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Gift of 

John Raw I ings 








In three nJumes, 

1768— X771, 



ten „ 




eighteen „ 

X788 1797. 



twenty '„ 

1801— iSio* 



twenty „ 

iSis— 1S17. 



twenty „ 




twenty-one „ 




twenty-two „ 




twenty-five „ 



ninth ec 

ition and eleven 

tupplementary volumes, 

X902— 1903. 




in twenty-nine volumei. 

1910— 1911. 













Copyright, in the United States of America, 1910. 

The Encyclopaedia Britannica Company. 





















A. A. B. Andikw Alexamdbs Blair. f 

Chief Chemut. U.S. Geological Survey and Tenth U.S. Cenaua, iBn-imA 
Membcf Amerioan Philoaopiucal Society. Author o£ Ckameal AnaiyHs qf Irom; Ac I 

Altied Baxton Remdle, F.R.S., F.L.S^ D.Sc. / AnciMMniii (i» AorDs ABBbu 

Keeper of the Department of Botany, British Muyum. I ^•^^ ^ '^'' ^"^ 

Albert Charles Robinson Carter. /ArtSoidatiM. 

Editor of Tks Yw't ArL \ «»•«■"»• 

AjKHim CoE Spencer, Ph.D. J AsDakehlRB Momiiat— 

Geologirt to the Geological Survey of the United States. \ ^^* — M«M««i». 

Arthttr Francis Leach, M.A. f 


Albert Frederick Pollard, M.A., F.R.Hist.Soc. f 

Professor of EagGsh History in University of London. Fellow of All Souls' College, i Ask0W. 
Oxford. I 

IIajox Artbttr George Frederick Grifixtrs (d. xgoS). f ...^__. .__ 

RM. Inspector of Prisons, 1878-1896. Author of The CkronicUs of NewgfiieA Alltlliopomiliy. 
Seertts of tkt Prison Bouse; &c. I 

Rev. Archibald Henry Sayce, D.LnT., LL.D., D.D. /Annr: Cit»' Amir-iiaiii.P^ 

See the biographical article: Saycb, A. H. I ^ ' «wir-«wii-rw. 

Sn A. Huif T UM-SCHINDLBR, CLE. J RfldlAklt 

General in the Persian Army. Author of £uleni Pcrnaii /raik. -^JUVSDU. 

Andrew Jackson Lamoureux. f AifintliiR: Ceograpkjf. 

Librarian. College of Agriculture. Cbmdl University. Editor of the Rio News \ Aranddn; 
(Rio de Janeiro), 1879-1901. I Ataeams, Desert oL 

Andrew Lano. / *-«-Hfii»n« 

See the biographical article: Lano. Andrew. \ APPmUons. 

AoNES Mary Clerxe. / Aslnnomf: History. 

See the biographical article: Clbrkb. A. M. I iuvvamaj. atsiory. 

Alexander Stuart Murray, LL.D. / Ann^iiAt f«> sarA 

SeethebiographicAl article: Murray, Alexander Stuart. -j^«vw«iw* vm pan/. 

Antoine TtoOMAS, D.-is-L. f 

Professor in the University of Paris. Member of the Institute of Franoe. Diractor J awi> w^y^ « Towtu 
of Studies at the £cole Pratique dcs Hautes Etudes. Author of Les £tals pro-\ 
oincioMx de la Pranee centraU sous Charles YJJ; &c. i- 

Alexander Wood Renton, M.A., LL.B. f AnDorllaiiiiiAiit- 

Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of Ceykm. Editor of Encyclopaedia of the Lows 4 AiMtnttoiL 

Lord Baijcarres. M.P., F.S.A. f ^ 

Eldest son cA the 26th Earl of Crawford. Trustee of National Portrait Gallery. •{ Art QallBriei. 
Hon. Secretary, Society for Protection of Ancient Buildings. Author of Demalello; &c. L 

Sot BovERTON Redwood, D.Sc., F.R.S. (Edin.), Assoc.Inst.C.E., M.Inst.M.E. f 

Adviser on Petroleum to the Admiralty, the Home Oflke and the Indian Oltke. *( AspDRIt. 
President, Society Chcuiical lod., I907>i908. L 

CBAMNtnG Arnold. /AostnllB: Aboritmu. 

Univenity College, Oxford. Barristcr-at-law. Author of The American EgypL \ 

Charles B£iiont. D.-«»-L., D.Lirr. (Oxon.). / AbiirIs; ABSehne; 

See the biographical article: B&iont. Charles. \ Arbols de JubBiBvUls; Anltid. 

Charles Chree, M.A., D.Sc., LL.D., F.R.S. f Atmespheite EleetrtoHy; 

Superintendent, Observatory Department, National Physical Laboratory. Formcriy -< Anmr* PniAvfe 
Fellow of King^s College, Cambridge. President. Physical Society of London. \ AUTOim roiam. 

'A complete list, showiqg all individual contribuUMrs, appears in tlie final volume. 



C. EL Sn Ceaxles Norton Edgecumbb Euot, K.C.M.G., C.B., M.A., LL.D., D.C.L. r 

Vice-Chancellor of Sheffield Univenity. Scholar of BalUol, Oxford, 1 881-1885. 
Hertfocd. Boden. Ireland. Craven and Derby Scholar. Fellow of Trinity. Third J 

SecreUry Embassy at St Pctersburs, 1 888-1893; Constantinople, 1893-1858.1 Aill, Histay, 
Commissioner for British East Africa. 1900-1904. Author of Turkey i» Emro^; I 
Later s from the Par EasL ^ 

C.F.A. Charles Francis AnmisoH. ^, , ^ ^ *» - «» , f Aimaiid Aniiow:F*«a«w: 



C H. Bd. Cbarlbs Hkrcuus Rbad, LL,D. (St Andrews). 

Keeper of British and Medieval Antiquities and Ethnogcaphy. British Museum. 
PfeiSdent of the Sodety of Antiquaries of London. Pint Presideat oC the Anthro- 
pological Institute. Author oC Antiquities from Benin ; Ac 

C.PL Christian PnsTSR, D.-ift-L. fAiitnistfoB: 

Profesaor at the Sorbonne, Paris. Chevalier of the Lcgioa of Honour. Authors an«««««u 

of Etudes tnr le rkgne dt Rfbert k Fitiut. 

C. PL Rev. Charles PmiofER, M.A. 

Fellow of Corpus Christi CoUem, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1901. Author of L^ei Allglo4aiiOa ChTOIllclS. 

and Times of Alfred the Great; &C, I 

C W.* CBARLBS Waldstsin, MA., D.LITT.. PB.D. f 

Slade Professor of Fine Art, CamDrkl0e. Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. J Aivna* The HeraMum^ 

Director of the FitxwUliam Museum at Cambridge, 1883^1889. Director of Uie | ~»'"* **» «"^"*"w« 

Amcckaa Archaeological School at Athens. 1880-180.^ I 





Amcckaa Archaeological School at Athens, 1889-1893. 

C W. W. Sn Charles William Wilson, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S. (1836-X897). 

Major-General. Royal Engineers. Secretary to the North American Boundary 
Commission, 1858-1862. British Commissioner on the Servian Boundary Com- 
mission. Director-General of the Ordnance Survey, 1886-1894. Director- 
Genenl of Miliury Education, 1895-1898. Author of Prom K«rti to Khartum; 
Life of Lord Cliee ; &c 

D. C. B. Demetrius Charles Boulcer. f 

Author of Engiand and Russia in CnUmX Asia; History of China; Life of Cofdon;A Antwvyt 
India in the i^lh Century; History of Belgium ; Sec V 

D. F. T. Donald Francis Tovby. f 

BalUol College, Oxford. Author of Essays in Musical Analysis, comprising Thei^Axit, 
Classical Concerto, TheGoUberg Varta/iam. and analysesof many other classical works. I 

D. G.H. David George Hogarth, M.A. 

Keeper Of the Ashmolcan Museum. Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. 

Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naukratis, 1899 < f^j^ Iffi&or; Aspendos: 

and 1903: Ephcsus, 1904-1905; Assiut, 1906-1907. Director, British School 
Athens, 1897-1900. Director, CreUn Exploratran Fund, 1899. 


Antloeb; Apubm; Ambfir; 


D.H. David Hannay. f Anson, Baron; 

FormcHy British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History ^ ihe Royal < Antonio, Prior of Cnto; 

Naoy, 1217-1688; Life of Emilia Castetar; Ac. t Aiinla, Count of; Armada. 

B. Br. Ernest Barker, M.A. C 

Fellow and Lecturer of St Jdin's College, Oxfocd. Formcriy FcUow and Tutor of J Atdle ConnelL 

Merton College. (^ 

B. B. T. Edward Burnett Tylor, F.R.S., D.C.L. (Oxon.). / Anthromdoo. 

Sec the biographical artfcle : Tylor, E. B. \ «ii«i™i»wi,#. 

B.C.B. Right Rev. Edward Cuthbert Butler, 0S3., D.Litt. (Dubl.). r Anthony, Saint; Augiirtltlan 

Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath. i Canons; Augnstlnian 

L Hennlts; Augnstlnlana. 
BIM. Eduaro Meyer, DXiTT. (Oxon.). f Arbaess; Ardashlr; Anaow; 

Professor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Author of Cescktckte des * --^. A»**h»iiii«» 
AUertkums; Forschungen zur alien GeschichU; Ceschichte des alten Aegyptens\ Die* 7!r^l'**""^"l' 
Jsraekteu und ihre NadUwstHmme; Ac ArUphomss; ArtUtnis; 

B. G. Edmund Gosse, LL.D. r • vi ^ •• 

Sec the biographical article: Cosss, E. W. J Asbjomsen and Hoo; 

^ L Assonanflo. 

B.O.* Edmund Owen, M.B., F.R.C.S.. LL.D., D.Sc. ^»»ii«««w. 

Consulting Surgeon to St Mary's Hospital^ London, and to the Children's Hospital, I 
Great Ormond Street. Late Examiner m Surgery at the Universities of Cam--{ 

Consulting Surgeon to St Mary's Hospital. London, and to the Children's Hospital, I aiMnrnm* 
Great Ormond Street. Late Examiner m Surgery at the Universities of Cam--) ._^J,,;.JL 
bridge, Durham and London. Author of A Manual of Anatomy for Senior StudenU. [ AWenoieius, 

B.P. H.* Ernest Prescot Hill, M.INST.C.E. f. ^ ^. .^ j 

Mcmbcrof.thefirinofG.A,Hm&Soii8,avilEngineerB.Loiidon. -J^AqnadiWt: Modem. 

Sir Edwin Ray Lanesster, K.C.B.. F.R.S., D.Sc. (Oxon.) LL.D. 

Hon. Fellow of Exeter College, Oxford. President of the British Association, IQ06. 
Professor of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy in University College, London, 
1874-1890. Linacre Professor of Comparative Anatomy at Oxford, 1891-1898. 
Director of the Natural History DepartmenU of the British Museum. 1898-1907. 
Vice-President of the Royal Society, 1896. Romanes Lecturer at Oxford, 1905. 
Author of I>«£eii«raltofi; Jlie Advancement of Science i The Kingdom ^ Man; &c. 


B. Th» Rev. Etbelred Leonard Taunton (d. 1907). f ^ . ^ ^ 

Author of The Engfish Black Monks ef St Benedict; History of the Jesuits ini Aqvaviva, daaOlO. 

England; &c L 

B. V. L. "Edward Verrall Lucas. J Austin, laao. 

Editor of Letters of Charles and Mary Lamb, Author of Life ef Charles Lamb. \ 














H. F. T. 


Fbzoeucs Cosnwalus CoMVBXAn, M^ D.Tli. (GfeaMa). 

Formerly Fellow ol UniveraitY College, Oxford. Fcltow of the British Academy. 
Author of Tlf Atlcitut Arwumian Ttxis tf Aristode; Myth, Mlagie and Mtralii Ac. 

VkmucK GiniER Passows, F.R.C.S., VJUS,, ¥.RAkxbrop.1hst, 

Vioe-PrMident Anatomical Sode^ of Great Britain and Irdaad. Lecturer on 
Anatomy at Sc Thomas'»xHoapital and the London School of Medicine for 
Women. Formerly Examiner in the Univcrntiea of Cambridfe* Aberdeen. London 
and Birmti«ham; and Hunterian Profcwor at the Royal CoU^ of Suiseooa. 

r Anotaittng; AnMnbui Chinh; 
•I Armtnlan Langoagt aii4 
[ Utontara; AiMlMin. 


Ymanos Hbmbt Nbvuui, ICA., F.ILS. 

FeOow of Sidney Suaex College. Cambridge, and Lecturer on Physics and 

FkAMCB LLBWiLim GturiTB. M^., FH.D. (Leipiig). F.S.A. 

Reader in EgyploloKy, Oxford. Editor of the Archaeological Survey and Ardiaco- 
logical ReixNts of the Egypt Eaptocatioa Fund. Fellow of the Imperial German 
Archaeological Institute. 

FkAn R. Cana. 

Author of South Africa fnm At Gnat 7W* to tk$ Uniam, 

Sn Fkank T. Marziau, C.B. 

Fonnerfy Accoununt-General of the Army. Author of lJ;wt$ dl VUlor Ifiifa; 

FtaoaacK Walxss Mott, F.R.S., M.D. 

Physidaa to Charing Cross HospitaL Patbokmst to the London County Asylums. 
FuUerian Professor dT Physiology at the Royal Institution. 


Curator and librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, Lo n don, 1879*1900. 
Plcsideot of the GeologisU' Association, 1887-1889. 

GnsEXT Bovxmx. M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S., D.Sc. (Ozon.). 

Linacre Professor of Comparative Anatomy at Oxford. Fellow of Merton 
College, Oxford. 

RXV. GEOItGE Edmxtmdson. M.A., F.R.HIST.S. 

Formeriy Fellow and Tutor of Brascnose College, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1909. 

GsoK«B Hexbbst CARmrrEKy B.Sc. 

Professor of Zoology in the Royal College <4 Sdenoe, Dublin. President of the 
Association of Economic Biologists. Author of Insects: Iknr StruUmn and Lift. 

GxoxcB Hbkbsxt Fowues, F.Z.S., F.L.S., Ph-.D. 

Formerly Berkeley Fellow of Owens College, Manchester, and Assistant Professor 
of 2Soology at University College. London. 

GuMTAV KsUgbk. Ph.D. 

Professor of Church History, Univernty of Gieasen. Author of Das Popsttmm; &e. 


Profeasor of Latin in the Untvvnity of Wisconsin. Author oC 71s Grsol IfsHhtr of 

Gboxgx Willis Bonyoxo, A.M. 

Professor in Columbia Univenity, New York. Author of 771s Romau AssemUits 
(1909); 4c 

Rbv. GnriRBBS Whexles I^iches, M.A., B.D. 

Warden of Camden College, Sydney, N.S.W. Formeiiy Tutor in Hebrew and 
OU Testament History at Mansfield CoUege, Oxford. 

HmatT Batteskamn, F.G.S. (d. 1909). 

Formeriy Lecturer on Metalluivy at the Ordnance College, Wodlwkb. Author of 
A Tnatut on tho MttaOwgy ef Iron. 

Hugh Chishouc, MA. 

Formeriy Scholar of Corpus Christi Coll«e.^Oxf(lrd. Editor of the i ith edition of 
the BMcycLopaedia BritannUa\ 00-editor ofthe loth edition. 

Haiis Fuzoricr Gadow, F.R.S., FH.D. 

Strickland Curstor and Lecturer on Zoology in the University of Cambridge. 
Author of Amphibia and lUptiies. 

Hbhet FkANCis Pelham. LL.D. 

See the biographical artidec Pblbaii, H. F. 

Rev. Hbnby Fanshawe Tozer, M.A., F.R.G.S. 

Hon. Fellow of Exeter College, Oxford. Fellow of the British Academy. Corre- 
sponding Member of Historical Society of Greece. Author of Lectures on the Geo- 
gra^y of Greece ; History of A ncient Geof^phy. Editor of Finlay's History pfGreeu. 



Henxt Heathcotb Statbam, F.RJ.B.A. 

Editor of The Builder. Author of Architecture (Modem) for General Readers', 
Modem Architecture: &c. 

Hectob Munxo Chadwick, M.A. 

PeHow and Librarian of Clare College, Cambridfe^ Author of Studies on An^ 
Saxon Jnstitutiont. 


Ansblf ; Apb; 
Avint; AsBuaa. 

AaglMr, Q. V. K. 





AigtDttiiB: History. 



Arfut; AfhiDBsliia; 
AiigtisdiM» Saint (of Hlno). 



*ABtaia ibn Shaddid; 

Arabia: Antiquities, History, 
Uterainre; Arabian PhlUH 
•Op^ {in part); A'Sbi; 

Asli*Aif; AanaT; Aoauln. 


ArsjIL Barb and DokM of 
(in part)', Asqultb, H. H. 




Ansttons and AootlonNn. 

Arehltectnia: Modem. 

Angll; Anglo-Saaniii. 

H. If . D. 









1 D. Pr. 


1. Q. F. 

*a Ha Aa H* 



J. MM. 

Hensy Newton Dickson, M.A., D.Sc. (Qxon.), F.R.G^., FJRJS. (Edm.). 
Profciaor of Geosfaphy. University College. Rcadii^^ Author of 
MeUondogyi Papers mt Ouanogroifkyi Ac 

Henbi S£e. 

Profenor in the Univeraty of Rennet. 

Hugh Sbekingham. 

Angling Editor of The Field (tondoo). 

ISBAEL Abrahams, MJL 

Reader in Talmudic and Rabbtnic Literature, University of Cambfidtge. President, 
Jewish Historical Society of Easland. Author of A Skirt Hislery of JewiA LUera- 
lure; JemUk Life in Ike Middle Aies. 

ISAAC Bayley Baltour, F.R.S., M.D. 

King's Botanist in Scotland. Resius Keeper of Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. 
Professor of Botany in the_ University of_ Edinburgh. Rq(ius Professor of 


Ame of Brittimf • 

Botany in the Univernty of Glasgow, 1 879-1 884. Shcrardian Fifofessor of Botany 
in the Univernty of Oxford, 1884-1888. 

John Allen Howe, B.Sc. 

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London. 

Vexv Rev. Joseph ARmrAOB Robinson, M.A.. D.P. 

Dean of Westminster. FcUow of the British Academy. Hon. Fellow of Christ's 
College. Cambridge. Formerly Fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge, and Norrisian 
Professor of Divinity. Author of Some Tkougkis on the liuarnalion ; &c 

Sn John Batty Tuke, M.D., LL.D. (Edin.), D.Sc. (DubL) 

n'rendcnt of the Neurc^ical Society of the United Kingdom. Medical Director 
of New SatMhton Hall Asylum, Edihburgh. M.P. for the Univerrities of Edinburgh 
and St Andrews, I900-i9ia 

John Bilson. 

External Examiner in Architecture, University of Manchester. 

James DAvm Boitxchier, M.A., F.R.G.S. 

Correspondent of The Times in South-Eastcrn Europe. Commander of the Orders 
of Prince Danilo of Montenegro and of the Saviour of Greece, and Officer of the 
Order of St Alexander of Bulgaria. 

John Dyneley Pkince, Ph.D. 

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York. Took part in 
the Expedition to Southern Babylonia, 1888-^. Author of A Criticai Commentary 
en Ihe Booh of DasUeti Assyrian Primer. 

John George Clark Anderson, M.A. 

Student, Censor and Tutor of Christ Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow. 1896. 
Formeriy Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford. Joint-author of Slmdica PotUiea. 

Sxi Joshua Girlino Ftrcn. 

See the biographical article: Fitch, Sir Joshua G. 

Joseph G. Horner, A.M.I.Mech.E. 

Author of Plating and Boiler J/aAi«f ; Ac. 

Sir James George Scott^ K.C.I.E. 

Superintendent and Political Officer, Southern 9ian States. Author of Burma, a 
Uaudbook; The Upper Burma Catetteeri &c. 

John Henry Arthur Hart, M.A. .^ 

Fdknir, Lecturer and Librarian of St John's College, Cambridge. 

John Henry Freese, M.A. 

Formerly Fellow of St John's College^ Cambridge. 

John Horace Round. M.A., LL.D. (Edin.). 

Author of Feudal Enifand; Peeragjs and Peiigrtei &c. 

John Holland Rose. M.A., Litt.D. 

Lecturer on Modem History to the Cambridge University Local Lectures 
Syndicate. Author of Life of Napoleon I; Napoleonic Studies; The Deodopment tj 
lie European Nations; TheLtfe of PiU; Chapters in the Cambridie Modem History. 

Jules Isaac. 

Professor of History at the Lyc6e of Lyons. 

BCiss Jessie L. Weston. 

Author of Arthurian Romances. 

Jobs Malcolm Mitchell. 

Formerly Scholar of Queen's Coll^, Oxford. Lecturer in Classics, East London 
College (University olLonden). Joint-editor of Grote's History of Greece. 

James Macqueen. 

Member and Fellow of the^ Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons. Professor of 


'Aster B«a JtbM. 

Anglospflniis (In part). 

Arebean System; 
Arenlg Groaf. 

ArisHdes, Apologj of. 


AitbltMtart: Romanesque and 
Gothic, in En^atid. 


Amr (BfUleaD. 


Anoid» Matthew (m ^). 


ArehelRQS, King of Jodasn; 
Asmonens; Afsldeans. 

Annalists; Aplirodits; ApoOos 
Arternh; Athena. 

Aitmdel, BaiUom oL 


Anne of Franet. 

Arthur (King); 
Arthorlan Legend. 

'Aifneduet: Ancient and 
Mediefol; Aqnlnas, Thomaf 
(f» part); Arehon; Arms 

. and Armour: Ancient. 


Parasitic Diseases of Ihe Domesticated Animals (2nd edition). 



Jean Paul Hippolyte Emmanuel Adh£mar Esmein. 

Professor of Law in the Univernty cd Paris. Officer of the Legion of Honour, j «.«.-.«. 
Member of the Institute of France. Author of Cours iUmenlaire d'hittairt du\ Appanagf. 
droit franfois; die 


J. 8. p. 


Founder and Hoo. Sec. of the Netiooal lindtiitioii of AppRotkobtp, Loodoa. \ M*w^vuMomiu^ 

John Smitb Fler, D.Sc, F.G.S. f 

Pe uuMa pher to the Geological Survey. Formeriy Lecturer on Petrology in Edin- J 
jr. Neai Medallist 
Gec^o^cal Society 

Author of MUagttnr and df Ptopk; Ac 

Tames Veimon Baktlkt, MJl, D.D. (St Andrewi). ( AmimlM* 

ProfeMor of Church Hiatoiy, Mansfield College. Oxford. Author of Thi Apostolic < j^^||q p^ftaL 

h W. 0. John Waltis Gxegoxy, F.R.S., D.Sc. 

N aioTH rLETT, i/.ac, f .u.a. i 

Petrographer to the Geological Survey. Formerly Lecturer on Petrology in Edin^ J a«]|«» 
burgh UniveiUty. NeQl Medallist of the Royal Society of Edintwrgh. Bigaby 1 ^^V""** 
Medallist of the Geological Society of London. I 

Rsv. Jahks SiBin. •TAiiteiiiButitt. 

Author of JrfldafafMra»iflfPso^;ftc -^gu»MmamMmta^ 

» Waltxs Gxegoxy, r.R.S., D.Sc. f ._^,. „^ . . 

Professor of Geotocy. University of Glasgow. Professor of Geoloey and J Awtnlte: Pkysteat 

Mineralogy. University of Melbourne. 1900-1904. Author of Tlu Dead aeart 0} | Ceograpky. 

Auslralia: Australasia. l 

Australia; Australasia, 

I. W. Bt. James Wyczxm Hbadlam, M.A. ^ f 

Stall Inspector of Secondary Schools under the Board of Education. Formerly J 
Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. Professor of Greek and Ancient Hutory at i Alllilll» GoOBt 
Queen's Collevei London. Author of Bismarck and the Foundatiou of tko German [ 
Empire; &c ^ 

K. B, Kaibuxn Schlbsingxx. / Anhoiil: Asor: Adoi. 

Author of n«/sstraMral«tf/ lie (MbMtro. ^~»-v . ant, imm. 

L. H.* LOfua Halpben. D.-is-L. f 

Lecturer on Medieval Hutory at the University of Bordeaux. Fonnerty Secretary i AbJoh. 
of the £cole des Chartes. Pteis. I 

AnlqrMli; ABtartto; 
Ifc 1. & Lbonabd James Srnceh, M.A., F.G.S. 

Department of Mineralogy, British Museum. Formerly Scholar of Sidney Sussex 
College, Cambridge, and narkncss Scholar. Editor of toe Mineralogical Mapuine. 

L. II. Br. Louis Mauxice Bkandin, M.A. 

ABMbMglti; Aaorthlts; 
ApAttto; Apopiqrnite; 
AngoBlte; ArgtBtlte; 
Aqonodltif Aogils. 

Fielden Professor of French and of Romance Philology in the University of London. \ "•»■»»"*•"■■» ■•iwwiaw. 

L.W. LuciEN WoLx. r 

Vioe^President of the^Jewish Historical Society of E^nf^land. Formeriy Prendent of i Antt-SMBlllBB* 

AnllJm tbs Ibtrlu. 

the Society. Joint editor of the RUdiolkeca Ang^Judaica. 

U» 0. Moses Gastex. 

Chief Rabbi of the Sephardic conimunities of England. Vice-Prtsldent, Zionist 
Congress, 1898, 1899, looa Itehester Lecturer at Oxford on Slavonic and 
Byzantine Literature, 1886 and 1891. President, Folklore Society of England. ' 
Vice-President, Angkhjewish Association. Author of History of Rumanian 
Popular Literature; A New Ht^ew Prt^fnenl of Ben-Sira; The Sebriw Version ef 
Secretum Secretorum of AristoUe, 

II. H. C. Montague Hughes Cxacxanthokpe, K.C.^ D.CL. r 

President of the Eugenics Education Soaety. Formeriy Member of the General J ArhHrailMi. fnStwmaiLm^ 
Council of the Bar and Council of Legal Education. Late Chairman, Incorporated 1 "*»"»*»«'^ jiwwwwwwhw. 
Council of Law Reporting. Honorary Fdlow St John's College, Oxford. L 

■. J. Dt O. Michael Jan dx Goeje. f akm** riu^niMMt Um am<\ 

See the biographical article : Goeje, Michael J ah db. \ ^^"•' '^^^^ «» panh 

H. Jh. Maxxn Jastxow, Pr.D. (Leipxig). f .__. «_„ {g^^- 

Professor of Semitic Unguages, University of Pennsylvania. Author of Raivon\ '^^r''" ^^^^' 
of the Babylonians and Assyrnns; &c L AStTOIOCF. 

H. L. H. Lady Huggins. f Avminm* katn^mh^ 

See the biographical article: Huggins, Sib WauAM. "J^iiniilill, ASinMUt. 

■. H. T. Makcub Nxebuhx Tod, M.A. f «_ii«. ami.u.«.im. 

Fellow and Tutor of Oriel College, Oxford. University Lecturer in Epigraphy. S ^Czi^^^T* 
Jdisit author QiCatalopieaf the ^ta Museum. *^* *^ ^ \ Arlstod«BHis; Aitetonwiss. 

H. 0. B. a MAxmiuAN Orro Bbmaxch Casfaxi, M.A. f ^*" of SItjon; Anadix; 

Reader in Ancient History at London Univcrnty. Lecturer in Greek at Birming- 
ham University. 1905-1908. Author of chaptere on Greek History in The Years'^ 
Work ts dasstcal Studies. 

Alios: History; 
Ariilldis ths lost; 

Athens (m ^orl). 

■. P.* LiON Jacques Maxzme Pkinet. f 

Formerly Archivist to the French ^National Archives. Auxiliary to the Instituted AooialBk DOO 4*« 
of France (Academy of Moral and Political Sciences). t . 

B. ■• NOKMAN McLean, M.A. r 

Fellow, Lecturer and Librarian of Christ's College, Cambridge. University Lecturer J AniMm&iM. 
in Aramaic. Examiner for the Oriental Languages Tripos and the Ineological ] *?■»•**• 

B. W. T. NoxTBCOTE Whttbxidgx Thomas, M.A. r Animxl-WonUi* 

Government Anthropologist to Southern Nigeria. Corresponding Member of the I *_,_,.^ "«v» 
Soci^A d'Anthropologie da Pads. Author of Thought Transference; Kinship audi AnlnUan. 
Marriap in AustraUa; Ac. L 



0. BiU OswAio Bauon. F.S.A. 

fAiD Bakkon. F.S.A. f •--__ ._j ,,.. 

Editor of The Ancestor, 1901-190$. Hon. GeiMalosiit to Sunding Coondl cii ™»M«*niWW: 

Honourable Society of Baronetage. t *^»*^» 

O.Br. OacAR BizuAMT. ^ ikviMBi: ^MiaicM. 

P. A* Paul Daniel ALPHAMoiRY. f ^^^ 

Profeaaor of the Hi^ry^of Dogma. Eoole Pratique dea Hatttea Etudea, Spcboitne, J 7^^^"^' 














Paris. Author of Lu IdSes morales cke» Us kilirodetus ktiwts am 4ibia du XIII'\ AllMdd o£ BmcbU 


P. A* Ki PsxMCB Petex Albxezvitcb Sjiofotexn. / AnI* Art r***** 

See the biographical article : Kkopotkin, Pumcb Peter A. L ^^* ' 


P. 0. ■. Free Chalmess Mitchell, F.R.S., F.Z.S., D.SC., LLJO. 

Secfetai^ to t)ie Zoological Society of London from 1903. Unlverrfty Denran- 
atrator in Comparative Anatomy and Aasistant to Linacre Profeaaor at Oxford. 
1888-18QI. Lecturer on Biology at Charing Cron HokmuI, 1892-1894; at London 
Hoapitaf. 1894. Examiner in Biology to the Royal College of Phyaciana, 189a- 
189&1 1901-1903. Kxaminrr in Zoology to the Uuvenity of London, 1903. 

P. 0. Y. Vbxup Cresney Yorke, M. A. 

Magdalen College, Oxford. 

Angbfif , lit Eail of; 


ABMOf Ctom; 

Aimt of Dramiilt; 


AifyH Bwb and Dukn «f ; 

AiUngloiw Bui oL 

P. Q. Percy Gardner, Litt.D.» LLJ>. f -.^-. 

See the biographical article : Gardner, PERCY. \ AfOUM* 

P. QL Peter Gres, M.A., Litt.D., ULD. f 

Fellow and Clasaical Lecturer of Emmanuel College. Cambridge, and Unlvenityf AlfBD* 
Reader in Comparative Philology. Author of Mimial of CompwtOm PMehgy* I 

P. Lis Pbilxp Laes, M.A., F.G.S. f /tmmninta' 

Lecturer on Physical and Regional Geography in Cambridge Universi^. Formeriy J "y^ y?^* 
of the Geological Survey of India. Autnor of Monograph of BriHsh Camhrian] Aftt: iftetogy; 
THio^Ues, Translator and editor of Kayaer'aComporalMa^A^. lAVftrft: Cecioty. 

P. VL Paul Vinogradoft, D.CL. (Oxford), LL.D. (Cambridge and Harvard). f 

Corpus Professor of Jurisprudence in the Umversity of Oxford. Fellow of the J Aiw lifci.ggyftn y-^ y, 
British Academy. Hononiiy Professor of History in tJie University of Moscow. 1 
Author of ViUatnage in England ; Bngh^h Society m the ixlh Century; Ac *• 

The Riobt Hon. Lord Rayleich. / Akob. 

Sec the biographical article: Raylbicb, 3RD Baron. I 

Robert Alexander Stewart Macauster, M.A., F.S.A. /AloalOD. 

Director of Excavations for the Palestine Exploration Fund. \ 

Colonel Robert Alexander Wahab, C.M.G., CLE. f ....... *.. 

Served in the Afghan War, 1 878-1880: with the Haxara Expeditions. 1888 and! Arabia: Modem Hislcry; 
1891; with the Tirah Expeditionary Force. 1897-1898, &c Commissioner for] Aflr. 
the Aden Boundary Delimitation. t 

Sn RxcRARD Claverrouse Jebb, LL.D., D.CL. f .^^_^«. 

See the biographical article : Jbbd, Sir Richard C. \ AlBIOPIiaim 

Richard Garnett, LL.D. J a«o,«u»-w. AimftiiMis 

See the biographical article: Garnett, Richard. \ AnlllOlOlf , AfOIBMW, 

Rev. Robert Henry Charles, M.Am D.D., Lrrr.D. (Oxon.). r 

Grinadd Lecturer and Lecturer in Biblical Studies, Oxford. Fellow of the British I Apoealyptle Litoratma; 
Academy. Professor of Biblical Greek at Trinity College, Dublin, 1898-1906. i Apooiyphal IJItratWt. 
Author of Critical History of a FtUure Life ; Ac j^ ■- '-^ 

Reginald Innes Pococe, F.Z.S., F.L.S. f « * •. • wu 

Superintendent of the Zoological Gardens, London. "^^ Anl-llOD; AfnlaM. 

Ronald John McNeill, M.A. r . ^ .... 

Christ Church, Oxford. Formeriy Editor of the .9 /omM'« GdaeM (London). | Aailialla:JKceeftfI<|iiMMl. 

Richard Lydeeeer, F.R.S., F.G.S.. F.Z.S. r 

Author of Catalogues of FossU Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in British Museum;} Alltalopt; AltlBOltlwrilim; 
The Deer of aU Lands; &c I Arttodae^la; Auoohl. 

Rev. Robert Mackintosh, M.A., D.D. J Antluopomorpiilnii; Apolo- 

Professor at Lancashire Independent College, MancbetMr. \ getlM; AfOtllNgll(m p<ut). 

Robert Nisbet Bain (d. 1909). f Ann^ KmpfMi of Ronia; 

Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 1883-1909. Author of Scandinnia: Ike 1 Apnklill. T. ■.; 

Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 1513-1^00; The First Romanoes, J AiakellMYa A. Ai» 

161 J to 17251 Slmonic Europe: Ike Political History of Poland and Russia from 1469 AnuiY Janoi; 

toi^ff6;ac, lAnntoil,0,B-C6Mt. 

Ralph Nicholson Wornum (18x3-1877). r 

Keeper of the National Gallery, 1854-1877. Author of The Epochs of Pointing ; &c. -{ Aiahfliaw* 

R. Phen£ Spiers, F.S.A., FH.LB.A. 

Formerly Master of the Architectural School, Royal Academy. London. Past 
President of Architectural Association. Associate and Fellow 01 King's College, • 
London. Corresponding Member of the Institute of France. Editor of Fergusson's 
History of Archilecture. Author of Architecture: East and West; 8k. 















T. W^D. 



Secretary of tl» ficole des Chaittt. Honorary Librarian at the BibliotMque -{ AriMji Kingdom Ot 
Nationale, Paris. 


Ubut.>Gbn. Sn RiCHASD Stsacbxy, R.E^ G.C.SX, IXJD., F.R.S. 
See the biosraphical article: Stbachky, Sui R. 

{Alia: Oimak, Flora and 

ROBBXT SBTMomt CoNWAY, M.A., DXiTT. (Cantab.). f m tt « & • 

Prafewir of Utia in the Univenity of Manchctter. Formerly Profenor of Latin J Apolla: Anhauiogn 
in UniverHty College, Cardiff. Feflow of GonviUe and Catua CoUegei Cambridge^ 1 Alfeilli; AnmnoL 
Author of JTu IlaUc DiakOs, 

RoukMD Tkuslovs, M.A. 
FeHow and Lecturer an 
of Chriit Church, Oxford. 

Worcester College, OzfonL Formeriy Scholar-! AllH. 


Editor for Palestine bxi^oration Fund. FormeriY Fellow and Lecturer in Hebrew 
and Striae, GonviUe and Caius CoUege, Cambrid^ Examiner in Hebrew and 
Afanaic, London Univerrity, 190A-1908; Council of Royal Anatic Sodety. 
Author of Oossarj oj AramaU InseripHons; The Laws of Moses and 
CriHcol Notes on Old TestameiU History; Rdigion ejf Ancient 





Code efm 
PaUsttne; Ac 

SnmcT CoLVDf, M.A., DXitt. ^ 

See the biographical article: Colvin, Sidnbt. 

SxMON Nkwcoxb, IX.D., D.Sc.. D.CX. (Oxon.). 
See the biographical article: Nkwcomb, Simon. 

ViscouvT St Cysis. 

See the biographical article: Iddislbigb, ist Eau. or. 

Tte Right Hon. Lobd Swaythuno (Sb Samuzl Momtaoii). 

M.P. for Whitecfaapd, 1889-1900. Founder of the finn of Samnd Montaga ft Co. 
Bankers, London. 

Tdiothy Augvstinb Coohlaii. I.S.0. f 

Asent-General for New South Wales. Preddent of Aostiala^n Association for the J AnStraUla 
Advancement of Science (Economics and Statistics), looa. Author <tf The Seven \ 
Cohnies of Anstralia; Statistical Aceoumt tf Australia assd Norn Zeolasid, I 

{Astronomy: DescripHm' 

Amanift: Faimfy. 


T^miAS Allan Ingsam . M.A., LLJ). 
Trinity College, Dublin. 

Ikmua AgRBT, M.A., DXlTT. (Qaon.). 

Director of the British School of Archaeology at Roma; Formeriy Scholar of 
Christ Chttxcfa, Oxford. Craven Fellow, 1897. Author of numerous articles in the' 
Papers of the British Scbod at Rome; 7as Classical Topography of tke Roman 


Antliims Appia Via; 
AyoUa: History; 

Sn TlaoicAa Barclay, M.P. 

Member of the Institute of International Law. Member of the Supreme Coundl of . 
the Confp Free State. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Author of Problems of 
International Pradko and Diplomacy, Ac. M.P. for Blackburn, 1910. 


President of Corpus Christi College. Oxford. Formeriy Waynflete Professor of Moral 
and MetaphyrioU Philosophy at Oxford. Author of Physical Realism i iflbc. 


See the biographical article: Hodgkin, T. 

Col. Snt l^oKAa Hunobsyobd Holmcb, 

Ak.^*A1.0«, lk.V'.l.£., U.oC., I' 
ia, 1892-r 
Borderland; The Countries of Ike King's Award; &c 

Superintendent, Frontier Surveys, India, 1893-1898. Author of Tho Indian 

IkeKi ' 

Sol TkoKAS Limx Hxatb, K.C.B., D.Sc (Cantab.). 

Assistant Secretary to the Treasury. Formeriy Fellow of Trinity Cdlege, Cambridge. ' 

Rbv. ThoiIas Maxtin Lindsay, LL.D.,D.D. 

Principal of the United Free Church College. Glasgow. Formeriy AssisUnt to the 
Professor of Logic and Meta^ysics in the Univerrity of Edinburgh. Author of 
History of the R^ormation; Life of Luther; Ac. 

Waitsi Tteoooas WArra-DuNroN. 


AqulMa; Aqalno; 
Ardea; Araiao; 
Arlano di PogBa; 
Artanlnom; ArpI; Aiyliia; 
Afrattom; Ateoli Plaeiio; 
Aablnm; AisU; Aitara; 
Atesto; Anfldana; 
Angotta (SleQy); 
Angwta Bagiailnanim; 
Aaguita Praatoila 
Anralia» Via. 


Aaylnm, BIglit oL 



Afia: Geography and 

ApoDoBlQi ot Fufi; 

A^nliiaito Ihooiii. 

See the biographkal artide: WATTS-DtJNTON, W. T. 

•f Arnold, Matthaw. 

T. W. Rby8 Davids, M«A., Pb.D., LL.D. f 

Professor of Comparative Religion in the Univerrity of Manchester, ^oident of J 

the Pali Text Society. Fellow of the British Academy. Secretary and Librarian ] 
of Royal Asiatk Socaety, 1885-1903. Author of Buddhism; Ac I 















W. W. P.* 

W. W. R.* 

lia Brilannka. 
ar of Sc John's 





ftsv.WiLiiAM Augustus BeevooktCooudge, M.A., F.R.G.S., Hon. Pb.D. (Bern). 
Fdlow of Magdalen College. Oxford. Profeiaor of English Hiatory. St David's 
Collece. Lampeter. 1880-1881. Author of Cmide du kaut dan^ni; The Rm^ ef 
Ike Tddi; CuuU to CrinddwaJd; Guide to Smiurland; The Alps in Natun and in 
History; Ac Editor of the Alpine Journal, 1880-1M9: &c 

Walter Auson Phillips, M.A. 

Principal Assistant Editor of the nth edition of the Entydopatd 
Formerly Exhibitioner of Merton College, Oxford, and Senior Scliolai 
College. .Author of Modem Enrope; Ac. 


Professor of New Testament Exegesb in the University of GMtingen. Author of i AbIMuIiL 
Dim Wesen der Xeliiion; The Anitckrist Legeudi ftc. 

Walter Ckane. 

Seethe biographical article: Crane, Walter. 

Right Rev. William Edward Collins, D.D., Bishop op Gibraltai. 



Formerly Professor of Ecclesiastical History, King's College, London. Lecturer, 1 « ._..■, -,^«.»,*««.«. 

St John's and Sdwyn CoUeges, Cambridge. Author of IThe Beginnings of English 1 AfOStOBOtl COPSUtOflOBf. 
Christianity. L 


BiAjOR William EckRTON Bdwards. 

Captain and Brevet Major, Royal Field Artillery. Inspector, Inspection Staff, Wool- 
wich Arsenal. Lecturer on Armour and Ei^losives at the Rojral Naval War 
College, Greenwich, 1904-1909. 

William Feiloen Craies, M.A. f 

Barrister-at-law, Inner Temple. Lecturer on Criminal Law, King's College, London. J * « 

,..,._ _, . .. .^ ^_.„.__. «.._..__ ,.... .... V Author of Cro»M«mSr«iiil»1 ^W««. 


Editor of ArckboWs Criminal Pleading (23rd edition). 

William Fleetwood Sheppard, M.A., D.Sc. f 

Senior &iaminer under the Board of Education. SenioL Wrangler, 1384. Fomeriy \ 
Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. L 

William Henry Bennett, M.A^ D.D., D.Litt. (Cantab.). 

Professor of Old Testament Exensis in New and Hackney Colleges, London. 
Formeriy Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge. Lecturer in Hebrew at Firth 
College, Sheffield. Author of Seligion 0/ the Post-Exilic Prophets ; &c. 

W'lLUAM Henry Dines, F.R.S. 

William Justicx Ford, M.A. (d. 


Formeriy Scholar of St John's CoU^, Cambridge. Head Matter of Leamington 

Sir William Marsby. k.C.I.E.. D.C.L. 

See the biographical article: Marebv, Sir W. 

William Michael Rossetti. 

See the biographical article: Rossetti, Dante Gabriel. 

Hon. William Pember Reeves. 

Director, London School of Economics. Afent -General and Hi|rfa Commissioner 
for New Zealand, 1896-1909. Author of A History of New Zealana. 

W. R. Lethaby, F.S.A. 

Princi^ of the Central School of Arts and Crafts under the London County 
Counal. Author of ArchHeUnre^ Mysticiem and Myth ; &c. 

William Wallace. M.A. 

See the biographical article: Wallace, William (d. 1897). 

William Wards Fowler. M.A. 

Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford. Sub-Rector, 1881-1904. Gifford Lecturer 
Edinburgh University, 1908. Author of The City-State of the Greehs and Romans 
The Roman Festivals of the Republican Period: &c. 

William WaleeM Rocewell, Lie TtaoL. 

AssisUnt Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, New York. 


Aiiiil; AtoMBni 

AwttKi Iota. 


AtUMOo, sir Hsory Aft«t 

Anhfttetars: Ronumesqm 
and CoUttc us Prance, 

AiBliiaB Pldloioiiliy (•• ^ori)* 

Abu Psrami; 

Antioeh, Synods of; 
AriM, Synod of; 
Aopborc, Conf sBsion €b. 


AngHotn COmmnnlon. 

Aitoitntlon nnd ConslUiF 
ttenln Loboor Dispatss. 

Argonson: Family. 





Arthur, Chestsr Alan. 

Art Sales. 

AnindeU Barb of. 







Assoolatlon of Ideas. 

AtbleUe Sports. 
AthoU, Earls and Dukos 

Atlas Mountains. 
Atterbnry, Francis. 
Audit and Auditor. 


Augustan HIstBiy* 

Anngervyls, B. 









A1IDR08. SIR EDMUIID <x637-i7i4), English colonial 
goveinor in America, was born in London on the 6th of December 
1637. son of Amice Andros, an adherent of Charles L, and the 
coyal bailiff of the island of Guernsey. He served for a short 
time in the army of Prince Henry of Nassau, and in i66o-s66a 
was fentleman in ordinary to the queen of Bohemia (Elizabeth 
Stuart, daughter of James L of England). He then served 
against the Dutch, and in 1672 was commissioned major in what 
is said to have been the first English regiment armed with the 
bayonet. In 1674 he became, by the appointment of the duke 
of York (later James IL), governor of New York and the Jerseys, 
though his jurisdiction over the Jeraeys was disputed, and until 
his recall in 1681 to meet an unfounded charge of dishonesty 
and favouritism in the collection <rf the revenues, he proved 
himself to be a c^>able administrator, whose imperious disposi- 
tion, however, rendered him somewhat unpopular among the 
colonists. During a visit to England in 1678 he was knighted. 
In 1686 he became governor, with Boston as his capital, of the 
" Dominion of New England," into which Massachusetts (in- 
cluding Maine), Plymouth, Rhode Island, Connecticut and New 
Hampshire were consolidated, and in 1688 his jurisdiction was 
cxtenided over New York and the Jerseys. But his vexatious 
interference with colonial rights and customs aroused the keenest 
resentment, and on the i8th of April 1689, soon after news of 
the arrival of William, prince of Orange, in England reached 
Boston, the colonists deposed and arrested him. In New York 
bis deputy, Francis Nicholson, was soon afterwards deposed by 
Jacob Leisler (q.v.); and the inter-colonial union was dissolved. 
Andros was sent to EngUnd for trial in 1690, but was immediately 
released without trial, and from 1692 until 1698 he was governor 
of Virginia, but was recalled through the agency of Commissary 
James Blair (f.v.), with whom he quarrelled. In 1 693-1694 
be ms also governor of Maryland. From 1704 to 1706 he was 
governor of Guernsey. He died in London in February 17x4 
and was buried at St Anne's, Soho. 

See Tk€ Andros Tracts (3 vols., Boston. 1869-1872). 

ANDROS, or Andko, an island of the Greek archipelago, the 
most northerly of the Cyclades, 6 m. S.E. of Euboea, and about 
s m. N. of Tenos; it forms an eparchy in the modern kingdom 
of Greece. It is nearly 25 m. long, and its greatest breadth is 
10 m. Its surface is for the most part mountainous, with many 
fruitful and well-watered valleys. Andros, the capital, on the 
east coast, contains about 2000 inhabitants. The ruins of 
Palaeopolb, the ancient capital, are on the west coast; the town 


possessed a famous temple, dedicated to Bacchus. The island 
has about 18,000 inhabitants. 

The isUnd in ancient times contained an Ionian population, 
perhaps with an admixture of Thracian blood. Though originally 
dependent on Eretria, by the 7th century B.C. it had become 
sufficiently prosperous to send out several colonies to Chalcidice 
(Acanthus, Stageirus, Argilus, Sane). In 480 it supplied ships 
to Xerxes and was subsequently harried by the Greek fleet. 
Though enrolled in the Delian League It remained disaffected 
towards Athens, and in 447 had to be coerced by the settlement of 
a deruchy. In 411 Andros proclaimed its freedom and in 408 
withstood an Athenian attack. As a member of the second 
Delian League it was again controlled by a garrison and an 
archon. In the Hellenistic period Andros was contended for 
as a frontier-post by the two naval powers of the Aegean Sea, 
Macedonia and Egypt. In 3S5 it received a Macedonian garrison 
from Antipater; in 308 it was freed by Ptolemy I. In the 
Chremonidean War (266-263) it passed again to Macedonia after 
a battle fought off its shores. In 200 it was captured by a com- 
bined Roman, Pergamene and Rhodian fleet, and remained a 
possession of Pergamum until the dissolution of that kingdom 
in 133 B.C. Before falling under Turkish rule, Andros was from 
A J). 1207 till 1566 governed by the families Zeno and Sommariva 
under Venetian protection. 

ANDROnON {c. 350 B.C.), Greek orator, and one of the leading 
politicians of his time, was a pupil of Isocrates and a con- 
temporary of Demosthenes. He is known to us chiefly from the 
speech of Demosthenes, in which he was accused of illegality 
in proposing the usual honour of a crown to the Council of Five 
Hundred at the expiration of its term of office. Androtion filled 
several important posts, andtluring the Social War was appointed 
extraordinary commissioner to recover certain arrears of taxes. 
Both Demosthenes and Aristotle (Rket. HI. 4) speak favourably 
of his powers as an orator. He is said to have gone into exile 
at Megara, and to have composed an A tthif;ot annalist ic account 
of Attica from the earliest times to his own days (Pausanias 
vi. 7; X. 8). It is disputed whether the annalist and orator are 
identical, but an Androtion who wrote on agriculture is certainly 
a different person. Professor Gaetano de Sanctis (in VAuide 
di Androsione e un papiro di Oxyrhynchos, Turin, 1908) attributes 
to Androtion, the atthidographer, a 4th-century historical frag* 
ment, discovered by B. P. Grenfcll and A. S. Hunt {Oxyrkynchus 
Papyri, vol. v.). Strong arguments against this view are set 
forth by E. M. Walker in the Classical Review, May 1908 


ANDOJAR (the anc. Sliturgi), % town of southern Spain, 
in the province of Ja£n; on the right bank of the river Guadal- 
quivir and the Madrid-Cordova railway. Pop. (1900) 16,302. 
Andfijar is widely known for its porous earthenware jars, called 
aUarratas, which keep water cool in the hottest weather, and are 
manufactured from a whitish clay found in the neighbourhood. 

ANECDOTE (from dy-, privative, and icdtSw/u, to give out 
or publish), a word originally meaning something not published. 
It has now two distinct significations. The primary one is 
something not published, in which sense it has been used to denote 
cither secret histories— Procopi us, e.g., gives this as one of the 
titles of his secret history of Justinian's court — or portions of 
ancient writers which have remained long in manuscript and 
are edited for the first time. Of such anecdota there are many 
collections; the earliest was probably L. A. Muratori's, in 1709. 
In the more general and popular acceptation of the word, 
however, anecdotes are short accounts of detached interesting 
particulars. Of such anecdotes the collections are almost infinite; 
the best in many respects is that compiled by T. Bycriey (d. 1826} 
and J. Clinton Robertson (d. 1852), known as the Percy Antidotes 

ANEL, DOMINIQUE (1679-1730), French surgeon, was born at 
Toulouse about 1679. After studying at Montpcllier and Paris, 
he served as surgeon-major in the French army in Alsace; then 
after two years at Vienna he went to Italy and served in the 
Austrian army. In 1710 he was teaching surgery in Rouen, 
whence he went to Genoa, and in 1716 he was practising in 
Paris. He died about 1730. He was celebrated for his successful 
surgical treatment, of fistula lacrymalis, and while at Genoa 
invented for use in connexion with the operation the fine-pointed 
syringe still known by his name. 

ANEMOMETER (from Gr. Avfftot, wind, and itirpo^, a 
measure), an instrument for measuring either the velocity or the 
pressure of the wind. Anemometers may be divided into two 
classes, (1) those that measure the velocity, (2) those that 
measure the pressure of the wind, but inasmuch as there is a close 
connexion between the pressure and the velocity, a suitable 
anemometer of either class will give information about both these 

Velocity anemometers may again be subdivided into two 
classes, (i) those which do not require a wind vane or weather- 
cock, (3) those which do. The Robinson anemometer, invented 
( 1 846) by Dt Thomas Romney Robinson, of Armagh Ot»ervatory, 
is the best-known and most generally used instrument, and belongs 
to the first of these. It consbts of four hemispherical cups, 
mounted one on each end of a pair of horizontal arms, which lie 
at right angles to each other and form a cross. A vertical axis 
round which the cups turn passes through the centre of the cross; 
a train of wheel-work counts up the number of turns which this 
axis makes, and from the number of turns made in any given time 
the velocity of the wind during that time is calculated. The cups 
are placed symmetrically on the end of the arms, and it is easy to 
see that the wind always has the hollow of one cup presented to 
it; the back of the cup on the opposite end of the cross also faces 
the wind, but the pressure on it is naturally less, and hence a 
continual rotation is produced; each cup in turn as it comes 
round providing the necessary force. The two great merits of 
this anemometer are its simplicity and the absence of a wind vane; 
on the other hand it is not well adapted to leaving a record on 
paper of the actual velocity at any definite instant, and hence it 
leaves a short but violent gust unrecorded. Unfortunately, when 
Dr Robinson first designed his anemometer, he stated that no 
matter what the size of the cups or the length of the arms, the cups 
always moved with one-third of the velocity of the wind. This 
result was apparently confirmed by some independent experi- 
ments, but it is very far from the truth, for it is now known that 
the actual ratio, or factor as it is commonly called, of the velodty 
of the wind to that of the cups depends very largely on the 
dimensions of the c\ips and arms, and may have almost any value 
between two and a little over three. The result has been that 
wind velocities published in many official publications have often 
been in error by nearly 50%. 

The other forms of velocity Anemometer -may be described as 
belonging to the windmill type. In the Robinson anemometer 
the axis of roution is vertical, but with this subdivision the axis 
of rotation must be parallel to the direction of the wind and 
therefore horizontal. Furthermore, since the wind varies in 
direction and the axis has to follow its changes, a wind vane or 
some other contrivance to fulfil the same purpose must bs em- 
ployed. This type of instrument is very little used in England, 
but seems to be more in favour in France. In cases where the 
direction of the air motion is always the same, as in the ventilating 
shafts of mines and buildings for instance, these anemometers, 
known, however, as air meters, are employed, and give most 
satisfactory results. 

Anemometers which measure the pressuro may be divided into 
the plate and tube classes, but the former term must be taken as 
including a good many miscellaneous forms. The simplest type 
of this form consists of a flat plate, which is usually square or 
circular, while a wind vane keeps this exposed normally to the 
wind, and the pressure of the wind on its face is balanced by a 
spring. The distortion of the spring determines the actual force 
which the wind is exerting on the plate, and this is cither read off 
on a suitable gauge, or leaves a record in the ordinary way by 
means of a pen writing on a sheet of paper moved by clockwork. 
Instruments of this kind have been in use for a longserics of years, 
and have recorded pressures up to and even exceeding 60 lb 
per sq. ft., but it is now fairly certain that these high values arc 
erroneous, and due, not to the wind, but to faulty design of 
the anemometer. 

The fact is that the wind isoontinually varying in force, and 
while the ordinary pressure plate is admirably adapted for 
measuring the force of a steady and uniform wind, it is entirely 
unsuitable for following the rapid fluctuations of the natural wind. 
To make matters worse, the pen which records the motion of the 
plate is often connected with it by an extensive system of chains 
and levers. A violent gust strikes the plate, which is driven back 
and carried by iu own momentum far past the position in which 
a steady wind of the same force would place it; by the time the 
motion has reached the pen it has been greatly exaggerated by 
the springiness of the connexion, and not only is the plate itself 
driven too far back, but also its position is wrongly recorded by 
the pen; the combined errors act the same way, and more than 
double the real maximum pressure may be indicated on the chart. 

A modification of the ordinary pressure-plate has recently been 
designed. In this arrangement a catch is provided so that the 
plate being once driven back by the wind cannot return until 
released by hand; but the catch does not prevent the plate being 
driven back farther by a gust stronger than the last one that 
moved it. Examples of these plates are erected on the west coast 
of England, where in the winter fierce gales often occur; a pres- 
sure of 30 lb per sq. ft. has not been shown by them, and instances 
exceeding 20 lb are extremely rare. 

Many other modifications have been used and suggested. 
Probably a sphere would prove most useful for a pressure 
anemometer, since owing to its symmetrical shape it would not 
require a weathercock. A small Ught sphere hanging from the end 
of 30 or 40 ft. of fine sewing cotton has been employed to measure 
the wind velocity passing over a kite, the tension of the cotton 
being recorded, and this plan has given satisfactory results. 

Lind's anemometer, which consists simply of a U tube contain- 
ing liquid with one end bent into a horizontal direction to face the 
wind, is perhaps the original form from which the tube class of 
instrument has sprung. If the wind blows into the mouth of a 
tube it causes an increase of pressure inside and also of course an 
equal increase in all dosed vessels with which the mouth is in air- 
tight communication. If it blows horizontally over the open end 
of a vertical tube it causes a decrease of pressure, but this fact is 
not of any practical use in ancmometry, because the magnitude 
of the decrease depends on the wind striking the tube exactly 
at right angles to its axis, the most trifling departure from the true 
direction causing great variations in the magnitude. The pressure 
tube anemometer (fig. i) utilizes the increased pressure in the 
open mouth of a straight tube facing the wind, and the decrease 


dtpmds <ic very smill, »nd ^jeciil ni' 
Ihcm, bul in lilt ordinary lorm ol rc 

tube facing the wind is capable o 

mini)-. Many 
tnginwring give the relation P- ooj b" whtn P is 
the pressure in lb per sq. (I. and r Ihe velocity in miles per hour. 
The hblory of this untrue relation b curious. Itwas given about 
the end of the iSth century as based on some eiperimcntj, but 
Kilh a footnote staling that little reliance could be placed on it. 
The lUtcnicnt without the qualifying note was copinl (torn book 
to book, and at lasl received general accepUnce. There is no 
doubt that under average conditions of atmosphriic density, the 
.oos should be replaced by 003, for many independent aulhoriliea 
using different methods have found valuei very close to this 
last figure. It Is probable thai the wind presure is not strictly 
ptDporiionil lo the eitenl of the surface eiposed. Preuure plates 
■re generally of moderate size, from a half or quarter of a sq. ft. 
up to two or three sq. ft., arc round or square, and for these sizes, 
and shapes, and of course tora flat surface, the relation P- ,ooj (■ 

In the lube ancmomclcr also it is really the pressure that is 
measured, although the scale is usually graduated as a velocity 
scale. In cases where the density oltheairisnol of average value, 
as on a high mounlafe, or itiih an eiceptionally low baromeler 
for example, an allowance must be made. Approiimately i)% 
should be added to Ihe velocity recorded by a tube anemometer 
for cub 1000 ft. that it stands above lea-levcL (W. H. Dt.) 

occur in Britain: the 
pastures in son 
The plants are | 

flower stem bear 

if the I 

erbs with an underground roolitock, 
deeply cut, leaves. Hk elongated 
'eral, white, red, blue or rarely yellow, 
nowen^ uiere is an mvoiucre of three leaflets below each flower. 
The fruits often bear long hairy styles which lid their dist ribuIioD 
by Ihe wind. Many of the species arc favourite garden plants; 

poppy anemone, ■ luberoua-rDoled plant, with panley-like 
divided leaves, and large showy poppy-like blossoms en stalks 
of fromfito^in. high; the flowers are of various colours, but the 

! replaced by a tuft of n, 

. which th 

le fan 

w petals 

I there 

They grow best in a loamy soil, enriched wi 
which shouU bedug in behiwth* tubers. These may be planted 
in October, and for succession in January, the autumn-pbnted 
ones being protected by ■ covering of leaves or short stable 
litter. They wiU flower in May and June, and when the leaves 
have ripened should be taken up into a dry room till planting 
time. They are easily raised from the seed, and a bed of the 

affords, in s wnrni situation, an abundance of handsome and 
often brilliant spring flowers, ahnost as early as the snowdrop ot 
crocus. The genus contains many other lively spting.blooming 
plants, of which -4. ktrlcmii and A. fulteta have less divided 
leaves and splendid rosy-puiple or scarlel flowers; they require 

the ftsque-Aower, whose violet blossoms have the outer surface 
hairy; these prefer a calcareous soil. The splendid A^japonita, 
and its white va riely called Honorine Jouben , the [a Iter especially, 
are amongst the finest of autumn -blooming hardy perennials; 
they grow well in light soil, and reach 1) to j It. in height, 
blooming continually for several weeks. A group of dwarf 
species, leptetented by Ihe native British A. nemoraii and 
A. atttnina. are aoiongst the most beautiful of spring flowers 
for planting in woods and shady places. 

liic genus Htpalica is now generally hiduded in anemone as a 
subgenus. The plants ate known in gardens as hepaticas. and 

they are charming ^ring-flowering plants with usually blue 

ANENCLETOS, or Anacletus, si 

le 4th ce 

d in the ( 

bishop of Rot 

E. About 

[he papal chair for twelve years (c. T7-KS). 

AXERIO, the name ot two brothers, mu^cal composers, very 
great Roman masters of i6lh-centuty polyphony. Felice, the 
elder, was bom about js«o, studied under G. M. Nanino and 

Several masses and motels of his are printed in Proske's tftsiia 
Dnina and other Diadem anthologies, and it is hardly too much 
lo say that they aw for the most part worthy of Palestrina 
" The dale of hb death is conjecturally givt 

irotber, Giot 

Li Ftanci 

about i6m. The c 
numerous compositic 
istike, if we may judge by the works 

15*7, ' 

.... . . ..ntinues to be repeated 

ice, thai " he was one of the first of 
and its subdivisions" is incompre- 

idrigal of Paleslrina published in rs74. The two 

ibably the latest composers who handled i6Lh-ci 

aa tbeir cnother-language; auEfering neither from th 


to indulge even in such mild neologisms as they might have 
learnt from the elder brother's master, Nanino, nor from the 
necessity of preserving their purity of style by a mortified 
negative asceticism. They Mrrote pure polyphony because tiiey 
understood it and loved it, and hence thdr work lives, as neither 
the progressive work of their own day nor the reactionary work 
of their imitators could live. The la-part Slabat Mater in the 
seventh volume of Palestrina's complete works has been by some 
authorities ascribed to Felice Anerio. 

ANET, a town of northern France, in the department of 
£ure-et-Loir, situated between the rivers Eure and VIgre, 
to m. N.E. of Dreux by rail. Pop. (1906) 1324. It possesses 
the remains of a magnificent castle, built in the middle of the 
1 6th century by Henry II. for DiazuL of Poitiers. Near it is the 
plain of Ivry, where Henry IV. defeated the armies of the League 
in isga 

ANEURIN, or Aneisin, the name of an early yth-century 
British (Welsh) bard, who has been taken by Thomas Stephens 
(1821-1875), the editor and translator of Aneurin's principal epic 
poem Godcdint for a son of Gildas, the historian. Gododin is an 
account of the British defeat (603) by the Saxons at Cattracth 
(identified by Stephens with Dawstane in Liddesdale), where 
Aneurin is said to have been taken prisoner; but the poem is 
very obscure and is differently interpreted. It was translated 
and edited by W. F. Skene in his Four Ancient Books of Wales 
(1866), and Stephens' version was published by the Cymmro- 
dorion Society in x888. See Celt: Literature (Welsh). 

ANEURYSMt or Aneusism (from Gr. &P((/piffna, a dihita- 
tion), a cavity or sac which communicates with the interior of 
an artery and contains blood. The walls of the cavity are formed 
either of the dilated artery or of the tissues around that vessel. 
The dilatation of the artery is due to a local weakness, the result 
of disease or injury. The commonest cause is chronic inflamma- 
tion of the inner coats of the artery. The breaking of a bottle 
or glass in the hand is apt to cut through the outermost coat of 
the artery at the wrist (radial) and thus to cause a local weakening 
of the tube which is gradually followed by dilatation. Also when 
an artery is wounded and the wound in the skin and superficial 
structures heals, the blood may escape into the tissues, displacing 
th^, and by its pressuro causing them to condense and form the 
sac-walL The coats of an artery, when diseased, may be torn 
by a severe strain, the blood escaping into the condensed tissues 
which thus form the aneurysmal sac. 

The division of aneurysms into two classes, true and false, is 
unsatisfactory. On the face of it, an aneurjrsm which is false 
b not an aneurysm, any more than a false bank-note is legal 
tender. A better classification is into spontaneous and traumatic. 
The man who has chronic inflammation of a large artery, the 
result, for instance, of gout, arduous, straining work, or kidney- 
disease, and whose artery yields under cardiac pressure, has a 
spontaneous aneurysm; the barman or window-cleaner who has 
cut his radial artery, the soldier whose brachial or femoral artery 
has been bruised by a rifle bullet or grazed by a bayonet, and the 
boy whose naked foot is pierced by a sharp nail, are apt to be 
the subjects of traumatic aneurysm. In those aneurysms which 
are a saccular bulging on (Hie side of the artery the blood may be 
induced to coagulate, or may of itself deposit layer upon layer 
of pale clot, until the sac is obliterated. This laminar coagulation 
by constant additions gradually fills the aneurysmal cavity and 
the pulsation in the sac then ceases; contraction of the sac and 
its contents gradually takes place and the aneurysm is cured. 
But in those aneurysms which are fusiform dilatations of the 
vessel there is but slight chance of such cure, for the blood 
sweeps evenly through it without staying to deposit clot or 
laminate fibrine. 

In the treatment of aneurysm the aim is generally to lower the 
blood pressure by absolute rest and moderated diet, but a cure is 
rarely effected except by operation, which, fortunately, is now 
resorted to more promptly and securdy than was previously the 
case. Without trying the speculative and dangerous method of 
treatment by compression, or the application of an indiarubber 
bandage, the surgeon now without loss of time cuts down upon the 

artery, and applies an aseptic ligature dose above the dilatation. 
Experience has shown that this method posscssesgreat advantages, 
and that it has none of the disadvantages which were formerly 
supposed to attend it. Saccular dilatations of arteries which are 
the result of cuts or other injuries are treated by tying the vessel 
above and below, and by dissecting out the aneurysm. Pop- 
liteal, carotid and other aneurysms, which are not of traumatic 
origin, are sometimes dealt with on this plan, which is the old 
" Method of Antyllus " with modem aseptic conditions. Speak- 
ing generally, if an aneurysm can be dealt with surgically the 
sooner that the artery is tied the better. Less heroic measures 
are too apt to prove painful, dangerous, ineffectual and dis- 
appointing. For aneurysm in the chest or abdomen (which 
cannot be dealt with by operation) the treatment may be tried 
of injecting a pure solution of gdatlnc into the loose tissues of 
the armpit, so that the gelatine may find its way into the blood 
stream and increase the chance of curative coagulation in the 
distant aneurysmal sac. (£. 0.*) 

ANFRACTUOSITY (from Lat. anfractuosus, winding), twisting 
and turning, drcuitousness; a word usually employed in the 
plural to denote winding channels such as occur in the depths 
of the sea, mountains, or the fissures (sulci) separating the 
convolutions of the brain, or, by analogy, in the mind. 

ANGARIA (from iyyapotf the Greek form of a Babylonian 
word adopted in Persian for " mounted courier "), a sort of 
postal system adopted by the Roman imperial government 
from the ancient Persians, among whom, according to Xcnophon 
{Cyrep. viil. 6; cf. Herodotus viii. 98) it was established by 
Cyrus the Great. Couriers on horseback were posted at certain 
sta|^ along the chief roads of the empire, for the transroisuon 
of royal despatches by night and day in all weathers. In the 
Roman system the supply of horses amd their maintenance was 
a compulsory duty from which the emperor alone could grant 
exemption. The word, which in the 4th century was used for 
the heavy tran^>ort vehicles of the cursus publicus, and also for 
the animals by which they were drawn, came to mean generally 
"compulsory service." So angaria, angariare, in medieval 
Latin, and the rare English derivatives " angariate," " angaria- 
tion," came to mean any service which was forcibly or imjustly 
demanded, and oppression in general. 

ANGARY (Lat. jus angariae; Fr. droit d'angarie; Ger. 
Angarie; from the Gr. iyyaptiat the oflficeof an &yyap(n, courier 
or messenger), the name given to the right of a belligerent to 
seize and apply for the purposes of war (or to prevent the enemy 
from doing so) any kind of property on belligerent territory, 
including that which may belong to subjects or citizens of a 
neutral state. Art 53 of the Regulations respecting the Laws 
and Customs of War on Land, annexed to the Hague Convention 
of 1899 on the same subject, provides that railway plant, land 
telegraphs, telephones, steamers and other ships (other than 
such as are governed by maritime law), though belonging to 
companies or private persons, may be used for military opera- 
tions, but " must be restored at the conclusion of peace and 
indemnities paid for them." And Art. 54 adds that " the 
plant of railways coming from neutral states, whether the 
property of those states or of companies or private persons, 
shdl be sent back to them as soon as possible." These articles 
seem to sanction the right of angary against neutral property, 
while limiting it as against both belligerent and neutral property. 
It may be considered, however, that the right to use implies as 
wide a range of contingencies as the " necessity of war " can be 
made to cover. (T. Ba.) 

ANGEL» a general term denoting a subordinate superhuman 
being in monotheistic religions, e.g. Islam, Judaism, Christianity, 
and in allied religions, such as Zoroastrianisro. In polytheism 
the grades of superhuman beings are continuous; but in mono* 
theism there is a sharp distinction of kind, as well as degree, 
between God on the one hand, and all other superhuman beings 
on the other; the latter are the " angds." 

" Angel " is a transcription of the Gr. lyytfiot, messenger. 
iyytXot in the New Testament, and the corresponding mal'akh 
in the Old Testament, sometimes mean " messenger," and 


sometimes ** angel," and this double sense is duly represented 
in the English Versions. " Angel " is also used in the English 
Version for f^V *Abbir, Ps. Ixxviii. 35. (lit. " mijchty "), for 
e^)ii *ElohlMt Fs. viiL 5, and for the obscure \m tkin'dn, in 
Ps. IxviiL 17. 

In the later development of the religion of Israel, 'Elohim 
is almost entirely reserved for the one true God; but in 
earlier times 'Elokim (gods), bni *Eiohim, hta Elim (sons of 
gods, i.e. members of the class of divine beings) were ^neral 
terms for superhuman beings. Hence they came to be used 
collectively of superhuman beings, distinct from Yahweh, and 
therefore inferior, and ultimately subordinate.^ So, too, the 
angels are styled "holy ones,"* and "watchers,"' and are 
spoken of as the " host of heaven"* or of " Yahweh."* The 
" hosts," t\\iicgf SeUatk in the title Yakwek Sthactk, Lord of 
Hosts, were probably at one time identified with the angels.* The 
New Testament often speaks of " spirits," iryc6/iara.^ In the 
earlier periods of the religion of Israel, the doctrine of monotheism 
had not been formally stated, so that the idea d " angel " in 
the modem sense does not occur, but we find the MaFakh 
Yakwch, Angel of the Lord, or MaTakh Elokim^ Angel of God. 
The MaCakk Yakwek is an appearance or manifestation of 
Yckwck in the form of a man, and the term MaTakk Yakwek is 
used interchangeably with Yahweh (cf. Ezod. iiL 2, with 
ilL 4; xiiL ai with xiv. 19). Those who see the MaTakk 
Yakwek say they have seen God.' The MaTakk Yaliweh (or 
JE/oAim) appears to Abraham, Hagar, Moses, Gideon, &c., and 
leads the Israelites in the PUlar of Cloud.* The phrase MaTakk 
Yakwek may have been originally a courtly circumlocution for 
the Divine King; but it readily became a means of avoiding 
crude anthropomorphism, and later on, when the angels were 
classified, the MaTakk Yakwek came to mean an angd of 
distinguished rank.^ The identificaton of the MaTakk Yakwek 
with the Logos f or Second Person of the Trinity, is not indicated 
by the references in the Old Testament; but the idea of a Being 
partly identified with (kxl, and yet in some sense distinct from 
Him, illustrates the tendency of religious thought to distinguish 
persons within the imity of the Godhead, and foreshadows the 
doctrine of the Trinity, at any rate in some slight degree. 

In the earlier literature the MaTakk Yakwek or Elokim is 
almost the only maTakk ("angel") mentioned. There are, 
however, a few passages which speak of subordinate superhuman 
beings other than the MaTakk Yakwek or Elokim, There are 
the cherubim who guard Eden. In Gen. xviii., xiz. (J) the 
appearance of Yahweh to Abraham and Lot is connected with 
three, afterwards two, men or messengers; but possibly in the 
original form of the story Yahweh appeared alone." At Bethel, 
Jacob sees the angels of God on the ladder," and later on they 
appear to him at Mahanaim." In all these cases the angels, like 
the MaTakk Yakwek, are connected with or represent a theo- 
phany. Similarly the " man " who wrestles with Jacob at Peniel 
is identified with (jod.^* In Isaiah vi. the seraphim, superhuman 
beings with six wings, appear as the attcn^nts of Yahweh. 
Thus the pre-exilic literature, as we now have it, has little to say 
about angeb or about superhuman beings other than Yahweh 
and manifestations of Yahweh; the pre-exilic prophets hardly 
mention angeb.** Nevertheless we may well suppose that the 
popular religion of ancient Israel had much to say of super- 
human beings other than Yahweh, but that the inspired writers 
have mostly suppressed references to them as unedifying. 
Moreover such beings were not strictlyoingels. 

■ E.g. Gen. vi. 2j Job I. 6; Ps. viii. 5, xxix. i. • Zech. xiv. 5, 
> Dan. iv. i^. « Deut. xvii. \ (?). * Josh. v. 14 (?). 

* The identification of the " hosts with the stars comes to the 
same thing: the stars were thought of as closelv connected with 
angels. It is probable that the hosts " were also identified with 
the armies of Israel. 

' Rev. L 4. • Gen. xxxii. 30; Judges xiii. aa. 

• Exod. iii. 2, xiv. 19. *• Zech. i. 11 f. 

*^ Cf. xviii. I with xviii. 3, and note change of number in xix. l^ 
" Gen. xxviii. 12, E. " Gen. xxxii. I.E. " Gen. xxxii. 24" " 

t XIX. 17. 


» " An ance! " of i Kings xiii. 18 might be the MaTakk 
as in xix. 5, cf. 7i or the passage, at any rate in its present form, may 
be exilic or post-exilic 

The doctrine of monotheism was formglly expressed in the 
period immediately before and during the Exile,in Deuteronomy** 
and Isaiah"; and at the same time we find angels prominent in 
Ezekiel who, as a prophet of the Exile, may have been influenced 
by the hierarchy of supernatural beings in the Babylonian 
religion, and perhaps even by the angelology of Zoroastrianism." 
Eaekiel gives elaborate discriptions of cherubim**; and in one 
of his visions he sees seven angels execute the judgment of God 
upon Jerusalem." As in Geneus they are styled " men," maTakk 
for " angel " does not occur in EzekieL Somewhat later, in the 
visions of Zechariah, angels play a great part; they are some- 
times spoken of as " men," sometimes as maTakk, and the 
MaTakk Yakwek seems to hold a certain primacy among them.** 
Satan also appears to prosecute (so to ^>eak) the Hi^ Priest 
before the divine tribunal.** Siinilarly in Job the bni Elokim, 
sons of God, appear as attendants of God, and amongst them 
Satan, still in his r61e of public prosecutor, the defendant being 
Job.** Occasional references to " angels " occur in the Psalter'*; 
they appear as ministers of God. 

In Ps. Ixxviii. 49 the " evil angels " of A. V. conveys a false 
impression; it should be "angels of evil," as R.V., i.e, angels 
who inflict chastisement as ministers of God. 

The seven angels of Ezekiel may be compared with the seven 
eyes of Yahwph in Zech. iii. 9, iv. xo. The latter have been 
connected by Ewald and others with the later doctrine of seven 
chief angels'*, parallel to and influenced by the Ameshaspentas 
( Amesha Spenta), or seven great spirits of the Persian mythology, 
but the connexion is doubtful. 

In the Priestly Code, c. 400 B.C., there is no reference to angels 
apart from the possible suggestion in the ambiguous (dural 
in Genesis i. 36. 

During the Persian and Greek periods the doctrine of angels 
underwent a great development, partly, at any rate, under 
foreign influences. In Daniel, c. x6o B.C., angels, usually 
spoken of as " men " <Hr " princes," appear as guardians or 
champions of the nations; grades are implied, there are " princes " 
and "chief " or "great princes"; and the mimes of some angels 
are known, Gabriel, Michael; the latter is pre-eminent **, he is 
the guardian of Judah. Again in Tobit a leading part is played 
by Raphael, " one of the seven holy angels." " 

In Tobit, too, we find the idea of the demon or evil angel. 
In the canonical Old Testament angels may inflict suffering 
as ministers of God, and Satan may act as accuser or tempter; 
but they appear as subordinate to God, fulfilling His will; and 
not as monlly eviL The statement** Umt God " chargeth His 
angels with foUy " applies to all angels. In Daniel the princes 
or guardian angels of the heathen nations oppose Michael the 
guardian angel of Judah. But in Tobit we find Asmodaeus 
the evil demon, t6 irov^piv haitUanav, who strangles Sarah's 
husbands, and also a general reference to "a devil or evil 
spirit," xycC^a.** The Fall of the Angels is not properly a 
scriptural doctrine, though it is based on Gen. vi. 2, as inter- 
preted by the Book of Enoch. It is true that the bni Elokim 
of that chapter are subordinate superhuman beings (cf. above), 
but they belong to a different order of thought from the angels 
of JudjUsm and of Christian doctrine; and the passage in no 
way suggests that the hhi Elokim suffered any loss of status 
through their act. 

The guardian angeb of the nations in Daniel probably represent 
the gods of the heathen, and we have there the first step of the 
process by which these gods became evil angels, an idea expanded 
by Milton in Paradise Lost. The development of the doctrine 
of an organized hierarchy of angels belongs to the Jewish litera- 
ture of the period 300 B.C. to A.o. too. In Jewish apocalypses 
especially, the imagination ran riot on the rank, classes and names 
of angels; and such works as the various books of Enoch and 

*• Deut. vi. 4. 5. >T Isaiah xliii. 10 Ac 

*■ It is not however certain that these doctrines of Zoroastrianism 
were developed at so early a date. 
» E»ek. i. X. ■ Exek. ix. «» Zech. 1. il f. «» Zech. iii. i. 
«» Job i., ii. Cf. 1 Chron. xxi. i. «« Pss. xci. Ii, ciii. 20 &c. 
»» Tobit xii, 151 Rev. viii. 2. «• Dan. viii. 16, x. 13. 20, 31. 

" Tob. xiL 15. " Job iv. 18. «• Tobit iii. 8, 17, vi. 7. 


the Ascension of Uaiak supply much information on this 

In the New Testament angels appear frequently as the 
ministers of God and the agents of revelation^; and Our Lord 
speaks of angels as fulfilling such functions', implying in one saying 
that they neither marry nor are given in marriage.* Naturally 
angels are most prominent in the Apocalypse. The New Testa* 
ment takes little interest in the idea of the angelic hierarchy, 
but there are traces of the doctrine. The distinction of good 
and bad angels is recognised; we have names, Gabriel^ and 
the evil angels Abaddon or Apollyon', Beelzebub*, and Satan'; 
ranks are implied, archangck*, principalities and powers*, 
thrones and dominions**. Angels occur in groups of four or 
seven*^ In Rev. i.-iii. we meet with the "Angels " of the Seven 
Churches of Asia Minor. These are probably guardian angels, 
standing to the churches in the same relation that the "princes" 
in Daniel stand to the nations; practically the " angels " are 
personifications of the churches. A less likely view is that the 
" angels " are the human representatives of the churches, the 
bishops or chief presbyters. There seems, however, no parallel 
to such a use of " angel," and it is doubtftd whether the mon^ 
archical government of churches was fully developed when 
the Apocalypse was written. 

Later Jewish and Christian speculation followed on the lines 
of the angelology of the earlier apocalypses; and angels play 
an important part in Gnostic systems and in the Jewish Mid- 
rashim and the Kabbala. Religious thou^t about the angds 
during the middle ages was much influenced by the theory of the 
angelic hierarchy set forth in the De Hierarchia Cdesti^ written 
in the 5th Century in the name of Dionysius the Arcopagite and 
passing for his. The creeds and confessions do not formulate 
any authoritative doctrine of angels; and modem rationalism 
has tended to deny the existence of such beings, or to regard 
the subject as one on which we can have ao certain knowledge. 
The principle of continuity, however, seems to require the 
existence of beings intermediate between man and God. 

The Old Testament says nothing about the origin of angels; 
but the Book oj Jubilees and the Slavonic Enoch describe their 
creation; and, according to CoL L. x6, the angels were created 
in, unto and through Christ. 

Nor does the Bible give any formal account of the nature 
of angels. It is doubtful how far Ezekiel's account of the 
cherubim and Isaiah's account of the seraphim are to be taken 
as descriptions of actual beings; they are probably figurative, 
or else subjective visions. Angels are constantly spoken of as 
" men," and, including even the Angel of Yahweh, are spoken 
of as discharging the various functions of human life; they eat 
and drink", walk'* and speak*^ Putting aside the cherubim 
and seraphim, they are not spoken of as having wings. On the 
other hand they appear and vanish^*, exercise miraculous powers**, 
and fly*'. Seeing that the anthropomorphic language used of 
the angels is similar to that used of God, the Scriptures would 
hardly seem to require a literal interpretation in either case. 
A special association is found, both in the Bible and dsewhere, 
between the angels and the heavenly bodies**, and the elements 
or elemental forces, fire, water, &c**. The angeb are infinitely 

Tht function of the angels is that of the supernatural servants 
of God, His agents and representatives; the Angel of Yahweh, 
as we have seen, is a manifestation of God. In old times, the 
bm Elohim and the seraphim are His court, and the angels are 
alike the court and the army of God; the cherubim are his 
throne-bearers. In his dealings with men, the angels, as their 

* £.^. Matt. i. ao (to Joseph), iv. 1 1 (to Jesus), Luke i. 26 (to Mary), 
Acts xn. 7 (to Peter). 

* E.g. Mark viii. 38. xiil. 27. * Mark xii. 25. « Luke i. 10. 
» Rev. ix. II. •Mark iii. 22. » Mark i. 13. 

* Michael, Jude o. * Rom. viii. 38; Col. ii. 10. 

«* Col. i. 16. " Rev. vii. I. » Gen. xviii. 8. 

" Gen. xix. 16. ** Zcch. iv. i. »» Judges vL 12, at. 

«* Rev. vii. I. viii. »» Rev. viii. 13, xiv. 6. 

** Job xxxviii. 7: Asc. of Isaiah^ iv. 18 ; Slav. Enoch, iv. I. 
** Kev. xiv. 18, xvi. 5; nossibly Gal. iv. 3; Cot. iL 8, 20w 
*• Ps. Ixviii. 17: Dan. vii. 10. 

name implies, are specially His messengers, declaring His will 
and executing His commissions. Through them he controls 
nature and man. They are the guardian angels of the nations; 
and we also find the idea that individuals have guardian angels**. 
Later Jewish tradition held that the Law was given by angels^. 
According to the Gnostic Basilides, the world was created by 
angels. Mahommedanism has taken over and further elaborated 
the Jewish and Christian ideas as to angeb. 

WhUe the scriptural statements imply a belief in the existence 
of spiritual beings intermediate between God and men, it is 
probable that many of the details may be regarded merely as 
symbolic imagery. In Scripture the function of the angel 
overshadows his personality; the stress is on their ministry; 
they appear in order to perform specific acts. 

B1DI.10CRAPHY.— See the sections on " Angels " in the handbooks 
of O. T. Theology by Ewaid, Schultz, Smend, Kayaer-Marti, &c.; 
and of N. T. Theology by Weiss, and in van Oosterzce's Dormctics. 
Also commentaries on special passages, especially Driver and Bevan^ 
on Danid, and G. A. Smith, Minor Prophets, ii. 310 if. ; and articles 
5.V. " Anml " in Hastings' BibU Dictionary, and the Encyclopaedia 
Biblica, <W. U. BbO 

ANGBU a gold coin, fifst used in France {angdott ange) in 1340, 
and introduced into England by Edward IV. in 1465 as a new 
issue of the "noble," and so at first called the " angel-noble." 
It varied in value between that period and the time of Charles I. 
(when it was last coined) from 6& 8d. to los. The name was 
derived from the representation it bore of St Michael and the 
dragon. The angel was the coin given to those who came to be 
touched for the disease known as king's evil; after it was no 
longer coined, medals, called touch-pieces, with the same device, 
were given instead. 

ANGELICA, a genus of plants of the natural order Umbe^tferae, 
represented In Britain by one species, A . sylvestris, a taU perennial 
herb with large bipinnate leaves and large compound umbek of 
white or purple flovrcrs. The name Angelica is popularly given 
to a plant of an allied genus, Archangdica officinalis, the tender 
shoots' of which are used in making certain kinds of aromatic 
sweetmeats. A ngdica balsam is obtained by extracting the roots 
with alcohol, evaporating and extracting the residue with ether. 
It is of a dark brown colour and contains angelica oil, angelica 
wax and angelidn, CuHsO. Hie essential oil of the roots of 
Angelica archangdica contains /9-terebangeIcne, CiqHm, and other 
terpenes; the oil of the seeds also contains /3-terebangelene, 
together with methylethylacetic acid and hydroxymyristic add. 

The angelica tree is a member of the order Avaliaceae, a species 
of Aralia (A. spinosa), a native of North America; it grows 
8 to X2 ft high, has a simple prickle-bearing stem forming an 
umbrella-like head, and much divided leaves. 

ANGEUCO, FRA (1387-1455), Italian painter. II Beato Fra 
Giovanni Angelico da Ficsole is the name given to a far-famed 
painter-friar of the Florentine state in the 15th century, the 
representative, beyond all other men, of pietistic painting. He 
is often, but not accurately, termed simply " Fiesole," which is 
merely the name of the town where he first took the vows; more 
often Fra Angelico. If we turn his compound designation into 
English, it runs thus—" the Beatified Friar John the Angelic 
of Fiesole." In his lifetime he was known no doubt simply as 
Fra Giovanni or Friar John; " The Angelic " is a laudatory 
term which was assigned to him at an early date, — ^we find it in 
use within thirty years after his death; and, at some period 
which is not defined in our authorities, he was beatified by due 
ecclesiastical process. His baptismal name was Guido, Giovanni 
being only his name in religion. He was bom at Vicchio, in the 
Tuscan province of Mugcllo, of unknown but seemingly well-to-do 
parentage, in 1387 (not 1390 as sometimes stated); in 1407 he 
became a novice in the convent of S. Domenico at Fiesole, and 
in X408 he took the vows and entered the Dominican order. 
Whether he had previously been a painter by profession is not 
certain, but may be pronounced probable. The painter named 
Lorenao Monaco may have contributed to his art-training, and 
the influence of the Siencse school is discernible in his work. 

** Matt, xviil. 10: Acts xit. 15. 
*■ Gal. ilL 19; Hcb. u. 2; LXX, of Deut. xxxiiL 2. 


According to Vasari, the first paintings of this artist were in the 
Certosa of Florence; none such exist there now. His earliest 
extant performances, in considerable number, are at Cortona, 
whither he was sent during his novitiate, and here apparently he 
spent all the opening yeais of his monastic life. His first works 
executed in fresco were probably those,, now destroyed, which he 
painted in the Convent of S. Domenico in this city; as a fresco- 
painter, he may have worked under, or as a follower of, Gherardo 
Staraina. From 1418 to 1436 he was back at Fiesole; in 1456 
he was transferred to the Dominican convent of S. Marco in 
Florence, and in 1438 undertook to point the altarpiece for the 
choir, followed by many other works; he may have studied 
about this time the renowned frescoes in the Brancacd chapel in 
the Florentine church of the Carmine and also the paintings of 
Onagna. In or about 1445 he was invited by the pope to Rome. 
The pope who reigned from 1431 to 1447 was Eugenius IV., and 
he it was who in 1445 appointed another Dominican friar, a 
colleague of AngcUco, to be archbishop of Florence. If the story 
(first told by Vasari) is true— that this appointment was made at 
the suggestion of Angelico only after the archbishopric had been 
offered to himself, and t^ him declined on the ground of his 
inaptitude for so elevated and responsible a station— Eugenius, 
and not (as stated by Vasari) his successor Nicholas V., must 
have been the pope who sent the invitation and made the offer to 
Fra Giovanni, for Nicholas only succeeded in 1447. The whole 
statement lacks authentication, though in itself credible enough. 
Certain it is that Angelico was staying in Rome in the first half 
of 1447; and he painted in the Vatican the CappcUa del Sacra- 
mento, which was afterwards demolished by Paul III. In June 
1447 be proceeded to Orvieto, to paint in the Cappella Nuova 
of Ute cathedral, with the co-operation of his pupil Benozao 
Goxzoli. He afterwards returned to Rome to paint the chapel 
of Nichdas V. In Uxis capital he died in 1455, and he Hes 
buried in the church of the Minerva. 

According to all the accounts which have reached us, few men 
on whom the distinction of beatification has been conferred could 
have deserved it more nobly than Fra Giovanni. He led a holy 
and self-denying h'fe, shunning all advancement, and was a 
brother'to the poor; no man ever saw him angered. He painted 
with unceasing diligence, treating none but sacred subjects; he 
never retouched, or altered his work, probably with a religious 
feeling that such as divine providence allowed the thing to 
come^ such it should remain He was wont to say that he who 
illustrates the acts of Christ should be with Christ It is averred 
that he never handled a brush without fervent prayer and he 
wept when he painted a Crucifixion. The Last Judgment and 
Che Annunciation were two of the subjects he most frequently 

Bearing in mind the details already given as to the dates of Fra 
Giovanni's sojoumings in various localities, the reader will be able 
to trace approximately the sequence of the works which we now 
proceed to name as among his most important productions. In 
Florence, in the convent of S. Marco (now converted into a national 
museum), a series of frescoes, beginning towards 1443; in the 
first cloister is the Crucifixion with St Dominic kneeling; and 
the same treatment recurs on a wall near the dormitory; in the 
chapterhouse is a third Crucifixion, with the Virgin swooning, a 
composition of twenty life-sized figures — the red background, 
which has a strange and harsh effect, is the misdoing of some 
restorer; an " Annunciation," the figures of about three-fourths 
of life-size, in a dormitory; in the adjoining passage, the " Virgin 
enthroned," with four saints; on the wall of a cell, the " Corona- 
tion of the Virgin," with Saints Paul, Thomas Aquinas, Benedict, 
Dominic, Francis and Peter Martyr; two Dominicans welcom- 
ing Jesus, habited as a pilgrim; an " Adoration of the Magi "; 
the " Marys at the Sepulchre." All these works are later than the 
altarpiece which Angelico painted (as before mentioned) for the 
choir connected with this convent, and which is now in the 
academy of Florence; it represents the Virgin with Saints Cosmas 
and Damian (the patrons of the Medici family), Dominic, Peter, 
Francis, Mark, John Evangelist and Stephen; the pediment 
illustrated the Uves of Cosmas and Damian, but it has long been 

severed from the main subject. In the Uffizl gallery, an altarpiece, 
the Virgin (life-sized) enthroned, with the Infant and twelve 
angels. In S. Domenico, Fiesole, a few frescoes, less fine than 
those in S. Marco; also an altarpiece in tempera of the Virgin and 
Child between Saints Peter, Thomas Aquinas, Dominic and 
Peter Martyr, now much destroyed. The subject which originally 
formed the predcUa of this picture has, since i860, been in the 
National Gallery, London, and worthily represents there the hand 
of the saintly painter. TTie subject is a Glory, Christ with the 
banner of the Resurrection, and a multitude of saints, including, 
at the extremities, the saints or beati of the Dominican order; 
here are no fewer than 366 figures or portions of figures, many of 
them having names inscribed. This predella was highly lauded 
by Vasari; still more highly another picture which used to form 
an altarpiece in Fiesole, and which now obtains worid-wide 
celebrity in the Louvre — the " Coronation of the Virgin," with 
eight predella subjects of the miracles of St. Dominic. For the 
church of Santa Trinita, Florence, Angelico executed a " Depo- 
sition from the Cross," and for the church of the Angeli, a " Last 
Judgment," both now in the Florentine academy; for S. Maria 
Novella, a " Coronation of the Virgin," with a predella in three 
sections, now in the Uffizi, — this again is one of his masterpieces. 
In Orvieto cathedral he painted three triangiilar divisions of the 
ceiling, portraying respectively Christ in a glory of angels, sixteen 
saints and prophets, and the virgin and apostles: all these are 
now much repainted and damaged. In Rome, in the Chapel of 
Nicholas v., the acts of Saints Stephen and Lawrence; also 
various figures of saints, and on the ceiling the four evangelists. 
These works of the painter's advanced age, which have suffered 
somewhat from restorations, show vigour superior to that of his 
youth, along with a more adequate treatment of the architectural 
perspectives. Naturally, there are a number of works currently 
attributed to Angelico, but not really his; for instance, a " St 
Thomas with the Madonna's girdle," in theLatcran museum, and 
a " Virgin enthroned," in the church of S. Girolamo, Fiesole. It 
has often been said that he commenced and frequently practised 
as an illuminator; this is dubious and a presumption arises that 
illuminations executed by Giovanni's brother, Benedetto, also a 
Dominican, who died in 1448, have been ascribed to the more 
famous artist Benedetto may perhaps have assisted Giovanni in 
the frescoes at S. Marco, but nothing of the kind is distinctly 
traceable. A folio series of engravings from these paintings was 
published in Florence, in 1852. Along with Gozzoll already 
mentioned, Zanobi Strozzi and Gentile da Fabriano are named 
as pupils of the Beato. 

We have spoken of Angclico's art as ** pietislic "; this is in 
fact its predomii^nt character. His visages have an air of rapt 
suavity, devotional fervency and beaming esoteric consciousness, 
which is intensely attractive to some minds and realizes beyond 
rivalry a i>articular ideal— that of ecclesiastical saintliness and 
detachment from secular fret and turmoil. It should not be 
denied that he did not always escape the pitfalls of such a method 
of treatment, the faces becoming sleek and prim, with a smirk of 
sexless religiosity which hardly eludes the artificial or even the 
hypocritical; on other minds, therefore, and these some of the 
most masculine and resolute, he produces little genuine impress 
sion. After allowing for this, Angelico should nevertheless be 
accepted beyond cavil as an exalted typical painter according to 
his own range of conceptions, consonant with his monastic calling, 
unsullied purity of life and exceeding devoutness. Exquisite as 
he is in his special mode of execution, he undoubtedly falls far 
short, not only of his great naturalist contemporaries such as 
Masacdo and Lippo Lippi, but even of so distant a precursor as 
Giotto, in all that pertains to bold or life-like invention of a subject 
or the realization of ordinary appearances, expressions and 
actions — the facts of nature, as distinguished from the aspirations 
or contemplations of the spirit. Technically speaking, he had 
much finish and harmony of composition and colour, without 
corresponding mastery of light and shade, and his knowledge of 
the human frame was restricted. The brilliancy and fair light 
scale of his tints is constantly remarkable, combined with a free 
use of gilding; this conduces materially to that celestial character 



which so pie-einineiitly distinguishes his pictured visions of the 
divine penons, the hktardiy of heaven and the gloxy of the 

Books regarding Fra Angelico are numerous. We may mention 
those by S. Beisiel, 1S95: V. M. Crawford, 1900: R. L. Douglas, 
1900; I. B. Supino, 1901;- D. Tumiati. 1897; G. Wtlliamion, 1901. 

(W. M. R.) 

ANGEU., OEOROB TRORHDIKB (1823-1909), American 
philanthropist, was bom at Southbridge, Massachusetts, on the 
5th of June 1823. He graduated at Dartmouth in 1846, studied 
law at the Harvard Law School, and in 1851 was admitted to the 
bar in Boston, where he practised for many years. In 1868 
he founded and became president of the Manachusetts Society 
for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, in the same year 
establishing and becoming editor of Ow Duntb Animals f a 
journal for the promotion of organized effort in securing the 
humane treatment of animals. For many years he was active 
in the organization of humane societies in England and America. 
In 1882 he initiated the movement for the establishment of 
Bands of Mercy (for the promotion of humane treatment of 
animals), of which in 1908 there were more than 72,000 in active 
existence. In 1889 he founded and became president of the 
American Humane Education Society. He became well known 
as a criminologist and also as an advocate of laws for the safe- 
guarding of the public health and against adulteration of food. 
He died at Boston on the x6th of March 1909. 

ANGEL-UGHTS, in architecture, the outer upper lights in 
a perpendicular window, next to the springing; probably a 
corruption of the woxd angle-lights, as they are nearly 

ANGBLU8, a Roman Catholic devotion in memory of the 
Annunciation. It has its name from the opening words, A ngelus 
Domini nuntiavit Mariae. It consists of three texts describing 
the mystery, recited as versicTe and response alternately with 
the saluUtion " Hail, Mary! " This devotion is recited in the 
Catholic Church three times daily, about 6 a.m., noon and 6 p.m. 
At thete hours a bell known as the Angelus bell is rung. This 
is still rung in some English country churches, and has often 
been mistaken for and alleged to be a survival of the curfew-bell 
The institution of the Angelus is by some ascribed to Pope 
Urban II., by some to John XXII. The triple recitation is 
ascribed to Louis XL of France, who in 1472 ordered it to be 
thrice said daily. 

ANGELUS 8ILBSIUS (1624-1677), German religious poet, 
was bom in 1624 at Breslau. His family name was Johann 
Scheffler, but he is generally known by the pseudonym Angelus 
Silcsius, under which he published his poems and which marks 
the country of his birth. Brought up a Lutheran, and at first 
physician to the duke of Wttrttemberg-Oels, he joined in 1652 
the Roman Catholic Church, in i66x took orders as a priest, 
and became coadjutor to the prince bishop of Breslau. He died 
at Breslau on the 9th of July 1677. In 1657 Silcsius published 
under the title Heilige SedetUust, oder geisUicke Hirtenlieder der 
inihrenJesumverliebten Psyche {i6s7)ttiColitction of 205 hymns, 
the most beautiful of which, such as, Liebe, die du mick turn 
Biide deiner Gottheii kasi gemachl and Mir nach, sprickt Cknstus, 
mnser Held, have been adopted in the German ProtesUnt hymnal. 
More remarkable, however, is his Geistreicke Sinn- und ScUuss- 
reime (1657), afterwards called Cheruhinischer Wandersmann 
(i6y4). This is a collection of " Rdmsprflche " or rhymed 
distichs embodying a strange mystical pantheism drawn mainly 
from the writings of Jakob Bfihrae and his followers. Silesius 
delighted specially in the subtle paradoxes of mystidsm. The 
essence of God, for insUnce, he held to be love; God, he said, 
can lover nothing inferior to himself; but he cannot be an object 
of love to himself without going out, so to speak, of himself, 
without manifesting his infinity in a finite form; in other words, 
by becoming man. God and man are therefore essentially one. 

A complete edition of Scheffler's works {Sdmtliche poetische Werke) 
was pubushed by D. A. Rosenthal. 2 vols. (Regensbuir, 1862). 
Both the Ckeruhtniscker Wandersmann And Hetlige Sedenliui have 
been republished by G. Eilinger (1895 and 1901): a selection from 
the former work by O. E. Hartlebcn (1896}. For further notices 

of Silcsius* life and work, see Hoffmann von Fallenleben la ITc^ 
wMr'sckes Jokrbuch I. (Hanover. 18^4); A. Kahlert, AnteSus SiUsitu 
(18S3): C. Seltnunn. Angelus Silestus und seine Mystik (1896). and 
a biog: by H..Mahn (Dresden, 1896). 

ANOBIIllOin>B,atown of Grennany,fai the Pruacian province 
of Brandenburg, on Lake Milndo, 43 m. from Berlin by the Berlin- 
Stettin railway, and at the junction of lines to Prendau, Freien- 
walde and Schwedt. Pop. (1900) 7465. It has three Protestant 
churches, a grammar school and court of law. Its industries 
embrace iron founding and enamd working. In 1420 the doctor 
Frederick I. of Brandoibuig gained here a signal victory over the 

ANOBROMA, or Anceronia, an old Roman goddess, whose 
name and functions are variously explained. According to 
andent authorities, she was a goddess who rdieved men from 
pain and sorrow, or delivered the Romans and thdr flocks from 
angina (quinsy); or she was the protecting goddess of Rome 
and the keeper of the sacred name of the city, which might not 
be pronounced lest it should be revealed to her enemies; it was 
even thought that Angerona itself was this name. Modem 
scholars regard her as a goddess akin \fl Ops, Acca Larentia and 
Dea Dia; or as the goddess of the new year and the returning 
sun (according to Mommsen, ab angerendo « dr6 ro6 dva^pc90at 
r^y ifXu>y). Her festival, called Divalia or Angeronalia, 
was cdebrated on the sxst of December. The priests offered 
sacrifice in the temple of Volupia, the goddess of pleasure, in 
which stood a statue of Angerona, with a finger on her mouth, 
which was bound and dosed (Macrobius i. xo; Pliny, Nat. Hist, 
iiL 9; Varro, L. L. yi. 23). She was worshipped as Ancharia 
at Faesulae, where an altar bdonging to her has been recently 
discovered. (See Faesvlae.) 

ANGERS, a dty of western France, capital of the department 
of Maine-et-Loire, 191 m. S.W. of Paris by the Westem railway 
to Nantes. Pop. (1906) 73,585. It occupies rising ground on 
both banks of the Maine, which are united by three bridges. The 
surrounding district is famous for its flourishing nurseries and 
market gardens. Pierced with wide, straight streets, well 
provided with public gardens, and surrounded by ample, tree- 
lined boulevards, beyond which lie new suburbs. Angers is one 
of the pleasantest towns in France. Of .its numerous medieval 
buildings the most important is the cathedral of St Maurice, 
dating in the main from the 12th and 13th centuries. Between 
the two fl«nlrinfl towcrs of the west fa^e, the spires of which 
are of the x6th century, rises a central tower of the same period. 
The most prominent feature of the facade is the series of eight 
warriors carved on the base of this tower. The vaulting of the 
nave takes the form of a scries of cupolas, and that of the choir 
and transept .is similar. The chief treasures of the church are 
its rich stained glass (12th, 13th and 15th centuries) and valuable 
tapestry (14th to i8th centuries). The bishop's palace which 
adjoins the cathedral contains a fine synodal hall of the X2th 
century. Of the other churches of Angers, the principal are 
St Serge, an abbey-church of the X2th and 15th centuries, and 
La Triniti ( x 2th century). The prefecture occupies the buildings 
of the famous abbey of St Aubin; in its courtyard are elaborately 
sctdptured arcades of the xxth and X2th centuries, from which 
period dates the tower, the only survival of the splendid abbey- 
chiuch. Ruins of the old churches of Toussaint (13th century) 
and Notre-Dame du Ronceray (xxth century) are also to be seen. 
The castle of Angers, an imposing building girt with towers and 
a moat, dates from the x3th century and is now used as an 
armoury. The andent hospital of St Jean (x2th century) is 
occupied by an archaeological museum; and theLogis Barrault, 
a mansion built about 1500, contains the public library, the 
munidpal museum, which has a large collection of pictures and 
sculptures, and the Mus^c David, containing works by the famous 
sculptor David d'Angers, who was a native of the town. One of 
his masterpieces, a bronze statue of Ren£ of Anjou, stands dose 
by the castle. The H6td de Pinc£ or d' Anjou (i 523-1 530) 
is the finest of the stone mansions of Angers; there are also 
many curious wooden houses of the X5th and x6th centuries. 
The palais de justice, the Cathode institute, a fine theatre, ajid 


alkospitBlwith X SCO beds ue the more renarkable of the modem 
builduigs of the town. Aogen is the seat of a bishopric, dating 
from the 3rd century, a prefectnre, a ooart of appeal and a court 
of assiaes. It has a tribunal of first instance, a ttibonaJ of com- 
merce, a board of trade-arbitratoisy a chamber of commerce, 
a branch of the Bank of France and several leaned lodetics. 
Its educational institutions include eodeiaastical seminaiie% a 
Iyc4e, a preparatory school of medicine and pharmacy, a im»> 
versity with free faculties (Jaadtis Ubns) of theotogy, law, letten 
and sdence, a higher school of agricoltuie, training colleges, a 
school of arts and handicrafts anid a school of fine art The 
prosperity Of the town is largely due to the great slate^jnarrics 
of the vidnity, but the distillation of liqueurs from fruit, cable, 
rope and thread-making, and the manufacture of boots and shoes, 
mnbrellas and parasols are leading industries. The weaving of 
sail-doth and woollen and other fabrics, machine construction, 
wire-drawing, and manufacture of ysrkljng wines and preserved 
fruits are also carried on. The chief artides of commerce, 
besides slate and manufactured goods, are hemp, eariy vegetables, 
fruit, flowers and Uve-stock. 

Angers, capital of the Gallic tribe of the Andecavi, was under 
the Romans called Juliomagus. During the 9th century it 
became the seat of the counts of An jou (f .v.). It suffered sevody 
from the invasions of the Northinen in 845 and the succeeding 
yean, and of the English in the lath anid X5th centuries; the 
Huguenots took it in 1585, and the Vendoin royalists were 
repulsed near it in 1793. Till the Revolution, Angers was the 
seat of a cdebrated university founded in the X4th century. 

See L. M. Thorode. Notice de la nZfe d^Anatrs (AngetB. 1897). 

ANGBRSTBIN, JOHM JULIUS (1735-1822), London merchant, 
and patron of the fine arts, was bom at St Petersburg and settled 
In London about 1749. His collection of paintings, consisting 
of about forty of the most exquisite specimens of the art, 
purchased l^ the British government, on his death, formed the 
audeus of the National Gallery 

ANGILBSRT (d. 8x4), Prankish Latin poet, and minister 
of Charlemagne, was of noble Frankish parentage, and educated 
at the palace school under Alcuin. As the friend and adviser 
of the emperor's son, ^ppin, he assisted for a while in the govern- 
ment of Italy, and was later sent on three important embassies 
to the pope, in 792, 794 and 796. Although he was the father 
of two children by Charlemagne's daughter, Bertha, one of them 
named Nithard, we have no authentic account of his marriage, 
and from 790 he was abbot of St Riquler, where his brilliant 
rule gained for him later the renown of a saint. Angilbert, 
however, was little like the true medieval saint; his poems reveal 
rather the culture and tastes of a man of the world, enjoying 
the dosest intimacy with the imperial family. He accompanied 
Charlemagne to Rome in 800 and was one of the witnesses to 
his will in 8x4. AngUbert was the Homer of the emperor's. 
literary drde, and 'was the probable author of an e{»c, of which 
the fragment which has been preserved describes the life at the 
palace and the meeting between Charlemagne and Leo III. It 
is a mosaic from Virgi], Ovid, Lucan and Fortunatus, composed 
In the manner of Einhaxd's use of Suetonius, and exhibits a true 
poetic gift. Of the shorter poems, besides the greeting to Pippin 
on his return from the rampoign against the Avars (796), an 
epistle to David (Charlemagne) inddcntally reveals a deU^tful 
picture of the poet living with his children in a house surrounded 
by pleasant gardens near the emperor's palace. The reference 
to Bertha, however, is distant and respectful, her name occurring 
ma^y on the list of princesses to whom he sends his salutation. 

Angilbert's poems nave been publisbed by E. Dummler in the 
Mennmenta Girmaniae Histcrica. For criticisms of this edition see 
Trsube in Roederer's Sekriften fOr eermaniscke PkiMogie (1888). 
See also A. Mdioier, Le$ Sources de rkistcire de PtoMU, 

ANQINA PECTORIS (Latin for " pain of the chest "), a term 
applied to a violent paroxysm of pain, arising almost invariably 
in connexion with disease of the coronary arteries, a lesion 
causing progressive degeneration of the heart musde (see Hbast: 
Disease), An attadc of angina pectoris usually oomes on with 
a sodden seisore of pain, f d t at first over the region of the heart, 
bat fadia.rtng thnmgh the chest in various directions, and 

fnqiieotly extending down the left arm. A feeling of constriction 
and of wfocatkm accompanies the pain, although there is 
sddom actual difficidty in breathing. When the attack oomes 
on, as it often does, in the course df some bodily exertion, the 
sufferer is at once brought to rest, and during the continuance 
of the paroxysm experiences the moat intense agony. The 
countenance becomes pale, the surface of the body cold, the 
pulse feeble, and death appears to be imminent, when suddenly 
the attack nbsides and oonqilete reUef is obtained. The dura- 
tion of a paroxysm raidy exceeds two or three minutes, but it 
may last for a longer period. The attacks are apt to rec^r on 
slii^t esertkn, and even in aggravated cases without any such 
erriring cause. Occasimially the first seizure proves fatal; but 
more commonly death takes plaoe as the result of repeated 
attacks. Angina pectoris is extremely rare under middle life, 
and is much more common in males than in females. It must 
always be regarded as a disorder of a very serious nature. Inthe 
treatment of the paroxysm, nitrite of amyl has now replaced all 
other remedies^ It can be carried by the patient in the form of 
nitrito of amyl pearls, eadi pearl containing the dose prescribed 
by the physician. Kept in this way the drug does ru>t loee 
strength. As soon as the pain begins the patient crushes a 
peari in his handkerchief and hdds it to his mouth and nose. 
The relief given in this way is marvellous and usually takes place 
within a very few secondk In the rare cases whore this drug 
does not idieve, hypodermic injections of morphia are used. 
But on account of the well-known dangers of this drug, it should 
only be administered by * medical man. To prevent recurrence 
of the attacks somfithing may be done by scrupulous attention 
to the generd health, and by the avoidance of mental and 
physicd straiiu But the most important preventive of all is 
" bed," of which fourteen days must be enforced on the least 
premonition of angind pain. 

Pseiid(haugma.—Jn ooimexion with angina pectoris^ a far 
more common condition must be mentioned that has now 
universaUy recdved the name of pseudo-angina. This indudes 
the pcaeoordial pains which very doady resemble those of true 
angina. The essential difference lies in the fact that pseudo- 

axigina is independent of structural disease of the heart and 
coronary arteries. In true angina there is some condition within 
the heart which starts the sdmtdus sent to the nerve centresw In 
pseud&«ngina the starting-point is not the heart but some 
peripheral or viaoerd nerve. The impulse passes thence to the 
medulla, and so reaching the sensory centres starts a feeling of 
pain that radiates into the diest or down the arm. There are 
three main varieties^— (x) the reflex, (2) the vaso-motor, (3) the 
toxic. The reflex is by far the most common, and isgenerally duo 
to irritation from one of the abdomind organs. An attack ol 
pseudonangina may be agonizing, the pain radiating through the 
chest and into the left arm, but the patient does not usually 
assume the motionless attitude of true angina, and the duration 
of the seizure is usually much longer. The treatment is that of 
the underlying neurosis and the prognosis is a good one, sudden 
death not occurring. 

ANOI08PBRIIS. The botanicd term '* Angiosperm " (ikyy^oit, 
receptade, and m^/io, seed) was coined in the form Angio- 
spermae by Paul Hermaxm in 1690, as the name of that one of 
Us primary divisions of the plant, kingdom, which induded 
flowering plants possessing seeds endosed in capsules, in contra- 
distinction to his GsnmuMpermae, or flowering plants with 
achcnid or scfaizo-carpic fruits — the whole fruit or each of its 
pieces being here regarded as a seed and naked. The term and 
its antonym were maintained by Linnaeus with the same sense, 
but with restricted spplication, in the names of the orders of his 
dassDidjmamia. Itsuse with anyapproach to its modem scope 
only beaune possible after Robert Brown had established in 
1827 the existence of truly naked seeds in the Cycsdeae and 
Coniferae, entitling them to be correctly called Gymnosperms. 
From that time onwards, so long as these Gymnosperms were, 
as was usual, reckoned as dicotyledonous flowering plants, the 
term An^osperm was used antithetically by botanicd writers, 
b«t with varying limitation, as a group-name for other 



dicotyledonous plants. Hie advent In 1851 of Hofmeister's 
brilliant discovery of the changes proceeding in the %mbryo-sac 
of flowering plants, and his determination of the correct reUtioQ- 
ships of these with the Cryptogamia, fixed the true positim of 
Gynmoqxrms as a class distinct from Dicotyledons, and the 
term Angioq>erm then gradually came to be accepted as the suit- 
able designation for the whole of the flowering plants other than 
Gymnosperms, and as including therefore the classes of Dicoty- 
ledons and Monocotyledons. This is the sense in which the term 
is nowadays received and in which it is used here. 

Hie trend of the evolution of the plant Idngdom has been in 
the direction of the establishment of a vegetaticui of fixed habit 
and adapted to the vicissitudes of a life on land, and the Angio- 
sperms are the highest expression of this evolution and constitute 
the dominant vegetation of the earth's surface at the present 
epoch. There is no land-area from the poles to the equator, 
where plant-life is possible, upon which Angiosperms are not 
found. They occtir also abimdantly in the shallows of rivers asd 
fresh-water lakes, and in less number in salt lakes and in the sea; 
such aquatic Angiosperms are not, however, primitive forms, but 
are derived from immediate land-ancestors. Associated with 
this diversity of habitat is great variety in general form and 
manner of growth. The familiar duckweed which covers the 
surface of a pond consists of ;i tiny green " thalloid " shoot, one, 
that is, which shows no distinction of parts — stem and leaf, and 
a simple root growing vertically downwards into the water. The 
great forest-tree has a shoot, which in the course perhaps of 
hundreds of years, has developed a. wide-spreading system of 
trunk and branches, bearing on the ultimate twigs or branchlets 
innumerable leaves, while beneath the soil a widely-branching 
root-system covers an area of corresponding extent. Between 
these two extremes is every conceivable gradation, embracing 
aquatic and terrestrial herbs, creeping, erect or climbing in 
habit, shrubs and trees, and representing a much greater variety 
than is to be found in the other subdivision of seed-plants, the 

In internal structure also the variety of tissue-formation far 
exceeds that found in Gymnosperms (see Plants: Anaiomy). 
The vascular bundles of the stem belong to the col- 
lateral type, that is to say, the elements of the wood or 
xylem and the bast or phloem stand side by side on the 
same radius. In the larger of die two great groups into which 
the Angiosperms are divided, the Dicotyledons, the bundles in 
the very young stem are arranged in an open ring, separating 
a central pith from an outer cortex. In each bundle, separaUng 
the xylem and phloem, is a byer of meristem or active formative 
tissue, known as cambium; by the formation of a layer of 
cambium between the bundl^ (intcrfasdcuhir cambium) a 
complete ring is formed, and a regular periodical increase in 
thickness results from it by the development of xylem on the 
inside and phloem on the outside. The soft pfiloem soon becomes 
crushed, but the hard wood persists, and forms the great bulk of 
the stem and branches of the woody perennial. Owing to 
differences in the character of the elements produced at the 
beginning and end of the season, the wood is marked out in 
transverse section into concentric rings, one for each season of 
growth — the so-called annual rings. In the smaller group, the 
Monocotyledons, the bundles are more numerous in the young 
stem and scattered through the ground tissue. Moreover they 
contain no cambium and the stem once formed increases in 
diameter only in exceptional cases. 

