melt i in. of 
ice in a year. Therefore in these regions, and in snow-fidds and 
high gladers with an equal or lower mean temperature than 
20** F., the glacier will be ** dry " throughout, which may account 
for the great eroding power stated to exist near the bergsekrmid 
in gladera of an alpine type, which usually have thdr origin <m 
predpitous slopes. 

A considerable amount of ice-waste takes place by water- 
drainage, though much is the result of consUnt evaporation 
from the ice surface. The lower end of a glader is in summer 
flooded by streams of water that pour along cracks and plunge 
into crevasses, often forming ''m>t-holes" or numlitu where 
stones are swirled round in a gladal " mill " and wear holes 
in the solid rockr betow. Some of these streams issue in a spout 
half way up the giader's end wall, but the majority find their 
way through it and join the water running along the glader 
floor and emerging where the glacier ends in a large glacial 

Results of Clacuii Aaion. — A glader is a degrading and an 
aggrading agent. Much difference of opinion exists as to the 
potency of a glacier to alter surface features, some maintaining 
that it is extraordinarily effective, and considering that a valley 
glacier forms a pronounced cirque at the region of its origin 
and that the drque is gradually cut backward until a long and 
deep valley is formed (which becomes evident, as in the Rocky 
Mountains, in an upper valley with '* reversed grade " when 
the glader disappears), and also that the end of a glacier plunging 
into a valley or a fjord will gouge a deep basin at its region of 
impacL The Alaskan and Norwegian fjords and the rock basins 
of the Scottish lochs are adduced as examples. Other writera 
maintain that a glader is only a modifying and not a dominant 
agent in its effects upon the land-surface, considering, forexample, 
that a glader coming down a lateral valley will preserve the 
valley from the atmospheric denudation which has produced 
the main valley over which the lateral valley " hangs," a result 
which the believers in strong gladal action hold to be due to the 
more powerful action of the main s^der as contrasted with the 
weaker action of that in the lateral valley. Both the advocates 
and the opponents of strenuous ice action agree that a V«shaped 
valley of stream erosion is oonveited to a U'diaped valley of 
gladal modification, and that rock surfaces are rounded into 
rochts moutonnitSt and are grooved and striated by the passage 
of ice shod with fragments of rock, while the snbgladal material 
is ground mto finer and finer fragments until it becomes mud 
and " rock-flour " as the glader proceeds. In any case striking 
results ate manifest in any formcdy glaciated region. The high 



abon tbc focoKT ibcier, wbie bdow It tbc roataan an >B 

rmibdni And typIoUy Btibducd. A]addaap« 
coupleffiJy covend by a movih^ k«-up haa none but thc*c 
ftnuled featuTB of doEne^biped hJIb iikd U->baped vaUeyi 
that at leaat bear evidence to (be gnaC modilying power that 
A glacier has upoo ■ Jaoda c ape. 

Theie ia no conflict o[ opinion wilh regud to ^uul aggraduion 
and tbe diitiibuIiDa of lupeisladal, cnglacjal and aubgtadil 
matuiil, which during the active iiutence of ■ glader ii SaaDy 
distributed by giadal niami that prodnce veiy considerable 
aUuviukm. In muy legioni which were CDvcRd by Ibe 
FleiMOCEBe ice-aheel the work of the glader wu UTBted by 
melting belore it was half done. Gnat depoaiu of till and boiddei 
day that lay beneath tbe gladera were abajidoned !■ jitu, md 
iFmaia AA an unaorted mizture of targe boulden^ pebbles 
mingled frsgfneots, embedded in day or und- Tbe latfral^ 
median and terminal moninea were atianded where they sank 
as the [ce disappeaml, and together with perched blocks {rMktt 
fmhia) remain as a pennanent record of former conditloikB 
which are now found to have existed temporarily [n much euli 
geological times. In glaeiated North America lateral morain 

ijoo to Tooa ft. high. The surface of the ground in all these 
places is modified in 10 the cbarvcteristic glaciated landscape, 
and muy farmeriy deep valleys are choked with glacial debris 
dtha eoiniMely changing the local dialnage system], 1 
Kng the reappearing streams to cut new chi 
drainage system. Karnes also and eskers (f.v.) are left uiu 
certain csndilions, with many puzzling deposits that are clew 
dne to some featnres of ice-woii not LhorougUy undemood. 
See I, Ags»"ii. isui/s 

u Orlldiclcrmii i 

Alpn llBptit, isaihJ.TViKliU. rtiCi«im5liw!</?ML"n M 
1*16); T. C.Bonnfy. Icj-Wirk. fjn «,d ;•«.!». (Lundnn. .-.f6) 

nkd ig(x}; K. llc». Oh 
BlUHM. b military 
SnstciAn), an artificial slope ol earth in tbe front of w 

t under the fire of the 
On the natural gntund- 
niuld be sheltered from 

defenders 10 the last possible 

level. tiDopg attidiing any hi 

its fire when dote up to it; 

form a glacis, which is swept by the 6Te of the parapet- More 

generally, the term is used to deooli my slope, oalural or 

artificial, which fulfils the above refluitemems. 

SUDBACH, the name dI two lawns in Germany distinguished 
as Bersisch-Gladbach and MUnchen-Gladbacb. 

I. Beicisch-Gudbach n in Rhenish Prussia, S m. N.E. of 
Cologne by rail. Pop. (1905) ij,4>0' It possestea four large 
paper mill* and among its other Indnstrles are pute-board, 
powder, percussion caps, nets and machinery. Ironjione, 
peat and lime are found in the vicinity. Tbe town has four 
Roman Catholic churches and one Protestant. The Stundeo- 
thalshche, a popular resort, is in the neighbourhood, and near 
Glidbach is Alteoberg. with a remarkably fine church, built 
for the Cistercian abbey at this pbce. 

3. MSncben-Cudbacb, also in Rbeaish Pnm'a, 16 m. 
W.S.W. of DOaieldorf on the main lire of railway 10 Ai.-la- 
Chapelle, Pop. (igas)+4,i3a; (1905)60,714. It is one of the chief 

I)dng the ipinning and weaving of collon, the maBufacturr 
of sillis, velvet, ribbon and damasks, aud dyeing and bleaching. 

and fbondrio. The town po»esw« a fine park and has aiaiuH 
of the empetot William I, and of Prince Bismarck. There are 
lea Roman Catholic ctauichrs here, among ihem being the 
beaatiful minstet. with a Coihic choir dating from 1150, a nave 
dating from Ibe beginning of the ijlh century and a crypt of 
Ihe Sth century. The town has two bospiiils, several school!, 
•nd w the beadquarten of imporUnl insurance socictie). 

Oladbacb eakted hi 

dictrne monastery was founded ibear it in jqj. It waa thua 
odled MUnchen-Gladbach oc Monka' Gladbacb, to djatinguish 
It from another (own ol the same name. Tbo tnonastery waa 
suppressed in iSos, I( became a town In 1J56; weaving w 
intrtiducr ' ■ ■ ■ 

id of Ihe iStb o 

[0 tbe duchy of Julien it 

aUDDDT. WASBDIVRM (iB]«- ), Ameiican CoBgrcsa- 

el February 1S36. He gtadualed at WUliams College in 1850, 
preached hi churches m Brooklyn. Morrisania (New York City), 
North Adams, Masndiasetts, and Springfield, Maaadiuselli, 
and in ifESi becantc pastor of the First Congregational Church 
of Columbos, Ohio. He' was an edilor of tbe ItaUteuitHl in 
1871-1875, and a frequent c«n(ribulot 10 it and other periodicals. 
He consialenlly and eamally niged In pulpit and press the 
need of persona], dvil and, particularly, sodal righteousness, 
and in iQoo-rgoi waa a member of the dty coundi of Columbus. 
Among his many publications, which indude sermons, occaaional 
addresses, (ic, are: Plain TlumthU m Ou Art of Lainf (iS6g}; 
Workintmat and Uitir Emfhym (1S76]; Tit Ckrislian Way 
(1877)1 Tkinp Ntw ami OU (iSSf); Afflitd Ckrittiamly 
(rSS7); Tinls md lilt U an— Frattrly and Indialry aiidtr Uh 
Ckrislian Im (189]); Tit CImrrJi aiuf lie Kingdom (1B94), 

Sntn Pimlini BiiU B«iki {it/n): Hm m<ak ii Ujt tj Ihe Old 
DaclriHts (iS^]; Sadal SalKUitn (igoi); Wilaitui of Uu 
LitU Uvs): the William Belden Noble Lecture* (Harvard), 
being addresses on Dante. Michelangelo, Ficbte, Hugo, Wagner 
and Rtiskin; TAt New Idciatry (1905); CkrijJiatuiy and Sociai- 
iim dooi), and TAe CAarc* anJ if afm Lift (190S). In 1909 he 

OLADIATORB (from Lat. ftofiKi, sword), professional com- 
bs(anls who fought to (be destb in Roman public shows. Tbat 
this form of gpeclade, which Is ilinggt pKuliai to Rome and 
the Roman province*, was originally borrowed from EUuria 
ri shown by various bidicaiions. VHi aa Etruscan lomb dis- 
covered at Tarquinii there is a cepraentation of gjadialorial 
games; Ihe slavta employed 10 cany off the dead bodies fnun 
tbe arena wore masks representmg the Etruscan Chaton; and 
we learn from Isidore of Seville (Oiginei, z.) that the name for 
a trainer of gladiators (famila) a an Etr usca n word meaning 
butcher or ezeculioner. These gladiatorial games are evidently 
a survival of the practice of immolating slaves and prisoners 
on the tombs of Ulustrioui chieftains, 1 practice recorded in 
Greek, Roman and Scandinavian legends, and traceable even as 
late ss tbe igtfa century a* the Indian talla. Even at Rome 
they were fora long lime confined (0 funerals, and hence Ihe older 
name for gladiators waa builuarii; but in the later days of the 
republic their original significance waa forgotten, and they 
formed as indispensable a part of the public amusements as tbe 

Tbe first Radiator* in said, on the authority of Valerius 
Madmui (ii, 4. l). to have been eibibitcd at Rome in the Forum 
Boarium in 1A4 n.c. by Marcus and Dccimus Brutus at the 
funeral of (heir father. On this occasion only three pairs fought, 
but the taste for these games spread rapidly, and the number 
of corabalants grew apace. In 174 Tilus Flamininus celebrated 
l^is father's obsequies by a Ibree-days' fight, in which 74 gladiators 
took part. Julius Caesar engaged such eitravagani numbers 
for his aedileship (bat hi* pohtical opponents took fright and 


n he was 


le later days of the r 
constant element of danger to me puDUC 
' turbulent spirits among the nobility bad 
qladiators 10 act as a bodyguard, and Ihe 
odius, Milo and Catiline played the same part 



in Roman history h the armed leUlners of the feudal baroos 
or the oondottieri of the Italian republics. Under the empire, 
notwithstanding sumptuary enactments, the passion for the 
arena steadily increased. Augustus, indeed, limited the shows 
to two a year, and forbade a praetor to exhibit more than xao 
l^adiators, yet allusions in Horace {Sot, ii. .3. 85) and Persius 
(vi. 48) show that xoo pairs was the fashiortahle number for 
private entertainments; and in the Marmor Ancyranum the 
emperor stAes that more than zo,aoo men had fought during 
his reign. The imbecile Claudius was devoted to this pastime; 
and would sit from morning till night in his chair of state, descend- 
ing now and then to the arena to coax or force the reluctant 
gladiators to resume their bloody work. Under Nero senators 
and even weil4>om women appeared as combatants; and 
Juvenal (viii. 199) has handed down to eternal infamy the 
descemdant of the Gracchi who appeared without disguise as a 
retiaritu, and bened his life from the secutoTf who Uushed to 
conquer one so noble and so vile.' Titus, whom his countrymen 
sumamed the Qement, ordered a show which lasted 100 days; 
and Trajan, in celebration of his triumph over Decebalus, 
exhibited 5000 pairs of gladiators. Domitian at the Saturnalia 
of A.0. 90 arranged a battle between dwarfs and women. Even 
women of high birth fought in the arena, and it was not till 
A.D. 300 that the practice was forbidden by edict. How widely 
the taste for these sanguinary spectacles extended throughout 
the Roman provinces is attested by monuments, inscriptions 
and the remains of vast amphitheatres. From Britain to S3rria 
there was not a town of any sise that could not boast its arena 
and annual games. After Italy, Gaul, North Africa and Spain 
were most famous for their amphitheatres; and Greece was the 
only Roman province where the institution never thoroughly 
took root. 

Gladiators were commonly drawn either from prisoners of 
war, or slaves or criminals condemned to death. Thus in the 
first class we read of tattooed Britons in their war chariots, 
Thracians with their peculiar bucklers and scimitars. Moors 
from the villages round Atlas and negroes from central Africa, 
cadiibited in the Colosseum. Down to the time of the empire 
only greater malefactors, such as brigands and incendiaries, 
were condemned to the arena; but by Caligula, Claudius and 
Nero this punuhment was extended to minor offences, such as 
fraud and peculation, in order to supply the growing demand 
for victims. For the first century of the empire it was lawful 
for masters to sell their slaves as gladiators, but this was forbidden 
by Hadrian and Marcus Aurelius. Besides these three regular 
dasses, the ranks were recruited by a considerable number of 
f reedmen and Roman citizens who had squandered their estates 
and voluntarily took the oudoranunltim gladiatorium, by which 
for a stated time they bound themselves to the iamsta. Even 
men of birth and fortune not seldom entered the lists, either for 
the puce love of fighting or to gratify the whim of some dissolute 
emperor; and one emperor, Commodus, actually appeared in 
person in the arena. 

Gladiators were trained in schools {tudij owned either by 
the state or by private citizens, and though the trade of a 
lanista was considered disgraceful, to own gladiators and let 
them out for hire was reckoned a legitimate branch of commerce. 
Thus Cicero, in his letters to Atticus, congratulates his friend 
on the good bargain he had made in purchasing a band, and 
urges that he might easily recoup himself by consenting to let 
them out twice. Men recruited miainly from ^aves and criminals, 
whose lives hung on a thread, must have been more dangerous 
characters than modem galley slaves or convicts; and, though 
highly fed and carefully tended, they were of necessity subject 
to an iron disdpline. In the school of gladiators discovered at 
Pompeii, of the sixty-three skeletons buried in the cells many 
were in irons. But hard as was the fl^diators' lot, — so hard 
that special precautions had to be taken to prevent suicide,— 
it had its consolations. A successful gladiator enjoyed far 
greater fame than any modem prize-fighter or athlete. He was 

* See A. E. Housman on the patage in OassUalRewitw (November 

presented with broad pieces, chains and jewdled helmets, such 
as may be seen in the museum at Naples; poets like Martial 
sang his prowess; his portrait was multiplied on vases, lampa 
and gems; and high-bom ladies contended for his favours. 
Mixed, too, with the lowest dregs of the dty, there must have 
been many noble barbarians condemned to the vile trade by the 
hard fate of war. There axe few finer characters in Roman 
history than the Thradan Spartacus, who, escaping with seventy 
of his comrades from the school of Lentjilus at Capua, for three 
years defied the legions of Rome; and after Antony'is defeat at 
Actium, the only part of his army that remained faithful to 
his cause were the gladiators whom he had enrolled at Cyzicus 
to grace his anticipated victory. 

There were various classes of gladiators, distinguished by 
their arms or modes of fighting. The Samnites fought with the 
national weapons — a large oblong shield, a vizor, a plimied 
helmet and a short swoid. The Thraces had a small round 
buckler and a dagger curved like a.scythe; they were generally 
pitted against the Mirmillones, who were armed in Gallic fashion 
with helmet, sword and shield, and were so called from the fish 
0io/)m6Xor or /top/i6pot) which served as the crest of their helmeL 
In like manner the Retiariua was matched with the Secuto^: 
the former had nothing on but a short tunic or apron, and sought 
to entangle his pursuer, who was fully armed, with the cast-net 
ijaadnm) that he carried in his right hand; and if successful, 
he despatched him with the trident {Indttu, fuscma) that he 
carried in his left. We may also mention the Andabatae who 
are generally bdieved to have fought on horseback and wore 
helmets with dosed vizors; the Dimachaeri of the later empire, 
who carried a short sword in each hand; the Essedarii, who 
fought from chariots like the andent Britons; the Hoplomachi, 
who wore a complete suit of armour; and the Laqaeaxii, who 
^ed to lasso their antagonists. 

Gladiators also received special names according to the 
time or drcumstances in which they exercised their calling. 
The Bustuarii have already been mentioned; the Catcrvarii 
fought, not in pairs, but in bands; the Meridiani came forward 
in the middle of the day for the entertainment of those spectators 
who had not left their seats; the Ordinarii fought only in pairs, 
in the regular way; the Fiscalcs were trained and supported 
at the expense of the imperial treasury; the Paegniarii used 
harmless weapons, and their exhibition was a sham one; the 
Bdstulaticii were those whose i4>pearance was asked as a favour 
from the giver of the show, in addition to those already exhibited. 

The shows were announced some days before they took 
place by bills affixed to the walls of houses and public buildings, 
copies of which were also sold in the streets. These bills gave 
the names of the chief pairs of competitors, the date of the show, 
the name of the giver and the different kinds of combats. The 
spectade began with a procession of the gladiators through the 
arena, after which their swords were examined by the giver of 
the show. The proceedings opened with a sham fight (pradusio, 
prolusio) with wooden swords and javelins. The signal for real 
fighting was given by the sound of the. trumpet, those who 
showed fear being driven on to the arena with whips and red-hot 
irons. Wheii a gladiator was wounded, the spectators shouted 
Hal>ei (he is wounded) ; if he was at the mercy of his adversary, 
he lifted up his forefinger to implore the demency of the people, 
with whom (in the later times of the republic) the giver left the 
decision as to his life or death. If the spectators were in favour 
of mercy, they waved thdr handkerchiefs; if they desired the 
death of the conquered gladiator, they turned their thumbs 
downwards.* The reward of victory, consisted of branches of 
palm, sometimes of money. Gladiators who had exercised 
their calling for a long time, or such as displaced special skill 
and bravery, were presented with a wooden sword {rudis), and 
discharged from further service. 

* A different account is given by Mayor on Juvenal iii. xS, who 
•ays: "Those who wished the death of the conquered gladiator 
turned their thumbr towaids their breasts, asa signal to hisoppooents 
to stab him ; those who wished him to be spared, turned their thumbs 
downwards, as a signal for dropping the sword." 



Both tbe estimation in which gladiatorial garnet were held by 
Roman moralists, and the influence that they exercised upon the 
morab and genius of the nation, deserve notice. The Roman was 
essentially cruel, not so much from spite or vtndicttveneas as from 
callousness and defective sympathies. This element of inhumanity 
and brutality must have been deeply ingrained in the national 
character to nave allowed the games to become popular, but there 
can be no doubt that it was fed and fostered by the savage form 
jirhich their amusements took. That the sight of bloodshed provokes 
a lov« of bloodshed and cruelty is a commonpbce of morals. To 
the horrors of the arena we may attribute ia part, not only the 
brutal treatment of their slaves and prisoners, but the frequency 
of suicide among the Romans. On the other hand, we should be 
careful not to exsfggcratc the effects or draw too sweeping infer- 
ences from the prevalence of this degrading amusement. Human 
nature is hapi^y illogical; and w« know that many of tbe ftoman 
statesmen who i^ve these games, and thcmselvcsenjoycd these sights 
df blood, were m every other department of life irrcproachablie — 
indulgent fathers, humane generals and mild rulers of provinces. 
In the present state of society it u difficult to conceive how a man 
of taste can have endured to g^ upon a scene of human butchery. 
Yet we should remember that it is not so long since bear-baiting was 
prohibited in England, and we arc only now attaining that stage of 
mocaltty in respect of cruelty to animals that was reached in the 5th 
century, by the help of Christianity, in respect of cruelty to men. 
We shall not then be greatl^r surprised if hardly ooe of the Roman 
moralists is found to raise his voice against this amusementt except 
on the score of extravagance. Cicero in a well-known passage com- 
mends the gladiatorial games as the best discipline against the fear 
of death and suffering that can be presented to the eye. The 
vounger Pliny, who perhaps of all Romans ai>pro«ches nearest to our 
ideal of a cultured gentleman, speaks approvingly of them. Marcus 
Aurclius. though he did much to mitigate their horrors, yet in his 
writings condemns the monotony rather than the cruelty. Seneca 
is indeed a splendid exception, and his letter to Lentulus is an 
eloquent protest against this inhuman sport. But it is without 
a parallel till we come to the writings of the Christian fathers, 
TertulHan. Lactantius, Cyprian and Augustine. In the Confessions 
of the last there occurs a narrative which is worth quoting as a proof 
of the strange fascination which the games exercised even on a 
reiigious man and a Christian. He tcUs us how his friend Alipius 
was dragged against bb will to the amphitheatre, how be strove 
to quiet nis conscknce bv closing his eyes, bow at some exciting 
crisis the shouts of the whole assembly aroused his curiosity, how 
be looked and was lost, grew drunk with the sight of blood, and 
jetumed again and again, knowing bis guilt yet unable to abstain. 
The first Christian emperor was persuaded to issue an edict abolishing 
gbdiatorial games (325), yet in 404 we read of an exhibition 01 
gbdiators to celebrate the triumph of Honorius over the Goths, 
and it b said that they were not totally extinct in the West till the 
time of Tbcodoric. 

Gladiators formed admirable models for the sculptor. One of 
the finest pieces of ancient sculpture that has come down to us is 
the " Wounded Gladiator" of the National Museum at Naples. The 
so<alled " Fighting Gladiator" of the Borghcse collection, now in the 
Museum of the Louvre,and the " Dying Gladiator " of the Capitoline 
Museum, which inspired the famous stansa of Childe HaroU, have 
been pronounced by modern antiquaries to represent, not gladiators, 
but warriors. In this connexion wc may mention the admirable 
picture of G6rome which bears the title, Ave, Caesar, morituri te 

The attention of archaeologists has been rocently directed Co the 
tesserae of gladiators. These tesserae, of which about sixty exUt in 
various museums, are small oblong tablets of ivory or bone, with 
an inscription on each of the four sides. The first line contains 
a name m the nominative case, iMesumably that of the gladiator: 
tbe second line a name in the genitive, that of the patronns or 
dominus; the third line begins with the k^tters SP (for sbectalus 
• approved), which shows that the gladiator had passed nis pre- 
liminary trials; this b followed by a day of a Roman month; and 
ia the fourth line are the names of the consub of a partkuhr year. 

AuTHORiTiBs. — All needful information on the subicct will be 
found in L.. Friedlander's DarsleUungcn aus der SiUengtickicJUe Roms. 
(part it., 6th ed., 1S89), and in the section by him on The Games 
in Marquardt's Romische StaatsverMiUung, iii. (1885) p. 554; see 
also artKk by G» Lafaye in Darembeir and Saglio. tHctumnaire 
de$ antimiilh. See also F. W. Ritschl, Tesserae gtadiatoriag (i86a) 
and P. J. Meier, De ffadialura Ramana auatstiones selectee (1881). 
The articles by Lipsius on the Saturnalia and amphitheatrum in 
Graevius, nesaums anti^itatum Romanarwn^ ix., may still be 
consulted with advantage. 

QLADIOLUSt a genuf of monocotyledonous plants, bdonging 
to the natural order Iridaceae. They are herbaceous plantt 
growing from a solid fibrous-coated bulb (or com), with long 
narrow plaited leaves and a terminal one-sided spike of generally 
bright-coloured irregular flowers^ The segments of the limb of 
the perianth are very unequal, the perianth tube » curved, funnel- 

shaped and widening upwards, the segraenti cqvaHhig or 
exceeding the tube in length. There are about 150 known 
species, a large number of which are South African, but the 
genus extends into tropical Africa, forming a characteristic 
feature of the mountain vegetation, and as far north as central 
Europe and western Asia. One species G. iUyricus (sometimes 
regarded as a variety of G. communis) is found wild in England, 
ia the New Forest and the Isle of Wight. Some of the species 
have been cultivated for a long period in English flower-gardens, 
where both the introduced species and tbe modem varieties 
bred from them are very ornamental and popular. G. segetum 
has been cultivated since 1596, and G. bytantinus since 1629, 
while many additional species were introduced during the latter 
half of the iSth century. One of the earlier of the hybrids 
originated in gardens was the beautiful G. d^villti, raised in the 
nursery of Mr ColviUe of Chelsea in 1823 from C. tristis fertilized 
by G. cardinalis. In the first decade of the 19th century, however, 
the Hon. and Rev. W. Herbert had successfully crossed the 
showy G. cardinalis with the smaller but more free-flowering 
G, blcttdus, and tbe result was the production of a race of great 
beauty and fertility. Other crosses wero made with G. tristis, 
G, oppositiJtcruSf G. hirstttus, G. atalus and G. psittadnus; but 
it was not till after tbe production of (7. gandavensis that the 
gladiolus really became a general favourite in gardens. This 
fine hybrid was raised in 1837 by M. Bcdinghaus, gardener to 
the due d'Aremberg, at Enghien, crossing G. psittacinus and 
G. cardinalis. There can, however, be little doubt that before 
the gandavensis type had become fairly fixed the services of 
other species were brought into force, and the most likely of 
these were G. oppositijlwus (which shows in the white forms>« 
G. Uandus and G. ramosus* Other species may also have been 
used, but in any case the gandavensis gladiolus, as we now know 
it, is the result of much crossing and inter«rosung between 
the best forms as they developed (J. Weathers, Practical Guida 
to Garden Plants). Since that time Inniwierable varieties have 
appeared only to sink into oblivion upon being replaced by 
still finer productions. 

Tbe modem varieties of f^ladioU have almost completely 
driven the natural species out of gardens, except in botanicid 
collections. The most gorgeous groupsr-in addition to the 
jamfoveittfr type— are those known under the names of Lemoitui, 
Childsi, nanceianus and bremkteytnsis. The last-named waa 
raised by a Mr Hooker at Brcnchley in 1848, and although quite 
distinct in appearance from ^ndavensis, it undoubtedly had 
that variety as one of its parents. Owing to the brilliant scarlet 
colour of the flowers, this is always a great favourite for planting 
In beds. The Lenurinei forms originated at Nancy, in France* 
by fertilizing G. ^iir^r«0-a»rai«5 with pollen from G. gandavensrti 
the first flower appearing in 1877^ and the plants being put into 
commerce in x88o. The Childsi gladioU first appeared in 1882, 
having been raised at Baden»Baden by Herr Max Leichtlia 
from the best forms of G. gastdawensis and G. Satmdersi. Thtf 
flowers of the best varieties are of great size and substance, often 
measuring 7 to 9 in. across, while the range of colour is marvellous, 
with shades of grey, purple, scarlet, salmon, crimson, rose, white, 
pink, yellow, ftc, often beautifully mottled and blotched In the 
throat. The plants are vigorous in growth, often reaching a 
height of 4 to 5 fL G. naueeianus was raised at Nancy by 
MM. Lcmoine and were first put into commerce in 1889. Next 
to the Childsi group they are tbe roost beautiful, and have the 
blood of the best formsof G. Saundtrsi and G. Lemoinei in their 
veins. The plants are quite as hardy as the gandavensis hybrids, 
and the colours of the flowers are almost as brilliant and varied 
in hue as those of the Childsi section. 

A deep and rather stiff sandy loam is the best soil for the gladiolus, 
and this should be trenched up in (Xrtober and enriched with well- 
decomposed manure, consisting partly of cow dung, the manure being 
dbposed altogether below the corms, a byer at the bottom of the 
upper trench, say 9 in. from the surface, arid another layer at double 
that depth. The corms should be planted in succession at intervals 
of two or three weeks through the months of March. April and May : 
about ^ to 5 in. deep and at least I ft. afurt. a little pure soil or sand 
beif^ laid over each before the earth is closed in about them, an 



amntemcnt which may be advantageoioly icilkmed with bulbous 
plants generally. In hot sumtner weather they should have a good 
mulching of well-decayed manure, and, as soon as the flower spikes 
are produced, liquid manure jnay occasionally be given them with 

The gladiolus is easily raised from seeds, which should be sown in 
March or April in pots of rich soil placed in slight heat, the pots 
being kept near the s\a%s after they begin to grow, and the plants 
being gradually haroened to permit their being placed out-of-doors 
in a sheltered spot for the summer. Modem growers often grow the 
seeds in the opien in April on a nicely prepared bed in drills about 
6 in. apart and i in. aeep, covering them with finely sifted gritty 
mould. The seed bed is then pressed down evenly and firmly, 
watered occasionally and kept free from weeds during the summer. 
In October they will have ripened off, and must be tauen out of the 
soil, and stored in paper bags in a dry room secure from frost. They 
will have made little bulbs from the size of a hazel nut downwards, 
according to their vigour. In the spring they should be planted 
like the old bulbs, and the larger ones will flower during the season, 
while the smaller ones must be again harvested and planted out as 
before. The rime occupied from the sowing of the seed until the 
plant attains its full strength is from three to four years. The 
approved sorts, which are identified by name, arc multiplied by 
means of bulblets or offsets or " spawn," which form around the 

f>rincipa1 bulb or corm; but In this they vary greatly, some kinds 
umisning abundant increase and soon becoming plentiful, while 
others persistently refuse to yield offsets. The stately habit and 
rich glowing colours of the modern gladioli render them exceedingly 
valuable as decorative plants during the late summer months. They 
are, moreover, very desirable and useful flowers for cuttins for thie 
purpose of room decoration, for while the blossoms themselves bst 
iresn for some days if cut cither carl>r in the momine or late in the 
evening, the undeveloped buds open in succession, it the stalks are 
kept in water, so that a cut spike will go on blooming for some time. 

GLADSHEIM (Old Norse Ciadsheimr)^ in Scandinavian 
mythology, the region of joy and home of Odin. Valhalla, 
the paradise whitber the heroes who fell in battle were escorted, 
was situated there. 

QLADSTONB. JOHN HALL (1827-1902), English chemist, 
was bom at Hackney, London, on the 7th of March 1827. From 
childhood he showed great aptitude for science; geology was 
bis favourite subject, but since this in his father's opinion did 
not afford a career of promise, he devoted himself to chemistry, 
which he studied under Thomas Graham at University College, 
London, and Liebig at Giessen, where he graduated as Ph.D. 
in 1847. In 1850 he became chemical lecturer at St Thomas's 
ho^ital, and three years later was elected a fellow of the Royal 
Society at the unusually early age of twenty-six. From 1858 
to 1861 be served on the royd commission on lighthouses, and 
from 1864 to 1868 was a member of the war office committee 
on gun-cotton. From 1874 to 1877 he was FuUerian professor 
of chemistry at the Royal Institution, in 1874 he was chosen 
first president of the Physical Society, and in 1877-1879 he was 
president of the Chemical Society. In 1897 the Royal Society 
recognized his fifty years of scientific work by awarding him the 
Davy medal. Dr Gladstone's researches were large in number 
and wide in range, dealing to a great extent with problems 
that lie on the border-line between physics and chemistry. 
Thus a number of his inquiries, and those not the least important, 
were partly chemical, partly optical. He determin«i the optical 
constants of hundreds of substances, with the object of discover- 
ing whether any of the dements possesses more than one atomic 
refraction. Again, he investigated the connexion between the 
optical behaviour, density and chemical composition of ethereal 
oils, and the relation between molecular magnetic rotation and 
the refraction and dispersion of nitrogenous compounds. So 
early as 1856 he diowed the importance of the spectroscope 
in chemical research, and he was one of the first to notice that 
the Fraimhofer spectrum at sunrise and sunset differs from that 
at midday, his conclusion being that the earth's atmosphere 
must be responsible for many of its absorption lines, which 
indeed were subsequently traced to the oxygen and water-vapour 
in the air. Another portion of his work was of an electro-chemical 
character. His studies, with Alfred Tribe (1840-1885) and W. 
Hibbert, in the chemistry of the storage battery, have added 
largely to our knowledge, while the " copper-zinc couple," with 
which his name is associated together with that of Tribe, among 
other things, afforded a simple means of preparing certain 

organo-metallic compounds, and thus promoted research in 
branches of organic chemistry where those bodies are especially 
useful. Mention may also be made of his work on phosphorus, 
on explosive substances, such as iodide of nitrogen, gun-cotton 
and the fulminates, on the influence of mass in the process of 
chemical reactions, and on the effect of carbonic acid on the 
germination of plants. Dr Gladstone always took a great 
interest in educational questions, and from 1873 to 1894 he was 
a member of the London School Board. He was also a member 
of the Christian Evidence Society, and an early supporter of 
the Yotmg Men's Christian Association. HJ3 death occurred 
suddenly in London on the 6th of October 1903. 

GLADSTONE, WILLIAM BWART (1809-1898), British 
statesman, was bom on the 29th of December 1809 at No. 62 
Rodney Street, Liverpool. His forefathers were Gledstanes 
of Gledstanes, in the upper ward of Lanarkshire; or in Scottish 
phrase, Gledstanes of that Ilk. As years went on their estates 
dwindled, and by the beginning of the 17th century Gledstanes 
was sold. Hie adjacent property of ArthurshicI remained in 
the hands of the family for nearly a htmdred years longer. Then 
the son of the last Gledstanes of Arthtirshiel removed to Biggar, 
where he opened the business of a maltster. His grandson, 
Thomas Gladstone (for so the name was modified), became a 
corn-merchant at Leith. He happened to send his eldest son, 
John, to Liverpool to sell a cargo of grain there, and the energy 
and aptitude of the young man attracted the favourable notice 
of a leading corn-merchant of Uverpool, who recommended him 
to settle in that city. Beginning his commercial career as a 
clerk in his patron's house, John Gladstone lived to become 
one of the merchant-princes of Liverpool, a baronet and a 
member of parliament. He died in 1851 at the age of eighty- 
seven. Sir John Gladstone was a pure Scotsman, a Lowlander 
by birth and descent. He married Anne, daughter of Andrew 
Robertson of Stomoway, sometime provost of Dingwall. Provost 
Robertson belonged to the Clan Donachie, and by this marriage 
the robust and business-like qualities of the Lowlander were 
blended with the. poetic imagination, the sensibility and fire 
of the Gael. 

John and Anne Gladstone had ux children. The fourth son, 
William Ewart, was named after a merchant of Liverpool who 
was his father's friend. He seems to have been a 
remarkably good child, and ranch beloved at home. ^^Jj^ 
In 1818 or 1819 Mrs Gladstone, who belonged to the J^^, "**' 
Evangelical school, said in a letter to a friend, that 
she believed her son William had been " truly convert«i to God.'* 
After some tuition at the vicarage of Seaforth, a watering-place 
near Liverpool, the boy went to Eton in 1821. His tutor was 
the Rev. Henry Hartopp Knapp. His brothers, Thomas and 
Robertson Gladstone, were already at Eton. Thomas was in the 
fifth form, and WilKam, who was placed in the middle remove 
of the fourth form, became bis eldest brother's fag. He worked 
hard at his classical lessons, and supplemented the ordinary 
business of the school by studying mathematics in the holidays. 
Mr Hawtrey, afterwaids headmaster, commended a copy of 
his Latin verses, and " sent him up for good "; and this ex- 
perience first led the young student to associate intellectual 
work with the ideas of ambition and success. He was not a 
fine scholar, in that restricted sense of the term which implies 
a special aptitude for turning English into Greek and Latin, or 
for original versification in the classical languages. " His 
composition," we read, " was stiff," but he was imbued with 
the substance of his authors: and a contemporary who was in 
the sixth form with him recorded that " when there were thrilling 
passages of Virgil or Homer, or diflicult passages in the Scriptorts 
Graeci, to translate, he or Lord Arthur Herv^ was generally 
called up to edify the class with quotation or translation." By 
common consent he was pre<eminently God-fearing, orderly 
and conscientious. " At Eton," said Bishop Hamilton of 
Salisbury, " I was a thoroughly idle boy, but I was saved from 
some worse things by getting to know Gladstone." His most 
intimate friend was Arthur Hallam, by universal acknowledg- 
ment the most remarkable Etonian of his day; but he was not 



Ceneially pepsltr Cf even widdy kaown. He was seen to the 
greatest advantage, and was most thoroughly at home, in the 
debates of the Eton Society, karnedly called " The Literati," and 
vulgarly " Pop," and in the editorship of the Etom MisctUony, 
He left Eton at Christmas 1827. He read for six months with 
private tutors, and in Oaobcr 1828 went up to Christ Church, 
where, in the following year, he was nominated to a studentship. 
At Oxford Gladstone read steadily, but not laboriously, 
till he neared his final schools. During the latter part of his 
undeigraduate career he took a brief but brilliant share in the 
proceedings of the Union, of which he was successively secretary 
and president. He made his first ^xcch on the nth of February 
iSjol Brought up in the nurture and admonition of Canning, he 
defended Roman Catholic emancipation, and thought the duke 
of Wellington's government unworthy of national confidence. 
He <^posed the removal of Jewish disabilities, arguing, we are 
told by a contemporary, " on the part of the Evaagelicals," 
and pleaded for the gradual cxdnclion, in preference to the 
unmeidiate abolition, of slavery. But his great achievement 
was a speech against the Whig Reform BilL One who heard 
this famous discourse says: " Most of the q>eakers rose, more 
or less, above their usual level, but when Mr Gladstone sat 
down we all of us felt that an epoch in our lives had occurred. 
It certainly was the finest speech of his that I ever heard." 
Bishop Charles Wordsworth said that hiscxpcrience of Gladstone 
at this time " made me (and I doubt not others also) feel no less 
snre than of my own existence that Gladstone, our then Christ 
Church undergraduate, would one day rise to be prime minister 
of England." In December 1831 Gladstone crowned his career 
by taking a double first-class. Lord Halifax (1800-1885) used 
to say, with reference to the increase in the amount of reading 
requisite for the highest honours: " My double-first must have 
been a better thing than Feel's; Gladstone's must have been 
better than mine." 

Now came the choice of a profession. Deeply anxious to make 
the best use o( his life, Gbdstooe turned his thoughts to holy 

orders. But his father had determined to make him 
^^rlaif 4 politician. Quilling Oxford in the spring of 1832, 
JJJJ2 Gladstone spent six months in Italy, learning the 

language and studying art. In the following September 
he was suddenly recalled to England, to undertake his first 
parliamentary campaign. The fifth duke of Newcastle was one 
of the chief potentates of the High Tory party. His frank 
claim to " do what he liked with his own" in the representation 
of Newark has given him a place in political history. But that 
claim had been rudely disputed by the return of a Radical 
bwyer at the election of 1831. The Duke was anxious to obtain 
a capable candidate to aid him in regaining his ascendancy over 
tbe rebellious borough. His son, Lord Lincoln, had heard 
Gladstone's speech against the Reform Bill delivered in the 
Oxford Union, and had written home that " a man had uprisen 
in Israel." At his suggestion the duke invited Gladstone to 
stand for Newark in the Tory interest against Mr Serjeant 
Wilde, afterwards Lord Chancellor Tnvo. The last of the 
Unreformcd parliaments was dissolved on the 3rd of December 

1832. Gladstone, addressing the electors of Newark, said that 
he was bound by the opinions of no roan and no party, but felt 
it a duty to watch and resist that growing desire for change 
which threatened to produce " along with partial good a roelan< 
choly preponderance of mischief." The first principle to which 
he looked lor national salvation was, that the"dutiesof governors 
arc strictly and peculiarly religious, and that legislatures, like 
individuals, are bound to carry throughout their acts the spirit 
of the high Uuths they have acknowledged." The condiiion of 
the pdor demanded special attention; labour should receive 
adequate remuneration; and he thought favourably of the 
"allotment of cottage grounds." He regarded slavery as 
sanctioned by Holy Scripture, but the slaves ought to be educated 
and gradually emancipated. The contest resulted in his return 
at the head of the poll 

The first Reformed parliament met on the 29th of January 

1833, and the young member for Newark took his seat for the first 

time in an asaemUy whicb be was destined to adorn, delight 
and astonish for more than half a century. His maiden speech 
was delivered on the 3rd of June in reply to what was 
almost a personal challenge. The colonial secretary, ^ *^ 
Mr Stanley, afterwards Lord Derby, brought forward £!J|y.. 
a series of resolutions in favour of the extinction of 
slavery in the British colonies. On the first night of the debate 
Lord Howick, afteni'ards Lord Grey, who had been under* 
secretary for the Colonies, and who opposed the resolutions 
as proceeding too gradually towards abolition, cited certain 
occurrences on Sir J(^n Gladstone's plantation in Demcrara 
to illustrate his contention that the system of slave-labour in 
the West Indies was attended by great mortality among the 
slaves. Gladstone in his reply — ^his first speech in the House-^ 
avowed that he had a pecuniary interest in the question, " and, 
if he might say so much without exciting suspicion, a still deeper 
interest in it as a question of justice, of humanity and of rdi^on." 
If there had recently been a high mortality on his father's planta- 
tion, it was due to the age of the slaves rather than to any 
peculiar hardship in their lot. It was true that the particular 
system of cultivation practised in Demerara was more trying 
than some others; but then it might be said that no two trades 
were equally conducive to health. Stcel-grinding was notoriously 
unhealthy, and manufacturing processes generally were less 
favourable to life than agricultural. While strongly condemning 
cruelty, he declared himself an advocate of emancipation, but 
held that it should be effected gradually, and after due prepara- 
tion. The sbvcs must be religiously educated, and stimulated 
to profitable industry. The owners of emancipated slaves were 
entitled to receive compensation from parliament, because it 
was parliament that had established this description of property. 
" I do not," said Gladstone, " view property as an abstract 
thing; it is the creature of civil society. By the legislature it is 
granted, and by the legislature it is destroyed. " On the following 
day King William IV. wrote to Lord Althorp: " Tbe king 
rejoices that a young member has come forward in so promis- 
ing a manner as Viscount Alihorp states Mr W. £. Gladstone 
to have done." In the same session Gladstone spoke on 
the question of bribery and corruption at Liverpool, and 
on tho temporalities of the Irish Church. In the session 
of 1834 his most important performance was a speech in 
opposition to Hume's proposal to throw the universities open 
to Dissenters. 

On the xolh of November 1834 Lord Althorp succeeded to 
his father's peerage, and thereby vacated the leadership of 
the House of Commons. The prime minister, Lord Melbourne, 
submitted to the king a choice of names for the chancellorship 
of the exchequer and leadership of the House of Commons; 
but his majesty announced that, having lost the services of 
Xiord Alihorp as leader of tbe House of Commons, he could feel 
no confidence in the stability of Lord Melbourne's government, 
and that it was his intention to send for the duke of Wellington. 
The duke took temporary charge of affairs, but Peel was felt to 
be indispensable. He had gone abroad after the session, and 
was now in Rome. As soon as he could be brought back he 
formed an administration, and appointed Gladstone to a junior 
lordship of the treasury. Parliament was dissolved on the 291^ 
of December. Gladstone was relumed unopposed, this time in 
conjunction wilh the Liberal lawyer whom he had beaten at the 
last election. The new parliament met on the 19th of February 
1835. The elections had given the Liberals a considerable 
majority. Immediately after the meeting of parliament Glad- 
stone was promoted to the under-secrclaryship for the colonies, 
where his official chief was Lord Aberdeen. The administration 
was not long-lived. On the 30th of March Lord John Russell 
moved a resolution in favour of an inquiry into the temporalities 
of the Irish Church, wilh the intention of applying the surplus 
to general education without distinction of religious creed 
This was carried against ministers by a majority of thirty-three. 
On the 8th of April Sir Robert Peel resigned, and the under- 
secretary for the colonies of course followed his chief into private 



Released from the labours of ofike, Gladstone, living in 
chambers in the Albany, practically divided his time between 
his parliamentary duties and study. Then, as always, 
his constant companions were Homer and Dante, and 
it is recorded that he read the whole of St Augustine, 
in twenty-two octavo volumes. He used to frequent the services 
at St James's, Piccadilly, and Margaret chapel, since better 
known as All Saints*, Margaret Street. On the aoth of June 
1837 King William IV. died, and Parliament, having been 
prorogued by the young queen in person, was dissolved on the 
tjth of the following month. Simply on the strength of his 
parliamentary reputation Gladstone was nominated, without 
his consent, for Manchester, and was placed at the bottom of 
the poll; but, having been at the same time nominated at 
Newark, was again returned. The year 1838 claims special note 
in a record of Gladstone's life, because it witnessed the appearance 
of his famous work on The State in its Retatiotu frith the Church. 
He had left Oxford just before the beginning of that Catholic 
revival which has transfigured both the inner spirit and the 
outward aspect of the Church of England. But the revival was 
now in full strength. The Tracts for the Times were saturating 
England with new influences. The movement counted no more 
enthusiastic or more valuable disciple than Gladstone. Its 
influence had reached him through his friendships, notably with 
two Fellows of Merton — Mr James Hope, who became Mr Hope> 
Scott of Abbotsford, and the Rev. H. E. Manning, afterwards 
cardinal archbishop. The State in its Rdations vnth the Church 
was his practical contribution to a controversy in which his 
deepest convictions were involved. He contended that the 
Church, as established by law, was to be " maintained for its 
truth," and that this principle, if good for England, was good 
also for Ireland. 

On the 25th of July 1839 Gbdstonc was married at Hawarden 
to Miss Catherine Glynne, sister, and in her issue hdr, of Sir 
Stephen Glynne, ninth and last baronet of that name. In 
1840 he published Church Principles considered iu their Results. 

Parliament was dissolved in June 1841. Gladstone was 
again returned for Newark. The general election resulted in 
a Tory majority of eighty. Sir Robert Peel became 
MMmt Piime minister, and made the member for Newark 
vice-president of the Board of Trade. An inevitable 
change is from this time to be traced in the topics of Gladstone's 
parliamentary speaking. Instead of discoursing on the corporate 
conscience of the state and the endowments of the Church, the 
importance of Christian education, and the theological unfitness 
of the Jews to sit in pariiament, he is solving business-like 
problems about foreign tariffs and the exportation of machinery; 
waxing eloquent over the regulation of railways, and a graduated 
tax on com; subtle on the monetary merits of half-farthings, 
and great in the mysterious lore of quassia and cocadus indicus. 
In 1842 he had a principal hand in the preparation of the revised 
tariff, by which duties were abolished or sensibly diminished 
in the case of 1 200 duty-paying articles. In defending the new 
scheme he spoke incessantly, and amazed the House by his 
mastery of detail, his intimate acquaintance with the commercial 
needs of the country, and his inexhaustible power of exposition. 
In 1843 Gladstone, succeeding Lord Ripon as president of the 
Board of Trade, became a member of the cabinet at the age of 
thirty-three. He has recorded the fact that '* the very first 
opinion which he ever was called upon to give in cabinet " was 
an opinion in favour of withdrawing the bill providing education 
for children in factories, to which vehement opposition was 
offered by the Dissenters, on the ground that it was too favourable 
to the Established Church. 

At the opening of the Session of 1845 ^^^ government, in 
pursuance of a promise made to Irish members that they would 
MMyaootk <ical with the question of academical education in 
grmati Ireland, proposed to establish non-sectarian colleges 
in that country and to make a large addition to the 
grant to the Roman Catholic College of Maynooth. 
Gladstone resigned office, in order, as he announced in the debate 
on the address, to form " not only an honest, but likewise an 

independent and an unsuspected judgment," on the plan to bo 
submitted by the government with respect to Maynooth. His 
subsequent defence of the proposed grant, on the ground that 
it would be impioper and unjust to exclude the Roman Catholic 
Church in Irdand from a " more indiscriminating support " 
which the state might give to various religious beliefs, was 
regarded by men of less sensitive conscience as only proving that 
there had been no adequate cause for his resignation. Before 
he resigned he completed a second revised tariff, carrying 
considerably further the prindples on which be had acted in 
the earlier revision of 1842. 

In the autumn of 1845 tlie failure of the potato crop in Ireland 
threatened a famine, and convinced Sir Robert Peel that all 
restrictions on the importation of food must be at 
once suspended. He was supported by only three 
members of the cabinet, and resigned on the 5th of 
December. Lord John Russell, who had just announced his 
conversion to total and immediate repeal of the Com Laws, 
declined the task of forming an administration, and on the 20th 
of December Sir Robert Peel resumed office. Lord Stanley 
refused to re-enter the govemment, and his place as secretary 
of state for the cotonies was offered to and accepted by Gladstone. 
He did not offer himself for re-election at Newark, and remained 
outside the House of Commons during the great struggle of the 
coming year. It was a curious irony of fate which exduded 
him from parliament at this crisis, for it seemi unquestionable 
that he was the most advanced Free Trader in Sir Robert Peel's 
Cabinet. The Corn Bill passed the House of Lords on the 28th 
of June 1846, and on the same day the government were beaten 
in the House of Commons on an Irish Coercion Bill. Lord John 
Russell became prime minister, and Gladstone retired for a season 
into private life. Early in 1847 it was announced that one of the 
two members for the university of Oxford intended to retire at 
the general election, and Gladstone was proposed for the vacant 
seat. The representation of the university had been pronounced 
by Canning to be the most coveted prize of public life, and 
Gladstone himself confessed that he " desired it with an almost 
passionate fondness." Parliament was dissolved on the 23rd 
of July 1847. The nomination at Oxford todc place on the a^th 
of July, and at the close of the poll Sir Robert Inglis stood at 
the head, with Gladstone as his coUeagoe. 

The three years 1847, 1848, 1849 were for Gladstone a period 
of mental growth, of transition, of development. A change 
was silently proceeding, which was not completed for 
twenty years. " There have been," he wrote in later 
days to Bishop Wilberforcc, " two great deaths, or 
transmigrations of spirit, In my political existence — one, very 
slow, the breaking of ties with my original party." This was 
now in progress. In the winter of i8so>i85i Gladstone spent 
between three and four months at Naples, where he learned 
that more than half the chamber of deputies, who had followed 
the party of Opposition, had been banished or imprisoned; that 
a large number, probably not less than 20,000, of the citizens 
had been imprisoned on charges of political disaffection, and that 
in prison they were subjected to the grossest cruelties. Having 
made careful investigations, Gladstone, on the 7th of April 1851, 
addressed an open letter to Lord Aberdeen,'bringingan elaborate, 
detailed and horrible indictment against the rulers of Naples, 
espedally as regards the arrangements of thrir prisons and the 
treatment of persons confined in them for political offences. 
The publication of this letter caused a wide sensation in England 
and abroad, and profoundly agitated the court of Naples. In 
reply to a que&tion in the House of Commons, Lord Palmcrston 
accepted and adopted Gladstone's statement, expressed keen 
sympathy with the cause which he had espoused, and sent a 
copy of his letter to the queen's representative at every court of 
Europe. A second letter and a third followed, and thdr effect, 
though for a while retarded, was unmistakably felt in the 
subsequent revolution which created a free and united Italy. 

In February 1852 the Whig government was defeated on a 
Militia Bill, and Lord John Russdl was succeeded by Lord 
Derby, formerly Lord Stanley, with Mr Disraeli, who now 





cnteied office for the fint (ioe, as chanceUor of the racfaequer 

and leader of the House of Commons. Mr Disraeli introduced 

and carried a makeshift budget » and the government 

tided over the session, and dissolved partiameat on the 

1st of July 1852. There wassome talk of inducing Glad* 

stone to join the Tory government, and on the sgth of 

November Lord lialmesbury dubiously remarked, *' I cannot 

make out Gladstone, who seems to me a dark horse." In the 

following month the chancellor of the eichequer produced his 

second budget. The government redeemed their pledge to do 

something for the relief of the agricultural interest by reducing 

the duty on malt. This created a dcfidt, which they repaired by 

doubling the duty on inhabited houses. The voices of criticism 

were heard simultaneously on every side. The debate waxed 

fast and furious. In defending his proposals Mr Disraeli gave full 

scope to his most characteristic gifts; he pelted his opponents 

right and le(t with sarcasms, taunu and epigrams. Gladstone 

delivered an unpremeditated reply, which has ever since been 

celebrated Tradition says that he ** foamed at the mouth." 

The speech of the chancellor of the exchequer, he said, must be 

answered *' on the moment." It must be " tried by the laws 

of decency and propriety." He indignantly rebuked his rival's 

language and demeanour. He tore his financial scheme to 

ribbons. It was the beginning of a duel which lasted till 

death removed one of the combatants from the political arena. 

" Those who had thought it impossible that any impression 

could be made upon the House after the speech of Mr Disraeli 

had to acknowledge that a yet greater impression was produced 

by the unprepared reply of Mr Gladstone." The House divided, 

and the government were left in a minority of nineteen. Lord 

Derby resigned. 

The new government was a coalition of Whigs and Peelites. 
Lord Aberdeen became prime minister, and Gladstone chancellor 
of the exchequer. Having been returned again for 
the university of Oxford, he entered on the active 
«jKcte«a*r. <luties of a great oflice for which he was pre-eminently 
' fitted by an unique combination of financial, adminis- 
trative and rhetorical gifts. His first budget was Introduced on 
the iSth of April 1853. It tended to make Kfe easier and cheaper 
for large and numerous classes; it promised wholesale remissions 
of taxation; it lessened the charges on common processes of 
business, on locomotion, on postal communication, and on 
several articles of general consumption. The deficiency thus 
created was to be met by a " succession-duty," or application 
of the l^acy-duty to real property; by an increase of the duty 
on spirits; and by the extension of the Income-tax, at sd. in 
the pound, to all incomes between £100 and £i5a The speech 
in which these proposals were introduced held the House spell- 
bound. . Here was an orator who could apply all the resources 
of a burnished rhetoric to the elucidation of figures; who could 
sweep the widest horizon of the financial future, and yet stoop 
to bestow the minutest attention on the microcosm of penny 
stamps and post-horses. Above all, the chancellor's mode of 
handling the income-tax attracted interest and admiration. It 
was a searching analysis of the financial and moral grounds on 
which the impost tested, and a historical justification and eulogy 
of it. Yet, great as had been the services of the tax at a time 
of national danger, Gladstone could not consent to retain it as 
a part of the permanent and ordinary finances of the country. 
It was objectionable on account of its unequal incidence, of the 
harassing investigation Into private affairs which it entailed, 
and of the frauds to which R inevitably led. Therefore, having 
served Its turn, it was to be extinguished in i860. The scheme 
astonished, interested and attracted the country. The queen 
and Prince Albert wrote to congratulate the chancellor of the 
exchequer: Public authorities and private friends joined In 
the chorus of eulogy. The budget demonstrated at once its 
author's absolute mastery over figures and the penuasive force 
of his expository gift. It established the chancellor of the 
exchequer as the paramount financier of his day, and it was only 
the first of a kmg aeries of simitar performances, dtflTerent, of 
course, in detail, but alike in their bold outlines and brilliant 

handling. Looking back on a long life of strenuous exertion, 
Gladstone declared that the work of preparing his proposals 
about the succession-duty and carrying them through Parlia- 
ment was by far the most laborious task which he ever performed. 

War between Great Britain and Russia was declared on the 
a7th of March 1854, and it thxis fell to the lot of the most pacific 
of ministers, the devotee of retrenchment, and the anxious 
cultivator of all industrial arts, to prepare a war budget, and to 
meet as well as he might the exigencies of a conflict which had so 
cruelly distocated all the Ingenious devices of financial optimism. 
No amount of skill in the manipulation of figures, no ingenuity 
in shifting fiscal burdens, could prevent the addition of forty-one 
millions to the national debt, or oould countervail the appalling 
mismanagement at the seat of war. Gladstone declared that 
the state of the army in the Crimea was a " matter for weeping 
all day and praying all night." As soon as parliament met in 
January 1855 J- A. Roebuck, the Radical member for Sheffield, 
gave notice that he would move for a select committee " to 
inquire into the condition of our army before Sevastopol, and 
into the conduct of those departments of the government whose 
duty it has been to minister to the wants of that army." On 
the same day Lord John Russell, without announcing his inten* 
tion to his colleagues, resigned his office as president of the 
council sooner than attempt the defence of the government. 
Gladstone, in defending the government against Rocbudc-, 
rebuked In dignified and significant terms the conduct of men 
who, " hoping to escape from punishment, ran away from duty." 
On the division on Mr Roebuck's motion the government was 
beaten by the unexpected majority of 157. 

Lord Palmerston became prime minister. The Peelites 
joined him, and Gladstone resumed office as chancellor of the 
exchequer. A shrewd observer at the time pronounced him 
indispensable. " Any other chancellor of the exchequer would 
be torn in bits by him." The government was formed on the 
understanding that Mr Roebuck's proposed committee was to 
be resisted. Lord Palmerston soon saw that further resistance 
was useless; his Peelite colleagues stuck to their text, and, 
within three weeks after resuming office, Gladstone, Sir James 
Graham and Mr Sidney Herbert resigned. Gladstone once said 
of himself and his Peelite colleagues, during the period of political 
isolation, that they were tike roving icebergs on which men 
could not hind with safety, but with which ships might come 
into perilous collision. He now applied himself specially to 
financial criticism, and was perpetually in conflict with the 
chancellor of the exchequer, Sir George Comewall Lewis. 

In 1858 Lord Palmerston was succeeded by Lord Derby at 
the head of a Conservative administration, and Gladstone 
accepted the temporary office of high commissioner cxtmordinary 
to the Ionian Islands. Returning to England for the session of 
1859, he found himself involved in the controversy which arose 
over a mild Reform Bill introduced by the government. They 
were defeated on the second reading of the bill, Gladstone voting 
with them. A dissolution immediately followed, and Gladstone 
was again returned unopposed for the university of Oxford. 
As soon as the new parliament met a vote of want of confidence 
in the ministry was moved In the House of Commons. In the 
critical division which ensued Gladstone voted with the govern- 
ment, who were left in a minority. Lord Derby resigned. Lord 
Palmerston became prime minister, and asked Gladstone to 
join him as chancellor of the exchequer. To vote confidence 
in an imperilled ministry, and on its defeat to take ofiice with 
the rivals who have defeated it, is a manoeuvre which invites 
the reproach of tergiversation. But Gladstone risked the re- 
proach, accepted the office and had a sharp tussle for his seat. 
He emerged from the struggle victorious, and entered on his 
duties with characteristic seal. The prince consort wrote: 
" Gladstone is now the real leader in the House of Commons, 
and works with an energy and vigour altogether incredible." 

The budget of i860 was marked by two distinctive features. 
It asked the sanction of parliament for the commercial treaty 
which Cobden had privately arranged with the emperor Napoleon, 
and it prqxMcd to abolish the duty on paper. The French treaty 




was carried, but the abolition of the paper<luty was defeated in 
the House of Lords. Gladstone justly regarded the refusal to 
remit a duty as being in effect an act of taxation, and 
therefore as an infringement of the rights of the House 
of Commons. The proposal to abolish the paper- 
duty was revived in the budget of x86x, the chief proposab 
of which, instead of being divided, as in previous years, into 
several bills, were included in one. By this device the Lords were 
obliged to acquiesce in the repeal of the paper-duty. 

During Lord Palmerston's last administration, which lasted 
from 1859 to 1865, Gladstone was by far the most brilliant and 
most conspicuous figure in the cabinet. Except in finance, he 
was not able to accomplish much, for he was met and thwarted 
at every turn by his chief's invincible hostility to change; but 
the more advanced section of the Liberal party began to look 
upon him as their predestined leader. Jn 1864, in a debate on a 
private member's bill for extending the suffrage, he declared that 
the burden of proof lay on those " who would exclude forty-nine 
fiftieths of the working-classes from the franchise." In 1865, 
in a debate on the condition of the Irish Church Establishment, 
he declared that the Irish Church, as it then stood, was in a false 
position, inasmuch as it ministered only to one-eighth or one- 
ninth of the whole community. But just in proportion as Glad- 
stone advanced in favour with the Radical party he lost the 
confidence of his own constituents. Parliament was dissolved 
in July 1865, and the university elected Mr Gathome Hardy 
in his place. 

Gladstone at once turned his steps towards South Lancashire, 
where he was returned with two Tories above him. The result 
of the general election was to retain Lord Palmerston's 
government in power, but on the i8th of October the 
old prime minister died. He was succeeded by Lord 
Russell, and Gladstone, retaining the chancellorship 
of the exchequer, became for the first time leader of the House 
of Commons. Lord Russell, backed by Gladstone, persuaded 
his colleagues to consent to a moderate Reform Bill, and the 
task of piloting this measure through the House of Commons 
fell to Gladstone. The speech in which he wound up the debate 
on the second reading was one of the finest, if not indeed the very 
finest, which he ever delivered. But it was of no practical avail: 
The government were defeated on an amendment in committee, 
and thereupon resigned. Lord Derby became prime minister, 
with Disraeli as chancellor of the exchequer and leader of the 
House of Commons. On the z8lh of March 1867 the Tory 
Reform Bill, which ended in establishing Household Suffrage 
in the boroughs, was introduced, and was read a second time 
without a division. After undergoing extensive alterations in 
committee at the hands of the Liberals and Radicab, the bill 
became law in August. 

At Christmas 1867 I^'d Russell announced his final retirement 
from active politics, and Gladstone was recognized by acclama- 
tion as leader of the Liberal party. Nominally he was 
flSnif*^ '" Opposition; but his party formed the majority 
^a^. of the House of Commons, and could beat the govern- 
ment whenever they chose to mass their forces. 
Gladstone seized the opportunity to give effect to convictions 
which had long been forming in his mind. Early in the session 
he brought in a bill abolishing compulsory church-rates, and 
this passed into law. On the x6th of March, in a debate raised 
by an Irish member, he declared that in his judgment the Irish 
Church, as a State Church, must cease to exist. Immediately 
afterwards he embodied tlUs opinion in a series of resolutions 
concerning the Irish Church Establishment, and carried them 
against the government. Encouraged by this triumph, he 
brought in a ^ill to prevent any fresh appointments in the Irish 
Church, and this also passed the Commons, though it was 
defeated in the Lords. Parliament was dissolved on the zith of 
November. A single issue was placed before the country — Was 
the Irish Church to be, or not to be, disestablished? The 
response was an overwhelming affirmative. Gladstone, who had 
.been doubly nominated, was defeated in Lancashire, but was 
returned for Greenwich. He chose this mofflcnt for publishing 



a Chapter of AiUobhgrapky, in which he explained and justified 
his change of opinion with regard to the Irish Church. 

On the 2nd of December Disraeli, who had succeeded Lord 
Derby as premier in the preceding February, announced that 
he and his colleagues, recognizing their defeat, had 
resigned without waiting for a formal vote of the new 
parliament. On the following day Gladstone was 
summoned to Windsor, and commanded by the 
queen to form an administration. The great task to 
which the new prime minister immediately addressed 
himself was the disestablishment of the Irish Church. The 
quMn wrote to Archbishop Tait that the subject of the Irish 
Church "made her very anxious," but that Mr Gladstone 
" showed the most conciliatory disposition." *' The government 
can do nothing that would tend to raise a suspicion of their 
sincerity in proposing to disestablish the Irish Church, and to 
withdraw all state endowments from all religious communions 
in Ireland; but, were these conditions accepted, aU other 
matters connected with the question might, the queen thinks, 
become the subject of discussion and negotiation." The bill 
was drawn and piloted on the lines thus indicated, and became 
law on the 2ikh of July. In the session of 1870 Gladstone's 
principal vork was the Irish Land Act, of which the object was 
to protect the tenant against eviction as long as he paid his rent, 
and to secure to him the value of any improvements which his 
own indtistry had made. In the following session Religious 
Tests in the universities were abolished, and a bill to establish 
secret voting was carried through the House of Commons. 
This was thrown out by the Lords, but became law a 3rear later. 
The -House of Lords threw out a bill to abolish the purchase of 
commissions in the army. Gladstone found that purchase 
existed only by royal sanction, and advised the queen to issue 
a royal warrant cancelling, on and after the ist of November 
following, all regulations authorizing the purchase of coounissions. 

In 1873 Gladstone set his hand to the third of three great 
Irish reforms to which he had pledged himself. His scheme 
for the establishment of a university which should satisfy both 
Roman Catholics and Protestants met with general disapproval. 
The bill was thrown out by three votes, and Gladstone resigned. 
The queen sent for Disradi, who declined to take office in a 
minority of the House of Commons, so Gladstone was compelled 
to resume. But h^ and his colleagues were now, in Disraelitish 
phrase, " exhausted volcanoes." Election after election went 
wrong. The government had lost favour with the public, ^d 
was divided against itself. There were resignations and rumours 
of resignations. When the sessimi of 1873 had come to an end 
Gladstone todc the chancellorship of the exchequer, and, as 
high authorities contended, vacated his seat by doing so. The 
point was obviously one of vital importance; and we learn from 
Lord Sdbome, who was lord chancellor at the time, that Glad- 
stone " was sensible of the difficulty oi either taking his seat 
in the usual manner at the fining of the session, or letting .... 
the necessary arrangements for business in the House of Commons 
be made in the prime minister's absence. A dissolution was the 
only escape." On the a3rd of January 1874 Gladstone announced 
the dissolution in an address to his constituents, ^^^^ 
declaring that the authority of the government had ^/jf/^^ 
now " sunk below the point necessary for the due de- 
fence and prosecution of the public Interest." He promised that, 
if he were returned to power, he would repeal the income-tax. 
This bid for popularity failed, the general election resulting. in a 
Tory majority of forty-six. Gladstone kept hisseatfor Greenwich, 
but was only second on the poll. Fallowing the example of 
Disraeli in 1868, he resigned without meeting parliament.- 

Fcx some years he had alluded to his impending retirement 
from public life, saying that he was "strong against going on in 
politics to the end." He was now sixty-four, and his _ 
life had been a continuous experience of exhausting *^ 
labour. On the 12th of March 1874 he informed 
Lord Granville that he Could give only occasional attendasoe 
in the House of Commons during the current session, and that 
he must " reserve his entire freedom to divest himself of all the 



respoosibOidcs of teadenhip at no diitaat date.** Hk noat 
important intervention in the debates of 1874 waa when lie 
opposed Archbishop Tait's Public Worship Bill This was read 
a seoond tiine without a division, but in oonmittee Gladstone 
CDJoyed some sagnai triumphs over his kite solicitor-general. 
Sir William Harcourt, who had warmly espoused the cause of 
the government and the hill. At the beginning of 1875 Gladstone 
carried into effect the resolution which he had announced a year 
before, and formally resigned the leadership of the Libeml 
party. He was succeeded by Lord Hartington, afterwards 
duke of Devonshire. The learned leisure which Gladstone had 
promised himself when released from official reqxmsibility 
was not of k»g duration. In the autumn of 187s ^n insurrection 
broke out in Bulgaria, and the suppHessiott of it by the Turks 
was marked by massacres and outrages. Public indignation 
was aroused by what were known as the " Bulgarian atrocities," 
and Glacbtone flung himself into the agitatfon against Turkey 
with characteristic seaL At public meetings, in the prev, and 
in parliament he denounced the Turkish saveniment and its 
champion, DiscaeU, who had now become I^ord Beac o ns fie l d . 
Lord Hartington soon found himself pushed aside from his 
position of titular leadership. For fouryears, from 1876 to x88o, 
Gladstone maintained the strife with a courage, a persistence 
and a venatflity which raised the enthusiasm oif his foUdwers 
to the highest pitch. The county ol Edinburgh, or Midlothian, 
which he contested against the dominant influence of 
the duke of Buccleuch, wa» the scene of the most 
astonishing exertions. As the geneml election ap- 
proached the only questimi submitted to the electors was — Do 
you approve or condenm Lord Beaconsfield's foreign policy? 
The answer was given at Easter x88o, when the Liberals were 
returned by an overwhelming majority over Tories and Home 
Rulers combined. Gladstone was now member for M i d lo thi a o , 
having retired from Greenwich at the dissolution. 

When Lord BeaoonsfieM resigned, the queen sent for Lord 
Hartington, the titular leader of the Liberals, but he and Lord 
Granville assured hex that no other chief than Gladstone would 
saUsfy the party. Accordingly, on the ajrd of AprU he became 
prime minister for the second time. His second administration, 
of which the main achievement was the extension of the suffrage 
to the agricultursl hbourers, was harassed by two controversies, 
relating to Ireland and Egypt, which proved disastrous to the 
Libcial party. Gladstone alienated considerable masses of 
Edgiish opinion by his efforts to reform the tenufe of Irish land, 
and provoked the Imh people by his attempts to establish 
social order and to repress crime. A bill to provide compensation 
for tenants who had been evicted by Irish landlords passed the 
Commons, but was ^diipwrecked in the Lordi^ and a ghastly 
record of outrage and murder stained the following winter. A 
Coercion Bill and a Land Bill paiscd in 1881 proved unsuccessf uL 
On the 6th of May 2882 the newly appointed chief secretary 
for Ireland, Lord Frederick Cavendish, and his under-secretary, 
Mr Burke, were subbed to death in the Phoenix Park at Dublin. 
A new Crimes Act, courageously administered by Lord Spencer 
and Sir George Trevelyan, abolished exceptional crime in Ireland, 
but completed the iMeach between the British government and 
the Irish party in parliament. 

The bombardment of the forts at Alexandria and the occupa- 
tk>n of Egypt in 1 88a were viewed with great disfavour by the 
bulk of the Liberal party, and were but little congenial to 
Gladstone himself. The drcumstanoes of General Gordon's 
untimely death awoke an outburst of indigRatioo against those 
who were, or seemed to be, responsible for it. Frequent votes of 
censure were proposed by the Opposition, and on the 8th of June 
i88s the government were beaten on the budget. Gladstone 
resigned. The queen <^ei«d him the dignity of an earldom^ 
which he dedined. He was succeeded by Lord Salisbury. 

The general election took place in the following November. 
When it was over the Liberal party was just short of the numerical 
strength which was requisite to defeat the combination of Tories 
and Pamellites. A startling surprise was at hand. Gladstone 
had for some time been convinced of the expediency of conceding 

Home Rule to Ireland in the event of the Irish constituencies 
giving unequivocal proof that they desired it. His intentions 
were made known only to a privileged few, and 
these, curiously, were not his colleagues. The general g^ 
election of 1885 showed that Ireland, outside Ulster, /uueBm, 
was practically unanimous for Home Rule. On the 
17th of December an anonymous paragraph was published, 
stating that if Mr Gladstone returned to office he was prepared 
to " deal in a liberal spirit with the demand for Home Rule." 
It was dear that if Gladstone meant what he appeared to mean, 
the Pamellites would support him, and the Tories must leave 
office. The government seemed to accept the situation. When 
parliament met th^y executed, for form's sake, some confused 
nuuMBuvres, and then they were beaten on an amendment 
to the address in favour of Municipal Allotments. On the ist 
of February 1886 Gladstone became, for the third time, prime 
minister. Several of his former colleagues declined to join 
him, on the ground of their absr)Iutc hostility to the policy of 
Home Rule; others joined on the express understanding that 
they were only pledged to consider the policy, and did not fetter 
their further liberty of action. On the 8th of April Gladstone 
brought in his bill for establishing Home Rule, and eight days 
later the bill for buying out the Irish landlords. Meanwhile 
two members of his cabinet, feeling themselves unable to support 
these measures, resigned. Hostility to the bills grew apace. 
Gladstone was implored to withdraw them, or substitute a 
resolution in favour of Irish autonomy; but he resolved to press 
at least the Home Rule Bill to a second reading. In the early 
morning of the 8th of June the bill was thrown out by thirty. 
Gladstone immediately advised the queen to dissolve parliament. 
Her Majesty strongly demurred to a second general election 
within seven months; but Gladstone persisted, and she yielded. 
Parliament was dissolved on the 26th of June. In spite of 
Gladstone's skilful appeal to the constituencies to sanction 
the principle of Home Rule, as distinct from the practical 
provisions of his late bill, the general election resulted in a 
majority of considerably over too against his policy, and Lord 
Salisbury resumed office. Throughout the existence of the ne^ 
parliament Gladstone never relaxed his extraordinary efforts, 
though now nearer eighty than seventy, on behalf of the cause 
of self-government for Ireland. The fertility of argumentative 
resource, the copiousness of rhetoric, and the physical energy 
which he threw into the enterprise, would have been remarkable 
at any stage of his public life; continued into his eighty-filth 
year they were little less than miraculous. Two incidents of 
domestic interest, one happy and the other sad, belong to that 
period of political storm and stress. On the asth of July 1889 
Gladstone cdebrated the fiftieth anniversary of his marriage, 
and on the 4th of July 1891 his eldest son, William Henry, a 
man of fine character and accomplishments, died, after a lingering 
illness, in his fifty-second year. 

The crowning struggle of Gladstone's political career was 
now approaching its climax. Parliament was dissolved on the 
38th of June 189a. The general election resulted 

in a majority of forty for Home Rule, heterogeneously 

composed of Liberals, Labour members and Irish, bul 
As soon as the new parliament met a vote of want of 
confidence in Lord Salisbury's government was moved and 
carried. Lord Salisbury resigned, and on the Z5th of August 
1892 Gladstone kissed hands as first lord of the treasury. He 
was the first English statesman that had been four times prime 
minister. Parliament reassembled in January 1893. Cladstone 
brought in his new Home Rule Bill on the 13th of February. 
It passed thi House of Commons, but was thrown out by the 
House of Lords on the second reading on the 8th of September 
1893. Gladstone's political work was now, in his own judgment, 
ended. He made his last speech in the House of Commons on the 
ist of March 1894, acquiesdng in some amendments introduced 
by the Lords into the Parish Councils Bill; and on the 3rd of 
March he placed his resignation in the queen's hands. He 
never set foot again in the House of Commons, though he re- 
mained a member of it till the dissolution of 1895. He paid 



occasional visits to friends in London, Scotland and the south 
of France; but the remainder of his life was spent for the most 
part at Hawarden. He occupied his leisure by writing a rhymed 
translation of the Odes of Horace, and preparing an elaborately 
annotated edition of Butler's Analogy and Sermons. He had 
also contemplated some addition to the Homeric studies which 
he had always loved, but this design was never carried into effect, 
for he was summoned once again from his quiet life of study 
and devotion to the field of public controversy. The Armenian 
massacres in 1894 and 1805 revived all his andent hostility to 
" the governing Turk." He denounced the massacres and their 
perpetrators at public meetings held at Chester on the 6th of 
August 1895, and at Liverpool on the 24th of September 1896. 
In March 1897 he recapitulated the hideous history in an open 
letter to the duke of Westminster. 

But the end, though not yet apprehended, was at hand. 
Since his retirement from office Gladstone's physical vigour, 
up to that time unequalled, had shown signs of impairment. 
Towards the end of the summer of 1897 he began to suffer from 
an acute pain, which was attributed to facial neuralgia, and 
in November he went to Cannes. In February 1898 he returned 
to England and went to Bournemouth. There he was informed 
that the pain had its origin in a disease which must soon prove 
fatal. He received the information with simple thankfulness, 
and only asked that he might die at home. , On the 32nd of 
March he returned to Hawarden, and there he died 
on the 19th of May 1898. During the night of the 
25th of May his body was conveyed from Hawarden to London 
and the coffin was placed on a bier in Westminster Hall. Through- 
out the 26th and 37th a vast train of people, officially estimated 
at 250,000, and drawn from every rank and class, moved in 
unbroken procession past the bier. On the 28th of May the 
coffin, preceded by the two Houses of Parliament and escorted 
by the chief magnates of the realm, was carried from Westminster 
Hall to Westminster Abbey. The heir-apparent and his son, 
the prime minister and the leader of the House of Commons, 
were among those who bore the pall. The body was buried 
in the north transept of the abbe>', where, on the 19th of June 
1900, Mrs Gladstone's body was laid beside it. 

Mr and Mrs Gladstone had four sons and four daughters, of 
whom one died in infancy. The eldest son, W. H. Gladstone 
(1840-1891), was a member of parliament for many 
years, and married the daughter of Lord Blantyre, his 
son William (b. 1885) inheriting the family estates. The fourth 
son, Herbert John (b. 1854), sat in parliament for Leeds from 
j88o to 1910, and filled various offices, being home secretary 
1905-1910; in X910 he was created Viscount Gladstone, on being 
appointed governor-general of united South Africa. The eldest 
daughter, Agnes, married the Rev. £. C. Wickham, headmaster of 
Wellington, 1873-1893, and later Dean of Lincoln. Another 
daughter married the Rev. Harry Drew, rector of Hawarden. 
The youngest, Helen, was for some years vice-principal of 
Newnham College, Cambridge. 

After a careful survey of Mr Gladstone's life, enlightened 
by personal observation, it is inevitable to attempt some analysis 
_ of his character. First among his moral attributes 

must be placed his religiousness. From those early 
days when a fond mother wrote of him as having been " truly 
converted to God," down to the verge of ninety years, he lived 
in the habitual contemplation of the unseen world, and regulated 
his private and public action by reference to a code higher 
than that of mere prudence or worldly wisdom. A second 
characteristic, scarcely less prominent than tfie first, was his 
love of power. His ambition had nothing in common with the 
vulgar eagerness for place and pay and social standing. Rather 
it was a resolute determination to possess that control over the 
machine of state which should enable him to fulfil Vrithout let 
or hindrance the political mission with which he believed that 
Providence had charged him. The love of power was supported 
by a splendid fearlessness. No dangers were too threatening 
for him to face, no obstacles tooformidablc,no taskstoo laborious, 
no heights too steep. The love of power and the supporting 1 


courage were allied with a marked imperiousness. Of this 
quality there was no trace in his manner, which was courteous, 
conciliatory and even deferential; nor in his speedi, which 
breathed an almost exaggerated humility. But the imperioua- 
ness showed itself in the more effectual form of action; in his 
sudden resolves, his invindble insistence, his recklessness of 
consequences to himself and his friends, his habitual assumption 
that the dvilized worid and all its units must agree with him, 
his indignant astonishment at the bare thought of dissent or 
resistance, his iocapadty to believe that an overruling Provide' 
ence would permit him to be frustrated or defeated. He had 
by nature what he himself called n " vulneriU>le temper and 
impetuous moods." But so absolute was his lifelong self-mastery 
that he was hardly ever betrayed into saying that which, on 
cooler reflection, needed to be recalled. It was easy enouf^ 
to see the "vulnerable temper" as it worthed within, but it 
was never suffered to find audible expression. It may seem 
paradoxical, but it is true, to say that Mr Gladstone was by 
nature conservative. His natural bias was to respect things as 
th«y were. In his eyes, institutions, customs, systems, so long 
as they had not bea>me actively mischievous, were good because 
they were old. It is true that he was sometimes forced by 
conviction or fate or political necessity to be a revolutionist 
on a large scale; to destroy an established Church; to add two 
millions of voters to the electorate; to attack the porliamentaiy 
union of the kingdoms. But these changes were, in their in- 
ception, distasteful to thdr author. His whole life was spent 
in unlearning the prejudices in which he was educated. His 
love of freedom steadily developed, and be applied its piindples 
more and more courageously to the problems of government. 
But it makes some difference to the future of a democratic 
state whether its leading men are eagerly on the look-out for 
something to revolutionize, or approach a constitutional change 
by the gradual processes of conviction and conversion. 

Great as were his eloquence, his knowledge and his financial 
skill, Gladstone was accustomed to say of himself that the only 
quality in which, so far as he knew, he was distinguished from 
his fellow-men was his faculty of concentration. Whatever were 
the matter in hand, he soconcentrated himself on it, and absorbed 
himself in it, that nothing else seemed to tmi for him. 

A word must be said about physical charaCterbtics. In 
his prime Gladstone was just six feet high, but his inches 
diminished as his years increased, and in old age the unusual 
size of his head and breadth of his shoulders gave him a slightly 
top-heavy appearance. His features were strongly marked; 
the nose trenchant and hawklike, and the mouth severely 
lined. His iUishing eyes were deep-set, and in colour resembled 
the onyx with its double band of brown and grey. His com- 
plexion was of an extreme pallor, and, combined with his jet-black 
hair, gave in earlier life something of an Italian aspect to his 
face. His dark eyebrows were singularly flexible, and they per- 
petually expanded and contracted in harmony with what he 
was saying. He held himself remarkably upright, and even 
from his school-days at Eton had been remarked for the rapid 
pace at which he habitually walked. His voice was a baritone, 
singularly dear and far-reaching. In the Waveriey Market 
at Edinburgh, which is said to hold 90,ooo people, he could be 
heard without difficulty; and as late as 1895 he said to the 
present writer: " What difference docs it make to me whether 
I speak to 400 or 4000 people?" His physical vigour in old 
age earned him the popular nickname of the Grand Old Afan. 

Lord Morley of Blackburn's Life of Gtadstono was published in 
1903. (G.W. E.R.) 

GLADSTONB, a seaport of Clinton county, Queensland, 
Australia, 328 m. by rail N.E. of Brisbane. Pop. (1901) 1566. 
It possesses a fine, well-sheltered harbour reputed one of the 
best in Queensland, at the mouth of the river Boync. Gold^ 
manganese, copper and coal are found in the neighbourhood. 
Gladstone, founded in 1847, became a munidpality in 1863. 

See J. F. Hogan, The Cladslone Colony (London, 189ft). 

QLAGOLITIC, an early Slavonic alphabet: also the liturgy 
written therein, and the people (Dalmatians and Roman CathoKc 



MoDtenrgrios) among wbom it has survived by special Hcence 
of the Pope (see Slavs for ubie of letters). 

OLAIB (from Fr. fJatre, probably from Lat. iknu, clear, 
bright), the white of an egg, and hence a term used for a prepara- 
tioa made of this and used, in bookbinding and in gilding, to 
retain the gold and as a varnish. The adjective " glairy " is 
used of substances having the viscous and transparent consistency 
oi the w hite o f an egg. 

OLABHBlt, JAMBS (1809-1903), English meteorologbt and 
aeronaut, was bom in London on the 7th of April 1809. After 
serving for a few years on the Ordnance Survey of Ireland, 
he acted as an assistant at the Cambridge and Greenwich ob- 
serratories successively, and when the department of meteorology 
And ma^utism was formed at the latter, he was entrusted with 
its superintendence, which he continued to exercise for thirty-four 
yeaia, until his retirement from the public service. In 1845 he 
published his well-known dew-point tables, 'which have gone 
through many editions. In 1850 he established the Meteoro- 
logical Society, acting as its lecretaiy for many years, and in 
t866 he anOTtfd in the foundation of the Aeronautical Society 
of Great Britain. He was appointed a member of the royid 
commission on the warming and ventilation of dwellings in 1875, 
and for twelve years from x88o acted as chairman of the executive 
committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund. But his name 
is best known in connexion with the series of balloon ascents 
which he made between 1862 and x866, mostly in company 
with Henry l^cey CoxwelL Many of these ascents were 
arranged by a committee of the British Association, of which 
he was a member, and were strictly sdentific in character, thei 
object being to carry out observations on the temperature, 
humidity, &c, of the atmosphere at high elevations. In one of 
them, that which took place at Wolverliampton on the sth of 
September x86a, Glaisher and his companion attained the 
greatest height that had been reached by a balloon carrying 
passengers. As no automatically recording instruments were 
available, and Glaisher was unable to read tht barometer at 
the highest point owing to loss of consciousness, the precise 
altitude can never be known, but it is estimated at about 
7 m. from the earth. He died on the 7th of Febniaxy 1905 at 

GLAMIS, a village and parish of Forfarshire, Scotland, $) m. 
W. by S. of Forfar by the Caledonian railway. Pop. of parish 
(1901) 135X. The name is sometimes spelled Glammis and the 
i is mute: it is derived from the Gaelic, glamkuSf " a wide gap," 
" a vale." The chief object in the village is the sculptured stone, 
traditionally supposed to be a memorial of Malcobn H., although 
Fordun's statement that the king was slain in the castle is now 
rejected. About a mile from the station stands Glamis Castle, 
the seat of the eari of Strathmore and Kinghome, a fine example 
of the Scottish Baronial style, enriched with certain features 
of the French chiteau. In its present tona it dates mostly 
from the xyth century, but the original structure was as old as 
the xxth century, for Macbeth was Thane of Glamfs. Several 
of the early Scots kings, espedally Alexander III., used it 
occasionally as a reside n ce. Robert II. bestowed the thanedom 
on John Lyon, ^liio had married the king's second daughter 
by Elizabeth Mure and was thus the founder of the exbting 
family. Patrick Lyon became hostage to England for James I. 
in X4.24. When, in X537, Janet Douglas, widow of the 6th Lord 
Glamis, was burned at Edinburgh as a witch, for coqspixing to 
procure Jaznes V.'s death, Glamis was fotfeited to the crown, but 
it was restored to her son six years later when her innocence had 
been established. The 3rd earl of Strathmore entertained the 
Old Chevalier and eighty of his immediate followen in 17x5. 
After discharging the duties of hospitality the eari joined the 
Jacobites at Shcriffmuir and fell on the battlefield. Sir Walter 
Scott spent a night in the " hoary old pile " when he was about 
twenty years old, aiul pves a striking relation of his ex p eriences 
hi his Demonelcgy and WiUhcraft, The haQ has an arched 
celling and several historical portraits, induding those of Claver- 
house, Charles IL and James n. of England. At (Gossans, in 
the parish of Glaxnis. there is a remaricable sculptured monolith. 

and other examples occur at the Hunters' HiU and in the old 
kirkyard of Eassie. 

OLAMORGANSHIRB (Welsh Morgatnog), a maritime county 
occui^ring the south-east comer of Wales, and bounded N.W. 
by Carmarthenshire, N. by Carmarthenshire and Breconsbire, 
£. by Monmouthshire and S. and S.W. by the Bristol Channel 
and Carmarthen Bay. The contour of the couuty is largely 
determined by the fact that it lies between the mountains of 
Breconsbire and the Bristol Channel. Its extreme breadth from 
the sea inland is 29 m., while its greatest length from east to 
west is 53 m. Its chief rivers, the Rhymney, Taff, Neath (or 
NCdd) and Tawe or Tawy, have their sources in the Breconshire 
mountains, the two first trending towards the south-east, while 
the two last trend to the south-west, so that the main body of the 
county forms a sort of quarter-drde between the TafT and the 
Neath. Near the apex of the angle formed by these two rivers 
is the loftiest peak in the county, the great Pennant scarp of 
Craig y Llyn or Cam Moesyn, 1970 ft. high, which in the Glacial 
period diverted the ice-flow from the Beacons into the valley 
on dther side of it. To the south and south-east of this peak 
extend the great coal-fields of mid-Glamorgan, their surface 
forming an irregular plateau with an average elevation of 600 to 
X300 ft. above sea-level, but with numerous peaks about 1500 ft. 
high, or more; Mynydd y Caerau, the second highest being 
X823 ft. Out of this plateau have been carved, to the depth 
of 500 to 800 ft. below its general level, three distinct series 
of narrow valleys, those in each series being more or less paralleL 
The rivers which give their names to these valleys include the 
Cynon, the Great and Lesser Rhondda (tributaries of the Taff) 
and the Ely flowing to the S.E., the Ogwr or Ogmore (with its 
tributaries the Garw and Llynfi) flowing south through Bridgend, 
and the Avan bringing the waters of the Corwg and Gwynfi to 
the south-west into Swansea Bay at Aberavon. To the south 
of this central hill country, which is wet, cold and sterile, and 
whose steep slopes form the southcm edge of the coal-fidd, there 
stretches out to the sea a gently undulating plain, compendiously 
known as the " Vale of Glamorgan," but in fact consisting of a 
succession of small vales of such fertile land and with such a 
mild climate that it has been styled, not inaptly, the " Garden 
of Wales." To the east of the central area referred to and 
divided from it by a spur of the Brecknock mountains culminating 
in Cam BugaH, 1570 ft. high, is the Rhymney, which forms the 
county's eastern boundary. On the west other spurs of the 
Beacons divide the Neath from the Tawe (which enters the 
sea at Swansea), and the Tawe from the Lougbor, which, with 
its tributary the Amman, separates the county on the N.W. 
from Carxnarthenshire, in which it rises, and falling into Car- 
marthen Bay forms what u known as the Burry estuary, so 
caBed from a small stream of that name in the Gower peninsula. 
The rivers are all comparativdy short, the Taff, in every respect 
the chief river, bdixg only 33 m. long. 

Down to the middle of the X9th century most of the Glamorgan 
valleys were famous for thdr beautiful scenery, but industrial 
operations have since destroyed most of this beauty,. except in 
the 80K»lled " Vale of Glamorgan," the Vale of Neath, the 
" combes " and limestone gorges of Gower and the upper reaches 
of the Taff and the Tawe. The Vale of Neath is par excellence 
the waterfall district of South Wales, the finest falls being the 
(^ilhepste fall, the Sychnant and the three Clungwyns on the 
Meilte and its tributaries near the Vale of Neath railway from 
Neath to Hirwaun, Scwd Einon Gam and Scwd Gladys on the 
Fyrddin on the west side of the valley dose by, with Melin Court 
and Abergarwed still nearer Neath. There are also several 
cascades on the Dulais, and in the same dbtrict, though in 
Breconshire, is Scwd Henrhyd on the Llech near Colbren JunctioiL 
Almost the only part of the county which is now well timbered 
is the Vale of Neath. There are three small lakes, Llyn Fawr 
and Uyn Fach near Craig y Llyn and Kenfig Pool amid the 
sand-dunes of Margam. The rainfall of the county varies fmm 
an average of about 35 in. at Porthcawl and other parts of the 
Vale of Glamorgan to about 37 in. at Cardiff, 40 in. at Swansea 
aiui to i^mards of 70 in. in the northern part of the county. 



tlie fall being fttill higher in the adjoining parts <A Breconshare 
whence Cardiff, Swansea, Merthyr and a large area near Neath 
draw their main suppUcs of water. 

The county has a coast-line of about 83 m. Its two chief bays 
are the Buny estuary and Swansea, one on either side of the 
Gower Peninsula, which has also a number of smaller inlets with 
magnificent cliff scenecy. The rest of the coast is fairly regular, 
the chief openings being at the mouths of the Ogmoie and the 
Taff respectively. The most conspicuous headlands are Whiteford 
Point, Worms Head and Mumbles Head in Gower, Nash Point 
and Lavemock Point on the eastern half of the coast. 

GeoUry. — ^Tbe Silurian roclcs, the oldest in the conntv. form a 
•mall inucr about 2 iq. m. in area at Rumnev and Pen-v>Ian, north 
of Cardiff, and consut of mudstoncs and aanostones of wenlock and 
Ludlow age; a feeble representative of the Wenlock Limestone also 
is present. They are oonfonnably succeeded by the Old Red Saad- 
stone which extends westwards as far as Cowbridse as a deq>lv- 
eroded anticline lar^y concealed by Trias and Lias. The Old 
Red Sandstone consists in the lower parts of red marls and sand- 
stones, while the upper beds are quartzttic and pebbly, and form 
bold scarps whkh dominate the low ground formed lyy the softer 
beds bek>w. Cefn-y-bryn, anotMcr anticline of Oki Red Sandstone 
(including small exposures of Silurian rocks), forms Che prominent 
backbone of the Gower peninsula. The next formation is the 
Carboniferous Limestone which encircles and underlies the srcat 
South Wales coal-fiekl, on the south of which, west of Caidiff, it 
forms a bold escarpment of steeplv«dtppinc beds surrounding the 
Old Red Sandstone anticline. It shows up through the Trias and 
Lias in extensive inUers near Bridgend, whde in Gower it dips away 
from the Old Red Sandstone of Cefn-y-bryn. On the north of the 
coal-fiekl it is just reached near Merthyr TydfiL The Millstone Grit, 
which consbts of grits, sandstones ami shales, crops out above the 
Kroestooe and serves to introduce the Coal Measures, which lie in the 
form of a great trough extending east and west across the county and 
occupying roost of its surface. The coal seams are most numerous 
in the lower part of the scries; the Pennant Sandstone succeeds 
and occupies the inner parts of the bann, formins an devated 
moorland region deeply trenched by the teeming vaUcys («.f. the 
Rhondda) which cross the coal-field from north to south. Above 
the Pennant Sandstone still higher coals come in. Taken srenerally, 
the coals are bituminous in tne south-east and anthradtic in the 

After the Coal Measures had been deposited, the southern pait of 
the region was subjected to powerful folding; the resulting anticlines 
were worn down during a long period of detrition, ana then sub- 
merged slowly beneath a Triassic lake in whkh accumulated the 
Keoper conglomerates and maris which spread over the district 
west of Cardiff and are traceable on the coast of Gower. The 
succeeding Rhaetic and Lias which form most of the coastal plain 
(the fertile Vale of Glamorgan) from Penarth to near Bridgend were 
laid down by the Jurassic sea. A well-marked raised beach is 
traceable in Cower. Sand-dunes are present locally around Swansea 
Bay. Moraines, chiefly formed of gravel and day, occupy many 
of the Glamorgan valleys; and these, together with the striated 
surfaces which may be observed at higher levels, are'deariy glacial 
in ori|pn. In the Coal Measures and the newer Limestones and 
Triassic, Rhaetic and Liassic conglomerates, marls and shales, many 
interesting fossils have been disinterred : these include the remains 
of an air-breat hing reptile (A nthrauspeton). Bones of the cave-bear, 
lion, mammoth, reindeer, rhinoceros, along with flint weapons and 
tools, have been discoverKl in some caves mthe Gower peninsula. 

AgricnUure. — The low-lyin^ land on the south from Caerphilly to 
Maream is very fertile, the sod being a deep rich loam; and here the 
standard of agriculture is fairly high, and there prevails a well- 
'dcfined tc'nant-right custom, supposed to be of ancient origin but 
probably dating only from the beginning of the I9tb century. 
Everywhere on the Coal Measures the soil bpoor^ while vq^etation is 
alio miurod by the smoke from the works, especially copper smoke. 
Leiana (c. 1535) describes the lowlands as growing gooa com and 
grass but little wood, while the mountains had " ledde dere. kiddcs 
plenty, oxen and sheep." The land even in the '* Vale " seems to 
nave been open and unendosed till the end of the 15th or beginning 
of the i6th century, while enclosure 4>read to the uplands stiU later. 
About one-fifth 01 die total area b stul common land, more than half 
of which is unsuitable for cultivation. ' The total area under culti- 
vation in 1905 was 369,371 acres or about one>half of the total are a 
of the county. The chief crops raised (giving them in the order 
of their respective acreages) are oats, baney, turnips and swedes, 
wheat, potatoes and mangolds. A steady decrease of the acreage 
under grain-crops, grcen-croos and clover has been accompanied 
by an increase in the area 01 pasture. Dairying has been largely 
abandoned for stock-nsisii^, and very little " Caerphilly cheese^' is 
now made in that district. In 190s Glamorgan had the largest 
number of horses in aericulture of any Welsh county except those of 
Carmarthen and Carotin. Good sheep and ponies are rwed in the 
hill-country. Plg-kcrping is much neglected, and despite the mild 
climate very little fruit is grown. The average sin of hoktinga in 

190S was 47*3 acres, there being only 46 holdings above jOO 
and 1719 between 50 and 500 acres. 

Mininf and Manufaciures. — Down to the middle of the i8th 
centuiv the county had no industry of any importance except 
agriculture. The coal which underiies practically the whole smfacc 
of the county except the Vale of Glamorgan and West Gower was 
little worked till about 1755, when it began to be used instobd of 
charcoal for the smelting of iron. By i8ti, when there were 25 
blast furnaces in the county, the demand for coal for this porpoae 
had much increased, but it was in the most active period of raflway 
construction that it reached its maximum. Down to about 1850, 
if not later, the chief collieries were owned by the ironma&tcrs and 
were worked for their own requirements, but when the suitability 
of the lower scams in the district north of Cardiff for steam purposes 
was realised, an export trade sprang up and soon assumed enonnous 
proportiona. so that " the port 01 Cardiff " (including Barry and 
Penarth), from which the bulk of the steam coal was shipped, became 
the first port in the worid for the shipment of coal. The acvelopment 
of the anthracite coal-field lying to the north and west of Swansea 
(from which port it is mostly shipped) dates mainly from the closing 
years of the 19th century, when the demand for thb coal grew 
rafwlly. There are still large areas in the Rhymney Valley on the 
east, and in the districts of Neath and Swansea on the west, whose 
devdopment has only recently been undertaken. In connexion with 
the ooal industry, patent fuel (made from small coal and tar) b 
largely manufactured at Cardiff, Port Talbot and Swansea, the ship- 
ments from Swansea being the largest in the kingdom. Next in 
importance to coal are the iron, steel and tin-pbte industries, and 
in the Swansea district the smdring of copper and a variety of other 

The manufacture of iron and stcd b carried onat Dowlab. Merthyr 
Tydfil, Cardiff, Port Talbot, Briton Ferry, Pontardawe, Swansea. 
(Sondnon and Gowerton. During the last quarter of the I5^h cen- 
turv the use of the native ironstone was almost wholly given up, 
and the neocaaary ore b now imported, mainly from Spam. As a 
result several of the older inland works, such as those of Aberdare, 
Ystalyfera and Brynaman have been abandoned, and new works 
have Deen established on or near the sea-board ; e.r. the Dowlab 
company in 1801 opened large works at Cardiff. The tin-plate 

industry b maiiuy confined to Uie west of the county, Swansea being 
the chief pent for the shipment of tin-plates, though there are works 
near Llantrisant and at Melin Griffith near Cardiff, the latter being 
the oldest in the county. Copper-smdting b carried on on a large 
scale in the west of the county, at Port Talmt, Cwmavon, Neath and 
Swansea, and on a small scale at Cardiff, the earliest works having 
been established at Neath in I5&^ and at Swansea in 1717. There 
are nickel works at Clydacb near Swansea, the nickd being imported 
in the form of " matte " from (Canada. Swansea has almost a 
monopoly of the manufacture of spelter or sine Lead, silver and a 
number of other metab or their by-products are treated in or near 
Swansea, whkh b often stykd the '* meuUurgical capital of Wales." 
Limestone and silica quarries are worked, while sandstone and cby 
are also raised. Swansea and Nantgarw were formeriy famous for 
their china, coarse ware b still made chiefly at Ewenny and tcna- 
cotta at Peocoed. Large numbers of people are employed in 
engineering works and in the manufacture of machines, chains, 
conveyances, tools, paper and chemicals. The textile factories are 
few and unimportant. 