As in Gymnosperms, branching is monopodial; dichotomy or 
the forking of the growing point into tvro equivalent branches 
V tMtirm ^^^ replace the main stem, is absent both in the case 
0^ag, of the stem and the root. The leaves show a remark- 
able variety in form (sec LEAr), but are generally small 
In comparison with the size of thc^plant; exceptions occur in 
some Monocotyledons, e.g. in the Aroid family, where in some 
genera the plant produces one huge, much-branched leaf each 

In rare cases the main axis is unbrancbed and ends in a flower, 
as, for instance, in the tulip, where scale-leaves, forming the 

underground bulb, green foliage-leaves and coloured floral 
l<Aves are borne on one and the same axis. Generally, flowers 
are formed only 00 shoots of a higher order, often only on the 
ultimate branches of a much branched system. A potential 
branch or bud, either foliage or flower, is formed in the axil of 
each leaf; sometimes more than one bud arises, as for instance 
in the walnut, where two or three stand in vertical series above 
each kat Many of the buds remain dormant, or are called to 
development under exceptional circumstances, such as the 
destruction of existing branches. For instance, the clipping of 
a hedge or the lopping of a tree will cause to develop numerous 
buds which may have been dormant for years. Leaf-buds 
occasionally arise from the roots, when they are called adven- 
titious; this occurs in many fruit trees, poplars, elms and others. 
For instance, the young shoots seen springing from the ground 
around an elm are not seedlings but root-shoots. Frequently, 
as in many Dicotyledons, the primary root, the original root of 
the seedling, persists throughout the life of the plant, forming, 
as often in biennials, a thickened tap-root, as in carrot, or in 
perennials, a much-branched root systeuL In many Dicotyledons 
SLud most Monocotyledons, the primary root soon perishes, and 
its place is taken by adventitious roots developied from the 

The most characteristic feature, of the Angiosperm is the 
flower, which shows remarkable variety in form and elaboration, 
and supplies the most trustworthy characters for the 
distincti<m of the aeries and familka or natural orders, 
into which the group is divided. The flower is a shoot (stem 
bearing leaves) which has a special form associated with the 
special function of ensuring the fertilization of the egg and the 
development of fruit containing seed. Except where it ia 
terminal it arises, like the leaf-shoot, in the axil of a leaf, which 
is then known as a bract. Occasionally, as in violet, a flower 
arises singly in the axil of an ordinary foliage-leaf; it is then 
termed axillary. Generally, however, the flower-bearing portion 
of the plant is shaiply distinguished from the foliage leaf- 
bearing or vegetative portion, and forms a more or less elaborate 
branch-system in which the bracts are small and scale-like. 
Such a branch-system is called an inflorescence. The primary 
function of the flower is to bear the ^x>res. These, as in Gymno- 
sperms, are of two kinds, microspores or poUen-grains, borne 
in the stamens (or microsporophylls) and mega^ores, in which 
the egg-cell is developed, contained in the ovvJe, which is borne 
enclosed in the carpel (or megasporophyll). The flower may 
consist only of spore-bearing leaves, as in willow, where each 
flower comprises only a few stamens or two carpels. Usually, 
however, other leaves are present which are only indirectly 
concerned with the reproductive process, acting as protective 
organs for the sporophylls or forming an attractive envelope. 
These form the perianth and are in one series, when the flower 
is termed monochlamydeous, or in two series (dichlamydeous). 
In the second case the outer series (calyx of sepals) is generally 
green and leaf-like, its function being to protect the rest of the 
flower, es|)eciaUy in the bud; while the inner series (corolla of 
petals) is generally white or brightly coloured, and more delicate 
in structure, its function being to attract the particular insect or 
bird by agency of which pollination is effected. The insect, &c., 
is attracted by the colour and scent of the flower, and frequently 
also by honey which is secreted in some part of the flower. 
(For further details on the form and arrangement of the flowcf 
and its parts, see Flower.) 

Each stamen generally bears four pollen-sacs (microsparangia) 
which are associated to form the anther, and carried up on 4 
stalk or filament. The development of the micro- 
sporangia and the ccmtained spores' (poUen-grains) 
is closely comparable with that of the microsporangia 
in Gymno^ienns or heteroaporous ferns. The pollen is set free 
by the opening (dehiscence) of the anther, generally by means 
of longitudinal slits, but sometimes by pores, as in the heath 
family (Ericaceae), or by valves, as in the barberry. It is then 
dropped or carried by some external agent, wind, water or some 
member of the animal kingdom, on to the receptive fttifaoe of 



the cupel of the same or anotber flower. The carpel, or aggregate 
of carpeb forming the pistil or gynaeceum, comprises an ovary 
containing one or more ovules and a receptive surface or stigma; 
the stigma is sometimes carried up on a style. The mature pollen- 
grain b, like other spores, a single cell; except in the case of 
some submerged aquatic plants, it has a double wall, a thin 
delicate wall of unaltered cellulose, the endospore or intine, 
and a tough outer cuticularised exospore or extine. The exo- 
tpon often, bears spines or warts, or is variously sculptured, 
and the diaracter of the markings b often of value for the 
distinction of geneia or higher groups. Germination of the 
microspore begins before it leaves the poUen-sac In very few 
cases has anything representing prothallial development been 
observed; generally a small cell (the antheridial or generative 
cell) is cut off, leaving a larger tube-celL When placed on 
the stigma, under favourable circumstances, the poUen-grain 
puts forth a pcUen-tube which grows down the tissue of the style 
to the ovary, and makes its way along the placenta, guided by 
projections or hairs, to the mouth of an ovule. The nucleus oif 
the tube-cell has meanwhile passed into the tube, as does also the 
generative nucleus which divides to form two male- or sperm- 
cells. The male^xUs are c;;nied to their destination in the tip 
of the poUen-tube. * 

The ovary contains one or more ovules borne on a pla- 
centa, which is generally some part of the ovary-wall. The 
development of the ovule, which represents the 
macrosporangium, is very similar to the process in 

Gymnosperms; when mature it consists of one or two 

coats surrounding the central nucellus, except at the 
apex where an opening, the micropyle, is left. The nucellus u a 
cellular tissue enveloping one large cell, the .embryo-sac or 
qiacrospore. The germination of the macrospore consists in 
the repeated division of its nucleus to form two groups of four, 
one group at each end of the embryo-sac One nudeus from each 
group, the polar nucleus, passes to the centre of the sac, where 
^e two fuse to form the so-called definitive nucleus. Of the 
three cells at the micropylar end of the sac, all naked cells 
(the so-called egg-apparatus), one is the egg-cell or oosphere, 
the other two, which may be regarded as representing abortive 
egg-cells (in rare cases capable of fertilization), are known as 
synergidae. The three cells at the opposite end are known 
as antipodal cells and become invested with a cell-wall. The 
gamctophyte or prothallial generation is thus extremely reduced, 
consisting of but little more than the male and female sexual 
cells — the two sperm-cells in the poUen-tube and the egg-cell 
(with the synergidae) tn the - embryo-sac. At the period of 
fertilization the embryo-sac lies in dose proximity 
to the opening of the micropyle. into which the poUen- 
tube has penetrated, the separating cell-wall becomes 
absorbed, and the male or sperm-cclls arc ejected into the embryo- 
sac. Guided by the synergidae one male-cell passes into the 
oosphere with which it fuses, the two nudd uniting, while the 
other fuses with the definitive nudeus, or, as it is also called, the 
endosperm nudeus. This remarkable double fertilization as it 
has been called, although only recently discovered, has been 
proved to take place in widely-separated families, and both in 
Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons, and there is every probability 
that, perhaps with variations, it is the normal process in Angio- 
sperms. After impregnation the fertilized oosphere immediately 
surrounds itself with a cell- wall and becomes-the oospore which 
by a process of growth forms the embryo of the new plant. 
The endosperjh-nudeus divides rapidly to produce a cellular 
tissue which fills up the interior of the rapidly-growing embryo- 
sac, and forms a tissue, known as endosperm, in which is stored 
a supply of nourishment for the use later on of the embryo. It 
has long been known that after fer^tilization of the egg has taken 
place, the formation of endosperm begins from the endosperm 
nudetis, and this had come to be regarded as the recommence- 
ment of the development of a prothalliimi after a pause following 
the rcinvjgoraling union of the polar nudd. This view is still 
maintained by those who differentiate two acts of fertilization 
within the embryo-sac, , and regard that of the egg by the first 

male^eD, as the true or generative fertflisatioii, and that of the 
polar nudd by the second male gamete as a vegetative fertilisa- 
tion which gives a stimulus to development in correlation with the 
other. If, on the other hand, the endosperm is the product 
of an act of fertilization as definite as that giving rise to the 
embryo itself, we have to recognize that twin-plants are produced 
within the embryo*sac — one, the embryo, which becomes the 
angiospermous plant, the other, the endosperm, a short-lived, 
undifferentiated nurse to assist in the nutrition of the former, 
even, as the subsidiary embryos in a pluri-embryonic Gymno- 
sperm may facilitate the nutrition of the dominant one. If this is 
so, and th« endosperm like the embryo is normally the product 
of a sexual act, hybridization will give a hybrid endosperm as 
it does a hybrid embryo, and herein (it is suggested) we may have 
the explanation of the phenomenon of xenia observed' in the 
mixed endosperms of hybrid races of maize and other plants, 
regarding which it has only been possible hitherto to assert 
that they were indications of the extension of the influence of 
the pollen beyond the egg and its product This would not, 
however, explain the formation of fruits intermediate in size and 
colour between those of crossed parents. The signification of 
the coalescence of the polar nudd is not explained by these new 
facts, but it is noteworthy that the second male-cdl is said to 
unite sometimes with the apical pcrfar nudeus, the sister of the 
egg, before the union of this with the basal polar one. The idea 
of the endosperm as a second subsidiary plant is no new one; 
it was suggested long ago in explanation of the coalescence of 
the polar nucld, but it was then based on the assumption that 
these represented male and female cells, an assumption for which 
there was no evidence and which was inherently improbable. 
The proof of a ooalesoence of thr second male nudeus with the 
definitive nudeus gives the conception a more stable basis. 
The antipodal cells aid more or less in the process of nutrition 
of the devdoping embryo, and may undergo multiplication, 
though they ultimatdy dishit^rate, as do also the synergidae. 
As in Gynmosperms and other groups an interesting qualitative 
change is assodated with the process of fertilization. The 
number of chromosomes (see Plants: Cytology) in the nudeus 
of the two spores, pollen-grain and embryo-sac, is only half the 
number found in an ordinary vegetative nudeus; and this 
reduced number persists in the cells derived from them. The 
full number is restored in the fusion of the male and female nudd 
in the process of fertilization, and remains until the formation of 
the cells from which the spores are derived in the new generation. 

In several natural orders and genera departures from the course 
of development just described have been noted. In the natural 
order Rosaceae, the series (^uerdflorae, and the very anomalous 
genus Casuarina and others, instead of a single macrospore a 
more or less extensive sporogenous tissue is formed, but only one 
cell proceeds to the formation of a functional female cell. In 
Casuarina, Juglans and the order Corylaceae, the poUen-tube 
does not enter by means of the micropyle, but passing down the 
ovary wall and through the placenta, enters at the rhalar^il end 
of the ovule. Such a method of entrance is styled chalazogamic, 
in contrast to the porogamic or ordinary method of approach by 
means of the micropyle. 

The result of fertilization is the development of the ovule into 
the seed. By the segmenution of the fertilized egg, now invested 
by cell-membrane, the embryo-plant arises. A varying 
number of transverse segment-walls transform it into 
a pro-embryo — a cellular row of which the cell nearest 
the micropyle becomes attached to the apex of the embryo-sac, 
and thus fixes the position of the developing embryo, wUle the 
terminal cell is projected into its cavity. In Dicotyledons the 
shoot of the embryo is wholly derived from the terminal cell of the 
pro-«mbryo, from the next cell the root arises, and the remaining 
ones form the suspensor. In many Monocotyledons theterminal 
cell forms the cotyledonary portion ^lone of the shoot of the 
embryo, its axial part and the root bdng derived from the 
adjacent cell; the cotyledon is thus a terminal structure and the 
apex of the primary stem a lateral one — a condition in marked 
contrast with that of the Dicotyledons. In some MonocotvlcdonSj 




however, the cotyledon is not really tenninaL 1^ piimaiy root 
of the embryo in all Angioepenns pohits towards the micropyle. 
The developing embryo at the end of the su^iensor grows out to 
a varying extent into the forming endoqperm, from which by 
surface absorption it derives good material for growth; at the 
same time the suqiensor playsadircct part asacarrier of nutrition, 
and may even develop, where perhaps no tndotptim is formed, 
q)edal absorptive " su^>ensor roots ** which invest the developing 
embryo, or pass out into the body and coats of the ovuk, or even 
into the placenta. In some cases the embryo or the embryo-sac 
sends out suckers into the nucellus and ovular integument As 
the embryo develops it may absorb all the food material available, 
and store, either in its cotyledons or in its hypocotyl, what is not 
immediately required for growth, as reserve-food for use in 
germination, and by so doing it increases in sise until it may fill 
entirely the embryo-sac; or iu absorptive power at this stage may 
be limited to what is necessary for growth and it remains of 
relatively small size, occupying but a smalUrea of the embryo-sac, 
which is otherwise filled with endosperm in which the reserve-food 
is stored. There are«lso intermediate states. The position of the 
embryo in relation to the endoq>erm varies, sometimes it is 
internal, sometimes external, but the significance of this has not 
yet been established. 

The formation of endoq>erm starts, as has been stated, from 
the endo^>erm nucleus. Its segmentation always begins before 
that of the egg, and thus there is timely preparation for the 
nursing of the young embryo. If in its extension to contain the 
new formations within it the embryo-sac remains narrow, endo- 
sperm formation proceeds upon the lines of a cell-divisioQ, but in 
wide embryo^sacs the endoq>enn is first of all formed as a layer 
of naked cells arouiMl the wall of the sac, and only gradually 
acquires a pluricellular character, forming a tissue filling the 'sac 
The function of the endoq>erm is primarily that of nourishing the 
embryo, and its basal position in the embryo-sac places it 
favourably for the absorption of food material entering the ovule. 
Its duration varies with the precocity of the embryo. It may be 
wholly absorbed by the progressive growth of the embryo within 
the embryo-sac, or it may persist as a definite and more or less 
Con^icuous constituent of the seed. When it persists as a massive 
element of the seed its nutritive function is usually apparent, for 
there is accumulated within its cells reserve-food, and according 
to the dominant substance it is starchy, oily, or rich in cdlulose, 
mucilage or proteid. In cases where the embryo has stored 
reserve food within itself and thus provided for self-nutrition, 
such endoqierm as remains in the seed may take on other 
functions, for instance, that of water-absorption. 

Some deviations from the usual course of development may be 
noted. Parthenogenesis, or the development of an embryo from an 
egg-cell without the latter having been fertilised has been de- 
scribed in sptdeBol Tkalidrum, AnlenHariaand AUkem^la. Poly- 
embryony is generally associated with the development of cells 
other than the egg-cell. Thus in ^ytkronium and Limnochans the 
fertilised egg may form a mass of tissue on which several embryos 
are produced. Isolated cases show that any of the cells within the 
embryo-sac may exceptionally form an embryo, e.f. the qmergidae 
in ^>ecies of Mimosa^ Iris and Allium, and in the last-mentioned 
the ant^KKlal cells also. In Codebofyne (Euphorbiaceae) and in 
Punkia (Liliaceae) polyembryony results from an adventitious 
production of embryos from the cells of the nucellus around the 
top of the embryo-sac. In a qpedes of Allium^ embryos have 
been found developing in the same individual from the egg-cell, 
synergids, antipodal cells and cells of the nucellus. In two 
Malayan ^>edes of BaUtnopkcfc, the embryo is developed from 
a cell of the endosperm, which b formed from the upper polar 
nucleus only, the egg apparatus becoming disorganised. The 
last-mentioned case has been regarded as representing an 
apogamous development of the qsorophyte from the gametopfayte 
comparable to the cases of apogamy described in Ferns. But 
the great diversity of these abnormal cases as shown in the 
examples dted above suggests the use of great caution in for- 
mulating definite morphological theories upon them. 

As the development of embryo and endosperm proceeds within 


the embryo-sac, its wall enlarges and commonly absorbs the 
subsunce of the nucellus (which is likewise enlarging) to near ita 
outer limit, and combines with it and the integument 
to form the seed-ofat; or the whole nucellus and even 
the integument may be absorbed. In some plants the 
nucellus is not thus absorbed, but itself becomes a seat of de- 
posit of reserve-food constituting the ^erir^enn which may coexist 
with endosperm, as in the water-lily order, or may alone form a 
food-reserve for the embryo, as in Ca$ina, Endoqicrmic food^' 
reserve has evident advantages over periq>ermic, and the latter 
is comparatively rarely found and only in non-progressive series. 
Seeds in which endosperm or perisperm or both exist. are com- 
moidy called aUmminous or etidaspermie, those in which neither is 
fouTKl are termed cxottu mmmm or esendospermic. These terms, 
extensively used by ^stematists, only refer, however, to the 
grosser features of the seed, and indicate the more or less evident 
occurrence of a food-reserve; many so-called enJbuminous seeds 
show to microscopic examination a distinct eikdo^ierm which may 
have other than a nutritive function. The presence or absence 
of endosperm, its rehitive amount when present, and the position 
of the embryo within it, are valuable characters for the distinction 
<rf orders and groups c^ orders. Meanwhile the ovary wall has 
developed to form the fruit or pericarp, the structure of which is 
closely assodaied with the maimer of distribution of the seed. 
Frequently the influence of fertilization is felt beyond the ovary, 
and other parts of the flower take part in the formation of the 
fruit, as the floral receptacle in the apple, strawberry and others. 
The character of the seed-coat bears a definite relation to that of 
the fruit. Their function is the twofold one of protecting the 
embryo and of aiding in dissemination; they may also directly 
promote germination. If the fruit is a dehiscent one and the seed 
is therefore soon exp6aed, the seed-coat has to provide for the 
protection of the embryo and may also have .to secure dissemina- 
tion. On the other hand, indehiscent fruits discharge these 
functiom for the embryo, and the seed-coat is only slightly 
developed. Dissemination is effected by the agency of 
water, of air, of animals — and fruits and seeds are 
therefore grouped in respect of this as hydrophilous, 
anemophilous and zooidiophilous. The needs for these are 
obvious— buoyancy in water and resistance to wetting for the 
first, some form of parachute for the second, and some attaching 
mechanism or attractive structure for the third. The methods in 
which these are provided are of infim'ie variety, and any and 
every part of the flower and of the inflorescence may be called into 
requisition to supply the adaptation (see Fbuit). Special 
outgrowths, arils, of the seed-coat are of frequent occurrence. In 
the feature of fruit and seed, by which the distribution of Angio- 
q>erms is effected, we have a distinctive character of the class. In 
Gymnosperms we have seeds, and the carpels may become modified 
and dose around these, as in Pinus, during the process of ripening 
to form an imitation of a box-like fruit which subsequently open- 
ing allows the seeds to escape; but there is never in them the 
closed ovary investing from the outset the ovules, and ultimately 
forming the ground-work of the fruit. 

Their fortuitous dissemination does not always bring seeds 
upon a suitable nidus for germination, the primary essential of 
which is a suffidency of moisture, and the duration of 
vitality of the embryo is a point of interest. Some ^mT 
seeds retain vitality for a period of many years, though „j^ 
there is no warrant for the popular notion that genuine 
" mummy wheat " will germinate, on the other hand some seeds 
lose vitality in little more than a year. Further, the older the 
seed the more slow as a general rule will germination be in 
starting, but there are notable exceptions. This pause, often of 
so long duration, in the growth of the embryo between the time 
of its perfect development within the seed and the moment of 
germination, is one of the remarkable and distinctive features of 
the life of Spermatophy tes. The aim of germination is the fixing 
of the embryo in the soil, effected usually by means of the root, 
which is the first part of the embryo to appear, in preparation 
for the elongation of the epicotyledonaiy portion of the shoot, 
and there is infinite variety in the details of the process. • In 

a DkBtyiedoBs the cotj'lRloni ic( u iht ibuibenU of 
iht rwrvi-lood if the swd »od »ie toaimonty brought iboire 
ground (i^*|ca/), tithrr withdraim frora ihr««ifo«t or einying 
it upon Ihcm, and ihin ihfjr ieive u the firit gmn oigiia of (he 
pUol. The p«t of the sum bflow the cotykdons (kypxaiyr) 
commonl)' playi the pe»tct pirt ia bringing Ihi) ibout. Ei- 
■Jbuminous DitotyledDns muiUy tion rCMrrt-Faod io Ibcir 
coi^edou, Khich tnay ia gtrmiiuiiiaD nmiia below gcDuod 
(*)'>'(»/). In albuaunauj Monocotyledons Ihi colyledon iIkIC, 
pnfbtbly in coosequenfe ol its IcrmiuU position, u commonly 
the igent by which the embryo ii Ihniil out ol the seed, ind it 
nay (unction lolely aa i leedci, its ulremily developing u 4 
nickei ihniugh which the endospem is ibsocbed, or it nay 
become the Gnt green ngin, the tennind sucker dnm>inE 
Dll with the teed-cMt when the endospenn is cihiusled. 
Enlbuminoui Moaocotyledoos ire eitber hydrophytes or 
itron^y hygrophilous plants and have often peculiat (aturet 

Distiibuijon by aeed appeus to satisfy so well the requirementi 

of Angiasperau that distribution by vegetative buds is only aa 

Dccasioul ptoceo. At the same time every bud on ■ 



.rlTlhe other mi\ 

Lions, aa the horticultural p 

onraoU.' Where detachable buds an 
truuported through the air to a disti 
incipient ihoot which may have a n 
rdcrve-food stored in some part ol it, 
resembles a seed. A relation between 
I and prodt 


s free f on 

3D seed, and the c 
The posilioD 

usually marked. When 

highest plant-group i 

of vegeuti 
I of Angio^ienns 

general stem .of the plant kingdom, uid of the path 
»^'««v „ piih, ol theii evolution, we can at yet »ay little. 
^rmtnr ^"'^ "'" °° '" ^' Mooioic period geologieal history 
tells us nothing about Angiosperms, and then only by 
their vegetative organs. We readily recognize in them now-a- 
days the natural classes of Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons 
distinguished alike in vegetative and in reproductive construction, 
jret showing remarkable parallel sequences in development; 
and we see that the Oicolyledou are the more advanced and 
ihow the greater cipacily lor lurther prograsive evolution. 
But there is no sound basis for the assumption that the Dicoty- 
ledons are derived from Moaocotyledons; indeed, the palaeonto- 
logical evidence leemi to point Io the Dicotyledoni being the 
older. This, however, does not entitle us to assume the origin 
of Monocotyledons Irom Dicotyledons, although there is mani- 
festly a temptation to connect helobic forms of the former with 
ranaJ ones of the latter. There is no doubt that the phylum of 
Angiosperms has not sprung from that of Gymnosperms. 

WlMn each class the Aowtr^haracters aa the casenlial lealure o( 
Aogiosperms aupply the due to ph^logeny, but the UDCtrtaioty 
rcEardinf the construction ri the pnmitlve aa g io ip ennous flower 
givea a fundamenlal point of divsfeoce in atleiMMs to cosiitiuci 
progressive sequcDcts of (he famiUea. Simplidty c« flower-stiuct ure 
bas appcand to sook to be always primitive, whilst by others it has 
been taken to be always derived. There is. however, abundant 

X of our epoch. Advance has baen ah 

alin ii also ckarly derived Irom 

s Hate si the seed to be an antcccdeol one to the «- 
> coiHlition, and the ircent discoveries in (ertiliaatioa 
I view. Amongst Dicotyledons the nnopetalDqa 
d to be the hlgbesc development and a dominaat 

*'' *■-» been afona two Hne*, markedly in 

K of which has culminated in the 


niventral cftea 


,. J pronHMin from hypogyny to epigyny is gener- 

rnngni'^. and when dorsiveotrality with iosect-pallijiatkiq 
been established, a dominant group has been developed aa in the 
jiDLBoaae. The startinf-poinl ol the claaa, bosrcver, and the 
L of apetaJous lanitiea with frequently uniseaiial 
ivoked mueh diwiiaJnii In MonoCDtyledDos a 

am hvpDgyny to epigyny is observed, and J 
le radial type ti nower- In this conneKioB ii 
o many of the higher forms are arlapted as bulb 
cniphylea to special Kerophilous conditions- 1 

/mmiDCBt euDple of a dominant sdf-polliiu 
family, and thia may find eiiplaoatioi] ii 

cusses of the latter arc bated on the same set of characters and tall 
into the larger subdivisions Apelalae, Mooopetalae and Polypetalae, 
characteriaed mpeclively by absence, union or freedom of the 
petals, and a subdivisioB.&ufiwj/pnrciWffrrr. a very unnatural gTTHjp, 
including one dass only. A P, de CandoUc introduced sevenl 

, : .. , .- I.. iffa,~j„,„, ,ht h« ,ub- 

'hidl both ealyl and comlla arr pment 
ller, Monachlamydeae^ rtpmenliriE the 

_. rfiMiTi of Jusdeu- The dichlamydeoua 

ROUP is subdivided iato three, ThBtamiAome. Calydflotae and 
ConilliBoiae, depending on the poablon and union at the petals. 
This, which w« may distinguish as the French system. Bods its most 
perfect eapression in the dassie Gemtn Ptmltnm (iSto-iWi) of 
Bedtham and Hnoke^ a woric containing a description, based on 
careful ennunation of spedmens, of alt known genem of Aowerjnf 


I Thalamiflone. 
Polypetalae i Disdflorae. 

CamopeCalae < fieleromerae. 
MonochUmydeae in eight sciiea. 
Monocotyledon, in seven njea 
X the Polypeulae, series i. Thalamiflorae. Is characterised by 
L — =.^_ _ "iKiftrae. ukes lis nana 

has generally 

'^'serieaof Ml 

GUncteriaad mainly by i 


. _^.„ OrchidieanJ 

throurik the petaloid hypogynoui orders 

(■cries Calydnae) where the perianth loMS 
the Aigid^ «nir.plBC* and 



Others where it is more or liss aborted (series Nudiflorae). Series 6, 
Apocarpeae. is characterized by 5 carpels, and in the last series 
Glumaceae, great simplification in the flower is associated with a 
graas-Iike habit. 

The sequence of orders in the polypetalous subdivision of Dicoty- 
ledons undoubtedly repircaents a pnwression from shnpier to more 
elaborate forms, but a great drawback to the valve of the system is 
the inclusion among the Monochlarovdeae of a number m orders 
which are closely allied with orders of Polypetalae though differing 
in absence of a corolla. The German systematist, A. W. Eichler, 
attempted to remove this disadvantage which ^nce the time in 
Jussieu had characterized the French system, and in 1883 ^uped 
the Dicotyledons in two subclasses. The earlier Chonpetabe 
embraces the Polypetalae and McMiochlamydae of the French 
systems. It includes ai series, and is an attempt to arrange as far 
as possible in a linear series those orders which are characterised by 
absence or freedom of petals. The second subclass, Gamopetalae, 
includes 9 series and culminates in those which show the most 
elaborate type of flower, the series Aggregatae, the chief representa- 
tive of whicn is the great and wide-spread order Compositac.^ A 
modification of Eichler's system, embracing the most recent views 
of the affinities of the orders of Angiosperms, has been put forward 
by Dr Adolf Engler of Berlin, who adopts the suggestive names 
Archichlamydeae and Metachlamydeae for the two subdivisions of 
Dicotyledons. Dr Engler is the principal editor of a large series of 
volumes which, under the title Die naiurtichen Pflansaijamilien, is 
a systematic account of all the known genera of plants and represents 
the work of many botanists. More recently m Das Pfianunreick 
the same author organized a series of complete monographs of the 
families of seed-plants. 

As an attempt at a phylogcnetic arrangement, Engler's system is 
now preferred by inany botanists. More recently a startling novelty 
in the way of systein has been produced by van Tiegbem, as follows: 

liorfaizal DicotyledoBS. 



The roost remarkable feature here is the dan of Liorhizal Dicoty- 
ledons, which includes only the families of Nymphacaceae and 
Gramineac. It is baaed upon the fact that the histological differentia- 
tion of the epidermis of their root is that generally characteristic of 
Monocotylcaons, whilst they have two cotyledons — the old view of 
the cpibtast as a second cotyledon in Gramineae being adopted. 
But the presence of a second cotyledon in graaaes is extremely 
doubtful, and though there may be ground lor reconsidering the 
position of Nymphaeaccae, their association with the grasses as a 
distinct class is not warranted by a comparative examination of the 
members of the two orders. Ovular characters determine the group- 
ing in the Dicotyledons, van Tieghem supporting the view that the 
integument, the outer if there be two, is the lamina of a Xal of which 
the funicle is the petiole, whilst the nucellus is an outgrowth of this 
leaf, and the Inner integument, if present, an indusium. The 
Inaemtneae include forms in which the nucellus is not developed, 
and therefore there can be no seed. The plants included are. however, 
mainly well-established parasites, and the absence of nucellus is only 
one of those characters of reduction to which parasites are liable. 
Even if we admit van Tieghem's interpretation of the integuments 
to^ be correct, the diagnostic mark of his unitegminous and bitcg- 
minous groups u simply that of the absence or presence of an in- 
dusium, not a character of great value elsewhere^ and, as we know, 
the number of the ovular coats is inconstant withm the same family. 
At the same time the groups based upon the integuments are 
of much the same extent as the Polypetabe and Gamopetalae of 
other systems. We do not yet know the significance of this correla- 
tion, which, however, is not an invariable one, between number of 
integuments and union 6L petals. 

Within the last few years Prof. John Coulter and Dr C. J. 
Chamberlain of Chicago University have given a valuable general 
account of the morphology of Ani^osperms as far as concerns the 
flower, and the series of events which ends in the formation of the 
seed {Morphology of Angiosperms, Chicago. 1903). 

Authorities. — The reacier will find in the foflowingworks details 
of the subject and references to the literature: Benthara and 
Hooker, Genera Plantarum (London, 1862-1883); Eichler, Btnthen- 
diagramme (Leipzig, 1875-1878); Engler and Prantl, Die naturlichen 
Pnanaenfamilien (Leipzig, 1887-1899); Engler, SyUaInu der 
Pflanunfamilien, yd ed. (Berlin, 1903); Knuth, HantUmck der 
autenbiohgie (Leipzig. 1898. 1890); Sachs, History </ Botany ^ 
English ed. (Oxford, 1890); Solercaer, Systematische Anatomie der 
Dicotyledonen (Stuttsart, 1899); ^° Ti<%hem, EUmenis de botan- 
Aim; Coulter and Cnamberlam, Morpkohgy of Angiosperms (New 
York, 1903). (I. B. B. ; A. B. R.) 

ANGKOR* an assemblage of ruins in Cambodia, the relic of 
the andent Khmer civilization. They are situated in forests 
to the north of the Great Lal^e (Tonle-Sap), the most conspicuous 

of the remains being the town of Angkor-Thorn an4 the temple 
of Angkor- V'at, both of which lie on the right bank of the river 
Siem-Reap, a tributary of Tonle-Sap. Other remains of the 
same form and character lie scattered about the vidnity on 
both banks of the river, which is crossed by an andent stone 

Angkor-Thom lies about a quarter of a mile from the river. 
According to Aymonicr it was begun about a. o. 860, in the 
reign of the Khmer sovereign Jayavarman III., and finished 
towards a.d. 900. It consists of a rectangular enclosure, neariy 
7 m. in each direction, surrounded by a wall from 30 to 30 ft. 
in height. Within the enclosure, which is entered by five monu- 
mental gates, are the remains of palaces and temples, oveigrown 
by the forest The chief of these are.* — 

(1) The vestiges of the royal palace, which stood within an 
enclosure containing also Uie pyramidal religious structure 
known as the Phimeanakas. To the east of this cndosure there 
extends a terrace decorated with magnificent reliefs. 

(a) The temple of Bayon, a square endosure formed by 
galleries with colonnades, within which is another and more 
elaborate system of galleries, rectangular in arrangement and 
endosing a crudform structure, at the centre of which rises a 
huge tower with a drcular base. Fifty towers, decorated 
with quadruple faces of Brahma, are built at intervals upon 
the gdleries, the whole temple ranking as perhaps the most 
remarkable of the Khmer renuiins. 

Angkor-Vat, the best preserved example of Khmer architec- 
ture, lies less than a mile to the south of the royal dty, within 
a rectangular park surrounded by a moat, the outer perimeter 
of which measures 6060 yds. Chi the west side of the park a 
paved causeway, leading over the moat and tmder a magnificent 
portico, extends for a distance of a quarter of a mile to the chief 
entrance of the main building. The temple was originally 
devoted to the worship of Brahma, but afterwards to that of 
Buddha; its construction is assigned by Aymonier to the first 
half of the x 2th centuiy a.d. It consists of three stages, connected 
by numerous exterior staircases and decreasing in dimensions 
as they rise, culminating in the sanctuary, a great central tower 
pyramidal in form. Towen also surmount the angles of the 
terraces of the two upper stages. Three galleries with vault- 
ing supported on columns lead from the three western portals 
to the second stage. They are connected by a transverse 
gallery, thus forming four square basins. Khmer decoration, 
profuse but harmonious, consists chiefly in the representa- 
tion of gods, men and animals, which are displayed on 
every flat surface. Combats and legendary episodes are often 
depicted; floral decoration is reserved chiefly for borders, 
mouldings and capitals. Sandstone of various colours was the 
chief material employed by the Khmers; limonite was also used. 
The stone was cut into huge blocks which are fitted together 
with great accuracy without the use of cement. 

See E. Aymonier, Le Cambodge (3 vols., 1900-1904) ; Doudart de 
Lagr6e, Voyage d'exploration en Indo-Ckine (1872-1873); A. H. 
Mouhot, Travels in indO'China, Cambodia and Laos (2 vols.. 1864); 
Fournereau and Porcher, Les Ruines d' Angkor (1890) ; L. Deiaporte, 
Voyage an Cambodge: V architecture Khmer (1880); J. Moura, Le 
Royaume de Cambodge (2 vols., 1883). 

ANGLE (from the Lat. anguiuSf a comer, a diminutive, of 
which the primitive form, angus, does not occur in Latin; 
cognate are the Lat. angere, to compress into a bend or to 
strangle, and the Gr. iytcot, a bend; both connected with 
the Aryan root ank-, to bend: see Akcung), in geometry, the 
indination of one line or j^ane to another. Euclid (Elements, 
book x) defines a plane angle as the indination to each other, in 
a plane, of two lines which meet each other, and do not He 
straight with respect to each other (see Geomstsy, Eucuoean). 
According to Produs an angle must be either a quality or* a 
quantity, or a rdationship. The first concept was utilized by 
Eudemus, who regarded an angle as a deviation from a straigjbt 
line; the second by Caipus of Antioch, who regarded it as the 
interval or space between the intersecting lines; Euclid adopted 
the third concept, although his definitions of right, acute, and 
obtuse anj^es are certainly quantitative. A discussion of 


tkic ccnctpU uid the varioui dcSnltkiiii of ugla In Eudldcui 
(contfUy >• to be found in W. B, FnnkUnd, Tlu Pint Boik 
af EMdid'i Elmunli (igoj). Followiiig Euclid, i right angle 
B iDrniKl by I iliaightUne sundlngupon uolhcr itnight line 
to u to mike the uljuent inglci equal; any lagle lot ibsn t 
right inglc ii leimrd tn uule angle, ind my angle gieitei than 
a right angle »n oblus* an^e. The diflmnce between an acute 
angle and a right angle a termed the oinipleiiient of the anjle, 
and between an angle and two right jtngles the luppJement o( the 
ai^e. The generalimi view ol inglu lad Ihdr meafureiMnl 
i> treated in the article TticoNouEUV. A (clid angle ii definable 
tt tbe tpace contained by lbre« at mote planes inlenecling in 
a ccuuBon poinli it ii [aoiliaily tepreMnied by a corner. The 
aji^e between two planes is teimed dihedral, between UiRC 
trihcdial, between any numbei n»re than three polyhedral. A 
ipheiical angle la a particular dihedral angle; it ia the angle 
belwecn two intenecling arcs on a iphert, and it meagund 
by the angle between the plane* conlaining the >ta and the 
centre of the ipheTC. 

The angle between a line and a curve ( ndicd angle) or between 
two curve! (curvilinear an^e) ii meaaured by the ariglc between 
the line and ibe tangent at the point at inttnectisn, or between ibc 
tangent* to both curve* at Ihidr common point. Various name* 
(now r«rely,il ever, used) have been given to particular cases^— 
■mphicyitic (Ct. V4J. on both sdei, Mu^nii, convex) or 
fi^^A»^ [Gr, aaaia, ivy), biconveaj ayatrotdal or listniida] 
(Gt. p/ffTpity a tool For scraping), concavo-convex; amphicoelic 
(Gr. (oOu). a hollow) or aafiifu limidarii, biconcave. 

AHOLKB, alto someliinn called fishing-frog, irog-fiih, sea- 
devil ILafkiit) ^atoriiu), a Ath well known oS the coasts of 
Gnat Britain and Europe generally, the grolesque shape of Its 
body and its singular hnhila having atlraclcd the atlenlion of 
naturalists o< all ages. To the North Sea fitbetmeD this Esh i* 
known ai the " monk," * name which nwre propeily belong! to 
iU.iMi;wi/i<u, a fish allied to theskatet. Itsheadlsofenorraoui 
tiie. bituuj, flat and depeetsed. the remainder of the body 
appealing mcidy liks an appendage. The wide mcutb eitencb 

ment to an object gUding towards the s 
its escape from the mouth. The pectoral ac 
articulated as to perform the functions of 
enabled to move, or ralher to walk, on the 
where it generally hides itsell in the sand or 
All round its head and alto along the b 
fringed appendages resembling short froi; 

a[ the head; and botl 
oinled tDctb, which an 
10 a* to oBer do impede 

three 1 

of the a 

e, in fail, Ibe t 
lappet, and I* UDH 


beUeved to attract Mber fishes by mean of its lun 

er fishes are attracted in this my, but experiments hav* 

shown that the action of the jaws b aataaulk tad depends 

iBIaci el the ptey with the tentacle. It* stomach is diitea- 

in an citnordinaty degree, and not ntdy fisbet have 

taken out quite aa large and heavy as tbcii destroyer. It 

t to a length ot awre than 5 ft.; spedmtns of j ft. are 

Don. The spawn of the angler is very remarkable. It 

G<in*i*ts of a ihin sheet o( transparent gelatituui material 1 «] f L 

biosd and S5 to 30 Ft. in lefigth. The eggs in this sheet are in a 

an^ layer, each is iti own little cavity. The spawn i* free in 

a. The larvae are Iree-swiraming and have the pelvic fins 

elongated into filamenta. The British spedes is found all nuDd 

tbo coasts of Europe and western North America, but becoous 

*une beyond 60' N. lit.; ft occurs aba on the couti of the 

Cape oF Good Ilopt. A second specie* {Lefkiut hidtttna) 

inhabit* the Medjiemnean, anda third ({„ Migirni) the coat* of 

China and Japan. 


of Sir John 
at Dublin 
College, ( 

n Mou 

lof tl 

. 161S), ■ 

It Valeni 

.rothy, d 

, (cr. 161 ■) 

. . > ol Ftcloti Cattle, Fen 
the 10th of July 1614, waa educated at Magdalen 
rd, and was admitted to LincoJn'a Inn in 1634. 
naving maoe the grand tour he returned to inland; and being 
employed by the pariiament in a mission to the duke of Ormonde. 

ing a treaty with him 

w succeeded in condud- 

<n the iglh of June 164;, thus *e 
■ subjecl 

n April 

1647 be was returned lor Radnotsbire to the House oE Commons. 
He suppotted the paitiamentaiy aa against Ibe republican at 
army party, and appears to have been one d tbe memben 
excluded in 164S. He tat in Richard Croawell's [luliaiaeDt 

in February 1660, and in the CoDvenlion Parliament lat for 
Carnuithen borough. The anarchy nf Ibe last months of tha 
commonwealeb converted bim to royalism, and he showed great 
activity In bringing about Ibc Restoration. He used his induence 
in moderating measuics of revenge and violence, and while 
sitting in judgment on the regicides was on the side of leniency. 
In November i6£o by hit father's death he had become Vbnunt 
Valeatia aiul Baron Mountnorris in tbe Iiiah peerage, and on 
the lolb April 1661 he was created Bann Annesley of Newport 
Pagoell in Buckinghamshire and earl oF Anglesey in Uu peerage 
oi Great Biilain. He supported the king's adminislration in 

in oF the CO 

id and on the c 

L of wards, placed the eitix burden o 
letxssary on the eidse. Hit service: 
Ireland were eipeciaUy valuable. Hi 
easutrr from ib&o till 1A67, served 01 


' For Irish aSaita, while late 
member of varioua commisi 
king oF the Acts ol SetUem 
^aptaincy of horse. 

appointed to investi 
In February 1661 1 

in 1667 he eacbanged his vice-Ircasuryship ol 
tieasuryship of the navy. His public career was marked by 
great independence and Adelily to principle. f>a tbe 14th of July 
i66j he alone signed a proti^t a^unst the bill" for the encourage- 
ment ol trade,'* on the plea that owing to the Free export of coin 
and bullion allowed by the act, and Lo tbe importation oF foreign 
commodities being greater than the export of home gootts, 
" it must necessarily foUow ... that our silver will also be 
carried away into foreign parts and all trade fail for want oi 
money."^ He especially disapproved dF another clause in the 

a mischievous measure promoled by the duke of Buckingham. and 
be opposed again the bill brought in with that object in January 
'Pnuili of l*« iflnfr, by J. E. Thoreld Rogers (iBTj). 1. »7: 
Caru'sI,i/>^OnwWt (l»iij. iv, IJ4 1 PoW. i/ill. iv. >ll4- 



1667. This nme year his oAvd accounts "were subjected to an 
examination in consequence of his indignant refusal to take part 
in the attack upon Ormonde;' and he was suspended from his 
office in x668, nochaigejiowever, against him being substantiated. 
He took a prominent part in the dilute in 1671 between the two 
Houses concerning the right of the Lords to amend money 
bills, and wrote a learned pan^>hlet on the question entitled 
The PHoUegfis of the House of Lords (uid Commons (1702), in 
which the right of the Lords was asserted. Li April 1673 he was 
appointed lord privy seal, and was disappointed at not obtaining 
the great seal the same year on the removal of Shaf tesbuiy. In 
1679 he was included in Sir W. Temple's new-modelled council. 

Li the bitter religious controversies of the time Anglesey 
showed great moderati<m and toleration. In 1674 he is men- 
tioned as endeav<»iring to prevent the justices putting into force 
the laws against the Roman Cathdics and Nonconformists.' 
In the panic of the " Popish Plot " in 1678 he exhibited a saner 
judgment than most of his contemporaries and a con^icuous 
courage. On the 6th of December he protested with three 
other peers against the measure sent up from the Commons 
enforcing the disarming of all convicted recusants and taking 
bail from them to keep the peace; he was the only peer to dissent 
from the motion declaring the existence of an Irish plot; and 
though believing in the guilt and voting for the death of Lord 
Stafford, he interceded, according to his own account,* with 
the king for him as well as for Langhome and Plunket His 
independent attitude drew upon him an attack by Dangeriield, 
and in the Commons by the attorney-general, Sir W. Jones, 
who accused him of endeavouring to stifle the evidence against 
the Romanists. In March 1679 he protested against the second 
reading of the bill for disabling Danby. In i68x Anglesey 
wrote A Letter from a Person of Honour in the Country, as a 
rejoinder to the earl of CasUehavcn, who had published memoirs 
on the Irish rebellion defending the action of the Irish and the 
Roman Catholics. In so doing Anglesey was held by Ormonde 
to have censured his conduct and that of Charles I. in concluding 
the " Cessation," and the duke brought the matter before the 
council. In 1682 he wrote The Account of Arthur^ Earl of 
Angksey . . . of the true state of Your Majesty's Government and 
Kingiom, which was addressed to the king in a tone of censure 
and remonstrance, but appears not to have been printed tHI 
1694.^ In consequence he was dismissed on the 9th of August 
X682 from the office of lord privy seal. Ih 1683 he appeared 
at the Old Bailey as a witness in defence of Lord Russell, and 
in June 1685 he protested abne against the revision of Stafford's 
attainder. He died at his home at Blechingdon in Oxfordshire 
on the 26th of April 1686, ^losing a career mariced l^ great 
ability, statesmanship and business capacity, and by con- 
spicuous courage and independence of judgment He amassed 
a large fortune in Ireland, in which country he had been allotted 
lands by CrorowelL 

The unfavourable character drawn of him by Burnet is 
certainly unjust and not supported by any evidence. Pcpjrs, 
a far more trustworthy judge, speaks of him invariably in terms 
of respect and approval as a '* grave, serious man," and com- 
mends his appointment as treasurer of the navy as that of 
"a very notable man and understanding and will do things 
regular and understand them himself."* He was a learned 
and cultivated man and collected a celebrated library, which 
.was dispersed at his death. Besides the pamphlets already 
mentioned, he wrote :^X Tr%uAc€ount of the Whole Proceedings 
betunxt . . the Duke of Ormond and , , , the Earl of Anglesey 
(1682); A Letter of Remarks upon Jovian (1683); other works 
ascribed to him being The King's Right of Indulgence in Matters 
SpirUual . . .asserted (1688); Truth UnveUed, to which U 
added a short Treatise on , , , Transubstantiation (1676); The 
Obligation resulting from the Oath of Supremacy (1688); and 

* Carti's Ormonde, iv, 330, 340. 

• Ca/. of State Pap. Dom. (167^-1675), P. 152. ' 

• By Sir J. Thompson, his son-in-law. Reprinted in 
(Scott, 1812), viii. 344, and in Pari. Hist. iv. app. xvi. 

* Diary (cd. Wheatley, 1904), iv. 298, viL 14. 

Memoirs, 8, 9. 
Somers Tracts 

Engtand't Comfusi&n (1659). Memokt of Lord Anglesey were 
published by Sir P. Pett in 1693, but contoin little biographical 
information and were repudiated as a mere Imposture by Sir 
John Thompson (Lord Haversham), his son-in-law, in his preface 
to Lord Anglesey's State of the Cooemment m 1694. The author 
however of the preface to The Rights of the Lords asserted (1702), 
while blaming their publication as "scattered and unfinished 
papers," admits their genuineness. 

Lord Ani^eaey married Elisabeth, daughter and co-heiress 
of Sir James Altham of Oxey, Hertfordshire, by whom, besides 
other children, he had James, who succeeded him, Altham, 
created Baron Altham, and Richard, afterwards 3rd Baron 
Altham. His descendant Richard, the 6th earl (d. 1761), left 
a son Arthur, whose legitimacy was doubted, and the peerage 
became extinct He was summoned to the Irish House of Peers 
as Viscount Valentia, but was denied his writ to the parliament 
of Great Britain by a majority of one vote. He was created 
in 1793 earl of Mountnorris in the peerage of Ireland. All the 
male descendants of the xst earl of Anglesey became extinct 
in the person of (jeorge, 2nd eari of Mountnorris, in 1844, when 
the titles of Viscount Valentia and Baron Mountnorris passed 
to his cousin Arthur Annesley (1785-1863), who thus became 
loth Viscount Valentia, being descended from the xst Viscount 
Valentia, the fother of the xst earl of Anglesey in the Annesley 
famjly. The xst viscount was also the ancestor of the Eads 
Annesley in the Irish peerage. 

Authorities.— P£c<. of Nat. Biogratky, with authorities there 
collected; lives in Wood's Atkenae Oxonienses (Bliss), iv. 181, 
BiografMa Britannica, and H. Walpole's Royal and NMe AuAors 
(1806), ill. 288 (the latter a very inadequate review of Anglesey's 
character and career): also Bi6/AoM«cai4f>js/e5«aiia . . . perlnoniam 
Philippum (1686) : The Happy Future Stale of England, by Sir Peter 
t*ett (1688); Great News from Poland (1683). where his relinous 
tolerance is ridiculed; Somers Tracts (Scott, 1812), viii. 344: N^s 
of the Privy Council (Roxburghe Cub. 1896); Cat, of State Papers^ 
Dom,iStaU Trials, viiL and ix. 619. (P. C. Y^ 

(1768-X854), British field-marshal, was bom on the X7th of May 
X 768. • He was the eldest son of Henry Paget, xst eari of Uxbridge 
(d. X812), and was educated at Westminster School and Christ 
Church, Oxford, afterwards entering parliament in 1790 as 
member for Carnarvon, for which he sat for six years. At the 
outbreak of the French Revolutionary wars Lord Paget (as he 
was then styled), who had already served in the militia, raised 
on his father's estate the regiment of Staffordshire volunteers, in 
which he was given the temporary rank of lieutenant-colonel 
(i 793). The corps soon became part of the regular army as the 
8oth Foot, and it took part, under Lord Paget's command, in 
the Flanders campaign of 1794. In spite of his youth he held a 
brigade command for a time, and gained also, during the campaign, 
his first experience of the cavalry arm, with which he was thence- 
forward associated. His substantive commission as b'cutenant- 
colonel of the i6th Light Dragoons bore the date of the 
X5th of June 1795, and in 1796 he was made a colonel 
in the army. In 1795 he ntarricd Lady (Caroline Elisabeth 
Villiers, daughter of the earl of Jersey. In April 1797 Lord 
Paget was transferred to a lieut.-colonelcy in the 7th Light 
Dragoons, of which regiment he became colonel in iSox. From 
the first he applied himself strenously to the improvement of 
discipline, and to the periection of a new system of cavalry 
evolutions. In the short campaign of 1799 in Holland, Paget 
commanded the cavalry brigade, and in spite of the unsuitabte 
character of the ground, he made, on several occasions, brilliant 
and successful charges. After the return of the expedition, he 
devoted himself zealously to his regiment, which under his 
command became one of the best corps in the service. In 1802 
he was promoted major-general, and six years later lieutenant- 
general. In command of the cavalry of Sir John Moore's army 
during the. Comnna campaign. Lord Paget won the greatest 
distinction. At Sahagun, Mayorga and Benavente, the British 
cavalry behaved so well under his leadership that Moore wrote : — 
" It is impossible for me to say too much in its praise. . . . Our 
cavalry is very superior in quality to any the French have, and 



Uk li^t spirit has been infused into them by the example and 
instniction of their . . . leaders . . . ." At Benavente one of 
Napoleon's best cavalry leaders, General Lefebvre DesnoSttes, 
was taken prisoner. Corunna was Paget's last service in the 
Pfcninsula. His liaison with the wife of Henry WeUesley, after- 
wards Lord Cowley, made it impossible at that time for him to 
serve with Wellington, whose cavalry, on many occasions during 
the succeeding campaigns, fdt the want of the true cavalry 
leader to direct them. His only war service from 1809 to 18x5 
was in the disastrous Walcheren expedition (1809) in which he 
commanded a division. During these years he occupied himself 
with his parliamentary duties as member for Milbome Port, 
which he represented almost continuously up to his father's 
death in x8x3, when he took his seat in the House of Lords as 
eari of Uxbridge. In x8io he was divorced and married Mrs 
Wdlesley, who had about the same time been divorced from her 
husband. Lady Paget was soon afterwards married to the duke 
of Argyll. In x8xs Lord Uxbridge received command of the 
British cavalry in Flanders. At a moment of danger such as 
that of Napoleon's return from Elba, the services of the best 
cavalry general in the British army could not be neglected. 
Wellington placed the greatest confidence in him, and on the eve 
off Waterioo extended his command so as to include the whole of 
the aUied cavalry and horse artillery. He covered the retirement 
of the allies from Quatre Bras to Waterloo on the xjth of June, 
and on the x8th gained the crowning distinction of his military 
career in leading the great cavalry charge of the British centre, 
which checked and in part routed D'Erlon's c^ps d'armie (see 
Watekloo Caxpaign). Freely exposing his own Uf e throughout, 
the eari received, by one of the last caimon shots fired, a severe 
wound in the leg, necessitating amputation. Five days later 
the prince regent created him marquess of An^esey in recognition 
of his brilliant services, which were regarded universally as 
second only to those of the duke b&nself . He was made a G.C.B. 
and he was also decorated by many of the allied sovereigns. 

In 18x8 the marquess was made a knight of the Garter, in X819 
he became full general, and at the coronation of George IV. he 
acted as lord high steward of England. His support of the 
proceedings against Queen Caroline made him for a time un- 
popular, and when he was on one occasion beset by a crowd, who 
compelled him to shout " The Queen," he added the wish, " May 
all your wives be like her." At the dose of April 1827 he became 
a member of the Caiming administration, taking the post of 
master-general of the ordnance, previoiisly held by WelUngton. 
He was at the same time sworn a member of the privy council 
Under the Wellington administration he accepted the appoint- 
ment of lord-lieutenant of Ireland (March X828), and in the 
discharge of his important duties he greatly endeared himself 
to the Irish people. The spirit in which he acted and the aims 
which he steadUy set before himself contributed to the allaying 
of party animosities, to the promotion of a willing submission 
to the laws, to the prosperity of trade and to the extension and 
improvement of education. On the great question of the time 
his views were opposed to those of the government. He saw 
deariy that the time was come when the relief of the Catholics 
from the penal legislation of the past was an indbpensable 
measure, and in December X828 he addressed a letter to the 
Roman Catholic primate of Ireland distinctly announcing his 
view. This led to his recall by the government, a step sinonely 
lamented by the Irish. He pleaded for Catholic emancipation 
in parliament, and on the formation of Eari Grey's administration 
in November 1830, he again became lord-lieutenant of Ireland. 
The times were changed; the act of emandpation had been 
passed, and the task of viceroy in his second tenure of office was 
to resist the agitation for repeal of the union carried on by 
(yConnell. He felt it his duty now to demand Coerdon Acts for 
the security of the public peace; his popularity was diminished, 
differences appeared in the cabinet on the difficult subject, and 
in July 1 833 the ministry resigned. To the marquess of Anglesey 
Ireland is indebted for the board of education, the origination of 
which may perhaps be reckoned as the most memorable act of 
his viceroyalty. For thirteen years after his retirement he 

remained out of office, and took little part in the a£Fairs of govern- 
ment He joined the Russdl administration in July X846 as 
master-general of the ordnance, finally retiring with his chief in 
March 1852. His promotion in the army was completed by his 
advancement to the rank of field-marshal in X846. Four years 
before, he exchanged his colondcy of the 7th Light Dragoons 
which he had hdd over forty years, for that of the Royal Horse 
Guards. He died on the aQth of April 1854. 

The marquess had a large family by each of hb two wives, two 
soxu and ux daughters by the first and six sotas and four daughters 
by the second. His ddest son, Henry, succeeded him in the 
marquessate; but the title passed rapidly in succession to the 3rd, 
4th and sth marquesses. The hitter, whose extravagances were 
notorious, died in 1905, when the title passed to his cousin. 

Other members of the Paget family distinguished themselves 
in the army and the navy. Of the first marquess's brotheia one, 
Sir Cbakus Tkoet (1778-1839), rose to the rank of vice-admiral 
in the Royal Navy; another. General Sir Edward Paget 
(1775-1849), won great dbtinction by his skilful and resolute' 
handling of a division at Corunna, and from X833 to 1825 was 
commander-in-chief in India. One of the marquess's sons by hb 
second marriage, Lord Clarxnce Edward Paget (i8xi>i895), 
became an admiral; another. Lord George Augustus 
Frederice Paget (x8i8-x88o), led the 4th Light Dragoons in the 
charge of the light Brigade at Balaklava, and subsequently 
commanded the brigade, and, for a short time, the cavalry 
division in the Crimea. In 1865 he was made inspector-genertd 
of cavalry. In 1871 lieutenant-general and K.C.B., and in 1877 
full general. His Crimean joumaJs were publbhed in x88x. 

ANOLBSBY, or Anglesea, an ixisular northern county of Wales. 
Its area b x 76,630 acres or about 276 sq. m. Anglesey, in the see 
of Bangor, b separated from the mainland by the Menai Straits 
(Afon Menai), over which were thrown Tdford's suspension 
bridge, in 1826, and the Stephenson tubular railway bridge in 
1850. The county b flat, with slight risings such as Parys, Cadair 
Mynadidy (or Monachdy, i.e. "chaSr of the monastery"; there 
is a Nanher, " convent," not far away) and Holyhead Mountain. 
There are a few lakes, such as Cors cerrig y daren, but rising water 
b generally scarce. The climate b humid, the land poor for the 
most part compared with its old state of fertility, and there are 
few industries. 

As regards geology, the younger strata in Ani^esey rest upon a 
foundation of very old pre-Cambrian rocks which appear at the 
surface in three areas:-~(i) a western region induding Holyhead 
and Llanfaethlu, (2) a central area about Aberffraw and Tref- 
draeth, and (3) an eastern region which indudes Newborough, 
Caerwen and Pentneth. These pre-Cambrian rocks are schists 
and sUtes, often much contorted and dbturbed. The general line 
of strike of the formations in the island b from N.E. to S. W. A 
bdt of granitic rocks lies immediately north-west of the central 
pre-Cambrian mass, reaching from Llanfaelog near the coast to 
the vidnity of Llanerchymedd. Between this granite and the 
pre-Cambrian of Holyhead b a narrow tract of Ordovidan slates 
and grits with Llandovery beds in places; thb tract spreads out 
in the N. of the island between Dulas Bay and Carmel Point. A 
small patch of Ordovidan strata lies on the northern side of 
Beaumaib. In parts, these Ordovidan rocks are much folded, 
crushed and metamorphosed, and they are associated with schbts 
and altered volcanic rocks which are probably pre-Cambrian. 
Between the eastern and central pre-Cambrian masses carboni- 
ferous rocks are found. The carboniferous limestone occupies a 
broad area S. of Ligwy Bay and Pentraeth, and sends a narrow 
spur in a south-westerly direction by Llangefni to Malldraeth 
sands. The limestone b underiain on the N.W. by a red basement 
conglomerate and yellow sandstone (sometimes considered to be 
of Gid Red Sandstone age). Limestone occurs again on the N. 
coast about Llanfihangel and Llangoed; and in the S.W. round 
Llanidan on the border of the Menai Strait. Puffin Island b 
made of carboniferous limestone. Malldraeth Marsh b occupied 
by coal measures, and a small patch of the same formation appears 
near Tall-y-foel Ferry on the Menai Straits. A patch of granitic 
and felsitic rocks form Parys Mountain, where copper and iron 



ochre have been worked. Seipcnline (Mona Marble) is found 
near Uanfaerynneubwll and upon the opposite shore in Holyhead. 
There are abundant evidences of gladation, and much boulder 
day and drift sand covers the older xocks. Patches of blown sand 
occur on the S.W. coast. 

The London & North- Western railway (Chester and Holy* 
head branch) crosses Anglesey from Llanfairpwllgwyngyll to 
Gaerwen and Holyhead (Caer Gybi), also from Gaerwen to 
Amlwch. The staple of the island is farming, the chief crops 
being turnips, oats, potatoes, with flax in the centre. Copper 
(near Amlwch), lead, silver, marble, asbestos, lime and sandstone, 
marl, zinc and coal have all been worked in Ani^eaey, coal 
especially at Malldraeth and Trefdraeth. The population of the 
county in 1901 was 50,606. There is no parliamentary borough, 
but one member is returned for the county. It is in the north- 
western drcuit,- and assizes are held at Beaumaris, the only 
munidpal borough (pop. 2326). Amlwch (2994)* Holyhead 
(10,079), Llangefni (1751) and Mcnai Bridge (Pont y Borth, 
X700) are urban districts. There are six hundreds and seventy- 
eight parishes. 

M6n (a cow) is the Welsh name of Anglesey, itself a corrupted 
form of O.E., meaning the Isle of the Angles. Old Welsh names 
are Ynys Dywyll (" Dark Isle ") and Ynys y cedaim (cedym or 
kedym ; " Isle of brave folk ")• It is the Mona of Tadtus {Ann. 
ziv. 29, A if, xiv. 18), Pliny the Elder (iv. 16) and Dio Cassius 
(62). It is called Mam Cymru by Giraldus Cambrensis. Clas 
Merddin, Y vd Ynys (honey isle), Ynys Prydein, Ynys Brut are 
other names. According to the Triads (67), Anglesey was once 
part of the mainland, as geology proves. The island was the seat ) 
of the Druids, of whom 28 cromlechs remain, on Qplands over- 1 
looking the sea, e.g. at P14s Newydd. The Druids were attacked ; 
in A.D. 61 by Suetonius Paulinus, and by Agricola in a.d. 78. In 
the sth century Caswallon lived here, and here, at Aberffraw, the 
princesof Gwyneddlivedtill 1277. Thepsesentroad from Holyhead 
to LlanfairpwUgwyngyll is originally Roman. British and Roman 
camps, coins and ornaments have been dug up and discussed, 
espedally by the Hon. Mr Stanley of Penrhos. Pen Caer Gybi is 
Roman. The island was devastated by the Danes (Dub Gint or 
black nations, genUs), cspedally in a.d. 853. 

See Edw. Brcete, Kakndar ofOmynedd (Venedocia). on Anglesey. 
Carnarvon and Merioneth (London, 1873); and The History 0/ 
Pawys Fadog, 

ANOLESITE, a mineral consisting of lead sulphate, PbSOi, 
crystallizing in the orthorhombic system, and isomorphous with 
bary tcs and celestite. It was first recognized as a mineral sp)ecics 
by Dr Withering in 1783, who discovered it in the Parys copper- 
mine in Anglesey; the name anglcsite, from this locality, was 
given by F. S. Beudant in 1832. The crystals from Anglesey, 
which were formerly found abundantly on a matrix of dull 
limonite, are small in size and simple in form, being usually 
bounded by four faces of a prism and four faces of a dome; they 
arc brownish-yellow in colour owing to a stain of limonite. 
Crystals from some other localities, notably from Montcponi in 
Sardinia, are transparent and colourless, possessed of a brilliant 
adamantine lustre, and usually modified by numerous bright 

faces. The variety of combinations and 
habits presented by the crystals is very 
extensive, nearly two hundred distinct 
forms being figured by V. von Lang in 
his monograph of the species; without 
measurement of the angles the crystals 
are frequently difficult to dedpher. The 
hardness Is 3 and the specific gravity 6-3. There are distinct 
deavagcs parallel to the faces of the prism ixio( and the 
basal plane }ooi{, but these are not so well developed as in 
the isomorphous minerals barytes and celestite. 

Anglesite is a mineral of secondary origin, having been formed 
by the oxidation of galena in the upper parts of mineral lodes 
where these have been affected by weathering processes. At 
Monteponi the crystals encnist cavities in glistening granular 
galena; And from Leadhills, in Scotland, pseudomorphs of 
Anglesite after galena are known. At most localities it is foxmd 

as isolated crystals in the lead>bearing lodes, but at some places, 
in Australia and Mexico, it occurs as large masses, and is then 
mined as an ore oT lead, of which the pure mineral contains 68 %. 

ANGLI, Angui or Ancles, a Teutonic people mentioned 
by Tadtus in his Germania (cap. 40) at the end of the ist century. 
He gives no precise indication of their geographical position, 
but states that, together with six other tribes, including the 
Varini (the Warni of hiter times), they worshipped a goddess 
named Nerthus, whose sanctuary was situated on " an island 
in the Ocean." Ptolemy in his Geography (ii. 11. § 15), half a 
century later, locates them with more precision between the 
Rhine, or rather perhaps the Ems, and the Elbe, and speaks of 
them as one of the chief tribes of the interior. Unfortunately, 
however, itis dear from acomparison of his map with the evidence 
furnished by Tadtus and other Roman writers that the indica> 
tions which he gives cannot be correct. Owing to the uncertainty 
of these passages there has been much speculation regarding 
the original home of the Angli. One theory, which however has 
little to recommend it, is that they dwelt in the basin of the 
Saale (In the neighbourhood of the canton Engilin), from which 
region the Lex Angliorum et Wcrinorum hoc est Thuringorum 
is believed .by many to have come. At the present time the 
majority of scholars believe that the Angli had lived from the 
beginning on the coasts of the Baltic, probably in the southern 
part of the Jutish peninsula. The evidence for this view is 
derived partly from English and Danish traditions dealing 
with peraons and events of the 4th century (see below), and 
partly from the fact that striking affinities to the cult of Nerthus 
as described by Tadtus are to be found in Scandinavian, especially 
Swedish and Danish, religion. Investigations in this subject 
have rendered it very probable that the island of Nerthus was 
Sjaelland (Zealand), and it is further to be observed that the 
kings of Wessex traced their ancestry ultimately to a certain 
Scyld, who is clearly to be identified with Skioldc, the mythical 
founder of the Danish royal family (Skioldungar). In English 
tradition this person is connected with " Scedeland " (pi.), 
a name which may have been applied to Sjaelland as well as 
Skane, while in Scandinavian tradition he is specially associated 
with the ancient royal residence at Leire in Sjaelland. 

Bede states that the Angli before they came to Britain dwelt 
in a land called Angulus, and similar evidence is given by the 
Hisloria BrittoHum. King Alfred and the chronicler i£thclweard 
identified this place with the district which is now called Angel 
in the province of Schleswig (Slesvig), though it may then have 
been of greater extent, and this identification agrees very well 
with the indications given by Bede. Full confirmation is afforded 
by EngUsh and Danish traditions relating to two kings named 
Wermund iq.v.) and Offa (^.v.), from whom the Mercian royal 
family were descended, and whose exploits are connected with 
Angel, Schleswig and Rendsburg. Danish tradition has pre< 
served record of two governors of Schleswig, father and son, 
in thdr service, Frowinus (Freawine) and Wigo (Wig), from 
whom the royal family of Wessex claimed descenL During the 
Sth century the Angli invaded this country (see Britain, Anglo- 
Saxon), after which time their name does not recur on thereon- 
tinent except in the title of the code mentioned above. 

The province of Schleswig has proved exceptionally rich in 
prehistoric antiquities which date apparently from the 4th and 
Sth centuries. Among the places where these have been found, 
special mention should be made of the large cremation cemetery 
at Borgstedterfcid, between Rendsburg and Eckernforde, 
which has yielded many urns and brooches closely resembling 
those found in heathen graves in England. Of still greater 
importance are the great deposits at Thorsbjaerg (in Angel) 
and Nydam, which contained large quantities of arms, ornaments, 
articles of clothing, agricultural implements, &c., and in the 
latter case even ships. By the help of these discoveries we are 
able to reconstruct afairly detailed picture of English civilization 
in the age preceding the invasion of Britain. 

AUTHOKITIBS. — Bede. Hist. Ecc. i. 15; King Alfred's version of 
Orosius, i. 1. 1$ 12,19: /Ethelwcard's Chroniclc,Ub. i. For traditions 
concerning the kings of Angel, see under OFFa-(i). L. Wciland* 


AROUCAM COVMDinOli, the n 

n Church ct 


t ChuTTh ot Engl«nd. The 

ol [be Angliain Church in modern limes ind the chinge which 
hu Uken pluc in ihc inditianil nnceptioiu of iis chincter 
iTid tphewc. The Church of England ilidf ii'ihc lubjecl ct ■ 
Kinntt ankle (see England, Cmncn of)i and li li nol 
without significance that for more than tvo ccrlunee after the 
RefonnatioD the history of Anglicanism i> pncticaliy confined 
to its development! within the limili of the British IiIh. Even 
in Ireland, when it wu for over three centuries the estahliihed 
feligHm, *nd in Scotland, where it eaily gave way to the dominant 
Frnbytctianism, ite rdigioui was long overshadowed hy its 
potilicalURniGcanct. The Chnrch. in [act, while itili claiming to 
be Cjiihatic in iu crttdi and in It) rcligioui practice, had ccued 
to be Catholic in its inititotional conception, which was now 
bound up with a particular ilate and aim with a particular 
conception ol that state. To the nalive Iiiahnun and the Scots- 

ol the main butlnsws of the supremacy of the English cnwn 
and eation. This contepiion of the relatiom ol church and itatc 
was hardly favourable to miauonaryaeal; and in the age succeed- 
ing the Reformation there was no disposition on Ihe part of the 
English Church to emulate the wonderful activity of the Jesuits, 
which, in the i6tfa and iith centuries, brought to the Church 
a! Rome in countries beyond the ocean coinpcnsation for what 
she hid lost in Euicpe Itinugh the Protestant reformstton. 
Even when English churchmen pasted beyond the seas, they 
cairied with them their CTFed, but not their ecddJastSdlorganiaa- 
Prejudice and real or imaginary kgal obstaclrs stood 

A the ny of Ih 

I of episcopal se 


y Archbishop Laud had a 

with il 

the Ortbodo> East as one of the three gi 
o( the Catholic Chntch. was due, in the lint insUnc 
American revolution. The severance of the calonin I 
allegiance to the crown brought the English bishops foi 
lime face to face with the idea of an Anglican Chur 
should have nothing to do either with Ihe royal si 

Ihe church-people of Connecticut sent Dr Samuel Se 

refuwd. In Ihe opinion ol prelates and lawyer* alike, ai 
parhanunt was necessary before a bishop could be cons 

impossible, since. Ihough the bestowal of Ihc pairimi 
would be valid, Ihe crown, whkh, according to Ihe law, 
source of Ihe epbcopal itavditlitn. could hardly isi 

outside the realm (see BiSHor), The Scoltlib Ushops, however, 
being hirnpered by no such legal ttsttkiionB, were more amen- 
able; and an ihe iilh of Novembet 1784 Seabuiy was con- 
aeciaUd by ihem id Ibe see ol CoaiMCticut. In 17S6. OD the 

bdllative of the ardibishop, the Itgat diSndtlc* bi EntlaDd 
were removed by the act for the coosecialioo ol bishops abroad; 
and, on being satisfied as to the orthodoiy of the cbuicb in 
America and the nature of certain liturgical changes in con- 
templation, the two English archbidupi proceeded, on the 
14th o( February 17S7, to conaecnte William White and Samuel 
Pnvooal to Ibg see* of PennijdvBDia asd New York (see 
PaOTXSTjurT Episcoval Cuusck]- 

Thii act had a liguficiDCt beyond the l*ct that i( alabliahcd 
in the United States ol Anetica a fiowisbing church, which, 
while completely loyal 10 Its own tounlry, is bound by special 
ties to the reUgious life of England. It marked the emergence 
of Ihe Church of England from that insularity to which what may 
be called the terrilorial principles of the Reformation had 
condemned her. The chattge was slow, and it is not yet by any 

Siocr the ChoRii of Eni^nd. whatever bet iltilode towards 
the iradilianal Catholic doctrines, never disputed the validity 
of Catholic orders whether Roman 01 Otlbodoi, nor the jurit- 
dfction of Catholic bisbopa in fnreign countries, the expansion 
of the Anglican Church has been in no sense conceived o a 
Protestant aggressive movement against Rome. Occasional 
eiceptions, such as Ihe oinsecntiaa by Aichbisbop Plunkel 
of Dublin id s bishop for the reformed church in Spain, raised 
so strong a protest as to prove the rule. In the Dwin, then, 
the eipcnsion of the Anglican Church has followed that of Ihe 
British eoipire, or, as la America, of its daughter slates; it} 
claim, so far as rights of jurisdiction ace concerned, is to be the 
Church ol England and the English race, while rccognidng its 
^>ecial duties towards the noB-Christian populations subject 
10 the empire or brought within the reach of its inBucnce. As 
against Ihe Church of Rome, with its system of rigid centralisa- 
tion, the Anglican Church represents the principle of local 
autonomy, which it holds to be once more primitive and more 
catholic. In this respect the Anglican communion has developed 
on the lines defined in her articles at Ihc Refotmation; but, 
though In firisclpte there is no great dificrepce bclwHO a 
church defined hy national, and a church defined by racial 
boundaries, there is an immense difference in eBect, especially 
when Ihe race — as in the caae ol the English— is itself 

The realisation ol whal may be called this cstholic mission 
of the En^ish church, in the eitension of its oiganiiation to 
the colonies, was but a slaw proceu. 

On the iilhof August i)g; Dt Charles loglis was consecrated 
bishop of Nova Scotia, with jurisdiction over all the B 

Vonh A 

In 1J03 llie see ol nr 

and Newfoundland It 
ai India has been tardily m 


in iSi4,.,and Ton 

if William Wilberfon 
and others, by Ihe consecration of Dc T. F. Middlelon as bishop 
'Calcutta, with three archdeacons 10 assist him. In 1817 Ceylon 
at added to bis charge; in iBij all British subjects in the East 
Hliesand Ihc islands of the Indian Ocean; and in 1814 "New 
lulb Wales and its dependencies "I Some five years Inlet, on 
>e nominsUon ol the duke o( WcUinglon, William Broughton 

Australia. Soon afterwards, in iSjs and 1S37, the sees of 
[adras and Bombay were founded; whilst in 183I) Broughlon 

I lAso there were hut ten colonial bishops; and of these several 
ereso hampered by civil regulations that they were little more 
Lan government chaplains in episcopal orders. In April of 
lal year, however. Bishop Blomheld of London published hi* 
mous letter to the archbishop ol Canterbury, declaiitig that 
an episcopal church without a bishop is a contradiction in 
rms." and strenuously advocating a grealeflorl for Iheeatcnsioa 
the episcopate. It was not in vain. The plan was uken up 
ith enthusiasm, and on Whitsun Tuesday ol 1841 the bishops 
the United Kingdom met and issued a dcclaralioa 
idiich inaugurated the Colonial Bishoprics Council. Subsequent 



dedarations in 1872 and 1891 have served both to record progrctt 
and to stimulate to new effort. The diocese of New Zedand 
was founded in 1841, being endowed 1^ the Church Missionary 
Society through the cound], and George Augustus Selwyn was 
diosen as the first bishop. Since then the increase has gone on, 
as the result both of home effort and of the action of the colonial 
churches. Moreover, in many cases bishops have been sent to 
inaugurate new missions, as in the cases of the Universities' 
Mission to Central Africa, Lebombo, Corea and New Guinea; 
and the missionary jurisdictions so founded develop in time 
into dioceses. Thus, instead of the ten colonial jurisdictions of 
1841, there are now about a hundred foreign and colonial 
jurisdictions, in addition to those of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church of the United States. 

It was only very gradually that these dioceses acquired 
legislative independence and a determinate organization. At 
first, sees were created and bishops were nominated by the 
crown by means of letters patent; and in some cases an income 
was assigned out of public funds. Moreover, for many years 
all bishops alike were consecrated in England, took the customary 
" oath of due obedience " to the archbishop of Canterbury, and 
were regarded as his extra-territorial suffragans. But by degrees 
changes have been made on all these points. 

(i) Local conditions soon made a provincial organization 
necessary, and it was gradually introduced. The bishop of Cal- 
cutta received letters patent as metropolitan of India 
when the sees of Madras and Bombay were founded; 
and fresh patents were issued to Bishop Broughton in 
1847 and Bishop Gray in 1853, as metropolitans of 
Australia and South Africa respectively. Similar action was 
taken in 1858, when Bishop Selwyn became metropolitan of 
New 2>aland; and again in i860, when, on the petition of the 
Canadian bishops to the crown and the colonial legislature for 
permission to elect a metropolitan, letters patent were issued 
appointing Bishop Fulford of Montreal to that office. Since 
then metropolitans have been chosen and provinces formed by 
regular synodical action, a process greatly encouraged by the 
resolutions of the Lambeth conferences on the subject. The 
constitution of these provinces is not uniform. In some cases, as 
South Africa.New South Wales,and Queensland, the metropolitan 
see is fixed. Elsewhere, as in New Zealand, where no single city 
can claim pre-eminence, the metropolitan is either elected or else 
» the senior bishop by consecration. Two further developments 
must be mentioned: (a) The creation of diocesan and provincial 
synods, the first diocesan synod to meet being that of New 
Zealand in 1844, whilst the formation of a provincial synod was 
foreshadowed by a conference of Australasian bishops at Sydney 
in 1850; (6) towards the close of the igth century the title of 
archbishop began to be assimied by the metropolitans of several 
provinces. It was first assumed by the metropoliuns of Canada 
and Rupert's Land, at the desire of the Canadiim general synod 
in 1803; and subsequently, in accordance with a resolution of 
the Lambeth conference of 1897, it was given by their synods to 
the bishop of Sydney as metropoliUn of New South Wales and 
to the bishop of Cape Town as metropolitan of South Africa 
Civil obstacles have hitherto delayed its adoption by the metro- 
politan of India. 

(3) By degrees, also, the colonial churched have been freed 
from their rather burdensome relations with the state. The 
church of the West Indies was disestablished and 
disendowed in 1868. In 1857 it was decided, in 
Regina v. Eton CcUege, that the crown could not claim 
the presentation to a living when it had appointed the 
former incumbent to a colonial bishopric, as it does in the case 
of an English bishopric. In 1861, after some protest from the 
crown lawyers, two missionary bishops were consecrated without 
letters patent for regions outside British territory: C. F. 
Mackenzie for the Zambezi region and J. C. Patteson for 
Melanesia, by the metropolitans of Cape Town and New Zealand 
respectively. In 1863 the privy council declared, in Long v. 
The Bishop of Cape Town, that " the Church of England, in places 
where there is no church established by law, is in the same 

situation with any other religious body." In 1865 it adjudged 
Bishop Gray's letters patent, as metropolitan of Cape Town, to 
be powerless to enable him " to exercise any coercive iuris- 
diction, or hold any court or tribunal for that purpose," since 
the Cape colony already possessed legislative institutions when 
they were issued; and his deposition of Bishop Colcnso was 
declared to be " nuU and void in hiw " (re The Bishop of 
Natal). With the exception of Colenso the South African 
bishops forthwith surrendered their patents,and formally accepted 
Bishop Gray as their metropolitan, an example followed in 1865 
in the province of New Zealand. In 1862, when the diocese of 
Ontario was formed, the bishop was elected in Canada, and con- 
secreted under a royal mandate, letters patent being by this time 
entirely discredited. And when, in 1867, a coadjutor was chosen 
for the bishop of Toronto, an application for a royal mandate 
produced the re^ly from the colonial secretary that *' it was not 
the part of the' crown to interfere in the creation of a new 
bishop or bishopric, and not consistent with the dignity of the 
crown that he should advise Her Majesty to issue a mandate 
which would not be worth the paper on which it was written, and 
which, having been sent out to Canada, might be disregarded 
in the most complete manner." And at the present day the 
colonial churches are entirely free in this matter. This, however, 
is not the case with the church in India. Here the bishops of 
sees founded down to 1879 receive a stipend from the revenue 
(with the exception of the bishop of Ceylon, who no longer does, 
so). They are not only nominated by the crown and consecrated 
under letters patent, but the appointment is expressly subjected 
" to such power of revocation and recall as is by law vested " 
in the crown; and where additional oversight was necessary 
for the church in Tinnevelly, it could only be secured by the 
consecration of two assistant bishops, who worked under a com-^ 
mission for the archbishop of Canterbury which was to expire 
on the death of the bishop of Madras. Since then, however, 
new sees have been founded which ace under no such restrictions: 
by the creation of dioceses either in native states (Travancoro 
and Cochin), or out of the existing dioceses (Chota Nagpur, 
Lucknow, &c.). In the latter case there is no legal subdivision of 
the older diocese, the new bishop administering such districts as 
belonged to it under commission from its bishop, provision being 
made, however, that in all mattera ecclesiastical there shall be 
no appeal but to the metropolitan of India. 

(3) By degrees, also, the reUtions of colonial churches to the 
archbishop of Canterbury have changed. Until 1855 no colonial 
bishop was consecrated outside the British Isles, the 
first instance being Dr MacDougall of Labuan, con- 
secrated in India under a commission from the arch- 
bishop of Canterbury; and until 1874 it was held to be unlawful 
for a bishop to be consecrated in England without taking the 
suffragan's oath of due obedience. This necessity was removed 
by the Colonial Clergy Act of 1874, which permits the archbishop 
at his discretion to dispense with the oath. This, however, has 
not been done in all cases; and as late as 1890 it was taken by 
the metropolitan of Sydney at his consecration. Thus the 
constituent parts of the Ang^can communion gradually acquire 
autonomy: missionary jurisdictions develop into organized 
dioceses, and dioceses are grouped into provinces with canons of 
their own. But the most complete autonomy does not involve 
isolation. The churches are in full communion with one another, 
and act together in many ways; missionary jurisdictions and 
dioceses aro mapped out by common arrangement, and even 
transferred if it seems advisable; e.g. the diocese Honolulu 
(Hawaii), previously under the jurisdiction of the archbishop 
of Canterbury, was transferred in 1900 to the Episcopal Church 
in the United Sutes on account of political changes. Though 
the see of Canterbury claims no primacy over the Anglican 
communion analogous to that exercised over the Roman Church 
by the popes, it is regarded with a strong affection and deference, 
which shows itself by frequent consultation and interchange of 
greetings. There is also a strong common life emphasized by 
common action. 

The conference of Anglican bishops from all parts of the world. 



liistitiited by Afchbiiiiop Longley in 1867, and known as the 
^_ lambeth Confercncet (f^.), tkough even Cor the 

^'*' Angfifan commnnion they have not the authority ci an 

ecumenical synod, and their decisions aie rather ci the 
nature of oounseb than oonunands, have done much 
to promote the harmony and Go-operation of the various branches 
of the Church. An even more imposing manifestation of this 
oomnion life was given by the great pan-Anglican congress held 
in London between the lath and a4th of June 1908, which 
preceded th^ Lambeth conference opened on the 5th of July. 
The idea of this originated with Bishop Montgomery, secretary 
to the Society for the Propagation of the Goapd, and was endofsed 
by a resolution of the United Boards of Miarion in 1905. As the 
result of negotiations and preparations extending over five years, 
350 bishops, together with delegates, clerical and lay, from every 
diocese in tlw AngjUcan communion, met in London, the opening 
service of intercession being held in Westminster Abbey. In its 
general character,r*he meeting was but a Chnrdi congress on an 
enlarged scale, and the subjects discussed, cf . the attitude of 
churchmen towards the question of the marriage laws or that 
of socialism, followed much the same Unes. Ttie congress, of 
course, had no power to decide or to legislate for the Churdi, its 
main value being in drawingits scattered membect closer together^ 
in bringing the newer and more isolated branches into con> 
sdousness of their contact with the parent stem, and in opening 
the eyes of the Church of England to the point of view and the 
peniliar problems of the dau^ter-churchcs. 

The Anglican communion consists of the following: — (i) The 
Omrch of En^and, 2 provinces, Canterbury and Yoric, with 
34 and IX dioceses respectively. (3) The Church of Ireland, 
a provinces, Armagh and Dublin, with '7 and 6 dioceses respec- 
tively, (j) The Scottish Episcopal Church, with 7 dioceses. 
<4) The Protestant Episcopal Church of the United Sutes, with 
89 dioceses and misaionary jurisdictions, including North Tokyo, 
Kyoto, Shanghai, Cape Palmas, and the independent dk»ceses of 
Hayti and Brazil. (5) The Canadian Church, consisting of (a)the 
province of Canada, with xo dioceses; (b) the province of Rupert's 
Land, with 8 dioceses. (6) The Church in India and Ceylon, x 
province of ix dioceses. (7) The Church of the West Indies, x 
province of 8 dioceses, of which Barbados and the Windward 
Islands are at present united. (8) The Australian ChOrch, 
consisting of (a) the province of New South Wales, with 10 
dioceses; {b) the province of Queensland, with s dioceses; (c) the 
province of Victoria, with 5 dioceses. (9) The Church of New 
Zealand, x province of 7 dioceses, together with the missionary 
jurisdiction of Melanesia. (10) The South African Church, 1 
fMPOvince of 10 dioceses, with' the 2 missionary jurisdictions of 
Mashonalaod and Lebombo. (xi) Neariy 30 isobted dioceses 
and missionary jurisdictions holding missaon from the see of 

AUTBORITIBS.— 0#cial Year-book of Ho Church of Engfand; 
Phjllimore, Eedostaslical Low. vol. ii. (London. X895); Digest of 

Church and tho Civil Power (London, 1893). 

AMOLING, the art or practice of the sport of catching fish by 
means of a baited hook or " angle " (from the Indo-European 
root anh; meaning " bend ")•' It is among the most ancient 
of human activities, and may be said to date from the time when 
man was in the infancy of the Stone Age, eking out a precarious 
existence by the slaughter of any living thing which he could 
reach with the rude weapons at his command. It is probable 
that attack on fishes was at first much the same as attack on 

^ As to whether " angling '* aeoetBarily implies a rod as well as a 
Koe and hook, we the discussion in the law case of Barnard v. Roberts 
{Times L.R., April 13, f907), when the question arose as to the use 
of night-lines bdng angljag; but the oedsion against night-lines 
went on the ground of the absence of the personal clement rather 
than on the absence of a rod. The various dictionaries are blind 

guides on thb point, and the authorities cited are inconclusive; 
ut, broadly spiking, angling now implies three necessary factors — 
a personal angler, the sporting element, and the use of recognised 

sm'mih, a matter of force rather than of guile, and conducted by 
means of a rude spear with a flint head. It Is probable, too, that 
the primitive harpooners were not signally- successftd in their 
efforts, and so set their wits to work to devise other means of 
getting at the abundant food which waited for them in every 
piece of water near their caves. Observation would soon show 
them that fish fed greedily on each other and on other inhabitants 
of the water or living things that fell into it, and so, no doubt, 
aroae the idea of entangling the prey by means of its appetite. 
Hence came the notion of the first hook, which, it seems certain, 
was not a hook at all but a " gorge," a piece of flint or stone 
which the fish could swallow with the bait but which it could not 
eject afterwards. From remains found in cave-dwellings and 
their nei^bourbood in different partaof the world it is obvious 
that these gorges varied in shape, but in general the idea was the 
same, a narrow strip <^ stone or flake of flint, either straight or 
slightly curved at the ends, with a groove in the middle round 
which the line could be fastened. Buried in the bait it would be 
swallowed end first; then the tifl^tening of the line would fix 
it cross-wise in the quarry's stomach or gullet and so the capture 
would be assured. The device still lingers in France and in a 
few remote parts of England in the method of catching eeb which 
is known as "sniggling." In this a needle buried in a worm plays 
the part of the prehistoric gorge. 

The evolution of the fish-hook from the sh'ghtly curved gorge 
is easily intelligible. The ends became more and more curved, 
until eventually an object not unlike a double hook was attained. 
This development would be materially assbtcd by man's di»> 
covery of the uses of bronxe and its adaptability to his require- 
ments. The single hook, of the pattern more or less familiar to 
us, was possibly a concession of the lake-dweller to what may even 
then have been a problem — the " education " of fish, and to a 
recognition of the fact that sport with the crude old methods 
was falling off. But it is also not improbable that in some parts 
of the worid the sin^e hook developed pari passu with the 
dquble, and that, on Uie .sea-shoro for instance, where nutn was 
able to emi^oy so adaptable a substance as shell, the first hook 
was a curved fragment of shell lashed with fibre to a piece of 
wood or bone, in such a way that the shell formed the bend of 
the hook while the wood or bone formed the shank. Both early 
remains and recent hooks f/om the Fiji Islands bear out this 
supposition. It is also likely that flint, horn and bone were 
pressed into service in a similar manner. The nature of the line 
or the rod that may have been used with these early hooks is 
hugely a matter of conjecture. The first line was perhaps the 
tendrfl of a phmt, the first rod possibly a sapling tree. But it is 
fairiy obvious that the rod must have been suggested by the 
necessity of getting the bait out over obstacles which lay between 
the fisherman and the water, and that it was a device for increas- 
ing both the reach of the arm and the length of the line. It 
seems not improbable that the rod very eariy formed a part of the 
fisherman's equipmenL 

IMerary History. — From prehistoric times down to compara- 
tively late in the days of chronicles, angling appears to have 
remaned a practice; its development into an art or sport is a 
modem idea. In the earUest literature references to angling arc 
not very numerous, but there are passages in the Old Testament 
which ^w that fish-taking with hook as well as net was one of 
the common industries in the East, and that fish, where it was 
obtainable, formed an important article of diet. In Numbers 
(xi. s) the children of Israel mourn for the fish which they " did 
eat in Egypt freely." So much too is proved by the monuments 
of Egypt; indeed more, for the figures found in some of the 
Egyptian fishing pictures uang short rods and stout lines are 
sometimes attired after the manner of those who wero great in 
the land. This indicates that angling had already, in a highly 
civilized country, taken its phice among the methods of diversion 
at the disposal of the wealthy, though from the uncompromising 
nature of the tackle depicted and the apparent simplicity of the 
fish it would scarcely be safe to assume that in Egypt angling 
arrived at the dignity of becoming an " art." In Europe it took 
very much U>nger for the taking of fish to be regarded even as an 



amusement, and the earliest references to it in the Greek and 
Latin classics are not very satisfying to the sportsman. There is, 
however, a passagcin the Odyssey (xii. 247) which is of consider- 
able importance, as it shows that fishing with rod and line was 
well enough understood in early Greece to be used as a popular 
illustration. It occurs in the well-known scene where Scylla 
seizes the companions of Odysseus out of the ship and bears them 
upwards, just as " some fisher on a headland with a long rod " 
brings small fishes gasping to the shore. Another important, 
though comparatively lat«, passage in Greek poetry is the 
twenty-first idyll of Theocritus. In this the fisherman Asphalion 
relates how in a dream he hooked a large golden fish and describes 
graphically, albeit with some obscurity of language, how he 
' played " it. Asphalion used a rod and fished from a rock, much 
after the manner of the Homeric angler. Among other Greek 
writers, Herodotus has a good many references to fish and fishing; 
the capture of fish is once or twice mentioned or implied by Plato, 
notably in the Laws (vii. 823); Aristotle deals with fishes in his 
Natural History; and there are one or two fishing passages in the 
anthology. But in Greek literature as a whole the subject of 
angling is not at all prominent. In writers of late Greek, however, 
there is more material. Plutarch, for instance, gives us the 
famous story of the fishing match between Antony and Cleopatra, 
which has been utilized by Shakespeare. Moreover, it Is in Greek 
that the first complete treatise on fishing which has come down 
to us is written, the HalieiUica of Oppian (c a.d. 169). It is a 
hexameter poem in five books with perhaps more technical than 
sporting interest, and not so much even of that as the length of 
the work would suggest. Still it contains some information about 
tackle and methods, and some passages describing battles with 
big fish, in the right spirit of enthusiasm. Also in Greek is what is 
famous as the first reference in literature to fly-fishing, in the 
fifteenth book of Aelian*s Natural History (3rd century a.d.). It 
is there described how the Macedonians captured a ccruin 
spotted fish in the river Astracus by means of a lure composed of 
coloured wool and feathers, which was presumably used in the 
manner now known as " dapping." That there were other 
Greek writers who dealt with fish and fishing and composed 
" halicutics " we know from Athenaeus. In the first book of his 
DHpnosophistae he gives a list of them. But he compares their 
work unfavourably with the passage of Homer already cited, in a 
way which suggests that their knowledge of angling was not a 
great advance upon the knowledge of their remote literary 
ancestors. In Latin literature allusions to angling are rather 
more numerous than in Greek, but on the whole they are im- 
important. Part of a poem by Ovid, the Halieuiican, composed 
during the poet's exile at Tomi after a.d. 9, still survives. In 
other Roman writers the subject is only treated by way of alluston 
or illustration. Martial, however, provides, among other 
passages, what may perhaps be entitled to rank as the earliest 
notice of private fishery rights — the epigram Ad Piscatorem, 
which warns would-be poachers from casting a line in the Baian 
lake. Pliny the elder devoted the ninth book of his Natural 
History to fishes and water-life, and Plautus, Cicero, Catullus, 
Horace, Juvenal, Pliny the younger and Suetonius all allude to 
angling here and there. Agricultural writers, too, such as Varro 
and Columella, deal with the subject of fish ponds and stews 
rather fully. Later than any of these, but still just included in 
Latin literature, we have Ausonius (c. as>. 320) and his well- 
known idyll the MostUa^ which contains a good deal about the 
fish of the Moselle and the methods of catching them. In this 
poem is to be found the first recognizable description of members 
of the salmon family, and, though the manner of their application 
is rather doubtful, the names salmoy solar and fario strike a 
responsive note in the breast of the modem angler. 

Post-classical Literature. — As to what happened in the world of 
angling in the first few centuries of the Christian era we know 
little. It may be inferred, however, that both fish and fishermen 
occupied a more honourable position in Christendom than they 
ever did before. The prominence of fishermen in the gospel 
narratives would in itself have been enough to bring this about, 
but it also happened that the Greek word for fish, IX8TS, had an 

anagrammatic significance which the devout were not ibw to 
perceive. The initialscf the word resolve into what is practically 
a confession of faith, 'Irfoodi Xptor^t 6«ou TIM lurhp (Jesus 
Christ, Son of God, Saviour). It is therefore not surprising that 
we find the fish very prominent as a sacred emblem in the painting 
and sculpture of the primitive church, or that Clement of Alez«k 
andria should have recommended it, among other things, as a 
device for signet rings or seals. The fisherman too is frequently 
represented in early Christian art, and it is worthy of remark 
that be more often uses a line and hook than a net. The refer* 
ences to fish and fishing scattered about in the writings of the 
early fathers for the most part reflect the two ideas of the 
sacredness of the fish and divine authorization of the fisherman; 
the second idea certainly prevailed until the time of Izaak 
Walton, for he uses it to justify his pastime. It is also not 
unlikely that the practice of fasting (in many cases fish was 
allowed when meat was forbidden) gave the art of catching fish 
additional importance. It seems at any rate to 'have been a 
consideration of weight when sites were chosen for monasteries 
in Europe, and in many cases when no fish-produdng river was 
at hand the lack was supplied by the construction of fish-ponds. 
Despite all this, however, save for an occasional allusion in the 
early fathers, there is hardly a connecting link between the 
literature of Pagan Rome and the liteiattire that sprang up on 
the invention of printing. One voliuie, the Geoponica^ a Greek 
compilation concerning whose authorship and date there has 
been much dispute, is attributed in Bibliotheca Piscatoria to the 
beginning of the xoth century. It contains one book on fish, 
fish-ponds and fishing, with prescriptions for baits; &c., extracted 
for the most part from other writeis. But it seems doubtful 
whether its date should nbt be placed very much earlier. Tradi* 
tion makes it a Carthaginian treatise translated into Greek. A 
more satisfactory fragment of fishing literature- 19 to be found in 
the CMoquy of iElfric, written {dd pueros linguae latinae loem^ 
tionis exercendos) towards the end of the same oenttiry. JEUsit 
became archbishop of Canterbury in a.d. 995, and the passage 
in the Anglo-Saxon text-book takes honourable rank as the 
earliest reference to fishing in English writings, though it is not 
of any great length. It is to be noted, that the fisher who takes a 
share in the colloquy stiites that he prefers fishing in the river to 
fishing in the sea. Ascribed to the X3th or 14th century is a 
Latin poem De Vetula^ whose author was apparently Richard de 
Fournival. It contains a passage on angling, and was placed to 
the credit of Ovid when first printed (c. 1470). A manuscript in 
the British museum, Comptes des pickeries de Piglise de Troyes 
(ajk X349-1413), gives a minute account of the fisheries with 
the weights of fish captured and the expenses of working. 
There is, however, practically nothing else of importance till we 
come to the first printed book on angling (a translataon of Oppian, 
1478, excepted), and so to the beginning of the literature proper. 
This first book was a little volume printed in Antwerp probably 
in 1492 at the press of Matthias van der Goes. In size it is little 
more than a pamphlet, and it treats of birds as well as fishr— 
Dit Boecxken Icerl hoe men mach Vogkden . . . ende . . . 
visschen vangen metlen handen. Ende oeck andersins. I , . 
(" This book teaches how one may catch birds . . . and . . . 
fish with the hands, and also otherwise ")■ Only one copy 
apparently survives, in the Denison library, and a translation 
privately printed for Mr Alfred Denison in 1872 was limited to 
twenty-five copies. At least two other editions of the book 
appeared in Flemish, and it also made its way, in 1502, to 
Germany, where, translated and with certain alterations and 
additions, it seems to have been re-issued frequently. Next in 
date comes the famous Treaty se of Fysskynge wyth an Angle, 
printed at Westminster by Wynkyn de Worde in 1496 as a part 
of the second edition of The Book of St Albans. The treatise 
is for this reason associated with the name of Dame Juliana 
Bemers, but that somewhat dubious compiler can have had 
nothing whatever to do with it. The treatise is almost certainly 
a compilation from some earlier work on angling (" bokes of 
credence " are mentioned in its text), possibly from a manuscript 
of the earlier part of the xsth century, of which a portion is 



pKsenred in the Denison conection. This iru published in 
1883 by Mr Thomas Satchell under the title An Older Form oftkt 
Treaty se of Fysskynge wyth an Angle. But it is also possible 
that a still older work was the parent of both books, for it has 
been held that the manuscript is an independent version. How* 
ever this may be, it b certain chat the treatise itself has been the 
parent of many other works. Many of the instructions contained 
in it are handed down from generation to generation with little 
change eacept in diction. Especially is this the case with the list 
of trout-fiies, a meagre twelve, which survives in many fishing 
books until well inlo the x 8th' century. 

From ihe be^nning of the i6th century the fisherman's library 
begins to grow apace, as, though books solely devoted to fishing 
are not yet frequent, works on husbandry and country pursuits 
almost all contain something on the subject. In Italy the 
fisherman and his occupation apparently were considered poetic- 
ally; the word pescatore or its cognates are common on Italian 
i6th and 17th century title-pages, though in many instances 
the fulfilment of the implied promise is not adequate, from an 
angler's point of view. From the pages of Bibliotkeca Piscatoria 
a fairly long list of Italian writers could be gleaned. Among 
them may be mentioned Sannazaro {Piscaioria^ &c., Rome, 1 526) 
and Andrea Calmo {Rime pescaiorte, Venice, 1557). A century 
later was Parthenius, who published a volume of Halieulka at 
Naples. This writer has an amusing reference to the art of 
" tickling" trout as practised in Britain. In Germany, as has 
been shown, the original little Flemish treatise had a wide vogue 
in the x6th century, and fishing played a part in a good many 
books on husbandry such as that of Conrad Heresbach (1570). 
Fish and fish-ponds formed the main topic of a Latin work by 
Dubravius (1553), while Gesner in the middle of the i6th and 
Aldrovandi at the beginning of the X7th centuries wrote at length 
on the natural history of fishes. In France the subject is less 
well represented, but La PescherUs of Chris, de Camon (Lyons, 
XS99) and Le Plaisir des champs of CL Gauchet (Paris, 1604) 
deserve to be noted. Les Ruses innocenles by Francois Fortin, 
first publbhed at Paris in 1600, and several times in later editions, 
is characterized by Messrs Westwood and Satchell as " on the 
whole the most interesting contribution made by France to 
the literature of angling." England during the most part of the 
i6th century was evidently well enough served by the original 
treatise out of The Book of St Albans. It was republished twice 
by Wynkyn de Worde, six or seven times by Copland, and some 
five times by other printers. It was also practically republished 
in A Booke of Fishing by L. M. (i 590). L. M. (Leonard Mascall) 
tanks as an angling author, but he did little more than borrow and 
edit the treatise. The same may be said of another version of The 
Book of Si Albans ** now newly collected by W. G. Faulkener " 
and issued in 1596. 

Modern Literature, — In 1 600 appeared John Tavemer's Certaine 
Experiments concerning Fish and Fruite, and after this the period 
of angling literature proper begins. The Secrets of A ngling (1613), 
by J(ohn) D(ennys), Esq., is one of the most important 
volumes in the answer's library, both on account of the excellence 
of the verse in which it is written and also on account of its 
practical value. Gervase Markham, '> the first journalist," as 
he has been called, published his first book of husbandry at 
the same date, and, as in most of his many books on the same 
subject, devoted a certain amount of space to fishing. But 
Markham gathered his materials in a rather shameless manner 
and his angling passages have little originality. Thomas Barker's 
The Art of Angling (ist ed., 1651) takes a more honourable 
position, and received warm commendation from Izaak Walton 
himself, who followed it in 1653 with The Compleat Angler. 
So much has been written about this treasured classic that it is 
only necessary to indicate its popularity here by saying that 
its editions occupy some twenty pages in Bibliotheca Piscatoria 
(1883), and that since that work was published at least forty 
new editions have to be added to the list. During Walton's 
life-dime the book ran through five editions, and with the fifth 
(1676) was incorporated Charles Cotton's second part, the 
" instructi<Kis how to angle for a trout or grayling, in a clear 

stream." In tone cases too there was added a third book, 
the fourth edition of The Experienced A ngler, by Robert Venables 
(ist ed., 1662). The three books together bore the title of 
The Unhersai Angler. Venables's portion was dropped later, 
but it is worth reading, and contained sound instruction though 
it has not the literary merit of Walton and Cotton. 

A few other notable books of the century call for enumeration, 
The Gentleman's Recreation by Nicholas Cox (1674), Gilbert's 
The Angler's Delight (X676), Chetham's Vade-Meeum (x68i). 
The CompleU TroUer by Robert Nobbes (1682), R. Franck's 
Northern Memoirs (X694), and The True Art of Angling by J. S. 
(x6q6). Of these Chetham, Nobbes, Franck and J. S. have the 
merit of considerable originality. Franck has gained some 
notoriety by his round abuse of Walton. In the i8th century 
among others we find The Secrets of Angling by C. G. (1705), 
Robert Howlett's The Angler's Sure Guide (1706), The Whole 
A rt of Fishing ( 1 7 14) , The Com^eat Fisherman by James Saunders 
(1724), The Art of Angling by R. Brookes (1740), another book 
with the same title by R. and C. Bowlker (Worcester, c. 1750), 
The Complete Sportsman by Thomas Fairfax (c. 1760), The 
Angler's Museum by T. Shiriey (1784), and A Concise Treatise 
on the Art of Angling by Thomas Best (1787). Of these only 
Saunders's, Bowlker's and Best's books are of much importance, 
the rest being for the most part " borrowed." One volume of 
verse in the T8th century calls for notice, Moses Browne's 
Piscatory Eclogues ( 1 7 29) . Among greater names we get angling 
passages in Pope, Gay and Thomson; the two last were evidently 
brothers of the angle. 

With the 19th century angling literature becomes too big a 
subject to be treated in detail, and it is only possible to glance 
at a few of the more important books and writera. Daniel's 
Rural Sports appeared in 1801; it is a treasure-house of odd 
facts. In 1828 Sir Humphry Davy published his famous 
Salmonia, which was reviewed in the Quarterly by Sir Walter 
Scott. At about this time too were appearing the Noctes A mbro- 
sianae in Blackwood's Magazine. Christopher North (Professor 
Wilson) often touched upon angling in them, besides contributing 
a good many angling articles to the magazine. In 1835 that 
excellent anting writer Thomas Tod Stoddart began his valuable 
series of books with The Art of Angling as Practised in Scotland. 
In 1839 he published Songs and Poems, among which are pieces 
of great merit. During this period, too, first appeared, year 
by year, the NewcasUe Fishers* Garlands, collected by Joseph 
CrawhaU afterwards and republished in 18641 These border 
verses, like Stoddart's, have often a genuine ring about them 
which is missing from the more polished effusions of Gay and 
Thomson. Alfred Ronalds's The Fly-Fisher's Entomology 
(ist ed., 1836) wa« a publication of great importance, for it 
marked the beginning of the scientific spirit among truut-fishers. 
It ran through many editions and is still a valuable book of 
reference. A step in an^ng lustory is also marked by George 
Pulman's Vade-Mecum of Fly-fishing for Trout (1841), for it 
contains the first definite instructions on fishing with a " dry 
fly." Another is marked by Hewett Wheatley's The Rod and 
the Line (1849), where is to be found the earliest reference to the 
" eyed " hook. Yet another is marked by W. C. Stewart's 
The Practical Angler (1857), in which is taught the new doctrine 
of " up-stream " fishing for trout. This is a book of permanent 
value. Among the many books of this period Charles Kingsley's 
Miscellanies (1859) stands out, for it contains the immortal 
" Chalk-Stream Studies." The work of Francis Francis begins 
at about the same time, though his A Book on Angling, which 
is still one of the most valuable text-books, was not first published 
till 1867. Another well-known and excellent writer, Mr H. 
Cholmondeley Pennell, began in the early 'sixties; it is to him 
that we owe the admirable volumes on fresh- water fishing in 
Ihe " Badminton Library." Among other English writers 
mention must be made of Messrs William Senior, John Bicker- 
dyke and F M. Halford. who have all performed signal services 
for angling and its literature. (See further bibliograrphy ad fin.) 
In America the latter half of the i9lh century produced a good 
deal of fishing literature, much of it of a high standard. / go 



a^Piskmg by Dr W. C Prime (1873), Piskmg tnlktkePiyhy 
C. F. Orvis, A. Nelson Cheney and others (1883), The American 
Salmon Fisherman and Fly Rods and Fly Tackle by H. P. Wells 
(x886 and 1885), LUtU Rivers and other books by the Rev. H. 
Van Dyke — these are only a few ^^ecially distinguished in style 
and matter. Germany and France have not contributed so 
largely to the modem Ubraiy, but in the first country we find 
several useful works by Max von dem B<mie, beginning with 
the Handbuch der Antelfischerei of 187s. and there are a good 
many other writers who have contributed to the subject, while 
in France there are a few volumes on fishing by different hands. 
The most noticeable is M. G. Albert Petit's La Truite de rinkre 
( 1897) , an admirable book on fly-fishing. As yet, however, though 
there are many enthusiastic anglers in France, the iport has not 
established itself so firmly as to have inspired much literature 
of its own; the same may be said of Germany. 

Modem Conditions. — In the modem history of angling there 
are one or two features that should be touched upon. The great 
increase in the number of fishermen has had several results. 
One is a correqxmding increase in the difllculty of obtaining 
fishing, and a notable rise in the value of rivers, eq)ecially those 
which aro famed for salmon and trout. Salmon-fishing now may 
be said to have become a pastime of the rich, and there are signs 
that trout-fishing will before long have to be placed in the same 
exclusive category, while even the right to angle for leM^steemed 
fish will eventually be a thing of price. The development is 
natural, and it has naturally led to efforts on the part of the 
angling majority to counteract, if possible, the growing difficulty. 
These efforts have been directed chiefly in two ways, one the 
establishment of fishing clubs, the other the adi^tion of angling 
in salt water. The fishing club of the big towns was originally 
a social institution, and its members met together to sup, con- 
verse on angling topics and perhaps to display notable fish that 
they had caught Later, however, arose the idea that it would be 
a convenience if a club could give its members privileges of fishing 
as well as privileges of reunion. So it comes about that all over 
the United Kingdom, in British colonics and dependencies, in 
the United States, and also in Germany and France, fishing clubs 
rent waters, undertake preservation and restocking and generally 
lead an active and useful existence. It is a gooid sign for the 
future of angling and anglers that they are rapidly increasing in 
number. One of the oldest fishing clubs, if not the oldest, was 
the Schuylkill club, founded in Pennsylvania in X73S. An 
account of its history was published in Philadelphia in 1830. 
Among the earliest clubs in London are to be numbered such 
societies as The True Waltonians, The Piscatorial, The Friendly 
Anglers and The Gresham, which are still flourishing. A certain 
amount of literaiy activity has been observable in the world of 
angling clubs, and several volumes of " papers " are on the 
records. Most noticeable perhaps are the three volumes of 
Anders* Evenings published in 1880-1894, & collection of essays 
by members of the Manchester Anglers' Association. The other 
method of securing a continuance of sport, the adi^tion of sea- 
angling as a substitute for fresh-water fishing, is quite a modem 
thing. Within the memory of men still young the old tactics of 
hand-line and force were considered good enough for sea fish. 
Now the fresh-water ang]er has lent his centuries of experience 
in deluding his quany; the sea-angler has adopted many of the 
Ideas presented to him, has modified or improved others, and has 
developed the capture of sea-fish into a science almost as subtle 
as the capture of their fresh-water cousins. One more modem 
feature, which is also a result of the increase of anglers, is the great 
advance made in fish-culture, fish-stocking and fish-acdimatiza- 
tion during the hist half-century. Fish-culture is now a 
recognized industry; every trout-stream of note and value is 
restocked from time to time as a matter of course; salmon- 
hatcheries are numerous, though their practical utility is still a 
debated matter, in Great Britain at any rate; coarse fish are 
also bred for purposes of restocking; and, lastly, it is now 
considered a fairly simple matter to introduce fish from one 
country to another, and even from continent to continent. In 
England the movement owes a great deal to Francis Francis, 

who, though he was not the eariicst worker in the fidd, wtt 
among the first to formulate the science of fish-breeding; hit 
book Fish-CuUurtt first published in 1863, still remains one of 
the best treatises 00 the subject In the United States, where 
fishery science has had the benefit of generous govenunental and 
official support and countenance and so has reached a high Icvd 
of achievement, Dr. T. Garlick (Jke Art^ial ReprodncUon oj 
Fishes, Cleveland, 1857) as honoured as a pioneer. On the 
continent of Europe the latter half of the xgth century saw a very 
considersUe and rapid development in fish-culture, but untd 
comparatively recently the propa^tion and care of fish in most 
European waters have been considered almost entirely from the 
point of view of the fish-stew and the market As to what hat 
been ^one in the way of acclimatization it is not necessary to say 
much. Trout (Salmojario) were introduced to New Zealand in 
the late 'sixties from England; in the 'eighties rainbow trout 
(Salmo irideus) were also introduced from California; now New 
ZeaUnd provides the finest trout-fishing of ita kind in the world. 
American trout of different kinds have been introduced into 
England, and brown trout have been introduced to America; 
but neither innovation can be said to have been an unqualified 
success, though the rainbow has established itself firmly in some 
waters of the United Kingdom. It is still regarded with some 
suspicion, as it has a tendency to wander from waters which do 
not altogether suit it For the rest, trout have been established 
in Ceylon, in Kashmir and in South' Africa, and early in 1906 an 
attempt was made to carry them to British Central Africa. In 
fact the possibilities of acclimatization are so great that, it seems 
probable, in time no river of the civilized world capable of holding 
trout will be without them. 

Methods and Psacticb 
Angling now divides itself into two main divisions, fishing in 
fresh water and fishing in the sea. The two branches of the 
sport have much in common, and sea-angling is really little more 
than an adaptation of fresh-water methods to salt-water con- 
ditions. Therefore It will not be necessary to deal with it at 
great length and it naturally comes in the second place. Angling 
in fresh water is again divisible into three principal parts, filing 
on the surface, i.e. with the fly; in mid-water, i.e. with a bait 
simulating the movementa of a small fish or with the small fish 
Itself; and on the bottom with worms, paste <^ one of the many 
other baits which experience has shown that fish will take. With 
the premise that it is not intended here to go into the minutiae 
of instraction which may more profitably be discovered in the 
many works of reference cited at the end of this article, some 
account of the subdivisions into which these three styles of fishing 
fall may be given. 

Fresh-Water Fishing. 

Fly-fiihing. — Fly-fishing is the mpst modem of them, but it 
IS the most highly esteemed, principally because it is the method 
par excellence of taking members of the most valuable sporting 
family of fish, the Salmonidae. It may roughly be considered 
under three heads, the use of the " wet " or sunk fly, of the " dry " 
or floating fly, and of the natural insect Of these the first 
is the most important, for it covers the widest field and is 
the most universally practised. There are few varieties of fish 
which may not either consistently or occasionally be taken with 
the sunk fly in one of its two forms. The large and gaudy bunch 
of feathers, silk and tinsel with which salmon, very large trout, 
bUck bass and occasionally other predaceous fish are taken is not, 
strictly speaking, a fly at all. It rather represents, if anything, 
some small fish or subaqueous creature on which the big fish is 
accustomed to feed and it may conveniently receive the generic 
name of salmon-fly. The smaller lures, however, which are used 
to catch smaller trout and other fish that habitually feed on 
insect food are in most cases intended to represent that food in 
one of iU forms and are entitled to the name of " artificial flies." 
The dry or floating fly is simply a development of the imitation 
theory, and has been evolved from the wet fly in course of closer 
observation of the habits of flies and fish in certain waters. Both 
wet and dry fly methods are really a substitute for the third and 



oldest kind of sarface-fishing, tlie me of « natural insect as a bait 
Each method is referred to inddentally below. 