FwAmer.-^Fisheries exist alt along the coast; by lines, draught- 
nets, dredging, trawling, fixed nets and by handk There b a fleet of 
trawlers at Swanaea. The principal fish caught are cod, herring* 
pollock, whiting, flukes, brill, plaice, soles, turbot, oysters, mussels, 
limpets, cocldes, shrimps, crabs and lobsters. There are good fish> 
markets at Swansea and Cardiff. 

CMMNnrico/teiu .— The county has ample dode accommodation. 
The various docks of Cardiff amount to 210 acres, indudina timber 
ponds; Penarth has a dock and basin of 26 acres and a tidal narbour 
of ^5 acres. Barry docks cover 1 14 acres; Swansea has 147 acres, 
induding its new King's Dock; and Port Talbot 90 acres. There 
are also docks at Briton Ferry and Pocthcawl, but they are not 
capable of admitting deep-draft vessels. 

Besides its ports, Glamorgan has abundant means of transit in 
many railways, of which the Great Western b the chief. Its trunk 
line tnvening the country between the mountains and the sea passes 
through Cardiff, Bridgend and Landore (on the outskirts of Swansea), 
and Uvows off numerous branches to the north. The Taff Vale 
railway serves all the valley of the Taff and its tributaries, and has 
also extensions to Barry and (through Uantrisant and Cowbridge) 
to Abeithaw. The Rhymney railway likewise serves the Rhymney 
Valley, and haa a joint service with the Great Western betwoeS 
Cardiff and Merthyr Tydfil— "the latter town bdng also the terminus 
of the Brecon and Merthyr and a branch of the North-Westem from 
Abergavenny. The Barry railway visits Cardiff and then travels in 
a north-wetteriy directicm to Pontypridd and Perth, while it sends 
a^htt blanch along the coast throu|^ Llantwit Major to Bridgend. 
Swansea b connected with Merthyr by the Great WesUrn, with 
Brecon by the Midland, with Craven Arms and Mid-Walesgenerally 
by the London ft North-'Westem. with the Rhondda Valley by 
the Rhondda and Swansea Bay (now worked by the Great Westeni) 
and with Mumbles by the Mumbles raaway. The Pert Talbot 



milw»y ntM to Bterai^rw, and the Notth and Bcwoa raflway 
(starting from Neath) joins the Midland at Colbren JuDctioQ. The 
canals of the county are the Glamofiran canal from Cardiff to 
Merthyr Tydfil (25! m.). with a branch (7 m.) to Aberdare, the 
Neath canal (13 m.) from Briton Ferry to Abemant. Glyn Neath 
(whence a tramway formerly connected it with Aberdare), the 
tennant canal connecting the riverB.Neath and Tawe, and the Swan- 
sea canal (i6| m.)i running up the Swansea VaHey from Swansea to 
Abercxave in Breconshire. Compaiativcly little use is now made of 
these canals, excepting the lower portions of the Glamorgan canal. 

PofimlaHom ana AdministratiaH. — ^The area of the ancieot county 
with whadk the administrative county ia cooterminoua is 518,863 
acres, with a population in 1901 of 859,931 persons. In the three 
decades between 1831 knd 1861 it increased 3^*2, 35*4 and 37*1 % 
respectively, and in 1881-1891, 34*4, its average mcrease in the other 
decennial periods^ subsequent to 1861 being about 25%. The 
county is divided into five parliamentary divisions (via. Qlamoigan- 
shire East, South and Middle, Gower and Rhondda) ; it also includes 
the Cardiff district of boroughs (consisting of Cardiff, Cowbridge and 
Llantrisant), which has one member; the greater part of the parlia- 
mentary borough of Merthyr Tydfil (which mainly comists of the 
county Dorpugh of Merthyr, the urban district of Aberdare and part 
of Mountain Ash),i and returns two members; and the two divisions 
of Swansea District returning one member each, one division con- 
sisting of the major part of Swansea town, the other comprising the 
remainder of Swansea and the boroughs of Aberavon, Kenfig, 
Uwchwrand Neath. There are six municipal boroughs: Aberavon 
(popw ia 1901, 755u0i Cardiff (164,333)1 Cowbridge (1202), Merthyr 
Tydfil (69,228), Neath (13,720) and Swansea (94.537)- C^ardiff 
(which in 1905 was created a city), Merthyr Tydfil and Swansea are 
county boroughs. The followti^ are urban districts: Aberdare 

WoS), Barry (27,030), Bridgend (6062), Briton Ferry (6973), 

mouth (4461), Penarth (14,228). Pontypridd (^,^16), Porthcawl 
(1872) and Rnondda, previously known as Ystradylodwg (1 (3,735). 
Glamorgan is in the S. Wales circuit, and both asnxes and quarter- 
sessions are held at Cardiff and Swansea alternately. All the 
municipal boroughs have separate commissions of the peace, and 
Cardiff^ and Swansea have also separate courts of quarter-sessions. 
The county has thirteen other petty sessional divisions, C^ardiff, the 
Rhondda (with Pontypridd) and the Merthyr axKl Aberdare district 
have stipendmry magutrates. There are 165^ civil (nrishes. Ex- 
cepting the districts of Gower and Kilvey, which are in the diocese 
of St David's, the whole county is in the diocese of Llandaff. There 
are 159 ecc leriastical parishes or districts situated wholly or partly 
within the county. 

HMtory.— The earliest known traces 'of man within the area 
of the present county are the human remains found in the famous 
bone-caves of Gower,. though they are scanty as compared with 
the huge deposits of stffl eariier animal remains. To a later 
itage, perhaps in the Neolithic period, belongs a numberof com- 
plete skeletons discovered in 1903 in sand-blown tumuli at 
the month of the Qgmore, where many flint implements were 
illso found. Considerably later, and probably belonging to the 
Bionxe Age (though finds of brOnze implements have bwn scanty) , 
are the many calms and tumuli, mainly on the hills, such as on 
Garth Motmtain near Cardiff, Crug-yr-avan and a number east 
of the Tawe; the* stone circles often found in association witfi 
the tumuli, that of Cam Llecharth near Pontardawe being one 
of the most complete in Wales; and the fine cromlechs of Cefn 
Bryn in Ck>wer (known as Arthur's Stone), of St Nicholas and of 
St Lythan's near Cardiff. 

In Roman times the country from the Neath to the Wye was 
occupied by the Silures, a pre-Celtic race, probably governed at 
that time by Brythonic Celts. West of the Neath and along the 
fringe of the Brecknock Mountains were probably remnants of the 
earlier Ck>idelic Celts, who have left traces in the place-names of 
the Swansea valley (e.g. Uwck, ** a lake ") and in the illegible 
Ogham inscription at Loughor, the only other Ogham stone in 
the county being at Kenfig, a few miles to the east of the Neath 
estuary. The conquest of the Silures by the Romans was begun 
about AJ>. so by Ostorius Scapula and completed some 25 yean 
later by Julius Frontinus, who probably constructed the great 
military road, called Via Julia Maritima, from Gloucester to St 
David's, with stations at Cardiff, Bovium (variously identified 
with Boverton, Cowbridge and Ewenny), Nidum (identified with 
Neath) and Leucarum or Loughor. The important station of 
Gaer on the Usk near Brecon was connected by two branch 
roads, one running from Cardiff through GcUigaer (where there 
a strong hill fort) and Merthyr Tydfil, and anotherfrom Neath 

throui^ Capel Cdbrea. Wdah tndition crediu Glamorgan 
with being the fint home of Christianity, and Llandaff the earliest 
bidiopric in Britain, the name of three reputed missionaries of 
the 2nd century hdjig preserved in the namesof parishesinsouth 
GUuttorgan. What is certain, however,isthatthefiisttwobishops 
of Llandaff, St Dubridus and St Teilo, lived during the first 
half of the 6th century, to which period also bdongs the establish- 
ment of the great monastic settlements of Llancarvan by Cadoc, 
of LUndough by Oudocegs and of Llantwit Major by Dltutus, the 
last of which flourished as a seat of learning down to the X2th 
century. A few moated mounds such as at Cardiff indicate that, 
after the withdrawal of the Romans, the coasts were visited by 
sporadic bands of Saxons, but the Scandinavians who came in 
the 9th and succeeding centuries left more abundant traces both 
in the place-names of the coast and in such campa as that on 
Sully Ishind, the Bulwarks at Porthkerry and Hardings Down 
in Gower. Meanwhile the native tribes of the district had 
rq^ned their independence under a line of Welsh chieftains, 
whose domain was consolidated into a principality known as 
Glywyssing, till about the end of the xoth century when it 
acquired the name of Morganwg, that is the territory of Morgan, 
a prince who died in a.d. 980; it then comprised the whole 
country from the Neath to the Wye, practically corresponding 
to the present diocese of Llandaff. Gwlad Morgan, later softened 
into Glamorgan, never had much vogue and meant precisely the 
same as Morganwg, though the two terms became differentiated 
a few centuries later. 

The Norman conquest of Morganwg was effected in the 
closing years of the nth century by Robert Fitzhamon, lord of 
Gloucester. His foUowers settled in the low-lying lands of- the 
" Vale," which became known as the " body " of the shire, 
while in the hill country, which consisted of ten " members," 
corresponding to its ancient territorial divisions, the Welsh 
retained their customary laws and much of their independence. 
Glamorgan, whose bounds were now contracted between the 
Neath and the Rhymney, then became a lordship marcher, its 
status and organiaation being that of a county palatine; its 
lord possessed jura regalia, and his chief official was from the 
first a vice-€om€St or sheriff, who presided over a county court 
composed of his lord's prindpal tenants. The inhabitants of 
Cardiff in wUch, as the cafut baroniae, this court was held 
(though sometimes ambulatory), were soon granted municipal 
privileges, and in time Cowbridge, Kenfig, Llantrisant, Aberavon 
and Neath also became chartered market-towns. The manorial 
system was introduced throughout the ** Vale," the manor in 
many cases becoming the parish, and the owner building for its 
protection first a castle and then a church. The church itsdf 
became Normaniaed, and monasteries were established — ^the 
Cisterdan abbey of Neath and Margam in xr29 and 1147 re- 
spectively, the Benedictine priory of Ewenny in XZ4Z and that of 
(Cardiff in 1147. Dominican and Franciscan houses were also 
founded at Cardiff in the following century. 

Gower (with Kilvey) or the country west of the morassbet ween 
Neath and Swansea had a separate history. It was conquered 
about zioo by Henry de Newburgh, ist earl of Warwick, by 
whose descendants and the powerful family of De Breos it 
was successively held as a marcher lordship, organized to some 
extent on county lines, till 1469. Swansea (which was the caput 
baroniae of Gower) and Loughor received their earlier charters 
from the lords of Gower (see Gower). 

For the first two centuries after Fitzhamon's time the lordship 
of Glamorgan was held by the earls of Gloucester, a title con- 
ferred by Henry I. on his natural son Robert, who acquired 
Glamorgan by marrying F'itzhamon's daughter. To the ist 
earl's patronage of Geoffrey of Monmouth and other men of 
letters, at Cardiff Castle of which he was the builder, is probably 
due the large place which Celtic romance, especially theArthurian 
cyde, won for itself in medieval literature. The lordship passed 
by descent through the families of Clare (who held it from 1217 
to X317), Despenser, Beauchamp and Neville to Richard III., on 
whose fall it escheated to the crown. From time to time, the 
Wdsh of the hills, often joined by their countrymen from other 


puu. nidtd tbe Vile, ud « 

II5J by TvtjrBuJi, lard of Si 
locdapiuonei. At lut CscrpbiUy Cutle wi 
in dicck, but this provoked fcn ic 

ED Cudia Cutlc ■ 
ScDghcDydd, who f 

u built CO keep tbem 
■ 1 I J70 by Prince 

dceplon coiidiliaiit. la iji6 Llewelyn Bnn beadRi a levnll in 
the Hine dislricl , but being defeated wupultodnlbby Despenicr, 
irhoK gnat unpopuluiiy iritb the Welsh made Glunorgui less 
safe u > lelreat for Edwird II. t, lew yuia lalci. In 1404 
Cltndowei mepl thiough the oounty, burning coatles ind laying 
wise the ptuseistoDS ot the kiog't lUMKWtets. By the Ail of 
Union of 1533 the county of Glunorgnn wu incoqwratcd •« it 
now eiists. by Ibe addition to the old coiinty ol the loidlllip 
of Gower and Kilvey. west of the Neslh. By uwlbcr act of 
1 543 the court of gnat sessions was established, and CtamoTgin, 
with the counties of Brecon and Radnor, fcnned one oI iu four 
Wdih dicuits fiom thence till 1S30, when the Entfi^ usiw 
s^lan was intioduced into Wales, In the lUne year Ibe county 
wu given one parliamentary repreaentative, increased to two 
in 1932 and to Jive in iSSj. The borou^ were also given a 
member. la i8jj Cardiff (with Uanlriianl and Cowbridge),lhe 
Swansea group of boroughs and the parliamenury borough of 
Merlbyr Tydfil were given one memlKt etch, increased to lira, 
in the case of Metthyr Tydbl in iS«r- In iSE; th< " 


Among the res t ored cutlea, raided in by their pr 



of Pern 


Glamoigsa, iboni of iU quasi-regal status, wi 
id 'VI. la William Heibeii, afterwards ist ca 
LI has docended la (he present maniuc 

The rule of the Tudort promoted the ra[ud assimilation of the 
inhabitants of the county, and by the reign of Eliiabeih even 
the descendants of the Norman knights bad largely become 
Welsh both in speech and seniunent. Welsh continued to be the 
prevalent speech almost throughout the county, except in the 
peninsular part of Gower and perhaps Cardifl, till the last quarter 
al the igih century. Since Ibeo it has kat ground io the mari- 
time towns and the south-east comer ol the county ginenlly, 
■bile fairly holding its own, de^te much English migration, in 
the industrial districts 10 the north. In 1901 about 56% of the 
total population abov e three years ofagewaarelumedas tpoking 
English oiJy, 37% as speaking both English and Welsh, and 
about H% ai speiking Widsh only. 

In tomraon with the test of Wales the county was mainly 
Royalist in the Civil War, and indeed stood foremast in its 
readiness to pay ship-money, but when Charles I. visited Cardiff 
in July 1645 he failed to rciTuil his army there, owing to the 
dissalisfadion of the county, which a tew montha later declared 
for the psrhamcnL There was, however, a sub«eiiuent Royalist 
revolt in Clamotgan in 164S, but it was signally crushed by 
Colonel Horton al the battle of St Fagan's (Eth of May). 

The edudlional gap caused by final disappearance of the 
great university of Llantwil Major, founded in the 6th century, 
and by the dissolution of the motiasteries was to some extent 
61led hy the foundation, by the Stradling family, of a grammar 
school at Cowbridge which, refounded in it&s by Sir Leoline 
Jenkins, is still carried on as an endawed school, llie only other 
ancient grammai school is that of Swansea, founded by Bishop 
Cote in 16S], and now under the control of the borough couDdL 
Besides the University CoUcge of South Wales and Monmouth- 
shire established at CardiQ in iSis, and a technical college 
at Swansea, there is a Church of Eiigland thcoletjcaJ college 
(Si Michael's) at Uandal! (previously at Aberdare), a training 
college far school- mistresses al Swaose*, Kbools lor the blind at 
Cardiff and Snaasca and (or the deaf at Cardiff, Swaiuea and 

AiUuiuiiia.^Tbt aollquities of the county not already 
mcniioncd include an unusually large number of castle*, all 
of wbich, except the casilei of Morlais (near Merthyi Tydfil), 
Castell Coch and Uanliisiiot, are between the hill country and 
(he sea. The haesi specimen is that ol Caerphilly, but there 
are abo more or less imposing tuias at Oystermoulhi Dfltyi 
Newcastle (at Bridgend], Llanblethian, Peiuurd and S«UM9. 

built for defence," Cardiff, the residence of the martiuess of 
Bute, St Pagan's, Duoiivcn. Fonmon and Penrice. Of the 
monastic buildings, that of Ewenny is bat preserved, Neath 
and Margam art mere ruins, while all the others have disappeared. 
Almost all the older churches possess towers of a somehbat 
mibtary character, and most of them, except in Gower, retain 

Bridgend) arc fine examples of cross churches with embatUed 
lowers characteristic of the county. There are interesting 
monumental effigies at St Mary's, Swansea, Oiwich, Ewenny, 
Llantwit Major, Llantriaant, Coity and other churchca in the 
Vale. There are from twenty-five to thirty sculptured stones, 
of which some sixteen art both ornamented and inscribed, five 
of the UllfT being at Margam and three at Llantwit Major, 
and dating from the gtb century if not earlier- 

Cc ■ ■ . '. . . Siri, Bo°also°h»ve 

CO, :.,'(, 'L..' ,„-.i'.',.l |,i.'ii-..J. 'awI^mimO edited hy G. T- 
a ,.L i]nd« Itie till.' Curls' il alia -.-r-,™™!.: jiKiaJ AjmSiiBm & 
Ct^imorfan prrliiml wu pri-mdy printed tiy him in lour volume* 
(l!i6S-l8wl. A Dtxrifihc CaUlaint of Ikr I'mna aid UarcoB 
Albiy MSS. in Uu PonKsim d/ Wui UlM .j Ufram (6 voh.) 
waa privBlely issued (laoi-ioos) order tiic <dilonhip of Dr de 
Cray Biich. >ha has alto published h<»<,n- (d the Abbeyi of 
Nfdih and Marsam. Tie Bunt 0/ iJaa Dlf (,-Jited by Dr Gwein- 

hbtory of the diocese of Llandafl. Cardiff has ijubhlhed ill lUaril 
Wi-J/cn/i AfoTfo^-jf, tyD. VVWnn" (Oarydd Moeganwe) 






FuRCV (Ejititiia), a specific infective 
contagious lUscase, caused by a tissue puasite (BatiUia mciuij, 
to which certain animals, chieGy the horse, ass and mule, are 
liable, ai>d which is commuaicable from them to man. Claotlen 
In the domesticated animals is dealt wilb under VETZuuAaY 
ScigHCE; it is happily a rare form of disease in man, there being 
evidently leas afiiiuty for ils development in the human subject 
than in the etiDine species. For the pathology see the article 
PaiASinc Diseases. It occurs chiefly among those who from 
their occupation are frequently in contnci with horses, such as 
gp»ms,caachmFn,cavaliy soldiers, veterinary surgeons. &c.; the 

a wound or scratch or through application to Ihe mucous mem- 
brane of the nose or mouth. A period of incubation, lasting 
from three to five days, generally follows the introduction of 
thevirus into the human system. Hiis period, however, appears 
sometimes to be of much longer duratioD, eqicdally where there 
has been indirect inoculallon of Ihe poison. The first lym pi oms 
are a general feeling of tUoess, accompaoied anth pains in Ihe 
limbs and joinis tscmbliog those of acute rheumatism. If 
the disease has been introduced by mcansof an abraded surface, 
pain is felt at that point, and inflaminalDry swelling takes place 
there, and eilends along the neighbouring lymphatics. An 
ulcer is formed al Ihe point of inoculation which discharges 
an offensive ichor, and blebs appear in the inllamed skin, aloDg 
with diSuse abscesses, as in phlegmonous erysipelas. Sometimo 
the disease slops short with Ihrac local manifestations, hut 
more commonly goes on rapidly accompanied with ^mptoms 
of grave constitutional disturbance. Over the whole surface 
of the body there appear numerous red qwls or pustules, which 
brtakanddiscbargeathickmucousorsanguioeousfiuid. Besides 
these there are larger swelliogs lying deeper in Ihe subcutaneous 
tissue, which al first are extremely hard and painful, and to 
which the term farcy " buds " or " buttons " is applied. These 
lllUmately open and become extensive sloughing ulcers. 
The DUicout tuembranes participate la the same lesions u 



AM pitseat in the skin', and this b partiaaUrly the cue with 
the interior of the Doce, where indeed, in many instances, the 
Hivrase first of all shows itself. This organ becomes greatly 
swollen and inflamed, while from one or both nostrib there 
exudes a copious discharge of highly offensive purulent or 
sanguineous matter. The lining, membrane of the nostrils 
is covered with papules similar in character to those on the 
skin, which form ulcers, and may lead to the destruction of the 
cartilaginous and bony textures of the nose. The diseased action 
extends into the throat, mouth and eyes, while the whole face 
becomes swollen and erysipelatous, and the lymphatic ^ands 
under the jaws inflame and suppurate. Not unfrequenily the 
bronchial tubes become affected, and cough attended with 
expectoration of matter similar to that discharged from the 
nose is the consequence. The general constitutional symptoms 
are exceedingly severe, and advance with great rapidity, the 
patient passing into a state of extreme prostration. In the 
acute form of the disease recovery rarely if ever occurs, and the 
case generally terminates fatally in a period varying from two 
or tliree days to as many weeks. 

A chronic form of glanders and farcy is occasionally met with, 
in which the symptoms, although essentially the same as those 
above described, advance much more slowly, and are attended 
with relatively less urgent constitutional disturbance. Cases 
<rf recovery from this form are cm record; but in general the 
disease ultimately proves fatal by exhaustion of the patient, 
or by a sudden supervention, which is apt to occur, of the acute 
form. On the other handi acute glaiiders is never observed 
to beoome chronic. 

In the treatment of this maUdy in human beings reUance 
is mainly placed on the maintenance of the patient's strength 
by strong nourishment and tonic remedies. Cauterisation 
should be resorted to if the point of infection is early known. 
Abscesses may be opened and antiseptic lotions used. In all 
cases of the outbreak of glanders it is of the utmost consequence 
to prevent the spread of the disease by the destruction of affected 
animals and the cleansing and disinfection of infected hKahtics. 

OLAMVILL (or Glanvil), JOSEPH (1636-1680), English 
philo6<^>ber, was bora at Plymouth la 1636, and was educated 
at Exeter and Lincoln colleges, Oxford, where he graduated as 
M.A. in 1658. After the Restoration he was successively rector 
of Wimbush, Essex, vicar of Frome Selwood, Somersetshire, 
rector of Streat and Walton. In 1666 he was ^pointed to the 
abbey church, Bath; in 1678 he became prebendaiy of Woi^ 
ccster Cathedral, and acted as chaplain in ordinary to Charies IL 
from 167a. He died at Bath in November 1680. GlanviU'a. 
first work (a passage in which suggested the theme of Matthew 
Arnold's Scholar Gipsy), Tht VanUy of Dogmatitingt #r dW" 
fidenu in OpinionSt manifested i» a Disantrs€ »/ the shortnass 
and uncertainty of our KnowUdte, and its Causes, with Rtfiexions 
on Pcripatetieism, and an Apology for Fkilosopky (x66x), is 
interesting as showing one special direction in which the new 
method of the Cartesian philosophy might be developed. Pascal 
had already shown how philosophical scepticism might be 
employed as a bulwark for faith, and Glanvill follows in the 
same track. The philosophic endeavour to cognire the whole 
system of things by referring all events to their causes appears 
to him to be from the outset doomed to failure. For if we 
inquire into this causal relation we find that though we know 
isolated facts, we cannot perceive any such connexion between 
them as that the one should give rise to the otherl In the 
words of Hume, " they seem conjoined but never connected.? 
All causes then are but secondary, ix, merely the octask»s 
on which the one first cause operates. It ii singular enou^ 
that Glanvill who had not only shown, but even exaggerated, 
the infirmity of human reason, himself provided an example of 
iu weakness; for, after having combated scientific dogmatism, 
he not only yielded to vulgar superstitions, but actiially en- 
deavoured to accredit them both in Us revised edition oi the 
Vanity of Dotmatiiing, published as Scepsis scitntijica (1665, 
ed. Rev. John Owen, 1885), and in his Philosopkicil Considefth 
tioHs contermng the existence 0/ Sotcven and Sorcery (1666). 

The htter work appears to hav« bedi based on the stoiy of the 
drum which was alleged to have been heard every night in a 
house in Wiltshire (Tedworth, bebnging to a Mr Mompesson), 
a story which made much noise in the year 1663, and which is 
supposed to have furnished Addison with the idea of his comedy 
the Drummer. At his death Glanvill left a piece entitled Saddu- 
dsmus Triumphatus (printed in x68i, reprinted with some 
additions in 26S», German trans. 1701). He had there collected 
twenty-six relations or stories of the same description as that 
of the drum, in order to establish, by a series of facts, the opinion 
which he had expressed in his Philosophical Considerations, 
Glanvill supported a much more honourable cause when he 
undertook the defence of the Royal Society of London, under 
the title of Plus Ultra, or the Progress and Advancement ci 
Science since the time of Aristotle (1668), a work which shows 
how thoroughly he was imbued with the ideas of the empirical 
Besklcs the works already noticed, Glanvill wrote oriemtalis 

Essays on Seeetal Important 
An Essay concerning 
. Hist, de la phU, en 
Angfeterre, bk. iiL ch. xi.; W. E. H. Lecky. Ratianalijm in Europe 
(1865), i. X20-I38: HalUm's Literature ef Europe, UL 358-369; 
Tulloch's Rational Theology, ii. 443-455. 

OLAHVIIX* BANULF DB (sometimes written Glanvil, 
Glanvzlle) (d. xxgo), chief justiciar of England and reputed 
author of a book on English law, was bom at Stratford in Suffolk, 
but in what year is unknown. There is but little information 
regarding his eariy life. He first comes to the front as sheriff 
of York^ire from 1x63 to xx7a In 1x73 he became sheriff 
of Lancashire and custodian of the honour of Richmond. In 
XX 74 he was one of the English leaders at the battle of Alnwick, 
and it was to him that the king of the Scots, William the Lion, 
surrendered. In XX75 he was reappointed sheriff of Yorkshke^ 
in XX 76 he became justice of the king's court and a justice 
itinerant in the northern circuit, and in xx8o chief justiciar of 
England. It was with his assistance that Henry IL completed 
his judicial reforms, though the principal of them had been 
carried out before he came into office. He became the king's 
right-hand man, and during Henry's frequent absences was in 
effect viceroy of England. After the death of Henry in 1x891' 
Glanvill was removed from his office by Richard I., and imp 
prisoned till he had paid a ransom, according to one authority, 
of £x 5,0001 Shortly after obtaining his freedom he took the 
cross, and he died at the siege of Acre in xxga At the instance^ 
it may bc^ of Henry II., Glanvill wrote or superintended the 
writing of the Tractatus de legibus et consuetudinilms regni 
Angliae, which is a practical treatise on the forms of procedure 
in the king's court. As the source of our knowledge regarding 
the earliest form of the curia regis, and for the information it 
affordsregarding ancient customs and laws, it is of great value 
to the student of English history. It is now generally agreed 
that the work of Glanvill is of earlier date than the Scottish law 
book known from its first words as Regjiam Majestatem^ a work 
which bears a close resemblance to his* 

The treatise of Glanvill was first printed In 1554. An Eagfisb 
translation, with notes and Introduction by John Beamcs, was 
published at London in 1812. A French version is found in various 
MSS., but haa not yet been printed. (See also English Law: 
History of.) 

aLAPTHORNE, HENR7 (fl. 163 5-X642),- English poet and 
dramatist, wrote in the reign of Charies I. All that is known 
of him is gathered from his own work. He published Poimt 
(X6319), many of them in praise of an unidentified ** Ludnda "; 
A poem in honour of his friend Thomas Beedome, whose Paemt 
Divine and Humane he edited in x64x; and Whitehall, (X642), 
dedicated to his " noble friend and foasip, Captain Richard 
Lovelace." The first volume contains a poem in honour of the 
duke of Yoxk, and Whitehall is a review of the past glories of 
the English court, containing abundant evidences of the writer's 
devotion to the royal cause. Argalut and Parthenia {16^) is a 
pastoral tragedy iounded on an episode in Sidney's Arcadia', 
Albertus WaUenstdn (x63g),his oOly attempt at histo(iCBlClMged|]^ 
lepECsents Wall^aitda aa • monster of pride and cnidty. HIa 



Other plays are The BoBsudtr (written 1635; printed 1640), 
a romantic comedy of which tlie aoene is laid in Genoa; WU in a 
ConstaUc (X640), which is probably a version of an earlier play, 
and owes something to Shakespeaie's IfwcA Ado about Nothing; 
and The Ladies Frimledge (1640). The Lady Mother (1635) 
has been identified (Fleay, Biog. Chron. of the Drama) with The 
Noble Trial, one of the plays destroyed by Warburton's cook, 
and Mr A. H. Bullcn prinU it in voL ii. of his OU English Plays 
as most probably Glapthoine's work. The Paraside, or Revenge 
for Honour (1654), entered at Stationets' Hall in 1653 as Glap- 
thome's, was printed in the next 3rear with Geoi^ge Chapman's 
name on the title-page. It should probably be induded among 
Glapthome's plays, which, though they hardly rise above the 
level of contemporary productions, contain many felidtous 
isolated passages. 

The Plays and Poems of Henry dapthome (1874) contains an un- 
signed memoir, which, however, gives no information about the 
dramatist's Ufe. There is no reason for supposing that the George 
Glapthorne of whose trial details are given was a relative of the poet. 

OLARUS (Fr. Claris), one of the Swiss cantons, the name 
being taken from that of its chief town. Its area is 266*8 sq. m., 
of which 173* z sq. m. are classed as "productive" (forests 
covering 41 sq. m.), but it also contains Z3'9 sq. m. of skiers, 
ranking as the fifth Swiss canton in this respect. It is thus a 
mountain canton, the loftiest point in it being theT5di (i 1,887 ^O, 
the highest summit that rises to the north of the upper Aar and 
Vorder Rhine valleys. It is composed of the upper valley of 
the Linth, that is the portion which lies to the south of a line 
drawn from the Lake of ZOrich to the Walensee. This river 
rises in the glaciers of the Tddi, and has carved out for itself a 
deep bed, so that the floor of the valley is comparatively level, 
and therefore is occupied by a number of considerable villages. 
Glacier passes only lead from its head to the Grisons, save the 
rough footpath over the Kisten Pass, while a fine new carriage 
load over the Klausen Pass gives access to the canton of Uri. 
The upper Linth valley is sometimes called the Grossthal (main 
valley) to distinguish it from its chief (or south-eastern) tributary, 
the Semf valley or Kleinthal, which joins it at Schwanden, a 
little above G^arus itself. At the head of the Kleinthal a mule 
track leads to the Grisons over the Panixer Pass, as also a foot- 
path over the Segnes Pass. Just bdow Glarus town, another 
glen (coming from the south-west) joins the main valley, and is 
watered by the Kldn, while from its head the Pragd Pass 
(a mule path, converted into a carriage road) leads over to 
the canton of Schwya. The Kldn glen^ (uninhabited save in 
summer) is separated from the main glcn by the fine bold mass 
of the Glftmisch (9580 ft.), while the Semf valley is similarly cut 
off from the Grossthal by the high ridge running northwards 
from the Hausstock (10,34 a ft.) over the Kirpfstock (9x77 ft.). 
The prindpal lakes, the KlSnthalersee and the Muttensee, are 
of a thoroughly Alpine character, while there are several fine 
waterfalls near the head of the main valley, such as those formed 
by the Sandbadi, the Schrdenbach and the FUtschbach. The 
pantenbrQcke, thrown over the narrow ddt formed by the 
Linth, b one of the grandest ughts of the Alps bdow the snow- 
line. There is a sulphur ^ring at Stachdberg, near Linthal 
village, and an iron spring at Kim, while in the Semf valley 
there are the Plattenberg sUte quarries, and just south of Elm 
those of the TiMhingdberg, Kdience a teiiific landslip descended 
to Qm (zxth September 1881), destroying many housesand kUUng 
1x5 perMms^ A railway runs through the whole canton from 
north to south past Glania to Linthal villags (16} m.), while 
fKNB Scbwaaden there is an electric Ijne (opened in 1905) up to 
£lm (8f m.) 

In 1900 the populatioii of the canton was 31,349 (<^ decxease 
on the 33,835 of 1888, thia being the only Swiss canton which 
shows 4 daocsae), of whom 31,797 were Gennao^peaking, 
while there were 24,403 Protestants, 7918 Romanists (many in 
Nifdi) and 3 Jews. After the capital, Glania (9.*.), the largest 
villagw am Ntfels (2557 inhabitants), Ennenda (S494 inhabitaBt^ 
oppodte Gtanis, of which it is ptactjcally a suburb), Netstal 
(2003 inhabitants), Mollis (xgia inhabitama) ^nd Unthtbil 

(1894 inhabitants). The slate industry is now the most important 
as the cotton manufacture has lately very greatly fallen off. 
this being the real reason of the diminution in the number of the 
population. There is little agriculture, for it is a pastoral region 
(owing to its hei^t) and contains 87 mountain pastures (though 
the finest of all within the limits of the canton, the Umerboden, 
or the Glarus side of the Klausen Pass, belongs to Uri), whidi 
can support 8054 cows, and are of an estimated capital value 
of about £346,000. One of the most characteristic products 
(thqugh inferior qualities are manufactured elsewhere in Switzer- 
land) is the cheese called Schabzieger, Kr&ulerhUse, or green dieese, 
made of skim milk {Zieger or sirac), whether of goats or cows, 
mixed with buttermilk and coloured with powdered SleinUee 
(Mditotus officinalis) or Uaner Honigklee (Melilotus caemlea}. 
The curds are brought down from the huts on the pastures, and, 
after being mixed with the dried powder, are ground in a mill, 
then put into shapes and pressed. The cheese thus produced 
is ripe in abont a year, keeps a long time and is largely exported, 
even to America. The ice formed on the surface of the Kl6n- 
thalersee in winter is stored up on its shore and exported. A 
certain number of visitors come to the canton in the summer, 
dther to profit by one or other of the mineral springs men- 
tioned above, or simply to enjoy the betlutics of nature, especially 
at Obstalden, above the Walensec. The canton forms but a 
sinj^e administrative district and contains 28 communes. It 
sends to the Federal Stdnderath a representatives (dected by 
the Landsgemeinde) and 2 also to the Federal Nationalraih. The 
canton stttl keeps its primitive democratic assembly or Lands- 
gemeinde (meeting annually in the open air at Glarus on the first 
Sunday in May), composed of all maAt dtixens of 20 years of age. 
It acts as the sovereign body, so that no "referendum." is 
required, while any dtlzen can submit a proposal. It names the 
executive of 6 members, besides the Landammann or president, 
all holding office for three years. The communes (forming 18 
doctoral drdes) dect for three years the Landrath, a sort of 
standing committee composed of members in the proportion of 
z for every 500 inhabitants or fraction over 250. The present 
constitution dates from Z887. (W. A. B. C.) 

OLARUS (Fr. Oaris), the capital of the Swiss canton of the 
same name. It is a clean, modem little town, built on the left 
bank of the Linth (opposite it is the industrial suburb of Ennenda 
on the right bank), at the north-eastern foot of the imposing 
rock peak of the Vorder GUrnisch (7648 ft.), while on the east 
rises the Schild (6400 ft). It now contains but few houses 
built before x86x, for on the xo/zz May z86z practically the 
whole town was destroyed by fire that was fanned by a violent 
P9hn or south wind, rushing down from the high mountains 
through the lutaral funnd formed by the Linth valley. The 
total loss is estimated at about half a million sterling, of which 
about £xoo,ooo were made up by subscriptions that poured in 
from every side. It possesses the broad streets and osual 
buildings of a modem town, the parish church being by far the 
most statdy and wdl-situated building; it u used in common 
by the Protestants and Romans. Zwingli, the reformer, was 
parish priest here from X506 to Z5x6, bdore he became a Pro- 
testant. The town is 1578 ft. above the sea-level, and in Z900 
had a population of 4877, almost all (}erman-^>caking, while 
Z248 were Romanists. For the Linth canals (x8ix and i8z6) 
see Linth. 

The DnnxcT of Glaxus is said to have been converted to 
Christiantty in the 6th centuzy by the Irish monk, ' Fridolin, 
whose spedal protector was St Hilaiy of Poitiers; the former 
was the founder, and both were patrons, of the Beziedictine 
nuimety of Sickingen, on the Rhine between Constance and 
Basel, that about the 9th century became the owner of the 
district whidi was then named after St Hilaty. The HabsbuiyB, 
protecton of the nunnery, gradually drew to thexoadves the 
excrdse of all the rights of the nuns^ so that in 1352 Glarus 
joined the Swiis Confederation. But die men of Glarus did not 
gain their complete freedom till after they bad driven back the 
Hi^bnrgs in the fl^orious battle of Nifds (1388), the comple- 
menttff Sempacb, so that the Habsburgeis gave up their rights 

0LA8, G.— GLAS,J. 

in 139S, irbSiie Uiose of Sickiagen nen booght up in i39$» on 
ODodition of a amaU annual payment. Glanis eariy adopted 
Protestantism, but there were many stniQ^es later on between 
tbe two parties, as the chief family, that of Tscfaudi, adhered to 
the old f aStlt. At last it was amnged that, besides the common 
LattdsgetmeiMde, each party should have its separate Ltnis- 
i/muinde (1623) and tribunals (1683), while it was not till Z7g8 
that the Protestants agreed to accept the Gregorian calendar. 
The slate-quarrying industry appeared early in the 17th century, 
white cottott-q>ittning was introduced dx>ut 17x4, and calico- 
printing ^1750. In 1798, in consequence ol the resistance 
of Glarvs U> the French in^nuiera, the canton was united to other 
diaCricts under the name of canton of tbe Linth, though in 1803 
it was reduced to its former limits. In 1799 it was traversed 
by the Russian army, under Suworoff, coming over the Pragel 
I^ws, but blocked by the Freneh at Nlfds, and so driven over 
the Panixer to the Grisons. The old system of government was 
set up again In 1814. But in 1836 1^ the new Liberal con- 
stitution one single Landsgfiwuitide was restored, despite the 
resistance (1837) of the Romanist population at Nilela. 

AoTBonrriBS.-~J. BiUer. Die Alpwirtsekafi im KauL G. (Sdeore. 
1898); J._j. Blumer, article on the early history of the caoton in 
vol. vL (2&ricfa. 1844) of tbe AnhhJ. sckwei*. Cesckuhki E, Buss 
and A. Hdm. Der BtrgtiunvoHEtm (t88t) (Zarich, 1881): W. A. B. 
Codidse, The RanjK ^the T6di (London, 1894): J- G. Ebel. SrkiU4- 
m»t der G^MvjvMbr d. SekweiM, voL iL (Leiinif . 1798) ; Gottfried 
Hecr. Cesckkkit d, Landa Chms (to 1830) (a vols., Glanis, 1898- 
1899), Oantrische RefoaMiiofueesckkkU (CUrus, 1900), Zur $00 
jS^imen CedMklmtfeier der ScUackt bet Najds (tj88) (Glanis, ~i»8) 
amt Die Kircken d, Kant. Clams (Glarus, 1890); Oswald Heer and 
J. J. Bhimer-Heer. Der Kamt. Ctanu (St Gall, 1846); I. J. Hottinaer. 
Cmtrad Eseker torn der linth (ZOrich. 1852): JahrSneh, published 
annuaOy since 1865 by the Cantonal Histoncal Society: A. Jenny- 
Trlimpy, *' Handel .u- Industrie d. Kant. G.** (article in vol. xxxiii., 
1899. of the Jahrbuek); M. Schuler, CeschicfUe-d. Landes Clams 
(Z&rich. 1836); E. N«-Blumer, Clnbfahrer dnrth die GUuner^Alpen 
(Schwanden, 1902) ; Aloys Schutte, article on the true and kgendary 
early histCMy oiF the Canton, pirt>lUfaed in vol. xviii., 1893, of the 
Jakrbuch f. ukweie. Ceschichle (ZQrich) ; J. J. Blumer, Stoats- und 
Rechtstesdiickle d. sckioeis. Demokraiien (3 vols., St Gall, 1850- 
1859): lf:-'Ryt[S, Die ukweia, Landsgemeinden (ZQrich. 1^3): 
R. von Rcding-Biberegg, Der Zng Snmoraffs dnreh die Sebwei* iu 
i799 (Stans, 1895). (W. A. B. C) 

6LAS, GBOROB (x725-'X765), Scottish seaman and merchant 
adventurer in West Africa, son of John Glas the divine, was 
bom at Dundee in 1725, and Is said to have been brought up 
as a surgeon. He obtained command of a ahip which traded 
between Brazil, the N.W. coasts of Africa andThe Canary Islands. 
During his voyages he discovered on the Saharan seaboard a 
river navigable for some distance inland, and here he proposed 
to found a trading station. The exact spot is not known with 
certainty, but it is platisibly identified with Gueder, a place 
in about 29^ xo' N., possibly the haven where the Spaniards had 
in the 15th and x6th centuries a fort called Santa Cms de Mar 
Pequel^ Glas made an arrangement with the Lords of Trade 
wherehy be was granted £15,000 if he obtained free cesaon of 
the port he had discovered to the British crown; the proposal 
was to be laid before parliament in- the session of 1765. 
Having chartered a vessel, Glas, with his wife and daughter, 
sailed for Africa in 1764, reached his destination and made 
a treaty with the Moors of the district. He named his settle- 
ment Port HilUborough, after Wills HUl, earl of Hillsborough 
(afterwards marquis of Downshirc), president of the Board 
of Trade and Plantations, 1763-1765. In November 1764 
Glas and some companions, leaving Ids ship behind, went in 
the longboat to Lanzarote, intending to buy a smail barque 
suitable iois the navigation of the river on which was his settle- 
ment. From Lansarote be forwarded to London the treaty 
he had concluded for the acquisition of Port Hillsborough. A 
few days later he was seised by the Spaniards, taken to Tcncriffe 
ihd imprisoned at Santa Cms. In a letter to the Lords of Trade 
from TenerifTe, dated the i5lh of December 1764, Glas said 
be believed the reason for his detention was the jealousy of the 
Spaniards at the settlement at Port Hillsboroiiglu " because 
from thence in time of war the English might ruin their fishery 
and effeeiually stop the whole commerce of the Canary Islands." 


The Spaniards further looked upon t^ aettlemcnt as a step 

towards the conquest of the islands. "They are therefore 

contriving how to make out a claim to the port and will forge 

old manuscripts to prove their assertion ** {Cdendar qJ Heme 

Qfice Papers, x 760-1765). In March 1765 the ship's company 

at Port Hillsborough was attacked by the natives and sever^ 

members of it kiUed. The survivors, including Mrs and Miss 

Glas, escaped to Teneriffe. In October following, through the 

representations of the British government, Glas was released 

from prison. With his wife and child he set sail for England 

on board the barque'" Earl of Sandwich." On the 30th of 

November Spanish and Portuguese members of the crew, who 

had learned that the ship contained much treasure, mutinied, 

killing the captain and passengers. Glas was stabbed to death, 

and his wife and daughter thrown overboard. (The murderers 

were afterwards captured and hanged at Dublin.) After the 

death of Glas the British government appears to have taken 

no steps to carry out his project. 

In 1764 Glas published in London The History ef the Discaeery and 
Canniest of tk^Canary Islands, which he had translated from the 
MS. of an Anoalusian monk named Juan Abreu de Galindo, then 
recently discovered at Palma. To this Glas added a docription of 
the isbnds, a continuation of the histo^ and an- account of the 
manners, customs, trade, Ar., of tbe inhabitants, diq^ying oon- 
sidcraUe knowledge of the archipelago. 

OLAS, JOHN (x695>i773), Scottish divine, was bom at 
Auchtermuchty, Fife, where his father was parish minister, 
on tbe sth of Dctober 1695. He waa educated at Kindaven and 
the grammar school, Perth, graduated A.M. at the univenity of 
St Andrews in 17x3, and completed his education for the ministry 
at Edinburgh. He was licensed as a preacher by the presbytery 
of Dunkeld, and soon afterwards ordained by that of Dundee 
as minister of the parish of TeaHng (1719), where his effective 
preaching soon secured a larga oongregation. Eariy in his 
ministry he was " brought to a stand " while lecturing on the 
"Shorter C:atechism" by the question "How doth Christ 
execute the office of a king?" This led to an examination of 
the New Testament foundation of the Christian Church, and in 
1725; in a letter to Francis Archibald, minister of Guthrie, 
Forfarshire, he repudiated the obligation of xuitional covenants. 
In the same ytar his views found eiq>rcssion in the formation of 
a soctety^' separate from the multitude " numbering nearly a 
hundred, and dtawn from his own and neighbouring parishes. 
The members of this ec€U t ieia mi ecdesia pledged themselves 
" to join together in the Christian profession, to follow Christ 
the Lord as the righteousness of hb people, to walk together 
in brotherly bve, and in the duties of it, in subjection to 
Mr Glas as their overseer in the Lord, to observe the ordinance 
of the Lord's Supper once every month, to submit themselves 
to the Lord'tf law for removing offences," kc. (Matt, xviii. 
X 5-20). From the scriptural doctrine of the essentially ^iritual 
nature of the kingdom of Christ, Glas in his public teaching 
drew the conclusions: (i) that there is no warrant in the New 
Testament for a national church; (2) that the magistrate as 
such has no function in the church; (3) that national covenants 
are without scriptural grounds; (4) that the true Reformation 
cannot be carried out by political and secular weapons but by 
tbe word and spxtit of Christ only. 

This argument Is most fully exhibited in a treatise entitled 
The Testimony of the King of Martyrs ( 1 7 29). For the promulga- 
tion of these views, which were confessedly at variance with the 
doctrines of the standards of tbe nation^ church of Scotland, 
he was summoned (1726) before his presbytery, where in the 
course of the invesligalions which followed he affirmed still 
more explicitly his belief that " every national church established 
by the laws of earthly kingdoms is antichristian in its constitution 
and persecuting in its spirit," and further declared opinions 
upon the subject of church government which amounted to a 
repudiation of Presbyterianism and an acceptance of the puritan 
type of Independency. For these opinions he was in 1728 
suspended from the discharge of ministerial functions, and 
finally deposed in 1730. The members of tbe society already 
referred to, however, for the most part continued to adhere 



to him, thus constituting the first '* Glassite '' or " Gluite " 
church. The seat of this congregation was shortly afterwards 
transferred to Dundee (whence Glas subsequently removed to 
Edinburgh), where he officiated for some time as an ** elder." 
He next laboured in Perth for a few years, where he was joined 
by Robert Sandeman (see Glasites), who became his son-in-law, 
and eventually was recognized as^ the leader and prind{>al 
exponent of GIas*s views; these he developed in a direction 
which laid them open to the charge of antinomianism. Ulti- 
mately in 1730 Glas returned to Dundee, where the remainder 
of his life was spent. He introduced in his church the primitive 
custom of the " osculum pads " and the " aglpe " celetoited 
as a common meal with broth. From this custom his congrega- 
tion was known as the " liail kirk." In 1739 the General 
Assembly, without any application from him, removed the 
sentence of deposition wlilch had been passed against him, and 
restored him to the character and function of a minister of the 
gospel of Christ, but not that of a minister of the Established 
Church, of Scotland, declaring that he was not eligible for a 
charge until he should have renounced prindpks inconsistent 
with the constitution of the church. 

A collected edition of his works was published at Edinbnigh in 
1761 (4 vols., 8vo), and ^;ain at Perth in 1783 (5 vols., 8vo}. He 
died in 1773. 

Glai's published works bear witness to his viroroua mind and 
scholarly attainments. His reconstruction of the Tnu Discourse of 
Celsus (1753). from Origen't reply to it, is a competent and kamcd 

Sicce of work. The TeUinumy of the King of Martyrs unuemini His 
'inpi9m (1729) is a classic repudiation of erascianism and defence 
of the spiritual autonomy of the church under Jesus Christ. His 
commofl sense appears in his rejection of Hutchmson's attempt to 
prove that the Bible supplies a complete system of physical science, 
and his shrewdness in his Notes on Scripturo TeiOs (i747)> He 
published a volume of Christian Songs (Perth, 1784). (O. Mn.) 

GLASER, CHRISTOPHER, a pharmaceutical chemist of the 
17th century, was a native of Basel, became demonstrator of 
chemistry at the Jardin du Roi in Paris and apothecary to 
Louis XIV. and to the duke of Orleans. He is b^t known by 
his Traits de la tkymie (Paris, 1663), which went through some 
ten editions in about five-and-twenty years, and was translated 
into both German and English. It has been alleged that he was 
an accomplice in the notorious poisonings carried out by the 
marchioness de Brinvilliers, but the extent of his compUdty is 
doubtful. He appears to have died some time before 1676. 
The sal polychreslum Gaseri is normal potassium sulphate which 
he prepared and used medidnally. 

GLASGOW, a city, county of a dty, royal burgh and port of 
Lanarkshire, Scotland, situated on both banks of the Clyde, 
4ox| m. N.W. of London by the West Coast railway route, and 
47 m. W.S.W. of Edinburgh by the North British railway. The 
valley of the Clyde is closely confined by hills, and the dty 
extends far over these, the irregularity of its site making for 
picturesqueness. The commerdal centre of Glasgow, with the 
majority of important public buildings, lies on the north bank 
of the nver, which traverses the city from W.S.W. to E.N.E., 
and is crossed by a number of brfdges. The uppermost Is 
Dalmamock Bridge, dating from 1891, and next Mow it is 
Rutherglen Bridge, rebuilt in 1896, and superseding a stnictare 
of X 7 7 5. St Andrew's suspension bridge gives access to the Green 
to the inhabitants of Hutchesontown, a district which is ap- 
proached also by Albert Bridge, a bandsome erection, leading 
from the Saltmarket. Above this bridge is the tidal dam and 
weir. Victoria Bridge, of granite, was opened in 1856, taking 
the place of the venerable bridge erected by Bishop Rae in 1345, 
which was demolished in 1847. Then follows a stispension bridge 
(dating from 1853) by which foot-passengers from the south side 
obtain access to St Enoch Square and, finally, the most important 
bridge of all is reached, variously known as GUsgow, Jamaica 
Street, or Broomiclaw Bridge, built of granite from Telford's 
designs and first used in 183$. Towards the close of the century 
it was reconstructed, and reopened in 1899. At the busier 
periods of the day it beats a very heavy traffic. The stream b 
spanned between Victoria and Albert Bridges by a bridge 
belonging to the Glasgow & South- Western- railway and by two 

bridges carrying the lines of the Caledonian railway, one below 
Dalmamock Bridge and the other a massive work immediatdy 
west of Glasgow Bridge. 

Buiidings.'-'GcoTge Square, in the heart of the dty, is an 
open space of whidi.every possible advantage has been taken. 
On its eastern side stand the municipal buildings, a palatial 
pile in Venetian renaissance at^e, from the designs of William 
Yotmg, a native of Paisley. They wero opened in 1889 and cost 
nearly £600,000. They form a square block four stoieya high 
and carry sLdomed turret at each end of the western facade, 
from the centre of which rises a massive tower. The entrance 
hall and grand staircase, the council chamber, banqueting hall 
and reception rooms are decorated in a grandiose style, not 
unbecoming to the commercial and industrial metn^olis of 
Scotland. Several additional blocks have been built or rented 
for the accommodation of the munidpal staff. Admirably 
equipped sanitary chambers were opened in 1897, iaduding a 
bacteriological and chemical laboratory. Up till 18x0 the town 
council met in a hall adjoining the old tolbooth. It then moved 
to the fine classical structure at the foot of the Saltmarket, 
which is now used as court-houses. This was vacated in 1641 
for the county buildings in Wilson Street. Growth of business 
compelled another migration to Ingram Street in 1875, and, 
fourteen years later, it occupied its present quarters. On the 
southern side of George Square the chief structure ii the ma^ive 
General Post Office. On the western side stand two ornate Italian 
buildings, the Bank of Scotland and the Merchants' House, the 
head of which (the dean of gild), along with the head of the 
Trades' House (the deacon-convener of trades) has been dt facto 
member of the town council since x 711, an arrangement devised 
with a view to adjusting the frequent disputes between the two 
gilds. The Royal Exchange, a Corinthian building with a fine 
portico of columns in two rows, is an admired example of the 
work of David Hamilton (1768-1843), a native of Ghsgow, who 
designed several of the public buildings and churches, and gained 
the second prize for a design for the Houses of Parliament. The 
newsrroom of the exchange is a vast apartment, X30 ft. long, 
60 ft. wide, 130 ft. hi^, with a richly-decorated roof supported 
by Corinthian pillars. Buchanan Street, the most important 
and handsome street in the city, contains the Stock Exchange, 
the Western Club House (by4>avid Hamilton) and the offices of 
the Glasgow Herald, In Sauchiehall Street are the Fine Art 
Institute and the former Corpontion Art Gallery. Argyll 
Street, the busiest thoroughfare, mainly occupied with shops, 
leads to Trongate, where a few remains of the old town are now 
carduUy preservcxl. On the south side of the street, spanning 
the pavement, stands the Tron Steeple, a stunted spire dating 
from XO37. It is all that is left of St Mary's church, which was 
butned down in 1793 during the revds of a notorious body 
known as theHHell Fire Club. On the opposite side, at the comer 
of High Street, stood the andent tolbooth, or prison, a turreted 
building, five atorejrs high, with a fine Jacobean crown tower. 
The only remnant of the structure is the tower knoXrn as the 
Cross Steeple. 

Although almost all the old public buildings tA Glasgow have 
been swept away, the cathedral remains in excellent preservatioiL 
It stands in the north-castem quarter of the dty at a 
hdght of 104 ft. above the level of the Clyde. It is a ^^ .^ 
beautiful example of Early English work, impressive rsuRal 
in its simplidty. Its form is 4hat of a Latin cross, 
with imperfea trknsepts. Its length from east to west is 3x9 ft., 
and its width 63 ft.; the height of the choir is 93 ft., and of the 
nave 85 ft. At the centre rises a fine tower, with a short octagonal 
spire, 2>5 ft. high. The choir, locally known as the High Church, 
serves as one of the dty churches, and the extreme east end of it 
forms the Lady chapd. The rich western doorway is French 
in design but English in details. The chaptci^house projects 
from the north-eastern comer and somewhat mars the harmony 
of the effect. It was built in the X5th century and has a groined 
roof supported by a pillar 20 ft. high. Many dtizens have 
contributed towards filling the windows with stained glass, 
executed at Munich, the government providing the eastern 













^ /*£/ 


and Environs 

■iodoii In reoognilloa ol (hdr eniHpKjc. The oypl beneub 
Ibc choir is not Ihc \t3sX tcinaikablc part of the ediGce, beliig 
tntbouL equal in Scodiod. It is bonic on 6s gullin (uid lighted 
by 41 wiudowi. The acuiptuie of thf capitals oi the coIiudjia 
ud booa oi the pojued vaulting ii ciquiiitc and the whole 
ii in eiccllrnt preservation,. Strictly spcddEg, it is not a crypt, 
but a bwrr church adapted la the sloping ground of the right 
bank of the Uolcndinoi bunL The dripping aisle is so named 
from the constiDt dropping of nier (torn the nwf. St Mungo'i 
WeD ie the louth^eaalem romer waa considered to possess 
Iherapeutie virtues, and in theioypt a recumbent effigy, headless 
and hatuUesa, is faithfully -accepted ai the tomb of Kentigem. 
The cathedral contaiu few monumenta of exceptional merit, 
but the surrounding gnveyafd is almost completely paved vith 
tombsioncs. In iiij an investigation KSs ordeiEd by David, 
prince of Cumbria, into the lands and churches belonging to the 
bisboprie, and fnm the deed then drawn up it is clear that at 
that date a cathedral had ilieidy been endowed. When David 
ascended the tliroiie in 1114 be gave 10 the see of Glasgow the 
laudi of Fanick, besides restoring many possessiona of which 
it had been deprived. Jocelin (d. ir^), made lashop in 1174, 
WIS the first great bishop, and is mcrnotable for his eSons to 
repbce the cathedral huitt in 1 1 j6 by Bishop John Achaius, which 
had been dotroyed by file. The ciypl is his woth, and he began 
the duir, Lady cbapd, and central tower. Ihe new structure 

iraaniSdentlyaiivuicedtabededlcatedin 1197. Otherfamous 
bishops were Robert Wishart (d. IJ16), appointed in I97>, who 
wB< amang the first to |fWn in the revolt of Wallace, and received 
Robeit Bruce when he lay under the ban of the churdi for the 
munier of Comyuj John Cameron (d. 144A), appointed in 14>S, 
under whom the building as it stands was completed; and 
William Tumhull (d. 1454)1 app^ted in 1447, who lounded the 
uniiersily in 1450, Jamea Beaton or Belhune (1517-160)) 
was the last Roman Catholic archbishop. He Sed to France at 
the reEotmaiion in ij6o, and toak inth him the tteaiura and 
recotds of the ite, including the Red Book of Glasgow dating 
from the leign of Robert UI. The documents were dipoBttd 
fn the Scoti College in Paris, were sent at the outbreak of the 
Revolution for safety to St Omcr, and were never lecoveied, 
Thii losi eiplaina the paucity of the earlier uinals of the city. 
The seal of the Refoimen ted them to threaten to mutilate tbe 
cathedral, but the building was saved by tbe prompt action of 
the craftsmen, who mustered fn force and dispersed tlie faOBtia. 
Excepting the cathedral, none of the Claggow churches 
possesses bistaricil inteivst; and, speaking generally, it is 
only tbe buildings that have been erected since the {^vthH. 
beginning of the igth century that have pronounced 
architettuisl merit. This was due largely to the long survival 
of the seveie sentiment of the Covenaatert, who discouraaed. 
if they (Bd not actually forbid, the raising of temples of beiutilul 




design. Representative examples of later work are found in the 
United Free churches in Vincent Street, in Caledonia Road and 
at Queen's Park, designed by Alexander Thomson (1817-1875), 
an architect of distinct originality; St George's church, in West 
George Street, a remarkable work by William Stark, erected 
in the beginning of the 19th century, St Andrew's church 
in St Andrew's Square off the Saltmarket, modelled after 
St Martin's-in-thc-Ficlds, London, with a fine Roman portico, 
some of the older parish churches, such as St Enoch's, dating 
from 1780, with a good spire (the saint's name is said to be a 
corruption of Tanew, mother of Kcniigcm); the episcopal 
church of St Mary (1870), in Great Western Road, by Sir G. G. 
Scott; the Roman Catholic cathedral of St Andrew, on the 
river-bank between Victoria and Broomielaw bridges; the 
Barony church, replacing the older kirk in which Norman 
Macleod ministered; and several admirable structures, well 
situated, on the eastern confines of Kelvingrove Park. 

The principal burying-ground is the Necropolis, occupjring 
Fir Park, a hiU about 300 ft. high in the northern part of the 
dty. It provides a not inappropriate background to the cathe- 
dral, from which it is approached by a bridge, known as the 
'' Bridge of Sighs," over the Molendinar ravine. The ground, 
which once formed portion of the estate of Wester Craigs, belongs 
to the Merchants' House, which purchased it in 1650 from Sir 
Ludovic Stewart of Minto. A Doric column to the memory of 
Knox, surmounted by a colossal statue of the reformer, was 
erected by public subscription on the crown of the heij^t in 
1824, and a few years later the idea arose of utilizing the land as 
a cemetery. The. Jews have reserved for their own people a 
detached area in the north-western comer of the cemetery. 

Education. — ^The university, founded in 1450 by Bishop 
TumbuU under a bull of Pope Nicholas V., survived in its old 
quarters till far in the 19th century. The paedaioiium, 
or college of arts, was at first housed in Rottenrow, 
but was moved in 1460 to a site in High Street, 
where Sir James Hamilton of Cadzow, first Lord 
Hamilton (d. 1479), gave it four acres of land and some buildings. 
Queen Mary bestowed upon it thirteen acres of contiguous 
ground, and her son granted it a new charter and enlarged the 
endowments. Prior to the Revolution its fortunes fluctuated, 
but in the i8th century it became very famous. By the middle 
of the 19th century, however, its surroundings had deteriorated, 
and in i860 it was decided to rebuild it elsewhere. The ground 
had enormously increased in value and a railway company 
purchased it for £ioo,ooa In 1864 the university bought the 
Gilmore Hill estate for £65,000, the adjacent property of Dowan 
Hill for £16,000 and the property of Clayslaps for £17,400. Sir 
G. G. Soott was appointed architect and selected as the ute of 
the university buildings the ridge of Gilmore Hill— the finest 
situation in Glasgow. The design is Eariy English with a 
suggestion in parts of the Scots-French style of a much later 
period. The main structure is 540 ft. long and 300 ft. broad. 
The principal front faces southwards and consists of a lofty central 
tower with ^ire and comer bbcks with turrets, between which 
are buildings of lower height. Behind the tower lies the Bute 
hall, built on cloisters, binding together the various departments 
and smaller halls, and dividing the massive edifice into an 
eastern and western quadrangle, on two sides of which are 
ranged the class-rooms in two storeys. The northern facade 
comprises two comer blocks, besides the mxiseum, the library 
and, in the centre,- the students' reading-room on one floor and 
the Hunterian museum on the floor above. On the south the 
ground falls in terraces towards Kdvingrove Park and the 
Kelvin. On the west, but apart from the main stracture, stand 
the houses of the principal and professors. The foundation 
stone was laid in 1868 and the opening ceremony was held in 
2870. The total cost of the university buQdings amounted to 
£500,000, towards which government contributed £iao,ooo and 
public subscription £250,000. The third marquess <rf Bute. 
(1847-1900) gave £40,000 to provide the Bute or common hall, 
a room of fine pn^>ortions fitted in Gothic style and divided 
by a beautiful Gothic screen from the Randolph hall,^ joamcd 

after another benefactor, Charles Randolph (1809-1876), • 
native of Stirling, who had prospered as shipbuilder and marine 
engineer and left £60,000 to the university The graceful spire 
surmounting the tower was provided from the bequest of £5000 
by Mr A. Cunningham, deputy town-clerk, and Dr John M'lntyie 
erected the Students' Union at a cost of £5000, while other 
donors completed the equipment so generoudy tbst the soiate 
was enabled to carry on its work, for the first time in its history, 
in almost ideal circumstances. The library includes the collec- 
tion of Sir William Hamilton, and the Hunterian museum, 
bequeathed by William Hunter, the anatomist, is particularly 
rich in coins, medals, black-letter books and anatomical prepara- 
tions. The observatory on Dowan Hill is attached to Uie chair 
of astronomy. An interesting link with the past are the exhibi- 
tions founded by John Snell (i 629-1 679), a native of ColmoneU 
in Ayrshire, for the purpose of enabling students of distinction 
to continue their -career at Balliol College, Oxford. Amongst 
distinguished exhibitioners have been Adam Smith, John 
Gibson Lockhart, John Wilson (" Christopher North"), Arch- 
bishop Tait, Sir William Hamilton and Professor Shairp. The 
curriculum of the university embraces the faculties of arts, 
divinity, medidne, law and science. The governing boc^ 
includes the chancellor, elected for life by the general council, 
the principal, also elected for life, and the lord rector elected 
triennially by the students voting in " nations " according to 
their birthplace (Giotlianat natives of Lanarkshire; Trans- 
fortkana^ of Scotland north of the Forth; Rotkstianc, of the 
shires of Bute, Renfrew and Ayr; and Loudonia, all others). 
There are a large number of well-endowed chairs and lectureships 
and the normal number of students exceeds aooa The uni- 
versities of Glasgow and Aberdeen unite to return one member 
to parliament. Queen Margaret College for women, established 
in X883, occupies a handsome building close to the botanic 
gardens, has an endowment of upwards of £25,000, and was 
incorporated with the university in 1893. Muirhead Cdlcge 
is another institution for women. 

Elementary instruction is supplied at numerous board schoob. 
Hiffher, seoondary and technical education b provided at KVCTal 
well-known institutions. There are two educational 
endowments boards which apply a revenue of about 
£10,000 a year mainfy to the foundation of bursaries. 
Anderson College in George Street perpetuates the 
mcmonr of its founder, John Anderson (1726-1796), professor of 
natural philosophy in the univcnicy, who opened a class in physics 
for working men, which he conducted to the end of his life. By his 
will he provided for an institution for the instruction of artisans and 
others unable to attend the university. The coUege which bean hb 
name began in 1 796 with lectures on natural philosophy and chemistry 
by Thomas Gamett ( 1766-1 ^2). Two years later mathematics and 
geographv were added. In 1799 Dr Goocge Birkbeck (1776-1841) 
succcedea Gamett and began those lectures on mechanics and apphcd 
science which, continued elsewhere, ultimately led to the foundation 
of mechanics' institutes in many towns. In later years the college 
was further endowed and its curriculum enlai^gcd by the inclusion 
of literature and languages, but ultimately it was determined to 
limit the scope of its work to medicine (comprising, however, phyncs. 
chembtry and botany also). The lectures of its medkal school, 
incorporated in 1887 and situated near the Western Infirmary, sre 
accepted by Gla^ow and other universities. The Glasgow and 
West of Scotland Technical College, formed in 1886 out <M a com- 
bination of the arts side of Andcnon College, the CoUege of Scieooe 
and Arts. Allan Glen's Institution and the Atkinson Institutbn, b 
subsidized by the corporatbn and the endowments board, and b 
especially concerned with students desirous of following an in- 
dustrial career. St Mungoi's College, which has develmiea from an 
extra-mural school in connexion with the Royal Infirmary, was 
incorporated in 1889. with faculties of mediane and law. The 
United Free Church College, finely situated near Kelvingrove I^rk«< 
the Schod of Art and Etesign, and the normal schoob for the training 
c€ teachers, are institutions with distinctly specialised objects. 

The High school in Elmbank b the successor of the gnmmar 
school (long housed in John Street) which was founded in the 14th 
century as an appanage of the cathedral. It was placed under the 
jurisdiction of the school board in 1873. Other secondary schools 
include Glasgow Academy, Kclvinside Academy and the girb' and 
boys' schools endowed by the Hutcheson trust. Several of tha 
schoob under the board are furnbhed with secondary departments 
or equipped as science schoob, and the Roman Cath(^cs mamtatn, 
elementary schools and advanced academies. 
• Art Cduriu, Ubrarus and Mnttunu.—Claagow merchants and 



numilactTtren aKIt lMir« beeft go mCaar )pAtrom It «rt, and tbek 
liberality may have had aome influence on the younger patstert who, 
towards the dose of the 19th century, broke away from tradition 
and, stimulated by trainli^ in the atudioa of Paris, became known 
as the "Glasgow school." The art gallery and museum in KelTin- 
frove ParlE, which was built at a cost of £250,000 (pardy derived 
from the jyrofits of tlw exhilntiotts held in the ^k in 1888 ix^ 1901), 
is exceptxmally well appointed. The ooUection ori^nated' in 1854 
in the purchase of the works of art bdonging to Archibald M*Lellaa. 
and was suppleme nt ed from time to time by numerous bequests of 
important ^tures. It was housed for many years in the Corpora* 
tion nllenes in Sauchiehall Street. The luatute of Fine Arts, in 
SaaeuehaQ Street, is mostly devoted to periodical exhibitioos of 
modem art. There are also pictures on exhibition in the People's 
Palace on Glaajsow Green, which was built by the corporation in 
1898 and combines an art saOery and museum with a conservatory 
■and winter garden, and in the museum at Camphill, situated 
within the bounds of Queen's Park. The library and Huntcrian 
muaeum in the university are mostly reserved for the use of students. 
The faculty of procurators possess a valuable library which is housed 

in their hall, an Italian Renaissance building, in West George Street. 
In Bath Street there are the Mechanics' and the Philosophical 
Society's libraries, and the Physicians' is in St Vincent Street. 
Miller Street contains the headquarters of the public libraries. The 
premises once occupied by the water commisdon have been converted 
to house the Mitehctl library, which grew out of a bequest of ^70,000 
by Stephen Mitchell, largely reinforced by further gifts of libraries 
and funds, and now contains upwards 01 xoo,ooo voluraca. It b 

fovemed by the city council and has been in use since 1 877. Another 
uilding in thb street accommodates both the Stiriing and Baillie 
libraries. The Stirling, with some 50,000 volumes, is particulariy 
rich in tracts of the 16th and 17th centuries, and the Baillie was 
enJ o ired by Georije Baillie, a suidtor who. in 1863, gave/i 8,000 
for educational objects. The Athenaeum in St Geor^'s Place, an 
institution largdy concerned with evening classes in vanous aubjects, 
contains an essdlent library and reading-room. 

Oiariiks. — The old Royal Infirmary, designed by Robert Adam 
and opened in 1704, adjoining the cathedral, occupies the site of the 
archicpiscopal palace, the last portion of which was removed towards 
the dose ct the i8th centuiv. The chief architectural feature of the 
infirmary is the central <lome fomung the roof of the operating 
theatre. On the northern side are the buildings of the mediou 
school attached to the institution. The new infirmary commemor- 
ates the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria. A little farther north, 
in Castle Street, is the blind asylum. ^ The Western Infirmary b to 
some extent used for the purposes of clinical instruction in connexion 
with the university, to which it stands in immedute proximity. 
Near it b the Royal hospital for sick children. To the south of 
Queen'sTark b Victoria Infirmary, and dose to it the deaf and dumb 
institution. On the bank of the nver, not far from the south-eastern 
boundary of the dty, b the Belvedere hospital for infectious diseased 
and at Ruchill, in tne north, is another hospital of the same character 
opened in 1900. The Royal asylum at Gartnavel b situated neaur 
lordanhiU station, and tne Dbtrict asylum at Gartloch (with a 
braacb at West Muckroft) lies in the parish of Cadder beyond the 
north-eastern boundary. There are numerous hospitab exclusively 
devoted to the treatment of special diseases, and several nursine 
institutions and homes. Hutcheson's Hospital, designed by Oavia 
Hamilton and adorned with statues of the founders, b rituatcd in 
Ingram Street,and by the increase in the value of its lands has become 
a very wealthy body. George Hutcheson (15^x630), a bwyer in 
the Tromcate near tne tolbooth, who afterwards livcdm the Bishop's 
castle, which stood close to the spot where the Kelvin enteratheClyde, 
founded the hospital for poor old men. Kb brother Thomas (i 589- 
1641) established in connexion with it a school for the lodging and 
education of ofphan boys, the sons of burgesses. The trust, through 
the growth of ns funds, has been enabled to extend its educational 
scope and to subsidise schoob apart from the charity. 

Mammments. — Most of the statues have been erected in George 
Square. They are grouped around a fluted pilar 80 ft. high,- sur- 
mounted by a colossal statue of Sir Walter Scott by John Ritchie 
ii 809-1 850), erected in 1837, and include Queen Victoria and the. 
^rince Consort (both equestrian) by Baron Marochetti; James Watt 
by Chantrey; Sir Robert Pod, Thomas Campbell the poet, who 
was bom in Glasgow, and David Livingstone, all by John Mossman; 
Sir John Moore, a native of Glasgow, by Flaxman, erected in 1819: 
James Osmld, the first member returned to parlbraent for the city 
after the Reform Act of 1833; Lord Oyde (Sir Colin Campbell), 
also a native, by Foley, erected in x868; Dr Thomas Graham, 
master' of the mint, another native, by Brodie; Robert Bums by 
G. E. Ewing, erected in 1877, subscribed for in shillings by the work- 
iM men of ScoUand; and Willbm Ewart Gladstone by Hamo 
Thomycroft, unvoted by Lord Rosebery in 1903. In front of the 
Royal Eadiange stands the equestrian monument of the duke of 
WeiUi^on. In Cathedral Square are the statues of Norman 
Madcod, lames White and James Arthur, and in front of the Royal 
infirmaiy » that of Sir James Lunuden, kvd provost and benefactor. 
Ndaon is commemorated by an obeliiJc 1^3 ft. high on the Green, 
which was erected in 1806 and b said to be a copy of that in the 
PiaaaddPopoloatRome. One of the nost famuiar statues b the 

eqoestika fi^nre of W91iam III. inthe Troopite, iHddi wvs presented 
to the town m 1735 by James Macrae |[i677->i744), a poor Ayrshire 
lad who had amassed a fortune in Indni, where he was governor of 
Madras from 1725 to Z73a 

jeeerealtoiii.-~Ot the theatres, the chief are the King's in Bath 
Street, the Royal and the Grand in Cowcaddens, the Royalty and 
Gaiety in Saudiidudl Street, and the Princess's in Main ^reet. 
Variety theatres, headed by the Empire in Sauchiehall Street, are 
found m various parts of tne town. There b a circus in Waterloo 
Street, a hippodrome in Sauchiehall Street and a nological gaixlen 
in New City Road. The prindpal concert halb are the great hall 
of the St Andrew's Halls, a group of rooms bdonging to the corpora- 
tion ; the City Hall in Candierwgs, the Peopte's Alace on the Green, 
and Queen's Rooms dose to Keivingrove Park. Throughout winter 
enormous crowds throng thie footbaU grcrtinds of the Queen's Park, 
the leading amateur dub, and the Celtic, the Rangen, the Third 
Lanark and other prominent jprafeiMional duba. 

Parks and Open 5^acer.— The oldest open space b the Green 
(140 acres), on the right bank of the river, aojoiiung a densriy- 
popubted dIstricL It once extended farther west, but a portion 
was built over at a time when public rights were not vigiUntly 
guarded. Una favourite area for popular demonstrations, and 
sections have been re s erved l<x recreation or bid out in flower-beds. 
Kdviogrove Park, iA the west eiid, has exceptional advantages, for 
the Kdvin bum flows through it and the ground b naturally terraced, 
while die atuation b beautified by the adjoining Gilmore Hill with 
the ui^verdty on its summit, llie park was laid out under the 
direction of sir Joseph Paxton, and contains the Stewart fountain, 
erected to commemorate the bboura of Lord Pro v os t Stewart 
and his colleagues in the promotion of the Loch Katrine waterscheme. 
The other parks on the right bank are, in the north, Ruchill (^ 
acres), acquired in 1891, and Springburn (53} acres), acquired in 
189a, and, in the east, Alexandra Park (120 acres), in which b laid 
down a nine-hole golf-course, and T<41cross (8af acres>, beyond the 
municipal boundairy, acquired in 1897. On the left bank Queen's 
Park (1 jM9 acres), occupying a commanding site, was laid out by Sir 
Joseph paxton, and considerably enbrgea in 1894 by the endosure 
of the grounds of Camf^iH. The other southern parks are Richmond 
(44 acres), acquired in 18^, and named after Lord Provost Sir David 
Richmond, wno opened it in 189^; MaunreU, which waa taken over 
on the annexation of Pollokshields in 1891; Bellahouston (176 
acres), acquired in 1895; and Cathkin Braes (50 acres), 3im. beyond 
the south-eastern boundary, presented to the dty in 1886 by James 
Dick, a manufacturer, containing " Queen Mary's stone," a point 
which commands a view of the lower vallev of the Clyde. In the 
north-western district of \:he town 40 acres oetween Great Western 
Road and the Kelvin are devoted to the Royal Botanic Gardens, 
which became public property in 18^1. They are beautifully Ud 
out. and contain a great range of hothouses. The gardens ow ed 
much to Sir William Hooker, who was regius professor of botany toi 
Glasgow University before hb appoiatment to the directonhip of 
Kew Gardens. 

CMffncimteaffMU.— The North British railwav terminus b sitnated 
in Queen Street, and consists of a hi^h-level statton (main line) 
anda km-levd station, used in connexion with the City & District 
line, largdy underground, serving the northern side of the town, 
opened in 1886. The Great Northern and North-Eastem raUwaya 
use the high-level line of the N.B.R^ the three companies forming the 
East Coast Joint Service. The Central terminus of the Caledonian 
railway in Gordon Street, served by the West Coast system (in 
which the London & North-Westem railway shares), also comprises 
a htgh^evel station for the main line trafiic and a low-levd station 
for the Cathcart District railway, completed in 1886 and made 
circular for the southern side and suburbs in 18^, and also for the 
connexion between Maryhill and Rutherglea, which b mostly under- 
grouiuL Both the nnderground lines communicate with certain 
branches of the main line, dther directly or by change of carriage. 
The older terminus of the Caledonbn railway in Buchanan Street 
now takes the northern and eastern traffic. The terminus of the 
Glasgow & South-Western railway company in St Enoch Square 
serves the country indicated in ita title, and also gives the MidUnd 
railway of EngUnd access to the west coast and Glasgow. The 
Glasgow Subway — an undetground cabb passenger line, 6} m.long, 
worlud in two tunneb ana passing below the Clyde twice— was 
opened in 1896. Since no more bndge^Miilding wiU be sanctioned 
west of the railway bridge at the Broomidaw, there are at certain 
points steam ferry boats or floating bridgca for oon>6eying vehicles 
across the harbour, and at St<^)crDss there b a subway for foot and 
wheded traffic. Steamera, carrying both gooda anid passengers, 
constantly leave the Broonuebw quay for the piera and ports on 
the river and firth, and the isbnds and sea locha of ArgyUshiie. 
The dty is admirably served by tramways which penetrate every 
populous district and cross the nver by Glasgow ana Albert bridges. 

Trad*. — ^Natural causes, such as proximity to the richest field of 
coal and ironstone in Scotland and the vidnity of hill streams of pure 
water, account for mnchof the great development of trade in Glasgow. 
It waa in textiles that the dty showed iu eariiest predominancet 
which, however, haa not been maintained, owina, it b alleged, to 
the shortage of lemab labour. Several cotton mius are still worked, 
but the leaMling feature in tlie tada haa always been the manufaotuR 



of sucb light textures as ^in, striped and figured rouslins, ginghams 
and ^ncy fabrics. Tbrdd b made on a considemble scale, but |ute 
and silic are of comparatively tittle importance. The principal 
varieties of carpets are woven. Some factories are excluavely 
devoted to the making of laoe cuitains. The allied industries of 
bleaching, Minting ami d}reing, on the other hand^ have never 
declined. The use of chlorine u bleaching was first introduced in 
Great Britain at Gku^gow in 1787, on the suggestion of James Watt, 
whose father-in-law was a bleacher; and it was a Glasgow bleacher, 
Charles Tennant, who first discovered and made bleaching powder 
(chloride of lime). Turkey-red dyeing was begun at Glasgow by 
David Dale and George M'lntosh, and the colour was long known 
locally as Dale's red. A large quantity of grey doth continues to be 
sent from Lancashire and other mills to be bleached and printed in 
Scottish works. These industries gave a powerful impetus to the 
manufacture of chemicals, and the works at St RoUox developed 
raindly. Among prominent chemical industries are to be reckoned 
the alkali trades — including soda, bleaching powder and ,8oap- 
f n^]tinf^ — the preparation of alum and prussiates of potash, bichro- 
mate of potasn, white lead and other pigments, dynamite and gun- 
powder. Glass-making and paper-making are also carried on, and 
there are several breweries and distilleries, besides factories for the 
mia^ng of aerated waters, starch, dextrine and matches. MaAy 
misceluncous trades flouri^ such as clothing, confectbnery, 
cabinet-makine, bread and biscuit making, boot and shoe making, 
flour mills ana saw mills, pottery and indiainibber. Since the days 
of the brothem Robert Foulis (i 705-1 776) and Andrew Foutis 
(17 1 2-1775), printing, both letterpress and colour, has been identified 
with GLauBgow, though in a lesser degree than with Edinburgh. 
The tobacco trade still flourishes, though much lessened. But the 
great industry is iron-founding. The discovery of the value of 
biackband ironstone, till then regarded as useless " wild coal," by 
David Mudiet (1772-1847), and Neilson's invention of the hot-air 
blast threw the control <a the Scottish iron trade into the hands of 
Glasgow ironmasters, although the furnaces themselves were mostly 
ercct^ in Lanarkshire and Ayrshire. The expansion of the industry 
was such that, in 1859, one-third of the total output in the United 
KitHdom was Scottish. .During the following years, however, the 
tndfe seemed to have lost its elasticity, the annual production 
averaging about one million tons of pig-Uon. Mild steel is manu- 
factured extensivelyt and some crucible cast steel is made. In addi- 
tion to brus fountb^es there are works for the extraction of copper 
and the smelting of lead and zinc With such resources every 
twanch of engineering is well represented. Locomotive engines are 
.built for tmry country where railways are employed, and alikinds.of 
builder's ironwork is forged in enormous quantities, and the sewing- 
machine fKtories in the neighbourhood are important. Boiler- 
making and marine engine woncs. in many cases in direct connexion 
with the shipbuilding yards, are numerous. Shipbuilding, indeed, is 
the greatest of the industries of Glasgow, and m some years more 
than half of the total tonnage in the United Kingdom has been 
launched on the Clyde^ the yards of which extend from the harbour 
to Dumbarton on one side and Greenock on the other side of the river 
and firth. &Bcepting a trifling proportion of wooden ships, the 
Clyde-built veuas are of iron ana steel, the trade having owed its 
immense expannon to the prompt adoption of thb material. Every 
variety of craft is turned out, from battleships and great liners to 
dredging-plant and hopper barges. 

The Fort. — The harbour extends from Glasgow Bridge to the point 
where the Kelvin jmns the Clyde, and occupies 206 acres. For the 
most part it is \xaed by quays and wharves, which have a total 
length of 8} m., and from the harbour to the sea vessels drawing 
26 It. can go up or down on one tide. It is curious to remember 
that in the middle of the x8th century the river was fordable on 
foot at Dumbuck, 12 m. below Glasgow and li m. S.E. of Dum- 
barton. Even within the limits of the present harbour Smeatoo 
reported to the town council in 1740 that at Pointbouse ford, just 
east of the mouth of the Kelvin, the depth at low water was only 
15 in. and at high water 39 in. The transformation effected within 
a century and a half is due to the ener^ and enterprise of the Clyde 
Navigation Trust. The earliest shipping-port of Glasgow was Irvine 
in Ayrshire, but lightcra^ was tedious and land carriage costly, and 
in 1658 Uie civic authorities endeavoured to purchase a site for a 
spacious harbour at Dumbarton. Being thwarted by the magistrates 
of that burgh, however, in 1662 they secured 13 acres on the southern 
bank at a spot some 2 m. above Greenock, wnich became known as 
Port Glasgow, where they built harboun and constructed the first 
graving^ dock in Scotland. Sixteen years later the BitMmiebw 9ttay 
was budt, but it was not until the tobacco meichanta appreciated 
the necesaitY of bringing their wares into the heart of the dty that 
serious consideration was paid to schemes for deepening the water- 
way. Smeaton's suggestion of a lock and dam 4 m. bdow the 
Broomielaw was happily not accepted. In 1768 John GiJbome 
advised the narrowing of the river and the increasing of the scour 
by the construction of rubble Jetties and the dredging of sandbanks 
and shoals. After James >K^tt*s report in 1769 on the ford at 
Dumbuck, Golbome succeeded in 1775 in deepening the ford to 6 ft. 
at km water with a width of 300 ft. By Rennie's advice in 17^, 
following up Golbome's recommendation, as many as 200 jetties 
were built between Glasgow and Bowling, tome old ones wen 

shortened and krar rubUe walk cairied from point to point of the 
jetties, and thus the channel was made more uniform and much land 
recbdmed. By 1 836 there was a depth of 7 or 8 ft. at the Broomielaw 
at low water, and in 1840 the whole duty ci improving the navigaiioa 
was devolved upon the Navigation Trust. Steam dredgers were 
kept constantly at work^ shoals were removed and rocks blasted 
away. Two million cubic yards of matter are lifted every year 
and dumped in Loch Long. By 1900 the channel had been deepened 
to a minimum of 22 ft., and, as already indicated, the largest vessels 
make the open sea in one tide, whereas in 1840 it took ships drawing 
only 15 ft. two and even three tides to reach the sea. The debt of the 
Trust amounts to £6,000,000, and the annual revenue to £450,000. 
Long before these great results had been achieved, however, the 
shipping trade had been revolutionized by the application of steam 
to navigation, and later by the use of iron for wood in shipbuilding; 
in both respects enormously enhancing the industry and commerce 
of Glasgow. From 1812 to 1820 Henry Bell's " Comet,*' 30 tons, 
driven by an engine of 3 horse-power, plied between Glasgow and 
Greenock, until she was wrecked, beiqg the first steamer to run 
regularly on any river in the Old W orid. Thus since the appearance 
of that primitive vessel phenomenal changes had taken place on the 
Clyde. When the quays and wharves ceased to be able to accom- 
modate the erowing traffic, the construction of docks became 
imperative. In 1867 Kingston Dock on the south ude. of si acres, 
was opened, but soon proved inadequate, and in 1880 CKKen s Dock, 
(two Dasins) at Stobcross, on the north side, of 30 acres, was com- 
pleted. Although this could accommodate one million tons of 
shipping, more dock space was speedily called for. and in 1897 
Prince's Dock (three basins) on the opposite ude, of 72 acres, was 
opened, fully equipped with hydraulic and steam cranes and all the 
other latest appliances. There are, besides, three graving docks, 
the longest of which (880 ft.) can be made at will into two docks 
of 417 ft. and 457^ ft. in length. The Caledonian and Glasgow & 
Soutb-Westem railways have access to the harbour for goods and 
minerals at Terminus Quay to the west of Kingston Dock, and a 
mineral dock has been constructed by the Trust at Clydebank, 
about 3I m. below the harbour. The shipping attains to colossal 
proportions. The imports consist chiefly of flour, fruit, timber, 
iron ore, live stock ana wheat; and the exports principally of cotton 
manufactures, manufactured iron and steel, machinery, whisky, 
cotton yam, linen fabrics, coal, jute, jam and foods, and woollen 

CuvemmaU^—By the Local CK>vemment (Scotland) Act 1889 the 
city was placed entirely in the county of Lanark, the districts then 
transferred having previously belonged to the shires of Dumbarton 
and Renfrew. In 1891 the boundaries were enlarged to include 
six suburban burghs and a number of suburban districts, the area 
being increased from 61 11 acres to 11,861 acres. The total area 
of the city and the conterminous burghs of Govan, Panick and 
Kinning Park — which, though they successfully resisted annexation 
in 1891, are practically part of the city — ^is 15.659 acrea. The 
extreme length from north to south and from east to west is about 
5 m. each way, and the circumference measures 27 m. In 1893 the 
municipal burgh was constituted a county of a city. Glaatow is 
governed by a corporation coniusting of 77 membo^ indudinx 14 
bailies and the lord provost. In 1 89^ all the powera whidi the town 
council exercised as police 'Commissioners and trustees for parks, 
markets, water and toe like were consolidated and conferred upon 
the corporarion. Three yeara later the two pariah councils of the 
city and barony, which administered the poor law over the greater 
part of the dty north of the Clyde, were amalgamated as the parish 
council of Glasgow, with 31 members. As a county <^ a city Glasgow 
has a lieutenancy (successive lords provost holding the omce) and a 
court of quarter sessions, which is tpe appeal court from the maj^is- 
trates sitting as licensing authority. Under thecorpomtion municipal 
ownership has reached a remarkable development, the corporation 
owning the supplies of water-gas and electric power, tramways and 
municipal lodging-bouses. The enterprise of the corporation has 
brought its work prominently into notice, not only in the United 
Kingdom, but in the United States of America and elsewhere. 
In 1859 water was conveyed by aqueducts and tunnels from Loch 
Katrine (364 ft. above aea-level, giving a pressure of 70 cm- So fc. 
above the highest point in the city) to the reservoir at Mugdock 
(with a capaaty^ of 500,000,000 gallons), a distance of 27 m., whence 
after filtration tt was distributed by pipes to Glasgow, *a further 
dutanoe of 7 m., or 34 m. in all. During the next quarter of a cen- 
tury it became evident that thb supply would require to be aug- 
mented, and powera were accordingly obtained in 1895 to raise Locn 
Katrine 5 ft. and to connect with it by tunnel Loch Arklet (455 ft. 
above the sea), with storage for 2.050,000,000 gallons, the two lochi 
together posseasine a capacity 01 twelve thousand million nUoos. 
The entire works Be tw een the loch and the dty were duplicated 
over a distance of 23I m., and an additional reservoir, noldiog 
694,000,000 gallons, was constructed, increasing the supply held in 
reserve from I2|days' to 30^ days'. In 1909 the building of a dam 
was undertaken ll m. west df the lower end gS Loch Arklet, designed 
to create a sheet of water 2| m. long and to increase the water-supply 
of the city by ten million gallons a day. The water committee 
supplies hydraulic power to manufacturere and merehants. In 
1869 the corporation acquired the gasworks, the productivecapadty 



of which cscceeds 70 mntion cub. ft. a day. In 1893 the luw^y 
of electric light was also undertaken, and «nce that date the city has 
been partly lighted by dectricity. The corporation also laid down 
tbe tiamways, which were leased by a company for twenty-three 
year»at a rental of iiso a mile per annum. ^ when the lease exfaired 
in 1894 the town couool took over the working of the cars, substitut- 
ing overhead electric traction for horse-power. . One of the most 
difficult problems that the corporation has had to deal with was the 
housing of the poor. By the lapse of time and the congestion of 
population, certain quarters <^ tiie city, in old Glasgow especially^ 
had become slums and rookeries of the worst description. The 
condition of the town was rapidly growing into a bywora, when the 
municipality obtained pariiamt^tary powers in 1866 enabling it to 
condemn for purchase over<rowded districts, to borrow money and 
levy latcs. The scheme of reform contemplated the demoUtaon of insanitary dwellings occui>ied by 50,000 ^rsons, but the 
corporation was required to provide accommodation for the dis- 
lodged whenever the numbers exceeded 500. In point of fact they 
never needed to build, as private enterprise rnait than kef^ pace 
with the operations of the improvement. The work was carriea out 
procnptly and effectually, atid when the act expired in 188 1 whole 
localities had been recreated and neariy 40,000 persons properly 
housed. Under the amending act of 188 1 the corporation began in 
1888 to build tenement houses in which the poor could rent one or 
more rooms at the most moderate rentab; lodging-houses for men 
and women followed, and in 1896 a home was erected for the accom- 
mmlation of families in certain circumstances. The powers of the 
improvement trustees were practically exhausted in 1896, when It 
appeared (hat during twentv-ninc years £i,955fS50 had been spent 
in buying and improving land and buildings, ana £231,500 in building 
tenements and lodging-houses; while, on the other side, ground 
had been sold for £1,072,000, and the trustees owned heritable 
property valued at £692,000, showing a deficiency of £423,050. 
Assessment of ratepayers for the purposes of the trust had yielded 
£593,000. and it was estimated that these o^rations, benencial to 
the city in a variety of ways» bad cost the citizens £24,000 a year. 
In 1897 AQ 2ct was obtained for dealing in similar iashion with in- 
sanitary and congested areas in the centre of the city, and on the 
south Side of tKe river, and for acquiring not more than 35 acres of 
land, witfataix' without the dty, for dwellings for the poorest classes. 
Along with these later improvements the drainage system was 
entirely remodelled, the area being diyidcd into three sections, 
each distinct, with separate works for the disposal of its own sewage. 
One section (authorued in 1891 and doubled in 1901) comprises 11 
sq. ro.— «ne-half within the dty north of the river, and the other in 
the district in Lanarkshire — with works at Dalmarnock; another 
section ^authorized in 1896) includes the. area on the north bank 
not provided for in 1891, as wdl as the burghs of Partick and Clydc- 
banle and intervening portions of the shires of Renfrew and Dum- 
barton, the total area consisting of 14 sq. m., with works at Dalmuh*. 
7 m. below Glasgow; and the third section (authorized in 1898} 
embraces the whole municipal area on the south side of the river, 
the burghs of Ruther;^len, Pellokshaws, Kinning Park and Govan, 
and certain districts m the counties of Renfrew and Lanark — 14 
iq. m. in all, which may be »tended by the inclusion of the burghs 
01 Renfrew and Paisley— with works at Braehead, s m. east <rf 
Renfrew. Among other works in which it has interests there may be 
mentioned its representation on the board of the Clyde Navigation 
Trust and the governing body of the West of Scotland Technical 
College. In respect of pariiamentary representation the Reform 
Act (N 1832 gave two members to Glasgow, a third was added in 
1868 (though each elector had only two votes), and in 1885 the city 
was split up into seven divisions, each returning one member. 

PepulahoH. — Throughout the 19th century the population grew 
prodigioudy. Only 77,385 in 1801, it was neariy doubled in twenty 
years, being 147,043 m leai, already outstripping Edinburgh. It 
had become 395,503 m 1861, and in i;S8i it was 5iii4i5* In 1891, 
prior to extension of the boundary, it was 565,839, and, after ex- 
tension, 658,198, and in 1901 it stood at .761,709. The birth-ratb 
averages 33, and the death-rate 31 per 1000. but the mortality before 
the aty improvement scheme was carried out was as high as 33 
per 1000. Owing to its bdng convenient of access from the High- 
lands, a very considerable number of Gaelic-speaking persons live in 
Glasgow, while the great industries attract an enormous number of 
persons from other parts of Scotland. The valuatk)n of the dty, 
whkh is 1878-1879 waa £3,420,697, now exceeds £5,000,000. 

History. — There arc several theories as to the origm of the 
name of Glasgow. One holds that it comes from Gaelic words 
meaning " dark gleo," descriptive of the narrow ravine through 
which the Molcndinar flowed to the Clyde. But the more 
generally accepted version is that the word is the Celtic CUschu, 
afterwards written Glesco or Glasghu, meaning " dear green 
spot ** (i^as, green; cu or ghu, dear), which is supposed to have 
been the name of the settlement that Kentigem found here 
when he came to convert the Britons of Strathclyde. Mungo 
becune the patron-saint of Glasgow, and the motto and arms 

of the dty are wholly identified with him— Let Glasgow 
Floturish by the Preaching of the Word," usually shortened to 
" Let Glasgow Flourish." It is not till the lath century, however, 
that the history of the dty becomes dear. About X178 William 
the Lion made the town by charter a buzgb of barony, and gave 
it a market with freedom and customs. Amongst more or less 
isolated episodes of which record has been preserved may be 
mentioned the battle of the Bell o* the Brae, on the site of High 
Street, in which Wallace routed the EngUah under Percy in 
X300; the betrayal of Wallace to the English in 1305 in a barn 
situated, according to tradition, in Robroyston, just beyond the 
north-eastern boundary of the city; the ravages of the plague in 
13 50 and thirty years later; the regent Arran's siege, in 1544, 
of the bishop's castle, garrisoned by the earl of Glencaim, and 
the subsequent fight at the Butts (now the Gallowgate) when 
the terms of surrender were dishonoured, in which the regent's 
men gained the day. Most of the inhabitants were opposed to 
Queen Mary and many actively supported Murray in the battle 
of Langside — the site of which is now occupied by the Queen's 
Park—on the 13th of May 1568, in which she lost crown and 
kingdom. A memorial of the conflict was erected on the site 
in 1887. Under James YI. the town became a royal burgh in 
1636, with freedom of the river from the Broomidaw to the Cloch. 
But the efforts to establish episcopacy aroused tbe fervent 
anti-prelatical sentiment of the people, who made common 
cause with the Covenanters to the end of their long strug^c. 
Montrose mulcted the dtizens heavily after the battle of Kilsyth 
in 1645, and three years later the provost and bailies were deposed 
for contumacy to t heir sovereign lord. Plague and famine devast- 
ated the town in 1649, and in 1652 a conflagration laid a third 
of the burgh in ashes. Even after the restoration its sufferings 
were acute. It was the headquarters of the Whiggamores 
of the west and its prisons were constantly filled with rebels 
for consdcnce' sake. The government scourged the townsfolk 
with an army of Highlanders, whose brutality only served to 
strengthen the resistance at the battles of Drumdog and Bothwell 
Brig. With the Union, hotly resented as it was at the time, 
the dawn of almost unbroken prosperity arose. By the treaty 
of Union Scottish ports were placed, in respect of trade, on the 
same footing as English ports, and the situation of Glasgow 
enabled it to acquire a full share of the ever-increasing Atlantic 
trade. Its commerce was already considerable and m population 
it was now the second town in Scotland. It enjoyed a practical 
monopoly of the sale of raw and refined sugars, had the right 
to distil spirits from molasses free of duty, dealt largely in cured 
herring and salmon, sent hides to English tanners and manu- 
factured soap and linen. It challenged the supremacy of Bristol 
in the tobacco trade — fetching cargoes from Virginia, Maryland 
and Carolina in its own fleet — so that by 1772 its importations 
of tobacco amounted to more than half of the whole quantity 
brought into the United Kingdom. The tobacco merchants 
built handsome mansions and the town rapidly extended west- 
wards. With the surplus profits new industries were created, 
which hdped the dty through the period of the American War. 
Most, though not all, of the manufactures in wliich Glasgow 
has always bdd a foremost place date from this period. It was 
in 1764 that James Watt succeeded in repairing a hitherto 
unworkable modd of Newcomen's fire (steam) engine in his small 
workshop within the college prcdncts. Shipbuilding on a 
colossal scale and the enormous devdopments in the iron in- 
dustries and engineering were practically the growth of the X9th 
century. The failure of the Western bank in 1857, the Civil 
War in the United States, the collapse of the City of Glasgow 
bank in 1878, among other disasters, involved heavy losses and 
distress, bnt recovery was always rapid. 