Spinmngt brc. — Mid-water fishing, as has been said, broadly 
consbts in the use of a snudl fish, or something that simulates it, 
and its devices are aimed almost entirely at those fish which prey 
on their fellows. Spinning, live-baiting and trolling^ are these 
devices. In the first a small dead fish or an imitation of it made 
in metal, india-rubber, or other substance, is caused to revolve 
rapidly as it is pulled through the water, so that it gives the idea 
of something in difficulties and trying to escape. In the second 
a amall fish is put on the angler's hook alive and conveys the 
same idea by its own efforts. In the third a small dead fish is 
caused to dart up and down in the water without revolving, it 
conveys the same idea as the spinning fish, though the manipula- 
tion is different 

BeUom-Fiskimg. — Bottom-fishing is the branch of anting 
which is the most generaL There is practically no fresh-water 
fish that will not take some one or more of the baits on the an^r's 
list if they are properly presented to it when it is hungry. Usually 
the baited hook is on or near the. bottom of the water, but the rule 
suggested by the name " bottom-fishing " is not invariable and 
often the bait is best used in midpwater; similarly, in ** mid-water 
fishing " the bait must sometimes be used as close to the bottom 
as possible. Bottom-fishing is roughly divistbie into two kinds, 
float-fishing, in which a bite is detected by the aid of a float 
fastened to the line above the hook and so balanced that its tip 
is visible above the water, and hand-fishing, in which no float is 
nsed and the angler trusts to his hand to fed the bite of a fish. In 
most cases either method can be adopted and it is a matt^ of 
taste, but broadly speaking the float- tackle is more suited to water 
which is not very deep and is either still os not rapid. In great 
depths or strong streams a float is difficult to "'•"■g* 


It is practically impossible to classify the fish an angler 
catches according to the methods which he employs, as most 
fish can be taken by at least two of these methods, whUe many 
of those most hij^y esteemed can be caught by all three. 
Sporting fresh-water fish are thl;rrfore treated according to their 
families and merits from the angler's pdnt of view, and it is briefly 
indicated which method or methods best succeed in pursuit of 

Salmon. — First in importance come the migratory Salmonidae, 
and at the head of them the salmon (^almo sdaf)y which has a 
two-fcrfd reputation as a qwrting and as a commercial asset The 
salmon fisheries of a country are a very valuaUe possession, but 
it is only comparatively recently that this has been realised and 
that salmon rivers have received the legal protection which is 
occessaiy to their well-being. Even now it cannot be asserted 
that in England the salmon question, as it is called, is settled. 
Partly owing to our ignorance of the life-history of the fidi, partly 
owing to the difficulty of reconciling the Of^wsed interests of 
commerce and sport, the problem as to how a river should be 
treated remains only partidly solved, though it cannot be denied^ 
that there has been a great advance in the rig^t direction. The 
life-history of the salmon, so far as it concerns the matter in hand, 
may be very briefly summed up. It is bred in the rivers and fed 
in the sea. The parent fish ascend in late autumn as hi^ as they 
can get, the ova arc deposited on gravel shallows, hatching out in 
the course of a few weeks into parr The infant salmon remains 
in fresh water at least one year, generally two years, without 
growing more than a few inches, and then about May assumes what 
is called the smolt-dress, that is to say, it loses the dark parr-bands 
and red spots of infancy and becomes silvery all over. After this 
it descends without delay to the sea, where it feeds to such good 
purpose that in a year it has reached a weight of a lb to 4 tt> or 
mofe, and it may then reascend as a grilse. Small grilse indeed 
may only have been in the sea a few months, ascending in the 
autumn of the year of their first descent If the fish survives the 

* TrolHnjff is very commonly confused in angling writing; and talk 
with iraittng, which rimpiy means drawing a spinning-bait along 
behind a boat in motion. 

perils of its first ascent and spawning season and as a kdt or 
qMiwned fish gets down to the sea again, it comes up a second time 
as a salmon of weight varying from 8 tt> upwards. Whether 
salmon come up^ rivers, and, if so, spawn, every year, why some 
fish are much heavier than others of the same age, what their mode 
of life is in the sea, why some run up in spring and summer when 
the breeding season is not tiU about November or December, 
whether they were originally searfish or river-fish — these and 
other similar questions await a conclusive answer. One principal 
fact, however, stands out amid the uncertainty, and that is that 
without a free passage up and down unpolluted rivers and without 
protection on the spawning beds salmon have a very poor chance 
of perpetuating their species. Economic prudence dictates 
therefore that every year a considerable proportion of nmning 
salmon should be allowed to escape the dangers that confront 
them in the shape of nets, obstructions, pollutions, rods and 
poachers. And it b in the adjustment of the interests which are 
bound up in these dangers (the last excepted; officially poachers 
have no interests, though in practice their plea oi " custom and 
right " has too oiten. to be taken into consideration) that the 
salmon question consists. To secure a fair proportion of fish for 
the market, a fair proportion for the rods and a fair proportion 
for the redds, without unduly damaging manufacturing interests, 
this is the object of those who have the question at heart, and 
with many OTganisations and scientific observers at work it should 
not be long before the object is attained. Already the system of 
" marking " kelts with a small silver label has re«ilted in a con- 
siderable array of valuable statistics which have made it possible 
to estimate the salmon's ordinary rate of growth from year to 
year. It is very largdy due to the eff^ts of anglers that the 
matter has gone so far. Whether salmon feed in fresh water is 
another question of peculiar interest to anglers, for it would seem 
that if they do not then the whole practice of taking them must, 
be an anoBoaly. Champions have arisen on both sides of the aigu-' 
ment, some, scientists, asserting that salmon (parr and kdta 
excluded, Im both feed greedily as opportunity occurs) do not 
feed, othexB, mostly anglers, maintaii^uig strongly that they do^ 
and bringing as evidence their undoubted and customary capture 
by rod and line, not only with the fly, but also with such obvious 
food-stuffs as diead baits, worms and prawns. On the other side 
it is argued that food a never found inside a salmon after it has 
been long enough in a river to have digested its last meal taken in 
saltwater The very few instances of food found in salmon which 
have been brought forward to support the contrary opinion are 
in the scientific view to be regarded with great caution; certainly 
in one ^nse of recent years, which at first appeared to be wdl 
authenticated, it was afterwards found that a small trout had been 
pushed down a salmon's throat after capture by way of a joke. 
A consideration of the question, however, which may perhaps 
make some ^ypeal to both sides, is put forward by Dr J Kingston 
Barton in the first of the two volumes on FisUng (Country Life 
Series). He maintains that salmon do not habitually feed in 
fresh water, but he does not reject the possibility of their occasion- 
ally Uking food. His view is that after exertion, such as that 
entailed by tunning bom pool to pool during a spate, the fish may 
fed a very transient hunger and be Hpt"fi< thierd»y to scatp at 
anjrthing in its vidnity which Jooks ediUe. The fact that the 
angler's best opportunity is undoubtedly when salmon have newly 
arrived into a pod, supports this contention. Hie longer they 
are compelled to remain in the same spot by lack of water the 
worse becomes the prospect of catching them, and " unfishable " 
is one of the expressive words which fi^ermen use to indicate the 
condition of a river during the long periods of drought which too 
often dbtinguish the sport 

Salmon Taclde and Mtthods, — ^It is when the drought breaks up. 
and the long-awaited rain has come that the angler has his chance 
and makes ready his tadde, against the period of a few days (on 
some short streams only a few hours) during which the water 
will be right; right is a very exact tenfa on some rivers, meaning 
not only that the colour of the water is suitable to the fly, but 
that its height shall be within an inch or two of a given mark, 
prescribed by experience. As to the tackle which is made ready* 



there is, as in most angling mattets, divergence of opinion. 
Salmon fly-rods arc now made pxindpally of two materials, 
gieenheart and ^lit-cane; the former is less e3q>ensive, the 
latter is more durable; it is entirely a matter of taste which a 
man uses, but the split-cane rod is now rather more in favour, 
and for salmon-fishing it is in England usually built with a 
core of steel running from butt to tip and known as a " steel 
centre." How l<»g the rod shall be is also a matter on which 
anglers differ, but from i6 ft to 17 ft 6 in. represents the limits 
within which most rods are preferred. The tendency is to 
reduce rather than to increase the length of the rod, which may 
be accounted for by the adoption of a heavy line. Early in the 
XQth century anglers used light-topped rods of 30 ft and even 
more, and with them a light line composed partly of horse-hair; 
they thought 60 ft with such material a good cast Modem 
experience, however, has shown that a shorter rod with a heavier 
top will throw a heavy dressed silk line much farther with less 
exertion. Ninety feet is now considered a good fishing cast, 
while many men can throw a great deal more. In the United 
States, where rods have long been used much lighter than in 
En^and, the limits suggested would be considered too high. 
From X 3 ft 6 in. to 15 ft 6 in. is about the range of the American 
togler's choice, though long rods are not unknown with him. 
The infinite variety of reds, lines, gut collars* and other forms of 
tackle which is now presented to the anger's consideration and 
for his bewilderment is too wide a subject to be touched upon 
here. Something, however, falls to be said about flies. One of 
the perennially fruitful topics oC inquiry is what the fish takes a 
salmon-fly to be. Beyond a fairiy general admission that it is 
regarded as something endowed with life, perhaps resembling 
A remembered article of marine diet, perhaps inviting gastro- 
nomic experiment, periliaps irritating merely and rousing an 
impulse to destroy, the discussion has not reached any definite 
conclusion. But more or less connected with it is the oontroversy 
as to variety of colour and pattern. Some authorities hold that 
a great variety of patterns with very minute differences in colour 
and shades of colour is essential to complete success; others 
contend that salmon do not differentiate between nice shades of 
colour, that they only draw distinctions between flies broadly 
as being light, medium or dark in general appearance, and that 
the size of a fly rather than its colour is the important point for 
the angler's consideration. Others again go some way with the 
supporten of the colour-scheme and admit the efficacy of flies 
whose general character is red, or yellow, or black, and so on. 
The opinion of the majority, however, is probably based on past 
experience, and a man's favourite flies for different rivprs and 
ccmdition of water are those with which he or someone else has 
previously succeeded. It remains a fact that in most fly-books 
great variety of patterns will be discoverable, while certain old 
standard favourites such as the Jock Scott, Durham Ranger, 
Silver Doctor, and Thunder and Lightning will be prominent 
Coming out of the region of controversy it is a safe generalisation 
to say that the general rule is: big flies for spring fishing when 
rivers are probably high, small flies for summer and low water, 
and flies medium or small in auttunn according to the conditions. 
Spring fishing ii considered the cream of the sport Though 
salmon are not as a rule so numerous or so heavy as during the 

> The precise date when silkwonn gut (now so important a feature 
of the anffler's equipment) was introduced is obscure. Pepys, in his 
Diary (1667), mentions " a gut strine vamtthed over " which " is 
beyond any hair for strength and •raalfnen " as a new angiing secret 
which he Ukes " mightily?^ In the third edition ( 1 700) of Chetham's 
Vade^Mecum, already cited, appears an advertisement of the " East 
India weed, which is die onfy thing for trout, carp and bottom- 
fishing." Again, in the third edition of Nobbes's Art of TrolUng 
(1805), in the supplementaiy matter, appeare a letter signed by 
J. Eaton and G. oimber, uckle-makers of Crooked Lane (July 
30. 1801), in which it is stated that gut " is produced from the 
nlkworm and not an Indian weed, as has hUherto been conjee- 
tured. . . ." The word " gut " is employed before thb date, but it 
seems obvious that silkworm jB;ut was for a long time used under the 
impression that it was a weeoTand that its introduction was a thing 
of the 17th century. It is probable, however, that vcjipeuble fibre 
was used too; we believe that in some parts of India it is used by 
natives to this day. Pepys' " minikin was probably cat-gut 

autumn nm, and thoogh kelts an often a nuisance in the eariy 
months, yet the clean-run fish of Felmuiy, March or Aprfl 
amply repays patience and disappointment by its fighting powers 
and its beauty. Summer fishing on most rivers in the British 
Islands is uncertain, but in Norway summer is the season, 
which possibly explains to some extent the popularity of that 
country with British anglers, for the pleasure of a q>ort is laigely 
increased by good weather. 

Two methods of using the fly are in vogue, casting and harling. 
The first is by far the more artistic, and it may be practised 
either from a boat, from the bank or from the bed of the river 
itself; in the last case the angler wades, wearing waterproof 
trousers or wading-stockings and stout nail-studded brogues. 
In either case the fishing is similar. The fly is cast across and 
down stream, and has to be brought over the " lie " of the fish, 
swinuning naturally with its head to the stream, its feathers 
working with tempting movement and its whole appearance 
Buggjpsting some live thing dropping gradually down and across 
stream. Most anglers add to the motion of the fly by " working " 
it with short pulls from the rod-top. When a fiish takes, the rise 
is sometimes seen, sometimes not; in any case the an^r should 
not req>ond with the rod until he feds the pulL Then he should 
tighten, not strike. The fatal word " strike," with its too literal 
interpretation, has c&used numy a breakage. Having hooked 
his fitsh, the angler must be guided by circumstances as to what 
he does; the salmon will usually decide that for him. But it is 
A sound rule to give a well-hooked fish no unnecessary advantage 
and to hokl-on as hard as the tackle will allow. Good tackle will 
stand an immense-strain, and with this " a minute a pound " is a 
fair estimate of the time in which a fish should be landed. A 
foul-hooked salmon (no uncommon thing, for a fish not infre- 
quently misses the fly and gets hooked somewhere in die body) 
takes much longer to land. The other method of using the fly, 
harling, which is practised on a few big rivers, consists in trailing 
the fly behind a boat rowed backward and forwards across the 
stream and dropping gradually downwards. Fly-fishing for 
salmon is also practised on some lakes, into which the fish run. 
On lakes the boat drifts slowly along a " beat," while the angler 
casts diagonally over the qiots where salmon are wont to lie. 
Salmon may iJso be caught by " mid-water fishing," with a 
natural bait either spun or trolled and with artificial spinning- 
baits of different kinds, and by " bottom-fishing " with prawns, 
shrimps and worms. Spinning is usually practised when the 
water is too high or too coloured for the fly; trolling is seldom 
employed, but is useful for ei^loring pools which cannot be 
fished by q;>uming or with the fly; the prawn is a valuable lure 
in low water and when fish are unwilling to rise; while the worm 
is lulling at all states of the river, but except as a last resource 
is not much in favour. There are a few waters where salmon 
have the rq>utation of not taking a fly at all; in them q>inning 
or prawning are the usual modes of fishing. But most anglers, 
wherever possible, prefer to use the fly. The rod for the alter- 
native methods is gmerally shorter and stiffer than the fly-rod, 
though made of like materiaL Twelve to fourteen feet represents 
about the range of choice. Outside the British Islands the 
salmon-fisher finds the headquarters of his sport in Europe in 
Scandinavia and Iceland, and in the New World In tome of the 
waters of Canada and Newfoundland. 

La$td4oeked Sahnon.—Thit land-locked salmon (Saimo salaf 
sebago) of (Canada and the lakes of Maine is, as its name implies, 
now regarded by scientists as merely a land-locked form of the 
salmon. It does not often atuin a greater aise than 30 lb, 
but it is a fine fighter and is highly esteemed by American 
anglers. In most waters it does not take a fly so well as a spinning* 
bait, live-bait or worm. The methods of angling for it do not 
differ materially from those employed for other Salnumidae, 

Pacific Salmon. — Closely allied to Salma solar both in appear- 
ance and habits is the genus Onccrkynckus, commonly known 
as Pacific salmon. It contains six spedes, is peculiar to the North 
Pacific Ocean, and is of some importance to the angler, though 
of not neariy so much as the AtUutic salmon. The quinnat is 
the largest member of the genus, closely resembles solar to 



Appemnmce and surpasses him in sise. Tbe others, sockeye, 
humpback, cohoe, dog-salmon and masu, are smaller and of less 
interest to the an^^er, though some of them have great commercial 
value. The last-named is only found in the waters of Japan, but 
the rest occur in greater or less quantities in the rivers of Kam- 
chatka, Alaska, British Columbia and Oregon. The problems 
presented to science by solar are offered by Onccrkynckus also, 
but there are variations in his life-hBtory, such as the fact that 
few if any fish of the genus are supposed to survive their first 
spawning season. When once in iht rivers none of these salmon 
is of very much use to the angtn", as, though it is stated that 
they will occasionally take a fly or spoon in fresh water, they are 
not nearly so responsive as their Atlantic cousin and in many 
streams are undoubtedly not worth trying for At the mouthsof 
some rivers, however, where the water is distinctly tidal, and 
in certain bays of the sea itself they give very fine sport, the 
method of fishing for them being usually to trail a heavy spoon- 
bait behind a boat. By this means remarkable bags of fish have 
been made by anglers. The sport is of quite recent development. 
Sea- rrtfn/.— Next to the saknon oomes the sea-trout, the other 
migratory salmonid of Europe. This is a fish with many local 
names and a good deal of local variation. Modem science, how- 
ever, recognises two "races" only, Salmo truUa^ the sea-trout 
proper, and Sdmo cambrieus or erUx, the bull-trout, or sewin 
o( Waks, which is most prominent in sudi rivers as the Coquet 
and Tweed. The life-history of sea-trout is much the same as 
that of salmon, and the fish on their first return from the sea in 
the gribe^tage are called by many names, finnock, herling and 
whitling being perhaps the best known. Of the two races 
Salmo truUa alone is of much use to the fly-fisher. The bull*trout, 
for some obscure reason, is not at al) responsive to his efforts, 
eaccept in its kelt stage. Then it will take greedily enough, but 
that is smaU consolation. The bull-trout is a strong fish and 
grows to a great size and it is a pity that it is not of greater 
sporting value, if only to make up for its bad reputation as an 
article of food. Some amends, however, are made by its cousin 
the sea-trout, which is one of the gamest and daintiest fish on 
the an^r's list. It is found in most salmon rivers and also 
in not a few streams which are too small to harbour the bigger 
fish, while there are many lakes in Scotland and Ireland (where 
the fish is usually known as white trout) where Uie fishing is 
superb when the trout have run up into them. Fly-fishing for 
sea-trout is not a thing apart A three-pounder that will impale 
itself on a big salmon-fly, might equally well have taken a tiny 
trout-fly. Many anglers, when fiohing a seartrout river w^e 
they run large, 5 lb or more, and where there is also a chance of a 
salmon, effect a compromise by using a light 13 f L or 14 ft. 
double>handed rod, and tackle not so slender as to make hooking 
a salmon a certain disaster But undoubtedly to get the full 
pleasure out of sea-trout-fishing a single-handed rod of 10 ft to 
Z2 ft with reasonably fine gut and small flies should be used, and 
the way of using it is much the same as in wet-fly fishing for 
brown trout, which will be treated later. When the double- 
handed rod and small salmon-flies are used,the fishing is practically 
the same as salmon-fishing except that it is on a somewhat 
smaller scale. Flics for sea-trout are numberless and local 
patterns abound, as may be expected with a fish which has so 
catholic a taste. But, as with salmon-fishers so with sea-trout- 
fishers, experience forms belief and success governs selection. 
Among the small salmon-flics and loch-flies which will fill his 
book, the angler will do well to have a store of very small trout- 
flies at hand, while experience has shown that even the dry fly 
will kill sea-trout on occasion, a thing that is worth remembering 
where rivers arc low and fish shy. July, August and September 
are in general the best months for sea-trout, and as they are dry 
mon ths the angler often has to put up with indifferent sport The 
fish will, however, rise in tidal water and in a few localities even 
in the sea itself, or in salt-water lochs into which streams nm. 
Sea-trout have an irritating knack of " coming short," that is to 
say, they vdll pluck at the fly without really talingit There are 
occasions, on the other hand, in loch-fishing where plenty of 
time must be given to the fish without tightening on it, especially 

if it happens to be a big one. Like salmon, sea-trout are to b^ 
c&ught with spinning-baits and also with the worm. Tlie main 
controversy that is concerned with sea-trout is whether or no 
the fish captured in early spring are dean fish or well-mended 
kelts. On the whole, as sea-trout seldom run before May, the 
majority of opinion inclines to their being kelts. 

Non-^nigraiory Salmonidae. — Of the non-migratory members 
of the Salm&nidae the most impotant in Great Britain is the 
brown trout {Salmo fario) Its American cousin the rainbow 
trout iS. irideus) is now fairly well established in the country 
too, while other transatlantic species both of trout and char 
(which are some of them partially migratory, that is to say, 
migratory when occasion offen), such as the steelhead {S. rvm* 
laris), fontinalis {S Jontinalis) and the cut-throat trout (5. 
daHtit), are at least not unknown. All these fish, together with 
their allied forms in America, can be captured with the fly, and, 
^peaking broadly, the wet-fly method will do well for them alL 
Therefore it is only necessary to deal with the methods applicable 
to one ^>ecies, the brown trout 

Trcut. — Of the game-fishes the brown trout is the most popular, 
for it is spread over the whole of Great Britain and most of 
Europe, wherever there are waters suited to it It is a fine 
sporting fish and is excellent for the table, while in some streams 
and lakes it grows to a very considerable size, examples of 16 lb 
from southern rivers and so lb from Irish and Scottish lakes 
being not unknown. One of the signs of its popularity is that its 
habits and hist<»y have produced some very animated con* 
troversies. Some of .the earliest discussions were provoked 
by the liability of the fish to change its appearance in different 
surroundings and conditions, and so at one time many a district 
claimed its local trout as a separate spedes. Now, however, 
sdence admits but one species, though, to such well-defined 
varieties as the Loch Leven trout, the estuarine trout and the 
gillaroo, it concedes the right to separate names and " races." 
In effect all, from the great ferox <k the big lakes of Scotland 
and Ireland to the little fingerling of the Devonshire brook, are 
one and the same — Salmo fario. 

Wd'Fly Fisfungfor Trout, — Fly-fishing for trout is divided into 
three kinds: fishing with the artificial fly sunk or " wet," fishing 
with it floating or " dry " and fishing with the natural insect. 
Of the two first methods the Wet fly is the older and may be taken 
first Time was when all good anglers cast their flies down* 
stream and harm. But in 1857 W. C. Stewart pub« 
lished his Practical Angler ^ in which he taught that it paid better 
to fish up-stream, for by so doing the angler was not only less 
likely to be seen by the trout but was more likely to hook his fish. 
The doctrine was much discussed and criticized, but it gradually 
won adherents, imtil now up-stream fishing is the orthodox 
method where it is possible. Stewart was also one of the first to 
advocate a lighter rod in place of the heavy 22 ft and 15 ft 
weapons that were used in the North in his time. There are 
still many men who use the long rod for wet-fly fishing in streams, 
but there are now more who find 10 ft. quite enough for their 
purpose. For lake-fishing from a boat, however, the longer rod 
is still in many cases preferred. In fishing rivers the-main art 
is to place the right flies in the right places and to let them come 
naturally down with the stream. The right flies may be ascer- 
tained to some extent from books and from local wisdom, but 
the right places can only be learnt by experience. It does not, 
however, take long to acquire "an eye for water" and that is 
half the battle, for the haunts of trout in rapid rivers are very 
much alike. In lake-fishing chance has a greater share in bring* 
ing about success, but here too the right fly and the right place 
are important; the actual management of rod, line and flics, of 
course, is easier, for there is no stream to be reckoned with. 
Thou£^ there is little left to be said about wet-fly fishing where 
the fly is an imitation more or less exact of a natural insect, 
there is another branch of the art which has been stimulated by 
modem devdopmcnts. This is the use of salmon-flies for big 
trout much in the same way as for salmon. In such rivers as the 
Thames, where the trout are cannibals and run very largfe, 
ordinary trout-flies are of little use» and the fly-fishei's onlj 



diance is to use a big fly and'" work " it, casting across and 
down stream. The big fly has also been found serviceable with 
the great fish of New Zealand and with the inhabitants of such 
a piece of water as Blagdon Lake near Bristol, where the trout 
run very large. For this kind of fishing much stronger tackle 
and a heavier rod are required than for catching fish that seldom 
exceed the pound. 

Dry Fly. — Fishing with the floating fly is a device kA southern 
origin, and the idea no doubt arose from the facts that on the 
placid south-country streams the natural fly floats on the surface 
and that the trout are accustomed to feed on it there. The 
controversy " dry versus wet " was long and spirited, but the 
new idea won the day and now not only on the chalk-streams, 
but on such stretches of even Highland rivers as are suitable, the 
dry-fly man may be seen testing his theories. These theories 
are simple and consist in placing before the fish an estact imitation 
of the insect on which it is feeding, in such a way that it shall 
float down exactly as if it were an insect of the same kind. To 
this end special tackle and special methods liave been found 
necessary. Not only the fly but also the line has to float on the 
water; the line is very heavy and therefore the rod (split-cane 
or greenbeart) must be stiff and powerful; special precautions 
have to be taken that the fly shall float unhindered and shall not 
" drag "; special casts have to be made to counteract awkward 
winds; and, lastly, the matching of the fly with the insect on the 
water is a matter of much nicety, for the water-flies are of many 
shades and colours. Many brains have buried themselves with 
the solution of these problems with such success that dry-fly 
fishing is now a finished art. The entomology of the dry-fly 
stream has been studied very deeply by Mr F. M. Halford, the 
late G. S. Marryat and others, and improvements both in flies 
and tackle have been very greaL Quite lately, however, there 
has been a movement in favour of li^t rods for dry-fly fishing 
as well as wet-fly fishing. The English split-cane rod for dry-fly 
work weighs about an ounce to the foot, rather more or rather 
less. The American rod of similar action and material weighs 
much less — approximately 6 oz. to lo ft. The light rod, it is 
urged, is much less riring and is quite powerful enough for ordinary 
purposes. Against it is claimed that dry-fly fishing is not 
"ordinary purposes," that chalk-stream weeds are too strong 
and chalk-stream winds too wild for the light rod to be efficient 
against them. However, the light rod is growing in popular 
favour, British manufacturers are building rods after the 
American style; and answers are taking to them more and more 
The dry-fly method is now practised by many fishermen both in 
Germany and France, but it has scarcely found a footing as yet 
in the United States or Canada. 

Fishing with the Natural Fly. — ^The natural fly is a very killing 
bait for trout, but its use is not wide-spread except in Ireland. 
In Ireland "dapping" with the green drake or the daddy- 
longlegs is practised from boats on most of the big loughs. A 
light whole-cane rod of stiff build, about x6 fL in length, is 
required with a floss-silk line light enough to be carried out on 
the breeze; the " dap " (generally two mayflies or daddy-long- 
legs on a small stout-wired hook) is carried out by the breeze and 
Just allowed to touch thtf water. When a trout rises it is well to 
count " ten " before striking. Very heavy trout are caught in 
this manner during the ma3rfly season. In the North " creeper- 
fishing " is akin to this method, but the creeper b the larva of 
the stone-fly, not a fly itself, and it is cast more like an ordinary 
fly and allowed to sink. Sometimes, however, the mature insect 
is used with equally good results. A few anglers still practise 
the old style of dapping or " dibbling " after the manner advised 
by Izaak Waltonu It is a deadly way of fishing small overgrown 
brooks. A stiff rod and strong gut are necessary, and a grass- 
hopper or almost any large fly will serve for bait. 

Other Methods. — The other methods of taking trout principally 
employed are spinning, live-baiting and worming. For big river 
trout such as those of the Thames a gudgeon or bleak makes the 
best spinning or live bait, for great lake trout (ferox) a small fish 
of their own species and for smaller trout a minnow. There arc 
numberless artificial spinning-baits which kill well at times, the 

Devon being perhaps the favourite. The use-of the drop-minnow, 
which is trolling on a lesser scale, is a killing method employed 
more in the north of England than elsewhere. The worm b 
mostly deadly in thick water, so deadly that it is looked on 
askance. But there is a highly artistic mode of fishing known as 
" dear-water worming. " This is most successful when rivers are 
low and weather hot, and it needs an expert angler to succeed in 
it The worm has to be cast upstream rather like a fly, and the 
method is little inferior to fly-fishing in delicacy and difficulty. 
The other baits for trout, or rather the other baits which they 
will take sometimes, are legion. Wasp-grubs, maggots, cater- 
pillars, small frogs, bread — ^there is very little the fish will not 
take. But except in rural districts little effort is made to catch 
trout by means less orthodox than the fly, minnow and worm, 
and the tendency nowadays both in England and America is to 
restrict anglers where possible to the use of the artificial fly only. 

Craving.— The only other member of the salmon family in 
England which gives much sport to the fly-fisher is the grayling, 
a fi^ which possesses the recommendation of rising well in winter. 
It can be caught with either wet or dry fly, and with the same 
tackle as trout, which generally inhabit the same stream. Gray- 
ling will take most small trout-flies, but there are many patterns 
of fly tied specially for them, most of them founded on the red 
tag or the green insecL Worms and maggots are also largely 
Qsed in some waters for grayling, and there is a curious con- 
trivance known as the " grauhopper." which is a sort of com- 
promise between the fly and baiL It consists of a leaded hook 
round the shank of which is twisted bright-coloured wool. The 
point is tipped with maggots, and the lure, half artificial, hall 
natural, is dropped into deep holes and worked up and down in 
the water. In some places the method is very killing. The 
grayling has been very prominent of late years owing to the 
controversy " grayling versus trouL" Many people hold that 
grayling injure a trout stream by devouring trout-ova and trout- 
food, by increaang too rapidly and in other ways. Beyond, 
however, proving the self-evident fact that a stream can only 
support a given amount of fish-life, the grayling's opponents do 
not seem to have made out a very good case, for no rttl evidence 
of its injuring trout has been adduced. 

Char. — ^The chars (Salvelinus) are a numerous family widely 
distributed over the worid, but in Great Britain are not very 
important to the angler. One well-defined species {SaMiuus 
al^nus) is found in some lakes of Wales and Scotland, but 
principally in Westmoriand and Cumberiand. It sometimes 
tak^ a small fly but is more often caught with small artificial 
spinning-baits. The fish seldom exceeds i^Ib in Great Britain, 
though in Scandinavia it is caught up to 5 lb or more. There are 
some important chan in AmericA JatUinalis being one of the most 
esteemed. Some members of the genus occasionally attain a size 
scarcely excelled by the salmon. Among them are the Great Lake 
trout of America, Cristivamer namaycush, and the Danubian 
" salmon " or huchen, Salmo hucho. Both of these fish are caught 
principally with spinning-baits, but both will on occasion take a 
salmon-fly. though not with any freedom After they have reached 
a certain size. An attempt has been made to introduce huchen 
into the Thames but at the time of writing the result cannot yet 
be estimated. 

Pihe. — The pike {Esox lucius), which after the Salnumidae is 
the most valued sporting fish in Great Britain, is a fish of prey 
pure and simple. Though it will occasionally uke a large fly, a 
worm or other groimd-bait, its systematic capture is only essayed 
with small fish or artificial spinning-baits. A live bait is supposed 
to be the most deadly lure for big pike, probably because it is the 
method employed by most anglers. But spinning is more artistic 
and has been fotind quite successful enough by those who give it a 
fair and full trial. Trolling, the method of " sink and draw " with 
a dead bait, referred to previously in this article, is not much 
practised nowadays, though at one time it was very popular. It 
was given up because the traditional form of troUing-tackle was 
such that the bait had to be swallowed by the pike before the hook 
would take hold, and that necessitated killing all fish caught, 
whether large or smalL The same objection formerly applied to 



live-btittng with what ms kaown u a soite-hook. Now, how- 
ever, what is called snap-tackle is almost invariably used in 
live-baiting» and the system is by *ome few anglos extended to 
the other method too. Pike are autumn and winter fish and are 
at their best in December. They grow to a very considerable size, 
fish of 2olb being regarded as " specimens " and an occasional 
thirty-pounder rewarding the sealous and fortunate. The 
heaviest pike caught witha rod in recent years which is sufficiently 
authenticated, weighed 37 lb, but heavier specimens are said to 
have been taken in Irish lakes. River pike up to about lotb in 
weight are excellent eating. 

America has several species <^ pike, of which the muskelunge 
of the great lake region {Esox masquinongy) is the most important. 
It is a very fine fish, excelling Esox litciiu both in sise and looks. 
From the angler's point of view it may be considered simply as a 
fatfge pike and may be caught by similar methodsi It occasion- 
ally reaches the weight of 80 !b or perhaps more. The pickerel 
iEscx retiadatHs) is the only other of the American pikes which 
^ves any sport. It reaches a respectable size, but is as inferior to 
the pike as the pike is to the muskelunge. 

Pcrdt, — ^Next to the pikes come the perches, also predatory 
fishes. The European perch {Perca fiwrialUu) has a place by 
itself in the affections of anglers. When young it as easy to catch 
by almost any method of fishing, and a large number of Walton's 
disdples have been initiated into the art with its he^. Worms 
and small live-baits are the principal lures, but at times the fish 
will take small bright artificial spinning-baits well, and odd attrac- 
tions sudb as boiled duin^M, caddis-grubs, small frogs, maggots, 
wasp-grubs, &c are sometimes successfuL Thedrcp-minnow is 
one of the best methods of taking perch. Very occasionally, and 
principally in shallow pools, the fish will take an artificial fly 
greedily, a small salmon-fly being the best thing to use in such a 
case. A perch of a lb is a good fish, and a s>ecimen of 4) lb 
about the limit of angling expectation. There have been rare 
instances of perch over 5 lb, and there are l^ends of eight- 
pounders, which, however, need authentication. 

Block Bass. — ^The yellow perch of America {Perca fiatescens) is 
very much like its European cousin in a|^>earance and habits, but 
it is not so highly esteemed by American anglers, because they 
are fortunate in being possessed oi a better fish in the bkck bass, 
another member of the perch family. There are two kinds of black 
bass {MicropUrus solwmies and Micrcpterus dclomieu)^ the large- 
mouthed and the small-mouthed. The first is more a lake and 
pond fish than the second, and they are seldom found in the same 
waters. As the black bass is a fly-taking fish and a strong fighter 
it is as valuable to the angler as a trout and is highly esteemed. 
Bass-flies are sui gentris, but incline more to the nature of salmon- 
flies than trout-flies. An artificial f rqg cast with a fly-rod or veiy 
light spinning-rod is also a favourite lure. For the rest the fish 
will take almost anything in the nature of worms or small fish, 
like its cousin the perch. A 4 lb bass is a good fish, but five- 
pounders are not uncommon. Blade bass have to some extent 
been acclimatized in France. 

The ruffe or pope {Aurima vulgaris) is a little fish common in the 
Thames and many other slow-flowing English rivers. It is very 
like the perch in shape but lacks the dusky bars which dlstingui^ 
the other, and is spotted with dark brown q>ots on a golden olive 
background. It is not of much use to the angler as it seldom 
exceeds 3 oz. in weight. It takes small worms, maggots and 
similar baits greedily, and is often a nuisance when the angler is 
expecting better fish. Allied to the perches is the pike-perch, of 
which two species are of some importance to the angler, one the 
wall-eye of eastern America {StizosUdion vitreum) and the other 
the zander of Central Europe {Sandrus luchperca). The but 
especiaUy is a fine fighter, occasionally reaching a weight of ao lb. 
It is usually caught by spinning, but will take live-baits, worms 
and other things of that nature. The Danube may be described 
as its h eadq u a r ters. It is a fish whose sporting importance will be 
more realized as anglers on the continent become more numerous. 

CypriHidae.—Thit carp family {Cyprinidae) is a Urge one and 
its members constitute the majority of English sporting fishes. 
In America the various kinds of chub, sucker, dace, shiner, &c. 

are little esteemed and are regarded as spofls for the youthful 
angler only, or as baits for the better fish in which the continent is 
so rich. In England, however, the Cyprinidae have an honoured 
pbce in the affections of all who angle " at the bottom," while in 
Europe some of them have a commercial value as food-fishes. In 
India at least one member of the family, the mahseer, takes rank 
with the salmon as a " big game " fish. 

Carp, Tenckf Barbel, Bream.—The family as represented in 
England may be roughly divided into two groups, those which 
feed on the bottom purely and those which occasionally take flies. 
The first consists of carp, tench, barbel and bream. Of these 
carp, tench and bream are either river or pool fish, while the 
barbel is found only in rivers, principally in the Thames and 
Trent The carp grows to a great size, ao Vb being not unknown ; 
tench are big at s D>; barbd have been caught up to 14 tt) or 
rather more; and bream Occasionidly reach 8 lb, while a fish of 
over XI lb is on record. All these fish are capricious feeders, 
carp and barbel being particularly undependable. In some 
waters it seems to be impossible to catch the large specimens, and 
the anfl^r who seeks to gain trophies in either branch of the sport 
needs both patience and perseverance. Tench and bream are not 
quite so difficult The one fish can sometimes be caught in great 
quantities, and the other is generally to be enticed by the man 
who knows how to set about it Two main principles have to be 
observed in attacking all these fish, ground-baiting and early 
rising. Ground-baiting consists in casting food into the water so 
as to attract the fish to a certain apot and to induce them to feed. 
Without it very little can be done with shy and large fish of these 
spedes. Early rising is necessary because they only feed freely, 
as a rule, from daybroik till about three hoiirs after sun-rise. The 
heat of a sunmier or early autunm day makes them sluggish, but 
an hour or two in the evening is sometimes remunerative. The 
bait for them all should usually lie on the bottom, and it consists 
mainly of worms, wasp and other grubs, pastes of various kinds; 
and for carp, and sometimes bream, of vegetable baits such as 
small boiled potatoes, beans, peas, stewed wheat, pieces of 
banana, &c None of these fish feed well in winter. 

Roach, Rudd, Dace, Chub, — ^The next group of Cyprinidae 
consists of fish which will take a bait similar to those already 
mentioned and also a fly. The sizes which limit the ordinary 
angler's a^irations are roach about a lb, rudd about a| lb, 
dace about i lb and chub about 5 lb. There are instances 
of individuals heavier than this, one or two roach and many 
rudd of over 3 lb being on record, while dace have been 
caught up to X lb 6 oz., and diub of over 7 B> are not 
imknown. Roach only take a fly as a rule in ^ry hot weather 
when they are near the surface, or early in the season when they 
are on the shallows; the others will take it freely all through the 
sunmier. Ordinary trout ffies do well enough for all four spedes, 
but chub often prefer something larger, and big bushy lures called 
" palmers," which represent catecpillars, are generally used for 
them. The fly may be used either wet or dry for all these fish, and 
there is little to choose between the methods as regards effective- 
ness. Fly-fishing for these fish is a brandi of angling which might 
be naore practised than it is, as the q>ort is a very fair substitute 
for trout fishing. Roach, chub and dace feed on bottom food and 
give good qx>rt all the winter. 

Gudgeon, Bleak, Minnow, brc.—T\i^ small fry of European 
waters, gudgeon, bleak, minnow, loach, stickleback and bullhead, 
are prindpidly of value as bait for other fish, though the first- 
named spedes gives pretty sport on fine tackle and makes a 
succulent dish. SmaU red worms are the best bait for gudgeon 
and minnows, a nuiggot or small fly for bleak, and the rest are 
most easily caught in a small-meshed net The loach is used 
prindpaUy in Irehind as a trout bait, and the other two are of 
small account as hook-baits, though sticklebacks are a valuable 
form of food for trout in lakes and pools. 

Mahseer. — ^Among the carps of India, several of which give 
good 9pot\., special mention must be made of the mahseer 
{Barbus mosal), a fish which rivals the salmon both in size and 
strength. It reaches a weight of 60 lb and sometimes more 
and is fished for in much the same manner as salmon, with the 



difference that after about lo lb it takes a spinning-bait, usually 
a heavy spoon-bait, better than a fly. 

Cat-fish. — None of the fresh-water cat-fishes (of which no 
example is found in England) are what may be called sporting 
fish, but several may be caught with rod and line. There are 
several kinds in North America, and some of them are as heavy 
as 150 lb, but the most important is the web {Silurus giants) 
of the Danube and neighbouring waters. This is the largest 
European fresh-water fish, and it is credited with a weight of 
300 lb or more. It is a bottom feeder and will take a fish-bait 
either alive or dead; it is said occasionally to run at a spinning 
bait when used very deep. 

Burbci. — The burbot {Lota tulgaris) is the only fresh-water 
member of the cod family in Great Britain, and it is found only 
in a few slow-flowing rivers such as the Trent, and there not often, 
probably because it is a fish of sluggish habits which feeds only 
at night. It reaches a weight of 3 lb or more, and will take most 
flesh or fish baits on the bottom. The burbot of America has 
similar characteristics. 

Sturgeon. — The sturgeons, of which there are a good many 
qsedes in Europe and America, are of no use to the angler. They 
are anadromous fishes of which little more can be said than that 
a specimen might take a bottom bait once in a way. In Russia 
they arc sometimes caught on long lines armed with baited hooks, 
and occasionally an angler hooks one. Such a case was reported 
from California in The Field of the xgtb of August 1905. 

Shad. — Two other anadromous fish deserve notice. The first 
is the shad, a herring-Kke fish of which two species, allice and 
twaite {Oupta alosa and C. finta), ascend one or two British 
and several continental rivers in the spring. The twaite is the 
more common, and in the Severn, Wye and Teme it sometimes 
gives very fair sport to anglers, taking worm and occasionally 
fly or small spinning bait. It is a good fighter, and reaches a 
weight of about 3 lb. Its sheen when first caught is particularly 
beautiful. America also has its shads. 

Flounder.— Tht other is the flounder (PleuronecUs flesus), the 
only flat-fish which ascends British rivers. It is common a long 
way up such rivers as the Severn, far above tidal influence, and 
it will take ahnost any flesh-bait used on the bottom. A flounder 
of X lb is, in a river, a Urge one, but heavier examples are some- 
times caught. 

Ed. — ^The eel {Anguilla vulgaris) is regarded by the angler 
more as a nuisance than a sporting fish, but when of considerable 
size (and it often reaches a weight of 8 lb or more) it is a splendid 
fighter and stronger than almost any fish that swims. Its life 
history has lonf^been disputed, but it is now accepted that it 
breeds in the sea and ascends rivers in its youth. It is found 
practically everywhere, and its occurrence in isolated ponds to 
which it has never been introduced by human agency has given 
rise to a theory that it travels overland as well as by water. The 
best baits for eels are worms and small fish, and the best time 
to use them is at night or in thundery or very wet weather. 

Sea Angling. 

Sea angling is attended by almost as many refinements of 
tackle and method as fresh-water angling. The chief differences 
are differences of locality and the habits of the fish. To a certain 
extent sea angling may also be divided into three classes— fishing 
on the surface with the fly, at mid-water with spinning or other 
bait, and on the bottom; but the first method is only practicable 
at certain times and in certain places, and the others, from the 
great depths that often have to be sounded and the heavy 
weights that have to be used in searching them, necessitate 
shorter and stouter rods, larger reds and stronger tackle than 
fresh-water anglers employ. Also, of course, the sea-fisherman 
is liable to come into conflict with very large fish occasionally. 
In British waters the monster usually takes the form of a skate 
or halibut. A specimen of the former weighing 194 lb has been 
landed off the Irish coast with rod and line in recent years. In 
American waters there is a mudi greater opportunity of catdiing 
fish of this calibre. 

Great Came Fifkei,^Thtrt are severM giants of the sea which 

arc regulariy pursued by American anglers, chief among then 
being the tarpon (Tarpon atlanticus) and the tuna or tunny 
(Thunnus tkynnus), which have been taken on rod and Une 
up to 333 lb and 351 lb respectively. Jew-fish and black 
sea-bass of over 400 lb have been taken on rod and line, and 
there are many other fine sporting fish of large siae which give 
the angler exciting hours on the reefs of Florida, or the coasts 
of California, Texas or Mexico. Practically all of them are taken 
with a fish-bait either live or dead, and used stationary on the 
bottom or in mid-water trailed behind a boat. 

British Came Fishes. — On a much smaller scale are the fishes 
most esteemed in British waters. The bass (Labrax lupus) 
heads the list as a plucky and rather diflicult opponent. A 
fish of 10 lb is a large one, but fifteen-pounders have been taken. 
Small or " school " bass up to 3 lb or 4 lb may sometimes 
be caught with the fly (generally a roughly constructed thing 
with big wings), and when they are really taking the sport is 
magnificent In some few localities it is possible to cast for 
them from rocks with a salmon rod, but usually a boat is required. 
In other places bass may be caught from the shore with fi^ bait 
used on the bottom in quite shallow water. They may again 
sometimes be caught in mid-water, and in fact there are few 
methods and few lures employed in sea angling which will not 
account for them at times. The pollack (Cadus poUachius) 
and coal-fish (Cadus virens) come next in esteem. Both in some 
places reach a weight of 30 lb or more, and both when young 
will take a fly. Usually, however, the best sport is obtained 
by trailing some spinning-bait, such as an artificial or natural 
sand-eel, behind a boaL Sometimes, and especially for pollack, 
the bait must be kept near the bottom and heavy weights on the 
line arc necessary; the coal-fish are more prone to come to the 
surface for feeding. The larger grey mullet (Mugil capita) is 
a great favourite with many anglers, as it is extremely difficult 
to hook, and when hooked fights strongly. Fishing for mullet b 
mbre akin to fresh-water fishing than any Branch of sea-angling, 
and indeed can be carried on in almost fresh water, for the fish 
frequent harbours, estuaries and tidal pools. They can be 
caught close to the surface, at mid-water and at the bottom, 
and as a rule vegetable baits, such as boiled macaroni, or rag- 
worms are found to answer best. Usually ground-baiting ia 
necessary, and the finer the tackle used the greittef is the chance 
of sport. Not a few anglers fish with a float as if for river fish. 
The feh runs up to about 8 lb in weight. The cod (Cadus 
Morhua) grows larger and fights less gamely than any of the fish 
already mentioned. It is generally caught with bait used on 
the bottom from a boat, but in places codling, or young cod, 
give some sport to anglers fishing from the shore. The mackerd 
(Scomber scomber) gives the best sport to a bait, usually a strip 
of fish skin, trailed behind a boat fairly close to the surface, but 
it will sometimes feed on the bottom. Mackerel on light tackle 
are game fighters, though they do not usually much exceed 2 lb. 
Whiting and whiting-pout (Cadus merlangus and Cadus luscus) 
both feed on or near the bottom, do not grow to any great size, and 
are best sought with fine tackle, usually an arrangement of three 
or four hooks at intervals above a lead which ia called a " pater- 
noster." If one or more of the hooks are on the bottom the tackle 
will do for different kinds of flat fish as well, flounders and dabs 
being the two species most often caught by anglers. The bream 
(Pagellus centrodontus) is another bottom-feeder which resembles 
the fresh-water bream both in appearance and habits. It is 
an early morning or rather a nocturnal fish, and grows to a weight 
of 3 lb or 4 lb. Occasionally it will feed in mid-water or even 
close to the surface. The conger eel (Conger vulgaris) is another 
night-feeder, which gives fine sport, as it grows to a great size, 
and is very powerful. Strong tackle is essential for conger 
fishing, as so powerful an opponent in the darkness cannot be 
given any law. The bait must be on or near the bottom. There 
are, of course, many other fish which come to the angler's rod 
at times, but the list given is fairly complete as representing the 
species which are especially sought. Beside them are occasional 
(in some waters too frequent) captures such as dog-fish and sharks, 
skates and rays. Many of them run to a great size and give 




et plus Dobte parler, apris latin d'cscole, qui aoit an moode et 
de tous genz mieulz prisfe et amie que nul autre (quar Dieux 
le fist si douce et amiable prindpalement k roneur et loenge de 
luy mesmes. Et pour ce U peut comparer au parler dcs angels 
du del, poor la grand doulceur et btaultte d'icd)/' was such 
that it was not till 1363 that the chancellor opened the parlia* 
mentary session with an English speech. And although the 
Hundred Years' War led to a decline in the study of French 
and the disappearance of Anglo-Norman literature, the French 
language continued, through some vicissitudes, to be the dasaical 
language of the courts of justice until the X7th century. It is 
still the language of the Channd Islands, though there too it 
tends more and more to give way before the advance of 

It will be seen from the above that the most flourishing period 
of Anglo-Norman literature was from the beginning of the Z2th 
century to the end of the first quarter of the 13th. The end of 
this period is generally said to coindde with the loss of the 
French provinces to Philip Augustus, but literary and political 
history do not corre^wnd quite so predsdy, and the end of the 
first period would be more accuratdy denoted by the appearance 
of the history of William the Marshal in 1335 (published for the 
SocUti de Vhisioire de France, by Paul Meyer, 3 vols., zSgz-zpoi). 
It owes its brilliancy Urgdy to the protection accorded by Henry 
II. of En^nd to the men of letters of his day. " He could wpeak 
French and Latin wdl, and is said to have known something of 
every tongue between 'the Bay of Biscay and the Jordan.' He 
was probably the most highly educated sovere^ of his day, and 
amid all his busy active life he never lost his interest in literature 
and intellectual discussion; his hands were never empty, th^ 
always had dther a bow or a book " (Diet, of Nai. Biog.). Wace 
and Benolt de Sainte-More compiled thdr histories at his bidding, 
and it was in his rdgn that Marie de Frazice composed her poems. 
An event with whidi he was closely connected, vis. the murder of 
Thomas Becket, gave rise to a tirhdie series of writings, some of 
which are purely Aziglo-Norman. In his time appeared the 
works of B6roul and l^omas respectivdy, as well as some of the 
most cdebrated of the Anglo-Norman romans d'oMnture, It is 
important to keep this fact in mind when studying the different 
works which Anglo-Norman literature has Idt us. We will 
examine these works briefly, grouping them into narrative, 
didactic, hagiognphic, lyric, satiric and dramatic literature. 

Narrative IMeratwe: (a) Epk amd Romanu. — ^The French 
epic came over to England at an early date. We know that the 
Ckafuon de Roland was sung at the battle of Hastings, and we 
possess Anglo-Norman MSS. of a few ckans&ns de gesU. The 
FlUrinagede Charlemagne (Koschwitx, AUfranzdsiseke Bibliothek, 
1883) was, for instance, only preseived in An Anglo-Norman 
manuscript of the British Museum (now lost), although the 
author was certainly a Parisian. The oldest manuscript of the 
Chanson de Rtdand that we possess is also a manuscript written 
in England, and amongst the others of less importance we may 
mention La Chattfun de Wittame, the MS. of which has (June 
Z903) been published in facsimile at Chiswick (d. Paul Meyer, 
Romania, xzxii. 597-6Z8). Although the diffusion of epic poetry 
in England did not actually inspire any new chansons de geste, it 
developed the taste for this daas of literature, and the epic style 
in which the tales of Horn, of Bo9on de Hampton, of Guy of 
Wanfich (still unpublished), of Waldef (still unpublished), and of 
Fnlh Pin Warine are treated, is certainly partly due to this 
drcumstance. Although the last of these works has come down 
to us only in a prose version, it contains unmistakable dgns of a 
previous poetic form, and what we possess is really only a render- 
ing into prose similar to the transformations undergone by mdny 
of the chansons de geste (d. L. Bnndin, Introduction to Ptdh Pitt 
Warine, London, 1904). 

The interinfluence of French and Eng^ literature can be 
studied in the Breton romances and the romans d'aventure even 
better than in the epic poetry of the periods The Lay of Orpheus 
is known to us only through an En^ish imitation; the Lai du 
cor was composed by Robert Biket, an Anf^o-Norman poet of 
the Z3th century (Wulff, Lund, x888). The tois of Marie de 

France were written in England, and the greater number of the 
romazices composing the matiire de Bretagne seem to have passed 
from England to France through the medium of An^o-Norman. 
The legends of Merlin and Arthur, collected in the Histaria Regum 
Britasmiae by Geoffrey of Monmouth (f z x 54), passed into French 
literature, bearing the duuacter whidb the bishop of St Asaph 
had stamped upon them. Chretien de Tkoye's PeroMl {c. z Z75) 
is doubtless based on an Anglo-Norman poem. Robert de Boron 
(c. Z3Z5) took the subject of his Merlin (published by G. Paris 
and J. Ulrich, z886, 3 vols., SocUU da Anciens Textes) from 
Geoffrey of Monmouth. Finally, the most cdebrated love-legend 
of the middle ages, and one of the most beautiful inventions of 
world-Uterature, the story of Tristan and Iseult, tempted two 
authors, Beroul and Thomas, the first of whom is probably, and 
the second certainly, Anglo-Norman (see AnTHUUAN Legend: 
Gkail, Ite Holy; Tristan). One Polie Tristan was composed 
in England in the last years of the z 3th century. (For all these 
questions aee Soc. des Anc, Textes, Muret's ed. 1903; BMier's 
ed. Z909-Z90S). Less fascinating than the story of Tristan 
and Iseult, but nevertheless of considerable interest, are the two 
romans d'aventure of Hugh of Rutland, Ipomedon (published by 
Kdlbing and Koschwitz, Bresbu, Z889) and Frotesilaus (stiff 
unpublished) written about ZZ85. The first relates the adven- 
tures of a knight who married the yoimg duchess of Calabria, 
niece of King Meleager of Sidly, but was loved by Medea, the 
kizig's wife. The second poem is the sequel to Ipomedon, and 
deals with the wars and subsequent reconciliation between 
Ipomedon's sons, Daunus, the elder, lord of Apulia, and Prote- 
sUaus, the younger, lord of Calabria. ProtesUaus ddeats Daunus, 
who had expelled him from Calabria. He saves his brother's 
life, is reinvested with the dukedom of Calabria, and, after the 
death of Daunus, succeeds to Apulia. He subsequenUy marries 
Medea, King Melcager's widow, who had hdped him to seise 
Apulia, having tnnaierred her affection for Ipomedon to his 
younger son (d. Ward, Cat. of Rom,, i. 738). To these two 
romances by an Anglo-Norman author, Amadas et Idoine, of 
which we only possess a continental version, is to be added. 
Gaston Paris has proved indeed that the original was composed 
in England in the X3th century (An English AisctUany presented 
to Dr Pumhoa in Honour of his Seventy-fifth Birthday, Oxford, 
Z90Z, 386-394). The Anglo-Norman poem on the Life of Richard 
Caur de Lion is lost, and an English version only has been pre- 
served. About Z350 Eustace of Kent introduced into England 
the roman d* Alexandre in his Roman de toule chevalerie, znany 
passages of which have been imitated in one of the oldest English 
poems on Alexander, namely, King Alisaunder (P. Meyer, 
Alexandre le grand, Paris, z886, ii. 373, and Weber, Metrical 
Romances, Edinburgh). 

(jb) Paiieaux, Pables and Religious Tales. — ^In spite of the 
incontestable popularity enjoyed by this dass of literature, we 
have only some half -dozen /aUeaiix written in England, viz. Le 
chevalier d la corbeille, Le chevalier qui faisait parler les muets, Le 
chevalier, sa dame el un clerc, Les Irois dames, La gageure, Le 
prttre d* Alison, La hourgeoise d*Orlians (B6dicr, Les PaMiaux, 
1895). As to fables, one of the most popular collections in the 
middle ages was that written by Marie de France, which she 
claimed to have translated from King Alfred. In the Contes 
moralists, written by Nicole Bozon shortly before 1320 {Soc. Anc, 
Textes, Z889), a few fables bear a strong resemblance to those of 
Marie de France. 

The religious tales deal mostly with the Mary Legends, and 
have been handed down to'us in three collections: 

(i.) The Adgar's collection. Most of these were translated 
from William of Malmcsbury (tiz43?) by Adgar in the Z2th 
century (" Adgar's Marien-Legenden," Altfr. BiUioth. ix.; J. A. 
Herbert, Rom. xxxii. 394). 

(ii.) The collection of Evcrard of Gateley, a lAonk of St Edmund 
at Bury, who wrote c. Z250 three Mary Legends {Rom xxix. 37). 

(iii.) An anonymous collection of sixty Mary Legends composed 
c, Z3SO (Brit. Museum Old Roy. 30 B, xiv.), some of which have 
been published in Suchirr's Bibliotheca Normannicj; in the 
Altf. Bibl. See also Mussafia, " Studien zu den mittelalterlichen 



ICaxiett-kftenden " in SUnmg^, der Wim, AAadtmU (t czifl., 
cxv., cw»., canriii., cxxiz.). 

Anothfor set of leUgious and monliztng Ules is to be found in 
Chnidri's Set dormams and Josapkat, e, 12x6 (Koch, AUfr. Bibl,, 
1880; G. Paris, Foimei et Ugmies du tmoym Age). 

(c) Histaryr-^d far greater importance, honrever, are the 
crocks which constitute Anf^Nonnan historiography. The 
first Angio-Nonnan hbtoriographer is Geoffrey Gaimar, who 
wrote his EsteHe des Angfes (between 1x47 and X15X) for Dame 
C6natance, wife of Robert Fita-Gislebert {Tkg Angh-Nonuu 
Metrical Ckronide, Haidy and Martin, L ii., London,x888). This 
history comprised a first pert (now lost), which was merely a 
translation of Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia regumBrikmniaef 
preceded by a history of the Trojan War, and a second part 
which carries us as far as the death of William Ruf us. For this 
second part he has conshlted historical documents, but he stops 
at the year X087, just when he has reached the period about 
which Iw miglit have been aMe to give us some fint-hand infor- 
mation. Simiiariy, Wace in his Roman de Rou et des dues de 
NormandU (ed. Andresen, Heilbronn, i877>x879, 2 vols.), written 
1160-1x74, stops at the battle of Tinchebny in X107 just before 
the period for which he would have been so useful. His Brut 
or CeUe des Bretons (Le Roux de lincy, 1836-1838, 2 vds.)> 
written in X155, is merely a translation of Geoffrey of Monmouth. 
** Wace," says Gaston Paris, speaking of the Roman de Rou, 
** tradult en les abr^geant des historiens latins que nous poss^ 
dons; mais ^ et li il ajoute soit des contes populaires, par 
csemple sur Richard I*', sur Robert I*', soft des particularitis 
qu'il savait par tradition (sur ce m<me Robert le magnifiqae, 
sur Texp^dition de Guillaume, &c) et qui donnent i son ceuvre 
an r£el intMt historique. Sa langue est excellente; son style 
dair, serr^, simple, d'ordinaire assez monotone, vous plait par sa 
saveur archalque et quelquefois par une certaine grike et une 
ceitaine malice." 

The History of the Dukes of Normandy by Benolt de Sainte> 
More is based on the work of Wace. It was composed at the 
request of Henry II. about x X70, and takes us as far as the year 
XX55 (ed. by Frandsque Michel, X836-X844, CoUecti&n de docu- 
ments inidils, 3 vols.). Tlie 43,000 lines which it contains are of 
but little interest to the historian; they are too evidently the 
work of a romaneier courtois, who takes pleasure in recounting 
love-adventures such as those he has described in his romance 
of IVoy. Other work^, however, give us more trustworthy 
information, for example, the anonymous poem on Henry II.'s 
Conquest of Ireland in 11 7a (ed. Fmndsque Michel, London, 1837), 
which, together with the Expugnatio kibemtca of Giraud de 
Barri, constitutes our chief authority on this subject. The 
Conquest of Irdand was republished in 1892 by Goddard Henry 
Orpen, onder the title of The Song of Dermot and the Earl (Oxford, 
Clarendon Press). Simiiariy, Jouidain Fantosme, who was in 
the north of England in XX74, wrote an account of the wars 
between Henry II., his sons, William the Lion of Scotland and 
Louis VII., ih. X173 and 1x74 {Ckroniele of the reigns of Slephtn 
. . . III., ed. by Joseph Stevenson and Fr. Michel, London, 1886, 
pp. 202-307). Not one of these histories, however, is to be com- 
pared in value with The History of William the Marshal, Count of 
SlriguU and Pembroke, regent of England from X2X6-X2X9, which 
was found and subseqtiently edited by Paul Meyer {Sociiti de 
Vhistoire /fc Franu, 3 vols., xSgi-xgox). This masterpiece of 
historiography was composed in 1225 or 1226 by a professional 
poet of talent at the request of William, son of the marshal. It 
was compiled from the notes of the marshal's squire, John d'Eariy 
(t 1230 or 123 1), who shared all the vicissitudes of his master's 
life and was one of the executors of his will. This work is of great 
value for the history of the period XX86-X219, as the informa- 
tion furnished by John d'Early is either personal or obtained at 
first hand. In the part which deals with the period before x 186, 
It is trtie, there are various mistakes, due to the author's 
ignorance of contemporary history, but these slight blemishes 
are amply atoned for by the literary value of the work. The 
style is concise, the anecdotes are well told, the descriptions 
short and picturesque; the whole constitutes one of the most 

living pictures of medieval society. Very pale hy the aide <A 
this work appear the Ckromque of Peter of Langtoft, written 
between 13x1 and X3SQ1 and mainly of interest for the period 
X 294-1307 (ed. by T. Wright, London, i866>x868); the Ckroih 
iqua of Nicholas Trevet (X2s8?-X5s8?), dedicated to Princesi 
Mary, daughter of Edward I. (Duffus Hardy, Descr, Catal. UL, 
349-350); the Ssala Chronica compQed by Thomas Gray of 
Heaton (f c. 1369), which carries us to the year X56a~x363 (ed. 
by J. Stevenson, Maitland Qub, Edinburgh, 1836); the Black 
Prince, a poem by the poet Chandos, composed about 1386, and 
relating the life of the Black Prince from X346-1376 (re-edited by 
Frandsque Michd, London and Paris, x88j); and, lastly, the 
different versions of the Brutes, the form and historical import* 
anoe of which have been indicated by Paul Meyer {Bullelin de la 
SociiU du Anciens Textes, X878, pp. 104-X45), and by F. W. D. 
Brie {Gesckichte und QueUon der mitteiengliscken Prosachronik, 
The Brute of En^and or The Chronicles ef England, Marburg^ 


Finally we may mention, as ancient history, the translation of 
Eutropius and Dares, by Geoffrey of Waterford (13th century), 
who gave also the Secret des Secrets, a translation from a work 
wrongly attributed to Aristotle, which belongs to the next 
division {Rom. xxiii. 314). 

Didactic Ldierature. — ^This is the most considerable, if not the 
most interesting, branch of An^o-Norman literature: it com- 
prises a large number of works written chiefly with the object 
of giving both religious and profane instruction to An^o-Norman 
lords and ladies. The following list gives the most important 
productions arranged in chronological order: — 

Philippe de Thaun, Comput, c. XIX9 (edited by E. Mall, 
Strassburg, 1873), poem on the calendar; Bestiaire, c. X130 
(ed. by £. Walberg, Paris, X900; cf. G. Paris, Rom. xxxL X75); 
Lois de Guillaume le Conqutrant (redaction between 1x50 and 
1x70, ed. by J. E. Matzke, Paris; 1899); OT^ord Psalter, c. X15Q 
(Fr. Michel, IaM Psalmorum versio antiqua gallica, Oxford, 
x86o); Cambridge Psalter, c, xx6o (Fr. Michel, Le Liore des 
Psoumes, Paris, 1877); London Pialter, same as Oxford Psalter 
(cf. Beyer, Zt. f. rom. Phil. id. 513-534; »i. x-56); Disticha 
Catonis, translated by Everard de Kirkham and Elie deWinchester 
(Stengel, Ausg. u. Abhandlungen) ; Le Roman de fortune, summary 
of Boetius' De consolatione pkilosophiae, by Simon de Freant {Hist, 
lit, xxviii. 408); Quaire livres des rois, translated into French in 
the X2th century, and imitated in England soon after (P. 
Schldsser, Die Lautserkdltnisse der quaire litres des rois, Bonn, 
x886; Romania, xvii. X24); Donnei des Amans, the conversation 
of two lovers, overheard and carefully noted by the poet, of a 
purely didactic character, in which are included three interesting 
pieces, the first being an episode of the story of Tristram, the 
second a fable, Vhomme et le serpent, the third a tale, Lhomme 
et Voiseau, which is the basis of the celebrated Lai de Voiselet 
{Ram, XXV. 497); Iiw« des Sibiles (xi6o); Enseignements 
Trebor, by Robert de Ho (-Hoo, Kent, on the left bank of the 
Medway) [edited by Mary Vance Young, Paris; Picard, xox; 
cf. G. Paris, Rom. xxxii. X41]; Lapidaire de Cambridge (Pannier, 
Les Lapidaires franqais)', Frdre Angler de Ste. Frideswide, Dia- 
logues, S9th of November X2X2 {Rom. xii. X45-208, and xxix.; 
M. K. Pope, £tude sur la langue de Prire Angler, Paris, 1903); 
U dialoge Grigoire le pape, ed. by Fberster, 1876; Petit Plet, by 
Chardri, c. X2x6 (Koch, Altfr Bibliothek, I, and Mussafia, Z.f. r.P, 
iii. 59x); Petite philosopkie, e. X225 {Rom. xv. 356; xxix. 72); 
Histoire de Marie et de Jisus {Rons. xvi. 248-262); Pohne sur 
PAncien Testament {Not. et Extr. xxxiv. i, 2x0; Soc. Anc. 
Textes, 1889, 73-74); Le Corset and Le Miroir, by Robert de 
Grethfiun {Riom. vii. 345; xv. 296); iMmihe as Lais, by Pierre 
de Peckham, c. 1250 {Rom. xv. 287); an Anglo-Norman redaction 
of Image du monde, c. X250 {Rom. too. 481); two Anglo-Norman 
versions of Quatre sours (Justice, Truth, Peace, Mercy), X3th 
century ( Fr. Michel, Psautierd'Oxford, pp. 364-368, Bulletin 
Soc. Anc. Textes, x886, 57; Romania, xv. 352); another Comput 
by Raiif de Lenham, rs56 (P. Meyer, Archives des missions, 
2nd series iv. X54 and x 60- 164; Rom. xv. 285); Le chasld 
d'am&rSf by Robert Grosseteste or Greathead, bishop of 



Lincoln (ti'Sj) M* by Cooke, Carmina Anglo-Nortmumka^ 
t8s3» Caxton Society); Poime sur I'amour 4e Dieu et sur la koine 
du picM, xjtli century, second part (Rom. xzix. 5); Le manage 
des neuf fiUes du dia^ (Rom. xxiz. 54); Ditie d^Urbain^ attri- 
buted without any foundation to Henry I. (P. Meyer, BtiUetin 
Soc. Anc. TexteSt 1880, p. 73 and Romania xxxii, 68); Dialogue 
de i'ieique Saint Julien et son disciple (Rom. ndz. 21); Poime sur 
Paniickrist et lejugement dernier^ by Henri d'Ard {Rom. xiix. 78; 
Not. el. Extr. 55, i. 137). Wilham de Waddington produced at 
the end of the 13th century his Manuel des pichls, which was 
adapted in England by Robert of Brunne ^n his Handlying Sintu 
(1303) [Hist. lit. xxviii. 170-207; Rom. xjdx. 5, 47-S3I; ««« 
FuTnlvaWfRobert of Brunne's Handlying Synne(Koxb,C\\xb,iM2)\ 
in the 14th century we find Nicole Bozon*s Contes moralisis (see 
above); Traiti de naturesse (Rom. xiil. 508); Sermons in verse 
(P. Meyer, op. cit. zlv.); Proverbes de bon enseignentent (op. cit. 
xlvi.)> We have also a few handbooks on the teaching of 
French. Gautier de Biblcsworth wrote such a treatise 
d Madame Dyonise de Mountechensi pur aprise de langage 
(Wrii^t, A Volume of Vocabularies; P. Meyer, Rcc. d'anc. texta, 
p. 360 and Romania xxxii, 22); Ortkograpkia gallica (Stiirzinger, 
Altfr. Bibl. 1884); La maniire de language^ written in 1396 
(P. Meyer, Rev. crit. d^kist. et de lilt. nos. compL de 1870); Un 
pdU livre pour enseigner les enfants de leur enlreparler comun 
franqois, e. 1399 (Stengel, Z. fUr n. f. Spr. u. IMt. i. 1 1). The im- 
portant Mirour dePomme^ by John Gower, contains about 30,000 
lines written in very good French at the end of the 14th century 
(Macaulay, Tke Complete Works of Jokn Gower, i., Oxford, 1899). 

Hagiograpky. — ^Among the numerous hves of saints written 
in Anglo-Norman the most important ones arc the following, 
the list of which is given in chronological order: — Voyage de Saint 
Brandon (or Brondain), written in 11 21, by an ecclesiastic for 
Queen Aelis of Louvain {Rom. St. i. 553-588; Z. /. r. P. ii. 438- 
459; Rom. xviii. 203. C. Wahlund, Die altfr. ProsaUbersetz. 
von Brendan's Meerfakrt, Upsala, 1901); life of St Catherine by 
Clemence of Barking {Rom. xiii. 400, Jamik, 1894); life of St 
Giles, e. 1x70, by Guillaume de Bemeville {Soc. Anc. Textesfr.^ 
x88i ; Ram. xi. and xxiii. 94) ; life of St Nicholas, life of Our Lady, 
by Wace (Delius, 1850; Stengel, Cod. Digby^ 66); Uhlemann, 
Cram. Krit. Sludien s» Wace*s Conception und Nicolas, 1878; 
Ufe of St George by Simon de Fresne {Rom. x. 3x9; J. E. Matzke, 
Public, of tke Mod. Lang, Ass. of Amer. xvii. 1902; Rom. xxxiv. 
148); Expurgatoire de Ste. Patrice, by Marie de France (Jenkins, 
1894; Eckleben, Aelteste Sckilderung vom Fegefeuer d. H, 
Patriciust 1851; Ph. de Felice, i^); La vie de St Edmund 
le Ret, by Denis Pyramus, end of X2th century {MewtoriaU of 
St Edmund's Abbey, edited by T. Arnold, ii. 1892; Rom. xxii. 
X70); Henri d'Arci's life of St Thais, poem on the Antichrist, 
Visio S. Paidi (P. Meyer, Not. et Extr. xxxv. 137-158); We of 
St Gregory the Great by Fr^re Angier, 30th of April X214 (Rom. 
viiL 509-544; ix. 176; xviii. 201); hfc of St Modwenna, between 
X225 and 1250 (Suchier, Die dem Mattk&us Paris tugesckriebene 
Vie de St Auhan, 1873, pp. 54-58); Fragments of a life of St 
Thomas Becket, c. 1230 (P. Meyer, Soc. Anc. Text, fr., 1885); 
and another life of the same by Benott of St Alban, X3th century 
(Michel, Ckron. des dues de Normandie; Hist, Lit. xxiii. 383); 
a life of Edward the Confessor, written before 1245 (Luard, 
Lives of Edward Ike Confessor, 1858; Bist. Lit. xxvii. i), by an 
anonymous monk of Westminster; life of St Auban, c. 1250 
(Suchier, op. cit.; Uhlemann, " Cber die vie de St Auban in Bezug 
Mif Quelle," &c. Rom. St. iv. 543-626; ed. by Atkinson, 1876). 
Tke Vision of Tnudgal, an Anglo-Norman fragment, is preserved 
in MS. 312, Trinity College, Dublin; the MS. is of the 14th 
century; the author seems to belong to the X3th {La vision 
de Tondale, ed. by Friedel and Kuno Meyer, 1906). In this 
category we may add the life of Hugh of Lincoln, X3th century 
{Hist, Lit. xxiii. 436; Child, Tke EnglUk and ScoUisk Popular 
Ballads, 1888, p. v; Wolter, Bibl. Anglo-Norm. ii. X15). Other 
lives of saints were recognized to be Anglo-Norman by Paul Meyer 
when examining the MSS. of the Weibcck library {Rom. xxxii. 
637 and Hist. Lit. xxxiii. 338-378). 

Lyric Poetry.— The only extant sonp of any importance are 

the seventy-one Ballads of Gower (Stengel, Comer's Minuetumg, 
1886). The remaining songs are mostly of a religious character. 
Most of them have been discovered and published by Paul Meyer 
{Bulletin de la Soc. Anc. TexUs, X889; Not. et Extr. xxxiv; 
Rom. xiii. 5x8, t. xiv. 370; xv. p. 254, &c.). Although so few 
have come down to us such songs must have been numerous 
at one time, owing to the constant intercourse between English, 
French and Provencals of all classes. An interesting passage in 
Piers Plowman furnishes us with a proof of the extent to which 
these songs penetrated into England. We read of : 

"... dykera and deluert that doth here dedes Hie. 

And dryuen forth the longe day with ' Deu, vous aaue« 
Dame Emmd ' " (Prologue. 223 f.) 

One of the finest productions of Anglo-Norman lyric poetry 
written in the end of the X3th century, is the Plainte d'amour 
(Vising, Gdteborg, 1905; Romania xiii. 507, xv. 292 and xxix. 4), 
and we may mention, merely as literary curiosities, various 
works of a lyrical character written in two languages, Latin and 
French, or English and French, or even in three languages, 
Latin, English and French. In Early Englisk Lyrics (Oxford, 
1907) we have a poem in which a. lover sends to his mistress a 
love-greeting composed in three languages, and his learned 
friend replies in the same style {De atnico ad amicam, Responcia, 
viii and ix). 

Satire.—The popularity enjoyed by the Roman de Renart 
and the Anglo-Norman version of the Riote du Monde {Z.f. rom. 
Pkil. viii. 275-289) in England is proof enough that the French 
spirit of satire was keenly appreciated. The clergy and the fair 
sex presented the most attractive target for the shou of the 
satirists. However, an Englishman raised his voice in favour 
of the ladies in a poem entitled La Bonti des dames (Meyer, Rom. 
^^' 3 1 5-339) • And Nicole Boson, after having represented 
" Pride " as a feminine being whom he supposes to be the 
daughter of Lucifer, and after having fiercely attacked the 
women of his day in the Ckar d'Orgueil {Rom. xiii. 516), also 
composed a Bountt desfemmes (P. Meyer, dp. cit. 33) in which 
he covers them with praise, conimetuiing their courtesy, their 
humility, their openness and the care with which they bring up 
their children. A few pieces of political satire show us French and 
English exchanging amenities on their mutual shortcomihgs. The 
Roman des Francois, by Andr£ de Coutances.was written on the 
continent, and cannot be quoted as Anglo-Norman although 
it was composed before 1204 (cf. Gaston Paris: Trots versions 
rimles de Ptvangile de Nicodime, Soc. Anc. Textes, 1885) 4t is a 
veryspiritedreply toFrenchauthors who hadattacked the English. 

DrawuUic Literature. — This must have had a considcrabk 
influence on the development of the sacred drama in England, 
but none of the French plays acted in England in the 12th and 
13th centuries has been preserved. Adam, which is generally 
considered to be an Anglo-Norman m3rstery of the 12 th century, 
was probably written in France at the beginning of the X3th 
century {Romania xxxii. 637), and the so-called Anglo-Norman 
Resurrection belongs also to continental French. It is necessary 
to state that the earliest English moralities seem to have been 
imitations of the French ones. 

BtBLiOGKAPKY. — ^Apart from the vrorlts already mentioned see 

SinerAlly: Scheibner, "Cber die Hemchaft der (n. Spiarhe in 
nglana " (AnnabefK. Progr. der Kdnigiichen Reaischule, iSiBo, 38 f .) '. 
Groeber, Crundr. aer romaniscken Pkiiologie, ii. iii. (Strassburg, 
1902); G. Paris, La au moyen Age (1905); Esquisse histori^ue 
de la litt. fr. au moyen au (1907) ; La Litt. norm, avant Pannexion 
QI2-I204 (Pftris, 1899) ; " L'Esprit normand en Angleterre," La Poisie 
au moyen dee (2nd series 4^-74, Paris, 1906); Thomas Wrightt 
Biographia britannica literana (Anglo-Norman period, London, 
1846): Ten Brink. Cesckickte der engliscken Litteratur (Berlin, 1877, 
i. 2); J. I. Jusserand. Hist. liU. du peuple anglais (2nd ed. 1895, 
vol. i.): W. H. Schofidd. Englisk Literature from tke Norman Con- 
quest to Ckaucer (London, 1906) ,* Johan Vismg, Franska Spriket i 
En^nd (GOteborg, 1900. 1901. 1902). (L. Ba.) 

ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. It is usual to speak of " the 
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle **; it would be more correct to say that 
there are four Anglo-Saxon Chronicles. It is true that these all 
grow out of a common stock, that in some even of their later 
entries two or more of them use common materials; but the same 


my bt uld of wad iraapf «( ncd«nl chrcnkki, ohkh BO OBC 
dnim of tiatisg u uDfk chianlcla. Of ituilDurfoU duooide 
then uc tntu MSS. in eiBUnci; C.C£. CaiU. in (A); CM. 
Tii. A vi. (fl); CoK. Till. B i. (C); Colt. Tib. B i». (D); Baii. 
(G)- 01 tbae Gil sow ■ men IncmcBt.uuliiii known (ohavs 
been ■ tnucript of A. FiibJimiitl.theeBLnei being givtn both 
in Saxm ud LkUn. Il ■> inltiatinc u a iti^ in the mniition 
fmB the veniicuLu to the Ltlia duonide; but it hu little 
Inikpendeat value. bciiigiiiieRcpiIoiiie,nutdt at Cuterbuiy in 
the iiihori)thaiitui7,o[ichioiudtakiii toE. B,u limit 
goes (10 97;),iiiticntic*liriUi C, both having been copied tiDm >. 
comtnon anginal, but A, C, D,E have eveiy lighl to be tiealed u 
independent chnjiikks. The lelationi between the lout vary very 
greatly in difierent parts, and the neglect of thit cofuidention baa 
kd lo much eme and cooliuion. The conunan tteck, ont of 
which allgtow, extendi lo £91. The pioent writee leei oo reaaon 
Xo doubt that the idea of a oatioiuil, ai oppoied to earlier local 
chimides, wai inspired by Alfred, who may even have dictated, 
at at teait levixd. the eoliia relating to hit own campaign*; 
while for the euliei parts pre-eiisLing matenali, both oral ud 
written, were utilized. Among tbe latter the chronological 
epitome appended to Bede'i EalaiastiioS BtiUry may be 
apecially mentioned. But even this common itock exists in two 
diSeica<iecensions,inA,B,C,onIheoneband, andD,EonIhe 
other. The mam points of difleiince »re that in D, E (i) 1 lerie* 
o( Dorthem armals have been incoiponled; (j) the Bede eatriet 
•IE uken, not from Ihe brief epitome, but fiam the main body of 
ibi: Etd. Hill. The infeienaii that, shortly afterlhe compdmg 
ol this Alfredian chronicle, a copy of it was sent to some northeia 
monasteiy, probatily Ripon, where it was cipantled in tbe way 
hidicated, Co^iica of this nonhemired Gironide afterwards found 
their way to the south The impulse given by Alfred was coa- 
tiDued under Edward, and we have what may be called an official 
toatinuation ol thebistoiy of tbe Danish warl, which, inB,C, D 
eitends to 915, and Id A lo 914. After gis B, C ioMrl as a 
separate document a short register of Menian aSain during the 
same period (001-994), irbich migbl be called the acts of £tbel- 
flacd, the famous " Lady of Ihe Meiciani," "bile D has incoipor- 
ilcd il. not very sldlf uHy, nitb the official continuation. N'eilhec 
ef these documenlseiislsinE. Fromgi; tao7salllhechromcles 
are very fragmentary; a few obits, three or lour poems, among 
tbcm the famous ballad on tbe battle of Brunaabuih, make up 
the meagre tale of their cominoQ maleriala. which each baa tried 
to supplement in its own way. A has inserted a number of 

Winchester entries 

which prove that A 

is a Winchester book. 

And this local and 

•crappy character il r. 

tains to 1001, wbereil 

practically ends. 

jme it was transfeircd 

bodily lo Canterbury, where it received n 

umerous mlerpola lions 

in the earlier part, 

nd a few later locale 

ntties which finally tail 

offinto the Latin ac 

therefore be dismiswd. 

C has added to the 

common stock one 

two Abingdon en tries. 

wil h which place lh( 

histoiy of C is closely 

connected; while Dand 


up ofnotlbem annals 

901-066, E being how- 

ever much mote Ir 

gnentao. than D, 

imlling. or not having 


of Ihe common and of tbe nonhem outcrial 

which is found in D 

From 98] to loiS C, Dand Hare practically 

identical, and give 

[ the Danish struggles 

under flhelred 11 

This section »-as 

probably composed at 

Canierbuiy. Fron 

1018 the relations 

f C, D, E become loo 

complicated to be expressed by any formula ; sometimes all three 
agree tog'elhet, sometimes all thin are independent; in other 
places each pair in turn agree against the third. It may be noted 
D occupying an inlermcdiate position. C extends 10 1066, where 
it ends abruptly, and probably mutilated. Dendsal 1079 and is 
certainly mutilated. In ItsbterbistoiyDisassodaled with some 
place in t!ie diocese of Worcester, probably Evesham. In its 
present form D is a comparatively late MS., none of it probably 
mach earlier, and some d it later, than 1100. In the case ol 
enlriaio tbe eailici part of the chronicles, which are peculiar 10 
D, we cannot exclude tbe possibility that they may be late 

interpolationa. EiicoaUnned taiiS4. In Its present form it k 
unqoeitlonably a Fetcrborougb book. The earlier part is full of 
Pelcrborcugfa interpolations, to which place many o( the later 
entries also lefer. But (apart from tbe inteipolalions) it is ooly 
the entries after I III , where the Gnl hand in Ihe US. ends, which 
were actually composed at Peterborough. ThCBeclioa iojj-1067 
certainly, and posaibly also the section 106&-1111, was composed 
at St Augustine's, Canterbury; and tho former is of extreme 
interest and value, the writer being in doacjmilact with the 
eventa which he describes. Tbe later parts t>f £ show a great 
degeneration in language, and a tjuendoui tone due to the 
su^eriugsof the native pcipulalion urider the harsh Norman rule; 
" but our debt to it is inesiimable; and we tan haidly meaaura 
what tbe lost 10 English hiilory would have been, if il had not 
been written; or if, having been written, it bad, like 10 many 
another English duonicle, beeo IcM." 

BntlocianiT.— Tbe above KeooM is baaed on Ibe introductloii 
in voL ii. of the Rev. C. PluBmer'i aditioa ei Twt ej Hi Saxn 
Cirnida Panlld (Clarendon Pnss. iB9^. Itejli 10 which the 
■tudent may be referred for detailed argumenti. 'thfrjiiio priiiapt 
of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle was by Abraham Wheloc, protesBor 
of Aiabk at Cambridge, where tbe worii was priated (t6ii-i«u). 
It WIS based mainly OB (he MS. caUed C abov^ and isllH chM 
■ource of our luiowtedge of thai MS. which petiibed, all bul ibne 
leaves, In the Cottoiuan Bre of 1713. Edmund Gibson of Qum't 
College. Oxfocd. afterwardi Usbop of London, publiibed an edition 
101691. He used Wbdoc's edition, and E. with collalioiH « lias- 
Kiipts al B and f. Both Wheloc asd Gibson pve Latin ImBsbtioiia. 

>r Cil9' traiislalion. published in 1847. aad often reprinted. Tbe 
at traotlaiion is that by ihe Rev. Joaeph Sievensod, in his seiiea 
f Ciuril. HiilBTiai,! 0/ £B((a»rf (iSsj). Up (o the Conquest it isa 
evi>ioiiofihettan>lationcc.nlali>edinW>>:/fii>.finI. >rom Ihal 
oinl it is ai independent tranilstion. (C. PL.) 

AHOLO-SAZOH LAW. i. Tbe body of legal rules and 
usIomB which obtained in England before the tComian conquest 
anstitules. with the Scandinavian laws, Ibe most genuine 
xpression of Teutonic legal IbDughu While the KwaUed 
larbaric laws" Uigis iaibaroruin) at the continent, ont extept- 


n these 

in Ihe island, and even the 
Indiiion, did not carry on k 

teims. One of 

Mriking expressions of this Teul 

uniforndy worded in English, while continental laws, apart from 
the Scandinavian, ate all in Latin. The English dialect in which 
Ihe Anglo-Saion lawsbave been banded down to us is in most cases 
a common speech derived from West Saxon— naturally enough 
as Wessex became the ptedominanl English stale, and the court 
of its kings tbe principal literary centre from which most of the 
compilers and scribes derived their dialect and spelling. Traces 
ol Kentish speech may be detected, however, in (he Texfsu 
Rcfeniii, [he MS. of the KentTUi laws; and Northumbrian 
dialeclical peculiarit' 



while Danish words occur only as technical tenns. At the 
conquest, Latin takes the place of English in the compilations 
made to meet the demand for Anglo-Saxon law texts as still 
applied in practice. 

a. It is easy to group the Ans^o-Saxon laws according to the 
manner of their publication. They would fall into three divisions : 
(x) laws and collections of laws promul^ted by public authority; 
(2) statements of custom; (3) private compilations of legal rules 
and enactments. > To the first division belong the laws of the 
Kentish kings, iEthelberht, Hlothhere and Eadric, Withraed; 
those of Ine of Weasex, of Alfred, Edward the Elder, ^thelstan,* 
Edmund, Edgar, ^Uielred and Canute; the treaty between 
Alfred and Guthrum and the so-called treaty between Edward 
and Guthrum. The second division is formed by the convention 
between the English and the Welsh Dunsaeku^ the law of the 
Northumbrian priests, the customs of the North people, the 
fragments of local custumals entered in Domesday Book. The 
third division would consist of the collections of the so-called 
Pieudthkges Canuti, the laws of Edward the Confessor, of Henry I. , 
and the great compilation of the QuadripartUuSf then of a number 
of short notices and extracts like the fragments on the " wedding 
of a wife," on oaths, on ordeals, on the king's peace, on rural 
customs {RecHludines singularum personarum), the treatises 
on the reeve igerefa)and on the judge idoHo), formulae of oaths, 
notions as to wergeld, &c. A fourth group might be made of the 
charters, as they are based on Old English private and public 
law and supply us with most important materials in regard to it. 
Looking somewhat deeper at the sources from which.OId En^^h 
law was derived, we shall have to modify our dissification to 
some extent, as the external fonns of publication, although 
important from the point of view of historical criticism, are not 
sufficient standards as to the juridical character of the various 
kinds of material. Direct statements of law would fall under the 
following heads, from the point of view of their legal origins: 
i. customary rules followed by divers communities capable 
of formulating law; ii. enactments of authorities, especially 
of kings; iii. private arrangements made under recognised 
legal rules. The first would comprise, besides most of the state- 
ments of custom included in the second division according to 
the first classification, a great many of the rules entered in 
collections promulgated by kings; most of the paragraphs of 
iEthelberht's, Hlothhere's, and Eyrie's and Ine's laws, are 
popular legal customs that have received the stamp of royal 
Authority by their insertion in official codes. On the other hand, 
from Withraed's and Alfred's laws downwards, the element of 
enactment by central authority becomes more and more 
prominent. The kings endeavour, with the help of secular and 
clerical witan, to introduce new rules and to break the power 
of long-standing customs {e.g. the precepts about the keeping 
of holidays, the enactments of Edmund restricting private 
vengeance, and the soh'darity of kindreds as to feuds, and the 
like). There are, however, no outward signs enabling us to 
distinguish conclusively between both categories of laws in the 
codes, nor is it possible to draw a line between permanent laws 
and personal ordinances of single sovereigns, as has been 
attempted in the case of Prankish legislation. 

3. Even in the course of a general survey of the legal lore at 
our disposal, one cannot help being struck by peculiarities in 
the distribution of legal subjects. Matters which seem to us 
of primary importance and occupy a wide place in our law-books 
ore almost entirely absent in Anglo-Saxon laws or relegated 
to the background. While it is impossible to give here anything 
like a complete or exact survey of the field—a task rendered 
almost impossible by the arbitrary manner in which paragraphs 
are divided, by the difficulty of making Old English enactments 
fit into modern rubrics, and by the necessity of counting several 
times certain paragraphs bearing on different subjects— a brief 
statistical analysts of the contents of royal codes and laws may 
be found instructive. 

We find roughly 419 paragraphs devoted to criminal law and 

_ * The Judicia cnr'UUu LundonUu are a gild statute confirmed by 
King iEthelstan. 

procedure as against 91 concerned with questions of private 
law and dvil procedure. Of the criminal law clauses, as many 
as 238 are taken up with tariffs of fines, while 80 treat of capital 
and coTxwral punishment, outlawry and confiscation, and loi 
include rules of procedure. On the private law side 18 clauses 
apply to rights of property and possession, xj to succession and 
family law, 37 to contracts, including marriage when treated 
as an act oif sale; x8 touch on dvil procedure. A subject which 
attracted special attention was the law of status, and no leas 
than X07 paragraphs contain disposition dictated by the wish 
to discriminate between the dasses of sodety. Questions of 
public law and administration are discussed in 2x7 clauses, 
while X97 concern the Church in one way or another, apart from 
purely ecclesiastical collections. In the public law division it 
is chiefly the power, interests and privileges of the king that 
are dealt with, in roughly 93 paragraphs, while local administra- 
tion comes in for 39 and purely economic and fiscal matter for 
X3 clauses. Police regulations are very much to the fore and 
occupy no less than 7 a dauses of the royal legislation. As to 
church matters, the most prolific group is formed by general 
precepts based on religious and moral considerations, roughly 
xxs, while seoilar privileges conferred on the Church hold about 
62, and questions of organization some 20 clauses. 

The statistical contrasts are espedally sharp and characteristic 
when we take into account the chronological sequence in the 
elaboration of bws. Practically the entire code of i£thelberht, 
for instance, is a tariff of fines for crimes, and the same subject 
continues to occupy a great place in the laws of Hlothhere and 
Eadric, Ine and Alfred, whereas it appears only occasionally 
in the treaties with the Danes, the laws of Withraed, Edward 
the Elder, iEthelstan, Edgar, Edmund and iEthdred. It re- 
appears in some strength in the code of Canute, but the latter 
is chiefly a recapitulation of former enactments. The system 
of " compositions " or fines, paid in many cases with the help 
of kinsmen, finds its natural place in the ancient* tribal period 
of English history and loses its vitality later on in consequence 
of the growth of central power and of the scattering of maegths. 
Royalty and the Church, when they acquire the lead in sodal 
life, work out a new penal system based on outlawry, death 
penalties and corporal punishments, which make their first 
appearance in the legislation of Withraed and culminate in that 
of iCthelred and Canute. 

As regards status, the most elaborate enactments fall into 
the period preceding the Danish settlements. After the treaties 
with the Danes, the tendency is to simplify distinctions on the 
lines of an opposition between twelvehynd-men and twyhynd- 
men, paving the way towards the feudal distinction between the 
free and the unfree. In the arrangements of the commonwealth 
the clauses treating of royal privileges are more or less evenly 
distributed over all reigns, but the systematic development of 
police functions, especiidly in regard to responsibility for crimes, 
the catching of thieves, the suppression of lawlessness, is mainly 
the object of xoth and xith century legislation. The reign A 
iEthelred, which witnessed the greatest national humiliation 
and the greatest crime in English history, is also marked by the 
most lavish expressions of rdigious feeling and the most frequent 
appeals to morality. This sketch would, of course, have to be 
modified in many ways if we attempted to treat the unofficial 
fragments x>f customary law in the same way as the paragraphs 
of royal codes, and even more so if we were able to tabulate 
the indirect evidence as to legal rules. But, imperfect as such 
statistics may be, they ^ve us at any rate some insight into the 
direction of governmental legislation. 

4. The next question to be approached concerns the pedigree 
of Anglo-Saxon law and the latter's natural affinities. What is 
its position in the legal history of Germanic nations? How 
far has it been influenced by non-Germanic elements, especially 
by Roman and Canon law? The oldest Anglo-Saxon codes, 
especially the Kentish and the West Saxon ones, disclose a close 
relationship to the barbaric laws of Lower Germany — those of 
Saxons, Frisians, Thuringians. We find a division of social ranks 
which reminds us of the thredold gradation of Lower Germany 



(eddingi, frilingi, ]a»eii--«ork, ceoris, ]iets)» uid not of the 

twofold Frmnkish one (ingenm Framei, Roman*), nor ef the Minute 

differentiation of the Upper Germans and Lombards. In sub* 

sequent history there is a good deal of resemblance between the 

capitularies' legislation of Chailemagne and his successors on 

one hand, the acts of Alfred, Edward the Elder, £thelstan and 

Edgar on the other, a resemblance called forth less by direct 

borrowing of Prankish institutions than by the similarity of 

political problems and condition. Prankish law becomes a 

powerful modifying element in English legal history after the 

Conquest, wlwn it was introduced wholesale in royal and in feudal 

courts. The Scandinavian invasions brought in many northern 

legsl customs, esped»iXy in the districts thickly poptdated with 

Danes. The Domesday survey of Lincolnshire, Nottinghamshire, 

Yorkshire, Norfolk, &c., shows remarkable devtaltons in local 

organixatitHi and justice Qagmen, sokes), and great peculiarities 

as to status (socmen, freemen), while from laws and a few 

charters we can perceive some influence on criminal law (nuf ia^i- 

9Mrk)f special usages as to fines (lakslit), the keeping of peace, 

attestation and sureties of acts (/aei/iermcn), &c. But, on the 

whole, the introduction of Danish and Norse elements,apart from 

local cases, was more important owing to the conflicts and 

compromises it called forth and its social results, than on account 

of any distinct trail of Scandinavian views in En^ish law. The 

Scandinavian newcomers coalesced easily and quickly with the 

native population. 

The direct influence of Roman law was not great during the 
Saxon period: we notice neither the transmission of important 
legal doctrines, chiefly through the medium of Visigothic codes, 
nor the continuous stream of Roman tradition in local usage. 
But indirectly Roman law did exert a by no means insignificant 
influence through the medium of the Church, which, for all its 
insular character, was still permeated with Roman ideas and 
forms of culture. The Old English " books " are derived in a 
roundabout way from Roman models, and the tribal law of real 
property was deeply modified by the introduction of individual- 
Ltic notions as to ownership, donations, wills, rights of women, 
&c. Yet in this respect also the Norman Conquest increased 
the store of Roman conceptions by breaking the national isolation 
of the English Church and opening the way for closer intercourse 
with France and Italy. 

S. It would be useless to attempt to trace in a brief sketch 
the history of the legal principles embodied in the documents of 
Anglo-Saxon law. But it may be of some value to give an 
outUne of a few particularly characteristic subjects. 

(a) The Anglo-Saxon legal system cannot be understood unless 
one realizes the fundamental opposition between folk-right and 
privilege. Folk-right is the aggregate of rules, formulated or 
latent but susceptible of formulation, which can be appealed to 
as the expression of the juridical consciousness of the people at 
large or of the communities of which it is composed. It is tribal 
in its origin, and differentiated, not according to boundaries 
between states, but on national and provincial lines. There may 
be the folk-right of West and East Saxons, of East Angles, of 
Kentish men, Mercians, Northumbrians, Danes, Welshmen, and' 
these main folk-right divisions remain even when tribal kingdoms 
disappear and the people is concentrated in one or two realms. 
The chief centres for the formulation and application of folk- 
right were in the loth and ixth centuries the shire-moots, while 
the witan of the realm generally placed themselves on the higher 
ground of State expediency, although occasionally using folk- 
right ideas. The older law of real property, of succession, of 
contracts, the customary tariffs of fines, were mainly regulated 
by folk-right; the reeves employed by the king and great men 
were supposed to take care of local and rural affain according to 
folk-right. The law had to be declared and applied by the people 
itself in its communities, while the spokesmen of the people were 
neither democratic majoritin nor individual experts, but a few 
leading men — the twelve eldest thanes or some similar quorum. 
Folk-right could, however, be broken or modified by special law 
or special grant, and the fountain of such privileges was the 
royal power. Alterations and exceptions were, as a matter of 

fact, suggested by the interested parties themselves, and chiefly 
by the Church. Thus a privileged land-tenure was created— 
bookland; the rules as to the succession of kinsmen were set at 
nought by concession of testamentary power and confirmations 
of grants and wiUs; special exemptions from the jurisdiction of 
the hundreds and special privileges as to levying fines were 
conferred. In process of time the rights originating in royal 
grants of privilege overbalanced, as it were, folk-right in many 
respects, and became themselves the starting-point of a new 
legal system— the feudal one. 

(b) Another feature of vital importance in the history of 
An^o-Saxon law is its tendency towards the preservation of 
peace. Society is constantly struggling to ensure the main 
condition of its existence — peace. Already in iEthelberht's 
legislation we find characteristic fines inflicted for breach of the 
peace of householders of different ranks — the ceorl, the eorl,' 
and the king himself appearing as the most exalted among them. 
Peace is considered not so much a state of equilibrium and 
friendly relations between parties, -but rather as the rule of a 
third within a certain region — a house, an estate, a kingdom. 
This leads on one side to the reragnition of private authorities 
—the father's in his family, the master's as to servants, the 
lord's as to his personal or territorial dependents. On the other 
hand, the tendency to maintain peace naturally takes its 
course towards the strongest ruler, the king, and we witness 
in Anglo-Saxon law the gradual evolution of more and more 
stringent and complete rules in respect of the king's peace and 
its infringnnents. 

(c) The more ancient documents of Anglo-Saxon law show us 
the individual not merely as the subject and citizen of a certain 
wnunonwealth, but also as a member of some group, all the 
fellows of which are closely allied in claims and responsibilities. 
The most elementary of these groups is the maeglh, the associa* 
tion of agnatic and cognatic relations. Personal protection and 
revenge, oaths, marriage, wardship, succession, supervision over 
settlement, and good behaviour, are regulated by the law of 
kinship. A man's actions are considered not as exertions of his 
individual will, but as acts of the kindred, and all the fellows of 
the maegth are held responsible for them. What began as a 
natural alliance was used later as a means of enforcing responsi- 
bility and keeping lawless individuals in order. When the 
association of kinsmen failed, the voluntary associations— gilds 
— appeared as substitutes. The gild brothers associated in 
mutual defence and support, and they had to share in the 
payment of fines. The towm^p and the hundred came also in 
for certain forms of collective responsibility, because they pre- 
sented groups of people associated in their economic and legal 

((/) In course of time the natural associations get loosened and 
intermixed, and this calls forth the elaborate police legislation 
of the later Anglo-Saxon kings. Regulations are issued about 
the sale of cattle in the presence of witnesses. Enactments about 
the pursuit of thieves, and the calling in of warrantors to justify 
sales of chattels, are other expressions of the di£Eiculties attending 
peacef id intercourse. Personal surety appears as a complement 
of and substitute for collective responsibility. The Uaford and 
his hvedmcn are an institution not only of private patronage, 
but also of police supervision for the sake of laying hands on 
malefactors and suspected persons. The landrica assumes the 
same part In a territorial district. Ultimately the laws of the 
loth and ixth centuries show the beginnings of the frankpledge 
associations, which came to act so important a part in the local 
police and administration of the feudal age. 

The points mentioned are not many, but, apart from their 

intrinsic importance in any system of law, they are, as it were, 

made prominent by the documents themselves, as they are 

constantly referred to in the latter. 

BiBUOCaAPBY. — EiiHonsi Liebermann. Die Cesetu der Angtl- 
sachsen (1903, 1906) is indispensable, and leaves nothing to be 
desired as to the constitution of the texts. The translations and 
notes are, of course, to be considered in the Kght of an instructive, 
but not final, commentary. R. Schmid, CeseUe der Antelsacksen 
(and ed., Leipcig. i8$8) is still valuable on account of its nandiness 


■■d Iht (ulnna at in ikHiy. B. ThorpF, Ancim Lami aiW 
/ufiliilll ^ Enflani (1840) ii ncH vny IruUworlhy. Donridat 
««*, i. ii. (Rrc. Comm.): Corfii Diplmialicui Arri Saimui. i.-vf. 
ed. I. M. Kcinbk(taw'ia48);CiimJaniiiii5umiEHi(up touo), 
cd. W. de Cny Bii^ (iaSj^tafJ) ; J, E«ile, ZoW OHW (Oxford. 
EB80); Thorpe, DiUo m otvimm AniiatMiim; FnaimiUi ef AncUni 
Clururi. cdilcd by the Orduncc Survey ind by Iht Britiih M uieuiii . 
Middin and Stubbi. Oiaalt ^ Cnal Briuin. lAii. (Oirord. 1M9- 
JVnCtrji I 

i.KrjliHlii (Mffjbtsk (Munich. i^Bjj fl.). 



'^ ii'un,,'^' 

■•J( <iesc ' 

F. Seebohr . 


*, !v.; F, W. 

«dolI, " Folc- 
niitlKhc Ein 
ihe UtUtp 
i>h Uw ' i, 
(P. VI.) 
" Anglo-S«on " b commonl) 
hiilory, Language and litriatun 
which precetttd the Norman ConquaL II goei back to the lirai 
af Kins Alfred, who leenu to have Iiequenily used the title rei 
A nftor¥*l Sueium ai la AniulSmimiiM. The origin ol Ihii 
title ii nol quite deu. It ii generalJy believed to have iiucr 
ham the final union of the varioui kingdomi under Allied ir 
S86, Bede IHiil. Eal. i. 15) itatei that the people o( the more 
norlhein kingdoms {East Anglia. Mercia, Northumbria, Ae.l 
belonged to tbc Angti, while those o[ EsMI, Sutsei and Weuti 
were sprung from Ihe Saxons (4.1.), and those ol Kent and 
louihem Hampshin ' •....". 

tvince Is about 4^0,00 

at period ol Engl 

ianguige no 
difTerencM I 

e disllnci 

SI remarkable contrasts with the other king- 
curious is the iact that West Saion wrilen 
regularly speak ol their own nation as 1 part ol Jhe Aigrliyn 
and of their language as Enflin, while the West Saion royal 
family claimed 10 be of the tame stock as (hat of Bernicia. On 
the other hand, it ii by no means impossible thai Lhc distinctton 
drawn by Bede was based solely on (he names EsMt (East 
Seiian). Eul Anglia, lie. We need not doubt that the Angli 
and the Saions were different nations originally; but Irom the 
evidence at our disposal it seems likely that they had practically 
coalesced in very early times, perhaps even before the invasion. 
- ■■ AKtliSa 

re Alfret 

n the « 

n Ihe wi 

we find it 
D ol Paul 


IS (Paul 

the Deacon). There can be liltle doubt, bowevt . 

wasued to disiinguiih the Teutonic inhabitants of Britain Irom 

the Old Saions of the continent. 

See W. H. Stevrnsoii. Asitr', Lift ^ Kin '<'/»<' (Oalord, 1904. 
pp. 118 It.); H. Munro Chadwkk. rki Orit'tt nf llu Enl^illl Nulim 
(Cambridge, 1907): alto BaiTAiH.^ni^ff.S^m. (H. M. C.) 

AHOOLA, the general name ol the Portuguese poHea^ons on 
the west coast al Alrlci loulh ol the equator. Wiih the eicxption 
of the enclave of Kftbinda (^ .v.) the province lies wholly south of 
the river Congo, Bounded on the W. by lhc Atlantic Ocean, it 
eitends along the cout from the southern bank ol the Congo 
(6° S., 11° EO_to the mouth ol the Kuncne river (17* iS' S., 
ie qoo m. long. On the 


n. the \. 


.ngola I 

the Congo Free State. The from icr thence (in s° y. 
east to the Kwargo river. The eastern boundary— dividing th 
Forluguese possessions Irom the Coxigo State and DaroL^lan 
(N.W. Rhodesin)— Is a highly irregular Une. On the soul 
Angola borders German Soulh-Weal Africa, the Irontier beii 
drawn aomewhit S. ol the ijlh degree of S. latitude. The an 

Congo in Ihe 
Portugal; but the name is now officially applied l« 

cout, the fifth, Lunda, wholly inland, being Ihe N.£. pan of ili 
province. Lunda is part ol the old Bantu kingdom of Mual 
Vinvo, divided by inlernationat agieemenl belween Portugi 
and the Congo Free State. 

The cout divisions of Angola are Congo on ihe N. (Irom ih 
river Congo to the tiver Loje), to 

•hicb includes 

" king 

IS Hull 

ol Congo '■ (see Hi,l 

ricted SI 

and the 

.The coait Is lor the moat part flat, with 
occaiiena] low cliffs and bluffs of ted sandtlone. There i> but 
one deep inlet al the sea— Great Fith Bay (or Bahia dot Tigreil, 
a little north al the PortugueM-German Ironiier. Farther north 
are Part Aleiander, Little Fish Bay and Lobilo Bay. while 
shallowet bays are numeroui, Loblia Bay has water iiiffident 
to attow large ships to unload close inihore. The ci 


sparely »i 


rwhii sttille. The 
ica is marked by a 
in belt it 

approach to the great central plati 
series ol irregular lernces. This inlermeuiaie 
covered with luniTiint vegetation. Water is lairly abun 
though in the dry sea wn obtainable only by digging in the sandy 
beds of the riven. The plateau hai an altitude ranging from 
4000 (a 6000 (I It coniiits ol well.wiiered. wide, rolling plaint, 
and low hills with scanty vegetation. In the east the tableland 
falls away 10 the basins ol the Congo and Zambeii. to Ihe wutb 
it merges into a barren landy desert. A large number ol riven 
10 Ihe sea; ihey rise, moitly, ii 

t. the only n 

being the Kmnz* 

and Ihe Kunene, separate 

ichlorm the edge' ol the pla 


erally parallel lo the coasi. 

(«oo ft 1, Chella 

nd Vissecua (51JO ft. Lo 6 

dmrict o( Benguel 

a are lhc highesi poinls ol 


the Kwanta is Ihe 

volcanic mauniain C.cglo.C 

From Ihe lablel.n 

Ihe Kwango and many 

north to join iheK 

sii (oneol the largest aiBuen 

which in its upper 

the Congo Slate. In the 

Ihe province the ri 

«rs belong either to the Za 

like Ihe Okavango 

drain to Lake Ng.mi. 

C«i(agy.— The roi 

ol any tite 

i:(t) the litiantione.(i) Ihe median I 
a aenes ot bill* more or less parallel wiih the ca 
mral plateau. The central plateau consists of and 


only lassililcri 
ages, Ihe laltei 
The Crelaceoi 

e ol Falacoiaic age. 

ystallinc rocks with grtnites anc 

us rocks. The littoral tone conta 

These are al Tertiary and Crel 

c Dombc Grai 


lull, Rocksof Tertiary ageire met wilhalDombeCrandi 
medes and near Loanda. The sandslanes with gypsun 
r and sulphur ol Dombe are doubtlully considered 10 be c 
Triassic age. Recent eruptive rockt. mainly basalts, form * Up 



of hnil almost bare of ▼egeUtion between Bensuelh and Mosaa- 
medcs. Nepheline basalts and liparites occur at Dombe Grande. 
The presence of gum copal in considerable quantities in the 
supertdal rocka is characteristic of certain regiona. 

Climate. — With the exception of the district of Mossamedes, 
the coast pfaiina are unsuited td Europmis. In the interior, 
above 3500 ft., the temperature and rainfall, together with 
malaria, decrease. The plateau dimate is healthy and invigor- 
ating. The mean annual temperature at Slo Salvador do Congo 
is 7a-5* F.; at Loanda, 74'3'; and at Caconda, 67- a*. The 
dimate is greatly influenced by the prevailing winds, which are 
W., S.W. and S.S.W. Two seasons are distinguished— the cool, 
from June to September; and the rainy, from October to May. 
Tbe heaviest rainfall occurs in April, and is accompanied by 
violent storms. 

Flora and Fauna. — Both flora and fauna are those character- 
istic of the greater part of tropical Africa. Aa far south as 
Benguella the coast region b rich in oil-palms and mangroves. 
In the northern part of the provinw are dense forests: In the 
south towards the Kunene are regions of dense thorn scrub. 
Rubber vines and trees are abundant, but in some districts 
their number has been considerably reduced by the ruthless 
methods ad<^tcd by native collectors of rubber. The spedes 
most common are various root rubbers, notably the Carpodimts 
chyhtfkka. This spedes and other varieties of carpodinus are 
very widely distributed. Landolphias are also found. The 
coffee, cotton and Guinea pepper plants are indigenous, and the 
tobacco plant flourishes in several districts. Among the trees 
are sevenl which yidd excellent timber, such as the tacuk 
{Pierocarpus linctoHws)^ which grows to an immense size, its 
wood being Mood-red in colour, and the Angola mahogany. 
The bark of the musuemba {Albiasia C4friaria) is largely used in 
the tanning of leather. The mulundo bears a fruit about the 
nze of a cricket ball covered with a hard green shell and con- 
taining scarlet pips like a pomegranate. Tlie fauna includes 
the lion, leopard, cheetah, elephant, giraffe, rhinoceros, hippo- 
potamus, buffalo, zebra, kudu and many other kinds of antelope, 
wild pig, ostrich and crocodile. Among fish are the barbel, 
bream and African ydlow fish. 

Inkabitants. — The great majority of the inhabitants are of 
Bantu-Negro stock with some admixture in the Congo district 
with the pure negro type. In the south-east are various tribes 
ti Bushmen. The best-known of the Bantu-Negro tribes are 
the Ba-Rongo (Ba-Fiot), who dwell chiefly in the north, and 
the Abunda (Mbunda, Ba-Bundo), who occupy the central part 
of the province, which takes its name from the Ngola tribe of 
Abunda. Another of these tribes, the Bangala, living on the 
west bank of the upper Kwango, must not be confounded with 
the Bangala of the middle Congo. In the Abunda is a consider- 
able strain of Portuguese blood. The Ba-Lunda inhabit the 
Lunda district. Along the upper Kunene and in other districts 
of the plateau are settlements of Boers, the Boer population 
bdng about aooo. In the coast towns the majority of the white 
inhabitants are Portuguese. The Mushi-Kongo and other divi- 
sions of the Ba-Kongo retain curious traces of the Christianity 
professed by them in the i6th and 17th centuries and possibly 
later. Crudfixes are used as potent fetish charms or as symbols 
of power passing down from chief to chief; whilst every native 
has a ** Santu " or Christian name and is dubbed dom or dona. 
Fetishism is the prevailing religion throughout the province. 
The dwelling-places of the natives are usually small huts of the 
simplest constuction, used chiefly as sleeping apartments; 
the day is spent in an open space in front of the hut protected 
from the sun by a roof of palm or other leaves. 

Chief ^ r«wM.— The chief towns are S»o Paulo de Loanda, 
the capital, Kabinda, Benguella and Mossamedes iq.v.). Lobito, 
a little north of Benguella, is a town which dates from 1905 and 
owes its existence to the bay of the same name having been 
chosen as the sea termintis of a railway to the far interior. Noki 
is on the southeni bank of the Congo at the head of navigation 
from the sea, and dose to the Congo Free State frontier. It 
is available for ships of large tonnage, and through it passes 

the Portuguese portion of the trade of the lower Congo. Ambriz 
— the only seaport of consequence in the Congo district of the 
province — is at the mouth of the Loje river, about 70 m. N. of 
Loanda. Novo Redondo and Egito are small ports between 
Loanda and Benguella, Port Alexander is in the district of 
Moasamedes and S, of the town of that name. 

In the interior Humpata, about 95 ro. from Mossamedes, 
is the chief centre of the Boer settlers; otherwise there are none 
but native towns containing from zooo to 3000 inhabitants 
and often enclosed by a ring of sycamore trees. Ambaca and 
Malanje are the chief places in the fertile agricultural district 
of the middle Kwanza, S.E. of Loanda, with which they are in 
railway communication. Sfto Salvador (pop. 1500) is the name 
given by the Portuguese to Bonxa Congo, the chief town of the 
** kingdom of Congo." It stands 1840 fL above sea -level and 
is about x6o m. inland and 100 S.E. of the river port of Noki, 
in 6* 15' S. Of the cathedral and other stone buildings erected 
in the i6th century, there exist but scanty ruins. The city walls 
were destroyed in the dosing years of the 19th century and the 
stone used to build government oflices. There is a fort, built 
about Z850, and a small military force is at the disposal of the 
Portuguese resident. Bembe and Encoje are smaller towns in 
the Congo district south of Sio Salvador. Bihe, the capital of 
the plateau district of the same name forming the hinterland of 
BengueUa, is a large caravan centre. Kangomba, the residence 
of the king of Bihe, is a large town. Caconda is in the hill 
country S.E. of Benguella. 

Apiadture and Trade. — ^Angola is rich in both agricultural 
and mineral resources. Amongst the cultivated products are 
mealies and manioc, the sugar-cane and cotton, coffee and tobacco 
plants. The chief exports are coffee, rubber, wax, palm kernels 
and palm-oil, cattle and hides and dried or salt fish. Gold dust, 
cotton, ivory and gum are also exported. The chief imports are 
food-stuffs, cotton and woollen goods and hardware. Consider- 
able quantities of coal come from South Wales. Oxen, intro- 
duced from Europe and from South Africa, flourish. There are 
sugar factories, where rum is also distilled and a few other 
manufactures, but the prosperity of the province depends on 
the " jungle " products obtained through the natives and from 
the plantations owned by Portuguese and worked by indentured 
labour, the labourers being generally *' recruited " from the far 
interior. The trade of the province, which had grown from 
about £800,000 in 1870 to about £3,000,000 in 1905, is largely 
with Portugal and in Portuguese bottoms. Between 1893 and 
X904 the percentage of Portuguese as compared with foreign 
goods entering the province increased from 43 to 301 %, a result 
due to the preferential duties in force. 

The minerals found include thick beds of copper at Bembe, 
and deposits on the M'Brije and the Cuvo and in various places 
in the southern part of the province; iron at Odras (on the 
Lucalla affluent of the Kwanza) and in Bailundo; petroleum 
and asphalt in Dande and (^inzao; gold in Lombije and 
Cassinga; and mineral salt in Quissama. The native black- 
smiths are held in great repute. 

Communications. — There is a regular steamship communication 
between Portugal, England and Germany, and Loanda, which 
port is within sixteen days' steam of Lisbon. There is also a 
regular service between Cape Town, Lobito and Lisbon and 
Southampton. The Portuguese line is subsidized by the govern- 
ment. The railway from Loanda to Ambaca and Malanje is 
known as the Royal Trans- African railway. It Is of metre 
gauge, was begun in 1887 and is some 300 m. long. It was in- 
tended to carry the line across the continent to Mozambique, 
but when the line reached Ambaca (225 m.) in 1894 that scheme 
was abandoned. The railway had created a record in being the 
most expensive built in tropical Africa — £8942 per mile. A 
railway from Lobito Bay, 25 m. N. of Benguella, begun in 1904, 
runs towards the Congo-Rhodesia frontier. It is of standard 
African gauge (3 ft. 6 in.) and is worked by an English company. 
It is intended to serve the Katanga copper mines. Besides 
these two main railways, there are other short lines linking 
the seaports to thdr hinterkind. Apart from the railways 

nmniDiuuition ii by )iocl« 
tnckiin ihcMuihemdUtri 
province is wdl suppiird wi 
CMinKted with Europe by (uaina 
Gumnminl and Rnmit.--Thr 
it utiied on under s govetnor-gei 
tcts under Ehe direction of the miD 
At the hetd of eacK diiLrict i> i 
poiien, uve those delegated I 
titrdied by the home governmei 

ft by a grant Erom (he molher c 


— TIm PortugucH 

earavin nutct M>d by ox-vicor 
Ridini-oien >re tUo uied. Tbc 
telegnpluc communluitisn and ii 

rhe adminiimiion 01 [he provinte 

minisliy "< 'he colonia il Lbhoo. 
i> ■ local governor. Legiilalive 

the govenior-geBeral. «re 
Revenue b i»it«i chiefly 

Kt tiiaiion. The ttvem 

-the balance being 

Part of Ihe 
other leprodiiclive 



. Ther 

Congo wai diKovtnd by Diogo Cam I 
a ilOAc pillar at the moulh of the river, which accordingly Look 
the title of Rio de Fadrlo, and eiUbliihed friendly relationi 
«ilh the naliva, who reperled that the country wai lubject to 
a great monarch, Mwaai Congo or lord of Congo, reiident at 
Bona Congo. The PottugixK were not !ong in malung them- 
■dve* inBuential in Ihe CODntry. Concalo de Souu vis 
deipaicbed on a formal embasay ia 1490; and the finl mii- 
aionariei entered the country in his train. Tha king waa toon 
afterwards bapiiied and ChcittiaBiiy wat nominally eitablibbcd 
at the ntiional religion. In ijja a caihedtal was founded at 
Bona Congo (renamed Slo Salvador), and in 1560 the JauiU 
arrived with Fauio Diai dcNovaes. Of the protperity of the 
country the Porluguete have left the most ^CFWing and indeed 
incicdihle accountt. Il wu, however, about thit time ravaged 
by cannibal invaden (Bangala) from the interior.aad Portuguese 
influence gradually declined. Tbc attention of Ihe Portuguese 
wat, moreover, now turned more particularly to the louthern 
ditiiict) of Angola. In 1617 the biihop't teat was removed 10 
Slo Paulo de Loanda and Sio Snlvador declined in imparlance. 
In the iglh century, in tpite of hindrances from Holland and 
France, itepi were taken towardi rt-«ttabliihing Portuguese 
authority in the northern regioni; in i^jB a teltlement waa 
lormcd at Encoje; from 1784 to 1184 the Porlugueie cacried 
on a war against the natives erf Muw^o f the diatrict immediately 
(outh of Ambiia); in 1791 they built a Ion at I^uincsUo on the 
Loje, and for ■ lime they worked the mines o[ Bcmbe. Until, 
'" tcnmble for Africa" began in 1884, they poasoied 

vtai fint occupied in iSjs. At Slo Salvador, however, the 

native princei who had real authority vat a potentate known 
at Dom Pedro V. He waa placed on the throne in iSa with the 
help of a Portuguete force, and leigned over thirty yean. In 
18S8 a Portuguse resident wat italioned at Salvador, and the 
kings ol Congo became pentlonert of the government. 

Angda proper, and the whole coatt-Une of what now con- 
ititules the province of that name, waa ditcovend by Diogo Cam 
during 1481 and the three foUowing ytAn. The Glat governor 
lent to Angola wat Paulo Dial, a graadaon of Bartholamew Dita, 
who reduced to lubmiuion the Rgion toutb of tbc Kwaoaa aeviy 
aa far at BengueUa. The dty oi Loandi waa founded in 1576, 
Benguellain 1617. From that date the loverdgnty of Portugal 
over the coast-line, from lit present southern limit aa far north 
at Ambril (7' so' S.) has been undisputed save between 1640 
and 1648, during which lime the Dutch attempted to cipcl the 
PotiugucM and held poatesajon of the porta. Whilst Ihe economic 
development of ihe country wat not eotirely neglected and many 
useful food producii were introduced, the prosperity of the 
province was very largely dependent on the slave uide with 
BraiU, which was not legaUy abolished until iSjo and in fact 
continued [01 many yean tubiequentiy. 

Ia 1S84 Cleat Britain, which up 10 that lime had steadily 
idiaed to acknowledge that Pottiw' pnwetsed ttrritarial rights 

north of Ambfii, eondoded a tiealy i«eo(iiIilng Poitogtme 

sovereignty over both hanks ol the lower Congo; but the treaty. 
meeting with opposition in England and Germany, wat not 
ratified. Agreements concluded with the Congo Free Stale, 
Germany and France in iSSs-iS8« (modified in deiiili by 
subsequent arrangements) £<ed Ihelimiia of the province, eicepl 
in the S.E.. wheec the frontier between Barotscland (N.W. 
Rhodesia) and Angob was determined by an Antfo-Portuguei* 
agreement of iBoi and Ihe arbitialion award of the king of Italy 
iniflosfteeAraiCAiHiitoy), Up tolheendollheiflthcenlury 
the hold of Portugal over Ihe interior of the province waa slight. 

The abolition of the external slave trade proved very injurious 
to the trade ot the seapona, but (mm i860 onward the agricullural 

a work in which BraaUan merchanti look tbe lend. After Uie 
definite pa niiioo of Africa among the European powers, Portugal 
applied herself with tome setiousnets to exploit Angola and her 
other Afftcan pouessions. Nevcrlheleia, in compariion with ill 
natural wealth the development of the country has been slow. 


eirly yea 

■t of the soth century. 







uihority over 

he in 

and trlba proceeded very slowly 

al reverses. Thus in 





1 over jaa men killed 




Ihe German frontier. The Kunahamas are a wild, raiding tribe 
and were probably largely influenced by the revolt of their 
southern ndghboura, the Hertru, againil the Germana. In 1905 
and again in 1Q07 ihere was renewed fighting in the tame legioa. 



' the annual 

I ... liinOKce. 

ANOOnA. or EnCCU. (t) A city of Turkey (anc. Ancyra) ia 
iia,capiUlo[thevi1iyetoftbe same namc.iitutted upon a steep, 
rocky hill, which rites soo ft above Ihe plain, on the left bank of 
the EnguiiSu, a tributaiyot the Sakaria(Sangariua), about 110 m. 
E.S.E, of Gentian tinople. The hill is crowned by the ruint of 
the old diadel, which add to the piclurcsqueness of the view; but 

houses conslnicted of sun-dried mud bricks; there arc, however, 

fioerenuiiuoi Craeco-Romaa and Byianline architecture, 

HI remarkable being the temple of Rome and Augustus, on 

lUa of which it the famoua UnuMKnU^M Afiiyranm (tee 

Ahcyka). Ancyra wu (he centre of the Tectotages, one ol the 

three Gaulish iribei which Killed in Galaiia in the jid century 

.c, and became the capital of the Roman province of Calatia 

rhen i( was formally cDns(i(u(ed in 15 B.C. During the Byuo- 

ine period, iluoughout which it occupied a position of great 

importance, it was captured by Persians and Arab*; then il fell 

1 the hands of the Seljuk Turks, was held lot eighteen yean by 

Latin Crusaden, and finally patted to the Olloman Turks in 

o. In i403agreat battle wat fought in the vidnily of Angora, 

which tbc Turkiah aullan Bayeiid was defeated and made 

Ktneehy the Tatar conqueror Timui. In uisilwatrecovend 


bdoiigcd to the Ottoman empire. In 183a it wtt taken by tlia 
Egyptians under Ibrahim Pasha. Angora is connected with 
Constantinople by raSway, and eiports wool, mohair, grain and 
yellow berries. Mohair dolh is manufactured, and the town is 
noted for iu honey and fruit. From 1639 to 1768 there was an 
agency of the Levant Company here; there is now a British 
consul. Pop. estimated at 38^ (Moslems, 18,000; Christians, 
largely Roman Catholic Armenians, <bout 9400; Jews, 400). 

(3) A Turkish vilayet in north-central Asia Minor, which 
includes most of the ancient Galatta. It is an agricultural 
country, depending for its prosperity on its grain, wool (average 
annual export, 4,400,000 lb), and the mohair 4>btained from the 
beautiful Angora goats (avenge annual clip, 3 ,300,000 lb). The 
fineness of the hair may perhaps be ascribed to some peculiarity 
in the atmosphere, for it is remarkable that the cats, dogs and 
other iini"»** of the country are to a certain extent affected in 
the same way, and that they aU lose much of their distinctive 
beauty when taken from their native districts. The only im- 
portant industry is carpet-weaving at Kir-sheher and Kalsaif eh. 
There are mines of silver, copper, lignite and salt, and many hot 
springs, including some of great repute medicinally. Avenge 
annual exports 1896-1898, £920,763; imports, £411 fis^ P<>P> 
about 900,000 (Moslems, 765,000 to 800,000, the rest being 
Christians, with a few hundred Jews). (J. G. C. A.) 

See C Ritter. Erdhtnde poh Asitn Nol. xviii., 1837-1839): V. 
Cuinet, La Twrquu d^Asie, 1. 1 (1891); Murray's Hmndbook to Atia 
Minor (1895); aiod other works mentioiied under ANCvaA. 

AMOOOLfiMB, CHARLES DB VALOIS. Dukb or (1573-1650), 
the natural son of Charles IX. of France and Marie Touchet, was 
bore on the 38th of April zs73,at the castle of Fayet in Dauphini. 
His father, dying in the following year, commended him to the 
care and favour of his brother and successor, Henry UI., who 
falthfuHy fulfilled the charge. His mother married Francob de 
Balzac, marquis d'Entragues, and one of her daughters, Henriette, 
marchioness of Verneuil, alterwards became the mistress of 
Henry IV. Charies of Valois, was carefully educated, and was 
destined for the order of Malta. At the early age of sixteen he 
attained one of the highest dignities of the order, being made 
grand prior of France. Shortly after he came into possession of 
large estates left by Catherine de' Medici, from one of which he 
took his title of count of Auvetgne. In 1^91 he obtained a 
dispensation from the vows of the order of Malta, and married 
Chariotte, daughter of Henry, Marshal d'AmviUe, afterwards 
duke of Montmorency. In 1 589 Henry HI. was assassinated, but 
on his deathbed he commended Charles to the good-will of his 
successor Henry IV. By that monarch he was made colonel of 
horse, and in that capacity served in the campaigns during the 
early part of the reign But the connexion between the king and 
the marchioness of Verneuil appears to have been very displeasing 
to Auvergne, and in x6oz he engaged in the conspiracy formed by 
the dukes of Savoy, Biron and Bouillon, one of the objects of 
which was to force Henry to repudiate his wife and marry 
the marchioness. The conspiracy was discovered; Biron and 
Auvergne were arrested and Biron was executed. Auvergne 
after a few months' imprisonment was released, chiefly through 
the influence of his half-sister, his aunt, the duchess of Angoultme 
and his father-in-law. He then entered into fresh intrigues with 
the court of Spain, acting in concert with the marcUoness of 
Verneuil and her father d'Entragues. In 1604 d'Entragues and 
he were arrested and condemned to death; at the same time the 
marchioness was condemned to perpetual imprisonment in a 
convent She easily obtained pardon, and the sentence of death 
against the other two was commuted Into perpetual imprisonment. 
Auvergne remained in the Bastille for eleven yean, from 1605 to 
i6z6. A decree of the parlemcnt (x6o6), obtained by Marguerite 
de Valois, deprived him of nearly all his possessions, including 
Auvergne, though he still retained the title In x6i6 he was 
released, was restored to his rank of colonel-general of horse, and 
despatched against one of the disaffected nobles, the duke of 
Longueville, who had taken P^ronne. Next year he commanded 
the forces collected in the lie de France, and obtained some 
successes. In 1619 he received by bequest, ntified in x63o by 


royal grant, tht duchy of AofottUme. Soon after he was engaged 
on an important embassy to Germany, the result of which was the 
treaty of Ulm, signed July 169a In 1627 he oomnuinded the large 
forces assembly at the siege of La Rocbelle; and some yean after 
in 163s, during the Thirty Yean' War, he was general of the 
French army in Lorraine. In 1636 he was made lieutenant- 
general of the army. He appean to have retired from public life 
shortly after the death of Richelieu in 1643. His fint wife died 
in 1636, and in 1644 he married -Fnncoise de Narbonne, daughter 
of Chfirifff. baron of MamiiL She had no children and survived 
her husband until x 7 13. AngouMme himself died on the 34th of 
September 1650. By his fint wife he had three children: Henri, 
who became insane; Louis Emmanuel, who succeeded his father 
as duke of AngouKme and was colonel-general of light cavalry 
and governor of Provence; and Frangois, who died in x633. 

The duke was the author of the following workn—iOMfmoins, 
from the assaasination of Henri III. to the battle of Arques (1569* 
1593). published at Paris by Boneau, and reprinted by Buchon in his 
Ckinx de c^roni^ues (1836) and by Petitot in his Mimoires (ist scries, 
vol. xliv.) : (3) Les Harangius, pronomcis en assemhlle de MM. let 
princes proUstanis d'AUemagne, par Monaeigneur Ic due d* Angoultme 
(l63o): (3) a tnnslatibn of a Spanish work by Diego de Torres. 
To him has also been ascribed the work, La ginirale etfidiU Rilation 
de tout cojni s'esi passS en I'isle de Hi, emnySe par le raid, la royne 
M mhe (nuis, 1627). 

AVBOULtaBi a dty of south-western Fnnce, capital of 
the department of Charente, 83 m. N.N.E. of Bordeaux on the 
nflway between Bordeaux and Poitiers. Pop. (t9o6) 30,04a 
The town proper occupies an elevated promontory, washed on 
the north by the Charente and on the south and west by the 
Anguienne, a small tributary of that river. The more important 
of the suburbs lie towards the east, where the promontory joins 
the main plateau, of which it forms the north-westera extremity. 
The main line of the Orleans railway passes through a tunnel 
beneath the town. In i^ace of its ancient fortifications Angou- 
l€me Is endreled by boulevards known as the RempartSf from 
which fine views may be obtained in all directions. Within the 
town the streets are often dark and narrow, and, apart from the 
cathedral and the h6tel de ville, the architecture is of little 
interest. The cathedral of St Pierre (see Cathcdbal), a church 
in the Byzantine-Romanesque style, dates from the ixth and 
Z3th centuries, but has undergone frequent restontion, and was 
partly rebuflt in the latter half of the X9th century by the 
architect Paul Abadie. The fa^de, flanked by two towen with 
cupolas. Is decorated with arcades filled in with statuary and 
sculpture, the whole representing the Last Judgment. The 
crossing is surmojmted by a dome, and the extremity of the 
north transept by a fine square tower over 160 ft high. The 
h6tel de ville, also by Abadie, is a handsome modem structtire, 
but preserves two towen of the chAteau of the counts of Angou- 
Mme, on the site of which it is built. It contains museums of 
paintings and arehaeology. Angoultme is the seat of a bishop^ 
a prefect, and a court of assizes. Its public institutions include 
tribunals of fint instance and of coznmerce, a council of trade- 
arbitrators, a chamber of commerce and a branch of the Bank 
of France. It also has a lyc£e, training-colleges, a school of 
artillery, a library and several learned societies. It is a centre 
of the paper-making industry, with which the town has been 
connected since the 14th century Most of the mills are situated 
on the banks of the watercourses in the neighbourhood of the 
towiL The subsidiary industries, such as the nuinufacture of 
machinery and wire fabric, are of considerable importance. 
Iron and copper founding, brewing, taiming, and the manufacture 
of gunpowder, confectionery, heavy iron goods, gloves, boots 
and shoes and cotton goods are also carried on. Commerce it 
carried on in wine, brandy and building-stone. 

Angoultme (Iculisma) was taken by Qovis from the Visigoths 
in 507, and plundered by the Normans in the 9th century. In 
Z360 it was surrendered by the peace of Bretigny to the £n|^ish; 
they were, however, expelled in X373 by the troops of ChariM V., 
who granted the town numerous pri^eges. It suffered much 
during the Wan of Religion, especially in X568 after its capture 
by the Protestants under Coligny. 



The coantship of AngouMme dated from the 9th century, the 
most important of the early counts being William Taillefer, 
whose descendants held the title till the end of the lath century. 
Withdrawn from them on more than one occasjpn by Richard 
Coeur-de-Lion, it passed to King John of England on his marriage 
with Isabel, daughter of Count Adh£mar, and by her subsequent 
marriage in 1220 to Hugh X. passed to the Lusignan family, 
counts of Marche. On the death of Hugh XIII. in 1302 without 
issue, his possessions passed to the crown. In Z394 the countship 
came to the house of Orleans, a member of which, Francis I., 
became kjng of France in x 51 5 and raised it to the rank of duchy 
in favour of his mother Louise of Savoy. The duchy afterwards 
changed hands several times, one of its holcters being Charles of 
Valois, natural son of Charles IX. The last duke was Louis- 
Antoine, eldest son of Charles X., who died in 1844. 

See A. F. Li^vre, Angoulime: kistoire, imtUulums el monuments 
(Angoulftme, 1885). 

AN00UM0I8, an old province of France, nearly corre- 
q)onding to-day to the department of Charcnte. Its capital 
was Angoul^me. 

See Essai i'une biblioihi^ue historique de rAngoumois, by E. 
Castaigne (1845). 

ANQRA, or Ancra oq.Heroisuo ("Bay of Heroism," a 
name given it in 1829, to commemorate its successful defence 
against the Miguelist party), the former capiul of the Portuguese 
archipelago of the Azores, and chief town of an administrative 
district, comprising the islands of Terccira, St George and 
Graciosa. Pop. (1900) 10,788. Angra is built on the south 
coast of Terceira in 38' 38' N. and in 27* 13' W. It is the 
headquartera of a military command, and the residence of a 
Roman Catholic bishop; its principal buildings are the cathedral, 
military college, arsenal and oteervatory. The harbour, now of 
little commercial or strategic importance, but formerly a cele- 
brated naval station, is sheltered on the west and south-west by 
the promontory of Mt. Brazil; but it is inferior to the neighbour- 
ing ports of Ponta Delgada and Horta. The foreign trade is not 
large, and consists chiefly in the e^^rtation of pineapples and 
other fruit. Angra served as a refuge for Queen Maria II. of 
Portugal from 1830 to 1833. 

ANORA PEQUENA, «i bay in German South-West Africa, in 
26" 38' S., is" E., discovered by Bartholomew Diaz in 1487. 
F. A. E. Laderit2, of Bremen, established a trading station here 
in 1883, and his agent concluded treaties with the neighbouring 
chiefs, who ceded large tracts of country to the newcomers. 
On the 24th of April 1884 Lilderitz transferred his rights to the 
German imperial government, and on the following 7 th of 
August a German protectorate over the district was proclaimed. 
(See Africa, { 5, and German South-West Africa.) Angra 
Pequena has been renamed by the Germans Lilderita Bay, and 
the adjacent country is sometimes called Liideritzland. The 
harbour is poor. At the head of the bay is a small town, whence 
a railway, begun in 1906, runs east in the direction of Bechuana- 
hind. The surrounding country for many miles is absolute 
desert, except after rare but terrible thunderstorms, when the 
dry bed of the Little Fish river is suddenly filled with a turbulent 
stream, the water finding its way into the bay. 

The Islands off the coast of Angra Pequena, together with 
others north and south, were annexed to Great Britain in 1867 
and added to Cape Colony in 1874. Seal Island and Penguin 
Island are in the bay; Ichaboe, Mercury, and Hollam's Bird 
iriands are to the north; Halifax, Long, Possesion, Albatross, 
Pomona, Plumpudding, and Roastbeef islands are to the south. 
On these islands are guano deposits; the most valuable is on 
Ichaboe Island. 

ANQSTR5M, ANDERS JONAS (1814-1874), Swedish physicist, 
was boni on the Z3th of August 18x4 at LOgdQ, Medelpad, 
Sweden. He was educated at Upsala University, where in 
xi839 he became ^ival decent in physics. In 1842 he went to 
Stockholm Observatoiy in order to gain experience in practical 
astronomical work, and in the following year he became observer 
at Upsala Observatory. Becoming interested in terrestrial 
magnetism he made many observations of magnetic intensity 

and declination in various parts of Sweden, and was chaiged by 
Che Stockholm Academy of Sciences with the task, not completed 
till shortly before his death, of working out the magnetic data 
obtained by the Swedish frigate " Eugenie " on her voyage 
round the world in 1851-1853. In 1858 he succeeded Adolph 
Ferdinand Svanberg (1806-1857) in the chair of physics at 
Upsala, and there he died on the 2i6t of June 1874. His most 
important work was concerned with the conduction of heat and 
with spectroscopy. In his optical researches, Opliska Uttdersdk- 
fimgar, presented to the Stockholm Academy in 1853, he not 
only pointed out that the electric spark yields two superposed 
spectra, one from the metal of the electrode and the other from 
the gas in which it passes, but deduced from Eulcr's theory of 
resonance that an incandescent gas emits luminous rays of the 
same refrangibility as those which it can absorb. This statement, 
as Sir E. Sabine remarked when awarding him the Rumford 
medal of the Royal Society in 1873, contains a fundamental 
principle of spectrum analysis, and though for a number of years 
it was overlooked it entitles him to rank as one of the founders 
of spectroscopy. From x86x onwards he paid special attention 
to the solar spectrum. He announced the existence of hydrogen, 
among other elements, in the sun's atmo^here in 1862, and in 
x868 published his great map of the normal solar spectrum 
which long remained authoritative in questions of wave-length, 
although his measurements were inexact to the extent of one 
part in 7000 or 8000 owing to the metre which he used as his 
standard having been slightly too short. He was the first, in 
1867, to examine the q>ectrum of the aurora borealis, and 
detected and measured the characteristic bright line in its yellow 
green region; but he was mistaken in supposing that this same 
line, which is often, called by his name, is also to be seen in the 
zodiacal light. 

His son, Knut Johan Ancstr6m, was born at Upsala on the 
X2th of January 1857, and studied at the university of that town 
from X877 to X884. After spending a short time in Strassburg he 
was appointed lecturer in physics at Stockholm University in 
1885, but in X89X returned to Upsala, where in 1896 he became 
professor of physics. He ej^jecially devoted himself to investiga- 
tions of the radiation of heat from the sun and its absorption by 
the earth's atmosphere, and to that end devised various delicate 
methods and instruments, including his electric compensation 
pyrheliometer, invented in 1893, and apparatus for obtaining a 
photographic representation of the infra-red spectrum (1895). 

ANQUIBR, FRANCOIS (c. 1604-1669), and MICHEL (16x2- 
x686), French sculptora, were two brothers, natives of £u in 
Normandy. Their apprenticeship was served in the studio of 
Simon GuiUain. The chief works of Francois are the monument 
to Cardinal de B^rulk, founder of the Carmelite order, in the 
chapel of the oratoiy at Paris, of which all but the bust has been 
destroyed, and the mausoleum of Henri II., last due de Mont- 
morency, at Mouiins. To Michel are due the sculptures of the 
triumphal arch at the Porte St Denis, begun in 16/4, to serve 
as a memorial for the conquests of Louis XIV. A marble group 
of the Nativity in the church of Val de GrAce was reckoned 
bis masterpiece. From 1662 to 1667 he directed the progress of 
the sculpture and decoration in this church, and it was he who 
superintended the decoration of the apartments of Anne of 
Austria in the old Louvre. F. Fouquel also employed him for his 
ch&leau in Vaux. 

See Henri Stein, Lesffires A nguier (1889), with catalogue of works, 
and many references to original sources; Armand Sanson, Deux 
iculptews Normands: tesfrires Anguier (1889). 

ANGUILLA* or Snake, a small island in llie British Indies, 
part of the presidency of St Kitts-Nevis, in the colony of the 
Leeward Islands. Pop. (1901) 3890, mostly negroes. It is 
situated in i8' 12' N. and 63* 5' W., about 60 m. N.W. of St 
Kitts, is 16 m. long and has an area of 35 sq. m. The destruction 
of trees by charcoal-bumera has resulted in the almost complete 
deforestation of the island. Nearly all the land is in the hands ot 
peasant proprietors, who cultivate sweet potatoes, peas, beans, 
corn, &c., and rear sheep and goats. Cattle, phosphate of lime and 
salt, manufactured from a lake in the interior, arc the principal 



exports, the market for tlwse being the neighboariiig ishnd of 
St Thomas. 

AMOULATB (Lat. anztdus, an angle), shaped with comets or 
angles; an adjective used in botany and soology for the shape 
of steins, leaves and wings. 

AM0D8, BARL8 OP. Angus was one of the seven original 
earldoms of the Pictish kingdom of Scotland, said to have been 
occupied by seven brothers of whom Angus was the eldest. The 
Celtic line ended with Matilda {ft. 1240), countess of Angus in 
her own right, who married in 1943 Cilbert de Umfravill and 
founded the Norman line of three earls, which ended in 1581, the 
then holder of the title being summoned to the English parlia- 
ment. Meanwhile John Stewart of Bonkyl, co. Berwick, had been 
created eart ot Angus in a new line. Tliis third creation ended 
with Margaret Stewart, countess of Angus in her own right, and 
widow of Thomas, 13th earl ot Mar. By an irregular connexion 
with William, zst earl of Douglas, who had married Maf 's sister, 
she became the mother of George Douglas, ist earl of Angus 
U' 1380-1403), and secured a chatter of her estates for her son, 
to whom in 1389 the title was granted by King Robert II. He 
was taken prisoner at llomildon Hill and died in England. The 
5th eari was his great-grandson. 

AacHXBAU) Douglas, 5th earl of Angus {c. liso-c. 1514). 

the famous " Bell the-Cat," was botn about 1450 and succeeded 

his father, George the 4th earl, in 146a or 1463. In 1481 he was 

made warden of the east marches, but the next year he joined the 

league against James III. and his favourite Robert Cochrane 

at Lauder, where he earned his nickname by offering to bell the 

cat, f .«. to deal with the latter, beginning the attack upon him 

by pulling his gold chain off his neck and causing him with others 

of the king's favourites to be hanged. Subsequently he joined 

Alexander Stewart, duke of Albany, in league with Edward IV. 

of En^nd, on the iitb of February Z483, signing the convention 

at Westminster which acknowledged the overlordship of the 

English king. In March however they returned, outwardly at 

least, to their allegiance, and received pardons for their treason. 

Later Angus was one of the leaders in the rebellion against 

James in 1487 and 1488, which ended in the hitter's death. He 

was made one of the guardians of the young king James IV. but 

soon lost influence, being superseded by the Homes and Hepbums, 

and the wardenship of the marches was given to Alexander Home. 

Though outwardly on good terms with James, he treacherously 

made a treaty with Henry VII. about 1489 or 1491, by which he 

undertook to govern his relations with James according to 

instructions from England, and to hand over Hermitage Castle, 

commanding the pass through Liddcsdale into Scotland, on the 

condition of receiving English estates in compensation. In 

October 1491 he fortified his castle of Tantallon against James, 

but was obliged to submit and exchange his Liddesdale estate 

and Hermitage Castle for the lordship of BothwelL In 1493 

he was again in favour, received various grants of lands, and 

was made chancellor, which office he retained till 1498. In i sox 

he was once more in disgrace and confined to Dumbarton 

Castle. After the disaster at Flodden in i $13, at which he was 

not present, but at which he lost bis two eldest sons, Angus was 

appointed one of the counsellors of the queen regent. He died 

at the close of this year, or in 1 514. He was married three times, 

and by his first wife had four sons and several daughters. His 

third son, Gavin Douglas, bishop of Dunkeld, is separately 


Archibalo Douclas, the 6th eari (c, 1489-1557), son of 
Geoige, master of Douglas, who was killed at Flodden, succeeded 
on his grandfather's death. In 1509 he had married Margaret 
(d. 15x3), daughter of Patrick Hepburn, xst earl of BothwcU; 
and ini5i4 be married the queen dowager Margaret of Scotland, 
widow of James IV., and eldest sister of Henry VIII. By this 
latter act he stirred up the jealousy of the nobles and the opposi- 
tion of the French party, and civil war broke out. He was 
superseded in the government on the arrival of John Stewart, 
duke of Albany, who was made regent. Angus withdrew to his 
estates In Forfarshire, while Albany besieged the queen at 
Stirling and got possession of the royal children; then he joined 

Margaret after her flight at Morpeth, and on her departure for 
London returned and made his peace with Albany in X516. 
He met her once more at Berwick in June X5X7« when Margaret 
returned to Scotland on Albany's departure in vain hopes of 
tegaining the regency. Meanwhile, during Margaret's abience, 
Angus had formed a connexion with a daughter of the laird of 
Traquair. Margaret avenged his neglect of her by refusing to 
support his claims for power and by secretly trying through 
Albany to get a divorce. In Edinburgh Angus held his own 
against the attempts of James Hamilton, ist earl of Arran, to 
dislodge him. But the return of Albany in X53X, with whom 
Margaret now sided against her husband, deprived him of power. 
The regent took the government into his own hands; Angus was 
charged with high treason in December, and in March isa was 
sent practically a prisoner to France, whence he succeeded in 
escaping to London in X5»4. He returned to Scotland in 
November with promises of support from Henry VIII., with 
whom he made a close alliance. Margaret, however, refused to 
have anything to do with her husband. On the 23rd, therefore, 
Angus forced his way into Edinburgh, but was fired upon by 
Margaret and retreated to Tantallon. He now organized a large 
party of nobles against Margaret with the support of Henry VIII., 
and in February 1525 they entered Edinburgh and called a 
parliament. Angus was made a lord of the articles, was included 
in the council of regency, bore the king's crown on the opening 
of the session, and with Archbishop Beaton held the chief power. 
In March he was appointed lieutenant of the marches, and 
suppressed the disorder and anarchy on the border. In July 
the guardianship of the king was entrusted to him for a fixed 
period till the xst of November, but he refused at its close to 
retire, and advancing to Linlithgow put to flight Margaret and 
his opponents. He now with his followen engrossed all the 
power, succeeded in gaining over some of his antagonists, includ- 
ing Arran and the Hamiltons, and filled the public offices with 
Douglases, he himself becoming chancellor. " None that time 
dunt strive against a Doughts nor Douglas's man."* The young 
king James, now fourteen, was far from content under the 
tutelage of Angus, but he was closely guarded, and several 
attempts to effect his liberation were prevented, Angus com- 
pictely defeating Lennox, who had advanced towards Edinburgh 
with xo,ooo men In August, and subsequently taking Stirling. 
His Successes were consummated by a pacification with Beaton, 
and in 1527 and 1528 he was busy in restoring order through the 
country. In the latter year, on the nth of March, Margaret 
succeeded in obtaining her divorce from Angus, and about the 
end of the month she and her lover, Henry Stewart, were 
besieged at Stirling. A few weeks later, however, James suc- 
ceeded in escaping from Angus's custody, took refuge with 
Margaret and Arran at Stirling, and immediately proscribed 
Angus and all the Douglases, foii>idding them to come within 
seven miles of his person. Angus, having fortified himself in 
Tantallon, was attainted and his lands confiscated. Repeated 
attempts of James to subdue the fortress failed, and on one 
occasion Angus captured the royal artillery, but at length it 
was given up ds a condition of the truce between England 
and Scotland, and in May 1529 Angus took refuge with Henry, 
obtained a pension and took an oath of allegiance, Henry 
engaging to make his restoration a condition of peace. Angus 
had been chiefly guided in his intrigues with England by his 
brother, Sir George Douglas of Pittendricch (d. x5'52), master of 
Angus, a far cleverer diplomatist than himself. His life and 
lands were also declared forfeit, as were those of his uncle, 
Archibald Douglas of Kilspindie (d. 1535), who had been a friend 
of James and was known by the nickname of " Greysteel." 
These took refuge in exile. James avenged himself on such 
Douglases as lay within hb power. Angus's third sister Janet, 
Lady Glamis, was summoned to answer the charge of com- 
municating with her brothers, and on her failure to appear her 
estates were forfeited. In X537 she was trictt for conspiring 
against the king's life. She was found guilty and burnt on the 
Castle Hill, Edinburgh, on the 17th of July 1537. Her innocence 
I Lindsay of Pitacottie (1814), il. 3x4. 



has been generally assumed, but lytler {HtU. of ScoUandt iv. 
PP< 433 1 434) considered her guilty. Angus remained in England 
till 154a, joining in the attacks upon his countrymen on the 
border, while James refused all demands from Henry VIII. for 
his restoration, and kept firm to his policy of suppressing and 
extirpating the Douglas faction. On James V.'s dieath in 1543 
Angus returned to Scotland, with instructions from Henry to 
accomplish the marriage between Mary and Edward. His 
forfeiture was rescinded, his estates restored, and he was made 
a privy councillor and lieutenant-general. In x 543 he negotiated 
the treaty of peace and marriage, and the same year he himself 
ibarried Margaret, daughter of Robert, Lord Maxwell. Shortly 
afterwards strife between Angus and the regent Arran broke out, 
and in April 1544 Angus was taken prisoner. The same year 
Lord Hertford's marauding expedition, which did not apart the 
lands of Angus, made, him join the anti-English party. He 
entered into a bond with Airan and others to maintain their 
allegiance to Mary, and gave his support to the mission sent to 
France to offer the latter^s hand. In July x 544 he was anx>inled 
lieutenant of the south of Scothmd, and distinguished himself 
on the 27th of February 1545 in the victory over the English at 
Ancrum Moor. He still corresponded with Henry VIII., but 
nevertheless signed in 1546 the act cancelling the marriage and 
peace treaty, and on the loth of September commanded the van 
in the great defeat of Pinkie, when he again won fame. In 1548 
the attempt by Lennox and Wharton to capture him and punish 
him for his duplicity failed, Angus escaping after his defeat to 
Edinburgh by sea, and Wharton being driveil back to Carlisle. 
Under the regency of Mary of Lorraine his restless and ambitious 
character and the number of his retainers gave cause for frequent 
alarms to the government On the 3xst of August 1547 he 
resigned his earldom, obtaining a regrant sibi et suis kaertdibus 
masculis H suis' assignatis quibuscumque. His career was a long 
struggle for power and for the interests of his family, to which 
national considerations were completely subordinate. . He died 
in January i S57> By Margaret Tudor he had Margaret, his only 
surviving legitimate child, who married Matthew, 4th earl of 
Lennox, and was mother of Lord Damley. He was succeeded 
by his nephew David, son of Sir George Dougks of Pittendriech. 
Archibald Douglas, 8th eari, and earl of Morton (1555- 
1 588) , was the son of David, 7 th earl. He succeeded to the title 
and estates in 1558, being brought up by his uncle, the 4th*earl 
of Morton, a Presbyterian. In 1575 he was made a privy 
councillor and sheriff of Berwick, in 1574 lieutenant-general 
of Scotland, in 1577 warden of the west marches and steward 
of Fife, and in XS78 lieutenant-general of the realm. He gave 
a strong support to Morton during the attack upon the hitter, 
made a vain attempt to rescue him, and was declared guilty of 
high treason on the 2nd of June 1581. He now entered into 
corre^ondence with the EngUsh government for an mvasion of 
ScolUnd to rescue Morton, and on the latter's execution in June 
went to London, where he was welcomed by Elizabeth. After 
the raid of Ruthven in 1582 Angus returned to Scotland and was 
reconciled to James, but soon afterwards the king shook off the 
control of the earls of Mar and Cowrie, and Angus was again 
banished from the court In 1584 he joined the rebellion of 
Mar and Glamis, but the movement failed, and the insur- 
gents fled to Berwick. Later they took up their residence at 
Newcastle, which became a centre of Presbyterianism and of 
projects against the Scottish government, encouraged by 
Elizabeth, who regarded the banished lords as friends of the 
English and antagonists of the French interest In February 
1585 they came to London, and cleared themselves of the accusa- 
tion of plotting against James's life; a pkn was prepared for 
their rsstoration and for the overthrow of James Stewart, eari 
of Arran. In October they invaded Scotland and gained an 
easy victory over Arran, captured Stirling Castle with the king 
in Novembier, and secured from James the restoration of their 
estates and the control of the government. In 1586 Angus was 
appointed warden of the marches and lieutenant-general on the 
border, and performed good services in restoring ofder; but he 
was unable to overcome the king's hostility to the establishment 

of Presbyterian government In January xs86 he was granted 
the earldom of Morton with the lands entailed upon him by his 
uncle. He died on the 4th of August x 588. He was succeeded in 
the earldom by his cousin William, a descendant of the 5th earl. 
(For the Morton title, see Morton, James Douglas, 4th£ARL op.) 
WiLLUM Douglas, xoth earl (c. 1554-16x1), was the son of 
William, the 9th earl (i 533-1591). He studied at St Andrews 
University and joined the household of the earl of Morton. 
Subsequently, while visiting the French court, he became a 
Roman Catholic, and was in consequence, on his return, dis- 
inherited and placed under restraint Nevertheless he succeeded 
to his father's titles and estates in 1591, and though in 1592 
he was disgraced for his complicity in Lord BothweU's plot, 
he was soon liberated and performed useful services as the king's 
lieutenant in the north of Scotland. In July 1592, however, 
he was asking for help from Elizabeth in a plot with Erroll and 
other lords against Sir J(An Maitland, the channllor, and 
protesting his absolute rejection of Spanish offers, while in 
October he signed the Spanish Blanks (see Erroll, Francis 
Hay, 9th Earl or) and was imprisoned (on the discovery of the 
treason) in Edinburgh Castle on his return in January 1593. 
He succeeded on the 13th in escaping by the help of his countess, 
joinmg the earls of Huntly and ErroU in the north. They were 
offered an act of " oblivion " or " abolition " provided they 
renounced their religion or quitted Scotland. Declining these 
conditions they were declared traitors and " forfeited." They 
renuiined in rebellion, and in July X594 an attack made by them 
on AberdMn roused James's anger. Huntly and Erroll were 
subdued by James himself in the north, and Angus failed in an 
attempt upon Edinburgh in concert with the earl of BothwelK 
Subsequently in 1597 they all renounced their religion, declared 
themselves Presbyterians, and were restored to their estates 
and honours. Angus was again included in the privy council, 
and in June 1598 was appointed the king's lieutenant in southern 
ScotUnd, in which capacity he showed great zeal and conducted 
the " Raid of Dumfries," as the campaign against the Johnstones 
was called. Not long afterwards, Angus, offended at the advance- 
ment of Huntly to a marquisate, recanted, resisted all the argu- 
ments of the ministers to bring him to a " better mind," and 
was again excommunicated in x6o8. In 1609 he withdrew to 
France, and died in Paris on the 3rd of March x6xx. He was 
succeeded by his son William, as xith earl of Angus, afterwards 
xst marquis of Douglas (i 589-1660). The title is now held by the 
dukes of Hamilton. 

AUTRORlTlBS.--rfte Douglas Book, by Sir W. Frascr (rSSs); 
History ef the Houu of Douglas and A ngus, by D. Hume of Godacioft 
(1748, legendary in some respects) ; Utstory of tho House of Douglas, 
by Sir H7 Ma:xwell (1903). 

ANGUSSOLA or Angussciola, SOPHONISBA. ItaUan portrait 
painter of the latter half of the x6th century, was bom at Cremona 
about X535, and died at Palermo in 1626. In 1560, at the 
invitation of Philip II., she visited the court of Madrid, where 
her portraits elidled great commendation. Vandyck is said 
to have declared that he had derived more knowledge of the true 
principles of his art from her conversation than from any other 
source. She painted several fine portraits of herself, one of which 
is at Althorp. A fewj^cimens of her painting are to be seen 
at Florence and Madrid. She had three sisters, who were also 
celebrated artists. 

ANHALT, a duchy of Germany, and a constituent state of 
the German empire, formed, in 1863, by the amalgamation of 
the two duchies Anhalt-DesSau-Cttlhen lind Anhalt-Bernburg, 
and comprising all the various Anhalt territories which were 
sundered apart in X603. The country now Icnown as Anhalt 
consists of two larger portions— Eastern and Western Anhalt, 
separated by the interposition of a part of Prussian Saxony — 
and of five enclaves surrounded by Prussian territory, viz. 
Alsleben , MUhlingen ,Dombu rg,G6dni tz and Tilkerode- Abberode. 
The eastern and larger portion of the duchy is enclosed by the- 
Prussian government district of Potsdam (in the Prussian 
province of Brandenburg), and Magdeburg and Merseburg 
(belonging to the Prussian province of Saxony). The western 



or smiUer portion (the so-called Upper Duchy or Ballenstedt) 
b also enclosed by the two latter districts and, for a distance 
of 5 m. on the west, by the duchy of Brunswick. The western 
portion of the territory is undulating and in the eitreme south- 
west, where it forms part of the Harz range, mountainous, the 
Rxmberg peak attaining a height of 1900 ft. From the Hara 
the country gently shelves down to the Saale; and between this 
river and the Elbe there lies a fine tract of fertile country. The 
portion of the duchy lying east of the Elbe is mostly a flat 
sandy plain, with extensive pine forests, though interspersed, at 
intervals, by bog-land and rich pastures. The Elbe is the chief 
river, and intersecting the eastern portion of the duchy, from 
east to west, receives at Rosslau the waters of the Mulde. The 
navigable Saale takes a northerly direction through the western 
portion of the eastern ^part of the territory and receives, on 
the right, the Fuhne and, on the left, the Wipper and the Bode. 
The climate is on the whole mild, though somewhat inclement 
in the higher regions to the south-west. The area of the duchy is 
906 sq. m., and the population in 1905 amounted to 328,007, 
a ratio of about 351 to the square mile. The country is 
divided into the districts of Dessau, COthen, Zerbst, Bemburg 
and Ballenstedt, of which that of Bemburg is the most, and 
that of Ballenstedt the least, populated. Of the towns, four, 
▼iz. Dessau, Bemburg, Cdthen and Zerbst, have populations 
exceeding ao.ooa The inhabitants of the duchy, who mainly 
belong to the upper Saxon race, are, with the exception of about 
ia,ooo Roman Catholics and 1700 Jews, members of the Evan- 
gelical (Union) Church. The supreme ecclesiastical authority 
is the consistory in Dessau; while a synod of 39 members, 
elected for six' years, assembles at periods to deliberate on 
internal matters touching the organization of the church. The 
Roman Catholics are under the bishop of Paderbora. There 
are within the duchy four grammar schools (gymnasia), five 
iemi<las8ical and modem schools, a teachers' scminaiy and 
four high-grade girls' schools. Of the whole surface, land under 
tilUge amounts to about 60, meadowland to 7 and forest 
to 35%. The chief crops arc com (especially wheat), fruit, 
vegeubles, potatoes, beet, tobacco, flax, linseed and hops. 
The land is well cultivated, and the husbandxy on the royal 
domains and the large estates especially so. Ilic pastures on 
the banks of the Elbe yield cattle of excellent quality. The 
forests are well stocked with game, such as deer and wild boar, 
and the open country is wdl supplied with partridges. The rivers 
yield abundant fish, salmon (in the Elbe), sturgeon and lampreys. 
The country is rich in lignite, and salt works are abundant. 
Of the maxnifactures of Anhalt, the chief are its sugar factories, 
distilleries, breweries and chemical works. Commerce is brisk, 
especially in raw products — com, cattle, timber or wooL Coal 
(Ugnite), guano, oil and bricks are also articles of export The 
trade of the country is furthered by its excellent roads, its navig- 
able rivers and its railways (165 m.), which arc worked in con- 
nexion with the Prussian system. There is a chamber of 
commerce in Dessau. 

CanstUution.—Tht duchy, by virtue of a fundamental law, 
proclaimed on the 17th of September 1859 and subsequently 
modified by various decrees, is a constitutional monarchy. The 
duke, who bears the title of " Highness," wields the executive 
power while sharing the legislation with the Estates. The diet 
{Latidtagi is compcwed of thirty-six members, of whom two are 
appointed by the duke, eight are representatives of landowners 
paying the highest taxes, two of the highest assessed members 
of the commercial and manufacturing classes, fourteen of the 
other electors <^ the towns and ten of the rural districts. The 
representatives are chosen for six years by indirect vote and 
must have completed their twenty-fifth year. The duke governs 
through a minister of state, who is the praeses of all the depart- 
ment»— finance, home affairs, education, public worship and 
statisticL The budget estimates for the financial year 190$' 
1906 placed the expenditure of the csUte at £1,323,437 The 
public debt amounted on the 30th of June 1904 to £326,300. 
By convention with Prussia of 1867 the Anhalt troops form a 
contingent of the Prussian army- Appeal from the lower 

courts of the duchy lies to the appeal court at Naumburg m 
Prussian Saxony. 

HUtory — During the 1 ith century the greater part of Anhalt 
was included in the duchy of Saxony, and in the 1 2th century 
it came under the rule of Albert the Bear, margrave of Branden- 
burg. Albert was descended from Albert, count of Ballenstedt, 
whose son Esico (d. 1059 or 1060) appears to have been the first 
to bear the title of count of Anhalt Esico's grandson. Otto the 
Rich, count of Ballenstedt, was the father of Albert the Bear, 
by whom Anhalt was united with the mark of Brandenburg. 
When Albert died in 11 70, his son Bernard, who received the 
title of duke of Saxony in 1 180, became count of Anhalt Bernard 
died in 121 3, and Anhalt, separated from Saxony, passed to his 
son Henry, who in 1218 took the title of prince and was the real 
founder of the house of Anhalt On Henry's death in 1252 his 
three tons partitioned the principality and founded respectively 
the lines cl Aschersleben, Bemburg and Zerbst. The family 
ruling in Aschersleben became extinct in 131 5, and this district 
was subsequently incorporated with the neighbouring bishopric of 
Halberstadt The last prince of the line of Anhal t- Bernburg died 
in 1468 and his lands were inherited by the princes of the sole 
remaining line, that of Anhalt-Zerbst The territory belonging 
to this branch of the family had been divided in 1396, and after 
the acquisition of Bemburg Prince George L made a further 
partition of Zerbst Early in the i6th century, however, owing 
to the death or abdication of several princes, the family had 
become narrowed down to the two branches of Anhalt-Cdthcn 
and Anhalt-Dessau. Wolfgang, who became prince of Anhalt- 
Cdthen in 1508, was a stalwart adherent of the Reformation, 
and after the battle of Miihlberg in 1547 was placed under the 
ban and deprived of his lands by the emperor Chaijcs V. After 
the peace of Passau in is$2 he bought back his principality, 
but as he was childless he surrendered it in 1562 to his kinsmen 
the princes of Anhal t-Dcssau. Ernest I. of Anhalt-Dessau 
(d. 1516) left three sons, John II., George III., and Joachim, 
who ruled their lands together for many years, and who, like 
Prince Wolfgang, favoured the reformed doctrines, which thus 
became dominant in Anhalt About 1546 the three brothers 
divided their principality and founded the lines of Zerbst, 
Pldtzkau and Dessau. This division, however, was only 
temporary, as the acquisition of Cdthen, and a series ol dcatlu 
among the ruling princes, exubled Joachim Ernest, a son of John 
II., to unite the whole of Anhalt under his rule in 1570. 

Joachim Ernest died in 1586 and his five sons ruled the land 
in common until 1603, when Anhalt was again divided, and the 
lines of Dessau, Bernburg, PlOtzkau, Zerbst and C5then were 
refounded. The principality was ravaged during the Thirty 
Years' War, ^nd in the earlier part of this struggle Christian I. 
of Anholt-Bemburg took an important part. In 1635 ^^ 
arrangement was made by the various princes of Anhalt, which 
gave a certain authority to the eldest member of the family, 
who was thus able to represent the principality as a whole. This 
proceeding was probably due to the necessity of maintaining 
an appearance of unity in view of the disturbed state of European 
politics. In 1665 the branch of Anhalt-Cdthcn became extinct, 
and according to a family compact this district was inherited by 
Lebrecht of Anhalt- Pldtzkau, who surrendered Pldtzkau to Bern- 
burg,andtook the titleof princeof Anhalt^Cdthen. In the sameyear 
the princes of Anhalt decided that if any branch of the family 
became extinct its lands should be equally divided between the 
remaining branches. This arrangement was carried out after the 
death of Frederick Augustus of Anhalt-Zerbst in 1793, and Zerbst 
was divided between Uie three remaining princes. During these 
years the policy of the different princes was marked, perhaps 
intentionally, by considerable uniformity. Once or twice 
Calvinism was favoured by a prince, but in gcnctol the house was 
loyal to the doctrines of Luthen The growt{i of Prussia provided 
Anhalt with a formidable neighbour, and the establishment 
and practice of primogeniture by all branches of the family 
prevented further divisions of the principality. In z8o6 Alexius 
of Anhal t-Becnburg was created a duke by the emperor Francis II., 
and after the dissolution of the Empire each of the three princes 



took this title. Joining the Confederation of die Rhine in 1807, 
they supported Napoleon until 1813, when they transferred their 
allegiance to the sillies, in 1815 they became members of the 
Germanic Confederation, and in 1828 joined, somewhat reluct* 
antly, the Prussian ZoUvercin. 

Anhalt-COthen was ruled without division by a succession of 
princes, prominent among whom was Louis (d. 1650), who was 
both a soldier and a scholar, and after the death of Prince 
Charles at the battle of Semlin in 1789 it passed to his son 
Augustus II. This prince sought to emulate the changes which 
had recently been made in France by dividing Cdthen into two 
departments and introducing the Code Napoldon. Owing to his 
extravagance he left a large amount of debt to his nephew and 
successor, Louis II., and on this accoujtit the control of the 
finances was transferred from the prince to the estates. Under 
Louis*s successor Ferdinand, who was a Roman Catholic and 
brought the Jesuits into Anhalt, the state of the finances grew 
worse and led to the interference of the king of Prussia and. to 
the appointment of a Prussian official. When the succeeding 
prince, Henry, died in 1847, this family became extinct, and 
according to an arrangement between the lines of Anhalt-Dessau 
and Anhalt-Beroburg, Cdthen was added to Dessau. 

Anhalt-Bemburg had been weakened by partitions, but its 
prince? had added several districts to their landsi and in 181 a, 
on the extinction of a cadet branch, it was again united under a 
single ruler. The feeble rule of Alexander Charles, who became 
duke in 1834, and the disturbed state of Europe in the following 
decade, led to considerable unrest, and in 1849 Bcmburg was 
occupied by Prussian troops. A number of abortive attempts 
were made to change the government, and as Alexander Charles 
was unlikely to leave any children, Leopold of Anhalt-Dessau 
took some part in the affairs of Bernburg. Eventually in 1859 
a new constitution was established for Bernburg and Dessau 
jointly, and when Alexander Charles died in 1863 both were 
united under the rule of Leopold. 

Anhalt-Dessau had been divided in 1632, but was quickly 
reunited; and in 1693 it came under the rule of Leopold I. 
(see Anicalt-Dessau, Leopold I., Psince of), the famous soldier 
who was generally known as the " Old Dcssauer." The sons of 
Leopold's eldest son were excluded from the succession on account 
of the marriage of their father being morganatic, and the princi- 
pality passed in 1747 to his second son, Leopold II. The unrest 
of 1848 spread to Dessau, and led to the interference of the 
Prussians and to the estabh'shment of the new constitution in 
1859. Leopold IV., who reigned from 1817 to 1871, had the 
satisfaction in 1863 of reuniting the whole of Anhalt under his 
rule. He took the title of duke of Anhalt, summoned one 
Landtag for the whole of the duchy, and in 1866 fought for 
Prussia against Austria. Subsequently a quarrel over the posses- 
sion of the ducal estates between the duke and the Landtag 
broke the peace of the duchy, but this was settled in 1872. In 
Z87 1 Anhalt became a state of the German Empire. Leopold IV. 
was followed by his son Frederick I., and on the death of this 
prince in 1904 his son Frederick II. became duke of Anhalt. 

Authorities. — F. Knoke. Anhaltische CeschichU (Dessau, 189^); 
G. Krause, Urkunden, Aktenstucke und Brief e zur Ctschuhte 
der anhaliiscken Lande und ikrer FUrsUn unler dem Drucke des 
jojakrigen Krieges (Leipzig. 186 1-1866): O. von Heinemano. Codex 
dipUmaticus Anhaltinus (Dessau, i867>l880; Siebigk, Z7ai Her- 
togtkum Ankalt kutorisch^ geograpkisck utid ttatistisck dargestetlt 
(Dessau. 1867). 

ANHALT-DESSAU. LEOPOLD I.. Prince ot (1^76-1747), 
called the "Old Dessauer" (Alter Dessauer), general field marshal 
in the Prussian army, was the only surviving son of John George 
11., prince of Anhalt-Dessau, and was bom on the3rd of July 1676 
at Dessau. From his earliest youth he was devoted to the pro- 
fession of arms, for which he educated himself physically and 
mentally. He became colonel of a Prussian regiment in 1693, and 
in the same year his father's death placed him at the head of his 
own principality; thereafter, during the whole of his long life, he 
performed the duties of a sovereign prince and a Prussian officer. 
His first campaign was that of 1695 i° ^^^ Netheriands, in which 
he was present at the siege of Namur. He remained in the field 

to the end of the war of 1697, the affairs of the principah'ly being 
managed chiefly by his mother. Princess Henriette Catherine of 
Orange In 1698 he married Anna Luise Fdse, an apothecary's 
daughter of Dessau, in spite of his mother's long and earnest 
opposition, and subsequently he procured for her the rank of a 
princess from the emperor (1701). Their married life was long 
and happy, and the princess acquired an influence over the stern 
nature of her husband which she never ceased to exert on behalf 
of his subjects, and after the death of Leopold's mother she 
performed the duties of regent when he was absent on campaign 
Often, too, she accompanied him into the field. Leopold's career 
as a soldier in important commands begins with the outbreak of 
the War of the Spanish Succession. He had made many improve- 
ments in the Prussian amy, notably the introduction of the iron 
ramrod about 1700, and he now took the field at the head of a 
Prussian corps on the Rhine, serving at the sieges of Kaiserswerth 
and Venio In the following year ( 1 703 ) , having obtained the rank 
of lieutenant-general, Leopold took part in the siegeofBonnand dis- 
tinguished himself very greatly in the battle of Hdchstldt, in which 
the Austrians and their allies were defeated by the French under 
Marshal Villars (September 20, x 703). In the campaign of z 704 the 
Prussian contingent served under Prince Louis of Baden and sub- 
sequently under Eugene, and Leopold himself won great glory by 
his conduct at Blenheim. In 1705 he was sent with a Prussian 
corps to join Prince Eugene in Italy, and on the x6th of August 
he displajred hb bravery at the hard-fought battle of Cassana 
In the following year he added to his reputation in the battle of 
Turin, where he was the first to enter the hostile entrenchments 
(September 7, x 706). He served in one more campaign in Italy, 
andthen went withEugene to join MarlboroughintheNetherlands, 
being present in 1709 at the siege of Tournay and the battle of 
Malplaquet. In 17x0 he succeeded to the command of the whole 
Prussian contingent at the front, and in 1712, at the. particular 
desire of the crown prince, Frederick William, who had served 
with him as a volunteer, he was made a general field marshal. 
Shortly before this he had executed a coup de main on the castle 
of M6rs, which was held by the Dutch in defiance of the claims of 
the king of Prussia to the possession. The operation was effected 
with absolute precision and the castle was seized without a shot 
being fired. In the eariier part of the reign of Frederick William 
I., the prince of Dessau was one of the most influential members 
of the Prussian governing drde. In the war with Sweden <X715) 
he accompanied the king to the front, commanded an army oif 
40,000 men, and met and defeated Charles XII. in a severe battle 
on the island of Riigen (November x6). His conduct of the siege of 
Stralsund which followed was equally skilf ul,and the great results 
of the war to Prussia were largely to be attributed to his leader- 
ship in the campaign. In the years of peace,and especially after 
a court quarrel (1725) and duel with General von Grumbkow, he 
devoted himself to the training of the Prussian army* The reputa- 
tion it had gained in the wars of 1675 to 1715, though good, gave 
no hint of its coming glory, and it was even in 1 740 accounted one 
of the minor armies of Europe. That it proved, when put to the 
test, to be by far the best military force existing, may be taken 
as the summary result of Leopold's work. The " Old Dessauer " 
was one of the sternest disciplinarians in an age of stem discipline, 
and the technical training of the infantry, under his hand, made 
them superior to all others in the proportion of five to three (see 
AusTKUN Succession, War or the). He was essentially an 
infantry soldier; in his time artillery did not decide battles, but 
he suffered the cavalry service, in which he felt little interest, to 
be comparatively neglected, with results which appeared at 
Mollwitx. Frederick the Great formed the cavalry of Hohenfried- 
berg and Leuthen himself, but had it not been for the incompar- 
able infantry trained by the "Old Dessauer" he would never have 
had the opportunity of doing so. Thus Leopold, heartily sup- 
ported by Frederick William, who was himself called the great 
drill-master of Europe, turned to good account the twenty years 
following the peace with Sweden. During this time two incidents 
in his career call for special mention: first, his intervention in the 
case of the crown prince Frederick, who was condemned to death 
for desertion, and his continued and finally successful dforts to 



secure Frcderkk'a rdiisUteinent in the Prussiu ftrmy. and 
■econdly, his part in the War of the Polish Succession on the Rhine, 
where he served under his old cliief Eugene and hold the office of 
£eld marshal of the Empire. 

With the death of Frederick William in 1740, Frederick 

succeeded to the Prussian throne, and a few months later took 

place the invasion and conquest of Silesia, the first act in the long 

Silesian wars and the test of the work of the "Old Dessauer's'' 

lifetime. The prince himself was not often employed in the 

king's own army, though his sons held high commands under 

Frederick. The king, indeed, found Leopold, who was reputed. 

since the death of Eugene, the greatest of living soldiers, somewhat 

difficult to manage, and the prince spent most of the campaigning 

years up to 1745 in command of an army of observation on the 

Saxon frontier. Early in that year his wife died. He was now 

over seventy, but his last campaign was destined to be the most 

brilliant of his long career A combined effort of the Austrians 

and Saxons to retrieve the disasters of the summer by a winter 

campaign towards Berlin itself led to a hurried concentration of 

the Prussians. Frederick from Silesia checked the Austrian main 

army and hastened towards Dresden But before he had 

arrived, Leopold, no longer in observation, had decided the war by 

hb overwhelming victory of Kessclsdorf (December 14, 1 74 5) It 

was his habit to pray before battle, for he was a devout Lutheran. 

On this last field his words wcre« " Lord God, let me not be 

disgraced in my old days. Or if Thou wilt not help me, do not help 

these scoundrels, but leave us to try it ourselves.*' With this 

great victory Leopold's career ended. He retired from active 

service, and the short remainder of his life was spent at Dessau. 

where he died on the 7th of April 1747. 

He was succeeded by his son. Leopold II., Maximilian, Punce 
OF Anhalt-Dessau (i 700-1751), who was one of the best of 
Frederick's subordinate generals, and especially distinguished 
himfelf by the capture of Glogau in 174 1, and his generalship at 
Mollwitz, Chotusitz (where he was made general field marshal on 
the field of battle), Hohenfriedberg and Soor. 

Another son. Prince Dietrich of Anhalt-Dessau (d. 1769), 
was also a distinguished Prussian general. 

But the most famous of the sons was Prince Moriti or 
Anralt-Dessau (1712-1760), who entered the Prussian army in 
J 7 25. saw his first service as a volunteer in the War of the Polish 
Succession (i734-3S)> and in the latter years of the reign of 
Frederick William held important commands. In the Silesian 
wars of Frederick 11., Moritz. the ablest of the old Leopold's sons, 
greatly distinguished himself, especially at the battle of Hohcn* 
f riedberg (Striegau) ,1745 At Kesselsdorf it was the wing led by 
the young Prince Moritx that carried the Austrian lines and won 
the "Old Dessauer's" last fight. In the years of peace preceding the 
Seven Years' War. Moritz was employed by Frederick the Great 
in the colonizing of the waste lands of Pomerania and the Oder 
Valley When the king took the field again in 1756, Moritz was 
in command of one of the columns which hemmed in the Saxon 
army in the lines of Pirna, and he received the surrender of 
Rutowski's force after the failure of the Austrian attempts at 
relief. Next year Moritz underwent changes of fortune. At the 
battle of Rolin he led the left wing, which, through a misunder- 
standing with the king, was prematurely drawn into action and 
failed hopelessly In the disastrous days which followed, Moritz 
was under the cloud of Frederick's displeasure. But the glorious 
victoryofLeulhen (Decembers. i7S7)putanendtothis. At the 
close of that day, Frederick rode down the lines and called out to 
General Prince Moritz, "I congratulate you. Herr Fcldmarschalil" 
At Zomdorf he again distinguished himself, but at the surprise of 
Hochkirch fell wounded into the hands of the Austrians. Two 
years later, soon after his release, his wound proved mortal. 

Authorities. — Vamhagen von Enie. Preuss. bicgraphisehe Denk- 
male, vol. ii. (3rd ed.. 1872); MUUar Konversattons-Lexikon, 
%'ol. ii. (Leipzig, 1833): Anon.. Ftlrsl Leofwtd I von Anhalt und seine 
Sokne (Dessau. 1^2): 0- Pauli. Leben grosser Helden, vol. vi.; 
von Oriich. Prna Moritt von A nkaU-Dessau (Berlin, 1843) : Croutatx, 
MUiUkriuhe DenkmirdigkeiUn des Fursten Leopold von Anhalt-Dessau 
(i87i): supplements to MilUdr WockenblaU (1878 and J 889): 
Siebtgk, Silbssbiograpkie des Fnrsien Leopold von AnhaU-Dtssau 

Stcssau. i860 and 1876); Hoaus, Zur BiotraphU des Firdom 
opotd von Anhalt-Dessau (Dessau, 1876): Waidig. Des AUen 
Dessauers Leben und Taten (3rd ed., Dessau, 1903): Briefe Kinig 
Frkdrick Wdhetms I. an den Fursten L. (Bcriin. 1905)- 

ANHTDRITB. a mineral, differing chemically from the more 
commonly occurring gypsum in containing no water of crystal- 
lization, being anhydrous calcium sulphate, CaSOi. It crystal- 
lizes in the orthorhombic system, and has three directions of 
perfect cleavage parallel to the three planes of symmetry It is 
not isomorphons with the orthorhombic barium and strontium 
sulphates, as might be expected from the chemical formulae. 
Distinctly developed crystals arc somewhat rare, the mineral 
usually presenting the form of cleavage masses. The hardness 
is 3) and the specific gravity 2-9. The colour is white, sometimes 
greyish, bluish or reddish. On the best developed of the three 
cleavages the lustre is pearly, on other surfaces it is of the 
ordinary vitreous type 

Anhydrite is most frequently found in salt deposits with 
gypsum; it was, for instance, first discovered, in 1794, in a salt 
mine near Hall in Tirol. Other localities which produce typical 
specimens of the mineral, and where the mode of occurrence b 
the same, are Stassfurt in Germany, Aussec in Styria and Bex 
in Switzerland. At all these places it is only met with at some 
depth ; nearer the surface of the ground it has been altered to 
gypsum owing to absorption of water. 

From an aqueous solution calcium sulphate is deposited as 
crystals of gypsum, but when the solution contains an excess of 
sodium or potassium chloride anhydrite b deposited. Thb b 
one of the several methods by which the mineral has been 
prepared artificially, and is identical with its mode of 
origin in nature, the mineral having crystallized out in ^It 

The name anhydrite was given by A. 0. Werner in 1804, 
because of the absence of water, as contrasted with the presence 
of water in gypsum. Other names for the species are muriacite 
and karstenite, the former, an earlier name, being given under 
the impression that the substance was a chloride (muriate). 
A peculiar variety occurring as contorted concretionary masses 
is knoMm as tripC'Stone, and a scaly granular variety, from 
Vulpino. near Bergamo, in Lombardy, as vulpinite; the latter b 
cut and polished for ornamental purposes. (L. J. S.) 

AN! (anc Abnicum), an ancient and ruined Armenian city, in 
Russian Transcaucasia, government Erivan, situated at an 
altitude of 4390 ft., between the Arpa-chai {Harpasus) and a deep 
Irvine In 961 it became the capital of the Bagratid kings of 
Armenia, and when yielded to the Byzantine emperor (1046) it 
was a populous city, known traditionally as the '* city with the 
looi churches." It was taken eighteen years later by the Seljuk 
Turks, five times by the Georgians between 1125 and 1209, in 
1239 by the Mongols, and its ruin was completed by an earth- 
quake in 13 1 9. It is still surrounded by a doable wall partly in 
ruins, and amongst the remains are a " patriarchal " church 
finished in loio. two other churches, both of the nth century, 
a fourth built in 121 5, and a palace of large size. 

See Brossct. Les Ruines d'Ani (1860-1861) 

ANICETUS, pope c. 154-167 It was during hb pontificate 
that St Polycarp visited the Roman Church. 

ANICHINI, LUIGI, Italian engraver of seals and medals, a 
native of Ferrara, lived at Venice about 1550 Michelangelo 
pronounced his " Interview of Alexander the Great with the 
high-priest at Jerusalem," "the perfection of the art" Hb 
medals of Henry II of France and Pope Paul III are greatly 

organic base first obtained from the destructive distillation of 
indigo in 1826 by O Unvcrdorben (Pogg Ann., 1826. 8, p. 397)* 
who named it crystalline. Ini834. F Kungc {Pogg i4nn., 1834, 
31, p. 65. 32. p. 331) isolated from coal-tar a substance which 
produced a beautiful blue colour on treatment with chloride of 
lime; this he named kyanol or cyanol. In 1841, C J Fritzsche 
showed that by treating indigo with caustic potash it yielded an 
oil, which he named aniline, from the specific name of one of the 



indjgo-yiclding plants, Indigofera anii, anil being derived from 
the Sanskrit nUa, dark-blue, and nlld, the indigo plant. About 
the same time N. N. Zinin found that on reducing nitrobenzene, 
a base was formed which he named benzidam. A. W. von 
Hofmann investigated these variously prepared substances, and 
proved them to be identical, and thenceforth they took their 
place as one body, under the name aniline or phenylamine. 
Pure aniline is a basic substance of an oily consistence, colourless, 
melting at —8" and boiling at 184** C On exposure to air it 
absorbs oxygen and resinifics, becoming deep brown in colour; 
it ignites readily, burning with a large smoky flame. It possesses 
a somewhat pleasant vinous odour and a burning aromatic 
taste; it is a highly acrid poison. 

Aniline is a weak base and forms salts with the mineral acids. 
Aniline hydrochloride forms large colourless tables, which 
become greenish on exposure, it is the " aniline salt " of com- 
merce. The sulphate forms beautiful white plates. Although 
aniline is but feebly basic, it precipitates zinc, aluminium and 
ferric salts, and on warming expels ammonia from its salts. 
Aniline combines directly with alkyl iodides to form secondary 
and tertiary amines, boiled with carbon disulphide it gives 
sulphocarbanilide (diphenyl thio-urca), CS(NHC»Ht)s, which 
may be decomposed into phenyl mustard-oil, C»HtCNS, and 
triphenyl guanidine, CiH«N: C(NHCftH»)>* Sulphuric acid at 
x8o^ gives sulphanilic acid, NHi-CiH4-S0»H Anilidcs, com- 
pounds in which the amino group is substituted by an acid 
radical, are prepared by heating aniline with certain acids; 
antifebrin or acetanilide is thus obtained from acetic acid and 
aniline. The oxidation of aniline has been carefully investigated. 
In alkaline solution azobenzcne results, while arsenic acid pro- 
duces the violet-colouring matter violaniline. Chromic acid 
converts it into quinone, while chlorates, in the presence of 
certain metallic salts (especially of vanadium), give aniline black. 
Hydrochloric acid and potassium chlorate give chloranil. Potas- 
sium permanganate in neutral solution oxidizes it to nitro- 
benzene, in alkaline solution to azobenzene, ammonia and oxalic 
acid, in acid solution to aniline black. Hypochlorous acid gives 
para-amino phenol and para-amino diphenylamine (E. Bam- 
berger. Btr., 1898, 31, p. 1522). 

The great commercial value of aniline is due to the readiness 
with which it yields, directly or indirectly, valuable dyestuffs. 
The discovery of mauve in 1858 by Sir W. H. Perkin was the 
first of a series of dyestufis which are now to be numbered by 
hundreds. Reference should be made to the articles Dyeino, 
FucBSiNE, Safranine, Induunes, for more details on this 
subject. In addition to dyestuffs, it is a starting-product for 
the manufacture of many drugs, such as antipyrine, antifebrin, 
&c Aniline is manufactured by reducing nitrobenzene with 
iron and hydrochloric acid and steam-distilling the product. 
The purity of the product depends upon the quality of the 
benzene from which the nitrobenzene was prepared. In com- 
merce three brands of aniline are distinguisiicd — aniline oil for 
blue, which is pure aniline; aniline oil for red, a mixture of 
equimolecular quantities of aniline and ortho- and para-tolui- 
dincs; and aniline oil for safranine, which contains aniline and 
ortho-toluidine, and is obtained from the distillate {ichappis) of 
the fuchsine fusion. Monomcthyl and dimethyl aniline are 
colourless liquids prepared by heating aniline, aniline hydro- 
chloride and methyl alcohol in an autoclave at 220**. They are 
of great importance in the colour industry. Monomethyl anihne 
boils at 193-195", dimethyl aniUne at 192^ 

ANIMAL (Lat. animatis, from anima, breath, soul), a term first 
used as a noun or adjective to denote a living thing, but now used 
to designate one branch of living things as opposed to the other 
branch known as plants. Until the discovery of protoplasm, 
and the series of investigations by which it was established that 
the cell was a fundamental structure essentially alike in both 
animals and plants (see Cytology) , there was a vague belief 
that plants, if they could really be regarded as animated crea- 
tures, exhibited at the most a lower grade of life. We know now 
that in so far as life and living matter can be investigated by 
science, animab and plants cannot be described as being alive 

in different degrees. Animals and plants are extremely closely 
related organisms, alike in their fundamental characters, and each 
grading into organisms which possess some of the characters of 
both classes or kingdoms (see Prohsta). The actual boundaries 
between animab and plants are artificial; they are rather due to 
the ingenious analysis of the systematist than actually resident in 
objective nature. The most obvious distinction is that the animal 
cell-wall is either absent or composed of a nitrogenous material, 
whereas the plant cell-wall is composed of a carbohydrate 
material— cellulose. The animal and the plant alike require food 
to repair waste, to build up new tissue and to provide material 
which, by chemical change, may liberate the energy which 
appears in the processes of life. The food is alike in both cases; 
it consists of water, certain inorganic salts, carbohydrate 
material and proteid material. Both am'mals and plants take 
their water and inorganic salts directly as such. The animal 
cell can absorb its carbohydrate and proteid food only in the 
form of carbohydrate and proteid; it is dependent, in fact, on 
the pre-existence of these organic substances, themselves the 
products of living matter, and in this respect the am'mal is 
essentially a parasite on existing animal and plant life. The 
plant, on the other hand, if it be a green plant, containing chloro- 
phyll, is capable, in the presence of light, of building up both 
carbohydrate material and proteid material from inorganic 
salts, if it be a fungus, devoid of chlorophyll, whilst it is de- 
pendent on pre-existing carbohydrate material and is capable 
of absorbing, Uke an animal, proteid material as such, it is able 
to build up its proteid food from material chemically simpler 
than proteid. On these basal differences are founded most of 
the characters which make the higher forms of animal and plant 
life so different. The animal body, if it be composed of many 
cells, follows a different architectural plan; the compact nature 
of its food, and the yielding nature of its cell-walls, result in a 
form of structure consisting essentially of tubular or spherical 
masses of cells arranged concentrically round the food-cavity. 
The relatively rigid nature of the plant cell-wall,' and the attenu- 
ated inorganic food-supply of plants, make possible and neces- 
sary a form of growth in which the greatest surface is exposed 
to die exterior, and thus the plant body is composed of flattened 
laminae and elongated branching growths. The distinctions 
between animals and plants are ia fact obviously secondary 
and adaptive, and point clearly towards the conception of a 
common origin for the two forms of life, a conception which 
is made still more probable by the existence of many low forms 
in which the primary differences between animals and plants 
fade out. 

An animal may be defined as a living organism, the protoplasm 
of which does not secrete a cellulose cell-wall, and which requires 
for its existence proteid material obtained from the living or 
dead bodies of existing plants or animals. The common use of 
the word animal as the equivalent of mammal, as opposed to 
bird or reptile or fish, is erroneous. 

The classification of the animal kixigdom is dealt with in the 
article Zoology (P. C. M.) 

ANIMAL HEAT. Under this heading is discussed the 
physiology of the temperature of the animal body. 

The higher animals have within their bodies certain sources 
of heat, and also some mechanism by means of which both the 
production and loss of heat can be regulated. This is conclusively 
shown by the fact that both in summer and winter their mean 
temperature remains the same. -But it was not until the intro- 
duction of thermometers that any exact data on the temperature 
of animals could be obtained. It was then found that local 
differences were present, since heat production and heat loss 
vary considerably in different parts of the body, although the 
circulation of the blood tends to bring about a mean temperature 
of the internal parts. Hence it is important to determine the 
temperature of those parts which most nearly approaches to 
that of the internal organs. Also for such results to be compar- 
able they must be made in the same situation. The rectum 
gives most accurately the temperature of internal parts, or in 
women . and some animals the vagina, uterus or bladder. 


XL 1 











OccasioDally that « the urine es it leaves the urethn may be 
of use. More usually the temperature is taken in the mouth, 
aziUa or groin. 

Warm and Cold Blooded Animals. — ^By numerous observations 
upon men and *ntinAl<i, John Hunter showed that the essential 
difference between tlie so-called warm-blooded and cold-blooded 
^w iiTtaU lies in the constant of the temperature of the former, 
end the variability of the temperature of the latter. Those 
^inimaU high in the scale of evolution, as birds and mammals, 
have a high temperature almost constant and independent of 
that of tlM surrounding air, whereas among the lower animals 
there is much variation of body temperature, dependent entirely 
OQ their surroundings. There are, however, certain mammals 
which are exceptions, being warm-blooded during the summer, 
but cold-blooded during the winter when they hibernate; such 
are the hedgehog, bat and dormouse. John Hunter suggested 
that two groups should be known as " animals of permanent 
heat at all atmoH>heres " and " animals of a heat variable with 
every atmosphere," but later Bergmann suggested that they 
should be known as " homoiothermic " and " poikilothermic " 
animals. But it must be re- 
membered there is no hard and ^o"'' «/ «rt'*'«J' ««</ tuork. 

fast line between the two ,^ '^ 

groups. Abo, from work re- 
cently done by J. O. Wakelin 
Barratt, it has been shown that 9M 
under certain pathological con- 
ditions a warm-blooded (homoi- 
othermic) animal may become 
for a time oold-blooded (poiki- 
lothermic). He has shown 
conclusively that this condition 
exists in rabbitf suffering from 
rabies during the last period of 
their life, the rectal temperature 
being then within a few degrees ^^ 
of the room temperature and g|^ 
varying with it He expkiins 
this condition by the assump- ^'' 
tion that the nervous mechan- or-e 
ism of heat regulation has 
beccMne paralysed. The re- 
spiration and heart-rate being 07-2 
also retarded during this period, 
the resemblance to the condition 

of hibernation is considerable. Again, Sutherland Simpson has 
shown that during deep anaesthesia a warm-blooded animal tends 
to take the same temperature as that of its environment. He 
deoionstrated that when a monkey is kept deeply anaesthetized 
with ether and is placed in a cold chamber, its temperature gradu- 
ally falls, and that when it has reached a suffidently low point 
(about 25** C. in the mcttkey), the employment of an anaesthetic is 
no longer necessary, the animal then being insensible to pain and 
incapable of being roused by any form of stimulus; it is, in fact, 
narcotized by cold, and is in a state of what may be called 
** artifidaT hibernation." Once again this is explained by the 
fact that the heat-regulating mechanism has been interfered 
with. Similar results have been obtained from experiments on 
<ats. These facts — with many others — tend to show that the 
power of maintaining a constant temperature has been a gradual 
development, as Darwin's theory of evolution suggests, and that 
anything that interferes i^ith the due working of the higher 
nerve-centres puts the animal back again, for the time being, on 
to a lower plane of evolution. 

Variations in the Temper (Uun of Man and some other Animals. — 
As stated above, the temperature of warm-blooded animals is 
maintained with but slight variation. In health under normal 
conditions the temperature of man varies between 36" C. and 
38* C, or if the thermometer be placed in the axilla, between 
36-25* C. and 37-5* C. In the mouth the reading would be from 
•25^ C. to X'5° C. higher than this; and in the tectum some -if C. 
higher still. The temperature of infants and young children 
II. 3 

has a much greater range than this, and is susceptible of wide 
divergencies from comparatively slight causes. 

Of the lower warm>bIooded animals, there are some that 
appear to be cold-blooded at birth. Kittens, rabbits and puppies, 
if removed from their surroundings shortly after birth, lose their 
body heat until their temperature has fallen to within a few 
degrees of that of the surrounding air. But such animals are at 
birth blind, helpless and in some cases naked. Animals who are 
bom when in a condition of greater development can maintain 
their temperature fairly constant. In strong, healthy infants 
a day or two old the temperature rises slightly, but in that of 
weakly, ill-developed children it either remains stationary or 
falls. The cause of the variable temperature in infants and 
young immature animals is the imperfect development of the 
nervous regulating mechanism. 

The average temperature falls slightly from infancy to puberty 
and again from puberty to middle age, but after that stage is 
passed the temperature begins to rise again, and by about the 
eightieth year is as high as in infancy. A diurnal variation has 
been observed dq>endent on. the periods of rest and activity, 

Hours of re»t and sletp. 

37 58 




the maximum ranging from xo to 6 p.u., the minimum from 
I X P.M. to 3 XM. Sutherland Simpson and J. J. Galbraith have 
recently done much work on this subject In their first experi- 
ments they showed that in a monkey there is a well-marked and 
regular diurnal variation of the body temperature, and that by 
reversing the daily routine this diurnal variation is also reversed. 
The diurnal temperature curve follows the periods of rest and 
activity, and is not dependent on the incidence of day and night; 
in monkeys which are active during the night and resting during 
the day, the body temperature b highest at night and lowest 
through the day. They then made observations on the tempera- 
ture of animals and birds of nocturnal habit, where the periods 
of rest and activity are naturally the reverse of the ordinary 
through habit and not from outside interference. They found 
that m nocturnal birds the temperature is highest during the 
natural period of activity (night) and lowest during the period 
of rest (day), but that the mean temperature is lower and the 
range less than in diurnal birds of the same size. That the 
temperature curve of diurnal birds is essentially similar to that 
of man and other homoiothermal animals, except that the 
maximum occurs earlier in the afternoon and the minimum 
earlier in the morning. Also that the curves obtained from 
rabbit, guSnea-pig and dog were quite similar to those from man. 
The mean temperature of the female was higher than that of the 
male in all the species examined whose sex had been determined. 
Meals sometimes cause a slight elevation, sometimes a slight 
depre8iionr-7«lcohol seems always to produce a falL Exercise 



ulivc citrciie the Itmpenlure don not riw more Ihin 
degree, ind if carried to eihiustion a (all ii obierved. 
■ravelling Iruin very cold to very hot ngioni a vatialion ol 
ihan one degree occurs, and (he lempcraiure of IhoK livii 
■he iiDidci ii pnctically idenlical with those dwelling in 

ic region 

uilli tiyr.— There 

looded animal can 
cold-blooded animal rr 

The (Beet ol H 
hence 10 lessen the ptoduciion of hen 
anabolic changes (hare in iht dcpcesiian, 
[> used up, still leu energy is gtner 

, and other far wid 

endure and yet liv 

on the central nervous 

yjlcm. especially 

the biain and those 

heart-beat and respira 

jupervenci. beromin 

steadity deeper until 

' ljT" 

Mo the 

sleep of death. Occ 

aiionally, however, con 

In towaidi the end. 

nd a death somewhat 

uinilar to 

that of 

asphyiia takes plac . ^ii aumi- it-t-i-uL 1.1*11 
performed by SutherUnd Simp«n and Percy 

T- lIcrruTf! th^y 

found then, unable 

was reduced below iti 

C- At this low lempt 

ttan If 


usually c 


alter respitation had ceased, the beau becom 

ng very 

apparently ceasing. 

hen beginning again. 



.0 be mainly due to 

asphyiria, and the only 



it had Uken place w 

as tbe losa of knee jer 

.3. On t 

he other 

hand, loo high a tem 

rwraiure hunie* on the 

in of the 

a rate that their capital 


Blood that is too wa 

™ produces dyspnoea a 


the metabolic capital 

ol the respiratory ccn 

re. The 

rale of 


Ihebcati then became i 


d finally 

cease. The central >i 

rvous system ij also pr 



id tht p^ 

changes can be watched in any patied 
fever. The lower limit of lemperat 

ol 45" C. (1 ij" r.l or abive (or very I 
becomes rigid with heat rigor at about 51 


d the 

I lemperatui 

iss of the ai 

C,, and obviously sh 
laacQ rigidity of the w 
H. M. Vernon has rcce 
: and paralysis tempera 

death temperati 

the body, Ctilui having Ion 

amount of sdid; in its bod) 

imalt he sluiwcd a : 

s of 

e higher animals hii 

colDplasm, and ben 

-The beat of the body is general 

the chemical and physical 
giealer variation in the ei( 
Rtfulalua ej Ttmperati 
by the chEmicaJ changes'—Lhc 
byanypariicularsubstancc or in anyone place, but by tbe tissues 
■t large. ^\'beRver destructive metabolism (kaUboIism) is 
(dng on, heat is being set free. When a muscle does woiIl it 
also gives rise to heal, and if this is estimated it can be shown 
that the muscles alone during their coDtractJons provide far 
more heat than (he whole amount given out by the body. Also 
it must be remembered that the heart— also a muscle, — never 
Cfstini, does In the 14 hours no inconsiderable amount of work, 
and hence must give rise to no inconsiderable amount of heat. 
From this it is clear that tbe larger proportion of total heal of 
the body is supplied by the muscles. These IR essentially the 
" thermogenic tissues-" Neit to the muscles as beat generaiora 

come (he varioui secretory ^nds. especially the Uver, wbicb 
appears never to rest in this respect. The brain ibo must ba 
a source of heat, since its lempertlute is higher than that of tbe 
arterial blood with which it is supplied. Alto > cettiin amount 
of heat is produced by the changes which tbe food undergoe* 
in the alimentary canal before it really enter* the body. But 
heat while continually being produced is also continually being 
lost by the skin, lungs, urine and faeces. And it is by the constant 
modification of Iheae two factors, (t) heat production and (1) 
beat loss, that the constant temperature of a warm-blooded 
animal is maintained- Heat Is lost to the body through tbe 

the skin, and by evaporation of perqHration. The (irilowing 
areapproiimaidy the relative amounts of heat lost through these 
various channels {different authorities give lomewhal different 
figures).-— faeces and urine about 3, respiration about 10, skin 
(conduction, radiation and evaporation) about ;;. Hence it 
is clear the chief means of loss are the skin and the lungs. The 
In and out of the lungs in a given time, 

ration becomes 

the greater the loss c 

ivho do not perspire easily by the ! 

far more imporunt. 

But for man the gitat beat regulator is undoubtedly the skin, 
which regulates heat loss by its vasomotor mechanism, and 
also by the nervous mechanism of perspiration. Dilatation ol 
the cutaneous vascular areas leads to a larger flow of Mood 
through the skin, and so tends to cool the body, and rite KriS- 
Also the special nerves of perspiration on increase or lessen 
heat loss by promoting or diminishing the secretions of the 
skin- There are greater difficulties in the exact determination 
in the amount of heat produced, but there are certain well- 
known facts In conneiioD with it- A larger living body naturally 
produces more heal than a smaller one of the sime nature, but 
the lutface (A the inullcr, being greater in proportion to Its 
bulk than that of the larger, loses heal at a more rapid rate. 
Hence to maintain iIk same constant bodily temperature, the 
smaller animal must produce a relatively larger amount of heat. 
And in the struggle for existence this has become sO- 

Food temporarily increases the production of heat, therate 
of production steadily rising after a meal untH a maximum il 
reached Irom about the 6ih to the gth hour. If sugar be included 

I (hem 

cached ei 

; if munly fa 

^f^scuIac work very largely increases the production of heal, 
and hence (he inoce aclive the body the greater the produclioD 

But all the arrangements In the animal economy for the pro- 
iction and loss of heat are themselves probably regulated 
' (be central nervous lyiiem. tbere being a thermogenic centre 
situated above the spinal coid, and according to some obser ven 
(he optic (lulamui. 


, covering facts 

AHIMAL WORSHIP, an ill-di 
ranging from the worship of Ihe teal divine ai 

ceived as a " god-body," at one end of the scale, to respect 
Lbe bones of a slain animal or even the use of a respectful 
ie for the living animal at the other end- Added to this, 
oany works on lbe subject we find reliance placed, especially 
(he Alrican facts, on reports of travellers who were merely 
tors (0 the regions on which tbey wrote.' 



CUsiifUaH«n.—ABimal cults may be cbssified in two ways: 
(A) according to tBeir outward fonn; (B) according to their 
inwmzd nMT"*"g, which may of course undergo transformations. 

(A) There are two broad divisions: (i) all animals of a given 
species are sacred, perhaps owing to the impossibility of dis- 
ttppiim^ing the sacred few from the profane crowd; (a) one or 
a fixed number of a species are sacred. It is probable that the 
first of these forms is the primary one and the second in most 
cases a development from it due to (i.) the influence of other 
individual cults, (ii.) anthropomorphic tendencies, (iil) the 
influence of chief taiuUiip, hereditary and otherwise, (iv.) annual 
sacrifice of the sacred animal and mystical ideas connected 
therewith, (v.) syncretism, due either to unity of function or to 
a philosophic unification, (vi.) the desire to do honour to the 
spedes in the person of one (rf its members, and possibly other 
less easily traceable causes. 

(B) Treating cults according to their meaning, which is not 
necessarily identical with the cause which first led to the deifica- 
tion of the animal in question, we can classify them under ten 
specific heads: (L) pastoral cults; (ii.) hunting cults; (iii.) cults 
of dangerous or noxious animals; (iv.) cults of animals regarded 
as human souls -or their embodiment; (v.) totemistic cults; 
(vi.) cults of secret societies, and individual cults of tutelary 
animals; (vii.) cults of tree and vegetation spirits; (viii.) cults of 
ominous animals; (ix.) cults, probably derivative, of animals 
associated with certain deities; (x.) cults of animals used in 

(L) The putoral type falls into two sub-typet, in which the wptcita 
(a) is spAred and (6j aomecimes receives special honour at intervals 
in the person of an mdividual. (Sec Cattu, Buffalo, below.) 

(ii.) In hunting cults the species is habitually killed, but (a) 
«Kca«onaUy homMued in the person of a single individual, or (fr) 
each slaughtered aninul receives divine honours. (See Bnr, below.) 

(iii.) The cult of dangerous animals is due (a) to the fear that the 
tool of the slain beast may take vengeance on the hunter. (6) to a 
desire to placate the rest of the species. (See Leopard, below.) 

(iv.) Animals are frequently regarded as the abode, temporary, or 
permanent, of the souls of the dead, sometimes as the actual souu of 
the dead. Respect for them is due to two main reasons: (a) the 
kinsmen of the dead desire to preserve the goodwill of their dead 
relatives; (b) they wish at the same time to secure that their kinsmen 
aie not molested aad caused to undergo unnecessary suffering. (See 
Serpent, below.) 

(v.) One of the' most widely found modes of showing respect to 
animals is known as totemism (see Totem and Totemism), but 
duepc in decadent forms there b but little positive worship; in 
Cential Australia, however, the rites of the Wollunaua totem group 
are directed towards placaring this mythical animal, and cannot be 
termed anything but religious ceremonies. 

(vi.) In secret societies we find bodies of men grouped together 
with a single tutelary animal: the individual, in the same way, 
acquires the nagual or individual totem, sometimes by ceremonies 
of the nature of the bloodbond. 

(vii.) Spirits of venation in ancient and modern Europe and in 
China are conceived m animal form. (Sec Coat, below.) 

(viit.) The ominous animal or bird may develop into a deity. (See 
Hawk, betow.) 

(ix.) It b commonly assumed that the animab associated with 
certain deities are sacred because the god was originally therio> 
morphic: this is doubtless the case in certain instances; but Apollo 
Smtntheus, Dionysus Bassareus and other examples seem to show 
that the god may have been appealed to for help and thus become 
associated with the animals from whom he protected the crops, Ac. 

(x.) The use of animals in magic may sometimes give rise to a kind 
of respect for them, but this b of a negative nature. See, however, 
articles by Preuss m CMnu,\o\.[xvu., in which he maintauns that 
animab of nuigical influence are devated into divinities. 

Bear. — ^The bear enjoys a large measure of respect from all 
savage races that come in contact with it, which shows itsdf in 
apologies and in festivals in its honour. The most 
important developments of the cult are in East Asia 
among the Siberian tribes; among the Ainu of Sak- 
halin a young bear is caught at the end of winter and fed for 
some nine months; then after receiving honours It b killed, and 
the people, who previously show marks of grief at its approaching 
fate, dance merrily and feast on its body. Among the Gilyaks a 
cimilar festival is found, but here it takes the form of a celebration 
in honour of a recently dead kinsman, to whom the spirit of the 
bear is tent Whether this feature or a cult of the hunting type 


was the primary form, is so iar an open question. Then Si a 
good deal of evidence to connect the Greek goddess Artemis 
with a cult of the bear; girls danced as " bears" in her honour, 
and might not marry before undergoing this ceremony. The 
bear u traditionally associated with Bern in Switzerland, and in 
1832 a statue of Artio, a bear goddess, was dug up there. 

BHffala.—Tht Todas of S. India abstain from the flesh of their 
domestic animal, the buffalo; but once a year they sacrifice a 
bull calf, which b eaten in the forest by the adult males. 

Cattle. — Cattle are respected by many pastoral peoples; they 
live on milk or game, and the killing of ,an ox b a sacrificial 
function. Conspicuous among Egyptian animal cults was that 
of the bull. Apis. It was dbtingubbed by certain marks, and 
when the old Apb died a new one was sought; the finder was 
rewarded, and the bull underwent four months' education at 
NilopoUs. Its birthday was celebrated once a year; oxen, 
which had to be pure white, were sacrificed to it; women were 
forbidden to approach it when once its education was finished. 
Orades were obtained from it in various ways. After death it 
was mummified and buried in a rock-tomb. Less widespread 
was the cult of the Mnevb, also consecrated to Osiris. Similar 
observances are fotud in our own day on the Upper Nile; the 
Nuba and Nuer worship the bull; the Angoni of Central Africa 
and the Sakalava of Madagascar keep sacred bulb. In India 
respect for the cow » widespread, but b of post-Vedic origin; 
there b little actual worship, but the products of the cow are 
important in magic. 

Crow. — The crow b the chief deity of the Thlinkit Indians of 
N. W. America; and all over that region it b the chief figure in a 
group of myths, fulfilling the office of a culture hero who brings 
the light, gives fire to mankind, &c Together with the eagle- 
hawk the crow plays a great part in the mythology of S.E. 

Dog. — Actual dog- worship U uncommon; the Nosarii of 
western Asia are said to worship a dog; the KaUngs of Java 
had a cult of the red dog, each family keeping one in the house; 
according to one authority the dogs are images of wood which 
are worshipped after the death of a member of the family and 
burnt after a thousand days. In Nepal it b said that dogs are 
worshipped at the festival called Khicha Puja. Among the 
Harranians dogs were sacred, but this was rather as brothers of 
the mystae. 

Elephant. — In Siam it is believed that a white dephant may 
contain the soul of a dead person, perhaps a Buddha; when one 
b taken the capturer b rewarded and the animal brought to the 
king to be kept ever afterwards; it cannot be bought or sold. 
It is baptised and fited and mourned for like a human being at 
its death. In some parts of Indo-China the belief is that the soul 
of the elephant may injure people after death; it is therefore 
f^ted by a whole village. In Cambodia it is held to bring luck 
to the kingdom. In Sumatra the elephant b regarded as a 
tutelary spirit. The cult of the white elephant b also found at 
Ennarea, southern Abyssinia. 

Fish. — Dagon seems to have been a fish-god with human head 
and hands; his worshippers wore fish-skins. In the temples of 
Apollo and Aphrodite were sacred fish, which may point to a 
fish cult. Atargalis is said to have had sacred fish at Askelon, 
and from Xenophon we read that the fbh of the Chains were 
regarded as gods. 

Coat. — Dionysus was believed to take the form of a goat, 
probably as a divinity of vegetation. Pan, Silenus, the Satyrs 
and the Fauns were cither capriform or had some part of their 
bodies shaped like that of a goat In northern Europe the wood 
spirit, Ljcschc, is believed to have a goat's horns, ears and legs.* 
In Africa the Bijagos are said to have a goat as their principal 

Uare. — In North America the Algonquin tribes had as their 
chief deity a " mighty great hare " to whom they went at death. 
According to one account he lived in the cast, according to 
another in the north. In his anthropomorphized form he was 
known as Mcnabosho or Michabo. 

Hawk,— In North Borneo we seem to see the evolution of a 



god In the three stages of the cult of the hawk among the Ken- 
yahs, the Kayans and the sea Dyaks. The Kenyahs will not 
kill it, address to it thanks for assistance, and formally consult 
it before leaving home on an expedition; it seems, however, 
to be regarded as the messenger of the supreme god Balli Penya- 
long. The Kayans have a hawk-god, Laki Neho, but seem to 
regard the hawk as the servant of the chief god, Laki Tcnangan. 
Singalang Burong, the hawk-god of the Dyaks, is completely 
anthropomorphired. He is god of omens and ruler of the omen 
birds; but the hawk is not his messenger, for he never leaves 
his house; stories are, however, told of his attending feasts in 
human form and flying away in hawk form when all was over. 

Horse.— Then is some reason to believe that Poseidon, like 
other water gods, was originally conceived imder the form of a 
horse. In the cave of Phigalia Demeter was, according to 
popular tradition, represented with the head and mane of a 
horse, possibly a relic of the time when a non-specialized corn- 
spirit bore this form. Her priests were called Poloi (colts) in 
Laconia. In Gaul we find a horse-goddess, Epona; there are 
also traces of a horse-god, Rudiobus. The Gonds in India 
worship a horse-god, Koda Pen, in the form of a shapeless stone; 
but it Is not clear that the horse is regarded as divine. The 
horse or mare is a common form of the corn-spirit in Europe. 

Leopard. — ^The cult of the leopard is widely found in West 
Africa. Among the Ewe a man who kills one is liable to be put 
to death; no leopard skin may be exposed to view, but a stuffed 
leopard is worshipped. On the Gold Coast a leopard hunter 
who has killed his victim is carried round the town behind the 
body of the leopard; he may not speak, must besmear himself 
so as to look like a leopard and imitate its movements. In 
Loango a prince's cap is put upon the head of a dead leopard, 
and dances are held in its honour. 

Lion. — The lion was associated with the Egyptian gods R€ 
and Horns; there was a lion-god at Baalbek and a lion-headed 
goddess Sekhet. The Arabs had a lion-god, Yaghuth. In 
modem Africa we find a lion-idol among the Balonda. 

Lizard. — The cult of the lizard is most prominent in the 
Pacific, where it appears as an incarnation of Tangaloa. In 
Easter Island a form of the house-god is the lizard; it is also a 
tutelary deity in Madagascar. 

Mantis. — Cagn is a prominent figure in Bushman mythology; 
the mantis and the caterpillar, Ngo, are his incarnations. It was 
called the " Hottentots* god " by early settlers. 

Monkey. — In India the monkey-god, Hanuman, is a prominent 
figure; in orthodox villages monkeys are safe from harm. 
Monkeys are said to be worshipped in Togo. At Porto Novo, in 
French West Africa, twins have tutelary spirits in the shape of 
small monkeys. 

Serpent. — The cult of the serpent is found in many parts of 
the Old World; it is also not unknown in America; in AuslraUa, 
on the other hand, though many species of serpent arc found, 
there does not appear to be any species of cult unless we include 
the Warramunga cult of the mythical Wollunqua totem animal, 
whom they seek to placate by rites. In Africa the chief centre 
of serpent worship was Dahomey; but the cult of the python 
seems to have been of exotic origin, dating back to the first 
quarter of the 17th century. By the conquest of Whydah the 
Dahomeyans were brought in contact with a people of serpent 
worshippers, and ended by adopting from them the cult which 
they at first despised. At Whydah, the chief centre, there is a 
serpent temple, tenanted by some fifty snakes; every python 
of the danh-gbi kind must be treated with respect, and death is 
the penalty for killing one, even by accident. Danh-gbi has 
numerous wives, who until 1857 took part in a public procession 
from which the profane crowd was excluded; a python was 
carried round the town in a hammock, perhaps as a ceremony 
for the expulsion of evils. The rainbow-god of the Ewe was also 
conceived to have the form of a snake; his messenger was said 
to be a small variety of boa; but only certain individuals, .not 
the whole species, were sacred. In many parts of Africa the 
sckpent is looked upon as the incarnation of deceased relatives; 
among the Amazulu, as among the Betsileo of Madagascar, 

certain species are assigned as the abode of certain classes; the 
Masai, on the other hand, regard each species as the habitat of a 
particular family of the tribe. 

In America some of the Amerindian tribes reverence the 
rattlesnake as grandfather and king of snakes who is able to 
give fair winds or cause tempest. Among the Hopi (Moqui) of 
Arizona the serpent figures laigcly in one of the dances. The 
rattlesnake was worshipped in the Natchez temple of the sun; 
and the Aztec deity Quetzalcoatl was a serpent-god. The tribes 
of Peru are said to have adored great snakes in the pre-'Inca 
days; and in Chile the Araucanians made a serpent figure in 
their deluge myth. 

Over a large part of India there are carved representations of 
cobras (Nagas) or stones as substitutes; to these human food 
and flowers are oflfered and lights are burned before the shrines.' 
Among the Dravidians a cobra which is accidentally killed is 
burned like a human being; no one would kill one intentionally; 
the serpent-god's image is carried in an annual procession by a 
celibate priestess. 

Serpent cults were well known in ancient Europe; there does 
not, it is true, appear to be much ground for supposing that 
Aesculapius was a serpent-god in spite of his connexion with 
serpents. On the other hand, we learn from Herodotus of the 
great serpent which defended the citadel of Athens; the Roman 
genius loci took the form of a serpent; a snake was kept and 
fed with milk in the temple of Potrimpos, an old Slavonic god. 
To this day there are numerous traces in popular belief, especially 
in Germany, of respect for the snake, which seems to be a survival 
of ancestor worship, such as still exists among the Zulus and 
other savage tribes; the " house-snake," as it is called, cares 
for the cows and the children, and its appearance is an omen ol 
death, and the life of a pair of house-snakes is often held to be 
bound up with that of the master and mistress themselves. 
Tradition says that one of the Gnostic sects known as the 
Ophites caused a tame serpent to coil round the sacramental 
bread and worshipped it as the representative of the Saviour. 
See also Serpent- Worship. 

Sheep, — Only in Africa do we find a sheep-god proper; Ammon 
was the god of Thebes; he was represented as ram-headed; 
his worshippers held the ram to be sacred; it was, however, 
sacrificed once a year, and its fleece formed the clothing of the 

rt'ner.— The tiger is associated with Siva and Duiga, but its 
cult is confined to the wilder tribes; in Nepal the tiger festival 
is known as Bagh Jatra, and the worshippers dance disguised as 
tigers. The Waralis worship Waghia the lord of tigers in the 
form of a shapeless stone. In Hanoi and Manchuria tiger-gods 
are also found. 

Woif. — Both Zeus and Apollo were associated with the wolf 
by the Greeks; but it is not clear that this implies a previous 
cult of the wolf. It is frequently found among the tutelary 
deities of North American dancing or secret societies. The 
Thlinkits had a god, Khanukh, whose name means "wolf," and 
worshipped a wolf-headed image. 

Authorities. — For a fuller discussion and full references to these 
and other cults, that of the serpent excepted, see N. W. Thomas in 
Hastings' Dictionary of Reiigtons', Prater. Golden Bougk; Camp- 
bell's Spirit Basis <^ Belief and Custom; Maclennan's Studies (series 
2) ; V. Gcnnep, Tabou el totfmismc d Madagascar. For the serpent, 
ace Ellis. Ewe'Speakint Peoples, p. 54; Intemat. Archiv, xvii. 115; 
Tylor, Primitive Culture, li. 239; Fcrsusaon. Tree and Serpent 
Worship; Mahly, Die Schlange im Mythus; Staniland Wake, 
Serpent Worship^ Gtc.; jfitk Annual Report of ike American Bureau 
of Ethnology, p. 273, and bibliography, p. 31a. For the bull. &c., in 
Egypt, see Egypt: Religion. (N. W. T.) 

ANIMB. an olco-resin (said to be so called because in its 
natural state it is infested with insects) which is exuded from the 
locust tree, Hymenaea eoumaril, and other spedes of Uymeuata 
growing in tropical South America. It is of a pak brown colour, 
transparent, brittle, and in consequence of its agreeable odour 
is used for fumigation and in perfumery. Its specific gravity 
varies from 1-054 to 1*057. It melts readily over the fire, and 
softens even with the heat of the mouth; it is insoluble iD 
water, and nearly so in cold alcohol. It is allied to copal in its 



nataie uid ^peannce, and Is mtidi med by vamisli-Biaken. 
Tlie Dame is also given to Zanzibar copal (q.v.). 

AXIMISH (fxom animus, or anima, mind or iouI)> according 
to the definition of Dr £. B. Tylor, the doctrine of spiritual beingi, 
including human souls; in practice, however, the term is often 
extended to indiuie panthelism or animatism, the doctrine that 
a great part, if not the whole, of the inanimate kingdom, as well 
as all animatfid beings, are endowed with reason, intelligence 
and volition, identic^ with that of man. This latter theory, 
which in many cases is equivalent to personification, though it 
may be, like animism, a feature of the philosophy of peo)>les of 
low culture, should not be confused with it. But it is difficult 
in practice to distinguish the two phases of thought and no clear 
account of animatism can yet be given, largely on the ground 
tha.t no people has yet been discovered which has not already 
developed to a greater or less extent an animistic philosophy. 
On theoretical grounds it is probable that animatism preceded 
animism; but sivage thought is no more consistent than that 
of dvilized man; and it may well be that animistic and panthe- 
istic doctrines are held simultaneously by the same person. In 
like manner one portion of the savage explanation of nature may 
have been originally animistic, another part animatistic. 

Origin. — A^mism may have arisen out of or simultaneously 
with animatism as a primitive explanation of many different 
phenomena; if animatism was originally applied to non-human 
or inanimate objects, animism may from the outset have been in 
vogue as a theory of the nature of man. Lists of phenomena 
from the contemplation of which the savage was led to believe 
in ynimkm have been given by Br Tylor, Herbert Spencer, 
Mr Andrew Lang and others; an animated controversy arose 
between the former as to the priority of their respective lists. 
Among these phenomena are: trance {q.v.) and unconsciousness, 
sickness, death, clairvoyance (f.v.), dreams {q.v.), apparitions 
(q.v.) of the dead, wraiths, hallucinations {q.v.), edioes, shadows 
and reflections. 

Primitive ideas on the subfect of the soul, and at the same time 
the origin of them, are best illustrated by an analysis of the terms 
applied to it. Readers of Dante know the idea that the dead 
have no shadows; this was no invention of the poet's but a 
piece of traditionary lore; at the present day among the Basutos 
it is held that a man walking by the brink of a river may lose 
his life if his shadow falls on the water, for a crocodile may seize 
it and draw him in; in Tasmania, North and South America 
and classical Europe is found the conception that the soul — <ra6i, 
umhra — is somehow identical with the shadow of a man. More 
familiar to the Anglo-Saxon race is the connexion between the 
soul and the breath; this identification is found both in Aryan and 
Semitic languages; in Latin we have sptritms, in Greek pneuma, 
in Hebrew ruach] and the idea is found extending downwards 
to the lowest pbines of culture in Australia, America and Asia. 
For some of the Red Indians the Roman custom of receiving the 
breath of a dying man was no mere pious duty but a means of 
ensuring that his soul was transferred to a new body. Other 
familiar conceptions identify the soul with the liver (see Oicen) 
or the heart, with the reflected figure seen in the pupil of the eye, 
and with the blood.. Although the soul b often distinguished from 
(he vital principle, there are many cases in which a state of 
unconsciousness is explained as due to the absence of the soul; 
in South Australia vilyamarraba (without sou!) is the word used 
for insensible. So too the autohypnotic trance of the magician 
or skaman is regarded as due to hb visit to distant re^ons or the 
nether world, <rf which he brings bade an account. Telepathy or 
clairvoyance {q.v.), with or without trance, must have operated 
poweriuUy to produce a conviction of the dual nature of man, 
for it seems probable that facts unknown to the automatist are 
sometimes discovered by means of crystal-gazing {q.v.), which 
b widdy found among savages, as among civilised peoples. 
Sickness b often explahied as due to the ^absence of the soul; 
and means are sometimes taken to lure back the wandering soul; 
when a Chinese b at the point of death and hb soul b supposed 
to have already left hb body, the patient's coat b held up on a 
loxig bamboo while a priest endeavours to bringthe departedspirit 

back into the coat by means of incantations. If the bamboo 
begins to turn round in the hands of the relative who b deputed 
to hold it, it b regarded as a sign that the soul of the moribund 
has returned (see Avtoicatxsic). More important perhaps than 
aU these phenomena, because more- regular and normal, was the 
dafly period of sleep with its frequent concomitant of fitful and 
incc^ioent ideas and images. The mere immobility of the body 
was suffident to show that its state was not identical with that 
of waking; when, in addition, the sleeper awoke to ^vc an 
account of vists to dbtant lands, from which, as modem 
psychicd investigations suggest, he may even have brought back 
veridical detaib, the condusion must have been irresbtible 
that in sleep something journeyed forth, which was not the body. 
In a minor degree revival of memoiy during deep and similar 
phenomena of the sub-consdous life may have contributed to 
the same result. Dreams are sometimes explained by savages 
as journeys performed by the sleeper, sometimes as visits paid 
by other persons, by animab or objects to him; hallucinations, 
possibly more £requent in the lower stages of culture, must have 
contributed to fortify thb interpretation, and the anhnbtic 
theory in general, ^eing the phantasmtc figures of friends at 
the moment when they were, whether at the point of death or 
in good health, many miles distant, must have led the savage 
irredstibly to tbt dualbtic theory. But haUudnatory figures^ 
both in dreams and waking life, are not necessarily those of the 
living; from the reappearance of dead friends or enemies 
primitive man was inevitably led to the belief that there exbted 
an incorporeal part of man which survived the dissolution of the 
body. The soul was concdved to be a facsimile of the body, 
sometimes no less material, sometimes more subtle but yet 
material, sometimes altogether Impalpable and intan^ble. 

^nimism and EschattUogy. — ^The psycholo^cal side of anlmbm 
has already been dealt with; almost equally important in 
primitive creeds is the eschatological aspect. In many parts cf 
the world it b hdd that the human body b the seat of more than 
one soul; in the island of Nias four are dbtingubhed, the shadow 
and the intelligence, which die with the body, a tutdaiy spirit, 
termed begoe, and a second which b carried on the head. Similar 
ideas are found among the Euahlayi of S.E. Australia, the 
Dakotas and many other tribes. Just as in Europe the ghost 
of a dead person b held to haunt the churchyard or the place of 
death, although more orthodox ideas may be held and enunciated 
by the same person as to the nature of a future life, so the savage, 
moro con^tently, assigns different abodes to the multiple souls 
with which he credits man. Of the four soub of a Dakota, one 
b hdd to stay with the corpse, another in the village, a third goeA 
into the air, ^hile the fourth goes to the land of soiib, where its 
lot may dq)end on its rank in thb life, its sex, mode of death 
or sepulture, on the dueobservanceof funeral ritual, or many other 
points (see Eschatology). From the belief in the survival of the 
dead arose the practice of offering food, lighting fires, &c, at the 
grave, at first, maybe, as an act of friendship or filial piety, 
later as an act of worship (see Ancestor Wosship). The simple 
offering of food or shedding of blood at the grave devdops into 
an elaborate system of sacrifice; even where ancestor-worship 
is not found, the desire to provide the dead with comforts in the 
futuro life may lead to the sacrifice of wives, slaves, animab, &c., 
to the ^leaking or burning of objects at the grave or to the 
provision of the ferryman's toll, a coin put In the mouth of the 
corpse to pay the travelling expenses of the-souL But all b nM 
finished with the passage of tlw soul to the land of the dead; 
tlw soul may return to avenge its death by helping to discover 
the murderer, or to wreak vengeance for itsdf ; there b a wide-, 
spread belief that those who die a violent death become malignant 
spirits and endanger the lives of those who come near the haunted 
spot; the woman who dies in child-birth becomes a ponHanak, 
and threatens the life of human bdngs; and man resorts to 
magical or religious means of repelling hb spiritual dangers. 

Devdopmtnl of Animism. — ^If the phenomena of dreams were, 
as suggested above, of great importance for the devdopment of 
animbm, the belief, which must originally have been a doctrine 
of human psydiology, cannot have failed to expand speedily into 



a grneral philosq>h3r of nature. Not only human beings but 
aniotals and objects are seen in dreams; and the conclusion 
would be that they too have souls; the same conclusion may have 
been reached by another line of argument; primitive psychology 
posited a spirit in a man to account, amongst other Uiings, for his 
actions; a natural explanation of the changes in the external 
world would be that they are due to the operations and volitions 
of spirits. 

Animal Souls. — But apart from considerations of this sort, it is 
probable that animals must, early in the history of animistic 
beliefs, have been regarded as possessing souls. Education has 
brought with it a sense of the great gulf between man and animals ; 
but in the lower stages of culture this distinction is not adequately 
recognized, if indeed it is recognized at all. The savage attributes 
to animals the same ideas, the same mental processes as himsdf , 
and a t the same time vastly greater power and ctmning. The dead 
animal is credited with a knowledge of how its remains are treated 
and sometimes with a power of taking vengeance on the fortimate 
hunter. Powers of reasoning are not denied to animals nor even 
speech, the silence of the brute creation may be put down to 
their superior cunning. We may assume that man attributed a 
soul to the beasts of the 6eld almost as soon as he cLiimed one for 
himself. It is therefore not surprising to find that many peoples 
on the lower planes of culture respect and even worship animals 
(see Totem; Anxual Wokship); though we need not attribute 
an animistic origin to all the develcpments, it is dear that* the 
widespread respect paid to animals as the abode of dead ancestors, 
and much of the cult* of dangenms animals, is traceable to this' 
principle. With the rise of species, deities and the cult of in- 
dividual animals, the path towards anthropomorphization and 
polytheism is opened and the req)ect paid to animals tends to lose 
its strict animistic character. 

Plant Souls. — ^Just as human souls are assigned to animals, so 
primitive nun often credits trees and plants with souls in both 
human or animal form. All over the world agricultural peoples 
practise elaborate ceremonies explicable, as Klannhardt has 
shown, on animistic principles In Europe the com spirit some- 
times immanent in the crop, sometimes a presiding deity whose 
life docs not depend on that of the growing corn, is conceived in 
some districts in the form of an ox, hare or cock, in others as an 
old man or woman; in the East Indies and America the rice or 
maize mother is a corresponding figure; in classical Europe and 
the East we have in Ceres and Demeter, Adonis and Dionysus, 
and other deities, vegetation gods whose origin we can readily 
trace back to the rustic com spirit Forest trees, no less than 
cereals, have their indwelling spirits; the fauna and satyrs of 
classical literature were goat-footed and the tree spirit of the 
Russian peasantry takes the form of a goat; in Bengal and the 
East Indies wood-cutters endeavour to propitiate the spirit of the 
tree which they cut down; and in many parts of the worid trees 
are regarded as the abode of the spirits of the dead. Just as a 
process of syncretism has given rise to cults of animal gods, tree 
spirits tend to become detached from the trees, which are thence- 
forward only their abodes; and here again animism has begun to 
pass into polytheism. 

Object Souls. — ^We distinguish between animate and inanimate 
nature, but this classification has no meaning for the savage. The 
river H)eeding on its course to the sea, the sun and moon, if not 
the stars also, on their never-ceasing daily round, the^htning, 
fire, the wind, the sea, all are in motioa and therefore animate; 
but the savage docs not stop short here; mountains and lakes, 
stones and manufactured articles, are for him alike endowed with 
souls like his own; he 4q;>08its in the tomb weapons and food, 
clothes and implements, broken, it may be, in order to set free 
their souls; or he attains the same result by burning them, and 
thus sending them to the Other World for the use of the dead man. 
Here again, though to a less extent than in tree cults, the 
theriomorphic aspect recurs; in the north of Europe, in ancient 
Greece, in China, the water or river spirit is horse or bull-shaped ; 
the water monster in serpent shape is even more widely found, 
but it is less strictly the q>irit of the water. The spirit of syn- 
cietism manifests itself in this department of animism too; the 

immanent spirit of the eariier period becomes the presiding genius 
or local god of later times, and with the rise of the doctrine of 
separable souls we again reach the confines of animism pure and 

Spirits in General. — ^Side by side with the doctrine of separable 
souls with which we have so far been concerned, exists the belief 
in a great host of unattached ^irits; these are not immanent souls 
which have become detached from their abodes, but have every 
appearance of independent spirits. Thus, animism is in some 
directions little developed, so far as we can see, among the 
Australian aborigines, but from those who know them best we 
learn that they believe in innumerable spirits and bush bogies, 
which wander, especially at night, and can be held at bay by 
means of fire; with this belief may be compared the ascription 
in European folk belief of prophylactic properties to iron. These 
spirits are at first mainly malevolent; and side by side with them 
we find the spirits of the dead as hostile beings. At a higher stage 
the spirits of dead kinsmen are no longer unifriendly, nor yet all 
non-human spirits; as fetishes (see FETismsif), naguals (see 
Totem), familiars, gods or demi-gods (for which and the general 
question see Demonology), they enter into relations with man. 
On the other hand there still subsists a belief in innumerable evil 
^irits, which manifest themselves in the phenomena of possession 
(q.v.), lycanthropy iq.v.), disease, &c. The fear of evil spirits has 
given rise to ceremonies of expulsion of evils (see Exoxcism), 
designed to banish them from the conununity. 

Animism and Rdigion, — ^Animism is commonly described as 
the most primitive form of religion; but properly speaking it is 
not a religion at all, for religion implies, at any rate, some form of 
emotion (see Reucion), and animism is m the first instance an 
explanation of phenomena rather than an attitude of mind toward 
the cause of them, a philosophy rather than a religion. The term 
may, however, be conveniently used to describe the early stage 
of religion in which man endeavours to set up relations between 
himself and the unseen powers, conceived as spirits, but differing 
in nuny particulars from the gods of polytheism. As an example 
of this stage in one of its aspects may be taken the European belief 
in the com spirit, which is, however, the object of magical rather 
than rdigious rites; Dr Frazer has thus defined the character of 
the animistic pantheon, " they are restricted in their operations 
to definite departments of luiture; their names are general, not 
proper; their attributes are generic rather than individual; in 
other words, there is ftn indefinite number of spirits of each class, 
and the individuals of a class are much alike; they have no 
definitely marked individuality; no accepted traditions are 
current as to their origin, life and character." This stage of 
religion is well illustrated by the Red Indian custom of offering 
sacrifice to certain rocks, or whirlpools, or to the indwelling spirits 
connected with them; the rite is only performed in the neighbour- 
hood of the object, it is an incident of a canoe or other voyage, and 
is not intended to secure any benefits beyond a safe passage past 
the object in question; the ^irit to be propitiated has a purely 
local sphere of influence, and powers of a very limited nature. 
Animistic in many of their features too are the temporary gods of 
fetishism (f.v.), nagualsor familiais, genii and even the dead who 
receive a cult With the rise of a belief in departmental gods 
comes the age of polytheism; the belief in elemental spirits may 
still persist, but they fall into the background and receive no cult. 

Animism and the Origin of Religion, — Two animistic theories of 
the origin of religion have been put forward, the one, often termed 
the " ghost theory," mainly associated with the name of Herbert 
Spencer, but also maintained by Grant Allen, refers the beginning 
of religion to the cult of dead human beings; the other, put 
forward by Dr E. B. Tylor, makes the foundation of all religion 
animistic, but recognizes the non-human character of polytheistic 
gods. Although ancestor-worship, or, more broadly, the cult of 
the dead, has in numy cases overshadowed other cults or even 
extinguished them, we have no warrant, even in these cases, for 
asserting its priority, but rather the reverse^ not only so, but 
in the majority of cases the pantheon is made up by a multitude 
of spirits in human, sometimes in animal form, which bear no signs 
of ever liaving been incarnate; sun gods and moon goddesses^ 



gods of fire, wind and water, gods of the sea, and above alT gods of 
the sky, show no signs of having been ghost gods at any period 
in their history. They may, it is true, be associated with ghost 
gods, but in Australia it cannot even be asserted that the gods 
are spirits at all, much less that they are the spirits of dead men; 
they are simply magnified magicians, super-men who have never 
died; we have no ground, therefore, for regarding the cult of the 
dead as the origin of religion in this area; this conclusion is the 
more probable, as ancestor-worship and the cult of the dead 
generally cannot be said to exbt in Australia. 

The more general view that polytheistic and other gods are the 
elemental and other spirits of the later stages of animistic creeds, 
is equally inapplicable to Australia, where the belief seems to be 
neither animistic nor even animatistic in character. But we are 
hardly justified in arguing from the case of Australia to a general 
oondusion as to the origin of religious ideas in all other parts of 
the world. It is perhaps safest to say that the science of religions 
has no data on which to go, in formulating conclusions as to the 
original form of the objects of reli^ous emotion; in this connexion 
it must be remembered that not only is it very diffictilt to get 
precise information of the subject of the religious ideas of people 
of low culture, perhaps for the simple reason that the ideas 
tbemsdves are far from precise, but also that, as has been pointed 
out above, the conception of spiritual often approximates very 
doady to that of material. Where the soul is regarded as no 
more than a finer sort of matter, it will obviously he far from easy 
to decide whether the gods are spiritual or material. Even, 
therefore, if we can say that at the present day the gods are 
entirely spiritual, it is clearly possible to maintain that they 
have been spiritualised pari passu with the increasing importance 
of the animistic view of nature and of the greater prominence of 
cschatological bdiefs. The animistic origin of religion is therefore 
not proven. 

Ammism and Mytkohgy. — But little need be said on the 
relation of aninusm and mythology (q.v.). While a large part 
of mythology has an animistic basis, it is possible to believe, 
e.g. in a sky world, peopled by corporeal bdngs, as well as by 
spirits of the dead; the latter may even be entirdy absent; 
the mythology of the Australians rdatcs laxgdy to corporeal, 
tton-spiritual beings; stories of transfonnation, deluge and 
doom tayths, or myths of the ori^n of death, have not necessarily 
any animistic basb. At the same time, with the rise of ideas as 
to a future life and spirittud bdngs, this fidd of mythology is 
immensdy widened, though it cannot be said that a rich myUio- 
k>gy is necessarily genetically associated with or combined with 
belief in many spiritual bdngs. 

Ammism in Fhilosepky. — The term "animism" has been 
applied to many different phHosophical systems. It is used to 
desdribe Aristode^s view of the rdation of soul and body held 
also by the Stoics and Scholastics. On the other hand 
monadology (Ldbnitz) has also been termed animistic The 
name Is most commonly applied to vitalism, a view mainly 
associated with G. £. Stahl and revived by F. BouiUier (18x3- 
1899), wluch makes Hfe, or life and mind, the directive principle 
in evdution and growth, holding that all cannot be traced back 
to chemleal and mechanical processes, but that there is a directive 
force which guides energy without altering its amount An 
entirdy difiercnt dass of ideas, also termed animistic, is the 
bdicf in the worid soul, hdd by Plato, Schelling and others. 

BiBLlOGaAPtnr.--Ty1or. Primitive Culture', Frazer. Gotdtn Bough ; 
U, OD Burial Customs in J. ^. /. xv.; Mannhardt, Bamnkuttus; 
G. A. Wilken, Jiel Animisme^ Koch on the animism of S. America 
in tnlernationaUs Archiv, xiii., Sup^.; Andrew Lang, iiaktng of 
ReHgioH', Skcat. Malay Magic -, Sir G. Campbell, " Spirit Basts of 
Belief and Custom," in lidian AntMuary, xxiii. and succeeding 
volumes: FolUare, Ui. 389. xi. 162; Spencer, PnneipUs ^ Socio- 
logy; Miud (1877). '4'* 415 et SCO For animbm in philoaophy, 
Suhl. Thcoria, BouaUer. Du Prinape vital. (N. WTX.) 

ANIMUCCIA* OlOVAinn, Italian musical composer, was bom 
atFtorencein thelastyeanof the xsthcentury. At the request 
of St Filippo Men he composed^ number cA Laudi^ or hymns 
of praise, to be stUig after sermon time, which have ipven him 
an acddental pmminence in musical history, since thrir per> 

formance In St Filippo's Oratory eventually gave rise (on the 
disruption of i6th century schools of composidon) to those early 
forms of " oratorio " that are not traceable to the Gregorian- 
polyphonic ** Passions." St Filippo admired Animucda so 
warmly that he dedared he had seen the soul of his friend fly 
upwards towards heaven. In 1555 Animuccia was appointed 
maestro di capeUa at St Peter's, an office which he hdd until his 
death in 1571. He was succeeded by Palestrina, who had been 
his friend and probably his pupQ. The manuscript of many of 
Animucda's compositions is still preserved in the Vatican 
Library. His chief published works were Madrigaii t Motetti a 
quattro e cinque tod (Yen. 1548) and // prinur Lihro di Messe 
(Rom. X567). From the latter Padre Martini has taken two 
spedmens for his Saggio di Contrapunla, A mass from the 
Prima Libra di Messe on the canto fermo of the hymn Conditor 
alme siderum is published in modern notation in the Antkologie 
des mattres rdigieux primiiifs of the Ckanteurs de Saint Gervais, 
It is solemn and noble in conception, and would be a great work 
but for a roughness which is more cardess than archaic. 

Paolo ANHfUCOA, a brother of Giovanni, was also celebrated 
as a composer; he is said by Fetis to have been maestro di 
capeUa at S. Giovanni in Laterano from the middle of January 
1550 untn 1553, and to have died in 1563. 

ANISB (Pimpindla Anisum), an umbelliferous plant found in 
Egypt and the Levant, and cultivated on the continent of Europe 
for medicinal purposes. The officinal part of the plant is the 
fruit, which consists of two nnited carpds, called a cremocarp. 
It is known by the tuime of aniseed, and has a strong aromatic 
taste'and'a powerful odour. By distillation the f rmt yidds the 
volatile oil oif anise, which is useful in the treatment of flatulence 
and colic in children. Itmaybegivenasi47iiai4nm,indosesof 
one or more ounces, or as Uie Spiritus Anisic in doses of 5-20 
minims. The main constituent of the oil (up to 90 %) is anethoI» 
CioHiiO or aH«[x-4K0CHa)(CH:CHCHi.) It also conUhis 
methyl chavlcol, anisic aldehyde, anisic add, and a terpene. 
Most of the on of commerce, however, of which anethol is also 
the chief constituent, comes from lUicium verum (order Magna- 
liaceae^ sub-order Wintereac), indigenous in N.E. China, the 
star-anise of liqueur makers.^ It receives its name from its 
flavour, and from its fruit spreading out like a star. The anise of 
the Bible (Matt xxiii. aj) b Anetkum or Peucedanum graveolens, 
i.e. dill (q.v.). 