AcTHORiTiBS. — ^T. Geland, Annals of Gtasgaw (Glasgow, 1816); 
Duncan, Literary "Hisfory of Claseoto (Glasgow, 1866); Reustrum 
Epucopium Glasiow lUAitUnd Club, 184^): Pagan, Sketch of lh« 
History of Clastaw (Gla^w, 1847); Sir T. ID. Marwlckr Extracts 
from the Burth Records of Glasgow (Bursal Records Society) ; Charters 
rdaiing to Ulasgow (Glasgow, 1891); Awsr Clyde and Harbour of 
Qasgow (Glasgow, 1898) ; Glasgom Past and Present (Glasgow, 1 884) ;, 
Hunimenta Vnioersitahs Chsgow (Maitland Oub, 1854): J. Strang, 



OMpmamiits CMn (Glaigor, l8&|) ; Reid (" Senez '*). OU Clasptw 
(Glugow. 1864): A. Macgeorge, Old Glasgow (Glasgow, 1888); 
Deas. The River Qyde (Glasgow, 1881): Gale. Lock Katrine Water- 
works (Glasgow, 1883); Mason, PMic and Private Libraries of 
Clastpw (Glasgow, 1885); J. Nicol, Vital, Social and JSamomic 
StaHslics of Ctasgow (1881) ; J.B.Ruaell. Life in One Room (Glasgow. 
1888); Tuketed Houses (Glasgow, 1889); T. Somerville. George 
Smtare (Glasgow, 1891); J. A. Kilpatrick, Literary Ldmdmarks of 
Glasgow (GUugow, 1898); J. K. M'Dowall, People*s History of 
Glasgow (Glasgow, 1899); Sir J. Bell and J. Paton, Glasgfiw: Its 
Municipal OrgjaniaaHon and Administration (Glasgow, 1896); Sir 
D. Richmond, Notes on Municipal Work (Glaaeow, 1899); J. M. 
Lamr, Glasgow and the Barony (Glasgow, 1895) ; (HaQlasgow (Glasgow, 
1896); J. H. M uir, Glasgow iwxgot. 

QLA8ITES, or Sandehanuns,' a Christian sect, founded in 
Scotland by John Glas (7.V.). It spread into England and 
America, but is now practically extinct. Glas dissented from 
the Westminster Confession only in his views as to the spiritual 
nature of the church and the functions of the civil magistrate. 
But his son-in-law Robert Sandcman added a distinctive doctrine 
as to the nature of faith which is thus stated on his tombstone: 
" That the bare death of J'esus Christ without a thought or 
deed on the part of man, is sufficient to preseht the chief of sinners 
spotless before God." In a scries of letters to James Hervey, 
the author of Theron and Aspasia, he maintained that justifying 
faith is a simple assent to the divine testimony concerning 
Jesus Christ, differing in no way in its character from belief in any 
ordinary testimony. In their practice the Glasite churches aimed 
at a strict conformity with the primitive type of Christianity 
as understood by them. Each congregation had a plurality of 
elders, pastors or bishops, who were chosen according to what 
were believed to be the instructions of Paul, without regard to 
previous education or present occupation, and who enjoy a 
perfect equality in office. To have been married a second time 
disqualified for ordination, or for continued tenure of the office 
of bishop. In all the action of the church unanimity was con- 
sidered to be necessary; if any member differed in opinion from 
the rest, he must either surrender his judgment to that of the 
church, or be shut out from its communion. To join in prayer 
with any one not a member of the denomination was regarded 
as unlawful, and even to cat or drink with one who had been 
excommunicated was held to be wrong. The Lord's Supper 
was observed weekly; and between forenoon and afternoon 
service every Sunday a love feast was held at which every 
member wu required to be present. Mutual exhortation was 
practised at all the meetings for divine service, when any member 
who had the gift of speech (x&pur/ia) was allowed to speak. 
The practice of washing one another's feet was at one time 
observed; and it was for a long time customary for 'each brother 
and sister to receive new members, on admission, with a holy 
kiss. " Things strangled " and " blood " were rigorously ab- 
stained from; the lot was regarded as sacred; the accumulation 
of wealth they held to be unscriptural and improper, and each 
member considered his property as liable to be called upon 
at any time to meet the wants of the poor and the necessities 
of the church. Churdies of this order were founded in Paisley, 
Glasgow, Edinburgh, Leith, Arbroath, Montrose, Aberdeen, 
Dunkeld, Cupar, Galashiels, Liverpool and London, where 
Michael Faraday was long an elder. Thdr exdu^veness 
in practice, neglect of education for the ministry, and the 
antinomian tendency of their doctrine contributed to their 
dissolution. Many Glasites joined the general body of Scottish 
Congregationalists, and the sect may now be considered extinct. 
The last of the Sandemanlan churches in America ceased to 
exist in 1890. 

See Janus Ross, History of Coueregalional Independency in 
Scotland (Glasgow, 1900). (D. Mn.) 

GLASS (O.E. glees, cf. Ger. Chs, perhaps derived from an old 
Teutonic root g/o-, a variant of ^o-, having the general sense of 
shining, cf. " jjare," " glow "), a hard substance, usually trans- 
parent or translucent, which from a fluid condition at a high 
temperature has passed to a solid condition with sufficient 
rapidity to prevent the formation of visible crystals. There 

*The name Claaites or Glaasitcs was generally used in Scotland; 
in England and America the name Sandnnaniana 

are many varieties of j^ass differing widely in chemical comh 
position and in physical qualities. Most varieties, howeycr, 
have certain qualities In common. They pass through a viscous 
stage in cooling from a state of fluidity; they develop effects 
of colour when the glass mixtures are fused with certain metallic 
oxides; they are, when cold, bad conductors both of electricity 
and heat, they are easily fractured by a blow or shock and show a 
conchoidal fracture; they are but slightly affected by ordinary 
solvents, but are readily attacked by hydrofluoric add. 

The structure of gloss has been the subject of repeated in> 
vcstigations. The theory most widely accepted at present is 
that glass is a quickly solidified solution, in which silica, ^cates, 
borates, phosphates and aluminates may be either solvents or 
solutes, and metallic oxides and metals may be held either 
in solution or in suspension. Long experience has fixed the 
mixtures, so far as ordinary furnace temperatures are con- 
cerned, which produce the varieties of c^ass in common use. The 
essential materials of which these mixtures are made are, for 
English flint glass, sand, carbonate of potash and mi lead; 
for plate and sheet glass, sand, carbonate or sulphate of soda 
and carbonate of lime; and for Bohemian glass, sand, carbonate 
of potash and carbonate of lime. It is convenient to treat 
these glasses as " normal " glasses, but they are in r^ity 
mixtures of silicates, and cannot rightly be rei^rded as definite 
chemical compounds or represented by definite chemical 

The knowledge of the chemistry of glass-making has been 
considerably widened by Dr F. O. Schott's experiments at the 
Jena glass-works. The commercial success of these works has 
demonstrated the value of pure science to manufactures. 

The recent large increase in the number of varieties of glass 
has been chiefly due to developments in the manufacture of 
optical glass. Glasses possessing ^)ecial quah'ties have been 
required, and have been supplied by the introduction of new 
combinations of materials. The range of the ^>ecific gravity 
of glasses from 2*5 to 5-0 illustrates the effect of modified 
compositions. In the same way glass can be rendered more or 
less fusible, apd its stability can be Increased both in relation 
to extremes of temperature and to the chemical actioa of 

The fluidity of glass at a high temperature renders possible 
the processes of ladelUng, pouring, casting and stirring. A 
mass of glass in a viscous state can be rolled with an iron roller 
like dough ; can be rendered hollow by the pressure of the human 
breath or by compressed air; can be forced by air pressure, or 
by a mechanically driven plunger, to take the shape and im- 
pression of a mould; and can be almost Indefinitely extended as 
solid rod or as hollow tube. So extensible is viscous glass that 
it can be drawn out into a filament sufficiently fine and elastic 
to be woven into a fabric. 

Glasses are generally transparent but may be translucent or 
opaque. Seml-opadty due to crystallization may be induced 
in many glasses by maintaining them for a long period at a 
temperature just insuffident to cause fusion. In this way is pro- 
duced the ciystalUne, devitrified material, known as Reaumur's 
porcelain. Seml-opadty and opadty are usually produced 
by the addition to the glass-mixtures of materials which will 
remain in suspension in the ^ass, such as oxide of tin, oxide 
of aisenic, phosphate of Ume, cryolite or a mixture of felspar 
and fluorspar. 

Little is known about the actual cause of colour In glass 
beyond the fact that certain materials added to and melted 
with certain fi^ass-mlxtures will in favourable circumstances 
produce effects of colour. The colouring agents are generally 
metallie oxides. The same oxide may produce different colours 
with different glass-mixtures, and different oxides of the same 
metal may produce different colours. The purple-blue of cobalt, 
the chrome green or yellow of chromium, the dichroic canary- 
colour of uranium and the violet of manganese, are constant. 
Ferrous oxide produces an olive green or a pale blue according 
to the glass with which it is mixed. Ferric oxide gives a yellow 
colour, but requizes the presence ci an ^**^'»*'^ agent to prevent 

MdoctkiD totbcfenniitt>t& Lt>d ^va ■ pik yeUnr calmr. 

SSvcI njidtf mixed u a piiul md &pn^ oa the nuikce of a 
pice* ol gUu ud hated, givo a penniHDt yellow itain. Fiody 
divided vi^Uble cfaUEOal added to a Kxb-Ume (lau giva 1 
yellow coloui. It ha* been lUKeated Ibat the colouc ij due to 
nil[Aur, but the eHect can b* produced wiih aglau raitiun 
coDtainiiig no nilpbur iree or combined, and by inaeaiing 
the pnportioa of cbanMal the iiuenslty of the colmir can be 
increased until it leacbei bUck OB*aly Sdcmcei and Klenats 
^ve a pale'pEnk 
yeliow. TeUuri 


a healed kOn and lUowiiis 

Nickel wiib a palub-lead 
0aia sivei a violet sgloiu 
and a brown cdIdui with 
a lada-Ultie i^an. Coppet 


KHKce of btal, or by plidag ifa 

the beat gradually la die ofiL 

The Iimaca (fig. i j) employed (or melling glau an niually 
bealed wilh gu on Ihe " Sicmeni," or tome limilai lyltem il 
iegenet*tive heating. In the United Statei natural gu a uied 
wbeievtr it ii ivnilable. In isaie Engliita woilu coal a ilill 
employed for direct tusting ivitb vati 
atoken. Crude jxlnleum ud a Ibm tai resulting from 
pnxen of enndung waler gu wub petroleum have been u 

iJ3 I _ 

heated develops 1 

BmHar glau, if iti cnolmg 
ii greatly retarded, produca Ihningbont 
oystal* of metallic copper, and doeely r 
called avanturine. Tbere la abo an inlerraeoiiie stage in wuica 
the glau has a rusty red coloui by reficcled light, and a purple, 
blue colour by transmitled light. Class contaioing gold behaves 
in almoat precisely the same way, but Uie ruby gbss is less crimson 
than copper robygUss. J.E.C.MntweUGarnclt.whabasstudied 
Ibe optical properties of thae glasses, has su^ested that tbe 
changes in colour csrre^iond wilb change* effected in Ibe 
sruciuie of tbe meiah as tbey pai* gradually from solulion in 
the ^asa to 1 tlite of crysUUintion. 

Owing to impurities coulained in the inaletiils from which 
gtassea are made, accidental coloration or discdoraiion is often 
produced. For this reason chemical agents art added to glass 

Olide it the usual ca 

3 tbe mineral 

cokmr. Fen 

both wil 


(discoloration. By 
into ferric oxide the green lint is changed to yellow, which is 
lisa Dotictable, Oiidition may be effected by Itae addition to 
the glass mllluie of a substance which gives up oiygen at a 
high temperature, tach as msngiDeie dioxide or arsenic uioiide. 
With the same object, red lead and saltpetre are u«ed in tbe 
miiluro for potasb-tiad gkaa. Manganese dioiide Dol tmly acts 
as a source of oxygen, but develops a pink tint in the glass, which 
is CDRipleinenlai7 to and nenlnliia tbe gieen cokui due to 

Glass is a bad omductor of beat. When boOing water il 
poured Into a ^lu vessel, the vesiel frequently bleaks, on 
account of tbe unequal expansion of the inner and outer Uyei*. 
If in the process ol gUa manufacture a glasa vessel is suddenly 
cooled, the constituent particles an unable to arrange themselves 
and (he veisd reniainl in a stale of extreme tenaon. The surface 
of tbe voacl may be hard, but the vessel is liable to fracture 
on receiving a trifling shock. M. de la Bastie's piocess of 
" toughening " gtasi onnsistcd in dipping gisas, raised to a 
temperature slightly below the melting-poinl, into molten 
lalkiw. Tbe siufue ol fhe glasa was hardened, but tbe inner 
layers remained in uniuble equilibrium. Direclly Ibe crust 
was pierced the whole mats was tbaltetcd into minute fragments. 
In all branches of gls« manuficture the process ol " uincaling," 
I.e. cooling the manufactured objects lufficiently slowly to allow 
the constituent particles to settle into a condition of equilibrium, 
is of vital importance. The desired result is obtained mther by 
moving the manufactuisl goods gndually away from a constant 

w Lh i emn with canuderaUe 
Dectncal fumacea have not oa yet been employed 
lor ordinniy gUsft.malting on a commercial scale, but the electrical 
plants which have been erected for melting and moulding 
quarti suggest tbe possibility of electric heating being employed 
for the manufacture of glass. Many forms of apparatus have 
been tried for ascenainiag the temperature of glass lumaccs. 
It is usually essential that seme parts ol the apparatus shall be 
made to acquiit a temperature idcntioil with tbe temperature 
to be measured. Owing to the pby^cal changes produced in t)w 
material exposed prolonged observatiODa irf letnperaiure are 
impossible. In the Ftiy radiation pynmietet this difficulty 
la obvialed, as the instnuncnt may be traced at a considerable 
distance from the furnace The radiatiou pasting out from an 
opening in the furnace fails upon a concave mirror in a (elcscope 
and is focused upon a thermoelectric coui^c. The hotter the 
furnace tbe greater is the rise of temperature of the couple. 
The elect romotive force thus generated is meaaured by a galvBin- 
meier, Ibe tcale of which is divided and figured so thai tlie 
' directly lead. (See THEKHOiiETaY.] 

irith tl 

([roup tbe various branches in the following manm 
1. Optical Class 
H. Blo-^ Glasa 

A-TaWeglia. D. 4iibe. C. Sheet 
Speeia! glasses and cnihi 

In-e.Vrl'.-n'S ^ 
other iedal 

III. Mechanically Pressed Class 

D. Bottles. 

A. Plate and rolled ]ilate glan. B. Presed taUe glasa. 
I. OmcaL Cms.— As regards both mode of production and 
utnlial properties optical glass differs widely from all olbei 

glan for optical uses is required incomparalivclylargea 
piecea, wbile (or moil olbei purposes glass is used in I 
of compuitively thin sbeetii when, theiclorc, as a com 



of DoUond's inveotioa of adiiomttic telescope objectives in 
X7S7t ft demand first arose for optical glass, the industry was 
unable to furnish suitable materiaL Flint glass particularly, 
which appeared quite satisfactory when viewmi in small pieces^ 
was found to be so far from homogeneous as to be useless for 
lens construction. The first step towards overcoming this vital 
defect in optical glass was taken by P. L. Guinand, towards the 
end of the i8th century, by introducing the process of stirring 
the molten glass by means of a cylinder of fireclay. Guinand 
was induced to migrate from his home in Switzerland to Bavaria, 
where he worked at the production of homogeneous flint glass, 
first with Joseph von Utischneider and then with J. Fraunhofer; 
the latter ultimately attained considerable success and produced 
telescope disks up to aS centimetres (i i in.) diameter. Fraimhof er 
further initiated the specification of refraction and dispersion 
in terms of certain lines of the spectrum, and even attempted 
an investigation of the ^ect of chemical composition on the 
relative dispersion produced by glasses in different parts of the 
q>ectrum. Guinand's process was further developed in France 
by Guinand's sons and subsequently by Bontemps and £. Fell. 
In 1848 Bontemps was obliged to leave France for political 
reasons and came to England, where he initiated the optical 
glass manufacture at Chance's, glass works near Birmingham, 
and this firm ultimately attained a considerable reputation in 
the production of optical g^ass, especially of large disks for 
telescope objectives. Efforts at improving optical glass had, 
however, not been confined to the descendants and successes 
of Guinand and Fraunhofer. In 1824 the Royal Astronomical 
Society of London appointed a committee on the subject, the 
experimental work being carried out by Faraday. Faraday 
independently recognized the necessity for mechanical agitation 
of the molten glass in order to ensure homogeneity, and to 
facilitate his manipulations he worked with dense lead borate 
glasses which are very fusible, but have proved too unstable 
for ordinary optical purposes. Later M&os of Clichy (France) 
exhibited some " zinc crown " glass in small plates of optical 
quality at the London Exhibition of 1851; and another French 
glass-maker, Lamy, produced a dense thallium glass in 1867. 
In 1834 W. V. Harcourt began experiments in glass-making, 
in which he was subsequently joinml by G. G. Stdccs. Their 
object was to pursue the inquiry begun by Fraunhofer as to the 
effect of chemical composition on the distribution of diq>ersion. 
The specific effect of boric add in this respect was correctly 
ascertained by Stokes and Harcourt, but they mistook the effect 
of titanic add. J. Hopkinson, worldng at Chance's f^Lass works, 
subsequently made an attempt to i»oduce a titanium silicate 
glass, but nothing further resulted. 

The next and most important forward step in the progress of 
optical ^ass manufacture was initiated by Ernst Abbe and 
carried out jointly by him and O. Schott at Jena in Germany. 
Aided by grants from the Prussian government, these workers 
systematically investigated the effect of introducing a large 
number of different chemical substances (oxides) into vitreous 
fluxes. As a result a whole series of glasses of novel composition 
and optical properties were produced.v A certain number of the 
most promising of these, from the purely optical point of view, 
had imfortunatdy to be abandoned for practical use owing to 
tbeir chemical instability, and the problem of Fraunhofer, viz. 
the production of pairs of glasses of widely differing refraction 
and dispersion, but having a similar distribution of dispersion 
in the various regions of the spectrum, was not in the first instance 
solved. On the other hand, while in the older crown and flint 
glasses the rdation between refraction and dispersion had been 
practically fixed, dispersion and rdraction increasing regularly 
with the density of the glass, in some of the new glasses introduced 
by Abbe and Schott this relation is altered &nd-a relativdy 
low refractive index is accompanied by a relatively high diqier- 
sion, while in others a high refractive index is assodated with 
low dispersive power. 

The initiative of Abbe and Schott, which watf greatly dded 
by the rrsources for scientific investigation available at the 
Physikalische Rcichsanstalt (Imperial Physical Laboratory), 

led to such important devdopments that tfmflar work was 
undertaken in France by the firm of Mantois, the succcaaon 
of Fdl, and somewhat later by Chance in England. The mann- 
f acture of the new varieties of glass, originally known as " Jena ** 
glasses, is now carried out extensivdy and with a cottsidermble 
degree ot commercial success in France, and also to a less extent 
in England, but none of the other makers of optical ^ass has 
as yet contributed to the progress of the industry to anything 
like the same extent as the Jena firm. 

The older optical glaaes, now generally known as the 
" ordmary " crown and flint glasses, axe all of the nature of pore 
silicates, the basic constituents being, in the case of crown 
glasses, lime and soda or lime and potadi, or a mixture of both, 
and in the case of flint ghsses, lead and dther (or both) soda and 
potash. With the exception of the heavier flint (lead) glasses, 
these can be produced so as to be free both from noticeable 
colour and from such defects as bubbles, opaque indusions or 
" striae," but extreme care in the choice of all Uie raw m«tfr i«ig 
and in all the manipulations is required to ensure this result. 
Further, these glasses, when made from properly proportioned 
materials, possess a very considerable degree of chemical stability, 
which is amply sufficient for most optioil purposes. The newer 
glasses, on the other hand, contain a much wider variety of 
chemical constituents, the most important bdng the oxides oi 
barium, magnesium, aluminium and zinc, used either with or 
without the addition of the bases already named in reference 
to the older glasses, and—among add bodies— boric anhydride 
(BiQi) which replaces the silica of the older glasses to a varying 
extent. It must be admitted that, by the aid of certain of these 
new constituents, glasses can be produced which, as regards 
purity of colour, f rradom from ddects and chemiad stability are 
equal or even superior to the best of the " ordinary " glasses, but 
it is a remarkable fact that when this is the case the optical 
properties of the new glass do not fall very widely outside 
the limits set by the older glasses. On the other hand, the more 
extreme the optical properties of these new glasses, i.e. the 
further they depart from the ratio of refractive in(fex to cUspersive 
power found in the older glasses, the greater the difficulty found 
in obtaining them of dther suffident purity or stability to be of 
practical use. It is, in fact, admitted that some of the glasses, 
most useful optically, the dense barium crown glasses, which 
are so widely used in modem photographic lenaes, cannot be 
produced entirely free dther from noticeable colour or from 
numerous small bubbles, while the chemical nature of these 
glasses is so sensitive that considerable care is required to protect 
the surfaces of lenses made from them if serious tarnishing is to 
be avoided. In practice, however, it is not found that the presence 
dther of a deddedly greenish-yellow colour or of numerous 
small bubbles interferes at aU seriously with the successful use 
of the lenses for the majority of purposes, so that it is preferable 
to sacr^ce the perfection of the glass in order to secure valuable 
optical properties. 

It IS a further striking fact, not unconnected with those just 
enumerated, that the extreme range of optical properties covered 
even by the relativdy large number of optical glasses now available 
is in reality very small. The refractive indices of all glasses at 
present available lie between X'46 and 1*90, whereas transparent 
minerals are known having refractive indices lying considerably 
outside these limits; at least one of these, fluorite (caldum 
fluoride), is actually used by optidaiis in the construction of 
certain lenses, so that probably progress is to be looked for in a 
considerable widening of the limits of available optical materials; 
possibly such progress may lie in the direction of the artifidal 
production of large mineral crystals. 

The qualities required in optical glasses have already been 
partly referred to, but may now be summarized.*— 

I. Transparency and Freedom from Cciour. — ^Theae qualities can 
be readily judged by inspection of the glass in pieces of considerable 
thickness, and they may be quantitatively measured by means of the 

a. BdmofeneUy. — The optical desideratum is uniformity of re> 
fracttve index and disperrive power throughout the mass of the glass. 
This is probably never complctdy attair^ variations in the sixth 



rifnificftnt figure of the refractive index bdng obierved in different 
parts of aingic lacee blocks oi the most perfect glass. While such 
minute and jEiadual variations are hannleas for most optical purposes, 
sudden variations which generally take the form of striae or veins 
are fatal defects in all optical glass. In their coarsest forms sudi 
striae are readily viable to the unaided eye, but finer ones escape 
detection unless special means are taken w rendering them vktbte; 
such BiMBcial means conveniently take the form of an apparatus for 
examining the glass in a beam of parallel light, when the striae 
scatter the light and appear as either dark or bright lines according 
to the position of the eye. Plate glass of the unud quality, which 
appears to be perfectly nomogicneous when looked at in the ordinary 
way, is seen to be a mass of fine striae, when a conskierable thicknew 
is exanuned in parallel light. Plate glass is, nevertheless, consider- 
ably used for the cheaper forms of lenses, where the scattering of 
die tight and kMs of definition arising from these fine striae is not 
readily recognized. 

Bubbles and enclosures of opaque matter, aIthou|(h more readily 
observed, do not constitute such serious defects; theu* presence in a 
lens, to a moderate extent, does not interfere with, its performance 
(see above). 

3. Hardness and CkemiaU StabiKty,-^Theat properties oootribute 
to the durability of lenses, and are specially oesirable in the outer 
members of lens combinations which are likely to be subjected to 
frequent handlii^ or are exposed to the weather. As a general rule 
to which, however, there are important exceptions, both these 
quaUties are fouiKl to a greater decree, Uie lower the renacUve iridex 
of the glass. The chemical stability, ue. the power of resisting the 
dtsintegrsting effects of atmospheric moisture and carbonic acid, 
(depends lar^y upon the quantity of alkalis contained in the |[1ass 
and their proportion to the lead, lime or barium present, the stability 
being generally less the higher the proportion of alkali. A high 
silica-content tends towaids both hardness and chemical stability, 
and this can be further increased by the addition of small proportions 
of boric acid; in larger quantities, however, the lattte constituent 
produces the opposite effect. 

4, Absence of Inlenud Strain, — Intenul strain in ghuls arises from 
the unequal contraction of the outer and inner portions of masses 
of glass during cooling. Processes of annealing, or very gradual 
cooling, arc intended to relieve these strains, but such processes are 
oaly completely effective when the cooling, particularly through 
thoiae ranges 01 temperature where the glass is just losing the last 
traces of plaatidty, is extremely giaduai, a rate measured in hours 
per decree Centigrade being required. The existence of internal 
strains in glass can be readily recognized by examination in polarised 
light, any signs of double refraction indicating the existenoeof strain. 
If the glass is very badly annealed, the lenses made from it may fly 
to pieces during or after manufacture, but apart from such extreme 
cases the optical <^ects of internal strain are not readily observed 
except in large optical apparatus. Vciv perfectly annealed optical 
glass is now, nowever, readily obtainable. 

«. Kepvetion and Dispent&n.-^The purely optical properties of 
renaction and dispersion, although of the greatest importance, 
cannot be dealt with in any detail here; for an account of the optical 
properties required in glasses for various forms of lenses sec the 
articles Lixs and Abekration: II. In Optical Systems. As typical 
of the range of modem optical glasses Table 1. is given, which 
constituted the Ibt of optical glanes exhibited by Messrs Chance 
at the Optical Convention in London in 1905. In ^his table n a the 

refractfve index of the glass for sodium lii^t (the D line of the solar 
spectrum), while the letters C^ F and C refer to lines in the h vdn»en 
spectrum by vdiich disfxrsion is now generally specifieo. The 
symbol r represents the inverse of the dispersive power, its value 
Ming (nD~*i)/(C<-F). The very much kmger lists of German and 
French firms contain only a few types not represented in this table. 
Manufacture of Optical Class. — In its earlier stages, the process 
for the production of <^tical glass closely resembles that used in 
the production of any other ^ass of the highest quality. Tlie raw 
materials are seleaed with great care to assure diemical purity^ 
but whereas in most passes the only impurities to be dreaded 
are those that are either infusible or jvoduce a colouring effect 
upon the glass, for optical purposes the admixture of other 
glass-f(»ming bodies than those which are intended to be present 
must be avoided on accoxmt of their effect in modifying the 
optical constants of the glass. Constancy of composition of the 
raw materials and their careful and thorough admixture in con- 
stant proportions are therefore essential to the production of the 
required classes. The materials are generally used in the form 
either of oxides (t&id, zinc, silica, &c.> or of salts readily decom- 
posed by heat, snch as the nitrates or carbonates. Fragments of 
glass of the same compoution as that aimed at are generally 
incorporated to a limited extent with the mixed raw materials 
to facilitate* their fusion. The crucibles or pots used for the^ 
production of optioU s^ass very dosdy resemble those used in the 
pianufacture of flint i^ass for other purposes; they are " covered " 
and the molten materials are thus protected from the action of 
the furnace gases by the interposition of a wall of fireclay, but 
as crucibles for optical i^ass are used for only one fusion and are 
then broken up, they are not made so thick and heavy as those 
used in flint-fi^ass making, since the latter remain in the furnace 
for many weeks. On the other hand, the chemical and physical 
nature of the fireclays used in the manufacture of such crucibles 
requires careful attention in order to secure the best results. 
The furnace used for the production of optical glass is generally 
constructed to take one crucible only, so that the heat of the 
furnace may be accurately adjusted to the requirements of the 
particular glass under treatment. These SniaU furnaces aret 
frequently arranged for direct coal firing, but regenerative gas- 
fired furnaces are also employed. The empty crudble, having 
first been gradually dried and heated to a bright red heat in a 
subsidiary furnace, is taken up by means of massive iron tongs 
and introduced into the previously heated furnace, the tempera- 
ture of which is then gradually raised. When a suitable tempera- 
ture for the fusion of the particular glass in question has been 
attained, the mixture of raw material is introduced in 'com- 
paratively small quantities at a time. In this way the crucible 
is gradually filled with a mass of molten glass, which is, however. 

Table I.— Optical Properties. 


Kf #<ttuffn 

Partial and Relative Partial Dispersions. 




4 w A V^AS U HA 












A. 605 

Extra Hard Crown . 










Roro-silicate Crown . 
Hard Crown 








C. 577 

Medium Barinm Crown 









C. 579 

Densest Barium Crown 






A. 5fi9 

Soft Crown . 










B. p3 

Medium Barium Crown 









B. S3S 

Barium Light Flint . 










A. 490 

Extra Light Flint 









A. 4«5 

Extn Ught Flint 










S: ja 

Boro-silicatc Flint 


-01 187 



•71 X 



Barium Light Flint . 





•0072 X 

B. 458 

Soda Flint . . . 


•01 19$ 
-01 190 







A. 458 

Light Flint . 








A. 43a 

Light Flint . 








A. 410 

Light Flint . 







B. 407 

Light Flint . .. 










A. 370 

Dense Flint . 







A. 361 

Dense Flint . 









A. 360 

Dense Flint . 









A. 337 

Extra Dense Flint 










A, 299 

Densest Flint 










full of bubbles of all aises. These bubbles ariM partly from the 
air enclosed between the partides of raw materials and partly 
from the gaseous decomposition products of the materials 
themselves. In the next stage of the process, the glass is raised 
to a high temperature in order to render it sufficiently fluid to 
allow of the complete elimination of these bubbles;; the actual 
temperature required varies with the chemical composition of 
the glass, a bright red heat sufficing for the most.fusible glasses, 
while with others the utmost capacity of the best furnaces 
is required to attain the necessary temperature. With these 
latter glasses there is, of course, considerable risk that the 
partial fusion and consequent contraction of the fireclay of the 
crucible may result in its destruction and the entire loss of the 
^ass. The stages of the process so far described generally occupy 
from 36 to 60 hours, and during this time the constant care and 
watchfulness of those attending the furnace h required. This is 
still more the case in the next stage. The examination of small 
test-pieces of the glass withdrawn from the crucible by means 
of an iron rod having shown that the molten mass is free from 
bubbles, the stirring process may be begun, the object of this 
manipulation being to tender the glass as ^mogencous as p<»sible 
and to secure the absence of veins or striae in the product. For 
Jthis purpose a cylinder of fireclay, provided with a square axial 
hole at the upper end, is heated in a small subsidiary furnace and 
is then introduced into the molten glass. Into the square axial 
hole fits the square end of a hooked iron bar which projects 
several yards beyond the mouth of the furnace; by means of 
this bar a workman moves the fireclay cylinder about in the glass 
with a steady circular sweep. Although the weight of the iron 
bar is carried by a support, such as an overhead chain or a swivel 
roller, this operation is very laborious and trying, more especially 
during the earlier stages when the heat radiated from the open 
mouth of the crucible is intense. The men who manipulate the 
stirring bars are therefore changed at short intervals, while the 
bars themselves have also to be changed at somewhat longer 
intervak, as they rapidly become oxidized, and accumulated 
scale would tend to fall off them, thus contaminating the glass 
below. The stirring process is began when the glass is perfectly 
fluid at a temperature little short of the highest attained in its 
fusion, but as the stirring proceeds the glass is allowed to cool 
gradually and thus becomes more and more viscous until finally 
the stirring cylinder can scarcely be moved. When the glass has 
acquired this degree of consistency it is supposed that no fresh 
movements can occur within its mass, so that if homogeneity has 
been attained the glass will preserve it permanently. The stirring 

are chosen, and are heated to a temperature just suffieieDt to 
soften the glass, when the lumps are caused to assume the shape 
of moulds made of iron or fireday either by the natural flow of 
the softened glass under gravity, or by pressure from suitable 
tools or presses. The ^ass, now in its approximate form, is 
placed in a heated chamber where it is allowed to oool very 
gradually — the minimum time of cooling from a dull red heat 
being six days, while for " fine annealing *' a much longer period 
is required (see above). At the end of the annealing process the 
glass issues in the sluipe of disks or slabs slightly larger than 
required by the optician in each case. The glass is, however, by 
no means ready for delivery, since it has yet to be examined 
with scrupulous care, and ail defective pieces must be rejectol 
entirely or at least the defective part must be cut out and the 
slab remoulded or ground down to a smaller size. For the purpose 
of rendering this minute examination possible, opposite plane 
surfaces of the ^ass are ground approximately flat and polished, 
the faces to be polished being so chosen as to allow of a view 
through the greatest possible thickness of glass; thus in slabs 
the narrow ejges are polished. 

It will be readily imderstood from the above account of the 
process <rf production that optical glass, relatively to other 
kinds of glass, is very expensive, the actual price varying from 
3S. to 30S. per lb in small slabs or disks, llie price, however, 
rapidly increases with the total bulk of perfect glass required in 
one piece, so that htrge disks of glass suitable for tdesoope 
objectives of wide aperture, or blocks for large prisms, become 
exceedingly costly. The reason for this high cost is to be found 
partly in the fact that the 3neld of opticaDy perfect glass even 
in large and successful mdtings rardy exceeds 20% of the total 
weight of glass mdted. Further, all the subsequent processes 
of cutting, moulding and annealing become increasingly difficult, 
owing to the greatly Increased risk of breakage arising from 
dther external injury or internal strain, as the dimensions of 
the individual piece of s^ass increase. Neverthdess, disks of 
optical glass, both crown and flint, have been produced up to 
39 in. in diameter. 

II. Blowk Glass. (A) Table-ware and Vases,— The varieties 
of glass used for the manufacture of table-ware and vases are 
the potash-lead glass, the soda-lime glass and the potash-lime 
glass. These glasses may be colourless or coloured. Venetian 
glass is a soda-lime glass; Bohemian glass is a potash-lime 
glass. The potash-lead glass, which was first used on a com> 
merdal scale in England for the manufacture of table-ware, 
and which is known as " ffint " glass or " crystal," is also largdy 










Potash-lead (flint) glass . 
Soda-Kme (Venetian) glass 
Potash-lime (Bohemian) glass 

53- » 7 




• ■ 



• • 

• a 

• • 


is therefore discontinued and the day cylinder is dther left I used in France, Germany and the United States. Table 11. 
embedded in the glass, or by the exercise of considerable forc^ I shows the typical composition of these passes, 
it may be gradually withdrawiL The crudble 

with the semi-solid glass which it contains is now Table II. 

allowed to cool considerably in the mdting furnace, 
or it may be removed to another slightly heated 
furnace. WHien the glass has cooled so far as 
to become hard and solid, the furnace is hermetic- 
ally sealed up and allowed to cool very gradually 
to the ordinary temperature. If the cooling is very 
gradual— occupying several weeks— it sometimes 
happens that the entire contents of a large crudble, weighing 
perhaps 1000 lb, are found intact as a single mass of glass, but 
more frequently the mass is found broken up into a number of 
fragments of various sizes. From the large masses great lenses 
and mirrors may be produced, urtiile the smaOer pieces are used 
for the production of the disks and slabs of moderate size, in 
which the optical glass of commerce Is usually supplied. In order 
to allow of the renraval of the glass, the cold crudble b broken 
up and the glass carefully separated from the fragments of fire- 
clay. The pieces of glass are then examined for the detection of 
the grosser defects, and obvioxisly ddective pieces are rejected. 
As the fractured surfaces of the glass in this condition are un- 
suitable for delicate examination a good deal of glass that passes 
this inspection has yet ultimatdy to be rejected. The next stage 
in the preparation of the glass is the process of moulding and 
annealing. Lumps of glass of approximatdy the right wdght 

For melting the leadless glasses, open, bowl-shaped crucibles 
are used, ranging from 12 to 40 in. in diameter. Glass mixtures 
containing lead are melted in covered, beehive-shaped cnidbles 
holding from 12 to x 8 cwt. of glass. They have a hooded open> 
ing on one side near the top. This opening serves for the intro* 
duction of the glass-mixture, for the removal of the mdted 
glass and as a source of heat for the processes of manipulation. 

The Venetian furnaces in the island of Murano are small 
low structures heated with wood. The heat passes from the 
mdting furnace into the annealii^ kiln. In Germany, Austria 
and the United States, gas furnaces are generally used. In 
England directly-heated coal furnaces are still in common use, 
which in many cases are stoked by mechanical feeders. There 
are two systems of annealing. The manufactured goods are 
cither removed gradually from a constant source of heat by means 
of a train of small iron trucks drawn along a tramway by an 



endless chain, or ate placed in a heated kih lii which the fire is 
allowed gradually to die out. The second ^stem is especially 
Qs«t for anneaUng large and heavy objects. The manufacture 
of table-ware is carried on by small gangs of men and boys. In 
England each " gang " or " chair " consists of three men and one 
boy. In works, however, in which most of the goodsaie moulded, 
and where less skilled labour is required, the proportion of boy 
labour is increased. There are generally two shifts of workmen, 
each shift working six hours, and the work is carried on oontinu* 
ously from Monday morning untfl Friday morning. Directly 
work is siiq>ended the iJUus remaining in the crucibles is ladled 
info water, drained and dried. It is then mixed with the glass 
mixture and broken ^ass- (" cullet "), and refdaced in the 



Fxc 16.—- Pootfls and Blowing Iron. 
a, Puatee; ft, spring puotce; e, bbwing von. 

crucibles. The furnaces are driven to a white heat in order to 
fuse the mixture and expel bubbles of gas and air. Before work 
begins the temperature is lowered sufficiently to render the glass 
viscous. In the viscous state a mass of glass can be coiled upon 
the heated end of an iron rod, and if the rod is hollow can be 
blown into a hoUow bulb. The tools used are extremely primitive 
—hollow iron blowing-rods, solid rods for holding vessels during 
manipulation, spring tool^ resembling sugar-tongs in shape, 
with steel or wooden blades for fashioning the viscous glass, 
callipers, measure-sticks, and a variety of moulds of wood, 
carbon, cast iron, gun-metal and plaster of Paris (figs, xdand 17). 
The roost important tool, however, is the bench or " chair " 
on which the workman sits, which serves as his lathe. He sits 

Fi& 17.— Shai»ng and Measuring Tools. 

i, " Sogar-tongs " tool with wooden ■/, Pincera. 
ends. s. Scissors. 

«, e, " Sugar-tongs " toob with cutting a, Battledore. 

edgflk h Marking compass. 

between two rigid parallel arms, projecting forwards and back* 
wards and sbptng lightly from back to front. Across the arms 
he balances the iron rod to which the glass bulb adheres, and 
rolling it backwards and forwards with the fingers of his left 
hand fashions the glass between the blades of his sugar-tongs 
tool, grasped in his right hand. The hoUow bulb is worked into 
the shape it is intended to assume, partly by blowing, partly by 
gravitation, and partly by the workman's tool. If the blowing 
iron is held vertically with the bulb uppermost the bulb becomes 
flattened and shallow, if the bulb is allowed to hang downwards 
it becomes elongated and reduced in diameter, and if the end of 
the bulb b pierced and the iron is held horixontally and sharply 
trundled, as a mop is trundled, the bulb opens out into a flattened 
During the process of manipulation, whether on the chair 

or whilst the glass is being reheated, the rod must be constantly 
and gently trundled to prevent the collapse of the bulb or vessel. 
Every natural development of the spherical form can be obtained 
by blowing and fashioning by hand. A non-spherical form can only 
be produced by blowing the hollow bulb into a mould of the 
required shape. Moulds are used both for giving shape to vessels 
and also for impressing patterns on their suface. Although 
spherical forms can be obtained without the use of moulds, 
moulds are now largely used for even the simplest kinds of table- 
ware in order to economixe time and skilled labour. In France, 
Germany and the United States it is rare to find a piece of table- 
ware which has not received its shape in a mould. The old and 
the new interns of making a wine-fl^ass illustrate almost all the 
ordinary processes of glass working. Sufficient glass is first 
" gathered " on the end of a blowing iron to form the bowl of 
the wine-glass. The mere act of coiling an exact weight of 
molten glass round the end of a rod 4 ft. in length requires 
considerable skill. The mass ot glass is rolled on a polished 
slab of iron, the " marvor," to solidify it, and it is then slightly 
hollowed by blowing. Under the old sj^tem the form of the bowl 
is gradually developed by blowing and by shaping the bulb with 
the sugar-tongs tooL The leg is either pulled out from the 
substance of t^ base of the bowl, or from a small lump of glass 
added to the base. The foot starts as a small independent bulb 
on a separate blowing iron. One extremity of this bulb is made 
to adhere to the end of the leg, and the other extremity is broken 
away from its blowing iron. The fractured end is heated, and by 
the combined action of heat and centrifugal force opens out 
into a flat foot. The bowl is now severed from its blowing iron 
and the unfinished wine-glass is supported by its foot, which is 
attached to the end of a working rod by a metal clip or by a seal 
of glass. The fractured edge of the bowl is heated, trimmed 
with scissors and melted so as to be perfectly smooth and even, 
and the bowl itself receives its final form from the sugar-tongs 

Under the new system the bowl is fashioned by blowing the 
slightly hollowed mass of glass into a mould. The leg is formed 
and a small lump of molten glass is attached to its extremity 
to form the foot. The blowing iron is constantly trundled, and 
the small lump of glass is squeezed and flattened into the shape 
of a foot, either between two slabs of wood hinged together^ 
or by pressure against an upright board. The bowl is severed 
from the blowing iron, and the wine-glass is sent to the an- 
nealing oven with a bowl, longer than that of the finished glUss, 
and with a rough fractured edge. When the ^ass is cold the 
surplus is removed either by grinding, or by applying heat to a 
lino scratched with a diamond round the bowL The fractured 
edge is smoothed by the impact of a gas flame. 

In the manufacture of a wine-glass the ductility of g^ass is 
illustrated on a small scale by the process of pulling out the leg. 
It is more strikingly illustrated in the manufacture <rf glass cane 
and tube. Cane is produced from a solid mass of molten glass, 
tube from a mass hollowed by blowing. One workman holds 
the blowing iron with the mass of glass attached to it, and 
another fixes an iron rod by means of a seal of glass to the 
extremity of the mass. The two workmen face each other 
and walk backwards. The diameter of the cane or tube is 
regulated by the weight of glass carried, and by the distance 
covered by the two workmen. It is a curious property of viscous 
glass that whatever form is given to the mass of glass before it 
is drawn out is retained by the finished cane or tube, however 
small its section may be. Owing to this property, tubes or 
canes can be produced with a square, oblong, oval or triangular 
section. Exceedingly fine canes of milk-white glass play an 
important part in the nutstexpieces produced by the Venetian 
gbiss-makeis of the i6th century. Vases and drinking cups 
were produced of extreme lightness, in the walls of which were 
embedded patterns rivaHing lace-work in fineness and intricacy. 
The canes from which the patterns are formed are either simple 
or complex. The latter are made by dipping a small mass of 
molten colourless glass into an iron cup around the inner wall 
of which short lengths of white cane have been arranged at 



regolar intervals. Tlie canes adhere to tbe molten glass, and 
the mass is first twisted and then drawn oat into fine cane, 
which contains white threads arranged in endless spirab. The 
process can be almost indefinitely repeated and canes formed 
of extreme complexity. A vase decorated with these simple 
or complex canes is produced by embedding short lengths of 
the cane on the surface of a mass of molten glass and blowing 
and fashioning the mass into the required titape, 

TiJ)le-ware and vases may be wholly coloured or mexdy 
decorated with colour. Touches of colour may be added to 
vessels in course of manufacture by means of seals of molten 
glass, applied like sealing-wax; or by causing vesaeb to wrap 
thenuelves round with threads or cdls of coloured glass. By 
the application of a pointed iron hook, while the ^aas is still 
ductile, the parallel coils can be distorted into bends, loops or 
agsags. The surface of vessels may be spanned with gold or 
platinum by rolling the hot glass on metallic leaf, or iridescent, 
by the deposition of metallic tin, or by the corrosion caused 
by the chemical action of add fumes. Gilding and enamel 
decoration are applied to vessels when cdd, and fixed by 

Cutting and engraving are mechanical pr o ces s e s for producing 
decorative effects by abrading the surface of the glass when cold. 
The abrasion is effected by pressing the glass against the edge 
of wheels, or disks, of hard material revolving on horizontal 
spindles. The spindles of cutting wheels are driven by steam 
or electric power. The wheels for making deep cuts are made 
of iron, and are fed with sand and water. Ihe wheels range 
in diameter from i8 in. to 3 in. Wheels of carborundum are 
■ho used. Wheels of fine sandstone fed with water are used 
for making slighter cuts and for smoothing the roug^ surface 
left by the iron wheels. P<dishing is effected by wooden wheels 
fed with wet pumice-powder and rottMistone and by brushes 
fed with moistened putty-powder. Patterns are produced by 
combining straight and curved cuts. Cutting brings out the 
brilliancy of i^ass, which is one of its intrinsic qualities. At 
the end of the i8th century English cut s^ass was unrivalled 
for design and beauty. Gradually, however, the process was 
applied without restraint and the products lost all artistic 
quality. At the present time cut ^ass is steadily regaining 

Engrating is a process of drawing on glass by means of smAll 
copper wheels. 'Die wheels range from | in. to s in. in diameter, 
and are fed with a mixture of fine emery and oil. The spindles 
to which the wheels are attached revolve in a lathe worked by 
a foot treadle. The true use <d engraving is to add interest to 
vessels by means of coats of arms, crests, monograms, inscriptions 
and graceful outlines. The improper use of engraving is to 
hide defective materisl Tbne are two other processes of 
marking patterns on ^ass, but they possess no artistic value. 
In the ** sandUast " process the surface of the s^ass is exposed 
to a stream of sharp sand driven by compressed air. The parts 
of the surface which are not to be blasted are covered by adhesive 
paper. In the " etching " process the surface of the glass la 
etched by the chemical action of hydrofluoric add, the parts 
which are not to be attacked being covered with a resinous paint* 
The s^ass is first dipped in this protective liquid, and whoi tht 
paint has set the pattern is scratched through it with a sharp 
point. The glass is then exposed to the add. 

Class stoppers are fitted to bottles by grinding. - The teouth 
of the botUe b ground by a revolving iron cone, or mandrd, 
fed with sand and water aiid driven by steam. The head of the 
stopper Is fastened in a chuck and the peg is ground to the sise 
of the mouth of the bottle by means of sukI and water pressed 
•gainst the glass by bent strips of thin sheet iron. The nKWth 
of the bottle b thai ptesied by hand on the peg of the stepper, 
and the mouth and peg are ground together with a medium of 
very fine emery and water usiil an air-ti^t joint b secured. 

The revival in recent years of the craft of |^ass>blowing in 
England must be attributed to William Morrb and T.G. Jackson, 
ILA. (PL n. figs. II and 12). They, at any rate, seem to have 
been the first to grasp the idea that a wine-glass b not merely 

a bowl, a stem and a foot, but that, whilst retaining aimpUdty 
of form, it may nevertheless possess decorative effect. They, 
moreover, suggested the introduction for the manufacture of 
table-glass of a material similar in texture to that used by the 
Venetians, both colourless and tinted. 

The coloun previously available for EngUsh table-glass were 
ruby, canary-yellow, emerald-green, dark peacock-green, light 
peacock-blue, dark purple-blue and a dark purple. About 
1870 the " Jackson " table-glass was made in a Ught, dull green 
glass. The dull green was foUowed successively by amber, whiu 
opal, blue cpalf straw opalf sea-green, horn colour and various 
pale tints of soda-lime glass, ranging from yeUow to blue. Ex- 
periments were also tried with a violet<oloured glass, a violet 
opal, a transparent black and with glasses shading from red 
to blue, red to amber and blue to green. 

In the Paris Exhibition of 1900 surface decoration was the 
prominent feature of all the exhibits of table-glass. The carved 
or " cameo " glass, introduced by Thomas Webb of Stourbridge 
in 1878, had been copied with varying success by glass-makers 
of all nations. In many spedmens there were, three or more 
layers of differently coloured glass, and curious effects of blended 
colour were obtained by cutting through, or partly through, 
the different layers. The surface of the glass had usually been 
treated with hydrofluoric add so as to have a satin-like gloss. 
Some vases of thb character, shown by Emile Gall6 and Daum 
Frdres of Nancy, possessed considerable beauty. The *' Favrile " 
glass of Louis C. Tiffany of New York (PI. II. fig. 13) owes its 
effect entirely to surface colour and lustre. The happiest sped- 
mens of thb glass almost rival the wings of butterflies in the 
brilliancy of their iridescent colours. The vases of Kari Koef^ing 
of Beriln are so fantastic and so fragile that they appear to be 
creations of the lamp rather than of the furnace. An illustration 
b also given of some of Powell's " Whitefriars " glass, shown at 
the St Loub Exhibition, 1904 (PI. II. fig. 14). The spedmens 
of " p&te de verre " exhibited by A. L. Dammouse, of Sevres, 
in the Mus£e des Arts dfcoratifs in Paris, and at the London 
Franco-Britbh Exhibition in 1908, deserve attention. They 
have a semi-opaque body with an "egg-shell" surface and are 
delicatdy tinted with colour. The shapes are exceedingly 
simple, but some of the pieces possess great beauty. The material 
and technique suggest a dose relationship to porcdain. 