ANJAR, a fortified town of India, and the capital of a district 
of the same name in the native state of Cutch, in the presidency 
of Bombay. The country is dry and sandy, and entirely depends 
on well irrigation for its water supply. The town is situated 
nearly xo nules from the Gulf of Cutch. It suffered severely 
from an earthquake in 18x9, which destroyed a large number of 
houses, and occasioned the loss of several lives. In igox the 
population was 18,0x4. The town and district of Anjar were 
both ceded to the British in 18 16, but in X822 they were again 
transferred to the Cutch government in consideration of an 
annual money payment. Subsequently it was discovered that 
this obligation pressed heavily upon the resources of the native 
state, and in 1832 the pecuniary equivalent for Anjar, both 
prospectively and inclusive of the arrears which had accrued to 
that date, was wholly reim'tted by the British government 

ANJOU, the old name of a French territory, the political 
origin of which is traced to the ancient Gallic state of the Andes, 
on the lines of which was organized, after the conquest by 
Jufius Caesar, the Roman civitas of the Andecavi. This was 
afterwards preserved as an administrative district under the 
Franks with the name first of pagus, then of comitatus, or count- 
ship of Anjou. This countship, the extent of which seems to 
have been practically identical with that of the ecclesiastical 
diocese of Angers, occupied the greater part of what is now the 
department of Maine-et-Loire, further embracing, to the north, 
Craon, Bazouges (Chftteau-Gontier), Le Lude, and to the east, 
Chiteau-la-Vjdli^re and Bourgudl, while to the south, on the 
other hand. It induded neither the present town of MontreuO- 
Bellay, nor Vihiers, Cholet, Beauprfau, nor the whole district 
lying to the west of the Ironne and Thouet, on the left bank of 



the Loire, which formed the territoiy of the Manges. It was 
bounded on the north by the count!^ of Maine, on the east 
by that of Touraine, on the south by that of Poitiers and by 
the Mauges, on the west by the countship of Nantes. 

From the outset of the reign of Charles the Bald, the integrity 
of Anjoa was seriously menaced by a two-fold danger: from 
Brittany and from Normandy. Lambert, a former count of 
Nantes, after devastating Anjou in concert with Nomino6, duke 
of Brittany, had by the end of the year 851 succeeded in occupy- 
ing all the western part as Car as the Mayenne. The principality, 
which he thus carved out for himself, was occupied, on his death, 
by Erispo^, duke of Brittany; by him it was handed down to 
his successors, in whose hands it remained till the beginning 
of the loth century. All this time the Normans had not ceased 
ravaging the country; a brave man was needed to defend it, 
and &nahy towards 86 x, Charles the Bald entrusted it to Robert 
the Strong (^.v,), but he unfortunatdy met with his death in 
866 in a battle against the Normans at Brissarthe. Hugh 
the Abbot succeeded him in the coimtship of Anjou as in most 
of his other duties, and on his death (886) it passed to Odo (9.9.), 
the eldest son of Robert the Strong, who, on his accession to 
the throne of France (888), probably handed it over to his brother 
Robert. In any case, during the last years of the 9th century, 
in Anjou as elsewhere the power was delegated to a viscount, 
Fulk the Red (mentioned under this title after 898), son of a 
certain Ingelgerius. 

In the second quarter. of the loth century Fulk the Red 
had already usurx>ed the title of count, which his descendants 
kept for three centuries. He was succeeded first by his son 
Fulk IL the Good (941 or 942-c. 960), and then by the son of 
the latter, Geoffrey L GrisegorulU (Grey tunic) (c. 960-aist of 
July 987), who inaugurated a policy of expansion, having as 
its objects the extension of the boundaries of the ancient count- 
ship and the reconquest of those parts of it which had been 
annexed by the neighbouring states; for, thou^ western Anjou 
had been recovered from the dukes of Brittany since the begin- 
ning of the xoth century, in the east all the district of Saumur 
had already by that time fallen into the hands of the counts 
of Blois and Tours. Geoffrey Greytunic succeeded in making 
the count of Nantes his vassal, and in obtaining from the duke 
of Aquitaine the concession in fief of the district of Loudun. 
Moreover, in the wars of king Lothaire against the Normans 
and against the emperor Otto n. he distinguished himself by 
feats of arms which the q>ic poets were quick to celebrate. His 
son Fulk III. Nerra (q.v.) (21st of July 987-2xst of June X040) 
found himself confronted on his accession with a coalition of 
Odo I., count of Blois, and Conan I., count of Rennes. The latter 
having seized upon Nantes, of which the counts of Anjou held 
themselves to be suzerains, Fulk Nerra came and laid siege to it, 
routing Conan's army at Conquereuil (27th of June 992) and 
re-establishing Nantes under his own suzerainty. Then turning 
his attention to the count of Blois, he proceeded to establish 
a fortress at Langeais, a few miles from Tours, from which, 
thanks to the intervention of the king Hugh Capet, Odo failed 
to oust him. On the death of Odo I., Fulk seized Tours (996); 
but King Robert the Pious turned against him and took the town 
again (997). In xoi6 a fresh struggle arose between Fulk and 
Odo II., the new count of Blois. Odo IL was utterly defeated 
at Pontlevoy (6th of July xoi6), and a few years later, while 
Odo was besieging Montboyau, Fulk surprised and to^L Saumur 
(1026). Finally, the victory gained by Geoffrey Martel {q.9,) 
(21st of June xo4o-i4th of November xo6o)« the son and successor 
of Fulk, over Theobald III., count of Blois, at Nouy (21st of 
August X044), assured to the Angevins the possession of the 
countship of Touraine. At the same time, continuing in this 
quarter also the work of his father (who in X025 took prisoner 
Herbert Wake-Dog and only set him free on condition of his 
doing him homage) , Geoffrey succeeded in reducing the countship 
of Maine to complete dependence on himsdif. During his father's 
life-time he had been beaten by Gervais, bishop of Le Mans 
(1038), but now (1047 or 1048) succeeded in taking the latter 
prisoner, for which he was excommimicaied by Pope Leo IX. 

at the council of Reims (October XO49). In spite, however, 
of the concerted attacks of William the Bastard (the Conqueror), 
duke of Normandy, and Henry I., king of France, he was able 
in X05X to force Maine to recognize his authority, though failing 
to revenge himself on William. 

On the death of Geoffrey Martd (x4th ofNovember 1060) there 
was a diq>ute as to the succession. Geoffrey Martel, having no 
children, had bequeathed the countship to his eldest nephew, 
Geoffrey III. the Bearded, son of Geoffrey, count of G&tinais, 
and of Ermengarde, daughter of Fulk Nerra. But Fulk le 
Rtehin (the Cross-looking, brother of Geoffrey the Bearded, 
who had at first been contented with an appanage consisting of 
Saintonge and the ckdtelUnie of Vihiers, having allowed Saintonge 
to be taken in xo62 by the duke of Aquitaine, took advantage 
of the general discontent aroused in the coimtship by the tmskilf ul 
policy of Geoffrey to make himself master of Saumur (25th of 
Februaxy 1067) and Angers (4th of April), and cast Geoffrey 
into prison at Sabl£. Compelled by the papal authority to release 
him after a short interval and to restore the countship to him,' 
he soon renewed the struggle, beat Geoffrey near Brissac and 
shut him up in the castle of Chinon (1068). In order, however, 
to obtain his recognition as count, Fulk IV. R£chin (xo68-X4th 
of April XX09) had to carry on a long struggle with his barons, 
to cede G&tinais to King Philip L, and to do homage to the count 
of Blois for Touraine. On the other hand, he waa successful 
on the whole in pursuing the policy of Geoffrey Martel in Maine: 
after destroying La Fldche, by the peace of Blanchelande (xo8x), 
he received the homage of Robert " Courteheuse " (" Curthose "), 
son of William the Conqueror, for Maine. Later, he upheld Elias, 
lord of La Fldche, against William Rufus, king of England, 
and on the recognition of Elias as count of Maine in xxoo, 
obtained for Fulk the Young, his son by Bertrade dc Montfort, 
the hand of Eremburge, Elias's daughter and sole heiress. 

Fulk V. the Young (x4th of April XX09-XX29) succeeded to the 
countship of Maine on the death of EJiias (xxth of July xiio); 
but this increase of Angevin territory came into sudx direct 
collision with the interests of Henry I., king of Ejig^d, who was 
also duke of Normandy, that a struggle between the two powers 
became inevitable. In x x x a it broke out, and Fulk, being unable 
to prevent Henry L from taking Alengon and making Robert, 
lord of Bell^me, prisoner, was forced, at the treaty of Pierre 
Pecoul^e, near Alen^on (23rd of February 1x15), to do homage 
to Henry for Maine. In revenge for this, while Loiiia VL waa . 
ovemmning the Vexin in ixx8, he routed Henry's army at 
Alcncon (November), and in May i x X9 Henry demanded a peace, 
which was sealed in June by the xruuiiage of his eldest son, 
William the Aetheling, with Matilda, Fulk's daughter. WiUiam 
the Aetheling having perished in the wreck of the ** White 
Ship " (25th of November xxao), Fulk, on his return from a 
pilgrimage to the Holy Land (xxao-xx2x), nutrried his secard 
daughter Sibyl, at the instigation of Louis VI., to William Clito^ 
son of Robert C>>urteheuse, and a claimant to the duchy of 
Normandy, giving her Maine for a dowry (x I a2 or 1x23). Henry 
1. managed to have the. marriage aimulled, on the plea of kinship 
between the parties (xx23 or XX24). But in xxay a new alliance 
was made, and on the 22nd of May at Rouen, Henry L betrothed 
his daughter Matilda, widow of the emperor Henry V., to 
Geoffrey the Handsome, son of Fulk, the marriage being cele- 
brated at Le Mans on the 2nd of June 1129. Shortly after, on 
the invitation of Baldwin II., king of Jerusidem, Fulk departed 
to the Holy Land for good, married Mclisinda, Baldwin's daughter 
and heiress, and succeeded to the throne of Jerusalem (14th of 
September ix3x). His eldest son, Geoffrey IV. the Handsome 
or ** Plantagenet," succeeded him as count of Anjou (ix29« 
7th of September xxsx). From the first he tried to profit by his 
marriage, and after the death of Henry I. (ist of December x 135), 
laid the foundation of the conquest of Normandy by a series of 
campaigns: about the end of 1x35 or the beginning of x 136 he 
entered that country and rejoined his wife, the countess Matilda, 
who had received the submission of Argentan, Domfront and 
Exmes. Having been abruptly recalled into Anjou by a revolt 
of his barons, he returned to tlw charge in S^tember x X36 witha 


strong 9Xmy, bclwllng in its zanks William, dukeof Aquitsine, 
Geoffrey, count of VendAmc^ snd William Talvas, count of 
Poathieii, but after a few sncceises was wounded in the foot at 
tfae siege of Le Sap (October z) and had to fall back. In May 
1 137 b^an a fresh campaign in which be devsstated the district 
of HiteMis (round Ezmes) and burnt Bscoches. In June 1138, 
with the aid of Robert of Gloucester, Geoffrey obtained the 
sobmiision of Bayeux and Csen; in October he devastated the 
neighbourhood of Falaise; finally, in March 1x41, on hearing of 
his wife's success in England, he agsin entered Normandy, nHhen 
he made a triumphal procession throo^ the country. Town 
after town surrendered: in 1x41, VemeuQ, Nooanoourt, Lisieuz, 
Falaise; in 1x43, Mortain, Saint>Hilaire, PontorMo; in X143, 
Avxanches, Saint-L6, Cfooices, Coutances, Cherbooxg; in tJM 
beginning of 1x44 he entered Rouen, and on the 19th of Jammiy 
received the ducal crown in its cathedral. KnaUy, In x 149, after 
crushing a last attempt at revolt, he handed over the dudiy to 
his son Henxy " Curtmantel," who received the investiture at the 
hands oi the king of France. 

All the while that Fulk the Young and Geoffrey the Handsome 
were carrying on the work of extending the countship of Anjou, 
they did not ne^ect to strengthen thdr authority at home, to 
which the unrulincas of the lArons was a menace. As regMds 
Fulk the Young we know only a few isolated facts and dates: 
about XX09 Dou€ and L'lle Bouchard were taken; in xxxs 
Brissac was besieged, and about the same time Eschlvard of 
Preuilly subdued; in xxx4 there was a general war agafatst the 
barons who were in revolt, and in xxx8 a fresh rising, which was 
put down after the siege of Montbason; in tx>3 the lord of I>ou6 
revolted, and In 1x24 Montieuii-Bellay was taken after a siege 
of nine weeks. Geoffrey the Handsome, with his indefatigable 
eneigy, was eminently fitted to suppress the coafitiona of his 
vassals, the most formidable of which was formed in 1x99. 
Among those who revolted were Guy of Laval, Girand of Mon- 
treuH-BeOay, the viscount of Thouan, the lords of Mirebeaa, 
Amboise, Parthenay and Sabl^ Geoffrey succeeded in beating 
them one after another, rased the keepof Thooaisand occupied 
Mirebeaa. Another rising was crushed in 1x34 by the destruction 
of Oind( and the taking of Lf lie Bouchard. In 1x36, while the 
count was in Normandy, Robert of Sabl^ put himself at the head 
of the movement, to which Geoffrey responded by destroying 
BrioUay and occupying La Suae, and Robert of SabU himself 
was forced to beg humbly for pardon through the Intercession of 
the bishop of Angers. In 1x39 Geoffrey took Mirebeau, and in 
XX4S Chunptooeani, but in 1x45 a new revolt broke out, this 
time under the leadezship of Elias, the count's own brother, 
who, again with the asrisfance of Robert of Sabl6, kid daim to 
the countship of Maine. Geoffrey took Elias prisoner, forced 
Robert of SabK to beat a xetreat, and reduced the other barons 
to reason. In XX47 he destroyed Doak and Blaison. Finally 
in XX50 he was checked by the revolt of Giraud, lord of 
Montxcuil-BeUay: for a year he besieged the place till it had to 
surrender; he then took Giraud prisoner and only xelcaaed him 
on the mediatioii of the kfaig of Frsnoe. 

Thus, on the death of Geoffrey the Handsome (7th of Sep- 
tember 1x51), his son Henry fbuiui himself heir to a great 
empire, strong and consolidated, to which his marriage with 
Elnnor of Aquitaiae (May x x 5a) further added Aqnitaine. 

At lengthen the dnth of King StepAien, Henxy was recognised 
u king of England (x9th of December 1x54). But then his 
brother Geoffrey, who had xeodved as appanage the three 
fortresses of Chinon, Loudun and >Iirebesu, tiied to seise upon 
Anjou, on the pretext that, by the will of their father, Geoffrey 
the Handsome, all the paternal Inheritance ought to descend to 
him, if Henry succeeded in obtaining possession of the maternal 
mheritance. On hearing of this, Henry, although he had sworn 
to observe this will, had Umself released from his oath by the 
pof>e, and hurriedly marched against his brother, from whom in 
the beginning of xxs6 he sucoeeided in taking CUaon and Mire- 
beau; and in July he forced Geoffrey to give up even his three 
fortresacs in return for an annual pension. Henceforward Henry 
succeeded in keeping the countship of Anjou all Us liiie; for 


though he granted it hi xx6S to his son Henry " of the Short 
Mantle," when the latter became old enough to govern it, he 
absolutely refused to allow him to enjoy his power. After 
Henry IL's death in 1x89 the.countship, together with the rest 
of his dominions, passed to hii son Richard L of England, but 
on the death of the latter in 1x99, Arthur of Brittany (born in 
XX87) laid daim to the inheritance, which ought, according to 
him, to have fallen to his father Geoffr^, fourth son of Henxy II., 
in accordance with the custom by which " the son of the eldest 
brother should succeed to hu father's patrimony." He therefore 
set himself up in rivalry with John Lackland, youngest son of 
Henxy II., and supported by Philip Augustus of France, and 
aided by William da Roches, seneschal of Anjou, he managed 
to enter Angexs (x8th of April 1x99) and there have himself 
recQgniied as count of the three oountships of Anjou, Maine and 
Toiaaine, for which he did homage to the king of France. King 
John soon regained the upper hud, for Philip Augustus having 
deserted Arthur by the treaty of Le Goulet (asnd of May x2oo), 
John made hia way into Anjou; and on the x8th of June xaoo 
was recognized as count at Angers. In laoa he refused to do 
homage to Philip Augustus, who^ in consequence, confiscated 
all his continental possessions^ indudiog Anjou, which waa 
allotted by the king of France to Arthur. The defeat of the 
latter, who was taken prisoner at Mirebeau on the xst of August 
xaos, seemed to eosuie John's success, but he was abandoned 
by William des Roches, who in x 203 assisted Philip Augustus in 
sttbduiag the iriiole of Anjou. A last effort on the part of Johq 
to posaesa himself of it, in xat4, led to the taking of Angers (17th 
of June), but broke down lamentably at the battle of La Roche> 
anz-Moines (snd of July), and the countship was attached to the 
crown of Fxance* 

Shortly afterwards it wItt separated from it again, when in 
August 1S46 King Louis VL gave it as an appanage to his son 
CharieSi count of Provence, soon to become king of Naples and 
Sidly (see Napi^s). Chaxics I. of Anjou, engrossed with his other 
dominions, gave little thought to Anjou, nor did his son Charles IL 
the Lame, who succeeded him on the 7th of January 1285. On 
the r6th of August x 390, the latter married his daughter Maxgaret 
to Charies of Vslds, son of Philip HI. the Bold, giving her Anjou 
and Maine for dowry, in exchange for the kingdoms of Aragon 
and Valentia and the countship of Barcdona given up by Charies. 
Charies of Vahris at once entered into possession of Uie countship 
of Anjou, to which Philip IV. the Fair, in September 1297, 
attached a peerage of Frimce. On the i6th of December 1325, 
Charies died, leaving Anjou to his ddest son Philip of Vaiois, 
on whose recognition as king of France (Philip VI.) on the xst of 
April X338, the countship of Anjou was again united to the crown. 
On the 17th of February 1332, Philip VI. bestowed it on his son 
John the (jood, who, when he became king in turn (a3nd ef 
August X350), gave the cotmtship to his second son Louis I.; 
raising it to a duchy in the peerage of France by letters patent 
of the 95th of October X360. Louis L, who became in time 
count of Provence and king of Naples (see LotTis I. , king of Naples,) 
died in X384, and was succeeded by his son Louis II., who devotM 
most of his energies to his kingdom of Naples, and left the ad- 
ministration of Anjou almost entirely in the hands of hU wife, 
Yolande of Aragon. On his death (a9th of April 14x7) she to6k 
upon herself the guardianship of their young son Louis HI., 
and in her capadty of regent defended the duchy against the 
Eni^ish. Louis III., who also succeeded his father as king of 
Naples, died on the x 5th of November 1434, leaving no children. 
The duchy of Anjou then passed to his cousin Ren6, second son 
of Louis II. and Yolande of Aragon, and king of Naples and 
Sicily (see Naples). 

Unlike his predecessors, who had rarely stayed long in Anjou, 
Ren£ from 1443 onwards paid long visits to it, and his court at 
Angers became one of the most brUliant in the kingdom of 
France. But after the sudden death of his son John in December 
X470, Ren6, for reasons which are not altogether dear, dedded 
to move hh residence to Provence and leave Anjou for good. 
After making an inventory of all bis possessions, he left the duchy 
in October 1471, taking with him the most valuable of his 



treasures. On the sand of July 1474 he drew up a will by which 
he divided the succession between his- grandson Ren€ II. of 
Lorraine and his nephew Charles II. , count of Maine. On hearing 
this, King Louis XI., who was the son of one of King Rent's 
sisters, seeing that his expectations were thus completely 
frustrated, seised the duchy of Anjou. He did not keep it very 
long, but became reconciled to Ren£ in 1476 and restored it to 
him, on condition, probably, that Ren£ should bequeath it to 
him. However that may be, on the death of the latter (xoth 
of July 1480) he again added Anjou to the royal domain. 

LAter, King Francis I. again gave the duchy as an appanage 
to his mother, Louise of Savoy, by letters patent of the 4th of 
February 15x5. On her death, in September X531, the duchy 
returned into the king's possession. In xss* it was given as 
an appanage by Henry II. to his son Henry of Valois, who, on 
becoming king in 1574, with the title of Henxy III., conceded it 
to his brother Francis, duke of Alencon, at the treaty of Beaulieu 
near Loches (6th of May 1 576). Frauds died on the xoth of June 
X584, and the vacant appanage definitively became part of the 
royal domain. 

At first Anjou was included in the goiaemewiemi (or military 
command) of Orlianais, but in the X7th century was made into 
a separate one. Saumur, however, and the Saumurois, for which 
King Henry IV. had in 1589 created aA independent military 
governor-generalship in favour of Duplesais-Momay, continued 
till the Revolution to form a separate gomemeMetU, which in^ 
duded, besides Anjou, portions of Poltou and Mirebalais. 
Attached to the gMralUS (administrative drciimscription) of 
Tours, Anjou on the eve of the Revolution comprised five 
Bedunu (judicial districts) : — Angers, Beaug£, Saumur, ChAteau- 
Gontier, Montreuil-Bellay and part of the Heaions of La Fldche 
and Rididieu. Financially it formed part of the sixalled pcys 
it grande gabdle (see Gabelle), and comprised sixteen special 
tribunals, or gjremen A ad (salt warehouses) : — Angers, Beaug6, 
Beaufort, Bourgueil, Cand^, Ch&teau-Gontier, Cholet, Craon, 
La Fldche, Saint-Florent-le-Vidl, Ingrandes, Le Lude, Pouanc£, 
Saint-Remy-la-Varenne, Richelieu, Saumur. From the point 
of view of purely judicial adminbtration, Anjou was subject 
to the parlement of Paris; Angers was the seat of a presidial 
court, of which the jurisdiction comprised the timickausUts 
<A Angers, Saumur, Beaug6, Beaufort and the duchy of Richelieu; 
there were besides presidial courts at ChAteau-Gontier and La 
Fltehe. When the Constituent Assembly, on the 96th of 
February 1790, decreed the division of Ffanoe hxto departments, 
Anjou and Uie Saumurois,with the exception of certain territories, 
formed the department of Maine-et-Loixe, as at present con- 

AuTHORincs. — (1 ) Principal Stwtt$ : The histoiy of Ad jou may 
be toM parti/ with the aid of the cbroaiclcfs of the nckhbouring 
provtnccf, especially thoae of Normandy (WilUam 01 Poitiers, 
William of Tumitees, Ofdericus Vitalis) and of Maine (evpedally 
Aclus ponlifieum Cenomannis in nrbe deggntium). For the loth, 
nth and iMh centuries especially, there are some important texts 
dealing entirely with Anjou. The most important is the chronicle 
called Cesta considum Andegavontm, of which only a poor edition 
exists {Ckroniques des comtts S Anjou, published bv Marchcgay and 
Salmon, with an introduction by E. Mabille, raris. 1856-1871, 
collection of the SociMi dt Vkislairt de Franct). See alto with rdcr- 
ence to thb text Louis Halphen, £iud€ imr ks cMraniqnes di$ comles 
d'A niou el des seigneurs d'A mboiu (Paris, 1906). The above may he 
supplemented by some valuable annals published by Louis Halphen, 
Recueil d'annales angevines et venddmoises (Paris, 1903), On the 
series CoUeUion de iexles ptmr servir i fHude et d fensetgnement de 
rkistoire). For further details see Auguste MoUnier, Les Sources de 
I'kisUrire de France ^Paris, 1002), il. XS76-1310, and the book of 
Louis Halphen mentioned below. 

(a) Works: The Art de vhifier les daUs contains a history of 
Anjou which is yery much out of date, but has not been treated 
dsewbere as a whole. The itth century only has been treated in 
detaU by Louis Halphen. in Le CamU d: Anjou an XI' siide (Paris. 
X906), which has a preface with bibliography and an introduction 
dealing with the history of Anjou in the lotn century. For the loth, 
nth and lath centuries, a good summary will be found in Kate 
Noraate, En^and under tke Angetin Kings (s vols., London, 1887). 
On Ken£ of Anjou, there is a book bv A. Lecoy de la Marchc. Le Ret 
Renf (3 vols.. Paris, 187^). Lastly, the work of Cilcstin Port. 
Dictionnaire kistoriqiu, efographique et biograpkigue de MaitU'-^ 
Loire (3 vols., Paris and Angers, i874'-i878), and its small volume of 

PrSimimaues (induding a summary of the history of Anjou). contain, 
in addition to the biographies of the chief oountt of AnkM, a mass 
of information ooocermng everything connected with Angevia 
history. (L. H.*) 

ANKBRITB, a member of the mineral group of rhombohedral 
carbonates. In composition it is dosdy related to dolomite, 
but differs from this in having nugnesia replaced by varying 
amounts of ferrous and mangAnous oxides, the general formula 
being Ca(Mg,Fe,Mn)(CO»)t. Normal ankcrite is CaaMgFe(C0t)4. 
The crystallographic and physical characters resemble those 
of dolomite and chalybite. The angle between the perfect 
rhombohedral cleavages is 73* 48', the hardness 3) to 4, and the 
spedfic gravity 3«9 to 3'x; but these will vary sUghtly with the 
chemical composition. The colour is white, grey or reddish. 

Ankerite occurs with chalybite in deposits of iron-ore. It 
is one of the minerals of the dolomite-chalybiie series, to which 
the terms brown-spar, pearl-spar and bitter-spar are loosely 
applied. It was fixst recognised as a distinct spedes by W. von 
Haidinger in 1825, and named by him after M. J. Anker of 
Styxia, (L. J. S.) 

ANKIrAM, or Anclam, a town of Germany in the Prussian 
province of Pomerania, on the Pecne, 5 m. from its mouth in the 
Kleines Haff, and 53 m. N.W. of Stettin, by the railway to 
Stralsund. Pop. (xgoo) 14,602. The fortifications of Anklam 
were dismantled in 1762 and have not since been restored, al- 
though the old walls are still standing; formerly, however, it was 
a town of considerable military importance, which suffered 
aeverdy during the Thirty Yeaxs' and the Seven Years' Wars; 
and this fact, together with the repeated ravages of fire and of the 
plague, has made its history more eventful than is usually the case 
with towns of the same sixe. It does not possess any remarkable 
buildings, although it contains several, private as well as public, 
that are of a quaint and picturesque style of architecture. The 
church of St Maiy (xsth century) has a modem tower, 335 ft. 
high. The industries consist of iron-foundries and factories for 
sugar and soap; and there is a military schooL The Peene is 
navigable up to the town, which has a considerable trade in its 
own maaufacturesy as well as in the produce of the surrounding 
oonntry, while some shipbuilding is carried on ia whaxves on the 

Anklam, formerly Tanglim, was originally a Slav fortress; it 
obtained dvic rights in x 244 and joined the Hanseatic league. In 
X648 it passed to Sweden, but ia 1676 was retaken by Frederick 
WSliam L of Brandenburg, and after being plundered by the 
Russians in 17x3 was ceded to Prussia by the peace of Stockholm 
in X730. 

AIIKLK or Ancle (a word conunon, in various forms, to 
Teutonic languages, probably connected in origin with the Lat.- 
amguiuSf or Gr. iiyai/Xot, bent), the joint which connects the 
foot with the leg (sec Joints). 

ANKOBBR, a town in, and at one time capital of, the kingdom 
of Shoa, Abyssinia, 90 m. N.£. of Adis Ababa, in 9" 34' N., 39* 54' 
£., on a mountain about 8500 ft. above the sea. Ankober was 
made (e. X890) by Menelek IL the place of detention of political 
priso ners. Pop. aboiit aoeo. 

ANKYLOSIS, or Amcbylosis (from Gr. iyalfkn, bent, 
crooked), a stiffness of a joint, the result of injury or disease. The 
rigidity may be complete or partial and may be due to inflamma* 
ti<m of the tendinous or musculo structures outside the joint or 
of the tissues of the joint itself. When the structures outside the 
joint are affected, the term " false " ankylosis has been used in 
contradistinction to " true ".ankylosis, in which the disease is 
within the joint When inflammation has caused the joint-ends of 
the bones to be fused together the ankylosis is termed osseaut or 
complete. Excision of a completely ankylosed shoulder or dhow 
may restore free mobility and usefulness to the h'mb. " Anky- 
losis " is also used as an anatomical term, bones being said to 
ankylose (or anchylose) when, from being originally distinct, they 
coalesce, or become so joined together that no motion can take 
place between them. 

ANKYLOSTOMIASIS, or Ancbylostomiasis (also called 
iielminthiasis, "miners' anaemia," and in Germany Wwrmkrank- 



AcsA, a disease to which in recent years much attention has been 

paid, from its prevalence in the mtning industry in En^and, 

France, Germany, Bdgjum, North Queensland and elsewhere. 

This disease (apparent^ kxKmn in Egypt even in veiy ancient 

times) caused a great mortality among the negroes in the West 

Imfies towards the end of the i8th century; and through 

descriptions sent from Brazil and varions other tropical and 

sub-tropical regions, it was subsequently identified, chiefly 

through the labours of Bflharx and Griesinger in Egypt (1854), as 

being due to the presence in the intestine of nematmd worms 

{A nkylosUnna dnodenaiis) from one-third to half an inch long. The 

symptoms, as first observed among the negroes, were pain in the 

stomach, capricious appetite, pica (or dirt-eating), obstinate 

constipation followed by diarrhoea, pilpltations, small and 

nnstcady pulse, coldness of the skin, pallor erf the skin and mucous 

mcmbruies, diminution of the secretions, loss (A strength and, 

in cases running a fatal course, dysentery, haemorrhages and 

dropsies. The parasites, which ding to the intestinal mucous 

membrane, draw^ their nourishment from the blood-veaads of 

thdr host, and as they are found in hundreds in the body tdtet 

death, the disorders of digestion, the increasing anaemia and the 

consequent dropsies and other \eachectic symptoms are easily 

eiplained. The dbeaae was first known in Europe among the 

Italian workmen employed on thfc St Gotthard tunnel In 1 896, 

thoxigh previously unreported in Germany, 107 cases were 

registered there, and the number rose to 295 in 1900, and X030 in 

190X. In En^and an outbreak at the Dolcoath mine, Cornwall, 

in 1903, led to an investigation for the home olBoeby Dr Haldane 

F.R.S. (see especially the Parliamentary Paper, numbered Cd. 

i843)» and since then discussions and inquiries have been frequent. 

A committee of the British Association in 1904 issued a valuable 

report on the subject. After the Spanish- American War American 

physicians had also given it their attention, with valuable resuJu; 

see Stiles {Hygiemic Lahordory BMetin, No. 10, Washiogton, 

1903). The American parasite described by StUes, and called 

Uncinaria amencana (whence the name Uncinariasis for this 

disease) differs slightly from the Ankylostoma. The parasites 

thrive in an environment of dirt, and the main lines of precaution 

are those dictated by sanitary sdenM. Malefem, santonine, 

thymol and other anthelmintic remedies are prescribed. 

ANW A, BALDASARRB, a painter who flourished during part 
of the x6th and 17th centuries. He was bom at Venice, probably 
about I $60, and is said to have been of Flembh descent. The date 
of his death is uncertain, but he seems to have been alive in 1639. 
For a number of years he studied under Lecoardo Corona, and on 
the death ol that painter completed several works left unfinished 
by Mm. His own activity seems to have been confined to the 
production of pieces for several of the churches and a few private 
houses in Venice, and the old guide-books and descriptions of the 
city notice a conaideraMe number of paintings by him. Scarcely 
any of these, however, have survived. 

ANMA (Hindustani aiu>), an Indian penny, the sixteenth part 
of a rupee. The term belongs to the Mahommedaa mane* 
tary system (see Rupee). There is no onn of one anna, but 
there are half-annaa of copper and two-anna pieces of silver. 
The term anna is frequently used to express a fraction. Thus an 
Anglo>Indian speaks of two annas of dark blood (an octoroon), 
a four-anna (quarter) crop, an ei^t-anna (half) gallop. 

ANMA AHAUA (1739-1807), duchess of Saxe-Weimar, 
daughter of Charles L, duke of Brunswick-Wolfeobattel, was 
bom at Wolfenbttttd on the 24th of October 1739, and married 
Ernest, duke of Saze- Weimar, i7$6. Her husband died in 1758, 
leaviag her regent for their infant son, Charles Augustus. During 
the protracted minority she administered the affairs of the 
duchy with the greatest prudence, strengthening its resources 
and improving iu position in spite of the troubles of the Seven 
Years' War. She was a patroness of art and literature, and 
attracted to Weimar many of the most eminent men in Germany 
Wieland was appointed tutor to her son; and the names of 
Herder, Goethe and Schiller shed an undying lustre on her court. 
In 1775 she retired into private life, her son having attained his 
majority. In 1788 she set out on a lengthened tour through 

Italy, accompanied by Goethe. She died on the 10th of April 

1807. A memorial of the duchess is included in Goethe's works 

under the title Zum Andenken ier PUrslin Anna-Amaiia. 

See F. Bornhak, Anna AmaHa Hen^gm von Saxt-Weimar-Buenaeh 
(Beriin. 189s). 

AVMABERO, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Saaooy, 
in the Eragebirge, 1894 ft above the sea, 6 m. from the Bohemian 
frontier, x8| m. S. by E. from Chemnitz by rail. Pop. (1905) 
x6,8i I. It has three Evangelical churches, among them that of 
St Anne, built X499>X52S, a Roman Catholic churdi, several 
public monuments, among them those of Luther, of the famous 
arithmetician Adam Riese, and of Barbara Uttmann. Anna- 
berg, together with the neighbouring suburb, Buchholz, is the 
chief seat of the braid and lace-maUng industry in Gnrmany, 
introduced here by Barbara Uttmann in 1561, and further 
developed by Belgian refugees, who, driven from their country 
by the duke of Alva, settled here in x 59a Tlie mining industry, 
for which the town was f oimeriy also famous and which embraced 
tin, silver and oobdt, has now ceased. Annaberg has technical 
schook for laco^naking, commerce and agricultore, in addition 
to high grade public schools for boys and girls. 

ANNABBROITB, a mineral consbting of a hydrous nickel 
arsenate, .Ni«(As04)t+8HiO, oystaUiang in the monodinic 
system and isomorphous with, vivianite and erythrite. Crystals 
are minnte and capillary and rarely met with, the mineral' 
occurring usually as^t earthy masses and encrustations. A 
fine apple-green colour is its characteristic feature. It was long 
known (since 1758) under the name nickel-ochre; the name 
annabergite was proposed by H. J. Brooke and W. H. Miller in 
1852, from Annaberg in Saxony, one of the localities of the 
mineral It occurs with ores of nickd,. of whidi it is a product 
of alteration. A variety, from Creetown in Kirkcudbrif^tshire, 
in which a portion oi the nickel is replaced by calcium, has been 
called dudipeonite, after P. Dudgeon, who found it (L. J. S.) 

ANMA OOIINEIIA, daughter of the emperor Alexius L 
Comnenus, the first woman historian, was bom on the 1st of 
Decembo- 1083. She was her father's favourite and was care- 
fully trained in the study of poetry, science and Greek philosophy. 
But, though learned and studious, she was intriguing and 
aml^tious, and ready to go to any lengths to gratify her longing 
for power. Having married an accomplished young nobleman,. 
Nio^horus Bryennius, she united with the empress Irene in 
a vain attempt to pre Ail upon her father during, his last illness 
to disinherit his son and give the crown to her husband. Still 
undeterred, she entered into a conspiracy to depose her brother 
after his accession; and when her husband refused to join in the 
enterprise, she exclaimed that "nature had mistaken their 
sexes, for he ought to have been the woman." The plot being 
discovered, Anna forfeited her property and fortune, though, by 
the clemency of her brother, she escaped with her life. Shortly 
afterwards, she retired into a convoit and employed her leisure 
in writing the AUx%ad-^9^ history, in Greek, of her father's life 
and reign (io8x-iii8), supplementing the historical work of her 
husband. It is rather a family pan^yric than a scientific history, 
in which the affection of the daughter and the vanity of the 
author stand out prominently. Trifling acts of bar father are 
described at length in exaggerated terms, while little notice is 
taken of important constitutional matters. A determined 
opponent of the Latin church and an enthusiiastic admirer of the 
Bysantine empire, Anna Comnena regards the Crusades as a 
danger both political and religious. Her modds are Thucydides, 
Polybius and Xenophon, and her style exhibits the striving after 
Atticism characteristic of the period, with the result that the 
language is hi^y ariifidal. Her chronology especially isdef ective. 

Editions in Bonn Corpn* Scriptmrum Hist. Bys., by J. Schopen 
and A. Reifferacheid (1839-1878}, with Du Causes valuable com- 
mentary; and Teubner series, by A. Reifferschcid {1884). See also 
C. Krumbacher, CesckiehU der bytantinischen LtUroiur (2nd ed. 
1897) . C Neumann, Crieckiscke Ceukichlschreiber im 12 JakrkunderU 

il888), C. Oster, Anna Komnena (Rastatt, 1868-1871): Gibbon, 
)edtfu and Fall, ch. 48; Finlay. Hist, of Greece, iii. 60. 53. 128 
(1877). P. Adam, Prinutses bytanttnes (1893); Sir Walter Scott, 
Count Ri^erl of Paris-, L. du Soramerard, i4fiiw Comnhu . . . AgnH 
do FromtM (1907); C Diehl, Fignros bysantines (1906). 



AMHk UOFOUDOVKA, sometimes called Anna Cahlovna 
'(i7i8-'X746), regent of Russia for a few months during the 
minority of her son Ivan, was the daughter of Catherine, sister 
of the empress Anne, and Charles Leopold, duke of Mecklenburg- 
Schwerin. In X739 she married Anton Ulrich (d. X775), son of 
Ferdinand Albert, doke of Brunswick, and thdr son Iran was 
adopted in X740 by the empress and proclaimed heir to the 
Russian throne. A few days after this proclamation the empress 
died, leaving directions regarding the succession, and appointing 
her £svourite Ernest Biren, duke of Conrland, as regent Biren, 
however, had made himself an object of detestation to the 
Russian people, and Anna had little difficulty in overthrowing 
his power. She then assumed the regency, and took the title of 
gtand^ducbess, but she knew little of the character of the people 
with whom she had to deal, was utterly ignorant of the approved 
Russian mode of government, and speedily quarrelled with her 
principal supporters. In December 1741, Elisabeth, daughter 
of Peter the Great, who, from her habits, was a favourite with 
the soldiers, eidted the guards to revolt, overcame the slight 
opposition that was offered, and was proclaimed empress. Ivan 
was thrown into prison, where he soon afterwards perished. 
Anna and her husband were banished to a small island in the 
river Dvina, where on the x8th of March 1746 she died in 

AmiAUm (from Lat. annus^ year; hence aftnaUtf sc. 
lUrif annual records), the name given to % dass of writers 00 
Roman history, the period of whose literary activity lasted from 
the time of the Second Punic War to that of Sulla. They wrote 
the history of Rome from the earliest times (in most cases) down 
to their own days, the events of which were treated in much 
greater detafl. For the earlier period their authorities were 
state and family records— above all, the annaits maximi (or 
annakt ponUfiam), the official chronicle of Rome, in which the 
notable occurrences of each year from the foundation of the dty 
were set down by the pontif ei mazimus. Altbou^ these annals 
were no doubt destroyed at the time of the burning of Rome by 
the Gauls, they were restored as far as possible and continued 
until the pontificate of P. Mudus Scaevola, by whom they were 
finally published in dghty books. Two generations of these 
annalists have been distinguished— «n older and a younger. 
The older, which extends to xso B.C, set forth, in baM, un* 
attractive language, without any pretensioBt to style, but with 
a certain amount of trustworthiness, the most important events 
of each successive year. Cicero (DeOtt(ore,ii. is. 53), comparing 
these writers with the old Ionic logographers, says that they 
paid no attention to ornament, and considered the only merits 
of a writer to be intelligibility and condscncsa. Thdr annals 
were a mere compilation of facta. The younger generation, in 
view of the requirements and critidsm of a reading public, 
cultivated the art of composition and rhetorical embellishment. 
As a general rule the annalists wrote in a spirit of uncritical 
patriotism, which led them to minimise or gloss over such 
disasters u the conquest of Rome by Porsena and the compulsory 
payment of ransom to the Gauls, and to flatter the people by 
exaggerated accounts of Roman prowess, dressed up in fandful 
language. At first they wrote in Greek, partly because a national 
style was not yet formed, and partly because Greek was the 
fashionable language amongst the educated, although Latin 
versions were probably puMished as well. The first of the 
annalists, the father of Roman history, as he has been called, 
was Q. Fabhtb Pxctoa (see Fabius Pxctob); contemporary 
with him was L. CzNaus Aldcentus, who flourished during 
the Ranniballc war.^ Like Fabius Pictor, he wrote in Greek. 
He was taken prisoner by Hannibal (Uvy xxi. 38), who is said 
to have given him details of the crossing of the Alps. His work 
embraced the history of Rome from its foundation down to his 
own days. With M. Porous Cato {q.v.) historical composition 

* He Is not to be confuBed with L. Cindus, the author of various 
political and antiquarian treattaes (<2c Fastis. d€ CMtUiis. it Priseis 
Verfrti), who lived in the Augustan age. to which period Momnuen. 
considering them a later fabrication, refers the Greek annab of 
L. Cindua Alimeotua. 

in Latin began, and a livelier interest was awakened in the 
history of Rome. Among the prindpal writers of this class who 
succeeded Cato, the following may be mentioned. L. Cassius 
HsioNA (about 146), in the fourth book of his Annals, wrote on 
the Second Punic War. His researches went back to very early 
times; Pliny {Nai. Hist. xiii. 13 [27]) calls him vetustissimus 
auetor annilium, L. Calpurnius Rso, sumamed Prugi (see 
under Piso), wrote seven books of annab, relating the history 
of the dty from its foundation down to ^s own times. Livy 
n^rds hkD as a less trustworthy authority than Fabius Pictor, 
and Niebuhr considers him the first to introduce systematic 
forgeries into Roman history. Q. Claitdius Quadsxcauus 
(about 80 B.C.) wrote a history, in at least twenty-three books, 
which began with the conquest of Rome by the Gaub and went 
down to the death of Sulla or perhaps later. He was freely used 
by Livy in part of hu work (from the sixth book onwards). A 
long fragment b preserved in Aulus Gellius (ix. 13), giving an 
account of the single combat between Manlius Torquatus and 
the Gaul. Hb language was antiquated and hb style dry, but 
hb work was considered important. Vaxxbxus Anixas, a 
younger contemporary of Quadrigarius, wrote the hbtory of 
Rome from the earliest times, in a voluminous work consisting 
of seventy-five books. He b notorious for his wilful exaggera- 
tion, both in narrative and numerical statements. For instance, 
he asserts the number of the Sabine virgins to have been exactly 
527; again, in a certain year when no Greek or Latin writers 
mention any important campaign, Antias speaks of a big battle 
with enormous canialtles. Nevertheless, Livy at first made use 
of him as one of hb chief authorities, until he became convinced 
of hb untrustworthiness. C. Lxcxnxus Maceb (died 66), who 
has been called the last of the annalbts, wrote a voluminous 
work, which, although he paid great attention to the study of 
hb authorities, was too rhetorical, and exaggerated the achieve- 
ments of hb own family. Having been convicted of extortion, 
he committed suidde (Cicero, & LtgfbuSf'i, 2, BnUuSf 67; 
Plutarch, Ciaro, 9). 

The writers mentioned dealt with Roman hbtory as a whole; 
some of the annalbts, however, confined themselves to shorter 
periods. Hius, L. Cabuvs Ajoifateb (about xao) limited 
himself to the Second Punic War. Hb work was overloaded with 
rhetorical embellishment, which he was the first to introduce 
into Roman hbtory. He was regarded as the most careful 
writer on the war with Hannibal, and one who did not allow 
himself to be blinded by partiality in considering the evidence 
of other writers (Qcero, Ds OnAors^ iL is). livy made great 
use of him in hb third decade. SEMrRONius A8EZ4iO (about 
xoo B.c), military tribune of Sdpio Africanus at the siege of 
Numantia, composed Ruism Ceslarum Libri in at least fourteen 
books. As he himself took part in the events he describes, hb 
work was a kind of memoirs. He was the first of his dass who 
endeavoured to trace the causes of events, instead of contenting 
himself with a bare sUtement of facts. L. CoBMELitJS Sxsbnma 
(1x9-67), legate of Pompey in the war against the pirates, lost 
hb life in an expedition against Crete. He wrote twenty-three 
books on the period between the Sodal War and the dictatorship 
of Sulla. Hb work was commended by Sallust (Juiurtka, 9$), 
who. however, blames him for not. speaking out suffidently. 
Cicero remarks upon hb fondness for archaisms {BnUm, 74. 
259). Sisenna also translated the tales of Aristidea of Miletus, 
and b supposed by some to have written a commentary on 
Plautua. The autobiography of SuUa may also be mentioned. 

See C. W. Nitxsch, Die rdmiseke AttnaKstik (1873): H. Plater, Zw 
Kritik der QmUen der dUertn rdmisdum CssehichU (1870); L. (X 
BrOcker. Modeme QiuUaiforscJur und atUUu Gesckumckreiber 
(1883); fragmenta in H. Peter, Historicorum Romanorum Rdiquiae 
(1870, TWO), and Histtneefum Romanofum PtawmtiUa (1883); alao 
articiea Romb. Hisi^ry (andeot) od/iff., section ^' Authoritiea." and 
LivY, where the uae mada of the aonalbta by the hbtoriao b 
discussed; Pauly-Witaowa. RjeaUtuychpddie, art. "Annalea*'; 
the hbtoriea of Roman Literature by M. Schanz and Teuffel- 
Schwabe; Moniinaen. HisL cf Rome (Eng. tr.), bk. iL ch. a bk. iii. 
ch. 14, bk. iv. ch. 13. bk. v. ch. 13 ; C. Wachamuth, Etumlmtf in 
das Sludium der alien GesekiehU (1895); H. Peter, bibliognphy of 
the subject in Duraiao'a JakresbendU, cxzvi. (1906). (J. H. F.) 



iWALI {Amioies, fRmi mum, a 3retf),4i concise historical 
Kcoid in which events are arranged chronologically, year by 
jrenr. The chkf sources of information in regard to the annals 
of ancient Rome are two passages in Cicero (De Oraiore, ii is. 
53) and in Serviua (ad Atn, i 373) which have been the subject 
of mudi discussion. Ooero states that from the earliest period 
down to the pontificate of Publiua Mucins Scaevola (c. 131 b.c), 
it was usual for the pootifei nuudmus to record on a white tablet 
{album) f which was exhibited in an open place at his house, so 
that the people might read it, fint, the name of the consuls and 
other magistrates, and then the noteworthy eventa that had 
occurred during the year (fer siniulos dies, as Servius says). 
These reoorda were called in Cicero's time the Annala UaximL 
After the pontificate of Publius, the practice of compiling annals 
was carried on by various unofficial writers, of whom Qcero 
names Cato. Pictor and Piao. The Atmaies have been generally 
regarded as the same with the Comm^Uarii Poniificum dted by 
Livy, but there seems reason to believe that the two were di»- 
tinct, the CommaUarii being fuUeSr and more drcumstantiaL 
The nature of the distinction between annals and history is a 
subject that*has received more attention from critics than its 
intrinsic importance deserves. The basis of discussion is fur- 
nished chiefly by the above-quoted passage from Cicero, and by 
the common division of the work of Tacitus into Annales and 
Hisloriae, Aulus Gdluia^ in the NocUs A Ukae (v. x 8) , quotes the 
grammarian Verriu&FIaccua, to the e£fect that history, according 
to its etymology (IcropdWt inspicere, to inquire in person), is a 
record of events that have come under the author's own observa- 
tion, whfle annals are a record of the events of earlier times 
arranged according to ycars^ This view of the dntinction seems 
to be borne out by the divisu>n of the work of Tacitus into the 
Hisiorice, relating the events of his own time, and the AnnaleSt 
containing the history of earlier periods. It is more than 
questionable, how.-ver, whether Tacitus himself divided his 
work under these titles. The probability is, either that he called 
the whole Annates, or that he used neither designation. (See 
Tacitus, Cornelius.) 

In the middle ages, when the order of the liturgical'feasts was 
partly determined by the date of Easter, the custom was early 
established in the Western Church of drawing up tables to 
indicate that date for a certain number of years or even 
centuries. These Paschal tables were thin books in which each 
annual date was separated from the next by a more or less con- 
siderable blank space. In these spaces certain monks briefly 
noted the important events of the year. It was at the end 
of the 7th century and among the An^^o-Saxons that the 
compiling of these Annals was first begun. Introduced by 
missionaries on the continent, they were re-copied, augmented 
and continued, especially in the kkgdom of Austrasia. In the 
9th century, during the great movement termed the Carolingian 
Renaissance, these Annals became the usual form of contem- 
porary history; it suffices to mention the AnnaUt Sinkardi, the 
Annala Laureshamenses (or " of Lorsch "), and the AnnaUs S. 
Beriini, officially compiled in order to preserve the memory of 
the more interesting acts of Charlemagne, his ancestors and 
his successors. Arrived at this stage of development, the 
Annals now began to lose their primitive character, and 
henceforward became more and more indistinguishable from the 

In modem literature the title annals has been given to a 
large number of standard works which adhere more or less strictly 
to the order of years. The best known are the Annates Ecde- 
siastici, written by Cardinal Baronius as a rejoinder to and 
refutation of the Historia ecdesiasttca or " Centuries ** of the 
Protestant theologians of Magdeburg (13 vols., published at 
Rome from 1788 to 1793; Baronius's work stops at the year 
X197). In the 19th century the annalistic form was once more 
employed, either to preserve year by year the memory of passing 
events {Annual Register, A nnuaire de la Revue des deux mondes, 
&c.) or in writing the history of obscure medieval *period5 
{/akrbacher der deutseken Gesckichte, JakrhUcKer des deutscken 
Aeidkf^Richter's Reicksannalen, &c). (C. B.*) 

AinUUIt or Anai^ a country of south-eastern As|a, now 
forming a French protectorate, part of the peninsula of Indo- 
China. (See Imdo-Quna, Feench). It is bounded N. by Tong- 
king, £^ and S.£. by the China Sea, S.W. by Cochin-China, and 
W. by Cambodia and Laos. It comprises a sinuous strip of 
territory measuring between 750 and 800 m, in length, with an 
approximate area of s^iooo aq. m. The population is estimated 
at about (S^ 134,000 

The country consists chiefly of a range of plateaus and wooded 
mountains, running north and south and declining on the coast 
to a narrow band of plain varying between zs and 50 m. in 
breadth. The mountains are cut transversely by short narrow 
valleys, through which run rivers, most of which are dry in 
iununer and torrential in winter. The Song-MA and the Song- 
Ca in the north, and the Song-Ba, Don-Nai and Se-Bang-Rhan in 
the south, are alone of any size, llie chief harbour is that afforded 
by the bay of Tourane at the centre of the coast-line. South of 
thb point the coast curves outwards and is broken by peninsulas 
and indentations; to the north it is concave and bordered hi 
many places by dunes and lagoons. 

C/imote.— In Annam the rainy season begins during September 
and lasts for three or four months, corresponding widi the north- 
east monsoon and also with a period of typhoons. During the 
rains the temperature varies from 59^ or even lower to 75* F. 
June, July and August are the hottest months, the thermometer 
often reaching 85* or 90*, though the heat of the day is to some 
degree compensated by the freshness of the nights. The south- 
west monsoon which brings rain in Cochin-China coincides with 
the dry season in Annam, the reason probably being that the 
mountains and lofty plateaus separating the two countries 
retain the precipitation. 

Etknograpky, — ^The Annamese, or, to use the native term, the 
CiQo<kif are the predominant people not only in Annam but hi 
the lowUnd and cultivated parts of Tongkhig and in Cochin- 
China and southern Cambodia. According to their own annals 
and traditions they once inhabited southern China, a theory 
which is confirmed by many of their habits and physical character- 
istics; the race has, however, been modified by crossings with 
the Chams and other of the previous inhabitants of Indo-China. 

The Annamese is the worst-built and ugliest of all the Indo- 
Chinese who belong to the Mongolian race. He is scarcely of 
middle height and is shorter and less vigorous than h» neighbours. 
His complexion is tawny, darker than that of the Chinese, but 
clearer than that of the Cambodian; his hair is black, coarse 
and long; his skin is thick; his forehead low; his skull slightly 
depressed at the top, but wdl developed at the sides. His face is 
flat, with highly protruding cheek-bones, and is lozenge-shaped 
or eurygnathous to a degree that is nowhere exceeded. His nose 
is not only the flattest, but also the smallest among the Indo- 
Chinese; his eyes are rarely oblique; his mouth is large and 
his lips thick; his teeth are blackened and his gums destroyed 
by the constent use of .the betel-nut, the areca-nut and lime. 
His neck is short, his shoulders slope greatly, his body is thick-set 
and wanting in suppleness. Another peculiarity is a separation 
of the big toe from the rest, greater than is found in any other 
people, and sufficiently general and wdl marked to serve as an 
ethnographic test. The Annamese of Cochin-China are weaker 
and smaller than those of Tongking, probably as a result of 
living amid marshy rice-fields. The Annamese of both sexes 
wear wide trousers, a long, usually black tunic with narrow 
sleeves and a dark-coloured turban, or in the case of the lower 
classes, a wide straw hat; they either go bare-foot or wear sandals 
or Chinese boots. The typiad Annamese dwelling is open to the 
gaze of the passer-by during the day; at night a sort of partitfon 
of Ixunboo is let down. The roof b supported on wooden pillais 
and wans are provided only at the sides. The house consisu 
principally of one large room opening on the front verandah 
and containhxg the alter of the family's ancestors, a teble in the 
centre and couches placed against the waU. The chief dements 
of the native diet are rice, fish and poultry; vegeUbles and pork 
are also eaten. The family is the base of the sodal system 
in Annam and is ruled by !ts head, who is also priest and judge. 



Polygamy it permitted but nrely practised, and the wife enjoys 
a position of some freedom. 

' Though fond of ease the Annamese are more industrious than 
the neighbouring peoples. Theatrical and musical entertainments 
are popular among them. They show much outward respect 
for superiors and parents, but they are insincere and incapable 
of deep emotion. They cherish great love of their native soil 
and native village and cannot remain long from home. A 
proneness to gambling and opium-smoking, and a tinge of vanity 
and deccitfulness, are their less estimable traits. On the whole 
they are mild and easy-going and even apathetic, but the 
facility with which they learn is remarkable. Like their neighbours 
the Cambodians and the Chinese, the Annamese have a great 
respect for the dead, and ancestor worship^:onstitutes the national 
religion. The learned hold the doctrine of Confudus, and 
Buddhism, alloyed with much popular superstition, has some 
influence. Like the Chinese the Annamese bury their dead. 
' Among the savage tribes of the interior there is scarcely any 
idea of God and their superstitious practices can scarcely be 
considered as the expression of a definite religious idea. Roman 
Catholics number about 420,000. In the midst of the Annamese 
live Cambodians and immigrant Chinese, the latter associated 
together according to the districts from which they come and 
carrying on nearly all the commerce of the country, tn the 
forests and mountains dwell tribes of savages, chiefly of 
Indonesian origin, classed by the Annamese under the name 
MtHs or "savages." Some of these tribes show traces of 
Malay ancestry. Of greater historical interest are the Chams, 
who are to be found for the most part in southern Annam and in 
Cambodia, and who, judging from the numerous remains found 
there, appear to have been the masters of the coast region of 
Cochln-China and Annam till they succumbed before the pressure 
of the Khmers of Cambodia and the Annamese. They are taller, 
more muscular, and more supple than the Annamese. Their 
language is derived from Malay, and while some of the Chams 
are Mussulmans, the dominant religion b Brahmanism, and more 
especially the worship of Siva. Their women have a high 
rcputaticin for virtue, which, combined with the general bright 
and honest character of the whole people, differentiates them from 
the surrounding nations. 

Evidently derived from the Chinese, of which it appears to be 
t very ancient dialect, the Annamese language is composed of 
monosyllables, of slightly varied articulation, expressing different 
ideas according to the tone in which they are pronounced. It is 
quite impossible to connect with our musical system the utterance 
of the sounds of which the Chinese and Annamese languages are 
composed. What is understood by a" tone " in this language 
is distinguished in reality, not by the number of sonorous 
vibrations which belong to it, but rather by a use of the vocal 
apparatus special to each. Thus, the sense will to a native be 
completely changed according as the sound is the result of an 
aspiration or of a simple utterance of the voice. Thence the 
difficulty of substituting our phonetic alphabet for the ideo- 
graphic characters of the Chinese, as well as for the idcophonetic 
writing partly borrowed by the Annamese from the letters of the 
celestial empire. To the Jesuit missionaries is due the intro- 
duction of an ingenious though very complicated system, which 
has caused remarkable progress to be made in the employment of 
phonetic characters. By means of six accents, one bar and a 
crotchet it is possible to note with sufficient precision the indica* 
tions of tone without which the- Annamese words have no sense 
for the natives. 

AiricuUwre and oiker Industriet, — The cultivation of rice, 
which is grown mainly in the small deltas along the coast and 
in some districts gives two crops annually, and fishing, together 
with fish-salting and the preparation of nuoc-mam, a sauce 
made from decaying fish, constitute the chief industries of 

Silk spinning and weaving are carried on on antiquated lines, 
and silkworms are reared in a desultory fashion. Besides rice, 
thcproductsof the country include tea, tobacco, cotton, dnnamon, 
predous woods and rubberj coffee, pepper, sugar-canes and 

jute are cultivated to a minor extent. The exports (total value 
in 1905 £337rOzo) comprise tea, raw silk and small quantities of 
cotton, rice and sugar-cane. The imports (£284,824 in 1905) 
indude rice, iron goods, flour, wine, opium and cotton goods. 
There are coal-mines at Nong-Son, near Tourane, and gold, 
silver, lead, iron and other metals occur in the mountains. 
Trade, which is in the hands of the Chinese, is for the most part 
carried on by sea, the chief ports being Tourane and Qui-Nhon« 
which are open to European commerce. 

Adminutration. — Annam is ruled in theory by its emperor, 
assisted by the *' comat " or secret council, composed of the heads 
of the six ministerial departments of the interior, finance, war, 
ritual, justice and public works, who are nominated by himself. 
The resident superior, stationed at Hu6, is the representative of 
France and the virtual ruler of the country. He presides over 
a council (Conseil de ProUctorat) composed of the chiefs of the 
French services in Annam^ together with two members of the 
" comat "; this body deliberates on questions of taxation affecting 
the budget of Annam and on local public works. A native 
governor (tong-doc or tuan-pku)^ assisted by a native staff, 
administers each of the provinces into whidi th6 country is 
divided, and native olfidab of lower rank govern the areas 
into which these provinces are subdivided. The governors 
take thdr orders from the imperial government, but they are 
under the eye of French residents. Native officials arc appointed 
by the court, but the resident superior has^power to annul an 
appointment. The mandarinate or official class is recruited 
from all ranks of the people by competitive examination. In 
the province of Tourane, a French tribunal alone exercises 
jurisdiction, but it administers native law where natives are 
concerned. Outside this territory the native tribunals 
survive. The Annamese village is self-governing. It has its 
coundl of notables, forming a sort of oligarchy which, 
through the medium of a mayor and two subordinates, directs 
the interior affairs of the community— policing, recruiting, the 
assignment and collection of taxes, dec. — and has judicial power 
In less important suits and crimes. More serious cases come 
within the purview of the an-sal^ a judicial auxiliary of the 
governor. An assembly of notables from villages grouped 
together in a canton chooses a cantonal representative, who is 
the mouthpiece of the people and the intermediary between the 
government and its subjects. The direct taxes, which go to the 
local budget of Annam, consist primarily of a poll-tax levied 
on all males over eighteen and bdow sixty years of age, and of 
a land-tax levied according to the quality and the produce of the 

The following table summarizes the local budget of Annam 
for the years 1899 and 1904:— 





(203,082 (direct taxea, £171.160) 
£247.4351 » .. £219.841) 


In 1904 the sum allocated to the expenses of the court, the 
royal family and the native administration, the members of 
which are paid by the crown, was £85,000, the chief remaining 
heads of expenditure being the government house and residendes 
(£39.709). the native guard (£32,609) and public works (£24,898). 

Education is available to every person in the community. 
The primary school, in which the pupils learn only Chinese 
writing and the precepts of Confucius, stands at the base of this 
system. Next above this is the school of the district capital, 
where a half-yearly examination takes place, by means of which 
are selected those eligible for the course of higher education 
given at the capital of the province in a school under the direction 
of a dec-hoc, or inspector of studies. Finally a great triennial 
competition deddes the elections. The candidate whose work 
is notified as tris bien is admitted to the examinations at Hu€, 
which qualify for the title of doctor and the holding of administra* 
tive offices. The education of a mandarin includes local history, 
cognizance of the administrative rites, customs, laws and 
prescriptions of the country, the ethics of Confudus, the rules 



of good braedins, the cerenxmlal of official and aodal life, 
and the practical acquirements necessary to the conduct of public 
or private business. Annamese learning goes no farther. I^ 
includes no scientific idea, no knowledge of the natora! sciences, 
and neglects even the most rudimentary instruction conveyed 
in a European education. The complications of Chinese writing 
greatly hamper education. The Annamese mandarin must be 
acquainted with Chinese, since he writes in Chinese characters. 
But the character being ideographic, the words which express 
them are dissimilar in the two languages, and official text is 
read in Chinese by a Chinese, in Annamese by an Annamese. 

The chief towns of Annam are Hu£ (pop. about 42,000), seat 
both of the French and native governments, Tourane (pop. about 
4000), Phan-Thiet (pop. about 20,000) in the extreme south, 
Qui-Nlion, and Fai-Fo, a commercial centre to the south of 
Tourane. A road following the coast from Cochin-China to 
Tongking, and known as the " Mandarin road," passes through or 
near the chief towns of the provinces and forms the chief artery 
of communication in the country apart from the railways 
(see Indo-China, Faench). 

History. — ^The ancient tribe of the Giao-chI, who dwelt on 
the confines of S. China, and in what is now Tongking and 
northern Annam, are regarded by the Annamese as their 
ancestors, and tradition ascribes to their first rulers descent 
from the Chinese imperial family. These sovereigns were suc- 
ceeded by another dynasty, under which, at the end of the 
3rd century B.C., the Chinese invaded the country, and eventually 
established there a supremacy destined to last, with little 
intermission, till the loth century a.o. In q68 Dinh-Bo-Lanh 
succeeded in ousting the Chinese and founded an independent 
dynasty of Dinh. Till this period the greater part of Annam 
had been occupied by the Chams, a nation of Hindu civilization, 
whtdi has left many monuments to testify to its greatness, but 
the encroachment of the Annamese during the next six centuries 
at last left to it only a small territory in the south of the country. 
Three lines of sovereigns followed that of Dinh, under the last 
of wMch, about 1407, Annam again fell under the Chinese yoke. 
In 1428 an Annamese general Le-Loi succeeded in freeing the 
country once more, and founded a dynasty which lasted till 
the end of the x8th century. During the greater part of this 
period, however, the titular sovereigns were mere puppets, 
the reality of power being in the hands of the family of Trinh 
in Tongking and that of Nguyen in southern Annam, which 
in 1 568 became a separate principality under the name of Cochin- 
China. Towards the end of the K8th century a rebellion over- 
threw the Nguyen, but one of its members, Gia-long, by the aid 
of a French force, in i8oz acquired sway over the whole of Annam, 
Tongking and Cochin-Chlna. This force was procured for him 
by Pigneau de B^halne, bishop of Adran, who saw in the political 
condition of Annam a means of establishing French influence 
in Indo-China and counterbalancing the EngUsh power in India. 
Before this, in 1787, Gia-long had concluded a treaty with 
Louis XVI., whereby in return for a promise of aid he ceded 
Tourane and Pulo-Condore to the French. Hut treaty marks 
the beginning of French influence in Indo-China. 

See also Legrand de la Liraye, Notes kistoriques sur la nation 
annamite (Paris. 1866?): C. Goaselin, L' Empire d' Annam (Paris, 
1904) ; E. Sombsthay, Conrs i$ Ugidation ft d' odminiOrotion 
annamius (Paris, 1898). 

ANNAN, a royal, municipal and police burgh of Dumfriesshire, 
Scotland, on the Annan, neariy a m. from its mouth, ism. from 
Dumfries by the Glasgow 8e South-Western railway. It has a 
station also on the Caledonian railway company's branch line 
from Kirtlebridge to Brayton (Cumberland), which crosses the 
Solway Firth at Seaiield by a viaduct, i| m. long, constructed of 
iron pUlars girded together by poles, driven through the sand and 
gravel into the underiying bed of sandstone. Annan is a well- 
built town, red sandstone being the material mainly used. Among 
its public buildings is the excellent academy of which Thomas 
Carlyle was a pupil. The river Annan is crossed by a stone bridge 
of three arches dating from 1824, and by a railway bridge. The 
Haiboar Trust, constituted in 1897, improved the shipping 

accomnodatioo, and vessels of 300 toni approach dose to the 
town. The principal industries include cotton and' rope manu- 
factures, bacon-curing, distilling, tanning, shipbuilding, sand- 
stone quarrying, nursery-gardening and salmon-fishing. Large 
marine engineering works are in the vicinity. Annan is a burgh 
of considerable antiquity. Roma n remains exist in the neighbour- 
hood, and the Bruces, lords of Annandale, the Baliob, and the 
Douglases were more or less closely associated with iL During 
the period of the Border lawlessness the inhabitants suffered 
repeatedly at the hands of moss-troopers and through the feuds of 
rival families, in addition to the losses caused by the English and 
Scots wars. Edward Irving was a native of the town. With 
Dumfries, Kirkcudbright, Lochmaben and Sanquhar, Annan 
unites in sending one member to parliament. Annan Hill com- 
mands a beautiful prospect Population (1901) 5805. 

ANNA PERBNNA, an old Roman deity of the circle or " ring " 
of the year, as the name (per annum) dearly indicates. Her 
festival fell on the full moon of the first month (March 15), and 
was held at the grove of the goddess at the first milestone on the 
Via Flaminia. It was much frequented by the dty plebs, and 
Ovid describes vividly the revelry and licentiousness of th« 
occasion (Fas/i,iii. 523 foil.) . From Macrobius we Icam {Sal. i. 1 a. 
6) that sacrifice was made to her " ut annare perannareque com- 
mode liceat," i.e. that the drcle of the year may be completed 
happily. TUa is all we know for certain about the goddess and 
her cult; but the luime naturally suggested myth-making, and 
Anna became a figure in stories which may be read in Ovid {I.e.) 
and in Silius Italicus (8.50 foil.). The coarse myth told by Ovid, 
in which Anna plays a trick on Mars when in love with Minerva, 
is probably an old Italian folk-tale, poetically applied to the 
persons of these ddties when they became partially anthropo- 
morphized under Greek influence. (W. W. F.*) 

ANNAPOLIS, a dty and seaport of Maryland, U.S.A., the 
capita] of the state, the county seat of Anne Arundel county, and 
the seat of the United States Naval Academy; situated on the 
Severn river about 2 m. from its entrance into Chesapeake Bay, 
26 m. S. by E. from Baltimore and about the same distance E. by 
N. from Washington. Pop. (1890) 7604; (1900) 8525, of whom 
3002 were negroes; (19x0 census) 8609, Annapolis is served 
by the Wa^ington, Baltimore & Annapolis (electric) and the 
Maryland Electric railways, and by the Baltimore & Annapolis 
steamship line. On an devation near the centre of the dty stands 
the state house (the comer stone of which waa laid in 1772), with 
its lofty white dome (200 ft.) and pUlared portico. Close by are 
the state treasury building, erected late in the 17th century for 
the House of Delegates; Saint Anne's Protestant Episcopal 
church, in later colonial days a state church, a statue of Roger B. 
Taney (by W.H. Rinehart), and a statue of Baronjohannde Kalb. 
There are a number of residences of x8th century airchi lecture, and 
the names of several of the streets — such as King (George's, Prince 
George's, Hanover, and Duke of Gloucester— recall the colonial 
days. The United. States Naval Academy was founded here in 
X845. Annapolis is the seat of Saint John's CoUe^, a non- 
sectarian institution supported in part by the state; it was opened 
in 1789 as the successor of King William's School, which waa 
founded by an act of the Maryland legislature in X696 and was 
opened in 1701. .Its principal building, McDowell Hall, waft 
originally intended for a governor's mansion; although £4000 
current money was appropriated for its erection in 1742, it was 
not completed until after the War of Independence. In 1907 the 
college became the school of arts and sciences of the university 
of Maryland. 

Annapolis, at first called Providence, was settled in 1649 by 
Puritan exiles from Virginia. Later it bore in succession the 
names of Town at Proctor's, Town at the Severn, Anne Arundel 
Town, and finally in 1694, Annapolis, in honotir of Princess Anne, 
who at the time was heir to the throne of Great Britain. In 1694 
also, soon after the overthrow of the Catholic government of the 
lord proprietor, it was made the seat of the new government aa 
wen as a port of entry, and it has since, remained the capital of 
Maryland; but it was not until 1708 that it was incorporated aa 
a dty. From the middle of the x8th century until the War of 



Independence, Annapolis was noted for its wealthy and cultivated 
society. The Maryland CauUe, which became an important 
weekly journal, was founded by Jonas Green in 1745; in 1769 a 
theatre was opened; during this period also the commerce was 
considerable, but declined rapidly after Baltimore, in 1 780, was 
made a port of entry, and now oyster-packing is the city's only im> 
portant industry. Congress was in session in the state house here 
from the 36th of November 1783 to the 3rd of June 1784, and it 
was here on the 23rd of December 1783 that General Washington 
resigned his commission as commander-in-chief of the Continental 
Army. In 1786 a convention, to which delegates from all the 
states of the Union were invited, was called to meet in Annapolis 
to consider measures for the better regulation of commerce (see 
Alexandxu, Va.); but delegates came from only five states 
(New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, New Jersey, and Delaware), 
and the convention — known afterward as the " Annapolis Con- 
vention,*' — ^withottt proceeding to the business for which it had 
met, passed a resolution calling for another convention to meet 
at Philadelphia in the following year to amend the articles of 
confederation; by this Philadelphia convention the present 
Constitution of the United States was framed. 

Se»D. Ridgt\y, Annals of Annatolis from 1640 until Ike War of 
iSta (Baltimore, 1841); S. A. Shafer, "Annapolis, Ye Ancient 
City," in L. P. Powell's Historic Tomu of tkg Southern Slates (New 
York. 1900); and W. Eddis. Utters from America (London. I792)< 

ANNAPOUS, a town of Nova Scotia, capital of Annapolis 
county and up to 1750 of the entire peninsula of Nova Scotia; 
situated on an arm of the Bay of Fundy, at the mouth of the 
Annapolis river, 95 m. W. of Halifax; and the terminus of the 
Windsor k Annapolis railway. Pop. (1901) 1019. It is out of 
the oldest settlements in North America, having been founded in 
1604 by the French, who called it Port Royal. It was captured 
by the British in 17 10, and ceded to them by the treaty of Utrecht 
in 17x3, when the name was changed in honour of Qaten Anne. 
It possesses a good harbour, and the beauty of the surrounding 
country makes it a favourite summer resort. The town is 
surrounded by apple orchards and in May miles of blossoming 
trees make a beautiful sight The fruit, which is excellent in 
quality, b the principal export of the region. 
. ANN ARBOR, a diy and the county-sieat of Washtenaw 
county, Michigan, U.S.A., on the Huron river, about 38 m. 
W. of Detroit. Pop. (1890) 9431; (1900) i4,S09» of whom 
2329 were foreign-bom; (19x0) 14,8x7. It is served by the 
Michigan Central and the Ann Arbor railways, and by an 
electric line running from Detroit to Jackson and connecting 
with various other lines. Ann Arbor is best known as the scat of 
the university of Michigan, opexted in X837. The dty has many 
attractive residences, and the residential districts, especially in 
the east and south-east parts of the dty, command picturesque 
views of the Huron valley. Ann Arbor is situated in a productive 
agricultural and fruit-growing region. The river provides good 
water-power, and among the manufactures are agricultural 
implements, carriages, furniture (induding sectional book-cases), 
pianos and oigans, pottery and flour. In 1824 Ann Arbor was 
settled, laid out as a town, chosen for the county-seat, and 
named in honour of Mrs Ann Allen and Mrs Ann Rumsey, the 
wives of two of the founders. It was incorporated as a village in 
1833, and was first chartered as a dty in X85X. 

ANNATES (Lat. annaiae^ from annus^ " year ")i also known 
as " first-fruits " (Lat. primitiae), in the strictest sense of the 
word, the whole of the first year's profits of a spiritual benefice 
which, in all countries of the Roman obedience, were formerly 
paid into the papal treasury. This custom was only of gradusd 
growth. The jus deportuum^ annalia or annalae, was originally 
the right of the bishop to daim the first year's profits of the 
living from a newly inducted incumbent, of which the first 
mention is found under Pope Honorius (d. X227), but which had 
its origin in a custom, dating from the 6th century, by which 
those ordained to ecdesiastical offices paid a fee or tax to the 
ordaining bishop. The earliest records show the annata to have 
been, sometimes a privilege conceded to the bishop for a term of 
years, aometimes a right based 00 immemorial precedent In 

course of time the popes, under stress of financial crises, claimed 
the privilege for themselves, though at first only temporarily. 
Thus, in 1305, Clement V. claimed the first-fruits of aU vacant 
benefices in England and in 13x9 John XXII. those of all 
Christendom vacated within the next two years. In those cases 
the rights of the bishops were frankly usurped by the Holy See, 
now regarded as the ultimate source of the episcopal jurisdic- 
tion; the more usual custom was for the pope to claim the 
first-fruits only of those benefices of which he had reserved the 
patronage to himself. It was from these claims that the papal 
annates, in the strict sense, in course of time developed. 

These annates may be divided broadly into three classes, 
though the chief features are common to aU: (i) tlie servitia 
commi^nia or servitia Camerae Papae^ i.e. the payment into the 
papal treasury by every abbot and bishop, on his induction, of 
one year's revenue of his new benefice. The servitia ccmmunia 
are traceable to the ablatio paid to the pope when consecrating 
bishops as metropolitan or patriarch. When, in the middJe of 
the 13th century, the consecration of bishops became established 
as the sole right of the pope, the oblations of all bishops of the 
West were received by him and, by the dose of the 14th century, 
these became fixed at one year's revenue.^ A small additional 
payment, as a kind of notarial fee, was added (servilia minuta). 
(2) The jus deportuum, fruclus medii lemporis, or anualia, i.e. 
the annates due to the bishop, but in the case of " reserved " 
benefices paid by him to the Holy See. (3) The quindenuiat t.«. 
annates payable, imder a bull of Paul II. (1469), by beneficca 
attached to a corporation, every fifteen years and not at every 

The system of annates was at no time worked with absolute 
uniformity and completeness throughout the various parts Of 
the church owning obedience to the Holy See, and it was never 
willingly submitted to by the dcrgy. Disagreements and dis- 
putes were continual, and the easy expedient of rewarding the 
officials of the Curia and increasing the papal revenue by " re- 
serving " more and more benefices was met by repeated protests* 
such as that of the bishops and barons of England (the chief 
sufferers), headed by Robert Grosseteste of Lincoln, at the coundl 
of Lyons in 1245.* The subject, indeed, frequently became one 
of national interest, on account of the alarming amount of wpftdt 
which was thus drained away, and hence numerous enactments 
exist in regard to it by the various national go\'eniments. Ib 
England the collection and payment of annates to the pope was 
prohibited in 1531 by statute. At that time the sum amounted 
to about £3000 a year. In 1 534 the annates were, along with the 
supremacy over the church in England, bestowed on the crown; 
but in February 1704 they were appropriated by Queen Anne to 
the assisunce of the poorer dergy, and thus form what has since 
been known as " <^een Anne's Bounty " {q.vJ). The amount to 
be paid was originally regulated by a valuation made under the 
direcUon of Pope Innocent IV. by Walter, bishop of Norwich, in 
X354, later by one instituted under commission from Nicholas 
III. in 1 292, which in turn was superseded in 153$ by the valua* 
tion, made by commissioners appointed by Henry VIIL, known 
as the King*s Books^ which was confirmed on the accession of 
Elizabeth and Is still that by which the clergy are rated In 
Prance, in spite of royal edicts—like those of Charies VI. , Charles 
VII., Louis XI., and Henry II. — and even denundations of the 
Sorbonne, at least the custom of paying the servitia eammunia 
held its ground till the famous decree of the 4th of August during 
the Revolution of 1789. In Germany it was decided by the 
concordat of Constance, in 14x8, that bishoprics and abbacies 
should pay the servitia according to the valuation of the Roman 
chancery in two half-yearly insUlments. Those reserved beno» 
fices only wero to pay the annalia which were rated abovie twenty- 
four gold florins; and as none were so rated, whatever their 
annual value may have been, the annalia fell into disuse. A 

* For case* see du Cange. Clossariumt t. Servitium Camerae Papaei 
J. C. L. Gicseler, Eccles. Hist., vol. ili. div. iii., notes to p. 181, &c» 
(Eng. trans., Edinburgh, 1853). . 

> DuranduB (Guillaume Durand). in his de modo teneralis eoneUii 
ceUbrandi, represents contemporary clerical hostUc opinion Sfld 
attacks the corrupUoos of the officials of the Curia. 




wtaSlMt convodeDt fiction alto led to their pncticil abrogation in 
France, Spain and Belgium. The coiuidl of Basel (1431-1443) 
wished to abolish the unUia^ but the concordat of Vienna (1448) 
confirmed the Constance decision, which, in spite of the efforts 
of the congress of Ems (1786) to aiter it, still remains nominally 
in force. As a matter of fact, however, the revolution caused by 
the secularization of the ecdeaiastical states in 1803 practically 
put an end to the system, and the seniiia have either been 
commuted via graUae to a moderate fixed sum under particular 
ooncoidata, or are the subject of separate negotiation with each 
Ids^p on his appointment In Prussia, where the bishops 
lecetve salaries as state officials, the payment is made by the 

In Scotland anmat or ami is half a year's stipend allowed by 
the Act 1673, c. 13, to the executors of a minister of the Church of 
Scotland above what was due to him at the time of his death. 
This is neither assignable by the clergyman during his life, nor 
can it be seized by his creditors. 

Aim (1665^17x4), queen of Great Britain and Ireland, second 
daoghter of James, duke of York, afterwards James II., and of 
Anne Hyde, daughter of the xst earl of Clarendon, was bom 
on the 6th of February 1665. She suffered as a child from an 
affection of the eyes, and was sent to France for medical treat- 
ment, residing with her grandmother, Henrietta Maria, and on 
the latter's death with her aunt, the duchess of Orleans, and 
ictuming to England in 167a She was brought up, together 
with her sister Mary, by the direction of Charles II., as a strict 
Protestant, and as a child she made the friendship of Sarah 
Jennings (afterwards duchess of Mariborough), thus beginning 
Ufe under the two influences which were to prove the most 
powerful in her future career. In 1 678 she accompanied Mary of 
Modena to Holland, and in 2679 joined her parents abroad and 
afterwards in Scotland. On the 2Bth of July 1683 she married 
Prince George of Denmark, brother of King Christian V., an 
unpopular union because of the French proclivities of the 
bxklegroom's country, but one of great domestic happiness, 
the prince and princess being conformable in temper and botji 
preferring retirement and quiet to life in the great world. Sarah 
Chufchill became Anne's lady of the bedchamber, and, by the 
tatter's desire to mark their mutual intimacy and affection, all 
deference due to her rank was abandoned and the two ladles 
called each other Mrs Moriey and Mrs Freeman. 

On the 6th of February 1685 James became king of England. 
In 1687 a project of settling the crown on the princess, to the 
exclusion of Mary, on the condition of Anne's embracing Roman 
Catholicism, was rendered futile by her pronounced attachment 
to the Church of England, and beyond sending her books and 
papers James appears to have made no attempt to coerce his 
daughter into a change of faith,^ and to have treated her with 
kindness, while the birth of his son on the loth of June 1688 
made the religion of his daughters a matter of less political 
importance. Anne was not present on the occasion, having gone 
lo Bath, and this gave rise to a belief that the child was spurious; 
but it is most probable that James's desire to exclude all 
Protestants firomafiairsof state was the real cause. " I shall never 
now he satisfied," Anne wrote to Mary, " whether the child be true 
or false. It may be it is our brother, but God only knows . . . 
one cannot hdp having a thousand f ears and melancholy thoughts, 
but whatever changes may happen you shall ever find me firm 
to my religion and faithfully yours." * In later years, however, 
she had no doubt that the Old Pretender was her brother. 
During the events immediately preceding the Revolution Anne 
keptin seclusion. Her ultimate conduct was probably influenced 
by the Churchills; and though forbidden by James to pay Mary 
a projected visit in the spring of 1688, she corresponded with her, 
and was no doubt aware of William's plans. Her position was 
now a very critical and painful one. She refused to show any 
sympathy with the king after William had landed in November, 
and wrote, with the advice of the Churchills, to the prince, 

> See alM HUt. MSS. Cmiin., MSS. «f Dmka ^ RuOand at Bebair, 
ii 109. 

> Dalrymple's Umoiri, ii. 175. 

declaring her approval of his action.* Churchill abandoned the 
king on the a4th, Prince George on the 2sth, and when James 
returned to London on the 26th he found that Anne and her 
lady-in-waiting had during the previous night followed their 
husbands' examples. Escaping from Whitehall by a back 
staircase they put themselves under the care of the bishop of 
London, spent one night in his house, and subsequently arrived 
on the xst of December at Nottingham, where the princess first 
made herself known and appointed a council. Thence she 
passed through Leicester, Coventry and Warwick, finally entering 
Oxford, where she met Prince George, in triumph, escorted by 
a laq{e company. Like Mary, she was reproached for showing 
no concern at the news of the king's flight, but her justification 
was that " she never loved to do anything that looked like an 
affected constraint" She returned to London on the 19th of 
December, when she was^ at once visited by William. Subse- 
quently the Declaration of Ri^^ts settled tlw succession of the 
crown upon her after William and Mary and their children. 

Meanwhile Anne had suffered a series of maternal disappoint- 
ments. Between 1684 and 1688 she had miscarried four times 
and given birth to two children who died mfants. On the 24 th 
of July 1689, however, the birth of a son, William, created duke 
of Gloucester, who survived his Infancy, gave hopes that heirs 
to the throne under the Bill of Rights might be forthcoming. 
But Anne's happiness was soon troubled by quarrels with the 
king and queen. According to the duchess of Marlborough the 
two sisteiB, who had lived hitherto while apart on extremely 
affectionate terms, found no enjoyment in each other's society. 
Mary talked too much for Anne's comfort, and Anne too little 
for Mary's satisfaction* But money appears to have been the 
first and real cause of ill-feeling. The granting away by William 
of the private estate of James, amounting to X^ 2,000 a year, to 
which Anne had some claim, was made a grievance, and a 
factious motion brought forward in the House to increase her 
dvil list pension of £30^000, which she enjoyed in addition to 
itojooo under her marriage settlement, greatly displeased 
William and Mary, who regarded it as a plot to make Anne 
independent and the chief of a separate interest in the state, 
while their resentment was increased by the refusal of Anne to 
restrain the action of her friends, and by its success. The 
Marlboroughs bad been active in the affair and had benefited by 
it, the countess (as she then was) receiving a pension of £1000,' 
and their conduct was noticed at court. The promised Garter 
was withheld from Marlborough, and the incensed "Mrs Moriey" 
in her letters to "Mrs Freeman" styled the king "Caliban", 
or the " Dutch Monster." At the close of 1691 Anne had 
declared her approval of the naval expedition in favour of her 
father, and expressed grief at iu failure.* According to the 
doubtful Life of James, she wrote to him on the ist of December 
a " most penitential and dutiful " letter, and henceforward kept 
up with him a "fair correspondence."* The same year the 
breach between the royal sisters was made final by the dismissal 
of Marlborough, justly suspected of Jacobite intrigues, from all 
his appointments. Anne took the part of her favourites with 
great seal against the court, though in all probability unaware 
of Marlborough's treason; and on the dismissal of the countess 
from her household by the king and queen she refused to part 
with her, and retired with Lady Marlborough to the duke of 
Somerset's residence at Sion House. Anne was now in disgracej 
She was deprived of her guard of honour, and Prince George, on 
entering Kensington Palace, received no salute, though the 
drums beat loudly on his departure.* Instructions were given 
that the court expected no one to pay his respects, and no 
attention in the provinces was to be shown to their rank. In 
May, Marlborough was arrested on a charge of high treason which 
subsequently broke down, and Anne persisted in regarding his 

disgrace as a personal injury to herself. In August 1 693, howevert 

' Dalrympfe's Memoirs, u. 249. 

* Lord Ailcsbury's Memoirs, 293. 

'Macphcrsoo i. 241; Clarke's Life »f James U.^ ii. 476. The 
letter, which b only printed In fragments, is not in Anne's styles 
and if genuine was probably dictated by the ChurchiTU. 

< Lutirell ii. 366. 376. 



the two sisters were temporarfly reconciled, end on the occasion 
of Mary's last illness and death Anne showed an affectionate 

The death of Mary wieakened William's position and made 
it necessary to cultivate good relations with the princess. She 
was now treated with every honour and civility, and finally 
estabh'shed with her own court at St James's Palace. At the 
same time William kept her in the background and refrained 
from appointing her regent during his absence. In March 1695 
Mariborough was allowed to kiss the king's hands, and subse- 
quently was made the duke of Gloucester's governor and restored 
to his employments. In return Anne gave her support to 
William's government, though about this time, in 1696 — according 
to James, in consequence of the near prospect of the throne — 
she wrote to her father asking for his leave to wear the crown 
at William's death, and promising its restoration at a convenient 
opportunity.' The unfounded rumour that William contem- 
plated settling the succession after his death on James's son, 
provided he were educated a Protestant in England, may possiUy 
have alarmed her.' Meanwhile, since the birth of the duke of 
Gloucester, the princ^ had experienced six more miscarriages, 
and had given birth to two children who only survived a few 
hours, and the last maternal hope flickered out on the death of 
the young prince on the 29th of July 1700. Henceforth Anne 
signs herself in her letters to Lady Mariborough as " your poor 
unfortunate " as well as " faithful Morley." In default of her 
own issue, Anne's personal choice would probably have inclined 
at this time to her own family at St Germains, but the'necessity 
of maintaining the Protestant succession caused the enactment 
of the Act of Settlement in 1701, and the substitution of the 
Hanoverian branch. She wore mourning for her father in 1701, 
and before his death James is said to have written to his daughter 
asking for her protection for his family; but the recognition of hb 
son by Louis XIV. as king of England effectually prevented any 
good offices to which her feelings might have inclined her. 

On the 8th of March 1702 Anne became, by King William's 
death, queen of Great Britain, being crowned on the 33rd of 
April. Her reign was destined to be one of the most brilliant 
in the annals of England. Splendid military triumphs crushed 
the iierediury national foe. The Act of Union with Scotland 
constituted one of the strongest foundations of the future 
empire. Art and literature found a fresh renascence. 

In her first speech to parliament, like George III. afterwards, 
Anne declared her " heart to-be entirely English," words which 
were resented by some aa a reflection on the late king. A 
ministry, mostly Tory, with Godolphin at Its head,was established. 
She obtained a grant of £700,000 a year, and hastened to bestow 
a pension of £100,000 on her husband, whom At created general- 
issimo of her forces and lord'high admital, while Mariborough 
obtained the Garter, with the captain-generalship an<k other 
prizes, including a dukedom, and the duchess was made mistress 
of the robes with the control of the privy purse. The queen 
showed from the first a strong interest in church matters, and 
declared her intention to keep church appointments in her own 
hands. She detested equally Roman Oitholics and dissenters, 
showed a strong leaning towards the high-church party, and gave 
sealous support to the bill forbidding occasional conformity. 
In 1704 she announced to the Commons her intention of granting 
to Uie church the crown revenues, amounting to about £16,000 or 
£17,000 a year, from tenths and first-fruits (paid originally by 
die clergy to the pope, but appropriated by the crown in 1534)1 
for the increase of poor livings; her gift, under the name of 
" Queen Anne's Bounty," still remaining as a testimony of her 
piety. This devotion to the church, the strongest of all motives 
in Anne's conduct> dictated her hesitating attitude towards 
the two great parties in the state. The Tories had for this reason 
her personal preference, while the Whigs, who included her power- 
ful favourites the Marlboroughs, identified their interests with 

*Macphcraon 1. 357; Clarke'* James II., it. 
Shrewsbury's anonymous correspondent in Hist. MS. 
itSS. Duke of Bucdeugh at Montagu House, ii. 169. 

* MacBuby iv. 799 note 4 

SS9> See alto 
'S* Comttt, Ser.i 

the war and its glorious suceesaea, the 4ueen slowly and no* 
willingly, but inevitably, gravitating towards the latter. 

In December, the archduke Charles visited Anne at Windsor 
and wu welcomed as the king of Spain. In x 704 Anne acquieKed 
in the resignation of Lord Nottingham, the leader of the high 
Tory party. In the same year the great victory of Blenheim 
further consolidated the power of the Whigs and increased tlie 
influence of Marlborough, upon whom Aime now conferred the 
numor of Woodstock. Nevertheless, she declared in November 
to the duchess that whenever things leaned towards the Whigs, 
" I shall think the church is beginning to be in danger." Next 
year she supported the election of the Whig speaker, John Smith, 
but long resisted the influence and claims of the Junior as the 
Whig leaders, Somers, Halifax, Orford, Wharton and Sunderland, 
were named. In October she was obliged to appoint Cowper, 
a Whig, lord chancellor, with all the ecclesiastical patronage 
belonging to the ofiice. Marlborough's successive victories, 
and especially the factious conduct of the Tories, who in 
November 1 705 moved in parliament that the electress Sophia 
should be invited to Eng^nd, drove Anne farther to the side 
of the Whigs. But she opposed for some time the inclusion in 
the government of Sunderland, whom she especially disliked, only 
consenting at Mariborough's Intercession in December 1706, 
when various other offices and rewards were bestowed upon 
Whigs, and Nottingham with other Tories was removed from the 
council. She yielded, after a struggle, also to the appointment 
of Whigs to bishoprics, the most mortifying submission of alL 
In 1708 she was forced to dismiss Harley, who, with the aid of 
Mrs Masham, had been intriguing against the government and, 
projecting the creation of a third party. Abigail Hill, Mrs 
Masham, a cousin of the duchess of Mariborough, had been 
introduced by the latter as a poor relation into Anne's service, 
while still princess of Denmark. The queen found relief in the 
quiet and respectful detneanour of her attendant, and gradually 
came to prefer her society to that of the termagant and tem- 
pestuous duchess. Abigail, however, soon ventured to' talk 
" business," and in the summer of 1707 the duchess discovered 
to her indignation that her prot^gie had already undermined 
her influence with the queen and had become the medium of 
Harley's intrigue. The strength of the Whigs at this time and 
the necessities of the war caused the retirement of Harley, 
but he remained Anne's secret adviser and supporter against 
the faction, urging upon her " the dangers to the crown as well 
as to the church and monarchy itself from their counsels and 
actions,"* while the duchess never regained her former influence. 
The inclusion in the cabinet of Somers, whom she especially 
disliked as the hostile critic of Prince George's admiralty 
administration, was the subject of another prolonged struggle, 
ending again in the queen's submission after a futile appeal 
to Mariborough in October 1708, to which she brought herself 
only to avoid a motion from the Whigs for the removal of the 
prince, then actually on his deathbed. His death on the 28th of 
October was felt deeply by the queen, and opened the way for 
the inclusion of more Whigs. But no reconciliation with the 
duchess took place, and in 1 709 a further dispute led to an angry 
correspondence, the queen finally informing the duchess of the 
termination of their friendship, and the latter drawing up a 
long narrative of her services, which she forwarded to Anne 
together with suitable passages on the subject of friendship 
and charity transcribed from the Prayer Book, the Wkeie Duty 
of Man and from Jeremy Taylor.* Next year Anne's desire 
to give a regiment to Hill, Mrs Masham's brother, led to another 
ineffectual attempt in retaliation to displace the new favourite, 
and the queen showed her antagom'sm to the Whig administra- 
tion on the occasion of the prosecution of Sacheverell. She was 
present at his trial and was publicly acclaimed by the mob as 
his supporter, while the Tory divine was consoled immediately 
on the expiration of his sentence with the living of St Andrew's, 
Holborn. Subsequently the duchess, In a final interview which 
she had forced upon the queen, found her tears and reproaches 

' Swift's Mem. on the Change of the Ministry. 
* Conduct of the Duchess of Marlborough, p. 92$, 



tmavaflidg. In htt tnftt slie had told the queen she wished for 
no answer, and she was now met by a stony and exasperating 
silence, broken only by the words constantly repeated, "You 
desired no answer and you shall have none." 

The fall of the Whigs, now no longer necessary on account of 

the successful issue of the war, to accomplish which Harley had 

long beep preparing and intriguing, followed; and their attempt 

to prolong hostilities from party motives failed. A friend of 

Harley, the duke of Shrewsbury, was first appointed to office, 

and subsequently the great body of the Whigs were displaced 

by Tones, Harley being made chancellor of the exchequer and 

Hairy St John secretary of state. The queen was rejoiced 

at being freed from what she called a long captivity, and the 

new parliament was returned with a Tory majority. On the 

z 7th of January 17x1, in spite of Marlborough's efforts to ward 

off the blow, the duchess was compelled to give up her key of 

office! The queen was now able once more to indulge in her 

favourite patronage of the church, and by her influence an act 

was passed in 1712 for building fifty new churches In London. 

Later, in x 7 14, she a4>proved of the Schism fiilL She gave strong 

support to Harley, now earl of Oxford and lord treasurer, in 

the intrigues and negotiations for peace. Owing to the alliance 

between the Tory Lord Nottingham and the WhigS, on the 

condition of the support by the latter of the bill against occasional 

conformity passed in December 171T, the defeated Whigs 

maintained a majority in the Lords, who declared against any 

peace which left Spain to the Bourbons. To break down this 

opposition Marlborough was dismissed on the 31st from all his 

employments, while the House of Lords was " swamped." by 

Anne*s creation of twelve peers,^ including Mis Masham's 

husbands The queen's conduct was generally approved, for the 

nation was now violently adverse to the Whigs and war party; 

and the peace of Utrecht was finally signed on the 31st of March 

1713, and proclaimed on the sth of May in London. 

As the queen's reign drew to its close, nimouis were rife on the 
great subject of the succession to the throne. Various Jacobite 
appointments excited su^cion. Both Oxfonl and Bolingbroke 
were in communication with the Pretender's party, and on the 
37th <k July Oxford, who had gradually lost influence and 
quarrelfed with Bolingbroke, resigned, leaving the supreme 
power in the hands of the latter. Anne herself had a natural 
feeling for her brother, and had shown great solicitude concerning 
his treatment when a price had been set on his head at the 
time of the Scottish expedition In 1708. On the 3rd of March 
X714 James wrote to Anne, Oxford and Bolingbroke, urging the 
necessity of taking steps to secure his succession, and promising, 
on the condition of his recognition, to make no further attempts 
against the queen's government; and in April a report was 
circidated in Holland that Anne had secretly determined to 
associate James with her in the government The wish expressed 
by the Whigs, that a member of the electoral family should be 
invited to England, had already aroused the queen's indignation 
in X708; and now, in 17 14, a writ of summons for the electoral 
prince as duke of Cambridge having been obtained, Anne forbade 
the Hanoverian envoy, Baton Schiitz, her presence, and declared 
all who supported the project her enemies; while to a memorial 
on the same subject from the electress Sophia and her grandson 
in May, Anne replied in an angry letter, which is said to have 
caused the death of Che electress on the 8th of June, requesting 
them not to trouble the peace of her realm or diminish her 

These demonstrations, however, were the outcome not of any 
returning partiality for her own family, but of her intense dislike, 
in which she resembled Queen Elizabeth, of any " successor," 
" it being a thing I catmot bear to have any successor here 
though but ^or a week "; and in sfnte of some appearances to 
the contrary, it is certain that reUgion and political wisdom 
kept Anne firm to the Protestant succession.* She had main- 
tained a friendly correspondence with the court of Hanover since 

* For their names see Hume and Smollett's Hist. (Hughes. 1854) 
viiL xid 
' See also Hist. MSS. Comm. Set. Rep. vii. App. 346b. 

1705, and in 1706 had bestowed the Garter on the electoral 
prince and created him duke of Cambridge; while the Regency' 
Act provided for the declaration of the legal heir to the crown 
by the council immediately on the queen's death, and a further 
enactment naturalized the electress and her issue. In 1708, on 
the occasion of the Scottish expedition, notwithstanding her 
solicitude for his safety, she had styled James in her speech 
closing the session of parliament as " a popbh pretender bred 
np in the principles of the most arbitrary government." The 
duchess of Marlborough stated in x 7 13 that all the time she had 
known " that thing " (as she now called the queen) , " she had never 
heard her speak a favourable word of him." * No answer appears 
to have been sent to James's letter in x 714; on the contrary, a 
proclamation was issued (June 33) for his apprehension in case 
of his arrival in England. On the 27th of April Anne gave a 
solemn assurance of her fidelity to the Hanoverian succession 
to Sir William Dawes, archbi^op of York; in June she sent 
Lord Clarendon to Hanover to satisfy the elector. 

The sudden illness and death of the queen now frustrated any 
schemes which Bolingbroke or others might have been contemi 
plating. On the 97th,. the day of Oxford's resignation, the 
discussions concerning his successor detained the council sitting 
in the queen's presence till two o'clock in the morning, and on 
retiring Anne was Instantly seized with fatal illness. Her ad- 
herence to Wilfiam in 1688 had been a principal cause of the 
success of the Revolution, and now the final act of her life was 
to secure the RevoIuti<Mi settlement and the Protestant succes- 
sion. During a last moment of returning consciousness, and by 
the advice of the whdle coundl, who had been joined on their 
own initiative by the Whig dukes Argyll and Somerset, she placed 
the lord treasurer's staff in the hands of the Whig duke of 
Shrewsbury, and measures were immediatdy taken for assuring 
the succession of the elector. Her death took pbce on the ist 
of August, and the security felt by the public, and perhaps the 
sense of perils escaped by the termination of the queen's life, 
were shown by a considerable rise In the national stocks. She 
was buried on the south side of Henry VIL's chapel in Wcst> 
minster Abbey, in the same tomb as her husband and children. 
The elector of Hanover, (jeorge Louis, son of the electress 
Sophia (daughter of Elizabeth, daughter of James I.), peacefully 
succeeded to the throne as George I. (7.V.). 

According to her physician Arbuthnot, Anne's life was 
shortened by the " scene of contention among her servants. I 
believe sleep was never more welcome to a weaiy traveller than 
death was to her." By character and temperament unfitted to 
stand alone, her life had been unhappy and tragical from Its 
Isolation. Separated in early years from her parents and sister, 
her one great friendship had proved only baneful and ensnaring. 
Marriage had only brought a mournful series of infant funerals. 
Constant IB-health and suffering had darkened her career. The 
claims of family attachment, of reUgion, of duty, of patriotism 
and of interest, had dragged her In opposite directions, and her 
whole life had been a prey to jealousies and factions which closed 
around her at her accession to the throne, and surged to their 
height when she lay on her deathbed. The modern theory of the 
relations between the sovereign and the parties, by which the 
former identifies himself with the faction for the time in power 
while maintaining his detachment from all, had not then been 
invented; and Anne, like her Hanoverian successors, maintained 
the struggle, though without success, to rule independently, 
finding support in Harley. During the first year of her reign 
she made known that she was "resolved not to follow the 
example of her predecessor in making use of a few of her subjects 
to oppress the rest. She will be queen of all her subjects, and 
would have all the parties and distinctions of former reigns ended 
and buried in hers."< Her motive for getting rid of the Whigs 
was not any real dislike of their administration, but the wish to 
escape from the domination of the party,' and on the advent 

nhid.PoraandMSS.\.y^. ,^„ ^ 

* Sir J. Lcvcson-Gower to Lord Rutland, Hist. MSS. Comm., 
Dmke 0f Rutland's MSS. 11. 173. 
» Sec Bolingbroke's LeUer to Sir W. Wyndham. 

to power o( Lhc Toriei ihe cHcfuOy left 
dnploymcnu, with th« um of breaking up 
UU'nf apoD wbat wni calltd "m mot 
atUnded debaln in lhc Lords and end 

only involved her dnper; she was jilwiys 

and ihovr heneir the Icidci of the niUon 


Ou Btka 

It the \f. 


or ludg- 

Anni writa lo Oifcrd, " at to think when I hive deti 

" ihe l*id down Iht ij^ndour of i court (oo much." which wu 
" •* it HCte tbindontd." She dined alone *licr her bubindi 
death, but ii wai ttpontd by no meini abtumloiuly, the royal 
family bcinf characliriied in tlic iinrtt — 

i^lltam Ihinb 
Mjiry Iilki 111, 
Gcofftv ilrinb* ail 

bcrday. 1 

Id Prion 
lO lotfrett in the art. the drami 
Sut ahc poucued the homely vii 
(tached to the Church oi Engbno ano concemea lor 
cy oI the miniilry. One of the lirst acts ol her reign 

the atricl morality ol her court! Intlanccs alnund ol her kind- 
Den and conuderitign lor otheis. Hot nwdcialion towards 
the Jacobite* ia Scotland, alter Ibc rteteadcr'seipcdition in 
1708. waa much praised by Saint ^nion. She shoved great 
forbearance and ^neroaily towarda theducheiaof Marlborough 
in the face of uneiampled provocation, and her chamcter waa 
unduly ditpaiaged by the latter, who with her violent and coane 

id the q 

and de*cribes her a> " 

very har 

" and ai 

'■ not apt 10 cry.' 


bilily ihe 

served th 

(tate well, and »ai 


us in the 


of public duties, in 

which m 

>y be included 

for the ki 

ng'a evil, which she 


ty ia finding money 


r. Shewrien 



nt public purpose*. 



00 to the 

officers and soldiers 

It their 


riably .pokcn 

mously n 

Deu Swiit. DO mild critic, she is invi 
respect, and named in tiis willasof"i 
and truly pious memory, the real nursing-mother of her 
doma." Sk deaervea her appellation of " Good Queen A 
withstanding her failinp in 

thief authon 

I of the great Rev 


Her person was deicribcd by . 

ai handsome though indioing 10 aloutneas, with black hair, blue 

eyes and good features, and ol grave aapccL 

Anne'a husband. Prince George (i6j]-i7oS}, waa the lecond 
son of Frederick 111., king ol Denmarlc. Before marrying Anne 
he had been 1 candidate tor Ihe Ihmne o[ Poland. He was 
created earl of Kendal and duke of Cumberland in 16S9. 
Some censure, which waa directed agaiDal the pKnce in hla 
capacity u lord high admiral, wu terminated by his death. 
Id religion George remained a Lutheran, and in general hit 
make him a good husband rather than a 

,— Ditl. 

A. Strickiai 

hope, Licky, Ranke. Mi 

vil£;F.E. Morrii. 7-tf> 

I PtinU Corrribunfm 

• Hill. ifSS Cp-im., I 

S. tj Uar^. 1/ Bilk al Ltntltct. I IJ7. 


Utmsi,, (1™); 
iFapn, Uiai): 
); Ctndml tl Ikt 

I axil lie Cnn of 

Ti; tht LteHnul 
In Uiniimiumi 
»jt); W. SKhel, 
Bvl if Ailtltaiy 
. ?», viii. 740 ; 
/ Suit PattTi: 
'■b df PtiiUni. 
UtnUtu Hnu. 
tf're'viu. d, 146, 

J. MaSintoih't 

1907). {P C. Y.J 

AHMB (|69}-I740),emprtu of Rusaia.ircoad daughter of Ttar. 
Ivan v., Peter the Gteat't Imbedle brother, and Praakovia 
Saltuikova. Her girlhood wai paued at Umailovo near Moscow, 
with her mother, an ignorant, bigoted tuiitia of the old school, 
who.neglected and even hated her daughtera. Peter acted aa a 
to the Ivanovs, as Praskovia and her family wert 

died of SI 

It on hit 

:k Willi.! 

le froi 

of her tevenjie. which she keenly (e 

that ahe at once accepted the Russian crown, aa uk next heir, 
af terthn death of Peter II. (January }o,i]]a],whcnitwa* offered 
to her by the muibera of the luprcme privy council, even gaini 
so tar as to aubscribe previously nine artidea which would have 

the 36ih of February ahe made her public entry into Uoscowundei 
atricl aurveiilance. On Ihe Slh ol March a amf d'Uat, engineered 
party of her personal friends, overthrew Ihe supreme privy 



netcia] a 


Lianpled up 

rcilessly. Fon 

« gloiioua; bul it wai 
univertaliy unpopulai. 
sua insolence ol her all- 

departmentt in the able hands of two other 
foreigners, who thoimighly identified themselves with Ruaaa, 
Andrei Ostcrman (f a.) and Duikhardt MUnnich (f.i.) did great 
thinp in the reign of Anne. The chief political evenu ol the 
period were the War of the Polish Succeuioo and Ihe lecond' 
Crimean War. The former was caused by the teafiwaiaoce of 
SlaDislaus Lcsacaynski aa a candidate for the Polish throne after 
thedealholAugustusII. (February i,ij33). Theinlenauof 
Rusaia would not permit her to recognize a candidate dependent 
directly on France and indirectly upon Sweden and Turkey, all 
three powera being at that lime opposed to Russia's "system.'* 
She accordingly united with Austria to support the candidature oi 


the hni h 

thcWaroflhePolishSuccessionwasquicklyovcr. Much 
wastheCiimeanWarof 1736-34. Tbiawarmarkl 
f that systematic struggle on the part of Russia to 
iralaad legitimate southern boundaries. It lasted 
■uin'i enpedilion under the regency of Sophia waa 
n War (IW?-**)- 



tom yean axul a half, and cost her a hundred thousand men and 
milUons of roubles; and though invariably successful, she had to 
be content with the acquisition of a single dty (Azov) with a small 
diitrict at the mouth of the Don. Yet more had been gained than 
was immediately apparent In the first place, this was the only 
war hitherto waged by Russia against Turkey which had not ended 
in crashing disaster. MQnnich had at least dissipated the illusion 
of Ottoman invincibility, and taught the Russian soldier that 
xoo^ooo janissaries and spahis were no match, in a fair field, for 
half that number of grenadiers and hussars. In the second place 
tbe Tatar hordeahad been well nigh exterminated. In the third 
place Russia's signal and unexpected successes in the Steppe had 
immensely increased her prestige on the continent. " This court 
begins to have a great deal to say in the affairs of Europe," 
remarked the En^ish minister, Sir Gaudius Rondeau, a year later. 

The last days of Anne were absorbed by the endeavour to 
strengthen the position of the heir to the throne, the baby 
cesaievich Ivan, afterwards Ivan VI., the son of the empress's 
niece, Anna Leopddovna, against the superior claims of her 
cousin the cesarevna Elizabeth. The empress herself died three 
months kter (s8th of October 1740). Her last act was to 
appoint Biren regent during the infancy of her great-nephew. 

Aane was a grim, sullen woman, frankly sensual, but as well* 
meaning as ignorance and vindictiveness would allow her to be. 
But she had much natural good sense, was a true friend and, in 
her more cheerful moments, an amiable companion. Lady 
Rondeau's portrait of the empress shows her to the best advan- 
tage. She is described as a large woman, towering above all the 
cavaliers of her court, but very well shaped for her size, easy and 
giaoeful in her person, of a majestic bearing, but with an awful- 
ness in her countenance which revolted those who disliked her. 

See R. Nisbet Bain. The PupUs of Peter the Great (London. 1897): 
Letters from a lady who resided some years in Rttssia (ue. Lady 
Rondeau) (London, i775);Cbmtoph Hermann MAaattin»Mitiiotres 
snr ia Jiussie (Amtterdam, 1771: EMliah edition, London. 1856); 
Gerhard Anton von Halem^LebeHsschrewunt des Fetdm.B. C.Crafen von 
Munnich (Oldenburg, 1803) :ClAudiuiKon^ii,Diplomatic Despatches 
from Russia, 1728-1739 (St PctersburiE:* 1889-1892). (R. N. B.) 

AMMB OF BRriTANT (i477~x5i4), daughter of Francis II., 
duke of Brittany, and Marguerite de Foiz. She was scarcely 
twelve years old when she succeeded her father as duchess on 
the 9th of September 1488. Charies VIII. aimed at esUblishing 
his authority over her; Alain d'Albret wished to marry her; 
Jean de Rohan claimed the duchy; and her guardian, the marshal 
deRieuz, was soon in open revolt against his sovereign. In 1489 
the Fiench army invaded Brittany. In order to protect her 
independence, Ajme concluded an alliance with Maximilian of 
Austria, and soon married him by proxy (December 1489). But 
Maximilian was incapable of defending her, and in 1 49 1 the young 
dttcheaa found henelf compelled to Ueat with Charles VIII. and 
to many him. The two sovereigns made a reciprocal arrangemcn t 
as to their rights and pretensions to the crown of Brittany, but 
In the event of Charles predeceasing her, Anne undertook to marry 
the heir to the throne. Neverthel^, in 149 a , after the conspiracy 
of Jean de Rohan, who had endeavoured to hand over the duchy 
to the king of England, Charles VIII. confirmed the privileges of 
Brittany, and in particular guaranteed to the Bretons the right of 
pasringonly those taxes to which the assembly of estates consented. 
After the death of Charles VUL in 1498, without any children, 
Anne eicrcisrd the sovereignty in Brittany* and in January 1499 
she married Louis XIL, who had just repudiated Joan of France. 
The marriage contract was ostensibly directed in favour of the 
independence of Brittany, for it declared that Brittany should 
revert to the second son or to the eldest daughter of the two 
aoveieigns, and, failing issue, to thenatuol fadrs of the duchess. 
Until her death Anne occupied herself personally with the 
administration of the duchy. In 1504 she caused the treaty of 
Blois to be concluded, which assured the hand Qf her daughter, 
Claude of Fiance, to Charles of Austria (the future emperor, 
and the cottnly of Blois. But this unpopular treaty was broken , 
and the queen bad to consent (0 the betrothal of Claude to Francis 

of AngooIAne, who in 15x5 became king of France as Fructs I. 

Thus the definitive reunion of Brittany and France was prepared. 

See A. dela Borderie, Choix de documents inidsts sur le r^ne de la 
duchesse Anne en Bretagne (Renncs, 1866 and lOOs)— extracts from 
the Jiihnoires de la Sociiti Archiologigue du dipartement d'Hle-et- 
Vilaine, vols. iv. and vi. ri866 and 1808) ; Leroux de Lincy. Vie dela 
reine Anne de Bretagne (1860-1861); A. Dupuy, La Riuruem de la 
Bretagne i la France (1880); A. de la Boraene, La Bretagne aux 
demiers siicies du moyen dge (1893), fund La Bretagne aux temps 
modemes (1894). (H. Sb.) 

ANNE OF CLEVE8 (iSi5'X557). fourth wife of Henry VIU., 
king of England, daughter of John, duke of Cleves, and Maty, 
only daughter of William, duke of Juliets, was bom on the asnd 
of September 1515. Her father was the leader of the German 
Protestants, and the princess, after the death of Jane Seymour, 
was regarded by Cromwell as a suitable wife for Henry VIII. 
She had been brought up in a narrow retirement, could ^>eak no 
language but her own, hiad no looks, no accomplishments and no 
dowry, her only recommendations being her proficiency in 
needlework, and her meek and gentle temper. Neverthdess her 
pictuie, painted by Holbein by the king's command (now in the 
Louvre, a modem copy at Windsor), pleased Heniy and the 
marriage was arranged, the treaty being signed on the 24th of 
September 1539. The princess landed at Deal on the a7th of 
December; Henry met her at Rochester on the ist of January 
1540, and was so much abashed at her appearance as to forget 
to present the gift he had brought for her, but nevertheless 
controlled himself sufficiently to treat her with courtesy. The 
next day he expressed openly his dissatisfaction at her looks; 
" she was no better than a Flanders mare." The attempt to 
prove a pre-contract with the son of the duke of Lotraine broke 
down, and Henry was forced to resign himself to the sacrifice. 
On the wedding morning, however, the 6th of January 1540, he 
declared that no earthly thing would have induced him to matry 
her but the fear of driving the duke of Cleves into the arms of 
the emperor. Shortly afterwards Henty had reason to regret 
the policy which had identified him so closely with the German 
Protestantism, and denied reconciliation with the emperor. 
Cromwell's fall was the result, and the chief obstacle to the 
repudiation of his wife being thus removed, Henry declared the 
marriage had not been and could not be consummated; and did 
not scruple to cast doubts on his wife's honour. On the 9th of 
July the marriage was declared null and void by convocation, 
and an act of parliament to the same effect was passed immedi- 
ately. Henry soon afterwards married Catherine Howard. On 
first hearing of the king's intentions, Anne swooned away, but <m 
recovering, while declaring her case a very hard and sorrowful 
one from the great love which she bore to the king, acquiesced 
quietly in the arrangements mad^ for her by Henry, by which 
^e received lands to the value of £4000 a year, renounced the 
title of queen for that of the king's sister, and undertook not to 
leave the kingdom. In a letter to her brother, drawn up by 
Gardiner by the king's direction, she acknowledged the unreality 
of the marriage and the king's kindness and generosity. Anne 
spent the rest of her life happily in England at Richmond or 
Bletchingley, occasionally visiting the court, and being described 
as joyous as ever, and wearing new dresses every day I An 
attempt to procure her reinstalmcnt on the disgrace of Catherine 
Howard failed, and there was no foundation for the report that 
she had given birth to a child of which Henry was the reputed 
father. She was present at the marriage of Henry with Catherine 
Parr and at the coronation of Mary. She died on the 28th of 
July 1557 at Chelsea, and was buried in Westminster Abbey. 

See Lives of the Queens of England, by A. Strickland, iit. (1851); 
The Wives of Henry VIII., by M. Hume (1905); Henry VUL, by 
A. F. Pollard (1005): Four Original Documents relating to the 
Marriage of Henry VIII. to A nne of Cleoes, ed. by E, and G. Cloldsmid 
(1886): for the pseudo Anne of Cleves see AUgemeine deutsche 
Biographic, I 467. (P. C. Y.) 

ANNB OF DENMARK (1574-1619), queen of James L of 
England and VI. of Scotland, daughter of King Frederick IL of 
Denmark and Norway and of Sophia, daughter of Ulric IIL , duke 
of Mecklenburg, was bom on the 1 2th of December 1 574. On the 
30th of August 1589, in spite of Q\xeen Elizabeth's opposition, 



she was married by praty to King James, without dower, the 
alliance, however, settling definitely the Scotti^ claims to 
the Orkney and Shetland Islands. Her voyage to Scotland was 
interrupted by a violent storm — for the raising of which several 
Danish and Sccttish witches were burned or executed — which 
drove her on the coast of Norway, whither the impatient James 
came to meet her, the marriage taking place at Opslo (now 
Christiania) on the ajrd of November. The royal couple, after 
visiting Denmark, arrived in Scotland in May 1 590. The portion 
of queen consort to a Scottish king was a difficult and perilous 
one, and Anne was attacked in connexion with various scandals 
and deeds of violence, her share in which, however, is supported 
by no evidence. The birth of an heir to the throne (Prince 
Heniy) in 1594 strengthened her position and influence; but 
the young prince, much to her indignation, was immediately 
withdrawn from her care and entrusted to the keeping of the 
earl and countess of Mar at Stirling Castle; in 1595 James gave 
a written command, forbidding them in case of his death to give 
up the prince to the queen tlU he reached the age of eighteen. 
The king's intention was, no doubt, to secure himself and the 
prince against the unruly nobles, diough the queen's Roman 
Catholic tendencies were probably another reason for his decision. 
Brought up a Lutheran, and fond of pleasure, she had shown 
no liking for Scottish Calvinism, and soon incurred rcbukds on 
account of her religion, " vanity," absence from church, " night 
waking and balling." She had become secretly inclined to 
Roman Catholicism, and attended mass with the king's conniv- 
ance. On the death of Qaeen EUzabcth, on the 34th of March 
1603, James preceded her to London. Anne took advantage 
of his absence to denuuid possession of the prince, and, on the 
" flat refusal " of the countess of Mar, fell into a passion, the 
violence of which occasioned a miscarriage and endangered her 
life. In June she followed the king to England (after distribu ting 
all her effects in Edinbuigh among her ladies) with the prince 
and the coffin containing the body of her dead infant, and 
reached Windsor on the and of July, where amidst other forms 
of good fortune she entered into the possession of Queen 
Elizabeth's 6000 dresses. 