(B) Tube. — ^The process of making tube has already been 
described. Although the bore of the thermometer-tube b 
exceedingly small, it b made in the same way as ordinaiy 
tube. The white line of enamd, which b seen in some thermo- 
meters behind the bore, b introduced before the mass of glass 
b pulled out. A flattened cake of viscous ^ass-enamd b wdded 
on to one side of the mass of f^ass after it has been hollowed by 
blowing. The mass, with the enamd attached, b dipped into 
the crucible and covered with a layer of transparent glass; 
the whole mass b then pulled oi^t into tube. If the section of 
the finished tube b to be a triangle, with the enamd and bore 
at the base, the molten mass b pressed into a V-diaped mould 
before it b pulled ouL 

In modem thermometry instruments of extreme accuracy 
are required, and researches have been made, especially in 
Germany and France, to ascertain the causes of variability 
in mercurial thennometers, and how such variability b to be 
removed or reduced. In all mercurial thenaometen there 
b a slight depression of the ice-point after exposure to high 
temperatures; it b abo not uncommon to find that the readings 
of two thermometers between the ice- and boiling-points 
fail to agree at any intermediate tenqierature, although the 
ice- and boiling-points of both have been detennined tog^her 
with perfect accuracy, and the intervening spaces have been 
equally divided. It has been proved that these variations 
depend to a great extent on the chemical nature of the glass of 
which the thtfmometer b made. Special glasses have therefore 
be«n produced by Tonndot in France and at the Jena glass* 
works in Germany expressly for the manufacture of tbormometers 
for accurate physical measuremenU; the analyses of these are 
shown in Table III. 




Taols III. 












Tonnelot's " Verre dur " 
Jena glass — 

XVL-in . . . 






• • 

• • 





• • 

• a 


• * 


• • 



Since the discovery of the Rdntgra rays, experiments have 
been made to ascertain the e£Fects of the different constituents 
of i^ass on the transparency of glass to X-rays. The oxides 
of lead, barium, zinc and antimony are found perceptibly to 
retard tint rays. The gUss tubes, therefore, from which the 
X>ray bulbs are to be fashioned, must not contain any of these 
oxides, whereas the glass used for making the funnel-shaped 
shields, which direct the rays upon the patient and at the same 
time protect the hands of the operator from the action of the 
rays, must contain a large proportion of lead. 

Among the many developments of the Jena Works, not the 
least important are the glasses made in the form of a tube, 
from which gas-chimneys, gauge-glasses and chemical apparatus 
are fashioned, specially adapted to resist sudden changes of 
temperature. One method is to form the tube of two layers 
of glass, one being considerably more expansible than the other. 

(C) Skeei and Crown-glass. — Sheet-glass is almost wholly 
a soda-lime-silicate glass, containing only small quantities of 
iron, alumina and other impurities. The raw materials used 
in this manufacture are chosen with considerable care, since the 
requirements as to the colour of the product are somewhat 
^ringent. The materials ordinarily employed ace the following: 
sand, of good quality, uniform in grain and free from any 
notable quantity of iron oxide; carbonate of lime, generally 
in the form of a pure variety of powdered limestone; and 
sulphate of soda. A certain proportion of soda ash (carbonate 
of soda) is also used in some works in sheet-glass mixtures, while 
" decolorizers " (substances intended to remove or reduce the 
colour of the g^ass) are also sometimes added, those most generally 
used being manganese dioxide and arsenic. Another essential 
ingredient of all glass mixtures containing sulphate of soda 
is some form of carbon, which is added either as coke, charcoal 
or anthradte coal; the carbon so introduced aids the reducing 
substances contained in the atmosphere of the furnace in bringing 
about the reduction of the sulphate of soda to a condition in 
whidh it combines more readily with the silicic add of the sand. 
The proportions in which these ingredients are mixed vary 
according to the exact quality of glass required and with the 
form and temperature of the melting furnace employed. A 
good quaGty of sheet-glass should show, on analysis, a composi- 
tion approximating to the following: silica (SiO^), 73%; 
lime (CaO), 13%; soda (NajO), 14%; and iron and alumina 
(Fe^.Al^), 1%. The actual composition, however, of a 
mixture that will give a glass of this composition cannot be 
directly calculated from these figures and the known composition 
of the raw materials, owing to the fact that considerable losses, 
particularly of idkali, occur during melting. 

Hie fusion of sheet-glass is now generally, carried out in 
gas-fired regenerative tank furnaces. The glass in process 
<rf fusion is contained in a basin or tank built up of large blocks 
of fire-clay and is heated by one or more powerful gas flames 
vhich enter the upper part of the furnace chamber through 
niitable apertures or " ports." In Europe the gas burnt in 
these furnaces is derived from special gas-producers, while in 
some parts of America natural^ gas is utilized. With producer 
gas it is necessary to pre-heat both the gas and the air which 
is supplied for its combustion by passing both through heated 
regenerators (for an account of the principles of the regenerative 
furnace see article Furnace). In many respects the glass- 
melting tank resembles the open-hearth steel furnace, but there 
are certain interesting difTerences. Thus the dimensions of the 
largest glass tanks greatly exceed those of the largest steel 
furnaces; glass furnaces containing up to 250 tons of molten 

glass have been successfully oper- 
ated, and owing to the reUtively 
low density of glass this involves 
very large dimensions. The tem- 
perature required in the fusion of 
sheet-glass and of other glasses 
produced in tank furnaces is much 
lower than that attained in steel 
furnaces, and it is consequently pos- 
sible to work glass-tanks continuously for many months together; 
on the other hand, gUss is not readily freed from foreign bodice 
that may become admixed with it, so that the absence of detach-! 
able particles is much more essential in glass than in steel melting. 
Finally, fluid steel can be run or poured off, since it is perfectly 
fluid, while glass cannot be thus treated, but is withdrawn from 
the furnace by means of either a ladle or a gatherer's pipe, 
and the temperature required for this purpose is much lower than 
that at which the glass is melted. In a sheet-glass tank there 
is therefore a gradient of temperature and a continuous passage 
of material from the hotter end of the furnace where Uie raw 
materials are introduced to the cooler end where the glass, 
free from bubbles and raw material, is. withdrawn by the: 
gatherers. For the purpose of the removal of the glaio, the 
cooler end of the furnace is provided with a number of suitable 
openings, provided with movable covers or shades. The 
" gatherer " approaches one of these openings, removes the 
shade and introduces his previously heated "pipe." This 
instrument is an iron tube, some 5 ft. long, provided at one end 
with an enkrged butt and at the other with a wooden covering 
acting as handle and mouthpiece. The gatherer dips the butt 
of the pipe into the molten " metal " and withdraws upon it a 
small ball of viscous glass, which he allows to cool in the air 
while constantly rotating it so as to keep the mass as nearly 
spherical in shape as he can. When the first ball or " gathering "' 
has cooled sufficiently, the whole is again dipped into the molten 
glass and a further layer adheres to the pipe-end, thus forming 
a larger ball. Tliis process is repeated, with slight modifications,, 
until the gathering is of the proper size and weight to 3rield the 
sheet which is to be blown. When this is the case the gathering- 
is carried to a block or half-open mould in which it is rolled 
and blown until it acquires, roughly, the shape of a hemisphere, 
the flat side being towards the pipe and the convexity away 
from it; the diameter of this hemisphere is so regulated as to 
be approximately that of the cylinder which is next to be formed' 
of the viscous mass. From the hemispherical shape the mass 
of ^ass is now gradually blown into the form of a short cylinder, 
and then the pipe with the adherent mass of ghiss is handed 
over to the blower proper. This workman stands upon a platform 
in front of special furnaces which, from their shape and purpose, 
are called "blowing holes.'* The blower repeated^ heats 
the lower part of the mass of glass and keeps it distended by. 
blowing while he swings it over a deep trench which is provided 
next to his working platform. In this way the glass is extended 
into the form of a long cylinder closed at the lower end. The 
size of cylinder which can be produced in this way depends 
chiefly upon the dimensions of the working platform and the 
weight which a man is able to handle freely. The lower end of 
the cylinder is opened, in the case of small and thin cylinders, 
by the blower holding his thumb over the mouthpiece of the 
pipe and simultaneously warming the end of the cylinder in the 
furnace, the expansion of the imprisoned air and the softening 
of the glass causing the end of the cylinder to burst open. The 
blower then heats the end of the cylinder again and rapidly 
spins the pipe about its axis; the centrifugal effect is sufficient 
to spread the soft glass at the end to a radius equal to that of the 
rest of the cylinder. In the case of large and thick cylinders, 
however, another process of opening the ends is generally 
employed: an assistant attaches a small lump of hot glass to the 
domed end, and the heat of this added glass softens the cylinder 
sufficiently to enable the assistant to cut the end open with a 
pair of shears; subsequently the open end is spun out to the 
diameter of the whole as described above. The finished cylinder 



b next carried to a rack and the pipe detached from it by applying 
a cold iron to the neck of thkk hot glass which connects pipe-butt 
and cylinder, the neck cracking at the touch. Next, the rest 
of the connecting neck is detached from the cylinder by the 
application of a heated iron to the chilled ^ass. This leaves a 
cylinder with roughly parallel ends; these ends are cut by the 
use of a diamond applied internally and then the cylinder is 
9plit longitudinally by the same means. The H>Ut cylinder is 
passed to the flattening furnace, where it is exposed to a red heat, 
sufficient to soften the glass; when soft the cylinder is laid upon 
a smooth flat dab and flattened down upon it by the careful 
application of pressure with some form of rubbing implement, 
which frequently takes the form of a block of charred wood. 
When flattened, the sheet is moved away from the working 
opening of the furnace, and pushed to a system of movable 
grids, by means 6[ which it is slowly movMl along a tunnel, 
away from a source of heat neariy equal in temperature to that 
of the flattening chamber. The glass thus cools gradually as it 
passes down the tunnel and is thereby adequately annealed. 

The process of sheet-glass manufacture described above is 
typical of that in use in a large number of works, but many 
modifications are to -be found, particularly in the furnaces in 
which the glass is melted. In some works, the older method 
of melting the glass in large pots or crucibles is still adhered to, 
although the old-fashioned coal-fired furnaces have nearly 
everywhere given place to the use of producer gas and re- 
generators. For the production of coloured sheet-glass, however, 
the employment of pot furnaces is still almost universal, prob- 
ably because the quantities of {^ass required of any one tint 
are insufficient to employ even a small tank f\imace continuously; 
the exact contrd of the colour is also more readily attained with 
the smaller bulk of glass which has to be dealt with in pots. The 
general nature of the colouring ingredients employed, and the 
colour effects produced by them, have^already been mentioned. 
In coloured sheet-glass, two distinct kinds are to be recognized; 
in one kind the colouring matter is contained in the body of the 
glass itself, while in the other the coloured sheet comists of 
Mdinary white glass covered upon one side with a thin coating of 
intensely coloured glass. The latter kind is known is '' flashed," 
and is universally employed in the case of colouring matters 
whose effect is so intense that in any usual thickness of ^ass 
they would cause almost entire opacity. Flashed i^ass is 
produced by taking either the first or the last gathering in the 
production of a cylinder out of a crucible containing the oolo\ired 
"metal," the other gatherinei being taken out of ordinary 
white sheet-glass. It is important that the thermal expansion 
of the two materials which are thus incorporated should be 
nearly alike, as otherwise warping of the finished sheet is liable 

Muhankal Processes for Ike Prodnction of Sheet-gUus—Tht 
complicated and indiiKt process of sheet-glass manufacture 
has led to numerous inventions aiming at a direct method of 
production by more or less mechanical meanSb All the earlier 
attempts in this direction failed on account of the difficulty of 
bringing the glass to the machines without introducing air-bells, 
which are always formed in molten glass when it is ladled or 
poured from one vessel into another. More modem inventors 
have therefore adopted the plan of drawing the glass direct from 
the furnace. In an American process the glass is drawn direct 
from the molten mass in the tank in a cylindrical form by means 
of an iron ring previously immersed in the ^ass, and b kept 
in shape by means of special devices for cooling it rapidly as it 
leaves the molten bath. In this process, however, the entire 
operations of flitting and flattening are retained, and although 
the mechanical process is said to be in successful commercial 
operation, it has not as yet made itself felt as a formidable rival 
to hand-made sheet-glass. An effort at a more direct mechanical 
process is embodied in the inventions of Foucault which are at 
present being developed in Germany and Belgium; in this 
process the s^ass is drawn from the molten bath in the slu^ of 
flat sheets, by the aid of a bar of iron, previously immersed in the 
glass, the glass receiving its form by being drawn through slots 

in large fire-bricks, and being kept in shape by rapid cfaiDiog 
produced by the action of air-blasts. The mechanical operatioo 
is quite successful for thick sheets^ but it b not as yet available 
for the thinner sheets required for the ordinary purposes of 
sheet-glass, since with these excessive breakage occurs, while 
the sheets generally show grooves or lines derived from small 
irregularities of the drawing orifice. For the production of thick 
sheets which are subsequently to be polished the process may 
thus claim considerable success, but it b not as yet possible 
to produce satisfactory sheet-glass by such means. 

Crotm-gbiss has at the present day almost disappeared from 
the market, and it has been superseded by sheet-glass, the more 
modem processes described above being capable of producing 
much laiiger sheets of glass, free from the knob or " bullion " 
which nuiy still be seen in old crown-gilass windows. For a 
few isolated purposes, however, it b desirable to use a i^as 
which has not been touched upon either surface and thus pre- 
serves the lustrtf of its " fire polish " undiminished; thb can 
be attained in crown-s^ass but not in sheet, since one aide of 
the latter b always more or less marked by the mbber used 
in the process of flattening. One of the few uses of crown-gjass 
of this kind b the glass slides upon which microsome qxdmens 
are mounted, as well as the thin glass slips with which such 
preparations are covered. A full account of the process of 
blowing crown-gUos will J)e found in all older books and artides 
on the subject, so that it need only be mentioned here that the 
glass, instead of being blown into a cylinder, b blown into a 
flattened q>here, which b caused to burst at the point opposite 
the pipe and b then, by the rapid spinning of the glass in front 
of a very hot f tunace-opening, causeid to expand into & flat disk 
of large diameter. Thb only requires to be annealed and b then 
ready for cutting up, but the lump of glass by which the original 
globe was attached to the pipe remains as the bullion in the centre 
of the disk of t^asa. 

Coloured Glass for Mosaic Windaws.^Tht production of coloured 
glass for " mosaic " windows has become a sq>arate branch 
oi glass-making. Charles Winston, after prolonged study 
of the coloured windows of the xjth, X4th and xsth centuries, 
convinced himself that no approach to the colour ^ect of these 
windows could be made with glass which b thin and even in 
section, homogeneous in texture, and made and coloured with 
highly refined materiab. To obtain the effect it was necessary 
to reproduce as far as possible the conditions under which the 
early craf tsnoen worked, and to create scientifically gla» which 
b impure in colour, irregular in section, and non-homogeneous 
in texture. The glass b made in cylinders and in " crowns " or 
circles. The cylinders measure about 14 in. in length by 8 in. 
in diameter, and vary in thickness from I to | in. The crowns 
are about 15 in. in diameter, and vary in thickness from | to ^ in., 
the centre being the thickest. These cylinders and crowns 
may be either solid colour or flashed. Great variety of colour 
may be obtained by flashing one colour upon another, such as 
blue on green, and mby on blue, green or yellow. 

£. J. Prior has introduced an ingenious method of making 
small oblong and square sheets of coloured glass, which are thick 
in the centre and taper towards the edges, and which have one 
surface slightly roughened and one brilliantly pdished. Glass b 
blown into an oblong box-shaped iron mould, about 12 in. in dq>th 
and 6 in. across. A hollow rectangular bottle b formed, the base 
and sides of which are converted into sheets. The outer surface 
of these sheets b slightly roughened by contact with the iron 

(D) BoUles and meckamcaOy blown Glass,— Tht manufacture 
of bottles has become an industry of vast proportions. The 
demand constantly increases, and, owing to constant improve- 
ments in material in the moulds and in the methods of working, 
the supply fully keeps pace with the demand. Except for 
making bottles of ^)ecial colours, gas-heated tank furnaces arc 
in general use. Melting and working are carried on continuously. 
The essential qualities of a bottle are strength and power to resist 
chemical corrosion. The materiab are selected with a view to 
secure these qualities. For the highest quality of bottles^ wbicb 

■R pncdallr c aloBT faw . iiihI, BmotoiK uxt nIphMt uhI 
iari)a»lc ol loda u> incd, Tlie foUowing; ii i. typial uulysli 
of high quiUly bMUe-^w:. SiOh 6«'i;%; NnO, lyoo^; 
C»0, is-oo%; A],0,, !-»%! and 71,0* 065%. For the 
OHnmcuKr grmdo of rUik-CDioured bottki Lhe glau mixlun 
il chcapeDcd by lubslilDling niminiHi sail Idr pan o[ Lhc sutpha(c 
of loda, and by tho addition u£ fcbpar, franilc, graiiulit?^ 
iumacc ilaf ajul other aubataotrs fusible al a high trinpcraluET^ 
Bottle nnoidi are made ol cut iron, atba la two pi«m, hingnl 
togitha at the bue or at one tide, 01 in three fuecci, one 
(onniag the body and twe pieces foimini the neck. 

A bottle gtDg or " abop " comiiu of five perton*. The 
" gatbcrer " lathen the glau from the lulc Inmace on the end 
of tbe blowlnt4iDa, mill It oo a alab of iron or ttone. tlightly 
oipajlds the glaia by Uowing, and hajidi the blowing iron and 
glaii to tb* " blower," The blower plana the glau in the rooukl, 
dtaes the mould by preuisg a lever with hb foot, and either 
blowi down the blowing iron or ittacba It to a ILbe connected 
' compressed air. When the air has forced the 
glass to take tbe form of the mould, the 
mould is iqxned and the blower gives the 
blowing iron with tbe bottle attached to 
it to the "wetter off." The wetter 06 
tonchts the top of tbe neck ol tbe bottle 
vith a moittened piece of iron and by 
lapping the blowing iron detaches the 
bottle and drops it into a wooden tnugh. 
Be tfaen grips the body of the bottle with 
a four-pronged clip, attached to an iron 
rod, and passes it to the " bottle maker-" 
The bottle maliet heats the fcactarcd neck 
of the bottle, binds a bsiid of inoilen glau 
roond the end of it and simultaneously 
shape* the inside and the ouisde of the 
^ neck by uaing the tool »hahm in fig. 18. 
je The finished bottle Is taken by the " laker 
le in " 10 the annealing furnace. The bottles 

^ full, are moved slowly away from a constant 
« source of heat. 

le The procsses of maolpulation which have 

been described, although in practice they 

" are very rapidly petfonned, are destined 

>n to be replaoed by the automatic vorking 


absolute regularity in J 

; with a ptungec with that of blowing by 

he neck ol the bottle is first fotmed by the 

plonger, and the body is subsequently blown by compressed air 

' ■ ough tbe plunger. A suffidenl weight of molten 

a bottte is gathered and placed in a funnel-sbaped 

admitted tl 

which se 

10 them 

which shapei the otitslde of the n 


A pi 

mger is forced 

the neck 


d and forms the necL 

nd the pi 



mould and the 

bed to the 


are invi 

rted. A bottle 

mould rises and envelop* the mas 

glau. Com- 

presseif air admitted thro 

gh the plu 


to take the fo™ of the hottle mould 


In the cue of the ma 

chine pste 


by Mi 

hael Owens of 

Toledo, U-S.A., for maki 

g tumbJets 


eys, and other 

goods of aimilar charactc 

, the man 


« required are 

<,) gilhering the molten 

glass at the e 

blowing inn: 

{,) pl=idng the blowing ir 

on with Ih 

glau attached to it in the 

machine; (3) removing tl 

e blowing 

with the blown vessel 

attached. E»di machine 

(fig. -9) c 


carrying five or si< moulds. The moulds 

are opened and closed 

by cams actuated by co 


a. a blowing 

boa is is conneiion with 

u. air jet 



of ihemoiild 

its fractured edge is trimmed. 

Compressed air or steam ia also used for fashioning very large 
Tenets, baths, dishes ai>d reservoin by the " Sicvert " pioccu. 
Mokcn gloss is ^read upon a large iron plate of tbe required 
shape and dimensions. The Battened mass of gtass is held by 
1 rim. connected to the edge of tbe pLate. The plate witb the glass 
aiuched to i I is inverted, and compressed air or steam is iatio- 
ducedthroDgh openings in the plate. The mass olglast, yiehlini 
to its own Wright and the pressure of air or steam, dnks dosm- 
wards and adapts ilseU to any mould or receptacle beneath it. 

The processes employed in the manufacture of the glais 

Machiae. t.,. 

fashioned processes of bottle making. Tie mould Is in two 
pieces hinged togclhei; it is heated and the inner surlatt is 
rubbed over with finely powdered plumbago. When the glaa 
is bdng blown in the mould the blowingiron is twisted round and 
round so that tbe finished bulb may not be marked by the jmat 
of the mould. 

III. MECHAHtcALiv PUS3I0 Guss. (A) ^(afciioji.— The 
glau popularly known as " plate-glus " Is n^ade by calling and 
rolling. The fallowing are typical analyses: 






eI^Tw. : 

71 So 






rials for tbe production of plate-glass are ch 
so as to secure a product as free from ci 
« the lelativcly giitu thickness of the si 



would render even a faint tint conspiaious. The anbstances 
employed are the same as those used for the manufacture 
ol sheet-glass, viz. pure sand, a pure form of cjt^bonate of lime, 
and sulphate of soda, with the addition of a suitable proportion 
of carbon in the form of coke, charcoal or anthracite coaL 

The glass to be used for the production of plate is universally 
melted in pots or crudbles and not in c^n tank furnaces. 
When the glass is completely melted and " fine," i.e, free from 
bubbles, it is allowed to cool down to a certain extent so as 
to become viscous or pasty. The whole pot, with its contents 
of viscods i^ass, is then removed bodily from the furnace by 
means of huge tongs and is transported to a crane, which grips 
the pot, raises it^ and ultimately tips it over so as to pour the 
^ass upon the slab of the roUing-table. In most modem works 
the greater part of these operations, as well as the actual rolling 
of the glass, is carried out by mechanical means, steam power 
and subsequently electrical power having been successfully 
applied to this puipose; the handling of the great weights of 
glass required for the largest sheets of plate-glass which are 
produced at the present time would, indeed, be impossible 
without the aid of machinery. The casting-table usually con- 
sbts of a perfectly smooth cast-iron slab, frequently built up 
of a number of pieces carefully fitted together, mounted upon 
a low, massive truck nmning upon rails, so that it can be readily 
moved to any desired position in the casting-room. Tlie viscous 
mass having been thrown on the casting-taUe, a large and 
heavy roller passes over it and spreads it out into a sheet. 
Rollers up to 5 tons in weight are employed and are now 
generally driven by power. The width of the sheet or plate 
is regulated by moving guides which are placed in front of 
the roller and are pushed along by it, while its thickness 
is regulated by raising or lowering the roller relatively to 
the surface of the table. Since the surfaces produced by 
rolling have subsequently to be ground and polished, it is 
essential that the ^ass should leave the rolling-table with as 
smooth a surface as possible, so that great care is required in 
this part of the process. It is, however, equally important 
that the glass as a whole should be flat and remains flat during 
the process of gradual cooling (annealing), otherwise great 
thicknesses of ^ass would have to be ground away at the pro- 
jecting parts of the sheet. The annealing process is therefore 
carried out in a manner differing essentially from that in use 
for any other variety of flat glass and nearly resembling that 
used for optical glass. Hie rolled sheet is left on the casting- 
table until it has set sufficiently to be pushed over a flat iron 
plate without risk of distortion; meanwhile the table has been 
placed in front of the opening of one of the large annealing 
kilns and the slab of glass is carefully pushed into the kiln. The 
annealing kilns are large fire-brick chambers of small height 
but with sufficient floor area to accommodate four or six large 
slabs, and the slabs are placed directly upon the floor of the 
kiln, which is built up of carefully dressed blocks of burnt fire- 
clay resting upon a bed of sand; in order to avoid any risk of 
working or buckling in this floor these blocks are set slightly 
apart and thus have room to expand freely when heated. Before 
the glass is introduced, the annealing Idln is heated to dull red 
by means of coal fires in grates which are provided at the ends 
or sides of the kiln for that purp<»e. When the floor of the kiln 
has been covered with slabs of glass the opening is carefully 
built up and luted with fire<-bricks and fire-clay, and the whole 
is then allowed to cool. In the walls and floor of the kiln ^)ecial 
cooling channels or air passages are provided and by gradually 
opening these to atmospheric circulation the cooling is con- 
siderably accelerated while a very even distribution of tempera- 
ture is obtained; by these means even the largest slabs can now 
be cooled in three or four days and are nevertheless sufficiently 
well annealed to be free from any serious internal stress. From 
the annealing kiln the slabs of glass are transported to the 
cutting room, where they are cut square, defective slabs being 
rejected or cut down to smaller sizes. The glass at this stage 
has a comparatively dull surface and this must now be replaced 
by that brilliant and perfectly polished surface which is the chief 

beauty of this Variety of ^ass. The first step in this process ii 
that of grinding the surface down until all piojectioBS an 
removed and a dose approximation to a perfect plane ia obtained. 
This operation, like all the subsequent steps in the polnhiiig 
of the glass, is carried out by powerful machinery. By means 
of a rotating table either two surfaces of glass, or one surface 
of glass and one of cast iron, are rubbed together with the inter- 
position of a powerful abrasive such as sand, emery or oarbor- 
undum. The machinery by which this ia done has undergone 
numerous modifications and im|xovements, all tending to pro* 
duce more perfectly plane glass, to reduce the risk of breakage, 
and to lessen the expenditure of time and power required per 
sq. yd. of glass to be worked. It is impcnsible to describe 
this machinery within the limits of this artide, but it ia notable 
that the prindpal difficulties to be overcome arise from the 
necessity of providing the glass with a perfectly continuous 
and unyielding support to which it can be firmly attached but 
from which it can be detached without undue difficulty. 

When the surface of the glass has been ground down to a plane, 
the surface itself is still " grey," i^. deeply pitted with the marks 
of the abrasive used in grinding it down; these marks are re- 
moved by the process of smoothing, in which the surface ia 
successively ground with abrasives of gradually increasing fine- 
ness, leaving ultimately a very smooth and very minutely pitted 
" grey " surface. This smooth surface is then brilliantly polbhed 
by the aid of friction with a rubbing tool covered with a soft 
substance like leather or felt and fed with a polishing material, 
such as rouge. A few strokes of such a rubber are suffident to 
produce a deddedly "polished" appearance, but prolonged 
rubbing under considerable pressure and the use of a polishing 
paste of a proper consistency are required in order to remove the 
last trace of pitting from the surface. This entire process must, 
obviously, be applied in turn to each of the two surfaces of the 
slab of glass. Plate-glass is manufactured in this manner in 
thicknesses varying from iV in. to z in. or even more, while 
sin^e sheets are produced measuring more than 27 ft. by 13 ft. 

" RoUed Plate " and figured " RolUd P/a^."-^laas for this 
purpose, with perhaps the exception of the best white and 
tinted varieties, is now universally produced in tank-furnaces, 
similar in a general way to those used for sheet-glass, except that 
the furnaces used for " rolled plate " glass of the roughest kinds 
do not need such minutely careful attention and do not worit at 
so high a temperature. The composition of these glasses b very 
similar to that of sheet-glass, but for the ordinary Idnds of rolled 
plate much less scrupulous selection need be made in the choice 
of raw materials, especially of the sand. 

The glass is taken from the furnace in large iron ladles, whidi 
are carried upon slings running on overhead rails; from the 
ladle the glass is thrown upon the cast-iron bed of a rolling-table, 
and is rolled into sheet by an iron roller, the process being 
similar to that employed in making plate-glass, but on a smaller 
scale. The sheet thus rolled is roughly trimmed while hot and 
soft, so as to remove those portions of glass which have been 
spoilt by immediate contact with the ladle, and the sheet, still 
soft, is pushed into the open mouth of an annealing tumid tjx 
" lear," down which it is carried by a system of moving grids. 

The surface of the glass produced in this way jnay be modified 
by altering the surface of the rolling-table; if the table has a 
smooth surface, the glass will also be more or less smooth, but 
much dented and buckled on the surface and far from having the 
smooth face of blown sheet. If the table has a pattern engraved 
upon it the glass will show the same pattern in relief, the most 
frequent pattern of the kind being dther small parallel ridges or 
larger ribs crossing to form a lozenge pattern. 

The more daborate patterns foimd on what is known as 
" figure rolled plate " are produced in a somewhat different 
manner; the glass used for this purpose is considerably whiter 
in colour and much softer than ordinary rolled plate, and instead 
of being rolled out on a table it is produced by rolHng between 
two moving rollers from which the sheet issues. The pattern is 
impressed upon the soft sheet by a printing roller which is 
brought down upon the glass as it leaves the main rolls. This 


Li f itff 


-Table GUsa. 
G. Jackson in 1870. 

rig. ir.-Table Glass. 
Designed for Wm. Morris about i8jj by PhJUp Webb, 




Fig. 13.— Tiffany Glass. 

Fig. 14. — WMtefriara Gla^, 1906, 

(bm •km > pitton la hich nlid and (iv« ■ vuy b 

The vtrioui vuktia of nikd pUlC'^ui ue now pr 
Im nunc puipoMi wllh a ninfoKUKPIalmienelUogw 
iU ol ibe glav. The win ' 


pat advuUcB in llw 

in, but Dwipg lo the diSeiencc is Ibcniwl a 

■ blow 

iDf teii4lciicy for tudt " 

Palai f fob-t/aii.— -TbB um b apiilicd lo bloi 
whcoe fucfue hu beta RndEicd plue uid briUiwt by ■ pn 
oE crindinc and poUihinj. The name" patent plaLe " zioss 
Ihe fan Ifaal nitnin pilcntcd dcnco eii^natcd by Ji 
ChanxoC fiiimincham £nt nude it pouible to polikb i 
poralivdy tbin glui in this way. 

{B] Prasrd Giass-—1ht lechnical difTcrencc between pn 
ind DisuJded gliia b Ibat moulded glau-waie has tilLeo its 
tnould undet the p ' ^ ■ ■ . 

1 a tnoujQ unaet ine prcmure ot a woramati s nruin, or c 
vd air, vbncas prosed glau-wue has taken its fnrin I 
lid imdn tbe pmsuicol a plftnfcr. Uoulded glass n 

Its ekLeiioj- sujfife. 

modelled by the 

interior tnrfut ii 
modelled by the 
pliinpT (fig. 

ptHstug glass w 
the demand 

glus dishes of elaborate design, which oijy an eipert can dis- 
Itnguish from band-cul crystal. Tbe deceptive cEect is in some 
caies heightened by cutting over and polishing by hand the 
piBSed surface. 

Tbe gtiss ioi prosed ware must be colourlesa, and, wbeo 
pollen, must be sulScieotly fluid to adopt ilsell readily to tbe 
iDiricuies of the mcHdds, which are often exceedingly compki. 
The materials employed arc sand, sulphate of soda, nitrale of 
Bda, cakxpai and in some worlia carbonate of barium. The 
lollowing is an analysis of a ipednien of English pieued glass; 
Sift, ;o.«8%; Na*, iS-jg%; CiO, s-45%; BaO. 4iJ%; 
Al/)i. o-ii%; and FciOi,?^'/.. Tanluandpolsarebotbused 
ior melting the ^asa. The moulds are made of cast iron. Tbey 
ire usually in two main piece*, a buc and an upper pMl or collar 
Df hinged aeclioiB. The plunger is generally worked by a band 
levtt. Tbe opentor knows by touch wben the plunger bat 
pinied tbe glass far enough to eiaclly fill tbe mould, ^though 
the (nouids are heated, the surface of the glass is >lw»ys slightly 
niBtd by contact with the mould. For this reason every piece 
ol picued glus-wan, *1 soon as it is libnaled from the moulil, 
■9 eiposed to a sharp heat in a small subsidiary furnace in order 
lit (he ruffled surface may be removed by mellini. TTiete 

See Aolix 

a an tpitif under Ihe 

i») (Nsi's w«k wu traailaled ioio Entlisb by C. 

... _. and Ihe tniDilItiaii. Tki Arl af niaUnt Gioii. wu 

privately reprinted by Sir T. Phlllipph Bart., in iai«): johann 
Kunkel. ViOiltmdif Clf%imiJ>ir-Kuul (NurembRE. 17SJ); Aniey 
PeUau. CmiuMu tt tUtM-maMmt (Loudoo. 1S44I1 k. Sausay. 
jUaraili •/ Ocu-miUtu Ifisni the Preach) (London. iMo); C. 
Bontemps, Cmitim mmer (Parii, iM«}; E, PeUiol, Lt^trrt. 
miubn, n/oMca»M (Pans, ie7>);W.Sleiii," Die Claifabri- 
kaiido.' in BoUcy'a rtelki^^.v^. lii. (Bruniwick, iMiJ; H. E. 
Bciinib. iMi dufU^aaMn (Bnmiwick. U]sh }■ Fakk and L. 
Lobnaeyr, Dii CbuinfuIrM (Vieniu, 1873)1 D. H. MovntuJl, 
Jaaer Clat acna, 1900; En(. Irani, by X D. and A. Evenll, 
Macmillen, iv>7):}- RTnrivau'.. L. l-m/e. fc iriu»( (Paris. Mi). 
• ■ •■ VX- riMt {1903): Chtnce. Htrni •Hi Punil. 

iki*t (LoDdon, ia»i): Mo>iu V. Robi. rkitni 
ialtitraptni^lmi ')tjikai (Beilin, 189}): C. E. 
■atique dt to Attmotntoit dt firfiinat iftta, 

Gl . I KW CUlHrttm 
IV ■ .. :■. ' . . r Clufainlulian 

iV-.Lri.jr, ina^K h, iJnuc, /im-igc Will ifc'i'o 6fr Chiiibriktu 

(L' i|i/i'l 1903)^ W. Rosenhain, "Some Properiic.. o( Giapj," rrnai. 
Ot :.,.:! Sixiaj (Loodon. 1901). " Pouible Dirctrinnso* ProgieH b 
"■ -.',__... n__. '—,„(Cn™noji (London. l*os) and deal 

■imajila sf Clai 
id Gfniutitt lii 

i.l-r, (Uy 

n J. P.;W. Ki 

Tbe great similarity in form, technique and decoration ol 
the eailimt known ipecuneni of glass-ware suggests that the 
craft of glass-making ori^nated from a single centre, ll has 
been generally assumed tbnt Egypt was the birthplace of the 
glass indnttiy. It is true that nany conditions existed in Egypt 
favourable to the development of the craft. The Nile supplied a 
waterway for the conveyance of fuel and for the distribution 
of the GnishEd wares. Materials were available providing tbe 
essential ingredients of glass. The Egyptian potteries a^orded 
experience in dealing with vitreous glazes and vitreous coloun, 

wrought, which may well have suggested the decorative oirange- 
ment of zigzag lines (sec Plate I. bp. i, 1, 4 dj so frequently 
found on eariy jpedmeDS ol glasj-wjie. In Egypt, however, 
no traces have at present been found of the industry in a rudi- 
mentary condition, and tbe vases which have been classified 
OS " primitive " bear witness to an ebboralion of tecbnique 
farioadvanceof theexperimenl&lpcriod. The earliest Kpecimcna 
of glaas-varc which can be definitely claimed as Egyptian 
produclioiB. and tbe glass manuliclory discovered by Dr 
Flinders Peine at Tell el Amnraa, belong 10 Ibc period of Ihe 
XVIIIth dynasty. Tbe comparative lateness of this period 
makes it difficult to account for the wall painting at Sen! Hasan, 
which accurately represents the process of glass-blowing, and 
which is allribuled to the period o[ the Xltb dynasty. Dr 
PeUie surmounts tbe difficulty by saying that Ihe process 
depicted is not glass-blowing, but some mctalluigici! proccu 
in which reed» were used lipped with lumps of cby. It is possible 
thai the picture docs not represinl Egyptian glou-bloweis, but 
is a traveler's record of the process of glass-blowing seen in some 
fotcign or lubjecl country. The scarcity of specimens of early 
glass-ware actually found in Egypt, and the advanced technique 
of those which have been found, lead lo Ihe supposition thai 
gbss-making was etotic and not a native industry. Tbe 
tndilion, recorded by Fliny (iViU. Iliil. nivi. fij), assigns tbe 
discovery of glass to Syria, and the geographical posilionof that 

add probability lo the liadilion. The story that Phoeaician 
merchants found a glass-like substance under their cooking pots, 
which had been supported on blocks of nstron, need nol be 
discarded u pure fictioD. The Grc may well have caused the 

the surrounding sand to form uUcaleof soda, which, sllbougb 
not a pennaDent glass. 11 sufficiently glssa-like to suggest the 



possibility of creating a permanent transparent material. More- 
over. Pb'ny (xxxvi. 66) actually records the discovery which 
effected the conversion of deliquescent silicate of soda into 
permanent glass. The words are " Cbeptus addi magnes lapis." 
There have been many conje<;turcs as to the meaning of the 
words " magnes lapis." The material has been considered by 
some to be magnetic iron ore and by others oxide of manganese. 
Oxides of iron and manganese can only be used in glass manu- 
facture in compavativcly small quantities for the purpose of 
colouring or neutralizing colour in glass, and their introduction 
would not be a matter of sufficient importance to be specially 
recorded. In chapter 3$ of the same book Pb'ny describes five 
varieties of '* magnes lapis." One of these he .says is found in 
magnesia, is white in colour, does not attract iron and is b'ke 
pumice stone. This variety must certainly be magnesian 
limestone. Magnesian limestone mixed and fused with sand and 
an alkaline carbonate produces a permanent glass. The scene 
of the discovery of glass is placed by Pliny on the banks of the 
little river Belus, under the heights of Mount Carmel, where 
sand suitable for glass-making exists and wood for fuel is 
abundant. In thb neighbourhood fragments and lumps of glass 
are still constantly being dug up, and analysis proves that the 
glass contains a considerable proportion of magnesia. The 
district was a glass-making centre in Roman times, and it is 
probable that the Romans inherited and perfected an indigenous 
industry of remote antiquity. Pliny has so accurately recorded 
the stages by which a permanent glass was developed that it 
may be assumed that he had good reason for claiming for Syria 
the discovery of glass. Between Egypt and Syria there was 
frequent intercourse both of conquest and commerce. It was 
customary for the victor after a successful raid to carry off 
skilled artisans as captives. It is recorded that Tahutmes III. 
sent Syrian artisans to Egypt. Glass-blowers may have been 
amongst their captive craftsmen, and may have started the 
industry in Egypt. The claims of Syria and Egypt are at the 
present time so equally balanced that it is advisable to regard 
the question of the birthplace of the gbss industry as one that 
lias still to be settled. 

The "primitive" vessels which have been found in Egypt are 
small in size and consist of columnar stibium jars, flattened 
bottles and amphorae, all decorated with zigzag lines, tiny 
wide-mouthed vases on feet and minute Jugs. The vessels 
of later date which have been found in considerable quantities, 
principally in the coast towns and islands of the Mediterranean, 
are amphorae and alabastra, also decorated with zigzag lines. 
The amphorae (Plate I. figs, i and a) terminate with a point, 
or with an unfinished extension from the terminal point, or with 
a knob. The alabastra have short necks, are slightly wider at 
the base than at the shoulder and have rounded bases. Dr 
l^etrie has called attention to two technical peculiarities to be 
found in almost every specimen of early glass-ware. The 
inner surface is roughened (Plate I. fig. 4 c), and has particles 
of sand adhering to it, as if the vessel had been filled with sand 
and subjected to heat,. and the inside of the neck has the impres- 
sion of a metal rod (Plate I. fig. 4 a), which appears to have 
been extracted from the neck with difficulty. From this evidence 
Dr Petrie has assumed that the vesscb were not blown, but 
formed upon a core of sandy paste, modelled upon a copper rod, 
the rod being the core of the neck (see ECypt: Art and 
Archaeology). The evidence, however, hardly warrants the 
abandonment of the simple process of blowing in favour of a 
process which is so difficult that it may almost be said to be 
impossible, and of which there u no record or tradition except 
in connexion with the manufacture of small beads. The technical 
difficulties to which Dr Petrie has called attention seem to 
admit of a somewhat less heroic explanation. A modem glass- 
blower, when making an amphora-shaped vase, finishes the base 
first, fixes an iron rod to the finished base nHth a seal of glass, 
severs the vase from the blowing, iron, and finishes the mouth, 
whibt he holds the vase by the iron attached to its base. The 
" primitive " glass-worker reversed this process. Having blown 
the body of the vase, be finished the mouth and neck part, and 

fixed a small, probably hollow, eopper rod Inside tlie 

neck by pressing the neck upon the rod (Plate I. fig. 4 6) . Having 
severed the body of the vase from the blowing iron, he heated 
and closed the fractured base, whilst holding the vase by means 
of the rod fixed in the neck. Nearly every spedmen shows 
traces of the pressing of a tool on the outside of the neck, as 
well as signs of the base having been closed by melting. Ocxaston- 
ally a knob or excrescence, formed by the residue of the glass 
beyond the point at which the base has been pinched together, 
remains as a silent witness of the process. 

If glass-blowing had been a perfectly new invention of Graeco- 
Egyptian or Roman times, some specimens illustrating the 
transition from core-moulding to blowing must have been 
discovered. The absence of traces of the transition strengthens 
the supposition that the revolution in technique merely consisted 
in the discovery that it was more convenient to finish the base 
of a vessel before its mouth, and such a revolution would leave 
no trace behind. The roughened inner surface and the adhering 
particles of sand may also be accounted for. The vessels, 
especially those in which many differently coloured glasses were 
incorporated, required prolonged annealing. It is probable that 
when the metal rod was withdrawn the vessd was filled with 
sand, to prevent collapse, and buried in heated ashef to anneal. 
The greater the heat of the ashes the more would the sand 
adhere to and impress the inner surface of the vessels. The 
decoration of zigzag lines was probably applied directly after 
the body of the vase had' been blown. Threads of coloured 
molten glass were spirally coiled round the body, and, whilst 
still viscid, were dragged into zigzags with a metal hook. 

^^yp^' — "^^ S^iiss industry flourished in Egypt in Graea>- 
Egyptian and Roman times. All kinds of vessels were blown, 
both with and without moulds, and both moulding and cutting 
were used as methods of decoration. The great variety ci these 
vessels is well shown in the illustrated catalogue of Graeco- 
Egyptian glass in the Cairo museum, edited by C C. Edgar. 

Another species of glass manufacture in which the Egyptians 
would appear to have been peculiarly skilled is the soncalled 
mosaic glass, formed by the union of rods of various colours 
in such a manner as to form a pattern; the rod so formed was 
then reheated and drawn out until reduced to a very small size, 
I sq in or less, and divided into tablets by being cut trans- 
versely, each of these tablets presenting the pattern traversing 
its substance and visible on each face. This process was no 
doubt first practised in Egypt, and is never seen in such per- 
fection as in objects of a decidedly Egyptian character. Very 
beautiful pieces of ornament of an architectural character are 
met with, which probably once served as decorations of caskets 
or o(her small pieces of funuture or of trinkets; also tragic 
masks, human faces and birds. Some of the last-named are 
represented with such truth of colouring and delicacy of detail 
that even the separate feathers of the wings and tail are well 
distinguished, although, as in an example in the British Museum, 
a human-headed hawk, the piece which contains the figure 
may not exceed \ in. in its largest dimension. Works of this 
description probably belong to the period when Egsrpt passed 
unden Roman domination, as similar objects, though of inferior 
delicacy, appear to have been made in Rome. 

Assyria. — Early Assyrian ^ass is represented in the British 
Museum by a vase of transparent greenish glass found in the 
north-west palace of Nineveh. On one side of this a lion is 
engraved, and also a line of cuneiform characters, in which 
is the name of Sargon, king of Assyria, 732 B.C. Fragments of 
coloured glasses were also found there, but our materials are 
too scanty to enable us to form any decided opinion as to the 
degree of perfection to which the art was carried in Assyria. Many 
of the specimens discovered by Layard at Nineveh have all the 
appearance of being Roman, and were no doubt derived from 
the Roman cobny, Niniva Claudiopolis, which occupied the same 

Roman Class. — ^In the first centuries of our era the art of glass- 
making was developed at Rome and other cities under Roman 
rule in a most remarkable manner, and it reached a point of 



CKcUeace which in some itspccU has never been eaedled or 
even perh«pe equalled. It may appear a somewhat exajsgemted 
assertion tliat fjass was used for more purposes, and In one aense 
owre eztenaivdy, by the Romans of the imperial period than 
by onrselves in tlie present day; but it is one which can be 
home out by evidence. It is true that the use of glass for windows 
was <mjy ^aduaUy extending itself at the time when Roman 
civilisation sank under the torrent of German and Hunnish 
barbarism, and that its employment lor <^tical instruments 
was only known in a rudimentary stage; but for domestic 
purposes, for architectural decoration and for personal oma- 
menu glass was unquestiodably much more used than at the 
present day. It must be remembered that the Romans possessed 
00 fine procelain decorated witk lively colours and a beautiful 
glaze; Samian ware was the most decorative kind of pottery 
which was then made. Coloured and ornamental glass held 
aipong them much the same place for table services, vessds for 
toilet use and the like, as that held among us by porcelain. 
Pliny (Nal. Hist, xxxvi. 36, 67) tells us that for drinking vessels 
it was even preferred to gold and silver. 

Glass was largely used in pavements, and in thin plates as a 
coating for walls. It was used in windows, though by no means 
exclusively, mica, alabaster add shells having been also em- 
ployed. CUass, in Hat pieces, such as might be employed for 
windows, has been found in the ruins of Roman houses, both in 
Eof^nd and in Italy, and in the house of the faun at Pompeii 
a small pane in a bronae frame remains. Most of the pieces 
have evidently been made by casting, but the discovery of 
fragments of sheet-|^ass at Silchester proves that the process 
of making sheet-glass was known to the Romans. When the 
window openings were large, as was the case in basiUcas and 
other public buildings^ and even in houses, the pieces of glass 
were, doubtless, fixed in pieroed slabs of marble or In frames 
of wood or bronze. The Roman glass-blowers were masters 
ci all the ordinary methods of manipulation and decoration. 
Their craftsmanship Is proved by the large cinerary urns, by 
the jugs with wide, deeply ribbed, sdei^fically fixed handles, 
and by vessels and vases as elegant in form and h'ght in weight 
as any that have been siftce produced at Murano. Their mouMs, 
hoth for blowing hollow vessels and for pressing ornaments, were 
as perfect for the purposes for which thty were intended as those 
of the iMCsent time. Their decorative cutting (Plate L figa. 5 
and 6), which took the form of simple, indsed lines, or bands of 
shallow oval or hexagonal hollows, was more suited to the 
material than the deep prismatic cutting of comparative^ 
recent times. 

The Romans had at their command, of transparent cok>urs, 
Uue, green, purple or amethystine, amber, brown and rose; 
of opaque colours, white, black, red, blue, yeUow, green and 
orange. There are many shades of transparent blue and of 
opaque blue, yellow and green. In any large collection of 
fragments it would be easy to find eight or ten varieties of opaque 
blue, ranging from lapis lazuli to turquobe or to lavender and 
six or seven ci opaRjue green. Of red the varieties are fewer; 
the finest Is a crimson red of very beautiful tint, and there are 
various gradations from this to a dull brick red. One variety 
forms the gA)und of a very good imitation of porphyry; and 
there is a duU semi-transparent red which, when light is passed 
through it, spears to be of a dull green hue. With these 
colours the Roman ntrarius worked, either using them singly 
or blending them in almost every, oonocivahle combination, 
sometimes, it must be owned, with a rather gaudy and inharmo- 
nious effect. 

The glasses to which the Venetians gave tbe name " mille 
fieri ** were formed by arranging side by side sections of glass 
cane, the canes themselves being built up of differently coloured 
rods of ^asB, and binding them together by beat. A vast 
quantity of small cups and paterae were made by thb means in 
patterns which bear considerable resemblance to the surfaces of 
madrepores. In these every colour and every shade of a^ur 
seem to have been tried in great variety of combination with 
cSccu more or lest pleasing, but transparent violet or purple 

appears to have been the most common ground colour. Although 
most of the vessels of this mille fieri glass were small, some were 
made as large as so in. in diameter. Imitations of natural 
stones were made by stirring together in a crudble glasses of 
different colours, or by incorporating fragments of differently 
coloured glasses into a mass of molten fjass by rolling. Qoe 
variety is that in which tranqtarent brown i^ass is so mixed 
with opaque white and blue as to resemble tmyx. TIm was 
s6metimes done with great succeas, and very perfect imitations 
of the natural stone were produced. Sometimes purple i^ass 
is used in place of brown, probably with the design of imitating 
the predous murrhine. Imitations of porphyry, of serpentine, 
and of granite are also met with, but these were used d^efly 
in pavemfents, and for the decoration of walls, for which pur- 
poses the onyx-glass was likewise employed. 