On the 34th of July Anne was crowned with the king, when her 
refusal to take Uie sacrament according to the Anglican use 
created some sensation. She communicated on one occasion 
subsequently and attended Anglican ser\ice occasionally; but 
she received consecrated objecu from Pope Clement VIII., 
continued to hear mass, and, according to Galluzzi, supported 
the schemes for the conversion of the prince of Wales and of 
England, and for the prince's marriage with a Roman Catholic 
princess, which collapsed on his death in 161 3. She was claimed 
as a convert by the Jesuits.^ Nevertheless on her deathbed, 
when she was attended by the archbishop of Canterbury and the 
bishop of London, she used expressions which were construed 
as a declaration of Protestantism. Notwithstanding religious 
differences she lived in great harmony and affection with the 
king, latterly, however, residing mostly apart She helped to 
raise Buckingham to power in the place of Somerset, maintained 
friendly relations with him, and approved of his guidance and 
control of the king. In spite of her birth and family she was at 
first favourably inclined to Spain, disapproved of her daughter 
Elizabeth's marriage with the elector palatine, and supported 
the Spanish marriages for her sons, but subsequently veered 
round towards France. She used all her influence in favour of 
the unfortunate Raleigh, answering his petition to her for 
protecticm with a personal letter of appeal to Buckingham to save 
his life. " She carrieth no sway in state nuitters," however, it 
was said of her in 2605, " and, praekr rem uxoriaMt hath no great 
teach in other affairs." ** She does not mix herself up in affairs, 
though the king tells her anything she chooses to ask, and loves 
and esteems her."* Her interest in state matters was only 
occasional, and secondary to the pre-occupations of court 
festivities, masks, progresses, dresses, jewels, which die much 
enjoyed; the court being, says Wilson — whose severity cannot 

* FaUi S. J,, by P. Joannia Drews (pub. 1733), p. i6a 1 

• Cal. of Si. Pap.— Venetian, x. 513. I 

entirely suppress his admiration— " a continued maskarado. 
where she and her ladies, like so many nymphs or Nereides, 
appeared ... to the ravishment of the beholders," and '* made 
the night more glorious than the day." Occasionally she even 
joined in the king's sports, though here her only recorded exploit 
was her accidental shooting of James's " most principal and 
q[>ecial hound," Jewel. Her extravagant expenditure, returned 
by Salisbury in 1605 at more than £50,000 and by Chamberlain 
at her death at more than £84,000, was unfavourably contrasted 
with the economy of Queen Elizabeth , in spite of large allowances 
and grants of estates which induaed Oatlands, Greenwich House 
and Nonsuch, it greatly exceeded her income, her debts in 1616 
being reckoned at nearly £xo,ooo, while her jewelry and her 
plate were valued at her death at nearly half a million. Anne 
died after a long illness on the snd of March 1619, and was buried 
in Westminster Abbey. She was generally regretted. The 
severe Wilson, while rebuking her gaieties, allows that she was 
" a good woman," and that her character would stand the most 
prying investigation. She was intelligent and tactful, a faithful 
wife, a devoted mother and a staunch friend Besides several 
chUdren who died in infancy she had Heniy, prince of Wales, 
who died in 1612, Charles, afterwards King Charles I., and 
Elizabeth, elcctress palatine and queen of Bohemia. 
BiBLiocRAPHY.— See Dr A. W. Ward's article in the Diet, of Nat. 


A. Wilson, in History 0/ Enffand (1706) i 
roseano. by R. Galluzzi (1781), lib. vi. cap. ii.. Cal. ofSlaU Papers— 
Domestic and Venetian; Hist. MSS. Comm. Series, MSS. of Marq. 
of Salishury, iii. ^, 438, 4.S4. ix. m: Harleian MSS. <176. art. J3. 
293, art. 106. Also see biblioffrephy to the article on James 1. 

(P. C Y.) 
ANNE OP FRANCE (i46o-x5a2), dame de Beaujcu, was the 
eldest daughter of Louis XI. and Charlotte of Savoy. Louis XI. 
betrothed her at first to Nicholas of Anjou, and afterwards 
offered her hand successively to Charles the Bold, to the duke 
of Brittany, and even to his own brother, Charles of France. 
Finally she married Pierre de Beaujcu, a younger brother ol 
the duke of Bourbon. Before his death Louis XI. entrusted 
to Pierre de Beaujeu and Anne the entire charge of hb son, 
Charles Vlll., a lad of thirteen; and from 14B3 to K492 the 
Beau jeus exercised a virtual regency. Anne was a true daughter 
of Louis XI. Energetic, obstinate, cunning and unscrupulous, 
she inherited, too, her father's avarice and rapacity. Although 
they made some concessions, the Beaujeus succeeded in main- 
taining the results of the previous reign, and in triumphing over 
the feudal intrigues and coalitions, as was seen from the meeting 
of the estates general in 1484, and the results of the " Mad 
War" (1485) and the war with Brittany (1488); and in spite 
of the efforts of Maximilian of Austria they concluded the ma rriage 
of Charles VIII. and Anne, duchess of Brittany (1491). But a 
short time afterwards the king disengaged himself completely 
from their tutelage, to the great detriment of the kingdom. 
In 1488 Pierre de Beaujeu had succeeded to the Bourbonnais, 
the last great fief of France. He died in 1503, but Anne survived 
him twenty years. From her establishinents at Moulins and 
Chantelle in the Bourboiuiais she continued henceforth vigorously 
to defend the Bourbon cause against the royal family. Anne's 
only daughter, Suzanne, had married in 1505 her cousin, Charles 
of Bourbon, count of Montpensier, the future constable; and 
the question of the succession of Suzanne, who died in 1521, 
was the determining factor of the treason of the constable 
de Bourbon (1523). Anne had died some months before, 00 
the X4th of November 1522. 

See P. Pelicier, Essai sur U gouvernement de la Dame de Beanjeu 
(Chartres. 1882). (J. I.) 


(from the prefix an, and the old English ailan, to bum or bake; 

the meaning has probably also been modified from the French 

nieUr, to enamel black on gold or silver, from the med. Lat. 

nigellare, to make black; cf. niello) is a process of treating a 

metal or alloy by heat with the object of imparting to it a certain 

condition of ductility, extensibility, or a certain gnde of ioftnca* 

or hardness, with all that is involved in and follows from tboid 



coaditioos. The effect mAy be medianica] unify, or a chemical 
chanse may take place also. Sometimes the causes are obvious, 
in o^er cases they are more or less obscure. But of the actual 
facts, and the immense importance of this operation as well as 
of the related ones of tempering and hardening in shop processes, 
there is no question. 

When the treatment is of a mechanical character only, there 
can be no reasonable doubt that the common belief is correct, 
namely, that the metallic crystals or fibres undergo a molecular 
rearrangement of some kind. When it is of a chemical character, 
the process is one of cementation, due to the occlusion of gases 
in the molecules of the metals. 

Numerous examples of annealing due to molecular rearrange- 
ment might be selected from the extensive range of workshop 
operations. The foUowbig are a few only: — when a bofler- 
maker bends the edges of a plate of steel or Iron by hammer 
blows (flanging), he does so in successive stages (heats), at each 
of which the plate has to be reheated, with ineviuble cooling 
down during the time work is being done upon it. The result 
is that the plate becomes brittle over the parts which have 
been subjected to this treatment; and this brittleness is not 
uniformly distributed, but is localized, and is a source of weakness, 
inducing a liability to crack. If, however, the plate when 
finished is raised to a full red beat, and allowed to cool down 
away from access of cool air, as in a furnace, or underneath wood 
ashes, it resumes its old ductility. The plate has been annealed, 
and is as sa/e as it was before it was flanged. Again, when a 
sheet of thin metal b forced to assume a shape very widely 
different from its original plane aapttiL^ as by hammering, or by 
drawing out in a press — a cartridge case being a famfliar ex- 
ample—it is necessary to anneal it several times during the 
progress of the operation. Without such annealing it would 
never anfve at the final stage desired, but would become torn 
asunder by the extension of its metallic fibres. Cutting tools 
are made of steel having suflBdent carbon to afford capacity 
for hardening. Before the process is performed, the condition 
in which the carbon is present renders the steel so hard and tough 
as to reader the preliminary turning or shaping necessary in 
many cases {e.g. in milling cutters) a tedious operation. To lessen 
this labour, the steel is first annealed. In this case it is brought 
to a low red heat, and allowed to cool away from the air. It 
can then be machined with comparative ease and be subsequently 
hardened or tempered. When a metallic structure has endured 
long service a state of fatigue resxilu. Annealing is, where 
practicable, resorted to in order to restore the original strength. 
A familiar illustration is that of chains which are specially liable 
to succumb to constant overstrain if continued for only a year 
or two. This is so well known that the practice is regulariy 
adopted of annealing the chains at regular intervals. They 
are put into a dear hot furnace and raised to a low red heat, 
continued for a few hours, and then allowed to cool down in the 
furnace after the withdrawal of the source of heat. Before the 
annealing the fracture of a link would be more crystalline than 

In these examples, and othen of which these are typical, 
two conditions are essential, one being the grade of temperature, 
the other the cooling. The temperature must never be so high 
as to cause the metal to become overheated, with risk of burning, 
nor BO low as to prevent the penetration 61 the substance with 
a good vohime of heat. It must also be continued for suffident 
time. More than this cannot be said. Each particular piece 
of work requires its own treatment and period, and nothing 
but experience of similar work will help the craftsman. The 
oooUng must always be gradual, such as that which results 
from lemoving the source of heat, as by drawing a furnace fire, 
or oouering with non-conducting subsunces. 

The chemical kind of annealing b spedfically that employed 
Id the manufacture of malleable cast iron. In this process, 
antings are made of white iron,— a brittle quality which has 
its caibon wholly in the combined sute. These castings, when 
snbjccted to heat for a period <rf ten days or a fortnight, in closed 
beics, in the picseaoe of subBtances oontaiatng oxygen, become 

highly ductile. This change is due to the absorption of the barbon 
by the oxygen in the cementing material, a comparatively pure 
soft iron fc«ing left behind. The result is that the originally 
hard, brittle castings after this treatment may be cut with a 
knife, and be bent double and twisted into spirals without 

The distinction between hardening and temperini is one of 
degree only, and both are of an opposite character to annealing. 
Hardening, in the shop sense, signifies the making of a piece 
of sted about as hard as it can be made — " glass hard " — while 
tempering indicates some stage in an infinite range between 
the fully hardened and the annealed or softened condition. 
As a matter of convenience only, hardening is usually a stage 
in the work of tempering. It is easier to harden first, and " let 
down " to the temper required, than to secure the exact heat 
for tempering by raising the material to it. This is partly due 
to the long established practice of estimating temperature by 
colour tints; but this is being rapidly invaded by new methods 
in which the temper heat is obtained in furnaces provided with 
pyrometers, by means of whidi exact heat regulation is readily 
secured, and in which the heating up is done gradually. Such 
furnaces are used for hardening balls for bearings, cams, small 
toothed wheels and similar work, as weU as for tempering 
springs, milling cutters and other kinds of cutting tools. But 
for the cutting tools having single edges, as used in engineers' 
shops, the colour test is still generally retained. 

In the practice of hardening and tempering tools by colour, 
experience is the only safe guide. Colour tints vary with degrees 
of light; steels of different brands require different treatment 
in regard to temperature and quenching; and steels even of 
identical chemical composition do not always behave alike when 
tempered. Every fresh brand of steel has, therefore, to be 
treated at first in a tentative and experimental fashion in order 
to secure the best possible results. The larger the masses of 
steel, and the greater the disparity In dimensions of adjacent 
parts, the greater is the risk of cracking and distortion. Ex- 
cessive length and the presence of keen angles increase the 
difficulties of hardening* The following points have to be 
observed in the work of hardening and tempering. 

A grade of steel must be selected of suitable quality for the 
purpose for which it has to be used. There are a number of such 
grades, ranging from about x| to } % content of carbon, and 
each having its spedal utility. Overheating must be avoided, 
as that bums the sted and injures or ruins it. A safe rule is never 
to heat any grade of steel to a temperature higher than that at 
which experience proves it will take the temper required. Heat- 
ing must be regular and thorough throughout, and must therefore 
be slowly done when dealing with thick masses. Contact with 
sulphurous fud must be avoided. Baths of molten alloys of lead 
and tin are used when very exact temperatures are required, 
and when artides have thick and thin parts adjacent. But the 
gas furnaces have the same advantages in a more handy form. 
(Quenching is done in water, oil, or in various hardening mixtures, 
and sometimes in solids. Rain water is the prindpal hardening 
agent, but various saline compounds are often added to intensify 
its action. Water that has been long in use is prderred to fresh. 
Water is generally used cold, but in many cases it is warmed to 
about 80* F., as for milling cutters and taps, warmed water 
being less liable to crack the cutters than cold. Oil is preferred 
to water for small springs, for guns and for many cutters. Mer- 
cury hardras most intensely, because it does not evaporate, and 
so does lead or wax for the same reason; water evaporates, 
and in the spheroidal state, as steam, leaves contact with the 
steel. This is ths reason why long and large objects are moved 
vertically about in the water during quenching, to bring them 
into contact with fresh cold water. 

There is a good deal of mystery affected by many of the 
hardeners, who are very particular about the composition of 
thdr baths, various oils and salts being used in an infinity of 
combinations. Many of these are the result of long and succosful 
experience, some are of the nature of *' fads.'* A change of bath 
may involve injury to the sted. The most difficult artides to 


1, ups, mmtn. It wi 

easy to give scores of hftrdi 

Hardcniag is pFrfoimcd the mote efficicnlly the more rapidly 
the quCDCbing ii done. In the cue of thick object*, however. 
npcciiUy miliing culten, there ii riik of cncliing, due lo the 

This is the ciu» o[ the dislorti 

of thei' craciing, and eiplaini i 

wilh soft ioap and other lubsli 

The presence of the body of 

> length ol 1 in. o 
It il then removed, 

gradually appear i 
ibank lo the coolci 


I impracticable in wich objects, 
on of long Ups and namen, and 
ihy their teeth are often protected 

heat in a tool Is taken advantage 
The tool, say a chi»i, ii dipped, 
g thus hardened and blackened. 

end. The heat bi 

» equalised, a 

temper is alimated by the appearance oJ 
instant the article Is plunged and allovcd lo remain until quite 
cold. ForevctydiKennldusof tool t> different lint is required. 
" Blaaing oil " Is n patticulir method of hantecing applied to 
small springs. The ipringi are healed and plunged in oila, fan, 
or tallov, which it bumei oH previous to cooling in air. or in Lhc 
aahea of the forge, or in oil, or water usually. They are hardened, 

repeated for heavy springs. The practice varies almost iri£nitcly 
with dimenaions, quality of sted, and purpose lo which the 
ipringf have lo be applied. 
The range of temper for most cutting tools lies between a pale 

T yellow, snd a light purple or plum colour. The corrcs- 
ponding iinge of tempenturea it about 43a* F. to 5)0* F., 
respectively, " Spring temper " it higher, from dark purple to 

r 5JO° F. 10 6jo° F, In many fine tools the range of 

;r kind of harden! 


d wiihc 

ss. piactt 

employed in cues 
lurabiUly of lurftce. 
ought iron and mild 

, nd applied . . . 

and studs, eyes of levers, Sc. The ariides are hermetically luted 
in an iron box, packed wilh nitrogenous and saline substances 
laa potash, bonedusl.tcatheccuttingt,aDd salt. Theboiii 
ed in a furnace, and alloned to remain for periods of from 
ve to thirty-sii hours, during which period the surface ol the 
■I, to a depth of i*! to V( '">■■ is penetiated by the cement- 
uateiials, and converted into IteeL The work is then thrown 

A oiuSe furnace, employed for annealing, hardening and 
lempeting it thown in fig. i ; the heat being obtained by means 

olpctmlcuni. which it contained in the tank A, and is kept under 
preisure by pumping at intervals with the wooden handle, so 
that when the valve B Is opened the oil is vaporized hy passing 
through a heating coil at the furnace entrance, and when ignited 
bums fiercely at 1 gas Same, Thii passes into the furoace 
through the two bole*. C, Cand plays under and up around the 

muffie D, tUnding on a Ertclay slab. The doonray U doted by 
two firecUy blocks at E, A temperature of over JOOo'F. can be 
obtained in furnaces of this class, and the heat li of coune under 
perfect control. 

A reverbetatory type of gat furnace, thown in fig. a. differ* 
from the oil furnace in having the fiama brought down ihiovgh 
the roof, by pipes A.A.A, playing on work laid on the firecUy 
slab B, thence passing under this and nut through the elbow- 

lU opening to the interior 
both these furnaces (hy 
that the iron casing is a 

ick liniugf, to retain the 
(J. C. H.) 

FiC. I.— Reveiberatory Fu 

pipeC. The hinged doors. D. give a roil 
ol the furnace. It will be noticed ii 
Messrs Flelcher, Russell Si Co., Lid. 
mere shell, enclosing very thick iinl 
beat eHcc lively. 

ANHBCY. the chief tomi ol the dc 
in France. Pop. (iqoA) 10,76]. It ii titualed al a height nf 
i4;o ft., at the northern end of ihe lake ol Annery, and i) >s m. 
byraUN.E.of Allies Bains, The surrounding country prcienu 
many tcenet of beauty. The town iuclf is a pleasant residence, 
and contains a 16th century caihedral cburch. an 18th century 
bishop's pabce, a r41h-i6lh century cuttle (lonner^y the resi- 
dence of the counti ol (be Gccevoit), and the reconattucted 
convent of the Viiiiaiion, wbeieio now reposes the body of SI 
Fiautoit de Sales (bom at the castle of Salea, dote by, in 15^7; 
died at Lyons in 1611). who held the see from 1609 lo i6tj. 
Then is also 1 public library, wiih lo.eoo volumes, and varioii* 
scientific collections, and a public garden, wilh a tialue of die 
chemist Betlhollcl (imS-iSii). whowatbom not far oS. Tlic 
biihop't tec of Geneva was transferred hither in is3j. aiwrtbc 
RclormaiiDO, but suppressed in iGoi, though revived In iSit. 
There are factories ol hnen and cotton goods, and ol fdt hats, 
paper millt, and a alebnled bell foundry at Annccy le VIeiu. 
This last-named place eiisled in Roman timea. Annecy ittelf 
was in the loth cinluiy the capital of the counts of the Genevoia, 
from whomitpuird in 1401 to the counts of Savoy, and bcame 
Frenr--'- ■-- - ■ - 

The Uki 

I about g n. la length by 1 m. in 
. 1465 ft, above the level of Ibo ten. 
II discharges its wglen, hy means of the Tbioui canal. Into the 
Fier, a Iribuuty ol Ihe Rhone. (W. A. B. C.) 

AKNBUDA. a name derived from J. B. P. Uffltrck't tem 
Aimiiida, now used to denote a major phylum ot division of 
coelomale invertebrate animals. Annelids are segmented wotms, 
and dilier from the Arlhiopoda (?.».). which they dosdy resemble 
in many respects, hy the possession of a portion of the coeloai 
traversed by the alimentary canal. In the latter respect, and in 
the fact that they frequently develop by a metamnrphotis, they 
approach the MoUusca (f.v,), but they diHer from that group 
notably in the occurrence of metameric tcgraenUlion affecting 
many of Ihe systems of oigant. The body-wall is highly muscular 
and, eicept in a lew probably spcdaliied cases, potscstct 
chitinout tpines. the setae, which are secreted by the ectoderai 
and an embedded in pits ol the tkin. They posacas a modi- 
tied anterior end, frequently with special tense organs, forming 
a head, a segmenleil nervnua system, consisting it a pair 
of anterior, dortally,{ilaeed pngUa, ■ ring (arrmadlng the 



alimenUiy canal, and a douUe ventral ganglionated chain, a 
definite vascular system, an excretory system conssting of 
nephxidia^ and paired generative organs formed from the coelomic 
epithelium, lliey are divided as follows: (x) Haplodrili (q.v.) 
or Archiannelida; (3) Chaetopoda iq.t.)\ (3) Myxostomida {q.t.)^ 
probably degenerate Polychaeta; (4) ICrudinea (see Cbaztopooa 
and Leech) ; (5) Echiuroidea (q.v.). (P. C. M.) 

hjmVt, PBRR ( 1 693-x 769) , English deist, is said to have been 
bom at UverpooL A schoolmaster by profession, he became 
prominent owing to his attacks on orthodox theologians, and his 
membership of a semi-theological debating society, the Robm 
Hood Society, which met at the " Robin Hood and Little John " 
in Butcher Row. To hjm has been attributed a work caUed A 
History oftke Man afterCod*stnim Heart (1761), intended to show 
that George 11. was insulted by a ourrent comparison with David. 
The book is said to have inspired Voltaire's Satd. It is also 
attributed to one John Noorthouck (Noorthook) . In z t'Qj he was 
condemned for blasphemous libel in his paper called the Free 
Enquirer (nine numbers only) . After his release he kept a small 
school in Lambeth, one of hh pupils being James Stephen (1758*- 
183 a), who became master in Chancery. Annet died on the x 8th 
of January 1769. He stands between the earlier philosophic 
deists and thelater propagandists of Paine's school, and " seems 
to have been the first frcethought lecturer" (J. M. Robertson); 
his essays (A CoUection of the Tracts of a certain Free Enquirer, 
X739-Z745) are forcible but lack refinement. He Invented a 
system of shorthand (and ed., with a copy of verses by Joseph 
Pri wg^ ). 

AXlfEZATION (Lat. ad, to, and nexus, joining), in interna- 
tional law, the act by which a state adds territory to its dominions; 
the term is also used generally as a synonym for acquisition. The 
assumption of a protectorate over another state, or of a sphere of 
influence, is not stxictly annexation, the latter implying the 
complete displacement in the annexed territory of the government 
or state by which it was previously ruled. Annexation may be 
the consequence of a voluntary cession from one state to another, 
or of conversion from a protectorate or sphere of influence, or of 
mere occupation in unciviliied regions, or of conquest. The 
cession of Alsace-Lorraine to Germany by France, although 
brought about by the war of 1870, was for the purposes of interna- 
tional law a voluntary cession. Under the treaty of the X7th of 
December 1885, between the French republic and the queen of 
Madagascar, a French protectorate was established over this 
island. In 1896 this protectorate was converted by France into 
an azmexation, and Madagascar then became " French territory." 
The formal annexation of Bosnia-Hertegovina by Austria (Oct. 5, 
X908) was an unauthorixed conversion of an " occupation " 
authorised by the Treaty of Berlin (1878), which had, however, 
for yean operated a} a de facto annexation. A recent case of 
conquest was that effected by the South African War of 1899- 
X90>, in which the Transvaal republic and the Orange Free 
Sute were extinguished, first de facto by occupation of the whole 
of their territory, and then dejure by terms of surrender entered 
into by the Boer generals acting as a government. 

By anxiexation, as between civilized peoples, the annexing state 
takes over the whole succession with the rights and obligations 
attacliing to the ceded territory, subject only to any modifying 
conditions contained in the treaty of cession. These, however, 
are binding only as between the parties to them. In the case of 
the annexation of the territories of the Traiksvaal republic and 
Orange Free State, a rather complicated situation arose out of 
the facts, on the one hand, that the ceding states closed their own 
existence and left no recourse to third parties against the previous 
ruling authority, and, on the other, that, having no means owing 
to the de facto British occupation, of raising money by taxation, 
the dispossessed governments raised mmey by selling certain 
securities, more especially a large holding of shares in the South 
African Railway Company, to neutral purchasers. The British 
government repudiated these sales as having been made by a 
govemment which the British government had already displaced. 
The question of at what point, in a war of conquest, the sUte 
iuccesiion beoomes operative is one of great delicacy. As early 

as the 6th of January X900, the high commissioner at Ckpe Town 
issued a proclamation giving notice that H. M. government wotdd 
'* not recognixe as valid or effectual " any conveyance, transfer 
or transmission of any property made by the govemment of the 
Transvaal republic or Orange Free State subsequently to the zoth 
of October 1899, the date of the commencement of the war. A 
proclamation forbidding transactions with a state which might 
still be capable of maintaining its independence could obviously 
bind only those subject to the- authority of the state issuing iL 
Like paper blockades (see Blockade) and fictitious occupations 
of territory, such premature proclamations are viewed by interna- 
tional jurists as not being jure gentium. The proclamation was 
succeeded, on the 9th of March 1900, by another of the high 
commissioner at Cape Town, reiterating the notice, but confining 
it to " lands, railways, mines or mining rights." And on the xst 
of September X900 Lord Roberts proclaimed at Pretoria the 
annexation of the territories of the Transvaal republic to the 
British dominions. That the war continued for nearly two years 
after this proclamation shows how fictitious the claim of annexa- 
tion was. The difficulty which arose out of the transfer of tho 
South African Railway shares held by the Transvaal government 
was satisfactorily terminated by the purchase by the British 
govemment of the total capital of the company from the different 
groups of shareholders (see on this case. Sir Thomas Barclay, Lam 
Quarterly Review, July X905; and Professor Westlake, in the lAme 
Review, October X90S). 

In a judgment of the judicial committee of the privy couttdl in 
1899 (Coole V. Sprigg, A.C. 57a), Lord Chancellor Halsbury made 
an important distinction as regards the obligations of state 
succession. The case in question was a claim of title against the 
crown, represented by the government of Cape Colony. It was 
made by persons holding a concession of certain rights in easten» 
Pondohtnd from a native chief. Before the grantees had taken up 
their grant by acts of possession, Pondoland was annexed to Cape 
Colony. The colonial govemment refused to recognize the grant 
on different grounds, the chief of them being that the concession 
conferred no legal rights before the annexation and therefore 
could confer none afterwards, a sufl^dently good ground in itself. 
The judicial committee, however, rested its decision chiefly on the 
allegation that the acquisition of the territory was an act of state 
and that *' no municipal court had authority to enforce such an 
obligation ** as the duty of the new govemment to respect existing 
titles. '' It is no answer." said Lord Halsbury, " to say that by 
the ordinary principles of Intematlonal law private property is 
respected by the sovereign which accepts the cession and assumes 
the duties and legal obligations of the former sovereign with 
respect to such private property within the ceded territory. All 
that can be meant by such a proposition is that according to the 
well-understood mles of intematlonal law a change of sovereignty 
by ccssloh ought not to affect private property, but no municipal 
tribunal has authority to enforce such an obh'gation. And ii 
there is either an express or a well^understood bargain between 
the ceding potentate and the government to which the cession is 
made that private property shall be respected, that is only a 
bargain which can be enforced by sovereign against sovereign in 
the ordinary course of diplomatic pressure." In an editorial note 
on this case the Law Quarterly Review of Jan. X900 (p. x), 
dissenting from the view of the judicial committee that "no 
municipal tribunal has authority to enforce such an obh'gation," 
the writer observes that " we can read this only as meant to lay 
down that, on th^ aimexation of territory even by peaceable 
cession, there is a total abeyance of justice until the will of the 
annexing power is expressly made known; and that, althou^ 
the will of that power is commonly to respect existing private 
rights, there is no rule or presumption to that effect of which any 
court must or indeed can take notice." So construed the doctrine 
is not only contrary to international law, but according to so 
authoritative an exponent of the common law as Sir F. Pollock, 
there is no warrant for it in En^ish common law. 

An interesting point of American constitutional law has arisen 
out of the cession of the Philippines to the United States, through 
the fact tl}at the federal constitution does not lend itaeU to tb» 



eserdse by the federal congren of ttiilimited powers, such u are 
vested in the British pariLunenL The sole authority for the 
powers of the federal congress is a written constitution with 
defined powers. Anything done in excess of those powers is null 
and void. The Supreme Court of the United Sutes, on the other 
hand, has declared that, by the constitution, a government is 
ordained and established " for the United States of America " 
and not for countries outside their limits {Ross's Case, 140 U.S. 
4S3» 464)$ *nd that no such power to legislate for annexed 
territories as that vested in the British crown in council is enjoyed 
by the president of the United Sutes {Field v. Clark, 143 U.S. 649* 
69J). Every detail connected with the administration of the 
mritories acquired from Spain under the treaty of Paris 
(December 10, 1898) has given rise to minute discussion. 

See Carman F. Randolph, Lav and Policy of A nmxation (New York 
and London. 1901): Charles Henry Butler, Treaty-making Power of 
Iko United States (New York, 1903), voL L p. 79 et aeq. (T. Ba.) 

AVNICERIS* a Greek philosopher of the Cyrenaic school. 
There is no certain information as to his date, but from the 
statement that he was a disciple of Paraebates it seems likely 
that he was a contemporary of Alexander the Great. A f oltower of 
Aristippus, he denied that {Measure is the general end of human 
life. To each separate action* there is a particular end, namely 
the pleasure which actually results from it Secondly, pleasure 
is not meidy the negation of pain, inasmuch as death ends all 
pain and yet cannot be regarded as pleasure. There is, however, 
an absolute pleasure in certain virtues such as belong to the love 
of country, parents and friends. In these relations a man will 
have pleasure, even though it may result in painful and even 
fatal consequences. Friendship is not merely for the satisfaction 
of our needs, but is in itself a source of pleasure. He maintains 
further, in opposition to most of the Cyrenaic school, that 
wisdom or pradence alone is an insufficient guarantee against 
error. The wise man is he who has acquired a habit of wise 
action; human wisdom is liable to lapses at any moment 
Diogenes Laotius says that Anniceris ransomed Plato from 
Dionysius, tyrant of Syracuse, for twenty minas. If we are 
right in placing Anniceris in the latter half of the 4th century, 
it is dear that the reference here is to an earlier Anniceris, who^ 
according to Adian, was a cdebmted charioteer. 

ANNINO, HART (x799-i847)> English fossU-coUector, the 
daughter of Richard Anning, a cabinet-maker, was bom at Lyme 
Regis iii May x 799. Her father ^"as one of the earliest coUecton 
and dealen in fo^s, obtained chiefly from the Lower Lias in that 
famous locality. When but a child in 1811 she discovered the 
first spedmen of Icklkyosaums which was brou^t into scientific 
notice; in 1821 she found remains of anew saurian,. the 
Ftesiosatirus^d in i8a8 she procured,f or the first time in England, 
remains of a pterodactyl {Dimorpkodan). She died on the 9th 
of March 1847. 

ANNISTON, a dty and the county seat of Calhoun county, 
Alabama, U.S.A., in the north-eastern part of the state, about 
63 m. E. bv^N. of Birmingham. Pop. (1890) 9998; (1900), 
9695, of whom 3669 were of negro descent: (to 10 census) 
13,794. Annlston is served by the Southern, the Seaboard 
Air Line, and the Louisville & Nashville railways. The dty is 
situated on the slope of Blue Mountain, a chain of the Blue 
Ridge, and is a healUi resort. It is the seat of the Noble Institute 
(for girls), esUblished in 1886 by Samud Noble (1834-1888), a 
wealthy iron-founder, and of the Alabama Presbyterian College 
for Men (1905). There are vast quantities of iron ore in the 
vidnity of the dty, the Coosa coal-fidds bdngonly as m. distant 
Aimiston is an important manufacturing dty, the prindpal 
industries being the manufacture of iron, sted and cotton. In 
1905 the dty's factory products were valued at $2.5aS>45S* 
An iron furnace was established on the site of Anniston during the 
Civil War, but it was destroyed by the federal troops in 1865; 
and in 1872 it was rebuilt on a much larger scale. The dty was 
founded in 1872 aa a private enterprise, by the Woodstock Iron 
Company, organized by Samud Noble and Gen. Danid Tyler 
(179^1882); but it was not opened for general settlement until 
tWelvQ yean later. It was chartered u a dty in 1879. 

Aimo.or Hanno, SAINT (e. xoio-xo75).archbishop of Cblogne, 
belonged to a Swabian family, and was educated at Bamberg. 
He became confessor to the emperor Henry III., who appointed 
him archbishop of Cologne in 1056. He took a prominent part in 
and was the leader of the party which in 1062 seized the person 
of Henry, and deprived his mother, the empress Agnes, of 
power. For a short time Anno excrdscd the chief authority in 
the kingdom, but he was soon obliged to share this with Adalbert, 
archbishop of Bremen, retaining for himself the supervision of 
Henry's education and the title of magister. The office of 
chancellor of the kingdom of Italy was at this period regarded as 
an ai^>anage of the archbishopric of Cologne,and this was probably 
the reason why Anno had a considerable share in settling -the 
papal dispute in X064. He dedkred Alexander II. to be the 
rightful pope at a synod hdd at Mantua in May 1064, and took 
other steps to secure his recognition. Returning to Germany, 
he found the chid power in the hands of Adalbert, and as he was 
disliked by the young king, he left the court but returned and 
regained some of his former influence when Adalbert fell from 
power in xo66. He succeeded in putting down a rising against 
his authority in Cologne in 1074, and it was reported he had 
allied himself with William the Conqueror, king of England, 
against the emperor. Having cleared himself of this charge. 
Anno took no further part in public business, and died at Cologne 
on the 4th of December 1075. He was buried in the monastery of 
Siegburg and was canoiuzed in 11 83 by Pope Ludus III. He 
was a founder of monasteries and a builder of churches, advocated 
derical celibacy and was a strict disciplinarian. He was a man 
of great energy and ability, whose action in recognizing Alexander 
U. was of the utmost consequence for Henry IV. and for. 

There b a Vita Annonis^ written about iroo. by a monk of 

burg, but thb is of ■liaht value. It appears in the Monumenta 
Cermaniae kistorica: Scriptores, Bd. xi. (Hanover and Berlini 
1826-1892). There is an "Epistola ad monachos Malmundarienaes 
by Anno tn the Neues Arckiv der Gesdlsckaft fiU dltere deulscke 
Gesckicktskumde, Bd. xiv. (Hanover, 1876 aeq.). See also the 
Anndiedt or JneerU poetaa Tetttoniei rkytkmus de S. Anmme, written 
about 1180, and edited by J. Kehrein (Frankfort. 1865): Th. 
Lindner, Anno I J. der Hetlige, Ersbisckof von KMn (Leipzig, 1869). 

ANNOBON* or Anno Bom, an isUnd in the Gulf of Guinea, in 
I* 24' S. and 5* zs' E., bdonging to Spain. It is txo m. S.W. of 
St Thomas. Its length is about 4 m., its breadth 2, and its 
area 6} aq. m. Rising in some parts nearly 3000 ft above 
the sea, it presents a succession of beautiful valleys and 
steep mountains, covered with rich woods and luxuriant 
vegetation. The inhabitants, some 3000 in number, are negroes 
and profess belief in the Roman Catholic faith. The 
chief town and residence of the governor is called St Antony 
(San Antonio de Praia). The roadstead is tolerably safe, and 
passing vessds take advantage of it in order to obtain water 
and fresh provisions, of which Annobon contains an abundant 
supply. The island was discovered by the Portuguese on the 
xst of January 1473, from which drcumstance it recdved its 
name («■ New Year). Annobon, together with Fernando Po, was 
ceded to Spain by the Portuguese in x 778. The islanders revolted 
against their new masters and a state of anarchy ensued, leading, 
it is averred, to an arrangement by which the island was adminis- 
tered by a body of five natives, each of whom held the office of 
governor during the period that dapsed till ten ships touched at 
the island. In the latter part of the 19th century the authority 
of Spain was re-established. 

ANNONA (from Lat amius, year), in Roman mythdogy, the 
personification of the produce of the year. She is represented 
in works of art, often together with Ceres, with a cornmeopia 
(horn of plenty) in her arm, and a ship's prow in the back- 
ground, indicating the transport of grain over the sea. She 
frequently occun on coins of the empire, standing between a 
modius (corn-measure) and the prow of a galley, with ean of com 
in one hand and a carnucopia in the other; sometimes she holds 
a rudder or an anchor. The Latin word itself has various mean* 
ings: (x) the produce of the year's harvest; (3) all means of 



talMisteiice, cspedally gnin stored in the pubHc gnnaries for 
proviaoning the dty; (3) the market-price of commodities, 
especially com; (4) a direct tax in kind, levied in republican 
times in several provinces, chiefly employed in imperial times 
for distribution amongst officials and the support of the soldiery. 

In order to ensure a supply of com sufficient to enable it to be 
aoki at a very low price, it was procured in large quantities from 
Umbcia, Etruria and Sidly. Almost dnwn to the times of the 
empire, the care of the com-supply formed part of the aedile's 
dut^, although in 440 B.C. (if the statement in Uvy iv. z», 13 
is correct, wMch is doubtful) the senate appointed a special 
officer, called fraefechu omimimm, with greatly extended powers. 
As a consequence of the second Punic War, Roman agricidture 
was at a standstill; accordingly, recourse was had to Sicily and 
S»r«<ini«^ (the first two Roman provinces) in order to keep up the 
supply of com; a tax of one-tenth was imposed on it, and its 
export to any country except- Italy forbidden. Tht price at 
which the com was sold was always moderate; the com law of 
Gracchus (123 B.C.) made it absurdly low, and Clodius (58 B.C.) 
bestowed it gratuitously. The number of the recipients of this 
free gift grew so enormously, that both Caesar and Augustus were 
obliged to reduce it. From the time of Atigustus to the end of 
the onpire the number of ^ose who were entitled to receive a 
monthly allowance of com on presenting a ticket was 300,000. 
In the 3rd ccftatury, bread formed the dole. A pratfectus ann^nae 
was appointed by Augustus to superintend the com-supply; he 
was asj^ted by a large sta£f in Rome and the provinces, and had 
jurisdiction in all matters connected with the com-markeL The 
office lasted Uil the latest times of the empire. 

AinONAT, a town of south-eastern France, in the north of the 
deputment of Arddche, 50 m. S. of Lyons by the Paris-Lyons 
railway. Pop. (igo6) is^o.^- Annonay is built on the hill 
oveilooking the meeting of the deep gorges of the IM6me and the 
Cance, the waters t>r which supply power to the factories of the 
town. By means of a dam across the Temay, an- affluent of the 
DMme, to the north-west of the town, a reservoir is provided, 
in whidi an additional supply of water, for both industrial and 
domestic purposes, is stored. At Annonay there is an obelisk 
in honour of the brothers Montgolfier, inventors of the balloon, 
who were natives of the place. A tribunal of commeroj, a board 
of trade-arbitrators, a branch of the Bank of France, and 
chambers of commerce and of arts and manufactures are among 
the public institutions. Annonay is the principal industrial 
centre of its department, the chief manufactures being those of 
leather, tsptdaXLy for f^oves, paper, silk and silk goods, and 
flour. Chemical manures, glue, gelatine, brushes, chocolate and 
candles are also produced. 

AHNOT (like die French cimiit, a word traced by etymolog^ts 
to a Lat phrase, in odio esse, to be " in iiatred " or hateful of 
someone), to vex or affect with irritation. In the sense of 
" nuisance," the noun " annoyance," apart from its obvious 
-meaning, is found in the English "Jury of Annoyance" 
appointmi by an act of 1754 to report upon obstmctions in the 
hi ^ways. 

AMMUITT (from Lat. amim, a year), a periodical payment, 
made annually, or at more frequent intervaJs, either for a fixed 
teratof years, or during the continuance of a given life, or a com- 
bination ol lives. In technical language an annuity is said to be 
payable for an assigned states, this being a general word chosen 
in preference to such words as ** time," " term " or *' period," 
because it may include more readily either a term of yean 
certain, or a life or combination of lives. The magnitude of the 
annuity is the sum to be paid (and received) in the course of each 
year. Thus, if £xoo is to be received each year by a person, he Is 
said to have " an annuity of £xdo." If the payments are made 
half-yearly, it is sometimes said that he has "a half-yearly 
annuity of £xoo "; but to avoid ambiguity, it is more commonly 
said he has an annuity of £xoo, payable by half-yeariy instal- 
ments. The former expression, if ckarly understood, is prefer- 
able on account of its brevity. So we may have quarterly, 
monthly, weekly, daily annuities, when the annuity is payable 
by quarterly, monthly, weekly or daily instalments. An annuity 

is considered as seeming duHng each ibstant of the status for 
which it is enjoyed, although it is only payable at fixed intervals. 
If the enjoyment of an annuity is postponed until after the lapse 
of a certain number of years, the annuity is said to be deferred. 
If an annuity, instead of being payable at the end of each year, 
half-year, &c., is payable in advance, it is called an annuity-due. 

If an annuity is payable for a term of years independent of 
any contingency, it is called an annuUy certain; if it is to con- 
tinue for ever, it is called a perpetuity; and if in the latter case 
it is not to commence until after a term of years, it is called a 
deferred perpetuity. An annuity depending on the continuance 
of an assigned life or lives, is sometimes called a life annuity; 
but more commonly the simple term " annuity " is understood 
to mean a life annuity, unless the contrary is stated. A life 
annuity, to cease in any event after a certain term of years, is 
cajled a temporary annuity. The holder of an annuity is called 
an annuitant, and the person on whose life the annuity depends 
is called the nominee. 

If not otherwise stated, it is always understood that an annuity 
is payable yeariy, and that the annual payment (or rent, as it is 
sometimes call^) is £1. It is, however, customary to consider 
the annual payment to be, not £1, but simply x, the reader 
Supplying whatever monetary unit he pleases, whether pound, 
dollar, franc, Thaler, &c. 

The annuity is die totality of the payments to be made (and 
received), and is so understbod by all writers on the subject; 
but some have also used the word to denote an individual 
payment (or rent), speaking, for Instance, of the first or second 
year's annuity, — a practice which is calculated to introduce 
confusion and should therefore be carefully avoided. 

Instances of perpetuities are the dividends upon the public 
stocks in Eng^nd, France and some other countries. Thus, 
although it is usual to speak of £100 consols, the reality is the 
yearly dividend which the government pays by quarterly jnstal* 
ments. The practice of the French in this, as in many other 
matters, is more logical. In speaking of their public funds {rentes) 
they do not mention the ideal capital sum, but speak of the 
annuity or annual payment that is received by the public 
creditor. Other instances of perpetuities are the incomes derived 
from the debenture stocks of railway companies, also the feu- 
duties commonly payable on house property in Srotland. The 
number of years' purchase which the perpetual annuities granted 
by a government or a railway company realize in the open 
market, forms a very simple test of the credit of the various 
governments or railways. 

Terminable Annuities are employed in the system of British 
public finance as a means of reducing the National Debt {q.v.). 
This result is attained by substituting for a perpetual annual 
charge (or one lasting until the capital which it represents can 
be paid off en bloc), an annual charge of a larger amount, but 
lasting for a short term. The latter is so calculated as to pay off, 
during its existence, the capital which it replaces, with interest 
at an assumed or agreed rate, and under specified conditions. 
The practical effect of the substitution of a terminable annuity 
for an obligation of longer currency is to bind the present genera- 
tion of citizens to increase its own obligations in the present and 
near future in order to diminish those of its successors. This 
end might be attained in other ways; for instance, by setting 
aside out of revenue a fixed annual sum for the purchase and 
cancellation of debt (Pitt's method, in intention), or by fixing 
the annual debt charge at a figure sufficient to provide a margin 
for reduction of the principal of the debt beyond the amount 
required for interest {Sir Stafford Korthcote's method), or by 
providing an annual surplus of revenue over expenditure (the 
" Old Sinking Fund ")i avaikble for the same purpose. All 
these methods have been tried in the course of British financial 
history, and the second and third of them are still employed; 
but on the whole the method of terminable annuities has been 
the one preferred by chancellors of the exchequer and by parlia- 

Terminable annuities, as employed by the British ijovemment, 
I fkU under two head8.**-<a) Those issued to, or held by private 


posont; (b) lluae hdd by KOVRnidait dqartmcnti ur by lund* 
under governinent contnil. The impaituit dilferencc betwetn 
Ihcsc Iwo duia ii Ihal na uinuity undn (a), once aentd, 
cmnol be modified cic«pl vith the holdcr'i codkiiI, i.i, u 
pnctioiUy unaltenble wiihoui i breach oi public fiitbiwheteu 

r (« c 
dcpactmcDta] amnSFinf 
Thui annuLiia of cUu (i 
■yilem u explained abt 
kdvaaiage Ibal in lima 

d by ii 
del ihe authorily of parluinent. 
LI moil petlectly the object of Ihe 
hile ihtHc of cku (,i) bkve the 
nergency their openlion on be 
lenience w breach of tiiib, with 
the'reiull that the reiCFUrcej ol goveramenl can on wch occaaiont 
be matetiilly Incteucd, apart Icom any addilionil taialioa. 
For lh[] puipoae il ii only neceisary to retain ai a chaige on the 
Income d the year a sum equal Is the (tmaller) peipetual charge 
vbich ml originally replaced by the (larger) terminable charge, 
whereupon the diBerence between the two »mounu is temporarily 
releaicd, while ultimately the incieued diuge ii eitendcd ior 
■ period equal to that for which it ia tuqicnded. Annuiiiea of 
dan (o) were £nt inalituled ia iSo8, but arc at preienl mainly 
tegulaled by an act of iSiq. They may be granted cither for 

and the cooaidcration for them may take the form either of caah 
or of government Itock, the latter being cancelled when Ihe 
annuity ia let up. Annuiiiea {b) held by government departments 
dale from i86j. They have been created in eichange lor per- 
manent debt lUireoderEd for canccllaiion, the principal open- 
tloiu bavin( been eEected in iK6j, 1867, 1870, 1874. i88j and 

goveniraent, in iti capacity ai Ihe 1 
other fundi, and itjell, in the capacit; 
financei. Savioga bank depoaitora 
manner in which govemtnent inv« 
being confined to the receipt of inl 

n Ihe m 

or govert 

' of cuttodian of the n 

eteit and the repaymc 
IS. The case i>, ban 

1 m chancery, whicb 

diOerenl as regard) forty 

4bove figures), bdonging 

cancelled and replaced by a lerminatueanDuiiyin jsiij. Atine 

liability to the auilon in that case wat (or » ipecited amount al 

■lock, ipccial armngcments were made to enture the ultimate 

leplacemenl of the precise ainount of stock cancelled. 

Aittuily CalaJaliini.—Tiic mathematical theory of life 
annuiiies is based upon a knowledge of the rate of mortality 
among mankind in general, or among the particular clau of 
persons on wboM lives the annuiiies depend, ll invcJvei a 
malhematJcal treatment too complicated to be dealt with fully 
ui this place, and ui practice it ha> been reduced to the form ol 
tables, wbich vary in diOerent place*, but which are easily 
accessible. Tbchistory of thesubjeclmay,howevec,beskelched. 
Abtabam Demoivre, in his XnnnilKI m £■•», prqiounded a very 
^mide law of morlalily which Is to the effect that, out of fl6 
children bom alive, i will die every year until the lost dies 
between the ages ol 85 and Sfi. This Uw agreed sufficicnily well 
It the middle ages of life with the mortality deduced from the 
best obscnalioDI of hit time; but, as observations became more 
eiact, the apptoximation was iound to be not suffidcnlly close. 
This wai parlicuIaHy the caae when it was desired to obtain Ihe 
value ol joint life, contingent or other comphcatcd benefits. 
Therefore Demoivre's law is entirely devoid of practical utility. 
No simple formula has yet beeo discovered that will represent 
the rate of mortality with sufficient accuracy. 

The rate of mortality at each age it, therefore, In practice 
luually determined by a series o( figures deduced from observa- 
tion land the value of an annuity at any age is found from these 
numbers by means of a series of arithmetical calculations. The 
mortality table here given isaoeiample of modem use. 

The first wrilerwho is known to have attempted lo obtain, on 
correct malhcmilical principles, tbe value of a life annuity, was 
Jan De WiU, grand pensionary o( HdUnd and Weil FrieaUnd. 
Our knowledge of bis writinp on tbe tubject it detived Irom two 

pipers contrihated by Frederick Hendriki to the Aiiartmtt 

UataiHt, vol. ii. p. 111, and vol, iii. p. qj. Tbe former of IhcK 
contains a uinslaclon of De Witt's report upon Ihe value of Iii* 
annuities, which was prepared ia comeqaence of the toolutioo 
passed by the siales-geiifral, on Ihe ijlh of April |6>1, Is ncgn- 
liate funds by life aimuilies, and whicb wai distributed to the 
members on the joih of July 1671. The laller contain! the 
InntUtion of a number of letters addieued by De Wilt to 
Burgotuaster Johan Hudde, hearing dales from September 1670 
lo October r67i. The eiiileoce of De Wilt'i nport was well 
known among his contempoiaries, and Hendrfks collected a 
number of eatracls from varioua aulhon referring to ft; but tht 











































































































report ii nol cmtained in any coUeclioD of his works eitant, and 
had been entirely lost for iSo yezn, until Hendriks discovered it 
among the state archives of Holland in conqiany wilh the letlen 
to Hudde. It it a documenl ol eilreme interest, and (notwilh- 
standipg some inaccuracies in Ihc reasoning) of very great merit, 
more etpeciitly considering that il was Ihe very first document 
on Ibe nibjecl Ihat wit ever written. 

Il spfieait thai it bad long been the pracUci In Holland lor 
life umuitiet to be gtanled to nominees of any age, in Ihe con- 
■tanl pnipoition ol double the rate of interest allowed on stock: 
Ihal is to say. if the towns were borrowuig money aie%.ther 
wvuld be Milling to grani a life annuity at 1 1 %, and so oD. 
De Witt sUIn that "annuities have been sold, even in tbe 
ptewDt century, first at sii yean' purchase, Ifaen at leven and 
eight; and that ihe majority ol all life annuities now current 
ise were obtained >t nine years' ptircbaK ") 

c of ifcw 

yean from eleven years' purchase 10 twelve, and liom tsrelvt U 



fpurtecn. He also states Chat the nte of Interest had been 
successively reduced from 6| to 5 %, and then to 4%* The 
pcindpal <^ject of hia report is to prove that, taking interest at 
4%, a Ufc annuity was worth at least sixteen years' purchase; 
and, in {act, that, an annuitant purchasing an annuity for the 
life of a young and healthy nominee at sixteen years' purchase, 
made an excellent bargain. It may be mentioned that he argues 
that it is more to the advantage, both of the country and of the 
private investor, that the public loans should be raised by way of 
grant of life annuities rather than perpetual annuities. It appears 
conclusively from De Witt's correspondence with Hudde, that 
the rate of mortality assumed as the basis of his calculations 
was deduced from careful examination of the mortality that had 
actually prevailed among the nominees on whose lives annuities 
had been granted in former years. De Witt appears to have 
oomc to the condusion that the probability of death is the 
same in any half-year from the sge of 3 to 53 inclusive; that 
in the next ten years, from 53 to 63, the piobalrility b greater 
in the ratio of 3 to a; that in the next ten yean, from 63 to 73, 
it is greater in the ratio of a to i; and in the next seven years, 
firom 73 to 80, it is greater in the ratio of 3 to i ; and he places 
the limit of human life at 80. If a mortality table of the usu^ 
form is deduced from these suppositions, out oi 912 persons 
afive at the age of 3, 2 will die every year up to 53, 3 in each of 
the ten years from 53 to 63, 4 in eadi of the next ten years from 
63 to 73, and 6 in oidi of the next seven years from 73 to 80, 
iriken aU will be dead. 

De Witt calculates the value of an annuity in the following 
way. Assume that annuities on xo,ooo lives each ten years of 
age, which satisfy the Hm mortality table, have been purchased. 
Of these nominees 79 will die before attaining the age of xx, 
and no aimuity payment will be made in respect of them; none 
^nXL die between the ages of zx and xa, so that annuities will be 
paid for one year on 992X lives; 40 attain the age of xa and 
die before 13, so that two payments will be made with respect 
to these lives. Reasoning in this way we see that the aimuities 
on 35 of the nominees ikH be payable for three years; on 40 
for four years, and so on. Proceeding thus to the end of the 
table, X5 nominees attain the age of 95, 5 of whom die before 
the age of 96, so that 85 payments will be paid in req>cct of 
these 5 IxveSb Of the survivors all die before attaining the age 
ei 97, ^ that the annuities on these lives will be payable for 86 
years. Having previously calculated a table of the values of 
anxraities certain for every number of years up to 86, the value 
of all the annuities on the xo,ooo nominees will be found by 
taking 40 times the value of an axmuity for a years, 35 times 
the value of an annuity for 3 years, and so on — the last term 
being the value of xo annuities for 86 years— and adding them 
together; and the value of an annuity on one of the nominees 
wfll then be found by dividing by xo,ooo. Before leaving the 
subject of De Witt, we may mention that we find in the corre- 
qwndenoe a distinct suggestion of the law of mortality that 
bears the name of Demoivxe. In De Witt's letter, dated the 
a7th of October X67X {Ass. Mag. voL iii. p. X07), he speaks of a 
"provisional hypothesis" suggested by Hudde, that out of 
80 young lives (who, from the context, may be taken as of the 
age 6) about x dies axmually. In strictness, therefore, the law 
in question might be more correctly termed Hudde's than 

De Witt's report being thus of the nature of an unpublished 
state paper, although it contributed to its author's repuution, 
did not contxibute to advance the exact knowledge of the 
subject; and the author to whom the credit must be given of 
first showing how to calculate the value of an annuity on correct 
principles is Edmund Halley. He gave the first approximately 
correa mortality table (deduced from the records of the numbers 
of dttths and baptisms in the city of Breslau), and showed how 
it might be employed to calculate the value of an annuity on 
the life of a nominee of any age (see PkiL Trans. 1693; Ass. 
Mag. vol. xviii.). 

Previously to Halley's time, and apparently for many years 
subsequently, all dealings with life aimuities were based upon 

mere conjectural estimates. The earliest known reference to 
any estimate of the value of life annuities rose out of the require- 
ments of the Falcidian law, which (40 B.C.) was adopted in the 
Roman empire, and which declared that a testator should not 
give more than three-fourths of his property in legacies, so that 
at least one-fourth must go to his legal representatives. It is 
easy to see how it would occasionally become necessary, while 
this law was in force, to value life aimuities charged upon a 
testator's estate. Aemiliua Macer (a.d. 330) states that the 
method which had been in Common use at that time was as 
follows: — From the earliest age untfl 30 take 30 years' purchase, 
and for each age after 30 deduct x year. It is obvious that no 
consideration of compound interest can have entered into this 
estimate; and it is easy to see that it is equivalent to assuming 
that all persons who attain the age of 30 will certainly live to 
the age of 60, and then certainly die. Compared With this esti- 
mate, that which was propounded by the praetorian prefect 
Ulpian was a great improvement. His table is as follows.^— 





Birth to ao 
ao„ a5 
a5 .. 30 

35 » 40 
40.. 41 
41.. 4a 
4».. 43 
43.. 44 
44.. 45 





45 to 46 

46 .. 47 

47 .. 48 

48 „49 

49 .. 50 

50 ,. 55 

. M and 1 





Here also we have no reason to suppose that the dement of 
interest was taken into consideration; and the assumption, 
that between the ages of 40 and 50 each addition of a year to the. 
nominee's age diminishes the value of the annuity by one year's 
purchase, is equivalent to assuming that there is no probability 
of the nominee dying between the ages of 40 and 50. Con- 
sidered, however, simply as a table of the average duration of 
life, the values are fairly accurate. At all events, no mote 
correct estimate appears to have been arrived at imtU the dose 
of the X7th century. 

The mathematics of annuities has been very fully treated in 
Dcmoivre's Treatise on Annuities (1735); Simpaon's Doctrine 0/ 
Annuities and Reeersi&ns (1742): P* Gray, Tables and Formulae; 
Baily's Doctrine of Life Annuities: there are also innumerable 
compilations of Valuation Tables and Interest Tables, by meant of 
which the value of an annuity at any age and any rate of interest 
may be found. See also the artide Inte aESX, and especially that on 

Commutation tables, aptly so named in 1840 by Augustus 
De Morgan (see his paper " On the Calculation of Single Life 
Contingendes," Assurance Magasine, xii. 3a8), show the propor- 
tion in which a benefit due at one age ought to be changed, 
so as to retain the same value and be due at another age. The 
earliest known spedmen of a commutation table is contained 
in William Dale's Introduction to the Study of Ike Doctrine ^ 
Annuilies, published in X77a. A full account of this work is 
given by F. Hendriks in the second number of the Assuranu 
Magaainey pp. X5-X7. William Morgan's Treatise on Assurances, 
1779, also contains a commutation table. Morgan gives the 
table as furnishing a convenient means of checking the correct* 
ness of the values of annuities found by the ordinary process. 
It may be assumed that he was aware that the table might be 
used for the direct calculation of annuities; but he appears to 
have been ignorant of its other uses. 

The first author who fully developed the powers of the table 
was John Nicholas Tetens, a native of SdUeswig, who in 1785, 
while professor of philosophy and mathematics at Kid, published 
in the German language an Introduction ta the Cakulatum of 
Life Annuities and Assurances. This work appears to have been 
quite unknown in England until F. Hendriks gave, in the first 
number of the Assurance Magasine^ pp. x-20 (Sept. 1850), an 
account of it, with a translation of the passages describing the 
construction and use of the commuution table, and a sketch 




of Ihc autbor'i life >nd wriUnfi, to wbids 
who dcsirei fuller infarautian. It luy be i 
Tetcnstliogiiveoiilyiiificdmeii Uble.appuefitly not fnugining 
that penoni usiuj bii woik houU 6ad It eittemdy ukAiI to 
have a Kiia of commutatiOD tables, olculated and pffnttd 

The UH of the commutation table wu iodependeti 
fn Eniland — appaicntly bctweeo Clii yean i;SS 
by George Barrett, of Petwonli, Suiuei, irho was 
yeoDiaa fanner, and was himself a village 
aftcrwanb farm steward Of bailiff. It has been usuaj 
BaiTctt m theorigiiiatDrin ErLgLand of the method of calculating 
the values of am^uities by meani of a conin]uiation i * ' ' 

this method i) icconUngly MDietlma called Barrett' 
(It u also called the comaiuutioa method and the 
method.) Barrett's melhod of olculating annuitlei 
plained by him to Fiudi Baily in the year ifiil, and 
made known to the world id a paper wiittcD by the latter and 
lead before the RxiyBl Society In iSii. 

" By what has been univeiial^ cooudEnd an unfortunat 
error of judgroentT this paper was not ncommmded by tli 
coundl of the Royal Society to be printed, but It was given by 
Batly 81 an appendix to Ibe' second Eiaue (in 1S13I of his work 
on life aanuiiies and asiunncea. Barrett had nlculated eiten- 
aive tables, and with Baily'itid attempted to gel them publidud 
by Ribscription, but williout niccess; and the mly pHnled 
tables calculated accoeding to his manner, besides the vecimen 
tables givea by BaQy, ire the tables ccntained ia Babbsge'i 
Campaimhi Vicm vf Oh ttritm ImliHiHau ftr At Auuraim of 
Lha, igaS. 

• In the year iSsj Griffith Davles pufalbhed bis TatUi tf Lift 
CiHliii§eiuia, a worit which contalm, sDioog others, two tables, 
(rbich are confeiaedly derived fnini Baily'i eqilanatioa of 
Barrett's table*. 

ThDK who dtnn to punue the subject lunher 
appendii to Eaily's Lift Aunuiiits aid Auurana 

a pec " On the Calculalisa id Stnita Life Conti 

I, Ete Morgan' 


^tCTchann of oTunion 
idy means of m.^ ki 

that they thou^t they had made. Aeilii, the diecuiuaiu whicb 
folhnr the nadmg of papers before the Imtitute have often lervttl. 
firu, (0 bring oul into bold lelU lUSeieDces ol opinian thai *rre 
pceilouily untuipected, and afterwards to soften down thoMdilTer- 
ciKts, — to cofrect cxtienw opinions in onry dbsctkifi. and to tiring 
about a greater sgRnncnt « opinkn on many important subiscts. 
'- "o way, probably, ban lbs objects of the i"->i>.i" >— » -^ 
'■-'lysdy.DcedssV-"-—'-"— =—-"-- ' 

cffectusUy K 



publicatioB a( Its Jttnul. The Aim 



Jmnai if lit iuliliiU ^c/HnuVMr Jellicoe tontinuiug 10 be Iho 

editor,— a post he held until the year tab}, when he was succeeded 

by Mr T. B. Spngue (who eonlribuled to the «h edition of this 

•' * - *■ Tlsborste arllele on - AiiBHitiei," oa whid. the 

iscd). 'nKiisnHWUSg)dnchauaillaifi«6,thc 

Msna'ng " being droived; but ui the foUowInc 

u wu ujuHidid dcsiralile to resume Ibeie, for the parnac of 

ling the con^uity o( the publication, and ft u now called thi 

viliifaitlialilaUttAct—tiaviiAammaMtMiiu. TVm 

E Gonuos DOC only the papers read before the Infltituta (to which 

! been appended <J Ist* years shatt abstracts of thedlscusdons on 

1), ud many original papers which were unsuitable for reading, 

ther with corrvqnndence, but also reprints of maiky papeta 

iibed dsrwhoa, which Inm nrious causes had bconnc drftcall 

xess 10 the oediasry raad r r, amooc winch nay be ^iscilied 

11W napers wUch origioslly appsucd in tb* PkUnoAkal 

I. the PMsMMKaTjfsfiHnrtbe Ualimia- UsualMt. 

ina UK uTMtenpa to tkt Almaiuc; abo translations of nrioris 

papers from the French, German, and Daidsh. Among the usdul 

ibiecu wbiiA the conttninus pubUcatkn of the jBunui ol the 

.nsticuta hasssrvad, ire may «cify in pr—"--' — ■ ■'— ■ 

Ibe critidsru of the whole u 

speedQy diicr>vafied; and that a 
gnat rH smsll. being placed oe — 

AMRULAK. imnTLAT^ &n (LaL amalui, a r 
" Annulate '* h need (n br>tan7 and xordcgy in connexion with 
certain plants, worms, Jkc (see AmnuDa), either mstked with 
ringsoicnmprisedof ring-like tegmenta Tie word "tnnulated" 
It also used in heraldry and architecture. An snnulated oon 
Is one with the pohita ending te an "annulet" (an henldic ring, 
supposed to be taken Item a coal of mail), while the annulet In 
■rchitecluR Is a small filkC round a column, wbkh endrclet the 
lower part of the Doric cspllsl imniediately afnva the neck or 
Irsehdium. Reword "aBnuIus"((ai"tiii8")isitself used tech- 
nically in geometry, astronony, Iic, and the adjective " armulac " 
correqKHids; An aninilarjfaeils that between an inner and outer 
ring, "nie oniHifivjfafer Is the ring finger. An(utHiifar(d(>Hij 
an cdipse of the ntn In which the visible part ol the latter com- 
pletely encircles the dark body of the moon; for this to happcit, 
the centres of Ibe sua and moon, and the point on tbe earth 
■here lire observer is situated, imut be coUinear. Certain 
neb ulae ha ving the forrar}f a ting ire also called "aiunlar." 

JUntinMUTION. the anitauncement oude by the ai«d 
Gabriel to tbe Vir^ Hary of the incantation of Christ (Luke I, 
94-38). Tbe Feast of the Annundatioo in the Chtistisn Chntdi 
Is celebrated on tbe ijth at HatdL The first authentic aOuilona 
T the coundl of Toledo (656), and atuilliei 
itantinople " in Trullo " (691), forbidding 
the cdebrition of all festivals iii Lent, excepting the Lord's day 
the Feast ol the Annundailon, An eaificr origin hsa been 
m the ground that It ts Dientlooed In sermons ol 
t of Gregory ThaumatUTgus, but both of these 
now admitted to be qniriout. A synod lield at 
Worcester, England (rs4o], forbade all servile work ca thli 
feast day. See further IjiDI D«, 

UnOHZIO. OABMEIE D* (igSj }, Italian nordlst and 

poet, ol Dahnatian eitncllon, was bom at Pescara (Abrutai) in 

"■ ' " iri of his youth were spent in the (reedomirf 

tixlecn he wis sent to tcfaool in 'niscany. 

he published a small volume of verses called 

Primo Vat (tS;;), In which, side by dde with tome almost 

italtont of Lorenzo Sleccheiti, the then fashionibiB 

poet of Fesluma, were some tlanslatlons from the Latin, dis- 

tinguiihed by such sgfle grace that GhiseppeChiarini on reading 

n brought the unknown youth before the public in an enthuil- 

: article. The young poet then went to Rome, where ho 

received as one of their own by the Crnucs BaenHna group 

C>bdi7ix:t). Here be published CshIo Nume (tSli), Tern 

Vatl^ (i8Sj), V InkrmeBB it Rim (tSSs), /( Llim Jelk 

Vtrgini (i»B4) , and the fireater part of the short stories that were 

aftervsidi collected under the genera] title of Sua Ptnlnltimc 

(isas). In Ci<ito f/utm we hare admirable poems full of 

pulsating youth and the pttsnlie of power, some desoipthn 

claimed tor it 



of the lea and some ol the Abruni hndwfape, oommented on 
and completed in prose by Tern Vtrgms, the Utter a ooUection 
of short stories dealing in radiant lanyiagf with the peasant life 
of the author's native province. With the luttnmato di Rim* we 
have the beginning of ^'Annuniio'a second and characteristic 
manner. His conception of style waa oewi and he chose to 
csqureas all the most subtle vibrations of voluptuous life. Both 
style and contents began to startle hia critics; some who had 
greeted htm as an mjamt pfodigt — Chiarini amongst others — 
icjected him as a pervertcr of public morals^ whilst others 
haiOed him as one bringing a current of fresh air and the impulse 
of a new vitality into the somewhat prim, lifeless work hitherto 

Meanwhile the Heview of Aageto Sommaniga perished hi the 
midft ctf scai)dal, and his group of young authoiB found itself 
dtsperaed. Some entered the rearhing career and were lost to 
literature, others threw themselves into journalism. Gabriele 
d'Annunaio took this latter oowie, and joined the staff of the 
Tribtma, For this paper, under the pseudonym of " Duca 
Miniflx>," hedid some of his most brilliant work, and the articles 
lie wrote during that period of originality and exuberance would 
well repay being ooUected. To this period of greater matxirity and 
deeper culture belongr // Libro d* IsoUa (x886), a love poem, in 
.whi^ for the first time he drew induration edited to modem 
sentiments and passions from the rich coburs of die Renaissance. 
II Uhn d* IsetfB is Interesting also, because in it we find moat 
of the germs of his future work, just as in Ifilenmaao mdU* and 
in certain ballads and sonnets we find descriptions and emotions 
whidk later went to form the aesthetic contents of // Fiaetn, II 
TrwHffi della Mork, and £UgU Ramame (1899). 

D' Annunaio's first novel // Fiacert (xSSp)— translated into 
EogUsh as The Child of PiMJUf^e— was loUowed in 1892 by 
L* InnoeenU {The Inlnider), and in 189a by Gicwutm EpiKoP0. 
These three novds created a profound impression. Vln m o ct nt t , 
admirably translated into French by. Georges Herelle, brought 
Its author the notice and applause of foreign critics. His next 
work, // Trumjo ddla UorU {Th* Triumph oj Death) (1894), 
was followed at a short distance by Ia Verpmi dtUa Rocdo 
(1896) and // Piuc9^ (1900), which hi ita descriptions of Venice 
b perhaps the most ardent glorification of a dty existing in any 

D' Annnnsto's poetic frork of this period, in most respects 
his finest^ is represented by // Poema Paradisicco (1893), the 
Odi Nofoli (1893), a superb attempt at dvic poetry, and Londi 


A later phase of d' Annunria's work is Us dramatic production, 
rq>rcsented by // Sogno di un maUino di primattra (1897), a 
lyrical fintssis in one act; his CiUa Uorta (1898), written Ifor 
Sarah Bernhardt, which is certainly among the most daring 
and orii^nal of modem tragedies, and the only one Which by its 
unity, persistent purpose, and sense of fate seems to continue 
in a measure the tnditions of the Greek theatre. In 1898 
he wrote his SopM di un Pomeriggio d* Autumuo and La 
Ciocoudai in the succeeding year La Gloria, an attempt at 
contemporary political tra^y which met with no success, 
probably through the audadty of the personal and political 
allusions in some of its scenes; and then Prancesca da Rimini 
(1901), a perfect reconstruction of medieval atmosphere 
and emotion, msgnificent in style, and declared by one of the 
most authoritative Italian critics— Edoardo Boutet— to be the 
first real slthough not perfect tragedy which has ever been given 
to the Italian theatre. 

The work of d' Amiunzio, although by many of the younger 
generation injudiciously and extravagantly admired, is almost 
the most important literary work given to Italy since the days 
when the great daasics welded her varying dhdects into a fixed 
language. The psychological inspiration of Us novds has come 
to him from many sourcesr— French, Russiaoi Scandinavian, 
Genaa&— and in much of his earlier work there is little 
fundamental originality. His creative power is intense and 
searching, but narrow and personal; his hieroes and heroines are 
little more than one same type monotonously facing a different 

pcoUem at a different phase of life. But the faultlessness of his 
style and the wealth of his language have been approached by 
none of his contemporaries, whom his genius has somewhat 
paralysed. In his later work, when he begins drawing his inspirsr 
tion from the traditions of bygone Italy in her glorious centuries* 
a current of real life seems to run through the veins of his 
personages. And the lasting merit of d' Annunzio, his real value 
to the literature of his country, consists predsdy in that he opened 
up the dosed mine of its former life as a source of inspiration 
for the present and of hope for the future, and created a language, 
ndther pompous nor vulgsx, drawn from every so\irce and district 
suited to the requirements of modem thought, yet absolutdy 
classical, borrowed from none, and, independently of the thought 
it may be used to express, a thing of intrinsic beauty. As 
his sight became dearer and his purpose strengthened, as ex- 
aggeratk>nsi affectations, and moods dropped away from his con^ 
oeptions, his work became more and more typical Latin work, 
u|!hdd by the ideal of an Italian Renaissvice. 

AMOA, the native name of the small wild buffalo of Celebes^ 
Bos {Bubalus) depresHeorms, which stands but little over a 
yard at the shoulder, and is the most diminutive of all wild 
cattle. It ii nearly allied to the Uiger Asiatic buffaloes, showing 
the same reversal of the direction of the hair'On the back. The 
horns are peculiar for their upright direction and ccnparative 
straightneas, although they have the same triangular section as 
in other buffaloes. White spots are sometimes present bdow 
the eyes, and there may Ibt white markings on the legs and 
back; and the absence or presence of thoe white markings 
may be indicative of distinct races. The boms of the cows are 
veiy small. The nearest allies of the anoa appear to be certain 
exthkct buffaloes, of which the remains are found in the Siwalik 
HiUs of northern India. In habits the animal appears to 
resemble the Indian buffalo. 

AMODTIfB (from Gr. ^, privative, and hUnnf, pain), a cause 
which relievM pain. The term is commonly applied to medicines 
whidi leasen the sensibility of the bmm or nervous system, such 
as morphia, •Sd& 

ANOnrriNO, or greasfaig with oil, fat, or mdted butter, a 
process employed ritoally in all religions and among all races, 
dviliaed or savafe, partly as a naode of ridding persons and 
things of dangerous influences and diseases, espeoally of the 
demons (Persian drug, Greek id|p<t> Armenian dtp) which are or 
cause those diseases; sad partly as a means of introducing into 
things and persons a ucramental or divine influence, a holy 
emanalion, spirit or power. The riddance of an evil influence is 
often synonymous with the introduction of the good piindple^ 
and therefore it is best to consider first the use of anointing ia 

The Australian natives believed that the virtues of one killed 
oould be transferred to survivors if the latter rubbed themsdves 
with his ttul-fat So the Arabs of East Africa anoint themsdves 
with lion's hit in order to gain courage and inspire the animals 
with awe of themsdves. Such rites are often associated with the 
actual eating of the victim whose virtues an coveted. Human 
fat is a powerful charm all over the world; for, as R. Smith 
points out, after the blood the fat was peculiariy the veUde 
and seat of life. This is why fat of a victim was smeared on a 
sacred stone, not only in acts of homage paid to it, but in the 
actual consecration thereof. In such esses the influence of the 
god, communicated to the victim, passed with the unguent into 
the stone. But the divinity oould by anointing be transferred 
into men no kss than into stones; and from immemosial an> 
tiquity, among the Jews as among other races, kmgs were 
anointed or grmd, doubtless with the fat of the victims which, 
like the blood, was too holy to be eaten by the common votaries. 

Butter made from the mUk of the cow, the most sacred of 
aniaaals, is used foe anointing iu the Hindu religion. A newly- 
built house is smesred with it, so are demoniacs, care being taken 
to smear the latter downwards from head to fooL 

In the Christian religion, especially where animal sac rific es , 
tocBther with the cult of totem or holy animals, have been given 
upk it is UMud to hallow the oil used in ritual anointings with 




•pedal pnyeis and exordsms; o3 from the lamps lit before the 
altar has a peculiar virtue of its own, perhaps because it can be 
burned to give light, and disappears to heaven in doing so. In 
any case oil has ever been regarded as the aptest symbol and 
vehide of the holy and illuminating spirit. For this reason the 
catechumens are anointed with holy oil both before and after 
baptism; the one act (of eastern origin) assbts the eipulsion 
of the evil siMiits, the other (of western origin), taken in con- 
junction with imposition oi hands, conveys the qririt and 
setains it in the person of the baptized. In the postbaptismal 
anointing the <rfl was applied to the organs of sense, to the head, 
heart, and midriff. Such ritual use of oil as a v^pvyls or seal 
may have been suggested in old religions by the practice of 
keeping wine fresh in |ars and amphorae by pouring on a top 
layer of oil; for the spoiling of wine was attributed to the action 
of demons of corruption, against whom many andent form\ilae 
of aversion or eiorcism still exist. 

The holy oil, chrism, or iihp€9t as the Easterns call it, was 
prepared and consecrated on Blaundy Thursday, and in the 
Gelasian sacramentary the formula used runs thus: "Send 
forth, O Lord, we beseech thee, thy Holy Spirit the Paraclete 
from heaven into this fatness of oil, which thou hast deigned to 
bring forth out of the green wood for the refreshing of mind and 
body; and through thy holy benediction may it be for all who 
anoint with it, taste it, touch it, a safeguard of mind and body, 
of soul and spirit, for the expulsion of all pains, of every infirmity, 
of every sickness of mind and body. For with the same thou 
bast anointed priests, kings, and prophets and martyrs with this 
thy chrum, pofected by thee, O Lord, blessed, abiding within 
our bowels in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ." 

In various churches the dead are anointed with holy ml, to 
guard them against the vamfMres or ghouls which ever threaten 
to take possession of dead bodies and live in them. In the 
Armenian church, as formeriy in many Greek churches, a cross 
is not holy until the Spirit has been formally led uito it by means 
of prayer and anointing with holy oil. A new church is anointed 
at its four comers, and also the altar round which it is built; 
aimdariy tomba, church gongs, and all other instruments and 
utensils dedicated to cultual uses. In churches of the Greek 
rite a little of the old year's chrism is left in the jar to communicate 
its sanctity to that of the new. (F. C. C.) 

iUIOllALT (from Gr. AytfpoXfa, onevcnness, derived from 
^, privative, and 6|iaXM, even), a deviation from the common 
rule. In astronomy the word denotes the angular distance of a 
body from the pericentro of the orbit in which it is moving. 
Let AB be the major axis of the orbit, B the pericentre, F the 
focus or centro of motion, P the position of the body. The 
anomaly is then the angle BFP which the radius vector makes 
with the major axis. This is the actual or fnte anomaiy. Mean 

^fumaly is the anomaly- which the 
body would have if it moved from 
the pericentre around F with a 
uniform angular motion such that 
its revolution would be oom|rfeted 
in its actual time (see Ombh). 
BccefOrie anomcly is defined thus: — 
Draw the drcumscribing drde of 
the dliptic orUt around the centn C 
of the orbit. Drop the perpendicular 
RPQ through P, the position of 
the planet, upon the major axis. 
Join CR; the angle CRQ is then the eccentric anomaly. 

In the andent astronomy the anomaly was taken aa the 
angular distance of the planet from the pohit of the farthest 
recession from the earth. 

Kepler's PtoibUm^ namely, that of finding the co-ordinates of a 
planet at a given time, which is equivalent — given the mean 
anomaly — ^to that of determining the true anomaly, was solved 
approximately by Kepler, and more completdy by Wallis, 
Newton and others. 

The anomalistic revolution of a planet or other heavenly body 
is the revolution between two consecutive passages tlirough the 


pericebtre. Starting from the pericentre, ft is completed on the 
return to the pericentre. If the pericentre is fixed, this h an 
actual revolution; but if it moves the anomalistic tevolution 
is greater or less than a complete drcumference. 

An Anomclislic year is the time (365 days, 6 hours, 15 minutes, 
48 seconds) in which the earth (and similarly for any other 
planet) passes from perihelion to perihelion, or from any given 
value of the anomaly to the same again. Owing to the precession 
of the equinoxes it is longer than a tropical or sidereal year by 
as minutes and s*3 seconds. An Anomalistic morOk is the time 
in which the moon passes from perigee to perigee, &c 

For the mathematics of Kepler's problem see E. W. Brown. 
Lunar Theory (Cambridge 1896}, or the work of Watsoa or of 
Bauschinger on Theoretical Astronomy. 

ANORTHITB, an important mineral of the felspar group, being 
one of the end members of the plagiodase (^.v.) series. It is: a 
caldum and aluminium silicate, CaAlsSisCi, and crystallises 
in the anorthic system. Like all the felspars, it possesses two 
deavages, one perfect and the other less so, here inclined to one 
another at an angle of 85* 50'. The colour is white, gre^sh or 
reddish, and the crystals are trans- 
parent to translucent The hard- 
ness is 6HSi, and the specific gravity 


Anorthite is an essential con- 
stituent of many basic igneous 
rocks, such as gabbro and basalt, 
also of some meteoric stones. The 
best devdoped crystals are those 
which accompany mica, augite, 
sanidine, &c., in die ejected blocks 
of metamorphosed limestone from 
Monte Somma, the andent portion 
of Mount Vesuvius; these are 
perfectly colourless and transparent, and aro bounded by 
numerous brilliant faces. Distinctly devdoped crystab are 
also met with in the basalts of Japan, but are usually rare at 
other localities. 

The name anorthite was given to the Vesuvian mineral by 
G. Rose in 1823, on account of its anorthic crystallization. The 
species had, however, been earlier described by the comte do 
Boumon under the name indianite, this name bdng applied to a 
greyish or reddish granular mineral forming the matrix of corun- 
dum from the Carnatic m India. Several unimportant varieties 
have been distinguished. (L. J. S.) 

ANQUBnU LOUIS PIBRRS (1733-1808), French historian, 
was bom in Paris, on the 21st of February 17 33. He entered the 
congregation of Sainte-Genevidve, where he took holy orders and 
became professor of theology and literature. Later, he became 
director of the seminary at Reims, where he wrote his Histoirt 
chile d polUique de Reims (3 vols., X7s6-i757)i perhaps his best 
work. He was then director of the college of Scnlis, where he 
composed his Bsprii de la Zigtie ou kistoire politique des trouUet 
delaPronde pendanlle XVI'etle XVII* siicles (1767). During 
the Reign of Terror he was imprisoned at St Lazare; there he 
began his PrScis de Fhistoire universelle, afterwards published in 
nine volumes. On the establishment of the national institute he 
was elected a member of the second group (moral and political 
sdences), and was soon afterwards employed in the office of the 
ministry of foreign affairs, profiting by his experience to write his 
Motifs des guerres et des traitis de paix sous Louis XI 7., Louis X V, 
el Louis XVI, He is said to have been asked by Napoleon to 
write his Histoire de France (14 vols., 1805), a mediocre compila- 
tion at second or third hand, with the assistance of de M^zeray 
and of Paul Francob VcUy (1709-1759)- Th» ^^»*i nevertheless, 
passed through numerous editions, and by it his name is remem- 
bered. He died on the 6th of September 1808. 

i8os), French orientalist, brother of Louis Pierre Anquetil, the 
historian, was bom in Paris on the 7th of December 1731. He 
was educated for the priesthood in Paris and Utrecht, but his taste 
for Hebrew, Arabic, Persian, and other languages of the East 



developed Into a iJaikion, and he disooniiiiied his theological 
course to devote himadf entirely to them. His diligent attend- 
ance at the Royal Libxaxy attracted the attention ol the keeper 
of the manuscripts, the Abbi Sallier, whose influence procured 
for him a small salary as student of the oriental languages. He 
had lighted on some fragments of the VendUad Sade, and formed 
the project of a voyage to India to discover the works of Zoroaster. 
With this end in view he enlisted as a private soldier, on the and 
of November 1754, in the Indian expedition idiich was about to 
start from the port of L'OrienL His friends procured his dis- 
charge, and he was granted a free passage, a seat at the captain's 
table, and a salary, the amount of which was to be fixed by the 
governor of the French settlement m India. After a pamge of 
six months, Anquetil landed, on the xoth of August <(755, at 
Pondichciry. Here he remained a short time to master modem 
Persian, and then hastened to Chandemagore to acquire Sanskrit. 
Just then war was declared between France and England; 
Chandemagore was taken, and Anquetil returned to Pondicherry 
by land. He found one of his brotheis at Pondicherry, and 
embarked with him for Surat; but, with a view of exploring the 
country, he landed at Mah£ and proceeded on foot At Surat he 
succeeded, by perseverance and address in his interooune with 
the native priests, in acquiring a sufficient knowledge of the Zend 
and Pahlavi langtiagrs to traoabte the liturgy called the Yendidad 
Sode and some other works. Thence he proposed g^g to 
Benares, to study the language, antiquities, and sacred laws of 
the Hindns; but the capture of Pondlchetty obliged him to quit 
India. Returning to Europe in an English ve»et, he spent some 
time in London and Oxford, and then set out for France. He 
arrived In Farii on the Z4th of March 176} in possession of one 
hundred and eighty oriental manuscripts, besides other curiosities. 
The Abb£ Barth^lemy procured for him a pension, witfi the 
appointment of interpreter of oriental languages at the Royal 
Libcaiy. Ini763 he was elected an associate of the Academy of 
Inscriptions, and began to arrange for the publication of the 
materials he had collected during his eastern travels. In 1 7 7 1 he 
pobliahed his Zend-Avesia (3 vols.), contabiing coUectioos from 
the sacred writings of the fire-worshippers, a life of Zoroaster, and 
fragments of works ascribed to him. In 1778 he published at 
Amsterdam his Uiislaiicn oHentale, in ndbich he endeavoured to 
prove that the nature of oriental despotism had been greatly 
misrepresented. His Rechacha kistoriques et giognpkiques sm 
rindg appeared in 1786, and formed part of Thieffen thaler's 
Ceop'apky of India, The Revolution seems to have greatly 
affected him. During that period he abandoned society, and 
lived in voluntary poverty on a few pence a day. In 1798 he 
published L'Indt en rapport ovtc FEurope (Hamburg, 2 vols.), 
which contained much invective against theEngUsh.andnumerous 
misrepresentations. In 1802-1804 he published a Latin transla- 
tion (2 vols.) from the Persian of the Oupnek'kat or Upamishada, 
It is a curious mixture of Latin, Greek, Persian, Arabic, and 
Sanskrit He died in Paris on the 1 7th of January 1805. 

See Biomp^ie univendle', Sir William Jones, Works (vol. x., 
1807); and the MiseeUotfUs of the Phifebiblon Sodety (vol. Ui.. 
I8S6-X897)- For a list of bis scattered writings see Qii^ard, La 
Franco itiUrairo, 

UKMk (from Lat ansa, a handle), in astronomy, one of the 
apparent ends of the rings of Saturn as seen In perspective from 
the earth: so-called because, In the earlier telescopes, they k)oked 
like handles pfojectii« from the planet In anatomy the word 
is appKed to nervous stractures which resemble loops. In 
archaeology it is used for the engraved and ornamented handle 
of a vase, which has often survived when the vase itself, being less 
durable, has disappeared. 

AMSBACB, or Amspach, originally Onokbaek, a town of 
Germany, in the kingdom of Bavaria, on the Reset, 27 m. by rail 
S.W. of Nuiembeig, and 90 m. N. of Munich. Popi (1900) 
<7iS55- It contahis a palace, once the residence of the margraves 
of Anspach, with fine gaidens; several churehe% the finest of 
which are those dedicated to St John, containing the vault of 
the former maigraves, and St Gumbert; a gymnasium; a 
frfctnn tfJLun « municipal mveun and a special technical 
11. 2» 

schooL Ansbach possesses manumeots to the poets August, 
Count voo Platen-Halkrmund, and Johann Peter Vi, who were 
bom here, and to Xaspar Hauaer, who died here. The chief 
maaufactures are machinery, toys, woollen, cotton, and half-sUk 
stuffs, embroideries, earthenware, tobacco, cutlery and playing 
cards. There is considerable trade in grain, wool and flax. In 
1791 the last maignve of Anspach sold his principality to 
Frederick William II., king of Prussia; it was tranafened by 
Napoleon to Bavaria in x8o6, an act which was confirmed by the 
congress of Vienna in 1815. 

AmOBLL, RICHARD (1815-1885), English painter, was 
bora In Liverpool, and first exhibited at the Royal Academy 
in 1840. He was a painter of genre, chiefly animal and sporting 
pictures, and he beouR very popular, being elected A.R.A. in 
x86x and R.A. in x87a His " Stag at Bay " (1846), " The 
Combat " (1847), «nd " Battle of the Standard ** (1848), repre- 
sent his best work, in whkh he showed himself a notable follower 
of Landseer. 

ABIBLM (€. X035-ZX09), archbishop of Canterbury, was bom 
at Aosta in Piedmont. His family was accounted noble* and 
was possessed of considerable property. Gundulph, his father, 
was by birth a Lombard, and seems to have been a man of harsh 
and violent temper; his mother, Ermenbeiga, was a prudent and 
virtuous woman, from whose careful religious training the young 
Anselm derived much benefit At the age of fifteen he desired 
to enter a convent, but he could not obtain his father's consent 
Disappointment brought on an illness, on his recovery from 
which he seems for a time to have given up his studies, and to 
have plunged into the gay lifie of the world. During this time his 
mother died, and his father's harshness became unbMrable. 
He left home, and with only one attendant crossed the Alps» 
and wandered through Burgundy and France. Attracted by 
the fame of his countryman, Laaf ranc, then prior of Bee, he 
entered Normandy, and, after spending some time at Avranches, 
settled at the monastery of Bee. There, at the age of twenty* 
seven, he became a monk; three years later, when Lanfranc 
was pronwted to the abbacy of Caen, he was elected prior. 
This office he held for fifteen years, and then, in X078, 00 the 
death of Heriwin, the warrior monk who had founded the 
monastery, he was made abbot Under his rule Bee became the 
first seat of learning in Europe, a result due not more to his 
intellectual powere than to the great moral influence of his 
nbble character and kindly discipline. It was during these quiet 
years at Bee that Anselm wrote his first phikMophical and re- 
ligious works, the dialogues on tmth and Freewill, and the two 
celebrated treatises, the Monalogion and Proslogion. 

Meanwhile the convent had been growing in wealth, as wcU 
as in repuution, and had acquired considerable property in 
England, which it became the duty of Anselm occasionally to 
visit By his mildness of temper and unswerving itctitttde, 
he so endeared himself to the English that he was looked upon 
and deshed as the natural successor to Lanf lanc, then archbishop 
of Canterbury. But on the death of that great man, the ruling 
sovereign, William Rufus, seised the potwessions and revenues 
of the see, and made no new appointment About four yean 
after, in 1092, on the invitation of Hugh, ead of Chester, Anrelm 
with some rductance, for he feared to be made archbishop, 
crossed to England. He was detained by business for neariy 
four months, and when about to return, was refused permiaslon 
bytheking. In the following year William feU iU, and thought 
his death was at hand. £a^ to make atonement for his sio 
with legard to the archbishopric, he nominated Anselm to the 
vacant see, and after a great stmggle compelled him to accept 
the pastoral staff of oflice. After obtaining dispensation from 
his duties in Normandy, Anselm was consecnted in 1093. He 
demanded of the king, as the conditions of his retsining office, 
that he should give up all the possessions of the see, accept his 
spiritual counsel, and acknowledge Urban as pope in opposition 
to the anti-pope, Qement He only obtained a partial consent 
to the first of these, and the last involved him in a serious difficulty 
with the king. It was a rule of the chuich that the consecration 
of netropolitaos could not be completed without their receiving 




the faUium from the bands of the pope. Anaeloi, accordingly, 
insisted that he must proceed to Rome to receire the pall. But 
William would not permit this; he had not acknowledged Urban, 
and he maintained his right to prevent any pope being acknow- 
ledged by an English subject without his permission. A great 
council of churchmen and nobles, held to settle the matter, 
advised Anselm to submit to the king, but failed to overcome 
his mild and patient firmness. The matter was postponed^ 
and WUliam meanwhile privately sent messengers to Rome, 
who acknowledged Urban and prevailed on him to send a legate 
to the king bearing the archiepisoopal pall. A partial recon- 
ciliation was then effected, and the matter of the pall was com- 
promised. It was not given by the king, but was laid on the 
altar at Canterbury, whence Anselm took it. 

Little more than a year after, fresh trouble arose with the king, 
and Anselm resolved to proceed to Rome and seek the counsel 
of his spiritual father. With great difficulty he obtained a 
reluctant permission to leave, and in October X097 he set out 
for Rome. William immediately seized on the revenues of the 
see, and retained them to his death. Anselm was received with 
high honour by Urban, and at a great council held at Baii, he 
was put forward to defend the doctrine of the procession of the 
Holy Ghost against the representatives of the Gredc Church. 
But Urban was too politic to embroil himself with the king of 
England, and Anselm found that he could obtain no substantial 
result. He withdrew from Rome, and spent some time at the 
little village of Schiavi, where he finished his treatise on the 
atonement. Cur Deus homo, and then retired to Lyons. 

In t xoo William was killed, and Henry, his successor, at once 
recalled Anselm. But Henry demanded that he diouJd again 
receive from him in person investiture in his office of archbishop, 
thos making the dignity entirely dependent on the royal 
authority. Now, the papal rule in the matter was plain; all 
homage and lay investiture were stxicdy prohibited Anselm 
represented this to the king; but Henry would not relinquish 
a privilege possessed by his predecessors, and proposed that the 
matter dbould be laid before the Holy See. The answer of the 
pope reaffirmed the law as to investiture. A second embassy 
was sent, with a similar resulL Henry, however, mnalned 
firm, and at last, in 1103, Anselm and an envoy from the king 
set out for Rome. The pope. Paschal, reaffirmed strongly the 
rule of investiture, and. passed sentence of ezcommanication 
against all who had infringed the law, except Henry. Practically 
tUs left matters as they were, and Anselm, who had received 
a message forbidding him to return to ,F.n|^nd unless on the 
king's terms, withdrew to Lyons, where he waited to see if 
Paschal would not take stronger measnres. At last, in 1x05, 
he resolved himself to excommunicate Henry. His intention 
was made known to the king through his sister, and it seriously 
alarmed him, for it was a critical period in his affairs. A meeting 
was: ananged, and a reconciliation between them effected. In 
X106 Anselm crossed to England, with power from the pope 
to remove the sentence of excommunication from the illegally 
invested churchmen. In X107 the long dispute as to investiture 
was finally ended by the king resigning his formal rights. The 
remaining two years of Anselm's life were spent in the duties 
of his archbiJlMqpric. He died on the sxst of April 1x09. He 
was canonised in 1494 by Alexander VI. 

Anselm may, with some justice, be considered the first scho- 
lastic philosopher and theologian. His only great predecessor, 
Scotus Exigciia, had more of the specuhitive and mystical 
element thui is consistent with a schoolman; but in Anselm 
are found that recognition of the relation of reason to revesled 
truth, and that attempt to elaborate a rational system of faith, 
which form the special characteristics of schoktstk thought 
His constant endeavour is to render the contents of the Christian 
consciousness dear to reason, and to develop the intelligible 
truths interwoven with the Christian belief. The necessary 
preliminary for this is the possession of the Christian conscious- 
ness. ** He who does not believe will not experience; and he 
who has not experienced wiU not understand." That faith must 
precede knowledge is reiterated by him. " Ntqut €inm quaero 

intiUigfirs ut aedom, ttd credo iil inieUigam, Sam et hoc erei^ 
quia, nisi credidero^ non inUiligam" (" Nor do I seek to under- 
stand-that I may believe, but I believe that I may understand. 
For this too I believe, that unless I first believe, I shall not under- 
stand.") But after the faith is held fast, the attempt must be 
made to demonstrate by reason the truth of what we believe. 
It is wrong not to do so. "Negligeniiae mihi esse videtur^ si, 
postquam canfirmali sumus in fide, non studemus quod credimus, 
inteltigere." ("I hold it to be a failure in duty if after we have 
become steadfast in the faith we do not strive to understand 
what we beUeve.") To such an extent does he carry this demand 
for rational explanation that, at times, it seems as if he claimed 
for unassisted intelligence the power of penetrating even to the 
mysteries of the Christian faiUi. On the whole, however, the 
qualified statement is his real view; merely rational proofs are 
always, he affirms, to be tested by Scripture. {Cttr Deus hotM, 
i. a and 38; De Fide Trin, 2.) 

The groundwork of his theory of knowledge b contained in 
the tract De VeritaUy in which, from the consideration of truth 
as in knowledge, in willing, and in things, he rises to the affirma- 
tion of an absolute truth, in which all other truth participates. 
This absolute truth is God himself, who is therefore the ultimate 
ground or principle both of things and of thought The notion 
of God comes thus into the foreground of the system; before 
all things it is n^essary that it should be made clear to reason, 
that it should be demonstrated to have real existence. This 
demonstration is the substance of the Monologum and Proslogion. 
In the first of these the proof rests on the ordinary grounds of 
realism, and coincides to some extent with the earlier theory of 
Augustine, though it is carried out with singular boldness and 
fulness. Things, he says, are called good in a variety of ways 
and degrees; this would be impossible if there were not some 
absolute standard, some good in itself, in which all relative 
goods participate. Similarly with such predicates as great, 
just; they involve a certain greatness and justice. The very 
existence of thinga is impossible without some one Being, by 
whom they are. This absolute Being, this goodness, justice, 
sreatness, \& God. Anselm was not thoroughly satisfied with 
this reasoning; it started from a posteriori grounds, and con- 
tained several converging lines of proof. He desired to have 
some one short demonstration. Such a demonstration he 
presented in the Proslogion\ it is his celebrated ontological 
proof. God is that being than whom none greater can be 
conceived. Now, if that than which nothing greater can be 
conceived existed only in the intellect, it would not be the 
absolutely greatest, for we could add to it existence in reality. 
It follows, then, that the being than whom nothing greatet can 
be conceived, f.«. God, necessarily has real existence. This 
reasoning, in which Anselm partially anticipated the Cartesian 
philosophers, has rarely seemed satisfactory. It was opposed 
at the time by the monk Gaunilo, in his Liber pro InsipienU^ on 
the ground that we cannot pass from idea to rttlity. The same 
criticism is made by several of the later schoolmen, among others 
by Aquinas, and is in substance what Kant advances against all 
ontological proof. Anselm replied to the objections of Gaunilo in 
his Liber ApologeHcus, The existence of God being thus held 
proved, he proceeds to state the rational grouncfeof the Christian 
doctrines 01 creation and of the Trinity. With reference to this 
last, he says we cannot know God from himself, but only after 
the analogy of his creatures^ and the special analogy used Is 
the self-oonsdousness of man, its peculiar double nature, with 
the necessary elements, memory and tnteUigence, reptcsenting 
the relation of the Father to the Son. The mutual love of these 
two, proceeding from the relation they hold to one another, 
symbolizes the Holy Spirit The further theological doctrines of 
man, original sin, free will, are developed, partly in the-ifMe- 
logum, partly in other mixed treatises. Finally, in his greatest 
work, Cur Deus komot he undertakes to make plain, even to 
infidels, the rational necessity of .the Christian mystery of the 
atonement The theory rests on three positions: that satisfac- 
tion is necessary on account of God's honour and justice; that 
such satisfactioto can be given only by the peculiar peisooali^ 



«C Che God-man; that such s&tbfactioB is rally siveii by the 
^roloBtary death of this infinitely vahiable penon. The demoa- 
atxation h, in brief, this. All the actions of men aie due to the 
furthenmce of God's gloiy; if, then, there be sin, i«. if God's 
iKMiour be wonnded, nan of himself can five no sattslactioa. 
But the Justice of God demands satisfaction; and as an insult 
to infinite honour b in itself infinite, the satisfaction most be 
infinite, «.«. it must outweigh an that is not God. Sochapenalty 
can ooty be paid by God himself, and, as a penalty for man, 
must be paid under the form of man. , Satisfaction is only possible 
tiuough the God-man. Now this God-man, as sinless, is exempt 
from the punishment of sinr His passion is therefore volnntaxy, 
not given as due. The merit at iih theref<»e infinite; God's 
justice Is thus appeased, and His mercy may extend to man. 
This theory has ezerdsed immense influence on the form of 
church doctrine. It is certainly an advance on the older patristic 
theory, in so far as it substitutes for a contest between God and 
Satan, a contest between the goodness and justice of God; but 
it puts the whole rdation on a merely legal footing, gives it no 
etUcal bearing, and ne^ects altogether the consciousness of the 
Individual to be redeemed. In this re^MCt it contrasts un- 
favourably with the biter theory of Abelard. 

Ansdm's ^xculations did not receive, in the middle ages, 
the respect and attention Justly their due. This was probably 
due to their unsystematic character, for they are generally tracts 
or dialognes <m detached <iaestions, not daborate treatbes like 
the great works of Albert, Aquinas, and Erigena. They have, 
however, a freshness and philosophical vigour, which move than 
BBtakes up for thctr want of system, and which raises them far 
•hove thi^ level of most scholastic writlnn. 

BiBUOcaAPRY. — The main aooroes for the hotary of St Anaelm 
•nd his times are Eadmer's Vita Anselmi and his Histaria NoporuHh 
tinted by M. Rule in Roils Series (London* 1884) ; the best modem 
work is by P^ ^H'V* ^*^toire de Saint Anselme (Fsris. i^). and 

S#HK« mmWmm^ VjT 'a* m^jf mm/Km m ^4S#aVll^#ia« m^f^m § a m m S^* A aSOWf mmww^mwWe^ VWW9 

CaaOK^mrf (3 vols., Ldpng. 1842-1853T: C* de 1Urou8at.-5. Anselnta 
4m CanlorMry (Paris. 1 853, new ed. 1 8i68) ; R. W. Church, St Anselm, 
first publislteo in Stmdqv Library (London, 1870; often reprinted); 
Iffarda Rule, Ldfe and Tiwus of St Anselm (London, 1883). 
Warkst The DOBt edition of St Ansdm's complete worn is that of 

>rinted with many notes in 171a; 

Fatrolcgia LaHnOt tomi clviii.<]ix. 
tre^nt contains many errors. The C«f 
Dens lws»0may'6e best studied m the editions published by D. Nutt 
(London,. i88s]and by Griffith (1898). The Uarialejcr foons in 

honour fit the Blesnd Virgin, has been carefully edited byP. Ragey 
n*oomai, 1885); the Monoloptm and PNufefum. by C.£. Ubagns 

U>oavatn, 1854: Eqg. trans, by S. N. Dcane. Chicago, 1903): the 
med i iiOie n es^ many of which are wroiyly attributed to Anadra, have 
been frequently reprinted, and were included in Methuea's Likfory 
efDesotumi (London, 190A). 

The best criticism oL Aoselm's philosophical works is by J. M. 
Rigg (London. 1896), and Domet de Voiges {Grands Phdasaphes 
series, Pans. 1901). For a complete bibliK^rapay, see A. Vacant's 

DieOonnaire de tkMcgie, 

AWSBLM, of Laon (d. 11x7), French thedogian, was bom of 
^ery humble parents at Laon before the middle of the nth 
century. He Is said to have studied under St Anselm at Bee 
AJiwttt 1076 he taught with great success at Paris, where, as the 
associate of WiUiam of Champeauz, he upheld the realistic side 
of the scholastic controversy. Later he removed to his native 
l^ace, where hu school for theology and exegetics rapidly became 
the most famous in Europe. He died in 1x17. His greatest 
work, an interlinear ^oss on the Scrq>tuies, was one of the 
great authorities of the middle ages. It has been frequently 
reprinted. Other commentaries apparently by him have been 
ascribed to various writers, principally to the great Ansdm. A 
Ibt of them, with notice of Aiudm's life, is contained in the 

Etistoire littiraire de la France, z. 170^x80. 

The works are collected in Migne's PatrdUgia Latinat tome l6a; 
some onpublislied SenlffilSM were edited by G. Lefivre (Milaa, 1894)* 
on whicn aee Haorfoa in the Jentnal des saaants for 1895. 

AMSBLMB (Father Anselme of the Virgin Mary) (1615-1694), 
French genealogist, was bom in Paris in 1645. As a layman his 
name was Pierre C3uibours. He entered the order of the bare- 
footed Augustinians on the 31st of March 1644, and it was in 

their moaastciy (called the Couvent dte Petltt P^res, near the 
church of Notrs-Dame des Victoires) that he died, on the X7th 
of January 1694. He devoted his entire life to geneilogicai 
studies. In M^ he published Le Palais de Pkanneurf which 
besides giving the genealogy of the houses of Lornine and Savoy, 
is a complete treatise on heraldry, and in 1664 Le Palais de la 
gUirtt deaUdg with the genealogy of various iUusttioos Frencii 
and European families. These books made friends for him, the- 
most intimate among whom, Honor6 Caille, seigneur du Foumy 
(1630-17x3), persuaded him to publish his Uistoire gSnialegiqua 
de la maitan roya/e de Pranea, el des gromff offieiers da 
la camanne (1674, a vols. 4); after Father Ansefane's death, 
Honor6 Caille collected his papers,and brought out a new edition 
of this highly important workin 17X s. The task was taken up 
and continued li^^ two other friars of the Convent des Petits 
Pires, Father Ange de Sainte-Rosalie (Francois Raffard, 165^ 
X7a6), and Father Simpliden (Paul Lucas, Z683-X759), who 
published the first and second volumes of the third edition in 
1736. This edition consists of nine volumes folio; it is a genea* 
logical and chronological history of the royal house of France, 
of the peersTbf the great officers of the crown and of the king's 
household, and of the andent barons of die kingdom. The notes 
were genersUy comiMled from original documents, references 
to which are usually given, so that they remain useful to the 
present day. The work of Father Anselme, his collaborators 
and successors, Is even more important for the history of 
France than is Dugdale's BorMUige of Estf^and for the history 
of England. (C. B.*) 

AMSON, GBORGB A1I801I, Baxon (X697-X762), British admiral, 
was bom on the 23rd of April 1697. He was the son of 
William Anson of Shugborough in Staffordshire, and his wife 
Isabdb C^nier, who was the sister-in-law of Lord Chancellor 
Macclesfield, a xelatlonship which proved very useful to the 
future admiral George Anson entered the navy In February 
17x9, and by rapid steps became lieutenant in X7x6, commander 
in 1729, and post^captain in 1724. In this rank-he served twice 
on the North American station as captain of the ** Scarborough " 
and the " Squirrel" from 1794 tb X730 and from 1733 to X73S. 
In X 73 7 he was appointed to the ^ Omturion," 60, on the eve of 
war with Spain, and when hostilities had hcffan he was. chosen 
to command as oommodote the squadron which was sent to attack 
her possessbns in South America in 174a. The original scheme 
was ambitions, and was not carried out Anson's squadron, 
which sailed later than had been intended, and was vety ill-fitted, 
consisted of six ships, which wero reduced by successive disasteis 
to his flagship the " Centurion." The lateness of the season 
forced him to round Cape Horn in very stormy weather, and the 
navigatinginstrumentsof the time did not allow of exact observa^ 
tlon. Two of bis vesMls failed to round the Horn, another, the 
" Wager," was wrecked in the (jolfo de Pafias on the coast of 
Chile. By the time Anson reached the island of Juan Femandet 
in June X74X, his six ships had been reduced to three, while the 
strengUiof his crews had fallen from 96X to 33 5. In die absence 
of any effective Spanish force on the coast be was aUe to harass 
the enany, and to capturo the town of Paita on the X3th-X5th 
of November 174X. The steady diminution of his crew by sick- 
ness, and the wom<out state of his remaining consorts, compdled 
him at last to collect all the survivors in the " Centurion." He 
rested at the island of Tfaiian, and then made his way to Macao 
in November 1749. After considerable difficulties with the 
Chmese, he sailed again irith hb one remainbig vessel to cruise 
for one of the richly laden galleons which conducted the trade 
between Mexico and the Philippines. The hidomitable per- 
severance he had shown during one of the most arduous voyages 
in the history of sea adventure was rewarded by the capturo of 
an inmiensdy rich prize, the " Nuestra Sefiora de Covadonga," 
which was met off (>ipe Espiritu Santo on the soth of June 1743. 
Anson took his prize back to Macao, sold her cargo to the Chinese, 
keeping the specie, and sailed for Engkind, which he reached by 
the Cape of (xood Hope on the xsth of June X744' The prise- 
money earned by the capture of the galleon bad made him a rich 
man for life, and under the influence ol irritation caused by the 



refusal of tlie ftdminlty to oonfim a capuia't comauMion be 
had ipven to one of his officen, Anaoo refused the rank of rear- 
admbal; and was prepared to Inve the service. His fame would 
stand nearly as high as it does if he had done so, but he would be 
a far less important figure in the history of the navy. By the 
world at large he is kxiown as the commander of the voyage of 
circumBavigation, in which success was won by indomitable 
perseverance, unshaken firmness, and infinite resource. But he 
was also the severe and capable administrator who during years 
of hard work at the admiralty did more than any other to raise 
the navy from the state of corruption and indiscipline into 
which it had fallen during the first half of the eighteenth century. 
Great anger had been caused in the country by the condition of 
the fleet as revealed in the first part of the war with France and 
Spain, between x 739 and x 747. The need for reform was strongly 
fdt, and the politicians of the day were conscious that it would 
not be safe to neglect the popular demand for it. In 1745 the 
duke of Bedford, the new first lord, invited Anson to join the 
admiralty with the rank of rear-admiral of the white. As 
subordinate under the duke, or Lord Sandwich, and as first lord 
himself, Anson was at the admiralty with one ahort^reak from 
174s till his death in X76S. His chiefs in the earlier yean left 
him to take the initiative in all measures of reform, andsupported 
him in their own interest. After 1751 be was himself first lord, 
except for a short time in 1756 and 1757. At his suggestion, or 
with his advice, the naval administration was thoroughly over^ 
hauled. The dockyards were brought into far better order, and 
though corruption was not banished, it was much reduced. The 
navy board was compelled to render acoounta, a duty it had long 
neglected. A system of regulating promotion to flag rank, which 
has been in the main followed ever since, was introduced. The 
Navy Discipline Act was revised in 1 749, and remained unaltered 
till X 865. Courts martial were put on a sound footing. Inspec- 
tions of the fleet and the dockyards were established, and the 
corps of Marines was created in 1 755. The progressive improve- 
ment which raised the navy to the high state of efficiency it 
attained in later years dates from Anson's presence at the 
admiralty. In 1747 he, without ceasing to be a member of the 
board, commanded the Channel fleet which on the 3rd of May 
scattered a large French convoy bound to the East, and West 
Indies, In an action off Cape Finisterre. Several men-of-war 
and armed French Indlamen were taken, but the overwhelming 
superiority of Anson's fleet (fourteen men-of-war, U> six men-of- 
war and four Indiamen) in the number and weight of sh^ 
deprives the action of any strong daim to be considered remark- 
able. In society Anson seems to have been oold and tadtum. 
The sneers of Horace Walpole, and the savage attack of Smollett 
in TkB Admnimea cf an Alcm, are animated by personal or 
political spita. Yet they would not have accused him of defects 
from whidi he was notoikmsty free. In political life he may 
sometimes have given too ready assent to the whdies of powerful 
pofltidans. He married the daughter of Lord Chancellor 
Hardwicke on the S7th of April X748. There were no childrai of 
the marriage. His title of Baron AnsMi of Soberton waa given 
him in 1747, but became extinct on his death. The title of 
Viscount Anson was, however, created in x8o6 in favour of his 
great-nephew, the grandson of his sister Janetta and Mr Sam- 
brook Adams, whose father had assumed the name and arms of 
Anson. The earldom of Lichfidd was conferred on the family 
in the next generation. A fine portrut of the admiral by 
Reynolds is in the posacsdon of the earl of Lichfield, and there 
are copies in the National Portrait Gallery and at Greenwich. 
Anson's promotions in flag rank were: rear-admiral in X745, 
vice-admird in 1746, and admird in 1748. In 1749 he became 
vice-admird of Great Britain, and in 1761 admird of the fleet. 
He died on the 6th of June X76a. 

A life of Lord Anson, inaccurate in some detdls but valuable and 
interestii^, waa published by Sir John Barrow in 1839. The 
standard account of his voyage round the worid ia that by hia 
chaolain Rfehard Walter, I7x8^ often reprinted. A share in the 
work haa been claimed on aumous grounds for Benjamin Robins, 
the nuithematidan. Another and much inferior account waa 
published In 1745 by Paaooe Thomas, the acboolmaater of the 
"Centurion." (D. H.) 

English jurist, was born on the X4th of November 1843, at 
Wdberton, Sussex, son of the second baronet. Educated at 
Eton and Balliol College, Oxford, he took a first class in the final 
dassicd schools in x866, and was elected to a fellowship of All 
Souls in the following year. In 1869 he was called to the bar, 
and went the home drcuit until 1873, when he succeeded to the 
baronetcy. In 1874 he became Vincrian reader in English 
law at Chcford, a post which he hdd until he became, in i88x, 
warden of AU Souls College. He identified himself both with 
local and univerMty interests; he became an ddcrman of the 
city of Oxford in 1 893, chdrman of quarter sesuons (or the county 
in 1S94, was vice-chancellor of the university in i898-*x899, 
and chancellor of the diocese of Oxford in 1899. In that year 
he was returned, without oppodtion, as M.P. for the university 
in the Liberd Unionist interest, and consequently resigned the 
vice<hancellorBhip. In parliament he preserved an active 
interest in education, being a member of the newly created 
consdtative committee of the Board of Education in X900, 
and in 1903 he became parliamentary secretary. He took an 
active part in the foundation of a school of law at Oxford, 
and his volumes on Tk* Principles of ike Enilisk Law of Contract 
(1884, X ith ed. 1906), and on The Law and Ctutom of the ComtitU' 
tioH in two parU, " The Parliament " and " The Crown " (x886- 
1892, 3rd ed. 2907, pt. Lvol. ii.), are standard works. 

ANSOKIA. a dty of New Haven county, Connecticut, U.S.A., 
coextendve with the township of the same name, <m the Nauga* 
tuck river, immediately N. of Derby and about xs m. N.W. of 
New Haven. It is served by the New York, New Haven 8e 
Hartford railway, and by interurban dectric lines running 
N., S. and E. Pop. (1900) X3,68x, of whom 4296 were fordgn 
bom; (19x0 census) 15,152. Land area about 5*4 sq. m. 
The dty has extendve manufactures of heavy madiinery,* 
dectric supplies, brass and copper products and silk goods. 
In X905 the capitd invested in manufacturing was $7,625,864, 
and the vdue of the products was $19,132,455. Ansonia, 
Derby and Shelton form one of the most important Industrid 
communities in the state. The dty, settled in 1840 and named 
in honour of the merchant and philanthropist, Anson Green 
Phdps (X78X-X853), was originally a part of the township of 
Derby; it was chartered as a borough in 1864 and as a dty In 
1893, when the township of Ansonia, which had been incorporated 
in X889, and the dty were consolidated. 

ANSTBD. DAVID THOMAS (x8x4>x88o), Englidi geologist, 
was bom in London on the 5 th of February 18x4. He was 
educated at Jesus College, Cambridge, and after taking his degree 
of M.A. in 1839 was dected to a fellowship of the college. In« 
spired by the teachings of Adam Sedgwick, his attention was 
given to geology, and in 1840 he was elected professor of geology 
in King's College, London, a post which he hdd until 1853* 
Meanwhile he became a f«^w of the Royal Sodety in 1844, 
and from that date until 1847 he was vice-secretary of the 
Geologicd Sodety and edited its Quarterly Journal, The 
practicd dde of geology now came to occupy h^ chief attentiott, 
and he vidted various parts of Europe and the British Islands 
as a consulting geologist and mining engineer. He was also 
in x868 and for many years examiner in phydcd geography 
to the sdence and art department He died at Mdton near 
Woodbridge, on the X3th of May x88o. 

PuBUCATiONS.--4%0lof7, Introductory, Deseriptioe and Pnetieal 

(a vds.. 1844); The loman Istands (1863): fhe Applieatione ef 
Geology to the ArU and iianufaUwtt (1865) : Physical Coogra^ 
T1S67); Water and Water SuMly (Surface WaUr) (1878); and Tlu 
Channel Islands (with R. G. Latham) (1862). 

ANSTBT, CHRISTOPHER (x 734-1805), English poet, was the 
son of the rector of Briitkley, Cambridgeshire, where he was bora 
on the 3xst of October 1724. He was educated at Eton and 
King's College, Cambridge, where he distinguished himsdf for 
his Latin verses. He became a fellow of his college (1745)1 but 
the degree of M.A. was withheld from him, owing to the offence 
caused by a speech made by him beginning: " Doctores dne 
doctrine, magistri artium sine artibus, et baccalaurd baculo 
potius quam kuro digni." In 1754 he succeeded to the family 



itet nd left Ctmhridge; and two ytmn later he laanied 
the danchter o( Feliz Cahrert of Albnry Hall, Herta. Foraorae 
tine Anatey p«Uiahed nothinf of aay note, though he cultivated 
lettera aa wdl aa hb csutea. Some vUta to Bath» bovfever, 
where later, in 1770, he made hia permanent home, multed in 
1766 in hia famona rhymed letters, Tkt Ntw JTei* Ctnde or 
iiemmn vf Ikt B , » , r , , , d [BiuiU«HUad\ PamUy . . ., 
which had immediate snccesa, and was enthuaastically praised 
for ita original kind of humour by Walpole and Gray. The 
BteeHim Baa, m PodiaU Utters from Mr InkU ai Bath $0 ku 
Wift ai CioHoster (1776) tustained the reputation woo by the 
Giikle. Anstey'a other productions in verse and prose are now 
fotfotten. He died on^tbe 3rd of August 180$. His Faelieal 
Works were collected in 1868 (1 vols.) by the author's son John 
id. 1819), himself avthor of Tke PUmier's Gmido (1796), fai the 
vcm with th e Norn Bath Gmde, 

AMTUVIUUl (locally pronounced iijuter), a seaport of Fife> 
», Scotbad. It compris es the royal and police buxgha of 
^ntnither Easter (pop. 1190), Anstnither Wester (501) and 
Kilmny (tS4)). and liea 9 m. S^.E. of St Andrews, having a 
aution on the North British railway company's branch line from 
Thornton Junction to St Andrews. The chief induatries faidude 
coast and deep-sea fisheries, shipbuilding, tanning, the making 
of cod-liver oA and fish-curing. The harbour was completed in 
1877 at a cost of £80^000. The two Anstiuthers are divided 
only by a small stream called Dreel Bum. James Melville 
(1556-1614), nephew of the more celebrated reformer, Andrew 
MelviDe, who was minister of Kilrenny. has given in his Diary 
a graphic account of the axrival at Anstnither of a weather- 
bound ship of the Armada, and the tradition of the intermixture 
of Spanish and Fifcshire blood still prevails in the district. 
Anstruther fair supplied William Tennant (1784-1848), who 
waa bom and buriol in tbe town, with the subject of his poem 
of ** Anster Fair.'' Sir James Lumsden, a soldier of fortune 
under Custavus Adotphus, who distinguished himself in the 
Thirty Years* War. was bom in the parish of Kilrenny about 
1598. David Martin (1737-1798), the painter and engraver; 
Thomas Chalmers (i 780-1847), the great divine; and John 
Goodsir (i8r4-x867), the anatomist, were natives of Anstruther. 
Little more than a mUe to the west lies the royal and police 
burgh of Pittenweem ((kelic, " the hollow of the cave ")> a 
quaint old fishing town (pop. 1863). with the remains of a prioiy. 
About s ni. atill farther westwards is tbe fishing town of St 
Mooana or Abercromby (pop. 2898). with a fine old Gothic church, 
pictureaqudy perched on the rocky shore. These fisher towns 
on the eastern and south-eastern coasts of Fifeshire furnish 
artists with endless subjects. Archibald Constable (x774-i8a7), 
Sir Walter Scott's publiiher, was bora in the parish of Carabee, 
about 3 m. to the north of Pittenweem. The two Anstruthers, 
Kilrenny and Pittenweem unite with St Andrews, Cupar and 
Crafl, fai sending one member to parliament 

inWBR (derived from and, against, and the same root as 
flpcar), originally a solemn assertion in opposition to some one or 
something, and thus generally aay oounternitatement or defence, 
ar^y toa question or objection, or a correct solution of a problem. 
In English law, the " answer " in pleadings was, previous to the 
Judicature Acts 1873*1875, the statement of ddlence, especially 
aa rei^s the facta and not the law. Its place is now taken by a 
'* statement <rf defence.** *' Answer '* is the term still a4>plied in 
divorce proceedings to the reply of the req>ondent (see Pleading). 
The famous Latin RaponsaPrudoHium C answers of the learned") 
were the accumulated views of many successive generations of 
Roman lawyers, a body of legal opinion which gradually became 
authoritative. In music an '* answer " is tbe technical name in 
counterpoint for the repetition by one part or instrument of a 
theme proposed by another. 

AMT (O. Eng. atmeU, from Teutonic a, privative, and Moilaii, 
cut or bite off, U, " the biter off "; aimU in Middle English 
became differentiated in dialect use to ameU, then amie, and so 
aiil, and also to omets, whence the qmonym " emmet," now only 
used provincially, ** ant " being the general literary form). The 
fact that the name of the ant has-come down in English from a 

thousand years ago shows that this dasB of insects impressed the 
old inhabitanta of England aa they impressed the Hebrews and 
Greeka. The social instincta and industrious habita of ants ha\'e 
always made them favourite objects of study, and a vast amount 
of literature haa accumulated on the subject of their stracture and 
their modea of life. 

CAorodirrr.— An ant Is easily recognized both by tbe casual 
observer and by the student of insects. Ants form a distinct aqd 
natural family (Forsokidae) of the great order Hymmoptera^ to 
whKh bees, wasps and sawflies also belong. The insects of this 
order have mandibles adapted for biting, and two pairs of mem' 
braoous wings are usually present; the iirst abdominal segment 
(propodeum) becomes closely associated with the fore-body 
( thorax), of wkKh it appears to form a part In all ants the second 
(apparently the first) abdominal segment is very markedly 
constricted at Its front and hind edges, so that it forms a " node " 
at the base of the hind-body (fig. 1), and in many anta the third 
abdominal segment is simHariy " nodular " in form (fig. 3, 6, c,). 
It b thia peculiar " waist " that catches the eye of the observer, 
and roakea the insects so easy of recognition. Another con* 
spicuous and well-known feature of ants is the wingless condition 
of the ** Workers." as the specialised females, with undevdcped 
ovaries, which form the largest proportion of the population of 
antKommunities, are called. Such " workers " are essential to 
tbe formation of a social community of Hymenoptera, and their 
wmgless condition among the ants shows that their spedaliaation 
has been carried further io this family than among the wasps and 
bees. Further, while among wai|>s and beea we find some solitary 
and some social genera, the ants as a family are soda], though some 

Fic. I.-— Wood Aat {Formka rt^fa). it'Queeai a, male; 3, worker. 

aberrsnt spedtt are dq>endent on the woricers of other ants. It 
is interesting and suggestive that in a few famiUes of digging 
Hymenoptera (such as the Mutillidae), allied to the anta, the 
females are wingless. The perfect female or " queen " ants (figs. 
i» ^»3>«) often cast their wings (fig. 3,6) after the nuptial flight; 
in a few species the females, and in still fewer the males, never 
develop wings. (For the so-called " white ants, "which belong to 
an <»der for removed from the Hymenoptera, see Teamite.) 

5lfMC/«iv.~Tbc head of an ant carries a pair of elbowed feelers, 
each consisting of a miaute basal and an elongate second segment, 
forming the stalk or " scape," while from eight to eleven short 
segments make up the terminal " flagellum." These segments 
are abundantly supplied with elongate tooth-like projectiona 
connected with nerve-endings probably olfactory in function. 
Tlie brain is wdl developed and its " mushroom-bodies " are 
exceptionally kirge. The mandibles, which are frequently used 
for carrying various objects, are situated well to the outside of 
the roaxfllae, so that they can be opened and shut without 
interfering with the latter. The peculiar form and arrangement 
of the anterior abdominal segments have already been described. 
The fourth abdominal segment is often veiy huge, and forma 
the greater part of the hind-body; this segment is markedly 
constricted at its basal (forward) end, where it is embraced by the 
sRtall third segment In many of those ants whose third abdom« 
inal segment forms a second " node," the basal dorsal region of 
tbe fourth segment is traversed by a krge number of very fine 
transverse striations; over these the sharp hinder edge of the 
third segment can be scraped to and fro, and the result is a 
stridulating organ which gives rise to a note of very high pitch. 
For the appreciation of the sounds made by these stridulators, 
the an ts are furnished with delicate organs of hearing (chordotonal 
organs) \xk the head, in the three thoracic and two of the abd o mi n a l 
segments and in the shins of the legs. 



The hinder abdominal ficgmenu and the atingi oC the queens 
and workers resemble those of other stinging Hymenoptera. But 
there are several subfamilies of ants whose females have the 
lancets of the sting useless for piercing, although the poison-glands 
are functional, their secretion being ejected by the insect, when 
occasion may arise, from the greatly enlarged reservoir, the 
reduced sting acting as a squirt. 

iVVj/9 — ^The nests of different kinds of ants are constructed in 
very different situations, many species (iMsius, for example) 
make undeiground nests, galleries and chambers being hollowed 
out in the soil, and opening by small holes on the surface, or 
protected above by a Urge stone. The wood ant {Formica nifa, 
fig. i) piles up a heap of leaves, twigs and other vegetable refuse, 
so arranged as to form an orderly series of galleries, though the 
structure appears at first sight a chaotic heap. S^wcics of 
CampoHotus and many other ants tunnel in wood. In tropical 
countries ants sometimes make their nests in the hollow thorns 
of trees or on leaves; spcdes with this habit are believed to make 
a return to the tree lor the shelter that it affords by protecting it 
from the ravages of other insects, including their own leaf-cutting 

Eoriy Stagts. — ^The larvae of ants (fig. 3, e) are legless and 
helpless maggots with very small heads (fig. 3, /), into whose 
mouths the requisite food has to be forced by the assiduous 
" nurse'' workers. The maggots are tended by these nurses with^the 
greatest £are, and carried to those parts of the nest most favour- 
able for their health and growth. When fully grown, the maggot 
spins an oval silken cocoon within which it pupates (fig. 3, f). 
These cocoons, which may often be seen carried between the 
mandibles of the workers, are the "ants' eggs" prized as food for 
fish and pheasants. The workers of a Ceyloncse ant (Oecoph^a 
smaragdina) are stated by D. Sharp to hold the maggots between 
thdr mandibles and induce them to spin together the leaves of 
trees from which they form their shelters, as the adult ants have 
no silk-produdng organs. 

Origin of Societies. — ^Ant-coIonie$ are founded either by a sin^e 
female or by several in association. The foundress of the nest 
lays eggs and at first feeds and rears the larvae, the earliest of 
which develop into workers. C. Janet observed that in a nest of 
Lasitts ttlientis, established by a single female, the first workers 
emerged from their cocoOns on the 102nd day. These workers 
then take on themselves the labour of the colony, some collating 
food, which they transfer to their comrades within the nest whose 
duty is to tend and feed the larvae. The foundress-queen is now 
jraited on by the workers, who supply her with food and spare her 
an cares of work, so that henceforth she may devote her whole 
energies to egg-laying. The population of the colony increases 
fast, and a well-grown nest contains several " queens " and males, 
besides a large number of workers. One oi the most interesting 
features of ant-sodeties is the dimorphism or polymorphism that 
may often be seen among the workers, the same species being 
represented by two or more forms. Thus the British " wood ant " 
(Formica rufa) has a smaller and a larger race of workers 
(** minor ** and " major " forms), while in Ponera we find a blind 
race of workers and another race provided with eyes, and in AUa^ 
EcitoH and other genera, fouror five forms <rf worka^s are produced, 
the largest of which, with huge heads and elongate trenchant 
mandibles, are known as the " soldier " caste. The development 
of such divensely^f ormed insects as the offspring of the unmodified 
females which show none of their peculiarities raises many points 
of difficulty for students in heredity. It is thought that the 
differences are, in part at least, due to differences in the natura of 
the food supplied to larvae, which are apparently all dike. But 
the ovaries of worker ants are in some cases sufficiently developed 
for the production of eggs, which may give rise parthenogenetio- 
ally to male, queen or worker offspring. 

Food. — Different kinds of ants vary greatly in the substances 
which they use for food. Honey forms the staple nourishment 
of many ants, some of the workers seeking nectar from flowers, 
working it up into honey within their stomachs and regurgitating 
it so as to feed their comrades within the nest, who, in their turn,- 
pass it on to the grubs. A curious specialisation of cwtain 

workers in connexion with the transfercnoe of honey hat beea 
demonstrated by H. C McCook in the American genus iiyrwt^ 
cocysiur, and by later observers in Australian and African 
species of Plagiolepis and allied genera. The workers in question 
remain within the nest, suspended by their feet, and serve as 
living honey-pots for the colony, becoming so distended by the 
supplies of honey poured into their mouths by their fwaging 
oomiades that their abdomens become sub-globular, the pale 
intersegmental membrane being tightly stretched between the 
widdy-separated dark sderites. The " nurse " workers in the 
'nest can then draw their supplies from these " honey-pots." 
Very many ants live by preying upon various insects, sudi as 
the British " zed ants " with well-developed stings {Kyrmica 
rubra), taid the notorious " driver ants " of Africa and America, 
the old-worid species pf which belong to Dorylus and allied genera, 
and the new-world species to EeitoH (fig. s, f , 3). In these ants 
the difference between the large^ heavy, winged males and females, 
and the small, long-legged, active workers, is so great, that various 
forms of the same spedes have been often referred to distinct 
genera; in Eciion, for example, the female has a sin^e petiolatc 
abdominal segment, the worker two. The workers of these 
ants range over the country in large armies, killing and carrying 
off all the insects and spiders that they find and sometimes 
attacking vertebrates. They have been known to enter 
human dwellings, removing all the verminous insects contained 
therein. These driver ants shdter in temporary nests made ia 

Fig. 3. — ^Leaf-cutting and Foraging Ants, i, AUa cephalm; 
2, Eciton drepanopkora; 3, Ecito» erratica, 

hollow trees or similar situations, where the insects maybe seen, 
according to T. Bdt, " dustered together in a dense .m^ss like 
a great swarm of bees hanging from the roof." 

The harvesting habits of certain ants have long been known,the 
subterranean store-houses of Mediterranean spedes of Aphaenih 
gaster having been described by J. T. Moggridge and A. Ford, 
and the complex industries of the Texan Pogonomyrmexbarbotus 
by H. C. McCook and W. M. Wheder. The colonies of Aphaetto- 
gaster occupy nests extending over an area of fifty to a hundred 
square yards several feet below the surface of the ground. Into 
these underground chambers the ants carry seeds of grasses and 
other plants of which they accumulate large stores. The spedes 
of Pogonomyrmex strip the husks from the seeds and carry (hein 
out of the nest, making a refuse heap near the entrance. The 
seeds are harvested from various grasses, espedally from 
Aristida oligantka, a spedes known as " ant rice," which often 
grows in quantity dose to the site sdected for the nest, but jthe 
sutement that the ants dehberatdy sow this grass is an error,- 
due, according to Wheeler, to the sprouting of germinating seeds 
which the ants have turned out of thdr store-chambers. 

Perhaps no ants have such remarkable habits as those of the- 
genus AUa, — the leaf-cutting ants of tropical America (fig. 3, i).- 
There are several forms of worker in these species, some with 
enormous heads, which remain in. the underground nests, while 
thdr smaller comrades scour the country in search of suitable 
trees, which they ascend, biting off small circular pieces from the 
leaves, and carrying them off to the nests. Thdr labour often 
results in the complete defoliation of the tree. The tracks along 
which the ants carry the leaves to their nests are often in part, 
subterranean. H. C. McCook describes an almost straight tunnd, 
neariy 450 ft. long, made by AUafcrvens. 

Within the nest, the leaves are cut into very minute fragments 
and gathered into small spherical heaps forming a spongy mass, 
which— according to the researches of A. M6ller — serves as the 
substratum for a special fungus {Roeitesgongyiopkora), the suple 
food of the ants. The insects cultivate their fungus, weeding out 


nUBid and bicUriit (Towtht, ud cuaing tlw ipporwica, oo Ilic 
masiMCt o4 their " miuhjnoom garden," of numeroua imaU whitu 
bodkj formed by iwoUcd end) of Che fungui hypbae. When 
tl»fuiiCQ< ^ grown eUewhere chin in the anli' neat it produce! 
^Hudia ifliteul ol the v^re moues on vhicb the uti feed, 
hence it tetrad that theie maaaa »ie indeed produced as the 
nanlt of ionie unknown cultural procesa. Otlier genera of 
South Americui anti — ApUroiUgma and Cypkffmyrmtx — make 
pinulai fungal cultivaticua, bat they uie wood, grain or dung 
u the tubitntuai inuead of leaf Iragments. Eidi kind ol ant 
ia lo addicted to it* own particular fungal food that it rdmca 
dudainfuUy, evco when hungry, the produce of an alien nciL 

Cuati •/ ^Hli.— Many anti feed largely and ume almost 
entirely on the laccharina Hcretions of other iniecta, the beat 
known of which are the Aphidca (plant-lice or "greco-fly"). 
This cnnsideration leads us to one of the moat rcmarkablo and 
fivJrtmtjFig features of ant-cominunitie»^thc presence In the 
n^t* of uoects and other small arthn^wds, which are tended 
*dd cared for by the ants as their " guests/^ rendenng to the ants 
in return the sweet food which they desitt. The relation between 
•nis and q>hids has often been compued to that between men 
and milch cattle. Sir J. Lubbock (Lord Avebuiy) lUtn that 
tte common British yellow anu (Lasiui fam) callect Bock* of 
[ODt-feediog Bphidi io their underground rusts, protect then. 
build earthen abetters over them, and lake (he greatest 
OR ol their eggs. Other ants, such as the British black garden 
•peda (L.mtit), go after the aphids that frequent the shoots oi 
plants. Hany q>edes of aphid migrate from one plant tb another 
at certain stags in their lile-cyde when their nutnbcn have 
very largely increased, and F. M Webstn has observed aD(s, 
igralion. (0 cany aphids from apple trees to 
a shown by M. BUsgeo that the iweetaecrelion 
' aphids Is not derived, as generally believed. 
— ji the paired comicla on the fifth abdominal segment, but 
from the intestino, whence it eiudes in drops and is swallowed 

Besides the aphids, other insects, such >i scale insects (CdcesAu] , 
^Ceriullars of blue butterflies {LyiaeniJat)^ and numeratts 
beclles, furnish the ants with nutrient secretions. The number 
of spednof beetles that inhabit anu' nntt Ii almost incredibly 
Urge, and most ol these are never [ound dsewhere, being blind, 
hil[Jas and dependent on the ants' care for prote^on and 
food, these beetles belong for the most part to the families 
Fi^aplndat. Paiasidet and 51a^)Ji«dae. Spring-tails and 
biislle-lails (order A fltra) o( several species also frequent ants' 
nests. While some of these " guest " insects produce secretions 
that Fumish the anti with food, ume seem to be useless iniimtcs 
of the nat, obtaining food from the aots and giving nothing 
id return. Others again play the part of thieves in the ant 
todetyj C. Janet observed a small brblle-Iail (Litiimima) 
to lurk beneath the heads of two laiiui walkers, while one pasted 
food to the other, in order to steal Itie drop of nouiiibment and 
to make oB with it. The same naturalist describes the assoda' 
tion with Lull u of small mites (Anlamot^ta) which are carried 
about by the worker ants, ooe of which may have a mite beneath 
her mouth, and another on either side of her abdomen. Dn patting 
theit carrier or some passing ant, the mitei are supplied with food, 
no service being rendered by them In return For the ants' care. 
Perhaps the anls derive from these seemingly useless guests the 




advance in our kn 

wledge of the guests and assi 


ants is 

due principilly to E. Waama 

nn, who hai comiuled a lisl of 

rjoo species of in: 

lects, ara 


ants' nests, the 


shelter and abund 

m the 

nests, dut both to 

the fresh 

suppUes brought in 

by the an 


to the large amou 

K matter that ac 


prove strongly ait 

active u 

he various " guests 

" Some 

of the 

Inmates of ants' ne 

e for the purpose of 

teying upon the 


so that we find an kinds of r 

Utions between 

the owners of the nests and U 


(0 active hostility 

or guests otlier species of ai 


not wantlnf. tor exunpU, a minute ifiectei (Silenttrii fata*) 
Uvea in a compound nest with various spedes of Panrnta, 
forming narrow galleries which open into the larger gallerio 
of its host. The Stitnof rij can nuke iu way into the lenlloTy 
of the FoTwiai to steal the larvae which serve it aa food, but the 

galleries. *"™ 

und in auociition with 
the relation of slave ts 
master. Ptmita ta^puma Is ■ wcU-knowD Etinpean slavB- 
makinf ant that inhabits Eoglaodi its woikeii nid the Mat* of 
P. fiuca and other species, and carry oS io their own nests pupa* 
Imm which workers ace devejoped (hat live contentedly u 
slaves of their captan. F. nnpiinea an live dthei with or 
without slaves, but aaolher European ant (_PiilytrpH rafeutni) 
dcfwndent on Its slaves— -various species of 

Its w 

e themselves unable to feed the Urvae. The 
■a no workers, and its winglesi 
by eommDnlliei of JXraawriu 

Fia. J. — Ant, TtbamaiMia eafiium (Unn.). a. Female! 
. female after 1o« of wingi; e, male; d, worker; e, larva; 
■ highly nugniGed. Alter hbriatt. 

Stiuct and InldiieiKCt aj ilMi,— That ants posseH highly 
developed senses and the power of communicating with one 
another has long been known to students of their habitti the 
researches ol P. Iluber and Sir J. Lubbock (Lord A«ebu>7) on 
these subjects are familiar to all naturalists. The Insects are 
guided by light, being very aeositive to ultra-violet rays, and also 
by scent and heariDg. Keceot eaperimenta by A. M. Field* 
show that an ant follows hec own old track by a scent eiercised 
by the tenib segment of the feeler, recognizes other hunites of 
her nat by a sense of smell resident in the elevaith segment, is 
gtdded to the eggs, maggots and pupae, which she baa to md. 
by BcBsation through tbe eighth and ninth segments, and 
appreciates the general smell of the Dcsl Itself by means «l organs 
in the twelfth segment. Lubbock's opeiimeots ol indudng 
ants to seek objects that had been removed sbov that they an 
guided by scent rather tban by sight, and that any disturbance 
of their suuoundingi often causes great uncertainty In thcif 
actiona. Ants invite one another Io work, or ask for food fnn 



one another, by meaiu of pats with the feelers; and they respond 

to the solicitations of their guest-beetles or mites, who ask for 

food by patting the ants with their feet. In all probability the 

actions of ants are for the most part instinctive or reflex, and some 

observers, sudi as A. Bethe, deny them all claim to psychical 

qualitks. But it seems impossible to doubt that in many cases 

ants behave in a manner that must be considered intelligent, 

that they can learn by experience and that they possess memory 

Lubbock goes so far as to conclude the account of his experiments 

with the lemaric that ** It is difficult altogether to deny them 

the gift of reason . . . their mental powers differ from those of 

men, not so much in kind as in degree." Wasmann considers 

that ants arc neither miniature human beings nor mere reflex 

automata, and most students of their habits will probibly accept 

this intermediate position as the most satisfactory. C. L. 

Morgan sums up a discussion on Lubbock's experiments in which 

the ants failed to utilize particles of earth for bridge-making, 

with the suggestive remark that " What these valuable experi- 

floents seem to show is that the ant, probably the most intelligent 

of all insects, has no claim regarded as a rational being.'* 

Nevertheless, ants can teach " rational beings " many valuable 


Bibliography. — ^The Htcniture on ants is so vast that it b only 
possible to refer the reader to a few of the most important works on 
the family. Pierre Hubcr's TratU des nueurs desjourmu indiehus 
(Geneve, 1810) is the most famous of the older memoirs. H. W. 
Bates, A Naiunlist on the Amatons; T. Belt, A NatUnUut in 
Ntcaragua; H. C. McCook, A gricnlturol Ant of Texas (Philadelphia. 
1880); and A..M611er's papei in Bolan. MtU, aus dm Tropen, 

ii893), contain' classical observations on American species. Sir J. 
.ubbock's OLord Avebury) i4ff/i. Bees and Wasps (London, 1883), 
dealing with British and European species, has been followed by 
numerous important papers by A. Forel and C. Emery in various 
Swiss and Gemum periodicab, and especially by C. Janet in hb 
Etudes sur lesfourmis, tes guipes ei Us abeiues (Paris. &c., 1893- 
1904). Forel (A nn. Soc. Ent. Bdg. xlvil., 1 895, Joum, Bomnay N. 11. 
Soc. 1900-190^, and Bwlogia (SnL Amertcana) and Emery {Zoot. 
Jakrb. Sysi, viii., 1896) have written on the classification of the 
Formietdae. Amone recent American writers on habit may be 
mentioned W. M. Wheeler (American Naturalist^ 1900-1902) and 
A. M. Fidde {Proc, Acad. Set. PkUadelpkus, 1901); E. Wasmann 
(Krtttuhes Verweichniis der myrnucophilen und termitopkilen Arthro- 
Poden, Bcriio, 1894, and 3*" Congrhs Jntem. Zool. 1895) is the great 
authority on ant-guests and associates. D. Sharp's general account 
of ants in the Cambridge NaL Htst. (vol. vi.. 1898) is excellent. For 
discussions on intelligence see A. Bethe, Joum. f. d. ges. Physiol. 
Ixx. (1898): Wasmann. Die psycktscken Fdktgketten der Ameisen 
(Stuttgart, 1899}; C. U. Morgan, Animai Bekanonr (London, 1900.) 

(G. H4 C.) 

ANTAB (a Lat. plural word, possibly from tfn/e, before), an 
architectural term given to slightly projecting pilaster strips 
which terminate the winged waUs of the naos of a Greek temple. 
They owe their origin to the vertical posts of timber employed 
in the primitive palaces or temples of Greece, as at Tio'ns and in 
the Heraeum at Olympia, to cany the roof timbers, as no reliance 
could be placed on the walls built with unbumt brick or in rubble 
masonry with clay mortar. When between these winged waUs 
there are columns to carry the architrave, so as to form a porch, 
the latter b said to be fn-antis. (See Temple.) 

ANTAEUS, in Greek mythology, a giant of Libya, the son of 
Poseidon and Gaca. He compelled all strangers passing through 
the country to wrestle with him, and as, when thrown, he derived 
fresh strength from each successive contact with hb mother 
earth, he proved invincible. \^th the skulls of those whom he 
had slain he built a temple to hb father. Heracles, in combat 
with him, discovered the source of hb strength, and lifting him 
up from the earth crushed him to death (ApoUodorus ii. 5; 
Hyginus, Fob. 31). The struggle between Antaeus and Heracles 
b a favourite subject In ancient sculpture. 

AMTALCIDAS, Spartan soldier and diplomatbt In 393 (or 
3Q2 B.c) he was sent to TIribaxus, satrap of Sardb, to undermine 
the friendly relations then exbting between Athens and Persia 
by offering to recognize Persian daims to the whole of Asia Minor. 
The Athenians sent an embassy under Conon to counteract his 
efforts. TiriUizus, who was favourable to Sparta, threw Conon) 
into prison, but Artaxerxes II. (Mnemon) disapproved and 
nctllad Ins satrap. In 388 Antalddas, then commander of the 

Spartan fleet, accompanied Tiribazus to the Perrian court, and 
secured the active assbtance of Persia against Athens. The 
success of hb naval operations in the neighbourhood of the 
Hellespont was such that Athens .was glad to accept terms of 
peace (the *' Peace of Antalcidas "), by which (t) the whole of 
Asia Minor, with the islands of Gazomenae and Cyprus, was 
recognized as subject to Persia, (3) all other Greek dtiea — so far 
as they were not under Persian rule — ^were to be independent, 
except Lemnos, Imbros and Scyros, which were to belong, as 
formerly, to the Athenians. The terms were announced to the 
Greek envoys at Sardis in the winter 387-386, and were finally 
accepted by Sparta in 386. Antalddas continued in favour with 
Artaxerxes, until th^ annihilation of Spartan supremacy at 
Leuctra diminished his influence. A final mission to Persia, 
probably in 367, was a failure, and Antalddu, deeply chagrined 
and fearful of the consequences, is said to have starved himself 
to death. (See Sparta.) 

AMTANAkARIVO, ix. ."town of a thousand" (Fr. speUing 
Tananarite)t the capital of Madagascar, situated centrally as 
regards the length of the isbnd, but only about 90 m. dbtant 
from the eastern coast, in i8' 55' S., 47* 30' E. It b 135 m. 
W.S.W. of Tamatave, the prindpal seaport of the island, with 
whidi it is connected by railway, and for about 60 m. along the 
coast lagoons, a service of small steamers. The dty occupies a 
commanding position, bdng chiefly built on the summit and slopes 
of a long and narrow rocky ridge, which extends north and south 
for about 3| m., dividing to the north in a Y-shape, and rising at 
its highest point to 690 ft above the extensive rice plain to the 
west, which b itself 4060 ft. above sea-level. For long only the 
prindpal village of the Hova chiefs, Antananarivo advanced 
in importance as those chiefs made themselves sovereigns of 
the greater part of Madagascar, until it became a town Qf some 
80,000 inhabitants. Until 1869 all buildings within the dty 
proper were of wood or rush, but even pien it possessed severad 
timber palaces of considerable size, the largest being xao ft 
high. These crown the summit of the central portion of the ridge; 
and the largest palace, with its lofty roof and towers, b the most 
conspicuous object from every point of view. Since the intro- 
duction of stone and brick, the whole dty has been rebuilt and 
now contains numerous structures of some architectural pre- 
tension, the royal palaces, the houses formeriy belonging to the 
prime minister and nobles, the French residency, the Anglican 
and Roman Catholic cathedrals, several stone churches, as weO 
as others of brick, colleges, schoob, hospitals, courts of justice 
and other government buildings, and hundreds of good dwelling- 
houses. Since the French conquest in 1895 good roads have been 
constructed throughout the dty, broad flights of steps connect 
pUccs too steep for the formation of carriage roads, and .the 
central space, called Andohalo, has become a handsome plaeer 
with walks and terraces, flower-beds and trees. A small park has 
been laid out near the residency, and the planting of trees and 
the formation of gardens in various parts of the city give it a 
bright and attractive appearance. Water is obtained from 
springs at the foot of the hill, but it is proposed to bring an 
abundant suppfy from the river Ikopa, which skirts the capital 
to the south and we^t The population, including that of the 
suburbs, is 69,000 (1907). Tlie city is guarded by two forts 
built on hilb lo the east and south-west respectively. Including 
an Anglican and a Roman Catholic cathedral, there are about 
fifty churches in the city and its suburbs, as well as a Mahom- 
medan mosque. (J. Si.*) 

'ANTARA IBH SHADDAD, Arabian poet and warrior of the 
6th century, was famous both for his poetry and hb adventurous 
life. Hb chief poem is contained in the Me^ailahU. The account 
of his life forms the basb of a long and extravagant romance. 
Hb father ShaddSd was a soldier, hb mother ZabOba a negro 
slave. Neglected at first, he soon claimed attention and respect 
for himself, and by his remarkable personal qualities and courage 
in battle he gained his freedom and the acknowledgment of his 
father. He took part In the great war between the relatl^l 
tribes of Abs and Dhubyin, which began over a contest of 
horses and was named after them the war of Dfthb and Ghabri. 



He died ki a fi^t a^aiatt the tiiba of Jai- His poens, which 
are chiefly ooncened with fighting or with his love for Abla, 
axe published in W. Ahlwardt's The Dtwoms of ike six oncieni 
ArMe Fotts (London, 1870); they have also been published 
lepaiately at BeirtU (188ft). As icgards their genuineness, d. 
W. Ahlinzdt's £em€rkuu§8n Hber die AidUktU der alten arabi- 
KkenCedickk (Giei£swakl, x87s),pp.5off. The Rmance QfAtUar 
(Sirat *ADtar iba Shadd&d) is a work which was long handed 
down tor oial tradition <Mily, has grown to immmsr pn^rtions 
and has been published in 3a vols, at Cairo, 1307 (aj>. 1889), 
and In zo vols, at Beirat, 1871. It was partly translated by 
Tenick Hamilton onder the title *AtUor, a Moueen Rmana 
(4 vols., Ixmdon, i8ao). 

For an account of the poet and hia works see H. Thorbeckes, 
ifaloraA, «a vorislamiscker Pichter (Leipzig, 1867), and cf. the Book 
€i Songs (see ABULFAaxj), voL viL pp. 148-153. (G. W. T.) 

AMTABCnC (Gr. Aj^ opposite, and Apicros, the Bear, the 
Aorthem oonstejlation of Una Major), the quthet applied to 
the legkm (including both the ocean and the lands) round the 
South Pole. The Antarctic circle is drawn at 66* 30' S., but 
polar conditions of climate, &c., extend considerably north of 
the area thus enclosed. (See Polak Regions.) 

ANTBATBR, a term implied to several mammaU, but (zoo- 
logically at any rate) specially indicating the tropical American 
antcatcn of the family Myrmecopkagidae (see Edentata). 
The typical and largest representative of the group is the great 
anteater or ant-bear {Myrmecopkagajubala) , an aniinal measuring 
4 fL in length without the tail, and 2 ft in height at the shoulder. 
its prevailing colour is grey, with a broad Uack band, bordered 
with white, commencing on the chest, and passing obliquely 
over the shoulder, diminishing gradually in breadth as it ap- 
proaches the loins, where it ends in a point. It is extensively 
distributed in the tropical parts of South and Central America, 
frequenting low swampy savannas, along the banks of rivers, 
and the dq>ths of the humid forests, but is nowhere abundant 
Its food consists mainly of termites, to obtain which it <^ns 
their nests with its powerful sharp anterior claws, and as the 
insects swarm to the damaged part of their dwelling, it draws 
them into its mouth by means of its long, flexible, rapidly 
moving tongue covered with Mutinous saliva. The great 
anteater is terrestrial in habits, not burrowing undeigroimd like 
armadillos. Though generally an inoffensive animal, when 
attacked it can defend itself vigorously and effectively with its 
labre-like anteikir daws. The female produces a sing^ young 
at a birth. Ihe tamandua anteaters, as typified by Tamandua 
(of UroUples) ktradactylaf are much smaller thui the great 
anteater, and differ essentially from it in their habits, being 
mainly arboicaL Thor inhabit the dense primeval forests 
of South and Central America* The usual colour is yellowish- 
white, with a broad black lateral band, covering nearly the whole 
of the sule of the body. 

The little or two-toed anteater (Cyclopes or Cycloturus didac- 
iylus) is a native of the hottest parts of South and Central 
Amoica, and about the size ot a rat, of a general yellowish colour, 
and esKlusively arboreal in its habits. 'Die name scaly anteater 
is applied to the pangolin (9.*.); the banded anteater {Myrmo- 
€obius fasdaius) is a marsupial, and the spiny anteater (Eckidna) 
iso neof the monotremes (see Mabsupiaua and MoNOraEVATA). 

AITB^HAraU the term given to that portion of a chapel 
whirh lies on the western side of the choir screen. In some of 
the colleges at Oxford and Cambridge the ante-chapel is carried 
north and south across the west end of the chapel, constituting 
a western transept or narthex. This model, based on Merton 
College chapel (x3th century), of which only chancel and tran- 
sq>t were built though a nave was projected, was followed at 
Wadham, New and MagrlaTon Colleges, Oxford, in the new 
chapel of St John's CoIL^, Cambridge, and in Eton CoQege. 
In Jesus College, Cambridge, the transept and a short nave 
constitute the ante-chapd; in (Hare College an octagonal 
vestibule serves the same purpose; and in Christ's, Trinity and 
King's CoHeges, Cambridge, the ante-chapel is a portion of the 
Biatn chapcly divided off £om. the chancel by the choir screen. 

ANTB-CHOtR, the term given to the space enclosed in a 
church between the outer gate or railing of the rood screen and 
the door of the screen; sometimes there is only one rail, gate or 
door, but in Westminster Abbey it is equal in depth to one bay 
of the nave. The ante-choir is also called the ** fore choir." 

AMTE-FIXAB (from Lat. antefigere, to fasten before), the 
vertical blocks which terminate the covering tiles of the roof of 
a Greek temple; as spaced they take the place of the cymatium 
and form a cresting along the sides of the temple. The face of 
the ante-fixae was richly carved with the anthemion (q.vJ^ 

ANTELOPE, a zoofogical name which, so far as can be deter- 
mined,appears to trace its origin, through the Latin, to PoiitMops, 
the old Coptic, and Antholops, the late Greek name of the fabled 
unicorn. Its adoption by Uie languages of Europe cannot 
a];^>arently be traced farther back than the 4th century of our 
era, at which date it was employed to designate an imaginary 
animal living on the banks of the Euphrates. By the earlier 
English naturalists, and afterwards by Buffon, it was, however, 
appli^ to the Indian blackbuck, which is thus entitled to rank 
as the antelope. It follows that the subfamily typified by this 
species, in which are included the gazelles, is the one to which 
alone the term antelopes should be applied if it were employed 
in a restricted and definable sense. 

Although most people have a general vague idea of what 
constitutes an " antelope," yet ^ group of animab thus 
designated is one that does not admit of accurate limitati<ms or 
definition. ^ Some, for instance, may consider that the chamois 
and the so-called white goat of the Rocky Mountains are entitled 
to be indudod in the group; but this is not the view held by the 
authors of the Book of Antdopes referred to below; and, as a 
matter of fact, the term is only a vague designation for a number 
of more or less distinct groups of hollow-homed ruminants 
which do not come under the designation of cattle, sheep or 
gcMits; and in reality there ought to be a distinct English group- 
name for each subfamily into which "antelopes" are sub- 

The great majority of antelopes, exdusrve of the doubtful 
chamois group (which, however, will be included in the present 
article), are African, although the gazelles are to a considerable 
extent an Asiatic group. They include ruminants varying in 
size from a hare to an ox; and comprise about 150 spedtA, 
although this number is subject to considerable variation accord- 
ing to personal views as to the limitations of ^)edes and races. 
No true antelopes an American, the prongbuck (AiUUocapra), 
which is coBunonly caUed " antelope " in the United States, ' 
representing a distinct group; while, as already mentioned, the 
Rocky Mountain or white goat stands on the boideriand between 
antelopes and goats. 

The first group, or TragdapkiMe, is represented by the African 
elands (raarolrafus), bongo iBodcercMs)^ kudus (Sirepsiceros) and 
bushbucks or harnessed antelopes {Tragdapkus), and the Indian 
nilgai {Bosdapkus), Except in the bongo and elands, horns are 
present only in the males, and these are angulatfd and generally 
spirally twisted, and without rings. The nmxsle is naked. smaU 
^Umds an present on the face below the eyes, and the tail is 
comparatively long. The colours are often brilliant; white 
spots and stripes bdng prevalent The harnessed antelopes, or 
bushbucks, are dosdy aUied to the kudus, from which they chiefly 
differ by the spiral formed by the horns generally having fewer 
turns. They include some of the most brflliantly coloured of all 
antelopes; the ornamentation taking the form of vertical white 
lines and rows <rf spots. Usually the sexes differ in colour. 
Whereas most of the species have hoofs of normal shape, in some, 
such as the nakong, or situtunga {Tragdapkus spekei), these are 
greatly elongated, in order to be suited for walking In soft mud, 
and these have accordingly been separated as Limnctragus. The 
last-named species spends most of its time in water, where it may 
be observed not infrequently among the reeds with all but its 
head and horns submerged. The true or smaller bushbucks, 
represented by the widely spread Tragdapkus scriptus^ with 
several local races (fig. x) are sometimes separated as Syhkapra, 

luving the genui Traplaplai 
by iIm tnji 

lo be rcprcKntnl by the larger 
;cnui Slrepiktra [i reprexnic ' 
>paua or 5. ilnpik^o,). Sg. : 
nging Irom the Cape to Somaliland, and the smaller Sr imberb\ 
North-Eail Alrioi, which hama thtoai-fting«. The targean 
ightly coloured bongo ( BolKeraa tvrytcrei) o[ the equalaiii 
nqiecls to connecl the buihbuck 

«ib[amUy ia the AnliUfiiiiu, the 

.0 thOB 

nembcn ol which 
ithei of the iiKC' 

«ilb tb 


lufled ta 

{Tiit^pktH » 


rtical white stripes. SiQI 
1^ larger are the elands, of which 
the typical TaiusliatiH tryz at 
the Cape it uniformly landy- 
coloured, although atnpes ap- 
pear in (he more Dorthem T, 

necked eland '(^ dirHanas) of 
Scncgambia and the Blhr-el- 
Ghazal district It a larger and 
more brilliantly coloured ani- 
' "" small homa and 
' colour of the adult 

! to distinguish ihe 

todian DDgai (q.v.), Boidafkiu UaiKumtliu, from the other 
membert of the lubfamilj'. 

The second group, vhich ii maiqty Africaa, but alw rcpr 
lented in Syria, is that of the Hipfelraginerj typified by the 
i»bleantdope(Hi>foiragiu(ii(if) and roan »ntelcpe(H,(fUiiiirj), 
but also including the oryiei ((>yi) and »dd»x. These ale for 
the most part large antelopes, with long cylindrical homi, which 
lie present in both seies, hairy tnuazles, no face-glands, long 
tufted tails and (ail thick moUn of the oi-type. In Hippa 
Iragui the itout and thickly ringed horns rise vertically (ram j 
ridge above the eyes ai an obtuse angle to the plane of the lowe 
part of the face, and then sweep backwards in a bold curve 
while there are (ufis of long white hairs near Ihe eyea. The sahl 
•otclspe ii I nullKni qiedo in which both wiei no black o 

the hairy muiilc. GeiKrally there are lace-gland* below the 
eyes; and the tail is modente or abort. Fill are pnscnl hi 
the forehead of the skuli, and the hortii are ringed for part ol 
their length, witha compressed base; their form being of ten lyrate, 
but sometimes spiral. Lateral hoofs are generally present. 

CaleUes (Caulh), which form by far the largest genua of the 
subfamily, are inhabitants of i^n and frequently more or le*i 
desert districts. They are mostly of 1 aaody colour, with dark 
and light markings on Ihe face, and often a dark band on Ibe 
Banks. The horns are more or less ly rate,and generally developed 
in both seies; [here are frequently brushes ol hair on the knees. 
GaieUes may be divided rnlogroups. The one to which ihcNortk 
African C. dorcas belongs ii characterised by tb« presence of 

Fia. 1.— Male Kudu litnptlctrtt apntii). 
bladiish wheD adult; whfle the lighter-cotoured and larger roan 
antelope has a much wider distribution. The South African 
blauwbok (H. ItuioplKtut) Is eiiinct. In the addai (Aidax 
niocmaiulaliu), which is a diitiiict species common to North 
Africa and Syria, the ringed boms form an open qiiral 
ascending in the plane of the face, and there is long, shaggy, 
dark hair on the fore-quarters in winter. The various species 
of oiyi differ from Hippoliagui by the absence of Ihe white 
eyc-lufts, and by the homa slewing backwards in the plane of 
the face. In the South African geniabuck {Otyx laidia), fig. 3, 
the 'East African beisa or true oryi (0. hiiso), and Ihe while 
Arabian (0. btaltix) the homa are straight, but in Ihe North 
African white oryi or algaiet (0. laicoryx or 0. aliaial) they ate 

Fic. 3. — Cemsbuck, 1 
• or tub-lyrate horns i 

Cape Oryi (tVyi fsulla). 

1, and by the while of 

! Duiiocas not eiienauig on to tne naunches. Neaiiy alliol 
the group including the Indian C. benncUi and (he Arabfan 
arabita, in which the boms have a somewhat S-shaped 
rvaluR in profile. In Ihe group represented by the African 
panii, G. Uurrmtnl, G. noh; &c., the white of the buttockl 
en sends a ptotoogation on to the flanks, the homa are loog 
1 Ihe uie is large. Lastly, the Central Asian G. pilhirna. 
mbiulluroia and C. picticiuJala form a group in which the 
females are botnlesi and the face-markings Inconqiicuoai or 

The South African apringbi 
tlaled to the gacelics, from wnii 
presence on the middle line of thi 
line(^with long while hairs cipabli 
lolir tooth less in the tower ji 



pletely filled entire 1, 


[and, forms a kind c 

11 cuikere) is nearly 
istingul^ied by the 
an evertible pouch, 
rm. It has also one 
rmcriy these beautiful 

on (he plains of Soulb 
he habit of migrating in droves which com- 
alleys. Now they are compirativrfy rare. 
rke's gawlle {^ wmoiiorcat llarliti).oS Somali- 
:ting link between Ihe true gaaellea 

id the gerenuk, this being e^Mcially shown in the skull. The 
face has the ordinary gaielle- markings; but Ihe rather short 
homa— which are wanting in the female — have a peculiar upward 
and forward curvature, unlike that obtaining in' Ihe gaielka 



and WBwwIul RMmbliag that of the ncdhuck. The ank ii 
lonni ind moR alenda than in oidinuy gudlci, ind tbg UU 
is ULtwiie iditEvdjr long. AllhoUfti local, Ihae ■nimuls an 
fairly (smouia is Uie inlcrior of SomaUluKt, nhen they arc 
luicnia by the name oi dibiUg, In manioc, the head and neck 
u« thrawn backwaidi, white the Uil » tkuned foniudi over 
the back. 

Ihc £ai[ AfrictB icnnuk (f.t.), OE WanH*! (uelle {Lilif- 
tmnimi mlimj, of whidi two ixo have been named, ia a voy 
KQUfkablc nuninaBl. diilinguabed not only bj iti eaeccdingly 
donsated neck and limbs, but abo by the peculiar hooked (otm 

oi the very maisive henii of Ihie bo^a, Ihe dcnae ■ ■ — — ' 

tttai^ pmfila of the ikull, and the eil 
lower jew. 

Aitill moieaboniitiudle ia ismaltNorth-Eut AlticaBipeciei 
known ai the beiia(D<vcdJrjpuiHeJa>bT^), with very short homi, 
large hooli and a geueia] appearance recalling that of some of the 
members of the flubfamily ffedJrdffjvu, although ia other respects 
gaieUe-Uke. The blackbuck lAnlUift artitapra oi A , baoartica) 
of India, a species ukiog ita name from the deep black coat 
■isuraed by the adult bucks, and easily red^niicd by the graceful, 
apiialjy twisted homa ormuocnting (be beads of that sea. Is 
DOW the sole representative of the gcnui AnlUapi, formerly 
taken to embnux the whole of (he true antelopa. Large face- 
^ands are dumcleristic ol the (pedes, which iohibils the open 
pUiiu of India in laige hetda. They leap high in the air, like 
the sprin^uck, Hbes on the move. 

With (hepalla ().B.),of inipala(^»^j«ror meUmpia), wo reatk 
nn eidiuivEly African genus, characterised by the lyrate boms 
el Ihe bucks, the absence of lateral hoofs, tad the presence o( 
■ pair oi glasds with black tufts of hair on (he bind.feet. 

The saiga (4.T.)>iS'i>('"<i'<™o,orUie Kirghiz steppes 
stands apart from all other antelopes by iU cmiouily pufled 
and trunk-like nose, which on be wriokl&l up when the animal 
11 feeding and has (he nosttih opening dowifwards. More or 
leas nesily related to the laiga is the chim (f.i.), Patitkolops 
kadiioni, of Tibet, chancteiiied by the long upright black horns 
of Ihe bucks, and the leia convex nose, in which the nostrils 
open anteriorly instead of dowswarda. 

The Ntalrapmu (« Sanalrapivu) form an eidUHvely 
African group of small-sized antelopes divided into several, 
lot the most psrt nearly related, genera. AlauKI the only 
characlen they posscas in common are the short and spike^like 
boms of the bucks, which are ringed at the base, with smooth 
tips, and the large size of the face-gland, which opens by a 
circidar aperture. Niolragiii is represented by the pigmy royal 
antelope (JV. pypnaau) of Guinea; flyfarniu includes one species 
fnm Cameroon and a second from the Semliki forest^ while 
Nuotratiu comprises the East African suni antelopo, N. 
masikatut and JV. litinisUmianHs. All three might, however, 
wen be included In ;V<efrofHi. Theroyalanletopeistbe smallat 

The steinbok (Sliapliktre! antalri)) and Ibe pyilsil (R. 
milaiialii) are the best-known representitivts oI a group char- 
acteriied by Ihe vcrtiol direction oC the boms and the small 
gland-pit in the skuU; lateral hoofs being absent in the hrst- 
naned and present in the second. A bare gland-patch behind 
Ihe cat serves to distinguish Ihe oribis oi ourebis, as typlBed by 
Oribla hmuMhii of the Capci lateral booCs being present and 
the face-int large. 

From all the preceding the tiny dik-diks {MaJapia) of North- 
East Africa differ by their baity noses, expanded in some' species 
into short trunks; while the widely spread Uipsprinjiet {q-v-), 
Orulrapii lallaltr, with Its several local races, is uafaiUogly 
distinguiihahle by it* rounded blunt hoofs and thick, brittle, 
goIdcn-SecLed hair. 

In some respects connecting the last group with the Ccrvi. 
aprinae Is the rliebok, or vaal-rhebok (Pe/ea capreoiits)^ a grey 
antdopo of the slsc of a roebuck, with small upright horns in the 
bucks recalling those of the last group, and small lateral hoofs, 
but DO face-glands. In size and several structural features it 
Ihe more typical Cerncaprinae, aa repftsentcd 

by the reedbuck {Cemcapra), and the waterhncka aiMi koha 
tCdlrw Dt£ohu),al! of whidi are likewise African. These asc 
mediuin-siied or large antelopes with nsked muzzles, namw 
sheep-like upper molan, fairly long Ulls, rudimentary or no 
face-^onds, aod pits in the frontal bones of the skulL Reedbuck 
(f.I.), or rietbok (Cirwapni), are foiy-red antelopes ranging 
in size from a fatiow-deer to a roe, with thick bushy (alls, fcv-. 
wardly curving black horns, and a bare patch of ^andnlar skin 
behind each eat They kc^ to open country near water. Tttt 
waterbuck (f->.), Ctbiu, on the other hand, actually seek ntuga 
from pursuit in Ihe water. Tliey have heavOy fringed necks, 
tufted tails, long lynle hons in the bucks (hg.4) but no glandular 
-patchea. The true walerbuck (C, dlipsitrymniii), and tho 
defaisa or sing-sing (C, ikfasia), are the two Icigest spedet, 
equal In sLse to ted deer, and grey or reddish in colour. Of (he 
smaller forms or kobs, C. lurid and C. Inualii of the ssramp* Ol 
(he White Nile an characterized by the black ooaU of Ihe adult 
bucks; the West African C. at, and its East African repre- 
sentative C. Iktmari, arc whdly red aotelopei «f IlK size ol 

Fig. 4.— Waterbudc iCobui cUiplifrymmiuy 
roedeer; the lichi or lechwe (C. titU) is chancteriied by ila 
k>ng boras, blark fore-legs atid superior size; while the poka 
(C. tardtyn), which is also a s<ramp.|oving qiedea from South- 
Ceaini Africa, diSers from the three preceding species by the 
fore-legs being imifortnly foxy. 

The duikers, or duikerboks [Csfuto/ofliiu), of Africa, which 
ran^ Id size from a large hare to a fallow.deer, typify the sub. 
family Cepkalopkinw, characlerized by the ipihe-like boms of 
the bucks, the dongited aperture of the face-glands, the naked 
muzzle, the relatively short tail, and the square-crowried ttp|>er 
molars; lateral hoofs bdng present. In the dulkm themselves 
the single pair of horns is set in the ml dsl of a tuft el long hairs, 
and the face-gland opens in ■ kmg naked line on the side of the 
face above the muole. The group is represented in India by th> 
chouuni^a or four-homed antelope (Ttlnara qtuAiarnti), 
generally distinguished by the (caturD from which It takes Itt 
name (see Dmxia). 

The last section of the true ai . 
sented by the hanebeest l.q.v.). Bahalw, bl 
[IlBBiri/i]ciu),andthegnu (j.t.) or wUdebeesi ("-""kiwm, also 
otUed CaUHipai), ah being African with the ciception of one of 
two hartebeeats which mnge into Syria. All these are large and 
generally more or less uniformly coloured antelopes with hooia 
in both sezes, bng and more or leas hairy toils, Inch withers, 
smsU lacs-glands, naked muzzles, tall, narrow uppci molata,and 
the absence oC pits in the frontid bones. -Ihe long facs, high 
crest foi the homs, which are ringed, lyrate and more or k*s 
sdongly angnlated, and the moderstely long (ail, are Ibe 
distinctive lealuna o( the hartebeals. They an Jaige ted 

lesbok and u 


■stdopei (6g. 5),oFteDirith bUck marktusi on tbe {see tad Saibt. 
la Damaiisciu, which includn, among inlny other ipeda. the 
blnbok and bontebok l_D. allrifrims ind D. fygartus) and the 
tuuby or butird hartebccst (P, Juiwliu), the fiice II ihorter, 
and the horns alniEhtec and kI on a les elevated crest. The 
colour, too, of these antelopes tend* In many casa to purple, 
with while maikings. From the hatlebeesi (be gniu (G|. 6) 

FiQ. S.--Cape Hulebeeil (Buialii ama). 
diSei by tbeii stnooth and outvirdl]' oi downwirdlr dircctet 
horai, bioad briilly tnuule*. heavy manes and long horee-liki 
tails. There arc two chief types, Ihc white-uilcd gnu or blacL 
eiUnct (fig. fiH^ '"" " . now near , 

laurinus), which, wi 
South and East Afri 

.— White- tailol Gdu. 
condudiog this surv 

r Black WIdebeeil ICeniKimla t 

be nude to the lu 

«i ben oi which, as a]r»jy 
respects intemediate between sntelopes and goats. They 

European and Asiltjc, but with one North American rq 
Knlalive. They are heavily built ruminanls, with homi 
fieariy equal sise in both seres, short tapering tails, large he 
Buraw (oat-like i^pei molars, and Bsiitlly waall lace^lands. 

The horns are generally rather small, upright, ringed at the but, 
and more or less curved backsUds, but in the takin they are 
gnu-like. The group Is represented by tbe European chamois 
or gemse (Rxficapra lra[ia or R. rMpkapra). broadly distin- 
guished by its well-known hook-like hams, and the Asiatic gorals 
lUrolratia) and serowi (A'oiwriladfm), which are represented by 
numerous species ranging from Tibet, the Himalaya, and Chlnai 
to the Malay Peninsula and islaads, being in the two latter aieai 
the sole representatives of both anldopei and goats. Id the 
structure oi its horns the North American white Rocky MountiiQ 
goat {Oreamtitu) Is very tike a serow, from which it differs by 
its eitrtmely ihoil eaunon-bones. In the latter respect this 
ruminant nsembles the takin IBudorcai) of Tibet, which, as 
already mentioned, has horns recalling those of the white-tailed 
gnu. Possibly the Arctic musk-«x (Onfrnr) may be connected 
with the takin by means of certain extinct ruminants, such u 
the North American Pleistocene Eucaalkttium and the European 
Pliocene CruOtHxiH (see CKIHOIS, Coui, Suow, RdCEY 
MonNTAiii Goat " ~ 

■nlelopes, the earliest or 
India known 'as Biibalii. 


'hich apparently di 

voted to 


he Lowe 


I, palaaiuiiciii Indicates 
IDC occurrence ol the nartelxcsl group in that country. CebHI 
also OCCUR in the same lormallon, as doe) likewise Sifpetrapu. 
PalatBryt from the corresponding boriion in Greece and Sanma 
is to some eiteot Intermediate between Hiftolratui and Oryi. 
Caielles are common in the Miocene and Pliocene of both Europe 
and Asia. Elands and kudus appear to have been represented 
in India during the Pliocene^ the European Palouriiu of the 
same age seems to be Intcimcdiale between the two. while 
PrdratdafkHi is evidently another European representative of 
the group. Hdkopkora is another splral-home4 European 
Pliocene antelope, but of somewhat doubtful affinity^ the same 
being the case with the large Criolluriiini of the Samoa Pliocene, 
in which the short horns are curiously twisted. As already 
«UIed, tliere is a possibility of this latter ruminant being allied 
both to the lakia and the musk-ox. Palatolraifa and Ttat«aei, 
of the Lower Pliocene of Greece, at one ti me regatdeduanlclopes, 
ace now known to be ancestors of the okapL 

For antelopes in pmeial. vc P. L. Sclai " ~ 

£Hti>/,t><ltb^(4 voli.. Londoa, l8»t-l! 

AXnmAB (Lat. fliKe sMOcm, sc. Anitmem; Vairo, Lint. 
IM. V. ig). an ancient vilUge of Latium, utuated on the W. of 
the Via Salaiia, i m. N. of Rome, where the Anio falls into the 
Hber. II is said to have been conquered by Romulus after the 
rape of the Sabine women, and to have assiited the Tarquina. 
Certainly ft soon lost iU independence, and in Strabo's time was 
> mere village. The site is one of great strength, and is now 
occufned by a fort. In the construction of which traces of the outer 
walls and oi huts, and several wells and a dstern, all belonging 
to the primitive village, were discovered, and also the lemaini 
of a viUa oi the end of the Kepublic. 

See T. Ashby in Papcti ijf Ou Brilisk Scktal at Ram, lii. ■«. 

AMTBHOR, an Athenian sculptor, oi the latter part of the 
6th century B.C. He was the author of the group of the tyian- 
niddes Harmodlus and Arlstogeiton, set up by the Athenians on 
the expulsioa of the Peislstratidae, and carried away to Persia 
by Xenes. A basis with the signature of Anlenor, son of 
Eumares, has beeo shown to belong tn one of the dedicated 
female figures oE archaic style which have been found OD the 
Acropolis of Athens, 

See Caini Aki ; and E. A. Gardner's »aibtt»* D/Crsnl ^cn^iiv, 

ARTEMOR, in Greek legend, one of the wisest of the Trojan 
elders and connsellois. He advised his iellow-townanen to send 
Helen back to her husband, and showed himself not unfriendly 
to the Greeks and an advocate of peace. In tbe later sloiy, 
according to Darts and Diclyi, he was said to have treacherously 
opened Ihc gates of Troy to the enemy; in return lor which, at 
the general sack of the city, his bouse, diitlnguished by a panther^ 
akin at the lioar, was spued by the victoti. Aflowatdi, 



according to various ver^oos of the legend, he either rebuilt a 
city on the site of Ttoy, or settled at Cyrene, or became the 
founder of Patavium. 

Homer* Iliad, iti. 148, VtL 347: Horace, Epp, I 2. 9; Livy'L i; 
Pindar. Fyikia, v. 83: VirKil. ^^' i* 242. 

ARTBQUERA (the andent AnHcaria),*. town of southern 
Spain, in the province of M&laga; on die Bobadilla-Granada 
railway. Pop. (1900) 31,609. Antequera overiooks the fertile 
valley bounded on the S. by the Sierra de loa Torcales, and on 
the N. by the river Guadalhorce. It occupies a commanding 
position, while the remains of its walls, and of a fine Moorish 
'castle on a rock that overhangs the town, show how admirably 
its natural defences were supplemented by art Besides several 
bteresting churches and palaces, it contains a fine arch, erected 
in 1595 in honour of Philip U., and- partly constructed of in- 
acribcxi Roman masonry. In the eastern suburbs there is one of 
the largest grave-mounds In Spain, said to be of prehistoric date, 
and with subterranean chambers eicavatcd to a depth of 65 ft 
The Pefia de los Enamorados, or " Lovers* Peak," is a conspicuous 
crag which owes its name to the romantic l^cnd adapted by 
Kobert Southey (1774--1843) in his Lath and Mannei, Woollen 
fabrics are manujfactured, and the sugar industry established in 
1890 employs several thousand hands; but the majority of the 
inhabitants are occupied by the trade in grain, fruit, wine and 
oil. Marble is quarried; and at £1 Torcal, 6 m. south, there is 
a very curious labyrinth of red marble rocks. Antequera was 
captured from the Moors in 1410, and became until 1492 one of 
the most important outposts of the Christian power in Spain. 

See C. Femander, Historia de AnUquera, desde su fondacUm 
(Malaga. 1842). 

A1ITBB08, pope for some weeks at the end of the year 235. 
Re died on the 3rd of January 236. His original epitaph was 
discovered in the Catacombs. 

AHTHEUON (late Gr. ii^Xior, opposite the sun), the 
himinous ring or halo sometimes seen in Alpine or polar regions 
surrounding the shadow of the head of an observer cast upon a 
bank of cloud or mist Ihe halo diminishes In brightness from 
the centre outwards, and is probably due to the diffraction of 
light Under favourable conditions four concentric rings may 
be swn round the shadow of the observer'is head, the outermost, 
which seldom appears, having an angular radius of 40*. 

AMTHBll, derived from the Gr. iani^tapa, through the Saion 
anUfn, a word which originaDy had the same meaning as anti- 
phony (9.9.). It is now, however, generally restricted to a form 
of chupdh music, particulariy in the service of the Church of 
England, in which it is appointed by the rubrics to follow the 
third collect at both morning and evening prayer, " in choirs and 
places where they sing." It is Just as usual in tids place to have 
an ordinary hymn as an anthem, which Is « mor« elaborate 
composition than the congregational hymns. Several anthems 
are included in the English coronation service. The words are 
selected from Holy Scripture or in some cases frmn the Liturgy, 
and tlie music is generally more elaborate and varied than that 
of psalm or hymn tunes. Anthems may be written for solo 
voices only, for the full choir, or for both, and aooording to tfaJs 
distinction are called respectively Verse, PuU, and FuU with Vtne, 
Though the anthem of the Church of England is analogous to the 
motet of the Roman Cathdlc and Lutheran Churches, both being 
written for a trained choir and not for the congregation, it is as 
a musical form essentially English in lu origin and development 
Hie English school of musicians has from the first devoted its 
chief attention to this form, and scarcely a composer of any note 
can be named who has not written several good anthems. Tallis, 
Tye, Byrd, and Farrant in the 16th century; Orlando Gibbons, 
Blow, and Puroell in the 17th, and Croft, Boyce, James Kent, 
James Nares, Benjamin Cooke, and Samuel Arnold in the x8th 
were famous composers of anthems, and in more recent times 
the nam es are too numerous to mention. 

AMTHSmOM (from the Gr. AMiu», a flower), the conven- 
tional design of flower or leaf forms which was largely employed 
by the Greeks to decorate (i) the fronts of anU-fixae, (2) the 
iqiper portion of the stde or vertical tombstones, (3) the necking 

of the Ionic columns of the Erechtlieum and its contlauatioii as a 
decorative f riese on the walls of the same, and (4) the cymatium 
of a cornice. Though generally known as the honeysuckle 
ornament, from its resemblance to that flower, its origin will be 
found in the flower of the acanthus plant 

A1ITHB1I1U8» Greek mathematician and architect, who pro- 
duced, under the patronage of Justinian (a.o. 532), the original 
and daring plans for the church of St Sof^iia in Constantinople, 
which strikingly displayed at once his knowledge and his ignor- 
ance. He was one of five brothers — ^the sons of Stephanus, a 
physician of Tralles — ^who were all more or less eminent in their 
respective departments. Dioaoorus followed his father's pro- 
fession in his native place; Alexander became at Rome one of the 
most celebrated medical men of his time; Olympius was deeply 
versed in Roman jurisprudence; and Metrodorus was one of the 
distinguished grammarians of the great Esstem capitaL It is 
related of Anthemius that, having a quarrel with his next-door 
neighbour Zeno, he annoyed him in two ways. First, he made a 
number of leathern tubes the ends of which he contrived to fix 
among the joists and flooring of a fine upper-room in which Zeno 
entertained his friends, and then subjected it to a miniature 
earthquake by sending steam through the tubes. Secondly, he 
simulated thunder and lightning, the latter by flashing in Zeno's 
eyesan intolerable light from a slightly hollowed mirror. Certain 
it is that he wrote a treatise on burning-glasses. A fragment of 
this was published under the title Oept rapai^tav /jofxtanntkricw 
by L. Dupuy in 1777, and also appeared in 1786 in the forty- 
second volume of the Hist, de VAcad, des Inscr,; A. Westennann 
gave a revised edition of it in his UopaJo^pd^ (Scriptores 
rerum mirabilium Graeci), 1839. In the course of constructions 
for surfaces to reflect to one and the same point (i) all rajrs in 
whatever direction passing through another point, (2) a set of 
parallel rays, Anthemius assumes a property of an dlipse not 
found in ApoUonius (the equality of the an^cs subtended at a 
focus by two tangents drawn from a point), and (having given 
the focus and a double ordinate) he uses the focus and directrix to 
obtain any number of points on a parabola — the first instance on 
record of the practical use of the directrix. 

On Anthemius generally, see Procopius. De Aedific. L i ; Aeathias, 
Hist. V. 6^; Gibbon's Dediue and FaU, cap. xL (T. L. H.) 

ANTHISTERIA, one of the four Athenian festivals in honour 
of Dionysus,held annually for three days (t ith-i3th) in the month 
of Anthestcrion (February-March). The object of the festival was 
to celebrate the maturing of the wine stored at the previous 
vintage, and the beginning of spring. On the first day, called 
Pitkoigia (opening of the casks), libations were offered from the 
newly open^l casks to the god of wine, all the household, includ- 
ing servants and slaves, joining in the festivities. The rooms and 
the drinking vessels in them were adorned with spring flowers, as 
were also the children over three years of age. The second day, 
named Chois (feast of beakers), was a time of merrymaking The 
people dressed themselves gaily, some in the disguise of the 
mythical personages in the siu'te of Dionysus, and paid a round of 
visits to their acquaintances. Drinking clubs met to drink off 
matches, the winner being he who drained his cup most rapidly. 
Others poured libations on the tombs of deceased relatives. On 
the part of the state this day was the occasion of a peculiarly 
sdemn and secret ceremony in one of the sanctuaries of Dionysus 
in the Lenaeum, which for the rest of the year was closed. The 
basiliiwa (or barih'nna), wife of the archon basileus for the time, 
went through a ceremony of marriage to the wine god, in which 
she was assisted by fourteen Athenian matrons, called geraerae, 
chosen by the basileus and sworn to secrecy. The days on which 
the Pithoigia and Cho€s were celebrated were both regarded as 
iso0pd6cc inefasti) and fuofiol (" defiled ")» necessitating ex- 
piatory libations; on them the souls of the dead came up from 
the underworld and walked abroad; people chewed leaves of 
whitethorn and besmeared their doors with tar to protect them- 
sdves from evil. But at least in private circles the festive 
character of the ceremonies predominated. The third day was 
named CkylH (feast of pots, from x^pof* ^ pot), a festival of the 
dead. Cooked pulse was offered to Hermes, in his capacity of a 



god of the lower worid, and to the souls of the dead. Although 
no performances were allowed at the theatre, a sort of rehearsal 
took place, at which the players for the ensuing dramatic festival 
were selected. 

The name Anthesteria, acoording to the account of it given 
above, is usually connected with Mos ("flower," or the 
'* bloom " of the grape), but A. W. Verrall (Journal oj Hellenic 
Studies, XX., 1900, p. 1x5) explains it as a feast of " revocation " 
(from ipoBiffffaaOai, to " pray back " or '' up "), at which the 
ghosts of the dead were recalled to the land of the living {cp, the 
Roman mundus patet). J. E. Harrison (ibid. 100,109, and Prolegth 
mena), regarding the Anthesteria as primarily a festival of all 
souls, the object of which was the expulsion of ancestral ghosts 
by means of placation, explains mBotyla as the feast of the 
openmg of the graves («i6bf meaning a large urn used for burial 
purposes), x^ as the day of libations, and xbrpoi as the day of 
the grave-hol^ (not "pots," which ts Xbrpat), in point of 
time really anterior to the nSoLjia, £. Rohde and M. P. Kilsson, 
however, take the x^pM to mean " water vessels," and connect 
the ceremony with the Hydrophoria, a libation festival to pro- 
pitiate the dead who had perished in the flood of Deucalion. 

See F. Hiller von G&rtrinsen in Paulv>Wissowa'8 Realtncychpddie 
(1.9.) ; J. Girard in Dacember]g and Saglio, Dictionnaire des antiquiUs 
{s.p, ''^Dionysia ") ; and F. A. Voigt in Roecher's Lexikon der 
MiDuAotie (i.». " Dionyaoa ") ; J. E. Harriaon. Prokgomina io Ike 
Study of Greek Rdigion (1003) ; M. P. Nilsson, Studia d* Dionysiis 
AUicis (1900) and CriecMiuke Feste (i^); G. F. Schumann, 
Crieckiscke AlUrtkumer, ii. (ed. T. H. Lipeius, 1903), p. ^16; A. 
Mommscn. Feste der Stadt Athen (1898) ; E. Rohde. Psyche (4th ed., 
1907), p. 237. 

ANTHm THB IBERIAN, a notable figure in the ecclesiastical 
history of Rumania. A Georgian by birth, he came to Rumania 
early in the second half of the X7th century, as a simple monk. 
He became bishop of R&mnicu in 1705, and in 1708 archbishop 
of Walachia. Taking a leading part in the political movements of 
the time, he came into conflict with the newly appointed Greek 
hospodars, and was exiled to Rumelia. But on his crossing the 
Danube in 1716 he was thrown into the water and drowned, 
as it is alleged, at the instigation of the prince of Walachia. 
He was a man of great talents and spoke and wrote many 
Oriental and European languages. Though a foreigner, he soon 
acquired a thorough knowledge of Rumanian, and was instru- 
mental in helping to introduce that language into the church 
as its of&dal language. He was a master printer and an artist 
of the first order. He cut the wood blocks for the books which 
he printed in Ttrgovishtea, R&mnicu, Snagov and Bucharest. 
He was also the fint to introduce Oriental founts of type into 
Rumania, and he printed there the first Arabic missal for the 
Christians of the East (R&mnicu, 1702). He also trained 
Georgians in the art of printing, and cut the type with which 
under his pui»l Mihail Ishtvanovitch they printed the first 
Georgian Gospels (Tiflis, 1709). A man of great oratorical 
power, Anthim delivered a series of sermons (Didahit), and some 
of his pastoral letters are models of style and of language as 
well as of exact and beautiful printing. He also completed a 
whole corpus of lectionaries, missals, gospels, &c 

See M. Gaster. Chreslomatkie roumaine (1881), and "Gesch. 
d. nimaniachen Litteratur," in Gibber, Crundriss d. rom, PkiUh 
hgie, vol. ii. (1899) : and E. Pioot, Notice sur Anthim d*Ivir (Paris, 
1886). (M, G.) 

A1ITR0U)0Y# The term "anthology," literally denoting 
a garland or collection of flowers, is figuratively applied to any 
selection of litemry beauties, and especially to that great body 
of fugitive poetry, comprehending about 4500 pieces, by upwards 
of 300 writers, which is commonly known as the Greek AtMlogy% 

Literary History of ike Greek Anthology. — ^The art of occasional 
poetry had been cultivated in Greece from an early period, — 
less, however, as the vehicle of persoikal feeUng, than as the 
recognised commemoration of remarkable individuals or events, 
on sepulchral monuments and votive offerings. Such com- 
positions were termed epigrams, i.e. inscriptions. The modem 
use of the word is a departure from the original sense, which 
simply indicated that the composition was intended to be en- 
t^vcd or inscribed. Such a composition must ne<3e8sarily be 

brief, and the restraints attendant upon its publication concurred 
with the simplicity of Greek taste in prescribing conciseness of 
expression, pregnancy of meaning, purity of diction and single- 
ness of thought, as the indispensable conditions of excellence 
in the epigrammatic style. The term was soon extended to 
any piece by which these conditions were fulfilled. The transition 
from the monumental to the purely literary character of the 
epigram was favoured by the exhaustion of more lofty forms of 
poetry, the general increase, from the general diffusion of culture, 
of accomplished writers and tasteful readers, but, above all, 
by the changed political circumstances of the times, which in- 
duced many who would otherwise have engaged in pubb'c affairs 
to addict themselves to literary pursuits. These causes came 
into full operation during the Alexandrian era, in which we 
find every description of epigrammatic composition perfectly 
developed. About 60 B.C., the sophist and poet, Melcager of 
Gadara, undertook to combine the choicest effusions of his 
predecessors into a single body of fugitive poetry. Collections 
of monumental inscriptions, or of poems on particular subjects, 
had previously been formed by Polemon Periegctes and others; 
but Mdcager first gave the principle a comprehensive application. 
His selection, compiled from forty-six of his predecessors, and 
including numerous contributions of his own, was entitled 
The Garland (Sri^aios); and in an introductory poem each poet 
is compared to some flower, fancifully deemed appropriate to 
his genius. The arrangement of his collection was alphabetical, 
according to the initial letter of each epigram. 

In the age of the emperor Tiberius (or Trajan, according to 
others) the work of Melcager was continued by another epigram- 
matist, Philippus of Thessalonica, who first employed the term 
anthology. His collection, which included the compositions of 
thirteen writers subsequent to Meleager, was ahK> arranged 
alphabetically, and contained an introductory poem. It was of 
inferior quality to Meleager's. Somewhat later, imder Hadrian, 
another supplement was formed by the sophist Diogenianus 
of Heradeia (and century A.D.), and Strato of Sardis compiled 
his elegant but tainted MoSoa UoiUk^ (Musa Puerilis) from 
his productions and those of earlier writers. No further collection 
from various sources is recorded imtil the time of Justinian, 
when epigrammatic waiting, especially of an amatory character, 
experienced a great revival at the hands of Agathias of Myrina, 
the historian, Paulus Silentiarius, and their circle. Their in- 
genious but mannered productions were collected by Agathias 
into a new anthology, entitled The Circle (KfoXof); it was the 
fint to be divided into books, and arranged with reference to 
the subjects of the pieces. 

These and other ooUectlons made during the middle ages are 
now lost. The partial incorporation of them into a single body, 
classified acoording to the contents la 15 books, was the work 
of acertain COnstantinus Cephalas, whose name aloneis preserved 
in the single MS. of his oompilation extant, but who probably 
lived during the temporary revival of letters under Constantino 
Porphyrogenitus, at the beginning of the loth century. He 
appears to have merely made excerpts from the existing antho- 
logies, with the addition of selections from Lucillius, Palladas, 
and other epigrammatists, whose compositioiu had been published 
separately. His arrangement, to which we shall have to recur, 
is founded on a piindple of classification, and nearly corresponds 
to that adopted by Agathias, His principle of selection is un- 
known; it is only certain that while he omitted much that he 
should have retained, he has preserved much that would other- 
wise have perished. The extent of our obligations may be ascer- - 
tained by a comparison between his anthokigy and that of the 
nest ediUfr, the monk Maximus Planudes (a.d. 1320), who has 
not merely grievously mutilated the anthology of Cephalas by 
omissions, but has disfigured it by interpolating verses of his 
own. We are, however, indebted to him for the preservation 
of the epigrams on works of art, which seem to lu^ve been 
accidentally omitted from ow only transcript of Cef>hAlas. 

The Planudcan (in seven books) was the only recension of the 
anthology known at the revival of daasical literature, and was first 
published at Fkucnoe, by Janus Lascaris, in 1494. It k>og contimied 



to be An only aooMiible ooUectbo. for akhouisii die FilBrine MS.» 
the aole.exunt copy of the uithology of Cephalae, wa» dMcovered 



MS. itadf bed fmqueatly chenged its quaiten; In 16^3, having 
been taken in the sack of Heiddbeqr an the Thirty Yaara' War, it 
•w»» sent with the rest <^ the Palatine Library to Rome as a present 
from Maxtmilian I. of Bavaria to Gregory AV., who had it divided 
<into two parte, the 6nt of which was by far the hirger; thence it 
was taken to Fens in 1797. In 1816 it went back to Hcidelbeig. but 
^in an incomplete state, tlie second part remaining at Pairis. It is 
now represented at Heidelberg by a photographic facsimile. Brunck's 
edition was superseded by the standard one of Friedrich Jacobs 
(17941-1814, 13 vols.), the text of which was reprinted in a more 
convenient form in 1814-1817, and occopies three pocket volumes in 
the Tauchnita series of the classics. The best edition for general 
■purposes is perhaps that of DObner in Didot's Biblwtktca (186^- 
187a), which contains the Palatine Anthology, the epigrams of tne 
iianudean Anthology not compr i sed in the former, an appendix of 
fMecce derived from other sonroes, copious notes selected from all 

XuarteiB, a literal Latin prose translation by Boissooade, Bothc, and 
apaume and the metrical Ladn versions 01 Hugo Grotius. A third 
volume, edited by E. Cougny, was published in 1890. The best 
edition of the PUnudean Anthology is the splehdid one by van 
Bosch and van Lennep (1795-1812). There is also a complete 
edition of the text by StadtmOller in the Teubner series. 

AmMgemenij^Tht Pftlatine MS., the archetype of the present 
text, was transcribed by different persons at different tines, 
and the acttial arrangement of the collection does not correspond 
«ith that signalised in the index. It is as follows: Book x. 
Christian epigrams; s. Christodoms's description of certain 
statues; 3. Inscriptions in the temple at Cyzicm; 4. The pre- 
faces of Meleager, Ffailippus, and Agathias to their respective 
collections; $. Amatoiy epigrams; 6. Votive inscriptions; 
7. Epitaphs; & The epigrams of Gregory of Naaianxos; 9. 
Rhetorical and iUnstrative epigrams; xo. Ethical pieces; xi. 
Humorous and convivial; is. Stiato's Kusa Pueiilis; 13. 
Metrical curiosities; 14^ Pusdcs, enigmas, oxades; 15. Mi»- 
ci^aaies. The epigrams on works of art, as already stated, are 
missing from the Codex PahtinuSt and must be aought in an 
appcndfac of epigrams only occuning in the Planudean Anthology. 
The epigimms hitherto recovered from andent monuments and 
similar sources form appendices in the second and third volumes 
«f Dabner's edition. 

SiyU and F«l»e.— One of the principal daims of the Anthology 
to attention is derived from its continuity, its existence as a 
living and growing body of poetry throughout all the vidssitudcs 
of Greek dviliaation. More ambitious descriptions of. com- 
position speedily ran their couxse, and having attained thdr 
complete derelopment became extinct or at b^t lingered only 
in feeble or conventional imitations. The humbler strains of the 
epigrammatic muse, on the other hand, remained ever fresh and 
animated, ever in intimate union with the spirit of the generation 
that gave them birth. To peruse the entire collection, accord- 
ingly, is as it were to assist at the disinterment of an andent dty, 
whrn generation has succeeded generation on the sane site, and 
each stratum of soil enshrines the vestiges of a distinct epoch, but 
where all epochs, neverthdess, combiike to constitute an organic 
whole, and the transition from one to the other is hardly percep- 
tible. Four stages may be indicated: — x. The Hellenic proper, of 
which Simonides of Ceos {c. 556-469 B.C.), the author of most of 
the sepulchral inscriptions on those who fdl in the Persian wars, 
is the characteristic representative. This is characterised by a 
simple dignity of phrase, which to a modem taste almost verges 
upon baldness, by a cxystaUiae trsnsparency of diction, and by 
an absolute fiddity to the original oonwption of the epigram. 
Nearly all the pieces of this era are actual bona JUU inscriptions 
or addresses to real personages, whether living or deceased; 
Bsmtives, literary exerdses, and sports of fancy are exceedingly 
tare. s. The epigram receii^ a great devdopment in its second 
or Alexandrian era, when its range was so extended as to include 
anecdote, satire, and amorous.longing; when epitaphs and votive 
inscriptions were composed on imaginary peisons and things, 
and men of taste successfully attempted the same subjects in 
mutual emulation, or sat down to compose verses as displays of 
their ingenuity. The result was a great gain in richnos of style 

and genenl interest, counterbalanced by a fslltng off in i^rity of 
diction and sincerity of treatment. The modification — a perfectly 
legitimate one, the resources of the old style bdng exhausted — 
had its real source in the transformation of political life, but may 
be said to commence with and to find itsbMt representative in 
the playful and elegant Leoiddas of lYirentnm, a contemporary 
of Pyrrhus, and to dose with Antipater of Sidon, about 140 b.c 
(or later). It should be noticed, however, that (iallimacfaus, one 
of the most distinguished of the Alexandrian poets, affects the 
sternest dmplidty in his epigrams, and copies the austerity of 
Simonides with as much success as an imitator can expect. 

3. By a slight additional modification in the same direction, the 
Alexandrian passes into what, for the sake of preserving the 
parallelism with eras of Greek prose literature, we may call 
the Jlomaa style, although the peculiarities of its prindpal 
represenuti ve are deddedly Oriental. Mdeager of (Sadam was a 
Ssrrian; his taste was less severe, and his temperament more 
fervent than those of his Greek predecessors; his pieces are 
usually erotic, and thdr glowing imagery sometimes reminds us of 
the Song of Solomon. The luxuriance of his fancy occasionally 
betrays him into far-fetched concdts, and the lavidmess of his 
epithets is only redeemed by their exquisite fdidty. Yet his 
efftisions are manifestly the offspring of genuine feeling, and his 
epitaph on himself indicates a great advance on the exchisive- 
ness of antique Greek patriotism, and is perhaps the first clear 
enunciation of the spirit of universal humanity characteristic 
of the later Stoic philosophy. His gaiety and hcentiousncss 
are imitated and exaggerated by his somewhat later contem- 
porary, the Epicurean Phllodemus, perhaps the liveliest of all 
the epigrammatists; his fancy reappears with diminished 
brilliancy in Philod^nus's contemporary. Zonae, in Crinagoras, 
who wrote tmder Augtistus, and in Marcus Argentarius, of un- 
certain date; his peculiar gorgeousness of colouring remains 
entirely his own. At a later period of the empire another 
gtnrtt hitherto compamtively in abeyance, was developed, the 
satirical. Lucfllius, who flourished under Nero, and Ludan, more 
renowned in other fields of literature, display a remarkable 
talent for shrewd, caustic epigram, frequently embodying moral 
reflexions of great cogency, often lashing vice and folly with 
signal effect, but not seldom indulging in mere trivialities^ or 
deformed by scoffs at personal blemishes. This style of com- 
position is not properly Greek, but Roman; it answers to the 
modem definition of epigram, and has hence attained a celebrity 
in excess of its deserts. It is remarkable, however, as an almost 
solitary example of direct Latin Influence on Greek literature. 
The same style obtains with Palladas, an Alexandrian gram- 
marian of the 4th century, the last of the strictly dassiral epi- 
grammatists, and the first to be guilty of downright bad taste. 
His better pieces, however, are characterized by an austere 
ethical impressiveness, and his literary position is very interesting 
as that of an indignant but deqiairing opponent of Christianity. 

4. The fourth or Byzantine style of epigrammatic composition 
was cultivated by the bcaux-es^Us of the court of Justinian. To 
a great extent this is merdy imitative, but the drcumstances 
of the period operated so as to produce a species of originality. 
The pecidiarly ornate and reekercM diction of Agathias and his 
compeers is not a merit in itself, but, applied for the first time, 
it has the effect of revivifying an old form, and many of their 
new locutions are actual enrichments of the language. The 
writers, moreover. Were men of genuine poetical feeling, ingenious 
in invention, and capable of expressing emotion with energy 
and liveliness; the colouring of thdr pieces is sometimes highly 

It would be hard to exaggerate the substantial value of the 
Anthology, whether as a storehouse of facts bearing on antique 
manners, customs and ideas, or as one among the influences 
which have contributed to motild the literature of the modem 
world. The multitudinous votive inscriptions, serious and 
sportive, connote the phases of Greek religious sentiment, from 
pious awe to irreverent familiarity and sarcastic sceptidsm; the 
moral tone of the nation at various periods is mirrored with cor^ 
responding fidelity; the sepulchral inscriptions admit us into 




the inisott lanctiiaiy of ftinfly affection, and reveal a depth and 
tenderness of feeling beyond the province of the historian to 
depict, which we should not have surmised even from the 
dramatists; the general tendency of the collection is to display 
antiquity on its most human side, and to mitigate those contrasts 
with the modem world which more ambitious modes of com- 
position force into relief. The constant reference to the details 
of private life renders the Anthology an inexhaustible treasury 
for the student of archaeology; art, industry and oostumc 
receive their fullest illustration from its pages. Its influence on 
European literatures will be appreciated in proportion to the 
inquirer's knowledge of each. The further his researches extend, 
the greater will be his astonishment at the extent to which the 
Anthology has been laid under contribution for thoughts which 
have become household words in all cultivated languages, and at 
the beneficial effect of the imitation of its brevity, simplicity, 
and absolute verbal accuracy upon the undisciplined luxuriance 
of modem genius. 

TranalatiMUt JmitatiotUt ffc, — The best veniona of the Anthology 
ever made are the Latin renderings of select epigrams by Hugo 
Grotiut. They have not been printed ■eparately, but will be found 
in Boich and Lennep's edition of the Planudean Anthehgy^ in the 
Didot edition, and in Dr Wdlesley's Aniholoiia FotygloUa, The 
number of more or less professed imitations in modem languages 
it infinite, that of actual translations less considerable. French and 
Italian, indeed^ are ill adapted to this purpose, from their incapacity 
of approximating to the form of the original, and their poets have 
usually contented themselves with paraphrsses or Imitations, often 
exceedingly felicitous. F. D. Deheque s French prose translation, 
however (1863), is most excellent and valuable.^ The German 
language alone admits of the preservation of the original metre — a 
rircumstance advantageous to the German translators, Herder and 
Jacobs, who have not, however, compensated the loss inevitaUy 
consequent upon a change of idiom by any added beauties of their 
own. Though unfitted to reproduce the precise form, the English 
language, from its superior terseness^ is better adapted to preserve 
the spirit of the orip;tnal than the German: and the comparative 
ill success of many E!nglish translators must be chiefly attriouted to 
the extremely low standard of fidelity and brevity observed by 
them. Bland, Merivale, and their associates (1806-1813}, am often 
intolcrsbly diffuse and feeble, from want, not of ability, but of 
taking pains. Archdeacon Wrangham's too rare veruons are much 
more spirited ; and John Sterling s translations of the inscriptions 
of Simonides deserve high praise. Professor >^^lson (Blackwood's 
Magasine, 1833-183S) collected and commented upon the labours of 
these and other transIatorBi with hb accustomed critical insight and 
exuberant geniality, but damaged his essay by burdening it with 
the indifferent attempts of William Hay. In 1840 Dr Wellesley. 
principal of New Inn Hall, Oxford, published his Antkticgia Poly- 
gfoMa, a most valuable collection of the best translations and imita> 
tions in all languages, with the original text. In this appeared some 
admirable versions by Goldwin Smith and Dean Merivale, which, 
with the other English renderings extant at the time, will be found 
accompanying the literal prose translation of the PtMk School 
SiUaums^ executed by the Rev. George Bulges for Bohn's Classical 
Library (i8si)* This is a useful volume, but the editor's notes are 
worthless. In 1864 Major R. G. Mai^rcgor published an almost 
complete translation of the Anthcrfogy, a woilc whose stupendous 
industry and fidelity almost redeem the general mediocrity of the 
execution. Idylls and Kpi/^ms^ by R. Camett (1869, reprinted 
1893 in the Cameo series), includes about iao translations or imita- 
tions, with some original oompoutions in the same style. Recent 
translations (seloctnns) are: J. W. Mackail, Sdect Epipams from 
the Crock Anthology (with text, introduction, notes, and prose 
translation), 1890, revised 1906, a most charming volume; Graham 
R. Tomson (Mre Marriott Watson), Sekctions from Ike Creek 
Antkotqey (1889); W. H. D. Rouse, Ecko of Creek Sont (1899J; 
L. C. I^rry, P^om the Garden of Hdlas (New York, 189O: W. R. 
Paton, Lorn Epigrams (1898). An agreeable little volume on the 
Anthology, by Lord Neaves, is one of Collins's series of Ancioni 
Classics for Modem Readers, The earl of Cromer, with all the cares 
of Egyptian administration upon him, found time to trandJate and 
publbh an elegant volume of selections (1901). Two critical con- 
tributions to the subject should be noticed, the Rev. James Davies's 
essay on Epi^ms in the Quarterly Review (vol* cxvii.), especially 
valuable for its lucid illustration of the distinction between Greek 
and Latin epigram : and the brilliant disquisition in J. A. Symonds*s 
Studies of tkc Creek Poets (1875; 3rd ed.. 1893)^ 

Lalin Antkohgyr-Tht Latin AnlkoUgy h the appellation 
bestowed upon a collection of fugitive Latin verse, from the age 
of Ennius to about a.d. iooo, formed by Peter Burmann the 
Younger. Nothing corresponding to the Greek anthology is 
known to have exbted among the Romans, though professional 

epigrammatists like Martial paUished their vohimcs ob their 
own account, and detached sayings were excerpted from authors 
like Ennius and PublTus Syras, whUe the PriapAa were probably 
but one among many collections on qwdal subjects. The first 
general collection of scattered jMeces made by a modem scholar 
was Scaliger's Catalecta tderum Podartem (15^3), succeeded by 
the more ample one <^ Pithoeus, Epigfommata a Poemaia e 
Codicibut et Lapidibus coUeda (1590). Numerous additionSf 
principally from inscriptions, continued to be made, and in 
17S9~X773 Burmann digested the whole into his AnUiotogia 
velcruM Laiinorum Epigrammaium et Poemalum. This, occa- 
sionally reprinted, was the standard edition until 1869, when 
Atexander Riese commenced a new and more critical recension, 
from which many pieces improperly inserted by Burmann are 
rejected, and his flassififd arrangement is discarded for one 
according to the sources whence the poems have been derived. 
The first vtrfume contains those found in MSS., in the order of 
the importance of these documents; those furnished by inscrip- 
tions following. The first volume (in two parts) appeared in 
1869-1870, a second edition of the first part in 1894, and the 
second volume, Carmina Epifrapkica (in two parts), in 1895- 
1897, edited by F. Bttcheler. An Antkologiae Latinae Supptc 
mentat in the same series, followed. Having been formed by 
scholars actuated by no aesthetic principles of selection, but 
solely intent on preserving everything they could find, the Latin 
anthology is much more heterogeneous than the Greek, and 
unspeakably inferior. The really beautiful poems of Petromus 
and Apuleius are more properly inserted in the collected editions 
of their writings, and more tluui half the remainder consists of 
the frigid conceits of pedantic professional exerdses of gram- 
marians of a very late period of the empire, relieved by an 
occasional gem, such as the apostrophe of the dying Hadrian to 
his spirit, or the epiChalamium of Galliemis. The collection is 
also, for the most part, too recent in date, and too exclusively 
literary in character, to add much to our knowledge of classic^ 
antiquity. The epitaphs are interesting, but the genuineness of 
many of them is very questionable. (R. G.) 

AMTHON, CHARLES (1797-1867), American dassical scholar, 
was bora in New York city on the 19th of November 1797. 
After graduating with honours at Columbia College in 181 5, he 
began the study of law, and in 1819 was admitted to the bar, 
but never practised. In i8»o he was appointed assistant pro- 
fessor of Greek and Latin in his old college, full professor ten 
yem later, and at the same time headmaster of the grammar 
school attached to the college, which post he held until 1864. 
He died at New Yorit on the S9th of July 1867. He produced 
for use in colleges and schools a huge numbfa- of dassioil works, 
which enjoyed great popularity, although his editions of classical 
authors were by no means in favour with schoolmasters, owing to 
the large amount of assistance, especially translations, contained 
in the notes. 

ANTHONT, SAINT, the first Christian monk, was bom in 
Egypt about 250. At the age of twenty he began to practise an 
ascetical life In the neighbourhood of his native pUce, and after 
fifteen years of this life he withdrew into solitude to a mountain 
by the Nile, called Pispir, now Der el Memun, opposite ArslnoV 
in the Fayum. Here he lived strictly enclosed in an old fort for 
twenty years. At last in the eariy years of the 4th century he 
emeiged from his retreat and set himself to organise the monastic 
life of the crowds of monks who had followed him and taken up 
their abode in the caves around him. After a time, again in 
pursuit of more complete solitude, he withdrew to the mountain 
by the Red Sea, where now stands the monastery that bears his 
name (Der Mar Antonios). Here he died about the middle of 
the 4th century. His Life states that on two occasions he went 
to Alexandria, to strengthen the Christians in the Diocletian 
persecution and to preach against Arianism. Anthony is 
recognixed as the first Christian monk and the first organiser 
and father of Christian monachism (seeMONAsnasic). Certain 
letters and sermons are attributed to him, but their authenticity 
is more than doubtful. The monastic rule whidi bean his name 
was not written by him, but was compiled out of these writings 



ftni) oat of discourses and atterances put into liis mouth in the 

lift and ths Apophtkeimata Patntm. According to this rule 

live a number of Coptic Ssrrian and Anneniaa monks to this day. 

The chief source of information about St Anthony is the Lf/e, 

attributed to St Athanasius. This attribution, as also Uie 

historical character of the bode, and even the very existence of 

St Anthony, were questioned and denied by the sceptical criticism 

of thirty years ago; but such doubts are no longer entertained 

by critical scholan. 

The Greek Vila is among the vorks of St Athaoarius; the almost 
contemporary Latin transation b among Roaweyd's Vitae Patrum 
(Migne. Patrd. Lot, IxxiiL) ; an English traodation is in the Athan- 
asius volume of the *' Nicene and Post-Nkene Libraiy." Accounts 
of St Anthony are given by Card. Newman, Churck of ike Fathers 
(Historical Sketches! and Alban Butler, Lmf </ <A< Saints ([an. 17). 
Discussions of the historical and critical questwns raised will be 
found in E. C. Butler's Lausiae History of PaUadius (1898, 1904). 
Part I. pp. 197, ai5'338: Part II. pp. ix.-xu. (E. C. B.) 

AirraOMY OP PADUA, SAIMT (ix9S-X33x), the most cele- 
brated of the followers of Saint Francis of Assisi, was bom at 
Lisbon (» the X 5th of August xt9S. In his fifteenth year heentextd 
the Augustinlan order, and subsequently joined the Fmndscans 
in X230U Henvished to devote himself to missionary labours in 
North Africa, but the ship in which he sailed was cast by a storm 
on the coast of Sicily, whence he made his way to Italy. He 
taught theology at Bologna, Toulouse, MontpeUier and Padua, 
and won a great reputation as a preacher throughout Italy. He 
was the leaider of the rigoroua party in the Franciscan order 
against the mitigations introduced by the general EUas. His 
death took place at the convent of Ara Codi, near Padua, on the 
13 th of June xajx. He was canSnized by Gregory DC in the 
following year, and his festival is kept on the xjth of June. He 
is regard^ as the patron saint of Padua and of Portugal, and 
is appealed to by devout clients for finding lost objects. The 
meagre accounts of his life which we possess have been supple- 
mented by numerous popular legends, which represent him 
as a continuous worker of miracles, and describe his marvellous 
eloquence by pictures of fishes leaping out of the water to 
hear him. There are many confraternities established in his 
honour throughout Christendom, and the number of "pious" 
biognphies devoted to him would fill many volumes. 

The moet trustworthy modem works are by A. Le|]ltre, St AtOohia 
d» Padotu(Paiti»,i^ioa, m I^s Saints series : good bibliography : Eng. 
trans, by Edith Guest. London, 1902), and by Lfopold de Cnerancv, 
5r Antome de Padoue (Paris, 1895 : ^ng* trans., London, I896). His 
works, oonststing of sermons and a mystical commentary on the 
Bible, were publuhed in an appendix to those of St Fnincis, in the 
AnnaUs Minorum of Luke Wadding (Antwerp, 1623)2 and are also 
reproduced by Horoy, Medii aai htbliolkeea patrtshca (1880, vi. 
pp. SSS ec sqq.) ; see art. ** Antonius von Padua " in Hersog-Hauck, 

AMTHOIIT. SUSAN BROWNSLL (t82o-x9o6), American 
reformer, was bom at Adams, Massadiusetts, on the xsth of 
February 1820, the daughter of (fakers. Soon after her birth, 
her family moved to the state of New York, and after 1845 she 
lived in Rochester. She received her eariy education in a sdiool 
maintained by her father for his own and neighbours' children, 
and from the time she was seventeen until she was thirty-two 
she taught in various schools. In the decade preceding the 
outbreak of the Civil War she took a prominent part in the 
anti-slavery and temperance movements in New York, organizing 
in 1853 the first woman's state temperance society in Ainerica,and 
in x8s6 becoming the agent for New York state of the American 
Anti-slavery Society. After X854 she devoted herself almost 
exchi^ely to the agitation for woman's rights, and became 
recognized as one of the ablest and most zealous advocates, 
both as a public speaker and as a writer, of the complete legal 
equality of the two sexes. From x868 to X870 she was the 
proprietor of a weekly paper. The Revolutiou, published in New 
York, edited by^Mrs Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and having for 
its motto, " The true republic — men, their rights and nothing 
more; women, their rights and nottUng less." She was vlce- 
president-at*large of the National Woman's Suffnge Association 
from the date of its organization in X869 imtil 1899, when she 
became pxesklent For casting a vote'in the presidential election 

of 1871, as, she asserted, the Fourteenth Amendment to thb 

Fedeial Constitution entitled her to do, she was arrested and 

fined Ixoo, but she never paid the fine. In collaboration with 

Mrs Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Mrs Matilda Joslyn Gage, and Mrs 

Ida Husted Harper, she published The History of Wom<m 

Suffrage (4 vols., New Yoik. X884-1887). She died at Rochester, 

New York, on the X3th of March 1906. 

See Mrs Ida Husted Harper's Life amd Worh ei Susan H, Anthouy 
(3 vols., Indiaoapolts, X898-1906). 

ANTHOZOA (t.e. "flower-animals"), the coologkal name 
for a dass of marine polyps forming " coral " (q.v.). Although 
corals have been familiar objects since the days of antiquity, 
and the variety known as the predous red coral has been for a 
long time an article of commerce in the Mediterranean, it was only 
in the i8th centoiy that their tme nature and stracture ckme to 
be understood. By the ancients and the earlier naturalists 
of the Christian eta they were regarded either as petrifactions or 
as plants, and many supposed that they occupied a position 
midway between minenJs and plants. The disoovexy of the 
animal nature of red coral is due to J. A. de Peyssond, a native 
of Marseilles, who obtained living specimens from the ccoral 
fishers on the coast of Barbary and kq>t them alive in aquaria. 
He was thus able to see that the ao-nlled " flowers of coral " 
were in fact nothing else than minute polyps resembling sea- 
anemones. His discovery, made'ui X727, was rejected by the 
Academy of Sciences of France, but eventually found acceptance 
at the hands of the Royal Sodety of London, and was published 
by that body in x 751. The structure and classification of polyps, 
however, were at that time very imperfectly understood, and 
it was fully a century before the trae anatomical chamcten 
and ^stematic position of cotals wer^ pbced on a secure basis. 

The hard calcareous substance to which the name coral is 
applied is the supporting skdeton of certain members of the 
Anikotoa, one of the classes of the phylum Coelentera. The most 
familiar An thozoan is the common sea-anemone. Actinia equina^ 
L., and it will serve, although it does not form a skdeton or 
corattum, as a good example of the stracture of a typical Antho- 
zoan polyp or zodd. The individual animal or zooid of Actinia 
equina has the form of a column fixed by one extremi^; called 
the base, to a xock or other object, and bearing at the opposite 
extremity a crown of tentacles. The tentades surround an area 
known as the perisUme, iit> the middle of which there is an 
dongated mouth-opening surrounded by tumid lips. The numth 
does not open directly into the general cavity of the body, as 
is the case in a hydrozoan polyp, but into a short tube Called 
the stoModaeum, which in its tum opens below into the general 
body-cavity or eoeknteron. In Actinia and its allies, and most 
generally, though not invariably, in Anthozoa,the stomodaeum 
is not drcular, but is compressed from side to side so as to be 
oval or ^t-like in transverse section. At each end of the oval 
there is a groove lined by q>ecially long vibratik cilia. These 
grooves ate known as the sulcus and stUculuSf and will be more 
partlculariy described hereafter. The dongation of the mouth 
and storaodaeam confer a bilateral symmetry on the body of the 
zooid, which is extended to other organs of the body. In Actinia, 
as in all Anthozoan zooids, the codenteion is not a simple cavity, 
as m a Hydroid, but is divided by a number of radial folds or 
curtains of soft tissue into a corresponding number of radial 
chambers. These radial* folds are known as mesenteries, and 
their position and relations may be understood by reference 
to figs. I and i. Eadx mesentery is attached by its upper 
margin to the peristome, by its outer margin to the body-wall, 
and by its lower margin to the basal disk. A certain number of 
mesenteries, known as complete mesenteries, are attached by 
the upper parts of thdr internal margins to the stomodaeum, 
but below this levd thdr edges hang in the coelentcron. Other 
mesenteries, called incomplete, are not attached to the stomo- 
daeum, and their internal margins are free from the peristome 
to the basal disk. The lower part of the free edge of eveiy 
mesentery, whether complete or incomplete, is thrown into 
numerous puckers or folds, and is furnished with a glandular 
thickening known as a mesenterial filament. The reproductive 

eing dtiivtd from Ihe inner liyer or endadton. 

nar body and abo the tentadea ind pcrutame ol Aclir ' 
HDposcd of three layers of tissue. The eiternaJ Layer, 


Alejiiaarit.— In thii Bik^liui the loold (!!(. 3) hu vtry to 

tadia and on some other 
Longiludinal rtgioM of the body, anc 
muKle. pmdiice the wtU-kaowi 

Dia«oiul "ihre»d celli," oi 


made up of coLun 
Such cells, made 

of tbe Cc 
nd is chiefly 

na is also » cellular layer, 
inar cellt, each bearing a cilium at iis ice« ei- 
liuating inleraally in a long muicular Cbre. 
up of qiithelial and mUKular componenti, an 
known ai epithelio-nniS' 

ctlb. In ' 

t Ihe 

the endoderm are crowded 
with yellow spherical 
bodies, which are unicellu- 
lar plania or Algae, living 
symbiotically io the 
[± Th« 

endodenn cod 
addition ^and 

middle layer 
it not originally 

tlructureltu Hibstar 
secRted by tbe two cclli 

development, h o w e v 
ceUi irom the ectodi 

njnina the mesogloea con- 
lists of fine fibres imbedded 
o > bomogcneoui malrii. 

Fto. », — I, Portion of epItlieMui 
from the tentacle of an Actiniii 
ahowing three supporting celli and or 
lenK cell (jc); 3, a cnidoblut wiiu ^^^ tjetwecn U 
SJ5ciroen;"r'aS'"4, two fo™""^ *'? ininute biai 
gluir cell from Ihe Boniadaeuni ; spuldle-shnped a 
go. ji, epIihriio-niuiculBr celle from further dettJ]s 
the tentacle » diBemtWatet ol con. ymcture ol f 
Sm™ ^cSodSi^iSSiS;^: the reader rf^ul. 
■rnibi«ieBigiiintliella;t,a ganglion Ux y""t of 0. 
edlliantheectodennc'tbcperiHDeiie, Uenwig. 
(Afier0.andR.HenwigO TheAntboioa, 

ibie inlo two sub-daste>, tbaiply marked oS Irom oni 
by definite anatomical characteti. Theee are Ihr ' 
and the Zoanihusu. Td the fint-uamed belonj 
red coral and its allies, the sea-fans or Gorge 
lecond belong the white or Madreporari^n corals. 

K provided with well-devekiplid 1^ 
supported on lonf itudini ' '-'* ' 

ulcus (iTf, 4). Each 

Fio. 3. — AaopandedAlcyonar 
howing tlie mouth sur -''-' 

piculee, enlarged' 

i has long cilia. Such iBodiGed sooJdi 

body! m."rMr 

I the colonxa to which they belong, 
eakarcoui ikdetoa is pnaent b all 


rnnmonhr the 1. 

imbedded la the m ew gtoe a , where (hey may jemiin lepante (nini 

one another or nay be fined toietbei ta lonn a iRdhi mam In 

addition to the eptcular ekcktoa aa organic homy skeleton ia Ir^ 

queetly present, eithee in 

the iorm of a hnny d- 


<f»Hi. Time form a 
»l by endodirai, and 
ds. The mort sunple 

es off new outgrowths 
ei objects. Inn which 

tjkc DairAwilB may ttkt Ibe lona of 
il ■ ■unln of iiilcni*! luba Ittial 
■dMtMchmiait. SuA oatgrowtlu 
ly be MmpU, ij. contKln oily oat 



aoltBiuni, 41 TA Cwinfdr^, or nuy becoaplei ^ _. . 

floiciw. Ml in OanJaria. Funber eDrnplkatiiriH vfie when tht 
lower valU of the nnthcr tDotd become thickened uid ii ' 
tntcd vilk hIciui, f mm whick buda ere devdoped. 

thit taEaT 

^. . Tjl pari of lie body-waU i , 

tube ihc conllile, into which the diual part of Ibc lorad an \x 
iBocud, The eonUilei are coaoected u iDtennle by hsrimaial 
platfonu csouiiuiic luleiiia. and at the levd at each fMlorm ihc 
cavity ol the conUite U divided by a Iraiiave»e cakareoui puiliian, 
eilbet flat or cufMhapcd, called a toMa. Formerly aU conli io 
which tabulae an pment were daaed together aaTabulau. but 
Tubipn ia an undoubred AlcyoAariaa with a la pw Ur uatoa, and 

^L_ _. ^t_ / — ^ genua Syriacopon. which haa v — '■-"■' 

ontal hdciua. clearly thowi LLi a£lj 

a bfUKhid, rnaa ih_ 

tba aooida pniect. TIniWEtpiir 

Ncphthyidac Bv abooi — _ j 

leknbly Ban ipd hard amour. The or 
"- ' i>. XicjvnilH and ff(Mliytfa<. 
' — 1 popukily kmn aa " dead 

■ana of water gfi the Enfliil. 

er PaauDAXONIA the cshwita i 

-, ^-•- - A. Cotoliyol/'aiMaliJaJti 

or ramilyinf itokMa. They fnun Ibe netanchidiaJ aipsl. 

membla and am cl«elv pedimek, 

allied ID teiUin lamrlm ol B, SectKH c< the rachit bi 

tba Connilariidae. diHenni .i^^ pi„u. ,. Aiii; i. mei 

(mm them oiil)> in mode ni dial; t, prorachidial; J. paran 


irsMid. Thcietii 

ind (he Cittltieriida£. The an 

£aHl by the bue I0 a n 

(«g. 8), the coroitfloolB lite* rather hii..., 

la upp« imdcty or ndils. burinc littrsi ccnln] IcaBiu (jiiiuiK), 
■nd > towtr ptdimck. wbidi ia lunle nod imbedded in and « mgd. 
The lUn reprcHna ■ pBiirir enlarged und dongated nuMber todd. 
It ji divided loBfiludiiuUy bf i panitiDn •cparatiBi ■ lo-aned 
" nealnl " or pnnchidial canal Ikhb ■ Ki-caltcd " dorul " or 
meUrtchldial cuai. A njd'lilie upponlac luii o( pccuJiar texture 
ii developsl in the lofwitudifiat partnlon. vnd a loDEiiudinal canal 
ii liollDwcd out OS either wk of tlie axil in (tw ■ubttance of the 
bn^lndiBil putitia. io that there are four itcm-ciiHli in alL 
The pranchidii] and luetaracbidial aipecta o( the nchii an tierile, 
but (l» aldca or ^umndiidef bear nunenui dauj^tcr looidt of 

. _ _. ^.> fu%-fonud aulouoldi, (3) , 

xooida, The pinnae arr formed by the eHa^led auloioaulip nvboae 

nrMimii nnrti/ui« am fii*Hi 'ogethcT to fono a leaf-tike expaulon, 

L .L- j: — 1 — inniiliee of the ucidi 

proximal pon 
Iroin the uppi 

ui the ponrachidei; tb^ enter 
awhi<nal aurfacei. The caka 

The order Coehot kicalia is Rpmentcd brasnElrliving ■pociei. 
Htiiapm amla, whicb diflen Inim all leceot Alcyonaru u' ibe 
fact that ita Bkeletaa ia sot compoaed of if^ulea. but ii Formed aa 
a aecretlon fmu a layer of celli called callcoblaila, whtth ariginale 
from Ibe ectoderm. The conlluB of Hcllopora ii oil blue colour, 
and baithe form of broad, spriBht. lobed.orditiute oiaiiei dalHned 

from aide to tide. The luifacn an pitted all '' 

or two kiada. «i. tumf iiar'- — -" — "- 
-■-■-■ -■- ■-'- .1* loSeed. ai 


P*7u which It nnnded. Both cuilulm 
within Ibe acapua. lliere are frain h 

The Komodaeum la oompnaed tatenfly, and 
longitiidinal groovei, a Hilcui and a aulculua. 

ind ia f umubcd 


I Ibe (ulcua, Ibe mux 
Kidiia are developed Mnat 

ar faceai but in Ibe Iwa le 
icb aie aluchcd on dlhei 

II Ibe eiihl ine«iileri« a 

A. Edwifdiu dspartix Win A. Andnt). Cap. apnutinii ; tt, 
caput: ph. pbyaa, 

B. Tiamvenc lectton of Ibe tame, ihowinc the amnginiest ti tbt 
awDIerica. (.Stilcut! iL lulcului. 

C. Tnoavene acciion of Hilamfa. i, -i. Diitetive n 

form »hkh hai been ttndied all Ih 

id an Ibe etglit at 

IO of them, namely Ihe auko-Ut , 

sd to it ii preuimed Ibai they ire the frni pi 

.Ke tuteouawai formerly included iotheETQupTa^ilta. 

and waa luppoied to belong to the madnperanan corala. bWb 
becaute of in lamellar ilslctoB. which rcaembla thll of a MadrMnn. 
aad becauic each caUck baa from cwilva to fifteen radial panltiona 
or icpta projecting into in cavity. The atnKtinr of iht moid of 
Hclit^ra, however, la that of a Epical AlcyDnarian, and Ihe tcpta 
have only a reaembknce to. but no ml homoktty with, the aanillaily 

found between dde-marki on the ibon platfomii ef coral ialuida. 
The order maa more abundaolly npieaentcd in Pataeonic (imea by 1 
the Adittfirfiti from the Upper and Lover Silurian and Ihe Devonian, 
and by Ibe rilccr^ae Inm the Wenlock Kmolone. In HtHditu 
fvniuM the cDlonkfl liad the form of 'BphcrcAdal maam; the calicca 
wen fumiabed with twelve peevdoicpla, and th« coencnchymal 
tqbr* were mote or len nvularly beica£onal. _ 

ia aubiect to a sreal deal of variation, bui all the typea hitherto 

n plan, illuKnted by the 

..... ... ... ..,. Thll la a toall nlitaiy 

I embedded in and, Ita body li diviiibfc 

Itin Kspu covered ^ a Iiiibk culKk, and a terminal 

Hving genua Edaaritia 


m onoMta oi aix CDUplo, t 

■imaiy cycle, and in each coui 

he third cyde compriH iwelve couplei. eacD lormea in an exc 
itvetn the primary and aeooodary coupler and to on, h be 
'neral nile faubje ci. how ever. 10 empli oiii) thatoew meaen 

WUle the Biaenlerial nuplea belongliig to Ibe aecand and 
icceanve cycle an (onned aimullaaeoitily, thoae et tbe fine 


fourth pair, bavinE ub muKie-Dume 
oped mt the opcnite enrenilly U tht 
vuh the mlculn. There »c now (ik—- - 
esActly the ame ■miueincdt ei iq £d' 

develapoieiit '-" -■ ■-' '■'-■ 

ind thfli the 

deveupaieiit follow^ durinf whieh » nev ineecdtertct xn 
ftod then the m'raycd lyitanKITy chuaclerJiEie of a nomul 
kkkI b Dmideted by [be fomutigi c4 the oKmntma V. 
Uleral chinberh.uid VI, VI in Ihe •ulcoUienl rlumb. 

bridi: «o dinKned tlut they 
'-nily. ThemlseiiD-^ 

ActiniuH, uich u Jietim* tqaimOy H 

nl of Ihfl 

Ti widily ftsr 

The onier Zoaxthidba ee n prie tt a luuiber ci nf I'bodted Zoui' 
thwiu* fiiKnlly eacnBed vilb ■ad. Enerully they reiemble 
onjiiuiy la^iiefiiDnei, but there b only ooe dliiled troove. the 
■uku. in the ttoaodaeum. and the nceenteriee ore arTviged on ■ 
lieculiu patlem. The im twelve meienterin ere diipoeed in 
coaplo, and do not differ Irom thoee ol Actinia except in sie. The 
neeenteriBl pain 1. II and III are attached to the atomoddpuni, 
■ei _(«(. I», B). but IV. V .rd V[ «i 

I ne DToer i^nMiAKTHEPBA comprtsei a nw tot i-ooom JJm mnuiaiB 
idih roundH abonl eitremitiea ihcrced by pore* Thpy hiTt two 
cirdeu of tcntacTee, a labial and a rnairiuf, and there li only one 
ciliated iroove in the Homodaeum, vhicn appeart to be the uilculus- 
The nwKnHrkt (re numerouf . and the lonpludinal muides. ihough 
diMinprirtiMe. ate as feebly developed that there an no nuaele- 
kanneia. The larval forma ol (ha type ««a CtriaaUiu float freely 
in tbe iM. and were one* corUHjired (a Mlanc to a leparate lenuh 
^ruteadii. In thii larva four piin of meienterlce hivinc the 
typical CdwanMan artaniement are developed, but the liltli and 

vbe ia Ih« wlcar chamba', the Uih pair bMt the teunh. and the 

ibe orderof dcvdopmeat of ibc 
in a lin^le lern alonf,one lurl 

■howint the nlcuhia. il, 

the larva of Crridellu. 
)ldeT luva. The nuinerala indicate 

Ldjjungii rit t e M e . Tbe auhar aad aulcnlar pair* 

>. there are dtnhKt 

In addition to theae I 



im the dormal type. Of 

, if the m. 

In ZeioMbr ^ofrrm'jHa. a Eenm vith tH 
" ' :t1i)dicaRo»o<anEanrdiia«Bg 



aCtnaainla pnlit 
npd on Ihe'^ij 



oTTeouple. ,i,h 
ddllionllier* iio 


ach o( the •ukulo.tilMl «Dcaek*. 

■ltd Hcond p 

in of Edwudwn 


iii( (orrai, the Ac 

•ibie into the 

o. »fl.b0d«<l B 


d .uIGcicntly in lb. 

CDune ol tbii u 

Tide, uid the 


-Mjidrepoum) « 

AU recent 

oralt, u h»s ^Mdy been uid, contona u cloKly 

to tbe ftiutoixiy ol nomul Actiniana that the 
ipwl fram them, eicepl Uiit Ihey lie d'iilinguiihed by the 
pountion ol i calcareoui ikeleion. Thii ileleidn i* liifely 
compaxd nf m number of ndiiting plitei or apla, xaA it diSen 
both in origin uid itniclure Iiam the alcireoui ikiltioD of all 
AtcyODirii except Heliopora. It ii (ormed, not [rom fused 
■plculcs, but IS a secrctioD of a ipecUl layer of celli derived from 
the baial ectodenn. and luuxni a< calU^^ltiU. The >kdetOD or 
coraUum oEa typical solitaiy coraJ — the comjuon Devooihire cup- 
coral Carynpkyaia inilkii (fig, ij) ia a good eiample— eihiWts 
the loUowingi part): — (i) The toHl ^^Js/e, between the Eooid and 
the uirfacs t^ attuhmcDt. C>) The n/(a, ndUl plata of 

oldte reaching from the periphery nearly or quite to the centre 
of the caral-cup or calicle. (3) Thellt«aor wall, which in many 

joined thickened peripheral endiol the eepu, (4) "Vbt loUmtltt, 
a ilruciure which ocCupiei the cenite erf the cilide, and may 
ariie from the bual plale. when it ia called esuntiil, or may be 
formed by union of trabecular oSaela of the lepta, when it it called 
unessential- (5) The aslat, longitudinal ribs or raws of spines 
ontheoutersuriaceolthetheca. True costie always com^xind 
to the septa, and Ire in fact the peripbetd edges of the latter. 
(6) EpUkua. an oSMt of the basal plate which surrounds die 
bue of the theca in a ring-like manner, and In lame corals may 
take the place of a true theca. {;) full, spinous or blade-Uke 
upgrowths liom the bottom ol the calide, which project between 
the inner edges ol certain sepia and the columelb- In iddillan 
to these pail* the following structure* may exist in corili;— 
Diitcpimentt a're oblique calcareous partilioai, atretching from 
septum to septum, and closing the intersepLal chamben below. 
The *bole system ol disscplmcnu In any given calide ii ollen 
called^ eisitfUiua. Synaptktdat are calcareous bats uniting adjacent 
tepta. Talaiiot ate stout horiiontal pailliuos travetiing the 
oeotre of the calide and dividing it into as many superimposed 
dutmbeis. The sepu in recent corals always beu a d^nlte 
reladOD t? the mesenteries, being lound either in every entocoeic 

■re present the icpti ut eaneipoDdingly niuneraiu. Id lom* 
cases— e.f. In some ipedes ol yadripera—ooly two septa an 
fully developed, the remainder being very feebly representedp 

Though the conllum appean to live within the locdd, it it 
morphotogicAlIy eaiemal to it, as is best shown by its devdo(>- 
mental history. The larvae of corals are free swimming dilated 
fotms known as planulae, and they do not acquire 1 conllum 
until they fii themselvB A nng shaped plafe of caldle, 
secreted by the ectoderm a then formed lying beiwem iLe 
embryo aiul the au ' - - - ■ 

formed, the endoderm of- the basal disk lying above the basal 
pl*U is nIsRi up in the form of radiating folds. There may be 
UK of ibeK folds, one in each entocoele of the primary cycle of 
maenleries; or there may be twelve, one fai euh eaocode and 
entoooele. TTie ectoderm beneath each fold becomes detached 
from the surlace of tlie basil plate, and both ii and the meiogloe* 
■re folded conformably with the endodriai. The ccRs forming 
the limbs of the ectDderinic folds secrete nodales of caldle, and 
Ibeie, futing together, give rise to lii (or twelve] verticil radial 
plates or septi. As growth proceeds new septa ■re formed 
'' ' '^' '' Lplea of secondary mesenteries. 