The famous cameo ^ass was formed by covering a mass of 
molten glass with one or more coatings of a different^ coloured 
glass. The usual process was to gather, first, a small quantity 
of opaque white s^ss; to coat this with a thick layer of trans- 
lucent blue glass; and, finally, to cover the blue gloss with a 
coating of the white glass. Ilie outer coat was then removed 
from that portion which was to constitute the ground, leaving 
the white for the figures, foliage or other ornamentation; these 
were then sculptured by means of the gem-engraver's tools. 
Pliny no doubt means to refer to this when he says (Nat. Hist. 
xxxvi. 26. 66), " aliud argenti modo caelatur," contrasting it 
with the process of cutting glass by the hdp of a wheel, to which 
he refers in the words immcdiatdy preceding, "aliud tomo 
i teritur." 

The Portland or Barberini vase in the British Museum is the 
finest example of this kind of work which has come down to us, 
and was entire until it was broken Into some hundred pieces by a 
madman. The pieces, however, were joined together by Mr 
DouUoday with extraordinary skill, and the beauty of design 
and boecution may still be appreciated. The two other most 
remarimble examples of this cameo ^ass are an amphora at 
Naples and the Auldjo vase. The amphora measures x ft. f In* 
in height, i ft. 7} in. in circumference; it Is shaped like the 
earthem amphoras with a foot far too small to support it, and 
must no doubt have had a stand, probably of gold; the greater 
part is covered with a most exquisite design of garlands and 
vines, and two groups of boys gathering and treading grapes 
and pbying on various instruments of music; bdow these 
Is a line of sheep and goats in varied attitudes. The ground 
is blue and the figures white. It was found in a house in the 
Street of Tombs at Pompeii in the year 1839, and is now in the 
Royal Museum at Naples. It is well engraved in Richardson's 
Studies of Omamental Design. The Auldjo vase, in the British 
Museum, is an oenochoe about 9 in. high; the ornament consists 
mainly of a most beautiful band of foliage, chiefly of the vine, 
with bunches of grapes; the ground is blue and the ornaments 
white; it was found at Pompeii in the house of the faun. It also 
has been engraved by RichardsoiL The same process was used 
in producing large tablets, employed, no doubt, for various 
decorative purposes. In the South Kensington Museum is a 
fragment of such a tablet or slab; the figure, a portion of which 
remains, could not have been less than about 14 in. high. The 
ground of these cameo glasses is most commonly transparent 
blue, but sometimes opaqve blue, purple or dark brown. The 
superimposed layer, which is sculptured, is generally opaque 
white. A very few spedmens have been met with in which 
several colours are employed. 

At a long interval after these beautiful objects come those 
vessels which were ornamented dther by means of coarse threads 
trailed over their surfaces and forming rude patterns, or by 
coloured enamels merdy placed on them in lumps; and these, 
doubtless, were cheap and common wares. But a modification 
of the first-named process was in use in the 4th and succeeding 
centuries, showing great ingenuity and nsanual dexterity,— that, 
namdy, in which the added portions of glass are united to the 
body of the cup, not throughout, but only at points, and then 
shaped dther by the wheel or by the hand (Plate I. fig. 3). The 



attached portions fom in some instances inscriptions, as on a 
Clip found at Strassbuzg, trhich bears the name of the emperor 
Maxunian (a.d. 286-310), on another in the Vereinigte Samm- 
lungen at Munich, and on a third in the Trivulzi collection at 
Milan, where the cup is white, the inscription green and the 
network blue. Probably, however, the finest example is a 
situla, zo| in. high by 8 in. wide at the top and 4 in. at the 
bottom, preserved in the treasury of St Mark at Venice. This 
is of gUss of a greenish hue; on the upper part is represented, 
in relief, the chase of a lion by two men on horseback accompanied 
by dogs; the costume appears to be Byzantine rather than 
Roman, and the style is very bad. The figures are very much 
nndercut. The lower part has four rows of circles united to the 
vessel at those points alone where the drdes touch each other. 
All the other examples have the lower portion covered in like 
manner by a network of drdes standing nearly a quarter of an 
inch from the body of the cup. An example connected with the 
spedmens just described is the cup bdonging to Baron Liond 
de Rothsddld; though externally of an opaque grcenidi colour, 
it is by transmitted h'ght of a deep red. On the outside, in very 
high relid, are figures of Bacchus with vines and panthers, 
some portions being hollow from within, others fixed on the 
exterior. The changeability of colour may remind us of the 
" calices versicolores " which Hadrian sent to Scrvianus. 

So few examples of glass vessels of this period which have 
been painted in enamd have come down to us that it has been 
questioned whether that art was then practised; but several 
qiecimens have been described whidi can leave no doubt on the 
point; decisive examples are afforded by two cups found at 
V&spdev, in Denmark, engravings of which are published in 
the AnnaUrfor Nordisk Oldkyndegked for i86t, p. 505. These 
are small cups, 3 in. and 3} in. high, 3} in. and 3 in. wide, with 
feet and straight sides; oh the larger are a lion and a bull, on 
the smaller two birds with grapes, and on each some smaller 
ornaments. On the latter arc the letters DVB. R. The colours 
are vitrified and sh'ghtly in relief; green, blue and brown may 
be distinguished. Tliey are found with Roman Inonxe vessels 
and other artides. 

The art of glass-making no doubt, like all other art, deteriorated 
during the dcdine of the Roman empire, but it is probable that 
it continued to be practised, though with constantly decreasing 
dull, not only in Rome but in the provinces. Roman technique 
was to be found in Byzantium and Alexandria, in Syria, in Spain, 
in Germany, France and Britain. 

Early Ckristiau and Bytantinc Gass.-^The process of embed- 
ding gold and sflver leaf between two layers of glass originated 
as early as the xst century, probably in Alexandria. The process 
consisted in spreading the leaf on a thin film of blown glass and 
pressing molten glass on to the leaf so that the molten i^asa 
cohered with the film of glass through the pores of the metallic 
leaf. If before this application of the molten glass the metallic 
leaf, whilst resting on the thin film of blown g^ass, was etched 
with a sharp point, patterns, emblems, inscriptions and pictures 
could be embedded and rendered permanent by the double 
coating of glass. The plaques thus formed could be reheated 
and fi^ioned into the bases of bowls and drinking vessels. 
In this way the so-called " fondi d*oro "of thccatacoml»inRome 
were made. They are the broken bases of drinking vessels 
containing inscriptions, emblems, domestic scenes and portraits 
etched in gold leaf. Very few have any rderence to Christianity, 
but they served as indestructible marks for indicating the position 
of interments in the catacombs. The fondi d'oro suggested the 
manufacture of plaques of gold which oould be broken up into 
tesserae for use in mosaics. 

Some of the Roman artificers hi glass no doubt migrated 
to Constantinople, and it is certain that the art was practised 
there to a very great extent during the middle ages. One 
of the gates near the port took its name from the adjacent 
glass houses. St Sofia when erected by Justinian had vauits 
covered with mosaics and immense windows filled with plates 
of ^ass fitted into pierced marble frames; some of the plates, 
7 to 8 in. wide and 9 to xo in. high, not blown but cast, which 

are in the windows may possibly date from the building of the 
chucdu It is also recorded that pierced stiver disks were sos* 
pended by diains and supported glass lamps ** wrought by fire." 
Glass for mosaics was also largely made and exixurud. In the 
8th century, when peace was made between the caliph Walid 
and the emperor Justinian II., the former stipulated for a 
quantity of mosaic for the decoration of the new mosque at 
Damascus, and in the xoth century the materials for the decora* 
tion of the niche of the kibla at Cordova were furnished by 
Romanus II. In the zxth century Desiderius, abbot of Monte 
Casino, seht to Constantinople for woricers in mosaic. 

We have in the work of the monk Theophilus, Di9ersanm 
artium sckedula, and in the probably earlier work of Eradius, 
about the zith century, instructions as to the art of ^ass-making 
in general, and also as to the production of coloured and enamelled 
vessels, wbidi these writers ^>eak of as being practised by the 
Greeks. The only entire enamelled vessd which we can con- 
fidently attribute to Bysantine art is a small vase preserved in 
the treasury of St Muk's at Venice. This is decorated with 
drdes of rosettes of blue, green and red enamel, each sorroui^ded 
by lines of gold; within the drdes arc little figures evidently 
suggested by antique originals, and precisely like similar figures 
found on carved ivory boxes oi Byzantine origin dating from 
the xxth or zsth century. Two inscriptions in Cufic characters 
suiTound the vase, but they, it would seem, are merdy ornamental 
and destitute pf meaning. The presence of these inscriptions 
may perhaps lead to the inference that the vase was noade 
in Sicily, but by Byzantine workmen. The double-handled 
blue-gjass vase in the British Museum,dating from the 5th century, 
is prd>ably a chalice, as It dosdy resembles the chalices re- 
presented on eariy Christian monuments. 

Of uncolourcd glass brought from Constantino(de several 
examines exist in the treasury of St Mark's at Venice, part of 
the plunder of the imperial dty when taken by the crrisadeis 
in 1204. The glass in aU is greenbh, very thick, with many 
bubbles, and has been cut with the wheel; in some instances 
drdes and cones, and in one the outlines of the figure of a 
leopard, have been left standing up, the rest of the surface having 
beoi laboriously cut away, llie intention would seem to have 
been to imitate vessds of rock crystal. The so-called " Hedwig " 
S^asscs may also have originated in Constantinople. These are 
small cups deeply aixi ruddy cut with conventional representa- 
tions of ea^es,Iions and griffins. Only nine spedmens are known. 
The spedmen in the Rijks Museum at Amsterdam has an eagle 
and two lions. The spedmen in the Germanic Museum at 
Nuremberg has two lions and a griffin. 

Saracenic dotf.— The Saracenic invasion of Syria and Egypt 
did not destroy the industry of gUss-making. The craft survived 
and flourished under the Saracenic r6gime in Alexandria, Cairo, 
Tripoli, Tyre, Aleppo and Damascus. In inventories of the i4ih 
cer cuxy both in England and in France mention may frequently 
be found of glass vessels of the manufacture of Damascus. A 
writer in the early part of the X5th century states that >' ^oss- 
making is an important industry at Halcb (Aleppo)." Edward 
Dillon (Glass, xQos) has very properly laid stress on the import- 
ance of the enamelled Saracenic gloss of the X3th, X4th and 
15th centuries, pointing out that, whereas the Romans aiKl 
Byzantine Gzeeks made some crude and ineffectual experimenu 
in enamelltng, it was under Saracenic influence that the processes 
of enamelling and gilding on gloss vessels were perfected. An 
analysis of the glass of a Cait^ene mosque lamp shows that it is a 
soda-lime glass and contains as much as 4% of magnoia. This 
large proportion of magnesia undoubtedly supplied the stability 
required to withstand the process of enamelling. The enamelled 
Saracenic glasses take the form of flasks, vases, goblets, beakers 
and mosque lamps. The enamelled decoration on the lamps is 
restricted to lettering, scrolls and conventional foliage; on other 
objects figue-subjecta of aU descriptions are f rody used. C. H. 
Rttd has pointed out a curious feature in the constniction of the 
enamelled beakcTk The base is double but the inner Uning has 
an opening in the centre. Dillon has suggested that this central 
reCESft may havesetved to support a wick. It Is possible, however^ 



thit It served no isseAil purpose, but that the construction 
is a survival from the manufaurtore of vessels with fondi dV>ro. 
The bases containing the embedded gold leaf must have been 
welded to the vcsseUt to which they belonged, in the same way 
ts ihc bases arc welded to the Saracenic beaicers. The enamelling 
procc» was probably introduced in the early part of the 13th 
century; most of tlie cnameiled mosque lamps belong to the 
14th century. 

Venetian GZur.—'Whfther refugees from Padua, Aquileia 
or other Italian dties carried the art to the lagoons of Venice 
in the 5th century, oc whether it was karat from the Greeks 
of Constantukople at a much falter date, has been a disputed 
question. It would appear not improbable that the former 
was the case, for it must be itmembered that articles formed 
of glass were in die later days of Roman dvilizatlon in constant 
daily use, and that the making of ^hss was carried on, not as 
now in tajge establishments, but by artisans woiluttg on a small 
scale. It seems certain that some knowledge of the art was 
preserved in Fiance, in Germany and in Spain, and it seems 
improbable that it should have been lost in that archipelago, 
where, the traditions of ancient civilization must have been 
better preserved than in almost any other place. In 523 
Cassiodonis writes of the "innimierosa navigia" belonging 
to Venice, and where trade is active there is always a probability 
that manufeictures will flourish. However thb may be, the 
earliest positive evidence (rf the existence at Venice of a worker 
in glass would seem to be the mention of Petnis Flavtanus, 
phidarius, in the ducale of Vitalc Falief in the year xoga In 
1324 twenty-nine persons are mentioned as friolari (t.e. phiolari), 
and in the same century " mariegole,'* or codes of trade regula- 
tions, were drawn up (Mtmografia ddla vttroria Venetiana t 
MftranaCf p. 3x9). The manufacture had then no doubt attained 
omsiderahle proportions: in 1268 the glass-workers became 
an incorporated body; in their processions they exhibited 
decanters, scent-bottles and the like; in 1279 they made, Among 
other things, weights and measures. In the latter part of this 
century the f^aas-houses were almost entirely transferred to 
Murano. Tlienceforward the manufacture continued to grow 
in importance; glass vessds were made in large quantities, 
as weU as glass for windows. The earliest example which has 
8s yet been described — ^a cup of blue glass, enamelled and gilt — 
is, however, not earlier than about 1440. A good many other 
examples have been preserved which may be assigned to the 
same century: the earlier of these bear a resemblance in form 
to the vessels of silver made in the west of £urope; in the later 
an imitation of classical forms becomes apparent. Enamel 
and gilding were freely used, in imitation no doubt of the much* 
admired vesseb brought from Damascus. Dillon has pointed 
out that the process of enamelling had probably been derived 
from Syria, with which country Venice had considerable com- 
mercial intercourse. Many of the ornamental processes whidi 
we admire in Venetian glass were already in tise in this century, 
as that of millc fiori, and the beautiful kind of glass known as 
" vitro di trina " or lace glass. An elaborate account of the 
processes of making the vitro di trina and the vasi a reticellx 
(Plate I., fig. 7) is given in Bontemps's Guide du terrier^ pp. 
<So2-6i3. Many of the examples of these processes exhibit 
surprising skill and taste, and are among the most* beautiful 
objects produced at the Venetian furnaces. That peculiar 
kind of glass usually called schmels, an imperfect imitation of 
calcedony, was also made at Venice in the i sth century. Avan- 
turine glass, that in which numerous small particles of copper 
are diffused through a transparent yellowish or brownish mass, 
was not invented until about x6oo. 

The peculiar merits of ,the Venetian -mahufactute are the 
elegance of form and the; surprising lightness aud thiimess of 
the substance of the vessels produced. The highest perfection 
with regard both to form and decoration was reached in the 
x6th century; subsequently the Venetian workmen somewhat 
kbused their skill by giving extravagant forms to vessels, making 
drinking gUjsses in the forms of ships. Eons, birds, whales and 
thelflt^". • 

Besides the making of vesseb of all kinds the factories of 
Murano had for a long period almost an entire monopoly of 
two other branches of the art — ^the making of mirrors and of 
beads. Attempts to make xnirrors of glass were made as ead^ 
as A.D. 13 1 7, but even in the i6th century mirrors of steel were 
sf ill in use. 16 make a really good mirror of ghus two things 
are required— a plate free from bubbles and striae, and a meth^ 
of applying a film>Df metal with a uniform bright surface fre^ 
from defects. The principle of applying metallic films to glass 
seems to have been known to the Romans and even to the 
Egyptians; jmd is mentioned by Akxsttdcr Neckam in the r2th 
century, bat It would appear that it was not until the i6th 
century that the process of " silvering " mirrors by the use of an 
amalgam of tin and mercury had been perfected. During the 
16th and 17th centuries Venice exported a prodigious quantity of 
mirrors, but France and Enghind gradually acquired knowledge 
and skill in the art, and In 1772 only one glass-house at Murano 
continued to make mirrors. 

The making of beads was probably practised at Venice from 
a very- early period, but the earliest documentary evidence 
bearing on the subject does not appear to be of earlier date than 
the X4th century, when prohibitions were directed against those 
who made of glass such objects as were usually made of crystal 
or other hard stones. In the i6th century it had become a trade 
of great importance, and about 1764 twenty-two furnaces were 
employed in the production of beads. Towards the end of the 
same century from 600 to xooo workmen were, it is stated, 
employed on one branch of the art, that of ornamenting beads 
by the help of the blow-pipe. A very great variety of patterns 
was produced; a tariff of the year 1800 contains an enumeration 
of 562 species and a vast number of subspecies. 

The efforts made In France, Germany and England, in the 
xyth and i8th centuries, to improve the manufactture of glass 
in those countries had a very injurious effect on the industry 
of Murano. The iilvention of colourless Bohemian glass brought 
in its train the practice of cutting glass, a method of ornamenta- 
tfoA for which Venetian glass, from its thinness, was ill adapted. 
One remarkable man, Giuseppe Briati, exerted himself, with 
much success, both in working in the old Venetian method and 
also in Imitating the new fashions invented fa Bohemia. Hh 
Was especially successful in making vases and drcidar dishes of 
vitro di trina; one of the latter in the Correr collection at Venice, 
believed to have been xnade in his glass-house, measures 55 
centimetres (nearly 23 Iil) in diameter. The vases made by 
him are as elegant in form as the best of the Cinqueccnto period, 
but may perhaps be <fistingcdshed by the superior purity and 
brilliancy of the glass. He also made with great taste and 
skill large Itistres and mirrors with frames of glass ornamented 
either in inta^to or with foliage of various colours. He obtained 
a knowledge of the methods of working practised in Bohemia 
by disguising himself as a porter, and thus wtorked for three 
years in a Bdiemian glass-house. In x 736 he obtained a patent 
at Venice to manufacture glass in the Bohemian xnaxmer. He 
died in X773. 

The fall of the repubUc was accompanied by interruption of 
trade and decay of manufacture, and in the last. years of the 
x8th and beginning of the X9th century the ^ass-making of 
Murano was at a very low ebb. In the year X838 Signor Bussolin 
revived several of the andent processes of glass-working, and 
this revival was carried on by C. Fietro Bigug&a in X845, ^^^ 
by others, and later by Salviati, to whose successful efforts the 
modern renaissance of Venetian art glass is principally due. 

The fame of Venice in glass-making so completely edipsed 
that of other ItaHan dties that it is difficult to learn much 
respecting their progress in the art. Hartshorne and Dillon have 
drawn attention to the important part played by the little 
Ligurian town, Altare, as a centre from which glass- workers 
ougrated to all parts of Europe. It Is said that the glass industry 
was established at Altare, in the xxth century, by French 
craftsmen. In the T4th century Muranese glass-Workers settled 
there and developed the industry. It appears that. as early 
as 1395 furnaces had been esubUshed at Treviso, Vicenza, 



Padua, Mantua, Ferrara. Ravenna and Bologna. In 1634 
there were two glass-houses in Rome and one in Florence; but 
whether any of these produced ornamented vesseb, or only articles 
of common use and window glass, would not appear to have as 
yet been ascertained. 

Germany — Glass-making in Germany during the Roman 
period seems to have been carried on extensively in the neighbour- 
hood of Cologne. The Cologne museum contains many specimens 
of Roman glass, some of which are remarkable for their cut 
decoration. Th^ craft survived the downfall of the Roman 
power, and a native industry was developed. This industry 
must have won some reputation, for in 758 the abbot of Jarrow 
appealed to the bishc^ of Maina to send him a worker in glass. 
There are few records of glass manufacture in Germany before 
the beginning of the i6th century. The positions of the factories 
were determined by the supply of wood for fuel, and subse- 
quently, when the craft of glass-cutting was introduced, by the 
accessibility of water-power. The vessels produced by the 
x6th-centuTy glass-workers in Germany, Holland and the Low 
Countries are closely allied in form and decoration. The glass 
is coloured (generally green) and the decoration consisu of glass 
threads and glass studs, or prunts (" Nuppen "). Tfie use of 
threads and prunts is illustrated by the devel<^ment of the 
"Roemer," so popular as a drinking-glass, and as a feature 
in Dutch studies of still life. The '* Igel," a squat tumbler 
covered with prunts, gave rise to the " Krautsrunk," which is 
Ukethe " Igel," but longer and narrow- waisted. The " Roemer" 
itself consists of a cup, a short waist studded with prunts and 
a foot. The foot at first was formed by coiling a thread of 
glass round the base of the waist; but, subsequently, an open 
glass cone was joined to the base of the waist, and a glass thread 
was coiled upon the surface of the cone. The " Passglas," 
another popular drinking-glass, is cylindrical in form and marked 
with horizontal rings of glass, placed at regular intervals, to 
indicate the quantity of liquor to be taken at a draught. 

In the edition of 1581 of the I^ re metailica by Georg Agricola, 
there is a woodcut showing the interior of a German glass 
factory, and glass vessels both finished and unfinished. 

In 1428 a Muranese glass-worker set up a furnace in Vienna, 
and another furnace was built in the same town by an Italian 
in i486. In 1531 the town council of Nuremberg granted a 
subsidy to attract teachers of Venetian technique. Many 
specimens exist of German winged and enamelled glasses of 
Venetian character. The Venetian influence, however, was 
indirect rather than direct. The native glass-workers ad<^ted 
the process of enamelling, but applied it to a form of decoration 
characteristically German. On tall, roomy, cylindrical glasses 
they painted portraits of the emperor and electors of Germany, 
or Uie imperial eagle bearing on its wings the arms of the states 
composing the empire. The earliest-known example of these 
enamelled glasses bears the date 1553. They were immensely 
popular and the fashion for them lasted into the x8th century. 
Some of the later specimens have views of cities» battle scenes 
and processions painted in grisaiUe. 

A more important outcome, however, of Italian influence was 
the production, in emulation of Venetian glass, of a glass made 
of refined potash, lime and sand, which was more colourless 
than the material it was intended to imitate. This colourless 
potash-lime glass has always been known as Bohemian glass. 
It was well adapted for receiving cut and engraved decoration, 
and in these processes the German craftsmen proved themselves 
to be exceptionally skilful. At the end of the i6th century 
Rudolph II. brought Italian rock-crystal cutters from Milan 
to take control of the crystal and glass-cutting works he had 
established at Prague. It was At Prague that Caspar Lehmann 
and 21achary BeUer learnt the craft of cutting glasa. George 
Schwanhurt, a pupil of Caspar Lehmann, started glaas-cutting 
at Ratisbbn; and about 1690 Stephen Schmidt and Hermann 
Schwinger introduced the crafts of cutting and engraving 
glaaa in Nuremberg. To the Germana must be credited the 
discovery, or development, of colourless potash-lime glass, 
the xdnitroduction of the crafts of cutting and engraving on 

glass, the invention by H. Schwanhart of the proocat of etdnng 
on glass by means of hydrofluoric acid, and the rediacoveiy by 
J. Kunkcl, who was director of the glass-houses at Potsdam in 
167Q, of the method of making copper-ruby glass. 

Low Countries and Ike United Pravinees. — ^The glass industry 
of the Low Countries was chiefly influenced by Italy and Spain, 
whereas German influence and technique predominated in the 
United Provinces. The history of glass-making in the provinces 
is almost idenrical with that of Germany In the 17th and 
i8ih centuries the processes of scratching, engraving and etching 
were brought to great perfection. 

The earliest record of glass-making in the Low Countries 
consists in an account of payments made in 1453-1454 on behalf 
of Philip the Good of Burgundy to '* Gossiun de Vieuf^ise, 
Maltre Vorrier de Lille " for a glass fountain and four glass 
plateaus. .Schuermans has traced Italian glass-workers to 
Antwerp, Liege, Brussels and Namur. Antwerp appears to 
have been the headquarters of the Muranese, and U^ge the 
headquarters of the Altaiists. Guicciardini in hb description 
of the Netherlands, in 1563, mentions glass as among the chief 
articles of export to England. 

In 1599 the privilege of making ." Voires de cristal i la faschon 
Venise," was jjantcd to Philippe de Gridolphi of Antwerp. 
In 1623 Anthony Miotti, a Muranese, addre^ed a petition to 
Philip IV. of Spain for permission to make glasses, vases and 
cups of fine crystal, equal to those of Venice, but to be sold at 
one-third less than Venetian glasses. In 164a Jean Savonetti 
" gentilhomme Verrier de Murano" obtained a patent for 
making glass in Brussels. The Low Country glasses are closely 
copied from Venetian models, but generally are heavier and 
lesi el^^t. Owing to the fashion of Dutch and Flemish painters 
introducing glass vases and drinking-glasses into their paintings 
of still life, interiors and scenes of conviviality, Holland and 
Belgium at the present day possess more accurate records of 
the products of their andent glass factories than any other 

Spain. — During the Roman occupation Pliny states that glass 
was made " per Hispanias " (Nat. Hist, xxxvi. 26. 66). Traces 
of Roman glass manufactories have been found in Valencia 
and Murcia, in the valleys which run down to the coast of Cata- 
lonia, and near the mouth of the Ebro. Little is known about 
the condition of glass-making in Spain between the Roman 
period and the X3th century. In the Z3th century the craft of 
glass-making was practised by the Moors in Almeria, and was 
probably a survival from Roman times. The system of decorat> 
ing vases and vessels by means of strands of glass trailed upon 
the surface in knots, zigzags and trellis work, was adopted by 
the Moors and is characteristic of Roman craftsmanship. Glass- 
making was continued at Pinar de la Vidriera and at Al Castril 
de la Pena into the 17th century. The objects produced show 
no sign of Venetian influence, but are distinctly Oriental in form. 
Many of the vessels have four or as many as eight handles, and 
are decorated with serrated ornamentation, and with the trailed 
strands of glass already refened to. The glass is generally of a 
dark-green colour. 

Barcelona has a long record as a centre of the glass indtistry. 
In Z324 a municipal edict was issued forbidding the erection 
of glass-furnaces within the dty. In 1455 the glass-makers of 
Barcdona were permitted to form agild. . Jeronimo Paulo, writing 
in 1 49 1, says that glass vessels of various sorts were sent thence 
to many places, and even to Rome. Marineiis Siculus, writing 
early in the i6th century, says that the best glass was made at 
Barcelona; and Gaspar Bandros, in his Ckronograpkia,p\ihiiahtd 
in 156a, states that the glass made at Barcelona waa almost 
equal to that of Venice and that large quantities were exported. 

The author of the Atlante espaHolt writing at the end of the 
i8th century, says that excellent glass was still made at Barcdona 
on Venetian modda. The Italian influence waa strongly fdt 
in Spain, but Spanish writers have given no ptedse information 
as to when it was introduced or whence it came. Schuermans 
has, however, discovered the names of more than twenty Italians 
who found their way into Spain, in some cases by way of Flanders* 



dtker tnm Altan or from Venice, tlie SjptaiBh g|ai»>maken 
were very successful in iioiutiiig the Venetian style, and many 
specimens supposed to have originated from.Murano are really 
Spanish.. In addition to the works at Barcelona, the worits 
which chiefly affected Venetian metly)ds were those of Cadalso 
in the province of Toledo, founded in. the' i6th oentuxy, and the 
works established In 1680 at San Martin de Valddgllesias in 
Avila, There were also works at Valdemaqueda and at Villa- 
franca. la 1680 the works in Baioelonaj V ald em aqueda and 
VlUafranca are named in a toy$l schedule giving the ]»ices at 
which ^ass was to be sold in Madrid. In 2779 important glass 
works were>e^blished at Recuenoo in the province of Cuenca, 
mainly to supply Madrid. The royal i^ass manufactory of La 
Granja de San Ildefonso was founded about 1735; in the first 
instance Tor the manufacture of. mirror plates, but subsequently 
for the production of vases and table-ware in tfie French style. 
The objects produced artf ntostly of .white dear glass, cut, 
engraved and gilded. Engraved flower^, views and devices 
are often combined with decorative cutting. • Don Sigismundo 
Bran is credited with the invention of permanent gilding fixe<| 
by heaL Spanish glass is well represented in the Victotia and 
Albert Museum. 

Pranc€. — ^Pliny states that glass was made in GaUl, and there 
is reason to believe that it was made in many parts of the country 
and on a consideraUe scale. There were glasa-making dist^cts 
both in Nonnandy and in Poitou. 

Little information can be gathered concenung the gbss 
industry between the Roman period and the 14th century. 
It is recorded that in the 7th century the abbot of Wearmouth 
in England obtained artificers in glass from France; and there 
b a tradition that in the rrth century glass-workers migrated 
from Normandy and Brittany and set up wwks at Altare near 

In 1302 .window glass, probably crowa^^ass, was made at 
Beza le For6t in the department of the Eure. In r4r6 these 
works were in the hands of Robin and Leban Guichard, but 
passed subsequently to the Le VaiUants. 

In X338 Humbert, the dauphin, granted a part of the forest 
of Chamborant to a glass-worker named Guionet on the condition 
that Guionet should supply him with vessels of ghss. 

In 1466 the abbess of St Croix of Poitiers received a gross 
of glasses from the glass-works of La Ferri^re, for the privilege 
of gathering fern for the manufacture of potash. 

In France, as In other countries, efforts were made to intro* 
duce Italian methods of glass-working. Schuermans in his 
researches discovered that during the isth and r6th centuries 
many glass-workers left Altare and settled in France, — the 
Saroldi migrated to Poitou, the Ferri to Provence, the Massari to 
Lorraine and the Bormioli to Normandy. In xssr Henry M. 
of France established at St Germain en Laye an Italian named 
Mutio; he was' a native of Bologna, but of Altare origin. In 
15^ Henry IV. permitted two "gentil hommes verriers " from 
Mantua to settle at Rouen in order to make " verres de cristal, 
verres dor£e emaul et autres ouvrages qui se font en Venise." 

France assimilated the craft <A glass-making, and her crafts- 
men acquired a wide reputatidn. Lorraine and Normandy 
appear to have been the most important centres. To Lorraine 
belong the well-known names Hennezel, de ThieCry, dy Thisac, 
de Houz; and to Normandy the names de Bongar, de Cacqueray 
le Vaillant and de Brossard. 

. In the X7th century the manufacture of mirror glass became 
an imporUnt branch of the industry. In 2665 a numufactoty 
was established in the Faubourg ^t Antoine in Paris, and another 
at Tour-la- Ville near Cherbourg. 

Louis Lucas de Nehou, who succeeded de Cacqueray at the 
works at Totur-Ia-Ville, moved in 1675 to the works in Paris. 
Here, in 1688, in conjunction with A. Thevart, he succeeded 
in perfecting the process of casting plate-glass. Mirror plates 
previous to the invention had been made from blown ** sheet ** 
glass, and were consequently very limited in size. De Nebou's 
process of rolling moltenglass poured on an iron table rendered 
the manufacture of vtiy large plates possible. 

Tha M kn i i f ac t oire Royak des Ghoes was removed in 1693 to 
the CUUcna de St Gobain. 

In tha. i8th^ centuiy the manufaaure of aoMf ds xem had 
beeome' ao n sg l e c ted that the Academy of Sdences in 1759 
offered a prise for an essay on the means by which the industry 

might be revived (Labaite, HisMtt dtt €rtt iMdasHtis), 

Tht famous Baccarat works» fdr making ctyi^l glass, were 
founded In 1818 1^ d'Artigoes. 

Sm^isk Qats.^-'Thft recocds of gfans-maklng- in England are 
ewfcdingly meagreu There is reason to believe that during the 
Roman ooc«patw« the cnft was carried on m several parts- of 
the ooiottry. • Remains of a Roman glm maaufactoiy of con- 
aidarabte extent, were disoovered near the Manchester Ship 
Canal at Warrington. Wherever the Rmnans settled glaas 
vesseb and frsgments of glass have been found. There Is no 
evidence to prove that the industry survived the withdrawal 
of the Roman garrison. 

It is probable that the glass drinking-vesseb, which have been 
found in pre-Christian Angb-Saaon tombs, were introduced 
from Germany. Some are ebborate in design and bear witness 
to advanced technique of Roman character. In 67s Benedict 
BisGop, abbot of Wearmouth, was obliged to obtain glass- workers 
from France, and in 758 Cuthbert, abbot of Jarrow, appealed 
to the bishop of Mains to send him artisans to manufacture 
** windows and vessels of glass, because the English were ignorant 
and helpless." Except for the statement in B^e that the French 
artisans, sent by Benedict Bisoop, Uught their craft to the 
English, there is at present no evidence of glass having been made 
in England between the Ronuu period and the r3th century. 
In some deeds relating to the parish of Chiddingfold, in Surrey, 
of a date not later than 1330, a grant is recorded of twenty 
acres of land to Lawrence " vitrearius,'' and in another deed, 
of about 1980^ the " ovenhusveld " is mentioned as a boundary. 
Thtt field has been identified, and iMeoes of crudble and fragments 
oi glass have been dug up. Tfa«e is another deed, dated 1300, 
which mentions one WUliam " le verir " of Chiddingfold. 

About 13 50 considerable quantities of colourles fiat glass 
were sui^lied by John Alemayn of Chiddingfold for glazing 
the windows in St George's chapel, Windsor, and in the chapel 
of St Stephen, Westminster. The mune Alemayn (Aleman) 
suggesu a foreign origin. In 1380 John Glasewryth, a Stafford* 
shire glass-worker, came to work at Shuere^irode, Kirdford, 
and there made brode-^aa and vessels for Joan, widow of 
John Shcrtere. 

There were two kinds of fiat glass, known respectivdy as 
*' brode'-glas " and " Nonnandy " glass. The former was made, 
as described by Theophilus, from cylinders, which were split, 
reheated and flattened into square sheets. It was known as 
Lorraine gUss, and subsequently as " German sheet " or sheet* 
glass. Nonnandy glass was made from glass circles or disks. 
When, in after years, the process was perfected, the glass was 
known as ''crown" glass. In 1447 English ikt glass is 
mentioned in the contract for the windows of the Beauchamp 
chapel at Warwick, but disparagingly, as the contractor biiMki 
himself not to use it. In i486, however, it is referred to in such 
a way as to suggest that it was superior to " Dutch, Venice or 
Normandy glass." The industry does not seem to have prospered, 
for when in 1567 an inquiry was made as to its condition, it was 
ascertained that only small rough goods were being made. 

In the i6th century the fashion for using glass vessels of 
ornamental diaiacter spread from Italy into France and England. 
Henry VIII. had a large collection of glass drinking-vessels 
chiefly of Venetian manufacture. The increasing demand for 
Venetian drinking-glasses suggested the possibility of making 
simikir ^ass in Bi^gland, and various attempts were made to 
introduce Venetian workmen and Venetian methods of manu- 
facture. In 1550 eight Muranese ghus-blowers were working in 
or near the Tower of London. They had left Murano owing to 
slackness of trade, but bad been recalled, and appealed to the 
Couadl of Ten in Venice to be allowed to complete their contract 
in London. Seven of these glass-workers left London in the 
following year, but one, Josq>ho Casselari, remained and joined 



Tbamtt Cavato, a DutchoAan. In is74 Jaoob VeneUiid, a 
fugitive Venetian, residing in Antwerp, obtained a patent for 
making drinking-glasses in London "such as are made in 
Murano." He established wocks in Cratched Friars, and to bini 
is probably due the introduction of the use ol soda^ash, made 
from seaireed and seaside plants, in place of the crude potash 
made from fern and wood ashes. Hk ioanufactory was burnt 
down in 1575, but was rebuilt. He afterwards moved his works 
to Winchester House, Broad Street. There is a small goblet 
(PL I., fig. 8) in the British Museum which is attributed to 
VenseUini. It is Venetian in character, of a brownish tint, with 
two white enamd rings round the body. It is decorated with 
diamond or steel-point Aching, and b^rs on one side the date 
1586, and on the opposite side the words " In God is al mi trust." 
Vcnellini died in j6o6 and was buried at Down in Kent. In 
1592 the Broad Street works had been taken over by Jerome 
Bowes. They afterwards passed into the hands of Sir ILMansel, 
and in 1618 James Howell, author of EpistUae Ho-elianM^ was 
acting as steward. The works continued in operation until 1641, 
During excavations in Broad Street in 1874 many fragments 
of glass were found; amongst them were part of a wine-gUss, 
a square scent-bottle and a wihe<^las8 stem containing a spiral 
thread of white enamel. 

A greater and more lasting influence on English glass^makiog 
camd from France and the Low Countries. In 1567 James 
Carr£ of Antwerp stated that he had erected two glasshouses 
at " Femefol " (Femfold Wood in Sussex) for Normandy and 
Lorraine glass for windows, and had brought over workmen. 
From this period began the records in England of the great 
glass-making families of Hennexel, de Thietiy , du Thislic and du 
Houx from Lorraine, and of de Bongar and de Cacqueray from 
Normandy. About this time glass-works were established at 
Ewhurst and Alford in Surrey, Loxwood, Kirdford, Wisborough 
and Petworth in Sussex, and Sevenoaks and Penshurst in KenL 
Beginning in Sussex, Surrey and Kent, where wood for fuel 
was plentiful, the foreign glass-workers and their descendants 
migrated from place to place, always driven by the fuel-hunger 
of their furnaces. They gradually made their way into Hamp- 
shire, Wiltshire, Gloucestershire, Staffordshire, Northumberland, 
Scotland and Ireland. They can be traced by cullet heaps and 
broken-down furnaces, and by their names, often mutilated, 
recorded in parish registers. 

In 1610 a patent was granted to Sir W. Slingsby for burning 
coal in furnaces, and coal appears to have been used in the 
Broad Street works. In 1615 all patents for glass-making 
were revoked and a new patent issued for making glass with 
coal as fuel, in the names of Mansel, Zouch, TheJwaU, Kellaway 
and Perdval. To the last is credited the first introduction of 
covered crucibles to protect the molten glass from the products 
of burning coaL 

Simultaneously with the issue of this patent the use of wood 
for melting glass was prohibited, and it was made illegal to import 
glass from abroad. About 161 7 Sir R. Mansel, vice-admiral 
and treasurer of the navy, acquired the sole rights of making 
glass in England. These rights he retained for over thirty years. 

During the protectorate all patent rights virtiuUy lapsed, 
and mirrors aiid drmking-glasses were once more imported from 
Venice. In 1663 the duke of Buckingham, although unable to 
obtain a renewal of the monopoly of glaa-making, secured the 
prohibition of the importation of gilass for mirrors, coach plates, 
spectacles^ tubes and lenses, and contributed to the revival of 
the gkss industry in all its branches. Evelyn notes in his 
Diary a visit in 1673 to the Italian glass-house at Greenwich, 
" where glass was blown of finer metal than that of Murano," and 
a visit in 1677 to the duke of Buckingham's glass-works, where 
they made huge " vases of mettal as cleare, ponderous and 
thick as chrystal; also looking-glasses far larger and better 
than any that came from Venice." 

Some light is thrown on the condition of the industry at the 
end of the 17th century by the Houghton letters on the improve- 
ment of trade and commerce, which appeared in 1696. A few 
oC these letters deal with the tjjaas trader and in one a list is 


given of the glass-works then in operation. There 

factories in England which are thus classified: 

Bottles 39 

Looking-glass plates .... a 
Crown and plate-glass .... 5 

Window glass 15 

FUnt and ocdinary glass ... 27 

It is probable that the flint-glass of that date was very different 
from the flint-glass of to*day. The term flint-glasa .is now 
understood to mean a glass composed of the silicates of potash 
and lead. It is the most brilliant and the most colourkss 
of all glasses, and was undoubtedly first perfected in EngUnd. 
Hartshome has attributed its discovery to a London merchant 
named Tilson, who in X663 obtained a patent for making 
" crystal glass." E. W. Hulme, however, who has carefully 
investigated the subject, is of opinion that ffint-glass in its 
present form was introduced about X730. The use of oxide ui 
lead in glass-making was no new thing; it had been used, 
mainly as a flux, both by Romans and Venetians. The inventioD, 
if it may be regardcci as one, consisted in eliminating lime from 
the glass mixture, substituting refined potash for soda, and using 
a very large proportion of lead oxide. It is probable that flint- 
glass was not invented, but gradually evolved, that potash-lead 
glasses were in use during the latter part of the X7th century, 
but that the mixture was not perfected until the middle of the 
following century. 

The i8th century saw a great development in all brandies of 
glass-making. CoUectixs of ^Jass are chiefly concerned with the 
drinking-gluses which were produced in great profusion and 
adapted for every description of beverage. The most noted 
are the glasses with stout Qrlindrical legs (Plate I. fig. 9), con- 
taining spiral threads of air, or of white or coloured enamel 
To this type of glass belong many of the Jao>bite glasses which 
commemorate the old or the young Pretender. 

In 1746 the industry was in a suflidently prosperous conditioo 
to tempt the government to impose an excise duty. The report 
of the commission of excise, dealing with glass, published in 1835 
is curious and interesting reading. So burdensome was the duty 
and so vexatious were the restrictions that it is a matter for 
wonder that the industry survived. In this respect England 
was more fortunate than Ireland. Before 1825, when the excise 
duty was introduced into Ireland, there were flourishing glass- 
works in Belfast, Cork, Dublin and Waterford. By 1850 the 
Irish glass industry had been practically destroyed. Injurious 
as the excise duty undoubtedly was to the glass trade generally, 
and especially to the flint-gU^ industry, it is possible that it 
may have helped to develop the art of decorative glass-cutting. 
The duty on flint-glass was imposed on the molten glass in the 
crucibles and on the unfinished goods. The manufacturer had, 
therefore, a strong inducement to enhance by every means in hb 
power the selling value of his glass after it had escaped the 
exciseman's dutches. He therefore employed the best available 
art and skill in improving the craft of glass-cutting. It is 
the development of this craft in connexion with the perfecting 
of flint-gbuss that makes the i8th century the most important 
period in the history of English glass-making. GlassHcuttiag 
was a craft imported from Germany, but the English material 
so greatly surpassed Bohemia^ glass in brilliance that the 
Bohemian cut-glass was eclipsed. Glass-cutting was carried on 
at works in Birmingham, Bristol, Belfast, Cork, Dublin, Glas- 
gow, London, Newcastle, Stourbridge, Whittington and Water* 
ford. The most important centres of the craft were London, 
Bristol, Birmingham and Wateriord (see Plate I., fig. 10, for 
oval cut-glass Waterford bowl). The finest spedmens of cut- 
glass belong to the period between r78o and x8to. Owing 
to the sacrifice of form to prismatic brilliance, cut-glass gradually 
lost its artistic value. Towards the middle of the xgth century 
it became the fashion to regard all cut-glass as barbarous, and 
services of even the best period «xre neglected and dispersed. 
At the present time scarcely anything is known about the 
origin of the few specimens of 18th-century Enghsk cut-ghss 



which have been preserved in public coOections. It is strange 
that so little interest has been taken In a craft in which for 
some thirty years England surpassed all competitors, creating 
a wave of fashion which influenced the gbss industry throughout 
the whole of Europe. 

In the report of the Excise Commission a list is given of the 
glass manufactories which paid the excise duly in 1833. There 
were 105 factories in England, 10 in Scotland and 10 in Ireland. 
In England the* chief centres of the industry were Bristol, 
Birmingham, London, Manchester, Newcastle, Stourbridge 
and York. Plate-glass was made by Messrs Cookson of New- 
castle, and by the British Plate Glass Company of Ravenhead. 
Crown and German sheet -glass were made by Messrs Chance & 
Hartley of Birmingham. The London glass-works were those 
of Apsley Pcllatt of Blackfriars, Christie of Stangate, and Wjlliam 
Holmes of ^VhitefriaIs. In Scotland there were works in Glasgow, 
Leith and Portobello. In Ireland there were works in Belfast, 
Cork, Dublin and Watcrford. The famous Waterford works 
vere in the hands of Gatchell & Co. 

. India.— FUny states (Naf. Hist, xxxvi. 26. 66) that no gbss 
was to be compared to the Indian, and gives as a reason that it 
was made from broken crystal; and in another passage (^. 
19, 42) he says that the Troglodytes brought to Ocells (GheOa 
near Bab-el-Maodeb) objects of glass. We have, however, 
very litUe knowledge of Indian glass of any considerable antiquity. 
A few small vessels have been found in the " topes," as in that 
at Manikiala in the Punjab, which probably dates from about 
the Christian era; but they exhibit no remarkable character, 
and fragments found at Brahmanabad are hardly distinguishable 
from Roman glass of the imperial period. The chronicle of the 
Sinhalese kings, the Makavamsa, however, asserts that mirrors 
of glittering glass were carried in procession in 306 B.C., and beads 
like gems, and windows with ornaments like jewels, are also 
mentioned at about the same date. If there really was an 
important manufacture of glass in Ceylon at this early time, 
that island perhaps furnished the Indian glass of PUny. In the 
later part of the xyth century some glass decorated with enamel 
was inade at Delhi. A specimen is in the Indian section of the 
Sovith Kensington Museum. Glass is made in several parts of 
India— as Patna and Mysore — by very simple and primitive 
methods, and the results are correspon<tingly defective. Black, 
green, red, blue and yeDow glasses are made, which contain a 
hirge proportion of alkali and are readily fusible. The greater 
put is worked into bangles, but some small bottles are blown 
(Buchanan, Journey Ihrougb Mysore, i. 147, iii. 369). 

Persia. — No very remarkable specimens of Persian glass are 
known in Europe, with the exception of some vessels of blue 
glass richly decorated with gold. These probably date fu>m 
the 17th century, for Chardin tells us that the windows of the 
tomb of Shah Abbas II. {ob. 1666), at Kum, were " de cristal 
peint d'or et d'azur." At the present day bottles and drinking- 
vessels are made in Persia which in texture and quality differ 
little from ordinary Venetian glass of the i6th or 17th centuries, 
while in form they exactly resemble those which may be seen 
in the engravings in Chardln's Travels. 

China. — The history of the manufacture of ^ass in China is 
obscure, but the common opinion that it was learnt from 
the Europeans in the X7th century seems to be erroneous. A 
vriter in the Mimoires concernani Us Chinois (ii. 46) states 
on the authority of the annab of the Han dynasty that the 
empeior Wu-ti (140 B.C.) had a manufactory of the kind of glass 
called " lieou-li " (probably a form of opaque glass), that in the 
hcginning of the 3rd century of our era the emperor Tsaou-tsaou 
received from the West a considerable present of glasses of all 
colours, and that soon after a glass-maker came into the country 
who taught the art to the natives. 

The Wd dynasty, to which Tsaou-tsaou belonged, leigncd m 
northern China, and at this day a considerable manufacture 
^ jlass b carried on at Po-shan-hien in Shantung, which it 
would seem has existed for a long period. The Rev. A. William- 
wn {Journeys in North China, i. 131) says that the glass is 
extremely pure, and is made from the rocks in the neighbourhood; 

The rocks are probaWy of quartz, i.e. rock crystal, a correspond- 
ence with Pliny's statement respecting Indian glass whidi seems 
deserving of attention. 

Whether the making of glass in China was an original dis' 
covery pf that ingcm'ous people, or was derived via Ceylon from 
Egypt, cannot perhaps be now ascertained; the manufacture 
has, however, never greatly extended itself in China. The case 
has been the converse of that of the Romans; the latter had no 
fine pottery, and therefore employed glass as the material for 
vessels of an ornamental kind, for table services and the like. 
The Chinese, on the contrary, having from an early period had 
excellent porcelain, have been careless about the manufacture of 
glass. A Chinese writer, however, mentions the manufacture 
of a huge vase in a.d. 627, and in 11 54 Edrisi (first climate, tenth 
section) mentions Chinese glass. A glass vase about a foot high 
is preserved at Nara in Japan, and is alleged to have been placed 
there in the 8th century. It seems probable that this is of 
Chinese manufacture. A writer in the Mimoires concernani 
Us Chinois (ii. 463 and 477), writing about 1770, says that 
there was then a glass-house at Peking, where every year a 
good' number of vases were made, some requiring great labour 
because nothing was blown (rien n'est souffle), meaning no doubt 
that the ornamentation was produced not by blowing and mould- 
ing, but by cutting. Tliis factory was, however, merely an 
2^>pendage to the imperial magnificence. The earliest articles 
of Chinese glass the date of which has been ascertained, which 
have been noticed, are some bearing the name of the emperor 
Kienlung (1735-1795), one of which is in the Victoria ai^d Albert 

In the manufacture of ornamental glass the leading idea 
in China seems to be the imitation of natural stones. The 
coloured glass is usually not of one bright colour throughout, 
but semi-transparent and marbled; the colours in many instances 
are singularly fine and harmonious. As in 1770, carving or cut- 
ting is the chief method by which ornament b produced, the 
vessels being blown very solid. 