11 these 

I which the 

corallum shaded with does, the meiOKlo& 
Thirty- two septa are proent. six -in thi 

3^me!enTS«. lI?iour'in'lhe eo'tom 
mnenleries. 111. only lour pain of the 
bikleen in the enlocotki between (he 
DinctJve maenteria; Ut itomodaeum. 

every chamber between two primary mt 

cyde, and one in each exocodc between 
couple. These latter are in turn embi 

ciocoeles on either tide ol them, and 

id of CIudKira. The 

™he Kconlirr cycS 
bein^ft devcbfxd ; uid 

Mptmn B.Mvend by i fold of cndodtim, moa^oet. and 

(Clodcmi, Bnd is in Iict piuhrd into the cavity of the loaid fcnm 
without. The B»id then a, u il were, moulded unan ih.- 
conllum. When luily eitended, the 


bridfinc 0' 


ip of the Lilicr» forming a 

nrn«tcd for some distani 
fold of soft tissue extendii 
Iheca, and containing in moatuteg 1 (svity mnti 
of the calide with the rocltnleion. This fold of 
Ihcf ifjc-MiK. Insomecoralsihejcpiaotesolid imperf ora le pla lesol 
cikile.and their peripheral ends are either firmly welded together, 
01 are united by. interstitial pieca u (s to fonn imperforate 
Iheca. In othen the peripheral endl of the tepU are united only 
by haraortjnbecuJae. so that the thec«b perforate, and in many 
aucb perforate corals the septa then&elves are pierced by 
' intioni. In Ihe fonnei. which have been ctUcd 

. ifividi 

in Ibe plane of 

, and C ihe ihick 
in. i. dotted. . 

th'V".S5le acoid 


-aUits of LopMirlia 






E.Set?->.., ._ 

rieht annn to the . 

(C ongiaal ; the nt aTler voa Koch.) 
aporcw corali, the only commimicatlop betmen the canly of 
Ihe tdge-ioBe and the general otvliy of the »aid is by way of the 
lip el the calide; in the latter, or perforate corals, the theca ii 
permeated by numerous branching and anastomosing canals 
Lined by endoderm, which place the cavity of the edge-zone in 
comnunicalion willi the general cavity of the mold. 

A Urge number of corab, both aporose and perfoiate. are 
colonial. The colonics ate produced by either budding or divi- 
sion In the former case Ihe young daughter looid, with its 
Mraltum. arises wholly outside the cavity of the parent looid, 
and the component parts of the young coralluin, sept*, theci, 
columella. Btc-. are formed anew in every individual produced. 
In division a vertical constriction divides a Eooid iolo (wo equal 
or unequal parts, and the several parts of the two comls thus 
produced ire severally derived from the cormponding pans of 
Ihe dividing corallum. In colonial corals a bod is always fomed 

with its corallum. The cavity of the bud in an aporose coral 
(fig. iS, A, C) doe* not communicale directly wilh that of the 
parent form, but through the medium of the edge-ione. As 
growth proceeds, and parent and bud became separated farther 
from one another, the edge-xone lormt ■ thael of nil tlsaue, 

ibe apace betwetn ihe two. and mtliv upon 
|iiujc<.Liii|i >iiuies of the corallum. This sheet of tissue is calkd 
Ihe cdeiuiarc, Iti h>wcr surface is clothed with a layer of 
calimblaiu which continue to secrete carbonate of lime, giving 
rise to a secoruUry depoait which more or less hUa up the apacca 
between the inilividual ooralla, and is distinguished as atnen- 
ciyHU. 71iiscoenenchymemaybescanty,ormay besoabundani 
that the individital corallita produced by budding seem to be 
immefKd in it. Budding takes pUo in an analogous manner 
in peifotate corals (fig. 18. B), but ibt preserKc of the canal 
system in the perffsate theca leads to a modification of the pro- 
cess. Bods arise from the edge-tone which already communicatt 
with the cavity of the zooid by the canals. At the buds devdop 
the canal systcn becomes much extended, aiul caJcareoui tls«M 
a deposited between the network of canals, the confluent edg^ 
BMies of mother looid and hud forming a coenoearc. A> the 
process continues a number of caUdea are farmed, imbedded in 
a spongy tiAue hi which the canals ramify, and il is impossible 
where the theca of one corallile ends and that of another 


n thefo 


at right angles to the loig 

and finally the calyi itself, so that 

Ihe previously single corall 

te becomes divided into two (fig. iS, 

E), Alter division the corn 

lites continue to grow upwards, and 

their looids may remain u 

nllod by a bridge of soft tissue or 

coenosarc But bi some a 

sea, as they grow fatthei apart, thb 

conlinuit/ is broken, each 

rarallite has Its own edgc-ione, and 

iniernat continuity is also 

roken by the formation, of dissepi- 

RKnlB within each calicle. 

all organic: conneiion between the 

two looids being evenluaUy 

produced by continual re 

h and to some e.tent the peHslone: 

the calyi. however, docs n 

01 divide, but elongates 10 form 1 

characterisi ic meandrine tha 

nnel containing several looid mouthL 

Corals have been divided 

10 ^ eorojo and /'(r/wola, according 

M the Iheca and sepW are compact and solid, or are perforated 

is in nany respects convenient lor deaeriptive pntpoaea, but 
recent researches show thai il does not accurately repcBeni ibe 
relalionships of the dISercnt (imilies. Various attemptt have 
been made to dasiify corals according to the arrangement ol ihe 
septa, the characters of Ihe theca, the microscopic structure of 
the carallun, and the anatomy of the soft parts. The last- 
named method has [»oved little more than that there is a remark- 
able limilarlly between Ihe aooids of all recent conb, tha 
difiereaccs which have been brought to light being for the moal 
part seconiiary and valueless tor classilicatory purpoaca. On tha 
other hand, Ihe study of the anatomy and devdopnient of the 
molds hat thrown much light upon Ihe manner in which llw 
corallum is formed, and it is now possible to infer the stTUCIiue 
of Ihe soft parts from a microscopical eiaminatioD of Ibe tepla, 
theai, &c., wilh the result that unexpected reUtiomhlFS have 
been shown to exist between corals previously tuppoied to 
stand far apart. This has been particularly the cate with the 
group of Palaeoaoic corals formerly classed together as Hugcu- 
of these so-called rugose forms the septa haveachai^ 
: arrangement, differing from that of recent corah 
chieSy in the fact that they show a telrameral instead of a 
hexameni symmetry. Thus in the family SUiiridot there arv 
four chief sepia whose inner ends unite in the middle of the 
calick te foim a false columella, and in the Zefli'cniidae there 
ire many instanix* of an arrangement, such as that depicted 
n fig. ig, which represent] the septal arrangemfnl o( Slrtplileima 
arnurlim from the lower Silurian. In this coral the calicle if 
livided into quadraott by lour pnndpal septa, the wii'n uflam, 
Dnter Hflum. and two aler iipla. The remaining sepU are ao 
lispoaed that in Ihe quadrants abutting on the chief septum 
hey converge towards that septum, whilst in ihe other quadranlj 
hey converge towards the alar septa. The secondary sepia (how 
I regular gradation in sue. and, assuming that the smallest were 
he most recently formed, il will be noticed that in the chief 
quadrant* the yoantcat lepu Ik neaKst to tha nain septum. 


i\j Cyalkufkyllidai 
' in which no Ince 
vc IS moEniubk, 

In tlie other quadnnts (he youngot Hpts lii 
■epU. Thij airangtmcn t. hdwtwr, is by no i 
even of the Ziphicnlidic, and in Ltie fan: 
ln«t of the gcnen exhibit a radial lymmetr 

and indeed in Ihe psiaCyalkiithyUum iueJI a 
i« the nile. The connexion bcIwRn the Cyathophyllidie and 
modem Aitimeidae ia ihown by Mojdtya laiitlclia/a, a livinE 
nef-building coral from Torrea Sinil. Tlie gcnenj iimctun 
of thii coral Jeava no doubt that it ii dcnely iHied to the 
Ailn«dae, but in Ibc young caiicles a tettirnenl lymmeiry 
ia indicated by the piexnce of lour large tepta placed at light 
■nglea to one anolber. Again, in the family AmpUaiiracidai 
there Is commonly a lingle jepium much laiger than the real, 
and It hai been shown thai in the young caliclea. i.g. o! Tluciiit- 
imilit, two lepta, CDRetponding to the main- and counUr-iepti 
ol SlRplclauna, are filtt 

may obviously be n 
pain ol Edwaiduan 

■cler ol the conllum of 

agnci with thai of re- 
cent corab, it may be 

the Ictrameral arrange' 

nent, vhcn pieaenl. 

a tuge when only the first two 

Space lorbida I diicuialon ol the proposala to claBify coiala 
•Iter the minute ttnictun ol their corslln. but il will luSice 
to lay that it has been ihown (hat the uptaol all corals are bnill 
op ol a number ol curved ban called Iraberulae, each of which 
I* composed of a number of nodes. In many Bcconbry corals 
ICydalOei, Tiamiuilrca) the trabetulae ate so 1st separate 
that the individual ban are eaiily rtcognliable, and each loota 
something like a bamboo owing to the thickening ol the two 
IDd] ol each node. The tnbeculae are united together by these 

which in older septa may become aolid and aporoie by continual 
depoalt of calcite in the lenestrae. Each node ol a tnbecula 
Bisy be Hmple,i.(, have only one centre of caltilication, or may 
be conpound. The septi of modem perloraie corals are shown 
to have a sttuclure nearly ideniica] with that of the secondsry 
forms, but the trabeculae and their nodes are only apparent on 
DilciosCD[Hcsl emminatlon. The aporose corals, too, have a 
practically identical structure, their compactness being due to 
the union of the trabeculae throughout their entire lengths in- 
stead of at intervals, as in the Perforata. Further, the trabeculae 
may be evenly spaced Ihroughoat the septum, or may be grouped 
together, and Ihb feaiuti is probably of value in estimating the 
affinities of corals. (Foe an account ol coral formations see 

In the present slate ol our knowledge the Zoanthaiia in which 
a prima ty cycle of sii couples of mesenteries <i (or may be jnlerred 
t» be) completed by the addition of two pairs to the eight 
Edwardsian meaenteries, and succeeding cycles are formed in 
the eaocories of the pre-eiittiRg mesenterial cycles, may be classed 
in an order Actthtidea, and thii may be divided into the sub- 
orders MatecaUiniac, compnting the noft-bodied Actinfana. 
such as AaiHW, Seitrtu, BmhoIii, lie., and the jcierircfiiiiaf, 
cstBpiiiiog the torals. "nt SdetacUniac tnay beat be divided 

into groups of famOies which appear to b« most closely lelatid 
to one another, but il should not be forgotten that Ibeie is great 

must have differed fnim modem Acliniidea In mesenterial 
characters, and may have only possessed Edwarduan mesenteries, 
or even have possessed only lour mesenteries, in this respect 
showing close affinities to the Stauromedusae. Moreover. 
there are some modem corals [a which the secondary cycle 

J. E, Duerden has shown that in PerOti 11 

levdop a number 

pliD. Butsametoddsgrowtoatargersi 

of addiiianat mesenteries, which arise either In tl 

the sulcnlar entocoele, mucb in the same manner as in Cerianthus. 

Bearing this in mind, the following trnngement may be taken 

to represent the most leant knowledge of coral structures — 

Palaeonnc corals with an 
itety with rnard to 

al genen— Zaptrnlu, Rif. AmpUna, 
V.HM. Ompkymt. Itif. 

'FlibeS!i,^l^aaa.TtrbiKUu!^'M. 'E!l'w.''aDd H^^jS^^ia! 
LanuTtlc Stkmlrixlua. Movlev, Ac. 

Family I. An PHruTiuinAi.— Mainly caloaial. mrelysotitary 
corals, with radial afpta, tnil bilAlenI arrangement indtcafed by 
Hnutencx o( a majn ■epturo. Ty^cal genera — AmpkittlrotOt 

Family a. Stvlhidu.— Colonial eonis allied to the Amphi- 
aairaeldae. but with radially syidEncirlcal lepta arranged in cyclea. 
Typical KDera^ajJiM, Umarcfc (J uraaaO- CoukmM™™. D*Oib. 
(furanicT /Kulniai. M.Edw.andH.OuraHic^ Ogilvk rafers ibe 
modeni fCBUs Gciasa to ihii family. 

FamiTy 5. OcDLtHtoaB.— Branchiae or nuiutc apoitiK corala, 
the caiini projectiag abo« the levtlol a compacl eoenenchyme 

Tyoical genen— Lt^taUto. M. Edw. and H. OcaliH, M^Edw! 

Family 6, PoCTiLOpqalDAB. — Calooial branching aparose corals, 

iwo larger septa, an aiiat and abaaai. an alnyi piescni. vNh 
iraoes of ceninuller icpta. Typical genera— PKids^ra. Laniank. 

□IS roai DAI,— Colonial branc] 

Striaioptra. Lanu 

Family 7. M*i . _ _ _. _. 

perforate corals, with abundant trabecular 1 
poroui^ septa compact and reduced in numbi. ., 
UadntBH, Linn, Turtiiurii, Oken. Unlifera, 6 

end immened in eoenenchyme. Thtca and septa perforate. TVpical 
genen— /'•nUI. M. Edw. and H. Cmupani, Quoy and G. AMo- 
nw. M. Edw. and H. 

Family 9. CyaTRornvLLiDAi.— Solitary and colonial aporoaa 
cotah. Tabulaeandvokularendotheapment. Sena numerous, 
nnerally radial, seldom pinnate. Typical gsDen- CyoUseiiyUui, 
&aldiua (Devonian and arboniferousr^.'cl'yn, Qui^lch !n;bmt). 

ffetent : an rpilbeca aurroui^ the base fri mamivG or maeaadroid 
irms. bm anfy surroundi individual coralJiies in simple or branching 

formi. Typical ger^era— Ccmuj/Mca. M. Edw. and K. Hdias' 

M. Edw. aral H. Uaaailnmi. Lam. Codsri " "' 

a. Rcirsa (Juraiaie and C 

I. M, Edw. 
I colonial cecals, with 

semma. M. Edw. ai 

Famfly tj. CVSTI 

saaaiodcr perforate. Theca perforate. 5yna» 
u tencn. Typical genera— SlifcjkanoftyMio, 
i.MlEdw.andH. ^ilnruln.Blamv. Oaitp' 
1 K. Dtmtnfl'jltia, M. Edw. and H. 

FiTLi.tDAa.~Sali(ary corals with rudimentary 
e &lkd with vciicular eodotbeca- Geiterm— ^ 


CrilUtjnmm, Laadtk (SguHm asl Dwsaiu). CtmeptjUim. 
H.Edv.aadH. (laIki*Sihiiun|FiniiilKa1yiBpnn(iM vilhi 

u 1 — 7_: . r_j, pj^jj ukaiiilu piiRi, •■■- 

in ol Iba otyi. aail Ukit ap 

hjrdniaibni abtuual [lom the (nctioo at the cotl-Ur dlitiliate 
boiling betwctn 170° and 400° C Hui Ugh boQiiig fncttoD n 
lUowed to lUnd fis hedo days, vhcn it partially soiidi£B^ It ii 

■1 finally hot-pRued. Tbt erode aiUhnu«De cake ii purified 
br tmtmoit id Ih the ii^t pyridine buei, the opnatioo being 
cankd cat in Uiie atom-jacketed boileia. Ihe ttbak mass 
dimlvn on heatinf, and the anlhncene ttytttOiia 001 on 
cooling. Ihe ctyMaUiad uthiaccDc Is then removed by a 
eeolrifngal leparataT and the pnceii oi icdution in the pyridine 
baies [3 npeMcd. fluiiiy the anthracene Ii puii£ed Iqr tub- 

Kusf lynthetiol proosut for Ih 
and it) derivatives are known. ICia 
of ace^ene telrabrondde with b 

Fn of enthral 



■nd limiiBrty From methylene dibnimidc and benzene, and alio 
whsi beaiyl diioride Is heated with aluminium chloride to 
MD* C. By coodeniing ottha-bromben^ bromide with aodinm. 
C. L. Jadioa and J. F. White {Btr., 1879. 11, p. 1965) obtajned 

CH, <g''^+4Na+a^g>&H. .4NaBr+C.H.<3|];>C.H» 
Aathtacenehai alio been oblalmd by heating oitho-tolyfpben^ 
ketone with sue duit 

la oyitalliu* in cslourien monoclinic tablet iMch 
iparin^y uluble in alcDhol 

picric aod to lorm a picrate, CUBm-CtE, (NO^lrOH, wUdi 
oyttallizei in Dcedlca. melting at ijS' C. On eqwautt ta 
"jhl a aolutioD of aothracoie in bentene or lyltne 
dqxHiti para-anthnceue (CuHaJr, which melt* >t 144° C 
and pauca back into the ordinary [orm. Chlorine and 
bromine fom bath addilion and lubilitution product! with 
anthracene; the addjlion product, anthracene dichloiide. 
CuHbCI), being formed vhen chlorine is paated into a cold 
solution oi anthractne in carbon bisulphide. On ticatmail 
with potash, it forms the lubstitulion produci, nMmochlor- 
aothracene. CuHtCL Nitio-uithniceDa 1 


(anthroli), CuH,OH t 

CJI^^CAOH (a) and (ffl. resemble the pbenali, iihilit 

CiH,<~l ^COIi (7) (mthnnd) b a irdncUoo product of 

anlhraquinone. £-aatlud and anthranol give the corretponding 

Numerous sulphooic adds of anthracene are known, a mono- 
■ulphonic acid txitig obtained with dUlle sulphuric add, irtuliC 
concentrated wilpburic add produces miituiB of the anthracene 
diiulphonic adds. By the action of lodium ""■';■ -■ on an 
alcoholic solution of anlhracme. an anlhracene dihydride, 
CuHi^ Is obtained, whilst by (he use of stronger rcdudng agents, 
such IS hydriodic add and amaiphaui phosphorus, hydrides 

Methyl jiud phenyl anthracenes are known; phenyl anthrano] 
(phthalidin) bdcg soroewbat closely related to the phenol 
f^lhalcins (g.t.). Oridmng agents corTrert anthracene into 
anthraquitKoe (; the production ol this substance by oildia- 
ing anthracene in gliudal acetic add solution, with dunmicadd, 
is t he us ual meth od employed tor the eatimation ol uilhracene. 

AJFtBRUm {Gr. iiSpai, coal), a term applied 10 thou 
varieties of coal idiich do not give ofl tarry 01 other hydrocsiboB 
vapours when heated bdow thetr point of ignition; or, in other 
words, which bum with a smokdot and nearly nao^uininata 
flames Other tarns having the ume nuaning are. *' stone coal " 
(not to be conFoundcd with the German 5ln'nitaU;) or " Mind 
coal " in Scotland, and " Kilkenny coal " in Ireland, llw Im- 
perfect anthradte of north Devon, whidi however Is only UKd 
as a pigment. Is known as cidm, the lame term being used in 

known aa ibe Culm Measures. In America, culm is naed as an 
equivalent for waste or slack b anthradte mbiing. 

Physically, anthradte diffus fn>m ordinary bittin 
itagreater hardness, higher density, r'j-1-4, and lustre, ueiaiter 
being often semi.metallic with s somewhat brownish refl«tion. 
It is also free from inchided soft or fibrous notches and doea 
not soil the fingen when rubbed. Stjuctuialty it shows some 
alteration by the development of secondary divisional planes and 
fiEuris so that the original ilnlification lines arc not always 
easily seen. Hie thermal conductivity is also hi^ier, a tump of ' 

feeling perceptibly cdder when h 

tute. llie chemical conifiosition of some typical anthracites is 
given in the artide Coal. 

Anthradte may be considered to be a traniitioD stage between 
onlinnry bituminous coal and gnphite, produced by ^e mot* or 
less comjdeie ellnuDation of the volatile constituents of the 
former; and it is found molt ■buodsnily in areas that have been 
■nbjecud to coosidenble earth-movements, such aa the flanks 
of gical mountain langts. Tie largest and most important 
anthradte re)^, that of the north-eastern portion of the Penn- 
sylvania coal-field. Is a good example of this; the highly con 
toned strata of the Appaladiian region produce anlhndte 
exdusivdy, vdiile in the western portion of the same basin on 
the CHiio and its tributaries, where the alraU are undisturbed, 
fTec-bumingsndcokingcoals.richin voUtilenialteT.prevai]. In 
the suie way the anthradte region of South Wiles is confined 
to Ibe contorted portion west of Swansea and UaneDy, the 



central and eastern portions producing itcam, coking and 
bouse coals. 

Anthracites of newer, tertiary or cretaceous age, are found in 
the Crow's Nest part of the Rocky Mountains in Canada, and 
at various points in the ^ndes in Peru. 

The principal use of anthradte is as a smokeless fuel. In the 
eastern United States, it is largely employed as domestic fuel, 
usually in dose stoves or furnaces, as well as for steam purposes, 
■noe, unlike that from South Wales, it does not decrepitate when 
heated,or at least not to the same extent For proper use, however, 
it ia necessary that the fud should be supplied in pieces as nearly 
uniform in siae as possible, a rondition that has led to the devdop- 
ment of the breaker which is so characteristic a feature in American 
anthradte mining (see Coal). ^ The large coal as raised from the 
mine is passed through breakm with toothed rolls to reduce the 
lumps to smaller pieces, which are sepanted into different siscs 
by a system of graduated sieves, placed in descending order. 
Each slse can be perfectly mtH burnt alone on an appropriate 
grate, if kept free from larger or smaller admixtures. The 
common American daasification a as follows: — 

Lump, steamboat, egg f nd stove coals, the latter in two or three 
axes, all three being above i| in. aixe on round-bole screens. 

Chestnut bdow i| inch above I inch. 
Pea i " "A 








M Tl •• 

t> -I •• 

>i n •» 

From the pea sire downwards the prindpal use is for steam 
purposes. In South Wales a less daborate classification is 
adopted; but great care is exercised in hand-picking and cleaning 
the coal from induded partides of pyrites in the hig^ qualities 
known as best malting coals, which are used for kiln-drying 
malt and hops. 

Formerly, anthradte was largely used, both in America and 
South Wales, as blast-furnace fud for iron smelting, but for this 
purpose it has been largely superseded by coke in the former 
country and cntirdy in the latter. An important application 
has, however, been devdoped in the extended use of internal 
combustion motors driven by the so-called "mixed," "poor," 
" semi-water " or ** Dowson gas " produced by the gasification 
of anthradte with air and a small proportion of steam. Thia 
is probably the most economical method of obtaining power 
known; with an engine as small as 15 horse-power the esqmidi* 
ture of fud is at the rate of only i lb per horse-power hour, and 
with larger engines it b proportionatdy less. Large quantities of 
anthradte for power purposes are now exported from South 
Wales to France, Switxerland and parts of Gcxnuuiy. (H. B.) 

AMTHRAOOTHBRIUII (" cosl-animal," so cslled from the 
fact of the remains first described having been obtained from 
the Tertiary lignite-beds of Europe), a genus of extinct artio- 
dactyle ungulate msmmah, characterixed by having 44 teeth, 
with five semi-crescentic cusps on the crowns of the upper 
molars. In many respects, especially the form of the lower jaw, 
Anlkracotkeruim, which is of Oligocene and Miocene age in 
Europe, and typifies the family AnikraccUuriidae, is allied to the 
hippopotamus, of which it is probably an ancestral form. The 
European A. magnum waa as large as the last-mentioned animal, 
but there were several smaller spedes and the genus also occurs 
in Egypt, India and North America. (See AKnoDACTVLA.) 

AMTHRAaUINOMB, CuHaOi, an important derivative of 
anthracene, first prepared in 1 834 by A. Laurent It is prepared 
conunerdaUy from anthracene by stirring a sludge of anthracene 
and water in horixontal cylinders with a mixture of sodium 
bichromate and caustic soda. This suspension is then run through 
a conical mill in order to remove all grit, the cones of the mill 
fitting so tightly that water cannot pass through unless the mill is 
running; the speed of the mill when working is about 3000 
revolutions per minute. After this treatment, the mixture is 
run into lead-lined vats and treated with sulphuric add, steam 
is blown through the mixture in order to bring it to the boil, and 
the anthracene is rapidly oxidised to anthraquinone. When the 
oxidation is complete, the anthraquinone is separated in a filter 

press, washed and heated to xsb* C. with commercial oil of 
vitriol, using about a| parts of vitriol to i of anthraquinone. 
It is then removed to lead-lined tanks and again wa^ed with 
water and dried; the product obtained contains about 95 % of 
anthraquinone. It may be purified by sublimation. Various 
synthetic processes have been used for the preparation of anthrai* 
quinone. A. Behr and W. A. v. Dorp (5«r.,i874,7,p.578) obtained 
orthobenxoyl benxoic add by heating phthalic anhydride with 
benzene in the presence of aluminium chloride. This compound 
on heating with phosphoric anhydride loses water and yidda 

It may be prepared in a similar manner by heating phthalyl 
chloride with benzene in the presence of aluminium chloride. 
Dioxy- and tetraoxy-anthraquinones areobtained when meta-oxy* 
and dimeta-dioxy-benzoic adds are heated with concentrated 
sulphuric add. 

Anthraquinone crystallizes in jrellow needles or prisms, which 
mdt at 177* C. It is soluble in hot benzene, sublimes easily, and 
is very stable towards oxidizing agents. On the other hand, 
it is readily attacked by reducing agents. With xinc dust in 
preaenoe of caustic soda it yidds the secondary alcohol oxan- 
thranol, QH4: CO CHOH : QH*, with tin and hvdrochloric add, 
the phenolic compound anthranol, C1H4: CO-C(OH): C«H«; and 
with hydriodic add at 150^ C. or on distillation with xinc dust, 
the hydrocarbon anthracene, CmHm. When fused with caustic 
potash, it gives benzoic acid. It behaves more as a ketone than 
as a quinone, since with hydrozylamine it yidds an oxime, and on 
reduction with zinc dust and caustic soda it yidds a secondary 
ala^id, whilst it Cannot be reduced by means of sulphurous 
add. Various sulphonic adds of anthraquinone are known, as 
well as oxy-derivatives, for the preparation and properties of 
which see Auzakin. 

ANTHRAX (the Greek for " coal." or " carbunde," so called 
by the andents because they regarded it as burning like coal; 
cf. the French equivalent ckarbon; also known as fihre char- 
ftofiBMue, Mibbnuidt splcmc fever, and malignant pustule), an 
acute, specific, infectious, virukntdisease, catued by the Baeiilut 
amIkraeiSf in animals, diiefly cattk, sheep and horses, and 
frequentty occurring in workosin the wool or hair, as well as in 
those hsndh'ng the hides or carcases, of beasts which have been 

Animalt, — ^As affecting wild as wdl as domesticated snimsh 
and man, anthrax has brai widely diffused in one or more of ita 
forms, over the suriace of the globe. It at times decimates the 
rdndeer hods in Lapland and the Polar r^ions, and is only too 
wdl known in the tropics and in temperate latitudes. It has 
been observed and described in Russia, Siberia, Central Asia, 
China, Cochin-China, Egypt, West Indies, Peru, Paraguay, 
Brazil, Mexico, and other parts of North and South America, ia 
Australia, and on different parts of the African continent, while 
for other European countries the writings which have been 
published with regard to its nature, its peculiar characteristics, 
and the injury it inflicts are innumerable. Countries in which 
are extensive marshes, or the subsoil of which is tenadous or 
impermeable, are usually those most frequently and seriously 
visited. Thus there have been regions notorious for its preval- 
ence, such as the marshes of Sologne, Dombes and Bresse in 
France; certain parts of Germany, Hungary and Poland; in 
Spain the half-submerged valleys and the maritime coasts of 
Catalonia, as wdl as the Romagna and other marshy districts of 
Italy; while it is epizootic, and even panzootic, in the swampy 
regions of Esthonia, Livonia, Coudand, and especially of Siberia, 
where it is known as the Sibirskaja jaswa (Siberian boil-plague). 
The records of anthrax go back to a very andent date. It is 
supposed to be the murrain of Exodus. Classical writers allude 
to anthrax as if it were the only cattle disease worthy of 
mention (see Virgil, GeMfg. iii.). It figures largely in the history 
of the eariy and middle ages u a devasUting pntHence atuck- 
ing am'mals, and through them mankind; the oldest Anglo* 
Saxon manuscripts contain many fantastic redpca, leecbdofflSt 



channs and incantations for the prevention or cnre of the 
" bUcan blexene " (bUck blain) and the relief of the " elfshot " 
creatures. In the x8th and 19th centuries it sometimes spread 
like an epizootic over the whole of Europe, from Silxfria to 
France. It was in this malady that disease-producing germs 
{bacteria) were first discovered, in 1849, by PoUender of Wipper- 
fOrth, and, independently, by veterinary surgeon BraueU of 
Dorpat, and their real character afterwards verified by C. J. 
Davaine (18x2-1882) of Alfort in 1863; and it was in their, 
experiments with this disease that Toussaint, Pasteur and 
J. B. Chauveau first showed how to make the morbific poison its 
own antidote. (See Vivxsection.) 

The symptoms vary with the species of animal, the mode of 
infection, and the seat of the primary lesion, internal or external. 
In all its forms anthrax is an inoculable disease, transmission 
being surely and promptly effected by this means, and it may be 
conveyed to nearly all animals by inoculation of a wound of the 
skin or through the digestive organs. Cattle, sheep and horses 
nearly always owe their infection to spores or bacilli ingested 
with their food or water, and pigs usually contract the disease by 
eating the flesh of animals dead of anthrax. 

Internal anthrax, of cattle and sheep, exhibits no premonitory 
symptoms that can be reUed on. Generally the first indication 
of an outbreak is the sudden death of one or more of the herd or 
flock. Animals which do not die at once may be noticed to 
stagger and tremUe; the breathing becomes hurritKi and the 
pulse very rapid, while the heart beats violently, the internal 
temperature of the body is high, 104" to 106" F-, blood oozes 
from the nose, mouth and anus, the visible mucous membcsnes 
are dusky or ahnost black. Tho'aninial becomes weak and list- 
less, the temperature falls and death supervenes in a few hours, 
being imnwdiately preceded by delirium, convulsions or coma. 
While death is usually rapid or sudden when the malady is 
general, oopstituting what is designated splenic apoplexy, 
internal anthrax in cattle is not invariably fataL In some cases 
the animal rallies from a first attack and gradually recovers. 

In the external or localized form, marked by the formation 
of carbuncles before general infection takes place, death may 
not occur for several days. The carbuncles may appear in any 
part of the body, being, preceded or acoomponied by fever. 
They are devdoped in the subcutaneous connective tissue 
where this is loose and plentiful, in the interstices of the muscles, 
^fmphatic g^nds, in the mucous membranes of the mouth and 
tongue (gloasanthnvc of cattle), pharynx and larynx (anthrax 
angina of horses and pigs), and the rectum. They begin as 
snail drcnmscribed swelhngs which are warm, slightly painful 
and oedematous. In from two to eight hours they attain a con- 
siderable sise, are cold, painless and gangrenous, and when 
Ovey are incised a quantity (rf a biood-stained gelatinous exudate 
escapes. When the swellings have attained certain proportions 
symptoms of general infection appear, and, running thek course 
with great rapidity, cause death in a few hours. Anthrax of the 
horse usually begins as an affection of the throat or boweL In 
the former there is rapid obstructive oedema of the mucous 
membrane of the pharynx and larynx with swelling of the throat 
and neck, fever, salivation, difficulty in swallowing, noisy 
breathing, frothy discharge from the nose and threatening 
suffocation. General invasion soon ensues, and the horse may 
die in from four to sixteen hours. The intestinal form is marked 
by high temperature, great prostration, small thready pulse^ 
tumultuotis action of the heart, laboured breathing and symptoms 
of abdominal pain with straining and diarrhoea. When moved 
the horse staggers and trembles. Profuse sweating, a falling 
temperature and cyanotic mucous membranes indicate the 
approach of a fatal termination. 

In splenic fever or splenic apoplexy, the most marked altera- 
tions observed after death are— the effects of rapid decomposi- 
tion, evidenced by the foul odour, disengagement of gas beneath 
the skin and in the tissues and cavities of the body, yellow or 
yellowish-red gelatinous exudation into and between the muscles, 
effusion of dtron or rust-coloured fluid in various cavities, 
extravasations of blood and local congestions throughout the 

body, the blood in thi^ vessels generally bdag very dark and 
tar-like. The most notable feature, however, in the majority of 
cases is the enormous enlargement of the spleen, wbidi ia en- 
gorged with blood to such an extent that it often ruptures, while 
its tissue is changed into a violet or black fluid mass. 

The bacUlus of anthrax, imder certain conditions, retains its 
vitality for a long time, and rapidly grows when it finds a suitable 
field in which to develop, its mode of multiplication being by 
scission and the formation of spores, and depending, to a great 
extent at least, on the presence of oxygen. The morbid action 
of the bacillus is indeed said to be due to its affinity for oxygen; 
by depriving the red corpuscles of the blood of that most essential 
g^, it rendera the vital fluid unfit to sustain life. Albert Hoffa 
and othen assert that the fatal lesions are produced by the 
poisonous action of the toxins formed by the bacilli and not by 
the blocking up of the minute blood-ve»els, or the abstractioh 
of oxygen from the blood by the bacilli. 

It was by the cultivation of this micro-organism, or attenuation 
of the virus, that Pasteur was enabled to produce a prophylactic 
remedy for anthrax. His discovery was first made with regard 
to the cholera of fowls, a most destructive disorder which 
annually carries off great numben of poultry. Pasteur produced 
his inoculation material by the cultivation of the bacilli at a 
temperature of 42^ C. in oxygen. Two vaccines are required. 
The first or weak vaccine is obtained by incubating a bouillon 
culture for twenty-four days at 42* C, and the second or less 
attenuated vaccine by incubating a bouillon culture, at the same 
temperature, for twelve days. Pasteur's method of protective 
inoculation comprises two inoculations with an interval of twelve 
days between them. Immunity, established in about fifteen 
days after the injection, of the second vaccine, lasts from nine 
months to a year. 

Toussaint had, previous to Pasteur, attenuated the virus of 
anthrax by the action of heat; and Chauveau subsequently 
corroborated by numerous experiments the value of Toussaint's 
method, demonstrating that, according to the degree of heat 
to which the virus is subjected, so is its inocuousness when 
transferred to a healthy creature. In outbreaks of anthrax on 
farms where many snimsln are exposed to infection immediate 
temporary protection can be conferred by the injection of 
anthrax serum. 

Human Beings. — For many yean cases of sudden death had 
been ol»erved to occur from time to time among healthy men 
engaged in woollen manufactories, particularly in the work of 
sorting or combing wool In some instances <feath appeared to 
be due to the direct inoculation of some poisonous material into 
the body, for a form of malignant pusttile was observed upon 
tJie skin; but, on the other hand, in not a few cases without any 
external manifestation, symptoms of blood-poisoning, often 
proving rapidly fatal, suggested the probability of other channels 
for the introduction of the disease. In x88o the occunence of 
several such cases among woolsorten at Bradford, reported 
by Dr J. H. Bell of that town, led to an official inquiry in England 
by the Local Government Board, and an elaborate investigation 
Into the pathology of what was then called " woolsortcrs' disease ** 
was at the same time conducted at the Brown Institution , London, 
by Professor W. S. Greenfield. Among the results of this inquiry 
it was ascertained: (x) that the disease appeared to be identical 
with thaf occurring among sheep and cattle; (2) that in the blood 
and tissues of the body was found in abundance, as in the disease 
in animals, the Bacillus anthracis, and (3) that the skins, hair, 
wool, &c, of animals dying of anthrax retain this infecting 
organism, which, under certain conditions, finds ready access 
to the bodies of the workers. 

Two well-marked forms of this disease in man are recognized, 
"external anthrax" and "internal anthrax." In external 
anthrax the infecting agent is accidentally inoculated into some 
portion of skin, the seat of a slight abrasion, often the hand, 
arm or face. A nunute swelling soon appean at the part, and 
develops into a vesicle containing serum or bloody matter, 
and varying in size, but seldom larger than a shilling. This 
vesicle speedily bunts and leaves an ulcerated or sloughing 



stirface, round about wUdi are numerous smaller vesides which 
undergo similar changes, and the whole affected part becomes 
hard and tender, while the surrounding surface participates 
in the inflammatoiy action, and the ndghbouring lymphatic 
glands are also inflamed. This condition, termed " malignant 
pustule,'* is frequently accompanied with severe constitutional 
disturbance, in the form of fever, delirium, perorations, together 
with great prostration and a tefadency to death from septicaemia, 
althoui^ on the other hand recovery is not uncommon. It 
was repeatedly found that the matter taken from the vesicle 
during the progress of the disease, as well as the blood in the 
body after death, contained the BaciUus antkraciSf and when 
inoculated into small animals produced rapid death, with all 
the symptoms and post-mortem appearances diaracteristic of 
fiic disease as known to affect them. 

In interna] anthrax there is no visible local manifestation 
of the disease, and the spores or bacflli appear to gain access 
to the system from the air charged with them, as in rooms where 
the contaminated wool or hair is unpacked, or again during 
the process of sorting. The s}rmptoms usually observed are those 
of rapid physiol prostration, with a small pulse, somewhat 
lowered temperature (rarely fever), and quickened breathing. 
Examination of the chest reveals inflammation of the lungs and 
pleura. Jn some cases death takes place by collapse in less 
than one day, while in others the fatal issue is postponed for 
three or four days, and is preceded by symptoms of blood- 
poisoning, including rigors, perspirations, extreme exhaustion, 
&c. In some cases of internal anthrax the symptoms are more 
intestinal than pulmonary, and consist in severe exhausting 
diarrhoea, with vomiting and rapid sinking. Recovery from 
the internal variety, although not unknown, is more rare than 
from the external, and its most striking phenomena are its sudden 
onset in the mid^t of apparent health, the rapid development 
of physical prostration, and its tendency to a fatal termination 
despite treatment. The post-mortem appearances in internal 
anthrax are such as are usually observed in septicaemia, but in 
addition evidence of extensive inflammation of the lungs, pleura 
and bronchial i^ands has in most cases been met with. The 
blood and other fluids and the diseased tissues are found loaded 
with the Bacillus antkracit. 

Treatment in this disease appears to be of but little avail, 
except as regards the external form, where the m aligna n t pustule 
may be excised or dealt with early by strong caustics to destroy 
the affected textures. For the relief of the general constitutional 
symptoms, quinine, stimtilants and strong rxiurishment appear 
to be the only available means. An anti-anthrax serum has 
also hten tried. As preventive measures in woollen manu- 
factories, the disinfection of suspidous material, or the wetting 
of it before handling, is lecommended as lessening die risk to 
the workers. (J. Mac) 

ANTHROPOID APES, or lilxHtsxE Afes, the name pven to 
the family of the Simiidae, because, of all the ape-world, they 
most dosdy resemble man. This family includes four kinds, 
the gibbons of S. £. Asia, the orangs of Borneo and Sumatra, 
the gorillas of W. Equatorial Africa, and the diimpanzees of 
W. and Centad Equatorial Africa. Eadi of these apes resembles 
man most in some one physical characteristic: the gibbons 
in the formation of the teeth, the orangs in the brain-structure, 
the gorillas in size, and the chimpanzees in the sigmoid flexure of 
the spine. In general structure they all dosdy resemble human 
beings, as in the absence of tails; in thdr semi-er«:t podtion 
(resting on finger-tips or knuckles); in the shape of vertebral 
column, sternum and pdvis; in the adaptation of the arms 
for turning the palm uppermost at will; in the possession of a 
long vermiform appendix to the short caecum of the Intestine; 
in the size of the cerebral hendsi^eres and the complexity of 
their convolutions. They differ in certain respects, as in the pro- 
portion of the limbs, in the bony development of the eyebrow 
ridges, and in the opposable great toe, which fits the foot to be 
a dimbing and gracing organ. 

Man differs from them in the absence of a hairy coat; in the 
devdopment of a brge lobule to the external ear; in his fully 

erect attitude; in his flattened foot with the non-opposable 
great toe; in the straight limb-bones; in the wider pelvis: 
in the marked sigmoid flexure of his spine; in the perfection 
of the muscular movements of the arm; in the delicacy of hand; 
in the smallness of the canine teeth and other dental peculiarities; 
in the devdopment of a chin; and in the small sise of his jaws 
compared to the rdativdy great size of the cranium. Together 
with man and the baboons, the anthropoid apes form the group 
known to sdence as Catarhini, those, that is, possessing a 
narrow nasal septum, and are thus easily distinguishable from 
the flat-nosed monkeys or Platyrhini. The anthropoid apes are 
arboreal and confined to the Old World. They are of spedal 
interest from the important place assigned to them in the 
arguments of Darwin and the Evolutionists. It is generally 
admitted now that no fundamental anatomical difference can 
be proved to exist between these higher apes and man, but it 
is equally agreed that none probably of the Simiidae is in the 
direct line of human ancestry. There is a great gap to be bridged 
between the highest anthropoid and the lowest man, and much 
importance has been attadied to the discovery of an extinct 
primate. Pithecanthropus (^.v.), which has been r^arded as 
the" missing link." 

See Huxley's Man's Plact in Nature (1863) ; Robt. Hartmann's 
Anthropoid Apes (1883; London, 1885); A. H. Keanc's Eiknototv 
(1896); Darwin's Descent 0/ Man (1871: pop. cd.. 15)01): HaecksFi 
Anthropotfny (Ldpri|[, 1874, im; Paris, 1877; Eng. «d., 1883); 
W. H. Flower and Rich. Lydekker. Mammals Lsoing atii EsAxnU 
(London. i89i)« 

AMTHBOPOLOOT (Gr. Mpvwi man, and X^rn, theory or 
sdenoe), the sdence which, in its strictest sense, has as its 
object the study of man as a unit in the animal kingdom. It is 
distinguished from ethnology, which is devoted to the study of 
man as a raeial unit, and from ethrM^raphy, which deals with 
the Ustribulion of the races formed by the aggregation of such 
units. To anthrcqioloor, however, in its more general sense as 
the natund hbtory of man, ethnology and ethnography may 
both be considered to bdong, being related as parts to a whole. 

Various other sdences, in conformity with the above definition, 
must be regarded as subsidiary to anthropology, which yet hold 
thdr own independent places in the fidd of knowledge. Tlios 
aiuitomy and physiology display the structure and functions of 
the human bcniy, while psychology investigates the operations 
of the human mind. Phiblogy deals with the general prindples 
of language, as well as with the rebtions between the languages 
of particular races and nations. Ethics or mond sdence treats 
of man's duty or rales of conduct toward his fdlow-men. Sod- 
ology and the sdenoe of culture are concerned with the origiii 
and development of arts and sdences^ opinions, beliefs, customs, 
laws and institutions generally among mankind within historic 
time; while beyond the historical limit the study is continued 
by inferences from jelics of early ages and remote districts, to 
interpret which is the task of pre-hisioric frchaeology and 

I. Mau?s Place in Nakire.—la 1843 Dr J. C. Prichard, who 
perhaps of all others merits the title of founder of modem 
anthropology, wrote in his Natural History of Man: — 

" The oivanised world presents no contrasts and memblaiices 
more remarKable than those whidi we diaoovcr on comparing man- 
kind with the inferior tribes. That creatures should exist so neariy 
approaching to each other in all the particulars of their physiciu 
structure, and yet differing so immeasurably in thdr endowments 
and capabilities, would be a fact hard to Vclieve, if it were not 
manifest to our observation. The differences are everywhere 
striking: the resemblances are less obvious in the fulness of thdr 
extent, and they are never contemplated without wonder by those 
who, in the study of anatomy and physiology, are first made aware 
how near is man in his physical constitution to the brutes. In all 
the inindples oi his internal structure, in the composition and 
functions m his parts, man is but an animaL The lord of the earth, 
who contemplates the eternal order of the universe, and aspires to 
communion with its invisible Maker, is a being composed of the 
same materials, and framed on the same prindples. as the creatures 
which he has tamed to be the servile instruments of bis will, or days 
for his daily food. The points of resemblance are innumerable; 
they extend to the moot recondite arrangements of that mechanism 
wuch maintains instrumentally the phyikal life of the body^ which 



brinn fonaid its caily 4evd«»entaiut admits, after ajpven period, 
its decavt and by means of which is prepared a iucocsiion of nmihr 
bcin£9 destined to perpetuate the race. 


The acknowiedgmcnt of man's stnictuni similarity with the 
anthrapomorphoos spedcs nearest approaching him, vb.: the 
higher or anthropoid apes, had long before Prichard's day 
been made by Linnaeus, who in his Systema Naturae (1735) 
grouped them together as the highest order of Mammalia, to 
whkJi he gave the name of Primates. The AmoenUates Aca- 
dtwiicat (vd. vi., Leiden, 1764), published under the auspices of 
Linnaeus, contains a remarkaUe picture which illustrates a 
discourse by his disciple Hoppius, and is here reproduced (see 
Plate, fig. i). In this picture, which shows the crudeness of the 
aoologial notions current in the x8th century as to both men 
and apes, there are set in a row four figures: {a) a recognizable 
cring-utan, sitting and hdding a staff; {h) a chimpanzee, 
absurdly humanized as to head, hands, and feet; (c) a hairy 
-woman, with a tail a foot long; (d) another womauf more 
completely coated with hair. The great Swedish naturalist was 
possiUy justified in treating the two latter creatures as quasi- 
human, for they seem to be grotesque exaggerations of such 
tailed and hairy human beings as really, though rarely, occur, 
and are apt to be exhibited as monstrosities (sec Bastian and 
Hartmann, Zeilsckrift fUr Ethnologies Index, '* Geschwinzte 
Menschen"; Gould and Pile, Anomalies and Curiosities oj 
MeiiUnet x 897). To Linnaeus, however, they represented normad 
anthropomorpha or man-like creatures, vouched for by visitors 
to remote parts of the world. This opinion of the Swedish 
naturalist seems to have been little noticed in Great Britain till 
it was taken up by the learned but credulous Scottish judge, 
Lord Monboddo (sec his Origin and Progress of Language, 1774, 
&c; AnHent Metaphysics, 1778). He had not heard of the 
tailed men till be met with them in the work of Linnaeus, with 
whom be entered into correspondence, with the result that he 
enlarged his range of mankind with races of sub-human type. 
One was founded on the description by the Swedish sailor 
Niklas KOping of the ferodous men with long tails inhabiting 
the Nicobar Islands. Another comprised the orang-utans of 
Sumatra, who were said to take men captive and set them to 
work as slaves. One of these apes, it was related, served as a 
sailor on board a Jamaica ship, and used to wait on the captain. 
These are stories which seem to carry their own explanation. 
When the Nicobar Islands were taken over by the British 
government two centuries later, the native warriors were still 
wearing their peculiar loin-doth hanging behind in a most tail- 
like manner (E. H. Man, Journal Antkropolog^al Institute, vol. 
XV. p. 442). As for the story of the orang-utan cabin boy, this 
may even be verbally true, it bdng borne in mind that in the 
Malay languages the term orang-utan, " man of the forest," was 
originally used for inland forest natives and other rude men, 
rather than for the miyas apes to which it has come to be generally 
applied by Europeans. The speculations as to primitive man 
connected with these stories diverted the Britidi public, headed 
by Dr Johnson, who said that Monboddo was " as jealous of his 
tafl as a squirrel.'' Ltnnaeus's primarily zoological classification 
of man did not, however, suit the philosophic opinion of the 
time, which responded more readily to the systems represented 
by Buffon, and later by Cuvier, in which the human mind and 
soul formed an impassable wall of partition between him and 
other mammalia, so that the definition of man's position in the 
animal world was treated as not belonging to zoology, but to 
metaphysics and theology. It has to be borne in mind that 
Linnaeus, plainly as he recognized the likeness of the higher 
simian and the human types, does not seem to have entertained 
the thought of accounting for this similaiity by common descent. 
It satisfied his mind to consider it as belonging to the system of 
nature, as indeed remained the case with a greater anatomist of 
the foDowing century, Richard Owen. The present drawing, 
which under the audiority of Linnaeus shows an anthropo- 
morphic series from which the normal type of man, the Homo 
sapiens, is conspicuously absent, brings zoological similarity into 
view without suggesting kinship to account for it There are few 

Ideas more Ingrained in andent and low dviltzation than that of 
relationship by descent between the lower animals and man. 
Savage and barbaric religions recognize it, and the mythology ' 
of the world has hardly a more univerC theme. But in educated 
Europe such ideas had long been superseded by the influence of 
theology and philosophy, with which they seemed too incom- 
patible. In the Z9th century, however, Lamarck's theory of the 
devdopment of new spedes by habit and drcumstance led 
throuj^ WaUace and Darwin to the doctrines of the hereditary 
transmission of acquired characters, the survival of the fittest, 
and natural sdection. Thenceforward it was impossible to 
exdude a theory of descent of man from ancestral beings whom 
zoological similarity connects also, though by lines of descent 
not at all deariy defined, with ancestors of the anthropomorphic 
apes. In one form or another such a theory of human descent 
has in our time become part of an accepted framework of zoology, 
if not as a demonstrable truth, at any rate as a working hypothesis 
which has no effective rival. 

The new development from Linnaeus's zoological scheme 
which has thus ensued appears in Huxley's diagram df simian 
and human skdetons (fig. a, (a) gibbon; (6) orang; (c) chim- 
panzee; (d) gorilla; (e) man). Evidently suggested by the 
Linnean picture, this b' brought up to the modem level of 
zoology, and continued on to man, forming an introduction to 
his zoological history hardly to be surpassed. Some of the main 
points it illustrates may be briefly stated here, the reader being 
referred for further information to Huxley's Essays. In tradng 
the osteological characters of apes and man through this series, 
the general system of the skeletons, and the close correspondence 
in number and arrangement of vertebrae and ribs, as well as in 
the teeth, go far towards justifying' the opinion of hereditary 
connexion. At the same time, \hc comparison brings into view 
differences in human structure adapted to man's pre-eminent 
mode of life, though hardly to be accounted its chief causes. 
It may be seen how the arrangement of limbs suited for going 
on all-fours belongs rather to the apes than to man, and walking 
on the soles of the feet rather to man than the apes. The two 
modes of progression overlap in human life, but the child's 
tendency when learning is to rest on the soles of the feet and the 
palms of the hands, unlike the apes, which support themselves 
on the sides of the feet and the bent knuckles of the hands. With 
regard to climbing, the long stretch of arm and the grasp with 
both hands and feet contribute to the arboreal life of the apes, 
contrasting with what seem the mere remains of the climbing 
habit to be found even among forest savages. On the whole, 
man's locomotive limbs are not so much specialized to particular 
purposes, as generalized into adaptation to many ends. As to the 
mechanical conditions of the human body, the upright posture 
has always been recognized as the chief. To it contributes the 
balance of the skull on the cervical vertebrae, while the human 
form of the pdvis provides the necessary support to the intestines 
in the standing attitude. The marked curvature of the vertebral 
column, by breaking the shock to the neck and head in running 
and leaping, likewise favours the erect position. The lowest 
coccygeal vertebrae of man remain as a rudimentary tail. While 
it is evident that high importance must be attached to the 
adaptation of the human body to the life of diversified intelligence 
and occupation he has to lead, this must not be treated as though 
it were the prindpal dement of the superiority of man, whose 
comparison with all lower genera of mammals must be mainly 
directed to the intellectual organ, the brain. Comparison of the 
brains of vertebrate animals (see Bsazn) brings into view the 
immense difference between the small, smooth brain of a fish or 
bird and the large and convoluted organ in man. In man, both 
size and complexity contribute to the increased area of the 
cortex or outer layer of the brain, which has been fully ascertained 
to be the seat of the mysterious processes by which sensation 
furnishes the groundwork of thought. Schafer (Textbook of 
Physiology, vol. ii. p. 697) thus defines it: " The cerebral cortex 
is the seat of the intellectual functions, of intelligent sensation 
or consdousness, of ideation, of volition, and of memory." 
The relations between man and ape are most readily stated in 



comparison with tlie gorilla, as on the whole the most anthropo- 
morphous ape. In the general proportions of the body and limbs 
there is a marked difference between the gorilla and man. The 
gorilla's brain-case is smaller, its trunk larger, its lower limbs 
ahorter, its upper limbs longer in proportion than those o( man. 
The differences between a gorilla's skull and a roan's are truly 
immense. In the gorilla, the face, formed largely by the massive 
jaw-bones, predominates over the brain-case or cranium; in the 
man these proportions are reversed. In man the occipital 
foramen, through which passes the spinal cord, is placed just 
behind the centre of the base of the skull, which is thus evenly 
balanced in the erect posture, whereas the gorilla, which goes 
habitually on all fours, and whose skull is inclined forward, in 
accordance with this posture has the foramen farther back. In 
man the surface of the skull is comparatively smooth, and the 
brow-ridges project but little, while in the gorilla these ridges 
overhang the cavernous orbits like penthouse roofs. The absolute 
capacity of the cranium of the gorilla is far less than that of man; 
the smsdlest adult human cranium hardly measuring less than 63 
cub. in., while the largest gorilla cranium measured had a content 
of only 34I cub. in. The largest proportional siae of the facial 
bones, and the great projection of the jaws, confer on the gorilla's 
skull its small facial angle and brutal character, while its teeth differ 
from man's in relative sixe and number of fangs. Comparing the 
lengths of the extremities, it b seen that the gorilla's arm is of 
enormous length, in fact about one-sixth longer than the spine, 
whereas a man's arm is one-fifth shorter than the spine; both 
hand and foot are proportionally much longer in the gorilla than 
in man; the leg does not so much differ. The vertebral column 
of the gorilla differs from that of man in its curvature and other 
characters, as also docs the conformation of its narrow pelvis. 
The hand of the gorilla corresponds essentially as to bones and 
muscles with that of man, but is dumsier and heavier; its thumb 
is " opposable " like a human thumb, that is, it can easily meet 
with iu extremity the extremities of the other fingers, thus 
possessing a character which docs much to make the human hand 
so admirable an instrument; but the gorilla's thumb u pro- 
portionately shorter than man's. The foot of the higher apes, 
though often spoken of as a hand, is anatomically not such, but 
a prehensile foot. It has been argued by Sir Richard Owen and 
others that the position of the great toe converts the foot of the 
higher apes into a hand, an extremely important distinction from 
man; but against this Professor T. H. Huxley maintained that 
it has the characteristic structure of a foot with a very movable 
great toe. The external unlikeness of the apes to man depends- 
much on their hairiness, but this and some other characteristics 
have no great zoological value. No doubt the difference between 
man and the apes depends, of all things, on the relative size and 
organization of the brain* While similar as to their general 
arrangement to the human brain, those of the higher apes, such 
as the chimpanzee, arc much less complex in their convolutions, 
as well as much less in both absolute and relative weight^the 
weight of a gorilla's brain hardly exceeding ao oz., and a man's 
brain hardly weighing less than 31 oz., although the gorilla is 
considerably the larger animal of the two. 

Theseanatomical distinctions are undoubtedly of great moment, 
and it is an interesting question whether they suffice to place man 
in a zoological order by himself. It is plain that some eminent 
zoologists, regarding man as absolutely differing as to mind and 
spirit from any other animal, have had their discrimination of 
mere bodily differences unconsciously sharpened, and have been 
led to give differences, such as in the brain or even the foot of 
the apes and man, somewhat more importance than if they had 
merely distinguished two species of apes. Many naturalists hold 
the opinion that the anatomical differences which separate the 
gorilla or chimpanzee from man are in some respects less than 
those which separate these man-like apes from apes lower in the 
scale. Yet all authorities class both the higher and lower apes 
in the same order. This is Huxley's argument, some prominent 
poinU of which arc the following: As regards the proportion of 
L'mbs, the hylobatcs or gibbon is as much longer in the arms than 
Ibe gorilla as the gorilla is than the man, while on the other band, 

it b OS much longer in the \t!g^ than the man as the man is than 
the gorilla. As to the vertebral column and pdvis, the lower 
apes differ from the gorilla as much as, or more than, it differs 
from man. As to the capacity of the cranium, men differ from 
one another so extremely that the largest known human skull 
holds nearly twice the measure of the smallest, a larger proportion 
than that in which roan surpasses the gorilla; while, with proper 
allowance for difference of size of the various species, it appears 
that some of the lower apes fall nearly as much bdow the higher 
apes. The projection of the muzzle, which gives the character 
of brutality to the gorilla as distinguished from the man, is yet 
further exaggerated in the lemurs, as is also the backward position 
of the occipiul f orameiL In characters of such importance as the 
structure of the hand and foot, the lower apes diverge extremely 
from the gorilla; thus the thtmib ceases to be opposable in the 
American monkeys, and in the marmosets is directed forwards, 
and armed with a curved daw like the other digits, the great 
toe in, these latter being insignificant in proportion. The.same 
argument can be extended to other points of anatomical structure', 
and, what is of more consequence, it appears true of the brafiL 
A series of the apes, arranged from lower to higher orders, shows 
gradations from, a brain little higher that that of a rat, to a brain 
like a small and imperfect imitation of a man's; and the greatest 
structural break in the series lies not between man and the man* 
like apes, but between the apes and monkeys on one side, and the 
lemurs on the other. On these grounds Huxley, restoring in 
principle the Linncan classification, desired to indude man in the 
order of Primates. This order he divided into seven families: 
first, the A uikropini, consisting of man only; second, the Catarhini 
or Old World apes; third, the Phtyrhini, all New World apes, 
except the marmosets; fourth, the Arctopitkecini^ or marmosets; 
fifth, the Lemurini, or lemurs; sixth and seventh, the Cheiromyini 
and GaUopilhtcini. 

It is in assigning to man his pUice in nature on psychological 
grounds that the greater difficulty arises. Huxley acknowledged 
an immeasurable and practically infinite divergence, ending ia 
•the present enormous psychological gulf between ape and man. 
It is difficult to account for this intellectual chasm as due to 
some minor structural difference. The opinion is deeply rooted 
in modem as in ancient thought, that only a distinctively human 
dement of the highest import can account for the severance 
between man and the highest animal below him. Differences in 
the mechanical organs, such as the perfection of the human hand 
as an instrument, or the adaptability of the human voice to the 
expression of human thought, are indeed of great value. But 
they have not of themselves such value, that to endow an ape 
with the hand and vocal organs of a man would be likely to rais^ 
it through any large part of the interval that now separates it 
from humanity. Much more is to be said for the view that man's 
larger and more highly organized brain accounts for those mental 
powers in which he so absolutdy surpasses the brutes. 

The distinction does not seem to lie principally in the range 
and delicacy of direct sensation, as may be judged from such 
well-known facts as man's inferiority to the eagle in sight, or 
to the dog in scent. At the same time, it seems that the human 
sensory organs may have in various respects acutcness beyond 
those of other creatures. But, beyond a doubt, man possesses, 
and in some way possesses by virtue of his superior brain, a 
power of co-ordinating the impressions of his senses, which 
enables him to understand the world he lives in, and by under* 
standing to use, resist, and even in a measure rule it. No 
human art shows the nature of this human attribute more dearly 
than does language. Man shares with the mammalia and birds 
the direct expression of the feelings by emotional tones and 
interjectional cries; the parrot's power of articulate utterance 
almost equals hb own; and-, by association of ideas in some 
measure, some of the lower animals have even learnt to recognize 
words he utters. But, to use words in themselves unmeaning, 
as symbob by which to conduct and convey the complex in- 
tellectual processes in which mental conceptions are suggested, 
compared, combined, and even analysed, and new ones created—" 
this b a faculty which is scarcely to be traced in any lower animal. 



The view tliat Uk£s, with other mental processes, is a function of 
the brain, is renuiiltably corroborated by modem investiption 
of the disease of aphasia, where the power of thinking remains, 
but the power b lost of recalling the word corre^Mnding to the 
thought, and this mental defect is found to accompany a diseased 
atate of a particular locality of the brain (see Aphasia). This 
may stand among the most perfect of the many evidences that, 
in Professor Bain's words, " the brain is the principal, though 
not the sole organ of mind." As the brains of the vertebrate 
animals form an ascending scale, more and more approaching 
man's in their arrangement, the fact here finds its explanation, 
that lower animals perform mental processes corresponding 
in their nature to oar own, though of generally less power and 
complexity. The full evidence of this corre^Mndence will be 
found in such works as Brehm's ThUrieben; and some of the 
salient points are set forth by Charles Darwin, in the chapter 
on " Mental Poweis," in his Descent of Man. Such are the 
similar effects of terror on man and the lower animals, causing 
the mttsdes to tremble, the heart to palpitate, the sphincters 
to be relaxed^ and the hair to stand on end. The phenomena 
of memory, as to both persons and places, is strong in animals, 
as is manifest by their recogfiition of their masters, and their re- 
turning at once to habits of which, though disused for many years, 
their brain has not lost the storcd-up impressions. Such facts 
as that dogs " hunt in dreams," make it likely that their minds 
are not only sensible to actual events, present and past, but can, 
like our mindi^ combine revived sensations into ideal scenes 
in which they ire actors, — that Is to say, they have the faculty 
of imaginatioa As ifor the reasoning powers in animals, the 
accounts of nMokeys learning by experience to break eggs care- 
fully, and pid^ off bits of shell, so as not to lose the contents, 
or of the way in which rats or martens after a while can no longer 
be caught b^ the same kind of trap, with innumerable similar 
facts, ^ow n the plainest way that the reason of animals goes 
lo far as toform by new e:q>erience a new hypothesis of cause 
and effect which will henceforth guide their actions. The 
employmea of mechanical instruments, of which Instances of 
monkeys ulng sticks and stones furnish the only rudimentary 
traces amtng the lower animals, is one of the often-quoted 
distinctive powers' of man. With this comes the whole vast 
and ever-widening range of inventive and adaptive art, where 
the unifem hereditary Instinct of the cell-forming bee and the 
nest-buldng bird is supplanted by multiform processes and 
constrictions, often at &rst rude and clumsy in comparison to 
thoseof the lower instinct, but carried on by the facility of 
imprvemnt and new invention into ever higher stages. " From 
the tomcat," writes A. R. Wallace {Natural Selectim), " when 
tboirtt skin was used as a covering, when the first rude spear 
wa^ormed to aasbt in the chase, when fire was first used to 
coo his food, when the first seed was sown or shoot planted, 
a iand revolution was effected in nature, a revolution which 
inll the previous ages of the earth's history had had no parallel; 
foA being had arisen who was ao longer necessarily subject 
tichange with the changing universe, — a being who was in some 
<gree superior to nature, inasmuch as he knew how to control 
td regulate her action, and could keep himself in harmony 
ith her, not by a change In body, but by an advance of mind." 
As to the lower instincts tending directly to self-presenration, 
t is acknowledged on all hands that man has them in a less 
developed state than other animals; in fact, the natural defence- 
lessness of the hunum being, and the long-continued care and 
teaching of the young by the elders, are among the commonest 
themes of moral discourse. Parental tenderness and care for 
the young are strongly marked among the lower animals, though 
ao inferior in scope and duration to the human qualities; and 
the Ame may be said of the mutual forbearance and defence 
which bind together in a rudimenury social bond the famflies 
and herds of animals. Philosophy seeking knowledge for its 
own ai^; morality, manifested in the sense of truth, right, and 
virtue; and religion, the belief in and communion with super- 
human powers ruling and pervading the imivcrse, are human 
chancters, of which it is instructive to trace, if possible, the 

earliest symptoms in the lower animals, but which can there 
show at most only faint and rudimentary signs of their wondrous 
development in mankind. That the tracing of physical and» 
even intellectual continuity between the lower animaJs and our 
own race, does not necessarily lead the anthropologist to lower 
the rank of man in the scale of nature, may be shown by citing 
A. R. Wallace. Man, he considers, is to be placed " apart, as 
not only the head and culminating point of the grand series 
of organic nature, but as in some degree a new and distinct 
order of being." 

To regard the intellectual functions of the brain and nervous 
^stem as alone to be considered in the psychological comparison 
of man with the lower animals, is a view satisfactory to those 
thinkers who hold materialistic views. According to this school, 
man is a machine, no doubt the most complex and wonderfully 
adapted of all known nuichines, but still neither more nor less 
than an instrument whose energy is provided by force from 
without, and which, when set in action, performs the various 
operations for which its structure fits it, namely, to live, move, 
feel, and think. This view, however, always has been strongly 
opposed by those who accept on theological grounds a spiritual- 
istic doctrine, or what is, perhaps, more usual, a theory which 
combines spiritualism and materialism in the doctrine of a 
composite nature in man, animal as to the body and in some 
measure as to the mind, spiritual as to the soul. It naay be useful, 
as an Illustration of one opinion on this subject, to continue 
here the citation of Dr Prichard's comparison between man and 
the lower animals: — ^ 

" If it be inquired In what the still more remarkable difference 
consists, it Is by no means easy to reply. By some it will be said 
that roan, while similar in the or||[anitation oThis body to the lowrr 
tribes, is distinguished from them by the posseauon of an immaterial 
soul, a principle capable of conscious feeling, of intellect and thought. 
To many persona it will appear inradoxlcalto ascribe the endowment 
of a soul to the inferior tribes in the creation, yet it is difficult to 
discover a valid argument that limitsthe possession of an immaterial 
principle to man. The phenomena Of feeling, of desire and aversion, 
of love and hatred, of fear and reveoge, and the perception of external 
relations manifested in the life of brutes, imply, not only through 
the analogy which they display to the human faculties, but likewise 
from all that we can learn or conjecture of their particular nature, 
the superadded existence of a principle distinct from the mere 
mechanism of material bodies. That such a principle must exist in 
all beings capable of sensation, or of anything analogous to human 
passions and feelings, will hardly be denied by those who perceive 
the force of arguments which metaphysically demonstrate the im> 
material nature of the mind. There may be no rational grounds for 
the ancient dogma that the aoub of the lower animals were im- 
perishable, like the soul of man: this is, however, a problem which 
we are not called upon to discuss; and we may venture to conjecture 
that there may be immaterial essences of divers kinds, and endowed 
with various attributes and capabilities. But the real mture of 
these unseen prindples eludes our research: they are onl]r known 
to us by their external manifestations. These manifestations are 
the various powers and capabilities, or rather the habitudes of 
action, which chamcterixe the different orders of being, diversified 
according to their several destinations." 

Dr Prichard here pots forward distinctly the time-honoured 
doctrine which refers the mental faculties to the cperstlon of 
the soul. The view maintained by a distinguished comparative 
anatomist, Professor St George Mivart, in his Genesis of Species ^ 
ch. xii., may fairly follow. " Man, according to the old scholastic 
definition, is ' a rational animal ' {animal rationale)^ and his 
animality is distinct in nature from his rationality, though in- 
separably joined, during life, in one common personality. Man's 
animal body must have had a different source from that of the 
spiritual soul which informs it, owing to the distinctness of the 
two orders to which those two existences severally belong." 
The two extracts just given, however, significant in themselves, 
fail to render an account of the view of the human constitution 
which would probably, among the theological and scholastic 
leaders of public opinion, count the largest weight of adherence. 
According to this view, not only life but thought are functions 
of the animal system, in which man excels all other animals 
as to height of organization: but beyond this, man embodies an 
immaterial and immortal q)iritual principle which no lower 
creature possesses, and which makes the resemblance of the apes 



to him but a mocking simulance. To pronounce any absolute 
decision on these conflicting doctrines is foreign to our present 
purpose, which is to show that all of them count among their 
adherents men of high rank in science. 

II. Origin of Man. — Opinion as to the genesis of man is 
divided between the theories of creation and evolution. In 
both schools, the ancient doctrine of the contemporaneous 
appearance on earth of all species of animals having been aban- 
doned under the positive evidence of geology, it is admitted that 
the animal kingdom, past and present, indudes a vast series of 
successive iforms, wh(»e appearances and disappearances have 
taken place at intervals during an immense lapse of ages. The 
line of inquiry has thus been directed to ascertaining what 
formative rdation subsists among these species and genera, 
the last Snk of the argument reaching to the rdation between 
man and the lower creatures preceding him in time. On both 
the theories here concerned it would oe admitted, in the words 
of Agassiz {Principles of Zoology, pp. 205-206), that " there is a 
manifest progress in the succession of beings on the surface of 
the earth. This progress consists in an increasing similarity of 
the Uving fauna, and, among the vertebrates especially, in thdr 
increasing resemblance to man." Agassis continues, however, 
in terms characteristic of the creationist school: " But this 
connexion is not the consequence of a direct lineage between the 
faunas of different ages. There is nothing like parental descent 
connecting them. The fishes of the Palaeozoic age are in no 
respect the ancestors of the reptiles of the Secondary age, nor 
does man di^end from the mammals which preceded him in the 
Tertiary age. The link by which they are connected is of a higher 
and immaterial nature; and their connexion is to be sought in 
the view of the Creator himself, whose aim in forming the earth, 
in allowing it to undergo the successive changes which geology 
has point^ out, and in creating successively all the different 
types of animals which have passed away, was to introduce man 
upon the surface of our globe. Man is the end towards which all 
the animal creation has tended from the first appearance of the 
first Palaeozoic fishes." The evolutionist, on the contrary (see 
Evolittion), maintains that different successive spedes of 
animals are in fact connected by parental descent, having 
become modified in the course of successive generations. The 
result of Charles Darwin's application of this theory to man 
may be ^ven in his own words {Dacent dfMan, part i. ch. 6) : — 

" The Catarhine and Platyrhine monkeys agree in a multitude of 
characters, as is shown by their unquestionably belonging to one 
and the same order. The many characters which they possess in 
common can hardly have been independently acquired by so manv 
distinct spedes: so that these characters must have been inherited. 
But an ancient form which possessed many characters common to 
the Catarhine and Platyrhine monkeys, and others in an inter- 
mediate condition, and some few perhaps distinct from those now 
present in dther group, would undoubtedly have been ranked, if 
seen by a naturalist, as an ape or a monkey. And as man under a 
genealogical point of view belongs to the Catarhine or Old World 
stock, we mutt conclude, however much the conclusion may revolt 
our pride, that our early progenitors would have been properly thus 
designated. Bat we must not fall into the error of supposing that 
the early progenitor of the whole Simian stock, including man, 
was identical with, or even dosdy resembled, any existing ape or 

The problem of the origin of man cannot be properly disctisscd 
apart from the full problem of the origin of spedes. The 
homologies between man and other animals which both schools 
try to account for; the explanation of the intervals, with 
apparent want of intermediate forms, which sieem to the creation- 
ists so absolute a separation between spedes; the evidence of 
usdess" rudimentary organs," such as in man the external shell 
of the ear, and the musde which enables some individuals to 
twitch their ears, which rudimentary parts the evolutionists 
daim to be only 'explicable as relics of an earlier specific condi- 
tion,^these, which are the main points of the argument on the 
origin of man, bdong to general biology. The philosophical 
principles which underlie the two theories stand for the most 
part in strong contrast, the theory of evolution tending toward 
the supposition of ordinary causes, such as "natural selection," 
producing modifications in species, whether by gradual accumula- 

tion or more sudden leaps, while the theory of creation has 
recourse to acts of supernatural intervention (see the duke of 
Argyll, Reig^ of Law, ch. v.). St George Mivart (Genesis of 
Species) propounded a theory of a natural evolution of man as 
to his body, combined with a supernatural creation as to his 
soul; but this attempt to meet the difficulties on both sides 
seems to have satisfied neither. 

The wide acceptance of the Darwinian theory, as applied to 
the descent of man, has naturally roused antidpation that 
geological research, which provides evidence of the animal life 
of incalculably greater antiquity, would furnish fossU remains 
of some comparativdy recent bdng intermediate between the 
anthropomorphic and the anthropic types. This expectation 
has hardly been fulfilled, but of late years the notion of a variety 
of the human race, geologically andent, differing from any known 
in historic times, and with diaracters approaching the simian, 
has been supported by further discoveries. To bring this to the 
reader's notice, top and side views of three skulls, as placed 
together in the human devdopment series in the Oxford Uni- 
versity Museum, are represented in the plate, for the purpose of 
showing the great size of the orbital ridges, which the reader 
may contrast with his own by a touch with his fingers on his 
forehead. The first (fig.3) is the famous Neanderthal skull from 
near DOsseldorf, described by Schaafhavscn in MflUer's Archiv, 
1858; Huxley in Lyell, Antiquity of Man, p. B6, and in Man*s 
Place in Nature. The second (fig. 4) is the skull Ik-om the cavern 
of Spy in Belgium (de Puydt and Lohest, Ctmfte rendu du 
Congjrhs de Namur, x886). The foreheads of these two skulls 
have an ape-like form, obvious on comparison with the simian 
skulls of the gorilla and other apes, and visible evtn hi the small- 
scale figures in the Plate, fig. 2. Among modem idbes of man- 
kind the forehead of the Austrah'an aborigines roakeithe nearest 
approach to this type, as was pointed out by Huxley. This brief 
description will serve to show the importance o( a late discovery. 
At Trinil, in Java, in an equatorial region where, if aywhere, a 
being intermediate between the higher apes and man lould seem 
likdy to be found, Dr Eugene Dubois in i89x-i892excavated 
from a bed, considered by him to be of Sivalik formaion (Plio- 
cene), a thighbone which competent anatomists de4de to be 
human, and a remarkably depressed calvaria or skull-dp (fig. 5)^ 
bearing a certain resemblance in its proportions to he corre- 
sponding part of the simian skuU. These remains we^ referred 
by thdr discoverer to an animal intermediate between Vian and 
ape, to which he gave the name of Pithecanthropus erecHs (q.v.), 
but the interesting discussions on the subject have thown 
divergence of opinion among anatomists. At any rate, classing 
the Trinil skull as human, it may be described as tending \owirds 
the simian type more than any other known. 

m. Races of Mankind. — ^The classification of mankind ino a 
number of permanent varieties or races, rests on grounds wlidi 
are within limits not only obvious but definite. Whether iron a 
popular or a scientific point of view, it would be admitted tlut a 
Negro, a Chinese, and an Australian belong to three su:h 
permanent varieties of men, all plainly distinguishable from^ <nt 
another and from any European. Moreover, such a divisioi 
takes for granted the idea which is involved in the word racv 
that each of these varieties is due to special ancestry, eajcfa raci 
thus representing an andent breed or stock, however these breeds 
or stocks may have had thdr origin. The anthropological 
classification of mankind is thus zoological in its nature, like 
that of the varieties or spedes of any other animal group, and 
the characters on which it is based are in great measure physical, 
though intellectual and traditional peculiarities, such as moral 
habit and language, furnish important aid. Among the best- 
marked race-characters are the colour of the skin, eyes and hair; 
and the structure and arrangement of the latter. Stature is by 
no means a general criterion of race, and it would not, for in* 
stance, be difficult to choose groups of Englishmen, Kaffirs, and 
North American Indians, whose mean hdght should hardly 
differ. Yet In many cases it is a valuable means of distinction, 
as between the UU Patagonians and the stunted Fuegians, and 
even as a help in minuter problems, such as sepaxmting the 







Teutonic and Celtic ancestry in tlie population of England (see 
Beddoe, " SUfure and Bulk of Man in the British Isles/' in 
Mem. Anikrop. Soc. London, vol. iii.)> Proportions of the limbs, 
' compared in length with the trunk, have been claimed as con- 
stituting pecultaiities of African and American races; and 
other anatomical points, sudi as the conformation of the pelvis, 
have speciality But inferences of this dass have hardly attained 
to sufficient certainty and generality to be set down in the form 
fA rules. The conformation of the skull is second only to the 
colour of the skin as a criterion for the distinction of race; and the 
position of the jaws is recognised as important, races being 
described as prognathous when the jaws project far, as in the 
Australian or Negro, in contradistinction to the orthognathous 
type, which is th^ of the ordinary well-shaped European skuU. 
On this distinction id great measure depuids the celebrated 
** facial angle," measured by Camper as a test of low and high 
races; but this angle is objectionable as resulting partly from 
the development of the forehead and partly from the position of 
the jaws. The capacity of the cranium is estimated in cubic 
measure by filling it with sand, &c., with the general result that 
the civilized white man is found to have a larger brain than the 
barbarian or savage. Classification "of races on cranial measure- 
ments has long been attempted by eminent anatomists, and in 
certain cases great reliance may be placed dn such measurements. 
Thus the skulls of an Australian and a Negro would be generally 
distinguished by their narrowness and the projection of the jaw 
from that of any Englishman; but the AustnMian skull would 
usually differ perceptibly from the Negroid in its upright sides 
and strong orbital ridges. The relation of height to breadth 
may also furnish a valuable test; but it is acknowledged by. all 
experienced craniologists, that the shape trf the skull may vary 
so much within the same tribe, and even the same family, that 
it must be used with extreme caution, and if possible only in 
conjunction with other criteria of race. The general contour of 
the face, in part dependent on the form of the skull, varies nradi 
in different races, among whom it is loosely de&led as oval, 
locenge-shaped, pentagonal, &c Of particular features, some 
(rf the most marked contrasts to European types are seen in t|ie 
oblique Chinese esres, the broad-set Kamchadale cheeks, the 
pointed Arab chin, the snub Kirghiz oose^ the fleshy protuberant 
Negro lips, and the broad Kalmuck ear. Taken altogether, the 
features have a tjrpical character which popular observation 
setaes with some degree of correctness, as in the recognition of 
the Jewish countenance in a European city. 

Were the race-characters constant in d^;ree or even in kind, 
the classification of races would be easy; but this is not so. 
Every division of mankind presents in every character wide 
deviations from a standard. Thus the Negro race, well marked 
as it may seem at the first gUnce, proves on closer examination 
to indude several shades of complexion and features, in some 
districts varying far from the accepted Negro type; while the 
examination of a aeries of native American tribes shows. that, 
notwithstanding their asserted uniformity of type, they differ 
in stature, colour, features uid proportions of skuU. (See 
Pricfaard, Nat. HistrofMan; Waits, Anlkropot^gy, part i. sec. 5.) 
Detailed anthropological research, indeed, more and more justl- 
fies Blumenbach's words, that " innumerable varieties of man- 
kind run into one another by insensible degrees." This state of 
things, due partly to mixture and croasing of races, and partly 
to independent variation of types, makes the attempt to arrange 
the whole human spedes within exactly bounded divisions an 
apparently hopeless task. It does not' follow, however, that the 
attempt to distinguish special races should be given up, for there 
at least exist several definable types, each of which so far prevails 
in a certain population as to be taken as its standard. JL A. J. 
Quetdet's plan of defining such types will probably meet with 
general acceptance as the scientific method proper to this branch 
of anthropology. It consists in the determination of the stan- . 
dard or typical " mean man " {hommc moyen) of a population, 
with reference to any particular quality, such as stature, weight, 
complexion, &c. In the case of stature, this would be done by 
measuring a sufficient number of men, and counting how many 

n. z 

of them belong to eadi height on the scale. If it be. thus ascer« 
tained, as it might be in an Ei^lish district, that the s ft. 7 in« 
men form the most numerous group, while the 5 ft 6 in. and 5 ft 
8 in. men are less in number, and the 5 ft 5 in. and 5 ft 9 in« 
still fewer, and so on until the extremdy small number of 
extremely short or tall individuals of 5 ft or 7 ft. is reached, it 
will thus be ascertained that the stature of the mean or typical 
man is to be taken as 5 ft 7 in. The method is thus that of 
sdecting as the standard the most numerous group, on both 
sides of which the groups decrease in number as they vary in 
type. Such classification may show the existence of two or 
more types, in a conmiunity, as, for instance, the p<^ulation of a 
Califomian settlement made up of Whites and Chinese might 
show two predominant groups (one of 5 ft 8 in., the other of 
5 ft 4 in.) correqwnding to these two radal types. It need 
hardly be said that this method of determining the mean type 
of a race, as being that of its really existing and most numerous 
daas, is altogether superior to the mere calculation of an average, 
which may actually be represented by comparativdy few indi- 
viduals, and those the exceptional ones. For Instance, the 
average stature of the mixed European and Chinese population 
just referred to might be s ft. 6 in. — a worthless and indeed 
misleadiog result (For particulars of Quetdet's method, see 
his Pkysiiue sociaU (1869), and AntkropcnUtrio (x87x).) 

Ckusifications of Inan have been numerous^ and though,^ 
regarded as systems, most of them are unsatisfactory, yet they 
have been of great value in systematiaing knowledge, and are 
all more or less based on indisputable distinctions. J. F. Blumen- 
bach's divisicm, though published as long ago as 1781, has had 
the greatest influence* He reckons five races, via. Caucasian, 
Mongolian^ Ethiopian, American, Malay. The ill-chosen name 
of Caucaaian, invenlei by Blumenbach in allusion to a South 
Caucasian skuU of specially typical proportions, and applied 
by him to the so<aUed white races, is still current; It brings into 
one race peoples such as the Arabs and Swedes, although these 
are scarcely less different than the Americans and Malays, who 
are set down as two distinct races. Agaii^ two of the best- 
marked varieties of mankind are the Australians and the Bush- 
men, ndther of whom, however, seems to have a natural place in 
Blumenbach's series. The yet simpler classification by Cuvier ' 
into Caucasian, Mongol and Negro corresponds in some measure 
with a division by mere complexion into white, yellow and 
black races; but ndther this threefold division, nor the andent 
classification into Semitic, Hamitic and Japhetic nations can be 
regarded as separating the human typcadther justly or suffidently 
(see Prichard, Nolnral History oj Man, sec 15; Waits, Antkro^ 
pohgy, vol. i. part L sec. 5). Schemes which set up a larger 
number of distinct races, such as the deven of Pickering, the 
fifteen of Bory de St Vincent and the sixteen of Desmoulins, 
have the advantage of finding niches for most well-defined human 
varieties; but no modem naturalist would be Ukdy to adopt 
any one of these as it stands. In critidam o( Pickering's system^ 
it is sufficient topdnt out that he divides the white nations 
into two races, entitled the Arab and the Abysstniaa (Pickering 
Races of Man, ch. i.). Agassis, Nott, Crawf urd and othen who 
have assumed a much larger number of races or spedes of 
man, are not omsidered to have satisfactorily defined a corre- 
sponding number of distinguishable typn. On the wholes 
Huxley's division probably approaches mere nearly than any 
other to t/ach a tentative classification as may be accepted in 
definition of the prindpal varieties of mankind, rei^rded from 
a zoological point of view, though anthropologists may be dis- 
posed to erea into separate races several of his widely-differing 
sub-races. He distinguishes four prindpal typ^ of mankind, 
the Australioid, Negroid, Mongoloid and Xanthochroic ("fair 
whites"), adding a fifth variety, the Mdanochroic ("dark 

In determining whether the races of mankind are to be dassed 
as varieties of one species, it is important to dedde whether 
every two races can unite to produce fertile offspring. It is 
settled by experience that the most numerous and well-known 
C$s>sscd races, such as the Mulattos, descended from Europeans 




and Negroe»~the Mestizos, from Europeans and American 
indigenes — the Zambos, from these American indigenes and 
Negroes, &c, are pennanently fertile. They practically con> 
slltute sub-races, with a general blending of the characters of 
the two parents, and only differing from fuUy-«8tabIished races 
in more or less tendency to revert to one or other of the original 
types. It has been argued, on the other hand, that not all such 
mixed iMreeds are permanent, and especially that the cross 
between Eur(^)eans and Australian indigenes is almost sterile; 
but this assertion, when examined with the care demanded by 
its bearing on the general question of hybridity, has distinctly 
broken down. On the whole, the general evidence favoun 
the opinion that any two races may combine to produce ^ new 
sub-race, which again may combine with any other variety. 
Thus, if the existence of a small niunbcr of distinct races of 
manldnd be taken as a starting-point, it is obvious that their 
crossing would produce an indefinite number of secondary 
varieties, such as the population of the world actually presents. 
The woiking out in detail of the problem, how far the differences 
among complex nations, such as those of Europe, may have been 
brought about by hybridity, is still, however, a tadc of almost 
hopdess intricacy.. Among the boldest attempts to account 
for distinctly-marked popiilations as restilttng iram the inter- 
muture of two races, are Huxley's view that the Hottentots 
are hybrid between the Bushmen and the Negroes, and his more 
important suggestion, that the Melanochroic peoples of southern 
Europe are of mixed Xanthochroic and Austniioid-itock. 

The problem of ascertaining how the smidl number of races, 
distinct enough to be called primary, can have anumed their 
different types, has been for yeare the most disputed field of 
anthropology, the battlC'^round of the rival schools of mono- 
genists and polygenists. The one has daimed all mankind to 
be descended from one original stock, and generally from a single 
pair; the other has contended for the several primary races 
being separate q>ecies of independent origin. The great problem 
of the monogenist theory is to explain by what course of variation 
the so different races of man have arisen from a single stock. 
In ancient times little difficulty was felt in th», authorities 
^ such as Aristotle and Vitruvius seeing in climate and circumstance 
the natural cause of racial differences, the EthiK^ian having been 
blackened by the tropical sun , && Later and closer observations, 
however, have shown such influences to be, at any rate, far 
slighter in amount and slower in operation than was ooce sup- 
pc«ed. A. de Quatrefages brings forward {UniU dt Vapiee 
kumaine) his strongest arguments for the variability of races 
under change of climate, &c. (action du milieu) y instancing the 
asserted alteration in complexion, constitution and character 
of Negroes in America, and Englishmen in America and Australia. 
But although the reality of some such modification is not disputed, 
especially as to stature and constitution, its amount is not enough 
to upset the counter-proposition of the remarkable permanence 
of type displayed by races ages after they have been transported 
to dimates extremely different from that of their former home. 
Moreover, physically different peoples, such as the Bushmen and 
Negroes in Africa, show no signs of approximation under the 
influence of the same climate; while, on the other hand, the 
coast tribes of Tierra del Fuego and forest tribes of trqiScal 
Brazil continue to resemble one .another, in spiter of extreme 
differences of climate and food. Darwin is moderate in his 
estimation of the changes produced on races of man by climate 
and mode of life within the range of history {Descent of Man, 
part L ch. 4 and 7). The sUghtness and slowness of variation 
in human races having become knowti, a great difficulty of the 
monogenist theory was seen to lie in the apparent shortness 
of the Biblical chronology. Inasmuch as several well-marked 
races of mankind, such as the Egyptian, Phoenician, Ethiopian, 
&c., were much the same three or four thousand years ago as 
now, thdr variation from a single stock in the course of any like 
period could hardly be accounted for without a miracle. This 
difficulty the polygenist theory escaped, and in consequence 
it gained ground. Modem views have however tended to restore, 
thjMi^ under a new aqwct, the doctrine of a single human 

stock. The fact that man has existed during a vast period of 

time makes it more ea^ to a»ume the continuance of very slow 

natural variation as having differentiated even the white man 

and the Negro among the descendants of a common progenitor. 

On the other hand it does not follow necessarily from a theory 

of evolution of i9)ecies that mankind must have descended from 

a single stock, for the hypothesis of development admits of the 

argument, that several simian species may have culminated in 

several races of man. The general tendency of the development 

theory, however, is against constiUiting separate q)ecies where 

the differences are moderate enough to be accounted for as due 

to variation from a single type. Darwin's summing-up of the 

evideoce aa to unity of type throughout the races of mankind 

is as distinctly a monogenist argument as those of Bhunenbach, 

Prichard or Quatrefages — 

" Although the existing races of man differ in many respects, as 
in colour, luir, shape of skull, proportions of the body, &c., yet, if 
their whole organization be taken into consideration, they are found 
to resemble each other closely in a multitude of points. Many of 
these points are of so unimportant, or of so aingular a nature, that 
it is extremdy improbable tnat they should have been independently 
aoquired by abonginally distinct spedcs or races. The same remarlc 
holds good with equal or greater force with respect to the numerous 
points of mental similarity between the most distinct races of num. 
. . . Now, when naturalists observe a dose agreement in numerous 
small details of habits, tastes and dispositions between two or more 
domestic races, or between nearly allied natural forms, they use this 
fact as an argument that all are descended from a common progenitor 
who was thus endowed ; and, consequently, that all should be classed 
under the same species. The same argument may be applied with 
much force to the races of man."— (Darwin, Descent of Man, part i. 
ch. 7.) 

The main difficulty of the monogenist school has ever been to 
explain how races which have remained comparatively fixed ia 
type during the long period of history, such as the white man and 
the Negro, should, in eves a far longer period, have passed fay 
variation from a common original. To meet this A. R. Wallace 
suggests that the remotely ancient representatives of the human 
species, being as yet animals too low in mind to have devdoped 
those arts of maintenance and social ordinances by which man 
holds his own against influences from dimate and drcumstancc^ 
were in thdr .then wild state much more plastic than now to 
external nature; so that '' natural selection " and other causes 
met with but feeble resistance in forming the permanent varieties 
or races of man, whose complexion and structure still remained 
fixed in their descendants (see Wallace, Contributions to the Theory 
of Natural Selection, p. 319). On the whole, it may be asserted 
that the doctrine of the unity of mankind stands on a firmer basis 
than in previous ages. It would be premature to judge how far 
the problem of the origin of races may be capable of exact 
solution; but the experience gained since 1871 countenances 
Darwin's prophecy that before long the dispute between the 
monogenists and the polygenists would die a silent and un^ 
observed death, 

IV, AniiquUy of lf«n.— -Until the xQth century man's first 
appearance on earth was treated on a historical basis as matter 
of record. It is true that the sdiemes drawn up by chrondogists 
differed widely, as was natural, considering the variety and incon- 
sistency of their doctunentary data. On the whole, the scheme 
of Archbishop Usher, who computed that the earth and man were 
created in 4004 B.C., was the most popular (see Chronology), 
It is no longer necessary, however, to discuss these chrono- 
Jogies. Gedogy has ihade it manifest that our earth must have 
been the seat of vegetable and animal life for an immense period 
of time; while the first appearance of man, though comparativdy 
recent, is positivdy so remote, that an estimate between twenty 
and a hundred thousand year: nuiy fairly be taken as a minimum. 
This geological daim for a vast antiquity of the human race is 
supported by the similar claims of prehistoric archaeology and 
the science of culture, the evidence of all three departments of 
inquiry being intimately connected, and in perfect harmony. 

Human bones and objects of human manufacture have been 
found in such geological relation to the remains of fossU spedes 
of elephant, rhinoceros, hyena, bear, &c., as to lead to the distinct 
inference that man already existed at a remote period in localities 



where these nunmnalia are now and have long Iwen extinct. The 
not quite concltisive researches oC Tounud and ChrUtol in 
limestone caverns of the south of France date back to 182& 
About the same time P. C. Schmerling of Li£ge was exploring 
the ossiferous caverns of the valley of the Meuse, and satisfied 
himself that the men whose bones he found beneath the stalagmite 
floors, together with bones cut and flints shaped by human 
workman^p, had inhabited this Belgian district at the same 
time with the cave-bear and several other extinct animals whose 
bones were imbedded with them {Reckerches stir let ossemenls 
fessiUs iUwaetU dans Us caurnes de la provinu de LUge (U6ge, 
28^-1834)). This evidence, however, met with little acceptance 
among scientific men. Nor, at first, was more credit given to the 
discovery by M. Boucher de Perthes, about 2841, of rude flint 
hatchets in a sand-bed containing remains of mammoth and 
rhinoceros at Menchecourt near Abbeville, which first find was 
followed by others in the same district (see Boucher de Perthes, De 
r Industrie primitive^ ou Us arts d lew origine (1846); Antiguitis 
celtiques et anUdilunennes (Paris, 1847), &c.). Between 1850 and 
i860 French and English geologists were induced to examine Into 
the facts, and found irresistible the evidence that man existed and 
used rude implements of chipped flint during the Quaternary or 
Drift period. Further investigations were then made, and over- 
looked results of older ones reviewed. In describing Kent's 
Cavern (q.v.) near Torquay, R. A. C. Godwin-Austen hadmain^ 
taincd, as early as 1840 {Proc. Geo. Soc. London^ \<A. iii. p. 286), 
that the human bones and worked flints had been deposited indis- 
criminately together with the remains of fossil elephant, rhinoceros, 
&c Certain caves and rock-shelters in the province of Dordogne, 
in central France, were examined by a French and an English 
archaeologist, Edouard Lartet and Heniy Christy, the remains 
discovered showing the former prevalence of the reindeer in this 
region, at that time inhabited by savages, whose bone and stone 
implements indicate a habit of life similar to that of the Eskimos. 
Moreover, the co-existencfe of man with a fauna now extinct or con- 
fined to other districts was brought to yet clearer demonstration 
by the discovery in these caves of certain drawings and carvings 
of the animals done by the ancient inhabitants themselves, such 
as a group of reindeer on a piece of reindeer horn, and a sketch 
of a mammoth, showing the elephant's long hair, on a piece of a 
mammoth's tu^ from La Madeleine (Lartet and Christy, ReHqmae 
Aquitanicae, ed. by T R. Jones (London, 1865), &c.). 

This and other evidence (which is considered in more detail 
in the article AjtCHAEOLOCv) is now generally accepted by 
geologists as carrying back the existence of man into the period 
of the post-glacial drift, in what is now called the Quaternary 
period, an antiquity at Icast'of tens of thousands of years. Again> 
certain inferences have been tentatively made irom the depth of 
mud, earth, peat. &c., which has accumulated above relics of 
hiunan art imbedded in ancient times. Among these is the 
argument from the numerous borings made in the alluvium of 
the Nile valley to a depth of 60 ft., where down to the lowest 
level fragments of burnt brick and pottery were always found, 
showing that people advanced enough in the arts to bake brick 
and pottery have inhabited the valley during the Jong period 
required for the Nile inundations to deposit 6q f t. of mud, at a 
rate probably not averaging more than a few inches .in a century. 
Another argument is that of Professor von Morlot, based on a 
railway section through a conical accumulation of gravel and 
alluvium,- which the torrent of the Tini^re has gradually built up 
where it enters the Lake of Geneva near Villeneuve. Here three 
layers of vegetable soil appear, proved by the objects imbedded 
in them to have been the successive surface soils in two pre^ 
historic periods and in the Roman period, but now Ijring 4, 10 
and 19 ft. underground. On this it is computed that if 4 ft of 
soil were formed in the 1500 years since the Roman period, we 
must go 5000 years farther back for the date of the earliest human 
Inhabitants. Calculations of this kind, loose aa th^ are, deserve 

The interval between the Quaternary or Drift period and the 
period of historical antiquity is to some extent, bridged over by 
felics of various intermediate civilizations, e.t. the Lake-dweUiags 

iq.9.) of Swittertand, mostly of the' lower grades, and in some 
cases reaching back to remote dates. And further evidence of 
man's antiquity is afforded by the kitchen-middens or shell-heaps 
iqje,)t especially those in Denmark. Danish peat-mosaes again 
show the existence of man at a time when the Scotch fir was 
abundant; at a later period the firs were succeeded by oaka» 
which have again been almost superseded by beeches, a succession 
of changes which indicate a considerable lapse (rf time. 

Lastly, chronicles and documentary records, taken in con- 
nexion with archaeological relics of the historical period, carry 
back into distant ages the starting-point of actual history, behind 
which lies the evidently vast period only known by inferences 
from the relations of languages and the stages of development of 
civilization. The most recent work of Egyptologists proves a 
systematic civilisation to have existed in the valley' of the Nile 
at least 6000 to 7000 years ago (see Chkonology). 

It was formerly held that the early state of society was one of 
comparatively high culture, and thus there was no hesitation in 
assigning the origin of man to a time but little beyond the range 
of historical records and monuments. But the reseasches of 
anthropologists in recent years have proved that the dviliaatioa 
of man has been gradually developed from an original stone-age 
culture, such as characterizes modem savage life. To the 6000 
years to which andent civilization dates back must be added a 
vast period during which the knowledge, arts and institutions of 
such a civilization as that of ancient Egypt attained the high 
level evidenced by the earliest records. The evidence of com- 
parative philology supports the necessity for an enormous time 
allowance. Thus, Hebrew and Arabic are closdy zdated 
languages, neither of them the original of the other, but both 
sprung from some parent language more ancient than either. 
When, therefore, the Hebrew records have carried back to the 
most ancient admissible date the existence of the Hebrew 
language, this date must have been long preceded by that of 
the extinct parent language of the whole Semitic family; while 
this again was no doubt the descendant of languages slowly 
shaping themselves through ages into this peculiar type. Yet 
more striking is the evidence of the Indo-European (formerly 
called Aryan) family of languages. The Hindus, Medes,Persians, 
Greeks, Romans, Germans, Celts and Slavs make their appear- 
ance at more or less remote dates as nations separate in language 
as in history. Nevertheless, it is now acknowledged that at 
some far remoter time, before these nations were divided from 
the parent stock, and distributed over Asia and Europe, a single 
barbaric pe<^le stood as physical and political representative 
of the nascent Aryan race, speaking a now extinct Aryan lan- 
guage, from which, by a series of naodifications not to be estimated 
as possible within many thousands of years, there arose languages 
which have been mutually unintelligible since the dawn of history, 
and between which it was only possible for an age of advanced 
philology to trace the fundunental relationship. 

From the combination of these considerations, it will be seen 
that the farthest date to which documentary or other records 
extend is now generally regarded by anthropologists as but the 
earliest distinctly visible point of the historic .period, beyond 
which stretches back a vast indefinite series of prehistoric ages. 

V. Language. — ^In examining how the science of language 
bears on the general problems of anthropology, it is not necessary 
to discuss at length the critical questions which arise, the prindpid 
of which are considered dsewbere (see Lancuace). PhUdogy is 
especially appealed to by anthropolo^sts as contributing to th^ 
following lines of argument. A primary mental sinolarity of all 
branches of the human race is evidenced by their commoa 
faculty of speech, while at the same time secondary diversities 
of ra(^<baracter and history are marked by difference of gram- 
matical structure and of vocabularies. The existence of groups 
or families of allied languages, each group being evidendy 
descended from a sin^e language, afford one of the prindpal 
aids in classifying nations and races. The adoption by one 
language of words ori^nally belonging to another, proving as it 
does the fact of intercourse between two races, and even to some 
extent indicating the lesutta of such intercourse, aflonb A 




valualtle clue through obscure regions of. the history of 

Communication by gesture-signs, between persons unable to 
converse in vocal language, is an effective system of expression 
common to all mankind. Thus, the signs used to ask a deaf and 
dumb child about his meals and lessons, or to communicate with 
a savage met in the desert about game or enemies, belong to 
codes of gesture-signals identical in prindpic, and to a great 
extent independent both of nationality and education; there is 
even a natural syntax, or order of succession, in such gesture- 
signs. To these gestures let there be added the use of the 
interjectional cries, such as oht ugh! key/ and imitative sounds 
to represent the cat's mew, the dick of a trigger, the clap or thud 
of a bk>w, &C. The total result of this combination of gesture 
and significant sound will be a general system of expression, 
imperfect but serviceable, and naturally intelligible to all man* 
kind without distinction of race. Nor is such a system of 
communication only theoretically conceivable; it is, and always 
has been, ih practical operation between people ignorant of one 
another's language, and as such is laiigely used in the intercourse 
of savage tribes. It is true that to some extent these means of 
utterance are common to the lower animals, the power of ex- 
pressing emotion by cries and tones extending far down in the 
scale of animal life, while rudimentary gcsture^igns are made by 
various mammals and birds. Still, the lower animals make no 
approach to the human system of natural utterance by gesture- 
signs and emotional-imitative sounds, Ivhile the practical 
identity of this human system among races physically so unlike 
as the Englishman and the native of the Australian bush 
indicates extreme closeness of mental similarity throughout the 
human species. 

When, however, the Englishman and the Australian speak 
each in his native tongue, only such words as belong to the 
interjectional and imitative classes will be naturally intelligible, 
and as it were instinctive to both. Thus the savage, uttering 
the sound tnuwf as an explanaUon of surprise and warning, 
might be answered by the white man with the not less evidently 
significant ski of silence, and the two speakers would be on 
common ground when the native indicated by the name hwirri 
his cudgel, flung vfhirring through the air at a flock of birds, or 
when the native described as a jakkal-yakkal the bird called by 
the foreigner a cockatoo. With these, and other very limited 
classes of natural words, however, resemblance in vocabulary 
ptactically ceases. The Australian and English languages each 
consist mainly of a series of words having no apparent connexion 
with the ideas they signify, and differing utterly; of course, 
accidental coincidences and borrowed words must be excluded 
from such comparisons. It would be easy to enumerate other 
languages of the world, such as Basque, Turkish, Hebrew, Malay, 
Mexican, all devoid of traceable resemblance to Austrah'an and 
English, and to one another. There is, moreover, extreme 
difference in the grammatical structure both of words and sen- 
tences in various languages. The question then arises, how far 
the emplo)rment of different vocabularies, and that to a great 
extent on different grammatical principles, is compatible with 
similarity of the speakers' minds, or how far docs diversity of 
speech indicate diversity of mental nature? The obvious 
answer is, that the power of using words as signs to express 
thoughts with which their sound does not directly connect them, 
in fact as arbitrary symbols, is the highest grade of the special 
human faculty in Unguags, the presence of which binds together 
all races of mankind in substantial mental unity. The measure 
of this unity is, that any child of any race can be brought up to 
speak the language of any other race. 

Under the present standard of evidence In comparing languages 
and tracing allied groups to a common origin, the crude specula- 
tions as to a single primeval language of mankind, which formerly 
occupied so much attention, are acknowledged to be worthless. 
Increased knowledge and accuracy of method have as yet only 
left the way open to the most widely divergent suppositions. 
For all that knowii dialects prove to the contrary, on the one 
handy there may have been one primitive language, from which 

the descendant languages have varied so widely, that neither 
their words nor their formation now indicate their unity ih long 
past ages, while, on the other hand, the primitive tongues of 
mankind may have been numerous, and the extreme unlikencss 
of such languages as Basque, Chinese, Peruvian, Hottentot and 
Sanskrit may arise from absolute independence of origin. 

The language spoken by any tribe or nation is not of itself 
absolute evidence as to its race-aflfinities. This is cleariy shown 
in extreme cases. Thus the Jews in Europe have almost lost the 
use of Hebrew, but speak as their vernacular the language of 
their adopted nation, whatever it may be; even the Jewish- 
German dialect, though consisting so laigely of Hebrew words, 
is philologically German, as any sentence shows: " leh hah nock 
kojom h geachdt; " " I have not yet eaten to-day." The mixture 
of the Israelites in Europe by marriage with other nations is 
probably much greater than is acknowledged by them; yet, on 
the whole, the race has been preserved with extraordinary 
strictness, as its physical characteristics sufficiently show.* 
LAnguage thus here fails conspicuously as a test of race and even 
of national history. Not much less conclu»ve is the case of the 
predominantly Negro populations of the West India Islands, 
who, nevertheless, speak as their native tongues dialects of 
English or French, in whidi the number of mterminglcd native 
African words is very scanty: " Dcm kitti nctti na ini walra 
bikasi dem defisitnan," " They cast a net into the water, because 
they were fishermen." (Surinam Negro-Eng.) "Bef pas ca 
jamain idsse poter cdnes K^" ** Le bceuf n'est jamais las dc porter 
sea cornes." (Haitian Negro-Fr.) If it be objected that the 
linguistic conditions of these two races are more artificial than 
has been ustial in the history of the world, less extreme cases 
may be seen in countries where the ordinary results of conquest- 
colonization have taken place. The Mestizos, who form so large 
a fraction of the population of modem Mexico, numbering 
several millions, afford a convenient test in this respect, inasmuch 
as their intermediate complexion separates them from both their 
ancestral races, the Spaniard, and the chocolate-brown indigenous 
Aztec or other Mexican. The mother-tongue of this mix»] race 
is Spanish, with an infusion of Mexican words; and a hirgte 
proportion cannot speak any native dialect. In most or tOl 
nations of mankind, crossing or intermarriage of races has thus 
taken place between the conquering Invader and the conquered 
native, so that the language spoken by the nation may represent 
the results of conquest as much or more than of ancestry. The 
supersession of the Celtic Cornish by English, and of the Slavonic 
Old-Prussian by German, arc but examples of a process which 
has for untold ages been supplanting native dialects, whose very 
names have mostly disappeared. On the other hand, the 
language of the warlike invader or peaceful immigrant may 
yield, in a few generations, to the tongue of the mass of the 
population, as the Northman's was replaced by French, and 
modem German gives way to English in the United States. 
Judging, then, by the extirpation and adoption of languages 
within the range of history, it is obvious that to classify mankind 
into races, Aryan, Semitic, Turanian, Polynesian, Kaffir, &c., 
on the mere evidence of language, is intrinsically unsound. 

VI. Devdopment of Civilization. — The conditions of man at the 
lowest and highest known levels of culture are separated by a 
vast interval; but this interval is so neariy filled by known 
Intermediate stages, that the line of continuity between the 
lowest savagery and the highest civilization is unbroken at any 
critical point. 

An examination of the details of savage life shows not only 
that there is an immeasurable difference between the rudest man 
and the highest lower animal, but also that the least cultured 
savages have themselves advanced far beyond the lowest 
intellectual and moral state at which human tribes can be con- 
ccived as capable of existing, when placed under favourable 
circumstances of warm climate, abundant food, and security from 
too severe destructive influences. The Australian black-fellow 
or the forest Indian of Brazil; who may be taken as examples 
of the lowest modern savage, had, before contact with whites, 
attained to radineatary stages in many of the characteristic 



hactioas of civfliBed fife. His language, expresBing thoughu 
hf conventional articulate sounds, is the same in eaaential 
principle as the most cultivated philosophic dialect, only less 
exact and copious His weapons, tools and other appliances 
nch as the hammer, hatchet, spear, knife, awl, thread, net, canoe, 
Ice, are the evident rudimentary analogues ol what Uill remains 
in use among Europeans. His structures, such as the hut, fence, 
stockade, earthwoik, &c., may be poor and clumsy, but they an 
of the same nature as our own. In the simple arts of broiling 
and roasting meat, the use of hides and furs for ooveiing, the 
plaiting of mats and baskets, the devices of himting, trapping 
and 6shing, the pleasure taken in personal ornament, the touches 
of artistic decocatioa on objects of daily use, the savage differs 
in degree but not in kind from the civilized man. The domestic 
and aodal affections, the kindly can of the young and the old, 
K»ne acknowledgment of marital and parental obligatian, the 
du^ of mutual defence in the tribe, the authority of the elders, 
and general respect to traditional custom as the regulator of 
life and duty, are more or less well marked in eveiy savage tribe 
which is not diaoiganized and falling to pieces. Lastly, there is 
usually to be discerned amongst such lower races a belief in 
unseen powers pervading the imiverse, this belief slH4>ing itself 
into an animistic or spiritualistic theology, mostly resulting in 
some kind of worship. If, again, high savage or low barbaric 
types be selected, as among the North American Indiana, Polyuft* 
sians, and Kaffirs of South Africa, the same elements of culture 
appear, but at a more advanced stage, namely, a more full and 
accurate language, more knowledge of the laws of nature, more 
servicenble implements, more perfect industrial processes, more 
definite and fixed socidi order and frame of government, more 
systematic and phOoaophic schemes of religion and a more 
dabomte and ceremonial worship. At intervals new arts and 
ideaa appear, such as agriculfcure and pasturage, the maoufiicture 
oi pottery, the use of metal implements ami the device of record 
and communicatloa by picture writing. Along such stages of 
improvement and invention the bridge is fairly made between 
■ivage and barbaric culture; and this once attained to, the 
remainder of the aeries of stages of dvilizBtioa lies within the 
lange of common knowiedge. 

The teaching of history, during the three to four thousand 
years of which contemporary chranades have been preserved, 
is that civilisation is gradually devdoped in tho course of ages by 
enlargement and increased precision of knowledge, invenrion and 
Improvement of arts, and the progression of social and political 
habits and institutions towards general well-being. That pro- 
cesses of development similar to these were in prehistoric times 
effective to raise culture from the savage to the barbaric level, 
two consideialians eqjedally tend to prove. First, there are 
numerous points in the culture even of rude nces wfaidi are not 
explicable otherwise than on the theory of development. Thus, 
though difficult or superfluous arts may easily be lost, it is 
hard to imagine the abandonment of contrivances of practical 
dafly utility, where little skill Is required and materials are easily 
occeasiUe. Had the Australians or New Zealanders, for instance, 
ever possessed the potter's art, they could hardly have forgotten 
IL The inference that these tribes represent the stage of culture 
before the invention of pottery is confirmed by the absence of 
buried fragments of pottery in the districts they inhabit. The 
same races who were found making thread by the kborious process 
of twisting with the hand, would hardly have disused, H they had 
ever possessed, so simple a labour-saving device as the spindle, 
which consists merely of a small stick weighted at one end; the 
spindle may, accordin^y, be regarded as an instrument invented 
somewhere between the lowest aikd highest savage levda (Tylor, 
Early Hist, of Mankindfp, 19$). Again many devices of civUian- 
tion bear unmistakable marks of derivation from a lower source; 
thus the ancient Egyptian and Assyrian harps, which differ from 
oun In having no front pillar, ^>pear certainly to owe this re- 
naarkable defect to having grown up through intermediate 
forms from the simple strung bow, the ^ill used type of the most 
primitive stringed instrument In tins way the history of 
onmeral words furnishes actual proof of that indq>endent iniel- 

lecturol progress among savage tribes which some writers have 
rashly denied. Such words as hand, hands, foot, man, &c., &>« 
used as numerals signifying 5, 10, 15, so, &c., among many 
savage and barbaric peoples; thus Pcjyncsian lima^ is, 
" hand " means 5; Zulu UUisUmpa, U, " taking* the thumb," 
means 6; Greenlandish arfersanek-pingasui^ i.e. " on the other 
foot three," means 18; Tbmanac kvin itot», i^. *^ one man,*' 
means so, &c., &c. The ezstence of such e]q>res6ions demon- 
strates tint the people who use them had originally no spdcen 
names for these numbers, but once merely counted them by 
gesture on their fingers and toes in low savage fashion, till they 
obtained higher numerals by the inventive process of describing 
in words these counting-gestures. Second, the process of 
" survival in culture " has caused the preservation in each stage 
of society of phenomena belonging to an earlier period, but kept 
up by force of custom into the later, thus supplying evidence of 
the modem condition being derived from the ancient Thus the 
mitre over an English bishop's coet-of-arms is a survival which 
indicates him as the successor of bishops who actually wore 
mitres, while armorial bearings themselves, and the whole craft 
of heraldry, are survivals bearing record of a state of warfare and 
social order whence our present state was by vast modification 
evolved. Evidence of this class, proving the derivation of 
modem civiliaation, not only from ancient barbarism, but beyond 
this, from primeval savagery, is immensely plentiful, especiaHyin 
rites and ceremonies, where the survival of andent habits is 
peculiarly favoured. Thus the modem Hindu, though using 
dvHised means for lighting his household fires, retains the savage 
" fire-drill ** for obtaining fire by friction of wood when what he 
oonsidexs pore or sacred fire has to be produced for sacrificial 
purposes; while in Europe into modem times the same primitive 
process has been kept up in producing the sacred and magical 
" need-fire,'' which was lighted to ddiver cattle from a murrain. 
Again, the funeral offerings of food, dothing, weapons, &c., to 
the dosd are absolutely intdligible and purposeful among savage 
races, who believe that the souls of the departed are etherral 
beings capable of consuming food, and ci recdving and using 
thesoulsorphantomsof any objects sacrificed for their use. The 
primitive philosophy to which these conceptions bdong has to a 
great degree bttn discredited by modem science; yet the clear 
survivals of such andent aiu9 savage rites may stUl be seen in 
Europe, where the Bretons leave the remains of the All Souls' 
supper on the table for the ghosts of the dead kinsfolk to partake 
of, and Russian peasants set out cakes for the ancestral manes 
on the ledge which supports the holy pictures, and make 
dough ladders to assist the ghosts of the dead to ascend out of 
thdr graves and start on their journey for the future world; 
while other provision for the same ^iritual journey is made 
when the coin is still put in the hand of the corpse at an Irish, 
woke. In like ouinner magic still ezista in the dviliacd world 
as a survival from the savage and barbaric times to which it 
originally bdongs. and in which is found the natural source 
and proper home of utterly savage practices still carried on by 
ignorant peasants in Great Britain, such as taking omens from 
the cries of animals, or bewitdiing an enemy by sticking full of 
pins and hanging up to shrivd in the smoke an image or other 
object, that similar destruction may fall on the hated person 
represented by the ^mbol (Tylor, PrimiUve CnHurCf ch. i., iu., 
hr., xi^ m,; Early Hist, of Many ch. vi.)> 

The comparative science of dvilisation thus not only 
generalizes the data of history, but supplements its information 
by laying down the lines of development alcmg which the lowest 
prehistoric culture has gradually risen to the highest modern 
level. Among the most deariy marked of these lines is that which 
follows the succession of the Stone, Bronse, and Iron Ages (see 
AxcHABOLOcy). The Stone Age represents the early condition 
of mankind in general, aiKl has remained in savage districts up to 
modem times, while the introduction of metals need not at cmoe 
supersede the use of the old stone hatchets and arrows, which 
have often long continued in dwindling survival by the side of the 
new bronze and even iron ones. The Bronze Age had its most 
important place among ancient nations of Asia and Eur<^, and 




among them was only succeeded after many centuries by the 
Iron Age; while in other districts, such as Polynesia and Centra! 
and South Africa, and America (except Mexico and Peru), the 
native tribes were moved directly from the Stone to the Iron 
Age without passing through the Bronze Age at alL Although 
tiM three divisions of savage, barbaric, and dvilixed man do not 
corre^Mnd at all perfectly with the Stone, Bronze, and Iron Ages, 
this dasaification of civilization has proved of extraordinary 
value in arranging in their proper order of culture the nations of 
the Old Worid. 

Another great line of progress has been followed by tribes 
passing from the primitive state of the wild hunter, fisher and 
fruit-gatherer to that of the settled tiller of the soil, for to 
this change of habit may be plainly in great part traced 
the expansion of industrial arts and the creation of higher 
social and political institutions. These, again, have followed 
their proper lines along the course of time. Among such b 
the immense legal development by which the primitive law 
of penonal vengeance passed gradually away, leaving but a 
few surviving relics in the modem civilized world, and being 
replaced by die liighcr doctrine that crime is an offence against 
society, to be repressed for the public good. Another vast 
social change has been that from the patriarchal condition, in 
which the unit is the family under the despotic rule of its head, 
to the systems in which individuals make up a society whose 
government is oentralazed in a chief or king. In the growth of 
systematic dvilizatioh, the art of writing has had an influence so 
intense, that of all tests to distinguish the barbaric from the 
civilized state, none is so generally effective as this, whether they 
have but the failing link with the past which mere memory 
famishes, or can have recourse to written records of past history 
and written constitutions of present order. LasUy, still following 
the main lines of human culture, the primitive germs of religious 
institutions have to be traced in the childish faith and mdc rites 
of savage life, and thence followed in their expansion into the 
vast systems administered by patriarchs and priests, henceforth 
taking under their charge the precepts of morality, and enforcing 
them under divine sanction, while also exercising in political 
life an authority beside or above the civil law. 

The state of culture reached by Quaternary man is evidenced 
by the stone implements in the drift-graveb, and other relics 
of human art in the cave deposits. His drawings on bone or 
tusk found in the caves show no mean artistic power, as appears 
by the three spedmena copied in the Plate. That representing 
two deer (fig. 6) was found so eariy as 1852 in the brecda of a 
limestone cave on the Charente, and its importanoe recognized 
in a remarkable letter by Prosper Merim£e, as at once historically 
andent and geologically modem {Ccngris d'amktopohgk d 
d^archiolope pr^istoriques, Copenhagen (1869), p. 128). The 
other two are the famous mammoth from the cave of La 
Madeleine, on which the woolly mane and huge tusks of EUphas 
frimgtnius are boldly drawn (fig. 7) ; and the group of man and 
horses (fig. 8). There has been found one other contemporary 
portrait of man, where a hunter is shown stalking an aurochs. 

That the men of the Quaternary period knew the savage 
art of producing fire by friction, and roasted the flesh on which 
they mainly subsisted, is proved by the fragments of charcoal 
found in the cave deposits, where also occur bone awls and 
needles, which Indicate the wearing of skin dothing, like that of 
the modem Australians and Fuegians. Thdr bone lance-heads 
and dart-points were comparableto thoseof northern andsouthem 
savages. Particular attention has to be given to the stone 
imfdements used by these earliest known of mankind. The 
division of tribes in the stone Implement stage into two dasses»