BiBLiocaAPHY. — Geore Agricola. De re metdUica V&dJiiA^ 1556); 
Percy Bate, English TabU Class (n.d.) ; G. Bontemps, Guide du terrier 
(Paris, 1868); Edwaid Dilk>n. Glass (London, 1907); C. C. Edgar* 
" Gneco>Effyptiaa Glatt." Cataiogue du MusU du Cain (1905); 
Sir A. W. Franks. Guid4 to Class Room in British Museum (i&SS); 
Rev. A. Hallcn, " Glass-making in Sussex." Scottish Antiquary, 
No. 28 (1893); Albert Hartshome, Old Enrlish Glasses (London); 
E. W. Hulme. " English Glas»-making in XVf. and XVI I. Centuries." 
The Antiouarv, Nos. s^ 60^ 63. 64. 6k: Alexander Nesbitc, " Gkus." 
Art Hatiibookt Victoria and Albert Museum: E. Peligot, Le Vetre, 
son histoire, sa Jahricalion (Pari$, 1878): Apsley Pcllatt, Curiosities 
^Class-making (London, 1840); F. Pctric, Telt-el'Amama, Egypt 
Exploration Fund (1894): "^JEeypt," sect. Art; H. J. Powell. 
" Cut Gla«," Journal Soeidy of Arii, No. 2795: C. H. Read, " Sam- 
cenic Glaas." Arehaetdotia, vol. 58, part i.: luan F. Riano. 
"Spanish Arts," Art Handbook, Victoria and Albert Museum: 
H. Schuermans, " Murancsc and Altarist Glass Workers.", eleven 
letters: Bulletins des commissions royaUs (Brussels, 1883, 1891). 
For the United States, see vol. x. of Reports of the 12th Cmsus, ppi. 
94.9-1000. and Special Report of Censtu of Manufactures (1905), Part 
III., pp. 837-935. (A. Ns. ; H. J. P.) 

GLASS, STAINED. All coloured glass is, strictly speaking, 
*' stained " by some metallic oxide added to it in the process 
of manufacture. But the tern ** stained glass " is popularly, 
as well as technically, used in a more limited sense, and b under- 
stood to refer to stained glass windows. Still the words " stained 
^ass" do not fully describe what is meant; for the glass in 
coloured windows is for the most part not only stained but 
painted. Such painting was, however, until comparatively 
modem times, used only to give detatia of drawing and to define 
form. The colour in a stained glass window wos not painted 
on the glass but incorporated in it, mixed with it in the making— 
whence the term " pot-metal " by which self-coloured ^ass ift 
known, i.e. glass coloured in the melting pot. 

A medieval window was consequently a patdiwork of variously 

coloured pieces. And the eariier its date the more surely was 

it a mosaic, not in the form of tesserae, but in the manner 

known as ** opus sectile.'' Shaped pieces of coloured glass wercr 

} that is to say, pat together like the parts of a pusde. The 



nearest approach to an exception to this rule is a fragment at 
the Victoria and Albert Museum, in which actual tesserae are 
fused together into a solid slab of many-coloured ^ass, in effect 
a window panel, through which tlie light shines with all the 
brilliancy of an Early Gothic window. But apart from the fact 
that the design proves in this case to be even more effective 
with the light upon it, the use of gold leaf in the tesserae con> 
firms the presumption that this work, which (supposing it to 
be genuine) would be Byzantine, centuries earlier than any 
coloured windows that we know of, and entirely different from 
them in technique, is rather a specimen of fused mosaic that 
happens to be translucent than part of a window designedly 
executed in tesserae. 

The Eastern (and possibly the earlier) practice was to set 
chips of coloured glass in a heavy fretwork of stone or to imbed 
them in plaster. In a medieval window they were held together 
by strips of lead, in section something like the letter H , the 
upright strokes of which represent the " tapes " extending on 
cither side well over the edges of the glass, and the crossbar the 
connecting " core " between them. The leading was soldered 
together at the points of junction, cement or putty was rubbed 
into the crevices between glass and lead, and the window was 
attached (by means of copper wires soldered on to the leads) 
to iron saddle-bars let into the masonry. 

Stained glau was primarily the art of the glazier; but the 
painter, called in to help, asserted himself more and more, and 
eventually took it almost entirely into hb own hands. Between 
the period when it was glazier's work eked out by painting 
and when it was painter's work with the aid of the glazier lies 
the entire development of stained and painted window-making. 
With the eventual endeavour of the glass painter to do without 
the glazier, and 'to get the colour by painting in translucent 
enamd upon rolourless glass, we have the beginning of a form of 
art no longer monumental and comparatively trivial. 

This evolution of the painted window from a patchwork of 
little pieces of coloured glass explains itself when it is remembered 
that coloured glass was originally not made in the big sheets 
produced nowadays, but at first in jewels to look as much as 
possible like rubies, sapphires, emeralds and other precious 
stones, and afterwards in rounds and sheets of small dimensions. 
Though some of the earliest windows were in the form of pure 
glazing (" leaded-lights "), the addition of painting seems to have 
been customary from the very first. It was a means of render- 
ing detail not to be got in lead. Glazing affords by itself scope 
for beautiful pattern work; but the old glaziers never carried their 
art as far as they might have done in the direction of ornament; 
their aim was always in the direction of picture; the idea was to 
make windows serve the purpose of cotoured story books. That 
was beyond the art of the glazier. It was easy enough to repre- 
sent the drapery of a saint by red glass, the ground on which he 
stood by green, the sky above by blue, his crown by yellow, 
the scroll in his hand by white, and his flesh by brownish pink; 
but when it came to showing the folds of red drapery, blades of 
green grass, details of goldsmith's work, lettering on the scroll, 
the features of the face — the only possible vny of doing it was 
by painting. The use of paint was confined at first to an opaque 
brown, used, not as colour, but only as a means of stopping out 
light, and i^ that way defining comparatively delicate details 
within the lead lines. These themselves outlined and defined 
the main forms of the design. The pigment used by the glass 
painter was of course vitreous: it consisted of powdered glass 
and sundry metallic oxides (copper, iron, manganese, &c.), 
so that, when the pieces of painted glass were made red hot in 
the kiln, the powdered glass became fused to the surface, and 
with it the dense colouring matter also. When the pieces of 
painted glass were afterwards glazed together and seen against 
the light, the design appeared in the brilliant colour of the glass, 
its forms drawn in the uniform black into which, at a little 
distance, leadwork and painting lines became merged. 

It needed solid painting to stop out the light entirely: thin 
paint only obscured it. And, even in early glass, thin paint was 
iiicd, whether to subdue crude colour or to indicate what little , 

shading a ijth-century draughtsman might desire. In the 
present state of old glass, the surface often quite disintegrated, 
it is difficult to determine to what extent thin paint was used for 
either purpose. There must always have been the temptation to 
make tint do instead of solid lines; but the more workmanlike 
practice, and the usual one, was to get difference of tint, as a 
pen-draughtsman docs, by lines of solid opaque colour. In 
comparatively colourless glass {grisaille) the pattern was often 
made to stand out by cross-hatching the background, and 
another common practice was to coat the glass with paint all 
over, and scrape the design out of it. The effect of either 
proceeding was to lower the tone of the glass without dirt>ing 
the colour, as a smear of thin paint would do. 

Towards the 14th century, when Gothic design took a more 
naturalistic direction, the desire to get something like modelling 
made it necessary to carry painting farther, and they ^ot rid 
to some extent of the ill effect of shading-colour smeared on the 
glass by stippling it. This not only softened the tint and allowed 
of gradation according to the amoiint of stippling, but let some 
light through, where the bristles of the stippling-tool took up 
the pigment. Shading of thb kind enforced by touches of strong 
brush work, cross-hatching and some scratching out of high 
lights was the method of glass painting adopted in the 14th 
century. • 

Glass was never at the best a pleasant surface to paint on; 
and glass painting, following the line of least resistance, 
developed in the later Gothic and early Renaissance periods 
into something unlike any other form of painting. The outlines 
continued to be traced upon the glass and fixed in the fire; but, 
after that, the process of painting consisted mainly in the 
removal of paint. The entire surface of the glass was coated wit h 
an even " matt " of pale brown; this was allowed to dry; and 
then the high lights were rubbed off, and the modelling was got 
by scrubbing away the paint with a dry hog-hair brush, more 
or less, according to the gradations required. Perfect modelling 
was got by repeating the operation — how often depended upon 
the dexterity of the painter. A painter's method is partly the 
outcome of his individuality. One man would float on his colour 
and manipulate it to some extent in the moist state; another 
would work entirely upon the dry matt. Great use was made 
of the pointed stick with which sharp lines of light were easily 
scraped out; and in the i6th century Swiss glass painters, 
working upon a relatively small scale, got their modelling 
entirely with a needle-point, scraping away the paint just as an 
etcher scratches away the varnish from his etching plate. The 
practice of the two craftsmen is, indeed, identical, though the 
one scratches out what are to be black lines and the other lines 
of light. In the end, then, though a painter would always use 
touches of the brush to get crisp lines of dark, the manipulation 
of glass painting consisted more in erasing lights than in painting 
shadows, more in rubbing out or scraping off paint than in putting 
it on in brush strokes. 

So far there was no thought of getting colour by means <^ 
paint. The colour was in the glass itself, permeating the mass 
(" pot-metal "). There was only one exception to this — ruby 
glass, the colour of which was so dense that red glass thick 
enough for its purpose would have been practically obscure; 
and so they made a colourless pot-metal coated on one side 
only with red glass. This led to a practice which forms an ex- 
ception to the rule that in "pot-metal" glass every change of 
colour, or from colour to white, is got by the use of a separate 
piece of glass. It was possible in the case of this " flashed " 
ruby to grind away portions of the surfa(% and thus obtain 
white on red or red on white. Eventually they made coated 
glass of blue and other colours, with a view to producing similar 
effects by abrasion. (The same result is arrived at nowadays 
by means of etching. The skin of coloured glass, in old da>'s 
laboriously ground or cut away, is now easQy eaten off by fluoric 
acid.) One other exceptional expedient in colouring had very 
considerable effect upon the development of glass design from 
about the beginning of the X4th century. The discovery that 
a solution of silver applied to glass would under the action of the 



file ttiio it ycflow eublcd the glass painter to fet yellow upoo 
oolourleis glass, green npon gre]r*bliie, and (by staining only 
the abraded portions) yeUow upon blue or niby. TUs yeUow was 
neither enamel nor pot'Uietal cokmr» but stain — tbe only staining 
actually done by tbe ^ass painter as cKstinct from the glass 
mailer. It varied in cdknir from pak lemon todeep orange, and 
was singolariy pure in quality. As what is called " wUte " 
glass became purer and was employed in greater quantities It 
vas lavishly loed; so much so that a brilliant effect of silvery 
white and golden yellow is characteristic of later Gothic 

Tbe last stage of gjass painting was the emplosnnent of enamel 
not for st<^ping out light but to get colour. It began to be used 
in tbe early part of the i6th century— «t fiist only in the form of a 
flesh tint; but it was not long before other colours were introduced. 
This use of colour no hmger iu the glass but up&n it marks quite 
a new departure in technique. Knamr i colour was finely powdered 
coloured ^bas mixed with gum or some such substance i^to a 
pigment which could be appfied with a brush. When the glass 
painted with it was brought to a red heat in the oven, the powdered 
glass melted and was fused to it, just like the opaque brown 
cnployed from the very beginning of g^ass>painting. 

This process of enamelling was hardly called for in the interests 
of art. Even the red flesh<olour (borrowed from the Limoges 
coamellers upon copper) did not in the least give the quality of 
flesh, though it enabled the painter to suggest by contrast the 
whiteness of a man's beard. As for the brighter enamel colours, 
they had nothing like the depth or richness of ''stained " glass. 
Wtat enamel really did was to make easy much that had been 
impossible in mosaic, as, for example, to represent upon the 
very smallest shield of arms any number of " charges " all in 
the correct tinctures. It encouraged the minute workmanship 
characteristic of Swiss ^ass painting; and, though this was not 
altogether inappropriate to domestic window panes, the painter 
was tempted by it to depart from the simplicity and breadth of 
design inseparable from the earlier mosaic practice. In the end 
he introduced coloured glass only where he could hardly help it, 
and glared the great part of his window in rectangular panes of 
dear glass, upon which he preferred to paint his picture in c^que 
brown and translucent enamel colours. 

Enamel upon gbsa has not stood the test of time. lu presence 
is usually to be detected in old windows by specks of light shining 
through the colour. This is where the enamel has crumbled oflT. 
There is a very good reason for that. Enamel must melt at a 
temperature at which the glass it is painted on keeps its shape. 
The kmer the melting point of the powdered glass the more easily 
it is fused. The painter is consequently inclined to use enamel of 
which the contraction and expansion is much greater than thai of 
his gLus— with the result that, under the action of the weather, 
tbe colour b Skpt to work itself free and expose Uie bare white 
gUss beneath. The only enamel which has held its own is that of 
tbe Swiss glass-painters of the 16th and zyth centuries. The 
domestic window panes they painted may not in all cases have 
been tried by the sudden changes of atmosphere to which church 
windows are subject; but cr^t must be given them for ex- 
ceptionally skilful and conscientious workmanship. 

The story of stained glass is bound up with the history of 
architecture, to which it was subsidiary, and of the church, 
which was its patron. Its only possible course of development 
was in the wake of church building. From its very inception it 
was (k>thic and ecclesiastical. And, though it survived the 
upheaval of the Renaissance and was turned to dvil and domestic 
use, it is to church windows that we must go to see what stained 
glass really was— or is; for time has been kind to It. The charm 
of medieval glass lies to a great extent in the material, and especi- 
ally in the inequality of it. Chemically impure and mechanic- 
ally imperfect, it was rarely crude in tint or even in texture. It 
shaded off from light to dark according to its thickness; it was 
speckled with air bubbles; it was streaked and douded; and all 
these imperfections of manufacture went to perfection of colour, 
^d age has improved it: the want of homogeneousness in the 
material has led to tbe disintegration of iu surface; soft particles 

in it have been dissolved away by the action of the weather, and 
the surfiace, pitted like an oyster-shell, refracts the light in a way 
which adds greatly to the effect; at the same time there is 
foothold for the lichen which (like the curtains of black cobwebs) 
veils and gives mystery to the cdour. An appreciable part of the 
beauty of old glass is the result of age and acddent. In that 
respect no new glass can compare with it. There is, however, no 
such thing as " the UM secret " of glass-making. It is no secret 
that age mellows. 

Stained and painted glass is commonly apportioned to its 
** period," (Sothic or Renaissance, and further to the particular 
phase of the style to which it belongs. C. Winston, who was the 
first to inquire thoroughly into English ^ass, adopting T. 
Ridcnuin's classification, divided Gothic windows into Eariy 
English (to c. 1280), Decorated (to e. 1380) and Perpendicubr 
(to e. 1S30). These dates will do. But the transition from one 
phase of design to another is never so sudden, nor so essily 
defined, as any table of dates would lead us to suppore. The old 
style lingered in one dbtrict long after the new fashion was 
flourishing in another. Bc^des, the English periods do not quite 
coincide with those of other countries. France, Germany and 
the Low Countries count for much in the history of stained glass; 
and in no two places was the pace of progress quite the same. 
There was, for example, scarcdy any ijth-century Gothic in 
(jermany, where the " geometric " style, equivalent to our 
Decorated, was preceded by the Romanesque period; in France, 
the Flamboyant took the place of our Perpendicular; and in 
Italy Gothic never properly took root at all. All these con- 
sidered, a rather rough and ready division presents the least 
diflficulty to the student of old glass; and it will be found con- 
venient to think of Gothic glass as (i) Eariy, (3) Middle and (3) 
Late, and of the subsequent windows as (i) Renaissance and (a) 
Late Renaissance. The three periods d Gothic correspond 
approximately to the X3th, 14th and xsth centuries. The 
limits of the two periods of the Renaissance are not so easily 
defined. In the first part of the x6th century (in Italy long 
before that) the Renaissance and Gothic periods overlapped; in 
the latter part of it, glass painting was already on the decline; 
and in the t7th and i8th centuries it sank to deeper depths of 

The likeness of eariy windows to translucent enamel (which is 
also glass) is obvious. The fines of lead glazing correspond 
absolutely to the "ctoisons*' of Byzantine goldsmith's work. 
Moreover, the extreme minuteness of the leading (not always 
either mechanically necessary or architecturally desirable) 
suggests that the starting point of all this gorgeous illumination 
wras the idea of reproducing on a grandiose scale the jewelled 
effect produced in small by cloisonn6 enamellcrs. In other 
respects the earliest glass shows the influence of Byzantine 
tradition. It is mainly according to the more or less Byzantine 
character of its design and draughtsmanship that archaeologists 
ascribe certain remains of old glass to the 1 2th or the 1 1 th century. 
Apart from documentary or direct historic evidence, it is not 
possible to determine the precise date of any particular fragment. 
In the ** restored " windows at St Denis there are remnants of 
glass belonging to the year i loS. Elsewhere in France (Reims, 
Anger, Le Mans, Chartres, &c.) there b to be found very early 
glass, some of it probably not much later than the end of the loth 
century, which b the date confidently ascribed to certain 
windows at St Remi (Reims) and at Tegernsce. Tbe rarer the 
spedmen the greater may be its technical and antiquarian 
interest. But, even if we could be quite sure of its date, there b 
not enough of this very early work, and it does not suffidently 
distinguish itself from what followed, to count artistically for 
much. The glory of eariy glass belongs to the 13th century. 

The design of windows was influenced, of course, by the con- 
ditions of the workshop, by the nature of glass, the difficulty 
of shaping it, the way it could be painted, and the necessity 
of lead glazing. The place of glass in the scheme of church 
decoration led to a certain severity in the treatment of it The 
growing desire to get more and more light into the churches, 
and the consequent manufacture of purer and more transparent 



glass, affected the glazier's colour scheme. For all that, the 
fashion of a window was, mutatis mutandis^ that of the painting, 
carving, embroidery, goldsmith's work^ enamel and other crafts- 
manship of the period. The design of an ivory triptych is very 
much that of a three-light window. There is a little enamelled 
shrine of German workmanship in the Victoria and Albert 
Museum which might almost have been designed for glass; 
and the famous painted ceiling at Hildesheim is planned precisely 
on the lines of a medallion window of the 13th century. By that 
time glass had fallen into ways of its own, and there were already 
various types of design which we now recognize as characteristic 
of the first great period, in some reipects the greatest of alL 

Pre-eminently typical of the first period is the " medallion 
window." Glaziers b^an by naively accepting the iron ban 
across the Ught as the basis of their composition, and {danned 
a window as a series of panels, one above the other, between the 
horizontal crossbars and the upright lines of the border round it. 
The next step was to mitigate the extreme severity of this com- 
position by the introduction of a circular or other medallion 
within the square boundary lines. Eventually these were 
abandoned altogether, the iron bars were shaped according to 
the pattern, and there was evolved the " medallion window," 
in which the main divisions of the design arc emphasized by the 
strong bands of iron round them. Medallions were invariably 
devoted to picturing scenes from Bible history or from the lives 
of the saints, set forth in the simplest and most straightforward 
manner, the figures all on one plane, and as far as possible clear-cut 
against a sapphire-blue or ruby-red ground. Scenery was not so 
much depicted as suggested. An arch or two did duty for archi- 
tecture, any scrap of foliated ornament for landscape. Simplicity 
of silhouette was absolutely essential to the readableness of 
pictures on the small scale allowed by the medallion. As it is, 
they are so difficult to decipher, so confused and broken in effect, 
as to give rise (the radiating shape of " rose windows " aiding) 
to the misconception that the design of early glass is kaleido- 
scopic — which it is not The intervals between subject medallions 
were filled in England (Canterbury) with scrollwork, in FraAce 
(Chartres) more often with geometric diaper, in which last 
sometimes the red and blue merge into an unpleasant purple. 
Design on this small scale was obviously unsuited to distant 
windows. Qcrestory lights were occupied by figures, sometimes 
on a gigantic scale, entirely occupying the window, except for 
the border and perhaps the slightest pretence of a niche. This 
arrangement lent itself to broad effects of colour. The drawing 
may be rude; at times the figures are grotesque; but the general 
impression is one of mysterious grandeur and SQlemnity. 

The depth and intensity of colour in the windows so far described 
comes chiefly from the quality of the glass, but partly also from 
the fact that very little white or pale-coloured glass was used. 
It was not the custom at this period todilute the colour of a 
rich window with white. If light was wanted they worked in 
while, enlivened, it might be, by colour. Strictly speaking, 
X3th-century glass was never colourless, but of a greenish tint, 
due to impurities in the sand, potash or other ingredients; it 
was of a horny consistency, too; but it is convenient to speak 
of all would-be-clear glass as " white." The greyish windows in 
which it prevails are technically described as "in grisaille." 
There are examples (Salisbury, ChJLlons, Bonlieu, Angers) of 
" pbin glazing " in grisaille, in which the lead lines make very 
ingenious and beautiful pattern. In the more usual case of 
painted grisaille the lead lines still formed the groundwork of 
the design, though supplemented by foliated or other 'detail, 
boldly outlined in strong brown and emphasized by a background 
of cross-hatching. French grisaille was frequently all in white 
(Reims, St Jean-aux-Bois, Sens), English work was usually 
enlivened by bands and bosses of colour (Salisbury); but the 
general effect of the window was still grey and silvery, even 
though there might be distributed about it (the " five sisters," 
York minster) a fair amount of coloured glass. The use of grisaille 
is sufficiently accounted for by considerations of economy 
and the desire to get light; but it was also in some sort a protest 
(witness the Cistercian interdict of 1 134) against undue indulgence 

in the luxury of colour. At this stage of its devdopment it 
confined strictly to pattern work; figure subjects were alwmys 
in colour. For all that, some of the most restful and entirely 
satisfying work of the 13th century was in grisaille (Salisbory, 
Chartres, Reims, &c.). 

The second or Middle period of Gothic glass marks a stage 
between the work of the 'EaaXy Gothic artist who thought out his 
design as glazing, and that of the later draughtsman who con- 
ceived it as something to be painted. It represents to many tbe 
period of greatest interest — probably because of its departnre 
from the severity of Eariy work. It was the period of more 
naturalistic design; and a touch of nature is more easily 
appreciated than architectural fitness. Middle Gothic glass, 
halting as it docs between the relatively rude mosaic of early 
times and the painter-like accomplishment of fully-developed 
^ass painting, has not the salient merits of either. In tbe mat ter 
of tone also it is intermediate between the deep, rich, sober 
harmonies of Early windows and the lighter, brii^ter, gayer 
colouring of later glasft. Now for the first time grisaille ornament 
and coloured figurework were introduced into the same window. 
And this was done in a very judicious way, in alternate bands 
of white and deep rich colour, binding together the long lights 
into which windows were by this time divided (chapter-bcwse, 
York nunster). A similar horizontal tendency of design is notice- 
able in windows in which the figures are enshrined under canopies, 
henceforth a feature in glass design. The ptnnadework falls 
into pronounced bands of brassy yellow between the tieis iA 
figures (nave, York minster) and serves to correct the vertical 
lines of the masonry. Canopywork grew sometimes to such 
dimensions as quite to overpower the figure it was supposed 
to frame; but, then, the sense of scale was never a directing 
factor in Decorated design. A more interesting form of ornament 
is to be found in Germany, where it was a pleasing custom 
(Regensburg) to fill windows with conventional foliage without 
figurework. There is abundance of Middle Gothic glass in 
England (York, Wells, Ely, Oxford), but the best of it, such as 
the great East window at Gloucester cathedral, has features 
more characteristic of the 15th than of the 14th century. 

The keynote of Late Gothic glass is brilliancy. It had a silvery 
quality. The islh century was the period of white glass, which 
approached at last to colourlessness, and was emf^yed in great 
profusion. Canopywork, more universal than ever, was repre- 
sented almost entirely in white touched with yellow stain, but 
not in suflicient quantities to impair its sUveriness. Whatever 
the banality of the idea of imitation stonework in i^ass, the 
effect of thus framing cdoured pictures in delicate white is 
admirable: at last we have white and colour in perfect combina- 
tion. Fifteenth-century figurework contains usually a large 
proportion of white glass; flesh tint is represented by white; 
there is white in the drapciy; in short, there is always white 
enough in the figures to connect them with the canopjrwork and 
make the whole effect one. The preponderance of white wiU be 
better appreciated when it is stated that very often not a fifth 
or sixth part of the glass is coloured. It is no uncommon thing 
to find figurts draped entirely in white with only a little c<^ut 
in the background; and figurework all in grisaille upon a ground 
of white latticework is quite characteristic of Perpendiculai 

One of the most typical forms of Late English Gothic canopy 
is where (York minster) its slender pinnacles fiU the ui^>er part 
of the window, and its solid base frames a picture in small of 
some episode in the history of the personage depicted as large as 
life above« A much less satisfactory continental practice was 
to enrich only the lower half of the window with stained glass and 
to make shift above (Munich) with *' roundels " of plain white 
glass, the German equivalent for diamond latticework. 

A sign of later times is the way pictures ^read beyond the 
confines of a single light. Thu happened by degrees. At first 
the connexion between the figures in separate window openings 
was only in idea, as when a central figure of the crucified Christ 
was flanked by the Virgin and St John in the side lights. Then 
the arms of the cross would be carried through, or as it were 



beKiad, the mullions. The espftnsion to a picture right uxoab 
the window was only a question of time. Not that the artist 
ventnred as yet to disregard the architectural setting of his 
jucture — that happened later onr*-but that he often composed 
it with such cunning reference to Intervening stonework that it 
did not interfere with it. It has been argued that each separate 
light of a window ought to be complete in itselL On the other 
band it has proved possible to make due acknowledgment of 
architectural conditions without cramping design in that way. 
There can be no doubt as to the variety and breadth of treatment 
gained by accepting the whole window as field for a design. And, 
when a number of lights go to make a window^ it b the window, 
and no separate part of it, which is the main consideration. 

By the end of the Gothic period, glass painters proceeded on 
an entirety different method from that of the xjth century. 
The designer of early days began with glaxing: he thou|^t in 
BKsaic and leadwork; the lines be first drew were the Unes of 
gazing; painting was only a supplementary process, enabling 
him to get what lead Unes would not give. The Late Gothic 
draughtsman began with the idea of painting; glasing was to him 
of secondary importance; he reached a stage (Creation window, 
Great Malvern) where it is dear that he first sketch«i out his 
design, and then bethought him how to glaae it in such wise that 
the leadwork (which once boldly outlined everything) should not 
interfere with the picture. The artful way in which he would 
introduce little bits of colour into a window almost entirely 
vbitc, makes it certain that he had always at the back of his 
mind the consideration of the glazing to come. So long as he 
thought of that, and did not resent it, all was fairly well with 
glass painting, but there came a point where he found it difficult, 
if not impossible, to reconcile the extreme delicacy of his painting 
open white glass with the comparatively brutal strength of 
his lead lines. It is here that the conditions of painting and 
glazing clash at last. 

It must not be supposed that Late Gothic windows were never 
by any chance rich in colour. Local conservatism and personal 
predilection prevented anything L'ke monotonous progress in 
a single direction. There is (St Sebald, Nuremberg) Middle 
Gothic glass as dense in colour as any ijtb-century work, and 
Late Gothic (Troyes cathedral) which, from its colour, one might 
take at first to be a century earlier than it is. In Italy (Florence) 
and to some extent in Spain (Seville) it was the custom to make 
canopywork so rich in colour that it was more like part of the 
picture than a frame to it. But that was by exception. The 
tendency was towards lighter windows. Gloss itself was less 
deeply stained when painters depended more upon their power 
of deepening it by painL It was the seeking after delicate 
effects of painting, quite as much as the desire to let light into 
the church, which determined the tone of later windows. The 
dearer the glass the more scope it gave for painting. 

It is convenient to draw a line between Gothic art and Reiuiis- 
sance. Nothing is easier than to say that windows in which 
aocketed canopywork occurs are Gothic, and that those with 
arabesque are Renaissance. But that is an arbitrary distinction, 
which does not really distinguish* Some of the most beautiful 
vork in glass, such for example as that at Auch, is so plainly 
intermediate between two styles that it is impossible to describe 
it as anything but " transitional." And, apart from particular 
instances, we have only to look at the best Late Gothic work to 
ue that it is informed by the new spirit, and at fine Renaissance 
glass to observe how it conforms to Gothic traditions of workman- 
ship. The new idea gave a spurt to Gothic art; and it was 
Gothic impetus which carried Renaissance glass painting to the 
summit of accomplishment reached in the first half of the i6th 
century. When that subsided, and the pictorial spirit of the age 
It last prevailed, the bright days of glass were at an end. If we 
have to refer to the early Renaissance as the culminating period 
of glass painting, it is because the technique of an earlier period 
iound in it freer and fuller expression. With the Renaissance, 
design broke free from the restraints of tradition. 

An interesting development of Renaissance design was the 
inming of pictures in golden-yellow arabesque ornament, 

scarcely crchitectoral enough to be called canopywork, and 
reminiscent rather of beaten goldsmith's work than of stone 
carving. This did for the glass picture what isi gilt frame does for 
a painting in oiL Very often framework of any kind was dispensed 
with. The primitive idea of accepting bars and mullions as 
boundaries of design, and filling the compartments formed by 
them with a medley of little subjects, lingered on. The result 
was ddightfully broken colour, but inevitable confusion; for 
iron and masonry do not efifectively separate glass pictures. 
There was no longer in late glass any pretence of preserving the 
plane of the window. It was commonly designed to suggest that 
one saw out of it. Throughout the period of the Renaissance, 
architectural and landscape backgrounds play an important 
part in design. An extreaoely beautiful feature in early i6th> 
century French glass pictures (Rouen, &c.) is the little peep of 
distant country delicately painted upon the pale-blue glass which 
represents the sky. In larger work landscape and architecture 
were commonly painted upon white (King's College, Cambridge). 
The landscape effect was always happiest when one or other of 
these conventions was adopted. Canopywork never went quite 
out of fashion. For a long while the plan was still to frame 
coloured pictures in white. Theoretically this is no less effectually 
to be done by Italian than by Gothic shrinework. Practically the 
architectursl setting assumed in the x6th century more and more 
the aspect of background to the figures, and, in order that it 
should take iu place in the picture, they painted it so heavily that 
it no longer told as white. Already in van Orle/s magnificent 
transept windows at St Gudule, Brusseb, the great triumphal arch 
behind the kneeling donors and their patron saints (in hte glass 
donors take more and more the place of holy personages) tells 
dark against the clear ground. There came a time, towards the 
end of the century, when, as in the wonderful windows at Gooda, 
the very quality of white glass is lost in heavily painted shadow. 

The pictorial ambition of the glass painter, active from the 
first, was kq>t for centuries within the bounds of decoration. 
Medallion subjects were framed in oriuunent, standing figures in 
canopywork, and pictures were conceived with regard to the 
window and its place in architecture. Severity of treatment in 
design may have been due more to the limitations of technique 
than to restraint on the part of the painter. The point is that it 
led to unsurpassed results. It was by absolute reliance upon the 
depth and brilliancy of self-coloured glass that all the beautiful 
effects of early glass were obtained. We need not compare early 
mosaic with later painted glass; each was in its way admirable; 
but the early manner is the more peculiar to glass, if not the more 
proper to it. The ruder and more archaic design gives in fullest 
measure the glory of glass — for the loss of which no quality of 
painting ever got in glass quite makes amends. The pictorial 
effects compatible with glass design are those which go with pure, 
brilliant and tramlucent colour. The ideal of a ** primitive" 
Italian painter was more or less to be realized in glass: that of a 
Dutch realist was not. It is astonishing what gUss painters did 
in the way of light and shade. But the fact remains that heavy 
painting obscured the gUss, that shadows rendered in opaque 
surface-colour lacked translucency, and that in seeking before all 
things the effects of shadow and relief, gUss painters of the 17th 
century fell short of the qualities on the one hand of glass and on 
the other of painting. 

The course of glass painting was not so even as this general 
survey of its progress might seem to imply. It was quickened 
here, impeded there, by historic events. The art madea splendid 
start in France; but its development was stayed by the disasters 
of war, just when in England it was thriving undei' the Planta- 
genets. It revived again under Francis I. In Germany it was 
with the prosperity of the free cities of the Empire that glass 
painting prospered. In the Netherlancb it blossomed out under 
the favour of Charles V. In the Swiss Confedcncy its direction 
was determined by civil and domestic instead of church patron^ 
age. In most countries there were in different districts local 
schools of glass painting, each with some character of its own. To 
what extent design was affected by national temperament it is not 
easy to say. The marked divergence of the Flemish from the 



French treatment of glaas in the x6th century is not entirely doe 
to a preference on the one part for colour and on the other for 
light and shade, biit is partly owing to the circumstance that, 
whilst in France design remained in the hands of craftsmen, 
whose trade was glass painting, in the Netherlands it was 
entrusted by the emperor to his court painter, who ooncemed 
himself as little as possible with a tedmique of which he knew 
nothing. If in France we come also upon the names of well- 
known artists, they seem, like Jean Cousin, to have been closely 
connected with gUss painting: they designed so like gkiss 
painters that they might have begun their artistic career in the 

The attribution of fine windows to famous artists should not 
be too readily accepted; for, thou^ it is a foible of modem 
tuac% to father whatever is noteworthy upon some great nanie, 
tho masterpieces of medieval art are due to unknown craftsmen. 
In Italy, where glass paintmg was not much practised, and it 
•eems to have been the custom either to import glass painters as 
they were wanted or to get work done abroad, it may well be 
that designs were supplied by artists more or las distinguished. 
Ghiberti and DonatellD may have had a hand in the cartoons for 
the windows of the Duomo at Florence; but it b not to any 
sculptor that we can give the entire credit of design so absolutely 
in the spirit of colour decoration. The employment of artists not 
connected with gl^ design would go far to expUin the great 
difference of Italian glass from that of other countries. The .14th- 
century work at Assisi is more correctly described as ** Trecento " 
than as Gothic, and the " Quattrocento " windows at Florence 
are as different as could be from Perpendicular work. One 
compares them instinctively with Italian paintings, .not with 
glass elsewhere. And so with the isth-centuxy Italian glass. 
The superb 16th-century windows of William of Marseille at 
Areuo, in which painting is carried to the furthest point possible 
short ol sacrificing the pure quality of glass, arc more according 
to contemporary French technique. Both French and Italian 
influence may be traced in Spanish glass (Avila, Barcelona, 
Burgos, Granada, Leon, Seville, Toledo). Some of it b said to 
have been eiecuted in France. If so it must have been done to 
Spanish order. The coarse effectiveness of the deugn, the 
strength of the colour, the general robustness of the art, are 
characteristically Spanish; and nowhere this side of the Pyrenees 
do we find detail on a scale so enormous. 

We have passed by, in following the progressive course of 
craftsmanship, some forqu of design, peculiar to no one period 
but very characteristic of glass. The " quarry window," barely 
referred to, its diamond-shaped or oblong panes painted, richly 
bordered, relieved by bosses of coloured ornament often heraldic, 
is of constant occurrence^ Entire windows, too, were from 
first to last given up to heraldty. The " Jesse window " occurs 
in every style. According to the fashion of the time the *' Stem 
of Jesse " burst out into conventional foliage, vine branches 
or arbitrary scrollwork. It appealed to the designer by the 
scope it gave for freedom of design. He found vent, again, 
for fantastic imagination in the representation of the "Last 
Judgment," to which the west window was commonly devoted. 
And there are other schemes in which he delighted; but this 
is not the place to dwell upon them. 

The glass of the f 7th century does not count for much. Some 
of the best in England is the work of the Dutch van Linge family 
(Wadham and Balliol CoUeges, Oxford). What glass painting 
came to in the i8th century is nowhere better to be seen than in 
the great west window of the ante-chapel at New College, Oxford. 
That is all Sir Joshua Reynolds and the best china painter of 
his day could do between them. The very idea of employing a 
china painter shows how entirely the art of the glass painter 
had died out. 

It re^woke in England with the Gothic revival of the igth 
century; and the Gothic revival determined the direaion 
modem glass should take. Early Victorian doings are interesting 
only as marking the steps of recovery (cf . the work of T. WiUemcnt 
in the choir of the Temple church; of Ward and Nixon, lately 
removed from the south transept of Westminster Abbey; of 

Wailes) . Better things begin with the windows at Westminiier 
inspired by A. C. Pugin, who exercised considerable inflnenc^ 
over his contemporaries. John Powell (Hardman & Co.) was 
an able artist content to walk, even after that master's death, 
reverently ia his footsteps. Charles Winston, whose Hints 
an Class PahUing was the first real contribution towards the 
understanding of Gothic glass, and who, by the aid of the Pbwells 
(of Whitefriars) succeeded in getting soroethuig very like the 
texture and colour of old glass, was more learned in ancient 
ways of workmanship than appreciative of the art resulting 
from them. (He is responsible for the Munich gUss in Glasgow 
cathedral.) So it was that, except for here and there a window 
entrusted by exception to W. Dyce, E. Poynter, D. G. Rossetti, 
Ford Madox Brown or E. Qurae-Jones, glass, from the beginning 
of its recovery, fell into the hands of men with a strong bias 
towards archaeology. The ardiitects foremost in the Gothic 
revival (W. Butterfield. Sir G. Scott, G. E. Street, &c.) wwe all 
Inclined that way; and, as they had the placing of commissions 
for windows, they controlled the policy of gfaiss painters. 
Designers were constrained to work in the pedantically archaeo- 
logical manner prescribed by architectural fashion. Unwillingly 
as it may have been, they made mock-medieval windows, the 
inter^t in which died with the popular illusion about a Gothic 
reviv^kl. But they knew their trade; and when an artist like 
John Clayton (master of a whole school of later glass painters) 
took a window in hand (St Augustine's, Kilbura; Tmro cathedral; 
King's College Chapel, Cambridge) the result was a work of art 
from which, tradework 'as it may in a sense be, we may gather 
what such men might have done had they been left free to follow 
their own artistic Impulse. It is necessary to refer to thb because 
it is generally supposed that whatever is best in recent glass is 
due to the romantic movement. The charms of Burae-Jones's 
design and of William. Morris's colour, place the windows done 
by them among the triumphs of modern decorative art; but 
Morris was neither foremost in the reaction, nor quite such a 
master of the material he was working in as he showed himself 
in less exacting crafts. Other artists to be mentioned in con> 
nexion with glass design are: Clement Heaton, Bayne, N. H. J. 
Westlake and Henry Holiday, not to speak of a younger genera- 
tion of able men. 

Foreign work shows, as compared with English, a less just 
appreciation of glass, though the foremost draughtsmen of 
their day were enlisted for its design. In Germany, Ring Louis 
of Bavaria employed P. von Cornelius and W. von Kaulbach 
(Aix-Ia-Chapelle, Cologne, Glasgow); in France the bourbons 
employed J. A. D. Ingres, F. V. E. Delacroix, Vernet and J. H. 
Flandrin (Dreux); and the execution of their designs was 
entrusted to the most expert pajntcrs to be procured at Munich 
and Sevres; but all to little effect. They either used potmetal 
glass of poor quaUty, or relied upon enamel — with the result 
that their colour laclu the qualities of glass. Where it is not 
heavy with paint it is thin and crude. In Belgium happier 
results were obtained. In the chapel of the Holy Sacrament at 
Brussels there is one window by J. B. Capronnicr not unworthy 
of the fine series by B. van Orley which it supplements. At the 
best, however, foreign artists failed to appreciate the quality 
of glass; they put better draughtsmanship into their windows 
than English designers of the mid-Victorian era, and painted 
them better; but they missed the glory of translucent colour. 

Modem facilities of manufacture make possible many things 
which were hitherto out of the question. Enamel colours are 
richer; their range is extended; and it may be possible, with 
the improved kilns and greater chemical knowledge we possess, 
to make them hold permanently fast. It was years ago demon- 
strated at Sevres how a picture may be painted in colours upon 
a sheet of plate-glass measuring 4 ft. by 3| ft. We are now no 
doubt in a position to produce windows painted on much larger 
sheets. But the results achieved, technically wonderful as they 
are, hardly warrant the waste of time and labour upon work so 
costly, so fragile, so lacking in the qxialities of a picture on the 
one hand and of glass on the other. 

In America, John la Farge, finding European material not 



enongh, produced potmetal more lieavity chained with restrained from self-expression. ' Moreover, the recognition of 

colour. This was wilfully streaked, mottled and quasi- the artistic position of craftsmen in general makes it possible 

accidentally varied; some of it was opalescent; much of it was for a man to devote himself to glass without sinking to the rank 

more like agate or onyx than jewels. Other forms oi American of a mechanic; and artists begin to realize the scope glass offers 

enterprise were : the making of glass in lumpa, to be chipped them. What they lack as yet is experience in their craft, and 
into flakes; the ruckling it; 
the shaping it in a molten Examples i^ Importani Historical Stained Glass, 

sUte, or the pulling it out of There are remains of the earliest knom'n glaas: in France— «t Le Mans, Chartres, Ch&lons-sur-Mame, 

shaoe It takes an artist of Angcn and Poitiers cathedrals, the abbey church of Sc Denis and at St Remi, Reims: in England— «t 

^^L...^^ ♦«. n.«i.. :..^.v;»... ^^^ miniter (fragments): in Germany— at Augsbuig and Straasburg cathedrals: in Auttna— in the 

some reserve to make judraous doirtera of Heilifen Kreu*. 

use of glass like this. La Farge The following u a cUaified lirt of some of the most characteristic and imporUnt windows, omitting 
and L. C. Tiffany have turned it for the most part iM^ted examples, and giving by preference the names of churches where there is a fair 
to beautiful account* but even <^°^unt of glass remaining; the country in which at each period the art throve best u put first. 

they have put it to purposes 
more pictorial than it can 
properly fulfil. The design it 
calls for is a severely abstract 
form of ornament verging upon 
the barbaric. 

Le Mans 


. cathedml& 

Of late years each country Ste Chapelle, Paris, 
has been learning so much Church of St Jeon-aux-Boia. 

from the others that the 
newest effort is very much in 
one direction. It seems to be 
agreed that the art of the 
window-maker begins with 
gjaxing, that the all-needful 
thing is beautiful glass, that 
painting may be reduced to a 
minimum, and on occasion 
(thanks to new developments 
in .the 

York minster. 
Ely cathedral. 
Wells cathedral. 
Tewkesbury abbey. 

Church of St Francis, Assisi. 
Church of Or San Michele, 
making of glass) dis- Church of S. Petronb, Bologna, 
with altogether. A 

Eaklv Gothic 
Canterbury ) 
Salisbury V cathedrals. 
Lincoln ) 
York minster. 

Middle Gothic 


Church of St Kunibert, Cologne 

Cologne catMdral. 


Church of St Sebald, Nuremberg. £vreux cathedral 

StraasburK <) 




Church of Nieder Haslach. 

tendency has developed itself England, 

in the direction not merely of New College. Oxford, 
mosaic, but of carrying the Gloucester cathedral. 
^biaer's art farther than has 
been done before and render- 
ing landscapes and even figure 
subjects in unpainted glass. 
When, however, it comes to 
the representation of the 
human face, the limitations 
of simple lead-glazing are at 
once apparent. A possible 
way out of the difficulty was 
shown at the Paris Exhibition 
(rf 1900 by M. Tournel, who, 
by fusing together coloured 
tesserae on to larger pieces of 
colourless ^ass, anticipated the 

discovery of the already men- _ 

tioned fragment of Bysantine Church of St ^tiennc, Bcauvais. 
mosaic now in the Victoria Church of St Nizicr, Troyes. 

Brou, Bourg-en- 

Latb Gothic 

tS^T Icathedrals. 
York, minster and otherchurches. Church of Notre Dame. Alen^on. 
Great Malvern abbey. , , 

Church of St Mary, Shrewsbury. '*«>• 

Fairford church. The Duomo, Florence. 

Transition Period 
The choir of thecathcdralat Auch. 

Church of St Pierre, Chartres. 
Cathedral and church of St 

Urbain, Troves. 
Church of SteKadegonde,PDitiers. 
Cathedral and church of St Ouen, 


Toledo cathedral. 


Ulm V cathedrals. 
Munich ) 
Church of St Lorenz, Nuremberg. 

Toledo cathedral. 

St Vincent ) 
St Patrice \ Rouen. 
St Godard J 

Church of St Foy. Conches. 
Church of St Gervais, Paris. 
Church of St Etienne-du-Mont, 



Brussels cathedral. 

Church of St Jacques ) 

Church of St Martin [ 

Cathedral ) 


Lucerne and most of the other 
principal museums. 





I cathedrals. 

Pans. Arezxo } (..fiMflrBla. 

Church of St Martin, Mont- Milan f f"^'"'* 

morencvj^ Certosa di Pavia. 

Church of £a>uen. 


Church of 

The Chateau de Chantilly. 


Gfoote Kirk, Gouda. 
Choir of Brussels cathedral. 

and Albert Museum. He may 
have seen or heard of some- 
thing of the sort. There would 
be no advantage in building 
up whole windows in this 
way; but for the rendering of 
the flesh and sundry minute Antwerp cathedraL 
details in a window for the 
most part heavily leaded, this 
fusing together of tesserae, 
and even of little pieces of 

glass cut carefully to shape, seems to supply the want of some- 
thmg more in keeping with severe mosaic gazing than painted 
flesh proves to be. 

Glass painters are allowed to-day a freer hand than formerly. 
They are no longer exclusively engaged upon ecclesiastical work; 
domestic glass is an important industry; and a workman once 
comparatively exempt from pedantic control is not so easily 


Kin|(*8 College chapel, 

Lichfield cathedral. 

St George's churph, Hanover 
Square, London. 

St Margaret's church, West- 


Balliol h colleges, Oxford. 
New ) 

Church of S. Petronio, Bologna. 
Church of Sta Maria Novella. 

Freiburg cathedral. 

Lath Rbnaissancb 

Church of St Martin-^Vignes, 

Nave and transepts of Auch 


Most museums. 

perhaps due workmanlike respect for traditional ways of work- 
manship. When the old methods come to be superseded 
it will be only by new ones evolved out of them. At present the 
conditions of glass painting remain very much what they were. 
The supreme beauty of glass is still in the purity, the brilliancy, 
the translucency of its colour. To make the most of this the 
designer must be master of bis trade. The test of window design 



b, no* u ever, that il itaouM bave notblnf to Iom and cveiythliig 

BiBLia<it*rH1.—ThH.platat,irO<iflJui(MUAt' I •« 
ll^Tli Clwila Whkoii, Am Inqnry uU lit DtS^'i -ylt 

-* "- -■- '-~-M Gbui PaaOi'u. «pB«iU* t- ''"' "' 

1»^; N. a J. WcBlikc. X bitUHz ./flmp. ■- /- 

^ mU.. Loodoa. laSi-iOu): L. F. Day Wtndmei I 

H->- '->jPaMe^»ui(Loiidan.>«n)*iul5u<<wJ6 

. W- FrvUra, X 000A ■/ OnumnJal Gla 

iSM): 'I Booit if Simdwj DnailOa btm 


Hebrew and the cognate dialecti; in i6iv be n 
djunctua " ot the philouphicAl fuuhy, uid kodji 
-time-aftemiils be received u appoinlment to the chiic 

hiiucn; but ihortly ifln Ihr deatb of Gerhard (16J7) he *u 

him al Jeal. In 1640, however, al the earnest invitation 
DuLe Em«i thf Fioui. he removed to Golba u court pteaibc 


_. . il, Ix, of the DiUHnHin ram 
I ; O. Merton. La Vi 

dt rankiseavt (Paria, 1866); O. Merton. La ^imu. BMto- 
Mame it rnHiptrmtnl in ieaHi-artt (Pani. 189$) E. Levy aod 
J. B, Capronnkr, HiUoire ie ta pamun tv 'Km (coioarBd tutet) 
IBnMeb, 1860): Olii, Li VOnU. m tiUwe i uatn In im 
(l^iii); tkm Ee VM, VAn it la ftbOm nr tint Hit la tUrtrit 
(Pun, ITT4): C Calliet and A. Martin, Vitranx tti«li it Bivrm 
£■ Xtit' l&ll b voli., Parih l«4I-ie44): S. ClemcnT inA A. 
GuEurd. Viliaux ia Xltl- tUtkitte laHMtiOt it Bwfci (Bbunn, 
1900)1 M. A. Ceaen. Ctitlaciu itr dttmoltni in PeMKUomi 
mni itw SitiirloaitM, FraMkrtick, England, &c.. Ha ilmwi Uriprmu 
■ •■ ■naU Ziit (TBbinjp " " . . T-» 

i> Freiburier USmltTt. 3 pam (I 

im.ea.); A. Kalner, Cktfi^m 


3-187^), German t 

fhani'i office, he took to 
journalism, and. in iS^i edited Don Qnixotr. a periodical which 
waa suppressed in 1633 owing to ila levGlutiDnary tendenciea. 
He neil, under the pseudonyin AitI/ Brcnnilai. publiahcd 1 
aerin of pictures of Berlin life, under the tilla BcrlinwU u 
isl mni—lrintl (30 paiti, with illustraliona, 183^1349), and 
Bunia Birlin {14 pam, with illusiraiiona, Berlin, 1857-1858), 
and thus became the founder of a popular aalirical literature 
auocialed with modern Berlin. In 1S40 he married (be actress 
Adele Peroni (1813-189;), and removed in the foUowing year 
10 Neuslrctili, where hit wife bad obtained an engagement al 
the Grand ducal theatre. In 1848 Claashrenuer entered the 

in Hecklenburg-Slreliti. EipcUedfrom that country in iSjo, 
he KItled in Hamburg, where he remained until iSji; iud then 
he became editor of the HffniagatilKn[iaBtt\in, where be died